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Full text of "An unpublished fragment of the Fourth gospel in the John Rylands library [microform]"

FLLOW QF T. JOH 



WRIGHT SI 
THE LIBRARIAN 
DEANSGAfTE. 





VIENT 

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IN THE 



THE 
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EDITED BY 



F ST. JOHN'S, COLLEGE,/ OXFORD ^ 



THE MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY 
LIGHT STREET, MANCHESTER,:^; 
BRARIAN, THE JOHN RYLANDS 
.NSGATE. MCMXXXV 



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I^N-UNPUBLTSHED-FRA 
OF THE FOURTH G 



iD-FRAGMENT 
GOSPEL 





3 

o 



AN 

UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 
OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

IN THE 

JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

EDITED BY 

G. H. ROBERTS, M.A. 

>* 

FELLOW OF ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD 



WITH FACSIMILE 



MANCHESTER : THE MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY 
PRESS, 8-10 WRIGHT STREET, MANCHESTER, 15 ; 
AND THE LIBRARIAN, THE JOHN RYLANDS 
LIBRARY, DEANSGATE. MCMXXXV 







O 







AN 

UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 
OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

IN THE 

JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

EDITED BY 

C. H. ROBERTS, M.A. 

> 

FELLOW OF ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD 



WITH FACSIMILE 



MANCHESTER: THE MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY 
PRESS, 8-10 WRIGHT STREET, MANCHESTER, 15 ; 
AND THE LIBRARIAN, THE JOHN RYLANDS 
LIBRARY, DEANSGATE. MCMXXXV 




First Impression 



Second Impression 



November* 



December, 1935 




PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY 
THE ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY PRESS LIMITED 



D- 

* ,-A .A 



PREFATORY NOTE 

THE precious little fragment of a papyrus codex 
which is described in the following pages, forms 
part of the hitherto unpublished portion of the 
collection of Greek papyri in the John Rylands 
Library. 

The particular group to which this fragment 
belongs was acquired in Egypt by the late Pro- 



fessor Bernard P. Grenfell in 1920. 

For many years Queen's College, Oxford, has 
been a centre of Egyptian and papyrological 
studies, and it was there that Dr. Grenfell 
directed the attention of his friend and fellow- 
Queen's man, Arthur S. Hunt, to the great 
possibilities offered by the discovery of papyrus 
fragments among the de*bris and rubbish heaps 
of towns in the Fayum and other districts in or 
near the Nile Valley. 

Between 1895 and 1907 a number of joint 
expeditions on the part of these two scholars 

5 



PREFATORY NOTE 

yielded a rich harvest, and popular interest was 
aroused by the publication in 1897, and again in 
1904, ofLogia JesUy or Sayings of Our Lord, which were 
among the first-fruits of a series of finds extending 
over many years, bringing to the two brilliant 
pioneers a reputation for scholarship and research 
which rapidly became world wide. 

It was during these joint expeditions that the 
John Rylands collection of papyri was acquired, 
at first for the late Earl of Crawford,_and^after 
the^acquisition of the Crawford Collection of 
Manuscripts, including the papyri, by the late 
Mrs. Rylands in 1901, for the Governors of the 
Rylands Library. 

The Library's indebtedness to these two 
scholars was further increased by their under- 
taking to prepare a catalogue of the collection. 
Unfortunately, ill-health, and the pressure of 
other claims upon his time, prevented Dr. Gren- 
fell from taking any active part in this work, 
which consequently devolved upon Dr. Hunt. 

The first volume of the resulting Catalogue 

6 



PREFATORY NOTE 

of Greek papyri in the John Rylands Library, which 
dealt with the literary texts, made its appear- 
ance in 1913. This was followed in 1915 by 
the second volume, devoted to documents of the 
Ptolemaic and Roman period, the preparation 
and publication of which was carried out by 
several collaborating scholars under the super- 
vision of Dr. Hunt. 

Arrangements for the publication of the re- 



documents of the Byzantine period, and includ- 
ing those acquired in 1920 by Dr. Grenfell, 
which were to form the third volume of the 
Catalogue, were also undertaken by Dr. Hunt, 
but by his untimely death in 1934 the Library 
was deprived of his services, even before he 
had found time to do more than a little pre- 
liminary sorting. 

Fortunately, just before his death, Dr. Hunt 
had arranged with the present editor, Mr. C. H. 
Roberts, Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, to 
take over the work of preparing for publication 

7 



PREFATORY NOTE 

the remaining unpublished portions of the Rylands 
collection. 

It was in the process of sorting over the re- 
sidue of the collection that Mr. Roberts found 
the Grenfell purchase to contain some extremely 
interesting papyri, including a considerable number 
of literary texts, among them some unknown his- 
torical writings, and a very interesting Christian 
letter attacking the Manichees, but the gem of the 
-collection is ^the fragment of^tr^John-s Gospel- 
which forms the subject of the present volume. 

We regard this fragment to be of such out- 
standing importance, representing, as Mr. Roberts 
has pointed out in his introduction, the earliest 
known fragment of any part of the New 
Testament, and probably the earliest witness 
to the existence of the Gospel according to 
St. John, that we have considered it advisable 
to make the text accessible to scholars, without 
delay, in this separate form. 

Not since the discovery of the two Logia papyri, 
at Oxyrhynchos (P. Oxy. i and P. Oxy. 654) have 

8 



PREFATORY NOTE 

any Christian papyri come to light which raise 
so many and such interesting problems as the 
Chester Beatty codices of the early third century, 
the fragment of a papyrus codex of an unknown 
Gospel of the second century acquired last year 
by the Trustees of the British Museum, and this 
Rylands fragment of a canonical Gospel of a date 
at least as early. 

To Mr. Roberts belongs the credit of having 
identified the text of the fragment, and on be- 
half of the Governors of the Library we desire 
to congratulate him not only upon his discovery, 
but upon the masterly way in which he has 
presented the palaeographical and textual results 
of his investigations to our readers. 

HENRY GUPPY, 

Librarian. 
The John Rylands Library, 

November, 1935. 



AN UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT OF THE 

FOURTH GOSPEL 1 

P. Ryl. Gk. 457. Fragment of a leaf of a papyrus 
codex, 8-9 x 6 cm. ; text 6-4 x 5'8 cm. ; upper 
margin and part of inner margin preserved. 
Written in dark ink on papyrus light in colour 



and of good quality. On verso a KoXXrjfjia or 
perhaps part of a strengthening strip to cover the 
fold of the sheet. First half of the second 
century. 

THE discovery of the famous Chester Beatty 
biblical papyri now in course of publication, 2 
followed close by that of the Unknown Gospel 
(P. Egerton 2) in the British Museum, 3 has 
added so much to our knowledge of the history 
of the text and of the way in which it was 
produced (with all that this involves for the 
study of early Christianity in general) and at 

ii 



AN UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 

the same time has opened up so wide a field for 
speculation that a new piece of evidence, how- 
ever small, is of quite peculiar interest. This 
must be the excuse for the separate publication 
here of a small fragment whose text is given 
below, one of the as yet unpublished papyri in 
the possession of the John Rylands Library, 
which contains on the recto part of verses 
3 I "33> on the verso part of verses 37-38 of 

_The_fact_that_ 



it is part of a codex, not of a roll, need now 
cause no surprise; thanks to recent discoveries 
we are coming to regard the codex as the 
normal vehicle for Christian literature even in 
the second century.) 4 Its importance may be 
stated very briefly : if the argument of the 
present article is correct, it is the earliest known 
fragment of any part of the New Testament and 
probably the earliest witness to the existence of 
the Gospel according to St. John. As this claim 
rests solely upon considerations of palaeography, 
it is as well to turn our attention to this before 

12 



OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

embarking on the discussion of other problems, 
none the less interesting if incapable of a final 
solution, which such a text suggests. 

Any exact dating of book hands is, of course, 
out of the question; all we can do is to com- 
pare the script as a whole and the forms of 
particular letters with those found in other texts 
and particularly in dated documents. A glance 
at the accompanying photograph shows the dis- 
tinct character of our text ; the scribe writes in 
a heavy, rounded and rather elaborate hand, 
often uses several strokes to form a single letter 
(cf. the eta and particularly the sigma in Recto, 
1. 3) with a rather clumsy effect and is fond of 
adding a small flourish or hook to the end of 
his strokes (cf. the omega, the iota and the 
upsilon) ; among particular letters the epsilon 
with its cross stroke a little above the centre, 
the delta, the upsilon and the mu may be 
noted. Some of these features can be paralleled 
from dated documents ; but before citing any 
of these it will be convenient to mention two 

13 



AN UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 

literary texts to which it bears a striking re- 
semblance. The first of these is no. 19 (c) in 
Schubart's Papyri Graecae Berolinenses, part of a 
roll containing Iliad, Bk. IX, assigned to the end 
of the first or beginning of the second century 
in the original publication, but which Schubart 
now prefers to date to the closing decades of 
the first century; 6 in spite of some differences 
(notably the alpha which is of an earlier 
type) the Berlin text presents the closest parallel 
to our text that I have been able to find a 
view which I was glad to find shared by so 
great an authority as Sir Frederic Kenyon. 
The second text and this resemblance, by no 
means the only one between the two manu- 
scripts, is suggestive is P. Egerton 2, assigned 
by the editors to the middle of the second 
century, a judgment which, as they remark, errs, 
if at all, on the side of caution. 6 Although 
P. Egerton 2 is written in a lighter and less 
laboured hand, the family resemblance between 
the two is unmistakable; the forms of the up- 

14 



OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

silon, the mu and the delta in the two texts are 
akin and most of the characteristics of our hand 
are to be found, though in a less accentuated 
form, in P. Egerton 2. To turn to dated docu- 
ments; here the most important parallels are 
P. Fayum no (A.D. 94), which shows, as does 
our text, the simultaneous use of two forms of 
alpha, and, less close, New Palao graphical Society 
II, 98 (P. Lond. 2078, a private letter written 
in the reign of Domitian), while of interest for 



forms of particular letters are P. Oslo 22, a 
petition dated in A.D. 127 (n.b. the eta, the mu 
and the iota) and Schubart, Griechische Palao- 
graphie, Abb. 34 (p. 59), a document written 
before the death of Trajan in A.D. 117. If only 
to exemplify the need of caution, it should 
be mentioned that Sir Frederic Kenyon, while 
of the opinion that the affinities of the text are 
early rather than late 7 and that one can 
hardly go wrong in dating it in the first half 
of the second century, points out that some 
similarities are to be found in P. Flor. i, a 

15 



AN UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 

cursive document of A.D. 153. In this text the 
upsilon, the omega and sometimes the alpha 
are similar to those in our text, but other letters 
are radically different and its general style is 
not very close to that of P. Ryl. Gk. 457. On 
the whole we may accept with some confidence 
the first half of the second century as the period 
in which P. Ryl. Gk. 457 was most probably 
written a judgment I should be much more 
loth to pronounce were it not supported by Sir 
Frederic Kenyon, Dr. W. Schubart and Dr. 
H. I. Bell who have seen photographs of the 
text and whose experience and authority in 
these matters are unrivalled. 

A few other palaeographical niceties deserve 
mention. In employing the diaeresis both pro- 
perly (as in R. 1. 2 ovSevdiva) and improperly 
(e.g. in iva. in V. 1. 2) and in omission of the 
iota adscript our papyrus is in agreement with 
P. Egerton 2 ; that both these practices are not 
inconsistent with a date in the first half of the 
second century has been clearly shewn by the 

16 



OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

editors of that text and needs no discussion 
here. 8 The writer of P. Ryl. Gk. 457 (as far 
as one can judge from the scanty evidence) used 
neither stops nor breathings ; his orthography, 
apart from a couple of itacisms, is good and 
his writing, if not that of a practised scribe, is 
painstaking and regular. In this respect the 
verdict of the editors of P. Egerton 2 upon the 
writer of that text is applicable to ours : 
P. Ryl. Gk. 457 also has a somewhat " informal 
air" about it and with no claims to rrnlT 



writing is yet a careful piece of work. But 
there is one point on which P. Ryl. Gk. 457 in 
all probability differs from P. Egerton 2, and as 
it may be of importance for the date, it is as 
well, to consider it now : that is, the method of 
writing the nomina sacra. Throughout P. Eger- 
ton 2 certain nomina sacra are invariably con- 
tracted 9 in accordance with what is almost uni- 
versal practice and the contraction marked by 
a horizontal line drawn over the top of the 
letters. Unfortunately none of the nomina sacra 

17 c 



AN UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 

which are abbreviated either in P. Egerton 2 
or in the Chester Beatty codex of Gospels and 
Acts occur in the surviving text of our frag- 
ment, but in R. 1. 5 where 'Irja-ovv must be 
supplied it is probable that this which, if any 
of the nomina sacra (to judge from later practice), 
would be contracted, was left unabbreviated ; 10 
if it was uncontracted, the line would contain 
32 letters, or 33 if HetAaroy is read for HiXdro? ; 
if contracted to IH, there would be only 28 
letters, whereas the average number of letters per 
line for the four lines where no possible nomina 
sacra are to be supplied, is 33, (IHN, found in 
the Chester Beatty papyri of the early third 
century is also a possibility, but the editors of 
P. Egerton 2 suggest that IH may be the earlier 
form). In Recto 1. 2 'Irjo-ov could be contracted 
and there would remain either 31 or 32 letters 
to the line according to the form of the con- 
traction; but the probability is that the nomina 
(or at least T^o-oOy) were uncontracted in this 
text. Not much stress can be laid on this 

18 



OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

argument, especially as we must reckon with the 
possibility of varieties of spelling or text in the 
missing passages ; but still it remains a slight 
support for the early date to which the manu- 
script has been assigned on palaeographical 
grounds. For while it is no doubt true that 
the presence of the abbreviated nomina sacra in 
a manuscript is no evidence against a second 
century date (as in the case of P. Egerton 2), 
especially as the practice was probably Jewish 
in origin and is found in early papyri of the 
Septuagint such as P. Baden 56 and the 
Chester Beatty codex of Numbers and Deuter- 
onomy, both of the second century, 11 yet this 
would make it more difficult to assign a late 
date to a manuscript in which 'fyo-oOy at least 
for Oeos and Kvpios the text supplies no evidence 
remains uncontracted, suggesting as it does 
that either the Christian sacred books were not 
yet on a par with the Septuagint or that a 
canon was not yet established. 

Another question of bibliographical interest 

'9 



AN UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 

remains to which an answer must be attempted 
what was the size of the original codex and 
how much did it contain ? Part of seven lines 
both on recto and verso are preserved together 
with part of the inner margin so that it is 
possible to calculate not only the amount of text 
contained in a single page, but also the length 
of the line and the size of the page. The 
average number of letters to the line is 33 on 
-the recto and 29/30 on the verso, (Ihis-dis=- 
parity is explained, as Mr. T. G. Skeat has 
pointed out to me, by the fact that whereas on 
the verso the scribe was writing toward the 
inner margin and would be limited by the fold 
of the leaf, i.e. if he wrote too close the initial 
letters of the right-hand columns of the outer 
leaves would be obscured, on the recto he was 
writing towards the outer margin and so could 
allow himself more latitude.) Eleven lines 
would be required to fill the gap between recto 
and verso : this gives us a page of eighteen lines 
and allowing for a lower margin of the same 

20 



OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

height as the upper, the codex would have been 
a little over 21 cm. high while its breadth- 
assuming that the margin was uniform would 
be c. 20 cm. Making allowance for the fact 
that the lines on the verso were slightly shorter 
than those on the recto, we can estimate that 
the entire Gospel of St. John would occupy 130 
pages or, with title-page, probably 66 leaves. 
What is slightly surprising is the size of the 
codex relative to the quantity of text it con- 
tained. A comparison with the Chester Beatty 
codex of Gospels and Acts is interesting: this, 
measuring 10 x 8 inches (as compared with the 
8-25 x 8 inches of P. Ryl. Gk. 457) with 39 lines 
to the page and nearly 50 letters to the line, 
contained all five books within 220 pages or no 
leaves. A codex written on the scale of P. Ryl. 
Gk. 457, in order to contain the four Gospels 
alone, would have to consist of approximately 
288 leaves. Although it would be unsafe to be 
dogmatic, it is highly unlikely that, at this early 
date, a papyrus codex of such a size would have 



21 



AN UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 

been manufactured. (The largest of the Chester 
Beatty codices, from the figures given by the 
editor, seems to have been that of Isaiah which 
when complete would have consisted of a single 
quire of 112 leaves.) 12 It is far more probable 
that the. codex to which this fragment belonged 
contained nothing but the one Gospel; we may 
then compare it with P. Oxy. 208 +1781, a 
third-century papyrus codex of St. John's Gospel, 

2f-letters 



to the line would have consisted when complete 
of 50 leaves. This is not in itself surprising, 
especially when we remember that this Gospel 
was not immune from attack as late as the 
end of the second century and in some circles 
at least was not regarded as being of equal 
authority with the Synoptic Gospels. 13 Keriyon 
has argued from the existence of the second- 
century codex of Numbers and Deuteronomy 
that we should be prepared to admit that the 
codex may have been used for the books of 
the New Testament in the second century (a 

22 



OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

suggestion amply confirmed by P. Egerton 2 and 
the present text), and also that the Christians of 
that period may have been accustomed to see 
the four Gospels in a single book ; 14 while this 
discovery by no means invalidates this second 
suggestion, yet we may do well to reflect that in 
circles where the Gospels still circulated in 
separate codices, i.e. where the stage of including 
the four in a single book and consequently of 
regarding them as an authoritative unity had 
not been reached, it would be considerably 
easier to explain the existence of such an ap- 
parently orthodox and respectable "fifth gospel" 
as that represented by P. Egerton 2. 15 Why the 
early Christian communities should have pre- 
ferred to have their sacred books written in the 
codex form rather than in the common roll 
form remains as obscure as ever; it may be re- 
marked in passing that the papyrus codex was 
cheaper than the roll in that both sides of the 
papyrus could be utilised with the minimum of 
inconvenience to the reader, although in this 

23 



AN UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 

case, to judge from the spacing and the size of 
the hand, it is unlikely that the format was 
affected by considerations of economy. 

Unfortunately, the provenance of the papyrus 
cannot be exactly determined. It was one of a 
large number purchased for the Library by the 
late B. P. Grenfell in 1920 ; the group to which 
it belongs consists of some literary texts and 
documents of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, 
all of^whieh are stated to have come either^ 
from the Fayum or from Oxyrhynchos. Con- 
sidering the enormous number of papyri found 
in both of these districts, this information is 
not of very much value, The editors of P. 
Egerton 2 note that Oxyrhynchos is "the most 
natural place of origin for the Gospel frag- 
ments": 16 it would be most interesting if it 
could be proved that these two texts, similar in 
several respects, were of the same provenance, 
but the evidence at our disposal is too slight to 
admit of any such proof, and we must be con- 
tent with the hypothesis that they may both 

24 



OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

have originated from the same early Christian 
community in Middle Egypt. 

Clearly no deductions can be drawn from so 
small a fragment as to the affinities or quality 
of the text itself; the only new contribution it 
has to make to textual criticism is the probable 
omission of the second ek TOVTO in v. 38 (v. 
note). But it may well have some bearing on 
the wider problem as to the date of the Gospel 
-according to St. John. Not only is it the 
earliest text of the Gospel ; it is also most 
probably the earliest substantial evidence for 
the existence of the Gospel. It is clear from 
Justin Martyr that the Gospel was known in 
Rome soon after the middle of the century, and 
it is possible that Papias, whose writings are 
placed between 135 and 165, alludes to it 
though he does not mention it by name ; " on 
the basis of the present discovery we may as- 
sume that it was circulating in Middle Egypt in 
the first half of the second century. This would 
imply a slightly earlier date for composition, 

25 d 



AN UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 

especially if with some critics we hold that 
the Gospel was first intended for a select circle 
at Ephesus ; from Ephesus to Middle Egypt is 
a far cry, and in the case of the Unknown Gospel 
the editors (The New Gospel Fragments, p. 17) 
allow for a time-lag of about thirty years 
between the date of composition and that of 
the MS. But all we can safely say is that 
this fragment tends to support those critics who 
-favour an earlydate (late first to early second- 
century) for the composition of the Gospel 
rather than those who would still regard it a 
work of the middle decades of the second cen- 
tury. 18 But to trespass on these fields is to go 
beyond the limits proper to the present writer: 
de hac re viderint sapientiores. 

In our fragment the recto the side on which 
the fibres of the papyrus run parallel to the writing 
precedes the verso ; if, as was the usual practice, 19 
the sheets before folding were laid with the recto 
side uppermost, the succession of pages on the 
sheet would have been verso, recto, recto, verso 

26 



OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

and our fragment would belong to the second leaf 
of the bifolium ; but there is nothing to determine 
the arrangement of the codex. There are no 
traces of numeration. 

The text is given below exactly as it appears 
in the papyrus except that the words have been 
divided. A dot below a letter denotes that it is 
either badly mutilated or that very small traces 
of it remain ; square brackets [ ] indicate 
lacunae (which have been filled up from the 
text of Westcott and" HorT)7 20 ~doTjble- S quare 



brackets [ 1 an erasure by the scribe, 

angular brackets < > an addition to the text 
of the MS., round brackets ( )-in this publica- 
tion only a letter whose presence or absence in 
the text is uncertain. 



27 d * 



AN UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 

RECTO (c. xvm, w. 31-33) 

01 iov8ai[oi] r)fjLe[tv OVK e^ecrTtv airoKTei 
ovSeva Iva o Xofyoy rov irjcrov TrXrjpcodrj ov i\ 

TTCV (T7)IJL(UVa>[v TTOICO QaVOLTto rjfJLeX\V 

OvyarKtiv ur[rj\0v ovv 7ra\Lv ety TO 
5 piov o ^[(e^Xaroy K.OLL ^wvrja-ev TOV 'Irja-ovv] 
KOU nr[V aura) orv ei o /BacriXevs rav tov-] 



VERSO (c. xvm, w. 37-38) 



[Xevf eifju eyco eis ro]uro < y[e\'yvvijfJLOu, 
[/cat <is TOVTO> \rj\vda et? TOV Kojaytoz/ iVa fj.apTV- 
[prjo-co TTJ aXrjOeia ?ray o c0v]eK TTJS aXr)0e[t-] 
[ay aKovei JJLOV TTJ? Qcovrjs] Aeyet aurto 
5 [o 7r(e)iXaroy TL (TTIV aXrjdeta K\OLL TOVTO 
[enrcov TraXiv e^rjX0ev irpo$\ TOVS to[u- 
KOLI Aeyet OLVTOLS -yco o 



Recto I 1. r)fjuv : 4 1. ei 
28 



OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

Recto 1-2. It is clear that the scribe did not adopt 
the common practice, found among other texts in 
P. Egerton 2, of indicating either the beginning or 
the end of a speech by leaving a small blank 
space ; so we cannot reckon with this in calcu- 
lating the length of the lines or the size of the 
page. In 1. i a diaeresis should perhaps be placed 
over the final iota of touSatot ; the traces are too 
faint to decide whether this is the case or whether 
the scribe, as in v. 1. 6 made an iota reaching 
above the level of the line. 

4-5. In placing iraXw before eis TO TrpaiTupwv, our 
-papyrus agrees with_the_JVIaticaiius, the Codex 



Ephraemi and the restored text of the Codex Bezae, 
some other MSS. and the Armenian and one of the 
Syrian versions (followed by the text of Westcott 
and Hort) ; the reverse order is supported among 
MSS. by the Sinaiticus and the Alexandrinus, by 
the Gothic version and another Syriac version and 
is maintained by Tischendorf. 

Verso 2. If the full text is supplied in this line, we 
are left with 38 letters to the line in place of the 
average 29/30 ; consequently it is fairly certain 
that our text represents a shorter version. Most 
probably we should reckon with the omission of 
the repeated et? rouro, perhaps a slip, but more 
probably a genuine variant, although unsupported 
by any other MS. 

29 



AN UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 

3. The letter after aXyO seems to have been corrected 
or erased : possibly we should read aX^U^]] but pro- 
bably the scribe's pen slipped while he was making 
the epsilon. 

1 1 am indebted to Dr. H. I. Bell for very kindly ad- 
vising me on several matters in the preparation of 
this article. 

2 The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri, fasc. 1-4, by F. G. 

Kenyon, London 1933-1934. The codex of Gospels 
and Acts to which reference will be made is 
published in the second fascicule. 

3 Fragments of an Unknown Gospel and Other Early 

Christian Papyri, by H. Idris Bell and T. C. Skeat, 
London 1935. The volume is henceforward re- 
ferred to as P. Land. Christ. 

*Cf. F. G. Kenyon, Books and Readers in Greece and 
Rome, pp. 94 sqq. Since that was written, there 
is the additional evidence of the papyri published 
in P. Lond. Christ. 

5 Griechische Palaographie, pp. 1 17-1 18. 

6 P. Lond. Christ., pp. i sqq. 

7 On this point Dr. Schubart writes: " Manche Ziige 

erinnern sogar an das i. Jahrhundert; aber in 
Ganzen fiihrt der Stil der Schrift doch mehr ins 2. 
Jahrhundert." 

8 Op. cit. } pp. 4-6. 

9 For the nomina sacra in P. Egerton 2, v. op. cit., 

pp. 2-4 : for those in the Chester Beatty papyri 
v. Kenyon's article in Aegyptus XIII, pp. 5-10. 

30 



OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

10 Traube, Nomina Sacra, p. 113, remarks "Es gibt wohl 
keine griechische Handschrift, die die Namen des 
Gottessohnes mit vollen Buchstaben bote ; kommt 
eintnal ein ausgeschriebenes IH20V2 vor, so kann 
man meist ganz leicht die Absicht oder das Versehen 
nachweisen." The only exception to this rule 
among papyri quoted by Traube is P. Oxy. 407, a 
Christian prayer of the third or fourth century ; 
probably (v. Traube, op. cit., p. 90) this is a private 
copy and as such not evidence for the practice in 
theological texts proper. It is difficult to argue 
from the fourth and subsequent centuries to the 
second ; but the paucity of manuscripts in which 

appear un- 



contracted, even occasionally, is very striking, cf. 
op. cit.j pp. 53 sqq. In the Abinnaeus papyri, a 
group of official and business documents of the 
middle fourth century, 0eo> and 6eov (P. Lond. 
II, p. 301) are found side by side with the con- 
tracted forms : Traube (p. 49) considers this as 
the mark of a "ganz ungebildeter Schreiber." 
See further, for the method of writing nomina sacra 
in the papyri, G. Rudberg, Neutestamentlicher Text 
und Nomina Sacra, p. 60, and, for a brief discussion of 
fresh evidence and theories advanced since Traube's 
publication, Franz Boll's introduction to Traube, 
Vorlesungen und Abhandlungen, III, pp. vi-x. 
11 To the best of my knowledge the only biblical papyrus 
in which 0eo? and KU/HO? appear uncontracted is 
P. Oxy. 656, a codex of Genesis assigned to the early 

31 



AN UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 

third century. In the introduction the editors remark 
that, although the absence of contraction may be 
no more than an individual peculiarity, it might be 
construed as evidence for the antiquity of the text. 
Traube, however (op. cit., p. 90) classes this fragment 
with the fifth-century palimpsest of Aquila's trans- 
lation of the Psalms (apparently the only MS. which 
consistently gives the uncontracted forms of these 
words) and regards both as being influenced by a 
secondary and non-Alexandrine Jewish tradition. 
12 For a discussion of the size of papyrus codices v. Gardt- 
hausen, Griechische Palaographie, pp. iSS'W ( who 
quotes none consisting of more than 40 leaves), 
Schubart, Das BucfTl)ei~deTr~Griechen und~Rdmern, 
p. 128, and Kenyon, Greek Paleography, p. 25. I 
do not know of any full treatment of this subject ; 
but the largest papyrus codices of Greek texts of 
early date known to me (apart from the Chester 
Beatty papyri, for which see Kenyon, fasc. i, 
pp. 6-9) are as follows : 

(i) P. Oxy. ion, remains of a codex of Galli- 
machus, Aitia and Iambi, late fourth century, 
consisting originally of over 100 leaves. 

(ii) The Michigan Shepherd of Hermas (ed. Gamp- 
bell Bonner, University of Michigan Press, 1934), 
second half of the third century, 86 leaves, with 
originally 12 or 14 more. 

(iii) The Menander codex (ed. G. Lefebvre, Cairo, 
1907), fifth century, 70 leaves. 

32 



OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

(iv) P. Oxy. 22, part of a codex containing the 
Oedipus Tyrannus, fifth century, at least 65 leaves. 

(v) The Morgan papyrus of Iliad, xi.-xvi. (v. 
Plaumann, SB. Preuss. Akad., 1912, pp. 1202 sqq.), 
probably the second volume of a three-volume 
edition, c. A.D. 300, 62 leaves. 

(vi) The Washington MS. of the Minor Prophets 
(ed. H. A. Sanders, University of Michigan Human- 
istic Series, vol. xxi.), second half of the third cen- 
tury, probably '48 leaves. 

(vii) The Berlin codex of Aristophanes (ed. 
Schubart-Wilamowitz, Berliner Klassikertexte, V, 
xviii), fifth century, of at least 40 leaves. 



\m* * 'i' JU Jb 

and comparatively early date the largest known to 
me is P. Ryl. i, 53, a codex of the Odyssey of the 
late third or early fourth century, which when com- 
plete would have consisted of 207 leaves ; it is run 
close by the fifth-century Washington MS. of the 
Gospels (ed. H. A. Sanders, New York, 1912) of 
187 leaves. It may be noted that the earliest in this 
list is at least 100 years later than P. Ryl. Gk. 457 ; 
but that quite large papyrus codices were used at 
an early date is shown by the fact that the earliest 
of the Chester Beatty papyri, the codex of Numbers 
and Deuteronomy which is assigned to the second 
century, consisted of 108 leaves. 

13 Cf. B. H. Streeter, The Four Gospels, pp. 436 sqq. 

14 Recent Developments in the Textual Criticism of the Greek 

Bible, pp. 32-35. 

33 



AN UNPUBLISHED FRAGMENT 

15 For the general character of this Gospel, cf. P. Lond. 

Christ., p. 30. 

16 Ibid., p. 7. On the hypothesis that both P. Egerton 2 

and P. Ryl. 457 came from Oxyrhynchos, the fact that 
the former is more closely connected with St. John's 
Gospel than with the Synoptists, as is clear from the 
verbal parallels pointed out by the editors, gives an 
added interest to the relationship of the two papyri ; 
in this connection Dr. Bell has pointed out to me 
that the date of composition of the Unknown Gospel 
and the date of the papyrus may be nearer together 
than was originally allowed for. 

17 Cf. Streeter, op. cit., pp. 12-13, 19 sqq. 



18 E.g. M. Loisy who in his recent La naissance du Chris- 

tianisme (1933), p. 59, is of the opinion that there 
were two redactions of the Gospel, the first c. 135- 
140 A.D., the second c. 150-160. But the balance 
of modern critical opinion seems to favour an earlier 
date, cf. Streeter, op. cit., pp. 45 6 -457> who would 
date it c. 90-95 and, in general, W. F. Howard, 
The Fourth Gospel in Recent Criticism and Interpretation. 

19 v. Schubart, Das Buck, pp. 129-130, Kenyon, Books and 

Readers, p. 104. 

20 For the sake of conformity with the text, the iota sub- 

script, accents and breathings have been omitted 
from the supplements as well. 



34 



OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL 

ADDENDUM 

To the list of papyrus codices in note 12, the following 
addition should be made : 

P. Oxy. 2072, a leaf from a codex dated in the late 
third century A.D., containing a Christian apologetic 
writing and consisting of over 50 leaves. 



35 



BS 

3615 

.R6U 







Roberts 

An unpublished frag- 
ment tf " the f ourth 

-dap. 12-6-62 



UNIVERSITY OF CHCAGO 






SWIFT HAL 



II 



:o 



CHli