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Cbc University of Cbicatjo 

Gift of 






avvovs Iv vfj a 


aov 6 boyoe 6 oos alij&eid lati. JOHN 17:17. 






Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860, by 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York. 



I 5 T E D TI C T I If , 


" 1. THE exact meaning of the 'inspired text, as that text expressed it to those -who understood the original Scriptures at 
the time they were first written, must be translated by corresponding words and phrases, so far as they can be found, in the 
vernacular tongue of those for whom the version is designed, with the least possible obscurity or indefiniteness, 

" 2. Wherever there is a version in common ,use, it shall be made the basis of revision, and all unnecessary interference with 
the established phraseology shall be avoided; and only such alterations shall be made, as the exact meaning of the inspired 
text and the existing state of the language may require. 

" 3. Translations or revisions of the New Testament shall be made from the received Greek text, critically edited, with 
known errors corrected." 


"1. The common English version must be the basis of the revision: the Greek Text, Bagster & Sons' octavo edition 
of 1851. 

" 2. Whenever an alteration from that version is made on any authority additional to that of the reviser, such authority 
must be cited in the manuscript, either on the same page or in an appendix. 

" 3. Every Greek word or phrase, in the translation of which the phraseology of the common version is changed, must 
be carefully examined in every other place in which it occurs in the New Testament, and the views of the reviser be given as 
to its proper translation in each place." 

The leading principles -which, have been kept in view in revising the Gospel of Luke, will be 
found in the Introductions to the Eevisions of Bphesians, Hebrews, and Mark. As these have been 
published by the American Bible Union, repetition is unnecessary. 


The toil and anxiety attendant on the work of translation or revision, can be properly appreciated 
only by experience. Some errors will elude the most careful examination. Candid readers will recollect 
that the task of the Reviser who must go through with the whole, search, compare, reflect and remember, 
is quite different from that of the critic, who, while he looks to detect inaccuracies, as he "enters 
into the labor of others," often takes no comprehensive view of the whole ground. It is in the work 
of translation, that the imperfection of language, as the vehicle of thought, makes itself thoroughly 
felt. The translator finds himself constantly perplexed by the want of exact correspondence in the 
signification of words, difference of idiom, the obscurity of terms, and the necessity to which he is reduced 
of making an approximate rendering. Hence he learns that no exertion can produce a result, which 
will meet his ideal of perfection. Like every other science and art, which has tasked human thought 
and activity, translation is imperfect in its results. So it must be, while words fail to present our 
ideas in their full force and vividness. The laws of thought and language are among the proofs, 
that "here we see through a glass darkly." Still, for the practical purposes of life, instruments 
imperfect as sounds and their written signs, meet the wants of our race. From the beginning, 
Jehovah employed language the language of man to reveal his own glorious character, his claims 
on the human family, his own agency, his Providence, his law and "in due season" his plan of 
redemption, and " the glorious appearing of the great God, ' even our Saviour Jesus Christ." As 
his communications were made in languages, which in his purpose, were to pass away with the genera- 
tions who had spoken them, he made it the duty of his children to preserve the deposit of his truth, 
and transfer the thoughts in which it was embodied, into every spoken or written tongue, with all 
possible exactness, that men might know and do the will of their Heavenly Father. Hence, we are 
met by the obvious thought, that religious instruction should be given in terms as intelligible, as the 
capacity of the hearer or reader will allow. To effect this end, no labor, no expense should be 
spared, where the great end is to communicate truth, which will make men free from sin, and present 
them "faultless before the throne with exceeding joy." All must admit, that clearness in terms used 
to convey thought, is a primary element for enlightening the soul. Words are valuable not as mere 
modifications of sound, but as signs of ideas. Hence, if from lapse of time, they become obsolete, 
if they fail to call up the ideas with which they were once associated, they are worthless, except to 
the philologist, who traces the history of languages, for scientific purposes. The Divine plan for the 
diffusion of the word of life demanded, that it should take the shape of a written record. In its 
earliest form, that record could be useful to none who did not speak its language. Others must be 
able to hear, understand, speak, and read in their own tongue "the wonderful works of God." So 
they must be enabled " to search the scriptures every man in his own tongue," or still continue to 
sit in darkness and the shadow of death. Hence, the natural inference, that while the great mass 


of men, in all nations, must remain strangers to the inspired originals, there is no effectual plan to 
meet their spiritual necessities, except that furnished by faithful translations. 

I have hinted at the obstacles, which stand in the way of translators. Still their work may be 
faithfully done, though in some instances these obstacles are insurmountable, and they may feel 
that after weary days, the finished work is in some parts "a shadow of the good things" which 
"the Lord hath spoken, rather than "the very image of the things." A version, which shall perfectly 
represent all the shades of thought found in the original, can never be produced, while languages 
preserve their distinctive features, and the laws of thought are unchanged. Those who love the 
cause of truth, and regard the welfare of man, are still required to work while the day lasts, that 
the world may learn the whole counsel of God. The duty will be imperative while we dwell in 
a world where modes of thought, languages, and generations of men must yield to that law of 
change, stamped on all things below the skies. If this duty is performed, with integrity, industry, 
and in the spirit of humble dependence on the Father of lights, the great end will be secured. His 
word will be presented to all kindreds and tongues in such purity, that they may learn the will of 
the Most High, the way of life and peace, and the good news that " the Son of man came to seek 
and save that which was lost." All admit that faithfulness is required at the hands of the minister 
of the Word, when he speaks to his fellow-men in the name of God. He is expected to use great 
plainness of speech, to forego rhetorical ornament, that the common people may understand. So 
faithfulness is required, when we present the word of God through the medium of translations, to 
" the great congregation " of the unlearned. In order that this class the majority in all lands 
may understand what they read, we are bound to sacrifice cherished terms, which have ceased to be 
" household words." The lover of gray antiquity must be content to let some of his old acquaintances 
slumber in their dusky tombs. On the other hand, he who will act faithfully, must take heed that no 
itching for " some new thing " shall lead him to employ recently adopted terms, whose meaning is 
familiar only to the learned. If words have become obscure by time, if they are no longer a part of 
the spoken language, they should be exchanged for others, which are in general use. Truth is a 
quality of thought. In reference to Divine revelation, we give men that which is true, just as far 
as we enable them to seize the thought, whether we speak or write. This principle is ever to be 
kept in view. Whether we use the tongue, or the pen and the press, the great problem to be 
solved is Shall I be easily understood by all classes, by the multitude, as well as by the few who possess 
the advantages of education? 

Seasonable emendation of versions which have been long current, not only meets the ordinary 
wants of readers, but it does more; it prevents the necessity of contests in defense of some of the 


most important principles of truth. Countless disputes have arisen from imperfections in versions, 
which continued to be used without change, long after their phraseology had become obsolete and unintelli- 
gible. The history of the Greek and Latin Churches furnishes a sad practical commentary on this 
truth. That timid policy which defers to a remote and still a remoter period, changes in civil 
institutions and laws, which an altered condition of society demanded, has shaken more than one 
throne to dust. Procrastination in needful reform, is as dangerous as rash innovation. But I must 
close, leaving these suggestions for my reader's consideration. The Revision is submitted to the public 
in the hope that a work, begun and carried on, as I humbly trust, in the fear of the Great Author 
of truth, may aid in the cause of giving the Bible faithfully translated to all the world. He has 
upheld me in my labor, to him be the praise for all his mercy. 



Vulgate, edition of Van Ess, 1824 

N. Test., Fleck, Leipsic, 1840. 
Beza's N. Test., 1624 and 1814. 
Montanus' N. Test, New York, 1831. 
Erasmus' N. Test, Frankfort, 1653. 
Oastalio's N. Test., London, 1776. 

Peshito Syriac, Buchanan and "Watts Editors, London, 1816. 
Luther's Bible, Frankfort, 1838. 
Belgic (Low Dutch), Dortrecht, 1737, and London, 1817, cited as 


French Genevan, 1839, cited as " G. Fr." 
Swiss French, Lausanne, cited as " S. Fr." 
Vatablus' Biblia, Basle, 1564. 
De Wette's (Germ.) Bible, Heidelberg, 1839. 
Hebrew N. Test, British and For. Bib. Soc., Bagster. 
De Valera's Spanish N. Test, New York, 1850, cited as 

" Span." 
Spanish N. Test., translated for A. B. TL, cited as " Iber." 

Diodati (Ital.), London, 1855. 

(" Ital."), revised by Achilli, 1854. 
Murdock's Trans, of Peshito Text, New York, 1855. 
Danish Bible of American Bible Society, New York, 1856, cited 

as Dan." 
De Saey's N. Test, Paris, 1838. 


"Wiclif s, Oranmer's, Geneva, Ehemish N. Test, as in " English 

"Wakefield's N. Test, Cambridge, 1820. 

Dickinson's N. T., Boston, 1833. 

Geo. Campbell's Four Gospels, Philadelphia, 1799, cited aa 

" Camp." 

A. Campbell's N. Test., Bethany, Ya., 1832, cited as "A. Camp." 
Chas. Thomson's Synopsis of Evangelists, Philadelphia, 1815, 

cited as " Thorn." 

L. Tomson's N. Test, London, 1579, cited as " L. Tom." 
Norton's Translation of four Gospels, Boston, 1855. 
Scarlett's N. Test., London, 1798. 
Sharpe's N. T., London, 1844. 
Kendrick's N. Test, Philadelphia. 
Sawyer's N. Test, 1558. 


in Library of A. B. TJ. 

One marked and cited " Q." 
One marked and cited " M." 


Griesbach's, Cambridge, 1809. 
Knapp's, Leipsic, 1820. 
Scholz's, in English Hexapla. 
Lachmann's, Berlin, 1846. 

] Tittmann's, edited by Prof. Eobinson, New York, 1842. 
Tischendorf's, Leipsic, 1850. 
Theile's, Leipsic, 1856. 
Goschen's, Leipsic (with Lat Translation). 
Schott's, Leipsic, 1839 (with Lat. Translation). 
Vater's, Halle, 1824. 





Elzevir's, 1624, repub. by Mill, 1707. 

Prof. Wilson's, Philadelphia, 1831. 


Greenfield's Lex. N. Test., London, 1829. 

Bretschneider's Lex. N. Test., cited as " Bretsch." 

'Stockius' Heb. Lex., Jena, 1739. 

Pasor's Lex. N. Test, Leipsio, 1735. 

Liddell and Scott's Greek Lex., New York, 1840, cited as 


Eobinson's Lex. N. Test., 1855. 
Heidericus' Greek Lex., Leipsie, 1767. 
Scapula's Greek Lex., Basle. 
Leverett's Lat. Dictionary, Boston, 1839. 
Johnson's Eng. Dictionary, Philadelphia, 1805. 
Webster's Eng. Dictionary, 1848. 


Matthise's Greek Grammar, translated by Bloomfield, London 

Buttmann's Greek Gram., trans, by Prof. Eobinson, New York, 


Anthon's Greek Gram., New York, 1844. 
Kuhner's Gr. Gram., trans, by Edwards and Taylor, New York, 


Winer's Gr. Gram, of N. Test., trans, by Stuart and Eobinson, 


Stuart's Gr. Gram, of N. Test., Andover, 1841. 
Trollope's Gr. Gram, of N. Test., London, 1842. 
Crosby's Gr. Gram., Boston, 1855. 
Goodrich's Gr. Gram., Hartford, 1831. 
Port Eoyal Gr. Gram., London, 1758. 
Eost's Gr. Gr., London, 1829. 
Green's Gr. N. Test. Dialect, London, 1842. 
Hoogeveen's Gr. Particles, abridged by Seager, 1829. 
Noshden's Germ. Gram., Andover, 1842. 
Bullion's Eng. Gram., New York,. 1849. 
Viger, de Idiotismis, Leipsie, 1832. 
L. Bos' Ellipses, London, 1825. 
Weiske's Pleonasmi Grseci, London, 1825. 
Josephus' Antiq. et Bel. Jud., Leipsie, 1850. 
Diodorus Siculus, Leipsie, 1829. 


Trollope's Analecta, London, 1842, cited as " Trollops, Analect." 
Bloomfield's Notes on N. Test., 1826, supplementary Vol. 1851 

London, cited as " Bloomf. N. T." 
Scholefield's Hints for an Improved Version of N. Test 1842. 
Trench on Bible Eevision, New York, 1859. 
Jahn's- Archeology, trans, by TJpham, New York, 1856. i 

Kuinoel's Com. on Hist. Books, of N. Test, London, 1827. > 
Sengel's Gnomon, London, 1850. . 





FORASMUCH as many have taken 
in hand to set forth in order a 



avaT(ia.<r6ai Str/yr/criv 



"SiNCE many "have under- l 
taken c to compose d a narrative 

* The title of this book is no part of the inspired text. 
Hence the variety in the form of the" inscription as exhibited by 
different manuscripts. The earliest of these documents have 
simply TO Kara Aovxav Evayy&.iov. This simple form is 
deemed most appropriate. " In some of the less esteemed MSS. 
and Edd. the epithet ayiov is joined with Evayyehov, which is 
evidently a refinement, and not in good taste, of a recent date. 
The word EvayyeUov occurs in the N. Test, upwards of seventy 
times, and never with this epithet attached to it." Trollope, 
Analecta. I have retained the common rendering of xara, 
" according to," though in strictness it is not equivalent to juxta, 
as we find it in the early Latin versions, which were followed by 
the first English, translators. The exact rendering is that of 
Castalio, "Evangelium anthore Luca." This corresponds to 
" The Gospel written by Luke ; " or, more, concisely, " The 
Gospel by Luke." On this subject Kuincel remarks thus: 
" Evayyihov Kara. Ma.rd-a.Zov est idem quod iav Mar&aiov, h. e. 
Matthcei commentarii de dictis, factis, et fatis ChristL Prceposi- 
tio enim y.a-ca. a Gratis scriptoribus, ut Hebraornm }> in pluribus 
Psalmorum inscriptionibus, ssepius ita usurpatur, ut indicet aucto- 
rem, ut ap. Platon. Cratyl. 4, xaff Evd^Srifiov, auctore Euthy- 
demo, etc., et haac gehitivi periphrasis adhibita est, ad evitandum 
genitivi repetitionem cum post Evayyefaov supplendum sit 'Ljaov 
Xgtarov, coll. Marc. 1 : 1." As the phrase " according to 
Luke" has been long familiar, and as the titles of the book 
rests on human authority, it is perhaps best that it should be 
retained. The title Evayyehov xara Aovxav is adopted by 
Gr., Scholz, Lacb., Tisch., Tittm., Schott, Knapp, Theile. 

"Since;" 'ErreiSfae?. Norton, M., Murdock. Yulgate, 
Mont., Erasmus, Beza, "quoniam;" Castal., Schott, " quando- 
quidem ; " Syr., j ^^io (Junius, quoniam). The rendering of the 
B. V. was copied from Tyndale ; it is obsolescent and cumbrous. 
Heb. N. T., lids v^rix (after that = since) ; Luther and De 
Wette, "sintemal;""ileig., "nademaal;" Ital., " poiche ; " Dan., 

" efterde ; " Kuincel, " insiSrjnc^ id quod knsiSrj interprete 
Hesychio, Palairetus et Albertius ad h. 1." As an alternative 
rendering, " Now since." 

b " have undertaken ; " ite%Eig>joav. Rob. (in verbo), " to 
undertake ; " Bretsch., " aggredior alicui operi, i. e. tento, sus- 
cipio, Luc. 1 : 1." So Campbell, Thorn., Kend., Penn, "Wesley, 
Scarlett, A. Camp., M. De Wette, " unternommen ; " S. Fr., 
" ont entrepris ; " Iber., " han emprenido ordenar ; " Ital., " hanno 
impreso ; Eras., Castal., Beza, Schott, " aggressi sunt." The 
word occurs in two other places in the N. Test, Acts 9 : 29, and 
19 : 13, where this rendering would be the proper one. 

e " to compose ; " avardgao&ai. Wesley, Campbell, Thom., 
Scarlett, M. Beza, " componere ; " Greenf., Lex. (in verbo), " to 
arrange, hence, to compose, Luke 1 : 1 ; " Bretsch., " compono;" 
Scapula, " compono et literis mando ; " Heidericus, " compono." 
Compare xa&etsrjs y^dyai, v. 4. Kuincel : 
significat ordinare, componere, atque adeo avaiaaacaS-cu 
oiv, narrationem, historian ordinare, contexere, et cum h. 1. v. 4 
permutetur hasc formula cum verbo y^&yuv, ea reddi debet, 
historiam conscribere, literis consignare." Bloomfield .makes the 
following judicious remark on this word: "It is not to "be 
understood in the sense of rearranging -what is already written. 
For- the sense of repetition in the word, though frequent, is not 
perpetual. Nor need we, with some, suppose that the preposi- 
tion here loses its proper force. It is better to take it to denote, 
not indeed repetition,, but succession, as of one thing after 
another, which implies setting in order. Thus avarajaod'ai will 
be equivalent to ovvragaod-ai ; and that, in a figurative sense, 
may very well denote contexere, componere." 

d "a narrative:" Sirjytjaiv. Wesley, Campbell, Scarlett, M., 
Norton. "Vulg., Mont, Eras., Beza, Castal., Schott, " narratio- 
nem;" De Wette, "Erzahlung;" Belgic, ".verhaal;" Italien, 
" narrazione." Heb. N. T., IB&JJ. Syr., \h^\-iit/- (narratives). 

. l <) 4 



declaration of those things "which 
are most surely believed among 

2 Even as they delivered them 
unto us, which from the beginning 
were eye-witnesses, and ministers 
of the word ; 

3 It seemed good to. me also, 
having had perfect understanding 
of all things from the very first, 
to write unto thee in order, most 
excellent Theophilus, 

4 That thou mightest know the 
certainty of those tilings wherein 
thou hast been instructed. 

5 There was in the days of 
Herod the king of Judea, a cer- 
tain priest named Zacharias, of 
the course of Abia : and his wife 
was of the daughters of Aaron, 
and her name was Elisabeth. 

6 And they were both righteous 
before God walking in all the 
commandments and ordinances of 
the Lord blameless. 



/ca#cbp Trape- 
8oo~av rjjjuv ol air dpffls avroVrat 
/cat VTrr/peTcu yez/o/zei/ot TOV Ao- 
yov, 3 e'fio^e Ka.p.ol, TraprjitoXov- 
avoodev Tracriv a/cpi/Sott 1 , 
o-oi -ypd-^rai, KpdricrTe 
Oeo(j)i\, 4 Iva. eiri-yvcps Trepl d>v 
K.a.Tt]yT}Q-r]s Xoyoov rrjv do-(j)dXetai>. 

5 'ErENETO tv rals 
pans 'HpcoSov TOV /SacTtAeii)? 

iepzvs r*y oVo/tart Za.- 
e(j)T}fiepiaf 'Aftta- /cat 
q avTov IK TU>V 6vyaTepa>v 
'Aaptav, /cat TO OVO/JLO. avrrjs 
'-EAicra/3er. 6 rjcrav 8e oY/catot 

d[jL(f)OTpOt tVWTTLOV TOV 06OV, 

TropevofJ-evoi ei> Tracrat? rat? CVTO- 
Aat? /cat 5t/cat(Myuacrt TOV Kvpiov 


e of the things .which r are fully 
believed among us, even as 2 
g those, ''who from the beginning 
were eye-witnesses and minis- 
ters of the word, delivered them 
to us ; it seemed . good to me 3 
also, 'having accurately traced 
all things 'from the first, to 
write to thee in order, most 
excellent Theophilus, "that thou 4 
mayest know 'the certainty of 
the things m in which thou hast 
been instructed. There was 5 
in the days of Herod, the king 
of Judea, a certain priest 
named Zachariah, of the course 
of Abijah ; and his wife was 
of the daughters of Aaron, 
and her name was Elizabeth. 
And they were righteous be- 6 
fore God, walking in all the 
commandments and ordinances 
of the Lord blameless. And 7 

" of the things ; " ttov ttfjay/idrcov. The use of the demon- 
strative as an equivalent for the article here, is unnecessary. 
The article is properly employed by Penn, Wesley, Sharpe, M., 
Kheims. S. Fr., " des choses ; " Iber., " las cosas ; " Diodati, 
" delle cose ; " Belg., " de dingen." 

f " are fully believed ; " neTiirj^oyo^ifisvcai'. M. The S. Fr. 
presents the thought periphrastically thus : " Qui. ont ete reQues 
parmi nous avec une pleine certitude." So Ital. : " Che sono 
ricevute da noi con piena certezza." Eobinson (in loco), "fidly 
assured among us, fully believed ; " Liddell (in verbo), " to be 
fully believed;" Scapula (in loco), "res quarum plena nobis est 
facta fides ; " Kuincal, " yr^dyfcara Tcsn^^oyo^fteva sunt res de 
quibus inter omnes constat, quarum certa est et indubitaia fides, 
quse sunt compertissimffi." BloomSeld, " Spoken of things which 
are thus said to be fully confirmed and established, and are there- 
fore received as certain truths, with full assurance of faith. 
Accordingly, the expression is nearly equivalent to rcentoTtvfte- 
vtov, as at Joseph, antiq., xvii. 6. 3." ZTAiJ^/s in composition, 
where this word occurs in N. Test., Bom. 4 : 21 ; 14 : 5. 2 Tim. 
4 : 5, 17, is properly rendered in the E. V. by " full," or " fully." 
Hence ni^oyo^ia, Bob., " full assurance." 

* " those." The demonstrative in constructions like this (before 
a relative) is, by present usage, employed instead of " they." So 
Norton, Kend., M. S. Fr. " ceux qui ; " Iber., " los que." 

k " who from the beginning delivered." This is the arrange- 
ment of Thorn., Wakef., Penn, Campbell, Kend., and M. As 
" eye-witnesses and ministers of the word " is exegetic of " those," 
perspicuity demands that the sentence should stand in close con- 
nection with that pronoun. 

' " having accurately traced ; " na^rjy.oiov&ijxon ax(>i/3coi. 
M., "Wesley, Thorn., " had accurately traced ; " M., Dick., Camp- 
bell, "exactly traced;" Bloomf. (N. Test.), Kend., "having 
traced ; " Angus, " traced out ; " Schott, " diligenter ^perse- 
qunto ; " Belg., " Hebbende neerstelijlc onderzocht ; " Bob. (in 
verbo migaxohov&eco), Bretschneider, " metaphorice imiestigo ; " 
S. Fr., " qui ai suivi avec soin." Heb. N. Test., aiairt ifl'ipli. 
Bloomf. : " Has>axo).ov9-eZv signifies properly to follow up, exactly 
trace." Kuinoel (in loco) : Ua^axolovd-av, per metaphorum 
significat, inquirere in aliquid, examinare, perscutari, atque hinc, 
post accuratum indagationem assequi et intelligere aliquid." Hxjit- 
fiias, Bob., " accurately ; " Bretsch., " accurate." 

i " from the first ; " avia&cv. "Wakefield, Campbell, Sharpe, 
Penn, Bob. (in verbo}. Kuincel : " Hoc verbum avco&sv, prima 
ab origine, a principio inde id. quod mf agxrjs, v. 2." Luther, 
" vom Acfang ; " De Wette, " von Anbeginn ; " Danish, " fra 
Begyndelsen ; " Iber., " desde origen ; " Schott, " a principio." 
There is no emphasis here which demands " very." Heb. N. Test. 

k " that thou mayest know ; " Iva Imyviys. "Wakef., Wesley, 
Thorn., Campbell, Penn. Norton, " that you may know ; " 
Eras., " quo agnoscas ; " Mont., Beza, " ut agnoscas." The aorist 
subj. is here equivalent to the present subj. 

i " the things ; " },6ycov. Penn, Angus, M. The definite 
article is employed by Norton, De Wette, Belg., G. Fr., S. Fr., 

" " in which ; " ite^l a>v. Thorn., Kend., Wakef., Scarlett. 
Dick., Penn. 



7 And they had no child, be- 
cause, that Elisabeth was barren ; 
and they both were now well 
stricken, in years. 

8 And it carne to pass, that, 
while he executed the priest's 
office before God in the order of 
his course, 

9 According to the custom of 
the priest's office, his lot was to 
burn incense when he went 'into 
the temple of the Lord. 

10 And the whole multitude of 
the people were praying without, 
at the time of incense. 

11 And there appeared unto 
him an angel of the Lord, stand- 


7 Kal OVK fjv auroi? 
doTi r\ ' E\io-a.$T rjv 
, KOI d/J.(f)OTepoi 7rpo(3e/3i]- 

KOTf GV TCUS qfJ.epO.lf O.VT&V r)CTO.V. 

8 * EyiveTO Se ev rep iepaTevetv 
avrov ev rrj ra^Zi TTJS e(f)r)jj.epta? 
avTOv tvavTi TOV Oeov, 9 /cara 
TO edo? rrjy iepaTfla?, eXa^e TOV 
dvp.La.frai eicreXdcav ety rov vaov 

" 7^" f \Ql ^ " *> \ ~ 


Oos TOV \aov ffv Trpocr^vyfOjj.e.vov 
e^ca Trj copa TOV 0v/J.ta/J.aTOf. 
11 oo(j)@7} Se ai>T(S ayyeXos Kv- 
plov, ecrTaif SK de^cav TOV 0vcna- 


they had no child, "because 
Elizabeth was barren ; and 
both "were advanced in years. 
And it came to pass, while he 8 
executed the priest's office ^in 
the order of his course before 
God, 'that, according to the 9 
custom r of the priesthood, 'it 
fell to him by lot 'to go into 
the "sanctuary of the Lord to 
burn incense. And the whole 10 
multitude of the people "was 
praying without at the time "of 
the incense. And there appear- 11 
ed to him an angel of the Lord, 
standing *at the right side of 

The particle " that " (after because) is omitted 
So "Wesley, Sharpe, Scarlett, Campbell, Kend., 

n " because." 
as superfluous. 
Norton, M. 

" were advanced ; " itoopeptpcoTes. "Wesley, Kend., Camp- 
bell, Thomson, Thel., Penn, Norton, Angus, M. It is not 
necessary to insert the pronoun " they " before. " both," according 
to present usage. It is dropped by "Wakef., Kend., Penn, M. 
"Now" is unnecessary as a supplement. It -was introduced by 
Cranmer, but afterwards dropped from the Genevan. It has been 
omitted by Wesley, Thorn., Wakef., Scarlett, Penn, Sharpe, 
Camp., Kend., Norton, Angus, Thel., M. 

f " in the order of his course before God." This is the order 
of the text. It has been followed 'by the Vulg., Eras., Beza, 
Castal., Schott, Tyndale, Wakef., M., De Wette, Syriac. 

3 " that." This particle is transferred from the preceding 
verse of the E. V. for the sake of perspicuity. Kuincel places 
" cum aliquando " at the beginning of this verse. So M., Penn. 
S. Fr., " que selon," etc. 

' " of the priesthood ; " Tfjs hoarsias. Campbell, Sharpe, 
Penn, Wakefield, Dick., Scarlett, Norton, M., Bob. (in verbo). 
Bretsch., " sacerdot inm ; " Vulg., Castal., Schott, "sacerdotii;" 
Diodati, " del sacerdozio ; " S. Fr., " de la sacrificature ; " Luther, 
" des Priesterthums." Heb. N. Test,, nsns. Syr., |ZoJaisj. 
Murdock, " of the priesthood." " ' ' * 

"it fell to him by lot;" slay f . Norton M., Campbell. 
Kuinrel : " Scilicet tbv xf.fjgov, quse plena formula legitur Act. 
1 : 17, varia autem erant in templo sacerdotum munera, eaque 
omnia sorte assignari solebant." S. Fr., " il lui echut par le 
sort ; " Iber., " le toco por suerte ; " De Wette, " traf ihn durchs 
Loos ; " Belg., hem te lote was gevallen." This rendering brings 
out distinctly the act by which the office of entering the sanctuary 
was assigned to Zachariah. 

"to go into ;" doMcay. Penn, M., Kend., Wakef., Thorn., 
Angus. This rendering and arrangement of the sentence is that i 

of the Iber., '' entrar en el templo del Senor, a ofirecir el 
incenso." This arrangement presents the action, which preceded 
the incense offering, in its proper place. 

" " sanctuary ; " vadv. Campbell, Angus, M. This word is 
sometimes used genetically for the whole temple, and is then 
equivalent to tybv. Here it evidently indicates the fane. 
" This," says Robinson, (Lex.) " was divided into two parts, viz., 
the outer sanctuary (TO ayiov) with the candelabra, the altar 
of incense, and the table of show-bread ; and the inner sanctuary 
(ayia ayicai>}, separated from the former by a vail, and contain- 
ing the ark. Into the first, the priests entered daily to burn 
incense, Luke 1 : 9, Heb. 9 : 6, while into the Holy of holies 
only the high priest entered once in a year, Heb. 9 : 7." Bret- 
schneider. (in verbo) : " Dicitur autem non ut hqov de toto 
templo, sed de interior! parte, -videlicet turn de sancto, turn de 
sancto sanctorum." See Gr. text, Matt. 23 : 16, 17, 21, 35. 
Luke 23 : 45. Sept., 2 Chron. 15 : 8, TO &vainar^otov xvqiov, 
o j/v 'eftn^ood'sv rov vaov miotov. Kuinoal : " Per TOV vaov 
TOV xvoioy intelligitur sanctum samtuarium, TO aytov solis sacer- 
dotibus patens, vid. Exod. 30 : 7, quod etiam 1 Eegg. 6 : 5, voca- 
tur 'bs^rt, nam in ipso vay erat altare suffitus, vid. Exod. 
40 : 2l, sqq. 

T " was praying ; " xoooevzo/tsvov. Norton, Wakef. The 
verb " to be " is used with " multitude " in the singular (E. V.) 
Isa. 31 : 4. Jer. 10 : 13. Nahum 3 : 3. 
w " of the incense ; " TOV &vfiiafiatog. The article is retained 
here by Norton, Sharpe, Penn, Campbell, Dick., Wesley, Thel.,- 
Iber., De Wette, Ital., Belg., Dan. As an alternative rendering, 
" incense offering." This seems to be the sense of the noun in 
this place. So Thorn., Sharpe, " incense burning ;" Belg., " reuk 
offers;" Dan., " Bogelsen offredes;" Campbell (paraphrastically), 
" while the incense was burning." So de Sacy, " on offrait lea 
parfums ; " Norton, " the burning of the incense ; " L. Tomson, 
" while the incense was burning." 

M " at the right side ; " in Set-uov. This preposition, ut 



ing on the right side of the altar 
of incense. 

12 And when Zacharias saw 
him, he was troubled, and fear 
fell upon him. 

13 But the angel said unto 
him, Fear not, Zacharias : for thy 
prayer is heard ; and thy wife 
Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, 
and thou shalt call his name 

14 'And thou shalt have joy and 
gladness, and many shall rejoice 
at his birth. 

15 For he shall be great in the 
sight of the Lord, and shall drink 
neither wine nor strong drink ; 
and he shall be filled wilh the 
Holy Ghost, even from his mo- 
ther's womb. 

16 And many of the children 
of Israel shall he turn to the Lord 
their God. 

17 And he shall go before him 
in the spirit and power of Elias, 
to turn the hearts of the fathers 


(rrrjpiov rov 0vfj.iafJ.arof 12 KCU 

iSay, KCU (j)o- 

rt ' ' >?/ is 7-19 

poy 67T7recrez> CTT avrov. J&nre 
Se Trpos avrov 6 ayyeAoy, Mrj 
<f>o{3ov, Zayapia.' Stori elcrrjKOV" 
cr0T] TI Sevens (rov, KCU r) yvvr) 
crov JE\io~af3er yevvrjarei viov 
croi, /cat KaXecreis TQ ovofj,a av* 
rov 'Icoavvrjv. /cat carat X a P a 
crot, /cat ayaAAtao"ty, /cat TrqAAot 

e?rt ry yevvr)<Ti avrov 

rai. . 15 earai yap fjityas evca- 

TTLOV TOV KvplOV Kal o'lVQV /Cat 

<TiKpa ov fj,r/ Trirj) /cat Hvevp.a~ 
TOS 'Aylov TrX-rja-d^a-eraL en e/c 
/cotA/ay p.t]Tpos avrov. 16 /cat 
TToAAouy T>V vliov 'IcrparjX eVt- 
crrptyei eVt ' Kvpiov rov Oeov 
avrcov 17 /cat auroy Tr/ooeAeJcre- 
rai fvcoTTtov avrov eV 
/cat 8vvd/j.ft 'HXiov, eVto-r/jei^at 
KapSias irarepcav eVt re'/cra, /cat 


the altar of incense : y and 12 
when Zachariah saw him, 'he 
was agitated, and fear fell on 
him. But the angel said to 13 
him, Fear not, Zachariah ; for 
thy prayer is heard ; and thy 
wife Elizabeth 'will bear thee 
a son, and thou shalt call his 
name John. And b thou wilt 14 
have joy and gladness, and 
many will rejoice at his birth. 
For he will be great in the is 
sight of the Lord, and will 
drink 'neither wine or strong 
drink ; and he will be filled 
with the Holy ""Spirit from his 
mother's womb. And many e of 16 
the sons of Israel will he turn 
to the Lord their God. And 17 
he will go before him in the 
spirit and power of Elijah, to 
turn the hearts f of fathers to 

similar constructions, is rendered by "at" (E. V.) Heb. 12 : 2. 
Eom. 8 : 34. Eph. 1 : 20. It is so rendered in all cases of this 
kind in this Revision. 

i In conformity with the text, a colon is placed after " in- 

* " he was agitated ; " ha^&tj. Syr., u_^2*.J . Murdock, 
" he was agitated j " Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza; " turbatus est." 
Ta.Qa.aata is genetically employed to indicate agitation or disturb- 
ance by any emotion proceeding from astonishment, fear, or 
grief. The nature of the emotion is always determined by the 
adjuncts. " To be troubled " is now usually applied to indicate 
the effect of grief. It is obvious that the emotion in this instance 
was not produced by grief. The next member of the sentence 
shows that it was fear, " and fear fell upon him." Heidericus, 
" commoveo, turbo, perterreo." In the instance before us, it is well 
rendered by the Syriac, and also by the Heb. N. Test., ta-ii. 
Vulg., Mont., Eras, Beza, " turbatus est ; " Schott, " perturbatus' 
est ; " Belg., " wierdt ontroerd ; " Iber., " se turbo ; " Span., 
" turbose ; " Ital., " turbossi ; " Camp., " was discomposed ; " 
Thorn.. " was greatly discomposed ; " Tremellius, " conturbatus 
est." Heb. N. Test., tai;; 

* " will bear." Wakefield, Sharpe, Kendrick, M. "Where 
prediction occurs without any thing like command or strong 
affirmation, "will" is the proper auxiliary. In the sense of 
command, xaiiaeis, in the next member, is rendered " shalt call." 

* "wilt have joy and gladness;" xal sarat xa^a aot xal 

See last note. As au alternative rendering (and 
one fully equal to that of the E. V.), " he will be to thee joy and 
exultation." Thelwell. So "Wakef., " he will be to thee joy and 
great gladness"; " Norton and M., " he shall be to thee jdy and 
gladness." It is true, however, that while this is literal, it does 
not accord as well with the English idiom, as the language of the 

c " nor." " Neither," in the first, part of a negative sentence, 
applies also to the subsequent member. See "Webster, " Neither." 

d " Spirit." " Ghost," according to present usage, is equivalent 
to apparition, or spectre. It should be dropped throughout the 

" of the sons ; " tdiv vloiv. Norton, Kend., G-. and A. Camp., 

Sharpe. Syr., .'ji * _iS. Tremellius, " filiorum." Heb. N. Test., 

i?aa Vulg., Mont, Eras., Schott, Beza, " iiliorum ;" De "Wette, 

"'dei- Sohne ; " S. Fr., " des fils ; " Iber., " de los hijos ; " Diodati, 

de' figliuoli." 

f ". of fathers ; " narepcov. Thom., "Wakef., Campbell, Thel., 
M. As both, this word and TSXVK, in this passage are anarthrous, 
they seem to be used generically. In other words, the theory of 
some commentators, that there is an especial reference to "the 
fathers " of the Hebrews and their posterity, is not sustained by the 
language of the text. In Mai. 4 : 6 (Heb. 3 : 24), which is here 
quoted, the Hebrew is anarthrous, aija-^S JYiasj-aii. So the 
Sept., xagSiav Ttaxgbs itfos vlor. 



to the children, and the disobe- 
dient to the wisdom of the just ; 
to make ready a people prepared 
for the Lord. 

18 And Zacharias said unto the 
angel, Whereby shall I know this? 
for I am an old man, and my wife 
well stricken in years. 

19 And the angel answering, 
said unto him, I am Gabriel, that 
stand in the presence of God ; and 
am sent to speak unto thee, and 
to show thee these glad lidings. 

20 And behold, thou shalt be 
dumb, and not able to spsak, until 
the day that these things shall be 
performed, because thou believest 


i> (frpovrjtret, Sixaicov, 
TOijj.d(rai Kvpiw Xaov 

acr/nevov. 18 Kai elire Za^apias 
TOV ayyeXov, Kara, TL yvd>- 
TOVTO; kyca yap elju 
KCU TI yvvrj /j,ov 

a. fjs ras rm-epais avrrjs. 
19 Kcu a.iroKpi6tis 6 ayyeXos 
eiTTeis avTCp., Eyco elfju rafipLrjX 
o irapea-TrjKcas evcomov TOV Oeov- 
Kal a'7r(rTa\r]v ' XaXfj(rai Trpos 
(re, Kal evayyeXla-aadai croi rav- 

in \ > 5> ^ V 

TO.. K.O.L LOOV, eery 

Kal fj.rj 8vvd/j.evo? XaXijcrat, 
f)S r/fAepa? yevr/Tai ravra' avff 
OVK 7rt(TTvcra$ TOIS Xoyois 


children, and s the disobedient 
to the wisdom 5f the righteous, 
to make ready 'for the Lord a 
'prepared people. And Zacha- 18 
riah said to the angel, 'How 
shall I know this ? for I am an 
old man, and my wife 'w "ad- 
vanced in years. And the 19 
angel answering, said to him, 
I am Gabriel, who stand in the 
presence of God ; and am sent 
to speak to thee, and "to bring 
thee this good news. And be- 20 
hold thou wilt be dumb, and 
not able to speak, "till the day 
pwhen these things "shall come 
to pass, because thou r didst not 

' g " the disobedient ; " aizei&ezs. Like the words noticed 
above, this term is anarthrous. The idiom of our language, how- 
ever, does not permit us to use " disobedient " as a noun, unless 
we place the before it. This remark applies to other words, such 
righteous, just, good, etc. If the noun person, man, etc., is 
expressed, then no article is necessary. Hence the article in this 
instance is supplied, and italicized to indicate its character. 

' h " of the righteous ; " Swaicov. The supplied article is itali- 
cized, for the reason given in the last note. As Scy.atcov is 
obviously antithetic to anei&sis, the generic sense of " righte- 
ous" seems more appropriate than a specific one, such as "just." 
It is the .more usual rendering of the word in the E. V. So 
Camploell, Thel., M., Angus, Norton. 

1 "for the Lord." The Greek arrangement is followed, as 
KvqUit is connected with irotfidaai, and not with y.aTeoxevaofie- 
vov. So Kendrick, M., Norton, " to prepare a fit people for 
the Lord ; " Vulgate and Erasmus, " parare Domino plebem 
perfectam ; " Beza, " ut paret Domino populum instiractum ; " 
Schott, " quo populum compositum Domino instruat." Syriac, 
Ij^icL \^~ }fjC,V u-oLjJo (" and will prepare for the Lord 
a perfect people.") De Wette, " um dem Herrn em bereitetes 
Tolk zuzuriehten ; " Belg., " om den Heere te bereiden een 
toegerust volk ; " Danish, " at berede Herren et velskikket 
Folk ; " G. French and S. French, " pour preparer au Seigneur 
un penple bien dispose ; " Iberian, " para preparar al Serior un 
pueblo dispuesto ; " Italian, " per prepare al Signore un popolo 
ben disposto." 

J " prepared ; " aarsaxevaaftevov. Kend., M. This word is j 
retained as a participial adjective qualifying iaov. 

k " How ; " Kara. -rl. Wakef., Dick., Thorn., Norton, M. 
'Vulg., Castal, Schott, " unde." " Whereby " is obsolete. See 
Eob. (ii). 

i " is." Our idiom demands this supplement. Kendrick, M., 
Angus, Norton, Geneva, Rheims. 

m " advanced in years." See v. 7, note. 

" " to bring thee this good news ; " vay/e).ioaad-ai ooi tavia. 
Eob. (in verbo, svayycitgco) : "Mid. in earlier writers and in N. T., 
to bring good news, to announce, or publish glad tidings." In the 
E. V. this verb is rendered by preach, declare, show, bring, as 
connected with a message or intelligence. I rendered it here by 
" bring," rather than " announce," because the term is found in 
the E. V., and the phrase, " to bring news," is familiar to all who 
speak our language. So " news " is employed rather than the 
.obsolescent word " tidings." Tavrcc here refers to the single 
message to be delivered, and, as in numerous other instances, has 
the force of a singular demonstrative. "Webster remarks oh 
" news : " " This word has a plural form, but is almost always 
united with a verb in the singular." Norton, " to declare this 
glad news to thee." 

" till." " Until " is now generally dropped, and " till " sub- 
stituted for it. Webster. 

P " when." The phrase ys y/iepas may be concisely rendered 
" the day when." 

1 " shall come to pass ; " yi-tvjrai ravra. Penn, Sharpe. Sc 
M., Thorn., Wakef., Campbell. The usual rendering of this verb 
in the N. Test, is appropriate here. " To be performed " occurs 
in no other instance (in the E. V.) as the rendering. It was 
taken originally from Tyndale. Vulg., Eras., Beza, " fiant , " 
Castalio, " evenerint ; " De Wette, " geschehen wird." 

' " didst not believe." This form of the verb is adapted to 
avoid the harshness of " believedst." 'Enio-ievoas is rendered by 
a past tense by Scholefield (" believedst.") Wakef., Kend., M., 
" didst not believe." There is a general agreement in Versions 
as to the propriety of rendering this word either as an norist 
(Eng. imperf.), or a preterperfect. 



not my -words, which shall be ful- 
filled in their season. 

21 And the people waited for 
Zacharias, and marvelled that he 
tarried so long in the temple. 

22 And when he came out, he 
could not speak unto them : and 
they perceived that he had seen 
a vision in the temple ; for he 
beckoned unto them, and remain- 
ed speechless. 

23 And it came to pass, that as 
soon as the days of his ministra- 
tion were accomplished, he de- 
parted to his own house. 

24 And after those days his 
wife Elisabeth conceived, and hid 
herself five months, saying, 

25 Thus hath the Lord dealt 
with me in the days wherein he 
looked on me, to take away my 
reproach among men. 

26 And in the sixth month the 



fj-ov, otrtvep TrXrjpcod^trovTai els 
TOV Koupov avTu>v. 21 Kai r)V 6 
Aaoy Trpo&SoKcov TOV Zayap'iav 
/cat edavfia^ov i> TW 
avrov eV T(p va<a. 2 
8e OVK 7)8vva.TO XaArjcrai O.VTOLS 
/cat fTre-yvwcrav OTI oTTTacriav co- 
pa.Kv eV T< va.w- /cat O.VTOS r/v 
8iavevcov avrols, /cat Sie/ieve KCO' 
<pof, /cat eyevero u>$ eirXria'dr)- 
crav at r/nepai TYJS Aetroypy/a? 
O.VTOV, aTrrjXdev elf TOV OLKOV av- 





O.VTOV, /cat 

firjvas TreWe, Aeyoucra, 


a(f)e\lv TO 

25 " n 








TO> H.TIVL TO> e/crw 


believe my words, which will be 
fulfilled in their season. And 21 
the people "were waiting for 
Zachariah, and wondering that 
-he delayed in the "sanctuary. 
And when he came out, he 22 
could not speak to them : and 
they perceived that he had 
seen a vision in the w sanctu- 
ary ; for ^he made signs to 
them, and remained speechless. 
And it came to pass, >"when the 23 
days of his ministration "were 
completed, he departed to his 
own house. And after "these 24 
days, his wife Elizabeth con- 
ceived, and hid herself five 
months, saying, Thus hath the 25 
Lord dealt with me in the days 
b when he looked on me to take 
away my reproach among men. 
And in the sixth month the 2fi 

' " were waiting 1 ; " r^v ngooSozcav. A literal rendering is 
most appropriate. It expresses the continued state or action of 
the people. So Kend., Angus, Thel., M. Norton has, " were 

1 " and wondering ; " efravfia&v (= " were wondering.") 
Norton. " "Wonder " is substituted for " marvel " on the ground 
that the -latter is seldom heard or written, unless in quotations 
from the E. V. The imperfect (proper) indicates continuance of 
action or condition like the periphrastic form of that tense (f,v 
itfoaSoy.caf) ; hence the rendering " were waiting, and wonder- 
ing " (i. e. " were wondering ") gives the sense of the text with 
accuracy. But if we follow the punctuation of the Greek, which 
places a colon after Za%a(>iat>, then this form may be appro- 
priate, " the people were waiting for Zachariah : and they 
wondered," etc. After the colon it is necessary to express the 

u " he delayed ; " ?^ovX,Etv nvror. So this verb is rendered 
(E. V.) 24 : 48 ; Luke 12 : 45. In three other cases, Matt. 

25 : 5, the present instance, and Heb. 10 : 37, it is rendered 
tarry." As " tarry " is made the equivalent 


flco, Imftevto, itfoofisvco, ngooSoxaco, etc., while to delay " is 
the representative of one other verb oxviio, which occurs but 
once (Acts 9 : 38), the above rendering is not only appropriate 

here, but in all other cases where 
Bob , Liddell (in vcrbo). 

" " sanctnarv." Sec v. 9, note. 

is found. So M. 

w " sanctuary." See last note. 

1 "he made signs;" alros yv Siarsvcav. Thorn., Penn, M. 
"Wakef., " he kept making signs ; " Sharpe, " he was making 
signs." The verb is generic in signification. See Liddell and 
Eob. " To beckon " is to make signs with the hands, or arms. 
" To nod," to do so by moving the head, sometimes including the 
idea of bowing or bending forward." " To wink " is a third 
mode of making signs, by using the eyes. As r)v has 
no adjuncts to indicate in what way the signs were made, the 
ubove rendering is deemed appropriate. 

r " when ; " cos. Thorn., Dick., "Wakefield, Sharpe, Norton, 
Kend., M. Kob. (cos), " before a clause implying time, as wJien, 
like htsi (= ore}. 

i " were completed ; " ejttya&qoav. M. "We do not apply 
" accomplish " to time, according to present usage. " Fulfill " is 
obsolescent. Eob. (in verbo), " of time, to be fulfilled, completed, 
to be fully past." 

a " these ; " ravras. Kend., M., Wesley, Thorn., "Wakefield, 
Gray (note on Angus). 

b " when ; " als. See v. 20, note. As in the former instance, 
while " when " is exact in giving the sense, it accords with our 
usual modes of speaking and writing. The advantage of concise- 
ness has led those who speak the languages of the "West, to' 
employ the adverbs of time, in place of the relative phrases. 



angel Gabriel was sent from God 
unto a city of Galilee, named 

27 To a virgin espoused to a 
man whose name was Joseph, of 
the house of David ; and the vir- 
gin's name was Mary. 

28 And the angel came in unto 
her, and said, Hail, thou that art 
highly favoured, the Lord is with 
thec : blessed art thou among 

29 And when she saw him, she 
was troubled at his saying, and 
cast in her mind what manner of 
salutation this should be. 

30 And the angel said unto 
her, Fear not, Mary : for thou 
hast found favour with God. 


aTrecrraA?; o ayyeAoy 

VTTO TOV Oeov ely iroXiv rrjs 

FaXiXaLas, y ovo^a, 

2( Trpoy Trapdevov 

vr\v avSpl, a> oi>ofj.a '. 

O'IKOV /Ia/3/5* /cat TO ovo/j.a TTJS 

irapdevov Ufapidfj,. 28 /cat etcreA- 

6cav o ayyeXos Trpoy avrrjv etTre, 

Xalpe, Ke-)(api.T(o/j.i>r/- o Kvpios 

fjLtra crov 


) \ v / > V 

TTL TU> Aoyro aurou, /cat 
TroTaTroy el'?; 6 danra- 
30 JTa v t 

cry e 
29 'H 8e \8oixra Sie- 

o-fj.of OVTOS. 

Mr) 0o/3ou, Ma- 

evpts yap yapiv irapa 


angel Gabriel was sent c by God 
to a city of Galilee, named 
Nazareth, to a virgin d betroth- 27 
ed to a man. whose name was 
Joseph, of the house of David ; 
and the virgin's name was 
Mary. And the angel 'coming 28 
in to her, said, Hail, 'highly 
favored! the Lord is with 
thee : blessed art thou among 
women. And when she saw 29 
him, she s was greatly agitated 
h at his words, and 'w as con " 
sidering 'what this salutation 
k could mean. And the angel 3 
said to her, Fear not, Mary : 
for thou hast found favor with 

" by God ; " vjtb TOV Qeov. With the genitive of causation, 
agency, etc., the appropriate rendering of vno is "by," "through." 
Prom," in this instance, is ambiguous. So Norton, Angus, M., 
Wesley, Sharpe, Thel. Iber., '' por Dios : " S. Fr., " de Dieu." 

d " betrothed ; " fcsfivriarEVftevrjv. Campbell, Penn, Norton, 
M. The sense of ftv^orsvca here is obviously that of Lidd. (II.), 
"to promise in marriage, betroth." Mary was promised, or 
contracted to Joseph. "Betroth" presents the thought with 
accuracy, while, on the other hand, " espouse " properly signifies 
to marry, to wsd. See (B. V.) Deut. 20 : 7. In that passage, the 
Sept. employs the above noticed verb, " Saris ftefcv^aT 
ywazxa, x. r. L * Webster ("betroth"), "to contract to any 
one in order to a future marriage." As an alternative rendering, 
" promised in marriage." 

' " coming in ; " slaei&cov. The participial construction is 
adopted by Kend., Norton, Penn, Wesley, Dick. It is concise 
and agreeable to our usus loquendi. As the comma is placed 
after avtrfv, in the Polymicrian Text of Mill (taken from the 
Elzevir of 1624), that of Erasmus (Frankfort, 1653), Griesbach, 
Knapp, -Kuinoel, and Wilson, the comma in the Eevised Text is 
placed after " her." 

f " highly favored ! " The supplement of the E. V., " thou, 
iliat art," is unnecessary, as the thought is sufficiently distinct, 
If we imitate the conciseness of the Greek. So Dickinson, 
Sharpe, M. Iberian, " favorecida ! " S. French, "regue en 
grace ; " Erasmus, " gratiosa ; " Beza, " gratia dilecta ; " Castal., 
"accepta." Heb. N. Test, -jn nuJx- Syriac, 
Kend., Penn, and Wesley, " thou highly favored ! " 

8 "was greatly agitated;" SiTai>d x 9y. This verb occurs 
only here. The simple form signifies " to agitate," " to disturb." 
See v. 12, note. 4ia in composition is intensive, = throughout, 
tliorougldy, completely, etc. See Bob., 4ia. Iber., " se turbo ; " 
Italian, "fa tutta turbata;" Beza, "perturbata est;" Norton, 

"was greatly moved." I submit this last as an alternative 

h " at his words ; " irii rcy loytp avrov. Keud., Campbell. 
G. Fr., " do ses paroles ; " Iber., " de sus palabras." " Saying," in 
the sense demanded here, is no longer in use. Alternative, " at 
his speech." 

1 " was considering ; " Si^.oyl^To. Norton, M. The impertect 
should be rendered here according to its usual force of continued 
action. So Yulg., Eras., Beza, Castal., " cogitabat ; " Mont., 
" ratiocina-batur ; " Kend., Wesley, " reasoned ; " Wakef., " was 
reasoning ; " Bob. (in verbo), " to consider, to reason with." The 
verb is rendered in the N. Test, with more variety than seems 
necessary, as "to reason," " to consider" (John 11 : 50), " to 
dispute," " cast in mind," " muse," " think." 

J " what ; " noranbs. M., Wakefield, Campbell, Sharpe. 
So Kuinoel: " s id quod KOTOS, ut Luc. 7 : 38, 39. 
2 Petri 3 : 11." So one of the definitions of this word used by 
Rob., is " what." In other words, it is sometimes employed for 

k " could mean ; " sHv. Wakef., Norton, M., Kend., " might 
mean." Kuinosl : " Qualis hoec salutatio esset." Eob. (elfi'i) : 
" Trop. and meton. the subst. of the predicate often expresses, 
not what the subject actually is, but what it. is like, or is accounted 
to be, or signifies, so that elfti may be rendered " to be account- 
ed," " to signify." So (E. V.) Luke 15 : 26, " what these things 
meant," ri lj? ravra. Luke 18 : 36, ri ety rovro (E. V.), " what 
it meant." Bloomfield remarks on the phrase noranos etij, 
x. r. L, " a popular form of expression equivalent to ' what these 
remarkable things might mean.' " Bretsch., " ri Ian quid sibi 
vult, quid significat." The sense of the word is here obviously 
" to signify or mean." " May" or " might be" presents an idea 
foreign to the truth. Many knew what the salutation was, but 
did not comprehend the meaning of the words. 



31 And behold, thou shalt con- 
ceive in thy -womb, and bring 
forth a son, and shalt call his 
name JESUS. 

32 He shall be great, and shall 
be called the Son of the Highest ; 
and the Lord God shall give 
unto him the throne of his father 

33 And lie shall reign over the 
house of Jacob for ever ; and of 
his kingdom there shall be no 

34 Then said Mary unto the 
angel, How shall this be, seeing 
I know not a man? 

35 And the angel answered and 
said unto her, The Holy Ghost 
shall come upon thee, and the 
power of the Highest shall over- 
shadow thee : therefore also that 
holy thing which shall be born of 
thee, shall be called the Son of 
God. ' 

36 And behold, thy cousin Elis : 
abeth, she hath also conceived a 




l I8ov } 



cmy TO ovofjLa avrov 'Irjo~ovv. 

32 f " ' \ '^ 

ovTOf eorat /xeyay, /cat vios 
v\l/i(rTov K\r)dii<rTaf /cat Scacret 
ai>T(S Kvpios o 0eo? TOV dpovov 
Aaf3i8 TOV Trar/joy avTOv, 33 /cat 

eVt TOV ot/coz/ '/a/ceb/3 
ety TOVS acanas, /cat TYJS fiacn- 
Ae/ay avrov OVK earai re'Aoy. 
Ehre Se JMTapiafJ. Trpos TOV 
ayyeXov, II&s lorat TOVTO, e?ret 
avdpa ov yiva>o-Ka>; 35 Kal OLTTO- 
KpL0els o ayyeXos ebrev avrfj, 
Hvev/J-a. Ayiov eVeAeucrerat CTTI 
ere, Kal dvva/jus V^LCTTOV eVtcr/aa- 
cret crof 810 Kal TO yevva>fjt.evov 
ayiov KXij0r/o~Tai Yio? Otov. 
36 Kal 18011, '_Z?Atcra/3er 77 crvyye- 
crov, Kal avrrj o~vveiXTj(j)via 


God. And behold, thou 'wilt 31 
conceive, and bring forth a son, 
and '"thou shalt call his name 
Jesus. He will be great, and 32 
will be called the Son "of the 
Most High ; and the Lord God 
will "give him the throne of 
his father David. And he will 33 
reign over the house of Jacob 
for ever ; and -of his kingdom 
there will be no end. Then 34 
said Mary to the angel, ?How 
shall this be, 'since I know not 
a man ? And the angel, answer- 35 
ing, said to her, The Holy Spirit 
will come on thee ; and the 
power of ''the Most High will 
overshadow thee ; therefore 'the 
offspring, being holy, will be 
called the Son of God. And 36 
aehold, thy 'kinswoman Eliza- 
aeth, she also hath conceived a 

i " wilt conceive." Here, as in other instances, where there is 
no particular emphasis, or a command;- " will " is used instead of 
" shall.". " To conceive " expresses the force of the phrase ovMyi/ig 
if yaoroc. Rendered by the simple verb " to conceive," by 
Kend., M., Thorn., Wakef., Campbell, Norton. The passage 
Isa. 7 : 14, which is here quoted, has only the fern. adj. ,11? 
(prssgnans). We thus have an euphemism. 

m " thou shalt call ; " xaleasis. The future here is regarded 
as having the force of an imperative, hence " thou shalt " is 
placed before " call." This use of the future is a Hellenism. 
Green, Gram., p. 27. Stuart's Gr. N. Test., 141. 

n " of the Most High ; " vytarov. This adjective joined with 
0eos is rendered by "Most High" (E. V.) Mark 5 : 7, Luke 
8 : 28, Acts 16 : 17, Heb. 7:1. It is thus rendered in the 
instance where it stands independent, Acts 7 : 48. " The Most 
High " occurs frequently in the 0. Test. (E. V.) as the translation 
of lii^SJ (Sept. vyicrros). For the sake of uniformity in 
translation, this should be the rendering of the word when 
applied to God, in all cases. So Thorn., Eheims, Murdock. Syr., 
f?v Heb. N. Test., p'is. Vulg., " Altissimi ; " S. Fr., " du 
Tre's-Haut ; " Iber., " del Altissimo." 

o " give him." The preposition " to," after " given," is super- 
fluous according to present usage. Omitted by Wesley, Thorn., 
Camp., Norton, Eheims. 

t " How shall this be ? " I have retained the rendering Of 
the E. V., and yet as the future Of dpi (i.-& &<*, fufc m'id.j 

is often used with the force of the subjunctive (from a defect in 
the verb), I submit as an alternative rendering, " How can this 
be ? " So Wakef., Norton. 

J "since;" btsl. So (E. V.) 2 Cor. 13 : 3. Rob., Wakef., 
Penn, Sharpe, Dick., Campbell, Kend., Norton, Angus, M. 

r " the Most High." See v. 32, note. 

" the offspring being holy ; " TO ysvvcoftevov ayiov. Some 
interpreters have rendered this passage by connecting ayiov with 
the subject as though the text were to ysvvcoftevov -to ayiov. 
They, therefore, translate " the holy offspring." Such is the view 
of Kuincel. Bloomf., after Rosenmuller, supposes that there is an 
ellipsis of ov. In the above rendering TO yewio/ievov is regarded 
as used substantively for TO yevvrjpa, offspring, progeny. As an 
alternative rendering that of M., " the child (TO ricuSiov under- 
stood) begotten holy will be," etc. If we translate yevvcapevov 
as a participle, then " begotten " should be employed instead of 
born." The fact that it is in the present tense, shows this 
is its signification. 'Ex aov, which is found in some few MSS. 
after ysvvcoftevov, is of no authority. Though followed by the" 
E. V., it is not in harmony with the Text. Eecept. 

' " kinswoman ; " avyytrtjs. The generic sense of this word 
(a relation one of the same family) is most appropriate. So 
Norton, Wakefield, Penn, Angus, JL Iber., " parienta ; " De 
Wette, " Verwandte." 'Avtyta is the proper term for a cousin 
fern.,- though this is sometimes used in the wider sense of rela- 
tion, ovyyeirfs is rendered in the E. V. usually by kinsmen, kin, 
and kinsfolk. " Cousin" Occurs" only here, and in V. 58. 



son in her old age ; and this is 
the sixth month with her who was 
called barren : 

37 For with God nothing shall 
be impossible. 

38 And Mary said, Behold the 
handmaid of the Lord, be it unto 
me according to thy word. And 
the angel departed from her. 

39 And Mary arose in those 
days, and went into the hill- 
country with haste, into a city 
of Juda, 

40 And entered into the house 
of Zacharias, and saluted Elis- 

41 And it came to pass, that 
when Elisabeth heard the salu- 
tation of Mary, the babe leaped 
in her womb : and Elisabeth was 
filled -nth the.Holy Ghost. 

42 And she spake out with a 
loud Toice and said, Blessed art 
thou among women, and blessed 
is the fruit of thy womb. 

43 And whence is this to me, 
that the mother of my Lord should 
come to me ? 

44 For lo, as soon as the voice 
of thy salutation sounded in mine 


vlov eV yfjpa, avTr/s' /cat OVTOS 
fj.r/v CKTOS eVrtz> avTrj rff KaXov- 
fjievr) o~Teipa.' 37 OTC OVK aSvva- 
Tycrei Trapa. T @<p TTO.V prjfj.a 
38 Elm Se Ma.pia.iJL, 'ISov, r, 
SovXrf Kvpiov yevoiTO /JLOI Kara 
TO prj/j.0. o~ov. KOLI a.7rrjX6ev air 
avTrjs 6 ayyeXos. 

39 'Ava.a-Ta.cra. 8 
Tals Ttfjiepais TO.VTO.IS 
els TT]v opeivrjv //era 
elf TroXiv 'Iov8a, 40 /cat ei 
6ev els TOV OLKOV Za^aplov, /cat 

' f ^ ' T~*\ ' n 41 ^ 

?7<T7racraro TTJV JbAicrapeT. /cat 

r/KOVo~ei> 77 
TOV a.o-7rao-fjt.ov TTJS Mapias, eo~Kip- 
TO @pe(f)os eV Trj /cotA/a av- 
TTJS' /cat eTrXrjo-flrj Hvev[j.aTos 
'Ayiov T) '-SAtcra/Ser, 42 /cat az/e- 
r) [j,ya\r], /cat etVej', 


evXoyrj fj.evos o KapTros TTJS KOL- 
af crou. 43 /cat -rroOev \JLOL 
TOVTO, 'iva, eXdrj 77 ^Trjp TOV 
ICvpiov fjt.ov TTpos fJ.e; 4 * ISov 
yap, as eyevtTo 77 (froovTJ TOV 
do~7ra.o~fj.ov o~ov els TO. COTO. fj.ov, 


child in her old age ; and this 
is the sixth month with her 
who was called barren : for 37 
with God nothing u is impossi- 
ble. And Mary said, 'Behold, 38 
the handmaid of the Lord ; be 
it to me according to thy word. 
And the angel departed from 
her. And Mary "rose in those 39 
days, and went into the hill- 
country with haste, into a city 
of Judah, and entered into the 40 
house of Zachariah, and saluted 
Elizabeth. And it came to 41 
pass, *when Elizabeth heard the 
salutation of Mary, the babe 
leaped in her womb : and Eliza- 
beth was filled with the Holy 
Spirit. And she spoke out 42 
with a loud voice and said, 
Blessed art thou among women, 
and blessed is the fruit of thy 
womb. And 'how hath this 43 
happened, to me, that the mother 
of my Lord should come to 
me? for 'behold, "when the 44 
voice of thy salutation b came 
to my ears, the babe leaped in 

" is impossible ; " aSvvartjasi. Kend., M., Angus, Camp., 
Dick., Wakef., Thorn. This 'future (by Hellenism) has the force 
of the present tense. Kuinoel: "HSwarijasi vim prsesentis 
habet, aSwatet verbum autem dSwarc'v respondet Hebraec- 
rum ttbart cui copulavi solet particula a, qu cum significet 
etiam penes, Alexandri verbo aSwarelv junxerunt prsepositio- 
uem na$a, ut Gen. XVIII. 14, -^ tTi!-ra, ubi ubi ol 6, habent 
ftr] aSvvarjjaet itagii T(5 &eca Qrjfta." 

* '' Behold ! " The pointing of the critical editions places a 
comma after 18ov. It is an interjection. 

" " rose." This is according to our present mode of speaking. 

* " when ;" <Js. See v. 23, note. 

y " How hath, this happened to me ; " ito&sv pot TOVTO. The 
language of the E.'V. is so literal, that it presents us with an 
idiom quite remote from our usus loquendi. I translate on the 
principle, that Tto&eir has sometimes the signification of " how " 
(Rob., Lex. Bretsch., " quo tandem, modo, qua ratione,") as in 
Mark 8 : 4 ; 12 : 37. This is the signification assigned to it in 
this place- by Bretschneider ; there is an ellipsis of ytyovs, or, 

more fully, TO ngayfia yeyove. Bloomf. We may, however, 
regard ftot as pleonastic, in translation, and then render. more 
concisely and in harmony with our idiom, " how hath this happen- 
ed." In this phrase, the thought is preserved. So De "Wette, 
" wie widerfahret mir das ; " Ital. is nearly the same, " donde mi 
avviene ; " Dan., " hvorfra kommer mig det ; " S. Fr., d'ou me 
vient ceci ; " Belg., " van -waar [komt] mij dit." 

= " behold ; " ISaii. Dick., Angus, M. In conformity with 
the punctuation of the text, a comma is placed after " behold," 
thus indicating it as an exclamatory particle, and distinguishing 
it from the imperative behold. " Lo ! " is obsolete, at least in 

* " when ; " <5s. Wesley, Dick., M. See v. 23, note. 

b " came ; " lyiveto. Angus, M., Thel. This verb is frequent- 
ly rendered in the past tenses by " came," in the sense of " came 
to pass," in the E. V. = fieri. " Sounded " is an unnecessary 
departure from the text. Schott, " pervenisset ; " Oastalio, 
" pervenit." 

c "to my ears;" ekra. arta ftov. Norton, Thel. Thispreposi- 




ears, the babe leaped in my womb 
for joy. 

45 And blessed is she that 
believed : for there shall be a 
performance of those things which 
were told her from the Lord. 

46 And Mary said, My soul 
doth magnify the Lord, 

47 And my spirit hath rejoiced 
in God my Saviour. 

48 For he hath regarded the 
low estate of his handmaiden : for 
behold, from henceforth all gener- 
ations shall call me blessed. 

49 For he that is mighty hath 
done to me great things ; and 
holy is his name. 

50 And his mercy is on them 


ev ayaAAtacm TO 
/3j060o? ev Trj KOiXla fj.ov. 45 /cat 
fj.a.KapLa rj mcrTevcracra, OTL earrat 
reAa'(B<ny TOIS AeAaA^/xeVot? avrfj 
Trapa Kvpiov. 

46 Kal elm Mapia/j., Meya- 
Xvvei rj yt>x?7 fj.ov TOV Kvpiov, 
47 /cat ?7yaAA/acre TO Trvevfwi JJLOV 
eVt TO> 0ea> TU> (rcoTrjpL fj.ov 

JR ff s f rt\ 1 ' ^ ^ ' 

OTL eTrepAeyev em TTJV raTret- 
VKXTIV Tr]$ 8ov\rjf avrov. ISov 

yap, O.TTO TOV vvv fJ-aKapiovcr 

" < ' 49 a > / 

Tracrat at yevear OTL 

fj.01 /ieyaAeta 6, /cat ayiov 


my -womb for joy. And J happy 45 
is she who believed 'that there 
will be a 'fulfillment of "the 
things which were told her 
from the Lord. And Mary 45 
'said, My soul doth magnify the 
Lord, and my spirit ""rejoiceth 47 
in God my Saviour. For he 48 
hath regarded 'the humble con- 
dition of his 'handmaid : for 
k behokl ! 'henceforth all genera- 
tions "will call me happy : for 49 
the "Mighty One hath done 
great things "for me ; and holy 

tion sometimes lias the sense of " to " and " towards " as well as of 
" into." See Bob., Lex., and Mark 11 : 1, sis 'le^ovunf.rjfi, tig 
Brj&yayr;. Acts 11 : 22, 'By.ovad'i} Se 6 },6yos els ra. corn rfjs 
Ixxirjoias. V~ulg., Eras., Beza, " in auribus meis ; " Castalio, 
Schott, " ad aures meas." To render the passage " comes into 
my ears," would violate the idiom of our language. 

a " happy ; " fcazttfla. "Wesley, Thorn., Kend., Wakef., Dick., 
Campbell, M. So (B. V.) John 13 : 17. Eom. 14 : 22. 1 Cor. 
7 : 40. 1 Pet, 3 : 14, and 4 : 14. Bretsch., " beatws, felix, beatus 
prast-icandus." This adjective is frequently confounded with evlo- 
yr/ros and its cognates in the E. V. The proper distinction 
between these words is preserved in the Vulgate, Mont, Beza ( 
Schott, and most modern translations. 

" that ; " on. This word is a demonstrative conjunction 
here. After motevio, on is naturally referred to that verb. 
This is agreeable to the usage of Luke in other instances. See 
Acts 27 : 25, mtarevco yas> icy &cco on ovros earat. See the 
same construction Matt. 9 : 28. Mark 9 : 23, 24. Jno. 11 : 27, 
42 ; 13 : 19 : 14 : 10, 11. So Thorn., Wakef., Sharpe, Dickinson, 
Campbell, Angus, Norton, M. Bloomfield, Troll. (N.T.), Kend., 
and Perm, " for there will be," etc. ; Iber., " ella que ha tenido fe 
en que se coinpliran," etc. ; De "Wette, " du geglaubt hast, dass 
das dir vom Herrn Verkiindigte in Erfiillung gehen wird ; '' 
Schott, " qufe confisa est, rata fore per Dominum ipsi nuutiata." 

' "fulfillment;" feleiaiots. 'Rob. (in loco, article rekeicoots}, 
Kend., Penn. As " the things " were announced in the prophetic 
form, and as this noun is applied to the accomplishment of 
prophetic annunciations, it is more appropriate than "perform- 

s " the ; " roTs. This is not one of the very few cases where 
perspicuity demands that the article should be rendered as a 
demonstrative pronoun. So Kend., Thomson, Wakef., Sharpe, 

b " rejoiceth ; " qyaMlaos. The aorist stands closely con- 
nected with a present tense peyaivvet, and has itself the force 

of the present. Stuart (note on "Winer, \ 34) : " The aorist 
moreover is often used in the sense of the -present, e. g. when 
connected with a present, Mark 1 : 3, 1 John 2 : 14, 21, 26, 
'sygaya, compared with v. 13, where it is yqayta." The verb 
is rendered "rejoiceth" by Tyndale, Geneva, "Wakef., Camp- 
bell. Norton, " rejoices ; " Thorn., Kend., Dick., " exultcth," or 
" exults ; " Beza, Castal., Schott, " exultat ; " De Wette, " froh- 
locket ; " Belg., " verheught ; " Dan., " fryder sig." 

1 " the humble condition." The word here refers to the 
external state of Mary. She was one of " the common people," 
comp. v. 52, taneivovs (E. V., " them of low degree.") The 
expression " low estate " is obsolete. Bretschneider, " humilis 
conditio." Used intransitively by the Sept. for ijy. So M. 

I " handmaid ; " Sovlrjs. Wesley, M., Thomson, Campbell. 
" Handmaiden " is used only in very few cases in the E. V. For 
the sake of uniformity, it should be changed 10 "handmaid." 
The same word, Sovlrj, is rendered " handmaid " (E. V.) v. 38. 
Kuincel : " Taneivioois trjs SovKrjs positum est ex Hebraismo 
pro Soviy raneivij." Trollope (N.T.) : " Not humility of mind, 
but humility of station, as Sept., Gen. 2D : 32. 2 Kings 14 : 26. 
Ps. 25 : 18, Phil. 3 : 21. 

k " behold ! " I8ov .' M. See v. 44, note. 

i " henceforth ; " iato TOV vvv. Thorn., Sharpe, Campbell, M. 
" Prom " with " henceforth " is pleonastic, as the latter word 
signifies " from this time." 

m " will call me happy ; " ftaxaotoval fie. Scholefield, Thorn., 
Wakef., M., Rob. So Jas. 5 : 11, to count happy. Bretsch., 
" beatwm pradico ; " De Sacy, " je serai appelee bien heureuse ; " 
Iber., " me tendran por feliz todas las generaciones." 

II " the Mighty One ; " 6 tSvva-rbs. Norton, Thorn., Sharpe, 
Wakef., M. This term is used to indicate God in (E. V.) Isa. 
1 : 24 ; 30 : 29, etc. " Almighty " is less appropriate, as it ia 
the equivalent of ytavronoaTca^. See 2 Cor. 6 : 18. Eev. 
1 : 8 ; 4 : 8, etc. 

" for me ; " (ioi~ Thorn., Penn, Wakef., Dick., Campbell 




that fear him, from generation to 

51 He Lath shewed strength 
with Ins arm ; he hath scattered 
the proud in the imagination of 
their hearts. 

52 He hath put down the 
mighty from their seats, and ex- 
alted them of low degree. 

53 He hath filled the hungry 
with good things, and the rich he 
hath sent empty away. 

54 He hath holpen his servant 
Israel, in remembrance of his 
mercy ; 


\ V 3 50 V N 3A 

TO ovo/jia O.VTOV /cat TO eAeo? 
avTov elf yeveas yeveSw TO?? 0o- 
/3ovfj.evoi? OLVTOV. 51 eTToirjore Kpd- 
TOS ev ^pa\iovL OLVTOV- ieo-Kop- 
Tricrev i>7repri(j)avovy Siavoia KCtp- 
8ia$ avTotv. 52 /ca^eiAe Swd- 
O-TO.S OTTO dpovcov, KaL 

' " 


crev dyaOuiV) KaL 


/3eTO ' ' Itrpar/X Traidos KVTOV, 



is his name. And his mercy is 50 
on those who fear him, from 
generation to generation. 'He 51 
doeth 'mighty deeds with his 
arm : r he scattereth 'those proud 
in the dispositionof their hearts. 
'He casteth down "potentates 52 
from 'thrones, and exalteth w the 
low. He nlleth the hungry 53 
with good things, and the rich 
he sendeth away empty. He 54 
helpeth his servant Israel, "re- 
membering mercy (as he spoke 55 

M., Angus. S. Fr., " pour moi ; " Ital., " per -me. This is the 
most appropriate rendering of the dativus commodi here. The 
slight transposition gives the sentence a natural arrangement, for 
English readers. 

P " he doeth ; " Inoirjas. Norton, " does ; " M., Wakefield, 
" showeth ; " Castal., " qui fortia patrat." This aorist expresses 
what is customary with God. In such cases, that tense is to be 
rendered by the present in English. Buttm. (| 137, note 5) : 
" Wherever any thing customary, or of ordinary occurrence in the 
world, is mentioned elsewhere than in narration, instead of the 
present by which this is expressed in other languages, and usually 
in Greek, we often find by a special Grecism the aorist, which is 
then in the fullest sense indefinite." Trollope (Analecta, in loco) : 
" The aorist is used in this and the following verses in the sense 
of to be wont, as the Hebrews employed the Hiphil voice to 
express general truths and observations which have no reference 
to any particular time." Bloomf. (Annotat) : "All these aorists 
(i. e. Ittoiqae, Stsay.ooTtiae, za&izie, eveniijoe, it-catsorethe, 
<WeA/ter0) must be rendered by sold and the infinitive." Tyn- 
dale, Campbell, Wakef., Kendrick have employed the present in 
rendering all these verbs. Compare 1 Sam. 2 : 1-10, in Sept. 

' "mighty deeds;" x^aros. Norton, M. Bob. (in verbo), 
" collectively, mighty deeds, Luke 1 : 51." The adverbial form 
adopted by some translators, " he worketh mightily," would, 
according to ordinary usage, require xara ZQKTOS, as- in Acts 
19 : 20. Castal., " fortia." Heb. N. T., niiw?. 

r " he scattereth." See note on Inoif/os, supra. 

" those proud in the disposition ; " vitsftrjyavovs Siavoiq. 
Bob. (in loco.) Trollope (N. Test.) : " The words Siavoia xu$- 
Slas must be construed with vnsgrjyavovs. I regard this as a 
Hellenistic idiom in which the idea is equivalent to the common 
phrase " proud-hearted." diavoia, often thought, purpose, is by 
metonomy used for the mind, for the mode of thinking, and 
feeling, disposition of mind, the feelings. Bob., Lex. De "Wette, 
" zerstreuet die hoffartig sind in ihres Herzens Gesinnung." As 
the adjective is anarthrous, I place the supplement those before it. 
This may be properly employed, as it is obviously demanded by 
the sense. Should it be deemed best to retain the construction 

of the E. V., I suggest the propriety of substituting " device " 
for " imagination." The latter word has lost one of its leading 
significations since 1611. Trollope (N. Test.) : " It is clear that 
these words (TR> 'Afiftaafi /.. r. L] connect with fivr l oO'r l vat. iif- 
ovs." See Ps. 98 : 3. 

' " he casteth down ; " IE. Pcnn, " hath cast down." 
(See v. 51, note.) So Bob. (xad-ifea>). So (E. V.) 2 Cor. 
10 : 5. Syriac, vSjla). Heb. N. Test., 11*11;-;. So Murdock. 
" Put down " is too feeble. Kend., " hurleth ; " Casta,lio, " de- 

u " potentates ; " Swaaras. Bob., Thorn. So (E. V.) 1 Tim. 
6 : 15. 

v " thrones ; " &QOVIDV. The use of Swaatas, potentates or 
princes in this sentence, indicates the proper rendering of this 
word. So Kendrick, Wesley, Sharpe, Thorn., Dick., Wakefield, 
Campbell, M., Thel. Mont, " de thronis ; " Beza, " e thronis ; " 
Castal., " de soliis ; " De Wette, " Throne ; " Belg., " throonen ;" 
G. Fr. and S. Fr., " trones ; " Iber., " tronos ; " Diodati, " troni;" 
Dan., " Throner." The supplementary possessive " their " of the 
E. V. is omitted as superfluous. 

w " the low ; " ranstvoiie. Bob. (Lex.) As this word is 
antithetic to Swaoras, it indicates social position. It is ren- 
dered " low," as the present usage of our language demands. 
" Low degree " is now antiquated. It was first employed by 
Tyndale. Diodati, " i bassi ; " G. Fr. and S. Fr., " les petits ; ' 
Dan., " de Binge ; " De Wette, " Niedrige." " Lowly," which 
has been used by Wakef. and some others, is exceptionable on 
the ground that it is now used to indicate moral condition, 
persons of humble disposition. As an alternative rendering, 
of humble condition." So Iber. and Span., " los de condicion 
humilde." As rcatetvovs is anarthrous, " the " is italicised. 

1 " remembering mercy ; " fivqad-rjvai &eovs. Kend., Thom^ 
M. "Vulg., " recordatus misericordite ; " Span., " accordandose 
de miserieordia." There is an ellipsis of caats before this verb, 
as in v. 72. The supplement " his " is dropped as unwarranted 
by the text. In conformity with the Greek, the clause, " as he 
spoke to our fathers," is inclosed in a parenthesis. The comma 
after " mercy " and " fathers " is dropped in conformity with the 




55 As he spake to our fathers, 
to Abraham, and to his seed, for 

56 And Mary abode "with her 
about three months, and return- 
ed to her own house. 

57 Now Elisabeth's full time 
came that she should be deliver- 
ed ; and she brought forth a son. 

58 And her neighbours and her 
cousins heard how the Lord had 
shewed great mercy upon her ; 
and they rejoiced with her. 

59 And it came to pass, that 
on the eighth day they came 'to 
circumcise the child ; and they 
called him Zacharias, after the 
name of his father. 

60 And his mother answered 
and said, Not so ; but he shall be 
called John. 


A^cre .Trpos TOVS Trarepas T^ 
T(S 'AfSpaafj. KOL TO) 

" ' ^ ' ~ 56 

avrov fts TOV anava. 
Se Mapt-afJ. aw avrfj aicrei JJ.TJVO.S 
KCU vTrearTeev els TOV 

OLKOV avrrjs. 
67 Tfj Be ' 

' ' 58 N " 

VLOV. /ecu rjKovcrav 
ol TreploLKOi Kai ol <rvyyevts av- 

TTJf, OTl fJL'ya,\Vl' KvpLOS TO 

eAeoy avrov /uer avTrjs, KOU o~vv- 

/ J ~ SO -TS~ \ 3 / 

fftCLLpov avrrj. J\.ai eyevero 

eV Trj 6y8or). rj/j-epa., -f]X6ov irepi- 
TO TraiSiov /cat 

avro Tr TIM vfj.aTi TOV TraTpos 

KOU. ero- 

avTOv Za^apiav. 

r/ ftr/T^p O.VTOV eirev, 
v^l, aAAa KXrjdrjcreTai 'Icaav- 


to our fathers) to Abraham, 
and to his seed for ever. And 58 
Mary 'remained with her about 
three months ; and returned to 
her own house. Now, Eliza- 57 
beth's 'time to be delivered was 
fulfilled, and she brought forth 
a son. And her neighbors and 58 
her "kindred heard Hhat the 
Lord c had magnified his mercy 
towards her ; and they rejoic- 
ed with her. And' it came to 59 
pass, on the eighth day, they 
came to circumcise the child : 
and they f were about to call 
him Zachariah, after the name 
of his father. And his mother, 60 
e answering, said, Not so; but 
he shall be called John. And 61 

punctuation of Tittmann. A more literal rendering of fav;od-fji'ai 
would bo " so as to remember." But this involves a violation 
of our idiom. 

y " remained ; " S/tsevs. Kend., Dick., Norton. So (E. V.) 
Luke 10 : 7. John 1 : 33; 15 : 11, 16 ; 19 : 31, etc. Ynlg., 
Mont., Eras., Beza, Castal., Schott, " mansit." The verb, " to 
abide " is, to say the least, obsolescent. 

* " time to be delivered was fulfilled ; " sittyo&ri 6 zgovos TOV 
tev.eTv. Among the different modes by which this passage may 
be rendered, this seems to me to preserve the proper medium 
between a literality which would be contrary to our usits loquendi, 
and a paraphrase, which does not give the proper force to btlriod-ri. 
" To fulfill," especially when the idea of time is involved, is the 
ordinary rendering of the verb in the E. V. Bob. (Lex., in 
verbo) : " Of time, to be fulfilled, completed, to be fully past." So 
it is rendered here by The!, and Scarlett. Tov Tcy.etv, the infini- 
tive as a noun in the genitive, is employed according to a 
common idiom to denote the object or end in view. Stuart, 
<i 165. 3. 1. Kiihner, g 308, b. It is best rendered by the infini- 
tive, in English. For conciseness and force, this mode is prefera- 
ble to the subjunctive. 

" " kindred ; " ovyyevezs. See v. 36, note. So Kend-i Penn, 
Angus. DeWette, " Verwandten." Heb. N. Test., rr^a'-ij?. Syr., 
aiiooiolj " ^ (sons of her kindred). 

b " that ; " OTI. Wesley, Sharpe, Thorn., Dick., Kendrick, 
Thel., M. 

' " had magnified ; " Iftsya't.vve. Thomson, Penn, Scarlett, 
Angus, M. Yulg., " magnificavit ; " S. Fr., " avait magnifie ; " 

Span., " habia engrandecido ; " Diod., " aveva magnificata. Syr., 
^.Iio). Heb. N. T., ii'iSfi. I retain the pluperfect of the 
E. V., as that tense is sometimes represented by the Gr. imperf. 
Trollope, Gram., p. 132. 5. Should it be deemed better to give 
the imperfect its usual force, we may render it by " was magnify- 
ing." So Angus. See (E. V.) Gen. 19 : 19. 

d " towards her ; " per avrfjs. Scarlett, Penn, M. Bob. 
(Lex., ftsrnj : " noiBtv it fteia twos, to do with any one, i. e. to 
or towards him, corresponding to Heb. DS nbs, also /isya).vvea> 
TI fiera rtvos, Luke 1 : 58, for Heb. bs b^Mi-" Eras., Beza, 
Castal., " erga illam ; " G. Fr. and S. Fr., " en'vers elle ; " Diod., 
" inverso lei." 

" that," before " the eighth day," is omitted, as there is 
nothing corresponding to it expressed in the text ; thus it is super- 
fluous. So Angus, Wesley, Wakef., Scarlett. Should it be 
deemed expedient to introduce a supplement, I recommend that 
" when " should be placed after " day," with a comma, immedi- 
ately following " day ; " thus, " on the eighth day, when," etc. So 

f " were about to call ; " Ixahovv. Kendrick, M. Norton, 
" were about to," etc. A literal rendering, " were calling," does 
not present the thought with clearness, nor will it here correspond 
with our usus loquendi. The obvious sense is, " they were on the 
point of naming the child John, but his mother Obje'cted," etc. 
The colloquial phrase, " they were going to call," is exact, but 
perhaps inadmissible, as colloquial. Scarlett has used it. 

s " answering ; " anoK^t&ETaa. Wesley, M., Thelwell. Span, 
" respondiendo ; " Vulg., Eras., Beza, " respondens." 




61 And they said unto her, 
There is none of thy kindred that 
is called by this name. 

62 And they made signs to his 
father, -how he would have him 

63 And he asked for a writing- 
table, and wrote, saying, His 
name is John. And they mar- 
velled all. 

64 And his mouth was opened 
immediately, and his tongue loos- 
ed, and he spake, and praised 

65 And fear came 0:1 all that 
dwelt round about them : and all 
these sayings were noised abroad 
throughout all the hill-country of 

66 And all they that heard 
them, laid them up. in their hearts, 
saying, What manner of child ! 


fil 7^- '\ 9 

7^- '\ 9 \ 

vr/s. J\.ai. CLTTOV Trpos 

Ore ovSely fcrriv eV rfj crwyye- 
veia, Q-QV, or KaXeiTai TW ovo/tari 



rpi avTov, TO T'L O-V OeXoL KaXet- 

n ' ' 63 * > ' 

croon, OVTOV. KO.I airrjcras TTLVO.- 
Kidiov eypa'fye, Xeycav, 'Icaavurjs 
ecrrl TO ovo/jta avrov- KOL 0au- 


TO crroyua avTov pa /cat 
77 yXSxrara. avTov, /cat eAaAet ev- 
XoyS>i> TQV 0eoi>. ''' Kai e 

TTi TTaVTO.? (j)0/3of TOVS 

KOVVTO.S avTOVf /cat eV oXy TTJ 
opeivrj TTJS 'lovBaia? SteAaAeiVo 

TO, prj/naTa TOVTO.' /cat 
7rai>Tf 01 a.KOvo~a.vT$ kv 
KapSta avTMf, XeyovTes, Tl 
apa TO Traioiov TOVTO Ztrrai; 


they said to her, There is h no 
one of thy 'kindred, who is 
called by this name. And 62 
they made signs to his father 'to 
know what he would have him 
called. And 'asking for 'a 63 
writing-tablet, he wrote, say- 
ing, His name is John. And 
"they all wondered. And his 64 
mouth was opened immediate- 
ly, and his tongue loosed, and 
he spoke, "blessing God. And 6'5 
fear came on all Avho dwelt 
"around them ; and all these 
pthings q were talked of every- 
where r in all the hill-country 
of Judea. And all "who heard 66 
them, laid them up in their 
hearts, saying, 'What then will 
this child be ? And the hand 

h " no one ; " ovSsls. Norton. Bob. (in verbo), " as substan- 
tive, 770 one, no man, no person." " No one " (used as pronoun 
in the sense of " no person ") accords with present usage. 

1 " kindred." See v. 58, note. 
. J "to know what ; " TO ri. Thomson. The article to here 
applies to the whole of the following clause, and is not, as has 
been supposed by some, pleonastic. Bloomf. (N. Test.) The 
passage might be literally rendered, " namely, as to what he 
would have him called." By using the supplement " to know," 
we preserve the force of TO, and have a phrase, which presents 
the thought in terms accordant to our usus loquendi. The ren- 
dering of the E. V. makes TO pleonastic, and gives ri (= KOTO. TI) 
the force of TCIOS. It follows Tyndale. 

k " asking ; " alrijaas. Wesley, Thel., M. The participial 
construction is employed by Thomson and Scarlett. Spanish, 
" pidiendo." 

i " a writing-tablet ; " mvaxiSiov. Wesley, Scarlett, Angus, 
M. De Wette, " ein Tafelchen ; " Belg., " een schrijf-tafelken." 
" Writing-table " conveys a wrong idea to the English reader. 
See Bob. 

" " they all wondered ;" Ifrav/iaoav ndvres. Kend., Norton, 
Wakef. " To marvel " is obsolete. There is an unnecessary 
inversion of the sentence in the E. V. It was copied from 
Tyndale, who followed the Latin of the Yulg., " mirati emit 

u " blessing ; " evloySv. Norton, Kendrick, Wakef. S. Fr., 
"en benissant;" Iber., " bendiciendo ; " Diodati, Ital., "benedi- 
cendo." So evkoyeco is rendered " to bless " in all other instances 
in the E. V. 

" around." Kend., Penn, Scarlett, " round." M. " Eound 
about," should be changed to " round " or " around " in all cases, 
as " about" is a tautology. 

P " things ; " ^rjftata.. Kend., Norton, Angus, Wesley, Thorn., 
Penn, Wakef., Camp. De Wette, " Dinge ; " Belg., " dingen ; " 
G. Fr. and S. Fr., "choses;" Iber., "cosas;" Diod. and ItaL 
" cose." This signification of Qrjft.a. is derived from the Hebrew, 
and is equivalent to 13*1 

1 " were talked of every where ; " SieZafatta. M-, Rob. (in 
verbo et loco.) The preposition Sin, having the primary significa- 
tion of through, throughout, may properly be regarded as giving 
the verb this signification in " every where." Liddell defines in pass. " to be talked of every where." " To noise " 
is no longer used. If Sta. is disregarded, we may render " were 
spoken of," or, " talked of in all," etc. So Sharpe. 

' " in all the hill-country ; " iv olrj T*J ofsivij (ZIOQO, subaud.) 
Wes%, Wakef., M. More literally, " in the whole hill-country." 
So Norton, Thel. Beza, " in tota montana regione." This is 
submitted as an alternative rendering. 

" all' who heard ; " n&vrss ol axovoavres. Thorn., Wakef., 
Scarlett, Dick., Camp., M. 

- " What then will this child be ? " Ti aoa TO natSiov TOVTO 
toTat; Norton, J[. Thorn, and Penn, "What will this child 
be ? " S. Fr., " Que sera done ce petit enfant ? " Iber., " Quien 
pues ha de ser cste nino ? " Ital., " Che sara dunque quel fanci- 
ullino?" Syriac, JLJn Vlia4 JoaiJ ^a Jlio. Belg.," Wat zal 
doch clit kindeken wezen ? " Schott, " Quid tandem hie puer 
futurus est?" The force of aoa should not be disregarded ia 
rendering this passage. See Eob. (in verbo.) Bloomf. (N. T.) ; 
' The pa is ratioemattve." 





shall this be! And the hand 
the Lord was with him. 

67 And his father Zacharias 
was~ filled with the Holy Ghost, 
and prophesied, saying, 

68 Blessed be the Lord God of 
Israel ; for he hath visited and 
redeemed his people, 

69 And hath raised up an horn 
of salvation for us, in the house 
of his servant David : 

70 As he spake by the mouth 
of his holy prophets, which have 
been since the world began : 

71 That we should be saved 
from our enemies, and from the 
hand of all that hate us ; 

72 To perform the mercy pro- 



Kai Za^apias o TTO.TTJP avrov 

, KOL 

, \e-ycov, 68 

TOS Kvpios 6 Oeos TOV ' 
art 7T<rK\lsaTO KOI. eTroitjcre Xv- 

" \ ~ 3 -. fiQ \ 


r/'yeipe Kepas crajTrjpias yiuv, tv 
T(S oi'/cct) Aa{$i TOV Traioos O.VTQV- 
eAaA^cre 810. crro/j.aroy 


TU>V air aavos Trpo- 



/cat e/c 


rjcrai eAeoy /aera TO>V 

' 2 



of the Lord was with him. 
And "Zachariah, his father, was ci 
filled with the Holy Spirit, and 
prophesied, saying, Blessed be 66 
"the Lord, the God of Israel ; 
for he hath visited and "redeem- 
ed Ms people, and hath raised 69 
up a horn of salvation for us, 
in the house 'of David, his 
servant ; as he spoke by the 70 
mouth of his holy prophets 
''of old : z salvation from our 71 
enemies, and from the hand of 
all who hate us ; to perform 72 
mercy. Howards our fathers, 

u " Zachariali, his father ; " Za^a^ias o !tarrj() avrov. Thorn., 
"Wakef., M., Campbell, Dick., Norton. This is the arrangement 
of the Vulg., Montanus, Eras., Beza, Castalio. So Schott, who 
punctuates thus, " Zacharias, pater ejus." Syriae, ^ULO 
(Murdock, " Zachariah his father.") Heb. N. T., -pax 
De Wette, " Zacharias, scin Yater ; " Belgic, " Zacharias zijn 
vader ; " G. Fr. and S. Fr., " Zacharie son pere ; " Iberian, 
" Zacarias, su padre ; " Diodati, " Zaecaria, suo padre ; " Dan., 
" Zacharias hans Fader." 

v " the Lord, the God of Israel ; " Kvgtos o 6sos rov 'lagarjL 
Norton, Keudrick, Thorn., Sharpe, "Wakef., Scarlett, Campbell. 
Luther and De Wette, " der Herr, der Gott Israels ; " Belg., " de 
Heere, de God Israels ; " G. Fr. and S. Fr., " le Seigneur, le Dieu 
d'Israel ; " Iber., " el Senor, el Dios de Israel ; " Ital., " il Signore, 
1'Iddio d'Israele ; " Dan., " Herren, Israel's God." This phrase is 
a literal translation of the Hebrew Ixibi "Wix JTiiTj'Wia Ps. 
72 : 18 ; 106 : 48, where the Septuagint agrees exactly with this 
of Luke. As Evyios is equivalent to rtw (a proper name of 
God), it is anarthrous (Kiihner, $244), while 0e6s takes the article 
being in apposition to Kvytog. Stuart, Gram., \ 89. 6. A comma 
is placed after KVQIOS, because the sentence, " the God of Israel," 
is explanatory. 

" " redeemed ; " htoiijae. I have retained the language of the 
E. V. At the same time, I suggest the literal rendering of Inol- 
rjae Ivrgcoaiv ry lacy aiiTov, " wrought redemption for his 
people," as an alternative. So Vulg., Eras., Montanus, ' fecit 
redemptionem ; " De AVette, " seinem Volke Erlosung geschafft ; " 
Iber., " hecho la redencion, a su pueblo." Svriac, oiio^ . VM 

P is , V V 

(iojos 31^. fi^.0 (" who hath visited his people, and wrought 
redemption for them.") So Thelwall. 

1 " of David, his servant ; " 4api TOV xaiSbs aviov. Norton. 
This construction is like that of v. 68, Kv^eos a. T. L Tov 
naiSoe O.VTOV being in apposition with ^faftlS. The order of the 
text should be preserved. 

y " of old ; " arf altuvos (= dil'Sa Heb. N. Test. ; 
Syriae ; " of old," Murdock.) Thorn., M., Kendrick. This is a 
common rendering in the E. V. of 0. Test, where the Hebrew 
has t&isa, and the Septuagint an alcavoe, as in Gen. 6 : 4. Ps. 
25 : 6. Eob. (aliov. a), " time long past, as in Gr. writers, the 
olden time, of old." The sense of tojv ayicov taiv art ahuvos 
Ttqoyrjraiv avroii may be expressed freely thus, " of his holy 
ones, the ancient prophets." The ^repetition of ituv seems to 
give prominence to the thought that the prophets belonged to 
" the olden time." " Since the world began " is not sufficiently 
literal. Iber., " desde tiempos antiguos ; " Dan., " ved sine hellige 
Propheters Mund, som have voret fra fordums Tid ; " De Sacy, 
" prophetes, qui ont ete dans tous les siecles passes." 

3 " salvation ; " oconjQtav. Angus, The!., Pcnn, M. Sharpe 
and "Wakef., " a salvation ; " Vulg., Mont., Schott, " salutem ; " 
De Wette, " Kettung ; " Belg., " [Naamlijk] eene verlossinge ; " 
S. Fr., " salut ; " Diod., " salvazione ; " Dan., " en Frelse." The 
niference of acoTr^lav to acoTtjfias, in v. 69, is obvious. It is 
exegetic. Heb. N. Test., h 

* " mercy." As efaos is anarthrous, no article is requisite 
before "mercy." Article not employed by Geneva, Wiclif, 
Eheims, Angus, Thel., M., Kend. As there is nothing in the 
text to authorize the supplement "promised," it is dropped, by 
Kend., Angus, M., Thel., Perm, Sharpe Thorn. 

b " towards ; " fisra. Kendrick, Norton. See v. 58, note. 
Hottjaai eUcos ftsTa is a Hebraism, equivalent to 6S ion nias, 
" to perform mercy towards or to any one." So the Heb. 
N. Test., sijiniasji b? 'ibn ftvas. See Gesen. Lex., bS- I deem 
" towards " more" exact 'than " to." The latter, however, is 
employed by Wesley, Penn, and M. " Towards " is sanctioned 
by Eras, and Beza, " erga patres nostros." So Castal., " erga 
majores nostros ; " G. Fr., " envers nos peres ; " Diod., " inverse i 
nostri padri." So Kuincel, " erga majores nostros." 




mised to our fathers, and to 
remember his holy covenant ; 

73 The oath -which he aware to 
our father Abraham, 

74 That he -would grant unto 
us, that -we, being delivered out 
of the hand of our enemies, might 
serve him without fear, 

75 In holiness and righteous- 
ness before him, all the days of 
our life. 

76 And thou, child, shalt be 
called the prophet of the Highest, 
for thou shalt go before the face 
of the Lord to prepare his ways ; 

77 To give, knowledge of sal- 
vation unto his people, by the 
remission of their sins, 

78 Through the tender mercy 
of our God ; whereby the day- 
spring from on high hath visited 

79 To give light to them that 
sit in darkness and in the shadow 


/cat jJLvr\ar6r]vai 

ayias avrov, 3 opKOv ov <a(j.0(re 
Trpos 'A/3paafj, TOV Trarepa rjjji.wi', 
TOV Sovvcti THJUV, 74 ao/3cay, e/c 

) Xarpeveiv avrco 


75 e ocrio- 


TOV Tracrar ra? ?/x,e/oa? rrs 
' 6 Kcu, o-v 


Tropev(rr) -yap irpo TrpoacDirov Kv-. 

plov, eVoijuacrai odovy avrov- 
TOV Sovvat yv5>o~iv 

TU> Aaa> avrov kv a 

Tiav avTKV, 8 Sia 

kXkovs Oeov r//j.cav, kv oty 

TJsaTO r]fji5.y avaroXr} eg 



> J, 

iri<f>avai TOLS 



and to remember his holy cove- 
nant ; the oath which he swore 73 
to "Abraham our father, that he 74 
would grant to us, that, being 
delivered out of the hand of 
our enemies, u we might serve 
him without fear, in holiness 75 
and righteousness before him, 
'all our clays. And thou, child, 7fi 
shalt be called f a prophet E of 
the Most High, for thou shalt 
go before the face of the Lord 
to prepare his ways ; to give 77 
knowledge of salvation to his 
people u in l the remission of 
their sins, ! on account of Hhe. 78 
tender mercy of our God, by 
which the clay-spring from on 
high hath visited us, to give 79 
light "to those sitting in dark- 
ness and '"the shadow of death ; 

6 "Abraham, our father." Perspicuity demands that the order 
of the text should not be deserted. So Wakef., Sharpe, Norton, 
De Wette, Belg., <?. Fr. and S. Fr., Iber., Span., Diodati, Syr., 
Heb. N. Test., Vulg., Beza, Eras., Costal. 

d "we." The nominative is placed immediately before its 
verb, which is its natural place according to our wus loquendi. 
So Sharpe, Penn, Scarlett, M., Camp. 

e " all our days ; " naoas ras 
Sharpe, Penn, A. Camp., Angus, Thel. 

Norton, Dick., 
Vulg.,' " omnibus diebus 

nostris ; " Schott, " per omnes dies nostros. The rendering of the 
Textus Receptus, tijs <ofjs, is not found in many of the best 
manuscripts and versions (among the latter is the Syriac). It is 
canceled by Griesbach, Knapp, Theile, Lach., Tisch., Schott, 
Scholz, and bracketed by Tittmann. It is spurious. 

f " a prophet ; " n^oyf,rr;s. As this noun is anarthrous, no 
article should be inserted, especially when there is nothing in the 
passage to make the signification specific. So M., Wesley, Dick., 
Thorn., Sharpe, Campbell, Norton. Belgic, "een Propheet." 
Diodati, S. Fr., and De Wette have no article. 

E " of the Most High ; " vyiarov. See v. 32, note. 

h " in ; " lv. As " in the remission " is agreeable to our idiom, 
and lv has its radical signification, this rendering is appropriate. 
So Scarlett, Angus, Dick, Camp., M. 

' " the." As ayeaec has no article, " the " is italicized as a 
supplement. An alternative rendering is suggested, "in remis- 
sion." De Wette has no article. 

1 " on account of ; " Sia (cum accusat.) Bob. (Lex.) By this 
rendering which gives the primary sense of the preposition, it is 

genitive, " through." Tyndale adopted " through," in conformity 
with the Vulg., " per (viscera misericordioe)," and was followed 
by Cranmer, Geneva, and the E. V. De Wette, " vermoge (der 
erbarmenden Gnade) ; " Iber., " por causa (de las entranas de 

k " the tender mercy." 
a supplement. 

i " to those sittin ; 

being anarthrous ; '' the " is 

The participial 

rendering is adopted, as it harmonizes with the text and is more 
concise than that of the E. Y. As an 

those dwelling." See the verb 

alternative form, " to 
in Bob. and Bretsch. 

Lexicons. It is equivalent to sis';, which signifies both " to sit," 
and " to dwell." 

m in, which is inserted before " the shadow " in the E. Y., is 
an unnecessary supplement. When nouns are connected by 
conjunctions and a preposition precedes the leading one, ii is not 
expressed before the rest, according to the usage of our language. 
As to the omission of the article in the text before axia, the 
following rule of Trollope's Gram., p. 52, is applicable : " When 
two or more nouns are coupled together by conjunctions, or when 
the conjunctions are omitted by the figure asyndeton, the article 
which would otherwise be inserted, is frequently rejected." See 
Greek text of Matt. 10 : 28. Luke 21 : 25. 1 Cor. 13 : 13. I 
retain " shadow," though " shade " would perhaps be more strictly 
accurate. Webster (" Shade ") makes the following correct 
distinction : "Shade differs from shadow, as it implies no particu- 
lar form or definite limit ; whereas a shadow represents in form 
the object, which intercepts the light." I suggest " shade " as an 

distinguished from its proper meaning when followed by a ! alternative rendering. To Thorn., " the shade of death." 



of death, to guide our feet into 
the way of peace. 

80 And the child grew, and 
waxed strong in spirit, and was 
in the deserts till the day of his 
shewing unto Israel. 


AND it came to pass in those 
days, that there went out a decree 
from Cesar Augustus, that all the 
world should be taxed. 

2 (And this taxing was first 
made when Cyrenius was gover- 
nor of Syria.) 

3 And all went to be taxed, 
every one into his own city. 

4 And Joseph also went up 
from Galilee, out of the city of 
Nazareth, into Judea, unto the 
city of David,^ which is called 
Bethlehem, (because he was of the 
house and lineage of David,) 


TOVS TroSay rjfJi.S>v els 
o8ov eiprjvris. 80 To 8e ircuSiov 
rjv^ave /cat eKparaiovTO irvev- 
fj.aTL- /cat rjv ev raty e/JT^oty, 
ecoy y/jiepa.? avaSei^eoas avrov 
irpos TOV ' Io~pa.-f)X' 

CHAP. n. 

'EFJENETO Se ev rats rjfu- 
pais e/cetWty, t^rjXde So-yfjia. Trapa 
Kaiaapos Avyovo-rov, a-Troypd- 
'(pecrdcu Tracrav rr/v 

avTrj rj a,7roypa(j)r) -TrpatTT] eye- 

vero rjyefJiovevovTos TTS 
3 /cat 

vrazrey aTToypacrai, e/cacrroy 
ety TTJV i8lav TroAty. 4 
8z /cat 'Tcao~rj(j) O.TTO TTJS 
Aa/ay, e/c TroAeojy Nc/L^aplr, ety 
TTJV 'lovSalav, ety TroXiv Aa/318, 
TjTts /caAetrat SrjdXee/jt,, 8ia TO 
eivau O.VTOV e' OIKOV /cat Trarptas 


to guide our feet into the way 
of peace. And the child grew 80 
and "became strong in spirit : 
and ""he was in the deserts till 
the day 9 of his manifestation to 


AND it came to pass in those 1 
days, that there went out a 
decree from Cegar Augustus 
that all the world "should be 
registered. (This 'registering 2 
c first d took place when 'Quiri- 
nus was governor of Syria.) 
And all went to be registered, 3 
each into his own city. And 4 
Joseph also went up from Gali- 
lee, out of the city of Nazareth, 
into Judea, g into the city of 
David, which is called Bethle- 
hem (because he was of the 
house and ""family of David), 

" " became 'strong ; " Ex^araiovro. Thorn., Angus, M. To 
wax is obsolete. 

In conformity with the Greek punctuation, a colon is placed 
after " spirit " (tnvevftari'). 

p " he." The pronoun is inserted, as this clause is separated 
from the preceding one by a colon. See last note. 

1 " of his manifestation ; " dvaSsl&cos. " His shewing 1 " is 
obsolete. So Penn, Angus, M. If it should be deemed proper 
to employ Anglo-Saxon terms, we can render the words, " when 
he was shown." This is ad sensum, though not ad verbum. 

" should be registered ; " axtoyq&yeod'a.i. Norton, M., 
Sharpe, Camp. Kob. (in verbd) : " In N. Test, to write off in a, 
register, to inscribe, enroll." Some later translators have used the 
phrase " should be enrolled." The verb " to register " is, however, 
the more usual one at present for expressing the thought, where 
lists are made of, those who are subject to taxation and other 
public charges. It is unnecessary to examine the various theo- 
ries and renderings which have been adopted to meet the 
supposed chronological difficulty, presented by a collation of this 
passage with Josephus' Antiq. 18 : 1. 1, ib. 18 : 2. 1. The task 
belongs to commentators. See Kob., Lex. (Kv^vios.) 

b "registering;" anoygayri. Rob. (Lex.), Norton, M. See 
last note. 

" first ; " TC^COTT;. This word is used adverbially ; Buttmann, 
123. 6, and Trolfope, p. 46 (obs. 15). So John 8 : 7, n^turos, 

and 20 : 4. 1 Tim. 2 : 13. The rendering which would treat 
n^cortj as an adjective qualifying ayoygarprj, is opposed to the 
idiom of the Greek. This first registering would require avrrj y 
anoyqatpri ij ftpcoTrj, or canrj r; ic^turrj anoygacpr]. Green's 
Gram., p. 187. Trollope, Analecta (in loco). The E. V. properly 
treats it^carrj as an adverb. See Septuagint, 1 Sam. 14- : 14. 
Dan. 8:21. Joel 2 : 20. Zech. 14:10. Eev. 4 : 1. 

d " took place ; " tyevero. Penn, Campbell. Bob. (in verbd], 
" to take place." As an alternative rendering, " took effect." 
Tyndale, " was first executed." 

" Quirinus." The Latin orthography is adopted rather than 
the Greek, as appropriate for a Latin name. Norton, M., Hob. 
Others, as Camp., Penn, " Quirinius." 

f " each ; " &SCCOTOS. Norton, Scarlett, Penh, Thel. " Each 
one," used by some translators, requires 'sis exaoTos. Eph. 4 : 16, 
Acts 20 : 31. Kob. (exaoros.) 

E " into ; " els. There is no necessity for departing from the 
radical sense of this word, which is properly used in v. 3, els ir,* 
iSiav no* ', " into his own city," and this verse, els TT,V 'lovSai. 
av, " into Judea." 

. h " family ; " xaTfias. Angus, Thelwall, M. Kob. (Lex., in 
verbo), " a family," Heb. tinsiaa, as the subdivision of a Jewish 
tribe, ynity, aaa, which family' comprehended several households, 
olxot." Heb/''N. Test., inriaiiJHM w r^M- Vulg., Mont, 

7) f\~\\= V?-' 

-^ T 




5 To be taxed with Mary his 
espoused wife, being great with 

6 And so it was, that while 
they were there, the days were 
accomplished that she should be 

7 And she brought forth her 
first-born son, and wrapped him 
in swaddling-clothes, and laid 
him in a manger ; because there 
was no room for them in the inn. 

8 And there were in the same 
country shepherds abiding in the 

. field, keeping watch over their 
flock by night. 

9 And lo, the angel of the Lord 
came upon them, and the glory of 
the Lord shone round about them ; 
and they were sore afraid. 

10 And the angel said unto 
them, Fear not: for behold, I 
bring you good tidings of great 
joy, which shall be to all people. 


Mapiafi Trj jue/zi'T/crrey/iej'r; avrco 

- \ . v y ' 6 ' 

yvvaiKi, ovcry e-yKVtp. 
vero-8e ev TW eivat avrovs 
l7rXrjar6r}(rav ai y/Jt,fpai TOV 

3 7 7 X 57 \" 7\ 

rfitl"mi* tsn t Cfcisc *rmi n/n 

KO.I ere/ce TOV viov av- 
rrf TOV TrpcaroTOKOV, Kal eo~irap- 
yavci)o~ev avTov, KOU dveicXivev 
avfov zv Trj (fiaTvy SIOTL OVK rjv 
avrols roTTO? ez/ T> KaTa.Xvfj.aTi.. 

KoH TTOtjue'vey T)<ia.v iv Tr} 
XP a T fi avT fi) a-ypa.vXovvTf Kal 
(pvXacro~ovTe$ <f)vXa.Kas TTJS VVKTOS 
7rl -njv TroiiJivrjv O.VTWV. 9 Kal 
I8ov, ayyeXos Kvpiov eirltrrr) 
avrols, Kal 8o^a Kvpiov Trepie- 
Xa/jttyev avTovs' /cat e(()o^dr]crav 
(f)6j3ov fie-yav. 10 Kai e'iTrev av- 
Tols 6 ayyeXos, Mrj (j)of3ei(rde- 
iSov 'yap, euayyeA/^b/uai v[uv 
)(apa.v fJi,e-ydXr)j/ } TJTIS e'crrat 


'to be registered with Mary 6 
his ] betrothed wife, k being 
with child. And it came to G 
pass, while they were there, 
the days 'for her delivery wore 
accomplished. And she brought 7 
forth her first-born son, and 
"swathed him, and laid him in 
"the manger ; because there was 
no room for them in the inn. 
And there were "shepherds in 8 
the same country, abiding in 
the fields, keeping watch over 
their flock by night. Andr p be- 9 
hold, 'an angel of the Lord 
r stood by them, and the glory 
of the Lord 'shone round them, 
and they feared greatly. And 10 
the angel said to them, Fear 
not, for behold, I bring you 
good 'news of great joy, which 

Erasmus, Beza, " familia ; " G. Pr., S. Fr., De Sacy, " de la 
famille '; " Iber., Span., " familia ; " Ital., " famiglia." " Lineage " 
is at least obsolescent; "lineal descendant" having taken its 

1 " to be registered." See v. 1, note. 

5 " betrothed ; " fte/ivqarsvpsv};. There is an obvious refer- 
ence to -what the Evangelist wrote in ch. 1 : 27, where this 
participle occurs in the same tense. Hence the equivalent word 
should be employed in both instances. 

* " being with child ; " ovar\ tyxvcp- Wesley, Eob. (in verbo.) 
I have adopted a literal rendering here. Several late translators 
have, " who was with child." By dropping " great," we preserve 
the phraseology of the E. V. with the least change. 

1 " for her delivery ; " TOV rey.av avrrjv. This infinitive has 
the force of a noun, and with rov indicates object. Kuhner, 
? 308. 2. b. According to our idiom, " for " is used rather than 
" of." Eras., " completi sunt dies pariendi ; " Beza, " explerentur 
dies ad pariendum ; " Castal., " exacto ad pariendum tempore." 

m " swathed ; " lana^y&vcaasu. Wesley, Thorn., Dickinson, 
Campbell, Scarlett, Kend., Norton, Eob. (Lex.) " To swaddle," 
as in (E. V.) Ezek. 16 : 4, or " to wrap in swaddling-clothes " (as 
here), are terms no longer in use. 

" the manger ; " TTJ yarvrj. The article should not be 
dropped, a: rfj _y>drt^ stands contrasted with no xifraiv,ua.n, 
" the iiK." The article is retained by Sharpe, Wakef., Scarlett, 
Campbell (in v. 12). De Wette, "die Krippe;" Belg., "de 

Kribbe ; " S. Fr., " la creche ; " Iber., " el pesebre ; " Span., " el 
portal." Heb. N. Test, Dsa. As an alternative rendering, 
" the stable." . 

" shepherds." This location has been given to the noun, as 
more in accordance with our usual arrangement of words, than 
that of the E. V. The sentence is thus more easily enunciated. 

f " behold ; " ISov. See ch. 1 : 44, note. 

' " an angel ; " ayyefos. No definite article is demanded 
here by the text. So Norton, Kend., Thorn., Dick, Sharpe, 
Penn, Angus, Wakef., Scarlett, Camp., M. De Wette, " ein 
Engel ; " Belg., " een Engel ; " S. Fr., " un ange ; " Span., " un 
angel ; " Iberian, " un mensagero ; " Diodati and Italian, " un 

r " stood by them ; " iitecny avrots. M., Thel. So Eob. (in 
verbo), " to stand upon, by, near:" Camp., Thorn., Tyndale, and 
Cranmer, "stood hard by them." Vulg., "stetit juxta illos;" 
Eras., " astitit illis ; " Mont., " adstitit eis ; " Schott, " adstitit 
iis;" Bretsch. (in loco, tylcmifu), "loquitur de iis, qui subito 
adstant nobis ; " Belg., " stpnd bij haar ; " Dan., " stod for dem." 
The rendering of the E. V. was taken from the Geneva, as that 
was from Beza's " supervenit ipsis." The Heb. N. Test, coincides 
with the above rendering, fcrt^S SBJ/'fei-,.^ jg: ^ 

"shone round ;" itegi&afiysv. " Bound about" is a tautolo- 2 
gy which should be rejected in all cases. ' 

t "news." This is substituted for the antiquated term 
" tidings." 

y Y 




11 For unto you is born this 
day, in the city of David, a Sa- 
viour, -which is Christ the Lord. 

12 And this shall be a sign unto 
you ; Ye shall find the babe wrap- 
ped in swaddling-clothes, lying in 
a manger. 

13 And suddenly there was 
with the angel a multitude of the 
heavenly host praising God, and 

14 G-lory to God in the highest, 
and on earth peace, good will 
toward men. 

15 And it came to pass, as the 
angels were gone away from 
them into heaven, the shepherds 
said one to another, Let us now 
go even unto Bethlehem, and see 
this thing which is come to pass, 


rcS AacS- n ori fTe^drj v/uiis o-f]- 
a-coTTjp, os eon Xpio~Tos 
iv TroAet Aa/StS. 12 /cat 
TOVTO vfj.iv TO o-rjfjLclov evprjo~T 
j3p(f)os eo~7rapyavcofjivoi>, Kifj.e- 
vov ei> TTJ (paTvr). 13 Kcu e- 
ai^vr/s eyeveTo o~vv T(o ayyeXcp 
Tr\TJ0of o~TpaTia? ovpavtov, al- 

liX A ' f- ' ' I ' />~ V 

Zlog-a i> VWLO~TOL? c/eo), Kai 
> \ " , / i > /i' ' 

CTTi yris eipr}i>rj' ev avuptaTrois 

15 v. r^" N ' ' ' 

A at eyet/ero, cos 

avr' avTcov els TOV ovpa- 
vov ol ayyeXoi, KCU ol avOpanroL 
ol iroifjiei'es elirov irpos ciXXr/Xovs, 
AieX9a}[j.ev Br/ IW JBydXeefj., /cat 
TO pfj/JLa TOVTO TO yeyo- 


will be to all "the people. For n 
there is born to you this day, 
in the city of David, a Saviour, 
who is Christ, the Lord. And 12 
this "will be "the sign to you ; 
ye will find "a babe r swathed, 
lying in z a manger. And sud- is 
denly there was with the angel 
a multitude of the heavenly 
host, praising God, and saying, 
Glory to God in the highest, 14 
and on earth peace ;" good will 
towards men. And it came to 15 
pass, b when the angels c had 
gone from them into heaven, 
d the men, the shepherds, said 
to one another, Let us now go 
even to Bethlehem, and see 
this thing, which hath come to 

" the people ; " rip f.a f p. Angus, Kend., Thelwall, Tyndale, 
Geneva, Bheims, Thorn., P^nn, Sharpe, Camp. Norton, "the 
whole people." Compare vv^32, 33. As an alternative render- 
ing, " the whole people." So Green, Gr. N. Test,, p. 195. 

T " will be." Sharpe, Scarlett, Penn. 

w " the sign ; " TO aijfisTov. Thomson, M., Kend., Thelwall. 
De Wette, " das Zeichen ; " Belg., " het teeken ; " G. Pr., " la 
marque;" S. Pr., " le signe;" Iber. and Span., la senal;" 
Diodati, " il segno ; " Ital., " il segnale." Heb. N. Test., rvixrt. 
In the. use of the definite article here, the usus loquendi of the 
Greek and English is the same. 

1 " a tabe ; " fiftcpos. Thorn., "VVakef., Sharpe, Penn, Angus, 
M., Campbell. Scarlett and Kendrick, " an infant ; " De Wette, 
" ein Kind ; " S. Pr., " un petit enfant ; " Iber., " una criatura ; " 
Ital., " un fanciulliuo." Compare TO /3fsy>os, v. 16. 

y " swathed ; " kanayyavcafievov. Norton, Thorn., Scarlett, 
Kend., M., Bob. (onafyavoco.) The paraphrastic rendering of 
the E. V. originated in that of Erasmus, " fasciis involutum." 
See v. 7, note. 

1 " a manger." The article r-rj before yarvrj is canceled by 
Knapp, Theile, Lach., Tisch., Schott, Scholz. Griesbach places 
it in the margin. Schott says : "Artie, rfj, qui vulgo ante parv^ 
additar (ex v. 7) delevimus cam Griesb. aliisque auctoritate 
multorum codd. (decem unc.)." 

A semicolon is placed after " peace," in conformity with the 
colon of the Greek (<%>;). Trollope (Analecta) remarks, 
"That it (i. e. the verse) consists of two (clauses) only is evident 
to demonstration from the apposition of lv vyloTois and Qciy in 
the one, to snl yrje and Avfrgtanots in the other." The above 
punctuation is that of Wesley and Kend. Thorn., " on earth 
peace. I good will," etc.; S. Pr., "paix! dans les hommes," etc. ; 
Iber., "en la tierra paz; entre los hombres," etc.; Ital., "sulla 

terra, pace ! fra gli uomini," etc. ; Dan., " Fred paa Jorden ! og i 
Menneskene," etc. 

b " when ; " cas. M., Norton, Scarlett, Campbell, Kob. (in 

" " had gone ; " a.nrfi.d'ov. The auxiliai-y " to be," with intransi- 
tive verbs, involves a violation of correct grammatical usage. It 
is a Prench idiom which, was employed by some writers of the 
seventeenth century, but which is now justly rejected by all 
correct writers. See Webster, Introd., p. Iv. In rendering- the 
aorist part, by a finite verb in the pluperfect, by the well known 
principle, that in narration, the pluperfect is often an appropriate 
form, narrative is adopted. As an alternative rendering, " having 
gone away." 

' " the men, the shepherds ; " ol avd-gcanot. ol itoifitvss. The). 
Constructions, similar to this, in their general features, are com- 
mon even in classic as well as in Hebraistic Greek. In such cases 
m'&gcoitos is regarded as. pleonastic, or, to speak more correctly, 
it can not be retained in translation. The use of the article in 
the present case, with each noun, shows that there is no pleonasm, 
but, as Bloomf. remarks, " the latter term is in apposition with, 
and exegetical of, the former, q. d. ' the men, i. e. the shepherds 
(spoken of at v. 8) said to each other.' " Such is the view of 
Trollope (Analecta). Kuincel says: "Vorstius de Hebraism 
N. T., p. 332, recte monuit, Lucas non scripsit ol ai'd-qtonoi. 
yrotfit-ves sed ol av9~fcoitoi. ol noifiives, h. e. homines 1. viri UK, 
pastores scilicet, pastores inquam; quo additamento accuratius 
definitur nomen av&pcoitoi. Similer fere locus Lxic. 22 : 03 
Librarii nonnulli hanc. locutionem non iutelligenter, om;sserunt 
vocem ol 

* " to one another ; " jr^os aMtjlovs. Norton, M., Thelwall. 
Thorn. According to present usage, " one another,'' or " each 
other," is the appropriate rendering of this word in all cases. 






which the Lord hath made known 
unto us. 

16 And they came with haste, 
and found Mary and Joseph, and 
the babe lying in a manger. 

17. And when they had seen it, 
they made known abroad the 
saying which was told them con- 
cerning this child. 

18 And all they that heard it, 
wondered at those things which 
were told them by the shepherds. 

1.9 But Mary kept all these 
things, and pondered them in her 

20 And the shepherds returned, 
glorifying and praising God for 
all the things that they had heard 
and seen, as it was told unto 

21 And when, eight days were 
accomplished for the circumcising 
of the child, his name was called 
JESUS, which was so named of 
the angel before he was conceived 
in the womb. 

22 And when the days of her 
purification according to the law 


o o Kvpios eyvmpio-ev -r 
16 Kal fjXdov o-Trevo-avTZf, KOI 
avevpov rr)i> re Ufapia/ji /cat TOV 

8e Sie- 

Ka TO 

v 1T 

ev r] (f)a.Ti>r]. 

yvcopiaav trepi TOV prj/jLaros TOV 

XaXr/6evTOs avTOi? irepl TOV 

S\/ / IS v ' 


edavfjiacrav Trepi TO>V 
7T/30? avTOVf. 19 77 5e Mapiafj. 
iravTa avvT^pei TO. pr//j.ara TO.V- 
Ta, o-vp,flaXA.ov(ra ev rfj 





rey TOV Of.ov eVt Tracrtv 019 rjKOv- 
(rav KCU elSov, Kadcas IXaXrjBrj 

7T/5OS 1 O.VTOVS. 

KAI ore eTrXr)(rdr]a-a.v yfte- 
pai OKTCO TOV 7rept.Tefj.eiv TO TTCU- 
Siov, t KOU eKXrjdrj TO ovo/j.a OLVTOV 
Ir]o~ov$, TO KXr/dev VTTO TOV a-yye- 
Aou irpo TOV crvXXrj(p0rjvai O.VTOV 
TIJ KOiXia. 

2 KAI ore eirXrj<jQricra.v al 
TOV Kadapi(r/J.ov 


pass, which the Lord hath made 
known to us. And they came 16 
with haste, and found f both 
Mary and Joseph, and the babe . 
lying in s the manger. And 17 
h having -seen it, they made 
known abroad 'the thing which 
'had been told them concern- 
ing this child. And all who 18 
heard it, wondered at l the 
things which were told them 
by the shepherds. But Mary 19 
kept all these things, 'ponder- 
ing them in her heart. And 20 
the shepherds returned, glory- 
fying and praising God for "all 
which they had seen and heard 
as "it had been told to them. 
And when eight days were 21 
accomplished "for circumcising 
im, his name was called 
Jesus, 'so called by the angel 
Before he was conceived in the 
womb. And when the days of 22 
their purification according to 

f " both and ;" rsxnl. Eob. (re), "both aud." Ktihner, 
Gram., 321 (a). Comp. TS y.a.1, Luke 21 : 11. Acts 2 : 9, 10. 
Rom. 1 : 12. In a stronger sense these particles sometimes are 
rendered "not only but also." As the promise made to the 
shepherds was, that they should " find the babe in a manger," 
the -writer says, they not only found Joseph and Mary (of whom 
they before knew nothing) but also " the babe," whose birth had 
been announced by the angel. I deem " both and" sufficiently 
exact to express the thought. 

g " the manger ; " rj gxirvrj. The article is improperly omitted 
in the E. V. There is an obvious reference to ya-cvr;, v. 12. The 
article is retained by Genevan, Norton, Thomson, Pcnn, Wakef., 
Sharpe, If., Scarlett, Campbell. G. Fr., S. Fr., Iberian, Spanish, 
Diodati, Ital., Belg., Luther, De Wette, Dan., Heb. N. Test, 

" " having seen ; " iSorres. Thorn., "Wesley, Scarlett, if. 

1 " the thing ; " TOV foftaros. This obviously refers to TO 
$>jpa, in v. 15. 

1 " had been told ; " rov lafyS-i-vros. The pluperfect is used 
by Thorn., Penn, Wakef., Scarlett, Norton, Kend. 
k " the ; " rutv. The artiple should not be rendered by a 

demonstrative, as in the E. T. It is properly translated- by M., 
Kend., Wesley, Penn, Angus, Camp. 

' " pondering ; " ov/i{ld).lovaa. M., Scarlett. The participial 
construction is preserved by Camp., Wakef., Wesley, Sharpe. 

m " all." It is unnecessary to express " things " here. So 
Kend., M., Norton, Sharpe. 

" " it had been told ; " llatydy. See v. 17, note. 

" for circumcising ; " rov ns^irefistv. M., Penn, Sharpe, 
Wakef. If the article " the " is used, then our idiom would 
demand, that the verb should be rendered by a noun, thus, " for 
his circumcision." The above expression is concise and accurate. 

P " him ; " avrov, instead of TO naiSiov, is the reading of 
Gr., Scholz, Lack, Tisch., Knapp, Theile, Titt., Schott. " It is 
found (says Bloorafield) in almost all the best MSS. and early 
versions." The common one (reading) is evidently a correction. 

1 " 50 called ; " TO xlrj&sv. By using the supplement " so," 
the sentence is rendered concise, and the thought is brought out 
with clearness. In other words, the name of the child -was so 
called, i. e. Jesus. As an alternative rendering, " so named." 

" their ; " mnav. In this instance, the translators of the 




of Moses were accomplished, they 
brought him to Jerusalem, to 
present him to the Lord ; 

23 (As it is written in the law 
of the Lord, Every male that 
openeth the womb shall be called 
holy to the Lord;) 

24 And to offer a sacrifice ac- 
cording to that which is said in 
the law of the Lord, A pair 
of turtle-doves, or two young 

25 And behold, there was a 
man in Jerusalem, whose name 
was Simeon ; and the same man 
was just and devout, waiting for 
the consolation of Israel : and the 
Holy Ghost was upon him. 

26 And it was revealed unto 
him by the Holy Ghost, that he 
should not see death, before he 
had seen the Lord's Christ. 

27 And he came by the Spirit 
into the temple ; and when the 
parents brought in the child 


Kara TOV vofjiov Maxrecas, avrj- 
yayov O.VTOV etp '/e/jocroAujua, 
TrapacTTTJo-at ra> Kvp'up, 23 /ca#a>y 
yiypaitTai ev vop.cftl^vpiov, On 
TTO.V apcrev Siavolyov firjTpav 
a-yiov TW Kvpico KX-rjdr/o-eTai' 
24 /cat TOV Sovvat 6v<jiav Kara 
TO elprifievov ev vofita Kvpiov, 
Zevyos Tpvyovcav T) Suo veocrcrovs 

25 Kai ISov, r/v avOponros eV 
a> oi/0/j.a 2vfJ.ecav, 
/cat 6 avdcoTTOs OVTO? SIKIUOS /cat 

evXajSrjf, Trpocro'eypu.evos Trapa- 
KXrjo'iv TOV 'Icrpar/X, /cat JIvev/j.a 

"A 9 >>>/ 9fi v 7 

A.yiov r/v eir O.VTOV /cat r/v 
avTcS Kexprjfjia.Tio-fJi.evov VTTO TOV 
JIvevfj.tx.Tos TOV 'Ayiov, fJt.r) \8eiv 
davaTOv Trplv rj 'idrj TOV Xpi&TOV 
Kvplov. 27 JKai rjXdev ev TCJ> 
Uvevfj.aTL els TO lepov /cat ev 
T& eltrayayelv TOVS yovels TO 
-rraiSiov 'Ir/crovv, TOV Trot^crat 


the law of Moses were accora- 
plished, they 'brought him up 
to Jerusalem, to present him to 
the Lord ; (as it is written in 23 
the law of the Lord, Every 
male, 'that is the first-born, 
shall be called holy to the 
Lord ;) and to offer a sacrifice 24 
according to that which is said 
in the law of the Lord, A pair 
of turtle-doves, or two young 
pigeons. And behold, there 25 
was a man in Jerusalem, whose 
name was Simeon ; and "this 
man was "righteous and devout, 
waiting for the consolation of 
Israel ; and the Holy Spirit 
was on him. And w it had been 26 
revealed to him by the Holy 
Spirit, that he should not see 
death, before he had seen the 
Lord's ^Anointed. And he came 27 
by the Spirit into the temple ; 
and when the parents brought 
in the child Jesus, to jo for 

E. V. followed the Complutensian reading avrjjs. This is no 
good reason to question the correctness of the Textus Eeceptus 
(Bagster's). Knincel notices avrijs thus : " Lectio haud dubie 
originam suam debet superstitione grammatici, nescio cujus ? qui 
non intelligebat, quomodo Evangelists Ohristo tribueret posset 
impnritatem, neque secum reputabat, esse h. 1. sermonem de 
impuritate externa, non vero morali. Itaque lectio avrcov omni- 
no vera et genuina esse videtur. X 

" brought up ; " avrjyayov. Wesley, Scholefield, Angus, 
Thorn., " took up ; " Wakef., " carried up." Bob. (in verbo), 
" to lead, or bring up, from a lower to a higher place. Com- 
pare Matt. 4 : 1. Luke 4 : 5. 'Bom. 10 : 7." De Wette, 
"brachten hinauf." See v. 42, "they went up," av 

' " that is the first-born ; " itav agaev SiavoTyov 
M., Kend. The thought of the text is presented by this euphe- 
mism. Compare Num. 3 : 12 ; 8 : 17 ; 18 : 15. X> S. Fr., " que 
male premier ne sera appele saint," etc. "~If 'the phraseology of 
the E. 'V. is retained, then a supplement will be necessaiy, thus j 
"every male that first opened," etc. (asTyndale), otherwise we 
fail in exactness. As an alternative rendering, " every first-born 
male." So Norton, and the margin of the Genevan. 

"this man;" 6 avfycojeos ovrot. Thorn., Wesley, Scarletti 

>v: .,., r ',,. 

;_<..t '.'./$ t :.-.! J ! l<L.i-. :]{<': .' , : ,7 :;:.>' .., . ( .- .. ^ ,'t 

/? : ''' l> .'.'.-.>..' t'-'Ji .' v -;-.. ( , 

,' } ,?':'"/ -I.'/'/. 

Sharpe, Genevan. S. Fr., " cet homme ; " De Wette, " dieser \ 
Mann." . : 

T " righteous ; " Sixutoe. Thorn., Dick., Wakef. The more I 
extended signification of this word is deemed appropriate here, i 
It applies to all the duties included in " the commandments and ; 
ordinances of the Lord." Compare ch. 1 : 6, where this word is j 
rendered " righteous " in the E. T. 

w " it had been revealed ; " %v Kex^rjft.ctria/tevov. Wesley, \ 
Norton, Camp., Penn, Kend., M., Thorn. The pluperfect here 
employed by Eras., Vulg., Beza, Schott, Wakef., S. Fr., Ibcr. 

1 "Anointed;" tov Xqurtbv. With the exception of a few 
eases, where this word is anarthrous in the Evangelists, it is not a 
proper name but an appellative. I quote the following note 
which was inserted in the Eevision of Mark published by the 
Am. Bible Union. " This word here (Mark 8 : 29) is evidently 
an appellative, like the Hebrew niaart.^% should, therefore, be 
translated, not transferred. This is its use generally in the 
Evangelists. In the Epistles, on the contrary, it is generally a 
proper name. To substitute the Hebrew "Messiah " for " Christ," 
is to introduce a less familiar word, without affording the reader 
any light from etymology. Bob., " the Anointed ; " Bretsch., 
" unctus a Deo." See Ps. 2 : 2, in-naa (E. V.), " his Anointed ; " 
Sept., ToC XQiorov aii-cov. Acts 10 : 38, Iriaovv TOV cato No.' 
cas %qiov KVTOV o 0cos Uvcvfiari 'Ayi<$ Svvdfiet, 

P. - 

' it-' - 

-i v:o -. 



"V " 


y^i a* 




Jesus, to do for him after the 
custom of the law, 

28 Then took he him up in his 
arms, and blessed God, and said, 

29 Lord, now lettest thou thy 
servant depart in. peace, accord- 
ing to thy word : 

30 For mine eyes hare seen thy 

31 Which thou hast prepared 
before the face of all people ; 

32 A light to lighten the Gen- 
tiles, and the glory of thy people 

33 And Joseph and his mother 
marvelled at those things which 
were spoken of him. 

34 And Simeon blessed them, 
and said unto Mary his mother, 
Behold, this child is set for the 
fall and rising again of many in 
Israel ; and for a sign which shall 
be spoken against ; 

35 (Yea, a sword shall pierce 
through thy own soul also ;) that 
the thoughts of many hearts may 
be revealed. 

36 And there was one Anna, 
a prophetess, the daughter of 
Phanuel, of the tribe of Aser : 
she was of a great age, and had 


avTovs KO.TO. TO eidio~/J.ei>ov TOV 

i \ ~ 28 ^ ' ^ 

vofi-ov Trept avrov, /cat O.VTOS 
eSe^aTO O.VTO els ray ay/caAa? 
avTOv, /cat evXoyrjo-e TOV Oeov, 
/cat et7re,'S 29 Nvv cwroAuet? TOV 
SovXov <TOV, cJeoTrora, /cara TO 

* * / 3 > / 30 p/ f^ 

pr)fjt.a crov, ev eiprjvr}' on eioov 
ol bfydaXfJLoi fj.ov TO acoTiqptov 
o~ov, 31 o Tjrot/mcra? /caret irpocrca- 


elf a.TTOK.6.Xvfyiv eOvcav, /cat $oj;av 
Xaov O-QV 'Io-par/X. 33 KOLL rjv 
'Icoo~r/<j) /cat 77 ftf)TT)p avTov Ocw- 
jJui^ovTes eVt Tols XaXovfj.evois 
Trepi avrov. 34 /cat ev\6yr)o-ev 
avTovf vfj.ecov, /cat ehre jrpos 
Mapia/j, Trjv p,7jTfpa O.VTOV, I8ov, 


o-Tacriv iroXXcov ev TO> 'IcrparjX, 
/cat elf trrj/jielov avTiXeyo/jievov- 

\ -nv ~. \ i \ 

i crov oe avnj? rr]v YV^TJ 

OTTCO? ai> 
a.7TOKa\v(f)&oj(ni' e/c TroXXaiv Kap- 
Sicav 5taAoytcr/x.o/. 
36 Kcu i)v "Avva. 

]p' avrrj irpo^e^rjKVia ev 


him ^according to the custom 
of the law, then he "took him 28 
in his arms, and blessed God, 
and said, Lord, now lettest thou 29 
thy servant depart in peace, 
according to thy word: for so 
mine eyes have seen thy salva- 
tion, which thou hast prepared 31 
before the face of all people ; 
a light a to enlighten *the na- 32 
tions and "the glory of thy 
people Israel. And Joseph 33 
and his mother a were wonder- 
ing at 'the things spoken 'con- 
cerning him. And Simeon 34 
blessed them, and said to Mary 
his mother, Behold, this child 
is set for the fall and g rising 
of many in Israel ; and for 
a sign which will be spoken 
against ; (yea, a sword h will 35 
pierce thine own soul also;) that 
the thoughts of many hearts may 
berevealed. And there was one ll1 ' 36 
Anna, a prophetess, 'daughter 
of Phanuel, of the tribe .of 
Asher ; she was 'far advanced 

y "according 1 to;" y.ata. (cum accus) "After," in the sense 
of " in conformity with," is obsolete. So Penn, Kend., Thorn., 
"Wakef., Scarlett, M., Thelwall. 

1 " took ; " i-SQaro. There is nothing in the text or the 
exigentia loci to demand '"up" as a qualifying term with the 
verb. It is dropped by Penn, Norton, Thel., M., Dick., Wakef., 
Sharpe, Camp. The word was taken from Tyndale. 

* " to .enlighten ; " alg aKoxdlvyiv. Kend., Norton, Thorn., 
Wakef., Scarlett, Angus. 

b " the nations ; " e&vtov. Kend., Norton, M., Angus, Thorn., 
Scarlett, Camp. S. Fr., " des nations ; " De Wette, " (fur) die 
Volker." As the noun is anarthrous, the article is italicized. 

' " the glory ; " 6ai>. See last note. 

d " were wondering ; " qvd-avfta&vrns. Thorn., "Wakefield, 
Sharpe, M. So S. Fr., " etaieiit dans 1'admiration." " To 
marvel " is obsolete. 

"the things spoken;" rots Acdov/eevots. Thorn., Sharpe, 
G. and A. Camp. The participial construction is concise and 

f " concerning him ; " ite^l avrov. Norton, Thorn., Scarlett, 
Penn, Camp. " Of him " is ambiguous, as in scriptural phrase- 
ology it is sometimes equivalent to " by him." See (B. V.) 
Eph. 5 : 12. Compare 1 Kings 11 : 11. 2 Chron. 11 : 4. 

s " rising ; " avnaraaiv. Scholefield, Kendrick, Norton, M., 
Angus, Sharpe, Penn. If " again " is employed here, it makea 
the rising refer to the same persons who have fallet Besides 
this, it is inaccurate. 

h " will pierce ; " Sielsvosrai. Literally, " will go through," 
that is, " pierce." Hence " through " should not be added to 
" pierce." Bob. (in Sifyy.ofiat), " to go, or come through, to pass 
through." Tyndale and Cranmer, " shall pierce." 

hl > " One " is italicised, as a supplement. 

' " daughter ; " &vyar>^. As the noun is anarthrous, this 
rendering harmonizes with the text. So Norton, Camp. The 
rendering of Wakefield, Thomson, and M. is " a daughter." No 
article is employed by De Wette, S. Fr., Iber., Diodati, Ital., 

' " far advanced in years ; " 

;<t ran 

^ i 




lived with an husband seven years 
from her virginity ; 

37 And she was a widow of 
about fourscore and four years, 
which departed not from the 
temple, but served God with fast- 
ings and prayers night and day. 

38 And she coming in that 
instant, gave thanks likewise 
unto the Lord, and spake of 
him to all them that looked for 
redemption in Jerusalem. 

39 And when they had per- 
formed all things according to 
the law of the Lord, they re- 
turned into Galilee, to their own 
city Nazareth. 

40 And the child grew, and 
waxed strong in spirit, filled Avith 
wisdom; and the grace of God 
was upon him. 

41 Now his parents went to 
Jerusalem every year at the feast 
of the passover. 

42 And when he was twelve 
years old, they went up to Jeru- 
salem after the custom of the 

43 And when they had fulfilled 
the days, as they returned, the 
child Jesus tarried behind in 


ftera avdpos eVra aTro r??? Trap- 
devias avrrjs' /cat avTrj \fjpa 
co? e'rcoz' oyoorjKOVTaT<T(rdpa>v, rj 
OVK a^tVraro aTro TOV iepov, 
vrjcrTelais /cat Serjcreo-i Xarpev- 
ovcra vvKra /cat rjfjilpav 3S /cat 
ayr?? avrfj rrj a>pa e'Trtcrracra 
di>dcofj.oXoyeiTO rca Kvp'iw, /cat 
eAaAet irep\ avrov 7ra<ri TOLS 
Trpoo'Se^o/jifi'OLf XvTpaxri.i> eV '/e- 
povo~aXrj/jL. d9 JTat a>? e're'Aecrai' 
airavra. ra /cara roi' VO^JLOV Kv- 

plQV, VTTf.CTTp^a.V 1? T1J2S PotXi- 

Xatav, et? r^z/ TroXiv avrcov Na- 

5* / 40 rrrV P\ \ c\ r 

(,apeT. J. o oe Tratotoz/ 
/cat e'/cparatouro TrveJ/iart, 
pov/j.ei>oi> o~o<pias' /cat ^apts Oeov 
TJV e/r avTOi 

1 JTat eTropevovTO ol yoz/et? 
avTov /car' ero? ets- 


r eopr TOV Trcr^a. /cat 

ore e'yeVero eVojj/ 5co5e/ca, a^a- 
vTOiv avrSiv el? 'lepocroXv/JLO. 

\ \ )//, J ~ 3 ^ 

Kara TO eo'oy r?;? eoprj^?, /cat 
reAetcocrai/rcoz/ ra? rj/meas, i> T 

'Ir)(rovs o Trals ev 'Iepov<TaXr//j.- 


in years, having lived with a 
husband seven years from her 
virginity ; and she was a widow 31 
of about "eighty-four years, who 
departed not from the temple, 
but served God with fastings 
and prayer night and day. 
And she 'standing by "'at that 38 
very time, also praised the 
Lord, and spoke of him to all 
who were looking for redemp- 
tion in Jerusalem. And when 39 
they had performed all things 
according to the law of the 
Lord, they returned into Gali- 
lee, "into their own city Naza- 
reth. And the child grew, and 40 
"became strong in spirit, and 
the grace of God was on him, 
Now his parents went to Jeru- 11 
salem every year, at the feast 
of the passover. And when he 42 
was twelve years old, they went 
up to Jerusalem ^according to 
the custom of the feast. And 43 
when they 'had completed the 
days, as they returned, the 
child Jesus 'remained behind 

Wesley, Thorn., Penn, " far advanced in days." See cb. 1 
note. This phrass is uniformly rendered in this revision. 
fiefirjxvra sv r/fiepais noU.als is, by hypallage, for not-v nq 
y.vTa ev r;[ie<>ais. Bloomf. 

k " eighty-four." The antiquated phraseology of the E. V., 
" score " and " scores," should be exchanged in all cases for 
language, which is now in nse. 

i " standing by ; " Ixio-caioa.. Scholefield, " standing near." 
Bob. (in verbo), "to stand upon, near, or by." So he renders 
this passage, " to stand by, or near." Bretsch. (in verbo), " adst.o, 
prcesto, adsum alicui." As an alternative rendering, " coming 
up." So Penn. This signification has been more generally 
adopted by translators. Scholefield remarks: "Tlie com. tr. 
apparently contradicts the statement of the preceding verse, that 
she departed not from the temple." 

m " at that very time ; " avrrj T g cXpq. Dick., M., Pechy 
(note on Angus). Schott and Mont, " hac ipsS, bora ; " S. Pr., 

" en cette meme heure." Alternative rendering, " at that very 
hour." So Angus. 

" " into;" ets. This preposition .is properly rendered by 
" into," as it is in the preceding member of the sentence, sis Tip 
rah).aim>, "into Galilee." So Tyndale (original edition of 
1526), "Wiclif, Eheims. Tulgate, "in Galilieam in civitateni." 
So Eras., Mont, Beza, " in Galiteam in urbem ; " Castal., " in 
Galilasam in oppidum ; " Diodati, " in Galilea, in Nazaret, lor 

" became strong ; " E-^araiovro. Kend., Norton, Thorn., 
Scarlett, M. " Waxed" is obsolete. 

f " according to ; " V.KIU. (cum accus.) Wakefield, Scarlett, 
Penn, Camp., Kend., Norton, II. 

' " had completed ; " rdmcoadviiov. Penn, M., Robinson (m 
verbo). As an alternative rendering, " had finished." 

r "remained behind;" vae/isu>.sv. Kendrick, M. Eheims. 
Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, Castalio, Schott, " remansit. Syriac, 
(remansit). Heb. N. T., in; 1 ; 




Jerusalem; and Joseph and his 
mother knew not of it. 

44 But they, supposing him to 
have been in the company, -went 
a clay's journey ; and they sought 
him among their kinsfolk and 

45 And when they found him 
not, they turned back again to 
Jerusalem, seeking him. . 

46 And it came to pass, that 
after three days they found him 
in the temple, sitting in the midst 
of the doctors, both hearing them, 
and asking them questions. 

47 And all that heard him were 
astonished at his understanding 
and answers. 

48 And when they saw him, 
they were amazed : and his mother 
said unto him, Son, why hast thou 
thus dealt with us? behold, thy 
father and I have sought thce 

49 And he said unto them, 
How is it that ye sought me? 
wist ye not that I must be about 
my Father's business ? 

50 And they understood not 


/cat OVK eyvca 


/ecu ?? 

rv \ 

Trip O.VTOV. voiu<ra.vT$ oe 

iv rrj crvvoSla elvai, -fjXOov 
oSov, Kal ave^row av- 
roif arvyyt.vf.cri KOU, ei> rots 
45 /cat fuj evpovres 
fls 'Iepov<ra- 
4G Kai 


O.VTOV i/ 
ei> fJ.eo~co 


rpes, evpov 



Kcu. I 

avrav, /cat 

aiirovs. 4< e^icrravTO Se iravrts 
OL aKovovre? avrov, em rrj crvve- 
airoKp'io~eo-iv O.VTOV. 
es avrov, 

/cat irpos avrov 17 
avTOV etvre, TCKVOV, T'I e 

ovTcas; ISov, 6 Trarrjp crov 
oBwcojaevot ^rjrov/JLev ere. 

f \ i \ rrt' ft 

et?re Trpo? O.VTOVS, at on 
fj.e; OVK ySeiTe on eV 
roty TOV Trarpos JJ.QV del slvai 

50 7x*" \ ' \ ^ 

jtiat avroi ov crvvrjKav 



in Jerusalem ; and Joseph and 
his mother "knew it not. But 4.4 
supposing him 'to be in the 
company, "they went a day's 
journey ; and they sought him 
among "their "kindred and ac- 
quaintances. And "not finding 45 
him, ythey returned to Jerusa- 
lem, seeking him. And it came 46 
to pass, that after three days, 
they found him in the temple, 
sitting in the midst of 'the 
teachers, both hearing them, 
and asking them questions. 
And all who Jiearcl him, were 47 
astonished at his understand- 
ing, and "his answers. And 48 
when they saw him, they were 
amazed ; and his mother said 
to him, Child, why hast thou 
thus dealt with us? behold, 
thy father and I c were seeking 
thee sorrowing. And he said 49 
to them, a Why did ye seek me? 
did ye not know that I must 
be about my Father's business ? 
And they understood not 'the 50 

Keadrick, Wesley, Sharpe, 

' " knew it not ; " ova ty 
Scarlett, Penn, M. 

1 " to be ; " elvat. Kench, Norton, "Wesley, Wakef., Penn, 
G. and A. Camp. Vulgate, Mont., Eras., Beza, Castal., Scliott, 
" esse." 

" " they went ; " %?.&ov. The nominative is properly placed 
immediately before the verb by Kend., Norton, Wesley, Sharpe, 
Scarlett, Penn, Dick., M., Rheims. 

T " their ; " -rofe The article here has the force of the posses- 
sive pronoun (Kiihner, 244, 4. Crosby, Gr. Gram., f 482), and 
should not be regarded as a supplement. So Keudrick, and 
others. See ch. 1 : 6, note. 

w " kindred ; " ovyysvfot. Kend., Penn, Angus, M. " Kins- 
folk " is obsolete. 

1 " not finding ; " fir/ svpovres. Kendrick, Norton, Wesley, 
Wakef., Sharpe, Scarlett, Penn, Campbell, M. The participial 
construction is exact and concise. So Vulg., Mont., Erasmus, 
Diodati, Iber. 

y " they returned ; " v7teoT$cy m ,. Kendrick, Campbell, M., 
Sharpe, Scarlett, Thelwall. " To turn back again" implies that 
they "had turned back" before this time. See Eobinson, (in 

* " the teachers ; " i&v SiSaaxc&cov. Norton, Thom., Kend., 

Wakef., Scarlett, Sharpe, Penu, Dick., M. This word should be 
uniformly renderd thus. 

a " his ; " Trs. Norton, Penu, Thomson. Luther, " (seines 
Verstandes und) seiner Antwort ; " De Wette, " (seine Einsicht 
und) seine Antworten ; " S. Pr., " (de son intelligence et de) ses 
reponses ; " Iber., " (su inteligoncia i de) respuestas ; " Diodati, 
" (del suo senno, e delle) sue risposte." This article, like zfj 
before awsaei, lias the force of a possessive. See v. 44, note. 

" " Child ; " T&.VOV. Sharpe, Thel. S. Pr., " Mon enfant ; " 
Belg., "Kind;" De Wette, "Kind." Bob. (c&.vov] : "As a 
term of endearing address in the vocative, like Eng. " my child." 
Bretsch. : " "Vocativus tixvov semper blandlentis est." Liddell : 
"A child, whether son or daughter." There is no necessity for 
departing from the literal signification of this word. 

" were seeking ;" e^rovfisv. Kend. S. Pr., " cherchions ; " 
Iber., " buscabamos ; " Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, Castal., " quce- 
rebamus." The literal rendering of the imperfect, implying con- 
tinued action, is exact. It accords well with our ttsus loquendi. 

d " Why did ye seek me ?" Ti art itfttaxs fie; Kend., Thorn., 
Scarlett, Campbell, M. Castal., " Quorsum me qncerebatis ? " 
De Wette, " Warum habt ihr mich gesucht ?" S. Pr., " Pour- 
quoi me cherchiez vous ? " Iber., " Por que me buscabais ? " 

" the word ; " TO fjfia.. Scarlett, M. Luther, das Wort ; " 



the saying which he spake unto 

51 And he went down with 
them, and came to Nazareth, and 
was subject unto them : but his 
mother kept all these sayings in 
her heart. 

52 And Jesus increased in wis- 
dom and stature, and in favour 
with God and man. 


Now in the fifteenth year of 
the reign of Tiberius Cesar, Pon- 
tius Pilate being governor of 
Judea, and Herod being tetrarch 
of Galilee, and his brother Philip 
tetrarch of Iturea and of the 
region of Trachonitis, and Ly- 
sanias the tetrarch of Abilene, 

2 Annas and Caiaphas being 
the high priests, the word of God 
came unto John the son of Zacha- 
rias in the wilderness. 

3 And he came into all the 
country about Jordan, preaching 
the baptism of repentance, for the 
remission of sins ; 

4 As it is written in the book 

TO pr]/j.a 
51 Kal 



eXd\r]crev avrois. 
/care/!??; /tier' avrStv, Kal 
rjXOev els Na^apeT' KOI rjv VTTO- 
Tao-crofj.evos' avrois. Kal 17 (J-^Trjp 
avrov Sierrjpei TTOLVTO. TO. prj/JLara 
ravra ev rf) KapSla avTrjf. 62 Kal 
'Irjcrovs irpoeKOTTTe cro(pia. Kal 
rjXiKia, Kal xdpiTi -rrapa @e<p Kal 



fret 8e TrevTeKaiSeKaTcp 
Tt/Seplov KOL'L- 
crapof, r/yefj.ovevovTOs Uovrlov 
TTJS 'lovdaias, Kal 
rrjs PaXiXaias 
'ffpa>8ov, <PiXi7nrov Se TOV dSeX- 
(pov avrov rerpapxpiivTOs 
'Irovpaias Kal Tpax&v'iTiSos 
pas, Kal Avaraviov TTJS 'AfiiX 

2 eV dp^tepecov 
eyeveTO prjfj.a 
Oeov em 'Icodvvrjv TOV TOV ZOL- 
Xapiov vlov tv rfj ep-^ftca- 3 
-qX6ev els -jraa-xv TTJV 

TOV 'lopSdvOV, Kt]pV(T(TO3V @d- 

7rriar/j.a /jLeTavoia? elf d(pe(nv 
4 toy yey/xxTrrca ev 



word which he spoke to them. 
And he went down with them 51 
and came to Nazareth, and was 
subject to them ; f and his 
mother kept all these things in 
her heart. And Jesus B ad- 52 
vanced in wisdom and h agc, 
and in favor with God and 


Now in the fifteenth year of 1 
the reign of Tiberius Cesar, 
Pontius Pilate being governor 
of Judea, and Herod being 
tetrarch of Galilee, and his 
brother Philip tetrarch of Itu- 
rea and of the region of Tra- 
chonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch 
of Abilene, Annas and Caia- 2 
phas being high priests, the 
word of God came to John, the 
son of Zachariah, "in the desert. 
And he came into all the couu- 3 
try about b the Jordan, preach- 
ing e the immersion of repent- 
ance for the remission of sins ; 
as it is written in the book of 4 

Belg., " het woord ; " S. Fr., " la parole ; " Vulgate, Montanus, 
" verbum." So (E. V.) Matt. 4 : 4 ; 12 : 36 ; 26 : 75 ; 27 : 14, 
Mark 14 : 72. Luke 1 : 38 ; 2 : 29. Acts 10 : 37 ; 11 : 16. 
As ffifca is sometimes used collectively (Rob., Lex.), I suggest 
" words " as an alternative rendering. So Kendrick. Erasmus, 

f " and ; " xal. Norton, M., Thorn., Sharpe, Wakef., Dick., 
Campbell, Geneva. Vulg., Mont, Beza, " et ; " Belg., " ende ; " 
Luther and De "Wette, " und ; " G. Fr. and S. Fr., " et ; " Iber., 
" I ; " Diodati and Ital., " e." There is no exigentia loci which 
demands that xai should be rendered adversatively. 

s "advanced;" n$oexonre. Kend., Norton, M., Thelwall, 
Thorn., Penn, Dick. Heb. N. T., Js^si rrftrt. See Bob. (Lex.) 

h " age ; " qLxia. Kend., Tyndale, Cranmer, Eheims, Wiclif, 
M. Vulg., Eras., Castal,, Schott, " state ; " De Wette, "Alter." 
Kuinosl: 'HLxla est atas ut Joh. 12 : 21', Heb, 11 : II, Epb. 
4 : 13." 

11 " in the desert ; " Iv -cfj Itf/ty. So (E. V.) Luke 1 : 80. 
Matt. 24 : 26. John 6 : 31. Norton, Sharpe. In all cases, 
"desert" should be substituted for "wilderness," as the latter 
word is now used to indicate a wooded, uninhabited region. The 
Hebrew ^yra, which is usually rendered fyqfios in the Sept., 
signifies a ^solitude, a waste region, sometimes open, uncultivated 
country with few or no inhabitants, like the Spanish despoblado. 

b " the Jordan ; " TOV 'logSavov. Norton, Thorn., Kendrick, 
Camp., Sharpe, Penn, Thel. The article was improperly omitted 
by Tyndale. In this he was followed by the early Eng. versions. 
It is found in the Belg., Luther, De Wette, G. Fr. and S. Fr, 
De Sacy, Iber., Span., Diodati, Ital., Heb. N. Test. 

c " the immersion ; " /Scama/ia. Kend., A. Camp., M. (in 
margin.) Luther and De Wette, "die Taufe;" Belg., "den 
doop ; " Dan., " Daab." Bretsch. (in verlo) : " Immersio, sub- 
mersio; in N. T. tantum de submersio sacra, quam patres baptis- 
mitm dicunt." Hedericus (Lex.), "immersio, intinctio;" Schott 

. T;), " immersionem." See note on the verb pcazria), v 7. 




of the words of Esaias the prophet, 
saying, The voice of one crying in 
the wilderness, Prepare ye the 
way of the Lord, make his paths 

5 Every valley shall, be filled, 
and every mountain and hill shall 
be brought low ; and the crooked 
shall be made straight, and the 
rough ways shall be made smooth ; 

6 And all flesh shall see the 
salvation of God. 

7 Then said he to the multitude 
that came forth to be baptized of 
him, generation of vipers, who 


(B Xoywv 'JEfcraLqv TQV -jrpo- 

Trj eprijj.q>, '-Erotjuacrare 
o8ov Kvpiov vdeias Trotetre ray 
Tpifiovs avTov. 5 TraVa (pdpa-y^ 
TrXrjpcodrjcreTai, /cat irav opos 
/cat /3oufoy TaTreii/cod^creTat- /cat 
earai TO, cr/coXta ety ev9eiav } /cat 
at rpa^etat ety 65ouy Ae/ay. 6 /cat 
o^reTai Tracra o~ap TO crcoTrjpiov 
TQV Oeov. 7 ' JEXeyev ovv roty 

oevofj,vois cr^Aoty 
vat WTT' aurov, 


the words of Isaiah, the prophet, 
saying, The voice of one cry- 
ing in the desert, Prepare ye 
the way of the Lord, make 
his paths straight. Every val- 5 
ley shall be filled, and every 
mountain and hill a shall be 
made low, and the crooked 
e shall become straight, and f the 
rough ways smooth ; and all 6 
flesh shall see the salvation of 
God. Then said he e to the 7 
crowds that came forth h to be 
immersed 'by him, 'Offspring 

d " shall be made low." Kend., M., Liddell, " to make low." 
So Bob. (in loco.) Vulgate, Montanus, " humiliabitur ; " Beza, 
Castal., Sehott, " deprimetur." 

* " shall become straight ; " earac. Kend., "Wakef., " wil! 
become straight. M. Rob.,(m verbo) : "From the Heb. elva, 
els -ci, like Heb. ^ nifi to be for any thing, i. e. to become any 
thing ; Luke 3 : 5'. Comp. Isa.40 :4. Acts 13 : 47. Comp. Isa. 
49 : 6, etc." Bretsch. : "Evenio, fio, elp.1 s'is 11, (ex hebraismo, 
ft^rt seq. ]>) pro elfti, sum, fio aliquid. 

1 " the rough ways." Kend., M. Kuinoel : " Post 
subaudiendum est oSol, ut 6S6v post tv&elav. Opponitur sibi 
invicem rgaxezai 6Sol et ^.siai, ut apud Latinos asper et Itevis, 
arduus et planus." 'As " ways" is not expressed in the text, it 
should be italicized. " Shall be made" is an unnecessary supple- 
ment, which has been dropped by Kend., M., Wesley, Thomson, 
Campbell, "Wakef., Angus. 

6 "-"to the crowds ; " o^lois. Norton, Sharpe. Vulg., Eras., 
" ad turbas ; " Mont., " turbis ; " Belg., " tot de schaaren ; " De 
Wette, " zu dem Volke ; " Dan., ".til Folket ; " G. Fr., " a la 
ibule." Liddell (in verbo} : "A throng of people, an irregular 
crowd." A special sense of this word is populace, as dis- 
tinguished from Srjfcos, "people." It is uniformly rendered 
" crowd " in this revision. Hence it is not confounded with 
" multitude " (n)>fj&og) , or " people " (Sfj/xog and laos) . Bretsch. : 
" Turba hominum, qui aliquo in loco congregati sunt." " The 
verb b^Uut signifies " to disturb by a mob," Liddell. Hedericus : 
" Turba, multitude hominum, multi simul, ut exercitus, populus, 
plebs, wlgus." Syr., }1iW 

k " to be immersed ; " /Sajmot^at. Kend., Scarlett, A. Camp- 
bell. Ital., " per essere immersa ; " Iber., " para ser sumergidas ; " 
Belg., " gedoopt te worden ; " Luther, " taufen." So De Wette. 
Sehott, " (ut per eum) immergeretur ; " Dan., " for at dobes." 
The reasons for translating rather than transferring this word, I 
have stated in the Eevision of Mark, as follows : 

" 1. Classic usage. In all instances where an examination has 
been made by competent scholars, who were not biased by a 
predilection for a creed, the result has been uniformly in favor of 

immerse, dip, dip into; and secondarily, drown, sink, overwhelm, 
etc. In the process of the scrutiny, it has been settled, that there 
is no difference, as to signification, between /Sdxrca and pumi^co. 
The latter is merely a later farm of the verb. 

" 2. The use of the word and its derivates in the Septuagint 
and N. Test., and by the early Greek ecclesiastical writers com- 
monly termed " the Fathers," coincides with that of the Classics. 

" 3. The very general agreement of Lexicographers, such as 
Scapula, Stephens, Suicer, Schrevellius, Hedericus, Greenfield, 
Bretsehneider. Even Eobinson though he hazards an opinion 
in a note, that " the scarcity of water in certain cases render 
it probable that affusion was the act," yet, so far as philology 
is concerned, gives his testimony in harmony with other Lexico- 

" The word, in a large number of versions, has been rendered 
by words equivalent to immerse. 

" 5. The most distinguished Reformers, such as Luther, Calvin, 
Beza, Melancthon, Tyndale, have expressed their unhesitating 
belief in favor of the above definition. Many distinguished 
scholars, whose denominational connections would naturally have 
led to another view, take the position of the Reformers. Among 
these may be named Witsius, L'Enfant, Piscator, Zanchius, Abp. 
Seeker, Mastricht, Marloratus, Stackhouse, Burkitt, J. Wesley, 
Bp. Taylor, Grotius, Castalio, Lampe, Limborch, Vossias, Abp. 
Usher, Geo. Campbell, and Macknight. 

' 6. The uniform practice of the Greek Church, in all its 
branches, from the earliest period to the present time. 

" The derivates of this verb, paitnatia, etc., should be rendered 
in harmony with its signification." 

Throughout this revision, the translation of this word, and 
those derived from it, is uniform. 

1 " by ; " vrf. Norton, Kend., Angus, Thomson, Wakefield, 
Scarlett, Sharpe, Penn, Dick., G. and A. Camp., M. " Of," in 
the sense of " by," is obsolete. 

" Ofispring ; " rswrjftaitt. Sharpe, Angus, M. Geneva, 
' oflsprings." Rob. (in verbo.) Bretsch. (in loco), " progenies 
viperina;" Greenf. (Lex.), "offspring;" Eras., Beza, Castalio, 




hath warned you to flee from the 
wrath to come ? 

8 Bring forth therefore fruits 
worthy of repentance, and begin 
not to say within yourselves, We 
have Abraham to our father : for 
I say unto you, That G-od is able 
of these stones to raise up children 
unto Abraham. 

9 And now also the axe is laid 
unto the root of the trees : every 
tree, therefore, which bringeth not 
forth good fruit, is hewn down, 
and cast into the fire. 

10 And the people asked him, 
saying, What shall we do then ? 

11 He answereth and saith 
unto them, He that hath two 
coats, let him impart to him that 
hath none ; and he that hath meat, 
let him do likewise. 

12 Then came also publicans 
to be baptized, and said unto him, 
Master, what shall we do ? 

13 And he said unto them, 
Exact no more than that which 
is appointed you. 



s; 8 TTOL- 

7?(rare oiiv Kapirovs aiovs TTJ? 
fj.Tai>oias' KCU firj ap^r/a-de Xe- 
yii> ei> eavTOL?, Harepa 
TOV A^paafj.- Xe-yco -yap 
on SvvaTcu o deos e'/c TWV Xi9cav 
TOVTCOV eyeipat TCKVO. rq> 'AfBpa- 

' 9 3f< & S*^ \ < J J-/ \ 

afji. r/dr) de /cat TJ agivrj irpos 
TTJV pitfLv TWV SevSpcov /ceirar 
irav oitv Sei>Spoi> fj/rj TTOIOVV /cap- 

7TOV KaXoV KK07TTeTai KOI ty 

Trvp /SaAAerat. 

7-7- \ s / > \ f 

Jvai fTrr/pcoTcov OVTOV 01 
, XeyovTts, TL ofiv Troirjcro- 
11 ,' ATTOKpideis Se Xeyei 
auro?y, '0 e^cov Svo Dramas fj.e- 
TadoTco rw /j.r/ e^ovTf KOU 6 
6)(a)i> ftpca/jLara O/JLOLCOS Troieirco. 
12 'HXdov 8e KOLL reXcovai /3a- 
TTTicrdrjvai, KCU elrrov Trpos O.VTOV, 




8e enre Trpo? avrovs, 

trXeov Trapa TO Sia.TeTa.-yfj.evov 


of vipers, k who warned you to 
flee from 'the coming wrath? 
Bring forth, therefore, "the 8 
proper fruits of repentance, and 
begin not to say within your- 
selves, We have Abraham "for 
our father ; for I say to you, 
that God is able "from these 
stones to raise up children rfor 
Abraham. ''And even now the 9 
axe is laid at the root of the 
trees : every tree, therefore, 
which bringeth not forth good 
fruit, 'is cut down and cast 
into the fire. And the crowds 10 
asked Mm, saying, s What then 
shall we do ? And he, 'answer- ll 
ing, said to them, He that hath 
two coats, let him impart to 
him, that hath none : and he 
that hath food, let him do "the 
same. And 'tax-gatherers, also, 12 
came to be immersed, and said 
to him, Teacher, what shall we 
do ? And he said to them, is 
Exact no more than that which 

Schott, " progenies ; " Kuincel (in Matt. 3 : 7), " viperarum pro- 
genies." Syr., ]^ 7 . Heb. N. Test., h'jiv Diodati, " Proge- 
nie." Hedericus (in verbo) : " Quod natum seu productum est 
progenies." As an alternative rendering, " brood," which has 
the same signification, and has been adopted by Norton, and 

k " who warned ; " res vnedstgsv. M., Sharpe. The aorist 
has its usual force here. 

i "the coming wrath?" if/s fesUovotjs oqyrjs; Kend., M. 
De "Wette, " dem kommenden Zorne ? " Belg., " den toeltomenden 
toorn?" Dan., "den tilkommende Vrede?" Vulg., Montanus, 
Erasmus, " ventura ira ? " Ital., " ira ventura ? " This rendering 
presents the thought with accuracy and conciseness. 

m " the proper fruits of repentance ; " xagrtovs a&ovg trjs 
fieravolas. Campbell renders a&ovs by "proper." Beza, 
" fructus convenientes resipiscentias ; " De Sacy, " dignes fruits 
de penitence ; " Ital., " frutti convenient! alia conversions." As 
an alternative rendering, " fruits suitable to repentance." I prefer 
the first rendering, as most perspicuous. 

11 " for our father ; " mar^a. Norton, Thorn., Wakef., Scar- 
lett, Sharpe, Camp., M., Angus. G. Fr., S. Fr., De Sacy, " pour 
pere ; " Diodati and Ital., " per padre ; " Iber., " por padre." 
" To," in constructions like the present, is obsolete. 

" from ; " l. Norton, Kend., Scarlett, Peun. 

P " for Abraham ; " rtj> 'Afaadfi. Thomson. Present usage 
demands " for," rather than " unto," or " to." 

1 " and even now ;" ySij Se xal. Kendrick, Eobinson (rjSti), 

r " is cut down ; " i-Moitrerai. Thorn., Penn, Kend., M., 
Thel. To " hew down " is no longer, applied to the act of felling 
trees. Tet we find " cut down " used, in this sense, in (B. V.) 
Deut. 7:5," cut down their groves," Sept., ra a).ar] avr<3v exxo- 
yere. Deut. 20 : 20, " cut down," Sept., ey.v.6yus. So 2 Kings 
19 : 23. Isa. 37 : 24. Job 14 : 7. Jer. 22 : 7. 

" " What then ; " Ti ovv. This order of the text harmonizes 
with our sws loquendi. So Norton, Kend., Wesley, Thomson, 
Scarlett, Dick., Penn, Sharpe, M. Vulg., Eras., Castal., " Quid 
ergo ; " Beza, Schott, " Quid igitur ; " Iber., " Que pues hare- 

" answering ; " anox^c&sts. Kendrick, M. S. Fr., " repon- 

11 " the same ; " Sftoitos. Thorn., Dick., Sharpe, Camp. 

v " tax-gatherers ; " -teliovat. Norton, Sharpe, Scarlett, Wake- 
field. The Latin " publican!," anglicized as " publicans," is far 
less intelligible to common readers, than this rendering. The 
word is translated uniformly, in this revision. 




14 And the soldiers likewise 
demanded of Mm, saying, And 
what shall we do? And he said 
unto them, Do violence to no man, 
neither accuse any falsely ; and 
be content with your wages, 

15 And as the people were in 
expectation, and all jnen mused 
in their hearts of John, whether 
he were the Christ, or not ; 

16 John answered, saying unto 
them all, I indeed baptize you 
with water ; but one mightier 


vfuv Trpacnrere. 

de avrov /cat arTpa.Ttv6fj.evoi, Ae- 

yovTes, Kai ^jueiy rl 

Kou etTre irpos O.VTOVS, 

Sia<reia~r)Te, /J.rj8e o 

T6- KOL apKeicrde TOIS o^rccviois 


15 IIpo(r8oKK>vTos 8e TOV Xaov, 
KOL SiaAoyt^byue'iwi/ TravTtov iv 
TOUS Kapdiouf OLVTWV Trepl TOV 
'looavvov, /j.r}7TOT avros e'lrj o 

Ifi / > T 


ajracri, \eycov, ' Eym /j.ev 
vdaTi /SaTTTL^o) V/J.5.S' epxeTai Se 


is appointed "for you. And 14 
x soldiers, ^also, "asked him, say- 
ing, And what shall we do ? 
And he said, 'Extort from no 
one, neither accuse any falsely ; 
and be content with your wages. 
And as the people were in 15 
expectation, and b all were rea- 
soning in their hearts 'concern- 
ing John, d whether he were not 
"the Anointed, John 'answered 16 
them all, saying, I, indeed, im- 
merse you g in water, but one 

* " for you ; " vpZv. The sentence here, is harsh unless a 
preposition is placed before " you." The earlier Eng. translators 
perceived this, and -wrote " unto you." So Tyndale, Cranmer, 
Geneva. Alternative, " to you." 

x " soldiers ; " arqarevoftBvoi. Thorn.. Campbell, Angus, M. 
The article is improperly introduced in the E. V. No article in 
De Wette, Iber. The S. Pr. renders the word indefinitely by 
" des gens de guerre " (" some soldiers ") . Kuincel (in verbo) : " Id 
quod ar^aTiaiTas constat enim participia ab IIebra;is, Gracis et 
Latinis, loco substantivum poni solere." The opinion of some 
commentators, that these were soldiers of Herod Antipas on their 
march against the Arabs, does not rest on any solid basis. 
Kuincal remarks : " Utrum autem per milites illos, fama Johannis 
allectos, ejusque sermonibus perculsos, intelligendi sint Judaei, an 
gentiles, sed, ut iy.movia^os ille Matt. 8 : 5, veri Dei cultores, 
utrum milites Eomani, an Herodis Antipsc, vel Philippi, ut alii 
volunt, definiri nequit." 

? " also ; " KOI. Kend., Sharpe, "Wakef. 

1 " asked ; " Im-^dmov. Norton, Kend., Camp., Thomson, 
Wesley, Wakefield, Thelwall, Sharpe, Penn, Scarlett. S. Ft-., 
" interrogerent ; " Iber., ' " preguntaban ; " "Vulg., Mont, Eras- 
mus, " interrogabant ; " Beza, Castal., Schott, " interrogarunt." 
" Demand," according to present usage, is too strong, to be 
employed as the equivalent of the verb. It was taken from 
Tyndale 's version. 

* " Extort from no one ; " MijS&va SiKaeltjTS. The primary 
signification of this verb is "to shake violently" (Liddell), like 
the Latin " concutio," by which it is properly rendered in the 
Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, Castal, Schott. By a natural process 
of thought, it was applied to acts of violence committed for the 
purpose of extorting property, or plundering goods or money. 
So De Wette, " Beraubet niemand." Iber., " No despojeis a 
nadie. Norton, " Do not spoil any one." " To do violence " is 
not in accordance with our idiom, though it was copied from 
Tyndale by all the early Eng. translators." " Use no one with 

violence" would be a proper substitute for this phrase. This 
would, however, fail to bring out the proper force of the text. 
Bloomf. : " It is best, as equivalent to, and, indeed, found in the 
Latin concutio, " to extort money by dint of threats of vio- 

b " all were reasoning ; " 8ta},oyt,ofieva>v natntov. Thorn., 
M., Wakef., Sharpe. The progressive form of the imperfect is 
most accurate here. It has been adopted by Kend. and Thehvall. 
As an alternative rendering, " were considering." 

" " concerning ; " megl. Kend., M., Thorn., Sharpe, Camp., 
Penn, Thel. " Of," in the sense in which it is here employed, is 

d " whether he were not ; " firjTtore efy. Sharpe, Penn, 
Wesley, " whether he was not ; " S. Fr., ." si peut-etre il ne serait 
point ; " Iber., " si el seria ; " G. Fr., " si Jean n'etait point ; " 
Vulg., " ne forte ipse esset ; " De Wette, " ob er nicht seyn 
moge ; " Be]g., " of hij niet mogelijk en ware." With this 
optative (sty), av is understood. Hoog. (ftfaore.) Some trans- 
lators have supposed that ufaore is here equivalent to e'inore. 

* " the Anointed." See ch. 2 : 26, note. 

f " answered them all, saying ; " aney.^ivaro aTtaai, ?,eycav 
Kend., Sharpe, M., Thelwall. The order of the text has been 
adopted by Campbell, Thorn., and Dick. The early Eng. trans- 
lators followed the arrangement of Tyndale, which was derived 
from the Vulgate. Belg., " antwoordde aau alien, zeggende. 

8 " in water ; " vSan. G. Camp., Norton, A. Camp., M., 
Thorn., Wakef., Sharpe. Iber., " en aqua ; " De Sacy, " dans 
I'eau ; " Span., " en aqua ; " Ital., " nell' acqua." The preposition 
iv is obviously understood before vSan. It is expressed in the 
parallels, Matt. 3 : 11, Mark 1 : 8, where we have iv vSan, ev 
Hirevftati, 'Ayup. In the passage before us, the sentence closes 
with ev JTi'Evfiari 'Ayica. Compare Mark 1 : 5, where iv rfj 
'lofSavn noTafua is rendered in the E. V. by " in the river of 
Jordan." If the verb /Secm'&a signifies " to immerse," which we 




that I cometh, the latchet of 
whose shoes I am not worthy to 
unloose : he shall baptize you 
with the Holy Ghost, and with 

17 Whose fan is in his hand, 
and he will thoroughly purge his 
floor, and will gather the wheat 
into his garner ; but the chaff he 
will burn with fire unquenchable. 

18 And many other things in 
his exhortation preached he unto 
the people. 


o icrxypOTepo? fj.ov } ov OVK el/it 

AOVat TOV IfJLavra T>V 
v7ro8r)fj.aTG&v avroir avros u/zay 
ev Hvevftan 'Ay tea /cat 

1 OV TO TTTVOV l> Trj X i /" 

avTov, /cat SiaKadapiei TTJV aXcava 
avTQV' Kai crvvdf;t TOV alrov eiy 

TTJV a.TTo6-f]K.t]V aVTOV, TO Se Ci)(V- 

pov KaTcucavo-ei irvpl ao-/3ecrr<2>. 

18 > -v v ^ 9 ^ f 

TToAAa fjiev ovv /cat erepa irapa- 
KaXcov evr-eXisTO TOV Xaov. 


mightier than I cometh, - h the 
strap of whose shoes I am not 
worthy 'to loose, he will im- 
merse you 'in the Holy Spirit, 
and *m fire; whose fan .is in 17 
his hand, and he 'will thorough- 
ly cleanse his "thrashing-floor, 
and gather the wheat into his 
'granary ; but he will "burn up 
the chaff J"with unquenchable 
fire. And "exhorting T as to 18 
many other things, 'he preached 
the good news to the people. 

believe is a fact, then, to use the phrase " immerse with water,' : 
involves a violation of the idiom of our language. 

h "the strap ;" lov 1/j.avra. Eob. (in verbd), "a thong, or 
strap of leatlier ; " Liddell, " a leathern strap, or thong." Belg.. 
" den riem ; " G. Fr. and S. Fr., " la courroie ; " Iber., " la 
correa ; " Vulg., Montanus, Beza, Eras., Castal., " corrigiam.' 1 
" Latchet " is obsolete. 

1 " to loose ; " J.vaat. Eob. (fata), " to loose, loosen, what is 
fast bound." So this word is properly rendered in (B. V.) Matt. 
16 : 19 ; 21 : 2. Mark 7 : 35. Luke 13 : 15, 16. John 11 : 44. 
This phrase is quoted in Acts 13 : 25, and rendered (E. V.) 
" whose shoes of his feet I am not worthy to loose ().voai}. The 
English prefix " un " has a negative force, as in " unlike," " un- 
discovered." Hence the impropriety of the verb " unloose." 

1 " in ; " ev The preposition should have its ordinary force 
here. So Mark 1 : 5, ev ity 'lo^Sdt'n aora/iri! is rendered 
" in the river of Jordan." So Kend., G. and A. Camp., Sharpe, 
Wakef., Thorn., M., Angus. Vulg., Montanus, " in ; " S. Fr., 
'' dans ; " Iber., " en; " Ital., " nello." 

k "in." The preposition is omitted in the text merely from 
the fact, that nvql is closely connected with b> Hvevpart 'Ayiq>. 
As it is not expressed, I have italicised " in." So M. S. Fr., 
" dans le feu ; " Iber., " en fuego ; " Ital., " nel fuoco." 

i ' will thoroughly cleanse ; " Siana&a^teT. Kend., Norton, 
Camp., Scarlett, Wakef., Thorn., " thoroughly clean ; " Eob. (in 
verbo), "to cleanse thoroughly;" Beza and Castal., "perpurga- 
bit;" Schott, " expurgabit ; " S. Fr., " il nettoiera parfaite- 
ment ; " Iberian, " limpiara perfectamente ; " Belgic, " zal 
doorzuiveren. " " Purge," in the sense demanded here, is obso- 

m "thrashing-floor;" a.l<ava. Penn, Sharpe, Dick., Thorn., 
M., Eob. (in verbo.) Kuinrel : "Area, locus terendis frumentis 
destinatus subdialis, sub dio enim triturare solebant Hebraei et 
etiam nunc solent Orientales." The single word " floor " is too 

n " granary ; " cnto&rixriv. Thomson, Dick., Scarlett, Sharpe, 
Camp., Angus, M. Kuincel : " Granaria, ano&, erant caver- 
Dte subterranese, ubi Orientis cives frumentum, vinum, oleum, etc., 

futuris usibns reservare solebant." The rendering by " barn " is 
obviously inexact. " Garner " is now restricted to poetry. 

" burn up ; " ttaraxavaei. Kendriek, Sharpy Wakef., M. 
Vulg., Eras., Mont, " comburet ; " Beza, " exuret." Eob. (Lex.) 
says that one of the uses of Kara, is " to stiengthen the notion 
of the simple word, and it is then often simply intensive." He 
defines y.aTay.aico " to burn down, to consume utterly, Engl. to 
burn up." So (E. V.) parallel, Matt. 3 : 12, " he wiU burn up." 
2 Pet. 3 : 10. Eev. 8:7. 

P "with unquenchable fire;" miqi aopeora. This is the 
natural arrangement of the sentence. It is that of Matt. 3 : 12, 
where the text is the same. So Kend., Penn, Sharpe, Wakef., 

" exhorting ; " Sharpe. As the act indicated 
by 7ta.Qtt.xal.aiv was a part of the preaching, we can not with 
propriety use a finite verb, and say, " he exhorted and preached." 
Hence the participial construction is necessary. Vnlg., Mont., 
Beza, Erasmus, " exhortans ; " Castalio, " monens ; " Belg., " ver- 

p " as to." Our idiom will not allow the literal rendering 
" exhorting many other things." We make persons and not 
things the object of the verb to exhort. The paraphrastic ren- 
dering of this verse, " with many other exhortations," as well as 
that of Tyndale (followed by the E. V.) involves an unnecessary 
departure from the construction of the text. Should it be 
deemed better to render na^uxaicuv by the finite verb, the fol- 
lowing is suggested as an alternative, "And he exhorted as to 
many other things, when he preached," etc. 

1 " he preached the good news ; " Evyyyeii^eto. Although 
" announce " or " publish " good news would present the thought, 
still " to preach " has become the leading term for the act of 
publicly declaring religious truth. It is, therefore, deemed most 
appropriate. The word is well understood, wherever our language 
is spoken. But as svayyfJ.l&fiai has the sense of bringing 
good news," the above rendering is deemed accurate. There 
are some instances in the N. T. where the character of the 
message or news is not kept in view by the writer, and then the 
simple term preach, publish, show, or announce will be exact. As 
an alternative rendering, " he preached the gospel." So Angus. 




19 But Herod the tetrarch, 
being reproved by him for He- 
rodias his brother Philip's wife, 
and for all the evils which Herod 
had done, 

20 Added yet this above all, 
that he shut up John in prison. 

21 Now when all the people 
were baptized, it came to pass, 
that Jesus also being baptized, 
and praying, the heaven was 

22 And the Holy Ghost de- 
scended in a bodily shape like a 
dove upon him, and a voice came 
from heaven, which said, Thou 
art my beloved Son ; in thee I 
am well pleased. 

23 And Jesus himself began to 
be about thirty years of age, 


19 ' Se 'JETpcoSrjs o 

VTT avrov Trepl 'ffpca- 

8id8os TTJS yvvaiKos 
TOV a<5eA0ou avrov, /cat 
TrdvTcav a>v eiroirjcre Trovrjpoov o 
'Hp&BTjs, 20 7rpoo~edr]Ke /cat TOVTO 
eVt Tracrt, /cat /care'/cAeicre TOV 
'Icoavvrjv iv rfj 0uAa/C7j. 

21 '-EyeWro Se ev TO> /3a.7TTio~- 
Orfvcu airavTa TOV Xabv, /cat 
'Irjcrov fiaTTTicrdlvTos /cat TT/JOO-- 
ev^ofjievov, dvea>)(drjvai TOV ov- 

* 22 > - rt " v T7~ " 

pavov, /cat /carap^rat TO llvzv- 
/na TO A.yiov cra/zart/ccS ei<5et 
dxret. 7Tpio~Tepav CTT avTov, /cat 
(j)covr/i> e ovpavov -yeveo-Ocu, Ae- 

et woy fj.ov o ya- 
eV crot 23 

avTos r/v o 'Irjo-ov? axret CTCOV 


And Herod, the tetrarch, being 19 
reproved by him 'concerning 
Herodias, his brother's" wife, 
and 'concerning all the evils 
which Herod had done, added 20 
"this, also, *to them all, that he 
shut up John *in the prison. 
'And it came to pass, when all 21 
the people were immersed, that 
Jesus, also, being immersed, and 
praying, the heaven was open- 
ed, and the Holy Spirit 'descend- 22 
ed upon him in a bodily b form, 
like a dove ; and a voice came 
from heaven, saying, Thou art 
my beloved Son ; in thee I am 
well pleased. And e Jesus him- 23 
self was about thirty years of 

See Bob. and Bretsch. on this verb. " Tidings," in the sense of 
" news," is now obsolete. 

' " concerning ; " TtEQi. Eob. (Lex.), Kendrick, "Wesley, Penn. 
" Of," here, is ambiguous. 

" brother's." The Text. Recept. has fPd.ixxov before tov 
aSelpov. Schott remarks on this word : " Post yvva.iy.os add. 
vulgo (frikhtTtov (ex gloss.), omissimus cum Griesb. et al. auctori- 
tate plurimorum codd. (decem unc.) verss. Armeu., Pers. ("Whe- 
loc), Goth., Slav., Vulg., It., Sax." It is canceled by Griesbach, 
Lachmann, Tisch., Knapp, Theile, and bracketed by Tittmann. 
Not recognized by the Vulgate. There is no reasonable doubt 
that it is an addition to the text. 

T " concerning ; " negl. See note t. 

" " this, also ; " TOVTO. Kendrick, Scarlett, M., Angus. 
Iber., " este tambien ; " Murdoclc, " added this, also." 

* " to them all ; " eitl Thorn., Angus, M. Iber., " a 
todos [ellos]." The preposition might be rendered " besides," 
though without any especial advantage. When employed to mark 
addition or accumulation on or to something already mentioned 
or implied, it may be translated upon (on), unto (to), besides. 
Rob. (Lex.) "Above" in the B. V. originated in the "super 
omnia" of the Vulgate. S. Fr., "a toutes;" De Wette, "zu 

" in the prison ; " ev rfj 

Thelwall. Belg., " in de 

gevangenisse ; " De "Wette, ins Gefangniss ; " Iberian, " en la 
earcel." So Span. The article should not be omitted here, as 
rjj tpv&axfj is definite. John was confined in the fortress of 
Machajrus, well known to those, who were residents in Palestine. 

Joseph., Antiq. 18 : 5, 2, Kal o \Ico&vvrie\ fi?i> vitotfilq rfi 
'HgcoSov, Seofttos els TOV 3fa%aioovvTcc Tfefttpd'slg, TO moosiqrj- 
ftsvov tpQOvqiov, Tavrrj XTIVVVTUI. 

* "And it came to pass ; " Zyacero 8s. Thorn., Angus, Penn, 
M. The order of the text is retained here. So Vulg., Eras., 
Beza, Montanus, Castal., Schott, Syr., Heb. N. Test., Luther, De 
Wette, Belg., G. Fr. and S. Fr., De Sacy, Iber., Span., Diodati, 
ItaL, Dan. 

1 " descended upon him," etc. This is the natural arrange- 
ment in English. It renders the sentence more perspicuous and 
harmonious. So Penn, Dick., M., Camp. S. Fr., " descendit sur 
lui comme une colombe." 

" form ; " siSei. Penn, Scarlett, Wakef., Wesley, Dick., M., 
Camp. S. Fr., " forme." 

c " Jesus himself was about thirty years of age, when he began 
his ministry ; " CCVTOS %v 6 "Irjaovs coaei sTeav TOIOXOVTO. ao%6fts- 
vos. Wesley. Critics have long been divided as to the proper 
rendering of this passage. The translation in the E. V. was 
taken almost word for word from Cranmer's version (1539), "And 
Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age." So the 
Geneva (1557), "And Jesus himself began to be about thirty 
years of age, being as men supposed," etc. Tyndale with better 
judgment assuming that the object of the writer was simply to 
state the age of the Redeemer at the era to which the narrative 
had brought his history rendered the passage, " Jesus himself 
was about thirty years of age when he beganne, being as men 
supposed," etc. This view has been taken by many later inter- 
preters, as Schott, " Et ipse Jesus erat fere triginta annos natus, 
quum [publics agere\ inciperet; filius, ut putabatur, Josephi." 



being (as was supposed) the son of 
Joseph, which, was the son of Heli, 
24 'Which was the son of Mat- 
that, which was the son of Levi, 
which was the. son of Melchi, which 
was the son of Janna, which was 
the son of Joseph, 

25 Which was the son of Mat- 
tathias, which was .the son of 
Amos, which was the son of Naum, 
which was the son of Esli, which 
was the son of Nagge, 

26 Which was the son of Maath, 
which was the son of Mattathias, 
which was the son of Semei, which 
was the son of Juda. 

27 Which was the son of Joan- 
na, which was the son of Rhesa, 
which was the son of Zorobabel, 
which was the son of Salathiel, 
which was the son of Neri, 

28 Which was the son of Melchi, 
which was the son of Addi, which 
was the son of Cosam, which was 
the son of Elmodam, wich was the 
son of Er, 

29 Which was the son of Jose, 



dp)(6/j.evos, asv, o>y fvo- 
, vlos 'Icaar/ip, TOV 'HXi, 
TOV MarBar, TOV Aev'l, TOV 
eXxi, TOV 'lavva, TOV 'lao-rjfy, 


TOV Naovp,, TOV 'jEo~\l, TOV 
Nay-yea, 2G TOV Maa.6, TOV 
J\faTTa0lov, TOV JEJe/uet, TOV 'Ica- 
o~r;(j) } TOV 'lovSa, z7 TOV 'Icaavva, 
TOV 'Pyo-a, TOV Zopoj3d/3eX, TOV 
SaXadirjX, TOV Nr/pl, 
tj TOV 'ASSl, TOV 


TOV ' 

TOV 'JEXietep, TOV 



age, when he began his ministry, 
being, as was supposed, the son 
of Joseph, d the son of Eli, the z'i 
son of Mattath, the son of Levi, 
the son of Malchi, the son of 
Janna, the son of Joseph, the 25 
son of Mattathiah, the son of 
Amos, the son of Nahum, the 
son of Hesli, the son of Naggai, 
the son of Maath, the son of 2B 
Mattathiah, the son of Shimei, 
the son of Joseph, the son of 
Judah, the son of Johauah, 27 
the son of Resa, the son of 
Zerubbabel, the son of Shealti- 
el, the son of Neri, the son of 28 
Malchi, the son of Addi, the 
son of Kosam, the son of Al- 
modam, the son of Er, the son 2C 
of Jose, the son of Elieiier, the 
son of Joram, the son of Mat- 

Scarlett, "And Jesus was, when beginning his ministry, thirty 
years of age, being," etc. Sharps, "And Jesus himself, when he 
began, was about thirty years of age, being," etc. Norton, "And 
Jesus was about thirty years old when he began his ministry ; 
being," etc. Dick., " Jesus himself was about thirty years of age, 
when he commenced [his ministry] ; being," etc. In this mode 
of rendering the passage, ao%6(ievos has its usual force, being fol- 
lowed by something understood as irjv Siaxovelav avrov, " his 
ministry." De Wette adopts this mode of interpretation, though 
he does not supply the ellipsis, " Jesus war ungefahr dreissig 
Jahr alt, als er anfing, und war," etc. Very nearly so the S. Pr., 
" quand Jesus commenga, il etait age d'environ trente ans, 
etant," etc. De Sacy, " Jesus avait environ trente ans, lorsqu'il 
commen9a a exercer son ministere, etant," etc. Iber., " era Jesus 
como de unos treinta anos, al empezar el [su ministerio]." The 
theory adopted by some, that apxo/iwos is pleonastic and that 
the passage may be rendered " Jesus was about thirty years of 
age," is evidently opposed by the use of agga/twos employed by 
Luke, Acts 1 : 22, h> itavri %(>6vcp, Iv ca clar/l&s i^rjl&ev 
ky vfias 6 Kvotos Irjoovs, ao^afievos ano TOV fSantiafiaTos 
'Icoavvov sots Ttjs fyieoas, . r. L Compare Acts 10 : 37, TO 
yevoftsvov {/ijfia xaffi o!.tjs Tfjs 'JovSaias, aogaftcvov anb Ttjs 
ra.),il,a.iat, fitTa. TO /SdnTiafia S exqpviev 'I<aa.wris. The ren- 
dering in the E. V. (Cranmer's) is objectionable, on the ground, 
that, by retaining a.o%6/ievos (in its equivalent " beginning "), the 
sentence is entirely obscure. If the thought is, that " Jesus was 
about thirty years of age," then " beginning " can not be used in 
conformity with the English idiom. On the whole, the rendering 

given above is deemed preferable to either of those which have 
been noticed. M. employs " to teach " as the supplement after 
" began." Bob. renders the passage as follows, (aoxta) " and 
Jesus himself was about thirty years old as he began, etc., his public 
ministry, i. e., by his baptism and the descent of the Spirit upon 
him ; so Euthym. Zig., agzo/tevos TfjS els tov ).aov avaSei'l-ecos 
av-rov ffToi Ttjs SiSaaxatias." Several writers have endeavored 
to adjust the difficulties presented in this passage by a reference 
to Numb. 4 : 3, 47, where the service of the Levites is deter- 
mined, as continuing from thirty years of age to fifty. The quota- 
tion is not at all relevant, for Christ belonged to the tribe of 
Judah, not to that of Levi. He was not a priest after the 
order of Aaron ; of course, the laws of the priesthood under 
the ancient dispensation were not applicable to him. See Heb. 
7 : 14-19. 

d " the son of Eli ; " TOV 'Hit. As vlbs is employed before 
'Icoarjy, it is left to be supplied through all the other instances il; 
which the name of a father occurs in this genealogical table. 
The phrase " the son," therefore, is not italicized as a supplement 
on the same principle, -which inserts in Eoman type the pronoun, 
that is necessarily understood, in hundreds of instances, before a 
verb. " Which was " (= who was) is superfluous in this table. 
It has not been employed by Campbell, Thorn., Wesley, Scarlett, 
Sharpe, Penn, Kendrick, M. The orthoga-aphy of the names 
has been conformed to that of the 0. Test., as indicated in the 
E. V. In a few instances, where a name does not appear in the 
0. Test., it has been modified by a comparison with the Heb. 
N. Test. 




which was the son of Eliezer, 
which was the son of Jorim, -which 
was the son of Matthat, -which was 
the son of Levi. 

30 Which was the son of Sim- 
eon, which was the son of Juda, 
which was the son of Joseph, which 
was the son of Jonan, which was 
the son of Elialdm, 

31 Which was the son of Melea, 
which was the son of Menan, which 
was the son of Mattatha, which was 
the son of Nathan, which was the 
son of David, 

32 Which was the son of Jesse, 
which was the son of Obed, which 
was the son of Booz, which was 
the son of Salmon, which was the 
son of Naasson, 

33 Which was the son of Amin- 
adab, which was the son of Aram, 
which was the son of Esrom, which 
was the son of Phares, which was 
the son of Juda, 

34 Which was the son of Jacob, 
which was the son of Isaac, which 
was the son of Abraham, which 
was the son of Thara, which was 
the son of Nachor, 

35 Which was the son of Sa- 
ruch, which was the son of Ragau, 
which was the son of Phalec, which 
was the son of Heber, which was 
the son of Sala, 

36 Which was the son of Cai- 
nan, which was the son of Ar- 
phaxad, which was the son of Sem, 
which was the son of Noe, which 
was the son of Lamech, 

37 Which was the son of Ma- 
thusala, which was the son of 
Enoch, which was the son of Jared, 
which was the son of Maleleel, 
which was the son of Cainan, 

38 Which was the son of Enos, 
which was the son of Seth, which 
was the son of Adam, which was 
the son of God. 


TOV MaTOaT, TOV Atvi, 30 n 
Sv/Jiecov, TOV 'Iov8a, TOV 'Ica- 
crij(p } TOV 'Icovav, TOV 'JEXiaKei 
31 TOV .MeAea, TOV Ma'iva.v, T> 
MaTTaOa, TOV Nadav, TOV Aa- 
ft\8, 32 TOV 'lecraai, TOV 'f2fir)0', 



Naao~o-a>v, 33 TOV 'A/JUvauu.^, 
QV 'Apap., TOV 'JE&pafJL, TOV 
l>apes, TOV 'lovSa, 3 * TOV 'Ia- 
/co)/3, TOV 'laaaK, TOV 'Afipaafji, 
TOV Odpa, TOV N^axoop, 3o TOV 
TOV Payav, TOV <&d- 

$ ->- . 

Jspep, TOV SaXa. 

'is 3 

TOV Kaivav, TOV 'Ap<j)aao', 







Eva>\, TOV ' 

'lapeS, TOV Ma- 
i., TOV Ka'ivav, 38 



roO '. 



tath, the son of Levi, the son so 
of Simeon, the son of Judah, 
the son of Joseph, the son of 
Jonan, the son of Eliakim, the 3] 
son of Malia, the son of Hainan, 
the son of Mattethah, the son 
of Nathan, the son of David, 
the son of Jesse, the son of 32 
Obed, the son of Boaz, the son 
of Salmon, the son of Nashon, 
the son of Amminadab, the son 33 
of Earn, the son of Hezron, the 
son of Pharez, the son of Judah. 
the son of Jacob, the son of 34 
Isaac, the son of Abraham, the 
son of Terah, the son of Nahor, 
the son of Serug, the son of 35 
Ben, the son of Peleg, the son 
of Eber, the son of Shelah, the 36 
son of Cainan, the son of Ar- 
phaxad, the son of Shem, the 
son of Noah, the son of Lamech, 
the son of Methuselah, the son 37 
of Enoch, the son of Jared, the 
son of Mahalaleel, the son of 
Cainaan, the son of Enos, the 38 
sou of Seth, the son of Adam, 
the son of God. 




Jesus being full of the 
Holy Ghost, returned from Jor- 
dan, and was led by the Spirit 
into the wilderness, 

2 Being forty days tempted of 
the devil. And in those days 
he did eat nothing : and when 
they were ended, he afterward 

3 And the devil said unto him, 
If thou be the Son of God, com- 
mand this stone that it be made 

4 And Jesus answered him, 



'Ayiov TrXrjptjs inrecrTpetyev O.TTO 
TOV TopSavov /cat r/yeTO eis rep 
UveufJ-ari elf TTJV epr]fj.ov z ^fie- 
pas T(ro-apaKOVTa, Tretpa^b/xei'Of 
VTTO TOV Sia/3oXov. /cat OVK 

tv TO.LS yfj.fpa.ts 
/cat o'vi>T\O'6eicrciJv av- 
TCOV, vcrrepov eVetVacre. 3 /cat 
iTTv aura 6 ia/3oAoy, El v'ios 
el TOV Oeov, dire TQJ Xi6q> TOVT-CO 
"iva. yevTjrcu aproy. 4 jBTat care- 
Kpldt] 'Ir]<rovs Trpos O.VTOV, Ae'yaw, 


AND Jesus, "full of the Holy l 
Spirit, returned from "the Jor- 
dan, and was led by the Spirit 
into the desert, being tried by 2 
the devil d forty days. And e he 
ate nothing in those days : and 
when they were ended, f he was 
afterwards hungry. And the 3 
devil said to him, s lf thou art 
the Son of God, command this 
stone Ho become bread. And 4 
Jesus answered him, saying, It 

" full." The word " being " before " full " in the E. V. is a 
supplement, though it is not italicized. It is a superfluous addi- 
tion, and, as such, has been omitted by Kend., Norton, Thomson, 
Wakef., Thel., Dick, Camp. The simple adjective corresponding 
to " full," is employed in Vulg., Montanus, Eras., Beza, Castalio, 
Schott, Luther, Belg., G. Fr. and S. Pr., Iber., Span., Diodati, 
Ital, Danish. 

" " the Jordan." See ch. 3 : 3, note. 

c " being tried ; " Tcetfa&pcvos. Penn, " was tried ;" "Wake- 
field, " under the trial." In the note on the parallel passage, 
Mark 1 : 13, the -Reviser has said, in reference to this -word : 
" Bob., to attempt, to assay, to tempt, to prove, to put to the 
test. ' To try ' corresponds with nsiq&^co. ' Tempt ' is used 
in some cases in the E. V., where from its present sense the 
English reader is led to believe that God incites men to sin. 
The word is now always understood to convey the idea of an 
effort to lead one to violate the Divine law. There may be a 
few instances, such as James 1 : 13, -where ' tempt ' would be 
most appropriate, still, in general, I would use 'try' as most 
exact. In all cases, the reader will (from the context) understand 
the nature of the act or trial, without the danger of being misled." 

In addition to this, I would observe that while " tempt," in its 
ordinary sense, may present the thought in this passage with 
accuracy, it is still desirable to follow the principle of uniformity 
in rendering, as far as correctness or idiom will allow. There are 
many cases, where " tempt " presents difficulties to the common 
reader of no ordinary magnitude, especially if he recollects the 
declaration James 1 : 13, 14, " Let no man say when he is 
tempted, I am tempted of God : for God can not be tempted with 
evil, neither tempteth he any man : But every man is tempted, 
when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed." The terms 
used in the German of Luther and De Wette (versucht), and in 
the Danish (fristet), correspond with our word " try." 

d " forty days." This arrangement harmonizes with the com- 

mon, familiar, and therefore perspicuous, usage of the English. 
So Penn. The punctuation of this passage in Bagster is incor- 
rect. In his edition, a comma is placed after Tcatfa^ay.ovra, 
so that the sentence stands thus, els T^V e^jftov fiftegas reaaagd- 
KOVTCC, net^ofisvos *. r. L In this case, the rendering (in the 
Greek order) would be, " being led by the Spirit into the desert 
forty days, being tried," etc. The Elzevir, Stephens (third Edit.), 
Erasmus, Mill, Trollope (N. Test.), Griesb., Schott, Knapp, Titt- 
mann (Leipsic, 1831), Theile, Kuinoel, place the comma after 

e " he ate ; " epayev. Tyndale, Cranmer, Thomson, Wesley, 
Wakef., Kend., Sharpe. M., Scarlett, Penn, Norton. " Did eat " 
was first employed in the Geneva. " Did " is superfluous ; there 
being no emphasis which requires its use. 

f " he was afterwards hungry ; " Zoisqov Inetvaoe. M.,-Kend., 
Gray (note on Angus). The phraseology of the E. V. (taken 
from Tyndale's " he afterwards hungered ") is obsolete. 

E " If thou art ; " El el. Kendrick, M., Angus, Thomson, 
Scarlett, Penn, "Webster (Bible with amendments of the language, 
1833). The present usage of our language, in constructions like 
this, agrees with that of the Greek in using the indicative mood 
of the verb. In other words, a conditional action or state, 
belonging to the present time, should be expressed, not by the 
subjunctive, but by -the indicative. So the G. Fr. and S. Fr.,' " Si 
tu es ; " De Sacy, " Si vous etes." The indicative is the appropri- 
ate rendering in the Latin, as may be seen in the Tulg., Mont., 
Eras., Beza, Castal., and Schott. 

h " to become ; " Iva. yivrpai. Thorn., Wakef., Scarlett, Penn, 
G. and A. Camp., M., Norton. The infinitive here is employed 
by later translators, as concise and in harmony with our present 
usus loquendi. "To become" is obviously the proper significa- 
tion of the verb, like the Latin " fio." So Vnlg., Eras., Beza 
" fiat ; " Schott, " fieri." Kuhner, <| 329, Kern. 5. Bob., Lex. 
(Sri, 1.3} 




saying, It is written, That man 
shall not live by bread alone, but 
by every word of God. 

5 And the devil, taking him 
up into an high mountain, shewed 
unto him all the kingdoms of the 
world in a moment of time. 

6 And the devil said unto him, 
All this power will I give thee, 
and the glory of them : for that is 
delivered unto me, and to whom- 
soever I will, I give it. 

7 If thou therefore wilt worship 
me, all shall be thine. 

8 And Jesus answered and said 
unto him, Get thee behind me, 
Satan : for it is written, Thou 
shalt worship the Lord thy God, 
and him only shalt thou serve. 

9 And he brought him to Jeru- 
salem, and set him on a pinnacle of 
the temple, and said unto him, If 


Tiypa.TTTa.1, "OTL OVK eV apTtp 
P.OVCJ) ffiaeTai 6 avdpamo?, aAA 
em TrdvTi prjfiaTi Oeov. 5 Kal 
ava.ya.ya>v avTov 6 StdfioXos els 
opos v^nqXov eSei^ev aur^3 7rdo~as 
ray fiatriXeiaf TIJ? OLKOVfjievrjs ev 
crTiyfifj xpovov 6 Kal elirev OUTW 
o StaftoXof, JSol Sacra) TTJV egov- 
criav Tav-njv airao~av Kal TT/V 
Sogav avTu>v OTL e/tot irapaSe- 
SoTai, Kal q> eav deXco diScofit 

>/7V9>\ / 

avTrjV o~v ovv eav Trpoo'KVvrj- 
crr/f evamtov fJLOV, eo~Tai crov 

' 8 x^ ^ /i ^ ' ^ 

TravTa. ILai airoKpiueis avTa> 
ehrev 6 'Irjcrovs, Yiraye 6m<rco 
fj.ov, SaTava' yeypaiTTai yap, 
IIpocrKVvrjo-eis Kvpiov TOV Oeov 
crov, Kal avT(j> fJ-ova> XaTpevaets. 
9 Kal rjyayev avTov elf 'lepov- 
(raXrju, Kal ecrTTja-ev avTov em 
TO TTTepvyiov TOV lepov, Kal e'arev 


is written, 'Man shall not live 
J by bread alone, but by every 
word of God. And the devil, o 
taking him up into a high 
mountain, showed him all the 
kingdoms of the world in a 
moment of time. And the devil 6 
said to him, All this 'authority 
will I give thee, and the glory of 
them : for it is delivered to me, 
and to whomsoever I will, I 
give it. If, 'then, thou wilt wor- 7 
ship me, all shall be thine. 
And Jesus answering, said to 8 
him, "It is written, Thou shalt 
worship the Lord thy God, and 
him only shalt thou serve. And 9 
he brought him to Jerusalem, 
and set him on "the pinnacle of 
the temple, and said to him, 

1 " That " has been omitted on the ground that art is a mere 
sign of quotation. Bob., Lex. (Sri.) It is dropped by Norton, 
Kend., Angus, Thorn., Dick., Wakef., Scarlett, Sharpe, Camp., 
M. "On is not translated by Luther, De Wette, Iber. 

1 " by bread ; " M aprqi. I have retained the rendering of 
the B. V. with some hesitation. The usual force of rl fvith a 
dative, " upon," or " on," seems to sanction this form " on bread " 
" on every word." So Eob. (btl) quotes this passage, and adds, " to 
live upon, i. e., to sustain or support life upon, quoted from Deut. 
8 : 3, where Sept. for is i-pn, etc." We have the same idiom, 
as we speak of " living on vegetables," " living on meat," etc. I 
suggest " on " as an alternative rendering of inl before Spry and 
nAtnl ^rjfian. So Thelwall. 

k " authority ; " egovoiav. M., Dick. So (E. V.) Matt. 8:9; 
21:23,24,27. Mark 1 : 22, 27 ; 11 : 28. Luke4 : 36 ; 7 : 8. 
John 5 :-27. This word is properly distinguished from Svva/us, 
" power," in 1 Cor. 15 : 24, naanv &$x>p> xai jta.oa.v ejovolav 
xa.1 Svvaftiv, " all rule, and all authority, and power." 4vva- 
uts properly signifies inherent ability, physical or intellectual. In 
Homer it is almost always applied to strength of body, often in 
later writers to force or strength of mind, to the power of things, 
to military forces, as especially constituting the might of rulers. 
'E^ovoia. (from %eari, it is allowed, it is in one's power, it is possi- 
ble) signifies power over persons or things, rule, dominion, the legal 
or moral right to do a thing, or to command it to be done. By 
Jnetonomy, it is sometimes applied to the magistracy or rulers. 
In a looser style of language, these words are sometimes used inter- 

changeably. It is, however, desirable to keep their appropriate 
significations distinct. See Liddell, Bretsch., Bob. 

i " then ; " ovv. M., Angus. S. Fr., G. Fr., and De Sacy, 
" done ; " Belg., " dan. ; " Diodati and Ital., " dunque ; " Dan., 
" nu " (now). This word is often used to denote " the mere 
sequence of one clause upon another, thus marking transition or 
continuation, then, now, thereupon." Bob. (in verbo.) Liddell. 
Bretsch., " facit transitum, interdum potest verti : turn, porro." 
Schott renders the word here by quod si, " if then." 

m The words of the Text. Becept., Tnays oniaco /tov, 2V- 
rava yag, are rejected as spurious by Griesbach, Tisch., Knapp, 
Theile, Lachm., and bracketed by Tittmann. Kuincel : " Plures 
optima^ note libri et versiones omittunt, nempe e Matt. I"V. 10, 
in hunc locum translata sunt, unde ea ex ordine ejicienda esse 
rectissime judicarunt Grotius, Millius, Bengelius, Griesbachius, et 
alii." Schott says, "Ante yfyp. vulgo: vTtaye onlaco pov, aa- 
rava (ex Matt. 4 : 10) omissimns cum Griesb. et al. auctoritate 
codd. B. D. L. aliorumque minuss. verss. Pesch., Pers., Copt, 
(memph.), Sahidic Arm., Arab, (vatic.), Goth., Yulg., It., Sax, 
et patrum quorundam. Ib. Post yty(>. vulgo : yog delendum cum 
Griesb., et al. proeeuntibus iisdem fere testibus, que illud : vnays 
oarava. omittunt, aliisque (A. E. F. G. H. K. M. S. V.)" De 
Wette, Wakef., Wesley, Penn, A. Camp., and Sharpe omit these 
words in their versions. 

n " on the pinnacle ; " fal TO mcqvyiov. Wakef., Penn, Sharpe. 
Belg., " op de tinne ; " De Wette, " auf die Zinne ; " S. Fr., " sur 
1'aile ; " Iber., " sobre el vuelo pequeno ; " Ital., " sulla sommite. 1 ' 




thou be the Son of God, cast thy- 
self down from hence. 

10 For it is written, He shall 
give his angels charge over thee, 
to keep thee : 

1 1 And in their hands they shall 
bear thee up, lest at any time thou 
dash thy foot against a stone. 

12 And Jesus answering, said 
unto him, It is said, Thou shalt 
not tempt the Lord thy God. 

13 And when the devil had 
ended all the temptation, he de- 
parted from him for a season. 

14 And Jesus returned in the 
power of the Spirit into Galilee : 
and there went out a fame of him 
through all the region round 


ayr<0, JSl o vlos ei TOV Oeov, 
/3aAe aeavTov evTevffev KO.TCO' 

10 yeV/ )a7r7 " at y&P> "On Tols ay- 
yeXois O.VTOV IvTeXeiTai Trepl o~ov } 
TOV 8ia.<pvXa.a.i ere- n /cat on 

em xeipcov apovcr ere, 

TTDOS Xidov TOV Tro8a 

o-ov. 12 Kal aTToicpidels eltrev 
ayr<> o 'Ir]o~ov? } ' On etprjTat, 
OVK CKTreipacreis Kvpiov TOV 
Oeov o-ov. 13 Kai cryj/reAecray 
iravTo, ireipa.o-fj.ov o 8ia/3oXos 
oareo-Tij air avTov a%pt Kcupov. 

14 KAI inrea-Tpf^ev o 'Iijcrov? 
iv TJJ TOV Uvevfj.a.TOs els 
TTJV ra.XiXa.iav KOU 
Kaff oXrjs TTJS "jrepi^copov 
avTov. 15 /cat auroy 


"If thou art the Son of God, cast 
thyself down' from hence ; p for 10 
it is written, He shall .give 
his angels charge 'concern- 
ing thee, to keep thee; arid u 
r on their hands they shall bear 
thee up, 'lest thou dash thy foot 
against a stone. And Jesus 12 
answering, said to him, It is 
said, Thou <shalt not try the 
Lord, thy God. And the devil, 13 
"having ended all the "trial, 
departed from him for a season. 
And Jesus returned in the power 14 
of the Spirit into Galilee ; and 
w a report 'concerning him 
spread through ?the whole sur- 
rounding region. And he taught is 

The omission of the definite article 'in the B. V. (after Tyndale,) 
is entirely incorrect. Bob. quotes these words, and says, "The 
pinnacle of the temple, referring to the elevation of the middle 
portion of the triple portico or colonnade along the southern 
wall, which, at its eastern end, impended over the valley of the 
Kedron." Josephus, Antiq. 15 : 11. 5, El TIS arf tov 
rmrrrjs reyovs afiyco aviTt&els fa /Sa&rj SioniEvot, axoroStvtav, 
OVK E^iKov/tsi^s ftjs oyiBcos els dftsr^ov TOV PV&OV. 

" " If thou art." See v. 3, note. 

P A semicolon is placed after " hence," in conformity with the 
punctuation of the Greek text. The connection of this sentence 
with that which follows it, is too close for the use of the period. 
The semicolon is used by Thorn., Dick, Wakef., Sharpe, G. and 
A. Camp. So in the Latin of Beza, the semicolon follows " deor- 
sum." Luther placed this point after " hinunter." S. EY, " d'ici 
en bas ; car " Iber., " de aqui abajo ; porque " Diodati, " di 
qui; perciocche ." 

t " concerning thee ; " ne^l aov. Norton, Thomson, Wesley, 
"Wakef., Scarlett, Penn, Campbell, Kend., Angus, M., Thelwall. 
As an alternative, the colloquial form " of thee." 

r " on their hands ; " inl %ixq6iv. Wakef., Penn, Sharpe, M. 
The Hebrew preposition is signifies " on " in Ps. 91 : 12, from 
which this quotation is made b^&3-is. Sept., Inl ZSIQCOV. The 
inaccurate rendering " in their hands " was derived from the 
Vulgate, " in manibus." So (E. V.) v. 9, " on (inl) a (the) 
pinnacle." Matt. 5 : 15, 39 ; 10 : 34. Luke 1 : 65 ; 5 : 12, etc. 

" lest ; " fifaore. Penn, Camp., M. In the usage of the 
later Greek writers the adverb HOTS (ever, at any time) in this 
word lost its force, so that /ufaors had the same signification as 
/nj. So Luke 14 : 8. 2 Timo. 2 : 25. Septuagint, Gen. 24 : 5 ; 

27 : 12. Compare Gr. and E. V., Matt. 7 : 6 ; 13 : 29 ; 15 : 32 ; 
25 : 9; 27 : 64. Luke 12 : 58; 14 : 8. Acts 28 : 27. Heb. 
3 : 12 ; 4:1. The phrase " lest at any time " was first employed 
by Tyndale. 

' " shalt not try ; " OVK cxneiadosis. Sharpe, Wakef., Thorn. 
The noun " trial " is used by others. Camp., Dick., Norton, 
" shalt not make trial of," etc. See v. 2, note. There does not 
seem to be any Distinction made by the N. Test, writers between 
3tei(>dco and xnei(>dfo. In this usage they have followed the 
Sept., which uses either of these verbs as an equivalent for 

" " having ended ; " avvrefaaas. Wesley, Scarlett, Thelwall. 
The participial construction is also employed by Kend., and M. 
De Sacy, " ayant acheve ; " Iber., " habiendo acabado." 

T " trial." See v. 2, note. 

w " a report ; " yr/ftr;. Penn, Wakef., Kend., Thomson. De 
Wette, " ein Euf." The expression " a fame" does not harmonize 
with our usus loquendi. " Eeport " is preferable, also, if we 
regard accuracy. Bob., " common fame, word, report, rumor." 

1 " concerning him ; " Mol avvov. Thorn., Kend., Thelwall. 
Vulg., Mont., Eras., " de illo ; " Beza, " de eo ; " Belg., " van 
hem ; " De Wette, von ihm ; " Iber., " de el ; " Diodati, " di 
esso." Rob. (ne^i, cum genit.). 

* " the whole ; " SAys tijg. Angus, Camp., M., Thel. Bob, 
(67os.) Liddell, " the whole ; " Belg., " het gaheele ; " De Wette, 
" die ganze ; " S. Pr., " toute ; " Iber., " todo." This word should 
be distinguished in rendering, from was. 

z "surrounding region;" mioixcopov. Kendrick. Belgic, 
omliggende land ; " De Wette, " umliegende Gegend ; " G. Fr., 




15 And he taught in their syna- 
gogues, being glorified of all. 

16 And he came to Nazareth, 
where . he had been brought up : 
and, as his custom, was, he -went 
into the synagogue on the sabbath- 
day, and stood up for to read. 

17 And there was delivered 
unto him the book of the prophet 
Esaias. And when he had opened 
the book, he found the place where 
it was written, 

18 The Spirit of the Lord w 
upon me, because he hath anointed 
me to preach the gospel to the 
poor ; he hath sent me to heal the 
broken-hearted, to preach deliver- 
ance to the captives, and recover- 


ev ras crurayoyaty avruv, 

i \ / Ifi \ 

oiez/oy viro iravrav. /cat 

Oev sis r-f]v Na.aper t ov 
T0pafj,/j.vos' /cat etcn/A^e /cara 



aura>, ev r 


/cat vecrrr) avayvavai. 17 /cat 
7re8o0r} avT(jS /3t/3AtW 'Ifcratov 
TOV 7rpo(prjTov /cat avawTv^as 
TO /3t/3AtW, evpe TOV TOTTOV ov 
r\v jf.ypa.yni.ivov, Uvevfjux. Kv- 

f j > j / ]a f </ v / 

piov CTT e/ie- ov eve/ceis 


araA/ce /JLC, iacrao-dai TOVS crvv- Trjv KapSlav Krj- 
aifJiaXcoTOi? a(j)eo~iv } 


in their synagogues, "being prais- 
ed b by all. And he came to 16 
Nazareth, where he c was brought 
up ; and, -"according to his 
custom, he went into the syna- 
gogue on the sabbath-day, and 
stood up to read. And there 17 
was delivered to him the book 
of Isaiah, the prophet; and, 
^unrolling the book, he found 
the place where it was written, 
The Spirit of the Lord is on me, 18 
because he hath anointed me 
h to preach good news to the 
poor ; he hath sent me to heal 
the broken-hearted, 'to proclaim 
deliverance to the captives, and 

" le pays d'alentour ; " S. Fr., " ]a contree d'alentour ; " Bretsch., 
(in verbd), " regi circumjaciens." " Bound about" is tautological. 
The verb neftxoopeco signifies to go round. Alternative rendering, 
" the region around," as Penn. 

- " being praised ; " Sojago/tevos. Kend. Belg., " wierd 
geprezen ; " De Wette, " gepriesen." This word is rendered 
" applauded " by Scarlett and M. Thomson, " with universal 
applause." Although "applaud" presents the thought, it is not 
more exact than " praise," and the latter has the advantage of 
being a biblical word, and one that is more familiar to common 
readers. S. Fr., " etant honore ; " Diodati, "essendo onorato ; " 
Costal., " celebrabatur ; " Bob. (in verbo), " to honor, to glory, i. e., 
to ascribe honor or glory to any one, to praise, to laud, to magni- 
fy." Tynd., Gran., and Geneva use the synonym " commended." 

b " by all ; " into n&vrtov. Penn, Kend., Wakef., Sharpe, 
Angus, M. The preposition "of," with an objective case, as 
instrumental, is no longer in use. 

" "was brought up;." qv red'^ttft/tsvos. Norton, Kendriek, 
Wesley, M., Bheims. Belg., " opgevoed was ; " Luther and De 
Wette, " erzogen war." Heb. N. Test., ynx h^rt. The imperfect 
tense is employed by Tyndale, Cranmer, and Genevan. So v. 17 
the E. V. renders r,v yeyga/t/tsvov " it was written." 

d " according to his custom ; " y.ara TO eicod-bs ccvry. So 
Bob. (in loco, ed-co), Thorn., Penn, Scarlett. Vulg., Erasmus, 
" secundum consuetudinem suam ; " Belg., " na zijne gewoonte ; " 
Luther and De Wette, " nach seiner Gewohnheit ; " Dan., " efter 
sin Sodvane." As the participle Elco&bs is used for the substan- 
tive (KOTO, to 15-os, Luke 1 : 9), the literal rendering is preferred 
for exactness and simplicity. 

e " to read." The use of " for," before the infinitive, is obso- 
lete and ungrammatical. In this instance, it is omitted by 
Norton, Thorn., Wesley, Penn, Wakef., Sharpe, Scarlett, Camp., 
Kend., Angus, M. 

f " of Isaiah, the prophet ; " 'Haato TOV rtpopyrov. Norton, 
Kend., Wakef., M., Thelw. Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, " Esaiae 
prophete;" Schott, Kuincsl, "Isaiss vatis;" De Wette, "Jesa- 
ja's, des Propheten ; " S. Fr., d'Esaie le prophete ; " Iber., " de 
Isaias el profeta." The Greek order should be retained, as iov 
nfoipfjTov is the defining term, distinguishing the author of " the 
book " from other men, who might bear the same name. So Syr., 
)-"^i f-VT]: Heb. N. T., xiasn ^frjsuJ^- 

B " unrolling ; " avaniv^as. Norton, Kend-, M. Dickinson, 
" having unrolled ; " Vulg., " ut revolvit." Kuinosl, " libra evo- 
luto, explicate: avaittvaoeiv est evolvere, cxplicare ea, quse sunt 
convoluta, ut oppositum mvaauv v. 20, est complicare convolvere; 
avaxTvaosiv de libro evoluto legitur quoque 2 Begg. 19 : 14 
Libri autem Hebrseorum erant volumina, illigabantur duobus 
baculis teretibus, qui capulos habebant, quos manu tenens qui 
legebat, convolvere poterat atque evolvere librum prout opus 

h " to preach good news ; " svayysJ.i&a&ae. Norton, " glad 
news;" Dickinson, "to publish good news;" Penn, Sharpe, 
" to preach good tidings ; " Wakef., " to preach glad tidings ; " 
Scarlett, Campbell, "to publish glad tidings;" Castalio, "ad 
liEta nuncianda ; " Schott, " ut laeta nuntiarem." In Isaiah 
61 : 1, from which this quotation is made, the verb is "NBai, Sept. 
txayyel'uy.od'a.i, Syr. owamifllk. The radical idea, "to bring 
good news, to announce or publish glad tidings (Bob., Lex.), is 
indicated by this verb, as it is employed by the Evangelists. 
" Good news " is substituted for " gospel," as it presents the 
thought with greater clearness and force. " Tidings " is obsolete. 
De Wette, " frohe Botschaft zu bringen ; " S. Fr., " pour annoncer 
la bonne nouvelle ; " Iber., " a annunciar buenas nuevas ; " ItaL, 
"per annunziare la buona novella." Compare ch. 2 : 10. 

1 " to proclaim ; " xri^cu. Norton, Kend., Thorn., "Wesley, 
Penn, Angus, Scarlett, M. Vulg., Mont, " prsedicare ; " Eras, 




ing of sight to the blind, to set a 
liberty them that are bruised, 

19 To preach the acceptable 
year of the Lord. 

20 And he closed the book, and 
he gave it again to the minister, 
and sat down. And the eyes of 
all them that wore in the syna- 
gogue Avere fastened on him. 

21 And he began to say unto 
them, This day is this scripture 
fulfilled in your ears. 


red paver p.4vovs fv a^etrei' KTJ- 

eviavTov Kvpiov 

20 TV \ '} * n n\ ' ' 

Kan. TTTV^as TO pipAiov, caro- 
8ovs rcS vTrrjpeTri, fKadicre' Kai 
rfj crvvay&yjj ol 
revifyvTes au- 
8e \eyetv irpos 
avrovs, OTL a-q/j-epov TreirXypca- 
TO.I TI ypa(f)T) avrrj eV TOI? dxrlv 

6(pda\/JLol r/crais 


'recovery of sight to the blind, 
to set at liberty k the oppressed, 
kk to proclaim the acceptable 19 
year of the Lord. And 'roll- 20 
ing up the book, he gave it 
again "to the officer, and sat 
down. And the eyes of all in 
the synagogue "were fixed on 
him. And he began to say 21 
to them, This day is fulfilled 
this scripture which is in your 

Beza,"ut prscdiecm ; " Schott, "ut praedicarem ; " Kob. (Lex.), 
" to proclaim ;" Bretsch., " publice annundo." The radical sense 
of the verb is most appropriate here. Liddell (in verbo), " to call, 
make proclamation as a herald ; " Iber., " a proclamar." Heb. 
N. T., jnjsb Syr.; o|^aia^. Murdock., " to proclaim." 

> " recovery of sight ; " avdpleyiv. Thorn., "Wesley, Penn, 
Wakef., Scarlett, Camp., Angus, M. Liddell (in verbo), "a 
seeing again, recovery of sight." Strictly speaking to recover 
sight implies that it was formerly possessed. Hence Kuinoel on 
Matt. 11 : 5, where the verb avaplenovot occurs, renders it 
" cceci visum recipiunt." So E. V., " the blind receive their 
sight." On John 9 : 11 (avefteya, E. V., " I received sight"), 
Kuincel remarks : " Cum homo ille a nativitate eaecus fuisse dica- 
tur, avejileya vim habet verbi simplicis efiAeya quod ipsum 
verbum v. 7, et 21, legitur." On this passage, Bloomfield remarks : 
" The terra may, indeed, seem rather to denote the recovery of 
sight. But it admits of the present sense, i. e., ' I received my 
sight,' since ava is often used for ava>, upward, and, consequently, 
may mean to look up ; the peculiar faculty of the human race." 

Prona cum spectant aaimalia caetera terrain ; 

Os homini sublime dedit : coolum tueri 

Jussit, et erectos ad sidera tollere vultus. OVID, Met. 1 : 84. 

The verb ava/3ifotco has sometimes the sense of looking at, as in 
Cyrop. 1, 4, $12, &uo avafihineiv itpos lov namtov ex iov i'aov 
en Svvaftae. In view of what has been said, the alternative 
rendering is suggested, " receiving of sight to the blind," or, more 
concisely (with Valg. and Eras., " ccecis visum "), " sight to the 
blind." So De Wette, " den Blinden das Gesicht;" Iber., "la 
reception de la vista para los ciegos ; " Span., " a los ciegos 
vista ; " Belg., " den blinden het gezichte." Syr., 
Heb. N. Test., fii'iw 1315 nip&b- 

k " the oppressed ; " re&gavofisvovs. Norton, 
Kend., Angus, M. Castalio, " calamitosos ; " De Wette, " die 
Gedriickten ; " S. Fr., '= qui tout foules ; " Iber., " los oprimi- 
dos ; " Kob. (Lex.), " oppressed." Bretsch. : " Te&yavaiuevoi, 
bello confecti, i. e., victi, oppressi, captivi ; semel Luke 4 : 19, 
catoareliat TS&favaftevovs ev apeact, victos captives liberos 
demittere, eas vindicare in libertatem ; in Hebr. enim Jes. 58 : 6, 
leguntur, enuJBri b^aiSI. nJDia." Kuincel (in loco), Deut. 28 : 33, 
"legitur %ori aStxov/ucvos xal Te&<>a.vafieros, oppressi et vexati 
tritis (E. V., 'thou shalt be only oppressed and crushed always'). 

Itaque te&qavfiEvoi h. 1. sunt calamitosi, oppressi, non ut alii 
volunt, vulnerati sol. compedibus vincti." 

to proclaim." See note i. 

i " rolling up ; " nivgas. See v. 17, note. Norton, Kend., 
Thorn., " had rolled up." 

m " to the officer ; " tip vitriqetrj. Norton, Wakef., M. This 
is the most usual rendering in the E. V. " Minister" tends to 
mislead the common reader, who has the idea " minister of the 
word," or preacher called up in his mind, by that term. It is not 
equivalent to agxiovvayioyos, "the ruler" or "chief director" of 
the synagogue, but probably indicates the officer termed by the 
Jews Mafflrt "ijti, who had the charge of the sacred books. 
Kuinoel and Bloomfield (in loco]. 

" were fixed ; " rjoav arcvi^ovrss. Camp., Penn, Thomson, 
Scarlett. This expression conforms to present usage. It is 
equally exact with " fastened," more euphonous, and more easily 

" is fulfilled this scripture, which is in your ears ; " 
10.1 fj ys>atpT) avri) ev -rors taalv vpiov. Penn. By the position 
of " fulfilled," immediately before the sentence " in your ears," 
the common reader is misled as to the sense of the passage. The 
thought is, that the declaration of Isaiah which they had just 
heard, in reference to the Messiah, was fulfilled. Kuincel : "Hodie 
illud oramlvm eventum habet, vobis audientibus, i. e., hoc quo modo 
legi, impleri hodie videtis, me audientes, hodie eventn comproba- 
tur, quod ibi propheta dixit." This thought is presented with 
different degrees of literality in the following versions : Camp., 
the scripture, which ye have just now heard, is fulfilled ; " 
Thorn., " there is an accomplishment of this scripture, which you 
have just heard ; " Belg., " is deze Schrift in uwe ooren vervuld ;" 
S. Fr., " cette ecriture est accomplie, vous 1'entendant ; " De 
Sacy, " cette ecriture, que vous venez d'entendre est accomplie ; " 
Iber., " se ha cumplido esta Escritura, oyen do [lo] vosotros ; " 
Syviac, ,o-iJijVa pin ]^l^s> >oXu*.{ (Junius, " completa est 
scriptura haec quae est in auribus vestris"). Bloomfield (N. T.) 
remarks on this passage : " It is better with the Syriac, Bengel, 
De Dieu, and Campbell to render, ' which ye have just heard,' 
literally, ' which is now in your ears.' This, however, involves so 
harsh a catachresis, that -we must suppose an ellipsis of %." In 
his Analecta he paraphrases the passage : " That which I have 




22 And all bare him -witness, 
and wondered at the gracious 
words which proceeded out of his 
mouth. And they said, Is not this 
Joseph's son ? 

23 And he said unto them, Ye 
will surely say unto me this pro- 
verb, Physician, heal thyself: 
whatsoever we have heard done 
in Capernaum, do also here in thy 

24 And he said, Verily I say 
unto you, No prophet is accepted 
in his own country. 

25 But I tell you of a truth, 
many widows were in Israel in 
the days of Blias, when the heaven 

~ 22 Tr \ ' 

vp,<av. K.OLL TravTe? 
povv avrca, /cat 
rots Xoyois TJ?y -)(a,piTos, rots e/c- 
7ropevofj.evoLS e/c TOV oro/taroy 
O.VTOV, Kal eXeyov, Ov-% OVTOS 

' ' '* > T ' J 23 TS" N 

eoTtv o vios la>(rr)<p; Kai 
core irpof avrovS) HavTcas e/jetre 
jj-Qi TTJV^oXrjV TO.VTTJV, 'Ia- 
rpe, depoarev&ov creavTov otra 
f]KOVo~afJiv yevofJLfva. ei> rfj Ka- 
irepvaovfj., iroLr)<rov /cat code 
rrj TraTpidi a~ov. 

24 Erne. 8e, 'Ap.T)v Xe-yco 
vSeis 7rpo(j)rJTr)s 5e/croy COTIV 

* /c\ ~ 25 >s \ 

ry irarpioi avrov. eir aXr)- 
Se Xe-yco v[uv, TroAAat %^/oat 
Iv raty rjjjLepcus '.Z?A/oy iv 
ra> 'Icrpa.rjX, ore eKXeiorfft) o ov- 




ears. And all 'bore testimony 22 
to him, and wondered at the 
gracious words 'which came out 
of his mouth. And they said, 
Is not this r the son of Joseph ? 
And he said to them, Ye will 23 
surely say to me this proverb, 
Physician, heal thyself: what- 
ever we have heard done in 
Capernaum, do 'here, also, in 
thy country. And he said, 24 
'Truly I say to you, no prophet 
is "acceptable in "Ms own coun- 
try. But I tell you of a truth, 25 
many widows were in Israel in 
the days of Elijah, when the 

just now read, ye see this day fulfilled by the event." Penn says, 
" This phrase is equivalent to ' which you have just iieard;' and 
appears to be an example of what Hoogeven calls ' nova loquendi 
genus (in N. T.) pronomen avros adhibens pro relative Ss (i. e., 
fj ys>u<p!j r; EV rots cuolv vficov (earlv).'" The rendering which I 
have adopted above, is literal, and yet it may be objected that 
there is a strong Hebraistic idiom in the language, I, therefore, 
suggest the following, which has been furnished by Campbell, 
" which you have just now heard." 

P " bore testimony ; " s/ta$rvQovv. "Wakefield, Scarlett, M. 
" Witness " is now used for the person who gives testimony, or 
testifies. In all cases in which " witness " occurs after " gives," or 
" bear," in the E. V., testimony should be its substitute. 

' " which came out of ; " toTs emofevo/cevois $x. "Wakefield, 
Sharpe. S. Fr., " qui soutaient de sa bouche ; " Iber., " que 
salian de su boca ; " De Wette, " die aus seinem Munde gingen." 
In nearly every case, where a verb is compounded with a preposi- 
tion, and followed by the same preposition, the force of the 
compounded verb is the same as the simple form. Hence ixrco- 
qsvo/tevois ex = rtogEvoftevots ex. If we retain " proceeded," 
then " proceeded from " would be the proper expression. 

' " the son of Joseph ? " 6 vios 'Icoa^y ; Perm, Thorn., Dick., 
Wakef., Scarlett, Kend., Thelwall, M. In most cases of similar 
construction, instead of the possessive case, the E. V. employs 
" of" with the objective, as " the son of David," rather than 
" David's son." A good reason for this practice is found in all 
cases, where the hissing s is followed by another s. Euphony 
demands attention in the Scriptures, as they are so frequently 
read audibly. 

* " here, also." Thomson, Penn, Wakefield. This arrange- 
ment is grammatically exact, and more harmonious than that of 

the E. V., or rather of Tyndale, which it copies. In colloquial 
phraseology we say, " do it here, too," and this is good authority 


Quern penes arbitrium est ct jus et norma loquendi." 

' " Truly ; " X/ap>. This is tie Hebrew JBX, which adver- 
bially signifies, truly, certainly. Gesenius (Lex.) Hob. (Lex.) : 
" Emphatically, at the beginning of a sentence, truly, verily. 
Comp. Luke 9 : 27, aH-rjS-cSs." " Verily " is out of use, except in 
quotations from the E. V. "Truly" is more intelligible to 
common readers than the anglicized Latin word " verily." This 
word has never been sanctioned by general use. " Truly " is 
uniformly substituted for it, in this Kevision. 

" acceptable ; " Sexros. Wesley, Dick., Wakef., Scarlett, 
Angus, Norton, M. So (E. V.) v. 19. Philipp. 4 : 18. Hesych., 
Ssxros. ageoros. Heid. (Lex.), " acceptus, gratus ; " Belgic, 
! " aangenaam ; " Iber., " acepto." The word occurs in the Sept., 
Isa. 56 : 7, in this sense, al &voiat avrcov saoirai Sexzai enl TO 
&vaia.<rtfn>i6v fiov, where it is the equivalent of "paill:. If we 
suppose that Sextos lariv (in the passage before us) is used for 
Saxsrai to bring out the thought the rendering should be, " is 
well received." 

T " his own." As the pronoun in Bagster's text is avrov, 
this rendering does not harmonize with it, but should be simply 
" his." Still, as the rough aspirated avrov stands in the text of 
Griesbach, Knapp, Theile, Tittmann, Schott, Kuinrel, Erasmus, 
Elzevir, Stephens (third Ed.), the rendering of the E. V. may be 
sustained. But with avrov, the rendering would be plausible, 
because narols (adj.) signifies one's native place, home, etc., that 
city, country, or place, which is one's own. Still, in Matt. 13 : 54, 
we find els mar^iSa avrov in Griesbach, Knapp, Tittm., Scholz, 
Stephens, Elzevir, Erasmus, Theile. 




was shut up three years and six 
mouths, when great famine was 
throughout all the land : 

26 But unto none of them was 
Elias sent, save unto Sarepta, a 
city of Sidon, unto a woman that 
was a widow. 

27 And many lepers were in 
Israel in the time of Eliseus the 
prophet ; and none of them was 
cleansed, saying Naaman the 


pavos eVt errj rpia KCU /HTJVO.S e, 
coy eyei/ero Atftoy p.eyas lirl ira- 

^ " 2fi \ \ > s> 

crav rr/v yrjv KCU irpos ovoe- 
fjiiav avTOtv kiri^Qt] '-EA/ay, ei 
firj els Sdpeirra rrjs Ji8a>vos 
Trpos yvvaiKa. ^pav. 27 /cat ?roA- 
Aoi AfTT/sot fja'ot.v eVt ' EXicra'a.lQv 
TOV -jrpo(j)r)rov eV TO> 'IcrparjX- 
KCU, ovdelf avrutv eKadapiadrj, el 
o Svpos. 28 Kdi 
iravres 0v/j.ov iv 
rfj crvva-yoa-yf), aKOVovres ravra. 


heaven was shut up three years 
and six months, w so that there 
was *a great famine ^over all 
the land : *and yet, "to no one 26 
of them was Elijah sent b but 
to "a widow-woman, d at Zare- 
phath, a city of Zidon. And 27 
many lepers were in Israel, e in 
the time of Elishah, and yet, 
f no one of them was healed 
*but Naaman, the Syrian. And 28 
h all in the synagogue, 'hearing 
'these words, were filled with 

w " so that ; " cog. Bob. (Lex., in verbd) : " Before a clause 
expressing result, or consequence, so, so as that, so tliat." S 
Norton, Thorn., Penn, ATakef., Sharpe, Scarlett, Camp., Thelw. 
M. Here cos = (Sore. Belgic, " zoodat ; " S. Fr., " tellemen 

* " a great famine ; " Lftbs /ttyas. Norton, Thorn., Wesley 
Diok., Wakef,. Sharpe, Scarlett, Camp., Kend., M. De Wette 
" eine grosse Hungersnotk ; " Dan., " en stor Hunger ; " Gr. Fr 
and S. Fr., " une grande famine ; " Iber., " una grande hambre." 

* " over all the land ; " krii naoav rrjv yrjv. Norton, Thorn. 
"Wakef., Sharpe, Angus, M. Belg., " over het geheele land ; ' 
De Wette, " liber das ganze Land ; " S. Fr., " sur toute la terre ; ' 
Ital., " sopra tutta la terra." The ordinary signification of htl 
(cum coats.) is entirely appropriate here. 

* " and yet ; " xal. M. Castal., " et tamen ; " De Sacy, " et 
neanmoins." This is an instance of the apparently adversative 
use of xai, where the thought is clear in itself without the aic 
of an adversative particle, as in Matt. 6 : 26, oti ov oitciyo 

. . . xal o Ttarrj^ vfttuv . . . tqecpei avra? 10 : 29, ov%i Svo 
ar^ovd'ia aooaglov 7t(o).ettai; xal ei> s!j avroov ov iteoettat, 
x. T. L Bob. (Lex., xal) remarks : " In all these passages the 
rendering but is admissible, but not necessary ; in others, it woulo 
destroy the true sense." 

a " to no one ; " itgos ovSefuav. Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : "Ab- 
solutely as subst. no one." This rendering, being exact, is 
preferred to the contracted form " none," euphonia gratia. 

b " but ; " el fir;. "Save " is obsolete. Scholefield remarks on 
this : " The mistake in the authorized translation is not an un- 
natural one, but the effect of it is most unfortunate. It introduces 
a direct blunder by making the passage state, that Elias -was sent 
to none of the Israelite widows except to a Sidonian widow. And 
so of the lepers. Though the natural and common sense of el /? 
is ' except,' it is not uncommonly used, as here proposed, in a 
sense not of limitation, but of exclusion." See el fty, Bev. 
21 : 27. There is really an ellipsis with el (in, thus, el fty 
[Inefiyd'i]} els Sa^enra. 

" a widow-woman ; " yvvaTxa. xyqav. Penn, Sharpe. Xrjpav 
is an adjective. Liddell (x^os). Bretsch. : "Proprie femin. 

adject, -/.rjqos, a, ov orbus [y.aca vacuus sum], quare passim 
additur yvvij." Septuagint, yuvrj xn^n eyio slfit. Hcb. N. Test., 
rtsais-Mias. Troll. (Gram., g25, p. 46) : "Xijga is in fact a 
feminine adjective, which is used elliptically in Luke 2 : 37.; 
7 : 12. 1 Timo. 5:3. So in Latin 0. Nepos, Prsef., c. 4, 
' femina vidua ; ' Terentius, Heaut., v. 1 : 80, ' viduiE mttlieri.' " 
Bloomf. : " rvvaiKa xfj^av is not so much a pleonasm as a primi- 
tive oratio plena." In the arrangement of this sentence, I have 
followed Norton, Scarlett, Thorn., Penn, Wakef., " to a widow- 
woman at Sarepta." The inverted, nngrammatScal arrangement 
of the E. V. is a slavish ad verbum copy of the Vulgate, " in 
Sarepta Sidonise, ad mulierem viduam." With better taste G. 
Fr., "vers une femme veuve dans Sarepta de Sidon ;" S. Fr., 
" vers une femme veuve a Sarepta de Sidon ; " Iber., " a una 
muger viuda en Sarepta [ciudad] de Sidon ; " Ital., " ad una 
vedova in Saretta di Sidone." 

d " at Zarephath ; " els Sa^cnta. The preposition is rendered 
" at" by Thorn., Dick., Penn, Wakef., Scarlett. Beza, ad ;" 
Castalio, " ad Zarephtham ; " Schott, " ad Sareptam ; " S. Fr., 
" & Sarepta." Compare Acts 20 : 16, tie 'leooaoivf.a (E. Y., 
"at Jerusalem"), and 21 : 13. Matt. 21 : 1, fyyiaav els 
ooivfia, xal ffW-ov els Brj&yayy (E. V., " drew nigh uuto 
Jerusalem, and were come to Bethphage.") " Zarephath " is 
according to the 0. Test, orthography, 1 Kings 17 : 9. Obad. 
v. 20. Heb. N. Test., nijBI^. 

" in the time of Elishah ; " eitl 'Ehaaalov. I have retained 
the phraseology of the E. T., though " in the days of Elishah " 
(as in E. V., Mark 2 : 26, lift, 'Aptad'ao, " in the days of Abia- 
thar ") is suggested as an alternative rendering. 
f " no one ; " ovSels. See v. 26, note. 
6 " but ; " el /tij. See v. 26, note. 

" " all ; " navres. Wakef., Keud., M., Angus, Wesley, Dick.,. 
Penn, Scarlett, Thelwall, M., Bheims. " They " is superfluous. 

1 " hearing ; " axovovceg. Thorn., Wesley, Camp., M., Kend., 

"these words." Penn, M., "words." This supplement is 
adopted rather than " things," as the reference is obviously to the 
words, which Jesus had uttered. The use of a neuter for the 




28 And all they in the syna- 
gogue, when they heard these 
things, were filled with wrath, 

29 And rose up, and thrust him 
out of the city, and led him unto 
the trow of the hill, (whereon 
their city was built,) that they 
might cast him down headlong. 

30 But he, passing through the 
midst of them, went his way, 

31 And came down to Caper- 
naum, of Galilee, and taught 
them oa the sabbath-days. 

32 And they were astonished 
at his doctrine : for his word was 
with power. 

33 And in the synagogue there 
was a man which had a spirit of 
an unclean devil ; and he cried out 
with a loud voice, 


9Q \ > f ' }~ f n \ > 

KO.I avacrravres e<-epaXov av- 
TOV eco TTJS TroXecos, Kcu Tfyayov 
avrov ea>s rfjs 6<j)pvos rov opovs, 
e(j) ov 77 TToXis avT&v a>KoSo/J,r)- 

TO, es TO KaraKprjuvia-at avrov 


avros 8e SteXdcbv 

OLVT&V eTTopevero. 

31 KAI KxrrjXdev elf Kairep- 
vaov/j. TroXiv TTJS PaXiXaias' KOU 
i]v 8i8tx,a-Kcav avrovs ev rots crd/3- 
/3ct,o~i. 32 KOU e^eTrXrja-crovTO em 
rrj diSaxfi avTou., on ev e^ovcria. 

i < \ i > " 33 ry \ ' " 

r/v o Xo-yos avrov. ev rj? 
avdpcoTro? e^cov 
Trvevfj,a BaifJ-ovlov aKadaprov, /cat 

4 Ae- 


.wrath, and, k rising up, 'they 29 
drove him out of the city, and 
led him to the brow m of the 
mountain on which their city 
was built, to cast .him down 
headlong ; but he, passing 30 
through the midst of them, 
"went away. And he came 31 
down to Capernaum, a city of 
Galilee, and taught them on 
the sabbaths. And they were 32 
astonished at his ^teaching," 
for his word was r with author- 
ity. And in the synagogue 33 
there was a man, who had a 
spirit of an unclean 'demon ; 
and he cried out with a loud 

masculine, where the adjective, or adjective pronoun stands alone, 
is common in the N. Test. Compare John 6 : 39 ; 17 : 2. 

k " rising up ; " avaaravrss. Thomson, "Wesley, Scarlett, M. 
S. Fr,, " s'etant leves." 

i " they drove ; " ejt/Sidov. Thorn., Gamp., M., Eob. (Lex., 
in tierbo, 1. b.) " Thrust " is too specific, as it necessarily implies 
"to push or crowd with violence," while "to drive" implies 
urging forward either by actual physical force applied to the 
object, or often by threats, commands, etc. 

m " of the mountain ; " iov ogovs. G. and A. Camp., Dick., 
Kend., M., Thelwall. So rendered in sixty-two cases out of sixty- 
five, in E. V. It should be uniformly represented by " mountain." 
Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, Castal., Kuinoel, " mentis." " Hill " 
was employed by Tyndale, who was copied by the earlier English 

" " went away ; " ixofsvero. Thomson, Wesley, Scarlett, 
Camp., Kend. Rob. (Lex., in verbo), " to pass on, to go away, to 
depart." In conformity with Bagster's text, as well as that of 
Griesbach, Tisch., Lachm., Knapp, Theile, Tittm., Scholz, Eras., 
Stephens (third Ed.), and Elzevir, a period is placed after lito- 
qevsro. This is the punctuation of Thorn., Wesley, Campbell, 
Dick., Sharpe, Kend., Angus. 

" on the sabbaths ; " ev roTs <rafi{3aoiv. Sharpe. " Days " is 
superfluous. As this plural sometimes occurs in cases where it is 
singular in signification (see Bob., Lex., oa^atov), the alterna- 
tive rendering is suggested, " on the sabbath." 

" "teaching;" StSaxH. Kendrick, Wesley, Sharpe, Angus, 
Wiclif. Iber., " su ensenanza." As StSag^ signifies both the ad 
of teaching, and that which is taught, it has an exact equivalent 
in^ the English word " teaching." The anglicized Latin " doc- 
trine," in present usage, only indicates that which is taught, the 

instruction given. Bretsch. (in verbo), "actus docendi, institution 
materia institutions, ' doctrina quum dogmata, turn praecepta.' " 
In classic usage, 8180.$ seems to be used only as eauivalent to 

31 C f- 

i A comma is placed after " teaching," in conformity with the 
Greek text of Bagster, Tiseh., Tittmann, Elzevir. So iu the 
versions of Norton, Penn, Sharpe, Wesley. S. Fr., " sa doctrine, 
parce que ; " Iber., " ensenanza, porque." 

r " with authority ; " ev egovotct. Geneva, Norton, Wesley, 
Dick., Wakef., Penn, Scarlett, Sharpe, Campbell. Mont., Beza, 
" auctoritate ; " S. Fr., " avec autorite ; " Iber., " con autoritad ; " 
Diodati, " con autorita." So in the parallel, Mark 1 : 22, eov- 
aia.v, E. V., " authority," and Matt. 7 : 29 ; 8 : 9. Luke 4 : 36. 
See v. 6, note. 

" demon ; " Saifiovtov. Thomson, Dick., Norton, Sharpe, 
Camp., Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M. S. Fr., " demon ; " Iber., 
" demonio." Note on Revision of Mark : " There is no difference 
of signification between Salftcov and Satpoviov. These words 
are applied to a class of " unclean spirits, who are the servants 
of Satan. See Luke 8 : 29, 30. Matt. 9 : 34. Mark 3 : 22-26. 

eafioios, when it refers to spiritual existence, is applied in the 
singular, to Satan l^o^. There are many ' demons,' yet 
but one ' Devil.' As we have no single term, which is the 
equivalent of ' demon,' we are obliged to transfer, when we can 
not translate. See Campbell's Dissertations; VI., Part I., where 
these words are fully examined." I have employed " demon," 
wherever these words occur. These spirits seem to be the fallen 
angels, 2 Pet. 2 : 4, Jude 6, and are subject to Satan, Luke 
11 : 15, 'Ev BCE),&{}OV), ayxovri itav Satftovicav Matt. 25 : 41, 
TO Ttvg TO alcaviov to qTOtfiaoftsvov tia Sta/3Mea roTs ayye- 

is avrov. Yulgate, Beza, " dsemom'um ; " Schott, " dsemonii." 
r,f,}^. Heb. N. T., -W5. 




34 Saying, Let us alone ; what 
have we to do with thee, thou 
Jesus of Nazareth ? art thou come 
to destroy us? I know thee who 
thou art, the Holy One of God. 

35 And Jesus rebuked him, 
saying, Hold thy peace, and come 
out of him. And when the devil 
had thrown him in the midst, he 
caine out of him, and hurt him 

36 And they were all amazed, 
and spake among themselves, say- 
ing, What a word is this 1 for with 
authority and power he command- 
eth the unclean spirits, and they 
come out. 

37 And the fame of him went 
out into every place of the country 
round about. 


ycov, Ea., TI /cat erot, 'Irj~ 
Nafaprjve; yXGes airoXecrat 

9 ' / 9 -t <f . 

oioa ere rty et, o aytoy 
35 Kal 

TOV Oeov. 

TcS o 'Irja-ovs, Xe-yoov, $ifji.a>- 
/cat e'^eXde el; O.VTOV. Kcu 
pi^rav avrov TO Ba.ip.ovt.ov elf TO 
fiecrov e^rjXdev O.TT avTOV, fj.rj8ev 

rt\ ' I ' Hfi \/ 

pAayai' O.VTOV. /cat e-yeveTO 

6a.fji.ftos eTri iravTas, /cat (rvveXd- 
Xovv Trpos aXXrjXov 5 , Xe-yovres, 

rrjf c \ ' ? f * ' f* 

1 if o Xoyos OVTOS, oTi ev egov- 
cr/a /cat eVtracrcret roiy 
a.Ka.6dpToi$ Trvev/Jiaa-i, /cat e- 
37 JKcti 

Trep avTov es travTa, TOTTOV 


voice, saying, Ah ! what have 34 
we to do with thee, "Jesus of 
Nazareth, T hast thou come to 
destroy us ? I know thee, who 
thou art, the Holy One of 
God. And Jesus rebuked him, 35 
saying, "Be silent, and come 
out of him. And the demon, 
throwing him down in the 
midst, came out of him, and 
hurt him not. And *amaze- 36 
ment came on all, and they 
spoke 'to one another, saying, 
"What a word is this ! for with 
authority and power he com- 
mandeth the unclean spirits, 
and they come out. And a a 37 
rumor 'concerning him 'spread 
abroad into every place d of the . 

' "Ah ! " "Ea. Kend., Dick., Camp., M., Wakef., Norton, and 
Scarlett, " Hah ! " Beza, "Ah ! " Castal. and Schott, " Heu ! " 
De Wette, " Ha ! " G. Fr. and S. Fr., Ha ! " Iber., " Ea ! " 
Diodati, "Ahi!" Rob. (Lex.), "gener. ah! aha!" Bretsch.: 
" Particula exclamandi, quse est vel admirantis, vel dolentis ah ! 
vah ! elieu .' Habetur etiam in lingua hebraica, tifix Jud. 6 : 22, 
coll. v. 33. Jer. 1 : 6. Joel 1 : 15." Heb N. Test'l .irtsj. The 
E. V. follows the Vulg., which renders this word by sine, as 
though it were the imperative (of Idea) sue. -It is probably 
derived from that imperative, but should not be confounded with 
it. A similar mistake occurs in Syr., v^J-t-oooj* " let me alone" 
(sine me). 

u " thou," the supplement of the E. V. (copied from Tyndale), 
is omitted as superfluous. It is dropped by Thomson, Wesley, 
Wakef., Norton, Penn, Sharpe, Dick., Camp., Kendrick, Angus, 

" " hast thou come ; " %A.&es. Norton, Dick. The use of the 
auxiliary " to be " with intransitive verbs is a violation of our 
idiom, though it is quite common in the E. V. It is a Gallicism. 
See Webster's Diet., Introd., p. Iv. If allowable in any case, it 
is only where rjy.ta occurs ; this verb in the present having the 
sense of the perfect, so that we may say, " I am come," i. e., 
I have come, I am here. Even here in most cases " I have come " 
will express the thought ; while the imperfect = to a pluperfect. 
Sophocles, Gr. Gram., p. 233. Lidd. (Lex.) Buttm., g 137, note 7. 

w "Be silent;" tfificoS-ijTi. Thorn., Norton, Penn, Scarlett, 
Camp., Kend., M. The phrase " to hold one's peace" is obsolete. 

* " throwing down ; " $iyav. Kendrick, Wesley, M. The 
participial construction is retained by Thorn., Scarlett, Mont., 
Beza, Schott. 

* "amazement came on all;" iysvsro &<ifipos &rt itdvias. 
Wakef., Sharpe, " amazement came on them all ; " Penn (follow- 
ing MS. B.), " fear came on them all ; " Vulg, " factus est pavor 

in omnibus ; " Eras., " factus est pavor super omnes ; " Belg., 
" daar kwam een verbaasdheid ouer alle ; " De Wette, " alle 
iiberfiel Staunen ; " Iber., " les vino asombro a todos." The 
E. V. has made no distinction between the rendering of s&a/iftq 
fhjoav navres in the parallel, Mark 1 : 27 (" and they were all 
amazed "), and that of this passage, where the text is not the 
same. It fails, therefore, in exactness. See Rob. on &dfifios. 
The literal rendering is appropriate. 

* " to one another ; " Ttpog allriiovs. Thomson, Norton, 
Scarlett, Sharpe, M. Rob., Liddell (in verbo). Bretsch., " alius 
alium, ssepissime ut Matt. 24 : 10. John 13 : 35. Acts 7 : 26, etc." 
So (E. V.) Mark 4 : 41 ; 9 : 50. Luke 2 : 15, etc. The arrange- 
ment " one to another " is obsolete. 

* "a, rumor ; " j^os. Beza, Schott, " rumor ;" Kuincel, " ^os, 
h. 1. fama, rumor, respondet Hebr. *>i'p, quod Symmach., Job 
39 : 24, Ps. 17 : 14, expressio ^os." Bengel, " %xs, sonus, vox 
propagata e voce. Rob. (in verbo), "rumor." There is nothing 
in the text to authorize the use of the indefinite article " the." It 
is not employed by Wakefield, Penn, Thelwall, Sharpe, or Heb. 
N. Test. (saia). 

b " concerning him ; " ne^l avrov. Angus, Thelwall. This 
is the ordinary rendering of yte^l. So (E. V.) Matt. 16 : 11. 
Mark 5 : 16. Luke 24 : 27. Acts 28 : 22. " His fame," which 
has been employed by some translators, is incorrect, as that would 
require sfoos avrov, thus Mark 1 : 28, fj axofi avrov, E. V., " his 

* " spread abroad ; " l&toQEvKro. So (E. V.) Mark 1 : 28. 
Norton and Scarlett, " spread ; " Beza, " dimanavit ; " Castalio, 

dimanabat;" Greenf. (Lex., in loco), "to be spread abroad." 
A rigidly literal rendering, "went forth" (or abroad), is not 
according to the idiom of our language. 

d " of the surrounding region ; " rrjs n^iy,ioqov. See ch. 4 : 14, 




38 And he arose out of the 
synagogue, and entered into Si- 
mon's house. And Simon's wife's 
mother was taken with a great 
fever ; and they besought him for 

39 And he stood over her, and 
rebuked the fever ; and it left her : 
and immediately she arose and 
ministered unto them. 

40 Now when the sun was set- 
ting, all they that had any sick 
with divers diseases, brought them 
unto him : and he laid his hands 
on every one of them, and healed 

41 And devils also came out of 
many, crying out and saying, Thou 
art Christ, the Son of God, And 
he, rebuking them, suffered them 
not to speak : for they knew that 
he was Christ. 

42 And when it was day, he 
departed, and went into a desert 
place ; and the people sought him, 


38 'Av ao-Tas 5e CK rijs vvva.- 
yco-yrjs, eiaijXdev els rrjv oiKiav 
77 Trevdepa 8e TOV Si 
fjv crvvexpfjievr) 

/cat rjpcoTrjcrav O.VTOV 

~ 30 v> \ j / 

avTTjs. /cat emaTap 67ra- 
vco avTijs, eTreri/iT^cre TO> Trvperai, 

5e aj/aorao-a SirjKovfi avrols. 

AVVOVTOS fie TOV rjXiov, TTO.V- 
Tf$ ocroi eixpv acrOevovvras VOCTOLS 
TTOi/ctAaty rfyayov avTOvs Trpos 
avrov o <5e evi fKaarco avT(ov 
ray -^eipas emdeis 

p^TO 8e /cat 


Aeyoira, On o~v et 6 Xpurros 
6 vlos TOV Oeov. -STat 
OVK eta aura AaAeti/, OTI r 

^ -\7- * > \ ? * 42 TT 

TOV JLpio~Tov avTov eivai. 1 e- 
as e^eAffcov erro- 

pevdrj els eprjjjLov TOTTOV, KOI ol 
vTov, /cat r]\6ov 


surrounding region. And, e ris- 38 
ing up out of the synagogue, 
f he entered into the house of 
Simon. And e Simon's mother- 
in-law was taken with a 'vio- 
lent fever ; and they besought 
him for her. And, 'standing 39 
over her, he rebuked the fever, 
and it left her ; and immedi- 
ately she rose and ministered 
to them. 'And when the sun 40 
was setting, all who had any 
sick with k various diseases, 
brought them to him, and he 
laid his hands on 'each one of 
them, and healed them. And 41 
demons, also, came out of many, 
crying out, and saying, Thou 
art m the Son of God. And he, 
rebuking them, suffered them 
not to speak : for they knew 
that he was "the Anointed. And, 42 
day having come, he departed 
and went into a desert place, 
and ""the crowds sought him, 

' " rising up ; " avaaras. Wesley, Penn, Thehvall, M. Iber., 
" habiendose levantado ; " Span., " levantandose ; " Diodati and 
Ital, " levatosi." 

f "he entered ;" elorjl&ev. Wesley, Scarlett, Sharpe, Camp., 

e " Simon's mother-in-law ; " 17 nsv&e^a TOV 2tficovos. Thom- 
S9n, Tyndale, Geneva, Cranmer. So (E. V.) Luke 12 : 53. Matt. 
10 : 35. This compound term accords with present usage. For 
conciseness and easy enunciation, it should be employed uniformly 
as the equivalent of 7tev&e(>a. So the cognate masculine, nsv- 
&t$6s, is rendered " father-in-law " in (E. V.) John 18 : 13. 

h " a violent fever ; " nv^fry fieyd).q>. Thorn., Dick., Camp., 
Kend., Angus, M. Castal., Schott, " gravi febre ; " De Wette, 
" mit einem heftigen Fieber ; " Luther, " mit einem harten Fieber." 
Mfyus is tropically used to indicate extent of force, intensity, 
effect ; hence violent, vehement. Kob. (Les.) 

1 "standing;" litunas. Kend., Wesley, Scarlett, Norton, 
Dick., Camp., Thelwall, M. Diodati, " stando." 

1 "And;" St. So (E. V.) in parallel, Mark 1 : 32. Penn, 
Norton, Sharpe, Kend. 

k " various ; " TOIM^CUS. Kend., Penn, M., Eobinson, (Lex.) 
Divers" is obsolete. 

1 " each one ; " ivl iyAarto. Translators have usually rendered 

these words by "every one," or "each." The above phrase is 
literal, and presents the thought with accuracy. Beza, Castalio, 
and Mont, "unicuique." Syr., ^ fL\L De Wette, "einem 
jeglichen ; " Belg., " een jegelijk ; " 'Iber., " cada uno." 

m The reading of the Text. Eecept, 6 X^iarbg, is canceled by 
Gr., Lachm., Tisch., Knapp, Theile, and bracketed by Tittmann. 
Schott remarks as follows: " Post av si vulgo add. o X^carot. 
Omissimus cum Griesb. et al. (ex glossemate prof.) prieeuntibus 
sex codd. une. verss. Copt. (Memph.)i Arnii, Arab, polygl., Vulg., 
Ital., nonnullis patris." Kuincel : " Plures codd. et verss. 6 -3T<p<- 
arbs omittunt, nee dubito quin adscripserint illud grammatici, 
tanquam interpretamentum verborum Tibs ~rov Qsov." The 
reading should be dropped as an interpolation. 

* " The Anointed." See ch. 2 : 26, note. 

o day having come ; " yevofteviis T/fifyas. Vulg., Montanus, 
" facta die ; " Eras., " facto die ; " Beza and Schott, " orta die." 
Having rendered oytas yevo/tevqs uniformly by " evening having 
come," the above expression is adopted as accurate. The follow- 
ing is an extract from the note on Mark 1 : 32 (oy/as yevo/iS- 

s) : " There is an unnecessary variety in rendering this phrase 
in the E. V." Other things being equal, uniformity of rendering 
is important. 

P " the crowds ; " ol o^ot. See ch. 3 : 7, note, Kuinod 




and came unto him, and stayed 
Mm, that he should not depart 
from them. 

43 And he said unto them, I 
must preach the kingdom of God 
to other cities also, for therefore 
am I sent. 

44 And he preached in the 
synagogues of Galilee. 


AND it came to pass, that as 
the people pressed upon him to 
hear the word of God, he stood by 
the lake of Genesaret, 

2 And saw two ships standing 


ecos avTov, KOU Ka.Tel)(pv avrov 

TOV JUT) iropevecrOai oaf 

43 6 5e ewre Trpos avToiis, 

KOI Tctls eTfpais TroXecrtv 

Xi(rao'6ai p.6 dei TTJV 

TOV Oeov' DTI elf TOVTO aireo'TaX- 



TCUS ( frjs 






2 KOU i8e Svo 

TOf i]V 


and came to him, and ""would 
have detained him, that he 
might not depart from them. 
And he said to them, I must 43 
preach the kingdom of God to 
other cities also, 'because for 
this "I have been sent. And 44 
he preached in the synagogues 
of Galilee. 

CHAP. y. 

AND it came to pass, 1 as the l 
crowd pressed on him to hear 
the word of God, b he himself 
c was standing by the lake of 
d Gennesaret ; e and f he saw two 2 

makes the following remark on this word (note Luke 3:7): 
" Vocabulo ol o'/).oi neutiquam significatur omnis popvlus, qui ad 
Johannehi accesserat, ut euni doeentem audiret, ab eoque baptiza- 
retur; sed ut e Matth. 1. c. apertissime patet; iutelligendi sunt 
Pharisffii ac Saddiicasi. Et satis constat TOVS o%l.ovs nonnun- 
quam ndtari, quosdam e turba, e populo, ut John 7 : 20 ; 12 : 32 
al. quo sensu etiam infra v. 10, flagitante orationis serie, lioc 
ipsum nomen capiendum est. Facile autem est intellectu, qui 
factuin sit, ut in archetype Lucoe commeuiorarentur ol 6'j^oe in 
Matthaei contra archetypo, Pharisasi et Sadducasi." 

" would have detained ; " xareZzov. Penn, " would have 
withheld ; " Norton, " would have prevented ; " Wakef., " would 
have hindered ; " De Wette, " wollte zuruckhalten." Stuart's 
Gram., ?136 (II.), note 6, p. 218 : "From the general nature of 
the imperfect, it is adapted to designate action commenced, but not 
completed, and often, as we might suppose, it is employed in this 
way; e. g., Matt. 3 : 14, 6 S^s'Ita&wTjs Stsxioi.vsv avrov, forbade 
him, i. e., at first, but, afterwards, he yielded. So epovioptrir, i. e., 
if it could have been so ; " so Bom. 9 : 3, I wished, i. e., if it 
could have been so. To this may be added Acts 25 : 22, efiov- 
\6ftrjv xal avros tov av&otonov axovaai, E. V., "I would, also, 
hear the man myself." 

1 " because ; " on. Eob. (Lex., in verbo) II : 3, Scarlett, 
Camp. "Vulg., Mont, " quia." In the parallel, Mark 1 : 38, the 
text is els roHro yao. The particle yao is properly rendered in 
the E. Y. by " for." In this instance, Sri should not be con- 
founded with the rendering of the former word. 

k " I have been sent forth ; " aniaralftat. So the perfect is 
rendered by the same tense in the E. V., Luke 4 : 18, mtearalv.e, 
" he hath sent me " (not, " he sendeth me.") So Luke 7 : 20, 
axe<rraHxei> fatas (E. V.), "hath sent us." There is no good 
reason for rendering tbe perfect in the passage before us by the 
present. In John 3 : 28, the phrase (E. V.) " I am sent " is 
represented by axeoraAftsvos clul. John 5 : 36, 6 nanjg fte 

, (E. V.)," the Father hath sent me." \Vakefield and 
Sharpe, " I was sent ; " Iber., " hi sido enviado ; " Vulg., Mont., 
Eras., Beza, Schott, " missus sum." "A m I sent " was employed 
by Tyndale; he was copied by most of the Eng. translators, 
though without any exigeniia loci, which demanded a departure 
froin the usual force of the perfect. 

* " That " (after " came to pass") is omitted as superfluous. So 
Thorn., "Wesley, Scarlett, Penn, Wakef., Sharpe, Norton, Thel- 
wall, Tyndale, Geneva. 

b " he himself (was standing) ; " avros (%v earcos). Thelwall. 
This literal rendering is adopted on the ground, that the writer 
by the use of aiiros intended to distinguish the position of Christ 
from that of the crowd. They had pressed onward, so that he 
was brought to the water's edge, and had no longer room to 
stand and address the people. Hence, he directly stepped on 
board the ship, and made the request noticed in the next verse. 
His position oh the shore is indicated by ytaaa rqi> faftvrjvi 
literally " beside the lake." 

c "was standing,-" %v iarcos. Angus, Thomson, Scarlett, 
Sharpe, Dick., M., Thelwall. Syr., ]om >e)J 0010 (" and he was 

d " Gennesaret." This word has become so fully naturalized 
in our language, that it is deemed preferable to the 0. T. ortho- 
graphy, " Chinnereth," or "Chinneroth" (rviss, ni^Si). Gesen. 
remarks : " In the times of the N. T., this lake bore the name of 
ibaa " (" Genesar.") Syr., jja 

In conformity with the text, a semicolon is placed after 
Gennesaret. So the text of Griesb., Knapp, Tittmann, Elzevir, 
Stephens (third Edit.) The semicolon is used in S. Fr., Diodati, 

f " he saw ; "- elSs. Thorn., Penn, Wakef., Sharpe, Campbell, 
Thelwall. As a semicolon is placed after " Gennesaret," the 
pronoun must be expressed. 




by the lake : but the fishermen 
were gone out of them, and were 
washing their nets. 

3 And he entered into one of 
the ships, which was Simon's, and 
prayed him that he would thrust 
out a little from the land. And 
he sat down, and taught the people 
out of the ship: 

4 Now when he had left speak- 
ing, he said unto Simon, Launch 
out into the deep, and let down 
your nets for a draught. 

5 And Simon answering, said 
unto him, Master, we have toiled 
all the night, and have taken noth- 
ing,- nevertheless, at thy word I 
will let down the net. 

6 And when they had this done, 
they inclosed a great multitude of 
fishes: and their net brake. 


TrAota eoTtara irapa rt]v Xip,vrjv 
ol 8e aXiels a7ro/3az>rey oaf 
a.iriirXvva.v TO. SIKTVO.' 3 
5e ety ev TODV irXouav, o rjv TOV 
St/jLCovoS} ypcamqo-ev auroz/ ewro 
rrj? yys iwavayoyelv oXLyov KOI 
KaO'ufas eSiSacncev e/c TOV irXoiov 

NV-. 4 '/">&*' 

rouy o^Aouy. SJs of C 
XaX&v, etTre 7T/>oy TOV 
' Eiravdyaye ety TO /3ddo?, KOU. 
)(aXAcraT TO, BLKTVO. vfitav els 

3/ K .TT7- \ . /I ^ C V' 

aypav, - M.O.I mroKpiaeif o ^L- 
fj.<ov e'tTrfv avT&, ' JSTrtoraTa, 81 
rijy VVKTOS 

ov8ev e\a/Sofjt.v em <5e rS prj- 

IJLO.TL crov 


Kou TOVTO TrotqcravTes, trvv- 
e/cAetcrav lOvcDV irXrjOos iroXv- 
8e TO SIKTVOV av- 


ships standing by the lake ; but 
the fishermen, ^having gone out 
of them, were washing Hheir 
nets. And, 'entering into one 3 
of the ships, which was Simon's, 
J he asked him k to put off a little 
from the land. And he sat 
down, and taught the crowds 
out of the ship. And when 'he 4 
ceased speaking, he said to 
Simon, "Put oft 7 into the deep, 
and let down your nets for a 
draught. And Simon, answer- .6 
ing, said to him, Master, we 
have toiled "through the whole 
night, and taken nothing ; "yet, 
at thy word, I yfall let down the 
net. And when they had done 6 
this, they inclosed a great mul- 
titude of fishes; 11 and their 
net 'was breaking. And they 7 

e " haying gone out ; " dito/Savres. Thomson, M., Thelwall. 
Castalio, " digress! ; " Schott, " degress! ; " Span., " habiendo 

h " tlieir nets : " to. Sixrua. As this is a case, where the 
article is used with the force of a possessive pronoun, it is not 
necessary to italicize " their," inasmuch as it is not a supplement. 
Kuhner, Gram., \ 2^4. 4, " The article very often takes the place 
of the possessive pronoun, wlieu it is connected with such sub- 
stantives .as naturally belong to a particular person (equally true 
of a particular tiling,) mentioned in the sentence. In such cases, 
the English uses the possessive pronoun." In cases, where the 
article has this force, there is no emphasis; otherwise, the pronoun 
is employed. 

1 " entering ; " ifc/3a s . Kend., Scanett, Penn, Dick., M. The 
participial construction is adopted by Wesley, Norton, and Thel. 
Eras, -and Beza, " ingressus ; " S. Fr., " etant monte ; " Span., 
" entrando ; " -Diodati, " essendo montato." 

1 "he asked ;" ^><wTi7<7f. "Wakef., Sharpe, Norton, Angus, 
Thelwall. So E. V. This word occurs in N. Test, fifty-seven 
times. In thirty-five of these, it is rendered " ask," ill E. Y. 
"Prayed," in the sense of earnest entreaty, is too intensive, in this 

k "to put off;" lna.vaya.yelv. Thorn., Scarlett, Camp., M., 
Angus. Rob. (Lex.) : "In N. Test, as a nautical term, to lead 
(a vessel) up or out upon the sea, to put out." The thought is best 
exhibited by " put off," as that is the usual expression among men, 
who " do business in great waters." S. Fr., " de Teloigner." The 
smiple verb avayea&af is defined by Kuincel (Luke 8 : 22) : 
" Verbum nauticum, de iis proprium, qui solvunt e litore vel 

portu, et altum petunt." 'Etti (in composition) here has the force 
of our English suffix " ward." Bloomf. (in loco.) 

i " he ceased ; " eitavoaro. Eendrick, Angus, Wesley, Penn, 
Rob. (Lex., in verbo.) Vulg., Mont, Eras., Beza, " cessavit ; " 
S. Fr., " il eut cesse ; " Iber., " ceso." As an alternative, the 
familiar expression, " when he had done speaking." So Thorn., 
Scarlett, Wakef., Camp. 

m " Put off ; " htavdyaye. See v. 3, npte on this word. 

11 " through the : whole night ; " ,81 Shys rfjs wxros. Sharpe, 
Dick., " during the whole night." Thelwall. This rendering 
preserves the appropriate sense of Bui, " through," and Sios, 
not " all," but the " whole." Liddell (-Lex.) Schott, " per inte- 
gram noctem;" Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, "per tptam noctem;" 
Iber., " toda la noche." 

" yet ; " Ss. Penn, Kend. 

P A semicolon is substituted for the colon of the E. V., after 
" fishes," on the ground, that the two members of the sentence 
are too closely connected to allow the former point. As the 
Greek colon is equivalent to either, the construction must guide 
us in punctuation. So Scarlett, Wakef., Penn, Sharpe. The 
S. Fr., Iber., and Diodati .have a semicolon. 

" was breaking ;" Sie^yvurft. Scarlett, Sharpe, Bloomf. 
(N. Test.), Trollope (N. Test.) Vulg. and Erasmus, " rumpeba- 
tur;" Beza, " dirumpebatur ; " De Wette, "es zerriss [fast]." 
The ordinary signification of the imperfect, continued action, is 
appropriate. The literal rendering is preferred to another, which 
might present the thought, viz., " began to break." This last is 
found in several late versions, and is recommended by Kuincel 




7 And they beckoned unto their 
partners, which were in the other 
Bhip, that they should come and 
help them. And they came and 
filled both the ships, so that they 
began to sink. 

8 "When Simon Peter saw it, he 
fell down at Jesus' knees, saying, 
Depart from me ; for I am a sinful 
man, Lord. 

9 For he was astonished, and 
all that were with him, at the 
draught of the fishes which they 
had taken. 

10 And so was also James and 
John, the sons of Zebedee, which 
were partners with" Simon. And 
Jesus said unto Simon, Fear not : 
from henceforth thou shalt catch 

11 And when they had brought 
their ships to land, they forsook 
all, and followed him. 

12 And it came to pass, when 


T>V, 7 /cat Karevevcrav rots f*e- 
To~xpis rois ev T< Grepcp -irXoico, 
TOV tXOovras eruAAajQeo-^at aw- 
/cat rjXdoVy /cat en-Xrjcrav 
TO, TrXoia, toore f3v6i- 
8 ioa>v 8 



Jlerpos TTpocreTreo'e TOLS 
TOV 'Irj(rov 9 Xe-ycov, 
e/j.ov } OTI dvr/p ap,apTa>Xos el 
Kvpie. s Odfjifios "yap Trepiear^ev 
OLVTOV /cat Trdvras row arvv aurw, 
eVt rJ7 a,-ypa T>V l~)(6v(av 17 <rvv- 

'\ n 10' ' !> x ^ ' T ' 

eAapov o/iotcoy oe /cat J.a.KG>- 
fiov /cat ' Icodvvijv, viovs Zej3e- 
Saiov, ot r/a-av Koivavoi TO> Si- 
fjiciivt. Kai eiire irpos TOV SifMcova 
o 'Ir)(rovs } MT] (poj3ov f aVo TOV 
vvv dvOpcoirovs eery ^coypoov. 
11 Kai KccTa-yayovres TO. TrAota 
eVt Trjv yijV) a<p4vTes airavra, 


Tr~ AT 3 *' 3 ~ 

KA1 e-yeveTO ev TCO 


beckoned to their partners, who 

were in the other ship, 'to come 
and help them. And they came, 
and filled both ships, so that 
they 'were sinking. And when 8 
Simon Peter saw it, he fell 
down at Jesus' knees, saying, 
Depart from me, for I am a sin- 
ful man, Lord. For 'amaze- 9 
ment seized him, and all who 
were with him, at the draught 
of fishes, which they had taken : 
and so, also, "it seized James and 16 
John the sons of Zebedee, who ' 
were partners with Simon. An'd 
Jesus said to Simon, Fear not, 
T henceforth w thou wilt catch 
men. And when they had H 
brought their ships to "the 
land, "they left all, and follow- 
ed him. And it came to pass, 12 

" Si yere ruptum faisset rete nihil piseiura retinussent ; ergo verti 
debent hsec verba : rumpi incipiebat, vel, parum dberat quin rum- 
peretur Ita quoqne v. 7 extr. verba taare pv&i&o&ai avra. 
rerti debent : wt fere mergerentur, vel mergi inciperent." 

' " to come ; " liavras. Thorn., Wesley, Scarlett, "Wakef., 
Perm, Sharpe, Norton, Camp., Kend., M., Thelwall. 

" were sinking ; " fivd-fceod-ai. Thelwall, Bloomf. (N. Test.), 
Trollope (N. Test.) See note on Sie^^ywro, v. 6. 

' " amazement seized ; " &afi@os iteqieazev. Thorn., Sharpe, 
Norton, Penn have " amazement." Mont., Beza, " stupor occu- 
paverat." Syriac, )oai oi^| JouiaZ ("stupor apprehendebat 
eum"). M., "had seized." See note on ch. 4:36. A more 
literal rendering than that of the E. V. is desirable. That 
revision seems to make no distinction between &d/tfios and 
txmaais. It is deemed best in this revision to render the first 
" amazement," and the latter " astonishment." The significations 
of the words in Hellenistic usage (or that of the latter Greek 
writers) seem to be confounded, though classic authors employed 
ixaraats to indicate the stronger emotion, as its cognate verb 
(" to be distracted," from fear, rage, etc.) shows. 

" "it seized." This supplement is introduced because 
iteqiioyfv is understood before 'laxcofiov and lio&vvriv, while the 
clause " at taken " is so long, that the next member of the sen- 
tence becomes obscure, if the verb is not repeated. Common 

readers, regarding " James " and " John " as nominatives, can find 
no verb with which they are construed. As an illustration, I 
quote a late translator : " For astonishment seized him, and all 
that were with him, at the draught of fishes, -which they had 
taken. And in like manner, also, James and John, the sons of 
Zebedee, who were partners with Simon." In this rendering, 
there is an obvious failure as to perspicuity. 

T " henceforth ; " cato tov vuv. Thorn., Wakefield, Norton, 
Camp. See ch. 1 : 48, note. 

w " thou wilt catch ; " ion Zioyqcov. Scarlett, " thou wilt be 
a captor." M. " Wilt " is employed here on the ground that 
the language is prophetic. Literally, "thou wilt be catching." 
Montanus, " eris capiens." Kuincel: "Verba autem venandi et 
piscandi perquam frequenter ponuntur de iis, qui sibi vel aliis 
aliquem conciliant." 

1 " the land ; " ir t v yrjv. Thelwall. The article is as properly 
retained here as in v. 3, where the E. V. rightly has " from the 
land," ana -rijs yrjs. Compare v. 3 (nno -rrjs yfjs), or Mark 6 : 47. 
The noun in these cases is definite, as it stands contrasted with 

~> " they left ; " ay&nes. Thomson, Wakef., Sharpe, Norton, 
Dick., Kend., Angus. In the parallels, Matt. 4 : 22. and Mark 
1:20, ay sines is rendered " they left " in the E. T. ' To leave " 
is a common equivalent of this verb in the E. T. 



he -was in a certain city, behold, a 
man full of leprosy : who seeing 
Jesus, fell on kis face, and besought 
him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, 
thou canst make me clean. 

13 And he put forth his hand 
and touched him, saying, I will : 
Be thou clean. And immediately 
the leprosy departed from him. 

14 .And he charged him to tell 
no man: but go, and shew thyself 
to the priest, and offer for thy 
cleansing, according as Moses 
commanded, for a testimony unto 

15 But so much the more went 
there a fame abroad of him : and 


avrov ev jjua. r(av TroAecov, /eat 
I8ov } avrjp rrXriprjs XtTrpas' /cat 
ISoav TOP 'Iij(rovv } 7re<ra>z> em 
7rp6a-(i>7rov, eSerjOij avrov, Xeywv, 
Kvpie, eav OtXys, Svva<rai fj,e 
Kadapicrcu. 13 K(ti e/cretW? rrjv 
X^P a ) tftya-To O.VTOV, eiiraiv, Oi- 
Aa>, Kadapicrdijn. Kai evOtcos 
77 AeTTyOa aTrrjXdev air avTOV. 
Kal O.VTOS Traprj'/'yeiXev avrw 
/j,r}Sevi eitrelv aAAa cnreXdcbv 
TCO lepeif /cat 
irepi rov Kadapur/J-ov 
, Kadcas irpoa-era^e JSfaocrijf, 
els fnaprvpiov avTols. 15 Atrjp^e- 
TO 8e /iaAAov o Aoyoy irepl avrov' 


when he was 'in one of the 
cities, behold, a man full of 
leprosy, "seeing Jesus, fell on 
his face, and besought him, say- 
ing, Lord, if thou wilt, b thou 
canst cleanse me. And c he 13 
stretched out his hand and 
touched him, saying, I will, ""Be 
cleansed. And immediately the 
leprosy departed from him. 
And he charged him 'to tell no 14 
one ; but go, show thyself to 
the priest, and offer f on account 
of thy cleansing, s as Moses 
commanded, for a testimony to 
them. But h the report 'con- 15 
corning him 'spread abroad "the 

1 " in one of the cities ; " ev fitS. tdiv itoiecov. Thorn., Sharpe, 
Scarlett, Penn. Norton, " one of the towns." The rendering 
of the E. V. is copied from Tyndale, who followed Erasmus, " in 
qnadam civitate." The language of the Vulgate is more exact, 
" in una civitatum." The miracle was wrought " in one of the 
cities " of Galilee. See Matt. 4 : 23, 24 ; 5 : 1 ; 8 : 1-5. If we 
regard the article riav as used with the force of a possessive (by 
a common idiom, Kiihner, 244), then the rendering " in one of 
their cities," that is, of the cities of the Galileans, would be 
accurate and perspicuous. So Wakef., Angus. Belg., " in eene 
dier steden" (" in one of those cities") ; De Wette, "in einer der 
Stadte ; " S. Fr., " dans tine de villes ; " Iber., " en una de las 
ciudades ; " Schott, '.' in una illarum urbium." 

* " seeing ; " iStov. Sharpe, Scarlett, Penn, Dick. S. Fr., 
" ayant vu." The relative " who " is superfluous. 

b " thou canst cleanse ; " Svvaaal xa&agiaac. Thomson, 
Scarlett, Camp., Dick. So (E. V.) Matt. 8:2; 9 : 15 ; 12 : 29 ; 
16 : 3. As " to cleanse " presents the thought represented by 
the verb, it is preferable for the sake of conciseness and force. 
Bob. (Lex.) 

' " he stretched out ; " Ixteivas. Eob. (Lex., in verbo.) This 
word occurs fourteen times in the N. Test. In eleven instances, 
it is rendered by " stretch forth" in the E. V. So Wakefield, 
Thelwall, Norton, Angus, " stretched forth." Camp., Scarlett, 
Thorn., and M. have the participial construction " stretching 

d " Be cleansed ;" Ka&afiodyrt. Thorn., Scarlett, " Be thon 
cleansed." See v. 12, note. 

* "to no one;" /irjSevl. Eob. (Lex., in verbo), Wakefield, 
Sharpe, Penn, Scarlett, Norton, Dick., Kend., Angus, Thelwall. 
De "Wette, " niemandem ; " Belg., " niemand ; " Iber., " a nadie ; " 
Diodati, " ad alcuno." 

* " on account of thy cleansing ; " ^>) tov xaS-a^iafiov oov. 

" For thy cleansing " was taken from the Vulgate, " pro emenda- 
tione sua." The proper signification is given by Castalio, " ob 
tni purgationem." So S. Fr., " au sujet de ta purification ; " 
Iber., " con respecto a tu limpia." Robinson (ite^l, cum genit.) 
remarks that this preposition is employed, when the genitive 
indicates the ground, motion, or occasion of the action. Headers 
often suppose that " for thy cleansing " means, that the offering 
was necessary to effect a complete cleansing, instead of serving as 
^notification, that a perfect cure had already taken place. 

" as ; " tea&as. "Wesley, Sharpe, Scarlett, Norton, Kend. 
"According " seems to add nothing to the ordinary force of " as," 
in this instance. The later Greek writers, in a multitude of cases, 
have used xa&cos (" even as," " just as ") in place of cos. 

h " the report ; " o ioyos. "Wakef., Angus, Scarlett, Norton, 
Belg., " het geruchte." Eob. (Lex., loyog.} As an alternative 
rendering the literal one, " the word." De Wette, " die Eede ; " 
Dan., " Talen." Vulg., Eras., Mont., and Schott have sermo, in 
some of its inflections. "We have familiar expressions which 
correspond with this rendering : " He brought word," " What is 
the word ? " 

1 " concerning him ; " jre^i avrov, Angus, Thel. Norton, 
" concerning Jesus." See ch. 4 : 14, note. This is a frequent 
rendering of nefii (cum gen) in the E. V. 

J " spread abroad ; " 81^^10. Sharpe, Kend., M. Literally, 
" went through," with an accusative (rrjv %fuqav, " the region ") 
understood. Wakefield, " was spreading abroad ; " Penn, Nor- 
ton, " spread." " Went abroad " with " report " for its .nomina- 
tion, would not be in harmony with our twtw loqaendi. This ia 
true also of " fame," which was copied from the Genevan into the 
E. V. 

k " the more ; " fiattor. Genevan, Wesley, Penn, Wiclif, 
Scarlett, Sharpe, Kend., M. There is nothing in the text to 
authorize the words " so much," which were introduced by Tyn- 




great multitudes came together to 
hear and to be healed by him of 
their infirmities. 

16 And he withdrew himself 
into the wilderness, and prayed. 

17 And it came to pass on a 
certain day, as he was teaching, 
that there wre Pharisees and 
doctors of the law sitting by, 
which were come out of every 
town of Galilee, and Judea, and 
Jerusalem : and the power of the 
Lord was present to heal them. 

18 And, behold, men brought in 
a bed a man which was taken 
with a palsy : and they sought 
means to bring him in, and to lay 
Mm before him. 



oyXoi iroXXol 

Kal BepcLirevfa-Qai VTT 
oaro r5>v 


V7TO-)(captav fv rais 



v fua TO>I> 
KOU avroy i]v SiScuTKoav 
Kal r/aav Kadr/fievot $api(raioi 
Kal vofj.o8i8dcrKaXoi } 01 rjorav cXrj- 
XvQores IK iraa-r/y Ka>p.rjs rrjs 
IJaXtXaias Kal 'lovSalas Kal '/e- 
Kal SvvafjLis Kvpiov 




18 ' 


TO iao-oai O.VTOVS. 
ISov, avSpes (pepovres firl 
avOpanrov oy rjv 7ra/>aAeAvfieVoy, 


Kal Q&.VO.L fvcomov avrov' 19 Kal 


more ; and great crowds came 
together to hear, and to be 
healed by him of their infirmi- 
ties. And 'he used to with- 16 
draw into "solitary places, and 
pray. And it came to pass n 
on "one of the days, as he was 
teaching, that there were Phar- 
isees and "teachers of -the law 
sitting by, who had come out 
of every village of Galilee and 
Judea, and ""from Jerusalem; 
and the power of the Lord was 
present to heal them. And, 18 
behold, men brought on a bed, 
a man 'who was palsied; and 
they were seeking to bring him 
in, and lay him before him. And 19 

dale, probably as a supplement, though the early Eng. translators 
(except Cranmer) omitted to distinguish supplementary words 
by the Italic letter. Bob. (fiSttov) : " Intens. the more, the 
rather, much more." Rendered by " the more," (E. Y.) Mark 
14 : 31. John 5 : 18. Acts 5 : 14, etc. 

i "And he used to withdraw;" qv vno%ca$&v. This peri- 
phrasis of the verb and participle indicates habitual action; 
having the force of the imperfect. Troll., Gram., p. 130, obs. 4. 
Kuinoel (in loco) : "Tlv vno^co^av pro v7te%cogec, secedebat, se sub- 
ducebat, quo sensu hoc verbum etiam legitur." "Watefield, " he 
continued withdrawing himself;" Sharpe, "and he was with- 
drawn in the desert ; " Norton, " he often withdrew ; " Thorn., 
" he constantly withdrew ; " Iber., " el se retiraba." 

m "solitary places;" lv rats tyy/tots. The expression is 
full in the parallel, Mark 1 : 45, h> l^ftois tonots, where it is 
properly rendered " solitary places " in the E. V. " In the 
wilderness " (singular) was taken from the "Vulg., " in desertum." 
More accurately Mont., Eras., Beza, " in desertis." Oastalio, " in 
deserta loca." Kuinoel (in loco) : " 'JEv ralg e^ftots scl. 
pro slsras egrifiovs, in solitudinem." 

" " on one of the days ; " lv ftta rdiv fjftijyiuv. Sharpe, Thel., 
M. Penn and Scarlett, " on one of those days ;" Vulpr., Mont., 
" unJl dierum ; " Schott, " aliquo dierum." Syr., |AiaaI fLo.. 
Heb. N. Test., ts^n iniO. The phrase "on one "of the days" 
is literal, yet we have an expression which presents the thought 
more happily, in accordance with our idiom, " one day ; " so that 
the passage would be, " and it came to pass, one day, as," etc. 
So Wakef., Thorn., Norton. I suggest this as an alternative 

".teachers of the law;" vofioStSdvxalot.. So (E. V.) 

1 Tim. 1 : 7. Penn, M., Sharpe, "Wakef., Norton, Dick. Belg., 
"Leeraars der "Wet;" De Wette, " Gesetzlehrer ; " Iberian, 
" maestros de la lei ; " Dan., " Lov-L6rere." Heb, N. Test., 
J-ni'firt '''i.aia. Syr., fjSoioJ . vS.v^ The rendering, according 
to etymology, is exact, and it does not mislead the common 
reader, who understands " doctor of the law " to be a title which 
was once applied to those, who were learned in the Boman or 
Canon law, but is now conferred, as a compliment, by literary 

P "from." "Wakef., M., Norton. Castalio, " ex Galilasae et 
Judsea? vicis et ab Hierosolyma ; '' De "Wette, " aus-allen Dorfern " 
von Galilaa und Judaa und aus Jerusalem ; " S. Fr., " de toutes les 
bourgades de la Galilee, et de la Judee et de Jerasalem ; " Iber., 
" de toda aldea de la Galilea," The insertion of from is neces- 
sary, on the .ground that as (he) " from " stands before (naotjs 
xcoftqij " every village," the English reader is led to supply 
that phrase before "Judea," and, finally, before ''Jerusalem." 
The grammatical construction of our language obliges us to 
regard the writer as speaking of " every village of Jerusalem ; " 
whereas he refers to those, who came out of the villages of Gali- 
lee, the villages of Judea,, and from the city of Jerusalem. 

i " who was palsied ; " 8s rp> Ttagaiefaifitvos. Penn, Dick., 
Thelwall. Iber., " que estaba paralizado ; " Castalio, " qui erat 


r "they were seeking ;" i^row. Thel. Continuance of action 
is indicated here by the imperfect. The next sentence shows that 
some time elapsed, before the carriers-of the paralytic ascertained 
the impossibility of approaching the Saviour from the street- 
door ; fa/ ev^ovres rtoias tloeveyxfoaiv avror Sin fov o/).or. 

The supplement of the E. V., " means," (derived from Tyndale) 
is superfluous. Nothing corresponding to it is found in 'Thorn., 



19 And when they could not 
find by what way they might bring 
him in, because of the multitude, 
they went upon the house-top, and 
let him down through the tiling 
with his couch, into the midst 
before Jesus. 

20 And when he saw their faith, 
he said unto him, Man, thy sins 
are forgiven thee. 

21 And the scribes and the 
Pharisees began to reason, saying, 
Who is this which speaketh blas- 
phemies? Who can forgive sins 
but God alone? 

22 But when Jesus perceived 
their thoughts, he answering, said 
unto them, What reason ye in your 
hearts ? 


fjarj evpovTes Sia TToias 
triv O.VTOV 810. rov o^Aoz/, ara- 
err! TO Scofjia, 8ia T&V 
avrov o~vv T(p 
ico els TO fiecrov efiwpocrdfv 

~ > 7- 20 \>c>\ x 

rov j[r)o-ov. Kai ioa>v rrjv 

-rrivTiv avrwv, elirev avra>, *Av- 
flpcoire, axfrtcavTai trot ai a/jLaprlou 




o KOI o 
f&apicrcuoi, \eyovres, Tis ianv 
OVTOS os AaAet ft\ao~(f)'r)[jLia$; TIS 
SvvaTai afyievai a/AapTias, el {J.TJ 
/xovos 6 Oeos; 22 'Einyvovs 8e 
6 'Irjarovs TOVS 8ia.Xo-yicriJ.oijs av- 
TU>V aaroKpideis ewre -Trpos avTovs, 
Tl SiaXoyiecr0e ev TCUS 


when they could not find 
'through what way they might 
bring him in, "on account of 
the crowd, they went upon the 
housetop, and let him down 
through the tiling with the 
little bed, into the midst, before 
Jesus. And when he saw their 20 
faith, he said, "Man, thy sins 
are forgiven thee. And the 21 
scribes and the Pharisees began 
to reason, saying, Who is this, 
that T uttereth revilings? Who 
can forgive sins, "except God 
*only? But when Jesus perceiv- 22 
ed their thoughts, he, answering, 
said to them, * Why z do ye reason 

Wesley, Perm, Scarlett, Sharpe, Wakefield, Norton, Dickinson, 
Camp., Kend., Thelwall, M., Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, Oastalio, 
Schott, Belg., Luther, De Wette, Iber., Diodati, or Dan. 

" through, what ; " violas. " Through " is italicized, as Sia 
of the Textus Receptus is canceled by Griesbach, Tisch., Theile, 
Lachm., Scholz, Bloomf. 

" "on account of;" Sta (cum accus.). Rob. (Lex.), Kend., 
Norton, Dick., Thelwall. " Because of" is obsolete. 

' " with the little bed ; " avv tto xhviSicp. Camp. G. Pr. 
and S, Fr., " le petit lit." Rob. (Lex.). Bretsch. (Lex.) : " Eli- 
viStov, diminutiv, a sdfrjj, lectulus, i. q. xlivaqtov, Luc. 5 : 19, 
24." Liddell :" Diminutive from xUvij." The article on which 
the paralytic lay, is termed x^a^ttrov, " coach," in the parallel, 
Mark 2:4. At the commencement of the present narrative, Luke 
first iises the generic term tcHty, "bed." It is deemed best to 
follow the text exactly, and employ " little bed " as the equivalent 
of the noun. The article receives its usual rendering. There is 
no necessity for supposing it should be rendered by a possessive, 
in this instance. The article is retained by "Wakef., Belg., De 
Wette, Diodati. 

" The reading of the Textus Beceptus, avriy, is canceled by 
Griesbach, Lachmann, Tischendorf, Knapp, Theile. Schott says : 
" Vulgo post elite* add. avreji retimiit Scholz, deleverunt Griesb. 
aliique tanquam glossema, quum in aliquot codd. (B. L.) desidere- 
tur Jtemque in Vss. Pers. (Whel.) et Vulg. apud alios obveniat 
tcy vtttQakvTixca, sive rip a.v&(>tont$ omisso seq. av&^ajne." It 
is highly probable that tania is spurious. 

* "uttereth revilings?" iaiet plaoywias ; Dan., "taler 
(Guds-)Bespottelser?" De Wette, " Lastei-ungen redet ?" Belg., 
" lasteringe spreekt ? " The verb " to utter " often occurs in the 
E. V., Ps. 94 : 4. Prov. 23 : 33. Matt. 13 : 35. 1 Cor. 14 : 9. 
Our idiom demands this rather than " to speak," before a comple- 

ment like " revilings." Rob. remarks that the sense of i-alito is 
often modified by adjuncts. In a note on Mark 2 : 7, the follow- 
ing reason has been offered for translating, rather than trans- 
ferring pHaoytifiias. " This word and its cognate verb have 
acquired, in modern usage, a sense different from that which was 
attached to them by the N. Test, writers. Hence, both should be 
translated. In ecclesiastical parlance, 'blasphemy' has been 
made to comprehend all kinds of verbal irreverence toward God 
or his truth, such as wrong opinions clothed in words, mistaken 
views and interpretations of the Scriptures. It has been used 
as a convenient weapon by angry polemics. The ecdesiastifal 
definition of 'blasphemy' is given by Linwood (quoted by N. 
Webster) thus: 'Blasphemy is an injury offered to God, by 
denying that which is due and belonging to him, or attributing 
to him that which is not agreeable to his nature..' " See Rob. 
on this word, and Campbell's Dissertations to his Translation of 
the Four Gospels. Hebrew N. Test., ta^arr ni'DM. Syriaf , 
; %. vv* ("speaketh reproaches"). 

w " except ; " tl py. Scarlett, Norton, Campbell, Rob. (Lex., 
el /$.) 

1 "only;" ftovos. Wesley, Angus, M., Tyndale, Cranmer, 
Geneva, Rheims, Rob. (Lex., in verbo.) So ch. 4 : 8, av-tty ftovty 

rfsvoeie, (E. V.) " him only shalt thou serve." This adjective 
is sometimes adverbially; solus, i. e., non alius. Bretschneider, 

r "Why;" 2V. Thorn., Wesley, Scarlett, Penn, Wakefield, 
Dick. So (E. V.) in parallel, Mark 2 : 8. The pronoun is 
neuter, and used as an adverb of interrogation. Rob. (Lex., in 
verbo, A. 2.) Iber., " porque ? " 

> " do ye reason." This arrangement accords with the ordi- 
nary usage of our language. Both in conversation and vmting, 




23 Whether is easier, to say, 
Thy sins be forgiven thee ; or to 
say, Rise up and walk ? 

24 But that ye may know that 
the . Son of man hath power upon 
earth to forgive sins, (he said unto 
the sick of the palsy,) I say unto 
thee, Arise, and take up thy couch, 
and go unto thine house. 

25 And immediately he rose up 
before them, and took up that 
whereon he lay, and departed to 
his own house, glorifying God. 

26 And they were all amazed, 
and they glorified God, and were 
filled with fear, saying, We have 
seen strange things to-day. 

27 And after these things he 
went forth, and saw a publican 
named Levi, sitting at the receipt 
of custom : and he said unto him, 
Follow me. 

28 And he left all, rose up, and 
followed him. 


, ' Afyeoovrai (rot al ap-ap- 
(rov, 77 tiireiv, ' jEyeipai Kai 

f 24. ft <**>** ff 

iva of eiojyre on 
eovo~iav e^et 6 vlos row avdpa>~ 
TTOU eVt rrjf -yrjf a(f)ievai ap.ap- 
Tias, et?re TCO irapaXtX.vp.evcp, Sol 
Xeyco, eyetpai, KCU apas TO K.Xwi- 

crra? V&TTLOV avTcov, apas 
Kare'/eetro, aTrrjXdzv etr TOV OIKOV 
avTov, 8oda>v rov Qeov. 

eXafiev anavTas, 
TOV Oeov, KOI l 
o~av (froftov, XeyovTes, OTI ei 
fj.ev TrapaSo^a o~Tj[jiepois 
27 Kai /J,Ta TavTa 
KOI ededo-aTo TeXavrjv, bvop-aTi 
Aeviv, KadrjiAtvov eVi TO TeXca- 
viov, Kai ehrev avTm, 'A.KoXovdei 
fj,Oi. 28 Kai KOTaXnTcav airav- 
, avaarTas rjKoXovdrjcrev avT(p. 

(rov, Tropevov ef TOV OLKOV 
25 Kai iraana ava ~ 

26 KOI 


in your hearts? Which is easier, 23 
to say, Thy sins are forgiven 
thee ; or to say, "Rise and walk ? 
But that ye may know that the 24 
Son of man hath 'power on 
earth to forgive sins, (he saith 
to c the paralytic,) Rise, take up 
thy ^little bed, and go to thy 
house. And immediately he 25 
rose before them, and taking up 
that on which he 'had been 
lying, he departed to his house, 
glorifying God. And "astonish- 26 
ment seized all, and they glori- 
fied God, and were filled with 
fear, saying, We have seen 
strange things to-day. And 27 
*after this he went forth and 
saw h a tax-gatherer, named 
Levi, sitting at the tax-oflice; 
and he said to him, Follow me. 
And he left all, 'rose, and fol- 28 

we now insert " do," in sentences of this kind. As an alterna^ 
tive, " -why are you reasoning ? " So Wakef. 

" Rise ; " 'Eyei^ai. " Up " is superfluous. So Wakefield, 
Thorn., Wesley, Scarlett, Sharpe, Norton, Dick., Camp. "Eise" 
is adopted instead of " arise," from regard to present usage. 

b " The rendering of the E. V., " power," has been retained, 
still it is not without some question whether " authority " would 
not be more exact. Compare Matt. 21 : 23, 24, 27; 28 : 18. 
Mark 1 : 22, TJV ya(> StSaaxeov OVTOVS fos eiovotav. See Luke 
4 : 6, note, and Bob. (Lex.) It seems obvious, however, that 
in Hellenistic usage (as has been remarked in a former note, 
ch. 4:6), the logical distinction between Svvaftes and etjovola is 
often disregarded. Norton and Scarlett, "authority;" Schott, 
" auctoritatem." Compare John 5 : 27. 

" the paralytic ; " tcy izagcdEhftevty. More exactly (though, 
perhaps, the change is not of any importance), " to him who was 
palsied." See v. 18, note. Penn, Dick., Camp., " to the palsied 

" " little bed." See v. 19, note. 

" had been lying ; " xarexeno. M. Schott, " discumbuerat." 
The imperfect has sometimes the sense of the pluperfect, as in 
Acts 4 : 13, kxeyivtooxov re avrovs on ovv t$ 'Iqoov %oav. 
This usage is not limited to el/d, which has no pluperfect. Trol. 
Gram., p. 132. (5.) Crosby's Gram., \ 579. (.) " He lay," being 

equivalent to " he was lying," implies continuance of condition, 
and is, therefore, inaccurate, as his recumbent posture ended before 
he took up the couch. 

f " astonishment seized all ; " Mafiev Satavtag. See ch. 5 : 9, 
note. " Seized " is employed by Wakef., Penn, Sharpe, Norton, 
Angus. Tulg., Beza, " stupor apprehendit omnes ; " Mont., " stu- 
por cepit omnes ; " Eras., " stupor corripuit omnes ; " De "Wette, 
" Staunen ergrhT alle ; " Diodati, " stupore occupo tutti ; " Belg., 
" ontzetlinge heeft [haar] alle bevangen." The force of the text 
is brought out by this literal rendering. Thus Heb. N. Test, 
bbs~iiK tnx ji'riHft. Syr., \ ti>iS _) ]aioZ. 

T \ v ~ T ' T ? ^ * 

e " after this ; " /teia. ravra. Thomson, Sharpe, Norton, 
Camp., Kend. In expressing general ideas, or those including a 
plurality of objects, the neuter plural is very commonly employed, 
as in Latin, when in English we, from necessity, use the singular ; 
e. g., elite ravra, "he said this." Buttmann, Gram., J128. 1. 
Kiihner, $ 241. Eem. 3 : " The Greek very often uses the plurals 
ravra, raSs, to express the idea in its whole extent. In the 
English, these plurals are generally translated by the singular, as 
this, that." The neuter plural refers to a single object, John 
15 : 17, ravra vfitv, Iva ay cat are a)26iove. 

h " a tax-gatherer ; " reHcovrjv. Scarlett, 'Sharpe, Wakefield, 
Norton. See ch. 3 : 12, note. 

1 " rose ; " avaaras. " Up," in the E. V., 13 superfluous. So 




29 And Levi made him a great 
feast in his own house ; and there 
was a great company of publicans, 
and of others that sat down with 

30 But their scribes and Phar- 
isees murmured against his dis- 
ciples, saying, Why do ye eat and 
drink with publicans and sinners? 

31 And Jesus answering, said 
unto them, They that are whole 
need .not a physician ; but they 
that are sick. 

32 I came not to call the right- 
eous, but sinners to repentance. 


29 Kal eTTofyo-e Soyrjv fj.eyd\r)v 6 
jtievis- avT<j> fv rfj OIKIO. aurotr 
KOU. yv o%Xos T\03vS>v TroAuy, KOU 
<xAA(j/ 01 rjcrav p.f.r avrwv Ka/ra- 
KLfJLj/oi. 30 /cat iyoyyvfyv ol 
ypaLifjiarels aurtav KOI ol <&api- 
irpos Tovf ua0r]Taf O.VTOV, 

A / N \ ^ 

ALO.TL /tera TeXwvcov 
KOL aiiapTCoXcav etrdiere KOL irlve- 
re; 31 Kail aTTOKpiQels o 'Irjcrovs 
eare Trpos aurouy, Ov -^eiav 
expvanv. ol vyiaivovres larpov, 
aAA' ol KaKOjf expvrey. 32 OVK 

', aAAa 


lowed him. And Levi made a 29 
great feast "for him J in his own 
house; and there was a great 
crowd of 'tax-gatherers and of 
others, iwho reclined with them 
at table. And m the scribes and so 
Pharisees among them murmur- 
ed against his disciples, saying, 
Why do ye eat and drink with 
tax-gatherers and sinners? And 31 
Jesus, answering, said to them, 
"Those, who are well, "hare no 
need of a physician, but those, 
who are sick, I have, not 32 
come to call *t he righteous, but 

Thorn., Wakef., Norton, Campbell, Dick., M. In the parallel 
(B. V.), Matt. 9:9," up" is not employed. The usage of the 
E. V. seems entirely arbitrary as to aviorq/tt; In about half the 
instances where it occurs, we have no qualifying adverb. Concise- 
ness and force (other things being equal) favor the omission of " up." 

" "for him;" avrtu. This rendering and arrangement are 
demanded by perspicuity. Thorn., Scarlett, Wakef., Norton, Penn. 

1 " in his own house .;'.' & rrj oly.ia avrov. The E, V. renders 
this passage as though avrov had the spiritus asper (avrov}. It 
is quite possible that that copy of the Text. Recept., which the 
Revisers of 1611 employed, was thus pointed. There is a great 
want of uniformity in the printed Editions, where avrov occurs 
in different passages in the N. Test. Thus Bagster, Erasmus, 
Lachmann, Tischendorf, Trollope, and Bloomf. have avrov (ejus), 
while Elzevir, Mill (Polymircrian Ed.), Stephens (third Ed., by 
Wilson), Griesbach, Knapp, Theile, Tittmann have avrov (sua). 
" His own " is retained on the authority of the Editions which 
have avrov, as the ambiguity, which would result from " his," in 
this construction, is avoided. According to our idiom, " his," 
and "him" (which precedes it) would be referred to the same 
person, that is, Christ. 

k " tax-gatherers." See ch. 3 : 12, note. 

i " who reclined at table ; " ol rfoav y.araxcl/ievot. Kend. 
Sharpe, "who were lying at meat;" De Wette, "welche bei 
Tische lagen ; " Yulg., Mont:, " qui erant discumbentes ; " Eras- 
mus, Beza, Schott, " qui accumbebant ; " Iber., " que estaban 
recostados [a la mesa] ;" Rob. (Lex., in verbo), "to recline at 
table ; " Bretsch., " de aaumbentibus menses, accumbo." 'Avanet- 
fttei, when it refers to the position at meals, has the same signifi- 
cation. These words are rendered uniformly in this Revision, as 
well as in that of Mark. 

" " the scribes and the Pharisees among them ; " ol yoafi- 
ffarcls avr<5v xal ol 0a^iatttot. M., Scholefield, ^who makes 
this remark : " The scribes and Pharisees ' of. them,' or, ' among 
them.' Not, as the common version expresses it, the scribes 
belonging to them ; but these among them who were scribes and 

Pharisees." Kuincel : "Avrcov in nonnullis codd. et verss. deest, 
male ac perperam ; nempe omiserunt hoc pronomen librarii, quo- 
niam ignorabant, quo illud referendum esset. JToaft/tareZs avrcav 
sunt, ut recte statuerunt Lud. De Dieu, Grotius, Rosenmullerus, 
Boltenius, Paulvs, alii, legisperiti illtus loci, legisperiti Capernaumi- 
tarum, vel Galileeorum, ut Matt. 11 : 1." Campbell presents the 
thought accurately, though somewhat paraphrastieally, thus, " the 
scribes and Pharisees of that place." The pronoun was employed, 
beyond a doubt, to distinguish these men from those of the same 
class, who resided at Jerusalem, and yet visited Galilee, when the 
Saviour went through its cities and villages, preaching the good 
news and working miracles, which excited attention at the capi- 
tal. So during the ministry of John, John 1 : 19-24. See this 
chapter (5), v. 17. 

n " Those, who are well ; " ol vycatvovrcs. Blend., M., Wakef., 
Penn.Dick. Rob. (Lex., in l.,vyiaivea),"olvyiaivovrs, those well." 

" have no need ; " ov ygeiav 'exotica*. So parallel (E. V.) 
Mark 2 : 17. Scarlett, Angus, Thelwall, M. Belg., " en hebbeu 
den Medicijnmeester niet van nooden ; " S. Fr., " ce ne sont pas 
ceux qui sont en sante qui ont besoin de medecin 5 " Iber., " no 
han menester de medico ; " Diodati, " non han bisogno di medi- 
co." The parallels in Matt. (9 ; 12), Mark (2 : 17), and Luke 
(5 : 31) agree exactly in the phrase ov %(>ela.v tyovqiv, while the 
E. Y. renders Mark literally, as above, but Matthew and Luke, 
"need not a physician." In this unnecessary diversity of render- 
ing, Tyndale was copied. The Vulgate, with still less exactness, 
has three different translations of the sentence in question. 

r " I have not come ; " OVK tt,jfoa. Norton, Thel. While 
in the parallels (Matt. 9 : 13, and Mark 2 : 17) we have the 
aorist r^S-ov, " I came," the verb is here put in the second perf. 
act. It should be distinguished in rendering from ril&ov. The 
ordinary force of the perfect is exact, and more in accordance 
with our usage, than the form which has been : termed a perfect 
present, viz., " I am come." The E. V. copied Tyndale. 

* " tlie." As dtxaiovs is anarthrous, and an article is necessary 
before " righteous," when it stands absolutely, this article should 




33 And they said unto Mm, 
Why do the disciples of John fast 
often, and make prayers, and like- 
wise the disciples of the Pharisees ; 
but thine eat and drink ? 

34 And he said unto them, Can 
ye make the children of the bride- 
chamber fast while the bridegroom 
is with them ? 

35 But the days will come, when 
the bridegroom shall be taken 
away from them, and then shall 
they fast in those days. 

36 And he spake also a parable 
unto them : No man putteth a piece 
of a new garment upon an old : if 
otherwise, then both the new 
maketh a rent, and the piece that 
was taken out of the new, agreeth 
not with the old. 

37 And no man putteth new 
wine into old bottles ; else the new 
wine will burst the bottles, and 
be spilled, and the, bottles shall 


afiapTcaXovs els fieravoiav, ^ 01 
8e earov irpos avTov, Atari ol 
Tal 'Imavvov vqcrTevavcri 
, Kal 8er]<reis iroiovvTai, 
O/J.OLCOS KOI oi TG>V 0apio~at<ov ol 
fie crol f&diovcn KOI <irlvovo~iv ; 
^ '0 fie elire irpoy avTovs, Mrj 
SwacrQe TOVS vlovs TOV 
vos, ei> G> a WfJL(j)ios per av 
ecFTL, Troirja-ai vr)<rTeveiu ; 35 eXev- 
o~ovTai SerifJiepai) Kal orav airap- 
0rj air avTcav o w patios- j Tore 
vrjaTfvcrovo-tv lv eKeivais TOIS 
ais. 36 "JEXeye fie Kal Trapa.- 
rjv -jrpos avTOVs, On ovdels 
fTTiffXTj/jLa ifj-ariov Katvov ewi$aX-> 
Xet em ifj-ariov iraXaiov el fie 

/7ye, Ka TO Kaivov 

T(J> iraXaico ov crvfj.(j)o)vei eirt 

fj.a TO caro TOV KO.IVOV. 


vSels /SaAAet olvov veov els 
vs TraXatovs' el fie 

i 6 veos olvos TOVS acr/couy, 
avTos eKdrjo-eTai, Kal ol 

sinners to repentance. And 33 
they said to him, Why do the 
disciples of John fast often, 
and 'make prayers, and like- 
wise the disciples of the Phari- 
sees, but thine eat and drink ? 
And he said to them, Can ye 34 
make 'the sons of fte bride- 
chamber fast while the bride- 
groom is with them ? But the 35 
days will come/when the bride- 
groom will be taken away from 
them, and then "they will fast 
in those days. And T he also 36 
spoke a parable to them ; "No 
one putteth a piece of a new 
garment on an old one, *else 
^the new rendeth it, and 'the . 
piece taken from the new, 
agreeth not with the old. And 37 
no one putteth new wine into 
old bottles ; else the new wine 
will burst the bottles, and "be 

be italicized. The supplementary article may be thrown off by 
using another supplement, thus " righteous men." Nothing, how- 
ever, would be effected, except a greater departure from the 
phraseology of the E. V., without real necessity. 

r make prayers ; " Serfages itoiovvrai. As this phrase does 
not harmonize with our usus loquendi, I suggest " pray " as an 
alternative rendering. So Walcef., Scarlett, Murdoct. 

" the sons ; " TOVS vloiig. Eobinson (Lex.), Scarlett, Sharpe, 
Kend., Pechy (note on Angus' Manuscript Version), Thelwall, M. 
Vulg. and Mont, "filios ; " Beza and Eras., " filii." Some late 
translators have paraphrased this passage by " companions." A 
literal rendering is preferred, for exactness. " Children " is too 

^ " will be taken away ; " ccnap&fj. Where the language is 
that of prediction, " will " is the proper auxiliary. Sq Scarlett, 
Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Kend., M. 

u " they will fast ; " vqorevaovoiv. This is the natural arrange- 
ment. It is that of Kend., Dick., M.. Pechy and Q. (on the 
parallel, Mark 2 : 20), Scarlett, Penn, Camp., M. The auxiliary 
" will " is employed here on the principle mentioned in the last 
note. It is used by Kendrick, Scarlett, Wakef., Penn, Norton, 
Camp., Dick. 

' " he also." This is the proper position of " also." M. 

w " No one ; " ovdets. Norton, Wakef; This word should 
be rendered literally. See ch. 1 : 61, note. 

1 "else;" el Ss fcrfys, Eobinson (Lex., in loco, ye), Scarlett, 
Wesley, Sharpe, Kendrick, Alternate, " otherwise." Kuinpel, 
" alioque." 

y "the new rendeth it;" to xeuvov a%X>ei. Scarlett, the 
new tears it ; " Kend., " the new teareth it." The object of the 
verb is expressed by the supplement it, representing l/ianov Beza, "illud novum findit veins." The passage is 
susceptible of another rendering, which makes ib xtuvov the 
object of oxi&i, thus, " he rendeth the new." So Wakef., Penn, 
Angus, M. This is deemed less accurate, than the above trans- 

1 " the piece taken from the new ; " iTti/Sitjfia to &jtb tov xat- 
vov. Penn, Wakef., M., " the piece from the new." 'Ano should 
have its usual force here (" from "), and ought not to be rendered 
like EX, " out of." So Thelwall, Angus, M., Norton. 

" be spilt ; " Ixxvd^aerat. This form of the part, of " to 
spill " is preferred -to " spilled," as harmonizing with the usual 
pronunciation, and being grammatically correct. The form 
occurs in 2 Sam. 14 : 14 (E. V.), " as water spilt on the ground." 



38 But new wine must be put 
into new bottles, and both are 

39 No man also having drunk 
old wine, straightway desireth 
new : for he saith, The old is 


AND it came to pass on the 
second sabbath after the first, that 
he went through the corn-fields ; 
and his disciples plucked the ears 
of Corn, and did eat, rubbing t hem 
in their hands. 

2 And certain of the Pharisees 
said unto them, Why do ye that 
which is not lawful to do on the 
sabbath-days ? 

3 And Jesus answering them, 


atfkdi otiroXovvTai' 38 oAAa olvov 
ueov elf dcrKovp kaivovf 
6v> kal afJL(j)6tepoi 
39 kctl ovSfif iriGiv TraAatoi* cu- 
Ae'yei ya/>, '0 




aiirov Sia tS>v (riropifj.K>v kai 
oi fjLadrjTal O.VTOV TOVS 
Kal ^crBiOv, \jfcoj(ovTes 
z rive? 8e TWV 
<Papuraicov shrov avrofy> TL TTOI- 
etre o OVA: e'^edTi Trotelv fv rols 
a-d/B3acft ; 


spilt, and the bottles "will be 
ruined. But new wine must be 38 
put into new bottles, and both 
are preserved. And no one 39 
having drunk old wine, 'imme- 
diately desireth new; for he 
saith, The-old is better^ 


AND it came to pass on E the l 
first sabbath after the second 
day of the passover, that he went 
""through the fields of grain; 
and his disciples plucked the 
ears of grain, and ate, rubbing 
them in 'their hands. And 2 
some of the Pharisees said to 
them, Why do ye that which it 
is not lawful to do ''tin the sab- 
bath? And Jesus, answering 3 

b "will be ruined ;" and'f.ovvrai. Murd. Lidd. (iriverbo,oliHvft<.), 
" Mid; IL, to be undongj ruined;" Bretseh. (in verbo, arioAHv/it), 
" corrumpor, destruor" This rendering corresponds with present 
usage. Though the preposition in composition with oHHv/ui is 
often intensive, in other instances, it adds nothing to its force. In 
reference to this, Liddell says, " also, simply, to fall into ruin, to 
be undone:' Scarlett, and Wakef., " will be destroyed ; " Norton, 
" would be spoiled ; " Camp., " be rendered useless;" 

' "immediately;" ev&tcas. Rendered uniformly in this Re- 
vision. So often in B. V. See Matt. 8 : 3 ; 14 : 31. Mark 1 : 31. 
Luke 5 j 13; " Straightway " is obsolete. 

* " the first sabbath after the second day of the passover;" Iv 
itappaxy SevteQOTtQcorip. Scarlett, Dick., Kend., M. Wesley 
and Angus, " the first sabbath after the second day of unleavened 
bread ; " Schott, " sabbato primo post diem secundum festipascha- 
lis;" D'e Wette, "an einem ersten Sabbath naeh dem zweiten 
Tage des Passahs." Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : "Probably, the second- 
first sabbath, as pr. n. for the* first sabbath after the second day 
of unleavened bread connected with the passover." Bloomfield 
remarks that fhe only plausible interpretation of "this obscure ex- 
pression," which has any semblance of truth, is that of Theoplylact 
and Euthymius among the ancients, and Scaliger, Lightfoot, 
Cassa'ub'on, Whitby, Schleusner, Kuincel, etc., of the moderns, 
namely, that the sense is the first sabbath after the second day of 
unleavened bread; namely, that on which the wave-sheaf was 
commanded to be offered up, arid from whidh, arid not the first 
day of the passover, the fifty days were to be reckoned to the 
pentecost. Hence, it is no wonder that all the sabbaths from the 
passover t6 the pentecost should have taken their appellation, 
&TCO tfjs Sewctyos rov itao%aros. Kuinoel : " Sabbato primo 
post secundum diem Paschatos, hsec enim hujus vocis interpretatio, 
que Scaligertfin auctorem habet, quern plurimi interpretes secuti 

siirit, reliquis interpretationibus omnino prseferanda videtur, cum 
riitatur argumentis historicis." Should it be thought that the 
supplement "day of the passover" partakes too much of the 
character of a commentary, then this expression is suggested as a 
substitute, " on a sabbath named the second-first." In this case, 
the following marginal reading would be appropriate, " Probably, 
the first sabbath after the second day of the passover." 

b " through the fields of grain ; " Sta. tSv onoqifKov. Kend. 
Norton, " a field of grain." The following note by the Reviser, 
on the parallel, Mark 2 : 21, will explain the ground of this ren- 
dering. "The literal sense of this adjective is 'sown,' hence 
sometimes ' fit for sowing ; " yfj oitoqlfta, ' seed-land.' Like the 
Latin ' sata,' it is also used for the crops growing in the fields, 
segetes. Bretseh., ' agri consiti, segetes.' Here it refers to the 
crops, the grain standing in the fields. As it is obviously generic, 
it is properly rendered by ' grain,' or ' fields of grain.' ' Grain ' 
being the name of the edible portions Of certain plants, which 
constitute the chief food of man and beast, as wheat, rye, barley, 
maize, and oats. See Webster on ' Grain.' " 

" their hands ; " IO.TS x e ^L The article is here used in the 
sense of the possessive pronoun. Crosby, Gram., 482 : "With 
substantives which are rendered definitive by the connection, the 
article has often the force of a possessive." Hence, in such cases, 
it is not necessary to mark the possessive, in translation, as a 
supplement. Kuhner, Gram., \ 244. 4. 

d "on the sabbath?" iv rois adppaot; So (E. V.) in tha 
parallel, Mark 2 : 24. In the parallel, Matt. 12 : 2, the text ia 

aajSpdrtp (E. V., " upon the sabbath-day.") " Days," in this 
place, is superfluous. In this Revision, " day " is used, in connec- 
tion with " sabbath," only where rjftefa. occurs in the text. The 
plural form ra. aappaTa is most generally employed as a singu- 
lar. Rob. (Lex.) Kuinoel, on Matt 12 : 1, says : " In plnrali 




said, Have ye not read so much 
as this, what David did when him- 
self -was an hungered, and they 
which were with him ; 

4 How he went into the house 
of God, and did take and eat the 
shew-bread, and gave also to them 
that were with him, which it is 
not lawful to eat but for the priests 
alone ? 

5 And he said unto them, That 
the Son of man is Lord also of the 

6 And it came to pass also on 
another sabbath, that he entered 
into the synagogue, and taught : 
and there was a man whose right 
hand was withered : 


avTOvs eiTrev 6 'Irjcrovy, OvSe 
TOVTO ave-yv&Te, o ejrouqo-e Aa~ 
/8t5, OTTOTC eireivaurfv O.VTOS Kal 
ol per avTov ovresj 4 as etcr^A- 
Oev els TOV O'IKOV TOV deov, 
TOVS apTovs rrjs irpoOecreas 
/3e, /cat !<j&aye, KOL ei5a>/ce /cat 
TOIS fiT avTov, ovs OVK e^ea-n 
0ayeii> et jw) p.ovovs"Tovs iepets; 
5 .STal eAeyeu aurots, "On Kvpios 
ko~nv b vlos TOV avOpoarov /cat 
TOV crafipaTOv. 

B ' TZ f ^^ 


/cat ev 

cra$3arG> eto-eA$eti> avTov els 
TTJV crvvo.yoyyT]v /cat 8i8d(rKei 
l fjv GKCL avdpcoTrog, Kal T] X^i 


them, said, 'Have ye not reau 
even that, which David did, 
when he 'was hungry, and 
those who were with him ; 
how he went into the house of * 
God, and Hook and 'ate the 
'show-bread, and gave also *to 
those with him, which it is not 
lawful >/or any to eat except 
fhe priests m only? And he 5 
said to them, "The 'Son of man 
is Lord also of the sabbath. 
And it came to pass also an 6 
another sabbath, that he enter- 
ed into the synagogue and 
taught : and "there was a man 
there whose right hand was 

rozs oapfSttoi nulla vis quaerenda est, sed pluralis vim habet sin- 
gularis, ut ap. Joseph., Antiq., Ill : 10, 1 xara Ss sfiSoftsv %f 
(>av, JJTIS aaftftara xaiclrat. Etiam interpretes Alexandrini pro 
nai? nunc oafi/Sator, ut Bxod. 11 : 14 nunc oafifiara, ut Jerem. 
17 : 21, 24, ponere solent." The above rendering is adopted by 
"Wesley (" on the sabbath-day "), "Wakefield, Norton, Campbell, 
Dick;, Kend., Angus, M. Heb. N. Test., naiart bl'ia. Syr. 
JiuoLs. De "Wette, " am Sabbath ; " S. Fr., " en un sabbat ; " 
Iber., " in el dia de reposo." See Bretsch. 

e " Have ye not read even this, which ; " OvSe TOVTO avlyvco- 
IE,O. Gray (note on Angus). De Wette, " Habt ihr nicht ein- 
mal diess gelesen, "was " ; Iber., " Ni aun aquello habeis leido 
que hizo David" . Bob. (Lex., ovSs), "not even." This sen- 
tence may be more concisely rendered, " Have ye not read even 
what David," etc. Wesley, " Have ye not read even this, what," 

f " was hungry ; " eitetraaev. Sharpe, M., Kend. So most 
of the later English translators. " Was an hungered," introduced 
by Tyndale, has long been obsolete. 

1 "those who were;" ol ovreg. Present usage demands 
" those who," rather than " they which," " they that," or, " they 
who." In the parallel, Mark 2 : 25, the text has simply ol (with- 
out ovres), hence, in the Eevision, it was rendered " those" (with 
him, etc.). But, as in the passage here, the participle is expressed, 
the above rendering is adopted as exact. Several later trans- 
lators overlook ovreg, and render thus, " those with him." So 
Kend., Norton, M. The participle is rendered as a finite verb 
by Penn, Scarlett, Sharpe, Angus, Thelwall. De Wette, "die 
bei ihm waren;" S. Fr., " ceux qui etaient;" Iber., "los que 
con el estaban. 

h " took ; " &la/?. There is no emphasis which demands the 
auxiliary " did." So Kend., Scarlett, Wesley, Sharpe, Wakef., 
Penn, Norton, Thelwall, M. 

1 " ate." As " did " is rejected from the preceding verb, this 
imperfect is a matter of course. See last note. 

i "show-bread;" Wesley, Norton. This orthography harmon- 
izes with the pronunciation, and corresponds with the verb from 
which "show " is derived. See Webster (Diet.), " Show-bread." 

k "to those with him;" role fiei avrov. In the parallel, 
Mark 2 : 26, the participle occurs thus, role avv enrztj' <>& 
Hence, in revising that book, the sentence was rendered, "to 
those who were with him." In this passage, as the participle is 
not expressed, the simple form, " to those with him," is adopted. 
See v. 3, note. So Kend., M. Mont, " his cum ipso." 

i "for any." Penn, "for any one." Angus, Scarlett, M. 
Unless we change the order of the sentence, this, or a similar 
supplement is demanded for the sake of perspicuity. So Wesley 
and Pechy, in the parallel, Mark 2 : 26, where the text is the 
same. It has been suggested in the note on Mark 2 : 26, that 
this change in the order would render the supplement unnecessary, 
viz., " which none were allowed to eat except the priests," The 
introduction of the supplement iSideemed preferable to a new 
arrangement of the words. The harshness of the phraseology in 
the E. V. requires an amendment here. Compare S. Fr., " quoi- 
qu'il ne soit permis qu'aux seuls sacrificateurs d'en manger;" 
Iber., " que es licito comer sino a solos los s.acerdotes." 

n " only ; " fiovovs. See ch. 5 : 21, note. Thorn., Penn, Angus, 
Wesley, Typdale, Geneva, Cranmer, Wiclif, Eheims. De Wette, 
" sondern nur den Priestern ; " Belg., " dan alleen den Priesteren." 

1 0ri, before xv^ios, is a mere sign indicating that the words 
of another are recited. It answers the purpose of our quotation 
marks. See Rob. (Lex., in verbo). The word is properly left 
untranslated by Scarlett, Wesley, Sharpe, Wakef., Penn, Norton, 
Camp., Kend., Angus, M., De Wette, Belg., S. Fr., Iber., Dan., 

" there was a man there ; " TJV ixst av&ftonoe. So the 



7 And the scribes and Pharisees 
watched him, whether he would 
heal on the sabbath-day ; that they 
might find an accusation against 
him. . . 

8 But he knew their thoughts, 
and said to the man which had 
the withered hand, Rise up, and 
stand forth in the midst. And he 
arose, and stood forth. 

9 Then said Jesus unto them, I 
will ask you one thing ; Is it law- 
ful on the sabbath-days to do good, 
or to do evil ? to save life, or to 
destroy it? 

10 And looking round about 
upon them all, he said unto the 
man, Stretch forth thy hand. And 
he did so : and his hand was 
restored whole as the other. 


avrov 77 Se^id TJV rjpd. irape- 
rypovv 8e avrov ol y/jaju/zareiy 
Kal ol &apt(ra.ioi, d ei> TCJ> <ra/3- 
ftdrea OfpairevaeL- iva evpcocri 
avrov, 8 O.VTOS 5e 
rovy diaXoyia-fJLovf avr&v, 
ebre TO> dvOpcoirq) rw 

TT/V X e W a > * EytLp 
fls TO fjLfcrqv. ' Se dva- 

\ Jt/ 9 ' TJ3 ? * T 

o~Tas eo~rrj. -Crwrev ovv o Irj- 
Q-OVS irpos avTOVS, 
vfidf, TL e^Ga-Tt TOIS 

r) KaK07roiijo-ai; 
oaro\e(rai; w lal 
irdvras avrovs, 

XP 1 * o~ov. '0 

/cat dTTOKaTeo'Taffrj 77 




withered. ' And the scribes and 7 
Pharisees watched, him <&> see 
whether he would heal on the 
sabbath ; that they might find 
an accusation against him. But 8 
he knew their thoughts, and 
said to the man who had the 
withered hand, Rise up and 
stand in the midst. And he 
rose and 'stood. Then Jesus 9 
said to them, I will ask you 
"something; Is it lawful T on 
the sabbath to 'do good, or to 
do evil ? to save life, or to de- 
stroy it? And looking "round 10 
on them all, he said *to him, 
'Stretch out thy hand. And 
he did so : and his hand was 

the parallel (E. T.) Mark 3 : 1. This arrangement is most 
agreeable to our itsus loquendi. In this and similar con- 
structions, the first " there " is merely an euphonic particle. So 

f A period is placed after " withered," in conformity with the 
text (|<?(>a.) This is the punctuation of Scarlett, "Wesley, Wakef., 
Sharpe, Norton, Camp., Dick., Belg., De Wette, Iber., Dan., 
Diodati, Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva, E. V. of 1611, Oxford Bible, 
Edd. 1802 and 1852, Oxford N. Test, of 1852. 

" to see." Tyndale, M., Thorn., Camp., Dick. S. Fr., "pour 
wir;" Span., "para ver." This supplement is necessary to avoid 
a violation of our idiom. Critics are divided as to the genuine- 
ness of avrov. It is found in B, the earliest MS. extant, and in 
the Syriac. I should hesitate to cancel it. 

* " Forth," after " stand," is not authorized by the text. It 
was taken from Beza, who rendered oTtjd-i by " adsta,'' when it 
should have been represented simply by " sta," as in the Vulg. 
and Eras. " Forth " has been omitted by Thomson, Scarlett, 
Wakef., Sharpe, Norton, Camp., Dick., Thelwall, M. 

For the omission of " forth," see last note. 

" "something;" rl. The punctuation of the different Edi- 
tions of the Greek text varies here. Bagster, Erasmus, Scholz, 
Lachmann, and Trollope place a comma after vfias, while Gries- 
bach, Knapp, Theile, Tittmann put the colon in the same place. 
As far as the rendering is concerned, these form one class, and we 
might render, " I will ask you, what is lawful on the sabbath? " 
But there is another punctuation which places the colon after tl, 
which is then regarded as the indefinite pronoun, thus, 'ETtB^cot^- 
oa> vftSs w "E&ort y.. r.L So the Editions of Stephens, as pub- 

lished by Wilson (1831), Mill (in Polymic.), Schott, Kuinrel, 
Bloomf. This punctuation is that which was followed by the 
E. V. Kuincel defends it thus : " In multis codd. et verss. con- 
jungitur ri cum sequentibus : Ineacotiiaio v/ttas' ti lart rols 
oafifiaotv x. T. L interrogabo yos ecquid licet die sabbati bene an 
male facere? ut adeo tl sit idem quod nfaeqov sed vulgaris 
verba distinguendi ratio, qua ii cum fycorfaca, et post vl plene 
interpungitur : quizstionem vobis proponam licetne, etc., utpote 
siniplicissima praeferenda videtur, et confirmetur ea loco Matt. 
21 : 24, ubi simili praefatione interrogationem exorditur." Bloom- 
field remarks : " The usual punctuation is greatly preferable, by 
which the rl is construed with the preceding; and that on 
account of its greater simplicity, and because it is confirmed by 
a similar expression at Matt. 21 : 24, Luke 20 : 3." The literal 
signification of ti, "something" (Eob., Lex., in verbo, 3), is most 
accurate. De Wette, " Ich will euch etwas fragen." 

T " on the sabbath ; " toTs adp/3aaiv. In the parallel, Matt. 
12 : 11, the E. V. renders this in the singular, " on the sabbath- 
day." See v. 2, note. 

w " Bound about," so often used in the E. V., is a tau- 

1 " to him ; " avria. The reading of the Text. Eecept, rep 
&v&Q<67tia, is rejected as spurious by Griesb., Knapp, Tisch., 
Theile, Tittm., Scholz, Bloomf., Schott, and Lachm. It is ; an 
interpolation taken from Mark 3:5. It is wanting in eight 
uncial MSS., the Peshito and Philox, Syr. Memph., and Gothic 
versions. Avry is the true reading. 

y " Stretch out ; " "Exreivov. Scarlett, Wakef., Penn, Camp., 
M. Liddell (in verbo), " to stretch out." 




11 And they were filled with 
madness ; and communed one with 
another -what they might do to 

12 And it came to pass in those 
days, that he went out into a 
mountain to pray, and continued 
all night in prayer to God. 

13 And when it was day, he 
called unto him his disciples : and 
of them he chose twelve, whom 
also he named apostles ; 

14 Simon (whom he also named 
Peter) and Andrew his brother, 
James and John, Philip and Bar- 

15 Matthew and Thomas, James 
the son of Alpheus, and Simon 
called Zelotes, 

16 And Judas the brother of 
James, and Judas Iscariot, which 
also was the traitor. 

17 And he came down with 


f f VN -v 11 \ ft \ 

(as TJ aXXrj. avTOt be 
eTrXrjcrdrjcrav avoids, /cat SteXd- 
Xovv Tr/aoy aAA^Aoyy, T'I ctv iroir]- 
creiav TO! 'Ir/crov. 

1 2 ' 7" > ft ^ s / 

Ji-yeveTO oe ef raty t]fj.epous 
TavTOus, e^rjXdev elf TO opoy 
Trpocrev^acrffcu- KCU rjv SiavvKfe- 
pevcav eV Ty irpocfev^y TOV Oeov. 
13 /cat ore eyeveto rjp.epa.) jrpocr- 
(pa>vr)cre TOVS fJ.adr)Ta? avrov' 
/cat eK\^dfifvosf air avrcov Sa>- 
SeKa, ouy KCU. aTrotTToXovs covo- 
fj-acre, u Si/jLtova. bv /cat covofiacre 
HfTpov, KCU 'AvSpeav Tov dSeX- 
(pov avrov, 'Ia.KcofSov /cat 'Icodv- 
vr/v, <&LXt7nrov /cat JBapdoXo/Jiou- 
ov, 15 Ma.r6a.ldv KCU. Ocofj-dv, 
TOV Tov 'AXfpaiov /cat 
TOV Ka.Xovp.evov 2-rjXco- 
Trjv, 16 'lovdais 'laKCoftov, /cat 
Iov8ctv IcrKapicoTrjv, by KCU e'ye- 
veTO TrpoSoTT)?' ll /cat /caraway 


restored 'sound as the other. 
And they were filled with mad- n 
ness ; and "consulted b with one 
another what e they should do 
to Jesiis. And it came to pass 12 
in those days, that he went out 
into d the mountain to pray, and 
continued all night in prayer 
to God. And when it was day, 13 
'he called to him his disciples ; 
and he f chose twelve from 
them, whom he also named 
apostles ; Simon (whom he also 14 
named Peter) and Andrew his 
brother, James and John, Philip 
and Bartholomew, Matthew and 15 
Thomas, James the sou of Al- 
pheus, and Simon called B Ze- 
lotes, eE Judas the brother of is 
James, and Judas Iscariot k who 
also became a traitor. And 17 

* " sound." Thomson, Scarlett, Campbell, M. 'Tytt;s, in the 
Textus Eeceptus, is canceled by Griesbach, Theile, Knapp, 
Tischendorf, Lachmann, Schott. But as the sentence is defective 
if we say, "restored as the other," "sound" is inserted and 
italicized as supplementary. Its use is authorized by the parallel, 
Mark 3:5, where vyirje is found in the text. 

m " consulted ; " Sieiaiavv. Camp., Kend. Kiiinoel, " con- 
sultarupt;" Bretschneider (in loco, Sia).aUco), " consultabant." 
Literally, " to talk over a thing." Liddell. " Confer " is obso- 

b "with one another;" nyos atttflovs. Thomson, Scarlett, 
Bob. (Lex., in verbo). So (E. V.) Matt. 24 : 10. John 13 : 34; 
15 : 12, 17. Acts 19 : 38. See en. 4 : 36, note. 

e " they should do ; " &v notrjoeiar. Thorn., Scarlett, "Wesley, 
Sharpe, Camp. 

d " the mountain ; " TO o?os. M., Thorn., Wesley, Wakef., 
Sharpe, Penn. Belg., " den berg ; " De Wette, " den Berg ; " 
S. French, " la montagne ; " Iberian, " al monte ; " Diodati, " al 
monte;" Dan, "Bierget." The article should not be omitted. 
The mountain was near Capernaum. Kuinoel : " Posteaquam 
Jesus in monte quodam Capernaumo vicino noetem inter preces 
transegerat, postridie primo mane," etc. 

" he called to him ; " TtQoascpcuvrioe. The preposition " to " 
is represented in the text by xfos, in composition with the verb. 
Hence it is not a supplement, and is not to be italicized. Com- 
pare Mark 3 : 13, in Kev. of Mark's gospel, note. 

f " chose twelve from them." This is the natural order, accord- 
ing to English idiom. Wesley, " chose twelve of them." 

e " Zelotes ; " ZijlfoTifv. In Acts 1 : 13, the article precedes 
this word, Siftiav 6 Zijlco-crjs. On the use of this term as indic- 
ative of the fact that Simon was one of the sect of Zealots 
noted by Josephus in his History of the Jewish War, Kuincel 
on Matt. 10 : 4 says : " Cum Luc. 6 : 15, Act. 1 : 13, hie Simon 
nominetur 6 Zrjlcarris in promptu est nomen JKararhye respondere 
Heb. xsp et accepisse Sirnonem hoc cognomentum a pristine 
vivendi genere, ut adeo Siftcav 6 Kavaviiris explicari debeat : 
Simon qui fuit antea zclotarum societati adscriptus, ut Mattliasus 
6 ic).(ovrft, qui fuit antea portitorum societati adscriptus. 2>ikio- 
ittl autem antiquitus dicebantnr, qui acri religionis et patriae 
defendendoe studio flagrabant, ut Pinohas Numb. 25 : 9, 1 Maccab. 
2 : 54, et Christi et apostolorum aetate, ita nominababuntur homi- 
nes privati inter Judseos, societate quadam conjunct! qui omnia 
atrociora facta, nominatim ea, quibus templi, numinis, seu gentla 
sanctitas violari credebatur, nulla forensis judicii ratione illico 
puniebant, zelo, ut jactabant, divino correpti quo nomine ab illis 
etiam turpissima facindra patrata sunt, v. Joseph., B., Lib. vi., v. 3. ' 
As an alternative reading, " the Zealot." So Norton, Scarlett. 

BE Kal (= and) not in tlie text. 

h " who also became a traitor ; " oe v.a\ lyiveto itpoSoTqe- 
Wesley, Scarlett ("who became a traitor "), Kendrick, M., Thel 
wall. Belgic, " die ook de verrader geworden is ; " S. Fr., 
" lequel aussi devint traitre ; " Iber., " el cual tambien se hizo 




them, and stood in the plain ; and 
the company of his disciples, and 
a great multitude of people out of 
all Judea and Jerusalem, and from 
the sea-coast of Tyre and Sidon, 
which came to hear him, and to be 
healed of their diseases ; 

}8 And they that were vexed 
with unclean spirits : and they 
were healed. 

19 And the whole multitude 
sought to touch him ; for there 
went virtue out of him, and healed 
them all. 

20 And he lifted up his eyes on 


vou, teal. o^Aoy /Lta0r}Ta>i> avrov, 


'fovdalay KOI 'lepov- 
, KOU rrjs irapa\iqv Tvpov 
Kal SiSStvos, 01 rjXdov a/covcrcu 
avTQtt, (cal iafffji'ai airo TO>V vo- 
O-CDV O.VTCOV, 18 /ecu ol oyXov/j-tvoi 



0epa.7revQVTO. /ecu Tray 

e^ret airreardai. avrov' on. dv- Trap' OVTOV e^r/p^ero, K<U 

O.TO iravras. 

20 T^- \ 

auroy eirapas 



he came down with them and 
stood 'on a level place, 'with a 
crowd of his disciples, and a 
great multitude of "the people 
'from all Judea and Jerusalem, 
and m the sea-coast of Tyre and 
Zidon, who came to hear him 
and to be healed of their dis- 
eases ; and those who were is 
vexed "by unclean spirits; and 
"they were cured. And the 19 
whole crowd sought to touch 
him ; for 'power 'went out 
from him and healed them all. 
And "lifting up his eyes on his 20 

traidor ; " Dan., " den, som og blev en Forroder ; " ItaL, " il 
quale divienne anehe traditore." 

1 " in a level place ; " im timov itediro.v, Angus. Bob. 
(Lex., MI loco, neStvos), " tOTtf fat TOTCOV jceStov, he stood upoa a 
level place." De Wette, " auf einera ebenen Plate ; " Belg., " op 
een vlakke plaatse ; " Vulg., Mont., Bras., Castal., " in loco cam- 
pestri ; " Bheims, " in a plain place ; ", " en un lugar llano." 
There is no necessity for departing from the literal rendering of 
this phrase. 

J " with a crowd ; " xat ojf.los. Literally, " and a crowd." 
But if we adopt this literal rendering, we leave " crowd" (8%i.os} 
and " multitude " (ntSj&os} in the nominative, without a verb, as 
has been done in the E. V. The thought presented is obviously 
this, " He stood on a level place, and with him stood a crowd of 
his disciples," etc. In other words, when Christ descended the 
mountain, only the twelve were with him. Mark 3 : 13, "And 
he goeth up into the mountain, and calleth to him whom he 
would : and he appointed twelve." When he reached the level 
place, with, the twelve, there was a crowd of other disciples, and 
a great multitude of people standing there. By substituting 
" with " for " and," the thought presented in the text is brought 
out in the most concise manner, and with the least change in the 
phraseology of the E. V. So " with " is employed by Thorn., 
Wakef., Camp. Alternative rendering, " and tliere mas a crowd," 
"to. Penn, S. Fr., " avec la foule de ses disciples." The fol- 
lowing are specimens of the various renderings given to this pas- 
sage. De Wette, " und [rait ihm] der Haufe seiner Jiinger ; " 
Belg., "ende [met hem] de. schare zijner Discipelen ; " De Sacy, 
" etant accompagne de la. troupe de ses disciples ; " Iber., " i [con 
el] una. muchedumbre de sus discipulos." The insertion of the 
article " the " before the noun, in the E. V., is without authority. 
The rendering of the passage was. copied from the Genevan. 

k " the people ; " rov haov. Penn, Thorn., Wakef., Sharpe, 
Thelwall. Belg., "des volks;" S, Fr., du peuple;" Iber., 
" del pueblo." 

" from ; " ano. Thorn., Wesley, Wakef., Sharpe, Norton, 

Penn, Dick., Camp., Kend., M-, Thelwall. Vulg., Mont, " ab." 
" Out of" was copied from Tyndale. 

m " From," before " sea-coast," is really a supplement. It" is 
superfluous. It is properly omitted by Thorn., Wesley, Wakef., 
Norton, Camp., Thelwall. Nothing corresponding to it in Da 
Wette, Vulg., Mont., Castal., Schott, Hefa. N. Test. 

" " by ; " vno (cum genit.}. Wakef., Dick., Kend., M., Thel- 
wall. G. and S. Fr., " par." 

" they were cured ; " id-e^anevovro. Thorn., Wakef. (" were 
also cured"), Camp., M. Hob. (Lex., in verbo), " to cure." By 
rendering thus, we make a distinction (like that of the text) 
between la&jjvai, v. 17, and this verb. 

P " power ; " Svvafus. Thorn., Wakefield, Sharpe, Norton, 
Kend., Angus, Thelwall. Eobinson (Lex., in verbo), " specially, 
' miraculous power,' ' tlie power of working miracles.' " " Virtue" 
(a mere transfer of the Vulgate virtus) is no longer used in this 
sense. S. Fr., "une puissance;." .Iber., " un poder;" Belg., 
" kracht ; " De Wette, " eine Kraft." 

s "went out;" IgfiqxsTo. Wesley, Sharpe, Scarlett Norton 
Penn. There is an unnecessary transposition of this, sentence in 
the E. V., by placing the nominative between " went " and " out." 
The influence of the Latin order of words on early English trans- 
lations is quite obvious. Numerous obscurities in the E. V. may 
be referred to this fact. 

r " from ; " Tta^a (cum genit.). Eob. (Lex., itaga) : " In 
N. Test, only with a genitive of person, implying a going forth > 
or proceeding from the side or presence of any one ; thus taking 
the general sense from." So (E. V.) Mark 12 : 2 ; 14 : 43. Luke 
1 : 45 ; 2:1; 7 : 49, etc. So (in loco) Thorn., Wakef., Norton, 
Penn, Dick., Camp., M. The E. V., in this instance, has followed' 
Tyndale, who rendered the passage as if the text had been tjfxero 

avrov. Comp. Mark 5 : 30. 

" lifting up ; " eitayas. Thorn., Wesley, Sharpe, Penn, M., 
Thel. The participial construction is adopted also by Norton, 
Dick., Camp. 




his disciples, and said, Blessed be 
ye poor ; for yours is the kingdom 
of God. 

21 Blessed are ye that hunger 
now : for ye shall be filled. Blessed 
are ye that weep now : for ye shall 

22 Blessed are ye when men 
shall hate you, and when they shall 
separate you from their company, 
and shall reproach you,, and cast 
out your name as evil, for the Son 
of man's sake. 

23 Rejoice ye in that day, and 
leap for joy: for behold your 
reward is great in heaven : for in 
the like manner did their fathers 
unto the prophets. 

24 But wo unto you that are 
rich! for ye have received your 

25 Wo unto you that are full ! 
for ye shall hunger. "Wo nnto you 
that laugh now ! for ye shall mourn 
and weep. 


6(f)0aXfJLOvs O.VTOV ei? row- 

Tas avTOv eAeye, Mct.Ka.piot oi 

TTTCO^Ot, OTi V/J.Tpa. (TTIV T) /3- 

(nAe/a TOV Oeov. 21 [ia.Ka.pioi 
ot TreivoJTes vvv, OTL ^ 
o-eo-6e. fjLa.Ka.pioi ol 

f i ' 22 ' ' 

VW) OTL yeAacrere. ito.KO.pioi 
eVre, OTOV fU(rr)0~(ioo~iv vfias ol 
avdpayiroL, KOI OTOV a^opicrccxrii' 
/cat oveiSlo-coo-t, /cat e/c/3a- 



23 ' * i / 

^at/aere " e/cetz/jj TIJ rjfjiepa /cat 
(TKipTrjcraTe' I8ov yo.p } b /JLto~0os 
VJJLCOJS TroAuy ei/ rm ovpavtp' KOTO. 
TOVTO, -jap firoiovv TOLS 
TOLS ol irarepts avTcov. 24 
ouat vfiiv roty TrAouo'toty, ort 
aTre^ere r^v irapa,KXrio~LV vfjicov. 
25 ouat u/itf, ot 6fj.7r7r\r)cr/JLevoi, 
ort Treti/acrere. oyat u^ttv, ot 
yeAcoyrey j/Of, ort 7rej/^o-ere /cat 


disciples, he said, 'Happy 'are 
ye poor; for yours is the king- 
dom of God. Happy are ye, 21 
who hunger now ; for T ye shall 
be satisfied. Happy are ye, who 
weep now; for ye shall laugh. 
Happy are ye when men shall 22 
hate you and shall separate you 
"from them, and shall reproach 
you, and cast out your name as 
evil, for the Son of man's sake. 
"Rejoice in that day, and leap 23 
for joy; for behold, your re- 
ward is great in heaven : for 
hus did their fathers to the 
prophets. But woe to you who 24 
are rich! for 'ye have your 
consolation. Woe to you who 25 
are full! for ye shall hunger. 
Woe to you who laugh now ! 
for ye shall mourn and weep. 

" Happy ; " Maxaoiot. Thorn., "Wesley, Wakef., Scarlett, 
Dick., Camp., Kend., M. So (E. T.) John 13 : 17. Acts 26 : 2. 
Bom. 14 : 22. 1 Cor. 7 : 40. 1 Pet. 3 : 14; 4 : 14. Belgic, 
" Zalig ; " De Wette, " Selig ; " Dan., " Salige ; " G. and S. !Y., 
" Bienheureux ; " Iber., " Felices ; " Syr., JlsuJsa^. In almost 
all cases, this word is equivalent to feliz, while " blessed " is the 
equivalent of evAoyijTos, benedictus. The word is rendered uni- 
formly in this Eevision. 

' "are ye." Thorn., Wesley, "Wakef., Sharpe, Scarlett, Penn 
Kend., M. Beza, " est is." 

r " ye shall be satisfied ; " zopraofrijaca&e. Thorn., Wesley, 
Scarlett, and Norton ("will be satisfied"), Penn, Camp., Kend. 
S. Fr., " vons serez rassasies." Eob. (Lex., in verbo}. So (B.Y.) 
Mark 8 : 4. This verb should not be confounded with efinhij&co. 
Comp. John 6 : 12, where Ivsn^ad-tjaav is properly translated 
" they were filled." 

" " from tliem." The necessity of a supplement after ayo^i- 
ff.'ayw is obvious, hence " their company " was employed by Tyn- 
dale and Cranmer, "their society" by Campbell; while Penn, 
Kend., "Wakef., Norton have adopted the simpler expression 
"from them." So M. Iber., "de [si]." "From them" is 
deemed preferable. 

1 " Kejoice." It is not necessary to express the nominative 
"ye." According to present usage, we employ the imperative 

alone, leaving the mind of the hearer or reader to supply the 
appropriate pronoun. So in the parallel, Matt. 5 : 12, and 
versions of Thorn., "Wesley, Wakef., Scarlett, Norton, Dick.. 

i " thus ; " tiara ravra. Thorn., Sharpe, Dick., Camp. S. 
Fr., "ainsi;" Belg., " diergelijk ; " Ital.,'" cosi." Eob. (Lex.): 
" Neut. ravra, ace. as adv. so, thus, i. q., ovrcog." Buttmann, 
128, note 5 : " The neuter of the prononns both sing, and plur., 
is very often used adverbially." 

1 " ye have ; " cati%ete. Cranmer, Wesley, Norton, Kend. 
Vulg., Mont., Eras., Castal., " habetis." The preposition catb 
gives to the simple verb the idea of fullness, completeness, hence 
the thought is, "Ye have your whole reward." The rendering 
of the E. V. (after the Genevan) by a perfect, was an unskillful 
attempt to bring out this thought. The translation of Tyndale, 
though slightly paraphrastic, is superior to that, " Ye have 
therein your consolation." After all, a literal rendering is quite 
perspicuous. Every reader understands from the sense of the 
passage and the connection of the words, that the sentiment of 
the teacher is that those " who trust in riches " must have them 
alone for their portion. This thought is found in Ps. 17 : 14. 

*na Spin lina tiiraa. Compare Matt. 6 : 2, lati^ovat TO* 
avrcav, (. V.), " they have their reward." Eob. (Lex., 
" act., to liave or receive in full, (aab of compl.), to ha'.'i 
all that we can expect." 




26 Wp unto you, when all men 
shall speak well of you! for so 
did their fathers to the false 

27 But I say unto you "which 
hear, Love your enemies, do good 
to them which hate you. 

28 Bless them that curse you, 
and pray for them -which despite- 
fully use you. 

29 And unto him that siniteth 
thee on the one cheek, offer also 
the other ; and him that taketh 



o av- 

ova.1 vp.iv, 

KaAcos V/J.S.S eiirctxri wdi 
Bpcoiror Kara TO.VTO. yap eiroiovv 
TOW fyev8oTrpo(f>r}Tais oi vraTepes 

27 ' A \ \ ' ~ \ / ~ ' it 

AAA vjj.iv Aeyco TOIS a/cou- 
ovcriv, 'A-yomaTe TOVS fydpovs 
KaAcay iroiclre TOI? fturov- 


'' 28 'i " ^ 

criv y/xay, euAoyeire TOVS 

s VJMV, Kai 7rpoo-(v)(fo~0e 
T&V f7rr}pea6vT(ov 

90 ~ ' ' I > \ 

T0> TV7TTOVTI CT6 67TI Tr/V <Tia- 

yova., Trapeze /cat TTJV a\Arjv 



*"Woe, when b men shall speak 26 
well of you! for c thus did their 
fathers to the false prophets. 
But I say to you, who hear 27 
d me, Love your enemies ; do 
good to those who hate you, 
bless those who curse you, 28 
"pray for those f who abuse you. 
To him who smiteth thee on 29 
the one cheek, offer the other 
B also ; and h hinder not him, who 

" The reading of the Textns Beceptns, v/eiv, after oval, is 
canceled by Griesb., Tisch., Lachm., Knapp, Theile, Tittmaim, 
Scholz. Schott sajs : " Delev. cum Griesb. aliis v/izv vulgo post 
ovdt (ex v. 24, 25) additum, auctoritate multorum cdd. (12 unc.) 
verss., Pers. poL, Goth., Slav., Vulg., It. (exceptis. cdd. Cant., 
Veron.)." Bloomfield remarks that vpiv is " omitted by almost 
all the best MSS. and several Versions and Fathers, canceled by 
nearly all Editors, from Griesbach to Scholz." 

1 Udvres, in the Textus Eeceptus (before ol av&gcoTtot}, is 
canceled by Griesb., Tisch., Knapp, Scholz, Schott. The latter 
says : " Delev. cum Griesb. et aliis navies post elnaiot vulgo (ut 
sententia limitibus circumscriberetur) adjectum, in edd. multis 
(6 unc.) verss., Pesh., Ar. poL, Pers., JSfb., Vulg. omissum. 
Bloomf. says it is " omitted by almost all the best MSS." The 
evidence is clearly against its genuineness. 

" thus ; " xara ravra. See v. 23, note. 

4 " me." So Norton, Scarlett, Penn, M. De Wette, " micJi;" 
G. Fr., " qui m'entendez ; " De Sacy, " qui m'ecoutez ; " Ital., 
" che m' ascoltate." The sentence is defective unless the object 
of " hear" is expressed. The least change in the phraseology of 
the E. V., is made by inserting '" me " as a supplement. Other- 
wise, we may render with Thorn., Wakef., and Camp., "my 
hearers." The Belgic employs "this" as the supplement, "die 
Ldit] hoort." 

The conjunction xal of the Textus Receptus (before vtqoo- 
evxeafte), is canceled by Griesb., Tisch., Laclim., Knapp, Theile, 
Scholz. Schott has this note : "Kal ante rtfoasvzto&e vulgo 
additum recte omittitur apud Griesb. aliosque auctoritate 9 edd. 
unc. multorum minuscc. verss. Memph., Arm., Goth., Slav, ms., 
Vulg. ms., Sax., It. (insertum ex Matt. 5 : 44)." Bloomf. rejects 
it, remarking, that " the asyndeton much increases the gravity of 
the injunction." 

' " who abuse ; " rcav irtqgea&vrcov. Kendi, Scarlett. Ebb. 
, in verbo), " to abuse, insult ; " Liddell (in verbo), " to abuse, 

or insult wantonly." So the substantive ktfyeta signifies a 
threat, wanton abuse, or insult, amtumelia. Lidd. " Despitefully 
use " is quite obsolete, and if modernized into the forms of "spite- 
fully use," or. " treat injuriously," the phrase will not present the 
thought more accurately, than the simple term " abuse." The 
sense of the word as used here is general, being well rendered by 
Castalio " vos afficiunt injuria." 

E " also ; " xal. Wakefield, Penn. As the equivalent of xdl, 
" also," is properly construed with " the 'other," not with " offer," 
it should have this position in the sentence. The phrase is, in 
signification, the same as the familiar one " offer the other too," 
" offer also the other." In the very next sentence, the E. V. has 
given " also " (xai) a proper place, " to take thy coat also." In a 
great number of instances, the position assigned to " also " produces 
obscurity in the E. V. Inattention to the location of particles 
might naturally be expected, when the Latin had an extensive 
influence on the structure of English sentences, as it certainly had 
in the age of Tyndale and Coverdale. One fault of the Eevisers 
under James I. was that they made so few changes in the arrange- 
ment of the earlier translators. In the parallel (E. V.) Matt 
5 : 39, where the text is Sorts os yantaei foil rtjv Sejiuv aov 
aiayova, <n$k<fov avrcu ifyv ciUifv, the particle is conectly 
treated, " whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to 
him the other also." 

h " hinder not him who taketh away, thy cloak from taking 
away thy coat also;" cino rov aXqovros aov 1:0 Iftdiiov, xal 
cov wc&va. ftrj xco&vafis. Wakefield (except "would take"). 
Norton, "hinder not him who takes away your cloak from taking 
your tunic also." Bloomf. says : "At Kcolvarfs subaud. ano tov 

eiv." This use of the verb xtaivoi with an accusative of the 
person, and mtb with a genitive of the person is Hebraistic. See 
Gen. 23 : 6, tjxra rtbir-ift iiiap-n^. Sept., ov /aj xcoMoei TO 

tlfietov afaov. 2 Sam. 13 : 13, tjBa Wia"! ' Sept., ou fty 
XCOJ.VOTI ftt aato aov. The above arrangement is the natural one, 
in our language. 




away thy cloak, forbid not to take 
thy coat also. 

30 Give to every man that 
asketh of thee ; and of him that 
taketh away thy goods, ask them 
not again. 

31 And as ye would that men 
should do to you, do ye also to 
them likewise. 

32 For if ye love them which 
love you, what thank have ye ? 
for sinners also love those that 
love them. 

33 And if ye do good to them 
which do good to you, what thank 
have ye ? for sinners also do even 
the same. 

34 And if ye lend to them of 
whom ye hope to receive, what 
thank have ye? for sinners also 
lend to sinners, to receive as much 

35 But love ye your enemies, i 


i/xemoi>, KCU rov yj-Ttava pJq KOD- 

\ ' 30 v fc^ ~ ' ~ ' 

Avo"r]f. iravTi oe Tea aiTovvTi 
(re, 8l8ov KOI OTTO TOV aipovTos 

\ \ \ > / 97 > /j\ 

TO, era, fir) cmaLTfi. /cat itaucos 
tfe'Aere iva iroiaxTtv oi av- 
Qpcanroi, KCU. vfiels Trotetre avTols 

t / 32 "'v' ' ~ ^ 

o/j.ota>s. /cat et ayaTrare TOVS 
d-yaTTcovfas u/tay, \dpis 
ear// /cat -yap ol afJ.apTa>Xoi 
TOVS dya-jrcovTas avTovs dyaTrcu- 

33 \ > v /) ~ A 

<ri. /cat eav ayaooTroirjTG TOVS 
dyadoTTOLOvvTas vfjias, Trota vfuy 
^ayoty eorty /cat yap ol dfAapTCo- 
Aoi TO auro Trotoucrt. 3 * /cat eav 
Savel^rjTe Trap d>v e'ATrt^ere aTro- 
Aa/3eti', ,7ro/a 
KCU yap ol dfj.apTcoXoi d 
Aoty Savei^ova-iV) Iva 

TO. l<ra. 35 TrXrjv ay aware TOVS 


taketh away thy cloak, from tak- 
ing away thy coat also. Give 'to 30 
every one that asketh thee ; 
and from him who taketh away 
thy goods, 'demand them not. 
And as ye would that men .31 
should do to you, k so do ye, 
also to them. For if. -ye love. 32. 
those who love you, what 
'thanks have ye? '"for even 
sinners love those who love 
them. And if ye do good to 33 
those who do good to you, what 
"thanks have ye? -for even 
sinners do the same. And if 34 
ye lend to those from whom ye 
hope to receive, I'what, thanks 
have ye ? "for even, sinners lend 
to sinners, to . receive as much 
*in return. But 'love your ene- 35 

1 " to every one ; " xa-ni. Penn, Thomson, Wakef., Scarlett, 
Sharpe, Norton, Camp., Dick., Kend., M. Yulg., Mont, Eras., 
omm;" Belg., " een iegelijk;" Iber., "a todo." "Man" is 

1 " demand ; " anairei. Angus, Kendrick, Thomson, Sharpe, 
Camp. Bob. (Lex., in verbo), "to demand from." "With this 
word, " back," or " again " is superfluous. "Again " would signify 
that they had been demanded before. Bloomf. (N. Test.) : " The 
difference between ahav and anairav is that the former denotes 
to ask as a favor; the latter, to demand as a right." In the only 
other instance where this verb occurs (ch. 12 : 20), it is rendered 
" shall be required," literally, " they shall require," or " demand." 
Liddell (in verbo), " frequently also to demand of one." According 
to etymology, aitatrsco being compounded of catb, from, and 
aheco would signify "to ask from," i. e., "to demand." Heb. 
.N". Test.,. fein && ("do not exact"). 

k " SO do ye also to them ; " xal v/tsZs notefre avrols oftolcas. 
Thorn., Wakef., " even so." 'Opoieos is rendered " so " (E. T.) 
Luke 5 : 10. In this instance, " so " gives the exact sense of 
ofiolcos with clearness and force. It harmonizes with our present 
usus loguendi. Alternative, " do ye also in like manner to them." 

i "thanks;" X a^is. Thorn, Penn, Scarlett, Sharpe, Dick., 
Camp., Kend. As "thanks" has no singular form, "thank," 
which the E. V. derived from Tyndale, is incorrect. Xa$ts is 
evidently used in the sense of fuo&os, " recompense." So the 
parallel, Matt. 5 : 46, tiva. fuo&bv fyere. Compare v. 35 of this 
chapter, seal eatat 6 ftto&os vfiSv noivs. Kuincel paraphrases 
noia vftzv x<*$ e s iorl; " quid proemii a Deo consequimini ? " 
Ag an alternative rendering, " what thanks do ye deserve ? " 

though this perhaps is not sufficiently literal. Iber., " i que [don 
de] gracia [como recompensa] tendreis ? " 

m " for even ;" ya(>. Eob. (Lex., pay). In many instances, 

y.ul is intensive, equivalent to " too," " even," etc. This is the 

rendering of Thom.j Wesley, Wakef., Scarlett, Dick., Campbell, 

Kend., Angus, M., Mnrdock (Syr. j ). Heb. N. Test, 


" ." thanks." See v. 32, note. 

" for even," See v. 32, note. 

f " what thanks." See v. 32, note. 

1 " for even." See v. 32, note. 

r " TO return." Thomson, Penn, Campbell, Kendrick, M., 
Scholefield. As aitol,a.pp&v<o signifies simply to take, or have 
from any one (Bob., Lex.), the idea of back, again, or in return 
is not found in catb, but it belongs to the circumstances. Hence 
"in return" should be italicized, as supplementary. See Kob. 
(Lex., uneknl^co). The phrase "as much again" is ambiguous, 
as it is often used to convey the idea of double ttie quantity. If 
these words are retained, the order should be, " to receive again 
as much." In modern phraseology, T laa. would be " an equiva- 
lent," or, more literally, "an equal share." Liddell. Kuincel: 
" Ta loa eadem, paria Ji. loco significat sortem ipsam, petunias 
summam, sine usura et nleovao/icp, sine ullo angmento aut detri- 

mento." Bloomf.: "'Anoia^eiv is used for Inpav nno tivos." . 
"As much again" originated with Tyndale. 

" love." The insertion of the nominative " ye " is umicues- 
ary. It is not expressed in the text ; there is no emphasis 
which demands its use. So v. 27, where the same phrase occurs, 




and do good, and lend, hoping for 
nothing again ; and your reward 
shall be great, and ye shall be the 
children of the Highest: for he 
is kind unto the unthankful and 
to the evil. 

36 Be ye therefore merciful, as 
your Father also is merciful. 

37 Judge not. and ye : shallnbt 
be judged : condemn not, and ye 
shall not be condemned : forgive, 
and ye shall be forgiven : 

38 Give, and it shall be given 
unto you ; good measure, pressed 
down, and shaken together, and 


v/jLtov, kal a-yadorroieiTe, 
kal BaveiQre nyo'ev aireXTri^ov- 
Kal ecrrat 6 v/j.(ov 
uy, Kal ecre&de viol TOV jtyi- 


eVl TOVS a^aplcTTovf Kal -rrovrj- 
povs. 3 yiveo-de ovv oiKTipfj.o- 
ve?, kaBcas Kal o irarrjp vfj.a>v 
6lKTipfJ.a>v ecrfi. 3T kal jurj Kpi- 
vere, Kal ov [irj KpiQrJTe. /j,rj 

e, Ka ov JJUTJ KO.TO.- 
8ikourdrfTe. aTrbAuere, Kal O.TTO- 
38 Sidore, /cat 80- 
vfuv perpov KaXov, 
!re7rif(rfj.evov Kal 


mies, and do good, and lend, 
'hoping for nothing in return; 
and your reward "will be great, 
and ye will be "sons *of the 
Most High, for he is kind to 
the unthankful 'and r evil. 'Be 36 
therefore "compassionate, "even 
as your Father also is 'com- 
passionate. Judge not, and 37 
d ye will not be judged; con- 
demn not, and *ye will not be 
condemned ; forgive, and r ye 
will be forgiven. Give, and 38 
s it will be given to you ; good 
measure, pressed down, and 

ayana-te TOVS e%froovs vfiair. Kend., Camp., Wakef., Dick., 
Norton, Sharpe, Scarlett, M. 

* " hoping for nothing in return;" fu;o"ev curtefatfeovres. 
Norton. Bloomf. : "Hitchti&w may be for elxi&a' aato rivoe." 
Hence in return is italicized, as in v. 34. See note on that verse. 

" " will be ; " Zorai. Thorn., Wakef., Penn, Scarlett, Sharpe, 
Norton, Dick, Kend., M. 

T "ye will be;" eaea&e. Thorn., Wakef., Penn, Scarlett, 
Sharpe, Norton, Dick., Kend., M. 

* "sons;" viol. "Wesley, Wakef., Sharpe, Norton, Dick., 
Camp., Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M. Viilg., Mont., Eras., Beza, 
Castal., Schott, "filii;" De Wette, "Sohne;" S. Fr., "fils;" 
Span, and Iber., " hijos." This word should not be confounded, 
as it frequently is, in the E. V., with itcuSla. Heb. N. Test., 

133. Syr., 
" ! 

1 " of the Most High ; " vyiorov. Thorn., Scarlett, Norton, 
Camp., M. This title of God occurs frequently in the E. V. of 
the 0. Test., where the Heb. is 'ji^S, and the Sept. vyioros. 
See Numb. 24 : 16. Deut. 32 : 8. See Luke 1 : 32, note. 

1 " evil ; " novqgovs. Keud., Angus, Thelwall. As itovrj^ovs 
is closely connected with rovs axaplorovs by, the supple- 
mentary " to " of the E. V. is superfluous. So with the article 
" the," which is really a supplement, though it is not italicised. 
"To" is dropped by Thorn., Wesley, Wakef., Sharpe, Norton, 
Dick., Camp., M. "The" is dropped by Thorn., Dick., Camp. 
No article in Belg., De Wette, Span., Iber. 

" " Be ; " yiveo&e. Dick., G. and A. Campbell, Kendrick, M. 
11 Ye" is superfluous. See v. 35, note. Compare v. 31, vftcig 
toteTre, where the nominative is expressed, as emphatic. 

* " compassionate ; " olxrigftoves. Norton, Dick., Gray (note 
on Angus). The noun otxriffios signifies compassion, less strong 
(says Rob., Lex.) than tteos. The verb olxzei^co signifies " to 
fed pity for, or because, of a thing." Liddell. Bretsch. : ("Ab 

olxtos, commiseratio) misereor commiseror, seq. accusative Sept. 
pro drj^ 2 Eeg. 13 : 23, Ps. 103 : 13." It is distinguished from 
showing mercy, Rom. 9 : 15 (quoted verbatim from Sept., Esod. 
33 : 19, Heb. &rnx nffi'srnN 'tian'ii "jhs iiBK-nx wsn 1 ;.) 

Helena ov av l),eta, aai olxrci^jjaco ov &v oixrft^co, E. V., " I 
will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have com- 
passion on whom I will have compassion." In Jus. 5:11, the 
adjective olnrloutav is rendered (E. V.) " of tender mercy." The 
rendering " compassionate " distinguishes the word from Ufqjuan>, 
" merciful," and is appropriate. Olxii^ficov, properly refers to 
the feeling produced by the misery of others. Kuinoel: "Sitis 
igitur ergo, alias benigni, sicut et Pater vester benignus est. Voca- 
bulum Hebraicum o^ani quod Alexandrini reddiderunt nomine 
olxrcigftol, non tantum misericordiam iudicat, sed etiam amorem, 
benignitatem, cum quamplurimis in locis N. T. respondeat voca- 
bulo ibn h. e. favor, benignitas, benevolentia. Ps. 40 : 11 ; 
103 : 4. ' Hos. 2 : 19, hinc quoque olxri/o/tcov non tantum notat 
misericordiam, sed etiam omnino benignum, ut hoc loco." Bloom 
field : " Olxri^fcovEs should be rendered not ' merciful,' but ' com 
passionate,' pitying and relieving, according to your power, the 
distresses of others." 

b " even as ; " y.a&cbs xal. Thorn., Wakef., Dick., Thelwall 
Kad-cos is thus rendered (E. V.) Luke 1 : 2 ; 19 : 32 ; 24 : 24. 
John 5 : 23, etc. See Rob. (Lex., in verbo}. In this construction 
with xal, the latter is regarded as pleonastic in translation 

c " compassionate." See note a. 

d " ye will not be judged ; " ov ftfj K^iSijre. Wakef.. Penn, 
Scarlett, Norton, Dick., M. 

" ye will not be condemned ; " ov pf/ xaTaSmaa^re. 
Wakef., Penn, Sharpe, Norton, Scarlett, Dick., M. 

f " ye will be forgiven ; " aitoj.v&ijosad-e. Wakefield, Penn, 
Norton, Dick., M. 

" it will be given ; " Sod-^aerat. Wakefield (" there will be 
given "), Penn, Scarlett, Kend., M. 




running over, shall men give into 
your bosom. For with the same 
measure that ye mete withal, it 
shall be measured to you again. 

39 And hie spake a parable un- 
to them j Can the blind lead the 
blind? shall they not both fall 
into the ditch ? 

40 The disciple is not above 
his master : but every one that is 
perfect, shall be as his master. 


ey TOV KoTrov vp.>v. TK> yap 


39 Ears 8e TrapaftoXyv avroty, 
rjTt Svvarat rv(j)Xos TV<pAov 
iv; ov^L afiftorepoi ety fio- 

' ' 

'/! '-i ' 

ovvov TTf&ovvTai; 


' 40 





shaken together, and running 
over, ''will be given into your 
bosom. For 'by the same meas; 
ure 'with which k ye measure, 
"it will be measured to you 
again. And he spoke a para- 39 
ble to them, Can 'a blind man 
"guide a blind man? "Will 
not pboth fall 'into a ditch ? 
r A disciple is not abpve hi? 40 
'teacher ; but every one, 'fully 

h " will be given ; " Scooovotv. Wakef., Penn, Norton. The 
plural here is rendered as a singular, the verb being used as an 
impersonal. Kuincel : "dcuoovat, dabunt, impersonaliter, et more 
Hebrseorum dictum pro Sofrqaerai, dabitur, continget tibi; 
Hebrsei enim verba activa, numero plurali posita pro passivis 
usnrpant, vide Luc.. 12 : 48." So Luke 16 : 9, Ss^iavrat -v/tas 
sis ras altoviove majvas, " ye may be received into everlasting 
habitations." The E. V., by employing " shall men give," limits 
the thought of the text, and furnishes an improper subject to the 
verb. Bloomf. : " Not ' shall men give,' but, as Gataker explains, 
' dabitur wbis scilicet a Deo.' " Penn : " This idiomatic phrase- 
ology, employed by St. Luke, which he repeats in 0. 16 : 9, signi- 
fies only, will, or shall be given. The agent, or agents, to which 
the verb pertains, is implied in the context." De "Wette, " wird 
man schiitten ; " S. Fr., " en vous donnera ; " Italian, " sara 
data ; " Castal., " donabitur." 

1 " by." This corresponds with the Eevision of Mark, where 
the text has Jy before the dative. So Wiclif. 

J "with which;" a>. Thorn., Sharpe, Kend., Thelwall, M. 
S. Fr., " dont ; " Iber., " con que." 

k " ye measure ; " fier^sTts. Penn, Scarlett, Sharpe. This 
verb occurs nine times in the N. Test, and is rendered " measure " 
in six of these cases by the E. V. " Mete " is obsolete. It was 
first employed by Wiclif in this form, " bi which ye meten : it 
shall be meten." So Tyndale, " ye mete shall men mete to you 
again ; " Cranmer, " ye mete withall shall other men mete to you 
again ; " Genevan, " ye meate shal men, meate to you again." 
These versions are consistent in using " mete " in both instances. 

" "Will be." Wakef., Kend., Sharpe, Scarlett. 

i " a blind man ; " ivyibg. Wakef., Murdock. Belg., " een 
blinde ; " De Wette, " ein Blinder ; " Dan., " en Blind ; " G. and 
S. Fr., De Sacy, " un aveugle ; " Iber., " un ciego ; " Diodati and 
Ital., " un cieco." Heb. N. Test., "iss As no article occurs in 
the text, the indefinite is appropriate in English. " The blind " 
always indicates that the noun understood is a plural, according 
to bur usus loquendi; hence, common readers always suppose that 
the noun to be supplied is " persons," or " men." The supple- 
mentary " man " is essential to complete the sentence. 

" " guide ; " oSrjyctv. Penn, Dickinson, Camp., Angus. De 
Wette, "den Weg weisen;" S. Fr.,'"guider ;" Iber., "guiar." 

Liddell (in verbo) : " To lead one upon his way, hence to sliow one 
the way, guide. Metaph., to guide, teach." So bSyyos is a guide. 
Liddell. Bob. (in verbo) : "To lead the way, N. Test., to lead, to 
guide." So John 16 : 13 to nvevfta. iris ai.ri&rias, bdyyrjoef 
v/e&s els nZoav trjv aly&eiav, E. V., " the spirit of truth he 
will guide you into' all truth." Acts 8 : 31, eav fiy rts oSijytfari 
ftc; E. V., "except some man should guide me?" Here the 
obvious sense is " to teach," as it is in the passage under con- 
sideration. The noun oBqyol is rendered " guides," Matt. 23 : 16 
(bis) bSqyol Tuykol, E. T., " blind guides." Acts 1 : 16, neql 
'lovSa Toy yevopivov oSijyov, E. "V., " concerning Judas, which 
was guide." Eom. 2 : 19, Henoi&ds ie aeavrov odr/yov rvyitov, 
E. V., "And art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the 

11 " a blind man." See note 1. 

" will fall ; " nsaovinai. Kend., Angus, Thorn., Wakef. 
Wesley, Penn, Sharpe, Norton, Scarlett, Camp., M. 

f " both ; " ctfiyoTEQoi,. Thomson, Wakef;, Scarlett, Sharpe, 
Norton, Camp., Kend., Thelwall. According to our usual mode 
of speaking and writing, "they" is superfluous. De Wette, 
" werden nicht beide fallen ; " Iber., " no caeran entrambos ; " 
Span., " no caeran ambos." 

" into a ditch ? " tie Pofavov. Wakefield, Penn, Scarlett, 
Sharpei Camp., Angus,' Thelwall. Heb. N. Test., >Yta*3. Thorn, 
and Dick., "into a pit." The insertion of " the," before " ditch," 
is not authorized by the text. The thought is, " any ditch, or pit, 
which may be in the path of the blind men." 

r "A disciple ; " fia&iftrjs. As the noun is anarthrous, " the " 
was improperly inserted by Tyndale (probably from Luther'a 
"Der Junger"), and his rendering was copied by Cranmer, Gene- 
van, and the E. V. Wiclif, however, has "a disciple." So 
Wakef., Penn, Norton, Thelwall. De Wette, " ein Junger ; " 
Iber., " un discipulo ; " Ital., " II discepolo ; " Thorn, and Angus, 
" a scholar." It is to bs regretted that " learner " had not been 
made the equivalent of fcaS-ifr!;s by the early English translators 
instead of the Latin discip-ulus, " disciple." The latter term 
however, has become so current, that we must retain it instead 
of " learner," or " scholar." 

" teacher." See ch. 2 : 46, note. Thorn., Wakef., Sharpe, 
Scarlett, Norton, Camp., Dick., Kend., M., Thelwall. 

" fully prepared ; " nanifricfiSvoe. Belg., " volmaakt." The 



41 And why beholdest thou the 
mote that is in thy brother's eye, 
but perceiy,est not the beam that 
is in thine own eye ? 

42 Either ho^r canst thou say 
to thy brother, Brother, let me 
pull out the m,o ; te ;that is in thine 
eye, when thou thyself beholdest 
not ;the beam that is in thine own 
eye? Thou hypocrite, cast out ; 
first the beam out of thine own 
eye, and then shalt thou see clear- 
ly to pull out the mote that is in 
thy brother's eye. 

43 For a good tree bringeth 


oy p 8i8aQ-Ka\ps ayrpv. 
4 * Ti 8e ftXeireis TO Kap(f)pff TP ey 
T(j> o(j)da.\fi(j> Toy a8e^(j)oy p~ou, 

A t>\ R ' \ V " ) 5>/ 

Tr/y pe ppKov TTjy ey T%> lo.ico 

> " j /I \ ** * ' 4-2 ^ ^ 

p(f)6aA[JUp pv Kcvraypeis; rj TTWS" 

Svvacrai \eyetv T< aea> o~ov } 
'ASftye, a<pe? eK/SaAfi) Tp ifap- 
(f>ps TO ey T(j> p<pda\[t(S o~pv } 
ayrps rr/y cy r&> 6<f)0a\{jup p-py 
8oKoy py fiXeiray ; vTroKpiTo., 
e/q3aAe TrpatToy Trjy Spitpy eV rpj) 
p$0aA/4pu p-py, Kal TOTC <ta/3A- 
v^ety fKJ3a\f'iy TP Ka.p<f>os TO fy 
T<g p0#aA/,ia> Toy a8e\(f)ov (rov. 
4 ? oy yap fo~Ti 8ev8pov 


prepared, "will be as bis teach- 
er. T Now, why beholdest thou <u 
the "mote that is in thy 
brother's eye, but perceivest 
not the beam thaj is in thine 
own eye? *or how canst thou 42 
say to thy brother, Brother, let 
me ?cast out the mote that is 
in thine eye, when thou thy- 
self beholdest not the beam J in 
thine own eye? "Hypocrite! 
first cast out the beam out of 
thine own eye, and then thou 
wilt see clearly to cast out the 
mote that is in thy brother's 
eye. b For there is no good 43 

verb xaTafri^ca has the significations, to prepare, train, or 
furnish thoroughly, refit, adjust, restore. Liddell. The significa- 
tion of " fully instructed " has been applied to the participle here 
by some translators, as Thorn., M.;' others have "complete." 
Wakefield, " duly prepared"; " Norton, " properly prepared ; " 
Campbell, " every finished disciple ; " De "Wette, t' wird gebildet 
seyn ; " G. Fr., " tout disciple accompli ; " S. Fr., " mais forme, 
tout disciple sera," etc. ; Iber., " el que ha sido hecho per- 
fecto, sera," etc. Comparing this passage with John 15 : 20, 
the thought seems to be substantially this, " every disciple 
(learner), having been well trained (or disciplined), will be like 
his teacher." 

Tl)e above rendering is preferred, from a wish to keep near 
the text, by conciseness and literafity. To expand the thought, 
and render it more perspicuous, belongs to the commentator. 
Dr. Burton (as quoted by Penn) says : " If we compare Matt. 
10 : 24 (29), John 15 : 20, the whole passage seems to mean 
that the disciples were to expect to be treated as their master." 

" " will be ; " l<rcai. Thomson, Sharpe, Scarlett, Norton, 
Eend., M. 

r " Now, ; " Sb. Thorn., Wakef. This particle is regarded as 
continuative here ; hence it is properly rendered by " now." Eob. 
(Lex., in veroo). 

* It is deemed best to retain " mote," although it is not an 
exact equivalent of xdoyos. The passage has become a proverb 
in our language, and the moral lesson has no less force with 
" mote," than it would have with " straw," " chaff," " splinter," or 
" twig." Kagyos (from xapyco, " to wither ") signifies a dry 
italk (Lat. palea, festuca, stipula), dry twigs, straws, used by birds 
if. constructing their nests. Plur. husks, chaff, rubbish, Lat. quisqui- , 
Should it be deemed necessary to drop " mote," " splinter " 
be most appropriate. 

x " or ; " rj. Thorn., "Wakef., "Wesley, Sharpe, Scarlett, Penn, 
Norton, Camp., Dickinson, Kend v M. So parallel (B. V.) Matt. 


y " cast out ; " sxjSdHca. So rendered below in this verse (E. V.). 
Uniformity in translation is certainly possible here, as the same 
thought is represented by the verb in three instances. " Cast 
out" is etymologically exact, while it is the usual rendering of 
this verb in the N. Test. As an alternative, " take out," in the 
three instances. So Penn and. Thorn. 

1 " in thine own eye ; " Iv r<y oy&aififa qov. "Wakefield, 
Sharpe, Scarlett, Norton. The construction here is not the 
same as in V. 41, trp> Se Soxov irjv Iv tea iSica oy&aiftcy, where 
rr t v (secundo) is properly rendered as a substitute for the relative 
and verb (" that is "), but simply, -zfjv Iv rru oyd'alft^ aov 
Soxov. Hence the insertion of " that is " is not required by the 

a " Hypocrite ! " vnox^ira. " Thou," in the E. V., is super- 
fluous. Not used by Kend., Camp., Norton, Dick., "Wakefield, 
Thorn., "Wiclif, or Geneva. It was first introduced into Cran- 
mer's revision, and from that copied in the E. V. It probably 
originated from Luther's rendering, "Du Heuchler." There is 
no word equivalent to " Thou" in De Wette, G. Fr., S. Fr., De 
Sacy, Span., Iber., Diodati, ltd., Syr., or Heb. N. Test. 

" For there is no good tree ; " ov yQ lartv SevS^ov xtdbv. 
Wesley, Penn, Dick, ("sound tree"). Belg., "Want het en is 
geen gpede boom." Luther and De Wette, " Denn es ist kein 
guter Baum." S. Fr., " Car il n'y a point d'arbre bon." Iber., 
" Porque no hai arbol bueno." As an alternative rendering, 
" For that is not a good tree." So Bloomf., Camp, (omitting 
"for"), M. The above rendering is deemed exact, and more 
euphonious than several other modes of expression, which 
been adopted by translators. 

; 62 




not forth corrupt fruit ; neither 
doth a corrupt tree bring forth 
good fruit. 

44 For. every treeis known by 
his own fruit : for of thorns men do 
not gather figs, nor of a bramble- 
bush gather they grapes. 

45 A good man out of the good 
treasure of his heart, bringeth 
forth that which is good ; and 'an 
evil man out of the evil treasure 
of his heart, bringeth forth that 
which is evil: for of the abund- 





IK TOV I8iov kapTTov 

iroiovv Kapirov 


ov yap e akOLvv crvXX4yovo~L 
crvka, ov8e CK fiarov Tpvycacrt 
o-Td(f)vX^v. 45 6 ai.yd.6os av6pu>- 
iros fK tov ayddov drjcravpov rrjs 
KapBtas avTbv -jrpo^epei TO dya- 
0ov kai b Trov-irjpos avQ pantos e/c 
TOV Trovrjpov 0rj(ravpov TTJ? kap- 
Sias avTov 7rpo<j)pet TO Trovypov 
IK yap TOV irepio'areviJ.dTos TTJS 


tree 'which bearcth d bad fruit: 
nor is there a bad tree which 
beareth good fruit. For every 44 
tree is known by ''its own fruit. 
For f they do not gather figs 
from thorns, nor do 'they gather 
grapes from e a bramble. h The 45 
good man out of the good 
treasure of his heart, bringeth 
forth that which is good ; and 
'the evil man out of the evil 
treasure of his heart, bringeth 
forth that which is evil, for 
! out of the abundance of the 

c " which beareth ; " itoiotv. Thorn., Wakef., Norton. This 
arrangement belongs also to Penn and some others, who have 
employed "brings forth," or "produces," as the verb. The 
participial construction might be retained by saying, "nor is 
there a bad tree bearing good fruit." Still, according to our 
idiom, the finite verb is most familiar and perspicuous. "To 
bear " is preferable to " to bring forth," as more familiar, and in 
harmony with the- present usage of the English. 

d '"bad;" odn^ov. Though this adjective usually has the 
sense of -rotten, or decayed; in this case, from the adjuncts, and its 
contrast to xaibv, it seems to be used generically as equivalent 
to mtvriQos. Bretsch. (in verbo). So it is applied in Matt. 
13 : 48 to fishes which have been recently taken, but are naturally 
unfit for food. In this instance, they are not supposed to be 
"bad" (aciTt^a), because they had become putrid. 

" its." Unless in personifications, the application of " his " 
to things without life is a violation of grammatical propriety. 

t " they do not gather ; " ov avUlyovat. Kend., Scarlett, 
Wesley, Thelwall, Penn (" they gather not"). There is nothing 
in the text to authorize the use of " men " as a nominative. The 
pronoun " they " is therefore literal, and furnishes a good sense. 
Still, we may regard ovMfyovot as used impersonally, like Sta- 
aovai, in v. 38 (see note eo loco), and Ssgtovrai, ch. 16 : 9. In 
this case, the verbs ovtteyovat and rgvycoai should be rendered, 
" for figs are not gathered from thorns, nor grapes gathered from 
a bramble." These verbs are rendered impersonally by Thorn., 
Wakef., Camp. De Wette, " denn nicht von Dornen lieset man 
Feigen, noch von der Hecke herbstet man Trauben." S. Fr., 
" car on ne cueille pas des figues sur des epines, et on ne ven- 
dange pas des raisins sur un buisson." This rendering of the 
verbs, as impersonals, is submitted as an alternative version. 

* " : a bramble;" fiarov. Norton, Wesley, Angus, Dickinson 
("the bramble"). Bonos is a generic term applied to any 
prickly bush, or shrub. Hob. (Lex.). It is defined " bramble," by 
Robinson, Liddell. Bretsehneider, " rubus, sentis." The addition 
of "bush" to this word in the E. V. is superfluous. See 

Webster (Diet, "Bramble"). As cuiav&tov is rendered simply 
by "thorns" (not "thorn-bushes"), this word (fl&rog) should 
correspond with that form. 

h " the good man ; " 6 aya&bs av&Qtortos. Camp., Norton, 
Wakef., Thorn., Kend. Belg., " de goede mensche ; " De Wette, 
" Der gute Mensch ; " S. Fr., " 1'homme bon ; " Iber. and Span., 
" el hombre bueno ; " Diodati, " L' uomo buono." The article 
was improperly omitted by Tyndale (perhaps from regard to 
Luther's version, " ein guter Mensch"), and his mistake was 
followed by the subsequent Eug. versions, down to that of 1611. 
The phrases, "the good man," and "the evil man," not only 
accord with the text, but are in harmony with our idiom. See 
E. V., Prov. 11 : 17 ; 16 : 19. 

1 " the evil man ; " 6 ytavrjQas av&^toaog. The reasons as- 
signed for retaining the definite article in rendering 6 aya&os 
avS-oioTtos, are equally applicable here. See last note. Thus 
Thorn., Wakef., Norton, Camp., Kend. The article is retained 
also by Belgic, Do Wette, G. and S.French, De Sacy, Span., and 

J "out of;" lx. So this word is properly rendered twice in 
this verse, i. e., where it occurs in ex rov aya&ov, and & TOV 
novrjqov. So Wesley, Sharpe, Camp. So Matt. 12 : 34, ex ya$ 
TOV mgiaosvftaTos T?fs xapdias is rendered in the E. V., "for out 
of the abundance of the heart," etc. The rendering in the E. V 
is an unnecessary departure from the usual signification of ex, 
It, however, originated with Wiclif. He was copied verbatim 
by Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva, Rheims, and E. V. As Wiclifs 
version was made from the Vulgate, on looking at that, we find 
the reason for the rendering (which has been censured) in the 
two prepositions by which the Latin translator expressed ex : 
" Bonus homo de homo thesauro malus homo de malo thesauro 
ex abundantia enim cordis." Erasmus, with better judgment, 
has " ex homo thesauro ex malo thesauro ex abundantia enim 
cordis." The renderings of Beza, Castalio, and Schott are the 
same; ex being the equivalent of ex in the three instances. The 
rendering is uniform in Syriac (,_ic), Heb. N. Test, (a), Belg. 
("uit"), De Wette ("aus"), S. Fn*("de"), Iber. ("de"). 




ance of the heart his,mputh speak- 

46 And why call ye me Lord, 
Lord, and do not the things which 
I say? 

47 Whosoever cometh to me, 
and heareth my sayings, and 
doeth them, I will shew you to 
whom he is like. 

48 He is like a man which built 
an house, and digged deep, and 
laid the foundation on a rock : 
and: when the flood arose, the 
stream beat vehemently upon that 
house, and could not shake it : for 
it was founded upon a rock. 

49 But he that heareth and 
doeth not, is like a man that with- 


p, AaAet TO aroyiia av- 


6 TL 5,e fie KttXeiTf) 
Kypije, KCU ov TToieire a 
47 Tray 6 pxp/j.evos Trpos (J.e 

p.ov TCOV Xoycov Kal iroitav 


ff 48 

v/uv rvi ecrrv 

OLKiav,. os. 
Kal f@advi> e, KCU. edj) 

rrjv Trerpq.v TrAij/i/tupccs e 
, Trpocrepprj^ev 6 TTOTO.- 
fj.os ry OIKIO. Keu>i7, KOI OVK 
'ta~)(y<r aaXevaai avTrjV' rede- 
/u,eA((TO yap ETTI rrjv irerpav. 

49 ' S\v > ' v v r 

o oe aKovaras /cat p.r) iroir)(ras 
camv avdpcoircp 


heart his mouth speaketh. k N ow 46 
why do ye call me Lord, Lord, 
and do not the things which I, 
say.? Whoever cometh to me, 47 
and heareth my 'words, and 
doeth them, I will show you 
"whom he is like. He is like 48 
a man "building a house, who 
"dug deep, and laid 'a founda- 
tion 'on the rock ; and when 
there came a flood, the stream 
burst 'against that house, and 
could not shake it, for it was 
founded on, the rock. But he 49 
who heareth and doeth not, is 
like a man who built a house 

* " Now ; " 8e. See v. 41, note. Thorn. 

i " words j " loycav. Thorn., Penn, Norton, Scarlett, Sharpe, 
Wakef., Kend., JM., Thelwall. From the frequency with which 
the Saviour has used Uyos (in singular and plural) to indicate 
his message from heaven to men the commandments from the 
Father, which he made known it is desirable to employ " word " 
and " words." as an equivalent, as far as the idiom of our language 
will allow. This hag been properly done in many cases in 
the B. V. It is to be regretted that those, who made that 
version, had not been more uniform in their renderings. See 
Mark 8 : 38. John 3 : 34 ; 5 : 47 ; 6 : 63 ; 12 : 47, 48 17 8 
Acts 5 : 20. 

10 " whom." According to present usage, " to " should not be 
expressed before " whom." After such verbs as show, bid," etc., 
there is an ellipsis of the preposition, when it would come 
immediately before the pronoun. This rale of our language is 
observed in the B. V., 1 Sam. 16 : 3. 2 Kings 7 : 12. Dan. 
10 : 21. Exod. 25 : 40, The preposition is properly omitted by 
Ihom., Wakeneld, Scarlett, Norton, Penn, Campbell, Kendrick, 
Angus, M. 

" "building;" olxoSpfiovvri. Norton, Kend., Scarlett, M., 
Dick, ("erecting"). 

" dug deep ; " taxa^e xal epddvve. Wakef., Scarlett, Dick 
Kena.,M. " Digged " is obsolete. 

" " a foundation ; " "& eft iho v . There is nothing in the text to 
warrant the use of ife indefinite article here, any more than in 
the next verse, where & efte liw is rendered " a foundation," in the 
. V. Thorn., Sharpe. Luther, " ohne Grund ; " G. Fr,, " sans 
Im faire de fondement ; " Iber., " un fundamento." Heb. N. Test 

" on the rock ; " btl rfv nh 9<af . Thorn., Wakef., Sharpe, 
Camp., Dick, Kend., Angus, Thelwall, ; M. Luther, auf 

den Fels;" De Wette, "auf den Felsen;" G. Fr., "sur la 
roche;" S. Fr., "sur le rpcher;" De Sacy, "sur la pierre;" 
Span, and Iber., " sobra la roca." The relation of comparison or 
contrast often gives a definite signification to words in Greek (am?, 
probably to most languages) which demands a corresponding 
particle to indicate that fact. In this case, nh^av is presented 
as in contrast to yfjv, v. 49. Each of the words, therefore, has 
the article. 

r " there came a flood ; " niqftfivgas yevoficvqs. "Arose " is 
ambiguous in this construction. Common readers suppose the 
thought is that the water increased, or swelled upward, whereas 
the idea is simply that an inundation took place. Thus in the 
parallel, Matt. 7 : 27, y.arsftr] fj fiqam, *J rfld-ov ol itorafiol, 
" the rain came down, and the rivers (streams) came," etc. This 
description of a tempest was taken from facts which were 
familiar to the hearers. Thunder, hail, tempests of wind and rain 
occur during the winter in Palestine. Kivalets swell to torrents, 
and the houses of the poorer class, being slightly built, fall in 
great numbers. IZlijfi/ivfa is not restricted by the Hellenistic 
writers to the Jlovi of the sea, the tide, which is its sense in classic 
usage. Kuinoel : "Hhififtv^a quo vocabulo Aquila Deut. 33 : 19 
Hebr. saia expressit, dicitur de exundatione aquarum qualibet, 
maris, fluniinis, lacus." So JIBIZJ used here, in the Heb. N. Test. 
The rendering "a flood" is demanded by the text; the noun, 
being anarthrous. Thorn., Sharpe, Wesley. 

" burst;" n^oac^>;Sev. Rob. (Lex.), in verbo, "to break, or 
'mrst toward, or upon any thing, to dash upon, or against." If 
'beat" should be retained, then "vehemently" should by all 
means be dropped. This word is now restricted" to mental acts. 

' "against;" ngos (in composition}. Thorn., Wakef., Perm, 
Dick., M. So rendered (E. V.) in v. 49. 



out a foundation built an house 
upon the earth, against which the 
stream did beat vehemently; and 
immediately it fell, and : the ruin 
of that house was great; 


Now when he had ended all his 
sayin'gs in the audience of tlie 
people, he entered iato Caper- 

2 And a certain centurion's 
servant, who was dear unto him, 
was sick, and ready to die. 

3 And when he heard of Jesus, 
he sent : unto him the elders of 'the 



cravri olic'iav em TrjV yr\v 

TI irpoa-eppr)ev o iro- 
evdecoy Ifretre, /cat 
pfyfui TTJS 



CHAP. vn. 

8s eTrXrjpsaore Travrd 
T pijfJLara avrov els rajr okoay 
TOV Xuov, elarjXdev elf IZcarep- 
KUTovTap^ov Be TL- 
vos Sov\6f Kdkcoff e'xaiv ^tteAAe 
or T\V avrq evn/aoy. 
3 aKOvaras 8e irepl TOV 'Iijcrov, 
aTrearetAe -jrpos avTov7rpe<rftvTe- 

on the earth, without a founda- 
tion ; against which the stream 
burst, and immediately it fell, 
and "great was the ruin of that 


Now" when he had 'finished 1 
all his sayings b in the hearing 
of the people, he entered into 
Capernaum. And a certain 2 
centurion's servant; e who was* 
dear to him',. d being sick; was 
about to die. And 'having 3 
heard of' Jesus, he' : seht ;s elderr 

"and great was the ruin of that house;" lyiveio 1 vo 
ifjs olxlas Ixelvris ftsya. Thomson. This arrangement 
similar to that of Matt. 7 : 27, is adopted for euphony, and ease 
in enunciation. So WakeSeld has, " and the crash of that house 
was great;" 'Pfjyfta signifying a rending, breach, or ruin. Bob 
(Lex.). It is not to ba confounded with' ^Js, in signification 
the latter being active, while the former indicates the \result of the 
action, like our terms " a breaking," and " a breach." G. and S 
Pr., " la mine ; " Span, and Iber., " la ruina ; " Diodati, " la sua 
ruina;" Ital., "larovina." 

a " he had finished ; " In^toas. Bob. (Lex., in loco, 
Thomson', Norton, Scarlett, G. and A. Campbell. Bras., " con- 
Buminasset." Alternative, " had completed." 

b " in the hearing ; " els -cas axoas. Thomson, Norton, Penn, 
"Wesley, Kend., Thelwall, Angus, M. This is the only instance 
where the word is rendered " audience," in the B. V. 
occurs Matt. 13 : 14. Eom. 10 : 17 (bis). 1 Cor. 12 : 17 (bis). 
Gal. 3 : 2, 5, etc. '.' Audience " originated with Tyndale, and 
was copied by Cranmer, Geneva,- and B. V. It is now restricted 
to diplomatic language. 

* " who was dear to him ;" os rjv avrcji gprifios. The render- 
ing of the E. V. is retained, as it affords a good sense ; still ety- 
mology (cifa],value,'worth, or price] would authorize the form, 
" who was much prized or valued by him."- Tie change' perhaps 
maybe of too little moment, to require an alteration in the E. V. 
In point of exactness, it may deserve consideration. The sense of 
being "honorable," or "honored," which sometimes belongs to 
ctnifios, is not appropriate in connection with Sovlosf Sharpe, 
"was valuable to him;" Norton, "whom he much valued;" 
Scarlett, " who was esteemed by Iiim j " Dick., " who was greatly 
esteemed by him;." Vulgate, Beza, " qui illi erat pretiosus;" 
Castal., " quern servum ille in pretio habebat." The language of 
the E. V; probably originated in the rendering of Erasmus, " qui 
illi erat charus." De Wette, " der ihm sehr werth war ; " Thel- , 

wall, " was precious." Heb. N. Test., Ij3*rt-' Compare Zech. 

which I was prized by them "). 

d " bemg sicky' xasKas &GW. M., Thelwall. The participial 
coBstructidn is literal, accurate^ and mo're euphonious than that of 

4 "about to die;" J^M^E vehevrav. KendricK, Thelwall. 
Yulg., Schott, " erat moriturus ; " Beza, " moribundns erat ; " 
G. Fr., " s'en allait mourir" (" was going to die") Iber., " iba 
a morir." The radical sense of fieUco is " to be on the point to 
do." Bob. (Lex.). Although there are cases where with an 
infinitive, it may be rendered by a simple future, there is still, in 
strictness, a difference of signification, as jtoirjaco, "I will do," 

t ; fieD.ia noieTv, " I am (now) about to do." So c/tsU.oi> not- 
av, " I was (then) about to do." Buttmann, |l37, note 11. The 
above rendering is literal, and exact in presenting the thought of 
the text. "We have a colloquial phrase which! closely 'corresponds 
with the Greek, " he' was going to die." 

r "having heard;" axovoae. Angus, Thorn'., Norton, Scar- 
lett, Penn, Camp., Dick. By this re'ridering, the 'participial con- 
struction of the text is preserved, and, at the same time, an 
inaccuracy of the E. V. removed. The' phrase, " when he heard 
of Jesus, he sent," implies, according to our idiom, that tJie hear- 
ing and the sending took place at the 'same time': This' results 
from the form of the adverb " when," equivalent to at the time. 
This inaccuracy frequently occurs in the E. V. Our usus. loquendi 
demands "having heard," rather than "hearing." The phrase- 
ilogy of the B. V., in this instance, is derived from" Tyndale, as 
lis was from the Vulg., " cum audisset." 

" elders ; " rtpsofivTefovs. The noun is anarthrous. There 
s no exigentia loci, which demands the use of "the," before 
ciders." No article employed by Sharpe, Scarlett, Kendrick, 
"Wesley, Camp., M., Thelwall, De "Wette, 'Iber. ' 




Jews, beseeching' him tha't he 
would- coine and heal his servant. 

4 And wlien they came to Je- 
sus, they besougfrt him instantly, 
saying, That he was worthy for 
whom he should do this : 

5 For heldveth our nation, and 
he hath Milt us a 1 synagogue; 

6 Then Jesus went with them. 
And when fie was now not fa'r 


povs Tcoi> 'lovSaliov, epcaiT&v av- 
TOV, OTrcbf lX0a)i> 8iacf<x>(rr) TOV 
Sov\oi/ avtov. 4 61 Se 

-irpbs TO'V 'ir)<rovv irdpe- 
avrov cnfovddta)?, Xeypii- 

1 r\ US' i> > ...... f 

rer, UTL afyos ecrriv to 

5 ayoara. yap TO edvos 
fffixolij kai TT]V aiivdycoyTjv avros 
6 '0 8e 'Ir- 

(fovs eTrojoeuefo crvv avTais- r/8r] 


of the Jews to hint, h tO a ; sk Him 
to come and heal his serva'rit 1 . 
And when' they cam'e to Jesflis, & 
'they besought him earnestly, 
saying, 'He is wortlry that tho'ii 
shouldest do' this for him : for 5 
he loveth our nation, and k he' 
himself "built us our synagogue. 
And Jesus went with them, arid 6 
when he was m now not far from ; 

h " to ask ; " ietoriSr; Angus, Wakefield. G. and S. Fr., 
pour le prier ; " Ital., " a pregarlo." As this participle is in 
the 'angular, and refers to the centurion, by using the infinitive, 
the common rea'der naturally construes it with: " he sent " (a 
orsde), in accordance with the text. It is rendered by the 
infinitive in the versions of Norton (" to beg") and Camp : . (" to 
entreat"). Castalib employs the supine "oratum." De Wette 
renders'" the participle by the finite verb, " und ersuchte." The 
English : equivalent 1 " he entreated him" is ; submitted as an alter- 
native rendering; The suppbsitidn that igcoraiv is used for 
tyarcovras; does' not seem necessary to' remove aB apparent diffi- 
culty in the constructibri. The c6mmon : maxim,' Qui fa'cit per 
alium fa'cit per se, will account for the singular iga-cJiv. "Asli " 
is the ordinary sigriification' 6f egta-cato. Ebbi, Liddell: 

' "they besought him 1 earnestly ;" Tca^cxaidvii atrov driov- 
Saicos. Thorn., KendV Angus, "Wesley, Norton, Campbell, and 
Thorn., " earnestly besought'." Siidvdaitos is 'rendered "earnest- 
ly" by Wakef., Scarlett, Penri, Dickinson. Rob. (in verbo), 
" speedily, i: e., earnestly, diligently." " Instantly'" is' no longer 
used 1 in this sfensel 

1 "He is wbrttiy that thodi shouldest do this for' him ; " a|>s 
Imtv y naget-et -tovro. Sharpe, M., Kend. Tulg. and Eras., 
"dignns : dsti t ut' : hoc illl p'rSstes';" Beza,- " dignus est cui hoc 
praebeaV;" Scfrbtt, " dightis ; estj wii Hbcpifastes'i " Nortdii; " lie 
is wortlijr that you should 5 do this ; for him ; " De'Wette, "Er 
verdie'net; diiss dtf ih'ni' dieses' l gewahrest ; "' Belg'., " Hij is waatd'ig 
dat gij hein dat doeli ; " Pen'n, " He' is worthy that'thou slibuldest 
grant iim'thisV' XTageS-ei is ; the Attib form of 2nd pers". 1st fut. 
indicative, instead' of itafiirj. Buttmanii (Gram., 103; ILt 3) : 
"The Attics'' ha(Ith' further 'peculiarity' that instead bf ?i, con- 
strued from sat, tlief wr'ote' ." However, the' reading' liaQlgsi 
in the case be'fbre us, is probably sp'urious. Sclibtt says : " Pro 
vulg. Kapilju (qutB 1 fp'rin'a'' pe'rsona 2. Futuri Medii in hoc verbb 
usitata est) curil Knappioi ifeyerb; Lachni. dedimHs" an^^ 
auctoritate edd: A 1 . Bi D. L. X. plunmum minuscc." The E: V. 
render's the verb as though it were' 3rd pers. flit., " he should do," 
mistaking the Attic form of the Textus Receptus (2nd pers. fut. 
midd.) for fut. ind. active! None of the earlier Englisli versions 
made this mistake] Tyndale, Crarimer, Geneva, and Rhe'ims have 
" thoa shouldst ; " Wic'lif,' " that thou grant." "Ori, before Zi6s, 
should nbibd'translated"'that,"'as r it is merely the sign of quota- 

tion. In' addition 1 to the authorities above cited for regarding the 
verb as 2nd pers. fut. midd., we may add Syriac j^asfzj 601 ]& 
\ I JCT ai. (Murdock, " He is worthy that thbu shouldest do this 
for him ")'. Castalio, Wakefield. Luther, " Er ist es wefth, dass 
du ihm das erzeigest." 

k " hie himself built ; " avros tyxoSofirjoev. Kend., M., Angus, 
Thelwali. Belgl, " heeft zelve gebouwd ; " De f3acy, " il nous a 
meme bati ; " S. Fr., " c'est lui qui a edefie ; " Iber., " el m5smo 
edefico." These renderings, with greater or less accuracy, bring 
out the' emphasis of avros, which is overlooked in the E. V. 
Bengel : "Avros, ipse, ultro. Hoc majus quiddam et rarius, sedr- 
ficare synagogam, quam diligere nationem; cy>coS6fiijasv, cedijica- 
vii, .suo sumtu aut jussu." Vulg., Mont., Eras., Schott, " ipse 
aedificavit ; "' Wesley, Wakef., Penn, " hath himself built." 

1 " built us our synagogue ; " -ir/v owciycoytjvivxodo/cijosv 
rjfiTv. Seholefield, M. Literally, " built for us the'.synagogue." 
The article n^ here may properly be rendered by the possessive 
pronoun " oiir." Kuhner, 244. 4 : " The article very often' takes' 
the place of the possessive pronoun, when ; it is connected with such" 
substantives as' naturally belong to a particular person mentioned 
in the sentence. In such cases, the English use the possessive 
pronoun." See Crosby (Greek Gram., 482). The article was 
probably used here, because there was only one synagogue in the 
place. Hence the expression was definite. Kend., Angus, " built" 
our synagogue." In the following versions,' the article is rendered" 
literally by the definite, Belg., Luther, De Wettej G. and'S'.Fr., 
Iber., Ital. The harshness of the rendering,- in' English, " built 
us (or " for us") the synagogue," renders the form, given abbv'e, 

" "now;" TJSrj. This particle has beeii' retained,' with" some 
hesitation. It se'e'ms : obvious that our wsiis loquendi demands^ 
that "now" (or "already")' should be dropped^ It would 5 
require, " and when' Jesus' was not far from tHe house?' Th'oug 
?jStj may not be pleonastic, strictly speaking, yet' the r English 
equivalent is' so, in' this construction. I' suggest, therefore, that 
" now" be omitted. This hds been done by Norton an'd Wake-' 
fieldi Murdock (although the Syriac" agrees exactly with the 
Gi-eek, ^Ij ,a) renders,'" when he was ! not far frbiri the' house.'' 
Tlie'Heb/N. Test., in good taite, avoids in'trodiicing th'e Greek" 
idiom, by 'saying' ri'i'an 'ja pirTn ri'jij KVx>Vi 




from the house, the centurion sent 
friends to him, saying unto him, 
Lord, trouble not thyself: for I 
am not worthy that thou shouldest 
enter unto my roof ; 

7 Wherefore neither thought I 
myself "worthy to come unto thee ; 
but say in a word, and my servant 
shall be healed. 

8 For I also am a man set un- 
der authority, having under me 
soldiers, and I say unto one, Go, 



iKavos ta vwo rr/v 
7 810 ov8e 

ov p.a.Kpav 
O.TTO Trjf oiKiaSy eirejj.\lse irpos av- 
rov o tKarovTapxp? (j)i\ovs } Ae- 
ycov avTtS, JZvpie, fj.r/ er/cyAAoir 
ov -yap flfji 
a-Tyr)v /JLOV 
ifiavrov rj^icacra. irpos ere f\0ei 
dXXa i7T Xo-ycp, /cat lad^a-erai 
o TraFy fiou. 8 /cat 'yap eyco ai>- 
Opomos elp.1 VTTO e^ovariav racr- 
tro/iei'oy, %a>v vir ffiavrov (rrpa- 
Ttcoray, /cat Xe-yca TOVTGI, IJopev- 


the house, the centurion sent 
friends to him, "to say to him,. 
Lord, trouble not thyself: for 
I am not worthy that thou 
shouldst enter under my roof; 
"therefore tl did not. think my- 7 
self worthy to come to thee ; 
but 'speak the word, and my 
servant will be healed. "For & 
even I, 'who am a man placed 
under authority, having 'sol- 
diers under me, "even I say to 

n " to say ; " feytav. Norton, Camp., Sharpe (" to tell him "). 
The construction here is the same as fytorwv av-cov, v. 3. See 
note on that verse. 

" therefore ;" &o. "Wakef., Bob. (Lex.). "Wherefore" is 
obsolescent. The word is rendered " therefore " in E. "V. of Luke 
1 : 35. Acts 10 : 29. Bom. 2 : 1 ; 4 : 22. 2 Cor. 12 : 10. Heb. 
6:1; 11 :12. 

P " I did not think myself worthy ; " ovSe ipavtov rfeitoaa. 
Thorn. S. Fr., " C'est pourquoi je ne me suis meme juge digne." 
This rendering is preferable for simplicity and euphony. Should 
it be deemed important to give ovSs an emphasis (as a negative ; 
see v. 9, note), we can render, "I did not think myself even 
worthy," etc. In reference to " neither," in constructions like the 
present, "Webster (Diet., art. " Neither ") says : " In the last mem- 
ber of a negative- sentence, neither is improperly used for nor; 
for not, in the first clause, refers only to that clause, and the 
second negative refers only to the second clause." OiiSe is ren- 
dered "not" (E. V.) Matt. 25 : 45. Mark 12 : 10. Luke 12 : 27 
(bis) ; 23 : 40. John 1:3. 1 Cor. 4:3; 14 : 21. Heb. 8 : 4. 
1 John 2 : 23. 

1 " speak the word ; " eiaze ).6yca. Thorn., Wakef., Norton. 
As 16y eg is anarthrous, it seems improper to insert " the," before 
" word," as has been done by some late translators, unless it is 
italicized as a supplement. The literal rendering " speak by 
word " does not accord with our idiom. The thought is exhib- 
ited in our language by " speak the word." So in the parallel, 
Matt. 8 : 8, dne ),6ya> (Text of Griesb., Kuinoel, Tittm., Knapp, 
Theile, Tisch., Lachm., Scholz), E. V., " speak the word." De 
Wette, " sprich nur ein Wort ; " S. Fr., " dis une parole ; " De 
Sacy, " dites settlement une parole ; " Span., " di una parole ; " 
Ital., " di una parola ; " Tyndale, Geneva, Bheims, " say the 
word ; " Gran., " say thou the word." Kuincel (on Matt. 8:8): 
"Pro loyov legendum est loyt? elite loyy die verbo (Vulg.), 
verbo impera, i. e. simpliciter jube. Etiam Grseei scriptores 
formula elneiv ioyea utuntur, ita, ut loycp redundet." It is not 
probably advisable to make the change, which this would demand 
in the language of the E. V., and to say, " command, and my 
servant will be healed." We can retain the idiom, as that of our 
own language approximates sufficiently to allow the more literal 

version. The translator of the Iberian made an ingenious effort 
to bring out the idea of commanding, yet to retain the equivalent 
of Uyta, " manda con una palabra," etc. 

r " For even I ; " xal ya$ fyca. Thorn., Wakef., Norton, Penn, 
Camp. See ch. 6 : 32, note. Mont, and Beza, " etenim ego." 
So Bob. (Lex.), yac, (in verbo, ya/a). "Also" makes the 
language of the centurion equivalent to " I as well as thyself am 
set under authority," etc. There is no probability that he 
thought of any subordination to the will or control of another, 
except in his own case. Kuincel very justly remarks on the 
parallel, Matt. 8:9: "Etenim ego homo (miles) imperio subjectus, 
si quendam militum meorum mihi subjectorum jubeo ire aliquo, 
etc. Comparatio ipsa non justo uterius extend! debet, sed mens 
et sententia centurionis, more militum loquentis, haac est ; Tibi 
parent leges naturae, tu, utpote insignis propheta, facile, etiam 
absens, servum meum sanare potes; etenim mihi, neutiquam 
tecum comparando, parent imperio subject!, et faciunt, quascun- 
que iis praecipio, quanto magis ergo cum tua potestas plane 
eximia sit, tibi parebunt morbi, ita ut sine mora servum meum 
sanare possis." 

" who am a man placed under authority ; " avfycortos elfu 
vno Qovoiav. By using the supplement " who," the thought of 
the passage is fully exhibited, and the drift of the centurion's 
argument is at once seen. Norton has, " who am a man under 
command ; " Wakefield, " that am a man under authority ; " 
Thomson, " who am myself under command." Unless, at the 
commencement of the sentence, is dropped (as has been done by 
Sharpe), an arrangement of the passage like the above seems 
necessary, to render the thought clear in English, and avoid the 
difficulty mentioned in the last note above. S. Fr., " car moi- 
meme je suis un homme place sons autorite, ayant sous moi 
des soldats ; et je dis a Tun : va et il va," etc. " Placed " is 
deemed a more appropriate rendering of raaaouevos than " set," 
as it is in harmony with present usage. So Bloomf. on Matt. 


' " soldiers under me ; " m Ipavrbv. This is the natural 
order in our language. Thorn., Wesley, Norton, Sharpe, Scar- 
lett, Camp., Penn, and Wakef. have " soldiers." 

1 " even ; " By rendering xal " even," as in the preceding 



and he goeth; and to another, 
Come, and he cometh ; and to my 
servant, Do this, and he dooth it. 

9 "When Jesus heard these 
things, he marvelled at him, and 
turned him about and said unto 
the people that followed him, I 
say unto you, I have not found so 
great faith, ho, not in Israel. 

10 And they that were sent, 
returning to the houss, found the 
servant "whole that had been sick. 

11 And it came to pass the day 
after, that he went into a city 


i Tropeverai' KCU aAAo>, 

TTOtfi. 9 'A.KOV(TOLS 6 TOLVTO. 6 

'Ir)(rovs edav/JLatrev avrov KOU 
T(S qiKoXovOovvTi aural 
, Aeyca vplv, ovde tv 
TCJ) 'IcrparjX TO<ravTT)v TTLCTTIV ev- 
pov. 10 Kaii vTTo&Tptyavre? ol 
7refj.(f)dei>TGp ely rrjv OLKOV i>pov 
TOV d<rdevovi>Ta 8ov\ov vyial- 

11 TL7- .IT-*/ > ^ 

KAI fyei/ero / rg 
eVo/jeuero eiy TroXw 


this one, Go, and he goeth ; and - 
to another, Come, and he com- 
eth ; and to my servant, Do 
this, and he doeth it. And * 
Jesus T hearing "this, wonder- 
ed at him, and ^turning, said 
to the crowd that followed him, 
I say to you, 'not even in Israel 
have I found "such great faith ! 
And those, who were sent, re- 10 
turning to the house, found the 
servant, who had been sick, 
b well. And it came to pass n 
'the next day, that *he was 
going "to a city called Nain ; 

member of the sentence, the passage becomes perspicuous, and 
the foundation of the centurion's hope, that his servant would be 
relieved, is seen at once. It may, however, be objected, that in 
this case the English pronoun "I" is emphatic, while the Greek 
does not express tyca, as Sa commonly done, when that pronoun has 
an emphasis. The answer to this is, that though emphasis in 
pronouns is usually indicated by writing them, yet, when the con- 
struction of a sentence gives us an emphatic pronoun (which is 
expressed), and the following member of the sentence is closely 
connected by the conjunction, and its verb has the same nomina- 
tive, this nominative is really emphatic, though the emphasis is to 
be supplied by the reader's mind. This common-sense principle is 
applicable to Greek, Latin, and other languages, which, for the 
sake of conciseness, do not express the proaotia, when the omission 
would not produce obscurity. If, after this explanation, the ren- 
dering of this verse is deemed unsatisfactory, I would suggest the 
following, " For even I myself am a man placed under authority, 
having soldiers under me, and I say to this one," etc. 

"hearing;" axovaas. Thorn., Wesley, Sharpe, Scarlett, 
Dick., Camp., Kead., M. 

" this ; " wtvra. Norton, Kend. Belg., " dit ; " De Wette, 
" difises ; " Span, and Iber., " esto ; " G. Fr., " ce que (Jesus 
ayant entender)." See ch. 5 : 27, note. 

x " wondered ; " e&avfiaosv. WaksSeld, Norton, Scarlett, 
Kend, M. So (E. V.) Matt. 15 : 31. Luke 2 : 18 ; 4 : 22 ; 
9 : 43, etc. " Marvelled," at present, is seldom used, except in a 
ludicrous sense. 

* " turning ; " OTgaipeis. Thorn., Wesley, Sharpe, Campbell, 
Angus, M. No qualifying term like " round about " (which is a 
tautology), or " round " is necessary here. This participle occurs 
Matt. 16 : 23, 6 Se or(>a<pels, and is rendered simply, " but he 
turned," in the E. V. So Luke 7 : 44 ; 9 : 55 ; 14 : 25 ; 22 : 61 ; 
23 : 28. Nor is it necessary to insert " him " in this or similar 
constructions. S-t^iyca is one of those verbs whose 2nd aorist 
oass. has a midd. signification. Buttm., \ 130, note. Bob. (Lex., 

Yet, in translating such verbs, we do not express the 
pronoun which is the object of the verb. We say, " he turned 
and went away," and do not employ the full form, " he turned 
himself and went away." In all the above cited passages from 
the E. V., " himself" is not expressed. 

z "not even;" ovSe. Liddell (Lex.). Kendrick, M. ItaL, 
" neppure ; " De Wette, " nicht einmal ; " Iber., " ni aun ; " 
Bloomf. (N. Test.), " nedum, not even in Israel, much less among 
the Gentiles." Perhaps the language of this note by Bloomfield 
would be more correct with this amendment, " not even in Israel, 
where God had made himself known through the prophets, and 
where his written word was known, and where, of course, more 
faith might be anticipated than among Gentiles, who had been 
destitute of the word of the Lord, which is a light to the feet of 
the children of men." The contrast, introduced by the Saviour, 
was a deep and affecting reproof of the unbelief of the Jews, 
from whom the kingdom of heaven was soon to be taken. Bob. 
(Lex., ovSe) : " Specially, not even, not so muck as." Erasmus, 
Beza, Castalio, Schott, " ne quidem." So Bretsch. in loco (Lex., 
ovSs). Beig., "en niet;" S. Fr., "que merne je n'ai pas 

" such great faith ; " roaavTtjv nianv. Penn. " Such " 
corresponds more nearly with the present usage of English, than 
" so." As modifying " great," " such " has the force of " thus," 
i. e., " thus great," in other words, faith thus, or as great. 

b " well ; " vymlvovva. Eob. (Lex., in verbo). See ch. 5 : 31, 
note. So Thorn., Wakef., Norton, Scarlett, Penn, Camp., Kend., 
M. The arrangement adopted here, is that of Norton, Wakef., 
Scarlett, Kendrick. It is deemed most perspicuous and familiar. 

6 " the next day ; " Iv TJJ et-ijs. Penn, Thelwall. Wakefield, 
Scarlett, M., " on the next day." So (E. V.) ch. 9 : 37, Iv if] 

e^ljs n^? a > " on tte next <3a y-" A - cts 2 ' : 18 > r $ *&! e ' " tie 
next day." When the substantive is readily understood from the 
connection, it is often omitted, and the article stands alone before 
the adjunct. Buttmann, J 125, 7. This is the ordinary usage in 




called Nain : and many pf his 
disciples went with him, and much 

peopleV " ' "'"" ' 

12 Now when he came nigh to 
the gate of the city, behold, there 
was a dead man carried out, the 
only spn pf his mother, and she 
was a ^idow : and much people 
of the city was with her. ' ' 


o par/Ta aprpv na.vo, 

" \ \ ' 32' R\3/' 

PXApf TTpAuy. coy pg rj 
rrj TTuAy rrjs TrpAfcoy, /cat 
bs, vlos 



and many p.f his .disciples f 
gping with him, an^ a grea| 
crowd. e An4 h as 'he dreiy la 
near 'the gate of the city, faer 
hold a dead man was carried 
out, k aii only son of his mother, 
and 'she was a widow : and a 
great crowd from the city 

t " -were going with ; " trvveTtogevowo. See note supra, 
Wakef. Yulg., Mont, Eras., " ibant cum ; " Beza, " proficisce- 
bantur ; ". S. Fr., " allaient ; " Iber., " iban ; " Ital!, " andavano ;'" 
De Wette, " zogen.'! 

"And ; " Ss. Wesley, Thorn., Wakefield, Scarlett, Norton, 
Penn, Sharpe, Kend., M. S. Fr., " et ;" Iber., " i j " Ital. and 
Diod., " e." 

*! "a? ;" cos. Wesley, Thorn., Wakef., Norton, Sharpe, Penn, 
Pampbell, Kendrick. Mont, Be'za, Schott, " ut ; " Belg., "als;" 
tutfer and Be Wette, " als ; " G. and S. Fr., " cpmme ; " Dip- 
dati and. Ital., ". come." 

1 "lie drew near ; " jjyyios, Kend., M. So the B. V. renders 
^his verb by " drew near," or ", drew nigh," I^att. 15 : 8 ; 21 : 1, 34- 
Luke 15 : 1, 25; 18 : 35; 21 :8; 24 :15, etc. Wesley, "drew 
nigh." Bob. (Lex., m yerbo) : " More commonly, and in N. Test 
intrans., to draw near, to approach." Heb. N. Test., a'ip. Syr., 
\js^o. " Drew near " is a common expression in the B. V. of the 
Q. Test 

J "the gate." The preposition "to," in connections of 
kind, is, by present usage, omitted before the noun. So Thorn., 
Wesley, Wakef, Scarlett, Norton, Dick., Campbell, Kend. Ip 
many instances in the E. Y. of O. T., " to " is not expressed after 
"near " and " nigh." See Numb. 26 : 3. Judg. 20 : 34. Prov. 
"" "' " "" "'' : '" 

1 ',' an only son ; " vlos /tovoytwjs. Wakef., S.flarpe. Belg., 
" een eeniggeboren zone ; " Lutlier, " ein einiger i-john ; " (t)e 
Wette, " eingeborner Sohn ;")'G. and "S. Frl, "fils unique;" 
Iber., " hijo unigenito ; " Ital., '.' figlio unico." Our idiom will 

not allow a literal render|n.g pf ^ovffyevris, etc., '.', an 
sqn," Jilius unigenitus. 

i " she was a widow." The text p,f Bagster has wrj? %qf$ in 
the dative. So that of Wilson, which has on the title page " ad 
Esemplar Kpberti Stephani acpuratissime editum," i. e., the 3rd 
Edit, pf Stephens, Pans, 1550. With this, agrees the Elzevir, as 
printed at Amsterdam, 1633, under the superintendence p.f Leus- 
den. On the qther hand, ay-n; yfiqa (nominatiYe) is the reading 
of Erasmus, J^ill, (Jriesbach, Theile, Tittmann, Lachmann, Tisch., 
Scliptt, Trpllope. Knapp has ayry yn^a. The reading giyen by 
Bagsta 1 uas probably an amendment occasioned by the jfact, that 

, the. verb to \vhich $$0. might be a npmi^ative, ppcurred in 
yery few MSS. Hence avrri ^a. were marked as datives, and 
regarded as in apposition with iffir^l. To get rid of a supppsed 
grammatical difficulty, the harshness produced by >u$ with the 
newly formed dative was overloo.ked. There is no reasonable 
doubt that ayTij gqpa is the proper reading. Npne of- theja/ter 
critical editions agree, with Erasmus., in placing yi> in this mem- 
ber of the sentence, ex_cept that of Lachmann. As it is not in 
Bagster, " was" has been italicized, as. a supplement. BlppmjBeld 
remarks : " The xal is very significant ; the full sense being, that 
besides her sufferings [losing her son] she was also, a widow,.' ". 

reference to tffiega. It is not necessary to insert the preposition 
" on " (= iv) before " the next day." By our usus loquendi, " the 
time when " omits the preposition, unless the language is emphat- 
ic. See " next day," E. Y., Numb. 11 : 32. Jonah 4 : 7. Matt 
27 : 62. John 1 : 29. Acts 7 : 26. The rendering of the Vulg., 
" deinceps," and that of " afterwards " in Kheims and some other 
Eng. versionSj originated in a mistake of transcription. Through 
the incuria scribarum, na was written in place of TTJ. Hence the 
eUipsis was supposed, to be. that of y^ovca, or ttai^ra. The read- 
ing of -the. Yatican MS. D, agrees \vith. the Textus Eeceptus (rffj. 
Satte, Syriach^as i^ji^aj jiool^,. 

< "he was going;" Ino^Evsro. Wakefield, Norton, Shavpe. 
The radical sense of the imperfect, continuation of action, or 
state, is required in the rendering. The Saviour had not entered 
the city, but was on the way, and near it, whan he was met by 
the funeral' procession. Trollope (Gram., % 50, 2, p. 129), Stuart 
(Gram., J 51)'. ' ' The sense of- the aorist belongs to this tense, only 

in the case where the writer describes that of which he was an 
eye-witness. This was not the case with Luke. See eh. 1 : 2. 
The imperfect is used in the Latin versions (haying the same 
forca with that of the Greek). -Yulg., Montanus, Erasmus, Beza, 
Castalio, Schott, "ut proficiseretur." So G. F.r., f que Jesus 
allait;" S. Fr., " qu'il allait;" De Sacy, "Jesus allait;" Span, 
and. Iber., " iba ; " Diodati and Ital., "egli andava;" De Wette, 
"zpg> ' ' ' ' 

' " to a city ; " els jt6J.iv. Thorn., Wesiey, Wakef., Norton 
(" to a town ") ; Dick. Though the primary idea of sis is " into ; " 
with verbs of motion, it often has the, sense of to, towards, on a 
place or thing. Hob. (Lex.). Acts 22 : 7, sneaov IE els TO 
eSayios, E. Y-, "And I fell to the ground." Compare Acts 
26 : 14. Matt. 15 : 24; 16 : 5, 21 ; 20 : 17; 21 : 1. "When 
they drew nigh to Jerusalem," "Ore jjyyioav sl s 'Isgooolvfta. 
Liddell (m verbo) : " Bad. signification, direction, toward, motion 
o, on, or into. 






13 And when the Lord saw 
her, he had compassion, on her, 
and said unto her, Weep not. 

14 And lie came and touclied 
the bier : and they that bare him 
stood still. And he said, Young 
man, I say unto thee, Arise. 

15 And he that was dead sat 
up, and began tg spealc : and he 
delivered him to his mother. 

16 And there came a fear on 
all : and they glorified God, say- 
ing, That a great prophet is risen 
up among us ; and, That God hath 
visited his people. 

17 And this rumour of him 
went forth throughout all Judea, 


yos T 


KCU. tocav 

b Kvpios e 

TQ TTJS &Qpov'- ol Se 
KCU eiTre, 



avrov rr fj.ij- 
ip e'Aa/3e fie $ojSoy 
oaTa.vjft.Sy Kyi eoaoi> TOV Oeov, 
, "On TrpoQyTrj 
ei> T\\UV> KOU QTL . 
o Beo? TOV Xaov av* 
l - Kail e^fjXdev 6 Xoyos 
ei/ oXrj TTJ 'IgvSala 


with her. And the Lord -see- 13 
ing her, had compassion on her, 
and said to her, Weep not. 
And "coming near, he touched 1* 
the bier ; and "the bearers stood 
stiH. And he said, Young man, 
I say to thee, ""Rise. And he 15 
who "had been dead, sat up, and 
began to speak ; and he deliver- 
ed him to his mother. And 16 
r fear seized them all 5 and they 
glorified God, saying, A great 
prophet 'hath risen among us, 
and God hath visited his peo- 
ple. And "this report 'concern- IT 
ing him "spread x in all Judea 

* ('seeing;" iScor. Wesley, Scarlett, Kend., Thehvall, M 
Beza, '' intuitus ; " Belg., ziende ; '' S. Fr.., " voyant." 

n "coming near;" ?CQooe).&cov. Wesley, Scarlett, M. G-, 
and S. Fr., s'etant approche ; " Span., " acercandpse." As an 
alternative, the collpquial expression " coming up." We use 
" come up" as equivaient to " approach," and, with an objective, 
" come np to" a person, or thing. Some translators have over- 
looked the force of jr^os in composition, here. Webster (Diet., 
art. " Come ") defines, " come up to," " to approach near." 

"the bearers;" pi f}aaTaovTes. f^or^., Wakef., Peehy 
(note on Angus), Wesley, Scarlett, Norton, Sharpe, Dick., Camp. 
Belg., "de dragers;" Luther and De Wette, "die 

S. Fr., " les, portenrs ; " pipdati, " i pprtatpri." 

P. "Rise;" i/^*>?T*. Norton. So (B. V.) Matt, 26 ;46. 
Mark 10 : 49. John 5 : 8. Rev. 11 : 1. According to present 
usage, " rise" is more commonly employed than " arise." 

1 " had been." This supplement is demanded by the exigentia 
loci, as, without it, the phraseology represents the young- man as 
being dea$, and, at the same time,m the act of sitting up. In 
other words, it fails, to present the thought which the test was 
designed to. convey. A similar error may be seen in the B. V. 
of John 11 : 44, where elrjl&ev 6. re^vrixcos is rendered, " he that 
was dead came forth," instead of " he that had been dead (he 
having been dead) came forth." 

* ''. fear, seized tltem all;" %Ha/3s cpofios anavras. Wakef., 
Wesley, Eendrick, and M. have, " fear, seized all." Scarlett, " all 
were seized with awe ; " Mont., Beza, Schott, " cepit omnes ; " 
Danish, "en Frygt betog alle;" De Wette, " Es ergriff alle 
Staunen ; " S. Fr., " la cramt les saisit tous ; " Iber., " les sobre- 
cogio temor a todos ; " Span., " todos fueron cogidos de temor- ; " 
DioJati, f spa,vento gli occupo tutti." Rob.. (Lex., in loco, Aa/i- 
ftavca) ; Tropically; (spoken) of any strong affection, or emotion, 
to seize, to. come, or fdl upon any one."^ Joseph., Ant., II. 6: 8, 

ft'ei> O.M.O-VS HxnUijgis ela^e. As aitavras refers to all 
present, the supplement " them " is inserted to remove the harsh- 
ness of " fear seized all." By tfiis modification, the sentence 
harmonizes with our usus loquendi. See ch. 5 : 26, note. 

" hath risen ; " Eyfjys^-cai. Norton, Campbell. " Have," 
instead of " be," is the appropriate auxiliary with intransitive 
verbs. See chs. 2 : 15, and 4 : 34, notes. The addition of "up" 
is superfluous. The perf. and first aorist pass, of this verb usually 
have the signification "to arise." So (B. V.) Ma,tt. 2 : 13, 
14, 21 ; 8 : 15 ; 9 : 7, 19, 25, etc. Rob. (Lex., in verbo). 

After " and," the B. V. improperly renders Sri by " that." 
The particle should not be noticed in the English. It is, as iu 
many other instances, merely a sign of quotation. Rob. (Lex.) 
says : " Specially on serves also to introduce words quoted 
without change, chiefly after verbs implying to say, a.nd the like, 
and is then merely a mark of quotation, not to be translated into 
English." SeeKuhner, 329, note 3. 

" " this report ; " p Ipyos ovros. The noun has been rendered 
" report," in this instance, by Wakef., Norton, Scarlett, Penn, 
Dick., Camp., Kendrick. Belg., " dit geruchte," See ch. 5 : 15, 
note. This is the only instance in which Ao/os is rendered 
" rumor," in the E. V. I believe that the paraphrastic version 
of De Sacy presents the thought, " Le bruit de ce miracle qu'H 
avait fait, se repandit dans toute Judee," etc. 

T " concerning him ; " itegi avrnv. Camp., Kend., Angus, 
Thelwall. See ch. 4 : 14, note. 

spread ; " gftd-sv. Thorn., Norton, Scarlett, Campbell. 
Rob. (Lex., in verbo), " to go forth, to spread abroad." " To go 
Forth," when predicate of a report, news, etc., is not according to 
our unus loqusndi. Bretsch. (in verbo) : " tribuatur 
rebus ut fams, ubi est divulgor, Matth. 9 : 26, Marc, 1 : 28, 
Luc, 4 : 14, 7 : 17, etc." Compare Matt. 9 : 31, Ql 3k tS$l&6*+ 
res Stepqfetoav ccvrov ev Sir) "cfj yfj sxeivrj. 

" iuto all J.udea ;" & 31$ -rfj TovSala. In a passage where 




and throughout all the region 
round about. 

18 And the disciples of John 
shewed him of all these things. 

19 And John, calling -unto him 
two of his disciples, sent them to 
Jesus, saying, Art thou he that 
should come ? or look we for an- 

20 When the men were come 
unto him, they said, John Baptist 
has sent us unto thee, saying, Art 
thou he that should come? or 
look we for another ? 

21 And in that same hour he 
cured many of their infirmities, 


avrov, Kal ev n-darrj ry 


ls JAI aTrrjyyeihav 'Icodvvy-ol 
fj.a0r}TCu avrov Trepl iravrcav TOV- 
TG>V. 19 KOL TrpocTKaXecrd/jLevof 8vo 
rivas TCOV fj.a6r]T>v avTov o 'Ico- 
dvvrjf erre/J^e irpos rov 'Irjcrovv, 

\ ' v v 9 < ' * \ \ 

Aeycov, 2<v a o fpxojjievo?, TJ aAAov 

voi 8e irpos avrov O'L avSpes ehrov, 
'Icodvvrjs 6 Ba-imcrTrjs aTreVraA- 
KCV -fjnas irpos ere, \ey&v, Sv el 
o epj(piJtvos, T] aAAoi/ 7rpocr5oK<5- 

21 ' T"T " Cv\ rf 

pep, Jbv avry be ry (opa 

e6epdirev(re TroAAouy CLTTO voarcav 


and all ^the surrounding re- 
gion. And the disciples of 18 
John "told him of all these 
things. And John, calling 'to 19 
him two of his disciples, sent 
them to Jesus, saying, Art thou 
a he that cometh, or h do we look - 
for another ? And when the 20 
men c came to him, they said, 
John, d the Immerser, hath sent 
us to thee, saying, Art thdu he 
that cometh, or f do we look 
for another ? And 6 in that 21 
very hour he cured many b of 

this preposition occurs (Matt. 9 : 31, lv Sig r'fj yfj) the rendering 
of the E. V. is, " in all that country." In the present case, some 
interpreters have contended that lv is equivalent to 8ta, 
" through." This is far less probable than that lv SUg is used for 
els olijv. This is the view taken by Kuincel, who observes: 
"Duse praepositiones (lv et elg) ssepius inter se permutantur, 
etiam a scriptoribus exteris, ut apud Thucyd. IV. 14, tacts Se 
),omals ev rfj yfj xarcnxegievyviag lvefial.ov." In ch. 4 : 14, 
where the E. V. has " through all the region round about," the 
text is, a&" oh]s T!JS Tts^to^ov. Now it seems obvious, that 
if Luke, in the case before us, intended to convey the idea which 
we attach to " through all the region," etc., he would have said 
as before, Had* Slrjs v.. r. L Compare Matt. 9 : 26, el-ijid-sv a? 
yrjfirj avtr; els oi.i;v rrjv yijv exeivjjf, E. V., " the fame hereof 
went abroad into all that land." As an alternative rendering for 
" all Judea," " the whole of Judea." We can distinguish olos 
from yeas, at close of this sentence. So in ch. 4 : 14. 

* " the surrounding region ; " rfj m>Qi%coQco. Seo ch.. 4 : 14, 

" " told ; " catwyedav. So (E. V) Mark 6:30; 16 : 10, 13. 
Luke 7 : 22 ; 8 : 20, 34 ; 9 : 36, etc. Norton, Penn, "Wakefield, 
Sharpe, Angus, M. 

1 " to him." The following remark made in the Eevision of 
Mark's gospel, ch. 3 : 13, is applicable here. "As JT^OS in com- 
position corresponds with ' to,' this word should not be italicized. 
It is not a supplement. So in all cases, where this verb occurs 
with, a supplementary pronoun." 

* " he that cometh ; " 6 i^o/ievas. Wesley and Wakef., " that 
is to come ; " A. Camp, and Dick., " he who comes ; " G. Camp., 
" he who cometh." The article and participle have here the force 
of a substantive ; the thought is, "Art thou the coming one ?." 
that is, the Messiah, whose advent was announced by the prophets. 
In Matt. 23 : 39, o e$%6ftevos is rendered " he that cometh." 
Possibly this literal rendering may not be deemed sufficiently per- 
spicuous. In that case, this form is recommended, " who was to 

come." So Norton, Scarlett, Penn. There is some diversity iu 
the rendering given to o IQXO/J.EVOS, in this instance, by trans- 
lators. Thorn., " THE ONE COMING ; " Sharpe, " he that was com- 
ing." The rendering of the S. Fr. coincides with that given 
above, " cclui qui vient." So Ital, " colui che viene." Kuincel 
(Matt. 11 : 3) : "Interrogari jubebat (Johannes) suo nomine 
Jesum, ov el 6 t^ofievos; y ere^ov ngooSoy.cS/tsv ; num tu 63 
Mcssias ? num tu personam Messise agis ? facile in earn cogitatio- 
com venire possumus, te non esse Messiam, sed alium expectau- 

b " do we look ; " rtgoodoxeu/tcv. So in parallel (E. V.) Matt. 
11 : 3. The thought might be expressed with a nearer approach 
to our present phraseology by " are we to look." Still, the 
above expression seems sufficiently perspicuous. By a peculiar 
idiom, the present indie, is sometimes used to indicate not what 
is done, but what is to be done. Bloomfield (N. T., Supplement, 
Matt. 11:3). 

came ; " Ttagayevoftevot. Thorn., Wakef., Norton, Penu. 
See ch. 2 : 15, note. 

d " the Immerser ; " o JBnnnar^s. A. Camp., Q. (on Mark 
6 : 14). Iber., " el Sumergidor ; " Luther and De Wette, " der 

Tiiufer ; " Belg., " de Dooper ; " Dan., " den Dober." 

signifies " to immerse," this noun is rendered " Immerser." 
See ch. 3 : 7, note. So in all cases, in this Eevision. 

" that cometh." See v. 19, note. 

' " do we look." See v. 19, note. 

B " in that very hour ; " ev avrfi rij coga. Dick., Kend. 
(" at that very hour "), Camp., Scarlett. So Rob. (Lex., av?6e), 
" emphatically, in that very day, or time (hour)." See ch. 2 : 38, 

h of " diseases ; " aito voocov. Thorn., Wes., Norton (" of their 
diseases"), Sharpe, Scarlett ("of their diseases"), Penn, Dick. 

of their diseases "), Camp, ("from discuses"), M., Murdock. 
The supplement " their, used in the E. V., is unnecessary. There 
is nothing in the test to authorize its use. Nooos occurs twelve 




and plagues, and Of evil spirits ; 
and unto many that were blind he 
gave sight. 

22 Then Jesus answering, said 
unto them, Go. your way, and tell 
John what things ye have seen 
and heard ; how that the blind 
see, the lame walk, the lepers are 
cleansed, the 'deaf hear, the dead 
are raised, to the poor the gospel 
is preached. 

23 And blessed is he, whosoever 
shall not be offended in me. 

24 And when the messengers 
of John were departed, he began 



naa-Tiycav /cat 

KCtl TV<f)\OLS 
> ' N /T\' 

eXpi.picra.TO TO pAzTTftv. /cat 

aTTOKpidfis 6 'Irjcrovs flirev av- 
roty, HopevdevT 
'Itaawrj a eidere KOI fj 
on TV(f)\ol aVaj 
TrepiiraTovcri, Xerrpol 



23 v tit A >\ \ 

/cat fj.aKa.pios ecmv, os fav /z?) 




diseases, and plagues, and of 
evil spirits, and to many who 
were blind he gave sight. 'And 22 
Jesus, answering, said to them, 
Go, and -tell John what things 
ye have seen and heard ; 'that 
the blind "receive sight, the 
lame walk, the lepers are 
cleansed, the deaf hear, the 
dead are raised, and to the 
poor 'the good news is preach- 
ed ; and ""happy is he "who 23 
shall not reject me. And the 24 
messengers of John "having 

times in the N. T. In nine instances, it is rendered in the E. V. 
by " diseases" (the Greek being plural), twice by " sickness," and 
once (in the passage before us) by " infirmities." The rendering 
should be uniformly " disease." There is no instance, in -which 
this word will not afford a good sense. Bob. (Lex.). Bretsch., 
" morbus, cegfiludo." 

' "And ; " xai. Thorn., Wakefield, Wesley, Norton, Sharpe, 
Scarlett, Penn, Campbell. Vulg., Mont., Erasmus, Beza, " et ; " 
Belg., " ende ; " Luther and De Wette, " und ; " Span, and Iber,, 
" i ; " Diodati, " e ; " Dan., " og ; " Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva, 
L. Totnson, " and." " Then," in the E. T., originated in Beza's 
rendering, " deinde," as did that of the G. Fr., " ensuite." There 
is no good reason for departing from the more usual signification 

Of Jw. 

l " that ; " oit. Thorn., Norton, Sharpe, Dick., Kendrick, M., 
Hielwall. Belg., " dat ; " De Wette, " dass ; " G. Pr., " que ; " 
Diodati, " che." " How that" (taken from Tyndale) is antiquat- 
ed, and has become, by lapse of time, a vulgarism. E. g., " Tell 
him how that he must come here." 

* "receive sight;" uvafaeaovoi. See ch. 4 : 18, note. 
Wakef., Norton, Sharpe, Dick., Keud., M. (" receive their sight"). 
Belg., " worden ziende ; " Iber., " los ciegos reciben la vista ; " 
Diodati, "ricoverano la vista." Although, from its etymology, 
avapfajtio would seem to convey the idea of " seeing again," or re- 
covering sight, it is here used as equivalent to " being made to see." 
So in John 9 : 11, cateld-Av 8e xal viycifisvos, avefaeya, E. V., 
" and I went and washed, and I received sight." The subject here 
was blind from his birth. The verb has both significations, to see 
again, and to receive sight, in cases where it had never been 
enjoyed before. Compare v. 21, rvyl.ois nottozs l^a^iaaio to 
pitnetv, csecis multis, visum donabat, E. V., " to many that were 
blind he gave sight." Isa. 35 : 5, 61715) ip$ rKHijBPi. Sept., 
avot%9'ijaovTat 6y>&alfcoi rvyAcov. Matt. 11 : 5, Tvyiiol ava- 
pkktovoi, E. V., " the blind receive their sight." 

1 " the good news is preached ;" evayyet-i^ovrai. Seech. 4:18. 
Norton, " good news is make known." Webster (Diet, art. 
" News ") remarks : " This word has a plural form, but is almost 
always united with a verb in ths singular." 

m " happy ; " paxdfios. Thorn., Wakefield, Wesley, Norton, 
Scarlett, Dick., Camp., Kend., M. See ch. 1 : 45, note. 

n " who shall not reject me ; " as EO.V ftrj oxai'Scdta&fj lv Ipoi. 
Rob. (Lex., in verbo) : " Pass. oxavScd.i&o&ai %v nvi, to be 
offended in, or at any one, to take offense at his character, words, 
conduct, so as to desert and reject him." As this word does not 
admit a uniform rendering', without producing great obscnrity, we 
are compelled to seek equivalents adapted to the signification 
which it has in different passages. Neither "stumble," nor its 
Anglo-Latin equivalent " offend" would be appropriate in many 
instances. In a note on Mark 4 : 17 (Eevision) I have said : 

" This word is not found in classic writers. In the Septuagint 
it is used actively, for ' causing one to stumble,' and passively, for 
' stumbling.' In the N. Test, its use is tropical. 1. In a moral 
sense, to offend, vex ; passively, be offended, or vexed, with a dative 
of the person ; sv tivt, to take offense at one, so as to desert, revolt, 
or fall away from him. 2. To cause one to offend, to entice into 
sin, lead astray; and, passively, to be enticed into sin, led astray, to 
fall away from the truth. 

" In the sense of vexing, or irritating, this verb is by no means 
used as frequently as many have supposed. ' To disgust,' and ' to 
be disgusted' would often be an exact rendering. The recent 
origin of ' disgust ' must, however, render it exceptionable. By 
substituting it for ' offend,' in many cases where the latter occurs, 
the reader will see its appropriateness. In short, ' offend ' is used 
in the E. V. with a latitude of signification, which is not allowed 
by the present usage of our language." 

Compare John 12 : 48, where the thought of rejecting Christ is 
thus expressed, 6 aS-ercov efce xai ftr; i.aft/3aveav to. ^rjfictTa ftov, 

ei tbv XQLVOVTO. avrov x. t. L A literal rendering of the word 
in the present instance would be, " who is not stumbled at me," 
or (as this phrase is hardly good English), "who does not stumble 
at me," that is, " to whom I shall not prove a stumbling-block." 
Instead of " whosoever," Wakef., Thorn., Norton, Scarlett have 

" having departed ; " cntel&ovrcov. Kendrick, M. Iberian, 
habiendo retirado ; " Castalio, " digressis." If it is deemed best 
to render the participle by a finite verb, then, " When the 


f <3 LUKE. 


to spealt unto tM people" conce"f fl- 
ing John, What went ye out into 
the wilderness for to see ? A reed 
shaken with, the wind ? 

25 But what went ye out for 
to see? A man clothed in soft 
raiment? Behold, they which are 
gorgeously apparelled, arid live 
delicately,. are' in kings' courts. 


oVy -rfpi^afo Xeyeiv irpos TOVS 
y irepi 'Icodvvov, TL eeXr)- 
Xv&are ety rrjv Zpy/Jiov Qedcrd- 
(r&ai; kaXa.fji.6v VTTO aWjuou 
cfctkevofjifvov ; aXAa fit e^eX??- 
XvOafe ISew; avffpcaTrov zv }ia- 
XaKois ip.dtiois r/fj,(f)iecrij.evoi' ; 
ibi>, 01 Iv ifidfio-fjup evSo^co KCU 
Tpv(f)rj vTta.p-)(pvTes tv TOIS /Sacri- 


departed, he began to say" to. 
the crowd concerning Joun, 
What went ye out into Hue 
desert "'to see? A reed shaken 
p by the wind ? But what weat 25- 
ye out 'to see? A man clothed 
'in soft garments? Behold, 
those- "who wear 'splendid w ap- 
parel, and 1 live in "luxury, are 
in kings' ^palaces. But wbat'28 

sengers of John' had departed," asYulg., "discessissent," arid Span. ; 
" hubieron ido." 

f " the desert." See Luke 3 : 2, note. 

i "to see." "For," before the infinitive "to see," is un- 
grammatical. So all later Eng. versions. 

* " by ; " fab (cutti g~em(.}. Sharpe, Wafef., Pcnn, TJibmson, 
"Wesley, Norton, Scarlett, Dick., Camp:, Kendrick, Angus; if. 

"to see." See note q. 

* "in soft garments 1 ;" h> firtfrtxHTs Iftarfots. Wesley, 51., 
Thelwall, Dick, ("rich garment's") 1 . This wor^ occurs- six"ty-one 
times iri'theN.Tesfc In thirty of thesej-it is rendered'" garment;" 
or " garments;" It is : believed tliat : there are very few cases 
occur, in which this' would riot be the appropriate translation. 
Luke 6 : 29 is one of these, where it is used with a special signifi- 
cation" for the outer garrhent, mantle', or' tunic. See Jahrfs- Arche- 
ology, g 122. Ebb. (Lex., Iftaitov) : "Ta l^arltf, the' garments, 
clothing, fdiWerif, included the outer and inner garment^ mantle, 
and tunic." 

"who wear." The participle vna^otneg, with- a preposition 
and its case as predicate, signifies "to be," "remain," or "live" in 
any state, or place. Here it has sv 1/tan.ff/ty and r^vyrj, datives 
of condition. In rendering, the exigency of the- case obliges 
us to accomodate it to the substantives, as it has reference to 
both. Hence instead of the literal phraseology, " being in 
splendid apparel and- luxury," finite verbs appropriate to each 
of the conditions indicated by those substantives, are " employed," 
"wear," and "live." Eob. (Lex., vita^ta). Bloomfield : " The 
vxa<>%. must be accommodated in sense to each of the nouns 
with which it is connected." " Who wear " is the rendering of 
Thomson, Norton, Campbell, Eendrick. A literal rendering was 
adopted in the Belg., "die in heerlijke kleedinge ende wellust 
zijn." So nearly De Wette, " die in prachtiger Kleidung und in 
Ueppigkeit Lebenden sind in den koniglichen Palasten." G. Fr., 
" c'est dans les palais des rois que se trouvent ceux qui sont 
magnifiquement vetus, et qui vivent dans les delices;" S. Fr., 
" ecus qui sont magnifiquement vetus et dans les delices, sont 
dans lea maisons des- rois ; " De Saty, " c'est -dans les palaia'des 
toia qne se- trouvent ceux qui sont v6sus magnifiquement, et qui \ 

vivent dans les delices ; " Iber., " Ids 1 que pleva'n] rbp'a suntnos'aV i 
viven en delicias, en loa ; palaciqs dfe 16s ; reyes esfari-." Sharpe 
furih'shes the following" literal rendering, lir those iff gorgeous- rai- 
ment, and delicate living, are in Kings' couris." Nowy sucli 
phraseology violates the propriety of our language, as we never 
say, " are in delicate living." I suggest as a compromise between 
the paraphrastic and the literal rendering, this expression, " those 
who are in splendid apparel, and line in luxury." The phrase 
" are in splendid apparel " is allowable, like " he was in citizen's 
clothing," " they were in long robes>" etc. 

T " splendid ; " &86y. Norton 1 , Canipbell," Murdock, ; Mi 
Kob. (Lex;, in- low, art %v8ogos], Bretseh: (in- ojerfeo}',' " splendi-' 
dus, nitidvs, prcestans." Erasmusi Castalioj Schott, " spleiidido." 
Bloomfield (Anriotat.) :" " 'SvSogas signifies' glorious, splendid." 
" Gorgeous," which signifies shdViij, fine, splendid, glittering with 
gay colors (Webster, Diet!), is obsolescent. It 5s- seldom, or 
never heard in conversation. It has been superseded by its Latin 
rival; this is less to be regretted, as it is not a Saxon word; but 
a modification of the old' French gorgids. 

* "apparel;" i/idriafiy. "Wakefielcl, Penri; TJionii 1 , NorldnV 
Camp., Send., M: So (E; V.) Acts 20 : 33. 

1 "luxury;" rgvyfj. Kend., Scarlett, Campbell, Ji. Ebb. 
(Lex., in verbo). Trbllope' (Analecfa) : " This word properly 
signifies luxury." Bloomf. : " There is" no" reasbh'for abandoning' 
the general sense luxury, i. e., a luxurious life." 

* " palaces ; " fiaodeiois^ Penn, Wesley, Wakefield, Norton,- 
Murdock, Scarlett, Dick., Campbell, Kend. This adjective has 
xms (houses), or Sco/idai (buildings) understoodi-as seems clear 
from the parallel; Matt. 11 : 8, &> foZs oixots TCOV ftaadetav. 
The rendering " royal places " would be exact, still the change is 
so slight, that it may not be expedient to deviate so much from 
the phraseology of the E. V. Kob. (Lex., in' verbo\: "Plural 
za pa.ail.eia.,- a royal mansion, palace." Tulg., Mont, " domibus 
regum;" Beza, "in palatiis regis ; " Schott, " in palatiis regiis." 
Heb. N. T., tTiJa^if ^aij. Syriac, \ "^^ Zu. De Wctte,- 
in den koniglichen Palasten;" G-. Fr.* " les ' palais des rois;'" 
S. Fr., "les maisons des rois;" Iberian; "los palacios de-los 
reyes ; " Diodati; " ne' palazzi dei re." The rendering of- Tyn : 
dale, "kings' courts," adopted-by the E.-V.,- was probably 'derived 
rom Erasmus, "aulis reguci/' or tiiat of- Lutli^"'kd'nigKcheii t; 




26 Bufc what went ye out for 
to see? A prophet? Tea, I say 
nnto you, and much mox-e than a 

27 This is he, of whom it is 
vrritten, Behold, I send my mes- 
senger befdre thy face, which shall 
prepare thy way before thee. 

28 For I say unto you, Among 
those that are born of woman, 
there is not a greater prophet 
than John' the Baptist: but he 
that is least in the kingdom of 
God, is greater than he. 

29 And all the people that 
heard him, and the publicans, jus- 
tified God, being baptized with 
the baptism of John. 

30 But the Pharisees and law- 
yers rejected the counsel of God 


Ae/ow ela-tvt 2S aAAa ri e 
Av^are iSeiv; "jrpofftrjTrjv ; val, 
\4ya> vfuv, KOL "jrepia-croTcpov 

JfpO(j)T]TOV. 27 OVTOS fCTTl 7TC/H 

ov yeypawTai) 'ISov, lya> airo- 
areAAoj TOV ayyeXov p.ov TTDO 
irpoo-ayirov erou, oy Karaovceuacret 
rrjv oSov (TOV ffnrpocrOev <rov. 

28 A f \ /> ' 

A.eya> -yap vfuv, fjieiyov ez/ 
yevvrjTols yvva.iK.5tv irpofyrjTrjs 
'I&avvov TOV BaTmcrTov ovSeis 
-Tiv. 6 Se fJLikpoTepos ei> ry 
ficuriXcia TOV Oeov fieifav O.VTOV 

J 9Q T7~ "*> *% C S \ t / 

eari. JLai Tray o Aaoy a/cou- 

cras Kal ol TfXavai 
Tov Oeov, ftaimo-devTes TO /3a- 
oyiia 'laavvov 30 61 Se <&api- 
(raiot KOI ol vo/u/coi Trjv fiovXrjv 
TOV Oeov r]6eTTj(rav elf eavrovp, 


went ye on ' to see ? A prophet ? 
Yea, I say to you, and 'some- 
thing more .than a prophet. 
This is he of whom it is written, 27 
Behold, I send my messenger 
before thy face, who shall pre- 
pare thy way before thee. For 28 
I say to you, Among those born 
of women, there is 'no greater 
prophet than John the Im- 
merser ; c but the least in the 
kingdom of God, is greater 
than he. (And all the people 29 
who heard him, and the tax- 
gatherers, justified God, lay- 
ing been immersed with the 
immersion of John. But the so 
Pharisees and lawyers rejected 
the counsel of God 'with regard 

" to see." See this verb, v. 24, note. 

"something more;" ne^iaaote^ov. Thomson, Wakefield, 
"something even better;" Camp., "something superior." This 
rendering is adopted on the view generally taken by critics, that 
negtaaoregov is a neuter construed with -tl understood, so that it 
is equivalent to rl jtEgiaaors^ov. Jleptooorsfov is regarded by 
most interpreters as equivalent to iteftiaobv and n'Letov, Matt. 
12 : 41, 42. Hence no word like "much" is required to give 
force to the adjective. 

* " no greater prophet ; " ftslgcov MQoyfrqs ovSets. Nor- 
ton, M., Wakef. (" no greater teacher "), Kend., Genevan. This 
adjective with itgoy>JT>]s, is properly rendered by " no." Bob. 
(in loco, ovSslsj. De Wette, " kein grosserer Prophet ; " S. Fr., 
" il n'y a nul prophete plus grand." 

" but the least ; " o Ss ftix^ori^os. Thorn., Sharpe, Scar- 
lett ("yet the least"), Wakef., Camp, ("yet the least"), Kend., 
M. MiXQoreQos, the comparative, is used for the superlative 
uatgoratos, as in Matt. 11 : 11 ; 13 : 32. Mark 9 : 34. Luke 
9 : 46, 48. Trollope (Gram., 1 43, p. 106). 

* " having been immersed ; " /HcutTid&svTeg. This form of the 
participle is employed by Sharpe, M. As ^aanad-evrce refers 
to an action that was past, this rendering is demanded. The 
rendering of the E. "V. was probably founded on the assumption 
that vv. 29, 30 were a part of the Saviour's discourse, whereas 
the obvious and natural solution of the apparent obscurity is 
that they are a parenthetical remark of Luke. We should other- 
wise have expected that 'Icodwrjv would have followed axovaae, 
while instead of the aorist pamio&Evres, the present /3ct7tTt6- 
aevot would have been employed. S. Fr., " ayant etc baptises ; " 
Iber., habiendo recibido la inmersion." Knapp, Tittm., Lach- 

mann, Penn, and Eobinson (Harmony) include vv. 29, 30 in a 
parenthesis. Penn, in a note on v. 31, says: "The clause 
'And .the Lord said ' of the Constantinopolitan, or received text, 
is not contained in any of the most ancient MSS. and versions ; 
yet it is an unobjectionable supplement, if distinguished by a 
diflerent character in the context. The absence of this clause, in 
all the earlier authorities, shows that it should be included in the 
parenthesis with the two preceding verses. 

" with regard to themselves ; " els EOVTOVS. Thorn., Camp., 
Scarlett, " respecting themselves ; " M., " towards themselves." 
Norton presents the thought, though paraphrastically, " what 
God purposed for them ; " and Wakefield, " this intention of God 
toward them." Els is used to indicate a direction of mind as 
marking an object of desire, good will, and also of emotion. In 
a good sense, towards, for, in behalf of. Rob. (Lex., els). So 
Matt. 26 : 10, fyyov y.alov styyaoaio els ifte. So after nouns, 
fyanri eig iiva, Eom. 5:8. 2 Cor. 2 : 4, 8. On this passage, 
Bloomf. (Analecta) says : " Grotius, Camerarius, Whitby, Ham- 
mond, Eosenmuller, Kuincel, Homberg, Wolf, Doddridge, and 
Campbell maintain that there is a slight trajectio, and they con- 
nect the words els iavrovs with povti[v rov OEOV, and interpret 
in regard to themselves." Upon the whole, I can not but 
regard the last (i. e. this) interpretation- as the most rational, and 
most suitable to the context. This, too, seems to have been the 
opinion of Wetstein, who cites Prov. 1 : 25, and Bemidbar 
12, 16, " Omne bonum, quod destinaveram vobis, vilipendistis et 
rejecistis." The thought is presented in the affecting language of 
the Saviour, Luke 13 : 34. De Wette, " den Eathschluss Gottea 
fiir sich ; " De Sacy, " oat meprise le dessein de Dieu sur eux ; " 
Iber., " el consejo de Dios con relacion a si mismos." 




against themselves, being not bap- 
tized of him. 

31 And the Lord said, Where- 
unto then shall I liken the men. 
of this generation? and to what 
are they like ? 

32 They are like imto children 
sitting in the market-place, and 
calling one to another, and say- 
ing, We have piped unto you, and 
ye have not danced; we have 
mourned to you, and ye have not 

33 For John the Baptist came 
neither eating bread, nor drink- 
ing wine ; and' ye say, He hath a 

34 The Son of man is come 
eating and drinking ; and ye say, 
Behold a gluttonous man, and a 


fjaj f3aTTTi(r0evTes VTT O.VTOV. 
81 ewre 5e 6 Kvpios, Tivi o$v 
6fjLOitt>arc>) TOW avOpdnrovs "njs 
yeveas TO.VT-TJS; Kal TLVI tlcriv 

ff 32 f f / - > ft / 

OfJLOlOlj OjJiOlOL L(Tt TTaiOiOtS 

roif iv dyopa Ka0i]fj,evoc$, Kal 
irpo(r<f)a>vov(riv aAA^Aoty, Kal Ae- 
yov&iV) HvAyaafAev vfuv, KCU 
OVK a>pxr)o~ao-dc 

\ > -. / 

vfjiiv, /cat OVK tKAavcrare. 
Av0e -yap 'Icodvvrjs o JBoarTtarrrjs 
/MTJTC aprov eo~0ia>v /i^re oivov 
iriva)v, Kal Aeyere, Aaijjioviov 

tf <M. > \ > \ /i ' ^ ~ 

e%. fArjAvaev o vtos TOV 

dvffpanrov ecr#iW Kal irtvav, /cat 
Aeyere, 'Idov, avOpcarrros (pdyos 


to themselves, 'not having been 
immersed by him.) * "To what 31 
then shall I compare the men. 
of this generation ? and h what 
are they like? They are like 33 
children sitting in the market- 
place, and calling J to one an- 
other, and saying, "We have 
piped 'for .you, and ye have not 
danced ; we have mourned k for 
you, and ye have not wept. 
For John the Immerser 'hath 33 
come neither eating bread, nor 
drinking wine, and ye say, He 
hath a demon. The Son of 34 
man "hath come eating and 
drinking ; and ye say, Behold, "a 

* "not having 1 been immersed." Iber., "no habieudo sido 
Bumergidos." See v. 29, note. 

* The reading of the Textus Ueceptus, tine Se 6 JSvpcos, is 
deemed spurious by most critics. Schott remarks : " Cum Gries- 
bach. aliisque delevimus auctoritate plurimorum cdd. (13 unc.) 
Terss., Pesch., Philox., Arr., Pers. pol. Memph., ^thiop., Arm., 
Goth., Sax., Vnlg. (ms.), It. (esceptis cdd. Brix. Germ. 1)." It 
is supposed that this addition originated from the lectionaries, 
since the verse commenced a church lesson, or avayvcoois, which 
required some introductory sentence, to indicate tbe speaker. 
Canceled by Griesbach, Knapp, TheSIe, Tittm., Tisch., Lachmann, 
Kuincel, Scholz. 

* " To what ; " TIVI. Thomson, Perm, Dick., Scarlett, Camp., 
"Wakef., Kend., Angus, M. 

h " what ; " ilvt. Penn, Scarlett, "Wakef., M. According to 
our vsus loquendi, there is an ellipsis of the preposition " to," in 
constructions of this kind. The sentence is awkward, if " to " is 

1 " to one another ; " &U.^iois. See ch. 2 : 15, note. 

J " for you ; " f/tiv. Thorn., Norton, Scarlett, Wakef., Kend., 
M. The acts expressed by yv).qaaftev and IS-^rjv^aafiev are 
represented as the pastimes of the children performed for the 
diversion of their associates. They were imitations of the joys 
and sorrows of men which the young actors witnessed in the real 
drama of life. Hence vffiv, in these instances, is properly ren- 
dered by " for you." Suincel (on Matt. 11 : 17) : " Tibiis cane- 
batur, ut apnd Gnscos ct Eomanos, non tantum in faneribns, 
vide 9, 23, sed etiam in nuptiis et choreis. Jam quod loci 
sensum attinet, ndaginm dcsumptum est a pneris, qui iu plateis 
ludendo imitantur, quss a majoribus natu, serio ag-i vWernnt, qui i 
cum viderint in nuptiis et cl>or<s tibiis 1 cani, in funoribus noenias i 

cani, eadem ludentes faciunt ; sed pueris morosis, qui nullis asqua- 
lium snorum studiis, neque Isetis, neque tristibus carminibus, mo- 
ventnr, ut et ipsi talibus operam navent, hanc morositatem et 
inhumanitatem exprobrant. Cum his morosioribus pueris com- 
parat Christus Pharisseos et legisperitos, qui neque Johannis 
austeritate et vita severa, neque Christi lenitate et vita humana 
et atque trita eo redigi potuerint, ut vitam animumque emenda- 
rent, ut Jesnm Messiam faterentur, ejusqne prascepta sequerentur." 

k " for you ; " vfiTv. See last note. So Kend., M. 

i "hath come;" etylv&e. The ordinary rendering of this 
perfect by its corresponding English tense is accurate, and affords 
a good sense. The perfect sometimes covers the period from 
which an act or condition originated in the past, and extending 
to the present, to express what is continued, or abiding in its 
consequences, or operation. It is on this common ground, that 
the present and perfect so often meet. Strictly speaking, how- 
ever, these tenses are never identical in their force. There are 
cases where we can render the Greek perfect by an English 
present tense, yet the peculiarity belongs to our own language, in 
which our present (unless in what is turned the progressive form, 
e. g., I am writing) is not the exact equivalent of the Greek 
present. Stuart, Gram., g51, 5, p. 72. We can translate the 
Greek perfect by our present, according to Kuhrier (255, E. 5), 
only when the present condition is more prominent than the past 

m " hath come." See last note. 

" " a glutton ; " av&gconos ynyoe. Norton, Scarlett, Wakef., 
Kendrick, Robinson (in loco, av&gioitos). In this, and many 
similar constructions, av&qcaitos is pleonastic. See Matt. 18 :23, 

&gcmcp patfar ("to a king"). So Tlraeyd. III. 29, aty? 
fcea-ris. ./Elian. V. H.. 14 : 20, }<> natScr/iayos. See Weiske, 
P]conasmi Groeci Com. (articles &VTJQ and 




vine-bibber, a friend of publicans 
and sinners ! 

35 But Wisdom is justified of 
all her children. 

36 And one of the Pharisees 
desired him that he -would eat 
with him. And he went into the 
Pharisee's house, and sat down to 

37 And behold, a woman in the 
city, which was a sinner, when 
she knew that Jesus sat at meat 
in the Pharisee's house, brought 
an alabaster-box of ointment. 



\ t \ 35 v PI r 

07} 77 <ro(j){a OLTTO TK>V TZKVCOV av- 
rrjs TrdvTcav. 

36 ' TT ' S> ' ' x " 

JzpcoTa oe rt? avrov TCOV 
<&api(ra.ic0i' > 'Lva. (frayy per av- 
TOV' KOL ticreXdav els TTJV oiKiav 
TOV HJapiaaLov aveKXidt], 37 Kai 
ISov, yvvrj ev rfj -jroXei, TJTLS rjv 
afJLapTcaXos, ermyvova-a on dva,- 
KUTOU iv Trj olnia TOV ^apuraiov, 



glutton, and "a wine-drinker, 
a friend of tax-gatherers and 
sinners ! But wisdom is justi- 35 
fied i>by all her children. And 36 
one of the Pharisees Basked him 
'to eat with him. And he went 
into the Pharisee's house, and 
reclined at table. And, be- 37 
hold, a woman <of the city, who 
was a sinner, "learning that T he 
reclined at table in the Phar- 
isee's house, bought an "ala- 
baster-box of ointment, and 38 

" a -wine-drinker ; " olvonoTjjs. Norton, Thorn., Kobinson 
(Lex.), Kend., Murdock, Tynd., Geneva, and Kheims, " a drinker 
of wine." As olvcntorrjs is contrasted with pyre olvov nivcav, 
it should receive this translation. " Bibber " for " drinker " has 
never heen a naturalized word in our language. Unless in quot- 
ing this passage from- the-E. V., it is neither written, nor spoken. 
It originated in the language of the Vulgate, " bibens rinura." 
Eras., Beza, " vini potor;" Castalio, "viuosum" ("addicted to 
wine"). Should it be supposed that " wine-drinker" is not suffi- 
ciently energetic to express the thought, then " wine-toper " might 
possibly answer as its substitute. 

P " by ;" anb. Tliom., "Wesley, Penn, Norton, Dick., Murd., 
Scarlett, Camp., Kend., M., Angus. See (E. V.) Matt. Y : 16, 
" by their fruits," onto taiv v.a^itcov. Bretsch. remarks on one 
of the significations of anb thus: "Pro vno junctum verbis 
passivis, et in locutionibus passivis ; ut anoSoxtftaad'^'ac 6.710 
TWOS, feprobari ab aliquo. Marc. 8 : 31. Luc. 9 : 22 ; 17 : 25. 
Matt. 11 : 19. Luke 7 : 35." This use of aitb for vnb is peculiar 
to the later Greek writers. G. and S. 2?r., " par tous ses enfants ; " 
Iber. and Span., " por todos sus hijos ; " De Wette, " von alien 
ihren Kindern." 

' " asked ; " ^cortc. "Wesley, Penn, Sharpe, Norton, Scarlett, 
Wakef., Camp., Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M. " To desire," in the 
sense of requesting, or inviting; is obsolete. 

* to eat ; " tva y>ayg. Thorn., Wesley, Penn, Sharpe, Nor- 
ton, Dick., Scarlett, Wakef., Camp., Kend., M. In constructions 
of this kind, we can employ that with the indicative, or the infin- 
itive alone. In most cases, the latter form is appropriate as con- 
cise, forcible, and in harmony with ordinary usage. In the later 
Greek, Iva was used after -various classes of words, not as mark- 
ing purpose, or event, but simply as a demonstrative particle 
like the English that, merely indicative of what was referred 
to in the preceding words, or introducing something already 
implied in the preceding words. In this way, tva with the sub- 
junction was often employed (and twice with the optative) where 
earlier writers used the infinitive, or other particles. Kob. (Lex., 
if a, and art). S. Pr. and De Sacy, " de manger;" Iber., "a 

" " reclined at table; " aveyMfrrj. Kend., M., Murd. (" reclined "), 
Angus. Vulg., Mont., Beza, Eras., Castalio, Schott, " accubuit." 
Heb. N. T., isisx De "Wette, " legte sich zu Tische ; " Iber., " se 
reclino [a la mesa]." Rob. (Lex., in verbo], " to make lean lack, 
or recline, in order to take a meal ; midd. to lean, or lie back, 
to recline at table, i. q., avaxeiftat." Bretschneider, " ad camam 
accumbo." " In the time of Christ, the Persian custom prevailed 
of reclining at table. The guests reclined upon the left side, with 
their faces towards the table, so that the head of the second 
approached the breast of the first, and the head of the third 
approached the breast of the second." Jahn's Archeology, <!146. 

" of the city ; " Ir rjj noiei. Dick, Wakef., Norton (" of 
the place "). S. Fr., " de'la ville ; " Iber., " de la ciudad ; " Ital., 
" della citta ; " Bloomf. (N. Test., Suppl.), " of the city." This 
being a common Greek idiom for ex T!JS icolecas. See ch. 8 : 27, 

u " learning ; " Imyvovaa. Kendrick, Norton. 'En\, in this 
word, is intensive ; in many cases it can not be well rendered ill 
English. When, however, it signifies to obtain knowledge from 
others, it is equivalent to " learn," " to find out." So, according 
to Bob. (Lex., iitty.}, in this instance. Penn, "having learned;" 
Liddell (Lex., tmy. II.), "to find out, discover, detect;" Bretsch. 
(Lex.), " bene intelligo, bene disco." It is well rendered in Vulg., 
Montanus, Beza, Eras., and Schott by some form of cognosce; so 
often employed in Latin writers for to learn, to receive informa- 
tion. See Leverett (Diet.). 

T " he reclined at table ; " avaxcirai. Rob. (Lex.), " to recline 
at table." Sharpe, " he was lying at meat ; " Vulg., Erasmus, 
" accubuisset ; " Beza, " eum accubuisse ; " Mont., " accubuit ; " 
Schott, " eum accumbere." This word has obviously the same 
force with avaxU&ri, v. 36. See note. 

w " alabaster-box ; " aJ.dpaorpov. Perfume vases were made 
of alabaster by the ancients. They were sometimes shaped like 
our vials, in other instances the form was varied ; in all, however, 
it seems that a neck or pointed projection was a part always 
added for the sake of pouring out the unguent. This was sealed; 
hence the reference to breaking it, in Mark 14 : 3. 



38 And stood at his feet behind 
him weeping, and began to wash 
tiia feet with tears, and did wipe 
them with the hairs of her headj 
and kissed his feet, and anointed 
them with the ointment. 

39 Now when the Pharisee 
which had bidden him, saw it, he 
spake within himself, saying, This 
man, if he were a prophet, would 
have known who, and what man- 
ner of woman this is that toucheth 
him.: for she is a sinner . 

40 And Jesus answering, said 
unto him, Simon, I have somewhat 
to say unto thee. And he saith, 
Master, say on. 


38 \ \ \ 'a, 

KO.L cTTaaa irapa TOVS Trooas 
avrpv piricra) KXaiovaa, 

TOVS 7To8as avrov TOIS 
SaKpvon, /cat rat? 6ptl rrjs /ce- 
avrrjs e^efiacrcre, KOI KOT- 
TOVS iroo'as avTov, /cat 
TO> fJ-vpa). 39 ISebv 8e o 
0api.a~a.iof o /caAeVay avTov ehrev 
zv lavTfS, Aeyojz/, OVTOS, et r/v 
irpo<j)r)Tr)s } eyivto<rKev av T'IS Kai 
TTOTairrj.r) yuw?, jyrty airTerai av- 
TOV' OTI afJLaprcoXos eort. 

40 Kai airoKpiOtls o 'IrjO'ovs 
ewre irpos O.VTOV, Si/MOV) e^co croi 
'O 8e (pr/cri, Ai8dcrKa- 


stood at his feet behind him 
weeping, and began -"to wet 
his feet rwith her tears, and 
"wiped them "with the hair of 
her head, and kissed his feet, 
and anointed them with the 
ointment. *But the Pharisee, 3p 
c who had invited him, a seeing 
it, spoke within himself, saying, 
This c man,if he were a prophet, 
f would know who and *what 
the woman is, that toucheth 
him ; for she is a sinner. And *0 
Jesus, answering, said to him, 
Simon, I have ""something to 
say to thee. And he saith, 

I have retained the rendering of the E. "V., although if we were 
to employ a word which is generic, and in use at present, viz. 
" vase " (which has been recommended by some interpreters), it 
would, perhaps, be more exact, as signifying jngjsly a receptacle 
of any form. See Rob. and Liddell (Lexx., in verbo). Still 
" vase " is by - no means a familiar word with the multitude, anc 
1'nis would be a serious objection to its use. Kuincel (Mark 
14 : 3) : " Est autem lagenulse illius confractio, ut intelligenter 
observavit Ernestius in Instit. interpret. N. T. Ill : 10, 89, de 
refracta superiore parte colli intelligenda, orificio obsignato, quoc 
signum erat genuini unguenti foris advecti, auctore Plinio." De 
Sacy, S. Pr., " un vase ; " Iber., " un vaso ; " Ital., " un vaso ; " 
De Wette, " ein Flaschchen." 

1 " to wet ; " faexstr. Norton. Liddell thus defines this 
word, " to wet, moisten, sprinkle, rain on, metaphorically to shower 
down blessings on any one ; " Bobinson, " to wet, to moisten, to 
sprinkle." Bretsch. : "Irrigo, madefacio, Luc. 7 : 38, 44. Apoc. 
11 : 6, fva. ftr t verbs Pfsxti, ne pluvia irrigat, intellige rijv yr;v. 
Apud poetas atticos et seniores scriptores, i. q. vsiv, pluo, plu- 
iiiam demitto, pluvia irrigo." Vulg., Mont, Eras., Beza, Castal., 
" rigare ; " S. Fr., " d. arroser ; " Iber., " a humedecerlos." 

J " with her tears ; " rots day.gvai. Norton, Penn, Angus, 
Thelwall, Thorn. Iber, " con [sus] lagrimas ; " G. Pr., " de ses 
larmes." The article here (torg) has, as in many other instances, 
"the force of a possessive pronoun. See ch. 5 : 3, note. Schole- 
field, " with her tears." 

* "wiped;" l&paooe. Wesley, Sharpe, Norton, Penn, Dick., 
Scarlett, Campbell, Kend. There is no emphasis which demands 
'the use of the phrase did wipe." It was copied from Tyndale. 

" with the hair ; " -cars &$. So (E. V., in a parallel) John 
12: : 3. Eev. 9:8. Sharpe, Norton, Penn, Kendrick, M. Our 
usus loquendi requires that we should treat ( as a collecti-ae. 
We never say, " lie lost his hairs," or, " he had his hairs cut off." 

In this passage, "hairs" was the literal rendering of Tyndale, 
and was copied by theearlier English versions. 

11 " Sut ; " 8e. Wesley, Norton, Penn, Dick., Scarlett, Angus, 
M., Thel. Yulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, Castal., autem ; " G. Fr., 
" mais." As the thought and action of the woman and the Pharisee 
were in marked contrast, it is proper to regard Se as adversative. 

" who had invited ; " 6 xaieaas. This participle is thus 
rendered in the versions of Wesley, Norton, Penn, Diet., Scar- 
lett, Wakef., Campbell, Angus. " To invite " is a scriptural -word. 
See 1 Sam. 9 : 24, E. T. (Heb., inx 1 ^} ; 2 Sam. 13 : 23 (Heb., 
Xlj:)^; Sept.,exafeffi'). Esther 5: 12 (Heb., tt-n-} ; Sept., 
/tat). So in the apocryphal book, Eccles. 13 : 9. " To bid," in 
the sense of asking, or requesting, is antiquated. (See Webster 
Diet, art. "bid"). 

d " seeing ; " IScav. Wesley, Scarlett, Kendrick, Thelwall, M. 
The participial construction is adopted also by Dick., A. and G. 
Campbell. So Vulg., Mont., Eras., " videns ; " Belg., " ziende ; " 
G. Fr. and -De Sacy, "voyant;" S. Fr., "ayant vu;" Diodati, 
" avendo veduto." 

" man." As there is nothing expressed in the text equivalent 
to " man," it is italicized, as a supplement. So Scarlett. 

f "would know;" lyiviomtEV av. Kend., Norton, Thomson, 
Murdock, M. Hob. (Lex., Sr) : " [used] with the indie, imperf 
to express the idea : J would, or might do, Luke 7 ; 39, OVTOH 
. t. L, if this man were a prophet, he would Jcnow, etc." See 
Trollope (Gram., g 51, p. 137). Vulg., Mont., Eras., " sciret nti- 
que;" Bern and Schott, "nSsset;" Belg., "zoude wel weten;" 
De Wette, " so wiirde er wohl erkennen ; " S. F. r., " il. saurait bien." 

e " what the woman is ; " no-taitrj r) yvvq. Norton, Sharpe, 
M. See ch. 1:29, note. De Wette, " welch ein Weib das ist .; " 
S. Fr., "ce qu'elle est;" G. Fr., " qu'elle est cette femme.;" 
Iber., "cual [es] la muger ; ;" Diodati, " quale^ia questa donna." 
H is rendered by its equivalent article. 
k "something;" T. Wiclif, Thorn., Norton, Penn, 




41 There was a certain credi- 
tor, -which had two debtors : the 
one owed five hundred pence, and 
the other fifty. 

42 And when they had nothing 
to pay, he frankly forgave them 
both. Tell me therefore, which 
of them will love him most? 

43 Simon answered and said, 
I suppose that fie, to whom he 


Ae, elm. 41 Avo 

fjcrav 8<x.veia-Tfj nisi' 6 ely 

Srjvapia Trevra/cocria, 6 de 

f 42 \ > / 


avrcov ajroSovvai, dfj,( 
p[<raTo. r/y 
TrAetof O.VTOV 
KpL0els 5e o SL/JLWV> on cj> TO 





Teacher, 'say it. A certain 41 
creditor had two debtors : 'one 
owed five hundred 'pence, and 
the other fifty. And 'as they 42 
had nothing to pay, m he free- 
ly forgave "both. "Tell me 
then, which of them will love 
him most ? And Simon, "an- 43 
Bwering, said, I suppose p he, to 
whom "he freely forgave 'the 

Dick., Scarlett, Camp., Kend., M. So (E. V.) ch, 11 : 54. John 
13 : 29. Acts 3:5. " Somewhat " ia Obsolete. 

1 "say it,-" shci. Tliom., Penn, Scarlett, Campbell. Belg., 
" zegt het ; " G. Pr., " dis-la." This accords with present usage. 
The phrase, of the E. V. was copied from Tyndale, who, in his 
turn, had followed Luther, " sage an." Syriac, fie] . Murdock, 
" say it." 

J " one ; " 6 els. In conformity with our usus loquendi, the 
article is not translated (by " the."). So Norton, Wakef., Dick., 
Camp., M. 

* " pence ; " SrjvA^ia. As I have retained the language of the 
E. V. in all cases, where weights, measures, coins, etc., are 
noticed, I transcribe part of the following' note inserted in the 
Revision of Mark, at ch. 4:21: " Various plans have been 
suggested or adopted in reference to the mode of expressing the 
weights, measures, and coins of the text of the Scriptures. It is 
difficult to see that any thing would be gained, in passages like 
the present, by substituting ' measure ' or ' corn-measure ' for 
'bushel.' The subject becomes really more indefinite by the 
change. Many later translators transfer the original word, 
slightly altered, so as to harmonize with the vernacular in termi- 
nation, and place a note in the margin indicating the capacity 
distance, space, or value. Now, in this case, we have some serious 
difficulties. For instance, it is impossible to determine, with 
any considerable accuracy, the length of many lineal measures 
noticed in the Scriptures ; an approximation is all we can reach. 
It is well known that the value of the coins noticed in the N. T. 
varied greatly at different periods, as the precious metals were 
more or less abundant. In the 0. T. the earlier translators gen- 
erally transferred the Hebrew terms. It would have been well 
if this course had been adopted in the N. T., at tlie proper time. 
As this was not done, however, and English readers have become 
familiarized with the ' pound,' ' penny,' ' bushel,' etc., by whicla 
the original words have been long represented, the propriety 
of changing them for the original words which must sound 
strangely in the ears of common readers may be questionable. 
On the whole, we are not in the same position as we should be, 
were we now engaged in making the first English translation. 
We are restricted by the phraseology of the Common Version, 
which has become familiar by usage. I take the liberty of 
suggesting that a set of marginal notes, drawn up with more 
accuracy than those found in our common quarto editions of the 

Common Version, should be inserted in the margin, giving a 
concise explanation of the value of coins, the extent of measures, 
etc. In reference to coins, the value should be stated according 
to the ' sterling ' standard of Britain, and the decimal reckoning 
of dollars and cents, in the United States." 

i " as they had nothing ; " firj IZOVTCOV Ss mntav. Sharpe, 
Pechy (on Angus). S. Fr., " comme ils n'avaient pas de quoi 
payer." " When" has been changed to " as," on the ground, that 
there is no reference to time, in the language of the text. 

m " he freely forgave ; " txaqiomo. "Wakef., Scarlett, Camp., 
Angus, M". " Frankly," in the sense demanded here, is obsolete. 
Iber., " perdono gratuitamente ; " S. Fr., " il leur fit grace ; " 
Vulg., Mont., " donavit ; " . Erasmus and Castalio, " condonavit ; " 
Beza, " gratificatns est." As an alternative rendering, " he for- 

" " both ; " afiyote^ats- Norton, Vulg., Eras., Beza, " utris- 
que ; " Castal. and Sehott, " utrique." " Them " (of the E. V.) is 
omitted, as superfluous. A literal rendering of the text furnishes 
an expression which accords with the present usage of the 

" Tell me ; " sins. As the pronoun is not expressed in the 
text, it should be italicized, as a supplement. The pronoun is not 
placed in the text of Eras., Mont., Beza, Castalio, Sehott, Belgic, 
Luther, De Wette, G. Fr., Iber., Diodati. Scarlett has properly 
inserted " me " in italic. 

r " then ; " ovv. So (E. V.) ch. 7 : 31. Norton, Campbell. 
S. Fr., " done ; " Iberian, " pues ; " Belgic, " dan." The particle 
here denotes the mere sequence of one clause on another, or the 
consequence of one clause on another. See Rob. (Lex., in verbo). 

1 " answering ; " axox$i&ius. Wesley, Sharpe, Kendrick, M., 

r The particle on (E. V., " that ") after vno).afi/3avca is super- 
fluous in translation. If it is expressed by an equivalent, a 
supplement must properly be employed, e. g., " I suppose that he 
will love most, to whom," etc. In the text it merely seems to 
indicate the ellipsis of nleZov ayanqast. "Ort is disregarded by- 
Thorn., Wesley, Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Wakef., Dick., G. and A. 
Camp., Beza, Castalio, Sehott, Luther, De Wette, Iber., Diodatj, 
Ital., Dan. In the following versions the ellipsis is supplied, and 
on is, therefore, properly retained in translation. Belgic, " Ik 
achte dat hij 't [is], dien," etc.; G. Fr., " j'estime que [c'est] celui 




forgave most. And he said unto 
him, Thou hast rightly judged. 

44 And he turned to the wo- 
man, and said unto Simon, Seest 
"ihou this woman ? I entered into 
thine house, thou gavest me no 
water for my feet : but she hath 
washed my feet with tears, and 
wiped them with the hairs of her 

45 Thou gavest me no kiss : 
but this woman, since the time I 
came in, hath not ceased to kiss 
my feet. 

46 Mine head with oil thou 


* S\ C\ N 9 9 f\ 9 /~\ /i f\ 

O-OTO. u oe eiTTfv avTco, Upuco? 
44 Kai o-rpa(f)fls Trpof 

-BAeVety Tavrrjv rrjv 
elo~TJX6ov crov elf rrjv oi/aaz>, 
vScop eiri TOVS Tro8as fJ-ov OVK 
' avrr) Se TOLS Sa.Kpv<rtv 
fjLOV TOVS 7ro5a?, K<U TOLS 
Trjs K 


fj.01 OVK 

' avrr/ 

8e, a(j> rjs do-rjXdov, ov 
Ka.Ta(j)iXovord fj-ov TOVS 
46 eAa/o) TTJV KcfyaXrjv p.ov OVK 


most. And he said to him, 
"Thou hast judged rightly. 
And 'turning to the woman, 44 
he said to Simon, Seest thou 
this woman ? *I came into thy 
house, thou gavest me no water 
for my feet ; but 'she wet my 
feet with J her tears, and wiped 
them with 'her hair. "Thou 45 
gavest me no kiss; but 'she, 
; from the time I came in, hath 
not ceased to kiss my feet. 
d Thou didst not anoint my 

" Thou hast judged rightly ; " ''Oo&cos extras. Kendrick, 
Thorn., Sharps, Penn, Wakef., Camp., M. There is no good 
reason why the natural arrangement of words in our own lan- 
guage should not be adopted here. Norton, " You have judged 

T " turning ; " oToaysis. Thorn., Wesley, Sharpe, Norton, 
Penn, Wakef., Dick., Scarlett, Camp., Kendrick, Angus, Thel- 
wall, M. 

" " I came ; " tlorj&ov. So E. V. renders 
Thorn., Wakef., Scarlett, Camp., Kend., Angus, M. 

in v. 45. 

1 " she wet ; " 'efcege. Norton, Hob. (Lex.), Liddell. Diod., 
Siculus, B. Ill, 25, tas Soyas tiov n^orepov elhjfifteviov /&$- 
iavres, Inid'iitaiv htl nv;> AnnUv, " having wet the skins of 
the [beasts] formerly taken, they place them over a gentle fire." 
The renderings " watered," " washed," and " bathed," which have 
been given to the word in this passage, are poetic approximations 
to the true sense. See v. 37, note. 

" her ; " rots. Article as a possessive pronoun. See cb. 
6:1, note. So Kend., Angus, Norton, Thorn. 

1 " her hair ; " Tars i9-^tJJ. Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Campbell. 
Bob (Lex.) : " Dative fygt, the hair." See v. 38, note. 

a Tf/g xeyafcjs of the Text. Recept. is a reading canceled by 
Griesbach, Knapp, Theile, Lachmann, Tischendorf, Scholz, and 
bracketed by Tittmann. Schott says : " Tbb. rijs xsyalijs post 
fytgiv vulgo addita (ex v. 38) delevimus cum Griesb. aliisque, 
praseuntibus haud paucis cdd. (6 unc.) verss., Pesch., Pers. 
Memph., ^Ethiop., Arm., Goth. Vulg., Ital." 

b " she ; " avrtj. So this word is rendered (E. V.) v. 44. 
Thomson, Wesley, Sharpe, Norton, Wakef., Dick., Camp., Kend., 
Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva, Rheims. Angus. Luther and De 
Wette, " sie ; " G. and S. Pr., " elle ; " Ital., " ella." Heb. N. T., 
Xifi When emphatic, OUTOS may be rendered by fie, she, etc. 

c " from the time ; " ay ^s. Kend., Penn, Sharpe. 

d " Thou didst not anoint my head with oil." This is the 
natural order for English readers. " Mine " is allowable only 
before a vowel, or silent h. This arrangement is that of Wesley, 
Penn, Dick., Scarlett, Camp., Kend., Murdock. De Wette, " Du 
salbtest mein Haupt nicht mit Oel ; " S. Fr., " tu n'as pas oint 
ma tete d'huile ; " Span., " No ungiste mi cabeza con oleo ; " 
Diodati, " Tu non mi hai unto il capo d' olio." 

& qui," etc. ; De Sacy, " que [ce sera] celni auquel," etc. ; S. Fr., 
" qne [c'est] celui a qui," etc. The more concise rendering har- 
monizes with our idiom. 

" he freely forgave ; " e%aqioato. Angus, Thelwall. So 
" frankly forgave," in v. 42. It is obvious that the translation 
in these verses should be uniform. The earlier English versions, 
Wiclif, Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva render the word in the same 
manner w. 42, 43, " forgave ; " while the E. V. is inconsistent in 
saying "frankly forgave" (v. 42), and then "forgave" (v. 43). 
The following are specimens of the mode of rendering fyapioaro 
(in these verses), which occur in other languages than English. 
Vulg. and Mont, " donavit donavit ; " Erasmus, Castalio, and 
Schott, "condonavit condonavit;" Beza, "gratiflcatus est 
gratificatua est ; " De Wette, " scLenkete schenkete ; " G. Fr., 

" il quitta la dette il a quitte ; " S. Fr., " il lenr nt grace 51 a 
fait la plus grande grace ; " De Sacy, " il leur remit il a 
remis;" Iberian, " perdono gratuitamente perdono gratuita- 
mente ; " Diodati, " egli rimise egli ha rimesso ; " Ital., " fece 
grazia , ha fatta grazia ; " Dan., " eftergav eftergav." Syriac, 
y n-q v^elwfc.). Heb. N. T., -jjn IJrtJI. As an alternative 
rendering, " he forgave." 

1 "the most;" TO itleTov. Norton, Dick., M. Belg., "het 
meeste ; " De Wette, " das meiste." In v. 42, nfarov is used 
adverbially, and modifies the signification of ayaTtnaet. In the 
present instance, it has the force of a substantive with the article 
TO. Rob. (Lex., itletcov) cites this passage thus: "To niaov, 
the more, i. e., the greater debt." The article should be trans- 





didst not anoint : but this woman ' rfXettyas' avrij 5e P-^pco 
hath anointed my feet with oint-j ^ ^ 47 n $ 

jjient. ^ 

47 Wherefore, I say unto thee, 
Her sins, which are many, are for- 
given': for she loved much : but 
to whom little is forgiven, the. 
same loveth little. 

48 And he said unto her, Thy 
sins are forgiven. 

49 And they that sat at meat 

Xeyca . croi, acj&eWrat ai 
avrfjs ai TroAAai, OTL 


" 48 T7' S>\ 

yov aycwra. Jaiire oe 

'A(f)ea>VTai 0-ov ai ap.apTiai. 







head with oil ; but c she f anoint- 
ed my feet with ointment. 
^Therefore, I say to thee, b her 47 
many sins are forgiven ; 'for 
she loved much ; 'but he to 
whom little is forgiven, loveth 
little. And he said to her, 48 
Thy sins are forgiven. And 49 
those, k who reclined at table 

" she ; " avTTj. Kendriok, Angus, Thomson, Wesley, Shavpe 
Norton, Wakef., Dick., Camp. See v. 45, note. 

' " anointed ; " rjAenpe. The aorist should have its proper 
force here, as well as in the preceding member of the sentence 
where we have ^Ay/as. So Wakef., M., De Wette. 

e "Therefore;" ov %<iotv. Norton, Scarlett. Webster (Diet. 
art. " therefore ") : " For that ; for that, or this reason, referring 
to something previously stated." " Therefore " often occurs in 
the B. V. " Wherefore " is obsolescent. 

h " her many sins ; " at afiaoTtat avifji al Ttottal. Norton, M. : 
Kend., Tbelwall. Scarlett and Dick., " her numerous sins ; " De 
"Wette, " ihre vielen Siinden ; " S. Fr., " ses nombreux peches ; " 
Ital., " i suoi molti peccati." Murdock. The emphasis belongs 
to " many," and this is clearly exhibited by this arrangement. 
Wiclif, Tyndale, Cranmer, Genevan have " many sins." They, 
however, mistake by using " to her," thus following the Vulgate, 
which has ei, the dative, as though the Greek was avrfj, instead 
of avrijs. On the construction which occurs in this passage, 
Green (Gram, of N. Test. Dialect, p. 165) remarks : " Of the two 
modes of collocation for the words in combination with the noun, 
namely that of placing them between the article and the noun, 
and that of postfixing them with the article repeated, the latter 
seems to be preferred when they embrace a more prominent part 
of the complex idea than the noun itself, or when, at least, some 
prominence is intended to be given to them." In many instances, 
however, this prominence can not be indicated by any arrange- 
ments of words in our language without a violation of its idiom, 
for instance, John 10 : 11, eyca sl/ti 6 noifajv 6 xaiog. We can 
not with propriety say, " I am the shepherd, who is good ; " but, 
"I am the good shepherd." The judgment of the reader must, 
then, indicate the emphasis, " I am the good shepherd." So 
2 Tim. 4 : 7, TOV ayoiva. tbv xa),b 

' " for she loved much ; " on yydmjoe no?.v. I have retained 
the rendering of the E. V., which has been followed by most of 
the later translators in our language. This rendering is adopted 
also by De Wette, Belg., S. Pr. Now the sense of the expres- 
sion " for she loved much " is such, that it makes the forgiveness 
of l)3r many sins the desert of loving much; in other words, it is 
as if the sentence were this, " she loved much because her many 
sins were forgiven." And this is a sense, which makes the 
Saviour's reasoning inconsequential, and the illustration drawn 
ftom the two debtors useless. Besides this, it contradicts the 

declaration made by Christ in the fiftieth verse, " Thy faith hath 
saved thee." The question then arises : When the usual render- 
ing of a word gives a sense which is antagonistic to the thought 
presented in the context and scope of the passage, are we not 
required to seek one which will be in harmony with that 
thought ? The answer must be in the affirmative. But philologists 
regard it as a fact that authority is wanting for regarding on as 
illative rather than causal in this passage. Yet there is an ellipti- 
cal use of Srt (Hoogeveen, on, III : 1, p. 138) when the full 
form is Sia tovro on, " on this account that," referring to what 
precedes. Let us proceed another step, and suppose the full form 
to be 8i& TOUT ,> sort, art, " on this account it is that she loved 
much." We now have a sentence in perfect harmony with the 
Saviour's argument, with the illustration drawn from the case of 
the debtors, and with v. 50. By some such analysis of this pas- 
sage, I presume the authors of the admirable Spanish Version 
which I have noted as " Iberian," wrought out the result, which 
they have expressed in this form, "Digote que por motive de 
que [le] estan perdonados sus pecados, muchos, ha amado mu- 
cho." I, therefore, submit as an alternative rendering, " on this 
account it is that she loved much." Kuinrel has the following 1 
note on this passage : " Haud pauci interpretes opinati sunt, his 
verbis ostendi, foeminam illam pietatis ac reverentise suse erga 
Christum declaratione, delictorum veniam promeritam esse, adeo- 
que ea interpretoti sunt : remiss sunt ei multa peccata, qua com- 
missit, quoniam multa pietatis ac reverentia signa mihi exhibuit. 
Huic vero interpretation! primo i-epugnat parabola ipsa panic 
ante proposita, in ea enim debitoris erga creditorem pietas et 
benevolentia memoratur, postquam notatum est creditorem ei 
debitum remisisse. Deinde si verba Christ! eo sensa accipienda 
issent, quern iis interpretes illi subjiciunt, sequi deberet : " Ss SB 
hiyov ayana, oHfyov avry ayiercu, sed verba textus memorant 
primo peccatorum remissionem, deinde amoris ac pietatis declara- 

' " but he to whom little is forgiven loveth little ; " < Ss bU- 
ynv apterai, bliyov ayartq. By expressing the nominative of 
aytata, " he," in its proper place, we are freed from an unneces- 
sary and antiquated supplement, " the same." The expression is 
thus harmonized with present usage. So Thorn., Wesley, Penn 
Norton, Scarlett, Dick., Camp. 

k " who reclined at table with him ; " ol ffvvaxelftevoe. Bob. 
Lex., in verbo), " to recline with any one at table,-" BretseL, " una 
accumbo." If we except the force of the preposition aw, this 



with him, began to say within 
themselves, Who is this that for- 
giveth sins also ? 

50 And he said to the woman, 
Thy faith hath saved thee ; go in 


AND it came to pass afterward, 
that he went throughout every 
city and village, preaching and 
shewing the glad tidings of the 
kingdom of God : and the twelve 
were with him ; 

2 And certain women, which 
had been healed of evil spirits 
and infirmities, Mary called Mag- 
dalene, out of whom went seven 

3 And Joanna the wife of 
Chuza, Herod's steward, and Su- 
sanna, and many others, which 
ministered unto him of their sub- 




> t ~ fTTf 

ev eavroty, 1 is 
by /cat dfjiaprias d(j) 
50 Ears Se TTyooy r^v ywat/ca, '-? 
TT'UTTIS (rov <re(rcoKe ere- Tropevov 


ev r< 

/cat avrof SicoSeve Kara 
/cat KCO/J.TJV, Krjpv(rcr<ov /cat euay- 
y\t^6fjLvos rrjv @acriXf{a.v rov 
Oeov- Kal ol 8co8eKa crvv aura, 
2 /cat yvvaLKes rives at rjcrav reffe- 
pairev[J.evaL dtro Trvfv/j.a.Tow TTO- 
vrjpcov Kal d(r0ei>icov ) Mapia 77 
aXijvr), d(f) rj$ 
eVra e^eA^Av^et, 3 /cat 
'Itadvva yvvrj Xovtjx. ziriTpoltov 
'ffpcoSov, /cat Sova-avva, KOI ere- 
pai TroAAai, atrtvey SirjKovovv 
aura! d-rro TK>V virapyovraiv av- 


with him, began to say within 
themselves, Who is this 'that 
even forgiveth sins ? And he so 
said to the woman, Thy faith 
hath saved thee ; go in peace. 


AND it came to pass "after- l 
wards that "he traveled through 
c cities and villages d proclaiming 
and "preaching the good news 
of the kingdom of God ; and 
the twelve were with him, and 2 
certain women, who had been 
healed of evil spirits and in- 
firmities, Mary called Magda- 
lene, f from whom g had gone 
out seven demons, and Joanna. h 3 
^the wife of Chuza, Herod's stew- 
ard, and Susanna, and many 
others, who ministered to him 
J from their ^possessions. And 4 

verb has the same signification with av&xhvco, in v. 36. See 
note on that verse. Him, in this passage, is a supplement, and 
should be italicised. Iber., " los que estaban recostados con [el a 
la mesa]." I render the word uniformly in ch. 14 : 10, 15. 

i " that even ; " os xal. Sharps, Penn, Norton, Wakefield, 
Scarlett, Dick., Camp., Kend. ("who even forgives"); S. Fr., 
" qui meme ; " Iber., " que ann ; " Ital., " che anche ; " De "Wette, 
" er auch." In this instance, xal is intensive, as in Matt. 10 : 30, 
v/zdiv Ss xa.1 at tgi^es. See Rob. (Lex., xal}. 

" " afterwards ; " h> tio xaS-e^ijs. In the E. T. both forms 
of this word occur, " afterward," and " afterwards." The latter is 
employed uniformly in this Revision, as it is that which is now 
generally used. See (E. V.) Exdd. 11 : 1. 1 Sam. 9 : 13. Job 
18 : 2. Prov. 20 : 17. Gal. 3 : 23. So Sharpe, Norton, Wakef., 
Dick., Camp., M. 

b "he traveled through;" SicoSeve. Rob. (Lex.), Liddell, 
Them., Norton, Scarlett, Dick., G-. and A. Camp., M. 

" " cities and villages ; " xara. nohv xai xa>ftr}t>. Kendrick, 
Thorn., Campbell. Norton, " the cities and villages ; " Sharpe, 
" city and village ; " Tyndale, " cities and towns." The rendering 
of the E. Y. (taken from the Genevan) is too indefinite. " Every 
city and village " would require a supplement like that adopted 
by Dick., " every city and village of Galilee." A more literal 
rendering, such as Sharpe's, " through city and village," does not 
harmonize with our siw loquendi. Kara is- distributive. Rob. 

(Lex., v.rera). As an alternative rendering of SuoScve xara ito- 
iiv xal xtafirjv, " he traveled throughout cities and villages." 

* " proclaiming ; " Kij^vaatav. Thorn., Norton, Dick., Camp., 
Kend., Angus, M. Syr., jjlaio. (Murd., " proclaimed.") Iber.. 
" proclamando." Heb. N. T., tfyf\ See ch. 4 : 18, note. 

" preaching the good news ; " svayyeL&ftsvos. See ch. 
4 : 18, note. 

f " from whom ) " ay qs. M. In the E. V. iutb is disre- 
garded, and &, in composition with tyxopai (tgftyM&tt), is 
made to take its place, while that verb is rendered as though it 
bad the simple form lA/yA^st. This incorrect rendering was 
copied from Tyndale. Kuincel, ^'e qua septem genii mali exie- 
rant ; " Schott, " e qua ; " Vulg., Mont, Eras., " de qua ; " Belg., 
" van welke ; " De Wette, " von welcher ; " 8. Pr., " de laquelle ; " 
Iber., " de la cual ; " Ital., " dalla quale." 

e " had gone out ; " egetyM&et. M., Thorn., "Wesley. Vulg., 
Mont, Eras., Beza, Castalio, "exierant" This verb is properly 
rendered in the pluperfect by Norton, Angus, Camp., and Wakef. 
See last note. 

h A comma is placed after " Joanna," as that name is followed 
by a defining clause. .So Wakef., M., Norton, Thomson, Wesley, 
Campbell, Kend. 

' " the." The article is demanded here by our idiom ; but as 

ri is anarthrous, the article is italicized, as a supplement. 
" from ; " ano (cum genit.). Kend., Penn, Dick., Norton, 
"from possessions;" aito ta>v ina^ovrcov. Kend., Thorn., 




4 , And when much people were 
gathered together, and were come 
to him out of every .city, he spake 
by a iparable : 

5 A sower went out to sow his 
seed : and as he : sowed, some fell 
by the way-side ; and it was 
trodden down, and the fowls of 
the air deyoured it. 

6 And some fell -upon a rock ; 
and as soon as it was sprung -up, 
it withered aw.ay, because it lack- 
ed moisture. 

7 And some fell among thorns ; 
and .the thorns sprang .up with it, 
and ;ohoked it. 

8 And other fell ongood ground, 
and sprang up, and bare fruit an 


/cat r&v /cora irp\iv e 

TTpps avTov, etvre di.a irapa.- 
'E.^ri\6sv 6 (TTTtipcov 
TOV fTTreipai TOV auropov avrov- 
/cat eV ra> p-7reipeii> OLVTOV, o jj.ev 
errea.e Trapa rrjv oSov, /cat /care- 
./cat TO Treraz/a TOV 



Kal (f)Vv 



,Sia TO 
7 KCU Zrepov erre- 

cr.i> ev 

TG>V ,aKQ,v t )V) .KCU 
<rvjJ.(j)Vi(ra.[ OKavOcu. ajrlirvL^av 
/cat ereppv ejr.e<rei> eVt 
TTJV ayadrjv, /cat (j)vev 



when a great crowd "was as- 
sembling and ".those "from .the 
cities were coming to him, he 
spoke by ,a parable : "The sower 
went out to sow his seed ; and 
as he sowed, some fell by the 
way-side ; and it was trodden 
down, and the birds of the air 
devoured it. And some fell on 
; pthe rock ; and 'when it sprung 
up, it withered away, 'because 
it had no moisture. And some 
fell among "the thorns; and the 
thorns springing up with it 
choked it. And <spme fell .?into 
the good ground, and "spring- 

Dick., M. Robinson (Lex.) : "Participle, as substantive, things 
present, things in hand, to any one, possessions." 

i " .was assembling^; " ovviovtos. M. Bretsch. (in verbo], 
" congregor, comi.enip ; " Liddell, " to go, .or come together, hence 
to assemble." Camp, renders this word by " assemble." S. Fr., 
" s'assemblait." 

P " those were coming ; " paivlxeito.geyofievcov. M. The 
participial construction is adopted by Thorn., Camp., Wakefield, 

" -from the cities ; " xara it61.iv. Kend., M., Sharpe (" of 
the cities"), Camp, ("out of the cities"). Vulg., "de civitati- 
bus;" Castal.,-"ex oppidis;" >De Wette, " aus den Stadten." 
See v. 1, note c. 

"The sower;" o OTtd^tav. Thomson, Sharpe, Campbell, 
Dickinson, Norton, Kendrick, M., Thelwall. De Wette, "der 
Samann ; " S. Fr., " le semeur ; " Iber., " el sembrador ; " Ital., 
" il seminatore." Heb. N. T., yyn. Beza, " quidam sator ; " 
Castalid, " sator quidam." 

P " the , rock ;" .Trjv.aer^av. .Kend., ^"esley, Sharpe, Scarlett, 
Wakefieid, Angus, Thelwall, M. Luther, " auf den Fels ; " De 
"Wette, " auf den Felsen ; " S. French." le rocher ; ," Iberian, ".la 
rpca ; " Diodati, " la.pietra ; " Ital., " sullp scpguo." As there is 
a marked distinction .between the places .where the seed fell, 
"rpek," "thorns,", and "good ground," the article. js.prefixed to 
each of the Greek words to render this distinction prominent. 
Hence the articles shpuld be retained, in each case. 

5 " when it sprung up ; " .yvsv. Sharpe. -This 2nd apr. part, 
though, of the, passive for-m (as if from.yiv/ii), is. active. intransitive 
in its force, to, spring, up, to grow. Bob. (Lex.), Liddell. .Iber., 
"habiendp nacido." The phrase ".as. soon, as it. was sprung up" 
is inaccurate,. as, it introduces fhe idea that <Ae.wiVienng.occurred 
ft the very time, when the springing up.took place. If the parti- 

cipial construction is adopted, then " having sprung up " (like -the 
Iber.) would be appropriate. 

' "because it had .no moisture;" Sta ro fir; fyttv jxftaSa. 
Penn, M., Scarlett, Angus ("had not"). Iber., "por 
no tener humedad ; " Span., " porque .no tenia humor ; " Diodati 
and Ital, "perciocche non aveva iimore;" De Wette, " well ea 
keine Feuchtigkeit hatte." 

"the ; thorns ; " teSv axv&div. Kendrick, Penn, Wakefieid, 
Gray (note on Angus), M., Thelwall. Belgic, " de doornen;?' 
Luther and De Wette, "die Dornen;!' ; G. and S. Fr., " des 
epines ; " Iberian, " Ips espinps ; " Diodati and Ital., " le .spine." 
For/the use of the .article see.v. 6, .note. 

' " some ; " eteqov. ,So in vv. 6, 7. "Other," without a sub- 
stantive expressed, violates the usage of our language. "JEre^ov 
should .be rendered uniformly in vv. 6, 7, and .8. As an alterna- 
tive rendering in these three instances I suggest " another part ; " 
feefos being supposed to be understood. So Scarlett. The 
change may .perhaps, be too unimportant to demand attention. 

. "into." Instead of tnl ..of the Textus JReceptus, -Griesbach, 
Tittmann, Bloomf., : Lachmann, Tiseh., Knapp, JTheile .have sis. 
Schott says: "Pro vulgari Jwl.ante r^v yijv (ex Matt. 13.: 8) 
cum.Griesb. aliisque auctoritate .plnrimorum.cdd. ; (10.tinc.) dedi- 
mus els." The weight of testimony is.decidedly of sis. 
A similar use of sis occurs eh. 14 : 10, .ito$ev9jEls .av.ansaov sis 
rov epxarov tonov. So (parallel) Mark 4 : 8, .'sjteaev eis rrjv 
yrjv ,ir,v xalriv. .In the passage under consideration, the S. Fr- 
has " daps la bonne terre." Angus " into .the good ground." 

SO.M. '" ' ' -.. '. - 

r ".the good ground ; " rjjv .y.ijv ,tqv nyv.&Tiv. F^nd., AngflS, 
Penn, Wakefieid, .M., Thelwall. .Belg., '" ^e gpedt aarde ;'" Dp 
Wette, " das ,g.ute .Land ;" .S.,Er.,' la ; .bpnne .terre.; " Ital., ",sul 
buon terreno." .See v. 6,. note. 

w " springing up ;" ,yruev. .M., Kend. Belg., ," ppgewesschen 




hundredfold. And when lie had 
said these things, he cried, He 
that hath ears to hear, let him 

9 And his disciples asked him, 
saying, What might this parable 

10 And he said, Unto yon it is 
given to know the mysteries of the 
kingdom of God : but to others in 
parables ; that seeing they might 
not see, and hearing they might 
not understand. 

11 Now the parable is this : 
The seed is the word of God. 

12 Those by the way-side, are 
they that hear ; then cometh the 
devil, and taketh away the word 


etroiTjcre Kaprrov 
criova,. Tavra. Aeyaw 
'0 e~)(cav cora arcoveiv 
9 *E7rripa>Toov 8e avrov O'L 
ral avrov, Aeyoj/re?, Tis ei?) "f] 
irapafioXr] CWTTJ ; 10 'O Se elirev, 
' Y[uv SeSorai yvrnvai TO. fj.v(TTr)- 
pia TTjy /SacriAe/a? rod Oeov- 
roty e AoiTTOty ev TrapafioXais, 
iva /3Xe7rovTe? firj fiXeiraxn, KCU 

$ pJfj (TVVLSxTLV. 11 "jE(TTl 

17 7ra/>a/3oA?7' 6 cnropos 

(rr\v o Xoyog TOV Oeov- 12 ol 
Se Trapu, rrjv o8ov flcrlv ol CCKOU- 
ovres, eira l^erat 6 &a/3oAoy 


ing up, bore fruit a hundred- 
fold. And ^having said these 
things, y he called out, He who 
hath ears to hear, let him hear. 
And his disciples asked him, 9 
saying, What 'may this parable 
mean? And he said, To you 10 
it is given to know 'the secrets 
of the kingdom of God : but 
b to the rest I speak in parables ; 
that seeing d they may not see, 
and hearing 'they may not un- 
derstand. Now the parable is n 
this : The seed is the word of 
God. Those by the way-side, 12 
are they who hear ; then com- 
eth the devil and taketh away 

zijnde ; " De Wette, " aufgewachsen." The participial form is 
concise, and most forcible. 

* " having said ; " l&ytov. Thorn., Scarlett, Camp., M., Mmv 
dock, Norton ("having spoken"), Dick, ("having uttered"). 
The participial construction is employed by Wesley, Wakef., and 
Thelwall. Belg., " zeggende ; " G. Fr., " en disant ; " S. Fr., " en 
parlant-; " Iber., " diciendo ; " Diodati, " dicendo." 

i " he called out ; " lytovt*. Angus, M. Kobinson (Lex., in 
verbo), " to call, to call out. to any one ; " Bretsch., " clamo, voci- 
feror." This word occurs forty-two times in the N. Test. In 
twelve of these, it is applied to the crowing of a cock. In the 
remaining thirty, it is rendered in the E. V. by " call " in twenty- 
five instances. As xqa^co, y.^avyu^co, fioaco, and several other 
words must be rendered by " cry," or " cry out," it is desirable to 
distinguish ytavlco in all cases (where consistency will permit) by 
an appropriate equivalent. In ch. 16 : 24, and 23 : 46, where 
it is employed in cases of distress, " cry out " is a proper ren- 

* "may mean?" eiy. Scarlett. Sehott, " cujusnam signifi- 
cationis esset iiaec similitude ? " This optative should, in conformi- 
ty with our ss loquendi, be rendered with the auxiliary " may," 
rather thaa "might." So Sharpe. On the particular force of 
elpi, in this and similar cases, see ch. 1 : 29, note, where Kuinoel 
has " quid sibi hsec salutatio vellet ? " Norton renders / here 
by " the meaning " (of this parable). 

" " the secrets ; " -co. /ivar^ia. Kendrick, Thorn., Campbell, 
Dickinson. Castalio, " arcana." Kuinrel on the parallel, Matt. 
13 : 11, remarks : "Mvar^iov dicitur res arcana quselibet, homi- 
nibus hactenus ignota. Quonam sensu imm^iov loco quoque 
capiendum sit, definire debet orationis series. Sic h. 1. ftvartfyea 
rfjs fiaodctas taiv ovgavaiv sunt doctrinas hactenus arcanas et 
incognita?, regni Messiani naturam et indolem, costumque Christia- 
norum spectantes." I quote the following note from the Eevision 
of Mark's gospel (published by the Am. B. U.) ch. 4 : 11. 

" Bob. (jcuaTriqiov) : ' In N. Test, spoken of facts, doctrines, 
and principles, not fully revealed. Specially, Hit mystery of the 
gospel, the Christian dispensation, as having been long hidden 
and first revealed in later times.' The signification of the word 
as employed in this passage, may be seen by reference to Coloss. 
1 : 26, 27. The word should be translated, not transferred, in all 
cases. Every truth contained in the Scriptures, was a mystery, 
or secret to man, previous to the period, when it was revealed. 
' Mystery,' in biblical usage, does not signify something which is 
incomprehensible in its own nature, but simply what was unre- 
vealed. See 1 Cor. 2 : 7-13, aud 15 : 51. Rom. 16 : 25, 26. See 
an able examination of this word in G-. Campbell's Prelim. Dis- 
sertations, Dissert. IX." 

b "to the rest ; " -tots hontoTs. Penn, "Wakefield, Kendrick, 
Angus, M., Thelwall, Eheims. Beza, " reliquis." Heb. N. T., 
tji'ixewi. Syr., j^j^j (Tremell., "his qui reliqui surit"). So 
(B. V.) Matt. 27 : 49. Lnke 12 : 26 ; 24 : 9. Acts 2 : 37; 
27 : 44. 1 Cor. 7 : 12. De Wette, " den ubrigen ; " Iber., " a los 

c " I speak." Wakefield, M. It is necessary to supply the 
ellipsis by some supplementary phrase. This one is deemed 
most concise and appropriate. See Matt. 13 : 10, 4i<xii tv Ttapa- 
jSoAaZs bakers avrois ; (B. V.), " Why speakest thou to them in 
parables?" Luke 12 :41, Rvqie, TC^OS riftas TIJV itapa/}oi>p> 
cavtijv feyecs, n xa.1 JT^OS TtajTag; (K. V.), " Lord, speakest 
thou this parable unto us, or even to all ? " This supplement is 
found in Belgic, " spreek ik ; " Iberian, " haMo." Syriac, j^o]i^2 

d " they may not see ; " foj pUntooi. Camp., Sharpe, Kend., 
M., Murdock, Rheims. Iber., " no vean ; " Vulg., Mont., Eras., 
Beza, Castal., Sehott, " non videant." As " I speak " (Afyco sub- 
auditur,) is in the present .tense, " may " is the proper auxiliary. 

" they way not understand ; " /ur; awtaatv. Camp., Sharpe, 
Kend., M., Murdock. Iber., " no entiendan ; " Vulg., Montanus, 
Eras., Beza, Castalio, Sehott, " intelligant." See last note. 




out of their hearts, lest: they 
should believe and be saved. 

13 They on the rock are 
which, when they hear, receive 
the word with joy ; and these 
have no root, which for a while 
believe, and in time of temptation 
fall away. 

14 And that which fell among 
thorns, are they, which, when they 
have heard, go forth, and are 
choked with cares, and riches, 
and pleasures of this life, and 
bring no fruit to perfection. 

15 But that on the good ground 
are they, which in an honest and 
good heart, having heard the word, 


KCU cupei TOV Xoyov airo TTJS Kctp- 
8ia? O.VTUJV, 'iva fj.r/ Trtoreutraz/re? 
crcodtao-tv. 13 Oi <5e eVt Trjf Tre- 
Tpas, ot oTav aKovcraxn, fiera 
Capets SexpvTcu TOV Xoyov, KCU 
ovTOi piav OVK )(ovcrt.v, ot rrpos 
Kcupov TTicrTevova-i, KCU e.v Katp< 
Tm/jaoyiou a(f)i<rTa.vTai. u TO Se 
eh TO.! ct.Ka.v0af Trecrov, OUTOL eicriv 
oi dfcovcrai'Tf?, KCU VTTO fji.eptfj.vaiv 
KOL TrXovTOv KCU. r/8ova)v TOV jSt'ou 


ov TeAeGT<j&o/5o>0Y. 15 TO Se v 
Trj KaXrj yfj, OVTOL clcriv arrives 
Ka\rj Kcti ayady O.KOV- 


the word f from their hearts, 
lest they should believe and be 
saved. Those on the rock are. 13 
they, who, when they hear, re- 
ceive the word with joy ; s and 
yet these have no root, who for 
a while believe, and in time 
h of trial fall away. And that 14 
which fell among 'the thorns 
are 'those, who, 'having heard, 
go forth, and are choked 'by 
"anxieties, and riches, and 
pleasures "of life, and bring no 
fruit to perfection. But that 15 
"in the good ground are those, 
who, in an honest and good 
heart, having heard the word, 

"from;" &nb. Kend., Angus, Dick., Norton, M. Vulg. 
Mont., Erasmus, " de ; " G. and S. Fr., " de ; " Span, and Iber. 
" de ; " Diodati and Ital., " de ; " Dan., " af." This is the proper 
signification of anb. A few cases occur, where, from the influ- 
ence of the Hebrew ft, the Hellenistic writers nse axb as 
equivalent to l. This passage is not one of that kind. See 
Kob. (Lex., anb). 

E " and yet ; " There is an obvious antithesis here. The 
thought is, " though they receive the word with joy, still, as they 
have no root, they wither away." The note (i) on the Eevision 
of Mark 4 : 31 is in point. " This conjunction (xal) sometimes 
closely connects two opposed clauses. Hoogeveen (xal). It thus 
performs the office of ftsv and Se, as in John 9 : 30, ow o^ 
mod-ev earl, xal avecpj-e, a. r. L, E. V., ' ye know not whence he 
is, and yet he hath opened,' etc. In cases of this kind, the con- 
junction has not, in itself, an adversative sense, but, as Hoogeveen 
remarks, takes it from the nature of the opposed clauses, or mem- 
bers. Kobirison (xal). Kuincel- (in loco) : 'Kal h. 1. valet sed 
tamen.' " 

k " of trial ; " ateipaofiov. Scarlett, Camp., Norton, Wakef., 
Kendrick. De Wette, " Versuchung." Rob. (Lex., in verbo) : 
" Trial, proof, a putting to the test ; only of persons." See ch. 
4 : 2, note. 

1 " the thorns ; " els ras o.xavd'as, Wesley, Sharpe, Penn, 
Walcefield, Kendrick, M. Belg., " de doornen ; " Luther and De 
Wette, " die Dornen ; " S.Pr. and De Sacy, " les epines ; " Iber., 
los espinos ; " Diodati and Ital., " le spine," As there is an 
obvious reference to raw axav&aiv, in v. 7, the omission of the 
article in the E. Y. (which follows Tyndale) is entirely incorrect. 
See vv. 6, 7, notes. 

1 " those." In most cases (where there would not be a repeti- 
tion of "those"), the proper antecedent to "who" is "those." 
In v. 12, as the repetition of "those" would otherwise occur, 

" they " is employed. This principle is adopted throughout the 

k " having heard ;" axovaavres. "Wesley, Sharpe, Campbell, 
Kend., M. So the E. V. renders axovaavres in v. IS. G. Fr., 
" ayant onl ; " S. Fr., " ayant entendu ; " Iber., " habiendo vido ; " 
Diodati, " hanno udito ; " Ital., " avendo udito." 

i " by ; " vTtb. Sharpe, Norton, Dick., Kend., M., Murdock. 
In using " with," the E. V. copies Tyndale. 

m " anxieties ; " fiegtfivcor. Dickinson. De Sacy, " les solli 
citudes ; " Iber., " los afanes ; " Diodati and Ital., " sollecitudini ; " 
De Wette, " Sorgen ; " Vulg., Mont, Eras., " solicitudinibus." The 
following note on this word occurs in the Revision of Mark 4 : 19 : 

" This word is well defined by Robinson ' anxious thought,' as 
dividing {ffe^m) up and distracting the mind. So the verb 
fivaio , to be anxious, troubled, take anxious thought. In the 
sense in which ' care ' is now used, ' men ' may have ' care,' with- 
out ' anxiety.' All the duties of life demand ' care ' (as we now 
employ the word), but ' anxiety ' is morally wrong. The antique 
phrase ' carking care ' is an equivalent to fieglfiva, and expresses 
the thought we now convey by ' anxiety.' Comp. Matt. 6 : 25. 
Eras., Beza, ' solicitudines ; ' Bloomf. (N. T., on Matt. 13 : 22), 
anxious care.' " 

" " of life ; " -roil piov. The supplement this of the E. V. is 
dropped by Sharpe, Penn, Scarlett, Camp., "Wakefield, Dickinson, 
Kend., Angus, M. Green (Gram. N. Test. Dialect, p. 203, gv) 
says : " The article is never used in the N. Test, as a demonstra- 
tive or relative pronoun." The use of the article with {lion fall 
under the principle of its employment with nouns, which are 
abstracts, as in John 4 : 22, 17 acor^ta. Rom. II : 11. Eev. 
7 : 10. 1 Cor. 15 : 21, 6 9'avaros. Gal. 2 : 5, TJJ iatorayfj. 
tfatt. 11 : 19, fj aoyia. 

" in ; " If. Norton, Angus, M., Tyndale, Cranmer, Genevan- 
The E. T. renders this " on," as though the passage was like the 
mrallel, Mark 4 : 20, Irii. ttfv yrjv. Belg., " in de goede aarde ; " 
!ber., " en la buena tierra ; " Diodati, " nella buona terra." 



seep it, and bring forth fruit with 

16 No man when he hath light- 
ed a candle, covereth it with a 
vessel, or putteth it under a bed ; 
but setteth it on a candlestick, 
that they which enter in may see 
the light. 

17 For nothing is secret, that 
shall not be made manifest ; nei- 


creci/re? rov Xoyov, 
Koi Kapiro<f)opovo~iv & 

16 Ov8ei? Se Xv%vov mj/as KOL- 
XvTrrei avTov (ritevei, rj inroKarca 
kXivrjs riffijcriv dXX' eirt Xv^vias 
'iva ol l<nropfv6fjt.evoi 
0t3y. 17 ov -yap ecrri 
ov, b ov (frdvepov 
rat' ovBf airoKpvfyov, b ov 


keep it, and bear fruit 
ly. 'No one 'having lighted 16 
a lamp covereth with a : vessel, 
or putteth it under a table- 
seat, but serteth it on "a lamp- 
stand, ihat those who enter in, 
may see the light. For 'there IT 
is nothing w hidden, which "will- 
not become manifest, *nor z con- 

f " steadily ; " ev vitoftovfj. The persons noticed in this verse, 
are exhibited in contrast to those of v. 13, who, having no root, 
for a while believe (itpbs xaiqov marevovoi), and " in time of 
trial fall away." The seed springs up, and then withers away 
(v. 6). On the contrary, those who receive in an honest and 
good heart, having heard the word, keep it, and continue bearing 
fruit. 'JSv vnoftovfj presents the idea of continuance, persever- 
ance, constancy. Knincel : "Kal xaonoyogovotv lv vaoftovfj, 
ita ut constanter fructus ferant." The phrase is rendered " with 
perseverance " by Kend., "Wakef., "Wes., and M. S. Fr., " avec per- 
severance ; " Ital., " con perseveranza ; " Sehott, " fructusque con- 
sta'nter fernnt." 'Tnopovri is strictly distinguishable as an active 
virtue from " long-suffering," fiavgofrvfiia (patient endurance). 
use the word " steadily," as it presents the thought with exact- 
ness, and is in harmony with our ttsus loquendi, while " with per- 
severance " is not a iamiliar phrase. The adverbial sense of 
with a dative often occurs in the N. Test. See Matt. 22 : 16. 
Mark 9 : 1. Kav. 19 : 11. Webster defines " steadily," " with- 
out wavering, inconstancy, or irregularity, without deviating." 
Bloomfield (Annot.) : " The phrase lv vnoftovfj may be rendered 

4 "No one;" OvMs, Sharpe, Penn, Scarlett, Norton, 
Wakef., Dick., Kend;, Thelwall, M. Bobinson (Lex., in verbo) : 
"Absol. S3 siibst. no one." 

* "having lighted ; " eyas. Wesley, Dickinson, Thelwall, M. 
G. an3 S. Fr., " apres avoir allume ; " Iberian, " habiendo encen- 


" a lamp ; " l.vy.vov. Thom., Sharpe, Penn, Scarlett, Camp., 
Norton, Wake, Dick., Angus, M'. Belg., " een kaarse ; " S. Fr. 
and De Sacy, " uue lampe ; " Iber., " una larapara ; " Diodati and 
ital., " una lampana ; " Vulg., Montanus, Erasmus, Beza, Sehott, 
"lucernain." This word is improperly -rendered " candle " in the 
E. V. Candles were unknown until long after the time of the 
Saviour's advent. 

" a table-seat ;" vUvqs. Bretsch. (in verbo, b) : " Dicitur 

de lecto triciinari Mark 4 : 21 ; 7:4. Luc. B : 16. Ezek. 23 : 41." 

In this last, the Sept. has xnl sxad-ov Irii xkivys iar^cafteytje, 

fQ<htea. xexoafirjjuevij npo ttpooconov mrirjs, " and satest on a 

. cushioned table-seat, and before it was a table set out." The fol- 

lowing is the note on Mark 4 : 21 (Revision), where this word 

occurs: "The table-seat;" r^v tdivqv. Fritz., ' lecto triciinari.' 

This -word, liere, designates the so/a, or seat, on which persons 

reclined at meals. See Bbbirisbn. So it is used eh. 7 : 4, Luke' 
8 : 16. The seat was cushioned, and usually contained three 
persons. Trollope (Analecta,) remarks that * xkbij does riot 
signify a bed, but a couch, on which they reclined at meals, and 
which sebms to have been frequently used as a hiding place.' 
Suetonius (Caligula) : ' Proripere se e strato sub lectum cbndere 
solebat.' When this word is used for an article on which the 
sick lay, as it is in a few instances, it probably refers to a mere 
cushion, or stuffed quilt. Bedsteads are unknown in the East." 

Hence it will be seen, that the rendering of the E. "V., " under 
a bed," misleads common readers, who very naturally think of the 
bed of the West, with its frame and furniture. Kuinod (on 
Mark 4 : 21) : " Per Kiivrjv non lectus cubicularis, in quo segroti 
et dormientes decumbunt, sed lectus triclinaris, in quo comedentes 
ad mensem accumbere (avad.ivsaD'ai) solebant, intelligi debet, ut 
VII : 4. Luc. 17 : 34." 

u " a lamp-stand ; " iv/.vias. Sharpe, Bob. (Lex.). Liddell, 
"lamp-stand." Ecclesiasticus 26 : 17, i.v%vos ly^.a.ftnitoi' tn\ 
Ivxvias ayiag. Sept., for hni'ja Exodus 25 : 31-33. Josephus, 
Antiq., Ill : 6, \ 7, xara ityooioitov Se rijs c^ans^rjs, ry rigos 
fieai]ft/3olai> 'lOTarai l.vypia. ex zgvoov x^iavevfteinj Siaxcvos 
. i. ).. 

T " there." This adverb (which, in this use, is merely euphonic) 
is demanded by our urns loquendi. 

* "hidden ;" stfvxiw. Angus, Kend., Thorn:, M. This, and 
not " hid," is the preterit participle of the verb '' to hide." The 
E. V. uses both " hid," and " hidden," apparently without any 
distinction. In this, it followed the earlier Eng. versions. In all 
cases, the orthography of the participle should distinguish it from! 
the verb. 

1 " will not become manifest ;" ov yaveqbv yenjaerdi. Penn, 
Scarlett, Kendrick, Thelwall. Mont., " non manifestum fiet ; " 
Belgic, " dat niet openbaar enzal worden ; " De Wette, " was 
nicht offenbar werden wird." The radical sense of this verb 
(= fieri, to come to be) is appropriate here. 

J " nor ; " ove. Scarlett, Sharpe, Camp., Norton, Wakef., 
Dick., Kend., M. In the last member of a negative sentence, 
neither " is improperly used for " nor," as the first negative be- 
.ongs only to the first clause. See Webster (Diet., art. "neither"). 
Bob. (Lex., in verbo). So (E. T.) ch. 6 : 20 ; 10 : 24. 

' " nor concealed ; " ovSe &n6^vy6v. (See last note for 



ther any thing hid, tliat shall not 
be known, and come abroad. 

18 Take heed therefore how ye 
hear : for whosoever hath, to him 
shall be given ; and whosoever 
hath not, from him shall be taken 
even that which he seemeth to 

19 Then caine to him his mother 
and his brethren, and could not 
come at him for the press. 

20 And it was told him by 
certain, which said, Thy mother 
and thy brethren stand without, 
desiring to see thee. 

21 And he answered and said 
unto them, My mother and my 
brethren are these which hear the 
word of God, and do ik 

22 Now it came to pass on a 
certain day, that he went into a 
ship with. Ms disciples : and he 
said unto them, Let us go over 
unto the other side of the lake. 
And they launched forth. 

23 But as they sailed, lie fell 



crdrfcretai /cat ety (f>avepov e\0rj. 
18 fiheiifeff ovv Tf&s a/couere- oy 
yap av fXO,- dodrjo-efat. aufar 

. \ ft * * \ V \Ac> 4 " 

Kott OS av fir) ex#j /cat o oo/cet 
, apdrjcfeTai aft' avrov. 

10 -r-r ' *\ v ^ * ^ 

Jlapfyevovto de irpos avrov 
fj fJt-r/frjp /cat ol aSe\(f)ol avrov, 
/cat OVK ySvtfttvfo &vvftr)(ei1r avfcp 
8ta tov ox\ov. 20 /cat 
avTijij Xeyovtcav, 'If 
/cat ol a5eA0ot crov 

cfe deAovres. 21 'O 
8k dirokpideis e'nre irpos avrovs, 
fiov /cat aSe\<poi fj-ov ov- 
) ol tov Xoyov TOV Oeov 
otKOvovte? KOI iroiovvres O.VTOV. 

22 7?" \ > ' > - 

Jvat eyei/ero ev /ua TCOV 
r]fj.epv i /cat awroy evefBrj ty 
irKolov /cat ol fj.adr/fai avrov, 
/cat etTfe Tfpof avfov?, dceAdafjiev 
els TO irepav rrjs XifJLvrjs' /cat 
23 e av- 



cealed, which will not be known 
and -come to light. Take heed, 18 
therefore, how ye hear ; for 
whoever hath, to him will be 
given ; and whoever hath not, 
from him will be taken even 
b what lie seemeth to have. 
'Now Ms mother and his'breth- 19 
ren came to him, and "could 
not get near him 'on account 
of the crowd. And it was told 20 
him f by some, who said, Thy 
mother and thy brethren stand 
without, desiring to see thee. 
And he. answering, said to 21 
them, My mother and my breth- 
ren are these who hear the 
word of God, and do it. And 22 
it came to pass r on a certain 
day, that h he entered into a 
ship with his. disciples : and he 
said to them, 'Let us pass over 
to the other side of the lake : 
and 'they put off. And as they 23 

, Wesley, Camp;, Kend., M. Tulg., Mont., Eras., Schott, 
" abscondituin ; " De Wette, " versteckt ; " Iber., " escondito." 

* " come to light ; " els cpavegbv el&ji. Tyndale, Oranmer, 
Genevan, Wesley, Penn, iSend., Angus, M. Of the varied ren- 
derings given to these words, that furnished by the earlier English 
versions is idiomatic, forcible, and exact in presenting the thought. 
It has the great advantage of being a conversational phrase, intelli- 
gible to all who speak English; 

" " what ; " S. Wesley, Scarlett, Sharpe, Norton, Wakefield, 
Kend. Vulg., Eras., Beza, Schott, " quod." 

" Now ; " $s. JBob. (Lex., Sty : " Coiitinuative, but, now, 
fwtlier, or the like." Wakef. has "how." "Then" is under- 
stood by English readers to mark a point of time, tune temporis, 
which is not the thought presented in the text. We often use 
" now " especially at the beginning of a sentence as a mere con- 
nective, and this is the force of s, in the passage before us. 

a " could not get near him ; " ovx ySvvavio awvuf.tscv avitf. 
Thorn., Scarlett, Camp., Norton (" could not get to him"), Kend. 
Heb. N. Test., vis fiifisi ^bs >. 

"on account of the crowd ; " Sia. tbv o%).ov. Vulg-., Eras., 
Oastalio, " pras turba ; " Montanns and Beza, " propter turbam ; " 
Belg., " van wegen de schare ; " G. and S. French, " a cause de la 
foule." See ch. 3 : 7, note. 

' " by some." Wesley^ Scarlett, Sharpe, Norton. Beza and 

Schott, "nonnullis;" Belg., "van eenige;" Diodati, " alcuni." 
Bloomf. (in loco) : " Supply rtvcov, or avrcov." Kuinosl : " Sub- 
audiendum iivmv, ut sit genitivus absolute." 

E As an alternative rendering of lv ftia itav fjfie^div,, " on one 
of the days." So Sharpe, Angus. De Wette, " an einem der 
Tage ; " Belg., " in een van die dagen ; " Iber., " en uno de los 
dias." The propriety of rendering ttov by the demonstrative 
pronoun " of those," as has been done in some versions, is question- 
able, as in strictness, the article is never used for a demonstra* 
tive. See Green's Grammar, p. 203* Some commentators (e. g. 
Kuincel) have maintained that in a few cases we may take the 
liberty of rendering the article as a demonstrative, for the sake 
of perspicuity. If this position be well taken, it is evident, that 
much caution should be employed, when we take a liberty of thia 

h " he entered ; " ivs/St;. Dick., M. Iber., " entraron el." Bob. 
(Lex;, in verbo), " to enter" See ch. 5 : 3, note. 

1 " Let us pass over ; " ^itf.&cojucv. So, same word (E. T.), 
Mark 4 : 35. Rob. (Lex., in verbo) : " Spoken of those who pass 
over a river, lake, sea ; Mark 4 : 35, Luke 8 : 22." Bretsch. : 
"Dicitur de trajicientibus ; trajicio." Hesychius (quoted by 
Bretsch.), " ditt&cofiev, 3iaxeqao<o ( uev." By copying 1 Tyndale, 
the E. V. has rendered this word in the first instance, "Let us 
pass over," and in the second, " Let us go over." 

' "they put off;" avfix&rjoav. Norton, Angus. Bretsch, 




asleep : and there came down a 
storm of wind on the lake ; and 
they were filled with water, and 
were in jeopardy. 

24 And they came to Mm, and 
awoke him, saying, Master, Mas- 
ter, we perish. Then he arose, 
and rebuked the wind, and the 
raging of the water : and they 
ceased, and there was a calm. 

25 And he said unto them, 
"Where is your faith ? And they 
being afraid, wondered, saying 
one to another, What manner of 
man is this! for he commandeth 
even the winds and water, and 
they obey him. 

26 And they arrived at the 
country of the Gadarenes, which 
is over against Galilee. 

27 And when he went forth to 


rG>v a.(f)virv(acre. KCU /care/3^ Aat- 
Xaty avefj.ov ay rr/v \i/ui.i>r]i> ) /cat 
crweTrXrjpovvTO, KOL iKivSvvtvov. 
24 TrpocreXdovTe? Be 8iqyeipa.v ay- 
TQV, Xeyovres, 'jETnaraYa, erri- 
arara, aTroXAvfteda. ' 5e eyep- 

TOV vSarog- KCU. eVau- 
craz/ro, KO.I eyeWro -yaXqvr}. 
25 ewre Se avrois, Hov tarnv 97 
Tr/crn? vfj.5>v> ^o^r/devres Sf 
t9avfj.a<rai', Xeyovres irpos aXXrj- 
Aouy, Tis apa OVTOS farTiv, on 
KCU TOIS avejttot? eVicrTao'o-ei KCU 
TOJ vBan, KCU viraKOVovcrw avrco; 
26 KAI KaT67rAeu(rai> ety TTJV 
Xcapav TCOV raSapr/vtav, 
<TTLV avrnrepav TTJ 

5> N * n t \ \ 

oe avrca tiri rrjv 



were sailing, he fell asleep : and 
there came down *a storm of 
wind on the lake, and 'they 
were filling with water, and 
"were in danger. And they 24 
came to n him and awoke him, 
saying, Master! 3f aster! we 
are perishing. Then he rose, 
and rebuked the wind and the 
raging of the water ; and they 
ceased, and there was a calm. 
And he said to them, Where is 25 
your faith ? And being afraid, 
pthey wondered, saying to one 
another, Who then is this ? for 
he commandeth even the winds 
and the water, and they obey 
him. And "they sailed to the 26 
country of the Gadarenes, which 
is over against Galilee. And 27 
as r he came 'out to land, <a cer- 

(Lex.) :- " Utuntur Gneci hoc composite ubique, cum motum 
quendam ex inferior! in altiorem locum indicave volunt, ubi Latini 
vel simplici cZuco, vel compositis educo, adduco, abduco utuntur 
LXX. pro fbsr\, ascendere fecit. Qvayctv trjv vavv, navem in 
maris altitudinein (surgere enim videntur aquae, Luke 5 : 4, Job 
26,: 12) dueere, navem solvere, et avayea&ca, intellige sv Ttiol 
ut plene legitur, Act. 28 : 11." As a technical term, " to put 
off" is an accurate equivalent of the verb. " To launch" is at 
present restricted unless in poetry to the process of removing 
a vessel into the water from the spot where it was constructed. 
Hob. (Lex.), " to put out to sea." De Wette, " sie stiessen ab ;" 
Luther, " sie stiessen vom Lande." Bloomfield (Annot.) : " This 
(avtfx&qaav, supply vavv) is a nautical term, and signifies to 
loose cables, weigh anchor^ move to seaward." 

1 " a storm of wind ; " icaiay. The note on Revision of 
Mark 4 : 37 is repeated here, as applicable to ),az).ay. 

" Though I retain the rendering of the E. VJ, it is not without 
a conviction that the sense of ' storm ' has changed since 1611, so 
that we now apply it to a fall of rain, hail, or snow. I, therefore, 
suggest ' gust ' as a substitute. See Webster on ' storm.' The 
definition of ' gust,' ' a blast of wind of short duration,' presents 
the idea here conveyed by lazlay." 

i " they were filling ; " avvenbjpovwo. Scarlett, Sharpe, Nor- 
ton (" was filling "), "Wakefield, Kendrick, Angus, M. Vulgate, 
Mont, Beza, Erasmus, " complebantur." The usual force of the 
imperfect should be retained, in rendering it by what is termed 
' the progressive form " of the Eng. verb. 

m " were in danger ; " ixivtivvevov. Thomson, Wesley, Penn, 
Sharpe, Norton, Wakefield. Eob. (Lex, in verbo), "to be in 

danger." Belg., " waren in nood ; " S. Fr., " etaient en peril ; " 
Iber., " estaban en peligro." "Jeopardy" is much less familiar 
than " danger." But for the fact that " endanger " is obsolescent, 
I should prefer " were endangered." This verb occurs (E. V.) 
Eecles. 10 : 9, where the Sept. has a%K,cov gvla y.tvStvevoei lv 
avroTs, " he that cleaveth wood will be endangered by it." The 
verb irb which occurs in Eecles. 10 : 9, is employed in rendering 
txivSvirsvov, in the Heb. Test, sus&i So Camp. 

" " him." As there is nothing expressed in the test, answering 
to this pronoun, it should have been italicized in the E. V., as a 

" we are perishing ; " aitottxfit&a. Penn, Scarlett, Norton, 
Dick. This rendering meets the condition of exactness, as it cor- 
responds perfectly with the present tense of the Greek. 

P " they wondered ; " e&avftaaar. Sharpe, M. There is no 
necessity for separating the pronoun from its ;verb here. The 
early English versions indicate clearly the influence of the Latin 
order of the Vulgate, in their arrangements of words. 

' " they sailed ; " xazenievaav. Tyndale, Cranmer, Genevan, 
Wesley, Sharpe, ' Norton, Dick. (Wakef., "sailed down to.") 
Rob. (Lex., in verbo), " to sail to any place ; " Liddell, " to sail 
from the high sea to shore ; " Bretsch., " xa.ia.7tl.eca> i. e. itUa> 
Kara %a>f>a.v, navigo ad locum." Vulg., Montanus, Eras., Beza, 
Castal., Schott, " navigaverunt (or, contrasted, navigarunt) ; " 
De Wette, " sie fuhren an ; " Luther, " sie schifiten fort ; " G. Fr., 
"ils naviguerent ;" Iberian and Spanish, "navegaron ;" Diodati, 
" navigarono." 

' " as he came ; " It-el&ovti avry. 'E\sk&dvit. avrca, in the 
parallel, Mark 5 : 2, is rendered in E. V., " when he was come 




land, there met him out of the 
city a certain man, which had 
devils long time, and ware no 
clothes, neither abode in any 
house, but in the tombs. 

28 When he saw Jesus, he cried 
out, and fell down before him, 
and with a loud voice said, What 
have I to do with thee, Jesus, 
thm son of God most high? I 
beseech thee, torment me not. 

29 (For he had commanded the 
unclean spirit to come out of the 
man. For oftentimes it had caught 
him : and he was kept bound with 

avTcp avrjp rty e/c Trjs 
TroAe&jy, oy et^e Saifiovta e/c XP~ 
vcav LKavSiv, /cat ip.a.Tiov OVK 
eve8i8va~KTO } /cat eV OLKLO. OVK 

GfJ-evev, aAA' eV roty p.vf] 

28 s> v s^ x ' r - v ' 

foftw oe TOJ> lr)o-ovv } /cat ava- 

Kpagaf) 7r/jpcre7re<rer avrcS, /cat 
(j)coufj /JLeyaXy elm, Tl e/iot /cat 
'lycrov, vie TOV Otov TOV 
Vo/iat crou, /i^ ^e 
29 JZa/OT^yyetAe ya/> 
ro) Trz/eu/xari rco aKadapTa> e^eA- 
^etj/ GOTO roO avdpatirov TroAAoFy 
yap xpovois crw^jOvra/cet avTov, 


tain man "of .the city met him, 
"who had had demons w for a 
long time, and "wore no clothes, 
y nor remained in a house, but 
'dwelt in the tombs. And "see- 28 
ing Jesus, he cried out, and fell 
down before him, and "said, 
with a loud voice, What have 
I to do with thee, Jesus, Son 
"of the Most High God ? I be- 
seech thee, torment me not. 
(For he had commanded the 29 
unclean spirit to come out of 
the man. For 'it had seized 
him f during a long time, and 

" of the city ; " fe -rrjs nofacos. Thorn., Camp., Wakefield, 
Dick., Bloomf. (Annot.), Angus, M., Norton ("of the town"), 
Murdock. Hob. (Lex.) notices one of the uses of the preposition 
&, thus : " (Spoken) of the place, circle, community, whence one 
is, where one resides. Luke 8 : 27." Common readers are mis- 
led by the language of the E. V., " out of the city," inasmuch as 
that phrase, according to our usus loquendi, implies that the 
demoniac had left the city, directly before he met the Saviour, 
while, in fact, his abode was in the tombs. Compare Mark 5 : 2, 
xal et-tAfrovTi avtry lx TOV nl-oiov, tv&ecos amjvrijoev avtco Ix 
rcav fivr)[iei<ov av&^tanos Iv itvevfitni axa&a^riy, os rrjv xaroi- 
y.tjatv e1%sv Iv rots fivq/ieiois. The man, therefore, came not 
" out of the city," but " out of the tombs," when he met Christ. 
Kuincel: "'Avf t f> its lx rrjs jroAeos, homo quidam ex ilia urbe 
oriundus, non enim ex urbe homo ille Jesu occurrebat, nee in ea 
tune temporis habita, nam v. extr. legitur, Iv olxia ovx epevev." 
1 Maccabees 6 : 3, eyvcaa&tj 6 ioyog lols IK rijs Ttohews. 

" " who had had ; " os il%e. Angus. The imperfect here has 
the force of the pluperfect. Pechy (on Angus' Version). Troll. 
(Gram., \ 50, p. 132). See ch. 5 : 25, note. 

w "for a long time;" Ix x?6vcov ixavcav. Kendrick, Penn, 
Sharpe, Norton. The phrase in the E. V. is a violation of our 
Wiom. :jg , 

1 " wore ; " IveStSvaxero. Thorn., Wesley, Scarlett, Camp., 
Dick., Norton, Kend., M. 

* " nor." See v. 17, note. So Penn, Scarlett, Sharpe, Kend. 

1 "dwelt;" tyevsv. Penn, Norton ("did not dwell"). So 
(E. V.) John 1 : 38, 39 (Gr. 3D, 40) ; 6 : 56 ; 14 : 10, 17. Acts 
28:16. 1 Jno. 3 : 17, etc. "Abide," " abode," etc., are, to say 
the least, obsolescent. As an alternative, " remained." So Kend. 
Kuincel (in loco) : "Mivsiv, h. 1. habitare, ut Joh. 1 : 39." 

" seeing ; " iScav. Thorn., Wesley, Scarlett, Wakef., Dick., 
Penn, Kend., Thelwall, M. 

b " said, -with a loud voice ; " ycovfj fteyd).^ elite. This is the 
natural order of the sentence in our language. So Wesley, 
Wakef., Dick., Penn, Kend., Murdock, M. 

* The supplement " thou " of the E. T. is superfluous. It is 
omitted by Kend., Sharpe, Camp., Wakef., Dickinson, Norton, 
Angus. It was copied from Cranmer'a Version. Wiclif, Tynd., 
and Genevan have "the Son." It is probable that the trans- 
lators of Cranmer followed Luther, whose text is, " du Sohn 
Gottes des Allerhochsten." De Wette has dropped du. No 
pronoun is employed in G-. or S. Fr., Span.. Iber., Diodati, Ital., 
Dan., Heb. N. Test., Syr. 

d "of the Most High God?" rov Ocov iov vyiorov ; So 
(E. V.) Acts 16 : 17. Heb. 7 : 1. Thorn., Wesley, Sharpe, 
Camp., Wakef., Dick., Norton, Kend , M. The rendering should 
be uniform. See ch. 1 : 32, note. Heb. N. Test., piV:* is. 

e " it had seized ; " ya$ avvtj^nay.ei. The E. V. has followed 
the incorrect rendering of Tyndale, who rendered notto?! %po- 
vois as though it had been equivalent to nof.My.ts, " often," or, in 
earlier parlance, " oftentimes." Hence the adverb was placed 
before the verb and its nominative. This verb (equivalent to the 
Latin corripio, to seize, or grasp together, grasp hastily, etc.) is 
rendered " seize " by Scarlett, Wakefield, Dick., Penn, Camp., M. 
This is preferable to " caught," as it conforms to present usage. 
We say, " a man is seized with insanity," " seized with spasms," 
or, " a fever seized him." Eras., Beza, Schott, " corripuerat." 

f "during a long time;" noUois %$6vois. Norton, M., 
Wakef. (" for a long time "), Scarlett (" a long time ") . Kuincel : 

oUois yc %(>ovois awtjonnxsi avrov, inde a pluribus autem 
annis eum corripuerat. Uo^ois y.oovots Grotius idem putat 

out ; " Eevision of Mark, " as he came out." Eobinson (Lex., in 
verbo) : " The forms from tt&erv more frequently signify to come, 
BO that e. g. rfl&sv is rarely used of one who goes away from a 
place." Camp, " being come." 

" out ; " Int. This is adopted rather than " forth," as much 
more familiar, from constant use. So Angus, M. 

t " a certain man ; " ait/jo TIC. This is the natural order in 
our language. Camp., Dick., Scarlett, M., Kend. Wakef. 



chains, and in fetters ; and he 
brake the bands, and was driven 
of the devil in the wilderness.) 

30 And Jesus asked him, say- 
ing, What is thy name ? And he 
said, Legion : because many devils 
were entered into him. 

31 And they besought him, that 
he would not command them to 
go out into the deep. 

32 And there was there an^ 
herd of many swine feeding on 


/ecu cSep-fJieiTo aXvcrefrt /cat 
<j&uAacrcro/zei/os', KCU 

TO. eayza yXavvero viro rov 8ai- 

t \ > / an > 

fiovof eis ray eprj/Jiovp. ejrr)- 

pcoTrjcre 8e avrov 6 'lycrovs, Ae- 
ycov, Ti (rot e<TTiv ovo/j,a; 'O 8e 
e'nre, Atyecov on SaijAovia iroX- 
Xa elcrrjXdev elf O.VTOV. 
-ptKoXei avrov Iva. fjJrj 
avrots elf rr/v oySucrcroy 

" R2 *? ^v J ~ > f \ 

iv. rjv oe e/cei ayeArj 




?he was bound with chains and 
fetters, and *guarded ; and 
'breaking the bands, he was 
driven by the demon 'into the 
deserts.) And Jesus asked him, so 
saying, What is thy name? And 
he said, Legion : for many de- 
mons k had entered into "him. 
And ihe besought him -that he si 
would not command them to go 
out into m the abyss. And there 32 
was there "a herd .of many 

quod itMaxis, male, prseeessit enim v. 27, lx xgovcov ixavdiv, e 
%o6vot suut h. 1. anni ut ap. Plutarch de Puer. Educ. 14 : 26,' 
etc. Eob. (L3x., in verbo) : "Dat. t^ovc?. %o6vois marking time 
when, in, during which. Luke 8 : 29, nollois x. i. L, i. e. in 
during, since long time." In Acts 8 : 11, ixavqi xqovcp is ren 
dered in E. V. " of long time." Beza, " a multo tempore ; ' 
Schott, " ex longo tempore." De Wette renders lx xgovcov ly.a 
v<Sv, v. 27, and noMoZs XQOVOIS, here, .by " seit langer Zeit.' 
S. Fr., "il.y avait Iong4emps,;" Iber., "porque [hubia] much 
tiempo ;" Diodati (w. 27, 29), " gia lungo tempo ;" Dan. (both 
verses), ".i lang Tid." Compare .ansSqfojae y^ovovs Ixavovg, 
Luke 20 : 9. The passages which have been quoted from thi 
Septuagint for the purpose of showing, that, in Hellenistic usage 
yjovos is equivalent to year (as in the classics) rdo not seem to 
be decisive. 

8 "he was bound;" ISsafieTro. Kendrick, Scarlett, M. De 
Wette, "er ward gebunden." 

h " guarded ; " yv^aaaofievos. Kendrick, M. De Wette, 
".und 'bewachet." -From the language of this passage, and the 
precautions which are always taken with men whose violence i 
feared, two acts are here described. The demoniac was chained, 
and dsO'teatcJied, or guarded. Hence the natural remark in the 
parallel passage, Mark 5 : 4, refers, as it would seem, to those who 
guarded him, xal -ovSetis avrav 'io%ve Saftaaae, "nor could any- 
one .tame (= overpower, .subdue) him." The above renderin: 
brings out the -two .ideas .of the text with proper distinctness. 

1 ".breaking ;" .Stagyr/ootov. 'The ; participial construction is 
that of Wesley, Scarlett, Kendrick, Thelwall, M., Eheims, S. : Fr. 

) '" into the deserts ; " els ras tyy/uovs. Wesley, Dick., Kend., 
Thelwall, M. G. and S. Fr., "dans les deserts ;" Iber., "a los 
desp^oblados;" Diodati, "ne'deserti." Heb.N..T., n^a^an. Syr., 
l^i^yV ("into, or to the desert"). See ch. 3 : 2, note. 

" " had entered into ; " slarjK9ev sis. Thorn., Wesley, Scar- 
lett, Dick, ("had entered"), Camp., M. Vulg., Eras., Castalio, 
":intraverant in ; " Schott ("intraverunt"). The aorist .here, is 
equivalent to the pluperfect. Button., Gram.,. 1 137, 3: "When 
the relation of :time ; is .sufficiently clear from the. context, the 
aorist can be .employed; instead, of the pluperfect in narration." 
See ch. 5 : 25, note. 

i "he besought;" 7tagex&).et,. Sharpe, Norton, Angus. .So 
in the parallel (E. Y.) Mark 5 : 10. De Wette, " er bat ihn ; " 
Iber., "le rogaba [el hombre]." daifioyia., .as a neuter, might 
be 'regarded as the subject, or nominative of this yerb .(in the 
singular), still, as in the next verse we have rtagexaloyv (plural), 
which has Saiftoves understood for its subject, and as in the 
parallel, Matt. 8 : 31, we have ol Se 8ai/tov$ jtafexa^.ovvj and 
in, the parallel, Mark 5 : 12, vtaqexahsaav rai ', fi'om 
these conditions, there is the highest probability .that o OV&QCO- 
itos is the .nominative to the verb here,. as well as in Mar.k 5 : 9. 
As translators have been .divided in their views,of the grammati- 
cal analysis of this passage, I would place this note -in .the margin: 
"Or, according to some, they." 

* "the abyss;" tijv. apvaoov. Thomson, Wesley, Scarlett, 
Dick., Kend,, Angus, Thelwall, Murdock, M. Vulg., Montanus, 
Beza, " in abyssnm." Syr., ,]^aomZ. :Heb. N". Test., bl'.IFi. As 
we have the word'' : ;deep" (Gx.fia&os) applied to ,the sea, or lake 
of .Galilee, it is desirable io distinguish a/Svaaos from a word 
which indicates .deep water. .So 2 Cor. 11 : 25, where "deep" 
(Gr. pv&($). occurs (E. V., " a-night and .a day I have. been .in the 
deep"), it evidently jefers to the sea, as it is Connected with r^k 
tvavdyrjaa, "thrice I suffered shipwreck;" This word occurs 
nine times in the N. Test. Two cases have. been already noticed. 
In Eev. 9 : 1, >it is preceded by $$<*$, a pit, -well, ;or cistern 'for 
water, and rendered in the E. V. "bottomless .pit." ;In .other 
places in that book, i. e., 11 : 7 ; 17 : 8 ; 20 : 1,JI, afivaaos stands 
alone, and .is still improperly .rendered "bottomless p?t." ,From 
this last remark, however, must be excepted-9 : 2, where,we.have 
TO ytgeap irjs a/Svaaov rendered " the bottomless .pit," : and again, 
IK iov ipQeatos, " of the pit." In all these renderings the .E. T. 
followed Tyndale verbatim. "Abyss " is .naturalised ; in our lan- 
guage. There is no dispute as ,to its signification. .1 deem ,it the 
most appropriate term in all cases where afivqoos occurs. G. and 
S. Fr., "1'abime;" Iber. and Span., " al abismo ;" Diodati .and 
Ital., " nell' abisso." From 2 Pet. 2 : 4, oetpats gopov rafTafco- 
aas Tta^sStoxcv -fls xpiacv ierr]i>r]{ivovs, jit .wpuld -Seem .that 
afivoaosis equivalent to : Ta^Ta^o?^when,there,is reference to tiie 
abode of demons, or evil spirits. 

1 "a." "An" is proper only when : the next- -wprd Commences 
with a vowel sound. 




the mountain : and they besought 
hire that he would suffer them to 
enter into them. And he suffered 

33 Then went the devils out of 
the man, and entered into the 
swine : and the herd ran violently 
down a steep place into the lake, 
and were choked. 

34 When they that fed them 
saw what was done, they fled, and 
went and told it in the city and in 
the country. 

35 Then they went out to see 
what was done ; and came to Je- 
sus, and found the man out of 


iKavtav /So&KOfJievoiJv ev TO> oper 
/cat TrapeKaXovv avTOv tva eVt- 
Tpe\lrri avTols els eKeivovs elcreX- 
Qelv. /cat eireTpefyev auroty. 

33 * 5~ \ f\ f *s\ ** 5* ' * v 

egeXVovTa oe ra oaifj-ovia amo 
TOV avOpanrov elo~rjX6ev els TOVS 
)(pipovs' /cat copfjurjo-ev 17 d-yeXrj 
/cara roy Kpr/pvov elf TTJV XI/JLVTJI>, 
/cat oareTrviyiq. ISovTes Se ol 
Boo~KovTes TO yeyevriu,evov e(bv- 

I I I 1 1 t 

yoV) /cat aireXOovTes airriyyei- 
Xav els Tr)V TroXiv /cat ety TOVS 

* / *$/) > ?"* \ /I C\ \ > ^ " ^ 

aypovs. egr/Auov oe loeiv TO 
yeyovos' /cat rjXOov irpos TOV 
'Irjo-ovv, /cat evpov Ka.6rnj.evov 


swine feeding on the mountain ; 
and they besought him "to per- 
mit them to enter into them. 
And 'he permitted them. Then 33 
11 the demons went out of the 
man, and entered into the 
swine ; and the herd 'rushed 
'down the steep into the lake, 
and was choked. And those 34 
who fed them, seeing what was 
done, fled, "and "reported it in 
the city and in the country. 
Then they went out to see 35 
w what had been done ; and 
*they came to Jesus, and found 

" to permit ; " "iva. Inn^l-^. So (B. V.) Acts 26 : 1. 1 Cor. 
14 : 34 ; 16 : 7. Heb. 6 : 3. Kendrick, Scarlett, Dick., Camp., 
Thorn., Murdock, Bheims. G. and S. Fr., " permettre ; " Iber., 
" que les permitiese ; " Diodati, " che permettese." Bob. (Lex. 
" Permit " accords with present usage, being much more frequent- 
ly employed to express the thought of allowing, than " suffer." 

P " he permitted ; " 

See last note. 

' " the demons went ; " l&l&ovta ra. Saifiovta. Scarlet^ 
Murdock. The inversion of this sentence in the E. V. is unneces- 
sary. In the parallel (E. V.) Mark 5 : 13, the same word, l|eyl- 
frovra ra itvevfiara, is rendered so as to preserve the natural 
order, " the unclean spirits went out," etc. The nominative is 
placed before the verb (or participle) by Thorn., "Wesley, Sharpei 
Dick., Wakef., Pemi, Camp., Kendrick, Thelwall, M., Wiclif, 
Bheims, Belg., -De Wette, G. and S. Fr., Dan., Diodati, Ital. 
The inverted form of the sentence may be traced back to Tyn- 
dale, from him to Luther, and then to the Vulg., " Exierunt ergo 
dasmonia ; " though in the Latin, there is, strictly speaking, no 
inversion, as the order is the ordinary one in that language. 

r " rushed ; " Spfajaev. Wesley, Thomson, Scarlett, Sharpe, 
Norton., Wake, Penn, Camp., Angus, Thel., M. Bob. (Lex., in 
oerbo], " to rush on, move forward impetuously." Bretsch. : "Dici- 
tur de eo qui fertur cum impetu, feror." So Acts 19 : 29, aip- 
fiijodv re opiofhj/taSbv els to &ear(>ov, E. V., " they rushed with 
one accord into the theatre." De Wette, " es stiirzte die Heerde ; " 
Belg., "de herdde stortede." The verb copftdca occurs in six 
instances in the N. Test. In all, it should be rendered by " rush." 

" down the steep ; " y.ara rov v.^rjfivov. Kendrick, Norton, 
Penn, Pechy (on the parallel, Mark 5 : 13). The article should 
by all means be retained in translating this word. " Steep," as a 
noun, signifies any precipitous place, hill, mountain, rock, precipice. 
See Webster and Johnson, Dictionaries, art. " Steep." 

1 " was choked ; " aitsnviyij. In the parallel, Mark 5 : 13, the 

nominative is the same, ayslrj, yet there the verb is plural, htvi- 
yovro. As the noun is collective, we may use either the singular, 
or plural, in rendering the verb. For accuracy, the form of the 
text is preserved by " was choked." Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, 
Castalio, " grex suffocates est ; " Belg., " de herdde versmoor- 
de " (in Mark 5 : 13, " versmoorden ") ; De Wette, " die Heerde 
ertrank " (Mark 5 : 13, " sie ertranken "). 

u The reading of the Text Becept., aitsl&ovTtg (before,y- 
yedav), is canceled by Gfriesb., Knapp, Lachmann, Tischendorf, 
Theile, Tittmann, Scholz. Schott remarks : " Quod vulgo ante 
amjyy. additur aTtei&ovres. (ex Matt. 8 : 33) Griesb. aliique 
recte delent auctoritate plurimorum cdd. (13 unc.) verss., Pesch., 
Philox., An-., Pers. Memph., Arm., Goth., Slav., Vulg., Ital." 
Bloomfield : " lAjieid-ovrcs, before anriyy^ikav, is rightly canceled 
by all Editors, as being absent from almost all MSS., and, no 
doubt, introduced from Matt. 8 : 33." 

v " reported ; " aitfiyyedav. So (E. V.) Acts 4 : 23. 1 Cor. 
14 : 25. The verb signifies to bear news, or a message from one 
person, or place, to another. Bob. (Lex.), "to report;" Liddell, 
" to carry back tidings of a thing, report, Latin renunciare." 
Vulg., Mont., Erasmus, Castalio, Schott, " nunciaverunt ; " Beza, 
" annunciarunt." " To tell " has been made the equivalent of so 
many verbs in the E. V., such as oTtayyKkl.oi, StTjysoftai, JxAtx- 
ieca, e&jyeofiai, ertco, kaheco, Uy<a, ftijvvto, etc., that it is desira- 
ble to restrict its wide application, as far as accuracy will 

w " what had been done ; " TO ysyov6s. Norton, Penn, M. 
Eras., Beza, " quod factum erat." The pluperf. is employed also 
by Camp., Kend., and Dick. Schott, " quod evenerat ; " Iber., 
que habia sucedio." Alternative rendering, " what had come to 

x "they." There is some obscurity in this sentence, if the 
pronoun is not expressed before " came," especially as e, semicolon 




whom the devils were departed, 
sitting at the feet of Jesus, clothed, 
and in his right mind : and they 
were afraid. 

36 They also which saw it, told 
them by what means he that was 

' possessed of the devils was healed. 

37 Then the whole multitude 
of the country of the Gadarenes 
round about, besought him to de- 
part from them ; for they were 
taken with great fear. And he 
went up into the ship, and return- 
ed back again. 

38 Now the man out of whom 
the devils were departed, besought 
him that he might be with him. 
But Jesus sent him away, saying, 



TOV avdpcoirov a(j) ou ra 

, tjuartcrjueVoy /cat 
:, Trapa TOVS Troftas 
TOV 'Irjcrov- /cat efyofirjOrja-av. 
36 a7r??yyeiAaz' Se avro?s /cat ot 
ISovTes, Trcas ecrcadrj 6 Sai/Jt.oi>i- 
cr9eis. s /cat rjpcoTrjcrav avTov 
ajrav TO -irXrjOos Trj? 
TCOI> T'o.^o.pnv&v 


eiYOVTO- O.VTOS Se e/^/3ay els TO 

\ f* t / i QQ 

TrXoiov UTreoTyoeyei/. 

5e avTov o avrjp a0' .06 e,_ 

^et ra SaifJ.ovia } elvai crw avTco. 

onreXvcre Se avrov 6 ^Irjcrovs, Xe- 


the man from whom the demons 
?had gone out, sitting at the 
feet of Jcsns, clothed, and in 
his right mind ; and they were 
afraid. 'Then those also who 36 
had seen it, ^reported to them 
'how 'the demoniac was heal- 
ed. And the whole multitude 37 
d of the surrounding region of 
the Gadarenes 'asked him to 
depart from them ; for 'they 
were seized with great fear; 
and e he went' into the ship, and 
"returned. Now the man 'from 38 
whom the demons ] had gone 
out, k begged him that he 'might 
remain with him. But Jesus 
sent him away, saying, Eeturn 39 

follows " done." It has therefore been properly inserted by 
Norton and M. 

y " had gone out ; " Igelijlvd'ti. Norton, M. Kendrick and 
Sharpe, " had gone forth ; " Wakef. and Dick., " had gone." See 
ch. 4 : 34, note. Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, Castalio, " exierant ; " 
Iber., " habian salido." 

1 " Then ; " Se. M., Wakef., Dick. Vulg., Mont, Erasmus, 
Beza, " autem ; " Schott, " vero ; " Belg., " Ende ; " De Wette, 
" und ; " S. Fr., " et ; " Iber., " I." The particle is here simply 
continuative. Bob. (Lex., Se). 

" reported ; " dnfiyyeilav. See v. 34, note. 

b " how ; " 7t<3s. "Wesley, "Wakefield, Sharpe, Norton, Penn, 
Dick., Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M. So (E. V.) in the parallel 
(mas) Mark 5 : 16. This particle is frequently used iu oblique 
discourse after verbs of considering, finding out, making known, 
etc. In this case, it loses its interrogative force, and is equivalent 
to its correlative OTTOS, how, in what -way. Bob. (Lex., TCCOS). 

"the demoniac;" 6 Satftovio&ets. Thom., Scarlett, Nor- 
ton, Camp., Dick., Kend., M., Murdock. Syr., JjiL.? on i-i- 2 -! 
(homo ilk damoniacus). As Salfceov is transferred in this Bevi- 
sion, for the reasons stated in ch. 4 : 33, note, " demoniac " is the 
proper representative of 8at/u.oi>t.o&eis. 

d " of the surrounding region ; " -rijs ne^i^eo^ov. See ch. 
4 : 14, note. 

" asked ; " jjgcorrjoar. Kendrick, Sharpe, Angus, Thelwall. 
Vulg., Mont., Erasmus, " rogaverunt ; " Beza, Castalio, Schott, 
" rogavit ; " Iber., " rogo." See ch. 7 : 36, note. So often in 
E. V., as ch. 19 : 31 ; 20 : 3 ; 22 : 68. This word should be 
distinguished from na(>axcd.ta>, which occurs in the parallels, 
Matt. 8 : 31. Mark 5 : 17. 

f " they were seized ; " owei%ovro. Bobinson (Lex.), " to be 

seized." Thomson, Wakef., Norton, Penn, Scarlett. De "Wette, 
" sie waren ergriffen." " "Were taken with " is now used only in 

e " he went into ; " e/t/3as els. Wesley, Sharpe, Penn. Bret- 
Schneider (in verbo), " wgredior." ' So (E. V.) Matt. 13 : 2. 
Luke 8 : 22. " Up " is superfluous ; there is nothing in the text 
to authorize this adverb. 

h " returned ; " imear^eipev. Wesley, Sharpe, Norton, Penn, 
Camp., Dick., Kend., Angus, Thelwall. See ch. 2 : 45, note, 
"Back again" is superfluous. This word occurs thirty-five times 
in the E. V. In twenty-six of these, it is properly rendered 
simply by " return." So in the next verse (39). 

1 " from whom ; " ay ov. Norton, Angus, Kend., Thelwall, 
M. Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, " a quo." 

l " had gone out ; " se).rj).vS-ce. Norton, Kend. Sharpe and 
Thelwall, " had gone forth ; " Vulg., Mont, Eras., Beza, Castalio, 
" exierant ; " Iber., " habian salido." See v. 35, note. On the 
erroneous employment of " to be " as an auxiliary with intransi- 
tive verbs, see ch. 4 : 34, note. 

" " begged ;" sSesro. Thom., Norton. Liddell (Seoftni), "to 
beg ; " Belg., " bad ; " De Wette, " bat ; " Dan., " bad ; " Iber., 
" supplicaba ; " S. Fr., " suppliait ; " Ital., " supplicava." The 
E. V. (copying Tyndale, as he followed the Vulgate) does not 
distinguish Sso/iai from c^cardca, in v. 37. 

i " might remain ; " ilva.i. Kendrick, Murdock. Diodati, 
" stare ; " De Wette, " bleiben." Beza (note in loco) : " Ut liceret 
apud eum esse, sive cum ipso versari." Schott, " ut ei comes 
esset." The sentence eStero Se avrov eJvac ovv avry, if ren- 
dered literally, is ambiguous, " and begged him to remain with 
him." If, however, we leave avrey, " him," to be supplied by the 
reader's mind, then the literal rendering is entirely clear, "and 
begged to remain with him." This is submitted as an alter- 




39 Return to thine own house, 
and shew how great things God 
hath done unto thee. And he 
went his way and published 
throughout the whole city, how 
great things Jesus had done unto 

40 And it came to pass, that, 
when Jesus was returned, the peo- 
ple gladly received him : for they 
were all waiting for him. 

41 And behold, there came a 
man named Jairus, and he was a 
ruler of the synagogue : and he 
fell down at Jesus' feet, and be- 
sought him that he would come 
into his house : 

42 For he had one only daugh- 
ter, about twelve years of age, 
and she lay a dying. But as he 
went, the people thronged him. 


QO C <>/! / I > \ ?/ 

yutv, JTroorrpefpe eis rov OLKOV 
crou, Kai 8irj~yov ocra eTronjcre trot 
6 Oeos. Kail onrTJXde, Kaff oXrjv 


crev ai>T<S o 

Kijpv(rcrcov o(ra. 

'EFENETO 8t. eV r< 
rov 'Ir/o~ovv, oVe- 
avTov 6 o^Aoy -rjcrav yap 
TroWey 7rpoo-8oKoavTs avTov. 

14 Kai I8ov, r)X6ev avrjp a> 
ovo/j.a 'Ideipoy, KOL avTos ap^cov 
Trjf crvvaycayrjs VTrrjp-^e, KOL ?re- 
'O-CQV Trapa TOVS TroSay TOV 'Irj- 
croi), wapeKaXei avTov eio-eXdelv 

5 \ 3 * f* 4-9! </ /i / 

ety TOJ/ ot/coz^ avrov on ovya- 
Trjp . fjt,ovoyvr]s TJV aurra a>y ercSf 
;, /cat avTr/ a7redvr]o~Kv. 
Ev 8e TO> inraytiv avrov ol o^- 
Aoi crvveKViyov avTov. 43 Kal 


to m thy house, and "tell "how 
much God hath done p for thee. 
And 'he went away and pub- 
lished 'through the whole city, 
how much Jesus had done 'for 
him. And it came to pass," 40 
"when Jesus returned, the crowd 
^gladly received him : for they 
were all waiting for him. And, 41 
behold, there came a man nam- 
ed Jairus, and he was a ruler 
of the synagogue : and *he fell 
at Jesus' feet, and besought him 
to come into his house : for he 42 
had ran only daughter about 
twelve years of age, and "she 
was dying. "And as he went, 
the crowds 'pressed on him. 

m " thy house ; " rov oly.ov aov. Thomson, Wiclif, Perm, 
Sharpe, Scarlett, Kend., Thelwall, M. " Own " is superfluous. 

" " tell ; " Sajyov. Wesley, Thorn., Penn, Angus. So (E. V.) 
Mark 9 : 9. Luke 9 : 10. Heb. 11 : 32. I suggest that " relate," 
though not found in the E. V., might be employed as ah equiva- 
lent for this verb, in all cases. The change, however, is one of 
those, in reference to which its importance should be well consid- 
ered, when we contemplate an alteration in the phraseology of 
the Scriptures. " Relate " is the rendering, in this instance, of 
Scarlett, Wakef., Camp., Dick. So Vulg., Mont, Eras., Beza, 
Schott, " narra ; " Castalio, " narrato ; " De "Wette, " erzahle ; " 
G. and S. Fr., " raconte ; " Dan., " fortcel ; " Diodati, " racconta." 
Heb. N. Test., ian. Syr., ]L&*\. " 

" " ^ 

" how much ; " Sao. Dickinson. Schott, " quantum ; " De 
Wette, " wie viel." So Sao. in the parallel, Mark 5 : 19, is ren- 
dered " how much " by Kendrick, Wakefleld, Dick. See Crosby 
(Gram., \ 336) : " The use of the plural for the singular is partic- 
ularly frequent in Greek, in adjectives used substantively, in the 
names of things composed of distinct parts, and in vague expres- 
sion for persons, or things." 

f " for thee ; " aot. So (E. T.) in the parallel, Mark 5 : 19. 
Kend., Angus, Thorn., Wesley, Penn, Sharpe, Scarlett, Wakef., 
M. " For you." in Norton, Camp., Dick. 

' " he went away ; " anrjld'e. Penn, Sharpe, Wakef., Kend., 
Thelwall, M. 

r " through ; " #'. According to present usage, " through " 
is the proper equivalent. So Thomson, Wesley, Penn, Norton, 
Sharpe, Scarlett, Camp., Wakef., Dick., Kend., M., Murdock. 
Bob. (Lex., Kara). 

' " how much ; " Saa. See first clause of this verse, note. 

" for him ; " avrai. The construction is the same as that of 
aoi, in the first clause of the verse ; dativus commodi. Thomson, 
Wesley, Penn, Norton, Sharpe, Scarlett, Wakef., Camp., Dick., 
Kend., Angus, M. 

u " that," in the E. V., is superfluous. It is omitted by Kend., 
Dick., M., and most of the later English translators. 

v " when Jesus returned ; " lv ry wtoar^ei/jai. TOV lyaovv. 
Wesley, Scarlett, Kendrick, Thelwall, M., Murdock. This is the 
proper rendering, as the verb is in the first aorist active. 

w ' gladly received ; " ansS^aro. In this instance, " gladly " 
should not be regarded as a supplement. The verb, in its com- 
pound form (ana, Se'/,oftai] signifies " to receive gladly," " to wel- 
come." Bloomfield (N. Test., note), " to receive joyfully." So 
2 Maccab. 3:9, anoS^d-eis (E. V.), " being courteously receiv- 
ed." Kuinoel : "'AjtoSfyEad-at, libenter, gratanter aliquem exci- 
pere, ut Act. 15 : 4." See Robinson (Lex., in verbd). S. Fr., 
" accueillit ; " Schott (2nd Edit), " multitudq laetabunda excipit." 

1 " he fell ; " m-aiuv. " Down " is superfluous. Omitted by 
Norton, Sharpe, Dick., Kend,, Thelwall, M. 

* " an only daughter ; " &vydrtj^ ftovoyevfjs. Wesley, Sharpe, 
Scarlett, Camp., Dick., Kend., Angus, M. 

1 " she was dying ; " avrtj cated-vrjoxtv. Penn, Norton, Sharpe, 
Scarlett, Thehvall, M., Wakefl, Camp. {" who was dying 1 "). Bob. 
(Lex., in loco, ajto&vyoxco), " she was dying." 

- "And as he went ; " 'Ev Be iia vitayeiv avrov. Tyndale, 
Sharpe, Wakef., Dick., M. " But " was copied from Cramner. 

b " pressed on him ; " aweitvtyov. Norton, M. Rob. (Lex.), 




43 And a woman having an 
issue of blood twelve years, which 
had spent all her living upon phy- 
sicians, neither could be healed 
of any, 

44 Came behind him and touch- 
ed the border of his garment : 
and immediately her issue of blood 

45 And Jesus said, Who touch- 
ed me ? When all denied, Peter, 
and they that were with him, said, 
Master, the multitude throng thee, 


ovcra eV pvera oujj-aros OLTTO 
SooSe/ca, TJTIS el? larpovs 
Trpoo-avaXaxraaa oXov TOV fiiov 
OVK io~^y(rev VTT ovBevos 6epa- 
Trevdrjisai, 4 " 4 TrpocreXdovcra. OTTI- 
(r6ev, i]\l/a.TO TOV KpacnreSov TOV 
ijj.a.Tiov avTOv- /cat 

pv(ris TOV 0,'ifj.aTOS 

s 9 < > T " T" ' 

K.O.L wrez> o J.rjcrovs, J.LS o 
fJLOv; 'Apvov/J-zvoov Se 
, e'nrev o HeTpos KCU oi 
'EiricrTaTa, oi 
art KOLL 




And a woman "having had an 43 
issue of blood twelve years, 
who had spent her d whole liv- 
ing on 'physicians, and . 'could 
not be healed e by any one, 
h came up 'behind and touched 44 
'the fringe of his garment ; and 
immediately her issue of blood 
Stopped. And Jesus said, Who 45 
touched me? 'And when all 
denied, Peter, and "those with 
him, said, Master, the crowds 
"press and "shove thee, and 

" to press upon." Laying aside the sense of pressing together so 
as to suffocate, this word seems to have the same force with 
ovv&tiflio, -which occurs in the parallel, Mark 5 : 24. To throng 
is no longer used as a transitive verb, nor is it applied to persons, 
even in the passive form. 

e " having had an issue of blood ; " ovoa lv {nioet a'i/iaios. 
Dick, ("having had"). As elfil is defective, having no preterit 
forms for the participle, the present is here used aoristically. In 
narration, the aorist in verbs often has the force of the specific 
perfect and pluperfect. Crosby (Grammar, 580). This author 
remarks : " The use of the aorist for the perfect is especially 
common in the participle." Hence ovoa tv (" having been in ") 
may be rendered " having had." Stuart (note on Winer, \ 34, 4, 
a, note 2) says : " If there is any fact in regard to the use of the 
tenses in the New Testament, which is capable of demonstration, 
it is this, viz., that the aorist and perfect are often used for each 
other, and often in connection, and in the same sense." See 
Kiihner, 256, 2, Hem. 1. This participle is rendered by a finite 
verb, in the pluperfect, by Norton, Wesley, Penn, and Angus. 
If we use the participial construction, the usus loqumdi of the 
English demands " having had,"Tather than " having." 

d " whole ; " oiov. Norton, Scarlett, Thelwall. Bob. (Lex.), 
and Liddell (zn verbo). Beza, Schott ("toto victu hnpenso"). 
See ch. 5 : 5, note. So often in E. V. In the parallel, Mark 
5 : 26, where " all " is properly used in the E. V., we have T 

" physicians." The reading of the Textus receptns, els la- 
is canceled by Griesbach, Tittm., Lachm., Knapp, Theile, 
Scholz, Bloomfield. Instead of this, these critical Editors read 
larfozs. Schott says : " 'Jar^oTs pro vulg. sis Icctfiovs, quod vel 
correctionem vel interpretationem constrnctionis minus usitatse 
prodit, recte Griesb. cum pluribus recepit prseeuntt. cdd. plurimis, 
i2 unc." 

f " could not be healed ; " om io%vosv 9 l ga7tv&ijvai. Sharpe, 
Dick., Angus, M., Penn. 

' " by any one ; " iin ovSevos- Bob. (Lex., ovSsls) : "Aa a 

substantive, no one." Hence the double negative gives the word 
the signification " any one." "Any," standing alone, is always a 
plural, in English. 

h " came up ; " jt^ooe),&ovaa. Wakef., Murdock. As nqoo- 
i-QZOfiai literally signifies " to come to," it may properly be ren- 
dered by our idiomatic phrase " to come up," which has the same 
signification. In this case, the mind of the reader supplies the 
word " him," and it is unnecessary to express that pronoun, as a 

* " behind ; " oitto&sv. Wakef. By rendering itfoaeH&ovoa 
" came up," we can dispense with the supplement " htm." See 
last note. H^oasl&ovaa ojtia&ev is rendered by "Vulgate aud 
Erasmus " accessit retro ; " Mont, " accedens retro ; " Castalio, 
" accessit a tergo ; " Beza and Schott, " quum accessisset a 

J " the fringe ; " rov xpaoneSov. Norton, Scarlett, Kendrick, 
Kuincel (on Mark 6 : 56, rov x^aoiteSov). Heb. N. Test, 
ns^s. The Saviour was " made under the law," and observed its 
precepts. Numb. 15 : 38, " Speak unto the children of Israel, 
and bid them that they make them fringes (ns^a, Sept. v.$ aon&> 
So) in the borders (iSJ3-i>9, Sept. enl ra mc^vyia) of their 
garments throughout their generations, and that they put upon 
the fringe of the borders (S)3Srt ns^S-i)?, Sept. Inl ra v.qaansSa 

v nreQvyitov) a ribband (bins, Sept. xlaafia, a thread, or 
cord) of blue." Bob. (Lex., in ver'bo) : " In N. Test, a fringe." 

k " stopped ; " IODJ. Scarlett, Wakef., Penn, Kend., Angus, 
M. Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : " In the aorists eonjv and latd&^v, 
to stand still, to stop of things to cease." Sharpe, Norton, and 
Camp, render the word passively, " was stopped." 

1 "And ; " Se. Angus, M., Penn, Norton, Sharpe, Mardock. 
Heb N. Test., i. Syr., j (" and when "). 

" those with him ; " oi per avrov. Camp., Norton, Kend, 

"press;" avvc%oval. Bob. (Lex., in iierbo), Bretschneider: 
''Premo ab omni parte, Luc. 8 : 45." 
"shove;" ano&Mpovoi. Webster (Diet., art. "Shove," "to 




and press thee, and sayest thou, 
Who touched me ? 

46 And Jesus said, Somebody 
hath touched me : for I perceive 
that virtue is gone out of me. 

47 And when the woman saw 
that she was not hid, she came 
trembling, and falling down be- 
fore him, she declared unto him 
before all the people for what 
cause she had touched him, and 
how she was healed immediately. 

48 And he said unto her, Daugh- 
ter, be of good comfort : thy faith 
hath made thee whole ; go in 

49 While he yet spake, there 


KCU Aeyety, Tis o a 

4fi e /~\ &> ' T ~ *? 

U oe 2r)<rovs fiTrev, 
IJLOV Tts' ej/o> yap eyvcav 8vvafj.iv 


de T] yvvrj on OVK eXade, 
<ra rjXde, /cat 7r^o(T7recroucra av- 
T<J 81 TJV airiav avrov 
airrj'yyeiXev ai>Tc evayiriov travTos 
TOV AaoG, KOI a>? laOrj TrapaYpTJ- 

48 ' R\ ? ' ~ s\ / 

IJLO,. o oe ujrv avTrj) Uapcrei, 
dvyarep, 77 TTLQ-TLS o~ov treirw/ce 

' > / 49 tf TT 

<? Tropevov ety ipr)vt]v. Jbn 
avTov AaXowTOs; ep^erai TIS 


sayest thou, Who touched me ? 
And Jesus said, ^Some one 46 
'touched me ; for r l know that 
the power 'went out from me. 
And the woman, "seeing that 47 
she T was not unknown, came 
trembling, and falling down 
before him, declared to him be- 
fore all the people, for what 
cause she had touched him, and 
how she was healed immediate- 
ly. And he said to her, w Take 48 
courage, daughter, thy faith 
'hath healed thee ; go in peace, 
y While he was still speaking, 49 

pack, to press against"). QUpca is defined by Rob. " to press 
upon a person in a crowd, to crowd," and ovv&iifico, " to press 
together, to press closely on all sides, as a crowd upon a person." 
Bretsch. : "Comprimo, ab omni parte premo." As an alternative 
rendering, " crowd." 

P " Some one ; " vis. Thorn., "Wesley, Sharpe, Penn, Norton, 
M., Kend. This pronoun is not marked with the accute accent 
in Griesb., Tittm., Tisch., Mill, Lacmn., Knapp, Schott, Blooraf., 

* " touched ; tfyaro. This aorist is properly rendered thus in 
E. V. of v. A4. Rendered by " touched," in both verses, by Tyn- 
dale, Cranmer, Geneva, Sharpe, Norton, Kendrick, Thelwall, M. 
Rendered uniformly (vv. 44, 46) in Vulg., Mont., Erasmus, Beza, 
Castalio, Schott. The perfect tense." hath touched" was proba- 
bly introduced by the Revisers of the E. V. for the sake of 
emphasis, like the rendering of Wakefield, " Somebody did touch 
me." The text, however, has nothing to indicate any greater 
emphasis in the verb here, than in the forty-fourth verse. 

r " I know ; " fyca syvcov. Wesley, Sharpe, M., Rheims. 
Vulg., Mont., Eras., " novi." So in the parallel, Mark 5 : 30, 
(E. V.) , " knowing." Syr., &,J )j] . Heb. N. Test., 

" " the power ; " Svvafiiv. ^fwceuis, here, indicates that power 
by which the Saviour wrought miracles. Luke 4 : 14, Kai vnc- 
arqeycv o *Irjaovs Iv tjj Svdftei TOV Hvevftaros . r. L 6 : 19, 
Svvuftts ?t? avz-ov l^r^cro, xai laro it&vras. This power was 
communicated to the apostles by Christ, ch. 9 : 1. Rob. (Lex., 
m verbo) : " Specially, miraculous power, the power of working 
miracles." The article is inserted here (as in Rev. of Mark 5 : 30) 
on the ground, that the noun is really definite in signification. It 
refers to that particular divine energy by which the woman was 
healed. Penn, Camp., Norton, Wakef., Kend., Angus, Thelwall, 
M., have " power ; " S. Fr., " une puissance ; " Iber., " un poder." 
" Virtue," which, was transferred from the Vulgate (virtus) by 
Tyndale, and copied from him by subsequent translators, is obso- 

' " went out from me ; " Svvctfiir Qd.d'ovaav an eftov. Penn, 
Norton, M. The prepositions If. (ej-ci&ovaav) and anb should 
have their proper force, " out of," and " from." Vulg., " de me 
exiisse ; " Eras., " a me exiisse ; " Mont, " exeuntem de me ; '' 
Belg., " van mij uitgegaan is." 

" " seeing ; " iSovaa. "Wesley, "Wiclif, Rheims, Sharpe, Nor- 
ton, Kend., Thelwall, M. The participial construction is adopted 
by Scarlett, Campbell, and Dickinson. Belg., " ziende ; " S. Fr., 
" voyant ; " Ital., " vedendo." 

v " was not unknown ; " ovx eiad-e. Kendrick. Liddell and 
Rob. (Lex.) give " to be unknown " as one of the definitions of 
this word. The obvious thought is, that she knew she had not 
escaped the notice of the Saviour. 

w " Take courage ; " Oaqoei. Thorn. ."Wesley, Camp., Wakef., 
Kend. The E. V. (copying Tyndale) fluctuates in rendering this 
verb between " Be of good comfort," and " Be of good cheer." 
Neither of these expressions is accurate; both are, to say the 
least, obsolescent. Qaqoos signifies courage, boldness, readiness, 
confidence. Liddell. He renders tfagoei " take courage." Bret- 
schueid?r: " Qaqast, bono sis animo." 

1 " hath healed ; " otacoxe. Kendrick, Sharpe (oiaioxe, Mark 
5 : 34). Rob. (Lex., oco^co, 2) " to heal, to restore to health." 
As the radical signification of " heal " is " to make whole," this 
term is appropriate, and has the advantage of being in ordinary 
use, which can not be affirmed of " to make whole." See Webster 
(Diet., art. " Heal "). Bretsch. (in verbo) : " Usurpatur universe 
de iis, qui in periculis, servantur, incolumes prcestantur. De iis 
qui a morbo liberantur, quorum vita servatur, ubi ssepius verti 
potest : sano, sanor." G. Fr., " ta foi t'a guerie." 

y " While he was still speaking ; " TEn avrov Haiovvros. 
Kendrick, Pechy (on same phrase, Mark 5 : 35), Wakefield, Dick., 
G. and A. Camp. Rob., Liddell (Lex., ), "still;" Iberian, 
" estando el aun hablando ; " Vulg., Mont., Erasmus, " adhuc illo 
loquente ; " Beza, " adhuc eo loquente." IJeb. N. Test, 




cometli one from the ruler of the 
synagogue's house, saying to him, 
Thy daughter is dead : trouble 
not the Master. 

50 But when Jesus heard it, he 
answered him, saying, Fear not : 
believe only, and she shall be 
made whole. 

51 And when he came into the 
house, he suffered no man to go 
in, save Peter, and James, and 
John, and the father and the 
mother of the maiden. 

52 And all wept and bewailed 
her : but he said, Weep not : she 
is not dead, but sleepeth. 

53 And they laughed him to 
scorn, knowing that she was dead. 

54 And he put them all out, i 


Trocpa TOV dpxKrvvaycoyov, Xeycov 

crov fj.r/ cr/cuAAe TOV 
Xov. 50 '0 Se 'Ir/crovf aKOvcras 
aTTCKpiffr] O.VTW, Xeycav, Mr) (j)o- 
/3ov p.ovov 7r/crreue, KOU <rca6r)cre- 
TOU. 51 JElo-eXdcav de els TTJV 
oiKiav, OVK d(j)r/Ki> elcreXdeiv ov- 
Seva, el /j,rj Herpov KCU 'Ia.KC0(3oi> 
KCU 'Icadvvr/v, KOLL TOV TraTepa 
TTJS TraiSos KCU. TT/V fj.r/Tepa. 

52 " > o\ ' \ > / 


TTTOVTO avTr/v. 6 Se etTre, Mr) 
/cAcu'ere' OVK mreOavev, aAAa 
devSet. 53 Kal /careye'Atoi' av- 
TOV, elSoTef OTI aTredavev. 5i au- 

Kpa.Tr)(ras TTS 



some one came "from the house 
of the ruler of the synagogue, 
who said to him, Thy daughter 
is dead, b do not trouble the 
"Teacher. But when Jesus heard SG 
if, he answered him, saying, 
Fear not, d only believe, and 
"she will be healed. And when 5j . 
he f came into the house, he 
suffered no one to go in, except 
Peter, and E John, and James, 
and the father and mother of 
the maiden. And all h were 52 
weeping and 'bewailing her. 
But he said, Weep not, she is 
not dead, but sleepeth. And 53 
! they laughed at him, knowing 
that she was dead. "But he put 54 
them all out, and "taking her 

1 " some one ; " rig. Doddridge, M. See v. 46, note. Bob, 
(Lex., TJS), "some one;" S. Fr., " quelq'un." 

a " from the house of the ruler of the synagogue ; " naoa TOV 
ao%iovvaycoyov. Thorn., Norton, M. As the language of the 
text is idiomatic, the insertion of the house, as a supplement, is 
is necessary. The ruler was with Jesus at this time. Kuinosl 
(on the parallel, Mark 5 : 35) : " Sic anb legitur quoque Joh. 
18 : 28, Zyovotv TOV 'Itjaovv anb TOV Ka'Caya, ex cedibus Caia- 
pha. Terent. Phorm. IV : 6, 5, nam quse hsec anus est examinata, 
a fratre quze egressa est meo, i. e. a domo patris." The above 
arrangement is perspicuous, and more harmonious than that of 
Tyndale, which was copied in the B. V. Camp., " from the house 
of the director of the synagogue." 

b " do not trouble ; " /a/ oxvM,e. Norton. This accords with 
present usage.. 

" " Teacher." See ch. 2 : 46, note. 

d " only believe ; " ftovov niarevs. So E. V. of the parallel, 
Mark 5 : 36. Thorn., "Wesley, Sharpe, Wakef., Scarlett, Dick., 
Camp., Kend., Angus, M. The proper order of these words is 
the same, as in the Greek. 

" she will be healed ; aco&jjoerai. Thelwall. See v. 48, 
note. Instead of " shall," "Wakefield, Sharpe, and Penu have the 
auxiliary " will." 

f " came." Instead of tloeH&cav of the Text. Eecepi, &9~cav 
is the reading of Griesbach, Tittmann, Knapp, Theile, Tischend., 
Lachm., Scholz, Bloomfleld. Schott says : " D.&IUV cum Griesb. 
aliisque ex cdd. plurimis (8 unc.) verss., Pesch. Philox., Pers., 
ed. Whel., Ar., Goth., Slav., Vulg., It. dedimus pro vulg. 
&cav ex vbb. sqq. oriundo." 
* " John and James." Instead of " 'laxcoflov ttal 

(Text. Eecept.) the reading of Griesb., Lachmaun, Tischendorf, 
Knapp, Theile, Schott, and Bloomfield is 'Icoawtjv 'laxcoftor. 
In favor of this reading are eight uncial MSS., and the Philox- 
enian and Jerusalem Syriac, Slavonian, eight MSS. of Vulgate. 
See Schott, and Bloomf. (N. Test.). 

h " were weeping ; " txlaiov. Norton, Sharpe, Kend., Angus, 
Penn, M. S. Fr., " tous pleuraient ; " Iber. and Span., " llorabau 
todos ; " Ital., " tutti piangevano." The imperfect here, shows 
continued action, and is accurately rendered by the English pro- 
gressive form. So the next verb Iv.omotno. 

1 " bewailing ; " exomovro. See last note. Sharpe, Penn, 
M., Kend. Iber., "planian." Bloomfield remarks : "Komead-at. 
properly signifies to beat, or strike oneself, and then, to bewail, 
grieve for any one." 

' " they laughed at him ; " xaTsysAfov UVTOV, Thorn., Kend., 
Scarlett, Norton, Wakef., Sharpe, Angus, Thelwall. This verb 
occurs only in Matt. 9 : 24, Mark 5 : 40, and in this instance, 
and is rendered in the E. V. by " laugh to scorn." This phrase 
is obsolete. The preposition xara, in composition with this verb, 
is not intensive, but has rather as iu many other instances the 
force of " against," and this may be well expressed by " at." See 
Liddell (**). " To laugh at " is equivalent to " deride." This 
!ast is, however, less familiar and intelligible to common readers. 
11 " But ; " Se. So (E. V.) in the parallels, Mark 5 : 40, Matt. 
) : 25. Scarlett, Norton, Camp., Angus. G. and S. French, 
' mais ; " Iber. and Span., " mas ; " Diodati and Ital., " ma ; " De 
Wette, " aber ; " Belg., " maar ; " Dun., " men." 

"taking;" xoarfoas. Wesley, Sharpe, Thelwall. Although 

Trjoas has been rendered in the Revision of Mark at 5 : 41 
1 he took," the participial construction (the sense being the same) 




and took her by the hand, 
called, saying, Maid, arise. 

55 And her spirit came again,- 
and she arose straightway : and 
he commanded to give her meat. 

56 And her parents were as- 
tonished : but he charged them 
that they should tell no man what 
was done. 


THEN he called his twelve dis- 
ciples together, and gave them 
power and authority over all dev- 
ils, and to cure diseases. 


\eycov, 'If TTOLS, 
65 Iou eVearpei^e TO irvevfj-a, av- 
KOii avecrTrj irapa^prj/jia.' KCU 

56 \ >>' ' " 

/cat e^ecTT7]crav OL -yoveif 
6 Se TraprjyyeiXev avTols 

2 And he sent them to preach | crreiAey 

tirev TO 


Se Tovf ScadeKa p.a0rjTctf avrov, 
avTols KOLL (ov- 
criav ejrl Travra TO. daijjLOi'ia, KCU 

Kijpvcro-eiv Trjv 


by the hand, "called out, say- 
ing, "Maiden, "rise. And her 55. 
spirit Preturned, and she 'rose 
'immediately ; and he command- 
ed 'that something should be 
given her to eat. And her &s 
parents were astonished, but 
he charged them to tell 'no oue 
"what had been done. 


AND "calling together the 1 
twelve, b he gave them power 
and authority over all 'the de- 
mons, and to cure diseases. 
And he sent them forth to 2 

is adopted here for the sake of euphony. In Mark, the verse 
commences with y.a.1 xoanjaas, while here it begins, avros 
tx^akuiv 'egco ndvras xrti xoarqaas. As lv.(ta}.tuv is rendered by 
the finite verb " he put out," the next participle (y.oaif,aas) 
may be most properly rendered by its English equivalent. 

m "called out;" sycovrjas. So Rob. (Lex., in loco, yaiveto), 
" to call out, cry out, exclaim." Penn, M. See v. 8, note. 

" Maiden ; " 'H nais. So (B. V.) v. 51. Bob. (Lex.), " a 
girl, maiden." Camp., Penn, Angus, Kend. Euphony renders 
this preferable to " maid." 

" rise ; " fyeioov. " Bise," instead of " arise," is the render- 
ing of this verb (E. V.) Matt. 24 : 7, 11 ; 26 : 46. Mark 4:27; 
10 : 49. John 5 : 8. 1 Cor. 15 : 32. Eev. 11 : 1. 

" returned ; " IneoTgeys. Thorn., "Wesley, Norton, Camp., 
Scarlett, Dick., Penn, Kend., Thelwall, M. Eobinson (Lex., in 

9 " rose ; " areaTrj. Thelwall, M. See note on " rise," in this 

* " immediately ; " naon^ofjfta. Kend., Norton, Campbell, 
Scarlett, Dickinson, Angus, Thelwall, M. In the parallel, Mark 
5 : 42, the adverb cvd-ecos is placed before the verb, thus, sv&ecas 
avTJa-rri, " immediately rose." 

1 " that something should be given her to eat ; " avrfj So&f/vaf 
yayeTv. So E. V. of Mark 5 : 43 (So&rjvni avrfj yayelv}. 
Angus, Penn, "Wakefleld, Norton. As "something" is really a 
supplement (rl subaudtiur), it has been italicized, as in Wakef. 
It should be so distinguished in the parallel, Mark 5 : 43. See 
Bevision of Mark 6 : 37, note. 

1 " no one ; " m Ssvl. Thorn., Norton, Scarlett, Wakefield, 
Sharpe, Penn, Kend., Thelwall, M. 

" what had been done ; " to ysyovos. Wakef., Penn, Angus, 
M. See v. 35, note. The perfect is sometimes used for the plu- 

Trollope, Gram., ji50, 

perfect, as in Luke 1 : 22. John 20 : 18. 
p. 133. Wiuer, g 34, 3, note by Stuart. 

a " calling together ; " ovyxaleociftevos. Wesley, Penn, Kend., 
Thelwall, M. The participial construction (" being called ") is 
adopted by Camp., Dick., Scarlett, Angus. 

b The reading of the Textus Eeceptus, /ua&ijras mnov, is 
canceled by Griesb., Knapp, Theile, Tiscliend., Kuiuoel. Schott 
remarks : " Quae vnlgo post S<6Sey.a adduntur, find'rjras avroii 
desunt in cdd. multis (6 unc.) verss., Pesch., Sahid, Arm., Slav., 
eorumque loco cdd. IS minusc. plures et versiones habent cato- 
oToiovg, glossema agnovimus cum Griesb. aliisque." Bloomf.: 
" These words, not found in very many of the best MSS., several 
Versions, and some Fathers, are canceled by almost every Editor 
from Wetstein to Scholz. Some MSS., too, and those Versions, 
which have not fia&. avrov, have &rco<n6).ovs avrov. Nothing, 
therefore, can be plainer than that both are from the margin. It 
may be said, indeed, that these words are confirmed by Matt. 
10 : 1. But it is more probable that they have been introduced 
from thence, since better reasons may be imagined for their 
insertion than for their omission." In addition, it is worthy of 
remark, that ol ScoSsxa simply occurs at v. 12, ch. 8 : 1 ; 18 : 31, 
and in other instances. Syriac, oiZjjal^j^ (" his twelve"). The 
usual custom of the Syriac translator being to suffix the pronoun, 
when the article occurs with a noun in the Greek text, his ren- 
dering is really equivalent to " the twelve." Tyndale, Cranmer, 
Wesley, Camp., Norton, " the twelve ; " De Wette, " die Zwolfe." 
Eobinson (Harmony) brackets /la&qras avrov. 

" " the demons ; " jta.tna. to, Sai/tovca. Norton, Kendrick, 
Camp., Sharpe, Wesley, Thelwall. G. Fr., S. Fr., and De Sacy, 
" tons les demons ; " Iber. and Span., " todos los demonios ; " 
Diodati and Ital., "tutti i demoni." The Belgic retains the 
article, " de Duivelen." In the parallel, Matt. 10 : 1, the article 
is omitted before nviv/ia-tcov axa&aprcov ; but it is inserted in 
Mark 6 : 7, icav nveuiiatiav rcov axa&aorcov. 




the kingdom of God, and to heal 
the sick. 

3 And he said unto them. Take 
nothing for your journey, neither 
staves, nor scrip, neither bread, 
neither money ; neither have two 
coats apiece. 

4 And whatsoever house ye 
enter into, there abide, and thence 

5 And whosoever will not re- 
ceive you, when ye go out of that 
city, shake off the very dust from 
your feet for a testimony against 


TOV Oeov, /cat i 
TOVS acrdevovvTas. 3 KOU etVe 

Trpos avrovs, yev aipere es 
rrjv odov fJ-r/Te pa/38ovs, /J.r/Te 
aprov, fj.r)re ap-yv- 
a Svo xiravas e'^etv. 

piov, [j.r]Te ava 

4 /cat els rjv av O'IKLCHV 

e'/cet yueVere, /cat eKtlOev ee 

/i 5 v */ * ^ & '/* 

aoe. /cat OCTOL av /nrj oegcovrou 

oaro Trs TTO- 
Xecos eKeivr/s, /cat rov Kovioprov 
oaro TUIV TroSStv vp.S)v a 

re, es fj-aprvpiov eir O.VTOVS. 

preach the kingdom of God, 
and to heal the sick. And he 3 
said to them, Take nothing for 
"the journey, neither 'staff, f nor 
*bag, nor bread, nor money, 
nor have two coats apiece. 
And ""whatever house ye enter, 1 4 
there remain, and thence de- 
part. And 'whoever 'shall not 5 
receive you, when ye go out 
'from that city, shake off ra even 
the dust from your feet for a 
testimony against them. And 6 

d " the journey ; " -cijv 6S6v. It is not necessary to regard 
irp> as a substitute for the possessive pronoun here. In the 
parallel, Mark 6 : 8, the language is simply sis 6Scv, where, in 
rendering, the supplement " their " is necessary before " journey," 
and is, therefore, properly employed in the E. V. In the passage 
beforj us, the article is used by Sharpe, Wakef., Penn. Syriac, 
jliojl. (Murd.," for the journey"). Heb. N. Test., <qv&. Belg., 
" den weg ; " Luther and De "Wette, " den Weg ; " Danish; 
" Beien ; " G. Fr., " pour le voyage ; " S. Fr., " le chemin ; " 
Iber. and Span., " el camino ; " Diodati, " lo cammino ; " Ital, 
" pel viaggio." 

" staff." Instead of dpSovs of the Text. Recept, $d/3Sov is 
the reading adopted by Griesbach, Tischendorf, Knapp, Theile, 
Tittmann, Lachmann, Scholz. Kuinoel : " 'PapSov, ita cum codd. 
prastantissimis h. 1. ut Matt. 10 : 10 pro dfiovs legendum est." 
Schott : " Pro vulg. $afl8ovs (quod correctionem sapit, qua verba 
Christi cum Marc. 6 : 8 prorsus componerentur) cum Griesb. 
aliisque recepp. a^Sov ex codd. permultis (7 unc.) verss., Pesch., 
Arr., Pers. Sahid., JBth., Arm., Slav., Vulg., It." Bloomfield : 
" Many MSS. have ^a/SSov, which is preferred by almost all the 
recent Editors. By the way, it may be remarked that in Matt. 
10 : 10, the best Editors have adopted ^d/3Sov." See Bloomf. (in 
loco citato). 

' " nor ; " /eyre. This word occurs five times in this passage. 
It is appropriately rendered by " neither " in E. V., in the first 
instance. In the others, it should be rendered uniformly by 
"nor." Norton, Camp.. Sharpe, Scarlett, "Wakef., Kend., M., 
Angus render this word " nor " in all those instances, except the 
first. Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : " Repeated, /tyre . . . /ajrs, neither 
. . . nor, before different parts of the same clause." 

f " bag ; " nriQav. Norton, Campbell, Angus, Pechy, Eob. 
(Lex., on Mark 6 : 8). Kuinoel (on Matt. 10 : 10) : "ITfaa. sac- 
cus coriaceus, quo pastores et viatores panem atque cibos gestare 
solebant." So Judith 13 : 10, Kal h>e/3alct> avrriv sis frjv n-fj^av 
rear ^(Oftarcav caiTijs (E. V.), "And she put it in her bag of 

meal." Ammonius (cited by Kuinoel) : "xij 
qov 6 Ini itav aifuov tps^ovaiv ol izotfieves" 
pouch for victuals," etc. 

a(tg> Sftotaiv aetxsa pdAAezo 
nvxva ycoyaAeijv' iv Se orqoyos TJSV 

a.- Ssfta i\ 
Liddell, " a leathern 

Odyss. 18 : 108. 
" Scrip " is obsolete. 

h " whatever." Thomson, Norton, Campbell, Sharpe, Scarlett, 
Penn, Kend., Angus, M. " Whatsoever " is obsolete. 

1 " Into," after " enter," is superfluous. It is omitted by 
Wesley, Norton, Scarlett, Dick., Penn, Kend., Angus, M. It 
was retained in Mark 6 : 10, where the arrangement of the sen- 
tence (as revised) is different. 

I " whoever." Present usage demands this orthography of the 

fc " shall not receive ; " fir/ Segtovrai (first aorist subj.). Dick., 
Wakef. So properly rendered in the parallel (E. V.) Mark 6 : 11. 
" Will not" conveys the idea of determination; while mere future 
action is the thought in the text. This is one of the instances in 
wliich the E. ~V~. is faulty by giving a different rendering, where 
the Greek is the same. The aorist subjunctive, here, has the force 
of the fut. indicative. Stuart, Gram., 142, p. 232 : " The aorist 
subj. is employed when possible future action is designated." 
Troll., Gram., 53, p. 143 : " In negative prepositions, the con- 
junctive (subj.) is used with ov (ty instead of the future; as 
Matt. 16 : 28, ov firj yevacavrai &avdrov." 

i "from that city;" coco rrjs itoietas exetvqs. This is the 
usual sense of onto. It should not be confounded with &t. So 
Tyndale (1562). Vulg., Erasmus, Mont., "de civitate ilia;" 
Iber., " de aquella ciudad." 

even ; " ai. Camp., Dick., Kend., M. Vulg., Erasmus, 
Mont., Beza, Castalio, " etiam ; " Schott, " vel ; " Belg., " ook ; " 
S. Fr., " meme ; " Iber., " hasta ; " Diodati, " eziandio ; " Dan., 
" endog." Heb. N. Test., na. Syr., ^a] (" even," Murdock). 




6 And they departed, and went 
through the towns, preaching the 
gospel, and healing every where. 

7 Now Herod the tetrarch 
heard of all that was done by 
him : ; and .he was perplexed, be- 
cause that it was said of some, 
that John was risen from the 

8 And of some, that Elias had 
appeared ; and of others, that 
one of the old .prophets was risen 

9 And Herod said, John have 
J beheaded; but who is this of 
whom I .hear such things? And 
he desired to see him. 


o Kara 

ras Koalas, evayyeAt^ojuei'Oi /cat 

7 "HKovae 8e 'JfpcoSrjf o re- 
- TO, yivofjieva vw avrov 
' Kai dirjTropei, Sid TO Ae- 
yecrdat viro TIVCOV, "On 'Icodvvrjs 


e, OTI S\ia.s tydvr)' aAAajv 

f, OTI irpo^Ttjs elf T>V dp- 

dvecrTrj. 9 Kcu dirtv o 
, ^Icodvvrjv eyto a?re/ce- 
(f)aAi(ra' TLS Se ecrnv OVTOS, irepi 
ov eyco O.KOVCO rotavTa; 


they departed, and "went 
through tlie country "from vil- 
lage to village, ^preaching the 
good news, and healing every- 
where. Now Herod, 1 " the te- 
trarch, heard of all that was 
done by him ; and he was per- 
plexed, because it was said 'by 
some, 'John hath risen from the 
dead ; and 'by some, "Elijah 
hath appeared, and by others, 
One of the old prophets "hath, 
risen up. And Herod said, 
John X I beheaded ; but who 
is this of whom I hear such 
things ? And y he sought to see 

" went through the country ; " Sifiqiotno. This is a case 
where the accusative is implied and governed by Sia, in composi 
tion with eg%o/tai. Rob.. (Lex., Scs^xoftai) : "Absol. with accus 
impl. as TTJV yijv, trjv nof.iv, trjv %d>(iav, i. e., through the 
adjacent country, the region round about (around) ; Acts 8 : 4 
40, Siepxo/tsvos evayysfa&To ras Ttoleis naoae (E. V., ' passing 
through, he preached in all the cities ') ; with xaTaxco/t 
Luke 9 : 6." This verb is often followed by an accusative of 
place, as in Lube 19 : 1. Acts 12 : 10 ; 13 : 6 ; 15 : 3, 41. 
Beza and Castalio, " obierant ; " Schott, " obierunt." Leverett : 
"Obeo, to visit by passing from place to place, travel through: 
As Sia does not refer to ncofias, it is obvious that the supplement 
representing the object of Sia, should be inserted. As an alter- 
native rendering, " they went on." So the Dan., " droge frem." 

" from village to village ; " xata tag xcopag. Angus. Beza 
and Schott, " singulos vices ; " De Wette, " Dorf fur Dorf ; " G. 
and S. Fr., " de bourgade en bourgade ; " De Sacy, " de village 
en village ; " Iber., .".de aldea en aldea ; " Eheims, " from town to 
town." Kara is here used distributively, as in Acts 20 : 20. 
Bretschneider (y.aia) : " De tempore ac de loco dicitur distribu- 
tion, ita ut ordinem et vices indicet; de loco y.aTa. ronovs in 
singulis tocis, Matt. 24 : 7. Luc. 8 : 1, xaia. noliv, per singulos 
urbes, oppidatim, Stadt fur Stadt, xara y.iofirjv, vicqtim." The 
rendering of some translators, " all the villages," or, " every 
village," is less accurate than " from village to village." Rob. 
(Lex., xcofiij), "a village, hamlet." 

P " preaching the good news ; " evayyeL6/tevoi. See ch. 
4: 18,. note. 

' As "the tetrarch" seems to delne " Herod," a comma is 
inserted after the proper name. 

' " by some ; " vno iivtov. Wesley, Shai-pe, Scarjett, Penn, 
Dick., Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M. So often in N. Test. " Of," 
in the sense demanded here, is obsolete. 

" " John hath risen ; " "Ort 'Icaavvrjs tyr/ye^rai. The particle 

on. is used here simply as a sign of quotation. For the render- 
ing of eyr/yey-tai, see ch. 7 : 16, note on this verb. Robinsou 
(Lex.) says : " Pass. perf. eyqyegftat, and aor. 1. rjyei>&?iv, to have 
been roused, and hence to arise, to Iiave risen." Hence both 
these tenses are usually active in signification. So in Rev. of 
Mark 6 : 14, ijys^&r] is rendered " hath risen." 

' "bysome." See.noter. 

u " Elijah hath appeared ; " "On 'Silas eyavrj. On the use 
of STI. see note s. The aorist icpavrj has here the force of a 
perfect. Buttmann, Gram., 137, 3: "When the reference or 
relation of time is sufficiently clear from the context, the aorist 
can be employed instead of the perfect." Kuhner, f 256, 2, 
Rem. 1 : " The aorist is often employed even instead of the per- 
fect, when the relation of the past to the present need not be 
expressed emphatically." Winer, \ 34, 4, a, note 2. The specifi- 
cation of the time is made by the perf. fyjjye^rai, v. 7. 

r "On, before jt^oyujr^s, is used as in v. 7. See note on that 

verse, supra. 

w "hath risen up;" avearri. See note, supra, on 

Up " may perhaps be pleonastic here ; still it makes a distinc- 

tion between the verbs, analogous to .that of iyrjyeg-cai, and 

1 " I beheaded ; " aitey.eyahoa. Thorn., Camp., Wakefield, 
Kend., M. So this word is properly rendered in the parallel 
(E. V.) Mark 6 : 16. The aorist, thus rendered by the English 
imperfect (its usual equivalent), corresponds with our <usus lo- 

' " he sought ; " Kfytci. Wesley, Sharpe, Kend., Angus, M., 

JThelwall (" was seeking"). This verb occurs in some of its ra- 
lections one hundred and eighteen times in the N. T. It is render- 
ed in the E. T. by " seek," one hundred and seven times. In six 
of the eleven exceptions, " seek " is the more appropriate equiva- 
ent. Vulg., Mont., Eras., " qucerebat ; " Belg., " hij zocht ; " 
De Wette, " er suchte ; " G. and S. Fr., " il eherchajt ; " Daa., 




10 And the apostles, when they 
were returned, told him all that 
they had done. And he took 
them, and went aside privately 
into a desert place, belonging to 
the city called Bethsaida. 

11 And the people, when they 
knew it, followed him : and he 
received them, and spake unto 
them of the kingdom of God, and 
healed them that had need of 

12 And when the day began to 
wear away, then came the twelve, 
and said unto him. Send the multi- 
tude away, that they may go into 
the towns and country round 



Kai. VTrocrTptyavTZs ol O.TTO- 
diT)yrj<ravTO aiiTcS ocra 
Kai 7ra/jaAa/3o>z> av- 
TOVS, vTre^coprjcre K.O.T iSlav etr 
TOTTOV eprjjjiov TroAew? 
11 ol 

ijKoXovdrfarav aurcp* KCLL 
avrovs, e'AaAef avrols 
irepL Tijf fiacriXeias TOV Oeov, 
KCLI TOVS xpeiav ^ovras 0epa- 

' ' ~ 12 e TT S> r ' ' 

Tretay iaro. L oe 


8e ol 

Xvaov TOV o%\.ov, u/a 

els ray /cu/cAa) /ceo/uay KOLL TOVS 

aypovs Ka.TaXv(rco(ri, /cat 



him. 'And the apostles return- 10 
ed, and "they related to him 
b what great things they had 
done. And he took them and 
'withdrew privately into a des- 
ert place belonging to d a city 
called Bethsaida. And the 11 
crowds, when they knew it, fol- 
lowed him: and he received 
them, and spoke to them 'con- 
cerning the kingdom of God, 
and healed those who had need 
of healing. 'Now the day be- 12 
gan g to decline ; and the twelve 
''came near and said to him, 
Send the crowd away, that they 
may go into the villages and 
country 'around, and lodge, and 

" han sogte ; " Diodati, " cercava." " He desired " (copied in the 
E. V. from Tyndale) originated in the rendering of Luther, " be- 

1 "And the apostles returned ; " vaoaroc\pavrss ol ctnootohoi. 
Thorn., Norton, Tyndale, Cran., Geneva. Luther, " Und die 
Apostel kamen wieder." De Wette, " Und es kehreten die Apo- 
stel zuriick." Alternative rendering, "having returned." So 
Iber., " I habiendose vuelto los enviados." 

* " they related ; " Strjyyaavro. Scarlett, Thelwall. Tulg., 
Mont., Eras., Beza, Schott, " narraverunt ; " Costal., " narra- 
runt ; " Belg., " verhaalden ; " Luther and De "Wette, " erzahl- 
ten ; " G. and S. 3?r., " raconterent ; " Iber., " contaron ; " Dan., 
"fortolte." Liddell (in verbo), "to set out in detail, describe, 
narrate." Bretsch. : " Proprius ad finem rem perduco narrando ; 
LXX sjepras pro 130, enarro, expono et quidem rem oimiem, 
Marc. 5 : 16. Luc. 9 ao. Act. 8 : 33, etc." This verb should 
be distinguished, in translation, from several others, as'U.ta, 
ixlaAico, eitto, leyco, Aaieio, which are rendered by " tell," in 
the E. V. Syr., o_JL2>-fc,j (related, or narrated). 

b " -what great things ; " oaa. Angus, M. So (E. V.) Mark 
3 : 8. Bob. (Lex.) : " Neut. oaa sometimes expresses also ad- 
miration, how many and great things, as in Eng. what things, 
q. d., what great things ! So generally of great or unusual deeds, 
Luke 9:10." Bretsch.: " Dicitur de qwntitate interna: ita 
neutrum oaa quam inaqua, quanta, Marc. 3 : 8. 

"withdrew;" vmxeopqoe. Norton, Sharpe, Wakef., Thel- 
wall, M. See ch. 5 : 16, note. Bretsch. (in loco], "me subduco, 
secedo." Hob. (Lex.). 

d " a city." Holciog being anarthrous, this is the proper 
rendering. So Tyndale. The definite article first appeared in 
Oanmer's Yersion. Norton, Wakef., Thelwall, M. 

" concerning ; " ite(il (cum genii.). Thorn., Camp., Wakef., 
Thelwall, M. 

f " Now ; " St. The particle is merely continuative here, like 
" now " in English. See Bob. (Lex.). 

E " decline ; " xlivstv. "Wesley, Norton, Scarlett, Penn, Dick., 
Keud., Thelwall, M. Rob. (Lex., m verbo), " to decline, spoken 
of the day." There is an ellipsis of sis ioTti^av after this verb, 
when thus used. Compare Judges 19 : 9 (Sept.), qad-cvijoev 
f/fiega sis rffv soxeqav. Amian. Exped. Alex. Ill : 4, lyxli- 
vavros 8e TOV rjkiov Is eanegav. Luke 24 : 29. Jer. 6 : 4 
(Septuagint), xe-Alxe fj fjfis^a. Lidd. : " Later, in trans, in act. a 
rfl.ios xl.ivei, rj fjfteqa tiUvsi, the sun, the day declines." Vulg., 
Eras., " declinare." Syr., )1 C^V (Tnf. PinI, "to decline"). Heb. 
N. Test, m'o3. Iber., " a declinar ; " Ital., " a declinare." 

h " came near ; " nftoael&ovtes. Murdock. Syriac, oo^j. 
Heb. N. Test, SIBSI In the parallel, Mark 6 : 35, the pronoun 
follows the participle, thus, npooeid-ovTss avrra ol fta&tjTai ai- 
rov ifyovaiv, " his disciples came to him, and said." In the 
passage before us, the arrangement is different, itgoael&ovres Se 
ol SioSsxa eljcov avrai. To avoid the disagreeable repetition 
of " him," and yet retain the force of noog, the rendering "came 
near " is adopted instead of " came near to him." Hob. (Lex., 
in verbo), "to come to, or near to any place, or person, to ap- 
proach." See ch. 7 : 18, note. So this verb is rendered (E. V.) 
Acts 7 : 31, " he drew near," it^oac^oftivov 3s O.VTOV. Acts 
8 : 29, " Go near," 2T ? 6ffsl&s. Heb. 10 : 22, " Let us draw 

1 " around ;" xv-Ay. Penn, Scarlett ("round"), Sharpe. Rob. 
(Lex.), " as adv. around." 'JEv and xst/tsvos are understood here. 
" Round about," by which this word is rendered, when used thus, 
in the E. V., is a tautology. 




about, and lodge, and get victuals : 
for we are here in a desert place. 

13 But he said unto them, Give 
ye them to eat. And they said, 
We have no more but five loaves 
and two fishes ; except we should 
go and buy meat for all this peo- 

14 (For they were about five 
thousand men.) And he said to 
his disciples, Make them sit down 
by fifties in a company. 

15 And they did so, and made 
them all sit down. 

16 Then he took the five loaves, 
and the two fishes, and looking up 
to heaven, he blessed them, and 


OTL o>5e ev 

13 77? \ 

MjlTT O6 

TOTTCj) (rfJLV. MjlTT O6 7T/3O? 


yelv* 01 Be elTrov, OVK el<rii> 

irXelov 77 irevre aprot 
Svo i-^dves, el PJTJTL TTOpevGevres 
Tqfj.eTs d-yopaaca/JLev elf irdvTa rov 
yap axrel avSpes 
Eirre Se Trpoy rovs /xa^ras- aii- 
TOV, avrov? t<Xi<rias 

> \ r 15 77- \ > / 

ava TrevT-qKOvra. H.O.L eiroi- 

ovrca, KOU aveKXivav a 
16 Se TOVF 
aprovs KOU rovy Svo l-^dvas, ava- 
fiXtyaf els TOV ovpavbv, evXo-yrj- 
crev avTOVs, KCU Kare/cAacre, KOU 


'find 'provisions ; 'for here, we 
are in a desert place. But he 13 
said to them, Give ye them 
"something to eat. And they 
said, "We have no more "than 
five loaves and two fishes ; "un- 
less we should go and buy 
pfood for all this people. (For 14 
they were about five thousand 
men.) And lie said to his dis- 
ciples, 'Make them recline r in 
companies "of fifty= And they 15 
did so, and made them all 're- 
cline. And "when he had taken 16 
the five loaves and the two 
fishes, Y he looked up to heaven, 
w and blessed them, and broke, 

I "find;" evfcoaiv. "Wesley, Norton ("to find"), Penn, 
"Wakef., Angus, Thelwall, M. Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, Schott, 
" inveniant ; " Belg., " vinden ; " Luther and De "Wette, " finden ; " 
G. Pr., " pour trouver ; " S. Pr., " trouvent ; " Iber. and Span., 
" hallen ; " Diodati and Ital., " trovino ; " Kuinoel, " reperiant." 
Heb. N. Test., KiSiA. Syr., ^^-.Ti 

k " provisions ; " emaiTiopov. Kend., M. This word occurs 
only in this instance. It is desirable to distinguish it from flpca- 
/tara, which is sometimes rendered " victuals," and sometimes 
" meat," in the E. V. Bloomf. says : " This word is properly a 
military term, and literally signifies a provisioning." 

i "for here." Sharpe. The thought demands this arrange- 
ment of the words, according to our ttsus loqucndi. So De 
Wette, " denn Her sind wir an einem wiisten Orte ; " Iberian, 
" porque aqui estamos en un lugar despoblado ; " Ital., " poiche 
qui noi siamo in luogo deserto ; " Beza, " nam hie in loco deserto 
sumus ; " "Vulg. and Erasmus, " quia hie in loco deserto sumus." 
The E. V. follows the arrangement of Tyndale, as he did Luther's, 
" denn wir sind hier in der "Wiiste." 

m " something." " Give ye them to eat " is an imperfect sen- 
tence. Our usus loquendi demands that the object of "give" 
should be expressed. This object is, therefore, indicated as a 
supplement. There is an ellipsis of rt. Compare 2 Kings 4 : 42, 
Sept., elite dors rep ^.ncijJ sa&isrcaaav, XKi flitev 6 ?.et- 
rovpyos ftvrov Ti 8d> rovro Ivamiov cxarbv avSgaiv ; xoi elite 
^fos tea ).acS eaS'ienaociv. In the Geneva translation of 
this passage, the ellipsis has been supplied thus, " Give it unto 
the people, that they may eat." In the parallel, Mark 6 : 36, rl 
is expressed, rl yiitg yaytoaiv OVK e%ovotr. 

* " than ; " ^. Wesley, Sharpe, Norton, Scarlett, Penn, Dick., 
Wakefield, Kend., Thelwall, M. So often in E. V., where this 
particle is comparative. Eob. (Lex.). 

" unless ; " el ftjjre. Norton, Sharpe, Camp., Scarlett, Penn, 
Dick., "Wakef., Kendrick, M. Strictly speaking, these words are 
equivalent to nisi fortasse, " unless perhaps." This phrase, how- 
ever, is not consonant with our idiom. See Hob. and Bretsch. 

i" " food ; " pgcofiaTa. Norton, Kend., Dick., Thelwall, M. 
" Meat " is no longer used as a generic term for all that is eaten. 
Bob. (Lex., pQtofia), " eatables, food." 

' " Make them recline ; " KaTaxtivars avrovs. See ch. 7 : 36, 

r " in companies ; " xhatas. Wakef., Kendrick, M., Angus, 
Norton, Sharpe, Penn. This is an accusative of manner, and haa 
the force of an adverb. Kuinoel (in loco) : "Ad xhaias subau- 
dieudum v.ara., sed xhaia. est discubitus, ordo discubentium." 
Kiihimr, Gram., g 278, 3, Eem. 1. Trollope, Gram., p. 94, g40, 5, 
Obs. 16, Bos. xara. 

* " of fifty ; " ava trtevrijxovra. Norton, Wakef., Kendrick, 
Angus. Bretsclmeider (Lex., ava) : " Vocabulis numeri junctum 
distributive dicitur et per nomina numeralia distributiva expli- 
candum est." S. Fr., " de cinquante ; " Ital., " di cinquanta ; " 
Belg., " elite van vijftig." 

" recline." See v. 14, note. 

" when he had taken ; " la.p<av. So (E. V.) Mark 8 : 41. 
In narration, the aorist often has the force of the pluperfect. 
Buttmann, Gram., g!37, 3. Kiihner, Gram., 256, 2, Eem. 1. 
Crosby, Gram., 580. 

T " he looked up ; " ava/tteyas. So (E. V.) Mark 6 : 41. 
Kendrick. Belgic, " zag hij op ; " Yulg., " respexit." Syr., j^ 

w " and blessed them ; " evloytjaev avrovs. As " he " occurs 
before " looked up," it is not necessary to express it here, the 




brake, and gave to the disciples 
to set before the multitude. 

17 And they did eat, and were 
all filled : and there was taken 
up of fragments that remained to 
them twelve baskets. 

18 And it came to pass, as he 
was alone praying, his disciples 
were with him ; and lie asked 
them, saying, Whom say the peo- 
ple that I am ? 



17 KCU 

rot? p,adTf)Tals irapUTidevat 
e'0ayoz> KCU 
irdvTes- KOU rjpdrf 
TO 7reptar(rV(rav O.VTOIS KX.aa-fJ.0.- 
TCOV. Kcxbtvoi S<a8cKa. 



KAI eyeWro 

TW evai 
O.VTOV 7rpoo-ev^o/j,evov Ka.Tttp.ovas, 
<TWTJ(rav avTCp ol fJLO.drjTai' KOU 
eirrjpa>T'r)o~ev OVTOVS, Xeycav, Tiva 


and gave "them to the disciples 
to set before the crowd. And IT 
"they ate and 'were all satis- 
fied ; and there "were taken up 
of fragments, b which were left 
to them, twelve baskets. And 18 
it came to pass, as he was pray- 
ing 'apart, liis disciples were 
with him ; and he asked them, 
saying, a Who do the crowds 

verbs being connected by " and." This rendering is literal 
("blessed them"), yet it is believed that the thought may be 
expressed by this rendering, "he blessed God for them," or, 
" thanked God for them." In this case, " them " (avrovs) refers 
to "bread" and "fishes" (aorot xal Svo i%&vcs). Kuinoel (in 
loco) : " Deo pro iis egit : avrovs pro Irf avrovs, refertur ad 
afTovs et iX&vas. Nempe apud Hebneos moris erat, cum cibum 
capere vellent, ut recitarent antea precationem, cujus initum erat 
JTirn rmx t]1"i2 quibus verbis Deum laudabant, et pro potu cibo- 
que gratias agebant. Hinc factnm est, ut -rpa et svloyelv, quod 
ei respondet, ad ipsum cibum potumque transferrentur, ita, ut 
addito casu nominum rei quarto, significarent Leo gratias agere 
pro cibo et potu, atque idem valerent quod SV^KOWTSIV, ut 1 Sam. 

9 :13 (ovros i&l.oyel tijv &valm'), Sept. Heb. (mftt Tili^ iMfl). 
1 Cor. 10 :16 (TO noir^qiov rifs svloylas 5 sv).oyovftv}." Bloom- 
fleld approves this view of Kuincel. In. the parallel, John 6 : 11, 
svzaoiarrjoas ("giving thanks") is used instead of nvloyrjoe 
("he blessed"). It seems from this, that the words were used 
by the Evangelists as synonymous. So in Matt. 26 : 26, the 
same act is indicated by cv-/,notar^oas, thus, iaficov b 'Jqaovs 
tov a^rov, y.a.1 svioyr/aas, t.y."l.aas xai iSiSov roTs fitt&tjTals. 
Trollops (Analecta) on Matt. 14 : 19, has this note : " Evioyrjae 
scil. tov S-sov, not roiis a^covs." In the other miracle of the 
same kind, related in the next chapter (v. 36), instead of svkoyti- 
aas, we have Evxa^iarrjaas. See also Mark 8 : 6. Luke 1 : 64 
(sv),oyiov lov @sof) ; 2 : 28. John 6 : 11, 23 (evzagtoTqoaVTos 
cov xuolovj. Acts 27 : 35 ().afiiov Sorov, fv'^a^iorrjas nji Qeqi). 
James 3:9 (iv avrfj evioyovftei* tov Osov y.ou sraTepa). In the 
accounts of the Last Supper also, the act is indicated by one 
Evangelist by evinystv, another uses tv%apioTeTv. The two 
words are, therefore, plainly synonymous. "With regard to the 
objection, that tv),oytiv is applied in Luke 9 : 16, and 1 Cor. 

10 : 16, to the things distributed, it is replied, that the expression 
in those places is elliptical, more Hebrasorum. Thus in 1 Sam. 

9 : 13. LXX. evloynZ ir t v &voiav, for evhoyeT tbv d'eov vite^ 
tf/v -d-valav. Comp. Heb. 2 : 17. In Luke 9 : 16, indeed, some 
MSS. read evloycae fa" avrovg. The " cup of blessing," 1 Cor. 

10 : 16, is the cup for which we give thanks, according to the 
custom of the Jews, etc. In view of these facts, the alternative 
reading is submitted, " he blessed God for them." Bob. (Lex., 
evloysco) : " With ace. of thing ; in N. Test, only of food, a meal, 
a cup (o bless, i. e., to ask God's blessing upon, gener. e. g. a(>- 

itrvs, Luke 9 : 16 ; ace. implied Matt. 14 : 19. Mark 6 : 41 ; 
8 : 7." Bretsch. (Lex., in -verbo, eodem) : " De laudibus Dei cum 
gratiarum actione conjuncta, ad usum Hebr. ^p*, in epulis, 
potissimum sacris, Matt. 14 : 19 ; 26 : 26. Marc. 6 : 41 ; 8 : 7, 
14, 22. Luc. 24 : 30. 1 Cor. 10 : 16, TO itorfoiov 6 cvioyov- 
fiev, super quod Deum laudamus, formulam benedictionis effamur." 

1 " them." Wakefield, Penn, Scarlett, Camp., Norton. This 
supplement is necessary to render the sentence complete. So 
in the parallel (E. V.) Mark 6 : 41. In Matt. 14 : 19, the ellipsis 
(of this passage) is supplied by TOVS avrovs. 

7 " they ate ; " syayov. Sharpe, Kend. The verb is rendered 
in the imperfect, without " did," by Norton, "Wakefield, Scarlett. 
There is no emphasis here, which demands the form " did eut." 

* " were satisfied ; " exogtaod-rjoav. Thorn., Wesley, Nor- 
ton, Scarlett, Camp., Penn, Dick., Kend. So (B. V.) Mark 8 : 4. 
De "Wette, " wurden gesattigt ; " Belg., " wierden ^verzaddigt ; " 
S. Pr., " fnrent rassasies ; " Diodati, " furon saziati." See ch. 
6 : 21, note. In the parallel, John 6 : 12, the E. V. properly 
has " were filled," but there the verb is h/en).f l a3'iioav. 

" " were taken up ; " %$&]. Wesley, Wakef. (" taken away"), 
Dick., Gray (note on Angus). The idiom of our language obliges 
us to render the verb in the plural, as "baskets" is its nominative. 

b " which were left ; " to nfataoevaav. So in the parallel, 
Mark 8 : 8, E. V. (neotaaevftara), and Matt. 15 : 37 (10 acoio- 
aevov). Uniformity of rendering demands this phrase. I suggest, 
as a more harmonious and familiar expression, this form of the 
entire sentence, "And twelve baskets of the fragments which 
they left, were taken up." This is hardly more free than that in 
the text, and a change in the order affords a sentence more agree- 
able to our usus loquendi. Nearly like this, Norton, " and twelve 
baskets full of the fragments that were left, were collected." 
Wakefield, " twelve baskets of remaining fragments were taken 

* " apart ; " xaraftovag. Thomson, Wesley, Penn, Camp., M. 
Liddell (Lex.). The verbal contradiction produced by " alone," 
followed by the declaration " his disciples were with him," strikes 
every reader. " Apart " suggests the thought, that he was 
separated from the-crowds which usually attended him. 

d " Who." " Whom " is ungrammatical. The error has been 
corrected by Scarlett, Norton, Dick., A. and G. Camp., Kend., 
Angus, M. 




19 They answering, said, John 
the Baptist ; but some say, Elias ; 
and others say, that one of the 
old prophets is risen again. 

20 He said unto them, But 
whom say ye that I am ? Peter 
answering, said, The Christ of 

21 And lie straitly charged 
them, and commanded them to 
tell no man that thing, 

22 Saying, The Son of man 
must suffer many things, and be 
rejected of the elders, and chief 
priests, and scribes, and be slain, 
and be raised the third day. 


fj. Xeyowiv ol oj^Xoi elvai; 19 01 
Se onroKpidevres zlirov, 'Icoavvyv 
TOV BotfjrTicrTr]v aXXoL oe 'HXi- 
av. a'AAoi 8e } OTI Trpo^rjTrjs rty 

^ ' / > / 20 Tn 1 ? 

TO>V ap-^a.L(av avecrrrj. Jlarz 

e,\ > < <V> i\ / i / 

oe avTOis, I fj.ei$ oe TWO. /tie Ae- 
yere elvcu; 'ATTOKideis oe o 


cure, Tov Xpio-Tov TOV 
Oeov. 21 'O 8e 


roty jra.pyyyeiXe fit^oevi eiirelv 

22 ' v a S~i S> ~ v 

---" (Jrt, oei TOV 


viov TOV av6pa>irov TroXXa TTOL- 
deiv, Kal'B^vat O.TTO 
T>V Trpeo-fivTepcov /cat ap^iepecov 

V / \ J 



say that I am ? 'And they, 19 
answering, said, John the f ln> 
merser ; but Bothers, h Elijah ; 
and others say that one of the 
old prophets 'hath risen. And 20 
he said to them, But who say 
ye that I am? "And Peter, 
answering, said, "The Anointed 
of God. And m he charged and 21 
commanded "them to tell "this 
"to no one, saying, The Son of 22 
man must suffer many things, 
and be rejected ^by the elders, 
and chief priests, and scribes, 
and r be put to death, and 

"And ; " Se. Sharps, Norton, Dick., Wakefield. Belgic, 
" ende ; " De Wette, " und ; " S. Fr., " et ; " Iber. and Spanish, 
" i ; " Diodati and Ital., " ed." So (E. V.) in the parallels, Matt. 
16 : 14, and Mark 8 : 29. 

f " Immerser ; " Bamiorfv. See ch, 7 : 20, note. Kuinoel 
(on Matt. 3:1): " Icadvvys 6 sMxaiovftevos fiaitTiomjs' accepit 
hoc nomen inde, quod Judasos ita in aqua demergere instituit, ut 
eos hoc ritv Messise venture obstringeret, v. Act. 19 : 4. 

6 " others ; " a'AAot. Scarlett, Norton, A. Camp., Dickinson, 
Kend., Thelwall, M., Wiclif. Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, Costal., 
Schott, " alii ; " Belg., " andere ; " De Wette, " andere ; " Dan., 
"andre;" G. Fr., " les autres;" S. Fr,, "d'autres;" Iberian, 
" otros ; " Diodati and Ital, " altri." So the E. V. has rendered 
aUoi in the next member of the sentence, AA<M Se, " and others." 
" Some " requires ztvsg, indefinite. 

h The supplement " say " is superfluous. It is not inserted 
by the E..V. in .the parallel, Matt. 16 : 14, where the text is the 
same (attot. Se *H).la.v). Not employed by Sharpe, Scarlett, 
Norton, Dick., Kend., Thelwall, M. No supplement in Belgic, 
De Wette, Dan., G. or S. Fr., Iber., Diodati, Ital. It was first 
introduced by Wiclif, and copied from his version by Tyndale 
and other early translators. 

1 "hath risen;" avsart]. Norton ("has risen up"), Dick, 
Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : " Intransitive, in the active perf., pluperf., 
and second aorist ; also in mid., to stand up, to rise up, to arise." 
On the erroneous use of the auxiliary " to be," instead of " have," 
with intransitives, see ch. 4 : 34, and 7 : 16, notes. On the use 
of the aorist for the perfect, Buttm., Gram., g!37 : 3. Kuhner, 
Gram., 256, 2, Bern. 1. Crosby, Gram., g 580. 

1 " who." See v. 18, note. 

" "And ;" Se. So (E. V.) in the parallels, Matt. 16 : 16. 
Mark 8 : 29. So also Sharpe, Norton, Penn, Dickinson. Belg., 
" ende ; " Castalio, " et ; " G. and S. Fr., " et ; " Iberian, " i ; " 
Diodati and Ital., " e." 

i " The Anointed." See ch. 2 : 26, note. 

m " he charged ; " b litirt/ttjaas. Sharpe, Wakefield, Penn, 
Angus, Murdock. So E. V. in the parallel (caerif^aEv), Mark 
8 : 30, and in Matt. 16 : 20. Mark 10 : 48. The adverb " strait- 
ly" occurs as a qualifying term with this verb only in this pas- 
sage, and Mark 3 : 12. In this latter case, rtoAAa is joined to 
the verb (noll.a. enerifta). Hence the adverb "strictly" (E. V., 
" straitly ") should be used. Where the verb is emphatic, its force 
is properly expressed, as in the E. V., by " rebuke." 

n " them ; " aviois. Penn, M. By this arrangement, the sup- 
plement " them " is rendered unnecessary. 

" this ; " rov-co. Thorn., Wesley, Scarlett, Norton, Camp., 
Wakef., Dick., Kend., Thelwall, M. 

P " to no one ; " ftqSfvi. Thorn., Sharpe, Scarlett, Norton, 
Wakef., Penn, Kend., Thelwall, M. Beza, " nulli ; " Schott, " ne 
cuiquam ; " Belg., " niemant ; " De Wette, " iiiemandem ; " Dan., 
" Ingen ; " Iber. and Span., " a nadie." 

" by ; " anb. Sharpe, Scarlett, Norton, Camp., Wakefield, 
Penn, Dick., Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M., Murdock. Kuinoel, on 
the parallel, Mark 8 : 31, says : "'Ano positum est pro vito, ut 
Matt. 11 : 19." So (E. V.) Matt. 7 : 16. Acts 9 : 13. 2 Cor. 
3 : 18 ; 7 : 13. Jude 23. The influence of the Hebrew preposi- 
tion -pa, as used for the author of efficient cause whence any thing 
proceeds, is obvious, in modifying the usual force of mtb. Gesen. 
(Lex., JB). Hos. 7 : 4, rta'tfa i"Hsa llSin, E. V., " an oven heated 
by the baker." Tnlg., " clibanus succensus a coquente." 

r " be put to death ; " oTtoxiav^vcti. Thorn., Norton. Rob. 
(Lex., aitoxreivco) : " Spoken of death as a punishment, to put 
to death. Matt. 14 : 5. Mark 8 : 31. Luke 9 : 22. John 5 : 18. 
Acts 3 : 15, etc." So (E. V.) Luke 18 : 33. John 11 : 53 ; 
12 : 10 ; 18 : 31. Matt. 14 : 5. Liddell (in verbo) : " Of judges 
to condemn to death, frequently in Xenophou ; also of the accuser, 
Id. Hell., 2, 3, 21 (iroAAois ftsv fy&gas evey.a. omixteivov, itoi- 
iov, ' they (i. e. the Thirty Tyrants) put many to 




23 And he said to them all, If 
any man will come after me, let 
him deny himself, and take up his 
cross daily, and follow me. 

24 For whosoever will save his 
life, shall lose it : but whosoever 
will lose his life for my sake, the 
same shall save it. 

25 For what is a man advan- 
taged, if he gain the whole world, 
and lose himself, or be cast away ? 

26 For whosoever shall be 
ashamed of me, and of my words, 
of him shall the Son of man be 
ashamed, when he shall come in 


yvou, Ka rrj rprr] rjfJ-fpa tyep- 

23 "iZXeye Se Trpo? iravras, El 
TLS deXei oiTLcrca fj.ov e Xdzlv, airap- 
vrjO~acr6(o eavrov, KOI aparco rov 
aravpov avrov KaO rnj,fpai>) KOU. 
a/c0Aoy#emo fj.oi. 24 os yap av 



ewroAecrei avrrjv bs 8 av airo- 

avrov eveicev 

' r 25 / 

ovros crcocret avryv. TL 

yap ax^eAeirai av9pa>iros, 

cras TOV KOcrp-Ov oXov, eavrov 8e 

aTroXecras 77 


26 oy yap 
KCU TOV$ euovs 

Xoyovs, TOVTOV b v'ios TOV avdpco- 
TTOV eTraicr-vdrcreTai, orav 

rise 'on the. third day. And 23 
he said "to all, If "any one will 
come after me, let him deny 
himself, and take up his cross 
daily, and follow me. For who- 24 
ever w would save his life, *shall 
lose it, but whoever shall lose 
his life, J he will save it. For 25 
the whole world, and lose him- 
self, or "be condemned ? For 26 
whoever shall be ashamed of 
me, and of my words, of him 
the Son of man "will be asham- 

death from enmity, and many because they were rich') ; of the 
executioner, to put to death, Herod. 6 : 4 (rovrscav Se ysvofisviav 
yaveqcuv, aTCKKtutve iv&avTa itohkovs Heqaeaiv 6 ^Aaraysovris, 
' so they being discovered, Artaphernes thereupon put many of 
the Persians to death')." 

" rise ; " eyef&yvcu. A. and G-. Camp, ("rise again"). The 
pass, pert and first aorist have usually an active signification. 
Bob. (Lex.), "to arise," "to have risen." See ch. 7 : 16, note. 
So (B. V.) Acts 9 : 8. 2 Cor. 5 : 15. 

' "on the third day;" 777 r^ltrj fjft^ct. Sharpe, Norton, 
"Wakef., Dick., Kend. De "Wette, am dritten Tage ;" Belgic, 
" ten derden dage ; " Iber., " al tercer.dia." 

u " to all ; " Kfos xdvrag. Wesley, Dick., Thelwall. Belgie, 
" tot alien ; " De Wette, " zu alien ; " G. and S. Pr., " a tons ; " 
Iber. and Span., " a todos ; " Diodati and Ital., " a tutti." In 
the parallel, Matt. 16 : 24, we find 6 "I^aovs sins rots fta&ijrazs 
OVTOV" El its . T. L, " Jesus said to his disciples, If any one," 
etc. The narration of Mark is more full, Ttfooxafaodftevos rov 
ofyov avv tols fta&qrats avrov, slrtsv avroZs, "Oans &sfei 
n.r.L, " when he had called the crowd to him, with his disciples, 
he said to them, Whoever will," etc. In the passage before us, 
itgbs navras is used to indicate the fact that the crowd was 
addressed with, the, disciples. At all events, a literal rendering 
(omitting Tyndale's supplement "them") is deemed most accu- 
rate. Vulg., Mont., Eras., Castal., " ad omnes ; " Beza, " dicebat 
omnibus." Syr., yiV" >oo (" before all men "). Kuincel 
(in loco) : "Allocutus est omnes sectatores suos, tune temporis 
praesentes advenerant enirn et alii." 

T " any one ; " ns. Sharpe, Wakef., Penn, Kend., Thelwall, 
M. Yulg., Mont., Eras., Schott, Beza, Castal., " quis " (for ali- 
quis, after si). 

w " would save ; " &tfy] oiSaai, Pecby and Dickinson (in 
parallel, Mark 8': 35), Sharpe. 

1 " shall lose ; " anollan. Kend., Wesley, Wakef., M. So 
(E. V.) ill parallel, Mark 8 : 35. 

y " he ; " ovros. Sharpe, Kend., Wesley, Wakef., Dick., M. 
This pronoun is often rendered " he," when emphatic, in E. V. 
See Matt. 13 : 22, 23 ; 27 : 58. Luke 1 : 32. Acts 3 : 10 ; 4 : 9 ; 
9 : 15; 10 : 6. 

1 " is profited ; " coydeZrac. So (totpslarai) iu parallel 
(E. V.) Matt. 16 : 26. Mark 8 : 36 (d><ptU t oei), " shall profit." 
Scarlett, Wesley, Wakef., Penn, Dick., Thehvall, M. 

* "be condemned?" &i/uico&eis ; Sharpe. Liddell (in verbo), 
" to cause toss, do damage to any one, hence usually to punish." As 
a forensic term, it is used for amercing or mulcting one in a sum 
of money, as a penalty for some misdemeanor. Herod. 6 : 21, 
et-vfticaoav /av y,iUrjai, S^ax/ufjai, " they (the Athenians) fined 
him a thousand drachms." It is also used where life is the for- 
feiture for a real or pretended wrong. Herod. 3 : 27, lyrj yev- 
Sea&at aysas as yevSofeevovs &avaroio i&i/tlov, "he 
(Cambyses) said they lied, and as liars punished them with death." 
The verb is used absolutely, Thucyd. Ill : 42, ovy. oncas &jfitov>; 
atta fitjS" artftaeu> (where &avarco is understood). So the 
noun &fiia signifies loss, but usually a penalty, a fine. Thucyd. 
II : 24, -d-Avarov fyjftiav Itce&svro, " they imposed the penalty 
of death." In view of these facts, the rendering " be condemned" 
is deemed appropriate, as the thought obviously is that of being 
sentenced to the severest penalty which justice demands. Comp. 
Matt. 16 : 27. ' . 

b " will be ashamed ; " ktatozwd-qaerai. Scarlett, Sharpe, 
Norton, Camp., Wakef., Penn, Dick., Kend., M. 



his own glory, and in his Father's, 
and of the holy angels. 

27 But I tell you of a truth, 
there be some standing here which 
shall not taste of death till they 
see the kingdom of God. 

28 And it came to pass, about 
an eight days after these sayings, 
lie took Peter, and John, and 
James, and went up into a moun- 
tain to pray. 


iv ry So^rj avTov KOL TOV Trarpos 

\ ~ e / > '\ 9,7 j f 

KCU TCDV ayicov cryyeAcov. A.eyto 
8e dXrjdcos, fieri rives TCOV 
coSe ecrTr)KoT(ov, 01 ov /XT? yevcrov- 
TCU OavctTOV) ecoy av 'ISccxn TTJV 
fiacriXeiav TOV Oeov. 

28 ' TJ ' s> * < \ \ f 

jByevero oe /zera TOVS Ao- 
yovs TOVTOV: cocrel ^fj.epai OKTCO, 
KCU TrapaXa/Bcov TOV Herpov KCU 
'Icadvvrjv KCU. 'IctKcofiov, dve{3rj 
els TO opos 7rpoo-evt;acr6ai. 29 KCU 


ed, when "he cometh in d his 
glory and "in that - f of the Fa- 
ther, and of the holy angels. 
But I tell you s truly, there h are 27 
some 'of those standing here 
who will not taste of death till 
they see the kingdom of God. 
And it came to pass, about 28 
J eight days after these words, 
k that he 'took with him Peter, 
and John, and James, and went 
up into "the mountain to pray. 

" "lie cometh;" n&rj. Kend., Scarlett ("comes"), Norton 
(" comes"), "Wakef., Perm. So parallel (E. V.) Mark 8 : 38. 

d " his ; " aiiTov. As the text of Bagster, Lachmann, and 
Tischendorf have avrov, not avrov, this rendering is demanded 
instead of " his own." Sharpe, But as Griesb., Knapp, Theile, 
and Scholz have avrov, the alternative rendering " of his own " 
is submitted. 

"in that." Scarlett, Camp., Dick., Kendrick, Thelwall, M. 
G. Fr., " dans celle ; " S. Fr., " en la." As the ellipsis demands a 
supplement, that has been adopted to avoid the hissing sound, 
which occurs in enunciating 1 the passage, as it stands in the E. V., 
and also the repetition of the word " glory," which must take 
place, if it is used as a supplement. 

{ " of the Father ; " TOV JTOT^OS. Sharpe, Camp., Wakefield, 
Thelwall, M. There is no reason for departing from the usual 
rendering of the article, and giving it the force of the possessive 
pronoun, in this instance. Belgic, " des Vaders ; " De Wette, 
" des raters ; " S. Pr., " du Pere ; " Span., " del Padre ; " Ital., 
" del Padre.." 

B "truly;" alq&ais. Kend., Thelwall, M., Eob. (Lex., in 
verbo). The phrase " of a truth " is the proper equivalent of &n? 
Mrj&eias, as in E. V., Luke 4 : 25 ; 22 : 59. Acts 4 : 27; 
10 : 34, etc. 

h " are ; " slat. Scarlett, "Wesley, Norton, Campbell, Penn, 
Dick., Kend., Angus. " Be," in the indicative, is obsolete. 

1 " of those standing ; " tSv-^im^xorcov. Thomson, Sharpe, 
Angus. Mont, " sunt aliqui hie stantium ; " Beza, " sunt quidem 
exiis qui hie adstant ; " Castalio, " esse quosdam eorum qui Me 
adsunt ; " Schott, " esse aliquos eorum qui hie adstant." In the 
parallel, Mark 9 : 1, the E. V. has " of them that stand." The 
E. Y. has followed the Vulgate, which inconsistently renders the 
same words in Matt. 16 : 28, and Mark 9:1 (8 : 39) by " sunt 
quidam de hie stantibus," and in the passage before us, " sunt ali- 
qui hie stantes." Belg., " der gene die hier staan ; " S. Pr., 
" quelques-uns de ceux qui ; " Iber., " hai algunos de los que 
estan ; " Dan., " nogle af dem, som her staae." 

1 "An," which is placed before " eight days," in the E. V., is 
ungrammatical. It was introduced by Tyndale, and copied by 

Cranmer, Geneva, and E. V. It is omitted in all the later 
English versions. 

1 " that ; " xa'i. M. So (E. V.) Luke 8 : 1, aai alros Stco- 
Seve, " that he went." Mark 9 : 39. Luke 5 : 17 ; 10 : 38. 
S. Fr., " qu'ayant- pris ; " Iber., " que llevo ; " Ital., " ch' egli 
presi ; " Belgic, " dat ; " Beza and Schott, " ut." Bob. (.Lex., : " The simple is put very frequently in N. Test., parti- 
cularly in the narrative style, where classic writers either put 
nothing, or use some other particle, as Ss, aV.a, -core, and the 
like; so especially in Matthew, Mark, Luke, and Eevelation." 
This usage is derived from the Hebrew. See Stockii Clavis 
Linguae Sancta? (i) ; and Heb. of Numb. 23 : 19. Gen. 4 : 8. 
As an alternative rendering, " then." So De Wette, " da." 

1 "took with him;" itagcda/Seor. "Wakef.. Norton, Camp. 
So E. V- of the parallel, Mark 9 : 2, itapalafipdvet. is rendered 
taketh with him." As naya, in composition, conveys the idea 
of " with," or " to," the equivalent of naqa, should not be itali- 
cized. See ch. 7 : 18, note. Kob. (Lex., na^aiaft^dvca) : " To 
take to, or -with oneself, as an associate, companion. In composi- 
tion, jtct(>a implies nearness, proximity, alongside of, beside, near 
by." Bretsch. (na^aL) : " Transitive, sumo mihi aliquid, assvmo, 
mecum duco, socium mihi, adjungo." Matt. 26 : 37, jra 
, E. V., " he took with him Peter," etc. 

m " the mountain ; " 10 OQOS. "Wesley, Sharpe, Norton, "Wake- 
field, Penn, Angus, Thelwall, M. ' Belg., " den berg ; " De "Wette, 
11 den Berg ; " Dan., " Bierget ; " S. Fr., " la montagne ; " Iber., 
' al monte ; " Diodati and Italian, " sul monte." Heb. N. Test., 

Greene (Gr. N. Test. Dial., p. 158) says : " By a very natural 
process of thought, and one which is continually exemplified, 
writers are apt unconsciously to presume the same familiarity 
with certain localities on the part of their readers, as is possessed 
by themselves ; and this is the cause of the occurrence of the 
article, in some cases, where it appears at first sight strange. This 
is the reason of the article being always prefixed to o^os by the 
Evangelists, when intending the mountains embosoming the lake 
of Galilee ; a form of expression most natural to persons familiar 
with the country, but strictly correct on their part only when 
addressing others who were so too. This is evidently the intend- 



29 And as he prayed, tlie fashion 
of his countenance was altered, 
and his raiment was white and 

30 And behold, there talked 
with him two men, which were 
Moses and Elias : 

31 "Who appeared in glory, and 
spake of his decease which he 
should accomplish at Jerusalem. 

32 But Peter and tney that 
were with him were heavy with 
sleep : and when they were awake, 
they saw his glory, and the two 
men that stood with him. 


eyeVero ev r< jrpo(rev)(e(rdat. av- 
TOV, TO elSos TOV irpocrcoTrov av- 


Aewcoy l^aa'Tpoarrcov. 30 Kai 
ISov, avBpes 8vo awtXaXovv av- 
T(p, oinves r](rct.v Maxrrj 
31 ot o0#eVrey ez> 

\ a}- & j -. 

njv fgooois avrov, 


irXrjpovv ev ' 

32 e ^ \ TT f \ f X if. 

o oe Jt/er/jo? KCU OL <rvv aurcp 
fjcrav /3e/3apr)/j,VOiV7rva>- 
yopr)cra.vTe$ 8e eldov rrjv 






KCU eyez/e- 


And as he prayed, "the appear- 29 
ance of his countenance was 
altered, and his "apparel was 
white and ^glittering. And so 
behold, two men 'were talking 
with him, who were Moses and 
Elijah; who appeared in glory, 31 
and spoke of r his departure 
which "he was about io accom- 
plish at Jerusalem. But Peter 32 
and those with him l had been 
heavy with sleep ; "but awak- 
ing, they saw his glory and the 
the two men 'standing with 

ed meaning of o#os, Matt. 14 : 23 ; 15 : 29. Mark 3 : 13. Luke 
6 : 12. Mark 6 : 46. Luke 9 : 28." I would add that the 
soundness of these remarks will be appreciated by all, who are 
conversant with the forms of speech current among those who have 
received little mental cultivation. They frequently speak as 
though the houses, mountains, woods, and streams, where their 
days are spent, must be well known to all. See ch. 6 : 12, note. 

n " the appearance ;" TO slSos. Robinson (Lex.), G. and A. 
Camp., Wakef., Penn, Kend., Angus. Vulgate, Erasmus, Beza, 
Castalio, Schott, "Species;" De Wette, "Ansehen;" S. TV., 
1'aspect ; " Diodati and Ital., " il sembiante." So (E. V.) 1 Thess. 
5 : 22. Xenophon, Cyrop. I, 2, 1, <Puvai Ss o Kvgos Hyerai,- 
slSos f&v y.alhaTos. Liddell (elSos), "that which is seen, also 
of the appearance, look." Bretsch. : " Proprie id quod oculis 
cerni potest in aliquo vel aliqua re, species externa." Sept., 
Exod. 24 : 17, TO elSos tijs So^rjs rov xv^iov caael JTVJO. Levit. 
13 : 34, sTSoe isngas. Ezek. 1 : 26, cos elSos av&^canov avco- 

" apparel ;" l/tarea/tos. M. See ch. 7 : 25, note. So E. V., 
Acts 20 : 33. 

P " glittering ;" l^aat^mtrcov. Penn. "Glistening" is obso- 
lete. As an alternative, "glittering white." So De Wette 
(" weissstrahlend"), Sharpe. The word occurs only in this in- 
stance in N. Test. 2?| is intensive. The thought is well expressed 
by Schott, " album ita ut fulguraret," or, as we may say, " it 
flashed with whiteness." Bretsch. (in loco), "pallium candore 
micans." So Sept., Ezek. 1 : 4, itvQ l^aar^Amtav, " fire flashing 
out " (i. e., from the cloud) ; 1 : 7, anivd^jfits cas l^aar^amcov 
%aJ.y.os, " sparks like glittering brass." S. Fr., " sa robe d'une 
blancheur etincelante ; " Diodati, " la sua veste divenne Candida 
folgorente ; " Ital., " suo vestimento divenne d' un candore sfolgo- 

i "were talking with ;" avvskalow. So (E. V.) Mark 9 : 4. 
Kend., Norton, Wakef., Murdock, M. Vulg. and Eras., " loque- 
bantnr -cum ;" Beza, " colloquebantur cum ;" Mont., "collo- 
quebantur ;" Castalio and Schott, " cum eo colloquebantur;" 

G. Fr., "parlaient avec ;" S. Fr., " s'entretenaierit avec ;" 
Iber., " hablaban con ." Continued action is indicated by the 
Greek imperfect. With this, our progressive form of the imper- 
fect corresponds. The verb is placed after its nominative " two 
men," according to the Greek order. 

r "his departure;" ity el-odov avrov. Norton, Penn, Sharpe, 
Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M. V"ulg., Eras., "excessum ejus." 
Syriac, oiiaaio. (Murdock, "departure.") Heb. N. Test., ixjja. 
Eob. (Lex., in verbo) : " Tropically, departure from life." Heb. 
11 : 22 (E. V.), " departing." Sept, Wisdom of Solomon, 3 : 2, 
eSo^av Iv otp&a&fiols aygovcov ced'vavat, xdi ct.oyiad'rj zaxcoats 
r t e^oSog aiiTcov, E. V., " in the sight of the unwise they seemed 
to die; and their departure is taken from misery." Josephus, 
Antiq. IV, 8 : 2, M l^oSov TOV Zfiv . In the use of this word, 
our idiom corresponds with that of the Greek. We use " de- 
parture " for " death." Kuinoel : "T/jv eo8ov iti.rj^ovv est, vita 
exitum haberc, mortem subire." 

* " he was about to accomplish ; " efiette nl^ovv. Scarlett, 
Wesley, Kend., Norton ("about to take place"), Wakef., Penn, 
Sharpe (" about to fulfill"), Angus, M. The radical signification 
of fi.ellca, " to be on the point of doing," or, " to be about to 
do," is appropriate here. See Liddell. Antbon, Gram., p. 481. 
There is a periphrastic future, made up of fiettca and the infini- 
tive of the present, the aorist, or the Mure, and corresponding to 
the Latin periphrastic future of the participle, in nsus and the 
verb sum. It answers to the English "being about to do any 
thing," " intending to do any thing," etc. See ch. 7 : 2, note. 

< "had been heavy;" yoav jSe^d^fesvot. M., Penn ("had 
been weighed down"), Norton ("had been overcome"), Kend. 
'" had been, oppressed "). Schott, " gravati fuerant ;'" Vulgate, 
Eras., Beza, " gravati erant." The pluperfect here should have 
its usual force. 

u " but awaking ; " Scay^yo^aavres Ss. M., Wakef., Penn. 
Scholefield, " and when they awake." 

v " standing ; " avveorcavas. Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva, 




33 And it came to pass, as 
they departed from him, Peter 
said unto Jesus, Master, it is good 
for us to be here : and let us make 
three tabernacles ; one for thee, 
and one for Moses, and one for 
Elias : not knowing what he said. 

34 While he thus spake, there 
came a cloud, and overshadowed 
them : and they feared as they 
entered into the cloud. 

35 And there came a voice out 


TO ev TO> ia^copcrai O.VTOVS 
cm avrov, e'arev 6 Herpo? irpos 
TOV 'fr/crovv, ' 
r) c 



evai' KCU 

rpes, fJ.av <roi } 

KCU Maxrei fiiav, KOL IJLLO.V 'HXia- 

\ >R\ & \ ' 34. ~ 0, \ 

fj,rj eiocos o Aeyei. TO.VTO. oe 
avTov Aeyoj/roy, eyez/ero i>e0eA?; 
Kai eTrea-Kiacrev avrouy tyoft-fj- 
0i}(rav 8e ev raJ e/cet'z/ouy etcreA- 
els TVJV ve(f)eXr)v. 35 KCU 

eyez/ero e/c rr)s 


him. And it came to pass, "as 33 
they were departing from him, 
Peter said to Jesus, Master, it 
is good for us *to remain here ; 
and let us make three ^booths ; 
one for thee, and s one for Moses, 
and one for Elijah : not know- 
ing what he said. "And while 34 
b he was saying this, there came 
a cloud and overshadowed 
them : and they feared as c those 
men entered into the cloud. 
And d a voice came out of the 35 

w " as they were departing ; " iv rrjJ Staxca^sa&ai. avrovs. 
Scarlett, Penn, Dick., Sawyer. The participial construction is 
employed by Norton, Thomson, Wesley. This verb occurs only 
in this instance, in the N. Test. Bretschneider : " Medium : se- 
paro me, separo me ab alio, discedo." Sept., Gen. 13 : 9, Sia^co- 
Qla&rpi aif avrov. Ibidem w. 11, 14. Ecclus. 6 : 13. 

1 " to remain ; " elvcu. Bretsch. (in verbo) : "Maneo, Act. 
17 : 28, iauev, manemus in vita, versor, commoror." Matt. 2 : 15, 
xai r t v ixeZ Seas Tys fslevr^s 'HgcoSov. Matt. 17 : 4. Bloomf. 
(N. Test.) on Matt. 17 : 4. The verb is used here in the sense 
of abiding, remaining, or residing, as the adjuncts plainly show. 
Scarlett, Wakef., " to continue ; " Camp., " to stay ; " Dick., 
" that we remain." Kuincel (in parallel, Matt. 17 : 4) : "Knfav 
lanv caSs elvcu, placet, juvat nos hie remanere, elvat id. quod. 
fiivuv, manere, commorari, nam alexandrini verbum aiai non 
modo verbum ftevetv, Gen. 24 : 55, sed etiam slvat, Jos. 24 : 7. 
Ezech. 3 : 15." 

' "booths;" axrjvas. Thorn., G. and A. Camp., Murdock. 
Luther and De Wette, " Hiitten.". Iber., "pabellones." Kuincel 
(on Matt. 17 : 4) : "2ia;vij est tentorinm e frondibus arborum, 
qualia Judaei festo tabernaculatorum flgere solebant." Bloomf. 
on Matt. 17 : 4 : " Booths composed of branches of trees, such 
as were hastily raised for temporary purposes by travelers, and 
such as were raised at the feast of tabernacles." "Booths" 
occurs in (E. V.) Gen. 33 : 17. Levit. 23 : 42, 43. Neh. 8 : 14, 
16. In all these cases, the Sept. has oxyvfj. Eob. :" Booths, as 
built of green boughs and the like, a booth," The anglicized 
Latin word " tabernacle " is inaccurate, as that was restricted to 
a movable shelter composed of skins. Hence the phrase " sub 
pellibus " in tents. The English " tent," as indicating a similar 
shelter composed of cloth, fails to give the proper sense of OXT^, 
which is entirely equivalent to the Heb. nss. Heb. N. Test., 
nfeo. Syr., ^ySSjjje (ab ^ " to shade, overshadow "). 

" " one for Moses." Instead of the reading of Text. Eecept., 
Afmaei ftiav, Griesbach, Lachmann, Tischendorf, Enapp, Theile, 
Scholz have uiav Mcoact. Schott says : " Ordinem inversum 
wictoritate cdd. plurimorum (12 unc.) rerss., Pesch. Philox., 

Pers. Memph., Arm., Goth., Slav., Tulg., Ital. exhibuiiaus cum 
Griesb. aliisque." This rendering justifies the order of the words 
in the E. V., and shows that a change (" one for Moses ") should 
not be made, as the Text. Kecept. of Bagster is erroneous. Con- 
trary to what is usual in Bagster, there are no marks (" ") em- 
ployed to indicate this incorrect reading. 

* "And ; " Se. Sharpe, Penn, Sawyer. G. and S. Fr., " Et. 
Iber. and Span., " I." Ital., " E." 

b " he was saying this ; " ravta avrov Uyovroe. Kendrick. 
Tavra is often used to indicate the singular, though its farm is 
plural. See eh. 5 : 27, note. Sawyer has " this." Scarlett, 
Norton, "Wakef., Angus, Thelwall have employed the progressive 
form, " he was speaking." The above rendering is deemed 
equally exact with that of the E. V., while it is more in accord- 
ance with present usage. Heb. N. Test, njsx-nx la'ro IS?)*. 
Vulg., Mont., Eras., " hsec illo loquente ; " Beza, " haec ipso 
dicente ; " Castalio, " hsec eo loquente ; " Schott, " hsec dum dice- 
bat ; " Iber., " estando el diciendo esto." 

"those men;'" Ixeivovs. Norton, Dick., Scarlett ("these 
men"). This pronoun is antithetic to avrove, and refers to 
Moses and Elijah, avSgss Svo, v. 30. To bring out the thought, 
and harmonize the phraseology to our MSMS loquendi, the supple- 
ment " men " is inserted. The language of the E. V. is ambigu- 
ous. Trollope (Analecta, in loco) remarks: "In v. 34, some 
understand the pronouns avrovs and ixeivovs of the same persons ; 
but the former is more properly referred to the apostles, and the 
latter to Moses and Elias. Campbell [Le Clerc], M., "those ;" 
S. Fr., " ceux-la ; " Iber., " aquellos ; " De Wette, " jene." The 
passage is thus rendered by Schott : " Hsec dum dicebat nubes 
exstitit et illos (tres) obumbravit; metuebant autem (discipuli) 
quum illi nubem ingrederentur." " While he was saying this, 
there was a cloud which overshadowed the three (i. e., Christ, 
Moses, and Elijah), and they (the disciples) were afraid, when 
those (Christ, Moses, and Elijah) entered the cloud. Bengel {in 
loco) : " 'Exeivovs ref. ad Mosen et Eliam." I deem the reference 
of this pronoun to Moses and Elijah alone, correct. 

A " a voice came out of ; " ycavri ly&veto Ix, Wakef., Scarlett, 
Penn. This is more concise than the rendering of the E. V. The 



of the cloud; saying, This is my 
beloved Son : hear him. 

36 And -when the voice was 
past, Jesus was found alone. And 
they kept it close, and told no 
man in those days any of those 
things which, they had seen. 

37 And it came to pass, that 
on the nest day, when they were 
come down from the hill, much 
people met him. 

38 And behold, a man of the 
company cried out, saying, Mas- 



Aeyovcra, OIJTOS e&Ttv o.vios JJLOV 
avrov aKovere* 
r< yevea~0a.L rrjv <<- 
6 'lT)(rovs fJLOVO$. 
Kai avToi eVty^cray, KCU 

iv e/cetVaty rat? 
ovSev a>v eoopaKacriv. 

S>^ " '#" ' ' 

oe ev TTJ egrjs r/fj.e- 
pa, KareXOovTcov O.VTCOV mrb TOV 
(rvvr)VTr)(rev aura) o^Xos 
38 Kcti ISov, avrjp mro 
TOV oj(Xov avefiorjcrc, Xiywv, Ai- 
crov, e 



cloud, saying, This is my be- 
loved Son : hear him. And 3D 
'when the voice had ceased, 
Jesus was found alone. And 
'they were silent, and told g no 
one in those days any of those 
things which they had seen. 
And it came to pass h the next 37 
day, 'as they came down from 
J the mountain, a great crowd 
met him. And behold, a man 38 
of the crowd l cried loudly, 
saying, 'Teacher, I beseech 

eupJionic adverb " there" is unnecessary in this instance. Some 
translators have preferred to render iyevsro by " was," on the 
ground, that its past tenses are often used as substitutes for the 
tenses which are wanting- in el/cl. Bob. (Lex., ytvofiai). In this 
case, however, if we say, " there was a voice," we are compelled 
by our idiom to render in rfjs veyelris, " from the cloud," instead 
of giving bt its proper force, " out of." rivoficu is often rendered 
in the E. V. by " come," not in the sense of ef>%o/tai., " to move," 
or " pass " in some direction, but , in that of coming into same 
condition, to becoming, = fieri. Bob. (Lex.), " to begin to be, 
come into existence, i. q., to arise, etc." 

c " when the voice had ceased ; " lv r$ yevea&at. TTJV tptavrjv. 
Bloomf. (N. Test.). The aorist here by a usage common in nar- 
ration (Buttmann, 137, 3) has the force of the pluperfect. 
Giving the verb the signification which it has in v. 34, we might 
say, " when the voice had come." This, however, would not pre- 
sent the thought which is, that the voice " had taken place," or, 
according to our idiom, " had ceased," or, more freely, " after the 
voice had been heard." There is much diversity in the views of 
translators as to the proper rendering of the text here, not be- 
cause they differ as to the thought, which is obvious enough, but 
when that thought is to be clothed in words ; hoc opus, hiclabor est. 
Thorn., " at the time the voice was uttered ; " Scarlett, " while 
this -voice was uttering ; " Norton, Wakef., " after the voice ; " 
Camp., " while the voice was uttered ; " Sharpe, " when the voice 
came ;" Sawyer, " when the voice had passed ;" Kend., " as the 
voice came ; " M., " when the voice had come .- " S. Fr.. " pendant 
que la voix se fasait entendre ; " De Sacy, " pendant qu'on euten- 
dait cette voix ; " Iber., " despues de haber veuido ]a voz ; " Ital., 
" mentre la voce si faceva udire ; " De Wette, " iudem die Stimme 
erscholl ; " Belg., " als de stenran geschiedde." 

' " they were silent ; " afoot eolyr/oav. Thomson, Scarlett, 
Dick. Liddell remarks on this word : " The distinction that 
at)'Sv is properly intransitive, like the Latin silere, (and) aioj-aav 
properly transitive, to keep secret, Lat. tacere, may have been 
originally correct, but was little observed ; for we find oiynv cum 
acens. rei, Herodot 7 : 104; Pindari Frag.; ^Bsehyl. Prome- 

theus, 106, 441 ; Sophocles, etc., and the passive, to be passed over 
in silence, taceri, is very common, etc." 

E "no one;" ovSevl. Thorn., Scarlett, Norton, Wakefield, 
Penn, Sharpe, Dick., Kend., Thelwall, M. De "Wette, "nie- 
mandem ; " Iber., " a nadie." See ch. 9 : 21, note. 

h " the next day ; " iv rjj tt-rjstifctya. The preposition " on" 
is omitted in conformity with our usws hquendi. So Scarlett, 
Wesley, Norton, Wakef., Camp. If " on "is dropped, the supple- 
ment "that" (inserted in the E. V., but not italicized) should 
share its fate. Both are superfluous. They lengthen the sentence 
without adding any thing to its force, perspicuity, or harmony. 

1 " as." Thomson, Scarlett, Wesley, Norton, Sharpe, Dick., 

' " the mountain ; " tov oyovs. So parallels (E. V.) Mark 
9 : 9. Matt. 17 : 9. See v. 28 of this chapter, note. Scarlett, 
Wesley, Norton, Wakef., Camp., Sharpe, Penn, Dick, Kendrick, 
Angus, Thelwall, M., Sawyer. Vulg., Mont., Erasmus, Castalio, 
Schott, " de monte ; " Beza, " e monte." Syriac, | j^. Heb. 
N. Test., inrt. Belg., "berg;" De Wette, "Berge;" S. Fr., 
" la montagne ; " Iberian, " del monte ; " Diodati, " dal monte ; " 
Dan., "Bierget." "Hill" was copied from,Wiclif, by Tyndale 
and Cranmer. The Genevan correctly rendered " mountain," but 
" the forty-five " went back to Wiclif. See ch. 4 : 29, note. 

k " cried loudly ; " di's/Sdqae. This verb signifies ' to utter a 
loud cry, to shout." Liddell, " vociferor." Bretsch. It should 
be distinguished from y.$a,io, which is usually rendered in the 
N. Test. " to cry out," or sometimes simply " to cry." Mont., 
Beza, Eras., Schott, " exclamavit." Syr., \o. In the Sept., this 
verb is the equivalent of pyt Ezek. 11 : 13. Zech. 6 : 8. 2 Kings 
4 : 40. Josephus, Antiq. IX, 1, 2, n,s itgoyTiTrjs yrafsi&cov tls 

orjv ?tjv EXXJ.Tjolav avafioTioe tta TS Tthff-d'et TW fiaffd.eZ. 

i " Teacher ; " 4iSaxu).e. See ch. 2 : 46, note. See Eob. 
Bretsch., "Qui docet, monet alias doctor, munus 'docendi habens. 
Ka-c igoyijv autem ita appellabantuv ii, qui discipulos collige- 
bant, et scholam erudiendorum regebant, magistri adjuncta no- 
tione auctoritatis, qua de causa et simul xvgioi dicebantnr, vide 




ter, I beseech thee look upon my 
son : for he is mine only child. 

39 And lo, a spirit taketh him, 
and he suddenly crieth out ; and 
it teareth him that he foameth 
again, and bruising him, hardly 
departeth from him. 

40 And I besought thy disci- 
ples to cast him out, and they, 
could not. 

41 And Jesus answering said, 
faithless and perverse genera- 
tion, how long shall I be with 


eVt TOV vlov JJ.OV, OTI 

>/ 39^'S*^ 


KCU e 

KCU, OTra/jacnrei avrov 
fj.Ta oKppov, KCU poyis d-jro'xcope'i 
O.TT avrov, arvvTpiftov avrov. 
40 /cat lSer/0r)i> r5>v /u.adrjTaiv crov, 
iVa e/c/SaAAcocrtj' avro, KOL OVK 

6 'Iri&ovs eiTrez/, 

(TTOf KCU 8i(TTpafJ.p.Vrj, eW TTOTf 

' yevea a,7rt- 



thee m to look on my son, for he 
is mine only child. And "be- 39 
hold, a spirit "seizeth him, and 
he suddenly crieth out, and it 
pconvulseth him 'so that he 
foameth, and bruising him, 
hardly departeth from him. 
And I besought thy disciples 40 
to cast him out, and they could 
not. And Jesus, answering, 41 
said, 'unbelieving and 'per- 
verted generation, how long 
shall I be with you, and 'bear 

Jo. 13 : 13, 14. Hoc sensu 8i.SaaxaJ.os convenit Hebraico Rabbi 
Jo. 1 : 39. Ssepius ita appellatur Jesus, non solum ubi discipuli 
sed etiam ubi Juckei euro adloquentur, Matt. 8 : 19. Marc. 4 : 38 
et passim." Thomson, Scarlett, Norton, Wakef., Sharpe,.Camp. 
Kendrick, Thelwall, Sawyer, M. Beza, " Preceptor ; " Sehott 
" Doctor ; " De Wette, " Lehrer ; " S. Tr., " Doctenr." In this 
Bevision, the rendering is uniformly " Teacher." 

m " to look." The reading of the Text. Recept, 
is rejected by nearly all the critical Editors, as Griesbach, Knapp, 
Tischendorf, Theile, Titttnann. These Editors have substituted 
tnipteyai in its place. Still they differ in the accentuation of 
this word. Thus Griesb., Knapp, Tittm. (Leips. 1831), Tischend., 
Scholz have entpfayai (1st aorist imperat. midd.), while, on the 
other Land, Theile, Bloomf., and Sehott adopt InipHycu (1st aor. 
infin. active). The verb occurs in the N. Test, only three times, 
Luke 1 : 48, biifl).eyer (1st aor. ind. act.) ; James 2 : 3, 
yrfie (1st aor. subj. act.), and in the passage before us. The 
probability is, that the correct reading is Inmieijiai (infinitive). 
Meyer says that Eicipleyai (1st aor. imperative) does not occur. 
Sehott has the following note : " Lectio eiti/iUyai (sic enim, si 
hsec lectio in cdd. permultis, 9 unc. expressa cum Griesb. aliisque 
praeferatur, accenta instruenda est, ut hie infinitivus act. aor. a 
vb. Seouat pendeat, non enipfawat, quaj forma esset imper. med. 
hominis praecibus Jesum implorantis minus accommodata quam 
Vulgata btiphyov." The verb is rendered as an infinitive (" to 
look") by Norton, Sharpe, Dick., Sawyer. De Wette, "anzu- 

* " behold ; " iSoi,. See ch. 1 : 44, note. 

" seizeth ; " lafi^avei. See ch. 5 : 26, and 7 : 16, notes. So 
Thorn., Scarlett, Norton, "Wakef., Camp., Dick., Penn, Angus, 
Thelwall. Beza, " arripit ; " Castalio and Sehott, " corripuit ; " 
De Wette, " es ergreift ein Geist ; " G. and S. Pr., " saissit." 
Heb. N. Test., nmx. 

p " convulseth ; " aitagaoaet. Thorn., Scarlett, Norton, Dick., 
Kend., Angus, M., Sawyer. Sehott, " distorquet." Kuinosl (on 
Mark 1 : 26) : "Kcu oitagal-av avrov cum corpus hominis con- 
torsisset. Verbum oitaqaaoetv non tantum adhibetur de belluis j 

corpora immaniter lacerantibus, ita ut sit, lacerare, discerpere 
sed interdum etiam notat, vekementer concutere, commovere, respon- 
det Hebr. fiart, quod Grseco verbo oitagaoaeiv explicuerunt 
alexandrini. Jer. 4 : 19." The following extract from the note 
on the Revision of Mark 1 : 26, is quoted as apposite : " The verb 
literally signifies ' to tear, or lacerate,' but here, and Luke 9 : 39, 
' to throw into violent convulsions, or spasms,' such as accompany 
epilepsy, which are sometimes called ana^ay/tol, though usually 
anaofiol by the Greek medical writers. See Bloomfield (N. T., 
in loco). Bretsch., ' distorqueo, concutio. In N. T. non nisi de 
ffigrotis, quorum membra a genio malo vehementer distorqueban- 
tur.' Rob., ' in N. T., to convulse, to throw into spasms.' ' The 
root of the verb anaco is used by medical writers to signify caus- 
sing convulsion or spasm, and in the passive, to be convulsed,' Lid- 
dell. The literal sense, to rend, is inconsistent with the parallel 
narrative, Luke 4 : 33-36, y.di $iyav avrov TO Saifiovtov els fte- 
aov, i!;jj),&v aif avroii, fttjdev pkayav avtov ' he came out of 
him and hurt him not.' " 

i " so that." Norton, Camp., Penn, M. Our usus loquendi 
demands " so that," instead of " that." 

' " unbelieving ; " amaros. Norton, Sharpe, Penn, Murdock. 
So (E. V.) 1 Cor. 7 : 14 (bis), 15. Titus 1 : 15. Rev. 21 : 8. 
Belg., " ongeloovig ; " De Wette, " unglaubiges." "Faithless" 
is ambiguous, as it signifies unworthy of confidence, treacherous, 
as well as destitute of faith. 

' " perverted ; " Sieinoafifj.^. Rob. (Lex., in verbo) : " Pass. 
perf. part., perverted." The participial construction is exact. 
The people were led astray by their blind guides, or, in other 
words, turned aside, perverted from " the good and right way." 
Compare Acts 13 : 10, ov Ttavarj Staar^eycov ras oSovs XVQIOV 
TUS ev&eias; 

t " bear with ; " avet-o/uat. Kend., Pechy (on parallel avego- 
i, Mark 9 : 19), Scarlett, Norton, Angus, M. Rob. (Lex., 
in verbo), " to bear with, have patience with the errors and weak- 
nesses of others." Kuinosl (on parallel, Matt. 17 :17) : "Ecos 
ito-ce avegoftai vftcav ; quousque vos, mores vestros pravos perfe- 
ram? 'ivs^sad'ai ra>a, patienter ferre alicujus contumaeiam, 




you, and suffer you? Bring thy 
son hither. 

42 And as he was yet a com- 
ing, the devil threw him down, 
and tare him. And Jesus rebuk- 
ed the unclean spirit, and healed 
the child, and delivered him again 
to his father. 

43 And they were all amazed 
at the mighty power of God. But 
while they wondered every one at 
all things which Jesus did, he said 
unto his disciples, 


/ Trpotrdyaye code TOV vlov 
(Tov. jETi de 7rpoo~epYp/jievov 
avTov, epptj^ev O.VTOV TO Sai/j.6- 
viov KCU (rvveo-irdpa.ev 
fj.ijo'e de o 'lyo-ov? TCO 
T<2> a.KadapTa>) Kal 

Kal aTreScoKev avTov rco 


la.cra.TO TOV 

8e TrdvTes em 


8f OaVfJiO.' 

eVi Trao~iv ois eiroiijo'ev 6 
, e'nre irpos TOVS fj-adr/Tas 


with you ? "Lead thy son hither. 
And T while he was coming near, 42 
the demon "dashed him down, 
and ^violently convulsed him. 
And Jesus rebuked the unclean 
spirit, and healed the child, and 
^delivered Mm to his father. 
And they "were all astonished 43 
at the mighty power of God. 
But 'while all were wondering 
b at every thing which Jesus 
did, he said to his disciples; 

Hebr., Isa. 46 : 4, VsbX &'&:* Isa. 1 : 14, K1B5." Heb N. Test., 

" " Lead ; " n^oo&yays. Rob. (Lex., itgooayto, and in loco).. 
" to lead, or conduct to any one." Bretscb. : " LXS. pro ifan, el 
sjepissime pro \a53 et a'lp in Kal et Hiphil. 1. transitive adduce. 
Luke 9 : 41, X3tt." Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, Castalio, Schott, 
" adduc." In the parallels, Matt. 17 : 17, and Mark 9 : 19, the 
verb is yfyete, properly rendered " bring," in the E. V. Here. 
however, the radical signification of itgooayays is presented by 
using " lead." As an alternative, " lead to me." This rendering 
retains the force of TC^OS. Diodati, " Mena." 

T "And while he was coming ;" "En e Tcoooegxofilvov. Scar- 
lett, Norton, Penn, "Wakef. Should ngos be regarded as modi- 
fying the signification of the verb, its force may be expressed 
thus, " while he was coming to kirn," or, more concisely, " coming 
near." Many cases occur in the Septuagint and N. Test, where 
the signification of the verb, compounded with a preposition, is 
obviously the same with that of the simple form. 

w " dashed down ; " I^^lej/. Thomson, Camp., "Wakefield 
(" dashed to the ground "), Kend. (parallel, Mark 9 : 18, ffioo 
"dashed to the ground"). Heb. N. Test., si.'tisa'ntrn. Beza, 
" alKsit." Kuinoel (Mark 9 : 18) : " Significat, grjaaetv, solo alli- 
dere, in terram dejicere. Alexandri Judsei hoc verbo expresse- 
runt Hebr. isa; Jer. 23 : 33, 39. Isa. 33 : 23, sed Ez. 29 : 5 ; 
31 : 22, hoc idem verbum iidem interpretes reddiderunt y.ara- 
/Ja/Uew/, et Amos 5. : 6, ayallsiv ln\ yijs. Hesychius, $iiar 
xcrzaflaleZv. Idem ^f e 1 y.arej3at.e. Artemidor. 1 : 62 (60), $ij- 
|t TOV avriita),ov, de luctatore adversarium humi prosternente. 
Id., V. 78, de lagena ; ^rj^at ts y.arsd^et to xegafiiov, in ter- 
ram dejicere et confringere lagenam." Rob. (Lex., in verbo) : 
" To dash to the ground, as a demon one possessed." Euthymius 
(quoted by Fritzsche), TO pev ovv Qrjoati avrl rov y.ccie^aUei. 
tis ytjv. Bloomf. (N. Test., Mark 9 : 18) : " The true sense is 
that of the ancient versions and commentators, and most modern 
ones, " dashes him on the ground." " To dash down " will express 
the sense of the verb most concisely and accurately. Wisd. 4:19, 
ott i7 aiirovs aycovovs itgyveTg, " he shall dash them dowil- 
headlong aiid speechless." 

" violently convulsed ; " ovveana^ev. See v. 39, note on 
The preposition ovv is intensive, in composition with 
the verb. Bloomfield (N. Test.). Rob. (Lex., in verbo) : "In 
N. Test, intens., to convulse together, to ihrmo into strong spasms." 
Bretsch. : " Totun, i. e. vehementer distorqueo, Luc. 9 : 42." This 
verb should be distinguished from the simple form ajca/aaaaco, 
v. 39 (Mark 9 : 26, arta$aav, part.) by the use of the adverb 
" violently." Schott, " vehementer distorsit ; " De "Wette, schut- 
telte ihn hin und'her ; " De Sacy, "1'agita par de grandes convul- 

delivered ; " ansScoxEv. Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva, Thorn., 
Norton, Camp., "Wakef., Murdock; M. "Again " should not be 
used here with " deliver." The etymology of the Greek verb, 
aab SlSofii (to give from), shows that " deliver," "give back," 
or " restore," are its equivalents. Heb. N. Test., sinai-il. Tulg., 
Mont., Eras., Beza, Castal., " reddidit ; " Belg., " gaf weder ; '> 
De Wette, " gab wieder ; " Dan., " gav ^igien ; " S. Fr., " ren- 
dit ; " Iber. and Span., " volvio ; " Diodati, " rende." 

were astonished ; " sjentyaamvo. So (E. V.) Matt. 7 : 28 ; 
13 : 54 ; 22 : 33. Mark 1 : 22 ; 6 : 2 ; 7 : 37 ; 10 : 26 ; 11 : 18. 
Luke 4 : 32, etc. Norton, Sawyer. Rob. (Lex., in verbo) : " In 
N. Test, only passive, to be struck with astonishment, admiration, 
etc., i. q., to be astonished, etc." 

1 " while all were wondering ; " Ttavraiv &a.vfia6vriov. Scar- 
lett, Norton, M., Penn, "Wakef. ("while they were all wondering"). 
So Gray (note on Angus) and Kendrick. Iber., "maravillandose 
todos." The progressive form of the Eng. verb is most appropri- 
ate. As we can imitate the conciseness of the Greek, without 
any violation of our idiom, it is unnecessary to introduce " they," 
in this sentence. 

" at every thing which ; " In't jraaw ois. Kend., Camp., M. 
The more literal rendering, " at all things which," does not exhibit 
the thought with any greater accuracy, while it presents an asso- 
nance, which our usus loquendi forbids, " all were wondering at 
all things which." This note may be placed in the margin : " Gr. 
at all things." 




44 Let these sayings sink down 
into your ears : for the Sou of 
man shall be delivered into the 
hands of men. 

45 But they understood not this 
saying, and it -was hid from them, 
that they perceived it not : and 
they feared to ask hinf of that 

46 Then there arose a reason- 


3 * 44 r\* /\ * ~ ' \ 9 

avTOv, krecroe vfteip eif TO. cora 


ja.p ulos TOV avOpcairov fj.eXAei 
7rapa8t$oa~0cu eiy ^etpay avOpdt- 

45 /"< !> x ' ' \ r 

TTCDV. Ui be -rjyvoovv TO p 

TOVTO, KCLLIJV Trapa.KKaXviJi:p.evov 
car avrSiv, iva [jur) alcr6coi>Tai 
ai>TO' KOI e(/)oj3ovvro epwTTJcrat 
O.VTOV Trepi TOV pr}/j.a.TO$ TOVTOV. 
46 Jicrr/\0 fie 8iaXo-yicr/j.of eV 


Let these 'words sink down 44 
into your ears ; for the Son of 
man d is about to be delivered 
up into the hands of men. But 45 
e they did not understand this 
saying, and it f was hidden from 
them, e so that they did not per- 
ceive it, and they feared to ask 
him ""concerning 'this saying. 
'And there arose k a dispute 46 

" words ; " loyove. Kend., Norton, Camp., Penn, Dick. 
Wakef., Sawyer, Angus, M. In this passage, Uyo-vs refers to 
the following sentence, o vibs TOV avd-gconov fiiUei x. i. I 
Bloomf. (N. Test., in loco), after remarking that most recent com 
mentators suppose ).6yove refers to the commendations bestowec 
on Jesus by the multitude who had witnessed his miracles, says 
"The expression, however, is not TO. ffi/taTa, but rove koyovs 
And no such words have occurred in the preceding context ; am 
to suppose them implied in l^eniriaaovto and &avfiat,6vrcov 
would be extremely harsh. Hence it is better to suppose TOVS 
idyovs to mean the words just about to be said. Thus the ya$ 
will here, as often, serve for explanation, and have the sense 
nempe, namely that." The thought is well expressed by Wakef. 
" Let the words which I am speaking, sink down into your ears ; 
for the Son of man," etc. 

d " is about to be delivered up ; " (itttni. TtaoaSLSoad-ai. 
Wakef., Sharps, Kend., Thorn., Scarlett, Norton, Penn, M., 
Angus, Sawyer. See Luke 7 : 2, note on petta. As to the 
rendering of TtagaSiSoa&ai, the following extract from a note in 
the Revision of Mark 1 : 14, is in point : " Was delivered up ; 
TO nafn$o&-r?vai. Sharpe, Pechy, Q., "Wakefield. This verb 
signifies to deliver up, give over to any one. The object for which 
the act is performed must be ascertained from other words ex- 
pressed or understood. Should it be necessary to indicate more 
than the verb implies, the ellipsis must be filled by a supplement. 
See Eob. on naoaSiSofii. De Wette, ' uberliefert war ; ' Belg., 
' overgeleverd was ; ' S. Fr., ' eut ete livre ; ' Iber., ' despues de 
ser entf egado ; ' Vulg., < traditus est ; ' Beza, ' traditus fuit.' The 
verb is rendered as above in (E. V.) Matt. 10 : 17, 19, 21 ; 24 : 9. 
Mark 13 : 9, 11. Luke 21 : 12. Rom. 8 : 32. 1 Cor. 15 : 24." 
e " they did not understand ; " ol tyvoow. "Wakef., Dick. 
By the insertion of " did," the language is made to accord with 
present usage, and is rendered more harmonious. This construc- 
tion is adopted by Norton, " they did not know," and Thomson, 
" they did not comprehend." 

f " was hidden ; " ^v ma$axexal.v{ip.lvov. This form of the 
participle (from " to hide ") is adopted as more euphonous than 
" hid." So Norton, Penn, Wakef., Kend. 

6 " so that they did not perceive j " Iva fir; aiad-tavrai. Nor- 
ton. In this rendering, iva is regarded as. ecbatic in which case 
it merely indicates the event or result of the action, and has the i 

force of MOTE, adeo ut, " so that," " so as that." See Eob. (Lex.), 
Bloomf. (N. Test., in loco). Aia&dvo/tat (mid. dep.) has the 
primary signification Jo perceive, apprehend, or notice by the 
external senses, tropically, to perceive mentally, understand. Lid- 
dell. The verb, in this instance, is rendered by the Eng. imperf. 
indicative. "Wesley ("so that they perceived it not"), Wakef., 
Kendrick, Sharpe, "Wiclif, Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva, Bheims. 
'Iva. is rendered " to that," by Thelwall, Sharpe. If iva is re- 
garded as telic, then the appropriate rendering would be, "in 
order that they might not perceive." De Wette, " auf dass sie 
nicht fasseten ; " S. Fr., " afin qu'ils ne la sentisseut pas." Bloomf. 
(N. Test.) : " The best commentators are agreed that iva is used 
for COOTS, adeo ut, inasmuch that; the sense being, 'And it was 
hidden (i. e. obscure to them, so that they did not understand it).' " 
Kuincel: "Verba Christi iis obscure eraut, non videbant, quo- 
modo prsedictionem hanc componerent cum prseconceptis opiuio- 
nibus, quas de Messia ejusque dignitate foverent." 

h "concerning;" iteyl (cum genit.). Kend., Camp., Penn, 
Sawyer, M., Thelwall. 

' " this ; " TOVTOV. Wesley, Wakef., Sharpe, Sawyer, Gray 
(on Angus), M. De Wette, " dieser ; " G. and S. Fr., cette." 

J "And ; " Se. Wesley, Campbell, Penn, Sawyer, Kendrick. 
Belg., "ende;" Luther, "auch;" S. Fr., "et;" Iber., "i;" 
Ital., " e." As Se is continuative here, " and " is'more appropri- 
ate than " then," which, as it is often an adverb of time, would be 

k " a dispute ; " S<,a).oyio/tbs. Eob. (Lex., in loco, 
], Wakef., Angus, M. Beza, " disceptatio." Penn and Dick., 
" a controversy ; " G. Fr., " ils entrerent in dispute." Compare 
Mark 9 : 33, 34, Tl ev ifj 6Sca nfos cavrovg Stef.oyt&a&s ; E. V., 
What was it that ye disputed among yourselves by the way ? " 
fos aUftovs ya$ Ste^xd-rjaav Iv ifi oSf?, ris fieicoi>, "For by 
the way they had disputed among themselves who should be the 
greatest." 4iaAoyco/ibs is rendered by " dispute" (E. V.), Phil. 
: 14 ; " disputation," Bom. 14 : 1. So it should be in 1 Tim. 2 : 8, 
where the E. V. has " doubting." From the parallel, Mark 9 : 33, 
and the narration of Matt. 18 : 1, it seems quite probable that a 
liscussion as to superiority occurred among the apostles. The last 
cited passage presents an affecting rebuke of their ambitious 
pint, and is worthy of " everlasting remembrance." 






TO, TLS av f'lrj jueto>z> av* 

47 o * r ** '^^ x 

o oe Irjcrov? ioa>v TOV 
8ia\o'yio-/jiov TTJS Kapdias avrcov, 




, "Os iav 


/cat eiirev 

iraio'iov eVt TCO 6v6fjLa.Tt. JJLOV, ejj.e 

ing among them, which of them 
should be greatest. 

47 And Jesus perceiving the 
thought of their heart, took a 
child, and set him by him, 

48 And said unto them, "Who- 
soever shall receive this child in 
my name, receiveth me ; and who- 
soever shall receive .me. receiveth 
him that sent me : for he that is 
least among you all, the same 

shall be great. j^ jg^^ e * Soft fr TLVa 

49 And John answered and tVi T cj> 6z/6>art' aov e'/c/SaAAo^ra 
said, Master, we saw one casting Ta Saipwia- /cat e'/oAuW/xei/ 
out devils in thy name ; and we 

/cat o? eav /j.e 
TOV aTrocrre/AaiTa p,. b 
yap fUKpoTepos tv 7rao-iv 

OVTOS 0~Tai 

8e b 

49 ' 

forbade him, because he followeth 
not with us. 

50 And Jesus said unto him, 
Forbid him not : for he that is 
not against us, is for us. 

51 And it came to pass, when 
the time was come that he should 

O.VTOV, OTI OVK aKoAovdei 




b 'Irjcrovs, Mr] /oaAuere' oy 'yap 
OVK ecrTi Kaff fjp.av, inrep 

51 'EFENETO Se i v 

ray ?;/ie/jay Tr]s 
aurov, Kat auro? TO 


among them, "which of them 
would be greatest. And Jesus, 47 
perceiving the thought of their 
heart, took n a little child, and 
set "it by him, and said to them, 48 
Whoever shall receive this "lit- 
tle child in my name, receiveth 
me, and whoever receiveth me, 
receiveth him that sent me ; for 
he who is -least among you all, 
?he shall be great. And John, 49 
answering, said, Master, we saw 
one casting out "the demons in 
thy name ; and we forbade him, 
because he followeth not wi th us. 
And Jesus said to him, Forbid 50 
him not; for he that is not 
against us, is for us. And it 51 
came to pass q when the time for 
his being taken up had come, 

' " which of them would be greatest ; " tie &v iiri fi^cav av- 
rtSv. Present usage demands " would," as the auxiliary, rather 
than " should." 

m " a little child ;" naiSiov. Genevan, Thorn., "Wesley, Dick., 
"Wakef., Sawyer. Beza, " puerulum ; " Goschen, " pusionem ; " 
Belg., " kindeken ; " G. and S. Fr., " un petit enfant ; " Ital., " un 
pieciol fanciullo." So (parallels) Matt. 18 : 2, 3, 4, 5 ; 19 : 13. 
Mark 10 : 14, 15. 1 John 2 : 13. Bob. (Les.) : "A little child, 
cither male, or female." Compare ch. 18 : 16, with 18 : 15. 

* " it ; " avrb. "Wakef., Penn, Sharpe, Sawyer, Angus, M. 
So Kend. and Pechy in the parallel, Mark 9 : 36 (avro). Our 
idiom agrees with that of the Greek. "We use the neuter pro- 
noun " it," where we do not indicate the sex of a child. 

" little child ; " itaidiov. So in the parallel (E. V.) Matt. 
18 : 3. Genevan, "Wakef., Scarlett, Sawyer. Beza, " puerulum ; " 
Goschen, "pusionem ;" Belg., "kindeken ;" G. and S. Fr., "petit 
enfant ; " Ital., " pieciol fanciullo ; " Dan., " lidet Barn." See 
v. 47, note. 

P " he ; " ovros. Thorn., Sharpe, Sawyer. So often in E. V., 
as Luke 1 : 32 ; 20 : 28. 

PP " the ; " ?a. See ch. 9 : 1, note. 

" when the time for his being taken up had come ; " Iv -to? 
ovfmkijgova&at ras fjfiegas -tys avairjijjscas avrov. This render- 
ing is adopted as holding the proper medium between one so 
literal as to violate the propriety of our language, and another so 

free as to involve a departure from that simplicity of style, which 
forms a marked feature in the E. V. In favor of the correctness 
of the phrase " his being taken up," it may be remarked that we 
have no single word which corresponds accurately with avaAqyis. 
" Eeception," " withdrawing," and " ascension," instead of being 
its equivalents, are. mere approximates. Bob. (Lex.) defines it " a 
taking up into heaven." On referring to Mark 16 : 19, we find 
the cognate verb applied to the act denoted by this noun ; avt- 
irjy&Tj els tov ovqavbv, " he was taken up into heaven." 
KUUKE! : "Qvalrfyis proprie significat elationem ad locum supcn'o- 
rem, et avalafipaveo&ai proprie est sursum ferri; hoc vero 
idem verbum in N. T. libris saepius adhibitum legitur de Christi 
ex his term abitu et reditu ad Patrem, de ascensione ipsius in 
Cffilum ; vide Act. 1 : 11, 22. Marc. 16 : 19. 1 Tim. 3 : 16, de 
Elia in cesium translate extat Sir. 48 : 9 (o ara}j]y&els if iai- 
1,0.711 nvfos lv a^fiaii imtair itvqlvcov). 2 Kegg. 2 : 11 (xai 
a.vak-ii<p\h] 'HHov Iv ovaaecofiip tog els lov ov(>av6v),~ ubi He- 
braico verbo hbs> respondet. Etiam h. 1. avdhiyis significat : 
Christi ex his te'rris abitum et reditum ejus ad patrem in ccelum." 
So dvcda/ifidvco is simply in its radical sense "to take up." 
" Had come " is used instead of " was come " on the ground that 
" have " is the proper auxiliary, with intransitive verbs, instead 
of " be." See ch. 2 : 15, and 4 : 34, notes. As an alternative 
rendering, " when the days for his being taken up were com- 




be received up, he steadfastly set 
his face to go to Jerusalem, 

52 And sent messengers before 
his face : and they went and en- 
tered into a village of the Samari- 
tans, to make ready for him. 

53 And they did not receive 
him, because his face was as 
though he would go to Jerusalem. 

54 And when his disciples 
James and John saw this, they 
said, Lord, wilt thou that we 
command fire to come down from 
heaven, and consume them, even 
as Elias did ? 

55 But he turned, and rebuked 
them, and said, Ye know not what 
manner of spirit ye are of. 

56 For the Son of man is not 


avTov ecTTijpif^e rod 
TTOpeveo-0ai els 'lepovo-aXr/fj.. 
52 KOL a-rrea-reiXev ayyeXov? irpo 
Trpoo-coTTtiv .avrov' /cat iropevdev- 
rey elo~rjX8oi> ety 

petTatv, cacrre erotfj,acrai cuvrw. 

53 \ > e* /*- N tt 

/cat JOVK. eoe^avTo avrov, on 
TO irpoo~a)Trov avrov i]v Tropevo- 
l^evov elf *Iepovo~aXr)iJL. 5i IBov- 
rey 8e ol fj.adrjTa.1 avrov '/a/ca)/3oy 
/cat 'Ia>a.vvt)s elirov, ICvpie, (de- 
Xeis e'i7ra)fj.ej^l7rvp KaTafirjvai OTTO 
TOV ovpavov, -/cat avaXwaai au- 
roiif) toy /cat 'HXias eTrolrjae; 

55 VT JL v S^ ' ' ' 

2jTpa(pei$ oe eTreTifjLycreir av- 
TOIS, /cat elirev, OVK ot'Sare otou 

' ' ' ' ~ 56 < ^ 

ecrre u/^ety; o yap 


r he firmly set his face to go to 
Jerusalem. And 'he sent mes- 52 
sengers "before him ; and they 
went and entered into a village 
of the Samaritans, to make 
ready for him. And they did 53 
not receive him, because 'his 
face was turned w towards Jeru- 
salem. "And his disciples 54 
James and John seeing this, 
said, Lprd, wilt thou that we 
command fire to come down 
from heaven, and consume them, 
even as Elijah did ? But he 55 
turned and rebuked them, and 
said, ^Yeknownotof whatspirit 
ye are. For the Son of man 56 

' " lie firmly set ; " sorijoige. Sawyer. This verb occurs 
thirteen times in the N. Test., and is rendered in the E. V. by 
" to fix," " establish," " strengthen," and in the present instance, 
only, by " steadfastly set." As " steadfastly " is now obsolescent, 
" firmly " is adopted as its substitute. It is accurate, and more 

* In conformity with the punctuation of the text, a period is 
placed after "Jerusalem." So Kend., Norton. The punctuation 
of Griesb., Knapp, Theile, Tittm., Schott, Goschen, and Scholz 
agrees with Baxter's Text. Kecept. 

' " he sent ; " aitearetiev. Kend., M., Sawyer, Penn. The 
punctuation (see preceding note) requires that the nominative of 
the verb should be expressed. 

u " before him ; " jr^o n^oaeonov avrov. Tyndale, Cranmer, 
Geneva, Kend., Thorn., Norton, Scarlett, Dick., Wakef., M., 
Sawyer. The text presents a Hellenism, which, though intelligi- 
ble, is not in harmony with our idiom. Eob. (Lex., ngoocoztov) : 
" "With prepositions, and followed by a genitive of the person, it 
(nqoocaitov) forms, like the the Heb. ftijs, a periphrasis for a 
simple preposition." In other words, in the case before us, the 
literal phrase " before his face " has the same signification as " be- 
fore him." As the expression " he firmly set his face " occurs 
very near this sentence, our usus loquendi demands that " face " 
should not be repeated. Such a repetition strikes the ear as 
harsh and unnatural. When there is no repetition, a cliange 
from the literal rendering of the E. V. may not be necessary, 
though much might be said in its favor, as a matter of taste. It 
way be laid down as a general truth, that in ancient languages, 
especially those of the East, closely connected repetition of 
kindred or identical sounds was deemed as beauty, Iput it is far 
different with the English. Luther and De Wette, " vor sich ; " 

Dan., " for sig ; " G. and S. Fr., " devant lui ; " Iber., " delante 
de si ; " Diodati, " davanti a e ; " Ital., " innanzi a se ; " Castalio 
and Schott, " ante se." 

r " his face was turned ; " TO ttqoaeoitov rjv itogsvopevov 
(literally, "his face was going;" so Sharpe). Kend., M. Do 
Wette, "sein Angesicht gewandt war;" S. Fr., "sa face etait 
dirigee." But Scarlett and Dickinson, " his face was directed ; " 
Wakef., " he was going with his face turned." The E. T. Las 
copied Tyndale, who probably derived his rendering from Eras., 
" facies ejus erat euntis." The participle Ttoqevopevov not being 
in the genitive, but in the nominative, this rendering is inaccu- 
rate. But if we drop the Hebrew idiomatic expression, we can 
say, " he was going," as Norton and Sawyer. I submit this as 
an alternative rendering. Rob. (Lex.) remarks that nqoacoTtov, 
the face, is put for the presence, person of any one. So 2 Cor. 
1 : 11, ix KoU.cov nqoaconcov TO els y/ias %a(>iafia, E. V., " the 
gift bestowed upon us by means of many persons." See ftijs, Ge- 
senius's Lex. Bretsch. (nqoaionov) : "Ex hebraismo inservit 
periphrasi turn personarum quum rerum." 

v "towards;" els. Kend., M. Eob. (Lex., in verbo] : "After 
verbs implying direction upon, or towards any place, or object. 
See Acts 24 : 15, 16, sis iov Qeov jrpos TOV Gtov. 

1 "And his disciples seeing ; " ISovrcs Se ol fia-fri/rcti avrov. 
Kend., Wesley, Scarlett, Sawyer, Thelwall, M. S. Fr., " Et ses 
disciples 1'ayant vu." The adverb " when " is not necessary. 

i " ye know not of what spirit ye are ; " OVK otSars o'iov nvev- 
fiaTos eare vfi&s. Kend., Wakef., Campbell, M. The Textus 
Eeceptus points this passage as interrogative, " Do ye not know 
what spirit ye are?" So Griesbach, Knapp, Theile, Scholz, 
Schott. Translators, who have followed this punctuation, sup- 



come to destroy men's lives, but 
to save them. And .they went to 
another village. 

57 And it came to pass, that as 
they -went in the way, a certain 
man said unto him, Lord, I will 
follow thee whithersoever thou 

58 And Jesus said unto him, 
Foxes have holes, and birds of 
the air have nests ; but the Son 
of man hath not where to lay his 


tyv)(a$ di>0pa>Tro)v aTroAecrai, aA- 
Aa (rcocrcu. Kal Tropevdrjo~av 



avTotv i> rjj 6Sa>, eiTre'Ti? irpos 
OLVTOV, ' AKoXovdrjorco croi OTTOV 

* ' ' ' 58 -TT" ^ 

av carepxr), Kvpiz. K.O.L 
avT< o 'Irj&ovs, Al aAffl 
(fiaiXeovs Covert, KCU TO. 
TOV ovpavov KaTao-Kr/vcoo-eif 6 
8e vlos TOV avdpanrov OVK 



'came not to destroy men's 
lives, but to save them. And 
they went to another village. 
And it came to pass, a b as they 57 
were going "on the way, a cer- 
tain man said to him, Lord, I 
will follow thee d wherever thou 
goest. And Jesus said to him, 58 
"The foxes have holes, and the 
birds of the air have 'shelters : 
but the' Son of man hath not 
where to lay his head.. And 59 

pose that the sense is, Do ye not know of what spirit ye should 
be as my disciples? However, as there does not seem to be 
sufficient authority for taking lore in the sense of " ye ought to 
be," the view taken by all the early commentators, that the sen- 
tence is declarative, is deemed correct. Bloorofield (N. Test.) 
remarks: "It is no small objection to the interrogative mode, 
that not one of the ancient commentators so understood the 
words." In his " Supplemental Volume " he says : " I still, as 
formerly, prefer to assign to them (i. e., the words) a declarative 
sense, as having (with less of SewoTtjs, than the interrogative 
form) more of simplicity and earnest inculcation of a weighty 
truth, in setting before his hearers their want of self-knowledge, 
' ye know not by what spirit and disposition ye are actuated in 
saying this, and how much at variance with the spirit of the 
gospel of love promulgated by Him, who came not to destroy 
mens bodies, but to save their souls.' " 

' "came;" $5*. Kend., Scarlett, Wakef., Thelwall, M. 
The aorist should have its usual equivalent, the Engish imperfect. 

* " that " (in E. V.) is dropped as superfluous. So Norton, 
Wesley, Penn, Sharpe, Dick., Scarlett, Wakef., Camp., Sawyer, 
Kend., Thelwall, M. 

b " as they were going ; " itofevofiercov mnaiv. "Wakef., 
Penn, Kend., Angus, M. In Bagster's text, the comma is incor- 
rectly placed after aiirtov, instead of 6 Sep. The same error occurs 
in the Polymicrian. 

* " on the way ; " ei> rfj 6S(j>. Sharpe, Camp., Sawyer, Kend., 
M., Norton ("on their way"), Scarlett ("on the road"). This 
corresponds with our usus loquendi more nearly than "in the 

1 " wherever ; " oitov (with av). Liddell (in verbo) : "Wher- 
ever with the subjunctive." Bob. (Lex.). Norton, Sharpe, Dick., 
Kend., Sawyer, M. " Whithersoever " is obsolete. 

dd The article should be retained here, and in the next member 
of the sentence. 

" shelters ; " xonamajvwoets. Sawyer and Camp., " places 
of shelter." The appropriate equivalent of " nest " is voaaia. 
See Sept., Numb.. 24 : 21. Deut. 22 : 6 ; 32 :11. Kcnaoxrjviaois is 

defined by Bretsch. : "Locus commorationis, domicilium, liabitatio." 
In Sept., Ezek. 37 : 27, xdl coral 17 xaTaoxijvaiois ftov ev avrole 
is the rendering of bfi^S *HVn fTTrt, where it refers to the 
sacred tent, or tabernacle. Tobit 1 : 4, o vabs Tifsxaraoxrivea. 
asms, "the temple of the habitation." Liddell: "A place in 
which one takes up quarters." In classic writers, it is used for 
the act of pitching tents, encamping, taking up one's quarters. 
Bloomf. (in parallel, Matt. .8 : 20) remarks that the word does 
not signify nests, " but simply places of shelter, roosts, such as 
those where birds settle and perch." The verb Karaaxtjvota 
(Rob., Lex.) signifies " to fix dawn a tent, to pitch tent, to encamp. 
In N. Test, generally, to sojourn, to dwell, and, spoken of birds, 
to haunt. So Iv -cols xiaSois (Matt. 13 : 32) ; T iteieiva. 
xoxeaxfivcoatv Iv tols xidSots (Luke 13 : 19) ; vao -cr,v oxiav 
avTov ra ncrctva TOV ovgavov y.araaxrjvovv (Mark 4 : 32)." 
Ps. 104 : 12, 'JSi? avra ta itersiva. ?ov ovqavov xaraaxjjvmasi, 
" Upon them (i. e., the trees) shall the birds of the air dwell." 
Kuincel (on Matt. 8 : 20) : " Per araa}trjvc6aei.s non nidi, sed 
latibula significantur, loca ubi volucres consident et quiescunt, 
tecti ab injuria cceli." Sic verbum xaraax^vovv de avibus in 
ramis arborum considentibus et quiescentibus legitur Matt. 13 :32. 
Luc. 13 : 19, neque vMtaax^vovv respondet Heb. ^ sed verbo 
"p'SBJ, quod ,de avibus ita usurpatur, ut sit commorari, quiescere, 
versari, considere ut Dan. 4 : 18 ubi Thepdot. ita .adhibuit xa.ra- 
jvovv." As "dwelling," "habitation," and "lodging" are 
necessary for rendering other Greek words, "shelters" is deemed 
most appropriate. It is defined by Webster : " That which 
covers or defends from injury or annoyance. A house ia&.shelter 
from rain and other inclemencies of the weather ; the foliage of a 
tree is a shelter from the rays of, the sun." 

" The healing plant shall aid, 
. "From storms a skelter, and from heat a shade-" POPE. 

Compare Ps. 104 : 17, aijia tnujiia (rpbri, E. V., "As for the 
stork, the fir-trees are her house." Kaiaaxrivcaaeie is rendered 
Wohnungen" by De Wette. S.Fr., "habitations;" Iberian, 
" sitios donde habitar" ("places where they dwell, i.e., dweUing- 
places ") ; Dick., " places of rest ; " Wakef., " roosts." 




59 And lie said unto another : 
Follow me. But he said, Loi'd, 
sufier me first to go and bury my 

60 Jesus said unto him, Let 
the dead bury their dead : but go 
thou and preach the kingdom of 

61 And another also said, Lord, 
I will follow thee ; but let me 
first go bid them farewell which 
are at home at my house. 

62 And Jesus said unto him, 
'No man having put his hand to 

the plough, and looking back, is 
fit for the kingdom of God. 

CHAP. x. 

AFTER these things, the Lord 
appointed other seventy also, and 
sent them two and two before his 
face into every city, and place, 
whither he himself would come. 

2 Therefore said he unto them, 


8e wpos eTepov, 'AKoXovOsL pot. 
'0 8e etTre, Kvpie, emTpetyov 
fj-OL mreXdovTt, TrptoTov Qatyai TOV 
TraTepa fj.ov. 60 Elm 8e avTqi o 
' A^e? TOVS vfKpovs 
TOVS eavTcov veKpovf cry 

Xeiav TOV Oeov. 61 E'are Se KOU 
erepos, ' ' A.KoXov9r)o~a> croi, 

fj.oi airo- 

7715 fc* v ^ ' T 

M<nre oe irpos O.VTOV o 2r)(Tov?, 


' rrjv X e V a av ~ 

TO. OTTiVfi), fvdeTOf COTTIV CIS Tr/V 

/SacriAetai/ TOV Oeov. 


MET A Se TavTa aveSetgev o 

KvplOS KOU TpOVf f/3So^1JKOVTa, 

/cat a,Treo~TeiXev OLVTOVS ova. Suo 
irpo 7rpoo~coirov O.VTOV, ely Tracrav 
iroXtv KOI TOTTOV ov e/^cAAez/ au- 





he said to another, Follow me. 
But he said, Lord, f permit me 
first to go and bury my father. 
g And Jesus said to him, h Leave 60 
the dead to bury 'their own 
dead : but go thou and publish 
the kingdom of God. And an- 61 
other also said, Lord, I will 
follow thee ; but 'permit me 
first to bid farewell to those in 
my house. And Jesus said to 62 
him, No one, having put his 
hand to the plough, and. look- 
ing back, is fit for the kingdom 
of God 


AFTER these things, the Lord 1 
appointed seventy others "also, 
and b sent'them forth, "two by 
two, into every city and place, 
where d he himself was about 
e to go. f Then he said to them, 2 

' " permit ; " btir^stjiov. Scarlett, Dick., Campbell, Sawyer, 
Kend., M. See ch. 8 : 32, note. 

1 "And;" Se. Sharpe, Penn, Dick., Rheuns. So at the 
commencement of v. 59 (Elite Se). Vulg., " dixitque ;" G. and 
S. Fr., " et ; " Iber., " I ; " ItaL, " E ; " Heb. N. Test., v The 
particle is translated by Eras., Beza, Castalio, Goschen, Belgic, 
Luther, De Wette, Danish. The E. V. followed Tyndale, in 
omitting it. 

h " Leave ; " 'Ayes. Scarlett, Sharpe, Dick., Angus. Eob, 
(Lex., -in iierld) : " With an ace. and predicate to leave, or let 
remain in any state." So (E. V.) Matt. 5 : 24 ; 8 : 15 ; 18 : 12 ; 
22 : 22. Mark 12 : 12. Luke 4 : 39 ; 11 : 42 ; 18 : 29, etc. 

' " their own ; " iavraiv. Thorn., Sharpe, Dick., Wakefield, 
Kend. So Eph. 5 : 28, ra eavrtSv oeaftctra, E. V., " their own 
bodies ; " and v. 29, njv eavrov oa/ixa, E. V., " his own flesh.'' 
Philipp. 2 : 4, ra iavriSv, E. V., " his own things ; " and v. 12, 
rffv envriov ocorijpiar, E. V., " your own salvation ; " v. 21, ra. 
eavTi&v, E. V., " their own." 1 Thess. 2 : 8, ras eavreov ii>v%ag, 
E. V., " our own souls." 

1 " permit." See ch. 9 : 59, note. 

* " also ; " This position is given to " also " on the ground, 
that there is an obscurity in the E. V. by the location of this 

word after " seventy," as it implies that lie had sent forth 
" seventy " on a former occasion. 'Ert-govs (" others ") refers to 
the twelve apostles whose mission is recorded in cb. 9 : 1. The 
sentence is elliptical, as Kuinosl remarks (in loco) : "'EjSSoftij. 
xovra est formula elliptica, post facpovs comma ponendum, et 
subaudiendum : fiad'tjrci.s olrives tfidofiijxovTa, alios discipulos 
numeros septuaginta ; " i. e., " other disciples also, who were 
seventy in number." See ch. 23 : 32, al hepot Svo xay.ovgyoi, 
i. e., " two others who were malefactors," or, more concisely, " two 
others, .malefactors." Camp., Norton, Bloomf. (N. T.), Penn, 
Angus, M., Sawyer, Dick., and Sharpe have "seventy others 

b " sent forth ; " aitearedev. So (E. V.) in v. 3, and Matt 
10 : 5 ; 13 : 41. Mark 3 : 14 ; 6:7, etc. Angus. 

" " two by two ; " ava. Svo. Scarlett, Sharpe, Sawyer, Kend 
S. Fr., " deux a deux ; " Iber., " de dos en dos." The Hebraistic 
form Svo Svo is properly rendered thus, as in Mark 6:7. " Two 
and two " accords with our twus loquendi. 

d " he was about ; " ejueUev. Norton, Penn, Wakef., Sawyer 
Kend., Thelwall, Angus, M. See ch. 7 : 2, and 9 : 31, notes. 

" to go ; " epzeo&ai. Penn, Camp., M., Murdock. G. and 
S. Fr., " aller ; " Iber., " a ir." 
' "Then;" ovv. Kendrick, M. Angus. This particle often 




The harvest truly is great, but 
the labourers are few : pray ye 
therefore the Lord of the harvest, 
that he would send forth labourers 
into his harvest. 

3 Go your 'ways: behold, I 
send you forth as lambs among 

4 Carry neither purse, nor scrip, 
nor shoes : and salute no man by 
the way. 

5 And into whatsoever house 
ye enter, first say, Peace le to this 

6 And if the son of peace be 
there, your peace shall rest upon 
it : if not, it shall turn to you 


7r/joy avrovf, '0 {JLCV 0epicrfi.o? 
TroAuy, 01 dt ipyarai 6A/yor 
deijdrjre oSv rov Kvpwv TOV Be- 
OTTCOS K/3aXXr) epydras 

yere- Idov, eyco aTrocrreAAcw 
a>s apvas ev fjL<ra> AU/C&H/. 4 /IT) 
/Qacrra<*ere fiaXavriov, fjnj. Trrjpav, 
e VTroBr/fjiaTa' /cat fj.r)8eva 
8ovucnrd(F>r)ar6e. 5 JEis 
r)v ft av oiKiav elcrep^cr&e, TrpSt- 
TOV Ae'yere, Elprjvrj ra> ot'/ca> TOV- 
TO>. 6 KOU feus fjiev y e/cet o vlo? 
eipr/vTys, eVai/aTraucreTew. eV au- 
TOV 17 flpr/vij i>[j.a>v el 8e fj-rj-ye, 


The harvest ^indeed ; is great, 
but the laborers are few ; b pray 
therefore the Lord of the har- 
vest, 'to send forth laborers 
into his harvest. 3 Go; behold, 3 
I send you forth as lambs among 
wolves. Carry neither purse, 4 
nor k bag, nor shoes : and salute 
'no one by the way. And into 5 
"whatever house ye enter, first 
say, Peace be -to this house. And 6 
if "a son of peace "is there, your - 
peace shall rest on fhim : 'but 

denotes not the consequence, but the sequence of one clause on 
another, having- the force of " then," " now." Bob. (Lex.). So 
(E. V.) Matt. 7 : 11 ; 12 : 12 ; 13 : 27. Luke 3 : 7, 10 ; 6 : 9 ; 
10 : 37, etc. 

* " indeed ; " /tev. Scarlett, Dick., Wakef., Sawyer, Kend., 
Angus, Thelwall, M. " Truly" 5s required for other words, and 
often receives an improper empliasis, as used in this passage in the 
E. V. 

h " pray ; " Sajd-rfre. There is no necessity for introducing 
" ye " in this instance, as the pronoun it not emphatic. It is not 
inserted by Scarlett, Norton, Dick, "Wakef., Camp., Angus, 
Sawyer, Kendrick, M., Tyndale, Geneva. The E. V. copied 

1 " to send forth ; " oncos ex/Sdtty. Instead ofix/JaJUi? (prest. 
subj.), Griesbach, Knapp, Tittm., Goschen, Schott, Bloomf., and 
Kuinoel have txpaky. On the contrary, Lachmann, Tischendorf, 
Theile agree with the Text. Eecept. Schott has the following 
note : " Scripturam vulg. IxpaUy cum Lachm. tenuimus. Altera 
in codd. quidem permultis (9 unc.) expressa IxySaAi? ex Matt. 
9 : 38 profecta." The rendering by the infinitive instead of the 
Eng. subjunctive, is more concise, and equally correct. So Scar- 
lett, Norton, Wakef., Kendrick, Sawyer. See Kiihner, <|329, 
Bern. 5. 

1 G O; " Tnciyeie. Scarlett, Wesley, Sawyer, Kend., Mur- 
doch So (E. V.) Matt. 5 : 41 ; 9 : 6 ; 13 : 44 ; 18 : 15 ; 19 : 21 ; 
20 : 4, 7 ; 21 : 28 ; 26 : 18. Mark 5 : 19. Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : 
" Gener. i. q. to go, go away to a place." Bretschneider, " abeo, 
discedo." When used intransitively, this verb signifies "to de- 
part," and often simply " to go." " To go ones way " is obsolete. 
Vulg., Eras., Mont., "Ite;" Castal., Vadite ; " G. and S. Fr, 
"Allez;" Iberian, "Idos." Heb. N. Test., siab. Syriac, o^f. 
Alternative rendering, " depart." 

* "bag.;" mj ? av. See ch. 9 : 3, note. So Norton, Camp., 

Angus. The E. V. took " scrip " (now obsolete) from the 
Genevan Version. 

' " no one ; " [triSsva.. Sharpe, Thorn., Norton, Penn, Dick., 
Scarlett, Wakef., Sawyer, Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M. S. Fr., 
" ne-^personne ; " Iber., " nadie ; " Belg., " niemant ; " De Wette, 
" niemanden ; " Dan., " ingen ; " Vulg., Moui, Erasmus, Beza, 
Schott, Goschen, " neminem." 

m "whatever." Thorn., Sharpe, Norton, Penn, Dick., Scar- 
lett, Kend., Camp., Angus, Sawyer, M. 

" " a son ; " vloe. The article is canceled by Griesb., Knapp, 
Theile, Tittm., Lachm., Tischend., Schott, Scholz, Bloomf. The 
latter remarks : " The article 6 is omitted in almost all the best 
MSS., some Fathers, and nearly all the early Editions." " The 
sense is, one deserving your blessing." The article is properly 
omitted in the translations of Sharpe, Norton, Wesley, Dick., 
Camp., Kend., Sawyer. 

"is;"s- Penn, Angus. This accords with present usage. 

P " him ; " canov. Norton, Scarlett, Camp., Kend., M., Tyn- 
dale, Cvanmer, Geneva, Bheims, Wiclif. Vulgate, "ilium" 
(referring, as muscul., to filius; domi being feminine). Erasmus, 
Mont., Schott, Beza, Goschen, " super eum ; " Castal., " in eo ; " 
Belg., " hem ; " De Wette, " ihm ; " Iber., " el." As a masculine, 
mitbv refers to vlbs ; although olurf is masculine, it is the mere 
remote antecedent. In the parallel, Matt. 10 : 13, the pronoun 
is feminine, aimjv, and must be rendered " it," as its antecedent 
is oixia (feminine). In this instance, the idea conveyed by olv.ia, 
is rather " family," than " house." Worthiness is predicated not 
of the house, but its inhabitants. Compare Matt. 10 : 11, 12, 
agios iorf els TTJV olxiav, atmaoaad'e avrf t v. 
but if not ; " tl Ss firjys. Thorn., Penn, Norton, Thelwall, 
Sawyer. Mont., " si vero non ; " Eras., Beza, Castal., Schott, 
Goschen, " sin minus " (see Leverett, Diet, " sin minus "). Rob 
(Lex., ye) : "El 8e wye, i. q. el Ss fir,, but stronger, but if not 
so indeed, it otherwise, Luke 10 : 6, but- if not, otherwise." This 




7 And in the same house re- 
main, eating and drinking such 
things as they give : for the la- 
bour,er is worthy of his hire. Go 
not from house to house. 

8 And into whatsoever city ye 
enter, and they receive you, eac 
such things as are set before you. 

9 And heal the sick that are 
therein, and say unto them, The 
kingdom of God is come nigh 
unto you. 

10 But into whatsoever city ye 
enter, and they receive yon not, 
go' your ways out into the streets 
of the same, and say, 

11 Even the very dust of your 
city which cleaveth on us, we do 
wipe off against you: nothwith- 


ev avrr 

8e rfj oiKia /severe, ecrdlovres Kal 
TTIVOVTCS TO, -Trap avTcov a^ios 
yap 6 p-ya.Tr]s TOV p.icr6ov avrov 
ecrTi'" /tir) /zera/3a/fere e oiK/ay 

1 1 / R \ * Rf * ' 

eis OLKIO.V. /cat ety ijv o av TTO- 
Xtv flfrep^frde, KOL de^covrat 
vfMas, <r0LTe TO. Tra.paTi9ffj.eva 

V/JUV, 9 Kal 0pa7rVfTf: TOV? l> 

dcrdeveis, Kal Ae'yere 


TOV Oeov. 10 elf 
eicrep)(r](rde, Kal 
v/, ^eX06vTf els TOLS irXa- 
reta? ayrijr, enrare, u Kau. TOV 
KOviopTOV TOV KoXXr)0evTa rj/juv 
K Trjs TroAecoy vfj-cov a.Trofj.aara'o- 

8' av 


if not, it shall return to r you. 
And in 'that house remain, eat- 7 
ing and drinking 'what they 
have : for the laborer is worthy 
of his "wages. Go not from 
house to house. And into 'what- 8 
ever city ye enter, and they 
receive you, eat w what is set 
before you. And heal the sick 9 
"in it, and say to them, The 
kingdom of God y draweth near 
to you. But into "whatever 10 
city ye enter, and they receive 
you not, 'go out into b its streets, 
and say, Even the c dust of your 11 
city which cleaveth d to us, "we 

phrase is often rendered by " otherwise " in the B. Y., or, with 
more exactness (as in 2 Cor. 11 : 16), " if otherwise," equivalent 
in sense to " but if not." 

r " again," in the E. V., is superfluous after " return," as 
it implies more than one act of returning. Compare Matt. 
2:12. Hebrews 11 : 15. "Again" is omitted by Thomson, 
Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Scarlett, Camp., Sawyer, Kendrick, Thel- 
wall, M. 

1 " that house ; " avrfj rjj olxia. "Wakefield, M., Murdoch. 
Sohott, Groscheo, " in ilia domo ; " S. Fr., " cette maison la ; " 
Ital., " quella casa." The rendering of the E. V. would require 
tv Se Tfj O.VTTJ oixiix. 

' " what they have ; " to. ita.f> avrcav. Sharpe, Penn, Thel- 
wall ("whatever"), Norton, Angus. "They have" is used also 
by Wesley, Wakef., and Thorn. Bretsch. (na^a. cum Genit.) : 
" In N. T. vero etiam ica^a cum genitivo ita dicitur, ut idem sit 
quod apud profanes ztaga cum dativo. Sic to. itaya tivos (quod 
apud prol'anos est vel dona, vel mandata alicujus) Marc. 5 : 26 
indicat : bona, facilitates (Luc. 8 : 43, S).ov iov piov) ; et ol 
napd twos (apnd profanos, missi ab aliquo), Marc. 3 : 21, sunt: 
qui aliquem comitantur," etc. Rob. (Lex., (> with genit.) : 
"Generally to come, be derived or possessed from any one." Tyn- 
dale, " such as they have ; " Luther and De "VVette, " was sie 
haben ; " Iber., lo .que tengan ; " Diodati, " cio che vi sara ; " 
OJoschen, " qu illis sunt ; " Vulg., " qua apud illos sunt." Heb. 
N. Test., &rta im- 
illorum"). The E. V. copied Cranmer. 

u " wages ; " (tea&ov. Thomson, Norton, Camp. So (E. V.) 
John 4 : 36. 2 Pet, 2 : 15. The word is used here in the sense 
f a recompense for services performed, and, in conformity with 

Syr., .oBi-? ,-io (" ex eo quod est 

present usage, has an exact equivalent in " wages." " Hire " is 
no longer used, in this sense. 

T " whatever." See v. 5, note. 

w " what is set before ; " ia TtagaTi&e/tfva. Kend., Angus, 
Norton, Sawyer. See eh. 5 : 27, note. Crosby, Gram., 336. 

1 " in it ; " & avTjj. Peun, Scarlett, Sawyer, Kendrick, M., 
Murdock. Beza, Castal., Schott, Goschen, "in e&;" Iber., "en 
elk ; " Diodati, " in essa." " Therein " is obsolete. 

y " draweth near ; " rjyywev. Scarlett, " is near ; " Wakef., 
" is nigh ; " Kendricb, " is come near ; " Camp., " comes (upon 
you)." So (E. V.) Luke 21 : 8. Jas. 5 : 8 ("draweth nigh"). 
The verb in this tense is often rendered in the E. V. " at hand." 
'Hyyixa has the sense of adsum. Bretsch., Lex. Liddell : " In- 
transitive, to be near, come near." Compare Deut. 31 : 14. Sept. 
'jSov riyyixaaw al rjfifyai TOV &avdrov aov, E. V., " Behold, thy 
days approach that thou must die." 

1 " whatever." See v. 5, note. 

a " go out ; " ei-sA&dvTcs. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Norton 
Dick., Scarlett, Camp., Kend., Angus, M. 

b " its ; " avrijs. Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Sawyer. 

c There is nothing in the text to authorize "very" before 
"dust." It was copied from Tyndale. Omitted by Sharpe, 
Penn, "Wesley, Norton, Dick., Sawyer, Kend., Angus. Nothing 
equivalent to it in Yulg., Mont., Beza, Castal., Schott, Goschen, 
Belg., Luther, De Wette, Dan., Diodati, Ital. 

d " to us ; " v/av. Thorn., Sharpe, Dick., Scarlett, Wakef., 
Camp., Angus, Kend., M. Lat. verss,. " nobis ; " G. and S. Fr,, 
" a nous ; " Iber., " nos ; " Diodati, " a noi." 

"we wipe offj" attofiaaaofiE&a. There is no reason for 
inserting "do" before "wipe," as there is no emphasis which 




standing, be ye sure of this, that 
the kingdom of God is come nigh 
uiito you. 

12 But I say unto you, That it 
shall be more tolerable in that 
day for Sodom than for that city. 

13 Wo unto thee, Chorazin ! 
wo unto thee, Bethsaida! for if 
the mighty works had been done 
in Tyre and Sidon, which have 
been done in you, they had a great 
while ago repented, sitting in 
sackcloth and ashes. 

14 But it shall be more tolera- 
ble for Tyre and Sidon at the 
judgment, than for you. 

15 And thou, Capernaum, which 
art exalted to heaven, shalt be 
thrust down to hell. ' 


fj.fda irXr/v TOVTO yivw- 
cr/cere, on riyyiKtv e(p' rj 
fiaa-iXela TOV Oeov. 12 Aeyw Se, OTI SoSo/AOis ev Trj r]p.epa 
dveKTorepov ecrTai, rj rfj 
Keivy. 13 OvaL <TOI, Xo- 
paf^iv, oval crot, JBr)6(ra.'i8a' OTI 
t eV Tvpco KCU SiScoi>i eyej/ozro 
al 8vvdp.i$ a.1 yevop.V(u kv, 
TraAat av (.v <ra;cK<a KOL cnro( 
Tvpa> ' Kat 

ecrrai ev rrj Kpicret, r) /ecu 
crv, Ka.Trepva.ovp,, rj ecos TOV ov- 
pavov v\lfcodei(ra } cas a8ov KO.TO.- 



wipe off against you : .notwith- 
standing, 'know .this, that the 
kingdom of God e draweth near 
to you. But I say to you, That 12 
h it will be more tolerable in 
that day for Sodom, than for 
that city. Woe to thee, Chora- 13 
zin! woe to thee, Bethsaida! 
for if the mighty works had 
been done in Tyre and Zi- 
don, which have been done in 
you, 'they would have repent- 
ed 'long ago, sitting in sack- 
cloth and ashes. But k it will 14 
be more tolerable for Tyre and 
Zidon 'in the judgment, than 
for you. And thou, Capernaum, 15 
m that art exalted to heaven, 
"shalt be brought down "to the 

demands it " Do " is not employed by Thorn., Sbarpe, Kend., 
Penn, Dick., Norton, Scarlett, Wakef., Camp., Angus, Sawyer, 
Tyndale, Geneva. It first appeared in Coverdale's Version. 

' " know ; " yivcooxsts. Thomson, Sharpe, Penn, Wesley, 
Norton, Scarlett, Camp., Sawyer, Kend., Angus, M., Thelwall, 
Murdock, Elieims. Syr., oi>5. Heb. N. Test., !|$*i. Vulg., Mont., 
Beza, Bras., Costal., " scitote ; " De "Wette, " wisset ; " G. and 
S. French, " sachez ; " Dan., " dog skulle I vide dette ; " Iber., 
" sabed ; " Diodati and Ital., " sappiate." " Be ye sure of this " 
was taken from Coverdale's rendering, " of this ye shall be sure." 
Tyndale has, " mark this." 

* " draweth near." See v. 9, note. 

11 " it will be ; " Harai. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Dick., Norton, 
Scarlett, Wakef., Kend., M. 

1 "they would have repented;" avfuxevorjoav. Norton, 
Gray (note on Angus), Thorn., Penn, Wesley, Scarlett, Wakef., 
Kend., Dick, ("would have reformed"), Sawyer ("would have 
changed their minds"). 

J " long ago ; " italai. Thomson, Sharpe, Wesley, Scarlett, 
Camp., Sawyer, Kend., Angus, M., Thelwall, Eheims, Murdock. 
The natural position for " long ago " is after " repeated." So 
Thorn., Wesley, Camp., Angus. 

k " it will be ; " eorcu. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Dick., Norton, 
Scarlett, Wakef., Kend., M. 

i "in the judgment ; " &> Tf t * fleet. Wesley, Scarlett, Wake- 
field, Camp., Sawyer, Eheims. De Wette, " im Gerichte ; " Iber., 
" en el juicio ; " Belg., " in het oordeel ; " Dan., " i Dommen ; " 
Diodati, " nel giudicio." The B. V. copied " at " from Tyndale. 

" that ; " 57. Thelwall, Kend. , 

" " shalt be brought down ; " xara/St/Saad-ijat]. Murdock, 
Norton (" will be brought down "), Wakef. and Kend. (" will be 
brought down "). De Wette, " wirst du erniedriget werden." So 
in parallel (E. V.) Matt. II : 23, " shall be brought down." Bob. 

(Lex., xa.Ta/3i/3aco), "to cause to go down, to bring down;" 
Liddell, " to make to go down, put or bring down." The verb 
occurs only here, and in Matt. 11 : 23. S. Fr., " tu seras abais- 
see ; " Iber., " seras abajada." 

" to the under-world ; " teas aSov. This word ci3qs (in 
classic Greek aZStjs and utS^s) occurs eleven times in the N. T. 
Matt. 11 : 23 (B. V., " hell ") ; 16 : 18 (B. T., " hell "). Luke 
10 : 15 (E. V., " hell") ; 16 : 23 (E. V., " hell "). Acts 2 : 27 
(E. V., " hell "). 1 Cor. 15 : 55 (E. V., grave "). Eev. 1 : 18 
(E. V., "hell"); 20 : 13 (E. V., "hell"). In classic Greek 
writers it is used to signify the world, or region inhabited by the 
shades or spirits of the dead. The deepest part of this world or 
region was supposed to be tbe abode of the wicked, who were 
there punished forever. This was named Tartarus. See Hesiod., 
Theog. 721-733. Odyssea, B. XI. ^Eneis, B. VI. In the 
Sept., it is the term most frequently employed for translating 
tixiu (sheol). Tet it seems obvious that the Hebrews did not 
regard Hx\a as a locality, where any distinction of character 
was recognized. It was the common receptacle of all the dead. 
It has been a question whether iixia, as used in the 0. Test, 
was not used to indicate the tomb regarded as one common 
receptacle for the bodies of all the dead, the image being taken 
from the deep sepulchral caverns used in ancient times, as places 
of interment. Thus in Ecclesiastes 9 : 10, " for there is no work, 
nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom in the grave (Heb. 
^Hiaa, ' in sheol ; ' Septuagint,' h aSg, ' in Hades '), whither 
thou'goest." Isa. 14 : 11, in allusion to the death of the king of 
Babylon, the prophet says, " Thy pomp is brought down to the 
grave (Heb. in'xtt), 'sheol;' Septuag., sis aSov, 'to Hades'), 
and the noise of thy viols : the worm is spread under thee, and 
the worms cover thee." Similar imagery is employed in describ- 
ing the overthrow and death of Pharaoh and other kings, Ezek. 
32 : 17-32. On the other hand, it may be urged, that the ap- 
pearance of Samuel at Endor, 1 Sam. 28 : 7-20, proved that the 
spirits of the departed had their abode in a region beneath the 




16 He that heareth yon, hear- 
eth me ; and he that despiseth 
you, despiseth me ; and lie that 
despiseth me, despiseth him that 
sent me. 

17 And the seventy returned 
again with joy, saying, Lord, even 
the devils are subject unto us 
through thy name. 

18 And he said unto them, I be- 
held Satan as lightning fall from 

19 Behold, I give unto you 




KCU 6 a6eTa>i> v/j.ds 
6 5e e/ze 



Be ol e/38oju.r)- 



nail TO. Ba.Lfj.ovLa virordcr- 
iiv f.v ro> 6vofJt.ot.TL (rov. 
Se aurofy, 'JSOecapow 

TOV a.Tavav a>s acrrpa-jr^v (K 
> ~ i ~\<$ ><*. ^ 

rov ovpavov TTfarovTa. ioov, 

8iS(ojj.i V/J.LV TT]v ef^ovcriav TOV 


under-world. He that heareth 16 
you, heareth me ; and he i>that 
rejecteth yon, rejecteth me ; and 
he that rejecteth me, rejeeteth 
him, who sent me. And the 17 
seventy 'returned with joy, say- 
ing, Lord, even r the demons 
are subject to us "by thy name. 
And lie said to them, I beheld 18 
Satan 'falling from heaven like 
lightning. Behold, I give -you 13 
'authority to tread on serpents 

earth. Not to dwell longer on this question, it may be remarked 
that " hell " has no longer the sense in -which it was once used to 
indicate an unseen, or hidden place, but that it now conveys the 
idea of the region of punishment " prepared for the devil and 
his angels." In other words, " hell " ia the proper equivalent of 
yiewa, Gehenna, Heb. t&ti N^S, " valley of the son of Hinriom." 
See 2 Kings 23 : 10. Jer. 7 : 31 ; 32 : 35. Compare Jer. 
2 : 23 ; 19 : 6, 13. The later Jews employed this name to denote 
the place of future punishment. So in Arabic Jehdnnam is used 
in the same sense, to this day. Although there are cases where 
" grave " will afford a good sense, as a translation of *>iXl!J and 
aSijs, yet, in strictness, we have no equivalent for these terms in 
oar language. Of the terms, which approximate most nearly to 
fliem, that of De "Wette, " under-world " (' Unterwelt ') is deemed 
most appropriate. In all cases, however, " Hades " should be 
placed in the margin. I should have preferred "pit," as most 
familiar to English readers, but for the fact that in Isa. 14 (cited 
above) it is needed for the rendering of isia (bor), which is ren- 
dered " pit " in the 0. Test. In the Bevision of Job, published 
by the A. B. TJ., " under-world " (from De Wette) is used for ren- 
dering " sheol." See Bob. (Lix., uSrjs, and yeevva). G. Camp. 
(Prelim. Dissertat. to Gospels, VI, on "ASrjs and rcsvva). Kend., 
Norton, Dick., Campbell, and Scarlett have transferred Hades 
into their versions. Wakef., "grave;" S. Fr., "le lieu invisi- 
ble ; " Iber., " el mundo invisible ; " Diodati, " inferno ; " Ital., 
" luogo invisible ; " M., " the regions of the dead." 

P " that rejecteth ; " 6 ad-eriov. So (E. V.) ch. 7 : 30. Mark 
6 : 26. John 12 : 48. Bob. (Lex., in verbo). Bretsch., " reji- 
cio." So Thomson, Wesley, Wakef., Camp., Scarlett, Norton, 
Kend., Sawyer, Thelwall, M. Beza, " rejicit ; " Castalio and 
Schott, " repudiat ; " Goschen, " repudians ; " Belg., " wie ver- 
werpt ; " De Wette, " wer verwirft ; " G. and S. Fr., " qui 
rejette ; " Iber., " quien desecha ; " Ital., " chi respinge." So 
the word is rendered in the three other instances, in which it 
occurs in this verse. 

i " returned ; " vitearQsyav. "Again " is omitted as super- 
fluous and inaccurate, as it implies that there had been a previous 
return. It is not employed by Thorn., Sharpe, Wesley, Dick., 
Penn, Wakef., Camp., Scarlett, Kend., Norton, Sawyer, Angus, 

Thelwall, M., Bheims. "Again " was first placed after " return- 
ed" by Tyndale. It is a curious fact that Wiclif, who used 
" turned again," avoided a mistake into which all the other early 
English translators fell. 

r " the demons ; " ra. Satftovia. Thorn., Sharpe, Dickinson, 
Wakef., Camp., Scarlett, Norton, Sawyer, Kend., Thelwall., M. 
See ch. 4 : 33, note. 

8 " by thy name ; " ct> -rej> bvofiari aov. Penn, Sawyer. 
" Through " is the appropriate rendering of Sia, with the genitive. 
The thought here is, that by the authority of Jesus the demons 
were subjected to the command of the apostles, and were com- 
pelled to go out of those whom they possessed. Thus in v. 19. 
He Says, SiSoifit eovaiav snl naaav rrff Svra/ztv rov ez&jiov. 
Sehott renders iv icy bvofiari aov " tuo nomine," with the ex- 
planation, " tua auctoritate." Goschen has " tuo nomine." The 
primany sense of lv, in, might be used, but in this connection, it 
seems to be deficient in perspicuity. Compare Acts 4 : 9, 10, ev 
tivi ovros aeaeorat' yrcoaiov iorca Sri lv no ovo/cari Ytjoov 
XQIOTOV sv rovrcp ovros ^ta^ Ivcoitiov vftiav vyirjs, 
E. V., " by what means he is made whole ; be it known that 
by the name of Jesus Christ by him doth this man stand here 
before you whole." See Bob. (Lex., iv). Acts 4 : 7, 'Ev noiq 
Svvaftei rj sv Tcoiy ovofian litoifjoars tovro vfisis; E. \ r ., "By 
what power, or by what name have ye done this ? " See Bob. 
(Lex., ovofia). 

' "falling from heaven, like lightning;" cos a.arqa7cr t v exroi 
OVQO.VOV neaovra. The participle nsaovra. belongs to Saravav. 
To obviate the ambiguity in the E. V., this arrangement is 
adopted. Bloomfield (N. Test, Supplementary Vol.) notices the 
construction: "It seems that we have here a condensed brevity 
of expression for sd'scogovv rov Saravav sx rov ovpavov neaov- 
ra, eos aor^anrjv lit rov ovqavov Tteoovaav." The above 
arrangement is the most familiar and natural for English readers. 
S. Pr., "Je contemplais le Satan tombe du ciel, comme un 

" "you;" vftiv. The preposition "unto," after "give," is 
superfluous. It is properly omitted by Thorn., Wesley, Sharpe, 
Wakef., Scarlett, Norton, Angus, Kend., Thelwall, Sawyer, M. 

T ," authority ; " Qovolav. Pechy (note on Angus), AJford 




power to tread on serpents and 
scorpions, and over all the power 
of the enemy : and nothing shall 
by any means hurt you. 

20 Notwithstanding, in this re- 
joice not, that the spirits are sub- 
ject unto you ; but rather rejoice, 
because your names are written 
in heaven. 

21 In that hour Jesus rejoiced 
in spirit, and said, I thank thee, 
Father, Lord of heaven and 
earth, that thou hast hid these 
things from the wise and prudent, 
and hast revealed them unto 
babes : even so, Father ; for so it 
seemed good in thy sight. 


ITTOLVCO o(peow KCU crKop- 
, Kal em Traa-av Trjv 
TOV f-ftOpov' KCU ovdev vfias ov 

* fc ' 20 ^ > ' 

fir/ a.OiKT}O"f). TrArjJS fV TOVTCO 

on TO, 

de xa 

2i ' Ev 


OTL TO. ovofJiCL 

TOif oupavoL?. v aur]7 r 

copa T& wvfVfJLari. b 

'Ir/o~ovs, KOU e'nrev, 'JE^ofioXo- 

yovfJLal <TOL, Trdrep, Kvpie TOV ov- 

pavov KaLTrfs yySjOTi aTreKpv\jsa? 


Kal aTTfKaXv^as avra vr/Triois' 
val, 6 Trariyp, OTL OVTOJS eyivero 
evSoKia efJLTrpoo-dfv crov. 22 Kal 
o~Tpa(j)eis irpos TOVS 


and scorpions, and over all the 
power of the enemy ; and, noth- 
ing shall by any means hurt 
you. Notwithstanding, w rejoice 20 
not in this, that the spirits are 
subject to you ; but ^rejoice 
7 that your names are written 
*in the heavens. In that hour 21 
Jesus' rejoiced in spirit, and 
said, I thank thee, Father, 
Lord of heaven and earth, that 
thou hast "hidden these things 
from the wise and ''discerning, 
and hast revealed them to 
babes : even so, Father ; for 
so it seemed good in thy sight. 

(quoted by JVL), M., Wakef., Penn, Murdook. A distinction 
should be made between i^ovaiav and Svvaftw, in the next 
clause of this verse. See ch. 4 : 6, note. See Eob. (Lex.). 
Should it be deemed advisable to retain " power," then I would 
render Svva/uiv (here) by " might." All the early Eng. transla- 
tors, except Wiclif (who has power virtue), have confounded the 
words in this passage; in other words, they copied Tyndale. 
Translators in other languages have pursued a more judicious 
course, e. g. Vulg., Mont., Eras., " potestatem virtutem ; " Beza, 
Sehott, " potestatem vim ; " Castalio, " potestatem vires ; " 
Goschen, " auctoritatem vires ; " Belgic, " macht kracht ; " 
Luther and De Wette, " Macht Gewalt ; " Danish, " Magt 
kraft; " U. Fr., " puissance ^force ;" S. Fr. and De Sacy, " pou- 
Toir puissance ; " Iber., " potestad ^poder ; " Diodati, " podesta 
^potenza ; " Ital., " podestda possa." 

" " rejoice not in this, that ; " lv tovtcp p 
Norton, Penn, Wakef., Thorn., Scarlett (" at this "), Dickinson, 
Eheims, Murdoek. This slight change in the order of the sen- 
tence renders it more accordant with our twus loquendi, and more 
easy to be understood. So the S. Pr., " rejouissez-vos plutot de 
ce que," etc. ; Iber., " no os gozeis [solamente] de esto, de que," 

1 MaUov, in the Testus Beceptus, after Se, is canceled by 
Griesb., Lachm., Knapp, Theile, Goschen, Scholz, Bloomf., aud 
bracketed by Tittmann, Not noticed in the Peseh. Syriac, or 
Vulgate. Sehott says : " Vocula ficdlov (a librariis addita post 
St, hiec partic. adversat. magis illusti'aretur) recte omissa apud 
Griesb. aliosque auctoritate multorum cdd. (10 unc.) verss., 
Pesch. Philox., Arr., Pers. Memph., JEth., Arm., Goth., Slav., 
Vulg., It., quibus patres plures Gr. et Lat. consentiunt." Beyond 
a doubt, the word is spurious. 

y "that;" Sri. So'(B. V.) in the first clause of the verse. 
Sharpe, "Wesley, Dick., Scarlett, "Wakef., Camp., Penn, Norton, 
Sawyer, Kendrick, Cranmer, Coverdale, "Wiclif, Eheims, Mur- 

* " in the heavens ; " lv vote ovqavots. Thelwall, "Wiclif (" b 
heavens ") ; Vnlg., Mont, Eras., Beza, Castalio, Goschen, Sehott, 
"cosies;" Belg., "in de Hemelen;" G. and S. Fr., "dans les 
cieux ; " Iber. and Span., " en los cielos ; " Diodati and Ital., " ne' 
cieli." The following note from the Eevision of Mark (1 : 11), 
published by the A. B. IT., is in point : " from the heavens ; & 
TCOV ovgavcov. So in v. 10 (E. "V".). In all cases, I would make 
the number correspond with that of the text, where ovpavos 
occurs. It is true, that the singular and plural may often be 
coincident, according to Hebrew usage, still, as either form is 
used in our language, exactness will sustain a literal rendering. 
So Wakef., Dick., Wiclif. Vulg., Eras., Mont, Beza, ' crelis ; ' 
G. Fr. and S. Fr., ' cieux ; ' Span, and Iber., ' cielos ; ' Syriac, 

" hidden ; " anexfv^as. Penn, Norton, Kend. This form 
of the participle often occurs in the E. V. See Levit 5 : 2. 
Deut 30:11. Job 15 -.20; 24 :1. Prov. 28:12. Acts 26: 26. 
For the sake of euphony, it should be uniformly employed. 

b " discerning ; " mirtxiuv. This word occurs four times in 
the N. T., and is uniformly rendered " prudent." As " prudence," 
however, implies " caution in deliberating on the most suitable 
means to accomplish valuable purposes, and the exercise of sagaci- 
ty in discerning and selecting them " (Webster, Diet.), and is 
especially applicable to the idea of perceiving and avoiding evil, 
it is not the proper equivalent of owezos. This, word is defined 
by Eob., " discerning, intelligent, sagacious." De Wette, " Ein- 




22 All things are delivered to 
me of my Father : and no man 
knoweth who the Son is, but the 
Father; and who the Father is. 
hut the Son, and he to whom the 
Son will reveal him. 

23 And he turned, him unto 
Ms disciples, and said privately, 
Blessed are the eyes which see the 
tilings that ye see. 

24 For I tell you that many 
prophets and kings have desired 
to see those things which ye see, 
and have not seen them; and to 
hear those things which ye hear,, 
and have not heard them. 

25 And behold, a certain law- 
yer stood up, and tempted him, 
saying, Master, what shall I do to 
inherit eternal life ? 


, Jlavra, rrapedodij /j.oi VTTO 

TOV Tra.T,pos p.ov Ka ovSeif -yt- 

TLS eO~TLV 6 VLOS, 61 /J.T) 6 

/cat TLS ecmv o TraTr/p, el 
p,r) 6 vlos, /cat <j> ecus ^SovA^rat 6 
via? aTTOKaXvrai. 23 Kcu crrpa- 



(j&ety "jrpos TOVS [ia.6-r]Tas /car' 
I8iav erne, MaKaptoi ol 6<pdaX- 
ol (3Xe7rovTes a ySAe?rere. 

^ e ~ </ \ -v V 

yap vp.iv, OTI TroAAot 
KOI /SatriAeiy fjOeXija'av 
Idelv a ySAerrere, /cat OVK 
KOU aKovcrai a. aKOvere, 
/cat OVK rjKOvcra.v. 

25 IT- \ >s> v ' > / 

jflLat toov, VO/J.LKOS T.IS ave- 
j, eKTreipdfav O.VTOV, /cat Ae- 
-diSaavcaAe, T'I Troirjcras 


'All things, are delivered to me 22 
d by my Father, and c no one 
knoweth who the Son is, 'ex- 
cept the Father ; and who the 
Father is, s except the Son, and 
he to whom the Son h wisheth to 
reveal him. And 'turning to 23 
his disciples, he said 'privately, 
'Happy are the eyes which see 
the things that ye see. For I 24 
tell you that many prophets 
and kings 'desired to see the 
things which ye see, and "saw 
them not ; and to hear the 
things which ye hear, and 
"heard them not. And, behold, 25 
a certain lawyer "rose, and *try- 
ing him, said, 'Teacher, what 

c At the beginning of v. 22nS, the Textus Keceptus of Bagster 
has the sentence, Knl orgacpeis itgos roiis /la&qras sine. The 
B. V. omits this, as do Erasmus, Griesbacb, Knapp, Bloomfield, 
Goschen, Scholz, Vulg. On ; the other hand, it is found in the 
Syriac, and is retained by Lachmann, Tisch., Theile, Tittmann. 
I deem ; the remark of Schott Correct: "Ante mcarru /tol vulgo : 
al OToa<pEls -rcfibg rove fia&r;Tas sine. Recte hsec vbb. Griesb. 
ct al. eliminarunt prseeunit. cdd. D. L. minusc. hand paucis verss. 
cd. Whel., Memph., JEtih., Arm., Vulg., It. Glossemati debeban- 
tnr (ex v. 23 desnmto) quo indicantur sequentia non amplius ad 
preeea Christi pertinere." 

d " by my Father ; " vno roii nar^as. " Of," indicating the 
author, agent, or instrument, is obsolete. Present usage requires 
' by." So Thorn.; Sharpe, Dick., Scarlett, Wakef., Penn, Nor- 
ton, Sawyer, Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M. 

" no one ; " ovSels. Sharpe, Wesley, Dick., Scarlett, "Wake- 
field, Camp., Norton, .Sawyer, Angus, M., Thelwall. Belgic, 
" niemand ; " De Wette, " niemand ; " Iber., " nadie ; " Diodati 
and Ital, " niuno." 

1 "except ; " ft ^. M. Bob. (Lex., el prj) on Matt. H : 27. 
Hoogeveen, p. 55. 

s " except." See last note. 

h " wisheth ; " fiovfyrac. Sharpe, Thelwall. Buttm. (Lexilog. 
1, p. 26, quoted by Bob., Lex., /Sov&ofiat) says, that the distinc- 
tion between poviofiai and &J.a> is, that the latter expresses an 
active choice and purpose, the former a mere passive inclination, 
or willingness. As " will " is so often used as an auxiliary verb, 
expressive sometimes of future time, and at others of determina- 
tion, it produces an ambiguity, if used in this passage. As an 
Alternative Tendering, " may wish." So Thelwall (in note). Eob. 
gives to be witting, to be disposed or minded to desire, as defini- 

tions of fiovlofiat. Wesley, " is pleased ; " Thomson, " will 

' "turning;" orQayels. Sharpe, Wesley, Dick., Scarlett, 
Camp., Penn, Kend., M., Thelwall. See Luke 7 : 9, note. 

! "privately;" iSiav. As an alternative rendering, " he said 
to them apart." 

k " Happy ;" May.a^ioi. See ch. 1 : 45, note. So Thomson, 
Dick., Wakef., Kend., M., Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva. S. Fr., 
" bienhenreux ; " Iber., " felices." 

i " desired ; " r,d-&r]0av. Wakef. The aorist should have its 
usual force here. So Sharpe ("wished"), Dick, ("were desir- 
ous"). Kuinoel : " Optabant, cupiebant idem quod bte&vfaioav, 
Matt. 13 : 16, quern quidem verbi significatum confirmat inter- 
pretum Alexandrinum actoritas." 

m " saw tltem not ; " ow. elSov. Thelwall. See last note. 
" " heard them not ;" fy.ovaav. Thelwall. See note supra on 

" "rose;" avsanj. Kend. ("arose"), Dick., Wakef. ("rose 
up"). Eob. (Lex., aviarrifit,) : "Often rendered by rise and 
arise in B. V., Matt. 9:9; 26 : 62. Mark 2 : 14 ; 5 : 42 ; 
9 : 27 ; 10 : 1, 50. Luke 5 : 25 ; 22 : 45. 

J> " trying ; " sxnet^a^cov. See ch. 4 : 2, and 4 : 12, notes. So 
Wesley, Campbell, Kend. As the infinitive -would better accord 
with our usus loquendi, the rendering of Sharpe, Wakef., Penn, 
and Norton, " to try," is proposed as an alternative. Numerous 
cases occur, in which the participle after a verb expresses the 
design, or object, and in such, cases it may be properly rendered 
by the infinitive. 

i " Teacher ; " ^ftSaoxals. Kend., Thomson, Sharpe, Dick., 
Scarlett, Wakef., Norton, Sawyer, M., Thelwall, Murdock. So 




26 He said unto him, "What is 
written in the law ? how readest 

27 And he answering, said, 
Thou shalt love the Lord thy 
God with all thy heart, and with 
all thy soul, and with all thy 
strength, and with all thy mind ; 
and thy neighbour as thyself. 

28 And he said unto him, Thou 
hast answered right : this do, and 
thou shalt live. 

29 But he, willing to justify 
himself, said unto Jesus, And who 
is my neighbour ? 

30 And Jesus answering, said, 
A certain man went down from 


aiaviov KXrjp 

2G'y^i>V'j V v '77 

U oe LTT irpos O.VTOV, Ji>v 
rcS v'ojJUp'Ti yfypaTTTai; TTtSy ava- 
yiixocrKei? ; 27 '0 Se a 


Kvpiov TOV 
Osov crov, e oXrjs TTJS KapBias 
o~ov, KOI e oXrj? TTJS ^fv^jf crov, 
KCU e oXrjS TTJS Icr^yos crov, /cat 
e oXrjs Trjf c>iavoia.s crov /cat 
TOV "irXr)crlov crov coy <reavroV. 
8e avTcS, 'Opd>s car- 
TOVTO TTOiei, /cat r/a~rj. 
29 'O 8e deXcov SIKCLIOVV eavTov 
etTre irpos TOV 'Irjcrovv, JsTat TLS 
ecrTL {lav TrXrjo-iov; 30 'TTroAa- 
ficov 8e o 'Ir/crovs tlrrev, "AvOpca- 
TTOS TLS Kareficuvev oaro 'lepov- 



shall I do r to inherit eternal 
life? And he said to him, 26 
What is written in the law? 
how readest thou? And he, 27 
answering, said, Thou shalt 
love the Lord, thy God, with 
all thy heart, and with all thy 
soul, and' with all thy mind ; 
and thy neighbor as thyself. 
And he said to him, Thou hast 28 
answered 'rightly : 'do this, 
and thou shalt live. But he 29 
"choosing to justify himself, 
said to Jesus, Who, T then, is my 
neighbor? Jesus "replied, A so 
certain ww man x was going down 

(E. V) John 3 : 2. Acts 13 : 1. 1 Cor. 12 : 28. Eph. 4 : 11. 
Heb. 5 : 12. See ch. 2 : 46, note. De TVette, " Lehrer ; " S. 
Fr., "Docteur." Heb. N. Test., 13-3. Syr., fiV<J[ (ab ws^ 
"lie taught"). 

r " to inherit ; " xhigovofiriato. As an alternative, " to ob- 
tain." Kuinrel: "Id quod $%en>, cUinere, consequi, v. Matt. 
5 : 5." 

" rightly ;" 6f9-c5s. Wakef., Norton, Kend. So (E. V.) 
eh. 7 : 43 ; 20 : 21. By this orthography, we distinguish the 
adverb from the noun, and the adjective " right." 

' " do this ; " rovto noiei. Thorn., Dick., Scarlett, Wakef., 
Penn, Camp., Norton, Sawyer. The inverted order of these 
words was copied from Tyndale. 

u choosing ; " &elcov. Kob. (Lex., &&ca) : " Generally to 
will, i. q. to wish, to desire, to choose." As " to wish" is used as 
the equivalent of {Sovkoftai, in v. 22, it is desirable to employ a 
term which will be appropriate for &s%co, and, at the same time, 
distinguish it from the former word. It is obvious, that deter- 
mination is not the idea conveyed by the verb in this instance, 
but preference. Bather than obey the divine rule, the law of 
love, he chose to narrow its requirements to a point, where he 
might stand justified as a righteous man. Kuinoel : " Legisperi- 
tus, qui Jesum quaestione sua in invidiam adducere voluerat, cum 
spe excidisset : &&cov Stxaiofv eavrbv cine v.. t. L se purgatu- 
rus, interrogabat Jesum : ecquis vero est mihi proximus ? Sixat- 
ovv eavrov notat insontem, re aut argumentis se declarare, hine 
excusare, purgare se, ut h. 1. et Gen. 44 : 16, ubi legitur lais-fia 
p'TOSS-nai quas verba Alexandrini reddiderunt: rl ).a).^ad/tsv, 
rj 11 Sutaua&difiEv ; cur excusemus nos?" (E. V., "what shall 
we speak ? or how shall we clear ourselves ? ") 

T "then;" xo.1. Bob. (Lex., xal, e) : "Before interrogatives, 

where in strictness ttal is simply copulative, but serves to add 
strength and vivacity to the question, and, and then, then." So 
E. V., Mark 10 : 26 (Kai vis Svvarae ocod-jjvKi;) " Who then 
can be saved ? " Bob. cites the passage before us, as an illustra- 
tion of this use of xal. 2 Cor. 2 : 2, xal rig eariv 6 Evrpgaivtov 
fie E. "V., " who is he then that maketh me glad? " Kuinosl : 
" Particula xal h. 1. reddi debet, igitw, tandem." 

w "replied;" vnolaptov Hm-v. Norton, Sawyer, Scarlett 
("replying"). By this rendering a verbal distinction between 
" answer " and " reply " is made, similar to that in the Greek 
between anox^td-els sitter ("answering said"), and vnola- 
PK>V elnev. The classic and Hellenistic usages in this phrase 
are not the same. According to the former, vnoiaj3a>v is not 
pleonastic. Kuincel (in loco) : " In libris scriptorum proborum 
exterorum vnolaptov jungitur %t/nj -cum aliquis dicentem inter- 
pellat, cum aliquis ita respondet, ut aliquid excipiat et reprehen- 
dat, circumscribat et corrigat in iis, qua? dicta sunt ab altero, ut 
adeo tune vnolajituv non redundet." On the other hand, he thus 
notices the Hellenistic usage : " Verbo wtolctppaveiv in versione 
septuaginta virali exprimitur Hebr. fiss ita, ut significat respon- 
dere, et idem valeat quod anov.^lva9ai, vid. Job. 2:4; 4:1, 

ww Man" is not a supplement. 

* " was going down ; " xa.Tspat.vsv. Thorn. (" going down "), 
Kend., Murdock. Syr., |ooi xLS. "Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, 
Goschen, Schott, " descendebat ; " Castal., " descendens." As in 
German the imperfect tense represents continued, or repeated past 
action (Ncehden's Germ. Gram., p. 310), we find this tense em- 
ployed here by Luther ("ging"), and De Wette ("zog"). As 
an ordinary use of the Greek imperfect is to represent action 
begun but not completed, it is properly rendered by the English 
progressive form of imperfect. Trpllope (Grami., p. 129) : " 11 




Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell 
among thieves, which stripped 
him of his raiment, and wounded 
Aim, and departed, leaving him 
half dead. 

31 And by chance there came 
down a certain priest- that way; 
and. when he saw him, he passed 
by on the other side. 

32 And likewise a Levite, when 
he was at the place, came and 
looked O7i him, and passed by on 
the other side. 

33 But a certain Samaritan, as 
he journeyed, came where he was : 
and when he saw him, he had 
compassion on him. 

34 And went to him, and bound 
up his wounds, pouring in oil and 


(raXrjfJi. els 'lepi^G), /cat 
Trepteirecrev, 01 /cat e/c5ucraz>rer 
aiiTov, /cat TrA^yay e 
aTrrjXddv, a(f>evT? r/fudavij 

/ Ml \ / s>v 

yavovTa, Kara (rv/KVpiav oe 
ifpevs TLS KaTeftaivev ev rfj oSqi 


fc \ 





yevoftevos KO.TCL TOV TO- 
/cat I8a)v avTi7rapf)X- 
Se TLS odevcov 

r/Xde /car O.VTOV, /cat I8(ov avrov 
e(T7rXa.-yxyicr6r)- 3 * /cat TrpocreX- 
6cav KaTeSrjcre ra Tpa.vp.aTa av- 
(fXaiov /cat olvov 



from Jerusalem to Jericho, and 
fell among ^robbers, who "both 
stripped and beat him, and de- 
parted, leaving him half dead. 
And by chance a a certain priest 31 
b was going down that way, and 
'seeing him, he passed by on 
the other side. And so "also a 32 
Levite, d being at the place, 
came, and 'seeing him, passed 
by on the other side. But a 33 
a certain Samaritan, f as he was 
journeying, came e to him, and 
'seeing him, he had compassion 
on him; and 'going to him, 34 
bound up his wounds, 'pouring 
on oil and wine ; and k he set 

denotes art ion continued and not completed while something else 
took place." Stuart (Gram., 2 51, p. 71). "Went down" im- 
plies, contrary to the narration, the traveler actually reached 
Jericho. (Jr. and S. Fr., " descendait ; " Iber., " bajaba." 

* " robbers ; " IrjoraZg. Thorn., Scarlett, "Wesley, Dickinson, 
Campbell, Norton, Sawyer, Kend., Angus, M. Vulg., Mont., 
Eras., Beza, Casta!., Goschen, Schott, " latrones ; " De Wette, 
"Banter;" S. Fr., "brigands;" Iber. and Span., "ladrones;" 
Diodati and Ital., " ladroni ; " Dan., " Rovere." Bob and Liddell 
(Lexx., IJIOT^S), " a robber." Bretsch. : " (Dicitur) de latronibus, 
qni vi adgrediuntur itinera facientes, Luc. 10 : 30, 36. 2 Cor. 
11 : 26. Matt. 27 : 38, 44, etc." This word occurs fifteen times 
in E. V. of N. Test., and is rendered by "robber" four times, 
and by "thief" eleven times. In all cases, "robber" is the 
proper rendering. The E. V. and other early Eng. translations 
have copied "Wiclif. 

* " both and ; " Scarlett, Sawyer, Angus. Vulg., 
Mont., " etiam ^et ;'" Eras., " etiam ac." Eob. (Lex., xi) : 
" It has an intensive, or cumulative force xal, Eng. both 
and." Bost's Greek Gram., <! 134, p. 503. Hoogeveen, p. 85 : 
"Wherever xal is repeated in the same clause, or member, it is in 
one place superadditory." 

* "a certain priest;" legevs its. The natural order of the 
English is the same witli that of the Greek. There is not the 
slightest necessity for transferring the sentence. So Thomson, 
Scarlett, Sharpe, Wesley, Dick., Penn, Wakef., Norton, Sawyer, 
Send., M. 

b " was going down ; " Kare/Saivsv. Kend. -See note on this 
word, v. 30. Penn, Thomson, Norton, Wakefield combine xara. 
ovyxvqinv with this verb, and render, "happened to be going 

" " seeing ; " lSa>v. Scarlett, Sharpe, Wesley, Camp., Sawyer, 
Kend., Thelwall, M. Belg., " ziende." 

" Je. Thus (E. V.) Matt. 23 : 35 ; 27 : 41, etc. 

a " being at, etc. ;" yevo/tevos *..*. L The language of the 

E. V. is retained here. As yivoftai with prepositions and ad- 
verbs implying motion, marks a change, or transition to another 
place, or state and is often used in the sense of come, arrive, 
etc., as in Acts 21 : 17, a different rendering is suggested 
as an alternative. It is, "approaching the place." Eobin- 
son (Lex., yivofcai, b, e) says : " Cum ace. of place, to come 
upon, near to, towards, Luke 10 : 32. Acts 27 : 7." Iberian, 
'' que llegose cerca del lugar" ("who approached the place"); 
S. Fr., " qui arrivait en ce lieu ; " Ital., " ehe giungeva in qtiel 
luogo " (" who arrived at that place ") ; Diodati, " essendo venuto 
presso di quel luogo ; " De Wette, " der gegen den Ort hiu kam." 

" seeing ; " iScov. See v. 31, note. The same word should 
receive the same rendering. 

f " as he was journeying ; " oSevcav. The progressive form of 
the imperfect is substituted for the ordinary one (used in the E. 
V.), as exact and familiar. See (E. V.) Luke 13 : 22. S. Fr., 
" qui voyageait ; " Iber., " que caminaba." 

6 " to him ; " v.cri avrov. Tyndale (" unto him "), Cranmer, 
Geneva. De Wette, " zu ihm ; " Ital., " a lui ; " Vulg., secua 
eum ; " Eras., Castal., Goschen, " ad eum ;" S. Fr., " vers lui ; " 
Belg., " omtrent hem " (" near him ") ; Diodati, " presso di lui." 
Heb. N. Test., -iiis. 

h " seeing ; " IScov. See v. 31, note. Thelwall, M. S. Fr., 
" ayant vu." 

1 "going to;" x$oadd-a>v. Wesley, M. S, Fr, " s'etant 

J " pouring on ; " em^ecav. Thomson, Wakefield, Norton, 
Angus (" upon them"), Sawyer. Rob. (Lex., in iierbo), " to pour 
upon." Sept., Levit, 5 : 11, ovx eTtizstz In OVTO eiatov (" he 
shall not pour oil on it"). Gen; 28 : 18, %ne%ev titt TO ax^ov 
a.vrijs (" poured oil on the top of it ")'. 2 Kings 9 : 6, Jm^eE -co 
ehatov tni -cr t v xsipalrjv avrov, Liddell, " to pour over, or 

k he." The pronoun is expressed for the sake of dividing the 




wine, and set him on his own 
beast, and brought him to an inn, 
and took care of him. 

35 And on the morrow, -when 
he departed, he took out two 
pence, and gave them to the host, 
and said unto him, Take care of 
him ; and whatsoever thou spend- 
est more, when I come again, I 
will repay thee. 

36 Which now of these three, 
thinkest thou, was neighbour unto 
him that fell among the thieves? 

31 And he said, He that shewed 
mercy on him. Then said Jesus 
unto him, Go, and do thou like- 

38 Now it came to pass, as they 
went, that he entered into a cer- 
tain village : and a certain wo- 
man, named Martha, received him 
into her house. 

39 And she had a sister called 
Mary, which also sat at Jesus' 
feet, and heard his word. 

rt n f r^ > x a \ \ ye* 

eTTipipacras oe OVTOV em TO loiov 
KTrjvos, yyayev avTOV els irav- 
} KOU eTrefj-eXr/drj avTov. 

35 \ > v \ 

KO.L 67Tt TT/V aVplOV 

Svo Sr/vapia e'ScoKe T< 
, /cat e'nrev avTca, 'JZm- 
avTov' /cat o n av 
rrpocrSaTravr/args, eyai ev TcS err- 
avep-^eo-dai /xe dTroSaxro) croi. 


8oKel oroi TrXtjo-lov yeyovivai TOV 
efjLrrea-ovTOs els TOVS Xyo-Tasj 

37 ' /"l S> ^ 9 /~\ ' ^ 

U oe emev, U Troirjcras TO 
eXeos fj.eT avTov. Elirev ovv 
aura) 6 'Irjo-ovs, Hopevov, KCU 

(TV TTO/et 0/JLOlCaS' 

38 'ETENETO Se ev T< 
TTOpeveo-ffat avTOvs, /cat avros 
elcrrjXOev els KCO/J.TJV rivat.' yrvvrj 
Se TLS OVO/J.O.TI Mdpdct v7reSea.TO 

\ j-\ 9 > Qq \ 

avrov eis TOV OLKOV avTr]s. K.O.L 
TrjSe fjv adeX([)r} KaXovfJ-evrj Ma.- 
pia, rj KOL irapa 
TOVS rroSas TOV 'Ir)o~ov rjKOve TOV 


him on his own beast, "brought 
him to an inn, and took care 
of him. And on the next day,' 35 
when he departed, he took out 
two pence, and gave them m to 
the innkeeper, and said to him, 
Take care of him, and "what- 
ever thou spendest more, I will 
repay thee, when I come again. 
Which now of these three, 36 
thinkest thou, was neighbor to 
him who fell among "the rob- 
bers? And he said, He who 37 
showed him mercy. Then said 
Jesus to him, Go, and do thou 
likewise. Now it came to pass 38 
pas they went on, that he enter- 
ed into a certain village : and 
a certain woman, named Mar- 
tha, received him into her 
liouse. And she had a sister 39 
ailed Mary, who 'also, 'sitting 
at 'the feet of Jesus, heard his 

sentence into its appropriate members, according to the division 
indicated by the semicolon. 

i "And," in the E. "V., before " brought," is not authorized by 
the text, and unnecessarily encumbers the sentence. 

m " to the innkeeper ; " ty nav8o%eT. Eob. (Lex.) : " The 
keeper of an inn." Thorn., Scarlett, Pecliy (note on Angus). 
"Host" is obsolescent. It is no longer heard in conversation, is 
ambiguous, as it signifies " one who entertains another at his own 
house without reward," " one who entertains another at his house 
for reward," and again " one who is entertained at the house of 
another" (a guest). "Webster, Diet. To these significations may 
be added that of the Latin "hostia" ^'victim, sacrifice"), Anglice 
" host," the wafer used in the service of the Kornan Catholics. 

n " whatever ; " o n av. Sharpe, Scarlett, Dickinson, Camp., 
Penn, Kend., M., Sawyer. " Whatsoever" is obsolete. 

" the robbers ? " TOVS Igorus; See v. 30, note. 

f " as they -root on ; " iv via nogeveod'ai, avroys. Bob. (Lex., 
in. verbo) : "lo pass, to go, implying motion from the place where 
one is ; hence < : /ten i. q. to pass on, to go away, to depart." Penn, 
" as they wa 4 forward ; " Norton, " as they -were journeying ; " 
Sawyer, " . i 17 T?ere pursuing their journey ; " Angus, as they 
journeyed ' ? trlett, " when they were on their journey ; " Dick., 

" as they were proceeding." It is obvious that these renderings 
are all based on the fundamental idea of going on, or going for- 
ward. So Syriac, paraphrasticalty, \*io[a _. >jj ^oJoi gsi 
("as they were going on the way"). Goschen, " proflcisceren- 
tur ; " Schott, " profiscentibus iis ; " Belgic, " als zij reisden ; " 
De Wette, " als sie reiseten ; " S. Fr., " comme ils marchaient ; " 
Iber., " mientras prpcedian ellos." 

q " also ; " ttoi. Many late translators have dropped, sup- 
posing it redundant, or, to speak more accurately, a word not to 
be represented by an equivalent, in our language. Kuincel, how- 
ever, gives the following good reason for retaining oi, in transla- 
tion : " Particula xal ex nonnullorum interpretum sententia, h. 1. 
redundat. Sed ea referenda est ad verbum TJKOVE, et includit 
Christi discipulos aliosque convivas ; " i. e. Mary heard the word 
of Jesus, as well as his disciples and others who were present. 
This thought is presented by xai, " also." 

r " sitting ; " na^ay.a&laaffa. "Wesley, Scarlett, Thelwall, and 
M. The participial construction is adopted also by Dick., Wake- 
field, Camp. Heb. N. Test., naiui. Erasmus, Beza, Castalio, 
"assidens;" Goschen, " considens';" S. Fr., "s'etant assise;" 
Iber., " habiendose sentado ; " Ital., " essendosi seduta." 

" the feet of Jesus ; " rove noSas tot 'ftjoov. M. This con- 
struction is adopted on the ground that the possessive case of 




40 But Martha was cumbered 
about much serving, and came to 
him, and said, Lord, dost thou 
not care that my sister hath left 
me to serve alone ? bid her there- 
fore that she help me. 

41 And Jesus answered, and 
said unto her, Martha, Martha, 
thou art careful, and troubled 
about many tilings : 

42 But one thing is needful : 
and Mary hath chosen that good 
part, which shall not be taken 
away from her. 


Xoyov OLVTOV. 40 r) 5e MdpOa. 

TrtyOteorraro Trepi 
/ > -> & 


ou /ieAei croi ori ?} d8e\<j)r} fj.ov 


tyre o^^ aur^ iVa /ioj <rvvav- 
41 'AiroKpiGeif fie 
avry o 'lycrovf, Mdpda, 
MdpOa., fjLeptfJLvas KOU Tvpfidtjr) 
it TroAAa- 42 ei/oy 5e eVri 
Mapia 8e rr/v dya6rjv 
fj.epi8a e^eAe'faro, firis OVK dfiai- 



'word. But Martha was "per- 40 
plexed "with much serving, and 
came to him and said, Lord, 
dost thou not care that my sis- 
ter hath left me to serve alone? 
Bid her, "then, *help me. And 41 
Jesus, answering, said to her, 
Martha, Martha, ^thou art anx- 
ious and 'troubled about many 
things : but one thing is need- 42 
ful ; and Mary hath chosen *the 
good part, which shall not be 
taken away from her. 

Jesus is distinguished from the nominative only by an apostrophe, 
thus, Jesus'. Many readers and speakers make an effort to enun- 
ciate the possessive, so as to create a distinction, hence we have 
the vulgarism, Jesus'-es. 

t word ; " Myov . This term occurs so frequently (in the E. 
V.) in the sense of " discourse," that I retain it here, though 
" discourse," or the plural form, " words," is suggested as an alter- 

" perplexed ; " neqiKoxaro. Scarlett, Dick., M. Iberian 
" andaba solicita." Kuincel (in loco) : "Terbum negiaitaffd'ai 
A.ttici ponere consueverunt de'iis, qui cingunt aliquid, et circum- 
plectuntur, sed inde detrahuntur et avelluntur. Macedones vero 
hoc ipso verbo uti coeperunt de iis, qui nimis sunt in aliqua re 
occupati, nimis animo in ea defixi, qui ocoupationibus atque nego- 
tiis distringuutur ac distinentur, atque hoc sensu illud h. 1. legitur 
de Martha, ministrante et operam dante." Bretsch. (in verbo) : 
" Ex adjuncto apud serioves scriptores, aninram defigo in aliquid ; 
7ts(>i.<maod;at., animo defixum esse in aliqua re, ea districtum, ea 
prorsus occupari; semel Luc. 10 : 40, Tcegieoitiiro nsgl nol^v 
Siaxoviav, prorsus occupabatur ministerio." As an alternative 
rendering, "was distracted;" though I deem this word too 
strong, to present the exact thought. The verb seems nearly 
synonymous with ivqfiaKn, in v. 41 (" troubled, or disturbed"). 

T " with much serving ; " rtegi Tto^rjv Siay.oviav. Angus, 
Thelwall, M. Wes^y, Scarlett (" with great attendance "), Penn 
(" with much service"), Sawyer (" with much serving"), Wakef. 
(" with much preparation "). The rendering of ne$l by " with," 
in this case, presents the thought in a form more accordant with 
our usus loquendi, than " about." Belg., " met veel dienens ; " 
S. Pr., " par beaucoup de soins domestiques ; " G. Fr., " par divers 

* " then ; " ovv. The particle denotes mere sequence of one 
clause upon another. Bob. (Lex., in verbo). In such cases, it is 
properly rendered ' by " therefore, then, now." See Luke 20 : 29. 
John 4 : 5 ; 19 : 40. De Wette, " nun ; " S. Fr., " done." 

1 "help me;" Iva. fioi awavrdaftrirat. Here, as in many 
other instances, the subjunctive can be most concisely rendered 
by the Bng. infinitive. The tliought is presented in a form which, 
from its frequent occurrence, is most natural to the readers of our 
language. "When "bid" is followed by the infinitive, "to" is 
omitted. Bullion's Eng. Gram., g 67, Rule 18. See ch. 7 : 36, 
note. S. Fr., " de m'aider." 

' " thou art anxious ; " fisgifivqs. Thomson, Scarlett, Penn, 
Camp, Sawyer, Angus, Kend., A. Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : " !o 
be anxious." " To be careful," in this sense, is obsolete. 

z " troubled ; " tv$p<ir}. As this verb may be either in the 
pass, or middle voice, I suggest " thou troublest thyself" as au 
alternative rendering. 

* " the good part ; " -djv aya&rjv fts^lSa. Kend., Cainp., 
Sharpe, Wesley, Sawyer, Angus, M. The article should have its 
usual force here. In the original edition of Tyndale (1526), the 
rendering is " a good part " (so Coverdale), but in that of 1534, 
" that good part." This was copied by the E. V., though Gran- 
mer (1539), and Geneva correctly rendered "the good part." 
Though there may be a few cases where we may render the 
article in the N. Test, by a pronoun for the sake Of perspicuity, 
still the remark of Greene (Gram., p. 203) is correct : " The arti- 
cle is never used in the New Testament as n demonstrative, of 
relative pronoun." The article in the passage before us, is prop- 
erly rendered " the," also, by Dick., Penn, Norton. 





AND it came to pass, that as he 
* was praying in a certain place, 
when he ceased, one of his disci- 
ples said unto him, Lord, teach 
us to pray, as John also taught 
his disciples. 

2 And he said unto them, When 
ye pray, say, Our Father which 
art in heaven, Hallowed be thy 
name. Thy kingdom come. Thy 
will be done, as in heaven, so in 

3 Give us day by day our daily 

4 And forgive us our sins ; for 
we also forgive every one that is 
indebted to us. And lead us not 
into temptation ; but deliver us 
from evil. 




KAI eyeveTO iv TW dvai av- 


toy GTravcraTO, eare TIS T>V /j.adr)- 
T>V avrov Trpos O.VTOV, Kvpie, 
8i8a^ov 77/uay Trpoo-fvxeo-dai, /ca- 
8a>s KCU 'Icadvvrjs eSiSa^e TOVS 
avTov. 2 E'are 8e av- 
OTO.V Trpoo~ev)(r)o~0 ) Aeye- 
re, Harep r/fj-Siv 6 iv rots ovpa- 
) aytacrG^Tca TO ovop-a. aov 
) j3aoriAe/a troir yevq- 
dr)To> TO 0e\r//j.a crov, <ns ev ov- 
pavat, KCU eVt TTJS y>?y. 3 TOV 
apTov r)iJLG>v TOV iriov(nov SiSov 
TO Kaff rjfj.epav 4 KCU a0ep 
TO.S d/j.apTias i^cSf, /cat yap 
avTol d(j)le[j.v iravrl 

Kal fj.rj dcreveyKr/? 
dp weipaa-jJiov, aXXa pvcrai y 


CHAP; xi. 

AND it came to pass, that as ; 
he was praying in a certain 
place, when he ceased, one of 
his disciples said to him, Lord, 
teach us to pray, even as John 
taught his, disciples. And he 2 
said to them, When ye pray, 
say, ["Our] Father, [who art b in 
the heavens,] hallowed be, thy 
name. Thy kingdom come. [Thy 
will be done e on earth, as it is 
in heaven.] Give us day by 3 
day our d needful bread. And 4 
forgive us our sins ; for we our- 
selves forgive every one 'in- 
debted to us. And lead us 
not into f trial ; [but deliver 

a The sentences rnj.tav b Iv TOTS ovqavoTs yev^&rpcoi TO &- 
).r;fia aov, cos If ovgavaj, enl rtjs y>js, are rejected by Gries- 
bacl), Tischendorf, Knapp, Kuinoel, Grotius, Mill, Bengel, "Wet- 
stein (as quoted by Kuinoel). Kuinoel remarks: "Rectissime 
igitur Grotius, Millius, Bengelius, Welstenius, Segaarius et Gries- 
bachius, verba ilia pro spuriis habent, et Lucam e Matthseo iis 
locopletatum esse contendunt, maxime tum, cum hsec formula 
prsecandi in culto publico frequentari cospisset." (This remark of 
Kuinoel applies also to .Ua $$oai rjfi&s ano TOV novqgoii, v. 4.) 
Schott : " Vulgo post JIO.TCQ add. rjfiiov 6 sv TOTS ovgavois- At 
T/fuov deest in cd. B. minuscc. plurr. verss., Pers. ed. Wliel., Vulg., 
3 libris lat. apud Origen., et Marcionem et vbb. b iv TOTS ovq 
voTs non leg. in iisdem documentis quibus accedunt cd. L. versio 
Arm. duo libri lat. scholia in nonnullis cdd. obvia Additamenta 
ex Matt. 6 : 9 inserta recte censuerunt Griesb. aliisque. Post 
Paodeia. aov vulgo add. yevjj&j]TO TO &e^fta aov, cos Iv ovpa- 
vco, Inl TTJS yijs recta omissa apud Griesb. aliosque auctori- 
tate cdd. B.L. nonnullorum minuscc. verss. Arm., Vulg., 4 libro- 
rum lat., Origen., Marc., Hieron., August., Bedce. Inserta ex- 
Matt. 6 : 10, sub finem post iteioaffpov vulgo add. (ex Matt. 
6 : 13) cMa, voat y/nas and TOV itovrjctov, omissimus cum 
Griesb. aliisque praeuntibus cdd. B.L. minuscc. plurr. verss., 
Arm., Vulg., 6 libris lat. scholiis in aliquot cdd. adscriptis Marc., 
Hieron., August., Orig." 

On the other hand, Tittm., Lachm., and Theile retain the three 
passages. Scholz rejects only the last, alia. $va. itowjoov. 
Bloomfield strenuously defends the two first readings as genuine, 
but speaks doubtfully of the last, which he incloses in brackets. 

On the whole, I regard the two first as doubtful, asd, therefore, 
bracket them, while the third hardly merits a place in the text. 

b " in the heavens." See ch. 10 : 20, note. 

6 " on earth, as it is in," etc. So (B. V.) Matt. 6:10, where 
the text, is precisely the same. There is no necessity for the 
awkward inversion of the sentence, as in the E. V. Tyndalc, 
with better taste, gave the rendering, " Thy will be fulfilled, even 
in earth, as it is in heaven." So the Geneva. !EVr TIJS yijs 
should be rendered not " in," but " on the earth." The E. V. con- 
founds Iv (et> ovfio^-with int. 

11 " needful bread ; " ibv UCITOV TOV zmovoiov. Norton. 
Gosehen, " panem necessarium ; " Schott, " panem qiti ad vitam 
sufficiat." Syr., iojojoj Jicu^ ("necessary bread"). Wakef., 
Bloomf., Angus, " bread sufficient for us." The most probable 
derivation of emovaios is from ln\ and ovala, being, existence, 
and hence the idea will be, bread sufficient, needful for sustaining 
life. Origen., TOV els Trjv ovoiav ovfi/3a}.i.6fisvov SOTOV. Suidas, 
6 ini Tri ovaiq ?;ftcov cto/uoScov, tj b xa&efceqtvos. Rob. (Lex., 
vTttovs.). Others, with less probability, have derived the word 
(as a participle) from em-tfii. The conciseness of " our needful 
bread " renders it preferable to the phrase, " bread sufficient (or 
necessary) for us." As an alternative rendering, " our necessary 

" indebted ; " oysiiovri. The English idiom coincides with 
the Greek, so that it is unnecessary to insert " that is." So Gray 
(note on Angus). 

f " trial ; " Tttioaa/iov. Thomson, Scarlett, Dick., Norton, 
Wakef., Sawyer. See ch. 4 : 2, note. 




5 And he said unto them, "Which 
of you shall have a friend, and 
shall go unto him at midnight, 
and say unto him, Friend, lend 
roe three loaves : 

6 For a friend of mine in his 
journey is come to me, and I have 
nothing to set before him ? 

1 And he from within shall an- 
swer and say, Trouble me not : 
the door is now shut, and my 
children are with me in bed ; I 
cannot rise and give thee. 

8 I say unto you, Though he 
Trill not rise and give him, be- 
cause he is his friend, yet because 
of his importunity he will rise and 
give him as many as he needeth. 

9 And I say unto you, Ask, and 
it shall be given you ; seek, and 
ye shall find ; knock, and it shall 
be opened unto you. 


UTTO TOV TTOVrjpOV. 5 KtU et7T6 
\ > \ r r" 'f- ' " w'f- 

Trpos avrovs, eg v/ncov eet 
(fr'i\oi>, KOU Tropevcrerai irpos av-> 
TOV /JLeo-ovvKTiov, KOI e'iTrrj avT(S, 
xprjarov JJLOI Tpeis aprovs, 
rj (j)l\o? fiov Trapeyevero 
oSov Trpos /te, /cat OVK e^ca 
mroKpiBeis ebry, Mr] JJ.QI 
KOTTOVS Trapeze- rfBrj 17 dvpa /ce- 
/cAeto-rat, /cat TO. irauSia fiov fJ.T 
els TTJV KO'LTTJV elo~lv ov 
ava.<TTas Sovvai croi. 

8 Aiya) vfui/, el KOU ov Scacrei 
O.VT< avaaras, Sia. TO etz/at av- 
TOV 0/Aoz/, 810. ye TTJV avaiSeiav 
O.VTOV, eyepdels Saxrei aura cxrcov 
" Kayoa Xeyco, 
KCU So6r)o-Tat, vfj.iv 









us from evil]. And he said to 5 
them, g Which of you shall have 
a friend, and shall go to him 
at midnight, and say to him, 
Friend, lend me three loaves ; 
for a friend of mine hath come 6 
to me h from a journey, and I 
have nothing to set before him ? 
And he from within shall an- 7 
swer and say, 'Do not trouble 
me ; - the door is now shut, and 
my children are with me in "the 
bed ; I can not rise Ho give 
thee. I say to you, though he s 
will not rise and give him, be- 
cause he is his friend, yet be- 
cause of his importunity 'in- 
deed, he will rise, and give 
him as many as he needeth. 
And I say to you, Ask, and 'it 9 
will be given you ; seek, and 
'ye will find;, knock, and "it 
will be opened to you. For 10 

E " Which of you shall have," etc. ; 27s ! vfiiSv e&t, x. r. L 
Bloomf. remarks on this passage : " The best commentators here 
take ris for t tu, as in 1 Cor. 7 : 18, and Jas. 5 : 13, q. d., 
" should any one of you," etc. Kuincel approves this. Bloomf., 
however, inclines to regard the true import of ris as quisnam, 
and he cites Pritzsche to that effect. There is a harshness in the 
language of the E. V., which strikes the ear very unpleasantly, 
and, yet, it seems by no means easy to avoid this difficulty, if we 
give ris its usual interrogative force. I suggest, for consideration, 
the rendering of Campbell, " Should one of you have a friend, 
and go and he from within should answer," etc. So Iber., "Si 
alguno de entre vosotros tuviere un amigo, i fuere a el a media 
noche, i le dijere : 'Amigo, prestame tres panes, porque un amigo 
mio ha venido de viage a mi casa, i no tengo que ponerle delan- 
te.' " S. Fr., " Que 1'un d'entre vous ait un ami, et qu'il aille 
vers lui a minuit, et lui dise : Ami," etc. 

1 " from a journey ; " | bSov. Sharpe, Kendrick, Murdock, 
Sawyer. This arrangement is adopted, that the proper connec- 
tion of l| oSov with Ttageyevsro may be preserved, and because 
the natural place of the English equivalent, " from a journey," is 
after the verb. By substituting an idiomatic phrase as the ren- 
dering of these words, we can say, " a friend of mine hath come to 
me, on his journey," etc. This is submitted as an alternative. Syr., 
l*5o| _iS uZo!L 1-i| |.v"*; (" a friend hath come to me from a 
journey"). Heb. N. Test, -rp;ia W IB *3- Castalio, 
" venit ad me amicus meus ex via ; " S. Fr., " un de mes amis est 
arrive chez moi, d'un voyage ; " Penn, " a friend of mine is come 

to me in his journey," etc. ; Dan., " miu Ben er kommen til mig 
af Eeisen." 

I " Do not trouble me ; " My pot y.onovs jta^s^s. Thorn., 
Scarlett, Norton, "Wakef. This phrase is most accordant with 
present usage. Camp., " Do not disturb me." 

II "the;" mfv. 

i "to give;" Sovvai. Scarlett, Dick., Norton, "Wakef., Camp. 
The infinitive should be rendered as such in English. Belgic, 
" om u te geven ; " S. Fr., " pour t'en donner ; " Iber., " a darte." 
In the next verse, where the construction in the E. V. is the 
same (" and give "), the verb is in the fut. ind., Scaoet. * 

k " indeed ; " ye. Rob. (Lex., ye) : "As giving emphasis to 
the less in antithesis with the greater, Luke 11 : 8, Sid ye i^v 
avaiSeiav avrov, x. r. L, yet because of his importunity indeed, 
lie will rise," .etc. Beza, t "at certe propter importunitatem 
ejus," etc. ; Iber., " sin embargo por causa de su importunidad, se 
levantara," etc. Bloomf. (N. Test.) : " The y& here ought not to 
have been passed over in the versions." Goschen, " Eum impor- 
tunitate certe ejus excitatum daturum ei esse," etc. ; Schott, " im- 
portunitate certe excitatus dabit ei," etc. 

i " it will be given ; " So&^asrai. Sharpe, Scarlett, Penn, 
Norton, Wakef., SI. 

m " ye will find ; " evtfocrs. Penn, Scarlett, Norton, Wakef., 
Sharpe, M. 

" " it will be opened ; " avotyyaerat. Sharpe, Scarlett, Penn, 
Walcef., Norton, M. 




10 For every one that asketh, 
receiveth;. and he that seeketh, 
findeth ; and to him that knock- 
eth, it shall be opened. 

11 If a son shall ask bread of 
any of you that is a father, will 
he give him a stone? or if he ask 
a fish, will he for a fish give him 
a serpent? 

12 Or if he shall ask an egg, 
will he offer him a scorpion ? 

13 If ye then, being evil, know 
how to give good gifts unto your 
children : how much more shall 
2/owr heavenly Father give the 
Holy Spirit to them that ask him ? 

14 And he was casting out a 
devil, and it was dumb. And it 
came to pass -when the devil was 


yap o a.LTa>v Aa/x/3oVer /cat 6 

eu/>cr/cer /cat rc Kpovovn 
u riva Se v/j.uu> 
TOV Trarepa alnjcret 6 vlos aprov, 
p.rj Xi9oi> emo'oocrei ai>T(; el /cat 

>/]> \ \ J /I / 3/1 9 

fXavv, fj.rj O.VTL t^avos o(piv 7rt- 

5> / > ~ 12 * \ >\ i/ 

owcret avTCp ; 77 /cat ecus aiT.rjo~r) 
CDOV, p.rj emSaxrei avT< crKOp- 
TT'LOV ; 13 et o&v u/xety TrovrjpoL 
oiftare ayaOa 8o/j.a.Ta 
rot? TSKVOIS vfj.<Zv, Trocrtp 
ju.aAAoz> 6 Trarr/p o e ovpavov 
Scoo-ei Uvev/j.a ' Ayiov rots at- 
TOVCTLV avrov; 

14 JSTat f)V KJ3dXXa>i> SaLfio- 
viov, /cat auro rjv KOX^OV f-yeve- 
TO 8e, TOV dat/j.oi>lov e 


every one who asketh, rccciv- 
eth ; and he who seeketh. find- 
eth ; and to him who knocketh, 
it will be opened. "And what u 
father among you, if 'his. son 
shall ask bread, will give him 
a stone? or if he "shall ask a 
fish, will /instead of a fish, give 
him a serpent? or 'if he should 12 
ask an egg, will give him a 
scorpion? If ye, then, being 13 
evil, 'know how to give good 
gifts to your children, how 
much more will "your heavenly 
Father give the Holy Spirit to 
those who ask him ! And he H 
was casting out a "demon, and 
it was dumb. And it came to 
pass, when, "the demon *ha.d 

" "And what father among you ; " tlva Se v/j.cov rbv nareon. 
The texts of Lachm., Tisehend., Knapp. Theile, Tittm., Schott, 
Seholz have tiva Se IS vfiwv. Griesbach lias noted l| v/icav as 
equal, if not superior to the reading of the. Textns Receptus. 
Schott says : " Prcepositionem i ante vftcuv vulgo omissam, qua; 
h. 1. deesse non poterat (ad ambiguitatem structurae evitandam), 
ctim Griesb. aliisque addidimus ex cdd. A.B.C.D.K.M. minnscc. 
multis vss., Fesch. Philox., Pers., Arm., "Vulg., It." There is no 
reasonable doubt that J| should be placed in the text. As to the 
rendering of this passage (which is that of Kend., Thorn., Penn, 
Norton, Wakef., Gamp., Diek., M.), the arrangement has the 
advantage of perspicuity and force, while it gives the sense of the 
text -with as much accuracy as the E. "V. It is true that -civa. Se 
Jg vficov TOV naTega may be rendered more nearly ad verbum by 
"Who of you being a father" (if his son, etc.), yet this is less 
clear. The E. V. follows Tyndale. De Wette, " Welcher Vater 
nnter euch wtirde ; " S. Fr., " Or quel est le pere d'entre vous ; " 
Span., " T^ cual padre de entre vosotros ; " Ital., " Or qual padre 
e fra voi ; " Belg., " Ende wat vader onder u." 

P " his son ; " o vlos. Kend., Thorn., Norton, "Wakef., Camp., 
Dick., Sawyer, M. De Wette, " sein Solin ; " S. Fr., " son flls ; " 
Span., " su hijo ; " Ital., " il figliuol sno." The article here is 
used with the force of the possessive. See eh. 5 : 2, note. 

" shall ask." The verb altyaei, which occurs in the first 
clause of the verse, is understood here. In that clause the E. V. 
properly renders it " shall ask." The supplement should, there- 
%'erbe " shall ask." 

r " instead of ; " avrl. Kend., Thorn., Scarlett, Penn, Norton, 
Wakef. (" in its stead "), Camp., M. Bob. (Lex., in loco) : " For " 
is often used to signify in " exchange for," " in requital," and this 
is one of the significations of dvrl. But &vtl has also the 
signification of substitution, " in place of," " instead of." This 

last is its meaning here. 
" instead of." 

All ambiguity is removed if we use 

' " if he should ask ; " ahqoy. This aor. subj. receives this 
rendering in accordance with our familiar itsus loguendi. The 
E. V. in the parallel, Matt. 7 : 9, where the verb is in the same 
mode and tense, renders it " if he ask," but in the passage before 
us, " if he shall ask," as though it were an indicative future. 

" know how ; " otSare. I have retained the rendering of the 
E. Y., though I deem a different one more perspicuous. A spe- 
cial sense of the verb is " to be able, can." See Hob. (Lex., 
sZSco). In the E. V. we have Luke 12 : 56, o'iSare Soxtft<i&a>, 
" ye can discern ; ' and Matt. 27 : 65, tag o'iSnrs, " as ye can." 
The verb has this force Philip. 4:12, olSa Se nmetvovoS-ai, ol- 
Sa xai ?t(>t.aoEveiv, "I am able both to be abased, and I am 
able to abound." 1 Thess. 4 : 4, elSevni exaorov v/ndir -co irm- 
rov oxcvos srrSafrai x. T. L, " that each one of you be able to 
possess his vessel," etc. To these may be added 1 Timo. 3:5. 
James 4 : 17. 2 Pet. 2 : 9. Bretsch. (m verbo) : " Scio facio 
aliquid, didici, possum, vdeo, Matt. 7 : 11 ; 27 : 65, eas o'iSars, 
quo modo potestis, valetis, Luc. 11 : 13; 12 : 56. Phil. 4 : 12, 
etc." On these authorities, " yon can " is submitted as an alter- 
native rendering. In Hebrew sis has this sense. 1 Sam. 16 : 16, 
tiJsa 'jasa S^S Sept., tlSora -y&lleiv iv xivvgq, " (a man) able to 
play on tie harp." See Job 32 : 22, MS3N *t\s"t^ Ji, " I cannot 
flatter." -.--=.:-,.. 

" " your heavenly Father ; " o nar^ o If ovpavov. As the 
article here has the force of a possessive pronoun, " your " should 
not be italicized. See ch. 5 : 2, note. 

T " demon ; " Saifiovtov. See ch. 4 : 33, note. 

v " the demon ; " TOV Satfiovtov. See ch. 4 : 33, note. 

1 "had gone out;" tt-shd-ovros. Norton, Sawyer. See ch. 
4 : 34, note. 




gone out, the dumb spake ; and 
the people wondered. 

15 But some of them said, He 
casteth out devils through Beelze- 
bub, the chief of the devils. 

16 And others tempting Mm, 
sought of him a sign from heaven. 

17 But he, knowing their 
thoughts, said unto them, Every 
kingdom divided against itself, 
is brought to desolation ; and a 
house divided against a house, 

18 If Satan also be divided 
against himself, how shall his 
kingdom stand? because ye say 
that I cast out devils through 

19 And if I by Beelzebub cast 
out devils, by whom do your sons 
cast them out? therefore shall 
they be your judges. 

20 But if I with the finger of 
God cast out devils, no doubt the 


e\d\r}(rev o 

r sr 




yos' KCU e0avfj.a- 

IS \ s> /- 

rives .oe e 
*Ey BeeX^e^ovX 
ifjiovicav e/c/8aAAet 
ra dai/jLovia. 1B "Mrepoi Se Tret- 
pd^ovres trrj^ieifov Trap' avrov 
effjTovv e ovpavov. 1 AVTOS 
8e elftws avr&v TO. 8tavor//j.aTa 
eiitiev aurois 1 , Hacra j3acri\eia e^> 
eavrr/v StafJLepicr&elo-a eprjfj.ouTO.1.' 
KCU oiKOf em OLKOV, Tr/Trret. 18 el 

p\\ \ c VT ~ > is t N Sv 

oe /cat o ^aravas e(p eavrov die- 
fj.epicr6rj, Trcas GTa.O-rjo'eTai rj /3a- 
cn.Xe.ia avrov; OTL Ae'yere, ev 
_Z?eeAe/3ouA eKfidXXeiv yue ra 
8a.ilJ.ovia.. 19 el Se eyco ev ReeX- 
e/c/3aAAa) TO. Scu/j.6via, ol 
voi V/JLOJV ev TLVL eK^aXXovcri; 


ecrovTcu. 20 el Se ev Sa.KTV\q> 
v e'/c/SaAAco ra Sa.t/J.ovia } apa, 


gone out, ''the dumb man spoke ; 
and the crowds wondered. But 15 
some of them said, He casteth 
out "the demons "by Beelzebub, 
b prince of the demons. And 16 
others "trying him, sought of 
him a sign from heaven. But 17 
he, knowing their thoughts, said 
to them, Every kingdom divid- 
ed against itself, is brought to 
desolation ; and a house divid- 
ed against a house, falleth. 
Aiid if Satan also d is divided 18 
against himself, how shall his 
kingdom stand? because ye 
say that I cast out 'the demons 
by Beelzebub. And if I by H> 
Beelzebub cast out s the demons, 
by whom do your sons cast them 
out? therefore fney shall be 
your judges. But if I by the 20 
finger of God cast out the de- 
mons, h then the kingdom of 

' "the dumb man;" 6 xtoyog. Penn, Thorn., Sharpe, Nor- 
ton, Wakef., Kendriek, Peehy (note on Angus), M., Murdock. 
Scholefield : " The dumb man spake. This is necessary to dis- 
tinguish it as the action of the nan released from the power of 
the dumb devil mentioned before: afab %v xtacpov." There is 
another reason for inserting " man." It is this ; we use the word 
" dumb " without a substantive expressed (when we speak of 
men,- especially) only when it refers to the plural: But if the 
reference is to a singular substantive, that substantive is always 
expressed. In other words, if we say " the dumb," we are under- 
stood to refer to a class of persons destitute of speech, not to an 

"the demons;" T Saiftovia. Thomson, Scarlett, Norton, 
Thelwall, Wakef., and Dick, ("these demons"). The article is 
retained by the Belg., Luther, De Wette, G. and S. Fr., De Sacy, 
Iber., Span., Diodati, Ital. Heb. N. Test., tji^ias-j. So in Revis. 
of Mark 3 : 22. See Luke 9 : 1, note. 

'"by;" h>. M., Kend., Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Norton, 
Camp., Sawyer, Angus. So. parallel (E, Y.) Matt. 12 : 24. It 
is desirable, for the sake of uniformity in rendering, to reserve 
" through " for Sia with the genitive. In this narration, there is 
a great want of uniformity in the rendering of ev, in the B. V. 
For example, in Matt. 12 : 24, !</ ?$ Bed&poM., " by Beelze- 
bub." Luke 11 : 15, If Beefee/JoM, " through Beelzebub." 
Matt. 12 : 27, lv Bee^^ovl, " by Beelzebub." Luke 11 : 19, 
*" Bed&iSoM, " by Beelzebub." Matt. .12 : 2.8, lv 
Qsov, " by the Spirit of God." Luke 11 : 20, lv Saxrvly 

" with the finger of God." In all these cases, " by '' is the proper 

b " prince ; " a.qy,ovri. So (E. V.) in the parallels, Matt. 
12 : 24, and Mark 3 : 22. This is a common rendering of the 
word in the E. T., as in John 12 : 31 ; 14 : 30 ; 16 : 11. Eph. 
2:2. So Thorn., Wesley, Scarlett, Norton, Camp., Wakefield, 
Kend., Dick., Angus. In conformity with the text, the article 
(" the ") of the E. V. is omitted. The article is used in the 
parallel, Mark 3 : 22 (T<J> af>%ow), while the parallel, Matt. 
12 : 24, is anarthrous. No article in Wiclif, Kend., or Thelwall. 
It was introduced by Tyndale. 

c " trying ; " nei(>dovTes. Dick., Sawyer, Kend., Wakef. 
(" were trying "). Scarlett, Penu, and Camp., " to try ; " S. Fr., 
" pour 1'eprouver ; " Iber., " para, tentarlo ; " Ital., " per tentar- 
lo ; " De Wette, " versuchend." See ch. 4 : 2, note. 

d " is divided ; " Siefte?la&>j. Kend., Sawyer. Note in Eevis. 
of Mark 3 : 24 : "It is now a settled grammatical principle, in 
our language, that a conditional action, or state belonging to the 
present time, must be put in the indicative." See Luke 4 : 3, 

" the demons." See v. 15, note. Thorn., Scarlett, Wakef.,. 
Dick. (" these demons ") ; Belg. (" de Duivelen ") ; Luther and De 
Wette (" die Teufel ") ; S. Fr., " les demons." 

f " by ; " lv. See v. 15, note. 

E " the demons." See v. 15, note. 

h " then ; " Ufa. Wesley, Sharpe, Norton, Wakef., Sawyer, 




kingdom of God is come upon 

21 "When a strong man armed 
keepeth his palace, his goods are 
in peace : 

22 But when a stronger than 
he shall come upon him, and over- 
come him, he taketh from him all 
his armour wherein he trusted, 
and divideth his spoils. 

28 He that is not with me is 
against me : and he that gather- 
eth not with me scattereth. 

24 When the unclean spirit is 
gone out of a man, he walketh 
through dry places, seeking rest : 

- > j j <* t ?* * / 

e<p Vfias rj pacriAeia 
TOV Oeov. 21 OTO.V 6 io~xypos 
Ka.danrXio~fJi.evo? (frvXaa-cng TTJV 
eavTOv avXrjv, ei> elprfvy eori TO. 

> '" 22 ' ^ fc^ 

avTOv ejrav oe o 


crr) avTov, rrjv TravoTrXiav avTov 

,i >_L> * > - //i \ v 

atpei, (p y tTreTrotaei, KOC.L ra 

avrov SiadlScocriv. 23 o 

,<i> /AST e/JLo /car e/ioy eorr 
6 fjirj crvva-ycav' e/xou 

/- 24 1 s\ \ * ' 

L. UTO.V TO O.K.O.- 

6apTov Trvevfjia ee\0r) awo TOV 
avOpconrov, diepx<ETat, fit" avvdpcov 


God 'hath already come Ho 
you. When k the strong one 21 
armed guar.deth his palace, his 
'possessions are in peace ; but 22 
"whenever, "one stronger than 
he cometh upon him, and over- 
come th him, -, he taketh ffrom 
him all his armor in which he 
trusted, and ""distributeth his 
spoils. He who is not with 23 
me, is against me ; and he who 
gathereth not with me, scatter- 
eth. When the unclean spirit 24 
r hath gone out of the man, "it 
walketh through dry places, 

Kend., Thelwall, Rob. (Lex., in verbo). De Wette, " demnach ; 
Diodati, "adunque." So parallel (B. V.) Matt. 12 : 28. 

1 "hath already^ppme ; " %y>9-aoev. Iber., "ya ha llegado.' 
Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : " "With iiti viva, to have already come to 
or upon any one, Matt. 12 : 28, et Luke 11 : 20. 1 Thess. 2 : 16.' 
Bloomf. (N. Test, on Matt. 12 : 28) : " Schmid and Fritzsche 
take this to be a strong expression, signifying ' is come upon you, 
before you are aware.' It rather means, ' is already come upon 
you.' " See ch. 4 : 34, note. 

l "to you;" ey>' vfias. Kend. De "Wette, "zu euch;" S. 
IV., " jusqu'a vous ; " Iber., "a vosotros ; " Diodati and Ital., 
voi." In the parallel (B. V.) Matt. 12 : 28, " unto you." 

k "the strong one;" 6 la%v!>bs. "Wesley, Thorn., Scarlett, 
Dick., "Wakef., Camp. The article is retained by Kend., Angus, 
Thelwall, Bheitns. De "Wette, " der Gewaltige ; " Iber. and 
Span., " el fuerte." The force of the article is fully brought out 
in S. Fr., " celui qui est fort ; " and Ital-, " colui ch' e forte " (" he 
who is strong"). Such a rendering is, perhaps, too paraphrastic. 

J " possessions ; " -co, vna^xovra. See ch. 8 : 3, note. Bob. 
(Lex.) : " Things present, things in hand, possessions, etc." Nor- 
ton, "Wakef., Kend., M. Tulg. and Eras., " ea quse possidet ; " 
Tyndale and Bheims, " that he possesseth ; " Cran. and Geneva, 
"the things that he possesseth;" Belg., " wat hij heeft;" De 
"Wette, "seine Habe;" S. Fr., " ce qu'il possede ; " Iber., "lo 
que tiene." This word should not be confounded by rendering it 
like OV.EVI] ("goods"), in the parallels, Matt. 12 : 29, and Mark 
3 : 27. It has a wider signification. Kuinosl (in loco) : " To. 
supellex, utensilia, bona, opes." Heb. N. Test., 

m " whenever ; " btav. See v. 34, note. 

* " one stronger ; " 6 lazvporepos. Norton, M., Techy (note 
on Angus). The article here has the same force as in v. 21. 
See note k. The literal rendering " the stronger than he " is not 
in accordance with our idiom. The "thought is, as expressed by 

De Wette, S. Fr., "he who is stronger than he." Iber., " otro 
mas fuerte que el." 

"him." This pronoun is a supplement, and should have been 
italicized in the E.'V. 

3" "from him." See last note. This supplement is, perhaps, 
necessary to render the sentence more complete, according to our 
idiom, hence it is retained; Nothing like " him " is found in 
Mont. (" omnem armaturam ejus tollit"), Goschen (" completam 
ejus aufert armaturam "), Schott (idem), Vulg. (" universa arma 
ejus auferet "), Eras. (" universa arma ejus aufert "), Beza, (" totam 
armaturam ejus aufert"), Belg. A supplement seems to have 
been first used in Luther's version, " so nimmt er ihm seinen Har- 
nisch;" hence .Tyndale's rendering, " he taketh from him his 
harness," and Ooverdale's, " he taketh from him all his weapons." 

suggest the propriety of dropping the supplement, as has been 
done by Angus. 

i " distributeth ; " SiaSiScoaiv. Penn, Dick., Sawyer, Kend. 
Vulg., " distribuet ; " Mont., Eras., Beza, Castal., " distribuit." 
So (E." V.) Luke 18 : 22. John 6 : 11. Acts 4 : 35. . In the 
only other instance in which the word occurs, Bev. 17 : 13, the 
E. V. has " shall give," though there the true reading is not Sia- 
StScaaovaiv (Text. Becept), but simply SiSoaolv, pres. tense 
(Griesb., Lachm., Tischend., Knapp, Theile, .Tittm., Scholz). 
Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : " To deal out, to distribute, with ace. of 
thing, and dat. of person, Luke 18 : 22. John 6 : 11, dat. implied 
Luke 11 : 12." Bretsch. : "Distribuo. Neque aliter intelligen- 
dum est Luc. 11 : 22, -co. oxvla. StaSiScaacv priedam distribuit." 
The rendering of the verb should, therefore, be uniformly " dis- 
tribute." Pasor's Lex. (N. Test., in loco) : " Spolia distribuit." 
Belg., " deelt uit ; " De Wette, " vertheilet ; " Luther, " theilt 

"hath gone out;" J!<U#0. See ch. 4 : 34, note. Thorn., 
Norton, Dick. (" has departed "), Sawyer. Tulg., Mont., Eras., 
Beza, Schott, " exierit ; " Iber. and Span., " ha salido." 

"it." So (E. V.) v.14. "It" ia used for the "demon" 




and finding Done, he saith, I will 
return unto my house whence I 
came out. 

25 And when he cometh, he 
findeth it swept and garnished. 

26 Then goeth he, and taketh, 
to Mm seven other spirits more 
wicked than himself; and they 
enter in, and dwell there ; and 
the last state of that man is worse 
than the first. 

27 And it came to pass, as he 
spake these things, a certain wo- 
man of the company lifted up her 
voice, and said unto him, Blessed 
is the womb that bare thee, and 


TOTTCOV, fjjTovv awTTauow /cat 
/j,rj evplcTKOv Ae'yet, c 
elf TOV QLK.OV fj.ov odev f 

OK \ Jx /i\ e / / 

KOLL eActoz/ evpiCTKfi crecrapcu/ie- 
vov /cat KKoa-fiT][Ji.zi>ois. 2G rare 
TropeveTau /cat 7ra/3aAa/z/3aVet e?rra 
eTepa TrvevfJMTo. -!rovrjpoTpa av- 
TOV, /cat etcreA#oz>ra Karot/cet e/cer 
KCU ytVerat ra ca^ara TOV dvdpco- 
TTOU exeivov ^eipova. T>V Trpcorcov. 

27 'JSyeWro Be kv T< Xeyuv 
avrov TavTa, f-trapacrd TLS yvvr) 
(j)ci)vr/i> IK TOV o^Aou etTrez/ aura), 
Ma.Ka.pia 77 KOiXia 77 (3acrTao-acrd 


seeking rest : and finding none, 
it saith, I will return "into my 
house whence I came out. And 23 
when it cometh, it findeth 
it swept and T adorned. Then 2G 
it goeth. and "taketh with it 
seven spirits worse than itself, 
and they, Centering in, dwell 
there; and the last state of that 
man 'becometh worse than the 
first. And it came to pass, as 27 
he spoke 'this, a certain woman 
of the crowd, 'lifting up her 
voice, said to him, c Happy is 
the womb that bore thee, and 

" " into ; " els. The radical signification of etg is appropriate 
here. So Slmrpe. G-. and S. Fr., " dans." 

' " adorned ; " xtxoafujfiivov, Scarlett, Dick., Thelwall, Saw- 
yer, G. Camp, ("embellished"), M. Vulg., Mont., Bras., Beza, 
Oastal., Schott, Goschen, " ornatam." Bob. (Lex., xoofieco). 
Liddell : "To deck, adorn, dress." Bretsch. : "Orno, exorno, 
pulchrum facio ornamentis, Matt. 12 : 44. Luc. 11 : 25, olxov 
quasi niminum ad excipiendum hospitem." Kuincel (Matt. 
12 : 44), " exornatam." " Garnished " (first introduced by Tyn- 
dsile) is obsolete. Koafieca is rendered " adorn," Luke 21 : 5. 
1 Tim. 2:9. Titus a : 10. 1 Pet. 3 : 5. Rev. 21 : 2. 

w " taketh with it ; " rtapaia-ufiarei. "Wakefield. As utapa, 
in composition, implies nearness along side of, near, by, and 
when indicating motion, to the side of, near to, by (Kobinson, 
Lex.), its force here may be presented by the words " taketh to 
if," or " taketh with it." The latter accords best, with our 
present mode of speaking. So (E. Y.) Matt. 1 : 20, xagalafle'iv, 
" to take to thee." So Matt. 1 : 24, na^la^e, " took to him." 
Matt. 26 : 37, na^a.}.a^u>v tov USTQOV, " he took with him 
Peter." See Luke 9 : 28, note. The verb is so rendered by 
Tyndale (Edition of 1526), Scarlett, Pechy (note on Angus). 
Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, " assumit ; " Schott, " adsumit ; " G6- 

schen, " adducit ; " Belg., " neemt met hem ; " De Wette, "nimftit 
mit ; " G. Fr., " prend avec soi ; " S. Fr., " prend avec lui ; " 
Iber., "lleva confsigo];" Diodati and Ital., " prende seco;" 
Dan., " tager til sig." Compare the parallel, Matt. 12 : 45, 
Tin^aiafi/Sdvei psd* eavrov. In this instance it seems, from the 
addition of ftslf- iavrou, that the force of napa, in composition, 
is nearly equivalent to our woi'd " along," so frequently employed 
where accompaniment is indicated, " he taketh along with him." 

x " entering in ; " claeiS-ovra. "Wesley, M. 

* " becometh ; " yivsrai. Wesley, Wakef., Dick., Camp., 
Angus, M. Goschen, " fit ; " Schott, " fiat ; " Vulg., Mont., Eras., 
" fiunt (novissima) ; " Belg., " wordt ; " De "Wette, " wird ; " 
Iber., " se hace." 

1 " this ; " Tavra. Kenrl., Wakef., Sharpe. Goschen, " hoc." 
See ch. 5 : 27, note. 

1 " of the crowd ; " lx rov o$.ov. The reason for retaining 
" of," instead of rendering ix " out of," may be seen ch. 8 : 27, 

b " lifting up her voice ; " endgaaa yaivfjv. M., "Wesley, 
Camp., Thelwall. As there is no possessive, or article before 
ycavrjv, " her " is italicised, as a supplement. 

c " Happy ; " MavMoia. Tyndale, Cranmer, Genera, Thorn., 

By employing this pronoun, we distinguish the demon, and ob- 
viate a common mistake into which readers often fall, by suppos- 
ing that " walketh " refers to the man. " It " is used by Sharpe, 
Thorn., Penn, Norton, Wakef., Sawyer, Kend. This rendering is 
the more exact, as itvsv/ta is neuter. Still, if it is deemed best to 
retain " he," then this should be the order of the sentence, " the 
unclean spirit, when he hath gone out," etc. So Camp, and Dick. 
" goeth through ;" SispXerat. Kend., Penn, Wakef., Angus, 
Norton and Sawyer, " passes through ; " Wiclif and Rheims, 
" wandereth ; " Beza, " transit ; " Castalio, " peragat ; " Schott. 
" migrat." This verb is rendered " walketh through " (E. V.) 
only here and in the pai-allel, Matt. 12 : 42, although it occurs 
in forty-three instances in the N. Test. The E. V. uses " to go 

through," Matt. 19 : 24. Mark 10 : 25. Luke 4 : 30 ; 9:6. 
John 4:4; 8:59. Acts 8:40; 13:6; 15:41, etc. It 
is often rendered by "to pass through." On the other hand, 
" to walk " is the representative of ne^tjtat^ca in one hundred 
and three instances in the E. V. This word iteQmareco being 
uniformly so translated in all cases, except Mark 12 : 38 (" to 
go"), where " to walk about" is more accurate. The rendering 
in the passage before us originated in that of the Vulgate, " am- 
bulat," which was followed by Tyndale, Coverdale, Cranmer, 
Geneva, and, lastly, by the E. V. Belg., "gaat door;" De 
Wette, " durchziehet ; " Dan., " vandrer han igjenem ; " G; Fr., 
"il va par;" S. Fr., "51 parcourt;" Iber., " transita por;" 
Diodati, " il va attorno per;" Ital., " esso va percorrendo." 




the paps which thou hast suck- 

28 But he said, Yea, rather 
blessed are they that hear the 
word of God, and keep it. 

29 And when the people were 
gathered thick together, he began 
to say, This is an evil generation : 
they seek a sign ; and there shall 
no sign be given it, but the sign 
of Jonas the prophet. 

30 For as Jonas was a sign 
unto the Ninevites, so shall also 
the-Son of man be to this genera- 

31 The queen of the south shall 
rise up in the judgment with the 
men of this generation, and con- 
demn them : for she came from 
the utmost parts of the earth, to 
hear the wisdom of Solomon ; and 


ere, /cat fJiacTToi ov? 

AVTOS Se etTre, Mevovvye ficc- 


TOV Oeov KOI (f)v\acro-ovTs av- 

l 20 rn ~ c\ \ v \ t /i 

TOV. JLCOV oe o^Acov eiraopoi- 
ofj,evcov rjp^aro Xeyetv, 'H ytvea 
wovr/pa eVrr 0-rf/j.elov eVi- 
o-rj/j.elov ov Sodycrerai. 
j.r) TO cr^jaetov 'Icovd 
TOV Trpo(f)^TOv. 30<as yap 
eyeveTO 'lavas o"r/fj.eiov TOI? Nr 


TOV avOpcoirov TTJ yevea TavTrj. 
31 jBacr/Aicrcra VOTOV yep0r/o~eT<u 
ev Ty Kpiarei, TCOV avo~pS>v 
TTJS yeveas ravrr/s, KCU /carr/3i- 


irepaTcav TTJP yfjs aKOvcraL TTJV 


A the breasts which thou hast 
sucked ! But he said, Yea, 28 
rather 'happy are those Avho 
hear the word of God, and keep 
it. And the crowds 'being 2p 
gathered to him, he began to 
say, This is an evil generation : 
*it seeketh a sign ; and no sign 
h will be given it 'except the 
sign of Jonah.' For as Jonah 36 
was a sign to the Ninevites, l so 
will the Son of man be to this 
generation. ^Tlie queen of the 31 
South "will rise in the judg- 
ment with the men of this gen- 
eration, and condemn them ; 
for she came from "the ends of 
the earth to hear the wisdom 

Scarlett, Wakef., Dick., Camp., Kend., M. Iber., " feliz." See 
ch. 1 : 45, note. 

4 "the breasts;" ftaaroi. Bob. (Lex.), Thomson, Scarlett, 
Wakef., Norton, Camp. (" the breast"), Sawyer, M. The Heb. 
Diltti (sing, ^a, which is generic, so as to include breast, and 
teat) is rendered by this word in the Sept., Gen. 49 : 25. Songs 
8 : 1. Isa. 28 : 9. " Paps" is obsolete. "TAe" is italicised, as 
a supplement. 

" happy." See v. 27, note. 

f " being gathered to him ; " ina9^oit,ofiivo3v. Kob. (Lex.) : 
" In composition, fort implies motion, or direction upon, to, to- 
wards, against." Rob. (Lex., in verbo) : " Mid. intrans. lita&q 
oficu, to gather together to, or upon." "Wakef., " were crowding 
together upon him ; " Norton, " thronging about him ; " Beza, 
" aggregaretur apud eum;" Iber., "estaban acudiendo a [el]." 
It it obrious, that the 'gathering was to Christ ; hence " Mm " is 
introduced, as a supplement. 

* " it seeketh ; " InitJiTsz. "Wesley, Thorn., Scarlett, Shavpe, 
Penn, "Wakef., Norton ("it would have"), Sawyer, M. As the 
verb is singular, and we often . speak of a crowd, by employing 
" it," the propriety of this rendering is obvious. 

h " will be given ; " SO&TJOSTCU. Penn, Norton, M. 

1 " except ; " el fir;. Scarlett, Norton, Dick., M. 

J Tov ttpopiJTov of the Text. Recept., after Ycora, is canceled 
by Griesb., Lachm., Tischend., Knapp, Theile, the Amiatan MS. 
3f the Vulgate. Schott says : " Vbb. rov tr^oyjjzov post 'JcovH 
vulgo addita (ex Matt. 12 : 39) plerique recentt. editt. cum 
Griesb. recte delent praseuntibus cdd. B.D.L. verss. Memph., 
Arm., Syrt Hierosol., Sax., Vulg. ms., It. (excepto cd. Brix.)." 
The weight of evidence is against these words. 

k " so will be ; " OVTIOS Harm. OUTCOS is rendered simply by 
" so " (B. V.) Matt. 5 -.12,16; 7:12; 12 : 40 ; 13 : 49 ; 18 : 35, 
and in many other instances. Thus Wakef., Camp. In the 
above arrangement of the words, the text is followed as affording 
a form which is exact and perspicuous. " Will be " is the ren- 
dering of Penn, Wakef., Norton, Dick., Kend., M. 

i "The." The article is not expressed in the text, though 
" queen" is definite. Hence "The" is italicized for exactness. 

m " will rise ; " eysqd-fjoeTai. Scarlett, Sharpe. The adverb 
" up " is superfluous. It is not used in connection with this verb 
in a great number of instances in the E. V. See Matt. 27 : 52 ; 
28 : 6, 7. Mark 6:10; 12 : 26. Luke 7 : 14, 22 ; 20 : 37. 
John 12 : 1. There are a few cases where " rise up " has become 
an idiomatic phrase, and may be properly employed. See Luke 
5 : 23. " Up," in this instance, is omitted by M., Dick., Camp., 
Sawyer, Wiclif, Tyndale, Coverdale, Cramner, Geneva, Rheims. 
M. remarks (as I think, correctly) that " the rendering ' rise up ' 
in the E. V. probably arose from taking tyaigco in a forensic 
sense, in allusion to the standing of witnesses in a court of police. 
And so Robinson (Lex.) and Kuincel understand it here. But 
nowhere else is the verb employed in the N. Test, in such a sense, 
when followed by peta ; but always has bti with the accusative 
after it (Matt. -24 : 7. Mark 13 : 8). Merd has the sense of 
with, togetJier with. The verb refers to the resurrection at the 
day of judgment. The same remark applies to the verb avuoirf 
pi, in the next verse, which is employed in the same sense." 

1 " the ends of the earth ; " & TCOV Tcegarcov -r!js yf/e. Sharpe, 
Wakef., Norton, Sawyer, Penn ( end of the earth"), Thelwall. 
Rob. (Lex., itsyas) : "An end, extremity." Bretsch., "Finis, i. e. 
de loco : extremitas, terminus." Ps. 19 : 4, Sept. (18 : 5), * & 




behoM, a greater than Solomon is 

32 The men of Nineveh shall 
vise up in the judgment with this 
jrenerauon, and shall condemn it : 
for they repented at the preaching 
of Jonas; and behold, a greater 
than Jonas is here. 

33 No man when he hath light- 
ed a candle, putteth it in a secret 
place, neither under a bushel, but 
on a candlestick, that they which 
come in may see the light. 

34 The light of the body is the 
eye :~ therefore when thine eye is 





32 av- 
ei> rfj 

8pes Nwevi 

Kpicrei yuera rfj? "yevea? 
KOU KaTdKpivovcriv avTrjv OTL 
fjierevorjcrav els' TO K^pvy/j.a 'la- 
va, /cat ISov, irXelov 'Itava cade, 
OvSe'i? 8e Xv^yov a,\jsas elf 


[jioo'iov, aXX' 67rt TT/V Xv^viav, 
'iva. ol el(nropev6fj.evoL TO (j)eyyos 
o Xv^i/oy TOU croa- 
eo~Tiv o odidaAuoy OTO,V 


of Solomon ; and behold, a 
greater than Solomon is here. 
"The men of Nineveh ""will rise 32 
in the judgment with this gen- 
eration, and condemn it, for 
they repented at 'the preach- 
ing of Jonah ; and behold, a 
greater than Jonah is here. 
r No one 'having lighted a 33 
lamp, putteth it in a secret 
place, "neither 'under the bush- 
el, but on w the lamp-stand, that 
"those who enter may see the 
light. y The lamp of thy body 3* 
is thine eye ; therefore, when 

ra nc^nra. TTjs nkovpevys TO. ^fiara nvrcav, " and their words 
to the end of the habitable earth." This passage is quoted Rom. 
10 : 18, where the E. V. has " ends of the world." In the E. V. 
" the ends of the earth " is a common phrase. See Deut. 33 : 17. 
1 Sam. 2 : 10. Job 38 : 13. Ps. 22 : 27 ; 48 : 10. Isa. 40 : 28. 
Micah 5:4. 

"The men." See v. 31, note. 

P " will rise ; " avaar^aoi'ra.i. Scarlett, Sharpe. See v. 31, 

' " the preaching ; " TO y.fiqvyfta. The rendering of the E. V. 
is retained as preferable to any other, which has been adopted. 
No reader imagines that Jonali selected a text, and proceeded to 
expound its thought into a formal address, and thus deliver a 
sermon in modern style. In view of the definition of the verb 
" to preach," such as "Webster furnishes, " to proclaim, to publish 
in religious discourses," it seems that we may properly retain 
" preach," and " preaching." There are two or three instances in 
the N. T., where "publish" is, from the circumstances, more 
appropriate than " preach." The noun xqpvyfia may be rendered 
by preaching, proclamation, publication (or as part, noun, "pub- 
lishing "). Of these, the first is deemed most apposite. 

' " No one ; " OvMs. See ch. 1 : 61, note. Sharpe, Thorn., 
Scarlett, Perm, Wakef., Kendrick, M. So in every subsequent, 
instance, in this Revision. 

' " having lighted ; " ys. M., Wesley, Scarlett, Thomson, 
Dick., Thelwall. 

1 " a lamp ; " iv%vov. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, "Wakef., Norton, 
Dick., Camp., Angus, M. " Candles " were unknown at the era 
of the Saviour's advent. 

"neither;" ovSc. In ch. 8 : 16, where this passage first 
occurs, the conjunction is fj, which is rendered " or " in the Revi- 
sion. In the present case, where the language is slightly differ- 
ent, the ordinary rendering of ovSe is retained. 

v " under the bushel ; " vno TOV /toSior. Green (Gram., 
p. 142) quotes the parallel, Matt. 5 : 15, ovSs xaiovat &v%vov 
*i Ti&eaovv ctvTov i-jro TOV ftoStov, aiK lyri frjv 3,v%via.v, with 

the following remark : " With the idea of a house suggested by 
the lighting of a candle (lamp), was necessarily associated that of 
the usual single articles of furniture, the fioStos and Iv^vta." An 
extract is here made from the note on the parallel, Mark 4 : 21 
(Revision) : " The article is retained on the ground, that when a 
well known article belonging to the ordinary furniture of every 
house was spoken of, the article was employed, because the name 
of that article was definite. In this respect, the idiom of the 
Greek and English is the same. So we say, " the clock," " the 
stove," etc. In reference to a single house, these names are view- 
ed as moiwdic. On the other hand, we sometimes omit the 
definite article in cases of this kind, and such is the usage in 
Greek. In the parallel, Luke 8 : 16, we have ).v-/,vov zAh-qs, 
without the article. In Matt. 5 : 15, both usages occur in the 
same sentence, ovSe y.alovai iv%vov xal itd'saaiv miiov vnb rot- 
fioSiov, at.K eni t^v Iv/fiav. In such cases, it is deemed best to 
preserve the characteristic style of each writer as far as possible, 
without violating the propriety of our own language." v 

w " the lamp-stand ;" &ri -tr t i' l.v%viav. See ch. 8 : 16, note. 
P.or the use of the article, see last note supra. 

* " those who enter ; " ol da7to^euo/j.Evoi. Thelwall, Camp. 
Dick. In the parallel, Luke 8 : 16, these words are rendered in 
the E. V., " which enter in." As " in," with the verb " enter," 
may be regarded as tautological, it is dropped. Rob. (Lex., elo- 

^voftni} : " To go in, to enter." Vulg., Beza, Eras., " qui in- 
grediuntur." Euphony has occasionally induced the Reviser to 
retain " into," after " enter." 

y " The lamp of the body is thine eye ;" (Murd., Penn) o).v%vos 
TOV atofcaros loTtv o oy&nl.fios aov. This is the reading of 
Lachm., Tisch., Theile, "Scholz. Griesb. marks aov as equal or 
superior to the reading of the Text. Recept. Sov is sanctioned 
by the earliest MS. B, the Syriac, -^ -^ uL.&] ?^ 
Yulg-., " Lucerna corporis tui est oculus tuus." 'O, before 

os, has the force of a possessive pronoun. See ch. 6 : 1, note. 
Norton, " The lamp of your body is your eye." Schott has this 
notice on the reading of the passage : "Sov ante OTO.V quod 
vulgo deest (omissum propter locum Matt. 6 : 22) cum Griesb 




single, thy whole body also is full 
of light ; but when thine eye is 
evil, thy body also is full of dark- 

35 Take' heed therefore, that 
the light which is in thee be not 

36 If thy whole body therefore 
be full of light, having no part 
dark, the whole shall be full of 
light ; as when the bright shining 
of a candle doth give thee light. 

37 And as he spake, a certain 
Pharisee besought him to dine 
with him : and he went in. and 
sat down to meat. 


ovv 6 of^daXfJios crov dirAovs 77, 
KCU oXov TO (rca/jioi crov <pcoriv6v 
4o~Tiv e-rrav 8e Trovrjpos y, KCU TO 
crco/nd crov crKOTeivov. 35 crKOTrei 
ovv //.^ TO (pay TO ev crol CTKOTTO? 
ICTTLV. S6 ei ovv TO crapd crov 

ff \ fl\ V ^ V ' \ f 

ov, ecrTat (pcoTeivoi> oXov, 
OTO.V o Xv^vos Trj do~Tpa.Trfj 

l/ M? cre< 
37 '77 ?^ v / ' v '\'\~ *' 

JliV de TCO AaAT]o;aL, rjpcoTct 
0apicrcu6s TIS OTTcas dpi- 
Trap' avrcS" eicreX8a>v 8e 


thine eye is 'sound, thy whole 
body also "is enlightened ; but 
"whenever thine eye~is 'diseas- 
ed, thy whole body also is dark. 
Take heed therefore, that the 35 
light which is in thee be not 
darkness. d lf, therefore, thy 36 
whole body be 'enlightened, 
having no part dark, the whole 
will be 'enlightened, as when 
B the lamp h by its brightness 
'giveth thee light. And 'while 37 
he was speaking, a certain 
Pharisee k asked him Ho dine 
with him : and lie went in, and 

aliisque addidimus ex cdd. A.B.C.D.M., 2 minuscc. verss., Pescb. 
Pers., Ar. pol., Memph., Vulg., It." 

1 " sound ; " anlovs. "Wakef., Camp., Sawyer, Kend., M. 
Kob. (Lex., in verbo} : " In N. Test., of the eye, simple, unclouded, 
i. e., not affected with disease, clear, sound ; app. to novrjyos, dis- 
eased." Bretseh. : " Luc, 11 : 34, de oculo sano, vitio non labc- 
rante, ae proinde clare vidente, vera intelligente." Thorn., Peun, 
Dick., and Norton render the word " clear." 

" is enlightened ; " ycareivov lartv. Scarlett, Thorn., Wake- 
field, Norton, Camp., Kend., Murdock. Bretsch. (Lex., in verbo) : 
" Intransitive : luce cottustratus." Heb. N. Test, Tjxn. Syriac, 
j^oiJ JoaiJ. Mont, Castalio, Schott, Goschen, " lucidum est ; " 
Vulg., Eras., Beza, " lucidum erit ; " Belg., " is verlicht ; " G. 
Fr., " sera eclaire ; " S. Fr., " est eelaire ; " Iber., " estara ilumi- 
nado ; " Diodati, " sara alluminato ; " Ital., " sera illaminato." 

b "whenever;" btav. Bob. (Lex., in verbo et loco), Liddell 

' "diseased;" novr/gos. Eobinson (Lex., in verbo]. Schott, 
" zegrotus." Dick., Kend., M. " Disordered " is the rendering 
of Norton, Wakef., Penn ; and " distempered," of Thorn., G. and 
A. Camp. 

d " If therefore ; " el ovv. The order of the text is preferable 
to that of the E. Y. So II., Penn, Sawyer. 

e " enlightened ; " ycorsivbv. See v. 34, note. 

1 " enlightened ; " ycorswbv. See v. 34, note. 

f " the lamp ; " H%vos. See v. 33, note on Hyvos, and same 
verse, note on /uoSiov. Sharpe, M., Penn, Wakef. Heb. N. 
Test., 1SS- Belg., " do kaarse ; " De Wette, " die Leuclite." 

h " by its brightness ; " rg aorganfi. M., Penn (" by its bright- 
ness"), Angus. The article has the force of a possessive, and is 
so rendered in the above versions and also in those of Wesley, 
Scarlett, Thorn., Camp., Sharpe, Dick., AVukef. Kob. (Lex., in 
verbo) : " Tropically, a shining, brightness." Kuincel : "^a- 
3iJ7 v. 36 est fulgor, splendor Etiam verbum aar^omrsiv ita 
legitur, ut sit fulgere f coruscare." Bretsch. : "Splendor, lux mi- 

1 " giveth thee light ; " ycoti^ij. " Doth " is superfluous. 

1 " while he was speaking ; " tv 3s trp la^.Tjaai. Scarlett, 
Camp., Dick., Sawyer (" when," etc.), M. S. Fr., " comme il 

k " asked ; " r^cora. Wesley, Scarlett, Camp., Sharpe, Wake- 
field, Norton, Sawyer, Kend., Thelwall, M. Thorn, and Dick., 
" invited." So often in E. V., as Luke 9 : 45 ; 19 : 31 ; 20 : 3. 
John 1 : 25 ; 9 : 2 ; 16 : 23. Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, Castal., 
Goschen, Sehott, " rogavit ; " Iber., " rogo." The Hebraistic 
sense which this word has in some parts of the N. Test., by which 
it is made to possess the force of nlreea, does not seem appropri- 
ate, in this instance. " Besought " .is too strong. 

i " to dine ; " afiaTijcirj. The weight of evidence favors this 
rendering rather than " to breakfast." Hob. (Lex., in verbo) thus 
defines the noun agiatov, " breakfast " : "A morning meal at sun- 
rise. Homer, II. 24 : 124. Odyss. 16:1: 

'Evrvovr agiotov aft riot, xstaftsvca itvq, .) 
Later, breakfast, lunch, Lat. prandium, taken about the middle of 
the day ; .the principal meal being the SsKtvov, taken late in the 
afternoon, or early in the evening, after the heat and business 
of the day were over, etc. In N. Test., breakfast, lunch,, Luke 
11 : 38 ; 14 : 12. Mutt. 22 : 4." Should it be deemed best to 
retain the rendering of the E. V., then. " or to breakfast " (Saw- 
yer) should be inserted in the margin. The verb has here the 
generic sense of taking a meal. Thus in ch. 7 : 36, we have 
'Hficora Ss res avrov i<av fpageaaiiov, tvn. yA'/Jl fiet' avrov. 
Jahn, Archeol., g 145 : " Not only the inhabitants of the East, 
generally, but the Greeks and Romans also were in the habit of 
taking a slight dinner about ten, or eleven o'clock of our time, 
which consisted chiefly of fruits, milk, cheese, etc. Their prin- 
cipal meal was about, six or seven in the afternoon; their leasts 
were always appointed at supper-time, for the burning heat of 
noon in eastern climates diminishes the appetite for food," etc. 
The signification of the word in question had been changed by 
lapse of time, so that it no longer indicated a morning, but a 
midday repast. 




38 And when the Pharisee saw 
it, he marvelled that he had not 
first washed before dinner. 

39 And the Lord said unto 
him, Now do ye Pharisees make 
clean the outside of the cup and 
the platter ; but your inward part 
is full of ravening and wicked- 

40 Ys fools, did not he that 
made that which is without, make 
that which is within also ? 

41 But rather give alms of such 


3S 6 5e <Pa.picra.ios 
eda.vfjia.o~fv ori ov Trpwrov 
/3a.7rrl0'07} vrpo TOV apicrrov. 

vg 9 <x \ c -rr- r \ y \ 

17T O O J&VplO? TTpOf 

Nvv vfj.Ls OL (Papicraioi TO 


TO Se f.<rca6 

KOU wovrjpLas- 

' ' v 

ov% o iroirjcra.? TO 


41 7T\rjV TO. 



"lay down at table. And the 38 
Pharisee "seeing it, "wondered 
that i>he had not first immersed 
himself before 'the dinner. And 39 
the Lord said to him, Now ye 
Pharisees cleanse the outside 
of the cup and platter ; but 
'your inside is full of extortion 
and wilderness. 'Unwise men! 40 
did not he who made the 'out- 
side, make the "inside also ? 
"But give "what is within them 41 

m " lay down at table;" di-citfoev. Rob. (Lex.) : " In N. T. 
to fall lack, to recline, to lie i:t table, upon the triclinium." The 
action indicated by this verb is the same with that represented 
by avaxei/tai, Mark 14 : 18. Luke 7 : 49 (see note), ava-Aivco, 
Luke 7 : 36 (note). " Lay down at table" is employed to form a 
verbal difference similar to that in the text, where these words 
occur. See Revision of Mark, ch. 8 : 6. Sharpe, " lay down to 

1 " seeing ; " I8a>v. "Wesley, Kend., Sawyer, M., Thelwali. 
' " wondered ; " eS'avfiaaev. Scarlett, Penn, Sharpe, Sawyer. 
Kend., M. See ch. 7 : 9, note. 

v " he had not first immersed himself; " ov noatrov iftanriad'i}. 
Bretsch. (in flami^co) : " 2. immerso in aquas, submerge." The 
first aor. pass, often has the signification of the middle. See Hob. 
(Lex.). The following note is taken from the Revision of Mark, 
ch. 7:4: " ' except they immerse themselves ; ' ftr/ /Saariaconrat. 
Iber., ' sin sumergirse.' The verb is rendered ' they dip ' by 
"Wakef. ; Pechy, ' dip or baptise ; ' Thorn, and Camp., ' dipping ; ' 
S. Fr., ' c'etre baptises.' "Wakef., Thorn,, and Campbell make 
' hands ' the object of the verb, though, as I think, without good 
authority. The middle form of the verb determines the object as 
reflexive, ' themselves.' Pritzsche says : ' Pharissei, inquit Marcus, 
secundum rijs naoaSoaecos prsecepta non edunt panem, nisi, etc. 
(v. 3). Et a foro quando venerint, plus etiam faciunt. Nempc, 
nisi corpus laverint, cibum non capiunt.' In his note on the 
entire passage, he says : ' Nudum illud eav ftr/ ftanriacovrai. non 
aliter potet, qaam sic exponi : nisi se immerserint i. q. corpus 
laverint.' The washing of the 'hands' is noticed in the third 
verse, hence, to make 'hands' the object of this verb, is a tautolo- 
gy. The literal rendering of this verb is deemed appropriate for 
this reason, viz., though cleansing or purifying- may be the 
result, it is not the action indicated by the verb. Bathe, wash, or 
cleanse, point at an effect produced by {lamiocovrai, not to the 
"rcry act from which the effect proceeds. See ch. 1 : 5, note. 
Trollops (Analecta) says: 'The baptism or immersion of tliu 
whole body was, for the most part, a religious rite.' " Sawyer 
transfers the verb, thus, " wondered that he was not baptized." 
S. Pr., " s'etonna de voir qu'il ne s'etait pas baptise ; " Iber., 
" que no se habia sumergido [en agua] antes," etc. ; Ital., " ch' 
c gli non si fosse prima immerso." See ch. 3 : 7, note. 

' " the dinner ; " TOV uoiarov. Sharpe, Thelwali. Belg., " het 
middagmaal ; " De Wette, " dem Mittagsmahl ; " G. and S. Pr., 
" le diner." The noun is rendered definite from its reference to 
the verb a^iaT^ar;. I am aware that a want of perfect harmony 
with our idiom may be urged against the use of the article, here ; 
still exactness, as in many other instances, may justify us in 
retaining it. 

r " your inside ; " TO eaiad'ev vfttSv. The correlate TO s^ia- 
&ev being translated " the outside ; " to eacod'ev vfttav is prop- 
erly rendered "your inside." So in the next verse, to Qio&ev 
and 10 saca&cv demand a uniform rendering. Strictly speaking, 
there is an omission of fieoos (part.) alter TO, in these cases. See 
L. Bos., Ellip. Grtecse, p. 171. This is introduced in v. 39, in the 
phraseology of the E. Y., " inward part." Siiould it be deemed 
preferable to supply the ellipsis, this form migt be adopted, v. 39, 
" outer part of the cup " " your inner part ; " v. 40, " the outer 
part " " the inner part also." 

' " Unwise men .' " ayooves. So (E. Y.) Eph. 5 : 17. Thel- 
wali, " ye unwise ! " Rob. (Lex., in verbo] : " Unwise, simple^ 
foolish." The etymology (a priv. and y(> ijv.) favors this render- 
ing. It indicates the condition of being destitute of mind, or, 
more strictly according to onr idiom, " without sense ; " hence, 
unwise, senseless. In eleven instances, in which this word occurs 
in the N. Test., the E. Y. renders it by " fool," or " foolish," and 
in one (cited above), " unwise." At the same time, "fool," and 
"foolish" are made the equivalents of avoirros, aaoyos, aavve- 
TOS, and fucooos. Some approximation to uniform rendering- is 
demanded, in such terms, which have hitherto been treated as 
though they were synonyms. "Wesley, Thorn., Camp., " unthink- 
ing men ! " Scarlett, " thoughtless men .' " Penn, " Senseless ! " 
Dick., " thoughtless beings ! " Por greater exactness, " men " is 
italicized, as a supplement. 

' " outside." Sue v. 39, note. 

" inside." See v. 39, note. 

v " But ; " xlrjv. The E. V, unnecessarily inserts " rather," 
after " but." It is omitted by Kend., "Wesley, Thorn., Camp., 
Shuvpe, Dick., Norton, Sawyer, M. 

" " what is within them ; " ra evovra. This passage is sus- 
ceptible of two interpretations. One of them appears in the 




things as ye hare ; and behold, all 
things arc clean unto you. 

42 But wo unto you, Pharisees! 
for ye tithe mint, and rue, and all 
manner of herbs, and pass over 
judgment and the love of God : 
these ought ye to have done, and 
not to leave the other undone. 

43 Wo unto you, Pharisees ! for 
ye love the uppermost seats in the 

' synagogues, and greetings in the 

44 "Wo unto you, scribes and 


crvvr)V' KGU iSou, -jravTa Kadapd. 

' ' 42 ' -\ -s > >\t~ 

vjj.iv CO~TIV. aAA OVO.L V/J.LV 

$a.pio~cuoL? } on o 
Te TO rj8voo-[j.ov KOI TO irrj-yavov 
KCU TTOLV Xa^avov, /cat Trapep-^e- 
o-Qe TTJV Kplcriv KCU rrjv dydirrjv 




ovat TOis $api(raioif, on dya.- 
Trdre Trjv TrpcoTOKadfSplav Iv TOLLS 
avvaycoyals, KOI TOVS 

e TCUS yopas. oval vfj.iv, 


"as alms ; and behold, all things 
are clean to you. But "woe to 42 
you, Pharisees! for ye tithe 
mint, and rue, and 'every herb, 
and "pass .by justice and the 
love of God; these ye ought to 
have done, b and not to leave 
the others undone. "Woe to 43 
you, Pharisees! for ye love 
c the first seat in the synagogues, 
and ""salutations in 'the market- 
places. "Woe f to you, for ye 44 

E. "V. Those who adopt it suppose that there is an ellipsis of 
xara, before to. evovra (y.ara) TO. ivorra, and render the pas- 
sage, " according to wha you have." It is objected to this, that 
the usual classic construction in such cases is ex t&v evovrcov. 
The words ra tvovra occur in no other instance in the N. Test. ; 
but in 1 Maccab. 5 : 5, they are emploj'ed to indicate what was 
within ; ivtnvgias TOVS nvayovs avrfjs ev nvpi avv naot TOIS 
ivovai, " he burnt its towers with fire, with all who were within." 
Compare the parallel, Matt. 23 : 26. The sense of the passage, 
with this rendering, will be that adopted by many distinguished 
interpreters, " But give what is (i. e. what belongs) within (the 
cup and platter) as alms (instead of making the inside full of 
extortion and wickedness) ; and (then) all things (inside and out- 
side), are clean to you." See Rob. (Lex., evetftt). Kuincel (in 
loco) : '-Tri tvovra nonnulli explicant : pro viribus et facultatibus 
vestris, quantum res seu facultas ferunt, omissam monent prapc- 
sitionem y.ata, et y.ara to. ivovra scilicet xqrjftara idem valere 
prseeipiunt quod ix taiv evovrtov, quam in rem laudant He- 
sychium, quod Ivbv interpretatus est hnmaQzov rj Svvarov sort. 
Verum desiderantur exempla idonea, quibus comprobetur a Gra> 
cis to. Ivovra. dicantur ea, qua insunt ; hac significatione scepius 
hxc vox recurrit. Significari antem h. 1. per ru. evovta ea, qua: 
poculis patinisque insunt, cibum et potuni, sat luculenter osten- 
dunt verba3 quce leguntur Matthasi loco pai-allelb 23 : 26, xad'dgc- 
aov 7tj)iaTov TO EVTOS TOV yiortjoiov stal rtjs nagoyiSos." The 
following translators have adopted this view : Wesley, Thorn., 
Penn, Norton, Kend., Angus. Goschen, " qua; insunt, date bene- 
ficium ; " Schott, " erogate qua? insunt [poculis et patinis] sti- 
pem ; " Belg., " geeft aalmosen he gene daar in is ; " De Wette, 
" gebet, was darin ist ; " Iber., " dad de limosna las cosas que 
estan en [lo interior] ;" Dan., "giver dog til Almisse de Ting 
som ere deri." The obscurity of this passage results from its 

1 " as alms ; " e^.e>iftoovrr/v. Keud., M., Norton. This word 
is in apposition with TK evovra. 9 

* " woe ; " oval. This is according to present orthography. 
1 " every herb ; " irav l&iavov. Scarlett, Sharpe, "Wakef., 
Kend., Pechy (note on Angus), M., Eheims. Syi-iac, 

Heb. N. Test., sius-is Vnlg., " omne olus ; " De Wette, " jeg- 
liches Kraut ; " Iberian, " toda hortaliza." Strictly speaking, 
).aza.vov is a garden-herb, a cultivated edible vegetable, in distinc- 
tion from a wild one, Lat. olus, olera. " Potherb " (Murdock) is 
suggested as an alternative rendering. See Liddell (Lex.). 
Bretsch. : "A Irty^lvco, fodio, olus, in terra natum, quod fodieudo 
colitur, Garten-Kraut." . Sept., 3 Kings 21 : 2 (Heb, 1 Kings 21:2), 
and Prov. 15 : 17, for ^n-j ; for ^p?, Gen. 9 : 3. 

a " pass by ; " naqlotfod-e. Wesley, Scarlett, Penn, Thel- 
wall. Liddell (Lex., in verbo) : "To go by, beside, or past, pass 
by." Bretsch. : "Pratereo, transco, transitive : pratergredior ali- 
quid ; de prsceptis ; negligo, violo Luc. 11 : 42." So (E. V.) 
Mark 6 : 48. Luke 18 : 37. Acts 16 : 8. Vulg., Mont., Eras., 
Beza, " prateritis ; " Bclg., " gij gaat voorbij." 

b " and the others ; " y.axsiva. Penn, Dick., M. As the 
pronoun is plural, the English equivalent should be so too. A 
more literal rendering would be, " and those." The change 
would, perhaps, be unimportant. Sawyer has " those." 

c " the first seat ; " TTJV ytfcoToaa&sSoiav. Kobinson (Lex.), 
" the first scat. 1 ' Sharpe, Sawyer. Schott, " pi-imam sedem." 
In the parallels, Matt. 23 : 6, and Mark 12 : 39, this word is in 
the plural, itocoToxa&eSfias (so Luke 20 : 46), and is properly 
rendered by the plural in the E. V. Here, however, where it is 
singular, that rendering is incorrect. It was first introduced by 
Tyndale. He followed the incorrect rendering of the Vulgate, 
" primas cathedras." Beza, more correctly, " primum consessum." 
Mont., " primam sessionem ; " Castal., " primum sedendi locum." 
Scarlett, M., and Camp, have "seat." Heb. N. Test., 

d " salutations ; " aoitaoftovs. Wesley, Thorn., Penn, Dick., 
Scarlett, Camp., Norton, Sawyer, Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M., 
Rheims. So in the parallels (E. V.) Mark 12 : 38. Luke 1 : 29, 
41, 44. 1 Cor. 16 : 21. Col. 4 : 18. 2 Thess. 3 : 17. The word 
should be uniformly rendered thus, in the N. Test., in the only 
other passages where it occurs, viz., Matt. 23 : 7. Luke 20 : 46. 
" Greetings " is obsolescent. 

' " the market-places ; " Tatg uyooaTs. So in the parallels 
(E. V.) Mark 12 : 38. Luke 7 : 32. This word ayo?a. occurs 




Pharisees, hypocrites I for ye are 
as graves which appear not, and 
the men that -walk over them are 
not aware of them. 

45 Then answered one of the 
lawyers, and said unto him, Mas- 
ter, thus saying, thou reproachest 
us also. 

46 And he said, Wo unto you 
also, ye lawyers ! for ye lade men 
with burdens grievous to be borne, 
and ye yourselves touch not the 
burdens with one of your fingers. 

47 Wo unto you! for ye build 
the sepulchres of the prophets, 
and your fathers killed them. 


/cat CPa/)to-atbt, VTTO- 
KpiTcu, on e'are toy ra fjivrj/j.e'ia. 
TO. aSrjXa, /cat ot avdptmroi ol 
raw OVK olSa- 




Xeyei aura, /dtfiacr/caAe, 
Aeyojf /cat ^//.ay v/3pieis. 

N ' 17~ ^ ' " 

oe etTre, A at vfJLiv TOIS vo- 

fJLlKOl? OVOU, OTt (pOpTL^ere TOVf 

dvdpanrovs (popria 5i;<r/3aoTaK7-a, 
/cat aurot eVt TWV SaKTvXcav vp.(av 
ov Trpoo-^avere roty fyoprioLs. 
4T oval, on ot/coofietre ra 
/j.vr)/j.ia, rcav TrpofprjTaur, ot Se 



are "like unseen tombs : and 
the men, who walk over them, 
h know it not. Then one of the 45 
lawyers, 'answering, saith to 
him, 'Teacher, thus k speaking, 
thou reproachest us also. And 46 
he said, Woe to you, "lawyers ! 
for m ye load men with burdens 
"hard to be borne, "and yet, ye 
yourselves touch not the bur- 
dens with one of your fingers. 
Woe to you ! for ye build ^the 47 
tombs of the prophets, and your 
fathers killed them. 'There- 48 

f " like unseen tombs ; " . cos ra (ivrj/teia ra aSr/ia. Rob. 
(Lex.), " unseen ; " Sharpe, " unseen graves ; " Kend., " unseen 
sepulchres ; " Dan., " ukiendelige Grave." Mvr,(ta:ov is rendered 
by " tomb " (E. V.) Matt. 8 : 28 ; 27 : 60. Mark 5 : 2 ; 6 : 29. 
So Pechy (note on Angus, in loco), though there is a want of 
uniformity, as that version has also " sepulchre," and " grave." I 
employ " tomb " as the equivalent in all cases. " Like " is more 
euphonious than " as," for cas. So (E. V.) Matt. 6 : 29 ; 28 : 3. 
Mark 4 : 31. 

h " know it not ; " OVK o'iSaoir. Kend., M., Sawyer, Thel- 
wall (" know not ") ; Murdock, " do not know it ; " Belg., " en 
wcten't niet ; " De Wette, " wissen cs nicht ; " Iber., " no [lo] 
saben." So this verb is rendered in all other cases in the E. V. 

' " answering ; " uitoxgi&eis. Kend., "Wesley, Thelwall, M. 

J " Teacher." See cli. 9 : 38, note. 

k " speaking ; " faycov. Thorn., Scarlett, Camp. While this 
word is equally correct, it is more easily enunciated, in this con- 
nection, than " saying." 

! "ye," the supplement in the E. V. before '"lawyers," is drop- 
ped, as superfluous. It was introduced by Tyndale. Omitted by 

Wesley, Thorn., Sharpe, Dick., Camp., Norton, Sawyer, Kend., 
Thelwall. Not in Wiclif, Kheims. No corresponding supple- 
ment in Belg., De Wette, S. Fr., Iber., Ital. 

ra " ye load ; " yo^tl^sre. Kend., Wesley, Tliom., Scarlett, 
Penn, AVakef., Norton, Sawyer, M., Rheims. " To lade," except 
as a nautical term, now signifies " to dip." 

" " hard to be borne ; " SvofSaoTaxTa. Bob. (Lex., in verbo), 
Thorn., Penn, Wakef., Norton. 

" and yet ; " In the parallel, Matt. 23 : 4, & adversa- 
tive is used, and properly rendered " but " in the E. V. In this 
instance, xal is used in a sense noticed thus by Rob. (Lex., xai) 
"Apparently adversative, but only where the antithesis of the 
thought is clear without an adversative pai-ticle, and yet, and 
nevertheless." In many cases of this kind the E. V. renders 
by " but." Rob. remarks, that in such passages " the rendering 
but is admissible, but not necessary." See ch. 8 : 13, note. In 
this use of xal, it has the force of xairoi. 

P " the tombs ;" T fimjfista. See v. 44, note. Sharpe, Scar- 
lett, Dick., Wakef., Sawyer. 

1 " Therefore ; " ' >. Thorn., Sawyer. De Wette, " sonach." 

in the N. Test, eleven times. The E. V. renders it " market," six 
times ; " market-place," four times, and once by " streets " (Mark 
6 : 56). We have no generic term in English which is an equiva- 
lent. It is defined by Rob. (Lex.) : "A place of public resort, in 
towns and cities ; any open place where the people came together 
either for business, or to sit and converse. In oriental cities such 
open places were at the inside of the g"ates (see Ruth 4 : 11. 
2 San?. 19:8. 2 Kings 7 : 1. Ps. 69 : 12. Prov. 1 : 21 ; 22 : 22. 
Isa. 29 : 21. Amos 5 : 10. Zech. 8:16); and here public busi- 
ness was transacted, and tribunals held, as also the markets." 
" Hence in the N. T., a place, market-place, forum." From these 
facts, some diversity, in the rendering of the word is not im- 

f In the Text. Recept, (" to you ") is followed by yQ(t- 
xai 4>a(>ioatot., imox^trnl. These words 'are canceled by 
Griesb., Knapp, Theile, Tischend., and bracketed by Laehmann 
Kuinod regards them as spurious : " Verba ygrtfifiaTeZs xal 0a^c- 
oaioi, vnoxqiToi in plurifaus optimte notas codd. et verss. clesunt, 
in aliis deest vocabulum vnoxqecai. Scilicet petita sunt hsec 
verba a grammaticis e Matt, loco paralldo 23 : 27, unde rectissi- 
me ea ex ordine ejecit Griesbachius." Schott says : " Delevimus 
cum plerisque post Griesb. auctoritate cdd. B.C.L. plurium 
minuscc. verss., Memph. Arm., Vulg., 9 librorum lat." Bengel : 
" Illud, ygaftftarels xal fyaQiaaZoi, vnoy.^iiai, librarii quidam ex 
Matthcco hue intulerunt." The words seem, beyond all reasonable 
doubt, to be an interpolation. 




48 Truly ye bear witness, that 
ye allow the deeds of your fa- 
thers : for they indeed killed them, 
and ye build their sepulchres. 

49 Therefore also said the wis- 
dom of God, I will send them 
prophets and apostles, and some 
of them they shall slay and per- 
secute : 

50 That the blood of all the 
prophets, which was shed from 
the foundation of the world, may 
be required of this generation ; 

51 From the blood of Abel un- 
to the blood of Zacharias, which 
perished between the altar and 
the temple : verily, I say unto 
you, It shall be required of this 

52 Wo unto you, lawyers ! for 
ye have taken away the key of 
knowledge : ye entered not in 
yourselves, and them that were 
entering in ye hindered. 

53 And as he said these things 
unto them, the scribes and the 
Pharisees began to urge him ve- 


48 apa /JLapTvpeiTe KCU 

roy epyois TWV 
OTL aural 

OLVTOVS, v/j.eis oe Oi/cooo/xetre av- 

\ - 49 j, \ 

Tcav TO. /j.vr/fj.eia. OLa TOVTO 

KOU 7] (ro(j)ia TOV Ozov etTrez/, 

'^TrocrreAcS els OVTOVS Trpo&riTas 

i r i 


50 i> > f- /i"^'? ' 

TU>V 7rpo(f)rjTa>i> TO CK^vvonevov 
aTro KaTttfloXr/s KOO-/J.OV ajro Trjs 
yei/ea? TavTtjy, 51 OTTO TOV a'lfj.a- 
TOS '-4/8eA eco? TOV a'jfiaror Za.- 

TOV dvtTLaarTijptov KOU. TOV O'I'KOV 
vou, Xeyco vplv, tK(j]Tr]0r) 

52 s\> 


avTo OVK 

O.TTO Trs yeveas TavTr/?. Uvcu 


Trjy yvwcrecof 

OS 8e av- 

TOV TavTa. Trpos avTovs, rlp^avTO 
oi aAjiaTis KOL ol <I>a.pi.cra.loi 


fore r ye testify that 'ye approve 
the deeds of your fathers ; for 
they indeed killed them, and 
ye build their 'tombs. There- 49 
fore also said the wisdom of 
God, I will send them prophets 
and apostles, and some of them . 

they will kill and persecute ; 
that the blood of all the proph- 50 
ets, "which hath been shed from 

the foundation of *tke world, 
may be required of this genera- 
tion ; from the blood of Abel 51 
to the blood of Zachariah, who 
perished between the altar and 
the temple : T yea, I say to you, 

it will be required of this gen- 
eration. Woe to you, lawyers ! 52 
for ye have taken away the key 
of knowledge ; ye entered not 
in yourselves, and those who 
were entering in, ye hindered, 
ind as he said these things to 53 
them, the scribes and the Phar- 
isees began "to be very angry, 
and b to press him with ques- 

Kob. (Lex., in verbo) : " In a direct conclusion, therefore, tlien, 
now." As an alternative rendering-, " so then," as Kend 

' " ye testify ; " fta^rv^eZrs. Norton, Scarlett. So (E. V.) 
John 2 : 25 ; 3 : 11, 32 ; 4 : 39 ; 5 : 31, etc. In about one-half 
of the instances in which the verb occurs, the E. V. renders it by 
" testify." As " bearing witness " is nearly out of use, " testify," 
or "bear testimony," would be more appropriate. 

* " ye approve ; " avvevSoxerre. Wesley, Thorn., Scarlett, 
Dick., Penn, Sawyer, Kend., M. Eras., Beza, " comprobatis ; " 
De "Wette, " billiget ihr ; " Bob. (Lex., in verbo), " to approve ; " 
Kuincel, " approbatis." 

4 " tombs ; " fivqpeia. See v. 44, note. 

" " they will kill ; " anoxrevovot. Wesley, Thorn., Sharpe 
("will .slay"), Scarlett, Dick., Penn, Wakef., Camp., Norton, 
Kend. ("will slay"), M. 

T " which hath been shed ; " TO Ixxvrofievov. Thorn., Dick., 
Penn, Wakef., Camp., Norton, M., Murdock. S. Fr., " qui a 
ete verse ; " Iber., " la cual ha sido derramada." 

" " tin." As xa-cafiolris is anarthrous, this article is italicized, 
as a supplement. 

1 " the." Koafiov is anarthrous. See last note. The phrase 
ajtb xara/Soiiis xoouov occurs seven times, viz., Matt. 13 : 35 ; 
25:34. Lukell:50. Heb. 4 :3; 9 : 26. Rev. 13 :8; 17 :8. 

In all these instances, both nouns are anarthrous. Hqb 

tejs xoa/tov occurs thrice, viz., John 17 : 24, Eph. 1 : 4, 1 Pet. 

1 : 20, and here no article occurs. 

T " yea ; " va.1. So (E. V.) Matt. 5 : 37 ; 9 : 28 ; 11 : 9 ; 13 : 51. 
Luke 7 : 26, etc. In this instance, alone, the E. V. renders vat 
" verily." As " verily " is obsolete, and " truly " and " surely " are 
required for a/ifjv and al.rjd-ois, it is deemi'd best to give vnl its 
usual rendering " yea." In the parallel, Matt. 23 : 36, aftf/v is 
used, and should be rendered " truly." It is true that va.1 here is 
emphatic; but so in Luke 7 : 26 ; 12 : 5. Philem. 20. Eev. 
14 : 13, where the E. V. has " yea." " Tea " is the rendering of 
Sharpe, Penn, Wakef., Murd., Norton, Thelwall, Eheims, Gray 
(notes on Angus). Camp, and Sawyer, " yes." Eob. (Lex., in 
verbo) : " Intensive, in strong affirmation, yea, verily." Greeuf. 
(Lex.) : " Yes, yea." Liddell : " In strong affirmation, yea." 

1 " it will be requu-ed ; " Ix^rrj&riaerai. Thorn., Sharpe, 
Scarlett, Penu, Wakef., Kend., M., Murdock. 

" " to be very angry ; " Ssivcas ive%eiv. So Eob. (Lex., in 
loco, Ivexco). ' Wakef., " to be greatly enraged ;" Kend., " to be 
greatly embittered ; " M., " to be greatly incensed ; " De Wettc, 
" erbittert zu werden." The object of this verb, when it indicates 
hostile feeling, is xoiov, or XOTOV, wrath, or grwlge. 

b " to press with questions ; " anoaTouarl^et.v. Kend., M... 




hemently, and to provoke him to 
speak of many things ; . 

54: Laying wait for him, and 
seeking to catch something out of 
his mouth, that they might accuse 

CHAP. xn. 

IK the mean time, when there 
were gathered together, an innu- 
merable multitude of people, inso- 
much that they trode one upon 
another, he began to say unto his 
disciples first of all, Beware ye of 
the leaven of the Pharisees, which 
is hypocrisy. 



O.VTOV, /ecu 


6f}pev(raL TI e/c TOV crro/iaro? au- 
TOV, iva K.a.rt]yopf]<Ta>(Tiv avTov. 


os TTi(rwa)(ei(rai> T>V 
[j.vpiaSeoi> TOV o^Xov, coo-re KO.TO.- 
irctreiv aAA^Aow, rjp^aTQ Ae'yea/ 
vrpos TOVS }Jia.dr)Ta.s avrov 7rpa>Tov } 


$api(raia)v, TJTLS eVrtz/ viroKpi- 


tions 'concerning many things ; 
"lying in wait for him, "seeking 54 
to catch something out of his 
mouth, that they might .accuse 


IN the mean time, "the crowd 1 
b being gathered together c by 
ten thousands, d so that they 
trod down f one another, he be- 
gan to say to his disciples; 
s First, h beware of the leaven 
of the Pharisees, which is hy- 

Norton, /Damp., Sharpe ("-to press closely"), Angus. De 
Wette, " auszufragen." Bretsch. (Lex., in verbo) : "Qutestionibus 
exerceo aliquem." * 

c "concerning many tilings ;" ite(>i nkeiovcov. Angus. 

" lying in wait ; " IveS^svovres. So (E. V.) Acts 23 : 21. 
Wakef., Angus, M. See (E. V.) Ezra 8 : 31. 

8 Sal, before t^ovines, in the Text. Becept., is canceled by 
Griesb., Lachm., Tisehend., Knapp, Theile, Tittm., Scholz, and 
Schott, who says : " Quod vulgo ante ^rovvres additur al pleri- 
que recentiorem editt. cum Griesb. recte expungunt auctoritate 
plerorumque odd. (12 unc.) verss., Pesch., Pers. pol. Memph., 
Slav., It." 

" the crowd ; " tov o-/,lov. See eh. 3 : 7, note. Sharpe, 
Camp., Angus. 

b " being gathered together ; " littovvai&EiaSv. The parti- 
cipial construction is adopted by "Wesley, Thorn., Perm, Norton, 
Sawyer, Kend. 

" by ten thousands ; " tcov (ivgiAStav. So (E. V.) Matt. 
18:24 1 Cor. 4:15; 14:19. Jude 14. Sawyer, Sharpe 
("by tens of thousands"). Camp, and Dick., "in myriads;" 
Angus, " myriads ; " Belgic, " viele duizenden ; " S. Fr., " par 
myriades ; " Iberian, " a decenas de millares ; " De Wette, 
" Tausende ; " Ital., " a migliaja ; " Montanus, " myriadibus ; " 
Dan., "ved mange tusinde." Heb. N. Test., rvm^!?. If we 
regard the language of the text as hyperbolical, still the render- 
ing of the E. V., " innumerable " (introduced by Tyndale from 
Erasmus' " innumera"), extends the hyperbole beyond the origi- 
nal. Hence a more literal expression is adopted. I should have 
used " myriads," which has been naturalized in our language, had 
it been employed in the E. V. The phraseology might then have 
been, strictly literal, thus, " the myriads of the crowd being 
gathered together." 

d " so that ; " COOTS. Wesley, Scarlett, Pcnn, Norton, Dick., 
Wakef., Sawyer, Kend., Rob. (Lex.). So (B. V.) Matt. 8 : 28 ; 
13 : 2. Mark 3 : 20 ; 4 : 1, 32, 3V. Luke 5 : 7, etc. 

"trod down;" xaranaislv. Bob. (Lex., in verbo), "to 

tread down ; " Liddell, " to tread, or trample down ; " Bretsch., 
" pedibus proculco, niedertreten." So (E. V.) Luke 8 : 5. "Kara, 
in composition, downwards, down," Liddell. Dick, and Angus, 
" trampled ; " Iber., " se atropellaban." Th6 E. T. is deficient in 
strength, and fails to bring out the full force of the text. Vulg., 
Mont., Beza, Eras., Goschen, Schott, " conculcarent." 

f " one another ; " allrjlovs. See ch. 2 : 15, note. Thorn., 
Scarlett, Kend. 

e "First;" itqoitov. Wesley, Sharpe, Thelwall, M. The 
punctuation of Eras., Griesb., Theile, Schott, and Kuincel places 
a colon after avrov, and is deemed most aecura^J. Tittmann and 
Scholz follow the Text. Eecept., and place a comma after ngiS- 
lov. Kuincel remarks: "Sine omni idonea ratione nonnulli 
interprett. ngonov ad antecedentia referunt, hoc sensu discipulos 
ante omnia ita admonit." " First of all " would require itqiS-cov 
itKincov, as in 1 Tim. 2 : 1. The punctuation of Griesbach is 
followed by Thorn., Scarlett, Sharpe, Norton, Dick., Wakef., 
Camp., Sawyer. So Erasmus has, " ad Discipulus suos : Primum 
cavete." Beza, " discipulis suis, Inprimis cavete." Castalio, " ad 
suos discipulos yerba facere : Inprimis cavete." Schott, " disci- 
pulis snis : ante omnia cavete." Belg., " Discepelen : Voor eerst 
wacht." Luther, " zu seinen Jungern : Zum ersten, hiitet euch." 
De Wette, " za seinen Jungern zu sag-en : Vor alien Dingen hu- 
tet euch." G. Fr., " disciples : Donnez-vous de garde surtout." 
S. Fr., " disciples : Avant tout, guardez-vous."~ Span., " discipu- 
los. Primeramente guardaos." Diodati and Ital., " a' suoi disce- 
poli : Guardatevi imprima." Schott has the following note on 
this passage : " Permulti cdd. (in his A.C.D.E.) verss. Memph. et 
Slav. aqcuTov antecedentibus jungunt, quod interpretibus baud 
paucis probatum. Parum recte patet, quare Lucas scripserit 
jjgl-aTo Asyetv n^coTovl De vocula n^carov imperativum prsece- 
dente conf. Luc. 9 : 61 ; 10 : 5." Should the punctuation of the 
Text. Becept. be retained, then the rendering ought to be, " he 
began to say first to his disciples." (Scholef.) 

h " beware ; '* itgoffexere. " Ye," which follows this verb in 
the E. V., is superfluous. It is omitted by Wesley, Thorn., Scar 

lett, Penn, Wakef., Camp., Kend., M. 




2 For there is nothing covered, 
that shall not be revealed ; neither 
hid, that shall not be known. 

3 Therefore, -whatsoever ye have 
spoken in darkness, shall be heard 
in the light; and that which ye 
have spoken in the ear in closets, 
shall be proclaimed upon the 

4 And I say unto you, my 
friends, Be not afraid of them 
that kill the body, and after that, 
have no more that they can do. 

5 But I will forewarn you whom 
ye shall fear: Fear him, which 
after he hath killed, hath power 
to cast into hell ; yea, I say unto 
you, Fear him. 

6 Are not five sparrows .sold 
for two farthings, and not one of 
them is forgotten before God ? 

7 But even the very hairs of 
your head are all numbered. Fear 



e'oTtz>, o OVK 

Kal KpvTTTOv, o ov yvaxrdr)(re- 

TO.L. 3 a.v& K>V ocra ev rfj er/cor/a 

eiTraTe, ev rw (j)a>TL a/coucr^cre- 

rat Kal o Trpos TO ov? 

eV Tols TafieloLS, 



y rot? (j>iXois (JLOV, Mrj (j)o/3ij- 
0f)Te O.TTO TWV aTroKTeivovTcoy TO 
crcw/Lia, /cat jiiera raOra /J.TJ \ov- 
rcov TrepLcro-.OTepov TL TroiTJo~at. 

5 VTToSei^oo Se riva. 00/3??- 
0rJTe ' (j)oj3r]0r]Te TOV yuera TO 

e^ovcriav tyovra e/j,- 
et? TTJV yeevvay VOL, 
Xeyco, TOVTOV (/)of3^0rjTe. 

6 Ovyi Trez/re crTpovdia. TrojAetrat 
acrcraplcoj/ duo; Kal ev ft; 

OVK. ZCTTIV eVtAeA^cryuez'OZ' e 
TQV Oeov' 7 aAAa /cat at 

TTJf K(j)a\TJS VfJ-COV TTttCTat 


pocrisy. hh Now there is nothing 2 
covered which will not be re- 
vealed, 'nor hidden which will 
not be known. Therefore, what- 3 
ever ye have spoken j in the 
dark, will be heard in the 
light ; and that which k ye have 
said in the ear in closets, will 
be proclaimed on the house- 
tops. And I say to you, my 4 
friends, Fear not those who 
kill the body, and after that, 
have no more that they can do. 
But 'I will show you whom 5 
'ye should fear ; fear him who 
after he hath killed, hath "au- 
thority to cast into hell ; yea, 
I say to you, fear him. Are 6 
not five sparrows sold for "two 
farthings? and p yet not one of 
them is forgotten, before God. 
But even the 'hairs of your head 7 
are all numbered. Fear not 

hb Now ; " Ss is merely .continuative. 
1 " nor ; " xal. M., Thorn., Scarlett, Kend., Angus. See ch. 
8:17, note, 

) " in the dark ; " lv rfj axoria. Thorn., Sharpe, Camp., Mur- 
dock. By using " dark," which is found in the B. V. (" in the 
dark," Job 12 -. 25 ; 24 : 16. Ps. 88 : 12. Isa. 29 : 15. Ezek. 
8 : 12), we can render the article, as is done with that belonging 
to the next clause (& raj ycorl], and thus preserve the symmetry 
of the sentence. The phrase is common in our language, especi- 
ally in conversation. 

* " ye have said ;" tiaAijoare. Aorist as perfect, 
i " I will show ; " vitoSel^co. Tyndale, Cranmer, Kheims, 
Sharpe, Wesley, Wakef.,. Camp., Sawyer, M. Syriac, 3*0*.] 
(Murd., "I will show you"). Vulg., Mont, Eras., Goschen, 
Schott, " ostendam." Rob. (Lex., in verbo) : " In N. Test, trop- 
ically, to show by word, or example." De Wette, "Ich will 
zeigen ; " S. Fr., " je montrerai ; " Diodati and Ital., " io mostre- 
ro ; " Dan., " ; jeg vil vise." '. 

'' a " ye should fear ; " pofiqd-rjTs. Thomson, Scarlett, Penn, 
Sharpe, Dick., M. 

""authority;" e*ovoiav. Thelwall. So John 5 : 27, xai 

ijovalav sSeoxev cmtcy nal y.qlotv noietv, art vios av&geoirov 

sari, (E. V.), "And hath given him authority to execute judgment 

also, because he is the Son of man." Compare John 5 : 22, ovSs 

yi> o Tta-crj^ xqlvst ovSsvct, aV.a ir,v xgiatv ytaaav StSioxs -era 

vita, (E. V.), " For the Father judgeth no man ; but hath com- 
mitted all judgment unto the Son." Compare Acts 17 : 31. See 
Luke 4 : 6, note. 

"two farthings?" aaoa^lcav Svo ; The interrogation point 
is placed after farthings (or the word used as the 'equivalent of 
that -word) by Tyndale, Cranmer, Thorn., Scarlett, Penn, Sharpe, 
Norton, Dick., Wakef., Camp. This punctuation agrees with 
Bagster's Text. Eeeept., Eras. .(Greek), Elzevir, and the. critical 
Editions of Griesb., Lachm., Knapp, Theile, Tittm, Tischend., 
Goschen, Schott. So Eras., Beza, the Lat. versions of Goschen 
and Schott; Belg, Luther, De Wette, G. and S. Fr., De Sacy, 
Iber., Diodati, Ital., Dan., Syriac, Murdock. In the parallel, 
Matt. 10 : 29, the E. V. places the interrogation point thus, " a 
farthing?" . . . 

P " and yet ; " nal. See ch. 8 : 13, note. Beza, " et tamen ; " 
Castal. ("tamen"); Wakef. ("yet even"). Wesley, Thomson, 
Scarlett, Penn, Camp, render xai adversatively by " yet." Schott, 
"vero." . .... .... 

1 In the E. V. " very" is inserted before " hairs." This is not 
demanded by the text, which is aU.a xai ai r^t^es. In the 
parallel, Matt. 10 : 30, Se xai a.t is rendered in the E. V-, 
" but the very hairs," instead of the more correct phrase, " but 
even the hairs." Wesley renders the passage before us, " but 
even the hairs." So Scarlett, Sharpe, Dick., Sawyer, Kend. 
Beza, " quin etiam capilli ; " Eras., " quin et capilli ; " Yulg., 
Mont., " sed et capilli ; " Goschen, " sed etiam ; " De Wette, 




not therefore : ye are of more 
value than many sparrows. 

8 Also I say unto you, "Who- 
soever shall confess me before 
men, him shall the Son of man 
also confess before the angels of 

9 But he that denieth me be- 
fore men, shall be denied before 
the angels of God. '"": 

10 And whosoever shall speak 
a word against the Son of man, it 
shall be forgiven him : but unto 
him that blasphemeth against the 
Holy Ghost, it shall not be for- 

11 And when they, bring you 
unto the synagogues, and unto 
magistrates, and powers, take ye 


fj.r] ovv <j)o/Se'io-0e' TroX- 
(TTpovdicov Sia<pepeTe. 8 Ae- 
ya> 8e vfjuv, Has b? av o/toAoy^crp 
ez/ ejjLoi e/JLTrpo^ev T>V di>9pa>- 

TTCOV, KCU 6 v'lOS TOV dv0pO>7TOV 

QfjioXoyr)<TL ev avTco efJLirpocrOev 
T>V d-yye\coi> TOV Oeov' o 'Se 
dpvrjcrafj.ei'os //.e evwinov TO>V civ- 


TOV Oeov. 



Trdf ay epel Xoyov elf TOV viov 
rov di>6pa>7rov, d<j)edr) 
T< de elf TO ' Ayiov 

em Ta.f crvva.yu>ya.s KOU ray 
KOU. Ta? e^ovcriaf, fj.rj fj,e- 


therefore ; ye are of more value 
than many sparrows. r And I 8 
say to you, whoever shall con- 
fess me before men, him "will the 
Son of man also confess before 
the angels of God : but he who 9 
denieth me before men, 'will be 
denied before the angels of 
God. And whoever shall speak 10 
a word against the Son of man, 
it "will be forgiven him, but to 
him who ""revileth against the 
Holy Spirit, it T will not be for- 
given. And when they bring n 
you "before the synagogues, ' 
and "magistrates, and y authofi- 
ties, z be not anxious how or 

" aber auch die Haare ; " S. Fr., " meme aussi les clieveux ; ' 
Iberian, " mas aun los cabellos ; " Belgic, " ja oolc de hairen.' 
" Very " was copied from Tyndale. 

r "And ; " e. Wesley, Sliavpe, Penn, Norton, "VVakef., Saw- 
yer, Kend. Belg., " ende ; " Iber., " 1." Were it not that the 
particle " now " would be ambiguous being sometimes an ad- 
verb of time, and at others, a continuative it would be preferable 
to " and," in this instance. G. and S. Fr., Diodati and the Ital. 
have " or " (= " now "). 

" will confess ; " oftoloyrjaet. Scarlett, Sharpe, Penn, Saw- 
yer, Kend., St. Wakef., Thorn., and Norton, " will acknow- 

' " will be denied ; " ana^vijd-fiacrai,. Scarlett, Penn, Wake- 
field, Kend., M. The auxiliary " will " is employed also by 
Norton and Dick. 

u " will be forgiven ; " apsd-jasrat. Scarlett, Sharpe, Penn, 
Kend., M. As an alternative rendering, "may be forgiven." 
This is adopted by Wakef.. Penn, Norton. It may be maintain- 
ed on the ground, that the fut. indicative is often used with the 
force of the subjunctive, or English potential mode. Kiihner 
(g255, 3, p. 343) says: "The Greeks very often use the fut. 
indie, in subordinate clauses, even after a Historical tense, to 
express that which shall, should, -must, or can be, where the Latin 
employs the subjunctive." Stuart (Gram.; 136, 7, b) : "The 
future often expresses obligation, necessity, duty, and may be 
translated by the auxiliaries, may, must, ought, can, etc." Winer, 
fi 34, 5 : " The future is sometimes employed to express the idea 
which the Latins convey by the present of the subjunctive, and 
the English by the potential mode; both of which, in their 
nature, are closely related to the general idea of the future." 
The thought obviously is not that the sin of reviling the Son 
shaft, always be pardoned, but that such sin may be pardoned. 

uu a r evileth ; " {tAaoptifujoavrc. See ch. 5 : 21, note. 

' " will not be forgiven ; " OVK ayed-^aecat. See last note. 
In case the alternative rendering- (suggested ia that note), " it 
may be forgiven," is deemed appropriate, then this sentence 
(" will not be forgiven ") should be rendered, " it can not be for- 

" " before the synagogues ; " Inl ras avvaycayas. So liti 
(E. V.) Matt. 10 : 18. Mark 13 : 9. Acts 10 : 17. Bob. (Lex., 
in verbo, cum accus.} : "Also (spoken) of magistrates, judges, 
tribunals, upon, unto, i. e. up before, Matt. 10 : 18. Luke 12 : 11, 
58, etc." Thus Scarlett, Sharpe, Penn* Wakef., Norton, Dick., 
Camp., Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M. De Wette, " vor die Syna- 
gogen ; " S. Fr., " devant les congregations." As an alternative, 
'' to the synagogues." . 

1 A supplementary preposition before " magistrates " (like 
" unto " of the E. V.) is superfluous. Not employed by Thorn., 
Scarlett, Sharpe, Penn, Wakef., Norton, Dick., Camp., Sawyer, 
Kend., Thelwall, M. 

y " authorities ; " govoias. Sharpe, Penn, Angus, M. Bob. 
(Lex., in verbo} : "Authorities, i. e., rulers, magistrates, Luke 
12 : 11." Our idiom agrees with that of the Greek in the use of 
" authorities," employing the abstract for the concrete,' i. e. " au- 
thority " for those invested with " authority." " Power " is the 
equivalent of Svvaftis, as in (E. V.) Matt. 24 : 29. Luke 21 :27. 
Eom. 8 : 38. The proper distinction between these words is 
made by the E. V., 1 Pet, 3 : 22, vitorayevrcov avrcp ayyelcov sl-ovoicov xal Sw&fiecov, " angels, and authorities, and powers 
Deing made subject unto him." There is much confusion and 
ooseness in the rendering of igovola and Suvafas'in the E. V., 
which has followed the earlier Eng. Versions, without making the 
u-oper corrections. See ch. 4 : 6, note. : : 

"be not anxious;" /oj fte^i/ivSre. See ch. 10 :41, and 




no thought how or what thing ye 
shall answer, or what ye shall 
say : 

12 For the Holy Ghost shall 
teach you in the same hour what 
ye ought to say. 

13 And one of the company 
said unto him, Master, speak to 
my brother, that he divide the in- 
heritance with me. 

14 And he said unto him, Man, 
who made me a judge, or a divider 
over you ? 

15 And he said unto them, Take 
heed, and beware of covetousness : 
for a man's life consisteth not in 
the abundance of the things which 
he possesseth. 

16 And he spake a parable un- 
to them, saying, The ground of a 
certain rich man brought forth 
plentifully : 

17 And he thought within him- 
self, saying, What shall I do, be- 



pi/j.vS.T TT>S rj T'L 
77 T'L etTT^re- 12 ro yap " Ayiov 
Uvev/j-a SiSa^et eV avrrj rrj 
a.) a Sel etTreiV. 

8e TLS avTco e/c TOU 

17T TCp dSfX" 


$\ 9 
Oe 17T1> 

avTco AvflpcoTre, rty p.e /care'- 

O~Tr)(T SlKaCTTrjV 77 fJ.eptO'TTJl' (f)' 

V/JLO.S; Ehre Se irpos avrovs, 
' Opare /cat (j)vXa(rcrcr6e a.7ro Trjs 
OTI OVK ev T< Treptcr- 

TLVL 77 ^0)77 aVTOV 6(TTLV K 

Tiav VTrap^ovroov avrov. 16 Ehre 
Se -Trapa^oXrjv irpos ayrouy, Ae'- 
yutv, *Av&pumov TLVOS TrXovcriov 
ev(poprjo~ev TJ ^capa- 17 /cat 5te- 
ev tavTco, Xeyav, Ti. 


what' b ye shall answer for 
yourselves, or what ye shall say : 
for the Holy Spirit 'will teach 12 
you in that hour what ye oiight 
to say. And one of the crowd is 
said to him, Teacher, 'bid my 
brother 'divide the inheritance 
with me. And he said to him, 14 
Man, who made me a judge, or 
a divider over you? And he K 
said to them, Take heed and 
'keep yourselves s from h cove- 
tousness ; for a man's life con- 
sisteth not in the abundance 
of his possessions. And he 16 
spoke a parable to them, say- 
ing, The ground of a certain 
rich man brought forth plenti- 
fully : and 'he reasoned within 17 
aimself, saying, What shall I 

8 : 14, notes. Thorn., Penn, "Wakef., Norton, Sawyer, Kend. 
Angus, M. 

* " thing " is omitted as superfluous. So M., Kend., Thorn. 
"Wesley, Sharpe, Penn, Norton. 

I y e s jj a n answer for yourselves ; " anoAoyijaqa&e. Rob, 
(Lex., in verbd) : " Mid. dep., to plead, or answer for ones self.' 
So (E. V.) Acts 25 : 8, aitohoyovfcevov avrov, " while lie an- 
swered for himself ; " 26 : 1, iatoloytto, " answered for him- 
self;" 26 : 2, filttcov ano).oysra&ai, "I shall answer for 
myself;" 26 : 24, ainov catoloyovfikvov, "as he thus spoke 
(properly, " answered ") for himself." As an alternative, " how 
or what ye shall say in your defense." S. Fr., " ce qne vous 
repondrez pour votre defense ; " De Wette, " wie oder was ihr zu 
eurer Vertheidigung sprechen sollet ; " Iber., " por como 6 qne 
en vuestra defensa respondereis." 

" will teach ; " SiSajec. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, "Wakefield, 
Norton, Camp., Kend. 

d " bid ; " cljif. Penn, Sharpe, "Wakef., Kend. Bob. (Lex., 
slitov} : (Spoken) " of what is said with authority, to direct, to 
bid, to command." So (E. V.) Matt. 16 : 12 ; 23 : 3. Luke 
10 : 40. Acts 11 : 12 ; 22 : 24. 

* " divide ; " /teptoao9ae. By our idiom, " to " is omitted 
after " bid." So Kend. and Scarlett. 

f " keep yourselves ; " rpvldooeo&e. Rob. (Lex., in verlo) : 
" Middle, and cnce reflexive, to keep oneself from, or as to any 
thing." " Mid., Luke 12 : 15, often rendered by ' keep ' in E. V." 
" Beware " is nearly synonymous with " take heed," and hence 
there is a tautology in the rendering of the E. V. 


"from;" aito (cum genit.). 
Rob. (Lex., in verbo). 

This is the appropriate render- 

covetousness." The reading of the Textus Receptus, rijs 
e, is, to say the least, dubious. Haarjs n).eove!;ia.s (" all 
covetousness ") is marked by Griesbach as equal, if not superior, 
while it is adopted by Lachmann, Tischendorf, Schott. Kuinoe! 
says : " Pro Sato TIJS multi iidemque prcsstantissimi libri exhibeut 
catb utaoys, qua? lectio omnino proeferenda videtnr." The Syriac 
follows this reading (JZaJil OL^S _io) ; so the Vulg., " ab 
omni avaritia." It is that of the uncial MSS. A.B.D.K.L.M.Q.X. 
Sohott has this note : "Auctoritate multorum cdd. (8 nnc.) verss., 
Pesch. Philox., Memph. Sahid, Arr., Pers, MVa., Arm., Vulg., 
It., cum Lachm. et Meyero edidd. naarjs mite nliov pro vnlg. 

Knapp, Theile, Tittm., and Scholz follow the Text. Recept. 
The weight of authority in favor of naoijs is therefore such, that 
" from all covetousness " is submi tted as an alternative render- 

1 " of his possessions ; " J reuv vna^otniav cdrtov. See ch. 
8 : 3, note. Penn, Scarlett, Wakefield, Norton, Kend. Heb. 
N. Test, I'j^fp nnto Belg., " uit zijue goederen ; " De Wette, 
unter seinen'Oiiterri ;" S. Fr., " ses biens." "Which he pos- 
sesseth " (first used by Tyndale) is a literal translation from the 
Vulgate, " qua3 possidet." It is less exact than the rendering of 
lie Geneva Version, " his riches." 

lie reasoned ; " Steloyigero. Thomson, Wesley, Norton, 
Dick., Camp., Sawyer, Angus, Thelwall, M. This verb occurs 
eventeen times in the N. Test. In twelve of these it is rendered 
by "reason." Rob. (Lex.). 




cause I have no room where to 
bestow rny fruits ? 

18 And he said, This will I 
do : I will pull down my barns, 
and build greater ; and there will 
I bestow all my fruits and my 

19 And I will say to my soul, 
Soul, thou hast much goods laid 
up for many years ; take thine 
ease, eat, drink, and be merry. 

20 But God said unto him, Thou 
fool, this night thy soul shall be 
required of thee : then whose shall 
those things be which thou hast 
provided ? 



1 8 \ ? 

KO.I eare, 
JJ.QV ray 

7TOir/(ra> } OTL OVK 

\ / 

TOV? KapTrovy /J.DV; 
TOVTO TroiTjera 
a.iro@rjK.aS) KCU 

Ii,r)aro3, KOLL (Tvvd^co Kt irdvra TO. 
yevvrj^aTa. ftov Kai TO, dyadd 
fj.ov, 19 KOU epaj rfj tyvxfj p,ov, 
^v^r}, ^X eiy ' !ro ^ 1 ' dyadd Kei- 
fj.eva fly err} TroXXd- dvsujravov, 

I ' ' > JL ' 20' 

(pays, Trie, ev(j)pcu.vov. enre 

de avTco 6 0os, ' A<ppoov } recur?? 

(TOV a.tra.1- 
d 5e 


rovcnv iro crov' 
cra.?, TLVL eoraty 




"do ? for I have no iplace where 
m l can gather together my 
fruits. And he said, This will 18 
I do; I will pull down my 
barns, and build greater ; and 
there "I will gather together 
all my "produce and my goods. 
And I will say to my soul, Soul, 19 
thou hast 'many goods laid up 
for many years, take thine ease, 
eat, drink, 'be merry. But God 20 
God said to him, 'Unwise man! 
this night this soul "is required 
of thee ; 'now "who will have 
T what w thou hast provided? 

k The interrogation point is placed after " do " by Thorn., 
Wesley, Scarlett, Norton, Dick., Gamp., Wakef. So Beza, 
" Quid faciam ? " Belg., " Wat zal ik doen ? " De "Wette, " Was 
Boll ich thun ? " Dan., " hvad skal jeg giore ? " Iber., " i Que 

i "place." Penn, Dick. G. Fr., "place;" De Sacy, "point 
de liea." There is an ellipsis of ronov here. Kuincel (in loco) : 
" OVK e%co sel. roitov." Michaelis (notes on Bos' Gr. Ellipses, 
p. 301) : " Lucas in Evangel. 12 : 17, owe tyta (ronov) nov 
awa^ea." Agreeably to our idiom, the ellipsis should be supplied. 
Tyndale felt the necessity of this, and employed " room," which 
was copied by the E. V"., though in that, the translators (or, to 
speak more correctly, the revisers) did not italicize the word. 

m " I can gather together ; " ovvagco. The future here may 
be properly rendered by the potential. See ch. 12 : 9, note. 
The proper signification of the verb is " to collect," " to gather 
together." This latter is one of its ordinary renderings in the 
E. V. See Matt. 13 : 2 ; 18 : 20 ; 22 : 34. Luke 15 : 13. John 
11 : 52. 'So " I can gather together " is the rendering (by the 
Lat. subj.) of the Vulgate and Eras., " congregem ; " Goschen, 
" colligam ; " Castalio, " cogam." Penn renders this verb by the 
potential, "where I can store." G. Fr., "je puisse assembler." 
Bob. (Lex., awayca) : " To gather together." If, after all, the 
rendering by the potential should not be deemed appropriate, 
then the indicative future, " 1 shall gather together," is suggested 
as an alternative. " Bestow," in the sense demanded here, is 

" " I will gather together ; " ovvagat. See last note. So 

" produce ; " yevtrffiara. Norton, Camp., Wakef., Sawyer. 
Castalio, Goschen, Schott, " proventus ; " Yulg. and Eras., " qu!B 
nata snnt;" De Wette, " Erzeugnisse ; " S. Fr., "produits;" 
Rob. (Lex., in verbo) " produce." Bretsch. : " Apud seriores, ut 
t'olybium, Diodornm (dicitur) de proventu agrorum, arborum, 
etc." Lidd. (Lex.) : " That which is produced." Webster (Diet., 
art. "Produce") : "That which is produced, brought forth, or 

yielded, as the produce of a farm," etc. Kuineel : 

sunt proventus agrorum." This word should not be confounded 

with xagnovs, which occurs in v. 17. 

f " many ; " nolla. So in the next member of the sentence. 
" Much goods " does not accord with our present usus logiundt. 
So Angus, Sawyer, Wakef., Sharpe, Scarlett, Penn, Thorn., M. 
As an alternative rendering of nolla. aya&a, " many good 
things." So Scarlett, Thorn., Penn, M., Sharpe. 

i " and," supplementary in the E. V., is superfluous, and weak- 
ens the force of the thought. Omitted by Wesley, Scarlett, 
Norton, Camp., Wakef., Kend., Angus, Thelwall. 

' " Unwise man .' " 'Atpgcov. Thelwall. See cli. 11 : 40, note. 
Syriac, ) .1 f "-.< ^.M.^ (" inops mentis "). 

" is required ; " anairovaiv. Kend. There is no necessity 
for rendering the present tense here as a future. The former is 
most exact and forcible. Bloomf. (in loco) : " 'Axanovat may, 
with Gataker, and others, be regarded as personal for imperson- 
al." Pasor (Lex., in loco) : " Hac ipsa nocte animam suam 
repetunt ii te." By a common usage, especially in Scriptural 
phraseology, events which are to transpire in the future, are de- 
scribed by verbs in the present tense, and this is especially the 
fact in the language of prediction. The certainty of the fulfill- 
ment is thus made prominent. In such cases, a literal translation 
is altogether preferable. Thus Matt. 3 : 10, nav ovv StvSqov fit; 
notovv KKQUOV v.albv ixf.oarsrnt xal tig nvq fidU.erai. This is 
properly rendered in the E. V., " is hewn (cut) down, and 
cast." So Matt. 26 : 2, ftera Svo Tjfiepas TO Ttao^n yiveritt, 
xal o vios rov av&Qconov XapaSlSoTai. E. V., " after two days 
is the feast of the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed." 
Kfilmer, 1 255, E. 3. Trollope, Gram., \ 50, Obs. 5, 3. 

' " now ; " SE. This particle is simply continuative. In cases 
of this kind, it is rendered (Rob., Lex.) " but, now, and further, 
and the like." De Wette, " nun." 

"who will have;" rift 'sarai; Sawyer, Kend. ("shall 
have"). Iber., i"quien tendra?" Bob. (Lex., slfil] : " With 
the dative of a noun or pronoun as predicate, to be to any one, 




21 So is he that layeth up treas- 
ures for himself, and is not rich 
toward God. 

22 And lie said unto his disci- 
ples, Therefore I say unto you, 
Take no thought for your life, 
what ye shall eat ; neither for the 
body, -what ye shall put on. 

23 The life is more then meat, 
and the body is more than rai- 

24 Consider the ravens : for 
they neither sow nor reap : which 
neither have store-house nor barn ; 
and God feedeth them. How much 
more are ye better than, the fowls? 


v ea.vT(2, KOI p.rj els 


22 ELTT 8e Trpo? rou? 
avTov, A 10. TOVTO \e~ya>, fj.r/ rf) ^V)(rj vfj.a>v, T'L 
yr)T- fJirjSe TC 
o-qa-0. 23 rj faxf} TrXelov fcrri 
Tpo(f)fj?, /cat TO crayita TOV 
Ka.Tavoricra.Te TOVS 
OTL ov (nreipovcriv. ou8e 
OLS OVK ecrTL rafj.ioi> 
ov8e dTrodrjKr}, /cat 6 deos rpe(f)ei 

v/j.els 8ia- 


"Thus ''will it be with him, who 21 
layeth up treasure for himself, 
and is not .rich towards God. 
And he said . to his disciples, 22 
Therefore I say to you, z Be not 
anxious for your life, what ye 
shall eat ; "nor for the body, 
what ye shall put on. The life 23 
is more than b the food, and the 
'body, than d the raiment. Con- 24 
sider the ravens ; for they nei- 
ther sow nor reap ; 'they have 
neither store-house nor f barn, 
s and yet God feedetli them ; 
h of how much more value are 

* " Thus ; " ovra> ? . Thorn., Norton, Dick., Wakef., Kend., 

" will it be with him." There is an ellipsis here. Tyndale 
supplied it with "is it with him." In this, he was copied by 
Cranmer, and the Genevan. Luther and De Wette, "'genet es" 
(= our colloquial " so goes it ") ; Belg., " is het met dien ; " G. 
and S. Pr., " il en est ainsi de celui ; " De Sacy, " c'cst ce qui 
arrive a celui ; " Diodati, '' cosi avviene a chi ; " Italian, " cosi 
avienne di colui, che." Wakef. and Norton, " Thus [it is with 
Mm]." .Camp., "So [it faveth it -with him]." There is some- 
thing harsh and obscure in the phrase of the E. V., " So is he." 
Kuinoel (in loco) : "Ita eveniet, hcec est sors (OVTCOS sc. sartii) 
hominis, qui sibi bona, caduca, et peritnra congerit, etc." Bloomf. 
(in loco) : " Moaning, such is the case with." 

* " Be not anxious ; " ftri fiepiftvare. See ch. 10 : 41, and 
8 : 14, notes. Kend., Angus, Thorn., Penn, Scarlett, Norton, 
"Wakef., Sawyer, M. 

1 " nor ; " fajSe. M., Thorn., Penn, Scarlett, Sharpe, Norton, 
Wakef., Camp., Kend., Thelwall. See ch. 8 : 17, note. 

b " the food ; " -rjjs rQo<pf,s. The article should not be omitted 
before igoprjs. The reason for retaining it before yi^J, is equal- 
ly valid here. " Meat," as a generic term for whatever we eat, is 
obsolete. So (E. V.) Acts 14 : 17. Jas. 2 : 15. It is rendered 
" food " by Thorn., Penn, Norton, Dick., Wakef., Camp., Sawyer, 
Eheims. Belg., " het voedzel ; " De Wette, " die Nahrung ; " G. 
and S. Pr., " la nouriture ; " Iber., " el alimento ; " Diodati, " il 
nudrimento ; " Ital., " il cibo." Heb. N. Test., iaxrt- Danish, 
"Maden." . 

c " The supplement of the E. V., " is more," after ". body," is 

superfluous. Dropped by Camp., Thorn., Penn, Norton, Sawyer, 
M., Kend., Sharpe. 

d " the raiment ; " rev evSv/inros. The article is properly 
retained here by Penn, Sawyer, Eheims, Belg., De Wette, G. and 
S. Pr., Iber., Ital., Heb. N. Test., and Dan. See last note. 

e " they ; " oi s . M., Cranmer, Kend., Thorn., Sharpe, Norton, 
Wakef., Sawyer, M. 

f A comma is placed after " barn," in conformity with the text. 
So Penn, Sharpe, Norton. 

s " and yet ; " v.a\. For this use of -/.at, see ch. 8 : 13, note. 
Stuart (Gram., \ 185, Bern. p. 185) says : " The student need not 
hesitate, sometimes to render but, or, moreover, etc. ; but let 
him remember that this liberty is due to the nature of the senti- 
ment which is connected with ttal, and not to the varying signifi- 
cation of the particle itself. Connecting, as it does, clauses of all 
hues, either synonymous, or adversative, either parts of the same 
generic sentence, or parts of the same discourse (zai continuative), 
the actual relations that exist may be properly expressed in a 
translation, although al, in and by itself, does not really and 
properly designate them." 

h " of how much more value are ye.; " n6o<>> fi.aD.ov vfieis 
SiatfE^ere. " To be of value " is the rendering of this verb in 
(E. V.) Matt. .10 : 31. noUcov orgovd'itov Stayi^Brs vftsTs, "ye 
are of more value than many sparrows." So in the parallel 
same words), Luke 12 : 7. Though I retain, " the life is more 
than," in v. 23, it is on the ground that the verb there is simply 
sari. (/; ynj%,li rtlaov lort). The adjunct jroarj> is in favor of this 
rendering. Connecting it with the verb, we have the thought, 
" how much do you surpass the birds in value," or, in other words, 

implying possession, or' property." By inverting the construc- 
tion, it may be rendered to have ; Luke 7 : 41, 8vo xpecoyisderai. 
Tjoav Sa.vEi.aTrj rivi, " a certain creditor had two debtors " (E. V., 
"There was a certain creditor which had two debtors"). Luke 
6 : 32, noia vpzv %apts sail; (E. V.), " what thank, (thanks) 
have ye ? " John 18 : 39, sari SE avvrj&eia vfalv (E. V.), " but 

ya have a custom." Scarlett, Dick., " shall possess." 

v " what ; " a. Norton, Dick., Kend. ,Iber., " lo que." Our 
idiom corresponds with the Greek in omitting the antecedent, in 
cases like this. The expression is equally clear, more concise and 
forcible, than it would be if " those things " should be inserted. 
De Wette, " was." 

w " thou hast provided ; " rrcoifiaaas. As an alternative ren- 
dering, " thou hast prepared." So usually in the E. V. 




25 Arid which of you with tak- 
ing thouglit can add to his stature 
one cubit? 

26 If ye then be not able to do 



IS 8e 

vwv Svi/arac 

e?n. Tfjv r)\iK.i.av avrov 

v 26 > 7 >' >\ ' 

eva; ft ovv OVTS eAa- 


ye than 'the birds? Wow which 25 
of you k by being anxious, 'can 
add a cubit "to his life? If 26 
then "ye can not do ""what is 

"how much more valuable are ye than the birds ? " Kob. (Lex. 
in verbo) : " With a geu. to differ from, to be other than ; and si 
to be more, or better than, to surpass, to excel." As an alternative 
rendering (as De Wette), " how much do ye surpass the birds ? ' 
Thorn., "of how much greater value are ye?" Scarlett am 
Camp., " how much more valuable are ye ? " Iber., " Cuanto mas 
valeis vosotros ! " 

1 "the birds?" raw Mretvaiv; So (B. V.) Matt. 8 : 20 
13 : 32. Luke 9 : 58. Bom. 1 : 23. Jas. 3 : 7. Penn, Wesley 
Norton, Dick., Keud., Sawyer, Thorn. 

J "Now;" Se. Wakef. Kob. (Lex., <?) : " Continuative 

k "by being anxious;!' /tsfi/tvtSv. Kend., M. Alternative 
rendering (as De Wette, " rait seinen Sorgen "), " by his anxiety.' 
See ch. 10 : 41, note. 

i " can add a. cubit ; " xqood'eZvai Ttrjxuv sva. This arrange- 
ment is more in accordance with our ordinary usus loquendi. So 
Thorn., Penn, Wesley, Sharpe, Norton, Dick., Wakef., Sawyer, 

'" " to his life ? " ln\ rtjv rjlmiav. Rob. (Lex., in verbo) : " Spe- 
cially age, life, Matt. 6 : 27, et Luke 12 : 25." Bob. remarks, 
that " those who have translated the word ' stature,' in these 
cases, have done it against the context." " Life " is the rendering 
of Thorn., Norton, Wakefield, Camp., Kend., Pecby (note on 
Angus), M. Schott and Kuincel, " vitse sure ; " De Wette, " sei- 
ner Lebenslange." Wesley, Dickinson, Thelwall, " age." The 
primary sense of qitxia, in classic authors, is time of life, age, 
Lat. oetas, generally age, time. It has also been applied to the 
body, stature, growth, as being a sign of age. Lidd. (Lex.). There 
is little probability that translators would ever have thought of 
rendering the word by " stature " but from the fact of its connec- 
tion with nijxvv. We have an idiomatic expression of the same 
kind, " a span of time." So in a well known hymn : 

" My span of life will soon bo o'er." 

Bloomf. (N. Test.) makes the following remark on this phrase, 
which occurs in the parallel, Matt. 6 : 27: "The ancient com- 
mentators, and most modern ones, assign to this term the sense 
of stature; others, however, more properly (I think) interpret it 
atatis mensuram ; a sense surely far more suitable; the admoni- 
tion being directed against excessive anxiety as to food and 
clothing ; which while they Lave a necessary connection with the 
preservation of life, can have nothing in common with stature. 
j According to the latter interpretation, then, the argument is most 
forcible and conclusive, to show the uselessness of man's care, by 
the helplessness of his condition ; because no care of man, how- 
ever anxious, can materially add to the age of man. fifjxvs, like 
other measures of extent, is not unfrequently applied to duration 

of time." See Ps. 39 : 5, (B. V.), " Behold, thou hast made my 
days as an handbreadth." Heb., ia^ fwns rTinsrs n;n Sym- 
machus, ws vm.d'afias e'Sfoxas TS rjftegas fiov. Watts has 
well paraphrased this metaphor : 

"A span is all that we can boast, 
An inch or two of time." 

Trench, after remarking that Erasmus was the first who suggest- 
ed the rendering of yfay.ia not by " stature," but by " length of 
life," assigns the following reasons in favor of tbis interpretation : 
" 1. That natural rhetoric of which our Lord was the great mas- 
ter, He would have adduced some very small measure, and 
reminded his hearers that they could not add even this to their 
stature ; He would not have adduced a cubit, which is about a 
foot and a half; but He would have demanded, 'Which of you 
with all your carking and care can add an inch, or a hair's 
breadth to his stature ? ' 2. Men do not practically take thought 
about adding to their stature ; it is not an object of desire to one 
in a thousand to be taller than God has made him ; this could 
scarcely therefore be cited as one of the vain solicitudes of men. 
On the other hand, every thing exactly fits, when we understand 
our Lord to be asking this question about the length of life. 
Hie cubit, which is much when compared with a man's stature, is 
infinitesimally small, and, therefore, most appropriate, when com- 
pared to his length of life," etc. Kuincel (on parallel, Matt. 
3 : 27) : " Nostro loco fjltxia setatem, vite cursum notat, est 
snim sermo de re, quam avide desiderare homines solent, et in 
praecedentibus dictum est de cura vitis et carports; de posteriori 
agit v. 28, de priori ergo v. 27, ad vitam vero sustentaudum, cor- 
pus, que vestiendum, facit staturas incrementum." The E. V. 
renders the word by " age," John 9 : 21, 23, and Heb. 11 Ml ; 
and by " stature," Matt. 6 : 27. Luke 2 : 52 ; 12 : 25 ; 19 : 3. 
Eph. 4 M3, which are the only instances in which it occurs, in 
the N. T. 

11 " ye can not ; " ovre SvvdoS-e. M., Kend., Thorn., Norton, 
Dick., Wakef, Camp., Sawyer, Thelwall. This rendering of the 
erb, before an infinitive, is more concise and accordant with our 
isus loquendi, while it is equally accurate with that of the E. V. 

"do." Here "do" is italicized (as by Wesley) on the ground 
hat Ttoitiv is not ex-pressed, in the text, but understood. Bos 
noiEiv, p. 403) : "Apud Lucam in Evang. 12 : 26, El ovv ovre 
la%iotov (sc. motav). Si igitur ne minimum ijuidem 

possitis (facere)." Eob. (Lex., Svvufiai) : "Absolutely, or with 
,n infin. implied and readily suggested by the context, e. g. Matt. 

16 : 3. Mark 6 : 19, etc." 

" what is least ; " ll&^iorov. M. This word may be ren- 
lered " least thing." Still, as readers would frequently emphasize 
thing," rather than " least," the first rendering .is preferable, and 

ias the advantage of conciseness. 




that thing which is least, why take 
ye thought for the rest ? 

27 Consider the lilies how they 
grow : they toil not, they spin 
not ; and yet I say unto you, that 
Solomon in all his glory was not 
arrayed like one of these. 

28 If then God so clothe the 
grass, which is to-day in the field, 
and to-morrow is cast into the 
oven ; how much more will he clothe 
you, ye of little faith ? 

29 And seek not ye what ye 
shall eat, or what ye shall drink, 
neither be ye of doubtful mind. 

80 For all these things do the 
nations of the world seek after : 
and your Father knoweth that ye 
have need of these things. 

31 But rather seek ye the king- 


Svvacrde., T'L Trepl TWV Aoi-; z7 KaTavor)(raTe 
TO, Kpiva, Trots av^dvet- ov KOTTLO., 
ovde vrjdef Ae'yo) 8e vjjuv, ov8e 
SoA.ofj.wv ev Trcwrrj rij So^jj au- 
ToC TrepiefidXeTO <as ev TOVTWV* 
28 el 8e TOV \opTOV ev T(J> dyp< 
a~f]fj.epov OVTO., KOL avpipv els 
KXifiavov fiaXXofJievov, 6 Oeos 
OVTCOS dfj.(j)ievvvo-i } TTOCTCC [j.dXXov 
vfj.ds, oAiyoTTicrroc; 29 K.CU u/xet? 

\>-~ 'JL' *// 

fj,rj (jrjTeiTe TL (pa'yr)T ) 77 TL 7rir)T' 
Kal P.TI /j.eT(api^e<T0e. raura 
yap irdvTO. TO. edvr] TOV KOCT/XOU 
VfJ.cav -8e o TraTrjp oiSev 
Te TovTcav. 31 TrXrjv 
Tt]V /Sao-tAet'aj/ roO Oeov, 



least, why q are you anxious for 
the rest ? Consider the lilies 2: 
how they grow : they toil not, 
r nor 'spin ; yet I say to you,' 
"even Solomon in all his glory 
was not arrayed like one of 
these. T But, if God so "cloth- 28 
eth the grass which to-day is 
in the field, and . to-morrow is 
cast into *an oven ; how much 
more will he clothe you, ye 
of little faith! And "seek ye 29 
not what ye shall eat, or what 
ye shall drink, 'nor "be in 
anxious suspense. For all these so 
things the nations of the world 
b are seeking after"; and your 
Father knoweth that c ye need 
these things. But rather 4 seek 31 
the kingdom of God, and all 

" are ye anxious ; " fte^ifivare. Thomson, Penn, Scarlett, 
Norton, Dick., Camp., Sawyer, Kend., M. See ch. 10 : 41, note. 

1 " nor ; " ovSe. Thomson, Penn, Scarlett, Sharpe. See ch. 
8 : 17, note. 

" " spin ; " vtfd-st. Sharpe, Scarlett. There is no necessity 
for nsing " do " with this verb, as vri&ei. is no more emphatic 

' " that." This word is unnecessarily introduced in the E. V. 
before- " Solomon." In the parallel, Matt. 6 : 29, oil occurs be- 
fore ovS's Solofiiuv, and is there properly represented by " that" 
in the E. V. 

u " even not ; " ovSe. These words, the equivalents of oi/Ss, 
are separated, according to the general usage. 

T "But, if;" si Ss. Gray (note on Angus), Penn, Thelwall. 
" If then " is the appropriate equivalent of el ovv, as at the com- 
mencement of v. 26. Bob. (Lex.,- /, III : 1, c) : "El Se, where Ss 
has its usual adversative, or continuative power, but if, and if." 
So (E. V.) Matt. 12 : 7, 28. Mark 11 : 26. Luke 11 : 20. John 

10 : 38 ; 18 : 23. Acts 5 : 39 ; 18 : 15 ; 19 : 39. Eom. 3:5; 

11 : 6, etc. Vulg., Mont, Eras., !' si autem ; " De Wette, " "Wenn 

w " clotheth ; " afitpi&wvat. See ch. 4 : 3, note. 

1 "an oven;" xiiflcotov. This noun is anarthrous. So Thorn., 
Norton, "Wakef., Gray (on Angus). 

i " seek ye not." This is the natural order of the sentence. 
So Kend., M. The inversion of the E. V. originated in Cran- 
mer's " ask not ye." 

1 " nor." See ch. 8 : 17, note. Thorn., Dick., Angus, M. 
" be in anxious suspense ; " ficTscopl&od-e (anaj Zeyo/f.). 
Angus, M. Marg. of E. V., " live not in anxious suspense." Rob; 

(Lex., in verbo) : " In N. T. pass., or mid., ' to be in suspense, to 
be of doubtful mind,' fluctuating between hope and fear." "Bloomf. 
(N. T., in loco] '. " Meaning, ' Be not anxiously fluctuating be- 
tween hope and fear, as to the supply of your daily wants.' 
MeTecoqi^. signifies properly (literally) to be lifted on high: 
being used especially of vessels tossed aloft at sea, and then de- 
pressed to its very depths ; an apt image of anxiety." Horace, 
Ep. I : 18, 109, 110 : 

" proviso; frugis in annum 
Copia ; neu fluitem duliiae spe penflulus horse." 

Kuincel : " (Dicitur) de flicctuatione animi, inter spent metumque 
dubii aigue suspensi, de Us, qui animo sollicito, suspenso, dubio i 
sunt, ut metaphora petita sit a navibus, quas vento et fluctibus in 
alto jactantur." 

b " are seeking after ; " Inet&ta. This rendering is a literal 
expression of the 'present tense of the Greek. It brings out the 
thought with proper accuracy and force. Greene (Gram;, p. 9) : 
" The essential time signified by the present and imperfect tenses 
is that of a continued, or habitually repeated action." j&ri, in 
composition here, is intensive, hence " seeking after," not " seek- 

c " ye need ; " j^gere. Wesley, Scarlett, Camp., Sawyer, 
Wakef., Kend., Thelwall. " To have need " is an ordinary ren- 
dering of exeiv xgelav, in the E. V. See Matt. 3 : 14. Mark 

25 ; 11 : 3. Luke 9 : 11 ; 15 : 7 ; 19 : 31. John 13 : 29. 
is rendered simply to need (B. T.) Luke 11 : 8. 2 Cor. 

1. It should be so in Matt. 6 : 32. Eom. 16 : 2, which (with 
Luke 12 : 30, and the passages already cited) comprise all the 
cases where it occurs. . . ' 

" seek ; " fyjTeiTs. " Ye," which occurs in the E.T., is super- 
fluous. It is dropped by Kend., Angus, Scarlett, Norton, Dick., 
Wakef., Sawyer, M., Thelwall. '< Ye " was copied from Wicli 




dom of God, and all these things 
shall be added imto you. 

32 Fear not, little flock ; for it 
is your Father's good pleasure to 
give you the kingdom. 

33 Sell that ye have, and give 
alms : provide yourselves bags 
which wax not old, a treasure in 
the heavens that faileth not, where 
ao thief approacheth, neither moth 

34 For where your treasure is, 
there will your heart be also. 

35 Let your loins be girded 
about, and your lights burning ; 

36 And ye yourselves like unto 
men that wait for their lord, when 
he will return from the wedding ; 
that, when he cometh and knock- 
eth, they may open unto him im- 

37 Blessed are those servants, 
whom the lord when he cometh 



TO.VTO. TrvTo. 

32 [AT] <f)O/3oD, TO 

OTI (v8oKr/crei> 6 Trarrjp> dovvai> rr/is /Saa-iXttav. 
ss jTa)X7/(ra.Te TO, vTra-pyovra. v/j-tav, 
Kal 5ore eXer/fj-oa-vvr/v irotrjcraTG 
eavrotf j3aXdvTia fj.rj 7raXaiovfj,e- 
va, Orjaravpov az/e'/cAetTrrov eV rois 
ovpavoiS) OTTOV KXfTrrr/s OVK eyy/- 
et, ovde (rr/s Siacjjde'ipei- 3 * OTTOV 
yap (<TTIV o dr)<ravpos>, 
e'/cet Kal rj Kap8ta vfj.coi> earou. 
35 ' EaTcaaav vfj.a>v ai 6a-(j)vf 
7repieo}(r/jLevai, KOU ol Xv^voi 


Kvpiov tavTotv, Trore dvaXvo-ei e/c 
rS)v ya/j.cov, iva, eXdovros Kal 
Kpovcravros, evdeoos dvoi^axriv 
aura. 37 iJ.aKa.pioi ol SovXot 
, ovs eX0a>i> o Kvpios 


these things 'will be added to 
you. Fear not, little flock ; 32 
for it is your Father's good 
pleasure to give you the king- 
dom. Sell your f possessions, 33 
and give alms ; provide your- 
selves s purses which h become 
not old, 'an unfailing treasure 
in the heavens, where no thief 
approacheth, 'nor moth k de- 
stroyeth. For where your treas- 34 
ure is, there will your heart be 
also. Let your loins be girded 35 
about, and your 'lamps burn- 
ing ; and ye "yourselves like 3fi 
men waiting for their lord "to 
return from the "wedding-feast ; 
that when he cometh and knock- 
eth, they may open to him im- 
mediately. "Happy are those 37 
servants, whom P their lord, 

" will be added ; " TtgooTs&ijaeTcu. Thorn., Penn, Sharpe, 
Norton (" will be given"), Wakef., Kend. 

f " possessions ; " vitA^otna. See eh. 8 : 3, and 11 : 21, notes. 
So Thorn., Dick., Kend., M. 

* " purses ; " /Salavrta. So (B. V.) ch. 10 : 4. Thorn., "Wes- 
ley, Penn, Norton, Dick., Camp., Wakef., Sawyer, Kend., Rob. 
and Lidd. (Lexx.). Bretsch. : "Crumena, Hesych., ^akmrciov 
ItaQovTcniov." In Luke 10 : 4 (E. V.) ; 22 : 35, 36, this word is 
properly distinguished from nrf^a, which signifies a bag. See ch. 
9 : 3, note. Beza, Kuinoel, " crumenas." 

h " become not old ; " ftrj mcd.tuovft.sva. Bob. (Lex., in verbo), 
Sawyer. Revision of Hebrews, 1 : 11. " Wax," in the sense of 
" become," is obsolete. 

1 " an unfailing treasure ; " -d-rjaav^ov arsnieiytrov. Sharpe, 
Kend., Gray (note on Angus). Rob. (Lex., avixfatjtTos), "unfail- 
ing." This adjective can be most appropriately rendered by the 
Eng. participial adjective. This is not the case with the participle 
itahaiovfteva, in the first member of the sentence, as we have no 
single word corresponding to it, and must ex necessitate rei, render 
it by the relative and verb. 

1 " nor ; " ovB's. M., Kend., Angus, Penn, Sharpe, Scarlett, 
Dick., Sawyer. See ch. 8 : 17, note. 

k " destroyeth ; " Stay&elfet. So (E. V.) Rev. 8:9; 11 : 18. 
Norton, Dick., Sawyer. Rob. (Lex., in verbo) : " To destroy ut- 
terly." The sense is not that of corroding, or eating away gradu- 
ally, but (with Sta intensive] that of ruining, or destroying. 

i " lamps ; " t.v-fvoi. Thorn., Wesley, Penn, Sharpe, Scarlett, 
Norton, Dick., Camp., Wakef., Angus. See ch. 11 : 33, note. 
Rob. (Lex., Iv'/pos, in loco), " lamps." 

11 " yourselves " is a supplement. 

m " to return ; " mots dvcdvaei. Scarlett. This rendering is 
adopted oa the ground that it harmonizes with our usus loquendi, 
while that of the E. V. unnecessarily introduces a Greek idiom into 
the text. If it is deemed important to retain that idiom, it may 
be modified for the better, if we say, " when he shall return." 
" Cometh " is incorrect, as " the idea of returning home is im- 
plied." Rob. (Lex., &va).va>}. The phraseology of the E. T. 
originated in that of the Vulgate, " quando revertatur." The 
latter is, however, more correct than the first, inasmuch as rever- 
tatur signifies " he may return," not, " he will come." Kuineel 
(in loco) : " Dominum redeuntem." 

" " wedding-feast ; " ya/j.cov. Rob. (Lex., ya/ttog) : " Specially, 
the wedding-feast, marriage-festival, which continued seven days ; 
see Judges 14 : 12. Tobit 11 : 19." 

" Happy ; " fiaxa^ioi. See ch. 1 : 45, note. Thorn., Wes- 
ley, Scarlett, Norton, Camp., Wakefield, Kendrick, M. Iber., 
" felices." 

P " their lord ; " o xvpios. Kend., Sawyer, Murdock. Thorn., 
Norton, Dick., Camp., " their master." The E. V., by using the 
article " the," and beginning " lord " with a capital, makes this 
language refer directly to Christ ; whereas in fact the phrase is 
a part of the " parable." The explanation .commences at v. 40- 




shall find watching : verily, I say 
unto you, that he shall gird him- 
self, and make them to sit down 
to meat, and will come forth and 
serve them. 

38 And if he shall come in the 
second watch, or come in the third 
watch, and find them so, blessed 
are those servants. 

39 And this know, that if the 
good man of the house had known 
what hour the thief would come, 
he would have watched, and not 
have suffered his house to be 
broken through. 

40 Be ye therefore ready also : 
for the Son of man cometh at an 
hour when ye think not. 

41 Then Peter said unto him, 
Lord, speakest thou this parable 
unto us, or even to all ? 

42 And the Lord said, Who 
then is that faithful and wise 


(ret yprj-yopovvTas. a.jj.r]v Ae'yct) 
OTL TT pL^cdcreTcu KCU. ava- 
avrovs, KCU. trapeXdcov 810.' 

f 3 ~ 3Q \ ) \ JA f\ 

Kovr/crei avroLs. /cat eav eAar) 
eV Trj SevTepa 0vAa/ci7, KCU eV rfj 
773/7-77 0vAa/c?7 e'A#]7, KCU fvpy 
OVTCO, fAciKapLOL eicriv ol 8ov\OL 

' - 39 ~ ?>* ' 


OTL ei ySei o oiKoSecrTTOTr/f irola 
capo, 6 /cAeTrrT?? ep^erat, ey/JTiyo- 

pr/crei' civ, /cat owe av d(j)7JKe 810- 

\ ? > 40 > 

pvyr/vctL TOV OLKOV avTov. /cat 

u/iet? ofiv yivecrde erot/tof OTL y 
copa ov 5oKetre,- 6 vios TOV a.v- 
Opanrov epytTctL. 41 Elite 8e 
avTca 6 TZerpor, Kvpie, Trpos 
rjfjLcl? Trjv TrapafioXrjv ravTijv Ae'- 

* \ v ' 42 7-1? 

yets, 77 /cat 71750? TravTas; Jbnre 
8e 6 KvpLOs, Tis apa ecrTiv o 



when he cometh, shall find 
watching : 'truly, I say to you, 
that 'he will gird himself and 
"make them recline at table, 
and 'will come and serve them.* 
And if he shall, come in the 38 
second watch, or shall come in 
the third watch, and find them 
"doing thus, "happy are those 
servants. And this ye know, 39 
that if *the master of the house 
had known what hour the thief 
would come, he would have 
watched, and not have suffered 
his house to be broken through. 
Be ye therefore ready also ; 40 
y for in an hour when ye think 
not, the Son of man coirieth. 
'And Peter said to him. Lord, 41 
speakest thou this parable to 
us, or "also to all Bothers? And 42 
the Lord said, Who, then, is 
c the faithful and wise steward, 

Hence 6 is used in place of the possessive pronoun (see ch. 6 : 1, 
note), and "lord" (without a capital) conforms to that, and in 
v. 36. So M. has "lord." Compare v. 43, 6 xvgtos, (B. V.), 
" his lord." 

" truly ; " aftrjv. See ch. 4 : 24, note. 

r " he will gird ; " n^i^diaeta.!.. M., Thorn., Wesley, Penn 
Scarlett, Sharpe, Norton, Dick., Camp., "Wakef., Sawyer. 

1 " make them recline ; " avaxhvet. See ch. 7 : 36, note. 

" will come ; " aaQtd.&a>v. Thomson, M., "Wesley, Norton, 
Sawyer, Kend. As an alternative, " will draw near." See Bob. 
(Lex., rtagexofiai). 

" doing thus ; " OVTCO. As OVTCO refers to the act of watch- 
ing (ygrjyoQovivas, v. 37), the supplement " doing" renders the 
sentence complete both in form and signification. It is demanded 
by our usus loquendi. OVTCO is rendered, as it usually is in the 
E. V., by " thus." So in v. 43, we have itoiovtrca. OVTCOS, (E.V.), 
" BO doing." 

T " happy ; " fiaxayioi. See v. 37, note. 

w " ye know j " ywcooxsTe. The imperative and indicative of 
this verb in the second person plural have the same form. It is 
rendered as an indicative by Wakef., G. and A. Camp., Penn, 
Norton, M., Bengel. As an alternative rendering, " But know 

1 " the master of the house ; " 6 olxoSsarco-njs. So (E. V.) 
Matt. 10 : 25. Luke 13 : 25 ; 14 : 21. Wesley, Penn, Scarlett, 
Sharpe, Norton, Camp., Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M. Tt is to be j 

regretted that the fine old Anglo-Saxon term used by Tyndale, 
" the good man of the house," has become obsolete. 

i " for in an hour ; " on rj cSqa. This is the order of the text, 
There is no necessity for abandoning it. It is equally perspicu- 
ous, and more forcible than that of Tyndale, copied by the E. V. 
So Wiclif, Kheims, Syriae, Yulg., Evas., Beza, Goschen, Schott, 
Thorn., Peun, Norton, Dick., Wakef., Sawyer, Murdock, M. 'Ev 
is rendered literally here. See note on &, v. 46. So Wesley, 
Wakef., Peun, Norton, Sawyer. 

""And;" Se. Penn, Sharpe, Sawyer. Iber., "i;" Belgic,- 
" ende." Heb. N. Test., T 

." also ; " Wesley, Kend., Sawyer, M., Thelwall, Murd. 
De Wette, " auch ; " S. Fr., " aussi ; " Iber., " tambien ; " Dan., 
" ogsaa." 

b " others ? " This supplement renders the sentence complete, 
according to our usus loquendi; and brings out the thought 

" the ; " 6. Penn, Sharpe, Thorn., Camp., Kend., Angus, 
Thelwall. Greene (Gram., p. 203) : " The article is never used iu 
the New Testament as a demonstrative or relative pronoun." 
Scholefield, p. 7 : " Our translators appear to me to have tre- 
quently erred in rendering the article by the pronoun this, or tluit. 
In no case can it be accurately rendered so; 'though there are 
instances in which the license may be admitted for the suke of 
perspicuity." It will hardly be supposed that perspicuity de- 
mands the license in the present instance. De Wette, " der ; " G> 
and S. Fr., " le ; " Iber., " el ; " Belg., " de." 



steward, whom his lord shall make 
ruler over his household, to give 
them their portion of meat in due 
season ? 

* 43 Blessed that servant, whom 
his lord when he cometh shall find 
so doing. 

44 Of a truth I say unto you, 
that he will make him ruler over 
all that he hath. . 

45 But and if that servant say 
in his heart, My lord delayeth his 
coming ; and shall begin to beat 
the men-servants, and maidens, 
and to eat and drink, and to be 
drunken ; 

46 The " lord of that servant 
will come in a day when he look- 
etli not for him, and at an hour 
when he is not aware, and will 
cut him in sunder, and will ap- 
point him his portion with the 


bv /caraerrTytret o Kvpiof TTL 
depaTreia? aurov, TOV SiSova.1 ei> 


6 SovXos eKtivos, ov 
o Kvptos avTOV evpr]o~ei TTOLOVVTOL 
OVTOOS- aXi]6S>s Aeyo 

OTL eiri Tram TOI? 
avTov Karao-Tyo-et, avrov. 45 
Se eiTrr) 6 SovXo? e/cetyo? eV rfj 
KapSta avTov, Xpovit^i 6 Kvpio? 
fjiov ep^eardaf teal apgijrai TV- 


cr/caf, o-0Lti> re /cat Ttivuv /cat 
fj.edvo-KfO'da.r 4G rf^ei o 
TOV SovXou 

77 ov 

/cat v capo. 17 ov yiva>- 
cr/cer /cat diXpTO^rjcrei OLVTOV, /cat 



whom his lord ""will set over 
his household to give them their 
'portion of food in due season? 
f Happy is that servant, whom 43 
his lord, when he cometh, shall 
find g doing thus. ""Truly, I say 44 
to you, that 'he will set him 
over all his 'possessions. k But, 45 
if that servant 'shall say in his 
heart, My lord delayeth m to 
come ; and shall begin to beat 
the men-servants, and "maid- 
servants, and to eat and drink, 
and "be drunken ; the lord of 46 
that servant will come in a day 
when he looketh not for him, 
and p in an hour 'which 'he 
knoweth not, and "will cut him 
in pieces, and 'appoint him his 
portion with the "unfaithful. 

d " will set ; " xa-raoTijaei. Peun, Sharpe, Scarlett (" shall 
set"), Camp., Wakef., Kend., Angus, M. Belg., "zal zetten ;" 
S. Fr., " etablira ; " Iber., " p'ondra ; " Eras., Beza, " constituet ; " 
Schott, " praficiet ; " Dan., " skal sotte." Bob. (Lex., xa&iorrifit 
" Uum ace. et enl cum gen., to set one over any thing." So 
(E. V.) xaTeorqoas, " didst set." 

" portion of food ; " airofth^iov. " Meat," in the generic 
sense of victuals, is obsolete. " Food " is the rendering of Thorn., 
Wesley, Penn, Norton, Angus, Dick., Sawyer, Kend. 

f " Happy ; " uaxayios. See ch. 1 : 45, note. 

5 "doing thus;" noiovvra OVTCOS. Scarlett ("doing so"). 
The order of the. text is preferable to that of the E. V. See 
v. 38, note. Wiclif's rendering (copied by Tyndale and E. V.) 
originated in the language of the Vulgate, " ita faeientcm." 

11 " Truly ; " aty<s. Sharpe, Camp., Sawyer, Thelwal!, M. 
So (E. V.) Matt. 27': 54. Mark 15 : 39. " Verily " is obsolete. 

1 " he will set ; " xaraaTijasi.. See v. 42, note. 

J " possessions ; " vna^ovaiv. See ch. 8 : 3, and 11 : 21, 

k "But, if;" 'Ear 8s. Thorn., Wesley, Sharpe, Penn, Scar- 
lett, Wakef., Sawyer, Angus, Kend., M., Thelwall. In conformity 
with the punctuation of Wakef., Penn, and Scarlett, a comma is 
placed after " but." 

' " shall say ; " etjtfl. Penn. This aorist subj. has the force 
of the future. Kiihner, Gram., 257, 1 (a). Bob. (Lex., av). 

m " to come ; " sgxeod-tu. Scarlett, Sawyer. Belgic, " te 
komen ; " De Wette, " zu kommen ; " G. and S. Fr., " a veuir." 
The literal rendering is preferred, as it does not violate our usus 

" maid-servants ; " jtatSiaxae. Thomson, Penn, M. I copy 

the note on this word from the Kevision of Mark, ch. 14 : 66 : 
" of the maid-servants ; riov nmSiaxcov. Wakef., Pechy, Thorn., 
Camp., Dick. The correlative TtaZs is a common term for ' a 
man-servant.' See (E. V.) Matt, 8:6, 13. Luke 7 : 7, etc. 
Bretseh., ' ancitta, serai.' ' Maid ' is too general. Comp. Galat. 
4 : 22, 23, 30, 31.". 

" be drunken ; " fis&voxead-ai. " To," before " be," is super- 
fluous. It is omitted by Wesley, Scarlett, Penn, Norton, Camp. 
It may be proper to remark here, that "drunken" is no longer 
used as the participle of " drink." Webster (Diet.) : " In modern 
usage, drank has taken its place ; and drunk is now used chiefly 
as an adjective." Though the phraseology of the E. V. is retain- 
ed, I suggest as an alternative rendering, " become drunk." 

P " in ; " Iv. So this preposition is properly rendered in the 
preceding member of the sentence (IvTjfifya). The translation 
should be uniform. So Sharpe, Wakef., Norton, Angus. Uni- 
formity has been observed in G. and S. Fr., Span., Iber., Diodati, 
Ital., Dan. So the parallel, Matt. 24 : 50, tv cugq % ov yivcoaxsi, 
(E. V.)," in an hour," etc. 

9 " which ; " I (dat. by attrac.). Thorn., M., Thelwall. 

' " he knoweth ; " yivtooxei. Wesley, Penn, Angus, M. 

" will cut in pieces ; " Sixorofitfaei. Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : 
" In N. Test, tropically to cut in pieces, to punish severely." Com- 
pare Matt. 24 : 50, 51, and 25 : 30. The reference is to a pun- 
ishment among ancient nations. See 1 Sam. 15 : 33. 2 Sam. 
12 : 31. 

t The auxiliary "will" (before "appoint") is superfluous. 
Omitted in the parallel (E. V.), Matt. 24 : 51, and by Thomson, 
Wesley, Scarlett, Wakef., Penn. 

" "unfaithful;" cmio-ciov. This is obviously antithetic to 




47 And that servant which 
knew his lord's will, and prepared 
not himself, neither did according 
to his will, shall be beaten with 
many stripes. 

48 But he that knew not, and 
did commit things worthy of 
stripes, shall be beaten with few 
stripes. For unto whomsoever 
much is- given, of liim shall be 
much required ; and to whom men 
have committed much, of him they 
will ask the more. 

49 I am come to send fire on 
the earth, and what will I, if it 
be already kindled ? 

50 But I have a baptism to be 
baptized with ; and how am I 
straitened till it be accomplished ! 


drjcrei. 'Eiteivos 8$ o Sov- 
Xos o yvovs TO 6eXr/[jia TOV Kvpiov 
eavTOV, KOU fj.r) eVot/uacra? fJ.rjSe 
Trpbs TO 6eXr//jia O.VTOV, 
TToAAaf i8 o Se p.rj 
yvovs, TTOi^cray Se agia TrXr/yoiv, 
Sapr/o~eT(u oXiyas. iravri 8e a> 
e860rj TroXv, iroXv 
Trap avToi)' KOI a> 

picrcroTepov a.iTr)o~ovo~iv 

>q ___^ S 1 \ /i /\ \ ** 

llvp r/Xaov paXeiv 
TTJV yrjv, Kal TI deXco; d rjSr/ 


Ka 7n? 


And that servant who knew 47 
his lord's will, and prepared 
'not, "nor did according to his 
will, "will. be beaten with many 
stripes. But he who knew *it 48* 
not, and did things worthy of 
stripes, will be beaten with 
few. 1 "For from every one to 
whom much is given, much will 
be required ; and h from him to 
whom men have committed 
much, they will ask the more. 
C I came to send fire on the 49 
earth, and d what do I desire? 
'Would that it were already 
kindled ! But I have f an im- 50 
mersion B to be immersed with, 
h and how am I distressed till 

nto*bs, in v. 42. Thorn., Wesley, Penn, Dick., Kend., Angus, 
M. See Kob. (Lex., amaros). 

" The supplement "himself," after "not" (E. V.), is superflu- 
ous. It is omitted by M., Wesley, Penn, Dick, Angus. 

w " nor ; " /njSe. Kend., M., Thorn., Thelwall, Penn, Norton, 
Dick., Camp., Sawyer, Angus. See ch. 8 : 17. 

* " will bo beaten ; " Sa^jasrai, Norton, Wakef., M. 

y " it." There is an obvious reference to &sitjfia in yvo 
and this authorizes the use of " it," as a supplement. The supple- 
ment is demanded by our idiom ; the preceding verse (where 
" will " is found) being closed with a period. Thus Thorn., Penn, 
Camp., Norton, Dick., M. S. Fr., " 1' ; " Iber., " la." 

* "stripes" (supplementary), after "few" (E. V.), is dropped 
as unnecessary. So Thorn., Wesley, Norton, Wakef., Campbell, 
Sawyer, Thelwall. 

* " For from every one to whom much is given, much will be 
required ; " navti Se y eSo&q Ttol.v, fyrijtyijoeTai Krt(> avrov, 
This arrangement, while it is exact in presenting the thought of 
the text, is more perspicuous than that of the E. "V. So Thorn., 
Penn, Norton, M. On nairti., Bloomfield (UT. Test.) remarks : 
" This is not, as Winer imagines, a dative absolute, but is put for 
navros, being accommodated, by attraction, to (]>." In other 
words, it has the force of naga na.vros. 

b " from him to whom men have committed much ; " <l rtage- 
devto nolv. M. This member of the sentence should corre- 
spond with that which precedes it. See last note. As the nomi- 
native of itaged'evro is not expressed, " men " is italicized. 

" I came ; " rf.S'ov. Norton, Wakef., Camp., Kend. See 
ch. 4 : 34, note. 

d "what do I desire?" tl &elco; Jr. This position of the 
interrogation point corresponds with that of the text. Scarlett,. 
" what do I wish ? " Wnkef., " what will I ? " There seems to 
be no necessity for departing from the usual sense of &e).a>, in 
the indicative. The verb is rendered " desire " (E. Y.) Mark 
9 : 35. Luke 5 : 39 ; 8 : 20 ; 10 : 24 ; 23 : 8, etc. 

" Would that it were already kindled ! " cl ijd-i; 
M. Scarlett and Angus, " Oh, that it were already kindled ! " 
On the entire sentence, tl &).<o; el rj&ri avfo&r}, Trollope 
(Analecta) remarks : " The commentators have experienced no 
little difficulty in interpreting these words." " But that a wish is 
intended to be expressed is sufficiently evident from the cor- 
responding clause in the very next verse ; and it is, therefore, 
preferable to render the particle by utinam." " The import of tho 
passage is this : ' Since the advancement of true religion must ba 
attended by such unhappy divisions and persecutions, I can not 
but wish that they, together with my passion, which must precede 
them, had already taken place.' " On the sense of tl, in this 
passage, the following extract is made from a note in the Eevis. 
of Mark (16 : 44) : " Eob. (si] quotes this passage in illustration 
of a peculiar usage as to el, and renders it by that." According 
to this usage, " it is spoken of things not merely possible, but cer- 
tain, and dependent on no condition. This is especially the case 
after verbs expressing emotion. Buttm., 139, m. 60." It may 
be added that Kob. quotes the passage in question as one of his 
illustrations. Acts 26 : 8, tl; antarov y.giverai nag i>/iTv si 
(that) 6 0sos vsxgovs cysi^si; In view of this passage from 
Acts, I suggest the following alternative rendering, " What do I 
wish ? that it were already kindled ! " As an illustration, el = 
utinam, see Sept., Joshua 7 : 7, tl nare/tewa/iev xateyxia&r]- 

v, " would that we had remained and dwelt," etc., where it 
is equivalent to sfc, " that, would that." Gesen. (Lex.) : " Job 
6 : 2, el y ? -rts (:)," " that one." 

f " an immersion ; " /Sdmtafia. See ch. 3 : 3, note. Kend., 
A. Camp. De Wette, " eine Taufe ; " Iber., " una immersion ; " 
Dan., " eu Daab ; " Ital., " una immersione ; " Belg., " eenen doop." 

E " to be immersed with ; " ^aniiad-T t vat. See ch. 3 : 7, note. 
To obviate the use of an idiom which belongs to the Hebraistic 
Greek, " to undergo" (as Kend.) may be properly substituted for 
this phrase. So De Wette, " zu iiberstehen , " Iber., " de experi- 

h " and I distressed ; " ovve%a(iat.. Kend., Wakefield, Eob. 




51 Suppose jo that I am come 
to give peace on earth? I tell 
you, Nay ; but rather division : 

52 For from henceforth there 
shall be five in one house divided, 
three against two, and two against 

53 The father shall be divid- 
ed against the son, and the son 
against the father ; the mother 
against the daughter, and the 
daughter against the mother ; 
the mother-in-law against her 
daughter-in-law, and the daughter- 
in-law against her mother-in-law. 

54 And he said also to the peo- 
ple. When ye see a cloud rise out 
of the west, straightway ye say, 
There cometh a shower ; and so 
it is. 

55 And when ye see the south 


ecas ov TeXecrdfj ; 51 doKelre on 
eiprjvrjv 7rape-/evofjirjv Sovvai ev 
rrj yfj; ov)(t, Xfyco, AA' T) 

52 e<rovrai yap 
diro TOV vvv -rrevre ev o'iK<g> evl 
Siafj.e/j.e'piarfJLevot, Tpets em dvcri., 

KCU SvO Cm TpUTl. 53 SiafJ,plCT0r]- 

a-erau Trarrjp e(j) via>, KCU vlo? 
em Trarpi- ftr/T^p em dvyarpi, 6v/a.Trjp em /j.rjTpi- irevOepa 
em TTJV vvfj.(f)tjv avrfjs, /ecu vv/j.<prj 
em rr/v irevdepav avrfjs. 

54 "JS\ey de Kal roif o^Aozy, 
' Orav 'iSrjre TTJV ve(f)e\rjv dva- 
TeXkovaav a7ro Svcrfjuav, evdeaif 
Ae'yere, ' Ofj,(Bpos ep^erai- /cat 

t ff 55 \ ef / 

OVTO>. K.O.I orav VOTOV 


it is accomplished ! 'Think ye 51 
that I came to give peace on 
the earth ? I tell you, nay ; 
but rather division : for 'hence- 52 
forth there "will be five in one 
house divided, three against 
two, and two against three. 
"Father will be divided against 53 
son, and son. against father ; 
mother against daughter, and 
daughter against mother; moth- 
er-in-law against her daugh- 
ter-in-law, and daughter-in-law 
against her mother-in-law. And 54 
he said also to the crowds, 
When ye see "the cloud "rising 
"from the west, immediately ye 
say, A shower q is coming ; and 
so it 'eometh, to pass. And 55 
when *ye perceive the south wind . 

(Lex., owfyio) : " Pass., to be distressed." Lidd. (Lex.). Bretsch. 
(m loco) : " Quam vehementer angor." The verb " to straiten " 
is obsolete. 

1 " is accomplished ! " td.eaS'fj, Kendrick. Present usage 
demands " is." 

' " Think ye ; " Soxstre. Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Scarlett, 
Wakef., Keud., Tbelwall, M. So often in E. V. See Rob. (Lex., 
Soxeco) . 

k " henceforth ; " nxo rov vvv. Thorn., Norton, "Wakefield, 
Rend., Thehvall, M. " From " is useless here, and " from hence- 
forth " entirely wrong. There is an ellipsis ; xgovov being under- 
stood. Bob. (Lex., vvv). 

i " will be ;" eaovrat. See ch. 1 : 13, note. Thorn., Sharpe, 
Penn, Norton, Scarlett, Wakef., Camp., Dick., Kend., M. 

" " Father ; " nati;^. This word is anarthrous, as well as the 
nouns which follow it, vlru (son), vlos (son), nargl (father), 
fir/Tijp (mother), \hiyaT^l (daughter), firp-gi (mother), nev&EQa 
(mother-in-law), and vvfty.t/ (daughter-in-law). The insertion of 
' the " before the words diminish the force of the language. 
Hence a literal rendering is preferable the article of the E. V. 
being dropped. So Thorn., Sharpe, Camp., Kend., M., Pechy 
(note on Angus). 

" the cloud ;" triv veyll.riv. Thorn., Norton, M., Gray (note 
on Angus), Thelwall, M. S. Fr., " la nuee ; " Iber., " la nube ; " 
Ital., " la nube ;"" De Wette, " die Wolken." Tliis language 
alludes to a well known phenomenon which his hearers had often 
witnessed. Hence the use of the article. See 1 Kings 18 : 43-4"). 
Home's Introd., Vol. 2, p. 24 : " Very small clouds are the fore- 
runners of violent storms in the Enst as well as in the West ; 
they rise like a man's hand (1 Kings 18 : 44) until the whijle sky 
becomes blank with rain, which descends in torrents, that rush 

down the steep hills, and sweep every thing before them. In our 
Lord's times, this phenomenon seems to have become a certain 
prognostic of wet weather." This author refers to the passage 
before us. See Iliad. IV : 275-279. Greene (Greek N. Test., 
p. 148), after noticing the use of the article with " words signify- 
ing objects, or phenomena of nature which exist singly, and entire 
natural substances," quotes Luke 12 : 54, and says: "Ntyelrfv 
has the article, because it is here used to signify the particular 
cloud of singular conformation, which in those countries is the 
immediate forerunner of a considerable fall of rain." 

" rising : " a.vtt.riU.ovaa.v. Thorn., Wesley, Sharpe, Penn, 
Norton, Wakef., Camp., Kend, Angus, M., Thelwall, Murdock, 
Wiclif, Eheims. 

" from ; " Thorn., Penn, Norton, Wakef., Dick., Kend., 
Wiclif, Eheims. The rendering of the E. V., " out of" (= J) 
taken from Tyndale, is not exact. 

^ " is coming ; " %grc. The progressive form of the Eng 1 . 
verb corresponds with the radical sense of the Greek present, and 
also with our usus loqitendi. Murdock, Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, 
Scarlett. See v. 30, note. 

r " it cometh to pass ; " yivsrai. So this verb is rendered in 
the E. V., v. 55. Scarlett, Angus, Thelwall, M. Vulg., Mont., 
Eras., Beza, Casta!., Goschen, " fit ; " Belg., " het geschied ; " De 
Wette, " es geschiehot ; " S. Fr., " cela arrive ; " Iber., " sucede ; " 
Dan., "dot skew." 

" ye perceive." Scarlett. This supplement is required by our 
usus loquendi, instead of " ye see," which can not be properly used 
when " wind " is the object. ISqre is supposed to be understood 
here ; it may be properly represented by " ye perceive," as it is 
employed to indicate perception by tJie senses, generally. Wesle? 
has, " ye find." 




wind blow, ye say, There will be 
lieat ; and it cometh to pass. 

56 Ye hypocrites, ye can dis- 
cern the face of the sky, and of 
the earth ; but how is it, that ye 
do not discern this time? 

57 Yea, and why even of your- 
selves judge ye not what is right? 

58 When thou goest with thine 
adversary to the magistrate, as 
thou art in the way, give diligence 
that thou mayest be delivered 
from him ; lest he hale thee to 
the judge, and the judge deliver 
tliee to the officer, and the officer 
cast thee into prison. 

59 I tell thee, thou shalt not 
depart thence, till thou hast paid 
the very last mite. 


.) Aeyere, ' On Ka.vo~cav 

>' \ / 56 ' 

ecrrar /cat -ytverai. 

TOU, TO irpoarca-jrov TTJS yrjs /cat 
TOV ovpavov o'lSare So/a/ia^etj/' 
TOV Se tcaipov TOVTOV TT>S ov 
e ; 67 T'L 8e /cat a(j) 
ov Kpivere TO SiKaiov; 

flS t \ t ' \ ~ > 

coy -yap vTra-yei? yuera TOV O.VTL- 
SLKOV <rov eV ap^ovTa, ev Trj 
o8a> Sos ep-yacriav mrr/XXa^dai 
a.7r avrov- [JiTjiroTe KaTao-vprj are 
irpos TOV KptTrjv, /cat 6 KpiTrjs 
ere 7rapa8< TO> TrpaKTOpi, /cat 6 
TrpaKTcap ae j3aXXr/ els (pvXaKrjv. 

59 \ ' * N3 /*'\/i s < 

Aey&) crot, ou /J.TJ egeAarjf e/cet- 
6ev, ecos ov KCU TO 


'blowing, ye say, There will be 
heat ; and it cometh to pass. 
"Hypocrites! ye can discern the 56 
face T of the earth and of the 
sky ; but how is it that ye do 
not discern this time? w andwhy, 57 
even of yourselves, judge ye not 
what is right ? When 'thou 58 
art going with thiue adversary 
to ?a magistrate, 1 "endeavor b on 
the way e to be delivered from 
him ; lest d he should drag thee 
to the judge, and the judge 
deliver thee up to the officer, 
and the officer cast thee into 
prison. I tell thee, thou f wilt 59 
not come out thence, till thou . 
hast paid "the very last mite. 

' " blowing ; " itvsovra. Wesley, Sharpe, Perm, Scarlett, 

" Ye," which occurs before " hypocrites ! " in the E. V., is 
superfluous. It is dropped by Thomson, Norton, Camp., Dick., 
Sawyer, Kend. The exclamation sign is placed after " hypo- 
crites " by Thorn., Norton, Scarlett, Wakef., Kend., S. Fr. 

T " of the earth and of the sky ; " rye yf t s y.o.1 iov ovpavov. 
This is the order of the text, which was properly followed by 
Tyhdale and Geneva. The Vulgate, however, having " cali et 
terra," Cranmer adopted the inversion (" of the sky and of the 
earth"), and was copied by the E. T. The order of the text is 
adopted by Thorn., AVesley, Kend., Sharpe, Norton, Scarlett, 
Dick., Sawyer, Angus, Thelwall. The reading of the Vulg. is a 
corruption. The Amiatean MS. has " terra ct call," 

w " and ; " Se. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Camp., Dick., Sawyer, 
Kend., Angus, M. " Yea " is not authorized by the text. It is 
dropped in all the above cited versions, and also by Thelwall. 
Nothing corresponding to it in Vulg., Mont, Eras., Beza, Castal., 
Goschen, Schott, Belg., Luther, De Wette, Dan., G. or S. Fr., 
De Sacy, Iber., Span., Diodati, Hal., Syriac, Heb. N. Test, 
Eheims, "Wiclif. It was copied from Tyndale. 

1 " thou art going ; " vnaysis. Thorn., Wesley, Penn, Norton, 
Scarlett, Wakef., Angus, M. See v. 30, note. 

i "a magistrate;" S^ovra. Norton (Sawyer, "a ruler"). 
A.S the noun is anarthrous, and there is nothing in the context to 
make it definite, it is unnecessary to suppose that there is an 
ellipsis of the article, produced by the preposition bti. Where 
nouns are not linked together by conjunctions and there is no i 

exigentia loci there are very few cases where we are authorized 
to introduce the definite article. Jn fact, unless we translate by 
an idiomatic phrase, in which " the " may be indispensable, close 
adherence to the letter is preferable. 

1 The supplement of the E. V.,' " as thou art," is unnecessary. 
It is dropped by Thorn., Wesley, Sharpe, Penn, Scarlett, Wakef., 
Camp., Dick., Sawyer, Kendrick, Angus, Thelwall, M. It was 
introduced by Tyndale. 

a " endeavor ; " Sos Igyaoiav. This phrase is a Latinisra 
equivalent to date operam (literally, " give labor "). See Bob. 
(Lex., SiScoftt), Kuinosl (m loco}. Thorn., Scarlett, Campbell, 
Kend., Angus, M. 

b " on the way ; " & rJj 6Sy. Kend., Thorn., Sharpe, and 
Camp. (" on the road"), Penn, Norton, Sawyer, M. 

c " to be delivered ; " dityttax&at. Wesley, M., Scarlett, 
Thelwall, Kend. Rendered in the ' infinitive by Sharpe, Penn, 
Norton, Dick., Wakef., Angus. 

d " he should drag ; " xaraovpy. Sharpe, Scarlett, Camp., 
Kend., Angus, Eobinson (Lex., in verbo). " Hale," to drag, is 
superseded by " haul " in present usage. See Webster (Diet, art. 

e " deliver thee up ; " irapaSeii. M. See ch. 9 : 44, note. 

f " wilt come out ; " JleA^s. M., Sharpe, Penn, Norton, 

E " the very last mite ; " xal TO eozarov ).eatbv. As an alter- 
native rendering, the more literal expression, '' even the last mite." 
So Kend., Sawyer. 




THERE "were present at that 
season some that told him of the 
Galileans, whose blood Pilate had 
mingled with their sacrifices. 

2 And Jesus answering, said 
unto them, Suppose ye that these 
Galileans were sinners above all 
the Galileans, because they suffer- 
ed such things ? 

3 I tell you, Nay ; but, except 
ye repent, ye shall all likewise 

4 Or those eighteen, upon whom 
the tower in Siloam fell, and slew 
them, think ye that they were sin- 
ners above all men that dwelt in 

5 I tell yon, Nay ; but, except 
ye repent, ye shall all likewise 

6 He spake also this parable : 
A certain man had a fig-tree 
planted in his vineyard ; and he 


HAPH2AN 8e rives ev av- 
W T<5 KOLipw oara-yyeXXovTes av- 
W irept T>V raXiXaicov, coi> TO 
HiXaros e/ju^e /*era rS>v 
vriov. 2 /cat onroKpidels 
o 'Irjcrovs earev avroif, /lo/cetre, 
on ol raXtXalot. ovroc. 
Aoi irapa. Traz/ra? row 
ovy eytvovro, on TOIO.VTO. vreTroz/- 
Oacnv; 3 ov^i, Aeyo> Vfiiv aAA' 
eav /AT] p.eTavor)T, Travres axrav- 
TOOS aTToXeicrOe. 77 eteeti/ot o't. 

p / V > \ 3 I 5 A J/ < 

oe/ca KO.L OKTO, e(p ov? eTrecrev o 

l> TG> SlXcoafa KOU. O.7T- 

avrovf, So/cerre, on ov- 
TOL ofaiXerat tyivovro Trapa TTO.V- 
ras ev 'lepovo-aXr//*; 5 
Aeyto vfuv aAA' eav fj.r/ 

, TrdvTes 6/iotW arroXeio-de. 
8e Tavrrjv rrjv Trapafio- 
Xrji> } SVKTJV ei%e res tv rw ap.- 

6 " 


AND there were a some pres- l 
ent, at that Hime, who told 
him 'concerning the Galileans, 
whose blood Pilate had ming- 
led with their sacrifices. And 2 
Jesus, answering, said to them, 
"Think ye that these Galileans 
were sinners" "above all the 
Galileans, because they 'have 
suffered such things? I tell 3 
you, nay ; but except ye repent, 
s ye will all h in like manner 
perish. Or, those eighteen, on 4 
whom the tower in Siloam fell, 
and "killed them, think ye that 
they were sinners J above all 
men who dwelt in Jerusalem? 
I tell you, nay ; but except ye 5 
repent, ye k will all 'in like 
manner perish. And he spoke 
this parable : m a certain man 
had a fig-tree planted in hi?. 

a "some present." This is the most usual and natural arrange- 
ment of the sentence, according to our usus loqucndi. 

11 "time;" xcugip. Wakef., M. As the entire phrase is lv 
avrcu rty xatgeji ("eo ipso tempore," Beza), it would seem that 
" season " is not sufficiently definite to be the equivalent. De 
Wette, " zu selbiger Zeit ; " S. Fr., " dans ce meme temps ; " 
Iber., " al mismo tiempo." 

c "concerning;" nepi. (cum genii.). "Wakefield. Rob. (Lex., 
xe? I) : " "When there is only a mere general reference, or allusion 
to the person or thing denoted by the genitive; concerning, as to, 
touching, in relation to." There is an ellipsis of the object of 
- anayyeMovrss (TO n^ayfta). The idea would be expressed in 
English thus, " who told him the affair (or news) concerning the 
Galjieans." "Of" does not bring out the thought with proper 
distinctness. Dick., " respecting." 

d "Think ye;" ^oy.eire. Kend., Sharpe, Thelwall, Penn, 
M., Norton, Scarlett (" do ye think"), Wakef., Camp., and Saw- 
yer ( do you think"). See ch. 12 : 51, note. 

" above ;" naga. (cum accus.). As an alternative rendering, 
"beyond." Blooraf. (N. Test.). 

* " have suffered ; " mTzovd-aaiv. Trench. Tliis author, in 
Ms late work on Bible Revision, makes the following judicious 
'emark on this verb : " Our Lord contemplates the memorable 

catastrophe by which they perished, not as something belonging 
merely to the historic past ; but as a fact reaching into the pres- 
ent; still vividly presenting itself to the mind's eye of his 

E " ye will perish ; " aitofatad-e. Sharpe, Penn, M., Nor- 
ton, Scarlett, Wakef., Dick., Kend., M. See ch. 1 : 13, note. 

h " in like manner ; " tooavtcas. Thorn., Norton, Sawyer, 
Kend., Angus, M. " Likewise" is ambiguous, as it not only signi- 
fies " in like manner," but " moreover," " to." Trollope (Analect., 
'in loco) : " In like manner ; as oftoitos, in v. 5. This declaration 
partakes not only of an admonition, but of a prediction which 
was literally fulfilled about forty years afterward in the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem. During the siege, the temple was frequently 
the seat of war, and multitudes of the priests who were offering 
the sacrifices, were slain, and their blood mingled with that of the 
victims." See Josephus' Jewish War, B. II, IV., V., VI. 

1 " killed ; " anixrctvEv. Thorn., M., Norton, Sawyer, Angus. 

i " above all men ; " Ttaqa. natnas av&^canovs. See v. 2 
note e. 

* " will perish ; " aTtolsZa&e. See v. 3, note g. 

i " in like manner ; " bfiolcog. See v. 3, note h. Thorn., Nor- 
ton, Kend., Sawyer, M., Angus. 

"" " a certain man ; " rtg. As the noun is understood in the 




came and sought fruit thereon, 
and found none. 

7 Then said he unto the dress- 
er of his vineyard, Behold, these 
three years I come seeking, fruit 
on this fig-tree, and find none : 
cut it down ; why cumbereth it 
the ground ? 

8 And he answering, said unto 
him, Lord, let it alone this year 
also, till I shall dig about it, and 
dung it: 

9 And if it bear fruit, well: and 
if not, then after that thou shalt 
cut it down. 

10 And he was teaching in one 


aiiTOv TretfivTev/jtevr/v /cat 
r]\0e KapTrov .^TJTU>V ev avrfj, /cat 
evpev. ' e'nre 8e Trpos TOV 
ov, 'ISov, Tpta errj 
ep-)( fyjTcov KapTrov tv ry 
ravry, /cat ov% evpt(TKW 
LVO.TL /cat rrjv 

Xeyei avra, 
/cat TOVTO TO eroy, ecoy orov ovca- 
l a.vT7]v, /cat /3aA< KOirpL- 

eKKO\j/ov avT-j 
yr)v Ka.ra.pjii; 

av 9 KO.V 

et Se A"?ye, ety TO /ue'AAoz/ e/c/co- 

10 ' 

Hv de 8i$d(TK(>v iv }ua. 


vineyard, and he came "seeking 
fruit on it, and found none. 
"And "lie said q to the vine- 7 
dresser, Behold, 'for three years 
I come seeking fruit on this ' 
fig-tree, and find none : cut it 
down, why 'doth it also render 
the ground barren? And he, 8 
answering, said to him, Lord, 
let it alone this year also, till I 
shall dig about it, and "manure 
it: and if it beareth fruit, well 9 
but if not "afterwards thou 
shalt cut it down. And he 10 
was teaching iu one of the 

text, it is deemed most exact to italicise " man," as a supplement. 
So Penn, Scarlett. 

n " seeking ; " &JTIVV. So this participle is rendered in v. 7. 
Wakef., Thorn., Wesley, Norton, Scarlett, Wakef., Camp., Dick., 
Sawyer, Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M. 

"And ;" Se. Penn, Dick., Angus, Kend.. M. 

J> " he said." This order is adopted by Thorn., Norton, Scar- 
lett, Camp., Dick., Sawyer, Kend., Angus, Thehvall, M. 

1 "to the vine-dresser;" ngos rbv afintkovgybv. Sharpe, 
Penn, Kend., Scarlett, Camp., Thelwall. 

r "for." This supplement is employed in conformity with our 
idiom. There is nothing in the text corresponding to the demon- 
strative " these," -which was taken from Tyndale's version, " this 
three years." "Wakef., having retained the word, properly marked 
it as supplementary. Though the thought would be sufficiently 
obvious without the use of "for," that is, if we say, " Behold, 
three years I come," still the sentence strikes the ear as something 
imperfect. Wesley and Kend. have no supplement. 

" doth it render the ground barren ? " -irjv yffv 
Kuinoel (in loco] : "Tamen reddit sterilem, dum succos e solo 
exsugit, xaragyezv respondet iaa, quod in conj. Kal, intransitive 
notat otiosum esse, cessare, ut Eccles. 12 : 3, sed in conj. Piel, 
transitivam signiflcationem liabente, impedire, imttilem, ineffica- 
cem, otiosum reddere, id quod ariybv itocav, v. Esr. 4 : 21 ; 6:8. 
Gal. 3 : 17, cum vero h. 1. de terra sermo sit, significat Karrt^ysZv 
facere ut ea nihil ferat, terram reddere sterilem." 'Agybs is ap- 
plied to barren, unproductive land, as in Diod. Sicul. B. 19, 
cap. 42, where the historian describes the battle-field where Eu- 
menes was defeated by Antigonus, Tov s itedtov nollriv evgv- 
%a>(>iav etfovros, v-al ndvros vnAit-^ovros agyov SM n}t' Iv a.vr<y 
Siyxovoav a).fiv(>iStt, IOOOUTOV owsfii; vnb TCOV tnne<ai> sl-aige- 
ofrai Kovtogrbv . r. L As an alternative rendering, " why doth it 
also render the ground useless?" as Beza, " quorsum etiam terram 

inutilem reddit?" and Belg., " waar toe beslaat hij ook onnutelijk 
de aarde ? " M., " has made the land unproductive ; " De Wette, 
" warum macht er auch noch das Land unfruchtbar ? " S. Fr., 
" pourquoi aussi rend-il la terre inutile ? " Iber., i " para que ha 
de hacer tambien el terreno infructifero ? " 

' " also ; " xal. Wesley, Wakef., Kend., Thelwall, M. Vulg., 
Mont., Beza, Erasmus, Goschen, " etiam ; " Schott, " insuper ; " 
Belg., " ook ; " De Wette, " auch noch ; " S. Fr., " aussi ; " Iber., 
" tambien." As the thought presented in the text is, that the 
tree not only bore no fruit, bat likewise rendered the ground un- 
productive, the propriety of rendering xal by " also," is obvious. 

u " manure ; " /3a}.ca xongiav. Camp., M., Murdock. There 
is the highest probability, that xoTtgia. (plural of xonqiov) is the 
true reading. So Griesbach, Lachm., Tischend., Knapp, Theile, 
Scholz, Bloomf. Kongia must, therefore, be used generically for 
any articles which render a soil fertile ; in other words, it is 
equivalent to " manure." A more literal rendering (though I 
think not preferable to that of the text) would be, " apply 

T '.' but ; " St. Wesley, Angus, Sharpe, Penn, Scarlett, Dick., 

w The supplement "then" is quite unnecessary, it was copied 
from Tyndale, who, however, pointed the sentence thus, " and if it 
bear not then, after that, cut it down." This supplement is 
omitted by Kend., Wesley, Sharpe, Penn, Scarlett, Wakef., 
Camp., Dick., Thelwall, Sawyer, M. 

1 " afterwards ; " sis TO fteUof. Wakef., Camp., Kend., M., 
Penn, Scarlett. " Hereafter " can not be properly used, as it 
would indicate a space of time commencing in the present ab hoc 
imtanti. But the vine-dresser purposes that the experiment of 
digging and manuring shall be made, and that in the result 
if the tree is unfruitful then (i. e. thereafter) it shall be cut 
dow'n. It may be added, that, unless in the language of juris- 
prudence, " thereafter " is obsolete. 




of the synagogues on. the sab- 

11 And behold, there was a 
woman which had a spirit of in- 
firmity eighteen yeai-s, 'and was 
bowed together, and could in no 
wise lift up herself. 

12 And when Jesus saw her, he 
called her to him, and said unto 
her, Woman, thou art loosed fro'm 
thine infirmity. 

13 And he laid his hands on 
her : and immediately she was 
made straight, and glorified God. 

14 And the ruler of the syna- 
gogue answered with indignation, 
Because that Jesus had healed on 
the sabbath-day, and said unto the 
people, There are sis days in 
which men ought to work : in 
them therefore come and be heal- 
ed, and not on the sabbath-day. 

15 The Lord then answered 
him, and said, Thou, hypocrite, 



crui/aycoytoi' ev raits cr 
ll /cat I8ov, yvvrj rj 




/cat rjv (Tuy/cuTrTovcra, /cat 
8wa./jievr) ara/cin|rat els TO 
12 IScov 5e avrrjv 6 
'Iijcrovs 7rpoa-e(])c0vr)<r, /cat elirev 
TVVO.I) aVoAe'Aucrat rrjs 
(rov. 13 Kcu. 7re0?)Kei> 
awry rap ^etpas- /cat Trapa^pTJfJLa. 
dvcopdwdr), /cat e'So^a^e -TOV Oeov. 
14 ' A7TOKpi.dels Se 6 apyicrvvd- 
yco-yo?,>v on r&> <ra/3- 
/3ara) edepaTrevcrev o 
e'Aeye rco o^Aft), 

9 \ y *F i\ ~ >>- /i 

ettrty, ev aty oei epya^eaoai 
rauraty odv ep^o/Jtevoi depaireve- 
crde, /cat /j-r/ rij ^p-epa TOV cra/3- 
lo 'ATreKpldij oiiv O,VT< 
o KvpLOS, /cat iTri>, ' 


synagogues on the ''sabbath ; 
And behold, there was a wo- ll 
man, 'who had had a spirit of 
infirmity eighteen years, and 
was a bent together, and 'unable 
e to raise herself up d at all. And 12 
Jesus, seeing her, called her 'to 
kirn, and said to her, Woman, 
thou art loosed from thine in- 
firmity. And he laid his hands 13 
on her ; and immediately she 
was made straight, and glori- 
fied God. And the ruler of 1* 
the - synagogue, 'being much dis- 
pleased, ^because Jesus had 
healed on Hhe sabbath, 'answer- 
ed and said to the crowd, There 
are six days in which 'it is 
right to work ; in them, there- 
fore, come and be healed, and 
not on the sabbath-day. The 15 
Lord then answered him, and 
said, k Hypocrite ! doth not 

J In conformity with the punctuation of the test, and the 
thought which it conveys; a semicolon has been placed after 
"sabbath" (Gr. odpfiaai-). Penn and Scarlett (:), Norton, 
Wakef., Thorn., Camp., and Sawyer (,). 

1 " who had had ; " exovaa. Wesley, Murdock, Penn (" that 
had had"), Dick, ("had possessed"), Sawyer ("who had been 
subject to"). Our usus loquendi demands that this participle 
should be rendered by the pluperfect. We may, however (with 
Kuincel), regard rp> as used for itagfjv, and modify the sentence 
thus, "a woman was there (i.-e., present), who for eighteen years 
had a spirit of infirmity, and was bent," etc. This is suggested 
as an alternative rendering. 

* " bent together ; " avyxvTtrovaa. Penn, Kend., M. Bob. 
(Lex., in verbo) : "To be bent double." Bretsch. (in loco) : "^Hv 
tvyxvHTovoav, intell. icarrjjv, erat prorsus incurvata, morbo." 
Etymology sustains this rendering, as avv, in composition, is 
often used in the sense o! quite, "wholly," prorsus. Lidd. (Lex.). 

b " unable ; " fc!j Bwafisvi]. Wesley, Penn, Norton, Scarlett, 
Dick., M., Angus. 

" to raise herself up ; " avcocvyai. Thomson and Scarlett 
("raise herself upright"), Norton and M. ("to raise tierself"). 
Bretsch. (in loco) : "Corpus erigo. See avto^cod-^, in v. 13. 
Kuinoel: "Se erigere, caput et corpus attollere." 

4 " at all ; " elg 10 itavretes. "Wakef., Angus, M., Sawyer. 
So Eob. (Lex., in loco, navre^s)^ Bretsclmeider, " omnino ;" 
.Kuinoel, " prorsus, omnino." This phrase is construed with ava- 
mnpm, iiot with 

" to Mm." See ch. 6 : 13, note. 

f " being much displeased ; " ayavaxrciav. "Wesley, Scarlett, 
Angus, M. So (E.T.) Matt. 21 : 15 ("sore"). Mark 10 :14, 41. 
This should be the uniform rendering in the N. Test. In a 
metaphorical sense, the verb signifies to be grieved, displeased, 
vexed, angry. Liddell. 

6 " because ; " ore. The particle " that," after " because " (in 
the E. V.) is superfluous. It is dropped by Thomson, Wesley, 
Sharpe, Penn, "Wakef., Camp., Dick., Angus, M. 

u " the sabbath ; " rfjT aa^^dry. Sharpe, Norton, Wakef., 
Camp., Kendrick, M. The supplement " day " of the E. V. is 
unnecessary here. " Day" is properly added in the next member, 
where the text has ?fj i?^^ TOV oa/Spdrov. In 7. 10, lv rots 
aApfSaac is rendered in the E. V., " on the sabbath." See ch. 
6 : 2, note. 

' " answered and said ; " axoxgtd-its eieys. This is the na- 
tural order in English. It is that of Thorn., Wesley, Penn, Scar- 
lett, Dick., Kend., Angus, M. The E. V. copies the arrangement 

i " it is right ; " Set. Rob. (Lex., Set) ; " (Spoken) of what is 
right, or prescribed by law, custom, reason it is right, or prop- 
er." Bretsch. : " id quod permissum est, necessitatum incom- 
pletam, indicat, et est : decet, licet." "Vulg., Mont, Beza, Eras., 
Goschen, Schott, " oportet ; " S. Fr., " il faut ; " Iber., "se debe." 
The rendering of the E. V. is too loose. 

* The supplement. " Thou," before " hypocrite 1 " is superfluonav 
See ch. 6 : 42, note. 




doth not each one of you on the 
sabbath loose his ox or his ass 
from the stall, and lead kirn away 
to watering ? 

16 And ought not this -woman 
being a daughter of Abraham 
whom Satan hath bound, lo, these 
eighteen years, be loosed from this 
bond on the sabbath-day ? 

17 And -when he had said these 
things, all his adversaries were 
ashamed : and all the people re- 
joiced for all the glorious things 
that were done by him. 

18 Then said he, Unto what is 
the kingdom of God like? and 
whereunto shall I resemble it? 

19 It is like a grain of mustard- 
seed, which a man took, and cast 
into his garden, and it grew, and 
waxed a great tree ; and the fowls 
of the air lodged in the branches 
of it. 


exaaTos v/j.iai> rw (raB/Srq) oil 
Xvei TOV fiovv avrov 77 TOV ovov 
diro TTJS (f)dTvi-i?, Kal oLira.ya.ywv 
16 TavTTjv Se, 
ovo~av, rjv e' 
Sa.Ta.vas, ISov, 8(Ka Kal OKTCO 
err?, OVK eSei XvOrfvai diro TOV 
8f.a~fi.ov TOVTOV Trj ri/j.epa. TOV 
cra/3/3aTov; Kal TOMTO. Xtyov- 
rof avTov, KaTr]a"xyvovTO Traj/re? 
ol dvTiKi/j.evoi avT<5' Kal Iras' o 
o'xAoy e^aipev eVi iracri Tots ev- 
80^015 Tots -yivo/ji-IvoLf vir avTov. 
18 "JSXeyc 8e, Tivi o/j-ota io~Tiv 
77 /3acri\eia TOV Oeov; /cat 

* ' 19 /"' 

Trjv; Ufj.oia e 
KOKKCO fTLva7rea)s, ov \aj3uiv av- 
e/SaXev el? KTJTTOV eavTOV' 
l 77U-T7cre, KOI eyeveTO els Bev- 
Spov /xe'ya, Kal TO. TTfTeivd . TOV 
ovpavou KaTe<TKir)va)o~ev ev rots 1 
K\d8ois avTov. 20 Kal 


'each of you, on the sabbath, 
loose his ox or his ass from the 
stall, and, "leading him away, 
"water him? And ought not is 
this woman, being a daughter 
of Abraham, whom Satan hath 
bound, lo, 'for eighteen years, 
?to be loosed from this bond on 
the sabbath? And when he 17 
had said "this, all his adversaries 
were ashamed, and all the crowd 
rejoiced for all the glorious 
things which were done by 
irim. 'And 'he said, 'To what is 
is the kingdom of God like? 
and to what 'shall I liken it? 
It is like a grain of mustard- is 
seed, which a man took and 
ast into his garden, and it 
grew and 'became a great tree, 
and the birds of tlie air lodg- 
ed *among 7 its branches. And 20 

] " each ; " Sxaaros. "Wesley, Sharpe, Perm, Scarlett, Sawyer, 
Kend., M. ("each one"). Bob. (Lex.). The literal rendering 
best accords with our present usage. 

m " leading Mm away ; " oatayayaiv. The participial construc- 
tion is not only literal, but best adapted to precede the verb 

" " water him ; " moTi&i. The literal rendering of this verb 
accords with the usage of our language. "We speak of watering 
cattle to convey the idea of letting them drink. So (E. V.) Gen. 
29 : 3, " watered the sheep," Septuag., ktorgov TO. 7tp6/3aT. 
V. 10, ixoTtl'e ra if^o/Sara, E. V., " watered the flock." Exod. 
2 : 17, IrtoTioe ra n^o/Sara av-ttov, E .V., " watered their flock." 

"/or eighteen years;" Sena xai oxrcb ezjj. Norton. De 
"Wette, " schon achtzehn Jahren." There is nothing in the text 
corresponding to " these." For the insertion of the supplement 
" for," in this passage, see v. 7, note. 

f " to be loosed ; " Kv&rjvat. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, "Wesley, 
Angus, M. According to our idiom, " ought" is not one of these 
verbs which are followed by the infinitive without the ordinary 
sign of that mode, i. e., " to." Hence " be loosed " (first used by 
Tyndale) is ungrammatical. 

1 " this ; " tavra. Thorn., Camp., Angus. Belg., " dit." See 
oh. 5 : 27, note. 

' "And ; " He. " Then," in this passage, would be understood 
by most readers as a particle of " time," which is not the fact in 

reference to 8e. It is merely continuative, and is more properly 
rendered by " and." See Kob. (Lex., in verlo). 

" he said ; " 'efoye. The inversion of the E. V. (copied from 
Tyndale) is unnecessary. It is not adopted by Thorn., Sharpe, 
Scarlett, Penn, Norton, Camp., Angus, Kend., or Thelwall. 

" To what ; " Tivi. So in first member of the sentence.- 
Thorn., Sharpe, Peun, AVesley, Wakef., Scarlett, Dick., Sawyer, 
Kend., Angus, 'M. 

" shall I liken ; " b^ouaaoi. So E. V., v. 20. Matt. 7 : 24, 
26 ; 11 : 16 ; 18 : 23 ; 25 : 1. Mark 4 : 30. Kend., Sharpe, Saw- 
yer, Angus, M., Thelwall. " "Whereunto shall I resemble it ? " is 

T " became ; " tyevero. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Wesley, Camp., 
Scarlett, Dick., Kend., Angus, M., Thelwall. The radical sense 
of the verb (fieri) is entirely appropriate here. See ch. 12 : 33, 

* " the birds ; " ia aersiva. See ch. 12 : 24, note. Thorn., 
Penn, Norton, Wesley, Camp., Scarlett, Dick., Sawyer, Kend., 
Angus, M. 

1 " among ; " Iv. Thomson. See (E. V.), Ps. 104 : 12, " the 
fowls (birds) which sing among the branches." The preposition 
here is equivalent to t /uaio, " in the midst of." See Bob. 
(Lex., h>, I. d.). It is, therefore, properly rendered by " among." 

3 " its branches ; " rots xldSois avrov. Kend., Thorn., Sharpe ; 
Penn, Norton, Camp., Scarlett. 




20 And again he said, Where- 
unto sliall I liken tlie kingdom of 

21 It is like leaven, -which a 
woman took and hid in three 
measures of meal, till the whole 
was leavened. 

22 And he went through the 
cities and villages, teaching, and 
journeying toward Jerusalem. 

23 Then said one unto him, 
Lord, are there few that be sav- 
ed ? And he said unto them, 

24 Strive to enter in at the 
strait gate : for many, I say unto 
you, will seek to enter in, and 
shall not be able. 

25 When once the Master of 
the house is risen up, and hath 
shut to the door, and ye begin to 
stand without, and to knock at 
the door, saying, Lord, Lord, open 
unto us ; and he shall answer and 
say unto you, I know you not 
whence ye are : 

26 Tlien shall ye begin to say, 
We have eaten aud drunk in thy 



etVe, TLVL ofj-otaxrco TTJV 
a.v TOV Oeov ; 21 6/Wa 
^vfJifi) rji> Xafiovcra yvvrj 
fyev ely a\evpov crara rpia, 
ov eufjLO>0r) oAor/. 


Aety Kal Kc$ SiSdcrKcov, /cat 
iropeiav Troiov/j.evos' els 'lepovcra- 

\ ' 23 9 S> ' ' " TS~ ' 

Arjfj,. etTre oe rt? aurro, J\.vpi., 
el oA/yot 01 (Tcoofj.evoi;. '0 8e 

? * > * 2' A >5- n 

etTre TT/JO? avrov?, Aycavi^eave 

eitreXOelv Sia rr/s crrevr/f 

oft TroAAot, Xeyca v^uv, 

<TLV elcreXdeiv, Kal OVK icryytrov- 

9^ ' A * "? ^ ' /I ^ ( 

criv. A(p ov av eye per] o 

ot/co5ecr7ror?7?, /cat aVo/cAeicn? TTJV 
Ovpav, Kal ap^rjaOe e^co e 
Kal Kpoveiv rv]v Ovpav, 
Kvpie, Kvpie, avoi^ov 
/cat a.TTOKpidels' epel v/jui>, OVK 

?fc C ^ //^ 5 / 2(l/ 

otoa vfj.a?, TTOuev ecrre. rare 
ap^eade Ae'yetf, ' E(j)d-yo/j.ev evca- 
TTIOV (rov KOI eTTto/uev, Kal eV rals 


again he said, To what shall I 
liken the kingdom of God ? It 21 
is like leaven, which a woman 
took and hid in three measures 
of meal, till the whole was leav- 
ened. And he went through 22 
'cities and villages, teaching, 
and journeying towards Jeru- 
salem. "And b one said to him, 23 
Lord, are there few who are 
saved ? And he said to them, 
Strive to enter in 'through the 24 
"narrow gate ; for many, I say 
to you, will seek to enter in, 
and will not be able. When 25 
once the 'master of the house 
f hatli risen, and e shut fast the 
door, and ye begin to stand 
without, and h knock at the 
door, saying, Lord, Lord, open 
to us; and he 'will answer, and 
say to you, I know you not, 
whence ye are ; then J ye will 2G 
begin to say, k We ate and 
drank in thy presence, and 

1 " cities ; " ytoisis. This noun is anarthrous. There is no 
necessity for the insertion of an article in the English. No arti- 
cle in Tyndale (1st Edition, 1526), Coverdale, Thomson, Sharpe, 
Wesley, Camp., Kend., M., De Wette (" zog durcli Stadte und 
Dorfer"), Iber. (" iba por ciudades i aldcas"), Daa. ("ban gik 
igiennera Stoeder og Byer"). 

* " and ; " St. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Camp., Dick., 

b " one said ; " Hits rig. This is the more appropriate order. 
So Kend., Thoin., Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Scarlett, Wakef., Saw- 
yer, Thelwall, M. The E. V. copied Tyndale's arrangement. 
Compare ch. 13 : 18, note. 

c " through;" Sta (cum genit.). Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Nor- 
ton, Wesley, Camp., Dick., Kend., Thelwall, M. Eob. (Lex., 
Sia) : " Implying motion through a place, and put after verbs of 
motion." De Wette, " durch." 

d " narrow ; " arsvfjs. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Dick., 
Sawyer, Hard. " Strait " is obsolescent. It is also objectionable 
as liable to be confounded with another word (" straight "), which 
has the same pronunciation. 

" master ; " olxoSeoxon/s. This word is improperly made 
to commence with a capital in the E. V. The capital is not em- 
ployed by Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Wesley, Wakef., Camp., 

Dick., Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva, Coverdale, Eheims, or the E. V 
of 1611. 

f " hath risen ; " J/e?^. Norton, Scarlett, Wakef., Kend., 
Penn (" hath risen up"), M. (" has arisen"). See ch. 5 : 23, and 
7 : 16, notes. 

e " shut fast ; " anoxUiarj. Rob. (Lex., in verbo) : "In K T. 
to shut fully, to shut fast." Bretsch., '^occludo." So Tyndale. 
De Wette, " verschlossen hat." 

h " knock ; " y.qoveiv. The close connection of this verb with 
" to stand " requires (according to present usage) that " to " 
should be omitted. So Thorn., Penn, Norton, Wesley, Scarlett, 

1 " will answer ; " omoxQid-els. Kend., Thorn., Sharpe, Nor- 
ton, Wakef., Camp., Sawyer, Angus. 

J " ye will begin ; " ai^rjad'e. Thorn., Sharpe (" will ye be- 
gin"), Penn, Dick., Kend., M. 

k " We ate and drank ; " 'Ecpayofiev Iniofiev. Kend. 
These aorists are properly rendered, according to their usual 
force, by the English imperfect. The perfect of the E. V. was 
taken from Tyndale, who followed the Vulgate, " manducavimus 
et bibimus." The Latin perfect, however, has a wider range than 
the English tense of the same name, being often equivalent to our 




presence, and thou hast taught in 
our streets. 

27 But he shall say, I tell you, 
I know you not whence ye are ; 
depart from me, all ye -workers of 

28 There shall be -weeping and 
gnashing of teeth, -when ye shall 
see Abraham, and Isaac, and Ja- 
cob, and 'all the prophets, in the 
kingdom of God, and you your- 
selves thrust out. 

29 And they shall come from 
the east, and from the west, and 
from the north, and from the 
south, and shall sit down in the 
kingdom of God. 

30 And behold, there are last, 
which shall be first ; and there 
are first, which shall be last. 

31 The same day there came 
certain of the Pharisees, saying 
unto him, Get thee out, and de- 


TrAare/cuy yficov eSi8aas. ZT 
(pel, Aeyco v/uv, OVK oiSa v 
Trodev ecrre'' aTrocrr^re air fj.ov 
TravTfs ol epyaTcu TTIS aSi/c/ay. 

/ / * 

28 e/cet ecrrai 6 KXavdfWf KCU o 
/3pvyfj.o? T>V oSovTcov, OTO.V o\jnj- 
Koi 'Io~aa.K KOU 

I 7TO.VTO.S TOVS 7TpO(f)r/- 

TO.S fv Trj fiacriXfta TOV Oeou, 

29 \ <//- a \ j x \ 

/cat rj^ovcrtv airo avaroAcav Kai 

8v<T[J.(6l>, KCU UTTO /SoppS. KCU VO- 

TOV, Kai avaK\LdriarovTa.t, ev rfj 
ia TOV Otov. 30 KOU ISou, 
ecr^arot oi ecrovrai TrptSroi, 
KCU fieri TiyxSroi oi kcrovrai ecr^a- 


31 ' 

Ev avrf) Trj 
6ov Tives t&apKrcuoL, Xe-yovres 
ai>ra> } ' JZ^eXde KCU. iropevov eV- 


thou 'didst teach in our streets. 
But he will say, I tell you, I 27 
know you not whence ye are 
depart from me, all ye workers 
of iniquity. "There will be 28 
weeping and gnashing of teeth, 
when ye shall see Abraham, and 
Isaac, and Jacob, and all the 
prophets in the kingdom of 
God, and "yourselves "cast out. 
And they ^will come from the 29 
east 'and west, and from the 
north and south, and 'will re- 
cline at table in the kingdom of 
God. And behold, there are so 
last, who will be first ; and 
there are first, who will be last. 
'That very day, there came 31 
some Pharisees, "and said to 
him, v Go out, and depart hence ; 

" didst teach ; " e8intts. This aorist is rendered by the 
imperfect, on the principle stated in the last note. Keudrick, 
" taugLtest." 

" " There will be ; " sxsT %ori. The verb is rendered " will 
be " by Thorn., Shavpe, Penn, Norton, Scarlett, Wakef., Dick., 
Kend., M. The rendering of ixsz (" there ") has been retained, 
and yet not without much hesitation. 'JSxcz is very generally an 
adverb of time. But in the English phrases, " there will be," 
" there are," etc., the adverb is merely euphonic, and has no refer- 
ence to place. To bring out that idea, the order must be chang- 
ed, thus, " Weeping and gnashing of teeth will be there, when," 
etc. But it may be questioned, whether ixe t is not here used to 
indicate " time " instead of " place," as we have in the apodosis, 
orav Staff's x. T. L (" when ye shall see," etc.). Liddell (Lex., 
Ixel) says : " III. also, but rarely, of time = tors, then. Anec- 
dota Beckeri. Schaf., Appar. Dem., p. 531." Kuincel regards 
ey.a here as an adverb of time : " 'Exa, Hebr. tna h. 1. est adverb 
temporis, adeoque reddi debet tune. Hebrsei enim adverbia loci 
ponere solent pro advei-biis temporis, v. Hos. 2 : 16. Ps. 36 : 13 ; 
132 : 17 (n\j, Sept., &.&}." Gesen. (Lex., be) : " (Spoken) of 
time, then, like Gr. exsi, Lat. ibi, ittlco, Ps.'l4 : 5; 132 : 17. 
Judg. 5 : 11." Henc.e the following alternative rendering is sug- 
gested, "Then there will be," etc. The adverb is rendered 
" then " by Norton, Camp., Gray (note on Angus, in loco). The 
Vulg., Mont., Beza, and Schott have " ibi," which signifies either 

" "yourselves;" v/tag. Tyndale, Geneva, Penn, Norton, "Wes- 

ley, Wakef., Camp., Dick., Angus, M. The rendering of the 
B. V. was taken from .Cranmer. 

" cast out ; " exfiatto/isvovs t<a. Eob., (Lex., txpattto}. 
Thomson, Penn, Sawyer, Thelwall, M. So usually in E. V. it 
is rendered ; " thrust out " only here, and in oh. 4 : 29. Comp. 
(E. V.) Jer. 7 : 15 ; 15 : 1 ; 16 : 13. Matt. 8 : 12, jthe children 
of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness : (ol viol 
Tijs /Saadslas Ix^.ri^fjoovtni els to OXOTOS to e^iats$ov f ) there 
shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth." 

P " will come ; " f^ovoiv. Thorn., Norton, Scarlett, Wakef., 
Camp., Dick, Kend., M. 

1 " and west ; " xal vofi<ni>. Angus, Kend., M., Thorn., Penn, 
Wakef., Sawyer. It is unnecessary to insert the article here. 
If used, it is really a supplement. 

r "will recline at table;'" avaxfofrijoovTai. See ch. 7 
note. So Kend., M. 

' "That very day;" 'Ev avrfj 777 fjfie^tf. See ch. 7 

' " some Pharisees ; " tivss <f<ioianTot. Tliomson, Wakefield, 
Angus. Fives is rendered " some " also by Sawyer and Murdock. 
It accords better with our usus loquendi than " certain." sP^<- 
aatot is incorrectly translated in the E. V, (after Tyndale) as if 
it were a genitive, " of the Pharisees." 

tt " and said ; " ityoinss. Tyndale, Thorn., Murdock, Wakef., 
Camp., Dick. 

' " Go out ; " "&l9t. Penn, Wesley, Scarlett, M., Sawyer. 






part hence; for Herod will kill 

32 And lie said unto them, Go 
ye and tell that fox, Behold, I 
cast out devils, and I do cures to- 
day and to-morrow, and the third 
day I shall be perfected. 

83 Nevertheless. I must walk 
to-day and to-morrow, and the 
day following : for it cannot be 
that a prophet perish out of Jeru- 

34 Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 
which killest the prophets, and 
stonest them that are sent unto 
thee ; how often would I have 
gathered thy children together, 
as a hen doth gather her brood 
under her wings, and ye would 

35 Behold, your house is left 


revdev, OTL 'Jffpcadrjs $e'Aei <re 

' ~ 32 1?~ ** ^ > " 

ctTroKTeivai. KO.L enrev O.VTOIS, 
Hopevdei/re? etWre rfj aAcoyre/a 
TO.VTT], 'I8ov, e/c/3aAAft> 8a.ifj.6fia 
Kai iacrei? eVtreAa) crri/j.epov, KCU 
avpiov, KCU rrj Tpirrj T\iov/> 

JQ x \ PV ~ / \ 3f 

TTMJV 061 /HE O"f]fJipOV Kttt. OLV' 

piov KCU rfj ^o/j.fvr] 7ro/9euecr#ar 
on OVK eVoY^erai jrpo<pr/TTjv a?ro- 
\la6ai e'^-ca 'lepovcraXrj/j,, 34 '/e- 
povcra\TJ/J., 'Zepovcra\T)fji,, 77 O.TTO- 
/creu/oucra TOVS TrpofyrjTas, KCU 
Ai$o/3oAovcra TOVS aTrecrraAjU.e- 

1>OV? 7T/30? aVTTJV, TTOCTaKlS T]Qi~ 

Xf]<ra eirio-vvd^ou ra re/era <rou, 
ov rpoTTOv bpvLS Tfjv tavTrjs voar- 
cnav VTTO ra? Trrepvyas, KOU OVK. 
35 iSov, a 


for Herod w wisheth *to put thee 
to death. And he said to them, 32 
Go, tell that fox, Behold, I cast 
out demons, and perform cures 
to-day, and to-morrow, and the 
third day S I finish my work. 
Nevertheless, I must walk to- 33 
day, and to-morrow, and the 
day following- ; for it can not 
be that a prophet "should perish 
out of Jerusalem. Jerusa- 34 
lem, Jerusalem, that killest the 
prophets, and stonest those who 
are sent' to thee ; how often 
would I have gathered thy chil- 
dren together, as a hen gathereth 
her brood under her wings, and 
ye would not ! Behold, your 35 

Bob. (Lex., egfyy.ofiai) : " The place whence being not expressed 
but implied, to go out, i. e., to go away, to depart." 

" " wisheth ; " S-lht. Robinson (Lex.) : " To will, i. q., to 
wish, desire, to choose." So Penn, Kendrick, M., Sawyer. The 
B. V~., copying Tyndale, has " will," which, in this case, appears 
to be merely a sign of the future tense. It is obvious from the 
text that these Pharisees did not expect that Christ would 
regard their message as a mere prediction as to the danger in 
question. On the contrary, they wished to alarm him with the 
intelligence that Herod was determined to put him to death. 
Several late Eng. translators have used the term " intends " as 
the equivalent of -D-ekc. This gives the thought, though the ex- 
actness, of the rendering may be questioned. It may be remarked 
here, that though there are cases where 9~t),a> serves merely as a 
sign of the future, like the Bng. shall, or will, thus giving the 
infinitive a future sense ; this occurs only where inanimate things 
are spoken of. See Acts 2 : 12.; 17 .: 20. Bob. (Lex., &slm). 

1 " to put thee io death ;'" ae aTtoxrelimi. See oh. 9 : 22, 
note. Kuinoel ; (h. 1.) : " Kodem die Pharisee! nonnulli ad Jesum 
accedebant, eumque monebant, ut ex ilia regione discederet, quod 
Herodes vitse ipsius insidias strueret. Scilicet cum numerus 
sectatorum Jesu quotidie cresceret, omnisque populus ab ore ejus 
penderet ; timebat Herodes Antipas, ne populus ob interemptum 
Johannera, ipsi iratus, et ad defecttonem pronus, res novas moli- 
retur, atque seditionem moveret. Optabat igitur, ut Jesus quam 
longissime roaioveretur, ueque tamen ei violentas manus injicire 
audebat, metuens populum. Experii-i ergo volebat, an Jesum, 
metu incusso, e Galilsea atque Perrna, his enim regionibus Hero- 
des Antipas prajerat (lurev&ev, ex his terris) pellere posset. 
Itaque subornabat Phavisreos, quos sciret .Jesu adversaries acerri- 

mos, ut eum minis terrerent, eique per speciem amicitiaj consilium , 
abeundi in Judoeam darent," etc. The verb, used in this instance, " 
is an appropriate term to express the thought of death inflicted 
under legal forms. The eagerness of the multitude to make 
Christ a king by force (John C : 15) rendered him an object of 
jealous hatred to Herod, who looked only at " the things which 
are seen." 

y " I finish my work ; " reletovfeac. Some interpreters have 
maintained that this verb is really a future; it being, as they 
assert, an Attic contract from rs).eicooofi<u, that being put for 
Ts).8M>&foo i Bloomf. remarks on this supposition : " Borne- 
mann with reason objects that the penult of this verb is long ; 
and notices similar errors in the forms of other verbs in the 
j classics. Here certainly the present seems required by the cor- 
respondent verbs foregoing,, and extremes." Robinson 
(Lex.) regards the verb (h. I.) as present middle with cgyov 
implied, and renders it, " I finish the work." The above render- 
ing, "I finish m y work," is employed from a comparison with 
John 4 : 34, reisicoaco avrov ro egyov, " and that I may 
finish his work." John 5 : 36. John 17 : 4, lyco as l$6!-aon snl 
rijs yrjs' TO egyov faeZsicooa o SeScaxds /tot tra. rtottfoco' E. V., 
" I have glorified time on the earth : I have finished the work 
which thou gavest me to do." The language of Christ in these 
passages, containing this verb, and referring specially to the 
" work," seems decisive as to the sentence in question. 

1 " should perish ; " catoUad'at. Norton, Murdock. This 
rendering- accords with the present usage of our language. Beza, 
Eras., " pereat." A more literal rendering would be, " for it is 
not possible for a prophet to perish." This, however, is less 
appropriate than that given above. 




unto you desolate. And verily, I 
eay unto you, Ye shall not see me, 
until the time come when ye shall 
say, Blessed is he that cometh in 
the name of the Lord. 


AND it came to pass, as he went 
into the house of one of the chief 
Pharisees to eat bread on the 
sabbath-day, that they watched 


e Ae'yw vjuv^ on ov fj.r/ fj. 

ecos ai> rjgg, ore etTr^re, 

/j-evos o epxpfj-eiro? ev OVOJJLO.TL 





avrov As OLKOV nvos TCOV 

rcav rcav <&apicraic0i> aa. 
(^ayeiv aprov, /cat 
7rapa.Ti)pov/j.evoi avrov. 


avroi -rjcrav 
2 /cat 


house is left to you 'desolate. 
b And I say to you, Ye will not 
see me, till the time 'cometh 
when ye shall say, Blessed "be 
he that cometh in the name of 
the Lord. 


AND it came to pass, as he i 
went into the house "of one of 
the rulers, 'who were Pharisees, 
to eat bread on "a sabbath, that 
"they were watching him. And 2 

* " desolate ; " egijftos, is canceled by Griesbach, Lachmann, 
Tisehendorf, Knapp, Theile, Kuincel, Scholz. This last Editor 
says : " Suspeetum e^pos. Deest in cdd. A.B.K.L.S.N. minuscc. 
permultis. verss., Memph. Sahidic, Arm., Sax., Vulg. ms. 6 libris 
lat. Addebatur facile ad conformandum Lucam Mattheo 23 : 38, 
quanquam etiam fieri potuit, ut propter similitudinem syllabarum 
prsecedd. vft&v mature textu excideret." In the Amiatine MS. 
of the Vulg., " deserta " is not found. On the other hand, the 
various printed Editions of the Vulg. read "relinquetur vobis 
* domus vestra deserta." So the Syriac translation was made 
from a Greek MS. which had sfn/fios, as it reads . o -^^.d 
l^fi* " - "> "-^ It is retained by Tittmann. As the sen- 
tence is obviously imperfect without egrjftos, I retain it, in ren- 
dering, and place this note in the margin : "'Egrj/uos (" desolate") 
is wanting in several early MSS. and Versions." 

b "And ; " aftqv (" verily ") of the Text. Becept. is rejected by 
Griesb., Lachm., Tischend., Knapp, Theile, Kuincel, Scholz, Titt- 
mann, and Schott, who -has this note : " Aeyco Ss cum Griesb. 
aliisque auctoritate plerorumque cdd. (11 URC. verss., Peseh. 
Philox., Pers., Memph., Sahid., Arm., Slav., Vulg., edidimus U- 
yio sine de in paucis cdd. et verss.) pro vulg. A/UTJV Se Ifyia. 
Additamentum a/nrjv librariis familiare." Beyond a doubt, /}" 
is spurious. 

c " cometh ; " av ^rj, for f&i, that is the subj. aorist instead 
of the indicat. future. See Rob. (Lex., ore). In cases of this 
kind, when we express the thought in our language, we can say 
" cometh," or " shall come ; " though the first expression is usually 
preferred for the sake of conciseness. 

d " be." This supplement is used rather than is on the fol- 
lowing grounds: In Ps. 118 : 26 (Sept., 117 : 26), from whence 
the sentence is quoted, the Sept. has the same words, Elioyrsfis- 
vos o fyyoftevos iv cvoftart Kvpiov, E. V., " Blessed be he that 
cometh in the name of the Lord." In Mark 11 : 10, EiJ.oyrjfisr-q 
% ty%ofiVi] ftaod.eia Iv ovofian Kvtjiov, E. V., " Blessed be the 
kingdom that cometh in the name of the Lord." Luke .19 : 38, 
Evioyripivos 6 ej>%6fievos ^aaiisvs h> ovoftart Kvgiov, E. V., 
" Blessed be the king that cometh in the name of the Lord." So 

also Eph. 1 : 3. This supplement should be used in Matt. 21 : 9, 
and John 12 : 13. " Be " is employed by Norton, Camp. 

* " of one of the rulers ; " nvos raiv apxovreov. Kendrick, 
Camp., Sawyer, Thomson ("of one of the chiefs"). Compare 
Acts 4 : 8, %p%ovTcs TOV ).aov anl rtgeafivTsooi tov fa^afji., 
"Eulers of the people and elders of Israel." Luke 23 : 13, 35. 
Acts 4 : 5. Bob. (Lex., apzcov) : " In a Jewish usage, e. g., r 
ruler- of a synagogue. Luke 8 : 41. Matt. 9 : 18, 23. So of 
persons of weight among the Pharisees, and other sects who were 
members of the sanhedrim. Luke 14 : 1." Kuincel (h. 1.) : "Post- 
quam se die sabbati contulerat ad assessorem quendam synedri e 
secta Pharisaeorum, ut coena interesset." 

b " who were Pharisees ; " r<3i> cpafioaiw. Thorn. Bloomf. 
has this note : " By tivos Tcav a^y_6incav rcoi> <Pagcoaicav is 
meant (as Grotius, Hammond, "Whitby, Pearce, and Campbell 
have shown) ' one of the rulers [of a synagogue] who was a 
Pharisee ; ' r<3v ^a^ioaitov being for t<uv <t>ac>iOtt.i<av, or in 
apposition. Comp. John 3:1. For that such rulers were not 
all Pharisees, appears from John 7 : 48." In conformity with 
this view, Norton has, " of a ruler who was a Pharisee ; " Wakef., 
" of one of the rulers, a Pharisee ; " Camp., " of one of the rulers 
who was a Pharisee." G. Campbell remarks that " a^ovras 
properly denotes persons in authority, rulers, magistrates; and 
that any other kind of eminence, or superiority would have been 
distinguished by the term nqwrot, as in Luke 19 : 47. Mark 
6 : 21. Acts 13 : 50 ; 17 : 4 ; 25 : 2 ; 28 : 17." Kuincel (in 
loco) : " *Aqza>v indicat, vel archisynagogam, archisyuagogi eni-m 
dicebantur etiam a^ovras, Matt. 9 : 18. Coll. Marc. 5 : 22, vel 
assessorem synedri oppidam : cum praeterea additum legatur r<Sv 
. patet euni e secta Pharis. fuisse." 

a sabbath ; " aa/S^dfty. In conformity with the text, 
" the " (of the E. V.) is dropped. So Tyndale, Wakef., Scarlett, 
Camp., Dick., Thelwall. So " day," which occurs in the E. V., 
and is a supplement (though not italicized) is omitted as super- 
fluous. See ch. 6 : 2, note. 

" they were watching ; " tfaav Tta^arrj^ovftcvoi. Thomson, 
Norton, "Wesley, Scarlett, Angus, Thelwall. The tense here 
indicates continued action. 




2 And behold, there "was a cer- 
tain man before him which had 
the dropsy. 

3 And Jesus answering, spake 
unto the lawyers and Pharisees, 
saying, Is it lawful to heal on the 
sabbath-day ? 

4 And they held their peace. 
And he took him, and healed him, 
and let him go : 

5 And answered them, saying, 
Which of you shall have an ass 
or an ox fallen into a pit, and will 
not straightway pull him out on 
the sabbath-day ? 

6 And they could not answer 
him again to these things. 

7 And he put forth a parable 
to those which were bidden, when 
he marked how they chose out the 
chief rooms ; saying unto them, 


iSov, avdpomros TIS r/v v 

avrov- 3 /cat 

o 'Irjirovs (.lire. Trpoy rovs 
VO/J.IKOVS KOU <fiapicraiov?, \e-ycav, 
EL ^(TTL ra> cra/3/3ar< Qepa.iTe.v- 
SLV; 01 8e rja-v^aarav. 4 KOU 
laararo avrov, /cat 
5 /cat airoKpidzis TT/JO? 
CLVTOVS ebre, Tinas v^tov ovos r) 
[Bov? els (j)peap e/tTrecretrai, /cat 
OVK evdecoy dvacnracrei avrov ev 


6 Kou 

ai av- 

ra> Trpof 

7 ' JEAeye de Trpos TOV? /ce/cA?;- 



ras TTjOwro/cAtcr/as 1 


8 " 



behold, there was a certain man 
before him who had the drop- 
sy. And Jesus, answering, spoke 3 
to the lawyers and Pharisees, 
saying, Is it lawful e to cure on 
the f sabbath ? s But Hhey were 4 
silent. And 'taking hold of 
Mm, he healed him, and let ] him 
go. And he answered them, 5 
saying, fe lf an ox, or an ass of 
any one of you 'shall fall into 
a pit, will he not "then "imme- 
diately pull it out on the sab- 
bath-day ? And they could not 6 
"reply against him 'as to 'this. 
And he spoke a parable to " 
those r who had been invited, 
when he marked how 'they 
were choosing out 'the first 
places ; saying to them, When 8 

" to cure ; " d't^a.TtEvsiv. M., Norton, Camp., Sawyer. This 
rendering preserves the verbal distinction of frepcatevetv, and ld- 
omo, in the next member of this verse. 

f "sabbath." See v. 1, note. 

k " But ; " 5i. Thorn., Scarlett, Thelwall, M., Angus, "Wesley, 

h " they were silent ; " yav%aoav. Kend., Norton, Wakef., 
JPenn, Scarlett, Sawyer, Dick. The phrase " to hold one's peace " 
is obsolete. 

1 "taking hold of;" indapofievos. Kend., M., Dick., Thel- 
wall. The verb " took hold of" is employed by Campbell and 
Penn. Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : "To take hold upon." The ex- 
pression is elliptical ; trjs x s '?$ being understood. The ellipsis 
is supplied Mark 8 : 23, m?.ap6fievos fijs zctgos TOV rvyAov. 
So Acts 23 : 19. Compare Matt. 9 : 25. Mark 1 : 31. Luke 

1 " Mm." This supplement is necessary to complete the sen- 

k " If an ox, or an ass of any one of you ; " Tivos vfituv ovos 
y /3ovs. Kuincel : " Si cujusquam vestrum asinus vel bos," etc. 
This rendering is more strict than that of the E. V. (copied from 
Tyndale). It 5s deemed sufficiently perspicuous in presenting the 
thought of the text. As ovos and /Jot's are anarthrous, " the " is 
dropped ; so Wakef. As an alternative rendering, " Who of you, 
if an ox, or an ass shall fall into a pit, will not immediately," etc. 
Be Wette, " Wer von euch, dessen Esel oder Ochs in die Grube 
Sole, wiirde ihn nicht alsbald herausziehen ?" 

1 " shall fall ; " Ifateoettni,. Penn, Sharpe, Sawyer. 
native, should fail." So Norton, 


m " then ; " xai. See eh. 10 : 29, note. 

" " immediately ; " ev&ecos. See ch. 5 : 39, note. 

" reply against ; " avTanoy.^t&^vai. So Rom. 9 : 20, 6 uv- 
Tconftvofisvos tqi Qsfy (B. V.), " that repliest against God." 
Hob. (Lex., in verbo}. The verb occurs only here, and the pas- 
sage cited from Romans. " Reply," or " answer again," fails to 
bring out the force of the preposition avrl. 

f " as to ; " irpos. Rob. (Lex., in verbo) : " Toward, i. e., in 
reference to, in respect to, as to, implying the direction, or remote 
object of an action." After verbs of replying, Matt. 27 : 14. 
Horn. 8 : 31. 

" this ; " ravra. See ch. 5 : 27, note. 

r " who had been invited ; " rovs xexfojfeevovs. Penn, Norton. 
Beza, " quo vocati fuerunt." Our usus loquendi demands the plu- 
perfect tense here. See Trollope, g 50, 6, p. 133. " Invited " 
corresponds with our present usage. Rob. (Lex., xo.).eco) : " Spe- 
cially, to call, i. q., to invite." See ch. 7 : 39, note. 

" they were choosing out ; " ejefayovro, Wakef. Trench, 
p. 126 : " Read ' how they were choosing out ' (tgekeyoiTo) ; 
the sacred historian placing the Lord's utterance of the parable 
in the midst of the events which he is describing." 

t " the first places ; " n^torov.halns. Rob. (Lex., in verbo} : 
" The first reclining-place at table, the chief place at meals, the 
middle place on each couch of the triclinium." De Wette, " die 
ersten Platze ; " G. and S. Fr., " les premieres places ; " Iber., 
" los primeros puestos." This word should be distinguished from 
ttfcoToy.a&eSpla, which properly signifies " first seat." See Revia 
of Mark 12 : 39, where both terms occur. 




8 When thou art bidden of any 
man to a wedding, sit Hot down 
in the highest room, lest a more 
honourable man tlian tliou be bid- 
den of him ; 

9 And he that bade thee and 
him come and say to thee, Give 
this man place ; and thou begin 
with sliame to take the lowest 

10 But when thou art bidden, 
go and sit down in the lowest 
room ; that when he that bade 
thee cometh, he may say unto 
thee, Friend, go up higher : then 
shalt thou have worship in the 
presence of them that sit at meat 
with thee. 

11 For whosoever exalteth him- 
self shall be abased, and he that 
humbleth himself shall be exalted. 


VTTO TLVOS fls ya/uour, [JLTJ 


e? rr/v 

ivTifJLOTepos crov 17 
VTT avrov, 9 KOU e'A- 
6a>v o ere KOI O.VTOV /cccAe'cray 
eptl (rot, A))s TOVTW TOTTOV /ecu 
ap^rj ^T aia~xyvr]s TOV 

f f 10 > * -v > 

TOTTOV Ko.Ttys.iv. aAA 
OTO.V K\rjdrjf, iropevdels avdire- 
crov elf TOV ea~^aToi> TOTTOV tVa, 
orav e\0r] o /ce/cA^/ccoy ere, 



mov T&V <TvvavaKi[jLva>v troL 
v eavrov Tairei- 
/cat o Ta/rreivcai' eav- 
TOV vco 

11 OTI Tray o 


thou art invited "by any one to 
v a inarriage-feast,' ""do not re- 
cline at talk in "the first place, 
lest a more honorable man than 
thou ?may have been invited 
'by him ; and he who "invited 9 
thee and him ""should come, a,nd 
say to thee, c Give place to this 
man; and d then c thou wilt be- 
gin with shame to take the low- 
est r place. But when g thou art 10 
invited, go and h lie down at table 
in the lowest 'place, that when 
he 'who hath invited thee Com- 
eth, he may say to thee, Friend, 
go up higher ; then. k thou wilt 
have 'honor in the presence of 
those ro who recline at table with 
thee. For "every one who ex- 11 
alteth himself, "will be humbled, 
and. he who humbleth liimself, 

" by ; " vno. See ch. 10 : 22, note. 

T " a marriage-feast ; " yafiovs. Scarlett, "Wesley, "Wakefield, 
Kend., M. See ch. 12 : 36, note. The plural (ydfwvg) seems to 
be \ised from the fact that the entertainment continued for several 

w " do not recline at table ; " fif; xa.rnxii9fjs. This verb has 
the same signification with avaxUvco, when the reference is to 
the posture at meals. See Eob. (Lex.). Luke 7 : 36, note. 

1 " the first place ; " ir,v a^carexhaiav. See v. 7, note. 

> " may have been invited ; " a xatliiuivos- A literal render- 
ing accords with our usus loquendi. The thought may be pre- 
sented by this alternative phrase, " should have been invited." 
See v. 7, note. 

" by him ; " vrf nvrov. So in first member of the sentence. 
See note u. 

" invited." See v. 7, note. 

b " should come ; " E^&fav. Sharpe. Present usage demands 
this rendering. 

" Give place to this man ; " ^fos fovrcti ronov. Thomson, 
Norton, M., Sharpe. &. Fr., " cede a celui-ci la place." " Man," 
not represented by an equivalent in the text, is italicized. 

d " then ; " -TOTS. Thorn., Scarlett, Wesley, Camp., Sawyer, 
Thelwall, M. 

" thou wilt begin ; " apj>]. The verb has this form both in 
the 1st fut. ind. mid., and the 1st aorist subj. middle. Critics are 
divided as to its classification, in this instance. Scarlett, Wesley, 
Wakef., Norton, and Gray (note on Angus) render it as a 1st fut. 
middle. The above rendering is made on this ground. As an 
alternative (on the supposition that the verb is 1st aorist subj.), 

" thou sliouldst begin." Kuincel, and some others, regard agjrj as 

f " place ; " ronov. So (E. V.) in the preceding member of 
the sentence. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Wesley, Norton, Wakef., 
Camp., Sawyer, Angus, Keud., M. 

e " thou art invited ; " x^S'fis. See v. 7, note. 

h " lie down at talk ; " avansaov. Sharpe. See ch. 11 : 37, 

' " place ; " ronov. See v. 9, note f. 

J " who hath invited ; " o y.eyJ.rjxcos. As the literal rendering 
involves no violation of our idiom, it is preferred for the sake of 
exactness. Thelwall renders this verb by the perfect. 

k " thou wilt have ; " 'carat aoi. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Scar- 
lett, Walcef., Kend., M. 

i " honor ; " Soga. Penn, Thorn., Wesley, Scarlett, Kendrick, 
Camp., Sawyer, Angus, M. 

m " who recline at table with ; " r<3v awavaxetfieveav. See 
ch. 7 : 49, note. 

n "everyone;" nag. So (E.V.) ch.ll :10 ; 18 :14. Sharpe, 
Penn, Wesley, Wakef., Dick., Sawyer, Kend., Gray (in Angus), . 
M. Murdock (Syr., ^). Heb. N. Test, -ba. Yulg., Erasmus, 
" omnis." 

" will be humbled ; " raasivea&f/asrae. Sharpe, Scarlett, 
Norton, Kendrick, M. The verb is rendered by " humble," by 
Wesley, Thomson, Campbell, Thelwall, Sawyer, Angus, Bheims. 
So in next member of the sentence, o raneivdiv (E. V.), " that 
humbleth ; " and Matt. 18:4. Philip. 2 : 8. Jas. 4 : 10. 1 Pet. 
5 : 6. Vulgate, Montanus, " humiliabitur ; " Iber., "sera hufflil 




12 : Then said he also to him 
that bade Mm, When thou makest 
a dinner or a supper, call not thy 
friends, nor thy brethren, neither 
thy kinsmen, nor thy rich neigh- 
bours ; lest they also bid thee 
again, and a recompense be made 

13. But . when thou makest a 
feast, call the poor, the maimed, 
the lame, the blind ; 

14 And thou shalt be blessed : 
for they cannot recompense thee : 
for thou shalt be recompensed at 
the resurrection of the just. 

15 And when one of them that 
sat at meat with him heard these 
things, he said nnto him, Blessed 
is he that shall eat bread in the 
kingdom of God. 

16 Then said he unto him, A 
certain man made a great supper, 
and bade many : 

17 And sent his servant at 
supper-time, to say to them that 


12 '' 

.ZJAeye 8e /ecu ra 
avTov, " OTOLV -rroirjs apicrTov r) 
dei-jrvov, fir] fycavet, TOVS (piXovs 
<rou, /jajSe TOVS dSeXfiovs arov, 
fj.rj8e TOVS (rvyyeveis aov, fj.rjSe 
ytiTQvas irXovo-iovs' /i^Trore KCU 
avToi ere dvTLKaXecr(oo~i ) KCU yt- 

crot avTajr68ofj.a. 13 AA' 




KOU fJ.aKO.plOS (TTJ' 

dvTaTToSovvai croi 




yap crot ev Ty ava- 
oracrec rSsv SiKaicov. 

15 'AKOvcras 8e TIS rS>v crvv- 
avaKfi^vcav ravra eiirev 
MaKapios, os (frdyeTai aprov 
rf) /3otcrfAe/a TOV Oeov. 16 'O 
etvrej' aur&J, ' Avdpcoiros TIS e 
r/o~e Searvov [J-eya, KOI e'/caAetre 
TroAAoyy 17 KOL aTrecrrefAe TOV 
8ov\ov avTov Trj copa TOV SeiTrvov 


^will be exalted. 'And r he said 12 
also to him 'who had invited 
him, When thou makest 'a din- 
ner, or a supper, call not thy 
friends, "nor thy brethren, nor 
thy T kindred, nor thy rich neigh- 
bors, lest they also "should in- 
vite thee again, and a recom- 
pense be made thee. But when is 
thou makest a feast, 'invite the 
poor, the maimed, the lame, the 
blind; and thou wilt be y happy; 14 
'because they can not recom- 
pense thee ; for thou "wilt be 
recompensed at the resurrec- 
tion b of the righteous. And 15 
e one of those d who reclined at 
table with him, "hearing f this, 
said to him, r Happy is he who 
shall eat bread in the kingdom 
of God. k And 'he said to him, is 
A certain man made a great 
supper, and Unvited many. And 17 
he sent his servant at supper- 

f " will be exalted ; " vijjco&^aerat. Sharpe, Penn, Scarlett, 
Norton, Wakef., Dick., Kend., M. 

"And ; " Ss. Kend., Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Sawyer. 

r " he said also ; " 'jEieysxal. Kend., Sharpe, Penn, Norton, 
Wakef., Sawyer. This arrangement is the simplest, and from the 
position of " also," no room is left for any ambiguity. The pro- 
noun is placed before the verb by Thorn., Scarlett, Dick., Camp., 
Thelwall, and M. 

" who had invited him ; " rcS xexhjzdn. Kend., M., Sawyer 
("that had invited"). See v. 7, note. 

t " a dinner, or a supper ; " a^tarov q S&nvov. See ch. 11 : 37, 
note. . . 

11 " nor ; " /irjSe. See ch. 8 : 17, note. 

T " kindred ; " ovyysveis. M. . See ch. 1 : 58, note. Liddell 
(Lex.). " Kindred," in the sense of relations, often occurs in the 
E. Y. 

w " should invite again ; " avrixcdeocoai. Bob. (Lex., in 
uerio). Wesley, Penn, M. See v. 7, note. " Should invite 
again " accords with present usage. 

1 " invite ; " yMec. See v. 7, note. 

* "happy;" paxaqios. Thorn., Scarlett, Wakef., Campbell, 
Kend., M. See ch. 1 : 45, note. 

1 " because ; " on. Scarlett, Wesley. Robinson (Lex., on) : 
" Conj. causal, for that, because." This rendering is necessary to 

distinguish the word from " for," the equivalent of ydq, ia the 
next member of the sentence. 

* " wilt be recompensed ; " a.vranoSod'rioet&c. Scarlett, Wake- 
field, Kend. 

b " of the righteous ; " itov Sixaicov. Thorn., Norton, Dick,, 
G-. and A. Camp., Kend., M. The generic sense of dixatos is the 
appropriate one here. Compare John 5 :'29: See Luke 1 : 17, 
and 2 : 25, notes. 

e " when " of the E. V. is omitted by Thorn., Wesley, Penn, 
Scarlett, Norton, Dick., Camp., Sawyer, Kend., M., Thelwall. 

d " who reclined at table with ; " -reov ovvavaxsefteviov. See 
ch. 7 : 49- 

" hearing ; " 'Axovaas. Penn, Thorn., Wesley, Norton, Dick., 
Camp., Kend., Sawyer, M., Thelwall. 

f " this ; " ravra. Thorn., Kend., Camp., Norton, ^Tyndale, 
" that." Tcnrra is rendered in the singular (E. V.) Mark 16 : 12. 
Luke 12 : 4. John 5:1; 19 : 38. Acts 13 : 20 ; 15 : 16. Rev. 
7 : 9. See Luke 5 : 27, note. 

E " Happy ; " Maxaoios. See v. 14, and ch. 1 : 45, notes. 

h "And ; " Se. Penn, Norton, Kend. Iber., " I." 

' " he said ; " slnev. Thomson, Penn, Scarlett, M., Kend., 
Norton, Wakef., and Camp., "Jesus said." The inversion of the 
E. V, was copied from Tyndale. See v. 12, note. 

) " invited ; " Ixdleoe. See v. 7, note. 




were bidden, Come, for all things 
are now ready. 

18 And they all with one con- 
sent began to make excuse. The 
first said unto him, I have bought 
a piece of ground, and I must 
needs go and see it : I pray thee 
have me excused. 

19 And another said, I have 
bought five yoke of oxen, and I 
go to prove them : I pray thee 
have me excused. 

20 And another said, I have 
married a wife : and therefore I 
cannot come. 

21 So that servant came, and 
shewed his lord these things. Then 
the master of the house being 
angry, said to his servant, Go out 
quickly into the streets and lanes 
of the city, and bring in hither 
the poor, and the maimed, and the 
halt, and the blind. 

22 And the servant said, Lord, 
it is done as thou hast command- 
ed, and yet there is room. 

23 And the Lord said unto the 
servant, Go out into the high- 

eirev rots 


cA^jueWty, * Epyt- 
crOe, OTI rfBr] eTOL/J.d ecrri irdvfa.. 

18 TS~ \ >r f- > \ " 

J\.ai fjpi^a.vTO oaro fJLtas Trapcu- 
Telcrdcu travres. o irpcoros 
avrcS, 'A.-ypov ^yo/jacra, KCU ( 
dvcfyKTjv egeAdetv /cat I8elv av- 
TOV epcoTCO ere, e^e /j.e TraprjTT)- 
[i.evov. 19 KCU erepoy elwe, Zevyrj 
jSocSi' Tjyo/jacra Trevre, KCU Tropevo- 8oKifj.dcrai avrd- ecoTca are 

20 x ef 

fie TraprjTijfJ.ei'Oi'. KOLL ere- 
etvre, JTWat/ca eyrjfjia, /cat Sid 
e\6etv. 21 

TOVTO ov vvajJLCu eev. /cat 
Trapa."/evofj.evo$ o SouAoy e/eeu>oy 
aTTT^yyetAe rcS Kvpico avrou raura. 
Tore op-yicrdel? 6 


els ray TrAare/ay KCU pv/J.a? 
rfjs TToAecos, KCU rouy Trro^ow 


rv^Xovf eicrayaye code. 22 Kcti 
elirev o SovAos, JZvpie, yeyovev 
coy eVeVa^ay, KCU en roTroy ear/. 

23 77" \ f ' i \ \ 

l\.a.L enrev o Kvpios irpos rov 
8ov\oir, ' JS^eXOe els ray oSovs 


time to say to those k who had 
been invited, Come, for all 
things are now ready. And is 
they all with one consent began 
'to excuse themselves. The first 
said to him, I have bought m a 
field, and "I must "go out and 
see it ; I pray thee have me 
excused. And another said, 1 19 
have bought five yoke of oxen, 
and fl am going to prove them ; 
I pray thee have me excused. 
And another said, I have mar- 20 
ried a wife, and, therefore, I 
can not come. 'And that ser- 21 
vant came, and r told his lord 
these things. Then the master 
of the house, being angry, said 
to his servant, Go out quickly 
into the streets and lanes of 
the city, and bring in hither the 
poor, and 'maimed, and lame, 
and blind. And the servant 22 
said, Lord, it is done as thou 
didst command, and yet there 
is room. And the lord said to 23 
the servant, Go out into the 

k " who had been invited ; " rots xexlrtfiivois. See v. 7, note. 

i " to excuse themselves ; " itagatraod-ai.. Sharpe, Penn, 
"Wakef., i)ick, Sawyer, Kend., Bloomf., M. De Wette, " sich zu 
entschuldigen ; " S. Fr., " a s'excuser." This is the appropriate 
sense of the verb in the middle voice. Rob. (Lex.) : " Mid. spec. 
to excuse oneself absol., Luke 14 : 18." Bretsch. (in verbo) : 
" De excusante sese, quod invitatus ad cceham rion venerit, #-. 
legitur etiam Joseph., Antiq. 7, 8, 2, itagamjaopt-vov (soil. 
5" eas av ftfj fiagvs miry ysvoiro, loiis ae).<povs ano- 
itayexaleae." Beza, Castal., Goschen, " se excusare." 

m " a field ; " 'Aygbv. Shai-pe, Thorn., Wesley, Scarlett, Nor- 
ton, Dick., Gamp., Kend., Thelwall, M. This word occurs thirty- 
six times in the N. T. In twenty-two of these, it is rendered 
" field " in the E. V. ; in three, " lands ; " in six, " country ; " in 
one instance by " farm," and in the passage before us, only, by 
" piece of ground." The earlier translators, Tyndale, Ooverdale, 
Cranmer, Geneva have used " farm." Syr., ]^- r o ("field"). De 
"Wette, " einen Acker ; " S. Fr., " un champ ? " "Dan., "en Ager." 

n " I must ; " e'xia av&yxrfv. Thorn., Sharpe, Norton, "Wakef., 
Camp., Kend., M. 

" go out ; " ld&&v. Rob. (Lex., t verbo) : " To go, or 

come out of any place." Often rendered by " come out," and " go 
out," in the E. V. Vulg., Mont., Beza, Eras., Goschen, "exire ;" 
Belg., "dat ick uitgaa;" De Wette, " hinauszugehen ; " S. Fr., 
"de m'en aller;" Iber., "de salir;" Diodati and Ital., "audar 
fuori ; " Dan., " at gaae ud." 

P "I am going ;" itogevoftcu. See ch. 12 : 30, note. Sharpe, 
Penn, Scarlett, Norton, "Wakef., Dick., Camp., M. 

' "And ; " nal. Penn. Norton, Dickinson, Thelwall. Belg., 
ende ; " De "Wette, " und ; " Iber., " i ; " Dan., " og-." 

r " told ; " an^yysdc. See ch. 7 : 18, note. So (E. T.) Matt. 
14 : 12 ; 28 : 9. Mark 16 : 10. Luke 24 : 20 ; 18 : 9. Acts 
5 : 22, etc. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Wakef., M. 

" maimed ; " avanrxtovs. The three terms, avanr^ovs, xco- 
icovs, and Tuyhovs have no article. Our idiom, in cases where the 
conjunction closely unites nouns, is similar to that of the Greek. 
When the leading word has the article, it is not expressed before 
those which follow. Gray (in Angus) cancels the three latter 
articles of the E. V. 

' "didst command;" &rerafs. The aorist should Lave its 
usual force here, both for accuracy, and ease of enunciation in the 
English equivalent. So Wakef., Kend, M., Belg., De Wette. 



ways and hedges, and compel them 
to come in, that my house may be 

24 For I say unto you, that 
none of those men which were 
bidden, shall taste of my supper. 

25 And there went great muli- 
tudes with him : and he turned, 
and said unto them, 

26 If any man come to me, and 
hate not his father, and mother, 
and wife, and children, and breth- 
ren, and sisters, yea, and his own 
life also, he cannot be my disci- 

27 And whosoever doth not 
bear his cross, and come after me, 
cannot be my disciple. 

28 For which of you intending 
to build a tower, sitteth not down 
first, and counteth the cost, wheth- 
er he have sufficient to finish it ? 



eto"eA#eti>, 'tva. 



K.O.I avayKacrov 
'efJLia-6rj o ot/co? 

24 \ ' \ ' ~ </ > 

Aeyco yap vu.iv, on ou- 

T&V dvSptOV KlV<aV T(OV 

KeKAyfizva)v yeutrerat JJ.QV TOV 


25 SweTropevovTo 8e OUTGO 6' 
Aot TroAAor /cat crTpad)eiy 

\ > \ ofi 7-rv v 

?r/)o? aurouy, JbtTts 
irpos fj.e, /cat ou [uo-el TOV TraTepa 
ectvTov, /cat r^ fj.r}Tpa, /cat rj^z/ 
yvvdiKa, KCU ra re/cva, /cat rovy 

uy, /cat ray aSe\cha?, fTi 

R\ \ \ -, \ R' 

oe /cat T^V eaurou ytv'xrjv, ov ov- 
z/arat ^xoy fj-adr/Tr/s elvai. KCU 
os TLS ov /3aaraet TOV crTavpov 
avrov, /cat ep^erdt oTricrco 
ov 8vva.TCti /J.QV 


yap e v/j.>v, eXcav irvp- 
yov oiKo8ofj.rj(rai, ou^t 
aBlaras fyiffyl^ei Tr/v 

' TO. Trpos dTraprt.o-fj.ov; 


highways and hedges, and "con- 
strain them to come in, that my 
house may be filled. For I say 24 
to you, that none of those men, 
T who have been invited, shall 
taste of my supper. And great 25 
crowds w were going with him ; 
and he turned, and said to them, 
If *any one ^cometh to me, and 20 
"liateth not his father, and 
mother, and wife, and children, 
and brethren, and sisters, "and 
further, even his own life, he 
can not be my disciple. And 27 
whoever doth not bear his 
xoss, and come after me, "he 
can not be my disciple. For 28 
who of you 'wishing to build a 
ower, 'doth not first sit down, 
and count the cost, whether 
he hath 'enough f to complete 

" " constrain ; " avdyxaaov. Wiclif, Norton, Angus, Thelw., M. 
So (E. V.) Matt. 14 : 22. Mark 6 : 45. Acts 28 : 19. Gal. 6 : 12. 
Murdock (Syr., ^SX). Heb. N. Test., *tis$ {" press," " urge "). 
Kuinffil: " Verbum dvayxagetv, nt-Lat. cogere, Cic. ad Div., 
v. 6 notat, rationibus et persuasionibus repetitis, aliquem permo- 
vere, vid. ad Matt. 14 : 22." As an alternative, "urge." The 
allusipn is to the exercise of moral force. 

T " who have been invited ; " vcav xsHfyftevcov. Thorn., Nor- 
ton. See v. 10, note. This rendering corresponds with our usus 

* "were going with ; " Zweitopsvovro. Bloomf. (N. Test.), 
Sharpe, Wakef., Norton, and Sawyer, Mini-dock, " were travel- 
ing." By using the progressive form of the Eng. verb, we have 
an exact equivalent of the Greek imperfect, implying continuance 
of action. So the Vulg., Montanus, Bras., " ibant ; " Goschen, 
" proficiscebantur ; " Schott, " proficiscebatur ; " S. Fr., " allai- 
ent ; " Iber., " iban." 

1 " any one ; " its. Bob. (Lex.), 1'liom., Sharpe, Penn, Scar- 
lett, Wakef., Dick., Sawyer, Kend., Thelwall. 

f " cometh ; " fy%erai. Thelwall, Penn, Murdock. The Greek 
indicative is properly represented here by the same mode in 
English. So the next verb, ftiast ("hateth"). See ch. 4 : 3, 

* " hateth ; " ftiotz. See last note. * 

* " and further, even ; " Vet 8e xal. Kendrick. Vulg., Mont, 

"adhuc autem et;" Goschen, " atque adeo etiam;" Sawyer, 
" and still more also ; " Iber., " i aun tambien." Heb. N. Test., 
"ba C]K1.. The rendering of the B. V. was copied from Cranmer, 
TyndalV, more accurately, " moreover and." Rob. (Lex., en) : 
" 'En Ss xa.1, ' and further also.' " 

aa ] ]e- "VVakef., Kend. 

" "wishing;" d-tlan>. Sharpe, Wakefield ("that wisheth"), 
Kend., Thelwall, M., Sawyer, Murdock (Syr., jjs^). The Vulg., 
Mont., Castal., " volens." Eras., Beza, Goschen, and Schott use 
" volo " in some of its inflections. Belg., " willende ; " De Wette, 
" will ; " G. and S, Fr., " voulant ; " Diodati and Ital., " volendo." 
The E. V. has not given " intend " as the rendering of this verb 
in any other instance. See ch. 13 : 31, note. Bretsch. (D-Mco) : 
" Volo ex appetitu, desidero, propensione animi, desidero, cupio, 
vpto, ick wunsche." 

" " doth not first sit down ; " ov%i KQIOTOV xa&iaae. Thorn., 
Penn, Dick., Kend., M., Sawyer. This order of the text is 
appropriate in English. 

d " he hath ; " l^. Thorn., Wesley, Scarlett, Dick., M., Saw- 
yer. The indicative mode should be used here, in conformity 
with the text. See ch. 4 : 3, note. 

"enough;" ra. Sharpe, Norton, Kendrick. De Wette, 
" genng." 

1 " to complete ; " ngos cma^tiofiov. Angus, Dick., Camp. 
This verb is employed to make a distinction corresponding with 




29 Lest haply after he hath 
laid the foundation, and is not 
able to finish it, all that behold it 
begin to mock him, 

30 Saying, This man began to 
build, and was not able to finish. 

31 Or what king going to make 
war against another king, sitteth 
not down first, and consulteth 
whether he be able with ten thou- 
sand to meet him that cometh 
against him with twenty thou- 
sand ? 

32 Or else, while the other is 
yet a great way off, he sendeth 
an ambassage, and desireth con- 
ditions of peace. 

33 So likewise, whosoever he 
be of you that forsaketh not all 
that he hath, he cannot be my dis- 

34 Salt is good : but if the salt 
have lost his savour, wherewith 
shall it be seasoned? 


29 f' / /i/ > - 


\LOV, Kai fj.rj lo")(yovTOs e/creAe- 
crat, iravres ol Becapovvrey a.p^ 

' 't~ ' " 30 

TO.L f/jarai(fiv avrca, 
OTL oSroy 6 avdpamos 

Ka OVK La~)(vcrev e/c- 
reAe'crar 31 'Jf TIS 
iropevop.vos ( 
/SacnAet els iroX.ep.ov ov^l Kadi- 
eras' irpSiTOv fiovXeverai el Svva- 
TOS GQ-TIV eV SeKa -)(iXid(riv airav- 
Trjaai. T<3 /zera e'lKOcri. ^iXidScav 

3 f 3 ' * ' . 32 > t^ 

r avrov J i oe 

eri avTov "jroppco OVTOS, 
7T/><r|8exi> airoarTeiXas epa>Ta TO, 

33 OVTG>S ovv -jras 

os OVK ewroracrcreTai 
Traari TOLS eavTov VTrdp^pvcriv, 
ov Svvarai /JLOV etvai fjia0r/Trjf. 
KaXov TO aXas' eav Se TO 
aXas [Ji&pavdfj } ev rivi dpTvdrjcre- 


it ? r Lest perhaps, after he 29 
hath. laid h a foundation, and is 
not able to finish it, all who be- 
hold it should begin 'to deride 
him, saying, This man began to 3ft 
build, and was not able to fin- 
ish. Or what king, going ] to 35 
encounter another king in war, 
k doth not sit down first, and 
'consult whether he "is able 
with ten thousand to meet him 
who cometh against him with 
twenty thousand ? "But if not, 32 
while the other is yet "far off, 
he sendeth an pembassy, and 
desireth conditions of peace. 
So therefore r no one of you 33 
who forsaketh not all his "pos- 
sessions, can be my disciple. 
Salt is good : but if the salt 34 
becometh tasteless, "how "shall 
its saltness be restored? It is 35 

the text between TC^OS oma^riafiov, in this verse, and 

in v. 30. So the Iber. has here, " para completar," and in v. 30, 

" acabar." As an alternative rendering, " for a completion." 

f " Lest perhaps ; " tva /ignore. Dick., Rob. (Lex., 
" Haply " is obsolete, and is often confounded with "happily " by 
common readers. 

* " a foundation ; " &e(iil.inv. As this noun is anarthrous, the 
definite article of the E. V. is omitted. 

1 " to deride ; " ifinai&iv. Scarlett, Dick., Eend., M., Murd. 
In more modern phraseology, we might say " to ridicule," which 
would express the force of the verb in this instance. " To mock " 
seems often to involve the idea of injurious treatment along with 
derision, as the context shows in several cases where cftnai^ca 
occurs in the N. Test. 

1 " to encounter another king in war ; " avft^aicTv fia 
els 7t6fa/iov. Thorn. (" in battle "), Dick., M., Kob. (Lex., 
Pallto). So this verb Acts 17 : 18, avvipalov avrcp (E. V.), 
" encountered him." I suggest " battle," insteed of " war." 
Kuinoel : " Est autem nobe/tos, h. I. id quod pa-M, praslium." 

k " doth not sit down first ; " oigl xa&iaccs it^cSrov. The 
order of the text is preserved here. It is different from that of 
v. 28. See note on that verse. 

i " consult ; " flovleueta.1,. As this verb is connected with 
" doth sit " by " and," " consult " is proper. 

m " is ; " sarir. See ch. 4 : 34, note. 

" But if not ; " el Se ftr/ye. See ch. 10 : 6, note. 

" far off ; " nogdco. Eob. (Lex., in verbo], Wakef., Thelwall, 
M. S. Pr., " loin ; " Iber., " legos ; " Belg., " verre ; " De "Wette, 
" feme ; " Diodati and Ital., " lontano ; " Dan., " langt borte." 

T " embassy ; " itqeapulav. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Scarlett, 
Norton, "Wakef., Camp., Angus, Kend., Sawyer, M. "Ambas- 
sage " is obsolete. 

1 " therefore ; " ovv. Sharpe, Penn, Dick., Sawyer, Thelwall, 
M. Eob. (Lex., in verbo) : " Denoting the consequence of one 
clause upon another, as an effect from a cause, tksrefm-e, then, 

* " no one ; " nSs ovv. Kend., Norton. Our idiom demands 
that the negative should be joined to n&s, in translation. If " he " 
is expressed before the equivalent of Svvarai, then the equivalent 
of nas is a nominative without a verb. This mistake occurs in 
the E. T ., and in some later translations, where nas is rendered 
"every one." If we drop "he," and render "every one can 
not," the language implies, that still " some one " can. 

* " possessions ; " vna^ovoiv. See ch. 8 : 3, note. 

t " becometh tasteless ; " (taiqavd-fj. Angus, M. Kend., Scar- 
lett, and Campbell ("became insipid"), Sharpe ("have lost its 
taste"). Eob. (Lex., in verbo): "To become insipid, tasteless." 
See ch. 4 : 3, note. 

" " how ; " ti> rivi. Dick. Alternative, " with what ? " 
T " shall its saltness be restored?" a^TuS^asrai ; The follow- 
ing note from the Rev. of Mark (9 : 50), where this verb occurs, 
is in point: " Season, though literal, does not give, the thought, 



35 It is neither fit for the land, 
not yet for the dunghill ; but men 
cast it out. He that hath ears to 
hear, let him hear. 

CHAP. xv. 

THEN drew near unto him all 
the publicans and sinners for to 
hear him. 

2 And the Pharisees and scribes 
murmured, saying, This man re- 
ceiveth sinners, and eateth with 

3 And he spake this parable 
unto them, saying, 

4 What man of you having an 
hundred sheep, if he lose one of 
them, doth not leave the ninety 
and nine in the -wilderness, and 
go after that which is lost, until 
he find it? 

5 And when he hath found it, 
he layeth it on his shoulders, re- 

6 And when he cometh home, 
he calleth together his friends and 
neighbours, saying unto them, Re- 
joice with me ; for I have found 
my sheep which was lost. 



ety 717^, oure et? 
KOTrpiav tvOerov earTLv eo> /3A- 
Xovaiv OLVTO. '0 e'cov U.TOL OLKOV- 




ol Te\)va.L KCU ol a/j.ap- 
TcoXol, aKoveiv CLVTOV. ital Sie- 
yoyyvfyv ol ^apKTaiot, KCU ol 
ypap.fJLO.Tets, Aeyoi/rey, OTL ov- 
TOS OLLLccpTtaXovs 7r^ocrSej(ra, 
KCU. o-vvecr0lei avTols- 3 Ehre 8e 
Trpos avTovs TTJV TrapafioXtjv TO.V- 
TTJV, Xe-ycojf, ^ Tis oivOparrros e 


cmoXeo-as ev e O.VT>V, ov KOLTOL- 
Aewret TO. vvevrjKOVTa.vvla eV Trj 
eprjfj.cS) KCU Tropevercu em TO OLTTO- 

\ ^ \ tr ef > f 5 \ 

AcoAoy, eco? tvpr) avTO ; KLU 
evpav eiriri6r]<Tiv eirl TOVS wfJLOvs 
eavTov -^aipatV) G /cat eXdcav eiy 
KCU TOVS y^LTOvas, Xeyav 

[tot, OTL evpov TO 



fit neither for the land, nor yet 
for "the manure-heap ; they cast 
it out. He who hath ears to 
hear, let him hear. 


"Ann all the 'tax-gatherers l 
and 'the sinners 'were drawing 
near to him, 'to hear him. And 2 
the Pharisees and f the scribes 
murmured, saying, This s man 
receiveth sinners, and eateth 
with them. And he spoke this 3 
parable to them, saying, What * 
man of you, having a hundred 
sheep, h and losing one of them, 
doth not leave the 'ninety-nine 
in the J desert, and go after that 
which is lost, until l he findeth 
it? And when he hath found 5 
it, he layeth it on 'his own 
shoulders, rejoicing. And when 6 
he cometh home, he calleth to- 
gether m his friends and neigh- 
bors, saying, Rejoice with me ; 
for I have found my sheep 

which is that of restoring the quality (saltness) which had been 

* " the mannre-heap ; " xoxgtav. This euphemism is no depar- 
ture from the thought presented in the text ; the word (xoitqia) 
being used generically for all articles employed to fertilize land, 
like the Latin stercus and fimus. See ch. 13 : 8, note. 

11 "And ;" Se. Kend., Penn, Norton, Angus, Sawyer, Murd., 
Wiclif, Eheims. 

b " tax-gatherers." See ch. 3 : 12, note. Sharpe, Scarlett, 
Norton, "Wakef. 

c " the ; " ol. The article should be expressed here, as it is 
before " tax-gatherers." The two classes are specified by it. 

d " were drawing near ; " iyyit,qvreg. The progressive form 
of the verb has been adopted by Thorn., Norton, Wakef., Angus, 
Thelwall, and M. As " to draw near," or " nigh," occurs so fre- 
quently in the E. V. in the sense of our modern term " approach," 
it is preferred to " come." The nominative is.placed before the 
verb, as being the simplest and most usual arrangement in de- 
clarative sentences. So Norton and Penn. 

" for," which occurs in the B. V., is dropped by all later Eng. 
translators. It is now nngrammatical. 

' " the ; " ol. The article is retained before " scribes" for the 
reason stated in note c. 

s " man." As this word has no expressed equivalent in the 
text, it is italicized. So Wakef. 

h "and losing;" wtoUoas. Sharpe, Wesley, Scarlett, Sawyer, 
Angus, Thelwall, M. Belgic, " ende verliezende ; " Iberian, " i 
habiendo perdido." 

' " ninety-nine ; " Iwcvrixoirtaewea. See v. 7, note p. 

J " desert ; " fyqfttp. See eh. 3 : 2, note. Scarlett, Sharpe, 
Dick., Camp., M. 

k " he findeth ;" <%>?. Sawyer ("finds"). So N. Webster 
(Bible with Amendments). See ch. 4 : 3, note. 

i " his own shoulders ; " TOVS alftovs eavrov. Thelwall, Angus, 
M. Vulg., JMontanus, Beza, Eras., " humeros suos ; " Goschen, 
Schott, " humeris suis." 

m " his ; " rovs. This being one of the cases where the article 
is used with the force of the possessive (see ch. 5 : 3, note), it is 
not italicized. 




7 I say unto you, that likewise 
joy shall be in heaven over one 
sinner that repenteth, more than 
over ninety and nine just persons 
which need no repentance. 

8 Either what woman having 
ten pieces of silver, if she lose 
one piece, doth -not light a candle, 
and sweep the house, and seek 
diligently till she find it? 

9 And when she hath found it, 
she calleth Iier friends and her 
neighbours together, saying, Re- 
joice with me ; for I have found 
the piece which I had lost. 

10 Likewise, I say unto you, 
There is joy in the presence of 
the angels of God over one sinner 
that repenteth. 

11 And he said, A certain man 
had two sons : 

12 And the younger of them 
said to his father, Father, give me 
the portion of goods that falleth 
to me. And he divided unto them 
his living. 

13 And not many days after, 
the younger son gathered all to- 
gether, and took his journey into 
a far country, and there wasted 


OTI ovrco 
ev TO> ovpavw eVi v\ 


fvvea SiKaiois, ot rives ov 
eypvcri /uera^o/as 1 . 8 '\ff rty yvvTj 
e^ova-a 5e/ca, eav diro- 

10 -P 


Ka <rapo rr/v otKiav, 
KOU {rjTei ewip-eXStf, IW OTOV 
evpy; 9 Kal fvpovcra cryy/caAet- 
TO.L roc? (j&tAay KOU ray yetrovcK^ 
Xeyovcra, SvyxdpTjre /ULOI, OTI 
evpov rt]v SpayjAyv rjv aTrcoAecra. 

\ ' r ~ \ / 

Aeyw vp.iv, x a P a ywe.Ta.i 
T>V ayyeXav row Oeov 
6ft< /xerai/oouvTi. 
11 JE'nre 8e, ' Av6pa>7ros TLS 

ft ' - ' > 12 - \ 9 < 

duo VLOvy /cat etTrev o 

O-VTOiV T< TTdTpl, JTa- 

, 80$ (jLOt, TO liri^aXXov p.fpo$ 
ovcrias. KOU 8if.lX.ev O.VTOIS 

TOV /3tW. 13 /Cat fJLfT OV TToXXa? 

<Tvva.yayaiv a-rravTO. o 
vecorepoy vios a.ir8rj[J!.r)o-v ety 
v fj.a.Kpai>, /cat e/cet 8ieo~Kop- \ 


wliich was lost. I say to j'ou, 7 
that "thus there "will be joy in 
heaven over one sinner who 
repenteth, more than over 
''ninety-nine 'righteous ^persons 
who need no repentance. 'Or, 8 
what woman, having ten pieces 
of silver, if she 'loseth one 
piece, doth not light a lamp, 
and sweep the house, and seek 
"carefully till Y she findeth it? 
And having found it, she call- 9 
eth together -her friends and 
neighbors, saying, Rejoice with 
me, for I have found the piece 
wliich I had lost. "Thus, I say 10 
to you, There is joy in the pres- 
ence of the angels of God over 
one ^sinner who repenteth. 
And he said, A certain man ll 
had two sons ; and the younger 12 
of them said to his father, Fa- 
ther, give me the portion *of 
property which falleth to me. 
And he divided z his living "be- 
tween them. And not many 13 
days after, the younger son 
athered all together, and 
went abroad into c a distant 
country, and there wasted his 

" " thus ; " ovrta. Sharpe, Wesley, Thorn., Norton, Gamp., 
Kend., Gray (in Angus), Thelwall, M. 

"will be;" carat. Kend., Penn, Scarlett, Thorn., Dick., 
Sharpe, M. 

* " and" (B. V). There is nothing in the text corresponding 
to "and." It is omitted by Thorn., Scarlett, Norton, Dick., 
Camp., Sawyer, M., Kend. 

' " righteous ; " Stxaiotg. See ch. 14 : 14, note. So Thorn., 

Scarlett, Norton, Wakef., Dick., Campbell, Sawyer, Gray (in 

Angus). Compare ch. 5 : 32, xaMaat Sacaiovs, aUa a/ea^Tta- 

. Aois sis fisravotav (E. V.), " to call tfie righteous, but sinners to 


r "persons." As the equivalent of this word is not in the text, 
it is italicized. So Wakef. 

" Or ; " "H. Thorn., Sharpe, Wesley, Penn, Norton, Camp., 
Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M. 

" loseth ; " anoUarj. See v. 4, note k. 
11 " carefully ; " imfieKias. Sharpe, Norton, Dick., Campbell, 
Sawyer, Angus, Keud, M., Thelwall, Bob. (Lex., in verlo). 
T " she findeth ; " etgovoa. See v. 4, note k. 
w " Thus ; " ovrco. See v. 7, note n. 

1 " sinner who repenteth ; " a/ea^reo?.rS petnvoovvri. Alter- 
native rendering, " repenting sinner." So Sharpe, Scarlett. 

* " of property ; " rijs ovalas. The article should not be 
disregarded. It is retained in' Belg., De Wette, G. Fr., Dan., 
Camp., Dick., Scarlett, Sharpe, Thorn., Sawyer, Tyndale, Cran., 
Genevan, Thelwall. " Property " is the rendering of Norton, 
Wakef., Kend., M. Robinson (Lex., in verbo) : "In N. T., and 
usually, what is to any one, what he has, i. e., substance, properly." 
Liddell, " one's property." 

* " his living ; " rov jiiov. Scarlett, Dick. This is the more 
familiar and natural arrangement in English. It is that of Thorn., 
Sharpe, Norton, Wakef. 

a " between them ; " avrozs. Thorn., Scarlett, Wakef., Dick., 
Angus, M. Our idiom demands " between " after " divided." 
We say " allotted," " apportioned," or " distributed to," but not 
" divided to." Angus remarks : " ' Divided, and gave them ' is 
the full idea." 

b "went abroad;" ansSij/ajafv. M., Sawyer. Liddell (in 
verbo}: "To go abroad." So the adjective aitodijftos (anb and 
Srjfiog) signifies away from one's own people, or country, from 
hence, abroad. Liddell. Bretsch., "peregere, prqficiscor." 

' " a distant country ; " %i6f>m> (taxgav. Thorn.,. Penn; -Scar- 




his substance with riotous liv- 

14 And when he had spent all, 
there arose a mighty famine in 
tbat land ; and he began to be in 

15 And he went and joined 
himself to a citizen of that coun- 
try ; and he sent him into his 
fields to feed swine. 

16 And he would fain have 
filled his belly with the husks 


TTtcre rrjv ovcriav ayrov, coi> dcrco- 
Tcof. 14 8(nravrj(ravros Sf avrov 
TTO.VTO., eyevero At/uoy iayypos 
Kara ryv ^copav Kivr)i> } /cat av- 


vcrrepi(rda.i. 15 /cat 

evl rcav TTO 

TTJS ^capas eKetvr/s' /cat 
i> avrov els rovs aypovs 
avrov fiocrKeiv xpipovs. ls /cat 
eiredv/jLei ytp-icrai rr/v KoiXiav 
avrov OLTTO rav /cepartW a>v 


^property e by dissolute living. 
And when he had spent all, it 
there 'rose a mighty famine 
e throughout that h country, and 
he began to be in want. And 15 
he went and joined himself to 
a citizen of that country, and he 
sent him into his fields to feed 
swine. And he 'longed to fill 16 
his 'stomach with the k pods 

lett, Gamp., Sawyer, Kend., M. Vulg., Mont., Erasmus, Beza, 
Castalio, " regionem longiuquam ; " G. Fr., " un pays eloigne ; " 
Iber., " un pais lejano ; " Diodati, " paese lontano ; " Bretsch. 
(fiaxoos), " longe remotus, dissitus." , 

<i "property;" ovaiav. See v. 12, note y. 

" by dissolute living ; " <Sv aoiatcos. Norton. " Riotous," 
in the sense required by the text, is obsolete. Bloomfield has 
this note on aocoicos " i. e., rffOTtip aoiorov. Meaning, one who 
can, not lie saved, a prodigal, a dissolute person, one of whom 
Alexis in Athenseus says, ' the goddess of salvation herself could 
not save.' " Bretsch. (in verbo, eodem), " dissolute, hixuriose." 
The term is explained by the language of v. 30 (E. V.), " which 
hath devoured thy living with harlots." So 2 Maocab. 6 : 4 
(where the noun aocoria occurs), To [&v ya^ Isoov aaorlas 
xcofiiav in).fii>caTo vnb rcav e9"j'cav ycfd'v/iovv' fied* haiocov, xccl 
Iv roTs Isools rteoifiolois yvvail nfajata^ovrcav. De Wette, 
" er tippig lebte ; " S. Fr., " en vivarit avec dissolution ; " Dio- 
dati, " viviendo dissolutamente." Kuincal (in loco) : " Hocorcas 
proprie est id. qd. fiatoros qui servari nequit hinc sensu latiori 
aacoros adhibetur de-eo qui turpiter vivit, et aootla. est vita ad 
omnem turpitudinem projecta, ut Eph. 5 : 18. Tit. 1 : 6. Lex. 
Cyrilli Brera. aacoria, moyveia. Deylingius Obss. Sacr., P. 3, 
341, et Kypius ad h. 1. posteriori sensu in hac verborum com- 
plexione capiendnm est, nam infra v. 30, legitur 6 xarayaycov 
aov rov piov fisra motwcov." As an alternative rendering, the 
literal one, " living dissolutely." 

t "rose." This word is preferred to "arose," as being now 
in general use. Both are found in various parts of the E. V. 
See ch 8 : 54, note. 

g " throughout that country ; " xara TTJV %co$ar. Wakefield. 
Rob. (Lex., T cum accus.) : "Of place, or of motion or exten- 
sion, out over, through, throughout a place." So Luke 8 : 39, y.a.& 
olrp< irri' itohv (E. V.), "throughout the whole city;" 8:1, 
y-ftra. no'uv (B. V.), " throughout every city." So 23 : 5. Acts 
24 : 5, xara -njv olxovfttvrjv (E. V.), "throughout the world." 
Mont, and Schott, " per regionem illam." 

h A comma is placed after "country," in conformity with the 


' " longed ; " ixs&vfcec. Penn, M., Norton, Murdock. Rob. 
(Lex., in verbo} : " To long for." Lidd., " to long after." " Fain" 
is obsolete. The simple verb " desire " is not sufficiently strong, 
to bring out the meaning, which is that of " desiring earnestly." 
Heb. N. Test., wwrn. So 2 Sam. 23 : 15, 15-1 njKnx Sept., 
lned"vfi.rjae 4nv\$ . r. L (E. V.), " David longed, and said, Oh 
that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Beth- 
lehem." Ps. 119 : 40 (Sept. 118), 'I8ov, eTtsd-vftrjOK ras fvra- 
Aas aov (E. V.), " BehoJd, I Lave longed after thy command- 
ments." Gen. 31 : 30, sjtt&v/tla yao iited-vftijaas aitel&av els 
rov olxov rov maToos aov (E. V.), " because thou sore longedst 
after thy father's house." The preposition eni is often intensive. 
As entno&eto is translated by " long," Rom. 1 : 11. 2 Cor. 9 : 14. 
Phil. 1 : 8 ; 2 : 26, 1 submit " eagerly desired," as an alternative 

] " stomach ; " xodlav. Sawyer. The following note on this 
word is copied from the Revis. of Mark (7 : 19) : " The stomach ; 
tr t v xotilav. Dick., A. Camp., ' his stomach.' Rob. (xotiia) : 
' Often as in English, for the stomach, either in men, or animals. 
Mark 7 : 19. Luke 15 : 16, yepioat tfjv xodiav avrov.' Liter- 
ally, the word signifies ' a hollow ' of any kind, ' a cavity,' cavum. 
Bretsch., ' venter quum superior turn inferior.' As an anatomical 
term, it is applied to any ventricle, or chamber, as xodia eyxeyd- 
).ov, x(>Sias, etc. Liddell. So the Latin venter is the cavity 
containing the stomach and intestines. Leverett (Lat. Diet.)." 

k " pods ; " xeoaricov. Eendrick, Norton. Murdock (Syriac, 
)^)o-fl). G. and S. Fr., " gousses ; " Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, 
Castal., Goschen, Schott, " siliquis." This word is applied to the 
fruit of the carob-tree. Leverett (Lat. Diet.). So Horace, 
Ep. II., 1, 123 "Vivit siliquis et pane secundo." Gesner has 
this note on the passage : " Immaturis leguminum siliquis aquae 
incoctis vescebantur." Anthon (Horace, note in loco) : " By sili- 
quis are here meant the pods of the carob-tree, which in times of 
scarcity supplied the poor with food." Rob. (Lex., in xegdrtov) : 
"In N. Test, a pod, carob-pod, Luke 15 : 16, i.e., the fruit -of the 
carob-tree, the ceratonia siliqua of Linnosus. These pods are 
sometimes eight or ten inches long, and a finger broad. They are 
eaten with relish by the poorer classes in the East; and swine, are 
often fed with them." 




that the swine did eat ; and no 
man gave unto him. 

17 And when he came to him- 
self, he said, How many hired 
servants of my father's have bread 
enough and to spare, and I perish 
with hunger ! 

18 I will arise and go to my 
father, and will say unto him, 
Father, I have sinned against 
heaven, and before thee, 

19 And am no more worthy to 
be called thy son : make me as 
one of thy hired servants. 

20 And he arose, and came to 
his father. But when he was yet 
a great way off, his father saw 
lumTTtntt'ihad compassion, and ran, 
and fell on his neck, and kissed 

21 And the son said unto him, 
Father, I have sinned against 
heaven, and in thy sight, and am 
no more worthy to be called thy 

22 But the father said to his 
servants, Bring forth the best 
robe, and put it on him ; and put 
a ring on his hand, and shoes on 
his feet ; 


ol yotpor /cat ov8eis e8t- 
dov ai>T<. 1T Elf eavrov Se 
eX0a)v elire, TTocrot TOV 
JJ.OV Trepi<rcrevov<nv ap- 
, eyeb Se XIJJL<J> oaroXXvfjLai ; 

18 avacrras jropevo-o/ -rrpof TOV 
iraTepa fj.ov, Kal epco aura, Ud- 

Tep, rj/J-apTOV elf TOV OVpCWOV 
\ > / / 1Q\ > ' 

/cat evoomov crov /cat oy/cert 
el/j.1 a^LOf KXrjdrjvai vlof croir 

7TOLTf](TOV p.e CO? eVO. TCOV fUCrdlCOV 

CJ-QV. 20 /cat avaoTas fjX6e Trpof 
TOV eavTOV. ' ETL Se av- 
TOV fj.aKpav mriyovTos, eldev av- 
TOV o TraTrjp avTOv, /cat e&vrXa'yxvi- 
o-drj, /cat eVeVecrei' em 
TOV TpayijXov O.VTOV, /cat /care^t- 

\ t r 01 -y ^\ 

Xrj&ev avTov. eiire be avTa> 

6 VLQSy IZaTep, TjfjLapTOv els TOV 

ovpavov Kal evcamov trou, /cat 
OVKCTI elfu a^tof K\rj&fjvai vios 
crov. 22 Mitre. 8e o TraTrjp irpo? 
TOVS SovXovs avTov, 'E^eveyKaTe 
Tr]v (rro\r}v Trjv TrpQTrjv, /cat ev- 
Sv<ra.Te avTov, /cat SOTC SO.KTV- 
Xiov els TTJV x e V a avTov, /cat 
elf Tovf TroSay 23 /cat 


which the swine 'ate ; "and yet 
no one gave "any thing to him. 
And when he came to himself, 17 
he said, How many hired ser- 
vants of my father have bread 
and to spare, but I am perish- 
ing with hunger ! I will mse 18 
and go to my father, and will 
say to him, Father, I have 
sinned against heaven, and be- 
fore thee, and am 'no longer 19 
worthy to be called thy son ; 
make me as one of thy hired 
servants. And he 'rose, and 20 
"went to his father. But 'while 
he was yet a great way off, his 
father saw him, and had com- 
passion "on him, and ran and 
fell on his neck, and kissed 
him. And the son said to him, 2J 
Father, I have sinned against 
heaven, and T before thee, and 
am '"no longer worthy to be 
called thy son. But the father 22 
said to the servants, Bring 
forth the best robe, and put it 
on him ; and put a ring on his 
hand, and shoes on his feet ; 

i "ate;" rjoSiov. "Did" is superfluous with this verb, as 
there is nothing emphatic. It is dropped by Sharpe, "Wesley, 
Norton, Sawyer, Eend., M. As an alternative rendering 1 , " were 
eating." So Thorn., Sharpe, Walcef., Camp., Thelwall. 

m " and yet ; " Kal. So B. V., John 9 : 30. Luke 8 : 13, note. 
Kal has this force in Matt 6:26; 10 : 29 ; 12 : 5. John 1 : 10 ; 
6 : 70 ; 17 : 25. Stuart (Gram.), 125, 4, 2, Bern., p. 285. 

" any thing." There is an ellipsis of rt here. The sentence 
is obviously imperfect in English, without a supplement. The 
object of the verb, " gave," is expressed according to our usus 

"I am perishing;" aTtMvftac. See oh.. 12 : 30, note. So 
Thorn., Wesley, Peon, Scarlett, Norton, Wakef., Dick.,.M. 

P "rise." See v. 14, note. So Scarlett. Thelwall ("rise 

" no longer ; " ovxcrt. Scarlett, Norton, Wakef., Camp., 
Sawyer, Kend. So (E. V.) Gal. 3 : 25. Bob. (Lex.)., Liddel, 
Grove's Lex. 

r " rose." Thelwall. See v. 18, note. 

1 " went ; " %&d-e.. M., Gray (in Angus), Thorn., Pean, Dick., 

" while he was yet far off;" Sn Ss airov /taxpav cme%ov- 
ros. " While" signifies " during the time that." Webster (Diet). 
Sharpe, Scarlett, Norton, Thelwall, Wakefield, Dick., Sawyer, 

while." " Far off" {/laxficf) is the rendering of Thelwall and 
Sawyer. Bob. (Lex.). So (E. Y.) Eph. 2 : 13. 

"on him." Tyndale (1st Edition), Wakef., Sawyer, Penn. 
This supplement is properly inserted Lube 10 : 33, where the text 
is the same (l<mA.ayxvio&T/) E. V., " had compassion on him." 
So Matt. 20 : 34, Znlayxvtad-els Ss o 'Irjaovs (E. Y.), " So Jesus 
had compassion cm them." The sentence is harsh and imperfect 
without a supplement, as it does not accord with, our idiom. If 
no supplement is used, the verb should be rendered " was moved 
with compassion," as in (E. Y.) Matt. 18 : 27. Mark 1 : 41. 

' " before ; " ivtamov. So (E. Y.), v. 18. 
w " no longer ;" ovxen. So v. 19. See note. 




23 And bring hither the fatted 
calf, and kill it; and let us eat, 
and be merry: 

24 For this my son was dead, 
and is alive again ; he was lost, 
and is found. And they began to 
be merry. 

26 Now his elder son was in 
the field : and as he came and 
drew nigh to the house, he heard 
music and dancing. 

26 And he called one of the 
servants and asked what these 
things meant. 

27 And he said unto him, Thy 
brother is come ; and thy father 
hath killed the fatted calf, be- 
cause he hath received him safe 
and sound. 

28 And he was angry, and 
would not go in ; therefore came 
his father out, and entreated him. 

29 And he answering said to 
his father, Lo, these many years 
do I serve thee, neither trans- 
gressed I at any time thy com- 
mandment ; and yet thou never 
gavest me a kid, that I might 
make merry with my friends : 

30 But as soon as this thy son 
was come, which hath devoured 
thy living with harlots, thou hast 
killed for him the fatted calf. 

31 And he said unto him, Son, 
thou art ever with me ; and all 
that I have is thine. 


eWy/cavrey TOV fJLocr^ov TOV cn- 
TSVTOV dvcraTe, /cat (payovTes ev- 

24 f ? tit 


ye/cpoy TJV, /cat dvefacre' /cat 
a7ToAft)Acoy 97 v, /cat evpeOq. Kai 

fie 6 utoy avTOv 6 TrpecrfivTepos 
ev dypco' /cat coy e/j^o/iewy 17774- 
cre riy ot/cta, rjKovcre 



/cat 7r/>ooYcaAe<ra- 
fj.evos era Ttav Tratficof avrov, 
Trvv0aveTO rl eiij raura. 2T 6 fie 
avTcS, ' OTI 6 dfieA0oy crov 
KCU e'Ovcrev o 



' ' * ' '\ r> 28 > x- 

aivovTa O.VTOV cnreXapev. j 2p- 
yicrdrj fie, /cat OVK rjdfXev etcreA- 
delv. 6 ofiv TraT-rjp avTOv eeX- 
dcav Trape/caAet O.VTOV. 29 6 Se 

s ITT TO) TTCtTpi, 'ISoV, 

Tocravra errj SovXeuco crot, KCU ou- 

SeVore evToXyv crov TrapfjXdov, /cat 

/jLol ovSeiroTe eSco/cay tpxpov, 'iva 

j.eTa TCOV (j)iXcav pov ev<hpav6>. 

30 " > ' ? 

ore oe o utoy <rov OVTOS o /cara- 
(paycov crov TOV fiiov /iera TTO/J- 
vOov rjXdfv, edvcras avTco TOV 
TOV oTreuroV. 31 6 fie 
avTtS, TEKVOV, crv Travrore 

p.T fJ.OV ft, KCU TTcivTCt TO. fJ.CC 


and bring 1 the fatted calf, and 23 
kill it; and let us eat and be 
merry ; for this my son was 24 
dead and is alive again ; he was 
lost, and is found. And they 
began to be merry. Now his 25 
elder son was in the field. And 
as he came and r drew near' 
the house, he heard music and 
dancing. And lie called one 26 
of the servants, and asked him 
what these things meant. And 27 
he said to him, Thy brother is 
come ; and thy father hath kill- 
ed the fatted calf, because he 
hath received him safe and 
sound. And he was angry, and 28 
would not go in ; therefore his 
father a went out, and entreated 
him. And he, answering, said 29 
to his father, b Behold, c so many 
years do I serve thee, and 
d never transgressed thy com- 
mandment ; and yet thou never 
gavest me a kid, that "I might 
be merry with my friends ; but so 
when this thy son came, who 
hath devoured thy living with 
harlots, thou hast killed B the 
fatted calf for him. And he 31 
said to him, h Child, thou art 
ever with me, and all which I 

1 " hither," which occurs in the E. V., is not warranted by the 
text. In (E. V.) Matt. 17 : 17, " bring hither " is the equivalent 
of rfyeze caSe. So code occurs Matt. 14 : 18. "Hither" is 
dropped by Norton, "Wakef., Camp., Sawyer, Kend., Thelwall. 
Nothing corresponding to it in Belg., De "Wette, S. Fr., Iber., 

* " drew near ; " yyytoe. Thorn., Penn. " Near " is prefera- 
ble for the sake of euphony. 

1 ," to," in the E. V., is superfluous according to present usage. 
It is dropped by Norton, Wakef.> Camp., Kend. 

* " went out ; " ^eid-cav. Thorn., Norton, Penn, &L, Murd. 
Vulg., Mont, Eras., Beza, Castal., Goschen, Schott, " egressns ; " 
Belg., " ging ; " De "Wette, " ging ; " Iber., " salio." 

b " Behold ; " 'ISov. Thorn., Dick., Angus, Thelwall, M. See 
ch. 1 : 44, note. 

c " so many ; " Toaavra. Kend., Angus, Wesley, Penn, Nor- 
ton, "Wakef., Sawyer, Thelwall. 

d "never transgressed;" ovS&itors na^ffl.9ov. Kend. OiiSe- 
Ttore is rendered " never " by Camp., Sawyer, M., Norton. 

" I might be merry ; " svy^ar&eo. This word should be 
rendered as in v. 23. So M., Thorn. 

f " when ; " ore. Kend., Sawyer, Thelwall. Eob. (Lex.). 

e " the fatted calf." This change in the order of the sentence 
gives it a construction more familiar and natural, harmonizing 
with our conversational style. 

h " Child ; " Ttxvov. Sharpe. Eob. (Lex., in verbo) : "As a 
term of endearing address in the vocative, like English my child.'' 
See ch. 2 : 48, note. 




32 It was meet that we should 
make merry, and be glad : for 
this thy brother was dead, and is 
alive again ; and was lost, and is 


AND he said also unto his disci- 
ples, There was a certain rich 
man which had a steward ; and 
the same was accused unto him 
that he had wasted his goods. 

2 And he called him, and said 
unto him, How is it that I hear 
this of thee? give an account of 
thy stewardship : for thou mayest 
be no longer steward. 

3 Then the steward said with- 
in himself, What shall I do ? for 
my lord taketh away from me the 
stewardship : I cannot dig ; to 
beg I am ashamed. 




KCLL ' e'Set, on 6 aeA<j>oy 
(rev OVTOS veKpos Tjv, KCU av4- 
fycre' /cat aTToAcaAcoy rjv, /cat eu- 


' EAEFE 8e /cat jrpos TOVS 
fj,a0r)Tas O.VTOV, 'Avdpco-iros TIS 
f)v TrAoucrtoy, oy efyev olKOvofjiov 
Kai OVTOS SiefiXr/dr) avrw coy 8ia- 
crKopTritjov TO. VTrdpytivTa. avToVi, 
2 /cat (f)cavrjcras OVTOV eiTrev aurcp, 


5oy TOV Xo-yov rrjs oiKOvofJiias 
crov ov 'yap 8uvr)(rr) en QIKOVO- 
3 .EiTre 5e eV eavrw 6 OIKO- 
TL Troirjo-ca, OTI o Kvpios 
P.OV d<f)aipCTat Trjv olKovo^iav 
air fj.ov; (TKaiTTeiv OVK ia~)(y<a, 
aior)(yvop.a.i. 4 eyvoov TL 


have is thine. 'It was right Ho 32 
be merry and be glad ; for this 
thy brother was dead, and is 
alive again, k he was lost; and is 


AND he said also to his disci- 1 
pies, There was a certain rich 
man who had a steward ; and 
he was accused to him ^of 
wasting his "possessions. And 2 
he called him, and said to him, 
What is this, that I hear of 
thee? 'render f an account of 
thy stewardship; for thou s canst 
be ""steward no longer. And 3 
the steward said within him- 
self, What shall I do? for my 
lord 'taketh away the steward- 
ship from me ; I can not dig, to 
beg I am ; ashamed. ] I know 4 

1 " It was right ;" eSsi. M. Eob. (Lex., Set) : " Spoken of 
what is right in itself, or prescribed by law, custom, reason, it is 
riglit, or proper." " Meet " is obsolete. 

5 "to be merry and be glad;" EvyQavfrrjvai. %ai!>rjva.i. 
This literal rendering presents all that the text contains. Should 
it be deemed advisable to introduce the subjects, this phrase 
might be employed (for eSec evcpqav. H. r. L), " We ought to be 
merry and be glad." *ESei has :been paraphrased, " We ought," 
by Angus, and some later translators. Eras., " Loetari autem et 
gaudere." Beza, " Exhilerari vero et gaudere." Mont., " Ob- 
lectari autem et gaudere oportebat." Goschen, " Lsetari autem 
et oblectari decebat." 

k " he was lost ; " anoleoiais yv. Camp. So (E. Y.) in v. 24. 
Thorn. (" he was indeed lost"). 

" he ; " ovros. Kendrick, Wesley, Dick., Sawyer. See ch. 
9 : 24, note. In such constructions, " the same " is not in use, at 

b " of wasting ; " cos SiaLoxo^ni^oiv. Angus, Kend., Sharpe, 
Penn, Wakef., Camp., Sawyer, M. The more literal reading, " as 
wasting," is less proper, according to our usus loquendi. 

' " possessions ; " vna^ovra. M. See ch. 8 : 3, note. 

* " What is this ; " 27 TOVTO. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Scar- 
lett, Norton, Wakef., Dick., Camp., Kend., Angus, M., Sawyer, 
Murdock. Schott, " Quid hoc est ; " G. and S. Pr., De Sacy, 
" Qu' est-ce." This is an elliptical phrase for Tl icrct -rovro; 
Eob. (Lex., T). Compare Mark 1 : 27. 

" render ; " caioSos. Kend., Camp., Thelwall, Murdock, 
Sawyer. Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : "'AnoSiSovai ).6yov, to give 
account, to render an account for. Luke 16:2." Bretscli., 
" rationem reddere." So (E. V.) Matt. 22 : 41 ; 22 : 21. Luke 
20 : 25. Kom. 13 : 7, etc. 

f " an account ; " TOV ).6yot>. As an alternative rendering, 
"the account." So De Wette, "die Bechnung;" Iber., "la 
cuenta." To say the least, this is fully, as accurate, as " an 

s " canst be ; " Sw^ar;. Thorn., Sharpe, Wesley, Penn, Scar- 
lett, Sawyer, Angus, Kend., M., Thelwall. 

k " steward no longer ; " ert olxovofierv. So Camp. This 
arrangement is more natural than that of the E. V., as the auxili- 
ary is not separated from the principal verb. In point of enphon- 
ny, it is decidedly preferable. 

' " taketh' away ; " aycuq&rai. As an alternative, " is taking 
away." So Bloomflcld (N. Test.). Wakefield (" is taking from 
me"). M. 

' " I know ; " eyvtov. Wesley, Sharpe, Angus, M., Thelwall, 
Penn, Scarlett, and Sawyer. Murdock (Syr., &,!). So Tyn- 
dale, Cranmer, Geneva render this verb " I wot " (= " I know ") ; 
Bheims, " I know ; " Vulg., Mont., Eras., Castal., " scio ; " Beza, 
Goschen, Schott, " novi ; " Belg., " Ik weet ; " De Wette, " Ich 
weiss ; " G. and S. Fr., " je sais ; " Iber., " To se ; " Dan., " jeg 
veed." Heb. N. Test., six. This verb is not rendered by 
resolve, in any other instance in the E. Y. ; nor does " resolve " 
occur except here. 




4 I am resolved what to do, 
that when I am put out of the 
stewardship, they may receive me 
.into their houses. 

5 So he called every, one of his 
lord's debtors unto him, and said 
unto the first, How much owest 
thou unto my lord ? 

6 And he said, An hundred 
measures of oil. And he said 
unto him, Take thy bill, and sit 
down quickly, and write fifty. 

7 Then said he to another, And 
how much owest thou? And he 
said, An hundred measures of 
wheat. And he said unto him, 
Take thy bill, and write four- 

8 And the lord commended the 
unjust steward, because he had 
done wisely : for the children of 
this world are in their generation 
wiser than the children of light. 




rfjy oiK.ovofj.las, Se^covrai yue el? 



era e/cacrror' TV 

Xpe(X>(j)l\TciJl> TOV KVplOV eCLVTOV, 

eAeye TW TrpooTco, Uoo~ov 6(pel- 
Aet? T(S Kvpiw P.OV; 6 '0 Se el- 
irev, 'EK.O.TQV ftdrovs eAatou. 
Kai ebrev CLVTCO, Atj^ai crov TO 
ypdfj-fJLa, /cat Kadlcras 
ypd\jsov TrevrrjKOVTa. 7 

, Sv Be TTOCTOV o(pei- 
Aetp; '0 8e eiVev, 'EKO.TOV KO- 
povs CT'LTOV. Kcu Aeyet avra, 
<rov TO ypd/j.fJLa, /cat ypd- 


ias, OTL (j)povi/j.cos eTroir/crev 
OTI 01 v'io\ TOV alcavos TOVTOV 
<[)povifjt.oc>Tepoi virep TOVS viovs 
TOV <f)(0Tos ety TTJV yei/edi/ rrjv 


what l l will do, that when I am 
put out of the stewardship, 
they may receive me into their 
houses. And 'calling "each one 
of his 'lord's debtors to him, he 
said to the first. How much 
owst thou to my lord? And 
he said, A hundred measures of 
oil. And he said to him, Take 
thy bill, and sit down quickly, 
and write fifty. Then he said 
to another, And how much 
owest thou ? And he said, A 
hundred measures of wheat. 
And "he saith to him, Take thy 
bill, and write "eighty. And 
the lord 'praised the unjust 
steward, because r he had done 
'prudently; for 'the children 
of this world are a more prudent 
'with respect to "'their own gen- 
eration, than the children of 

' " I will do ; " notqaeo. Gray and Pechy (in Angus), Penn, 
Scarlett, Sawyer, Thelwall, M. Belg., " ik doen zal ; " S. Fr., 
"je ferai;" Iber., "hare." "Will" is here expressive of deter- 
mination, not simply a sign of future action. Gray (on Angus). 

i " calling to him ; " mgooxaAeaaftevos. See ch. 7 : 19, note. 
So Penn. 

m " each one ; " JW exaarov. Bloomf. (Annot.), Kendrick, 
Thelwall, Sawyer. Murdock (Syr., fl ^). Mont, " unumquem- 
que ; " Belg., " een iegelijk ; " De Wette, " einen jeglichen ; " 
Iber., " cada uno." 

n _^." When words commence with consonant sounds, " an " 
is improper. 

" he saith ; " Uym. Sharpe, Wesley, Wakef., Dick., Thel- 
wall. "Vulg., Mont., Erasmus, Castalio, " inquit ; " Goschen and 
Schott, " dicit." The B. V., following Tyndale, uses the imper- 
fect instead of the present tense. 

P " eighty ; " oySo^xovra. Thomson, Norton, Dick., Sawyer, 
Camp., Kend., Angus, M. " Four-score " is obsolete. 

"'praised;" ejirfveaer. Sharpe, Sawyer, Thelwall, Eheims. 
Bengel, " laudavit." Kob. (Lex., in verbo) : " To praise much, to 
applaud." Lidd. and Greenfield, " to praise ; " Bretsch., " laudo." 
This verb occurs six times in the E. V. It is rendered " praise," 
1 Cor. 11 : 2, 17, 22 (bis) ; in Bom. 15 : 11, "laud ;" and only 
in the present instance " commend." The noun enatvos occurs 
eleven times in the Greek text. In all these cases, the E. V. ren- 
ders it by the equivalent noun " praise." On the other hand 

(with the exception occurring' here), " commend " is the rendering 
of itttQa-c&iifu, Luke 23 : 46. Acts 14 : 23 ; 20 : 32 ; of na.qi- 
atri/u, 1 Cor. 8 : 8 ; of avvumivca, 2 Cor. 3:1; 5 : 12 ; 10 : 12 ; 
of aweardaj, Bom. 3 : 5 ; 5 : 8 ; 16 : 1. 2 Cor. 4:2; 10 : 18 
(bis) ; 12 : 11. 

r " he had done ; " eTtolrjaev. Alternative, " he had acted." 
So Scarlett, Pechy (on Angus). 

"prudently ;" ypoviftcos (axat; fay.). Sharpe, Penn, Kend., 
Scarlett, Camp., Thelwall, M., Angus, Wiclif, Robinson (Lex., in 
verbo). De Wette, " kluglich ; " G. and S. Fr., " prudemment ; " 
Iber., " prudentement ; " Kuincel, "prudenter." The Belg. has 
happily expressed the thought by " voorzichtelijk " (" with fore- 
sight"). So Norton, " with forethought." The following render- 
ing is suggested for consideration, " he had acted with forethought 
have more forethought than," etc. 

1 " the children ; " ol viol. As an alternative rendering here, 
and in the next member of the sentence, " sons." So Thelwall. 

" more prudent ; " ygovtftcoTe/joc. See note supra, on this 
verse. This arrangement of the sentence is most simple and 
perspicuous. So Sharpe, Wakef., Wesley, Scarlett, Pent). 

T " with respect to ; " sis. M., Angus. So Eobinson (Lex., 
yeped, in loco) : " In respect to their own generation, those with 
whom they live, and have to do." One of the significations of els 
Bob. (Lex.) is " as to, in respect to." (More correctly, " with 
respect to.") Greswell (quoted by Bloomf., N. Test.), " unto, or 
for their own generation." 

w " their own ; " iavrcSv. Thelwall, Angus, Eobinson (Lex., 




9 And I say unto you, Make to 
yourselves friends of the mammon 
of unrighteousness ; that when ye 
fail, they, may receive you into 
everlasting habitations. 

10 He that is faithful in that 
which is least, is faithful also in 
aauch ; and he that is unjust in the 
least, is unjust also in much. 

11 If therefore ye have not 
been faithful in the unrighteous 
mammon, who will commit to 
your trust the true riches ? 

12 And if ye have not been 
faithful in that which is another 
man's, who shall give you that 
which is your own ? 

13 No servant can serve two 
masters : for either he will hate 


eavrcov elcri. 9 Kayw Ae'- 
yo), UoLTfjcrare eauroty (jfr/Aouy e/c 
rov fj.afj.cava rijy a&/aay, a/a, 

orav e/cA/7r??re, Se^cavrat, u/tay eiy 
\ / / in < r\ 

ray cuamovy ovc^ray. U m- 

a-TOs eV eXa^lcrrca KOI eV TroAAaJ 

7TK7TOS i<TTl. KOtl O tV fAa^iCTTG) 

aStKO? Kai ev TToXXS dBiKO? ecmv. 
1 el oiiv ev TCO dSl/cca fj.aiJ.cava 
TTifTTol OVK eyevecrde, TO a\rj0i- 
vov T'LS v[ mcrrevcrei; 12 KOL 
eyevecrde, TO vfj-trepov r/y 
dcocret; ls OvSeis oi/ceV^y Bvva- 
rai Svcrl Kvpiois SovXevetv 77 


light. And I say to you, Malce 9 
'for yourselves friends y with 
"the unrighteous mammon ; that 
when ye fail, "they may receive 
you into b the everlasting habi- 
tations. He who is faithful 10 
c in the least, is faithful also in 
much, and he who is unjust in 
the least, is unjust also in much. 
If, thererefore, ye have not been 11 
faithful in the unrighteous mam- 
mon, d who 'will entrust 'to you 
the true riches ? And if ye have 12 
not been faithful in that which 
is ^anothers, who h will give 
you that which is your own ? 
No servant can serve two mas- is 
ters ; for he will 'either hate 

yereA, in loco}. S. Fr., " leur propre generation ; " Ital., " lor 
propria generazione." 

* "for yourselves;" lavrots (dativus commodi). Thomson, 
Penn. " For " accords with present usage, when the preposition 
is expressed. We often omit it, in this construction. Such 
omission here would be attended with some obscurity to common 

r " with ; " lv.. Thorn., Penn, Scarlett, Camp., M., Murdock. 
Iber., " con." One of the significations of IK is that of " the 
instrument or means, from, by, with which any thing is done." 
Hob. (Lex., in verbo et loco}. Compare Rev. 3 : 18 ; 17 : 2, 6 ; 
18 : 3, 19. 

* " the unrighteous mammon ; " rov ftaftcava -rfjs aStaias. 
This is a Hebraism for fiaptcova aSlaov, and should be rendered 
as in (B. V.) v. 11. Compare tbv olxovoftov rfjs aSutlas, v. 8, 
and o x^nrjs rjjs aSmias, ch. 18 : 6. So Cramner, Kend., M. 
De "Wette, " dem ungerechten Mammon ; " Iber., " las riquezas 
injustas ; " Belg., " onrechtvaardigen Mammon." 

* " they may receive you ; " Ssgcovrat -upas. As an alternative 
rendering, " ye may be received." So Thorn., Wakef., Dick., M. 
In this case, the verb is regarded as impersonal. In point of 
fact, as Kuinoel observes, " In sterna autem domicilia recipit 
non nisi Deus." Verbal exactness demands the rendering " they 
may receive you," while the thought designed to be conveyed is, 
" ye may be received." Kuinosl : " Pluralis legitur, quoniam 
prsecepit y&ovs ad quod referri debet, unde non necesse est, ut 
Segavrat cum aliis impersonaliter positum paternus, hoc sensu ut 
recipiamini." Yulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, Schott, Goschen, "reci- 
piant vos ; " Costal., " admittant vos ; " Belg., " zij u mogen ent- 
fangen;" De Wette, "sie euch aufuehmen;" S. Fr., "ils vous 
re50ivent ; " Iber., " os reciban ; " Ital., " vi ricevano." 

b " the everlasting habitations ; " rag altovlovs axiivds. Thorn., 
Sharpe, Wesley. The article is retained on the ground that exqvds 
is contrasted with rovs otxovs avrtSr, in v. 4. In other words, the 

steward expected that his lord's debtors would receive him in their 
houses. These houses were earthly, temporal. But the mansions 
into which those who obeyed the Saviour's command, would be re- 
ceived, were heavenly, eternal The distinction is brought out with 
more force by the article ias. The article is retained by Norton, 
"the eternal habitations ;" Sawyer and Bheims, "the eternal taber- 
nacles ;" Camp., " t je eternal mansions ;" Belg., " de eeuwige taber- 
nakelen *" Luther and De Wette, " die ewigen Hutten ; " G. Fr., 
" les tabernacles eternels ; " S. Fr., " 3es tentes eternels ; " Iber., 
" las habitationes eternas ; " Diodati, " ne' tabernacnli eterni ; " 
Dan., " de evige Boliger." G. Campbell remarks on this passage : 
" The article has been very improperly, in this passage, overlook- 
ed by our translators. It adds to the precision, and, consequently, 
to the perspicuity of the application." 

" " in the least ; " ev IAa//or^. So (B. V.) in the next mem- 
ber of the sentence. Wesley, Kend., Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva, 
Eheims. Vulg., Mont., Eras., Goschen, " in minimo ; " Castalio 
and Schott, " in re minima ; " Belg., " in't minste." Alternative 
rendering, " in a very little," as (B. V.) Luke 19 : 17 (ev slttii- 
arca). 1 Cor. 4:3. So Angus and M. 

A " who will entrust ; " tit TtioTevoet. Sharpe, Thorn., Wes- 
ley, Penn, Norton, Camp., M. 

" will entrust ; " rtwieiosi. Kend., Angus, Thom., Sharpe, 
Wesley, Penn, Norton, Camp., Thelwall, M. 

f " to you ; " vfiTv. Kend., Thom, Sharpe. Perhaps the 
phrase " entrust you with the true riches " would be preferable, as 
more idiomatic. So Wesley. 

e " anothers ; " ailorqUff. Thom., Sharpe, Wesley, Sawyer, 
Kend., Angus, M. Compare Matt. 25 : 14-29. 

11 " will give ; " Stooei. Wesley, Scarlett, Norton, Wakefield, 
Dick., Camp., Kend., M. 

1 " either ; " ^. This is the appropriate place for the conjunc- 
tion, according to our usus loquendi, as well as for euphony. So 
Kend., M., Thom., Dick., Sawyer. 




the one, and love the other ; or 
else he will hold to the one, and 
despise the other. Ye cannot 
serve God and mammon. 

14 And the Pharisees also, who 
were covetous, -heard all these 
things, and they derided him. 

15 And he said unto them, Ye 
are they which justify yourselves 
before men; but God knoweth 
your hearts : for that which is 
highly esteemed among men, is 
abomination in the sight of God. 

16 The law and the prophets 
were until John : since that time 
the kingdom of God is preached, 
and every man presseth into it. 

17 And it is easier for heaven 
and earth to pass, than one tittle 
of the law to fail. 


yap TOV era /jucrrjcrei, KCU. TOV 
erepov d-yctTrrjcrei' r/ eVoy 

Tcti, KCU. TOV erepov 

cret. ov 8vvacr0e Oeco SovXeveiv 

KCU. ol $apio~dioi (j)iXdpyvpoi 

avTov. 15 KOU tlirev avros, 
'l^iety core ol BiKaiovvTes eav- 
TOVS evcoiriov TCOV dvdpcoTTCov, 6 
8e Oeof ytvcocrKei ray /ca/oS/ay 
vp.S>v' OTI TO ev dvdpcoTrois v'^nrj- 
Xov ft8eXv/p.a evcomov TOV 0eov 

9 Ifi*/-*/ \f 

ecrTLv. U vofjios KCU. OL irpo- 

<f)f)Tai ecay ' Iccidvvov diro Tore 77 
fiacriXeia TOV Oeov cvayyeXi^e- 

TCU, KCU. Tray ely avTrjv /3iaerat. 

17 77 > ' ^>' J v > 


pavov Kal Tr]v yrjv irapeXdeiv, 77 


the one, and love the other; 
J or he will hold to the one, and 
despise the other. Ye can not 
serve God and mammon. And 1* 
the Pharisees, 'being 'lovers of 
money, m also heard all these 
things, and "they scoffed at him. 
And he said to them, Ye are 15 
"those who justify yourselves 
before men ; but God knoweth 
your hearts ; for that which is 
highly esteemed among men, is 
pan abomination in the sight of 
God. The law and the proph- 16 
ets were until John ; since that 
time the kingdom of God is 
preached, and 'every one .press- 
eth into it. And it is easier 17 
for heaven and earth r to pass 
away, 'than for one tittle of the 

l " or'; " rj. " Else " (copied by E. V. from Tyndale) is super- 
fluous. It is omitted by Kend., Thorn., Thelwall, M., Sharpe, 
Wesley, Norton, Wakef., Sawyer. 

k " being ; " vnagiovrss. Thelwall. The participial construc- 
tion is retained, as the phrase " who were lovers of money " is 
ambiguous. It may imply that a certain portion of the Pharisees 
were lovers of money, when in fact, the charge by the use of the 
participle is made general against the sect. Comp. Matt. 23 : 14. 
Scarlett has " being." 

i "lovers of money;" yv}.a^yv^ot. Norton, Wakef., M. 
Thorn, and Camp., " who loved money ; " Murdoclr, " they loved 
money." Syr., \l* 00 oi ^PLi. Heb. N. Test., qoa iniik. 
Bob. (Lex., in verbo), " money-loving ; " Bretschneider, " argenti 
amans." In 2 Tim. 6 : 10, the noun ydn^yv^ia. is rendered in 
the E. V. " love of money." $da$yvqos occurs only here, and 
2 Tim. 3 : 2, where it is rendered " covetous." In all other cases 
where "covetous" occurs (1 Cor. 5 : 10, 11 ; 6 : 10. Eph. 5 : 5), 
the Greek word is itleovexrijs. By rendering 2 Tim. (as above 
" lovers of money "), we have a uniform translation. De Wette, 
" welche das Geld liebten ; " S. Fr., " amateurs d'argent ; " Iber., 
" amadores del dinero." 

m " also ; " xal. Numerous mistakes occur in the E. V. from 
giving " also " a wrong position. The correct rule is to bring 1 it 
as near as possible to that word, whose signification it modifies. 
In the case before us, the word is " heard ; " i. c., " the Pharisees 
also heard," etc. S. Fr., " entendaient aussi ; " Diodati, " udivano 
anche ; " Dan., " horte ogsaa." 

" they scoffed at ; " ^sfcvartj^or. Norton, Wakef. ( "scoff- 
ing at"), M. Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : " To scoff at." This verb 
occurs in one other instance, viz., Luke 23 : 35, where it should 
receive the same translation. The preposition (c) is intensive. 
Liddell (fivxrtjgi'Gco). The simple form fivxTtjpl&fiai occurs but 
once, Gal. 6:7. As the simple verb has the etymological force 
of turning up the nose at (deriding), or, in modern parlance, sneer- 
ing at one, exfivxrr;$ico is most properly rendered by a stronger 
expression, " scoff at." Bretsch. (in verbo) : "Naso adunco suspen- 
do, irrideo, adjuncta notione contemptus." Heb. N. Test., sissi\ 
Belg., " zij beschimpten ; " De Wette, " verhohneten ; " Iber., 
" escarnecian." 

" those who justify ; " ol Sixaiovvres. Present usage requires 
" those" rather than " they," before the relative. So Kendrick, 

P " an abomination ; " pdefoyfta. Thorn., Sharpe, Wesley, 
Scarlett, Norton, M., Sawyer. Belgic, " een grouwel;" De 
Wette, " ein Grauel ; " S. Fr., " une abomination ; " Ital., " nn' 

q " every one ; " nas. Thorn., Sharpe, Scarlett, Penn, Norton, 
Wakef., Sawyer, Kend., M., Murdock. See ch. 14 : 11, note, and 
E.Y., 6 -.40; 11:10. 

r " to pass away ; " na^d-sZv. So (E. V.) Matt. 24 : 35. 
Mark 13 : 31 (bis). Luke 21 : 32, 33. 2 Cor. 5:17. Jas. 1:10. 
2 Pet. 3 : 10. Eev. 21 : 1. Scarlett, Penn, Norton, Wakef., 
Dick., Sawyer, Angus, Thelwall, M., Rob. (Lex.). 

" than for;" rj. Wesley, M., Penn, Dick., Sawyer, Angus. 




18 Whosoever putteth away 
his wife, and marrieth another, 
comraitteth adultery ; and who- 
soever marrieth her that is put 
away from her husband, commit- 
teth adultery. 

19 There was a certain rich 
man, which was clothed in purple 
and fine linen, and fared sumptu- 
ously every day : 

20 And there was a certain 
beggar named Lazarus, which was 
laid at his gate, Ml of sores. 

21 And desiring to be fed with 
the crumbs which fell from the 
rich man's table : moreover, the 
dogs came and licked his sores. 

22 And it came to pass, that 


TOV vofjiov fi'iav Kepalav Treo'elv. 
18 Has o aTToXvcov Trjv 

avTov KCU yct/ucoz/ ereoaz' fj.oi)(fV6f 


O.TTO <v- 


law to fail. 'Every one who 18 
putteth away his wife, and niar- 
rieth another, committeth adul- 
tery ; and every one who mar- 
rieth her "who hath been put 
away from her husband, com- 
mitteth adultery. 'Now, there 19 
was a certain rich man who 
was clothed in purple and fine 
linen, and fared sumptuously 
every day. And there was a 2b 
certain w poor man, named Laz- 
arus, *who was laid at his gate,, 
full of sores, and ^longing to be 21 
fed with the crumbs which fell 
from the rich "man's table ; "but 
even the dogs came, and licked 
TOV. 22 eyeVero Se ouroOavelv his sores. And it came to pass, 22 

8pos yafiaw fjiot^evei. w *Av- 
Opcotros Se Tts T)v TrAovcTioy, KOL 
iropfyvpav KOL /3vcr- 
KO.& rjfi.epav 


fJ.fVO? } 



5 / 

b? ej3 

TIS r)v 



i \ 



TrAoucr/oy aAAa KO\ 




TO. eXicr) aii- 

The fact that almost every one who attempts to quote this pas- 
sage as it stands in the E. V., supplies the word "for," shows 
that our idiom demands it. It should be inserted, and italicized. 

" Every one ; " Has. So (E. V.) Luke 6 : 40 ; 11 : 10. See 
ch. 14 : 11, note. So Wakef., M., Dick., Sawyer, Angus, Thel- 
wall. Rob., Lex., nag (2). 

" "who bath been put away;" &.nofa),-v/ji&ip> (perf. part.). 
Angus, M. Thomson and Wakef. ("who hath been divorced"), 
Norton ("has been separated"). Vulg., Eras., Beza, Goschen, 
" dimissam ; " Mont, and Schott, " repudiatam ; " G. and S. JY., 
" qui a ete repudiee ; " ItaL, " ch' e stata ripudiata." 

" " Now ; " St. Wakef., Angus, M., Thelwall. G. Fr., " or ; " 
Diodati, " or." This particle connects the illustration with the 
subject of the preceding 1 context the abuse of wealth vv. 11, 15, 
etc. See Bloomfield (N. Test., in loco). Tyndale followed the 
Vulg., and dropped the particle. He was copied by the E. V. 
It is retained by Beza, Oastalio, Syriac (^), Heb. N. Test. 
(irrjt), Belg. 

w "poor man;" ntto^be. Thorn., Kend., Sharpe, Wakefield, 
Dick., Camp., Sawyer, Murdock, M. Mont., Oastal., Goschen, 
Schott, " pauper ; " S. Fr., " un pauvre ; " Iber., " un pobre ; " 
De Wette, "Armer." Bloomf. (N. Test.) says : " Bender, not a 
beggar, but a poor destitute person, as the usus loquendi and the 
contest require." The proper term for " beggar " is ^oaodnjg. 
So the participle ^oaanoiv, John 9 : 8, " begged," where the 
critical Editions have itgooaiTtis- Heb. N. Test., 133. Syriac, 
|I'^M^ IFcca%bs, (properly an adjective) occurs thirty-four 
times in the N. Test. Twice (in this passage) it is rendered 
" beggar ; " once, Gal. 4:9, " beggarly ; " in all other cases, 
" poor." I Lave italicized " man." The rendering of the E. V. 
originated from that of the Vulg., " mendicus." Compare Luke 

18 : 35, -zvylos TIS ixa&ijto nafta. ifjv bSbv TrgoaaiTcuv (E. V.), 
" a certain blind man sat by the way-side begging." 

1 " who was laid ; " c/3e/3).-r/To (pluperf.). The rendering of 
this verb by the imperfect is retained on the ground, that !/?& 
^Irjto is used for that tense, denoting continued action. So 
Kuinoel (in loco) : " Bum (i. e. pauperem) autem quotidie ad 
vestibulum illius jacuisse exinde patet, quoniam v. 19, prcecepit 
formula v.aff -fififyav quoniam epuloni, coll. v. 23, ejusque cani- 
bus domesticis notns erat, ita, nt hi ad eum accederent, et dolo- 
rem, quo ulcera eum cruciarent, blande lingendo mitigarent ; 
ipsum etiam lfteft}.rfio continuationem actiouis indicat v. Er. 
Schmiddins ad h. 1. et ad Matt. 8 : 6." Some translators, how- 
ever, render the verb " had been laid." This conveys the thought 
that the poor man was placed at the gate once. See Bloomf. (MI 
loco}. For the pluperfect as an imperfect, see Trollope (Gram., 
1 50, 7, p. 133). 

y "longing;" iitifhifuov. See ch. 15 : 16, note. "Desire" 
is not sufficiently strong to express the thought. Belg., " be- 
geerde" (coveted). While Beza has desiderans, the Vulg., Eras., 
Montanus, Castalio, Goschen, and Schott render the word by 
" cupiens." *Eitid-v[<.<3v does not imply the act of requesting 
aid, as our word " desire " often does, and as it is here understood 
by most English readers ; but it describes the sensation of hunger 
felt by Lazarus. Heb. N. Test., i-j 

1 " man's." This word should be italicized, as a supplement. 
Compare 'A.V&QCOTCOS nhcrvoios, v. 19. 

1 " but even ; " atta . Scarlett, -Kend., and Gray (in 
Angus), " Nay, even ; " Goschen and Schott, " sed etiam ; " 
Kuincel, " quin etiam ; " S. Fr., " rnais memes ; " De Wette, 
"Aber auch." So (E. V.) Luke 12 : 7. Hoogeveen (aU& xai), 
p. 7. 



the beggar died, and was carried 
by the angels into Abraham's bo- 
som. The rich man also died, 
and was buried : 

28 And in heir he lifted up his 
eyes, being in torments, and seeth 
Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in 
his bosom. 

24 And he crieth and said, Fa- 
ther Abraham, have mercy on me, 
and send Lazarus, that he may 
dip the tip of his finger in water, 
and cool my tongue : for I am 
tormented in this flame. 

25 But Abraham said, Son, re- 
member that thou in thy lifetime 
receivedst thy good things, and 
likewise Lazarus evil things : but 
now he is comforted, and thou art 

26 And: besides all this, be- 






TOV V7TO ra>v 

KoX-jrov TOV 'Aftpaafj.' oare 

5e KCU 6 TrXovcnos, /cat eVad)??. 

23 V' n a^ t r \ 

/cat v TO> aoy eirapas row 
6(f)0a\fj.ovs avTov, VTrdp^cav ev 
fiacrctvois, opa TOV 'Afipaafj. oVo 
/jiaKpodev, KCU. Ad^apov fv rot? 

/ \ 5 rt 24 \>^j 

KOMTOLS avTOV /cat auro$^0a>- 
vr/o-a? etTre, HaTep ' 
iXsrjo-ov /j.e, /cat 
pov, "LVO. /3d\jsr) TO aKpov TOV 
8a.KT.vAov avTOv vSctTO?, /cat 
KaTa^v^rj TTJV yX>(ro~av 
OTI odwiofiai ei> Tr 
25 Elire Se 'Afipaa/j., 
IJLVYjo-0rjTL OTI aTreAapep crv TO. 
a. crov ev Trj ^cafj crow, /cat 


Se ode 7ra/)a/caAetraf, o~v 5e 6Sv- 
vacrai, 26 KCU eVi Traan 


that b the poor man died, and 
"was carried away by the angels 
into Abraham's bosom : d the 
rich man also died, and was 
buried. And in c the under- 23 
world lie lifted up his eyes, be- 
ing in torments, and seeth Abra- 
ham f far off, and Lazarus in 
his bosom. And E crying out, 24 
he said, Father Abraham, b have 
pity on me, and send Lazarus^ 
that he may dip the tip of his 
finger in water, and; cool my 
tongue ; for I am tormented in 
this flame. But Abraham said, 25 
' Child, remember that thou in 
thy lifetime 'didst receive thy 
good, things, and ''Lazarus, in 
like manner, 'his evil things; 
but now "here he is comforted, 
and thou art tormented. And 26 
besides all this, between us and 

b " the poor man , " TOV ittco^ov. See v. 20, note. 

c "was carried away;" ajierex&^vai. Thelwall, Sawyer. 
Erasmus, Schotty " defortaretur ; " Castal., " auferretur." Bob 
(Lex., anoyegto) : "To bear, or carry away from one p)ace or 
person to another." Bretsch. : "Ablatum ad alios perfero, per- 
fero, deduco. Luc. 16 : 22." So (B. V.) Mark 15 : 1. Eev. 
17 : 3 ; 21 : 10. The word occurs in only one other instance, 
1 Cor. 16 : 3, where " carry away " (instead of " bring ") would 
have been appropriate. 

d " the rich man ;" 6 Tthovotos. "Man " is a supplement. 
Oomp. v. 19. 

" the under-world ; " icy a8rj. See ch. 10 : 15, note. " Place 
of the dead " is suggested as an alternative rendering of iiSijs, in 
all cases. It occurs (B. V.) Ecclesiasticus 48 : 5. 

r " far off; " /taxgo&cv. Unless in poetry, " far " is now used 
for "afar." 

e " crying out ; " ycav^aag. "Wesley, Scarlett, Thelwall, M. 
Eob. (Lex., in verbo) : " (Spoken) of persons, to cry out." Sharpe 
(" cried out "). See ch. 8 : 8, note. 

h "have pity on me;" ttfyoov fie. Thorn., Sharpe, Norton, 
Scarlett, Camp., M. Bob.. (Lex., in verbo), " to pity." This ren- 
dering is deemed most appropriate, in view of the context. 

1 " Child ; " Ttxvov. Sharpe, Thelwall. There is no necessi- 
ty for abandoning the literal sense of this noun. See ch. 2 : 48, 
note. So Belg., Kend. De Wette, " Kind ; " S. Pr., " Mon en- 

J " didst receive ; " aniiapeg. The harsh sound of " receiv- 
edst," and the difficulty with which it is enunciated, furnish 
reasons for changing the form of the word. So Norton, Sharpe, 
Watef., M. 

1 " Lazarus, in like manner ; " Aa&gos 6/ioicos. This arrange- 
ment is most perspicuous. It gives " Lazarus " (the nominative) a 
place corresponding with "thou," in the first clause. So Thorn., 
Wakef., Sawyer, Kend. 'Oftotcos is more accurately rendered by 
" in like manner," than " likewise." The latter is now usually 
employed to signify lr also." " In like manner " is the rendering 
of Thorn., Sawyer, Kend., M. So in Revision of Mark 4 : 16 ; 
15 : 31. 

1 " his evil things ; " ra xaxd. The article -to. is used here in 
the sense of the possessive pronoun. See ch. 6 : 1, note. So 
Thorn., Penn, Kend., Thelwall. Syriac, + y''^ . (Murdock, " his 
evil things "). G. Fr., " ses maux." 

" " here." Instead of oSe (Text. Recept), caSs is the reading 
adopted by Lachmann, Tischendorf, Theile, Schott. So in the 
Tatican MS. (B), the oldest extant. Schott says : " Post vSv Se 
vulgo oSe. Edidimus eoSs cum Scholzio, Meyero, Lachm. (oppo- 
situm verbis lv rfj a>fj aov) auctoritate 10 codd. unc. mnltorum 
minuscc. verss., Pesch., Philox., Arr., Pers., Memph., Sahid., 

th., Slav. Illud oSs librariis in promptu fuit oppos." Bloomf. 
(N. Test.) who contends that " propriety " demands 5Se, still ad- 
mits that " very many MSS. Versions, Fathers, and early Editions 
bave caSe. Griesbach has noted toSe as equal, if not superior to 




tween us and.-y.ou there is a great 
gulf fixed: so that they which 
would pass from hence to you, 
cannot ; neither can they pass to 
us, that would come from thence. 

27 Then he said, I pray thee 
therefore, father, that thou would- 
est send him to my father's house: 

28 For I have five brethren ; 
that he may testify unto them, lest 
they also come into this place of 

29 Abraham saith unto Mm, 
They have Moses and the proph- 
ets ; let them hear them. 

30 And he said, Nay, father 
Abraham : but if one went unto 
them from the dead, they will re- 

31 And he said unto Mm, If 
they hear not Moses and the 
prophets, neither will they be 
persuaded, though one rose from 
the dead. 



jaeya .firrypiKTcu, OTTCOS oi BeXov- 
Tey Biaftr/voLi evrevdzv irpos u/uay, 
jj.r) Swcovrai, fj.rj8e oi 

\ ~ r " 

irpos rifJ-as oia.7repa>criv. 

e, *Epa>TK> 

ere, -jrarep, va. 
avrov fly rov OLKOV rov 

28 " ' / , 

irarpos (J.ov, eyco yap Trews, 
adeX<povs' OTTCOS Sia/j.aprvpr)Tai 
avfoLS, tva. fir) KCU' avroi eXBoocriv 
el? rr/v roTrov TOVTOV rrjs /Sacrd- 
29 Xe-yet aura 'A/Spaajj., 
Maxrea KCU TOVS irpo- 
<j)rjras' OLKOva-arasfrav avrav. 

30 ' S~l S\ 9 ' ' /^l'\ ' 

U oe emev, Uyx i > troiTep 
dXX' eav TIS OLTTO ve- 
irpos O.VTOVS, ftTa- 
31 Ehre 8e 


Ei MoHretos KCU rwv 7rpo(j)r)T(av 
OVK aKOVOVcriV) ovde, edv TI? IK 
avacrrfj, Treur6r)<TOVTai. 


you, there is a great gulf fixed; 
so that' they who would "pass 
OTer "hence to you, can not ; 
Pnor r can they who would, cross 
over 'thence to us. .Then he 27 
said, I pray thee, 'then, father, 
that thou wouldst send him to 
my father's house ; for I have 28 
five brethren ; that he may tes- 
tify to them, lest they also 
should come' into this place of 
torment. Abraham saith to 29 
him, They have Moses and the 
prophets : let them hear them. 
And he said, Nay, father Abra- so 
ham; but if one "should go 
to them from the dead, they 
will repent. And he said to si 
him, If they hear not Moses 
and the prophets, neither will 
they be persuaded, though one 
"should rise from the dead. 

" pass over ; " 8ea/3ijvc. Norton, Thelwall. Vulg., Mont., 
Beza, Eras., Goschen, Scliott, " transire." Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : 
" Intrans., to pass through, or over to a place sr^os c. ace., Luke 
16 : 26." So Sept., 1 Sam. 26 : 13, Sclfa 4avl$ els -co 
\ nfyav, Heb. nasrt 1W "OSU (E- "V".), " Then David -went over 
to the other siSe." 1 Sam. 14 : 8, fiftets Siapa.lvoft.Ev els, Heb.. 
-ii* di'iais* WftSX (B. V.), ""We will, pass over unto.". Bretsch. 
(in verbo), " transeo." Joseph., Antiq. Til., 9, \ 1, StafHjvat tov 
iv (Whiston's Tr. of Josephus), " to pass over Jordan." 
vcu is rendered in the Heb. N. Test. I'asi. - Syr., ^;^S1 
(Jnnnius, " transire"). Belg., " overgaan." 

" hence ; " Ivrev&sv (critic. Edd. EV&CV). " From " is super- 
fluous, as "hence," alone, signifies "from here." Omitted by 
Thorn., Camp., Kend., Angus, Thelwall, M., Dick. 

P " nor ; " fa;8s. Thorn., Sharpe, Penn, Scarlett, Dick., Kend., 
Thelwall. See ch. 8 : 17, note. 

" can." As the sentence is elliptical, &uva>vrnt being under- 
load (not expressed), in this member of the sentence, "can" is 
a supplement. 

'"can crossover;" Stanc^coaiv. Thorn. Kob. (Lex., in 

verbo) : " To cross over." By this rendering, the translation is 
brought nearer to the text, which has two verbs, diapfjvcu, and 
, nearly, or quite synonymous.' 

"thence;" ixsrd-cv. "From" is superfluous here. Sec 
note o. Several translators render this passage, "nor those 
from thence pass," etc. This would be correct, if the adverb 
sxsz there, in that place, had been used. However, as in the first 
member Ivrcv&ev is construed with StafKjvat, so in this, txa&tv 
belongs to Siaite^ vaiv. I suggest as an alternative rendering 
of the passage the more concise form, " nor can they cross over 
thence to us." 

i "then;" ow. Penn, Norton, Camp., Sawyer, Kend., M. 
S. Fr., " done." See ch. -7 : 42, note. Bloomf. (in loco) : " Bender 
' then,' denoting a consequence of what has preceded ; q. d., Then 
if that is impossible, etc." 

" should go ; " itoqeudfi. Bloomf. (N. Test.), Nortbn, Scar- 
lett, Dick., M. The full expression "should go" accords with 
present usage; as in " should come," v. 29. 

T "should rise;" avaorfi. Scarlett, Dick., Camp., Murdock 
See last note. 




THEN said he unto the disciples, 
It is impossible but that offences 
will come : but wo unto him 
through whom they come ! 

2 It were better for him that a 
millstone were hanged about, his 
neck, and he cast into the sea, 
than that he should offend one of 
these little ones. 

3 Take heed to yourselves : If 
thy brother tresspass against thee, 
rebuke him ; and if he repent, 
forgive him. 

4 And if he tresspass against 


EIIIE 8e Trpos TOU? 
ras, 'AvevSeKTov e'crri fjurj 
TO, cr/coV&xAcr oval fie Si 
2 AucrtreAet 


fj.vXos OVLKOS TrepiKeLTai. Trepl TOV 
Tpa^r/Xov O.VTOV, KCU eppnrrai. 
elf TTJV OaXacra-av, rj 'iva O-KO.V- 
eva TOOV fUKpwv rovrcav 

3 7r/)ocre^ere eavTOif. ecu* Se 
JiapTy els ere o <%<5eAf/>oy <fov, 

7riTi(j.r](rov aura* Kai eav fj.era- 
rjo-r], a'0ey aura). 4 Kai lav 

era/ap rrjs rj/j.epas d/jLaprrj els 


AND he said to the disciples, 
It is impossible for * b the 'occa- 
sions of sin not to come ; but 
woe to him through whom they 
come ! d lt would be better for 
him, e if f an upper-millstone 
s shold be hung about his neck, 
and he ""should be thrown into 
the sea, than that 'he should 
cause one of these little ones to 
sin. Take heed to yourselves. 
If thy brother J trespasseth 
against thee, rebuke him ; and 
if he repenteth, forgive him. 
And if he 'trespasseth against 

" the occasions come ; " ($ ildrtiv. Bloomf. (N. Test., in 
loco) : " The TOV inserted before fir; ei&eiv from many MSS. 
Fathers, and early editions, by Matthsei, Griesbach, Vater, and 
Scholz, is probably genuine, being quite agreeable to the usage 
of St. Luke. And thus we may render literally, ' It is impossible 
for offenses not to come.' " On this reading, it may be remarked, 
that it is adopted by Griesbach, Knapp. Theile. Laelim., Scholz, 
Tischend. (who, however, place TOV before ra axavSaia). Schott 
says : " Voculam TOV post eariv vulgo omissam (vel quod super- 
vacuana habereter, vel collate loco Matt. 18 : 7) cum Griesb. 
aliisque inseruimus ex cdd. A.B.D.E.L.S.V. et permultis minuscc." 
As an alternative rendering, " that the occasions of sin should 
not come." So Penn. 

b " the ; " T. The article should not be dropped. " The," 
m this case, gives definiteness to its noun (oxdvSaAa), and is in 
harmony with our wus loquendi. So Thelwall. 

" occasions of sin ; " Kend. De "Wette, " Yer- 
fiihrungen" ("enticements"). Bob. (Lex., in verbo) : "Gener. 
a cause of stumbling, falling, ruin, morally and spiritually." "As 
a cause or occasion of sinning, or falling away from the truth." 
For the signification of this word, see ch. 7 : 23, note n. 

d " It would be better ; " kvoitekez. The following note on 
the parallel, Mark 9 : 42, is quoted from the Revision : " It 
would be better ; y.alov lariv. From the force of the condi- 
tional oxm'Sal.ioTj, at the commencement of the sentence, it is 
necessary to render lanv in a conditional form. ' Would be ' is 
now the usual phrase instead of ' were.' Beza, ' bonum esset ; ' 
Eras.. ' melius foret ; ' S. Fr., ' il serait rnieux.' " In the passage 
before ns, oxavSaliag is placed in the subsequent clause. " Would 
be " is employed by Camp., Dick., and Sawyer. The expression 
accords with present usage. 

"if;" el. Tyndale (Edit. 1526), Sawyer, Thelwall, Wiclif, 
Eheims, Murdock (Syr., o^). Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, "si;" 
De Wette, " wenn ; " Dan., " om." 

f "an upper-millstone;" /oilos .owxos. Dick., Camp. Bob. 

(Lex.) : "A millstone, the upper one, or rider." " Larger mills 
(i. e., than those used in the -family residences, moved by hand) 
were turned by an ass ; whence the upper-millstone was called 
ovixos." Hesych. (quoted by JBretscli.), JlfvAy OVTIO Xcyerai not 
o netted rfjs /iviijs ).i9~os, TO S's area >.ovos. This corresponds 
with the Heb. san Deut. 24 : 6, " No man shall take a hand- 
mill (enrn) or the upper-millstone (^s~\) to pledge." Sept., 
pAlos ovS'e iniftvhov. In the parallel, Mark 9 : 42, the term is 
simply ii&os (ivfaxbs (B. V.), " a millstone." This rendering is 
correct ;' but as in the passage before us, the text has ftvlos on. 
nog, the rendering" should correspond. De Wette, " Eselsmiihl- 

should be hung 

See note d. This form of 

the verb presents the thought with exactness, and ;s the ordinary 
one in conversation and writing. 

b " should be thrown ; " eggaiTat. In the parallel, Mark 9 : 42, 
the verb is fte^).rjTai. To distinguish these verbs in the Revi- 
sion, " thrown " is used here. So Thorn., Scarlett, Kend., M., 
Thelwall. Rob. (Lex., (jinno), " 1o throw." For the use of this 
form of the Eng. verb, see last note. 

1 " he should cause to sin ; " axavSaUar;. The following 
note on this verb is copied from the Kevision of Mark (9 : 42) : 

Shall cause to sin ; axarSallag. Sharpe, ' make to sin ; ' 
Wakef., ' shall lead into sin.' SxavSali^co sometimes has the 
force of the Hiphil conj. in Hebrew. ' Thus Kob. : ' Causative, to 
cause to offend, to lead astray, to lead into sin.' Bretsch. : ' [Di- 
citur] de iis, per quos, aliquo modo accidit, ut alter judicando 
erret agendove peccet.' If a literal rendering is deemed prefer- 
able, we might say, ' shall cause to stumble.' So Thorn. In the 
case before us, ' offend ' misleads common readers, who understand 
it as equivalent to ' making angry.' See Luke 7 : 23, note." 

i " trespasseth ; " a/iagTg. According to present usage, the 
indicative form of the verb, in the present tense, is used with 
' if," or any other conjunction. See ch. 4 : 3, note. 
" trespasseth ; " aftd^rrj. See last note. 




thee seven times in a day, and 
even times in a day turn again to 
thee, saying, I repent ; tliou shalt 
forgive him. 

5 And the apostles said unto 
the Lord, Increase our faith. 

6 And the Lord said, If ye had 
faith as a grain of mustard-seed, 
ye might say unto this sycamine- 
tree, Be thou plucked up by the 
root, and be thou planted in the 
sea ; and it s-hould obey you. 

7 But which of you having a 
servant ploughing, or feeding cat- 
tle, will say unto him by and by, 
when he is come from the field, 
Go and sit down to meat? 

8 And will not rather say unto 
him, Make ready wherewith I may 
sup, and gird thyself, and serve 
me, till I have.eaten and drunken ; 
and afterward thou shalt eat and 
drink ? 

9 Doth he thank that servant, 
because he did the things that 


ere, KDU CTTTaKis rrf rj(j.epa? G.ITL- 
o-rptyr) eVl ae, Xeycov, Mera- 
z/ocS, a.<prj(ri$ ayra. 

5 Kcu. zbrov oi cbroGrToAoi rw 
KvpiKt, Hpocrfle? rjjjuv Tricmv. 
6 JEme 8e 6 Kvpios, El e'/^ere 
TriiTTLV) ca$ KOKKOV criva.7recoF, e'Ae- 
yere av rfj crvKa/jtivq> ravrrf, 
'JSKpi^cad.rjTi., Kai (j)vrevdr]TL iv 
rfj daXacrfrr]' KCU VTrr^KOvcrev av 
VJJLLV. 7 TLS Se i^ vfj-wv SovXov 
e-^cav aporpitovra 77 7roifj.ali>ovTa, 
Of eicreXOovTL CK roi) dypov epet 
evdecoy, JlapeXdcois avairecra.1.' 

8 >1 -\> J \ " y ~ 

aAA ou^t e/jet avrw, 
crov TL dzLirvfja-to, KCU, 
fjLevof SiaKovei fiot, eco? 
Kai TTLCC' Kai [j,eTa ravra (paye- 
arai Kai Triecrai crv ; 9 Mr] "X&pt-v 
w 8ovXa> Keiva>, OTL eiroi- 


tliee seven times in a day, and 
seven times in a day 'tnrncth 
to thee again, saying, I repent; 
thou shalt forgive him. And 5 
the apostles said to the Lord, 
Increase our faith. And the 6 
Lord said, If ye had faith as a 
grain of mustard-seed, ye might 
say to this sycamine-tree, m Be 
thou uprooted and "planted in 
the sea ; and "it would obey 
you. But which of you liav- 7 
ing a servant ploughing, or 
feeding cattle, 'will say to him 
immediately, "as he cometh in 
r out of the field, "Come, and 
'recline at table? "But 'will he a 
not rather say to him, Make 
ready w my supper, and gird 
thyself, and serve me, till I 
shall have eaten and "drunk ; 
and 'afterwards thou shalt eat 
and drink ? Doth he thank 9 
that servant, because ho did 

m it 


i " turneth ; " fmorfcyfi. See v. 3, note j. 

" Be thou uprooted ; " 'ExfiZcofrrjri. Penn, Norton, Thel- 

n " planted ; " yvrEv&rjrc. The pronoun " thou " is superflu- 
ous before this imperative. It is omitted by Thomson, Peun, 
Norton, Scarlett, Walcef., Dick., Sawyer, Angus, M. 

Thorn., Sharpe, Norton, 

" it would obey ; " vnfjxovasv av. 
Scarlett, Dick., Sawyer, Angus, M. 

P " will say immediately ; " Iget cvS-ecag. See ch. 5 
note. The Textus Beceptus places the comma after 
According to the punctuation (which has been followed here), 
this word qualifies tyei. But Griesbach, Knapp, Theile, Trollope 
(N. Test.), Goschen, Kuinoel, and Schott place the comma after 
tyeT, thus joining it to Tca^e^cav, so that the translation would 
be, " Come immediately," etc., confestim accede et accnmbe. I 
prefer the punctuation of the Text. Eecept., as most agreeable to 
the thought presented by the contest, but would place in the 
margin, " or, according to some, Come immediately." De Wette, 
" -wird alsbald sagen : Komm her." 

" as he Cometh in ; '' slas^&orrt. Sharpe, Kend. (" as he 
cometh "), Penn (" as soon as he cometh in "), Sawyer (" when he 
comes in"). The force of els should not be disregarded. Ttjv 
olxtav is understood after the participle. Bretsch. (sloefxofiac) : 
" Luc. 17 : 7, ubi elaei, Ix rov ayyov non est redire ex agro, sed 
tngredi domum (ijjv olxiav quod saepissime omittitur ut Luc. 
11 :37;15 :28; 24:29)." 

' " out of ; " lx. The preposition has its radical force, and 
should not be confounded with duo, " from." 

" Come;" JTa^&eav. Thorn. (" Come in"), Wesley, Nor- 
ton, Scarlett, M., Wakef. (" Come hither"), Dick., Camp., Saw- 
yer. Mont., " adveniens ; " Beza and Schott, " accede ; " Bengel, 
" accedens." Eob. (Lex., in verbo) : " To come near to any person 
or thing, to draw near, to come." So Luke 12 : 37, naftAd-cov 
(E. V.), " come forth." Bretschneider (nagfy., in loco), " ac- 

' " recline at table ; " avaxeaca. See ch. 11 : 37, note. 

" But ; " alX. Sharpe, Kendrick, Penn, Sawyer, Thelwall, 
Murdock. Belgic, " maar ; " De Wette, " sondern ; " Iberian, 
" mas." 

v " -will he not rather say ; " ov%l fyez. Scarlett, Wakefield, 
Sawyer ("will he not say"), Eob. (Lex., ov%l, in loco). The 
pronoun contributes to perspicuity and force. 

w " my supper ; " il Stmvf,oto. Kend., Thorn., Norton, Dick, 
Camp., M. Schott, " para mihi ccenam ; " Iber., " mi cena ; " 
Italian, "apprestami la cena." "Sup" is obsolete except in 

" drunk ; " niia. This is the proper form of the English 
participle. Thelwall, M., Angus. 

y " afterwards ; " ftsra. This orthography is now usual. It 
is found in the E. V,, Exod. 11 : 1. 1 Sam. 9 : 13. Job 18 : 2 
Prov. 20 : 17 ; 24 : 27 ; 28 : 23 ; 29 : 11. Gal. 3 : 23. 




were commanded him? I trow 

10 So likewise ye, when ye 
shall have done all those things 
which are commanded you, say, 
We are unprofitable servants : we 
have done that -which was our 
duty to do. 

11 And it came to pass, as he 
went to Jerusalem, that he passed 
through the midst of Samaria and 

12 And as he entered into a 
certain village, there met him ten 
men that 'were lepers, which stood 
afar off: 

13 And they lifted up their 
voices, and said, Jesus, Master, 
have mercy on us. 

14 And when he saw them, he 
said unto them, Go shew your- 
selves unto the priests. And it 
came to pass, that, as they went, 
they were cleansed. 


TO. ia.Ta.'xei'Ta avrt / ov 

S> ~ 10 v \ ' " a 


Trotrio"r/T iravra. ra Stara 
vfj.iv, Ae'yere, ' On SovXot d 

OTI o 6)(j)eiXo/j.ev iroiTJcrai 

11 KAI eyevero ev TO> Tropeve- 
ar6ai avrov els 'lepovcraXr//*., KCLL 



p.apeta? KOU raXiXalas. /cat 

avrov els nva KO>- 

aurw 5e/ca Ae- 
Trpol avdpes, ol ecrTrjcrav Troppco- 
6ev KOLL OLVTol rjpav <j)ioi>r)v, 
Xeyovres, 'Irjcrov, eVio-rara, eXe- 
rjcrov rj[j.ds. 14 Ka 
avroLs, JJopevBevres e 
eavrovs TOIS lepevcrt. Iou eye- 
rq> virayeiv avTovs, e/ca- 



"what was commanded"? b l 
think not. So "also ye, when 10 
ye shall have done d all that 
was commanded you, say, We 
are unprofitable servants ; we 
have done "what f it was our 
duty to do. And it came to H 
pass, as e he was going to Jeru- 
salem, that he passed through 
the midst of Samaria and Gali- 
lee. And h as he was entering 12 
a certain village, there met him 
'ten lepers, who stood 'far off; 
and they lifted up their 'voice, 13 
'saying, Jesus, Master, have 
mercy on us! And ""seeing 14 
them, he said to them, Go, show 
yourselves to the priests. And 
it came to pass, that as they 
were going, they were cleans- 

1 " what was commanded ; " ra Siaraz&tvTa. M., Sharpe, 
Dick., Kend., Murdock. Tyndale and Geneva, " that which was 
commanded ; " Belg., " 'fc gene bevolen was." See eh. 5 : 27, 

The Textus Eeceptus has UVTIU after Siaraz&evra. This i: 
canceled by Griesb., Knapp, Theile, Tittm., Lachm., Tischend., 
Goschen, Schott, Scholz. Bloomfield (N. Test.) : " Tliis, not 
found in nearly all the best MSS., and several Fathers, and early 
Editions, is, with reason, canceled by almost every Editor, from 
Bengel to Scholz." Kuinoel says: " Avicy post Siara^d-sv 
plures codices pmittunt, additum videtur a gramtnatieis vel per- 
spicuitatis caussa, quoniam v. 10, legitur to. Starnxd-svTa" 

b " I think ; " Sox<5. Thorn., Sharpe, Wesley, Norton, Scar- 
lett, Wakef., Kendrick, Angus, Thelwall, M. De Wette, " Ich 
meine ; " S. Fr., " je pense ; " Iber., ^pieuso." " Trow " (copied 
by E. "V. from Tyndale) is obsolete. 

"also;" Thelwall, Kend., Angus, Sharpe, Sawyer. 
S. Fr., " aussi ; " Iber., " tambien." 

d " all that was commanded ; " nd-vra TO. Scarax&evra. See 
note z. 

" what ; " S. Sharpe, Wesley, Norton, Wakef., Dickinson, 
Camp., Sawyer, Kend., Angus, M. 

' " it was our duty ; " cocpei!.o/iEv. Angus, M. Our idiom 
demands " it," before " was." Alternative, " were bound." So 
Thorn., Penn, Keud., Camp. 

" he was going ; " lv -1$ nopevcad-at. Thomson, Scarlett, 
Sawyer, Kend., Thelwall (" while he was going"). There can be 
no question that the thought is, " while lie was on his journey to 

Jerusalem." This is most correctly expressed by the participial 
construction, or the English progressive form of the verb. 

h " as he was entering ; " eiasyjiofievov nvrov. Thom., Wakef., 
M., Thelwall. The, S. Fr. renders " il entrait " (equivalent to " he 
was entering "). The preposition " into " is superfluous. It is 
dropped by Thom., Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Wakefield, Kendrick. 
As this participle sometimes has a future sense (Acts 18 : 21. 
So verb Luke 23 : 29), the alternative rendering is suggested, 
" as lie was about entering." So Norton, Bbomf. (N. Test.). 
See last note. Ryr.,.^. vC^S uSuj.js ,jo (" and when he drew 
near to enter"). 

1 " ten lepers ; " Stan faitpol m>8(>es. Thom., Wesley, Nor- 
ton, Wakef., Camp., Sawyer, Kend., M. 'AvSges may be regarded 
as pleonastic. Compare Matt. 18 : 23. A literal rendering is, 
" leprous men." 

i "-far off;" no^tod-sr. This orthography is uniformly em- 
ployed in the Bcvision. 

k " voice ; " ycovriv (sing.) Thom., Wesley, Dick., M., Angus, 
Thelwall, Sawyer. 

i " saying ; " Uyovres. Thelwall, Kend., Thom., Sharpe, Nor- 
ton, Wakef., Sawyer,' M. 

m "seeing;" iScbv. Wesley, Kend, Thelwall, M. S. Fr., 
ayant vu ; " Iber., " habiendo [los] visto." 

" as they were going ; " Iv icy vitayetv avrovs. Scarlett, 
Thom., Wakef., Sawyer, Kend., M., Thelwall ("as they were 
going"), Murdock. Erasmus, Beza, Gosclien, " inter eundum ;" 
Schott, " inter discendum. See v. 11, note. 




15 And one of them, when he 
saw that he -was healed, turned 
back, and with a loud voice glori- 
fied God, 

16 And fell down on. his face 
at his feet, giving him thanks : 
and he was a Samaritan. 

17 And Jesus answering, said, 
Were there not ten cleansed ? but 
where are the nine ? 

18 There are not found that 
returned to give glory to God, 
save this stranger. 

19 And he said unto him, Arise, 
go thy way : thy faith hath made 
thee whole. 

20 And when he was demand- 
ed of the Pharisees, when the 
kingdom of God should come, 
he answered them and said, The 


15 T \ if- > - 

fts oe e avT&v 
OTI ia.6r), VTreo-Tpeijse, /Lterc 
p.eyaXr)s Bo&fav TOV 

d ' IB v " 

tteov KO.L 7recrei/ 

TTOV Trapa. TOVS Troo~a$ O.VTOV, ev- 

vapLcrTtav avTOf KCU. avros fiv 

"\*1 s \ 

TT/S. (tTTOKplUtlS 06 O 

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ed. And one of them, 'seeing is 
that he was healed, turned 
back, and with a loud voice 
glorified God, and ""fell on his ~ 
face at his feet, giving him 
thanks ; and he was a Samari- 
tan. And Jesus, answering, 17 
said, "Were not 'the ten cleans- 
ed? but where are the nine? 
"Were there none found 'to re- 18 
turn, and give glory to God, 
"except this stranger ? And he 19 
said to him, 'Rise, and "depart ; 
thy faith *hath saved thee. And 20 
being asked by the Pharisees, 
when the kingdom of God 
would come, he answered them, 

"seeing;" I8m>. As in v. 14. So Kend., M., Sharpe, 
Perm, Sawyer, Thelwall. Tlie participial construction is used by 
Thom., Scarlett, Norton, Wakef., Dick., and Camp. (i. e., " per- 

P " fell ; " ertsasv. " Down " is superfluous. Omitted by 
Kend., Thetwall, Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Wesley, Sawyer. 

"the ten;" ol B&.. Scholefield, Sharpe, Penn, Norton, 
Wakef., Kendrick, Angus, Thelwall, M. Belg., " de tien ; " De 
Wette, " die zehn ; " G. and S. Fr., " les dix ; " Iber., " los diez ; " 
Italian, " i dieci ; " Danish, " de ti." The euphonic adverb after 
" were," of E. V., is superfluous. 

r Were found ; " evgefrijifav. It is not necessary to regard 
this aorist as a substitute for the present. It refers to tlte time 
of the -return (vnoor^sfnvTes) which was past. So Sharpe, 
Norton, Kend. Vulg., " est inventus ; " Mont., " sunt invent! ; " 
Eras., Beza, " sunt reperti ; " Goschen, Schott, " apparuprunt." 
The whole verse is interrogative, according to the punctuation of 
the Text. Eecept. of Bagster. So Erasmus (Gr. text), Griesb., 
Tisch., Lachm., Knapp, Theile, Tittm., Scholz, Schott, Trollope 
(Gr. text), Kuincel. So in the versions, Vulgate, Erasmus, 
Castalio, Goschen, Schott, Belgic, Luther, De Wette, S. Fr., 
Iber., Ital., Danish, Junius and Murdock (from Syriac), Thorn., 
Sharpe, Penn, Norton, Kend., Camp., Angus. The punctuation 
of the E. V. was copied from Wiclif, or Tyndale. 

" were there none found ; " ov% evgedyaav. Kendrick, M., 
Thorn., Scarlett, Sharpe, Penn, Dick.; Kend., Angus. The aorist 
here is rendered as above. See last note. 

t " to return ; " imoar^i\fnvTss. Kend., Sharpe. The literal 
rendering " returning" would not accord with our usus loquendi. 
"The participle is very often put for the infinitive." Matthasi 
(Gram., g 550, obs. 4). See ch. 10 : 25, note. 


' except ; " si fifj. Kend., Scarlett, Norton, Dick., Camp.. 
" Save " is obsolete. 

v " Else ; " 'Avaoras. See ch. 8 : 54, note. 

w " depart ; " noQsvov. So (E. T.) Luke 4 : 42. John 16 : 7. 
Acts 5 : 41 ; 22 : 21. 2 Tim. 4 : 10. Bob. (Lex., iriverbo) : " To 
pass on, to go away, to depart." The phrase " to go one's way " 
is obsolete. 

* " hath saved ;" aeacaxe. So E. V., Luke 7 : 50 (acacaxe) ; 
18 : 42. Thelwall, M., Wesley, Norton. From the fact that the 
Samaritan received a marked commendation from Christ, because 
he returned and gave him thanks, while there is a tacit reproof 
of " the nine," it would seem that acocaxe has a force beyond 
that implied in " hath made thee whole," or " healed thee." The 
nine were made whole or healed, as well as the Samaritan. 
Hence a literal rendering of the verb by " saved," is deemed 
deemed most appropriate. To this may be added, that the heal- 
ing of the Samaritan is represented in v. 15 by IO.&TJ. 

* " being asked ; " 'Emsymiid'sis. Thorn., Scarlett, Sharpe, 
Kendrick, Wesley, Norton, Wakef., M., Thelwall (" being ques- 

z " would come ; " l'^r. M., Wakef., Murdock. " Would," 
instead of " should," is employed by Thomson, and several later 
translators. I suggest as an alternative rendering, " When doth 
the kingdom of God come ? " and in the answer, " The kingdom 
of God doth not come." By this, I^STK* has its literal render- 
ing in the present, in both instances. So Wesley, " AVhen com