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Copyright, i927t by 

Published June, 1927 




ONLY one apology can properly be offered for swelling 
the already bewildering volume of missionary literature 
that a new book attempts " something different." There 
have been excellent histories of Baptist missions, some of 
which were written so long ago that they need supple- 
menting, while others professed to cover only a part of 
the field. This is believed to be the first venture at telling 
the- entire story of the achievements of all Baptists in all 
parts of the world, in whatever may be fairly regarded as 
missionary effort. 

Of course, anything approaching a complete history, 
giving full details- of each of the various missionary enter- 
prises, would require several volumes the size of this. 
This is called a " Short History," and fidelity to its title 
demands a selection of materials. The object has been 
to give sufficient detail for the understanding of what has 
been attempted and accomplished, without overcrowding 
the narrative with mere fact a surplusage of names and 
dates would defeat the main purpose. Doubtless some 
will differ from the author as to what is important or 
relatively unimportant; he can only plead that he has used 
his best judgment. 

As the author began to near the end of his labors, he 
was somewhat terrified by the bulk of his manuscript, and 
his publishers shared his uneasiness. He has reluctantly 
omitted some things that he felt ought to be told, to make 
the story ideally complete. Of these he may mention two. 
What Baptists have done for education in our own land, 
aside from schools for Negroes and Indians, is a part of 
our missionary history not to be ignored ; yet to do it any- 


thing like justice would require at least one additional 
chapter, as long as any in the book, while to treat it ade- 
quately a separate volume would be required. It is to be 
hoped that some one with higher qualifications will soon 
undertake this task. Another deficiency, even more re- 
grettable, is that less space has been given to the work of 
our Baptist women's societies, both in the f oreign and the 
home field, than the author had hoped to devote to this 
part of his subject. For fuller details, he must refer read- 
ers to the two excellent books in the General Bibliography. 
It is a matter of special regret that use could not have 
been made of Mrs. Orrin P. Judd's excellent book Fifty 
Golden Years, in which the story of the Woman's Amer- 
ican Baptist Home Mission Society is told. The last 
page-proofs had been read and passed before this became 
available, and only this recognition of it was possible. 

A second attempted difference is the account of what 
other Christians have done in the fields that Baptists have 
entered. Of necessity this had to be done with even 
greater brevity than the story of our own accomplish- 
ments. Something of the kind, however, was urgent, for 
Baptist missions can be really understood, and their ac- 
complishment can be accurately evaluated, only as they 
are studied as part of a great Christian enterprise, now 
more than two centuries old. History involves more than 
a mere record of facts it requires an interpretation of 
facts. It is hoped that the method pursued in this book 
will enhance our estimate of the worth of Baptist mis- 
sions, but in any case our estimate ought to be closer to 

Some may think that undue space has been given to 
accounts of the physical and social condition of the peoples 
among whom Baptists have established missions. But 
without such knowledge of a country, one cannot reason- 
ably hope to reach any worthful estimate of what mis- 


sions have already accomplished, or make a rational fore- 
cast of what they may be expected to achieve in the. years 
to come. This is the third particular in which this book 
attempts to be something different. 

The Quiz questions and Bibliography appended to each 
chapter are no novelty in themselves, but pains have been 
taken to make them as helpful as possible to teachers of 
classes, without in any degree impairing the interest of 
the book for the general reader. Answers to the ques- 
tions can usually be found by an attentive reading of the 
text, but there is an occasional question designed to pro- 
voke the reader to think for himself and find an answer 
at most only suggested by the text. Few books are listed 
that were published before 1900, for, though earlier books 
contain much material of value, they necessarily fail to 
give information about present conditions. The object 
has not been to make long lists, but to commend the best 
literature, mostly available in all good public libraries. 

General statistical information has been made to con- 
form to the latest edition of The Statesmen's Year-Book, 
while missionary statistics (unless otherwise specified) 
are taken from official reports for the year 1926, which 
give the facts of the preceding year. The aim has been 
to reduce this element to the lowest proportions com- 
patible with giving a fair representation of the conditions 
of Baptist missions at the close of the first quarter of the 
twentieth century. Nothing makes so dry reading as 
statistics, and they begin to get out of date and valueless 
from the moment they are printed. .The facts herein 
given will need constant correction and supplement from 
the American Baptist Y ear-Book, a copy of which ought 
to be in every Baptist household. 












































INDEX 553 



The South India and Part of the Bengal-Orissa 

Missions of American Baptists 48 

The Burma and Assam and Part of the Bengal- 
Orissa Missions of American Baptists 48 

The 'East China, South China, and West China 

Missions 176 

Stations in the Japan Mission 240 

The Field of the Belgian, Congo Mission 272 

Baptist Mission Stations in the Philippines 288 

Baptist Mission Stations on the Island of Cuba .... 304 

Baptist Mission Stations in Porto Rico : 316 

Baptist Mission Stations in Mexico 332 

Baptist Missions in Central America 334 

Baptist Mission Stations in Salvador 338 

South America, Showing Main Stations of the For- 
eign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist 

Convention 360 



























American Board of Commissioners for For- 
eign Missions. 

American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. 

The American Baptist Home Mission 

American Baptist Missionary Union. 

The American Baptist Publication Society. 

British and Foreign Bible Society. 

British Missionary Society. 

Baptist Young People's Union. 

Canadian Baptist Foreign Mission Board. 

China Inland Mission. 

Christian Literature Society. 

Church Missionary Society. 

London Missionary Society. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Ministers and Missionaries Board. 

Northern Baptist Convention. 

National Baptist Convention of America. 

Southern Baptist Convention. 

Society for the Promotion of Christian 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 

Woman's American Baptist Foreign Mis- 
sion Society. 

Woman's American Baptist Home Mission 

Women's Christian Temperance Union. 

Women's Missionary Union (Southern). 

Young Men's Christian Association. 

Young Women's Christian Association. 

Young People's Missionary Movement. 


Centenary Volume of the Baptist Missionary Society, 

1781-1892. London, 1892. 
Grose, Howard B. (editor), The Judson Centennial , 

1814-1914. Philadelphia, 1914. 
Hervey, G. Winf red, The Story of Baptist Missions. St. 

Louis, 1885. 
Lipphard, William B., The Second Century of Baptist 

Foreign Missions. Philadelphia, 1926. 
Merriam, Edmund F., A History of American Baptist 

Missions. Revised edition. Philadelphia, 1913. 
Montgomery, Helen Barrett, Following the Sunrise: A 

Century of Baptist Missions, 1813-1913. Philadel- 
phia, 1913. 

Robbins, J. C, Following the Pioneers. Philadelphia, 

Safford, Mrs. Henry G., The Golden Jubilee: Fifty Years 
of Baptist Women in Foreign Missions. New York, 
n. d. 

Smith, Samuel F., Missionary Sketches: A Concise His- 
tory of the American Baptist Missionary Union. 
Boston, 1879. 

Wright, Mary E., The Missionary Work of the Southern 
Baptist Convention. Philadelphia, 1902. 

Beach, Harlan P., World Missionary Atlas. New York, 

Brown, Arthur Jackson, The Foreign Missionary: An 

Incarnation of the World Movement. New York, 


General Bibliography 

Brown, Arthur Jackson, Rising Churches in Non-Chris- 
tian Lands. New York, 1915. 

Carver, W. O., Missions in the Plan of the Ages. New 
York, 1909. 

Missions and Modern Thought. New York, 1910. 
Clarke, William Newton, A Study of Christian Missions. 
New York, 1900. 

Dennis, James S., The Modern Call of Missions. New 
York, 1913. 

Missions from the Modern View. New York, 1905. 

Christian Missions and Social Progress. Two vols. 
New York, 1897. 

Ellis, William T., Men and Missions. Philadelphia, 1909. 

Fleming, Daniel Johnson, Whither Bound in Missions? 
New York, 1925. 

Lambuth, W. R., Medical Missions. New York, 1920. 

Moorshead, B. Fletcher, The Appeal of Medical Missions. 
New York, 1913. 

Mott, John R., The Present World Situation. New York, 

Price, Maurice T., Christian Missions and Oriental Civil- 
isations. Shanghai, 1924. 

Spear, Robert E., Missions and Modern History. Two 
vols. New York, 1904. 


The Country 

India proper, or the peninsula of Hindustan (the land 
beyond the Indus) has an area of approximately 1,700,000 
square miles, so that it is larger than the United States 
west of the Mississippi (1,600,000). It is a triangular 
projection into the Indian Ocean, which washes two of its 
sides, the extreme length from north to south being 
about two thousand miles, and that from east to west one 
thousand. The third side is mostly bounded by the great 
chain of the Himalayas (place of snow) and two large 
rivers complete the boundary : the Indus (sindhu, flood) 
on the west and the Brahmaputra on the east. The latter 
river flows through Assam and into the great Bay of 
Bengal. Another great river, the Ganges, flows through 
the northern region and also finds its outlet in the Bay of 
Bengal. At its mouth is the city of Calcutta, with a popu- 
lation of 1,200,000. 

The natural features of Hindustan divide the land into 
three parts. The valleys of the Indus and Ganges form 
the northern division, the most fertile and most densely 
populated. The center is a table-land, rising to elevations 
of from 3,000 to 7,000 feet, and has long been known 
as the Deccan, which means " south," and was formerly 
applied to the whole region below the valleys. The 
Kistna River and its valley divide the Deccan from 
southern . India. Some reckon the Kistna Valley as a 
fourth natural division. 

Every variety of climate is found in India that we 
have on the North American continent, from tropical to 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

arctic, with all extremes of hot and cold, wet and dry. 
Our missions are mostly in the south and near the coast, 
so there is a saying among the missionaries that " India 
has two seasons, one hot and the other hotter." But 
they are more commonly named the wet and the dry. 
In the wet season, corresponding roughly to our winter, 
the monsoons blow steadily from the Indian Ocean heavily 
laden with moisture, which is discharged in copious rains 
as the monsoon meets the cooler air of the mountains. 
When the monsoon fails, it means no crops and a famine. 

The People 

Into this area is crowded a population of some 300,- 
000,000, making India just about six times as densely 
populated as the United States. This population is even 
less homogeneous than this "melting-pot" of ours, for 
India has never " melted." From prehistoric times suc- 
cessive hordes of invaders have poured through the passes 
of the Himalayas, and are still almost as distinct types as 
they were thousands of years ago. Three of these types 
may easily be traced among the numerous subdivisions 
now found : 

1. The Dravidian, conjectured to be the earliest in- 
vaders, who probably came upon still earlier aborigines, 
and were gradually pushed by later invaders into the 
south-central division, where they are now mostly found. 
They are of low stature, swarthy, broad-nosed, very like 
Negroes in many physical characteristics, but having 
straight, coarse, black hair. 

2. The Indo-Aryans, who invaded India about 2000 
B. C. and became the ruling class for centuries. They 
are tall, light brown, dolichocephalic (long heads), and 
are unquestionably members of the white race, as is testi- 
fied by their ancient language, Sanskrit, which has many 
affinities with European languages. 


India as a Missionary Field 

3. The Mongolian, akin to the people of China and 
evidently coming into India from that quarter. They 
have broad heads, slant eyes, and yellow skins. 

There are besides smaller elements of Scythian, Per- 
sian, and Afghan origin, as well as others about whose 
classification ethnologists are by no means agreed. 

When one says " India," therefore, one uses a strictly 
geographical name. India was never one race, never one 
nation, unless we except a brief period under the Moham- 
medan Mughals. 

India's Economic Status 

India was once regarded as a source of fabulous wealth, 
of inexhaustible riches, and in the early days of English 
conquest Clive, Hastings, and other adventurers did con- 
trive to acquire large fortunes there. But they did this 
by plundering the few rich princes whom they conquered. 
India is in truth a dismally poor country. Its wealth, 
such as it is, is mainly agricultural. -Only 10 per cent, 
of the people live in towns; 90 per cent, get their living 
from the soil. Some minerals exist in the central hills, 
coal and iron, only partially exploited as yet, and there 
were once gold- and silver-mines. Rubies and diamonds 
were found in ancient days in considerable quantities, but 
long since came into the possession of a few. From early 
times the rulers absorbed most of the surplus wealth, and 
what their English conquerors did not rob them of they 
still have. The people are and always have been desper- 
ately poor. 

Yet in the main India feeds and clothes itself and even 
exports a considerable surplus. Sugar is the chief food 
import, in spite of the fact that much sugar cane is grown. 
In good years large quantities of cereals are exported, 
rice, maize, and millet chiefly. India is the second cotton- 
growing country in the world and produces large crops 

B [3] 

A. Short History of Baptist Missions 

of tea and tobacco. It supplies the world with jute. The 
country is without doubt capable of much larger and 
more diversified production, with intensive culture and 
use of modern tools and methods, so modified as to suit 
local conditions. It is still a wonderfully fertile land 
and produces enormously, after many centuries of un- 
scientific cropping. 

Famines and epidemics are the twin curses of India, 
the latter largely caused and always aggravated by the 
former. Famines are the logical result of the country's 
system of dependence mainly on agriculture of the nar- 
rowest scope, joined to defective ways of communication 
and transportation. More manufactures would help solve 
India's economic problems, and something is being done 
along this line. There were 284 spinning factories re- 
ported in 1921, as well as 542 rice-mills; in all the census 
returned 4,827 industrial establishments. In thirty years 
the number employed in Indian industries has risen from 
300,000 to 1,250,000. In twenty years the workers in 
mines have increased from 100,000 to 250,000. In spite 
of this industrial advance, four-fifths of the cloth made in 
India is woven by hand. An American missionary has 
invented a loom, simple, strong, and " fool-proof," that 
can be used in households and will weave fourteen yards 
of cloth a day. It is hoped that this will displace the old, 
clumsy hand-loom, that would turn out no more than 
eight yards a day. The British Government's effort to 
introduce cotton-mills has met with bitter native opposi- 
tion, on the ground that they ruin domestic weaving, 
which for the poor has been an anchor to windward. It 
would seem that this opposition to the introduction of 
Western industrialism is justified, at least until it has 
been moralized to a degree not general yet in Christian 
lands. Unless held in check by Christian ethics and so- 
cial legislation, in its selfish acquisitive form industrialism 


India as a Missionary Field 

will prove an unqualified curse to the Orient. Unre- 
strained, competitive, exploiting industrialism is the 
world's greatest menace today, greater than war, because 
it is the chief cause of wars. 

Much has been done to reduce suffering by famine 
through establishment of an elastic system of public works 
railways, canals, and the like. These are planned out 
far in advance and begin almost automatically to function 
as soon as a season of want impends. With wages re- 
ceived from these labors during a famine, people can 
purchase food, which the Government imports and sells 
at cost. The pilgrimages that are so large a feature of 
Indian life are great promoters of epidemics, especially 
of cholera, and make their control difficult, not to say im- 
possible. Much has been done to reduce both scourges by 
improvement of means of transportation and communica- 
tion. Over 37,000 miles of railways now connect the 
chief towns and many side lines run into .the country dis- 
tricts. A network of post-offices (19,507) and telegraph 
offices ( 10,471 ) makes communication easy and cheap. 

British Conquest of India 

As soon as Vasco da Gama discovered a new route to 
India by way of Cape of Good Hope ( 1497) there was 
a rush of Europeans to establish colonies there. The 
Portuguese and Dutch led the way, and an English East 
India Company was chartered by Elizabeth in 1600. A 
French company was established in 1664, and henceforth 
these two corporations became rivals for the control of 
India. This resulted in open warfare from 1745 onward, 
but the victory of Clive at Plessy (1757) and the sur- 
render of Pondicherry by the French (1765) established 
the supremacy of the English. From time to time prov- 
inces were annexed to the British possessions, and the 
three Presidencies of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay were 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

made centers of administration. So long as the Company 
endured, the administration was conducted almost wholly 
by British officials, at their head a Governor-general ap- 
pointed by the directors of the Company and responsible 
only to them. Parliament from time to time revised the 
charter and altered some arrangements, but this practical 
exercise of sovereignty by a commercial body was felt 
to be an indefensible anomaly. A change must have come 
but it was hastened by a great catastrophe in India itself. 

The Mutiny 

There were many underlying causes of the outbreak 
against British rule. The recent annexation of the prov- 
ince of Oudh, and the not unwarranted belief that the 
independence of other provinces was in danger, was a 
large factor. Hindu fanaticism resented the prohibition 
of sati, infanticide, and other pagan practises. It became 
a conviction among a large part of the native populations 
that their English rulers were engaged in an attempt to 
break down their religious institutions. Finally the 
Sepoys, or native regiments, were disaffected by the in- 
troduction of Enfield rifles and greased cartridges. It 
was reported that the fat of cows and pigs was used for 
this purpose, both unclean to every Hindu and one unclean 
to Mohammedans. This gave the two religions, gener- 
ally antagonistic, a common grievance; and brought about 
a temporary union for overthrow of the English. To cap 
all, a high ordnance officer issued a denial of the report, 
but this official denial was a lie; natives in government 
service found convincing proofs that the undean fats 
were used. Hitherto the word of an Englishman had 
been inviolate and was accepted as the end of contro- 
versy; now this confidence was at an end, and nothing 
that officials could say would be believed. Doing evil that 
good might come proved a dangerous experiment. 


India as a Missionary Field 

Several small outbreaks should have put the Govern- 
ment on guard, but they were so, easily suppressed that 
officials were lulled into a false sense of security. The 
first serious revolt occurred at Meerut, at thersouthern 
end of the Punjab, where the soldiers rose on May 10, 
1857, and killed first their officers and then every Euro- 
pean whom they could find. The revolt spread like a 
prairie-fire; soon Delhi fell, and the rebels tried to blow 
up the arsenal, but were only partially successful. They 
obtained large quantities of military stores, however, and 
so ensured the temporary success of the revolt. Lucknow 
and Cawnpur, principal English strongholds, were next 
besieged, and the defenders reduced to great straits. An 
expedition under General Havelock relieved Lucknow 
and recaptured Cawnpur, where not a single Englishman 
was found alive. This broke the revolt, and its final sup- 
pression was only a question of a few weeks. Some of 
the mutineers were punished by being blown from cannon, 
and other cruelties were inflicted. 

Two notable effects followed : The Mutiny marked the 
end of the East India Company and the beginning of 
a new missionary era. The Parliament of Great Britain 
took over the administration of India, and on November 
10, 1858, a great durbar was held, when Lord Canning 
as Governor-general proclaimed Queen Victoria of En- 
gland henceforth sovereign of India. In January, 1877, 
the additional title of Empress of India was added by 

The Present Government 

The British Parliament still retains its supremacy over 
India; its Acts are fundamental law; and the King of 
England is titular Emperor of India. The real authority, 
however, is exercised by the Secretary of State for India, 
who is a member of the British Cabinet. He is assisted 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

by a Council, in which Indians have representation, but 
not control. In India the actual government is carried on 
by a Viceroy, assisted by an Executive Council of six, one 
of whom must be an Indian. There is a native Parlia- 
ment in two chambers, known as Council of State and 
Legislative Assembly, partly elected and partly appointed. 
For administration there are fifteen Provinces, each hav- 
ing a Governor and Council. There are besides some 700 
" native states," of varying sizes and forms of govern- 
ment, nominally independent, but each with a British 
Resident, whose " advice " is practically command. Each 
Province is further divided into Districts, over each being 
a Commissioner. Formerly all Commissioners and their 
staff of officials were British, but of late years natives 
have been appointed in increasing numbers to these posi- 
tions. Missionaries in their work come into constant 
contact with these officials, and for the most part receive 
from them sympathetic cooperation. 

Swaraj or Home Rule 

The agitation led by Mohandus Karamxand Gandhi is 
the chief feature of Indian life during the last decade. 
It is both a religious and a political movement. As a 
religious leader, Gandhi avows himself a follower of 
Jesus, but not a Christian ; he remains an orthodox Hindu, 
though not of the highest caste (a Bania). As a political 
leader, he demands for his people swaraj, which is the 
equivalent of our phrase "home rule." He has en- 
deavored to obtain his political end by two incompatible 
policies: First, satagraha, soul-force, non-resistance; 
second, swadeshi, or boycott of English-made goods. A 
pledge circulated under his direction was signed by mil- 
lions, who thereby promised that they would refuse to 
obey laws made by British rulers without their consent, 
and further that " in this struggle they would faithfully 


India as a Missionary Field 

follow the truth and refrain from violence to life, person, 
or property." 

Gandhi did not perceive the contradiction between the 
two methods, that the boycott is a species of violence and 
incompatible with his doctrine of soul-force, which he 
also calls ahimsa. He insists, however, that ahimsa is 
something more than non-resistance, which he calls the 
weapon of the weak; it is rather an active force of love 
and sacrifice, requiring a mastery of self-control, a puri- 
fication through suffering. In his view India is ground 
down under modern civilization; railways, lawyers, and 
doctors have impoverished her. He would banish rail- 
ways and factories and send back to the soil 80 per cent, 
of the people in the great cities. He is a voice from the 
past, pleading for a return to the old ways, believing that 
the ancient civilization of India is the best in the world, 
as well as the oldest. The agricultural implements of 
India, as he truly enough says, were old when Abraham 
was a child; but his inference seems absurd: India has 
nothing to learn from others all that it needs is swaraj, 
power to regulate its own affairs. Those who accept 
the teaching of history that civilization never turns back- 
ward will see in his cry, " Back to the simple life of the 
Indian village," nothing but a delusion. 

Gandhi cannot be regarded as an ignorant advocate of 
these views. He had a good English education in India, 
and then at London University, where he completed 
studies for the bar. He has traveled widely in the British 
Empire and is familiar with its merits and defects. Nor 
is he unmindful of the weaknesses of his own country- 
men. His hold oh the Indian people of all classes was 
at one time^complete; he lives in the greatest simplicity 
and is everywhere given the title of Mahatma, or " holy 
man." But he failed to win the educated classes of his 
countrymen : lawyers continued to practise in the British 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

courts, teachers to teach in the government schools, and 
merchants to handle foreign goods. The All-India Con- 
gress, held in. December, 1920, declared the policy of non- 
cooperation to be " impracticable, unwise, unnecessary, 
and suicidal to the best interests of the country." Hav- 
ing failed to convince the educated classes, Gandhi turned 
to the masses and thus began a movement that he was 
not strong enough to control. For while he never ceased 
to insist on love or good-will as the primary duty, others 
in his name waged a campaign of hate. The British 
Government was described as a demoniacal body, intent 
on the destruction of India. The British people were 
denounced as India's worst enemies, and it was asserted 
that the natives will never be happy or safe so long as 
a European remains in the land. 

A second mutiny was perhaps averted only by the firm- 
ness of the Government : mass civil disobedience, which is 
what non-cooperation really means, could not be tolerated 
by any government that was not ready to abdicate its 
functions and authority. Gandhi was convicted of sedi- 
tious utterances and imprisoned for a time ; and since his 
release has been notably more quiet and possibly less in- 
fluential. Nevertheless he has survived failures that would 
have ruined most leaders, and many believe that he has 
kindled a fire in India that will not be put out. 

The real obstacle to swaraj is the inability of the 
Indian people to convince the British Government and 
the outside world that they are ready for it. Mr. Robert 
E. Speer speaks wisely when he says : " India was not a 
nation. Therefore Great Britain conquered it and has 
held it. Great Britain is making it a nation." Even 
Gandhi was able to bring about only a feeble and partial 
cooperation between Mohammedans and Hindus, and it 
seems certain that if India were left at the present time to 
govern itself a dozen different peoples would be at each 


India as a Missionary Field 

others' throats in no time. British power alone has kept 
the peace in India for a century, and to all impartial 
observers it seems clear that only British power can keep 
India peaceful for some time to <:ome. 

Progress in Home Rule 

It is only just to note that great progress has been 
made in the present century toward ultimate Indian inde- 
pendence. In 1909 the Indian Legislative Councils were 
enlarged in membership and functions and placed on an 
elective basis, " diluted with nominations by the Govern- 
ment " as some sarcastically commented. In the Act of 
1919, in which the present system was created, Great 
Britain pledged herself to self-government in India as 
fast as the people were ready for it. The new system 
was inaugurated at Delhi by the Duke of Connaught, on 
February 9, 1921. " Today," said he, in the name of the 
King-Emperor, "you have the beginnings of swaraj, 
within my empire, and the widest scope and ample oppor- 
tunity for progress to liberty which my other dominions 
enjoy." But Indians maintain that this promise is still 
nullified by the fact that the Viceroy has power of 
" certifying," that is, declaring a statute to be law in spite 
of its rejection by the Assembly. No other dominion 
would tolerate such power in a royal Governor-general. 
But more and more natives are appointed to the high 
official positions, and as the educated class increases in 
numbers and quality British officials will gradually be 
replaced by natives. 1 Missions are of course deeply in- 
terested in so vast a change as this will make in all Indian 

One obstacle to Indian progress is the very thing that 

1 After ten years' trial of the new system, a parliamentary commission is to 
make a survey and report; if the system is found to have worked well, there 
will then follow still further extension of home rule. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Gandhi esteems above all others, its village system. There 
are 730,000 villages, groups of 300 to 400 people. The 
interests of these villagers are purely local, there is little 
communication and no social life outside of the narrow 
circle of the village. Political self-consciousness, capacity 
for self-government, seems almost hopeless under such 
conditions. The prevailing illiteracy makes improvement 
difficult. The intelligentsia of India, who are of course 
conducting all the agitation, number perhaps 4,000,000 of 
the total population. A non-Brahmin movement was 
started in 1910 which had as its object the transference 
of political control from city to village, to give the pre- 
ponderating middle class proper weight in Indian affairs, 
and has had some result in promoting national self- 

Religions of India: Hinduism 

The most striking characteristic in Indian civilization 
is its religiousness. The Indian is fundamentally as well 
as incurably religious; mind is more real to him than 
matter; spiritual existence is for him the only reality. 
All life is illusion, and to be delivered from that illusion, 
to become absorbed into the universal Spirit through 
ascetic discipline and meditation, is the object of all effort 
and the goal of all religion. Not many realize this ideal, 
but the man that does is the Saint, Guru, Mahatma, 
revered by those who cannot imitate him. Christian mis- 
sionaries found two great religions in India, Brahmanism 
or Hinduism and Mohammedanism. 

Brahmanism, the developed religion of the early Aryan 
conquerors, is the faith of two-thirds of the Indian people. 
For the intelligent and educated, it is a system of pan- 
theistic philosophy, rather than a religion; for the vast 
ignorant majority, it is a polytheism of the most debased 
and debasing character. Modern Hinduism, as a group 


India as a Missionary Field 

of popular cults, has fallen very low; the evils of India 
are not social vices nourishing in spite of a religion that 
forbids them, but have the sanction of religion itself. 
It is as if the gods themselves had said, " Evil, be thou 
my good." Prostitution and suicide, for example, are 
religious rites. Hence all attempts to reform such evils 
are resisted as attacks on religion. Infanticide, sati t and 
thuggee have been put under the ban of law by the British, 
and the open practise of them has been suppressed, against 
the stubborn opposition of all but a few enlightened 

The earliest of the Rig-vedas give evidence that an 
original monotheism developed by easy stages, through 
personification of the powers of nature, into a gross poly- 
theism. Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu, the Hindu Trinity, 
are the chief popular deities, but there are a multi- 
tude of others, and any attempt to describe or even 
catalogue them would be wearisome, and for our purpose 
profitless. Even the ignorant among these idolaters, how- 
ever, are thought by some to have glimmerings of the 
divine unity, and hence not to be unprepared for wor- 
ship of the one God. Hinduism is, at any rate, an in- 
digenous religion. It has gods and priests and temples 
and rites, but no church, no creed, no theology. The 
sacred books, as well as the popular beliefs, are confused 
and irreconcilable and the gross superstitions and degrad- 
ing practises with which the various cults abound, are as 
irrational to a Western Christian as they are repulsive. 

Back to the Vedas 

This is a cry that Gandhi and others have raised of 
late ; and it would constitute a great reformation of exist- 
ing Hinduism, for the Vedas parallel much of the teach- 
ing of our own Bible. " All that is good which the gods 
approve " is one of their early sayings ; and another is, 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

" Long thoughts have the gods ; they guard their spiritual 
power, loving the right order and punishing wrong." 
Thus the original Hinduism was an ethical religion, ex- 
horting men to right conduct, promising rewards of eter- 
nal happiness for virtue and an abyss of darkness for sin, 
with torments suited to different degrees of guilt. Those 
not guilty enough to deserve such punishment, would be 
made to expiate their sins by a succession of rebirths. 
This suggested the doctrine of Karma (action), which 
came to mean the sum total of a man's deeds, good and 
bad, the net result determining how he will be reborn, 
in a higher or lower state of existence. Ultimately he 
may look forward to being absorbed into the divine 
essence. Not a gospel of much hope, this, as expressed in 
a south India folk-song : 

How many births are past I cannot tell ; 

How many yet to come no man can say; 
But this alone I know, and know full well, 

That pain and grief embitter all the way. 

As early as the Laws of Manu at least (B. C. 1200?) the 
idea of expiation of sins by ascetic practise was well 
rooted : " Let him always be sorrowing in his heart when 
he thinks of his sins, practise austerities and be careful ; 
thus will he be freed from sin/' Also quite early the 
idea was entertained that the felicity of the dead can be 
assured only by elaborate rites that a son must perform ; 
and hence also the inferior estimation in which women 
came to be held they could not perform the rites that 
assured eternal rest. 

Hindu Ethics 

The Vedic sins are : Stinginess, lying, trickery, inhos- 
pitality, robbery, drunkenness, murder, incest, cursing, 
perjury. The UpanishacTs, a sort of commentary orrthe 
Vedas, say, " Speak the truth, practise virtue ; whatever 


India as a Missionary Field 

actions are blameless, not others, thou shouldst perform ; 
good deeds, not others, shouldst thou commend." A 
Yogi must renounce all passion, wrath, greed, confusion, 
deceit, pride, envy, selfishness, egotism, untruthf ulness ; 
his four cardinal virtues are, to practise chastity, non- 
injury, truthfulness, and poverty. Vashishtha, one of the 
priestly jurists of the Hindus, says : 

Avoid jealousy, backbiting, pride, self-consciousness, unbelief, dis- 
honesty, self-praise, blame of others, deceit, covetousness, delusion, 
anger, and envy. . . Practise righteousness, not unrighteousness ; speak 
the truth, not untruth ; look far, not near ; look toward the highest, 
not toward that which is less than the highest. 

The ethical ideals of Hinduism, as expressed in the 
sacred books, must be recognized as very high. Anger 
was specially reprobated: 

Against the angry man let him not in return show anger ; let him 
bless when cursed; and let him not utter speech devoid of truth, 
scattered at the seven gates. 

In the Maha-bharata, an epic composed about the begin- 
ning of the Christian era, we read, 

Do naught to others which if done to thee 
Would cause thee pain; this is the sum of duty. 
Many of the Hindu maxims, like those above, strongly 

suggest our Gospels. 

The earlier religion was free from the later vices. 
Female infanticide was never sanctioned by a Hindu 
code, though widely practised. Sati was first legalized 
about 600 A. D. and 'so is a comparatively modern prac- 
tise. Sati means " good " ; a good wife would of course 
desire to die with her husband, and public opinion finally 
required that she should. More to admire than to repro- 
bate is to be found in Hindu ethics, in their theory at 
least, whatever may be true of practise. Christianity has 
been urged upon the Indian people because of its superior 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ethics; yet during the Prohibition campaign of 1925, 
when a prohibition Act was passed by the Legislative As- 
sembly, by a vote of 69 to 35, the fact was that every 
Indian member voted for it, and the opposition was com- 
posed entirely of " Christians," government officials and 
other Europeans. 

The Caste System 

Among the chief problems of India must be named the 
system of caste (from the Latin castus, pure; but the 
Hindu name for it is varna, color). The name suggests 
the probable origin of the system: an attempt by the 
Aryan race to maintain racial purity, as signified by the 
color of the skin. It is conjectured that amalgamation 
of Aryans with other races had begun, and was threaten- 
ing the extinction, or at least absorption, of the con- 
querors by the conquered.. So the caste system was de- 
vised as a stabilizing and protective device, that may in 
its earlier stages have accomplished good. It was only 
partially effective, however, for good authorities estimate 
that not more than five per cent, of Indian people are pure 
Aryan. National unity or a stable political system of any 
sort was never produced in India, but by means of caste a 
complex social organization was developed there, which 
has no superior in vitality, and perhaps no parallel, any- 
where in the world. 

Attempts have been made, of course, to assign a re- 
ligious origin, not a social, to the caste system. The 
Rig-vedas give this account of the origin of the four 
chief castes, in what is known as the Purusha hymn : 

The embodied spirit has a thousand heads, 
A thousand eyes, a thousand feet, around 
On every side enveloping the earth, 
Yet filling space no larger than a span. 
He is himself this very universe; 
He is whatever is, has been, and shall be; 


India as a Missionary Field 

He is the lord of immortality. 

All creatures are one-fourth of him, three-fourths 
Are that which is immortal in the sky. 
From him, called Purusha, was born Viraj, 
And from Viraj was Purusha produced, 
Whom gods and holy men made their oblation. 
With Purusha as victim they performed 
A sacrifice. When they divided him, 
How did they cut him up? What was his mouth? 
What were his arms? and what his thighs and feet? 
The Brahmin was his mouth, the kingly soldier (Kshatriya) 
Was made his arms, the husbandman his thighs (Vaisya), 
The servile Sudra issued from his feet 

The four castes have been subdivided into an almost 
unbelievably complex social organization. If one breaks 
caste, violates the laws of his particular group, he does 
not sink into a lower caste, but becomes an " outcaste," 
despised by the lowest castes as much as by the higher. 
Those bred in a different civilization find it difficult to 
comprehend caste, much more to sympathize with it. 

Whatever its origin, caste became inseparably con- 
nected with occupation. Race feeling and trade organiza- 
tion tend everywhere to harden into caste. Caste mani- 
fests itself in American civilization in the determination 
of the white race not to encourage amalgamation with the 
black, and even to prohibit social intercourse as a step 
toward amalgamation. To a less degree caste separates 
also the red and yellow races from the white. Occupa- 
tions tend to become hereditary in all old societies ; father 
is succeeded by son as a matter of course. 

Apologists for caste have professed to find in it as 
much good as bad, but it has been almost uniformly re- 
garded by Europeans as incompatible with democracy or 
Christian brotherhood. They are practically a unit in 
condemning it, even though their own skirts are far from 
clear, as India's chief obstacle to progress. The tendency 
to take the same view is noticeable among the enlightened 
of the Indian people. Caste is a water-tight compartment, 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

an insurmountable barrier between classes. While it 
shows symptoms of weakening in non-essentials, it is 
still vigorous in essential features; the rules regarding 
marriage, food, and pollution, for example, remain little 
altered in details and not at all in spirit. Where these 
are still observed, even the shadow of another caste is 
pollution. Such a system cannot but crush all hope and 
self-respect in the lower castes and produce pride and 
arrogance in the higher. 

A Declining System 

Fortunately, it is beginning to break down of its own 
weight. Modern methods of education and social con- 
tacts cannot be successfully resisted. Brahmins who at 
first refused to send their sons to schools where other 
castes were received, now eagerly seek admission for 
them, since a knowledge of English has become the indis- 
pensable condition of a successful career. The oppor- 
tunity to travel rapidly and cheaply by rail has overcome 
the reluctance of the higher castes to rub shoulders with 
the lower. Roman Catholics began their missions by 
tolerating caste ; with few exceptions Protestants have re- 
fused toleration. But the change is slow; as Kipling 
reminds us, you can't hustle India. 

All English and Americans, or virtually all, condemn 
caste in India. Yet what they have indisputably done is 
to impose themselves as an additional upper caste on those 
that India already had. Rigid rules regarding social rela- 
tions exist, none the less rigid in that they are unwritten, 
different from the Indian but quite as inflexible. Mar- 
riage with Asiatics is taboo among Europeans, and the 
few who transgress are socially ostracized and are con- 
temptuously described as " gone native." The offspring 
of such unions are known as Eurasians and are prac- 
tically outcastes from both races. 


India as a Missionary Field 

Caste still hampers education in India. The last census 
shows one male in 25 who can write, but fewer than one 
female in 300. Fully 75 per cent, of the population are 
farmers, and their conservatism makes them suspicious 
of education. Even in rural districts of the United States 
the percentage of illiteracy is greatest ; few boys and fewer 
girls seek an education beyond the eight grammar grades, 
and the majority do not even complete these. It was a 
monumental achievement for India when Macaulay estab- 
lished the use of English in all Government schools 
(1836). No one thing has done so much for intellectual 
progress in India. English was already the official lan- 
guage, employed in all courts and public offices ; it is now 
the common medium of communication, much as Greek 
was in the Roman Empire. 

As already intimated, the most enlightened men of 
modern India are opposed to caste, or at least to its chief 
abuses. Rabinadrath Tagore, the foremost poet and man 
of letters the present generation has produced, is unquali- 
fiedly opposed to the system and hopes for its abrogation. 
Gandhi is inclined to favor the system as a whole, but 
protests against " untouchability." He declares this to be 
unwarranted by the Hindu Scriptures, and that it has 
degraded what was once a noble institution. He has 
repeatedly violated some of the old rules of caste without 
himself losing caste. Enlightened Hindus understand 
that swaraj is unattainable without removal of this curse. 
Yet Gandhi and some others do not seem to Westerners 
to go deep enough in their opposition to caste. Any caste 
system nullifies brotherhood. It is a thing that cannot be 
mended ; it must be ended. Its utter absurdity stands out 
nakedly in the Indian census returns, which show 2,300 
distinct castes in India today. But we should realize the 
difficulties that intelligent and progressive Indians face 
and give them our full sympathy. 

c [19] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 


This religion, which was found by missionaries to 
divide the allegiance of Indians, was a foreign cult that 
was introduced by conquest from A. D. 1000 onward. 
The great Mughal empire that waxed and prevailed from 
1556 to 1707, and then fell apart and declined, was the 
chief instrument of establishing and extending the re- 
ligion of Mohammed in India. In many states Moham- 
med's adherents become the ruling class, and so remain 
where the English have not formally taken over the gov- 
ernment. A large part of the people in such states were 
prevailed upon, by persuasion or force, to adopt the faith 
of their rulers, though Brahmanism did not die out any- 
where in India. The religion of the Koran has been much 
corrupted through its long contact with heathenism, but 
in its main features is still recognizable. Its adherents 
are estimated at over 60,000,000. 


Relatively little trace remains in India of that other 
great religion known as Buddhism, which originated in 
that country as a reform of Brahmanism and spread with 
great rapidity over the larger part of Asia. It was em- 
braced by millions of Indians and threatened the extinc- 
tion of the older Hindu faiths. Asoka, emperor from 
about 272 to 232 B. C, made Buddhism the state religion 
of his great empire. While Buddhism did not replace 
Hinduism as the religion of the country, it did leave a 
lasting impression on the older religion. Buddhism was 
vegetarian, while the early Aryans were beef-eaters ; and 
one of the permanent relics of the temporary ascendency 
of Buddhism was the making of cow-killing the most 
awful of crimes. But as Buddhism rejected caste and 
denied the superiority of the Brahmins, it provoked a 


India as a Missionary Field 

reaction which resulted in its almost total suppression in 
the country of its origin. Few as Christians are in India, 
in proportion to the total population, they are more 
numerous than Buddhists are today. 

Missions and These Religions 

The missionary to India is finding a better method of 
approach than the old, uncompromising hostility to the 
religion of the people. He can appeal to the common 
element 2 in Hinduism and Christianity: belief in one 
spiritual Reality underlying all phenomena, and in union 
with this divine Reality as life's goal. Both religions 
teach a future life, of happiness or misery, according to 
deeds done here. Both p'roclaim a social solidarity, that 
claims the loyalty and service of the individual, while 
securing to him his individual rights. This is the strong- 
est feature of Hinduism, in which it has surpassed all 
others, and histoiic Christianity has been comparatively 
weak on this side, notably so in its Protestant forms. 
While he recognizes these good features of Hinduism, 
the missionary is free also to point out the defective fea- 
tures of Hinduism, as enlightened Hindus are themselves 
doing: the lack of ethical character in the Hindu con- 
ception of the supreme Reality, which inevitably results 
in lack of ethical emphasis in their practical religion. A 
God of Righteousness was a concept first developed by 
Judaism and adopted by Christianity as its fundamental 
postulate. The excessive ceremonialism, the gross idol- 
atry, of Hinduism, admitted by Hindu leaders but often 
defended or at least apologized for, and caste, with its 
denial of human brotherhood, are other defects of Hin- 

a The identity of the Brahman, the Cosmic Soul, with the Atman, the indi- 
vidual soul, is the central doctrine of the Vedanta, and is susceptible of an 
interpretation quite in line with advanced Christian thought; for it is only 
another version of the Christian doctrine that we are sons of God, made in his 
image, and that we can and do have fellowship, union, with him. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

duism that are forcing themselves on the Hindu con- 
sciousness. The low position of woman, condemned to 
inferiority and degradation even by their sacred scrip- 
tures, can be effectively contrasted with the teaching 
of Jesus and the apostles, and even with her place in 
the " Christian " nations, imperfectly as they have 
adapted their civilization to the standards of the New 

The religion that Mohammed taught was a great ad- 
vance on anything previously known in Arabia, and com- 
bined some of the best features of Judaism and Chris- 
tianity. His conception of God was purely Judaistic: 
one eternal Being, immutable, righteous, but also merci- 
ful and compassionate. He is Creator, Ruler, Judge, and 
all things take place by his decree. What is to be, will be. 
The ideas of Jews regarding angels were borrowed and 
elaborated. The Koran is the word of God spoken 
through Mohammed, his prophet, and belief in both is 
essential to salvation. The ideas of the future life, heaven 
and hell, are essentially the same as those of the Christian 
Scriptures, but in each case more sensuous, to the West- 
ern mind more repulsive in their materialism. It is a 
missionary religion, but relies on the sword chiefly for 
propagation. While the missionary can recognize these 
points of contact and appeal to- them, he may also point 
out the chief defect of Mohammedanism, which is on its 
ethical side. Its sanction of human slavery and of polyg- 
amy are so deeply imbedded in the Koran as to be 
inseparable from, all Mohammedan communities. Its ap- 
parent superiority to Christian ethics, in the prohibition 
of wine, is in practise an inferiority. Christianity teaches 
a principle, love of the. brother, from which not merely 
temperance, but abstinence and prohibition are logical 
inferences; while Mohammedanism gives a law, which 
may be. kept in the letter and broken in the spirit, by 


India as a Missionary Field 

abstaining from wine and drinking all other liquors that 
were unknown to Mohammed and so not definitely for- 

Native Attempts at Reform 

Ram Mohun Roy began a reform movement by the 
publication in 1820 of a remarkable book, on The Princi- 
ples of Jesus, largely composed of extracts from the 
teachings of Jesus in the Gospels. He rejected idolatry 
and advocated a return to the religion of the Vedas. He 
denounced caste, yet never gave up his own ; he professed 
to accept the teachings of Jesus, but explicitly rejected the 
doctrine of the Trinity. In 1830 he founded the Brahmo- 
Somaj, the first theistic church of modern Indians. The 
somewhat incompatible elements that he undertook to 
combine in his new religious venture probably were the 
secret of its lack of real progress. Keshab Chunder Sen 
and P. C. Mozoomdar attempted a religious reform along 
similar lines, with only moderate success. Keshab went 
far beyond his predecessor in professions of loyalty to 
Jesus and his teachings, but would never avow himself 
a Christian. While such leaders openly confessed that 
their richest religious experiences came from the teach- 
ings of Jesus, and paid high tribute to the power of his 
personality, they hesitated to take the overt step of separa- 
tion from their ancestral religion. Their course was 
often erratic, and the results of their labors were not 
very apparent. 

Another attempt to restore the religion of the Vedas 
was made by Swami Dayanand Saraswati, who founded 
the Arya-Samaj in 1870. His idea was to make it a 
substitute, not only for the debased modern Hinduism, 
but for Mohammedanism and Christianity as well. His 
admirers declare that he " saved the Hindu people from 
religious and national effacement," but they still seem to 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

need salvation. All these attempted movements are the 
result of Christian missions in India, precisely as the 
Protestant Reformation in Europe provoked and even 
necessitated a Counter-Reformation in the Roman Cath- 
olic Church. The effect of Christianity on the Indian 
mind is witnessed by this opposition that it has aroused. 
The significance of these movements is that Hinduism is 
far from a dead system ; it is showing capacity for reform 
and a new life. The educated Hindu believes that in its 
pure original state his religion, has little to learn from 
Christianity, save the ethical teaching of Jesus, while the 
native religion is better adapted to the Indian mind than 
Christianity. It is with this state of mind that mission- 
aries more and more have to deal. 

Social Reforms 

The intellectuals of India are becoming much exercised 
on the subject of social reforms. A " nation congress " 
was held at Belgaun in 1925, attended by 20,000 Indians 
of all classes, at which a wide range of subjects was 
discussed, and resolutions were adopted to express the 
conclusions reached in debates lasting several days. These 
resolutions urged the removal of disabilities from out- 
castes; the reform of the caste system, so as to give it 
greater flexibility and fraternity in action; the simplifica- 
tion of marriage legislation, and the commendation of 
legislators for having passed a bill raising the age of 
consent; favoring the education of women and giving 
them the franchise; lifting of the ban on the remarriage 
of widows, the abolition of the zenana system, as inimical 
to the health and progress of womanhood ; and an insis- 
tent demand for prohibition of the traffic in intoxicating 
liquors. It is difficult of course to determine how far 
this gathering, large as it was, represented the convic- 
tions and purposes of Indians as a whole; but that such 


India as a Missionary Field 

sentiments, expressed by so large an assemblage, are with- 
out considerable social significance is incredible. 

It is against this background of history, social condi- 
tions, and religious ideas that we are next to study the 
progress of Christian missions in India and attempt a 
valuation of their progress and significance. 


Describe the physical features of Hindustan. What 
climate has it? How large is the population? What 
types of people are found there? Is it a rich country? 
What are its resources ? Name its " twin curses." How 
much has been done to overcome them ? Give an outline 
of Indian history. Describe the mutiny and its effects. 
How is India now governed ? What is meant by Swaraj '? 
Who is Gandhi and what does he advocate ? What is the 
chief obstacle to Swaraj? How far has it been attained? 
How is the village system related to Indian progress? 
Are Indians a religious people? What is Brahmanism? 
Which gods are the Indian Trinity? Define the doc- 
trine of Karma. How do Hindu ethics compare with 
Christian? What is sati and how did its practise arise? 
What is caste ? How many principal castes ? How many 
subdivisions? What is its social effect? Is it increasing 
or declining? How do intelligent Indians regard it? 
What can you say of Mohammedanism in India? Of 
Buddhism ? Have there been native attempts to reform 
the Hindu religion? How far have they succeeded? Are 
Indians interested in social reforms ? 


Barnett, Lionel David, Brahma-knowledge: An Outline 
of the Philosophy of the Vedanta. London, 1907. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Chirol, Sir V., India, Old and New. London, 1921. 

India. New York, 1926. 

Deussen, Paul, The Philosophy of the Upanishads. Edin- 
burgh, 1912. 

Tlie System of the Vedanta. Chicago, 1912. 
Dickinson, G. Lowes, An Essay on the Civilization of 

India, China, and Japan. London, 1914. 
Farquhar, J. N., Modern Religious Movements in India. 
New York, 1915. 

Hopkins, E. Washburn, Ethics of India. New Haven, 

India, Old and New. New York, 1902. 

Hume, R. E., Tlie World's Living Religions. Edinburgh, 

An Interpretation of Indian Religious History. New 
York, 1911. 

The Thirteen Principal Upanishads. Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1921. 
Jones, John P., India: Its Life and Thought. New York, 

India's Problem: Krishna or Christ. New York, 1903. 

Van Tyne, Claude H., India in Ferment. New York, 




First Attempts at Missions 

Our purpose does not require us to dwell at length on 
the arrogance and brutality displayed by the white Euro- 
pean peoples in grasping for themselves the choicest parts 
of the earth and claiming for themselves the fulness 
thereof, without regard for the rights of weaker peoples 
already in possession; nevertheless, this background of 
Christian missions must be kept ever in mind. It goes 
far to explain their slow progress, their imperfect re- 
sults. It is only just, however, to note also that while 
the motive of colonization was generally mercenary, and 
its methods military or commercial, a religious motive 
was almost always mingled with this lower urge. The 
" Christian " nations of Europe might be unmindful of 
the civil rights of those who previously inhabited these 
newly acquired possessions, but they had a genuine con- 
cern for the spiritual welfare of those whose property 
they confiscated. They might deprive the " heathen " of 
lands and life, but they would try to save the souls of 
those who in their blindness bowed down to wood and 
stone. More or less clearly they recognized the prin- 
ciple that both religion and civilization have a fiduciary 
character, and that it is the duty of those who possess 
these blessings to share them with others. Hence, if the 
history of the last few centuries may be regarded from 
one point of view as an era of world-exploitation and 
world-domination by European peoples, from another it 
may be regarded as an era of world-evangelization by the 
Christian churches of Europe and America. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

The first effort at extending the Christian faith in India 
appears to have been made by Nestorians in the eighth 
century. It was largely the result of their persecutions 
throughout the Roman Empire of that period, which left 
them no opportunity for growth or even for existence 
but to penetrate the regions further east. Few traces 
now remain of what they are traditionally reported -to 
have accomplished. Next came the missions of the 
Roman Church, begun by the Jesuit Xavier in 1542, and 
vigorously prosecuted thereafter by his society. These 
were both more successful and more permanent, but still 
made little relative impression on the teeming millions of 
India. The first Protestant mission was that of Ziegen- 
balg, begun at Tranquebar, a Danish possession of no 
great importance, which was moderately prosperous from 
1706 onward. As this was one of the smallest provinces, 
and as the numerical results of the mission were neg- 
ligible, and still more because it was supported by only 
a handful of Lutheran Pietists, no wide attention was at-r 
tracted and no general interest in missions was aroused. 

In the meantime, the great commercial and colonizing 
schemes of European nations were making some sort of 
missionary enterprise inevitable. As soon as it was set- 
tled that England, and not France, should be the ruling 
power of India, the East India Company began to send 

out chaplains and though these for the most part con- 
firmed their ministration to Englishmen, they did make 
a few converts among the natives. Sooner or later this 

must have developed into serious missionary effort; but 

before that result came to pass the mission of English 

Baptists was undertaken. It is not without justification 

that this is regarded as the real beginning of the modern 

missionary movement; but we should beware of ex- 
travagant and unwarranted claims of Baptist priority iti 


Missions in Northern India 

The Early Years 

It was on October 2, 1792, that a few English Baptists 
formed their missionary society, and William Carey and 
Dr. John Thomas landed at Calcutta, November n, 1793, 
as their first missionaries. The money to send them out 
had been raised with much difficulty, and their support 
was precarious. Carey proved to be a great missionary 
and a great linguist; Thomas was an unfortunate col- 
league. He was a zealous missionary, to be sure, but 
eccentric, imprudent, and always in financial difficulties. 
He had been a surgeon in the employ of the East India 
Company and had made two previous voyages to India. 
He had learned Bengali in order to give the gospel to the 
Indian people and had begun a version of the New Testa- 
ment in that tongue. This is all that was known about 
him and he was an apparently good colleague for Carey ; 
it was, in fact, mainly due to him that India was chosen 
as the first missionary field of English Baptists Carey 
himself had been inclined to a mission in some of the 
islands of the Pacific. On the voyage, Carey was able to 
learn sufficient Bengali from Doctor Thomas to begin 
almost at once a translation of the New Testament into 
that language. Thomas seems to have done no more than 
to translate part of the Gospels; his version of Matthew 
was printed in 1800, about a year before the first edition 
of Carey's Bengali New Testament appeared. In the 
following year he died. During the last months he was 
partially insane, and it is probable that for some time 
his mind had been hardly normal. 

In this early period of missions, the East India Com- 
pany and all its officials were hostile to missions and mis- 
sionaries. The theory seems to have been that any sort 
of interference with the existing religions of the people 
would be resented and so make their control by the En- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

glish more difficult. One of these officials was a brother 
of Sydney Smith, the celebrated wit and divine, and the 
notorious article in the Edinburgh Review of April, 1808, 
was the result. This attitude of Englishmen, both in 
India and in England, continued down to the Mutiny. 

So great was the opposition to Carey, and so great was 
his financial need, that he was obliged to seek secular 
employment; Doctor Thomas and he became managers of 
an indigo factory. When news of this reached England, 
his home committee rebuked their missionaries for " en- 
gaging too deeply in the affairs of this life, lest it should 
damp their ardor, if not divert them from their work." 
This from those who had left men to starve and their 
mission to fail, if it had not been for those dreadful 
" affairs of this life " ! But the solicitude of these dear 
home folk was quite needless ; Carey never intermitted his 
missionary labors. He not only continued his work of 
translation with diligence, but gave his evenings to meet- 
ing with the people and proclaiming to them the teachings 
of Jesus. 

After a time the indefatigable labors of Andrew Fuller 
among the home churches bore fruit. The English Bap- 
tists generally were roused to interest in Carey and his 
mission ; reenf orcements were sent out, of both men and 
money. Joshua Marshman and William Ward landed in 
1799, and the entire group found a refuge from British 
wrath on Danish soil, and on January 10, 1800, estab- 
lished a new mission at Serampore that proved per- 
manent. These new helpers were helpers indeed, each a 
man of eminent worth in his own way. Marshman had 
been a teacher, and soon found wide scope for his talents 
as he mastered the native language. Ward had been a 
printer, and with his help a mission press was set up at 
Serampore, which became one of the greatest missionary 
agencies in the Orient. It not only printed Carey's sue- 


Missions in Northern India 

cessive versions as they appeared, but many others made 
by other missionaries, and much other Christian litera- 
ture. After a time the publication of a newspaper in Ben- 
gali was begun, the precursor of India's native press, 
now numbering hundreds of newspapers and periodicals, 
in all the principal dialects of the land. 

Progress of the Mission 

Serampore is about fifteen miles from Calcutta, and the 
governor was a friend of Schwartz, the Lutheran mis- 
sionary; so he was kindly disposed toward the English- 
men, and continued to give them protection and good- 
will,,, in spite of opposition from English officials. At 
Carey's instance, the Moravian communal plan was 
adopted, as best assuring economy, efficiency, and frater- 
nity. Six families united, and Carey, Marshman, and 
Ward maintained this fellowship until their death. The 
democratic principle was carried into all details and each 
took turns in the management of their common affairs. 
All salaries and earnings were turned into the common 
fund, and whatever remained over from a very modest 
living was devoted to their mission. Before his death 
Carey had thus contributed some 46,000, and the three 
principal families over 90,00x3. The annals of missions 
will be searched in vain for a like record. 

Carey was appointed a teacher in the new Fort William 
College in 1 80 1, an institution founded by Lord Wellesley 
for the young " writers " of the Company. It opened 
with a hundred students, drawn from the three Presi- 
dencies. Carey's work was to teach Bengali, in which he 
had become very proficient; but as he was a Non-con- 
formist, he was at first only called " tutor " and given a 
salary of Rs. 500 a month. After a time he was made 
a full professor, and his salary was doubled, a sum then 
about equal to $7,500 a year pretty well for the village 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

cobbler! He was also made Professor of Sanskrit and 
general literary adviser to the government. All official 
publications in Bengali, Marathi, and Sanskrit were sub- 
mitted to him for criticism and revision before being 
issued. He strove to be more than censor, however to 
be also inspirer, and the center of a literary revival of 
Bengali, which he esteemed " intrinsically superior to all 
other spoken Indian languages, and second in utility to 


Text-books were needed for his work as teacher, and 
he set to work to produce them. He was the author of 
six grammars and three dictionaries, which long held 
their place as standard educational works. He became 
an associate of Sir William Jones in the Asiatic Society, 
and originated a plan for the publication of translations 
of Indian classics. Only three of 10 projected volumes 
were published, owing partly to lack of scholarly coopera- 
tion, partly to lack of financial support. It was too early 
for a successful attempt on so large a scale, but more than 
a century later the project was revived and the result was 
Max Miiller's great series of Sacred Books of the 'East. 
His colleagues were little behind Carey in activity and 
usefulness. Ward produced A View of the History, 
Literature, and Religion of the Hindus, with translations 
from the principal writings, which for half a century was 
a standard authority on things Indian. Marshman, as 
soon as he got a grip on the language, opened a school for 
boys and girls, which was almost at once recognized as 
the best in Bengal. The wealthy Europeans early took 
advantage of this opportunity for their children, and also 
the higher caste Bengali. Mrs. Marshman was a great 
help in this work, by reason of her unruffled temper, de- 
voutness, and zeal. Buildings for the school were com- 
pleted in 1800. 

The Moravians had found preaching the gospel at 


Missions in Northern India 

Serampore to be " plowing on a rock," and so did Carey, 
but he persevered. Seven long years went by without a 
convert. Then Doctor Thomas set the broken arm of a 
native named Krishna Pal, whose gratitude led him to 
listen favorably to the gospel, and he became a convert. 
He was baptized December 29, 1800, and proved to be 
not only the first but one of the greatest Indian Chris- 
tians. He was an ardent preacher for twenty years, and is 
well known to American Christians through Doctor 
Marshman's translation of a hymn that he composed, " O 
thou, my soul, forget no more." By 1803 the church 
had grown to 39 members, and 30 more were baptized in 
1805, including three Europeans. 

The Bible in India 

Carey's chief labors were literary not evangelistic, 
yet in the highest sense missionary. He gave himself 
to translating and printing the Scriptures, and the record 
of his achievement has never been surpassed. Before 
his death six versions of the entire Bible, 23 of the entire 
New Testament, and seven partial versions of the New 
Testament, had been completed and printed at the Seram- 
pore press. In all these Carey had some part, and all 
were printed under his editorial supervision. Other ver- 
sions were printed in which he bore a smaller part ; in all, 
42 versions went from the Serampore press during his 
connection with it, and the Bible was thus made accessible 
to at least 300,000 people, so far as they could and would 
read it. Half a million dollars had been raised and ex- 
pended on this work the greatest in the annals of mis- 

A great calamity fell upon the flourishing mission in 
1812, the total destruction by fire of the printing-house. 
The loss was estimated at $60,000, including thirteen 
fonts of type in as many languages, besides many manu- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

scripts of inestimable value. Fortunately the matrices 
were saved, so that new fonts could be made at once; 
but some losses were irreparable. The calamity proved a 
blessing in disguise; for, when the news reached Europe, 
large contributions from all Christians in England and 
elsewhere made possible the immediate reconstruction of 
the plant on an enlarged scale. By the death of Ward 
(1822) it had become the greatest establishment of the 
kind in the Orient, and had not only done invaluable 
service to the missionary cause, but to the English ad- 
ministrators and residents. Carey survived until 1834, in 
his last years honored throughout Europe as perhaps the 
greatest living Oriental scholar. 

Great as were the services rendered by Carey and 
other early translators, their versions were subject to the 
unavoidable limitations of all pioneer work, and so they 
have been subjected to many revisions, which have re- 
sulted in much improvement in details, without altering 
essential characteristics. Carey's Bengali version, for 
example, was revised .in 1833 and following years by 
Doctors Yates and Wenger ; and that revision was taken 
as a basis for further work by an interdenominational 
committee in 1875, which labored successfully to perfect 
a version at once scholarly and popular. The Assamese 
version of Doctors Brown and Gurney has also under- 
gone several revisions. This should be borne in mind as 
a general procedure on the mission fields, when other 
versions are mentioned in later treatment of missions and 

This printing and wide circulation of the Scriptures 
has been one of the greatest and most valuable accom- 
plishments of missions. The New Testament especially 
has been read by large numbers of the educated higher- 
caste people and has had a profound influence upon them. 
Gandhi is a type of thousands who accept Jesus and the 


Missions in Northern India 

Gospels, while they refuse to profess themselves Chris- 
tians and even reject the name with contempt. They per- 
ceive the wide gap between the teachings of Jesus and the 
organized Christianity of the West; consequently they 
are ready to follow Jesus, but unwilling to be called 
" Christians." That name connotes too much that is 
opposed to the Gospels. 

The monumental achievement has been a challenge and 
an inspiration to all successors. It had a tremendous 
reflex influence upon the European churches that were 
sending missionaries into India. Other forces contributed, 
but this was probably the chief impulse to the formation 
of societies for the express purpose of giving the Bible 
to the whole world, in every people's vernacular. The 
British and Foreign Bible Society was formed in 1804, 
and the American Bible Society in 1816; the United 
Netherlands Society in 1815; the great Canstein Bible 
Society of Germany began its activities as early as the 
first foreign missions, having been formed in 1712, and 
its activities were greatly increased through the mis- 
sionary movement. Says Professor Richter, " An enor- 
mous amount of industry, learning, and culture has been 
spent upon these various translations of the Bible." One 
might add, And an enormous amount of money has been 
spent in printing and circulating them. But it has been 
money, learning, and industry well expended. 

The New Missionary Zeal 

Not the least of the results of Carey's labors was the 
stimulus they gave to missionary effort throughout the 
Christian world. The severe criticisms of the enter- 
prise reacted in its favor. In the Church of England 
there was already a missionary agency, called the " So- 
ciety for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts," 
but since its formation in 1701 it had devoted its efforts 

D [35] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

exclusively to English colonies, and almost exclusively to 
English people in those colonies. It now began to extend 
its operations, and in 1818 began a mission in Calcutta. 
The London Missionary Society was formed in 1795, an 
undenominational body from the first, but as the various 
denominations one by one established agencies of their 
own, it gradually came under the chief direction of 
Congregationalists. The names of Morrison in China, 
and Moffat and Livingstone in Africa, are inseparably 
connected with its activities. The Wesleyan Missionary 
Society was organized in 1816, and the Church of Scot- 
land began operations in 1827. On the Continent similar 
effects were produced; one of the best known and most 
active of the new societies was the Basel Evangelical 
Missionary Society, formed in 1815. In the new world 
the same impetus was felt, and the missionary enterprises 
of American Christians, of which a more particular ac- 
count will be given later, are directly traceable to Carey 
and the English Baptists. 

After the Mutiny, the CMS (formed in 1799) became 
very active in the Punjab, where the revolt had been most 
active and disaffection with English rule had been deepest. 
A policy called " neutrality in religion," which really 
meant hostility to all Christian missions, had been sedu- 
lously inculcated and practised there by all officials. The 
same society also entered Oudh and established stations 
at Lucknow and elsewhere. Their missionaries gave 
much attention at first to Europeans and Eurasians, but 
also evangelized the natives, and in ten years took and 
maintained precedence over all societies save one. The 
Wesleyans and the Presbyterians, both of Scotland and 
of America, became active in northern and central India. 
The Salvation Army entered India, but its loud proclama- 
tion of " taking India by storm " was hardly fulfilled in 
fact, and they have only about 20,000 adherents up to the 


Missions in Northern India 

present. Many unattached missionaries and small organ- 
izations are at work, difficult to classify and impossible 
to report. They come and go, and cannot be reckoned 
among the permanent forces of missions, in spite of their 
considerable numbers and unquestionable zeal. They 
spend much money and valuable lives to no good purpose 
and meet with slight success, even if they are not to be 
considered as an actual hindrance to the progress of the 
kingdom of God and many hold them to be just 

Two of the Indian missionaries of the Church of En- 
gland deserve brief special mention. Henry Martyn came 
out in 1806, zealous to proclaim the gospel to the Moham- 
medans of India. As even a representative of the Church 
Missionary Society would not be tolerated at that time, he 
was under appointment as chaplain, and not ostensibly a 
missionary. He devoted himself to the study of Arabic 
and Persian, besides gaining a good speaking knowledge 
of Hindustani. Like Carey, he gave himself primarily to 
translation, and during his brief career of six years, he 
was able to make a complete version of the New Testa- 
ment in each of the above-named languages, besides trans- 
lating the Book of Common Prayer into Hindustani. His 
Persian- version was particularly praised for its elegance 
and idiomatic excellence. The other missionary was 
Reginald Heber, the second bishop of Calcutta. His 
career was even shorter than Martyn's, lasting only four 
years; but the effect of his missionary fervor will long 
endure, since it inspired those two great missionary 
hymns, " The Son of God goes forth to war " and 
" From Greenland's icy mountains." His work has been 
summed up in the saying : 

He united the zeal and piety of the Christian with the accom- 
plishments of the scholar and the gentleman. Few men have ever 
won in equal measure the general esteem of society in India. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Alexander Duff and His Work 

Carey led the way in providing India with a modern 
educational system, but even more was accomplished by 
Alexander Duff, appointed by the Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland in 1829, later transferring his alle- 
giance to the Free Church. He was educated at the Uni- 
versity of St. Andrews and was greatly influenced in his 
undergraduate days by the preaching and character of 
Thomas Chalmers. He landed at Calcutta in May, 1830, 
and for forty-five years labored with diligence and suc- 
cess. He was the most prominent advocate of the school 
as the chief missionary agency, and from the first adopted 
a new line of policy: to attempt the conversion of the 
higher castes through schools in which their children 
might get a liberal modern education. He insisted that 
all instruction should be in English, but also required that 
candidates for admission must first be able to read with 
ease their own vernacular. 

Duff was but twenty- four years of age when he began 
his epoch-making career. He is described as an inspiring 
teacher, nervous, impetuous, " a living personation of per- 
petual motion." His idea of education was to teach all 
truth, with the personality of God and Jesus as the center, 
the consummation of all knowledge. He hoped to under- 
mine Hinduism and at the same time avoid an educated 
agnosticism. The type of education already existing in 
the Calcutta Hindu College was undermining Hinduism 
effectually, but was leaving in its place only cynical nega- 
tion of all faith. Duff would train students in a Christian 
philosophy of life. 

At first the Hindus were intensely hostile to the new 
schools, but warm approval by Ram Mohun Roy turned 
the scale in their favor; especially as the Brahmins soon 
began to appreciate the practical advantages offered, in the 


Missions in Northern India. 

preparation of their sons for government service. A 
public examination at the end of the first year roused 
great interest and made many friends. Duff had to begin 
with the alphabet, and prepare text-books- as he went 
along, some of which held their place in Indian schools 
for a generation. The school personally conducted by 
him in Calcutta from 1830 to 1863 was eminently success- 
ful. Four young men of the Brahmin caste, of highest 
culture and rare abilities, were converted and baptized in 
1832 and 1833. But his success, and that of his schools, 
was not to be measured so much by the number of pro- 
fessed converts, as by the general liberalizing effect of his 

Largely through Duff's efforts the Medical College of 
Calcutta was opened in 1835, to give natives a training in 
modern medicine. The Hindu prejudice against dissec- 
tion and surgery had to give way and did give way before 
the manifest advantages of learning the new Western 
art of healing. Duff labored also vigorously and with 
some success for the education of Indian women and 
fought hard against the custom of infant betrothal and 
marriage. He lived to see his ideals and methods accepted 
by the very missionaries who had at first opposed them 
as unchristian. Throughout his services as educator he 
had the support of Europeans of the best type. 

Progress of Education 

When he began his work, there was no government 
system of education in India. What the government had 
done was mainly to encourage the foundation of colleges ; 
but what India then needed was a system of efficient pri- 
mary and secondary schools. Macaulay's famous " Min- 
ute of 1835," advocating that all instruction in schools 
should be given in English, threw the weight of the gov- 
ernment on the side of Duff and his methods, and thence- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

forth this became an established principle. If the results 
were in some respects less than Duff and Macaulay 
anticipated, they were very great. English is today the 
common medium of communication in India for all edu- 
cated men, and will long hold that place among the babel 
of tongues spoken in that country, because, for one thing, 
it contains the largest bulk of valuable literature and in- 
dispensable knowledge. This possession of a common 
language makes possible- a common Indian consciousness, 
leaping across all barriers of race and vernacular. Such 
a consciousness is already possessed by educated Indians, 
but they are as yet a negligible percentage of the whole 
population. Only one male in 100 can read and write 
English, and only one in ten can read and write any lan- 
guage. (Among Christians, it is said that one man in 
four and one woman in ten can read.) The educated 
class is anxious to lead, but it is yet to be proved that the 
masses will follow. The Mohammedans have made much 
less progress in education than the Hindus, but knowl- 
edge is no longer the exclusive possession of the Brahmin 
caste. In addition to the schools, the vernacular press is 
doing much for popular education, and India is making 
rapid progress in enlightenment. 

In 1854 the government began to institute a system of 
education, which is now in theory quite complete. In 
practise, many village schools are still very backward. 
The gravest educational problem of India is to get suit- 
able teachers for these schools, especially for the miser- 
able salaries paid. There are about 8,200,000 persons 
under instruction. All Government schools were opened to 
women in 1870. In 1920 there were 200 colleges for men 
and 1 6 for women, having 64,667 and 1,249 students re- 
spectively. Next come the secondary schools, 7,927 for 
males and 781 for girls, with 1,164,282 and 117,528 
pupils. There are besides 135,585 primary schools for 


Missions in Northern India 

boys and 21,759 for girls, with enrolments of 4,956,988 
and 1,176,533. Supplementing the Government schools 
are 32,747 private schools for boys and 1,876 for girls. 
Eight state universities have 35,926 matriculates. The 
Y M C A is doing a very important work among Indian 
students, reaching fully 200,000 through its various 

It is estimated that there are 5,000,000 beggars in 
India today, whose support costs the rest of the popula- 
tion $60,000,000. Suppose that sum were saved and 
spent each year on education ? What might India become 
in a single generation ! The Bengali were first to appre- 
ciate the value of European education largely because 
they had the first opportunity; and as a result of their 
'response Calcutta University has maintained the leading 
place that Lord Dalhousie gave it seventy years ago. 
Many Bengali women are now educated, have won release 
from ancient restraints, and preside today over refined 
and cultured homes. 

There are defects and dangers in Indian education, to 
which missionaries are awake. The Indian mind has a 
natural bent toward purely literary culture, and needs 
scientific training to balance it. Comparatively little is 
done by the universities to encourage scientific study and 
especially research. The number of those who get a 
university education is proportionately as large as in 
England, or nearly so, but there is a great deficiency in 
secondary schools. Indian education is top-heavy. It is 
annually turning out men with trained minds and no 
morals to speak of, out of touch with native society and 
without access to English, disqualified for manual labor, 
and unable to get positions in government service, since 
there are five candidates for every vacancy. Such men 
are disappointed, soured, and splendid material for revo- 
lution. They form a proletariat, only by courtesy " in- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

tellectual," discontented, embittered, the very stuff of 
which Bolshevists are made. The popular ferment may 
be traced directly to this defect in Indian education. Upon 
India Great Britain has imposed a new India, with results 
that are still in the making. There is a great clash of 
two civilizations, and what the result will be many are 
ready to prophesy but nobody knows. 

Later History of the Carey Mission 

Serampore has continued to be the headquarters of the 
English Baptist missions in India. In Bengal and the 
Punjab they have been active and successful. Among 
the features of their work has been the effort to lead the 
native churches to become self-supporting, and in this 
they have achieved an enviable prominence. One of their 
chief labors has been a Zenana mission, in connection with 
which a hundred schools for girls have been supported, 
and 340 native workers kept in the field. Many valuable 
by-products must be credited to them. For example, 
Ramabai's work among child widows, soon to be de- 
scribed, can be traced directly to the influence of this 
mission. Mrs. H. C. Mullens, of the L M S, is said to 
have been the first to begin zenana work, by teaching In- 
dian women needlework, and incidentally Christianity. 
It was an example quickly followed by others and became 
a system from about 1850. Experience proved that in 
thousands of cases Indian men are held back from pro- 
fession of Christianity by wives and mothers. To reach 
these is the task of the zenana worker. No people can 
be lifted faster than its women. Zenana parties given by 
missionaries have proved very effective; they bring to- 
gether rich and poor, high castes and low, Hindus and 
Moslems. Some women have to undergo a painful puri- 
fication on account of suffering contamination. Bible- 
women are utilized, and many more are needed, to follow 


Missions in Northern India 

up the work. The Bible-woman knows the native 
mind, speaks the native language as her mother tongue, 
understands the sorrows and burdens of her native sisters, 
and has access to homes where the foreigner can never 


By 1813 the B M S work had so grown that there 
were 20 stations, with 63 workers. But the promise of 
these early years was not fulfilled, so far as numerical 
increase was concerned, for after fifty years in Bengal 
it was reported that there were only 1,000 members in the 
churches, with perhaps 2,000 others in more or less regu- 
lar attendance. Evangelism of the non-caste people has 
been the most encouraging feature of recent years. 
Efforts have been made to form self-supporting and self- 
propagating churches among them, with such success that 
no members are now employed as paid evangelists of the 
society. Special work is carried on among students and 
the educated classes at Calcutta. Hostels are maintained 
for students there, at Delhi and elsewhere; in connection 
with these, lectures, Bible classes, and other means are 
employed to influence the lives of young Indians. Per- 
manent and deep impressions are made, it is believed, on 
many who do not avow themselves converts. 

The educational work begun in establishing Serampore 
College, which was chartered February 22, 1827, has 
been continued with great effect. In a short time after 
its foundation, the College had brought into existence a 
network of free vernacular schools that became feeders. 
Not fewer than 8,000 children were gathered in these 
schools. From the first the College was a catholic insti- 
tution, in spite of much urgency from England and the 
United States that it be kept a sectarian theological school. 
The original charter was from the king of Denmark, but 
it was afterward confirmed by the English Government. 
For a long time it was the only college not controlled by 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

the Government that had the power to confer degrees, 
and it formerly conferred the B. A. on graduates of the 
arts course. Of late years it has become affiliated with 
Calcutta University, which examines and confers de- 
grees in arts ; but Serampore still remains the only insti- 
tution with authority to confer the B. D. upon graduates 
of its theological departments. At last accounts there 
were 30 students in the theological department, and 421 
in all, of whom 79 were professed Christians. Schools 
for the training of native evangelists, and boarding- 
schools in five principal cities, are also part of the work 
of this mission. 

A Mission in Ceylon 

In 1812 a mission to Ceylon was undertaken by the 
B M S. Its work has been largely educational. Four 
principal stations are now maintained, with 88 out-sta- 
tions. Excellent high schools have been established at 
Colombo and three other points, with 415 pupils. There 
are also a school for girls, a normal school, and a theo- 
logical institute. The mission maintains 39 elementary 
schools with 3,582 pupils. There are now 17 churches ' 
in this Ceylon mission, with about 1,000 members. Five 
out of seven provinces are now occupied, and work has 
recently been begun among the Tamils. There is no medi- 
cal work in this mission, as there are good Government 
hospitals and dispensaries and qualified native physicians. 
In 1887 a Ceylon Baptist Missionary Society was formed 
an indigenous home mission enterprise which has at- 
tained complete independence. A Baptist Union was 
formed in 1895. A Singhalese version of the New Tes- 
tament was completed in 1862, and the Old Testament in 
1876. Several revisions have much improved this ver- 
sion, and an edition has lately been published on India 
paper, the first ever circulated in Ceylon. 


Missions in Northern India 

American Baptists in Bengal-Orissa 

The missionary work of American Baptists in northern 
Hindustan is confined to a rich alluvial plain of some 
12,000 square miles, about equal to the State of Mary- 
land. It has a population of 4,730,000, a million more 
than are found in Massachusetts. Five principal lan- 
guages are spoken. The Bengali are an Aryan people, 
as are also the Oriyas ; only about five per cent, of either 
are literate. There is also a race known as the Santals, 
probably aboriginal, backward but virile, and more acces- 
sible to new religious ideas than the others. A letter 
written by Rev. Amos Sutton, of the English Baptist 
mission, to the Morning Star, in 1832, first interested the 
Free Baptists in this region; and a subsequent visit by 
him to the United States led to the undertaking of a 
mission to these people. In 1835, Rev. Jeremiah Phillips 
and his wife and Rev. Eli Noyes and wife were sent into 
this field a district about 150 miles long upon the Bay 
of Bengal, to the southwest of Calcutta. 

In 1911, the Free Baptists decided to merge their for- 
eign missions with those of the Baptist Foreign Mission 
Society, including this Indian field. This is Baptist terri- 
tory exclusively; which means that no other missionary 
society maintains missions there or is at all likely to 
establish any. It has been fairly fruitful, but might be 
made much more productive. Ten stations are now main- 
tained, with 22 missionaries and 341 native helpers. The 
latter ought to be largely increased. There have been 
symptoms of a mass movement among the Santals, a 
poverty-stricken oppressed race with no written language, 
who are responding in a remarkable way to gospel teach- 
ing. There are 200,000 of these people, who were long 
neglected. The Government has asked Baptists to under- 
take the educational work for this entire race, and a sys- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

tern of over 100 schools has been organized, with more 
than 3,000 pupils. The center of this work is Bhimpore, 
In the same district, the city of Jamshedpur is the center 
of the comparatively new steel industry of India. A large 
plant, conducted by an Indian Company, but officered 
by American engineers, turns out daily 2,000 tons of steel 
products. The city has grown in twenty years from a 
few mud huts to 100,000 people, and offers a great oppor- 
tunity for missionary work. A native church, composed 
of Bengali, Telugus, and Oriyans, is a strong moral force 
in this industrial community. 

The Bengal-Orissa mission is in many respects one of 
the most important in India. The Bengali are first among 
Indians in intellect and culture, and have a better de- 
veloped national consciousness than other Indians. One 
of our missionary secretaries has said : " As Bengal thinks 
today, India thinks tomorrow. When Bengal shall have 
been won for Christ, the conquest of India will be at 
hand." A board composed mainly of Indians has charge 
of the evangelistic work and has 83 preachers and Bible- 
women under its direction. These native workers are 
able to gain access to persons and homes from which mis- 
sionaries would be barred. The mission is divided into 
two main districts the Balasore, with two stations, and 
the Midnapore, with five principal stations. The Balasore 
field has a population of 1,500,000, and the Midnapore 
district has at least a million more. 

The Schools 

Educational work of marked efficiency has been a fea- 
ture of the Bengal-Orissa mission from the first. In 
nearly all stations schools have been established, 167 in 
all, with 4,525 pupils. A high school for boys at Bala- 
sore has an enrolment of 250, and is the only Christian 
school of that grade in the province. An industrial de- 


Missions in Northern India 

partment has been in operation fourteen years, and has 
twelve teachers and 70 boys. The Government has given 
help, financial and other, to the school, which is regarded 
as one of the best of its kind in India. It is self-support- 
ing, so far as the pupils are concerned, all its products 
being sold, to the amount in one year of nearly $10,000. 
Woodworking in all its branches is taught, and the school 
makes furniture for all the government schools of the 
district. Boat-building is done. The building is a fine 
one, 220 feet by 75, lighted by electricity and well 
equipped with lathes and other machinery. . The gradu- 
ates become carpenters, cabinet-makers, blacksmiths, 
motor-mechanics, and electrical fitters ; and there is large 
demand and profitable employment for such workers. 
There is now a self-supporting native church of 250 at 
Balasore, and many of these boys are converted and bap- 
tized. Mr. Nyack, a leading layman of the town, often 
preaches to the Balasore church. His daughter, the "first 
woman of the Oriyas to receive the B. A. degree, is prin- 
cipal of the Government high school for girls at Cuttack, 
100 miles south of Balasore. At Midnapore a Bible 
school is maintained, named after one of the pioneer 
missionaries of this field, Rev. Jeremiah Phillips. The 
Phillips school has an excellent course of four years, 
divided into two equal sections, between which every stu- 
dent is required to spend a year in active service. Be- 
sides this, four months of every year are devoted to 
evangelistic training. Nearly all native workers have 
been trained in this school and have proved exception- 
ally efficient. Because of the high grade of the school 
work in this mission, the influence of the Christian com- 
munities is far in advance of their numerical strength. 

Several other denominations have schools like the Bala- 
sore. The first to be established in the Punjab was by the 
American Presbyterians, at Moga, under charge of W. J. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

McKee, who has refused many tempting offers to go 
elsewhere. In addition to what is accomplished by the 
school, a wide work of correspondence and visitation is 
conducted, and the agriculture of a large district is in 
process of transformation. At Allahabad, as one of the 
departments of Ewing College, is an agricultural college 
conducted by Sam Higginbotton, an American layman. 
The dairy work is particularly fine. The cows here give 
as high as 24 quarts of milk a day, whereas Hindus con- 
sider one quart at a milking a good yield. Diplomas have 
been given to 19 men, who are nearly all teachers in 
similar schools that have been started in other provinces. 
This work has drawn the attention of Indians to the 
economic consequences of their doctrine of transmigra- 
tion. India pays more for keeping alive useless animals 
than the Government raises by taxation unnecessary cat- 
tle alone cost $2,000,000,000. Gandhi recently remarked : 
" We who worship the cow, have the worst cattle in the 
world. I fear that our worship has degenerated into an 
ignorant fanaticism." 

Other Baptists in This Field 

The B M S has flourishing missions in both these prov- 
inces. In Orissa it has 24 centers from which wide propa- 
ganda proceeds, and a remarkable collection of schools: 
two theological seminaries, with 19 students, two normal 
schools with 31, seven high schools with 828, and 55 ele- 
mentary schools with 2,156 pupils. Besides these, 13 are 
receiving training in an industrial school. In Bengal 
there are 17 centers, three seminaries are training for the 
ministry 80 young men, and there are also 159 elementary 
schools with 4,295 pupils. Some medical work is done in 
both provinces, and there is a hospital at Chandraghona. 

Two other Baptist organizations are at work in these 
provinces. The Australasian Baptists maintain 13 cen- 


The South India and Part of the Bengal-Orissa Missions 
of American Baptists 

The Burma and Assam and Part of the Bengal-Orissa Missions 
of American Baptists 

The South India and Part of the Bengal-Orissa Missions 
of American Baptists 

t ^"\ X *% x /> 

j I ( BHUTAN No/th Lakhimijjij / 
So V ./.. ""Ijbsagor 

-**"*"" ' 

' 5Goalpara . . 

oj Tika Konima 

Tura A S S fi 
* J Eangpokpi 


A L I 

The Burma and Assam and Part of the Bengal-Orissa Missions 
of American Baptists 

Missions in Northern India 

ters, and for their school work have established a semi- 
nary, an industrial school, and an orphanage. The Gen- 
eral Baptists of the Midlands (England) began a mission 
in Orissa in 1822, making their main station at Cuttack, 
and gradually opening others. They have established 45 
schools for boys and girls, and have been quite successful 
among the outcaste Gandas. They have had good results 
also among the Kols or Mumdas. A press flourishes at 
Cuttack, which almost rivals in importance and achieve- 
ment that at Serampore, and a theological school is in 
process of establishment there. 

Into the adjoining regions, the BMS has penetrated 
and done excellent work. In the Punjab it has six centers, 
maintains a theological school at Delhi and a training- 
school for women at Patua, as well as five high schools, 
two hospitals, and a dispensary. 

In the United Provinces, there are three centers, two 
high schools, 21 elementary; and orphanage and dispen- 
sary at Baraut, and a hospital at Dholpur. 

Ramabai and Her Work 

But for the work in zenanas by Christian missionaries, 
Ramabai would never have been inspired to devote her 
life to the child widows of India. She was born April 23, 
1858, the child of a noted Sanskrit teacher and scholar, 
who braved the prejudices of his caste and educated his 
wife and daughter. The latter was much influenced in 
her early years by Kashab Chunder Sen, and became so 
fine a scholar 4 that her lectures were largely attended, and 
a public assembly in Calcutta conferred on her the. high- 
est title an Indian woman may possess, Sarasvati, or god- 
dess of wisdom. Her father had refused to marry her in 
childhood, and she married a Bengali gentleman, a grad- 
uate of Calcutta University, who died after nineteen 
months of happy married life, leaving her with a daugh- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ter whom they had named Manorama (Heart's- joy; 
Ramabai signifies Delight-giver). 

It was out of this experience of widowhood in India 
that her life-work grew. She went to England for further 
education, and she and her daughter were baptized in 
the Church of England in 1883. For a time she was pro- 
fessor of Sanskrit in Cheltenham College. In 1886, she 
came to the United States, and her story roused so much 
interest that the Ramabai Association was formed in 
the following year to relieve and educate the high-caste 
child widows of India. A combined home and school 
was opened in a leased house at Bombay by Ramabai in 
March, 1889, which was afterward removed to Poona, 
and housed in a permanent building, where it became 
known as the " House of Wisdom." The school was non- 
sectarian, but Ramabai's life inevitably won converts. 
This caused difficulties, even persecution, but the work 
continued with increasing success; in ten years she had 
350 in her school, of whom 48 became avowed Christians. 
Ramabai visited the United States again in 1898; the 
Association was reorganized, and the work was greatly 
enlarged. The school grew to an enrolment of 2,000. 
Industrial training was introduced, so that it became in 
large part self-supporting. The daughter was educated 
in part in the United States and finished her training at 
the Bombay University, and was expected to continue 
the work, but died before her mother, who passed away 
April 5, 1922. Ramabai did not connect herself with 
any church, or profess any special creed ; she was content 
to be just a Christian. Her motto for life was " Others." 
At the time of her death some 1,700 people were sheltered, 
fed, and instructed through the faith and consecration of 
this remarkable woman. Her work is still continued 
under the auspices of the Ramabai Association of Boston, 
but her equal has not yet been found. 


Missions in Northern India 

Other Indian Women 

Less known in the United States, but quite as well 
known in India as Ramabai, Chundra Lela is the fruit of 
the Midnapore mission. The daughter of a wealthy 
Brahmin, married at the age of seven and widowed at 
ten, she had the bitter experience of a Hindu child widow. 
Her father, a learned man, taught her Sanskrit. She was 
converted through the instructions of a daughter of Doc- 
tor Phillips, and became an enthusiastic and successful 
evangelist among her own people. Khanto Bela Rai, who 
became known to many in the United States, as the guest 
of the WABFMS at its jubilee in 1921, was fortunate 
in having a father who was a Christian preacher, and 
so had a Christian training from childhood. Many others 
are coming from our Christian schools to take respon- 
sible places on the staff of native workers. Llivati Singh, 
who was also in the United States in 1900 and became 
widely known, is another remarkable Indian woman. She 
is a graduate of Calcutta College, since affiliated with the 
University of Calcutta and now called Isabella Thoburn 
College, from its founder. She is an A. M. of Allahabad 
University, and after Miss Thoburn's death was chosen 
as her successor the first Indian woman to be a college 
president. The Indian woman is coming into her own, 
and will be heard from more and more in the years just 
before us. 

Medical Missions 

In one sense medical missions had no separate begin- 
ning in India. Doctor Thomas was a surgeon who prac- 
tised and preached with equal assiduity as long as he 
lived. But the first to go out as a professed medical 
missionary was Dr. John Scudder, a young physician of 
New York. He was greatly stirred by a tract of Gordon 

[ 51 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Hall, one of the first Congregational missionaries, and 
offered himself to the American Board. From 1819 to 
1855 he gave invaluable service in Ceylon and Madras, 
and had the joy before he died of seeing medical missions 
firmly established as one of the most valuable of mission- 
ary agencies. Clara Swain, M. D., was sent out in 1869 
by the Methodist Episcopal Church, the first woman to 
undertake this work. Today every important mission 
station, not merely in India, but everywhere, has its hos- 
pital and dispensary and its corps of doctors and nurses. 
What is said to be the largest medical mission in the 
world is now at Neyoor, in the Travancore mission of 
the L M S. Besides a large central hospital, there are ten 
branch hospitals and eight dispensaries. The Govern- 
ment has recognized the social value of this service by 
conferring the Kaisar-i-Hind medal on many of the mis- 
sionary physicians. 

It seems strange to us that there should ever have 
been opposition to this missionary agency, but for many 
years there were not lacking well-meaning Christians who 
objected that this was no legitimate part of the mission- 
ary enterprise. They could not appreciate the appeal that 
human misery at its depths was making to those on the 
field. Tropical countries especially, and India in par- 
ticular, are subject to ravages of diseases from which we 
of temperate climes are mostly exempt: cholera, plague, 
leprosy, sleeping sickness, dysentery, not to mention dis- 
eases that we have, but that are more deadly in the 
tropics : smallpox, malaria, typhoid, tuberculosis. In such 
countries there is no science of medicine; there are no 
real physicians, no nurses, no hospitals, no sanitation or 
hygiene. Disease is believed to be caused by evil spirits, 
and so the so-called " doctors " try to cure it by charms 
and incantations and the beating of gongs. Antiseptics 
and anesthetics are undreamed of. 


Missions in Northern India 

Besides the appeal that such a condition makes to any 
normal human heart, we have the example of One whom 
we often call the Great Physician, to spur us on to the 
relief of body as well as cure of soul. Medical missions 
are first curative, then preventive, then redemptive and 
constructive. The ideal, and the practise also, is that 
bodily healing shall be accompanied by spiritual. Medi- 
cal missions then ought not to be contrasted with evan- 
gelism, as was formerly often done, but considered one 
of the most effective methods of evangelism, which they 
really are. In India they have proved the one means 
of effectively reaching Mohammedans, who are proof 
against preaching or argument. The medical missionary 
is an object-lesson of the true Christian life, the life of 

Other Indian Missions 

More than a hundred different missionary societies are 
now maintaining work in India to such extent have the 
first feeble efforts of Carey and Thomas grown. Ob- 
viously, nothing more can be attempted than the briefest 
summary of their efforts. The missions of the Church 
of England are the most .numerous and upon them has 
been expended the largest sum of money. It naturally 
follows that this church has the largest number *of com- 
municants in India, at latest accounts 492,752. The Bap- 
tist missions come next, with a total of 337,226 mem- 
bers; Lutherans rank third, with 218,500; and next in 
order come Presbyterians, with 181,130; Methodists, with 
171,844, and Congregationalists with 135,265. The total 
number of professed Christians was reported in 1907 to 
be 1,617,617. A Christian population of 3,000,006 would 
not be a too sanguine estimate. When we think of the 
360,000,000 of India, the numerical results of more than 
a century of Protestant missions do not seem large. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

The Unfulfilled Task 

Many will be surprised to learn that, after over a cen- 
tury of labor by this great variety of societies and mis- 
sionaries, the Christian occupation of India is yet very 
incomplete. There are vast districts wholly unoccupied 
as yet, and others so ineffectively occupied that they are 
virtually unevangelized. In the Native States in par- 
ticular, the fields are undermanned, and the work is 
carried on under great difficulties. If the present overlap- 
ping and misdirected effort could be corrected, mission^ 
aries could be sent into these fields. If the unnecessary 
and scandalous expense of administering so many so- 
cieties could be eliminated, there might be a wonderful 
advance without any increase of burdens to the home 
churches. We are wasting as much as we are effectively 
expending. It is no exaggeration to say that barely one- 
third of the people of India have as yet had any oppor- 
tunity to hear the gospel. Such facts should cause great 
searching of heart among the Christian people of Europe 
and America and speedily bring about a marked change 
in missionary methods. 

An inference irresistibly suggests itself : What missions 
need for a really great advance in India is Christian unity 
in missionary work, and the rise of a native church that 
will ignore the sectarian divisions so meaningless to an 
Indian, whatever significance they may have for Western 
Christians. And as to our denominational affiliations at 
home, it is shrewdly suspected that few could today give 
any reason why they are what they are than that their 
fathers were such. Should .we insist that converts in 
India must perpetuate those divisions of which we are 
beginning to be ashamed? Christianity will always re- 
main an exotic religion in India, until Indian Christians 
have the intelligence and courage to work out their own 


Missions in Northern India 

form of Christianity, with the New Testament as their 
starting-point, and above all with the teaching 1 of Jesus 
as their guide. The great obstacle to the progress of 
Christianity now is the fact that it seems to be the religion 
of the white conqueror and ruler, and as such India as a 
whole will have none of it. 

Our foreign missions began with a deep sense of supe- 
riority and condescension on our part. Our sentiments 
have been embalmed in our missionary hymns: 

Can we whose souls are lighted 

By wisdom from on high, 
Can we, to men benighted, 

The lamp of life deny? 

So " the heathen in his blindness " and " where only man 
is vile " expressed the attitude of those who fathered mis- 
sions. Ignorance and conceit mingled largely with Chris- 
tian enthusiasm ; as men conscious of vast superiority our 
missionaries went to inferior races; their whole attitude 
was unconsciously paternal and patronizing, if benevolent. 
That we had anything to receive from the " heathen," 
as well as something to give, was never suspected. Truly, 
the self -righteousness of the Christian world in the con- 
duct of missions, when we come to think of it seriously, is 
something appalling. We forgot that after all Jesus was 
an Asiatic, and that we of the West might not have pene- 
trated to the full meaning of his message that he might 
have something to say to men of India that we had never 
heard. Jesus and his teaching have been badly handi- 
capped in India by being presented as part of a Western 
civilization that India does not want and will not receive 
-a civilization nominally Christian, but really as heathen 
as that of India. It is true that this attitude of missions 
and missionaries has been gradually changing, but enough 
of the old spirit still remains to constitute an effective 
barrier between Jesus and the heart of India. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

And we must always remember that the progress of 
missions is not to be measured by statistics. On all forms 
of Indian life the teaching of Jesus has laid its hand and 
made itself felt. It is not fair to gauge the attitude of 
India toward Jesus by its attitude toward organized Chris- 
tianity. Many are today converts to Jesus who are bitter 
opponents to Christianity ; ten, perhaps a hundred, derive 
their inspiration from his life and words, for each one 
whom our missionaries can count as a " convert." Our 
practises in worship, our forms of organization, our theo- 
logical " systems " do not constitute Christianity and are 
not essential to it, though many have come so to consider 
them. The essential thing is the life and character that 
Jesus taught and exemplified. Intelligent Hindus are 
coming to see that they can accept Jesus without accept- 
ing " Christianity," as we of the West understand it ; and 
in that fact lies the chief hope of the progress of the 
religion of Jesus in that country. 

Attitude of the Educated Men 

A great change had come over India in consequence of 
Christian missions and Western education. It is easy to 
trace a notable increase in the spirit of philanthropy and 
consequent efforts toward .social reform. This is not 
avowedly Christian, but that it is directly due to Christian 
influence cannot be doubted; for, so long as Hinduism 
was left to itself, it developed in an opposite direction. 
India before Carey and India today may justly be re- 
garded as two different countries. This new cult of 
mercy has made a great change in the character and life 
of the people, and the natural gentleness of the Indian 
mind has made the transition seem easy and natural. 
Missions have changed the whole social atmosphere of 
India, as candid Indians themselves recognize. 

Missions have also given Brahmins a different view of 


Missions in Northern India 

their own religion and quite altered its function. Loyal 
Hindus recognize the necessity of reform. Absorbed in 
philosophic speculations about God, Hinduism lost sight 
of duties toward man. It abandoned the world as hope- 
less. Now Hinduism recognizes that true worship of 
God is service of man. This is what has produced the 
various Somajs, an attempt to find a via media between 
Christianity and an ancient Hinduism, not large in fol- 
lowing, but having an immense leavening influence. They 
are all eclectic in doctrine and approach very nearly the 
Unitarian wing of Christianity. 

Missions have taught Hindus hew methods. In 1887 
a Hindu Tract Society was founded at Madras, to publish 
and circulate extracts from the sacred writings. It also 
issues polemic tracts against Christianity. A beginning 
has even been made in sending out preachers of Hindu- 
ism, to counteract the work of missionaries. But not all 
the new feeling aroused is hostile; many Hindu leaders 
are seeking means of accommodation with missionaries. 
A Unity Conference was held at Delhi in 1924, where 
Hindus, Mohammedans, and Christians considered seri- 
ously what can be done to promote unity of religious 
effort, especially in ending racial hatreds and feuds. Such 
a Conference is not to be valuated for its accomplishments 
merely, but for its significance. A gathering of that sort 
would have been impossible in the India of fifty years ago, 
possibly even a decade ago. 

Two sample cases will illustrate the present attitude 
of the educated leaders of India toward Christian mis- 
sions. In an address to a missionary gathering at Cal- 
cutta, in 1925, Gandhi spoke these weighty words: 

Noble as you are, you have isolated yourselves from the people 
you want to serve. . . The missionaries who come today to India, 
come under the shadow, or, if you like, the protection, of a temporal 
power, and it creates an impassable bar. . . I miss that receptiveness, 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

I miss that ability, that willingness on your part to identify yourself 
with the masses of India. . . Hinduism, as I find it, entirely satisfies 
my soul, fills my whole being. 

Gandhi speaks for a vast number of Indians who see in 
the current Christianity ideals they do not love, a promise 
they do not desire, and a force that will inevitably pul- 
verize their institutions and substitute a new civilization 
for an older that they esteem more highly. The irre- 
sistible force is meeting the immovable body in India. 
Which will conquer ? 

The other case is that of Doctor Radhakrishnan, King 
George Professor of Philosophy in Calcutta University, 
who addressed a body of Christian missionaries in 1925 
in these words : 1 

Hinduism forbids compulsion in religious matters. It recognizes 
that the Supreme is one, though he has many names ; that he has no 
special favorites; that all men in a true sense are his children; that 
his inspiration is not confined to any age or race; that his inspira- 
tion is larger than any book or set of books; and that he has raised 
up teachers and saints in all lands. . . 

I own that there are gross imperfections which justify the most 
bitter criticisms ever made against it [Hinduism]. If this were a 
Hindu audience, I would deal at length with the curse of untouch-* 
ability, the prejudice of caste, the rigors of the social code, the 
excessive emphasis on ceremonial piety, and the exaggerated impor- 
tance attaching to trivialities which are associated with Hinduism 
and which draw into disgrace the whole institution. . . 

Respect for other people's faith, which has been a marked feature 
of Hinduism, is responsible for the Hindu attitude toward Jesus 
Christ. While the Hindu is willing to regard Jesus as a striking 
character, revealing some of the divine attributes, he hesitates to 
accept Jesus as the one unique revelation of God, bringing out 'the 
divine glory in all its fulness for all time. Such a kind of exclusive 
Mediatorship and final revelation is inconsistent with the whole 
tradition of Hinduism. . . 

If you devote less of your time, energy, and fervor to preaching 
and polemic, and direct all your tremendous power to the practise 
of love, you will help to deepen and elevate the religious life of the 
Indian people. Your task is not so much to make Christians as to 
purify, or Christianize, if that term is more acceptable to you, Hin- 

*The Christian Century, December 3, 1925, p. 1520. 

[ 58 ] 

Missions in Northern India 

duism, so as to make more real the central principles of love, non- 
resistance, service, and self-surrender, which are as much Hindu as 

A missionary once asked a group of Mohammedans how 
Christianity could be made more appealing. The answer 
was, " Be Christians." Another said : " Practise your re- 
ligion without adulterating it or watering it down ; prac- 
tise it in its rugged simplicity, and emphasize love, as love 
is central in Christianity." 

Some By-products of Missions 

Missions have done much to raise the standard of living 
and to improve the economic condition of Indians. The 
LMS has perhaps done most to introduce industries 
among the women. The lace industry in Travancore, be- 
gun more than a hundred years ago, now employs over 
2,000 workers. Later embroidery was added, and now 
employs from 2,000 to 3,000. The workers are carefully 
selected from the Christian women, and the result is to 
make the places where they work like popular clubs, in the 
moral and social standing they give members. To be 
employed, one must be at least sixteen years old and have 
a good primary education. The women work in big, 
clean, airy halls; and have clean, tidy clothes and hair. 
They not only support themselves, but carry on about one- 
fourth of the LMS work in Travancore. 

For men, improved methods of agriculture, and the in- 
troduction of improved modern implements, have done 
much. Some of the more costly of these are coopera- 
tively owned; others are bought by the well-to-do and 
rented to the poorer by the day. But taking India as a 
whole, precarious rains result in about two good seasons 
out of ten, and at least one total failure. What India 
needs is water, and as nature does not supply enough of 
this is in the form of rainfall, its progress depends on 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

irrigation. The years immediately following the great 
war were a period of economic distress such as had never 
been known by missionaries or Government officials. 
More people died of famine and influenza than were killed 
in the war on both sides, yet the rest of the world was 
comparatively unmoved by this awful sacrifice of human 

Prospects of Indian Missions 

There is much therefore to encourage, as well as some- 
thing to discourage one who surveys the whole field and 
attempts a rational forecast of the future. The forma- 
tion of a Court of Arbitration at the Madras Missionary 
Conference of 1902 promises to prevent for the future 
those breaches of the principle of " comity " that have in 
the past often been scandalous. Some missions have 
bribed promising natives to desert their own society by 
offering higher position and larger salary; others have 
received to posts of honor men under discipline by another 
religious body; a few have invaded the field of an estab- 
lished mission and made proselytes of converts gained by 
years of hard work by a mission earlier on the ground. 
Such things cannot but discredit Christian ethics in the 
view of all Indians. 

Famines and the plague have greatly hampered mis- 
sionary work since 1900. Repeated failure of monsoons 
and harvests caused great distress, in spite of all govern- 
ment and private relief. Cholera and dysentery were also 
continuous evils, for, though medical science and hygiene 
can practically control these two diseases* the ignorance 
and obstinacy of the Hindu people make such control 
always difficult and frequently impossible. Nevertheless, 
progress is making from decade to decade. 

From what we have gathered, it is evident that the 
progress of Indian missions hinges on the question 


Missions in Northern India 

whether missionaries will have the insight to comprehend 
and the courage to face the actual situation. There must 
be a change both of objective and of method, if any great 
progress of Christianity is to be expected. Hitherto, an 
Indian convert has been asked not merely to change his 
religion a thing serious enough in itself but to re- 
nounce the ancient civilization in which he has been bred, 
and to accept in its stead a different standard of life, an 
alien civilization, in his eyes certainly no higher than his 
own. The objective of missions, not always definitely 
stated, but none the less really controlling has been to 
make the Indian into a European or American Christian. 
We must see clearly that if he is to be a Christian at all, 
he must be an Indian Christian. Our efforts have been 
misdirected, in consequence of the fact, which has often 
been hidden from ourselves but very clear to the Indian, 
that this civilization which we have demanded the Orien- 
tal shall accept as part and parcel of Christianity is only 
imperfectly Christian. Christianity has much influenced 
Western civilization, it is true, but it has never succeeded 
in conquering and directing it. The basis of Western 
civilization is the old civilization of Greece and Rome, 
and its potent forces are pagan, not Christian. The at- 
tempt to force Western civilization on the East cannot 
too soon cease to be a part of the missionary objective. It 
is wrong in the first place and doomed to failure in the 

A change of method is also imperative. In all the 
Orient, in India markedly, the family is the social unit, 
not the individual. Every member of the family is closely 
bound to the rest ; to act merely as an individual is con- 
trary to his whole training and mores; it destroys the 
family harmony and may eventually bring dishonor upon 
it. Probably the chief obstacle to the progress of Chris- 
tianity among these peoples has been its persistent appeal 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

to individual action, its ignoring of the fact that Jesus 
taught a social religion. It has not only violated the race 
traditions and social training of India, but has been un- 
faithful to its own fundamental nature. The chief sig- 
nificance of mass movements toward Christianity, from 
the missionary point of view, is that they offer an escape 
from this dilemma they make acceptance of Christianity 
by the individual Indian consistent with his traditional 
social methods; he can become a Christian without a 
break-up of his whole social organization. 

India probably can never be Christianized in the sense 
that We have been accustomed to attach to that term ; 
that is, there is no rational prospect that the Indian people 
can be induced to accept Western civilization as insepara- 
ble from the gospel of Jesus. If missions persist in treat- 
ing them as inseparable, the gospel will be rejected by 
India as a whole ; we shall continue indefinitely to make 
fewer converts every year than the number of heathen 
children born. But there is rational prospect that Indians 
can be persuaded to accept Jesus and his teaching as the 
norm of life, to incorporate the gospel with the best and 
most congruous parts of their native religion, free that 
from its comparatively modern accretions and corrup- 
tions, and work out for themselves a theology and an 
organization of their own. In other words, an Indian 
Christianity is possible, that shall be just as valid and 
quite as valuable, as the Judseo-Greco-Roman-Christianity 
that we have inherited and have regarded as the only pos- 
sible form. Have the Indian peoples the ability to do 
this? One evidence that they have such ability is found 
in the fact that they are already working out a native 
hymnody, both words and music their own the latter 
closely related to their native folk-songs and better 
adapted to express their religious emotions than melodies 
borrowed from Europe and America. Let us not despair 


Missions in Northern India 

of the future of those to whom the Asiatic Jesus stands 
closer as a man than to us Western people. 


What first interested Europeans in missions? Who 
first preached the gospel in India? When and how did 
English Baptists begin their Indian mission ? Who were 
the first missionaries? How did the British rulers re- 
gard this work? How did the missionaries maintain 
themselves ? Who were sent to reenf orce them ? Where 
was the mission finally located ? What was accomplished 
there? Describe Carey's work. Who was the first con- 
vert ? What did Carey do for the circulation of the Bible ? 
What has been done since Carey's time? How has this 
affected the progress of missions ? What calamity befell 
the mission ? Did Carey's work have much influence on 
European Christians? Describe the work of some of 
the new societies. Who was Henry Martyn and what did 
he do? Bishop Heber? What was the great work of 
Alexander Duff? Name some of its results. Describe 
the educational system of the Indian government. How 
does it affect missions? How far is English spoken in 
India? What are some of the defects of Indian educa- 
tion? Where have English Baptists chiefly labored? 
With what success? Have they entered any other field? 
How does Serampore college rank ? Where is the Amer- 
ican Baptist mission in northern India ? How did we come 
into this field? Among what people has there been great- 
est success? Why is this mission very important? What 
is done for industrial education? How would you rank 
the Balasore school ? What other schools in this mission ? 
Who was Ramabai? How did she become a missionary? 
What was her unique work ? How did medical missions 
begin in India? Are they much needed? Are they an 

F [ 63 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

effective missionary agency? Why should we sustain 
them? How many missionary societies are at work in 
India ? What is the numerical measure of their success ? 
Is there any better measure? If so, what? Should there 
be greater unity among Indian Christians ? Are we justi- 
fied in feeling superior to the Indian people ? What evi- 
dence is there of Christian progress? How do educated 
Indians regard their own religion and Christianity ? What 
do some of them say about Christian missions? How 
far are they right? What are some of the obstacles to 
the progress of Christianity ? What is the probable future 
of Indian missions? Can India be Christianized? Do 
you agree with what the author says ? If not, why not ? 


Beach, Harlan P., India and Christian Opportunity. New 
York, 1905. 

Butler, Clementina, Pandita Ramabai Sarasvati. New 
York, 1922. 

Carey, S. Pearce, William Carey. London, 1924. 

Cowan, Mina G., Education of Women in India. New 
York, 1912. 

Fuller, Mrs. Marcus B., The Wrongs of Indian Woman- 
hood. New York, 1900. 

Holcomb, Helen H., Men of Might in Indian Missions: 
New York, 1901. 

Jones, E. Stanley, The Christ of the Indian Road. New 
York, 1926. 

Marshman, John Clark, Life of Carey, Marshman, and 
Ward. New York, 1867. 

Paton, William, Alexander Duff, Pioneer of Missionary 
Education. London, 1923. 


Missions in Northern India 

Price, Maurice T., Christian Missions and Oriental Civil- 
isations. Shanghai, 1924. 

Ramabai, Pandita, The High Caste Hindu Woman. 
New York, 1901. 

Richter, Julius, A History of Missions in India. New 
York, 1908. 

Smith, George, William Carey. London, 1888. 
Henry Martyn. New York, 1892. 
The Conversion of India. New York, 1892. 

Year-Bo ok of Indian Missions f 1912 (edited by John J. 
Jones). No place or date of publication stated. 




Country and People 

The Telugu country is in southern Hindustan, and 
Madras may be regarded as its center; its extent is 73,728 
square miles. It is mostly flat, but a range of hills or low 
mountains bounds it on the west, known as the Eastern 
Ghats, the highest peak of which is 3,600 feet. Secun- 
derabad is 2,000 feet above sea-level, while Nellore is only 
60 feet. The average temperature of the Nellore district 
is 82, but sometimes it rises to 110; the average rain- 
fall is from 30 to 40 inches. In this district there are 
30,000,000 people, of whom two-thirds are Telugus. 
Other missions are of course to be found here, but by 
" missionary comity " Baptists are recognized as respon- 
sible for the evangelization of 6,000,000 people. 

Most ethnologists hold the Telugus to be of Dravidian 
stock, but some maintain that they are of Scythian 
origin ; at any rate, they are not Mongolian. Most of them 
do Q$ belong to any of the four great castes, or even to 
any of their derivatives, but are " outcastes " ; yet even 
among them there are distinctions and subdivisions. One 
of their peculiarities is that they will not merely eat flesh, 
but animals that have died a natural death and are 
esteemed carrion by other peoples. They live in villages 
and have a patriarchal and clan system that makes them 
susceptible to mass movements. 

Nellore and the Early Years 

The Telugu mission had an early history more ro- 
mantic than that of any other Baptist field. It was begun 


The Telugu Mission 

in 1836, a year of remarkable expansion of Baptist mis- 
sions, as those to Assam, China, and Bengal were begun 
the same year. Rev. Amos Sutton, of the English Baptist 
Mission, in that memorable visit to the United States as a 
result of which the Free Baptists began their work in 
Bengal, made an appeal to the constituency of the AB 
M U on behalf of the hitherto neglected Telugus. As a 
result, Rev. S. S. Day and E. E. Abbott, with their wives, 
were sent out and a mission was begun in Madras. Mr. 
Day made repeated and extensive tours into the Telugu 
country, and finally selected Nellore as the best site for a 
permanent station. Work was begun there in 1840. Nel- 
lore is not a large city (about 30,000), but is well situated 
on the Pennar River, about 16 miles from the coast and 
107 miles north of Madras. Here the first convert was 
baptized September 27, 1841, and a Telugu church was 
organized October 12, 1844. 

Mr. Day was obliged to return home, and five fruitless 
years followed, so that in 1846 the Board was inclined to 
abandon the field, but finally returned the Days and added 
Rev. Lyman Jewett and wife. Again followed apparently 
fruitless years, and at the annual meeting of the Mission- 
ary Union in 1855 abandonment of the mission was once 
more proposed and seemed likely to carry. A speech by 
Edward Bright, corresponding secretary of the Board, 
and a poem on the " Lone Star " mission by Samuel A. 
Smith turned the scale, and it was decided to continue 
and reenforce the work. In 1862 the comparative non- 
success of the mission again brought up the question of 
discontinuance. Doctor Jewett, who was present, said: 
" You can give up the Telugu mission, but I will never 
abandon the Telugus. I will go back to India and die 
there." Whereupon one of the secretaries responded: 
" Well, brother, if you return to die in India, we must 
send somebody to give you Christian burial." So the 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

mission was continued and again reenforced, and in due 
time the faith and courage of these pioneers received its 
reward. But as late as the early seventies there was mis- 
giving regarding the wisdom of this policy, and not a few 
Baptists regarded abandonment of the Telugu field as 
the wiser course. 

The work at Nellore prospered greatly after Rev. David 
Downie and wife went out in 1873. Doctor Downie's 
services to this mission have been of inestimable value. 
Aside from his evangelism, he showed unusual capacity 
for detail and for many years served the field as its trea- 
surer, with marked fidelity and efficiency. Not the least of 
his achievements was the writing of a history of the 
Telugu mission, which ranks among the most valuable 
books of its class. His labors have been prolonged far 
beyond the usual lifetime of a missionary, so that when 
past eighty he was still a worker and continued with the 
mission until 1927. 

The records of the Nellore church show that over 
40,000 converts have been baptized into its fellowship, 
and its influence has been felt in all the region. Educa- 
tional work has been as successful as evangelism, and 
both are models of what a Christian mission should be. 
The value of the missionary plant has also remarkably 
increased. A new chapel that would accommodate 500 
people was built in 1880. Later Chambers Hall was 
erected; it is used for English services on Sundays, and 
has attached to it a library, reading-room, and tract de- 
partment. These mile-stones along the way illustrate 
the progress that has been making in this field and hint 
at the scope and variety of the work. Besides all other 
features, Nellore is the center of a large evangelizing 
activity, through a district containing hundreds of native 
villages, in nearly all of which a group of native Chris- 
tians may be found. 


The Telugu Mission 

Clough and Ongole 

The great achievement of the Telugu Mission followed 
the establishment of the Ongole station in 1866. Ongole 
was a small town, of not more than 6,000 people, 182 
miles north of Madras, but important as the headquar- 
ters of the administrative district. Three trunk roads 
spread out from this point and make a large field acces- 
sible; so the strategic value of the location was unusual. 
Mr. Clough was a native of the Middle West and graduate 
of an Iowa college, after which he had some years of 
experience as a surveyor, in which he learned to handle 
large gangs of men. This fitted him for his future work 
better than any seminary course could have done. When 
he presented himself as a candidate before the Board, he 
did not make a wholly favorable impression. Among 
other questions he was asked, " What if the Board does 
not appoint you ? " "I must find some other way," was 
the reply. It was characteristic of the man ; Clough was 
always finding " some other way," and always reaching 
his objectives. 

We can perhaps read between the lines of his own story, 
as told in his posthumously published book, Social Chris- 
tianity in the Orient, some regret on Clough's part that 
he lacked a seminary training. Possibly some seminary 
graduates among his colleagues (missionaries are but 
human after all) were sometimes a trifle airy and made 
him feel his technical deficiency. But a seminary training 
might have spoiled a man like Clough ; educational institu- 
tions, with their necessarily standardized methods, are 
quite the thing for the ordinary man, but are always at a 
loss when they have to do with a genius. Genius cannot 
be standardized, and Clough was a missionary genius. 
His native sense had not been atrophied by Baptist scho- 
lasticism, and he was able to see truth that had been 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

hidden from most missionaries that Western forms of 
civilization are not necessarily adapted to an Eastern com- 
munity. He got a better vision of the kingdom of God, 
as Jesus proclaimed it, and what that implied about the 
individual life and the social organization of Indians, 
than any other Christian missionary of his generation. 
He and his work are unique in the annals of Christian 

The faith and prayer and hard labor that had for a 
generation been put into the Telugu field was now due to 
bear fruit. A church was formed at Ongole January i, 
1867, and shortly after this a meeting was held in a neigh- 
boring village, and 28 were baptized. Until now it had 
seemed that the Brahmins and other high castes of the 
region might be favorably disposed toward the gospel, but 
now and afterward it was the outcaste Madigas that fur- 
nished the converts. The Madigas are a primitive tribe 
who are leather workers by occupation, a calling that was 
pollution to a Brahmin. If these were received, the Brah- 
mins would be repelled. But Doctor Clough did not 
hesitate long. While turning the matter over in his mind, 
he opened a new copy of the Telugu New Testament and 
his eye fell on these words : " For you see your calling, 
brethren, that not many are wise after the flesh, not many 
mighty, not many noble." He was not superstitious, he 
did not believe in sortilege, yet these words irresistibly 
suggested the solution of his problem. He received the 
Madigas ; the Brahmins fell away. The work went for- 
ward slowly for a time; a chapel was dedicated October 
13, 1868, and a baptismal pool in the open air witnessed 
the baptism of 42 on August i, 1869. 

The largest ingathering in this field came in 1878. The 
preceding year had been one of drought and famine, and 
the Government had come to the relief of the people with 
public works. Mr. Clough took a contract for a portion 


The Telugu Mission 

of one of the canals that were dug, and thus gave em- 
ployment and food to thousands of Telugus who must 
otherwise have starved. This practical demonstration of 
the meaning of Christianity won the hearts of the Telugu 
people once for all, and for the rest of his life Doctor 
Clough had their confidence as no other man could gain 
it. In his later years, the more superstitious among them 
lacked little of worshiping him as a god. Converts flocked 
into Ongole asking for baptism, and after due examina- 
tion, on July 3, 1878, in one day 2,222 were baptized. 
The additions continued through summer and fall " nine 
thousand in six weeks, a new Pentecost." Nothing like 
this had been known in the history of missions since the 
baptisms of Clovis and Vladimir, and not even Clough 
understood at the time its real significance. In other 
years since then this record has been nearly equaled, but 
never surpassed. In 1895 there were 5,725 baptisms on 
the entire Telugu field; and in 1925 there were 6,700 re- 
ported. It has remained until now our most fruitful mis- 
sion. Soon the Ongole church came to number 18,000 
members the largest Christian church in the world. In 
all, more than 40,000 have been baptized there and the 
present membership of the church is over 10,000. 

Mass Movements and Their Dangers 

This was the first experience of missionaries with those 
mass movements that seem characteristic of Indian peo- 
ples, and it is still the most extensive of them. In recent 
years, however, there have been others, notably in the 
Punjab, where the work had also been largely among 
Dravidians. In 1895, there are said to have been 4,000 
converts in this region, who had increased to 37,000 by 
1891, and in 1911 to 163,000. Methodists and Presby- 
terians have been most successful here, and have adopted 
the policy of " speedy baptisms," instead of catechetical 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

instruction from one to three years before baptism, which 
has been the policy in the Baptist missions. The motivat- 
ing desires of these mass movements are largely economic 
and social, by no means purely religious ; hence caution in 
the reception of candidates who profess conversion seems 
unusually needful. 

Doctor Clough had an interesting and instructive, but 
hopeful, experience with his Madigas. They were told 
that on becoming Christians they must observe three 
rules : Do no work on Sunday; do not eat carrion; do not 
worship idols. Each of these commands arrayed them 
against their social order, and together they called for 
complete social readjustment. Village life had to be re- 
constructed on this new Christian basis. Refusal to work 
on Sunday could be managed, but the matter of food was 
seriouSj. Cattle are not slaughtered in India ; consequently 
only those that die of disease or old age can be eaten, 
and only the Madigas would eat these. The Madigas 
had important functions in the pagan religious ceremonies, 
and their refusal to take their part upset everything. 
They finally won the right to live according to their new 
religious ideas; but Doctor Clough encouraged them to 
retain as many of their Hindu manners and customs as 
were not incompatible with Christianity, and himself 
largely adopted Indian ways. He did much to promote 
the industrial development of the Madigas and to raise 
their scale of living. He proved that Christianity can 
elevate a race without a complete break with their former 

Progress in This Field 

It is is impossible to tell within our limits the detailed 
story of all the stations in the Telugu field or to mention 
the service of all the missionaries. Some outstanding 
facts will give a good idea of the whole. Rev. W. W. 


The Telugu Mission 

Campbell and wife came with Doctor Clough on his 
return from furlough in January, 1874; and after learn- 
ing the language at Ongole they went to Secunderabad. 
Mr. Campbell's work there continued for over eleven 
years, and then, in broken health, he returned to the 
United States, where he died in November, 1893. In the 
autumn of 1875 Rev. A. Loughridge and wife joined the 
mission, and in 1879 established themselves at Hanuma- 
konda, where in six years he created an excellent plant 
and a flourishing mission. Rev. E. Chute opened a new 
station at Mahbubnagar and worked there thirty-five 

Two stations are worthy of special mention. The Kur- 
nool station is one of the most interesting in Asiatic mis- 
sions. Several converts were made in this locality in 
1875 and a deputation came to Doctor Clough as&ifag that 
a preacher be sent them. He and Rev. D. H. Drake 
visited Kurnool, a town of 30,000 people, about 160 miles 
from Ongole baptized 26 converts and organized a 
church. The following year Mr. Drake removed to Kur- 
nool ; the making of converts and organizing of churches 
proceeded rapidly. A mission house was built in 1882, 
a suitable place of worship in 1893. At the present time 
three evangelists and 76 teachers are maintained wholly 
by funds raised on this field an object-lesson in self-sup- 
port that deserves wide imitation. If the Orient demands 
its own form of Christianity, as seems to be the case, it 
must be prepared to undertake its maintenance. So long 
as it depends on the West for maintenance it cannot escape 
other forms of dependence. 

In 1919 the Kandukur station was handed over to the 
Telugu Baptist Home Mission Society, which assumed 
responsibility for prosecuting the work. The churches 
of this entire field are making earnest efforts at self-sup- 
port, under the general charge of a graduate of the Rama- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

patnam theological school ; and the success of this experi- 
ment should encourage the Society, and the native 
churches that support it, to undertake responsibility for 
other stations in the near future. Telugu Christians are 
taking the first steps in independence, and the result will 
be watched with much interest. 

In the Telugu field, but in no way competing with the 
Baptist work, English Wesleyan missionaries are labor- 
ing with good results. There are also some American 
Mennonites, and their churches unite with the Deccan 
Association and the Telugu Baptist Convention. Our 
A B F M S was able to save this Mennonite work from 
destruction during the late war, when the British suspicion 
of everything German virtually halted their work until 
peace was concluded. They had at that time three sta- 
tions, ^4 missionaries, and 4,131 members. 

Educational Work 

The need of a trained native ministry was early felt in 
the Telugu field, and soon after Rev. A. V. Timpany 
opened a new station at Ramapatnam, half-way between 
Nellore and Ongole, a theological school was begun there. 
Rev. A. A. Newhall was sent out in 1876 and became an 
instructor, as well as an efficient evangelist in the region. 
But the chief work in establishing the school fell to Rev. 
R. R. Williams, who went out in 1870 and soon assumed 
its direction, making it one of the first rank on our mis- 
sion fields. He had been a carpenter and was well fitted 
to supervise the construction of its buildings. The chief 
of these, a fine edifice of brown stone and teak, was com- 
pleted in 1884. The Seminary's jubilee was celebrated in 
1925, at which it was reported that it has given instruc- 
tion to 1,448 students, and 480 of these are now in active 
service in our Baptist missions, besides 84 in missions 
carried on by others. It had in the jubilee year 114 


The Telugu Mission 

students. Incidentally, Doctor Williams did much for 
the industrial education of the Telugus. He introduced 
the first American plow into the region, and helped the 
natives to make their agriculture more productive and 

Miss Emma Rauschenbusch was sent out in 1883 and 
took charge of the boys' school at Ongole, as well as the 
Bible-women's work, both of which were highly success- 
ful under her direction. Later she became the wife of 
Doctor Clough, without relinquishment of her work, and 
she survived him. A high school at Ongole established 
by the Cloughs has proved one of the greatest assets of 
the Telugu field. The need of a suitable building was 
great, but the Missionary Board had no available funds ; 
so Doctor Clough obtained leave of absence and made a 
tour of American Baptist churches, which promptly re- 
sponded with special contributions for this purpose. Many 
still living vividly remember this visit and the remark- 
able story he had to tell of his work among the Telugus. 
This school now has a faculty of thirteen and about 250 
students in annual attendance, of whom nearly one-half 
are Christians, while there are 87 Brahmins among them. 
Graduates are eligible for entrance into the University of 
Madras. For a time the experiment was tried of a col- 
legiate department, affiliated with the University, but that 
has been abandoned. For the higher education, under 
distinctly Christian influences, Telugus now rely on the 
Madras Christian College, on the faculty of which Bap- 
tists have a representative. This is esteemed one of the 
finest institutions of its kind in India. 

At Nellore the Bucknell Industrial school was added 
to the missionary forces, with a new and commodious 
building, in 1886; and in 1904 a high school for boys, 
that the Free Church had begun as early as 1840, was 
turned over to the Baptist mission. A new building was 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

erected in 1911, at a cost of $10,000; and the institution 
has since been known as the Coles-Ackerman Memorial. 
There is also at Nellore a high school for girls, the Gurley 
Memorial, with about 90 students, who on graduation 
pursue studies either at Madras University or the Chris- 
tian College. Some of the higher officials of the town 
are now sending their daughters to this school, which 
marks a great change in the attitude of the higher castes 
toward both education and our mission. 

At Kurnool there is a high school for boys, with an 
enrolment of 250. It is housed in substantial stone build- 
ings and is known as the Coles-Ackerman Memorial. It 
has an efficient industrial department, with a carpentry 
shop and weaver's shed; and a farm of 60 acres is con- 
ducted by the pupils. Besides adequate instruction in 
soils and cropping, the boys are taught scientific care of 
cattle, and get new ideas of what sleek, healthy cows can 
be very different from the lean, scraggy animals that 
Indians imagine to be cows. At Kurnool is also the 
Emelie S. Coles school for girls, which occupies a fine 
building of gray stone, in which is a dormitory for girls 
who live out of town. 

Not only educated ministers but educated laymen are 
demanded on mission fields, no less than at home. The 
government schools provide these, to a certain extent, but 
there are demands that these schools cannot meet. Train- 
ing-schools to prepare native Christians for various forms 
of work are a necessity, and the Telugu field has several 
of these. Two normal schools, or training-schools for 
mistresses, as they are called, do a much needed work in 
furnishing Christian teachers. A normal department is 
maintained in several of the girls' high schools, that at 
Nellore being specially active and useful. At Bapatla has 
recently been begun a normal school to prepare Telugu 
men to be teachers. It already has 250 students, and a 


The Telugu Mission 

Model School is maintained along with it for practise 
work. It is the only school of the kind in South India; 
but further north, at Jangaon, is another normal school 
for men, which has also been recently established and 
is thus far sorely lacking in equipment, but nevertheless 
deserves to be called the Tuskegee of the Deccan. It is 
known as Preston Institute. 

The effort to establish elementary schools in the vil- 
lages, demanded by Christian people for their children, is 
attended with much difficulty; but this type of school is 
growing as fast as teachers can be had and natives are 
prepared to give adequate support. 

The Telugu mission was perhaps the first among 
Baptist fields to recognize the importance of industrial 
work and to make provision for it. Great impetus has 
been given to industrial and vocational training in the last 
few years. Carpentry, blacksmithing, and woodworking 
are chiefly taught to the boys, while lace-making, knitting, 
cooking, and housekeeping are useful subjects for the 
girls. Agriculture is taught in some cases, mainly through 
school gardens, as at Ongole. Much progress is both pos- 
sible and probable along these lines in the near future, and 
it is already one of the most helpful and hopeful features 
of Indian missions. 

As a result of this educational work, the Telugu coun- 
try now has an educated Christian laity; and a Telugu 
Baptist Laymen's Movement, organized at Markapur in 
1923, has as its avowed object promotion of self-support 
among the Telugu churches. Only through self-support 
can they reach self-government and independence, as they 

Circulation of Christian Literature 

This might well be regarded as part of the educational 
work of missions. Much attention has been given to it 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

in the Telugu field. A mission press was set up at Rama- 
patnam in one of the Seminary buildings, and Doctor 
Jewett's version of the New Testament in Telugu was 
printed here. A press was also maintained for a time at 
Ongole, but both these have been transferred to Bezwada, 
and conducted by the Telugu Baptist Publication Society, 
formed in i8J8. A depot for books is here, in connection 
with the Bezwada church, in a building erected in 1914. 
Here is printed the Telugu Baptist, which was begun in 
1876. The Telugu missionaries also publish the Baptist 
Missionary Review, a monthly magazine that would be 
regarded as of high grade anywhere, representing and 
circulating in all India, including Burma and Assam. 
Circulation of the Telugu Scriptures is an important part 
of mission work that is proving increasingly fruitful. 
Colporters and Bible-women are kindly received as they 
go about, and more Gospels can now be sold, in spite of 
lately enhanced prices, than could be given away a few 
years ago. It is probable that many readers become 
secret Christians, who are not prepared to break caste by 
openly joining a Christian church. 

Medical Missions 

Medical work on the Telugu field was begun in 1890 
by Ida Faye, M. D. (afterward Mrs. Levering). A new 
hospital for women and children was opened at Nellore 
in iJT7- Perhaps the most notable work of this kind is 
that at Udayagiri, a jungle district fifty miles from a 
railway. There, in a little mud hut, thirty-five years ago 
a hospital was begun that has grown into the Etta Water- 
bury Memorial. It has been in charge of M. Grant 
Stait, M. D., wife of Rev. T. W. Stait. People come to 
this hospital from fifty miles for treatment, and hun- 
dreds of lives have been saved. The living standards of 
the entire community have been raised, so that British 


The Telugu Mission 

officials are amazed at the change that has come over 
the people. Doctor Stait was awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind 
medal in 1925, in recognition of her " distinguished public 
service in India" the sixteenth Baptist missionary to 
receive this honor. 

The Clough Memorial Hospital at Ongole now com- 
prises a group of 25 buildings, constructed of gray stone 
and red brick, set in a compound of 23 acres, surrounded 
by a stone wall, and is one of the finest plants in the In- 
dian missions. Many of the mission hospitals are very 
inadequately equipped have no running water, no elec- 
tricity, little up-to-date apparatus. In spite of these handi- 
caps, they are doing a remarkably good work. But the 
Clough Memorial has recently been equipped with elec- 
tricity, X-ray apparatus, and other facilities that make 
favorable comparison with our best American hospitals. 
It is the only adequate hospital for 600,000 people. The 
hospital proper has over 500 patients a year, but through 
its dispensaries over 16,000 treatments are given an- 
nually. Clinics are held in many places, in villages from 
25 to 35 miles distant from Ongole, which greatly extends 
the usefulness of this admirable institution. J. S. Tim- 
pany, M. D., went out in 189$, and shortly after began 
a hospital work at Hanumakonda, where he and his wife 
have done a work of great humanitarian and missionary 
significance. Doctor Timpany has spent two furloughs 
in making intensive studies of surgery at the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, of New York, thus keeping 
himself abreast of the best practise of his art. A building 
,. known as the Victoria Memorial has recently been erected 
for this work and now ministers to a great population. 
There has been a marked change in the attitude of the 
caste people to the medical missionary; he is received 
gladly into the best homes, and not only are his profes- 
sional ministrations welcomed but his gospel message, if 

G [79] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

not accepted, is respectfully heard. After a service of 
over thirty years, Doctor Timpany was honorably retired 
by the Board, but he loves India and its people and has 
returned to practise his profession there, with headquar- 
ters at Secunderabad. He also has received honors from 
the government of India. This official recognition of the 
work of our medical missionaries is significant chiefly as 
showing the present attitude of the British officials to our 
missions so different from that of a century ago. Four 
other hospitals are maintained at as many stations, and 
the only limit to the possibilities of this form of mission- 
ary effort is that set by lack of funds and equipment. 
All who are acquainted with medical missions unite in 
testifying to the evangelizing efficiency of the work; few 
native patients are uninfluenced by the gospel, though not 
all become professed converts. 

There is a woman's hospital at Nellore, doing an ex- 
cellent work. The Baptist women of New England have 
just given it a jubilee gift of a new dispensary building. 
This institution reaches and helps 9,000 women and chil- 
dren every year. In connection with this hospital a train- 
ing-school for nurses has been begun, in which 18 young 
women are receiving instruction. Adequately trained 
nurses are one of India's greatest needs today. A chief 
difficulty in supplying this need is that throughout the 
Orient the work of a nurse is considered degrading for 
a woman; hence only those who are, like Paul, con- 
strained by the love of Jesus can bring themselves to 
undertake this form of service, or discern the real beauty 
of it. 

Indian women physicians are also greatly needed. A 
Union Medical Missions School was opened at Vellore in 
1918 by Dr. Vida Scudder, to train Indian women for 
medical service. It is supported by several Boards. Drs. 
Jessie and Bessie Findlay, graduates of Manitoba Uni- 


The Telugu Mission 

versity and appointees of the C F M B, are Baptist rep- 
resentatives in its faculty. 

Canadian Baptist Missions 

Baptist churches began to be established in Nova Scotia 
from 1778 and onward, and in Ontario from 1796. As 
the churches increased in numbers, Associations were 
formed, and then Conventions, one for the Maritime 
Provinces, one for Ontario and Quebec, a later one for 
the Western Provinces. All -had missionary Boards, 
which since 1911 have been united in the Canadian For- 
eign Missionary Board, while for other forms of work 
the Conventions retain their separate organizations. The 
first foreign missionary from Canada was Rev. R. E. 
Burpee, sent out to Burma in 1845 by the Maritime Bap- 
tists. For some time they cooperated with the A B M U, 
and in 1868 organized an auxiliary society for that pur- 
pose. Rev. A. V. Timpany was designated for service in 
1867, and two years later Rev. John McLaurin. Both 
were accepted by the A B M U and sent to reenf orce the 
Telugu field. Other missionaries were designated by the 
Maritime auxiliary and began a mission to the Karens 
in Siam. 

In 1874 the Ontario Board began an independent mis- 
sion to the Telugus, and Messrs. Timpany and McLaurin 
transferred their services to this mission, which was 
begun at Cocanada, a town of some 20,000 people, at the 
mouth of the Godavari River about 200 miles to the north 
of our Ongole field. The Maritime society promptly 
decided to unite their forces with those of the Ontario 
Board, and transferred their missionaries from Siam to 
the Telugu country. From Cocanada the work pro- 
gressed northward, and the field of the Canadian Board 
now consists of a strip of territory along the eastern shore 
of the Hindustan peninsula, some 400 miles in length and 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

an average of thirty miles wide, occupied by a population 
of more than 4,000,000. In this field they have 22 mis- 
sion centers and a staff of nearly 100 workers, with more 
than 1,000 Indian colleagues. There are 92 churches in 
connection with these stations, with a membership of 
18,833, a S am f IO P er cent - m ten years. Meetings 
are held in 544 places and more than 2,000 were baptized 
in 1924. There are 694 Sunday schools, with over 16,000 
pupils; and 452 village day-schools, with 13,891 pupils, 
nearly half of whom are Christians. 

This is the mission's contribution to primary educa- 
tion ; its secondary schools are even more significant. The 
McLaurin High School, at Cocanada, is the finest of 
these; its building cost $25,000, and is thoroughly modern 
in equipment. Daily Bible instruction is a part of the 
curriculum. Another high school at Vizagapatam was 
taken over from the LMS, and has now nearly 1,000 
students. The Bible is taught every day here also. The 
Timpany Memorial is a free school for European and 
Anglo-Indian children the only Protestant school of 
this type between Madras and Calcutta. A normal school 
is maintained at Cocanada in connection with the high 
school. In addition, the CFMB has been cooperating 
in support of the Theological Seminary at Ramapatnam, 
where its native ministers receive their training. Before 
1920 they had a school of their own at Cocanada, but 
there were obvious advantages in uniting the two schools. 
It is hoped in the near future to remove the institution to 
Bezwada, where 4t will be in the center of the Telugu 
country. In 1925 there were 36 students of the Canadian 
mission in the seminary. 

Medical work is maintained at nine of the stations, by 
means of seven hospitals and 14 dispensaries. There are 
eight qualified physicians and seven European nurses; 
and at the Pithapuram hospital a training-school for 


The Telugu Mission 

nurses has been instituted, in which 17 candidates were 
undergoing training in 1925. The Harris Memorial Hos- 
pital at Akidu has 3,000 patients a year; Dr. Pearl Chute 
is in her twenty-ninth year of service here. In all, 2,709 
were inmates of the hospital in 1925, and a total of 91,166 
treatments were given. Two homes for lepers should be 
reckoned with the medical work; they care for 175 unfor- 
tunate victims of this dread disease. More than 1,000 
persons have been inmates of these homes, and 400 of 
these became converts. Among those baptized have been 
several high-caste people. 

The jubilee of the mission was celebrated April 7-9, 
1924. The mission had grown from a single station to 
more than 20, with 80 churches on the field and over 
17,000 members, besides 400 schools, giving Christian 
education to 12,000 boys and girls. There were 1,000 
native workers in the field, and 36 young men were in 
training for the ministry. This mission has probably 
made more impression on the four principal castes of 
India than any other. 

English Baptist Mission 

The strict Baptists of England, then a separate body, 
began a mission in 1861 among the Tamils of the Madras 
Presidency. There are now two Tamil Baptist churches, 
with 140 members. A zenana work is carried on in the 
city of Madras and is perhaps the chief distinctive feature 
of this mission. Work has also been done in the Salem 
district, where there is one church of 23 members. Some 
attempt has been made to evangelize the Kolli Hills, but 
so far with little apparent success. 

Future Prospects 

In some parts of the field, the Madigas have practically 
all been gathered in, but this is not true of the Telugu 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

mission as a whole. There are over a million outcastes 
yet unreached in the mission area, as well as nearly 5,000,- 
ooo caste people from whom as yet only a few converts 
have been won. Considering the great mass movements 
that have already occurred among them, and that no pride 
of religion or caste holds them back, the forecast is 
reasonable that an active, persistent evangelizing of these 
Madigas would win all of them within the next genera- 
tion. The only limit to the possible harvest would seem 
to be our ability to go in and reap. There are hopeful 
indications also that more rapid progress among the caste 
people may henceforth be hoped for, and that the Telugu 
mission will continue to be the most fruitful of all. 

One need of the field is more local churches. The 
Ongole church numbers more than 10,000, and that at 
Nellore is as large. Several churches in the field have 
over 1,000 members. There are over 75,000 church- 
members in the Telugu field, and only 218 churches. Of 
these but 62 are self-supporting. Some of these churches 
contain members from many scattered villages, who have 
only occasional ministrations from traveling missionaries 
or native preachers. This is not favorable to their spir- 
itual welfare and is doing nothing for their development 
in self-government and self-support. The breaking up 
of these field churches, by organizing more village 
churches, is most desirable from every point of view, so 
that each may have its own pastor and deacons. 

Like the majority of Indian people, the Telugus live in 
villages, and each missionary has a large field under his 
supervision. The smallest of these is half the size of 
Rhode Island, and the larger fields are three times the 
size of that State. Population of fields runs from 82,000 
to 600,000. In this great mass of 6,000,000 people com- 
mitted to American Baptists to evangelize, the Christian 
community may be fairly estimated at 200,000. Though 


The Telugu Mission 

the work has thus far been mainly among the outcastes, 
and missions have only begun to touch the caste people, 
there are signs of favorable response among the Sudras, 
some of whom have been converted and baptized. Though 
the lowest of the four principal castes, the Sudras are 
economically the great middle class of India, the agri- 
culturists and artisans, the backbone of society. It would 
mark a great advance of the kingdom of God in India 
if the Sudras could be won by the gospel in considerable 
numbers, as now seems possible. 

Missionary " comity " is working fairly well in South 
India, but there have also been some steps toward Chris- 
tian unity. One of the notable results has been the for- 
mation of the South India United Church, by the coming 
together of churches founded by the United Free Church 
of Scotland, the Reformed Church in America, and the 
Congregational churches of the ABCFM. 

An Indian official of high rank is quoted as saying re- 
cently of the great change among the Telugus, " Their 
transformation has been nothing short of a miracle." 


Where is the Telugu country? What are its character- 
istics? Who are the Telugus? When and how did Bap- 
tists begin a mission among them? Can you tell the story 
of the " Lone Star " ? What can you say of the work 
atNellore? Why is Ongole an important station ? How 
was Doctor Clough prepared for his work? Did his 
labors at Ongole prosper? When was the largest ingath- 
ering and how did it come about? What is the sig- 
nificance of mass movements ? Are they desirable ? How 
did Clough deal with the Madigas ? What other stations 
were opened? What is worthy of note in the Kurnool 
station? Do you see anything remarkable in the Kan- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

dukur field? Are any other denominations working 
among the Telugus ? Who did most for the Seminary at 
Ramapatnam ? What has it accomplished ? Give an ac- 
count of the Ongole high school and its work. Tell some- 
thing about the Nellore schools. What is doing to supply 
lay workers? Is there provision for industrial educa- 
tion? What is doing to circulate Christian literature? 
What medical work is there in the Telugu mission? 
Describe the Clough Memorial Hospital. Also the Vic- 
toria Memorial. Is there a good medical college in South 
India? When did the Canadian Baptists begin a mis- 
sion? Who were their first workers? Where was the 
principal station ? How large is their special field ? What 
are they doing for education ? What relations obtain 
between the two missions? What future location has 
been selected for the Theological Seminary? What are 
they doing for medical work? What did their jubilee 
disclose? Are the prospects of the Telugu mission en- 
couraging? If so, why? What are some of the pressing 
needs? Is anything doing toward Christian unity? 


Clough, John E., Social Christianity in the Orient. New 
York, 1914. 

Downie, David, The Lone Star: History of the Telugu 
Mission. Philadelphia, 1893 > new e( ^- I 9 2 4- 

Baptist Missionary Review, especially volumes 20-30. 
Edited and contributed by missionaries to India, in- 
cluding Burma, and published by the Mission Press, 
Rangoon. Contains a great store of valuable matter. 



The Country and People 

Burma is a region 1,000 miles long and 600 wide, at 
the two extremes, with an area of 236,000 square miles, 
almost equal to Texas (265,896), and a population of 
13,000,000, about equal to the New England and Middle 
States combined. Less densely peopled than Hindustan 
or China, it still far surpasses anything in our experience. 
It is commonly divided into Upper and Lower Burma. 
Upper Burma is hilly to mountainous, rich in minerals; 
Lower Burma is a fertile plain. The Irawadi and its 
tributaries make a great waterway, which until lately has 
been the chief means of communication and transporta- 
tion, though now railways run along it to Mandalay and 
Bhamo, the principal cities of the north. The chief prod- 
ucts are rice, sugar-cane, tobacco and cigars, cotton, and 
indigo. Upper Burma produces tea and wheat, and in its 
forests teak and other valuable woods are found. 

Over 70 per cent, of the people get their living from 
the land. The average holding is 6^2 acres, while some 
2,750,000 have no land at all, and 2,000,000 acres out 
of 17,000,000 under cultivation are in the hands of large 
landowners. But a change is impending; Burma is more 
and more coming to be a mining, manufacturing, com- 
mercial country, much as European countries developed 
in the last century. A great variety of occupations, in- 
stead of simple farming, is opening to young people, and 
the scope and importance of training for these new call- 
ings is rapidly widening. 

The manufactures of Burma are growing in impor- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

tance, and include native cotton and silk fabrics, pottery, 
lacquer work, wood-carving, gold and silver plate and 
ornaments. Some modern iron-mills have been started, 
and ship-building is an industry by no means unimportant. 

Burma is one of the most cosmopolitan regions of 
Asia ; it is said that more than forty races are found there, 
speaking as many languages and dialects. The Burmese 
proper are of Indo-Chinese stock, some say with a mix- 
ture of Malay. Their language is monosyllabic, like the 
Chinese. Many centuries ago they acquired the art of 
writing and have a large literature. They are a quite 
literate people; most of them can read at least. The 
Burman civilization is not only very ancient, but high. 
The social position of women is good, far above their 
sisters in India proper or in China. Women have con- 
siderable freedom and monogamy mostly prevails, 
though concubines are allowed, mostly servants in the 
house (a la Abraham and Hagar) . The birthrate is high 
and the population is steadily increasing. The Burmese 
are a polite people, of high spirits, fond of amusements 
and especially devoted to the theater, which includes not 
only the drama proper, but adjuncts of music and 

When our missions in Burma began, the country was 
ruled by a king and council nominally, but practically was 
an absolute despotism. In 1886 King Theebaw's domains 
were annexed to India, but in 1897 Burma was again 
made a separate province with its own lieutenant-gov- 
ernor. The British conquest not only gave the country 
internal peace, but much social improvement. Laws were 
made more just and their administration both more cer- 
tain and more mild; barbarous punishments formerly 
in vogue have been abolished. The establishment of a 
general system of schools is also due to British initiative, 
though they are largely carried on by native administra- 


Missions to the Burmans 

tors and teachers. The general economic development 
of the region has also been greatly promoted by British 
occupation, not always to the advantage of the people. 
The suppression of bandits or dacoits was one of the 
first accomplishments of British officials, and life and 
property are now safer than they probably ever were in 
Burma before. 

Burma is evidently a country with a future; its great 
resources have only partially been exploited. It is a coun- 
try presenting problems to be solved; British occupation 
has done much but has not done everything. In particu- 
lar, there is a pressing immigration problem. Its rich soil 
has tempted thousands from overcrowded and poverty- 
stricken parts of Hindustan to migrate and settle there 
Telugus, Tamils, and others, more than a million of 
whom have come in the last few years. They bring a 
lower standard of living, and their competition with 
native labor is proving disastrous to the latter. A new 
missionary problem and opportunity is presented by this 
movement of population. 


Buddhism, one of the world's great missionary relig- 
ions, early made a conquest of Burma, and is the prevail- 
ing faith. More than 10,000,000 people profess it as their 
religion. The founder of Buddhism is known by several 
names. His personal name was Siddhartha (" he that suc- 
ceeds in his aim ") and his family name was Gotama. He 
was born about 557 B. C, son of the rajah of a small 
Indian province. He had the usual education and lived 
the usual life of an Indian prince till twenty-four years 
of age. He was happily married and had one child ; to all 
appearances he was destined to a fortunate life and reign. 
But he had been increasingly impressed with the universal 
misery, sickness, and death all about him, and his mind 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

became so occupied with the problems of life and destiny, 
that he finally forsook wife and wealth and station, and 
gave himself to a life of solitude and asceticism. This 
was the origin of another name by which he became 
widely known, Sakya-muni -Sakya being his tribal name 
and muni corresponding to the Greek monos, solitary; 
hence Sakya-muni is " the hermit of Sakya." 

Siddartha thus first sought a way of Salvation in the 
orthodox Indian fashion, as a fakir, begging his food, 
practising extreme austerities until he became satisfied 
that this was a vain quest. When thirty years of age, 
while sitting one day under a bo-tree (peepul, a species of 
fig) he had a revelation of the truth and became the 
Buddha, the Enlightened One not a proper name at 
first, though it has since become one, like Christ, the 
Anointed. Thenceforth he taught the way of life and 
gathered disciples about him until his death, in 477 B. C. 
Only a pure and strong soul, only a lofty personality, 
could have exerted an influence so indelible and compell- 
ing on his disciples and succeeding generations. That he 
was calm and fearless, mild and compassionate, eloquent 
and zealous, noble and winsome, is attested by all accounts 
and by the results of his life. 

Like Jesus, Siddhartha wrote nothing. His teachings 
were held in memory by his disciples and orally trans- 
ferred from one to another for generations before an at- 
tempt was made to commit them to writing. This makes 
it difficult to determine with any degree of certitude what 
were his original teachings and what are the accretions 
of tradition. We have only internal evidence to guide us. 
Not merely in what we may take to be the original teach- 
ings of its founder, but in its developed form, Buddhism 
has many curious and interesting resemblances to Chris- 
tianity. It evolved an official canon of sacred writings, 
made about 240 B. C., known as the Be-ta-gat. It evolved 


Missions to the Burmans 

an elaborate cult, a priesthood and hierarchy; and in 
Tibet, where it reached its fullest development, this cul- 
minates in a pope (called the Grand Lama) and a council 
corresponding to the College of Cardinals. Its altars, its 
priests, with their vestments and ritual and incense, are 
so strikingly like the Roman Catholic Church that when 
the earliest Roman missionaries first came in contact with 
Buddhism they maintained that the devil had preceded 
them and tried to counteract their labors by establishing 
a counterfeit Christianity. 


Siddhartha was the greatest heretic of his age and race, 
one of the most daring innovators who ever lived. He 
repudiated most of the ideas that men then held most 
sacred. He denied the inspiration of the Vedas, con- 
demned caste, rejected ritual, scorned sacrifice as inhuman 
and prayer as useless; and while he. thus cast into the 
rubbish heap all the dogmas of his day, he refused to set 
in their place dogmas of his own. The core of Buddhism 
seems to be its founder's teachings under four heads : 

Four SubKme Verities. 1. Pain is inseparable from existence. 

2. Pain is the result of desire, and misconduct through desire, in pre- 
vious existence or in this. 3. Escape from pain is possible only 
through Nirvana. 4. Nirvana can be attained only by self-renuncia- 

The Eightfold Way. 1. Right view. 2. Right judgment 3. Right 
language. 4. Right purpose. 5. Right profession. 6. Right applica- 
tion. 7. Right memory. 8. Right meditation. 

Five Prohibitions. 1. Thou shalt not kill. 2. Thou shalt not steal. 

3. Thou shalt not lie. 4. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 5. Thou 
shalt not get drunk. 

Six Virtues. 1. Charity. 2. Purity. 3. Patience. 4. Courage. 
5. Contemplation. 6. Knowledge. 

In its historical development, Buddhism departed as 
widely from the teachings of its founder as Christianity 
from the teachings of Jesus. more could not be said. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

One of the best features of the teaching of Siddhartha 
was his rejection of the debasing system of polytheism, 
idolatry, and caste that constituted the popular religion 
of India. He was like Jesus in that his teaching was not 
for a favored race or class, but for all mankind. But he 
was unlike Jesus, and more like Confucius, in that he did 
not really teach a religion, but an ethical philosophy. 
As to religion, he was atheistic, or at least agnostic. One 
of the ironies of history is the fact that the teacher who 
rejected all gods was himself exalted by his followers to 
be their God. Buddhism thus became a religion, in spite 
of its founder. 

Siddhartha took over bodily, as was natural, the three 
prime ideas of the Hinduism in which he had been bred, 
without ever questioning their truth: transmigration of 
souls, karma, and pantheism. His only God was the 
universe, the totality of things, and absorption into the 
essence of the universe, with consequent loss of personal 
identity a condition of calm repose, indifference to life 
or death, pleasure or pain was apparently what he meant 
by Nirvana. Cessation of the thinking, suffering self, of 
conscious existence, identification with the All, an impas- 
sive state of imperturbable tranquillity, eternal repose, 
seemed to him the highest conception of salvation. Not 
how to live in this world, as Jesus taught, but how to get 
rid of life, is Siddhartha's message. A later Buddhist 
catechism defines Nirvana as 

total cessation of changes; a perfect rest; the absence of desire, 
illusions, and sorrow; the total obliteration of everything that goes 
to make up the physical man. 

Yet his disciples tell us that Siddhartha refused to call 
Nirvana annihilation. The doctrine has close affiliation 
with that form of Christian mysticism known as Quietism 
taught by Molinos. 


Missions to the Burmans 

The Ethics of Buddhism 

There is much that is admirable in Buddhism and its 
founder, and the most effective approach to its devotees 
will be found in this point of view, rather than a hostile 
and polemic attitude. Siddhartha himself appears 
through the mists of centuries to have been one of the 
world's greatest and best. His charm of manner and 
patent goodness of character, to which all accounts testify, 
probably did more to win him followers than originality 
of teaching. And his doctrine, so far as we can gather it 
from the traditions, was the most pure, inspiring, and 
elevating of all the sages of the pre-Christian era. Jf,he 
did not attain to knowledge of the Fatherhood of God, 
he did proclaim the brotherhood of man. He, as well as 
Jesus, taught the victorious power of love. He said : 

A man who foolishly does me wrong I will return to him the pro- 
tection of my ungrudging love; the more evil comes from him, the 
more good shall come from me. 

Many of the maxims attributed to Siddhartha, if not in- 
disputably his, at least developed in the minds of his 
early disciples as the result of his influence ; and not a few 
of them are almost identical with words of Jesus, while 
others are worthy of him. 

The present reaps what the past has sown ; the future is the product 
of the present. 

Rituals have no efficacy; prayers are but vain words; incantations 
have no saving power. To abandon covetousness and lust, to become 
free from evil desires, to renounce hatred and ill-will, this is true 

Comprehension of the truth leads to Nirvana, but greater than all 
is loving kindness. 

We reach the immortal path only by acts of kindness, we perfect 
our souls only by love. 

That which is most needed is a loving heart. 

Not by hatred is hatred appeased; hatred is appeased by non- 
hatred this is the eternal law. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Do unto others as you would that they should do unto you. 

The fool who knows his foolishness may become wise; but the 
fool who thinks himself wise is a fool indeed. 

Overcome hatred by love; overcome evil by good; overcome lies 
by the truth. 

He who has in his heart the love of truth has drunk the water 
of immortality. 

Greater than the sacrifice of bullocks is the sacrifice of self. Blood 
has no cleansing power. Better than worshiping the gods is righteous- 
ness among men. 

The cleaving to self is continual dying, while abiding in the truth 
leads to Nirvana, which is life everlasting. 

Walk in the noble path of truth, that declares thy brother is the 
same as thou. Walk in the noble path of truth, and thou wilt under- 
stand that while there is death in self, there is immortality in truth. 1 

Buddhism is showing signs of recuperative power, and 
is again becoming a missionary religion.' It is adopting 
some of the features of Christianity that have been found 
most effective, such as Sunday schools and something re- 
sembling the YMCA. Public religious services, with 
readings from their sacred writings and a sermon ex- 
pounding the doctrines are among the new expedients. 
There is also a movement somewhat like the Reformation, 
an attempt to revive the earlier and purer teachings and 
to slough off the later corruptions of Buddhism. Bud- 
dhism is growing, more perhaps in China and Japan than 
in Burma, but everywhere, and missionaries are learning 
to meet it in a different spirit from that of earlier days. 
They find a more sympathetic contact with Buddhists not 
merely possible but imperative. They do not attack it 
but rather recognize its good and point out its deficiencies. 
Buddhism teaches goodness without God, existence with- 
out soul, immortality without conscious life, happiness 
without a heaven, salvation without a Saviour, redemp- 

1 This saying of a disciple of Buddha might have been written by a Christian 
missionary if he were Christian enough: " Unto us has our Father given two 
spiritual gifts. Of these the first is the virtue whereby we attain to his king- 
dom, and the second is the virtue whereby having so attained, we return into 
this world for the salvation of men. And this second virtue is called the Gift 
of Returning." Quoted by Fleming, Whither Bound in Missions, p. 30. 


Missions to the Burmans 

tion without a Redeemer, worship without rites. In all 
these things Christianity supplements Buddhism with ad- 
ditional truth, most of which can be tested and verified 
by experience. Above all, it both promises and gives 
motive power to help do what Buddha exhorts men to do 
without aid. 

While there are many apparent contacts of the teach- 
ing of Jesus and Siddhartha, there is a difference that is 
fundamental and vital : Siddhartha makes self -saving the 
chief goal, favors a low estimate of environment, para- 
lyzes initiative and progress, and utterly repudiates social 
responsibility. Jesus teaches the exact contrary : gives a 
reasonable estimate of environment, encourages initiative 
and progress, and insists on acceptance of social respon- 
sibilities as the prime condition of membership in his 
kingdom of God. The great thing is not self-renuncia- 
tion (asceticism), but renunciation of self, not one's own 
salvation the goal but the salvation of others, which will 
incidentally secure the salvation of self. It is true that 
Christian theologians and preachers have too often per- 
verted the teaching of Jesus into something indistinguish- 
able from that of Siddhartha, in their excessive emphasis 
upon individual salvation and their ignoring if not denial 
of social responsibilities. But the ideals of Jesus are plain 
enough to one who will read the Gospels with an open 
mind. . 

Beginning of Judson's Mission 

When Adoniram Judson and his wife reached Calcutta, 
they sought out the English Baptist missionaries and 
found a transient home at Serampore. By their baptism, 
which soon followed, they cut themselves off from the 
American Board which had sent them out, and the Baptist 
mission at Serampore gave them temporary assistance. 
Luther Rice, who arrived soon after, was also baptized, 

H [95] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

and it was decided that he should return to America and 
enlist the Baptist churches in the support of the Judsons. 
They began to cast about for a new field of labor, and 
their decision was influenced by the fact that Felix Carey, 
eldest son of William, had entered the service of the Bur- 
mese government and was residing in Rangoon as the 
elder Carey put it, " Felix is shriveled from a missionary 
to an ambassador." So the Judsons decided to go to 
Rangoon and begin a mission to the Burmese, which was 
formally constituted in 1814. 

The first task, of course, was to learn the language, 
in which great difficulties were encountered, owing to the 
lack of competent instruction and books. Judson had to 
make his own grammar and dictionary as he advanced, 
and published later the first books of this kind in the 
Burmese language. He said that he had learned more 
French in a few months than he was able to learn of 
Burmese in three years. By 1816, however, he had been 
able to translate the Gospel of Matthew, but it was not 
till the end of 1823 that he completed the New Testament, 
which was first printed in 1832 and the whole Bible fol- 
lowed in 1840. This was Doctor Judson's greatest 
achievement and remains his imperishable monument. 
By all competent authorities it is recognized as a master- 
piece of Bible translation, and with slight revisions re- 
mains the one Bible of the Burmese to this day. a 

Judson was not a mere translator; he was a devoted 
missionary, though for a considerable time little result 
followed his labors. A zayat or booth was opened in 
April, 1819, and the first Burtnan convert, Moung Nau, 
was baptized June 19. In November two more followed, 

* By cooperation with the B F B S a revision of Judson's version to adapt it 
to present usage was arranged (1914) so that it remains the standard Burmese 
Bible. Printing to be done by Baptist Mission Press for ten years. (There 
is also a version known as the Tun Nyein, which will probably soon be with- 
drawn from circulation.) Judson's version was made before the present better 
Greek texts were available, which is a chief reason for the revision. 


Missions to the Burmans 

so that a native church of three members was begun. One 
reason for slow progress was that the climate was found 
to be very trying for Americans, and one by one mission- 
aries sent to this field succumbed; while Doctor Judson 
himself was often incapacitated and had to take furloughs 
or sea-voyages to recuperate. These experiences of mis- 
sionaries and the progress of medical science and hygiene 
have taught successors to overcome most of these ob- 
stacles, and a tropical climate is no longer deadly in itself 
to those reared in a colder clime. 

At first the government was not unfavorable to Chris- 
tian missionaries. At an interview with him in Ava, the 
king listened to Judson's statement of their objects and 
efforts and seemed favorable. He continued to be at least 
neutral and permitted a new mission station to be opened 
in Ava, then the capital and royal residence. In 1819, 
however, a new king came to the throne, and his arro- 
gance and brutal tyranny brought on a war with the 
British, in which Rangoon was bombarded and captured 
by the British forces May 23, 1824. Judson and his col- 
league Dr. Jonathan Price were arrested on suspicion of 
being British spies and suffered a cruel imprisonment at 
Aungbinle (called in the older missionary literature Oung- 
penla). They were fastened to bamboo poles with heavy 
shackles, which kept them lying on their backs, were 
given no food or water and must have died but for the 
constant ministrations of Mrs. Judson. Doctor Judson 
bore the marks of the shackles to his latest day ; and Mrs. 
Judson died soon after, mainly in consequence of the 
hardships suffered at this time. A chapel now marks the 
site of this prison and near-by is a school for girls. 

As the British forces advanced and the king recognized 
his defeat, Judson and Price were released from prison to 
act as interpreters in the negotiations that followed. As 
a result of this war with the British, the Burman monarch 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

was required to pay a large indemnity and to cede to the 
East India Company a strip of territory along the Bay of 
Bengal, including the Tenasserim provinces, Arracan and 
Chittagong. Rangoon reverted for a time to the Bur- 

Doctor Judson's uncompleted MS. of the New Testa- 
ment in Burmese was almost miraculously preserved from 
destruction during this experience, as well as other valua- 
ble MSS. After his release and the end of the war, 
Amherst became the seat of British administration and 
the mission was removed to that place. Doctor Judson's 
Burmese Dictionary was published by the British Govern- 
ment, which recognized its value for all students of that 
language, and it is still, with his grammar, the chief help 
of those who have to learn Burmese. After the second 
war with the British (1852), Rangoon, Pegu, and all 
Southern Burma became British territory. The mission 
at Rangoon was reestablished the following year and has 
ever since remained the center of the Burman mission. A 
fine brick chapel was erected in 1859, and other buildings 
have followed, until one of the most extensive and valu- 
able plants on the foreign field has been the result. 

A marked impetus was given to the work in Burma, 
and in all other mission fields incidentally, by Doctor 
Judson's visit to America in 1845, where he was received 
with great and well-deserved honors. He returned to his 
work, but died in 1850 during a voyage undertaken for 
recuperation, and was buried at sea. It was better so, in 
view of the tendency of imperfectly converted heathen to 
deify their beloved teachers and make shrines of their 

The Mission Press at Rangoon 

One of the first reenforcements of the Judsons was 
Rev. George H. Hough, a practical printer ; he was able 


Missions to the Burmans 

to set up a press, with types obtained from Serampore, 
and so the mission printing and publishing business began 
at Moulmein in 1827. In 1829 Cephas Bennett, a layman 
and also a practical printer, joined the mission, bringing 
with him an American press and taking charge of the 
work thenceforth. The concern was moved from Moul- 
mein to Rangoon in 1862, and under direction of Mr. 
Bennett grew into a large and prosperous institution. As 
an auxiliary of the mission, it has proved invaluable. It 
has published great quantities of Bibles, New Testaments, 
and portions of Scripture; innumerable books and tracts 
that have been widely circulated ; and through this Chris- 
tian literature has made known the teachings of Jesus to 
an incalculable extent. An example of its work is this: 
In 1837 a tract was given to practically every Burman 
in Rangoon who could read, with the result that hundreds 
daily sought the missionaries to learn more about Jesus. 

From 1882 onward Mr. F. D. Phinney, another lay 
printer, had charge of the enterprise, which under his 
management grew into one of the great business institu- 
tions of Rangoon. A fine new building was completed in 
1905, and made this probably the best-equipped printing 
and publishing house in the Orient, certainly without a 
superior. Any American society or corporation might be 
proud of it. Some 60 or 70 compositors are employed, 
and among the recent additions to its equipment are two 
linotype machines for setting up matter in Burmese and 
Sgaw Karen. A new sales building has recently been 
built at Mandalay, said to be one of the handsomest in 
the city. The Press issues literature of many sorts in ten 
or more different languages. Since 1882 no appropria- 
tions have been' made by the Board for the Press, save 
for special purposes: a small sum was given toward the 
new building, and the linotype machines mentioned were 
given by American Baptists. With these exceptions the 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Press has not only been self-supporting for almost two 
generations, but from its profits is able to contribute con- 
siderable sums each year for the work of the mission at 
large. Mr. Phinney died toward the close of 1922, and 
his place has been taken by Mr. J. L. Snyder. 

There is not space to tell of the many accomplishments 
of the Press; a few instances must suffice. A new and 
smaller edition of the whole Burman Bible was printed 
in 1890; while as many as 390,000 tracts have been issued 
in a single year. Hymn-books, six monthly papers, one 
with a circulation of 12,800 copies, and school-books, 
Burmese and English, are among its numerous publica- 
tions. Printing is done for other of our Oriental stations, 
and job printing for Burmese business interests is now a 
profitable part of its activities. The books are sold at 
cost price very largely; missionaries have found, as our 
Bible societies long since discovered, that this is the 
best policy. A man will perhaps read a book that is pre- 
sented to him; but if he pays good money for it, he will 
almost certainly read it, to get the worth of his money, if 
for no other reason. 

Educational Work 

The educational work of the Burmese missions has 
been most important from the beginning. Naturally the 
training of a Christian ministry first engaged the atten- 
tion of missionaries, and a theological school for Bur- 
mans was begun at Moulmein in 1838, which now has an 
annual enrolment of about 50. A similar school for 
Karens opened in 1846 has about forty students. The 
value of these schools for the evangelization of Burma 
cannot be overestimated. Both are now located at Insein, 
a suburb of Rangoon. Though the Burman school was 
primarily intended, as its name implies, for Burman stu- 
dents, other races have been admitted, and it is said that 


Missions to tine Burmans 

sixteen different languages or dialects are spoken among 
its students. A new dormitory has lately been erected for 
this school. For the Karen school, in 1923, special gifts 
procured the construction of a gymnasium building with 
full equipment, in memory of D. A. W. Smith, who was 
for many years the head of the institution. Both these 
schools are now almost entirely supported by gifts of the 
native Christians of Burma. 

Later the necessity of an educated laity, as well as 
ministry, for the permanent strength of Christian 
churches in Burma led to the founding of Judson College 
in 1872. For a time it occupied a fine campus in Ahlone, 
a suburb of Rangoon, until it reached an enrolment of 
over 300 students annually, who represented five racial 
groups Burmese, Karens, Chinese, Indians, and Anglo- 
Indians. Sixty per cent, of these students become Chris- 
tians by graduation, and the rest are profoundly influenced 
in character and life. It has progressed in educational 
standing, as well as in size. From 1882 to 1894 it was 
affiliated as a high school with Calcutta University ; from 
1894 to 1909 it ranked as a Junior College; since 1909 it 
has had full collegiate rating. It was made a " constituent 
college " of the new Rangoon University, in the Act of 
Incorporation of 1916, and this gives it representation in 
the governing body of the university. A new campus, a 
tract of 400 acres overlooking the beautiful Kokine lake, 
has been secured for the university; and 63 acres have 
been allocated to Judson College. The Burman Govern- 
ment will pay half the expense of transferring the college 
to the new site as well as one-half the cost of salaries and 
maintenance, leaving $500,000 to be provided by Bap- 
tists. When this removal is accomplished, Judson Col- 
lege will have no superior among educational institutions 
in mission fields. It is the only Christian college in all 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Five institutions of high-school grade are maintained, 
two at Rangoon, two at Moulmein, and one at Mandalay. 
Gushing High School, on the Judson campus at Rangoon, 
has 800 boys in attendance. There are in addition 34 
other schools of secondary grade, in which 2,300 boys 
and i, 600 girls are receiving instruction, not to mention 
41 primary schools with 1,300 boys and 1,000 girls. An 
agricultural school at Pyinmana, 225 miles north of 
Rangoon, is one of the latest ventures and also one of 
the most significant, as it is training the youth in better 
methods of work, and making a worth-while contribution 
toward solving the problem of self-support for all the 
churches. The meaning of such a school will be better 
understood in the light of the fact that the greater part 
of the population of Burma is gathered in 50,000 villages 
and 80 per cent, of these are engaged in agriculture. 
They know next to nothing of scientific cultivation : such 
things as soils, fertilizers, pests, best methods of culture, 
use of machinery all these must be taught them by pre- 
cept and practise. Both gardening and field crops are 
taught. All students work 3^ hours each morning and 
so are enabled to support themselves. There are over 50 
students in the school now, and nine different languages 
are spoken among them. Nine-tenths of them are said 
to be already Christians or sons of Christians. The Gov- 
ernment takes great interest in this school/regarding it as 
an experiment on the success of which Burman agricul- 
ture largely depends for its future prosperity. 

Women's education has by no means been neglected. 
A school for girls was begun as early as 1867 by Miss 
Haswell at Moulmein, for which the Women's Mission- 
ary Society erected a building in 1872. The Kemendine 
Girls' High School and Normal School at Rangoon was 
begun in 1870 and the normal department was opened 
37 years ago. A kindergarten department has since 


Missions to the Burmans 

(1895) been added. Over 400 Burman girls are now 
receiving instruction here, from five European teachers 
and fourteen Burmese. The school supplies teachers to 
other denominations, particularly the Methodists. Nine 
girls of the last graduating class are taking college work. 
Two Bible schools for women, for Karens at Rangoon, 
and Burmese at Insein are making a valuable contribution 
to education and evangelism, by training some fifty 
women of six different races. 

In spite of decreased appropriations from the United 
States, the work of Christian education is prospering in 
Burma, largely owing to liberal Government aid, but still 
more to increased support from the field. Christian 
parents are displaying new anxiety for the education of 
their children and readiness to make sacrifices in order 
to secure it. New schools are opening every year, and the 
standards of the older institutions are being raised. Bud- 
dhists are giving money to Christian schools, in order that 
their children may be educated. The great need is for 
qualified native teachers and supervisors. No missionary 
wishes to be a school manager, but many are compelled 
to be. It should be noted also, as a missionary contribu- 
tion to Burman education, that teachers trained in our 
schools conduct under the British Government 855 
schools, with an enrolment of over 30,000 pupils, com- 
prising all grades from kindergarten up. 

The Deputation 

A serious check was given to educational work on all 
Baptist mission fields by the visit of the famous Deputa- 
tion, the first official visitation of the fields by a com- 
mittee of the Board. Missionaries are but human, and 
differences of judgment regarding missionary policy are 
to be expected. Sometimes, however, these develop con- 
flicts that are not expected, and such was the case in the 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Burman mission, from 1850 onward. The crisis was 
adjudged so acute by the Board, that in 1853 a Deputa- 
tion headed by the Foreign Secretary, was sent out to 
gather facts on the spot and compose the differences. 
The plan was not successful; the Deputation increased 
the troubles rather than diminished them, and transferred 
the trouble to the Board and the annual meeting of the 
Missionary Union. The result was the resignation of 
most of the officers and a reorganization of the Union, 
after which peace was gradually restored. The difficul- 
ties largely grew out of differences regarding the place of 
schools in mission work, the Board being strongly com- 
mitted to evangelization, as were some of the mission- 
aries, while the majority of the latter favored a large 
place for Christian education. Some of the findings of 
the Deputation were wiser than those relating to educa- 
tion. It deplored the policy the missionaries had pursued 
toward their native helpers, by putting them and keeping 
them in a secondary place. Only n out of 130 native 
workers were ordained ministers at the time of .their 
visit. A change of policy in this respect did take place. 
But the Deputation were very emphatic in declaring that 
schools should be subordinated to preaching. Schools 
are not a preparation for Christianity, but Christianity is 
the true preparation for schools. Unfortunately the 
Board and even the churches of the homeland in the main 
took the same view and for a generation or more evangel- 
ism was stressed as the chief missionary method. We are 
now reaping the reward of this narrow-minded policy; we 
have no adequate native ministry to do the work of evan- 
gelism, at the same time having discovered that none but 
a native ministry can do it effectively. 

This was the first experience of Baptists with the ten- 
dency of Boards to standardize and limit, and to be too 
conservative, possibly too despotic. Executives at home 


Missions to the Burmans 

must trust mainly to the judgment of the men on the field, 
who know their job as it cannot be known by men at 

Women in the Burma Mission 

In 1833 the first single woman was sent out, Miss 
Sarah Cummings. Her labors were brief but very 
efficient. Mrs. Ingalls, after the early death of her hus- 
band, continued her work at Thonze from 1868 onward 
with very great success. In her visits to the homeland, 
she did a work of almost equal importance, in giving mis- 
sionary lectures to our Baptist churches, which made 
many people for the first time acquainted with the extent 
and value of our Burman work. But the great achieve- 
ments of women in this mission begin with the organiza- 
tion of the Woman's Missionary Societies in 1871 at 
first one for the East and one for the West, which later 
were united in a single organization. Two schools have 
done a notable work in preparing young women for work 
under this society: the Baptist Training School of Chi- 
cago, established in 1881 ; and the Baptist Institute of 
Philadelphia, begun as the Baptist Training School in 
1892. Graduates of these schools are found on all our 
mission fields, besides those who are giving service equally 
valuable and equally missionary in the home fields. 

Medical Work 

Some of the early missionaries were physicians or 
had had some medical training and were able to mingle 
a work of healing with their evangelism. Later it was 
possible to establish hospitals for more systematic medical 
work. Six of these are now found on the field. These 
institutions are giving medical aid to 19,000 persons 
every year, but this makes hardly any visible impression 
on the misery of Burma, where it is estimated that 90 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

out of every 100 die without doctor or nurse. A much 
larger investment than American Baptists have yet made 
in medical missions would bring large returns in this 

In connection with this medical work of missions, it is 
interesting to note a valuable by-product : Dr. Ma Saw Sa, 
the only woman physician of the Burman race. She 
studied in Judson College, graduated in Arts at Calcutta, 
and then went to Dublin for her medical education, re- 
ceiving her diploma as M. D. from the Royal College of 
Physicians and Surgeons of that city. Though engaged 
in a large private practise in Rangoon, she is also one of 
the most active Christian workers of that city. 

Other Workers in Burma 

As American Baptists were first to establish a perma- 
nent mission in Burma, the principle of missionary comity 
has for the most part left them without interference there. 
That has imposed special obligation on us to prosecute 
the work with energy and persistence, which on the whole 
we have done. The work of other bodies has been mostly 
supplementary. The SPG opened a station at Rangoon 
in 1859, and have made it the center of the work to which 
that Society is peculiarly devoted, the circulation of Chris- 
tian literature and promotion of Christian education. Its 
work has been of high value and great importance. The 
MEC established a mission in 1878 especially for Euro- 
peans and Eurasians, neither of which classes was effec- 
tively evangelized by our missions. The W M S began 
at Mandalay in 1889 a remarkable educational work for 
native women. They have also an asylum for lepers. 
The Y M C A and Y W C A have also branches in Ran- 
goon and other cities that are doing a supplementary 
work of their own special kind among the young Bur- 
mese and other races. None of these agencies is attempt- 


Missions to the Burmans 

ing the same kind of work that our missions are doing, 
and their presence and success contribute valuable aid to 
all our work. 

Achievements and Prospects 

At the great Judson Centennial celebration, held at 
Rangoon, Moulmein, Mandalay, and Bassein, from De- 
cember 10, 1913, to January 4, 1914, most interesting 
results of a century's work were reported. 

Still the fruits seemed meager fewer than 4,000 Bur- 
mese Christians (the report for 1926 gives the number as 
5,621 ) . Other denominations practically leave this field to 
Baptists, but there are large sections that we have failed 
to occupy. These are not facts to encourage any spirit of 
boastfulness. On the other hand, as a result of Judson's 
going to Burma, the gospel has been given to ten different 
races; and among some of these far greater advance has 
been made than among the Burmese themselves. 

Barriers and difficulties have disappeared in a surpris- 
ing way. The annexation of Burma to India in 1886 
and the speedy pacification of the country made possible 
missionary operations on a much larger scale. A new 
constitution has recently been granted to Burma, with a 
separate provincial government, and more native partici- 
pation. Women now have the suffrage. The political 
and social advance of the people are distinctly favorable 
to the missionary enterprise. The work stands high in 
the eyes of the governing class, as is shown by the fact 
that many missionaries have received in recent years the 
Kaisar-i-Hind medal. 

On no field has there been greater progress in self- 
support and self-direction. There has been less unrest 
among the natives, Christian or pagan, than in India or 
China, and perhaps on that account more real achieve- 
ment. In 1925 the Wyingyan field was turned over to the 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Burma Evangelical Society, which assumes full respon- 
sibility for it hereafter. This marks a new epoch in 
Burman missions, and foretells the day when Christianity 
may be regarded as indigenous in that country. Before 
this, in 1923, the missionaries asked representatives from 
the Burmese, Karen, and Indian churches to participate 
in discussion of mission interests. The day is not far 
distant when American missionaries can and should con- 
fine themselves to training a native ministry and to ad- 
visory functions. 

A recent enterprise of great promise is a work among 
Eurasians, in English, at Rangoon, Moulmein, Mandalay, 
and Maymyo. This is an important undertaking among 
an unfortunate people, often mentally brilliant, often 
morally untrustworthy, not admitted to English society, 
and holding themselves aloof from natives. They suc- 
ceed in business, professions, and government service. 
Many are rich and influential. They might do much as 
Christians to forward the kingdom. 

And let us remember for all time Judson's great word 
when asked about the missionary outlook in Burma : 
" The prospects are as bright as the promises of God." 


What is the size of Burma? How many people live 
there? Can you name some of its products? What is 
your idea of the Burman people? Give an outline of 
recent Burman history. Has Burma any race problem? 
What is the religion of Burma? Who was Siddhartha? 
What other names has he? How did he come to be called 
Buddha? Does he resemble Jesus as a teacher? How 
does he differ from Jesus ? What are the chief points of 
Buddhism ? Is the religion now what Siddhartha taught ? 
What did he mean by Nirvana? Can you repeat some of 


Missions to the Burmans 

the ethical precepts of Buddhism? Are they like Chris- 
tian ethics? What is the great difference between the 
two? Has Buddhism its Reformation? Is it increasing 
or declining ? Why did the Judsons go to Burma ? What 
was Doctor Judson's great achievement? Was he a 
mere translator ? How did the king of Burma treat him ? 
What was the effect on Burma of the wars with the En- 
glish? How was our mission affected? What can you 
say of the Mission Press at Rangoon? What two men 
did most to develop it? How extensive is its work? 
What is doing to train native ministers ? Where is Jud- 
son College, and what is it doing? What secondary 
schools are connected with the Burman mission ? Is there 
any industrial education? What is doing for the educa- 
tion of women ? For medical education ? Who supports 
these schools ? What is meant by the Deputation? What 
did it accomplish? What have women done in mission 
work? Are there any hospitals connected with the mis- 
sion? Describe as many of them as you can. Who is 
the only woman physician among the Burmans? What 
other organizations are at work in Burma? Do you 
consider the prospects of Burman missions favorable? 
If so, why? Who are the Eurasians, and what is doing 
for them? 


Aiken, Charles Francis, The Dhamma of Gotama and the 

Gospel of Jesus, the Christ. Boston, 1900. 
Bunker, Alonzo, Soo Thah. New York, 1902. 

Centennial Celebration of the Founding of the Amer- 
ican Baptist Mission Press. Rangoon, 1914. 

Carus, Paul, The Gospel of Buddha, According to Old 
Records. Chicago, 1909. 

Cochrane, Henry Park, Among the Burmans. New 
York, 1904. 

[109] . 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Davids, T. W. Rhys, Early Buddhism. Chicago, 1908. 

Grant, C. M., Religions of the World, in Relation to 

Hackmann, H. F., Buddhism as a Religion. London, 

Judson Celebration in Burma, The. Rangoon, 1914. 

Judson, Edward, Life of Adoniram Judson. New York, 

Moore, G. F., History of Religions, Vol. I., pp. 79-92, 
Buddhism. New York, 1913. 



Who They Are 

The Karens are a Mongolian people, lighter in color 
than the Burmese, found in all parts of Burma, but espe- 
cially in the hilly uplands of central and upper Burma. 
Their language is monosyllabic, and the meaning of 
words depends on " tone " or pitch. For example, the 
monosyllable meh means tooth, tail, eye, sand, mole, bridal 
gift, according to the "tone" given it. Many Karens 
have become Buddhists, but they had a religion of their 
own, which is described as " a jumble of superstitions, 
without system or consistency." It is rather a religion of 
serving Satan than worshiping God. They have old 
traditions of the creation and fall, strikingly like the ac- 
counts of Genesis. Their name for God, K'sah Y'wah, is 
like Jehovah or Yahweh. Among their traditions was 
one that some day a white man would come to them in 
a ship with a book telling them of God. Those who know 
them best describe them as a mild, peaceable folk, truth- 
ful and honest, affectionate and industrious. Their chief 
vice is drunkenness, and to indulge in this they make an 
alcoholic drink from rice. They are quite different in 
mental and moral characteristics from the Burmese. A 
missionary who has known both peoples well thus dis- 
criminates between them : " The Burmese keep their best 
goods in the show window ; the Karens keep theirs mostly 
in the back of the shop." 

Doctor Judson became acquainted with the Karens 

i [HI] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

through Ko-Thah-Byu. The latter had been a bandit 
and is said to have been responsible for the death of 
thirty persons. Doctor Judson procured his release from 
slavery for a debt and thus gained his undying gratitude, 
and finally he became a Christian. Originally a stupid 
man with " a diabolical temper," according to Doctor 
Judson, he became a zealous Christian and later a success- 
ful preacher to his own people. 

Boardman's Pioneer Work 

George Dana Boardman was the first missionary to the 
Karens. He was appointed to the Burman mission in 
1825 and was first stationed at Moulmein, where 21 were 
baptized and organized into a church in the autumn of 
1828. It was here that Judson completed his translation 
of the Bible. In 1833 the converts formed a missionary 
society and sent out two native workers. A few years 
later there were eight preaching-stations clustered about 
Moulmein. In the meantime, Boardman had gone to 
Tavoy, with the approval of Judson. Tavoy is the capital 
of a province of the same name and was at that time a 
town of about 6,000. The baptism of Ko-Thah-Byu at- 
tracted attention to the Karens, and two others were soon 
after converted and baptized. These baptisms were ad- 
ministered by Rev. Francis Mason, who had come to reen- 
force the mission, Boardman looking on from his couch. 
Boardman lived to see 57 baptized in two months, dying 
February n, 1831. Ko was ordained January 4, 1829, 
and became " the apostle to the Karens " ; he not only 
traversed a large part of Burma, but went into Siam 
where many of his race had migrated. 

These early days were very difficult. The Karens were 
despised by the Burmese and fiercely persecuted. To own 
a book was a capital crime. Missionaries were compelled 
to hold meetings and baptize converts at night. Not until 


Other Missions in Burma 

after the second war with the English was this persecu- 
tion relaxed, and the Karens did not obtain complete im- 
munity until the annexation of Burma to India. 

Bible Work Among the Karens 

The arrival of Rev. Jonathan Wade, in 1835, marked 
a great advance of the Karen mission. Doctor Wade 
proved to be a remarkable linguist. Early in their labors 
missionaries discovered that there are two principal 
tribes of the Karens, speaking different dialects. The 
Sgaw Karens, with whom they first came in contact, are 
more civilized and at first were more accessible to the 
gospel. The Pwo Karens are a wilder tribe, a mountain 
people with a much lower civilization than the Burmese 
and accordingly despised by them. Considerably later, a 
third tribe was discovered, called the Bwe or " Red " 
Karens. None of these tribes had a written language; 
so one of the first tasks of the missionaries was to reduce 
their language to writing and give them the Scriptures 
in their own tongue. Doctor Wade was the leading per- 
sonage in this work. He devised a Karen alphabet and 
began translating the New Testament into Pwo. He also 
compiled a Karen grammar and a Thesaurus or lexicon 
in five volumes. One of his successors says that this 
work " is not surpassed to this day and deserves to rank 
as an encyclopedia." In 1837 he obtained fonts of type 
and set up a press, which was afterward removed to Ran- 
goon and merged in the publishing-house there. Another 
who rendered great service in this work was Dr. Francis 
Mason, who completed the Sgaw Bible in 1853, while Dr. 
D. L,. Drayton finished the Pwo Bible in 1883. Doctor 
Mason, besides being c.n indefatigable missionary, tour- 
ing the country and preaching the gospel in many regions 
untouched before, was a man of remarkable scientific 
attainments and made great additions to the knowledge 

[ 113 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

of the flora and fauna of Burma. Elisha Abbott is an- 
other name that stands out in the early annals of this mis- 
sion, as one who was in advance of his contemporaries 
in the advocacy of self-support. The Karens were taught 
to support not only their own churches but their schools 
as well. Another notable missionary of this period was 
Justus H. Vinton, and his wife was hardly less efficient 
than he. They gave not only themselves to the work, but 
two generations of Vintons who have followed them. 

Other Stations and Their Work 

A new station was opened at Bassein, as far west of 
Rangoon as Moulmein is east, in a district of 8,000 square 
miles and a population of 275,000 84,000 of them 
Karens in the hills. Rev. C. H. Carpenter came to this 
station in 1868 and did a great work there, making 
Bassein the center of Karen missions. Special stress was 
laid on self-support and education. A normal and indus- 
trial institute was founded and a seminary for women. 
In 1876 a Karen Home Mission Society was formed, 
which soon was supporting 19 evangelists. Two volun- 
teers were sent from these churches to the Kachins. In 
May, 1876, the Ko-Thah-Byu Memorial was dedicated to 
purposes of advanced education, the fiftieth anniversary 
of his baptism. 

Another important station was opened at Toungoo, in 
1853. Burma has three main rivers: the Irawadi, the 
largest, the Salwen well to the eastward, and the Sitang 
between the two. Toungoo is on the Sitang, a walled city 
with a large population, and a great trading center for all 
North Burma. Since 1866 it has been connected with 
Rangoon by steam navigation. Doctor Mason, at his 
own request, opened a station there in 1853, mainly for 
Karens. Satf Quala, a native convert, did much for this 
mission, with four native helpers. In the first year 741 


Other Missions in Burma 

were baptized and in less than two years 1,860 had 
been baptized and 28 churches organized. In 1856 a 
mission for Burmans was added. While here Doctor 
Mason translated the entire Bible into the Sgaw Karen 
dialect. There was, however, more dissension and trouble 
in this field than in any of the others, due to one mis- 
sionary who is described by a colleague as "opinionated, 
incompetent, and wrong-headed." Unfortunately, an 
utterly unqualified person does occasionally secure ap- 
pointment as a missionary, but errors of this sort are not 

Rev. Norman Harris began a mission at Shwegyin in 

1853, a town south of Toungoo on the Siting. During "v 
the first year here, 577 were baptized and six churches 
were organized. These churches and their successors 
were immediately trained in self-support. 

Henzada, a large town on the Irawadi, about 100 
miles north of Rangoon, became a mission station in 1853. 
It is a field where both Burmans and Karens have been 
reached and won. 

Another important station is Prome, on the Irawadi, 
170 miles north of Rangoon, the center of a population 
of at least 150,000. Doctor Judson spent three months 
there in 1830, but the mission station was not established 
until 1854. Both Karens and Burmese were converted 
here in considerable numbers, so that within a year there 
were four churches in the region, two of each race. A 
Kachin convert was made here, the first of his race, but 
the time for their evangelization was not yet. By 1867, 
after thirteen years of labor, 401 had been baptized; 48 
of these were English and the rest of various races. The 
schools established at Prome proved a great evangelizing 
agency. A Shan was here converted and baptized in 

1854, who afterward became an ardent missionary to his 
own people. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Educational and Medical Work 

In spite of the check given to educational work in this 
mission by the ill-advised action of the Deputation, it has 
gone on with accelerated development, especially in these 
later years. The primary schools are largely supervised 
and in part supported by the Government. There are 
about 700 of these in connection with mission stations, 
with an enrolment of 18,000. Of these, 150, with 4,000 
pupils, are in the Bassein field. Sixteen station schools of 
secondary grade carry the ambitious and competent a 
stage further; these have 2,500 enrolled. Several of them 
are especially, noteworthy : the Ko-Thah-Byu Memorial 
High School at Bassein, with 800 students ; the Kemen- 
dine School for girls at Rangoon, with 500; and the 
Morton Lane School for girls at Moulmein, with a strong 
normal department. Graduates of these schools may 
pursue their education in the Rangoon Baptist College; 
and at Insein is now located the theological seminary for 
Karens especially, with a faculty of two American and 
four native teachers and 125 students for the ministry. 

The Christians of Burma are beginning to carry on 
their educational work independently, as well as mission- 
ary propaganda. A new school building was erected and 
recently dedicated at Bassein, at a cost of $100,000, 
mainly borne by the Sgaw Karens. It contains 22 class- 
rooms, a library, and an auditorium that will seat 1,500. 
In all there are now 26 buildings in the compound, in- 
cluding a gymnasium, steam laundry, steam cooking- 
plant, a sawmill and a rice-mill, which by their income 
practically endow the school; and $35,000 additional en- 
dowment is invested in America for the school. Among 
other things, these facts indicate the increased apprecia- 
tion alike by missionaries and people of industrial educa- 
tion. Instruction in scientific agriculture will also do 


Other Missions in Burma 

great things for the Karens and other races of Burma in 
the years to come. 

Medical work has not had as large proportionate atten- 
tion in the Karen mission as in some others. One of the 
earliest women physicians to go to the Orient was Dr. 
Ellen Mitchell. She worked there thirty-six years, and 
most appropriately a new hospital building erected in 
1916 at Moulmein is named in her honor. It is a fine 
stone building, on the top of a hill, and has an excellent 
equipment and staff. In connection with the hospital a 
training-school for nurses has been opened, in which thir- 
teen women are preparing for this much-needed work. 

Review and Forecast 

On the whole, the Karen mission must be pronounced 
the most fruitful field of Baptists, next to the Telugus, 
yet not all expectations regarding it have been realized. 
There are as many self-supporting Karen churches pro- 
portionally as there are among American Baptists. 

While the early work among the Karens was very 
fruitful, after a time there came a reaction. Many re- 
turned to heathenism; for though the Karens were a 
moral people, as compared with most " heathen," they re- 
sented the high ethical standards of Christianity. False 
prophets among them also led many astray. In later 
years, the work has taken on fresh energy and success. 
Most of the Karen churches are now independent and 
receive no aid from mission funds. The older churches 
are building their own houses of worship, substantial 
buildings of brick, for the most part. The Karen Home 
Mission Society, formed in 1870 at Henzada, now sup- 
ports 13 men and 10 Bible-women, mostly in work among 
the Siamese. The work of the Carpenters at Bassein 
was epochal. They made this one of the model mission 
stations of the world. The region has 140 churches with 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

1 14,000 members. The entire plant of 25 buildings, with 
the exception of two residences, was erected without finan- 
cial aid from America. It includes a boarding-school of 
800 pupils, supported in part by endowment, but mainly 
by gifts from the field and the production labors of the 

There has been great improvement in the economic and 
social condition of the Karens, not all of which of course 
can be credited to Christian missions. Sawmills and 
other American machinery have been introduced, the 
standard of living has been raised, the people are more 
industrious, live in better houses, built of timber instead 
of bamboo. Karens used to say, " If you wash your 
clothes, a tiger will eat you," but they are learning clean- 
liness. Chewing betel is practically universal, not spe- 
cially harmful, but a filthy and disgusting habit. The 
Karens are an increasing people in the last decade hav- 
ing grown from two to twelve millions. The economic 
conditions are lately becoming harder for them, owing to 
the influx of Indians who have a lower standard of living. 
On the other hand, these have proved quite responsive 
to the gospel ; in five years Rev. W. H. Duff has baptized 
609 of these immigrants. A school has been opened for 
their children that has an attendance of 800. Perhaps 
there is no better summing up of the past, no more en- 
couraging augury for the future, than these words of 
Dr. Henry C. Mabie, written in 1902 : " There is in 
Burma today among the Karens alone, a community of at 
least 100,000 souls, pervaded by Christian sentiment. It 
is the best appreciated and most loyal element of native 
citizenship in British India." Whosoever wishes to cite 
an incontrovertible instance, to prove the value of 
Christian missions in the uplifting of an entire race, may 
point to the Karens without fear of confutation. 


Other Missions in Burma 


The Field 

Assam is a province of British India, lying between 
Hindustan and Burma, north of the Bay of Bengal. Its 
area is about 56,000 miles, approximately the same as 
that of Illinois, and it is a little more densely populated 
than that State. Baptists are responsible for more than 
three-fifths of its 7,000,000 people. Assam consists of 
the fertile valley of the Brahmaputra in the south, and of 
hilly country to the northward. The climate is very hot 
and the rainfall heavy. The tea industry is now the larg- 
est source of revenue, and 400,000 acres are under cultiva- 
tion as tea plantations. Cotton is also largely grown. 
The people are mostly illiterate and uncivilized, especially 
those of the hills. The religion is Hinduism of the most 
degraded type, but there are also many Mohammedans 
in the region. The Garos and Nagas in the hills, the 
fierce and bloodthirsty head-hunters, have- responded to 
the gospel better than the more civilized peoples of the 
south. There is good stuff in them, and many of them 
served valiantly in the late war. 

Bible Work in Assam 

Assam is one of our oldest mission fields. The mission 
was begun at the invitation of the English Commissioner 
at Gauhati, who promised Rs. 1,000 if missionaries would 
settle there, and an additional Rs. 1,000 for a printing- 
press. Rev. and Mrs. Nathan Brown and O. B. Cutter 
the latter a practical printer undertook to establish a 
mission at Sadiya. Doctor Brown proved to possess a 
genius for languages comparable to that of Carey. He 
began learning the Shan language, but, after making 
considerable progress, saw that there were few Shans 
in the district and then turned to Assamese. In the in- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

tervals of establishing a home in the wilderness by the 
labor of their own hands, he so far mastered Assamese 
that in little more than two years he was able to trans- 
late the Gospel of Matthew, and prepare eleven text-books 
for a girls' school that the, missionaries' wives had opened. 
Later he completed the New Testament in Assamese, and 
three editions of it were printed during his twenty years 
of service. His health was so impaired by the climate 
that he was then compelled to return to the United States ; 
but after recuperation was appointed one of our first mis- 
sionaries to Japan, where he made a version of the New 
Testament in Japanese. One of the monumental facts of 
the Assamese mission is the reduction to writing of six 
languages hitherto without an alphabet, the giving of a 
Christian literature to these six peoples, beginning with 
the Bible. This work is still going on. Dr. Ola Hanson 
has recently completed a version of the New Testament 
in Kachin, and has got as far as the prophets in the Old. 
Testament. In addition to this he has trained 40 native 
pastors and evangelists now at work. Translations into 
several different dialects of the Nagas are well advanced, 
most of the New Testament being completed. Ten dif- 
ferent races are said to be found in the province, and 
sixty-seven dialects are spoken. We measure the dif- 
ficulties of missions in Assam by these facts, and also the 
actual achievements of our missionaries. 

Not enough attention has been paid to the literary side 
of our mission work. In all the world, American mission- 
aries have been doing a civilizing work of the first order, 
in reducing spoken dialects to written form, in translating 
the Scriptures and other valuable literature into these ver- 
naculars, and preparing dictionaries, grammars, and text- 
books of all sorts that have been of the first rank and 
have been invaluable helps in all schools for the training 
of such people. The Government of India would have 


Other Missions in Burma 

been greatly handicapped in its educational system, had it 
not been for this assistance given by missionaries, among 
whom our own have been foremost, from Carey's day to 
our own. 

The mission press, first at Sadiya, later at Jaipur, and 
afterward at Sibsagor, was the center of this great work 
of printing and circulating this Christian literature. The 
practical printers who have gone out from time to time 
to our various missions, and trained a band of native 
workmen, have been some of our most effective mission- 
aries. Their quiet, faithful work should receive better 

Difficulties and Discouragements 

Assam proved a difficult field from the first. The 
climate is very trying for Europeans and Americans. 
The poverty and ignorance of the people constituted a 
barrier to the progress of the gospel. Mission stations 
were sometimes badly located and at others overwhelmed 
by misfortunes unforeseen and unpreventable. Sickness, 
wars, and a complication of troubles compelled the aban- 
donment of the first station at Sadiya in favor of Jaipur. 
In 1906 Sadiya was reoccupied and is now an important 
center of work among many tribes. Located on one of 
the main roads into Tibet,,it has a position of command- 
ing influence for the future progress of missions. Jaipur 
proved an ill-chosen post, and the mission there was trans- 
ferred to Sibsagor. Other stations since opened are at 
Jorhat and Tura s The work has grown, until there are 
now 13 centers, three theological schools with 61 students, 
a high school with enrolment of 124, nine other secondary 
schools with 1,094 pupils, and 249 primary schools with 
enrolment of 6,002. Six hospitals and dispensaries are 
maintained on this field. There are now reported 281 
churches, with 24,416 members. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

The BMS has a mission in Assam, with two main 
centers, 22 churches, and 2,192 members. It sustains a 
theological school, with 52 students, a high school, and 23 
elementary schools. 

Educational Work 

This has been most fruitful, especially in the secondary 
schools. At Jorhat, besides a Bible Training-school, there 
is a high school for boys, at which representatives from 
fifteen tribes are in attendance a feature characteristic 
of all schools in Assam and Burma, owing to the extraor- 
dinary mixture of races found there. Graduates of this 
school can pursue their studies at Cotton College, in 
Gauhati, a Government institution. Dr. and Mrs. W. E. 
Witter are doing valuable work among the students here, 
who come from all Assam. A new hostel has been built 
as a Christian home for these boys. In the Jorhat high 
school there is an industrial department that is giving 
practical training to about 100 boys, and this part of 
the work has the special approval of the Government. A 
boarding-school for girls at Nowgong is reaching daugh- 
ters of the upper classes among the Assamese. It did 
work so excellent, from 1911 onward, that the Govern- 
ment offered to erect a fine new school building, if a 
normal department were added. There are now over 
200 girls in this department, which is sending out well- 
prepared teachers. In 1920 there was an enrolment of 
270 day-pupils, of whom 87 were Hindus and 77 Moham- 
medans. A Hindu hostel was also given by the Govern- 
ment, in which girls of all castes live and work together. 
Industrial training is given, especially in weaving, an im- 
portant womanly accomplishment in Assam. A great re- 
vival originated in this school in 1906, in which not only 
many girls were won, but the influence went out into a 
large surrounding region, with most remarkable and per- 


Other Missions in Burma 

manent results on the communities. The Satrihari 
(garden of girls) school at Gauhati is one of the newer 
institutions, opened in 1915. It has a compound of 26 
acres on the outskirts of the town, arranged as a model 
Indian village, with schoolhouse, four cottages and other 
buildings, including a weaving-shed. Many Hindu girls 
from town and some Mohammedans are day-pupils. In 
the Government examinations the girls from this school 
do well. A native evangelist conducts a Sunday preach- 
ing service, and a Sunday school is held in the compound. 
The value of industrial education in our missions has 
been abundantly demonstrated by these schools. It pro- 
vides a way by which pupils can pay their way through 
school; it offers substitutes for employments of their 
former pagan life that are often unchristian in character; 
it helps those who become Christians to self-support and 
insures a better economic condition for their families ; it 
raises the standard of living and of morals and elevates 
entire communities. 


Work Among the Garos 

In the Western part of the province, about 400 miles 
from Sadiya, is a people so wild and barbarous that the 
Government officials thought it necessary to warn the 
missionaries of their danger when they first went among 
them. They speak a Tibeto-Burman language that had 
never been reduced to writing. Their jungle-covered 
hills were impenetrable by British troops, the secret lair 
of a savage and defiant race, of whom the people of the 
plains were in terror. Their houses were little more than 
one-room huts, their clothing slight, hardly more than 
a waist-cloth. They were intemperate, drinking large 
quantities of rice-beer, which was given even to babies; 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

they were also consumers of opium. There were about 
164,000 of these Garos, physically fit short, but lithe 
and muscular but spiritually backward, given to anim- 
ism, fetishism, and a host of superstitions. Doctor and 
Mrs. Stoddard began a mission among them in 1867 at 
Goalpara; later Tura became the chief station. The real 
work among the Garos, however, dates from the assign- 
ment to that mission of Rev. M. C. Mason and Elnathan 
Phillips, in 1874. 

Aside from their evangelism, the most important work 
of these two was the translation of the Bible into the 
Garo tongue, a work of unusual difficulty, not only be- 
cause they had to devise a written language, but because 
the Garos had so primitive religious ideas that there 
were no available words to convey to them Christian 
thought. They had the efficient help of Miss E. C. Bond. 
From 1902 Garo literature has been printed in Roman 
characters; and the Garos have themselves established a 
press and conduct it. The Government has aided in the 
publication of dictionaries and other books, and the Bible 
Translation Society of London and the Victoria 
Memorial Fund have aided in Bible circulation, so that 
Scriptures can be sold for the mere cost of printing and 
binding. The Christian Literature Society of India has 
published for the Garos a grammar, arithmetic, and other 

A ^Marvelous Change 

In little more than a generation, the Garo country has 
been transformed from a dense jungle, largely inhabited 
by elephants, tigers, and wild hogs, into a civilized land, 
with fine churches, schools, and bungalows. Up to 1919 
there had been 12,046 baptisms among the Garos, and 
the work is continuously fruitful. The Garo Association 
in 1923 took over their own mission and other fields in 


Other Missions in Burma 

Assam that the ABFMS had to abandon for lack of 
funds. They appointed a special evangelist to surpervise 
the work. The missionaries from the first established 
schools, and since 1878 the English Government has 
turned over to the Baptist missions all the school work 
among the hill-tribes, contributing liberally to its support. 
These schools have been an invaluable evangelizing and 
civilizing agency, and a large proportion of their pupils 
have been converted and baptized. Some 70 schools are 
now maintained, with an enrolment of 1,380 boys and 
675 girls. In one of the best of them, a missionary lately 
reported that of 237 pupils only 14 left the school uncon- 
verted. A school at Tura from 1905 was classed by the 
Government as a Middle School, and in 1910 Govern- 
ment scholarships were awarded to qualified boys to take 
high-school education elsewhere. The Garos are now 
establishing a high school of their own at Tura and financ- 
ing it themselves. Some progress has been made in in- 
dustrial and agricultural training also. The missionaries 
have imported trees and seeds to diversify the products of 
the district, and while there have been some failures, 
there have been more successes. Boards have been unac- 
countably slow to perceive the importance of this feature 
of mission work. Some one has well said, " Building up 
a people in self-reliance is far better than coddling them, 
though sometimes even in mission work the latter method 
seems the more popular." 

Medical work among the Garos has not been neglected. 
Dr. G. G. Crozier, who took his medical degree at the 
University of Michigan, went out in 1900; he has built 
a good hospital and made his work largely self-sustaining. 

The Nagas 

At the eastern end of Assam is another hill-people 
known as the Nagas, just about as wild and savage as the 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Garos. Four tribes of them, speaking different dialects, 
do not make missionary work any easier, especially as 
their customs and traditions are as different as their 
speech. Kohima is the center of operations among them, 
5,000 feet above sea-level and fifty miles from the rail- 
way. There are about 40,000 Angami Nagas surround- 
ing this station. Another is located at Kari, also on the 
top of a hill, among the Ao Nagas. Some of these people 
come to church wrapped in blankets, with bare feet. 
Many of their houses are shingled with Standard Oil tins. 
They are gradually yielding to the civilizing influences of 
the gospel, their conditions of living are improving, their 
children are being instructed in schools. For forty years, 
Rev. S. W. Rivenburg, M. D., with such equipment as 
he could scrape together, did a great work as medical 
missionary among this people. 

Mission to the Shans 

The Shans are a wild, uncivilized hill-people, mostly in 
the northeast provinces of Burma, but extending into 
China on the one hand and into Assam on the other, 
through a district 900 miles long and 400 broad. They 
are believed to number some 7,000,000 people. The first 
missionary among them was Rev. Moses H. Bixby, ap- 
pointed in 1 86 1, after some experience as missionary 
among the Burmans. He opened a station at Toungoo, 
and for some years this was headquarters for the work 
among the Shans. The first baptism of a Shan convert 
occurred in September, 1862, and in the same month a 
church was formed of nine members. Three years later 
there were three churches, with 102 members, 10 chapels, 
and 10 native workers, besides a training-school for 
native workers. Rev. J. N. Gushing and wife joined the 
mission in 1867, and the following year ill health com- 
pelled Doctor Bixby to return to his native land. He 


Other Missions in Burma 

never recovered sufficiently to dare the Burman climate 
again, but his later years were usefully spent as pastor 
of an important church in Providence, R. I. In 1871 the 
Gospel of Matthew was printed in the Shan language, 
and the whole Bible in 1891. In the making of this ver- 
sion Doctor Gushing bore the larger part ; and in addition 
made a Shan grammar and compiled a dictionary tfhat was 
of great assistance to later missionaries in learning the 
language. It is worthy of note that Mrs. Gushing gave 
her later years to the Baptist Training School of Philadel- 
phia (now the Baptist Institute) of which she was the 
first preceptress. 

The early promise of the Shan field was not at once 
fulfilled, and there followed two or three decades in which 
little progress seemed at times to be made. The Shan 
stations at present are Bhamo, Kentung, and Taunggyi. 
The church and school at the latter place have but few 
Shans, but a conglomeration of races and tongues hardly 
to be matched elsewhere, even in India. 

The Kachins 

The Kachins are a virile, but wild and savage people, 
allied to the Chinese. From 65,000 to 100,000 of them 
are found in Burma, and as many more in China. They 
are a hill-people and are pressing the Shans southward. 
Shy and suspicious of strangers, they are not easily won. 
A new mission to these people was established at Bhamo 
in 1877, some 800 miles north of Rangoon, and other 
stations have since been opened. When the missionaries 
began their work, the Kachins were brigands, illiterate, 
lawless ; the women were little more than beasts of burden. 
Now there is a church of over 1,000 members and Chris- 
tian services are held in 41 villages. The language has 
been reduced to writing, the Bible translated, grammar, 
dictionary, and school-books printed, schools founded. 

K [127] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

More than 1,500 Kachins are now literate. The mis- 
sionaries and the schools have been the sole factor in the 
making of this great change. One obstacle to rapid prog- 
ress is the inertia of the Kachins ; they are pleased to have 
others converted, but regard that as the missionary's job, 
and it is hard to make them feel personal responsibility 
for the progress of the gospel. 

Another wild tribe, called Chins, live in the mountain- 
ous regions between lower Bengal and Upper Burma 
a people of very primitive habits and ideas. Their origin 
is believed to be the same' as that of the Burmese, both 
being supposed to have come originally from Tibet. They 
number about 180,000, and the British have had great 
difficulty in subduing them. A Chin school was begun at 
Henzada and is doing much to evangelize and civilize this 
tribe. There are now five mission stations where work 
among the Chins is carried on. 

The Lahus and Muhsos are other tribes that have been 
reached in recent years. Two stations are maintained for 
work among these people. One of these, Mong Lem, is 
across the border in China, and remarkable results have 
been reported during the last decade. Rev. William M. 
Young has been laboring among them for more than 
twenty years, more than 200 miles from the nearest mis- 
sion station, more than 300 miles from a railway. In this 
isolated place, he and his wife have been patiently sowing 
the seed and from 1905 onward began to reap their 
harvest. In that year 1,800 converts were baptized. Since 
then mass movements have brought over 10,000 into the 
churches in a period of five years, and 100 villages in this 
field are now Christian. Reenforcements have been sent, 
including a grandson of Adoniram Judson, Rev. A. C. 
Hanna, who began his work there in the year of the 
Judson Centennial. Still more remarkable results may be 
expected in this field in the near future. 


Other Missions in Burma 

An Abandoned Mission 

For eighteen years, beginning with 1835, a mission 
was maintained in Arakan, a province on the east coast 
of the Bay of Bengal, the part of Burma earliest to be 
acquired by the British. It is separated from the rest of 
Burma by a chain of mountains, and its people are not 
strictly Burmans, though related to them and speaking 
what is regarded as a corrupted form of the Burmese 
language. A few churches were formed in this region 
and some schools were begun. A beginning was made of 
training native assistants. In 1841 there were 193 bap- 
tisms reported from a station at Sandoway, and in 1848 
there are said to have been 5,500 baptisms in this field, 
and it was estimated that there were as many more con- 
verts not yet baptized. Later, the Sandoway work was 
consolidated with that at Bassein and work in Arakan 
was abandoned. 

Some Obstacles in Indian Missions 

While recent years have offered new and great oppor- 
tunities for missionary advance in all the Orient, they 
have also given rise to new and serious difficulties. The 
great war changed everything. Many from the mission 
fields of India and Burma, including children of mission- 
aries, served with credit. Mission work was for a time 
brought almost to a standstill; reenforcements were im- 
practicable; missionaries on furlough found great dif- 
ficulty in returning to their fields. Only a small part of 
the advance contemplated in the Five Year World Move- 
ment after the war could be effected. There was a 
changed attitude on the part of the native people of the 
mission fields : many said frankly that a Christianity that 
had failed in Europe could not succeed in the Orient. Our 
missionaries may well say to the home churches, as a 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

great missionary once said to his age, " The name of God 
is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you." Bap- 
tisms shrank in 1918 to 7,098, the lowest record in more 
than twenty years. 

Another serious difficulty has grown out of the increas- 
ingly unfavorable rate of exchange. In 1913-14 the total 
income of the ABFMS was $1,122,265.12, and a favor- 
able rate of exchange made its actual purchasing power 
on the foreign fields about $4,000 greater. In 1918-19, 
the income was apparently considerably larger, $i,575,- 
312.62, but its purchasing power had declined to $770,- 
233.40. In other words, an American dollar was worth 
less than fifty cents on the mission fields! At the same 
time the cost of living was rapidly advancing there, as it 
was at home. The salaries of missionaries, and all ap- 
propriations for mission work, were thus practically cut 
in half, and both had to be proportionately increased. 
These conditions continued during the war and for some 
time afterward; they have since been improved, but are 
yet far from normal, meaning by that the average pre- 
war status. 

What will be the attitude of the New Burma, now in 
the making, to Christian missions? To all present ap- 
pearances it will be a hostile attitude. Burma does not 
want the Christianity of the " Christian " nations. Can 
we wonder? The department of education has been 
turned over to Burmans, and the new Minister of Educa- 
tion is a Buddhist, though educated in a Christian school. 
What will be the official attitude toward our Christian 
schools? If hostile, it may become necessary to close 
them, and there could be no greater disaster to the mis- 
sionary cause. 

Nevertheless, there is much to encourage a hopeful out- 
look. Baptists have in their churches about one-half of 
. the total Christian population of Burma. One person in 


Other Missions in Burma 

twenty-five of the entire population has been favorably 
affected by Christianity, about the proportion of Chris- 
tians to population in the United States at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century. 


Who are the Karens? What religious ideas did they 
have ? Who was the first Karen convert ? Can you name 
the first missionary to the Karens and tell something 
about his work? What was the social status of the 
Karens? How many tribes are there? Who translated 
the Bible into Pwo Karen ? Who into Sgaw ? What men 
are notable among the early missionaries? Name some 
of the principal stations in the Karen mission. Which 
do you consider most significant and why ? What notable 
schools are there among the Karens? What have they 
accomplished? Is there any medical work in this mis- 
sion? Has the mission been a fruitful one? How far is 
it self-supporting? Has the economic condition of the 
Karens improved ? What new problem have they to face ? 
Where and what is Assam? Where is the principal mis- 
sion station ? What " monumental " work have the mis- 
sionaries accomplished? Is the literary by-product of 
missions important? Why? Is Assam an easy field? 
How do the mission schools rank ? What are they doing? 
What can you say about the Garos ? Who translated the 
Bible for them ? Was it a simple task ? How has its cir- 
culation been helped? What has been the effect of the 
gospel on the Garos? Have they any good schools? 
What medical work has been done for them? Who are 
the Nagas and where do they live? Is the work among 
them prospering? Who was the first missionary to the 
Shans? Are there many of them? Who gave them the 
Bible in their own language? How has the work pro- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

gressed? What can you tell of the mission to the 
Kachins? To the Chins? To the Lahus? In which of 
these fields has there been largest success? Where is 
Arakan? Have we a mission there? What are some 
recent difficulties in all our India missions ? 


Carey, William, The Garo Jungle Book. Philadelphia, 

Carpenter, C. H., Self -support in Bassein. Boston, 1883. 
Harris, A. N., A Star in the East. New York, 1920. 

Mason, Francis, The Story of a Workingmaris Life. 
New York, 1870. 

Memoir of Ko-Thah-Byu. 1846. 

Burmah: Its People and Natural Productions. New 
. York, 1860. 

Robbins, Joseph Chandler, The Appeal of India. Phila- 
delphia, 1919. 

Strong, Augustus H., A Tour of the Missions, Chap. 
IV, V. Philadelphia, 1918. 

Vicklarid, Ellen Elizabeth, Through Judy's Eyes. Phila- 
delphia, 1923. 



The Country 

The native name of China is Chung Kwoh, the Mid- 
dle Kingdom. China proper consists of 22 provinces, 
that have an area of 1,532,420 square miles, which is 
about 200,000 less than the United States east of the 
Mississippi. The largest province, Szchwan (218,480), 
is larger than any State of the Union save Texas (262,- 
398), while the smallest, Chekiang (36,670) is larger 
than Maine (29,895). The river Yang-Tzu (Son of 
Ocean) divides this territory into two approximately 
equal sections. It is one of the largest rivers of the world, 
rising in Tibet, traversing many provinces and emptying 
into the ocean 3,000 miles from its source. This " girdle 
of China " stands first among the world's rivers for the 
number and size of its affluents, which make the entire 
basin accessible from the sea through 12,000 miles of 
navigable waterways. The other great river of China, 
farther to the northward, called the Huang or Yellow, 
runs through a vast plain of loess, a deep, loamy deposit, 
whether of alluvial, glacial, or aerial action, is still dis- 
puted by geologists. In favor of the alluvial theory is 
the indisputable fact that the Huang now brings down 
immense quantities of similar loess, which continually 
raises its bed, so that in flood times it breaks through the 
mud dikes, devastates a great region, and cuts a new chan- 
nel for itself to the sea. These often recurring disasters 
have caused the Huang to be called " China's sorrow." 
Nevertheless, the region that it traverses, especially the 

[ 133 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

northeast corner of China, is the most fertile and densely 
populated part of the country. 

The two sections of China are described by travelers as 
almost two different countries. A large part of the 
northern region is high and dry, dusty plains with few 
watercourses, adapted to cereals like wheat and barley; 
in the south are found lower levels, watercourses every- 
where, the comparatively small streams supplemented by 
canals; and as a result rice culture on a large scale. In 
the north agriculture is by plow and broad acres; in the 
south the hoe and truck-farms rule. There is said to be 
a like difference in the people : the northern are stalwart 
and conservative; the southern are smaller, enterprising, 
progressive. Great numbers get their living on and by 
the water. 

Into the area of China, which has every variety of land- 
scape, soil, and climate, is crowded a population, accord- 
ing to the first attempt at a census in 1921, of 436,094,955, 
but there is grave doubt of the correctness of the figures. 
The dependencies of China add nearly 3,000,000 square 
miles to her possessions, but only some 30,000,000 to her 
population. As a whole China is not overpopulated, in 
spite of the common impression to the contrary: six- 
sevenths of her people are found in one-third of her area. 
The average density of her population is 280 to the square 
mile, while in the Cheng To plain it rises to 700 (Belgium 
has 654). To the westward and northwest are large 
provinces, as yet sparsely inhabited, where China can ex- 
pand and find an outlet for its surplus people. This un- 
equal distribution of population is largely due to lack of 
transportation facilities, especially in the north; in the 
south numerous canals facilitate commerce. At present 
China has only 6,500 miles of railways, as compared with 
265,000 miles in the United States. The latter transport 
every year freight that would require half the population 


China and Its People 

of the globe to carry on their backs in the Chinese fashion. 
The so-called roads of China are hardly more than paths. 
China is essentially an agricultural country, its land be- 
ing held in small freeholds, with few great estates and no 
" ranches." Agriculture is intensive, more like gardening 
than farming, owing to pressure of population and cheap- 
ness of labor. Implements are crude and methods by no 
means up to European standard, so that results are less 
than might be anticipated from the labor bestowed. The 
principal crops are : Rice, wheat, and other cereals, beans 
and peas, sugar-cane, indigo, tobacco. Besides these are 
what may be called the three chief specialties of China : 
Raw silk, cotton, and tea. Great quantities of these com- 
modities are exported every year. 

Chinese Economics 

The present resources of China are mainly agricultural, 
because her other possibilities of wealth are as yet unde- 
veloped. Her mineral wealth is vast, almost unbelievable. 
Immense deposits of coal and iron, enough to supply the 
whole world for centuries ; extensive forests containing 
invaluable lumber; copper, tin, lead, and zinc in large 
quantities ; kaolin, or porcelain clay, practically inexhaus- 
tible; silver, gold, petroleum in considerable supply 
these are the almost untouched possessions of this land. 
The fauna and flora of China are varied and extensive, 
since there is about the same variety of climate as in our 
own country. The two great rivers of China are a source 
of immense wealth, both actual and potential, since they 
and their tributaries abound in cascades and rapids, offer- 
ing unlimited possibilities of power and irrigation, the 
latter having been practised from ancient times. 

Manufactures of sorts are also very ancient, and have 
lately begun to be modernized into the factory system, 
until almost every type is now represented in some 50 

[ 135 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

centers scattered over the country. Silks, cottons, paper, 
pottery, lacquered wares have been noted Chinese produc- 
tions for centuries. Commerce, so long as it must be car- 
ried on by land caravans, was small, and only the most 
precious and least bulky articles could be profitably trans- 
ported. Mostly these were luxuries for the rich, and the 
condition of the poor was little affected. Long ago the 
Chinese solved the transportation problem, as fully as 
Europe did before the age of steam, by its immense sys- 
tem of canals. The introduction of steam, though just 
beginning, is making a revolution in Chinese commerce, 
and proving there as elsewhere that trade is the great 
equalizer and peacemaker among the nations. Modern 
commerce scatters over the earth the surplus products of 
all lands, regardless of cost or bulk if only they are wanted 
somewhere. The poor participate in this benefit, and 
their condition is gradually ameliorated. Great famines, 
for example, are now comparatively unknown. 

The increase of exports from China] caused by new 
transportation facilities is resulting in considerable in- 
crease of the cost of living. Depreciation in the value of 
silver has added to the burden. So do heavier taxes ; ad-../ 
vancing civilization exacts its price, and it is not a small 
one. Prices of labor and building materials have ad- 
vanced even more sharply than of food. New wants are 
developing; the peasant now demands kerosene instead 
of bean-oil for his lamp, and the lamp itself must be of 
American make. Foreign clocks are also in great de- 
mand ; American tools sell well. These are symptomatic 
facts, and indicate that a higher and broader scale of liv- 
ing is developing. Some complain that our missionaries 
maintain too high a standard of living, as compared with 
the natives ; but it costs a Christian more to live than it 
costs a heathen, and we ought to be proud of the fact, not 
ashamed. China is only beginning to be touched by West- 


China and Its People 

ern civilization, but already it is apparent that she will 
make great progress in that direction. To Westernize 
China means that it is only necessary to teach her a new 
technique; to Westernize India it would be necessary to 
give her a new spirit. The mushroom growth of the past 
few years is making great social changes, breaking up the 
old patriarchal and family system. Women are coming 
to demand freedom in marriage and refuse to live with 
" in-laws." 

The industrializing of China is a steady tide that there 
is no possibility of resisting factories have come to stay, 
corporations and trusts are organizing and will increase. 
This is helping toward the solution of some social prob- 
lems, and creating as many more entirely new to China, 
and she does not yet know how to deal with them. For 
example, 80 per cent, of the operatives in cotton and silk 
mills are women and children, probably 40 per cent, of 
them children; and 35 per cent, of all workers in the 
country are estimated to be the same. There is no legal 
age-limit for child workers ; many children as young as 
five are said to be employed. Women receive 20 cents a 
day, and children 10 cents. There is high mortality from 
sickness and accident; dangerous machinery is unpro- 
tected. Of course there is no insurance for workers, who 
are without organization and hence can do little to in- 
fluence legislation or through collective bargaining obtain 
better wages and conditions of labor. Sanitation is non- 

Why should Western people consider seriously the con- 
dition of workers in the Orient? A single item will show 
how intimately the affairs of one people become the con- 
cern of all. A few years ago, 18,000 Chinese women and 
girls were employed in factories making hair-nets, which 
were used by women all over the world. The fashion of 
" bobbing " the hair, lately introduced among European 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

and American women, so curtailed the demand for these 
nets that in 1925 only 2,000 persons were employed in 
their manufacture. We are all citizens of a world in 
which none can prosper and none can suffer, without 
affecting the suffering or prosperity of others. 

The new industrialism has perhaps had its most obvious 
result in affecting the status of the Chinese woman. In 
spite of ancient traditions as to woman's " place," they 
are readily finding their way into many occupations 
hitherto reserved for men. A woman " covered " the 
Paris Peace Conference for Canton newspapers. Many 
factories are not only operated but owned and managed 
by women. Women are employed on railways as ticket- 
sellers and inspectors; some are employed in banks in 
Shanghai and Peking. Teaching, medicine, and nursing 
appeal as proper careers to an increasing number of Chi- 
nese women. They have organizations like the Y W C A 
and the W C T U officered by native women. They are 
now demanding the suffrage shades of Confucius ! The 
Bible-women of the Christian missions did much to blaze 
the way for this uprising of Chinese womanhood. 

Chinese Civilization 

When we speak of Westernizing China, let us not 
imagine that the Aryan race has a monopoly of civiliza- 
tion, even if we are firmly convinced that it has pro- 
duced the highest type. It has in fact produced two 
types, for the civilization of India is as truly Aryan as 
that of England. The question for the future to solve is, 
Can the best features of all civilizations be mutually 
recognized and assimilated, without destroying the indi- 
viduality of any? China has possibly the oldest civiliza- 
tion in the world, certainly very old. It dates back to 
3000 B. C. When Moses led the children of Israel out 
of Egypt, China had a richer and higher life than the 


China and Its People 

land of the Pharaohs. It had already a literature and 
art, well-cultivated fields, walled cities. Its people in- 
vented paper and printing and made books centuries be- 
fore Gutenberg; they invented the mariner's compass and 
gunpowder before Europe had begun to recover from 
the collapse of the Roman 'Empire. Their houses were 
adorned with the finest porcelains, hammered brass uten- 
sils, enameled and glazed wares, and they were them- 
selves clothed in silks when our European ancestors were 
half clad in the skins of animals and lived in rude huts. 
But for some reason Chinese civilization suffered an 
arrest of development soon after our Christian era; the 
nation came to look backward, not forward, to live in 
the past. Some account for this by the prevalence of the 
worship of ancestors. At any rate, there was loss of 
vision and initiative; China stood still and "marked 
time " for a thousand years, until contact with Western 
civilization gave a fresh forward impulse. Until recently, 
the Chinese people have manifested a spirit of proud ex- 
clusiveness, suspicion, and arrogance. They have believed 
themselves superior to the rest of the world. Reluctantly, 
they have been forced to recognize Western superiority 
in the arts of war, and more slowly still in industrial arts. 
But the Chinese still look upon us of the West as only 
clever barbarians who have somehow managed to get 
ahead of them in material things, while still far behind 
in things of the spirit. They are yet too haughty to be 
teachable. This is less true of the young student class, 
most of whom have learned to evaluate things more truly ; 
many of these students would be prizemen in Europe or 
America, and some who come here become prizemen. 
The older Chinese have phenomenal memories, but can- 
not think or perhaps are afraid to try. The younger 
Chinese are inclined to think too fast, that is, to generalize 
rashly, to take snap judgments. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Racial Characteristics 

The Chinese are the most virile race in Asia, perhaps 
in the world. This is the result of their agelong struggle 
for existence, in which only the fittest could survive. 
" Wherever a Chinaman can get a foot of ground and a 
quart of water, he will make something to grow." Yet 
they sometimes lack tenacity, sustained courage in attack- 
ing hard problems. They are a frugal people they have 
to be nothing is wasted ; economy is with them a fine art. 
Their frugality and virility have enabled them to overcome 
all their adversaries, to conquer their conquerors. They 
are the only people who have been able to assimilate 
Mohammedans, Tartars, Manchus, and make them Chi- 
nese. All foreigners who have entered China have either 
accepted her language, laws, and manners ; or, by retiring, 
have confessed defeat. The restless, enterprising/change- 
ful Anglo-Saxon is alternately irritated and awed by the 
massive solidity, the changeless calm, of China. 

To our Western notions China is topsyturvy land: 
a nobleman's full dress is a long robe, while his wife wears 
jacket and trousers; old men play marbles and fly kites 
while children look on. The surname is written first and 
the other names afterward, as we enter them in an alpha- 
betical index. A coffin is an acceptable present, and to 
take off your hat to one whom you meet is very rude. 
The Chinese workman pulls a wheelbarrow and a plane, 
where we push. To wear white is to go into mourning. 
The Chinese have printed books without an alphabet and 
a language without a grammar. If you have a grudge 
against a man, don't kill him ; commit suicide on his door- 
step! On the other hand, the Chinaman cannot under- 
stand our ways. Why do white men jump about and kick 
balls as if paid to do it ? " Why does a man put his arm 
about a half-dressed woman whom he saw for the first 


China and Its People 

time in his life five minutes before, and then hop around 
the room with her to the sounds of most hellish music? 
They must be crazy or drunk! " (Actual comment of an 
educated Chinaman on first witnessing the dance of 
modern society. ) 

In one respect China is /more like the United States 
than any other country : it is thoroughly democratic. It 
has never had a caste, or even a hereditary aristocracy. 
Its ruling class has hitherto obtained power through edu- 
cation, mastery of the Chinese classics, and the successful 
passing of most rigid examinations. There has been more 
equality of opportunity than in any other great nation. 
The poorest boy might rise to be the highest viceroy. 
They are not a warlike people ; they settle private differ- 
ences by arbitration and take kindly to the same method 
of adjusting disputes with other nations. Yet they make 
excellent soldiers, and if Western nations force them to 
learn and practise the arts of war, they will be a real 
Yellow Peril. Since the mass of the people own small 
portions of land, a democratic state and a republican 
government should prove well adapted to China. The 
common people are described by travelers, as well as mis- 
sionaries, as self-respecting, independent, courteous. In 
many ways the Chinese of today are more like ourselves 
than our own medieval ancestors. 

Language and Literature 

One great hindrance to missionary effort, as well as to 
the future development of China, is that there is no one 
language, but a great number of dialects, differing as 
widely as French, Spanish, and Italian, but like those lan- 
guages having a large element in common. The Man- 
darin comes the nearest to a general language; it is not 
a living vernacular, but a literary language, having much 
the same place among the educated that Latin had in 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Europe of the Middle Ages. Southern China is largely 
of Malay origin and a large admixture of Malay words is 
found in the Chinese of that region. China has a rich 
literature and has always prized education ; yet today not 
one man in ten can read and but one woman in a thou- 
sand. Fancy building a real republic on such a basis of 
popular ignorance! Because the opportunities of educa- 
tion were available to so few, China is a land distin- 
guished by flatness of life and poverty of ideals; it 
desperately needs the regenerating force of the religion 
of Jesus. Only a few can obtain culture from books, but 
there are also singularly few popular amusements. There 
are no sports, in the European sense, few games save 
games of chance Chinese are inveterate gamblers and 
life is drab and dull beyond a Westerner's endurance. He 
does not wonder that the Chinese take refuge in opium- 
smoking and gambling as offering some break in the 
monotony of life. 

One great barrier to the progress of intelligence is the 
Chinese written language, a system of ideographs that 
requires a printing-office to have some 5,000 characters 
at hand. Several attempts have been made to overcome 
this handicap. Missionaries devised a romanized sys- 
tem, and some of the Bible translations were printed in 
this. The Chinese never took to it heartily, and lately 
they have devised a phonetic script of their own, which 
a conference of Chinese scholars agreed upon and the 
Government has adopted for its schools. This bids fair 
to become the standard written language of the next gen- 
eration, and the importance of this change can hardly be 
overestimated. In place of 5,000 ideographs, 39 phonetic 
symbols represent every Chinese syllable, and by means 
of diacritical marks above and below these characters the 
different "tones" can be indicated. Such is the sim- 
plicity of the new system that whereas it formerly re- 


China and Its People 

quired ten years to master a complete reading knowledge 
of Chinese, the new script can be learned in three months 
or less by those who already speak the language. 

The Chinese Renaissance 

There is a real renaissance in China. Its leader is 
Hu Suh, who received his Ph. D. from Columbia Uni- 
versity in 1916. He became Professor of Literature in 
the National University at Peking and conceived the idea 
of a new Chinese literature in the spoken Mandarin dia- 
lect (kuanhwa). The new literary medium was named 
pei-hwa or " white language," and was advocated in La 
Jeunesse, a magazine edited by Dr. Hu Suh, who also 
argued its practicability and illustrated it in a two-volume 
" History of Chinese Philosophy." This book imme- 
diately became and has remained a " best seller," and tri- 
umphantly proved the adequacy of the new literary form 
to express all the subtleties of thought that had marked 
the writings of Chinese sages. If it could do that, even 
the classical scholars of China had to admit that it was 
equal to anything. 

The once despised vernacular has become the literary 
fashion, just as Italian, French, German, and English 
replaced Latin in the European Renaissance. This is a 
far more significant thing in forecasting the future of 
China than the " revolution " that displaced the Manchu 
emperors and substituted a " republic." It makes a real 
democracy no longer an iridescent dream. A new litera- 
ture is as a result rising, which includes translations of the 
best of Western literature into pei-hwa, and there is a 
prospect that in another generation China may have a 
people as literate in the Western sense as most European 

At the same time they have thus been making a new 
literature of their own, the Chinese have been getting 

L [ 143 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

acquainted with the literature of the West. The writings 
of Tolstoi, Kropotkin, Lenin, Ibsen, Eucken, Einstein, 
Marx, Bergson, Wells, Russell, Dewey, Kant, Darwin, 
Spencer, Huxley, James, to mention only a few, have been 
translated into Chinese and widely read. Western science 
and philosophy are no longer unknown to Chinese schol- 
ars. Some mental indigestion has been a not unnatural 
result of so miscellaneous a diet. But here is a thought to 
give us pause where is the corresponding list of great 
Christian books, translated and circulated by our Chris- 
tian missions ? In India a fund has been established since 
1924 to encourage the production and circulation of high- 
class Christian literature; and some 78 books have already 
been published, said to be all of sterling value. Some- 
thing like this is urgently needed in China. 

The object of this renaissance is thus described by its 
leaders : The reorganization, restatement, and evaluation 
of Chinese civilization, with a critical examination of 
every stage ; thorough and scientific study of theories and 
facts; reconstruction of individual and social life. As 
they reach conclusions, those who are leading the move- 
ment are putting their new ideas into practise. Age-old 
burial customs, for example, are abandoned for others 
more simple and appropriate. Child betrothal and " go- 
betweens " are repudiated, and young women of educa- 
tion are choosing their mates from those who can offer 
mental comradeship. Everything is challenged ; no taboos 
are held sacred; nothing is conceded authority until it 
has been proved good. Everything in the past is met 
with a persistent Why? The ideal is to build a new 
social order at whatever, cost. It is hardly needful to say 
that such aged customs as foot-binding and concubinage 
are opposed by the new movement they cannot stand 
before that insistent " Why? " Household slavery of girls, 
common in China, is going the same way. Gambling, 


China and Its People 

grafting, drinking, prostitution, and other social vices still 
present plenty of problems, but surely they will not be 
able long to withstand friend " Why ? " 

The growth of the democratic spirit, the intellectual 
revolution accompanying the political, the unification of 
the language, the emergence 'of the middle class, the new 
spirit of inquiry and experiment these are some of the 
elements of the New China. They profoundly affect the 
conduct of Christian missions. Christianity is fast be- 
coming a part of Chinese life, and less an extension of 
Western life into China. That Chinese Christians, of 
whom Sun Yat Sen is merely the most conspicuous in- 
stance, took a large part in promoting the Revolution is a 
fact of which the Chinese themselves are well aware. 

The New China is largely the product of Christian mis- 
sions. Christianity brought new power to this land not 
merely a new religion but the potentiality of a new civil- 
ization, the best elements of the old combined with the 
best of the Western. The new science, the new politics, 
the new industry, are fast making a new China. Hence, 
in this country more perhaps than in others, it is futile to 
attempt to measure the effect of missions by mere count- 
ing of converts. 

The Religion of China 

The Chinese are an intellectual people, not a spiritual, 
as fundamentally secular as Hindus are profoundly re- 
ligious. Hence they are tolerant of all religions, includ- 
ing Christianity ; religious fanaticism has little or no part 
in their antipathy to foreigners. The country was rich 
in religions before the coming of Christianity, since it had 
two of native origin and two of foreign importation, 
which existed peacefully side by side. The oldest native 
religion is a sort of pantheistic animism, which remains 
at the bottom of all other faiths, and in the form of wor- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ship of ancestors may be declared to be the real religion 
of all Chinamen. Other faiths have been rather grafted 
on it than able to replace it. Defenders of this cult say 
that it is properly not " worship " but commemoration, a 
social rite rather than religious only an intensified form 
of noblesse oblige, that one must strive to be worthy of 
his ancestors. We look to posterity, the Chinese to an- 

Missionaries are coming to perceive that some of them 
at least have not adapted the right attitude toward these 
Chinese customs and ideas. They can be made a means 
of approach. Missionaries now seek to direct this respect 
for ancestors, conserving all that is truly religious in it, 
and harmonizing it with Christian sentiments, by encour- 
aging whatever expresses the personal and moral rela- 
tions between the living and the dead. They thus hope to 
help the Chinese preserve a harmonious family life and 
a healthy social order, without compromise of anything 
that is essential to Christianity. We must realize that 
Christianity began as an Oriental religion, and that it has 
been warped from its original nature by Western ideas 
and sentiments. In this matter of respect for ancestors, 
the West is very deficient as compared with the East, 
and the attempt to crowd our ideas upon Eastern peoples 
in the name of Christianity is unnecessarily to handicap 
our Christian propagandism. 

Confucianism, though usually described as a religion, 
strictly speaking does not deserve the name. Confucius 
himself was an agnostic as to God and our duties to him, 
and concerned himself entirely with man's duties to his 
fellows. His rationalism, his skepticism, his stress on 
conduct made him the exact expression of the Chinese 
spirit, and it is no wonder that the mass of his country- 
men are Confucians to this hour. He taught a system of 
ethics, with no religious basis unless the animistic wor- 


China and Its People 

ship of ancestors be called such. Confucius found this 
prevailing and did not attempt to disturb it, but grafted 
his ethical teachings upon it. The worship of ancestors 
probably had its origin in the family and clan system 
of China, which comes down from primitive times, and 
by the Chinese themselves is \regarded as a domestic and 
political institution, rather than religious. It is the strong- 
hold not only of national conservatism, but until the revo- 
lution was the bulwark of the throne and the basis of 
individual loyalty to law and government. The Jesuit 
missionaries favored, or at least tolerated the system, as 
the easiest method of approach, though the Dominicans 
opposed this policy. Various popes decided alternately 
in favor of both views, as exigencies dictated their policy, 
and the question has never been settled in the Catholic 

Now that Confucianism no longer has the support of 
the Government, an effort is making for its revival. A 
Confucian Society, with headquarters at Peking, has been 
formed ; and it plans a building, to cost $2,000,000, which 
will ultimately become a Confucian University. In the 
province of Shansi there is a Heart Cleansing Society, 
with Sunday meetings and lectures. The Chinese Renais- 
sance is hostile to Confucianism, though not specially 
favorable to Christianity. 

Taoism probably has better claims to be considered a 
religion, though as Lao-Tze taught it, it was also a system 
of ethics, supplemented by considerable metaphysics. By 
quiescence, contemplation, and union with Tao, the All, 
it professed to show a way to the achievement of virtue. 
It was probably the advent of Buddhism and the resulting 
competition that caused Taoism to develop a priesthood 
and a ritual, which Confucianism never did. Lao-Tze 
taught purity, humility, and rest, the silent cultivation of 
the spiritual life and attainment of immortality by self- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

discipline. Ultimately Taoism became polytheistic and 
much degraded. 

Buddhism underwent great transformation in China. 
It abandoned its characteristic doctrine of Nirvana, sub- 
stituting for it a heaven, a future state of conscious and 
blissful existence; or, as an alternative, a hell or future 
state of misery. This added greatly to its acceptability, 
and it was adopted by a large part of the Chinese, not as 
a substitute for their native religion but as a supplement. 
In fact, all these faiths may be professed by a single in- 
dividual and often are. As the Chinese see them, they 
are not antagonistic; each possesses an element of good, 
and so most Chinamen profess at least two of them. 

Buddhism is strong and active in China. There are 
400,000 monks, all of whom are potential evangelizers 
for their religion. Buddhist publishing houses are found 
in the principal cities, and their business is increasing. 
A National Association has been formed in Peking, with 
many provincial branches. It has an ambitious program : 
the publication of fresh Buddhist literature, establishment 
of schools, opening of public halls for lectures on Bud- 
dhism, libraries and reading-rooms to spread knowledge 
of their religion. Some of this is already in way of ac- 
complishment, but most of the plan is still on paper. 

In addition, there are from 5,000,000 to 10,000,000 
Mohammedans in China, but their religion has suffered 
important modifications, so that it may be held along 
with Confucianism or Taoism, and of course without dis- 
turbing ancestor worship. 

Chinese Ethics 

Christians have often urged against the ethics of Con- 
fucius that he conspicuously failed to lead the Chinese 
to practise his high ideals. Is this a valid criticism? 
What " Christian " community will bear that test ? Most 


China and Its People 

countries have two systems of ethics : one that they pro- 
fess and teach, another by which they live and do business. 
Confucius taught, " It is a man's duty to look after char- 
acter, to adjust his household affairs, to rule the country 
properly and to make peace with the world." Many pre- 
cepts may be culled from his jwritings which parallel the 
Sermon on the Mount, including the Golden Rule. To 
Lao-Tze is credited the following: 

To those who are good to me I am good; and to those who are 
not good to me I am also good; and thus all get to be good. To 
those who are sincere to me, I am sincere ; and to those who are not 
sincere to me, I am also sincere ; and thus all get to be sincere. 

It is evident that the professed ethics of the Chinese do 
not fall far short of Christian ethics ; how about the ethics 
by which they actually live? Intimate observers testify 
that they manifest some admirable traits : Fidelity, grati- 
tude, honor manifested in ways of their own, not always 
corresponding to our ways. Their honesty is variously 
estimated by Western observers. Most of these warmly 
commend Chinese honesty in ordinary business ; what we 
call mercantile honor is well developed among them, and 
a Chinese merchant does not cheat nor fail to pay his bills. 
But corporations are not conducted with equal honesty, 
and there is no such thing as honesty or honor in public 
affairs. No Government is so rotten from top to bottom 
as the Chinese. Everything and every official has a price. 
Fully half the taxes collected never reach the treasury 
the " squeeze " is universal and is regarded as we regard 
a commission in ordinary business. " Justice " is for sale. 
Cruelty that appears to us barbarous is habitual. Pro- 
fligacy is universal. These things are of course found in 
" Christian " countries, but they are condemned and as 
far as possible concealed; not so in China, they are either 
practised openly or considered disgraceful only if they 
become public. The same standard applies to truthful- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ness : to lie or steal is not disgraceful in itself ; the dis- 
grace is in doing it so unskilfully as to be found out. If 
one succeeds, the Chinese admire his cleverness. " Sav- 
ing one's face " is well known to be a Chinese character- 
istic, and the very phrase witnesses a national and racial 
conviction that realities are less important than appear- 
ances. These ethical peculiarities lend much weight to the 
declaration of some students of things Chinese, when 
they affirm that the great obstacle to progress is that men 
do not trust each other because they cannot. Corporate 
action, political cooperation, become almost impossible in 
such an atmosphere. Yet in considering the practical 
ethics of China, let us beware of the common error of 
comparing the best of " Christian " lands with the worst 
of the Orient. 

The Revolution 

The first attempt to modernize China was made by the 
young emperor Kwang-Su in 1897-8. He gathered about 
him young and progressive men, and issued edict after 
edict, declaring the ancient system of examinations abol- 
ished, establishing at Peking a university for the study of 
Western sciences, and outlining a new system of popular 
education, modeled on that of Europe and America, while 
at the same time he attempted radical reforms in ad- 
ministration. The attempt was well meant, but it failed ; 
it proved impossible to uproot an ancient civilization and 
establish another in its stead, by imperial edict. The re- 
forms went too fast to win to their support an influential 
body of Chinese sufficient to maintain them. 

A reaction followed ; the dowager Empress Tsi-an exe- 
cuted a coup d'etat; the young emperor was virtually 
deposed, the old order of things was restored, and the 
reaction culminated in the famous Boxer uprising of 
1900, the last stand of old China against the incoming 


China and Its People 

wave of Western ideas and methods, the final attempt to 
resist the irresistible. It was an antiforeign movement, 
but only incidentally anti-Christian. Missionaries, as part 
of the hated foreign element, suffered vicariously for the 
political and economic sins of others, of which they were 
nowise guilty. The worst was experienced in the prov- 
inces of Shantung and Shansi; in southern and central 
China the missionaries fared better. In all 135 lost their 
lives and much mission property was destroyed. 

Napoleon said once, " China is a great sleeping giant 
let her sleep." But China had waked, and nothing could 
again put her to sleep. On February 12, 1912, the Chinese 
Republic was proclaimed, and a new era in her history 
began. The reforms projected by Emperor Kwang-su 
were tried again and with better success. Yet time has 
proved it to be one thing to " proclaim " a republic and 
quite another to establish it. China is a republic only in 
name ; it has yet established no responsible central govern- 
ment ; and though institutions and abuses twenty-five cen- 
turies old have been abolished in theory, the change, while 
significant, is thus far more apparent than real. Ideas 
derived from an alien civilization may transform the 
mind, but not the soul, of a people. The element of time 
must enter. China has had her revolution, but her leaders 
seem even more incapable of organizing government than 
the Russian soviet statesmen. While China has never 
been so disunited as India, she has never been a real 
nation, and political self-consciousness cannot be extem- 
porized in a day or a decade. Young China has polit- 
ical ideas in plenty, but no political experience, and is 
developing political capacity very slowly. It is the official 
class that is slowest to change. Her public men have 
always, with a few conspicuous exceptions, been stupid 
and obstructive, and without exception have been corrupt. 
The Revolution has as yet made little change in the ruling 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

class, who have thus far successfully clung to power, 
though always quarreling among themselves about divi- 
sion of the plunder. 

Meanwhile changes are taking place with bewildering 
rapidity. The sedan-chair is giving place to the electric 
tram and the automobile. Buildings of wood and sun- 
dried brick are replaced by skyscrapers ; the little shop is 
spreading out into the department store. These are symp- 
toms of the transformation in outward things that the 
country is undergoing, and they symbolize an inward 
reconstruction even more remarkable. 

China and the Western Nations 

The white race, composing one-third of the world's 
population, has come -to dominate three-fourths of the 
world's area. Its intelligence is admittedly great and this 
has given it the lead in all material progress. To it are 
due the advance in knowledge, the discoveries of explora- 
tion and of science, the practical inventions that have 
made the modern man's conquest of nature so superior to 
the condition of life in medieval and ancient times. But 
this advance to rulership of the world has been accom- 
panied by so much arrogance, ruthlessness, and brutal 
cruelty as to arouse the bitterest hate and most far-reach- 
ing race antagonism known in the history of mankind. 
Rapine, murder, and a constant appeal to physical force 
have characterized Europe's intercourse with China in 
recent times. It was not until they had well earned the 
title that Europeans were called " foreign devils " by the 
Chinese- The outrageous behavior of Europeans toward 
China is mainly responsible for Chinese feeling against 
Europeans. In a less degree this applies to Americans 
also. Money-making and land-stealing seem to the Chi- 
nese the principal objectives of foreigners. The Chinese 
are a reasonable people; they have little inherent race 


China and Its People 

prejudice ; their feeling against foreigners is mostly justi- 
fied resentment. China has been treated by the Western 
nations as an inoffensive traveler is treated by bandits, she 
has been " held up," bullied, intimidated, robbed of terri- 
tory and " concessions " and anything else that the bandits 
coveted. There has been no more disgraceful spectacle in 
the history of the world than this conduct of " Chris- 
tian " nations. And these same predatory peoples have 
added insult to injury by uniformly treating China and 
the Chinese as inferior. A sign in one of the foreign 
compounds of Shanghai is typical : " Chinese and dogs not 

The war that England waged against China in 1842-3 
will always be known as " the Opium War," because the 
result of it, if not the object, was the forcing on the 
unwilling " heathen Chinese " by " Christian England " 
of a traffic that all enlightened China deplored and hated. 
To this day, the Government of Great Britain has refused 
to undo' that wrong. 1 Between 1885 and 1900 Western 
Powers vied with each other in grasping demands on 
Chinese territory and wealth. Ports and " spheres of 
influence " were extorted by threats, and millions of in- 
demnities were exacted on various pretexts. The dis- 
memberment of China and its division among European 
nations was openly discussed in diplomatic and political 
circles. Probably only the great European war saved 
China from such a fate, and opened to her the oppor- 
tunity to recover her national integrity and security. 
Japan was not behind her European exemplars and nearly 

1 The first symptom of a sane and Christian policy has been shown within 
a twelvemonth. The Secretary of State for India, of the British Cabinet, 
announces that on advice of Lord Reading, the late Viceroy, India will cut 
down the exportation of opium by 10 per cent, each year for 10 years. By 
1936 the Indian contribution of opium will have disappeared from the markets 
of the world. This will give opportunity for the readjustment of India's 
economic system, in conformity with the educated conscience of the civilized 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

succeeded in doing what they had failed to accomplish. 2 
China has suffered many things, injustices and indig- 
nities, from European nations, and is now resenting them 
bitterly. The " yellow peril " of sensational journalists 
and politicians may become a real peril, if the white 
race continues its policy of exploitation and repression, 
regardless of justice. 

But it is a relief to add that this chapter now appears 
to be closed forever, and a new one is now in the writing. 
The late war largely freed China from fear of foreign in- 
tervention. Germany, France, and Italy are unable to 
intervene effectively; Russia may also be discounted; 
while Japan's loss of her alliance with England since the 
Washington Conference has made her much more modest 
in her policy, if not in her ambitions. There will be no 
repetition of the Twenty-one Points. The United States 
has not only never had any desire to interfere, but has 
consistently opposed her influence to all interference proj- 
ects, and defeated many of them. 


National self -consciousness is rapidly developing in 
China, and particularly resents " extraterritoriality," or 
those treaties that Western nations have exacted for the 
benefit of their nationals. These treaties have given mis- 
sionaries a special status and peculiar privileges. Mis- 
sionaries, if accused of any offense or injustice, can de- 
mand trial in a consular court, and the same privilege is 
extended to converts. Missionaries have special privi- 
leges of residence, purchase of property, exemption from 
taxation, and the like. China demands the abrogation, 

2 The story of the pillage of China is saturated with intrigue and corruption, 
deceit and trickery, selfishness and greed. It forms one of the most shameful 
and depressing chapters in the history of our times, and makes a mockery 
of Europe's sanctimonious championship of justice and fair-dealing. E. Alex. 
Powell, "Asia at the Crossroads," p. 181. 


China and Its People 

or at least the reconsideration and revision, of these ex- 
emptions of foreign residents in the country from Chinese 
jurisdiction and taxation. The Washington Conference 
of 1921 agreed that an international commission should 
investigate the subject and recommend appropriate action 
by the nations there represented. t The nations were very 
tardy in fulfilling this obligation, but a commission was 
at last appointed, and late in 1926 made public its report. 
It recommended the abolition of extraterritoriality by a 
progressive scheme, the principal points of which are, 
that China shall first establish a judiciary and legal code 
worthy of confidence; in return for which Western na- 
tions should permit their nationals to be tried in Chinese 
courts and submit to Chinese taxes. It should also be 
borne in mind, in thinking this question through, that the 
treaties were concluded at a time when there were but five 
treaty ports, and the number of foreigners involved was 
very small. Now the number of treaty ports and towns 
exceeds fifty practically all China has been opened to 
foreigners and the number of residents has mounted 
far into the thousands. All this adds to the gravity of 
the situation and the difficulty of solution. But Western 
nations cannot much longer delay response to China's 
demands that she and her people shall not be treated as 
inferiors; that the attitude of Nordic superciliousness 
shall be abandoned ; that extraterritoriality shall come to 
an end ; or other nations must be prepared to suffer the 
consequences of their policy of spoliation, injustice, and 
hatred. The world must learn the lesson that, as one of 
our humorists has said, the way to deal with the yellow 
races is to treat them " white." 

There is no doubt that imperialists in Europe and 
America have attempted to use the missionary enterprise 
as an agency for securing control of the resources of that 
vast and rich country, and this has put missions and mis- 

[ 155 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

sionaries in a false position before the Chinese people. 
There is but one course, and that is for missions and mis- 
sionaries to refuse this alliance. While those on the field 
are not unanimous, the majority of them and the major- 
ity of boards at home are in favor of ending extraterri- 
toriality and the gunboat regime. Missionaries in China 
have addressed a memorial to the Government of the 
United States requesting that there be no interference 
with the Chinese self-government under plea of " pro- 
tecting the missionaries." They recognize the strength of 
Chinese national feeling against extraterritorial authority 
in their country, and understand perfectly the attempts of 
imperialists in Europe and America to utilize the mission- 
ary movement as an agency for securing plutocratic con- 
trol of that vast and rich country. 

The heroic age of missions is by no means past, and 
many missionaries are bigger than their " message." They 
no longer desire the protection of treaties signed at the 
cannon's mouth and enforced by shells and bayonets. 
They are willing to trust themselves to the justice of the 
Chinese; they are not afraid to commit themselves and 
their property to the people to whom they are offering 
Christ as Saviour; and if the event proves their trust ill- 
founded, they are ready to die for their faith as thousands 
have done before them. A religion that goes with a 
Bible in one hand and a rifle in the other will never win 
China, and they know it. The Boards at home are com- 
ing to the same understanding. At a meeting of execu- 
tives held in New York in October, 1925, hearty approval 
was given to efforts to revise treaties and abolish extra- 
territoriality "at an early date," as well as disclaiming 
any desire for special treatment for missionaries and their 
converts in any future treaties. They also asked that 
" the principle of religious liberty should be reciprocally 
recognized between China and other nations." This ac- 


China and Its People 

tion, though unofficial, without doubt represents accu- 
rately the temper in which missionary Boards generally 
will face this problem and seek its solution. It is the best 
possible augury for the future of Chinese missions. 

A few weeks later the British missionary societies, in a 
more formal and official way, announced that they had 

resolutions expressing their desire that their future legal rights and 
liberties, instead of depending on existing treaties between China and 
Great Britain, should be those freely accorded them by China as a 
sovereign power and mutually agreed upon in equal conference between 
the Chinese republic and Great Britain. 

This, however, seems rather to point to the negotiation 
of a new treaty than the abrogation of all special treaties 
in behalf of missionaries, which is the American policy. 
It does mark a distinct advance, nevertheless, and implies 
the surrender of extraterritoriality so far as missionaries 
are concerned. 

The greatest obstacles to the solution of China's prob- 
lems, especially her relations with other nations, is that, 
politically speaking, there is no China. For the present 
China is merely " a geographical expression." Its con- 
dition is chaos no efficient government and small pros- 
pect of any. With what or with whom are other govern- 
ments to make treaties, and what assurance is there that 
treaties will or can be observed when made? It is this 
that gives pause to all proposals for settlement. The 
political leaders of China do not wish peace or unity, 
because these would involve surrender of power and per- 
quisites that they now enjoy or hope to attain. The pre- 
vailing system of chaos exactly suits them, until some 
one of them becomes strong enough to establish a despot- 
ism, perhaps under the forms of a republic, perhaps of 
another monarchy. The Chinese have as yet shown no 
capacity for self-government; with a strong democratic 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

spirit they seem unable to establish political democracy. 
Can they do it ? In a country where everybody fears and 
distrusts everybody else, and with only too good reason ? 
The fine art of the " double cross " prevails in China as in 
no other country on earth, and while that remains true 
progress toward stable government appears hopeless. 

Recent events, however, make it possible, even probable, 
that a stable government will soon be established in 
Southern China, with its headquarters at Canton; and 
its authority may eventually be extended as far as the 
Great Wall. Should this prove to be the case, some of 
China's chief present problems would vanish and satis- 
factory relations with other nations would be quietly 


How large is China? How many provinces has it? 
What great rivers divide it? How does North China 
differ from the South? What is the population? Is 
China overpopulated ? What is its great lack ? How do 
the people get their living? Is there much mineral 
wealth? Are there manufactures? What changes are 
taking place among the people? What is the condi- 
tion of women and children in industry? What con- 
cern of ours is all this? Are women obtaining more 
freedom today? Is the civilization of China old ? Older 
than that of Europe ? Why then is the country so back- 
ward ? Are the Chinese a strong race or a weak ? What 
things in China seem queer to us? Do our ways seem 
queer to them? Which are right, their ways or ours? 
Can we learn anything from them? Do all Chinese talk 
alike? Have they a literature ? How many can read and 
write ? Have they games and amusements ? Why is the 
Chinese language so hard to learn? Has anything been 
done to make it easier? What do we mean by "the 


China and Its People 

Chinese Renaissance " ? Who is the leader? What is he 
trying to do? Are educated Chinese acquainted with 
European and American books? Is there a Christian 
literature in China? How do the leaders describe the 
Renaissance? What do we mean by the New China? 
How did it come about ? How do the Chinese differ from 
the Hindus? What is fundamental in their religion? 
Can Christianity tolerate ancestor worship? What did 
Confucius teach? Is Confucianism a religion? What is 
Taoism? Is there any good in it? Are there many Bud- 
dhists in China ? What changes have been made to adapt 
it to the Chinese? Are there Mohammedans in China? 
Are they like other Mohammedans? What can be said 
of the ethics of China? Is the pragmatic test decisive? 
What about the character of the Chinese people ? Their 
private morality ? Public morals ? When did the Revo- 
lution occur? Was it permanent? Why did it fail? 
What was the real significance of the Boxer uprising? 
When was the Republic proclaimed? Is it a real Republic, 
and if not, why ? Is China now changing rapidly ? How 
have the " Christian nations " treated China ? Has En- 
gland's opium policy been right? Is it any wonder that 
the Chinese hate the " foreign devils " ? What are extra- 
territorial rights? Should our missionaries claim such 
rights ? What is doing to change the system ? How has 
the missionary enterprise been misused? What must 
missionaries do? What is the great difficulty in solving 
China's problems? 


Blakeslies, G. H. (editor), China and the Far East: Clark 
University Lectures. New York, 1910. 

Burton, Margaret E., Education of Women in China. 
New York, 1911. 

M [ 159 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Broomall, Marshall, The Chinese Empire. London, 1907. 

Dennett, Tyler, The Democratic Movement in Asia. 1918. 

Dingle, Edwin J., China's Revolution. 1912. 

Giles, H. A., The Civilization of China. New York, 1911. 

Goodrich, J. K., TJie Coming China. 1911. 

Headland, Isaac T., China's New Day. New York, 1912. 

Holcombe, Chester, The Real Chinese Question. New 

York, 1907. 
Hodgkin, H. F., China in the Family of Nations. New 

York, 1923. 
Hutchinson, Paul, China's Real Revolution. New York, 


Latourette, K. D., The Development of China. 1917. 
Linebarger, Paul, Sun Yat Sen and the Chinese Republic. 

Martin, W. A. P., A Cycle of CatJmy. New York, 1900. 

The Awakening of China. 1907. 

Powell, E. Alex., Asia at the Cross-roads. London, 1922. 
Rice, Stanley, TJie Challenge of Asia. New York, 1925. 
Ross, R. A., The Changing Chinese. New York, 1911. 
Ross, John, The Original Religion of China. New York, 

n. d. 

Russell, Bertrand, The Problem of China. London, 1920. 
Scott, Charles E., China from Within. New York, 1917. 
Smith, Arthur H., TJie Uplift of China. New York, 


Chinese Characteristics. New York, 1894. 
Village Life in China. New York, 1899. 
Tyson, M. T., China Awakened. 1921. 
Werner, F. T. C, China of the Chinese. New York, 

Williams, S. Wells, The Middle Kingdom. Two volumes. 

New York, 1883. 



The General Enterprise 

Nowhere is it more important to study missions as one 
great movement. " Missionary comity " has its merits 
and its defects, but for various reasons it has been less 
operative in China than elsewhere. All religious bodies 
of Europe and America, like the commercial interests of 
both hemispheres, have rushed into this country, eager to 
be first to occupy and foremost to exploit. The conse- 
quent confusion in the Chinese mind as to what Chris- 
tianity is and what is its purpose in thus invading the 
country, is greater than in any other land. The charac- 
ter of many " Christians " has done not a little to obscure 
the meaning of the gospel message and hinder its recep- 
tion by Chinese. The lives of many Westerners in China 
are an outrage on the best ethics of the natives and a 
libel on Western civilization. 

There is some evidence of Nestorian missions in China 
as early as the seventh century, but they did not exert 
any traceable influence on the stream of Chinese civil- 
ization. Monasteries were founded, episcopal sees estab- 
lished, but all results of these labors disappeared. In the 
seventeenth century the Jesuit Ricci began a mission in 
Nanking, where he died in 1610. The Dominicans en- 
tered the country in 1631, and the Franciscans in 1633. 
The latter are said to have attempted a mission as early 
as 1294, but this is doubtful. In the seventeenth century 
these Roman missions prospered, and by 1669 there were 
said to be 300,000 baptized Christians in China. The 
preaching of the gospel was legalized by a Chinese em- 

[ 161 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

peror about 1720. The Roman Church has now over 
fifty bishops and more than a million native Christians. 

The first Protestant missionary was Robert Morrison, 
a native of Northumberland, who was sent out by the 
L M S in 1807. He had to go by the way of New York, 
and arrived at Canton, September 7. The Chinese looked 
on him with great suspicion; they could not understand 
why a foreigner should be there who was not engaged in 
trade. To allay suspicion he wore the Chinese garb and 
lived after the native manner. He had difficulty in secur- 
ing teachers, and so made slow progress with the lan- 
guage, but finally acquired an unusual mastery of it. As 
he was not permitted public preaching, he held Sunday 
evening services in his own house, attended at first only 
by a few English and American residents, but after a while 
by a few Chinese. A lifetime of earnest labor was re- 
warded by little fruit, and at his death in 1834 but ten 
Chinese converts had been baptized. He gave himself 
mainly to literary work, and in 1809 was engaged as of- 
ficial translator by the East India Company, at a salary 
of 500, which was later much increased. This freed 
him from dependence on the missionary board and gave 
him means to aid many literary and educational projects. 
His great work was the making of a complete version of 
the Bible, begun by an anonymous Catholic translator; 
and a Chinese Dictionary, in six quarto volumes, pub- 
lished in 1823 by the munificence of the East India Com- 
pany. These were contributions of very great value, 
though they have been since superseded by improved 
books, as later scholars have made progress in mastery of 
the Chinese language. Morrison spent 27 years in China, 
and with a great labor and sacrifice laid strong and deep 
foundations on which Protestant missions have ever since 

In 1829 the ABCFM sent out Rev. E. C. Bridgman 


Missions to the Chinese 

to supervise a translation of the Bible. He proved to be 
an accomplished diplomat, as well as missionary, and was 
at one time secretary of the American legation. S. Wells 
Williams, who went out as a lay printer and established 
a mission press, became one of the most scholarly of 
American missionaries. He did a great work in provid- 
ing a Christian literature; was secretary of legation at 
Peking for severaf years, and at one time charge d'af- 
faires; and returned to spend his closing years as pro- 
fessor of the Chinese language and literature in Yale 
University. The Protestant Episcopal Church sent out 
two missionaries as early as 1835, but its effective work 
began with the consecration of Rev. William J. Boone 
as missionary bishop in 1864. It has been specially active 
and successful in its educational work; and Boone Uni- 
versity and St. John's College are among the best mission 
institutions. The Presbyterian Board sent missionaries 
to China in 1837, and later adopted Canton and Shanghai 
as its chief stations, whence the work has branched out 
widely in many directions. Dr. John Livingstone Nevius 
was one of its outstanding early representatives, 1853-93, 
and was notable for his insistence on the policy of self- 
support, not as an ultimate aim but as the only right 
method from the beginning. Employing converts as 
workers and paying them with foreign money, he said, 
encouraged hypocrisy, mercenary spirit, and dissatisfac- 
tion among Chinese Christians, while it also aroused sus- 
picion and enmity among pagans; and even when ap- 
parently successful produced a hothouse and unhealthy 
growth of Christianity. The experience of many years 
has given only too much confirmation to this view, though 
Boards and missionaries have been slow to learn, and are 
still not more than half convinced. 

The work of the American Board has been very suc- 
cessful. One of their later appointees, Rev. Watts O. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Pye, a Minnesota farmer boy, went to the Fenchow sta- 
tion in 1907, learned the language so that he " speaks 
it like a native," and took charge of the Shansi district, 
on the far side of the Yellow River, which has a popula- 
tion of 8,000,000, and is one of the wildest regions in the 
world. He explored his field thoroughly, the first white 
man to do so, mapping the district, taking levels, mea- 
suring grades, taking note of mineral deposits, etc. His 
was the first real map of the region, and has been of 
invaluable service to all who have had occasion to enter 
it. He made converts, trained the promising among them 
and sent them out to evangelize the district. Prominent 
men, influential citizens among the Chinese, have been 
won, and the churches established are self-supporting. 
The work has extended beyond the Chinese Wall into 
Mongolia, where Mr. Pye has made tours and preached 
to large congregations. Christian churches have been 
found to be the best protection against banditry, and in- 
fluential Chinese who have not themselves accepted Chris- 
tianity are favorable to the missionary cause because of its 
observed effects. So, if there is in the coast cities an anti- 
Christian drift, in the interior there is a counter-move- 
ment wholly favorable to the progress of Christian mis- 

The China Inland Mission was established in 1865 by 
J. Hudson Taylor, formerly missionary of the Chinese 
Evangelizing Society and afterward an independent 
worker. It has had three principles : ( i ) To use volun- 
teers from all evangelical bodies; (2) that missionaries 
should be guaranteed no salaries; (3) that no solicitation 
of funds should be practised, but reliance should be had 
on voluntary subscriptions in answer to prayer. The of- 
ficial statements of the society would lead one to think 
the plan had been triumphantly successful ; but other mis- 
sionaries know that workers of the C I M have often been 


Missions to the Chinese 

in desperate straits and would have starved but for aid 
from other workers. The Mission has done an immense 
amount of exploration and pioneering in central and 
western China, under great difficulties and hardships, 
mostly unnecessary. In 1903 the CIM had 509 stations 
in 1 8 provinces, with 763 missionaries and 541 native 

workers, and over 90,000 converts have been baptized. 


Baptist Missions Bangkok 

The first mission to Chinese was not originally in- 
tended for them, but for the people of Siam. Rev. John 
Taylor Jones was sent to Bangkok in 1832, where there 
were many Burmese and Chinese as well as Siamese. He 
had already been a missionary in Burma and learned the 
language; hence he could preach at once to the Burmese. 
He learned the Siamese language, compiled a dictionary, 
and translated portions of Scripture. In December, 1833, 
three Chinamen were baptized, and one of them became 
an active worker among his countrymen. In 1834 Wil- 
liam Dean and wife reenforced the mission. A press 
was established with both Siamese and Chinese types, and 
a part of the New Testament was printed in 1837, though 
not completed till 1844. A chapel was built in 1839, and 
work continued among both Siamese and Chinese. Mr. 
J. H. Chandler was added to the mission in 1843, a lay- 
man and a printer, who was also a fine general mechanic. 
He not only established the press on a better basis, but be- 
came an aid to the king of Siam, introducing important 
mechanical improvements, including a steamboat on the 
river Menam. The destruction of the buildings by fire 
and the death of Doctor Jones in 1851 were two heavy 
blows from which the mission rallied slowly. In 1874 
occurred large additions to the outstations and in Bang- 
kok, ii baptisms in one, 17 at another, 84 at a third; 
and the following year 90 were baptized. Doctor Dean 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

labored there 50 years, during which time royal decrees 
permitted liberty to missionaries and Siamese subjects 
in religion. But the field did not advance in fruitfulness; 
many missionaries were transferred to China and finally 
Siam was relinquished as a mission field. 

South China Mission Swatow 

The first mission to the Chinese in their own country 
was begun at Macao, a town at the mouth of the Canton 
River, about 40 miles west of Hongkong, which has been 
a Portuguese settlement since 1557. Here Rev. J. L. 
Shuck won a few converts, but when Hongkong was 
ceded to the British in 1842 the mission was removed to 
that town. A grant of land was obtained, and two chapels 
were erected, an English resident paying most of the cost. 
A church was organized in May, and the first Chinese 
convert baptized. China proper had hitherto been closed 
to missionaries, but now five treaty ports were opened for 
foreign residence and trade: Canton, Amoy, Fuchau, 
Ningpo, and Shanghai. These naturally became the bases 
of missionary operations. In 1861 Swatow was added to 
the open ports, a city at the mouth of the Han River, 175 
miles northeast of Hongkong, one of the chief trading 
ports of China. This soon became the recognized center 
of Baptist missions in South China. Hongkong was re- 
linquished to the Southern Baptist Convention in 1847, 
they purchasing the property at a fair valuation and tak- 
ing over the work in that region. In 1844 a treaty be- 
tween the United States and China provided for the 
erection of chapels and hospitals in the five open ports. 
The establishment of outstations in the surrounding coun- 
try, though not strictly according to treaty law, was 
winked at by the Chinese government, and so the chief 
obstacles to mission work melted away. The Swatow 
mission is inseparably connected with the name of Wil- 


Missions to the Chinese 

liam Ashmore ; father and son have maintained an unin- 
terrupted connection with it from the arrival of the elder 
at the station in 1863. It has become one of the best 
organized of our missions, and its converts have from the 
first been trained in self-reliance and self-support. Since 
1870 the native churches have been undertaking support 
and direction of their pastors. All connected with the 
outstations were for some time reckoned part of the 
Swatow church, but they have been encouraged to become 
independent churches and are learning to stand alone. 
Perhaps the work of most lasting benefit done by the elder 
Ashmore was the making of a colloquial version of the 
Scriptures. In this he had the help of Miss Adele M. 
Fielde, who also for many years organized and directed 
a corps of Chinese Bible-women, who were one of the 
most effective evangelizing agencies of the mission. Be- 
sides the great advantage of being in the dialect actually 
spoken in the district, these various " colloquial " versions 
are printed in a romanized type, thus making it possible 
for illiterate Chinese to learn to read their own dialect 
in fewer months than the years previously required to get 
a reading knowledge of Chinese in the native ideographs. 
In 1918 an earthquake and fire destroyed a large part 
of the business section of Swatow. In rebuilding, the 
Chinese greatly improved that part of the town, widening 
streets and erecting more substantial buildings. Rev. 
Jacob Speicher, one of our missionaries there, saw the op- 
portunity and seized upon it. Under his leadership the 
little chapel formerly there was replaced by a six-story 
concrete building. The ground floor is mostly rented and 
so provides for the cost of maintenance. Above are a 
large auditorium, classrooms, lecture-halls, and all the 
equipment of an institutional church. Leading business 
men of Swatow, recognizing the social value of the service 
rendered, are contributing liberally to its support. In the 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

report for 1924, a varied service is described: the audi- 
torium meetings were attended by 120,000 people; 700 
pupils were enrolled in the various classes ; a health cam- 
paign reached 14,000 persons. Kindergartens, night- 
schools, athletics, a dispensary, describe some of the 
numerous activities. This church and the Tabernacle in 
Tokio are considered the best-equipped and most success- 
ful plants in the Orient. 

Back from the sea, in the Swatow district, are a high- 
land people known as Hakkas, " the strangers," appro- 
priately so called, as they differ in many ways from other 
Chinese. The women have never bound their feet and 
dress otherwise than Chinese women in general. The men 
are stalwart, brave, and intelligent, well adapted for lead- 
ership. They live largely in country houses, and there are 
no large towns among them. Less has been done for them 
than for the Chinese along the coast, probably because 
they were less known and less accessible for a long time. 
But one of their number became a Christian about 1880 
and began evangelizing his own people. Rev. W. K. 
McKibben with his wife, of the Swatow staff, was as- 
signed to labor among them, which he did with consid- 
erable success. Something like a mass movement has been 
developing among the Hakkas in recent years. The mis- 
sionaries have been overwhelmed with inquirers, many 
coming from the upper classes, the literati and people of 
wealth. It seems as if an adequate missionary force 
could reap a large harvest in this field, but so far the 
Board has lacked means to prosecute the work adequately. 

East China Mission Ningpo 

Ningpo was one of the five opened ports of 1842. It 
lies near the mouth of a river, in latitude 30, and has a 
population of 250,000 or more. It was occupied as a 
mission station in 1846, and a church was organized the 


Missions to the Chinese 

following year. In 1849 services were begun on the island 
of Chusan, about 30 miles distant, where there is a popu- 
lation of between 50,000 and 100,000, up to that time 
unevangelized. The first baptism of a convert at Ningpo 
was in May, 1849, and in 1857 the church had increased 
to only 18. Dr. Josiah Goddard was one of the most 
effective early workers, and in time his son followed him. 
The elder Goddard cdmpleted a translation of the New 
Testament in 1853 and most of the Old Testament before 
his death in 1854. By 1862 the number of Christians at 
the various stations had risen to about 100, and now a 
theological class was formed for the training of a native 
ministry. Hangchow, a city of 400,000, was made an 
outstation in 1867. The early converts of this mission 
had many trials because of their insistence on observing 
the Lord's Day; workers were discharged by their em- 
ployers, and even persecuted ; but the people and magis- 
trates became increasingly friendly. The Chekiang Bap- 
tist Association was formed in 1872, with 23 delegates 
present from six churches. Four churches of the SBC 
mission united with this association in 1881. A former 
" Central China Mission " has been consolidated with the 

West China Mission 

A station was opened at Suichaufu in 1889 by William 
Upcraft and George Warner. Mr. Upcraft had been in 
the employ of the British and Foreign Bible Society and 
had learned the language and customs of this region. 
The Baptist young people of Minnesota became respon- 
sible for the support of Upcraft when he was appointed 
by the Missionary Union. Other stations were opened at 
Kiating and Yachow. The difficulties and dangers of 
this work in West China were great in these first years, 
and for a time missionaries found it advisable to wear 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Chinese clothing and live native fashion a practise since 
discontinued. Mr. Upcraft was pledged to evangeliza- 
tion pastoral labor was to be supplied by natives and 
he made many long and adventurous journeys, carrying 
the gospel message into regions hitherto inaccessible. He 
had some niedical skill and this often made for him an 
effective approach to people who might otherwise have 
proved hostile. The province of Szechuan, which is the 
field of this mission, is a fine country, with a fertile soil, 
a good climate, beautiful scenery, and is inhabited by an 
intelligent, well-to-do people. The CIM had a few 
workers there, but it was practically a new field. The 
West China mission has four centers : Yachow, Chengtu, 
Kiating, and Suifu. Rev. H. J. Openshaw has held evan- 
gelistic campaigns in all. Chengtu has an ordained Chi- 
nese pastor. 

Missions of the SBC 

When the Southern Baptist Convention was organized, 
in 1845, two former missionaries of the Foreign Mission 
Board who were from the South, decided to work with 
the new organization. They were J. L. Chuck and I. J. 
Roberts ; and they gave the first start to the South China 
Mission, with headquarters at Hongkong and Canton. 
This field has an area almost equal to the three States 
of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, and three dia- 
lects are spoken on it Cantonese, Mandarin, and Hakka. 
In 1846 Rev. Roswell H. Graves was sent to this field and 
gave to it a long life and many-sided service. His work 
as traveler and preacher was great. In a single year he 
traveled 1,600 miles on Chinese boats and distributed 
9,658 tracts, preaching all along the shores. He had taken 
a degree in medicine and found plenty of opportunity to 
practise the art of healing. His literary labors were as 
important ; he compiled two hymn-books for the Chinese, 


Missions to the Chinese 

wrote books on Parables of Our Lord, Scriptural Geog- 
raphy, the Life of Christ, and a text-book on homiletics 
for his class of native preachers. In the intervals of 
these occupations he found time to translate parts of both 
Old and New Testaments. 

The first church building was opened in Canton April 
5, 1863, and in iSoo a new mission house was built there. 
In that year there were' 70 baptisms ; the following year 
the church numbered 357. From 1896 onward a mission 
boat named " Bearer of Blessings " was a great help. The 
Canton church became self-supporting in that year also. 
This mission has been extended among the Hakkas and 
been quite successful; in 1899 they had between 400 and 
500 converts. A great step forward was the formation 
of the China Baptist Publication Society, in 1898, in the 
support of which all the Baptist mission stations in China 
unite as a common enterprise that is doing a great work 
in publishing and circulating a Christian literature. A 
new building is projected in connection with this station, 
to be known as the Graves Memorial. 

The Central China Mission was begun in 1847 by ^ ev - 
Matthew T. Yates. Its field is the province of Kiang-su, 
approximately the size of Georgia. Shanghai is its cen- 
tral station, the most important of the treaty ports, at the 
junction of two large rivers, with a population of nearly 
1,000,000. It may be described as China's New York 
and Washington in one. It has long been the chief mis- 
sionary center of China, many American and foreign mis- 
sionary societies having their headquarters here. Col- 
leges, publishing houses, and hospitals have accumulated. 
Doctor Yates labored here more than 40 years. A church 
of ten was formed in November, 1847, and a few years 
later a house of worship was built with funds collected 
by Mr. Shuck in America. It was a large and striking 
structure, and when destroyed by fire in 1862 was rebuilt 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

with money contributed in Shanghai, an eloquent testi- 
mony to the progress Christianity had made in that city. 
During the Tai-Ping rebellion, which raged about Shang- 
hai, Doctor Yates was compelled to confine himself to 
literary work; and he compiled a Chinese dictionary and 
wrote many tracts. Later ( 1887) he completed a version 
of the New Testament in the colloquial Chinese of the 
district. The mission property was destroyed during 
these disorders, but an indemnity was secured and re- 
building followed. Aggressive work was resumed after 
the rebellion was subdued and was remarkably successful. 
A Baptist Association, the first in China, was formed in 
October, 1881, with 13 churches represented. A Central 
China Missionary Conference was organized in Novem- 
ber, 1892. 

Great progress toward self-support has been made in 
this field. In the Chekiang-Shanghai Association, only 
sixteen of the forty buildings used for church services are 
rented ; the other churches own their own houses. Nine- 
teen of these are new and only four of these have been 
built by funds from America, the rest by the local 
churches. All the officers of the Association are Chinese, 
and though the missionaries still have much influence, 
they strive more and more to efface themselves and en- 
courage the Chinese Christians to take full responsibility 
for the work and carry it on by themselves. Naturally, 
the teaching force of Shanghai college is prominent in 
this association. A home mission work is carried on by 
this body in Siaofong, a remote corner of Chekiang, under 
a Christian Chinese layman, lately ordained to the minis- 
try and put in full charge. It is things like this that war- 
rant the hope that not long hence Chinese Christianity 
will stand on its own feet, and that country will be evan- 
gelized by its own race. 

In the Shantung province, 500 miles from Shanghai, 


Missions to the Chinese 

the North China Mission was begun in 1860, by Rev. 
J. L. Holmes and wife, with Tungchow as the chief sta- 
tion. A church was organized there in October, 1862, 
and two years later it had 18 members. Rev. T. P. Craw- 
ford and wife joined the mission in 1863, and served 
with much success for thirty years. Then differences of 
opinion developed on the field as to the best methods of 
missionary work, which 4ed to the severance of his rela- 
tions with the Board. Several other missionaries re- 
signed, and joined him in 1892 in forming the " Gospel 
Mission." It was the policy of these missionaries to live 
like natives, constantly to itinerate and preach, build no 
chapels, establish no schools, and hire no native workers. 
They also held that missionaries should be supported 
directly by the home churches, the Board acting only as 
treasurer and exercising no direction or control. This 
controversy and schism crippled the mission for a time, 
but it rallied and even made a great advance, especially 
after the China- Japan war (1895). During that conflict 
the mission did an excellent Red Cross work, which was 
rewarded by much gratitude and confidence from the 
Chinese people, with whom missionaries were brought 
into closer sympathy. The mission suffered again during 
the Boxer troubles, but only in destruction of property 
no missionary lost his life and only one native convert. 

A Declaration of Independence 

In the autumn of 1925 the A B F M S received a com- 
munication from the native churches of China that marks 
a new era in the religious history of that country. Their 
Convention, representing 5,000 native Christians within 
our South China field, appointed a council of 80, to have 
the administration of their affairs hereafter, with only 
counsel from the missionaries, but no authoritative direc- 
tion. They hope by this action to diminish the opposition 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

roused among the Chinese by the anti-Christian move- 
ment that began in 1922. Concerning this feeling they 

During the months of April, 1922, there was organized in Peking 
the anti-Christian movement, which soon spread to other cities in 
China. They brought charges against Christianity, claiming that the 
Christian religion strangles independent thinking and fosters capital- 
ism ; it is in direct conflict with modern science and socialism. Chris- 
tians are called " foreigners' slaves," " hunting dogs to the foreigners," 
etc. . . Not long ago, Great Britain and Japan committed very unright- 
eous and cruel deeds in Shanghai. This occasioned the people to speak 
ill all the more against Christianity, claiming that the Christian re- 
ligion destroys the national character of its converts, they are dena- 
tionalized and the churches are " factories " for the production of 
" homeless slaves." Missionaries are said to be " forerunners of 
invaders " of China, etc. Thus it is simply true to say that under 
such conditions it has become very difficult to carry on the work and 
affairs of the Christian church. 

The important features in the new policy are these : 

The planning and administration of the work in all phases should 
be handed over to the Chinese Christians who must assume the 
responsibility, that the self-governing, self-sustaining, and self-propa- 
gating spirit may be encouraged and developed. 

Inasmuch as the preaching of Christianity in China is under the 
protection of the treaties secured by foreign powers, people suspect 
that Christianity represented by foreign missionaries has a close rela- 
tion with politics. Thus all the churches in the Ling-Tong district 
are called the "Great American Church." Since it is impossible to 
clear up the misunderstanding existing in the minds of the non- 
Christians, the Chinese church should now declare independence and 
cease to depend for its life upon the protection orginally secured under 
the treaties. 

Regarding financial support from the Mission Board, the Mission 
and the Ling-Tong Baptist churches should make a careful study as 
to the best use of the money. Under present circumstances, the Ling- 
Tong Baptist churches find it necessary to request a continuance of 
financial aid but such aid not conditioned upon foreign control. 

This new policy was received with sympathetic ap- 
proval by the Board and by Baptists generally in the 
homeland. It was recognized as a most hopeful symptom 


Missions to the Chinese 

of spiritual health in the Baptist churches of China. This 
desire to stand on their own feet, and to conduct their 
Christian propaganda in their own way, shows to what 
extent Christianity has ceased to be a religion of foreign- 
ers and is becoming a religion of the Chinese people. For 
such an advance as this American Christians have been 
praying and hoping for several generations; and why 
should they be dismayed now that their prayers are being 
answered ? 

English Baptists in China 

The BMS has concentrated its efforts in the central 
and northern provinces of Shantung, Shansi, and Shensi, 
each approximately the size of Great Britain. Timothy 
Richards began work in 1875, selecting as his base Tsing- 
chow, a city of 30,000, next in importance to the provin- 
cial capital, Tsinan. It is a city famous in Chinese annals, 
the home of Mencius, the most celebrated disciple of 
Confucius. Alfred Jones joined him the following year 
and they became the twin founders of the mission; they 
mean as much to this part of China as Carey and Marsh- 
man mean to India. Shantung is regarded by many as 
the key province, and the gospel has won special triumphs 
there. It is a wide plain of 700 miles, fertile, but subject 
to disastrous floods and droughts. By their relief-work 
services in such times the missionaries made their way 
into the hearts of the people. The faith and patience, zeal 
and endurance of the converts were often severely tested, 
but even the Boxer movement of 1900 was not more than 
a temporary check. Nevertheless, it was very serious; 
some 1 20 native Christians lost their lives, but most of 
the Shantung missionaries were safely escorted to the 
coast, while all in Shansi were killed. 

Self-support has been practised by the churches of this 
province from the first ; the motto of the missionaries was, 

N [ 175 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

" No cash, no consul." The churches of Shantung have 
grown to 7,000 members, while in the three provinces 
there are now at least 10,000 Christians. The Shantung 
Baptist Union, organized some years ago, now manages 
successfully the affairs of these churches the problem 
of devolution has already been solved in this mission. 
Progress in Shansi and Shensi has been slower, partly 
due to the fact that these provinces have had fewer 

Educational work was felt to be a necessity from the 
first ; an illiterate church would soon drift back into idol- 
atry ; besides, the children of Christians have an inherent 
claim to be educated. In 1924 there were 150 village 
primary schools, with 2,566 pupils. While care is taken 
to make the instruction thorough, special attention is 
given to character-building. Schools of a more advanced 
type were soon needed and supplied. One of these by 
1904 had grown to college grade and is recognized as one 
of the best, a main feeder of Shantung Christian Univer- 
sity. This fine institution was organized by Baptists and 
Presbyterians in 1904, and now has an Arts and Science 
College, a Theological Seminary, and a Medical School, 
with the latter also a Nurses Training School. Tsinan 
was chosen as the location, and just outside the walls a 
fine campus has been secured, on which have risen a series 
of buildings dormitories, halls, library, and a beautiful 
chapel. Women were admitted to the university in 1923, 
and at once forty passed the entrance examinations. 
Good secondary schools for girls are, however, much 
needed. A dozen missionary boards now cooperate in 
supporting this institution, from which 1,000 students 
have already been graduated. There is also the Gotch- 
Robinson Training School for older men, who have al- 
ready had some experience in Christian work; and -from 
this many of the best evangelists and pastors are obtained. 



o no zoo 300 o wo 6W 

MisriotyStatiora.- ..Shanghai 



The East China, South China, and West China Missions 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

" No cash, no consul." The churches of Shantung have 
grown to 7,000 members, while in the three provinces 
there are now at least 10,000 Christians. The Shantung 
Baptist Union, organized some years ago, now manages 
successfully the affairs of these churches the problem 
of devolution has already been solved in this mission. 
Progress in Shansi and Shensi has been slower, partly 
due to the fact that these provinces have had fewer 

Educational work was felt to be a necessity from the 
first; an illiterate church would soon drift back into idol- 
atry ; besides, the children of Christians have an inherent 
claim to be educated. In 1924 there were 150 village 
primary schools, with 2,566 pupils. While care is taken 
to make the instruction thorough, special attention is 
given to character-building. Schools of a more advanced 
type were soon needed and supplied. One of these by 
1904 had grown to college grade and is recognized as one 
of the best, a main feeder of Shantung Christian Univer- 
sity. This fine institution was organized by Baptists and 
Presbyterians in 1904, and now has an Arts and Science 
College, a Theological Seminary, and a Medical School, 
with the latter also a Nurses Training School. Tsinan 
was chosen as the location, and just outside the walls a 
fine campus has been secured, on which have risen a series 
of buildings dormitories, halls, library, and a beautiful 
chapel. Women were admitted to the university in 1923, 
and at once forty passed the entrance examinations. 
Good secondary schools for girls are, however, much 
needed. A dozen missionary boards now cooperate in 
supporting this institution, from which 1,000 students 
have already been graduated. There is also the Gotch- 
Robinson Training School for older men, who have al- 
ready had some experience in Christian work ; and from 
this many of the best evangelists and pastors are obtained. 



WO ZOO 300 40D SOO 603 



Mission Stations: 
Other JElaces: 


The East China, South China, and West China Missions 

Missions to the Chinese 

Work for Chinese women could not be undertaken in 
the early years, as the first missionaries were all single 
men. But from 1893, when women began to join the 
mission, both married and single, this work was begun 
and has increased until it is one of the most fruitful and 
promising features. Medical work has also been actively 
prosecuted during recent years. There are many encour- 
aging features. The progress in the other provinces 
promises to be more rapid henceforth. Observance of 
Sunday is increasing in China; the Government schools 
are closed but the tendency is to make it a day of rest 
and pleasure, not of worship. 

The circulation of Christian literature has counted 
heavily in evangelizing this part of China. Timothy 
Richards gave half his life to the service of the C L S, 
whose work has been of the utmost value. Not only 
books on religion and ethics, but text-books and refer- 
ence works for schools and scholars have been published 
and circulated in large numbers. Every enterprise would 
have languished but for this aid. Often the book goes 
where the missionary cannot go. 

Educational Work 

Persistent evangelism was the characteristic of Chinese 
missions in the early years ; persistent education might be 
called its later feature. The importance of training Chris- 
tian leaders among the Chinese was felt from the begin- 
ning. Morrison founded the Anglo-Chinese College at 
Malacca in 1818 and largely financed it during its early 
years of struggle. In 1845 it was transferred to Hong- 
kong. Missionaries like Ashmore and Graves gave much 
time and labor to training native preachers, and their 
improvised classes grew in time into theological schools. 
Northern Baptists now maintain two such schools: the 
Ashmore Theological Seminary at Swatow, and one at 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Shanghai that is now a department of the Shanghai Bap- 
tist College. The Graves Theological school at Canton 
is maintained by the SBC, as is the Bush Theological 
Seminary at Hwanghsien. 

Other denominations have engaged in this work, which 
had a phenomenal development in the last three decades. 
There are today 13 theological schools in China, and all 
but three of these are the results of interdenominational 
cooperation a truly surprising fact, paralleled in no other 
missionary region. Five of these schools conduct courses 
for graduates of colleges only, with 96 students, and three 
others have college students in attendance. The other 
eight require middle-school training, and have 295 stu- 
dents in attendance. Encouraging as these facts are, it 
still remains true that the proportion of advanced students 
to the Christian population of China is still too small. Are 
the missionaries at fault ? Have they too much repressed 
Chinese leadership ? We are always insisting on the need 
of native leaders. As they are produced are we willing 
to let them lead? Supplementary to these schools are 
50 Bible schools for men and women, that are doing a 
work of great importance. The need of Bible-women in 
China is great, because women rarely attend public wor- 
ship, being restrained thus far by custom, and so they 
have less opportunity than men to hear the gospel. Bible- 
women must take the message to the Chinese women in 
their own homes, at least for the present. 

Northern and Southern Baptists unite in supporting 
the Shanghai Baptist College, one of the finest institu- 
tions of the kind in China. Its buildings are unsurpassed 
eight large structures and twenty smaller, in a campus 
of fifty acres. Among the buildings are Haskell gymna- 
sium, Science Hall, with well-equipped laboratories, and a 
Women's Hall. The college activities are much like those 
in America. Its students number 700 and its faculty 66, 


Missions to the Chinese 

about equally divided between natives and foreigners. 
Besides the arts department, with 300 students, there is a 
middle school with 250 and a theological department with 
25. Hardly a student is graduated who is not a Christian, 
and from 50 to 150 conversions occur among the students 
every year. Fully half of the Shanghai faculty (and the 
same is true of Judson College in Rangoon) are Orientals, 
many of them graduates from American colleges and 
theological schools. Among the many who are prominent 
in Christian work in China, two graduates of Shanghai 
may be mentioned : Herman Liu, general secretary of the 
YMCA, and H. C. Ling, a B. D. of Rochester Theo- 
logical Seminary and M. A. of Columbia, who has been 
appointed by the Chinese Baptist Convention of South 
China to general direction of evangelistic work. A new 
science building has been completed recently, at a cost of 
$85,000 (the prewar estimate was $50,000) . Much build- 
ing in all our missions has had to be postponed, and it 
will require a decade or more to complete plans already 
of long standing. 

The Kaifung Baptist College, in a city of that name, 
is supported by the SBC. It has a beautiful twelve-acre 
campus, large dormitory, chapel, and several other build- 
ings. It is strategically located in the province of Honan, 
in the midst of a population of 35,000,000, and its field is 
approximately the size of Kentucky and Tennessee. 
There are only three other Christian schools of like grade 
in the province. 

Baptists also cooperate with the other evangelical mis- 
sions in the conduct of a number of institutions of college 
grade. Ginling College for girls, at Nanking, occupies 
a beautiful new campus that is a delight and an inspira- 
tion. Students come from eleven of the 18 provinces and 
from 34 different preparatory schools. Among them are 
1 10 Christians, belonging to ten different denominations. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Four Chinese women are members of the faculty, three 
of them alumnae of Ginling. Chengtu, in the province 
of Szechuan, is the cultural heart of China a'tity of 
500,000 people, with paved streets, electric lights, and 
other modern improvements. A University is located 
here, and Chengtu College is affiliated with it. It occupies 
a campus of 100 acres, and has seven attractive buildings, 
in which the Chinese style of architecture has been fol- 
lowed, the result being quaint and unique. Van Deman 
Hall is a Baptist dormitory. Besides the arts department, 
the College maintains a normal school and a middle 
school ; and there is also a school for the blind. The Col- 
lege has 47 students, and the University over 600. There 
is a good religious life among the students, and the entire 
province is feeling the influence of this institution. 

The secondary schools of the Chinese mission have 
had a phenomenal growth. Thus Kaying, in the heart of 
the Hakkas, had 120 students in 1915, while in 1921 the 
number had increased to 530, of whom 250 were in the 
academic grade. A later report says that 140 girls are 
now in this school. Wayland Academy at Shanghai has a 
good location in the heart of the city, but its buildings 
are old, plain, and rather inadequate. The Baptist women 
of the East Central District gave a new building as a 
jubilee gift to the Riverside Academy at Ningpo. The 
Presbyterians and Baptists jointly carry on this fine insti- 
tution. The Abigail Scott Memorial at Swatow for girls 
is another school of high class. A boys' academy at 
Hanchow is of equal importance in its field. Altogether 
our Baptist missions are responsible for 265 schools, with 
an enrolment of 8,455. 

Extent of the Work 

All Protestant missions have been active in educational 
work. In 1922 there were 7,046 schools and colleges giv- 


Missions to the Chinese 

ing a Christian education to 212,819 students. Not only 
ministers but educated laymen are demanded for the 
future progress of Chinese missions and for the welfare 
of China as a whole. It is an encouraging fact that al- 
ready 44 per cent, of the teachers in these institutions are 
natives and the proportion may be expected constantly to 

There are now eighteen Christian colleges in China, 
according to a report (1925) made by the China Chris- 
tian Educational Association. They show a large in- 
crease of students, faculties, and curricula in recent years. 
To date they have graduated 3,320 students, and there 
are enrolled in them 3,901, of whom 451 are women. 
More than 60 per cent. (2,430) are avowed Christians. 
The faculties number 818 members, of whom 412 are 
Chinese. Only 25.3 per cent, of the Christian students 
came from Christian homes. The Christian middle 
schools gave 74 per cent, of them, the government middle 
schools 15, and private schools the remainder. Of the 
412 Chinese teachers, 25 per cent, have had advanced 
education in England or America, 33 per cent, are grad- 
uates of Chinese colleges, and 10 per cent, are Chinese 
degree men of the old school. Of the students, 2,426 are 
taking its courses, 327 science, 202 medical, 113 educa- 
tional, 69 theological, 147 legal, 123 business, 16 en- 
gineering, 152 agricultural, 73 chemical, and 65 miscel- 
laneous. Only 164 of the graduates are in the active 
ministry, but 353 are in social-religious work, 831 are 
teaching in Christian schools, and 333 are in medical 
work. According to a recent survey, the Christian schools 
of China are now furnishing 25 per cent, of the construc- 
tive leadership of the country. 

Protestant schools are outnumbered by Roman Cath- 
olic, of which there are 3,578 with 144,344 pupils, while 
there are no more than 214,000 in Protestant schools, and 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

4,O75 x ooo in Government. Appreciation of the work 
done by mission schools is growing among the Chinese. 
A conspicuous instance is the school at Ding Hae, under 
charge of Rev. L. C. Hylbert. One Chinese merchant 
gave $200,000; an endowment fund of $193,000 has 
been contributed by others, and a budget of $29,000 is 
wholly raised on the field. 

Industrial education has not been neglected in Chinese 
missions, though it has perhaps not had proportional at- 
tention. A Christian Homemaker's school at Ningpo is 
giving training to 60 women and 20 children in the art 
of housekeeping. Similar schools are located at Huchow 
and Kaying. These have been established mainly through 
the agency of the Woman's Society and its workers. The 
new industrial teaching has the important result of help- 
ing Christian converts to forsake their heathen ways 
of living and become self-supporting and self-respecting 
members of the Christian community. 

What China Is Doing for Education 

China herself is making surprising progress in educa- 
tion. In 1905 the age-old literary examinations were 
abolished, and after the Revolution of 191 1 rapid advance 
was made toward adoption of a modern system. The 
Chinese classics were eliminated from the curriculum and 
modern text-books supplied in their place. A ministry 
of education was provided, which oversees the adminis- 
tration of the system at its head a vice-minister, four 
councilors, and three bureaus, one presiding over the 
three branches of the system : general, technical and pro- 
fessional, and social education. Each province has its 
Commissioner of Education. The plan contemplates a 
course of four years in a lower or citizen school, followed 
by three years in a higher primary, from which the student 
may go on to an industrial or normal school, or he may 


Missions to the Chinese 

go to a middle school for four years and thence to .a uni- 
versity, where again he has an option of a four-years 
collegiate course, or a normal or professional school. A 
good deal of this scheme at present exists only on paper, 
but it will ultimately be realized in full. 

While the standard of the Government schools is 
rapidly rising, progress has been retarded by the fact that 
the authorities have selected their English and American 
teachers in a haphazard way, and have given no security 
of tenure, but are constantly changing. This makes it 
impossible to secure a high grade of teaching talent. 
" Squeeze " is the bane of schools, as of every other public 
institution in China. But the Chinese leaders have been 
sufficiently aroused in behalf of education to be ready to 
do for state institutions more than any founded and con- 
ducted for foreigners can do. Thus Southeastern Uni- 
versity, at Nanking, has a financial backing quite impos- 
sible for the Christian Nanking University to secure. 

The Government University of Peking has a student 
body of 2,000, and the teaching staff numbers 190 Chinese 
and some 17 foreigners. Peiyang University at Tientsin 
and the Institute of Technology at Shanghai have depart- 
ments of applied science, including medicine, and about 
1,000 students. Schools of agriculture and forestry are 
maintained by the Government at Peking and elsewhere ; 
and that at the Canton Christian College is perhaps the 
best in the country. 

After the Boxer troubles, the various nations obtained 
heavy indemnities from China. The United States found 
a large surplus remaining over, after all proper claims 
had been adjusted, and at the instance of Secretary of 
State John Hay returned the balance to China, to be set 
apart as a fund for the education of Chinese in America. 
Fifty young men have been sent here every year and 
educated in our colleges and universities, where some of 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

them have won high honors. Still others have come on 
provincial scholarships and their own resources. But 
many thoughtful Chinese are beginning to question 
whether this is as much of an advantage as had been 
hoped and expected. They think their Chinese youth are 
becoming too much Americanized; when they return to 
China they find that they have lost touch with their own 
country and people. A remedy would be to require their 
young men to finish their college work before coming 
here; then they would be on the footing of Rhodes schol- 
ars whom we send to Oxford, fitted to profit by an Amer- 
ican university training, yet so well grounded in Chinese 
culture as to be in no danger of over- Americanization. 

On the site of the old examination stalls in Canton 
stand the buildings of the provincial normal school. 
Other normal schools of this grade have been established, 
but the demand for qualified teachers cannot be met for a 
generation ; China needs 2,000,000, and there are perhaps 
200,000 at present available. Graduates of the mission 
schools are the best present supply. 

On the whole, the progress of China in twenty years 
has been nothing short of marvelous. In 1905 there were 
but 1,300 students in all schools of a modern sort, while 
today there are 150,000 public schools, with an attendance 
of over 5,000,000. There are besides estimated to be 
more than 1,000,000 in private Chinese schools sur- 
vivors of former times when all schools in China were 

General Feng's School. 

An interesting experiment in native schools is that of 
General Feng Yu-Hsiang, leader of one of the revolts 
against the central Government of China, who has been 
widely proclaimed as a " Christian General," and was 
formerly a member of the Methodist Church of Peking. 


Missions to the Chinese 

He withdrew from that connection early in 1925, but 
in the later months of that year issued a prospectus of a 
theological school to train chaplains for his army. Candi- 
dates for admission must have been baptized and become 
acquainted with the elements of the Bible. Half a year 
is to be given to a preparatory course and another half 
year to a regular course, on completing which students 
will be given a diploma and an appointment as army 
preachers on salary. This is to be known as the Hung 
Tao or Vast Truth school. Food, clothing, and lodging 
will be supplied by the school, for the support of which 
General Feng apparently makes himself and his army re- 
sponsible. This is a novel sort of school, the like of 
which is probably not to be found anywhere else in the 
world, and such an experiment in Christian education 
under native direction will be watched with great interest. 
It was announced at the time in American newspapers 
that on the Chinese New Year's Day of 1923, Methodist 
missionaries baptized 4,100 of Feng's soldiers. In an 
interview two years later, the General is said to have 
declared that 70 per cent, of his army are Christians, 
and 95 per cent, of the officers. He has 80 chaplains for 
his men, and the use of tobacco and alcoholics is pro- 
hibited. How far his projects are truly religious, and 
how far merely military and political, is yet an unsolved 
problem. 1 

Women's Education 

The Chinese ideal of education for their women, until 
recently at least, was training in manners and morals, not 
instruction. Long ago Lady Tsao wrote books called 

1 One of General Feng's officers, General Chang, has recently given an order 
to the China agency of the American Bible Society for 8,000 copies of Bibles 
and Testaments for distribution among the officers of Feng's army. They are 
to be in half-leather and full leather bindings, and the cost of the order is 
$3,000. This indicates clearly that the Chinese are becoming increasingly ready 
to listen to the teaching of our Scriptures. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Rules for Women y Four Books for Girls, but few women 
could read them. Until the present generation, only one 
woman in a thousand could read, and even now in our 
Christian communities but one in 300 are literate. The 
first mission school for girls was opened at Singapore 
in 1825 by Miss Grant, an Englishwoman, who began 
with three pupils. The first school in China was at Ningpo 
in 1844 by Miss Aldersey, also English, which by 1852 
grew to a group of 40. Girls in these schools were taught 
the common branches of our primary schools, together 
with needlework and the like. Soon there were girls' 
schools in many mission stations and among all denom- 
inations, but Chinese conservatism was for a long time a 
great obstacle. Parents had to be convinced that educa- 
tion was of any value for a girl, but after a while obser- 
vation convinced many of its benefits. As schools grew 
in popularity, changes could be made, and self-support 
began. Some achieved this end by sale of embroideries, 
laces, etc., made by the pupils. The work was neces- 
sarily very rudimentary at first ; there were no text-books, 
and these had to be gradually made and printed in 
Chinese. Teaching had to be largely memoriter; many 
pupils learned entire Gospels. The curriculum was 
gradually broadened, largely due to the demands of the 
Chinese themselves. English and music were intro- 
duced, and finally graded schools. Physical culture came 
last and has proved very beneficial. Graduates became 
teachers and now most teachers are natives. 

Government schools for girls were not provided until 
1907. In primary schools the law recognizes no distinc- 
tions of sex, and coeducation is general, though the num- 
ber of girls in schools is still comparatively small. There 
are but nine middle schools reported for girls, with 622 
students; but there are 5,203 girl students in normal 
schools. Until 1919, when the national University was 


Missions to the Chinese 

opened to women, there was no Government institution 
in which a Chinese girl could get an education of college 
grade, and only three such institutions under missionary 
auspices. The entire enrolment of women in colleges does 
not exceed 300. There is pressing need of educating 
Chinese girls, for there must be more Christian mothers 
and Christian homes to make healthy progress of mis- 
sions possible. With all, the Chinese young woman is 
gaining liberty rapidly as much perhaps as she is fitted 
to use wisely. As an evidence of the new order of things 
in China, it may be mentioned that in 1923 twenty Chinese 
young women journeyed unchaperoned to Japan, to com- 
pete for the Far East tennis championship ! Girls have 
been active in recent student movements. 

Medical Work 

This has also been a prominent feature of Chinese mis- 
sions from the first. Morrison, though he had no medical 
education, had considerable medical skill, and with help of 
a native practitioner conducted a dispensary. The first 
medical missionary was Dr. Peter Parker who established 
a hospital at Canton in 1834. Doctor Macgowan opened a 
hospital at Ningpo, in 1843. In a single year (1844) he 
treated 2,139 cases, of whom 1,739 were men. Doctor 
Barchett resumed the work thus begun, and made it an 
important adjunct of the mission. In 1877, a sample year, 
7,500 cases were cared for. The work has extended until 
now we have ten hospitals at strategic points in connection 
with our missions. Other denominations are doing their 
share or more, so that there are now 426 Christian hospi- 
tals in 237 Chinese cities, with 16,737 beds, treating nearly 
150,000 people every year. Besides these, are 244 dispeii- 
saries for out-patients. Training of nurses is going on in 
most of these institutions. 

A Nurses Association has been organized, which holds 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

a national conference, conducts national examinations of 
nurses, and issues diplomas to successful candidates. 
There were in 1925 a total of 756 graduate nurses ; and 
more than 90 schools of nurses were registered, with 1,600 

Several Baptist missionaries have won special distinc- 
tion in medical work. Dr. W. R. Morse was a pioneer, 
the first to dissect a human body in Szechuan, professor 
of anatomy and dean of the medical faculty of West 
China Union University, the only medical school for 
100,000 people. Dr. C. S. Gibbs is the Baptist represen- 
tative in the college of agriculture and forestry at the 
University of Nanking. His special job is fighting animal 
diseases, particularly those to which poultry and silk- 
worms are subject. He has developed a vaccine for 
rinderpest. Along with his field trips he conducts a suc- 
cessful evangelism. 

But it becomes more and more evident that all help 
possible to be given to China from institutions of foreign 
origin is but a drop in the bucket ; a Chinese medical pro- 
fession is as much needed as Chinese ministers or Chinese 
teachers. The government established at Peking in 1906 
the Union Medical College ; this was originally a mission- 
ary concern, but Chinese were first invited to cooperate 
in its management and eventually to take over its com- 
plete conduct and support. It is a splendidly equipped 
institution and is rapidly training a competent corps of 
Chinese physicians. The China Board of the Rockefeller 
Institute has given large sums to the Peking Union Med- 
ical School and is founding a high-grade medical school 
at Shanghai, with which the mission hospitals will co- 
operate. The Margaret Williamson Hospital and med- 
ical school for women at Shanghai has been a union in- 
stitution about five years. It has grown amazingly, both 
in student attendance and in buildings and equipment. 


Missions to the Chinese 

The school is one of the seven medical colleges recognized 
by the China Medical Association as of A grade. The 
William H. Doane Memorial Hospital at Suifu is in the 
center of a population of 2,000,000, and there is only one 
other like institution to minister to them. In most of the 
Baptist hospitals, notably those at Swatow, Ningpo, and 
Shaohsing, nurses are in training, to the number of about 
40 in all. There are 200,000,000 women and children in 
China who need the help that graduates of these schools 
can bring them. Altogether, there are now 40 medical 
schools in China, of which nine are of missionary origin, 
the rest being government or private institutions. Of all 
these, however, not more than seven can be regarded as^ 
giving a medical training equal to that of the average 
American school. 

There is a China Medical Missionary Association, inter- 
denominational in character, with which we can and do 
cooperate in an attempt to teach preventive medicine to 
the Chinese people. The Government is waking to the 
importance of this work and a Council of Public Health 
Education is the result ; it is already carrying on work in 
19 provinces. The great need of this work becomes evi- 
dent when we learn that the death-rate in China is 40 
to 50 per thousand, compared with 14 per thousand in the 
United States. 

Li Hung Chang, the greatest man China has produced 
in our day, once said, " If the missionary ever comes io 
the Chinese heart, the physician will open the door." 

Notable Successes of Missions 

Recent progress in numbers is very encouraging. Or- 
dained Chinese ministers (1,305 in 1922) now outnumber 
missionaries (1,268). Inadequately trained as they are, 
their average culture is as much above the average in 
China as the ministry of any Christian country exceeds its 

o [189] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

average culture. The literacy of the churches is high as 
compared with the population ; 60 per cent, of men and 40 
per cent, of the women can read the New Testament and 
the greater portion of members are found in those country 
places where popular illiteracy is greatest. There is re- 
markable progress in reaching Chinese women. Once 
practically all converts were men; now there are four 
women to six men in the membership of the churches. 
Sunday schools are comparatively recent, but are mak- 
ing gratifying progress, and are particularly valuable in 
those numerous villages where there is as yet no secular 
school. In three provinces the number of scholars exceeds 
the church-membership, and in three others equals it. 
The number of families all of whose members are Chris- 
tian is rapidly increasing, making relapses into heathen- 
ism rare. Every year sees gain in self-support; salaries 
of pastors and other workers and cost of building 
erected being met by local contributions. Still larger 
numbers receive aid only in support of their pastor. More 
people of financial means are reached, and these contribute 
generously. Contributions from those still heathen, or at 
least making no profession of Christianity, are not un- 
known, especially for our school work. Chinese are 
forming and supporting home mission societies of their 
own and financing these themselves a kind of activity 
recently begun, that may be expected to grow with the 
years, until the evangelization of China is wholly a native 

At the first missionary Conference in Shanghai, in 1877, 
it was found that missionaries were at work in 91 centers, 
had organized 312 native churches, which had 13,035 
communicants ; in all, 29 societies were at work, with 473 
foreign missionaries. This Conference was followed by 
a great famine, in which from 9,500,000 to 13,000,000 
are estimated to have perished. This offered a great op- 


Missions to the Chinese 

portunity to the missionaries, of which they availed them- 
selves so well that distrust and opposition melted away 
before the good-will and service, and gratitude evoked by 
their ministrations took the place of former hatred. But 
this success raised a new problem, by bringing into exis- 
tence a new sort of " rice Christians," and thereby stimu- 
lated missionaries and native churches to new effort to- 
ward the solution of the old problem of self-support. 
Progress continued at a fairly rapid rate, and the Chinese 
Year Book for 1905 gave the following facts: Societies 
at work, 64; foreign missionaries, 3,445; native helpers, 
9,904; baptized converts, 178,261; schools, 2,196; enrol- 
ment, 42,546; hospitals, 166; in-patients, 35,301, out- 
patients, 1,043,858. British and colonial societies still 
take the lead, with Americans a good second, and Conti- 
nental rather a poor third. 

Christianity Becoming Indigenous 

Considerable progress has already been made toward a 
native Chinese Church. In the first national Christian 
Conference (1907) there were 1,000 missionaries and no 
Chinese; in 1913 one-third of the delegation were Chinese. 
The salaried workers now outnumber the missionaries 
six to one, and during the last seven years have increased 
95 per cent. The YMCA has adopted a like policy, 
if indeed it did not lead the way : its national committee 
of 75 are all Chinese. In Shanghai, for example, of "36 
secretaries but four are Americans; no addition to Amer- 
ican secretaries has been made in ten years, and there is 
no present intention of adding others. The national Mis- 
sionary Councils of former years have become National 
Christian Councils, which signifies much more than a 
change of names. The 25 Home Mission Societies are 
all Chinese, under native leadership exclusively, and native 
Christians are conducting propaganda with vigor. In 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

1918 a volume of 260 pages was required merely to list 
the Christian books, tracts, and periodicals. 

All of this marks the state of progress toward a Chris- 
tian Church in China that shall be indigenous, or at least 
acclimated. Administrative responsibility, the conduct of 
evangelizing and educational enterprises of all kinds must 
be transferred as rapidly as possible to. representatives of 
the Chinese churches. For only as responsibility is thus 
laid upon them, will real abiding advance of Christianity 
be made. Self-government will beget self-support and 
healthy expansion. 

Foreign missions are rapidly taking on a new spirit and 
assuming new form. Our objective is changing. We 
have fortunately lost a good part of our smug, complacent 
sense of superiority. We are not so much as formerly try- 
ing to impose a new religion and a new ethic on an in- 
ferior civilization, but trying to cooperate with an older 
civilization than our own in working out for itself an im- 
proved religion and ethic, retaining all that is good in the 
old and taking from us whatever of good it can assimilate. 
Ultimately we may hope that China will become Chris- 
tian, but its Christianity will not be the Christianity of 
Europe and the United States ; it will be a Chinese Chris- 
tianity, adapted to the genius of that people and its an- 
cient civilization. Western sectarianism, or denomina- 
tionalism if one prefers that word, cannot be successfully 
imposed on the Chinese, nor is it at all desirable that it 
should be if it were possible. The West is no longer so 
proud of its achievements in that line as to desire their 

The numerical strength of Protestant Christianity is 
still less than one in 1,000 of the population of China. 
Much territory is yet unoccupied. There are about 10,000 
" evangelistic centers," but less than half of them have 
schools. There are from 140 to 175 cities with a popula- 


Missions to the Chinese 

tion of 50,000 or over, and in all but 18 of these there are 
now resident missionaries. Until now effort has been con- 
centrated in cities, perhaps wisely, but the time is at hand 
for wider evangelization, since the result of missionary 
effort thus far is that 80 per cent, of Protestant Chris- 
tians are found in towns of less than 50,000 and in 
districts more rural. There is little of overlapping of 
agencies now, as the principle of comity is generally recog- 
nized. After more than a century of missions, about 45 
per cent, of China is still wholy unevangelized. 

With 130 separate Protestant missionary bodies at 
work in China, even with " comity " there is obviously 
great loss from disunion. Missionaries cannot but em- 
phasize too- much the things in which they differ, aspects 
of Christianity that .are purely Western, in which Chinese 
Christians cannot be expected to take much interest, and 
the heathen none at all. Tolerance and a spirit of frater- 
nity are growing, but still need much encouragement. 
Christian schools should no longer be regarded as a bait 
to catch heathen children, and through them perhaps their 
parents, but as an educational enterprise entirely worthy 
in itself. The quality of the schools and their instruction 
is deficient in many cases. The best are still better than 
the Government schools, but many are not. The Chinese 
elementary schools are the worst, and private schools (in- 
cluding Christian) are much superior. China is building 
her school system downward from the top; it is useless 
to discuss this as a policy; it must be accepted as a fact. 
The middle schools and universities established by the 
state are of high standard; indeed, few of the mission- 
ary " colleges " are their equals. Numerically, the mis- 
sion schools are already insignificant by comparison; it 
only remains to make them doubly significant in quality. 
This is not progressing so rapidly as it should be. If we 
fail here leaders of politics, commerce, and education will 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

more and more come from the Government schools, little 
influenced by Christianity if at all. Theological education 
is still weak, with the result that the native clergy is inade- 
quate to present demands and is likely to become still more 
inadequate. Too much attention cannot be given to the 
training of a native ministry. 

The Anti-Christian Movement 

Christian missions in China seem to be slowing down, 
and a strong anti-Christian sentiment has recently devel- 
oped. This is most manifest among the " intelligentsia " 
(it is only fair to say that they did not invent the name 
it has been thrust upon them). Christianity has become 
identified in the minds of Chinese with the character of 
so-called Christians, and above all with the policy of the 
" Christian nations." The World War contributed greatly 
to the growth of this feeling; the spread of the teachings 
of Darwin and Marx and such of their later disciples as 
Bertrand Russell has tended in the same direction; the 
propaganda of Russian Bolshevists, though possibly 
much exaggerated, has doubtless been a factor of con- 
siderable weight. Students and professors in the state 
universities, many of them educated in Europe and Amer- 
ica, are most prominent in a movement, whose object, as 
stated in one of their manifestos, is " to actively oppose 
Christianity and its various expressions with a national- 
istic consciousness and a scientific spirit." 

The educated Chinese understand only too well the 
attitude of American and European Christians to such 
problems as war, race prejudice, and industrial evils. 
They are not so much resolved to reject Christ as to reject 
" Christians." They fail to discover actual Christianity 
in the conduct of " Christian nations." They see few 
of the traits of Jesus in the " Christians " whom they 
meet, other than missionaries, and not always in them. 


Missions to tine Chinese 

They discover no evidence that the Christian churches of 
America and Europe take Jesus and his teachings with 
any seriousness, any real attempt to make profession and 
conduct correspond. Many of them have seen for them- 
selves what a " Christian civilization " is like, and they 
do not desire it for China. 

The thirteenth Conference of the World's Student 
Christian Federation held in Peking, April, 1925, was the 
signal for an outburst of anti-Christian feeling among 
Chinese students. Groups of radicals opposed to Chris- 
tianity were formed in many institutions, and they flooded 
the Chinese press with condemnations of the Federation 
and the Christian religion. Soon an All China Anti- 
Religion Federation was organized, and among its decla- 
rations was this: 

Of all religions Christianity is we feel the most detestable. One sin 
which Christianity is guilty of and which particularly makes our hair 
rise on end is its collusion with militarism and capitalism. So the in- 
fluence of Christianity is growing stronger, day by day, when its 
forces become more triumphant and the methods of capitalism are 
more drastic. Christianity is the public enemy of mankind just as 
imperialism is, since they have one thing in common, to exploit weak 
countries. . . It is the intelligence officer of the capitalists and the 
hireling of the imperialistic countries. . . What they are going to 
discuss is nothing more than such tricks as how to uphold the world's 
capitalism and how to extend capitalism in China. We acknowledge 
this conference to be a conference of robbers, humiliating and pollut- 
ing our youth, cheating our people, and robbing our economic re- 
sources. Therefore following our inner impulse we are organizing 
this federation and decide to declare war upon it 

Such allegations against Christianity cannot be dismissed 
as mere vaporings of disordered minds. Nor is it suf- 
ficient to say that Chinese students misunderstand Chris- 
tianity and Christian missions. The progress of Chris- 
tianity in China cannot be regarded as assured until 
missions succeed in divorcing themselves from these un- 
toward manifestations of a " Christian civilization." The 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Chinese must be convinced that Christianity does not 
mean conquest of the world by force, that it contains noth- 
ing that will not bear the white light of science, that it 
is not intolerant of truth from whatever source it comes, 
and beyond all else that it is concerned with making so- 
ciety righteous no less than with " saving " the individual. 
If missionaries shut their eyes to these things and merely 
try to "muddle through" in the same way they have 
been going for several generations, the cause of Chris- 
tianity in China is lost. 

Boycotts and Strikes 

Japan forced from China an agreement in May, 1915, 
for the transference of all mining and railway conces- 
sions previously granted to Germany; and an extension 
for 99 years of the lease of Port Arthur, as well as joint 
control over certain industrial works in which she had a 
large financial interest. This amounted to a surrender 
of Shantung to Japanese occupation. The Chinese na- 
tional spirit flamed up at this outrage, and the result was 
a national boycott of everything Japanese, which com- 
pelled that country to relinquish the greater part of the 
privileges it had acquired. 

Student strikes in 1925 became frequent as protests 
against injustice, a part of the anti-foreign, rather than 
the anti-Christian movement. They led to clashes with 
foreign powers in Shanghai and Canton, and as a result 
there was bloodshed. Charges and countercharges fol- 
lowed, into the details of which it is not necessary to go. 
For our purpose it is sufficient to note that the result was 
a marked embitterment of Chinese feeling toward foreign- 
ers, including missionaries. All missionary work has thus 
suffered an additional and undeserved handicap. 

The root cause of these late Chinese troubles is prob- 
ably indignation at the attitude of racial preeminence on 


Missions to the Chinese 

the part of white residents, which had deeply wounded 
the racial pride of the Chinese. The white man's pre- 
sumption and cocksureness, his ill-concealed sense of 
superiority, his patronizing method of approach, every- 
where arouses opposition and indignation. Many mis- 
sionaries are accused of this condescending attitude and 
of unfair treatment of native workers whenever their in- 
terests clash with those of the white missionaries. Many 
missionaries have remained silent regarding the outrages 
on students, and some schools have used their influence 
to the utmost in an attempt to suppress the student move- 

Many Americans have been utterly unable to under- 
stand this movement or its grounds. A spirit of Chinese 
nationality is so new a thing to them that they look on it 
with cold incomprehension. And it is a new thing in 
China ; it hardly existed before the Revolution, but since 
that great upheaval it has flamed out suddenly. It has not 
been able as yet to express itself in a stable government 
for the whole nation, but that failure is probably due to 
the ambitions and quarrels of a few leaders, each of 
whom is unwilling to take a subordinate place. Students 
have been leaders from the first, and this is just what we 
should have expected in China, whose people have always 
had a profound respect for scholars, since their rulers 
have for generations been recruits from this class. So 
when the new Western learning was introduced, the 
Chinese naturally accepted as leaders those who were 
presumably best instructed in the new ideas. The 
merchant class have supported the students, and to a less 
degree artisans and farmers have followed their example. 
The new China has for its slogan : Anti-imperialism, anti- 
capitalism, anti-foreignism, anti-Christianity. For the 
present this seems wholly a policy of negations, but a 
more positive and constructive policy may be expected 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

as soon as certain pressing grievances are adjusted. The 
Chinese are a peaceful people and not inclined to adopting 
forcible measure of redress. They are likely to remain 
a peaceful people, unless Western nations, by example 
and precept, lead them to adopt force as the only prac- 
ticable way of securing redress of wrongs and possession 
of rights. 

These recent events have constituted an occasion for a 
revision of our standards of missionary fitness. What is 
now most needed in China, and hardly less everywhere, is 
the missionary who has the outlook of the international 
sociologist. The older missionaries have in many cases 
lamentably failed to grasp the situation and have with- 
held their sympathy from the Chinese in their new na- 
tional movements. Only the YMCA and the Con- 
gregationalists have been outspoken in protest against 
the shooting of students at Shanghai and Canton, the 
maintenance of extraterritorial privileges by foreigners, 
and the "protection" of foreigners by gunboats and 
troops. Other denominations have spoken feebly or kept 
silence. Too often the older missionaries have accepted 
and approved the policy of foreign nations, and have in 
private spoken against the student movement. Some col- 
leges tried to suppress it among their students by " dis- 
cipline." The result was what might have been foreseen : 
thousands of students signed a pledge not to return to 
their schools. 

Christian Unity in China 

In May, 1922, the National Christian Conference was 
held at Shanghai. It was the first gathering of the sort 
in which Chinese Christians had been treated as entirely 
the equals of missionaries and other Europeans. There 
were many Chinese members who could speak better 
English than missionaries could speak Chinese. The 


Missions to the Chinese 

object of the Council was declared to be " To foster and 
express the fellowship and unity of the Christian Church 
in China " and other enterprises that made it practically a 
duplicate of our Federal Council of Churches. Among 
its important resolutions were a standard of Chinese child 
labor (twelve years), the more important as there are 
no industrial laws in China yet. Most significant of all 
action taken was the unanimous passage of the following 
declaration : 

We Chinese Christians, representing the various leading denomina- 
tions, express our regret that we are divided by the denomination- 
alism that -comes from the West. We recognize that denomination- 
alism is based on differences the historical significance of which 
however real and vital to the missionaries is not shared by us 
Chinese. Therefore, denominationalism, instead of being a source 
of inspiration, has been and is a source of confusion, bewilderment, 
and inefficiency. We firmly believe that only a united church can 
save China. Therefore, in the name of the Lord who prayed that all 
his followers might be one, we appeal to all those who love the same 
Lord to follow his command and be united in one church, catholic 
and indivisible. We believe that we are voicing the sentiment of the 
whole Chinese Christian body when we claim that we have the desire 
and the power to effect a speedy realization of corporate unity, and 
when we call upon the missionaries and the representatives of the 
churches in the West to remove all the obstacles in order that 
Christ's prayer for unity may be answered in China. 

Chinese Christians are in advance of American Chris- 
tians, apparently, in seeing that it is enough to be a Chris- 
tian, and that any church becomes sectarian and schis- 
matic the moment it demands any terms of fellowship 
other than Jesus makes. One whom Jesus receives as his 
disciple should obviously be eligible to membership in any 
church of Jesus. Unity is possible on no other terms. 
It is in China and Latin America that greatest advance to- 
ward practical Christian unity has yet been made. It 
was Chinese Christians who devised the slogan: "We 
agree to differ; we are resolved to love; we are united to 
serve." Theological controversy will block the wheels of 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

progress in missions, as it has already done at home. 
" Comity " has served its turn and is an outgrown ex- 
pedient that no longer functions. China likes that sort of 
partitioning as little as the political sort. Such divisions, 
her people now clearly perceive, are not made for the 
good of China, but in the interest of foreign sects. And if 
these sects are to remain, a Chinaman would like the priv- 
ilege of choosing between them that an American enjoys. 

Future Prospects of Christianity 

We are warranted in believing that Christianity still 
has a vital contribution to make to China, but we may 
well be less confident than we once were that it is the duty 
of missionaries to inculcate all the elements of Western 
civilization. It will be far wiser only to commend that 
which will obviously aid the life of the Chinese. It is 
more and more borne in upon us that no one race or 
nation or age can exhaust the significance of God's revela- 
tion of himself in Jesus the Christ. We are coming to 
see that there is truth in all religions, without any weak- 
ening of the conviction that Christianity is the crown and 
consummation of all religions. But can we reasonably 
hope for one type of Christianity to become universal, any 
more than one type of civilization ? May not the future 
solution of the agelong conflict of religions and sects be 
rather the mutual assimilation of the best of all, and 
equally mutual rejection of the inferior, while racial and 
national types remain permanently distinct? In that 
sense, not in the usual sense of the words today, the 
kingdoms of the world may be expected to become the 
kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ. 

Orientals do not so much deny the truth of what is 
proclaimed to them as Christianity, as doubt its potency. 
If it has done so little for the " Christian nations," what 
can it offer them of real good ? The skepticism is war- 


Missions to the Chinese 

ranted by their own experience. The conversion of the 
" Christian nations " to the religion of Jesus would be the 
greatest contribution possible to the conversion of the 
" heathen." How can we tell China that acceptance of 
Jesus and his teaching would solve all China's problems 
and give her peace, when it has brought no peace to 
Europe, and to America thus far no solution of her prob- 
lems? Physician, heal thyself, may well be China's re- 
sponse to the kind of gospel that has thus far been offered 
her. That such will be her final response, if the " Chris- 
tian nations " do not bring forth fruits meet for repen- 
tance, is a possibility that can no longer be ignored. 

Christian missions have already accomplished much in 
.China. They have contributed powerfully toward the in- 
tellectual and moral awakening; they have done much to 
educate the public conscience ; they have led to wide ob- 
servance of the weekly day of. rest ; they have reacted on 
other religions and stimulated them to renewed activity; 
they have done most to bring about the decree of 1916 for 
liberty in religion; they have been an effective influence 
to uplift Chinese womanhood, promote monogamous mar- 
riage, and lessen social vice; they have created a spirit 
of brotherhood and social service before unknown. Yet 
only the fringe of Chinese society and Chinese life is 
touched as yet ; the great work of Christianizing China is 
yet to do. 


What were the earliest missions in China? What mis- 
sionaries did the Roman Catholic Church send? How 
many converts has that Church? Who was the first 
Protestant missionary? Did he accomplish much? Who 
were some of the ABCFM workers? Has the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church a Chinese mission? What has 
the Presbyterian Board done? Have Methodists missions 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

in China ? Can you describe the work of Mr. Pye ? What 
can you say of the C I M ? Where was the first Baptist 
mission to the Chinese ? Is it still maintained ? Where 
was the first Baptist mission in China? Where is now 
the chief field of Northern Baptists? Who now occupy 
Hongkong? Where is Swatow? What Baptist mission- 
aries have made it notable ? What do we mean by " col- 
loquial " versions ? Why are there so many different ver- 
sions in China ? Can you mention any special feature of 
the work in Swatow? Who are the Hakkas? Where 
do they live? Is there any notable feature of the work 
among them? What town is the missionary center of 
East China? What other important station in this field? 
How did the West China mission begin? What kind of 
a field has it ? Who is the outstanding figure in the SBC 
mission in South China? Can you tell something about 
his work? What notable institution is in Canton? Who 
is the chief figure in the Central China mission of the 
SBC? Why is Shanghai so important a missionary 
center ? Where and when was the first Baptist Associa- 
tion in China formed? Are the churches in this field 
becoming self-supporting? Where is the North China 
mission ? What important advance was made by Chinese 
Christians in 1925 ? What led them to this step ? What 
new policy is proposed? How did American Baptists 
receive this proposal? What are English Baptists doing 
in China? What progress have they made in Shantung? 
In Shansi ? In Shensi ? Where did Christian education 
begin in China? How many Baptist theological schools 
are there? What are other denominations doing? What 
other mission schools have we ? How many union schools 
can you name and describe? What do you know about 
Shanghai College? Kaifung College? Baptist acad- 
emies? What are Protestant missions in general doing 
for education in China ? What are Roman Catholics do- 


Missions to the Chinese 

ing? Do the Chinese appreciate this work? Why is in- 
dustrial education so valuable in China? Do you think 
there is enough of it? What is China herself doing for 
education? How many Chinese are educated abroad? 
Is this a good thing for China? What can you say of 
General Feng's school ? Is much doing for education of 
Chinese women? Do Chinese wish their women to be 
educated? Are there government schools for women? 
Why are mission schools needed? Is woman's position 
improving in China ? Can you describe the beginnings of 
medical work ? To what proportions has it grown ? Are 
there any Chinese doctors? Are there enough? How 
about nurses? Can you mention any notable medical 
schools or hospitals in our missions? What is done for 
sanitation and hygiene? What are some of the striking 
successes of missions in China? How far has Christian- 
ity become indigenous? Is there good prospect of any in- 
dependent Chinese Church ? Is our missionary objective 
changing? What is the numerical strength of Christian 
China? Where are most Christians found? Does this 
suggest a future policy ? What is the real nature of the 
anti-Christian movement? How should the missionaries 
meet it ? What caused the boycotts and strikes from 1915 
onward ? What seems to be the root of the troubles ? Is 
the situation understood in America ? What might Chris- 
tian unity do to promote missionary progress ? Do Chi- 
nese Christians desire it? What is the chief obstacle? 
What can you say of the future prospects of Christianity 
in China? 


Balme, Harold, China and Modern Medicine. 1921. 

Beach, Harlan P., Princely Men in the Heavenly King- 
dom. New York, 1903. 

Dawn on the Hills of T'Ang. New York, 1898. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Brown, Arthur Judson, New Forces in Old China. New 
York, 1904. 

Bryson, Mary I., Life of John Kenneth Mackenzie, Med- 
ical Missionary to China. New York, n. d. 

Burt, E. W., Fifty Years in China (BMS). London, 

China Mission Year-book, The. 1926. 

Chinese Church, The: National Christian Conference at 
Shanghai, 1922. 

Christian Education in China, by the China Educational 
Commission. New York, 1922. 

Clarke, William Newton, A Study of Christian Missions. 

New York, 1900. 
Gibson, J. Campbell, Mission Problems and Mission 

Methods in South China. New York, n. d. 

Graves, R. H., Forty Years in China. Baltimore, 1895. 

Gray, Arthur R., and Sherman, Arthur M., TJie Story of 
the Church in China. New York, 1913. 

Lewis, R. E., The Educational Conquest of the Far East. 

New York, n. d. 
McNabb, R. L., The Women of the Middle Kingdom. 

New York, 1898. 
O'Neil, F. W. S., The Quest for God in China. New 

York, 1925. 

Price, Maurice T., Christian Missions and Oriental Civil- 
isation. Shanghai, 1924. 
Soothill, W. E., A Typical Mission in China. New York, 

Stewart, James L., Chinese Culture and Christianity. 

New York, 1926. 
Taylor, Dr. and Mrs. Howard, Hudson Taylor and the 

China Inland Mission. 2 vols. New York, 1920. 


Missions to the Chinese 

Speicher, Jacob, The Conquest of the Cross in China. 
New York, 1907. 

Wang, Tu C, The Youth Movement in China. New 
York, 1926. 

Webster, James B., Christian Education and the National 
Consciousness in China. New York, 1923. 



The Empire and Dependencies 

The native name of Japan is Nippon or "Sunrise." 
Japan proper consists of five principal islands, with a 
large number of smaller, stretching along the eastern 
coast of the Asiatic continent a distance of 2,500 miles, 
approximately equal to that from Maine to Florida. The 
islands thus contain a great variety of climate, but the 
largest is in the temperate zone. The area of these 
islands is 111,239 square miles, and of the whole empire 
160,000 square miles (some say 173,786), smaller than 
California, but about equal to the New England and 
Middle States. But while that area of our country has 
some 20,000,000 people, into Japan are crowded over 
50,000,000. This fact constitutes Japan's gravest prob- 
lem. The country is overpopulated, not only absolutely 
but relatively: Japan is a poor country in natural re- 
sources. While her mountains contain considerable 
mineral wealth, the three chief raw materials of modern 
production coal, iron, and oil are present only in small 
quantities and for the most part must be imported. Hence 
there is double need of expansion: to find homes for a 
population already excessive and rapidly increasing, and 
to acquire territory in which iron and coal may be found 
in sufficient quantities. It is this that makes many Japa- 
nese cast longing eyes upon Manchuria, Mongolia, the 
Philippines, and even China. 

The chief dependencies of Japan are : 

Formosa, with an area of 13,000 square miles and a 
population estimated at over 3,000,000. This island was 


The Sunrise Kingdom 

ceded to Japan by China in 1895. It * s a r i cn region, 
producing large quantities of rice, tea, sugar, camphor, 
and a considerable output of minerals. Japan is exploit- 
ing Formosa systematically, at the same time greatly im- 
proving its educational and administrative system. Thus 
far it ranks as a territorial possession, and the Japanese 
people know and care as much about it as Americans 
know of Alaska or Hawaii. 

Korea or Chosen, in which Russia recognized the 
" paramount interests of Japan " by treaty in 1905; and 
in 1910 a treaty was concluded between Korea and Japan, 
by which the former was annexed to the Japanese em- 
pire. The Emperor of Korea renounced all political 
power, and by a rescript in 1919 the Mikado guaranteed 
Koreans the same rights as Japanese. Korea is mainly 
an agricultural country, but there are considerable de- 
posits of iron, coal, and other minerals. It has an area of 
86,000 square miles and a population of over 17,000,000. 
Japan's occupation of the country has been attended by 
charges of tyranny and cruelty and has provoked native 
opposition. Missions have been hampered by accusations 
that missionaries encourage disobedience to Japanese au- 

The People 

The Japanese are a mixed race, mainly of Mongolian 
origin, with admixture of Malay elements in the southern 
parts. An aboriginal race called Ainos still survives in 
considerable numbers. The Japanese speak an agglutina- 
tive language, but they borrowed from China her ideo- 
graphs and have only recently adopted alphabetic printing. 

The civilization of Japan is very ancient, though less 
ancient than that of China, from which it was probably 
derived. Writing was not introduced till the fifth cen- 
tury A. D. Paper was in use as early as the seventh cen- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

tury, and printing was practised from about 1200 on. 
The social conditions are excellent in many respects, but 
the position of woman is bad. True, she has a considerable 
measure of freedom, but little respect. There is no po- 
lygamy, but divorce is allowed only to the man, who must 
however provide for his divorced wife. Prostitution is 
legal and not disreputable ; it is not uncommon for men of 
high standing to select wives from the geishas. 1 An 
ominous fact is that there are almost as many known 
prostitutes ( 1 12,912) as there are girls in primary schools 
( 176,803 ) . The Buddhist attitude toward women is bad ; 
her only hope is Christianity, with its equal standard of 
morals and opportunity for both sexes. 

Japanese people have many excellent characteristics: 
perseverance, courage, good humor, politeness, and a large 
measure of self-confidence. The. lower orders are very 
industrious, temperate, courteous, and hospitable. There 
is no question that they are a people of marked intel- 
ligence, of exceptional physical stamina, that they are 
actuated by much pride and ambition, and that they have 
a great future. They are not as intellectual a people as 
the Chinese; for ages they took their ideas from China, as 
recently they have taken their ideas from the West. They 
imitate and assimilate well, but do not originate. Their 
temperament is passionate and esthetic. They have re- 
covered from their first indiscriminate admiration and 
imitation of everything Western, and Japan is now less 
cosmopolitan and more national than it was twenty-five 
years ago. The people have the outstanding virtues of 
feudalism. courage, loyalty to a chief, personal honor. 
Loyalty and filial piety are the two pillars of Japanese 
ethics and Japanese life. Christianity must emphasize 
these, not ignore or oppose them, in order to make the 
most effective contact with the people. 

1 Pronounced gay-sha; there are about 60,000 of these " entertainers." 


The Sunrise Kingdom 

Every visitor to Japan is impressed by the excellence 
of the nation in the fine arts and the general prevalence 
of an artistic sense. Long cultivation as well as a racial 
love of beauty, has contributed to this state of things. 
The Japanese lacquered wares, their hammered vases, and 
similar products are renowned the world over. Their 
painting, though its ideals and methods differ widely from 
European art, is worthy of most careful study and ap- 
preciation. Love of flowers is a national trait, and many 
of the chrysanthemums, iris, and peonies that win prizes 
in our horticultural shows, originated in Japan. Their 
gardeners have developed great skill, and possess some 
secrets unknown to the Western world, such as the dwarf- 
ing of trees so that they can be grown in pots. All of this, 
however, applies mostly to the old Japan ; the new Japan 
is said by travelers to be ugly, with an intensity of ugli- 
ness not found elsewhere. Taste seems to evaporate as 
soon as the attempt is made to adopt Western things 
and ways. The Japanese have discovered for themselves 
that not everything Western is admirable, and are return- 
ing to their old customs, dress, and art. 

The Revolution weakened and modified the feudal sys- 
tem, of Japan without destroying it. The people are still 
divided into three classes : owazoku, or nobility ; samurai, 
or gentry; heimin, or common people. The former 
daimios or feudal barons were abolished in the revolution, 
but a considerable part were given new titles of nobility 
(duke, marquis, count). The old clan system, much 
weakened to be sure, survives ; and four of the clans prac- 
tically control Japan. It is rare that any cabinet officer, 
general, or admiral is not* from one of these clans. 


Until its recent development, Japan was an agricultural 
country, and agriculture is still the occupation of a major- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ity of its people. The soil is naturally rather poor, and 
large parts of the islands are not arable. Industrious 
cultivation has made the land yield generous crops, but 
even so great quantities of food-stuffs must now be im- 
ported, including American flour. About three-fifths of 
the soil is worked by peasant-proprietors, the rest by 
tenants. The flora of Japan is much like that of the 
United States. In the south the palm, banana, bamboo 
flourish, while in the north there are forests of oaks and 
pines. Many fruits, such as oranges, pomegranates, 
pears, apricots, peaches, are of foreign origin, having been 
introduced from China and Korea. Buckwheat, potatoes, 
melonSj pumpkins are grown in abundance. Ginger, 
pepper, cotton, hemp, and tobacco are produced in large 
crops. Much tea is also grown, but it is reckoned inferior 
to Chinese. 

The fauna of Japan differs greatly from that of Amer- 
ica. Wild animals are hardly known ; they were extermi- 
nated or domesticated long ago. The buffalo is found 
there (not the American bison). The horses of Japan 
are small; there are few sheep and cows, no asses or 
mules, unless recently imported. Fowls of varied types 
are common. Swine are few in proportion to the popula- 
tion. The Japanese are small meat-eaters, which fact 
accounts for many of their peculiar features. On the 
other hand, they are large consumers of fish, and the 
fisheries of Japan are one of her most important indus- 

Japan is thus virtually compelled to become a great 
manufacturing nation in order to support her population. 
The last fifty years have seen a tremendous development 
in all directions, which has placed Japan as a producing 
nation on a par with England, Germany, and the United 
States. The census of 1920 showed 23,831 factories in 
operation, employing 1,390,942 persons, of whom the 


Tine Sunrise Kingdom 

majority (770,966) were women and girls. Immense 
quantities of raw cotton are imported, in addition to what 
is raised, and the major part is exported in all sorts of 
fabrics, knitted and woven. This may be called Japan's 
major industry; but raw silk and silk textiles are also 
exported in enormous bulk and value. The earthenware 
and lacquered wares of Japan go all over the world and 
are highly esteemed. Straw mattings and other plaited 
straw wares are another large item in the export trade. 
Large quantities of paper, of both native and European 
types, are sent abroad. 

The United States is Japan's best customer; the com- 
bined exports from and imports into this country are 
greater than the trade with any other two nations. This 
is a strong bond between the two peoples and makes for 
peace; for, as a Japanese ambassador not long ago re- 
marked, " One does not fight with one's best customer." 

The building of railways began in 1872 and has gone 
on until in 1920 there were 8,475 miles of tracks, all but 
1,994 owned and operated by the State; they carried in 
the previous year 551,826,847 passengers. Preparations 
are making for electrifying all of them, for which there is 
abundant water-power in the streams, which though small 
are numerous. There are 983 miles of electric tramways. 
The country is covered with a network of telegraphs 
and telephones, operated by the Government in connection 
with an excellent postal system. 

Modern banking began in Japan in 1872, and the coun- 
try is well supplied with banks of the European and Amer- 
ican model. The gold standard has prevailed since 1897, 
the unit of value being the "yen," about half of an 
American dollar. Gold, silver, and nickel coins much like 
our own are in use, together with paper money redeemable 
on demand in coin. There are 659 savings-banks, and 
the Government has a postal-savings system, in which 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

there are deposits of $450,000,000. There are also 203 
mutual loan societies, with paid-up capital of $2,248,000. 
The metric system was adopted in 1921, but outside of 
money is not yet much in use. 

Japan is one of the great military nations, and the main- 
tenance of its army and navy is a great tax on its re- 
sources. The navy costs approximately $250,000,000 a 
year and the army (peace strength 250,000) an additional 
$166,000,000. To this cost must be added the drain on 
productive power by compulsory and universal military 
service, beginning at the age of 20 and not ending until 
40. Of this two whole years must be spent with the 
colors and five more in the first reserve with regular train- 
ing several weeks each year. After that one passes into 
the second line, to be called on only in case of war, and 
finally into the home defense army at the age of 38, 
thenceforth liable to service only if the country suffers 
foreign invasion. 

Many Japanese are dissatisfied with the economic 
status of the people and Socialism is spreading among 
them. A " Fabian Society," like that of England, was 
organized in 1924, and it is reported that 4,000 students 
have joined it. Russian propaganda has not been with- 
out effect, and there are a few plotting and bombing radi- 
cals, but as a whole the Japanese still hold to the safe and 
sane ideal of evolution rather than revolution. Manhood 
suffrage has been demanded by the more progressive ele- 
ment, and a bill for this is now on the point of passage, 
but the voting age is likely to be made 30, which will 
eliminate practically the whole student body, and that will 
mean more agitation. Woman suffrage has been agitated 
somewhat, but is making little progress. 

The Japanese government has shown special interest in 
recent years in social welfare work, and has made a splen- 
did record ; but there is need of much more than has yet 

[ 212 ] 

The Sunrise Kingdom 

been attempted. There was no such thing as philanthropy 
in Japan until the modern missionary"movement took hold 
of the people. Buddhists preached mercy but did not 
practise it. Now the Red Cross has perhaps more mem- 
bers than in any other part of the world; yet 200,000 
Christians still have one-fourth of all the benevolent in- 
stitutions of the land. Orphanages are a leading kind of 

The Labor Movement 

The condition of the working classes is deplorable, 
especially of women and children wage-earners. Of these 
there are 12,000,000, many of them working in twelve- 
hour shifts. Wages are low; sin and disease take a 
terrible toll ; 300,000 recruits are demanded every year to 
keep up the supply. Of child workers, 200,000 are under 
thirteen years; 725 are between thirteen and seventeen; 
they work ten and twelve hours a day. Japan is now pass- 
ing through the same industrial difficulties that afflicted 
England in the early years of the nineteenth century, and 
is only beginning to abate these evil conditions by legisla- 
tion. The organization of the new labor party by Rev. 
Toyohiko Kagawa has done much to awaken the national 
conscience and stimulate government action. Professor 
Abe, of Waseda University, is another prominent leader 
in this movement. The party includes not only industrial 
workers but farmers, and is often called the Labor- farmer 
party. It has a practical program of twenty points, based 
on three principles: (i) The emancipation of the pro- 
letarian class in the social and political fields; (2) refor- 
mation by legal means of the system of production and 
distribution of the land; (3) reconstruction of the parlia- 
mentary system and abolition of the old political parties 
representing capitalism. So closely connected with the 
Labor-farmer party as to be an integral part of the move- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ment is a tenant farmers' union organized in 1921 by 
Kagawa and two others with two hundred members, 
which has grown to a membership of over twenty-five 
thousand. The motto is socialization of the land. The 
union demands include a decrease in the rate paid to the 
land-owners from fifty-five per cent, to thirty per cent, of 
the crop, and the legalization of the right to cultivate the 
land. Probably 70 per cent, of present landworkers are 
tenant-farmers, and they are compelled to pay to land- 
lords 55 per cent, of their product. Of the 60,000,000 
people of Japan, Kagawa tells us 1,500,000 have no prop- 
erty at all, while the wealth of a few is growing greater. 
No country has on its hands a more serious social problem 
than Japan. 

The first fruit of Kagawa's agitation was the passage 
by Parliament of a Labor Act reducing the maximum day 
of twelve hours to eleven, prohibiting child labor in mines 
and night work for girls under 16. But while the Act 
went into effect July i, 1926, the last clause is not to be 
effective until 1929. The age of child labor is raised 
from 12 years to 14, only in cases where the primary edu- 
cation has not been completed, and silk factories and 
machine-shops are excepted from all provisions. The Act 
therefore affects only a part of the workers and relieves 
bad conditions to a very slight extent. It has some value 
as a first step, and that is all. 

Religion of Japan 

The native religion of Japan is Shinto, " the way of the 
gods/' and it differs from all other religions in that it has 
neither founder, creed, nor ritual. The name Shinto de- 
scribes a group of miscellaneous beliefs, which in latest 
times have assimilated much from Confucianism and 
Buddhism. Shinto is believed to have been at first a 
simple animism, like the Taoism of China, the objects and 


The Sunrise Kingdom 

forces of nature being conceived as alive and to be wor- 
shiped or propitiated ; to which was soon added the adora- 
tion of deified men. It is polytheistic and recognizes no 
Supreme Deity; it has no moral code and teaches no 
future state. What it has is a cult, or rather a collection 
of more or less incongruous cults ; and these have devel- 
oped priesthoods and rituals. It was not ancestor wor- 
ship, though this has been adopted into it from China; 
and in its popular form became chiefly the worship of the 
Mikado, who was believed to be of divine descent. The 
average Japanese gets his religious ideas and his patriotic 
veneration of the Mikado from Shinto; for his moral and 
social code he turns to Confucius ; and his hope of salva- 
tion, if any, comes from Buddhism. Hence he can with- 
out difficulty profess and practise all three religions simul- 
taneously. A synthesis of Buddhism and the ancient 
Shinto is now found in Japan that some scholars call 
" mixed Shinto." There are said to be thirteen distinct 
sects of Shinto, which together have 49,459 important 
shrines, besides 66,738 minor shrines ; and ministering to 
these are 14,698 priests. 

Thus far Shinto is inseparable from national life the 
Imperial house still professes and practises this religion so 
that ideas of loyalty and patriotism that are fundamental 
in the Japanese character become naturally associated 
with it. There are two aspects of Shinto; First, State 
Shinto, officially declared not to be a religion, but merely 
deep veneration of Imperial ancestors, which finds appro- 
priate expression in public festivities and rites. Revered 
national heroes are associated with departed emperors 
in this cult, if it may be" called that in view of the official 
disclaimers. This form of Shinto prevails in some 50,000 
shrines, in charge of guardians and under supervision by 
the Bureau of Shrines. Nevertheless, it is asserted that 
there is no state religion in Japan and that no form of 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

religion receives state support, but all are tolerated. Sec- 
ond, popular Shinto, including numerous sects, supervised 
with other religions by the Bureau of Religions. Some of 
these sects have more or less amalgamated with Bud- 
dhism ; all of them are polytheistic, and there are number- 
less major and minor deities in the various temples and 
shrines throughout the empire. 

Confucianism is not properly a religion, even in China, 
and in Japan has never been other than a philosophical 
ethical system, a school of learning. It is wide-spread and 
is most important in forming the character of the Japa- 
nese. There are many Confucian schools, most of them 
having a pantheistic tendency. The Analects are still the 
most revered book. A Japanese newspaper instituted a 
popular referendum in 1909, as a result of which the Ana- 
lects ranked first and the New Testament seventh in esti- 

Confucianism was introduced into Japan with many 
other elements of the Chinese civilization, but has been 
much modified. Chinese Confucianism teaches filial piety 
as the first duty of man; Japanese Confucianism gives 
first place to loyalty to the emperor. Confucius is no 
longer the great Master to the Japanese, but the chief 
philosopher of China. His words are considered wise say- 
ings, but no longer authoritative. Both Buddhism and 
Confucianism fell with the Shogun so say the Japanese 
themselves. With the Restoration, Shinto again took its 
place as the national cult, giving a new significance and 
influence to loyalty, and so far is nationally useful; but 
the soberest minds among the Japanese recognize its de- 
ficiency as an ethical system. 

Buddhism was introduced into Japan in the sixth Chris- 
tian century. It has been more or less favored by the 
courts, some emperors being professed disciples, but was 
never made a state religion. In order to promote its 


The Sunrise Kingdom 

progress, Buddhist evangelists showed considerable skill 
in syncretizing; they recognized the chief divinities of the 
Japanese as incarnations of Buddha. They suffered their 
doctrine of Nirvana to lapse and substituted a heaven and 
hell more according with Japanese ideas. An active re- 
vival of the religion is now in progress, with some ten- 
dency to opposition toward Christian missions. The Sun- 
day school, in particular, is used as a propagating agency, 
to indoctrinate the young with Buddhistic ideas and so 
make them immune to Christian teaching. Buddhism is 
still a force to be reckoned with in Japan. Its long his- 
tory and great wealth are entrenchments not easily cap- 
tured. There are 71,626 temples, besides 36,086 minor 
shrines, and 52,894 priests and priestesses. 

Japanese Buddhists are undertaking important social 
service on a scale that Christians have been unable or un- 
willing to consider. Their program embraces : ( I ) Poor 
relief, including dispensaries, hospitals, homes for the 
aged; (2) prevention of poverty, including employment 
agencies and workhouses; (3) protection of children, in- 
cluding day-nurseries, kindergartens, orphanages, found- 
ling-asylums ; (4) training of defectives, especially the 
blind and dumb, including also reformatories for way- 
ward youth, care of ex-convicts; (5) education, including 
children's clubs, night-schools, libraries, amusements; (6) 
betterment of rural districts; (7) improvement of living 
conditions. Numerous societies are engaged in these 
works, and a large number of buildings are already de- 
voted to it. An effort is making to secure endowments 
for many of these enterprises. Japan is the only country 
in the world where any program like this has been at- 
tempted under other than Christian leaders. It will be 
very interesting to watch its development. 

To the above some authorities would add Bushldo, but 
the better view seems to be that this is not a religion in 


A Short History *of Baptist Missions 

any proper sense, but the ancient code of honor of the 
samurai or knightly class, closely corresponding to chiv- 
alry in Europe. It still remains the dominant note of the 
higher-class life of Japan, and is fostered by the State, 
though not in any official way, as promoting a high stand- 
ard of loyalty and public service. 

The Status of Christianity 

Christianity was a proscribed religion in Japan for two 
decades after the ports were opened for commerce. The 
constitution adopted after the Revolution (1889) pro- 
fessed toleration, if not religious liberty. Article XXVIII 
said : 

Japanese subjects shall within limits not prejudicial to peace or 
order and not antagonistic to their duties as subjects, enjoy freedom 
of religious belief. 

But it was not until 1873 that the government ordered the 
removal of the posters that had previously studded Japan 
from end to end. One article of these read : 

So long as the sun shall continue to warm the earth let no Chris- 
tian be so bold as to come to Japan, and let all know that the King of 
Spain himself, or the Christian's god, or the great God himself, if he 
dare violate this command, shall pay for it with his head. 

In spite of its professions of toleration, the Japanese 
Government often used repressive measures against our 
missions and missionaries in the early days, but in Jan- 
uary, 1912, the Government announced a different policy, 
that of recognizing Christianity as a religion that it was 
prepared to encourage. Leading Japanese have come to 
understand that Shinto and its cardinal doctrine of the 
divine descent of the Mikado and his consequent in- 
violable prerogatives cannot endure the light of modern 
scientific training. They realize also that neither Bud- 


The Sunrise Kingdom 

dhism nor Confucianism can take its place. Either 
Christianity or some form of agnosticism appear to be the 
only practical alternatives. A Christian ethic offers 
greater possibilities of social and political stability than an 
agnostic; therefore, as practical statesmen, they are in- 
clined to favor Christianity for others, even if they fail 
to accept it for themselves. 

Some native opposition to Christianity is lately mani- 
festing itself, though not in the organized form rife in 
China. Baron Hiroyuki Kato, at one time president of 
the Imperial University in Tokio, published in 1907 Our 
Country and Christianity. He called the idea of universal 
brotherhood " poisonous doctrine," and objected to Chris- 
tianity as a cosmopolitan religion that places God on a 
higher throne than the emperor and his ancestors and 
so really urges treason. It is a religion unsuited to Japan, 
because it is individualistic, while Japan is communistic ! 
Moreover it is unscientific and superstitious. 


Education is almost universal in Japan, primary educa- 
tion having been compulsory for more than a generation ; 
the percentage of illiteracy is now therefore very small, 
An imperial rescript established a full system of education 
in 1890: primary, middle, and normal, university and 
technical. The enrolment in the primary schools exceeds 
8,000,000, which is 97 per cent, of the children of school 
age ; and children of rich and poor are educated together 
for six years. The high and normal schools are of excel- 
lent grade, and above these are five state universities, of 
which the largest is in Tokio, and has more than 400 pro- 
fessors and instructors and over 5,000 students. The 
other four together about equal this number of faculty 
and students. Besides these, 31 other institutions have 
been admitted to university rank, with 1,432 teachers and 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

30,057 students. These figures are all for the year 1920, 
the latest available. 

Waseda University, founded by Count Okuma, is en- 
tirely controlled by Japanese, and has the same status as 
compared with the Government universities that the Uni- 
versity of Chicago has as compared with the University 
of Illinois or Wisconsin. It is, aside from Tokio, prob- 
ably the largest and most influential Japanese university. 
It welcomes our Baptist missionaries to its teaching staff 
and invites our missions to provide hostels for students. 
Two acres adjoining the campus have been purchased and 
a group of buildings is planned to meet this great oppor- 

Seven private institutions, recognized by the Govern- 
ment as " high-grade " schools, offer college work for 
women, including the Doshisha and the Women's Union 
Christian College in Tokio, with which Baptists cooperate. 
There is a separate girls' school at Doshisha, but this was 
the first university in Japan to admit women to university 
work on equal terms with men. 

Japan is engaged in an experiment in completely secu- 
larized education. No religious instruction of any kind 
is permitted in state schools; but there is an attempt to 
give moral training. The system is rational and well 
adjusted, but some of the Japanese are not altogether 
satisfied with the results. Whatever other faults it may 
have, the Japanese insist that it is the most democratic 
system in the world ; and their claim appears to be justi- 
fied by the facts. 

Other educational forces outside of and beyond schools 
are functioning well in Japan. The publication of books 
and newspapers equals that of any other country about 
35,000 books a year, and 3,424 newspapers and period- 
icals. This literature is as cheap as it is plentiful, and 
most of it is of good quality. There are 1,511 libraries in 


The Sunrise Kingdom 

the country, with more than 5,000,000 volumes. The use 
of foman letters is growing, both in school-books and in 
the popular literature; thoughtful Japanese have recog- 
nized that learning the immense number of the old ideo- 
graphs means a great sacrifice of energy on the part of 
their youth, and is the chief hindrance to rapid progress 
in education. 

Newspapers and magazines have sprung up since the 
Revolution. Example of Christian missionaries has 
much to do with the growth of popular literature; pub- 
lication of tracts was an early feature of missions. Mil- 
lions of copies of single tracts have been distributed. 

The Japanese have shown a far greater flexibility of 
mind than the Chinese; they early recognized the supe- 
riority of Western civilization in all that relates to mate- 
rial progress and proceeded to adopt it. They sent their 
most promising young men to Europe and America for 
training, as they still do to some extent ; .they imported 
teachers, engineers, mechanics, and speedily built up a 
new civilization of their own. The Russo-Japanese war, 
ending with the treaty of Portsmouth in 1905, first opened 
the eyes of the Western world to the fact that Japan must 
henceforth be reckoned with in all world questions. In 
medical science and hygiene the Japanese have not only 
taken the best from the Western world but have made 
important researches and discoveries of their own. In 
fifty years Japan has accomplished what Europe required 
five hundred years to do. But this has been mainly a 
work of imitation and adoption, not of achievement. It 
proves the Japanese genius for assimilation, but not neces- 
sarily a capacity for independent advancement. 

History and Government 

The present dynasty of Japan claims a continuous his- 
tory from its foundation in 660 B. G, and if this claim 

Q [221] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

were substantiated it would be by far the oldest govern- 
ment in the world. Much of the early history, however, 
can be regarded as only mythical, including the story of 
the divine descent of the reigning house. The Mikado, 
or emperor, is both supreme ruler and high priest. 
(Mikado is said to mean " honorable gate," which recalls 
the title of the former government of Turkey, " sublime 
porte.") The present ruler, Hirohito, who came to the 
throne on Christmas Day, 1926, is reckoned the I24th 
of his line. We may begin with some real history: 
In the twelfth century of our era, Japan developed a 
feudal system very like that of medieval Europe, and 
from a similar cause the decay of the central govern- 
ment, which permitted the country to break up into little 
groups, each gathering around a powerful noble, who 
gave them protection in return for their military service. 
Minamoto Yoritamo, as commander-in-chief of the army, 
that is, Shogun, established a military empire comparable 
to that of Charlemagne ; and the Mikado, shorn of power 
but highly revered in his person, was thenceforth a virtual 
prisoner in his palace at Tokio. During this period the 
Mughal invasions were repulsed, and Japan made con- 
siderable progress in civilization. It was this Shogun, or 
Tycoon as he was also called, with whom foreigners came 
in contact, if they had any relations with Japan. They 
supposed him to be the emperor. 

Up to 1854, Japan was known as " the hermit nation." 
It refused all intercourse with foreigners, so far as that 
policy was possible, and its ports were closed to the ships 
of other nations. In that year Commodore Perry, 
U. S. N., succeeded in negotiating a treaty with the 
Shogun which provided for the opening of certain ports 
to American ships. The results were immediate and ex- 
traordinary, and it has been well said that "when the 
Susquehanna sailed up the bay of Yeddo, she led the 


Tine Sunrise Kingdom 

squadrons of seventeen nations." All the governments 
of Europe hastened to follow the example of the United 
States and share the advantages of trade with Japan. In 
1856 Lord Elgin got five ports opened to commerce with 
Great Britain. In this century the whole of Japan has 
been thrown open to foreigners, for trade, residence, or 
travel; and this has made possible the carrying on of 
successful foreign missions in that land. 

The Revolution 

In 1868 there was a Revolution, which abolished the 
Shogunate and brought the Mikado back into his ancient 
powers and prerogatives. Hence many Japanese writers 
prefer to call this the Restoration. This was followed 
by the proclamation of a constitution, all of which intro- 
duced the new era, the Meji, or period of enlightened rule. 
According to this document the Mikado reserves to him- 
self the sovereign power; he can declare war, make peace, 
and negotiate treaties, and is commander-in-chief of the 
army and navy, commissioning generals, admirals, and 
other officers. An imperial Diet has the nominal legisla- 
tive power, including taxation, but every statute must re- 
ceive the Mikado's approval before it becomes valid. The 
Diet is really a luxury, rather than a political necessity; 
it has no real power and probably can acquire none. It 
has no real control of finances or administration, since 
ministers are not responsible to it, but only to the Mikado. 
His theoretically absolute power is really exercised under 
advice of an oligarchy of military nobles, popularly known 
as " the elder statesmen." Only one of these now sur- 
vives and the oligarchy may soon disappear. 

By the Revolution a collection of feudal fiefs was 
transformed into a consolidated empire, more like the 
German Empire before the war than any other modern 
State. Loyalty to the Mikado has been exalted beyond all 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

reason, and this Mikadoism has resulted in the suppres- 
sion of thought and the repression of reason to a degree 
that the Japanese themselves are just beginning to appre- 
ciate. Japan's advance as a military power was shown 
first in the war with China (1894-5), and then in the 
war with Russia (1904-5). In the latter conflict she 
blocked the Russian advance eastward, established herself 
firmly in Korea and Manchuria and compelled her recog- 
nition as a world power. 

Japan and the United States 

Trouble has arisen over the question of immigration, 
and especially as a result of the Immigration Act of 1925, 
which, though it does not mention Japan by name or apply 
to her alone, does exclude from immigration persons who 
are " not eligible to citizenship." And our Supreme Court 
has decided that only persons of the white race are so 
eligible; indeed, citizenship has of late been refused in 
some instances to Hindus who are as truly Aryan as our- 
selves, though darker hued. It may be urged also that 
Japan exercises similar rights to those of which she com- 
plains, by excluding Chinese and Korean coolies, be- 
cause of their lower standards of living and wage scale. 
The question is fundamentally economic and only inci- 
dentally racial. American action might perhaps have been 
more polite and conciliatory, but our policy cannot be 
changed. It has the approval of virtually the whole coun- 
try. The future is likely to see more and not less restric- 
tions in immigration. Ultimately we shall exclude all 
foreigners who are not likely to make desirable citizens, 
and we can permit no nation to question our right to do 

The feeling in Japan has probably been deliberately 
stimulated by the military party, to strengthen their wan- 
ing prestige. There are jingo elements in that country 


The Sunrise Kingdom 

as in our own, unscrupulous politicians and journalists, 
who are willing to foment national and race hatreds for 
their own ends. In this way, many Japanese have been 
brought to distrust Americans. They have been led to 
believe us to be an imperialistic people, militaristic in 
spirit, and having economic designs in the East that are 
sure to clash with their interests. The Japanese are said 
to feel that America cannot be relied on, that we may at 
any time turn into an enemy. They criticize us for main- 
taining a Monroe doctrine for the American continents 
and refusing to recognize a similar principle for Asia. We 
might retort that they have a short memory for kind- 
nesses and a long one for slights and injuries. The true 
feeling of the United States for Japan was shown by the 
sympathy and relief that we quickly sent her after the 
devastating earthquake. It is a pity that the folly of a few 
politicians should so quickly obliterate the gratitude with 
which Japan appeared to respond. 

In so far as these criticisms correctly represent the 
feeling of the Japanese, it must be said that they misread 
the history and misunderstand the spirit of the American 
people. But there is a class among us that aspires to be 
the ruling class, which is both militaristic and plutocratic, 
and if that class should succeed in its ambitious plan to 
rule the United States, Japan would have good reason 
for its hostile feeling. Fortunately, there is slight pros- 
pect that success will attend imperialistic propaganda. 

The Japanese Government procured the passage of a 
bill in 1924, known as the " expatriation bill," by which 
rights were renounced over Japanese subjects born on 
American soil and therefore American citizens. This dis- 
posed of the difficulty of a dual nationality. It is the 
Japanese view that they should be admitted to the United 
States on the same quota basis as Europeans, in which 
case they urge that only 146 would be admitted annually, 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

which could not constitute any grave danger to the re- 
public. On the other hand, it should be borne in mind 
by both peoples that Japanese are as really, if less for- 
mally, excluded from Canada, Australia, and New Zea- 
land, as they are from the United States. South America, 
Central America, and Mexico are still open to them, but 
less desirable, with the exception of Brazil, to which there 
has been quite a large emigration of late years. 

Some American missionaries have yielded to the Japa- 
nese resentment against the Immigration Act and have 
published criticisms of the policy of their own country. 
They have asked reversal of action on the ground that 
the law is inconsistent with American professions of be- 
lief in Christian brotherhood and the equal rights of all 
men. Does belief in equality and brotherhood mean that 
any foreigner has a right to enter any American's house 
without permission, stay as long as he likes, and behave 
as he pleases while he stays? If an individual American 
has the right to say who shall enter his house, and set 
limits to their stay and behavior, why have not collective 
Americans a right to say through their government and 
laws who shall enter their country? If the one does not 
impugn the principles of equality and brotherhood, how 
does the other? This question deeply affects the future 
of missions and the future of nations; and it must be 
considered and settled on a basis of reason and Christian 
principle, and not by appeals to racial or religious emotion. 


Why the " Sunrise" kingdom? What is included in 
Japan? Compare its area with something familiar. 
What is its population? Is it overpopulated ? Is it a 
poor country or rich? What are its chief dependencies? 
How large and important are they? What is the origin 


The Sunrise Kingdom 

of the Japanese? What is their language like? Is Japa- 
nese civilization old or new? What is the position of 
woman? What sort of people are the Japanese? What 
two ideas control their ethics? Can Christianity find a 
point of contact here ? Are Japanese an esthetic people ? 
What social classes are still found among them ? Describe 
the products of the soil. What animals are found ? Why 
has Japan engaged in manufactures ? What are some of 
her exports? With what nation has Japan the largest 
trade? Has Japan railways and telegraphs? What sort 
of banks and money? What can you tell about the army 
and navy? Are the Japanese a contented people? What 
social work is attempted? How do the laboring classes 
compare with those of other countries ? Are the workers 
organized ? Who are their chief leaders ? What has the 
Labor Act accomplished? What is Shinto? How is it 
related to the national life? Is it the state religion? 
What is the standing of Confucius and Confucianism in 
Japan? How does Japanese Confucianism differ from 
Chinese? Has Buddhism existed long in Japan? How 
strong is it? What is it planning in social service? 
What is Bushido? How did the Japanese Government 
formerly regard Christianity? When was toleration 
granted ? What is the present official attitude ? Do in- 
fluential Japanese oppose Christianity? Can you describe 
the Japanese educational system? Is it equal to that of 
Western countries? Is there much illiteracy? What" is 
Waseda University? Is higher education provided for 
women? What is the character of Japanese education? 
What other educational forces are there? What is the 
secret of Japan's rapid advancement? What did that 
advance show? How ancient is the imperial dynasty? 
What does "Mikado" mean? What happened in the 
twelfth century? Who was the Shogun? Why was 
Japan called " the hermit nation " ? Who was the chief 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

agent in ending this isolation ? When did the Revolution 
occur? What was its nature? What sort of government 
was established ? Is Japan democratic ? How did Japan 
become a world power ? What is Japan's grievance about 
immigration? On what ground are Japanese excluded 
from the United States? Is that justifiable? What do 
many Japanese think of us Americans ? Are they right ? 
What has Japan done toward a better understanding? 
How do the missionaries look at this question ? 


Ashton, W. G., Shinto: the Way of the Gods. London, 

Chamberlain, Basil Hall, Things Japanese. London, 


Clement, Ernest W., Handbook of Modern Japan, Chi- 
cago, 1907. 
Cooper, George W., The Modernising of the Orient. 

Dennett, Tyler, The Democratic Movement in Asia. New 

York, 1918. 
Fisher, Galen M., Creative Forces in Japan. New York, 

Gleason, George, What Shall I Think of Japan? New 

York, 1921. 
Griffis, W. E., The Mikado's Empire. Two vols. New 

York, 1883. 

The Religions of Japan. New York, 1907. 
Gubbins, J. H., The Making of Modern Japan. London, 

Gulick, Sidney L., Evolution of the Japanese, Social and 

Psychic. New York, 1904. 
Working Women of Japan. New York, 1915. 

[ 228 ] 

The Sunrise Kingdom 

International Conciliation (Pamphlets published by the 
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) 202. 
The American Immigration Act of 1924. 206. 
Japanese Law of Nationality and Rights of For- 
eigners under Laws of Japan. 

Katayama, Sen, The Labor Movement in Japan. Chi- 
cago, 1918. 

Kawakami, K. K., Japan and World Peace. New York, 


The Real Japanese Question. New York, 1921. 
(Editor) What Japan Thinks. New York, 1921. 

Knox, George Williams, Japanese Life in Town and 
Country. New York, 1904. 

The Development of Religion in Japan. New York, 

Lloyd, Arthur S., The Creed of Half -Japan. New York, 

Masacke, Macichi, Japan to America: A Symposium. 
New York, 1915. 

McGovern, Modern Japan: Its Political, Military, and 

Industrial Organization. London, 1920. 
Moule, G. H., The Spirit of Japan. London, 1913. 
Pooley, A. M., Japan's Foreign Policies. London, 1920. 

Sugimoto, Etau Imagati, A Daughter of the Samurai. 
New York, 1925. 



Catholic Missions 

Almost exactly 400 years before the first Protestant 
missions, Francis Xavier began a work in Japan that 
others carried on, with large assistance from Portuguese 
traders who had already entered the country. At that 
time Japan welcomed Europeans who came. The Jesuit 
missionaries flourished and won large numbers of con- 
verts. Unfortunately, the loyalty of these Christians 
became suspected; the Jesuits were accused of interfer- 
ence with Japanese affairs to a dangerous degree; and 
on this ground the missionaries were expelled, the native 
Christians were persecuted even to martyrdom, and all 
foreigners except Dutch, Koreans, and Chinese were for- 
bidden to enter the kingdom. At the same time Japanese 
subjects were forbidden to leave the Empire. Possibly 
the accounts of Jesuit success need some discount, but 
they are reported to have gained 150,000 in the first thirty 
years, and in fifty years to have numbered 500,000. Many 
of these stood fast when the fires of persecution began, 
but ultimately Christianity was supposed to be extinct. 
Yet in 1862, nearly 300 years later, Roman missionaries 
who were again permitted to enter the country said that 
they ,f ound there thousands who had maintained their 
faith, though their religion was still illegal and they were 
yet liable to persecution. 

With the establishment of religious freedom new 
Roman missions were begun and have continued with con- 
siderable success. In 1907 there were 124 missionaries, 
mostly French; 33 Japanese priests, and over 61,000 be- 


Missions to Japan 

lievers. The mission maintains schools for the training 
of priests, two hospitals for lepers, orphanages in which 
1,027 children are educated, and other charitable insti- 

Father Nicolai Kasatkin, then a chaplain of the Rus- 
sian consulate at Hakodate, began missionary work in 
1 86 1, but was at that time obliged to conduct his work 
with great secrecy. His first convert was a Shinto priest, 
and others were gained among the samurai class who had 
been followers of the deposed Shogun. After some years 
Father Nicolai went to Russia and organized a mission- 
ary society to support this enterprise. In 1871 he opened 
another station in Tokio, where, besides his work as an 
evangelist, he established a theological seminary for the 
training of native preachers, which has been and still is 
very successful. There have never been more than four 
other Russian missionaries on the field, and most of the 
time but one, the work being carried on by natives. Father 
Nicolai was consecrated bishop in 1880, and in 1907 was 
raised to the rank of archbishop. In addition to his work 
as evangelist and teacher, he has made a version of the 
New Testament in Japanese and written other valuable 
works. In 1907, the Greek mission had 265 churches 
and over 30,000 members. 

Early Protestant Missions 

Several Protestant denominations began work in Japan 
at practically the same time. Possibly the earliest of all 
was a representative of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
but within a year missionaries of the Presbyterian, Bap- 
tist, and Dutch Reformed Boards were at work. Two 
of these early workers are worthy of special mention: 
The first was Dr. J. C. Hepburn, the first medical mis- 
sionary, who had had previous experience in China. His 
labors were so distinguished that he received the Order 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

of the Rising Sun from the Emperor, a notable honor in 
those days. The other man was Guido H. Verbeck, a 
native of Holland, and educated there as an engineer, who 
came to the United States in 1852, was graduated from 
the Auburn Theological Seminary in 1859 and appointed 
a missionary of the Dutch Reformed Church. He was 
not allowed to preach, but was made head of a school of 
languages attended by sons of the samurai; and there he 
did much to form the future rulers of Japan. His success 
and repute became so great that he was summoned to 
Tokio, to counsel the Government regarding education; 
and he had a large part in working out the general scheme 
of education promulgated by the Government. He was a 
gifted linguist, spoke fluently three European languages 
besides his native tongue, and is said to have acquired 
such a mastery of Japanese that he spoke it better than 
most natives. " Verbeck of Japan " is still gratefully 
remembered in the land of his adoption. He was for a 
time the only foreign counselor of the Japanese Govern- 
ment. His advice during the Revolution and the forma- 
tive period of the new Japan was often accepted, and it 
always came from a conscientious and broad-minded 
Christian man. 

Verbeck had a worthy successor in Joseph Hardy 
Neesima, who was born in Tokio in 1843, of the samurai 
class, had a good Japanese education, and then stole 
away to America to continue his training. He became 
known to Alphaeus Hardy, a Boston merchant and was 
sent by him to Phillips Academy and then to Amherst 
College, where he was graduated in 1870. He was not 
a Christian when he came to America but was converted 
during his studies, which he completed at Andover in 
1874. An appointment was secured for him as inter- 
preter of the Japanese. Embassy, together with a pardon 
from the Emperor for his crime of leaving Japan without 


Missions to Japan 

permission. He was ordained in Boston in 1874, and al- 
ready had a project for a Christian college in his native 
city. He secured $4,000 and opened a school at Kioto in 
1875. After ten years of very successful work he re- 
turned to America and succeeded in obtaining large sums 
of money, with which he founded the Doshisha Univer- 
sity ("one purpose" or counsel). It has continued to 
flourish since his death (1890), and in 1905 had 5,000 

Early Baptist Missions 

This was the latest to be established of our Asiatic 
missions. The first missionary was Rev. Jonathan Goble, 
who had been a marine in Commodore Perry's fleet, be- 
came interested in the Japanese, and on his return home 
told Southern Baptists about them. He was sent out by 
the American Baptist Free Mission Society in 1860. In 
1872 the Missionary Union took over this work, accepted 
Mr. Goble as its missionary, and sent to be his colleague 
Rev. Nathan Brown, who had had previous experience in 
Assam. A church was organized at Yokohama in March, 
1872, with five members, all missionaries and their wives, 
but converts were gradually won. Mr. Goble gained 
favor with the Japanese officials through his knowledge 
of Western ways and inventions, and made himself very 
useful to them. In 1869, at the request of the Govern- 
ment, he made a drawing for a vehicle to be used in tfie 
public parks, and the result was the jinrikisha (man-pull- 
car), which immediately became popular and remained 
the chief means of traveling about until the autocar came 
in. Doctor Brown had the gift of tongues, and his most 
important work was that of translator. His is the dis- 
tinction of having made the first version to be printed of 
the New Testament in both Assamese and Japanese a 
feat probably unexampled in missionary annals. Doctor 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Brown's version has been pronounced by other mission- 
aries "clearer, simpler, and more in harmony with the 
original than any other translation." But a version made 
by a Union Committee, which renders baptizo and its 
cognates by neutral words, is the one in general circula- 
tion. Sectarian controversies in Japan have had the same 
unfortunate divisive results that have attended them in 
America and England. 

The first Gospel printed and circulated in Japanese came 
from our mission; the epistles soon followed; and then 
the entire New Testament. In 1878 there were 28 con- 
verts baptized at Tokio, so that progress was making also 
in evangelizing. The year 1883 was another of marked 
advance, 2,000 being added to the evangelical churches of 
Japan in that year, of which Baptists had their share. 
In 1885 our Baptist churches had 400 members. 

The earlier years of our mission were a most favorable 
opportunity. Japan was smitten with a sudden admira- 
tion for everything Western, and showed utmost haste to 
adopt the best elements of European civilization. A sig- 
nificant mark of this attitude was an imperial rescript of 
1872, which not only assured all subjects of religious 
liberty, but adopted the Western calendar, and made Sun- 
day a legal holiday under title of the " Day of Light." 
Buddhist priests showed favor to the missionaries in 
those days, giving lodgings in their temples to some of 
them. The young men of Japan having lost faith in their 
old religions, lent a willing ear to Christian teachings. 
Some of the political leaders professed themselves favor- 
ably impressed, especially by Christian ethics. There 
seemed a good prospect that Christianity might become 
the national religion of Japan, and perhaps if American 
Christians had appreciated the greatness of the oppor- 
tunity and risen to it, such might have been the result. 
But the churches were apathetic; the missionary force 


Missions to Japan 

was increased slowly; the opportunity passed by. One 
great advantage of missionary work in Japan has always 
been that its people are essentially homogeneous and 
speak one language ; missionaries are not obliged to learn 
several different vernaculars in order to be useful, or to 
make and print versions of the Bible in forty different 
dialects. That advantage still remains. 

From about 1889 there was a decided reaction among 
the Japanese against things Western. The national spirit 
reasserted itself, the cry " Japan for the Japanese " was 
raised. Christian missions suffered a general retardation, 
in which of course Baptists shared. But with the twen- 
tieth century this wave of feeling subsided; interest in 
Christianity was revived and more rapid progress was 
made. Leading representatives of Japanese, statesmen 
and scholars, spoke well of the Christian religion, a more 
respectful hearing was given to Christian preachers and 
teachers ; influential newspapers urged adoption of Chris- 
tian ethics as Japan's only hope. 

The Great Earthquake 

On the morning of September I, 1923, more than half 
of Tokio was destroyed by an earthquake, and nearly the 
whole of the adjoining city of Yokohama. A million and 
a half houses were demolished and nearly three million 
people made homeless. The financial loss in the entire 
devastated area was estimated at more than five billion 
dollars. All missions lost heavily and our Baptist mission 
not least. The walls of the Baptist Tabernacle stood, but 
the interior was ruined by fire. The Sarah Curtis School, 
maintained by the Women's Society, was destroyed, and 
three Japanese Baptist churches. The new Scott Hall at 
Waseda University was badly damaged, and the fine 
Mabie Memorial school at Yokohama was completely 
wrecked, together with the new Yokohama Memorial 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Church and five other buildings. Altogether the loss to 
the Baptist mission was fully $500,000. The entire Amer- 
ican people responded to the great need of the Japanese 
in this disaster, the greatest they had experienced in all 
their history, and sent more than $9,000,000 to their re- 
lief. It was hoped that this practical demonstration of the 
meaning of Christian brotherhood might cement a lasting 
friendship between the two nations, but later events seem 
to have erased the memory of this act from the Japanese 

Special contributions were asked from the Baptist 
churches of America to meet this emergency. The re- 
sponse was inadequate; but $300,000 was contributed, 
and the more pressing needs of reconstruction were thus 
provided for. The failure to raise the whole amount is 
the more to be regretted because the Japanese Christians 
were also impoverished by the same disaster, though they 
had participated in our five-year " Forward Movement " 
so far as to increase their contributions from 13,502 yen 
to 39,090, and this had been accompanied by 1,665 bap- 

In 1913 the Tokio Tabernacle, a wooden building, was 
burned, and on its site a new and imposing concrete struc- 
ture was built. For eight years a great community enter- 
prise was here carried on. Besides all the activities usual 
in our best-organized churches at home, a wide social 
service was instituted. It was situated in the midst of a 
great population and surrounded by industrial and educa- 
tional establishments. After the earthquake, what sur- 
vived of the building was promptly utilized as a hospital 
and relief station, and more than $41,000 of relief funds 
were distributed through this agency, which was one of 
the 32 officially recognized by the Government. After 
the immediate needs of the people were relieved, the 
work of reconstruction came, and the community service 


Missions to Japan 

was revived. An instance, both amusing and instructive, 
of the stimulated activity of Japanese Buddhists, is af- 
forded by a Buddhist social center that has been estab- 
lished only a short distance from the Tabernacle. Here 
a similar work is carried on, and preaching services have 
been instituted, in which the doctrines and practises of 
their religion are presented to the people in the most per- 
suasive form they can devise. Imitation is said to be the 
sincerest form of flattery. 

A Lost Opportunity 

This was not, however, the greatest failure in connec- 
tion with the earthquake disaster. That sweeping de- 
struction afforded a great opportunity to build the Chris- 
tian missionary enterprise in Japan on new and better 
foundations. It held out a prospect for union in all Chris- 
tian enterprises, for all the Christian agencies at work in 
Japan to combine in an effort to make a real impact on the 
nation. Nothing was done. Each denomination pro- 
ceeded to reconstruct the old and to go on in the former 
disunited ways. It would be futile to attempt to appor- 
tion blame, to decide whether missionaries on the field 
or Boards at home were chiefly responsible for neglect to 
seize and make the most of this providential opening for 
a great Christian advance in Japan. But the pity of it ! 

Missionary Extensions 

There have been some interesting extensions of our 
missions in Japan. Rev. C. H. Carpenter and his wife, 
after years of fruitful service at Bassein, were compelled 
to leave the climate of Burma, and in 1886 opened a 
station at Nemuro among the Ainos, or aborigines. Mr. 
Carpenter died the following year, but Mrs. Carpenter 
continued the mission at her own expense. 

A Scotch lady, Mrs. Allen, visiting Japan in 1892, be- 

R [ 237 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

came interested in the missionary work there and gave a 
sum sufficient to finance a new mission in the Liu Chiu 
Islands. A church was organized at Naha, the chief town. 

Captain Bickel's Inland Sea Mission 

Few travelers visit Japan's inland sea, so its extent and 
importance is not realized. It is a landlocked archipelago, 
250 miles long and 100 miles wide at its widest part an 
area nearly equal to that of Lake Superior. There is a 
population of 1,500,000 on the islands of this sea, who 
were long unevangelized. A Scotch merchant, son of the 
Mrs. Allan mentioned above, offered a vessel for mis- 
sionary work, and a suitable missionary was found in 
Captain Luke W. Bickel, son of Dr. Philip Bickel of our 
German mission. Born in Cincinnati, educated mainly in 
Germany, a sailor from his youth, a Christian worker 
in London, he was admirably equipped for his new post. 
The Fukuin Mam, or " Gospel Ship," was dedicated in 
September, 1899, and served its purpose as a floating 
church and missionary's home until 1914, when a larger 
and faster ship was put in commission. Captain Bickel's 
untimely death, in 1917, did not long interrupt its useful- 
ness : a successor was found in Captain J. F. Laughton, 
who had also a sailor's training and shared Bickel's mis- 
sionary enthusiasm. 

Captain Bickel's work was not only unique in method, 
but suggested great possibilities. Up to that time mis- 
sionary effort had been concentrated in a few large cities, 
the not unnatural result of the fact that at first only a 
few seaports were accessible to missionaries. The ten- 
dency was to continue as they had begun and to seek 
converts among the middle and upper classes; but it be- 
came evident that if Japan was to be effectively evangel- 
ized the great peasant class must be reached. Captain 
Bickel's success in this work has led to the broadening 


Missions to Japan 

of the whole missionary enterprise in Japan. He made 
his evangelism systematic, visiting all the villages of any 
island to which he went, stationing native evangelists 
wherever converts were made, and throwing upon the 
new churches organized the entire responsibility of self- 
support and further evangelism. He started Christian 
communities and left the task of extension to them. The 
method speedily proved its soundness, and is more and 
more adopted by other missionaries in other fields. 

Southern Baptist Missions 

The first missionary was sent out in 1889 and a station 
was opened at Osaka, where a church was organized that 
in 1891 numbered 15. This station was transferred to 
the Missionary Union later, and a mission was begun on 
the island of Kiushiu, at the southwest end of the group, 
which has a population of 9,000,000. Only one mission- 
ary had previously gone to this region, and many towns 
and villages were completely unevangelized. There were 
some Roman Catholics, however. The first church was 
formed in October, 1892, but there were many difficulties 
and progress was slow. The anti-foreign movement was 
at its height, and threatened the very life of the mission 
for a time ; but soon new treaties were concluded between 
Japan and the United States, and most of the difficulties 
were smoothed away. The war with China caused more 
excitement and interruption ; but this brought a new op- 
portunity for work among Japanese soldiers, with the 
approval of their officers. New stations were opened in 
1896 in Tupoka, the capital of the province and its largest 
city ; and in Nagasaki. 

Educational and Medical 


Baptist educational work in Japan is in a very unsatis- 
factory state. A theological class was formed about 1880. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

which grew into a theological seminary, of which Dr. 
John Bearing was at the head after 1895. It is still 
maintained at Tokio, but has only one teacher and eight 
students. We need either a theological school of the first 
grade, or else consolidation with some more efficient semi- 
nary of another denomination, with a Baptist teacher or 
teachers on the faculty. The Mabie Memorial school for 
boys was established at Yokohama in 1912, and had been 
provided with a new and fine building before the earth- 
quake. In a few minutes property costing $215,000 was 
so completely destroyed that only four typewriters were 
salvaged from the ruins. Temporary buildings were se- 
cured within two months, and the school reopened with 
over 400 boys reporting. There is a school for girls called 
the Mary L. Colby school, at Kanagawa ; and its building 
was fortunately not damaged by the earthquake. That 
completes the tale of Baptist institutions. 

Waseda University is of course a great Christian asset, 
in the worth of which Baptists share. For years Dr. 
H. B. Benninghoff has been a Baptist member of the 
faculty and has rendered splendid service. Scott Hall 
was erected by Baptists in connection with this university, 
and two dormitories are associated with a central hall. 
Rev. K. Fujii is the student pastor. The Hall was dam- 
aged by the earthquake but has been repaired and is now 
rendering full service again as a Christian center for the 
students of the University. The Hovey Memorial dormi- 
tory and a house for the pastor complete a plant unex- 
celled for the purpose on any mission field. 

Though our schools are in a far from satisfactory state, 
their personnel leaves nothing to be desired. Doctor 
Chiba, head of the Seminary at Tokio, is a graduate of 
Colby College and Rochester Theological Seminary, and 
has an honorary degree of LL. D. from an American 
University. He is recognized as a scholar and leader 


Stations in the Japan Mission 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

which grew into a theological seminary, of which Dr. 
John Bearing was at the head after 1895. It is still 
maintained at Tokio, but has only one teacher and eight 
students. We need either a theological school of the first 
grade, or else consolidation with some more efficient semi- 
nary of another denomination, with a Baptist teacher or 
teachers on the faculty. The Mabie Memorial school for 
boys was established at Yokohama in 1912, and had been 
provided with a new and fine building before the earth- 
quake. In a few minutes property costing $215,000 was 
so completely destroyed that only four typewriters were 
salvaged from the ruins. Temporary buildings were se- 
cured within two months, and the school reopened with 
over 400 boys reporting. There is a school for girls called 
the Mary L. Colby school, at Kanagawa ; and its building 
was fortunately not damaged by the earthquake. That 
completes the tale of Baptist institutions. 

Waseda University is of course a great Christian asset, 
in the worth of which Baptists share. For years Dr. 
H. B. Benninghoff has been a Baptist member of the 
faculty and has rendered splendid service. Scott Hall 
was erected by Baptists in connection with this university, 
and two dormitories are associated with a central hall. 
Rev. K. Fujii is the student pastor. The Hall was dam- 
aged by the earthquake but has been repaired and is now 
rendering full service again as a Christian center for the 
students of the University. The Hovey Memorial dormi- 
tory and a house for the pastor complete a plant unex- 
celled for the purpose on any mission field. 

Though our schools are in a far from satisfactory state, 
their personnel leaves nothing to be desired. Doctor 
Chiba, head of the Seminary at Tokio, is a graduate of 
Colby College and Rochester Theological Seminary, and 
has an honorary degree of LL. D. from an American 
University. He is recognized as a scholar and leader 


Stations in the Japan Mission 

Missions to Japan 

throughout Japan, and is much in demand as preacher 
and speaker. Christian influence in Japan is much wid- 
ened by the presence of Baptists and other Christians in 
the faculties of the Universities, and as teachers in secon- 
dary and professional schools. Some of these are national 
figures, and their influence extends far and wide. 

Our earliest missionaries were too exclusively devoted 
to evangelism and neglected Christian education. In 
consequence, we are paying for this mistake in lack of 
influence. Half -trained men or less are of even smaller 
efficiency in Japan than in America. We need to reen- 
force strongly the schools we have, and cooperate more 
effectively in such institutions as Waseda and the Union 
Christian college for women, or we shall fall still farther 

It is worthy of mentioning that Christian example has 
had its effect in stimulating other educational plans in 
Japan. One of the most notable is the Keiogijuku or 
Keio Free School, now Keio University, founded by 
Yukichi Tukuzawa, not a Christian, but a great teacher 
and writer. Many of the Japanese leaders of today were 
among his students. His " Moral Code " is a very in- 
fluential work and is widely circulated. Its teaching fairly 
matches the highest Christian ethics and is stronger on its 
social side than most Christian treatises. Another worthy 
venture is the Jissen Girls' School, established in 1899 by 
Uta-ko Shimoda, who had previously traveled widely in 
Europe and America and is recognized as one of the fore- 
most women educators of Japan or of any country. It 
may be added that Shinto and Buddhism have felt the 
impulse, and each has established a college, the object of 
which is to bring up religionists of their own sort to 
recruit their priesthoods. 

Baptists have no medical mission work in Japan, and 
other denominations far less than in other Asiatic coun- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

tries. The reason doubtless is that the Japanese Govern- 
ment long ago took up the matter of medical education, 
and established faculties in the imperial universities, so 
that Japan is fairly supplied with qualified practioners. 
Nevertheless, if it is true, as recently published, that 38 
per cent, of the annual deaths in Japan are of children 
under five years, and that most of these are due to ali- 
mentary diseases and tuberculosis, there is still much for 
medical science to accomplish in that country. Trachoma 
is said to be also very prevalent, and medical science has 
not yet discovered how to treat that disease successfully. 

Women in Oriental Missions 

The W A B F M S has been doing excellent school work 
for many years, and has greatly increased these activities 
in the last decade. A girls' school at Sendai, eight hours 
by train from Tokio, is one of the best institutions of the 
kind in Japan, one of the three recognized by the Gov- 
ernment as grade A, entitling graduates to enter the Im- 
perial University. It has a fine campus and a group of 
gray stucco buildings. Large numbers of its students are 
baptized each year. Another fine school is maintained at 
Osaka, a city of 1,600,000 people, sometimes called " the 
Pittsburgh of Japan." In Juso, a suburb, is a large com- 
pound, containing several school buildings. The newest 
of these was given by the women of the Northwest and is 
known as the Jubilee Building. This school has a very 
wide influence for good. Baptist women also cooperate 
in the support of the Women's College of Japan, located 
at logimura, near Tokio, where 300 girls are in atten- 
dance. A Japanese woman is president, Doctor Yasui, 
and holds the honorary degree of Litt. D. from Mount 
Holyoke College. 

Six other schools of the highest grade for women of 
the Orient are similarly maintained, all of comparatively 


Missions to Japan 

recent foundation. Three are in China : Ginling College at 
Nanking, Yencheng College at Peking, and the North 
China Medical School for Women. Three are in India : 
Isabella Thoburn College at Lucknow, Madras Women's 
College, and the Woman's Medical College at Vellore. 
In addition they are alone maintaining 27 kindergartens 
and nearly a dozen girls' schools of high-school grade, 
three each in Japan and Burma, two in China, and one in 
the Philippines. They also cooperate in a number of 
union schools of this grade. At their Jubilee in 1921, the 
Society was maintaining workers in ten mission fields, 
with 277 under appointment. Its income had grown 
from $7,722 in its first year to $770,973, and a special 
Jubilee campaign brought into the treasury more than 
$500,000 in special gifts. Since the great war the Society 
has made contacts with European Baptist women and is 
doing a work of great value in Poland, Czechoslovakia, 
and other fields where their help is equally needed and 

Incidentally it may be noted that Christian women 
have organized some 40 Societies or Boards for foreign 
missions, with an annual income exceeding $6,000,000. 
They have been equally active in home missions, with 
quite as many organizations and. an equal or greater in- 
come. Their crowning achievement in organization is 
the formation of a Federation of Woman's Boards for 
Foreign Missions and a Council of Women for Home 
Missions, through which greater harmony of effort is 

Important Auxiliaries 

The American Bible Society is a powerful ally of all 
missionary operations, and its work in Japan is large 
and efficient. In 1924 there were 12 colporters at work 
and a large number of selling agencies, through whose 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

united efforts 10,295 Bibles were disposed of, together 
with 61,400 Testaments and the great number of 699,512 
portions. The circulation of this Society's versions in 
Japan has tripled in two years. The Bibles and Testa- 
ments are nearly all sold, and more than half the por- 
tions, though many of these are given away. The British 
and Foreign Bible Society had seven agents working full 
time and about twenty others on part time, with the result 
that 6,525 Bibles were distributed, 47,824 Testaments, and 
153,530 portions. Both societies are ably helped in this 
work by the native churches, the Salvation Army, a.nd 
other religious bodies. The Japan Book and Tract So- 
ciety, very materially aided by the Religious Tract Society 
of London, is doing much to supply Japan with a Chris- 
tian literature of value from both the spiritual and the 
literary point of view. Their year's output was 47,250 
books, 323,285 tracts, and 151,243 cards, mostly sales, 
the proportion of gifts being very small. When Japanese 
are willing to pay good money for Bibles and religious 
books it means something. In addition to these helpers, 
there is a Christian Literature Society, which publishes 
and sells annually 14,000,000 copies, of which over 4,000,- 
ooo are periodicals. 

The YMCA and YWCA are both active in 
Japan, and are mainly officered by Japanese. They are 
especially useful in connection with the various educa- 
tional institutions, and are most helpful in promoting a 
healthy Christian student life. The first YMCA hall 
was opened at Osaka in 1881 ; it would hold over 1,200 
people, and was used largely for interdenominational 
work. The organization has for years had the most con- 
spicuous building in Tokio, and the Saturday and Sunday 
gatherings there are the most notable in the city. Lec- 
tures are from time to time given by prominent Japanese 
nobles, statesmen, and business men, as well as by dis- 


Missions to Japan 

tinguished visitors from Europe and America. The 
president of the House of Representatives was for some 
years also president of the Y M C A. A branch is main- 
tained in each of the Government colleges and in many 
of the high schools. 

The visit of Dr. Francis E. Clark in 1892 gave a great 
impetus to the Christian Endeavor work of Japan, al- 
ready making good progress, and since that time it has 
prospered greatly. A Temperance League is making good 
advance, and such work is much needed, for the drinking 
of saki, a kind of rice whisky, is a national vice. 

Recent Organized Efforts 

Japanese Christians are showing capacity for organiza- 
tion and initiative. A convention of all Baptist mission- 
aries was held in 1890, which planned a great extension 
of the work. This plan was only partially realized, on 
account of the antiforeign reaction. In 1891 the English 
Baptists transferred their work to American Baptists, 
which simplified our denominational organization on the 
field. From time to time other gatherings of like nature 
have been held. But perhaps the most notable forward 
steps were taken in 1922 when the first General Confer- 
ence of Christian Workers was called, under whose direc- 
tion the National Christian Council of Japan was formed 
in November of the following year, to provide for inter- 
denominational and international cooperation. Christian- 
ity in Japan, as elsewhere, has been retarded by a lack 
of unity and concentration. The presentation of the 
gospel message had been beclouded with many sectarian 
ideas and divisions that are meaningless to the Japanese. 
If not Christian union in one national church, at least 
federation of the existing agencies is imperatively de- 
manded ; and it is the object of the Council to bring this 
about. It is a practical expedient for bringing things to 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

pass. It accepts facts as they are, and calls no church to 
surrender any part of its convictions, independence, or 
authority ; but aims to provide means by which they may 
undertake common tasks, that can be successfully accom- 
plished only by united effort. A Conference of Three Re- 
ligions was called in 1913 under direction of the Minister 
of Home Affairs. Christianity was given official recog- 
nition as one of the three great religions of Japan and 
invited to representation, giving it a standing it had never 
had before. 

Future Prospects 

The first Baptist church was organized in Yokohama 
in 1872; in 1924 our mission reported 15 missionaries, 
29 native assistants, 35 churches, and 4,389 members. 
The National Council reports for all Christian bodies: 
727 foreign missionaries, 4,651 natives, 1,910 churches, 
and 163,363 communicants. In the way of Christian edu- 
cation, these missions are maintaining 269 kindergartens, 
with 12,536 pupils; 39 primary schools, with 11,824 en- 
rolled; 20 middle schools for boys, with enrolment of 
19,514; 40 for girls, with 12,680; 25 theological schools, 
with 599 students, and 14 training-schools for Bible- 
women, with 293 receiving instruction. Besides these 
are: 12 colleges for young men, with 4,378 students; and 
10 for young women, with 1,793. From what has been 
accomplished in little more than fifty years, we can make 
some reasonable forecast of what may be expected in 
years to come. 

The Christian Movement in Japan and Formosa for 
1922 gives condensed information from 73 missionaries 
and 30 Japanese Christians. From this condensation, the 
following is condensed : 

People are hungering for spiritual food; no real 
hindrance from without to spread of Christianity, only 


Missions to Japan 

from within. Religion has come to a new day; interest 
in it is wide-spread. Christian ideals are having great in- 
fluence. People who formerly despised Christianity are 
now sending their children to Sunday school. This new 
interest not confined to any one social stratum, but most 
apparent in the middle class students, teachers, business 
men, officials. The nobility and extreme poor (like fisher- 
men) hardly touched. By the leaders of Japan the need 
of a vital religion is more and more recognized. About 
400,000 people now come under direct influence of Chris- 
tian teaching every week. Washington Conference 
caused great diminution of bitterness in Japanese press, 
and earthquake still more. Sunday schools are winning 
love of children and through them parents. Japanese 
laymen are taking an active part in evangelism much 
street preaching. Shinto and Buddhism compelled to 
fresh activity in self-defense, and are adopting and adapt- 
ing Christian features, like Sunday schools and YMCA. 

Self-support has made considerable progress in Japan, 
but is not always an unmixed blessing. It sometimes 
destroys the missionary spirit among the natives; they 
look upon the church as a club, affording them valuable 
privileges, but imposing no obligations to those outside. 

Undoubtedly the greatest obstacle to the progress of 
Christianity in Japan is the wide-spread feeling that it is 
a foreign religion, or a group of foreign religions - 
strangeness and disunity are the twin barriers. They have 
been and still are very serious obstacles. The remedies 
are two : The training of a native ministry so that more 
and more, and soon entirely, the work of evangelization 
shall be conducted by natives, the work of American mis- 
sionaries being* confined mainly to education. The second 
remedy is to continue vigorously the work of the National 
Council and by every possible means promote Christian 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

For Christian unity in the sense of consolidation into 
one native church, there is much less demand among the 
Japanese than in China. Denominationalism is better 
naturalized in Japan, possibly it suits better the Japanese 
spirit. Have the missionaries the intelligence and the 
true Christian spirit to organize a Japanese church, that 
will be national, and not an imitation of any one form of 
Christianity, but an expression of the national character 
redeemed by Christ? And are the great missionary cor- 
porations that conduct the missionary enterprise, and are 
the churches that support these corporations, Christian 
enough to support such an enterprise with at least as much 
generosity and enthusiasm as they have given to sectarian 
propaganda? The earthquake, with its destruction of in- 
stitutional Christianity, seemed a great disaster. The 
gifts of decades were swept away in an hour, but this 
might have been a blessing in disguise still may be if 
instead of repeating the blunders of the past Amer- 
ican Christians unite to build a new Christianity that shall 
make a new Japan a Japan that, without ceasing to be 
Japanese shall also be Christian; holding fast to all the 
historic and cultural achievements of the past that are 
worthy of preservation, and adding thereto the spirit of 
Jesus, who came into this world not to be served but to 
serve, and who bids all men keep his new commandment, 
to love one another. 

It is certainly a favorable augury that baptisms are 
increasing in Japan, in spite of all retarding influences. 
The attitude of the Japanese people toward missionaries 
and Christianity cannot be said to be hostile. Probably it 
would be more accurate to describe the attitude of the 
mass of Japanese as one of indifference. The early con- 
verts were largely from the educated class, the samurai, 
of good to high social position, a few quite wealthy. 
Christianity has thus far progressed mainly among the 


Missions to Japan 

same upper middle class ; neither coolies nor nobles have 
been much affected, on the whole the nobles more than 
the coolies, because of their greater intelligence. In this 
respect, Japanese missions are unique ; elsewhere converts 
have been made much more easily from the lower class, 
especially in India. The recently roused racial and pa- 
triotic antagonism against the United States has produced 
no marked change in the attendance of Japanese on Chris- 
tian services; the student body seems more disaffected 
than the people at large. The brunt of the opposition, 
such as it is, has to be borne by the Japanese preachers, 
rather than by the missionaries. One good effect of this 
agitation has been to advance the cause of self-support, 
in order that the native ministers and churches might be 
more visibly dissociated from foreign control. The Meth- 
odist churches have outstripped all others in this regard, 
but the Baptists are not far behind. 

Christianity is touching and influencing Japanese life 
in thousands of ways that cannot be shown in statistics. 
Multitudes are reading the New Testament and taking 
Jesus as a guide of life who have no formal connection 
with Christian churches. The views of an eminent Japa- 
nese Christian are interesting as a side-light on this whole 
question. He is Tasuku Harada, a B. D. of Yale and 
President of Doshisha University, in North Tokio. The 
needed Christian policy in Japan, in his view, is : 

1. Unification of the churches. No greater obstacle tor 
the progress of Christianity exists than the diversity of 
denominations, and the inevitable antagonism between 
them. There are over twenty of these sects, each with its 
own ministry and educational institutions, the result of 
which is poor equipment and low standards. Consolida- 
tion would result in a much higher grade of education and 
greater evangelical efficiency. 

2. Expansion of Christian education is an urgent need. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Thirty years ago Christian schools were in the first rank, 
but Government schools have advanced a hundred paces, 
while Christian schools have taken but two or three falter- 
ing steps. The Government schools are like a full-grown 
man, while Christian schools are like little boys. Missions 
have no institution worthy of being called a university. 
The prospect is that in the coming generation Christian 
scholarship will be an inconsiderable factor. Christianity 
will never be solidly planted in Japan until it has middle 
and high schools and universities equal to the best, to 
train native Christian leaders for education and evangel- 
ism. More teachers and scholars of the highest character 
and qualifications are needed from abroad. 

3. More standard Christian works should be translated 
into Japanese. 

An educated Japanese, Yusuke Tsurumi, early in 1926 
published an article in an American newspaper that has 
had a wide reprinting and reading. He was brought up 
to believe in Shinto and Buddhism, learned something of 
Confucianism, and came under Christian instruction. He 
has made a careful study of all these faiths ; he finds good 
in all of them, and defects in each. The result in his 
own case is a blending of all four religions, so that he 
finds it impossible to label himself, or say definitely what 
kind of faith he holds. He believes that such eclecticism 
is characteristic of young Japan, for his countrymen are 
less interested in how the various religions philosophize 
than in how they function. They look for manifestations 
of religion in human conduct. His forecast of the future 
religion is worthy of consideration. 


Who was the first missionary to Japan? Were the 
Jesuits successful ? What caused their failure ? Are there 


Missions to Japan 

Roman Catholics in Japan now ? What Russian mission- 
ary has labored in Japan? How far has he succeeded? 
Who were the earliest Protestant missionaries? What 
can you tell about Hepburn? About Verbeck? Who was 
Neesima and what was his chief accomplishment ? Who 
was the first Baptist missionary? Who invented the 
jinrikisha? What did Doctor Brown do for Japan? 
What had he done before? Can you recall anything 
similar? Where were the first Baptist churches? Were 
many converts made ?, Why did missions advance so fast ? 
Why was not this early promise fulfilled ? How do many 
leaders of the Japanese look at Christianity? When did 
the great earthquake occur? Did it do much damage? 
What did Americans do for the relief of the suffering? 
Has the material loss been made good? What can you 
tell of the Tokio Tabernacle and its work? Was a great 
opportunity lost at this time? How have our missions 
been extended by independent workers? Who was Cap- 
tain Bickel ? What is the inland sea of Japan? How did 
Bickel conduct his work? Has a successor been found? 
Where was the first SBC mission? How has the 
work gone on? Have we a good theological school in 
Japan? What other schools have we? Who is Doctor 
Benninghoff and what is he doing? What equipment 
have Baptists at Waseda? Has there been any defect in 
our Baptist missions? How have mission schools in- 
fluenced the Japanese? What may be said of medical 
missions in Japan ? Why no more of this work ? What 
are Bible societies doing? Is the YMCA at work in 
Japan? Are there Christian Endeavor societies? Is 
there any temperance work? How far have Japanese 
Christians got in organization? What kind of Confer- 
ences are held? What progress of Baptists is shown by 
statistics? What progress of Christians generally? 
What do Japanese Christians say is most needed? Has 

s [251] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

progress been made in self-support? What is the chief 
obstacle? Do the Japanese desire unity? What classes 
have thus far been chiefly affected by the gospel ? What 
are Harada's ideas of the needs of Japan? What does 
Tsurumi say of Japan's future religion? How do you 
think these ideas should affect our missionary policy ? 


Carey, Otis, History of Christianity in Japan. Two vols. 
New York, 1909. 

Christian Education in Japan (a study made by an edu- 
cational commission). New York, 1922. 

Christian Movement in Japan, The (annual). 1926. 
Clement, Ernest W., Christianity in Modern Japan. 
Philadelphia, 1905. 

DeForest, Charlotte B., The Women and the Leaven in 
Japan. New York, 1923. 

DeForest, John H., Sunrise in the Sunrise Kingdom. 

Philadelphia, 1923. 

Harada, Tasuku, The Faith of Japan. New York, 1914. 
Hardy, A. S., Life and Letters of Joseph Hardy Neesima. 

Boston, 1891. 
Harrington, Charles K., Captain Bickel of the Inland 

Sea. New York, 1919. 
Moule, G. H., The Spirit of Japan. London, 1913. 




The Field 

The immense size of Africa is comprehended by few. 
Merely to say that it has an area of 11,599,000 square 
miles means little. We shall get a better comprehension 
of the facts if we put it this way : The whole of the United 
States and Europe could be set down in the African Con- 
tinent, and there would still be room for Hindustan and 
China. True, about half of this immense area is arid 
the great Sahara Desert, mostly uninhabited and unin- 
habitable, though it might be possible to make a part of 
this waste space " blossom like the rose " by means of 
irrigation. It is also possible that the Sahara may be 
once more made what it was in geologic time; an inland 
sea. Only the northern coast of Africa was known to 
Greece and Rome, but that civilization once extended 
from the Nile to the pillars of Hercules. South Africa 
became known to the modern world through the voyage 
in which Vasco da Gama doubled the Cape of Good Hope 
in discovering a new way to India. The larger part of 
Africa is tropical. Its soil is exceedingly rich, and its 
mineral wealth immense ; only a beginning has been made 
in developing its possibilities. The Johannesburg gold- 
mines and the Kimberley diamond-mines are the richest 
in the world. The discoveries of Livingstone and Stan- 
ley enlightened Europe to the value of this land, and a 
rush of all nations followed. Africa is no longer the 
Dark Continent, and little of it now remains to be ex- 
plored. As a result of the late war, France and England 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

greatly increased their African possessions, at the ex- 
pense of Germany. 

Africa is drained by a system of great rivers : the Nile 
on the north, the Senegal and Niger flowing into the 
Atlantic on the west, the Zambesi on the east, and the 
Congo, greatest of all, 3,000 miles long and discharging 
a greater volume of water than the Mississsippi. In cen- 
tral Africa is a wonderful chain of lakes, next to those 
of North America in grandeur: Albert, Albert Edward, 
Victoria Nyanza with an area of 27,000 square miles, 
Tanganyika, and Nyassa the last two 450 and 350 miles 
in length respectively. Little is yet known of the geology 
of Africa, but its fauna and flora have been fairly well 
studied; both are extremely rich, varied, and valuable. 
It is still the country of " great game." 

The central part of Africa is a great plateau, giving 
to the land something of the contour of an inverted 
saucer. At a distance of 50 to 200 miles from the coast 
a vast table-land rises, reaching 2,000 to 3,000 feet above 
sea-level, slightly hollowed in the center, where the great 
lakes lie. From these flow the mighty rivers that drain 
the whole continent and are the dominating feature of 
African geography. The usual mental picture of Africa 
is probably a land of dismal swamps and impenetrable 
jungles, varied with arid deserts. Instead, it is a land of 
beautiful scenery, mountains, hills, and woodlands, mighty 
rivers, majestic lakes. Victoria Falls rivals and some 
think surpasses Niagara. The climate is hot and dry, 
but not unhealthful, now that it is understood and proper 
precautions can be taken. The central plateaus are as 
salubrious as any other country. British South Africa, 
one-half the area of the United States, is wholly in the 
temperate zone. Malaria, yellow fever, and sleeping sick- 
ness can now be controlled. 

Because of this great extent, Africa is a continent of 


The Dark Continent 

remarkable variety, and few general statements about it 
are valid. There are at least four different Af ricas with 
which we have to deal ; and for these the popular names, 
though far from scientific, will be sufficient for our pur- 
pose: North Africa, South Africa, the East Coast, and 
the West Coast. North Africa includes those countries 
that border on the Mediterranean; Morocco, Algeria, 
Tripoli, Egypt (including the Soudan), and Abyssinia. 
South Africa is the collective name of the provinces, 
mainly British and Dutch, now included in the Union of 
South Africa, Rhodesia, and Natal. East Africa, now 
called Tanganyika territory, formerly a German colony, 
was after the late war transferred to the " protection " of 
England. It is the region of the great interior lakes ex- 
plored by Livingstone. West Africa is now mainly under 
French control and includes the districts known as Liberia, 
the Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Nigeria, and Kamerun, the 
latter held by the British. This leaves Belgian Congo, 
midway between West Africa and British South Africa, 
a region of 909,654 square miles and a population of 
8,500,000 of whom only 8,175 are whites. In describing 
the missions, these general outlines will be followed. 

The People 

Here, too, general statements must be made with cau- 
tion, because the peoples of Africa are so many and so 
varied. Estimates of population are worth little, vary- 
ing as they do from 140,000,000 to 200,000,000. The 
native inhabitants are of four principal stocks: i. The 
Hamitic, in the northern and northeastern part ; the Ber- 
bers are descendants of the ancient Egyptians, Copts, very 
much mixed. This is perhaps the oldest element. 2. 
Negroid, filling the central portion. Many tribes and 
languages are found, and their exact relations are yet to 
be determined. 3. Hottentot or Bushmen, the natives 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

of South Africa. 4. Malayan, found chiefly in Madagas- 
car and the eastern coast. Besides, there are some 10, 
000,000 Semites in the northern regions. 

Slavery was once a universal institution in Africa. 
The slave-trade is now practically abolished, which Chris- 
tianity may claim as one of its great victories, even though 
gunpowder and rum have been substituted as part of 
the blessings of a Christian civilization. The liquor 
traffic conducted by " Christian " nations is indeed the 
great remaining curse of Africa, involving the whole 
continent and all its people. No wonder Schweitzer says, 
" Anything the white peoples may do for Africa is not 
so much benevolence as atonement." 

Polygamy is the twin evil; general, not to say uni- 
versal, among all native tribes, often taking the form 
of a mild domestic slavery, since there is little distinction 
between wife and slave both are acquired by purchase, 
and both when acquired become drudges. Yet the system 
is approved by African women, and in the opinion of many 
dispassionate students of social conditions, it is so much 
an integral part of African life as to constitute a problem 
that defies immediate solution. To put away all his wives 
but one, a Christian convert must do what his race will 
regard as an injustice and disgrace to those put away. 
Wide-spread immorality is the result of insistence on 
monogamy. In Western Africa promiscuity is said to be 
more prevalent than either monogamy or polygamy. 

In some parts of Africa considerable progress in civil- 
ization has been made. On the western coast, native 
traders are enterprising and prosperous; they conduct 
business with typists, cashiers, etc., quite in the modern 
fashion. Native barristers do well in the courts and 
often have white clients, but race prejudice hampers na- 
tive doctors. Great Britain is covering her colonies 
with trained native artisans carpenters, bricklayers, en- 


The Dark Continent 

gineers. Race prejudice still retards progress; it often 
manifests itself among whites in extreme dominance, 
sometimes cruelty. In the main, however, beyond social 
ostracism the native does not now suffer much wrong, 
especially in the British colonies. The wrongs in Belgian 
Congo have been largely corrected. 


Africa is a country of immense and varied physical 
resources, little of which has yet been developed. Every 
colony has precious metals in forms and quantities profit- 
able for industry and commerce. Exploration has as yet 
surveyed only the surface of the country and great dis- 
coveries doubtless remain to be made. At present South 
Africa seems to be richest in mineral wealth : copper, iron, 
gold, diamonds, all in large quantities. It was long 
thought that no coal exists in Africa, but lately some has 
been discovered in Cape Colony and near Khartoum. The 
African forests contain vast quantities of lumber, includ- 
ing cabinet woods and dyewoods; and are among the 
most valuable timber-lands in the world. The central 
plateaus possess great agricultural possibilities, and are 
already producing a wide variety of grains, vegetables, 
and fruits. Large areas combine the advantages of trop- 
ical and temperate climates and soils. Splendid cattle dis- 
tricts are found in the Congo valley and elsewhere. There 
is immense available water-power for lighting and manu- 
factures, still awaiting development. 

The primitive African is by necessity almost a vege- 
tarian, though he loves both meat and fish. Manioca 
and maize furnish his chief food, pounded into a 
coarse meal in wooden mortars. This is supplemented by 
stews (called "chop") of very miscellaneous composi- 
tion. , The African woman is a fairly good cook, barring 
an excessive fondness for chili peppers and palm-oil. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

European food is now brought to Africa, in the form of 
canned goods ; and fresh meat and fish can be had in the 
port cities at least, thanks to refrigerator ships. The 
building of better houses, screened against insects, and 
the use of tabloid medicines have done much to reduce ill- 
ness and the death-rate. 


The African native has no religion in our sense of the 
word, nothing but a crude animism and fetishism. Hence 
the first work of missionaries has been to create a religious 
sense, to reveal God to these black men. The native rites 
and customs are so debased that converts must be re- 
quired to abjure them, and this cuts them off from the 
life of their tribe. To found new Christian communities 
thus becomes imperative. Instability of will is the great 
defect of the African, and Christianity cannot be expected 
to cure this at once. The missionary problems of Africa 
are quite different from those in Asiatic missions. In- 
stead of a highly civilized people, with a long history and 
an ancient literature, Africa presents peoples little re- 
moved from savagery, without history or literature, of 
whom one can say that they are human and not much 

The Dark Continent Becomes Lighter 

Many of us can remember in our school-day geog- 
raphies that the map of Africa showed a great yellow 
blank for its interior, with the words running through 
this space in large capitals " Unexplored Interior." It 
was in those days that it acquired the name of the Dark 
Continent it was dark, not only in that so much of it 
was then unknown, but because of its spiritual condition. 
The explorations of Speke and Grant in the Nile region 
and of Livingstone and Stanley in Central Africa, 


The Dark Continent 

changed all this. Livingstone traveled 29,000 miles and 
added 1,000,000 square miles to the known surface of the 
globe one of the greatest achievements in the history of 
exploration. His journey in 1849 to Lake Ngami was the 
beginning of the great modern discoveries. In .1854-5 he 
determined the course of the Zambesi; in 1857 Burton 
and Speke made up the Nile valley and discovered lakes 
Tanganyika and Victoria Nyanza; in 1859 Livingstone 
was the first European to see Nyassa; Baker in 1864 
added Albert Nyanza. This opening of new fields Liv- 
ingstone believed to be his proper contribution to mis- 
sionary work. " The end of the geographical feat is but 
the beginning of the missionary enterprise," he said. 
Stanley's journey through the Congo valley was hardly 
less epoch-making. All at once, the African continent 
was flooded with light; it remained only for the mission- 
ary to follow, the explorer wherever he had not preceded. 
This he was prompt to do. 

There had of course been missions in Africa long be- 
fore this. The Roman part of it was Christianized in 
the early centuries; Alexandria and Carthage became 
chief Christian centers, until the incursion of the Vandals 
and afterwards that of the Mohammedans swept away 
this Christian civilization. Since then Africa has been 
mainly Mohammedan, wherever it was not pagan. 
Nevertheless, Christianity has never died out of the old 
Roman Africa there are 10,000,000 Christians of sorts, 1 
to 42,000,000 Mohammedans. These are mainly sur- 
vivals of the ancient Coptic churches, and of certain 
early heretical sects, such as the Monophysites, to the 
number of 3,000,000 or more. Some are Roman Cath- 
olics, claimed to number 2,450,000. Many of these are 
Christian only in the sense that they are not Moham- 
medan or pagan. But this nominal, inherited Christianity 
is little better than no religion at all. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions" 

Obstacles to Christian Progress 

Mohammedanism is the greatest obstacle to Christian 
missions in Africa. It has certain advantages that make 
its progress relatively easy. It is free from race preju- 
dice; Mohammedans freely intermarry with all the races 
they meet and convert, while Christians will not do this. 
No conversion is required, in the Christian conception of 
that term ; profession of faith in God and Mohammed as 
his prophet and the performance of certain rites is all. 
This makes the transition from paganism to Mohamme- 
danism easy, but raises the question whether the last state 
of the " convert " is not worse than the first, as he carries 
over all his pagan vices and acquires new ones. As the 
influence of England extends in Africa it will tend to re- 
move or lessen this obstacle. The slave trade persists to 
some extent, and what is left of it is carried on by the 
Mohammedan Arabs; its suppression is only a question 
of time, and a short time at that. A railroad from the 
Cape to Cairo is no longer a dream, for the greater part 
of the route is completed, and English capital will soon do 
the rest. This will mean a vast change in the condition of 
Africa. This line when fully constructed will be some 
5,000 miles long. Means of transportation from the in- 
terior to the coast will not be slow in following. 

The other great obstacle to the progress of missions is 
the effect of Africa itself on Europeans. Crawford says : 

The fearful fact must be faced that all things European degenerate 
in central Africa European provisions go bad, European fruits, 
European dogs, degenerate. So too European men and women. 

The habits and customs of the people constitute an- 
other perhaps minor obstacle. To quote Crawford again : 

No delirium of speed here. No catching of train or boat by the 
fraction of a second. . . Fifteen miles per day from camp to camp. 
Speed? Now it is you indorse the old definition that speed is only a 

[ 260 ] 

TJie Dark Continent 

mad method " whereby you miss as much as possible between starting- 
point and destination." 

White people are surprised to find among the natives 
prejudice against whites and everything white. They 
think God is an Englishman. 

Ay, you white men were a bad lot to kill the Best One like that; 
we blacks kill only criminals. And then, far from being ashamed of 
what you have done, you come across the seas to tell us you did it. 

So said a chief to a missionary. Europeans find them- 
selves a thousand miles from a bank they have to rely 
on God and the blacks. 

Missions in South Africa 

From the seventeenth century, various attempts were 
made to colonize and evangelize the eastern and western 
coasts by Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch. Early in the 
nineteenth century French and English settlements gained 
foothold, the latter mainly in the south. These mostly 
had a commercial and economic significance, rather than 
religious, though attempts to reach the natives with the 
gospel were not wholly lacking. The first definitely mis- 
sionary work seems to have been begun by George 
Schmidt, the Moravian, from 1736 to 1743. He tried to 
elevate the Hottentots, but the Dutch settlers of South 
Africa derided and opposed his efforts and after some 
years succeeded in driving the missionaries out. In 1792 
a second attempt with a stronger missionary force proved 
more successful, though the Dutch opposition remained 
constant. The chief colony was established at Gnaden- 
dal, and thence the work spread over a considerable area 
of Cape Colony. Later the Moravian missionaries pushed 
forward among the Kaffirs, where they won 6,000 con- 
verts, and advanced as far as Lake Nyassa. Theirs is still 
a flourishing mission, with close to 100,000 adherents, in 
190 stations. Lay missionaries have been sent in con- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

siderable numbers, and community methods prevail. 
Valuable educational and medical work has supplemented 
evangelism, and here, as everywhere, the Moravians have 
proved themselves wonderful missionaries. 

The LM S was the first British society to enter South 
Africa, beginning its work there in 1799. It has pushed 
as far north as Lake Tanganyika and Madagascar, but has 
never occupied the West Coast. Robert Moffat was sent 
out in 1816 and began a mission in Cape Colony. He 
converted a Hottentot chief named Afrikaner and estab- 
lished a permanent station among the Bechuanas at Kuru- 
man. For some time progress was slow, but after 1829 
he began to make more numerous converts. A large part 
of his. work was translation of the Scriptures and the be- 
ginning of Christian education. David Livingstone was 
at first a missionary of this society, and his explorations 
did much to extend its work. 

Wesleyan missions began in Cape Colony in 1814 and 
have been very fruitful. More than any others, these 
missions have employed native evangelists and pastors, 
with the best results. Their work is well organized, and 
they have produced a Kaffir Bible and other Christian 
literature. The Scotch Presbyterians entered this field in 
1821, and American Presbyterians occupy parts of this 
region, which is large and affords plenty of opportunities 
without duplication. They have established a group of 
schools, including a seminary at Lovedale, 700 miles 
north of Capetown. Very successful industrial training 
is given here to Kaffirs. A similar educational and social 
center has been founded at Blythewood, about 120 miles 
from Lovedale. These two plants are the best of their 
kind in Africa, and perhaps have no superiors in any 
foreign field. 

The SPG (oldest of English missionary organizations, 
begun in 1701) was for a long time strictly colonial and 


The Dark Continent 

British in its operations', and relied on the printed page 
rather than the oral gospel for evangelization. In the 
publication and spread of Christian literature it has al- 
ways been a valuable adjunct of the more direct forms 
of missionary endeavor. In later years it has somewhat 
broadened its sphere and modified its methods, but it is 
still one of the few societies that ignores " comity," is ex- 
clusive and intensive in method, and declines cooperation 
with other agencies, especially if they do not belong to the 
Church of England. This has much limited its usefulness. 

East and Central Africa 

Missions were begun in Central Africa as soon as the 
significance of Livingstone's discoveries dawned on Eu- 
ropeans. Much money has been expended on these fields, 
with relatively small results that can be expressed in 
statistics. The educational work has been most valuable 
and already justifies itself in the estimation of all ob- 
servers. The greatest missionary in this region was 
" Mackay of Uganda." Stanley's famous letter of No- 
vember 15, 1875, in the Daily Telegraph of London was 
a challenge to which English youth responded promptly, 
and the L M S soon sent out eight missionaries, of whom 
Alexander Mackay was the ablest, though the youngest. 
He had thorough literary and scientific training, the latter 
including both engineering and medicine. Establishing 
himself in Uganda, at the south end of Lake Victoria 
Nyanza, he built up a remarkable native Christian com- 
munity. He astonished Africans by what he could do at 
his forge and lathe, and then taught his arts to them. 
He also did considerable work as a translator. Stanley 
declared that he was " the best missionary since Living- 


The L M S also has a mission in East-Central Africa, 
the first being at Ujiji. It proved difficult of access, the 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

climate was bad, and it was finally abandoned in favor of 
a better location. The mortality in this field was terrible 
during the years 1877-1893; of 36 missionaries n died, 
14 were invalided and retired, at a cost of $40,000, with 
results almost invisible. This experience did much to 
give the African climate its bad reputation in Europe 
and America. Later the work has been attended with 
fewer deaths and greater results. 

What was formerly German East Africa was largely 
occupied by missionaries of German societies, who have 
been moderately successful. The CMS also had some 
workers there. The Livingstonia mission of the Free 
Church of Scotland is also located in East Africa. Its 
stations have proved great civilizing centers, as well as 
successful in evangelization. It has done much to stop 
the slave-trade in this region, put an end to the desolating 
wars among the native tribes, and given security to life 
and property through a wide range of country some- 
thing that had never previously been known. 

The West Coast 

The CMS chose this as its field and began a mission 
in Sierra Leone in 1804, three years before it became a 
colony of the British crown. Though it is a small colony, 
about 4,000 square miles in all, it has a coast-line of 1,600 
miles. Some of the earliest books to be printed in an 
African language were produced in this mission. English 
is now almost a native tongue, and a very good system of 
schools is maintained by the Government. A native 
church was organized in 1862 and now supports its own 
pastors, churches, and schools. In 1901 it had over 
12,000 communicants, out of a population of 85,000. The 
CMS also carries on mission work in Nigeria. 

West Africa was long known as "the white man's 
grave." In the first twenty-five years of the CMS work 


The Dark Continent 

in Sierra Leone, for example, 109 missionaries died. 
Better hygiene, sanitation, and medical treatment have re- 
duced this mortality to small proportions in these later 
years. The United Brethren have also had a mission in 
Sierra Leone since 1855, with better fortune and con- 
siderable success. 

The English Wesleyans began missions in West Africa 
in 1811, in Gambia, the Gold Coast, and Lagos. They 
also found the climate deadly in fifty years 63 of their 
missionaries died. In spite of such disasters, the work 
has steadily progressed, and they now have 18,000 mem- 
bers and 60,000 additional adherents. They formed a 
mission Conference in 1880 and in 1885 a missionary 
bishop was appointed. Many schools have been estab- 
lished and buildings constructed for them. The A M E 
Church began work in Liberia in 1833, and a Conference 
has been organized there ; they also have a mission and a 
Conference in the Congo region. 

A mere outline of the various missions in Africa would 
fill many pages of this book. The attempt has been to 
give enough sample cases to indicate how extensive this 
work has already become. 


How large is Africa? How much of it is arid ? How 
much of it was known in the time of Christ ? When did 
the southern part become known? What is its climate? 
Is it a rich country? Why the Dark Continent? Has 
Africa any great rivers ? Any notable lakes? How may 
Central Africa be described? What is the usual idea of 
Africa, and what the reality? What four main divisions 
do we recognize? How many varieties of people in 
Africa? Are all what we call Africans? Does slavery 
exist? How general is polygamy? Is it easy to abolish it? 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Is Africa becoming civilized? Where de we find most 
evidences? Con you describe the natural resources of 
Africa? What sort of food do the natives have? What 
is the religion of Africa ? Who are some of the great ex- 
plorers ? When did missions begin ? Are there remains 
of the ancient Christianity? Why is Mohammedanism 
so great an obstacle? What do you know of the " Cape 
to Cairo " route? What is another serious obstacle to 
missions? What does Crawford tell us about native 
ideas and ways? Who first began missions in South 
Africa? What can you say of the Moravians and their 
mission? Who was Moffat, and what did he do? Are 
there other denominations in this field? What has the 
SPG done? Who was the real founder of Central 
African missions ? What was Stanley's part in it? Who 
was " Mackay of Uganda " ? What other missions in 
East Africa ? Where was the first mission on the West 
coast ? How far has it been successful ? What was the 
West Coast long called ? Is it still deadly ? What other 
mission is very successful here ? 


Blakie, W. G., Personal Life of David Livingstone. New 
York, 1880. 

Bryce, James, Impressions of South Africa. London, 

Drummond, Henry, Tropical Africa. New York, 1903. 

Enoch, C. R., The Tropics: Their Resources, People, and 
Future. 1915. 

Gibbons, H. A., The New Map of Africa. 1916. 

Livingstone, Last Journals in Central Africa. New York, 


The Dark Continent 

Nassau, R. M., Fetichism in West Africa. New York, 

Stanley, Henry M., How I Found Livingstone. New 
York, 1872. 

The Congo and the Founding of Its Free State. Two 
vols. New York, 1885. 

In Darkest Africa. London, 1890. 




The West Coast 

American missionaries were first sent to Africa in con- 
nection with a project to found a colony of emancipated 
American Negroes, from 1820 onward. The American 
Colonization Society undertook this work, and several 
religious bodies, including Baptists, became interested in 
it. Vast sums were spent on the colonizing scheme, with- 
out adequate return. Liberia has about 350 miles of sea- 
board and extends some 200 miles inland, with a total area 
of about 40,000 square miles. Its present population is 
composed of 20,000 from the United States and 2,000,000 
or more natives. It obtained recognition as an indepen- 
dent republic in 1842. Citizens must have some Negro 
blood. The Civil War interrupted the missionary work 
of Northern Baptists, and it has never been resumed. 
Other denominations have entered the field, however, 
notably the Methodists, who have a flourishing mission 
and a college at Monrovia, the capital. There is also a 
Liberia College there, in part supported by the Govern- 
ment. The Protestant Episcopal Church is especially suc- 
cessful in its educational features maintaining a high 
school at Cape Palmas and three other schools. In all 
there are 87 mission schools, with over 3,000 pupils. 

The S B C in Nigeria 

In 1849 the SBC began a mission among the Yoruba, 
a tribe in the region that has since become part of the 
immense British possessions collectively known as the 
West Colony, over which Great Britain claims " protec- 
torate " or territorial rights. The mission was in what is 

[ 268 ] 

Baptist Missions in Africa 

now Northern Nigeria, a region of 256,400 square miles 
and a population of more than 7,000,000. West Africa 
comprises, in addition, Southern Nigeria, Gold Coast, 
Sierra Leone, and Gambia. Lagos is the capital and the 
center now of missionary operations. The people are 
largely Mohammedans, and the number of European 
residents is very small, not exceeding 3,000. Some pri- 
mary and secondary schools are maintained by the Gov- 
ernment. The educational work of the Baptist mission is 
very prominent. A college and theological school was 
founded in 1900 at Ogbomoso, and a normal course is 
also added. The teaching staff is composed of mission- 
aries and natives and is very efficient. There is a girls' 
school at Abeokuta, with about 100 girls in attendance 
and five teachers. An industrial school at Iwo is becom- 
ing one of the best institutions in Nigeria. A new hos- 
pital plant has been established at Ogbomoso, commodious 
and well-planned; dispensaries are maintained at a num- 
ber of other stations. A Yoruba Association was formed 
some years ago, and has since become the Nigeria Bap- 
tist Convention. The churches are erecting their own 
houses of worship and are manifesting a strong mission- 
ary spirit. The Yoruba and other tribes of this region 
have egbes or companies for various purposes; this 
method of organization is carried into church life so as 
sometimes to be embarrassing, but on the whole the re- 
sults are good. 

English Baptist Mission 

The B M S had a mission on the West Coast from 
1842 onward. The chief station was on the island of 
Fernando Po, near the mouth of the Cameroon river. 
Missionaries were sent here from the colony of Jamaica, 
where they already had experience in working among a 
Negro population. Outstations on the mainland were 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

established, some of which grew into churches; and the 
people were taught the arts of civilized life along with 
the gospel. Victoria, on the mainland, after a time be- 
came the center of this mission. The Cameroon region 
became a German colony and a considerable immigration 
of Germans resulted. This led to a transfer of the work 
to the Basel Missionary Society, in 1882, which main- 
tained it up to the late war, and perhaps does still, though 
the treaty of Versailles transferred the administration of 
the Cameroon colony to the British and French govern- 

Negro Baptist Missions 

Two independent organizations of Negro Baptists have 
missions in Africa. The National Baptist Convention 
was organized under the leadership of Dr. William J. 
Simmons in 1880. After his death, four years later, 
Dr. E. C. Morris became its head; he was an excellent 
organizer and served 28 years. The Foreign Mission 
Board of the Convention is located in Philadelphia. It 
maintains missions in Liberia and South Africa. 

The Lott Carey Missionary Society also has missions 
in Liberia, and indeed led the way there. Lott Carey 
was a slave who succeeded in buying his freedom in 1820 
and appointed himself a missionary to his race in Africa. 
After eight years he died there, but his example led to 
the organization of Negro Baptists for missionary pur- 
poses in 1860, and the society appropriately took the name 
of this pioneer. Besides their Liberian mission, they 
support native workers in South Africa under direction 
of the South African B M S. 

English Baptists in the Congo 

In 1877 Mr. Robert Arthjipington, of Leeds, offered the 
B M S 1,000 to begin a mission in the Congo field, and 


Baptist Missions in Africa 

this stimulated other generous gifts. Their first mission- 
ary was George Grenfell, whose name stands among the 
greatest of African missionaries. His family belonged 
to the Church of England, but he became a Baptist at the 
age of fifteen. After some years in business, he entered 
Bristol College, was accepted as a missionary by the 
BMS, and reached the Cameroons in January, 1875. 
After three years here, he went to the Congo Valley 
and founded a new mission. He built the missionary 
steamer Peace, and by its aid carried the gospel message 
to hundreds of villages along the Congo and its affluents. 
He did a great and valuable work of exploration in the 
Upper Congo basin, ascending some of the tributary 
streams 400 miles or more, making careful observations 
and mapping this new region with great accuracy. The 
geographical value of his work is second only to that 
of Livingstone and Stanley. Later he built a second mis- 
sionary boat, the Goodwill. Among other achievements, 
he established the first printing-press in this part of 
Africa, at Bolobo. Grenfell died all too soon in 1906, not 
quite 57 years old African missions are not conducive to 

Other missionaries were sent out, many of whom died 
before they had accomplished anything. Stations were 
established on both the Upper and Lower Congo. The 
station of Stanley Pool was destroyed by fire, in 1886, but 
the loss stimulated the supporters to new efforts, and 
4,000 was raised for rebuilding in a few weeks. The 
native language has been reduced to writing, grammar 
and dictionary provided, and a version of the Bible has 

Northern Baptists in the Congo 

The Congo mission of American Baptists was orginated 
as an independent effort by two English Baptists, Mr. 

[ 271 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

and Mrs. H. Grattan Guinness, about 1878. With their 
own means and contributions from English sources, they 
carried it on for some years, with considerable success, 
and then, finding themselves no longer able to carry the 
burden, offered it to American Baptists. The offer was 
accepted, after prolonged consideration, in 1884, and we 
took possession of the mission and a plant said to be worth 
$100,000. Not long after this, A. Sims, M. D., returned 
from the field, visited the Northern Baptist churches and 
enlisted their warm sympathy in support of this work. 

The Congo plateau is a region of 900,000 square miles 
with a population estimated at 12,000,000. The greater 
part of it belongs to the Congo Free State, under the 
protectorate of Belgium. Some of this region is still in- 
accessible, but more than 100,000 square miles is open 
to missionary work, which has the tacit approval of the 
Government. There has been notorious misgovernment 
and maladministration of this region, but many of the 
abuses have been remedied, and the condition of the 
people is much improved. Only about one-third of these 
people have yet been reached by Protestant missionaries, 
but there are at least 326 Protestant churches in the Congo 
and nearly 60,000 members. 

Henry Richards had been the pioneer missionary on the 
Congo and labored at Banza Manteke amid great dis- 
couragements until the " Pentecost on the Congo," as the 
first great revival in 1886 was called. In the four years 
from 1921-4, there were nearly 11,000 baptized on this 
field. Here Dr. Catharine L. Mabie was located in 1898 
for her medical work, with no equipment worth mention- 
ing, so she became a traveling medical missionary and 
ministered to a large region round about. Since 1911 
she has been a teacher in the Congo Evangelical Training 
Institution at Kimpese, where she gives special attention 
to physiology, sanitation, and hygiene. Her standing as 

[ 272 ] 

The Field of the Belgian Congo Mission 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

and Mrs. H. Grattan Guinness, about 1878. With their 
own means and contributions from English sources, they 
carried it on for some years, with considerable success, 
and then, finding themselves no longer able to carry the 
burden, offered it to American Baptists. The offer was 
accepted, after prolonged consideration, in 1884, and we 
took possession of the mission and a plant said to be worth 
$100,000. Not long after this, A. Sims, M. D., returned 
from the field, visited the Northern Baptist churches and 
enlisted their warm sympathy in support of this work. 

The Congo plateau is a region of 900,000 square miles 
with a population estimated at 12,000,000. The greater 
part of it belongs to the Congo Free State, under the 
protectorate of Belgium. Some of this region is still in- 
accessible, but more than 100,000 square miles is open 
to missionary work, which has the tacit approval of the 
Government. There has been notorious misgovernment 
and maladministration of this region, but many of the 
abuses have been remedied, and the condition of the 
people is much improved. Only about one-third of these 
people have yet been reached by Protestant missionaries, 
but there are at least 326 Protestant churches in the Congo 
and nearly 60,000 members. 

Henry Richards had been the pioneer missionary on the 
Congo and labored at Banza Manteke amid great dis- 
couragements until the " Pentecost on the Congo," as the 
first great revival in 1886 was called. In the four years 
from 1921-4, there were nearly 11,000 baptized on this 
field. Here Dr. Catharine L. Mabie was located in 1898 
for her medical work, with no equipment worth mention- 
ing, so she became a traveling medical missionary and 
ministered to a large region round about. Since 1911 
she has been a teacher in the Congo Evangelical Training 
Institution at Kimpese, where she gives special attention 
to physiology, sanitation, and hygiene. Her standing as 


The Field of the Belgian Congo Mission 

Baptist Missions in Africa 

physician and teacher led to her appointment as a "member 
cf the Phelps-Stokes survey in 1921. 

Dr. W. H. Leslie, another medical missionary, was a 
pioneer in penetrating the Kwangu region, about 1900. 
For several years he and Mrs. Leslie lived alone in the 
wilderness. He also was a pioneer in establishing the 
Vanga station, one of the greatest now in the Congo field. 
To hew this out of the primitive African jungle, he had 
two axes, a saw, a hammer, a box of nails, two bales of 
cloth, and ten sacks of salt. He cleared a plateau above 
the river and there built a village, with houses for mis- 
sionaries, a church, school, and dispensary. Beyond the 
mission, a village has been built for young couples gradu- 
ated from the school, which they have named Beige. The 
influence of this station is felt far and wide; old pagan 
evils are disappearing ; new ethical ideals are being estab- 
lished; habits of cleanliness are forming; a religion of 
love and trust is taking the place of the ancient cults of 
terror and superstition. 1 

At Ntondo a valuable industrial work is going on under 
direction of a practical mechanic. A combined carpenter's 
and machinist's shop of brick contains a ten-horse-power 
engine, which moves saws, planes, lathe, and grinding- 
mill. There is another shop with forges and machinery 
for iron work. Practically everything has been built by 
the pupils, and the whole station is one of the finest in 
Africa. The Phelps-Stokes Commission says of it : 

In the construction of its buildings and the arrangement of roads 
and gardens, this plant is probably the best the Commission observed 
in Africa. . . It is notable for the abundance of fruits, vegetables, and 
flowers. One residence is famous for its lawn, the only one seen 
in Central Africa. 

1 Dr. W. H. Leslie and the Rev. and Mrs. Joseph Clark, all three Baptist 
missionaries in the Belgian Congo, have been decorated as chevalier de I'order 
royal dtt lion by the king of Belgium. Doctor Leslie has worked for more 
than 30 years in the Congo, Mr. Clark for 48, and Mrs. Clark for 46. Mrs. 
Clark is the first woman to receive this decoration. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

This is one mission where the workers did not begin by 
establishing a college and theological seminary. They 
bad the good sense to recognize the fact that the first step 
in establishing a Christian civilization among Africans 
was to teach them how to gain a livelihood and how to 
live. They found that while the African is not naturally 
industrious, he can be taught to work, and that he be- 
comes a good artisan with proper instruction. 

There are stations similar to the above at Tshumbiri 
and Sona Bata. The latter is perhaps the most fruitful 
of conversions thus far of any African field. Continuous 
revivals have occurred. In 1921 there were 2,000 bap- 
tisms here, 3,500 in 1922, 2,500 in 1923, 1,100 in 1924, 
and over 1,000 in 1925. 


Africans in general are an emotional people, and con- 
stitute probably the most inflammable material in the 
world. A native " prophet " will always find a multitude 
of followers, and recent converts are often easily led 
astray by these pretenders. In the Sona Bata region 
much trouble has been experienced from one Kibangu, 
who announced himself a prophet in the summer of 1921 
and caused great excitement by pretending to work 
miracles and claiming to be a Messiah. After a time the 
Government arrested him and the stir gradually died 
away. A recrudescence of the movement in later years 
led some 3,000 converts to separate from our missions, 
but the others stood fast. The experience has emphasized 
the great need of trained native workers. 

African prophetism has not always had results so bad. 
A Methodist missionary recently discovered some 20,000 
converts in West Africa, who had been gained by the 
preaching of a native known as " Prophet Harris " and 
the " Black Elijah." This missionary, Rev. W. J. Platt, 


Baptist Missions in Africa 

found these native Christians meeting every Sunday to 
sing hymns, pray, and encourage each other in the wor- 
ship of God. They were without ministry or organiza- 
tion and apparently excellent material for fuller Chris- 
tian instruction. Prophet Harris has said everywhere 
that he was only a forerunner, and told them to wait for 
the coming of missionaries and fuller light. Many of 
them possessed Bibles and they had even built churches in 
some places. Missionaries have been sent them, and it is 
hoped to establish a training college. 

Christian Education 

Religious evangelism without education has been 
proved by experience to be the fruitful mother of emo- 
tionalism, superstitition, fanaticism, and bigotry. No- 
where has this been made more clear than in Africa. 
The educational work of missions is there of utmost im- 
portance, yet thus far the Congo field has no system of 
education, and the work greatly needs coordination. 

Chief among educational influences is the translation 
and circulation of the Scriptures. There are some 800 
languages and dialects spoken in Africa and many of 
them are not yet reduced in writing. The work of trans- 
lation, and the printing of a Christian literature, has thus 
far been carried on in a very unsystematic, and hence a 
very unsatisfactory way. There has been a deplorable 
lack of cooperation between the various missionaries and 
societies, leading to great duplication and waste of effort.. 
Various missionaries, often in adjacent fields, and dealing 
with the same language, have made different alphabets 
and scripts, and the result is that natives speaking the 
same language cannot read the books produced in stations 
other than their own. An International Bureau of 
African Languages and Culture is projected, to promote 
study of the native languages and uniformity in writing 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

and printing them, so as to make what religious and edu- 
cational literature may be produced available to the 
utmost. There certainly is need for such an institution. 
The present haphazard and unscientific methods are a 
disgrace to missions, and should be promptly remedied. 

Baptist schools in connection with African missions are 
numerous and on the whole of excellent grade. The 
British Baptists began a school at San Salvador, on the 
Congo River, in 1879, on the site of an abandoned Roman 
Catholic mission. It maintains a boarding-school for boys 
and girls, with a teaching staff of 14. A brick church has 
been built here, with five bungalows for residences, a dis- 
pensary, and a hospital. This has 36 beds and gives more 
than a thousand treatments a year. 

Several stations are maintained by the British Baptists 
in the Congo field, notably one at Kibokolo, on a plateau 
3,200 feet above sea-level, in a fine climate. A school is 
maintained, which has an attendance of 60 boys and 24 
girls. Instruction is given in the vernacular, including 
some industrial and agricultural training. Ten stations 
in all are maintained, and the Phelps-Stokes Commission 
says that this work " is one of the most notable in the 
whole colony." 

British and American Baptists unite in the support of 
the Kimpese Evangelical Training Institute, already men- 
tioned. It has been at work over fifteen years, has gradu- 
ated 73 men and 64 women, most of whom are now at 
work on the field and are building up native churches 
rapidly. This is a more advanced school than many, and 
besides studies equal to our eight grades, provides in- 
struction in sanitation, agriculture, and handicrafts. 
Only one other institution of equal grade is yet maintained 
in the Congo, and that by a Swedish mission. 

It is the testimony of missionaries and observers that 
the pupils of these Congo schools compare very favorably 


Baptist Missions in Africa 

in intelligence and attainment with pupils of the same 
grades in the United States. In knowledge of the Bible 
they put to shame students in our high schools and college 

The great defect of missionary schools and this is by 
no means confined to Africa has been that their product 
is fitted only to make ministers, teachers, or clerks, what 
is known among us as "white-collar jobs." More of 
these are now found on nearly all our mission fields than 
can possibly find employment; and they are unwilling as 
any American youths to accept other and (as they think) 
inferior work. Schools that will teach natives to make a 
living, as the first condition of making a life, are greatly 
needed on all mission fields. For Africans, agricultural 
colleges are the prime desideratum. The vast majority 
of the people must live on and from the soil. There are 
135 mission stations now in Africa where some sort of 
agricultural training is given; and how to increase the 
number and efficiency of these is one of the chief mis- 
sionary problems today. The report of the Phelps-Stokes 
Commission has had good effects in many ways : It has 
called the attention of the Christian world to the good 
and bad features of the work in Africa ; it has stimulated 
the British Government to appoint an advisory Educa- 
tional Commission for the future development of educa- 
tion in British colonies. France and Belgium are expected 
to take similar steps; and with these the various mission- ~ 
ary agencies should henceforth cooperate. Not a super- 
ficial and fictitious " culture," but a practical training that 
will fit him to live a useful life in his native environment 
is the chief need of the African. 

Prospects of African Missions 

The outlook for the future is most encouraging. Mis- 
sionaries have laid great stress on self-support, and the 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

natives have responded heartily. Most of the station 
plants have been erected by labor of converts, at a mini- 
mum of cost ; little foreign money is now used in support 
of native churches, schools, and teachers, except when 
establishing new stations. At the same time, African 
missions of all denominations, and especially our own, 
sorely need reenforcement and enlargement on the side 
of medical and educational work. Hospitals are urgently 
required. Evangelism can be most effectively conducted 
by the native ministry now receiving training. Character 
more than intellect will decide the future of Africa. Man 
is undergoing a social evolution: hence race superiority 
depends on social efficiency. Only a people who can 
flourish by their own efforts can reach and maintain the 
high standard of moral worth and public spirit without 
which a people cannot survive in the stress of modern life. 
It remains to be proved whether the African races have 
enough moral and physical stamina to stand by them- 
selves, and, with some help from the white race, work out 
a civilization of their own. Have they the courage, up- 
rightness, soundness of judgment, and capacity to work 
together that have made the white race dominant ? If so, 
Africa will continue to belong indefinitely mainly to the 
black race. If not, the black race will gradually give 
place to the white, as on the American hemisphere the 
red race gave place. 

Missionary problems in Africa are largely social prob- 
lems and not so simple as might be supposed. For ex- 
ample, take the problem of the uplift of the African 
woman. Women have always worked in the fields; if 
taken from this work to the home exclusively, African 
life is so simple that they have not enough work to occupy 
them, and so spend their time in gossiping and quarreling. 
If women are taught modern laundry methods in the in- 
dustrial schools, they are likely to find these inapplicable 


Baptist Missions in Africa 

in their own homes, and if they seek outside employment 
drift away to the towns and multiply the social difficulties 
there. There is no royal road to success in missions, more 
than elsewhere. 

The land question is also a burning one, and Africans 
do not welcome the laws of Europe and America estab- 
lishing private ownership. Dr. C. H. Parrish, the head 
of Simmons University, says : 

Sun, water, and land represent to the native mind, not those ele- 
ments, but a single element, the supreme object of which is the 
provision of human sustenance. The primitive African is as horrified 
at the alienation or sale of land, as of water and sun. It thus follows 
that the ownership is nowhere vested in the individual, but in the 
whole race inhabiting a particular area. While every member of 
the tribe possesses as much right to the usage of an adequate share of 
the land as he has to his share of the warmth of the sun or a drink 
of water from the local stream. 

Whites may force on the Negro their laws and customs, 
but they will meet with sullen resistance. 

During the great war, the prestige of the white race 
was much impaired. On the other hand, Africans are 
fast growing conscious of common ideals and interests. 
The concerted and powerful effort to make South Africa 
a white man's land, segregating the native peoples, pro- 
vokes bitter resentment wherever it is known. Espe- 
cially as the white men of South Africa are by no means 
good specimens of their race such places as Johannes- 
burg are really "universities of vice," and the Bantu- 
race is physically and morally degenerating in its contact 
with the whites. 

In one important respect the outlook is most favorable 
for missions. The ancient paganism is undergoing quick 
decomposition, and Christian missions are thus presented 
with a great opportunity, not exempt from dangers and 
difficulties. For the general awakening of Africa, the 
new longing 'for knowledge, does not necessarily mean 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Christian progress. Baptists are specially fitted to deal 
with the situation by reason of their emphasis, which has 
sometimes been overemphasis, of individual liberty and 
individual responsibility. Education and evangelism must 
be pushed hand-in-hand, and the education must be 
adapted to his needs if we offer the African the Bible 
and spelling-book with one hand, the other should hold 
out the axe and hoe. 

It is a favorable symptom that the eyes of the world 
are today turned upon Africa, especially of the Christian 
world. A great conference of workers was held in Bel- 
gium in the autumn of 1926, at which 200 representatives 
of missionary organizations and 50 officials and special- 
ists were present. They considered such questions as, 
" The specific task of Christian missions in Africa," and 
" The relation between Christian missions and other 
forces impinging on African life." The result of such a 
conference should be greater coordination and energy in 
the prosecution of African missions. 


Where were the first American missions in Africa? 
Why is there no Baptist mission in Liberia now? What 
other denominations have missions there? Where is 
Nigeria? What Baptists have a mission there? How 
much has it accomplished? Have English Baptists any 
mission in West Africa ? What is the National Baptist 
Convention doing in Africa ? Where are the Lott Carey 
missions ? How did the B M S begin a mission in Congo- 
land? Who was their greatest missionary? How did 
Northern Baptists enter the Congo field ? Who are some 
of the workers? What are some of the chief stations? 
Has the work been very successful ? What medical work 
is doing? What industrial training? Who was Kibangu 


Baptist Missions in Africa 

and what did he do? Who was the " Black Elijah "? 
Is Christian education especially important in Africa? 
Are the Scriptures widely circulated? Has there been 
sufficient unity in this work ? Do our Baptist schools rank 
high? What is the Kimpese Institute? Are African 
students intelligent? What is the chief defect of mission 
schools? What is the outlook for missions? Can you 
name the most pressing needs? Are missionary prob- 
lems simple? What is the attitude of Africans to the 
land question? Is there growing solidarity among the 
natives? What are some circumstances favoring mis- 
sions ? 


Education in Africa (Report of the Phelps-Stokes Sur- 
vey, prepared by Thomas Jesse Jones). 

Fahs, Sophia Lyon, Uganda's White Man of Work 
(Mackay). Philadelphia, 1907. 

Grenfell, Congo Missionary and Explorer, Life of 
George. New York, 1909. 

Harris, J. H., Dawn in Darkest Africa. New York, 

Jack, James W., Daybreak in Livingstonia. 

Kemp, Rev. Dennis (Wesleyan), Nine Years at the Gold 
Coast. 1898. 

Lerrigo, P. H.. J., Rock-Breakers: Kingdom Building in 

Moffat, Lives of Robert and Mary. New York, 1905. 

Parsons, Ella, Christus Liberator: An Outline Study of 
Africa. New York, 1905. 

Stewart, James, Dawn in the Dark Continent. New 

York, 1902. 
Warneck, History of Protestant Missions, pp. 205-220. 

u [281] 



The Country 

The cluster of islands called the Philippines constitute 
a vaster territory than most Americans realize. They 
extend through sixteen degrees of longitude and nine of 
latitude a space nearly equal in dimensions, though not 
in area, to the United States east of the Mississippi. They 
are a country larger than Great Britain, twice the size 
of New England and more than equal to the Middle 
States in all 127,855 square miles. There are more than 
7,000 of these islands, though only 166 have an area of 
one square mile or over. The principal islands are : Luzon, 
40,814 square miles, about the size of Ohio; and Min- 
danao, 36,906, nearly the same as Indiana. Besides these 
are : Samar, Panay, Palawan, and Mindoro, each ap- 
proximately equal to Connecticut, while Leyte, Ceba, 
Bohal, and Masbata are all larger than Rhode Island. 
The population is 10,000,000, about the same density as 
in the United States, and far below that of Japan or 
China. Manila, the capital, is a city of about 250,000, 
and there are eighteen towns numbering between 20,000 
and 40,000. There are three rivers as long as the Hud- 
son, and mountains higher than any in the United States 
east of the Rockies. 

The climate is tropical, but on the whole very good 
some even pronounce it delightful. It is a reaLclimate, 
and not a collection of samples of weather. The tem- 
perature is seldom under 70 or over 100, and may be 
called a perpetual summer. There are two seasons, the 
wet and the dry, the wet somewhat cooler ; even in the 


Missions to the Philippines 

hot, dry season sea-breezes bring cool nights. Nothing 
can be finer than some of the inland towns and stations, 
in a table-land 3,000 feet above sea-level. 


The soil is fertile, but the people are far from in- 
dustrious, and the methods of culture are primitive, so 
that a vast increase of production is possible. Tropical 
fruits are grown in abundance: bananas, oranges, man- 
goes, and many varieties of nuts, including coconuts. The 
mountain ranges have twenty active volcanos and thirty 
that are extinct ; and they contain much mineral wealth 
gold, silver, copper, iron, coal are all present. As yet 
manufactures are slight. Some sugar-mills have been 
established, and with improved culture and machinery 
there are great possibilities in the production of sugar. 
Tobacco is a principal crop and is of a quality second 
only to that of Cuba; Manila cigars are celebrated for 
their excellence and cheapness and are exported in con- 
siderable quantities. The forests cover 72,000 square 
miles and abound in fine lumber teak, ebony, mahogany ; 
rubber and camphor trees are native. Rattan, bamboos, 
various barks, resins, and gums are also produced and ex- 
ported. Hats woven of native grasses, embroideries, in 
which the women are skilful, are other important ex- 
ports. No factories are found outside of Manila and its 
environs ; what is produced elsewhere is handwork. 

The immense increase in recent years of the demand 
for crude rubber has opened up new prospects of pros- 
perity for the Philippines. The climatic conditions are 
very favorable to the production of rubber on a large 
scale; the soil is naturally adapted to the rubber tree, 
labor is available on a sufficient scale, and at a cost that 
makes competition with East Indian plantations possible. 
Several rubber plantations have already been established, 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

and a government survey indicates that 1,500,000 acres 
are available for this industry. An Act of Congress, 
passed July i, 1902, provides that single homestead entries 
may be made, not exceeding forty acres ; and in addition 
the Government may sell like tracts to individuals, but not 
more than 64 such tracts may be sold to any individual 
or corporation. The object is to prevent great landed 
estates and secure diffused ownership of the soil. This is 
an effective obstacle to any scheme for exploitation of 
the Philippines through immense rubber plantations estab- 
lished by American capital, but need be no bar to mass 
production by small corporations or enterprising indi- 
viduals. As matter of fact, most of the world's present 
rubber supply is produced by small farm units. While 
the Philippine people realize that the United States needs 
rubber, and are willing to help us break the English 
rubber monopoly, they are not willing to surrender their 
land to economic exploitation. Larger tracts than 2,500 
acres (the present limit) might benefit a few capitalists, 
but would be a political and economic danger to the Fili- 
pinos. It does not seem likely that Congress will consent 
to modify the law, under these circumstances. 

Since the American occupation, banks, post-offices, tele- 
graph and telephone lines, railways, and now radio sta- 
tions have sprung up with astonishing rapidity. There is 
an excellent currency, silver and paper, with a gold basis, 
all modeled on the system of the United States. The unit 
of value is the peso, worth 50 cents of our money. 

Sparsely inhabited, with their immense possibilities of 
food and wealth production barely touched, it is no won- 
der that the Philippines are an object of longing to the 
overpopulated, half-starving peoples of Asia, all of whom 
are on the lookout for some refuge to which their teeming 
millions can flee. This constitutes the real problem of 
the Philippines. For the United States to abandon its 


Missions to the Philippines 

protectorate would mean their immediate exploitation by 
Japan and perhaps by China and India. 

The People 

The natives of the Philippines are not a nation, have 
never been a nation, are not capable of immediately be- 
coming a nation. They are not one people, but a hetero- 
geneous collection of tribes and races, some of them quite 
uncivilized yet. This is the result of successive conquests 
and waves of immigration. Most of the native races are 
allied with the Malays, but the Negritos are believed to be 
the aborigines. H. Otley Breyer, professor of anthro- 
pology in the University of the Philippines, says that 
there are 87 distinct ethnographic groups traceable in the 
present population. He lists 26 different languages and 
dialects that have been printed, and there are probably 
So in all. Nowhere in the world, perhaps, is there greater 
diversity of types and blends of people. They have some 
of the pronounced characteristics of Malays: they have 
no cohesion, are always provincial, and so have never de- 
veloped political or economic unity. They lack persis- 
tence, have no initiative, and are deficient in truthfulness 
and honesty. They are described by our missionaries as 
very hospitable, affectionate, but indolent and emotional. 
They are easy to arouse, hard to hold. The great majority 
are very poor and have learned to be happy with little. 
Gambling and cock-fighting are universal vices. Perhaps 
even these general statements should be received with 
caution, as what may be true of one race might be quite 
otherwise in case of another. 

The most progressive of these tribes are the Tagalogs, 
numbering 1,450,000, and the Visayan, 3,219,000. 
Manuel Quezon, President of the Senate, their leading 
statesman, is a Tagalog, while Senor Osmena, speaker of 
the House of Representatives, is Visayan. Next in impor- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

tance perhaps are Negritos, still wild and uncivilized, and 
the Igorots, in many ways reckoned the most backward 
of all. These and the Moros are Mohammedans. Large 
numbers, some 500,000, are mestizos, or half-breeds, and 
these comprise much of the most intelligent and progres- 
sive of the population. About 50,000 Chinese and some 
Japanese should also be mentioned. The Chinese are 
active in the various kinds of business and are not un- 
popular, but the Japanese are disliked. 

The houses of the natives and all but the wealthier 
of all classes, are of bamboo frames, on piles, with 
thatched roofs of nipa palm, often covered with galvan- 
ized iron. The basement is used as a stable, or possibly 
a store. Furniture is very primitive in these native huts ; 
the inmates sleep on the floor and cook on a flat stone 
fry, roast, broil, and bake in embers. The food is largely 
rice and fish, varied with fowls and pigs. There is 
carabao beef, but it is dry and tough. Vegetables and 
fruits are plentiful, but not the American sorts. Owing 
to unbalanced diet and lack of hygiene, dysentery and 
beri-beri are prevalent and deadly. 

This toll taken by preventable diseases is one of the 
heaviest taxes the Filipinos have to pay. What could 
be done for the islands as a whole has already been demon- 
strated in the Manila district, where malaria, cholera, 
and dysentery have been practically stamped out, and 
tuberculosis greatly diminished. In many parts of the 
islands 20 per cent, of the people suffer from malaria 
alone, and from one-fifth to one- fourth of the people are 
unable to work by reason of diseases. Vigorous sanitary 
and hygienic campaigns, under competent supervisors, are 
the most pressing need of the. day, for the mass of the 
people are totally ignorant of both sanitation and hygiene. 
The schools can do a great work of education in public 


Missions to the Philippines 

As might be expected, there is great diversity of lan- 
guages among the Filipinos. Competent observers de- 
clare that there are thirty-four distinct languages spoken, 
and over 75 dialects, 45 of which are spoken by 'people 
enough to deserve a version of the Scriptures. It is 
further said that twenty of these dialects are spoken by 
over 27,000 persons, and eleven by more than 100,000 
each, while three are the vernacular of at least 1,000,000. 
Up to 1919 the British and Foreign Bible Society had 
published the complete Bible in four principal languages 
and parts of the Gospels in four more. The American 
Bible Society has three complete Bibles for Filipinos and 
the Gospels in two more. The difficulties of making such 
versions are great; for example, the language of the 
Igorots lacks about half the words needed to translate 
the New Testament. 

Spanish is still a common medium of communication, 
but English is rapidly replacing it, and today is spoken 
by more people than ever knew Spanish. English is 
taught in all the schools and is the official language, save 
the proceedings of the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, which are still conducted in Spanish. 

The Spanish conquerors found the Filipinos in three 
classes: nobles (datos), plebeians (tawos), and slaves. 
Slavery was abolished by papal edict in 1591, which was 
confirmed by various royal edicts, but a form of serfdom 
or peonage took its place. A type of feudalism developed, 
which however was an advance on Malayan savagery. 
The Filipino is still feudal by instinct and follows leaders 
blindly. The social unit is the barrio or village, from 
a score to several hundred houses. 


Education is free, secular, and coeducational. There 
are now more than a million pupils enrolled in the public 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

schools, of which there are 4,500. At first and of neces- 
sity manned by American teachers, these have declined 
from more than a thousand to 350, while 8,000 natives are 
now employed as teachers. This alone is an index of the 
progress that the islands are making. A system of normal 
and industrial schools, as well as agricultural, supplements 
the elementary schools. A University of the Philippines 
has been established in Manila and is supported by the 
Government. It reports 2,698 students in the collegiate 
department, and 2,020 in other departments. There are 
also two universities, founded and supported by private 
gifts: Santo Tomas, begun in 1611 by the Dominican 
order and still under their control; and a National Uni- 
versity. Many private schools of various grades are also 
maintained, and these are said to have 30,000 pupils. 

A veritable obsession of education seems to have taken 
hold of the Filipinos. The country has advanced a cen- 
tury in twenty years, and bids fair to become one of the 
most highly educated nations of the world. It is becom- 
ing a youth-controlled nation, full of idealism, intolerant 
of shams. In 1892, it is said, there were not more than 
500 or 600 English-speaking people in Manila ; now over 
100,000 children are studying English in the schools. 
One easily believes the assertion that more Filipinos have 
learned English in 25 years than learned Spanish in 300 
years ; and the prophecy is quite credible that in another 
generation the Filipinos will be mainly an English-speak- 
ing people. 


The Philippines were ceded to the United States by 
Spain in a treaty signed April u, 1899. The United 
States paid Spain $20,000,000, nominally not a purchase, 
but redemption of the bonded debt of the Philippines pre- 
viously incurred, which Spain had guaranteed, and se- 


Baptist Mission Stations in the Philippines 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

schools, of which there are 4,500. At first and of neces- 
sity manned by American teachers, these have declined 
from more than a thousand to 350, while 8,000 natives are 
now employed as teachers. This alone is an index of the 
progress that the islands are making. A system of normal 
and industrial schools, as well as agricultural, supplements 
the elementary schools. A University of the Philippines 
has been established in Manila and is supported by the 
Government. It reports 2,698 students in the collegiate 
department, and 2,020 in other departments. There are 
also two universities, founded and supported by private 
gifts: Santo Tomas, begun in 1611 by the Dominican 
order and still under their control ; and a National Uni- 
versity. Many private schools of various grades are also 
maintained, and these are said to have 30,000 pupils. 

A veritable obsession of education seems to have taken 
hold of the Filipinos. The country has advanced a cen- 
tury in twenty years, and bids fair to become one of the 
most highly educated nations of the world. It is becom- 
ing a youth-controlled nation, full of idealism, intolerant 
of shams. In 1892, it is said, there were not more than 
500 or 600 English-speaking people in Manila ; now over 
100,000 children are studying English in the schools. 
One easily believes the assertion that more Filipinos have 
learned English in 25 years than learned Spanish in 300 
years ; and the prophecy is quite credible that in another 
generation the Filipinos will be mainly an English-speak- 
ing people. 


The Philippines were ceded to the United States by 
Spain in a treaty signed April n, 1899. The United 
States paid Spain $20,000,000, nominally not a purchase, 
but redemption of the bonded debt of the Philippines pre- 
viously incurred, which Spain had guaranteed, and se- 


Baptist Mission Stations in the Philippines 

Missions to the Philippines 

cured by customs. There was great opposition in our 
country to the acquisition of this territory, and for some 
time the " antis " kept up an agitation, stimulated by an 
insurrection of the natives led by Aguinaldo. This ended 
in 1901, and a new era for the islands began. Great prog- 
ress along all lines, political, economic, social, has been 
made in a single generation. The head of the Philippine 
government has the title of Governor-general, and exer- 
cises the executive functions with the help of a cabinet, 
while legislation is in the hands of a Senate of 24 and 
a House of Representatives of 93. The islands are 
divided into 48 provinces, each having its own governor 
and administrative Board. Each municipality has a pre- 
sedente, or mayor, and council. All officers are elected 
by popular vote, save the Governor-general, who is ap- 
pointed by the President of the United States, and names 
his cabinet. The laws are administered by a justice of 
the peace for each municipality, by judges of 26 judicial 
districts and a supreme court. Each municipality has its 
police and there is a general Philippine constabulary, and 
the United States keeps about 13,000 troops, including 
five Filipino regiments, as additional precautions against 

The Question of Independence 

Aguinaldo's insurrection, begun almost at once after 
American occupation, had as its avowed object indepen- 
dence and the establishment of a Filipino republic. It 
was subdued with some difficulty, but a certain element of 
the Filipinos has never ceased to agitate for independence, 
and every year since 1907 the Filipino legislature has 
passed by unanimous vote a resolution demanding imme- 
diate and unconditional independence. This native agita- 
tion has been seconded by some American residents and 
visitors, and by a portion of the people of the United 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

States. By the majority, however, these agitators are 
believed to be misinformed and misguided, and the agita- 
tion itself is believed not to represent the Filipinos as a 
whole, but to be conducted by a minority of politicians for 
selfish purposes. The United States is committed to the 
policy of granting independence to the Filipinos as soon 
as they appear to be capable of self-government and 
self-protection, but no sooner. Most Americans are per- 
suaded that to grant independence sooner would be only 
to invite trouble for the Filipinos and ultimately for our- 

It should be noted that the islands are by no means 
unanimous in this demand for independence. The South- 
ern group, mainly inhabited by Moros, are decidedly op- 
posed to independence. They are of a different race 
(Malay) and religion (Mohammedan) from the rest of 
the Filipinos, and mutual distrust prevails, not to say 
hatred. In the past, the Moros have been much per- 
secuted by the " Christian " Filipinos, and for their own 
security greatly prefer continuance of the present status. 
If independence is granted to the northern portion of the 
islands, they demand separate organization under a pro- 
tectorate by the United States. A measure known as the 
Bacon bill is pending in Congress, which aims to grant 
this desire of the Moros for separate treatment. 

Colonel Thompson's Mission 

What may prove to be a decisive event in the settlement 
of relations with the Philippines was the sending of 
Colonel Carmi A. Thompson, of Ohio, as a personal repre- 
sentative of President Coolidge, to make a comprehensive 
survey of conditions in the islands. He was received 
with all honors and given every facility for investiga- 
tion. His report was made public in the closing weeks 
of 1926, and is a most important document. As was 


Missions to the Philippines 

expected, he strongly emphasizes the economic possibil- 
ities of the country. He found Mindanao producing 
high-grade coffee, and promising to grow enough to break 
the Brazilian monopoly. Immense deposits of iron ore 
and coal were shown him, though further expert surveys 
are necessary to establish fully their extent and value. 
Hemp production, in which the Philippines now lead the 
world, is capable of indefinite expansion. There is much 
undeveloped water-power, especially in Mindanao. An 
experimental grove of camphor trees shows that the is- 
lands can be made to produce large quantities of camphor, 
an industry of which Japan now has a practical monopoly. 
The yield of sugar could easily be increased fourfold. 
Enough kapok could be grown to stuff every mattress 
in the United States. 

The decisive argument against Filipino independence is 
that, with all this possibility of wealth, the islands have 
not yet so developed their possibilities as to be capable 
of maintaining independence. Potentially one of the 
richest regions of the world, it is yet one of the poorest. 
Colonel Thompson gives adequate recognition of this 
basic and undeniable fact; and accordingly he does not 
recommend immediate independence. But he does 
strongly recommend better cooperation between the 
United States and the insular Legislature; and while 
highly commending the administrative ability of General 
Wood, he believes it would be better to transfer the ad- 
ministration of the islands from the War Department to 
a Bureau to be created for all insular administration. 
No change in the Jones Acts of 1916 should be made, 
and he does not favor segregation of the southern group 
to please the Moros. He recommends modification of 
the land laws, but by the Filipinos themselves through 
their Legislature, rather than by Congress. 

In addition to the decisive reason mentioned above, 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

there are many economic and political reasons why imme- 
diate independence would be most inexpedient for the 
Filipinos. As an American protectorate, they enjoy free 
trade with the United States, and have the same pro- 
tection against foreign competition that the American 
people have. As a result, Filipinos have increased and 
diversified their industries and commerce more than ten- 
fold, wages have more than trebled, and the life of the 
people has been improved in a thousand ways. The 
United States expends annually $12,000,000 in the main- 
tenance of its army and navy in the Philippines, all of 
which inures to the advantage of the people. Trade with 
the United States is vital to the Filipino people, who sell 
only 30 per cent, of their products to foreign nations. 
Separation would mean loss of the greater portion of 
what has been thus gained; it would cause the decay of 
Filipino industries and a check to their economic pros- 
perity from which they would be decades in recovering, 
if they recovered at all. 

Roman Catholics in the Philippines 

There was no Spanish conquest of the Philippines; 
there is no Cortez or Pizarro in its history. A series of 
settlements peacefully made rather, and a quiet exten- 
sion of Spanish authority, until it nominallly covered the 
entire group of islands. Missionaries soon followed this 
occupation, and as a result nine-tenths of Filipinos, of 
whatever race, are nominally Christian. In 1898 there 
were 6,559,998 inscribed in parish registers, and now 
7,751,176 are claimed. The Spanish friars were these 
first missionaries, and their orders became dominant, es- 
pecially Dominicans and Franciscans. They had acquired 
title before the American occupation to 400,000 acres of 
the best lands, of which 250,000 were near Manila. They 
were paid over $7,000,000 to relinquish these titles. The 


Missions to the Philippines 

friars had the repute of being very immoral, as well as 
grasping : they were directly connected with the Spanish 
government and its police, which they really directed, and 
in consequence became very unpopular. Before the war 
between Spain and the United States there had been 
several attempts at revolution, directed especially against 
the friars. Though many members of these orders de- 
parted for Spain after the American occupation, the feel- 
ing against them and their church did not subside, and 
an independent Catholic Church was established in 1901, 
under the lead of Gregario Aglipay. He was elected arch- 
bishop by his followers and has since consecrated bishops 
and ordained priests and organized a large Church, which 
claims 1,413,506 followers. The Roman Catholic Church 
has lost fully half of the Filipinos, but is now making 
great efforts to recoup these losses, mainly through paro- 
chial schools. As in the United States, the Roman Church 
is very hostile to the public schools. 

Presbyterian Missions 

Admiral Dewey entered Manila Bay on the night of 
April 30, 1898, and fought his memorable battle with the 
Spanish fleet the following morning. 1 When the news 
of his victory reached the United States the people re- 
joiced greatly, but with a bewilderment aptly expressed 
by Mr. Dooley, who said his countrymen did not know 
whether the Philippines were islands or a breakfast food. 
In that same month of May, the Presbyterian General 
Assembly voted a mission to the islands. They were for- 
tunately able to transfer a Spanish-speaking missionary 
from Brazil, Rev. James B. Rodgers, who began the first 

J The other principal events in the acquisition of the Philippines were: 
January 12, 1898, Aguinaldo issues proclamation of Philippine independence; 
August 13, Manila captured by American troops; February 4, 1899, Insurrec- 
tion of Filipinos; February 6, Treaty of Paris ratified by U. S. Senate; March, 
1901, Aguinaldo captured; July 4, civil government established by authority of 
the United States. 

[ 293 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Protestant mission in Manila the following April. He 
found the people very receptive; they received the Bible 
and the gospel gladly. Other workers followed, and in 
seven years later the Presbyterian mission had 4,127 
communicants. Eight other stations were opened, in 
which five dialects are spoken, and the total membership 
has now grown to more than 16,000. A conference of 
missionary Boards in the summer of 1898 agreed on a 
division of fields, in consequence of which the Presby- 
terian missions have been confined to the southern part of 
Luzon, while the Methodists have occupied the northern 
part. A medical mission in Panay is also an important 
part of the Presbyterian work. Their Silliman Institute, 
at Dumaguete, in the island of Negros, was named for 
a layman of Cohoes, N. Y., who gave $20,000 to found 
it. It has a fine, salubrious location, accessible to a large 
population, with no competing schools. Practically every 
province is represented among its students. Industrial 
features have been developed, a college farm, sawmills, 
etc. A mission hospital has been added, and altogether 
this is one of the greatest Protestant missions in the 

Other Denominations 

While Presbyterians were first, other evangelical bodies 
were not far behind. American Christians were prac- 
tically a unit in recognizing their responsibilities to the 
Filipino people, whose destiny had in so strange a manner 
become united with our own. The Methodist Episcopal 
missions were begun in 1900, and they have established 
the largest Protestant congregation in Manila, besides 
numerous stations among the natives of northern Luzon. 
By 1903 they had 5,000 members and probationers. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church began a mission in 
Manila in 1900. The following year Rev. Charles E. 

f 294 J 

Missions to the Philippines 

Brent, of Boston, was elected missionary bishop of the 
Philippines, and has succeeded in procuring the erection 
of the cathedral of St. Mary and St. John, at a cost of 
$100,000, which is said to be the finest Episcopal church 
of the Orient. A fine social program has been undertaken 
by this Church schools, hospitals, and dispensary in 
Manila, another hospital at Zamboanza, a training-school 
for nurses at Manila, and an orphanage. Over 90 social 
workers are employed, largely Filipinos. 

The United Brethren began a mission in 1901 among 
the Ilocanos, Igorots, and other backward tribes. 

The Disciples opened their first mission in 1901, and 
since 1923 have taken as their special field the northern 
part of Mindoro. They are said to be outstripping others 
in building up an indigenous church. They have esta- 
blished three hospitals and as many concrete dormitories, 
and are emphasizing social service. 

The ABCFM began work in southern Mindanao in 
1902, where they established a hospital in 1908. 

Other Agencies 

The Y M C A was early in the field ; its representatives 
were sent out in 1898 with army transports, and their 
work has been largely among soldiers. Buildings were 
erected at the chief posts, well equipped for social pur- 
poses. Miss Helen M. Gould largely financed this work 
for some years. 

The two great Bible Societies have had agents in the 
field, circulating their various versions for Filipinos. A 
version in Visayan has also been published by the Iloilo 
press, translating baptizo correctly. 

The Baptist Mission 

This was begun by Rev. Eric Lund, who had been 
a missionary in' Spain. When he landed at Iloilo, in the 

v [295] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

island of Panay, May 3, 1900, he found a field white 
for harvest. The people were more than ready to listen 
to the gospel. Not long after he began preaching in the 
market-place at Jaro, a committee from the interior 
brought a statement signed by nearly 8,000 persons, to the 
effect that they wished to abandon the Roman Church 
and become Protestants. A church was organized at 
Jaro. Not long after a handsome stone house was built 
at Capiz, at a cost of $3,000, mostly given by members. 
Villages would sometimes build a bamboo chapel in an- 
ticipation of a missionary's visit. 

One of the best achievements of the mission has been 
the school at Jaro, at first an industrial school in which 
the boys mainly supported themselves while at study. 
This was opened in 1905, and 70 boys applied for ad- 
mission the first day, the number soon increasing to 100. 
A farm, several mechanical trades, and business courses 
supplemented the more cultural studies. The Bible was 
made a text-book and daily study, and a School Republic 
solved the problem of discipline. This school has grown 
into the Central Filipino College, the only institution of 
the kind in Panay, and recognized by the Government 
as one of the best colleges of junior grade in the islands. 
A dormitory has been erected there on the ample campus, 
but larger housing arrangements for students are greatly 
needed, and some of the existing buildings are old and 
ill-adapted to their uses. With adequate equipment, this 
will be a great asset of the mission. 

A Bible school at Iloilo is another educational center 
of importance. It has a roomy compound, with nine 
buildings of various kinds and sizes: including a hostel 
for girls, of whom there are 50 in attendance, and Doane 
Hall for boys, which is a center of activities for the 
Government high school near-by. 

Panay is an island of 4,708 square miles area. By the 


Missions to the Philippines 

" comity " arrangements, Baptists have also become re- 
sponsible for missionary work in Samar (5,090) and 
Negros (4,708). What we have done is equivalent to 
undertaking to evangelize two Connecticuts and one New 
Jersey. Little or nothing has yet been done in Samar, but 
a successful work has been begun at Bacalod in Negros, 
where a church was organized in 1903, and 1,233 bap- 
tisms reported in 1925. A school for boys is located 
here, which has become the center of a strong body of 
young people. 

Altogether, there are now over 100 churches in our 
'Philippine missions, with upwards of 6,000 members 
Our success has already been such as to create new prob- 
lems of leadership and training. 

Medical Work 

As elsewhere, medical work has gone hand-in-hand 
with evangelism, and is the more necessary because of the 
dearth of qualified native physicians. Two excellent hos- 
pitals are maintained, one at Capiz, the other at Iloilo. 
The latter was for a time supported in part by Presby- 
terians but has been left entirely for the Baptist mission 
to carry on. Here Dr. R. C. Thomas is in charge, with 
Dr. Lorenzo Bowers as native assistant. He is a gradu- 
ate in arts of Valparaiso University (Indiana), and in 
medicine of the University of Cincinnati. These two 
hospitals treat over 6,500 patients each year and are 
doing an incalculable amount of good. 

Future Prospects 

The efforts at unity and cooperation were undertaken 
so early in Philippine missions that there has been unusual 
harmony and unusual avoidance of overlapping and con- 
fusion. Bishop Brent, of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, declined' formal relations with other bodies, be- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

cause of fundamental differences of policy, but prom- 
ised to encourage friendly relations and has in fact ab- 
stained from entering previously occupied fields. Some 
steps toward unity have been taken. A Presbyterian 
and a Methodist church in Manila formed a Union 
Church in 1914, but this example has not been widely 

Future missionary progress among the Filipinos prom- 
ises to be proportionate to the native ministry that can 
be trained as thoroughly as American missionaries. The 
only school to give such training thus far is the Union 
Theological Seminary at Manila, constituted of five pre- 
viously existing schools; Presbyterian (1904), Methodist 
(1907), United Brethren (1911), Disciples (1913), and 
Congregationalists (1914). All five denominations con- 
tribute to its support and are represented in its teaching 
force. Yet it has very few students, and the Christian 
ministry does not seem to appeal as a career to Filipino 
youth, even those who are professed Christians and en- 
gaged in studies. In 1919 the trustees of this Seminary 
established a high school, and the following year a junior 
college, which it was hoped would become " feeders " of 
the Seminary, but the hope, has not been fully justified 
as yet. 

The various " training-schools," of which our Baptist 
station at Iloilo has one, and many others are maintained 
by the various denominations, are doing a valuable work, 
even an indispensable ; but they do not and cannot furnish 
the high type of native minister that is demanded for the 
successful prosecution of missionary work among the Fili- 


What are the dimensions of the Philippine group? 
What is the area ? How many islands are there? Which 


Missions to the Philippines 

are the more important ? What is the population ? What 
city is the capital ? Are there other towns ? What sort 
of climate have the islands ? Is the soil good ? Can you 
name some of the chief products ? Are there any manu- 
factures ? What are the prospects for producing rubber ? 
What land laws have the Filipinos made ? What is their 
object? Will they prevent rubber production? What 
results has American occupation had? Do Other nations 
desire to control the Philippines? Is there a Filipino 
nation ? What is the great obstacle to nationality ? What 
are some of the principal tribes ? How do the people live ? 
Is there much disease among them? What is doing to 
control disease? What languages are spoken? What is 
the American Bible Society doing for these people ? How 
far is English spoken? What social classes are found? 
What is the social unit? What sort of schools are there ? 
Is anything done for higher education? When and how 
did the United States get control of the islands ? What 
sort of government has been established? Do the Fili- 
pinos desire independence ? What is the avowed policy 
of the United States? Are the Filipinos unanimous? 
Why was Colonel Thompson's mission so important? 
What did he report about the resources of the islands? 
What is the obstacle to immediate independence ? What 
did Colonel Thompson recommend ? How is the present 
status beneficial to the islands? What were the first 
Christian missions to the Filipinos? How strong is the 
Roman Catholic Church? Who is Archbishop Aglipay? 
Who were the first Protestant missionaries ? What suc- 
cess have they had ? What other Protestants are at work ? 
Are there other agencies cooperating? When and where 
did Baptists begin missionary work? Can you describe 
the school work at Jaro? What station have we in 
Negros ? How many churches and members have we in 
the islands ? How has " comity " worked ? What is the 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

missionary outlook? On what does progress seem chiefly 
to depend ? 


Briggs, Charles E., The Progressing Philippines. Phila- 
delphia, 1913. 

Brown, Arthur J., The New Era in the Philippines. New 
York, 1903. 

Devins, John B., An Observer in tlie Philippines. New 
York, 1905. 

Lauback, Frank C., The People of the Philippines. New 
York, 1925. 

Lerrigo, P. H. J., Anita: A Tale of the Philippines. 
Philadelphia, 1925. 

Montgomery, Helen B., Christus Redemptor, pp. 215-267. 
New York, 1906. 

Roosevelt, Nicholas, The Philippines: A Treasure and a 
Problem. New York, 1926. 

Russell, Charles Edward, The Outlook for the Philip- 
pines. New York. 

Student Volunteer Movement, Fourth International Con- 
vention, Toronto, 1902, pp. 449-452. New York, 

Willis, H. P., Our Philippine Problem. New York, 1905. 

Worcester, D. C., The Philippines, Past and Present. 
Two vols. New York, 1921. 




The Cubans 

The largest island of the group known as the Antilles, 
or West Indies, has an area of 44,164 square miles, a little 
less than Pennsylvania, and a population of 2,889,004, 
not much more than one-third of Pennsylvania's. About 
70 per cent, are white and 30 per cent. Negroes. The 
Spaniards so completely exterminated the aboriginal In- 
dians that few traces of them now remain. Near 12 per 
cent, of the people are foreign born, which means Spanish 
mainly, some 200,000 in all, the most thrifty and pro- 
gressive element of the island. Cubans proper are natives 
of Spanish descent. There are quite a number of Chinese, 
mostly males and only temporary residents. Of people 
born in the United States there are perhaps 10,000. 

Havana, the chief city, contains 363,000 people, and 
there are three other towns (Cienfuegos, Camaguey, San- 
tiago) of from 70,000 to 95,000; besides seven ranging 
from 32,000 to 69,000. The Cuban is no hustler, but he 
is not so indolent as some have described him. Under 
Spanish rule he had little inducement to work or get 
ahead. He is still lacking in initiative and tenacity ; he is 
impulsive and emotional, and has had little training in 
truthfulness and integrity. But he is brave, patriotic, and 
a lover of liberty. He has capacity for improvement as 
well as need of it. The position of woman is low ; she has 
been repressed, dwarfed for many generations. For a 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

woman to work outside of the household is still regarded 
as disgraceful, and marriage has been her only career, yet 
only 20 per cent, are legally married. Work of women 
for women is one of the most needed and valuable kinds 
of missionary activity in this and in all Latin American 
fields. Christian homes are the great need of Cuba. The 
vices of Cubans are drunkenness, cock-fighting, and gam- 
bling. The introduction of American sports has done 
something to limit these vices and promises to do more; 
baseball in particular has taken a strong hold of the young 
men. The hope of Cuba is in a new generation led by 
men and women trained in the mission schools. 

Literature is sparse and poor in Cuba. There are ntf 
newspapers of a high order ; magazines and other period- 
icals of real worth are greatly needed. The chief reading 
matter consists of cheap Spanish fiction, mostly immoral 
and demoralizing. Fortunately even this is little circu- 
lated and read. 

Cuban Freedom 

Except for a brief period of British occupancy, Cuba 
remained a Spanish colony from the time of Columbus 
to 1898, when by the Treaty of Paris Spain relinquished 
her sovereignty. General Weyler's methods as military 
governor had roused a determination among the Amer- 
ican people to end Spanish tyranny and misgovernment. 
As wars go, our war with Spain for Cuba's liberation 
was a righteous war, but it has since transpired that we 
might have had by peaceful negotiation all that we gained 
by war. Spain's willingness to yield to our remonstrances 
was a fact carefully suppressed by politicians who desired 
war and succeeded in forcing it, for selfish purposes. 

A very difficult task confronted the American army of 
occupation when peace was declared. Cuba was little 
better than a great hospital and poor farm. An incredible 


Missions to Latin America 

state of anarchy and starvation prevailed; cattle and other 
domestic animals had been mostly destroyed ; sugar-mills 
and other industries had been laid waste ; there never had 
been any sanitation, and epidemics were almost normal. 
Under the first governor, General Wood, the finances 
were reorganized, sanitation was introduced, the cities 
cleaned up, and yellow fever was banished; important 
public works were undertaken and a beginning was made 
of establishing a public-school system. A new Cuba came 
into being. 


The United States was accused by the world of waging 
the war with Spain for its own profit; it proceeded to 
demonstrate the genuineness of its regard for Cuba. A 
Convention representing the people was called and met in 
November, 1900 ; it adopted a constitution, providing for 
a government modeled on that of the United States. 
Our Government insisted on only three conditions of 
Cuban independence, which were made part of the funda- 
mental law: First, that the United States should retain 
the right of intervention, when necessary to maintain a 
republican form of government, or to protect life and 
property in Cuba; second, that Cuba should contract no 
public debts that cannot be paid from current taxation: 
third, that the United States should be granted the use of 
certain ports as naval stations. Another notable feature 
of the new constitution was Article XXVI, which reads : 

The profession of all religious beliefs, as well as the practise of all 
forms of religion, are free, without further restriction than that 
demanded by respect for Christian morality and public order. The 
Church shall be separated from the State, which shall in no case 
subsidize any religion. 

Political disturbances in Cuba compelled the United 
States to assert its right of intervention in 1906, and form 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

a provisional government. Three years later, after elec- 
toral reforms and a new presidential election, the Amer- 
ican forces again withdrew. It must be said that Cubans 
have not yet demonstrated their capacity for self-govern- 
ment. Corruption is rife in all offices; elections are in- 
fluenced by bribery and intimidation, with the resultant 
tendency on the part of the defeated to organize a revolu- 
tion. But with experience, these matters may be amended. 
The position of Cuba, as the key to the Gulf of Mexico, 
gives the United States a paramount interest in the island 
and its affairs. Its. fine harbors are indispensable bases 
for naval operations, especially since the completion of 
the Panama Canal. The future of Cuba is bound up 
with that of the United States. We have become re- 
sponsible before the world for the maintenance of her 
independence and for helping her to work out her own 
destiny. We have spiritual as well as political obligations 
to fulfil. 


Cuba has every endowment of nature to become one 
of the favored spots of the earth. No country has a 
richer soil or more diversified opportunities for every 
form of agriculture. Almost every foot of the surface 
might be arable. There is much mineral wealth; mines 
in the east of hematic iron, and in the west of manganese ; 
while in the north are copper-mines known and worked 
even before the discoveries of Columbus. Already the 
wealth of Cuba per capita is said to exceed that of any 
other nation, but these figures are illusory they do not 
imply a high condition of social comfort, for the fact 
is precisely the reverse. Wealth is concentrated in a few 
hands, and these mostly the hands of foreigners. Rail- 
way and trolley systems, lighting and other public services 
are foreign-owned and managed, mostly by American 










Missions to Latin America 

capital. From two-thirds to three-fourths of all industrial 
and commercial enterprises are similarly controlled. All 
real estate is heavily mortgaged to foreign bankers and 
capitalists. No country in the world, perhaps not even 
Ireland in the old days, has suffered so much from ab- 
sentee ownership; but whereas Ireland has found much 
relief, Cuba still suffers. 

The great bulk of the people live in dire poverty, with 
little hope of improvement under present conditions. Po- 
litical freedom has done little as yet to solve social prob- 
lems; theoretical democracy in Cuba is really industrial 
slavery. A bare subsistence is the share of the majority 
in the much-vaunted " prosperity " of Cuba. The ex- 
ploitation of the country goes merrily on, through estab- 
lishment and operation of immense sugar and tobacco 
plantations by American capital. The easy profits of such 
industries go to enrich Americans, not Cubans. 

The sugar crop is the greatest source of wealth in 
Cuba at present, and next to that tobacco. Sugar-cane 
is more profitably grown there than in our Southern 
States, because when a planting has been made, harvests 
may be gathered with little or no fertilizing or care for 
seven successive years. From the old stubble new shoots 
spring, and so crop after crop is secured. After seven 
years another planting and fertilizing becomes necessary. 
Between 4,000,000 and 6,000,000 tons of raw sugar are 
produced every year, valued at over $600,000,000. 

The tobacco crop, on the other hand, requires constant 
and heavy fertilization or the soil quickly becomes im- 
poverished. It also has to be protected from the weather 
by cheese-cloth. Nevertheless it is also an enormously 
profitable crop, celebrated for its quality the world over, 
especially for the manufacture of cigars. The cultiva- 
tion of coffee and rice have been taken up of recent years 
and these promise to become very important Cuban prod- 

[ 305 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ucts. Truck-gardening has made rapid strides, and a 
market for vegetables of all sorts has been found in our 
American cities during winter and spring. Fruits are 
abundant and varied: oranges, lemons, grapefruit, pine- 
apples, bananas, coconuts, are valuable exports to the 
United States, Cuba's best customer, absorbing more of 
her products than any other three nations combined. 

There are besides valuable forests: mahogany, cedar, 
dyewoods, gums, and resins in variety are produced. 
Scientific government forestry would make this one of 
Cuba's greatest industries. 

One of the best of recent crops is pleasure-seekers. 
The Cuban climate is just beginning to be appreciated 
by Americans with leisure .and money to spend. There 
are few extremes of hot or cold : maximum temperatures 
in August 95, in January 50. In spite of the lack of 
sanitation, the death-rate is but a fraction over 14 per 
1,000. Railways traverse the whole island, and few towns 
are not easily reached. These advantages are making 
Cuba a favorite winter resort for Americans. 

Another characteristic of Cuban life is thus described 
by one of our missionaries : 

One thing that the Spaniards have taught the Cubans is the organ- 
ization of cooperative societies. Havana is famous for its great clubs, 
three of them having a combined membership of over one hundred 
thousand. These clubs are the greatest mutual benefit agencies to 
be found in Spanish America. The Gallego Club is for the benefit 
particularly of those Spaniards coming from the Province of Galicia. 
There is no finer building in Cuba than the Gallego Club, costing about 
one million dollars. Next in rank comes the Asturiano Club with 
a membership of 36,000, composed principally of Spaniards from 
the Province of Asturia. Then there is a clerks' club with a member- 
ship of 30,000, for the benefit of the clerks of Havana, with its home 
in a palace in the heart of the city. Members of these clubs have the 
privilege of night-schools, musical instruction, and hospital care. 1 

1 Twenty Years in Cuba, by Rev. Charles S. Detweiler. 1923. General 
Board of Promotion of N B C. 


Missions to Latin America 

Secular Education 

Under the combined rule of the Spanish Government 
and the Roman Catholic Church, illiteracy was suffered to 
prevail in Cuba, with little attempt to remedy the matter. 
To be sure a university was founded as early as 1721, 
and there were some good private schools for the wealthy, 
who nevertheless were accustomed for the most part to 
send their children abroad for their education. Provision 
for the poor there was none, and when Cuba attained her 
independence more than 60 per cent, could not read. By 
1907 things had so improved that there were 171,917 
children in the public schools. In 1921, the last census 
year, the number had risen to 344,331 and there were 
5,700 schools in session ; but still nearly 400,000 children 
of school age were receiving no instruction. 

The Cuban Government has adopted an ambitious 
scheme of education. By law education is compulsory 
and free in the primary schools. Secondary or high 
schools have not yet been established ; as a substitute for 
these, regular circuits are appointed in the interior, for 
teachers who conduct classes in the higher subjects, travel- 
ing from school to school, and instructing in this way 
3,639 pupils. The University of Havana is an insti- 
tution of high rank, maintaining faculties in letters and 
science, in medicine and pharmacy, and in law, with 
more than 2,000 students in 1919. Night-schools for 
working people are maintained, to the number of 67, with 
an enrolment of over 6,000. Though the system is well- 
planned, it has thus far chiefly benefited the people living 
in cities ; in the rural districts it has not been possible to 
maintain in practise the theoretical system, largely because 
not enough competent teachers can be found. Normal 
schools are greatly needed, and the missions are trying 
to supply this need, which the Government has thus far 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

been unable or unwilling to undertake; but the Cubans 
themselves must do this work for themselves. 

Religious Education 

The public schools being thus both insufficient and in- 
efficient, a great opportunity has been presented to mis- 
sionaries, especially in establishing secondary schools. 
There is a great demand among Cubans for instruction 
in English. Ten towns now contain schools managed by 
our Baptist missions; and the Woman's Mission So- 
ciety supports many of the teachers. All denominations 
have devoted themselves to founding secondary schools, 
normal schools and junior colleges. More than a dozen 
of these are doing excellent work, with students num- 
bering more than 3,000. The International College at 
El Cristo is the best of our own institutions. It has 
grown to an attendance of about 400, its equipment is 
good, and it ranks as a junior college. Located near 
Santiago among the hills, it maintains normal and theo- 
logical departments in addition to the usual arts courses. 
Its graduates complete their education and take their 
degrees at the University of Havana. There is now a 
fine group of buildings at El Cristo dormitories for both 
boys and girls, recitation-halls, dining-hall but others 
are needed. 

One of the things projected is a union normal school, 
with strong courses in pedagogy, manual and physical 
training, and the domestic arts and sciences. A well- 
equipped and adequately supported school of this kind 
would supply one of Cuba's greatest present needs, well- 
trained Christian teachers. It is possible only by coopera- 
tion. It would also do much to provide a numerous and 
capable leadership of Christian laymen, without which 
missions will be but an indifferent success. 

There are other notable schools in Cuba that should 

[ 308 ] 

Missions to Latin America 

have at least brief mention. The Friends' College at Hoi- 
gum has grown to an attendance of 300. "La Pro- 
gresiva," a Presbyterian school for girls, has been a 
pioneer in this sort of education and established its place 
as one of the best. Candler College and Buena Vista 
College are Methodist schools, and the Cuban-American 
College is sustained by the SBC. These last are in or 
near Havana. 

As in this country, the Roman Church is making a be- 
lated effort to control education through parochial schools, 
especially wherever Protestants have begun any educa- 
tional work. At the same time they leave nothing un- 
tried that will paralyze or delay Government educational 

Missions in Cuba 

Cuba is nominally a " Christian " country; one person 
in every three, as in the United States, is an adherent of 
some church, mostly Roman Catholic. When it comes to 
the religious and moral character of these adherents, there 
is another story to tell. There are plenty of churches, 
such as they are, in the cities ; but in country districts there 
has been great neglect. Everywhere there is much igno- 
rance and superstition, and among the Negroes paganism 
and fetish worship have survived from their savage 
African days ; belief in the efficacy of " charms " is gen- 
eral among them, and they still have their "medicine- 
men." The white country population is the hope of 
Cuba: poor but sturdy, industrious, hospitable, needing 
only the gospel to become a fine people. In many ways 
Cuba is a model missionary field ; the people are remark- 
ably ready to hear the gospel and quickly responsive to 
it. It is a message that they have never heard before, 
and it " finds " them. 

In the beginning, all missionaries were greatly encour- 

w [309] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

aged by their reception and sent back enthusiastic reports 
of their success. Thousands flocked to hear them ; many 
professed conversion; for a time it seemed that the gospel 
was to conquer Cuba without a struggle. But this initial 
success proved not to be well founded. The crowds were 
in part drawn by the curiosity always roused by some- 
thing new ; political motives actuated others. The super- 
ficial character of the early success soon appeared clear. 
Progress now is slower but more stable, and a solid work 
has been established in many centers, which is gradually 
extending throughout the island. Nearly all the evan- 
gelical denominations have begun some kind of mission- 
ary work in Cuba, evangelistic or educational or both. 

" Comity " and Its Results 

There was at first no " comity," but a scramble, and 
much resulting overlapping and confusion. A better con- 
dition now prevails. At a conference in Cienfuegos, in 
1902, it was agreed that cities of 6,000 and over should 
be open to all workers, but in smaller towns the denom- 
ination first on the field should be left in exclusive posses- 
sion. Certain provinces were assigned to denominations 
that had already begun work there. As a result our 
Northern Baptist missions are in the two eastern prov- 
inces of Santiago and Camaguey. 

One of the series of " Regional Conferences " in the 
Latin American fields was held in Havana in 1916, and 
developed a remarkable spirit of unity and cooperation. 
Denominations that have never before worked together 
are cooperating now. The principal steps recommended 
by this Conference were : ( i ) A thorough survey of the 
field, so as to have equitable division and complete occupa- 
tion; (2) cooperation in the circulation of Christian litera- 
ture (at present, Baptists publish a paper of their own) ; 
(3) common effort in education. Evangelization was left 


Missions to Latin America 

to be conducted by each* body in accordance with its ideals 
and methods, but it was generally recognized that this 
work must be carried on in future mainly by native 
Cubans, and that missionaries can render their most ef- 
fective service through training Cuban young men and 
women for Christian service in a multitude of ways. 

Baptists in Cuba 

Our Cuban mission and that in Porto Rico are under 
the direction of the A B H M S. (The A B P S also sup- 
ports colporter and chapel car auto missionaries in Cuba 
and Porto Rico.) This is the result of denominational 
comity, a Conference with the ABMU in November, 
1898, having decided this division of territory, the AB 
M U taking the Philippines as its share of the new terri- 
tory of the United States. The Antilles are virtually a part 
of North America, and so within the legitimate field of a 
society whose motto from the beginning has been " North 
America for Christ." There were fortunately some mis- 
sionaries available who had had experience among Span- 
ish-speaking people in Mexico, so they were able to begin 
work at once. Our special field, as already noted, is East 
Cuba, where the Southern Methodists are also active, and 
at the present time nearly every place of importance is 
occupied by one denomination or the other. 

The Baptist work began at Santiago, in October, 1899 ; 
a church was organized there in January, 1900, with 75 
members. Manzanillo, Guantanamo, and Camaguey were 
next occupied. We have now in this district 68 churches, 
and 36 of them own their own buildings, while three are 
fully self-supporting. Besides these are 14 outstations. 
The work is carried on by n English-speaking mission- 
aries, assisted by 25 natives. In 1925 there were 255 
baptisms reported ; 2,784 members in the churches, with 
4O39 Sunday-school scholars and five students for the 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ministry. The net progress has been slower than was at 
first anticipated, as many of the earlier " converts " 
proved to be unstable. The Baptist Association of Cuba 
was formed in February, 1905, and has since grown into 
the Cuban Baptist Convention. This body is beginning 
to care for the Cuban churches and missionaries, and in 
1925 had a budget of $7,000 for the coming year. In 
that same year the Cuban churches gave for all purposes 
$38,000, which marks a gratifying advance in self-sup- 
port. The Convention entirely supports six pastors in 
the Baracoa district and two elsewhere. In developing 
their work, Cuban Baptists have shown considerable in- 
itiative and capacity for self-government. They expect 
each year to assume a larger share of responsibility for 
the support and direction of the work, and the prospects 
for a healthy indigenous church are excellent. 

In the matter of church building, though they are 
making great efforts, they will need help for some time to 
come. A new house of worship was erected in 1925 
at Bayamo, and is described as a model structure of its 
kind, combining church, school, and parsonage. It cost 
$30,000, the ABHMS contributing dollar for dollar 
raised on the field. At Cespides a less imposing house 
has been built, at a cost of $5,000, and at Saito a neat 
frame chapel worth $1,000. 

One excellent feature of the work in Cuba is the pro- 
portion of men who are reached. Though few men at- 
tend the services in Catholic churches, the Baptist con- 
gregations are nearly or quite half men. 

Other Cuban Missions 

The SBC began a mission in Havana in 1883, and 
later occupied Santiago, but formally relinquished eastern 
Cuba to Northern Baptists in 1899. Their work is done 
in the provinces of Pinar del Rio, Havana, Santa Clara, 


Missions to Latin America 

and Matanzas. Their recent five-year movement called 
for the expenditure of $707,000 in this work. Their 
college at Havana and girls' seminary at Santa Clara are 
important contributions to Christian education in Cuba. 
The Presbyterian Board entered Cuba early, and its 
work has prospered. In 1921 they had 30 churches and 
33 ministers, and were planning a self-support campaign, 
that should make their churches independent in ten years. 


The Island and the People 

Porto Rico was discovered by Columbus on his second 
voyage, in 1493. Not long after its settlement began 
(1521) a Roman Catholic diocese was instituted, and the 
natives were partially Christianized, partly exterminated. 
It remained a Spanish possession until ceded to the United 
States by the Treaty of Paris; and is under the jurisdic- 
tion of Congress and the President as a Territory. The 
Jones Act (1917) gave American citizenship to all native 
inhabitants, and a constitution on the American model. 
A Governor is appointed by the President with advice and 
consent of the Senate; and laws are enacted by a Senate 
(of 19) and House of Representatives (39) elected by 
the people. There are six administrative departments, 
whose heads form a Council to assist the Governor in per- 
forming his duties. He has a veto on all laws, but there 
is an appeal to the Federal Government. A judicial sys- 
tem much like our own, with a Supreme Court of five 
members, completes the government. 

The island is approximately a parallelogram, 100 miles 
by 36, and its area is 3,433 square miles, 1,000 less than 
Connecticut, but more than three times the size of Rhode 
Island. The population is 151,290, almost equal to the 
people of Connecticut, the density being 377 as compared 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

with 286 for that State. Of these people 948,709 are 
white, 49,246 black, and 301,816 mulattoes. The last two 
are decreasing, and the whites correspondingly increasing. 
There are only two cities of considerable size : San Juan, 
71,443, and Ponce, 41,912; the next largest being Maya- 
guez, 19,124. Only eight-tenths of the people live in 
towns of over 8,000. It is therefore a rural and agricul- 
tural country. 

Porto Rico has been called " the most smiling of the 
Antilles." It is even more picturesque and varied than 
Cuba, if possible. A range of mountains through the 
center turns the streams to north and south ; some of them 
are of considerable size. The slopes of these mountains 
are forested, and the valleys are covered with cultivated 
fields. The island is on the direct line of travel from 
Europe through the Panama Canal, and is the key to the 
eastern passage into the Caribbean, as Cuba is of the 
western. The north side has abundant rains, almost too 
abundant, while the south is comparatively dry and some- 
times arid. The winter climate is well-nigh perfect, and 
travelers describe it as a perpetual May. The tempera- 
ture ranges from 65 to 94, with an average of 70. 
Snow and even frost are unknown. Little clothing is 
worn by the natives, and none at all by small children, 
who go about clad " in sunshine and a smile." 

What may be called the ruling class property-holders, 
bankers, merchants, planters are mostly of Spanish 
blood, and the bulk of the population may be described as 
" mixed." They are, however, a more homogeneous peo- 
ple than the Cubans, and more industrious and enterpris- 
ing. The wealthier classes are well educated, but all 
classes are quick to learn and respond readily to oppor- 
tunities for education. Like other Latin-Americans, they 
are excitable, impulsive, talkative; they are also affable, 
hospitable, and peaceable. 


Missions to Latin America 


While the fertility of the land is great and its possible 
productiveness immeasurable, perhaps not more than one- 
fifth of the soil is actually cultivated. This has been due 
in the past largely to lack of good roads and a market. 
Four crops a year can be grown, with proper culture. 
Thus far this easy culture has only put a premium on in- 
dolence; a native could get a living (of a sort) so easily 
.that motive for exertion was lacking. When a week's 
work will keep a family in food for a year, one can hardly 
look for hard labor. Vegetables may be planted at any 
time and will grow, ripening in two or three months. 
Fruits are abundant and varied, as well as continuous 
oranges, bananas, and pineapples being the most available 
for export and all of the highest quality. As there are 
no sandy or rocky wastes, no swamps, almost every foot 
of soil is arable, and Porto Rico should become the great 
vegetable and fruit garden of the United States. 

The most valuable products of the island at present are 
sugar, coffee, and tobacco, mostly grown on large plan- 
tations controlled by capitalists. Cotton and other textile 
fibers are also produced in considerable quantities for ex- 
port and are capable of indefinite expansion. The island 
has free trade with the United States, and is rapidly 
advancing in wealth. In 1920 there were over 600 in- 
dustrial establishments, employing more than 18,000 
workers. There is some mineral wealth in the island, but 
no coal, iron, or oil ; so power is restricted and industries 
develop slowly, the more so as there is little natural water- 
power available. 

To all outward appearance Porto Rico has made 
greater progress in the last quarter-century than in many 
hundred previous years. In 1919 the governor reported 
as results of twenty years' American administration: 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

529 school buildings erected, at a cost of $2,500,000; 922 
kilometers of roads constructed; more than $2,000,000 
spent on public buildings and nearly $500,000,000 on irri- 
gation. Hospitals and a sanitary system had been estab- 
lished; a just system of taxation instituted; agricultural 
exports increased over tenfold, and foreign trade in- 
creased from $17,000,000 to nearly $142,000,000. Ow- 
ing to this new network of good roads all over the island, 
motorbuses now run to the smallest hamlets. The prob- 
lem of communications and markets seems to have been 
effectually solved. Other public institutions have kept 
pace with this economic advance: the Carnegie Public 
Library, the School of Tropical Medicine, the Tubercu- 
losis Sanitarium at Rio Piedras are notable marks of 

At the same time there are indications that this prog- 
ress has affected the mass of the people very little for the 
better. The land is in the hands of a few; the great 
majority work for a mere subsistence, and live in one- 
room, thatched huts, in squalor and destitution. Desper- 
ately poor, ill-fed, ill-clad, ill-housed, 85 per cent, of 
them owning no property but the clothes they stand in 
and a few sticks of miserable furniture, Porto Ricans 
deserve our deepest sympathy and our promptest aid. 
What are we of the United States doing to help them 
solve their social problem? Thus far, it must be con- 
fessed, we have done next to nothing. How can we expect 
them to receive a gospel that leaves them unhelped in their 
misery? Sending missionaries and small contributions 
of money is not adequate. We have the power to remedy 
their condition, and woe to us if we fail to use it. 

Health and Sanitation 

Diseases of the lungs tuberculosis, bronchitis, pneu- 
monia are very prevalent, probably due in large part to 









Missions to Latin America 

the humidity of the climate, as well as insufficient clothing 
and bad habits of living. Excessive use of tobacco and 
rum have had bad physical effects on a large part of the 
population. It is much to the credit of the people that 
they adopted prohibition by popular vote of two to one, 
jn 1918. It is to be hoped that it is better enforced than 
in the United States ; if so, it may be expected to work 
great physical improvement as well as moral. The " hook- 
worm " is said to have infected 800,000 of the population 
prior to 1904. The discovery of the cause and cure is 
expected to lead to its eradication in the course of another 
generation already it is held in check and much improve- 
ment in general health has resulted. Better sanitation 
has reduced the death-rate 59 per cent. Porto Rico should 
be one of the most salubrious spots in the world, and an 
ideal winter resort for Americans. 


Though but 38 per cent, of the population is colored, 
the percentage of illiteracy is 83 (1920). Education has 
been made free and compulsory, yet so far little more 
than half the children of school age are in schools. But 
the new system is getting itself adequately housed, every 
year sees a larger enrolment, and the prospect is that the 
next generation of Porto-Ricans will be mostly literate. 
All classes are sending their children to the primary public 
schools. Secondary schools are still greatly needed. At 
the head of the system is the University of Porto Rico at 
Rio Piedras, seven miles from the principal city, San Juan 
an institution of high grade, which offers opportunities 
for advanced work and original research. It has a normal 
department and colleges of liberal arts, la,w, pharmacy, 
agriculture, and mechanical arts. 

This public system has been supplemented by admirable 
Christian schools, established and maintained by the vari- 

[ 317 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ous missionary agencies. One of the best of these is the 
Polytechnic Institute of Porto Rico, near San German, 
supported by the Presbyterian Board, but really interde- 
nominational. Over 100 young men and women are in 
attendance; and American visitors to the island, not spe- 
cially prepossessed toward things missionary, have come 
away greatly impressed by the work of this school. 
Northern Baptists have established a school at Rio Pie- 
dras, erecting a handsome building opposite the Univer- 
sity, so that the young men get all but strictly theological 
training in the University. We cooperate in maintaining 
a theological school, with representatives among faculty 
and students; and there is in the same town the Villa 
Roble, a training school for young women, maintained 
by our Woman's Society, that is doing a work of the 
greatest value. At least two of our schools have an 
attendance of 400 and have reached the limits of the 
capacity of their buildings. Some have held classes in 
the open air, but this is difficult and unsatisfactory. Sev- 
eral other schools have over 200 pupils in attendance. 
Other denominations are doing excellent work in educa- 
tion. Special mention should be made of the Union 
Seminary at Mayaguez, maintained by the Presbyterians 
and United Brethren. 

Missions in Porto Rico 

Like Cuba, this was a nominally Christian country 
when we acquired possession of it, but the type of religion 
prevailing was a rigid formalism, with a naive separation 
between religion and morals. A dynamic gospel is needed 
to arouse such a people, and such a gospel has found 
the people very responsive. The island has already 523 
Protestant preaching-stations; 13,000 are found in evan- 
gelical churches and 20,000 in Sunday schools. In fact, 
progress, has been so unexpectedly rapid that edifices built 

I 318 ] 

Missions to Latin America 

twenty years ago, with the idea that they would be large 
enough for at least fifty years, are already too small. 

Baptist missionary effort began with occupation of 
San Juan in 1899, and has thus far succeeded in establish- 
ing 47 churches in the island, to which three English- 
speaking missionaries minister, besides 12 ordained na- 
tives and 1 6 unordained. There were 347 baptisms in 1924, 
and 5,729 children are enrolled in Sunday schools. Of 
these churches 45 have buildings of their own, and some 
of those lately erected, like that in Ponce, would do credit 
to any American town. The building at San Juan is also 
worthy of remark, affording quarters not only for the 
church, but for a school, community work, and residences 
for the missionaries. Some of the buildings, it must be 
confessed, would appear to an American eye nothing more 
than miserable shacks, but rural church building has 
begun and will go on. In 1924 one such was finished, at 
a cost of $800. Only two of the Baptist churches are self- 
supporting, but considering their poverty the people are 
doing well, and there is good prospect that the coming 
generation will reach the stage of complete self-support. 

Other Features 

Medical missions are much needed, for the present at 
least. The Presbyterians are foremost in this work. 
They have at San Juan the finest hospital on the island; 
its new building, completed in 1917, has a capacity of 70 
beds and is well appointed in every way. Its example and 
teachings have established new standards of health and 
hygiene. It has a staff of 17 and 30 nurses are in training 
a pioneer school in Porto Rico. 

Fortunately, at an early stage of missionary work a 
conference of workers settled certain principles of opera- 
tion. The two chief cities, San Juan and Ponce, were 
to be open to all ; but in places of less than 7,500 the de- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

nomination first in occupation should be left undisturbed. 
A general division of the island was also agreed upon, 
the Presbyterians becoming responsible for the western 
part, the Congregationalists for the eastern, while Bap- 
tists and Methodists labor in the central part. The Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church makes the whole island a mis- 
sionary diocese, with a resident bishop. 

Cooperation is working out in a satisfactory manner. 
A Federation of churches has been organized, including 
all denominations but one. The regional conference pre- 
viously mentioned especially recommended a general 
survey and allotment, as well as active cooperation in 
literature and education. At present our mission owns 
part of an evangelical press, that issues a periodical serv- 
ing all the denominations, with a Baptist editor. 


This island has had an unfortunate history. It was 
long a French colony, much misgoverned and abused. 
The insurrection under Toussaint, surnamed L'Ouverture, 
was unsuccessful in obtaining independence. The pres- 
ent constitution dates from 1889 and is republican in 
form. The island has since been separated into two inde- 
pendent republics, Haiti on the western side, with an area 
of 10,204 square miles and a population of 2,000,000, and 
Santo Domingo, occupying the eastern portion of the is- 
land, with an area of 18,045 square miles and a population 
of 610,000. The capital of Haiti is Port au Prince, a 
town of 100,000, with an excellent harbor. The nominal 
religion of the country is Roman Catholic, but the greater 
part of the people are still pagan. Elementary education 
is free by law, but the facilities are very insufficient, 
though 400 schools are maintained, together with five 


Missions to Latin America 

lycees or high schools. Haiti is an agricultural country; 
its chief products for export are coffee, tobacco, hemp, 
and logwood. There is considerable undeveloped wealth. 
The United States has lately declared a sort of protec- 
torate, and has sent ships and troops to preserve order. 

Several years ago, Haiti was allotted to Baptists for mis- 
sionary work. In 1924, by use of a specially designated 
gift, the A B H M S was able to begin work there. The 
door is open everywhere for the preaching of the gospel, 
and there are many groups who need only instruction 
and leadership. A school for the training of Christian 
workers has been opened in Jacmel that promises to be 
of great service. No statistical results of the work are 
at present available. 


This is an island 80 to 90 miles south of Cuba, origi- 
nally a Spanish colony, but captured by the British in 
1655. It has a Governor, appointed by the British Gov- 
ernment, who is assisted by a Privy Council and a Legis- 
lative Council partly elected. It is divided into 15 
parishes, each with a Board, for local government. The 
island has an area of 4,200 square miles and a popula- 
tion of 850,000. Kingston, the capital, is a town of 
about 62,700 people. Jamaica produces the usual tropical 
goods for export : sugar, coffee, tobacco, bananas, oranges, 
coconuts ; and much valuable lumber, mahogany, lignum- 
vitse, logwood. Education is extending, but morality is 

At present our part in the mission work established and 
carried on by the English Baptists, consists of giving 
counsel and support to the Christian Workers Training 
'Department of Calabar College, and the employment of 
a missionary superintendent of the island in his varied 
work. The B M S .began work among the Negroes in 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

1814 : Kingston became the chief station. Many churches 
and Sunday schools were organized, and by 1831 the num- 
ber of members had grown to 10,838. In the Jubilee year, 
the Jamaican churches declared themselves independent 
and self-supporting. The B M S also established stations 
at Trinidad, San Domingo, in the Bahamas, and on 
Turk's Island. No other organization has labored so long 
or accomplished so much in the Antilles as the B M S. 


How large is Cuba? Are its people white or black? 
How many are Spanish ? Are there many there from the 
United States ? What is the chief city ? Are there other 
large towns ? What can you say of Cuban characteristics ? 
Is woman's position good ? What are the vices and sports 
of Cuba? When and how did Cuba gain independence? 
What was the condition of the country? Did it improve 
during American occupation ? Can you describe the present 
government? Why is the United States so vitally inter- 
ested in this island ? What do you know about its climate 
and resources ? What is the condition of the people ? Do 
you know what are the chief present sources of wealth? 
How might production be increased ? Do Americans ap- 
preciate Cuba ? Are Cubans learning cooperation ? How 
much illiteracy is there? Has the Government an ade- 
quate educational program? What is its defect? What 
sort of schools are most needed ? Where is the best Bap- 
tist school ? Can you describe any others ? Is the Roman 
Church doing much for education? Are Cubans Chris- 
tians? Why did not the first missionary successes con- 
tinue ? What has been the result of " comity " ? What is 
further recommended ? What society conducts the work 
of Northern Baptists? In what part of Cuba is its field? 
Has the work been successful? What is the Cuban Bap- 

[ 322 ] 

Missions to Latin America 

tist Convention doing? What sort of churches are they 
building? Do men go to church in Cuba ? Have South- 
ern Baptists a mission ? Where is their field ? Are other 
denominations at work? What do you know about the 
history of Porto Rico ? What relation has it to the United 
States ? What sort of government has it ? Can you give 
some facts about its area and population? Is it a good 
country? Who are the ruling class? Is the soil fertile? 
What are some of the chief crops? Has the island made 
progress under American rule? Do all the people share 
in these gains ? What are we going to do about it ? Is 
there much disease ? What is done to control it ? How 
many of the people are illiterate ? Are there good schools ? 
Do the people take advantage of them? Can you de- 
scribe some of the schools ? Are these schools adequate ? 
Have missions been generally successful ? What are Bap- 
tists doing? Who are doing the best medical mission 
work? Is comity successful in Porto Rico? What sort 
of a country is Haiti ? Are Baptists doing anything there ? 
Should they do much more? To what country does 
Jamaica belong? What Baptists have had a mission 
there? Successful? What are Northern Baptists doing? 


General, on Latin America 

Inman, S. G., Problems in Pan- Americanism. New 
York, 1921. 

Latane, John H., America as a World Power, pp. 175- 
191. New York, 1907. 

Nearing, Scott, and Freeman, Joseph, Dollar Diplomacy, 
esp. chs. v, vi. New York, 1925. 

Pan- American Union, pamphlets on commerce. New 



A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Speer, Robert E., The Unity of the Americas. New 
York, 1916. 

Stuart, Graham N., Latin America and the United States. 
New York, 1923. 

On the Antilles 

Hesketh, Pritchard, Where Black Rules White. London, 

Hill, Robert T., Cuba and Porto Rico. New York, 1898. 

Jordan, W. J., Crusading in the West Indies (Bible Work 
in Cuba and Haiti). New York, 1922. 

Mixer, Knowlton, Porto Rico: History and Conditions, 
Social, Economic, and Political. New York, 1926. 

Parker, William B., Cubans of Today. New York, 1919. 
Pepper, C. M., Tomorrow in Cuba. New York, 1899. 

Robinson, Albert G., The Porto Rico of Today. New 
York, 1899. 

Spenser, Sir John, Haiti, or the Black Republic. London, 





History and Government 

Mexico was annexed to the Spanish crown by the con- 
quest of Cortez in 1521, and thenceforth was ruled by 
viceroys until 1810, when it declared its independence. In 
1824 it became a republic. Archduke Ferdinand Maxi- 
milian, of Austria, attempted to establish an empire, but 
was captured and shot in 1864. From 1876 to 1911, Por- 
firio Diaz was President, but a'fter his fall a period of 
chronic revolution intervened Madero, Huerta, Car- 
ranza, Obregon succeeded each other with bewildering 
rapidity. The last named was able to finish his term in 
comparative quiet and secure the .peaceful election of his 
successor, Plutarco Elias Calles. 

At the close of the Diaz regime, the wage of a day- 
laborer was ten cents a day, and 85 per cent, of the people 
could neither read nor write. Could there be a more 
terrible indictment of a ruler and a policy? Yet many 
Americans regarded the time of Diaz's ascendency as a 
period of remarkable prosperity for Mexico. The real 
basis of the recent revolution was a struggle of the 
peasants for land, which had been in the possession of a 
few. In one State, for example, of about 18,000,000 
acres and 6005000 people, more than half the land was 
owned by 78 persons, and 90 per cent, of the people did 
not own a square foot of the soil. A new constitution 


A tShort History of Baptist Missions 

was adopted in 1857, which provided that the old com- 
munal lands should be restored to the people; and that 
the great estates should be subdivided. The Roman 
Church had obtained possession of three- fourths of all 
the land; the new constitution nationalized all Church 
lands. The present constitution, adopted in 1917, renewed 
these provisions. Also a labor code was established, 
providing for an eight-hour day, a minimum wage, work- 
ers' insurance, profit-sharing. 

As a result, in the last ten years Mexico has moved 
steadily forward. Its petroleum output had been in- 
creased tenfold, the output of gold fivefold. More silver 
is mined in Mexico than anywhere else in the world. 

Mexico has an area of 767,198 square miles (approxi- 
mately three times the size of Texas) and a population of 
13,887,080. It is a federated republic of 28 States, one 
Federal district, and several territories. The city of 
Mexico has a population of 1,080,000; Gaudalajara has 
119,468 and twenty other towns range from 23,000 to 

Social Condition of the People 

The birth-rate of Mexico is nearly twice that of the 
United States, but the death-rate is nearly three times 
ours. Half of those born never see their seventh birth- 
day, and the average life is but fifteen years, while 
Mexicans living in the United States average 42 years. 
The need of sanitation and medical attendance is very 
great. Here is a fact that is an index to social conditions : 
Mexico is a country in which there are no savings-banks, 
but plenty of lotteries. 

As to racial conditions : 20 per cent, of the population is 
white, 43 per cent, of mixed Indian and European blood, 
and 37 per cent, pure Indian. The Spanish are not very 
susceptible to alcohol and are fairly temperate; as else- 


Missions to Latin America 

where, the Indians are most susceptible and fall before 
" fire water " of every sort. The sentiment in favor of 
prohibition is said to be rapidly growing. Race prejudice 
is not so violent in Mexico (this is true of all the 
Spanish- American countries) as in the United States, 
and there is little color-line. Juarez, one of the greatest 
men Mexico has produced, was pure Indian; and many 
of the leading men are of mixed blood. " Society " may 
make distinctions ; politics does not. 

Mexico had the advantage of a full century over the 
United States in the adoption of the highest European 
civilization then known. Spain was at the apex of her 
culture and power when Cortez set foot in Mexico. But 
in fact, for two centuries she has stood still while the 
feeble English colonies to the north went forward and 
became a great nation. The difference cannot be ac- 
counted for by any inferiority of soil or climate or natural 
resources. The explanation is simple : Mexico was para- 
lyzed by despotism in Church and State, while the United 
States achieved freedom in both. 

The relations of the United States with Mexico are cer- 
tain to become closer in days to come. The divisions 
of the North American continent are political, not geo- 
graphical; only imaginary lines separate us from our 
neighbors to north and south. Strong ties of common; 
interests tend to draw us together more effectively than 
political interests can separate us. The political divisions 
may remain, but solidarity of interests will ultimately 
lead to a common life. We have a large stake in the con- 
tinued prosperity of Mexico, and the advancement of her 
people in intelligence and character. It is a favorable 
omen for Mexico that her Aztec population is not de- 
creasing but increasing, for before the Spanish conquest 
the Aztecs were the most highly civilized of all Indian 
peoples, and they are still the most vigorous in body and 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

mind. With a Christian education, they have it in them 
to become a great people. 


Development of the wealth of Mexico is only just be- 
ginning ; it has marvelous possibilities. Its mines promise 
an almost unlimited production of precious metals, if 
properly worked. Its timber-lands comprise 25,000,000 
acres and are of untold value ; mahogany, rosewood, dye- 
woods abound, as well as vast quantities of the best 
spruce and pine. Some of the greatest oil-fields of the 
world are here. Agricultural products are large and 
might be vastly increased: maize, sugar, tobacco, hene- 
quen, wheat, coffee, beans in fact, whatever can be 
grown in either temperate or semitropical climates is a 
potential crop in Mexico. There is nearly ten times as 
much commerce with the United States now as with Great 
Britain, and France comes in a poor third. Railways, 
telegraphs, and telephones are owned and operated by the 
government. Mexico has a decimal coinage, its dollar 
being worth half as much as that of the United States. 

Education and Religion 

The leaders of Mexico are awake to their country's 
need of greater intelligence. A republican government is 
impossible where not more than 20 per cent, can read, 
and not even all of them follow public events and have an 
opinion about them. A system of state primary schools, 
with education free, compulsory, and secular exists on 
paper, but is very defective in fact. Competent visitors 
agree that the state schools are ill-appointed, badly lighted, 
and unsanitary. The pay of teachers is so poor that quali- 
fied teachers cannot be obtained. Politics control, not a 
wise educational policy. There are no high schools, but 
"prep" schools are attached to universities. Of these 


Missions to Latin America 

there are two: a National University in Mexico City, 
reorganized in 1910; and a University of the Southeast at 
Merida, Yucatan, established in 1922. 

Religious liberty prevails in theory in Mexico, and in 
practise so far as is possible in a country where 95 per 
cent, of the people profess some degree of allegiance to 
the Roman Catholic Church, though perhaps not more 
than 25 per cent, of the really influential men are really 
loyal to it. No ecclesiastical body as such can now ac- 
quire landed property. The recent revolution professes 
as its object not to interfere with religion and not to toler- 
ate interference by religion. In 1926 the Mexican Gov- 
ernment issued a decree for the immediate enforcement 
of the constitution of 1917 and the laws made in accor- 
dance with it, many of which had been a dead letter. 
None but native Mexicans can exercise ministerial or 
priestly functions in Mexico; and persons in orders are 
particularly prohibited from giving religious instruction 
in any schools, public or private. The nationalization of 
Church property, provided for in the constitution, was 
enforced, and an inventory of it was taken. Religious 
bodies were permitted to occupy the property used for re- 
ligious services and residence of clergy. Catholic priests 
of foreign birth, to the number of several hundred, were 
expelled from the country. 

This was merely an attempt to enforce the constitution 
and laws of Mexico, but all Roman Catholics and some 
Protestants at once set up a cry that they were being 
persecuted. Most Protestants, however, accepted the 
situation at once; missionaries ceased their ministerial 
functions and either remained as teachers or exercised 
advisory functions only. A few Protestant schools were 
suspended until the Government was satisfied that they 
meant to comply with the law, but most of them con- 
tinued their work without interruption. The Roman 

[ 329 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Church, however, resisted desperately, proclaiming prac- 
tically an interdict supplemented by a boycott. 

The laws regarding property are in general terms, and so 
is that prohibiting religious teaching by other than natives. 
They may bear hardest on the Roman Church, but they 
apply equally to all and seem to be executed impartially. 
Representatives of both forms of religion have protested 
against Mexico's action, and have tried to induce various 
governments to interfere, including our own. Mexico has 
the undoubted right to settle her own religious problems 
in her own way. It is hard to see how any other govern- 
ment can find ground in international law or equity to 
intervene. Respectful representations to the Mexican 
Government might be made, to the effect that her action 
is inexpedient and will prove hurtful to herself if persisted 
in ; but beyond that foreign interference can rest only on 
the right of the stronger to dictate to the weaker. Our 
missionary efforts for Mexico will probably have to be 
limited hereafter to training in America a native Mexican 
ministry. For this purpose a Mexican department might 
be established in one of our Southern seminaries Waco 


would be a good location. 

Four articles of Mexico's constitution, articles 3, 5, 27, 
130, defining the relations of Church and State (includ- 
ing rights of clergy and possession of property) , are re- 
jected by the Archbishop of Mexico, the highest author- 
ity, and priests who obey are excommunicated. This on 
the ground, as one of the bishops puts it, that " it does 
not remain to the civil powers to define what shall be 
the rights of the Church and under what conditions it 
may exercise them." This is an attitude toward the civil 
law that no goverment will tolerate or can toierate with- 
out abdication of its authority. President Calles put the 
matter properly when he said publicly that clerics had 
the same right to advocate a change in the laws or amend- 

[ 330 ] 

Missions to Latin America 

ment of the constitution as any other Mexican citizens, 
but that their first duty was to obey the laws. 

Recent Progress in Mexico 

As a result of the new land policy, the Mexican Govern- 
ment has already distributed 22,000,000 acres among the 
people. The Indian especially is coming into his own, 
receiving 1 back the land which the Spaniard took from 
him. He is demanding schools and books, taking part in 
public affairs, and developing his native art and music. 
This enterprise is financed by paying former owners with 
bonds at five per cent., redeemable in twenty years. The 
small purchaser pays the Government about what he 
would have paid the proprietor in rent and becomes the 

An era of economy and honest government seems to 
have set in; there was need of it, for graft and corrup- 
tion were nearly universal. President Calles eliminated 
700 " generals " and 14,000 superfluous employees, and 
reduced the expenses of government $100,000,000 in his 
first year of office. There have been 5,000 rural schools 
established, and this is preceding at the rate of 100 a 
week. These schools are acknowledged to be very im- 
perfect, but they attempt to give pupils the " three Rs " 
and some agricultural instruction, with the hope of im- 
proving them from year to year. More money is now 
spent on schools than on the army, which is a creditable 
contrast to the policy of the United States. 

A favorable sign also is the awakening that is taking 
place among the women of Mexico. As opportunities 
open, and they are opening rapidly, young women are go- 
ing into business and the professions, and doing well. 
The President's private secretary is a woman, and is con- 
sidered most intelligent and efficient. The Mexican young 
woman is no longer without a word as to her marriage, 


A. Short History of Baptist Missions 

but is beginning to chose her own mate. They marry 
younger in Mexico, as a rule, than in the United States, 
and some among them are beginning to suggest that a 
longer girlhood is desirable. In many ways they are 
showing a tendency to think and act for themselves, and 
no longer regard home as the only " sphere " of woman, 
or marriage as her only " career." 

Missions in Mexico 

The Roman Catholic Church was quick to see its op- 
portunities in the New World, and missionaries followed 
closely after its explorers and conquerors. Franciscans, 
Dominicans, Jesuits vied with each other in efforts to 
evangelize the natives. One of the most eminent early 
missionaries was Bartolome Las Casas, who was com- 
missioned in 1515 to "watch over . . . the liberty, the 
good and proper treatment, the bodily and spiritual weal 
of the Indians." He won their confidence and was their 
protector against the rapacity and cruelty of the conquis- 

Paul III in 1737 issued a bull in which he said: 

Indians ... in nowise are to be deprived of their liberty and of con- 
trol of their goods, in nowise are they to be made slaves. . . We also 
determine and declare that the said Indians and other similar peoples 
are to be called to the faith of Jesus Christ by preaching and by the 
example of a good and holy life. 

These are the bright spots in the Spanish conquests. In 
spite of this attitude of the Church, less was accomplished 
for the Indians than it promised. There are millions of 
pure Indians still in Mexico, all practically pagan. If 
they profess Christianity, they have merely changed their 
idols. The Roman Church has had a free hand for 
three centuries, and Mexico is a good example of what it 
can and will do for a people. If it has not deliberately 
kept the people in ignorance and bondage, it has done little 

[ 332 ] 








Missions to Latin America 

to lift them out of it ; and would have done still less but 
for the stimulus of Protestant missions. 

There are now at least sixteen different Protestant 
agencies at work in Mexico. The Moravians began as 
far back as 1735, and in the last fifty years many other 
denominations have entered this field. The effect on the 
Roman Church has been marked. The morals and educa- 
tion of the clergy have been raised. Bigotry is breaking 
down; persecution is ceasing; the Baptist doctrine of 
separation of Church and State is embedded in the Federal 

Northern Baptist Missions 

Baptist missions in Mexico were begun in 1861 by Rev. 
James Hickey, who succeeded in organizing a church at 
Monterey in 1864. The ABHMS appointed Rev. 
Thomas M. Westrup missionary in 1870, and soon a num- 
ber of native converts were added to the workers. In 
1882 the Mexican mission was much enlarged, partly as 
a result of the visit of a deputation, consisting of the gov- 
ernor of the State of Chihuahua and several prominent 
citizens, to the officials of ABHMS. They represented 
that the people were abandoning Romanism and were 
ready for a pure gospel ; and formally invited the society 
to prosecute work in their State. There was probably 
some politics in this demonstration, but also considerable 
basis of fact; nevertheless, missionaries have not found 
Mexican people so responsive as this appeal indicated, 
nor has so rapid progress been made as was then hoped. 
Our best work is still in the State of Nuevo Leone, where 
the Monterey church has become self-supporting and has 
grown to some 350 members. In 1883 a station was 
opened in Mexico City, with a church and school and 
the publication of a paper called La LUZ. 

We now have mission stations in six different States, 

[ 333 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

with 24 churches, five of which are self-supporting. Most 
of the work is among Spanish-speaking people, but two 
missionaries to the Indians are also maintained. A Na- 
tional Baptist Union was formed in 1900, and there is be- 
sides a Woman's Union and a B Y P U. Our Baptist mis- 
sions have been the first to conform to the new order, 
to exhort all members of Baptist churches to support their 
government loyally, and the A B H M S has recognized 
the complete independence of the Mexican Baptist 
churches, while continuing financial aid to them as needed. 
Rev. Ernesto Barocio, pastor of the leading Mexican 
church, has been appointed general missionary and has 
direction of the work. Since the laws require registra- 
tion of houses of worship and forbid worship in private 
houses, the Mexican Baptists especially need help just 
now in building for themselves suitable places of worship. 
The new spirit of freedom and the consciousness of 
spiritual need constitute a great opportunity for Mexican 

SBC Missions 

In 1880 work was begun under direction of the Board 
of Foreign Missions. Strong churches have been estab- 
lished in the chief cities of the northern States, and about 
these many smaller churches and mission stations. The 
church at Saltillo is fully self-supporting, and others are 
rapidly approaching that status. Two associations have 
been organized in this region, one known as the Chihua- 
hua, the other as the Coahuila-Durango. Connected with 
the former are four churches, and with the latter 20. 
Similar work has been done on the Pacific Coast, in the 
State of Sonora, where another association has been 
formed ; and in South Mexico, not far from the capital. 
In all there are 60 churches, 141 stations, 3,400 members, 
10 missionaries, and 30 ordained native ministers. 


Missions to Latin America 

We are more deeply interested in evangelizing Mexico 
than in any other foreign country. Intimate relations, 
commercial and political, are every year becoming more 
intimate. In Mexico there is deep distrust of our people, 
growing out of the Texas episode and more recent ex- 
ploitation. Our interest is to promote better understand- 
ing; also in raising the moral and intellectual standards 
of her people. There is large immigration from Mexico 
into Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. Unless we raise 
their standards they will lower ours ; self-interest should 
reenforce Christian altruism. The hopeful thing is the 
general intellectual awakening in Mexico; but it needs 
religious stimulus and guidance. 

Educational and Medical Work 

The principal work of Baptist missions in Mexico has 
been and will be in schools for the training of native evan- 
gelists and pastors. Madero Institute was established at 
Saltillo in 1884, and has now grown into a high school 
and theological seminary. Three fine buildings were dedi- 
cated in 1925 at a cost of $40,000. The Director of Public 
Education for Mexico was present at the dedication and 
spoke in highly appreciative terms of the training given 
by these schools. Southern and Northern Baptists now 
cooperate in the support of this institution. Southern 
Baptists also have a flourishing school at El Paso, and a 
church of 200 members, whose pastor is a graduate of 
Saltillo. The SBC missionaries have established several 
day-schools in each of their associations, to the total 
number of ten, with an enrolment of nearly 700 pupils. 
In addition, they maintain the Colegio Bautista in Chi- 
huahua, the Colegio Occidental at Guayma, and the In- 
stituto Central on the west coast. There is a great oppor- 
tunity for Christian schools in Mexico, especially of high- 
school grade, in which the public system is very deficient ; 

Y [335] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

and if all denominations would unite in the support of a 
Christian University, a still greater service might be ren- 
dered. Leaders of thorough training and high character 
are one of the great needs of Mexico. As a part of the 
educational work, we may reckon the publishing house at 
El Paso, with its new and commodious building. Last 
year 19,917,500 pages of literature issued from this house, 
of which 16,750 were in books of permanent value. 

Medical missions are also much needed. The ABH 
M S, with the cooperation of the Woman's Society, main- 
tains a hospital at Puebla, near Mexico City, which has a 
capacity of 50 beds, and is said to be the best-equipped in- 
stitution of its kind in all Mexico. It conducts a nurses' 
training-school, and an industrial school is projected. 
The hospital is on a self-supporting basis. The Methodist 
and Presbyterian missions cooperate in the payment of 
the staff of physicians and nurses. 

The Region 

The Panama Canal gives the United States a per- 
manent stake in Central America and has stimulated the 
interest of our people in a region hitherto little known to 
them. The opening of the canal reorganized the geog- 
raphy and commerce of the world. Missions have always 
followed trade and travel when they did not precede, as 
was often the case. Central America once seemed far 
away and negligible ; now it is in the immediate circle of 
our neighbors. The conquest of the tropics by modern 
medicine and sanitation will make this one of the most 
productive spots in the world, where the smallest quantity 
of labor will result in the greatest quantity of food. A 
strangely neglected region until lately, by both missions 
and commerce, it will soon come into its own. 


Missions to Latin America 

Central America is politically divided into six Repub- 
lics: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica, and Panama. The first three, comprising 
about half of the entire region, have been allotted to 
Northern Baptists for missionary occupation. Together 
they nearly equal the area of the State of Colorado, but 
are three times as densely populated. Their physical 
features are alike ; beautiful plains slope up from the coast 
to lofty mountains, many peaks of which attain a height 
of 10,000 feet or more. There are many volcanoes, some 
active, and earthquakes are common. Rugged plateaus, 
dense forests, many rivers, diversify the scenery. 


The ABHMS was hindered by lack of funds and 
men from attempting work at once in this state, but in 
1926 Rev. Thomas W. Jones, a graduate of Bucknell and 
Crozer, began a mission in Quiche, a town 6,000 feet 
above sea-level. The first mission work in this state, 
many years ago, was done by a British Baptist ; and some 
work has also been done in Costa Rica by their represen- 
tatives. The National Baptist Convention has sent a few 
workers to Nicaragua and Costa Rica to labor among 
those of their race. 

1 Salvador 

This republic has an area of 13,176 square miles, but a 
population of 1,526,000. If the United States were as 
densely populated, we should have 561,000,000 people. It 
is an agricultural country, its chief export products being 
coffee, rubber, tobacco, cattle, and timber. Education is 
free and compulsory, but as there are only 30,000 enrolled 
in its 600 primary schools, this must be mainly theoretical. 
A small mission is maintained by the ABHMS; a mis- 
sion press issues tracts and periodicals for use of mission- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

aries and native Christians; and two men are supported 
by the churches, who spend several months each year in 
evangelizing tours among the villages. 


This state has an area about the same as Pennsylvania 
(44,275 square miles) but a population only one-tenth as 
great (662,422). The Roman Catholic Church is the 
chief religion, but the constitution grants entire free- 
dom. Instruction is free and education nominally com- 
pulsory, but the percentage of illiteracy is still 56. Hon- 
duras sadly lacks transportation facilities and is there- 
fore the most backward of the six republics. American 
Baptists have not yet been able to begin work here, but 
British Baptists have had a mission there since 1882; 
and among their other achievements have made and 
printed a translation of Matthew into Carib, one of the 
native dialects. 


This state has an area of 51,660 square miles and a 
population of 638, 119. At least half the people are illiter- 
ate, in spite of the fact that there are in the country 356 
elementary schools, ten colleges, and two universities. 
In products it is like the other states. Our mission there 
is comparatively new and the advance thus far made is 
slight. The attention of American people was directed 
anew to this state by events occurring in the early months 
of 1927. For the second time within a few years, mili- 
tary intervention by the United States Government was 
thought necessary, to protect the lives and property of 
its citizens and of European residents. It is to be hoped 
that this will awaken new interest in the evangelizing of 
this region. Gospel, rather than gunboat, missionaries 
more than marines, offer hope of peace and prosperity to 

[ 338 ] 

Missions to Latin America 


The area of Panama is 31,500 square miles, and the 
population is estimated at about 500,000. It has been an 
independent republic since 1903. Most of the people are 
of mixed race, and there are 40,000 pure Negroes. Edu- 
cation is only beginning, and the chief hope of the country 
is improvement through American influence and assis- 
tance. The SBC has a mission in Panama. The church 
in Panama City is the " mother church." A church has 
been established at Balboa Heights, with a Sunday school 
and all departments, including a B Y P U. Other stations 
have been opened at Colon, Catavia, Neva, Providencia, 
and Gatun ; but that at Colon is the oldest and largest. 

Central America, to the average citizen of the United 
States, has meant a region where they specialize in 
bananas, earthquakes, and revolutions. A few also know 
that it is a favorite resort for embezzlers and other crim- 
inals, because the United States has no extradition treaties 
with some of the states. As we come to know it better, 
with the increasing facilities of communication, we shall 
take a deeper and more intelligent interest in its welfare, 
and do our duty better in regard to its evangelization. 


Can you give a brief outline of Mexican history ? Who 
is president now? What was the country's condition at 
the overthrow of Diaz ? What was the real nature of the 
revolution? What does the Mexican constitution say 
about land? Is Mexico making progress? How large 
a country is it ? Are there any large cities ? Do Mexicans 
understand sanitation ? What races constitute its people ? 
Does prohibition prevail ? Is there race prejudice ? Why 
is Mexico so backward ? Why should the United States 


3. Short History of Baptist Missions 

be concerned with Mexico ? Is it a rich country ? What 
are the chief sources of wealth ? What might be done to 
increase her wealth? What sort of money circulates? 
Has the Government a good educational program? Are 
the schools good ? How about secondary education ? Are 
there universities ? Is religion free in Mexico ? What are 
some of the laws about religion ? Are religious bodies per- 
secuted ? Should other governments interfere ? What is 
the attitude of the Roman Catholic Church? Is it justi- 
fied? What is the Government's contention? Are there 
evidences of recent progress in Mexico? Are the women 
awakening? What did the Roman Church accomplish 
in Christianizing Mexico? Are Protestants doing any 
better ? How did Northern Baptists begin their mission- 
ary work ? What is the extent and character of it ? What 
missions has the SBC? Why should we try to evangel- 
ize Mexico? Have we schools there? What is their 
quality? Are we doing any medical mission work? 
Why is the United States deeply interested in Central 
America? What are the six republics of that region? 
Which are specially allotted to Baptists? What can you 
tell of Honduras and its people ? Have Baptists a mission 
there? What do you know of El Salvador? What mis- 
sion have we there? Can you describe Nicaragua? 
What of our mission there? Are we doing any mission 
work in Guatemala? Who are doing mission work in 
Panama? Should we do more for Central America? 


Beals, Carleton, Mexico: An Interpretation. New York, 

Jones, C. L., Mexico and Its Reconstruction. New York, 


Missions to Latin America 

Mexican Y 'ear-Book. Los Angeles. 

Ross, Edward A., The Social Revolution in Mexico. 
New York, 1923. 

Trowbridge, E. D., Mexico Today and Tomorrow. New 

York, 1919. 
Winter, Nevin O., Mexico and Her People of Today. 

New York, 1923. 

Central America 

Barnes, Lemuel C, The Central Republics of Central 
A merica. New York, 1916. 

Browne, E. A., Panama. New York, 1923. 

Enock, C. L., Republics of Central and South America. 

New York, 1922. 
Munro, Dana G., Five Republics of Central America. 

New York, 1922. 

Squier, E. G., The States of Central America. London, 

Verrill, A. E., Panama, Past and Present. New York, 


[ 341 1 



South America in General 

Not many of us realize the extent and importance of 
South America. Though it is part of our own hemi- 
sphere, we are as ignorant of it as of Africa. Of the 
countries with which we shall have most to do, Brazil 
is larger than the United States by 200,000 square miles, 
while Argentina is larger than the United States east 
of the Mississippi, and Chile is equal to two Calif ornias. 
According to the statistics of the Pan-American Union, 
the continent has a total area of 7,598,000 square miles, 
as compared with the 8,559,000 of North America. But 
if we consider the inhabitable and cultivable parts only, 
the two continents are approximately equal. 

South America is one of the few parts of the world 
with enormous productive possibilities, yet still sparsely 
inhabited; its population averages less than 10 to the 
square mile. It is more richly equipped with river sys- 
tems than any continent, especially the central portion ; so 
that the development of the interior is a comparatively 
'simple and inexpensive matter. A supplementary system 
of canals, like China's, would solve the transportation 
problem at relatively slight cost. Its population is less 
than half that of North America and only about one- 
third is of pure white blood. Its population is increasing 
very slowly. 

South America is the real " melting-pot " of the west- 
ern hemisphere. There we can see the most complete as- 


Missions to Latin America 

similation of the European races with each other and 
with the Indian aborigines not to mention Negroes, 
Japanese, and Chinese. Beginning with Spanish and 
Portuguese, large elements of Irish, English, French, and 
latterly Italians and Germans, have added to the racial 
wealth and complexity. There are also no inconsiderable 
numbers of Russians, Japanese, and Chinese. The color- 
line hardly exists; how could it, with such a blending? 

These Latin Republics claim great statesmen: Rio 
Branco in Brazil, Gonzalo Ramiro in Uruguay, Sarmiento 
in Argentina, Augustine Edwards in Chile. They number 
great patriots: Bolivar and San Martin, both of whom 
stand in their countries as Washington among us. 

It is a continent of which it is difficult to write except 
in superlatives. Its vast extent and varied contour, its 
mountains, deserts, and rivers offer engineering difficulties 
not surpassed anywhere in the world. Its undeveloped 
resources are so immense, that its possibilities of increase 
in population and wealth stagger the imagination. 

As a Mission Field 

South America is at once the neediest and the most 
promising region in the world for evangelical effort, not 
excepting Africa. About four-fifths of its area say, 
6,000,000 square miles is as yet totally unevangelized. 
This is greater than the unevangelized areas of Central 
Asia (estimated to be 2,800,000 square miles) or Central 
Africa (5,000,000) and contains about half the popula- 
tion of the continent, not fewer that 25,000,000. Prot- 
estant missions have " hugged the coast," and even where 
they have nominally occupied territory, have thus far 
been compelled by lack of funds and other circumstances 
to concentrate their work on the large cities. In the 
capitals, evangelical Christianity has done comparatively 
well ; Rio has 100 preaching-stations, Montevideo, Lima, 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Santiago, Buenos Aires are fairly well provided with 
Protestant churches. But the country districts are un- 
touched, the smaller towns unvisited. Comparatively 
little work has been done by any denomination in Bolivia, 
a country six times larger than the Middle States, and the 
same is true of Venezuela, into which two States of Texas 
could be put and still leave room for Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee. Presbyterians only are at work in Colombia, a 
country as large as Germany and France together, with 
Belgium and Holland thrown in. Paraguay and Uruguay 
though smaller and poorer are not less needy. 

South America is a land of promise for a pure Chris- 
tianity. The Roman Church has notoriously failed in its 
duty : it is corrupt and backward, having had no Protes- 
tant competition to spur it into activity. There has been 
an extraordinary progress in political democracy in 'nearly 
every state during the last generation, with an equally 
extraordinary collapse of religion. A new idealism is 
growing among the educated youth, in which, however, 
religion has little place. The cultivated classes are either 
indifferent or hostile to religion, as they have hitherto 
known it. 

One of the greatest problems of South America is the 
high percentage of illiteracy everywhere, ranging from 
50 to 90 per cent. But one in 20 of the population is in 
school, as compared with one in six in Germany. In 
most countries the primary schools are inadequate in 
every respect, poor buildings and equipment, poor text- 
books, poor teachers the latter largely on account of low 
salaries paid. In Colombia not five per cent, of the popu- 
lation are believed to have the equivalent of our eight 
grammar grades. The same is true, more or less, of all 
Latin America. Mexico has 5 per cent, of population 
enrolled; Guatemala, 3; Honduras, 15; Nicaragua, 
2; Salvador, 1.6; Argentina, 10.6; Brazil, 2.9; Chile, 


Missions to Latin America 

10.4 Yet these people, though ignorant, are not unintel- 
ligent; they are as fine and capable, and have as good 
native endowment as any other people. 

Progress Made and Making 

Considering the labor expended, the advance of evan- 
gelical Christianity in South America is gratifying. There 
are now 1,283 Protestant churches (1924), an increase of 
50 per cent, in a decade. The number of communicants 
has risen to 122,266, a gain of 31 per cent. A Sunday 
school enrolment of 108,599 is an increase of 100 per 
cent. The staff of workers has increased over 50 per cent, 
to 2,004; and the resident stations number 365, a gain 
of 37 per cent. Brazil ranks first in fruitfulness, show- 
ing an all-around gain of 100 per cent. Argentina and 
Chile come next in order. 

The evangelical movement in South America has a 
vastly enlarged background today, as compared with 
former years. An increasing intellectual and spiritual rap- 
prochement has come about between the people and those 
of both Europe and North America. The Pan-American 
Union has been an influential medium of diffused infor- 
mation concerning all American affairs. Much miscon- 
ception and indifference remain to be dissipated before 
there can be ideal relations between North and South 
America, whom nature joined together and only igno- 
rance and prejudice have put asunder. An awakening of 
true religious interest is observable in the more progres- 
sive communities, as well as a heightened emphasis on 
moral values, a new wave of constructive idealism, an 
impatience with obscurantism and tradition almost, if 
not quite, a Renaissance. There is a vast, deliberate, and 
irreconcilable defection from the Roman Church among 
the cultured classes, many of whom are hostile to any 
form of Christianity, because they have really known 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

none but the Roman. Disillusioned with Christianity as 
they have known it, they are not inaccessible to the plain 
teachings of Jesus. His words and spirit do find entrance 
to their minds and hearts ; and the pure gospel has now a 
greater opportunity to get a sympathetic hearing than 
ever before. A new social morality is in the making; 
South Americans are concerning themselves much with 
such matters as child welfare, public health, temperance, 
industrial legislation, educational reform. This move- 
ment may be made a strong ally of the gospel message. 


Efforts have been made by several of our administra- 
tions to stimulate a consciousness of common interests 
among the nations of the western hemisphere. Pan- 
Americanism is fundamentally based on commerce, but it 
is more than an attempt to maintain satisfactory commer- 
cial relations between the United States and Latin Amer- 
ica: it aims at the promotion of peace and good-will 
among all the peoples. As the strongest and richest, the 
United States is looked upon with a certain amount of 
suspicion and jealousy. The Monroe Doctrine is believed 
in Latin America to have outlived its usefulness and to 
have very little value for any country save the United 
States. A doctrine of " America for Americans " has, 
they think, become a policy of " America for North Amer- 
icans." The United States is thought to be trying to 
establish a hegemony, obtaining concessions of all kinds 
at the cost of sovereignty to smaller states. 

We may have given some ground for these suspicions, 
exaggerated as they are. But the fact remains that we 
cannot tolerate European intervention anywhere in the 
American continents, especially in the Caribbean region; 
and if the various states of that region will not behave 
themselves properly the United States must act as the big 


Missions to Latin America 

policeman or European powers will intervene. That ex- 
plains and justifies our conduct, in the main, toward 
Nicaragua, San Domingo, and Haiti, for example; and 
South America is wrong in constructing our policy as 
any menace against them. The fifth Pan- American Con- 
gress at Santiago, Chile, 1923, did much to dissipate these 

Some Educational and Social Problems 

Some features of education in all South American 
countries are noteworthy because of their bearing on 
mission work; The secondary schools for the most part 
are not free, so that only the well-to-do can send their 
children to them. They are mostly boarding-schools, and 
many are under Roman Catholic control. These liceos 
differ considerably from the American high school, re- 
sembling rather the German gymnasium. Their courses 
cover those of our high schools and perhaps two years 
of our colleges. Except in those controlled by Catholics, 
where Latin is prominent among the subjects taught, the 
classics are conspicuously absent, the modern languages 
being substituted (English, French, and German) and 
taught with a thoroughness not approached by American 
schools, so that graduates have both a reading and speak- 
ing knowledge of modern tongues. The liceo curricula 
are becoming increasingly practical and cultural. History, 
psychology, and social sciences find a large place ; science 
is badly taught, mostly by lectures, and laboratories are 
few and ill-equipped. 

Colleges, in the American sense, are hardly known; 
some of the missionary schools called colleges are really 
liceos. The graduate of these goes directly to the univer- 
sities, which are collections of professional schools. The 
result is that the student activities of American colleges, 
their rich social life, cannot be found in South America. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

But students are beginning to feel this lack, to demand 
something more of higher education than mere class- 
work. In the universities, even, there are few electives 
and little research. Standards of admission are too low, 
and there are too many students. (There are said to be 
55,000 in Latin America.) The demand for reform, such 
as it is, comes from the students themselves. 

It will be evident that this system tends to overstress 
the brilliant literary and professional type of education. 
That it presupposes a condition of social security, leisure, 
and distinction, and tends to perpetuate class divisions. 
The result of the system is to produce leaders highly cul- 
tured and leave the masses still illiterate. The bulk of all 
training still has as its aim introduction into the " learned 
professions." Departments of science, other than medi- 
cine, are either non-existent or mediocre. As the univer- 
sities are wholly controlled by the governments, reforms 
must be instituted from above, however strong the de- 
mand may be from below ; and thus far the leaders have 
been too well satisfied with the results of the system in 
their own case to think broadly of the welfare of the 
whole people. 

The product of this system is some five or six millions 
of " intellectuals," comparing favorably with the culti- 
vated classes of other countries. Possessors of wealth 
and social position, conservative, brilliant, they are dif- 
ficult of approach save by men who are their equals. 
Clubs, not churches, are their centers of interest ; they are 
either hostile to religion or indifferent to it. The evangel- 
ical movement has so far made no impression worth men- 
tioning on these intellectuals. Mission schools and col- 
leges, philanthropic efforts of missionaries, furnish the 
best points of contact. Lectures in theaters or public halls 
by competent Christian scholars, interpreting religion on a 
sound scientific and philosophical basis, offer the best 


Missions to Latin America 

prospect of reaching them. Such deputations as we have 
sent to India might do great good. The establishment of 
scholarships and fellowships at American universities spe- 
cifically for Latin-American students, and the occasional 
interchange of professors, such as we have already made 
with Germany and France, would do much to promote 
mutual understanding and good feeling. Work among 
the student class in the higher institutions, by the Y M C A 
especially, is already proving fruitful and should be 
greatly encouraged and enlarged. Student pastors at the 
universities would probably be as effective an expedient 
as it has proved to be among ourselves. The University 
of Buenos Aires may probably be taken as a sample case; 
a recent canvass shows that not more than 10 per cent, of 
the students were allied with the Roman Catholic Church ; 
10 per cent, avowed themselves antagonistic; but 80 per 
cent, said they had no religious convictions. To reach the 
women of the cultured classes will probably prove more 
difficult than to reach the men. 


Brazil was discovered by the Portuguese in 1500 and is 
the oldest white settlement in South America. Its area 
is 3,275,510 square miles and population 30,135,105 
(1920). We sometimes boast of the size of Texas, but 
Brazil has four states larger: Goyez (288,000), Para 
(443,000), Matto Grosso (532,060), Amazonas (731,- 
ooo). Rio Janeiro has 1,157,873 residents, and there are 
four cities of over 200,000, and nine more over 50,000. 
Brazil has been a republic since 1889. More than a thou- 
sand centers of importance are still unoccupied by evan- 
gelical forces. 

Potentially Brazil is probably the richest country in the 
world, at least so far as production from the soil goes. 

z [349] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

It could easily support a population of 400,000,000. The 
country abounds in great valleys and plains, with a deep 
rich soil ; the climate ranges from temperate to tropical. 
The country urgently needs more labor to develop its 
great, but almost untouched, resources. It is accordingly 
inclined to favor the immigration of Asiatics beyond any 
other part of the world at present. Japanese and Chinese 
have responded somewhat, but on the whole have been 
surprisingly loath to take advantage of this great oppor- 
tunity to dispose of their surplus population. Still, con- 
siderable numbers of both races are now domiciled in 
Brazil and many more will probably make their way 
thither in the coming years. 

Less is known of the interior of Brazil than of the in- 
terior of Central Africa, formerly the world's great geo- 
graphical enigma. It is remarkable that the attention of 
explorers has been so little directed to this unknown re- 
gion. Theodore Roosevelt led an expedition into it and 
made some valuable additions to our knowledge at very 
great cost, for his too early death was doubtless due to the 
hardships of this venture. 

The United States is Brazil's best customer. Her ex- 
ports are coffee, rubber, tobacco, sugar, leather and hides, 
cocoa, cotton, in about that relative order of importance. 
Her trade with England greatly diminished during the 
war and that with Germany quite vanished; neither has 
been renewed in like proportions. 

Before the great war, German manufacturers underbid 
United States concerns in South American countries. 
What made this the more exasperating was that these 
same German concerns were financed by loans that Amer- 
ican bankers made to them. Thus our manufacturing in- 
terests and our financial forces were playing against each 
other, instead of doing team-work. America is no longer 
supplying " ammunition " to her commercial rivals. 


Missions to Latin America 

The great obstacle to progress of any sort in Brazil, in- 
cluding religion, is the ignorance of the people. The 
school enrolment is less than three per cent, of the popu- 
lation. The school population is set down at 3,571,000, 
and the actual attendance in schools is 678,000 some dis- 
crepancy! Illiteracy is still 74 per cent, and decreasing 
very slowly, if at all. In theory education is free but not 
compulsory, but it has been found impossible so far to 
provide school accommodations and teachers for children 
who are eager to enter. Few or no state secondary 
schools exist as yet. There is no really national univer- 
sity, but there are 25 faculties that supervise professional 
education and formerly conferred degrees. Brazil re- 
cently abolished the degree of Doctor, however, to dis- 
courage the tendency to overcrowd the " learned profes- 
sions," and it may be noted that Chile, has followed this 

Brazilians are by no means asleep; their statesmen 
are well aware of the serious character of this obstacle, 
and one of their chief concerns is to decrease illiteracy, 
by providing opportunity at once for elementary educa- 
tion for all children ; next to promote vocational training 
for the great majority who cannot or will not go on to 
secondary and higher education. There is for the present 
adequate provision for those who wish to enter the vari- 
ous professions. In appreciation of the fine arts litera- 
ture, painting, sculpture, architecture, music Brazilians 
are fortunate in their Latin ancestry and their inheritance 
of culture. 

Foreign Peoples in Brazil 

The check on immigration into the United States in 
recent years has turned the eyes of Europeans to South 
America as a home for their surplus populations. Even 
before the great war there had been a great influx of 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Italians and Germans into Brazil, and this movement is 
now accelerated, especially from Italy. Italians are in 
many ways especially adapted to colonize this region. 
The climate is much like that of their native land ; the soil 
is rich; they are experienced cultivators, and are both 
frugal and industrious. The immense forests and plains 
of Brazil must be conquered foot by foot, by laying out 
roads, by establishing railway and telegraph lines, by sub- 
dividing its area into small farms for thorough culture. 
Her population is as yet too sparse to do this work, for 
which Italians are perhaps better fitted than any other 
available immigrants. They are the natural cooperators 
of Brazilians in the development of the country's wonder- 
ful resources. 

There was also a large immigration from Germany 
before the war, and an avowed purpose, on the part of 
some German writers at least, to build here a new Ger- 
many. Three states in Southern Brazil are little slices of 
Germany: Santa Catalina, Rio Grande do Sul, and Pa- 
rana. Thousands of the people there speak only the lan- 
guage of the Fatherland. Many of them come from 
Bavaria. Before the war the chief officers of Santa Cata- 
lina were Germans; and Senator Muller was Brazil's 
Minister of Foreign Affairs. It occasions little surprise, 
therefore, to learn that the German Evangelical Church is 
the strongest Protestant agency in Brazil ; it is, however, 
less a missionary body than a transplantation from Ger- 
many. In 1925 it had 102 pastors, 342 congregations, and 
175,000 members. In 1924, there were 3,094 added by 
confirmation. This church maintains large numbers of 
parochial schools. Most of the pastors received their 
theological education in Germany or Switzerland. Ger- 
man Lutherans have not as yet entered Brazil in large 
numbers, for some reason preferring Argentina for their 
colonizing purposes. 


Missions to Latin America 

Missions in Brazil 

The Methodist Episcopal Church was the first to begin 
missions in Brazil, the Northern branch in 1836 and the 
Southern in 1869. Presbyterian missions began in 1841, 
and the Protestant Episcopal Church entered the field in 
1860. The SBC undertook a mission in 1881 and have 
developed the work rapidly. Stations are now maintained 
in Northern Brazil at Bahia, Pernambuco, and four other 
cities; and in the south at Rio, Sao Paulo, Victoria, 
Santos, and seven other towns. In 1924 there were re- 
ported: 321 churches, 860 outstations, 2,418 baptisms, 
25,111 members, 19,534 in Sunday schools, and $231,910 
contributed on the field. This work is accomplished by 
50 missionaries and 129 ordained natives. The Brazilian 
Baptist Convention, organized more than fifteen years 
ago, cooperates with the S B C ; it maintains a missionary 
in Portugal. There are State Conventions in several of 
the States and eventually will be in all. 

The largest success perhaps has been won in the capital, 
where there are now 18 churches and some 40 congrega- 
tions. The First Church has recently erected a new house 
of worship worth nearly $250,000. Baptists are found 
today in all the twenty States of the Republic, The Sun- 
day-school work has been notably developed in recent 
years, so that there are not far from 700 schools, twice the 
number of churches, with an enrolment of 25,000. A 
publishing house in Rio has grown to be a national insti- 
tution, and circulated 17,000,000 pages of literature last 
year. Besides having a fine printing plant, the house 
maintains an excellent bookstore, which is well patron- 
ized and last year sold 22,000 volumes, copies going by 
parcel post into every part of Brazil. 

A typical case: When Rev. S. M. Reno and his wife 
went to Brazil in 1904 they established a mission at Vic- 

[ 353 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

toria. Strong opposition was manifested by Roman Cath- 
olics ; the missionaries were pelted with missiles and filth 
of all kinds ; priests sent intoxicated men to break up their 
meetings ; their lives were threatened. On appeal to the 
authorities, police were stationed to protect them, but ran 
away when trouble began. Since then there has been a 
great change; they have won the respect of the entire 
region. Roman Catholic merchants offer favors; physi- 
cians and lawyers give professional services gratis; the 
Government has repeatedly offered land and money for 
their school, which they have felt constrained to decline. 

In many stations there was no opposition at first, but 
hostile feeling has greatly increased of late years. Span- 
ish withdrawal from the Philippines and Cuba and dis- 
establishment in France precipitated a large body of 
Roman priests into Brazil, and this has aggravated the 
situation greatly. The incoming priests have been very 
zealous anti-Protestants. But Brazilian Baptists are very 
loyal and staunch ; they can be counted on to think straight 
and act right. Much of the aggressive work of the mis- 
sions is done by Christian laymen, who are at business 
during the day, but do religious work in the evenings. 
There has been new emphasis on giving since the war; 
the churches faced crushing deficits and something had to 
be done. Instead of relying on others they did it them- 
selves, and have raised larger sums than ever before, and 
more than one-third of the Baptist churches are now fully 

In northern Brazil there is a strong sentiment for " in- 
pendence," a demand that missionaries shall devolve their 
responsibilities and exercise only advisory functions. 
This is partly the result of a powerful nationalist move- 
ment in that region, " Brazil for Brazilians," which ex- 
tends to religious policy. The demand for a national 
church is less pressing in the southern portion. The Pres- 


Missions to Latin America 

byterian Church has become practically autonomous, and 
has more than 9,000 communicants. 

Educational Work 

This is very important in Brazil, on account of the 
large percentage of illiteracy and the defects of the public 
educational system, particularly the deficiency of secon- 
dary schools. But in many districts the great need just 
now is good primary schools. The school that Mr. Reno 
established at Victoria is doing an important service in 
training teachers for primary schools in the surrounding 
villages, in some of which there is now not a single per- 
son who can read and write. The Woman's College at 
Sao Paulo has the largest school building of Baptists in 
South America and is doing a work of the first impor- 
tance. The largest institution is Rio Janeiro College and 
Seminary. The collegiate department has an enrolment 
of 800, and is mostly self-supporting; it reports 70 pro- 
fessors and instructors, and a budget of $70,000. It has 
courses leading to the degrees of B. A. and B. S. It is 
recognized as one of the finest educational institutions in 
Brazil, and many of the most distinguished families send 
their sons here for education, from the President down. 
Its graduates will be among the makers of the Brazil to 
be. The Seminary has 27 students in training for the 
ministry, and has a five-year course, besides a correspon- 
dence course that 163 men are now taking. A normal 
school has been added, that has a field of much usefulness. 
Notwithstanding the fact that several new buildings have 
been lately added to the equipment, all are filled to 

In northern Brazil, Baptists have three excellent 
schools: The Collegio Taylor-Egydio in Bahai, the In- 
dustrial Institute in Piauhy, and a College and Seminary 
at Pernambuco. The latter has an enrolment of 687. A 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

training-school for young women, with an attendance of 
50, is another important enterprise. The religious in- 
terest in all these schools is reported as growing stronger 
every year. 

The Caroll Memorial Publishing House at Rio is cer- 
tainly to be numbered among the educational features; it 
is a great help to every department of the work. A hymn- 
book was one of the publications of 1924, besides various 
other volumes, 170,000 tracts, and considerable Sunday- 
school literature. The Journal Baptista is the organ of 
the Convention, and has a circulation of 3,500 copies 
weekly. A new printing plant is in process of construc- 

Other denominations are active in the work of educa- 
tion. Mackenzie College at Sao Paulo, is a notable insti- 
tution, non-sectarian, deriving its charter from the State 
of New York ( 1891 ). All the leading denominations are 
represented in its faculty and students. It graduated its 
first class in 1900, and now has an attendance of 175. 
The student body is really international, drawing young 
men from all the South American states, and the total 
enrolment in all departments reached 1,429 in 1925. 
The institution has a campus of eleven acres, valued at 
$450,000, and buildings worth $400,000. A Presby- 
terian seminary is maintained at Campinas, having the 
strongest courses and the best equipment in the country. 
Cooperation by other religious bodies is welcomed. The 
Institute Evangelica at Lavoras has an agricultural col- 
lege and an experimental farm of 500 acres, with which 
the Government cooperates. It is doing an extensive work 
among farmers and contributing much to improve 
methods of cultivation. 

The chief weakness of these Christian schools in Brazil 
is lack of means. The missionaries are accomplishing 
marvels with very defective tools. Equipment is inade- 

[ 356 ] 

Missions to Latin America 

quate, rooms small and ill-lighted; some of the plants 
have been described as the " worst-planned buildings that 
were ever constructed." The real fact is that they never 
were planned missionaries have done the best possible 
with such buildings as were available, but were never in- 
tended for school purposes. Besides lack of means, there 
has been lack of cooperation, lack of permanence in the 
teaching force, too low standards. These are defects 
that time and larger resources will for the most part easily 

Among the educational forces one should not forget to 
mention the YMCA which has an exceptionally fine 
building in Rio, and is a great influence for good among 
the young men of that important city. 


Social and Economic Conditions 

Argentina has an area of 1,153,119 square miles, and 
in 1921 had a population of 8,698,576. The average 
density of population is only 7.5 to the square mile; if 
populated as densely as the State of New York, there 
would be 220,000,000 people in Argentina; a hundred 
years from now that may well be the case. Nearly half 
of its present inhabitants are foreign-born, mostly from 
Latin Europe. Argentina is a country of great interior 
pampas, plains like our Western prairies, especially 
adapted to cattle-ranches, which are maintained on a large 
scale. It ranks third among the countries of the world 
in the production of cattle, second in sheep, and third in 
horses. It is already a great agricultural country, with 
still greater possibilities, ranking third in producing 
maize, and fifth in wheat. Considerable quantities of to- 
bacco, cotton, sugar, and flax are grown. It is developing 
more rapidly than any other South American country in 

[ 357 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

fact, it may be called the most progressive and the least 
South American of all. As a commercial state it ranks 
with Canada, and outranks Japan, China, Mexico, Aus- 
tralia, and Spain. 

Argentina is a federated republic, with 14 provinces or 
States and n territories, besides the federal district of 
Buenos Aires. This city had a population in 1924 of 
1,789,000, and is culturally and commercially the Paris of 
South America. It contains one-fifth of the population 
of Argentina, and for beauty and cleanliness vies with 
the capitals of Europe. It is described by travelers as 
" one of the wonders of the American world " and " the 
finest city in the American hemisphere." 

Argentina has its economic and social problems. There 
are too many large ranches and too few small holdings 
for the greatest prosperity; the consequent extremes of 
wealth and poverty are as striking as in any other coun- 
try. Manufactures are of comparatively recent origin 
and are still too few and of relatively slight commercial 
importance. The working people are, however, begin- 
ning to organize in federations and unions, with some 
prospect of improving their condition. Careful observers 
believe that great social changes are impending. 

In some respects the relations of Argentina have been 
closer with Europe than with the United States. Her his- 
tory makes one expect this. The original population was 
Spanish; there has been large immigration of Germans 
and Italians, in the last fifty years especially. European 
business men were more alert to their opportunities, and 
exerted themselves more to capture Argentine trade than 
those of the United States. There is some jealousy of 
the United States as the strongest power on this hemi- 
sphere. The indifference of American' business men is 
passing; interest of our packers in obtaining new supply 
from South America, especially Argentina, has done 


Missions to Latin America 

much to stimulate trade. The future will see closer rap- 
prochement between the two republics ; the United States 
is Argentina's logical customer, as she is ours. 

Missions in Argentina 

The most striking fact is that they are so few and in- 
effective not positively, but relatively. Not more than 
two per cent, of the population is as yet reached in any 
degree by evangelical agencies. The workers have so far 
been mostly concentrated in the large towns, and even 
these are very inadequately served by Protestant churches. 
Both absolutely and proportionally Buenos Aires has the 
largest number of churches, 35 in all ; while Philadelphia, 
a city of about the same size, has 600; Only 16 of the 35 
own their buildings, and few of these are adequate to pre- 
sent evangelical religion in an attractive way to the people. 
Whole sections of the city, containing from 60,000 to 
80,000 people, are wholly untouched probably a million 
of this one town have never heard the gospel as we under- 
stand it. The case is much worse in the interior. There 
are many blocks of country, as large as the State of 
Maine, without a single mission station. It is a conser- 
vative statement that fewer than one-third of the people 
have any present means of coming into contact with a 
Protestant preacher. Of course, this is due to lack of 
funds and men, especially funds. The various mission- 
ary organizations are doing excellent work, when their 
meager facilities are considered; but all Protestant de- 
nominations should do more for Argentina. 

The results of the Baptist work in Argentina, that can 
be expressed in figures, are : 32 missionaries, with 1 1 or- 
dained and 138 unordained native helpers; 404 baptisms 
last year and 3,255 churchrmembers ; 96 Sunday schools, 
with an enrolment of 3,640; 71 other schools, including 
one of high-school grade and one theological school, hav- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ing altogether 4,172 students; 34 women's societies or- 
ganized and 23 B Y P U ; $25,741 raised on the field. 

Comity is working satisfactorily, but still more effective 
cooperation in moral and social reforms is greatly needed. 

The S B C in Argentina 

Its work began in 1903. The large field is divided into 
eight districts, including Montevideo, Uruguay, which is 
at present reckoned as part of the Argentine field. There 
are now 38 churches, 54 stations, 317 baptisms in 1924, 
2,495 members, 3,145 in Sunday schools, $49,391 con- 
tributed on the field. The work is carried on by 13 mis- 
sionaries, with 22 ordained native preachers. These 
churches are all members of the River Platte Baptist Con- 
vention. Of the churches, 26 have buildings, 29 have 
pastors. Tent meetings are successfully held in many 

The Mendoza church is in the Andes mountains, where 
the pastor has the help of a colporter and a Bible-woman. 
Groups of believers have been won in six or seven sur- 
rounding towns, at present members of the Mendoza 
church, but in time sure to become independent churches. 
Some German-speaking churches, professing Baptist prin- 
ciples, are coming into the Convention. The officers of 
this body are mostly native business men, who have grown 
up in the Sunday schools. The SBC proposed in its 
five-year movement to spend $252,000 in the Argentine 
field for equipment, and $11,000 for sending out 17 new 
missionaries. The equipment was planned to include nine 
church buildings, costing from $1,000 to $30,000 each, 
the latter in Buenos Aires. No imposing structures were 
contemplated, but they were to be large enough to accom- 
modate congregations and schools. 

Since 1906 Mennonites, the Church of God, and 
Lutherans have begun missions in Argentina ; the Meth- 


South America, Showing Main Stations of the Foreign Mission Board 
of the Southern Baptist Convention 

Missions to Latin America 

odist Episcopal Church was already on the field. The 
Lutherans in particular have increased rapidly, having 
a large German-speaking population to work among, most 
of whom were Lutherans in their native land. 

The publication and circulation of Christian literature, 
the latter by means of colporters, greatly assists the work 
of evangelization here as everywhere else. A hymn-book, 
Marcha del Cristianismo, the Expositor Baptista, organ 
of the River Platte Convention, Der Verr'dter, of German 
Baptists, are among the helpful publications of recent 


Argentina has a population fully half of whom are illit- 
erate, but great efforts are making to overcome this draw- 
back. In has the best' educational system in South Amer- 
ica, not only on paper but in action. Education is free in 
the primary grades, secular and compulsory. The school 
population is 1,756,053, and the enrolment 1,121,311. 
The primary schools still leave much to be desired, both 
in equipment and in efficiency, but there is continual im- 
provement ; the chief difficulty is to obtain qualified teach- 
ers, partly because they do not exist in sufficient numbers, 
partly because the salaries are so low that many teachers 
find their way into better paying occupations. The gov- 
ernment maintains 38 " colleges " or secondary schools 
(gymnasia) besides 33 private schools of like grade. 
Four national universities are reported, besides three pro- 
vincial. That at Buenos Aires has 10,000 students. 

Argentina differs from Brazil in that secondary schools 
are more needed than primary. The SBC has a theo- 
logical seminary at Buenos Aires with 14 students 
(1922), and in the same town is a boy's school with 47 
pupils. It has lately acquired a building that has given 
it a new start, and night-class work has been begun. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

In addition a Sunday school is held with from 40 to 80 
in attendance. A recently opened kindergarten is promis- 
ing, but more space is needed for all the work. A school 
at Mendoza has an enrolment of 75. In addition there is 
the Willingham Institute at Rosario, the second city of 
the country, where over 70 girls are in attendance. There 
are also schools at Cordoba and Androgus. 

Other denominations are not neglectful of educational 
work. A Collegia Americano at Buenos Aires is owned 
and conducted jointly by the Methodist Episcopal mission 
and the Disciples. This is the only mission school per- 
mitted to confer the A. B. degree. Universally regarded 
as one of the most promising institutions of its kind in 
Latin America, it is making a strong impression in educa- 
tional circles, and is doing much to spread evangelical 
religion in Argentina. All the mission schools are in sym- 
pathetic cooperation with the Government, and apparently 
enjoy its full approval and favor. They are helping 
Argentina, by this harmonious action, to solve the grave 
problem of national illiteracy and to make the next gen- 
eration a literate people. 


The Country and People 

Chile has an area of 289,828 square miles and a popula- 
tion of 3,754,725, nearly half of which is urban. Trav- 
elers dilate upon the beauty and diversity of the scenery 
waterless desert, snow-topped mountains, fertile fields, 
ocean-laved shores; a land of brilliant hues, unclouded 
skies much of the year, and extraordinary clarity of at- 
mosphere; a ribbon country, between the Andes and 
Pacific, thirty times as long as it is wide, with a coastline 
of 2,400 miles. There is a great central valley of ap- 
proximately 18,000 square miles, that constitutes the chief 

[ 362 ] 

Missions to Latin America 

agricultural resource. More than half of the area is an 
apparently arid and barren waste, yet this is the source 
of Chile's greatest wealth ; for here 'are the vast and 
seemingly inexhaustible nitrate beds, on which the rest 
of the world largely depends for fertilizers. Great quan- 
tities of guano are also found in certain places. Of the 
remaining area, 26 per cent, is forest. Less than 5 per 
cent, of the total area is actually cultivated. Neverthe- 
less, Chile may be described as an agricultural country, 
wheat being its largest crop for export, but other cereals 
are raised in large quantities. Dairy products are also 
considerable, as much of the land to the south is adapted 
to grazing. There is large mineral wealth, which is as 
yet only partially developed, though Chile is the second 
country in the world in production of copper. Manu- 
factures have increased remarkably, and more than 70,000 
are now employed in various industries. 

The people are pretty homogeneous, far more so than 
those of Brazil or Argentina. There is little immigration 
and only 140,000 are foreign-born. Chileans are mostly 
of Spanish and Spanish-Indian descent; there are no 
Negroes, and only a few Chinese or Japanese. The social 
conditions are bad; only 42 per cent, of the men are 
literate and 37 per cent, of women. Alcoholism and dirt 
are the twin curses of Chile. In some cities it is said 
that there is a saloon for every 24 men. Sanitation is 
only a word in the dictionary; and though Chile is said 
to have the highest birth-rate in the world, over 75 per 
cent, of the babies die under two years. The average mor- 
tality of the population is double that of Europe. Igno- 
rance, malnutrition, insanitation, are chiefly responsible; 
this might be the healthiest of countries. 

The government of Chile is like that of the United 

. States, except that the President holds office for five years 

and is not eligible to reelection. There are 23 provinces 

2A [ 363 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

or states, subdivided into 82 departments. The country 
declared its independence of Spain in 1810 and accom- 
plished it in 1818. 

Missions in Chile 

Roman Catholic missionaries began labors with the 
colonizing of the country by Spain, and until recently this 
was the only religion of the country. It is sustained by 
the State, but other religions are tolerated. The Church 
has three bishops, 347 parishes, 619 churches, and 774 
chapels. It is obvious that a large part of the population 
is absolutely uncared for. 

As in other Latin-American countries, the trend of 
popular sentiment is toward religious unbelief, especially 
among the educated classes. Special efforts are made 
now, however, to reach the student class, partly through 
the work of the Y M C A and partly by means of student 
pastors in the universities. 

The Presbyterians and Methodists have the oldest Prot- 
estant missions, and these are now the largest and most 
flourishing. A great part of the country is still practically 
untouched. In the northern region, with an area equal 
to the Middle States and a population of half a million, 
there are fewer than twenty missionary centers, mostly 
Methodist, that denomination having been allotted this 
region as its special field. In the central part the Pres- 
byterians have their field, but as yet have only eight or- 
ganized churches. At least 250,000 people in this region 
are still unreached. The southern region, as large as the 
State of Colorado, has one Methodist station. 

The SBC began work in Santiago in 1917. Rev. W. 
D. MacDonald was the first missionary and labored there 
many years. The field has been gradually enlarged, until 
now there are 30 churches, 32 stations, 314 baptisms re- 
ported in 1925, and 1,134 members. A Woman's Mis- 


Missions to Latin America 

sionary Union was formed two years ago quite a novelty 
in Latin America, which subscribes heartily to the slogan, 
" Woman's place is in the home." There were four local 
societies represented the first year, and thirteen the next. 
A Chilean Baptist Convention has also been organized 
to cooperate with the SBC. The churches greatly need 
new buildings and must for the present have American 
help. As part of its five-year campaign, the SBC pro- 
posed to spend $55,000 on education and $58,900 on 
evangelism in Chile. 


Obviously, this is Chile's greatest need. The Govern- 
ment is doing its best and is making really earnest efforts 
to reduce illiteracy, now 60 per cent. By law, education 
is free and compulsory in the primary grades, but the law 
is not merely unenforced, it is unenforceable. There is 
not adequate housing, teachers are few, and the qualified 
are still fewer. Both primary and secondary schools are 
of low grade. Liceos and " colleges," both of which are 
really gymnasia, are maintained by both public and pri- 
vate enterprise. For higher education there is better pro- 
vision: a University of Chile (state), a Catholic Univer- 
sity, and the National Institute of Santiago are the chief 
institutions. There were at last accounts 4,299 primary 
schools, with 377,050 pupils enrolled ; normal and secon- 
dary schools have 50,000 more. Yet fully 40 per cent, of 
children of school age are not in schools of any kind. 
These figures apply to public institutions, at least in the 
primary grades ; but it is said that private schools of the 
primary class are almost as numerous as public, so that 
the case may not be so bad as the official figures make it 
look. Much variation in the quality and standards of 
the private schools is reported and is to be expected. 

The various missions are devoting their educational 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

efforts mainly to secondary schools, with excellent re- 
sults. The Collegia Bautista in Temuco was begun as a 
school for girls and reached an enrolment of 16 boarding 
and 150 day students. Then it was made a coeducational 
institution, and a dormitory for boys was built. This is 
a new departure for Chile, and people are watching it to 
see how it will work out. One other school of the kind, 
begun by the Methodists at Iquiqui, is considered a suc- 
cess. Baptists also have a Pastor's Institute, which has 
seven full-time students, besides four pastors who do 
what work they can and keep up their churches. All the 
students do colportage and evangelistic work during part 
of the time. They are promising young men from whom 
much is expected in the coming years. Presbyterians and 
Methodists together maintain a theological school. 

Other interesting aids to Chilean education by Amer- 
ican missions are : A Methodist college for women at San- 
tiago, and an agricultural school at Angol which is already 
making a contribution of exceeding value to Chilean prog- 
ress. Presbyterians also maintain the Institute* Ingles in 
Santiago, the only school for boys of secondary grade, 
and a normal school at Valparaiso. All of these schools 
have good buildings, and most of them need larger and 
better. Some of them have primary schools connected 
with them, and these are without exception ill equipped 
and should be made more efficient or abandoned. A com- 
bination of chapel and school is, however, found by many 
churches to be very efficient. 

Country and People 

Bolivia has been a republic since 1825. It has an area 
of 514,155 square miles, twice the size of Texas, but a 
population of 2,889,970, only 3.3 to the square mile. 


Missions to Latin America 

About half of the people are pure Indians, and the pure 
whites are only 12 per cent, of the whole. La Paz, the 
capital, is a city of 107,000, but there is no other city of 
much more than 30,000. It is a rural and agricultural 
land, and very backward, as compared with Brazil or 
Argentina. Not more than one-quarter of its area is cul- 
tivated, and a large part is arid, and without irrigation is 
unsuited to production. Enough cereals and potatoes are 
grown for home consumption, but little for export. Bo- 
livia has considerable mineral wealth, some of which is 
already developed, and it produces one-fourth of the 
world's tin. Its rubber production stands next to that 
of Brazil. There are said to be large deposits of salt and 
petroleum, as yet little exploited. The country has no 
seaport and its commerce is limited. 

The percentage of illiteracy is probably higher in Bo- 
livia than in any other South American country with 
which we are concerned. There are reported 450 ele- 
mentary schools, with 54,000 pupils; and 198 secondary 
schools, with 1,291 students. There are two universities: 
La Paz and Sucre. < \The Roman Catholic Church is the 
" recognized " religion, which means that it receives sup- 
port from the State, but other religions are " tolerated," 
which often means nothing. Who will deny that Bolivia 
needs a pure gospel proclaimed among its people ? 

Canadian Missions 

The only Baptist mission in Bolivia is that of the 
C B F M, which has twenty workers on the field, be- 
sides three on furlough. Three chief stations have been 
established, at La Paz, Cochabamba, and Oruro, each the 
capital city of a province of the same name. The church 
at La Paz has an average attendance of 100, and as an 
evidence of the favor that the missionaries are winning, it 
may be mentioned that the residents raised $325 to send 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

a delegate to the Congress of Missions in Montevideo. 
More Sunday schools than churches have been organized 
thus far, with average attendance of about 60. At Oruro 
a " college " has been begun, by aid of which it is hoped 
to train a native ministry to carry on the work. The 
Board expended $20,000 in this field during the year of 
1924-5. It is the youngest of the Canadian missions, and 
the success it has already had points to much larger 
achievement in the coming years. 

General Features of Latin-American Missions 

One of the chief difficulties is the absence of a great 
middle class in these countries without exception they 
are mainly composed of an aristocracy and a down- 
trodden people. They are republics but not democracies. 
The volatile character of the people is another serious 
difficulty; they are temperamental, prone to revolutions. 
The intelligentsia, both men and women, are agnostic or 
atheistic. What there is of religion among them is often 
not on speaking terms with morality. 

The ignorance of these countries that is prevalent in 
North America is discouraging but comprehensible. Our 
commercial and cultural affinities have all been with 
Europe; South America has seemed far away; we have 
exaggerated its isolation, and depreciated its culture. It 
has always seemed a backward region to us, and American 
travelers are nearly always surprised at the evidences of 
progress and enlightenment, as well as civic beauty, that 
they find in such cities as Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, 
Montevideo, and Santiago. American men of affairs are 
awakening to the importance of South America as a cus- 
tomer, or group of customers ; the need of better commer- 
cial relations is now well recognized. But if this were all, 
the only bond between North and South American com- 
munities, it would prove but a rope of sand. The two 


Missions to Latin America 

continents must be bound together by ties of Christian 
brotherhood, if they are to be really united. 

As to future religious progress, " comity " promises 
to mean more than in the past. It has meant little, be- 
cause the field was so vast and the workers so few that 
there has been little overlapping and duplication. An 
agreement has been reached between the chief evangelical 
bodies that no city of less than 25,000 is hereafter to be 
occupied by more than one denomination. For a long 
time to come there will be plenty of room and work for 
all on these terms. In Brazil the question of unity in one 
National Church is receiving serious consideration, with 
the alternative of federation. The need of presenting a 
united front to the opposing forces of the Catholic Church 
is keenly felt. 

Self-support is a serious problem in every country. It 
is the only way in which a vigorous, self-propagating 
church can ever be established. Native churches should 
be under tutelage and receive aid for as short a time as 
possible. " Evangelical parasitism," the equivalent of the 
" rice Christians " of Asiatic fields, ought by all means to 
be avoided. Congregational and Presbyterian churches 
are now self-supporting to a larger degree than Baptist. 

Medical missions grow out of the compelling example 
of Christ's activities of healing and ministry to men's 
physical needs ; and are approved by experience as an ef- 
fective approach to souls that need healing as well as 

So far evangelical missions have done little or nothing 
in the way of establishing hospitals. South American 
countries have good medical institutions, physicians and 
surgeons, hospitals. Moreover, it is very difficult for a 
foreigner to get a license to practise medicine. Another 
obstacle is the low social status of the nurse. The Rocke- 
feller Foundation in Rio is changing that, and doing much 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

to elevate scientific standards of the medical profession. 
Illiteracy is the greatest obstacle to sanitation and hygiene 
schools are beginning to inculcate right ideas and as 
literacy grows improvement all along the line may be 
looked for. 

The YMCA. is an invaluable aid to evangelical 
agencies in South America. The branch in Buenos. Aires 
has a membership of 4,000, occupies a fine building and 
is really one of the great city institutions. 

The Bible Societies are doing a great work everywhere. 
In 1923 the American Bible Society circulated 140,000 
Bibles, Testaments, and portions. Since they began in 
1864 they have circulated 3,662,600. The British and 
Foreign Bible Society distributed 406,000 in 1923, and 
report a total of 5,000,000. 


How large is South America? Can you compare some 
of its nations with our own ? Is it a thickly settled coun- 
try ? What is its striking physical feature ? What races 
inhabit it? Has South America produced any great 
men? Is it a promising mission field ? Does it need the 
gospel? Are American Christians doing much for this 
land? What is the condition of the Roman Catholic 
Church? What state of mind is general in South Amer- 
ica? How much illiteracy is there? Is progress making 
in religion? What favorable indications are observable? 
What is Pan- Americanism ? How do South American 
peoples feel toward the United States? Why? Can any- 
thing be done about it? What are some of the general 
features of education in South America? Are their col- 
leges like ours? Has the system a serious defect? What 
is its practical result ? Could anything be done to remedy 
this? What do you know about Brazil? How large is 


Missions to Latin America 

it ? How rich is it ? What is the character of its popula- 
tion? Has it been fully explored? What are some of 
the chief exports ? With what nation is Brazil's largest 
trade ? Has there been recent change in commercial rela- 
tions ? What is the great obstacle to progress? Is Brazil 
doing anything about it ? Is there much immigration into 
Brazil ? From what countries mainly ? Has this any re- 
ligious significance? Where were the first missions in 
Brazil ? Where are the Baptist missions ? Are the mis- 
sionaries well received? What is the chief source of op- 
position? Are laymen active in the churches? Are the 
churches self-supporting? Where is the demand for in- 
dependence strongest, and why? What is the pressing 
educational need ? Can you describe some Baptist schools ? 
Is any Christian literature produced and circulated? 
What are the other denominations doing for education? 
What is the chief weakness of these schools? Is the 
Y M C A at work in Brazil ? Can you describe Argentina ? 
Size? People? Products? How does it compare with 
other nations ? What sort of government has it ? What 
is the capital? What are some of Argentina's problems? 
Has it close relations with the United States ? What mis- 
sionary work has been done? Are there Baptist missions 
there? Are they successful? What other denominations 
are at work? Is there much illiteracy? Is the school 
system good? What secondary schools have been estab- 
lished ? How do they rank ? What are some of the phys- 
ical characteristics of Chile? What sort of people live 
there? Are the social conditions good? Who did the 
earliest mission work? What is the general religious at- 
mosphere? What Protestants were first in this field? 
What are Baptists doing? Is education progressing? 
What schools are the missions establishing? What can 
you tell about Bolivia? Does it need missions? What 
Baptists are at work there? Do you know the great 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

obstacle to missions in South America? Is the prospect 
favorable for progress ? What agencies are cooperating 
with missions ? 


Argentine Year-Book (annual). Buenos Aires. 

Bryce, James, South America: Observations and Impres- 
sions. New York, 1912. 

Christian Work in South America: The Montevideo Con- 
gress of 1925. Two vols. New York, 1926. 

Conferences of Christian Work in Latin America. 1916. 
Dawson, Thomas C., The South American Republics. 
New York, 1903. 

Eastman, Fred., Unfinished Business of the Presbyterian 
Church in America. Philadelphia, 1921. 

Ellinwood, Frank F., Questions and Phases of Modern 
Missions, pp. 213-239. New York, 1899. 

Elliott, L. E., Brazil Today and Tomorrow. New York, 


Chile Today and Tomorrow. New York, 1922. 
Goldberg, Isaac, Brazilian Literature. New York, 1922. 

Hale, Albert Barlow, The South Americans. Indian- 
apolis, 1907. 
Inman, S. G., South America Today. New York, 1922. 

James, Herman G., Brazil After a Century of Indepen- 
dence. New York, 1925. 
Republics of Latin America. New York, 1923. 
Koebel, W. H., The New Argentina. New York, 1924. 
Pepper, C. M., Panama to Patagonia. Chicago, 1906. 
Ray, T. B., Brazilian Sketches. Louisville, 1912. 
Ross, W. A., South of Panama. New York, 1921. 


Missions to Latin America 

Roosevelt, Theodore, Through the Brazilian Wilderness. 
New York, 1920. 

South American Handbook. New York, 1926. 

Wheeler, W. R. (and others), Modern Missions in Chile 
and Brazil. Philadelphia, 1926. 

Peck, A. S., Industrial and Commercial South America. 
New York, 1922. 

Speer, Robert E., South American Problems. New York, 




Country and People 

Germany has been a Republic since the abdication of 
Emperor William II, on November 8, 1918. It lost 
6,471,052 lives in the great war and 27,224 square miles 
of territory, nearly equal to the State of Maine. Its post- 
war area is 182,271 square miles, a little more than the 
New England and Middle States, and its population 
59,858,284, according to the census of 1919. At the time 
the modern Baptist movement began, " Germany " was 
only a geographical and racial name of that part of cen- 
tral Europe where German people lived there was no 
corresponding political entity. There was a Kingdom of 
Prussia and a German Confederation, the latter formed 
of various German States in 1815, after Waterloo and 
the downfall of Napoleon I. A considerable number of 
Germans, however, lived in the Austrian domains, and 
the Emperor of Austria considered that he had a historic 
and practical hegemony of the German people. The war 
between Prussia and Austria in 1866 ended that claim, 
and established the lead of Prussia ; and the Franco-Prus- 
sian war led to the proclamation of a new German Empire 
in 1871, with the King of Prussia as hereditary Emperor. 
Through all these changes, certain towns of the old Han- 
seatic League, like Hamburg and Bremen, retained their 
ancient status as free cities. The reason for recalling to 
mind this bit of history will appear as we proceed. 


European Missions 

Germany is a country so well known to all readers, that 
only two things seem to demand special mention, as the 
background of the Baptist movement, education and re- 
ligion. In no country in the world, save possibly in Den- 
mark, is there a more complete and thorough system of 
education, or so low a percentage of illiteracy. The poor- 
est .can read and write. More than 10,000,000 boys and 
girls are in the elementary schools, while in the secondary 
schools (gymnasia, recdschulen) there are over 600,000, 
and in the universities 83,272. Besides these are in- 
numerable schools of technology, agriculture, mining, 
forestry, economics, art, with fully 100,000 more stu- 
dents. Close on a million of the German youth are re- 
ceiving instruction beyond what we should call the grade 
schools. This means an average of intelligence probably 
unequaled in any of the great nations. 

Under the Republic there is complete liberty of con- 
science and the free practise of religion. The religious 
census of 1910 returned 40,000,000 Protestants and 
24,000,000 Roman Catholics, with 380,000 " other Chris- 
tians," and 600,000 Jews. Under the Empire each State 
made its own religious laws and had its own established 
Church. Most of the churches were popularly called 
Lutheran, but are really of the Evangelical Union formed 
by Frederick William III of Prussia, in 1817, and adopted 
in most other States. This was a union of Lutherans and 
Reformed, but a considerable number of both bodies re- 
fused to enter the new organization and became indepen- 
dent churches. Some States had in effect two established 
Churches. For example, in Prussia the ruling family 
and the majority of the people were Protestant, and the 
Evangelical Union was the official religion; but the 
salaries of Catholic priests were also paid by the State. In 
Saxony, the ruling house was Catholic, and that was the 
official religion; but the majority of the people were 

[ 375 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Protestants, and their churches and clergy were cared for 
by the State. Without some knowledge of these facts, 
many details of the Baptist movement in Germany are 
very puzzling to American readers. 

An Indigenous Movement 

It is really a serious misnomer to speak of Baptist mis- 
sions in Germany. There was an indigenous Baptist 
movement there, to which American and English Bap-- 
tists have given much sympathy and assistance, but it 
began without their effort and would have continued 
without their support. This movement was aided by some 
favoring circumstances, and also retarded by local condi- 
tions. Germany was and is a Protestant country, though 
containing a strong Roman Catholic minority. The en- 
tire population is trained in knowledge of the Scriptures 
and of Christian doctrine to a degree probably found no- 
where else in the world, unless in Scotland. To send mis- 
sionaries to such a country, while so large a part of the 
world is totally unevangelized, would be an absurdity of 
which no sane Christians could be guilty. 

But on the other hand, there has been a low state of 
religion in Germany ever since the Thirty Years' War. 
The followers of Luther inherited his intolerant spirit, 
and attempts at a revival of religion, like Spener and his 
Pietism, were stubbornly opposed by the " orthodox " 
Lutheran clergy and theologians. Deism, transplanted 
from England to France and thence to Germany, had 
made rationalism widely prevalent. There was great 
prejudice against anything like emotionalism in religion. 
The persecuting spirit was rife and the authority of the 
State was often invoked against " error," which means 
anything that the ruling power did not like. Such were 
some of the conditions under which the Baptist move- 
ment began. 


European Missions 

The Originator 

Johann Gerhardt Oncken was born in Varel, a town 
of the grand duchy of Oldenburg, January 26, 1800, and 
was confirmed in the Lutheran church in his fourteenth 
year. He received some religious training from his 
grandmother, but acquired little save the habit of church- 
going. A Scotch merchant was attracted to the youth 
and took him to Scotland in 1813, where he lived for a 
time in a Presbyterian atmosphere and read much in the 
Bible and other religious books. He was converted in 
a Methodist chapel and soon after his conversion become 
a colporter. In 1823 the Continental Society sent him as 
their representative to Germany, and he became a member 
of the English Reformed church of Hamburg. He was 
not only a colporter here but a street preacher, and in 
1828 started a bookstore and obtained registry as a cit- 
izen of Hamburg. In connection with his business he 
acted as agent for the Edinburgh Bible Society, and in 
1879 reported that he had distributed 2,000,000 copies of 
the Scriptures. 

As a student of the Bible, Oncken began to have doubts 
about the scripturalness of infant baptism. He corre- 
sponded with Haldane, then at the height of his career at 
Edinburgh, and was advised to baptize himself, after the 
example of John Smyth. This Oncken was loath to do; 
but somehow learned that there were Baptists in America, 
and that one of them was then pursuing studies at the 
University of Halle. This was Rev. Barnas Sears, then 
professor in the Hamilton Theological Seminary. Oncken 
sought out Professor Sears and on April 22, 1834, he was 
baptized in the river Elbe with six others, including his 
wife. At once he began to proclaim his new views and 
gradually gained converts, but the little church at Ham- 
burg had a hard time of it at first. Oncken was cast off 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

by his former associates; he was arrested, fined, im- 
prisoned, his household goods distrained. This was not 
so much the fault of the government as of the Lutheran 
clergy, who incited the sometimes reluctant police and 
courts to take action. Hamburg, it will be remembered, 
was a free city, made and enforced its own religious sys- 
tem; and no religious meetings were lawful outside of 
the Lutheran or Evangelical churches. The magistrates 
did not need much incitement to persecute the despised 
Baptists, who were too often confounded with some dis- 
orderly groups of Anabaptists of the Reformation period. 
On one occasion the burgomaster or mayor of Hamburg, 
before whom Oncken had been arraigned, is reported to 
have said, " Oncken, as long as I can lift my little finger, 
I will put you down from preaching." To which Oncken 
sturdily replied, " Mr. Burgomaster, as long as I can see 
God's mighty hand above your little finger, I will preach 
this gospel." The German people were to find that such 
men cannot be " put down." 

At one time Oncken was imprisoned for a month; at 
another time for a week; others shared his lot. When 
news of this reached the United States, petitions from 
our people were sent and presented through our Ambas- 
sador to Germany, and persecution was relaxed. The 
ABPS made Oncken its representative, and in this way 
American Baptists gave aid in the hour of need. 

The Tide Turns 

A great fire devastated Hamburg on May 5, 1842. 
Thousands were made homeless. The Baptist community 
found their opportunity; they sheltered, fed, and clothed 
so many people, that they gained the lasting good-will of 
the citizens. The Senate of Hamburg gave them a vote of 
thanks, and there was no longer any question of persecu- 
tion. A period of rapid growth followed ; in 1843 there 


European Missions 

were 273 baptisms; in 1844 there were 322, and 380 in 
1845. The first chapel was built in 1847. The following 
year a chapel was built in Berlin, and in that year 26 
churches were reported already organized, around each 
of which was a circle of stations where preaching ser- 
vices were regularly held; and there were over 1,500 
members. From these centers the work spread in every 
direction. The great feature of the Baptist movement in 
this early period was the activity of laymen as well as 
ministers " Every Baptist a missionary " was the slogan. 
The revolution of 1848 in Germany led to the adoption 
of new constitutions in most of the states, which assured 
individual liberty of confession and community liberty of 
worship. Aggressive missionary effort followed; many 
new fields were entered, new churches were organized 
everywhere; and financial aid from England and America 
was most welcome at this juncture. Political reaction in 
Germany led to new restrictions and various forms of 
persecution again. The Evangelical Alliance intervened, 
especially at its meeting in Berlin in 1857, and there was 
gradual improvement in the status of the Baptist churches, 
until, in 1875, the Reichstag of the new German Empire 
empowered Baptist churches to become corporations, with 
recognized rights and duties. Though there were after- 
ward sometimes annoying "police regulations " in some 
states of the Empire, no serious persecution was experi- 
enced. By July, 1851, 41 churches had been formed, 
with 3,746 members; and in 1849 a Union of churches in 
Germany and Denmark, that included four Associations. 
Since 1855 this has been known as the German Baptist 

Oncken's Helpers 

Oncken was a great evangelist and organizer. He 
made missionary tours in Holland, Switzerland, Russia, 

2B [ 379 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

the Balkans, Hungary, and wherever he went he left Bap- 
tist churches behind him. He made several trips to En- 
gland to gather funds, and visited the United States in 
1853, where he was received with much honor. He died 
at Zurich in 1884. In all these labors he had the ardent 
and invaluable assistance of two early converts. One 
of these was Julius Kobner, of Jewish origin, who form- 
ally embraced the Christian faith in 1826 and ten years 
later was baptized by Oncken. He was the most cultivated 
among the early Baptists, a poet and a theologian, whose 
extensive knowledge of the Scriptures was of great service 
to the movement. His spiritual songs were inspiring and 
of permanent value. The other aid was G. W. Leh- 
mann, who had been converted through contact with the 
Mennonites, afterward became acquainted with Oncken 
and was baptized in 1837, with his wife and four others, 
who formed the first Baptist church in Berlin, of which he 
was pastor for many years. He was a man of clear intel- 
ligence and power of organization. These three were so 
exceptionally prominent in the Baptist movement, they 
were so closely united in labors and so admirably supple- 
mented each other's gifts, that they received the name 
of the KleeUatt, or clover-leaf. 

A younger man was a colaborer of the immortal Three 
and well deserves a place of honor at their side. Philip 
W. Bickel was a native of the duchy of Baden and was 
educated in the classical institute there. He became in- 
volved in the unsuccessful revolution of 1848, and in 
consequence emigrated to the United States, like Carl 
Schurz and many others who became useful citizens here. 
He was at that time a printer and an infidel, but was con- 
verted and baptized. After service in the Union army 
during the Civil War, he took a course at the Rochester 
Theological Seminary, where he was graduated in 1855 
and became a missionary pastor in Cincinnati. In 1865 


European Missions 

the newly formed German Triennial Conference organ- 
ized a Publication Society, and appointed Oncken secre- 
tary and editor of its publications. In 1878 Bickel was 
appointed by the ABPS to superintend the publishing 
business begun many years before in Hamburg by Oncken, 
which the founder desired to turn over to the German 
Baptists, to be thenceforth carried on as a denominational 
enterprise. Here Doctor Bickel did a great work. Under 
his direction, the business became a distinguished financial 
success, as well as a great aid to all denominational under- 
takings, particularly the work of Sunday schools. In ad- 
dition to his other labors, Bickel became agent of the 
National Bible Society of Scotland, and had 59 colporters 
under his direction who succeeded in placing more than 
2.000,000 copies of the Bible in the hands of German 
people. The business was moved to Cassel, where a fine 
plant was built and paid for, and remains to this day one 
of the great assets of German Baptists. 

The Hamburg Seminary 

At first, the German Baptists were shy of ministerial 
education, in which they were not exceptional ; the early 
Baptist churches of England and America had the same 
sentiments. And in each case, the causes were alike : in 
all three countries, Baptists had had an unfortunate ex- 
perience with educated ministers of the State Churches, 
who were overeducated and underspiritualized. It was 
not to their discredit that they reacted somewhat violently 
from that kind of ministry. But the German leaders were 
educated men and appreciated the value, the necessity 
even, of right ministerial training. From 1859 onward 
they gave informal instruction to promising young men, 
until formal establishment of a theological school became 
possible. In 1880 such a school was opened at Hamburg, 
and later American Baptists assisted in the erection of a 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

fine building, which was dedicated and made ready for 
service in 1888. It was enlarged in 1914 and now ac- 
commodates 100 students. A four years' course of studies 
is provided, combining some of what we should call col- 
lege work with that proper to a theological school. Most 
of the younger Baptist ministers before the war were 
graduates of this institution, and it would have been 
difficult to select from the younger ministry of England 
or America a more efficient corps of preachers and pastors. 
But this only partially describes its usefulness, which is 
far from being limited to Germany. It has trained men 
from Switzerland, Holland, Poland, Rumania, Estonia, 
Latvia, Bulgaria, most of whom have returned to their 
native lands to do valiant service there. American con- 
tributions to the institution have been largely in money, 
but also in educated men. A conspicuous instance is that 
of Rev. J. G. Fetzer, a graduate of both the German and 
English departments of the Rochester Theological Semi- 
nary, who married a sister of the lamented Walter 
Rauschenbusch and served many years on the Hamburg 
faculty until his death in 1909. 

Since the War 

The rapid advance of German Baptists continued until 
about 1895, after which there was a gradual slowing 
down. The revival of the State Churches and the adop- 
tion of modern features on a large scale such as Sun- 
day schools and young people's societies, the holding of 
prayer-meetings held many to the Evangelical Lutheran 
churches who had formerly been attracted by these fea- 
tures to the Baptist churches. The Social Democratic 
movement, bitterly anti-christian in its propaganda, af- 
fected all religious work for the worse. Churches in Den- 
mark, Holland, and Switzerland, formerly connected with 
the German Union, formed associations and conventions 


European Missions 

of their own, and this withdrawal made an apparent 
diminution of Baptist strength in Germany. 

But it was the great war that effected the most seri- 
ous disintegration. Not only did all forms of religious 
work suffer necessary interruption during the conflict, 
but the loss in lives and economic resources that affected 
the whole nation was fully shared by the Baptist churches. 
Many pastors were among the dead and disabled: most 
others were compelled to seek secular employment, for the 
churches were no longer able to care for .them. The 
occupation of the Ruhr and the complete collapse of Ger- 
man finance in 1924 was the climax of their troubles. In- 
flation had destroyed capital, made former investments 
worthless, reduced the great middle class of Germany 
to distressful poverty, and swept away all endowments. 
To add to the discouraging conditions, there was in Ger- 
many just such an orgy of immorality and pleasure-seek- 
ing as we passed through in the post-war period. To be 
sure there was a brighter side; there was fuller religious 
liberty than had ever before been known; there was no 
State Church to be competed with on most unequal terms ; 
and there has been gradual recovery. Complete restora- 
tion of German Baptists to their former status seems to 
depend in large part on the restoration throughout the 
country of financial and social stability, which is now 
becoming hopeful. 

Before the war, 55 German churches out of 209 had 
" corporate rights," the rest not having yet availed them- 
selves of this privilege. Thirty churches owned their own 
property ; there were 260 deaconesses in service, the Pub- 
lishing House was flourishing, and the A F M Board was 
gradually decreasing appropriations. The Seminary was 
practically suspended during the conflict, the only students 
left being interned Swiss, Dutch, and Russians. The mis- 
sion of German Baptists among the Kameroons of West 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Africa was demoralized. These facts will show how 
much the German Baptists need our sympathy and aid in 
their efforts at recuperation. 

Country and People 

Holland, or as it prefers to call itself, the Kingdom of 
the Netherlands, has an area of 12,182 square miles and 
a population of 6,865,314. It will be seen that this is 
a very densely populated region, 554 to the square mile, as 
compared with 31 in the United States. With an equal 
density, we should have 1,900,000,000 people. Since the 
Reformation, the Netherlands has been a Protestant land, 
but the Catholic Church is still considerable it has 1,362 
parishes and 2,444,583 adherents. The Dutch Reformed 
Church has the same number of parishes and 2,826,633 
members. Of the rest of the population, 832,164 are set 
down as " other Protestants." 

It is a country of high intelligence, with an admirable 
system of public schools, supplemented by almost as many 
private, the latter subsidized by the State when found 
efficient. There are 160 middle schools maintained by the 
State, and four Universities, of which Leiden and Utrecht 
are oldest and best known. The state expends $40,000,000 
a year on education, and the towns and communes almost 
half as much more, to say nothing of the unknown but 
large sums cost by private schools of all grades. 

The social conditions of the Netherlands are advanced 
less extremes of wealth and poverty are found than in 
other European countries and a more general standard 
of comfort. Social problems have been attacked and are 
in process of solution. We find juvenile courts and dis- 
ciplinary institutions for young offenders functioning 
well. Mendicity and vagabondage are treated as public 


European Missions 

offenses and therefore are rare. Social insurance has 
been established on a moderate scale. 

Baptists in Holland 

Evidently, such a country is no " missionary field," in 
the ordinary sense, and no missions in the ordinary sense 
have been attempted there. A Baptist movement, how- 
ever, began about 1840, partly indigenous, partly encour- 
aged by propaganda from German Baptist sources. Rev. 
J. E. Feisser, of the Reformed Church, had a new experi- 
ence of grace, which made him very dissatisfied with the 
worldly condition of the State Church, and he tried to 
purify it. His study of the New Testament led him to 
doubt the scripturalness of infant baptism, and he began to 
oppose it. In 1843 ne was removed from office on the 
charge of " refusing- to fulfil a part of his duty and caus- 
ing offense and disorder." Kobner seems to have heard 
of his case, conferred with him, and ultimately baptized 
him and six others. On May 15, 1845, they formed a 
Baptist church, with Feisser as their pastor. Other 
churches were established at various points within a few 
years. Their pastors were supplied mainly from Ger- 
many, some from Spurgeon's Pastors' College. 

Some people in Franeker (N. W. Holland) read a 
Baptist tract and were convinced by its statement of prin- 
ciples. A preacher trained by Oncken was sent to them, 
and he organized a church of 40 members. Later four 
other churches were formed in adjoining towns. There 
are now 10 churches, with 450 members, and 750 children 
are in Sunday schools. 

A church was established in Amsterdam in 1845 by 
Feisser and Kobner. It has had many difficulties, is 
still a small body (not 100 members) and meets in a 
small hall in a back street, as if ashamed of itself. There 
is also a church in Groningen (a city of 100,000), formed 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

in 1880. In 1923 it had grown to 430 members and was 
the largest Baptist church in Holland. 

A Baptist Union was formed in 1881 that has done 
much to unify and promote the work. It publishes a 
weekly paper that is a great help. These churches have 
in late years become interested in foreign missions and 
are conducting a work on the Congo. Holland Baptists 
are growing in numbers and influence, but are much 
handicapped by inadequate buildings. Altogether there 
are 30 churches, with 2,693 members, and they have 
3,200 in the Sunday schools. 

Country and People 

In modern times Switzerland has become a federated 
republic of 25 cantons or states, in nineteen of which 
German is the prevailing language, while in five French 
is commonly spoken, and in one Italian is the vernacular. 
All three languages are spoken, more or less, in the larger 
part of the country. It is strongly Protestant, 2,218,589 
professing that faith out of a population of 3,880,320. 
Though one of the smallest countries in Europe (its area 
is but 15,976 square miles, about twice the size of New 
Jersey) and lacking in many physical resources, it is a 
very thrifty and prosperous people. Education is free 
and compulsory, and the percentage of illiteracy is small. 
Seven universities take care of the higher education of its 
youth, and one of these (Basel) is very ancient, having 
been founded in 1460. Large parts of the country are 
adapted to grazing, and the dairy products of Switzerland 
are famous the world over. In the last fifty years it has 
become a great manufacturing center, especially of textile 
goods, for which large factories have been erected in the 
principal cities. Perhaps no European country is better 


European Missions 

known to Americans than this, since it is the Mecca of all 
summer tourists. It has also become of late a favorite 
winter resort, especially for people having tubercular 

Baptists in Switzerland 

German Baptists would naturally begin missionary 
operations among people of their own race, speaking a 
form of their own language. Oncken went to Switzer- 
land in 1847, baptized a few at Hochwart and formed a 
church. Two years later a church was established at 
Zurich, and other small congregations were gathered in 
St. Gall and Thurgau. At first these churches were sup- 
plied with pastors from Germany. There had been theo- 
retical religious liberty in Switzerland since the Reforma- 
tion, but Baptists soon discovered that liberty was only 
nominal. The Swiss tried to enforce baptism of chil- 
dren of Baptist parents, and on refusal imposed fines and 
imprisonments. In 1865 the Federal Council tried to 
grant complete freedom of worship, but a referendum 
was demanded, and the people reversed their action. In 
1874, however, a new constitution was adopted with an 
article providing for full religious liberty. Since then 
the growth of Swiss Baptists has been normal, though it 
can hardly be called rapid, as they report but eight 
churches, with 1,105 members. This applies only to the 
German-speaking cantons. The work has extended in 
late years to the French cantons, where there are now 
four churches, with 390 members. The church in Zurich 
has a fine large brick house of worship on a prominent 
corner, and is well attended. 

The German Baptists in Switzerland must be distin- 
guished from the German Baptists of Switzerland. These 
latter have had a continuous history since the Reforma- 
tion, and are locally known, not as Baptists, but as Wieder- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

t'duffer, or Anabaptists. There are two sects of them, one 
practising immersion, the other sprinkling. Together 
they have been estimated at 35,000 members, but there 
are no trustworthy statistics. They are strongest in the 
canton of Berne, where they have had a continuous his- 
tory since the sixteenth century. 

The New Austria 

A greatly restricted and humbled Austria emerged from 
the great war. It has now an area of only 32,352 square 
miles, and a population of 6, 428, 336 in 1920. Primary 
education is compulsory, and universities at Vienna, Graz, 
and Innsbruck cap the system. It is largely an agricul- 
tural country and produces great cereal crops, as well as 
roots, but is weak in manufactures. Its present govern- 
ment is a republic, but its political future is doubtful. It 
is slowly recovering from the economic devastation of 
the war. 

Baptists in Austria 

Some Austrian people temporarily resident in Germany 
were among the converts made by Baptists there, and on 
returning to their own country became missionaries of 
the new faith. Oncken made a tour and baptized several 
in 1847. A Baptist group in Vienna experienced severe 
persecution. Nominally, Austria granted freedom of 
worship to all, but " police regulations " construed this 
to mean toleration of the national churches of other coun- 
tries. So, a Lutheran or Church of England man was 
free to worship in Austria, while an American Lutheran 
or Episcopalian was not. Of course, Baptists, having 
nowhere a national church, were excluded. As late as 
1909, to the author's personal knowledge, Baptists were 
compelled to meet secretly in some places, while in others 


European Missions 

nobody could attend their meetings but by a card of in- 
vitation, which must be shown on demand to the police. 
Complete religious liberty followed the collapse of the 
old regime, but there was persecution as late as 1917. 

The first chapel was dedicated by Baptists at Ternitz, 
about 50 miles from Vienna, in 1922. Baptists can now 
do open-air preaching and are having much success with 
this form of evangelism. Their poverty prevents them 
from building or acquiring buildings at present ; the whole 
country is practically bankrupt and there is universal suf- 
fering. As the country rallies from its economic depres- 
sion, Baptists will have good opportunities of success. 

Effect of Emigration 

The progress of the Baptist movement in all the Euro- 
pean countries has been much greater than is indicated 
by statistics. Actuated by poverty at home and attracted 
by hope of bettering themselves in America, as well as 
spurred by the persecutions to which they were subject in 
their native lands, many thousands of foreign Baptists 
have emigrated and gone to swell the numbers of Amer- 
ican Baptists. This has been most marked in the case 
of German and Swedish Baptists, but is more or less the 
case with the other countries that we have considered, aifd 
of most that we are yet to consider. We have perhaps 
looked at our relatively small investments of men and 
money in the European work as foreign missions ; it has 
really been largely home missions. 


What sort of government has Germany? What are 
its area and population? Can you give an outline of its 
recent history? Are these adequate schools? How many 
are receiving instruction? What did the last religious 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

census show ? What religious system formerly prevailed? 
Is religion free now ? Are there Baptist missions in Ger- 
many? What has been its religious condition? Who 
was the first German Baptist ? How did he become one ? 
Was he permitted to preach? Where did he begin his 
work? Which of our Societies helped him? What caused 
Baptists to be more favored ? Where was the second Bap- 
tist church formed? What gave Baptists a new oppor- 
tunity? Did this condition continue? What happened 
in 1875 ? Where did Oncken labor? Was he ever in this 
country? Who was Kobner, and what did he do? Who 
was Lehmann? What were these leaders called ? Who 
was Bickel? What was his work in Germany? How 
did many German Baptists feel about ministerial educa- 
tion? Were they singular? What institution was 
founded to train their ministers? Has it been success 1 - 
ful? Why did Baptist progress slow down? What was 
the effect of the European war on German Baptists? 
What can you tell about the general condition of the 
Netherlands? Has it good schools? Are the social con- 
ditions good? Who was the first Dutch Baptist? Did 
any other Baptists help? Where did the churches get 
their ministers? Where is the largest Baptist church? 
How many Baptists are there ? What is their chief need ? 
What sort of country is Switzerland ? Are its people well 
educated ? What is their religion? What are some of its 
products ? Why is it well known in America ? How was 
the first Baptist church formed ? Are there many others? 
Has there been persecution? Is there now freedom of 
worship? Are there any other Baptists in Switzerland? 
How many? What are they called? Do all of them 
immerse? What is the present condition of Austria? 
How did Baptists begin there ? Were they tolerated ? 
What is the case now ? Have they good prospects ? Why 
may we call our European work home missions? 


European Missions 


Brown, Cyril, Germany As It Is Today. New York, 

Boldt, R, From Luther to Steiner. London, 1923. 

Coar, J. T., The Old and the New Germany. New York, 

Cooke, J. H., John Gerhardt Oncken. London, 1906. 

Dawson, P., Germany's Industrial Revival. New York, 

Faith, Jan, Modern Holland. Rotterdam, 1922. 
Fullerton, G. S., Germany of Today. Indianapolis, 1915. 
Gibbon, H. A., Europe Since 1018. 
Gooch, G. P., Germany. New York, 1925. 
High, Stanley, The Revolt of Youth "The German 
Youth Movement" pp. 54-79. New York, 1923. 

McBain, Howard Lee, and Lindsay, Rogers, The New 
Constitutions of Europe, pp. 167-240. New York, 

Rushbrooke, J. H., The Baptist Movement in the Con- 
tinent of Europe. London, 1923, pp. 28-60. 




The Field 

Sweden was once a great empire; in the time of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus it included nearly all the countries about 
the Baltic. Since then it has shrunk to very moderate 
size area 173,075 square miles (little more than our 
Middle States) ; population, 5,954,489, about one-third 
that of the Middle States. Its largest city and capital, 
Stockholm, has 422,000 people ; Goteborg boasts 227,000 ; 
the rest are much smaller, but there are 21 towns that 
range from 10,000 to 58,000. Since the Reformation the 
Lutheran Church has been established as the religion of 
the state and people. There are two universities 
Upsala (1477) and Lund (1668). Primary education is 
both compulsory and free, and Sweden has enjoyed a 
fine school system for generations, so that there is very 
little illiteracy fewer than one per cent, of army recruits 
are found unable to read. 

It is an agricultural and mining country. Though only 
about 10 per cent, of its area is cultivated, less than 10 per 
cent, of the people are engaged in industries and commerce. 
Mining is very profitable; large quantities of iron and 
copper, considerable gold and silver and zinc are pro- 
duced; considerable coal is also mined. A large part of 
these mineral products is exported. Sweden is, however, 
a naturally poor country, and strenuous effort has been 
required to wrest a living from a frowning nature. Hence 

[ 392 ] 

European Missions 

Swedes are a fine race, physically and morally. Hence 
also as population has pressed hard on means of subsis- 
tence, great numbers of them have emigrated, especially 
to the United States, where they form some of the best 
elements in our newer population, notably in Minnesota 
and the Dakotas. 

The way was prepared for the Baptist movement in 
Sweden by Pietism, which influenced all Lutheran com- 
munities, and especially the Moravians, who may be re- 
garded as a part of the Pietist movement. A Methodist 
from England also labored there, from 1830 to 1842, 
when he was compelled to leave. There was much dis- 
satisfaction with the State Church among the more spiri- 
tually-minded. In the provinces of Helsingland and Dale- 
carlia, little groups met privately in devotional meetings 
and celebrated the Lord's Supper among themselves, to 
the great scandal of the Lutheran clergy. A royal edict 
of 1726 forbade such conventicles on penalty of fine, im- 
prisonment, or banishment. Between 1852 and 1854 
more than 600 persons were prosecuted for such offenses. 
The Baptist movement evidently coincided with a general 
religious ferment in Sweden. 

Baptists in Sweden 

There would be no justification for sending American 
missionaries to such a country, and accordingly Baptists 
have never sent any. To encourage a Baptist movement 
of wholly native origin, however, is " something else 
again," and Baptists have done that. This movement had 
an origin much like the one in Germany, and like that the 
story is almost romantic. A Swedish sailor, Captain 
Gustaf W. Shroeder, was converted and baptized in the 
Mariner's Mission in New York, November 3, 1844. He 
met another sailor, F. O. Nilsson, with whom he talked 
about baptism, and Nilsson also was converted. He be- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

came a colporter in Sweden and was baptized by Oncken 
in 1847. Others followed and the first Baptist church was 
organized. Nilsson was ordained at Hamburg and be- 
came pastor of this church. Bitter persecutions followed, 
and Nilsson was finally banished, and the church was so 
harried that it emigrated in a body and settled in Minne- 
sota. Later (1870) another colony was sent out by 
Shroeder and settled in Maine. Andreas Wiberg, a grad- 
uate of the University of Upsala and for a time a 
Lutheran minister, became Nilsson's successor, was bap- 
tized by Oncken in 1852, and was for a time a colporter 
of the ABPS (1855). A book on baptism had been 
widely circulated in Sweden in the meantime, and he 
found about 500 people who held Baptist views. The 
publication of a weekly paper called The Evangelist 
(1856) proved a great help. By the aid of English Bap- 
tists a chapel was built at Stockholm, costing $3,500, large 
enough to hold a congregation of 1,200, and it was soon 

In the meantime a house was built at Goteborg by 
Captain Shroeder, mainly from his own means ; Nilsson 
had been " pardoned " for his heinous offense of preach- 
ing the gospel and permitted to return; he now became 
pastor of this church. Bishop Bjorck complained to the 
authorities about this unauthorized conventicle, and 
Schroeder and Nilsson were fined $50. This persecution 
reacted on the Lutherans; the sympathy of people gener- 
ally was with the Baptists, and gradually persecution died 
out, though the laws still forbade such meetings. The 
constitution of Sweden (1809) guaranteed freedom of 
conscience and exercise of religion, provided the public 
peace was not disturbed. The King. (Oscar I) urged that 
laws should be conformed to the constitution, but this was 
only partially done, though the persecuting statutes 
speedily became a dead letter. Laws in favor of dissen- 


European Missions 

ters were at length passed in 1860 and 1873, but offered 
Baptists slight advantages. Many of them have not 
formally severed their connection with the national 
Churchy and still have a nominal legal membership in it, 
while they have organized their own churches an anom- 
alous state of things that probably cannot be paralleled 
in any other country. 

The Bethel Seminary 

The most important thing in the progress of Swedish 
Baptists was the establishment of their theological school. 
Two Swedes by birth, Knut O. Broady and John A. 
Edgren, who had served with credit in our Civil War, 
became students at the Hamilton Theological Seminary, 
and after graduation went back to their native land. 
They opened the Bethel Seminary in Stockholm in Octo- 
ber, 1866, with seven students, and it has continued to 
flourish from that day to this. Most of the Swedish 
Baptist ministers of the present generation are graduates 
of this school. In 1883 a fine building was dedicated; 
toward its erection considerable help was given by Amer- 
ican Baptists. Doctor Broady continued to be president 
of the seminary and an efficient teacher as well for forty 
years, until his death in 1922 at the age of 90. 

In 1867 there were general revivals, and large numbers 
were converted. The year 1884 was another time of in- 
gathering. In July, 1923, the Swedish Baptists celebrated 
their 7$th anniversary, and there were then 680 churches, 
and 1,118 preachers; and though more than 30,000 had 
emigrated to the United States there were 60,000 of them 
left to rejoice over what God had wrought. The last 
World Alliance of Baptists was held in 1923 in Stock- 
holm and was a memorable occasion. There was a regis- 
tration of 2,326 delegates and visitors, of whom over 
500 were from the United States. Such:a gathering both 

2C [ 395 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

expressed and intensified the unity of Baptists through- 
out the world, as they realized the greatness of the 
brotherhood that was theirs, and gave new emphasis to 
their predominant interest in proclaiming the gospel to all 
men. It was a demonstration to impress the whole of 
Sweden and to give the Baptist churches there a new 
standing among their own people. 

The Swedish Baptists have been a missionary people 
from the beginning. Through the influence of Wiberg 
they formed the Swedish Missionary Society, and at their 
Jubilee they had 165 missionaries under appointment. 
Next to the Moravians, they probably have the largest 
number in proportion to membership engaged in mission 
work of any Christian body. An independent organiza- 
tion, known as the Orebro Mission Society, was formed in 
1892, and in 1908 founded a school that has trained 
some 299 men for missionary and pastoral service. The 
Society now maintains 60 workers. A Swedish Baptist 
Union and a Baptist Women's League, are additional 
bonds of union among them. Perhaps the decade from 
1876 to 1886 was the period of largest growth, following 
the repeal of the Conventicle Act in 1873. The more 
liberal policy of the state toward Dissenters now permits 
Baptist students to study in the state normal schools and 
to be appointed teachers in state schools. 

It should be added that the B M S has carried on work 
in Sweden since about 1834. This has extended to Nor- 
way also, and in the two countries they have eight prin- 
cipal stations, with 13 substations. 

Country and People 

Norway's area is 124,964 square miles, about the same 
as New England, and its population is 2,649,775. Once 


European Missions 

it was part of the Swedish empire, then became a twin 
kingdom, with a single king. Since 1905 it has been an 
entirely separate kingdom with its own ruler, Haakon 
VII. The country is largely mountainous, with agricul- 
ture practicable only in the valleys. Of the entire area 
74 per cent, is unproductive. Oats, barley, rye, and pota- 
toes are the chief crops. Forestry and fisheries are among 
the chief sources of wealth; mines and minerals come 
next. Norway lacks coal but has immense undeveloped 
water-power. It exports paper-pulp, chemicals, oils, and 

Baptists in Norway ^ 

Missionaries from Sweden began work in 1857, and a 
church was organized the following year. Rev. F. K. 
Rymder, a converted Danish sailor, baptized in the United 
States, began a Baptist church in 1860 at Porsgrund, 
with seven members. Before this a Lutheran pastor had 
started an " Apostolic Free Church " that adopted bap- 
tism of believers, but it never took the Baptist name and 
was later dissolved. Nilsson preached more or less widely 
in Norway; churches sprang up in various places. An 
Association was formed in 1872, and a Conference or 
Union in 1877. English as well as American Baptists 
gave help. A college was established at Cristiana, 1910. 
Now there are three Associations and about 4,000 mem- 

The reason for this smaller growth is not coldness of 
Norwegians to Baptist ideas, but the. great emigration of 
converts to the United States. From 1872 to 1878 the 
net gain was only 70 members, though several hundred 
had been converted and baptized. There was persecution 
at first, as in Sweden, but less bitter; and now Baptists 
enjoy entire liberty. Their future prospects are very 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

A Progressive People 

Denmark is about equal in area to Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, having 16,604 square miles, and a population 
of 3,267,831, according to the census of 1921. As Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut have 5,000,000, it is not a very 
densely populated land, about 195 to the square mile. 
The Danes are of old Scandinavian stock; those who in- 
vaded England were dark-haired, but the modern typical 
Dane is blue-eyed, blond-haired, and of fair complexion. 
They are the most intelligent peasantry in Europe, and 
the percentage of illiteracy is very small. The educational 
system is the best in the world; primary education has 
been free and compulsory since 1814, but the distinguish- 
ing feature of Danish education is the provision for sec- 
ondary instruction. Nowhere else is there so great a 
variety of these Folk Schools, as these institutions are 
called, with industrial and agricultural schools predom- 
inating, and in no other country do so large a propor- 
tion of youth complete the elementary grades and go 
on to the advanced schools. One secret of proficiency 
may be that Danish schools are in session 246 days of 
the year, as compared lo the average of 168 days in the 
United States. Agriculture is made a science in Den- 
mark, and small-scale, intensive farming is its great fea- 
ture. The country is low and flat, like Holland ; the soil 
was originally not very fertile, and while there is much 
rain there are few rivers. As there are not many large 
towns, Denmark may be called a rural state. 

The people have gone further than any other nation 
in solving difficult modern social problems; and while 
Denmark is in form of government a kingdom, it is more 
truly democratic than any country of Europe, with the 
doubtful exception of Switzerland. Dairying is one of 


European Missions 

the largest and most profitable industries, and the great 
cooperative enterprises of modern Denmark began with 
this industry. It was so successful that the cooperative 
principle was extended to other agencies, and a unique 
civilization is far along in the process of development. 
Denmark is socialistic without formal socialism. Wealth 
is cooperatively produced and shared, and in consequence 
has become more widely distributed, with corresponding 
reduction of poverty. Taxes are based on wealth and 
opportunity rather than on thrift and consumption, and 
large fortunes do not exist, but there is wide-spread com- 
fort. All this has come about subsequent to the beginning 
of Baptists in Denmark, but it should be in many ways 
favorable to their advance. 

Baptists in Denmark 

From 1800 on there was a marked reaction among the 
Danes against Lutheran formalism, especially strong in 
the province of Jutland. Kobner made evangelistic tours 
in 1839, and he and Oncken baptized eleven converts to 
form the first Baptist church in the country. Persecution 
began at once, yet in spite of it the movement grew. In 
1840 Kobner and Oncken baptized ten others. In 1849 
a liberal constitution was adopted that gave religious 
liberty. There were at this time six churches with about 
400 members. The chief handicap from this time on- 
ward was the lack of trained ministers. Kobner himself 
undertook the pastorate of the church at Copenhagen, 
the capital city, which by 1883 had grown to 400 mem- 
bers. A house of worship was dedicated there in 1867. 
Annual Conferences of the Danish churches began as early 
as 1865 and grew into the Danish Baptist Union. The 
Swedish department of the Theological Seminary then 
located at Morgan Park, 111., supplied some of the pastors 
of these churches, and the A B M U gave some financial 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

aid. The Danish Baptists reported 5,438 members in 
1924, and are practically self-supporting. 

Several important enterprises have been undertaken 
in recent years. One of these was the establishment of a 
People's College in 1899, to which a theological depart- 
ment was added in 1918, so that a trained ministry is now 
provided. An efficient work among the young people has 
developed since the beginning of this century, and the 
issue of a Baptist Weekly since 1901 has done much to 
promote unity and efficiency. A foreign missionary work 
has also been undertaken, and the Danish Baptists now 
have three missionaries in Congoland, and at latest ac- 
counts were sending a fourth. 

The Background 

Finland is not, properly speaking, a Scandinavian 
country, though many Swedish people live in it, and its 
closest affiliations have been with Sweden. In the Refor- 
mation period Finland belonged to Sweden, and was a 
part of that ambitious project of Gustavus Adolphus to 
found a vast Swedish empire that should make the Baltic 
a great Swedish lake. Later Russia conquered Finland 
and made it a part of its vast empire, politically known as 
a grand duchy, with a constitution of its own. For sev- 
eral generations, Finland might have been described as 
" Russia's Ireland," and the fact that its frontier was only 
about thirty miles from Petersburg made the political 
problem much more acute than in the case of Ireland. It 
achieved its independence as a result of the late war, 
and adopted a republican constitution in 1919. 

Finland has an area of 132,510 miles and a population 
of 3,366,507 ( 1921 ). Its people speak a language of the 
same family as Magyar and Turkish, neither Slav nor 


European Missions 

any other Indo-European tongue, but Mongolian. The 
" Kalevala," from which Longfellow borrowed much of 
the material for his " Hiawatha," has been translated 
into English; and this epic, or rather collection of folk- 
songs, has done much to make the spirit of the Finns in- 
telligible to us. 

Finland is a country of lakes, beyond all others in 
Europe more than 10 per cent, of its surface is covered 
by water. It has great forests of pine, and the lumber 
industry is one of great importance. Only 10 per cent, 
of the total area is cultivated, yet hitherto it could only be 
described as an agricultural country. Still its chief prod- 
ucts are cereals, especially barley and oats, and potatoes. 
In late years manufactures have been increasing; and 
factories for the production of articles in iron and leather, 
as well as textiles, are springing up. The paper industry 
is also very important, the vast forests furnishing pulp 
in abundance. The climate is comparatively warm for 
the high latitude, and agriculture may be expected to 
increase, as well as manufactures. Like Denmark, this is 
becoming a great cooperative country, especially in its 
large dairy industry. 

Travelers invariably note a great difference between 
Finland and Russia ; the change is noticeable the moment 
they pass the frontier. On the Russian side you drink 
weak tea out of glasses; on the Finnish side you drink 
coffee out of cups. The difference is symptomatic of 
many things. On the Russian side is dirt and neglect; 
on the Finnish side a shining cleanliness and cheerful 
courtesy. Out of a hard, bare land, where only a thrifty, 
industrious people could make even a scant living, the 
Finns have built up a civilization comparing favorably 
with the best in Europe. Helsingfors, the capital, is de- 
scribed by all travelers as a beautiful city, a model of 
cleanliness and good building. It has no slums. Busi- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ness that takes hours for transaction in Russia is done 
here in a few minutes. Finland was the first country in 
Europe to give the suffrage to women, making 24 the vot- 
ing age. The country has an excellent educational sys- 
tem, capped by a university at Helsingfors since 1827. 

Baptists in Finland 

Finland is a Lutheran country, but complete toleration 
prevails there. As already mentioned, many Swedes are 
found, and the work of Baptists began among them, 
through tours of preachers from Sweden. No church 
was formed until 1869, and the first members of this first 
church were all Swedes. A sailor named Hericksson, who 
had been baptized in the United States, began to preach 
to Finns in 1866. E. Lundberg, whom he baptized, be- 
came his successor. A Finnish Baptist Conference was 
formed in 1905 and by 1918 Finnish churches had in- 
creased to 25. The war broke them up ; seven churches 
disappeared and several hundred members vanished ; there 
were, however, no persecutions. Before 1921 the ABF 
M S had made appropriations for this work ; now English 
Baptists have become responsible for its aid. The Bap- 
tists of Helsingfors have a fine church edifice in a promi- 
nent location, and there are excellent prospects of growth 
now opening. 


How large is modern Sweden? Was it ever a larger 
country ? What is its religion ? Has it good schools ? Is 
there much illiteracy? What is the chief source of 
wealth? Why have Swedes emigrated ? Was there any 
preparation for the Baptist movement? What is the dif- 
ference between a Baptist mission and a Baptist move- 
ment? Who began the Baptist movement in Sweden? 


European Missions 

Can you name two other early leaders ? What part did 
they take in the movement? Where were the first church 
buildings erected and by whom? Were Baptists perse- 
cuted? Have they liberty now? Who founded their 
Seminary? Where? How many Baptists in Sweden 
now ? What was the effect of the Baptist World Alliance ? 
Are Swedish Baptists missionary? What sort of coun- 
try is Norway ? How did Baptists begin there ? Why 
has growth been slow ? What is the population of Den- 
mark? What sort of people are the Danes? Well edu- 
cated ? What are the country's resources ? Is it a demo- 
cratic country? What are its striking features? How 
did Baptist begin there ? Are they well organized ? How 
many are there? What are they doing for education? 
For missions? Why do we class Finland with Scandi- 
navian nations ? What is the government ? . What races 
are its people most like? What are its resources ? How 
does it differ from Russia ? What is the capital ? Has it 
good schools? Who were the first Baptists? Are there 
Finnish Baptists now? What are the prospects for the 


Lundberg, H., The Swedish People in Word and Picture. 
New York, 1921. 

McBride, R. M., Sweden and Its People. New York, 

Norwegian Towns and People. New York, 1923. 
Schroeder, G. W., History of the Swedish Baptists. New 
York, il 

Howe, F. C, Denmark: A Cooperative Commonwealth. 

New York, 1921. 
Stefansson, Jon, Denmark and Sweden, with Iceland and 

Finland. New York, 1917. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Westergaard, Economic Development in Denmark. Ox- 
ford, 1922. 

Butler, Ralph, The New Eastern Europe. New York, 

McBride, R. M., Finland and Its People. New York, 

Reade, Arthur, Finland and the Finns. New York, 1915. 

Ruhl, A. B., New Masters of the Baltic. New York, 

Rushbrooke, J. H., The Baptist Movement in the Conti- 
nent of Europe. London, 1923. 




The Old Russia and the New 

In no European country did the great war work so 
complete a transformation as in Russia. Before the war, 
a despotic Tsar, a profligate aristocracy and a corrupt 
bureaucracy ruled Russia. In the midst of the conflict, 
the old order disintegrated ; the Tsar lost his crown and 
life, together with all his family. An attempt to establish 
a constitutional republic failed and a " despotism of the 
proletariat " took its place. The workers are the rulers, 
organized by groups, each with its " soviet " or council. 
These local Soviets elect representatives to larger district 
Soviets; and these again elect representatives to form a 
central Soviet, which is the real ruling power of the new 
Russia, exercising all functions of government legisla- 
tive, executive, and judicial. The entire system is de- 
scribed as socialistic or communistic, and constitutes the 
greatest experiment yet attempted in national cooperation 
in production and distribution of wealth. The attempt 
has deliberately been made to abolish, not only aristocracy, 
but also a middle class, and to reduce the entire popula- 
tion of Russia to a single class of workers, partly on the 
soil, partly in industrial enterprises. Merchants and 
bankers are special objects of hostility; the professions 
are strictly limited in numbers and functions. 

So much in general terms. Politically the old Russia 
has been split into four Soviet Republics, known as 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Russia, Ukraine, White Russia, and the Transcaucasian 
Federation. A Treaty of Union between these was made 
in Moscow in December, 1922. Finland, Poland, Estonia, 
Latvia, and Lithuania have been recognized as separate 
states. Freedom of conscience was guaranteed by the 
Constitution of 1918 (revised in 1919 and 1922). An 
all-Russian Congress of Soviets elects the Central Execu- 
tive Committee, commonly called the Soviet. The total 
area of the Soviet Union is now 8,166,130 square miles, 
and the population is 131,546,045. Siberia is separately 
organized, and lias 12 provinces, with an area of 4,863,160 
square miles and a population of 11,069,550. 

The Soviet and Religion 

Before the war Russia was dominated by the Greek 
Catholic Church, at the head of which was a Holy Synod. 
The members of this body were appointed by the Tsar, 
who was its real head. He was as much a Pope in fact, 
though not in name, as any Bishop of Rome: the last 
word was his, if he cared to speak it, on any question of 
organization, administration, or doctrine. The revolution 
swept all this out of existence. Though the Soviet Gov- 
ernment theoretically granted religious liberty, many of 
its members were fanatically anti-Christian, avowed athe- 
ists or agnostics, and the former national Church for a 
time experienced severe persecution. There was some 
plausible ground for its treatment, in the charge that its 
prelates did not accept the revolution and were secretly 
conspiring for the restoration of the old order. During 
the last two years there has been some modification of 
this attitude of the Soviet. The Church has been per- 
mitted to reorganize the Holy Synod and to resume many 
of its activities. Archbishop Tihon was arrested and 
charged with treasonable opposition to the Soviet Gov- 
ernment, found guilty, and was in danger of death, but 


European Missions 

was finally sentenced to imprisonment instead, and after 
a time released on promise not to oppose the civil power. 
There was a schism in the Church in consequence of its 
first attitude of opposition, those who adhered to the 
Soviet calling themselves the " Living Church." After 
his release, Archbishop Tihon endeavored to heal this 
breach and restore the unity of the Church, but up to this 
time his plan has not been successful. The Soviet Gov- 
ernment seems, as it feels itself more secure, to be pursu- 
ing a more liberal policy toward all religious bodies, and 
there are now prospects of complete religious liberty. 

No special privileges can be expected under the present 
regime. Ministers of all faiths are heavily taxed, like all 
members of " professions." This is part of the Soviet 
policy to discourage professions and reduce their numbers 
to the lowest possible limits. Able-bodied young men are 
required to do military service, against which many have 
conscientious objections. On this ground and other 
charges, some Baptist ministers were arrested in 1924, but 
released after a brief detention. It seems evident from all 
information that can be gathered that Russian Baptists 
have suffered much for lack of an educated ministry, that 
they have adopted a too literal interpretation of the Scrip- 
tures in many cases, and are in danger of becoming fana- 
tical. It must also be kept in mind that there has been a 
vast amount of hostile propaganda against the Soviet 
Government, and that many things have been attributed to 
it of which it was guiltless, like the socialization of 
women. It is the only government in the world set up by 
workers in the interest of workers, and is engaged in an 
experiment to 

suppress all exploitation of man by man, to abolish all parasitic ele- 
ments in society, to abolish secret treaties, to make a complete educa- 
tion free to all, and to establish the ultimate equality of all citizens, 
regardless of race and nationality. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

These are certainly high ideals, and American Christians, 
Baptists especially, ought to observe sympathetically the 
attempt to reduce them to practise. 

Baptists in Russia 

A Baptist movement began and made as much progress 
as could be expected, under the old regime. German Bap- 
tists entered Russia from 1840 onward, at first confining 
their efforts to German-speaking people, of whom there 
were many in that country. The first baptisms were in 
South Russia, in 1858. Churches began to be organized 
and progress was made with considerable rapidity, con- 
sidering the obstacles in their way. Churches were often 
so persecuted as to be virtually broken up; pastors were 
exiled to Siberia in many cases. However, six Associa- 
tions had been formed before the war, and a general 
Union of Baptists in Russia, which was estimated to have 
over 100,000 church-members connected with it. The 
war was a great disintegrator, but the organizations were 
kept intact, and there have since been welcome signs of 

Another like movement was of indigenous origin, that 
of the Stundists. They are often called " German Bap- 
tists," and as they practise immersion the likeness is ap- 
parent ; but in their general principles they are more akin 
to the Friends. An almost illiterate Russian named Ra- 
boschapka was converted about 1848, and began to preach 
the gospel as he understood it and distribute copies of the 
Scriptures. He and his followers experienced bitter per- 
secution on the part of Church and State, but continued 
to increase marvelously. 

Vital religion in Russia depends for its progress largely 
on the reception of the message of Baptists. Wild rumors 
have been circulated since the war of the great progress 
they are making, especially in the northern region, in and 


European Missions 

about Petersburg or Leningrad, as it is now called. An 
Evangelical Union that existed before the war and was 
practically Baptist in doctrine and practise, is reported to 
have united with the All-Russian Baptist Union, and a 
Soviet official is said to have estimated the number of 
those connected with this body at 3,000,000. Trust- 
worthy facts about the Baptist situation in Russia are 
hard to obtain many are opposed to all enumeration, on 
account of David's sin in numbering the people but even 
with large discount of these figures it seems evident that 
encouraging progress is making. The Soviet has softened 
in its opposition to all religious bodies, and in 1925 
granted a charter to a Baptist theological school in Len- 
ingrad and in 1926 chartered another in Moscow. With 
these two schools to train a native ministry, the solid 
progress of Baptists in Russia will be assured. As yet, the 
Soviet prohibits all organized religious teaching of chil- 
dren, who must receive all their education in the secular- 
ized public schools, so that Sunday schools cannot be law- 
fully maintained by Russian Baptists. This is a serious 
obstacle to their progress. It has also been recently re- 
ported, that the Soviet has voted to permit the printing of 
the Bible at the Government presses in Moscow, and the 
American Bible Society will pay the cost of making new 
plates for this edition, so that copies may be put on sale at 
low price. A normal state of religion seems certain to 
come about gradually in this country, so disturbed by war 
and revolution. 

Future Prospects 

Some favoring conditions for Baptist progress are dis- 
coverable. The first is a greater tendency to unity 
among those who are substantially agreed. As already 
mentioned, the "Evangelical Christians," estimated to 
number at least 400,000, with between 3,000 and 4,000 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

churches, have united with the Russian Baptists, : just 
about doubling their numbers. Other religious bodies 
have lately shown unexpected good- will. Some, Baptist 
churches, with no places of worship of their own, have 
been invited by Orthodox and Lutherans to use their 
church buildings for worship. In part this new attitude 
has been caused by poverty rather than; increased toler- 
ance, the former congregations being no longer able to 
keep up their churches by themselves. The Government 
is said to have given to Baptists the use of certain churches 
otherwise unused. On the other hand, all church property 
is heavily taxed by the Soviet and other expenses are im- 
posed, with the probable intention to make religious meet- 
ings difficult or impossible. 

Much was done to soften the Soviet opposition to re- 
ligion in general, and to predispose them to Baptists in 
particular, by the relief-work in Russia and the adjoining 
regions after the war. Dr. J. H. Rushbrooke, an English 
Baptist, was appointed general commissioner for Europe. 
An arduous task was being accomplished passing well, at 
no little personal sacrifice and often risk. It was the 
greatest united effort that Baptists ever undertook, con- 
tributions being sent by Baptist churches and individuals 
from all over the world. In the relief-work, politics, race, 
and creed were utterly disregarded, nothing was consid- 
ered but need though of course relief of our fellow 
Baptists was properly regarded as the first obligation. 
Nearly a million dollars, in money and goods, was con- 
tributed and expended. There was just then a terrible 
famine in the Volga Valley, where 4,000,000 people died 
of starvation and induced diseases. The principal relief - 
work here was done by our Government and people, under 
direction of Herbert Hoover, but Baptists under Rush- 
brooke cooperated heartily and effectively. Thousands of 
Russians are alive today who would have been dead but 


European Missions 

for our ministrations. Two " ships of fellowship " were 
sent from this country, bearing large stocks of food and 
clothing. In addition to relief of the actually starving, a 
feature of this work was aid extended to students, many 
of whom must otherwise have left schools and univer- 
sities. And in some regions, notably Poland, loans were 
made to farmers, by which they were enabled to replenish, 
rebuild, and retill. As far as possible all this relief -work 
was done in cooperation with local organizations, wher- 
ever such existed and were functioning. 


Recognized as an independent nation in 1921, with 
a republican constitution, Estonia has an area of 16,955 
square miles and a population of 1,109,479 (1921). It 
has no state religion, but five-sixths of the people are 
Lutherans. Education is free and compulsory, and the 
university of Dorpat has long had a European fame. It 
is a moderately fertile agricultural country, about the size 
of Massachusetts, and is sometimes called the " Potato 
Republic," from the large crops of that edible grown. 
Potatoes are not an exclusive crop, however ; considerable 
quantities of cereals are produced, and unfortunately 
much alcohol distilled from the surplus crops. 

The Estonians are said to be a people of rather heavy 
Mongolian features and are in origin akin to Finns and 
Magyars. Their social condition before the war was 
bad ; the land was in the possession of nobles and wealthy 
owners ; the people were largely peasants, hardly above 
the status , of serfs. Even the capital, Reval, is a city of 
crooked, rough cobblestone streets, and the houses are 
massive rather than beautiful. In such a people culture 
was confined to the few among them and reached no great 
height; little was achieved in either literature or art. 
Since the war a reconstruction of the social order has been 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

going rapidly on. The " robber barons " were dispos- 
sessed by law in 1919, the great estates have been broken 
up, universal suffrage on equal terms for men and women 
has been adopted, the forests have been taken over by the 
state, and other sweeping changes are bringing about new 

Though Estonia is far enough north to make the win- 
ter climate severe, travelers say that the spring is magical 
and the summers incredibly soft, bright, and beautiful. 
" Women go at one jump from furs and goloshes to airy 
summer dresses." 

A native evangelical movement began about 1877; the 
new groups rejected infant baptism and formed new 
churches by sprinkling. Then they learned about immer- 
sion and applied to the German Baptists, who immersed 
nine (1884) and on the following day 15 more. A riot 
followed. The war brought more persecution at first, 
but the Russian revolution secured to the country inde- 
pendence and to the Baptists religious liberty. Those 
who had been banished returned from Siberia; a thou- 
sand converts were won in 1922. Financial help has 
been given by English and American Baptists. The theo- 
logical seminary opened at Kegel in 1922, of which Rev. 
Adam Podin is president, had 17 students in 1924. Where 
the graduates of this school are taking hold of the work 
especially gratifying progress is making. 

The Estonian Baptists have more than doubled in 
numbers since 1910 and now have 38 churches, 5,385 
members, 50 Sunday schools, and an enrolment of 2,770 
children. They have already sent out two foreign mis- 


This new republic is situated around the gulf of Riga, 
has an area of about 25,000 square miles and a population 


European Missions 

of 1,850,622 (1922), of whom 58 per cent, are Protes- 
tant and 23 per cent. Roman Catholic. There is no State 
Church, and education is progressing. The Letts have 
long been a subject race Swedes, Poles, and Russians 
have alternately dominated them. They are non-Slav, 
but Indo-Europeans, in that respect differing from their 
neighbors, the Estonians. They are a more vivacious, 
idealistic people than the latter. Riga, the capital city, is 
a big cosmopolitan town, of more than 500,000 people, 
and before the war was Russia's principal seaport. Dur- 
ing the war all trade stopped, and the population shrank 
to 210,000, but the city is fast recovering its former pros- 
perity. Latvia has a land problem and a land policy 
similar to that of Estonia. In both countries, while 
there has been nominal " compensation " of dispossessed 
landowners, the change has in many cases amounted to 
practical confiscation. 

Baptists began in Latvia with the baptism of Jacob- 
sohn in 1855. Oncken and other German preachers evan- 
gelized the country; converts then made were mostly 
Germans. In 1 86 1, 72 were baptized at one time, and this 
gave a new impulse to the movement. A petition .to the 
Tsar in 1862 obtained relaxation of persecutions, and in 
1879 Baptists were recognized as "religious commu- 
nities." The war interrupted the work; pastors were 
driven out or exiled to Siberia. Progress revived after 
the armistice and American relief -work helped much. In 
1921 there were 1,307 baptisms, and the total membership 
rose to 9,000. They have a Baptist Union, which they 
hope soon to incorporate under the laws of the Republic ; 
and a theological seminary with a graduating class of 15 
in 1925. Full religious freedom is enjoyed by Baptists in 
Latvia now, and with a trained ministry the churches 
ought to make substantial gain. Their growth has been 
retarded by heavy emigration, and their net gain in 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

the past four years has been less than might have been 


Formerly a grand duchy of Russia, Lithuania became 
an independent republic in 1922. Freedom of conscience 
is guaranteed by the constitution. It has an area of 
59,633 square miles and a population of 2,293,100 (1922). 
Three-fourths of its people are Roman Catholics. Lithu- 
ania is a socially undeveloped, agricultural country, with 
a small coast-line, crowded in between Russia and Ger- 
many. It was an ancient part of Poland and fell to Russia 
at the partition of that kingdom in the eighteenth century. 
It was more completely Russified than Poland ever was. 
It has land and other social problems similar to those of 
the neighboring states, and has made less advance toward 
their settlement. 

During the Reformation period practically all the 
Lithuanian people became Protestants and to that move- 
ment they owe their culture, such as they have. By aid 
of the Jesuits, the Roman Church recovered its ascen- 
dency. At one time Russia forbade all printing and de- 
prived the people of all literature for forty years. The 
present status of the people, intellectually and spiritually, 
may be accurately inferred from these facts. 

The German and Lettish churches, in the few years 
they have been able to work in this land, have made 
little apparent impression on the mass of ignorance and 
superstition. In 1922 Rev. T. Gerikas began to work 
among them. Homes have been opened for meetings, 
circles have been formed for Bible study, and Bibles, Tes- 
taments, and other Christian literature have been freely 
distributed. The Government does not interfere and the 
press is favorably disposed. An Association including all 
the churches has been formed, though some are still af- 


European Missions 

filiated with the Latvian Baptist Union and others with 
the German Baptist Unions. The gospel is making prog- 
ress, though the number of baptisms is yet small. Nine 
churches are reported, with just over 1,000 members. 



Those of us who, as schoolboys, declaimed " And Free- 
dom shrieked when Kosiusko fell," have naturally been 
much interested in the recreation of Poland as a nation, 
though the ancient kingdom has been replaced by a 
modern republic. Poland fell a victim to its greedy 
neighbors largely because of its own internal dissensions 
and incapacity for self-government and self-protection. 
It is not displaying any marked improvement; other na- 
tions cannot be expected to guarantee its independence 
indefinitely, and its future appears decidedly dubious. 

A recent attempt has been made under the leadership of 
General Pilsudski to control the civil power by the mili- 
tary. The president and cabinet in office were removed 
by him, but he refused to accept the presidency and had 
another elected. The military power, however, seems to 
be in control. It is alleged that this revolutionary action 
was really in the interest of democracy, that the govern- 
ment overthrown was controlled by the large landowners 
and the clergy. The workingmen, the farmers, and the 
intelligentsia are said to be backing the General and the 
army. If this truly represents the case, the revolution 
was more social and moral than political, and may turn 
out to the lasting good of Poland. Bureaucracy and 
corruption are to be cleared away, strict economy is to be 
established, the budget will be balanced, and Poland is to 
be made a stabilized and happy country such is said to 
be the program of the revolution. 

As now constituted, Poland has an area of 146,821 
square miles and a population of 27,092,025, quite enough 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

for the establishment of a strong European state. The 
people are mostly Roman Catholic, but there is a strong 
Jewish element. Religious liberty is constitutional; ele- 
mentary instruction free and compulsory. Six univer- 
sities give ample facilities for the highest training of 
youth. It is an agricultural country, great crops of 
cereals, potatoes, and sugar-beets being grown. 

Baptists in Poland 

German Baptists have made efforts to evangelize Po- 
land, but with little success. There has been and is too 
much race hostility for that enterprise to succeed. The 
Prussian policy of Germanizing Poland, pursued relent- 
lessly for two generations before the war, aroused a bit- 
terness of resistance that will bear fruit for a long time 
to come. Such churches as were formed before the war 
were composed mainly of Germans, who have now re- 
turned to their own country. In 1900, of 4,162 Baptists 
only 200 were Slavs. In addition to this, while the con- 
stitution assures religious liberty, and another provision 
declares invalid all laws contrary to the constitution, there 
is much persecution by the police, with law or without. 
This is especially in the district around Lemberg, formerly 
a part of Austria; an old, imperial bureaucracy is a 
" hang over " here from the old Austrian regime and does 
not appear to have learned the meaning of the new order. 

The churches were devastated by the war and prac- 
tically all activity ceased. While the Tsar's government 
endured, some ministers were banished to Siberia. A new 
Baptist movement has begun since the war, more distinc- 
tively Polish, with a native ministry. A sample case is 
the church in Rakowles, a small village in what was Rus- 
sian territory before the war, and that suffered greatly 
during the conflict. The people are still living in dugouts 
and other improvised shelters. Here John Sues, who was 


European Missions 

formerly a worker in the Russian Baptist mission of 
Buffalo, has gathered a scattered church, or rather sev- 
eral churches in that region, and has baptized over 400 
into the fellowship. Some walk many miles to attend 
these meetings. 

The largest church is in Lodz, with over 500 members. 
A Czech church was formed in 1872, and has continued 
until now, at its last report numbering 219 members. 
Polish churches have been established since the war in 
Warsaw, Lemberg, and other places. In the latter city 
the Roman Catholic priests have succeeded in stirring up 
continued opposition, that sometimes becomes violent. 
Four Baptist preachers were arrested on trivial pretexts 
in 1922 ; the police have interfered with meetings several 
times ; on three occasions Bibles and other literature were 
seized; four times Baptist meetings were attacked by 
drunken mobs. Statistics apparently show that Baptists 
have increased in Poland more than threefold since the 
war, but these figures are partly illusory ; no small part of 
the apparent increase is due to enlargement of Polish 
territory and the consequent transfer of Baptist churches 
and members. It is sometimes necessary to distinguish 
between real increase and denominational bookkeeping. 

As there are still many Baptist churches in Poland of 
German-speaking people, though most of them were born 
in Poland of German parents, they have a Union of their 
own, in which 33 churches are represented, with 144 
preaching-places and 7,355 members. These churches 
had before the war an orphans' home, an old people's 
home, and a deaconesses' work. There is also a Slav 
Baptist Union, representing 90 churches and nearly 9,000 
members. Over 1,000 were baptized in 1924. In Lodz 
is the Kompas Publishing House, organized by business 
men in 1920, one of the largest Baptist concerns of the 
kind in Europe. It issues Bibles and tracts in Polish, 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

German, Bohemian, Russian, Ukrainian, and Yiddish, and 
is broadcasting them widely. In 1922 it distributed 938 
Testaments, 362 Bibles, and 289,507 books and tracts. 
No other evangelical publishing-house at present exists, in 
Poland. It is not proving an easy task to harmonize the 
diverse interests among the Baptists of Poland there are 
at least six different races found there but on the whole 
satisfactory progress is making. They now have cor- 
porate rights and have organized a missionary society. 
Among recent forward steps should be named the fine 
Peabody-Montgomery hospital established at Lodz, and 
a Deaconess House in the same city, both due to the in- 
telligent liberality of the WABFM. 


This region, including what has long been called Little 
Russia, in which the cities of Kiev and Odessa are 
situated, was proclaimed an independent Soviet Republic 
in 1917, and a provisional government was set up in 
December, 1918. Its area is 174,510 square miles, larger 
than the State of California, and its population 26,000,- 
ooo. Education is conducted in two groups or stages: 
primary, seven years, and secondary, in several divisions. 
Chief recognition is given to industry and agriculture, and 
technical schools are furnished for instruction that will 
make producers. Other schools called Institutes train or- 
ganizers. Schools of pedagogy, medicine, and art are 
also provided on a much smaller scale. There are no uni- 
versities. The great mass of the people belong to the 
Ukranian Orthodox Church, similar to that of Russia, 
commonly called the Greek Church. Religious liberty is, 
however, supposed to be granted to all. 

It was in this region that German Baptists began to do 
missionary work at an early period in their history, and 
in spite of opposition and persecution many churches were 


European Missions 

formed here. In what condition they are since the war, 
and what prospects they have for the future, nobody can 
at present say with any authority. All that can be said 
with confidence is that this is a promising field for future 
Baptist effort. 

The following comparative figures regarding this group 
of countries will probably be found interesting: 

1921 1925 

Baptists in Poland . , 3,229 11,315 

Baptists in Estonia . . . v 3,700 5,485 

Baptists in Latvia 8,572 9,243 

Baptists in Czechoslovakia 1,500 2,825 


How did the war change Russia? What is a soviet? 
What is the object of the Soviet Government? How 
many Russian Republics are there? Is there freedom of 
conscience? How about Siberia? What is the religion 
of most Russians? How is the Church treated by the 
Soviet ? How are ministers treated ? Should we suspend 
judgment about the Soviet? How did Baptists begin in 
Russia? Are they organized? Who are the Stundists? 
Are Baptists making progress? What is the recent atti- 
tude of the Soviet? Are Sunday schools permitted? Is 
the Bible circulated? What are some favoring circum- 
stances? How did relief- work affect the situation? 
What do you know about Estonia? Can you describe 
the people ? Has the war made much change ? What is 
said of the climate ? How did Baptists begin there ? 
Have they a theological school ? How fast are they grow- 
ing? Where is Latvia? What is its captial? To what 
great family do Latvians belong? How did the war 
affect Latvia? Are Baptists growing there? What has 
retarded them? What government has Lithuania? 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Where is it ? How large is it ? What is its chief source 
of wealth ? Are the people well educated ? How are Bap- 
tists progressing? What brought about the " partition of 
Poland " ? Are the people showing political capacity ? 
What sort of government have they? What is the sig- 
nificance of the Pilsudski revolution? How large is the 
new Poland? What is the prevailing religion? What 
provision is there for education? Who first evangelized 
Poland? Why is the task difficult for them? Is there 
religious liberty ? What are Baptists doing since the war ? 
How fast are they growing ? Why are there two Unions ? 
What can you say of the " Kompas " business ? Are 
there some marks of progress? Where is the Ukraine 
Republic? What is its size? Can you describe its edu- 
cational system? Do you know any other like it? Is 
religious liberty permitted? Who first evangelized this 
region ? What is the present condition of Baptists there ? 
How are Baptists getting on in all these regions ? 


Almedingen, M. E., The Catholic Church in Russia To- 
day. New York, 1923. 

Cooke, Richard J., Religion in Russia Under the Soviets. 
New York, 1922. 

International Conciliation, No. 136. Russian Documents, 
Including Russian Constitution and Land Law, No. 
185. Evolution of Soviet Russia. New York. 

McBain, H. L., The New Constitutions of Europe. New 

York, 1922. 
McCullagh, T., Bolshevik Persecution of Christianity. 

New York, 1924. 
Nearing, Scott, Education in Soviet Russia. New York, 



European Missions 

Ross, E. A., The Russian Bolshevik Revolution. New 
York, 1921. 

The Russian Soviet Republic. New York, 1925. 
Strong, A. L., The First Time in History. New York, 

Butler, Ralph, The New Eastern Europe. New York, 

Boswell, A. B., Poland and the Poles. New York, 1919. 

Czarnowski, F. B., Handbook of Poland. New York, 

Devereaux, W., Poland Reborn. New York, 1922. 
Phillips, C, The New Poland. New York, 1923. 
Winter, W. O., The New Poland. New York, 1923. 

Harrison, W. J., Lithuania Past and Present. New 
York, 1923. 

Ruhl, Arthur, New Masters of the Baltic. New York, 

Rushbrooke, J. H., The Baptist Movement in the Con- 
tinent of Europe. London, 1923. 

Scott, A. MacCallum, Beyond the Baltic. New York, 





The Nation 

A new democratic republic was the result of the 
great war, of which the ancient kingdom of Bohemia 
was the nucleus, while to it were added by the treaty of 
Versailles the former Austrian provinces of Moravia, 
Silesia, and Slovakia. Its area is 54,241 square miles, a 
little smaller than Illinois, and the census of 1921 re- 
turned a population of 13,610,405, about twice that of 
Illinois. It is a unified republic, not a federated, the old 
Diets of the various sections having been abolished by the 
new constitution of 1920. Executive power is vested in 
a President, who is elected by the National Assembly of 
both houses of Parliament, and serves for seven years. 
The first President, T. G. Masaryk, was for some years 
a resident of the United States and is familiar with the 
principles and practises of our Government. He has made 
an admirable executive and under his administration the 
people have made great progress in self-government. The 
legislative power is vested in a Parliament of two houses, 
a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate. Bills may originate 
in either house, except the budget and army bills, which 
must originate in the Deputies. There is an excellent bill 
of rights in the constitution, one main object of which is 
to secure the rights of racial and religious minorities. 
The great majority of the people are Roman Catholics, 
though in Ruthenia and Slovakia there are many ad- 


European Missions 

herents of the Greek Church, but there is absolute free- 
dom of religion. Of the population, nearly 8,000,000 are 
Slavs, and over 3,000,000 Germans, with minorities of 
several other races, including Jews. 

The new Republic has had many problems to solve and 
at times has been sailing in troubled waters. The most 
serious political problem has been racial in origin the 
demand of the strong German minority for a larger share 
in government, which they believed was too much in the 
hands of Slavs. While President Masaryk represents the 
interests of the producers of the country, the German 
leaders have identified themselves with the wealthy class 
and the captains of industry. They began an agitation 
for incorporation into Germany and encouraged a reac- 
tionary movement that they called Fascism. The removal 
of General Gayda from command of the army was a 
severe check to this movement, and an attempt has been 
made to satisfy the reasonable claims of the German popu- 
lation by giving them two portfolios in the Cabinet. If 
its internal problems can be solved, Czechoslovakia is 
potentially the strongest country in South-central Europe. 
It excels in size and resources any of its immediate neigh- 
bors and rivals. 

Social and Economic Conditions 

A literary revival among the Czechs began soon after 
the French Revolution and has had remarkable results. 
Bohemia, to use its ancient name, is one of the most in- 
telligent and progressive parts of Europe. Education is 
compulsory and free between the ages of six and four- 
teen. Four universities complete the system, of which 
Prag is ancient (1348) and famous. As a whole it is 
an agricultural country, but manufactures are well ad- 
vanced in Bohemia. Large crops of cereals and pota- 
toes are produced, as well as sugar-beets. Much of Bo- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

hernia is mountainous and heavily wooded, besides being 
rich in minerals. The population is increasing, though 
checked by war and emigration, and Bohemia and Silesia 
are already densely populated. The census shows that 
4,975,085 are engaged in agriculture, 4,536,998 in manu- 
factures, and 1,408,311 in commerce. Cooperation is 
rapidly developing among the farmers since the war, 
and flourishing agricultural and forestry schools are con- 
ducted by the state. Forestry has been made a govern- 
ment enterprise, and there is abundance of valuable 
lumber now produced for export. 

Large estates are common ; before the war most of the 
land was owned by 151 persons, in ranches averaging 
24,000 acres. These great estates comprised 27.7 per 
cent, of the total area of the country and the owners were 
protected in their holdings by a law of entail. Gradually 
they were swallowing up the small holdings, and the 
peasant-farmer was fast disappearing. There was some 
economic gain in this better buildings and more agricul- 
tural machinery are practicable on a large estate but 
great social loss. 

This state of affairs had prevailed since the Thirty 
Years' War and was at the bottom of the large emigration 
of Czechs before the war. Only 703,577 out of the total 
population owned small plots of land, and their united 
holdings were less than 14 per cent, of the total area. 
This social condition called loudly for remedy, and one 
of the first attempts of the new republic was in the direc- 
tion of land reform. A law of 1919 placed all estates 
over 370 acres under Government control ; the owner can- 
not sell without the approval of the Land Office, which 
may transfer land to new owners on payment of proper 
compensation. In this way, new social conditions will 
be gradually brought about without injustice to any. 
Considerable progress toward socialization has already 


European Missions 

been made. Railways are partly owned by the state and 
almost wholly operated by it; telegraphs and telephones 
are part of the postal service. Much social welfare legis- 
lation has been attempted, and there is an advanced policy 
in dealing with poverty and crime. The State promotes 
housing, in part finances building operations and protects 

Ever since his death, John Hus has been a national 
hero in Bohemia. On July 6, 1915, a monument to Hus in 
front of the Town Hall in Prag was unveiled, with ap- 
propriate ceremonies, and in 1925 there was a great 
celebration of the four-hundredth anniversary of his mar- 
tyrdom. President Masaryk and other officials were 
present. This gave great offense to the Roman Catholic 
dignitaries, and the Pope's legate ostentatiously left the 
city as a protest against the proceedings. The next day 
the people of Prag took their turn at protesting, and 
the streets were crowded by an excited citizenry, though 
there was no serious disorder. A great exodus from the 
Roman Church followed, and the Prag newspapers for 
some time continued to publish instructions for those who 
wished to register formally their withdrawal. Evidently 
the ancient spirit is not dead in Bohemia, and domination 
by Rome is as unacceptable now as in the days of Hus 
and Ziska. 

The Baptist Movement 

This began long before the war, but has been greatly 
accelerated by recent events, and the opportunity now is 
most favorable. Rev. A. Meeris, a colporter of the B F 
B S was the pioneer; he baptized five in 1877, but did not 
succeed in organizing a church before he was driven 
away. Henry Novotny, who had been baptized at Lodz. 
Poland, in 1885, established the first church at Hledsebe, 
near Prague. In spite of fierce persecutions he persevered. 

[425] . 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

and i.n ten years had won 180 persons, who increased be- 
fore his death (1912) to over 400. He was succeeded by 
his son, who had been trained in the Hamburg Seminary, 
and in 1917 a fine Baptist church was built in Prag. 
Meeris became an evangelist in Moravia, where he gath- 
ered several churches, and the one at Brunn, the capital 
of the province, is now a flourishing body. 

Many, both preachers and members, were killed in the 
late war, and the churches were much disintegrated, but a 
reorganization has proceeded rapidly. A Czechoslova- 
kian Baptist Union was formed in 1919, and a new era 
set in. The NBC and the English Baptists have beert 
giving invaluable aid, especially in the support of a theo- 
logical school that has been opened at Prag for the 
training of a native ministry. The head of this school, 
Rev. H. Prochazka, visited the United States in 1925 and 
roused much interest among American Baptists in his 
work. The W A B F M has lately established at Hledsebe 
an orphanage called the Peabody-Montgomery Memorial, 
where twenty children are cared for. There are now 23 
churches and nearly 3,000 Baptists in the country; and 
with the full religious liberty now enjoyed there are ex- 
cellent prospects of future growth. 


Political and Social Conditions 

One of the few remaining kingdoms on the European 
continent, Rumania has an area of 122,282 square miles 
and a population of 17,393,149. Ferdinand I has been 
the ruler since 1914, and has a suspensive veto on legisla- 
tion by a parliament in two houses ; a Senate of 170 mem- 
bers and a House of Deputies of 347. The old kingdom 
was made by union of the ancient provinces of Wallachia 
and Moldavia; the new kingdom comprises the provinces 


European Missions 

of Rumania, Bessarabia, and Bukowina. Turkey had a 
suzerainty till 1877, after which Russian influence pre- 
dominated until the great war. The people are of diverse 
elements: Turks, Bulgars, Magyars, Germans, Russians. 
Of the total population 9,695,929 are enumerated as Greek 
Catholics, 1,483,929 as Roman, 1,344,970 Protestants, 
834,344 Jews, and 44,087 Mohammedans. The National 
Orthodox Church is supported by the State, but Prot- 
estants receive a " subvention." 

Rumania is still medieval and reactionary in the matter 
of religion. She professes toleration but does not practise 
it. Article 22 of her new constitution reads : " Freedom 
of conscience is unlimited. The state guarantees to all 
cults equal liberty and protection, so far as the exercise 
does not conflict with public order, good morals, and its 
laws of organization." In addition to this, Rumania 
entered into a special treaty with the allies, of which 
article 2 says: 

Rumania undertakes to assure full and complete protection of 
life and liberty to all inhabitants of Rumania, without distinction of 
birth, nationality, language, race, or religion. All inhabitants of 
Rumania shall be entitled to the free exercise, whether public or 
private, of any creed, religion, or belief, whose practises are not in- 
consistent with public order and public morals. 

In spite of these declarations, Rumanian Baptists are 
treated with gross injustice and denied in practise the right 
thus publicly assured them. Their children are refused 
registration as belonging to the religious group of their 
parents. Worship is hindered and interrupted and houses 
of worship are closed by the local authorities. Baptist 
preachers are forbidden to preach except in their own 
town, so that Baptists unable to have a settled pastor are 
deprived of ministerial services. Churches are prevented 
from acquiring property, and at the same time forbidden 
to hold worship save in their own buildings. No confer- 

2E E 427 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ences or conventions can be held, except by special per- 
mission of the ministry of religions. Fines, beatings, im- 
prisonments, have been common occurrences. These are 
examples of the ways in which Baptist work is hindered, 
not merely in Rumania, but in several other continental 
fields where nominal " religious liberty " prevails. The 
truth seems to be that many continental people, though 
they use the language of liberal political institutions, have 
no real comprehension of its significance, and under 
" liberal " constitutions and laws are maintaining to the 
best of their ability the old intolerance and persecution. 

Education is free and compulsory " wherever there are 
schools " ; and better conditions are reported every year. 
There are 692,896 children in primary schools, 76 insti- 
tutions of secondary grade, besides 14 normal and 75 
professional. Higher education is provided by four 
universities, that at Bucharest having 4,644 students. 

Rumania is an agricultural country: there are 30,715,- 
834 acres of " plowed land " ; 4,580,267 meadows, 393,- 
533 of vineyards, and 16,918,964 of forests. The chief 
products are cereals (maize and wheat leading), tobacco, 
salt, lignite, iron, copper, petroleum. There are not many 
industries, principally milling and brewing. 

Some Popular Characteristics 

The Rumanian language has many affinities with 
Italian, and testifies that they are a Latin people, with 
much admixture of other races. The country has been 
conquered and overrun times beyond number. An En- 
glishwoman who lived and taught in Rumania twenty 
years describes the people as thoroughly lovable, warm- 
hearted, hospitable to an extraordinary extent, many of 
them keeping " open house " perpetually for friends. 
They are also extremely charitable, invariably courteous, 
evincing a delicacy of perception and considerateness 


European Missions 

of others' feelings found in hardly any other people. 
They have a high order of intelligence and are quite pro- 
gressive. They do not sufficiently cultivate their own 
language and literature ; the higher classes speak French 
and German and even English more than their vernacular, 
and read mostly French and German books. This de- 
scription of Rumanians must, however, be understood to 
apply only to the cultivated people with whom this En- 
glishwoman came in close contact. 

Rumanian Baptists 

In one of his tours Oncken baptized a Rumanian con- 
vert, a carpenter, who began work in Bucharest in 1858 
as a colporter. He was joined by a few German Bap- 
tists and one Englishwoman. The little church so formed 
obtained a pastor from Germany in 1869. During and 
since the war Rumanian Baptists fared badly, but in spite 
of persecution over 2,500 baptisms were reported in 1925. 
Rumanian Baptists are called by their fellow countrymen 
Pocaiti, which means " the repented ones." In 1920 a 
Baptist Union was formed, which is said now to repre- 
sent some 25,000 members. There are relatively few of 
these in old Rumania, but more in Bessarabia, and still 
more in Transylvania. Much of the difficulty that Bap- 
tists have experienced since the war has been due to the 
accusations of Catholic priests, who have represented to 
the authorities that Baptists are disloyal, revolutionists, 
working in the interests of Hungary, etc. American and 
English representatives have done something to modify 
official hostility, due largely to ignorance on the part of 
officials as to what Baptists really are and teach. Perhaps 
the most favorable circumstance in the recent history of 
Rumanian Baptists is their opening of a theological 
school, in which 15 students are receiving training for 
their future work. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

The People 

The Magyars are an isolated people, not Indo-Euro- 
pean, the remains of a Mongolian invasion of the old 
Roman Empire in the early Christian centuries. The con- 
sequence of the great war was a revolution that put a 
Soviet in power for the time, which was later overthrown, 
and monarchy nominally reestablished under a Regent. 
The throne has remained vacant to the present time. The 
new Hungary has an area of 35,790 square miles and a 
population of 7,945,878, so that in both respects it ap- 
proximates the State of Pennsylvania. It is an agricul- 
tural country mainly, and produces great crops of wheat, 
maize, and other cereals, while in some parts grapes are 
grown of which considerable quantities of wine are made. 
Manufactures are increasing. Education is compulsory 
and free from six to twelve years. Four universities are 
sustained by the state, of which the one at Budapest is 
best known to the outside world. There is toleration in 
theory for all religions, but in practise toleration is not 
granted Baptists. Before the war, the Baptist movement 
in Hungary is claimed to have been larger in proportion 
to population than in any other European country. This 
may be exaggeration, but there certainly had been very 
rapid progress made in rece.nt years. 

Baptists in Hungary 

The Magyars are a favorable field for evangelical ef- 
fort. Ever since the Reformation there have been Prot- 
estant sects among them, some Socinian or Unitarian in 
theology. Some Hungarians in Germany came into con- 
tact with Oncken, were converted and went back as mis- 
sionaries to their own people. The German Baptists gave 
them aid and later American Baptists did likewise. In 


European Missions 

1846 a church of nine was organized at Budapest. Leh- 
mann visited them in 1865 and baptized several. Hem- 
rich Meyer settled there in 1873 as agent of the BFB S 
and was a great stimulus to the work, some calling him 
the " apostle to Hungary." In ten years he had baptized 
629 and organized many churches, which continued to 
grow. Michael Kornya, ordained in 1877, was a very 
successful evangelist and baptized over 8,000 people. In 
1910 there were 16,839 members and 216 chapels. 
Changes of territory and the ravages of war reduced the 
members to 9,000 ; but the work is taking on new life and 
power. The last reports are a little over 10,000 members, 
but claims have been made of double that number. A 
theological school lately begun at Budapest bids fair to 
add greatly to their efficiency and progress. 



The official name of this creation of the Versailles 
treaty is "The Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slo- 
venes." Two former provinces of Austro-Hungary were 
added to the kingdom of Servia to make this new political 
entity. Alexander I is its ruler, and he has under him an 
area of 96,134 square miles and a population of 12,017,- 
323. The Serbian Orthodox Church (Greek) is the state 
religion, with " unrestrained liberty of conscience," what- 
ever that may mean in practise. Elementary education is 
free and three universities afford ample facilities for 
higher education ; but secondary education is inadequately 
provided. Belgrade, the capital, is a handsome city, but 
few American travelers visit other places. As with its 
neighbors, agriculture is the great economic resource of 
the land, but there are considerable mineral resources un- 
developed, besides large oil-fields. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Baptists are found in territory transferred from Aus- 
tria among two of the Slav races of the kingdom, Slovaks 
and Croats. In Serbia, so far as known, there are none. 
The work began in 1875 among German-speaking people 
and has not yet made large advance among the natives, 
though it promises well for the future. Under the leader- 
ship of representatives of the SBC, they have formed a 
Union, which represents over 700 members. 


The Russo-Turkish war of 1877 resulted in constitut- 
ing this former province of Turkey into an independent 
principality under a Russian protectorate. Boris III has 
been its ruler since 1918. It sided with Germany during 
the war, and in consequence lost heavily; it was com- 
pelled to cede Thrace to Greece and a strip on the West 
to Serbia. Its present area is 39,841 square miles and 
its population 4,909,700. It is a rather mountainous 
region, with many fertile valleys, and has been described 
as " the scenery of Norway under an Italian sky." It 
claims to belong to the Greek Church, but when its na- 
tional organization demanded and obtained autonomy the 
Patriarch of Constantinople declared the Bulgarians to be 
outside the Orthodox Church. It is governed by a Synod 
of bishops. There are many Mohammedans in the land, 
and some Jews, but nominally there is toleration of all 
religions. Baptists have had fewer persecutions here than 
in Rumania. 

Education is compulsory and free from seven to four- 
teen years. There are many excellent secondary schools, 
including 58 gymnasia after the German plan ; and there 
is a university of high rank at Sofia, the capital city, a 
town of 154,431. It has a faculty of 140 and nearly 
5,000 students, of whom more than 800 are women. 
There are also 13 normal schools. 


European Missions 

The largest crop of Bulgaria is wheat, but large quan- 
tities of other cereals are also grown rye, oats, and 
barley, also much maize. It is a large fruit-growing 
region and produces grapes of high quality. Tobacco is 
another profitable crop. Sheep and cattle are numerous 
and fine. Minerals will one day be a great source of 
wealth; there are large deposits of coal and iron, and 
petroleum promises well, but little mining has yet been 
done. The heaviest trade of Bulgaria at present is with 
Italy and Turkey. 

The people resemble Turks, and their language is said 
to be similar. Centuries of misgovernment and abuse 
have retarded their development, and since the war there 
has been much internal turmoil, a revolution or two and 
bloodshed and cruelty surpassing all that the Turks ever 
inflicted. The country is becoming more peaceful, and a 
new era of prosperity seems to be in sight provided 
peace can be maintained among peoples who have for 
generations lived amid almost constant warfare. 

Baptist Work in Bulgaria 

It is a short tale, soon told. A few German Baptist set- 
tlers and Russian refugees formed the nucleus of a few 
churches gathered before the war. The first of which 
there is definite record was at Kazonlik in 1880, and 
some of its first members are said to be still living. An- 
other was formed in.Rustchuk not long after ; others were 
established at Berkowitza and Ferdinand. Converts were 
made in Sofia about 1894, and a church was formed there 
four years later, which grew rapidly. The war disorgan- 
ized everything, but again there is progress. The German 
Baptists of America have aided in building a fine chapel 
in Sofia ; and Rev. C. E. Petrick, formerly missionary of 
the A B F M S in India, has rendered very important ser 5 - 
vice for several years. There are 14 churches now, with 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

440 members, and every prospect of more rapid growth. 
It is doubtful if this Bulgarian work is properly classified 
as missionary, since it is almost purely of indigenous 
origin and has had very little countenance or support from 
Baptists in other lands. 


The present kingdom of Greece has an area of 41,933 
square miles and a population of 2,908,272. Much of 
the country is mountainous and the cultivable part is 
rather densely peopled ; in consequence there has been con- 
siderable emigration in the last three decades especially, 
the greater part of it to the United States. Education is 
legally free and compulsory, but this is largely theoretical 
in the country districts. The economic resources are 
varied: agriculture perhaps chief, with varied products 
of cereals and fruits, minerals in considerable variety, and 
some good industries, including textiles and soap. Greece 
was recently declared a republic, after a period of much 
political confusion, and cannot yet be regarded as having 
reached political stability. 

The great majority of the people are adherents of the 
Greek Orthodox Church, which has up to now been the 
state religion, with nominal toleration of other faiths. 
This Church has not changed its organization or doctrines 
since the time of Constantine. A Holy Synod, with the 
Metropolitan of Athens at its head, is the governing body, 
and the Nicene Creed is still its one symbol. It is a 
Church that has not produced a great preacher or theo- 
logian or missionary for over a thousand years. It is as 
sacramental as the Roman church, and as idolatrous with 
its " ikons " as the Roman Church with its images. Apart 
from their religion, the modern Greeks have degenerated 
greatly from the race made known to us through classic 


European Missions 

Baptists in Greece 

Beyond question such a people and such a country need 
a pure gospel, and conviction of that fact was the basis 
of a missionary effort begun by American Baptists in 
1836. But the story of that work is the story of a failure 
not a magnificent failure at that. Mission stations 
were opened at Patras, Zante, and in the island of Corfu. 
None were successful. Opposition was strong, persecu- 
tion was at times violent, missionaries were occasionally 
more zealous than prudent. While the laws of Greece at 
that time granted toleration, they forbade proselyting 
from the Greek Church. Nevertheless, from 1842 on- 
ward a few converts were made, and a station was opened 
in Athens. 

The most promising convert gained was Demetrius 
Z. Sakellarios, who conducted the mission as assistant 
from 1855 and after an interval was appointed missionary 
in 1871. In the meantime he had studied at the Newton 
Theological Institution and married an American. A 
few were baptized by him from time to time, but no real 
progress was made ; the Government was hostile, the 
people were sullenly opposed, there was some persecution. 
The largest number of members in the Athens church at 
any one time was seven, and in 1888 the mission was 
abandoned. Doctor Merriam, in his History of Amer- 
ican Baptist Missions makes this judicious comment : 

It seems to be apparent that while the Greeks are of high intel- 
ligence and have great interest in religious subjects, they are not open 
to that influence of religious truth which will enable them to endure 
separation from their own people and church, for the sake of a purer 
gospel and a more living faith. 

Baptists as a whole seem to have reasoned thus : Why 
waste fruitless effort on a people who already have Chris- 
tianity of a sort, with which they are fully satisfied, when 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

there are so many lands that know nothing of the gospel 
and may be said by contrast to receive it gladly ? 


This seems the most appropriate place for a glance at 
the only Baptist mission work in the Near East, which 
was begun by the SBC in 1920 in Palestine. Four 
churches have been gathered there, one of which is in 
Jerusalem, and another in Nazareth. For the latter, a 
new house of worship has lately been built the first 
structure of Baptists in the Holy Land. Besides the 
churches, which have now 77 members, four schools have 
been established, with 178 pupils, including one theo- 
logical school that has 42 students. Four mission out- 
stations have regular services, and though progress is at 
present slow there are hopeful indications of future 
progress, and the workers feel much encouraged. 


How was Czechoslovakia formed? How large is it? 
Can you describe its government ? Who is the president ? 
Is religion free ? What is its chief political problem ? Are 
its people well educated? Is the population growing? 
How is it solving its land problem? How much social- 
ization has taken place ? What occurred in Prag in July, 
1925? What was the effect on the Catholic Church? 
How did Baptists begin? Are they organized? What 
are they doing for education? How many are there? 
How large is Rumania? What form of government has 
it? What are the racial affinities of the people? What 
religion prevails? Is there toleration? How does prac- 
tise conform to profession? Is there any improvement? 
Do such countries understand what toleration means? 
Can you describe some characteristics of Rumanian peo- 


European Missions 

pie? How did Baptists begin there? Are they growing? 
In what regions located ? Who are the Magyars ? What 
is their government? Is the economic condition of Hun- 
gary good ? What of its educational facilities ? In what 
parts are Baptists found? Are they advancing? How 
large is Bulgaria? What sort of a country is it? Has 
it an official religion? Does it grant toleration? What 
provision does it make for education? What are its re- 
sources? Its racial affinities? Has the state of the coun- 
try since the war been good ? When and how did Baptists 
begin? What are some of the churches? How many 
Baptists are there? Have other Baptists helped them? 
How large is Greece ? Has there been much emigration ? 
What education is provided ? What is the prevailing re- 
ligion? Is the religious life good? Where were Baptis! 
missions located? Were they successful? Why were 
they abandoned? Have Baptists any missions in the 
Near East ? 


Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, The New Balkans. New 
York, 1926. 

Butler, Ralph, The New Eastern Europe. New York, 

Gruber, Josef, Czechoslovakia, a Survey of Economic and 
Social Conditions. New York, 1924. 

International Conciliation? No. i/p. Constitution of the 

Czechoslovak Republic. New York, 1922. 
Mothersole, Jessie, Czechoslovakia. New York, 1926. 

Clark, Charles Upson, Greater Roumania. New York, 

Parkinson, Maude, Twenty Years in Roumania. London, 



A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Alden, Percy (ed.), Hungary of Today, by members of 
the Hungarian Government. N. d 

Teleki, Paul, The Revolution of Hungary and Its Place 
in European History. New York, 1923. 

Forbes, Nevin (and others), The Balkans. Cl. Press, 

Monroe, Will S., Bulgaria and Her People. New York, 

Laffen, R. G. D., The Guardians of the Gate (Serbs). 
Cl. Press, 1918. 

Martin, P. G., Greece of the Twentieth Century. New 
York, 1913. 

McCabe, Joseph (translator), A History of Roumania, 
Land, People, Civilization, by N. lorga. New York, 
n. d. 

Thompson, J., Greeks and Barbarians. New York, 1921. 

Also the books of McBain, Ruhl, and Rushbrooke, listed 
in previous chapters. 




Country and People 

France has an area of 212,659 square miles. It could 
be put into Texas, and leave enough over to make a second 
Pennsylvania. The population is 39,209,518, a decrease 
of about 400,000 since 1911, for which the war might ac- 
count, in spite of the restoration of Alsace and Lorraine, 
but for the fact that the birth-rate has been steadily fall- 
ing for a century and is now below the death-rate. Paris 
is a city of 3,000,000, while Marseilles and Lyons have 
600,000 each. There are other large urban populations : 
Bordeaux and Lille have over 200,000 each; there are six 
towns over 150,000, four over 100,000, and 33 between 
50,000 and 100,000. Still, France is largely rural and 
agricultural, the people in the country districts surpass- 
ing the urban population by 3,000,000. 

France is probably the richest country of Europe; its 
soil is of surpassing depth and richness; the revolution 
broke it up into small holdings, which receive intensive 
cultivation with wonderful results. If the United States 
were similarly cultivated, it could support easily a billion 
people. Wheat, oats, and potatoes are the heaviest of the 
ordinary crops; oil and wine are produced in immense 
quantities. If prohibition extends its area and becomes 
more effective, the vineyards of France will gradually 
give place to other kinds of production, to the great benefit 
of France and the world. Mines are profitable and rich ; 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

manufactures are great, though inferior to Germany and 
England. France is famous for silks and other wares. 

Education and Religion 

Education is free and compulsory, and the schools have 
been thoroughly secularized. The percentage of illiteracy 
is small, even among the peasant class. There are 17 in- 
stitutions of university rank, with 49,931 students, but 
only 404 in theology. 

The Revolution made a great and permanent change in 
the status of the Roman Catholic Church of France. In 
the nineteenth century, unbelief made great strides. Usu- 
ally this takes the form of agnosticism, but there has been 
a good deal of stark atheism, especially among the work- 
ing people. On the male population the church is losing 
its hold every year, and probably religion as well. This is 
the one justification for Protestant missions in a country 
as highly civilized as our own, with a long Christian his- 
tory. A vital form of Christianity, a real and not a 
formal religion, is the great need of France. A very small 
proportion of men under fifty and over fifteen can be 
found in the French churches today. 

The Me All Mission 

Rev. Robert W. McAll, though of Scotch ancestry, was 
born and bred in England, was educated at the Lancashire 
Independent College from 1844 to 1848, and was pastor 
of Independent churches in Leicester, Manchester, and 
Hadleigh. A visit to France in 1871 convinced him of 
the need of gospel preaching there and the receptiveness 
of the people, and in January, 1872, the first mission 
station was opened in Belleville, a Paris suburb. Others 
followed in various parts of Paris, and in 1878 a mission 
was begun in Lyons, and the following year one at Bor- 
deaux. These missions were mostly conducted in halls 


European Missions 

and private houses, and were interdenominational in ef- 
fort and support. Like the Salvation Army, the McAll 
missions remained missions and were never organized 
into churches. Converts were advised to join the evan- 
gelical church of their choice, and many of them became 
Baptists. Some of the best Baptist preachers in France 
had their first experience as workers in the McAll mis- 
sions. McAll died May n, 1893, but the work has gone 
on without interruption. 

Baptist Missions in France 

In 1832 Rev. J. C. Rostan was sent, together with Pro- 
fessor Irah Chase of the Newton Theological Institution, 
to begin a mission in France. They had interviews with 
Lafayette and others, were kindly received and began 
meetings in Paris. Rostan unfortunately died the follow- 
ing year, and for some time the work had to be conducted 
by Americans. In 1835 Rev. Isaac Willmarth organized 
the first Baptist church in Paris, and by 1839 there were 
seven churches in France. For many years the work of 
evangelism and the organization has been carried on by 
Frenchmen. Some of these, notably Rev. Reuben Sail- 
lens, were educated at Spurgeon's college in London and 
speak English as fluently as French. Saillens has been a 
great evangelist; he held meetings in many towns, at- 
tended by large audiences, and many professed conver- 
sion. He did not have an equal gift of organization, how- 
ever, and little permanent result followed his labors 
little, at least, that can be expressed in statistics. English 
Baptists have also had a mission in France, since 1834. 
Their principal station was Morlaix, in Brittany. 

There were severe persecutions of Baptists during the 
reign of Louis Philippe; meetings were broken up by 
police, ministers were arrested and fined or imprisoned. 
Guizot, better known to Americans as historian than as 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

statesman, was the minister chiefly responsible for these 
persecutions, even though he was a Protestant and Cal- 
vinist. The Revolution of 1848 overthrew Louis Philippe 
and ended the persecutions. Religious liberty was then 
proclaimed, and even during the reactionary period of the 
Second Empire, there was little break in this policy. 

The Franco-Prussian war of 1870 resulted in the down- 
fall of the Napoleonic usurpation and the establishment of 
a Republic. Complete toleration followed, but the official 
religion was Roman Catholic until 1906, when the aboli- 
tion of the Concordat placed all religions on a footing of 
equality and liberty. Those Protestant churches that had 
previously received state aid, accepted the new situation 
promptly and adjusted themselves to it. Baptists of 
course had never received aid and were satisfied with ob- 
taining for the first time complete religious liberty, for 
which in principle they had always contended. The 
Roman Catholic Church, at the Pope's bidding, refused to 
recognize the law, and is still only partially reconciled 
to the new era. 

In recent years there has been much dissension among 
the French Baptists, partly as the result of personal differ- 
ences, partly on theological grounds. As a result, growth 
was retarded. The lack of a properly trained ministry 
has been a serious drawback. For a decade an attempt 
was made to maintain a theological school in Paris, and 
Dr. Edward C. Mitchell was sent to organize it. He had 
several native assistants, and while it existed it gave 
valuable service. It was under the auspices of the AB 
MU but was supported by private contributions from 
American Baptists, largely through the efforts of Dr. 
Edward Bright and his newspaper, The Examiner. Criti- 
cisms of Doctor Mitchell and other troubles led to the 
abandonment of the enterprise. For all but strictly theo- 
logical training, there are ample facilities in France ; and 


European Missions 

even for that, apart from denominational history and doc- 

The war was terribly destructive to the French Baptist 
churches; it stripped them of all their manhood, none 
being left at home save the infantile, aged, and infirm. 
Many never came back; schools were scattered, services 
interrupted, and many church buildings destroyed. Re- 
lief-work was at once undertaken by British and Amer- 
ican Baptists, and fortunately Rev. Oliva Brouillette was 
obtained to take charge of it. He had been pastor of a 
French Baptist church in Salem, Mass., and was in Y M 
C A work during the war. The French Government co- 
operated in establishing centers whence food and clothing 
were dispensed to relieve immediate wants. Repairing 
and rebuilding of church buildings followed, the Govern- 
ment again giving aid from the reparations fund in cases 
where buildings had been injured by the invaders. Schools 
were reorganized, peasants were furnished with farming 
implements, more than a thousand orphans were cared for, 
and Christmas celebrations arranged for more than 5,000 
children. A Federation of Evangelical Churches has 
been formed, and from its united efforts much is hoped 
for the future. Still, after nearly a century of effort, Bap- 
tists in France number but little more than 1,000 surely 
not a very brilliant success. 

Conditions of Work 

Spain has never been a hopeful field for Protestant 
labors. For centuries it has been the stronghold of the 
Church of Rome in Europe. Though Protestants made 
surprising advances during the Reformation period, con- 
sidering the fact that all the powers of Church and State 
were arrayed against them, in the end they were com- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

pletely suppressed. There is less disaffection with Cathol- 
icism there than in either France or Italy, even among 
the men. The Roman Church is the State religion and 
until lately no legal toleration has existed ; even yet, tolera- 
tion is but partial. Spain is a splendid object-lesson of 
the effects of unopposed Romanism. For a thousand 
years the church has dominated, and Spain is today the 
most backward country in Europe, with 59 per cent, 
of illiteracy, and no adequate system of education. Once 
the leader of civilization, it now lags far in the rear, and 
its present condition shows little prospect of speedy im- 
provement. The recent revolution, establishing military 
despotism under the form of monarchy, cannot be re- 
garded as a hopeful augury. 

The country has an area of 190,050 square miles and 
a population of 21,347,335, slowly increasing. It is 
mainly agricultural, with few great estates and many 
small proprietors. Its crops are cereals, wheat leading, 
olives, oranges, and nuts. Wine-making is a great indus- 
try, and the Spanish vintages of sherry, port, and malaga 
have been celebrated for generations. It is a country rich 
in minerals, never adequately developed, but its manufac- 
tures are small, though they are growing and will one 
day be important. 

Baptists in Spain 

A revolution in 1848 made Spain a republic for a time. 
During its existence, for the first time in the country's 
history, religious liberty prevailed. Advantage was taken 
of this opportunity to begin a mission there, and Rev. 
William I. Knapp, who had gone to Spain for study and 
research, started religious work and asked the A B M U 
for help to continue it. In 1870 he baptized six and soon 
after twelve more; and the first Baptist church in Madrid 
was formed, with 33 members. Not long after churches 


European Missions 

were established at Alicante and La Scala. Doctor Knapp 
gave himself mainly to training native ministers, and in 
1866 he returned to this country and until his death filled 
the chair of Modern Languages in Yale College. 

No other American has been sent to Spain, but the 
work has been continued by native Baptists, with some 
aid from England and America. Before the European 
war, so far as American Baptists were concerned, the 
Spanish mission might almost have been described as an 
abandoned experiment if not an absolute failure, like 
that to Greece, at least no subject for congratulation. 
There have been of late years increasing conversions and 
baptisms. A Baptist Union was formed in 1922, and the 
same year saw a theological school begun at Barcelona. 
It had only a rented house, with limited dormitory and 
classroom facilities, but seven students entered at once, 
and the number has since grown to 44. Southern Bap- 
tists are now helping to maintain this school, as the 
most effective contribution that can be made to the evan- 
gelizing of Spain. A religious paper is published twice 
a month, and constitutes another bond of the churches. 
Of these there are now reported 22, with 1,169 members. 

The Environment 

In spite of heavy losses of men and money, Italy 
seems to have come out of the great war more advantaged 
than any other European nation. Considerable gains of 
territory were made, at the expense of Austria mainly, 
on the ground that Italians were the largest element of 
the populations of these regions. Still nominally a king- 
dom, with Vittorio Emanuele reigning, the Fascist! revo- 
lution has made its leader, Mussolini, the real ruler, for 
the present at least. The new area of the kingdom is 


A. Short History of Baptist Missions 

given as 110,632 square miles, and the census of 1921 
returned 37,276,738 people. 

Italy is a poor and overpopulated country. Defective 
in mineral wealth, most of her iron and coal and oil must 
be imported ; this is a serious handicap on her manufac- 
tures, which however are great and growing. A large 
part of the above area is mountainous; once covered to 
the very tops with forests, these have been gradually de- 
pleted and consequent erosion of the soil has left moun- 
taintops of bare rock. Other large tracts are marshy, 
though capable of drainage and cultivation. The cultiva- 
ble soil is well utilized, and produces large crops of 
wheat, maize, beans, and hemp. Much wine and oil are 
also produced, and silk culture as well as silk manu- 
factures must be numbered among the important sources 
of national wealth. 

Under the Mussolini government, reclamation projects 
have been pushed with new energy. The Pontine marshes 
have constituted a great problem since the days of the 
old Roman Republic. Attempts have been made at vari- 
ous times to reclaim them, and a new effort was started 
in 1833, which has lagged and accomplished little. Now 
the work is taken in hand with vigor, and already 5,000 
acres have been reclaimed, and a good part of this area 
put under cultivation. Rice is raised here that rivals the 
Indian rice in quality. Recently $1,425,000 was appro- 
priated for continuation of this work, which is expected 
to result in reclaiming 1,600 more acres. The Roman 
Campagna, which was a cultivated area in old Roman 
days, but has become a lair of mosquitoes and a source 
of malarial fevers, is also to be reclaimed. These works 
will more than pay for themselves, in the additional prod- 
ucts made possible, and add greatly to Italy's wealth and 

Education is compulsory only in the lower grades, and 


European Missions 

the public schools are still poor in quality and inadequate 
in accommodations. Secondary education is still private 
and costly. In university culture, Italy is one of the 
foremost countries of Europe and has been ever since 
the beginning of the Renaissance. There are 17 univer- 
sities that receive more or less State countenance and sup- 
port, besides four others described as " free," which 
means privately sustained. The Roman Catholic Church 
is of course the State religion, but full toleration obtains, 
so far as the constitution and laws can secure it. What- 
ever persecution is experienced by Protestants is private 
and unofficial and usually beyond legal control. 

Baptists in Italy 

The first and only attempt of Northern. Baptists to 
establish a mission was in Rome soon after its occupation 
by the Italian army, by Rev. W. C. Van Meter, as col- 
porter-missionary of the A B P S. He established a sta- 
tion "under the shadow of the Vatican" and conducted 
it in frank hostility to the Roman Church. It was not 
very successful, and after a time the A B P S withdrew 
its support; Mr. Van Meter, with the help of friends in 
the United States, carried it on as a private enterprise 
for a time. 

Another attempt was more successful. William N. 
Cote, who had been secretary of the YMCA in Paris, 
received an appointment as missionary from the SBC 
and was the first Protestant worker in Rome after the 
entry of Victor Emmanuel's troops. A church was con- 
stituted there in January, 1871 ; and in a little time other 
churches were established at Civita Vecchia, Viterbo, and 
Bari. Dr. George B. Taylor was sent out in 1873 and 
continued to labor until his death. It soon proved that 
the early success was illusory. Many Italians were not 
so much Protestants as anti-Romanists, and often not so 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

much anti-Roman as anti-Papal. Many of the early 
" converts " were not really converted and soon fell away. 
After some years, it appeared that the work had to be 
done all over again, on a sounder basis ; since then what 
ground has been gained has been held. Gradually, 
churches were formed in the principal cities : in Milan in 
1874, in Florence, 1891, in Venice, 1876. The work was 
also extended to Sardinia and to the Waldensian valleys 
in the north; as a result of the latter enterprise, several 
excellent Waldensian preachers and students became Bap- 
tist ministers and gave helpful service. 

The great need here as elsewhere has proved to be a 
native ministry, and the establishment of a theological 
school was undertaken. In 1900 Rev. D. G. Whittingill 
was sent out to have special charge of organizing the 
school, which was opened the following year and has 
been of very great service. Most of the younger Baptist 
pastors of Italy are graduates of this school. Since the 
war it has been united with the Waldensian school, with 
considerable increase of its efficiency. A religious and 
theological review, called Bi-Lychnis, has for some years 
been published by this school, and is recognized as one of 
the best periodicals of its type in Italy. It has done much 
to give Baptists standing among the intelligent classes. 

English Baptists also maintained missions in Italy for 
many years with tolerable success. Their principal sta- 
tions were in Rome and Florence, where they had com- 
modious halls, in which services for worship were held 
and Sunday schools were conducted. The singing of 
Italian Sunday schools, one may remark in passing, is 
something to remember and talk about. Eight other 
stations were maintained in various towns. This entire 
work has now been turned over to the mission of the 
SBC, and English Baptists have withdrawn from the 


European Missions 

While the work in Italy is the most satisfactory of 
Baptist missions to the Latin peoples of Europe (56 
churches, 2,890 members), it is no brilliant achievement. 
The difficulties are great. The soil is poor for Protestant- 
ism, which has never been able, in any form, to make 
much progress among these people. Even the celebrated 
Huguenots were no exception to this rule, rather a con- 
vincing proof of it, for they were never more than a 
small minority of Frenchmen, though they made a great 
stir. The Roman Church, as a Latinized Church, seems 
to agree best with the Latinized nations; no Protestant 
body has been able to make much progress in any of them. 


What is the size of France? Is its population grow- 
ing? What large cities has it? Is it a rich country? 
What is the source of its wealth? Has it good schools? 
What is its religion? Why is France a missionary field? 
What is the McAH Mission ? What is its policy ? How 
did Baptist missions begin? Were Baptists persecuted? 
How long has there been toleration ? When was religious 
liberty finally given ? Have French Baptists a theological 
school? How are their ministers trained? What effect 
had the war on the churches ? What is their present con- 
dition? What is the religious state of Spain? What is 
its economic condition? Who began the Baptist mission? 
How has the work gone on? Is there a theological 
school? How many Baptists in France and Spain? 
Which country has most? What is Italy's political con- 
dition? What are her economic resources ? What prog- 
ress is making? Is there a good educational system? 
Who founded the mission of Northern Baptists? Have 
they a mission now? What Baptists have one? Where 
are their chief stations ? Have they a theological school ? 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Have any other Baptists been at work in Italy? Why are 
not our missions to Latinized peoples more successful ? 


Cestre, C., Ideals of France. New York, 1922. 
Feuillerat, A., French Life and Ideals. New Haven, 

Guerard, A. L., French Civilisation of the Nineteenth 

Century. New York, 1914. 

Hardtt, Rollin Lynde, Understanding the French. New 
York, 1914. 

Hueffer, F. M., A Mirror of France. New York, 1926. 
Huddleston, S., France and the French. New York, 

McBride, Spanish Towns and People. New York, 1923. 

Beals, Rome or Death. New York, 1923. 

Bolitho, William, Italy Under Mussolini. New York, 

Gorgolini, The Fascist Movement in Italian Life. Boston, 

Tittoni, T., Modern Italy. New York, 1922. 

These books give general information only; for the 
Baptist movement in these countries consult Doctor Rush- 
brooke's book. 





The Numerous Varieties 

To most citizens of the United States an Indian is simply 
an Indian, and there is a popular saying that the only 
good Indian is a dead Indian. Vice versa, to most 
Indians a white man is simply a white man, and the 
Indian prefers a dead white man. Race prejudice is ex- 
ceeded only by race ignorance. There are probably 
greater differences among the Indians of North America 
than among the whites of Europe. The Bureau of Eth- 
nology reports 58 distinct family groups, divided into 280 
separate tribes, whose remnants are living on 161 " reser- 
vations." The Bureau estimates the Indian population 
within the present limits of the United States at the com- 
ing of the first white settlers as 846,000, but the census 
of 1920 reported 336,337. There is a general impression 
that they are a vanishing race, but the census figures, 
though somewhat ambiguous, on the whole fail to con- 
firm this notion. In 1880, the number was returned at 
322,534; in 1890 it had apparently fallen to 248,253 ; but 
in 1900 had risen to 270,544, and in 1910 to 304,950. 
These fluctuations may be due to different methods of 
enumeration, in part at least. 

Distribution of the Indians 

Indians are still living in nearly all the States of the 
Union, though in the Eastern parts they are few rela- 
tively to the white population, and many people never 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

come in contact with them or ever see a live Indian. 
They are distributed in the States as follows : 

New England 1,715 

Middle Atlantic 5,940 

East North Central 15,695 

West North Central 37,263 

South Atlantic 13,673 

East South Central 1,623 

West South Central 60,618 

Mountain 76,899 

Pacific 31,011 

But while there is this general distribution, there is also 
great disparity ; for example, Delaware has but five sur- 
viving Indians, while Oklahoma has 119,000. Though 
many tribes are more or less closely allied in language, 
and maintained relations more or less friendly, there were 
a number of distinct stocks. Of these some of the prin- 
cipal were: (i) The Algonquins, to which belonged the 
Pequots, Delawares, Ottawas, and other tribes with which 
the white men first came in contact. King Philip, Poca- 
hontas, Tecumseh, Black Hawk Indian names familiar 
to every schoolboy are representatives of this stock. (2) 
The Iroquois, comprising the five great " nations " of 
New York: Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondagas, 
Senecas, to which the Hurons were later added. The 
more or less legendary Hiawatha was of this stock, as 
was Joseph Brant. (3) The Muskhogean, including 
Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles, found in the Southern 
colonies. (4) The Sioux of the Mississippi region and 
beyond : Crows, Winnebagoes, Omahas, Dakotas. Sitting 
Bull is perhaps the most famous of this stock. 

Economic and Social Condition 

The American Indians are becoming civilized with in- 
creasing rapidity. Five tribes in Oklahoma are now re- 


American Home Missions 

garded as entitled to be called " civilized " : Cherokees, 
numbering 41,824; Choctaws, 26,828; Creeks, 18,774; 
Chickasaws, 10,966; Seminoles, 3,127. Yet much re- 
mains to be done, even for them. Only about 75,000 
Indians can read and write, and not more than 100,000 
can be said really to speak English, though most of the 
remainder know some English words and can manage to 
communicate with white people after a fashion. There 
are 64,943 Indian children in schools, and 20,746 not in 
school. An act of Congress, approved by President 
Coolidge in 1924, admitted Indians to citizenship, and 
two-thirds of them now enjoy this privilege. There are 
already some 50,000 voters among them, and there will 
be more all of which makes the continued progress of 
this part of our people a concern to us all. 

Indians have already contributed to our civilization 
more than most of us realize, and will doubtless make 
fitrther contributions. Many of their legends and folk- 
tales have become embedded in our literature : American 
composers have begun to utilize their melodies and 
rhythms in our music. Aside from the great variety of 
geographical names that we owe to them, Indians have 
contributed many familiar words to our language, most 
of which are in daily use among us : caucus, chipmunk, 
hickory , hominy, maize, menhaden, moccasin, moose, 
mugwump, opossum, papoose, pemmican, persimmon, po- 
tato, raccoon, sachem, skunk, succotash, terrapin, tobacco, 
toboggan, tomahawk. 

Not only is the old tribal organization still maintained 
to a large extent, but some whole tribes are still mainly 
" blanket " Indians ; that is, they continue in their un- 
civilized mode of life, according to their ancient customs. 
The estimated wealth of Indians amounts to $1,666,000,- 
ooo. If an equal division were made, each adult Indian 
would have 250 acres of land and $2,261 in cash. Their 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

livestock is valued at $30,000,000 and their timber at $130,- 
000,000. They have been truly described as " the richest 
nation and the poorest people on earth." The major part 
of them are still wards of the nation, and their property 
is held for them in trust, but allotment to individuals is 
proceeding as fast as it is safe. In some cases it has 
proved quite successful; the Nez Perces were allotted 
lands twenty-five years ago, and they still own 90 per cent, 
of the land. In all, 34,000,000 acres have been allotted, 
while 39,000,000 acres are still held in trust. How to 
protect the Indians from exploitation by the white people 
is still a great problem which the Federal Government is 
trying to solve. Much has been accomplished in their be- 
half by the Indian Rights Association, but every citizen 
can help through his Congressman and Senators by urging 
proper legislation. 

Indians and the White Population 

While there is still much race prejudice, on both sides, 
the old enmity is dying out. There never was inveterate 
race objection to intermarriage between Indians and 
whites ; from the days of Pocohontas, such marriages have 
been occasional, not to say frequent, and illicit connec- 
tions still more common. Though there is in some quar- 
ters feeling against " half-breeds," cases have been known 
in which Americans with Indian blood in their veins have 
risen to political and social distinction and have been 
proud of their Indian ancestry. The Randolphs of Vir- 
ginia are an instance. It is quite probable, therefore, 
that the Indians will ultimately be absorbed into the 
population of the United States and cease to be a sepa- 
rate people a forecast that is sustained by the fact that 
in the Eastern States there are now few of pure Indian 
descent, most of those classed as Indians being of mixed 
race, part white, part Negro. 


American Home Missions 

The darkest page in American history is without doubt 
the behavior of the white race toward the Indian, ever 
since the settlement of the country began. The displace- 
ment of the Indian was inevitable; no race can hold a 
country against a more civilized race, and for the best 
interests of mankind it is undesirable that they should. 
The earth belongs, not to those who get possession of it 
first, but to those who will make the best use of it. But 
such inevitable displacement of backward peoples may be 
violent, brutal, full of injustice, or it may be peaceful 
and just. The white settlers of the region now the United 
States invariably chose the former. The Indian almost 
always kept faith; the white man has almost invariably 
broken faith, when he thought to gain by so doing. Some- 
times such violations of faith have been most deliberate, 
committed by legislative authority and not by individual 
encroachments, whenever the greed of the whites de- 
manded the red man's territory. 

It is stated on good authority that no fewer than 370 
treaties have been made with the Indians, most of which 
have been violated by force or fraud. Every time the 
Indians made a treaty they lost something; and virtually 
every pledge made to them by the white man's govern- 
ment sooner or later was violated. Helen Hunt's Century 
of Dishonor tells this disgraceful story more fully. The 
Canadian Government has pursued a much more honor- 
able policy toward the Indians of the Dominion, with the 
consequence that few Indian " wars " have broken out 
across the border, and their Indian problem is virtually 

Nevertheless, it is a great tribute to the inherent no- 
bility of the red man, that he has ignored, if he has not 
forgotten, his historic wrongs, and is rapidly taking his 
place among American citizens as an equal. Over 8,000 
Indians served in our army during the late war, more than 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

one-third of them volunteers. They subscribed for more 
than $10,000,000 Liberty bonds. No part of our people 
gave service more freely or more efficiently, in propor- 
tion to numbers. 

Early Indian Missions 

Roger Williams was not only the founder of the first 
Baptist church in America, but the first missionary to the 
Indians. He purchased from the tribe of Narragansetts 
the land on which the city of Providence now stands, and 
continued to have friendly relations with that tribe and 
other Indians. He preached the gospel to them faith- 
fully and won some converts; but he had neither col- 
leagues nor successors in this work and no permanent im- 
pression was made. A more successful work was that 
of John Eliot. He began his labors in 1646, after two 
years' study of the native language. He won many con- 
verts, whom he established in separate settlements, and 
they became known as "praying Indians." By 1674 
there are said to have been 3,699 of them. Eliot was 
largely supported by an English society, but his church 
at Roxbury, then a suburban village of Boston, gave him 
leave to spend much of his time in his missionary work. 
The " King Philip War " between the English settlements 
and the Indians partially broke up this mission and the 
decline of the tribes did the rest. It was Eliot's misfor- 
tune to spend his life in labors for a vanishing race. He 
translated the entire Bible into Algonquin, the New Tes- 
tament having been printed as early as 1661. Eliot's Bible 
is now one of the rarest Americana, and a copy of it is 
a prize for any collector, but no living man can now 
read it. 

Rev. Peter Folger, the grandfather of Benjamin Frank- 
lin, an ardent Baptist, labored among the Indians of 
Martha's Vineyard and left permanent impress of his 


American Home Missions 

character and effort. An Indian Baptist church still sur- 
vives at Gay's Head, which was organized in 1771. It 
is an interesting fact that the three surviving Indian 
churches in Massachusetts are all Baptist, the others being 
Pondville, Plymouth County, Mashpee, and Cape Cod. 
The first named has but three Indian members now, but 
the last has 55. 

Somewhat later David Brainerd undertook a mission 
to the Delaware tribe, and established a station at the 
forks of the Delaware River, where the city of Easton 
is now located; later he opened another station near 
Newark, N. J. Here he had some success and baptized 
78. What he might have achieved with a longer life 
we can only guess, but he died of tuberculosis in his 
thirtieth year. His mission has been called a failure, and 
judged merely by numerical results or permanence it 
might be so regarded ; but his was a brilliant and inspiring 
example, like that of Henry Martyn, that ought not to be 
measured by mathematical tests. 


Without doubt, the early missionary to the Indians who 
could show most visible results was David Zeisberger, a 
Moravian, educated at Herrnhut, who joined his parents 
in 1737 in Georgia, whither they had gone some years 
before. Later they came northward and took part in 
establishing the Moravian settlement at Bethlehem, Pa. 
Here young Zeisberger was converted and dedicated him- 
self to missionary work among the Indians. He was 
arrested in the Mohawk Valley in 1745, while he was 
still learning the language of the Indians, before he had 
been able to do any preaching or teaching, and held in 
prison for some time as a suspected spy. The only ground 
for this suspicion was his refusal to take the oath of 
allegiance to the king of England, but this was merely 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

because he objected on conscientious grounds to all oaths. 
On March 12, 1749, the British Parliament formally 
recognized the Moravian Church and exempted its mem- 
bers and missionaries thenceforth from oaths and military 

Zeisberger was released and was ordained a Moravian 
minister in 1749. His labors thenceforth were indefatig- 
able. On a journey to Onondaga, the headquarters of the 
League of the Iroquois, he was adopted into the tribe of 
Onondagas and the clan of the Turtle. In later years he 
extended his labors into what is now the State of Ohio 
and helped to lay out the town of Gnadenhiitten (Tents 
of Grace). For a time he was stationed at Shamokin. 
He finally took up his abode at Onondaga and established 
a permanent church there. A village named Friedens- 
hiitten (Tents of Peace) was established on the Susque- 
hanna, and there was a great revival and many conver- 
sions among the tribes. These labors were interrupted by 
the numerous " wars " between Indians and whites, and 
by the intolerance and brutality of some British com- 
manders. A massacre at Gnadenhiitten in 1782, in which 
all the Indians and some whites lost their lives, is a 
flagrant example. Zeisberger died in 1808, at the ripe 
age of 87, and there were then some 25,000 Christian 
Indians as the result of his work. At the time of the 
Burgoyne campaign, it was his influence mainly that kept 
the major part of the Iroquois tribes from joining in the 
projected movement, which included an attack on the 
West from the Indians as Burgoyne marched down from 
Canada to assail the Continental forces on the East. It 
was failure of the Indians to cooperate that made possible 
the defeat of Burgoyne by Gates and saved the colonies 
from a probably fatal disaster. In this indirect way, In- 
dian missions were of great service to our country in its 
darkest hour. 


American Home Missions 


Another very successful missionary to Indians was Rev. 
Isaac McCoy, a native of Pennsylvania (1784), whose 
family emigrated to Kentucky in 1790. He was converted 
in 1801 and in 1804 moved to Indiana, locating in Clarke 
County. He was ordained to the ministry in 1810, and 
in 1817 entered upon the great work of his life among the 
Indians. He established mission stations at Fort Wayne, 
Niles (Mich.), and other places that have since become 
important towns. He traveled on horseback and on foot 
hundreds of miles through what was then a trackless 
wilderness, suffering untold privations and dangers, that 
he might give the gospel to the tribes of the Middle West. 
He made several trips to Washington, to interest Con- 
gress in the Indians and procure justice for them. His 
evangelism was not without fruits ; many were converted, 
many churches established. Several of his young men 
were trained for the ministry at the Hamilton Theological 
Seminary (now Colgate). He succeeded in getting sev- 
eral of the tribes settled on reservations. Among his 
other titles to remembrance is the fact that on October 9, 
1825, he preached the first sermon at a little collection of 
log huts that afterwards became the great city of Chicago. 

In addition to his other labors, McCoy found time to 
do considerable literary work of the highest value. In 
1827 he issued a pamphlet on " The Practicability of In- 
dian Reform, Embracing Their Colonization," in which 
he earnestly advocated the policy of giving the Indians 
land in severalty, which was afterward done in some 
cases. His missionary experience convinced him that the 
best prospect for the Indians was to segregate them some- 
where in the undeveloped West where they could develop 
normally. As he said, the chief obstacles to missionary 
work were the traders, a large part of whose profits were 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

gained by selling whisky to the Indians. His views were 
more fully set forth in a History of Indian Baptist Mis- 
sions ', published in Utica, N. Y., in 1840. It was largely 
in consequence of his advocacy of this policy that Con- 
gress, in 1832 and 1834, organized the Indian Territory, 
and the larger part of the tribes were persuaded to remove 
thither. In 1890 this became Oklahoma and attained 
statehood in 1907. In 1842 the Indian Mission Associa- 
tion was formed and McCoy was made its first secre- 
tary. He died in 1846, in the midst of his labors, from 
exposure and undue exertion. His was a heroic life and 
death, and he deserves a place high among the apostles 
and martyrs. 

Other Baptist Missions 

Soon after the formation of the New York Baptist 
Missionary Society, in 1807, work was begun among the 
Indian tribes of that State. By 1809 a church had been 
established among the Tuscaroras, which is still flourish- 
ing under an Indian pastor, and is in many respects a 
model village church. Another mission was begun among 
the Oneidas that met with considerable success. The 
Tonawandas were also reached, and a church of that 
tribe still exists. Indian churches are still found in Red 
Hill and Cattaraugus, making four Indian churches now 
existent in New York. The State Convention has main- 
tained missionaries continuously, usually Indian preach- 
ers, and the percentage of Christians among the remain- 
ing Indians of the State is probably greater than in the 
surrounding white population. 

In 1818 the Board of the Triennial Convention sent 
Rev. Humphrey Posey to the Cherokees of North Caro- 
lina; others followed and the mission was maintained 
among them until their transfer to the Indian Territory 
(Oklahoma) in 1838. The thousands of Cherokee Bap- 


American Home Missions 

tists today are the direct result of these labors. The 
greater part of the Eastern and Southern Indians were 
gradually removed to the same region, and this made pos- 
sible a concentration of work for the Indians, which was 
interrupted for a time by the Civil War, but resumed 
with new energy after 1865. The work was also unified 
by placing it entirely under the direction of the ABHMS. 

The WABHMS began work among the Choctaws 
and Chickasaws in 1878; they have done especially val- 
uable service in supplying teachers for Indian schools, 
and in the maintenance of the orphanage. The women 
have also labored among the Kiowas, Cheyennes, Coman- 
ches, and Arapahoes. The mission among the Hopis 
owes its beginning to the Baptist Kiowas, who said they 
" wanted to be a light on a mountain," so the Indian name 
of that mission signifies " God's-Light-upon-the-Moun- 
tain." The white people have called it by the less mean- 
ingful title of the Sunlight Mission, and the WA B H M S 
has done much to extend and energize the operations in 
this field since 1901. 

Work among the Navajos began in 1907, mainly in 
Arizona. The latest enterprise is a -mission to the Monos 
of central California, where the Baptist women began 
work in 1909, and the A B H M S sent a missionary 
in 1913. Less has been done for the Indians of Alaska, 
but the Baptist women have established an orphanage on 
Kodiak Island, in the Gulf of Alaska, that is caring for 
34 children. 

Under direction of the A B H M S there were in 1925 
twenty-six men and women laboring among the Indians, 
with 30 Baptist churches in their care, having 1,400 mem- 
bers. There are also independent churches, especially in 
Oklahoma, with about 4,000 members. Besides the tribes 
already mentioned, missions are maintained among the 
Osages, the Sacs and Foxes, both in Oklahoma, and the 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Piutes of Montana. Of late years the mission among 
the Crows has been notably fruitful. A marked religious 
interest prevailed among them in 1924 and 1925 ; the 
percentage of baptisms was about three times as large 
as the average in the field of the NBC. Six Baptist 
churches are now flourishing in this tribe, and the most 
influential men among the Crows have been converted and 
baptized. Of not all the tribes can so good a report as 
this be given, but all are responsive to the gospel ; even the 
Apaches, whose name but a few years ago was a synonym 
for every kind of barbaric ferocity, are receiving the 
gospel with gladness. The Indian Baptist Association of 
Oklahoma is composed of thirteen churches, representing 
half a dozen different tribes. In 1925 they received 1,782 
new members. These churches have Sunday schools, 
young people's societies, and other usual auxiliaries found 
in white Baptist churches ; and an Indian was moderator 
of the last Association meeting. 

Baptists were first, and have always been foremost, 
among Protestant bodies at least, in giving the gospel to 
the Indian. Those who are fond of the dollar measure 
for everything, may be interested to know that the Indian 
churches have shown their appreciation of such activity 
in their behalf by responding liberally with contributions, 
in proportion to their means. In the New World move- 
ment, $500 was allotted to the Tuscarora church in New 
York, and its members subscribed $4,084. Many Indian 
churches went over their allotments and a Hopi church 
subscribed double the amount requested. Up to 1921 
Indians had given $180,000 for Bacone College and their 
Murrow Orphans' Home. 

Southern Baptists at Work 

The S B C is also maintaining a fine work among the 
Indians, under its Home Mission Board. There are 15 


American Home Missions 

missionaries at work, 7 of them in Oklahoma, and in 
1925 there were 438 baptisms reported. It was their in- 
tention to expend, as part of their five-year effort : $12,500 
on work among the Cherokees, of Mississippi; $17,000 on 
the Cherokees remaining in North Carolina; $64,000 on 
the tribes in Oklahoma, and $4,000 on the Florida Semi- 
noles. This at least measures the interest of Southern 
Baptists in Indian Missions, as well as their estimate of 
its importance and promise. 

All of the missionaries are deserving of honorable men- 
tion, were there space to enumerate them; but two have 
been especially noteworthy. Rev. G. W. Hicks, an Indian 
by birth, was a graduate of the Indian University and the 
Rochester Theological Seminary. He received his ap- 
pointment as missionary in 1887, and from that time on 
was abundant in labors among his people, establishing 
many churches and rendering a manifold service. Rev. 
Joseph Samuel Murrow was orginally an appointee of the 
SBC (1857) but after 1889 was in the service of the 
ABHMS. His work was most fruitful, especially 
among the Creeks, Seminoles, and Choctaws. He be- 
came affectionately known among all the tribes as " Father 
Murrow." He helped organize Bacone College, and may 
be said to have created the orphanage, now known by his 
name. He organized over 75 churches, baptized more 
than 2,000 converts, and assisted in ordaining 60 Indian 

Other Missionary Labors 

It gradually dawned upon the American people and 
their Government that it is cheaper to educate the Indian 
than to fight him, better to Christianize than to kill him. 
A new policy began with the administration of General 
Grant, though it has not always been consistently pursued. 
One great obstacle to a uniform policy is that the office 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

of Indian Commissioner has always been a political spoil ; 
in seventy years there were thirty Commissioners. The 
inevitable result is that just as a Commissioner has learned 
his job and is prepared to give valuable service, he is put 
out of office and a greenhorn installed in his place. The 
conflicting rulings, the changing laws, the violated 
treaties, have discouraged the Indian, and the wonder is 
that he has made so much progress. Still, the new policy 
has been bearing increasing fruit with every decade. 

The Government has on the whole been favorable to 
missions, and especially favorable to mission schools, sub- 
sidizing them to a considerable extent a policy that if 
not altogether defensible has seemed to justify itself 
by its results. There are now 26 denominations or so- 
cieties doing work among the Indians that deserve to be 
called missionary. The result of their united efforts is 
that 597 stations are maintained, with 428 pastors and 
missionaries, and over $1,000,000 is invested in church 
buildings. These statistics do not include the schools. In 
all there are about 80,000 Protestant Indians, actual com- 
municants and not merely " adherents," while Roman 
Catholics claim 65,000 in addition. Thus about 40 per 
cent, of the Indian population is as much Christian as any 
corresponding white people. Yet there are still 46,000, 
on 40 separate reservations, for whom practically nothing 
has been done. 

Educational Work 

The government maintains an excellent system of pri- 
mary schools among the Indians, so that the most effec- 
tive aid that can be given to their education is in second- 
ary and higher schools. An academy was begun and 
maintained for a time in Scott County, Kentucky, as early 
as 1826. It was attended mostly by Choctaws. Quite a 
number of young Indians received collegiate and theo- 


American Home Missions 

logical training at Shurtleff and Colgate, and there was 
need of an institution in their own home. In 1879 Chero- 
kee Academy was founded at Tahlequah; it was for- 
tunate in having at its head from the beginning A. C. 
Bacone, who proved himself an eminent educator and 
organizer. Another school was opened at Atoka, for the 
Choctaws and Chickasaws, but in 1910 the two schools 
were consolidated, under the title at first of Bacone Col- 
lege, which has since been changed to Indian University. 
This institution now has a plant valued at $85,000 and 
an enrolment of about 275 students. 

Another institution has a history probably unparalleled. 
The mission among the Ottawas proved so successful 
from 1823 to 1858, that practically the entire tribe became 
civilized, and seven-eighths of the male adults were mem- 
bers of Baptist churches. They became much interested 
in education. Rev. John Tecumseh Jones, an Ottawa by 
adoption, attended the first meeting of the Kansas Bap- 
tist Convention and urged the founding of an institution 
for the education of both Indians and whites. The In- 
dians gave 20,000 acres of their land to establish it; an 
endowment was gradually raised ; and Ottawa University 
is the result of that movement. 

The discovery of oil in some parts of Oklahoma has 
greatly enriched many Indians, especially the Osage tribe. 
This, by the way, is an excellent example of what we 
sometimes call " poetic justice." Greedy white men, de- 
siring the former lands of the Osages, procured their 
segregation on what were then supposed to be some of 
the most unpromising lands in the United States. They 
turned out to be one of the richest oil-fields. Each mem- 
ber of that tribe in 1921 received an average of $10,000 
from royalties. More than $1,000,000 has been given by 
Indians in recent years for the maintenance of schools 
for their people, especially for the Murrow Orphanage 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

and Indian University. On part of this an annuity is paid 
during the life of the giver, Mr. Jackson Barnett, a full- 
blooded Creek, who gave in one lump $550,00x3. In 1924 
the sum of $100,000 was received from Indians for equip- 
ment and buildings. These funds are administered by the 
ABHMS. Does it pay to Christianize such a people? 
Among the educational work for Indians should cer-r 
tainly be reckoned what has been done to give them a 
Christian literature. Many of the Indian languages have 
been reduced to writing, and books have been published 
in Cherokee, Potawotamie, Creek, Choctaw, Iowa, and 
perhaps others. Among these books of course the Bible 
is chief, and has been issued in whole or in part for their 
benefit. Next come such books as the Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress and a Harmony of the Gospels. Several period- 
icals are also regularly issued. Most of this, however, 
may be regarded as merely temporary; all Indians are 
rapidly learning to speak and read English, which in 
another generation will be their language as well as ours ; 
and then all the treasures of our literature will be at their 

A Vanishing Problem 

Though the Indians are not a vanishing race, the In- 
dian problem is vanishing. That problem is not merely 
to convert, but to educate and civilize. Our missions have 
from the first proclaimed a social gospel to the Indian, 
and have done much to teach industrialism and the arts 
of living. Less and less common in the days to come 
will be the reversion to type of the educated Indian. The 
American Indian has a high mentality; he will succeeed 
in almost anything he is given to do, providing he has 
training and opportunities equal to those of the white 
man. There are 49,962 Indians now engaged in farming, 
and 26,949 in native industries, for the most part as suc- 


American Home Missions 

cessfully as whites in similar occupations. Many of them 
live in houses that would be a credit to any white com- 
munity, with furnishings that indicate good taste and 
refinement. Of course there are still, and for some time 
there will be, " blanket " Indians, who stubbornly resist 
civilizing tendencies and try to maintain the ancient life 
and the ancient customs. 


Are there many varieties of Indians? How many? 
What is the Indian population ? Is it increasing or dimin- 
ishing? Can you name some of the principal stocks? 
How many tribes are considered civilized? Are many 
of them educated? Can an Indian vote? What Indian 
words do you recall? Are the Indians poor? Do they 
own land like whites? What is their probable future? 
Have the whites treated Indians well ? Have Indians kept 
faith ? What is the Indian's attitude toward the Govern- 
ment? Who was the first missionary to Indians? What 
others were there in New England ? What did Brainerd 
accomplish? Can you describe the work of Zeisberger? 
Why was it important? Why are there so few visible 
results of these missionary labors ? Who was McCoy, and 
what did he do? What were some Indian missions in 
New York? Did they have any permanent results? 
What was done among the Cherokees? What has the 
A B H M S done for Indians ? What have Baptist women 
done? In what tribes has there been largest success? 
Are Indians generous givers ? What is the SBC doing 
for Indians? Can you name any especially successful 
missionaries? When was there a change of policy to- 
ward the Indians ? Why has it lacked entire success ? Is 
the United States Government favorable to missions or 
hostile ? What can you say of the general results of In- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

dian missions? Is our Government doing much for In- 
dian education? What type of schools is most needed? 
What can you tell about the Indian University? About 
Ottawa University? Do Indians appreciate what is done 
for them? What evidence of appreciation do they give? 
Is there an attempt to give them a Christian literature ? 
Do you think this will be a permanent work? Can you 
give a good reason for your answer? Will the Indian 
problem ever be solved ? 


Brady, Cyrus T., Indian Fights and Fighters. New York, 

Northwestern Fights and Fighters. New York, 1907. 
Crawford, Isabel, Kiowa: History of a Blanket Indian 
Mission. New York, 1915. 

Harrison, J. B., The Latest Studies on Indian Reserva- 
tions. Philadelphia, 1887. 

Humphrey, Seth K., The Indian Dispossessed. Y P M M, 

Jackson, Helen Hunt, A Century of Dishonor. Boston, 

Keppler, Charles J., Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties. 

Leupp, F. E., The Indian and His Problem. New York, 

Lindquist, G. E. E., The Red Man in the United States. 
New York, 1923. 

Morehead, W. K., The American Indian in the United 
States, 1850-1914. Andover, 1914. 

Treaties Between the United States and the Indians, 
1788-1837. Washington, 1837. 




Our Negro Population 

The Negro population of the United States is increas- 
ing more rapidly than the white, if we exclude from the 
latter European immigrants. The census of 1900 re- 
turned 8,833,994; that of 1910 gave them 9,827,763, 
which by 1920 had grown to 10,463,131. While they 
are distributed throughout the States, three-fourths of 
them are found below the Ohio River and Mason and 
Dixon's line. Though we speak of the American Negro 
as a single race, we have in fact to deal with a mixture 
of numerous African races, of great variations. Color is 
the simplest mark, and these races vary in all the shades 
from dark brown to jet black. Practically all of them 
speak the English language, after a sort, but many of the 
old pagan ideas and customs have survived among those 
who have forgotten their native languages. 

African slavery was not the only form of bondage in 
the early history of America. Some captive Indians were 
made slaves, and for a time England sent her criminals 
to be sold as slaves, some for a term of years, some for 
life. But neither Indian nor white slavery worked well 
in the New World, and African slavery was the sole sur- 
vivor from the eighteenth century. Spain began to im- 
port Negroes for slaves as early as 1517, and England 
followed the bad example in 1564. It is worthy of note 
that the first English slave ship was named the " Jesus," 
and its commander, Captain Hawkins, was knighted by 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Good Queen Bess. African slavery was firmly established 
in all the colonies, and New England seamen were active 
in the business. Virginia had slaves as early as 1619, 
Massachusetts by 1638, New Amsterdam in 1650, Penn- 
sylvania in 1688, and so on. 

Abolition of Slavery 

Slavery proved to be an economic and political problem 
of the first magnitude, apart from its ethical aspects. At 
the time of the adoption of the Federal Constitution, it 
was found in practically all the States, and so it was in- 
evitable that it should be recognized in the Constitution, 
and prohibition of the slave-trade even should not be for- 
bidden before 1808. Leading Southern patriots (like 
Washington, Jefferson, and Henry) were opposed to 
slavery in principle and hoped for its complete abolition 
soon. Slaves were counted in the enumeration of the 
States, though not citizens, which gave Southern whites 
disproportionate political weight. That constituted the 
root of the political problem. The economic problem also 
became a sectional one, because slavery was unprofitable 
in the North, where estates were small and free labor 
abundant, and there slavery was easily extinguished. In 
the South, larger estates were the rule, worked by gangs 
of Negroes, and there was little or no free labor available. 
In spite of this, there was a growing sentiment in favor 
of abolition until the invention of the cotton-gin, by a 
Yankee school-teacher, suddenly opened the way to im- 
mense profits in the cultivation of cotton by slaves. This 
firmly established the institution in the South, and led to 
a demand for the extension of slavery into the territories 
of the great West. This conflict of interests finally 
brought about the Civil War, of 1861-5, m which slavery 
perished. The Emancipation Proclamation issued by 
President Lincoln, in 1862, of doubtful legal validity, was 


American Home Missions 

made the organic law of the land by the Fourteenth 
Amendment to the Constitution, in 1868. 

The Present Negro Problem 

The Negro problem of today is a race problem, an in- 
dustrial problem, a housing problem. Attempts have 
been made to solve the race problem by colonization. The 
republic of Liberia and the English colony of Sierra 
Leone are results of such attempts, not very encouraging 
to future enterprises of like kind. It could only be a 
palliative at best, for not all the shipping of the world 
would suffice to transport in a decade the Afro-American 
population of the United States to Africa, assuming that 
homes and sustenance could be found for them there. 
The futility of the plan becomes evident at any serious 
attempt to calculate its physical possibilities. We may as 
well make up our minds to this: The Negro is here to 
stay. The white man brought him here, and the white 
man must now discover a way to live with him peaceably. 

Will the solution of the race problem be found in future 
years by the route of miscegenation or amalgamation? 
Some ethnologists answer, Yes ; and they point to the fact 
that history discloses no instance of two races living peace- 
ably side by side without amalgamation. They call our 
attention also to certain facts regarding mulattoes. They 
increased from 584,049 in 1870 to 2,050,686 in 1910, but 
in 1920 were returned at 1,660,554. The amount and 
rate of increase are most uncertain there is good ground 
for suspecting the accuracy of these figures. In any case, 
against the plausibility of this solution lies the fact of the 
very stubborn prejudice of the white people against in- 
termarriage of the races. Mulattoes are the result chiefly 
of illicit connections. Marriage results in social ostracism 
among whites, and many States have made such mar- 
riages illegal. Virginia is a good example; by a statute 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

of 1924 marriage is prohibited between any white person 
and " any save a white person, or a person with no other 
admixture of blood than white and American Indian." 
So long as this social status persists, and there is no sign 
of its modification, no solution of the race problem by 
amalgamation is possible. The Negroes of pure blood 
are nearly as much opposed to amalgamation as the 
whites, though on somewhat different grounds. 

No Longer a Sectional Problem 

The Negro problem is no longer an exclusive Southern 
problem, if it ever was such. There has been steady 
movement of the Negro population northward, ever since 
the Civil War. At times there have been notable mass 
movements. In 1879 for example, there was large emi- 
gration from Louisiana and Mississippi to Kansas, caused 
by local political and social conditions. It was a salutary 
lesson, that when and where any people are denied just 
protection of their legal rights, the denial carries with it 
its own punishment. The State then most at fault suf- 
fered serious economic losses. Peonage, disfranchise- 
ment, mob violence, unjust segregation, curtailment of 
educational privileges, are some of the things that have 
led to Negro emigration. Lynching and intimidation by 
certain elements of the white race, avowedly to "keep 
the nigger in his place," have reacted upon themselves to 
retard the development of the guilty regions. The late 
war gave rise to a demand for labor that the people of 
the Northern States could not meet, especially with the 
depletion of their working force by conscription, and the 
result was a sudden and great influx of Negroes into 
Northern communities. Floods and the boll-weevil 
worked such destruction in the South as to induce a 
further exodus of Negroes, which, however, in recent 
years, appears to have practically ceased from natural 


American Home Missions 

causes, rather than from application of any of the pro- 
posed remedies. One of the results is that the two largest 
Negro communities in the world are the Harlem district 
of New York and the city of Detroit. 

The most spectacular manifestations of race feeling 
have been occasional riots and lynchings. While these 
have been most prevalent in the South, that appears to be 
due merely to the fact that there are more Negroes there ; 
for the manifestations are not confined to any region. 
There are two kinds of lynchings that are easily dis- 
criminated : one due to outbursts of passion on the occur- 
rence of revolting crimes, the other deliberately fomented 
by organizations under various names, such as " White 
Caps." The remedy in both cases is similar : prompt and 
stern dealing by police and courts with all criminals, 
under existing laws, and the strengthening of laws re- 
garding crime whenever necessary. It is the present 
laxity, the slowness and uncertainty of " justice," that 
constitutes a permanent incitement to mob violence. Only 
a small percentage of murderers are convicted and pun- 
ished, although the percentage of homicidal crime is larger 
than in any other civilized nation. All crimes against the 
person are much less severely punished than crimes against 
property ; brutal assault with intent to kill will often result 
in imprisonment for two years, while a burglar will get 
a sentence of twenty years. Such anomalies cannot fail to 
provoke social resentment and mob violence. 

Religion Among the Negroes 

The Negro has a natural bent toward religion, of the 
emotional type, but his emotions are violent and unstable. 
Religious progress is mainly the result of "revivals" 
or " protracted meetings " during which great excitement 
often prevails. Those physical manifestations, that were 
once common among whites but have now almost ceased 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

among them, are still .characteristic of Negro revivals. 
Because of this natural bent, the great bulk of Negro 
Christians are either Baptists or Methodists the two de- 
nominations that have always laid greatest stress on con- 
version, or a personal experience of divine grace in the 
forgiveness of sins. The Episcopal Church is making 
some progress among the Negroes, numbering about 
1 5, OCMD. The Roman Catholics are doing still better, and 
claim 150,000. But these are trifling numbers compared 
with the 3,137,160 of Baptists and the 1,384,209 of Meth- 
odists among the Negroes (1923). 

Before the Civil War and emancipation, such Negroes 
as became Christians became members of the white 
churches of the South, and to some extent of the North 
also. Negro churches were not tolerated in the South 
under slavery, and were few in the North, where they 
were not forbidden indeed, but scarcely encouraged. With 
freedom came a disposition to organize by themselves; 
churches and preachers came into existence with startling 
rapidity, and further organizations followed the same 
steps as among the whites generations before. The first 
State Convention of Negro Baptists was organized in 
North Carolina in 1866, and a National Convention fol- 
lowed in 1880. They have the usual Boards and are en- 
gaged in a variety of missionary enterprises, in principle 
and method different not at all from those of the white 
Baptists. Their Publication Board is located at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., where it has a plant worth $500,000, and 
supplies their churches with Sunday-school and general 
religious literature. BYPU and Church Extension 
Boards are also at Nashville; the Home Mission Board 
is at Little Rock, Arkansas, and the Woman's Auxiliary 
has headquarters at Washington. The Educational Board 
at Chicago is operating 108 high schools and colleges, be- 
sides cooperating with the A B H M S. A National Theo- 


American Home Missions 

logical School has lately been begun at Nashville. The 
Woman's Auxiliary operates a training-school, one of 
their most valuable institutions, with a plant valued at 
$300,000. Several religious weeklies are published among 
them and have a considerable circulation. The Negro 
Methodists have a' similar history, and there are several 
varieties of them, corresponding to the divisions among 
the whites. It should be added that there are some Pres- 
byterian and Congregational churches also, but these de- 
nominations, comparatively speaking, have made no im- 
pression on the Negro population. 

Education Among the Negroes 

The Civil War resulted in the freedom of African 
slaves that is, it freed their bodies. The real battle for 
the freedom of the Negro race spiritual freedom came 
later. It was a bloodless conflict, in which North and 
South have been allies, not enemies. Emancipation was a 
national enterprise ; it was natural that national aid should 
be extended to help the freed race make the best of their 
new opportunities. The Freedmen's Bureau was estab- 
lished by Act of Congress, in 1865, with this objective. 
Its project was an ambitious one, too large perhaps for 
successful accomplishment during the brief time of its 
existence; and while it did much for the relief and 
advancement of Negroes, it failed in two important par- 
ticulars to do what was hoped : it did not make Negroes 
landholders in any considerable numbers, and it did not 
establish good-will between the freedmen and their 
former owners. It expired by limitation in 1869. 

In the meantime it had done considerable work of edu- 
cation, most notable of all by founding Howard Univer- 
sity at Washington, chartered by the United States in 
1867. It has grown to be a great institution, with a 
faculty of 150 or more, and students numbering over 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

1,400. It has a fine plant, and in addition to its College 
of Arts and Sciences has a large group of professional 
schools, not only the usual Law, Medicine, and Theology, 
but various schools of Manual Arts and Applied Sciences, 
a Conservatory of Music, a Commercial College, and an 
Academy. Recently Rev. Mordecai W. Johnson has been 
chosen President, the first Negro to fill that post, a product 
of Chicago, Rochester, and Harvard, who has already 
shown his capacity as organizer and is now in the way 
to demonstrate that the Negro race can furnish its own 
leadership in education. 

Denominational Schools 

Immediately after the conclusion of peace, practically 
all the Home Mission societies and Boards began work 
among the freedmen. It was recognized that their great 
need was education, and especially after their enfranchise- 
ment this became a matter of patriotism no less than re- 
ligion. So great a mass of ignorant citizens was a menace 
to our institutions that could not be suffered to exist. One 
of the first organizations in the field was the American 
Missionary Association, begun as an undenominational 
body, but gradually coming under the control of Con- 
gregationalists chiefly, as its largest supporters. In 1866 
Fisk University was established at Nashville, Tenn., by 
the Association, where it has done a work probably ex- 
celled by no similar institution. 

Hampton Institute is another school that owes its exis- 
tence to this Association. It was chartered in 1870, but 
began its career two years earlier in an old barrack, with 
two teachers and 15 pupils. It grew to splendid propor- 
tions under the wise management of General S. C. Arm- 
strong, who proved himself one of the great educators of 
his day. It now has a campus and farms of 188 acres, 
60 buildings, and more than 1,400 students each year. 


American Some Missions 

Besides school buildings, its plant includes workshops, 
and laboratories for all forms of engineering, as well as 
a fine stock-farm and all its appurtenances. It has done 
and is doing a marvelous work for the Negro race. 
Moreover, since 1878 many Indians have been educated 
here, mostly Sioux, under the capable direction of Cap- 
tain R. H. Pratt. Besides the regular sessions, a summer 
school for teachers is maintained, at which 1,800 teachers 
from all over the South come for additional training in 
their calling. 

One of the finest achievements of Hampton was the 
training of Booker Washington, and if it had graduated 
but this one man, it would have amply justified its exis- 
tence. He was born about 1858, went to Hampton in, 
1872, was graduated in 1875, taught several years in sev- 
eral places, and then organized a school at Tuskegee, Ala., 
that in the end became even more famous than Hampton. 
It was Washington's good sense that enabled him to see 
the defects of previous attempts to educate the Negro. 
Northern people began this work with the determination 
to give the Negro just as good educational opportunities 
as the white race had, believing that they had minds 
capable of responding, that the Negro could acquire lan- 
guages, higher mathematics, and the sciences as well as 
any white man. So they established colleges and univer- 
sities and seemed to prove their case Negro youths pur- 
sued the higher studies successfully and qualified them- 
selves for various professions. But many of the graduates 
found no careers open to them; their own people were 
chary of support, the whites would not employ them pro- 
fessionally. It was apparent that the higher education of 
Negroes had been overdone, the colleges and universities 
did not give them the kind of training that their actual 
environment and social status called for. A new edu- 
cational ideal was demanded. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Booker Washington established a school for industrial 
training; he saw that his race could progress only by win- 
ning economic independence, by demonstrating to the 
world that Negroes are a people who can stand on their 
own feet and go forward " under their own steam." His 
success was so unquestionable, the growth of the Tuskegee 
institution was so rapid and great, that both North and 
South recognized him as the distinguished benefactor of 
his race. Harvard recognized his accomplishment by giv- 
ing him the degree of M. A. in 1896, and Dartmouth 
made him an LL. D. in 1901. Tuskegee has trained over 
2,500 young men and women, has over 100 buildings and 
20,000 acres of public lands. A Bible training-school and 
a theological seminary have been added in recent years. 
Best of all perhaps is the fact that its success has stimu- 
lated at least 15 similar schools in various parts of the 
South. A recent movement for the endowment of Hamp- 
ton and Tuskegee resulted in the raising of a fund of 
$7,000,000, and both institutions have now been placed 
on a firm and enduring foundation. 

Southern Methodists have been active in educational 
work among the Negroes, having given nearly $700,000 
during the last four years for this purpose. Among the 
principal items in this budget have been the erection and 
equipment of a building for Texas College at Tyler, at a 
cost of $125,000; another with its equipment costing 
$100,000 at Haygood College, Ark.; a building worth 
$40,000 at Boley, Okla., and one worth $100,000 at the 
industrial institute, Holly Springs, Miss.; a dormitory 
worth $60,000 and a $50,000 domestic-science building at 
Paine College, Augusta, Ga. ; and the projection of a 
$125,000 science building for Lane College at Jackson, 
Tenn., besides $30,000 in endowment for the same in- 
stitution. This, is one of the greatest contributions to the 
education of Negroes that has yet been made. 


American Home Missions 

Economic and Social Progress of Negroes 

According to the census of 1920 Negroes own 600,000 
houses, an increase of 100 per cent, in twenty years, be- 
sides 250,000 farms, of 21,000,000 acres, the value of 
which is $700,000,000. They have 59,000 business estab- 
lishments, operate 74 banks, and their total wealth is esti- 
mated at $1,000,000,000. Illiteracy has been reduced 
among them from 44 per cent, to 20 per cent. There 
are 1,800,000 Negro children in public schools. They 
have 43,000 churches, with 4,800,000 communicant mem- 
bers, and their church property has an estimated value of 
$86,000,000. About 50 per cent, of their professing Chris- 
tians are affiliated with Baptists: 21,762 churches and 
3,020,950 members. 

In general culture and contributions to literature and 
art, Negroes are making their mark as well. Their pro- 
ficiency in oratory is well known, and few names stand 
higher in the annals of American eloquence than those of 
Frederick Douglass and Booker Washington. The poems 
of Paul Laurence Dunbar and William Stanley Braithe- 
waite are known and prized by all lovers of the best 
modern literature. The stories of Charles Waddell Ches- 
nuth are familiar to all readers of the Atlantic Monthly. 
W. E. B. DuBois, a graduate of Harvard, is an outstand- 
ing writer on social and political topics who commands 
attention whenever he speaks. Some have won distinc- 
tion in art; the pictures of Henry O. Tanner are highly 
esteemed. In music, both as performers and composers, 
they have done remarkable work. Samuel Coleridge 
Taylor ranks high among our recent American composers. 
Harry T. Burleigh is well known as the composer of 
"Deep River" and many other popular songs. Roland 
Hayes is one of our great singers and has highly dis- 
tinguished himself as a soloist with the Boston Symphony 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

orchestra. In scientific research and invention they have 
also made contributions of acknowledged value. The 
future possibilities of the race are very great. 

Of colleges and universities for Negroes there are now 
52. Besides these, there are 18 schools for girls, 35 theo- 
logical schools or departments, 2 law schools, 3 of medi- 
cine, pharmacy, and dentistry. Seventeen State agricul- 
tural and mechanical schools are maintained, and fifteen 
normal schools. For secondary education, there are sev- 
eral hundred schools claiming academic rank and a large 
number of public high schools. 

What Baptists Have Done 

The Baptist schools for Negroes number sixteen, well 
distributed and located at strategic points : Storer College, 
at Harper's Ferry, W. Va. ; Virginia Union University 
and Hartshorn Memorial College at Richmond; Shaw 
University at Raleigh, N. C. ; Mather College at Beau- 
fort and Benedict at Columbia, S. C. ; Florida Normal 
and Industrial Institute at St. Augustine ; Morehouse Col- 
lege and Spelman Seminary at Atlanta, and Selma Uni- 
versity at Selma, Ala. ; Jackson College at Jackson, Miss. ; 
Coleman Academy at Gibsland, La.; Bishop College at 
Marshall, Texas ; Arkansas College at Little Rock ; Roger 
Williams University at Nashville ; and Simmons Univer- 
sity at Louisville. Of these schools, Virginia Union and 
Morehouse are for boys, Hartshorn Memorial and Spel- 
man for girls, and the rest are coeducational. The W A 
B H M S cares for Hartshorn, and also for Mather School 
for girls, located at Beaufort, S. C., in which elementary 
and high-school grades are maintained. These institu- 
tions have a total enrolment of about 6,000 students, and 
faculties of over 340. Most schools offer industrial 
courses and cultivate the spirit of independence, self-re- 
liance, and thrift. Nearly 1 1,000 teachers have gone out, 


American Home Missions 

and are today filling positions of all sorts, from grade 
schools to 350 college professors and presidents. In round 
numbers, they have graduated 700 physicians, 300 phar- 
macists and dentists, 150 lawyers, and many welfare 
workers. " When you educate the Negro/' said President 
Maxson of Bishop College, " you are removing them from 
the liability side of the book and putting them on the 
asset side." 

What Negroes Are Doing for Themselves 

The best testimony to the effectiveness of the educa- 
tional work Northern Baptists have done in the South, 
and other agencies as well, is to the stimulus it has given 
toward self-help among the Negroes. Five of the schools 
named above (Selma, Arkansas, Florida, Roger Williams, 
Simmons) have had some help from the A B H M S, but 
have been established and maintained very largely by 
the efforts of the Southern Negroes themselves. The 
following schools have been almost wholly founded and 
supported by them : Central City College, Ga. ; and Rome 
Industrial School: Baptist State University, Ky. ; Louis- 
iana College; Natchez College, Western College, Mo.; 
Morris College, S. C. ; Houston College, Texas. Their 
combined property is estimated to be worth $405,000. 

One of the most remarkable institutions is Piney 
Woods College, near Jackson, Miss., founded by Laurence 
E. Jones, a Negro born at St. Joseph, Mo., educated at a 
white man's college, stimulated by the example of Wash- 
ington to begin a work among his own people. He 
started without a dollar, with an open-air school under a 
cedar tree; then moved into an old cabin given by an- 
other Negro for the purpose, and gradually built up what 
he calls the Country Life School. It never closes; the 
pupils study and work the year around. A visitor thus 
describes a commencement in this unique school : 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

The stage represented a hive of industry. There were a sewing- 
machine, a typewriter, an adding-machine, a miniature store with its 
scales and cash-register; a cream-separator and a churn, a hand- 
loom, laundry devices, a forge, bricks and mortar, lumber, and car- 
penter's tools, a pile of cornshucks, a bottomless chair, a model kitchen, 
and a homemade electric light and water plant. 

The graduating class went to work. One girl prepared and cooked 
a meal, another made a dress, another took the cornshucks and wove 
them into a seat for the chair. Other girls made a rag rug. Others 
washed and ironed, wrought wonderful baskets out of pine needles, 
or with clay and colored wax converted fruit-jars and old bottles 
into colorful decorative objects to brighten humble homes. One 
boy started up his homemade light plant, and 40. bulbs in the audi- 
torium glowed. 

In fifteen years Piney Woods has grown from nothing 
at all to a school in which 30x3 boys and girls are receiving 
such training; and has an industrial farm of acres and 
buildings valued at more than $100,000, mostly erected 
by the students themselves. An extension work is now 
carried into every county of the State. 

The industrial feature is emphasized in all the Baptist 
schools. Clubs for farm boys and girls are being organ- 
ized in many communities by teachers in our schools. 
This work is done in cooperation with the United States 
Department of Agriculture and County Farm Bureaus. 
A part of the summer vacation each year is devoted by 
the teachers to the supervision of the projects undertaken 
by the members of the clubs. The activities are all prac- 
tical and must measure up to national standards. Each 
member is encouraged to raise a pig or set a hen, or grow 
potatoes or corn, or raise lambs or a calf, or do cold-pack 
canning or plain sewing. Practical farming is taught at 
several of our schools. 

The Great Educational Funds 

It is gratifying to know that illiteracy is rapidly de- 
clining in the Negro race. The Southern States have 
been making increasingly generous appropriations for 


American Home Missions 

Negro schools from decade to decade. Much has also 
been accomplished by private beneficence, more in the 
way of aiding institutions already established than in 
establishing new. The first large gift for this purpose 
was that of George Peabody, who in 1867 gave $2,500,- 
ooo. In March, 1882, John Fox Slater gave $1,000,000, 
and in 1888 Daniel Hand gave $1,500,000. The income 
of these funds is administered under the direction of 
trustees for the support of normal and industrial schools, 
and to aid public schools in the more needy sections. 

Both the Peabody and Slater Funds have in late years 
been affiliated as to administration with the General Edu- 
cation Board, which administers the great gift of $50,- 
000,000 by John D. Rockefeller. While these funds are 
used for general purposes, the Negro schools have re- 
ceived their due proportion of aid from them. 

The SBC Work Among Negroes 

Southern Baptists were slow in undertaking work 
among the Negroes. For this there were many reasons, 
perhaps the chief one being the poverty of the South- 
land in the years immediately following the Civil War. 
That struggle left the South exhausted, stripped of its 
antebellum wealth, and for a time life was a hard strug- 
gle for existence. But in these later decades, with the 
growth in numbers and wealth that has characterized 
the Southern Baptist churches, a commendable degree of 
interest has been manifested in the religious and social 
welfare of the Negro race. As Northern Baptists have 
confined their efforts mostly to education, so Southern 
Baptists have mainly emphasized evangelism. They co- 
operate in this work with the National Baptist Conven- 
tion (Negro) and at their last reports had 14 workers, 
who had in the year 1925 baptized 2,736. In their five- 
year movement, the SBC churches proposed to spend 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

$60,000 on evangelism, $103,000 on teachers, and $405,- 
ooo on building and equipping schools, a total of $573,000 
to be devoted to this part of their work. 

A Weakness of the Race 

In their present state of intelligence, many Negroes 
fall easy victims to religious enthusiasts and impostors, 
and the result is the frequent appearance among them of 
queer new sects. Two of these originated at nearly the 
same time. In 1889, Rev. William Christian became dis- 
satisfied with any church or form of religion known to 
him and organized the first Church of the Living God at 
Wrightsville, Arkansas, whence it has spread to many 
Southern States, and to the central belt, from Ohio to 
Kansas. This church practises immersion, washing of 
feet, and administers the eucharist with water and un- 
leavened bread. The last religious census (1916) gave 
this body 136 churches and 9,626 members. The other 
sect, known as the Church of God and Saints of Christ, 
owes its origin to William S. Crowdy, a cook on a West- 
ern railway car, who claimed a prophetic vision in obedi- 
ence to which he organized the first church of this order 
at Lawrence, Kansas, in 1896. These Saints believe that 
Negroes are descended from the ten lost tribes of Israel, 
observe the Jewish calendar and fast-days and many of 
the Mosaic dietary laws. They agree with the Church 
of the Living God in the doctrine and practise of the 
ordinances. The census gave them 94 churches and 3,31 1 
members, which was 100 per cent, increase in ten years. 
While pretty well scattered, they are strongest in the 
three States of New York, Virginia, and North Carolina. 
They hold an annual assembly, usually at Washington, 
which is largely attended, many making great sacrifices in 
order to be present. Occurrences like these emphasize 
the value and need of the educational work now carried 


American Home Missions 

on for the benefit of this race, and admonish us to 
" strengthen the things that remain." 


Are Negroes increasing? Where are they located? 
Were there other slaves than Negroes ? When did 
African slavery begin? Who carried on the slave trade? 
Why did the North abolish slavery ? Why did the South 
retain it? What was the result? What is the nature of 
the Negro problem ? What solution has been proposed ? 
Is amalgamation probable? Are mulattoes increasing? 
Is this a sectional problem ? How does race feeling often 
manifest itself? Is there a removable cause? What is 
the characteristic of Negro religion? What denomina- 
tions have most Negro members? How did they come 
to have separate organizations? What can you tell of 
their Boards and work? What was the Freedmen's 
Bureau? When and how was Howard College founded? 
Is it a large institution? Who established Fisk Univer- 
sity? What of its work? When was Hampton begun? 
Who built it up ? How extensive is it ? Has it other than 
Negro students? Who was Booker Washington? What 
institution did he found? What was his great idea? 
Has it succeeded ? What have Methodists done of late ? 
Are Negroes making progress? How many schools for 
Negroes have Baptists? How many are coeducational? 
What is their output? What schools have Negroes es- 
tablished and maintained? Who founded Piney Woods 
College? What sort of work is it doing? What great 
educational Funds do you know about ? Are they helping 
Negroes? What is the SBC doing for Negroes? On 
what does it concentrate? What is a weakness of 
Negroes? Can you describe some of their recent sects? 
Can we learn something from these things ? 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 


Anthology of American Negro Verse. Durham, S. C, 

n. d. 
Brawley, Benjamin, The Negro in Literature and Art. 

New York, 1918. 
The Negro Problem: A Social History of the Amer- 

ican Negro. New York, 1921. 
Du Bois, W. E. B., The Negro. New York, 1915. 

Darkwater: Voices From Within the Veil. New York, 


The Souls of the Black Folks. New York, 1903. 
Dunbar, Paul Laurence, Collected Poems. New York, 

Gregory, J. W., The Menace of Color. New York, 1925. 
King, Willis J., The Negro in American Life. New 

York, 1926. 
Locke, Allain, The Negro: An Interpretation. New 

York, 1925. 
Mecklin, J. M., Democracy and Race Friction. New 

York, 1914. 
Negro's Progress in Fifty Years. American Academy 

of Science, 1913. 
Oldham, J. H., Christianity and the Race Problem. New 

York, 1924. 

Simpson, B. L., The Conflict of Color. New York, 1910. 
Smith, Robert Edwin, Christianity and the Race Problem. 

New York, 1922. 
Washington, Booker, Up from Slavery. New York, 


Tuskegee and Its People. New York, 1905. 
Working with the Hands. New York, 1904. 
Woodson, C. G., A Century of Negro Migration. New 

York, 1918. 




Magnitude of the Problem 

Every American problem is also a home-mission prob- 
lem, but this is especially true of the immigration problem. 
We are concerned with it equally as patriots and as Chris- 
tians, as lovers of God and lovers of our country. For 
three-quarters of a century a steady stream of immigra- 
tion has been pouring into our country, in ever-increasing 
volume. Imagine the United States invaded by foreign 
armies landing troops on our shores at an average rate 
of 20,000 a week. Yet that is almost exactly what hap- 
pened in the decade from 1904 to 1914, except that it was 
a peaceful invasion, not military. Between 1820 and 
1920 nearly 35,000,000 foreigners entered the United 
States it is as if France had dumped her entire popula- 
tion on our shores. This in itself constitutes a problem 
such as no nation in the world has hitherto had to face 
and solve. 

Since 1900 the character of this immigration has 
greatly changed. Nineteenth-century immigration was 
mostly from Great Britain and the peoples of Central 
and Northern Europe fully 75 per cent, was of that 
" Nordic race " of which we hear so much, closest akin 
to the original settlers of North America. More than 
70 per cent, of twentieth-century immigration has been 
from Southern and Southeastern Europe. Before 1900 
the largest number of immigrants came from Great 
Britain, Germany, and the Scandinavian countries, in that 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

numerical order. Since 1900, the order has been: Aus- 
tria-Hungary, Italy, and Slavic peoples, outnumbering the 
former leaders two to one. These people differ from the 
original settlers and their descendants more than the 
" Nordics," are less easily assimilated and therefore con- 
stitute a more difficult problem. 

The problem is made still more difficult by the high 
percentage of illiteracy in these newcomers, in some races 
over 50 per cent., and the average is fully 25 per cent., 
while the illiteracy among native whites is only two per 
cent. On the other hand, these people are eager to have 
their children educated and send them by millions to 
our public schools, so that the illiteracy of persons over 
ten years of age of foreign parentage is but six-tenths 
per cent, for girls, and eight-tenths per cent, for boys, 
while illiteracy among those of native white parentage is 
2.2. Some other features of the problem are these : ( I ) 
Four-fifths of this new immigration tends to concentrate 
in five of the North Atlantic States Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and one 
Middle Western State, Illinois. Germans, Slavs, and 
Scandinavians go West; Hungarians, Italians, and Rus- 
sian Jews stay in the East. (2) A marked decrease of 
the birth-rate occurs among these people, though it is 
still higher than that of the native population. (3) A 
rise occurs in their standard of living, but a lowering of 
the general average, owing to the effect of their com- 
petition on wages. (4) Marked increase of social burdens 
everywhere takes place, such as unemployment, disease, 
pauperism, insanity, crime. 

Restricted immigration, the policy deliberately adopted 
by the United States, and likely to be maintained, if not 
made more stringent, may be expected to help the solu- 
tion of this problem at least to prevent its being made 
more difficult. Careful consular inspection of immigrants 


American Home Missions 

before embarkation, which has been proposed but not as 
yet adopted, might do much to exclude the physically and 
mentally unfit. We cannot afford to let European nations 
make this country a common dumping-ground for their 
refuse populations ; they should be made to take care of 
their own criminals and paupers we have plenty of our 


Few things are oftener topics for the orator and for 
conversation, and few things are so little understood. 
What is the much talked of " 100 per cent. American " ? 
Is he the man who shouts most loudly and waves the 
flag most frantically? There were profiteers during the 
late war who waved the flag with one hand and picked 
your pockets with the other ; shall we account them 100 
per cent. Americans ? Josiah Strong wisely said, " Every 
man is an American who has American ideals, the Amer- 
ican spirit, American conceptions of life, American 
habits." The man who can measure up to that definition is 
an American, whether he has spent one day in this coun- 
try or all his life. The man who falls far below that 
definition is no American, though he and his ancestors 
have lived on American soil for generations. You can- 
not make that kind of Americans with a club, as some 
zealous people have tried to do. You cannot make that 
kind of Americans in a few days by any sort of factory 
process. To make Americans of that type takes time and 
tact and education in the broadest sense of that much 
abused word. In the meantime let us native Americans 
remember that we have something to receive as well as to 
give, something to learn as truly as something to teach. 
So shall our civilization be enriched by the best elements 
of the cultures that these people are bringing with them. 

What are American ideals : 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

1. Freedom under law, not lawless freedom. This 
means that all laws are to be obeyed and enforced, so long 
as they remain unrepealed. 

2. High standard of social morality no double stand- 
ards in sex or business. 

3. Good social habits cheerful observance of all regu- 
lations for common good and decency no spitting on 
sidewalks, no scattering of rubbish, no reckless driving of 
cars. Consideration to be always shown to the other man. 

4. Genuine loyalty to American institutions, which does 
not mean that our constitution and laws are perfect, and 
that anybody who proposes their alteration is a traitor. 

5. Freedom of speech, combined with responsibility for 
all utterances. Speech not to be restrained by injunctions, 
and governmental or police regulations, but offenses 
against the laws to be punished by whomsoever com- 

Home Missions and Evangelism 

The work of the A B H M S was not originally among 
the foreign elements of our population, but among the 
native Americans, and was a direct consequence of that 
remarkable westward movement which characterized the 
first quarter of the nineteenth century. The more hardy 
and adventurous people of the East, as well as a certain 
proportion of the newcomers, pressed into the Middle 
West and the Mississippi Valley. The first national mis- 
sionary society of Baptists, popularly known as the Tri- 
ennial Convention, was formed primarily to engage in 
foreign missions, but soon began to devote part of its 
efforts to evangelizing those newer Western regions and 
to promote education. It was not until 1832 that a sepa- 
rate organization was formed to be distinctively a home- 
mission enterprise. From that date the work of evan- 
gelizing the new West became one of the chief activities 


American Rome Missions 

of Baptists. At the Jubilee of the society, in 1882, it 
was reported that 2,926 workers had been in its employ, 
that they had organized 2,840 churches, and baptized 
87,937 persons, and that $4,000,000 had been expended 
in this work. 

In many of these newer Western communities, a Bap- 
tist missionary preacher held the first religious service the 
people had known. A large part of what are now the 
strongest churches of the Middle West owe either their 
origin or their continued existence to the missionaries of 
the A B H M S and to the fostering care of that institu- 
tion. The first church of any kind in Chicago was formed 
by a home missionary, in 1833, and consisted of 15 mem- 
bers ; soon after a combined church and schoolhouse was 
built. This is still known as the First Baptist Church of 
Chicago, and has itself been a mother of many churches. 
The first church of Oregon City was due to Hezekiah 
Johnson, a pioneer missionary, organized May 25, 1848. 
It had the first Sunday school on the Western coast. 
Oregon had not even a territorial government then and 
was not admitted to the Union until 1859. Then there 
were 30 Baptist churches in the State and 1,000 members ; 
and the year before five Associations had been formed. 
The first Baptist church in Oklahoma City, formed in 
1889, was aided in building its first house of worship. 
It now has over 1,000 members and a church edifice that 
cost over $100,000, and is regarded as one of the finest 
in the West. In the earlier years the society conducted 
practically all of this work; but as the churches became 
more numerous and stronger, local and State organiza- 
tions were effected, and the society wisely adopted the 
policy of cooperating with them. A fuller account of this 
aspect of home missions will be found in the chapter 

In addition to its evangelism, the A B H M S through 

21 [491] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

its missionaries was an efficient helper in the establish- 
ment of our Baptist colleges in the Middle West. Its 
representatives took an active part in the founding of 
Shurtleff, Franklin, and Kalamazoo Colleges, and aided 
them in their early struggles. The Middle West con- 
tinued to be the main field until the discovery of gold in 
California (1848) led to a great immigration to that 
State and later to the whole Western coast States. And 
from 1850 settlement of the trans-Mississippi region be- 
gan in earnest, furnishing an entirely new opportunity and 
need for missionary effort. The first appointments of 
missionaries to Colorado, Dakota, Wyoming, and Idaho 
occurred in 1864, and work was begun in Washington in 
1870. From that time to this, there has been steady ex- 
pansion and remarkable growth in this vast region, which 
was hardly known to exist when the society was or- 

The First Foreign Populations 

Germans and Scandinavians began to come to this 
country in ever-increasing numbers, from 1820 on. Ger- 
mans received first attention, and work among them 
began in 1839. Some qualified missionaries developed 
from the earliest converts, by whom the work was suc- 
cessfully carried on. One of the most important of these 
early accessions was Augustus Rauschenbusch, who had 
received the best theological training that a German Uni- 
versity could then give, and made possible the founding 
of the German Department of the Rochester Theological 
Seminary, in which three generations of ministers have 
since been trained for the German churches. These in- 
creased so rapidly that a German Conference was or- 
ganized in 1850, followed in due time by eight other local 
organizations and a General Conference in 1865, which 
includes all the German Baptist churches of North Amer- 


American Home Missions 

ica. They have grown to 31,837 members and in 1925 
raised for all purposes considerably over $6,717,000, of 
which sum nearly $200,000 was for missionary purposes. 
Though some aid is still given by the ABHMS, the 
German churches are not only mostly self-supporting, but 
have their own active missionary enterprises, contribute 
to their German Department at Rochester, have a fine 
publishing and printing plant at Cleveland, and maintain 
a number of homes and orphanages for the care of their 

Perhaps a decade later missions were begun among 
the Scandinavian peoples. The first Norwegian church 
was formed in 1848 and the first Swedish in 1852, both 
in the Middle West. From 1879 onward all this foreign 
work increased in extent and importance, and also in 
f ruitfulness. The establishment of a department in the 
Morgan Park Theological Seminary (now the Divinity 
School of the University of Chicago) under the direction 
of J. A. Edgren, was a great aid to the development of 
these churches. At the present time there are 32,438 
Swedish Baptists, organized in 20 local Conferences and 
a General Conference that was formed in 1879. In 1925 
they raised for all purposes more than $1,000,000. The 
Danish General Conference, formed in 1910, and the 
Norwegian Conference of the same year, represent a 
membership of some 4,000 and 2,000 respectively, and 
have a theological school affiliated with the Northern Bap- 
tist Seminary at Chicago. 

The Newer Foreign Elements 

The most striking feature of the work for a genera- 
tion or more has been among the newcomers from South- 
ern Europe. It will be impossible to describe this work 
in detail; a separate volume would no more than do it 
justice , only general features and results can be attempted. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Suffice it to say that nearly every race and nationality of 
Eastern and Southern Europe has its representatives here 
in considerable numbers, and so far as possible the at- 
tempt has been made to give them the gospel in their own 
tongue, through missionaries of their own race and lan- 
guage. Many Baptists will be surprised to learn how 
extensive and successful this work has been and still is. 
Most numerous of all are the various branches of the 
great Slav race; there are now in the United States ap- 
proximately six millions, of whom half are Poles. These 
are largely concentrated in certain States and cities, which 
makes the problem of evangelization at once simpler a"hd 
more difficult simpler in that effort can be as concen- 
trated as the population, difficult because such concentra- 
tion leads to clannishness and retards Americanization as 
well as Christianization. There are now about 1,400 
Polish Baptists, and a Polish Union was formed in 1912. 
Next to the Poles are probably those from Czechoslovakia, 
and there are among them 1,800 Baptists, represented in 
a Union formed in 1912. Considerable numbers of Rus- 
sians have come to us, including people from "Little 
Russia," as it used to be called, now known as Ukraine. 
The Russian and Ukrainian Baptists number 747, and 
their Union was formed in 1919. This great Slav popu- 
lation is principally settled in New York, New Jersey, and 
Pennsylvania, and in the northern row of Middle West 
States. Its chief urban centers are New York, Philadel- 
phia, Buffalo, Detroit, and Chicago. Something more 
about this work will be said in the later chapter on City 
Missions; but of this part of the foreign work, and the 
proportion Baptists are doing in it, one may here add: 
of a total of 42 centers of missionary work among 
Russians, Baptists have 23; while they have 22 out 
of 40 among the Poles, and 17 of 125 among Czecho- 

[ 494 ] 

American Home Missions 

Of other European populations largely represented 
among us, not quite so much can be reported in the way 
of progress, but there has been enough to give great en- 
couragement. Hungarian Baptists number 641 and have 
a Union formed in 1908, and Rumanian Baptists date 
theirs from 1913, while they report 656 members. Vigor- 
ous gospel work has been prosecuted also among the Letts, 
Estonians, and Finns ; and among the latter had so pro- 
gressed that in 1901 a Mission Union of their churches 
was formed. They now have 20 churches and 868 mem- 
bers. The Latin nations have been sending us great num- 
bers in the last decades, especially Italy. Work among 
Italians has been very successful; their members now 
number 3,000 and they have a Convention formed in 
1898. An Italian Department in their interest is main- 
tained at Colgate University, which is furnishing their 
churches with a trained ministry. Immigration from 
France has always been negligible, in comparison with 
that from other European nations, but in the last three 
decades there has been a large influx into New England 
of French Canadians. Missions have been conducted 
among these people with much success, not adequately 
represented by the statistics. There are eight churches, 
that form a New England Conference of French Baptists 
with 392 members. In addition, there are 300 Portuguese 
Baptists, and a Congress representing all their churches 
was formed in 1919. 

An incidental result of this progress in evangelizing 
has been the development of periodicals far intercom- 
munication and propaganda. Weekly papers are now 
published in Italian, Norwegian, Danish, Czechoslovak- 
ian, Polish; and semimonthly publications are appearing 
regularly in Rumanian, Spanish, Hungarian, Finnish, 
'Russian, and Slovak. 

It may also be noted, as one of the results of this work, 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

that recent advance of Baptists in many European coun- 
tries owes much to the return to their native land of many 
who were converted during their stay in the United 
States, and on returning have become unofficial but ef- 
ficient missionaries among their own people. Conversely, 
many of these foreign-speaking churches have been con- 
siderably increased in numbers by immigration of those 
who had become Baptists in the homeland. This is espe- 
cially true of Germans and Swedes and Norwegians. The 
old distinction between home missions and foreign mis- 
sions no longer holds, if it was ever valid. 

Work Among Asiatics 

It is well known that large numbers of Asiatics have 
found their way to this country, and that their presence 
has given rise to many problems political and social, as 
well as religious. The A B H M S has for many years 
recognized its obligation to these people, and in coopera- 
tion with State Conventions and City Missions, as well 
as sometimes independently, has done what it could to 
give them the gospel. Most of the available particulars 
can be best given in the two succeeding chapters, but it is 
only just to give this recognition here to this feature of 
the society's work. 

Quite recently immigration from India has set in and 
in the coast States considerable numbers of Hindus are 
found. Whether they will be allowed to become citizens 
is yet doubtful the decisions of our courts are conflict- 
ing with each other, and sometimes with the Constitution, 
for most of these people are as truly " white," that is, 
of Aryan stock, as some of the swarthy inhabitants of 
Southern Europe. But citizens or not, they are entitled 
to the gospel. Rev. Theodore Fieldbrave, a graduate of 
Crozer Theological Seminary and one of their race, is 
ministering to these people, with hopeful prospects. 


American Home Missions 

International Baptist Seminary 

One of the most important advances in work among 
foreign populations was the establishment of this in- 
stitution by the A B H M S in 1919 (incorporated in 1925 
by special act of the New Jersey legislature). The great 
majority of immigrants in recent years came from the 
rion-English-speaking countries of Europe, and most of 
the adults will never learn to speak English well, or to 
understand spoken English beyond the modicum necessary 
to live and work here. Hence if they are to receive the 
gospel at all, it must be given them in their own tongues. 
With their children it is different, they will be educated 
in our public schools, for the most part, and will become 
bilingual. In fact, they will come to speak and under- 
stand English better than their mother tongue. Evan- 
gelists and pastors among these foreign peoples must 
therefore be bilingual, in order to do the best service. 
The Seminary was planned to meet this need, and an ex- 
cellent location for it was found in East Orange, N. J., 
where there is easy access to many thousands of foreign- 
born peoples. There are five departments now organized : 
Czechoslovak, with five students ; Hungarian, with eight ; 
Polish with eleven; Rumanian, with three, and Russian, 
with twenty. Besides these, a woman's department is in 
process of organization, and already has eleven students, 
while a Spanish-American department is maintained at 
Los Angeles, Calif., with twenty students. In all, the 
institution had in 1926 an enrolment of 78. Most of the 
work in Bible study is done in the native language of 
the students, so that at graduation they will have an 
adequate knowledge of the Bible in their own tongue. 
Most of the other studies are carried on as far as pos- 
sible in English. Direct instruction in writing and speak- 
ing English is an important part of the training. Courses 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

are given in American history, American government, 
and American social problems. The plan and spirit of 
the institution are most commendable, and it cannot 
fail to make a contribution of the greatest value to the 
evangelization and Christian training of those who have 
come to us in so great numbers from abroad. 

Chapel-car Work 

The idea of this work originated with the late Rev. 
Wayland Hoyt, D. D. His brother, Colgate Hoyt, was 
a prominent railroad man and with some of his asso- 
ciates became interested in the project. So the first 
chapel car, " Evangel," was built and turned over to the 
A B P S for operation. It was fitted up with a chapel and 
also living quarters for the evangelist in charge. Meet- 
ings could be and often were held in the car; quite as 
often it was side-tracked at some new settlement in the 
West, and meetings were held in the village or town. As 
a result, a Sunday school was usually organized, and often 
a church. Many churches throughout the newer West 
owe their beginnings to the chapel-car work; and in the 
great majority of cases the first religious meetings ever 
held in these new towns were held by the chapel-car evan- 
gelist. The method was found so effective that other 
cars were built, until six were doing service. The 
names of the added cars are: Emmanuel, Glad Tidings, 
Good Will, Messenger of Peace, Herald of Hope, and 
Grace. Evangel and Glad Tidings, after thirty-six and 
thirty-five years of service respectively, have been side- 
tracked permanently, and are (1927) being used re- 
spectively as the First Baptist Church and parsonage of 
Rawlins, Wyoming, and the First Baptist Church of 
Flagstaff, Arizona. 

The latest development along this line is the auto chapel 
car. The first of these was the " Crawford Memorial," 


American Home Missions 

for special missionary work among the Mexicans of Cali- 
fornia and Arizona. It is able to reach many hamlets to 
which no railway gives access: construction-camps, cot- 
ton plantations, and other places where Mexicans are 
employed in industries. The importance of this branch 
of work may be estimated from the fact that, according 
to official records, more than 90,000 Mexicans entered the 
United States in 1894-5, besides many more who entered 
clandestinely. The shutting off of European immigration 
has created a sort of vacuum in parts of the Southwest 
and West, into which Mexicans have rushed. The names 
of the additional auto chapel cars are: The Ernest L. 
Tustin Memorial, No. 2 ; the Brockway Memorial, No. 3 ; 
the Henry L. Morehouse Memorial, No. 4 ; the New En- 
gland Memorial, No. 5. The last named car was dedi- 
cated on September 12, 1926, in Carolina, Porto Rico, 
and set apart for work in that island. The Spanish- 
American Theological Seminary at Los Angeles, under 
charge of Rev. J. F. Detweiler, is now training seventeen 
students for the ministry, and many of them will be 
available for this work. At present the auto chapel car 
" Crawford Memorial " is conducted by a Mexican, Rev. 
Pablo Villanueva, who has shown special ability to reach 
his countrymen as a colporter-missionary. This is, how- 
ever, not a new work, but a new phase of an old work. 
The ABHMS began labors among the Mexicans in 
New Mexico and Arizona as far back as 1880. 

The Colporter-Missionary 

All the work of the A B P S is strictly of a missionary 
character. Beginning in Washington in 1824 as a Tract 
Society only, it was removed to Philadelphia in 1826 and 
its scope of operations widened to include the publication 
of religious books and the promotion of Sunday schools. 
If these are to be reckoned an indispensable part of mis- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

sionary propaganda in foreign lands, they can be con- 
sidered nothing else in our own country. But the col- 
porter-missionary is unmistakable and the nature of his 
work is of the most purely missionary type. The em- 
ployment of such workers began as early as 1841, and ten 
years later 27 men were giving their full time to this ser- 
vice. In time the number became as large as 200, and of 
late years the average has been fully 100. Much of the 
colporter's labor is pioneering ; he goes into new regions, 
where the gospel has seldom or never been preached. 
Thousands of Sunday schools have been organized by 
these missionaries, a large proportion of which have since 
grown into churches. Bibles, Testaments, and other re- 
ligious books have been sold in vast numbers. Not only 
in the newer parts of the great West, but among the poly- 
glot populations of Eastern cities, this work has been 
most fruitful. In our missions Mexico, Cuba, Porto 
Rico, for example the colporter is an invaluable assistant 
to the evangelizing missionary. In the early days the col- 
porter went about on foot, but this was found to be a 
wasteful expenditure of time and energy, so in 1897 
wagons were used and by 1912 there were 76 of these 
actively engaged. The first autocar was put in service in 
1901 ; now there are 25, and colportage is more successful 
than ever. 

Church Edifice Work 

A church is a Christian household or family, and needs 
a house to live in as much as any other family. A build- 
ing for meeting together in worship and for social pur- 
poses is indispensable to the growth and permanence of 
any church. There were comparatively few houses of 
worship of any sort in the new West when the ABH 
MS was organized. Churches like those in Chicago and 
Detroit worshiped in little log or slab shacks ; many met 


American Home Missions 

in the open air, or in the houses of members; sometimes 
schoolhouses were utilized. The Society early appreciated 
the importance of church building in the newer regions 
and the necessity of affording help and encouragement 
to those whose resources were inadequate to providing 
their own housing. Special donations were invited for 
this purpose in 1852, and in 1854 a Building Fund of 
$100,000 was planned. It started well, and $5,678 was 
subscribed the first year, but thereafter progress was slow 
and up to 1866 only $72,000 of the amount had been 
given. Not dismayed by this, the Board voted to in- 
crease the fund to $500,000 and to make a special effort 
to raise this sum. In 1869, this feature of the Society's 
work was made a separate department. In 1869 a new 
departure was made : the loan system had worked badly, 
and it was decided to make outright gifts. A church debt 
is a doubtful blessing anywhere, and the newer the com- 
munity the more dubious the blessing. The work has 
since been enlarged by giving not only money, but pro- 
fessional advice to churches about to build, and accord- 
ingly the department is now known as the Department of 
Architecture. It has at its head a competent architect, 
whose advice is also at the service of Baptist churches and 
institutions that do not need financial aid. The result is 
considerable improvement in the quality and appearance, 
as well as in the number, of new Baptist churches. 

The Overchurched West 

In the meantime, all the other denominations were do- 
ing just what Baptists were doing, putting missionaries 
into the field, organizing new churches, aiding them to 
build houses of worship. Some of them were sending 
out more men and expending larger sums than Baptists. 
It was the boast of some of these workers, more zealous 
than wise, that a new church was being organized in the 

[ 501 ] 

'A Short History of Baptist Missions 

West every day. The boast was approximately justified, 
but this result was not a victory for the kingdom of God, 
but a defeat. What had happened was that missionaries 
of the various organizations had engaged in a wild 
scramble for priority and superiority. Each denomina- 
tion was anxious to be first in each new field, and if not 
first in time to become first in strength. Each tried to 
outdo the others in establishing new churches and in the 
size and costliness of the edifices built to house them. 
The result was that hundreds of little towns, each of 
which of course expected to become a great town, barely 
able to support one church, found itself blessed with three 
or five or seven. And the result of that was that each 
lived at a poor, dying rate, kept in existence only by a 
subsidy from its Home Mission Society, with no prospect 
of becoming self-supporting for decades, if ever. Such 
unchristian rivalry, such wasteful methods of doing the 
King's business, were finally recognized for what they 
were, a scandalous policy of which all Christians ought 
to become so ashamed as to bring forth speedily fruits 
worthy of repentance. 

Then came the day of brotherly conference, of agree- 
ment on a sane and Christian policy, of abandoning un- 
tenable posts and restraining denominational zeal within 
the bounds of reason. The need of such cooperation may 
be inferred from the fact that even now, after the prin- 
ciple has been generally accepted and something has been 
done to remedy the scandalous situation, it is still true 
that of the $4,240,000 that the Protestant churches are 
giving each year for home missions, by which something 
like 20,000 churches are aided, over $3,000,000 is ex- 
pended on fields where churches of several denominations 
are competing with each other. 1 Several religious bodies 

1 These are the figures of Dr. Edmund S. Brunner, of the Institute of Social 
and Religious Research. 


American Home Missions 

have gone on record as officially opposed to using mis- 
sionary funds to promote competition and are engaged 
in rapidly eliminating their own competing churches in 
fields where other denominations can do the work more 
effectively. Others are limiting their aid to competing 
churches to a definite term of years, at the end of which 
aid is to be withdrawn. Five years is the average length 
of such terms. Baptists have taken their fair share, or 
a little more, in inaugurating this much-needed change of 
policy. It is still a melancholy fact that much of the 
sums annually spent for home missions in our land is 
thrown away or worse. 

SBC Hom,e Missions 

Southern Baptists conduct their home missions not 
through a separate society, but through a Board elected 
by and responsible to the Convention. They devote them- 
selves largely to evangelism, in cooperation with the vari- 
ous State Conventions; but, as has already been noted, 
they carry on missions in Latin America and among the 
Indians. Their work in the homeland includes State Mis- 
sions and City Missions. 

Before the Civil War, churches had been established by 
these agencies in all the chief towns of the South, and 
many churches had been assisted to build their houses of 
worship. The war disorganized the work very seriously ; 
funds were depleted, workers drawn into other forms 
of service, and the only activity of importance was re- 
ligious work in the Confederate armies. This was car- 
ried on with great energy and success ; many of the most 
prominent ministers of the South engaged in it; revival 
meetings were held in the camps; Scriptures and tracts 
were largely circulated ; the hospitals were visited ; and it 
is estimated that as a result 150,000 soldiers were con- 
verted. The churches responded nobly to the needs of 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

this work, though a large part of the South was in ruins 
and desolation. 

After the war there was a quick recovery in home mis- 
sions; by 1866 missionaries were busy in every Southern 
State but Maryland and Louisiana. The work extended 
into the newer regions of the West, and sometimes over- 
lapped that of the A B H M S. This was especially the 
case in Oklahoma, where for a time there were two State 
Conventions, one appealing to the South for help, the 
other to the North. This unfortunate state of affairs 
was ended by a conference in 1900, and the following 
year the two Conventions were united. Agreement was 
also reached that has enabled the two home mission organ- 
izations to continue cooperation with the Oklahoma 
churches, not merely peacefully, but with entire satisfac- 
tion to all concerned. 

The SBC through its Home Mission Board has gone 
into hearty cooperation with the State Conventions in its 
territory, in the policy of missionary evangelism, with 
such success that it was able to report a few years 
ago a total of 265,000 converts and the reception of 
470,000 members into the churches. The missionaries 
had organized 1,800 churches and over 3,300 Sunday 
schools. In addition to this, the missionary work con- 
ducted by the Conventions independently had resulted iti 
225,000 baptisms, 375,000 received into churches, 1,200 
new churches and 4,000 Sunday schools. From 1903 to 
1925, the Board had raised $13,700,000, commissioned 
27,468 workers, who had baptized 642,492 persons, and 
organized 4,524 churches. 

The auxiliary work done by Southern women is very 
important and extensive. Their WMS has more than 
22,000 local societies and is known to have an enrolment 
of 269,906. The Y M U for young people has 1,219 local 
societies and nearly half the enrolment of the older 


American Home Missions 

groups. Nearly $2,000,000 was contributed through these 
societies in 1925, and in addition to what they are doing 
through the Board, 487 societies are conducting indepen- 
dent work among the Negroes. 

Some Other Southern Enterprises 

Southern mission work, like the Northern, has been 
largely educational, but mainly confined to the white race. 
The Convention has specialized in founding and main- 
taining a system of " mountain schools." One each of 
these is found in Virginia, South Carolina, and Missouri ; 
two in Alabama, three in Kentucky, four in Georgia, five 
in Arkansas, six in Tennessee, and seven in North Caro- 
lina. In these 30 schools 216 teachers are employed, and 
they have 4,920 students, 231 of whom are studying for 
the ministry. There were 434 conversions last year among 
these students. The schools have an income of $204,981 
and property worth $1,806,550. The Convention ap- 
points a superintendent, who sees to it that the standard 
of scholarship and discipline is maintained in all. Won- 
derful results have been accomplished by some of these 
schools, in the moral reconstruction of neighborhoods, the 
wiping out of old feuds, and a great increase in thrift and 
general intelligence. 

Of late, attention has been turned toward aiding in 
schools that Negroes are establishing for themselves. A 
conspicuous case is the American Baptist Theological 
Seminary at Nashville. The SBC has agreed to erect 
buildings for this school, on condition that the N B C A 
furnishes them and maintains the school. The first unit 
has been completed, a building 108 by 47 feet, and others 
are to follow. 

The SBC has a Relief and Annuity Board, which does 
for its constituency the work of the M & M. In the years 
from 1920 to 1925, its assets grew from $162,123 to 

[ 505 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

$1,194,672, and the relief paid in a single year from 
$53,217 to $127,021. The ideal of the Board and its 
supporters is to make the fund sufficient to provide for 
all ministers and official workers an annuity equal to half . 
their average salary for 35 years, available to all on reach- 
ing the age of 65 the minimum allowance to be $500 
and the maximum $2,000. 

For Human Welfare 

One of the most striking consequences of the progress 
of Christianity and its inculcation of brotherly love is the 
vast development of institutions for the relief of human 
suffering. The rich men of Greece and Rome spent mil- 
lions in display, and on public works to perpetuate their 
fame, but none ever endowed a hospital or established an 
orphanage, or thought of a home for the aged and in- 
firm, or deemed the defectives and incurables worthy of 
their alms. None of the ethnic religions inspired or 
fostered a work of this kind not even Judaism, with all 
its contribution to human welfare and to this day there 
are no institutions of such nature in lands where Chris- 
tianity has not made itself felt and led the way. 

Baptists, though not first, have not been last or least in 
this practical manifestation of the Christian spirit. The 
first institutions of the kind were homes for the aged, 
two founded in the same year (1869) in New York 
and Brooklyn, and one a year later in Philadelphia. There 
are now 23 such homes, all but five in the Northern States. 
Eleven of them have been established in the twentieth 
century. They care for over 1,000 old people, and have 
property worth $2,343,500, and in 1925 expended $642,- 
891 in the work. 

Even more has been done- in the matter of caring for 
orphans. The oldest orphanage is that at Louisville, 
Kentucky, established in 1869. German Baptists came 


American Home Missions 

next, with an orphanage (1871) at St. Joseph, Michigan. 
Since then these institutions have rapidly multiplied, and 
there are now 33, of which 16 have been founded in this 
century. The SBC reports 19 of them within its terri- 
tory. Their property is valued at $5,629,900, and their 
expenditure last year was $1,182,780. They are sup- 
porting and educating 5,100 children, some of whom at- 
tend public schools in their neighborhood while a few 
of the orphanages maintain their own schools. 

Hospitals are another flourishing enterprise. The first 
was opened in St. Louis in 1889, and another was begun 
in Boston (Roxbury) in 1893. Since then the increase 
has been steady, until now there are 35 such foundations, 
which last year cared for 71,218 patients. These hos- 
pitals have property worth $15,393,800 and their annual 
expenditures are over $4,000,000, a considerable part of 
which is met by fees of patients. Several of these in- 
stitutions are of the sanitarium or sanatorium order. 
Texas has three such, at Waco, El Paso, and Abilene, and 
there are three in the territory of the N B C at Robin- 
son, 111., St. Paul, Minn., and St. Louis. The various 
homes may be called sectarian, since they are for mem- 
bers of Baptist churches only; but no such distinction is 
made in the orphanages and hospitals. The reasons for 
this difference of policy are sufficiently obvious to need 
no explanation. 

Canadian Home Missions 

Home Missions became the principal activity of Cana- 
dian Baptists, so soon as the churches began to organize 
into Associations and Conventions. This was, and con- 
tinued to be, a necessity of the case. Missionaries, volun- 
tary and official, went from the more thickly settled 
regions into the newer, preached the gospel and formed 
new churches. This work took on new life and could be 



A Short History of Baptist Missions 

prosecuted more systematically when the various Con- 
ventions came into being : the Maritime Provinces in 1846, 
Ontario and Quebec in 1888, and Western Canada in 
1907. Besides these larger bodies, there are Provincial 
Conventions in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and 
British Columbia; and churches of foreign Baptists have 
their separate organizations : German, Scandinavian, Rus- 
sian-Ukrainian, and Hungarian. Evangelism is the key- 
note of Canadian home missions. In 1922 there were 139 
missionaries in the field, including 52 ministerial students 
doing summer vacation work, supplying 218 churches 
and stations, and baptizing 719 persons which was an 
average of one baptism to 8.5 members, as against one 
baptism to 18.1 members in self-supporting churches. 
Not only is the mission field most fruitful in baptisms, 
but also in recruiting for the ministry; three times as 
many candidates now come from mission fields as from 
self-supporting churches. The membership of the strong 
churches in the cities is largely recruited from the same 
source. Of 500 churches in Ontario and Quebec, 218 are 
aided by the Board, which might seem a disheartening 
proportion if we were not at the same time told that 90 
per cent, of churches once aided are now independent. 
That has no look of a pauperizing policy. A parsonage 
fund of $81,000 is a novel feature of Canadian home 
missions ; by its aid 32 parsonages have been built, loans 
for such purposes ranging from $260 to $2,000. 

The Foreign Population 

Canada has an immigration problem much like that of 
the United States and is attempting similar solutions. 
European people are irresistibly drawn thither by the 
offer of free land, which Canada can make because only 
seven per cent, of her arable soil is yet under cultivation. 
In 1919 alone 402,000 foreigners entered Canada, and 


American Home Missions 

the total immigration since 1900 is nearly 4,000,000. 
But that country enjoys one advantage denied to the 
United States : 75 per cent, of these immigrants are En- 
glish-speaking; nevertheless, there is great confusion of 
tongues, as is shown by the fact that the Upper Canada 
Bible Society is distributing the Scriptures in no dif- 
ferent languages, while in Winnipeg we are told that 63 
languages are spoken. Even New York would find it 
hard to surpass that. One interesting feature of Cana- 
dian immigration is worth mention in passing : in the last 
forty years over 70,000 boys and girls have been sent 
from institutions like the well-known Barnardo Home of 
London, to be adopted into Canadian families. 

In the order of numerical importance this immigration 
has been of Slavs, Italians, Jews, Scandinavians, Syrians, 
and Germans. Missions are carried on among all these. 
They have perhaps been most successful with the Ger- 
mans, among whom 38 churches have been formed, with 
over 3,000 members. Next come the Scandinavians, with 
26 churches and 568 members. Three missionaries are 
at work among the Slavs, and none of the others are 
neglected. In all this work the Women's societies co- 
operate with the Boards, and also do considerable inde- 
pendent work. 

Canada adopted the principle of restricted immigration 
sooner than the United States. No quotas are fixed 
the restriction is not numerical because the country has 
room for all the desirable citizens who may come. The 
aim has been to exclude the undesirable, such as the illit- 
erate, paupers, criminals, disabled, and defective ; Negroes 
and Asiatics are also excluded. For twenty summers 
and more the author has had opportunities of observing 
the operation of the Canadian laws, and can bear personal 
testimony to the intelligence and care with which Cana- 
dian officials execute them. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Educational Progress in Canada 

When they were a feeble folk the Baptists of Nova 
Scotia started an academy at Horton (1829) which in 
process of time has grown into Acadia University. An 
Arts and Sciences College has 430 students, a theological 
department has 41, an academy has 125, and a seminary 
for girls reports 287. The property is worth over $ 1 ,000,- 
ooo and is a group of buildings of which any institution 
might be proud. Its well-designed library building houses 
a collection of 50,000 volumes, an excellent working- 
library, containing in addition much valuable historical 
material. Woodstock College was begun in Ontario in 
1857, and after some vicissitudes has become affiliated 
with McMaster University and is enjoying renewed pros- 
perity. McMaster was founded in 1887, by a wealthy 
Baptist whose name it commemorates, and Moulton Col- 
lege for girls was begun the following year and bears 
the maiden name of Mrs. McMaster. The University in- 
cludes an arts college for men, with 391 students, a divin- 
ity school with 105, while Moulton has 50. The property 
is worth about $500,000 and there is an endowment of 
$900,000. Brandon College was established in 1890 in 
the Province of Manitoba, some 150 miles West of Win- 
nipeg, to afford education for the Baptist youth of the 
great Northwest. It has 141 students, of whom four 
are candidates for the ministry ; a property worth about 
$300,000, and an endowment of $36,163. As the North- 
west country grows during the years of this century, this 
will without doubt become one of the strongest educa- 
tional institutions on the continent. Canada has an un- 
developed area as large as the United States (its total 
area is larger, but not all is cultivable and some hardly 
inhabitable), and one day a great population will fill this 
region and make it one of the most productive spots in 


American Home Missions 

the world. It is the world's greatest wheat belt, and al- 
ready Canada is second to the United States only in pro- 
duction of wheat. One day, not far distant, it will lead 
the world. 

The French Canadians 

As compared with the rest of Canada, the Province of 
Quebec is like a foreign country. A patois of French is 
spoken, not English, and the religion is Roman Catholic 
at least, this is true of 83 per cent, of the population. 
There are fully 2,500,000 of French descent in Canada, 
three-fourths of them in Quebec 28 per cent, of all 
Canada is French. The Roman Church is trying, by a 
system of Separate or Church Schools, to keep its chil- 
dren apart, a distinct caste, and teach them to give their 
first allegiance, not to Canada, but to Rome. The French 
Catholics are, to a less degree, a menace in Ontario and 
the Maritime provinces. An army of 20,000 priests leads 
these French Canadians. 

Something is doing by several Protestant denomina- 
tions to evangelize these people. Methodists have an ex- 
cellent school at Montreal and several mission stations; 
Presbyterians have a school at Point aux Trembles and 
many churches and stations. 

Baptist work traces back to Madame Henriette Feller, 
a native of Lausanne, who began a mission school at 
Grand Ligne in 1836, at first occupying two small rooms 
in a garret. A church of 16 members was organized 
the following year, the first Protestant French church in 
Canada. Madame Feller was not at that time a Baptist, 
but was an evangelical Christian; she was immersed in 
1847, and the Canadian Baptists took up her work and 
carried it on. In the meantime (1840) a school building 
had been erected, and the enterprise had grown to con- 
siderable proportions. The building was partly destroyed 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

by fire, rebuilt, enlarged, and is now quite an imposing 
structure, worth probably fully $100,000. Three other 
buildings have been added, and the total value of the 
property is now estimated at $295,000. The attendance 
has grown likewise and has reached 141, of whom four 
are candidates for the ministry. Graduates are found in 
every calling throughout Canada. Besides the Institute, 
the Grand Ligne mission maintains a number of day- 
schools in strategic places ; a result of its work has been 
the organization of 12 French churches, with over 900 
members. Colporters and Bible-women are employed 
very effectively in reaching the French people. Some- 
thing is doing in the other provinces to reach their quotas 
of French. Ontario has a clause in its School Act that 
requires the teaching of English in all the public schools, 
which is not required in Quebec there many graduate 
from school without knowing an English word. 

Home Missions in Great Britain 

The Baptist Associations in England, from the first one 
formed in Somerset in 1653, were missionary first, last 
and always. When the Baptist Home Mission Society was 
formed in 1779, and still more after the Baptist Union 
came into existence in 1832, this work was the more 
vigorously prosecuted. The larger part of the 700 new 
churches added between 1800 and 1850 were due to this 
systematic labor. Though this rate of numerical increase 
has slowed down since then, it has never stopped. In 
these later years the Baptist Women's League has been 
one of the most active forces; it numbers 600 branches, 
and its membership runs into thousands. It is now about 
ten years old. A large part of its work is preventive, 
educational, recreational, and at the same time spiritual. 
It maintains a Girls' Hostel in London, which will accom- 
modate 29 guests. It has rest- and recreation-rooms in 


American Home Missions 

various places ; supports a Woman's Training College and 
Sisterhood, which trains deaconesses for ministrations 
among the poor of thickly populated towns. Some are 
also trained for foreign fields. 


What are the main facts about immigration? What 
was the character of the early immigrants? Has there 
been a change? Whence do the majority now come? 
How many are illiterate? How does that compare with 
our native population? What problems are caused by 
this influx? Is there any remedy? What is it to be an 
American? What are some American ideals? What 
problems are aggravated by city life? How did home 
missions begin? How have they affected Baptist prog- 
ress ? Have home missions influenced education ? What 
foreigners first came in large numbers? What progress 
has been made among Germans ? Among Scandinavians ? 
What nations of Southern Europe are largely represented 
among us ? What can you say of work among the Slavs ? 
Where are most of them found? What has been done 
for Russians ? How many Hungarian Baptists are there ? 
Have Baptists made much impression in members of the 
Latin nations? How many of these nationalities have 
Baptist periodicals? Are we doing anything to give the 
gospel to Asiatics? Where is the International Baptist 
Seminary, and what is it doing? How many foreign 
peoples are represented among its students? How did 
chapel-car work originate? How many cars are there? 
Can you describe their work? Why is the autocar so 
important? Why is the church edifice work so valuable 
to home missions ? How extensive has that work been ? 
What are some of its methods? What unfortunate re- 
sult has grown out of home missions? Can it be reme- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

died? What do yo. think should be done about it? Is 
anything doing? What has been the method of Southern 
Baptists in home missions? What would you call the 
chief feature ? Do you think evangelism has been success- 
ful? Do the Southern women help? What are the 
" mountain schools " ? Where are they ? Do you think 
them worth what they cost? What is the connection be- 
tween home missions and human welfare? Are Baptists 
doing anything for the aged? Are we caring for any 
orphans? Do we maintain hospitals? What do you 
think of this sort of work? Are these institutions sec- 
tarian? How and when did Canadian Baptists engage in 
home missions ? What societies have they ? How effec- 
tive is their evangelism? Can you tell about their par- 
sonage fund? Ever hear of anything like it? Has 
Canada an immigration problem? How many immi- 
grants ? What sorts ? Which kind predominate ? Is im- 
migration restricted ? Where was the first Baptist school 
in Canada? How has it grown? Where was the next? 
What do you know of McMaster University? Where 
and what is Brandon College? Have these schools a 
future? What can you say of the French Canadians? 
Why are they a peril ? What is doing to give them the 
gospel? Can you tell the story of Grand Ligne? Have 
English Baptists done much in home missions? What 
are their women doing? 


Abbott, Grace, The Immigrant and the Community. New 

York, 1917. 
America Tomorrow: What Baptists Are Doing for the 

Child Life of the Nation. Philadelphia, 1923. 
Austin, Mary, The Promised Land. New York, 1912. 
They Who Knock at Our Gates. 1914. 


American Home Missions 

Barnes, L. C, and Stephenson, Pioneers of Light (Cen- 
tennial History of the A B P S ) . Philadelphia, 1924. 

Barnes, L. C., Intensive Powers on the Western Slopes. 
Philadelphia, 1922. 

Brewer, Daniel C., Conquest of New England by the 
Immigrant. New York, 1926. 

Capek, Thomas, The Czechs in America. New York, 

Connor, Ralph, The Sky Pilot. New York, 1913. 

Fairchild, Henry Pratt, Immigration. New York, 1914. 

Goldberger, Henry H., America for Coming Citizens. 
New York, 1922. 

Grose, Howard B., Frontier Sketches. New York, 1908. 
Baptist Missions on the Frontier. New York, n. d. 
Aliens or Americans. New York, 1906. 
The Incoming Millions. New York, 1906. 

Gulick, S. L., American Democracy and Asiatic Citizen- 

ship. New York, 1918. 
The American Japanese Problem. New York, 1915. 

Haynes, C. D., For a New America. New York, 1923. 

McClure, Archibald, Leadership of New America. New 
York, 1916. 

Pupin, Michael, From Immigrant to Inventor. New 
York, 1923. 

Roberts, Kenneth L., Why Europe Leaves Home. New 
York, 1922. 

Ross, Edward A., The Old World in the New. New 
York, 1914. 

Smith, Justin, History of the Baptists in the Western 
States East of the Mississippi. Philadelphia, 1896. 

Steiner, E. A., The Immigrant Tide: Its Ebb and Flow. 
New York, 1909. 

Thompson, Charles L., The Soul of Missions: The Con- 
tribution of Presbyterian Home Missions. New 
York, 1919. 




Origin of the State Convention 

The State Convention is a unique institution, found 
only in the United States, growing directly out of our 
political organization. Ours is a Federal nation, " an in- 
dissoluble union of indestructible States," as it has been 
described. While the Federal Government legislates and 
administers for common interests, other and more local 
interests are cared for by the governments of the various 
States. A similar principle has controlled religious or- 
ganization: national conventions or synods or assemblies 
direct and control the common interests of the churches 
composing them, while more local affairs are left to the 
direction of State bodies. Associations, still smaller 
groups of churches, mostly follow county lines. 

Every Baptist church is essentially a missionary so- 
ciety. It exists for no other purpose than to make dis- 
ciples. It was entirely natural that, in the early history 
of our country, churches of the same general locality 
should unite in efforts to do this work more effectively 
than they could do it separately ; hence the Association, a 
little later the State Convention, finally the National So- 
cieties. The first Association was the Philadelphia, be- 
ginning formally in 1707; and it at first ignored colonial 
limits, having in its membership churches as far north as 
central New York, and as far south as Charleston. Other 


American Home Missions 

similar groups were soon constituted, and the limits of 
the Philadelphia Association gradually shrank to their 
present dimensions. 

The first larger group was formed by churches of 
Massachusetts and Rhode Island, that united to form 
the Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Society, meeting 
for that purpose with the First Baptist Church of Boston, 
on May 26, 1802. This was a notable step in advance, 
for this was virtually a Home Mission Society until the 
formation of the national organization in 1832. It sent 
out representatives into what was then the Far West. 
Later a State Convention was formed in Massachusetts 
and Rhode Island, but the older body maintained a sepa- 
rate existence until 1835, when it was merged with the 
State Convention. In 1902 the older name was readopted. 
In New York State, a Lake Missionary Society was 
formed in 1807, which grew into a State Convention in 
1821, the first body of that title to be organized. Other 
States have similar histories, except that in the newer 
Western communities there was no preliminary growth, 
but the State Conventions were formed at once, on the 
model of the older States. 

Work of the State Convention 

The Northern Baptist Convention has 34 States in its 
territory, and every one has its State Convention, the 
last formed being in Nevada, in 1911. In one or two 
cases the organizations are named " General Associa- 
tions." The missionary purpose of these bodies is pri- 
mary, and even exclusive, if " missionary " is broadly 
interpreted. Jesus bade his disciples not only " disciple," 
but " teach " ; to indoctrinate, to train, is as important as 
to evangelize. So interpreting their mission, the State 
Conventions occupy themselves in a wide scope of enter- 
prises. Their work is done through Secretaries and 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Boards, as well as missionary laborers. Indiana may be 
taken as a sample; its Convention has eight departments: 
Religious, Evangelism, Social Service, Women's Work, 
Men's Work, Franklin College, Stewardship, and 
Finance. Nebraska has five departments; Wisconsin, 
seven. The Convention plants new churches and sustains 
the older that need such help. Oklahoma follows the 
same method and reports over 35,000 baptized by their 
missionaries in the last eleven years preceding 1912. Mis- 
sionary pastors are expected to be, and are, evangelistic. 
In 1912 the missionary pastors of Pennsylvania baptized 
over 1,000 more than were baptized that year in the 
whole Philadelphia Association, which had over 30,000 
members, twice the numerical strength of all the mis- 
sionary churches, as well as ten times their financial re- 

Centralization a Peril? 

The complaint is often made that the Convention or- 
ganization is too centralized and threatens the perma- 
nency of the Baptist principle of church independence. 
The Secretary of such an organization, it is said, though 
not a bishop in name, is really a bishop in functions, as 
regards the missionary churches. There may be cases in 
which the complaint has some justification; but on the 
other hand, some churches and ministers are too sensitive 
about " independence." A church that asks and receives 
aid, necessarily parts with some of its independence; 
the Board that grants it, is administering a trust fund 
and must have something to say about the expenditure of 
the money granted. Most Conventions are incorporated, 
in order to hold property given and bequeathed for mis- 
sionary purposes. There is of course always the possi- 
bility that as such funds become large, they may be badly 
administered, so as to become a hindrance to the kingdom 


American Home Missions 

rather than a help. But that is a risk inseparable from 
any large and permanent work. 

Methods of Work 

These are almost as various as the States, yet there 
are some general types. In the early days, when funds 
were scant, pastors of the larger churches gave up a por- 
tion of their time to general evangelism or labors in 
particular fields, their churches cheerfully granting them 
leave of absence for this purpose. To some extent, that 
method is still practised in some States. In some Con- 
ventions the chief stress is laid on labors of general 
evangelists, who visit churches as their labors are desired 
or needed, under the general direction of the Secretary. 
The commonest method, however, is reliance chiefly on 
the labors of local pastors in the missionary fields, chosen 
by the churches and commissioned by the Convention, 
the two acting together in theoretical harmony, which is 
generally real. Many of the early workers received very 
small stipends, and the combined sum from field and Con- 
vention is still often far too small. Workers in these 
fields often show a self-denial, not to say heroism, that is 
seldom demanded of foreign missionaries in our day, 
and with little recognition. In 1906 it was computed that 
the average Baptist minister's salary was $833, but the 
average salary in the country districts was $683, while 
the average mechanic's earnings were $1,084. At the 
same time it was estimated that the need of a normal 
family of five was $900, and that a decent living was im- 
possible on a smaller sum. This means that ministers, 
and especially missionary pastors, must suffer consider- 
able privations. Salaries have been increased in recent 
years, but the cost of living has more than kept pace, and 
the situation is essentially unaltered. 

Combinations of several small churches under a single 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

pastor are often found to help solution of the financial 
problem ; under present conditions, such combinations are 
often expedient and sometimes necessary; but the in- 
evitable result is lack of efficiency. No man can serve 
two masters, said the Lord and Master of us all, and that 
is quite as true of the minister as of any other man. The 
ideal is a pastor for every church and a church for every 
minister; the closer the approximation to that ideal the 
better for all concerned. 

Importance of the Work 

This can best be seen in the older communities, where 
full results have had time to manifest themselves. In 
Massachusetts, for example, all but 19 of 340 churches 
have at some time had help from the State Convention. 
In Pennsylvania, 437 churches owe their establishment 
to the Convention; one of these has now a membership 
of 3,000, and there are several of 1,000 members. In 
New York, over 800 churches have been aided, and the 
first Baptist churches of Rochester, Buffalo, Elmira, Syra- 
cuse, and Utica owe their very life to help of the Con- 
vention; while in many other cities are strong churches 
that might not exist today but for the aid of the Con- 
vention, either in establishing or in maintaining them. 

Emigration of the native population has created situa- 
tions that have made aid necessary to churches once able 
to support themselves. Many villages and towns of the 
East were virtually depopulated, so far at least as Bap- 
tists were concerned, by the great westward migration 
of the last century. Once flourishing churches would 
have died out but for aid from the Convention of their 
State; some of these have recovered their standing, but 
others never can, yet for good reasons they must be 
sustained. In the Middle West a similar problem has been 
caused by the movement of the rural population to the 

[ 520 ] 

American Home Missions 

cities. Our country began its independent existence 96 
per cent, rural; the census of 1920 shows that it is now 
54 per cent, urban. Prosperous farmers are moving to 
the cities, and either selling or renting their farms to 
tenants. This has resulted in a great weakening of rural 
churches, sometimes without corresponding benefit to 
urban churches, but in the majority of cases these have 
profited by this transference. Our city churches cannot, 
at any rate do not, maintain their numerical and financial 
strength by baptisms ; they depend for growth on acces- 
sions by letter, most of which come from rural churches. 
It is imperative that the strong city churches help to 
maintain these feeders, or in the end they will be the 
heaviest losers. Self-preservation, if not unselfish good- 
will, urges liberal support of State Conventions^ 

Saving the Rural Churches 

This, then, is the most important work of the State 
Conventions, especially in the older States. They have 
already done much; they can do far more. We have 
recently become very much awake to the need of social, 
community centers in our cities, but the need is quite as 
great, if possible even greater, in rural districts. The 
automobile and telephone are doing much, it is true, to 
break down the former deadly isolation of the farmer 
and his family and to bring the people of the country 
into closer social contacts, but the need of social centers 
is still pressing. The church and the schoolhouse offer 
the quickest and least costly solution of the problem. Not 
many such districts can afford a special building for so- 
cial purposes; they must utilize what they now possess. 
" All dressed up and nowhere to go " may seem a humor- 
ous situation to a newspaper writer, but where it actually 
exists it is pathetic and sometimes tragic. The great suc- 
cess of the " movies " in towns is due largely to the satis- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

faction they offer for the social craving. The lodge, the 
club, the poolroom, and formerly the saloon, also minis- 
ter to this need; but in many rural districts there is 

The rural church, with the aid of its Convention, has 
a great opportunity to render this social service, in ways 
adapted to the rural community, and not dictated by the 
need of city life. The land and the tiller of the land 
will be always with us, and it is the problem of the church 
to maintain a high standard of intellectual and spiritual 
life among our farmers, on whom we all depend for our 
daily bread. The church can remedy the present great 
dearth of wholesome recreation, especially for the young. 
It can immensely enrich the life of the country woman, 
whose isolated state has for some decades made the 
proportion of insanity higher on farms than anywhere 
else in America. It can help develop the community 
spirit; it can do much to improve the country schools 
and they badly need improvement. It can teach organ- 
ization to communities suffering from disintegration. 
The country church can do all these things, through the 
inspiration and guidance of the religious motive, but only 
by recognizing the solidarity of the problem, that re- 
ligion and social welfare are inseparable, and by thus re- 
lating the church to the entire interests of its community. 
It will then become the servant of all, for the highest 
ends of life. It will experience the truth of the principle 
of Jesus and find its life by losing it. 

In the older communities, as well as in the newer, these 
mission fields deserve and need intelligent, well-trained 
ministers. The very best that our Seminaries send forth 
are none too good ; but such churches can pay but meager 
salaries, and our missionary agencies must make good the 
deficiency. There is no other way. Not a few churches 
in both kinds of fields are weak precisely because they 


American Home Missions 

have not had competent leadership. On the other hand, 
we have no right to demand of our young men, or of the 
old either, that they make a kind of sacrifice for the prog- 
ress of the kingdom that we have no slightest intention 
of sharing. 

Financing the Conventions 

In the older States, contributions from the churches 
year by year are the chief reliance for support of this 
work. Most of the older Conventions have in addition 
permanent funds, mostly bequests, the largest of these 
being over $500,000 held in trust by the Massachusetts 
Baptist Missionary Society. Cooperation with State Con- 
ventions was provided for in the original constitution of 
the A B H M S, and has been extended and modified, as 
circumstances directed. In the States east of the Mis- 
sissippi, the A B H M S appropriates dollar for dollar as 
the Conventions raise funds, to carry on the work. The 
only independent work the Society does in these regions 
is among the foreign populations. In the States farther 
West, the Society still does the pioneer work indepen- 
dently, but in the more settled of the States it has a pro 
rata arrangement with the State Conventions, varying 
with their financial abilities, and changing with changing 
conditions. In some cases it gives one dollar for every 
six raised by the Convention, in others as high as ten 
dollars for every one. 

Church Edifice Work 

The State" Conventions have, as an important part of 
their work, the helping of financially weak churches to 
provide themselves with a suitable house of worship. Few 
of them have any separate fund for this purpose, but 
carry on the work by special gifts and appropriations 
from regular contributions. Rebuilding is often as press- 

2L I 523 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ing a need as the original building; many churches are 
handicapped and halted in their progress by an anti- 
quated, shabby, out-of-repair house that once served the 
community fairly well. New life is breathed into such 
a church by helping it to acquire a neat, well-planned, 
modern building, with adequate equipment for the Sun- 
day school and other departments of the church activities. 
Here again the A B H M S cooperates with the Conven- 
tions pro rata, the rate differing from dollar for dollar 
to twenty dollars for each dollar raised on the field. In 
the older States the cooperation is now mainly limited 
to helping churches of the new foreign populations, espe- 
cially Italians, Hungarians, and Russians. 

The Overchurched Communities 

The problem of the churches in small rural commu- 
nities, like all our religious problems, is complex, not 
simple. On the one hand, as we have already seen, ex- 
perience has proved that much of this form of missionary 
work is singularly fruitful. Many of the strongest Bap- 
tist churches of the East, and most of those in the West, 
owe their beginning or their continued existence to the 
Convention of their State or to the ABHMS. The 
value of the small church is often overlooked: a large 
proportion of the leading ministers and laymen of to- 
day came from these small rural churches. As feeders 
they have had a high value, and give every promise of 
continuing such functions. It would be a species of de- 
nominational suicide to permit them to fail for lack of 
financial assistance. A little church in West Royalston, 
Mass., is typical. It has now 28 members, and in fifty 
years has not had more than 50 resident members. But 
that little church has sent out 29 ministers, 175 teachers, 
and numerous influential laymen now members of other 
churches. It is maintained in part by the State Con- 


American Home Missions 

vention. Does such an investment pay? This is not a 
sole case, by any means. The little church of Miles- 
burg, Pa., sent into the ministry four brothers, named 
Miles, who established no fewer than 35 churches, and 
nearly created two entire Associations in the State. Did 
it pay to help that church ? 

Nevertheless, there is another side of the problem. 
Many rural communities are notoriously overchurched. 
A village that might support one church well, and two 
churches tolerably, will have five or six. Obviously not 
all are needed, some are a positive detriment to the com- 
munity and its religious interest, yet the denominational 
organizations continue to keep the breath of life in them, 
though all exist rather than live. Some form of federated 
or community church, that involves no sacrifice of con- 
scientious conviction, seems to be the only solution of 
such problems. Experiments in that direction have been 
increasingly tried in recent years, and it is to be hoped 
that gradually a method may be worked out that will 
prove successful. It is hard to say which has suffered 
worst from overchurching, the older communities of the 
East or the newer of the West ; in many of both sections, 
the condition of religious affairs is deplorable, not to say 

Two Possible Solutions 

On the principle that prevention is better than cure, 
at all events easier, the various missionary organizations 
have entered into fraternal council with each other, with 
a view to prevent the overchurching of communities. 
The general principle is that the denomination first to 
enter a field shall have uncontested occupation, and even 
cordial cooperation, until the community is able and de- 
desirous to have another church. In that case, the de- 
nomination having the largest number of adherents will 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

be encouraged to establish a second church, and so on, as 
the community grows, care being at all times taken not 
to begin more churches than there is reasonable prospect 
the community can support in a little time. A general 
Home Missions Council, with the cooperation of the 
Federal Council of Churches of Christ, now seems to have 
control of the situation, so that the mistakes of the past 
are in no likelihood of being repeated. 

Many of the earlier mistakes were no doubt committed 
through lack of trustworthy information. Closer coop- 
eration between the various State Conventions and the 
ABHMS may be relied on in future to eliminate the 
greater part of such error. The Society now cooperates 
in missionary work with 35 State Conventions, especially 
with the following: Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, 
North Idaho and East Washington, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, 
Kansas, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Ne- 
braska, Nevada-Sierra, New Jersey, New York, North 
Dakota, Northern California, Oregon, Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, Southern California, Utah, West Virginia, 
West Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming. 

Ministers and Missionaries Benefit Board 

An offshoot of Home Missions is the provision made 
in recent years for the care of aged and disabled min- 
isters and missionaries. The Board for this purpose was 
incorporated in 1913 and is commonly known as the 
M&M. It makes grants from a general fund to 
aged ministers and the widows of ministers. -It main- 
tains an annuity fund and a retiring pension fund, both 
conducted on strictly business principles, as established by 
the best life insurance companies. Ministers and mis- 
sionaries, often with the cooperation of churches and 
friends, by stated annual payments are able to provide 
themselves an, adequate retiring pension at the age of 


American Home Missions 

sixty-five. A great amount of good has been accom- 
plished by the M&M during its' brief existence, and it 
has now an aggregate of $12,880,000 at its command. 
This should be increased to at least $25,000,000 in order 
to meet the legitimate demands. Two other denomi- 
nations anticipated us in this work, and we have been 
able to avail ourselves of their experience. Methodists 
have now a similar fund of $17,000,000, which they ex- 
pect to increase largely; Presbyterians have $9,000,000, 
and are attempting to increase it to $25,000,000. Such 
a fund is a necessary supplement to our missionary labors 
and entitled to the hearty support of all Baptist churches. 

The Board of Education 

Another supplementary agency of the NBC is the 
Board of Education, separately incorporated in 1920. Its 
activities are varied and important. One of these is mak- 
ing provision for the religious .interests of students, and 
especially students from Baptist families, at educational 
institutions where such facilities are lacking. State uni- 
versities are unable to do direct religious work for their 
students, however well disposed toward religion their 
faculties may be. The Board has placed student pastors 
at twelve such institutions, and student secretaries at 
seven others. At twelve other universities Baptists are 
fortunate in having a local church, whose pastor can 
devote himself especially to work among and with stu- 
dents ; the Board cooperates with such churches in placing 
and supporting a strong man in these fields. Besides 
it cooperates with other denominations in maintaining 
eight joint representatives at as many other universities. 
The results of this work among students have been most 
encouraging. Another feature of the Board's work is 
promotion of general denominational intelligence, 
through summer Conferences and Schools of Missions, 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

at which 115 courses of study were offered in 1925, and 
pursued by 14,576 students. Mission study classes have 
been promoted in the local churches, with an enrolment of 
9,474 last year. To these have been added reading 
courses, and last year 10,143 persons were reported as 
having read five missionary books during the year, while 
other thousands read fewer. The effect of such diffused 
missionary knowledge will be clearly visible in the next 
two decades in all our churches. 

Future of Home Missions 

There is an impression in many Eastern churches that 
the rapid development of the West has come to a halt 
immigration is slackening, no free lands remain, at least 
none desirable for settlement. But it is to be remembered 
that a new West is opening, that large arid region once 
called " the great American desert " is made by irriga- 
tion to " blossom as the rose." Gardens and orchards are 
displacing sand and sage-brush; farms and villages are 
transforming the landscape and producing a new social 
environment. Land utterly worthless a few years ago 
is selling at $60 to $300 an acre. The old frontier has 
gone, but a new frontier has come and calls loudly for 
the gospel. The development of Canada's great West 
has only begun, and when we come to the point where 
we think our own Western region no longer needs pur 
aid, our motto, " North America for Christ," should in- 
spire us to do something for Canada. Even in an old 
settled country like the British Isles, there is still a work 
for home missions. On the Continent of Europe there is 
an immeasurable opportunity, and this will continue for 
several generations. 

The scope of home missions on this continent will un- 
doubtedly increase with the progress of the nations in 
population and wealth. The older East has no adequate 


American Home Missions 

appreciation of the vastness of the Far West, both in 
extent and in resources. Thus far we have but tapped 
those resources. Take Colorado as an example: it now 
produces crops valued at $100,000,000 a year, but with 
adequate irrigation is capable of producing ten times as 
much. From its mines $38,000,000 worth is drawn every 
year, and its mineral wealth is practically inexhaustible. 
The United States Geological Survey estimates that it 
has coal enough to supply the world for a hundred years. 
It has water-power capable of development up to 2,000,- 
ooo horse-power. It contains solid mountains of the 
finest white marble, and has millions of acres of forests 
6,000,000 in the public reserve alone. There is Nevada, 
a land of mountains to be sure, great in its mineral wealth, 
but also having sixty fertile valleys, with a combined 
arable area equal to the entire States of New Hampshire, 
Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. California equals in 
area the entire New England and Middle States ; Oregon 
is larger than New York and Pennsylvania ; its Columbia 
Valley alone is larger than Minnesota and Iowa combined, 
and is one of the richest agricultural regions in our entire 
land. Washington is larger than all New England. 
Grain, fruit, live-stock, minerals can be had from these 
States in quantities beyond present computation. 

The opening of the Panama Canal has given a new im- 
petus to the development of this entire region. Its mis- 
sionary possibilities are simply beyond computation or 

Nobody can doubt that the coming years will see a 
vast development of the United States in population and 
wealth, and the largest room for increase of both kinds 
is in the great West. Our country is capable of support- 
ing in comfort a billion people, and its population may 
some day approximate that enormous number. The eco- 
nomic problem of the future is to develop these possibil- 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

ities into actualities. In that forecast one can read the 
extent and importance of home-mission work in its second 
century. Josiah Strong is authority for the statement 
that in the nineteenth century home missions (of all de- 
nominations) planted 175,000 churches in the West, at a 
cost of $400,000,000. What will be the record of the 
twentieth century ? 

The task of pioneering is not yet completed in this 
region; and when pioneering is completed, there will 
remain boundless possibilities for growth of the kingdom. 
For a long time to come these will be missionary fields, 
deserving the best efforts in their behalf of the older com- 
munities, and yielding rich returns for all that may be 

Besides all this, home missions are basal; all our other 
missions rest on this as superstructure on foundation. 
Every new church in a wisely chosen field means a new 
stream of life and power flowing into all our enterprises. 
To neglect or curtail the work of home missions would 
be the nearest to a suicidal policy that the wit of man 
could devise. 


How did the State Convention originate and why? 
Why is it peculiar to America ? How many Conventions 
are in the field of the NBC? How is a Convention or- 
ganized ? Have all the same methods ? Do Conventions 
endanger church independence? How do they conduct 
missions? How are home workers paid in comparison 
with foreign? Are combinations of churches under a 
single pastor feasible? Desirable? Is the work of Con- 
ventions important? What kinds of churches need and 
deserve help? Why should rural churches especially be 
aided? Is there now a good opportunity for the rural 
church? If you think there is, can you tell why? How 

[ 530 ] 

American Home Missions 

are the Conventions financed? Do Conventions help in 
church-building? Are there overchurched communities? 
Are all small churches unnecessary? Is a small church 
necessarily a weak church ? Will federation of churches 
help to solve some problems ? How does " comity " 
affect overchurching? Is there cooperation between the 
A B H M S and the Conventions ? In how many cases ? 
Is pioneering work over? Is the far West fully de- 
veloped ? What may we expect to see there in the future ? 
What would happen to Baptists if they ceased to do home 
mission work? 


Belknap, Helen O., The Church on the Changing 
Frontier. New York, 1922. 

Brunner, Edmond deS., Tested Methods in Town and 
Country Churches. New York, 1918. 

Butterfield, Kenyon L., The Country Church and the 
Rural Problem. New York, 1911. 

Earp, Edwin L., The Rural Church Serving the Com- 
munity. New York, 1918. 

Felton, Ralph A., Our Templed Hills: A Study of the 

Church and Rural Life. New York, 1926. 
Fry, C. Luther, Diagnosing the Rural Church. New 

York, 1924. 
Gill, Charles O., and Pinchot, Gifford, The Country 

Church. New York, 1913. 
Guild, Roy B., Community Programs for Cooperating 

Churches. New York, 1920. 

Jackson, Henry E., A Community Church. New York, 

Mills, Harlow S., The Making of a Country Parish. New 
York, 1914. 

[ 531 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

Morde, H. N., and Brunner, E. deS., Town and Country 
Church in the United States. Chicago, 1926. 

Padelford, F. W., The Commonwealth and the King- 
dom: A Study of the Missionary Work of State 
Conventions. Philadelphia, 1913. 

Taylor, Carl C, Rural Sociology: A Study of Rural 
Problems. New York, 1926. 

Vogt, Paul L., Church Cooperation in Community Life. 
New York, 1921. 

Wilson, Warren H., The Church of the Open Country. 
New York, 1911. 

The Farmer's Church. New York, 1925. 




The Population Problem 

The population problem, present everywhere in our 
country, is greatly aggravated in all its features in the 
city, especially the large city. One of the chief features 
of modern civilization is the tendency of people to concen- 
trate in cities. This is peculiar to no country, but in none 
is it more outstanding than in our own. The city of De- 
troit just about doubled its number of citizens in the last 

1850 1900 (920 

White areas denote rural population; black areas, urban. 

census decade. In these same years, between 1910 and 
1920, New York added 1,250,000 to its already unwieldy 
bulk, and Chicago added 500,000. Minneapolis, Boston, 
Cleveland, Newark added 200,000 or more each ; Buffalo, 
Rochester, Denver, Indianapolis made gains of 50,000 
or over. On the Pacific Coast, cities have increased enor- 
mously; Los Angeles jumped from 416,912 to 1,300,000, 
while San Francisco, Portland, and Seattle are little 
behind. For the first time in our history, the urban popu- 
lation exceeds the rural. 


A Short History of Baptist Missions 

At the same time, in most cities there has been a de- 
crease in number of Protestant churches, especially in 
the more congested parts of cities. New York is typical : 
in 1840 there was one Protestant church to each 2,000 
citizens; in 1900, one to 5,000; today, considerably less 
than that. This is not caused by poverty ; more than 80 
per cent, of the wealth of the country is urban, and is 
in Protestant hands, or at least non-Catholic. The reason 
is obvious: the typical Protestant church is the family 
church, a thoroughly class institution, and the family 
church inevitably follows its families as they move " up- 
town " or into the suburbs. Changes of population, that 
necessitate such removals, often occur with great rapidity. 
Here is a representative case: A New York Settlement 
found its surrounding population changed three times in 
the course of six years of work ; Germans were there first, 
and were driven out by Irish, these by Jews, and finally 
Italians dispossessed the Jews. 

Perils of the Cities 

The tendency of many immigrants is to settle in New 
York and adjacent regions, and so the concentration of 
population continually grows worse. They tend to gather 
in colonies where the language and customs of their 
fatherlands are preserved and Americanization is re- 
tarded. The largest Jewish population in the world is in 
New York ; and only one city in Ireland, two in Italy, one 
in Germany, three in France have larger numbers of their 
respective peoples. This makes New York in the down- 
town and East Side parts a hard field for Protestants, yet 
one they must somehow occupy. Other cities have like 
problems, though none perhaps on a scale so tremendous. 
Missionaries of their native speech and blood are abso- 
lutely necessary for effective work among these peoples. 
Some of the results of congestion are: 


American Some Missions 

The Slum, with all that is connoted by that name. 
There is really no excuse for the slum ; European cities 
do not have slums, at least Continental Europe has none. 
They have the same problem of congestion, and probably 
a larger proportion of the very poor, but they have abol- 
ished the slum. To get rid of the slum is not only a civic 
duty for Americans, it is also self -protection. Disease, 
crime, alcoholism, drug habits, notoriously are bred and 
flourish there, and the rich people of the avenues suffer 
in consequence. We are all members one of another in 
this civic life, and the injury of one is literally the con- 
cern of all. This is not theory, it is fact. The slum is a 
luxury far too expensive the richest cities cannot afford 
to maintain it. 

The Sweat-shop. This is due fundamentally to the 
keen competition of manufacturers, supplemented by the 
willingness of unorganized workers to bid against each 
other for employment, but greatly aggravated by the 
slum. The factory is gradually superseding the tenement 
sweat-shop, because it has been found economically more 
efficient, not because the conscience of America has been 
stimulated to deal with this excresence on civilized life. 
The sweat-shop will, however, continue for some time if 
only economic forces work against it, because it demands 
less capital than the factory, and permits the labor of 
entire families in the tenements, by so much increasing 
the family income. 

The Housing Problem, not confined to cities, but most 
acute there. The census of 1920 shows a general short- 
age of housing in the United States, returning 24,351,676 
families and only 20,697,204 dwellings. Not a single 
State in the Union has sufficient housing, and the de- 
ficiency in New York City is over 1,000,000 dwellings. 
Apartments are reckoned in the census as "dwellings" 
and two-thirds of urban populations dwell in apartments, 

[ 535 ] 

A Short History of Baptist Missions 

which are of all kinds and prices. The rich can protect 
themselves and secure adequate housing; the poor must be 
protected. The housing shortage causes high rentals, and 
these stimulate the taking of lodgers and consequent over- 
crowding. Rich people, some of them having repute as 
"philanthropists," often own these overcrowded tene- 
ments and live in the odor of sanctity upon the incomes 
thus derived. Our American cities are beginning to recog- 
nize the community responsibility for solution of a prob- 
lem that has been left too long to the assumed efficiency 
of the law of supply and demand. Experience has abun- 
dantly proved that, in the matter of housing, the demand 
does not always, or even usually, create an adequate sup- 
ply; the supply invariably lags far behind the demand 
in thickly settled communities. State and Federal Gov- 
ernments have also taken the matter up and are doing 
much to bring about better conditions. 

The importance of the housing problem lies in the fact 
that on adequate housing the family life chiefly depends 
for its stability. It involves the nurture of children and 
has direct bearing on community health. The significance 
of the latter factor of the problem is better appreciated 
now than a few decades ago. The rich have discovered 
by bitter experience that they cannot isolate themselves 
by their dollars from community life, that disease cannot 
be confined to the tenement districts, but thence will 
invade the quarters of the rich. 

The Family Problem. The ratio of marriages is 
smaller in the cities than in the country. For example, 
the ratio of the State of Pennsylvania is 73, while that of 
Philadelphia is 67 Philadelphia should have 23,000 more 
marriages a year to keep pace with the State. On the 
other hand, the number of divorces is greater in the cities 
than in the country, and greater in those States that have 
many cities than in those whose urban population is small. 


American Home Missions 

In the whole United States, there is one divorce for every 
12 marriages; in San Francisco, there is one divorce to 
every three marriages. Between 1902 and 1906 there 
were 333,642 homes thus legally broken up, of which the 
majority had perhaps been disrupted before by the un- 
faithfulness of one or both parties to their marriage vows. 
This is not the place for a discussion of this problem in 
all its phases it is enough for our present purpose to get 
some measure of its magnitude, and to realize that it is a 
moral problem, and therefore the concern of all Chris- 
tians. Home and city missions do not profess to deal 
with it directly, but indirectly they are a powerful stimu- 
lant to right thinking and right conduct about all the 
family relations. The last thing that can be overlooked 
by those who would find a solution of the family problem 
or problems is religion and its effects on character and 

Partial Solutions 

Other social changes are going on, some of them in 
opposite directions from those already noted, the results 
of which will appear in the next census. The automobile 
is causing a different movement of population, from the 
crowded towns into the more roomy suburbs. By his 
policy of mass-production at lowered costs, the savings 
to be shared with the buyer, Henry Ford has been a 
benefactor not only of individuals but of society. Rapid 
transit facilities in the larger cities have promoted move- 
ments of the same kind. The latter sort of improvement 
is slow, and costly to the community, though cheaper to 
the individual. The Ford car is quick and relatively 
cheap. For the first time, the better-paid workers can 
afford to have their homes where they get most of the 
advantages of both city and country, yet be within easy 
reach of their work. This has led to a great building up