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First Edition, 1903. 
Second Edition, 1904. 










OvSev e(TTiv apeivov elprjvijs, ev 37 iras TrpXepos 


P 6CTIN H efp^NH HM(3iN. 


AN English commentator on the Epistle to the Ephesians 
-^- finds a portion of the detail of his work already done 
by the master-hand of Bishop Lightfoot in his edition of the 
companion Epistle to the Colossians. For the discussion of 
particular words I have accordingly referred again and again 
to Lightfoot's notes. Where I have felt obliged to differ from 
some of his interpretations, it has seemed due to him that 
I should state the ground of the difference with considerable 
fulness, as for example in more than one of the detached notes : 
for we may not lightly set aside a judgment which he has 

Lightfoot had himself made preparations for an edition of 
Ephesians ; but only an introductory Essay and notes on the 
first fourteen verses have seen the light (Biblical Essays, 
pp. 375396 ; Notes on Epistles of St Paul, pp. 307324). 
A more solid contribution to the study of the epistle is to be 
found in Hort's Introductory Lectures (Prolegomena to Romans 
and Ephesians, pp. 63 184). I have nothing to add to the 
discussion of the authorship of this epistle which these lectures 


My object has been to expound the epistle, which is the 
crown of St Paul's writings. I have separated the exposition 
from the philological commentary, in order to give myself 
greater freedom in my attempt to draw out St Paul's meaning : 
and I have prefixed to each section of the exposition a trans- 
lation of the Greek text. In this translation I have only 

viii PREFACE. 

departed from the Authorised Version where that version 
appeared to me to fail to bring out correctly and intelligibly 
the meaning of the original. The justification of the renderings 
which I retain, as well as of those which I modify or reject, 
must be sought in the notes to the Greek text. 

In order to retain some measure of independence I have 
refrained from consulting the English expositors of the epistle, 
but I have constantly availed myself of Dr T. K. Abbott's work 
in the International Critical Commentary, since it is as he 
says 'primarily philological.' 

I offer the fruit of a study which has extended over the 
past ten years as a small contribution to the interpretation of 
St Paul. The truth of the corporate life which was revealed 
to him was never more needed than it is to-day, Our failure 
to understand his life and message has been largely due to our 
acquiescence in disunion. As we rouse ourselves to enquire 

to us afresh. 

Several friends have helped me in seeing this book through 
the press: I wish to thank in particular the Reverend 
J. O. F. Murray and the Reverend R. B. Rackham. 

Feast of the Transfiguration^ 1903. 







On the meanings o/'yapig and ^aptroSy 221 

'The Beloved' as a Messianic title 229 

On the meaning of p.v(rrrfpi.ov in the New Testament 234 

On evepyelv and its cognates 241 

On the meaning of eniyvaxris 248 

On the meaning of 7r\ypa>fia 255 

On the word <rvvapfio\oyelv 260 

On TTcopaxns and Tnjpaxris 264 

On some current epistolary phrases 275 

Note on various readings 285 




I T PAUL was in Rome : not, as he had once hoped, on a St Paul in 

friendly visit of encouragement to the Roman Christians, 
resting with them for a few weeks before he passed on to 
preach to new cities of the further West ; not in the midst 
of his missionary career, but at its close. His active work was 

practically done : a brief interval of release might permit him 

to turn eastwards once again ; but to all intents and purposes 
I his career was ended. He was a prisoner in Rome. 

To know what had brought him there, and to comprehend th . e 

. . . . climax of 

his special mission, of which this was in truth no unfitting his mis- 
climax, we must pass in brief review the beginnings of the 
Christian story. 

I. Our Lord's earthly life began and ended among a people i- One 
the most exclusive and the most hated of all the races under ministry 
the universal Roman rule. But it was a people who had an un- ( imlted to " 
paralleled past to look back upon, and who through centuries of 
oppression had cherished an undying hope of sovereignty over 
all other races in the world. Our Lord's life was essentially a 
Jewish life in its outward conditions. In every vital point He ; 
conformed to the traditions of Judaism. Scarcely ever did 1 . 
He set foot outside the narrow limits of the Holy Land, th& 

*/ * 

area of which was not much larger than that of the county of 
Yorkshire or the principality of Wales, With hardly an excep- 
tion He confined His teaching and His miracles to Jews. He 
was not sent, He said, but unto the lost sheep of the house of 
EPHES. 2 i 


Israel. It is true that He gave hints of a larger mission, of 
founding a universal kingdom, of becoming in His own person 
the centre of the human race. But the exclusive character of. 
His personal ministry stood in sharp contrast to those wider 
hopes and prophecies. He incessantly claimed for His teaching 
that it was the filling out and perfecting of the sacred lessons 
of the lawgivers and prophets of the past. He seemed content 
to identify Himself with Hebrew interests and Hebrew aspira- 
tions. So it was from first to last. He was born into a Jewish 
family, of royal lineage, though in humble circumstances ; and 
it was as a Jewish pretender that the Romans nailed Him to 
a cross. 

2. The 2. The little brotherhood which was formed in Jerusalem 

Church to carry on His work after His Ascension was as strictly limited 

vriftTthe ^ * ne sphere of its efforts as He Himself had been. It was 

samelimi- composed entirely of Jews, who in no way cut themselves off 

from the national unity, and~^who were zealous worshippeTs~~inr 

the national temple. It was a kind of Reformation movement 

within the Jewish Church. It sought for converts only among 

Jews, and it probably retained its members for the most part 

at the national centre in the expectation of the speedy return 

of Jesus as the recognized national Messiah, who should break 

the Roman power and rule a conquered world from the throne 

of David in Jerusalem. 

A popular "We cannot say how long this lasted: perhaps about five 
ment, years. But we know that during this period a long one in 
the childhood of a new society the Apostles and the other 
brethren enjoyed the esteem and good will of all except the 
governing class in Jerusalem, and that their numbers grew 
with astonishing rapidity. The movement was characteristi- 
cally a popular one. While the Sadducaic high-priestly party 
dreaded it, and opposed it when they dared, the leader of the 
Pharisees openly befriended it, and 'a great multitude of the 
priests' (who must be distinguished from their aristocratic 
rulers) ' became obedient to the faith ' (Acts vi. 7). This 
statement indicates the high-water mark of the movement in 


its earliest stage. It shews too that there was as yet no breach loyal to 
at all with Judaism, and that the specifically Christian gather- 
ings for exhortation, prayers and eucharists were not regarded 
as displacing or discrediting the divinely sanctioned sacrificial 
worship of the temple. 

3. But the Apostles had received a wider commission, 3. A crisis 
although hitherto they had strictly adhered to the order of the O n 
Lord's command by ' beginning at Jerusalem.' A crisis came 
at last. A storm suddenly broke upon their prosperous calm : 
a storm which seemed in a moment to wreck the whole structure 
which they had been building, and to dash their fair hope of 
the national conversion in irretrievable ruin. 

The Jews of Alexandria had been widened by contact with by St 

Greek philosophy and culture. They had striven to present - 1 

their faith in a dress which would make it less deterrent to teaching ' 
the Gentile mind. If we cannot say for certain that St Stephen 
sentative of the Hellenistic element in the Church at Jerusalem. 
A large study of the Old Testament scriptures had prepared 
him to see in the teaching of Christ a wider purpose than others 
saw. He felt that the Christian Church could not always 
remain shut up within the walls of Jerusalem, or even limited 
to Jewish believers. What he said to suggest innovation and 
to arouse opposition we do not know. We only know that the What he 
points on which he was condemned were false charges, not to have 
unlike some which had been brought against the Lord Himself. said- 
He was accused of disloyalty to Moses and the temple the 
sacred law and the divine sanctuary. His defence was drawn 
from the very writings which he was charged with discrediting. The politi- 
But it was not heard to the end. He was pleading a cause uniterto 168 
already condemned; and the two great political parties were^ demn 
at one in stamping out the heresy of the universality of 
the Gospel. For it is important to note the change in the 
Pharisaic party. Convinced that after all the new movement 
was fatal to their narrow traditionalism, they and the common 
people, whose accepted leaders they had always been, swung 


round into deadly opposition. The witnesses, who by the law 

must needs cast the first stones at the condemned, threw off their 

upper garments at the feet of a young disciple of Gamaliel. 

Persecn- The murder of St Stephen was followed by a general perse- 

ters the cution, and in a few days the Apostles were the only Christians 

Church, left in j erusa i enit We may fairly doubt whether the Church 
which is as a whole would have been prepared to sanction St Stephen's 
vo^edVn ^ me ^ t eacmn g- Had they been called to pronounce upon it, 
the conse- they might perhaps have censured it as rash and premature, if 
the wider not indeed essentially unsound. But they were never asked 

without 8 ' *ke question. They were at once involved in the consequences 
be ! D 3 . of what he had taught, with no opportunity of disclaiming it. 
sanction Providence had pushed them forward a step, and there was 

no possibility of a return. 

4. The 4. The scattered believers carried their message with them ; 

nines" of an( ^ they soon found themselves proclaiming it to a widening 

xt ^ slon ~circle~of~hearers; StPhilip preaches-to-the-unorthodox and 

Gentiles. half-heathen Samaritans; later he baptises an Ethiopian, no 

*j* Jew, though a God-fearing man. St Peter himself formally 

declares to a Roman centurion at Caesarea that now at length 

he is learning the meaning of the old saying of his Jewish Bible, 

that ' God is no respecter of persons'. At Antioch a Church 

springs up, which consists largely of Gentile converts. 

but Saul, But we must go back to Jerusalem to get a sight of the 

thesuc- man on wnom St Stephen's prophetic mantle has fallen. He 

cessorof was w th him when he was taken up, and a double portion 
Stephen. .... . . 

of his spirit is to rest upon him. The fiery enthusiasm of the 

persecuting Saul, the most conspicuous disciple of the greatest 
Pharisee of the age, was a terrible proof that Christianity 
had forfeited the esteem and favour of her earliest years in 
Jerusalem. The tide of persecution was stemmed indeed by 
his conversion to the persecuted side: but for some time his 
own life was in constant danger, and he retired into obscurity. 
He came out of his retirement as the Apostle, not of a 
Christianized Judaism, but of St Stephen's wider Gospel for 
the world. 


Alike by birth and training he was peculiarly fitted to be Hia three- 
the champion of such a cause. A Jew, born in a Greek city, 
and possessed of the Roman franchise, he was in his own person 
the meeting-point of three civilisations. In a unique sense 
he was the heir of all the world's past. The intense devotion 
of the Hebrew, with his convictions of sin and righteousness 
and judgment to come; the flexible Greek language, ready 
now to interpret the East to the West; the strong Roman 
force of centralisation, which had made wars to cease and had 
bidden the world to be at one: in each of these great world- 
factors he had, and realised that he had, his portion : each of 
them indeed was a factor in the making of his personality 
and his career. With all that the proudest Jew could boast, 
he had the entry into the larger world of Greek culture, and 
withal a Roman's interest in the universal empire. He was 
a man to be claimed by a great purpose, if such a purpose 
-there were to claim him; His Judaism could never have 
enabled him to enter on the fulness of his inheritance. Chris- 
tianity found him ' a chosen vessel ', and developed his capacity 
to the utmost. 

The freer atmosphere of the semi-Gentile Church in Antioch Antioch. 
marked out that great commercial centre as a fitting sphere ing-point. 
for his earliest work. From it he was sent on a mission to 
Cyprus and Asia Minor, in the course of which, whilst always 
starting in the Jewish synagogue, he found himself perpetually 
drawn on to preach his larger Gospel to the Gentiles. Thus Gentile 

r or Churches 

along the line of his route new centres of Gentile Christianity founded. 
were founded, Churches in which baptism practically took the 
place of circumcision, and Jews and Gentiles were associated 
on equal terms. At Antioch, on his return, the news of this 
was gladly welcomed : ' a door of faith ' had been opened to the 
Gentiles, and they were pressing into the kingdom of God. 

5. We could hardly have expected that the Christians of 5- 
Jerusalem, now again returned to their home, would view the of the 
matter with the same complacency. The sacred city with its believer. 
memories of the past, the solemn ritual of the temple, the holy 


language of the scriptures and the prayers of the synagogue 
all spoke to them of the peculiar privileges and the exceptional 
destiny of the Hebrew people. Was all this to go for nothing ? 
"Were outside Gentiles, strangers to the covenant with Moses, 
to rise at a bound to equal heights of privilege with the 
circumcised people of God ? 

His dis- We are apt to pass too harsh a judgment on the main body 

natural, of the Jewish believers, because we do not readily understand 
the dismay which filled their minds at the proposed inclusion of 
Gentiles in the Christian society, the nucleus of the Messianic 
kingdom, with no stipulation whatever of conformity to Jewish 
institutions. Day by day, as the Jewish believer went to his 
temple-prayers, it was his proud right to pass the barrier 
which separated Jew from Gentile in the house of God. What 
was this intolerable confusion which was breaking down the 
divinely constituted middle-wall of partition between them? 
His~dearest~hope, whicirthe words~~of ~Christ~had~only~seemed~ 
for a moment to defer, was the restoration of the kingdom 
to Israel. What had become of that, if the new society was to 
include the Gentile on the same footing as the Jew ? Was not 
Christ emphatically and by His very name the Messiah of the 
Jewish nation? Could any be a good Christian, unless he 
were first a good Jew? 

Theren- I* is essential to an understanding of St Paul's special 
^Christ' B^ 88 * 011 * an( ^ f *he whole view of Christianity which he was 

disguises led to take during the progress of that mission, that we should 
from us . i i !/. 

the Jewish appreciate this problem as it presented itself to the mmd of 

essia . ^ j^ W jj jj a( j Believed in Christ. The very fact that 
throughout the Apostolic writings the Greek translation X/MGTO? 
takes the place of the Hebrew 'Messiah' disguises from us the 
deep significance which every mention of the name must have 
had for the Palestinian Christian. The Syriac versions of the 
New Testament, in which the old word naturally comes back 
again, help us to recover this special point of view. How 
strangely to take a few passages at random 1 do these words 

r i Cor. viii ir, is 12, xii 27. 


sound to us: 'him who is weak, for whom the Messiah died'; 
' the Gospel of the Messiah ' ; ' ye are the body of the Messiah *. 
Yet nothing less than this could St Paul's words have meant 
to every Jew that heard them. 

Again, St Paul's own championship of Gentile liberty is St Paul's 

j. 1.- . xi . j. ^ j j. ii wn sense 

so prominent in his writings, that we are tempted to overlook of the 

those passages which shew how keenly he himself realised 
the pathos of the situation. A Hebrew of purest Hebrew 
blood, a Pharisee as his father was before him, he saw to his 
bitter sorrow, what every Jewish Christian must have seen, that 
his doctrine of Gentile freedom was erecting a fresh barrier 
against the conversion of the Jewish nation: that the very 
universality of the Gospel was issuing in the self-exclusion of 
the Jew. The mental anguish which he suffered is witnessed 
to by the three great chapters of the Epistle to the Romans 
(ix xi), in which he struggles towards a solution of the 
-problem. { A disobedient and gainsayingjpeople ' it is, as the 
prophet had foretold. And yet the gifts and the calling of 
God are never revoked ; ' God hath not cast off His people, 
whom He foreknew '. The future must contain somewhere the 
justification of the present: then, though it cannot be now, 
' all Israel shall be saved '. It is the largeness of his hope The 
that steadies him. His work is not for the souls of men so Q f hope 

much as for the Purpose of God in Christ. The individual 
counts but little in comparison. The wider issues are always hitn - 
before him. Not Jews and Gentiles merely, but Jew and 
Gentile, are the objects of his solicitude. Not the rescue of 
some out of the ruin of all is the hope with which the Gospel 
has inspired him, but the summing up of all persons and all 
things in Christ. 

6. The feeling, then, which rose in the minds of the Chris- 6. The 
tian portion of the Jewish people on hearing of the proposed an <j i\ s 
indiscriminate admission of Gentiles into the Church of Christ lssue> 
might have found its expression in the cry, ' The Jewish Messiah The 
for the Jews ! ' Gentiles might indeed be allowed a place in 
the kingdom of God. The old prophets had foretold as much 


as this. Nor was it contrary to the established practice of 
later Judaism, after it had been forced into contact with the 
Greek world. The Gentile who submitted to circumcision and 
other recognised conditions might share the privileges of the 
chosen people. But admission on any lower terms amounted 
to a revolution; the very proposition was a revolt against 
divinely sanctioned institutions. 

not taken We are not to suppose that the Apostles themselves, or 

Apostles. even *k majority of the Jewish believers, took so extreme 
a view : the conference at Jerusalem is a proof that they did 
not. But even they may well have been perplexed at the 
swiftness with which a change was coming over the whole face 
of the movement in consequence of St Paul's missionary action: 
and they must have perceived that this change would be 
deeply obnoxious in particular to those earnest Pharisees whom 
they had led to believe in Jesus as the nation's Messiah. 
_ The_con= - Some of the- more ardenfc^of these found theirway fco~~ 

Antioch. Antioch, where they proclaimed to the Gentile believers : 
' Except ye be circumcised after the custom of Moses, ye cannot 
be saved '. Happily St Paul was there to champion the Gentile 
cause. We need but sketch the main features of the struggle 
that ensued. 

The con- A conference with the Apostles and Elders in Jerusalem 
& was * ne fi 18 * s * e P- Here after much discussion St Peter rises 

lem - and recalls the occasion on which he himself had been divinely 
guided to action like St Paul's. Then comes the narrative of 
facts from the missionaries themselves. Finally St James 
formulates the decision which is reached, 'to lay on them 
no other burden ' than certain simple precepts, which must of 
necessity be observed if there were to be any fellowship at all 
between Jewish and Gentile believers. 

The So the first battle was fought and won. The Divine 

averted attestation given to St Paul's work among the Gentiles was a 

for the proof that God had opened to them also the door of faith. 
moment * * 

vonly. They were pressing in : who could withstand God by trying to 
shut the door ? But when the novelty of the wonder wore 


away, the old questionings revived, and it seemed as though 
the Church must be split into two divisions Jewish and 
Gentile Christians. 

To St Paul's view such a partition was fatal to the very Two con- 
mission of Christianity, which was to be the healer of the e pi s ti es . 
world's divisions. The best years of "his life were accordingly 
devoted to reconciliation. Two great epistles witness to this 
endeavour : the Epistle to the Galatians, in which he mightily 
defends Gentile liberty ; and the Epistle to the Romans, in 
which, writing to the central city of the world, the seat of its 
empire and the symbol of its outward unity, he holds an even 
balance between Jew and Gentile, and claims them both as 
necessary to the Purpose of God. 

One practical method of reconciliation was much in his Gentile 
thoughts. Poverty had oppressed the believers in Judaea. Here to 
was a rare chance for Gentile liberality to shew that Sfc Paul 
jH[as_right_in_saying_that_Jew and Gentile were-one-manin 

Christ. Hence the stress which he laid on the collection of 
alms, ' the ministry unto the saints ' (2 Cor. ix i). The alms 
collected, he himself must journey to Jerusalem to present 
them in person. He knows that he does so at the risk of his 
life : but if he dies, he dies in the cause for which he has lived. 
His one anxiety is lest by any means his mission to Jerusalem 
should fail of its end; and he bids the Roman Christians 
wrestle in prayer, not only that his life may be spared, but also 
that ' the ministry which he has for Jerusalem ', or, to use an 
earlier phrase, 'the offering of the Gentiles', may be 'acceptable 
to the saints ' (Rom. xv 16, 31). 

His journey was successful from this point of view ; but it St Paul's 
led to an attack upon him by the unbelieving Jews, and a long imprison- 
imprisonment in Caesarea followed. Yet even this, disastrous ment 
as it seemed, furthered the cause of peace and unity within 
the Christian Church. St Paul was removed from the scene of 
conflict. Bitter feelings against his person naturally subsided 
when he was in prison for his Master's sake. His teachings 
and his letters gained in importance and authority. Before he 


was taken to bis trial at Rome the controversy was practically 

dead. Gentile liberty had cost him his freedom, but it was an 

accomplished fact. He was 'the prisoner of Jesus Christ on 

close the behalf of the Gentiles'; but his cause had triumphed, and the 

contro- t * 

yersy. equal position of privilege of the Gentile converts was never 
again to be seriously challenged. 

7. The /. Thus St Paul had been strangely brought to the place 


of the where he had so often longed to find himself. At last he was 

to P tne 6 ^ Jft me: a prisoner indeed, but free to teach and free to write. 
Ephe- And from his seclusion came three epistles to the Philippians, 

to the Colossians, and ' to the Ephesians '. 

A non- The circumcision question was dead. Other questions were 

sial expo- being raised ; and to these the Epistle to the Colossians in 
positive Particular is controversially addressed. This done, his mind is 
truth: fr ee f or one supreme exposition, non-controversial, positive, 

fundamental^-of the-great-doetrine-of- his_life==that-doctrine_ 

into which he had been advancing year by year under the 
discipline of his unique circumstances the doctrine of the 
unity of mankind in Christ and of the purpose of God for the 
world through the Church. 

the issue The foregoing sketch has enabled us in some measure to 
tory and 8 see h w St Paul was specially trained by the providence that 
mediate 11 " ru ^ ^is life to be the exponent of a teaching which transcends 
circum- a li other declarations of the purpose of God for man. The best 

stflJI Cfifl - 

years of his Apostolic labour had been expended in the effort to 
preserve in unity the two conflicting elements of the Christian 
Church. . And now, when signal success has crowned his 
labours, we find him in confinement at the great centre of the 
world's activity writing to expound to the Gentile Christians of 
Asia Minor what is his final conception of the meaning and 
aim of the Christian revelation. He is a prisoner indeed, but 
not in a dungeon : he is in his own hired lodging. He is not 
crushed by bodily suffering. He can think and teach and 
write. Only he cannot go away. At Rome he is on a kind of 
watch-tower, like a lonely sentinel with a wide field of view 


but forced to abide at his post. His mind is free, and ranges 
over the world past, present and future. With a large liberty 
of thought he commences his great argument 'before the 
foundation of the world ', and carries it on to 'the fulness of the 
times', ^mbracing in its compass 'all things in heaven and on 
the earth '. 

8. If the writer's history and circumstances help us to 8. The 

MI i readers 

understand the meaning of his epistle, so too will a considera- O f the 

tion of the readers for whom it was intended. But here we epis e * 
meet with a difficulty at the very outset. The words ' in Omission 
Ephesus' (i i) are absent from some of our oldest and best words 'in 
MSS., and several of the Greek Fathers make it clear that they Ephesus'. 
did, not find them in all copies. Indeed it is almost certain 
that they do not come from St Paul himself 1 . 

There are good reasons for believing that the epistle was A circular 
intended- as a circular letter, an encyclical, to go the round of 
"many~Ghurches-in-^A:sia Minor; We-have-parallels-to-this-in 

I St Peter and the Apocalypse, in both of which however the 
Churches in question are mentioned by their names. 

' The capital of the Roman province of Asia was Ephesus. Naturally 
To Ephesus suc^h a letter would naturally go first of all : and f rst to 
when in later times a title was sought for it, to correspond E P hesnfl - 
with the titles of other epistles, no name would offer itself so 
readily and so reasonably as the name of Ephesus. Accordingly Hence its 
the title 'TO THE EPHESIANS' was prefixed to it. And if, as 
seems not improbable, the opening sentence contained a space 
into which the name of each Church in turn might be read 
'to the saints which are * * * and the faithful in Christ 
Jesus' it was certain that in many copies the words 'in 
Ephesus' would come to be filled in. 

The internal evidence of the epistle itself is in harmony The 

Vf*fl d *l*$t 

with the view that it was not specially intended for the Ephe- i n large 
sian Church. For in more than one place the Apostle appears know^to 
to be writing to Christians whom he has never seen, of whose St Paul, 
faith he knew only by report, and who in turn knew of his 
1 See the detached note on iv " 


teachings only through the medium of his disciples (i 15, iii 2, 
iv 21). 

St Paul's Moreover the encyclical nature of the epistle removes what 

relation would otherwise be a most serious objection to its authenticity. 

Ephesus. ^ we rea d the notices of St Paul's relations with Ephesus, as 

they are given by St Luke in the Acts, we observe that for a 

long while he appears to have been specially checked in his 

efforts to reach and to settle in that important centre. At one 


time 'he was "forbidden by the Holy Ghost to preach the word 
in Asia* (xvi 6). Other work must take precedence. Not 
only were the Galatian Churches founded first, but also the 
European Churches Philippi, Thessalonica, Corinth. Then 
on his way back from Corinth he touches at the city of his 
desire, but only to hurry away, though with a promise to 
return, if God so will (xviii 21). At last he comes to remain, 
and he makes it a centre, so that 'all they which dwelt in 


Ephesian elders at Miletus, when he believes that he is saying 
his last words to them, ' For three years night and day I ceased 
not to warn every one of you with tears' (xx 31). 

Yet this To judge by the other letters of St Paul, we should expect 

has 8 no * ^^ a l 6 ^ 6 ? to the Ephesians unusually full of personal 

saluta- details, reminiscences of his long labours, warnings as to special 

indi- dangers, kindly greetings to individuals by name. We are 

struck by the very opposite of all this. No epistle is so general, 

so little addressed to the peculiar needs of one Church more 

than another. As for personal references and greetings, there 

are none. Even Timothy's name is not joined with St Paul's 

at the outset, as it is in the Epistle to the Colossians, written 

at the same time and carried by the same messenger : not one 

proper name is found in the rest of the epistle, except that of 

Tychicus its bearer. 'Peace to the brethren', is its close; 

'grace be with all that love our Lord*. 

Theincon- The apparent inconsistency disappears the moment we strike 

filstPTlCV '" . 

disap- out the words ' in Ephesus '. No one Church is addressed : the 
pears, if j e ^ er w j|i g O ^he round of the Churches with the broad lessons 


which all alike need: Tychicus will read in the name from this is a 

" ' ' tf*ll*tf*lll fll* 

place to place, will explain St Paul's own circumstances, and letter. 
will convey by word of mouth his messages to individuals. 

Thus the local and occasional element is eliminated : and The elimi- 
in this we seem to have a further explanation of that wider the local 

view of the Church and the world, which we have in part 
accounted for already by the consideration of the stage in a wider 


the Apostle's career to which this epistle belongs, and by 
the special significance of his central position in Rome. 

The following is an analysis of the epistle : Analysis. 

i i, 2. Opening salutation. 

i 3 14. A Doxology, expanded into 

(a) a description of the Mystery of God's will: elec- 
tion (4), adoption (5), redemption (7), wisdom (8), 
consummation (io)j 

(6) a statement that Jew and Gentile alike are the 
-portion-of-God-(-i-r -1-4);- 

i 15 ii 10. A Prayer for Wisdom, expanded into a descrip- 
tion of God's power, as shewn 
(a) in raising and exalting Christ (19 23), 
(J) in raising and exalting us in Christ, whether 

Gentiles or Jews (ii i 10). 

ii 10 22. The Gentile was an alien (n, 12); but is now 
one man with the Jew (13 18); a fellow-citizen (19), 
and part of God's house (20 22). 
iii i 13. Return to the Prayer for "Wisdom ; but first 

(a) a fresh description of the Mystery (26), 

(b) and of St Paul's relation to its proclamation (7 13). 
iii 14 21. The Prayer in full (14 19), with a Doxology 

(20, 21). 
iv i 16. God's calling involves a unity of life (i 6), 

to which diversity of gifts is intended to lead (7 14) 

the unity in diversity of the Body (15, 16). 
iv 1 7 24. The old life contrasted with the new. 
iv 25 v 5. Precepts of the new life, 
v 6 21. The old darkness and folly: the new light and 



v 22 vi 9. Duties interpreted by relation to Christ : 
wives and husbands (22 33); 
children and parents (vi i 4); 
slaves and masters (5 9). 

vi 10 20. The spiritual warrior clad in God's armour. 

vi 2 1 24. Closing words. 

The The topic of the Epistle to the Ephesians is of pre-eminent 

Interest interest in the present day. At no former period has there 
been so widespread a recognition in all departments of human 

to the life of the need of combination and cooperation : and never, 


sians. perhaps, has more anxious thought been expended on the 

problem of the ultimate destiny of mankind. Whilst it is 

true that everywhere and always questions have been asked 

about the future, yet it is not too much to say that we, who 

have begun to feel after the truth of a corporate life as higher 

than an individual life, are more eager than any past generation 

has been to learn, and perhaps are more capable of learning, 

what is the goal for which Man as a whole is making, or, in 

other words, what is God's Purpose for the Human Race. 

The Among the perpetual marvels of the Apostolic writings is 

massage" 5 *^ e ^ ac *' *^ a * they contain answers to enquiries which have 

isfor all j on g wa ifc e d to be made : that, while the form of the written 

record remains the same for all ages, its interpretation 

grows in clearness as each age asks its own questions in 

its own way. 








One God, one law, one element, 
And one far-off divine event, 
To which the whole creation moves. 


T)AUL, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, to the i i, * 
-*- saints which are [at Epkesus] and the faithful in Christ 
Jesus : 2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

The two points which distinguish this salutation have been 
noticed already in the Introduction. No other name is joined with 
St Paul's, although the salutation of the Epistle to the Colossians, 
written at the same time, links with him f Timothy the brother*. 
No one Church is addressed, but a blank is left, that each Church 
in turn may find its own name inserted by the Apostle's messenger. 
Paul the Apostle, and no other with him, addresses himself not to 
the requirements of a single community of Christians, but to a 
universal need the need of a larger knowledge of the purposes 
of God. 

3 BLESSED be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, i 3-*4 
who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessing in the heavenly 
places in Christ : 4 according as He hath chosen us in Him before 
the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and 
blameless before Him in love ; 5 having foreordained us to the 
adoption of sons through Jesus Christ unto Himself, according 
to the good pleasure of His will, 6 to the praise of the glory 
of His grace, which He hath freely bestowed on us in the 
Beloved; 7 in whom we have redemption through His blood, the-: 
forgiveness of trespasses, according to the riches of His grace,, 
8 which He hath made to abound toward us in all wisdom and: 
prudence, 9 having made known unto us the mystery of His will, 
according to His good pleasure which He hath purposed in 
Him, 10 for dispensation in the fulness of the times, to gather 



up in one all things in Christ, both which are in the heavens 
and which are on earth; in Him, "in whom also we have been 
chosen as God's portion, having been foreordained according to 
the purpose of Him who worketh all things according to the 
counsel of His will, "that we should be to the praise of His 
glory, who have been the first to hope in Christ; I3 in whom ye 
also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your 
salvation, in whom also having believed, ye have been sealed 
with the holy Spirit of promise, I4 which is the earnest of our 
inheritance, unto the redemption of God's own possession, to 
the praise of His glory. 

From the outset the elimination of the personal element seems 
to affect the composition. Compare the introductory words of some 
of the epistles : 

1 Thess. * We thank God always concerning you all...' 

2 Thess. ' We are bound to thank God always for you...' 
Gal ?-I-mar-V-el-that-ye-are_sO-SOon_changing ' 

Col. 'We thank God always concerning you...' 

Here, however, no personal consideration enters. His great 

i3 theme possesses him at once: 'Blessed be God... who hath blessed 

us'. The customary note of thanksgiving and prayer is indeed 

sounded (vv. 15 .), but not until the great doxology has run its full 


There is one parallel to this opening. The Second Epistle to 
the Corinthians was written in a moment of relief from intense 
strain. The Apostle had been anxiously waiting to learn the effect 
2 Cor. vii of his former letter. At length good news reaches him : ' God', 
6 as he says later on, 'which comforteth them that are low, com- 

forted us by the coming of Titus'. In the full joy of his heart he 
begins his epistle with a burst of thanksgiving to the Divine 
2 Cor. i 3, Consoler : ' Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus 
4 Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort, who com- 

forteth us in all our trouble, that we may be able .to comfort them 
that are in any trouble, by means of the comfort with which 
we ourselves are comforted of God V 

The blessing there ascribed to God is for a particular mercy: 
* Blessed be God... who comforteth us'. But here no special boon is 
in his mind. The supreme mercy of God to man fills his thoughts : 
( Blessed be God... who hath blessed us'. 


The twelve verses which follow baffle our analysis. They are a vv. 3 14 
kaleidoscope of dazzling lights and shifting colours : at first we fail 
to find a trace of order or method. They are like the preliminary 
flight of the eagle, rising and wheeling round, as though for a 
while uncertain what direction in his boundless freedom he shall 
take. So the Apostle's thought lifts itself beyond the limits of 
time and above the material conceptions that confine ordinary men, 
and ranges this way and that in a region of spirit, a heavenly 
sphere, with no course as yet marked out, merely exulting in the 
attributes and purposes of God. 

At first we marvel at the wealth of his language : but soon we 
discover, by the very repetition of the phrases which have arrested 
us, the poverty of all language when it comes to deal with such 
topics as he has chosen. He seems to be swept along by his theme, 
hardly knowing whither it is taking him. He begins with God, 
the blessing which comes from God to men, the eternity of His 
purpose of good, the glory of its consummation. But he cannot 
order his conceptions, or close his sentences. One thought presses 
hard upon another, and will not be refused. And so this great 
doxology runs on and on: 'in whom... in Him... in Him, in whom... 
in whom. . .in whom. . . '. 

But as we read it again and again we begin to perceive certain 
great words recurring and revolving round a central point : 

'The will' of God: vv. 5, 9, n. 

'To the praise of His glory 7 : vv. 6, 12, 14. 

'In Christ' : vv. 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10 bis, n, 12, 13 bis. 

The will of God working itself out to some glorious issue in 
Christ that is his theme. A single phrase of the ninth verse sums 
it up : it is ' the mystery of His will'. 

In proceeding to examine the passage clause by clause we shall 
not here dwell on individual expressions, except in so far as their 
discussion, is indispensable for the understanding of the main 
drift of the epistle. But at the outset there are certain words and 
phrases which challenge attention; and our hope of grasping the 
Apostle's meaning depends upon our gaining a true conception 
of the standpoint which they imply. They must accordingly be 
treated with what might otherwise seem a disproportionate fulness. 

The third verse contains three such phrases. The first is : 'with i 3 
all spiritual blessing*. It has been suggested that the Apostle 
inserts the epithet ' spiritual ' because the mention of two Persons 
of the Blessed Trinity naturally leads him to introduce a reference 


to the third. Accordingly we are asked to render the woi-ds: 
'every blessing of the Spirit'. 

But a little consideration will shew that the epithet marks an 

important contrast. The blessing of God promised in the Old 

Testament was primarily a material prosperity. Hence in some of 

its noblest literature the Hebrew mind struggled so ineffectually 

with the problem presented by the affliction of the righteous and 

the prosperity of the wicked In the Book of Genesis the words 

Gen. xsii < fa blessing I will bless thee ' are interpreted by ' in multiplying I 

r ^ will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven'. In Deuteronomy 

Deut. the blessing of God is expressed by the familiar words : c Blessed 

XXV111 3 f( 

shalt thou be in the city, and blessed shalt thou be in the field ... 
Blessed shall be thy basket and thy store '. 

The blessing of the New Covenant is in another region: the 
region not of the body, but of the spirit. It is ' spiritual blessing', 
not carnal, temporal blessing. The reference then is not primarily 
to the Holy Spirit, though 'spiritual blessing-' cannot be thought 
of apart from Him. The adjective occurs again in the phrase 
v 19 'spiritual songs': and also in the remarkable passage : 'our wrest- 

-TTT2 ling-isTT^against-the-spiritual-(things)-of-wiekedness-in-the-heavenly 

(places)'. It is confirmatory of this view that in the latter passage 
it occurs in close connexion with the difficult phrase which we must 
next discuss. 

The expression t vn, the heavenly (places)' occurs five times in this 
epistle (13, 20; ii 6 ; iii 10 ; vi 12), and is found nowhere else. 
The adjective (eTroupavios) is not new : we find it in Homer and 
Plato, as well as in the New Testament, including other epistles of 
St Paul. The nearest parallel is in an earlier letter of the same 
Phil, ii 10 Roman captivity : ' every knee shall bow of things in heaven and 
things on earth and things under the earth '. 

It might be rendered 'among the heavenly things', or 'in the 

heavenly places ' : or, to use a more modern term, ' in the heavenly 

^ sphere'. It is a region of ideas, rather than a locality, which is 

suggested by the vagueness of the expression. To understand what 

* it meant to St Paul's, mind we must look at the contexts in which 

he uses it. 

Leaving the present passage to the last, we begin with i 20 : after 
the Resurrection God ' seated Christ at His right hand in the heavenly 
sphere, above every principality and authority and power and 
dominion, and every name that is named not only in this world but 
also in that which is to come'. Thus 'the heavenly sphere' is 
regarded as the sphere of all the ruling forces of the universe. The 


highest place therein is described in Old Testament language as Ps. ex i 
' God's right hand'. There Christ is seated above all conceivable rivals. 
We are not told whether the powers here spoken of are powers of 
good or powers of evil. The Psalm might suggest that the latter 
are at least included : ' Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make 
Thine enemies Thy footstool'. But St Paul's point is, as in 
Phil, ii i o, simply the supremacy of Christ over all other powers. 

In ii 6 we have the surprising statement that the position of 
Christ in this respect is also ours in Him. ' He raised us together 
and seated us together in the heavenly sphere in Christ Jesus ; that 
He might display in the ages that are coming the surpassing riches 
of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus '. 

In iii 10 we read : ' that there might now be made known to the 
principalities and powers in the heavenly sphere by means of the 
Church the very-varied wisdom of God '. St Paul is here speaking 
of his special mission to the Gentiles as belonging to the great 
mystery or secret of God's dealings throughout the ages : there are 
powers in the heavenly sphere who are learning the purpose of God 
through the history of the Church. 

The last passagejsjperhaps the most remarkable : *We have not vi 12 
to wrestle against blood and flesh, but against the principalities^ 
against the powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this 
world, against the spiritual (hosts) of wickedness in the heavenly 
sphere'. Our foe, to meet whom we need the very 'armour of 
God', is no material foe : it is a spiritual foe, a foe who 
attacks and must be fought 'in the heavenly sphere*. We are 
reminded of Satan standing among the sons of God and accusing Job i 6 
Job. We are reminded again of the scene in the Apocalypse : 
' there was war in heaven, Michael and his angels, to fight against Apoo. xii 7 
the dragon : and the dragon fought, and his angels '. 

We now return to our passage: 'Blessed be God ...who hath 13 
blessed us with all spiritual blessing in the heavenly sphere '. 

The heavenly sphere, then, is the sphere of spiritual activities : 
that immaterial region, the ' unseen universe ', which lies behind the 
world of sense. In it great forces are at work : forces which are con- 
ceived of as having an order and constitution of their own ; as having 
in part transgressed against that order, and so having become dis- 
ordered :, forces which in part are opposed to us and wrestle against 
us : forces, again, which take an intelligent interest in the purpose 
of God with His world, and for which the story of man is an 
object-lesson in the many-sided wisdom of God : forces, over all of 
which, be they evil or be they good, Christ is enthroned, and we in 


"We may call to our aid one other passage to illustrate all this. 
'The things in the heavens', as well as 'the things on earth', are 
to be summed up to be gathered up in one in the Christ 
(i 10). Or, as the parallel passage, Col. i 20, puts it : 'It pleased 
God to reconcile all things through Christ unto Himself, setting 
them at peace by the blood of the cross, whether they be the things 
on earth or the things in the heavens '. That is as much as to say, 
' The things in the heavens ' were out of gear, as well as ' the things 
on earth '. And so St Paul's Gospel widens out into a Gospel of the 
Universe : the heavens as well as the earth are in some mysterious 
manner brought within its scope. 

It is important that we should understand this point of view. 
' Heaven ' to us has come to mean a future state of perfect bliss. 
But, to St Paul's mind, 'in. the heavenly sphere' the very same 
struggle is going on which vexes us on earth. Only with this 
difference : there Christ is already enthroned, and we by representa- 
tion are enthroned with Him. 

In other words, St Paul warns us from the beginning that he 
takes a supra-sensual view of human life. He cannot rest in the 
'things-seen-'-t-they-are-not-the-eternal^-the-real-things-: they-are- 
but things as they seem, not things as they are : they are things 
2 Cor. ivi8 ' for a time ' (wpocrieaipa), not things ' for ever ' 

The third important phrase which meets us on the threshold of 
the epistle is the phrase 'in Christ'. It is characteristically Pauline. 
It is not, of course, confined to this epistle, but it is specially 
frequent here. 

A word must first of all be said as to the two forms in which 
St Paul uses the name ' Christ '. It is found sometimes with and 
sometimes without the definite article. The distinction which is 
thus introduced cannot always be pressed : but, speaking generally, 
we may say that in the first case we have a title, in the second a 
proper name : in other words, the first form lays emphasis on the 
Office held, the second on the Person who holds it. 

In the present passage, in speaking of the blessing wherewith 
God has blessed us, St Paul points to Christ as the Person in whom 
we have that blessing 'in Christ*. Below, in speaking more 
broadly of the purpose of God for the universe, he lays the stress 
i Jo upon the Ofiice of the Messiah ' to gather up in one all things in 

the Christ '. But it is possible that in many cases the choice be- 
tween the two forms was determined simply by the consideration of 
euphony. -^' 

The Messiah was the hope of the Jewish nation. Their expecta- 


tion for the future was summed up in Him. He was the Chosen, 
the Beloved, the Anointed o God; the ideal King in whom the 
nation's destiny was to be fulfilled. 

The Life and Death of Jesus were in strange contrast to the 
general Messianic expectation. The Resurrection and Ascension 
restored the failing hope of His immediate followers, and at the 
same time helped to translate it to a more spiritual region. They 
revealed the earthly Jesus as the heavenly Christ. 

To St Paul 'Jesus' was preeminently 'the Christ '; Very rarely 
does he use the name ' Jesus ' without linking it with the name or 
the title 'Christ' : perhaps, indeed, only where some special reference 
is intended to the earthly Life. So, for example, he speaks of ' the 2 Cor.iv 10 
dying of Jesus ' : and, in contrasting the earthly humiliation with 
the heavenly exaltation which followed it, he says: 'that in the PMl.uiof. 
name of Jesus every knee should bow,... and every tongue confess 
that Jesus Christ is LORD '. 

If the primary thought of the Messiah is a hope for the Jewish 
people, St Paul's Gospel further proclaims Him to be the hope of 
the world of men, the hope even of the entire universe. That the 
Christ was the Christ of the Gentile, as well as of the Jew, was the 
special message which he had been calletlTto annouirce=*1;o-bring-as-iii-8- 
a gospel to the Gentiles the unexplorable wealth of the Christ'. 
This was the mystery, or N secret of God, long hidden, now revealed : 
as he says to the Colossians : ' God willed to make known what is Col. i 27 
the wealth of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles ; which 
is Christ in you ' you Gentiles ' the hope of glory '. 

That ' the Christ ' to so large an extent takes the place of 'Jesus' 
in St Paul's thought is highly significant, and explains much that 
seems to call for explanation. It explains the fact that St Paul 
dwells so little on the earthly Life and the spoken Words of the 
Lord. He cannot have been ignorant of or indifferent to the great 
story which for us is recorded in the Gospels. Yet he scarcely 
touches any part of it, save the facts that Jesus was crucified, that 
He died and was buried, that He rose and ascended. Of the 
miracles which He wrought we hear nothing j of the miracle which 
attended His birth into the world we hear nothing. Of the struggles 
with the Pharisees, of the training of the Twelve, of the discourses 
to them and to the multitudes, he tells us nothing. It is a solitary 
exception when, as it were incidentally, he is led by a particular 
necessity to relate the institution of the Eucharist. 

It cannot have been that these things were of small moment in 
his eyes. He must have known at least most of them, and have 
valued them. But he had a message peculiarly his own : and that 


message dealt not with the earthly Jesus, so much as with the 
heavenly Christ. ' In the heavenly sphere ' his message lies. ' Hence- 
2 Cor. v 16 forth ', he says, ' know we no man after the flesh : yea, if we have 
known Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know we Him (so) 
no more '. The Death, the Resurrection, the Ascension these are 
to him the important moments of the life of Christ ; they are the 
ladder that leads upwards from ' Christ after the flesh ' to ' Christ 
in the heavenly sphere' the exalted, the glorified, the reigning 
Christ ; the Christ yet to be manifested as the consummation of the 
purpose of God. And if St Paul looked beyond the earthly life of 
the Lord in one direction, he looked beyond it also in another. To 
his thought ' the Christ ' does not begin with the historical ' Jesus '. 
The Christ is eternal in the past as well as in the future. The 
earthly life of Jesus is a kind of middle point, a stage of humiliation 
aCor.viiip for a time. 'Being rich, He became poor'; 'being in the form of 
Phil. ii6f. God... He humbled Himself, taking the form of a servant, coming 
to be in the likeness of men '. That stage of humiliation is past : 
' God hath highly exalted Him ' : we fix our gaze now on ' Jesus 
Christ ' ascended and enthroned. 

JWB_may_not,_indeed,_think_that_f-Jesus and Mine-Christ ean- 

, ever in any way be separated : St Paul's frequent combination of 
the two names is a witness against such a separation. Yet there 
are two aspects : and it is the heavenly aspect that predominates 
in the thought of St Paul. 

It is instructive in this connexion to compare the narrative of 

St Paul's conversion with the account that immediately follows of 

his first preaching. It was 'Jesus' who appeared to him in the 

Acts is 5 way : ' Who art thou, Lord ?. . .1 am Jesus '. He had always looked 

for the Messiah : he was to be taught that in Jesus the Messiah 

Acts ix 2 2 had come. The lesson was learned; and we read: 'Saul waxed 

strong the more, and confounded the Jews that dwelt in Damascus, 

proving that this was the Christ '. He had seen Jesus, risen and 

exalted : he knew Him henceforth as the Christ. 

"We observe, then, that the conception which the phrase 'in 
Christ' implies belongs to the same supra-sensual region of ideas to 
which the two preceding phrases testify. The mystical union or 
identification which it asserts is asserted as a relation, not to 
'Jesus ' the name more distinctive of the earthly Life^irbut to ' the 
Christ ' as risen and exalted. 

The significance of the relation to Christ, as indicated by the 
preposition 'in', and the issues of that relation, are matters on 
which light will be thrown as we proceed with the study of the 
epistle. But it is important to note at the outset how much is 


summed up in this brief phrase, and how prominent a position it 
holds in Sfc Paul's thought. 

In Christ, the eternal Christ, who suffered, rose, ascended, who 
is seated now at God's right hand supreme over all the forces of the 
universe : in Christ, in the heavenly sphere wherein He now abides, 
in the region of spiritual activities, all spiritual blessing is ours : in 
Christ God has blessed us ; blessed be God. > 

In the verses which follow (4 14) we have an amplification of w. 4-14 
the thoughts of v. 3, and especially of the phrase 'in Christ'. This 
amplification is introduced by the words 'according as'. 

And first St Paul declares that the blessing wherewith God hath 
blessed us is no new departure in the Divine counsels. It is in 
harmony, with an eternal design which has marked us out as the 
recipients of this blessing : ' according as He hath chosen us in Him i 4 
before the foundation oftJie world*. 

' He hath chosen us ' or ' elected us '. Election is a term which 
suggests at once so much of controversy, that it may be well to lay 
emphasis on its primary sense by substituting, for the moment, a 
wxDrd of the same meaning, but less trammelled by associations 
the word ' selection 3 . 

The thought that God in His dealings with men proceeds by the 
method of selection was not new to St Paul. The whole of the 
Old Testament was an affirmation of this principle. He himself 
from his earliest days had learned to cherish as his proudest posses- 
sion the fact that he was included in the Divine Selection. He 
was a member of the People whom God had in Abraham selected 
for peculiar blessing. 

, The Divine Selection of the Hebrew People to hold a privileged 
position, their ready recognition of that position and their selfish 
abuse of it, the persistent assertion -of it by the Prophets as the 
ground of national amendment this is the very theme of the Old 
Testament scriptures. It is on account of this, above all, that the 
Christian Church can never afford to part with them. Only as we 
hold the Old Testament in our hands can we hope to interpret the 
New Testament, and especially the writings of St Paul. Only the 
Mstory of the ancient Israel can teach us the meaning of the new Gal. vi 16 
* Israel of God^'. 

No new departure in principle was made by Christianity. Its 
very name of the New Covenant declares that God's method is still 
the same. Only the application of it has been extended : the area 
of selection has been enlarged. A new People has been founded, a 
People not limited by geographical or by racial boundaries : but 


still a People, a Selected People even as to-day we teach the 
Christian child to say : 'The Holy Ghost, which sanctifieth me and 
all the Elect People of God'. 

God, then, says St Paid, selected us to be the recipients of the 
distinctive spiritual blessing of the New Covenant. It is in accord- 
ance with this Selection that He has blessed us. 

i 4 The Selection was made ' in Christ before the foundation of 

the world'. That is to say, in eternity it is not new; though in 
time it appears as new. In time it appears as later than the 
Selection of the Hebrew People, and as an extension and develop- 
ment of that Selection. But it is an eternal Selection, indepen- 
dent of time ; or, as St Paul puts it, ' before the foundation of the 
world '. 

Here we must ask : Whom does St Paul regard as the objects 
of the Divine Selection? He says: 'Blessed be God... who hath 
blessed us... according as He hath selected us... before the foundation 
of the world '. What does he mean by the word ' us ' ? 

The natural and obvious interpretation is that he means to 
include at least himself and those to whom he writes. He has 
spoken-SQ-far_of no-others. Later_on_hejmll_distinguish_twi)_great_ 

, classes, both included in the Selection, of whom he has certain 
special things to say. But at present he has no division or dis- 
tinction. He may mean to include more : he can scarcely mean to 
include less than himself and the readers whom he addresses. 

It has been said that in the word ' us ' we have ' the language 
of charity ', which includes certain individuals whom a stricter use 
of terms would have excluded. That is to say, not all the members 
of all the Churches to whom the letter was to go were in fact 
included in the Divine Selection. 

To this we may reply : (i) Nowhere in the epistle does St Paul 
suggest that any individual among those whom he addresses either 
is or may be excluded from this Selection. 

(2) Unworthy individuals there undoubtedly were: but his 
appeal to them is based on the very fact of their Selection by God : 
iv i 'I beseech you, that ye walk worthy of the calling wherewith ye 

have been called '. 

The Old Testament helps us again here. Among the Selected 
People were many unworthy individuals. This unwOTthiness did 
not exclude them from the Divine Selection. On the contrary, the 
Prophets made their privileged position the ground of an appeal to 

Moreover, just as the Prophets looked more to the whole than 
to the parts, so St Paul is dominated by the thought of the whole, 


and of God's purpose with the whole. It is a new Israel that 
Christ has founded a People of privilege. "We are apt so far to 
forget this, as to regard St Paul mainly as the Apostle of individu- 
ality. But in the destiny of the individual as an individual he shews 
strangely little interest strangely, I say, in comparison with the 
prevailing thought of later times; though not strangely, in the 
light of his own past history as a member of a Selected People. 

"We take it, then, that by the word ' us ' St Paul means to 
include all those Christians to whom he intended his letter to come. 
It is reasonable to suppose further that he would have allowed his 
language to cover all members of the Christian Church every- 

The one doubt which may fairly be raised is whether the later 
phrase of v. 12, 'we who have been the first to hope in Christ', 
should be taken as limiting the meaning of 'us' in the earlier 
verses. This phrase we must discuss presently: but meanwhile it is 
enough to point out that the parallel passage in the Epistle to the 
Colossians, where some of the same statements are made (compare 
especially Eph. 1 6, 7 with Col. i 13, 14), has no such limitation, 
-and quite clearly includes the Gentiles to whom he was writing. 

We may therefore believe that here too the Gentile Christians are 
included, up to the point at which the Apostle definitely makes 
statements specially belonging to the Christian Jew. 

The aim of the Divine Selection is plainly stated in the words, 
' that we should be holy and blameless before Him, in love ', The i 4 
phrase c in love ' must be joined with the preceding words, not with 
those that follow ; although the latter collocation has some ancient 
interpreters in its favour. For (i) the same phrase occurs five 
times more in the epistle (iii 17, iv 2, 15, 16, v 2), and always in 
the sense of the Christian virtue of love not of the Divine love 
towards man: and (2) here it stands as the climax of the Divine 
intention. Love is the response for which the Divine grace looks ; 
and the proof that it is not bestowed in vain. On our side the 
result aimed at is 'love' : just as on God's side it is 'the praise of 
the glory of His grace '. 

' Having fore-ordained us unto the adoption of sons tlvrough i 5 
Jesus Christ unto Himself. The sonship of Man to God is implied, 
but not expressed, in the Old Testament. In the light of the later 
revelation it is seen to be involved in the creation of Man in the Gen.ia6f. 
Divine image, by which a relationship is established to which appeal Gen. is 6 
can be made even after the Fall. In a more special sense God is a Jer. xxxi 9 
Father to Israel, and Israel is the son of God. But sonship in the Ex. iv 22 


completest sense could not be proclaimed before the manifestation 
of the Divine Son in the flesh. He is at once the ideal Man and 
the Image of God. In Him the sonship of Man to God finds its 
realisation. Those who have been ' selected in Him ' are possessed 
of this sonship, not as of natural right, but as by adoption. Hence 
'the adoption of sons' is the distinctive privilege of the New 
Covenant in Christ. 

The doctrine of Adoption is not antagonistic to. the doctrine of 
the universal sonship of Man to God. It is on the contrary in the 
closest relation to it. It is the Divine method of its actualisation. 
The sonship of creation is through Christ, no less truly than the 
sonship of adoption. Man is created in Christ: but the Selected 
People are brought more immediately than others into relation with 
Christ, and through Christ with the Father. 

is 'According to the good pleasure of His will'. Ultimately, the 

power that rules the universe is the will of God. ' It pleased His 
will ' : we cannot, and we need not, get behind that. 

i 6 'To the praise of the glory of His grace '. This is the ordained 

issue : God's free favour to Man is to be gloriously manifested, that 


c Grace ' is too great a word with St Paul to be mentioned and 
allowed to pass. It will, as we shall see, carry his thought further. 
But first he will emphasise the channel by which it reaches us: 
'His grace, which He hath freely bestowed on us in the Beloved*. 
If ' the Beloved ' is a Messianic title, yet it is not used here without 
a reference to its literal meaning. In the parallel passage in 
Col. i 13 we have 'the Son of His love'. Just as in the Son, who 
is Son in a peculiar sense, we have the adoption of sons : so in the 
Beloved, who is loved with a peculiar love, the grace of God is 
graciously bestowed on us. 

w. 3-6 To sum up w. 3 6 : The blessing, for which we bless God, is 

of a spiritual nature, in the heavenly sphere, in the exalted Christ. 
It is in accordance with an eternal choice, whereby God has 
selected us in Christ. Its goal, so far as we are concerned, is the 
fulness of all virtues, love. It includes an adoption through Jesus 
Christ to a Divine sonship. Its motive lies far back in the will of 
God. Its contemplated issue in the Divine counsel is that God's 
grace, freely bestowed on us in His Well-beloved, should be gloriously 
manifested and eternally praised. 

It is noteworthy that up to this point there has been no 
reference of any kind to sin : nor, with the exception of a passing 
notice of the fact that it has been put out of the way, is there any 


allusion to it in the whole of the remainder of this chapter. We 
are taken in these verses into the eternal counsels of God. Sin, 
here as elsewhere in St Paul's teaching, appears as an interloper. 
It comes in to hinder the progress of the Divine Purpose; to check 
it, but not to change it. There is nothing to lead us to suppose 
that the grace of God comes to Man in Christ simply on account of a 
necessity introduced by sin. Sin indeed has served to magnify the 
grace of God : ' where sin hath abounded, grace hath yet more Bom. v 20 
abounded'. But the free favour which God has bestowed on the 
Selected People in Christ is a part of the eternal Purpose, prior to 
the entrance of sin. There is good reason to believe that the Incar- 
nation is not a mere consequence of the Fall, though the painful 
conditions of the Incarnation were the direct result of the Fall. 
And we may perhaps no less justly hold that the education of the 
human race by the method of Selection must likewise have been 
necessary, even if Man had not sinned at all. 

But the mention of ' grace ' leads St Paul on to speak of the 
peculiar glory of grace, on which he has so often dwelt. Grace is 
above all grace in baffling sin. 

c In whom we have redemption throug 
of trespasses'. We must again bear in mind St Paul's Jewish 
' training, if we are to understand his thought. This is especially 
necessary, where, as here, the terms which he employs have become 
very familiar to us. 

' Redemption '. God is often spoken of in the Old Testament as 
the Redeemer of His People Israel. The first great Redemption, 
typical of all the rest and frequently referred to as such by the 
Prophets, was the emancipation of Israel from the Egyptian bondage. 
With this the history of Israel, as a People, and not now a family 
merely, began. A new Redemption, or Emancipation, initiates the 
history of the New People. 

'Through His blood'. These words would be scarcely intel- 
ligible if we had not the Old Testament. To the Jewish mind 
' blood ' was not merely nor even chiefly the life-current flowing Gen. iv 10 
in the veins of the living : it was especially the life poured out in 
death ; and yet more particularly in its religious aspect it was 
the symbol of sacrificial death. The passover lamb whose blood 
was sprinkled on the lintel and doorposts was the most striking 
feature of the Redemption from Egypt. The sacrificial blood of the 
Mosaic 'ritual was the condition of the remission of sins: * without Heb. ix 22 
blood-shedding no forgiveness takes .place '. 

The New Covenant is the consummation of the Old. The 


Redemption is through the blood o Christ, and it includes 'the 
forgiveness of trespasses', 

17 ' According to the riches of His grace'. The mention of 'grace' 

had led to the thought of its triumph over sin : and this in turn 
leads back to a further and fuller mention .of * grace '. 

i 8 ' His grace which He hath made to abound towards us in aU 

wisdom and prudence'. The last words help to define the grace 
in another "way : among its consequences for us are ' wisdom and 
prudence'. Wisdom is the knowledge which sees into the heart 
of things, which knows them as they really are. Prudence is 
the understanding which leads to right action. "Wisdom, as it is 
set before us in the Sapiential books of the Old Testament, includes 
both these ideas : but with St Paul "Wisdom belongs specially to 
the region of the Mystery and its Bevelation. 

The great stress laid by St Paul on Wisdom in his later letters 
calls for some notice. In writing to the Corinthians at an earlier 
period he had found it necessary to check their enthusiasm about 
what they called Wisdom an intellectual subtlety which bred 
conceit in individuals and, as a consequence, divisions in the 

Christian Society. He had refused to minister to their_appetite-for- 

this kind of mental entertainment. He contrasted their anxiety for 
Wisdom with the plainness of his preaching. He was forced into 
an extreme position: he would not communicate to them in their 
carnal state of division and strife his own knowledge of the deeper 
things of God. But at the same time he declared that -he had 
a Wisdom which belonged not to babes, but to grown men 1 . 
And it is this Wisdom which we have in the present Epistle. It 

i Cor. ii 7 deals as St Paul had said with ' a mystery ; : it is a Wisdom long 
hidden but now revealed. 

i q ' Having made known to us the mystery of His will '. This 

together with what follows, to the end of v. 10, is explanatory of 
the preceding statement. ' God hath made grace to abound toward 
us in all wisdom and prudence, in that He hath made known to us 
the mystery of His will '. 

' The mystery' or 'secret'. It is tempting to regard St Paul's 
employment of the word ' mystery ' as one of the instances in which 
he has borrowed a term from popular Greek phraseology and has 
lifted it into the highest region of thought. The word was every- 
where current in the Greek religious world. When the old national 

1 Contrast i Cor. ii i, 2 with ib. this subject (Prolegg. to Eomans and 
ii 6, 7: and see Dr Hort's words on Ej)hesians t iSoff.). 


spirit died out in Greece, the national religious life died with it, and 
the ancient national cults lost their hold on the people. About the 
same time there came into prominence all over the Greek world 
another form of religious worship, not so much public and national 
as private and individualistic. It had many shapes, and borrowed 
much from Eastern sources. Its aim was the purification of indi- 
vidual lives ; and its methods were (i) the promise of a future life, 
and (2) the institution of rites of purification followed by initiation 
into a secret religious lore. With some of the mysteries much that 
was abominable was connected : but the ideals which some at least 
of them proclaimed were lofty. The true secret of divine things 
could only be revealed to those who passed through long stages of 
purification, and who pledged themselves never to disclose 'the 
mysteries ' which they had been taught. 

The ' mystery ', of which St Paul speaks, is the Secret of God's 
dealing with the world : and it is a secret which is revealed to such 
as have been specially prepared to receive it. But here so far at 
any rate as St Paul's writings are concerned 1 the parallel with 
the Greek mysteries ends. For the Secret of God has been pub- 
lished in Christ. There is now no bar to its declaration. St Paul 
has been appointed a 

interpretation of all human life. 

As a matter of fact the word has come to St Paul from a wholly 
different source. We now know that it was used of secrets which 
belong to God and are revealed by Him to men, not only in the 
Book of Daniel, but also in a book which presents many parallels to 
the Book of Daniel, and which just 'failed, when that book just 
succeeded, in obtaining a place within the Jewish canon. Portions 
of the long lost Greek of the Book of Enoch have recently been 
restored to us, and we find that the word 'mystery* is used in 
it again and again of divine secrets which have rightly or wrongly 
come to the knowledge of men. And even apart from this particu- 
lar book, we have ample evidence for this usage in the Greek-speak- 
ing circles of Judaism. The word, with its correlative 'revelation', 
was at hand in the region of the Apostle's own Jewish training, 
and we need not seek a heathen origin for his use of it *. 

1 According to Sis good pleasure which He hath purposed in Sim, 
for dispensation in the fulness of tlie times , to gather up in one all 

1 With later parallels to the Greek 2 See the detached note on the 
mysteries in the rites of the Christian meaning 
Church we are not here concerned. 


things in Christ.' This is a description in the broadest terms of 
the scope and contents of the Divine Secret. 

i 10 'for dispensation in the fulness of the times'. The similar 

language of iii 9 is the best comment on this passage. The Apostle 
declares there that it is his mission to shew 'what is the dispensation 
of the mystery which hath been hidden from eternity in God who 
created all things '. The Creator of the universe has a Purpose in 

iii ii regard to it c an eternal purpose which He hath purposed in Christ 
Jesus our Lord'. The secret of it has been hidden in God until 
now. The ' dispensation ' or ' working out ' of that secret Purpose 

iii 3 is a matter on which St Paul claims to speak by revelation. 

' Dispensation ' is here used in its wider sense, not of household 
management, which is its primary meaning, but of carrying into 
effect a design. The word must be taken with the foregoing phrase 
' the mystery of His will ' ; and we may paraphrase, ' to carry it out 
in the fulness of the times '. The thought is not of 'a Dispensation ', 
as though one of several Dispensations : but simply of the ' carrying 
out ' of the secret Purpose of God. 

That secret Purpose is summarised in the words, ' to gather up 

To gather up in one'. As the total is the result of the 
addition of all the separate factors, as the summary presents in 
one view the details of a complicated argument these are the 
metaphors suggested by the Apostle's word so in the Divine 
counsels Christ is ,the Sum of all things. 

'All things'. The definite article of the Greek cannot be 
represented in English: but it helps to give the idea that 'all 
things' are regarded as a whole, as when we speak of 'the 
universe': compare Col. i 17 and Heb. i 3. 

' In Christ '. The Greek has the definite article here also : for 
the stress is laid not on the individual personality, but rather on the 
Messianic ofiice. The Messiah summed up the Ancient People: 
St Paul proclaims that He sums up the Universe. 

The conti-ast between 'the one' and 'the many' was the 
foundation of most of the early Greek philosophical systems. 
'The many' the variety of objects of sense was the result of 
a breaking up of the primal 'one'. 'The many' constituted im- 
perfection: 'the one' was the ideal perfection. The philosopher 
could look beyond ' the many ' to ' the one ' the absolute and alone 
existent ' one '. 

There is something akin to this here. The variety of the 
universe, with its discordances and confusions, has a principle 
of unity. ' In Christ', says St Paul in Col. i 17, ' all things consist' ; 


in Him, that is, they have their principle of cohesion and unity : 
even as ' through Him and unto Him they have been created '. Col. i 16 
If confusion has entered, it is not of the nature of things, and it is 
not to be eternal. In the issue the true unity will be asserted and 
manifested. 'The mystery of the will of God' is the Divine 
determination 'to gather up in one all things in Christ'. 

St Paul has thus been led on past the method of God's working 
to the issue of God's working. He has told us the purpose of the 
Divine Selection. It is not simply, or mainly, the blessing of the 
Selected People. It is the blessing of the Universe. 

It is worth while to note how entirely this is in harmony with 
the lesson of the Old Testament, though it far transcends that 
earlier teaching. Abraham was chosen for peculiar blessing : but 
at the moment of his call it was said to him : ' in thee shall all Gen. xii 3 
families of the earth be blessed '. And to take but two of the later 
utterances, we may recall the warning of Ezekiel : ' I do not this Bzek. 
for your sakes, house of Israel, but for Mine holy name's sake... xxxv * 22 f - 
and the heathen shall know that I am the Lord ' ; and the familiar 
words of the Psalm : '0 let the nations rejoice and be glad : for Ps. Ixvii 

Thou shalt judge the folk [the chosen people]~riglrteously, and-*>-7 

govern the nations upon earth... God shall bless us: and all the 
ends of the earth shall fear Him '. 

It was the failure to recognise this mission to bless the whole 
world that was the 'great refusal' of Judaism. A like failure to 
grasp the truth that it is the mission of Christianity to sanctify the 
whole of human experience has blighted the Church of Christ again 
and again. Out of that failure it is the purpose of St Paul's greatest 
epistle to lift us to-day. 

For the Christian hope is an unbounded hope of universal good. 
It has two stages of its realisation, an intermediate and a final 
stage : the intermediate stage is the hope of blessing for the Selected 
People; the final stage is the hope of blessing for the Universe 
'the gathering up in one of all things in Christ, things in heaven, 
and things upon the earth '. 

Without attempting to analyse this bjirst of living praise, we w. 3 10- 
yet may notice that there is a certain orderliness in the Apostle's 
enthusiasm. The fulness of ' spiritual blessing ' of v. 3 is expounded 
under five great heads : Election, v. 4 ; Adoption, v. 5 ; Redemp- 
tion, v. 7 j Wisdom, v. 8 ; Consummation, v. 10. 

We might have expected him at last to stay his pen. He has 
reached forward and upward to the sublimest exposition ever framed 

EPHES, 2 . 3 


of the ultimate Purpose of God. His doxology might seem to have 
gained its fitting close. But St Paul is always intensely practical, 
and at once he is back with his readers in the actual world. Jew 
and Gentile are among the obstinate facts of his day. May it not 
be thought by some that he has been painting all along the glowing 
picture of the Jew's hope in his Jewish Messiah ? 

It is plain, at any rate, that he desires at once to recognise the 
place of Jew and Gentile alike in the new economy. So without a 
i ii 13 break he proceeds: 'in. Him, in whom also we have been chosen as 
God's portion, having been foreordained... that we slwuld be to the 
praise of His glory, who have been the first to hope in Christ; in 
whom, ye also...'. 

' We have been chosen as God's portion'; that is, assigned by God 
to Himself as His own lot and portion. Underneath the phrase 
lies the thought of Israel's peculiar position among the nations. 
Compare the words of the great, song in Deut. xxxii 8 ff. : 

When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, 

When He separated the children of men, 

He set the bounds of the peoples 
According to the number of the children of Israel 

For the Lord's portion is His people; 

Jacob is the lot of His inheritance. 

He found him in a desert land, 

And in the waste howling wilderness;, 

He compassed him about, He cared for him, 

He kept him as the apple of His eye. 

The; prophet Zechariah foresaw the realisation of this once more in 
Zech. iiia the future: 'The Lord shall inherit Judah as His portion in the 

holy land, and shall yet choose Jerusalem'. 

To St Paul the fulfilment has come. In the dispensation of 

the mystery of God's will, he saysj this peculiar position is ours: 
in 'we have^ been chosen as God's portion^ having been foreordained 

according to the purpose of Him who worketh all things according 

to? the counsel of His will'. 

Thus far no word of limitation has occurred: but now at once 
i 12 the first, of two classes is marked out: 'that we should be to the 

praise of His glory' we, 'wha have been the first to hope in 

The limiting phrase is capable of two explanations. It seems 
most natural to interpret it of the Christian Jews,: those members 
of the- Jewish people who have recognised Jesus, as their Messiah. 
Elsewhere the Apostle lays stress on the fact that Christ was first 


preached to and accepted by Jews. The Jewish Christian had a 
distinct priority in time : indeed the first stage of the Christian 
Church was a strictly Jewish stage. St Paul recognises this, 
though he hastens at once to emphasise the inclusion of the Gentile 
Christians. It is 'to the Jew first' =-but only 'first': 'to the JewEom. ii 10 
first, and to the Greek; for there is no respect of persons with God'. 
But it is also possible to render, 'who aforetime hoped in the 
Christ', and to refer the words to the Jewish people as such. This 
would be in harmony with such an expression as Tor the hope of Actsxxviii 
Israel I am bound with this chain'. 20 

In either case, if for a moment he points to the Jewish priority, 
it is only as a priority in time; and his very object in mentioning it 
is to place beyond all question the fact that the Gentiles are no 
less certainly chosen of God. 

l ln whom, ye also\ The main verb of this sentence is not easy i 13 
to find. It can hardly be 'ye have been chosen as (God's) portion', 
supplied out of the former sentence: for the assignment to God is 
a part of the eternal purpose in Christ, and not a consequence of 
'hearing' and 'believing,'. It might be 'ye hope', supplied out of 
the preceding participle. But it is simpler to regard the sentence 

as broken, andTaken up again~with~the words-'in-whonaralso'; 

'In whom ye also f Jiaving heard the word of the truth, the gospel 
of your salvation, in whom also having believed, ye have been 
sealed with the holy Spirit of promise'. To the Jew came the 
message first: but to you it came as well. You too heard 'the 
word of the truth', the good news of a salvation which was yours 
as well as theirs. You heard, you believed; and, as if to remove all 
question and uncertainty, God set His seal on you. The order of 
the words in the original is striking: 'Ye were sealed with the 
Spirit of the promise, the Holy (Spirit) '. Here again we have the 
expansion of an Old Testament thought. ' To Abraham and his Gal. iii 16 
seed were the promises made ' : but the ultimate purpose of God 
wa v s ' that upon the Gentiles should come the blessing of Abraham Gal. iii 14 
in Jesus Christ, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit 
through faith'. 'To you is the promise (of the Holy Spirit)', says Acts ii 39 
St Peter on the Day of Pentecost, ' and to your children 5 , and to all 
that are afar off, as many as the Lord our God shall call \ And 
when the Holy Spirit fell on the Gentiles at Caesarea he cried: 
f Can any forbid the water, that these should not be baptized, Acts x 47 
seeing that they have received the Holy Spirit, even as we?' 

The gift of the Spirit of the Promise was not only God's 
authentication of the Gentile converts at the time, but their foretaste 
and their security of the fulness of blessing in the future. This is 


36 . EXPOSITION OP THE [1 14, -15 

expressed in two ways. First, by a metaphor from mercantile life. 

i 14 The Holy Spirit thus given is ' the earnest of our inheritance'. The 

word arrhabon means, not a ' pledge ' deposited for a time and ulti- 
mately to be claimed back, but an ' earnest ', an instalment paid at 
once as a proof of the bona fides of the bargain. It is an actual 
portion of the whole which is hereafter to be paid in full. Secondly, 
' ye have been sealed', says the Apostle, ( unto the redemption of 
God's own possession '. So later on, speaking of the Holy Spirit, 

iv 30 he says: 'in whom ye have been sealed unto the day of redemption'. 
The full emancipation of the People of God is still in the future. 

' '"The redemption of God's own possession' is that ultimate 
emancipation by which God shall claim us finally as His ' peculiar 
treasure.' So the Septuagint rendered MaL iii 17 'They shall be 
to me for a possession, saith the Lord of Hosts, in that day which 
I make ' ; comp. i Pet. ii 9, 'a people for God's own possession '. 

It is noteworthy that St Paul is careful to employ in regard to 
the Gentiles the very terms ' promise ', ' inheritance ', ' emancipa- 
tion ', ' possession ' "which were the familiar descriptions of the 
peculiar privilege of Israel. Moreover in the phrase 'our inherit- 
ance ' he has suddenly changed back again from the second_person 
to the first; thereby intimating that Jews and Gentiles are, to 

iii 6 use a phrase which occurs later on, ' co-heirs and concorporate and 

co-partakers of the promise '. 

At last the great doxology comes to its close with the repetition 
for the third time of the refrain, 'to the praise of His glory' words 

Jer. xiii n which recall to us the unfulfilled destiny of Israel, 'that they might 
be unto Me for a people, and for a name, and for a praise, and for 
a glory : but they would not hear '. 

11523 IS WHEREFORE I also, having heard of your faith in the 

Lord Jesus, and love unto all the saints, l6 cease not to 
give thanks for 'you, making mention of you in my prayers; 
17 that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, 
may give unto you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation 
in the knowledge of Him ; l8 the eyes of your heart being 
enlightened, that ye may know what is the hope of His calling, 
what the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints, 
19 and what the exceeding greatness of His power to us-ward 
who believe, according to the working of the might of His 
strength, ^ which He hath wrought in Christ, in that He 
hath raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right 

1. 1 5, 1 6] EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS. 37 

hand in the heavenly places, * above every principality and 
authority and power and dominion, and every name that is 
named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to 
come ; " and He hath put all things under His feet ; and Him 
hath He given to be head over all things to the church, ^ which 
is His body, the fulness of Him who all in all is being fulfilled. 

From doxology the Apostle passes to prayer. His prayer is 
introduced by expressions of thanksgiving, and it presently passes 
into a description of the supreme exaltation of the heavenly Christ, 
and of us in Him for, though it is convenient to make a pause at 
the end of c. i, there is in fact no break at all until we reach ii n. 

' Having heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus and love unto all 15 
the saints'. It is St Paul's habit to open his epistles with words of 
thanksgiving and prayer; and as a rule his thanksgiving makes 
special reference to the ' faith ' of those to whom he writes : some- 
times with c faith ' he couples ' love ' j and sometimes he completes 
the trinity of Christian graces by a mention of ' hope '. Thus : 

-(-i-) Rom i-8-; that-: your #M^A_is_sp_oken of throughout the ' 

whole world. 

(2) 2 Thess. i 3: because that ya\xc faith groweth exceedingly, 
and the charity of every one of you all toward each other aboundeth. 

Philem. 5 : hearing of thy love and faith which thou hast 
toward the Lord Jesus and toward all the saints. 

(3) i Thess. i 3 : remembering without ceasing your work of 
faith and labour of love and patience of hope, etc. 

Col. i 4, 5 : having heard of your faith in Christ Jesus, and 
the love which ye have toward all the saints, because of the 
hope, etc. 

' I cease not to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my i 16 
prayers '. This ' making mention ' is a frequent term in Sfc Paul's 
epistles (i Thess. i 2, Rom. i 9, Philem. 4). We might suppose it to 
be a peculiarly Christian expression. But, like some other phrases 
in St Paul, it is an old expression of the religious life of the people, 
lifted up to its highest use. Thus in a papyrus letter in the British 
Museum, written in Egypt by a sister to her brother and dated 
July 24, 172 B.C., we read: 'I continue praying to the gods for 
your welfare. I am well myself, and so is the child, and all in the 
house, continually making mention of you [i.e., no doubt, 'in 
prayer ']. When I got your letter, immediately I thanked the gods 
for your welfare...'. Here are the very terms : 'making mention* 


and ' I thanked the gods'. And the language of many other letters 
bears this put 1 . A frequently occurring phrase is, for example, 
this: 'I make thy reverence to our lord Serapis', St Paul, then, 
instead of praying to ' our lord Serapis ', makes his request to ' the 
God of our Lord Jesus Christ': instead of a conventional prayer 
for their health and welfare, he prays for their spiritual enlighten- 
ment: and so what to others might have been a mere formula of 
correspondence becomes with him a vehicle of the highest thought 
of his epistle. 

i 17, 1 8 His prayer is this: f that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the 

Father of glory, may give unto you the Spirit of wisdom... that ye 
may lenow...'. 

It is to be noted that for the sake of emphasis the Apostle has 
resolved the combined title of v. 3, 'the God and Father of our 
Lor<J Jesus Christ'. His prayer is directed to Him who is not only 
the Father of our Lord, but also our Father in the heavenly glory. 

With the title 'the Father of glory' we may compare on the one 

a Cor. 13; hand 'the Father of mercies'; and on the other, 'the God of 

i Co/Ss* 8^ or y'? '*ke -k r( ^ ^ gl or y ' and the remarkable expression of 

Jas. ii i St James 'our Lord Jesus Christ of glory'. Moreover, when after 

a~long break the Apostle takes up his prayer again in iii 

we find another emphatic expression : 'I bow my knees to the 
Father, of whpm all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named' 
an expression which may help to interpret 'the Father of glory' in 
this place. 

The prayer takes the form of a single definite request for a 

definite end : that ' the Father. . .may give unto you the Spirit of 

wisdom. . .that ye may know 1 . The words are closely parallel to 

Luke xi 13 our Lord's promise as given by St Luke: 'The Father. . .will give 

the Holy Spirit to them that ask Him'. 

For note that it is a Spirit, that St Paul prays for. It is not 
an attitude of mind, as when we speak of 'a teachable spirit'. In 
the New Testament the word ( spirit ' is used in its strictest sense. 
All true wisdom comes from a Spirit, who dwells in us and teaches 
us. It is a teaching Spirit, rather than a teachable spirit, which 
the Apostle asks that they may have. 

In St John's Gospel the personality of the Divine Teacher is 
John xiv strongly emphasised : * The Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send 
26, xvi 13 ^ j y nam6j H Q w m teach you all things'; 'When He, the Spirit 

of truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth '. There in the 

Greek we have the definite article (TO wefyw* T^S aXij&ias): here it 

is absent (irvevfw 0"o<ia). To .attempt to make a distinction by 

1 See the detached note on current epistolary phrases. 


inserting the indefinite article in English would perhaps be to go 
further than is warranted. There is, after all, but one ' Spirit of 
wisdom ' that can teach us. 

But a distinction may often be rightly drawn in the New 
Testament between the usage of the word with the definite article 
and its usage without it. With the article, very generally, the 
word indicates the personal Holy Spirit; while without it some 
special manifestation or bestowal of the Holy Spirit is signified. 
And this latter is clearly meant here. A special gift of the Spirit 
for a special purpose is the subject of St Paul's request. 

The Spirit thus specially given, will make them wise: He will 
come as the 'Spirit of wisdom'. Yet more, as the 'Spirit of 
revelation ' He will lift the veil, and shew them the secret of God. 

'Revelation' 'apocalypse', or 'unveiling' is a word which is 
naturally used where any 'mystery' or 'secret' is in question. 
The Divine Secret needs a Divine Unveiling. So St Paul declares 
of himself: 'by apocalypse was the mystery' by revelation wasiiis 
the secret ' made known unto me '. He prays that it may be so 
for those to whom he writes. In one sense it is .true that a secret 
_once published is thereafter but 'an open secret'. But it is no less 

true that the Christian 'mystery' demands for~~its unveiling~the 

perpetual intervention of the 'Spirit of apocalypse*. 

'In the knowledge of Him': i.e. of 'the God of our Lord Jesus i 17 
Christ, the Father of glory': as such must He be recognised and 
known. And to this end 'the eyes of their heart' must be opened i 18 
and filled with light. The Divine illumination is no mere intellec- 
tual process: it begins with, the heart, the seat of the affections 
and the will 1 . 

1 A striking illustration of the Ian- 'the fulness of the times' compare 2 (4) 
guage of St Paul in this passage is to Esdr. iv. 37, 'By measure hath He 
be found in 2 (4) Esdras xiv 22, 25 : measured the times, and by number 
' If I have found grace before thee, hath He numbered the times ; and He 
send the Holy Ghost (or, 'a holy doth not move nor stir them, until 
spirit ') into me, and I shall write all the said measure be fulfilled ' : -with 
that hath been done in the world 'the mystery' compare xii 36, 'Thou 
since the beginning... And he answered only hast been made meet to know 
me,... I shall light a candle of under- this secret of the Highest' (comp. 
standing in thine heart, which shall v. 38, x 38, xiv 5 ' the secrets of the 
not be put out, till the things be per- times ') : with ' ye were sealed ' corn- 
formed which thou shalt begin to pare perhaps vi 5, 'Before they were' 
write'. sealed that have gathered faith for 

In this book, which is perhaps al- a treasure,' and x 23, 'And, which 

most contemporary with St Paul, there is the greatest [sorrow] of all, the seal 

are two or three other verbal parallels of Sion hath now lost her honour*, 

which are worth noticing here : with See also below, p. 48. 


'That ye may know'. A. threefold knowledge, embracing all 
eternity the past, the future, and not least the present. 

(1) ' What is the hope of His calling'. Note that St Paul does 
not say 'the hope of your calling', i.e. His calling of you: though 
that is included. The expression is wider : it is universal. We are 
taken back, as in the earlier verses of the chapter, to the great past 
of eternity, before the foundations of the world were laid. It is 
'His calling', in the fullest sense, that we need to understand. 
That 'calling' involves a 'hope', and we must learn to know 
what that hope is. It is a certain hope : for it rests on the very 
fact that the calling is God's calling, and no weak wish of ours 

iThes.V24 for better things. 'Faithful is He that calleth you, who also will 
do it'. 

(2) ' What the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the 
saints'. This too they must know : the glory of the eternal future. 
Again, it is not 'of your inheritance' but something grander far. 
It is 'His inheritance'; of which they are but a tiny, though a 

Deut. necessary, part. 'The Lord's portion is His people: Jacob is the 
xxxii 9 lot jjjg inheritance'. 

i 19 (3) ' And what the exceeding greatness of His power to vs^waaed- 

~wh~~o~~b~elieve'~. Not merely God's calling in the past, and God's 

inheritance in the future ; but also God's power in the present. Of 
the first two he has said much already: on the third he will now 
enlarge. And so he is led on, as it were by a word, to a vast 
expansion of his thought. 

This power is an extraordinary, a supernatural power. It is the 
very power that has raised Christ from the dead and seated Him at 
God's right hand, and that makes Him now supreme over the uni- 
verse. This is the power that goes forth 'to us-ward who believe', 
i 19, 20 'According to the working of the might of His strength^ which 

He hath wrought in Christ'. We have no words that fully represent 
the original of the phrase, 'the working... which He hath wrought'. 
Both the noun and the verb are emphatic in themselves, and 
St Paul seldom employs them, except where he is speaking of some 
Divine activity 1 . 'Might', again, is an emphatic word, never used 
of mere human power in the New Testament. St Paul heaps word 
upon word (Swa/xis, e/epyeta, /cparos, ur^us) in his determination to 
emphasise the power of God that is at work in the lives of ' them 
that believe'. 

'In that He hath raised Him from the dead'. Compare Horn, 
viii n, 'If the Spirit of Him that raised Jesus from the dead 
dwelleth in you... 3 

1 See the detached note on tvepyeiv and its cognates. 


' And set Him at His right hand in the heavenly places'. The 
resurrection is a step in the path of exaltation. 

' Above evert/ principality and authority and power and dominion', i ai 
These titles St Paul uses as denoting familiar distinctions of spiritual 
forces. We have another list in Col. i 16: 'Whether thrones or 
dominions or principalities or authorities'. Originally terms of 
Jewish speculation, they came in after times to play a large part in 
Christian thought. The Apostle's purpose in mentioning them, 
both here and in the Epistle to the Colossians, is to emphasise the 
exaltation of Christ above them all. He closes the list with 'every 
name that is named ', i.e. every title or dignity that has been or can 
be given as a designation of majesty. Compare Phil, ii 9, 'the 
Hame which is above every name'. 

That spiritual potencies are in the Apostle's mind is clear from 
the phrase 'in the heavenly sphere 5 , as we have already seen (above, 
on v. 3); and also from the added words 'not only in this world 
(or age), but also in that which is to come'. 

Above all that anywhere is, anywhere can be above all 
grades of dignity, real or imagined, good or evil, present or to 

of God has exalted and enthroned the 


'And He hath put all things under His feet'. Thus Christ has 22 
fulfilled in His own person the destiny of man : ' Let them have Gen. i 26 
dominion../. The actual words are derived from the eighth Psalm : 
'What is man that Thou art mindful of him, and the son of man Ps.viii4, 6 
that Thou visitest him?... Thou hast put all things tinder his feet'. 
The best comment is Heb. ii 6 9. 

'And Him hath He given to be head over all things to the church, i 22, 23 
which is His body '. When St Paul combats the spirit of jealousy 
and division in the Corinthian Church, he works out in detail the 
metaphor of the Body and its several parts. But he does not there 
speak of Christ as the Head. For not only does he point out the 
absurdity of the head's saying to the feet, I have no need of you ; 
but he also refers to the seeing, the hearing and the smelling, to 
which he could not well have alluded as separate functions, had he 
been thinking of Christ as the head. Indeed in that great passage 
Christ has, if possible, a more impressive position still : He is no 
part, but rather the whole of which the various members are parts : 
'for as the body is one and hath many members, and all the mem- i Cor. xii 
bers of the body being many are one body ; so also is the Christ '. I2 
This is in exact correspondence with the image employed by our 
Lord Himself : ' I am the Vine, ye are the branches '. That is to John xv 5 
say, not ' I am the trunk of the vine, and ye the branches growing 


out of the trunk'; but rather, 'I am the living whole, ye are the 
parts whose life is a life dependent on the whole'. 

Here however the Apostle approaches the consideration of 
Christ's relation to the Church from a different side, and his lan- 
guage differs accordingly. He has begun with the exalted Christ ; 
and he has been led on to declare that the relation of the exalted 
Christ to His Church is that of the head to the body. 

It is interesting to observe that later on, when he comes to ex- 
pound the details of human relationship as based on eternal truths, 

v 22 S, he says in the first place, 'Let wives be subject to their own hus- 
bands as to the Lord ; because the husband is head of the wife, as 
also Christ is head of the Church, Himself being saviour of the 
body': but then, turning to the husbands, he drops the metaphor 
of headship, and bids them love their wives as their own bodies, 
following again the example of Christ in relation to His Church; 
and he cites the ideal of marriage as proclaimed at the creation of 

Gen. ii 24 ; man, 'the twain shall become one flesh'. Not headship here, but 
identity, is the relation in view. 'This mystery', he adds, 'is a 
mighty one: but I speak (it) with reference to Christ and to the 

Church'. __ 

-T-hus-the-two"couce^tions~~invoIve to St Paul's mind no inherent 

contradiction. He passes easily from one to the other. Each in 
turn serves to bring out some side of the truth. 

Kor may we say that the headship of Christ is a new concep- 
tion, belonging only to the Epistles to the Ephesians and to the 
Colossians 1 . For in the same Epistle to the Corinthians in which 
he regards Christ as the whole Body of which Christians are the 
i Cor. xi 3 parts, he also says, 'I would have you know that the head of every 
man is Christ, and the head of the woman is the man (i.e. her 
husband), and the head of Christ is God'. This is not quite the 
same thought as we have here; but it is closely parallel. 

We now come to what is perhaps the most remarkable expres- 
sion in the whole epistle. It is the phrase in which St Paul 
further describes the Church, which he has just declared to be 
i 23 Christ's Body, as { the fulness of Him who all in all is being 


When the Apostle thus speaks of the Church as the pleroma 
or fulness 2 of the Christ, and in the same breath speaks of the 
Christ as 'being fulfilled', he would appear to mean that in some 
mysterious sense the Church is that without which the Christ is 

1 Eph. i 22, iv 15, v 23 ; Col. i 18, ii 10, 19. 

2 See the detached note on 


not complete, but with which He is or will be complete. That 
is to say, he looks upon the Christ as in a sense waiting for 
completeness, and destined in the purpose of God to find com- 
pleteness in the Church. 

This is a somewhat startling thought. Are we justified in 
thus giving to St Paul's language what appears to be its obvious 
meaning ? 

i. Krjst, let us pay attention to the metaphor which has just 
been employed, and which leads directly up to this statement. 
Christ is the Head of the Church, which is His Body. Now, is 
it not true that in a certain sense the body is the pleroma, or 
fulness of the head? Is the head complete without the body? 
Can we even think of a head as performing its functions without 
a body? In the sense then in which the body is the fulness 
or completion of the head, it is clear that Sfc Paul can speak 
of the Church as the fulness or completion of the Christ. 

Even now, in the . imperfect stage of the Church, we can see 
that this is true. The Church is that through which Christ lives 
on and works on here below on earth. Jesus, the Christ incar- 
_nate, is no longer on earth as He was. His feet and hands no 
longer move and work in our midst, as once they moved~~and 

wrought in Palestine. But St Paul affirms that He is not without 
feet and hands on earth: the Church is His Body.. Through the 
Church, which St Paul refuses to think of as something separate 
from Him, He still lives and moves among men 1 . 

2. But, further, although he may make havoc of his meta- 
phors, St Paul will never let us forget that the relation of the 
Church tp Christ is something even closer than that of a body 
to its head, In the present passage he has been describing the 
exalted Christ; and he asks, How does He in His supreme posi- 
tion of authority stand to the Church? He stands as Head to 
the Body. But this is never all the truth; and if we bear in 
mind St Paul's further conception, in accordance with which the 
whole-^-Head and Body together is the Christ, we get yet further 

help in our interpretation of the statement that the Church is the i Cor. xii 
pleroma, of the Christ. For it is plainer than ever that without I2 
the Church the Christ is incomplete: and as the Church grows 
towards completion, the Christ grows towards completion; the 
Christ, who in the Divine purpose must be 'all in all', 'the Christ' Col. iii n 
if we may so use the language of our own great poet 'that 
is to be'. 

3, Again, this conception illuminates and in turn receives 

* See the quotation from Clement of Alexandria on p. 140. 


light from a remarkable passage in the Epistle to the Colossians. 
St Paul is there speaking of his own sufferings: he can even re- 
joice in them, he tells us. If the Church and the Christ are 
one, the suffering of the Church and the suffering of the Christ 
are also one. The Christ, then, has not suffered all that He is 
destined to suffer; for He goes on suffering in the sufferings of 
the Church. These sufferings of the Church have fallen with 
special heaviness on St Paul He is filling up something of what 
is still to be filled up, if the sufferings are to be complete. So 
Col. 1 24 he says : ' Now I rejoice in my sufferings on your behalf, and fill 
up in your stead the remainder (literally, 'the deficits') of the 
sufferings of the Christ in my flesh, on behalf of His Body, 
which is the Church '. Thus then the Church, the completion of 
the Christ, is destined to complete His sufferings; and St Paul 
rejoices that as a member of the Church he is allowed by God 
to do a large share of this in his own person on the Church's 
behalf. The thought is astonishing; it could never have occurred 
to a less generous spirit than St Paul's. It is of value to us 
here, as helping to show in one special direction how to St Paul's 
mind the Christ in a true sense still waited for completion,-and 
-would-nnd-that-completionronly~~in the Church. 

St Paul, then, thinks of the Christ as in some sense still in- 
complete, and as moving towards completeness. The conception is 
difficult and mysterious no doubt; but the Apostle has given us 
abundant warning earlier in the epistle that he is dealing with 
no ordinary themes. He has already told us that the purpose 
i 10 of God is * to gather up in one all things in the Christ '. Until 

that great purpose is fully achieved, the Christ is not yet all 
that the Divine wisdom has determined that He shall be. He 
still waits for His completeness, His fulfilment. As that is 
being gradually worked out, the Christ is being completed, ' being 

By way of enhancing this ultimate completeness St Paul in- 
serts the adverbial phrase 'all in all', or, more literally, 'all 
(things) in all (things)'. "We feel its force the more when we 
read the whole context, and observe that it comes as a climax 
after two previous declarations of supremacy over 'all things': 
'He hath put all things under His feet; and Him hath He 
given to be head over all things to the Church, which is His 
Body, the fulness of Him who all in all is being fulfilled'. And 
indeed immediately before this we read, ' above every principality 
...and every name'. All conceivable fulness, a completeness which 

1 23} 



sums tip the universe, is predicated of the Christ as the issue of 
the Divine purpose. 

'Through the Church', as the Apostle will declare yet more iii 10 
explicitly further on, this Divine purpose is being worked out The 
Head finds completeness in the Body : the Church is the completion 
of the Christ : for the Christ is being ' all in all fulfilled ', is moving 
towards a completeness absolute and all-inclusive *. 
1 It may be well here to note that revolt from their king. So nothing 

the three great Versions of antiquity 
support the rendering of the pas- 
sage which is here given. The Latin 
Church, the early Syrian Church, and 
the Egyptian Church so understood 
the words: see the commentary ad, 

Of the Greek commentators two 
may be here quoted. 

Origen says (Cramer, Catena in 
Ephes. pp. 133 ft.; comp. Jerome 
ad loc.) : 

"Now, we desire to know in what 
-way the_Church,_being_the__Body_of_ 
Christ, is the fulness of Him who all 
in all is being fulfilled ; and why it is 
not said 'of Him who filleth (irXi/- 
povvros) all in all,' but who is Himself 
'filled' (or 'fulfilled,' irXijpovf^vov) : 
for it will seem as though it would 
have been more naturally said that 
Christ was He who filleth, and not He 
who is filled. For He Himself not 
only is the fulness of the Law, but 
also is of all fulnesses ever the fulness, 
since nothing comes to be full apart 
from Him. See, then, if this be not 
the answer ; that inasmuch as, for the 
close relation and fellowship of the 
Son with reasonable beings, the Son 
of God is the fulness of all reasonable 
beings, so too He Himself takes as it 
were a fulness into Himself, being 
shown to be most full in regard to 
each of the blessed. And that what 
is said may be the plainer, conceive 
of a king as being filled with kingdom 
in respect of each of those who aug- 
ment his kingdom ; and being emptied 
thereof in the case of those who 

is more in harmony with the merciful 
kingdom of Christ, than each of those 
reasonable beings aided and perfected 
by Him, who help to fulfil that king- 
dom j in that fleeing unto Him they 
help to fulfil His Body, which is in a 
manner empty, while it lacks those 
that are thus aided by Him. Where- 
fore Christ is fulfilled in all that come 
unto Hun, whereas He is still lacking 
in respect of them before they have 

The words of the great master are 
not always clear, but his illustration 
is a good one up to a certain point : 
and at least there is no doubt of what 
he thought the passage meant. 

Chrysostom, in his Commentary 
on the passage (Savile, iii 776), after 
expounding the Headship of Christ to 
His Body, says : 

"But, as though this were not 
enough to show the relation and close 
connexion, what says he ? * The ful- 
ness', he says, of Christ is the Church. 
For the fulness of the head is the 
body, and the fulness of the body is 
the head. . . . ' The fulness ', he says : that 
is, just as the head is filled (or ful- 
filled) by the body. For the body is 
constituted of all its parts, and has 
need of each one.... For if we be not 
many, and one a hand, another a foot, 
and another some other part, then 
the whole Body is not fulfilled. By 
means of all, then, His Body is ful- 
filled. Then the Head is fulfilled, 
then there comes to be a perfect Body, 
when we all together are knit and 
joined in one. Do you see the riches. 


i 33 and The beginning of c. ii cannot be separated from the close of 

11 1 c. i. The Apostle has been led away to expound the mystery 

of the exalted Christ: but he comes quickly back to the actual 
persons to whom he is writing, and deals at some length with 
their relation to the exalted Christ. The transition is exactly 
parallel to that in v. ii, where from 'the gathering up in one of 
the universe in the Christ' he turns at once to speak of the relation 
of himself and of his readers to Christ 'in whom also we... in whom 
ye also...'. 

i 3 iii 21 It will be useful at this point to note the general construction of 
the first part of the epistle : 

(1) A Doxology leading to ever-expanding thoughts of the 
purpose of God in Christ, and describing the relation of Jew and 
Gentile to that purpose (i 3 14). 

(2) A Prayer leading to a preliminary exposition of the 
mystery of the exalted Christ (i 15 23), and then to a fuller 
discussion of the relation of Jew and Gentile to Him (ii i 22). 

(3) In iii i the Apostle recurs to the thought of his Prayer ; 
but at once breaks off to say more of the mystery, and of his own 
work in proclaiming it; and then (iii 14) returns to his^rayer,_and^ 

-closes-it-at-last-with-a-brief~Boxologyn(iii 20, 21). 

i 1523 We may now gather up the leading thoughts of i 15 23, in 

order to grasp the connexion of this passage with what follows :- 

' I have heard of your faith (15) : I thank God, and I pray (16) 
that you may have the true knowledge (17), the light which falls 
on the opened eye of the heart; that you may know the hope 
of God's calling, the glory of God's inheritance (18), the great- 
ness of God's power: above all, the last of these as it bears 
upon ourselves (19). Judge what it is by looking at the exalted 
Christ : there you see it at work (20). God has raised Him, and 
exalted Him above every conceivable dignity of this world or 
the next (21). Thus supreme, He has further made Him Head 
of a Body (22), which in turn fulfils and completes Him; for to 
an absolute completeness He is still moving on (23)'. 

The grammatical construction was broken in v, 22 : from 
that point independent sentences follow one another, no longer 
subsidiary to the words 'according to the working... which...' of 
vv. 19, 20. 

The verb of our next sentence, which is simply added by a 
conjunction to those which precede, is long in coming; for once 

of the glory of the inheritance? Bo power towards them that believe? Do 
you see the exceeding greatness of the von see the hope of the calling ? " 


more the construction is broken, to be picked up again in v. 5. 
We find the verb at last in 'He hath quickened us together with 

So that the line of thought is this: The power which the Apostle 
specially prays that they may know is the very power by which 
God has raised Christ from the dead and seated Him in the 
heavenly region (i 20), and also has quickened them (both Gentiles 
and Jews, as he breaks off to explain), and raised them, and 
seated them in the heavenly region in Christ (ii 5, 6). In the 
original the sequence is brought out clearly by the repetition of 
the verbs of i 20 in a compound form in ii .6. 

AND you, who were dead in your trespasses and sins, ii i 10 
2 wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this 
world, according to the prince of the power of the air, of the 
spirit that now worketh in the sons of disobedience ; * wherein 
we also all had our conversation in time past in the lusts of our 
flesh, doing the desires of our flesh and of our minds, and were 

-by-nature-children-of-wrath t _e_v_en_as the rest : *but God, being 

rich in mercy, for His great love wherewith He hath loved us, 
seven though we were dead in trespasses hath quickened us 
together with Christ, by grace ye are saved, %nd hath 
raised us together and seated us together in the heavenly 
places in Christ Jesus: Hhat in the ages to come He might 
shew forth the exceeding riches of His grace in His kindness 
toward us in Christ Jesus. 8 For by grace are ye saved through 
faith ; and that not of yourselves : it is- the gift of God : ^not of 
works, lest any man should boast. IO Fbr we are His workman- 
ship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath 
afore prepared that we should walk in them. 

The grammatical construction is often broken in St Paul's 
writings from a desire to clear up obscurities at once and to fore- 
stall possible misconceptions. His style reminds us of the freedom 
and rapidity of conversation : it hurries eagerly on, regardless of 
formal rules, inserting full explanations in a parenthesis, trusting 
to repetitions to restore the original connexion, and above all 
depending on emphasis to drive the meaning home. "We have the 
less cause to be surprised at this freedom of composition, when we 


remember that several of his epistles contain the clearest indi- 
cations that the Apostle's practice was to dictate his letters to an 
amanuensis '. Accordingly in many cases the force of a passage 
will most readily be felt when we read it rapidly or read it aloud. 

In the present instance the Apostle desires to work out a simple 
parallel. The mighty power of God, he would say, which raised 
Christ from the dead and seated Him in the heavenly region, has. 
been at work in you as well. For you too were dead, and you too 
it has raised from the dead and seated with Christ in the heavenly 
places. But he breaks off in the middle to explain (i) in what 
sense he could speak of them as dead, and (2) that not only they, 
the Gentiles, were dead, but the Jews likewise. Quite similarly in 
i 13 he had broken off to say that not the Jews only had been taken, 
as God's portion, but they, the Gentiles, likewise. 

ii i ' Dead in -gour trespasses and sins '. that is to say, you were 

dead, not with a physical death as Christ was, but with the death of 
sin ; dead while you lived, because you lived in sin. This state of 
death was the inevitable condition of those who had no life beyond 
the life of this world, which is dominated by death and the lords of 


' According 'to the course of this world'. The expression of the 
original is pleonastic. The Apostle might have said either 'this 
age ', or ' this world '. But for the sake of emphasis he says, in a 
phrase which we cannot use in English without ambiguity, 'the 
age of this world'. 'This age' and 'this world' represent a single 
Hebrew phrase, which is often found in the Rabbinic writings, 
where it stands in contrast to ' the age (or ' world ') to come ', that 
is to say, the age introduced by the advent of the Messiah. The 
contrast is not found in the canonical books of the Old Testament ; 
2 (4) Esdr. but it occurs frequently in 2 (4) Esdras. Thus we read : ' The 
J Most High hath made this world for many, but the world to come 
iisa for a few'. The same contrast is found in St Matthew's Gospel, 
and we have had it already in this epistle 3 . 

St Paul is in agreement with contemporary Jewish thought in 

regarding ' this age ' as evil and as transitory (see Gal. i 4, i Cor. 

Bom. xii 2 vii 31). Instead of being 'conformed' to it, Christians are to be 

'transfigured' even now 'by the renewing of their mind'. For them 

1 Compare e.g. Bom. xvi 22, i Cor. 8 See Eph. i 21, and the com- 
xvi 21, Col. iv 1 8, 2 Thess. iii 17. mentary on that verse. Compare also 

2 On 'life ' and 'death. 5 in a spiritual 2 (4) Esdr. vi 9, 'For Esau is the end 
sense see the striking words of Dr Hort of this world, and Jacob is the begin- 
(Hulsean Lectures, App. pp. iSpff.). ning of it that followeth '. 


this 'world 'is already dead, having been itself 'crucified' in the Gal. vi 14' 
crucifixion of Christ. 

' According to the prince of the power of the air '. Here again 
the Apostle adopts the language of his contemporaries. It was the 
general belief of his time that through the Fall the whole world had 
become subject to evil spirits, who had their dwelling in the air, 
and were under the control of Satan as their prince. So in the 
New Testament itself we read of 'the power of darkness', in Col. 13 
contrast with the kingdom of Christ; of 'the power of Satan ', and lg . j^ att 
even 'the kingdom of Satan': and Beelzebub is named as 'thexii. 26; 

t? TV IT 1 * * 

prince of the devils '. Later on in this epistle we have a further ar 1U 32 
description of ' the spiritual hosts of wickedness ', who are called vi 12 
in a strange phrase 'the world-rulers of this darkness'. 

This ' power (or ' authority ') of the air ' is further described by 
a collective term as ' the spirit that now worJeeth in the sons of Hi 
disobedience '. The phrase is carefully chosen so as to suggest that 
the world-power as a whole stands in sharp contrast to God. It is 
'a spirit', and it 'worketh' the same forcible word which has been i n, 20 
used twice already of the Divine working. 

'The sons of disobedience' is a Hebraism. It recurs in, v 6. 

Compare-also-Luke-xvi-8^xx-34^the-sons-of-this-world (-or_lagel)_: 

and contrast i Thess. v 5, ' sons of light ' and ' sons of day '. In 
rendering it into Greek the word 'children' is sometimes used 
instead of ' sons ' ; as in ii 3 ' children of wrath ', and v 8 ' children ; 

of the light ' : but the meaning is precisely the same. ! 

Lest the Gentiles should seem for a moment to be placed in a 
worse position than the Jews, St Paul breaks off to insert a guard- 
ing clause. We were all alike, he says, in this evil case. * Wherein ii 3, 
we also all had our conversation in time past in the lusts of our flesh, 
doing the desires of our flesh and ofonr minds'. 

Whether in Gentile or in Jew this lower life was hateful to 
God : it was a life of disobedience, and as such it incurred the 
Divine wrath. We 'were by nature children of wrath, even as the 
rest '. 

' Children of wrath' is, as we have seen, an expression parallel 
to 'sons of disobedience'. That the 'wrath' here spoken of must 
be the Divine wrath, and not human ' passion ', is made clear by a. 
later passage, in which similar phraseology recurs: 'on account v 6 
of these things the wrath of God cometh upon the sons of dis- 
obedience'. Moreover, to interpret 'wrath' in this place as 
'passion' would destroy the contrast which immediately follows 
between ' wrath ' and ' mercy '. The phrase plainly signifies ' objects 



of the Divine wrath' : compare Bom. i 18, ii 5, 8, where 'the wrath 
of God' is shewn to attend Gentiles and Jews alike who do amiss. 

Thus far the expression involves no difficulty. This is what 
St Paul has always taught : Jew and Gentile are in the same case: 
they have alike lived in sin : they are alike * sons of disobedience ' 
and * children of wrath '. 

But into the latter phrase he inserts the words 'by nature': 
'children by nature of wrath' is the order of the original. In 
interpreting these words it is important to remember that we are 
accustomed to use the word ' nature ' much more freely than it was 
used in St Paul's day. We speak, for instance, of ' an evil nature ' : 
but there is no such term to be found in the New Testament 1 . So 
too we often use the word 'natural' in a depreciatory sense, as 
when we render i Cor. ii 14, 'The natural man receiveth not the 
things of the Spirit of God '. But in the Greek the word is ifruxLKos, 
* the man of soul ', as opposed to 7n/ev/i<mKos, * the man of spirit '. 
The Greek word for ' nature ' is a neutral word. It simply means 
the natural constitution of a thing, or the thing in itself apart from 
anything that may come to it from outside. As a rule it has a 
good meaning rather than a bad : thus ' according to nature ' is 
good^~'"contrary to nature '^isTbad ; compare Bom. xi 2 1 ff., and 
Bom. i 26. 

An important example of St Paul's use of the phrase ' by 

Eom. ii 14 nature ' is found in the words, ' When the Gentiles, which have 

not Law, by nature do the things of the Law ' : i.e. without the 

Gal. ii 15 intervention of a direct revelation. Other examples are, 'We are 

by nature Jews ' : i.e. we have not become such ; we are such : and, 

Gal. iv 8 ' those which by nature are not gods ', though they may be thought 

such and called such. 

The sense of the present passage is : We were in ourselves chil- 
dren of wrath, even as the rest : but God in His mercy did not 
leave us to ourselves as the Apostle hurries on to say, breaking his 
sentence again in order to point the contrast. We must be careful, 
then, while retaining the rendering 'by nature', not to introduce 
later meanings and associations of the word 'nature'; nor to 
make St Paul throw the blame upon a defect of constitution which 
necessarily led to sin and wrath. That is not the teaching of this 
passage. ' By nature ', as St Paul used the words, men were not 
necessarily led to do wrong : they could not shift the blame on to 
their ' nature '. 

1 In 2 Pet. i 4 we read of a ' Divine in contrast to a nature of beasts' 
nature' (0eta 0&ns) ; and in Jas. iii 7 (0tfs Syptuv). 
of a ' human nature ' (dvdptavlvij ^ftris) 


Much of the confusion which has shrouded the meaning of 
the passage is probably due to the word 'children'. This sug- 
gests to many minds the idea of infancy: so that St Paul is 
taken to mean that by our birth as children we came under the 
Divine wrath. But this is quite foreign to his meaning here. He 
is not thinking, as in Rom. v, of the sin and death in which we are 
involved through Adam's disobedience. He is speaking of actual 
transgressions, of a conversation in the lusts of the flesh. Atten- 
tion to the two parts of the phrase has shewn us (i) that ' children 
of wraik' is a Hebraism for 'objects of wrath', and (2) that ' by 
nature' means simply 'in ourselves', as apart from the Divine * 
purpose of mercy. So that the common misinterpretation which 
makes the phrase mean 'deserving of wrath from the moment of 
birth ' is due to a neglect first of a Hebrew, and then of a Greek 

St Paul hastens on, as so often, from sin to grace, only mention- 
ing sin in order to shew how grace more than meets it : compare 
Bom. iii 23 f., v 12 21. Here sin and wrath lead on to ' a wealth ii 4 
of mercy ', as in the previous chapter sin led on to ' a wealth of i 7 
grace '; 

' Even though we were dead in trespasses '. With these words he ii 5 
takes up the broken sentence of v. i : only now the Jew has been 
linked with the Gentile in the ' disobedience ' and the 'wrath ', and 
therefore must be kept with the Gentile in the 'mercy'. Hence 
not ' you,' but ' we '. 

' He hath quickened us together with Christ, by grace ye are 
saved '. St Paul's affection for the word ' grace ', the word which to 
him sums up his own special proclamation 1 , the word which is his 
sign-manual ' in every epistle ', leads him to break off again to insert 2 Thess. iii 
it; and the insertion itself will presently be repeated and expanded, I7 
causing a yet further digression (y. 8). 

' Ye are saved ' ; not ' ye are being saved ' (present) salvation 
regarded as in process 2 : nor ' ye were saved ' (aorist) salvation as 
a single Divine act 8 : but ' ye are saved ', or ' ye have been saved ' 
(perfect) salvation as a Divine act completed indeed, but regarded 
as continuous and permanent in its issues. 

' And hath raised us togetJier (with Him) and seated us together ii 6" 
(with Him) in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus '. The compound 

1 See the detached note on the that were being saved '. 

meanings of %aptj. 3 As in Bom. viii 24, ' for by hope 

2 As in i Cor. i 18, xv 2 ; 2 Cor. ii -were -we saved '. 
15; and especially Acts ii 47, 'them 



verbs (awyyeipev and <rwoca#rev) are intended to recall the simple 
verbs (eyetpas and Ka0ras) of i 20. Christ was dead, and "was raised 
from the dead. "We too, in a true sense, were dead, and as truly 
were raised from the dead in His Resurrection : aye, and were 
seated, even as He was seated, in the heavenly sphere 1 . 

All this is spoken of as a Divine act contemporaneous with the 

Resurrection and Ascension of Christ. It is wholly independent of 

any human action. It is the free grace of God, which has lifted us 

into a new world in Christ. As its motive the Apostle can but 

suggest the glorification of grace. As he had said before that the 

i 6 Election and the Adoption were ' to the praise of the glory of His 

ii 7 grace ' : so here he says, ' that in the ages to come He might shew 

forth the exceeding riches of His grace in His kindness toward us in 

Christ Jesus '. 

ii 8, 9 ' For by grace ', he repeats, ' are ye saved through faith ' : and 

lest by any means the possibility of merit should seem to creep in 
with the mention of the 'faith' which realises this great salvation, 
he adds at once : 'and that not of yourselves : it is the gift of God: 
not of works, lest any mam, should boast ' : or, if we may slightly 
paraphrase the words to force out the meaning of the original: 
' aye, and not of yourselves : the gift, for such it is, is God's gift : 
not of works, that none may have ground to boast '. 

ii ro ' For we are His workmanship ' : more closely, ' for His making 

we are 'words which recall Ps. c 3 : 'it is He that hath made us, 
and not we ourselves '. But the words which here follow shew that 
it is not of the first Creation that St Paul is speaking. There has 
been a new Making of Man in Christ. "We have been ' created in 
Christ Jesus'. 

This is that New Creation of which St Paul speaks in Gal. 
vi 1 5, as having done away with the distinction between those who 
were within the Jewish covenant and those who were outside it : 
' for neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision ; but 
(there is) a new creation'. Similarly in 2 Cor. v 16 f. he declares 
that distinctions of the flesh are done away : ' "We from henceforth 
know no man after the flesh... so that if any man be in Christ, 
(there is) a new creation : the old things have passed away : lo, 
they have become new'. 

Mankind had started as One in the original Creation. But in 
the course of the world's history, through sin on the one hand, and 
on the other hand through the revelation of God to a selected 
People, a division had come in. Mankind was now Two and not 

1 See above pp. 20 if. 


One. There was the privileged Jew, and there was the unprivileged 
Gentile. It was the glory of grace to bring the Two once more 
together as One in Christ. A new start was thus made in the 
world's history. St Paul called it a New Creation. 

"We shall see presently the importance which he attaches to this 
view. 'He is our peace', he says, 'who hath made both One... iii4f. 
that He might create the Two in Himself into One New Man, 
making peace'. And so again, later on, he speaks of 'the Newiv4 
Man, which according to God is created in righteousness '. 

The New Creation, then, in St Paul's language is that fresh 
beginning in the history of the human race by which the old division 
is done away, and the unity of mankind is restored. It was for the 
realisation of this unity that St Paul laboured and suffered. His 
supreme mission was to proclaim Christ as the centre of a united 
humanity. And this is the drift of our present passage. The 
Apostle has been speaking of the relation of both Gentile and Jew 
to Christ. Both alike were in themselves the objects of Divine 
wrath by reason of their disobedience : but both alike, though dead, 
were quickened, raised, exalted, with and in Christ Jesus. Man was 
made anew by God. Pree grace had done it all : works, or ' merit ', 
as we should say, had no part in the matter. It was a New 
Creation : ' God's making are we, created in Christ Jesus'. 

' Created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath afore ii 10 
prepared that we should walk in them'. Not 'of works', but 'unto 
works'. The Divine purpose is not achieved apart from the 'good 
works' of men: only it does not begin from them, but leads to 
them. They are included in the Divine will for man: they are 
ready for our doing ; and we are created to do them. This reference 
to 'works' is an echo of the earlier controversial teaching. It is 
directly suggested by the mention of 'faith', which is the human 
response to the Divine ' grace '. 

We must not allow our attention to be distracted by the details 
of interpretation from the very remarkable thought which is 
enshrined in the verses which we have been considering. The 
Apostle has been praying that God would grant to those to whom i 17 
he is writing the Spirit of wisdom and revelation, with a view to 
their knowing in particular the mighty energy that is at work in i 20 
themselves and in all Christian people. It is that miraculous power 
which raised and exalted Christ. It has in like manner raised and 
exalted them in Christ: for they cannot be separated from Him, 
even as the Body cannot be separated from its Head. The result i 22 
of this action on God's part is manifold. It lifts them out of the ii i 10 


present ' age ', or * world ', and sets them ' in the heavenly sphere '. 
It lifts them above the control of the world-forces which rule here 
below, and seats them where Christ is seated above all the powers 
that are or can be. It lifts them out of death the death of sin 
and makes them truly alive. It annihilates the old distinction 
between Gentile and Jew, and inaugurates a New Creation of man- 
kind : for Gentile and Jew alike were dead, and alike have been 
quickened and exalted in Christ Jesus. And all this is the free 
gift of God, His sovereign grace. 

The same teaching, couched to some extent in the same words, 
may be gathered out of various parts of the Epistle to the Colossians 
(see especially i 21, ii 12, 13, 20); and there it is pressed to the 
logical conclusion, which is only hinted at in the 'good works' of 

Col. iii i ff. our passage. For there the Apostle urges : ' If therefore ye 
have been raised together with Christ, seek the things that are 
above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God : set your 
thought on the things that are above, not on the things that are on 
the earth. For ye have died, and your life is hidden with Christ 
in God'. 

Nor is the teaching by any means confined to these two epistles. 
We need but recall the sixth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, 

Rom. vi 1 1 where again the logical conclusion is vigorously pressed : ' In like 
manner do ye also reckon yourselves dead to sin, but living to God 
in Christ Jesus '. 

In our present passage the practical issue is not insisted on, but 
merely hinted at in passing. The Apostle's main thought is the 
unity which has thus been brought about, and the new hope which 
accordingly is opened up for mankind as a whole. Hence he passes 
on at once to expound the wealth of privilege to which, as the result 
of this new unity, his Gentile readers have been introduced. 

ii ii 22 IZ WHEREFORE remember that in time past ye, the Gentiles 
in the flesh, who are called the Uncircumcision by that which 
is called the Circumcision, in the flesh, made by hands, " that 
at that time without Christ ye were aliens from the common- 
wealth of Israel and strangers from the covenants of promise, 
having no hope and without God in the world. l3 But now in 
Christ Jesus ye who in time past were far off have been made 
nigh by the blood of Christ. I4 For He is our peace, who hath 
made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of the 
partition, 1S having abolished in His flesh the enmity, the law 


of commandments contained in ordinances; that He might 
create in Himself of the twain one new man, so making peace ; 
16 and that He might reconcile both unto God in one body by 
the cross, having slain the enmity thereby: I7 and He came and 
preached peace to you which were afar off, and peace to them 
that were nigh ; l8 for through Him we both have our access in 
one Spirit unto the Father. I9 So then ye are no more strangers 
and sojoumers, but ye are fellow-citizens with the saints, and 
of the household of God, ^ being built upon the foundation 
of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the 
corner-stone ; ^ in whom all the building fitly framed together 
groweth into an holy temple in the Lord; a2 in whom ye also 
are being builded together for an habitation of God in the 
Spirit. .^ 

' Wherefore remember*. It is hard for us to realise the vital ii u 
interest of this teaching to St Paul's readers. To us the distinction 
of Jew and Gentile is not the most important fact in human life. 
The battle for our privilege as Gentile Christians for our part 
and place in Christ was fought and won eighteen hundred years 
ago. We have forgotten the struggle and the victory altogether. 
We do not recognise that this was a, decisive battle of the world's, 

But for the Gentiles to whom St Paul wrote the abolition of this 
great distinction was everything. For five and twenty years the 
conflict had been raging. At one moment the issue had depended 
on a single man. A little place the Christian Jew was prepared to 
allow to the Christian Gentile. He might be like ' the stranger in 
the gates ' : but he could not be as the true born child of privilege, 
unless indeed he were prepared to abandon his Gentile position, and 
by circumcision identify himself with the Jew. 

At one critical moment even St Peter withdrew himself, and Gal. iii iff. 
would not sit at the same table with the Gentile Christians. St 
Barnabas at that moment was likewise carried away. St Paul stood 
alone. He saw that everything depended on absolute equality 
within the Church of Christ. He withstood St Peter to the face, 
and brought him to his true self again. That scene and a score of 
others, when in different ways the same struggle was being waged, 
left a deep mark on St Paul's mind. Two Churches or one that to 
his mind was the question at issue. One Church, in the providence 
of God, and through the work of St Paul, it was destined to be. 


The struggle was over but only just over when he wrote this 
letter. It was the morrow of the victory. Can we marvel that 
while it was vivid in his memory, and in the memories of all, he 
should delight again and again to remind the Gentiles of what had 
been gained ? ' Wherefore remember '. 

ii ii ' Remember that in time past ye t the Gentiles in the flesh '. The 

connexion appears to be this. We both Gentiles and Jews, with. 
no distinction now are God's New Creation in Christ; created 
with an end to fulfil, a path marked out to tread. Wherefore 
remember what you were, and what you are. You were the 
despised, outside, alien Gentiles, while these fleshly distinctions 
i Cor. v 1 6 lasted. But now that ' we know no man after the flesh ', now that 
the New Creation has made the Two no longer Two, but One, all is 
yours : you have equal rights of citizenship, an equal place in the 
family of God ; you go to make up the Temple in which it pleases 
God to dwell. 

' Remember that in time past ye, the Gentiles in the flesh', -while 
' the flesh ' was the ground of distinction, as it was while the sign 

of God's covenant was a mark made by a man's hand on a man's 

flesh 'who are called the Uncircumcision by that which is called 
the Circumcision^ in the flesh, made with hands'. There is no 
necessary trace of contempt, as has been sometimes thought, in the 
expressions, 'who are called the Uncircumcision', and 'which is 
called the Circumcision'. These were familiar names on Jewish 
lips, even if St Paul himself will not lend them his sanction. There 
is no ground for the interpretation, ' the so-called ', as if the Apostle 
meant that the distinctions were absurd or unreal. They were very 
real and very tremendous; but they were done away in the New 
Creation. So far as there is any depreciation of circumcision in the 
passage, it is found in the last words, which are intended to suggest 
that it belongs to an order that is material and transient. 

The emphasis which the Apostle wishes to lay on the words ' the 
Gentiles ' has led him again to expand, and so the sentence is broken. 
This is the third time in the epistle that he has broken his sentence 
to emphasise the position of the Jew and the Gentile : compare i 13 
and ii 3. Nothing could more clearly shew the place this question 
held in his thought. 

:ii 12 ' That at that time without Christ ye were aliens from the common- 

wealth of Israel and strangers from the covenants of promise '. A 
contrast is here drawn between their old position, 'at that time 
without Christ ', and their new position, ' now in Christ Jesus ' 
(v. 13). This contrast is somewhat obscured if we render, as in the 


Authorised Version, 'that at that time ye were without Christ, 
being aliens' <fcc. They are called upon to remember not simply 
that they were without Christ, but what they were without Christ. 

It is interesting to compare with this statement of disabilities 
the Apostle's catalogue in an earlier epistle of the privileges of those 
whom he terms ' his brethren, his kinsfolk after the flesh ' : they Rom. ix 
' are Israelites ' ', theirs ' are the adoption, and the glory, and the 3 ~~ 5 
covenants, and the giving of the law, and the worship, and the 
promises'; theirs 'are the fathers', that is, the patriarchs and 
prophets, the heroes of the past ; and of them ' is the Christ accord- 
ing to the flesh'. These were their distinctive privileges, which 
marked them as the Elect People. It was these things that the 
Gentiles had lacked. 

* In Christ ', indeed, as they now were, all was theirs ; but ' with- 
out Christ ', as they had been, they were unenfranchised * outlanders ', 
aliens and foreigners, with no rights of citizenship in the sacred Gen. xyii 7 
commonwealth, with no share in the covenants which guaranteed LukeTL 8 
the promise made to ' Abraham and his seed for ever 7 . 72 f. 

' Having no hope '. The Jew had a hope : the Gentile had none. 
The golden age of the Gentile was in the past : his poets told him 

of it, and how it was gone. Th~e~~3"ew's~~golden~~age was-in the 

future : his prophets told him to look forward to its coming. 

1 And without God'. Though there were 'gods many and lords i Cor. viii 
many ', yet in the true sense they had no God. It had not yet ^ 
been revealed, as it was revealed through Christ, that ' the God of Rom. iii 
the Jews ' was ' the God of the Gentiles also '. 

This is the only place in the New Testament where the word 
a0 cos occurs. It is in no contemptuous sense that the Apostle 
speaks of them as having been ' atheists ', or ' godless '. It was the 
simple and sad description of their actual state, not indeed from 
their own, but from the only true point of view. 

The charge of 'atheism' was hurled again and again by the 
heathen at the Christians of the early days. Justin Martyr com- 
plains that Christians were persecuted as a#cot, and reminds the 
persecutors that Socrates had been put to death as a0eos. On a 
memorable occasion the phrase was turned back on those who used 
it. The Martyrdom of Poly carp tells (c. 9) how the proconsul bade 
the aged bishop, in words which it was customary to employ, 
'Swear by the genius of the emperor; repent; say, Away with 
the atheists' (Alpe TOV<S adeov? meaning the Christians). 'Then 
Polycarp, looking towards the people and waving with his hand, 
groaned and looked up to heaven and said, ATpe rows o&ovs'. It 
was they and not' the Christians, who had no God. 


* In the world* . These words are the positive description of the 
state which the Apostle has hitherto been describing entirely by 
negatives. Coming at the close, they stand in sharp contrast to 
what immediately follows : 'but now in Christ Jesus...' 

They are not however to be taken by themselves, but in close 
connexion with the two preceding phrases. The world, to St Paul, 
is the present outward order of things; not of necessity to be 
characterised as evil ; but evil, when considered as apart from God, 
or as in opposition to God. Without a hope, and without a God 
this was to be ' in the world ' and limited to the world, with nothing 
to lift them above the material and the transient. It was to be, in 
St John's language, not only ' in the world ', but * of the world '. 

j 13 'JBut now in Christ Jesus ye who in time past were far off have 

been made nigh by the blood of Christ'. In the remainder of this 
section the Apostle reverses the picture. They were 'without 
Christ... in the world' : they are 'in Christ Jesus'. The distance 
between the unprivileged and the privileged is annihilated : ' the 

Isa. Ivii 19 far ' has become 'near'. These are Old Testament terms: the 
allusion is more explicitly made below in u 17. 

- i -J3y-the-blood-of-Christ'^6~(more literally) '"in the blood of the 

Christ'. So in i 7 we had 'through His blood', when the Apostle 
was speaking of the Emancipation, before he had distinguished the 
two classes of Jew and Gentile, and when he was describing the 
blessings of the new Election in the imagery of the old covenant. 
We may reserve to a later point the consideration of his present 
use of the words. 

ii 14 ' For He is our peace '. The pronoun is emphatic in the original. 

We might render : ' For He Himself is our peace ', or ' For it is He 
who is our peace '. 

Note that the Apostle, having taken two words from the passage- 
in Isaiah, now takes a third. In fact it is thus that the word 

Isa. Ivii 19 ' peace ' is suggested to him : for the old promise ran : ' Peace, peace 
to him that is far off, and to him that is nigh'. 'It is He', says 
St Paul, ' who is our peace '. Note also the change in the pronouns 
from ' ye ' to ' our '. To you and to us the peace has come. We 
were strangers to one another ; nay, we were enemies : ' it is He 
who is our peace'. 

He, ' who hath made both one ' both the parts one whole. The 
neuter of the original cannot well be expressed by an English 
translation. Lower down, instead of the neuter he will use the 

ii 15 masculine : ' that He might create the two (men) into one new man, 

(so) making peace '. 


This is the most perfect peace : not the armed peace of rival 
powers, not even the peace of the most friendly alliance 5 but the 
peace which comes from absolute unity. There can be no more a 
quarrel, when there are no more two, but only one. 

1 And hath broken down the middle wall of the partition'; that is, ii 14 
the intervening wall which formed the barrier. 

To understand the metaphor we must know something of the 
construction of the Temple in St Paul's day. The area which had 
been enclosed by Herod the Great was very large. It consisted of 
court within court, and innermost of all the Holy Place and the Holy 
of Holies. There were varying degrees of sanctity in these sacred 
places. Into the Holy of Holies only the High Priest could enter, 
and that once in the year. The Holy Place was entered daily and 
incense was burned by a priest on the golden altar at the moment 
of the sacrifice of the morning and evening lamb. This sacrifice took 
place outside in the Court of the Priests, where was the great Altar 
of Burnt-offerings. Outside this again were two further courts the 
Court of the Sons of Israel immediately adjacent, and beyond this 
on the east the Court of the Women. The whole of the localities 

thus far mentioned formed a raised^plateaTr:~from-it-you-deseended 

at various points down five steps and through gates in a lofty wall, to 
find yourself not yet outside the temple-precincts, but on a narrow 
platform overlooking another large court the outer court to which 
Gentiles who desired to see something of the glories of the Temple, 
or to offer gifts and sacrifices to the God of the Jews, were freely 
admitted. Further in than this court they were forbidden on pain 
of death to go. The actual boundary line which the Gentile might 
not cross was not the high wall with its gates, but a low stone 
barrier about five feet in height which ran round at the bottom of 
fourteen more steps 1 . 

In the year 1871, during the excavations which were being 
made on the site of the Temple on behalf of the Committee of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund, M. Clermont Ganneau found one of 
the very pillars which Josephus describes as having been set up on 
the barrier to which St Paul here refers. It is now preserved in 

1 This account is derived from most beautifully worked; on it there 

Josephus Antiqq. xv 1 1, B. J. v 5. In were set up at equal distances pillars 

the latter passage he says: 'As you setting forth the law of sanctity, some 

went on through this first court to the in Greek and some in Eoman eharac- 

second there was a stone fence run- ters, how that no man of another race 

ning all round, three cubits high and might pass within the sanctuary '. 


the Museum at Constantinople, and it bears the following inscrip- 
tion in Greek letters 1 : 




That barrier, with its series of inscribed stones threatening 
death to the intruder, was still standing in the Temple courts at the 
moment when St Paul boldly proclaimed that Christ had broken it 
down. It still stood : but it was already antiquated, obsolete, out 
of date, so far as its spiritual meaning went. The sign still stood : 
but the thing signified was broken down. The thing signified was 
the separation between Gentile and Jew. That was done away in 
the person of Jesus Christ. A few years later the sign itself was 
dashed down in a literal ruin. Out of that rum a fragment of it 
has been dug, after exactly eighteen hundred years, to enforce 
St Paul's words, and by a striking object lesson to bid us, the 
Gentiles, 'remember' that in Christ Jesus we who were 'far off' 
have been 'made 

ii ir 14 At this point we may pause to draw out in greater fulness the 
teaching of the Apostle in this passage. He has called on the 
Gentiles, who have newly been admitted into a position of absolute 
equality of privilege with the Jew, to remember what they were 
and what they now are. They were the Gentiles, according to a 
distinction which he describes by the words 'in the flesh' : that is 
to say, they were the TJncircumcision, as they were called by those 
who on their part were called the Circumcision. The distinction 
was an external one : it was made ' in the flesh ' ; it was made by a 
man's hand. The very terms suggest and are chosen to suggest 
that it was temporary, not eternal. But it was not therefore un- 
real ', nor was it wrong : it was part of the Divine method for the 
education of the world. It is done away now ; but it was divinely 
ordained, and tremendous in its reality while it lasted. 

This is what they were. There was a dividing line, and they 
were on the wrong side of it. And consequently, as he goes on to 
say, they were not only without the sign of privilege, but without 
the privilege itself. For they were not members of the Chosen 
People : they were aliens, they were strangers : they knew nothing 
of a Divine fellowship, a sacred polity, in which men were linked 
to one another and to God, in which God had entered into covenant 
1 For the Greek text see the commentary ad loc. 


with men and had blessed them with a promise which brightened 
their outlook into the future. Nothing of all this was for them : 
they had no hope, no God : they were in the world without a hope 
and without a God the world, which might be so full of hope and 
so full of God, to those who knew the Divine purpose and their 
own share in it ; but which was as a fact to them, in their isolated, 
unprivileged condition, a hopeless and a godless world. That is 
what they were : it would do them good to think upon it. 

If we bear in mind how closely St Paul links together member- 
ship in a Divine polity and fellowship with God Himself, we shall 
be saved from some difficulties of interpretation later on. He did 
not deny that God was working in the hearts of the Gentiles all 
the while : something of God could be known to them, was known 
to them: 'He left not Himself without witness'; He was always Acts xiv 17 
doing them good : their sin consisted in their rebellion against Him 
who made Himself felt among them, at least in some degree, as the 
Lord of their spirits. But they were not like the favoured Jews, 
who knew God and had been brought into an actual fellowship 
with Him, who had God * so nigh unto them ', who were claimed Dent, iv 7 
every moment of their lives as God's own ; so that in a peculiar 

sense God was '"the~God~of~Israel-'7-and Israel-was-' the-Israel-of 


The Jew, and the Jew alone, was nigh to God. And hence it 
followed that to be nigh to the Jew was to be nigh to God, and to 
be far from the Jew was to be far from God. 

This then is what St Paul says : You were far off, but now you 
have been made nigh. In the first instance he means, You were 
far off from the Jewish commonwealth and the covenants that con- 
tained the promise : but he cannot separate this thought from that 
other which gave it all its meaning and importance far from the 
sacred commonwealth is far from God. 

We must go back upon his life-long training, if we would under- 
stand his position. From a child he had been taught that he was 
a member of a Selected People, that he was brought into a Divine 
fellowship. This membership, this citizenship in the sacred polity, 
was the fact on which his whole life rested. This was what made 
life worth living to him: this was his one only and sufficient 
hope for the great future. When he became a Christian this was 
not taken from him. Only he now saw that his People's hope had 
come : he saw in Jesus the Messiah of his People's longings. All, 
and more than all, that his prophets had foretold had actually come 
to pass. The Divine fellowship, the sacred commonwealth, was 
more than ever to him now. To be within it, as he knew he was, 


was infinitely more precious a privilege, to be outside was far more 
grievous a disability, than ever it could have seemed before. 

Hence the deep pathos of his language as he describes the hopeless 
misery of the Gentile world. Hence too his supreme delight in pro- 
claiming, not that the Divine fellowship was suddenly at an end, but 
that the old limits by which it had been confined to a single race were 
done away ; that the world was no longer two parts one privileged, 
the other unprivileged but one whole, all privileged alike ; that the 
partition wall which had kept the Gentile at a distance was simply 
broken down, and that Jew and Gentile might enter hand in hand 

Mark xi into the One Father's house, ' the house of prayer for all nations '. 

^ It was the fulfilment of the Jewish hope not its disappointment 

which had brought about this glorious issue. It was the Messiah 
who had done it. The Jew lost nothing : he gained everything 
gained new brothers, gained the whole Gentile world. In Christ 

Ps. ii 8 God had ' given him the heathen for his inheritance, and the utter- 
most parts of the earth for his possession '. 

The Gentile too had gained all. He indeed had nothing to lose, 
and could only gain. He had gained brotherhood with the Jew, a 
place in the Divine family, the franchise of the sacred polity, his 

passage across~~the partition which~HadTdivibled him from the Jew 

and thereby had divided him from God. He was brought nigh 
nigh to the Jew, and nigh to God. 

All this is in St Paul's thought when he says : ' Ye were far off, 
but ye have been made nigh '. 

We have not yet considered the important words which he adds 

ii 13 to this statement : ' in ' or 'by the blood of the Christ '. The 

reconciliation by which 'the far off' and 'the near' are brought 
together by which Gentile is made nigh to Jew and thereby nigh 

Heb. ix 1 8 to God is 'not without blood'. For neither was the Jew's own 
covenant ' without blood '. 

We need to remind ourselves that from the earliest days every 
treaty between man and man, as well as every covenant between 
man and God, was ratified and made sure by the blood of a sacrifice. 
All that is done away now, and we find it hard to do full justice to 
a conception so foreign to our ways of thinking. But we must bear 
this fact in mind if we would understand St Paul. The covenant 
between a nation and its deity was a covenant of blood : the peace 
between a nation and a nation was ratified by a victim's blood 1 . 

1 The history of this idea, which by the late Professor W. Bobertson 

played so large a part in human life Smith (part I. ' Fundamental Institu- 

before the Christian era, is elaborately tions '). 
treated in The Religion of the Semites 


That the Messiah had been killed was at first sight the defeat 
and failure of all the expectation of which He had been the centre. 
His resurrection dispelled the gloom, and shewed that He had 
triumphed in spite of death even through death, for He had shewn 
Himself the conqueror of death. His death was presently seen to 
have been a necessary stage of His work. It partook of the nature 
of a sacrifice. It was the blood of a covenant : so He Himself had 
solemnly described it on the eve of His crucifixion ' This is My Mark xiv 
Blood of the Covenant'. St Paul gives us here an interpretation of 
His words. The ' blood of the Christ ' had made a new treaty of 
peace between the two opposing sections of humanity : it had made 
the two into one. ' The blood of the Christ ' had made ' the far off' 
to be 'near': it had widened out the old Covenant, so as to embrace 
those who had been outside : it had become the fulfilment of all the 
sacrificial blood-shedding of the old Covenant, which it superseded 
only by including it in a new Covenant, in which Jew and Gentile 
alike had access to the one and only God. His life-blood poured out 
as the ratification of the new Covenant, says St Paul, has made ' the 
far off' ' near ' ; for He Himself is our peace j He Himself has made 
the two parts one whole ; He Himself has broken down the partition- 
wHlltTiat~shut~off "the one from the privileges of ~th~e~otner; 

Up to this point the Apostle's meaning is clear, when once we 
nave grasped the conceptions which lie behind .his thought. But he 
is conscious that he has been using the language of metaphor, and 
he proceeds to elaborate and to interpret what he has been saying. 
The participial clause which follows is a re-statement in other terms 
of what has immediately preceded. 

' Having abolished in His flesh the enmity, the law of command- ii 15 
ments contained in ordinances'. This recasts and presents afresh 
the statements 'He Himself is our peace' and 'He hath broken 
down the middle wall of the partition '. ' In His flesh, ' corresponds 
to the emphatic pronoun 'He Himself; the abolition of ( the 
enmity ' is a new description of ' our peace '. As the division was 
symbolised and expressed in the barrier of the Temple, so 'the 
enmity ' was expressed in ' the law of commandments contained in 
.ordinances '. Accordingly the breaking down of the Temple barrier 
is one and the same thing with the abolition of the enmity as it had 
taken outward shape in the enactments of the ritual law. 

But these phrases deserve to be considered one by one. l ln 
His flesh '. ' His flesh ' is the scriptural term for what we speak of 
as His humanity, His human nature. * He took upon Him flesh ' 
was an early Christian mode of speaking of the mystery of the 


Incarnation. It is the same in' meaning with the great phrase of 
the Te Deum, Tu ad liberandum suscepisti hominem, ' Thou tookest 
upon Thee man, to deKver him '. The flesh of Christ is our common 
humanity, which He deigned to make His own. So that in Him 
c all flesh ', that is, all humanity, finds its meeting point. And thus 
He is Himself our peace : in His own person He has abolished our 

' The law of commandments contained in ordinances ' was abolished 
by Christ. The fulness of this expression is no doubt intentional. 
Matt, v 17 Christ came 'not to destroy' the law, 'but to fulfil' it: not to 
break it down, but to fill it with its full meaning. Yet this was to 
do away with it in so far as it was a limited code of commands. 
All, its commandments were swallowed up in the new commandment 
of love. In so far as it was petrified in enactments, and especially 
in those external ordinances which guided all the details of the 
Jew's daily life and were meant above all things to keep him 
distinct from the outside Gentile, -just in that sense and in that 
measure it was annulled in Christ. This is made clearer by the 
guarding phrase ' in ordinances '. The law, so far as it was a ' law 
of commandments ' and was identified with external * ordinances ', 

The Apostle uses parallel language in the Epistle to the Colos- 
Col. ii 14 sians. ' He hath cancelled the bond that stood against us, (that 
consisted) in ordinances : He hath taken it out of the way, having 
nailed it to His cross'. And he asks, lower down, of those who 
seemed to wish to return to a modified system of external prohibi- 
Col. ii. 20, tions : ' Why are ye still ordinance-ridden ? ' And at the same time 
21 he explains his meaning by examples of such ordinances: 'Touch 

not, taste not, handle not '. To re-enact these was to abandon the 
Gospel and to return to ' the commandments and doctrines of men '. 
' The law of commandments in ordinances ' had an important 
use while the distinction 'in the flesh' between Jew and Gentile 
had to be clearly marked. The touch of certain things defiled, the 
taste of certain meats made a man unclean. To touch even in the 
commerce of the market what a Gentile had touched, to eat at the 
same table at which a Gentile ate these things were defiling then. 
The ordinances were framed to prevent such pollution, such sins 
against the Divine covenant which marked off the Jews as a 
peculiar people. It was just these distinctions that were done away 
now ; and with them the ordinances which enforced them were 

'The law of commandments in ordinances' was abolished, and 
abolished by the Messiah Himself. * In His flesh ' He had united 


those whom these distinctions had held apart : 'in His blood ' He 
had made a new Covenant which included them both. 

' That He might create in Himself of the twain one new man, so ii 15 
making peace '. This is the New Creation, the New Man, of which 
we have spoken already. Henceforth God deals with man as a 
whole, as a single individual, in Christ. Not as Two Men, the 
privileged and the unprivileged Two, parted one from the other by 
a barrier in the most sacred of all the relations of life : but as One 
Man, united in a peace, which is no mere alliance of elements 
naturally distinct, but a concorporation, the common life of a single 

' And that He might reconcile both unto God in one body by the ii 16 
cross, having slain the enmity thereby '. Here the Apostle expresses 
what has all along been implied in his thought, namely, that the 
peace by which the Gentile was reconciled to the Jew was at the 
same time a peace with God. In the new Covenant which was 
made ' in the blood of the Christ ' not only were the two sections of 
humanity brought nigh to one another, but both of them in the 
same moment were brought nigh to God. 

' In one body \ This is the ' one body ' which has resulted from 

the union of the two sections. It is the ' one body ' to which the 
' one Spirit ' of v. 18 corresponds. It is not the human body of the 
Lord Jesus j that was referred to above in v. 15 by the expression 
' in His flesh '. Here St Paul is speaking of that larger Body of 
the exalted Christ, of which he has already declared that it is His i 23 
fulness or completion, and of which he will presently declare that iv 4 
' there is one body and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope 
of your calling '. 

' Having slain the enmity tJiereby ', that is, by the Cross. An 
alternative rendering is ' having slain the enmity in Himself 1 . The 
meaning is the same in either case : and the expression is a bold 
one. Christ in His death was slain : but the slain was a slaver 



1 And He came and 'preached (or ' published good tidings of ') ii i i: 
peace to you which were afar off, and peace to them that were nigh '. 
In these words St Paul combines with the passage of Isaiah which 
he has already used in w. 13, 14 another passage of the same book. 
' Peace, peace to him that is far off and to him that is near, saith Tsa. Ivii 10 
the Lord ', is combined with ' How beautiful upon the mountains Isa. lii 7 
are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth 
peace '. The verb ' to publish good tidings ' is drawn by the Apostle 
from the Septuagint version of the latter passage. 

EPHES. 8 t 


In the words ' He came and preached ' we have a reference not 
to the work of the Lord Jesus on earth before the Crucifixion, but 
to the work of the exalted Christ in announcing the peace which 
His death had made. 

ii 18 * For through Him, we both have our access in one Spirit unto the 

father '. The new Covenant was henceforward the ground of the 
Jew's approach to God, as well as of the Gentile's. For the old 
Covenant was swallowed up in the new. Jew and Gentile now 
rested alike on the new Covenant, and so all distinction between 
them was at an end. 

It is noteworthy that, as the Apostle proceeds, the hostility 
between Jew and Gentile has been gradually falling into the back- 
ground. The reconciliation of which he speaks is the reconciliation 
of both to God, even more than of each to the other ; and the 
climax of all is found in the access of both to the common Father. 
For the supreme blessing which the new Covenant has secured is 
freedom of approach to Him who is to be known henceforth by His 
new Name, not as Jehovah the God of Israel, but as the Father. 

' In one Spirit '. This phrase is the counterpart of the phrase 

'in one body ' of v. 16. ' In one body ' we both were reconciled to 

God : ' in one Spirit we bothThave our access to the J 1 atheri The 7 

' one body ' is animated by ' one Spirit '. So, later on, the Apostle 

iv 4 declares : ' There is one body and one Spirit, even as ye have been 

called in one hope of your calling '. Even if the reference is not 

primarily to the Holy Spirit, yet the thought of Him as the Spirit 

Comp. ^ fellowship is necessarily present where the 'one Spirit' of the 

i Cor. xii < one body ' is spoken of. The Body of the Christ has a Spirit that 

13 dwells in it. That Spirit is the Spirit of the Christ, the Holy Spirit. 

When we grasp this correlation of the Body of Christ and the Spirit 

of Christ, we can understand why in the Apostolic Creed the clause 

'The Holy Catholic Church' forms the first subdivision of the 

section which begins, ' I believe in the Holy Ghost '. 

ji jo ' So then ye are no more strangers and sojourners, but ye are 

fellow-citizens with the saints '. The Apostle returns to his political 
metaphor, and uses a term which was well understood in the Greek 
cities. The ' sojourners ' were a class of residents who were recog- 
nised by law and were allowed certain definite privileges : but 
their very name suggested that their position was not a permanent 
one : they resided on sufferance only, and had no rights of citizen- 
ship. The Gentiles, says St Paul, are no longer in this position of 
exclusion from the franchise of the sacred commonwealth. They 
are 'fellow-citizens with the saints '. ' The saints ' was a designation 


proper to the members of the ancient People of God. They were 
a ' holy nation ' : they were ' saints ' by virtue of their national 
consecration to Jehovah. The designation was naturally retained 
by St Paul, when the Chosen People was widened into the Catholic 
Church. To quote Bishop Lightfoot's words 1 : "The Christian 
Church, having taken the place of the Jewish race, has inherited 
all its titles and privileges j it is 'a chosen generation, a royal 
priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people ' (i Pet. ii 9). All who 
have entered into the Christian covenant by baptism are ' saints ' in 
the language of the Apostles. Even the irregularities and profli- 
gacies of the Corinthian Church do not forfeit it this title ". 

The Gentiles, then, had been admitted to full rights in the 
polity of ' the saints ' : they were now no less truly a part of the 
consecrated people than were the Jews. But the Apostle adds a 
further metaphor. He has just spoken of God as 'the Father', to 
whom they had been given access. In harmony with this he now 
declares that the Gentiles are members of God's family, or house- 
hold : they have all the privileges of the sons of the house : they are 
' of the household of God '. In this phrase he uses an adjective ii 19 
(OIKCIOS) which implies the word ' house ' in the non-material sense in 
wEich we often use it ourselves : comp. i Tim. iii. 4 and 15. But 
we can scarcely doubt that it is the feeling of the radical meaning 
of the word that leads him on to the new metaphor which he at 
once developes, and which would seem excessively abrupt if it were 
not for this half-hidden connexion. They are not merely members 
of the household, but actually a part of the house of God. 

* Being built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, ii 20 
Christ Jesus Himself being the corner-stone '. They are not the first 
stones laid in the building : they are built up on others which were 
there before them. The foundation stones are the apostles and 
prophets, the chief stone of all being Christ Jesus Himself, who is the Isa. xxviii 
'corner-stone', as the Old Testament writers had called the Messiah. 1<5 'j i ? s ' 

In an earlier epistle St Paul had emphatically declared : ' Other 
foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ '. . 
But there he is employing his metaphor in a different way. He is 
not speaking of persons who are builded in, but of persons who 
build. He himself, for example, is not a stone of the building, but 
*a wise master-builder' : those of whom he speaks are builders also, 
and their work will come to the testing. The foundation he has 
himself laid in the proclamation of Christ Jesus : it is not possible 
that any of them should lay any other foundation : but it is only 
too possible that the superstructure which they raise should be 

1 Note on Philippians i i. 


worthless, and thafc instead of wages for good work done they 
should come in for the fine which attached to careless or fraudulent 
workmanship. Here the application of the metaphor is different. 
The stones are persons : the foundation stones are the apostles 
and prophets, the most important stone of all being ' Christ Jesus 

This last phrase is emphatic. Christ, the Messiah who had 
been spoken of beforehand as the corner-stone; Jesus, the human 
manifestation of the Christ in time : ' Christ Jesus Himself '. He 
is part of the Body which He brings into being, for He is its Head : 
He is part of the House which He founds, for He is its Corner- 
stone. The passage in St Paul's mind at this point is Isa. xxviii 16, 
as it was rendered by the Septuagint: 'Behold, I lay for the 
foundations of Sion a stone costly and chosen, a precious corner- 
stone for the foundations thereof '. And just because he will speak 
of Christ in the old prophet's terms as a corner-stone, he cannot 
here speak of Him as the whole foundation. 

Matt, rvi We are naturally reminded by this passage of the saying of our 
Lord to St Peter : ' I say unto thee, Thou art Peter (Herpes), and 

upon this rock (^rerpa) I will build My Church, and the gates of hell 

shall not prevail against it : I will give to thee the keys of the 
kingdom of heaven '. Here we have the same metaphor, and again 
its application is slightly varied. In English the play upon words 
is wholly lost : in the Greek it is somewhat obscured by the change 
from Herpes to Trerpa. The feminine word (irerpa) could not well be 
the name of a man, and accordingly the Greek name of Cepha was 
Herpes, which signifies a stone rather than a rock. But in the 
Aramaic, in which our Lord almost certainly spoke, there was no 
such difficulty. Cepha was equally a stone or a rock. So that the 
words must have run, just as we now read them in the Syriac 
versions : ' Thou art Cepha, and upon this cepha I will build My 

It is worth our while to notice how the metaphor of a house is 
there applied to the Church. It is the Divine House which Christ 
will build (He is neither the foundation nor the corner-stone, but 
the Builder), and the keys of it He will place in the Apostle's 
hands. Thus by a rapid transition the Apostle's own relation to 
the house is expressed by a new metaphor ; he is now the steward 
Isa. xxii 22 of the house : compare the prophet's words : * I will give the 
( Heb -) key of the house of David...'. Thus the Church the Ecclesia 
corresponds to 'the kingdom of heaven', which the Messiah has 
come to establish : each of the designations being drawn from the 
past history of the sacred commonwealth, which was at once ' the 


Ecclesia of the sons of Israel ' and * the kingdom of Israel '. ' My 
Ecclesia', Christ says, (i.e. My new Israel) 'I will build' : compare 
Amos ix ii f., cited in Acts xv 16 f., 'I will build again the taber- 
nacle of David which is fallen down '. 

In our present passage the foundation is not Peter (Cepha, the 
rock) j he is only a part with others of the foundation : not Christ, 
for even He is but a part, though the chief part, the corner-stone : 
but ' the apostles and prophets '. The scope of these designations I 
have discussed elsewhere 1 . Here it is enough to say with regard 
to the former that though the Twelve and St Paul himself are no 
doubt primarily intended, we need not seek to narrow it to them to 
the exclusion of others who may have been founders or joint-founders 
of Churches. With regard to the latter the whole context makes 
it abundantly plain that St Paul is not taking us back from the 
New Covenant to the Old not speaking of Old Testament prophets 
in the past when he says that the apostles and prophets are the 
foundation of the new House of God. 

When St Paul speaks of Christ as the corner-stone, he uses a 
metaphor which appears to be wholly Oriental The Greeks laid 

no stress on corner-stones. We must go to the East if we would 

understand at all what they mean. The corner-stones in the 
Temple substructures, which have been excavated by the agency 
of the Palestine Exploration Fund, are not, as we might perhaps 
have supposed, stones so shaped as to contain a right-angle, and 
thus by their projecting arms to bind two walls together; though 
it would appear from an incidental remark of Sir Henry Layard 
(Nineveh ii 254) that he had seen some such at Nineveh. They are 
straight blocks which run up to a corner, where they are met in the 
angle by similar stones, the ends of which come immediately above 
or below them. These straight blocks are of great length, frequently 
measuring fifteen feet. The longest that has been found is described 
by Sir Charles Warren (Jerusalem Recovered, p. 121) in bis account 
of the excavation of the southern wall of the sanctuary area. It 
measures 38 feet and 9 inches, and belongs to a very ancient period 
of building. It was such a stone as this that furnished the ancient 
prophet with his image of the Messiah. 

'In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an ii ai 
holy temple in the Lord '. The uncertainty which has attended the 
translation of these words may best be illustrated by bringing 
together the various forms of the English Version in this place 2 . 

1 See Encyclopedia Siblica, arts. 2 I cite the older renderings from 
'Apostle' and 'Prophet (N. T.)': see 'The English Hexapla' (Bagster, 
also below, pp. 97 f. 1841). 


WICLIF. 1380. In whom eche bildynge made : wexeth in to 

an holi temple in the lord. 
TYNDALE. 1534. In whom every bildynge coupled togedder, 

groweth vnto an holy temple in the lorde. 
CRANMER. 1539. In whom what buyldyng soever is coupled 

together, it groweth vnto an holy temple in the Lorde. 
GENEVA. 1557. In whom all the buyldying coupled together, 

groweth vnto an holy temple in the Lord. 
K.HEIMS. 1582. In whom al building framed together, groweth 

into an holy temple in our Lord. 
AUTHORISED. 1611. In whom all the building fitly framed 

together, groweth vnto an holy temple in the Lord. 
REVISED. 1881. In whom ^ach several building, fitly framed 

together, groweth into a holy 2 temple in the Lord. 

1 Gr. every "building. s Or, sanctuary. 

"We need not at this point enter into the causes of so great 
variety of rendering. This would be to discuss the influence of the 
Latin Yulgate, and of the variants in the Greek text. Our study 


St Paul contemplates a single structure and no more. Such a 
rendering then as ' every building ' (that is to say, ' all the build- 
ings ') is out of harmony with the general thought of the passage. 
If the Apostle has in any way referred to parts which go to make 
up a whole, it has always been to two parts, and only two, viz. the 
Jew and the Gentile. To introduce the idea of many churches 
going to make up one Church is to do violence to the spirit of this 
whole section. The rendering ' each several building, fitly framed 
together, groweth into a holy temple ' offends the most conspicuously 
against the Apostle's thought. For it must logically imply that 
the ' several buildings ' grow into ' several temples ' : and this is at 
once inconsistent with the single ' habitation ' or ' dwelling-place ' of 
God, which the Apostle mentions in the next verse. 

In English the word 'building* has various shades of meaning, 
each of which is found equally in its counterpart in the Greek. It 
may mean ' the process of building ' : it may mean * the building 
itself when complete '. Or it may have a sense intermediate between 
these two, and mean 'the building regarded as in process'. The 
Apostle's meaning is saved by the rendering of the Bheims Bible 
' al building ' ; but this is somewhat harsh, and limits us too strictly 
to the process, as contrasted with the work in process. ' All that 
is builded ', or ' all building that is done ' might express the sense 
with sufficient accuracy : but this hardly differs from ' all the build- 


ing ', when we keep before our minds the thought of the building 
in process, as opposed to the completed edifice. We may accord- 
ingly retain the familiar rendering, although it is not free from 
ambiguity if the context be neglected, and although it was origi- 
nally intended as the translation of a reading in the Greek which 
the textual evidence precludes us from accepting. 

All work done on this House of God, all fitting of stone to 
stone, as the building rises coupled and morticed by clamp and 
dowel, all this work is a growth, as though the building were a 
living organism. St Paul has no hesitation in mixing his meta-r 
phors, if thereby he can the more forcibly express his meaning. 
We have the exact converse of this transition in the fourth chapter : 
if here ' the building grows ' like a body, there ' the body is builded '. iv 12, 16 

' An holy temple '. The word ' temple ' in our English Bible is 
used to render two Greek words, naos and hieron. The first of 
these which is used in this place denotes the shrine, the actual 
House of God, which in the Jewish temple consisted of the Holy 
Place and the Holy of Holies. The second, on the other hand, has 
the wider meaning of the temple-precincts the courts and colon- 
_nades, in which the people gathered for worship. This distinction 
is observed alike by Josephus and by the writers of the New Testa- 
ment. Thus the hieron was the temple into which the Pharisee Luke xviii 
and the publican went up to pray : it was there that our Lord used r ?. Mark 
to teach : it was thence that He drove out the traders. But it Markxi 15 
was in the naos that the angel appeared to Zacharias the priest : Luke i 9 
it was between the naos and the altar that Zacharias, * the son of Matt, xxiii 

Barachias ', was slain : it was the veil of the naos that was rent at 35 

XT- r\ -.C i 
the Crucifixion 1 . 

A passage which is sometimes cited to justify a false interpreta- 
tion of our present verse is Matt, xxiv i, 'the buildings of the 
temple '. But note the word there used : ' And Jesus went out and 
was departing from the hieron, and His disciples drew near to point 
out to Him the buildings of the hieron '. The plural could be used 
of the temple-precinct through which they were passing, adorned as 
it was with the splendid structures of Herod. It could not be 
used of the naos, which was a single building, divided only by the 
partition of a veil. Accordingly it seems impossible to assign 
any meaning to the phrase 'every building groweth into a holy 
naos', except it be such a meaning as is directly opposed, as we 

1 The only passage where there xxvii 5 : Judas cast the price of the 
could be a reason for wishing to give Lord's betrayal into the naos. 
to the naos a wider meaning is Matt. 


have seen, to the whole teaching on which St Paul is laying such 
evident stress. 

'In the Lord'. This is the first time in the epistle that this 
title has stood by itself. It may not be wise always to insist on a 
conscious motive for the choice of the phrase 'in the Lord', in 
preference to the phrase ' in Christ '. Yet it can hardly be a mere 
coincidence that where the Apostle describes the transcendental 
relation of believers to Christ as the ground of their acceptance 
with God he uses the expression 'in Christ', or one of the fuller 
expressions into which this title enters; whereas, when he is 
speaking of the issues of that relation as manifested in life and 
conduct here below, he uses the phrase 'in the Lord'. Contrast, 
ii 10 for example, the words created in Christ Jesus ' with the words 

vi 10 Be strong in the Lord '. The Christ of the privileged position is 

the Lord of the holy lif e : if in Christ we are in heaven, in the Lord 
we must live on earth. Christ is the corner-stone of the foundation ', 
the building grows to an holy temple in the Lord. 

ii 22 ' In whom ye also '. These words have by this time a familiar 

sound. The Apostle insists afresh upon the inclusion of the Gen- 
tiles ; and he is thus led into what might seem a mere repetition of 
what he has already said, but that the two fresh expressions which 
he adds produce the effect of a climax. 

' Are builded together for an habitation of Gfod in the Spirit '. 
Once more he takes his word from the Old Testament. The 
Exod. xv ' habitation ' or ' dwelling-place of God ' was a consecrated phrase. 
It was the proudest boast of the Jew that the Lord his God, who 
etc. dwelt i* 1 heaven, dwelt also in Sion. To the new People the same 16 high privilege is granted in a yet more intimate manner. Tor we 
Lev. xxvi are the temple of the living God : as God hath said, I will dwell in 
11 f< them, and walk in them ; and I will be their God, and they shall be 
My people '. 

' In the Spirit '. Here, as so often, the Apostle does not make 
it plain whether he is speaking directly of the Divine Spirit or not. 
But it is to be observed that this section, which began with the 
words 'in the flesh' (twice repeated), ends with the words 'in 
the spirit'. No doubt the thought that the habitation of God is 
spiritual, in contrast to the material temple, is present to the 
Apostle's mind, even if it does not exhaust the meaning of his 
words. And we may perhaps regard the expression of i Pet. ii 5, 
' a spiritual house ', as the earliest commentary on this passage. 

Thus St Paul closes this great section by declaring that the 
Gentiles had full rights of citizenship in the sacred commonwealth, 


that they were true sons of the household of God, nay that they were 
a part of His Holy House, builded upon its foundation, secured by 
its corner-stone, that corner-stone which gave unity to all building 
that was reared upon it ; so that all such building, duly welded into 
one, was growing into a holy shrine, to be the spiritual dwelling- 
place of God. 

Such was ' the mystery of the will of God '. It was that they i 9 
might grasp this mystery that he had begun to pray for the ' Spirit 
of wisdom and apocalypse' on their behalf. And now that he has i 17 
so far expounded it, in brief language compared with its mighty 
magnitude, it becomes again the basis of his prayer. Or rather, the 
prayer which he had essayed to utter, and the first words of which 
had carried him so far that the prayer had lost itself in the wonder 
of the blessing prayed for, that prayer he once more desires to 
take up and at length to utter in its fulness. 

This he attempts to do in the words : ' For this cause I Paul, the jtii 
prisoner of Christ Jesus for you, the Gentiles ' : but, as we shall see, 
new thoughts again press in, and in v. 14 he makes another and at 
last a successful attempt to declare the fulness of his petition :| 
this cause I boto my knees'. 

FOR this cause I Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus for you, iii 113 
the Gentiles, "if so be that ye have heard of the dispensation 
of the grace of God which was given unto me to you-ward: 
3 how that by revelation was made known unto me the mystery, 
as I have written afore in few words, 4 whereby, when ye read, 
ye can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ ; 
s which in other generations was not made known unto the sons 
of men, as it hath now been revealed unto His holy apostles 
and prophets in the Spirit ; 6 to wit, that the Gentiles are fellow- 
heirs, and fellow-members of the body, and fellow-partakers of 
the promise in Christ Jesus through, the gospel, 7 whereof I was 
made a minister according to the gift of the grace of God which 
was given unto me according to the working of His power, 
8 unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, was this 
grace given, to preach unto the Gentiles the unsearchable 
riches of Christ, 9 and to bring to light what is the dispensation 
of the mystery which from the ages hath been hid in God who 
created all things ; I0 to the intent that now unto the princi- 


palities and powers in the heavenly places might be made 
known through the church the manifold wisdom of God, 
"according to the purpose of the ages which He purposed in 
Christ Jesus our Lord, ia in whom we have our boldness and 
access with confidence by the faith of Him. l3 Wherefore I ask 
you that ye faint not at my tribulations for you, which are 
your glory. 

The construction is at once broken at the end of v. i. There is 
something even in those few words which has suggested a new train 
of thought, and the Apostle cannot check himself until he has 
expressed what is in his soul. What is the starting-point of this 
new departure ? 

Hitherto St Paul has been strangely unlike himself in one 
particular. He has been marvellously impersonal. His only 
reference to himself since the salutation has been in the words, 

i 15 'I cease not to give thanks and to pray'. He has said nothing 
of his own peculiar office as the chosen herald of these new revela- 

tions of the will and way of God ; and of all that he had personally 

endured, whether in long journeyings and constant labours to bring 
this message to the Gentiles, or in persecutions and imprisonment 
directly due to his insistence on the wideness of the Gospel. The 
reason for this unwonted reserve is, as we have partly seen already, 
that he is not writing to the members of a single Church of his own 

Acts xx 3 1 foundation, whom he had 'admonished night and day with tears', 
who knew him well and to whom he could write as he would have 
spoken face to face. He is writing to many who had never seen 
him, though they must have heard much of him and probably had 
learned the Gospel from his fellow-workers. He is writing not a 
personal word of encouragement, but an exposition of the Divine 
Purpose as he had come to know it a word of large import for 
multitudes who needed what he knew it was his to give them. He 

i 15 f. has heard how the great work has been going forward far beyond 
the limits of his own personal evangelisation. He thanks God for 
it. It is part of the f ulfilment of the Purpose. He is fully taken 
up with declaring what the Purpose has brought to the Gentiles as 
a whole. It is only as he reaches a resting-place in his thought, 
that he hears as it were the clink of his chain, and remembers 

iii i where he is and why he is there : ' / Paul, the prisoner of Christ 

Jesus for you, the Gentiles '. 

But the words are too full to be left without a comment or a 
justification. You may never have seen my face, he seems to say, 


but surely you have heard how God has been using me to help you : 
you may even have been discouraged by learning to what my efforts 
on your behalf have brought me. 

The fresh points which are to be emphasised in the remainder of Hi 13 
this section, which is one long parenthesis, are these : (i) St Paul's 
peculiar mission as the exponent of the mystery of the inclusion of 
the Gentiles, as the publisher of the great secret, as the herald of 
the Gospel of ' grace ' ; (2) the newness of the revelation, hid in God \ 
till now, but made known at last to the apostles and prophets of J 
the Christian Church; (3) the sufferings which his mission has 
entailed upon him, and which yet must not dishearten those for 
whom he suffers. 

The section is full of echoes of the earlier part of the epistle. 
Almost every great phrase has its counterpart in the first two 
chapters : the mystery made known by revelation ; revealed by 
the Spirit to the apostles and prophets ', the inheritance, the body, 
the promise, in which the Gentiles have their share in Christ ; the 
grace of God, and the working of His power j the dispensation of 
_fche_grace. and of the mysteryj the heavenly region; the purpose 
of eternity ; the free access to God. 

* If so be that ye have heard of the dispensation of the grace o/"iii 2 
God which was given unto me to you-ward '. The form of the sentence 
is conditional, just as in iv 2 1 ; but it can scarcely mean anything 
less than ' For surely you have heard '. The expression as a whole, 
however, confirms the conclusion that among those to whom the 
epistle was addressed a considerable number, if not the majority, 
had never come into personal contact with the writer : had he been 
writing solely or even primarily to his own Ephesian converts, he 
could never have expressed himself so. 

' The grace of God which was given unto me ' is a favourite phrase 
of St Paul. The context usually makes it quite clear that ' the 
grace given ' him was not a spiritual endowment for his own personal 
lif e, but the Gospel of God's mercy to the Gentile world. Thus, in 
describing his visit to the Apostles at Jerusalem, St Paul says, 
'"When they saw that I had been entrusted with the Gospel of the Gal. ii 7,9 
TJncircumcision, . . . and when they knew the grace which was given 
unto me, . . .they gave right hands of fellowship to me and to Barnabas, 
that we should go unto the Gentiles, and they unto the Circum- 
cision'. An equally striking example is found where St Paul 
justifies his action in addressing a letter to the Roman Christians : Bom. xv. 
'I have written the more boldly', he says, c by reason of the grace I 5 f - 


which was given unto me from God, that I should be a minister 
of Christ Jesus unto the Gentiles '. As we have seen in part already, 
* * grace ' was the significant word which summed up for St Paul his 
own special message the merciful inclusion of the Gentile in the 
purpose of God 1 

In a parallel passage of the Epistle to the Colossians we find the 
Col. i 25 words, ' according to the dispensation of God which was given unto 
me to you- ward ' ; and an English reader might be led to suppose 
that in our present passage the construction likewise must be, 'the 
dispensation... which was given'. The ambiguity, which does not 
exist in the Greek, might be avoided by the rendering ' that grace 
of God which was given unto me ' (so the Revised Version renders) j 
but this expedient has the disadvantage of partially obscuring the 
identity of a phrase which recurs again and again in St Paul's 
epistles 2 . 

Both here and in Col. i 25 'the dispensation' spoken of is a 
dispensation in which God is the Dispenser, and not the adminis- 
tration, or stewardship, of any human agent. This is made clear 
by the parallel use of the word in i 10, and again below in iii 9. 

iii 3 ' How that by revelation, was made known unto me the mystery '. 

We have already noted 8 the signification of the word ' mystery ' or 
' secret ', and of its natural correlative ' apocalypse ' or * revelation '. 
By Divine disclosure, St Paul declares, the Divine secret had been 
made known to him. The recognition of the wideness of God's 
purpose was neither a conclusion of his own mind nor a tradition 
passed on to him by the earlier Apostles. A special providence had 
prepared him, and a special call had claimed him, to be the depositary 

Gal. i 15 f. of a special revelation. 'It was the good pleasure of God ', he says 
elsewhere, in words that remind us of an ancient prophet 4 , 'who 
separated me, even from my mother's womb, and called me through 
His grace, to reveal His Son in me, that I might preach Him among 
the Gentiles'. And of his visit to the Apostles in Jerusalem he 

Gal. ii 2 says emphatically, ' I went up by revelation, and I laid before 
them the Gospel which I preach among the Gentiles '. The message 

1 See above p. 51; and, for the 3 pp. 30^,39. 

detailed examination, see the detached 4 Comp. Jer. i 5, 'Before I formed 

note on %</>. The use of the word in thee in the belly I knew thee, and 

the Acts is in striking harmony with before thou earnest forth out of the 

the usage of St Paul : see esp. si. 23, womb I sanctified thee ; I have ap- 

xv ii. pointed thee a prophet unto the 

2 The same ambiguity meets us nations'. 
below in v. 7. 


itself, and the method of its proclamation and of its justification, 
were alike given to him by Divine revelation. 

'-4 / have written afore in few words, whereby, when ye read, ye iii 3 f. 
can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ '. In the 
earlier chapters the Apostle has stated already in brief his concep- 
tion of the Divine purpose as it has been made known to him. He 
has not indeed declared it in the set terms of a formal treatise. 
But he has given them enough to judge by : if they attend to it 
they cannot but recognise as they read that he writes of that which 
he knows, and that a special knowledge gives him a special claim to 
speak of the mystery of Christ. 

' Which in other generations was not made known unto the sons iii 5 
of men'. Here St Paul takes up a fresh point. He has not had-^f 
occasion hitherto in this epistle to dwell on the newness of the great 
revelation. It is his reference to his own part as the receiver and 
proclaimer of the illuminating truth, that leads him on to explain, 
not indeed that the Divine purpose is a new thing, but that its 
manifestation to men is new. The Purpose was there in the treasury 
of the heavenly secrets from eternity : but it was a secret ' kept in Bom. xvi 
silence '. ' The sons of men ', whom it so deeply concerned, knew it 2 5 
not as yetTTt was hidden away from Jew and~f rom Gelitlle~alike; 

' As it hath now been revealed unto His holy apostles and prophets 
in the Spirit'. This clause, without revoking the last, seems to T~ 
leave room for those glimpses of the Divine purpose, which the 
Apostle would never have wished to deny to the holy and wise of 
the past. Yet their half-lights were but darkness, when compared 
with the day of the new revelation. 

In contrast to ' the sons of men ' of the past, to whom the secret 
had not been disclosed, St Paul sets ' the holy apostles and prophets ' 
of the present, to whom a spiritual revelation of it had come. This 
word ' holy ' or ' saints ', as we render it when it stands by itself 
has played an important part in the epistle already. It is to c the i r 
saints ' that the epistle is formally addressed ; that is, as we have 
seen, to those who in Christ are now the hallowed People of God. 
The Apostle thanks God that they are recognising their position in 
practice by a love which goes out ' to all the saints '. God's heritage, i IS 
he declares in passing, is 'in the saints', that is, in His hallowed i 18 
People. And, later on, he explicitly contrasts the alien state of the 
Gentiles apart from Christ with their new position of privilege in 
Christ as ' fellow-citizens with the saints '. When the same word is ii 19 
used, as an adjective, to characterise the * apostles and prophets ' to 
whom the new revelation has been made, it cannot be a mere otiose 
epithet or conventional term of respect, nor can it be properly taken 


in any other sense than hitherto. *It is no personal holiness to which 

the Apostle refers j it is the hallowing which was theirs in common 
with the whole of the hallowed People. Here is the answer to 
the suggested difficulty, that while St Paul must certainly have 
included himself among the 'apostles ' to whom the revelation came, 
he would hardly have called himself 'holy', even in this indirect 
fashion. There is ho real incongruity. Not his holiness, but God ? s 
hallowing is in question the hallowing which extended to all the 
members of the hallowed People, even, as he would tell us, to 

iii g himself, though he was ( less than the least ' of them all. 

, The mention ,of the apostles and prophets, as those to whom the 
new revelation was made, recalls and helps to explain the position of 

ii so f. the apostles and prophets as the foundation of the ' holy temple ' 
of God's building. "With the reference to the Spirit as the medium 

117 of the revelation we may compare the prayer for 'the Spirit of 

revelation' to be the guide of his readers into the knowledge of 
God's purpose. Here, as in some other places, the Apostle's language 
is so vague that we cannot tell with entire certainty whether he 
refers directly to the personal Divine Spirit, or rather desires to 
suggest that the reception of the revelation is a spiritual process. 
The actual phrase ' in (the) Spirit ' does not preclude either view. 

What, then, is the substance of this secret old as eternity, yet 
new in its disclosure to mankind ? The Apostle has told us already, 
as he says, in brief : but now to remove all possible misconception 
he will tell us once again, repeating in fresh words the images 
iii. 6 which he has already so fruitfully employed. It is ' that the Gentiles 
a/re fellow-heirs, and felloio-m&mbers of the body, and fellow-partakers 
of the promise in Christ Jesw through the gospel'. 

The middle term of this threefold description (orWw/Aos) cannot 
be rendered by any current English word. ' Concorporate ', a loan 
from the Latin, and analogous to 'incorporate', is the word we 
want; but, though it has been used in this connexion, it is not 
sufficiently familiar to take its place in a rendering of the passage. 
In relation to the Body the members are ' incorporate ' : in relation 
to one another they are ' concorporate ', that is, sharers in the one 
Body. The- unusual English word might indeed express the fact 
that St Paul himself, in order to emphasize his meaning, has had 
recourse to the formation of a new Greek compound 1 . 

1 The rendering of the Latin Vul- fends the unusual Latin on the ground 

gate is 'cohaeredes et concorporales et that it was important to represent the 

comparticipes ' (Ambrosiaster actually force of the repeated compounds. ' I 

has ' concorporatos '). St Jerome de- know', he says, 'that in Latin it 


' Through the gospel, whereof I was made a minister according iii 6 ff. 
to the gift of the grace of God which was given unto me... to preach 
unto the Gentiles...'. There is a close parallel in the Epistle to Col. 124!?. 
the Colossians : ' the Church, whereof I was made a minister ac- 
cording to the dispensation of God which was given unto me to 
you-ward, to fulfil the word of God, (even) the mystery that hath 
been hid ', <fec. In both passages the Apostle emphasises the great- 
ness of his peculiar mission, which corresponded to the wide mercy of 
God to the Gentiles. Here he adds ' according to the might (or ' work- 
ing') of His power': words which remind us of Gal. ii 8, 'He that 
wrought (or ' worked mightily ') for Peter unto the apostleship of 
the Circumcision, wrought for me also unto the Gentiles '. 

Once more he breaks his sentence, lest, while as Apostle of the Bom. xi 
Gentiles he glorified his ministry, he should for one moment seem J 3 
to be glorifying himself. Never did a man more stoutly press his 
claims : never was a man more conscious of personal unworthiness. 
He was not ' a whit behind the very chief est of the apostles ' : yet 2 Cor. xi 5 
he felt that he was ' the least of the apostles ' and ' not worthy to be i Cor. xv o 
called an apostle '. He was ' less than the least of all saints ', that is, iii 8 
of all the holy People of God : but yet the fact remained that to : )v 

' To preach unto the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ '. 
His mission was to ' bring as the gospel ' the verb of the original 
takes up again ' the gospel ' of v. 6 to the Gentiles the inexplorable 
wealth of the Christ. He can never sufficiently admire the marvel 
of the Divine inclusion of the Gentiles, or be sufliciently thankful 
that it is his privilege to make it known to them. 

' And to bring to light what is the dispensation of the mystery iii 9 
which from the ages hath been hid in God who created all things '. So 
in the parallel already quoted he continues : ' the mystery that hath Ool. i 26 
been hid from the ages and from the generations, but now it hath 
been manifested to His saints '. The purpose of God is an eternal 
purpose ' a purpose of the ages ', as he says below in v. 10. It has 
remained concealed since the beginning of things; but it was the 
very purpose of Creation itself. 

As the Creation includes other intelligences beside Man, so the 

makes an ugly sentence. But because Yersion, 'fellow-heirs, and of the same 

it so stands in the Greek, and because body, and partakers ' &c., fails to re- 

every word and syllable and stroke produce the reiterated compound (<rw-) 

and point in the Divine Scriptures is of the original ; and I have therefore 

full of meaning, I prefer the risks of adopted the necessarily paraphrastic 

verbal malformation to the risk of rendering of the Eevised Version, 
missing the sense'. The English 


secret of the Divine purpose in Creation is published now to the 

iii 10 whole universe, as the justification of the Divine dealing : ' to the 
intent that now unto the principalities and powers in the heavenly 
places might be made known through the church the manifold wisdom 
of God'. The Apostle has found a perfectly satisfying philosophy 
of history : he believes that it is able to 'justify the ways of God to 
men ' ; and not to men only, but also to those enquiring spiritual 
powers of the heavenly sphere, who have vainly sought to explore 
the design and the methods of the Creator and Ruler of the world. 
' Through the church '. This is only the second time that the 

Comp. i 22 word ' Church ' ,has been used in the epistle. We shall have it 

iii 21 again at the end of the chapter in an equally emphatic position : 
' to Him be glory in the Church and in Christ Jesus '. It recurs 

v 23 32 six times in the important passage which closes chap. v. St Paul 
never uses the word in this epistle in the sense of a local Christian 
society, though he does in two out of the four times in which it 
occurs in the Epistle to the Colossians. 

Through the Church ' the very-varied wisdom of God ' is made 
known to the universe. The metaphor is taken from the intricate 
beauty of an embroidered pattern. We have an echo of it in i Pet. 
iv ID, ' the manif61d~(6r~' varied ') grace of "God 'i 

iii 1 1 ' According to the purpose of the ages which He purposed in Christ 

Jesus our Lord'. 'The purpose of the ages' is a Hebraistic phrase 
for ' the eternal purpose ' : just as we say ' the rock of ages ' for 
' the everlasting rock ', from the Hebrew of Isaiah xxvi 4. 

iii i2 ' In whom we have our boldness and access with confidence by the 

faith of Him '. These words are an echo of ii 18, and form a similar 
climax. The issue of all is that we are brought near to God Him- 
self through faith in Christ. 

iii 13 ' Wherefore 7 ask you that ye faint not at my tribulations for you, 

which are your glory '. The meaning is : ' I ask you not to lose 
heart, when you hear of my suffering as the prisoner of Christ on 
your behalf. It might seem to some as though the Apostle's 
sufferings and imprisonment augured ill for the cause which he 
represented. This was not the view that he himself took of 

Col. i. 24 them. 'I rejoice in my sufferings on your behalf, he says to the 
Colossians, in a remarkable passage to which we have already had 
occasion to refer at some length 1 . Never for a moment did he 
himself lose heart. He saw a deep meaning in his sufferings : they 
were the glory of those for whom he suffered. He commends this 
reason to his readers with a logic which we can hardly analyse. 

1 See p. 44. 


Perhaps he could scarcely have explained it to them. It is the 
language of the heart. 

The section which we have been considering forms, strictly iii i *3 
speaking, a mere parenthesis. It is a personal explanation^ 
occasioned by the words, 'I Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus 
on behalf of you, the Gentiles'. But, though in form it is a 
digression, which still further postpones the utterance of the 
Apostle's Prayer, yet in the general movement of the thought of 
the epistle it plays an essential part. Though he speaks from 
his own personal standpoint, the Apostle's thought ranges before 
and after, and he is led to give us such a complete philosophy 
of history as had never been attempted before. He is confident 
that he is in possession of the secret of the Creator Himself: 'by 
apocalypse the mystery has been known to me '. 

Hitherto he had been considering mainly the effect of the work 
of Christ, in the reconciliation of the two opposed sections of 
humanity, in the reception of the Gentiles into the sacred common- 
wealth, and in the nearer approach of Jew and Gentile alike to the 
one Father. But now he is bold to trace the whole course of the 
~Divine~dealing with man; to~~de~clare~that~Hhroughrthe~~ages~one 

increasing Purpose runs ' ; and even to suggest that human history 
is intended to read a lesson to the universe. 

The Purpose which is now made clear to him was included in 
the design of Creation itself. But it was a hidden purpose, a Divine 
secret, a mystery of which the apocalypse could not be as yet. 'The iii 5 
sons of men' had lived and died in ignorance of the secret of their 
own lives and of the universe. Generation followed generation until 
the time was ripe for the disclosure of ' the mystery of the Christ '. 
At last to the apostles and prophets of a new age the revelation was 
given. Indeed to c the less than the least ' of them all the message 
had been primarily entrusted. His part it had been to flash the 
torch of light across the darkness j to illuminate past, present and 
future at once, by shewing ' what is the dispensation of the mystery iii. 9, 
that hath been hidden from eternity in God who created all things'. 

It was a glorious task : through incessant toil and suffering he 
had accomplished it : his imprisonment at Borne could only remind 
him that for his part the work was done. Yet in a wider sense it 
was only begun. The process which had been revealed to him was>j^ 
to move steadily on, in presence of all the spiritual forces of the ' 
universe, who keenly watch the drama of this earthly theatre. For 
they too ' through the Church ' are to learn 'the very-varied wisdom iii 10 
of God, according to the purpose of the ages which He formed in 


the Christ, even Jesus our Lord '. And it is because the process 
must go forward, and not slacken for anything that may occur to 
him, that ' the prisoner in Christ Jesus' bows his knees and lifts his 
heart in prayer to God. 

iiii4 21 J 4For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father* 

whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named, l6 that 
He would grant you according to the riches of His glory to 
be strengthened with power by His Spirit in the inner man, 
J 7that Christ may dwell through faith in your hearts in love; ye 
being rooted and founded, l8 that ye may be able to comprehend 
with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height 
and depth, ^and to know the love of Christ which passeth 
knowledge, that ye may be filled unto all the fulness of God. 
20 Now unto Him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above 
all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh 
in us, 21 to Him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus, 

_ _ throughout all ages, world without end. Amen. 

iii 14 After many digressions, into which he has been led by his desire 

to make plain not only what he prays for, but on whose behalf he 

prays, and what is his relation to them which leads him so to pray, 

the Apostle succeeds at last in uttering the fulness of his Prayer. 

The Prayer is in its final expression, as it was at the outset, a 

prayer for knowledge. That knowledge is indeed declared to pass 

iii 19 man's comprehension ; but the brief doxology with which the 

iii 20 petition closes recognises a Divine power to which nothing is 


iii 14 'For this cause'. These words are resumptive of the opening 

iii i words of the chapter, ' For this cause I Paul, the prisoner of Christ 

Jesus for you, the Gentiles'. Accordingly they carry us back to 
the great mercy of God to the Gentiles (expounded in c. ii) as the 
ground of the Apostle's Prayer. But the Prayer needed as its 
further preface a reference to his own peculiar mission as the 
publisher of the new declaration of that mercy, and to the sufferings 
by which he rejoiced to seal his mission. After this reference has 
been made and fully explained, he knits up the connexion by 
repeating the words 'For this cause'. 

1 1 bow my knees to the Father '. We shall miss the solemnity of 
this introduction unless we observe how seldom the attitude of 
kneeling in prayer is mentioned in the New Testament. Standing 


to pray was the rule : comp. Matt, vi 5, Luke xviii 1 1, 13. Kneeling 
was expressive of unusual emotion : comp. Luke xxii 41, Acts xxi 5. 
Indeed when we compare Luke yyir 41 'kneeling down ' with Mark 
xiv 35 ' He fell upon the ground ' and Matt, xxvi 39 ' He fell upon 
His face', the parallels point us to the fact that what there is 
meant is not our 'kneeling' in an upright position, but kneeling 
with the head touching the ground the Eastern prostration. This 
was and is the sign of the deepest reverence and humiliation : and, 
as is well known, the posture was forbidden in the early Church on 
the Lord's day. 

But the significance of St Paul's phrase becomes still clearer, 
when we note that it is, in its particular wording, derived from a 
passage of Isaiah (which he quotes in Bom. xiv n and alludes to in 
Phil, ii 10) : 'I have sworn by Myself,... that unto Me every knee Isa. xiv 
shall bow'. In that reverence, which is due only to the Supreme, 2 3 
to whom it must needs one day be rendered by all, he bends low 
before the Father. 

'The father, of whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is iii 14, 15 
named'. At the first commencement of his prayer the Apostle had 
spoken of God as 'the Father of glory'. In this we have one of i 17 
several notable parallels between the prayer as essayed in the first 
chapter and the prayer as completed in the third chapter. 

It will be instructive to bring together here the various refer- 
ences which St Paul makes in this epistle to the fatherhood of God. 
In his opening salutation we find the words ' from God our Father i 2 
and the Lord Jesus Christ' ; and similar words occur at the close vi 23 
of the epistle. His great doxology opens with the words, ' Blessed i 3 
be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ ' ; and this title is 
resolved and emphasised, as we have seen, in the form ' the God of i 17 
our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory'. Presently he uses the 
name absolutely, in speaking of 'our access to the Father'; and ii 18 f- 
he follows it by the significant phrase, ' of the household of God '. 
Then we have our present description, which expands and interprets 
the title 'the Father of glory ' ; and shortly afterwards we find the 
absoluteness and universality of the fatherhood yet further de- 
clared in the words, ' one God and Father of all, who is over all iv 6 
and through all and in all'. Then, lastly, Christian duty is summed 
up in the obligation to ' give thanks always for all things in the v 20 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ to Him who is God and Father'. 

This survey may help to shew us with what fulness of appreciation 
the Apostle recognises the various aspects of the new truth of the 
Divine fatherhood as revealed to man in Jesus Christ. 

'The Father, of whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is iii 14, 15 



named'. The literal translation of the words rendered ' all father- 
hood' is 'every family'. But this translation entirely obscures to 
an English reader the point of the Apostle's phrase. In Greek the 
word for 'family' (irarpia) is derived from the word for 'father* 
(n-a-n/p). But in English the ' family ' is not named from the 
c father '. So that to reproduce the play upon words, Which lends 
all its force to the original, we must necessarily resort to a para- 
phrase, and say 'the Father, of whom all fatherhood is named' 1 . 

The addition of the words ' in heaven and on earth' reminds us 
of the large inclusiveness of the Divine purpose as declared to us by 
St Paul. We have had this collocation already, where the Apostle 

i 10 spoke of the summing up of all things in Christ, 'both which are in 

the heavens and which are on earth'. Similarly he tells us elsewhere 

Col. i 20 that the reconciliation in Christ includes 'all things, whether things 
on the earth or things in the heavens'. And if in one place he adds 

Phil, ii 10 ' things which are under the earth ' as well, it is to declare that 
there is nothing anywhere which shall not ultimately be subject to 
Christ. In the present passage it would be irrelevant to enquire 
what ' families in heaven ' the Apostle had in his mind. His whole 

Eph. i 17 point is that 'the Father' whom he has before called { the Father 
of glory ' is the source of all conceivable fatherhood, whether earthly 
or heavenly. 

According to this notable utterance of St Paul, God is not only 
the universal Father, but the archetypal Father, the Father of 
whom all other fathers are derivatives and types. So far from 
regarding the Divine fatherhood as a mode of speech in reference 
to the Godhead, derived by analogy from our conception of human 
fatherhood, the Apostle maintains that the very idea of fatherhood 
exists primarily in the Divine nature, and only by derivation in 
every other form of fatherhood, whether earthly or heavenly. The 
All-Father is the source of fatherhood wherever it is found. This 
may help us to understand something further of the meaning which 
is wrapped up in the title 'the Father of glory'. 

iii 1 6 'That He would grant you according to the riches of His glory to 

be strengthened with power by His Spirit in the inner man'. We 
have already pointed to the close parallel between the language of the 
prayer as it is at first enunciated in chap, i and that of its fuller 
expression which we have now reached. In each case the prayer is 
directed to the Father 'the Father of glory' (i 17), 'the Father, 
of whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named' (iii 14 f.). 
In each case petition is made for a gift of the Holy Spirit 'that 

1 The Latin and Syriac versions, as in the same difficulty and escaped it 
will be seen in the commentary, -were by a like paraphrase. 


the Father of glory may give you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation* 

(i 17), 'that He would grant (or 'give') you according to the riches 

of His glory to be strengthened with power by His Spirit' (iii 16). 

We noted before how closely this corresponds with the promise of 

our Lord, as recorded by St Luke, ' The Father from heaven will Luke xi 13 

give the Holy Spirit to them that ask Him'. Again, the sphere of 

action of the Spirit is in each case described in a striking phrase 

'the eyes of your heart being enlightened' (i 18), 'to be strengthened 

in the inner (or 'inward') man' (iii 16). Finally, the ultimate aim 

of all is knowledge of the fulness of the Divine purpose 'that ye 

may know what is the hope of His calling', &c. (i i8f.), 'that ye 

may be able to comprehend what is the breadth and length and 

height and depth, and to know', &c. (iii i8f.). Knowledge and 

power are inextricably linked together : the prayer to know the 

mighty power (i 19) becomes the prayer to have the mighty power, 

in order to be strong enough to know (iii 19). 

'That Christ may dwell through faith in your hearts in love', iii 17 
Here we must bear in mind that it is for Gentiles that the Apostle 
prays. He has already declared to them that they are 'in Christ' : he i 13, ii 13 
now prays that they may find the converse also to be a realised truth, 

'that Christ may dwell in your hearts'. In writing to the Colossians 
he speaks of this indwelling of Christ in the Gentiles as the climax 
of marvel in the Divine purpose : ' God hath willed to make known Col. ii 27 
what is the riches of the glory of this mystery in the Gentiles, which 
is Christ in you'. Thus we come to see the force of the phrases 
'through faith' and ' in love '. It is only ' through faith ' (or 'through 
the faith', if we prefer so to render it) that the Gentiles are par- 
takers of Christ: ,and it is 'in love', which binds 'all the saints' 
together, whether they be Jews or Gentiles (comp. v. 18 'to com- 
prehend with all the saints '), that the indwelling of the Christ, who 
is now the Christ of both alike, finds its manifestation and consum- 
mation. We may compare with this the words with which the 
Apostle prefaced his prayer at the outset : 'Wherefore I, having i 15 f. 
heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus and your love toward all the 
saints, cease not to give thanks on your behalf, making mention of 
you in my prayers '. 

' Te being rooted and founded'. We have parallels to these 
expressions in the Epistle to the Colossians, which help us to inter- 
pret them here : ' If ye are abiding in the faith, founded and firm, Col. i 23 
and not being shifted'; and 'Booted and built up in Him, and Col. ii 7 
confirmed in the faith, as ye have been taught'. These parallels are 
a further justification of the separation of the participles from the 
words 'in love', and their connexion in thought with the 'faith' 


which has previously been mentioned. It is only as they have their 
roots struck deep and their foundation firmly laid in the faith as 
St Paul proclaims it to them, that they can hope to advance to the 
full knowledge for which he prays. 

iii 1 8 'That ye may be able to comprehend with all the saints, what is 

the breadth and length and height and depth'. In the original the 
expression is yet more forcible : ' that ye may have the strength to 
comprehend'. The clause depends on the participles 'rooted and 
founded ' ; but it has a further reference to the words ' to be 
strengthened with power by His Spirit in the inner man '. 

The object? of the knowledge for which the Apostle prays was 
stated with some fulness in i 18 f. : 'that ye may know what is the 
hope of His calling, what the riches of the glory of His inheritance 
in the saints, and what the exceeding might of His power to us-ward 
who believe'. Here it is indicated under vague terms, chosen to 
express its immensity. For the Divine measures exceed human 

Isa. Iv 8 comprehension : as it is written, ' My thoughts are not your thoughts'. 
And yet in this boldest of prayers the Apostle asks that they may 
be comprehended. The uttermost extent of the Divine purpose is 
the goal, however unattainable, of the knowledge for_which_the_ 
Apostle prays. 

'To comprehend with all the saints'. The knowledge of the 
Divine purpose is the privilege of 'the saints'. So the Apostle 

Col. i a6f. speaks to the Colossians of 'the mystery which was hidden... but 
now it hath been made manifest to His saints, to whom God hath 
willed to make known', &c. As ye, says the Apostle in effect, are 
now 'fellow-citizens of the saints', and as your love goes out 'towards 
all the saints', in verification of your oneness with them; so you may 
share 'with all the saints' that knowledge which is God's will for them. 
We need not exclude a further thought, which, if it is not 
expressed in these words, at least is in full harmony with St Paul's 
conception of the unity of the saints in God's One Man. The 
measures of the Divine purpose are indeed beyond the comprehension 
of any individual intelligence : but in union 'with all the saints' we 
may be able to comprehend them. Each saint may grasp some 

iv 13 portion : the whole of the saints when 'we all come to the perfect 
man' may know, as a whole, what must for ever transcend the 
knowledge of the isolated individual. 

iii ^ 'And to know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge'. These 

words are a re-statement of the aim, with a recognition that it is 
indeed beyond attainment. The Father's purpose is coincident with 
the Son's love : both alike are inconceivable, unknowable and yet 
the ultimate goal of knowledge. 


'That ye may be filled unto all the fulness of God'. The climax iii 19 
of the Apostle's prayer points to an issue even beyond knowledge. 
He has prayed for a superhuman strength, in order to the attain- 
ment of an inconceivable knowledge, which is to result in what he 
can only call fulness ' all the fulness of God '. What is this 
fulness for which St Paul prays, as the crowning blessing of the 
Gentiles for whom he has laboured and suffered? 

Fulness, or fulfilment, is a conception which plays a prominent 
part in St Paul's thought both in this epistle and in that which he 
sent at the same time to the Colossian Church. It is predicated 
sometimes of Christ and sometimes of the Church. It is spoken of 
now as though already attained, and now as the ultimate goal of a 
long process. 

Again and again, in these two epistles, we find the thought of 
the complete restoration of the universe to its true order, of the 
ultimate correspondence of all things, earthly and heavenly, to the 
Divine ideal. This issue is to be attained 'in Christ', and at the 
same time 'in ' and 'through the Church'. 

Thus, to recall some of the main passages, it is the purpose of 
God ' to gather up in one all things in Christ, both that are in the i 10 
heavens and that are on earth' : and again, 'It hath pleased God... Col7i igi~ 
through Him to reconcile all things unto Himself... whether they 
be things on earth or things in the heavens '. Under the figure of 
the universal headship of Christ we have the same thought : c "Who Col. ii 10 
is the head of every principality and authority ' ; ' He set Him at Eph.iaofE. 
His right hand in the heavenly places above every principality and 
authority... and gave Him to be head over all things to the 
Church...'. And the Church's part in the great process by which 
the result is to be attained is further indicated in the words : ' that iii 10 
there might now be made known to the principalities and authorities 
in the heavenly places, through the Church, the manifold wisdom of 
God ' : ' to whom', as the Apostle says later on, ' be the glory in the iii 21 
Church and in Christ Jesus, throughout all ages, world without 

To express this complete attainment of the end of all things in 
Christ and through the Church, the word ' fulness ' or ' fulfilment ', 
with its verb 'to be filled' or 'fulfilled', is used in very various 
ways. Christ Himself is spoken of not only as ' filling ' or ' ful- iv 10 
filling all things ', but also as being ' all in all filled ' or ' fulfilled '. i 23 
In close connexion both with Christ's headship of the Church, and 
also with the reconciliation of all things, the Apostle speaks of ' all Col. i 19 
the fulness ' as residing in Christ : ' for it hath pleased God that 
in Him should all the fulness dwell, and through Him to reconcile 


i 23 all things unto Himself. The Church is expressly said to be ' the 

f ulness ' of Christ, f ulfilling Him as the body fulfils the head. All 
the members of the Church are to meet at last in a perfect Man, 

iv 13 and so to attain to ' the measure of the stature of the fulness of the 

iii 19 Christ'. And for the saints the Apostle here prays that they 'may 
be filled unto all the fulness of God'. 

One remarkable passage remains, in which ' fulness' is predicated 

Col. ii 9 at once of Christ and of the saints : ' for in Him dwelleth all the 
fulness of the Deity in a bodily way, and ye are filled (or, ' fulfilled ') 
in Him'. It is usual to limit the reference of this passage to the 
incarnation of Christ in His individual human body, and to take it 
as meaning that in that body resides the Godhead in all its com- 
pleteness. But this is to neglect St Paul's special use of the terms 
* fulness ' and ' body ', as they recur again and again in these 
epistles. For we have already had in the previous chapter the 

Col. i 19 expression ' that in Him should all the fulness dwell' ; and we have 

JSph. iii 19 also to reckon with the phrase ' that ye may be filled unto all the 
fulness of God'. Moreover, when St Paul refers to the individual 
human body of Christ in these epistles, he does so in unmistakeable 

ii 14 terms, speaking either of ' His flesh ' or of ' the body of His flesh !._ 

ColH- But"'~tEe"body r ofThe Christ' to St Paul is the Church. 

When we bear this in mind, we at once understand the appro- 
priateness of the second clause of this passage : * and ye are filled 
(or 'fulfilled') in Him'. The relation of Christ to the Church is 
such that His fulness is of necessity also its fulness. And, 
further, the whole passage thus interpreted harmonizes with its 

Col. ii 8 ff. context. ' Take heed ', says the Apostle, if we may paraphrase 
his words, 'lest there be any who in his dealings with you is a 
despoiler through his philosophy (so-called) or empty deceit (as it 
is in truth). Emptiness is all that he has to offer you : for he 
exchanges the tradition of the Christ, which you have received 
(v. 6), for the tradition of men: he gives you the world-elements 
in place of the heavenly Christ. For in Christ dwells all the 
fulness (as I have already said), yea, all the fulness of the Deity, 
expressing itself through a body : a body, in which you are incor- 
porated, so that in Him the fulness is yours : for He who is your 
head is indeed universal head of all that stands for rule and 
authority in the universe'. 

Thus St Paul looks forward to the ultimate issue of the Divine 
purpose for the universe. The present stage is a stage of imperfec- 
tion : the final stage will be perfection. All is now incomplete : in 
the issue all will be complete. And this completeness, this fulfil- 
ment, this attainment of purpose and realisation of ideal, is found 


and is to be found (for to St Paul the present contains implicitly 
the future) in Christ in Christ 'by way of a body'; that is to 
say, in Christ as the whole, in which the head and the body are 
inseparably one. 

Even beyond this the Apostle dares to look. This fulfilled and 
completed universe is in truth the return of all things to their 
creative source, through Christ to God, 'of whom and through Bom. 213 6 
whom and unto whom are all things', 'that God may be all in i Cor. xv 
all'. Thus 'the fulness', which resides in Christ and unto which * 8 
the saints are to be fulfilled, is 'all the fulness of the Deity', or, as 
he says in our present passage, 'all the fulness of God'. 

No prayer that has ever been framed has uttered a bolder 
request. It is a noble example of irapprjcrta, of freedom of speech, of 
that 'boldness and access in confidence' of which he has spoken iii 12 
above. Unabashed by the greatness of his petition, he triumphantly 
invokes a power which can do far more than he asks, far more than 
even his lofty imagination conceives. His prayer has risen into 
praise. ' Now unto Him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above iii 20 f. 
all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh in us, to 
Him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus, throughout all ages, 
world without end. Amen'. 

'According to the power that worketh in us'. Once more we are 
reminded of his first attempt to utter his prayer. It was at a 
closely similar phrase that he began to digress : 'that ye may i 18 ff. 
know... what is the exceeding greatness of His power to us- ward 
who believe, according to the working of the might of His strength, 
which He wrought in Christ, in that He raised Him', etc. It is 
the certainty of the present working of this Divine power that 
fills him with exultant confidence. 

'To Him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus' in the 
Body and in the Head. This is only the third time that the 
Apostle has named the Church in this epistle. He has spoken of it 
as that which fulfils the Christ, as the body fulfils the head. He i 23 
has spoken of it again as the medium through which lessons of the iii 10 
very-varied wisdom of God are being learned by spiritual intelli- 
gences in the heavenly region. He now speaks of it, in terms not 
less remarkable, as the sphere in which, even as in Christ Jesus 
Himself, the glory of God is exhibited and consummated. 

I THEREFORE, the prisoner in the Lord, beseech you that ye iv i 6 
walk worthy of the calling wherewith ye are called, 2 with all 
lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing one 


another in love; sgiving diligence to keep the unity of the 
Spirit in the bond of peace. * There is one body and one Spirit, 
even as also ye are called in one hope of your calling: 5 one 
Lord, one faith, one baptism : 6 one God and Father of all, who 
is above all and through all and in all. 

iv i / therefore, the prisoner in the Lord, beseech you'. He repeats the 

title 'prisoner* by which he has already described himself; and 

iii 2 13 thereby he links this section to the long parenthesis in. which he has 
interpreted his use of it. He seems to say : I am a prisoner now, 
and no longer an active messenger of Jesus Christ. I can indeed 
write to you, and I can pray for you. But with yourselves hence- 
forward rests the practical realisation of the ideal which it has been 
my mission to proclaim to you. 

We have already had occasion to draw attention to the special 
usage of St Paul in regard to the names 'Christ' and 'the Lord' 1 . 
It is in full harmony with this usage that he has previously called 
himself 'the prisoner of Christ Jesus', emphasising his special mission 
to declare the new position of the Gentiles 'in Christ'; whereas now 
ke_says,^the-prisoner-in-the-Ird'7-aB - her~begi5s - ~to speaJPof the 

outcome of the new position, the corporate life ruled by 'the Lord'. 

'That ye walk worthy of the calling wherewith ye cure called'. The 

great human unity, which the Apostle regards as the goal of the 

ii 15 Divine purpose, has been created and already exists in Christ. It 
is being progressively realised as a fact in the world of men by the 

123 Church, which is 'the body of the Christ' and His 'fulfilment'. 

iii 10 ' Through the Church ', as fulfilling the Christ, the very-varied 
wisdom of the Divine purpose is being taught to the intelligences of 

iii 1 1 the spiritual sphere. 'In the Church and in Christ Jesus' the 
Divine purpose is to find its consummation to the eternal glory 
of God. 

It is the responsibility of the members of the Church for the 
preservation and manifestation of this unity, which the Apostle 
now seeks to enforce. You, he says, have been called into the' 
unity, which God has created in Christ : you have been chosen into 
this commonwealth of privilege, this household of God : you are 
stones in this Temple, members of this Body. This is your high 
vocation ; and, if you would be true to it, you must ever be mindful 
of the whole of which you are parts, making your conduct worthy of 
, your incorporation into God's New Man. 

iv a ' With all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing 

1 See above, p. 72. 


one another in love'. It is the mental dispositions which promote 
the right relation of the parts to the whole and to each other in the 
whole, that the Apostle first demands of them. His experience had 
taught him that these dispositions were indispensably necessary for 
the maintenance of unity. 

This emphatic appeal for 'lowliness of mind', as the first of 
virtues to which their new position pledged them, must have been 
peculiarly impressive to converts from heathenism. To the Greek 
mind humility was little else than a vice of nature. It was weak 
and mean-spirited ; it was the temper of the slave ; it was incon- 
sistent with that self-respect which every true man owed to himself. 
The fulness of life, as it was then conceived, left no room for 
humility. It was reserved for Christianity to unfold a different 
conception of the fulness of life, in which service and self-sacrifice 
were shewn to be the highest manifestations of power, whether 
human or Divine. The largest life was seen to claim for itself the 
right of humblest service. The Jew had indeed been taught 
humility in the Old Testament, on the ground of the relation of 
man to God. ' The high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity' Isa. Ivii 15 
would only dwell { with him that is of a contrite and humble spirit'. 
But the Gospel went far further and proclaimed that humility was 
not the virtue of weakness only. The highest life, in the fullest 
consciousness of its power, expresses itself in acts of the deepest 
humility. ' Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things John xiii 
into His hands, and that He was come from God, and went to God ; * 
He riseth from supper, and laid aside His garments, and took a 
towel and girded Himself. After that he poureth water into a 
bason, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with 
the towel wherewith He was girded'. It is in harmony with this 
that St Paul, in a great theological passage, treats humility as the 
characteristic lesson of the Incarnation itself. ' In lowliness of Phil, ii 3 
mind', he pleads, 'let each esteem other better than themselves... 
Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus... who 
humbled Himself. 

In our present passage the Apostle enforces humility on the 
ground of the relation of man to man in the great human unity. A 
larger life than that of the individual has been revealed to him. Its 
law is that of mutual service : and its first requisite is the spirit of 
subordination, 'lowliness of mind and meekness'. 

' With long-suffering, forbearing one another '. The patient spirit 
by which each makes allowance for the failures of the other, is 
closely related to * the lowliness of mind', by which each esteems the 
other better than himself. 


'In love'. Here, as so often in this epistle, love is introduced as 

the climax, the comprehensive virtue of the new life which includes 

all the rest 1 . In the Epistle to the Colossians the same thought is 

Col. iii even more emphatically expressed : 'Put ye on... lowliness of mind, 

12 ' meekness, long-suffering; forbearing one another... and, over and 

above all these, love, which is the bond of perfectness '. 

iv 3 'Giving diligence to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of 
peace'. The word 'endeavouring', which the Authorised Version 
employs in this place, has come to suggest in our modern usage too 
much of the possibility of failure to be strong enough to give the 
Apostle's meaning. The word which he uses has an eagerness about 
it, which is difficult to represent in English 2 . The Church to him 
was the embodiment of the Divine purpose for the world : it was 
the witness to men of the unity of mankind. What would become 
of this witness, how should the purpose itself be realised, if the 
unity of the Church were not preserved ? Well might he urge upon 
his readers eagerly and earnestly to maintain their oneness. They 
must make a point of preserving it : they must take care to keep it. 
' To keep the unity'. The unity is spoken of as a thing which 
already exists. It is a reality of the spiritual _w_orld It_ is , a_gif t_of _ 

God which is committed to men to keep intact. At the same time, 
as St Paul will presently shew, it is a unity which is ever enlarging 

iv 13 its range and contents : 'until we all come to the unity'. The unity 
must be maintained in the process, if it is to be attained in the 

' The unity of the Spirit '. Hitherto St Paul has avoided the 
abstract word, and has used concrete terms to express the thought 

ii 15 ff. of unity: 'one man... in one body... in one Spirit'. Indeed the 
characteristically Christian word to express the idea is not 'unity' 
or ' oneness ' (li/or^s), but the more living and fruitful term 'com- 
munion ' or ' fellowship ' (KOIVCOI/IO) : a term implying not a meta- 
physical conception but an active relationship : see, for example, 
Acts ii 42, 2 Cor. xiii 14, Phil, ii i. Yet the more abstract term 
has its value : ' the oneness of the Spirit ' underlies ' the fellowship 
of the Holy Spirit', which manifests and interprets it. 

By a mischievous carelessness of expression, 'unity of spirit' is 
commonly spoken of in contrast to 'corporate unity', and as though 

1 Compare for the emphatic posi- which are used to render the corre- 
tion of the phrase ' in love ', i 4, iii 1 7, spending substantive (<nrovS^) in 2 Cor. 
iv 15, 16. vii n f., viii 7 f., 16 : 'carefulness', 

2 The range of the word and the 'care', 'diligence', 'forwardness', 
difficulty of adequately translating it ' earnest care \ 

maybe illustrated by the five synonyms 


it might be accepted as a substitute for it. Such language would 

have been unintelligible to St Paul. He never employs the -word 

' spirit ' in a loose way to signify a disposition, as we do when we 

speak of 'a kindly spirit'. To him 'spirit* means 'spirit', and 

nothing less. It is often hard to decide whether he is referring 

to the Spirit of God or to the human spirit. In the present passage, 

for example, we cannot be sure whether he wishes to express the 

unity which the Holy Spirit produces in the Christian Body, as in 

the parallel phrase 'the fellowship of the Holy Spirit' j or rather the a Cor. xiii 

unity of the ' one spirit' of the 'one body', regarded as distinguishable I4 

from the personal Holy Spirit. But at any rate no separation of 

' body ' and ' spirit ' is contemplated : and the notion that there 

could be several ' bodies ' with a ' unity of spirit ' is entirely alien to 

the thought of St Paul. It is especially out of place here, as the 

next words shew. 

' There is one body and one Spirit, even as- also ye are called in iv 4 fif. 
one Iwpe of your catting; one Lord, one faith, one baptism ; one God 
and Father of all, who is above all and through all and in all'. The 
seven unities here enumerated fall into three groups : one body, one 
-Spirit > _o.ne_ho_pe ; one Lord, one faith, one baptism : one God and 
Father of all. 

The Apostle begins from what is most immediately present to 
view the one Body, vitalised by one Spirit, and progressing towards 
the goal of one Hope. This Body depends for its existence upon 
one Lord, its Divine Head, to whom it is united by one Faith and 
one Baptism. Its ultimate source of being is to be found in one 
God, the All-Father, supreme over all, operative through all, 
immanent in all. 

More succinctly we may express the thought of the three groups 
thus : 

One Body and all that this involves of inward life and ultimate 
perfection ; 

One Head and that which unites us to Him ; 

One God to whom all else is designed to lead us. 

Elsewhere St Paul has said, in words which express a similar 
progress of thought : ' Ye are Christ's, and Christ is God's'. i Cor. iii 

' Who is above all and through all and in all'. A timid gloss, 23 
which changed the last clause into ' in you all ', has found its way 
into our Authorised Version ; but it is destitute of authority. The 
Greek in the true text is as vague as the English rendering given 
above : so that we cannot at once decide whether St Paul is speaking 
of 'all persons' or 'all things'. The words 'Father of all', which 
immediately precede, may seem to make the former the more natural 


interpretation ; but they cannot in themselves compel us to abandon 
the wider meaning. 

The Apostle is indeed primarily thinking of the Body of Christ 
and all its members. The unity of that Body is the truth which he 
seeks to enforce. But when he has risen at length to find the source 
of human unity in the unity of the Divine fatherhood, his thought 
widens its scope. The words * Father of all* cannot be less inclusive 
iii 14 f. than the earlier words, ' The Father of whom all fatherhood in 
heaven and on earth is named'. And the final clause, 'Who is 
above all and through all and in all', is true not only of all intelli- 
gent beings which can claim the Divine fatherhood, but of the total 
range of things, over which God is supreme, through which He 
moves and acts, and in which He dwells. 

It was a startling experiment in human life which the Apostle 
was striving to realise. Looked at from without, his new unity was 

Col. iii n a somewhat bizarre combination. ' Greek and Jew, circumcision 
and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondman, freeman' all 

Col. iii 9, these are no more, he boldly proclaims to the Colossians, ' but all in 

12 all is Christ'. The ' putting on of the New Man', he goes on to tell 

them, involved^" the~~ welding~~into one of~all these heterogeneous 

elements ; or rather the persistent disregard of these distinctions, in 
presence of the true human element, which should so far dominate 
as practically to efface them. In every-day life this made a heavy de- 
mand upon the new virtues of self-effacement and mutual forbearance. 
Accordingly he declares, in language closely parallel to that which 

Col. iii 12 he uses in this epistle, that to put on the New Man is to ' put on 
*5 the heart of compassion, kindness, lowliness of mind, meekness, long- 

suffering; bearing one with another, and forgiving each other, if 
any have a complaint against any'. 'Over and above all these 
things ' they must put on ' love, which is the bond of perfectness '. 
And the paramount consideration which must decide all issues is 
* the peace of the Christ ', unto which they have been called c in one 

iv 716 7 BUT unto every one of us is given grace, according to the 

measure of the gift of Christ. 8 Wherefore it saith : 

When He ascended up on high, He led a captivity captive, 

And gave gifts unto men. 

9 Now that, He ascended, what is it but that He also 
descended into the lower parts of the earth? IO He that 
descended, He it is that also ascended above all heavens, that 


He might fill all things. "And He gave some, apostles; and 
some, prophets ; and some, evangelists ; and some, pastors and 
teachers; 12 for the perfecting of the saints for the work of 
ministry, for the building of the body of Christ, ^till we all 
come to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son 
of God, to a perfect man, to the measure of the stature of the 
fulness of Christ: 'Hhat we be no longer children, tossed to 
and fro and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the 
sleight of men, by craftiness according to the wiles of error; 
*5but maintaining the truth in love, may grow up into Him in 
all things ; which is the head, even Christ, l6 from whom the 
whole body, fitly framed together and compacted by every joint 
of its supply, according to the effectual working in the measure 
of each several part, maketh the increase of the body, unto 
the building thereof, in love. 

'JBut unto every one of us is given grace, according to the measure ivy 
~df~the~gift~of~Ghrist'- The~recognition of~the~whole~is~to~St~Paul 

the starting-point for the consideration of the position of the indi- 
vidual parts. For the unity of which he speaks is no barren 
uniformity : it is a unity in diversity. It secures to the individual 
his true place of responsibility and of honour. 

In order to appreciate the language of this passage we must 
recall the phraseology which the Apostle has used again and again 
in the earlier part of chap. iii. He has there spoken of ' the grace iii 2 
of God which was given' to him on behalf of the Gentiles. He was 
made minister of the Gospel which included the Gentiles ' according iii 7 
to the gift of that grace of God which was given' to him : to him 
for he will repeat it the third time though less than the least of 
the holy people 'this grace was given, to preach to the Gentiles iii 8 
the unexplorable wealth of the Christ'. This reiterated identifica- 
tion of his special mission with the gift of grace illustrates the 
passage before us. To each individual, if not to all in like measure, 
the same grace has been given. The Divine mercy in its world- wide 
inclusiveness is committed to each member of the holy people, not 
as a privilege only, but also as a responsibility 1 . 

'According to the measure of the gift of Christ '. The grace is 

1 Compare Phil, i 7, where St Paul nexion with 'the defence and con- 
speaks of the Philippians as 'fellow- firrnation of the Gospel', 
partakers with him of grace ', in con- 


the same ; but Christ gives it in different measures, as the Apostle 
proceeds to explain. 

At this point we may usefully compare with the present context 
as a whole a parallel passage in the Epistle to the Bomans, in 
which, after the Apostle has closed his discussion of the wide inclu- 
siveness of the Divine mercy, he calls for a fitting response in the 
conduct of those to whom it has come. The language of the two 
passages offers several similarities. The opening phrase, with which 
he passes from doxology to exhortation, is in each case the same : 
Kom. xii < I beseech you therefore'. There, as here, ' the grace which is given 
1 ' to me ' leads the way to ' the grace which is given to us '. There 
too we find an appeal for humility on the ground of the one Body 
and the distribution of functions among its members, ' as God hath 
dealt to every man the measure of faith'. 'Having gifts', the 
Apostle continues, 'which are diverse according to the grace which 
is given to us': and he adds a catalogue of these gifts, which we 
shall presently have to compare with that which follows in this 
epistle. These various functions, diverse according to the distribu- 
tion of the grace such is the Apostle's teaching in both places 
are indispensable elements of a vital unity. 

iv 8 ' Wherefore it saith : When He ascended up on high, He led a 

captivity captive, and gave gifts to men'. The Apostle has already 
connected the exaltation of Christ with the power that is at work 
in the members of His Church. The varied gifts bestowed by the 

Ps. Ixviii exalted Christ now recall to his mind the ancient picture of the 

18 victorious king, who mounts the heights of the sacred citadel of 

Zion, with his captives in his train, and distributes his largess from 
the spoils of war. It is the connexion between the ascension and 
the gifts, which the Apostle desires to emphasise; and the only 
words of the quotation on which he comments are 'He ascended' 
and 'He gave'. 

ivp 'Now that, He ascended, what is it but that He also descended 

into the lower parts of the earth ? ' Desiring to shew that the power 
of Christ ranges throughout the universe, St Paul first notes that 
His ascent implies a previous descent. This descent was below the 
earth, as the ascent is above the heavens. 

iv 10 ' He that descended, He it is that also ascended above all heavens, 

that He might Jill all things\ From its depths to its heights He has 
compassed the universe. He has left nothing unvisited by His 
presence. For He is the Divine Fulfiller, to whom it appertains in 
the purpose of God to fill all things with their appropriate fulness : 
to bring the universe to its destined goal, its final correspondence 
with the Divine ideal. Compare what has been said above on iii 19. 


gave some, apostles; and some, prophets'. The nomina- iv n 
tive is emphatic in the original : ' He it is that gave some as 
apostles ', etc. Having commented on ' He ascended ', St Paul goes on 
to comment on ' He gave '. It is Christ who in each case fulfils the 
ancient hymn. He it is that 'ascended', and He it is that 'gave'. 
The Ascended One is the giver of gifts. His gifts are enumerated 
in a concrete form : they are apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors 
and teachers. All these in their diversity of functions are given by 
the Ascended Lord for the varied and harmonious development of 
His Church. 

. In the passage of the Epistle to the Romans to which we have 
already alluded, the gifts are catalogued in the abstract : prophecy, Bom. xii 
ministry, teaching, and the like. Here the Apostle prefers to speak 6 ff> 
of the members who fulfil these functions as being themselves gifts 
given by Christ to His Church. In another catalogue, in the First 
Epistle to the Corinthians, he passes from the concrete method of 
description to the abstract : ' G-od hath set some in the Church, i Cor. xii 
first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that 2 
miracles, then gifts of healing, helps, governments, diversities of 
tongues-. T-here-too-he has been speaking of the Body-and its 
members ; and the general thought is the same as here : the 
diversity of gifts and functions is not only consistent with but 
necessary to corporate unity. 

' Some, apostles ; and some, prophets ; and some, evangelists ; and 
some, pastors and teachers '. We shall be disappointed if we come to 
this passage, or either of the parallels referred to above, in the 
expectation of finding the official orders of the Church's ministry. 
The three familiar designations, bishops, presbyters and deacons, 
are all wanting. The evidence of the Acts of the Apostles, which 
employs the first two of these designations in reference to the 
leaders of the Ephesian Church, together with the evidence of the 
First Epistle to Timothy which employs all three in dealing with 
the organisation and discipline of the same Church, forbids the 
suggestion that such officers are not mentioned here because they 
did not exist in the Asian communities to which St Paul's letter 
was to go, or because the Apostle attached but little importance to- 
their position. A reason for his silence must be sought in another 
direction. The most intelligible explanation is that bishops, pres- 
byters and deacons were primarily local officers, and St Paul is here 
concerned with the Church as a whole. Apostles, prophets and 
evangelists are divinely-gifted men who serve the Church at large ; 
and if a local ministry is alluded to at all it is only under the vaguer 
designation of ' pastors and teachers '. 

EPHES. 8 <y 


This is not the place to discuss the development of the official 
ministry : but it may be pointed out that it rises in importance as 
the first generation of apostolic and prophetic teachers passes away, 
as the very designations of 'apostle' and 'prophet' gradually dis- 
appear, and as all that is permanently essential to the Church of the 
apostolic and prophetic functions is gathered up and secured in the 
official ministry itself. 

The recovery of the Didache, or Teaching of the Apostles, has 
thrown fresh light on the history of the first two terms of St Paul's 
list 1 . It shews us a later generation of ' apostles', who are what we 
should rather term 'missionaries'. They pass from place to place, 
asking only for a night's lodging and a day's rations. They would 
seem to correspond to the ' evangelists ' of St Paul's catalogue, who 
carried the Gospel to regions hitherto unevangelised. This mention 
of them establishes beyond further question that wider use of the 
name ' apostle ', for the recognition of which Bishop Lightf oot had 
already vigorously pleaded 2 . 

Yet more interesting is the picture which the Didache draws for 
us of the Christian prophets. It shews us the prophets as pre- 

eminent in. the community which they may^dsit f _Qr_in_which-they- 

may choose to settle. They appear to celebrate the Eucharist, and 
that with a special liturgical freedom. They are to be regarded as 
beyond criticism, if their genuineness as prophets has once been 
established. They are the proper recipients of the tithes and first- 
fruits of the community, and this for a noteworthy reason : * for 
they are your high-priests'. And when at the close of the book 
* bishops and deacons' are for the first time mentioned, honour is 
claimed for them in these significant terms : Tor they also minister 
unto you the ministration of the prophets and teachers : therefore 
despise them not ; for they are your honourable ones together with 
the prophets and teachers'. In this primitive picture it is instruc- 
tive to observe that the ministry of office is in the background, 
overshadowed at present by a ministry of enthusiasm, but destined 
to absorb its functions and to survive its fall, 
iv 12 'For the perfecting of the saints for the work of ministry' . The 

1 The DidachS was published by regard it as representative of the 
Archbp Bryennius in 1883. In its general condition of the Church at so 
present form it is a composite work, late a period : it would appear rather 
which has embodied a very early (pos- to belong to some isolated community 
sibly Jewish) manual of conduct. Its in which there lingered a condition of 
locality is uncertain, and it cannot life and organisation which had else- 
be dated with prudence earlier than where passed away, 
about 130 A.D. It is impossible to 2 Lightfoot, Galatians, p. 95. 


second of these clauses must be taken as dependent on the first, and 

not (as in the Authorised Version) as coordinate with it. The 

equipment of the members of the Body for their function of service 

to the whole is the end for whicH Christ has given these gifts to 

His Church. If the life and growth of the Body is to be secured, 

every member of it, and not only those who are technically called 

' ministers ', must be taught to serve. More eminent service indeed 

is rendered by those members to whom the Apostle has explicitly 

referred j but their service is specially designed to promote the 

service in due measure of the rest : for, as he tells us elsewhere, 

'those members of the body which seem to be feebler are necessary*, i Cor. xii 

Thus 'the work of ministry' here spoken of corresponds to the aa 

' grace given to every one of us ', which is the subject of this iv 7 


An illustrative example of this ministry of saints to saints is to 
be found in St Paul's reference to an interesting group of Corinthian 
Christians : ' I beseech you, brethren, ye know the house of Ste- 1 Cor. xvi 
phanas, that it is the firstfruits of Achaia, and that they have l $ 
addicted themselves to the ministry of the saints *, that ye submit 
-^rourselves-unto-suchj-and to-every-one-that helpeth^with us and 
laboureth. I am glad of the coming of Stephanas and Fortunatus 
and Achaicus : for that which was lacking on your part they have 
supplied : for they have refreshed my spirit and yours : therefore 
acknowledge ye them that are such'. From words like these we 
may see that every kind of mutual service is included in the early 
and unofficial sense of this word ' ministry'. 

If ministry such as this is characteristic of each member of the 
Body, it was preeminently characteristic of the Head Himself: 
'The Son of Man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister ' : Mark x 45 
'I am among you as he that ministereth'. Luke xxii 

' for the building of the body of Christ '. This is the process to j v r - 
the forwarding of which all that has been spoken of is directed. 
In describing it St Paul combines, as he has done before, his two 
favourite metaphors of the temple and the body. He has previously ii -zr 
said that the building of the Temple grows : here, conversely, he 
speaks of the Body as being builded. 

' Till we all come to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of 
the Son of God'. Unity has been spoken of, first of all, as a gift to 
be kept ; it is now regarded as a goal to be attained. Unity, as it 
exists already and is to be eagerly guarded, is a spiritual rather 
than an intellectual oneness ; the vital unity of the one Spirit in 

1 Literally, 'they have appointed themselves unto ministry to the saints'. 



the one body. Unity, as it is ultimately to be reached by all the 
saints together, will be a consciously realised oneness, produced by 
faith in and knowledge of the Son of God. We are one now : in 
the end we all shall know ourselves to be one. 

' The Son of God'. St Paul is so careful in his use of the various 
designations of our Lord, that we may be confident that he has 
some reason here for inserting between two mentions of 'the Christ' 
this title, 'the Son of God', which does not occur elsewhere in the 
epistle. It is instructive to compare a passage in the Epistle to the 

Gal. ii 20 Galatians, where a similar change of titles is made. ' I have been 
crucified with Christ ', says the Apostle, ' and I no longer live, but 
in me Christ lives : and the life which now I live in the flesh, I live 
by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me and delivered Himself 
up for me*. He with whom he has been crucified, He who now 
lives in him, is ' Christ ' : He whose love brought Him down to 
suffer is 'the Son of God'. The title is changed to one which 

Johnxvii 5 recalls the glory which Christ had with the Father before the world 

was, in order to heighten the thought of His condescending love. 

And so in our present passage, when he is treating of the relation of 


article is used in both places in the original) : but when he would 
describe Him as the object of that faith and knowledge, in which our 
unity will ultimately be realised, he uses the words ' the faith and the 
knowledge of the Son of God ' ; thereby suggesting, as it would seem, 
the thought of His eternal existence in relation to the Divine Father. 
'Till we all come... to a perfect man' : that is, all of us together 
(for this is implied by the Greek) to God's New Man, grown at 
length to full manhood. Not 'to perfect men': for the Apostle 

iv 14 uses the plural of the lower stage only : ' that we be no longer 
children* is his own contrast. We are to grow out of our indi- 
vidualism into the corporate oneness of the full-grown Man. 

' To the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ (or, of the 
Christy : that is, to the full measure of the complete stature, or 
maturity, of the fulfilled Christ. We cannot forget that St Paul 

i 53 has already called the Church 'the fulness of Him who all in all is 

being fulfilled'. But in using the expression 'the fulness of the 
Christ' in this place, he is thinking of more than 'the Church, 
which is His Body'. For here we get once more to the background 
of St Paul's thought, in which the Body and the Head together are 
ultimately the one Christ ' the Christ that is to be '. 

In the New Man, grown to perfect manhood, St Paul finds the 
consummation of human life. He thus takes us on to the issue of 
the new creation which he spoke of in chap. ii. There the ' one new 


man' is created in the Christ : but he has a long growth before him. 
More and more are to claim their position as members of him. ^ . 
'Christ is fulfilled' to quote Origen's words again 1 ' in all that 
come unto Him, whereas He is still lacking in respect of them 
before they have come '. When they shall all have come to the 
unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, when 
they shall all have come to a full-grown Man j then in the ripe 
maturity of the New Man, 'the fulness of the Christ' will itself 
have been attained. 

The poet, who has spoken to us of 'the Christ that is to be', has 
also most clearly expressed for us a part at least of the truth of the 
Making of Man 2 : 

Man as yet is being made, and ere the crowning Age of ages, 
Shall not aeon after aeon pass and touch him into shape? 

All about him shadow still, but, while the races flower and fade, 
Prophet-eyes may catch a glory slowly gaining on the shade, 

Till the peoples all are one, and all their voices blend in choric 
Hallelujah to the Maker ' It is finish'd. Man is made '. 

'That we be no longer children'. This expression, viewed from iv 14 
-the-mere-standpoint~of "style, spoilsTthe previous metaphor : but it is 
obviously intended to form a sharp contrast. The plural is to be 
noted. Maturity belongs to the unity alone. Individualism and 
self-assertion are the foes of this maturity. "We are not to be 
'babes', isolated individuals, stunted and imperfect. Out of indi- 
vidualism we must grow, if we would attain to our perfection in the 
membership of the perfect Man. 

'No longer children, tossed to and fro and carried about with 
every wind of doctrine '. St Paul does not linger on the distant 
ideal. He is quickly back to the present stage of childhood, which 
has still to 'pass the waves of this troublesome world' in which 
ideals are too apt to suffer shipwreck. The new metaphor is drawn 
from the sea which the Apostle knew so well, the symbol of insta- 
bility and insecurity. It suggests the jeopardy of the little boats, 
storm-tossed and swung round by each fresh blast, so that they 
cannot keep their head to the waves and are in danger of being 

l By the sleight of men, by craftiness according to the wiles of 
error'. The dexterous handling of the dice and the smart cleverness 
of the schemer are the figures which underlie the words here used. 
They suggest the very opposite of the Apostle's straightforwardness 

1 The full quotation is given in the 'The Making of Man ' in The Death of 
note on p. 45. Oenone and other Poems (1892). 

3 Tennyson, In Memortam cvi: and 

102 EXPOSITION OF- THE [IV 14, 15 

a Cor. iv 2 of teaching. Ours is not, he had once said to the Corinthians, the 
versatility of the adept, which plays tricks with the Divine message. 
So here he warns us that subtleties and over-refinements end in 
error. We must keep to the simple way of truth and love. 

iv 15 ''But maintaining the truth in love*. In this epistle St Paul is 

not controversial. He attacks no form of false doctrine, but only 
gives a general warning against the mischievous refinements of over- 
subtle teachers. "With the 'error' to which these things lead he 
briefly contrasts the duty of ' maintaining the truth in love ' ; and 
then at once he returns to the central truth of the harmony and 
growth of God's one Man. 

'May grow up into Him in all things'. The next words, 'which, 
is the head ', seem at first sight to suggest that the Apostle's meaning 
is 'may grow up into Him as the head'. But although the limbs of 
the body are presently spoken of as deriving their growth from the 
head the head being regarded as the source of that harmony of the 
various parts which is essential to healthy development it would 
be difficult to give a meaning to the expression 'to grow up into 
the head '. Accordingly it is better to regard the words ' may grow 

up into~Him~in~~all~things'~as~~comp^le^t;e~in~~themselvesI What" 

St Paul desires to say is that the children are to grow up, not 
each into a separate man, but all into One, ' the perfect man ', who 
is none other than the Christ. 

The law of growth for the individual is this : that he should 
learn more and more to live as a part of a great whole ; that he 
should consciously realise the life of membership, and contribute his 
appropriate share towards the completeness of the corporate unity j 
and that thus his expanding faculties should find their full play in 
the large and ever enlarging life of the One Man. It is to this that 
St Paul points when he says, ' that we be no longer children, but 
grow up into Him every whit'. 

In one of the most remarkable poems of the In Memoriam 
Tennyson suggests that the attainment of a definite self -conscious- 
ness may be a primary purpose of the individual's earthly life 1 : 

This use may lie in blood and breath, 
Which else were fruitless of their due, 
Had man to learn himself anew 

Beyond the second birth, of Death. 

We gather from St Paul that there is a further lesson which we are 
called to learn the consciousness of a larger life, in which in a 
sense we lose ourselves, to find ourselves again, no longer isolated, 

1 In Memoriam, xlv. 


but related and coordinated in the Body of the Christ. That the 
poet, too, knew something of the mystery of this surrender of the 
individual life may be seen from his Prologue : 

Thou seemest human and divine, 
The highest, holiest manhood, thou : 
Our wills are ours, we know not how; 

Our wills are burs, to make them thine. 

* Which is the head, even Christ '. Backwards and forwards the 
Apostle moves, with no concern for logical consistency, between the 
conception of Christ as the "Whole and the conception of Christ as 
the Head of the Body. The newness of the thought which he is 
endeavouring to develope the thought of human unity realised 
through and in the Christ is doubtless responsible for these 
oscillations. We feel that the conception is being worked out 
for the first time, and we watch the struggle of language in face of 
the difficulties which present themselves. The initial difficulty is 
to conceive of a number of persons as forming in a real sense one 
'body'. In common parlance this difficulty is not recognised, 
-because-the word Mjodyis-used merely to-signify an aggregation- 

of persons more or less loosely held in relation to one another, and 
its proper meaning of a structural unity is not seriously pressed. 
But just in proportion as 'a body' is felt to mean a living organism, 
the difficulty remains. And St Paul makes it abundantly clear that 
it is a living organism a human frame with all its manifold struc- 
ture inspired by a single life which offers to him the true concep- 
tion of humanity as God will have it to be. 

A further difficulty enters when the relation of Christ to this 
Body comes to be denned. It is natural at once to think of Him as 
its Head : for that is the seat of the brain which controls and unifies 
the organism. But this conception does not always suffice. For 
Christ is more than the Head. The whole Body, in St Paul's Bom. xii 5 
language, is 'in Him'; the several parts 'grow up into Him'. 
Even more than this, the whole is identified with Him : * for as i Cor. sit 
the body is one and hath many members, and all the members of I2 
the body being many are one body ; so also is the Christ '. In the 
New Man 'Christ is all and in all'. Identified with the whole Col. iii n 
Body, He grows with its growth and will find His own fulfilment -- 
only in its complete maturity. 

We are not therefore to be surprised at the rapidity of the tran- 
sition by which the Apostle here passes from the thought of Christ 
as the Whole, into which we are growing up, to the thought of Him 
as the Head, upon which the Body's harmony and growth depends. 


iv 16 ' From whom the whole body, fitly framed together and compacted 

by every joint q/"its supply'. The expression 'fitly framed together * 

ii 21 is repeated from the description of the building process which has 

already furnished a figure of structural, though not organic, unity. 
The remainder of the passage is found again, with slight verbal 

Col. ii 19 variations, in the Epistle to the Colossians : 'from whom the whole 
body, furnished out and compacted by the joints and bands, 
increaseth with the increase of God'. The Apostle is using the 
physiological terms of the Greek medical writers. We can almost 

Col. iv 14 see him turn to ' the beloved physician ', of whose presence he tells 
us in the companion epistle, before venturing to speak in technical 
language of ' every ligament of the whole apparatus ' of the human 
frame. There is no reference either here or in the Epistle to the 
Colossians to a supply of nourishment, but rather to the complete 
system of nerves and muscles by which the limbs are knit together 
and are connected with the head. 

' According to the effectual working in the measure of each several 
part' : that is, as each several part in its due measure performs its 
appropriate function. Unity in variety is the Apostle's theme : 
unity__of_structure_in_the-jdiole,_and_variety of function in the- 

several component parts : these are the conditions of growth upon 
which he insists. 

' Maketh the increase of the body, imto the building thereof, wi 
love 1 . This recurrence to the companion metaphor of building 
reminds us that the reality which St Paul is endeavouring to 
illustrate is more than a physiological structure. The language 
derived from the body's growth needs to be supplemented by the 
language derived from the building of the sacred shrine of God. 
The mingling of the metaphors helps us to rise above them, and 
thus prepares us for the phrase, with which the Apostle at once 
interprets his meaning and reaches his climax, ' in love '. 

We have thus concluded a further stage in St Paul's exposition. 

i 10 To begin with we had the eternal purpose of God, to make Christ 

iii5,iii4ff. the summing into one of all things that are. Then we had the 

mystery of Christ, consummated on the cross, by which Jew and 

iv 3 ff. Gentile passed into one new Man. Lastly we have had the unity 

of the Spirit, a unity in variety, containing a principle of growth, 

by which the Body of the Christ is moving towards maturity. 

Iv 1724 ''THIS I say therefore and testify in the Lord, that ye no 
longer walk as do the Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their' 
mind, l8 darkened in their understanding, being alienated from 


the life of God, through the ignorance that is in them because 
of the blindness of their heart ; ^who being past feeling have 
given themselves over unto lasciviousness, to work all unclean- 
ness with greediness. ^But ye have not so learned Christ; 
2I if so be that ye have heard Him, and have been taught in 
Him, as the truth is in Jesus ; 22 that ye put off as concerning 
your former manner of life the old man, which is corrupt 
according to the lusts of deceit ; 2 3and be renewed in the spirit 
of your mind, 2 f and put on the new man, which after God is 
created in righteousness and holiness of the truth. 

' This I say therefore and testify in the Lord, that ye no longer iv 17 
walk as do the Gentiles walk\ The double use of the verb 'to 
walk ' points us back to the beginning of the chapter. There he 
had commenced his solemn injunction as to their 'walk'; but the 
first elements on which he had felt bound to lay stress, humble- 
ness of mind and mutual forbearance, the prerequisites of the life 

of unity, led him on to describe the unity itself, and to shew that 

it was the harmony of a manifold variety. Now he returns to 
his topic again with a renewed vigour : ' This I say therefore and 
testify in the Lord' in whom I am who speak, and you are 
who hear 1 . 

His injunction now takes a negative form : they are 'not to 
walk as do the Gentiles walk*. This leads him to describe the 
characteristics of the heathen life which they have been called 
to leave. 

'In the vanity of their mind, darkened in their understanding, iv 17 
being alienated from tJie life of God, through the ignorance that is 
in them because of the blindness of their heart \ They have no 
ruling purpose to guide them, no light by which to see their way, 
no Divine life to inspire them : they cannot know, because their 
heart is blind. The last phrase may recall to us by way of contrast 
the Apostle's prayer for the Gentile converts, that ' the eyes of their i 18 
heart' might be enlightened. And the whole description may be 
compared with his account of their former state as 'in the world ii 12 
without hope and without God'. 

' Who being past feeling have given themselves over unto lascivi- iv 19 
ousness, to work all uncleanness with greediness'. They have not 
only the passive vice of ignorance, but the active vices which are 

1 Bee above on iv. r. 


Eom. i. 21 bred of recklessness. In the opening chapter of the Epistle to the 
Romans the same sequence is found ; ' they became vain in their 
imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened... wherefore God 
also gave them up to uncleanness...for this cause God gave them 
up unto vile affections... even as they did not like to retain God 
in their knowledge, God gave them up to a reprobate mind, to 
do those things which are not convenient'. There it is thrice 
said that ' God gave them up ' : here it is said that, ' having 
become reckless, they gave themselves up'. The emphasis which 
in either case St Paul lays on want of knowledge corresponds 
with the stress which, as we have already seen, he lays upon 
true wisdom 1 . 

* v 20 ' But ye have not so learned Christ ', or, as it is in the original, 

'the Christ'. That is to say, You are no longer in this darkness and 
ignorance : you have learned the Christ : and the lesson involves a 
wholly different life. 

iv 21 ' If so be that ye have heard Him, and have been taught in Him, 

as the truth is in Jesus'. The conditional form of the sentence is 
used for the sake of emphasis, and does not imply a doubt. We 
may paraphrase it~~thus : * if ~intfeed~it~be~~He~whomrye~have~heard- 
and in whom ye have been taught'. The phrases to learn Christ, 
to hear Him, and to be taught in Him, are explanatory of each 
other. The Apostle's readers had not indeed heard Christ, in the 
sense of hearing Him speak. But Christ was the message which 
had been brought to them, He was the school in which they had 
been taught, He was the lesson which they had learnt. . 

The expression 'to learn Christ' has become familiar to our 
ears, and we do not at once realise how strangely it must have 
sounded when it was used for the first time. But the Apostle 
was well aware that his language was new, and he adds a clause 
which helps to interpret it : ' even as the truth is in Jesus ', or 
more literally, c even as truth is in Jesus '. He lays much stress 

iv 15 on truth throughout the whole context. He has already called 
for the maintenance of the truth in opposition to the subtleties 

iv 24 f. of error : he will presently speak of the new man as c created 
according to God in righteousness and holiness of the truth' ; 
and, led on by the word, he will require his readers as the first 
practical duty of the new life to put away falsehood and speak 
truth each to his neighbour. . But truth is embodied in Jesus, who 
is the Christ. Hence, instead of saying ' ye have learned the truth, 
ye have heard the truth, ye have been taught in the truth ', he says 

1 See above, p. 30. 


with a far more impressive emphasis, ' It is Christ whom ye have 
learned, Him ye have heard, in Him ye have been, taught, even as 
the truth is in Jesus '. 

Nowhere else in this epistle does St Paul use the name 'Jesus' 
by itself. Nor does he so use it again in any of the epistles of 
his Roman captivity, if we except the one passage in which he 
specially refers to the new honour which has accrued to ' the name Phil, ii 10 
of Jesus '. Even in his earlier epistles it rarely occurs alone ; and, 
when it does, there is generally an express reference to the death 
or resurrection of our Lord 1 . "We have already said something 
of the significance of St Paul's usage in this respect 2 . He uses 
the name 'Jesus' by itself when he wishes emphatically to point 
to the historic personality of the Christ. And this is plainly his 
intention in the present passage. The message which he pro- 
claimed was this: The Christ has come: in the person of Jesus 
the crucified, risen and ascended Jesus He has come, not only 
as the Messiah of the Jew, but as the hope of all mankind. In 
this Jesus is embodied the truth : and so the truth has come to 
you. You have learned the Christ; Him you have heard, in Him 
you h~ave~been~taught^"even-as-the-truth-is-in-Jesusr 

That ye put off as concerning your former manner of life iv 22 ff. 
the old man, which is corrupt according to the lusts of deceit; 
and be renewed in the spirit of your mind, and put on the new 
man, which after God is created in righteousness and holiness of 
the truth*. The injunctions which St Paul has hitherto laid upon 
his readers have been gentle admonitions, arising directly out of 
the great thoughts which he has been expounding to them. His 
first injunction was : Remember what you were and what you are. ii n f. 
The next was : Cultivate that humble and forbearing temper, which iv i ff. 
naturally belongs to what you are, which tends to keep the unity. 
But now his demand takes a severer tone : I protest in the Lord, he 
says, that you be not what you were. s 

The knife goes deep. As regards your former life, he declares, 
you must strip off ' the old man', a miserable decaying thing, rotted 
with the passions of the old life of error. You must be made new 
in your spirits. You must array yourselves in ' the new man', who 
has been created as God would have him to be, in that righteousness 
and holiness to which the truth leads. 

1 So in i Thess. i 10, iv 14, Bom. Jude. But in Hebrews it occurs alone 

viii ii, 2 Cor. iv 10, n, 14. The re- eight times; and this is, of course, the 

maining passages are Gal. vi 17, Bom. regular use in the Gospels. 

iii 26, i Cor. iv 5. The name is not 2 See above, pp. 23 f. 
used alone in James, i and 2 Peter, or 


What is 'the old man' who is here spoken of? St Paul has 
Bom. vi 6 used the term in an earlier epistle. 'Our old man ', he had written 
to the Romans, 'was crucified with Christ'. From the context of 
that passage we may interpret his meaning as follows : I said that 
by your baptism you were united with Christ in His death, you 
were buried with Him. What was it that then diedl I answer : 
The former you. A certain man was living a life of sin : he was 
the slave of sin, living in a body dominated by sin. That man, 
who lived that life, died. He was crucified with Christ. That is 
what I call ' your old man '. 

To the Romans, then, he has declared that their ' old man' is 

dead. This, he says, is the true view of your life. It is God's 

Bom. vi 7 view of it, in virtue of which you are justified in His sight. And 

ffi this view, the only true view, you are bound yourselves to take, and 

make it the ruling principle of all your conduct. 

Gal. ii 20 Elsewhere he says : This is my own case. I have been crucified 
with Christ : I no longer live. Yet you see me living. What does 
it mean? Christ is living in me. So great was the revolution 
which St Paul recognised as having taken place in his own moral 
experience~that~~he~"does~not~~hesitate~to speak~~of~T.t~~as~~a~~change~ 
of personality. I am dead, he says, crucified on Christ's cross. 
Another has come to live in me : and He has displaced me in 

What was true for him was true for his readers likewise. 
Christ, he says, has come and claimed you. You have admitted 
JTis claim by your baptism. You are no longer yourselves. The 
old you then died : Another came to live in you. 

In our present passage, and in the closely parallel passage of the 

Epistle to the Colossians, St Paul urges his readers to bring their 

lives into correspondence with their true position, by 'putting off 

the old man' and 'putting on the new man'. That they had done 

this already in their baptism was not, to his mind, inconsistent with 

Col. ii .12, such an admonition. Indeed he expressly reminds the Colossians 

20; iii i ^at ^ey jjg^ tnus ^jg^ an( j kggjj Buried w ith Christ, and had been 

raised with Him to a new life. None the less he urges them to 
a fresh act of will, which shall realise their baptismal position : 
Col.iiipff. 'putting off the old man with his deeds, and putting on the new, 
who is ever being renewed unto knowledge according to the image 
of Him that created him; where there is no Greek and Jew, 
circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondman, 
freeman ; but Christ is all and in all '. 

The metaphor here employed is a favourite one with St Paul. 
They are to strip off the old self : they are to clothe themselves with 


Another. This Other is sometimes said to be Christ Himself. Thus 

St Paul writes to the Galatians : ' As many of you as were baptised Gal. iii 27 

into Christ did put on Christ' ; and to the Romans he says : Put Bom. xiii 

ye on the Lord Jesus Christ*. Yet we could not substitute * Christ* I4 

for ' the new man ' either here or in the Epistle to the Colossians. 

For in both places the Apostle speaks of * the new man* as having 

been 'created ', a term which he could not apply directly to Christ. 

An earlier passage in this epistle, which likewise combines the 
term 'new man* with the idea of 'creation', may perhaps throw 
some light on this difficulty, even if it introduces us to a further 
complication. In speaking of the union of the Jew and the Gentile 
in Christ, St Paul uses the words : 'that He might create the two ii 15 
in Himself into one new man'. As 'the new man', who is to be 
'put on', is the same for all who are thus renewed, they all become 
inseparably one one new Man. But the one new Man is ulti- 
mately the Christ who is 'all and in all'. We cannot perhaps 
bring these various expressions into perfect harmony : but we must 
not neglect any one of them. Here, as often elsewhere with 
St Paul, the thought is too large and too many-sided for a complete 

The condition of ' the old man, which is corrupt according to the iv 22 
lusts of deceit', is contrasted first with a renewal of youth, and 
secondly with a fresh act of creation. These two distinct con- 
ceptions correspond to two meanings which are combined in the 
phrase ' is corrupt '. For this may mean simply ' is being destroyed ', 
'is on the way to perish ' ; as St Paul says elsewhere, ' our outward sCor.iv 16 
man perisheth', using the same verb in a compound form. But 
again it may refer to moral pollution, as when the Apostle says to 
the Corinthians, ' I have espoused you to one husband, to present 2 Cor. xi 
you as a pure virgin to Christ ; but I fear lest, as Satan deceived 2 
Eve, so your minds may be corrupted from the simplicity and purity 
which is towards Christ'. If in our present passage the words 
'which is corrupt' stood alone, we might take the first meaning 
only and render 'which waxeth corrupt' or, better, 'which is 
perishing' : and this would correspond to the contrasted words, ' be 
renewed in the spirit of your mind'. But the second meaning is 
also in the Apostle's mind : for he adds the words ' according to the 
lusts of deceit', and he offers a second contrast in 'the new man 
which is created after God', or more literally 'according to God', 
that is as he says more plainly to the Colossians ' according to the Col. iii i& 
image of Him that created him*. The original purity of newly- 
created man was ' corrupted ' by means of a ' deceit ' which worked 
through 'the lusts'. The familiar story has perpetually repeated 


itself in human experience : ' the old man is corrupt according to 
the lusts of deceit ', and a fresh creation after the original pattern 
has been necessitated : it is found in * the new man which after God 
is created in righteousness and holiness which are (in contrast with 
'deceit') of the truth'. 

ivss vs 2 s WHEREFORE putting away lying, speak every man truth 
with his neighbour : for we are members one of another. ^Be 
ye angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down upon your 
wrath ; ^neither give place to the devil. 28 Let him that stole 
steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his 
hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to 
him that needeth. 2 sLet no corrupt communication proceed 
out of your mouth, but that which is good, for building up as 
need may be, that it may give grace unto the hearers : sand 
grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto 
the day of redemption. 3 1 Let all bitterness and wrath and 
anger and~~clamour and~evitspeaking~~be~put~away~from-you7- 
with all malice: 3 *and be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, 
forgiving one another, even as God in Christ hath forgiven you. 
V. z Be ye therefore followers of God, as His beloved children; 
2 and walk in love, as Christ also hath loved you, and hath 
given Himself for you, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a 
sweetsmelling savour. 

The Apostle proceeds to interpret in a series of practical precepts 
his general injunction to put off the old man and put on the new, to 
turn from the life of error to the life which belongs to the truth. 
He appeals throughout to the large interests of their common life : 
it is the Spirit of fellowship which supplies the motive for this moral 
revolution. Six sins are struck at : lying, resentment, stealing, bad 
language, bad temper, lust. 

iv 25 Ikying is to be exchanged for truthfulness, for the Body's sake. 

iv 26 .Resentment is to give way to reconciliation, lest Satan get a footing 

iv 28 in their midst. Stealing must make place for honest work, to help 

iv 29 others : bad language for gracious speech, 'unto building up', and lest 

iv 31 the one holy Spirit be grieved. Bad temper must yield to kindliness 

and forgivingness, for God has forgiven them all ; yea, to love, the 

"v 3 love of self-giving, shewn in Christ's sacrifice. Lastly lust, and all 

the unfruitful works of the dark, must be banished by the light. 


Thus the Apostle bids them displace the old man by the new, 
the false life by the 'righteousness and holiness of the truth' : 

Eing out the old, ring in the new; 
King out the false, ring in the true; 
Eing in the Christ that is to be. 

' Wherefore putting away lying, speak every man truth with, "his iv 25 
neighbour : for we are members one of another'. In the original the 
connexion with what has immediately preceded is very clearly 
marked. For the word rendered * putting away ' is the same as that 
which has been used for 'putting off' the old man, though the 
metaphor of the garment is now dropped: and 'lying', or 'false- 
hood ' as it could be more generally rendered, is directly suggested 
by the word ' truth ' with which the last sentence closes. Truthful- 
ness of speech is an obvious necessity, if they are to live the life of 
* the truth'. 

The Apostle enforces his command by a quotation from the 
prophet Zechariah : ' These are the things that ye shall do : Speak Zeoh. viii 
ye every man the truth with his neighbour : truth and the judge- r 

ment of peace judge ye in your gates '. But he gives a character of 

his own to the precept in the reason which he adds : ' for we are 
members one of another '. These words remind us how practical he 
is in all his mysticism. The mystical conception that individual 
men are but limbs of the body of a greater Man is at once made the 
basis of an appeal for truthfulness in our dealings one with another. 
Falsehood, a modern moralist would say, is a sin against the mutual 
trust on which all civilised society rests. St Paul said it long ago, 
and still more forcibly. It is absurd, he says, that you should 
deceive one another : just as it would be absurd for the limbs of a 
body to play each other false. The habit of lying was congenial to 
the Greek, as it was to his Oriental neighbours. St Paul strikes at 
the root of the sin by shewing its inconsistency with the realisation 
of the corporate life. 

' Be ye angry t and sin not ; let not the sun go down upon your iv 26 f. 
wrath; neither give place to the devil 1 . The first words of this 
passage are another quotation from the Old Testament. They are 
taken from the Greek version of the fourth Psalm, and are perhaps Ps. iv 4 
a nearer representation of the original than is given by our English 
rendering, ' Stand in awe, and sin not '. That there is a righteous 
anger is thus allowed by the Apostle : but he warns us that, if 
cherished, it quickly passes into sin. According to the Mosaic law 
the sun was not to set on a cloke held as a surety, or the unpaid wage Dent, xxir 
of the needy : and again, the sun was not to set on a malefactor put J 3> r S 


Deut. xxi. to death and left unburied. This phraseology furnishes |/>I;i Apostle 
3 ... -with the form of his injunction. Its meaning is, as an old com- 
29,3:27) mentator observes, 'Let the day of your anger be the day of your 
reconciliation' 1 . 

The phrase to ' give place to the devil ' means to give him rooi^s 
or scope for action. Anger, which suspends as it were the har- 
monious relation between one member and another in the Body, 
gives an immediate opportunity for the entry of the evil spirit 2 
iv 28 ' Let him that stole steal no more : but rather let him labour, work- 

ing with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give 
to him that needeth '. This is indeed to put off the old, and to put 
on the new. It is a complete reversal of the moral attitude. Instead 
of taking what is another's, seek with the sweat of your brow to be 
in a position to give to another what you have honestly made your 

iv 29 ' Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth '. The 

word here rendered ' corrupt ' is used in the Gospels of the worthless 
Matt, vii tree, and of the worthless .fish : it is opposed to ' good ', in the sense 
of being 'good-for-nothing'. But the 'corrupt' speech here con- 
demned is foul talk, and not merely idle talk. It is probable that 

St Paul in his choice of the word had in mind its original meaning 
of ' rotten ' or ' corrupted ' : for in a parallel passage of the com- 

Col. iv 6 panion epistle he says : ' Let your speech be alway with grace, 
seasoned with salt ' 5 the use of salt being not only to flavour, but to 

' But that which is good, for building up as need may be'. The 
words 'edify' and 'edification' have become so hackneyed, that it 
is almost necessary to avoid them in translation, if the Apostle's 
language is to retain its original force. How vividly he realised the 
metaphor which he employed may be seen from a passage in the 
Epistle to the Romans, where he says, if we render his words 

Bom. xiv literally : ' Let us follow after the things that belong to peace and to 

1 It is worth while to repeat Fuller's 2 The Didache, in a list of warnings 

comment quoted from Eadie by Dr directed against certain sins on the 

Abbott (ad loc. p. 141): 'Let us take ground of what they 'lead to', says 

the Apostle's meaning rather than his (c. iii) : 'Be not angry; for auger leads 

words with all possible speed to depose to murder: nor jealous, nor quarrel- 

our passion; not understanding him some, nor passionate; for of all these 

so literally that we may take leave to things murders are bred'. In the same 

be angry till sunset, then might our chapter comes another precept which, 

wrath lengthen with the days; and men it is interesting to compare with the 

in Greenland, where days last above a sequence of St Paul's injunctions in 

quarter of a year, have plentiful scope this place: 'My child, be not a liar; 

of revenge '. since lying leads to thieving 1 . 


the build j up of one another : do not for the sake of food pull down 
God's work '. Moreover in the present chapter he has twice spoken iy 12, 16 
of 'the building up of the body ; ; while in an earlier chapter he has u 20 ' 
elaborated the metaphor of the building in relation to the Christian 
^ciety. In the present passage he recurs to this metaphor, as 
in v. 25 he recurred to the figure of the body. Speech, like 
everything else, he would have us use for the help of others who 
are linked with us in the corporate life * for building up as occasion 
may offer '. 

' That it may give grace unto the hearers '. The phrase to ' give 
grace ' may also be rendered to ' give gratification ' : and this is 
certainly the idea which would at once be suggested to the ordinary 
Greek reader. But to St Paul's mind the deeper meaning of grace 
predominates. This is not the only place where he seems to play 
upon the various meanings of the Greek word for ' grace '. Thus, 
for example, in the passage which we have quoted above from the 
Epistle to the Colossians, the obvious sense of his words to a Greek 
mind would be : ' Let your speech be always with graciousness ' or Col. iv 6 
* graceful charm ' : and another instance will come before us later on 
_in-the_present-epistle- __ ____________ 

' And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto iv 30 
the day of redemption'. Each of St Paul's injunctions is enforced 
by a grave consideration. Falsehood is inconsistent with member- 
ship in a Body. Cherished irritation makes room for the evil spirit. 
Stealing is the direct contrary of the labour that toils to help others. 
Speech that is corrupt not only pulls tlown instead of building up, 
but actually pains the Holy Spirit of God. 

The Spirit specially claims to find expression in the utterances 
of Christians, as St Paul tells us later on in this epistle, where he 
says : ' Be filled with the Spirit ; speaking to one another in psalms v 18 f. 
and hymns and spiritual songs ', The misuse of the organ of speech 
is accordingly a wrong done to, and felt by, the Spirit who claims to 
control it. The addition of the words, < whereby (or ( in whom ') ye 
are sealed unto the day of redemption', carries us back to the 
mention of the sealing of the Gentiles with 'the holy Spirit of the i 13,, 
promise ', that is, the Spirit promised of old to the chosen people. 
This is the 'one Spirit', of which the Apostle says in an earlier 
epistle that 'in one Spirit we have all been baptized into one body, r Cbr. xii 
whether Jews or Greeks'. Thus the Holy Spirit stands in the J 3 
closest relation to the new corporate life, and is specially wronged 

1 See below, p. 1 16. For the various New Testaments gee the detached note 
meanings of 'grace' in the Old and on 

EPHBS. 2 g 


when the opportunity of v building it up becomes an occasion for its 
defilement and ruin. 

iv 31 f. ' Let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamour and evil 

speaking be put away from, you, with, all malice : and be ye kind one 
to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God in Christ 
hath forgiven you '. The fifth injunction, to put away bitter feelings, 
and the quarrelling and evil-speaking to which they give rise, is 
enforced by an appeal to the character and action of God Himself. 
You must forgive each other, says the Apostle, because God in 
Christ has forgiven you all. 

vi 'Be ye therefore followers (or ' imitators ') of God, as His beloved 

children '. These words must be taken closely with what precedes, 
as well as with what follows. The imitation of God in His merciful- 
Luke vi ness is the characteristic of sonship. ' Love your enemies, and do 
35 " them good, and lend hoping for nothing again ; and your reward 
shall be great, and ye shall be sons of the Most High ; for He is 
kind to the unthankful and evil. Be merciful, even as your Father 
is merciful '. 

v 2 * And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved you, and hath given 


smelling savour \ The Apostle has invoked the Divine example 
first of all in regard to forgiveness. He now extends its reference 
by making it the basis of the wider command to ' walk In love '. 
Take, he says, God as your pattern : copy Him ; for you are His 
children whom He loves. Walk therefore in love such love as 
Christ has shewn to you. 

For us, the love of God is supremely manifested in the love of 
Christ, who gave Himself up on our behalf, 'an offering and a 
sacrifice to God for an odour of a sweet smell '. "We then are to love 
even as Christ loved us j that is, with the love that gives itself for 
others, the love of sacrifice. St Paul thus points to Christ's sacrifice 
as an example of the love which Christians are to shew to one 
another. Your acts of love to one another, he implies, will be 
truly a sacrifice acceptable to God; even as the supreme act of 
Christ's love to you is the supremely acceptable Sacrifice. 

Two passages may help to illustrate this teaching and the 
phraseology in which it is conveyed. One of. these is found later 
on in this chapter, where the Apostle charges husbands to love 
725 their wives 'even as Christ loved the church and gave Himself 

up for it '. The other offers us another example of the application 
of the sacrificial phraseology of the Old Testament to actions 
which manifest love. The language in which St Paul dignifies 
the kindness shewn to himself by the Philippian Church is strikingly 


similar to that of our present passage : .' Having received of Phil, iv 18 
Epaphroditus the things which were sent from you, an odour of 
a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, well pleasing to God '. 

fornication and all uncleanness, or covetousness. let it v 314 
not even be named among you, as becometh saints; * neither 
filthiness nor foolish talking nor jesting, which are not befitting; 
but rather giving of thanks. 5 For this ye know of a surety, 
that no fornicator nor unclean person, nor covetous man, which 
is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ 
and of God. 6 Let no man deceive you with vain words; for 
because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the 
children of disobedience. ?Be not ye therefore partakers with 
them. 8 For ye were in time past darkness, but now are ye 
light in the Lord: walk as children of light: 9 for the fruit of 
light is in all goodness and righteousness and truth ; 10 proving 
what is acceptable unto the Lord. "And have no fellowship 
with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather expose them : 
12 for of the things which are done of them in secret it is a 
shame even to speak ; ^but all things when they are exposed 
by the light are made manifest ; for whatsoever is made manifest > 
is light. ^Wherefore it saith : 

Awake, thou that sleepest, 

And arise from the dead, 

And Christ shall shine upon thee. 

1 But fornication and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not v 3 
even be named among you, as becometh saints '. The five prohibitions 
which have preceded stand side by side with no connecting particles 
to link them to each other. This, as a point of style, is far more 
unusual in Greek than it is in English. Accordingly the adversative 
particle with which the final prohibition is introduced deserves the 
more attention. The Apostle has called upon his readers to put 
away falsehood, irritation, theft, corrupt speech, bitter feelings. 
But, he seems to say, there is another class of sins which I do not 
even bid you put away : I say that you may not so much as name 
them one to another. 

( As becometh saints'. He appeals to a new Christian decorum, ii 19 
* Ye are fellow-citizens with the saints' : noblesse oblige. 



v 4 ' Neither Jilthiness nor foolish talking nor jesting, which are not 

befitting ; but rather giving of thanks '. The first of these nomina- 
tives might be taken with the preceding verb, ' let it not even be 
named'; but not the other two. The meaning however is plain: 
'neither let there be among you' these things which degrade 
conversation, or at least relax its tone. Having summarily dismissed 
the grosser forms of sin, the Apostle forbids the approaches to them 
in unseemly talk, in foolishness of speech, even in mere frivolous 
jesting. The seemingly abrupt introduction of 'thanksgiving' in. 
contrast to 'jesting' is due to a play upon the two words in the 
Greek which cannot be reproduced in translation. Instead of the 
lightness of witty talk, which played too often on the border-line of 
impropriety, theirs should be the true ' grace ' of speech, the utter- 
ance of a 'grace' or thanksgiving to God 1 . He developes the 

v 1 8 ff. thought at greater length below, when he contrasts the merriment 
of wine with the sober gladness of sacred psalmody. 

v 5 ' for this ye know of a surety, that no fornicator nor unclean 

person, nor covetous man, which is an idolater, hath any inheritance 
in the kingdom of Christ and of God '. St Paul has spoken of the 

i 14 Gentile Ghristians_as_having-received ^-the-earnest-of-the-inheri1>-- 

*" 6 ance ', and as being ' fellow-heirs ' with the Jews. Here however he 

declares that those who commit the sins of which he has been 

speaking are thereby excluded from such inheritance. They have 

* indeed practically returned to idolatry, and renounced Christ and 

God. They have disinherited themselves. 

This extension of the metaphor of 'inheritance' is a Hebrew 
form of speech which has passed over into the* Greek of the New 
Testament. Thus we have in the Gospel the phrase 'to inherit- 
eternal life' 2 . The connexion of 'inheritance' with 'the kingdom* 
is found in Matt, xxv 34, ' inherit the kingdom prepared for you ',, 
and in James ii 5, ' Hath not God chosen the poor of this world, 
rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom', etc. In St Paul we find 
only the negative form of the phrase, as in i Cor. xv 50, 'flesh 
and blood shall not inherit the kingdom of God'. The two other 

i Cor. vi passages in which it occurs present close parallels to our present 

9 * passage. ' Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit 

the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor 
idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves 
with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, 

1 For a similar play on the word x 25: comp. Tit. iii 7. The phrase 
'grace', see above p. 113. 'to inherit life* is found in Psalm* 

s Mark z 17 and parallels, Lake of Solomon xiv 6. 


nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God '. And in closing 
his list of ' the works of the flesh ' the Apostle says : ' Of the which Gal. v 21 
I foretell you, as I have also foretold you, that they which do such 
things shall not inherit the kingdom of God*. This repetition 
might almost suggest that he was employing a formula of teaching 
which had become fixed and could be referred to as familiar : * Know 
ye not?', 'I foretell you, as I have also foretold you', 'This ye 
know assuredly '. 

'The kingdom of Christ and of God\ The epithet 'of God' 
points to the nature of the kingdom, as opposed to a temporal 
kingdom : hence it is that in St Matthew's Gospel the epithet 
' of heaven ' can be so often substituted for it. The epithet ' of 
Christ ' is more rare 1 : it points to the Messiah as ' the king set upon Ps. ii 6 
the holy hill of Sion', the Divine Son, the Anointed of Jehovah 
who reigns in His name. So St Paul says that 'the Father. . .hath Col. i 13 
transplanted us into the kingdom of the Son of His love'. The 
two thoughts are brought into final harmony in i Cor. xv 24 f.: 
'Then cometh the end, when He shall deliver up the kingdom to 
God, even the Father. . .that God may be all in all '. 

t Let-no-man-decei i oe-you-with-'oain-words:-forbecause-of-these j r-6 

things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience '. 
The Apostle recurs to language which he has used already : he has 
spoken of ' the children (or ' sons ') of disobedience ', and has called ii 2 f . 
them ' children of (the Divine) wrath '. The wrath of God falls Comp._ 
upon the heathen world especially on account of the sins of the 
flesh which are closely connected with idolatry. 

' JBe not ye therefore partakers with them : for ye were in time past v 7 f . 
darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord '. Having completed his 
list of special prohibitions, the Apostle returns to his general 
principle : Be not like the Gentiles. Once more he reminds his iv 17 
readers of what in tune past they were, and of what they now are. Comp. ii 
They have been taken into a new fellowship, and cannot retain the JI f - 
old. The Gentiles whom they have left are still * darkened in their iv 18 
understanding' : but they themselves have been rescued ' out of the Col. i 12 f. 
power of darkness ', and ' made meet to be partakers of the inherit- 
ance of the saints in light '. Here the Apostle does not say merely 
that they were in time past in the darkness and now are in the 
light : but, heightening his figure to the utmost, he speaks of them 
as once 'darkness', but now 'light'. 

1 For 'the kingdom of Christ' in we have 'Thy glory'), Luke i 33, xxii 
the Gospel compare Matt, xiii 41, 29!., xxiii42, John xviii 36. See also 
xvi 28, xx 21 (where in Mark x 37 t Pet. in, Apoc. xi 15. 


v 8 * Walk as children of light '. We may compare St Paul's words 

i Thess. to the Thessalonians : 'But ye, brethren, are not in darkness... for 

v 4 f< ye are all children of light and children of the day ' . While speaking 
of their position and privilege the Apostle has called them 'light' 
itself : now that he comes to speak of their conduct, he returns to 
his metaphor of 'walking', and bids them 'walk as children of 

v 9 ' For the fruit of light is in all goodness and righteousness and 

truth '. With * the fruit of light ' in this passage we may compare 

Gal. v 22 'the fruit of the Spirit' in the Epistle to the Galatians. Indeed 
some manuscripts have transferred the latter phrase to this place, 
where it is found in our Authorised Version. 

v. to 'Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord 7 , These words belong 

in construction to the command ' Walk as children of light ', the 
intervening verse being a parenthesis. The light will enable them 

v 17 to test and discern the Lord's will 1 . So below he bids them ' under- 

stand what the will of the Lord is '. 

v ii 'And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness*. 

GaL v 19, Just as in the Epistle to the Galatians the Apostle contrasted 'the 

_ 22 fruit of the Spirit ' with_i_the-M;QrA-of-the-flesh-^-so-berej-whiIe-he- 

speaks of 'the fruit of light', he will not speak of 'the fruit of 
darkness ', but of its ' fruitless works '. 

v ii ff. 'But ratJter expose them, ; for of the things which are done of them 

in secret it is a shame even to speak; but all things when they are 
exposed by the light are made manifest; for whatsoever is made 
manifest is light'. The Apostle is not content with the negative 
precept which bids his readers abstain from association with the 
works of darkness. Being themselves of the nature of light, they 
must remember that it is the property of light to dispel darkness, to 
expose what is hidden and secret. Nay more, in the moral and 
spiritual world, the Apostle seems to say, light has a further power : 
it can actually transform the darkness. The hidden is darkness ; 
the manifested is light; by the action of light darkness itself can be 
turned into light. 

* Ye were darkness ', he has said, * but now ye are light ' : and 
this is only the beginning of a great series of recurring transforma- 
tions. You, the new light, have your part to play in the conversion 
of darkness into light. Bight produces right: it rights wrong. 
Or, as St Paul prefers to say, light produces light: it lightens 

1 On the use of the title 'the Lord' in these places, see what has been 
said above pp. 72, 90. 

V 14, i5] 



' Wherefore it saith, Awake, thou that steepest, and arise from the v 14 
dead, and Christ shall shine upon thee'. This quotation is not to 
be found in any book that we know. It is probably a fragment of 
an early Christian hymn : possibly a baptismal hymn ; or possibly 
again a hymn commemorating the descent of Christ into the under- 
world 1 . We may compare with it another fragment of early 
hymnology in i Tim. iii 16. 

therefore careful heed how ye walk, not as unwise v I 5 33 
but as wise, l6 redeeming the time, because the days are evil. 
J 7 Wherefore be ye not fools, but understand what the will of 
the Lord is. l8 And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess ; 
but be filled with the Spirit, *9 speaking to yourselves in psalms 
and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody 
with your heart to the Lord; 20 giving thanks always for all 
things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ unto our God and 
Father; 2I submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of 
-Christ. _ gg^y_es._sM6?mfr yourselves unto your own husbands, _ 

1 Two early suggestions are of suffi- 
cient interest to be noted here. One 
is found as a note on the passage in 
John Damasc. (quoted by Tischendorf): 
'We have received by tradition that 
this is the voice to be sounded by the 
archangel's trump to those who have 
fallen asleep since the world began ', 
The other is a story told by St Jerome 
(ad loc.) : 'I remember once hearing a 
preacher discourse on this passage in 
church. He wished to please the 
people by a startling novelty; so he 
said: This quotation is an utterance 
addressed to Adam, who was buried on 
Calvary (the place of a skull), where 
the Lord was crucified. It was called 
the place of a skull, because there the 
head of the first man was buried. 
Accordingly at the time when the 
Lord was hanging on the cross over 
Adam's sepulchre this prophecy was 
fulfilled which says : Awake, thou 
Adam that steepest, and arise from the 
dead, and, not as we read it Christ 

shall shine upon thee [lin^atfcret], but 
Christ shall touch thee [tm\//a6<rei] : 
because forsooth by the touch of His 
blood and His body that hung there 
he should be brought to life and 
should arise; and so that type also 
should be fulfilled of the dead Elisha 
raising the dead. Whether all this 
is true or not, I leave to the 
reader's judgment. There is no doubt 
that the saying of it delighted the 
congregation; they applauded and 
stamped with their feet. All that I 
know is that such a meaning does 
not harmonise with the context of the 
passage'. There are other traces of 
the legend that Adam was buried on 
Calvary, which was regarded as the 
centre of the world. The skull often 
depicted at the foot of the crucifix is 
Adam's skull. It is not impossible 
that the strange preacher was going 
on tradition in connecting the words 
with the release of Adam from Hades 
at the time of the Lord's Descent. 


as unto the Lord : 2 sfor the husband is the head of the wife, 
even as Christ is the head of the church, "being Himself the 
saviour of the body. ^But as the church is subject unto 
Christ, so let the wives be to their husbands in every thing. 
25 Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the 
church, and gave Himself for it; 26 that He might sanctify 
it, cleansing it by the washing of water with the word ; 2 ?that 
He might present the church to Himself all-glorious, not 
having spot or wrinkle or any such thing ; but that it should 
be holy and without blemish. 28 So ought the husbands also to 
love their wives as their own bodies : he that loveth his wife 
loveth himself; 2 9for no man ever yet hated his own flesh, but 
nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as Christ the church ; 3for 
we are members of His body. s^For this cause shall a man 
leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, 
and they two shall be one flesh. 3 2 This mystery is great ; but 

I speak it concerning_Christ-and-the-church 33-Nevertheless-let 

every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; 
and the wife see that she reverence her husband. 

y 15 f. ' Fake therefore careful heed how ye walk, not as unwise but as 

wise^ redeeming the time, because the days are evil '. In his desire to 

pursue his metaphor of the conflict between light and darkness the 

Apostle has been led away from his practical precepts of conduct. 

To these he now returns, and he marks his return by once more 

using the verb ' to walk '. Eour times already he has used it with a 

iv i special emphasis in this and the preceding chapter : ' I beseech you 

iv 17 that ye walk worthy of the calling wherewith ye are called': 'I 

v i f . protest that ye no longer walk as do the Gentiles walk ' : ' Be 

followers of God, as His beloved children, and walk in love, as 

v 8 Christ also hath loved you ' : ' Once ye were darkness, now ye are 

light ; walk as children of light '. And now he sums up what he 

has just been saying, and prepares the way for further injunctions, 

in the emphatic words, ' Take therefore careful heed how ye walk ' l . 

The contrast between the darkness and the light finds practical 
expression in the phrase ' not as unwise, but as wise ' . The power 
of the light to transform the darkness suggests that the wise have a 

1 The rendering of the Authorised spectly', is based on a slightly dif- 
Tersion, ' See that ye walk circum- ferent reading of the original. 


mission to redeem the time in which they live. ' The days are evil ' 
indeed, and the unwise are borne along in the drift of wickedness. 
The wise may stand their ground 'in the evil day' : nay more, they 
may ransom the time from loss or misuse, release it from the bondage 
of evil and claim it for the highest good. Thus the redemptive 
power of the new faith finds a fresh illustration. There is a Divine 
purpose making for good in the midst of evil : the children of light 
can perceive it and follow its guidance, 'proving what is well- 
pleasing to the Lord '. Only heedless folly can miss it : c Wherefore ', v 1 7 
he adds, 'be ye not fools, but tmderstand what the will of the 
Lord is'. 

' And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess'. Elsewhere v 18 
this last word is translated 'riot'. The Apostle's meaning is that Tit. i 6; 
drunkenness leads to excess in a more general sense, to dissolute- I e ' 1V 4 
ness and ruin. The actual words 'Be not drunk with wine' are 
borrowed, as other precepts have been borrowed in the former 
chapter, from the Old Testament 1 . They are found in the Greek 
translation of Proverbs xxiii 31, where they are followed by the 
contrast, 'but converse with righteous men' 2 . 

t be filled, with the, Spirit'- more literally 'in' or 'through 

the Spirit'. There is a fulness, which is above all carnal satis- 
faction ; a spiritual fulness wrought by the Holy Spirit. It issues 
not, as fulness of wine, in disorder and moral wreck, but in a 
gladness of cheerful intercourse, psalm and hymn and spiritual 
song, a melody of hearts chanting to the Lord. 

The first age of the Christian Church was characterised by a 
vivid enthusiasm which found expression in ways which recall the 
simplicity of childhood. It was a period of wonder and delight. 
The floodgates of emotion were opened : a supernatural dread 
alternated with an unspeakable joy. Thus we read at one moment Acts ii 43, 
that ' fear came upon every soul ', and at the next that ' they did eat 4** 
their meat with exultation and simplicity of heart'. 'Great fear' vs, u 
results from a Divine manifestation of judgment : ' great joy ' from a viii 8 
Divine manifestation of healing power. Thus 'the Church went in is 3 r 
the fear of the Lord and in the consolation of the Holy Spirit '. The 
Apostles openly rejoiced as they left the council that they had been v 41 
allowed to suffer for the Name : Paul and Silas in the prison at xvi 25 
Philippi prayed and sang hymns to God, so that the prisoners heard 
them. Nowhere in literature is the transition from passionate grief 
to enthusiastic delight more glowingly pourtrayed than in St Paul's 

1 See above on iv 25 f. is quite different : ' Look not thou 

2 The Hebrew text of the passage upon the wine when it is red', etc. 

122 EXPOSITION OF THE [V 19, 20 

second epistle to the Corinthian Church. From such a writer in 
such an age we can understand the combination of the precepts to 
set free the emotion of a perpetual thankfulness in outbursts o 
hearty song, and at the same time to preserve the orderliness of 

v 19 ff. social relations under the influence of an overmastering awe : ' speak- 
ing to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing 
and 'making melody with your heart to the Lord; giving thanks 
always for all things in the name of our Lord Jemis Christ unto 
our God and Father; submitting yourselves one to another in the fear 
of Christ '. 

The implied contrast with the revelry of drunkenness makes it 
plain that in speaking of Christian psalmody the Apostle is not 
primarily referring to public worship, but to social gatherings in 
which a common meal was accompanied by sacred song. For the 
early Christians these gatherings took the place of the many 
public feasts in the Greek cities from which they found themselves 
necessarily excluded, by reason of the idolatrous rites with which 
such banquets were associated. The agapae, or charity-suppers, 
afforded an opportunity by which the richer members of the com- 

munity-could-gather their-poorer-brethren-in- hospitable~fellowshipr 

In the earliest times these suppers were hallowed by the solemn 
'breaking of the bread', followed by singing, exhortations and 
prayers. And even when the Eucharist of the Church had ceased 
to be connected with a common supper, these banquets retained a 
semi-eucharistic character, and the element of praise and thanks- 
giving still held an important place in them. 

v 20 ' Giving thanks always for all things in the name of our Lord 

Jesus Christ unto our God and Father'. The parallel passage in 

the companion epistle enforces the duty of thanksgiving no less 

forcibly. After urging upon the Colossians gentleness, forgiveness 

Col. iii 15 and peace, he proceeds : ' And be ye thankful. Let the word of 

ff> Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom : teaching and admonishing 

one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs with grace, 

singing in your hearts to God : and whatsoever ye do in word or in 

deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks unto God 

the Father through Him '. 

The expression, which occurs in both these passages, l in the 
name of\ corresponds to the reiterated expressions * in Christ ' and 
' in the Lord '. Believers are in Him : they must speak and act in 
His name. 

' Unto our God and Father '. The rendering in the Authorised 
Version, ' unto God and the Father', does not satisfactorily represent 
the original, which means 'to Him who is at once God and the 


Father'. We are to give thanks to God, who in Christ has now 
been revealed to us as 'the Father'. 

4 Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of Christ '. The v i 
enthusiasm of which the Apostle has spoken is far removed from 
fanaticism. The glad life of the Christian community is a life of 
duly constituted order. The Apostle of liberty is the Apostle of 
order and subordination. This is strikingly illustrated by the fact 
that the verb ' to submit oneself ' (often rendered ' to be subject ') is 
used twenty-three times by St Paul. If we except i St Peter, which 
is not independent of St Paul's epistles, it occurs but nine times in 
the rest of the New Testament. "We may recall a few passages : 
'Let every soul be subject to the higher powers'; 'The spirits of Eom.xiiii 
the prophets are subject to the prophets'; 'Then shall even the L. 
Son Himself be subject to Him that hath subjected all things 
unto Him'. 

Recognise, says the Apostle, that in the Divine ordering of 
human life one is subject to another. We must not press this to 
mean that even the highest is in some sense subject to those who 
are beneath him. St Jerome indeed takes this view, and proceeds 

himself in collision. But the Apostle is careful in what follows to 
make his meaning abundantly clear, and does not stultify his precept 
by telling husbands to be subject to their wives, but to love them ; 
nor parents to be subject to their children, but to nurture them in 
the discipline of the Lord. 

. The motive of due subordination is given in the remarkable 
phrase 'the fear of Christ'. In the Old Testament the guiding 
principle of human life is again and again declared to be ' the fear 
of the Lord', or 'the fear of God'. This is 'the beginning of 
wisdom', and 'the whole duty of man'. St Paul boldly recasts 
the principle for the Christian society in the unique expression ' the 
fear of Christ'. He will interpret his meaning as he shews by 
repeated illustrations that the authority which corresponds to 
natural relationships finds its pattern and its sanction in the 
authority of Christ over His Church. 

' Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the v 22 
Lord'. Having struck the key-note of subordination the recogni- 
tion of the sacred principles of authority and obedience the Apostle 
proceeds to give a series of positive precepts for the regulation of 
social life, which is divinely founded on the unchanging institution 
of the family. He deals in turn with the duties of wives and 
husbands, of children and parents, of servants and masters; 
beginning in each case with the responsibility of obedience, and 

124 EXPOSITION OB 1 THE [V 23 25 

passing from that to the responsibility which rests on those to 
whom obedience is due. Those who obey must obey as though 
they were obeying Christ: those who are obeyed must find the 
pattern of their conduct in the love and care of Christ, and must 
remember that they themselves owe obedience in their turn to 

The thought of the parallel between earthly and heavenly 
relationships has already found expression at an early point in 

iii 14! the epistle, where the Apostle speaks of 'the Father from whom 
all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named'. In the present 
passage it leads him back to his special topic of the relation of 
Christ to the Church as a whole. It enables him to link the 
simplest precepts of social morality with the most transcendent 
doctrines of the Christian faith. The common life of the home is 
discovered to be fraught with a far-reaching mystery. The natural 
relationships are hallowed by their heavenly patterns. 

v 23 f. ' f r the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head 

of the church, being Himself the saviour of the body'. This last- 
clause is added to interpret the special sense in which Christ is here 
_. called_l-the_head_of-the-church-. We-have-already-had-occasion-i 

observe that this metaphor of headship does not to St Paul's mind 
exhaustively express the relation of Christ to His Body 1 . For, in 
fact, Christ is more than the Head : He is the Whole of which 

i Cor. xii His members are parts. ' For as the body is one and hath many 

12 members, and all the members' including the head 'are one 

body: so also is the Christ'. To this more intimate relation, not 
of headship, but of identification, the Apostle will point us a little 
later .on in this passage. For the moment he contents himself with 
explaining the special thought which he has here in view. ' Christ 
is the head of the church, as being Himself the saviour of the body '. 
It is the function of the head to plan the safety of the body, to 
secure it from danger and to provide for its welfare. In the highest 
sense this function is fulfilled by Christ for the Church : in a lower 
sense it is fulfilled by the husband for the wife. In either case the 
responsibility to protect is inseparably linked with the right to rule : 
the head is obeyed by the body. This is the Apostle's point ; and 
accordingly he checks himself, as it were, from a fuller exposition of 

v 24 the thoughts towards which he is being led : ' but ' for this is the 
matter in hand 'as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the 
wives be to their husbands in every thing '. 

v 25 . ' Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church t 

and gave Himself for it '. Subordination must be met by love. The 

1 See above pp. 41 f., 103. 


relation of Christ to the Church still supplies the heavenly pattern. 
'Hast thou seen', says St Chrysostom, 'the measure of obedience? 
hear also the measure of love '. 

Just as the Apostle interpreted the headship of Christ by the 
insertion of the clause 'being Himself the saviour of the body'; so 
here he interprets the love of Christ by a group of sentences which 
lift him for the moment high above his immediate theme. 

' Christ loved the church, and gave Himself for it '. This is a 
repetition of words which he has used already in urging the general 
duty of love : ' Christ loved us, and gave Himself for us '. Here, as v a 
there, the love is defined as the love of self-surrender: but the 
sequel is different : there it was that He might Himself be a sweet- 
smelling offering to God; here it is that He might hallow and 
cleanse His Bride the Church. 

{ That He might sanctify it, cleansing it by the washing of water v 26 
with the word'. We are reminded of St Paul's appeal to the 
Corinthians: 'Such were some of you' fornicators, idolaters, and 
the like : ' but ye were washed, but ye were sanctified, but ye were 
justified, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of 

The ' word ' that is here spoken of as accompanying ' the 
washing of water' is plainly some solemn mention of 'the name 
of the Lord Jesus ', in which they ' were washed ' from their former 
sins. The candidate for baptism confessed his faith in the Name : 
the rite of baptism was administered in the Name. The actual 
phrase which is here used is vague : literally translated it is ' in a 
word ' : that is to say, accompanied by a solemn word or formula, 
which expressed the intention of baptiser and baptised, and thus 
gave its spiritual meaning to ' the washing of water '. The purpose 
of Christ was accordingly that He might hallow His Bride by the 
cleansing waters of a sacrament in which, in response to her confes- 
sion, His Name was laid upon her. 

*That He might present the church to Himself all-glorious, not v 27 
having spot or wrinkle or any such thing, but that it should be holy 
and without blemish 1 . More literally, 'that He might Himself 
present the church to Himself, glorious', etc. We may contrast 
the language which the Apostle uses to the Corinthian Church: 
'I am jealous over you with the jealousy of God; for I betrothed 2 Cor.xi 5 
you to one husband, to present you as a chaste virgin to Christ'. 
Here no human agency is allowed to intervene. The heavenly 
Bridegroom cleanses and sanctifies the Church His Bride, and then 
Himself presents her to Himself in the glory of immaculate beauty 
and unfading youth. 


Such is the love of the Divine Husband to His Bride, of Christ 

v 28 the Head to His own Body the Church. ' So ought the husbands also 

to love their wives as their own bodies '. The conclusion follows at 
once, if indeed it be true that the husband is the head, and the wife 
the body. Nay, the relation is if possible more intimate still : the 

v 29 f. man is in fact loving himself. 'He that loveth his wife loveth himself. 
For no man ever yet hated his otvn flesh, but nourisheth and cherisheth 
it, even as Christ the church ; for we are members of His body '. The 
Apostle is gradually passing away from the thought of headship to 
the more mysterious thought of complete oneness. This thought he 
will not expand : he will only point to it as the spiritual significance 
of the fundamental principle enunciated from the beginning in the 

Gen. ii 24 words ' they two shall be one flesh '. Some manuscripts anticipate 
his reference to the book of Genesis by inserting at this place ' of 
His flesh and of His bones '. But the words appear to be a gloss, 
and the passage is complete without them. 

v 31 'For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother \ and shall 

be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh '. To these 
words our Lord appeals in the Gospel, when He is confronted by the 
_Mark_x_7__comparative-Jaxity_of-the-Mosaic-legislation- in regard to-divoreer- 

^- 'They are no more twain', is the conclusion He draws, 'but one 

flesh: what therefore God hath joined together let not man put 
asunder'. St Paul makes his appeal to the same words with a 
different purpose. He is justifying his statement that 'he that 
loveth his wife loveth himself '. This must be so, he declares, for it 
is written, ' they two shall be one flesh '. But if it be true in the 
natural sphere, it is true also of the heavenly pattern. Hence he 

vsa adds: 'This mystery is great; but I speak it concerning Christ and 

the church'. The Apostle does not mean that the complete union 
of husband and wife as 'one flesh', which is declared in the words 
which he has cited, is a very mysterious thing, hard to be understood. 
In English we can speak of ' a great mystery ' in this sense, using the 
epithet ' great ' simply to emphasise or heighten the word to which 
it is attached ; as in the familiar phrases ' a great inconvenience', 
'a great pity'. But the corresponding word in Greek is not so 
used : it retains its proper meaning of magnitude or importance : so 
that ' a great mystery ' means ' an important or far-reaching mystery'. 
Here the word ' mystery ' probably signifies either something which 
contains a secret meaning not obvious to all, or the secret meaning 
itself. Accordingly the Apostle's words mean either that the state- 
ment which he has quoted is a symbolical statement of wide import, 
or that the secret meaning therein contained is of wide import. In 
either case he is practically saying : There is more here than appears 


on the surface; there is an. inner meaning of high importance: 
I speak it or, I use the words of Christ and the Church. 

In conclusion he returns to the practical lesson which it is the 
duty of his readers to draw for themselves in daily life. ' Nevertlie- v 33 
less let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; 
and the wife see that she reverence her husband '. The word translated 
' reverence ' would be more literally rendered ' fear '. At the close 
of the section the Apostle strikes again the key-note with which he 
began. 'The fear of Christ' the fear of the Church for Christ v 21 
which is the pattern of the fear of the wife for her husband is no 
slavish fear, but a fear of reverence. Just as the word is often 
applied in the Old Testament to the reverence due to God, so it is 
used of the reverence due to parents : ' Ye shall fear every man his Lev. xix 3 
mother, and his father'. Moreover, of Joshua it is said, 'they Josh. iv 14 
feared him, as they feared Moses, all the days of his life ' : and in 
Proverbs we read, ' My son, fear thou the Lord and the king '. Prov. xxiv 


1 CHILDREN, obey your parents in the Lord: for this isvii 9 
right. 2 Honour thy father and mother ; which is the first 


and thou mayest live long on the earth. 4 And, ye fathers, 
provoke not your children to wrath : but bring them up in 
the discipline and admonition of the Lord. 

5 Servants, be obedient to your masters according to the 
flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, 
as to Christ; 6 not with eyeservice as menpleasers, but as 
servants of Christ, 7 doing the will of God; doing service 
heartily with good-will, as to the Lord, and not to men: 
^knowing that whatsoever good thing any man doeth, the 
same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or 
free. s And, ye masters, do the same things unto them, for- 
bearing threatening; knowing that both their Master and 
yours is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons with 

' Children, obey your parents in the Lord : for this is right ', or vi 
'righteous'. The precept accords at once with natural right, and 
with the righteousness enforced by the Divine law. That the latter 
point of view is not excluded is shewn by the citation from the 


vi a f . < Honour thy father and mother ; which is the first command- 

ment with, promise ; that it may be well with thee, and thou mayest 
live long on the earth'. The importance of this obligation in the 
Mosaic legislation may be seen by the prominent place which it 

Lev. xix holds in the following passage of the Book of Leviticus : ' Speak 

1 unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto 
them: Ye shall be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy. Ye 
shall fear every man his mother, and his father, and keep My 
sabbaths: I am the Lord your God'. 

In characterising the Gentiles of whom he thrice says that 

' God gave them up ', the Apostle notes among other signs of their 

Bom. i 30 depravity that they were ' disobedient to parents '. Similarly the 

2 Tim. iii 2 evil men of ' the last days ' are described as ' disobedient to parents ' 

and ' without natural affection '. 

Obedience is to be rendered 'in the Lord'. Although the 

Apostle does not expand the thought, he returns in this expression 

V2i to the key-note which was first struck in the phrase 'in the fear 

of Christ'. 

vi 4 ' And, ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath ; but bring 

-them up in the-discipline-and admonition of the Lord". After 

insisting on obedience, the Apostle enforces the right exercise of 
authority. His demand is not only negative the avoidance of 
a capricious exercise of authority, which irritates and disheartens 
the child (compare CoL iii 21, 'lest they be discouraged') : but it 
is also positive. For parents are as much bound to insist on 
obedience as children are to render it. There is a 'discipline of 
the Lord ' which is the responsibility of the parent, just as obedience 
' in the Lord ' is the duty of the child. 

vi 5 ' Servants (slaves), be obedient to your masters (lords) according 

to the flesh*. This passage gains in force when we observe that 
in several instances the same Greek word is repeated where in 
English a variety of renderings is almost unavoidable. Thus the 
word which in v. i has been rendered ' obey ' must here be rendered 
' be obedient to ', in order to bring out the parallel ' (obedient) to 
your masters... as to Christ'. Again, the Greek has throughout the 
same word for ' master ' and for ' Lord ' ; and in like manner the 
same word for ' servant ' and for ' bond '. This latter word might 
equally well be rendered 'slave': for it is bondservice that is 
primarily intended. 

' With fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as to 
Christ '. The relation of slaves to their masters offered a problem 
which could not be overlooked in the new Christian society. The 

Gal. iii 28 spiritual liberty and equality proclaimed by St Paul 'there can. 


be no bond nor free. . .for all of you are one man in Christ Jesus ' 
might easily be misinterpreted with disastrous results. The Apostle 
of liberty, however, was, as we have already seen, the Apostle of 
order. Spiritual freedom was to him not inconsistent with subjec- 
tion 'in the fear of Christ'. Accordingly he rules out at once in v 
the plainest terms the notion that the Gospel affords any pretext 
to the slave for insubordination or for a careless attitude towards 
his earthly master. On the contrary he declares that the Gospel 
heightens obligations, by regarding the service rendered to the 
earthly lord as service rendered to the heavenly Lord. It thus 
brought a new meaning into the life of the Christian slave. He 
was Christ's slave, doing God's will in his daily tasks. This con- 
sideration would affect the thoroughness of his work: 'not withv 
eyeservice as menpleasers, but as servants of Christ, doing the will 
of God': and also its temper: 'doing service heartily with good- 
will^ as to the Lord, and not to men'. A further thought of 
encouragement is added. "Work has its value and its reward, 
whether the condition of the worker be bond or free: whatever 
good has been done, whether by slave or by master, will be repaid 
-by_the_Master of both alike : * knowing that whatsoever good thing vi 8 
any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be 
bond or free'. 

If the burden of hopelessness is thus lifted from the slave, 
a new burden of responsibility is fastened on the shoulders of 
the master. Willing and thorough service must be met by 
a kindly and considerate rule: 'And, ye masters, do the same-ng, 
things unto them, forbearing threatening ; knowing that both their 
Master and yours is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons 
with Him 1 . 

If we are to judge aright the message which the Gospel brought 
to the slave in apostolic days, we must needs make an effort of 
the historical imagination. For we of the present time think of 
the institution of slavery in the lurid light of the African slave- 
traffic and its attendant horrors. It is not solely the ownership 
of one man by another man which revolts us. It is still more 
the crushing of a savage by a civilised race, and the treating of. 
a black man as less than human by a white. But the Greek 
slave at Corinth was not separated by so wide and deep a gulf.' 
from his master ; nor was his lot so intolerable as the term slavery- 
suggests to modern ears. If it had been, then surely we should 
have found St Paul proclaiming to Christian masters the immediate 
duty of emancipating their slaves. He does not, however, speak 
of slavery as a social evil crying for a remedy. Philemon indeed 

EPHBS. 2 o 


Philem. i6is to treat Onesimus as 'more than a slave, a brother beloved': 
but Onesimus must go back to Philemon. Apostolic Christianity 
did not present itself to the world with a social programme of 
reform. It undertook to create a new human unity under present 
conditions, teaching master and slave that they were members of 
the same body, sharers in a common life, both alike related to 
one Lord. It strove to make this human unity the one new 
Man a visible reality in the Christian Church. It dealt with 
the conditions which it found, and shewed how they might be 
turned by master and slave alike into opportunities for * doing 
good ' which would be rewarded ,by the common Master of them 
both. At the same time it planted a seed which was to grow in 
secret to a distant and glorious harvest. 

vi 1020 10 FiNALLT, be strong in the Lord, and in the might of 
His strength. "Put on the armour of God, that ye may be 
able to stand against the wiles of the devil. "For we wrestle 
not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, 


world, against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly 
places. 13 Wherefore take unto you the armour of God, that 
ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done 
all to stand. ** Stand therefore, having your loins girt about 
with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteousness, 
x sand your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of 
peace; l6 withal taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall 
be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one. 
x 7And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the 
Spirit, which is the word of God, l8 with all prayer and sup- 
plication praying always in the Spirit, and watching thereunto 
with all perseverance and supplication for all the saints; ^and 
for me, that utterance may be given unto me, in the opening 
of my mouth to make known with boldness the mystery of the 
gospel, 30 for which I am an ambassador in bonds ; that therein 
I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak. 

As we approach the close of the epistle it is well that we 
should look back and try to realise its main drift. The Apostle 
began with a disclosure of the great purpose of God for the world 


the gathering into one of all things in the Christ. He prayed that i 10 
his readers might have the eyes of their hearts opened to see and i 18 
understand this purpose and their own share in the realisation of 
it. He shewed that while hitherto they, as Gentiles, had stood iii iff. 
outside the sphere of the special development of the purpose, they 
were now no longer outside it, but within. For a new beginning 
had been made : Jew and Gentile had been welded together in 
Christ to form God's New Man. The proclamation of this oneness iii i ff. 
of mankind in Christ was the mission which was specially entrusted 
to St Paul, and for which he was in bonds. That they should 
know and understand all this was his earnest prayer, as their 
knowledge of it was an essential preliminary of its realisation. 
Having been given this unity, they must keep it. They had been iv 3 
called to be parts of the One Man, to be limbs of the Body through 
which Christ was fulfilling Himself; and this consideration must 
rule their life in every detail. Here was the ground of the distinc- 
tion of functions in the various members of the Body : some were iv nff. 
given by Christ to be apostles, others to be prophets, and so forth, 
to fit the saints as a whole for the service which they were called 

till all should meet in one grown Man, who should at length have 
reached the complete stature of the fulness of the Christ. Here 
too was the ground of the commonest of obligations: the reason, 
for example, why they should not lie to one another was that they iv 25 
were members one of another. The positive duties of social life 
found their sanction in the same doctrine of unity in the Christ: 
the reason why wives should be subject to their husbands, and why v 22 
husbands should love their wives, was that husband and wife stand 
to each other even as Christ and the Church; in a relation of 
authority and obedience, and yet in a relation of perfect oneness 
not twain, but one. Children and parents, slaves and masters, were vi i ff. 
in like manner to exemplify the ordered harmony of the new life, 
in Christ. 

At last he draws to a close. He comes back from these special 
injunctions which deal with particular relationships to a general 
exhortation which concerns the whole. For there is one thing 
more to be said. It is not enough to remember that harmony 
and mutual helpfulness are the conditions of the Body's growth 
and health. If all be well within, there is yet an outside foe to 
be continually faced. A struggle is to be maintained with no 
visible human enemy, but with superhuman and invisible forces 
of evil. And for this conflict a divine strength is needed. God's 
New Man must be clad in the very armour of God. 

9 2 


vi 10 f. * Finally, be strong in the Lord, and in the might of Hi* strength. 

Put on the armour of God'.. This note of strength was sounded 

i 19 f. at the outset. The Apostle prayed that they might know 'the ex- 
ceeding greatness of His power to us-ward who believe, according to, 
the working of the might of His strength, which He hath wrought 
in Christ ', as the Resurrection and Ascension have testified. There 
the triumph of Christ occupied the Apostle's mind : Christ's exalta- 
tion in the heavenly sphere above all forces, good or evil, of the 
spiritual world. Here he has in view the need of the same mighty 
strength, in order that the Church may realise and consummate 
that triumph. A comparison of the two passages will shew how 
much of the earlier language is repeated in this final charge. 

vi ii 'Put on the armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against 

the wiles of the devil '. The word ' whole ' which is inserted in the 
Authorised Version is redundant, and tends to obscure the Apostle's 
meaning. It is God's panoply, or armour, which must be put on. 
The divineness, rather than the completeness, of the outfit is em- 

vi 13 phasised : and this becomes clear when the phrase is repeated and 
explained later on. The contrast here is between 'the armour of 

latter phrase to define more expressly the nature of the conflict 1 . 

vi 12 'For we wrestle not against flesh and blood': literally, 'for to 

us the wrestling is not against blood and flesh '. The emphasis falls 
on the personal pronoun: l we have not to wrestle with a human 
foe ' : not on the metaphor of wrestling, which is only introduced 
by the way, and is not further alluded to. 

'But against the principalities, against the powers, against the 
rulers of the darkness of this world, against the spiritual hosts of 
wickedness in the heavenly places'. We have seen already that 
St Paul speaks in the language of his time when he describes the 
world as subject to spiritual powers who have fallen from their 

i 21 first estate and are in rebellion against God. In his first mention 

of them he left it open to us to regard them as not necessarily evil 
powers : his one point was that whatever they might be Christ 
was exalted above them all in the" heavenly sphere. In a later 

iii I0 passage he spoke of them again in neutral language, as watching 
the development of God's eternal purpose for man, and learning 
'through the Church the very-varied wisdom of God'. Similarly 

Col. i 1 6 in the companion epistle he declares that they have all been 
created in Christ; and some of them at least appear to be not 

1 So Wiclif renders rightly, 'Clothe you with the armure of @od'; and 
Tyndale, 'Put on the armour of God'. 


irretrievably lost, but to be included in the reconciliation of 'things 

in earth and things in heaven' . In a later passage indeed they Col. ii 15 

appear as enemies over whom Christ has triumphed : and this is 

in harmony with the words which we are now considering. For 

here they are declared to be the dangerous foe which meets the 

Church in that heavenly sphere, the invisible world, in which the 

spiritual life is lived 1 . 

' Wherefore take unto you the armour of God, that ye may beri 13 
able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all to stand 1 . 
The Apostle returns to his original metaphor of warfare, which he 
will now proceed to expand. The struggle is with a superhuman 
foe, and necessitates a superhuman armour. Terrible as is the 
foe, the Apostle never doubts for a moment of the issue of the 
conflict. The battle has been already won by Christ Himself, 
who on His cross stripped off and flung aside the principalities Col. ii 15 
and the powers and put them to open shame. His triumph has 
to be realised in His Body the Church. He was pictured by the 
prophets as the Divine warrior who came forth clad in Divine 
armour to battle with iniquity. In the same armour He goes 
"forth again in the person of^His~~Church7~' conquering and~~to con- Apocrvi'cr 
quer'. Hence the Apostle never contemplates the possibility of 
defeat : he is but pointing the way to a victory which needs to 
be consummated. 

' Stand therefore, having your loins girt about zoith truth, and vi 14 
having on the breastplate of righteousness '. The panoply, or suit 
of armour, of the Roman heavy infantry is fully described for us 
by Polybius, who enters into its minutest details 2 . St Paul in 
this passage, as we have said, lays no stress on the completeness 
of the outfit : indeed he omits two of its essential portions, the 
greaves and the spear; while on the other hand he emphasises 
the need of being girded and shod, requirements of all active 
service, and by no means peculiar to the soldier. The fact is 
that, as his language proves, he is thinking far less of the Roman 
soldiers, who from time to time had guarded him, than of the 
Divine warrior who was depicted more than once by the Old 
Testament prophets. 

Two passages of the Book of Isaiah were specially in his 
mind. In one the prophet has described what was indeed 'an 
evil day ' : 

1 See above, pp. 20 fl., 49,80. On St Paul to contemporary thought', 

the whole subject the reader may especially the chapter on The world 

consult with advantage Mr H. St J. of spirits'. 

Thackeray's essay on The relation of a Polybius vi 23. 


Isa. lix Judgment is turned away backward, 

14 * And righteousness standeth afar off: 

For truth is fallen in the street, 

And uprightness cannot enter. 

Tea, truth is lacking; 

And he that departeth from evil maketh himself a prey: 

And the Lord saw it, and it displeased Him that there was 
no judgment. 

Then the Divine warrior steps forth to do battle with iniquity : 

He saw that there was no man, 

And wondered that there was none to interpose: 

Therefore His own arm brought salvation to Him; 

And His righteousness, it upheld Him. 

And He put on righteousness as a breastplate, 

And an helmet of salvation upon His head; 

And He put on garments of vengeance for clothing, 

And was clad with zeal as a cloke. 

An earlier prophecy had pictured the Divine King of the future 

as anointed with the sevenfold Spirit, and going forth to make first 
war, and then peace, in the earth : 

Isa. xi 4f. He shall smite the earth with the word of His mouth 1 ; 

And with the Spirit through His lips shall He slay the 

wicked : 

And He shall have His loins girt about with righteousness, 
And His reins girdled with truth. 

Wisd. v A notable passage in the Book of Wisdom shews how these 

J 7 ff - descriptions of 'the armour of God' had impressed themselves on 
the mind of another Jew besides St Paul : 

He shall take His jealousy as a panoply, 

And shall make the whole creation His weapons for vengeance 

on His enemies : 

He shall put on righteousness as a breastplate, 
And shall array Himself with judgment unfeigned as with 

a helmet; 

He shall take holiness as an invincible shield, 
And He shall sharpen stern wrath as a sword. 

The Apostle does not hesitate, then, to take the words of 
ancient prophecy and transfer them from God and the Divine 
representative King to the New Man in Christ, whom he arms 

1 So the Oreek Bible renders it. 


for the same conflict with the very ' armour of God *. In so doing 
he was in harmony with the spirit of the prophet of old. For the 
voice which cried, * Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the Isa. lip; 

Lord', cried also, ' Awake, awake, put on thy strength, O Sion '. I 

'And your feet shod with the preparation (or, * readiness') of the vi 15 
gospel of peace ' / prepared, as it were, from the outset to announce 
peace as the outcome of victory. The readiness of the messenger 
of peace is a thought derived from another passage of the Book 
of Isaiah : ' How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him isa. lii 7 
that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace; that bringeth 
good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation; that saith unto 
Zion, Thy God reigneth ! ' 

' Withal taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able tori i6f. 
quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one : and take the helmet 
of salvation and the sword of the Spirit '. Girded, guarded, and 
shod, with truth, with righteousness, and with readiness to publish 
the good tidings of peace: while all that the foe can see is the 
great oblong shield, the crested helm, and the pointed two-edged 
blade the shield of faith, the helmet of salvation, and the sword 


' The sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God'. The 
comparison of speech to a sword is frequent in the Old Testament : 
'whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp PS. Ivii 4; 
sword ' : ' who have whet their tongue like a sword, and shoot out ^ v 3 
their arrows, even bitter words ' : ' He hath made my mouth like Isa. xlix 2 
a sharp sword'. And in the Apocalypse Christ is represented asApoc.ii6; 
having a sword proceeding out of His mouth. The passage which xix *5 
is immediately in the Apostle's mind is one which we have already 
quoted : ' He shall smite the earth with the word of His mouth, Isa. xi 4 
and with the Spirit (or, breath) through His lips shall. He slay 
the wicked '. St Paul gathers up these words into a new combina- 
tion, 'the sword of the Spirit, which is the word (or, utterance) 
of God'. 

The word of God, as uttered through His prophets, is spoken 
of as an instrument of vengeance : ' Therefore have I hewed them Hos. vi 5 
by the prophets : I have slain them by the words of My mouth '; 
But from such a thought as this the Apostle rapidly passed to the 
mention of prayer as the natural utterance of Christian lips, and 
the effective instrument of success in the conflict with evil. We 
may note the repetition : 'the sword of the Spirit... pray ing in the 
Spirit'. It is almost as though the Apostle had said, For the 
Divine warrior the sword of the Spirit is His own utterance which 
puts His enemies to flight : for you it is the utterance of prayer 


in the Spirit. If this is not clearly expressed, yet it seems to be 
implied by the close connexion which binds the whole passage to- 
gether : ' Take. . . the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, with 
all prayer and supplication praying always in the Spirit '. Prayer is 

Bom. viii indeed the utterance of the Spirit in us, crying Abba, Father, and 

1J >' . * making intercession for us according to the will of God. 

' And watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication 

for all the saints'. If the military metaphor is not distinctly 

carried on by the word * watching ', the injunction is at any rate 

peculiarly appropriate at this point. God's warrior, fully armed, 

must be wakeful and alert, or all his preparation will be vain. 

vi 19 f. ' And for me, that utterance may be given unto me, in the 

opening of my mouth to make known with boldness the mystery 
of the gospel, for which I am an ambassador in bonds ; that therein 
I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak'. At this point the 
Apostle's language again runs parallel with that which he uses 
in the Epistle to the Colossians. For there the exhortation to 

Col. iv 2 ff. slaves and their masters is followed at once by the words : ' Perse- 
vere in prayer, watching therein with thanksgiving, praying withal 

for-us-alsorthat-God~wouldi>pen unto us a door of utterance, to 

speak the mystery of the Christ, for which also I am in bonds, 
that I may make it manifest, as I ought to speak '. This parallel 
determines the meaning of the phrase ' the opening of my mouth '. 
It is not, as our Authorised Yersion renders it, ' that I may open 
my mouth'; but rather 'that God may open my mouth*. He is 
the giver of the utterance. The Apostle is His spokesman, His 
ambassador, though, by a strange paradox, he wears a chain. 

vizi 24 2I BuT that ye also may know my affairs, and how I do; 
Tychicus, the beloved brother and faithful minister in the 
Lord, shall make known unto you all things: 22 whom I have 
sent unto you for the same purpose, that ye might know our 
affairs, and that be might comfort your hearts. 

a3 Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God 
the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

s *Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ 
in incorruptibility. 

The words which concern the mission of Tychicus are found also 

Col. iv 7 in the Epistle to the Colossians, with hardly a difference, except 

that there Onesimus is joined with him. Tychicus is mentioned 

.Acts xx 4 ia the Acts together with Trophimus as a native of proconsular 


Asia, who met St Paul at Troas on his return from Greece through 
Macedonia in the year 58 A.D. This was the memorable journey 
which issued in the Apostle's arrest in the temple at Jerusalem 
and his imprisonment at Caesarea. It is probable that as a dele- 
gate of the Colossian Church he went, as Trophimus did on behalf Actsxxisi 

O 7 A 

of the Ephesians, the whole of the way to Jerusalem. But at least 
we may think of him as present when the Apostle preached and 
broke bread at Troas, and when he addressed the Ephesian Elders 
at Miletus. This was five years before the date of the present 
epistle, which he carried from Borne to the several Asian Churches. 
Five years later we find him again with St Paul, who speaks of Tit. iii 12 
sending him or Artemas to visit Titus in Crete, and who actually * ^ m - * T 
sent him not long afterwards to Ephesus. So by acts of service 
extending over a period of ten years he justified his title of 'the 
beloved brother' and the Apostles' 'faithful minister*. 

' Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the vi 23 
father and the Lord Je&us Christ'. In sharp contrast with the 
full list of salutations addressed to individuals in the Colossian 
Church stands this general greeting, which will serve alike for 

each of the Churches to which the~~letter~is~brought; 

* Grace be with all them that love ou/r Lord Jesus Christ in in- vi 24 
corruptibility'. St Paul invariably closes his epistles by invoking 
upon his readers the gift of that ' grace ' which holds so prominent 
a place in all his thought. In one of his earliest epistles we read : 
' The salutation of me Paul with mine own hand, which is the i Thess. 

* o 

token in every epistle: thus I write: The grace of our Lord Jesus 1U I 7 t - 
Christ be with you all'. We may suppose then that after he had 
dictated the general salutation which took the place of individual 
greetings, he himself wrote with his own hand what he regarded 
as his sign-manual. This final salutation is still general in its 
terms, being couched in the third person contrary to his custom. 
The words have in part a familiar ring. Again and again in the 
Old Testament and the later Jewish writings mercy is promised Exod. xx 
to or invoked upon ' them that love ' God. It comes naturally ^ etc< 
therefore to the Apostle to invoke 'grace' upon 'all them that 
love our Lord Jesus Christ'. But to this he adds a new phrase, 
to which we have no parallel 'in incorruptibility'. 

There is nothing in the immediate context which leads up to 
or helps to explain this phrase. The word 'incorruptibility* has 
not occurred in the epistle: but the Apostle uses it elsewhere 
in the following passages: 'To them who by patient continuance Rom. ii 7 
in well doing seek for glory and honour and immortality'', 'It * 2 ' xv 
is sown in corruption: it is raised in incorruption...i<x this cor- 53$. 


2 Tim. i ro ruptible must put on interruption', <fec.; 'Our Saviour Jesus Christ, 
who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality 
to light through the Gospel'. It signifies that imperishableness 

fy Whch is an attribute of God Himself, and which belongs to the 
unchanging order of the eternal world. Imperishableness is the 
characteristic of our new life in Christ and of our love to Him. 
That life and that love are in truth immortal; they belong to a 
region which is beyond the touch of decay and death. 

So the epistle which opened with a bold glance into the eternal 
past closes with the outlook of an immortal hope. 


"Qcnrep ta row <n/uaro? 6 irorijp eXaXei KOI laro, OVT<OS Kal irporepov 
(lev Sta raw Trpofprfrcav, vvv 8e Sta TOW aTrooToXtov icat T<BJ> (Sa(TKaXa>i'. T) 
fKK\r)cria yap VTnjpcTfi rfj TOV Kuplov cvepyeia. evdev KOI Tore avdpamov 
dvehaftev tva 81 OVTOV vmjpeTijoTj rqi 6f\rnuvri TOV warpos, KOI iravrarc 
avdpanrov 6 <pi\avdp<t)iros evbverai Qebs els TTJV avdpemtav traynjpiav, irporepov 
TOVS Trpocpijras, vvv 8e TTJV enK\r](riav. 

Even as through the body the Scmour used to speak and heal, so afore- 
time through the prophets and now through the apostles and teachers. 
For the Church subserves the mighty working of the Lord. Whence both 
at that time He took upon Him man, that through him He might sub' 
serve the father's will; and at all times in His love to man God clothes 
Himself with man for the salvation of men, aforetime with the prophets, 
now with the Church. 



nAYAOS d.7rda"ro\os Xpicrrou *lri<rov 
/Jo ~ C / /> ? P >TT< Jv ' T ' 

ueov TOK ayioK TOK ov<riv \_ev iKpeo-wJ KCU 

TTUTTOK ev \picrTc5 'ltj(rov' *X<*P K VIMV Kal eipijvt] anro 
Beov TraTpos tjfjuSi/ KCU KVpiov 'Itja-ov X|0i<rToy. 

i, 2. 'PAUL, an apostle of Christ an epithet in which the two senses of 

Jesus by the will of God, to the irioris, 'belief and 'fidelity', appear 

members of God's consecrated Peo- to be blended : see Lightfoot Gala- 

pie who are [in EPHESUS,] faithful tiansp. 157. 

believers in Christ Jesus. I give 2. ^a/us ical clpjinj] The Greek 

you the new watchword with the old salutation was x a W flv > which occurs 

Grace and pj?ace_be^wjthjyotu from in the letter of the Apostles and 

God our Father and from thlTLord Elders~torthe GentilesrActs-xv-23|-in 

Jesus Christ'. that of Claudias Lysias, Acts xxiii 26, 

i. rot? dyt'ots] For the transference and in the Epistle of St James. The 

of the technical description of the oriental salutation was 'Peace': see 

ancient People to the members of the Ezra iv 17 ('Peace, and at such a 

Christian Church, see Lightfoot on time'), v 7, [vii 12], Dan. iv i, vi 25 ; 

Col. i 2 and Phil, i i. and contrast the Greek recensions 

ev 'E^eV^] See the note on the i 7, viii 9, Esther xvii, where 

various readings. The omission of we have x<u'pi>. 
the words leaves us with two possible The present combination occurs in 

interpretations: (i) 'to the saints all the Pauline epistles (except i and 

which are ...... and the faithful in 2 Tim. and Titus [?], where eXeos 

Christ Jesus', a space being left, to intervenes: comp. 2 John 3). It is 

be filled in each case by the name of the also found in Apoc. i 4, and with 

particular Church to which the letter ir\r)dvvdelij in i and z Peter. In Jude 

was brought by Tychicus its bearer ; or we have eXeos , elp^vtj and ay am). 
(2) 'to the saints which are also faith- Whether x^P ts was m ^7 Wa 7 , 

ful in Christ Je$w\ The former suggested by xaipeiv must remain i 

interpretation is supported by the doubtful : a parallel may possibly be ;i 

parallels in Rom. i 7 TOW ovo-tpeVPoj/*//, found in the emphatic introduction 

and Phil, i i rots o&m/ ev *tXtWois. A of xapo in i John i 4. What is plain is 

strong objection to the latter is the that St Paul prefixes to the character- 

unusual stress which is thrown upon istic blessing of the Old Dispensation 

leal Trio-row by the intervention of rois (comp. Numb, vi 26) the characteristic 

ovviv unaccompanied by the mention blessing of the New. The combination 

of a locality. is typical of his position as the Hebrew 

Kal irurrois] The 'saints' are further Apostle to the Gentiles. See further 

defined as 'faithful in Christ Jestts ', the detached note on 


3 Ev\oyriTOs 6 Oeos KM Trarrip TOV Kvpiov 

XpicTToi/, 6 ei/Xoryijtras *;/uas ev TTCMT*/ evXoyia 
rj ev TOIS eirovpaviots ev XpurTta, 4 Ka6cbs ee- 

3 10. 'I begin by blessing God Here StrPaul combines the two signifi- 

who has blessed us, not with an cations: EvXoyi/rof... 6 cvXayqo-as TJIMS. 

earthly blessing of the basket and the o 6ebs KOI n-anjp] The first, as well 

store, but with all spiritual blessing as the second of these titles, is to be 

hi the heavenly region in Christ, taken with the following genitive. A 

Such was the design of His eternal sufficient warrant for this is found in 

selection of us to walk before Hun v. 17, o 0eos TOV Kupiov TJJMOV 'L/o-ov 

in holiness and love. From the first Xpurrov, 6 irarfip TTJS Bogqs (comp. also 

He marked us out to be made His John xx 17). Some early interpreters 

sons by adoption through Jesus Christ, however take the genitive with irarqp 

The good-pleasure of His will was the alone. Thus Theodore allows this 

sole ground of this selection ; as the latter construction, and Theodoret 

praise of the glory of His grace was its insists upon it. Moreover the Peshito 

contemplated end. His grace, I say; renders: 'Blessed be God, the Father 

forHehasshoweredgraceonusinHim of our Lord Jesus Christ'; and the 

who is the Beloved, the Bringer of the earlier Syriac version, as witnessed to 

great Emancipation, which is wrought by Ephraim's commentary (extant only 

by His death and which delivers us in an Armenian translation), seems to 

from sin : such is the wealth of His have had: 'Blessed be our Father, 

grace. The abundance of grace too the Father of our Lord', etc. On 

brings wisdom and practical under- the other hand B stands alone (for 

standing: for He has allowed us to Hilary, in Ps. tovi, quotes only 

know His secret, the hidden purpose Benedictus dens, qui benedixit nos, 

which underlies all and interprets all. etc.) in omitting KM irar^p. 

Long ago His good-pleasure was deter- ev iraaji evKayiq. irvevparucfj] 'with 

mined: now, as the times are ripening, all spiritual blessing'. It might be 

He is working out His plan. And the rendered 'with every spiritual bless- 

issue of all is this the summing up, ing'; but it is better to regard 

the focussing, the gathering into one, ev\oyta as abstract : compare v. 8 ev 

of the whole Universe, heavenly things irao-g o-o^to. 

and earthly things alike, in Christ'. ev rots eirovpavlots] The interpre- 

3. EvXoyijros] This word is used tation of this phrase, which occurs 

only of God in the New Testament, again in i 20, ii 6, in 10, vi 12, and 

It recurs in the present phrase, 2 Cor. not elsewhere, is discussed at length 

i 3 i Pet. is; and in the phrase in the exposition. The Latin rendering 

5Xoy7TOs e ls rots al&vas, Bom. i 25, is l in cael&ttibus'. The Peshito has 

ix 5, 2 Cor. xi 31. The only other ^ *"*-> (=*" avpavols) in all 

instances are Mark xiv 61, Luke i 68. instances except the last. It is inte- 

Of men, on the other hand, etiXoytj- resting to note that in i 20 B and a 

ftevos is used, e.g. Matt, xxv 34, Luke few other authorities read ev TOW 

i 42. EuAoyrjro? implies that blessing ovpavols. 

is due ; efaoyrjpevos, that blessing has 4-' e'|eAe'aro] We may render this 

been received. The blessing of man either 'He hath chosen' or 'He chose'', 

by God confers material or spiritual and so with the aorists throughout 

benefits : the blessing of God by man the passage. In Greek the aorist is 

is a return of gratitude and praise, the natural tense to use ; but it does 


\ej~aTO fads iv avrtS Trpo KaTa(3o\fjs Koa-fAov, etvai ij 
dyiovs kal cfy/wjuovs Karevwiriov avTOv ev dyctTry, % 
opio-as >//>eas ek vloBea-lav &a 'lr}(rov Xpurrov 6is avrov, 
Kara rf)V ei/So/aai/ TOV 0e\f/juaros avrov 9 6 ek evraivov 

not of necessity confine our attention but offers no interpretation of 'in 

to the moment of action. caritate' : Ambrosiaster has it, and 

irpb Kara(io\Tjs Koir/tov] Here only explains the words of our love to God 

in St Paul: but see John xvii 24, which produces holiness : Jerome also 

i Pet. i 20. The phrase dirb Kara- has it, and gives as alternatives the 

/SoXi}* Koayxov is several times used in connexion with what immediately 

the New Testament, but not by St precedes, and Origen's view which 

Paul. connects the words with irpoopivas. 

dyiovs Kal dpoopovs] These adjec- The Vulgate rendering (found also in 

tives are again combined in v 27 ; and, /) f in caritate qui praedestinauit' 

with the addition of dveyK\r}Tos, in precludes the connexion with irpo- 

CoL i 22. In the LXX a/iojuos is opivas. 

almost exclusively found as a ren- The simplest interpretation is that 

dering of D*DJ1, which occurs very which is indicated by the punctuation 

frequently of sacrificial animals, in given in the text. It is supported by 

the sense of 'without blemish'. But the rhythm of the sentence, and also 
Qsnis-also freely used of moral by the frequent-recurrence-in this 

rectitude, and has other renderings, epistle (iii 17, iv 2, 15, 16, v 2) of the 

such as rcXctoff, a/iCfurro?, KaOapos, phrase eV dydirjj in reference to the 

foams, oo-to?. Accordingly a sacri- love which Christians should have one 

ficial metaphor is not necessarily to another. 

implied in the use of the word in 5. els vlodea-iav] St Paul uses the 

this place. word vlodea-ia five tunes; Bom. viii 

ev dydirrj] This has been interpreted 15, 23, ix 4, GaL iv 5, and here. It is 

(i) of God's love,' (2) of our love, found in no other Biblical writer. 

whether (a) to God or (5) to each Although the word does not seem to 

other. Origen adopts the first view ; occur in the earlier literary Greek, it 

he connects eV dydirj] with irpoopia-as is frequent in inscriptions. In addi- 

( c in love having foreordained us'): tion to the ordinary references, see 

but he allows as a possible alternative Deissmann Neue Bibelstudien (1897) 

the connexion with eeAe'|aro. This p. 66. He cites from pre-Christian 

alternative (He hath chosen us.. .in inscriptions the formulae naff v'ia6f<riav 

love) is the view taken by Ephraim and de and Kara tivyarpoirouav 5e, occurring 

by Pelagius. The connexion with in contrast to KOTO yevemv. 

however, is more usual : In Rom. ix 4 St Paul uses the term 

it is accepted by Theodore and in enumerating the privileges of the 

Chrysostom : the Peshito precludes ancient Israel, a>v 17 vlodea-la Kal 17 Soa 

any other view by rendering ' and in <al al SiadfjKai K.T.\. Here therefore 

love He ' &c. ; but Ephraim's comment it falls into line with the other expres- 

shews that the conjunction cannot sions which he transfers to the New 

have been present in the Old Syriac People : such as ayiot, an-oXurpoMnr, 

Version. eKXi/pco^/ief, eVayyeXta, jrfparoir)<ris. 

In Latin the rendering 'in caritate tvdoniav TOV titXyparos] Comp. v. 9; 

praedestinans ' (d a g 3 ) left the question and for the emphatic reiteration comp. 

open. Yictorinus has this rendering, v. n Kara rf}v fiovXrjv TOV 



ft> 6%0/iev T*)V diro^MTptocriv Sea TOIA 

avroV) TJJV a<j>e<rtv TWV 


ei/ TTacrf/ <ro<j>ia KCCI (frpovricrei 9 yv(api(ras tffuv TO 


avrov i)V vrpoeBeTO ev avrtS I0 ets oiKovojutiav TOV 

avrov. Fritzsche (on Bom. x i) dis- pretations of the word in this place, 

cusses evBoKflv and cvSoxia. He shews see the detached note on x"P"> 
that the verb is freely used by the The relative fc has been attracted 

later Greek writers, and especially into the case of its antecedent. It is 

Polybius, where earlier writers would simplest to regard it as standing for 

bare said tSogcv and the like. The 9. N C D 2 G 3 KL, with the Latin version 

noun appears to be Alexandrian. The (in qua), read evg: but this is probably 

translators of the Greek Psalter, who the grammatical change of a scribe. 
uniformly employ cvtSoicetv for H!tt, ev T& ^yairrjp4vo\ The reasons for 

render |1S1 by evSo/'a r (7 times) and regarding o rfyairrjuevos as a current 
byl9eXvJLia~(6~times); part~from-this Messianic-designation-are-given-in-a- 

is found twice only, except in detached note. In the parallel passage, 

Bcclesiasticus where it occurs 16 Col. i 13 f., St Paul writes : *<u 

timea In Enoch i 8 We have KOI T^V tmja-ev els rrjv (3a<riXeiav TOV vlov TTJS 

cv8oiciav dcotrei avrois KOI irdvras ewXo- dydirrjs auroS, ev <p e^ofiev K.r.X. In 

yrffffi. Like )1^"l, it is used largely that passage the desire to emphasise 

of the Divine 'good-pleasure' (comp. the Divine Sonship of Christ may 

Ps. cxlix 4 on eu'SoKei Kvpios ev account for his paraphrase of the 

Xa&> avfbv), but also of the 'good- title. 

pleasure', satisfaction or happiness of 7. ev <j exppev TTJV diro\vrpa><rtv] 

men. So in Col. i 14. For the meaning of 

6. ^s e'xaptTcoo-ei'T/jaar] TheApostle aTroXirrpaxns see note on v. 14. 
is emphasising his own word #ap. It 8. $s cirepio-o-eva-ev] Probably by 

is instructive to compare certain other attraction for TJV eirfpio-o-evo-ev : comp. 

phrases in which a substantive is 2 Cor. ix 8 dwarei 8e 6 fobs ira<rav 

followed by its cognate verb : as in x&P tv "ffp^ffvo-at els vfias. 
V. 19 KOTO. rt)v fvepyeiav...T)v evijpyrjKev, 9. TO /zvonfptov] Comp. iii 3, 4, 9, 

ii 4 &a TJyv n-oXX^v dydmjv avrov rjv v 32, vi 19 : and see the detached 

^ydirr/a-ev qi*as, iv I tys K^ffcreats %s note on pvorypiov. 
eK\j0r}Te. The meaning is ' His grace vpoedero] l ffe hath purposed'. 

wherewith He hath endued us with The preposition in this word has the 

grace '; which is a more emphatic way signification not of time, but of place : 

of saying ' His grace which He hath 'He set before Himself'. So we have 

shewn toward us' or 'hath bestowed rep66ea-is, 'purpose', in v. u. 
upon us'. So that the phrase does 10. els oiKovofilaii] The word ofco- 

not greatly differ from that of v. 8 vopla means primarily either 'the office 

'His grace which He hath made to of a steward' or 'household manage- 

abound toward us'. For other uses ment'. The latter meaning however 

of x a P lT vv> and f r the early inter- received a large extension, so that 


ttaros TtSv Kaipwv, dvaK.e<pa\auo<ra<r6ai TO, iravra iv Tea 
ymo-TW, ra CTTI rols ovpavoK K.OL TO. iirl rfc yfjs* ev 

otKOVOpeiv and oiKOVopia were used in ava<e(f)a\atoa-a(r0ai] The Verb is 

the most general sense of provision derived not directly from KecpaXrj, 'a 

or arrangement. This wider use of head', but from /ce^aXaww, f a sum- 

the words may be illustrated from mary' or * sum total' (comp. Heb. viii 

Polybius. The verb occurs in Polyb. i). Accordingly it means 'to sum 

iv 26 6 vircp T&V oXow otKovopfii' (the up* or 'present as a whole'; as in 

Aetolians refuse to 'make arrange- Rom. xiii 9, where after naming 

ments' with Philip previous to a various precepts St Paul declares that 

general assembly); and in iv 67 9 they are 'summed up in this word, 

ravra 8e OIKOI/O/MJO-OS (of appointing a Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy- 

rendezvous), 'when he had made these self (eVrouro>r<p \6yto dvoKetpd^aiovrai). 

dispositions ' (comp. 2 Mace, iii 14, 3 The Peshito has * -TB:toA-2tf 

Macc.iii2). The noun is ^exceedingly ^^ ^ ut cuncta denuo 

common : e.g. Polyb. 14 3 T^v6eKa6o\ov , J-B, i. , 

K al crvAX^v ol^opiav r5,v yeyorirw, nouarentur' ; and Ephraim's Commen- 

where he is pleading for a broad tary shews that this was the Old 

historical view of the general course Synac rendering. Similarly the Latin 

of events : ii 47 10 ra^v Wpi5- version has ^nstaurare' or 'restau- 

^ecurtvolKovoniavS to conceal this rare', though Tertullian and the 

his actual policy' or 'line of action'; translator of Irenaeus seek to re- 

v 40 3 rave frdrfan r^ Trpay/ta produce the Greek word more closely 


, the project quickly by 'recapitularf. In both Synac 

began to work itself out'; vi 9 10 and Latin versions the preposition 

(in closing a discussion of the way ara has been interpreted of repetition. 

in which one form of polity succeeds But its meaning here is rather that 

to another) aZrrj KO^TMV ai/afc^Xoxm, which we find in such compounds as 

a$TT} (j)v(Ta>5 olKovopia, K.T.X., i.e., 'SO ai/aXoyi'fcj-tfai, avapidpelv, avacntoirelv : 

forms of government recur in a cycle, so that in usage the word ^oes not 

so things naturally work themselves seriously differ from oyyKe^oXaioCv, 

ou t> the slight shade of distinction being- 

Both here and in iii 9, rls J? olno- that between 'to gather up' (with the 

ro/i/a roO pvffrrjpiov K.r.X., the word is stress on the elements to be united) 

used of the manner in which the and 'to gather together' (with the 

purpose of God is being worked out stress on their ultimate union). See 

in human history. At a later time Lightfoot ad loc. (Notes on Epistles 

oiKovofiia acquired a more concrete ofSt Paul) and on Col. i 16. 
meaning; so that, for example, the 1114- 'I n Christ, I repeat, h* 

Christian, 'dispensation' came to be whom we have been chosen as the< 

contrasted with the Mosaic 'dispen- Portion of God: for long ago He set, 

sation'. As the rendering '/or the His choice upon us, in accordance, 

(or a) dispensation of the fulness of with a purpose linked with almighty 

the times' is not free from ambiguity, power and issuing in the fulfilment of 

it is preferable to render '/or dispen- His sovereign will. We have thua 

sation in the fulness of the times', been chosen to be to the praise of the 

In any case TrX^poyiaros is a genitive glory of God we Jews ; for we have 

of further definition. Compare with been the first to hope in Christ. But 

the whole phrase Mark i 15 irfrr\ij- yet not we alone. You too, you Gen- 

pcorat 6 Ktupos, and i Tim. ii 6 TO tiles, have heard the message of truth, 

fj.aprvpi.ov Kaipois IBiois. the good news of a salvation which is 

EPHES. 2 ' 10 



avr 9 "ev tp Kal eicXripajBripJiev TrpoopurBevres KCLTO. irpo- 
Qecriv TOV TO. TrdvTa eveptyovvTos Kara Trjv (3ov\nv TOV 
avTOv, "6*? TO eivai tjfjias els eiraivov 

avTOV TOI)S TrporiXiriKOTas ev T<S xpurTia' 13 6i/ 

ctKOVcravTes TOV \oyov r^s d\rj6eias 9 TO evay- 

yours as much as ours. You too have lot ' or ' the portion ' of God : as, e.g v 

believed in Christ, and have been in Deut. ix 29 ovrot Xaos a-ov KM 

sealed with the Spirit, the Holy K\fjp6g a-ov (comp. Esth. iv 17, an 

Spirit promised to the holy People, addition in the LXX)/ The rendering 

who is at once the pledge and the of the R.V., 'we were made a heri- 

first instalment of our common heri- tage ', is more correct than that of the 

tage; sealed, I say, for the full and A.V., but it introduces the idea of 

final emancipation, that you, no less inheritance (K\r)povofj.ia), which is not 

than we, may contribute to the praise necessarily implied by the word. We 

of the glory of God'. might perhaps be content to render 

II. ev <a Kal eK\r)p(odr)pev irpoopitr- eeXe|aro (. 5) and eK\ijp<adr)iJLfV by 

Qevres] This is practically a restate- *eAos0'and 'chosen', as was done in 

ment in the passive voice of e'eXe|aro the Geneva Bible of 1557 : an ancient 

g/t5s...7r/sooprag >fcag (vv. 4, 5). So precedent for this is found in the 

Chrysostom comments: debs yap 6 Peshito, which employs the same 

cK\ega{j*vos KOI K\Tjpa>craiJievos. KX^- verb in both verses t ^ and 

povv is 'to choose by lot' or 'to .-^vjk^x 

appoint by lot'. In the passive it is ^ ^ 

'to be chosen (or 'appointed') by Tairavra tvepyovvrosY who icorJceth 

lot '. But the image of the lot tends *& things ': see the detached note on 

to disappear; so that the word means 'epyi. 

'to assign', or (mid.) 'to assign to I2 - TOVS irporj\.mKaras] 'who have 

oneself, 'to choose'; and in the been the first to hope*. For this use 

passive 'to be assigned' or 'chosen', of vp in composition ('before an- 

The passive, however, could be used other') compare I Cor. xi 21 IKGUTTO? 

with a following accusative in the y&P TO tSiov fteiirvov irpoXapfiavei ev r$ 

sense of 'to be assigned a thing', and <payclv. So far as the word in itself 

so 'to acquire as a portion'. Thus in is concerned it might be rendered 

the Berlin Papyri (n 405) we read, 'who aforetime hoped': but the 

in a contract of the year 348 A.D. : meaning thus given is questionable : 

j; \l6ov a-iTOKoirrrjv Kal (rtTa\eriKJ)v see the exposition. 

7rarp<5a ijp.v ovra, K\T]pa- 13. ev (a Kal vpels] It is Simplest 

/e.r.X. This is the meaning to take v/ms as the nominative to 

given in the present passage by the e<r<ppayio-0r)Tf, regarding the second 

A. V. ('in whom also we have obtained ev <$ as picking up the sentence, which 

an inheritance ') : but there appears to has been broken to insert the em- 

be no justification for it, except when phatic phrase 'the good tidings of a 

the accusative of the object assigned salvation which was yours as well as 

is expressed. ours'. A somewhat similar repetition 

Accordingly the meaning must be is found in ii u, 12 on TTOTC v/j.eis... 

'we have been chosen as God's por- on ^TC K.T.\. 

tion ' : and the word is perhaps se- TOV Xoyov T^? dXijdelas] The teach- 

lected because Israel was called 'the ing which told you the truth of things 


*ye\iov Ttjs (TcoTripias V/ULCOV, ev (p Kal 7rurTv(ravTs 
e<rd>pa f yia'6r]Te T& TrvevfJLaTi T^S evrayyeXias TO> 
14 o ea"Tiv dppa/3a>v TJ/S K\ripovojmias fjyuwj/, els 

eis eiraivov T?S Sojjs aurou. 

14. Ss <TTU> 

(comp. iv 21), to wit, that yow were meaningless as a note on pignus: 

included in the Divine purpose the thus his attention was drawn to the 

good tidings of your salvation. In inadequacy of the Latin version : but 

Col. i 5 we have the same thought : nevertheless in revising that version 

'the hope laid up for you in the (if indeed to any serious extent he did 

heavens, whereof ye heard aforetime revise it in the Epistles) he forgot, or 

in the word of the truth of the gospel did not care, to insist on the proper 

which came unto you', &o. Compare distinction. 

also 2 Cor. vi 7 ev Xoya> aXrjGeias and With the whole context compare 

James i 18 Xdy&> dXq&tas. . 2 Cor. i 21 f. o Se /3e/3at<5j/ jp,as <rvv 

eo-<ppayi<T0riTe K.T.X.] Compare iv 30 vfiiv els Xpurrbv Kal xpt'eras "nv&s 0eos, 

TO irvevfjLa TO ayiov TOV 6eov, tv 3> 6 Kal o-<ftpayurapevos rjfias KOI 8ovs rov 

eo-cfrpayio-driTe els qpApav diro\w-p<oo-e<os t appaft&va TOV ^irve^fMTos ev Tais Kap- 

and 2 Cor. i 21 f. (quoted below). bitus iJ/wSv (for the technical term 

i4.-dppa/3j/]-Lightfoot-has-treated ^6 

this word fully in the last of his notes pp. zooff. and Gradenwitz JSinfuhr- 

on this epistle (Notes on Epp. p. 323). ung in die Papyruskunde, I9oo,p. 59). 

It is the Hebrew word f12"iJJ (from Gradenwitz (ibid, pp. 81 ff.) shews 

11V, ' to entwine', and so 'to pledge'), that the dppaftuv, as it appears in the 

It is found in classical Greek writers ; papyri, was a large proportion of the 

so that it was probably brought to payment : if the transaction was not 

Greece by the Phoenician traders, completed the defaulter, if the seller, 

and not by the Hebrews, who knew repaid the dppaftoav twofold with in- 

little of the Greeks hi early days. It terest ; if the buyer, he lost the 

came also into Lathi, and is found in appa$a>v. 

a clipped form hi the law books as ypcov] Note the return to the first 

arra. In usage it means strictly not person. It is 'our inheritance': we 

* a pledge ' (evexvpov), but 'an earnest' and you are awK^.ripovop.oi t comp. 

(though hi the only place in the LXX iijl 6. 

where it occurs, Gen. xxxviii I7ff., it els dn-oXiJrpaxrti'] The verb Xvrpou- 

has the former sense). That is to say, trdai is used of the redemption of Israel 

it is a part given in advance as a from Egypt in Exod. vi 6, xv 13 (96M), 

security that the whole will be paid and six times in Deuteronomy (mS). 

hereafter a first instalment. In the Psalms it represents both 

Jerome ad loc. points out that the Hebrew words ; in Isaiah generally 

Latin version had pignus in this the first of them: and it is frequently 

place instead of arrabo. Yet in his found in other parts of the Old Tes- 

Vulgate he left pignus here and in tament. ThgJBLaieinptionj&'om Egypt 

2 Cor. i 22, v 5. The explanation is the ground^ (Sr^BET^cSn^^to 

probably is that in his Commentary tnT6|K6lirriind""*emancipatTon' is 

he was practically translating from perliaps*lhe word which expresses the 

Origen, and found a careful note on meaning most clearly. In English 

v, which would have been the word* redemption' almost inevit- 

10 2 



[I. 14 

ably suggests a price paid : but there 
is no such necessary suggestion where 
\vrpovo-dat is used of the People, 
even if occasionally the primary sense 
is felt and played upon. In an-oXv- 
rpaxris (and even XvrpaMrtf in the 
New Testament) the idea of emanci- 
pation is dominant, and that of pay- 
ment seems wholly to have disap- 
peared. In the Old Testament the 
form diroXvTpaxris is only found in 
Dan. iv 30 (LXX), of Nebuchadnezzar's 
recovery (o xP vos ifa aTroXwrpwo-eofe 
pov). See further "Westcott Hebrews 
pp. 295 ff., and T. K. Abbott Ephe- 
sians pp. 1 1 ff. 

rfjs irepiiroifi<rea>s\ The verb irepurot- 
\eio-0ai is found in two senses in the 
.Old Testament: (i) 'to preserve alive' 
'^nearly always for nil"!), (2) 'to ac- 
jquire'. Corresponding to the former 
ense we have the noun Treparolrja-is, 
preservation of life' fPnP in 2 

'hron. xiv 13 (12) ; corresponding to 
ie latter we have Mai. iii 17 eerowat 
oc,...6tf yfjiepav TJV eyco TTOI>, els irepi- 

oir}(riv (nW JK ">B>K d1?...^ 1V11 

73D), 'they shall be to Me,... in the 
day that I do make, a peculiar trea- 
sure': these are the only places (exc. 
Hag. ii 9, t/gy only) where the noun is 

In the New Testament the verb is 
found, probably in the sense of 'pre- 
serving alive', in Luke xvii 33 (irepi- 
7roiq<ra(r0ai. EL ; but NA etc. have 
crwcrat, and D <oaymn)trcu) f where in 
the second member of the verse we 
have fwoyow/o-ei. In the sense of 
'acquiring' it is found in Acts xx 28 
(TJV irepiGiroir)<r(xro 8ta rov 

and in i Tim. iii 13 

The noun is found in Heb. 
X 39 els irepiiroirjo-iv fax^s, I Thess. 
V 9 els treparolrjcriv (rayrrjpias, and 
2 Thess. ii 14 els irepiiroirjtriv 86r)s : in 
each of these places the meaning is 
debated; see Lightfoot on the two 
last (Notes on Epp. pp. 76, 121). 

The passage in Malachi is specially 
important for the determination of 


the meaning in this place. With the 
Hebrew we may compare Exod. xix 5 

ffalD ^ nn w nl, which the LXX ren- 
dered earetrde pot Xaos irfpiovo-ios, in- 
serting Xaos from a recollection of 
Deut. vii 6, xiv 2, xxvi 18. The peri- 
phrasis eaovral juot els irepuroiij<nv is 
Hebraistic; comp. Jer. xxxviii (xxxi) 
33 eaovrai /not els \aovl although in 

Malachi we have nbaD, not n^D7 (as 
in Ps. CXXXV 4 ; els irtpiova-iaa-fiov 
LXX). In i Pet. ii 9 we have Xaos els 
Trepimirjanv, where the passage in 
Exodus is chiefly in mind : and where 
it would seem that Xaos is a reminis- 
cence of the LXX of Exodus, and els 
irepiTToirja-iv of the LXX of Malachi: 
both passages were doubtless very 
familiar. The view that ireparoir)<ris 
had a recognised meaning in con- 
nexion with Israel seems to be con- 
firmed by Isa. xliii 21 'This people 
LXX rendered XaoV /tow bv irepteTrotrjad- 
P.TJV : comp. Acts xx 28 (quoted above). 

Accordingly we may render the 
whole phrase 'unto the redemption 
of God's own possession ', understand- 
ing by this 'the emancipation of God's 
peculiar people'. The metaphor from 
a mercantile transaction has by this 
time been wholly dropped, and the 
Apostle has returned to the phrase- 
ology of the Old Testament. 

The Old Latin rendering is l in 
redemptionem adoptionis'', that of 
the Vulgate f in redemptionem ac- 
qmsitionis'. In i Pet. ii 9 both 
forms of the version have 'populux 
acquisitionis', though Augustine and. 
Ambrose have 'in adoptionem', and 
Hilary 'ad possidendum'. The Pe- 
shito renders 'unto the redemption 
of the saved' (lit. 'of them that live'); 
but Bphraim's commentary makes it 
doubtful whether 'the redemption of 
your possession' was not the render- 
ing of the Old Syriac. Origen and 
Theodore seem to have understood 
TTfptnoiija-is in the sense of God's 
claiming us as His own. The former 


* s Aia TOVTO Kdyto, dicovcras Trjv Ka& vjuees irifTTiv 
ev Tip Kvpita 'If7<rou KCU Ttiv dydirriv els Trai/ras TOVS 

virep v/u<v, fjveav TTOI- 

oi/juei/os 67ri TWV TTjOOtrev^wi/ fjiov, * 7 'iva 6 Beos TOV Kvplov 
'njjiwv 'Irjcrov XpurTOv, 6 TrctTrjp T^S So^s, Swrj V/ULIV 
Trvev/uia a~o<pias Kai aTTOKaXv-^ea)^ ev eTTiyvcacrei avTOV, 

TOUS 6<f)6a\fJLOVS 

15. om &ydirrji> 

(Cramer Catena p. 121) paraphrases, Col. i 4 ri;i jrt'emv v/i<3 eV 

?^a a7ro\vTpa)6<a<Tt KCU rreparoaj6fatri TO 'lytrov. The same loose construction 

&o>: the latter (ibid. p. 122), n)i> Trpos occurs immediately afterwards with 

OUTOV oiKeioxriv \appdveiv. This is no TTJV ayaan)v. Other examples in this 

doubt a possible alternative, and it is epistle are ii n TCL edvij ev o-apni, iv I 

probably the meaning of the Old Lathi o Sco-fitos ev Kvpin: comp. also Phil, i 

rendering. 5 * >7r ^ T fl Koivcovia vpav s TO evayye- 

15 19. 'With all this in mind, the Atoi>, Col. i 8 ryv vp.<v dyamjv ev irvev- 

tidings of your faith which believes part. 

in the Lord Jesus, and your charity 16. pvelav iroiovpevos] The omis- 
wrhich~loves-all-who-share-with-you sion- 

the privilege of God's consecrating irtpl vftav has immediately preceded, 

choice, cannot but stir me to per- has an exact parallel in i Thess. i 2 ev- 

petual thanksgiving on your behalf. xaprrot)/zei>...n-epi irdvrcov vpwv, pveiav 

And in my prayers I ask that the iroiovfj.evoi K.T.\. The meaning is not 

God of our Lord Jesus Christ, His 'remembering' (which would be (IVTJ- 

Pather and ours in the heavenly glory, ftovevovres, comp. i Thess. i 3), but 

may give you His promised gift, the 'making remembrance' or 'mention', 

Spirit of wisdom, who is also the and so ''interceding'. See the de- 

Spirit of revelation, the Unveiler of tached note on current epistolary 

the Mystery. I pray that your heart's phrases. 

eyes may be filled with His light, 17. o 6ebs K.T.X.] These titles are a 

that you may know God with a three- variation upon the titles of the dox- 

fold knowledge that you may know ology in v. 3 o 0ebs KOI irar^p TOV Kvpiov 

what a hope His calling brings ; that rjp&v 'Irja-ov Xpurrov. The fatherhood 

you may know what a wealth of is widened and emphasised, as it is 

glory is laid up in His inheritance again when the prayer is recurred to 

in His consecrated People; that you and expanded in iii 14. 

may know what an immensity charac- aTroKoAityeas] 'ATroKaXu^-t? is the 

terises His power, which goes forth correlative of pv<nyptov: compare iii 

to us who believe'. 3, 5. 

15' TTJV Ka6' vfias 7rtoT*i] A peri- ev emyv<o(ret avTov] 'in the knoiJO- 

phrasis for the more ordinary phrase ledge ofHim > ;-&ot *full' or 'advanced 

TTJV maTiv vfiatv: see in the note on knowledge': see the detached note on 

various readings, where the reading the meaning of eTriyvaxris. 

aycarrjv is discussed. 1 8. ire^xaTia-fievovs rovs o(f)0a\p,ovs 

ev T& Kvpiy 'IJJO-QU] A stricter con- TTJS KapSias vfi&v] literally 'being en- 

struction would require the repetition lightened as to the eyes of your heart'. 

of rr)v before this phrase. But comp. The construction is irregular ; for after 


TO eic'evai u/xas TUS COTTIV >J e\7T Trjs /cX^orews avrov 9 
TK 6 irXovTOS 77/s 5o/s T>/S KXripovojUias avTOv ev TOK 
, * 9 Kai TL TO virepfSaXXov /ueyeBos 

OUTOV els ripcis TOI)S TTKTTevovTas, KCLTO. TY\V evepyeiav 
TOV KpctTOVs Trjs i<r^(vo? ai/ToO, ao j}v evnpyriKev ev Tta 

eyetpas avrov IK veicptSv, KCU KaBicras ev 
avTov ev roZs evrovpavioK "vTrepdvco Tracrt/s we should have expected n-e<o>- ing. ..which JB0 hath wrought' f see 

ria-ftevois : but the sense is plain. detached note on evepyelv and its cog- 

There is an allusion to this passage nates. 

in Clem. Rom. 36, Sta TO^TOV (sc. 'Ljo-ov TOV Kparovs rf}S Ivxyos avrov] The 

Xpurrov) rjveco^a-av jj/za>i> ot o^daXfiol same combination is found in vi 10 

rijs Kapdias- 8ta TOVTOV rj davveros Kal ev8vvap.ova-Qe ev Kvpi<o nal ev T^ Kparei 

ecTKOToofMevr) biavoia T^ dvadc&Xet els rfjs iV^vo? avrov. Comp. also Col. i II 

TO <j)a>s : the former of these sentences ev TTOO-J/ Swapei Swapovpevot Kara TO 

confirms the reading zp6W in this Kparos TTJS 86gijs avrou. With perhaps 

place; the latter recalls at once Bom. i but one exception (Heb. ii 14) the 
21 and Eph. iv 18. __ word_Kparoy_in_the-New-Testament-is- 

!9 23. * The measure of the might only used of the Divine might 
of His strength you may see first of 20. ev rots eirovpaviois] On this ex- 

all in what He has wrought in Christ pression see the note on 0. 3. 
Himself. He has raised Him from 21. vrrepawo] 'above'. The only 

the dead; He has seated Him at His other places in the New Testament 

own right hand in the heavenly region ; in which the word occurs are iv 10 o 

He has made Him supreme above avaftas virepdva* irdvrtov T&V ovpav&v, 

all conceivable rivals, principalities, and Heb. ix 5 virepdvat 8e a^rrjs (sc. rljs 

authorities, powers, lordships, be they Kt/3o>rov) Xepovfielv fid^s. The latter 

what they may, in this world or the passage shews that the duplicated 

next. And, thus supreme, He has form is not intensive; as neither is 

made Him the Head of a Body the its counterpart viroKarm (compare 

Church, which thus supplements and Heb. ii 8=Ps. viii 7 virona. T&V iro- 

completes Him; that so the Christ SowavYoS -with v. 22 of this chapter). 
may have no part lacking, but may We have a striking parallel to the 

be wholly completed and fulfilled'. language of this passage in Philo de 

19. TO V7repfid\\ov p,eye6os\ The SOmn. i 25 (M. p. 644): 'Ep}i/v Se TO 

participle comes again in ii 7 TO vitep- ovap (Gen. xxviii 13) e'<m?ptyn*eW eVe 

jSoXXov TrXovros, and in iii 19 ryv vnep- rfje K\ipaKos TOV ap^ayyeXoi* Kvpiov. 

fta^ovo'avT^syvdta'eoisa.ydinjv. Other- vnepdva> yap <os apfuiTos ^vio^ov ff af 

wise it is only found in 2 Cor. iii IO ve&s KvftepviJTrjv -vird\ijirreov la-raa-dat 

(with 86^a), IX 14 (with xapw). We TO bv Art trtopdrtov, eirl tyvxa>v,...eir 

have the adverb vVep^oXXowwr in dcpo?, eir' ovpavov, eV ala-dijTcov 8vvd- 

2 Cor. xi 23. The noun wrepjSoXi; OC->v, eir dopdrcav (pvo-etov, otrcmep 

curs seven times in St Paul's epistles, Qeara KOI ddeara. TOV yap 

but not elsewhere in the New Testa- cm-ami tyas cavrov nal 

ment. T^V Toa-aimjv ijvioxel <pv<riv. 

evepyeiav...rjv ev^pyrjKev\ l theiaork- Trderrjs dpxrjs K.T.X.] 'every 

I 22] 



eov<rias Kal Svi/a/uews Kal KvpioTrjTos Kal Travros ovo- 
JUUITOS ovoiuLatyfJievov ov JJLOVOV ev alcovi TOVTW d\Xa 
Kal ev TtS fJLeX\ovTf M KeaV TTANTA ynerASeN fad "rote TTO'AAC 

polity', &c. The corresponding list 
in Col. i 1 6, where the words are in 
the plural (tire Qpovoi evre Kvpiorrfres 
evre dpxal evre eou<ruu), shews that 
these are concrete terms. Otherwise 
we might render 'all rule' &c. "We 
have the plurals apxai and egovo-itu 
below in iii 10 and vi 12. On these 
terms see Lightfoot Colossians, loc. 
cit. Although the Apostle in writing 
to the Oolossians treats them with 
something like scorn, yet his refer- 
ences to them in this epistle shew 
that he regarded them as actually 
existent and uitelhgent forces, if in 
part at any rate opposed to the Divine 
will. In the present passage, how- 
-ever,~they are-mentioned~only to-em= 
phasise the exaltation of Christ. 

iravros ovopaTos ovofia&ntvov] For 
Svofia in the sense of a 'title of rank' 
or * dignity ', see Lightfoot on Phil, ii 
9 : and compare i Clem. 43, T$ ev86ga) 
ovofMTi (sc. rrjs iep<a<rivT]s) KeKoa-p.^- 
pevrj, and 44, ol dn-ooroXot r)fi&v eyva>- 
O-CIV...OTI epis earai eir\ rov ovoftaros 
Trjs ema-Koirijs. Among the Oxyrhyn- 
chus Papyri (Grenfell and Hunt, 
pt i no. 58) is a complaint (A.D. 288) 
of the needless multiplication of of- 
ficials: n-oXXol j8ouXo/i>ot ras rafjuaKas 
ova-ias KceretrQieiv ovofiara eavrois e|eu- 
povres, ol (j&v x ei P l < rr <*> v ) ol 8e ypafipa- 
retov, ol 8e (ppovTicrrcoVf K.T.X., closing 
with, the order: TCI 8e \onra ovo^ara 

In the New Testament HTil ? s 
represented by 6 ala>v OVTOS again in 
Luke xvi 8, xx 34, Rom. xii 2, i Cor. 
i 20, ii 6, 8, iii 1 8, 2 Cor. iv 4; by d 
ala>v 6 eVeorws in Gal. i 4 ; by o vvv 
almv in the Pastoral Epistles, i Tim. 
vi 17, 2 Tim. iv 10, Tit. ii 12: and 
also by 6 Koa-pas OVTOS in i Cor. iii 19, 
v 10, vii 31, and in the Johannine 
writings, in which alvv only occurs in 
the phrases els rbv al&va, c roO al&vos 
(or in the plural, as in Apoc.). In 
the same sense we often have o alcov 
or , ^ jugt ^ ^ ^ f 


ITflpTOf. We ma 7 compare also o 
frnpos OVTOS, Mark x 30 (= Luke xviii 

ii-^j-o-i'Si'-Kaipoy,- Rom 
J ^j ^-'5 > an ^ 6 tempos 6 eW- 
Heb. ix 9. 

On * ne otner hand the words KO- 
<7 7 iOS an< i xtupos cannot enter into the 

ev TO> alS>vi .r.X.] The same con- 
trast is found in Matt, xii 32 ofoe Iv 
rouro) T<5 ala>vi ovre ev T& p,e\\ovri. 
It is the familiar Rabbinic contrast 
between ntn D?iy, the present age, 
and Kin tkw, the age to come. Dal- 
man, who fully discusses these terms 
(Die Worte Jesu I I2on'.), declares 
that there is no trace of them in pre- 
Christian Jewish literature. 

representation of N2PI Q>iy. For this 
we have o alwv o pe\\a>v again in Heb. 
vi 5 (Svvapeis re /ie'XAozros aloovos); 6 
alaiv 6 epxopevos in Mark X 30 and the 
parallel Luke xviii 30 ; d alatv eKeives in 
Luke xx 35. We may note however 
rfv oiKovpevrjv rrjv p\\ov(rav in Heb. 
ii 5. . 

We have below in this epistle the 
remarkable phrases o al&v TOV Koa-fiov 
TOVTOV in ii 2, and of al&ve s ol cirepxo- 
fievoi in ii 7. 

22. KOI TTO.VTO. /c.r.X.] An allusion 
to Ps. viii 7 ^avra wrera^as viroKarta 
r&v irodav avrov, which is quoted so 
from the LXX in Heb. ii 8. A similar 
allusion is made in I Cor. XV 27 iravra 
yap vmragcv vrrb roi>s ir68as avrov. 
With the whole context compare 
i Pet. iii 22 8s ecmv ev 8egtq 0eov 
iropevdeis els ovpavbv vsroraylvTatv avT$ 
a-yyeXeoj' Kal cov<rinv Kal 8vvdfie<ov, 
which is plainly dependent on this 


AYTOY, Kai avTOV eScoicev ice(f>a\ijv virep TrdvTa Ttj e 
<ria, * Z I^TK <TTIV TO arcafJLa OVTOV, TO TrXqpwfjia TOV 

ev TTaariv 7T\f]pov]ULevov. II. x Ka upas OVTCLS 

iravra] repeats the iravra of sense. St Paul does indeed speak of 

the quotation, which itself points back Christ as ascending 'that He might 

to ira<rr)s...iravros in v. 21. fill all things' ; but then he uses the 

23. TO irKriptafia K.T.X.] ' the fid- active voice, Iva TrXj/paoT/ ra iravra 

ness (or fulfilment) of Him who (iv 10). Had his meaning been the 

att in all is being filled (or fid- same here, we can hardly doubt that 

fitted} '. On the meaning of TrX^poyta, he would have said -irkrjpovvros. 

see the detached note. The passive sense is supported by 

TO iravra ev iraa-tv] The phrase is the early versions, (i) The Latin. 

used adverbially. It is more emphatic Cod. Claromont. has supplementum 

than the classical adverb iravraircunv, qui omnia et in omnibus impletur. 

which does not occur in the New The usual Latin is plenitudo eius qui 

Testament. It is found, though not omnia in omnibus adimpletur: so 

adverbially, in i Cor. xii 6 o avrbs Victorinus, Ambrosiaster and the 

&os, o evepy&v TO iravra ev iramv Vulgate. (2) The Syriac. The 

(where however ev iraa-iv may mean Peshito indeed gives an active mean- 

'in all men') ; and as a predicate in ing : but we have evidence that the 

iracriv, and with a slight variation in Peshito was a revision, took the word 

CoL iii ii a\Xa iravra not ev ira<riv as passive; for it is so taken in 

Xptorof. In each of the last two Ephraim's commentary, which is pre- 

cases there is some evidence for served in an Armenian translation. 

reading TO iravra : but the absence of (3) The Egyptian. Both the Bohairic 

the article is natural in the predicate, and the Sahidic take the verb in the 

This use of the phrase as applied to passive sense. 

God and to Christ makes it the more Origen and Chrysostom gave a pas- 

appropriate here. St Paul uses sive sense to the participle (see the 

iravra adverbially in i Cor. ix 25, x 33 citations in the footnote to the expo- 

(le&vra iraanv apeo-ao), xi 2, Phil, iv sition). So did Theodore, though his 

13; and likewise TO, irwrra in this interpretation is involved: he says 

epistle iv 15 ira...aOi70-jteieisai>Tw (Cramer Catena, p. 129) owe elirev on 

TO, irdvra, an important parallel. TO iravra 7X17/301, aXX* OTI auros ev TfafTi 

TrXi/pou/tei/ou] There is no justifica- ir^jpovraf Towetmv, ev irao-i irXqprjs 

tion for the rendering 'fofit.fillPth all eariv K.T.X. The Latin commentators 

injalllA,V.). The only ancient version had adimpletur, and could not give 

which gives this interpretation is the any other than a passive meaning. 

Syriac Vulgate. In English it ap- II. i, 2. ' Next, you may see that 

pears first in Tyndale's translation power as it has been at work in your- 

(1534). The chief instances cited for selves. You also it has raised from 

irK-npovvQai as middle are those in the dead. For you were dead not 

which a captain is said to man his with a physical death such as was the 

ship (vavv 7r\Tipov<r0ai), i.e. ' to get it death of Christ, but dead in your sins. 

filled'. But this idiomatic use of the Your former life was a death rather 

middle (comp. iraida 8i8do-ite(rdai) than a life. You shaped your con- 

affords no justification for taking it duct after the fashion of the present 

here in what is really the active world, after the will of the power 


rots 7rapa7TTwiJLa(riv Ka rais juiapTiaK 

als TTore irepiCTraTiicrare Kara TOV auSva TOV KOO-JUIOV 

that dominates it Satan and his un- writings another word takes its place, 

seen satellites the inspiring force of namely iropfveo-dai a word also 

those who refuse obedience to God'. used four times in this sense by St 

i. vfKpovs roTsfl-apfwmo/LitMru'] 'You Luke (Luke i 6 ; viii 14, a noteworthy 

were dead not indeed with a physi- place; Acts ix 31, xiv 16) : but 

cal death; but yet really dead in neither St Paul nor St John em- 

virtue of your trespasses and sins', ploys this word so. 

The dative is not properly instru- This metaphor of 'walking' or 

mental (if the meaning had been 'going' is not Greek, but Hebrew in 

'put to death by', we should have its origin. It is in harmony with the 

had veveKpapevovs), but is attached to fact that from the first Christianity 

the adjective by way of definition, was proclaimed as a Way (Acts ix 2, 

The dative in Col. ii 14, TO KO&' rjfi&v xviii 25, 26, &c.). 

Xeipoypa^ov rois 8oy/ia<rti/,is somewhat There are two words which express 

similar. In the parallel passage the same idea from the Greek point. 

CoL ii 13, veKpovt ovras rois -irapcarrto- of view: (i) TroAireveo-tfat, a 

fiaa-iv Kal rfj aKpoftvoTiq rfjs aapKos characteristically Greek expression: 

vfji&v, it is clear that the uncircum- for conduct to a Greek was mainly a 

ision~is"ni5t~thiB~instrument"of~deatlc questfon~~of"relation~to~the-State-rso- 

We cannot render the dative better Acts' xxiii i ey<o vaxrg 

than by the preposition e in\ dyadfi ireno\ireviMi T< 0e<p, and 

2. TTcpieiraTqa-are] Hepiirarelv is Phil, i 27 povov dioos TOV evayyeXiov 

used to express a manner of life only TOV Xpt orou ito\iTeveo-6e. (2) dvao-rpe- 

once in the Synoptic Gospels, viz. in <peo-dat (once in 2 Cor.,Eph., i Tim. ; 

Mark vii 5 ov nepuraTovo'cv...KaTa, TTJV twice in Heb.; once in i Pet., 2 Pet), 

irapdBocriv T&V irpeo'pvTepa>v. It is with its noun dvaaTpo(p^ (once in Gal., 

similarly used once in the Acts (xxi Eph., i Tim., Heb., Jas. ; six times in 

21, TOIS eOeo-iv irepiirareiv), and once in I Pet., twice in 2 Pet.). 

the Epistle to the Hebrews (xiii 9, While we recognise the picturesque 

/Spoyiacru', ev ols OVK co(pe\.^6r)(rav ol metaphor involved in the use of 

irepnrarovvTfs). These three instances irepmaTeiv for moral conduct, we must 

refer to the regulation of life in not suppose that it was consciously 

accordance with certain external present to the Apostle's mind when- 

ordinances. They do not refer to ever he used the word. Here, for 

general moral conduct. This latter example, it is clearly synonymous 

sense is found in the New Testament with ai>a<n-pe'$r&u, which he employs 

only in the writings of St Paul and in the parallel phrase of v. 3. 

St John. Thus it occurs twice in Kara TOV al&vd TOV noafiav rovrou] 

St John's Gospel (the metaphor of This is a unique combination of two 

'walking' being strongly felt), and phrases, each of which is frequently 

ten times in his Epistles. It is found in St Paul's writings o almv 

specially frequent in St Paul's OVTOS and o noa-pos OVTOS : see the note 

writings, being found in every epistle, on i 21. The combination of syn- 

if we except the Pastoral Epistles, onyms for the sake of emphasis 

It occurs seven times in this epistle. may be illustrated by several phrases 

It is not found in i Peter, 2 Peter, of this epistle : i 5 KOTO. TTJV 

Jude or the Apocalypse : in these TOV df^fiaTos avroC, 1 1 KOTO. 



[II 2 

K.O.TO, TOV ap%ovTa Ttjs e^ovcrias TOV ae/flos, TOV 
TOV vvv evepyovvTos ev TOK viols Ttjs cwret- 

fiov\r)v TOV 6e\jpMTos avYov, 19 itarA of evil: c. 7, '"We ascended into the 
rf/v evepyeuiv TOV Kpdrovs Ts fovos firmament... and there I beheld Sam- 

avTovjVr 23 T< irvcviMTi TOV vobs vftov. mael[ who elsewhere (c. i) isidentified 
KOTO. TOV apxovra] The Apostle with Malkira, 'the prince of evil'] 
takes term after term from the and his powers', &c. There can be 
current phraseology, and adds them no doubt, however, that the air was 
together to bring out his meaning, regarded by the Jews, as well as by 
Compare with the whole of this others, as peopled by spirits, and 
passage, both for style and for more especially by evil spirits. Corn- 
subject matter, vi 12 npos TOS dpxds, pare Philo de gigant. 2 (Mangey, 
?rpop TOS e|ovo-/ar, irpos TOVS KOfffto- x p. 263), ovs aXXot 0{XoVo</>< 
fcparopas TOU OTCOTOVS TOVTOW, irpbs TO ayyeXous M.O>VCTTJS euadev 
irvev[j.aTiKa TTJS itovrfpias ev TO"IS eirov- i/a^at $* e ^~ t KOTO TOV depa 
paviois. There he represents his and more especially in his exposition 
readers as struggling against the of Jacob's Dream (de somn. i 22, 
world-forces, in accordance with which p. 641): KX!/uz| rolwv ev pev T<5 
their former life, as here described, 
had been lived. 

With the term 6 ap^anv K.T.X. com- dirb yap TTJS o~e\r}viaKr)s vfpaipas ... 

pare Mark iii 22 (Matt. ix^M)-e-Tp yrjs 

Ufjujvicav, and Matt, xii 24 OVTOS de eori tyvx&v do~a>pdTO>v OIKOS, 
(Luke xi 15) ev T$ Beefe/SouX apxovri 
8aip,ovia>v. also John xii 31 o 
TOU Kocr/iov TovToUj xiv 30, 
xvi ii. The plural 01 apxovre? TOV 
al&vos TOVTOV is found in i Cor. ii 6, 8, 
apparently in a similar sense. In 
2 Cor. iv 4 we read of o 6ebs TOV oZdSi/os 

o-upfto\iK&s Xeyerat 6 ai\p t ov 
eWi 7^, Kopv<j>ff 8e ovpavos 

K.T.X. For the Palestinian doctrine 
of evil spirits reference may be made 
to the instructive chapter Die Sunde 
und die Damanen in Weber Altsyn. 
Theol. pp. 242 ff. ; see also Thackeray, 
as referred to in the note on p. 133 
above. In a curious passage in 
Athanasius, de incarn. 25, our Lord's 

egova-las TOV depos] Compare crucifixion is regarded as purifying 
Col. i 1 3 os epvVaTo ij/uis 6K TJ/y egovo-ias the air: povos yap ev T$ depi TIS 
, and Acts xxvi 18 TOV 

CTTO O~KOTOVS CIS <^fflff Kal 

rijs eovcrias TOV ^arava eirl TOV deov : 
also our Lord's words to those who 
arrested Him, Luke xxii 53 oXX' 



cariv vp&v fj Spa Kal q covo~ia 


dirodvqo~Kei oravprn 
8ib Kal fiicoT&s TOVTOV virepeivev 6 
Kvpios' ovTto yap v^fcadels TOV fiev depa 
eKadapiev diro TC lys 8iafto\iK^s nal 
JTOOTJS TV 8cufj.6v<ov em^ovX^s, *c.r.X. 

TOV irvevpaTos] We should have 
expected rather TO irvevpa., hi apposi- 
In the Testaments of the Twelve tion with TOJ apxovra. It may be 
Patriarchs (Benj. 3) we have vrrb TOV that this was the Apostle's meaning-, 
deploy irvcvfiMTos TOV BeXtqp : .but we and that the genitive is due to an un- 
cannot be sure that this language is conscious assimilation to the genitives 
independent of the present passage, which immediately precede. If this 
The same must be said of the con- explanation be not accepted, we must 
ception of the firmament in the regard TOV wvevfMTos as in apposition 
Ascension of Isaiah, as a region with T^S fgowias and governed by 
between the earth and the first TOV apxovra. In i Cor. ii 12 we find 
heaven, filled with conteuding spirits TO irvevpa TOV KOO-/ZOV opposed to TO 

II 3] 



*ev ols Kat f/juas Wi/res di/60"Tpa<jN;/*e// TTOTB ev 
K eiriBvfjiicus Trjs (rapicds tyjuoh/, TTOIOVVT&S TO. 6e\nfj.aTa 
T/S (rapicos Kal Ttav Siavoiwv, Kal fifJieOa TeKva (pvarei 

itvevfM rb e< rov 0eov. But we have 
no parallel to the expression TQV 
apXovra...Tov irvevfiaTos K.T.A. 

TOW vvv evepyovvros] So 'this world' 
is spoken of as 6 vvv alcov in i Tim. vi 
17, 2 Tim. iv 10, Tit ii 12. The word 
evcpyelv, like the word irvevpa, seems 
purposely chosen in order to suggest 
a rivalry with the Divine Spirit: see 
the detached note on evepyelv. 

3 7. 'Not that we Jews were in 
any better case. We also lived in 
sin, following the dictates of our 
lower desires. We, no less than the 
Gentiles, were objects in ourselves of 
the Divine wrath. In ourselves, I 
say: but the merciful God has not 
"left us to ourselves; Dead as we 

vened the neuter is more natural; 
and that the word 7rapairr< was 
principally present to the Apostle's 
mind is shown by the omission of Kal 
Tats d/iaprtatff when the phrase is 
repeated. The change from irepara- 
Tfiv to dvaoTpetpeffdat (on these syno- 
nyms see the note on v. 2) does not 
help to justify the supposed change 
in the meaning of the preposition : for 
dva(rrpe(f)(rdai and dvaffTpofpr] are 
frequently followed by ev to denote 
condition or circumstances. 
For the working out of the parallel, 

were, Gentiles and Jews alike, He 
has quickened us with Christ, Grace, 
free grace, has saved you ! and raised 
us with Him, and seated us with Him 
in the heavenly sphere : and all this, 
in Christ Jesus. For His purpose has 
been to display to the ages that are 
yet to come the surpassing wealth of 
His grace, in the goodness shewn 
toward us in Christ Jesus'. 

3. ev ols Kal jjjttets] 'wherein we 
also': so the Latin 'in quibus' as in 
v. 2, not 'inter qws'. At first sight 
it seems as though ev of? must be 
rendered as ' among whom', i.e. 
'among the sous of disobedience'. 
But the parallel which the Apostle is 
drawing is brought out more forcibly 
by the rendering 'wherein'. Thus 
We have (v. l) v^as ovras VCKpoiis TOIS 
irapairrofia.a'iv Kal rats d/xaprtats vpuv, 
ev als Trore 7repte7raT7/o-are...(0. 3) ev ols 
Kal i/jueis Trdvres dveo~Tpd(f>T)p:ev wore... 
(v. 5) /cal ovras ypHs veitpovs TOIS irapa- 
irTcopao-iv. That the relative is in the 
first instance in the feminine is merely 
due to the proximity of d/tapnats. 
After the sentence which has inter- 

compare -.11, 
ev a> Kal u/ms, and ii 21, 22 ev o> irao~a 
oiKo8onij...v o> Kal vfjie'is owotKodo/x- 
-firde. In~the~present~instance the 
parallel is yet further developed by 
the correspondence of ev TOIS viols TTJS 
direidias (v. 2) and tfpeda reuva (pvo~ei 
opyfis (ft 3). 

ev TUIS emOvfitais] The preposition 
here has the same sense as in the 
phrase ev ols K.T.X.; so that the latter 
of the two phrases is to be regarded 
as an expansion of the former. 

ra 6e\^fiara\ The plural is found 
in Acts xiii 22, and as a variant in 
Mark iii 35. 

TV oWotuz'] 'our minds'. With 
this and with TTJS a-apKos we must supply 
qpv } which was used with TTJS a-apKos 
at its first mention and therefore is 
not repeated. For the rendering 
'thoughts' no parallel is to be found 
in the New Testament. In Luke 151 
Siavoia KapSlas OVT&V means strictly 
'the mind of their heart'; comp. 
i Chron. xxix 18. In the LXX we 
usually find napdia as the rendering 
of 2? (33?) ; but 38 times we have 
Stdvoia, which is only very exceptionally 
used to represent any other word. 
That the plural is used only in the 
case of diavoi&v is due to the impos- 


opyfjs Js Kal ol \oi7Toi' 4 6 Se 6eos irAotfcrcos tov ev eXeei, 
Ttjv 7ro\\rlv drya,7rir\v avTov iji/ jfycwrtycrej/ tyjuas, 5 Kal 

oi/ras qjjLCK veKpovs rots TrapaTTTcofAafrtv 

l (rvveKaSurev ev rots eTrovpavioK ev Xpi<rTt3 'Itjcrov, 
Sei^tjTai ev TOIS aiwtrw rots eTrep^ofJievoK TO 
V7repj3d\\ov TT\OVTOS T^S j(dpiTO$ avTov ev xprja'TOTrjTi 
e<f) qjuids ev XpicrTtS s \ri(rov. 8 Ty yap -^dpiTi ea~Te <re<ra)- 
Sid TricrTew Kal TOVTO OVK e vfji&v, Beov TO 

sibility of saying rSv aapn&v in such a although avv Xptcrrw is implied by the 

context. preceding verbs: for & XpwrnS 'fycrov 

TfKva...opyfis\ In Hebraistic phrases states the relation in the completest 

of this kind TCKVU and viol are used form, and accordingly the Apostle 

indifferently as representatives of *33 : repeats it again and again (w. 7, 10). 
compare ii 2, v 8. 7. ev^ei^rai] 'shew forth 1 . The 

j <v'o-] 'ty nature', in the sense of word is similarly used in Rom. ix 22 

ffm ourselves'. Other examples of el 8e Qku>v 6 fobs evfteigao-dai TTJV 
ihis adverbial use__are-JBoin.-ii 14 opyjv, where- it ^is-suggested 

orav yap edw]...<j>v<rei TO. rov vofiov citation in v. 17 of Ex. ix 16 airos 

' iroico<riv, Gal. ii 15 ijp-eis (pvtrei 'lov- ev8eiga>pai ev trol TTJV 8vvapiv p.ov. 
80101, iv 8 rots <j)V(rei pf) ovariv Qeois. ^PJ/OTOTTTTI] 'Mndness', or t ffOod- 

5. <rweaxmobi<rcv] The word oc- ness'. The word is used of the Divine 
curs only here and in Col. ii 13, kindness in Rom. ii 4 rod IT\OVTOV rfjs 
(rvvefaoTroiriarfV vftas vvv avrto. The xf n J" r rr l' ros OVTOV, and in Rom. XI 22, 
thought there expressed makes it where it is contrasted with an-oro/ua : 
plain that r<5 xP iarr V ^ s ^ e right also in Tit. iii 4, where it is linked 
reading here, and not ev r<5 xP ltrr & with <j)i\avdpanria: compare also Luke 
as is found in B and some other vi 35 on avrbs xP r )^ r os cvriv K.T.\. 
authorities. The mistake has arisen 8 10. 'Grace, I say, free grace has 
from a dittography of CN. saved you, grace responded to by 

xaptrt] In pointed or proverbial faith. It is not from yourselves that 

expressions the article is by preference this salvation comes : it is a gift, and 

omitted. When the phrase, which is the gift is God's. Merit has no part 

here suddenly interjected, is taken up in it : boasting is excluded. It is He 

again and dwelt upon in v. 8, we have thathathmadeus,andnotweoufs"elves: 

777 yap xapiri K.T.\. He has created us afresh in Christ 

6. avvrfyeipev Kal ovveKadurevl i.e., Jesus, that we may do good works 
' together with Christ', as in the case which He has made ready for our 
of ovvewoiroir)(rev just before. So in doing. Not of works, but unto works, 
Col. ii 12, (rvvrafyevres avT<p...<rvvriyep- is the Divine order of our salvation'. 
Gyre. The compound verbs echo the 8. Kal TOVTO] 'and that\ as in 
eyetpas and Ka6l<ras of i 20. Rom. xiti II neat TOVTO eifiores rov 

ev rots eirovpavloif] Compare i 3, Kaipov. It is a resumptive expression, 

20. This completes the parallel with independent of the construction. It 

the exaltation of Christ. 'Ev Xpurr$ may be pleaded that, as 8ia irioreas 

S is added, as ev Xpwrry in i 3, is an important element, added to the 


9 ovK e epytav, iva JJL^ TK Kav^tj(rtjTai. xo avrov 

yap earjuev iroitijuia, KTicrOevTes ev XpurT<5 'Iqcrov eirl 
epyois dya6oK oh TrporjToi/uuxrei/ 6 6eos 'Iva ev 


AtO fJLVt]jULOj/eVT OTL 7TOT6 VJUieTs TO. eQw\ GV 

phrase of v. 5 when that phrase is re- n 18. 'Remember what you 

peated, KatToCro should be interpreted were: you, the Gentiles since we 

as specially referring to iri<ms. The must speak of distinctions in the 

difference of gender is not fatal to flesh the Uncircumcision as opposed 

such a view: but the context demands to the Circumcision. Then, when 

the wider reference ; more especially you were without Christ, you were 

the phrase owe e| epycov shews that aliens and foreigners; you had no 

the subject of the clause is not 'faith', share in the privileges of Israel ; you 

but 'salvation by grace'., were in the world with no hope, no 

deov TO daipov] Literally l God's is God. Now all is changed: for you 

the gffi', deov being the predicate, are in Christ Jesus : and accordingly, 

But this is somewhat harsh as a though you were far off, you are made 

rendering; and the sense is sufficiently near by the covenant-blood of Christ. 

given in our English version; 'it is For it is He who is our peace. He 

ttie giffi~of~God,\ has made~"the~~two parts one whole 

10. TroirjfjLo] The word occurs He has broken down the balustrade 

again in the New Testament only in that was erected to keep us asunder : 

Bom. i 20 TOIS iroiijp,aa-iv voovfteva He has ended in His own person the 

Kadoparm. We have no single word hostility that it symbolised : He has 

which quite suitably renders it: abrogated the legal code of separating 

'workmanship' is a little unfortunate, ordinances. For His purpose was by 

as suggesting a play upon 'works', a new creation to make the two men 

which does not exist in the Greek. one man in Himself; and so not only 

eirl epyoit aya6ois\ 'with a vieio to to make peace between the two, but 

good works'. Compare i Thess. iv 7 to reconcile both in one body to God 

oS yap eiai\eo-ev was 6 debs eirl ouiaBap- through the cross, by which He killed 

o-t'a, and Gal. v 1 3 vpels yap eir eXevdepia, the old hostility. And He came with 

eVeAT/^re. See also Wisd. ii 23 o 0ebs the Gospel of peace peace to far and 

eKTurev rbv avdpatirov eV dtydapcrla, near alike : not only making the two 

Ep. ad Diognet. 7 TOUT-OP irpbs OVTOVS near to each other, but giving them 

dire(rri\ev ' apa ye, as dvdptoirav av ris both in one Spirit access to the 

Xoyiomro, eirl rvpawiSt KOI $o/3<a nal Father'. 

KOTaTrX^'lei; The interval between this n. vpeis TO eQvrf] The term 'Gen- 

usage and the idiom by which em with tiles', which has been implied in vpeis 

a dative gives the condition of a so often before, is now for the first 

transaction is bridged by such a phrase time expressly used. In an instructive 

as we find, for example, in Xenoph. article On some political terms em- 

Memorab. 144 irpeirei pep TO eir' ployed in the New Testament (Class. 

<o'<jeA'a yiyvofieva yvmprjs eivai epya. Rev. vol. i pp. 4 ff., 42 ff.) Canon E. L. 

019 irpoijToifiaa-ev] by attraction for Hicks says (p. 42) : '"Edvos, the corre- 

airporjToiiiaa-ev. The verb is found in lative of Xao? in the mouth of Hellen- 

Rom. ix 23, eirl o-KevT) eXeovs, a irpo- istic Jews, was a word that never had 

els 86av. any importance as a political term 


ol Xeydftevoi aKpoftvo-Tia VTTO Ttjs \e.^ofj.evn^ 
ev crapKi ^etjOOTrowfrov, 12 orf fjre TtS Kaipia 

XpuTTov a7Tf/AAoT|Otft)juei/oi Ttjs jrokjureias TOV 

until after Alexander. It was when rrjs Xeyopevrjs] This is directly 

Hellenism pushed on eastward, and suggested by ol\ey6pcvoi. The Apostle 

the policy of Alexander and his sue- may have intended to suggest that 

cessors founded cities as outposts of he himself repudiated both terms 

trade and civilization, that the con- alike. In Rom. ii 28 f. he refuses to 

trast was felt and expressed between recognise the mere outward sign of 

TroXfty and Wvrj. Hellenic life found circumcision: ov8e r/ ev r<5 (pavepa ev 

its normal type in the TroXts, and <rapKin-eptro/xi)'aXXoi...7reptro|ui^Kapdras 

barbarians who lived Kara Kw/xar or in ev irvevpari, ov ypapiwri. He thus 

some less organised form were edvij '. claims the word, as it were, for higher 

He refers to Droysen Hettenismus uses; as he says of the Gentiles them- 

iii i, pp. 31 f. for illustrations, and selves in Col. ii ii,7repierp,jdr)Teircpi- 

mentions among others Polybius vii 9, TO/HJ axcipojroiqT<p...ev -ry ireptropfi rov 

where ir6\fis and edmj are repeatedly xP l<rr V' 

contrasted. The word fdvrj was thus x el P OJroil l TOV ] This is the only place 

ready to hand when the LXX came to where this word occurs in St Paul's 

express the invidious sense of D'lJ, epistles. 

-which-is-found-so-commonly hHDeu= 2~<3orrv~r~6/av 

teronomy, the Psalms and the Pro- ev rois ovpavols, and in Col. ii n 

phets. It is curious that, while St (quoted above). It serves to empha- 

Paul freely employs edvr], he never sise the transience of the distinction, 

uses the contrasted term Xaos, except though it casts no doubt on the validity 

where he is directly referring to a of it while it lasted, 

passage of the Old Testament. 12. x^P's] ' without', or ' apart 

ev o-apKt] The addition of these from'. St Paul does not use oWv, 

words suggests the external and tern- which is found only in Matt, x 29 

porary nature of the distinction. For avev TOV irarpbs vpv, in an inter- 

their position after ro edvrj see the polation into Mark xiii 2 avev x ft P& v ) 

note on i 15. Here it was perhaps and twice in i Peter, where x<ap!s is 

unavoidable: for ra ev a-apKi edvrj or not used. It is usual to take xupl? 

ra effvij TO. ev vapid would suggest the Xpiorov as a predicate and to place a 

existence of another class of e6m\: comma after it. This is perfectly 

whereas the meaning is 'those who permissible: but the parallel between 

are the Gentiles according to a dis- ro> icaipm eKeivy ^copts XptoroC and vwl 

tinction which is in the flesh'. Sinai- fieevXpiorS'Lyo-oi} makes it preferable 

larly we have -njs \eyop,4vr]s irepiToprjs to regard the words as the condition 

ev aapKi. which leads up to the predicates which 

ol Xe-yo/xeyot] 'which are called', follow. 

The phrase is not depreciatory, as dmfiXorpuoiievoi] The Apostle seems 

'the so-called' would be in English. tohaveinmindPs.lxviii(lxix)9amjX- 

The Jews called themselves ij irepi- \orpuofi*vos eyevjdrjv (*n^Pl It-ID) rots 

TO/IT;, and called the Gentiles T; anpo- d8e\<f>ois /tov, Kal evos rots vlots rijt 

jSvorto. St Paul does not here use p/rpos p.ov. This will account for his 

the latter name, which 'was one of choice of a word which does not appear 

contempt; but he cites it as used to be a term of Greek civic life. Its 

by others. ordinary use is either of the alienation 


*l<rparj\ Kal evoi Ttav ^LaBviKwv Ttjs ewcf/yeAices, e\7rioa 
] e%ovTes Kal aOeoi ev T Kooyxo). I3 vvvi Se ev 

of property, or of alienation of feeling : that I have no share in the aforesaid 

the latter sense prevails in Col. i 21, ttal grinding-machine, but am a stranger 

vpas wore ovras dm/XXorpuajucVovf Kal and alien therefrom (dXXa evov fie 

cxjQpovs TV diavoiq ...... ajroicar>;AXaei>, eivai Kal aXXorpioy aur^y)'. 

where estrangement from God is in row diafyxtiv] The plural is found 

question. The participial sense is also in Bom. ix 4 <ui> diadrjum. 

not to be pressed : strictly speaking For the covenant with Abraham, see 

the Gentiles could not have been alien- Gen. xvii 7; for the covenant with 

ated from the sacred commonwealth the People under Moses, see Exod. 

of which they had never been members, xxiv 8. 

The word is used almost as a noun, TTJS eWyyeAi'a?] Comp. i 13 and 

as may be seen from its construction Hi 6, where the Gentiles are declared 

with ovres in iv 18 and in CoL i 21. to share in the Promise through 

So too here we have 3 ?frc..,onrt}\- Christ. 

Xorp(o/teVoi...KalcVo(. It thus scarcely \m8a pf] cxovrcs] The same phrase, 

differs from dXXorpto? : comp. Clem, in a more restricted sense, occurs in 

Bom. 7, of the Mlnevites, cXaftov o-owi/- i Thess. iv. 13 Kudos Kal ol Xonrol ol py 

piav, Kaiirep dXXdrptot row 0eov owes. exovres e\iri8a. Christ as 'the hope* 

TroXwems] * commonwealth ', or of the Gentiles was foretold by the 
olity'-* In the-only-other-place prophets~(Isa. xi 10, xlii 4; comp. 

where the word occurs in the New Bom. xv 12 and Matt, xii 21), and was 

Testament, Acts xxii 28, it is used of the 'secret' or 'mystery' entrusted 

the Boman citizenship. In later to St Paul (Col. i 27). 

Greek it was commonly used for adcoi] The word does not occur 

* manner of life': compare iroXtrev- elsewhere in the whole of the Greek 

ccrdai, and see the note on itepmarflv Bible. It is used here not as a term 

in ii 2. In this sense it is taken here of reproach, but as marking the 

by the Latin version, which renders mournful climax of Gentile disability. 

it by ' conuersatio'. But the contrast 'ev T$ Koa-fj.^] These words are not 

in v. 19 (crvwroXmu) is decisive against to be taken as a separate item in the 

this view. description: but yet they are not 

gcvot] The use of givos with a otiose. They belong to the two pre- 

.genitive is not common : Soph. Oed. ceding terms. The Gentiles were in 

Rex 219 f. and Plato Apol. i (%vu>s the world without a hope and with no 

eX etv ) are cited. Here the construe- God: in the world, that is, with no- 

tion is no doubt suggested by the thing to lift them above its material- 

genitive after aTn/XAorpioyieVoi. In ising influences. 

Clem. Bom. i we have a dative, T?)S St Paul uses the word Koo-p-os with 

re dXXorpt'as KM gtvqs row eVcXrois various shades of meaning. The fun- 

ToO 0fov, fuapas Kal dvoo-iov crrdcreoos : damental conception is that of the 

on which Lightfoot cites Clem. Horn. ojAwja^d_jer4eK.jof. r ,things^ .considered 

vi 14 air d\r]0eias a\\orpiav ovvav Kal more especially in .^relation _^to jtnan, 

.gfwiv. In the papyrus of 348 A.D., IFls rarely found without any moral 

cited above on i n, the sister who reference, as in phrases of time, Bom. 

has taken the \i6os o-iroKwrnjs as her i 20, Eph. i 4, or of place, Bom. i 8, 

share of the inheritance declares that Col. i 6. But the moral reference is 

she has no claim whatever on the often quite a general one, with no 

'hereby I admit suggestion of evil: as in i Cor. vii 31 



[II 14 

v v/iels o'l TTOTC OVT&S M & K p & N eyw;0t/Te e r r Y c 

TftJ aifJLClTl TOV %pl(rTOV. 


TOV Koo-fiov, 2 Cor. i 12 aw- 
trrpd(f)T)/ji.ev ev T& Ko'oyio), irepuro-orcptos 
fie if pot vfias. In the phrase o Koo-fios 
ovros there is however a suggestion 
of opposition to the true order: see 
the note on i 21. Again, aovpos is 
used of the whole world of men in 
contrast with the elect people of 
Israel, Bom. iv 13, xi 12, 15. The 
world, as in opposition to God, falls 
under the Divine judgment, Rom. iii 
6, 19, i Cor. xi 32: 'the saints shall 
judge the world', i Cor. vi 2. Yet 
the world finds reconciliation with 
God in Christ, 2 Cor. v 19. In three 
passages St Paul uses the remarkable 
expression TO. crot^eTa TOU icocr/iov, of 
age until they were delivered by 
Christ, Gal. IV 3, Col. ii 8, 2O. In 
the last of these passages the expres- 
sion is followed by a phrase which is 
parallel to that of our text, ri <os 
a>VTfs ev KOO-/L16) 8oypaTigeo-6e; Limi- 
tation to the world was the hopeless 
and godless lot of the Gentiles apart 
from Christ. 

13. naKpav...cyyvs\ These words, 
and elprjvr) in the next verse, are from 
Isa. Ivii 19 : see below, v. 17. 

ev T& aifMTi] Compare Col. i 20 
elprjvoTfoirj(ras fita TOU at/itaTor TOV craw- 
pov avTov. 

14. auVos] He, in His own person j 
compare ev avrca, v. 15. 

Below we have 
dp^ov (9. 15), and 
(. 16). Comp i Cor. 
Ul 8 o <j>vTeva>v K ai o ITOTL&V ev elo-iv: 
and, on the other hand, GaLJii 28 
mW yap VI, el s M ev ^ory 
V& At first the Apostle is con- 
tent to speak of Jew and Gentile as 
the two parts which are combined 
into one whole : in the sequel he 
prefers to regard them as two men, 

&TTLV Y\ eipHNH 

ev KCU TO neffOTOiov TOV 

I4 tttm>S 

made by a fresh act of creation into 
one new man. , 

TO /xeo-drot^oi/] The only parallel to 
this word appears to be o fj.ea-arot.xos 
in a passage of Eratosthenes (apvd 
Athen. vii 14, p. 281 D), in which he 
says of Aristo the Stoic, 7817 fie TTOTC 
*cal TOVTOV ire<p<opaKa TOV TTJS Tjoovfjs 
al operas peo-oroixov fiiopwrrowa, KOI 
dvcKpcuvopevov napa Tfj jftovfj. 

TOU <payj*oC] ' the fence ', or ' the 
partition'. The allusion is to the 
fipw^awos or balustrade in the Temple, 
which marked the limit to which a 
Gentile might advance. Compare 
Joseph. B. J. v 5 2 fita TOVTOV n-pot- 
OVTCOV ert TO oevTepov lepbv dpvfpaKTOg 

iraw fie ^aptc'ira? 8ifipyao-pevog' 
OVT$ fie eio-Tijiceo-av e' urov 
oriJAat TOV TI/P ayvelas irpo 
vo\iov, al fiev 'E\\r}vi<ois at 8e ' 
ypdppao-iv, pydeva dX\6<f>v\oi> evrbs TOV 
ayiov Trapievai- TO yap devrepov lepbv 
ayiov eKoXeiTo. . One of these inscrip- 
tions was discovered by M. Clermont 
Ganneau in May 1871. Owing to the 
troubles in Paris he announced his 
discovery in a letter to the Athe~ 
naeum, and afterwards published a 
full discussion, accompanied by a fac- 
simile, in the Revue Archeologique 
1872, vol. xxiii pp. 2i4ff., 2908; 
The inscription, which is now at Con- 
stantinople, runs as follows : 



np n ATHM 

Further references to this barrier 
are found in Joseph. Antt. XT n 5 
(epniov \iQivov opv^anTov ypa<j>fj /- 



II is, 16] 

(bpayiuov \v<ras, 15 *n/i/ e%6pav iv Ty (rapid avTOv, TOV 
VOJJLOV TWV evTo\u>v ev ^oy/utcurtv KaTapyfaas, iW TOUS 
SJo /cTn/ ev CLVTW els eva KCUVOV avBpwn'ov vroiiav eipij- 
vqv, t6 Kal aTToicaTaAAa^ TOUS dfjifyoTepovs ev evi <ro>/>urri 

\vov elo-ievat TOV d\\oedvrj 6ava.TiK.rls 

dlTl\OVfJLVT}S TTJS ^TJfiiai), B- (7*. VI 2 4- 

comp. Philo 2^. ad Caium 31 (M. n 
577). Past this barrier it was sup- 
posed that St Paul had brought 
Trophimus the Ephesian (oi evo/ufov 
STL els TO lepbv eiarjyayev 6 HavXos), 
Acts xxi 29. 

\vo-as] In the literal sense KaraXvfiv 
is more common: but we have the 
^simple verb in John ii 19 XiWre TOV 
\vabv TOVTOV. 

15. TTIV exdpav] If these words be 
taken with \vo~as, a metaphorical sense 
must be attributed to the participle, as 
an objection, though not a fatal one, 
to such a construction. It is in any 
case simpler to take TT)V fydpav with 
icaTapyijVas, although that verb is 
chosen by an afterthought as speci- 
ally applicable to TOV v6\ua> K.T.X. The 
t sense remains the same whichever 
construction is adopted. The barrier 
in the Temple court, the hostility 
between Jew and Gentile, and 'the 
law of commandments' (limited as 
the term is by the defining phrase ev 
86ypao-iv) are parallel descriptions of 
the separation which was done away 
in Christ. 

It has been suggested that T^V 

e^dpav 4v TjJ o-apKi OUTOV ,18 closely 
parallel to diroKreivas TT)V e^Bpav ev 
avr& (sic) in v. 16; and that the 
Apostle had intended to write 
aTTOKTeivas in the former place, but 
was led away into an explanatory 
digression, and took up his phrase 
later on by a repetition. This may 
be a true explanation, so far as the 
intention of the writer is concerned : 
but as a matter of fact he has left TJ)V 
at its earlier mention to be 


governed by one of the other parti- 
ciples, presumably by fcarapyqtras. 

eV rfj vapid avrov] Compare Col. 
i 21, 22 iwt Se diroKanj\\dyi}Te iv r$ 
o-co'/ian TJ/S a-apubs avrov 8ia TOV davd- 

TOV v6fiov\ In E>om. iii 31 the 
Apostle refuses to use narapye'iv of 
TOV vopw, although he is willing to say 
Karjjpy^jj/tei* OTTO TOV i/o/tzov in Rom. 
vii 6. Here however he twice limits 
TOV vopov, and then employs the word 
icarapyifo-af. It is as a code of mani- 
fold precepts, expressed in definite 
ordinances, that he declares it to have 

ev tioypao-iv] The word is used of 
imperial decrees, Luke ii i, Acts xvii 
7 ; and of the ordinances decreed by 
the Apostles and Elders in Jerusalem, 
Acts xvi 4. Its use here is parallel 
to that in CoL ii 14, ea\cfyas TO <a6* 
-r\\i>v x et p6ypa(pov TOIS doypao-iv : see 
Lightfoot's note on the meaning of 
the word, and on the strange mis- 
interpretation of the Greek commen- 
tators, who took it in both passages 
of the ' doctrines or precepts of the 
Gospel' by which the law was abro- 
gated. Comp. also Col. ii 20 (Soy- 

KTIOTJ] Compare v. 10 mo-Sevres ev 
Xpurnp 'Ljo-oO, and iv 24 TOJ KOIVOV- 
avOpairov TOV Kara 6fov KTio-0cvra. 

evavTqi] 'in Himself. The earlier- 
MSS have &YTCO, the later for the 
most part GAYTW. Whether we vmte^ 
O.VT$ or avr$, the sense is undoubtedly 
reflexive. See Lightfoot's note oni 
Col. i 20. 

16. cnroKaTaXXa#] On the double 
compound see Lightfoot's note on 
CoL i 20. 


TtS Befit $ia TOV (rravpov, diroKreivas Tnv e%6pav ev 

&UTO)* I7 Kai e\wv eyHrreAicATo eip^NHN Vfjuv TO?C 
MAKpalN KAI eip^NHN ToTc ciTYC' l8 <m $i avrov 
Trjv Trpoa'aycoyriv ol djj.(poTepoi ev evl Trvevjuuxri 

TOV TraTepa. * 9 apa ovv OVKCTL ea~Te evoi Ka Trapoucoi, 

ev aura] This may be rendered so in Rom. v 2, &' oS Kal TTJV irpotra- 

either 'thereby', i.e. by the cross, or yaytiv evxtnapev [r wio-rei] els T^V 

' in Himself . The latter is the inter- x<*P lv rmmfv : and, absolutely, in Eph. 

pretation of the Latin, * in gemetipso '. iii 12 e'v o> exopev T V ^apprja-iav KOI 

Jerome, who is probably following an vpoa-aycoyrjv h ircTroidfofi. The last 

interpretation of Origen's, says (Val- passage is decisive against the alter- 

lars. vii 581): 'In ea: non ut in native rendering * introduction', not- 

Latinis codicibus habetur in semet- withstanding the parallel in i Pet. iii 

ipso, propter Graeci pronominis am- 18 iva upas irpoo-ayayg T^ 6e&. 

biguitatem: ev aura enim et in <-V evl irvcvpari] The close paral- 

semetipso et in ea, id est cruce, lelism between TOWS a^oTepovs lv evl 

intelligi potest, quia crux, id est <7-o>/<m ro> fan (v. 16) and ol apfyorepoi 

oravpos, iuxta Graecos generis mas- ev evl irvevpan npos TOV irarepa shews 

culiniest'. that the *v vvevjui is that which cor- 

' thereby' would responds to the ev o-w/io, as in iv 4. 

be impossible if, as some suppose, 8ta That the 'one spirit' is ultimately 

TOV o-Tavpov is to be taken with OTTO- indistinguishable from the personal 

KTeivas : but that this is not the Holy Spirit is true, just in the same 

natural construction is shewn by the way that the 'one body' is indistin- 

parallel in Col. i 22 wvl 8e dirottarak- guishable from the Body of Christ : 

Xay7jT...Sia TOW [auro], comp. but we could not in either case sub- 

Col. i 20. Either interpretation is stitute one term for the other with- 

accordingly admissible. In favour of out obscuring the Apostle's meaning. 
the second may be urged the avros of 19 22. ' You are, then, no longer 

0. 14 and the ev O.VT$ of v. 15. On foreigners resident on sufferance only. 

the suggested parallel with ev r# You are full citizens of the sacred 

o-apKi atJroO see the note on . 15. commonwealth : you are God's own, 

17. evrjyye\ia-aro *c.r.X.] The Apostle the sons of His house. Nay, you are 

illustrates and enforces his argument constituent parts of the house that is 

by selecting words from two prophetic in building, of which Christ's apostles 

passages, to one of which he has and prophets are the foundation, and 

already alluded in passing: Isa, Iii 7, Himself the predicted corner-stone. 

cos wpa em r&v opecov, <os nodes evay- In Him all that is builded is fitted 

ye\>ov aKof/v eipyvrjs, cos evayye\i- and morticed into unity, and is grow- 

tfpeims ayadd : Ivii 19, elpjvtjv eV ing into a holy temple in the Lord. 

flpijvrjv TOIS paicpav Kal rois eyyvs In Him you too are being builded in 

ovo-iv. The first of these is quoted with us, to form a dwellingplace of 

(somewhat differently) in Rom. x 15, God in the Spirit'. 
and alluded to again in this epistle, 19. 7rapoi<oi} The technical distinc- 

vi 15. The second is alluded to by tion between the gevos and the irdpoi- 

St Peter on the day of Pentecost, KOS is that the latter has acquired by 

Acts ii 39. the payment of a tax certain limited 

1 8. TTJV irpo<ray<ayjv] ' our access ': rights. But both alike are non-citi- 


a 6(TT (rvwroXiTat. Ttav dyiwv Kai oiKeloi TOV 6eov, 


, OVTOS aKpoyioviaiov avTOv Xpi&Tod ' 

zens, which is St Paul's point here, 

50 the Christians themselves, in 
relation to the world, are spoken of in 
iPetii 1 1, from Ps. xxxviii (xxxix) 
13, as TTa.poiK.oi KCLL 7rape7ri'Si7/>i i and 
this language was widely adopted, 
seeLightfootonClem.Eom.j9re/. For 
irapoiKos and its equivalent peTomos 
see E. L. Hicks in Class. Rev. i 5 f., 
Deissmann Neue Bibelst. pp. 54?. 

crvwoXirai] The word was objected 
to by the Atticists : comp. Pollux iii 

51 o yap tru/MToXiTj;? ov BoKipov, el KOI 
Ei5prt'8?/s aura /w^pi/rat Iv 'HpaK\'- 
fiats re KOI Qt]<Tf'i (Heracleid. 826, in 
the speech of the depdn-cov). It is 

-found-in- Josephus-^wWi xix 2-; 2), 
and in inscriptions and papyri (Berl. 
Pap. u 632, 9, and cent. A.D.). 

r&v ayiatv] See the note on i i. 
The thought here is specially, if not 
exclusively, of the holy People whose 
privileges they have come to share. 

otKetoi] Oliceios is the formal oppo- 
site of aXXorptos : ' one's own ' in con- 
trast to 'another's': comp. Arist. Bhet. 
i 5 7 TOV 8c olieeia wu ^ pj (Ps 
eoTtv), OTO.V e^>' avrq g dira\\orpia<rcu. 
The word has various meanings, all 
derived from OLKOS in the sense of 
'household' or 'family'. When used 
of persons it means ' of one's family', 
strictly of kinsmen, sometimes loose- 
ly of familiar friends : then more 
generally 'devoted to', or even 'ac- 
quainted with', e.g. <piXotropia?. In 
St Paul the word has a strong sense : 
see GaL vi 10 ftaXcora 8e irpos TOVS 
oiKtiovs TTJS wio-Tfcas, and i Tim. v 8 
T&V I8ia>v KOI piXicmi oi\eiW (comp. 
v. 4 TOV 1.01.0V OIKOV tvo-cfteiv). 

20. firoiKo8ofja)6evres] The word o*- 
KOS underlying otxeiot at once suggests 
to the Apostle one of his favourite 
metaphors. From the olnos, playing 
on its double meaning, he passes to 

the oucodofuf. Apart from this sug- 
gestion the abruptness of the intro- 
duction of the metaphor, which is 
considerably elaborated, would be 
very strange. 

rl ro> &fieX/<] This corresponds 
with the ri of the verb, which itself 
signifies 'to build upon': compare 
i Cor. iii 10 <as cro<pos apx<-reKra>v 
fapcXiov ed^tta, a\\os Be ciroiKodopei. 
In that passage Jesus Christ is said 
to be the fapfXios. Here the meta- 
phor is differently handled; and the 
Christian teachers are not the build- 
ers, but themselves the foundation of 
the building. 

Christian Church. There can be no 
'doubt that this is the Apostle's mean- 
ing. Not only does the order ' apostles 
and prophets' point in this direction ; 
but a few verses lower down (iii 5) the 
phrase is repeated, and in iv 1 1 we 
have roiis fixv aTrooroXovs, rows 8e 
irpo<f)JTas, TOVS &e ei/cryyeXtcrray, K.T.X., 
where Old Testament prophets are 
obviously out of the question. That 
Origen and Chrysostom suppose that 
the latter are here intended is a proof 
o f the oblivion into which the activity 
O f the prophets in the early Church 
had already fallen. 

aKpayavtaiov] The word is taken 
from the LXX of Isa. xxviii 16, where 
it comes in connexion with ^eXto. 
The Hebrew of this passage is ID* 
1D1D mp* J13S fro fcpN pK }1*S1 
1D1D. 'I lay as a foundation in Sion 
a stone, a stone of proof, a precious 
corner stone of a founded foundation'. 
The LXX rendering is 'l8ov eya> e/*- 
^oXX< els TO 6ep.c\ta Setwv \idov 
TroXvrcX^ c/cXe/crov diepoycavuuov evripov, 
els TO. 0cpe\ia avTtjs. It is plain that 
aKpoyatvuuov corresponds to 7132), 
whether we regard it as masculine 

II - 2 


91 iv ft) iraa-a otKO^ofJitj trvvapfjioXoyovfJievti avjgei els vaov 

), or as a neuter substantive; corner-stone') both here and in 

see Hort's note on i Pet. ii 6, where i Pet. ii 6; though in Isa. xxviii 16 we 

the passage is quoted. In Job have ' corner stone'. Neither the 

xxxviii 6 X#o yowatos stands for Hebrew nor the Greek affords any 

ma J3N: in Jer. xxviii (Ii) 26 XWos justification for the rendering 'chief 

els yovlav for !"IJS? pK : and in Ps. corner-stone'. 'AKpoyataiof stands to 

"CXVii (cxviii) 22 els Ke<pa\fjv ytovlas for yotvtalos as eV aicpas yaw'as stands to 

rua B>n;>. In the last of these places ri yow'as : the first part of the com- 

Symmachus had aKpoywiaios, as he pound merely heightens the second. 
had also for mro, 'chapiter', in 21. vcuraolKobo^} t aM(ihe) 1 build- 

2 Kings xxv 17. In Ps. cxliii (cxliv) ing^ not 'each several building'. The 

12 Aquila had us eiriywia for fPItt, dGSfficulty which is presented by the 

' as corners ' or ' corner-stones '. absence of the article (see the note 

'Axpoytaviaios is not found again on various readings) is removed when 

apart from allusions to the biblical we bear in mind that St Paul" is 

passages. The Attic wordisyavwios, speaking not of the building as com- 

which is found in a series of inscrip- pleted, ie. 'the edifice', but of the 

tions containing contracts for stones building as still ' growing ' towards 

for the temple buildings at Eleusis completion. The whole edifice could 

(07.4 iv 10546 ff.): e.g. ai erepovs not be said to 'grow': but such an 

(Xldovs) ycaviaiovs ef iro8[v] ir\avTa- expression is legitimate enough^jjf_ 

~ in an used of the work in process. This is 

order for ra emupava T&V KIOVOV TCOV the proper sense of ofcoSo/ii/, which is ! 

els TO vpotrryov TO 'EXeuo-tw, it is in its earlier usage an abstract noun, | 

stipulated that 12 are to be of certain but like other abstract nouns has a 

dimensions, ra & ycwiaia 8vo are to tendency to become concrete, and is 

be of the same height, but of greater sometimes found, as here, in a kind 

length and breadth (comp. Herm. of transitional sense. Our own word 

Sim. ix 2 3 KU'KX<B Se rrjs nv\i)s eemj- 'building* has just the same range of 

Keio-av mpdevoi 8o8eKa' at o$v 8 at els meaning : and we might almost 

ras ytovlas earrjitvicu evdogoTepai fiot render vaura oiKoSopr) as ' all building 

eSoKovv eivai : they are spoken of in that is carried on '. 

15. i as lo-xvpoTcpat). In Dion. Hal. The word is condemned by Phry- 

iii 22 the Pila Horatia in the Forum nichus (Lobeck, p. 421; comp. pp. 

is spoken of as 17 yaviaia orvXt'r. 487 ff.) as non- Attic : OI'KO&O/XT) O v 

But, of course, in none Of these in- Xc'yeraf avr avnv 8e oucodo/iq/ua. 

stances have we the comer-stone The second part of this judgment 

proper, which is an Eastern concep- proves that by the middle of the 

tion. That even for a late Christian second century A.D. olKoSow was 

writer yomcuos was the more natural familiar in a concrete sense. The 

word may be gathered from a com- earliest instances of its use are how- 

ment of Theodore of Heraclea (Cor- ever abstract In the Tabulae Herod. 

derius in Psalm, cxvii 22, p. 345), (GISI 645, i 146) we have es 8e ra 

Kara TOV yavialov \i6ov TO eKorepov tiroiKia XPW OV v\ots es rav oueo- 

ovyKporav TCIXOS. doftov. A Laconian proverb quoted 

The earlier Latin rendering was by Suidas (s. v. "Iiriros) ran : OtKoSo^a 

'angularis lapis' (d^ Ambrst., and at Xd^o, K.T.X., 'May you take to 

so Jerome in some places) : the later, building' as one of the wasteful 

1 summits angularis lapis\ which luxuries. In Aristot. Eth. Nic. v 14 

has been followed in the A.V. (' chief (p. 1137 ft, 30) we have : dcnrep mi r^r 

II 21] 





where the variant olicotiopias gives 
the sense, and witnesses to the rarity 
of olKobofuj, which is not elsewhere 
found in Aristotle. The concrete 
sense seems to appear first in passages 
where the plural is used, though even , 
in some of these the meaning is 
rather ' building-operations' than 
* edifices' (e.g. Plut. Lucidl. 39 
olKodofMi TroXuTeXets). " In the LXX the 
word occurs 17 times. With one or 
two possible exceptions, where the 
text is uncertain or the sense obscure, 
it never means 'an edifice', but 
always the operation of building. 

In St Paul's epistles ot/coSo/ij? occurs 
eleven times (apart from the present 
.epistle). Nine times it is used in the 
[abstract sense' of 'edification', a 
I meaning which Lightfoot thinks owes 
fits origin to the Apostle's metaphor 

on Epp. p. 191). The two remaining 
passages give a sense which is either 
abstract or transitional, but not 
strictly concrete. In i Cor. iii 9 the 
words dew yetopyiov, deov oiKoBofi^ 
ea-re form the point of passage from 
the metaphor from agriculture to the 
metaphor from architecture. It can 
hardly be questioned that yeapyiov 
here means 'husbandry', and not 'a 
field' (comp. Ecclus. xxvii 6 yedpyiov 
uXov K(J3aivei 6 Kapiros avTov) : 
similarly oZ/eofio/ii/ is not the house as 
built, but the building regarded as in 
process : we might almost say ' God's 
architecture' or ' God's structure '. 
The Latin rendering is clearly right : 
dei agricultural del aedifieatio estis. 
The language of the other passage, 
2 Cor. v i, is remarkable : oiKoSo^ 
deov exopcv, olitiav dxeiporFolrjTov : 
not ' an edifice coming from God ', 
but 'a building proceeding from God 
as builder'. The sense of operation 
is strongly felt in the word : the 
result of the operation is afterwards 
expressed by olniav dxeipoTroirjTov. 
In the present epistle the word comes 
again three times (iv 12, 16, 29), each 

time in the abstract sense. Apart 
from St Paul it is found in the New 
Testament only in Mark xiii i, 2 
(Matt, xxiv i), where we have the 
plural, of the buildings of the temple 
(iepov). This is the only certain 
instance of the concrete sense (of 
finished buildings) to be found in 
biblical Greek. 

In the elaborate metaphor of 
Ignatius, Ephes. 9, we have the 
abstract use in Trpo^roi/iao-^eVoi els 
oiKoSo^v faov irarpos, * prepared 
aforetime for God to build with '. So 
too in Hermas, again and again, of 
the building of the Tower ( Vis. iii 2, 
etc.) ; but the plural is concrete in 
Sim. i i. In Barn. Ep. xvi i the 
word is perhaps concrete, of the 
fabric of the temple as contrasted 
with God the builder of a spiritual 
temple (els TTJV ooSo/*^ rjXma-av). 


aedificatio' (or 'omnis structura' 
Ambrst.), not *omne aedificium'. 
The Greek commentators, who for 
the most part read irao-a oiKobop.^ have 
no conception that a plurality of 
edifices was intended. They do in- 
deed suggest that Jew and Gentile 
are portions of the building which are 
linked together (els piav otKoftofijv) by 
Christ the corner-stone. If, however, 
the Apostle had meant to convey this 
idea, he would certainly not have 
said ira<ra olitoltopq in the sense of 
irao-ai at olitodofMi, but possibly a^6- 
repai al oiVcoSo/aat, or something of the 

The nearest representation in Eng- 
lish would perhaps be ' all that is 
builded', i.e. whatever building is 
being done. But this is practically 
the same as l att the building', which 
may accordingly be retained, though 
the words have the disadvantage of 
being ambiguous if they are severed 
from their context If we allow our- 
selves a like freedom with St Paul in 
the interweaving of his two metaphors, 
we may construct an analogous 
sentence thus : ev $ irao-a 



ayiov ev xvpito, M ev w Kat v/zels (TvvotKoSofJieTarBe ets 




III. *"TovTov X^P tv ty * 

olKodopetTai els (r<2p,a 
TeXetoi> ev Kvpiia : this would be 
fairly rendered as 'in whom all the 
growth is builded ; , etc. ; nor should 
we expect -in such a case irao-a 77 



III. i 7. 'All this impels me 
afresh to pray for you. And who am I, 
that I should so pray? Paul, the 
prisoner of the Christ, His prisoner 
for you you Gentiles, You must 
have heard of my peculiar task, of the 
dispensation of that grace of God 
which has been given me to bring to 
you. The Secret has been disclosed 
to me by the great Revealer. I have 
already said something of it enough 
to let you see that I have knowledge 
of the Secret of the Christ. Of old 
men knew it not : now it has been 
au|ai/> are Attic forms of the present, unveiled to the apostles and prophets 
The intransitive use of the active is of the holy people. The Spirit has 
not found before Aristotle. It pre- revealed to their spirit the new ex- 
vails in the New Testament, though tension of privilege. The Gentiles are 
we have the transitiy_e_use4n-i-Cori co-heirs,-concorporate, co-partakers of 

o-vi>appo\oyovpfVT]] This compound 
is not found again apart from St Paul 
In IT 1 6 he applies it to the structure 
of the body. There is some authority 
in other writers for ap/wjXoyeiv. For 
the meaning see the detached note. 

au] Compare Col. ii 19 avgei 
av^rjtriv TOV deov. Both avt-ca and 

the Promise. This new position has 
become theirs in Christ Jesus through 
the Gospel which I was appointed to 
serve, in accordance with the gift of 
that grace, of which I have spoken, 
which has been given to me in all the 

iii 6 f., 2 Cor. ix 10. 

22. KaToiKrjT^piov] In the New 
Testament this word comes again 
only in Apoc. xviii 2 
Saipovicov (comp. Jer. ix 1 1 els 
Trjpiov SpoKovreav). It is found in the 

LXX, together with KOToiKta, icaroifojo-is fulness of God's power.' 
and KcrnuKf via, for a habitation of any i. Tovrov x^P 1 "] The actual phrase 
sort : but in a considerable group of occurs again only in . 14, where it 
passages it is used of the Divine marks the resumption of this sentence, 
dwelling-place, whether that is con- and in Tit. i 5. "We have ov x<*p*v in 
ceived of as on earth or in heaven. Luke vii 47, and \apiv TWOS in i John 

iii 12. In the Old Testament we 
find TOVTOV (yap) xP lv * n Prov. 
xvii 17, i Mace, xii 45, xiii 4. 

eya> IlaOXos] For the emphatic 
introduction of the personal name 
compare i Thess. ii 18, 2 Cor. x i, 
Col. i 23 ; and especially Gal. v 2. In 
the first three instances other names 
have been joined with St Paul's in 
the opening salutation of the epistle : 
but this is not the case in the Epistle 
to the Galatians or in the present 

o deV/Aios TOV ^ptoroS 'IijtroS] In 
Philem. i and 9 we have Seo-fwos 
Xptorou 'I?7<rov, and in 2 Tim. i 8 TOV 

Thus the phrase 
o-ov comes in Exod. xv 17, and three 
times in Solomon's prayer (i Kings 
viii, 2 Chron. vi) : comp Ps. xxxii 
(xxxiii) 14. These Old Testament 
associations fitted it to stand as the 
climax of the present passage. 

ev irve6pa.Ti\ The Gentiles are builded 
along with the Jews to form a dwell- 
ing-place for God l in (the) Spirit'. 
This stands in contrast with their 
separation one from the other l ih 
(the) flesh\ on which stress is laid at 
the outset of this passage, v. n TO 
edvt] ev (rapKi...Tfjs \cyofievrfs TrepiTo^s 
ev (rapid. 


'lrj(rov virep vju&v TWV eBvtfiv, a ei' ye ijKOvcraTe 
oiKOVo/uLtav -n/s ^dpiTo^ rov Beov T^S SoBeicrris JJLOI 
els i/yua?, z OTt KO.TCL aTTOKaXwifstv eyvwpia'Ori JULOI TO 

ev d\to) 4 7To3s o $vva<r6e 

avTov (sc. rov itvpiov T/p-eSz/). GaL ii 2, and the more striking 

Below, in iv i, the expression is parallel in Bom. xvi 25 Kara 071-0x0- 

different, eym 6 oeo-pios ev Kopito. \vfyiv p,v<rrr]piov K.T.\. 

vnep vp&v T&V edv&v] So in ii ii, is the natural correlative 

vpeis TO. e6vrj. The expression is on which see the detached note. 

intentionally emphatic. His cham- eyvatplvBrf] Compare vv. 5, 10. The 

pionship of the equal position of the word comes, in connexion with TO 

Gentiles was the true cause of his /M/o-n/paw, in Horn, xvi 26, Eph. i 9, 

imprisonment. Compare v. 13 ev vi 19, Cot i 27. 

raw 6\fye<riv IJLOV virep U/LUBI/, ^ris fcrriv irpoe-ypatyd] This is the ' epistolary 

86gavp.v. aorist', which in English is repre- 

2. e? ye TjKova-are] The practical sented by the perfect. For the 

eflfect of this clause is to throw new temporal force of the preposition in 

emphasis on the words immediately this verb, compare Bom. xv 4 oo-a 

preceding. 'It is on your behalf yap rrpoeypafa. Here, however, the 

you must know, if indeed you have eypa^a : ' I have written already ' 

heard of my special mission to you (not ' aforetime '). The technical 

(els vpas)'. We have a close parallel sense of Trpoypdfaiv found in GaL iii i 

in iv 21 t ye adrov rfKov<rare K.T.X. does not seem suitable to this context. 

The Apostle's language does not ev oX/y$>] 'in a few words': more 

imply a doubt as to whether they had exactly, ' in brief compass ', or, as we 

heard of his mission: it does imply say, 'in brief. The only other New 

that some at least among them had Testament passage in which the 

only heard, and had no personal phrase occurs is Acts xxvi 28 f. The 

acquaintance with himself. phrase is perhaps most frequently 

oueoi'ojtuai'] See the note on i 10; used of time; as in "Wisd. iv 13 

and compare 77 oiKOW>/u'a row /M/OTT^pioi;, reAa>0ei? ev o\/ya> eVXijpaxre ^poi/ovs 

below in v. 9. In Col. i 25 we have paitpovs. Aristotle, however, Rhet. 

KOTO, rrjv olK.ovofi.lav rov Qeov TTJV 8o6el- iii II (p. 14126, 20), in discussing 

a-dv p.oi els V[MS, n-XijpeSo-ai TOV \6yov pithy sayings, says that their virtue 

TOU deov, TO pvcrnqpiov /c.r.X. In all consists in brevity and antithesis, and 

these passages God is o olK.ovofj.03V : SO adds rj padrja-is 8ia fj.ev TO avriKelo-dai 

that they are not parallel to i Cor. /*SXXoi>, 8ia Be TO ev oXrya Qarrov 

ix 17 oiKovofiiav ireiriaTevpai, where yiveTai. A useful illustration is cited 

the Apostle himself is the olnovojios by Wetstein from Eustathius in H. 

(comp. I Cor. ZV I, 2), ii, p. 339, 18, ovrat ph rj 'O^pinf) ev 

XapiTOs] For the use of this Word 6\iycp 8iao-eo-d<pr)Tai la-Topia- TO. 8e 

in connexion with St Paul's mission Kara pepos avrfs TOUWTO. 

to the Gentiles, and in particular for 4. irpos o] that is, ' looking to 

the combination ?J x"P ts V oodelo-d pot which ', ' having regard whereunto ' ; 

(i Cor. iii 10, Gal. ii 9, Bom. xii 3, and so 'judging whereby': but the 

xv 1 5, Eph. iii 7), see the detached note expression is unusual. The force of the 

on xpw. preposition receives some illustration 

3. Kara atroKaXvfyiv] Compare from 2 Cor. V IO iva Kopio-rjTai eKaaros 


dvaytvuxTKovr&s voficrai TY\V trvveariv JULOV ev Tta juiva-Ttipia) 
TOV xpurTov, S 6 Tpcus yeveois OVK lyvaapia-Bri TOR 
Ttav dvBpttiTTtav tos vvv d7reKa\v(j)Ori rots dyiois 
avTOv Kai TrpcHptiTctis ev TTi/evjucm, 6 elvcu 

ra Sto TOV oxtyiaror irpos a eirpacv, rrjv trvveo~iv pov ev K.T.X.] A close 

K.T.\. The participle dvayiv&vKovres parallel is found in i (3) Esdr. i 3 1 rijs 

seems to be thrown in epexegetically. trvvia-e&s avrov ev r v6fj.w Kvpt'ov. 

Judging by what he has already In the LXX avmivai ev is a frequent 

written, they can, as they read, per- construction: but it is a mere repro- 

ceive that he has a true grasp of duction of a Hebrew idiom, and we 

the Divine purpose, and accordingly, need not look to it for the explana- 

ns he hints, a true claim to inter- tion of our present phrase. For the 

pret it. omission of the article before ev T&> 

The Latin rendering 'prout potestis /twanjpuB, see the note on i 15. 
legentes wtelligere', i.e. 'so far as ye 5. erepais ycvcals] 'in other gene- 

are able... to understand', has much rations', the dative of time; compare 

in its favour. This is also the inter- Rom. xvi 25 XP OVOIS ataviaw. Tevea 

pretation of most, if not all, of the is used as a subdivision of alwv, and 

Greek commentators : o-uptyu-rp^o-aro the two words are sometimes brought 

TT)V 8i&a<ricd\iav irpos oirep ex&povv into combjnatipn_J:or_Jkhe_sake of- 
^Seyenm,_caten.-ad-- locr). But~it emphasis, as in iii 21 and CoL i 26. 

makes dvayiv&trKovTes somewhat more The rendering ' to other generations' 

difficult, unless we press it to mean is excluded by the fact that eyvopia-6ij 

'by reading only'. is followed by Tols viols TOV dvdp&irwv. 

The suggestion that dvaywcoaKovrfs TOIS viols TV dvdptoircav] It is 

may refer to the reading of the pro- remarkable that this well-known He- 

phetic parts of the Old Testament in braism, frequent in the LXX, occurs 

the light of (Trpos o) what the Apostle again but once in the New Testament, 

has written (Hort, Romans and viz. in Mark iii 28 (in Matt, xii 31 

Ephesians, pp. 150!) is beset with this becomes simply rots dvdpuTroi?). 

difficulties : for (i) where dvaytva- The special and restricted use of the 

o-Kfiv is used of the Old Testament phrase o vlos TOV dvOpairov may 

scriptures, the reference is made clear account for the general avoidance of 

by the context, and not left to be the idiom, which however is regularly 

gathered from the word itself; i Tim. recalled by the Syriac versions in 

iv. 13 irpoa-exfTT) avayvtifrti cannot be their rendering of avdponroi (Matt, 

proved to refer solely to the public v. 19, et passim). 
reading of the Old Testament: (2) row aytois tMrooroXot? *c.r.X.] In 

the same verb is quite naturally used the parallel passage, Col. i 26, we 

of the reading of Apostolic writings, have vvv be e<f>avepa6r) rot? ayiois 

Acts XV 31, I Thess. V 27, Col. iv 16, avroD, ois ijdeXrja-ev 6 6ebs yvapia-tu, 

Apoc. i 3 : (3) the close proximity of .r.X. The difference is in part at 

irpoeypafya suggests that what they least accounted for by the prominent 

are spoken of as reading is what he mention of ' apostles and prophets ' in 
has written : (4) in the whole context ~ the immediately preceding section 

Old Testament revelation falls for the (ii 20). 

moment out of sight (see especially ev Trpcvfum] See ii 22, v 18 and vi 

. 5), and the newness of the message 18, and the notes in these places, 
is insisted on. 


Ta eBvn crvvK\'ripov6fjLa KCLI (rvvtrw/uia KOI (rvvjULeTo^a Ttjs 
s ev XpUTTto 'Iqarov Sia TOV evayyeXlov, ^ov 
Sidicovos K.GLTOL TYJV Scopeav TV* xdpiTO? TOV 
Beov T^S SoBeiarri? JULOI Kara TY\V evepyetav TJ/S cWa'yueoJS 
avTOv 8 efj.ol TW eXa^KTTOTepto TrdvTwv arfiwv e$66rj 
i] "%dpi<s avTrj TO?? eOvea~iv eva f y f ye\io'aa'6ai TO dve- 
TT\OVTOS TOV io~Tov, 9 Kai (coTia-ai TK r\ 

6. ovvKfajpovofM K.T.A.] Of the eternal working, the Secret of the 
three compounds two are rare (cruwcAij- Creator of the universe : that not 
povoftos, Rom. viii 17, Heb. xi. 9, i man only, but all the potencies of the 
Pet. iii 7, Philo : vvvperoxos, v. 7, unseen world might learn through the 
Aristotle and Josephus). The third Church new lessons of the very varied 
(<nW/ios) was perhaps formed by wisdom of God learn that one pur- 
St Paul for this occasion. Aristotle's pose runs through the ages of eter- 
<rvv<raffjMToiroiciv, if it implied an adjec- nity, a purpose which God has 
tive at all, would imply arvva-eaparog formed in the Christ, even in Jesus 

_(but_it_is_probably-a-compound-of pur-Lord,-in-whom-we-haveour-bold 

<nij; and <ra>^aT07Toietv). In later Greek access to God. So lose not heart, I 

ao-w/ios, eva-topos are found side by side pray you, because I suffer in so great 

with ao-oj/zaros, W/iaros. a cause. My pain is your glory '. 

7. eyejnjdrjv diaKovos] Compare 8. eXa^toroTep^)] Wetstein ad loc. 
Col. i 23, 25, where however we have has collected examples of heightened 
eyevowv, which is read by some MSS forms of the comparative and super- 
hero. The two forms of the aorist lative. The most recent list is that 
are interchangeable in the LXX and of Jannaris, Historical Greek Gram- 
in the New Testament, as in the later mar, 506. For the most part they 
Greek writers generally. are doubled comparatives or doubled 

As the ministration spoken of in superlatives : but Jannaris cites 

each of these passages is that special fieyiarorepos from Gr. Pap. Br. Mus. 

ministration to the Gentiles which 134, 49 (cent, i n A.D.). 

was committed to St Paul, and as the rots eBvevtv cvayye\i(rao-0ai] The 

article is naturally omitted with the order of the words throws the 

predicate, we may fairly render : emphasis on rots eQvtcrw. St Paul's 

'whereof / was made minister' (or Gospel (TO evayyeXiov JMV, see especially 

even 'the minister'). But it is not Eom. xvi 25) is the Gospel of God's 

necessary to depart from the familiar grace to the Gentiles. 

rendering ' a minister'. dvf^ix v ^ a<rrov ] Compare Rom. xi 33 

XapiTos...cvepyciav] See the notes *Q /3a$of 7r\ovTov...avfgixviaa-roi ai 

on v. 2 and i 19 respectively. oSol avVoS. The only parallels seem 

8 13. * Yes, to me this grace has to be Job v 9, ix 10, xxxiv 24, where 

been given to me, the meanest Ipn j^N is so rendered by the ixx, 

member of the holy people that I who in that book employ ix^os for 

should be the one to bring to the "ipn. 

Gentiles the tidings of the inexplor- ir\ovros] Apart from i Tim. vi 17, 

able wealth of the Christ : that I no instance of wXotn-os in the sense of 

should publish the plan of God's material wealth is to be found in St 


[Ill 10 

/ t </!** \ f t i 

anavwv ev TW veto T<W TO. Travra KTUTOVTI, iva yvco- 

purBrj vvv TCUS dp%cu$ Kol TaZs e^ovcriais ev rots e 

<ro(f)ia TOV 

Paul's writings. On the other hand, 
his figurative use of the word has no 
parallel in the rest of the Greek Bible. 
Of fourteen instances of it, five occur 
in this epistle. In the uses of the 
derivates TrXovcrtos, ir\ovo~icos, TrXow- 
Te'iv, ir\ovTigeiv, the same rule will be 
found to hold, though there are some 
interesting exceptions. 

9. (patTio-ai ris 17 K.T.X.] ' to bring 
to light what is the dispensation'. 
Compare Ool. i 27 yvtapiaat ri TO 
n-XoOroy /c.r.\., where the whole con- 
text is parallel to the present passage. 
*<BTie is a natural word for the 
public disclosure of what has been 
_kep_t_secret-: see-^ Polyb. xxx 8 1~ 
oreira Se r&v ypappareav ea\a>Kor<ov KOI 
ire(})a)Turpeva>v : also Suidas $errieiw 
alriariKg' els <pa>s Sytiv, e^ayyeXXetw, 
followed by a quotation in which 
OCCUr the Words <j>e>Tieiv TO KOTO, TTJV 

CVTO\TJV anopprjTov. Compare i Cor. 
IV 5 ^owiVet rot Kpvirra TOV O-K.OTOVS, 
and 2 Tim. i IO tfxoTio-airos be farjv 
Koi d(j)6aptriav (with the context). 

There is considerable authority (see 
the note on various readings) for the 
addition of irairas after tfnaritrat. 
The construction thus gained is like 
that in Judg. xiii 8 (A text), (pomo-ora 
T<5 iraidapico (JB has 
But the sense given to 
'to instruct' instead of 'to 
publish' is less appropriate to the 
present context ; moreover the inser- 
tion of iravras lessens the force of the 
emphatic TOW edveviv. The change was 
probably a grammatical one, due to 
the desire for an expressed accusative : 
John i 9, TO <j)a>s...o (pcori^fi irdvra av- 
Qpairov, is no true parallel, but it may 
have influenced the reading here. 

airo TV aliovtov] Compare Col. i 26 




r&v alt&voov KOI airo r&v ycvcwv: Rom. 
XVI 25 [warrjpiov XP OVOIS attavimt 
o*eo~iyrifj.cvov : I Cor. ii 7 ^^ <ro<piav 
fv pvcrnjp'ua, T^V airoKfKpvupivriV) rjv 
irpooapurev 6 deity irpb TWV alcovtov. The 
phrase OTTO TOV alwvwv is the converse 
of the more frequent els TOVS al&vas : 
cornp. an al&vos, Luke i 70, Acts 
iii 21, xv 18 ; <nro TOV meows KOI els 
TOV alava, Ps. xl (xli) 14, etc. The 
meaning is that 'from eternity until 
now' the mystery lias been hidden. 

Krio-avTt] The addition in the later 
MSS of 810 'ij/o-oC Xpta-Tov points to a 
failure to understand the propriety of 
the simple mention of creation in this 
~context ThlTtrue text hints that the 
purpose of God was involved in cre- 
ation itself. 

Iva yvo>pur0ff\ Compare i 9 
qiiiv TO nvoTypiov, iii 3 
pot, 5 erepcus yeveais OVK 
eyva>pio-0ri, vi 19 ev irapprjatq yv&pitrai 
TO pvfTTripiov. The rejection of the 
gloss irdvras (see on V. 9) leaves us the 
more free to take this clause closely 
with (pario-at : i to publish what from 
eternity has been hidden, in order 
that now what has hitherto been 
impossible of comprehension may be 
made known throughout the widest 

dpxais...eirovpaviois] See the notes 
on i 21, and the exposition pp. 20 f. 

8ia TJs eKK^rjtrias] Compare ev 777 
eKK\j]o-ia below, V. 21. 

n-oXvTroi'KiXos] The word is found 
in Greek poetry in the literal sense of 
'very-varied'; Eur. Iph. in Tour. 
1 149, of robes j Eubulus ap. Athen. 
xv 24, p. 6790? arefpavov 7ro\v7roiKi\ov 
dvdeav: also, figuratively, in the 
Orphic hymns vi n (reXer?}), Ixi 4 
(Xdyos). In Iren. i iv i (Mass. p. 19) 
W6 have irddovs ... TroXv/nepovs xal 


Beov, "Kara 7rp66e<nv TWV aiwviov nv eTfoitjcrev ev 

virapxovTos* An echo of 
the word is heard in I Pet. iv 10 
jroiKiXrjs xapiros deov. 

ii. Kara irpodco-iv] This expression 
occurs adverbially in Rom. viii 28 
Tole Kara -irpoQe&w jcAijrois ovariv. It 
there signifies 'in accordance with 
deliberate purpose', on the part, that 
is, of Him who has called: the mean- 
ing is made clear by the words which 
follow (on ovs irpoeyva K.r.A.) and 
by the subsequent phrase of ix n 
q KO.T eK\oyijv irp66e<ris TOV deov, f the 
purpose of God which works by elec- 

In Aristotle vpodea-is is a technical 
term for the setting out of the topic 
of a treatise or speech: thus we have 
the four divisions (Rliet. iii 13, p. 
14146, 8) irpooifuov, irpodetris, iritms, 
-eTrtXoyos, prelude,-proposition,_proof,_ 
peroration '. In Polybius irpoQecrts is 
of frequent occurrence in the sense of 
a deliberate plan or scheme ; and this 
sense is found in 2 and 3 Maccabees; 
comp. Symm., Ps. ix 38 (x 17), In- 
terpr. al., Ps. cxlv (cxlvi) 4. In Polyb. 
xii ii 6 we have the actual adverbial 
phrase, of lying 'deliberately', Kara 
irp6deo~iv e\^ev<Tfj.ev(a. In no writer 
previous to St Paul does it appear to 
be used of the Divine purpose or plan. 

T&V acauwp] The addition of the 
defining genitive destroys only to a 
certain extent the adverbial character 
of the expression. The result is diffi- 
cult to express in English: neither 
'according to the purpose of the ages' 
(which would strictly presuppose Kara 
Tr)V irpodeffiv T&V aioavmv), nor 'acCOrd- 
ing to a purpose of the ages', gives 
the exact shade of meaning, which is 
rather ' in accordance with deliberate 
purpose, and that purpose not new, 
but running through the whole of 
eternity'. This construction is frequent 
in St Paul's writings. Thus we have 
Kar' Ivepyeiav (iv 1 6) and KO.T evepyeiav 
TOV 'Sarava (2 Thess. ii 9), on which see 
below in the detached note on evepyelv. 

Again, we have icar* emray^v (l Cor. 
vii 6, 2 Cor. viii 8) and Kar eiriray^v 
TOV alatvlov deov (Bom. xvi 26) : also 
Kar tK\ayjv (Rom. ix Ii) and *ar' 
eK\oyr)jf ^aptros (Rom. xi 5). Compare 
further Rom. ii 7, xvi 5, 25, Phil, iii 
6: also in this epistle, i n irpoopi- 
KOTO. irp66e<riv TOV TO, navra 

riv ciroiri<rev] These words involve a 
serious difficulty. If they are taken 
as equivalent to ty irpoedero (comp. i 
10), we suppose a breach of the rule 
by which the resolution of such verbs 
is made with iroieia-dai, not with 
iroieiv. No other instance of this can 
be found in St Paul, while we have 
on the contrary in this epistle, for 
example, iivelav iroiela-dai (i 1 6) and 
av^qaiv noieivdai (iv 1 6). A phrase 
_likeJ!eX>?fca iroieiv, which is sometimes 
cited, is obviously not parallel, as it is 
not a resolution of 0e'Xi/. 

It was probably this difficulty, rather 
than the omission of the article before 
-irpodea-iv, that led early interpreters 
to regard Kara Trpodecriv T&V alcovatv as 
a semi-adverbial phrase parentheti- 
cally introduced, and to take qv eVoi- 
rjo-ev as referring to vocpia. Jerome 
so interprets, though he mentions the 
possibility of a reference either to 
cKK\Tj(rlas or to irpodftriv. It is pro- 
bable that here, as so often, he is 
reproducing the view of Origen. But 
the Old Latin version, which he 
follows in the text, also interpreted 
so: l secundum proposition seculorum, 
quam fecit' : a rendering which rules 
out the connexion irp66e(riv...^v. So 
too the translator of Theodore (MSS, 
non ed.\ but of Theodore's own view 
we have no evidence. Theophylact 
and Euthymius Zigabenus expressly 
refer rfv to <ro<piav. Chrysostom's text 
at this point is in some confusion: 
but he suggests, if he did not actually 
read, alo>va>v <Sv eirotqa-cv (coinp. Heb. 
i 2 81' ov Kal vou\(rtv TOV 5 aluvas). 
The Vulgate (so too Victorinus) sub- 



S 'ltJ(TOV T<0 KVplO) *j 



"l/ ft) 

[Ill 12 


statutes praefinitionem for proposi- 
tum, and thus restores the ambiguity 
of the original, which the simpler 
change of quod for quam would have 
avoided. It is noticeable that Jerome 
had suggested propositio as an alter- 
native rendering of irpoQems. The 
absence of quam fecit from Ambrosi- 
aster's text points to another attempt 
to get rid of the difficulty. 

This construction, however, is ex- 
ceedingly harsh, audit presents uswith 
the phrase <ro<j>lav irouiv, which seems 
to have no parallel Another way 
out of the difficulty has met with more 
favour in recent times; namely, to 
take noiT](rfv in the sense of 'wrought 
out'. But it may be doubted whether 
irpoBea-iv TToielv could bear such a 
_meaning-: we-should-certainly-have" 
expected a stronger verb such as 
iriTe\lv or K7r\jjpovv, This view, 
indeed, seems at first sight to be 
favoured by the full title given to 
Christ, and the relative clause which 
follows it. But a closer examination 
shews that the title itself is an almost 
unique combination. In Bom. vi 23, 
viii 39, i Cor. xv 31, (PhiL iii 8) we 
have Xpurrof 'Ijycrovs o Kvpios q/uuop 
(jtov), in itself an uncommon order: 
but no article is prefixed to Xpioros. 
Only in CoL ii 6 have we an exact 
parallel, as aw irapc\dfteT( rov ^porov 
^lijtrovv rov tevpiov, *c.r.X.; where Light- 
foot punctuates after xptcrroi' and 
renders 'the Christ, even Jesus the 
Lord'. Accordingly, in the present 
passage, even if we are unwilling to 
press the distinction in an English 
rendering, we may feel that an exact 
observation of the Greek weakens the 
force of the argument derived from 
the fulness of the title, and leaves us 
free to accept an interpretation which 
regards tiroirja-ev as referring to the 
formation of the eternal purpose in 
the Christ. 

On the whole it is preferable to 
suppose that the Apostle is referring 
to the original formation of the pur- 
pose, and not to its subsequentworking 
out in history. We may even doubt 
whether here he would have used the 
past tense, if he had been speaking of 
its realisation. 

Instances may be found in the 
LXX and in New Testament writers 
other than St Paul, in which iroutv is 
used where we should expect 
: comp. Isa. xxix 15, xxx i, 

eiv, and see Blass N. T. Gram. 53, 
3 and Jannaris Hist. Gr. Gram. 
1484. Further, we may remember 
that iroielv in biblical literature often 
has a strong sense, derived from the 
Hebrew, in reference to creative acts 
~of'6od~"(compTli~To)i The~framing 
of the Purpose in the Christ may be 
regarded as the initial act of creation, 
and the word eirofyarev may be not in- 
appropriately applied to it. In other 
words irpode&iv fTToiqaev is a stronger 
form of expression than irpodetnv 
cVoiifo-aTo, which is the mere equivalent 
of irpoedero : and it suggests that 'the 
purpose of the ages,' like the ages 
themselves (Heb. i 2), has been called 
into existence by a Divine creative 

With this passage, and indeed with 
the whole of this section, should be 
compared 2 Tim. i 8 12, where there 
are striking parallels of language and 
of thought, which are the more notice- 
able in the absence of any explicit 
reference to the Gentiles. 

12. T^I irapprj(ricut K.r.X.] Compare 
ii 1 8. For the meanings of n-app^o-ta 
see Lightfoot on Col. ii 1 5. Ordinarily 
it is used of 'boldness* in relation to 
men : here it is of the attitude of man 
to God: there seems to be no other 
example of this use in St Paul; but 
see Heb. iii 6, iv 16, x 19, 35, i John 
ii 28, iii 21, iv 17, v 14. 


ivK.aK.eiv iv ra?s 6\i- 

fwv VTrep vfjL&v, %TK ecrriv Sofa 

/cajUTTTw TO. yovard fjiov TT/OOS roV 

irerroi6r)(rei\ The word is used six bable that it has been lost tyhomoeo- 

times by St Paul, but is found nowhere teleuton, YM&C having fallen out 

else in the New Testament, and but after the -Y/WAI of AITOYMAI : compare 

once in the LXX. Gal iv 1 1, where in several MSS YM&C 

CLVTOV] Compare Mark xi 22 e^ere has been dropped after (J>oBoy/v\Ai. I 

ir'urnv 6eov, Rom. iii 22, 26, GaL ii 16, have accordingly inserted vpas pro- 

iii 22, Phil, iii 9, in all of which cases visionally in the text. 

however TTiWi? is without the article. cvKcuteiv] 'lose heart': from KOKOS 

In James ii i, Apoc. ii 13, xiv 12 the in the sense of * cowardly'. On the 

article is prefixed, but the meaning is form of this word, eynaKfiv (cW-) or 

different. . Here rf/s may be regarded KKaiteiv, see Lightfoot on 2 Thess. iii 

as parallel to T^V before irappqviav : so 13 (Notes on Epp. p. 132). It occurs 

that the meaning would be 'our faith five times in St Paul's epistles: else- 

in Him*. where in the New Testament it is 

13. alrovfjuu pi) cvKaiceiv] Does found only in Luke xviii i. In 2 Cor. 

this mean (i) 'I pray that I may not iv 16 it. is, as here, followed by a 

lose heart', or (2) 'I pray that you reference to o eo-o> avtipairos in the 

may not lose heart', or (3) 'I ask you immediate context. This connexion 

of thought-confirms the view that~the 

pretation is adopted, the omission of subject of fviuuteiv here is the readers 

' the subject of emaKeiv is a serious of the epistle, for whom the Apostle 

difficulty. Theodore gives the first goes on to pray that they may be 

interpretation, which may plead in 'strengthened in the inward man'. 
its favour that the subject of the 14 19. *A11 this, I repeat, im- 

second verb is most naturally supplied pels me afresh to prayer. In the 

from the first, and that, as the suffer- lowliest attitude of reverence I pros- 

ings are St Paul's, it is he who needs trate myself before Him, to whom 

to guard against discouragement But every knee shall bow before the 

the absolute use of aiTovfuu, as 'I ask Father from whom all fatherhood 

of God,' where prayer has not been everywhere derives its name. I ask 

already spoken of, seems unjustifiable : the Father to give you, through the 

and that the Apostle should here Spirit's working on your spiritual 

interpose such a. prayer for himself nature, an inward might the very 

is exceedingly improbable, especially indwelling of the Christ in your hearts, 

when his language elsewhere with realised through faith, consummated 

regard to sufferings is considered, e.g. in love. I pray that your roots may 

in Col. i 24. Origen at first offers be struck deep, your foundations laid 

this interpretation, but passes on to secure, that so you may have strength 

plead for the second as more agree- enough to claim your share in the 

able to the context. Jerome, who knowledge which belongs to the holy 

read in his Latin 'peto ne deficiatis,' people: to comprehend the full mea- 

points out that the Greek may mean sures of the Divine purpose; to know 

'peto ne deficiam/ and then repro- though it is beyond all knowledge 

duces the comments of Origen. the love of Christ; and so to attain 

The third interpretation is by far to the Divine completeness, to be 

the most satisfactory : but we sadly filled unto all the fulness of God'. 
miss the accusative vpas. It is pro- 14. Tovrov xP tv ] ^ ne repetition 


Trarepa, is e ov yraara irarpia ev ovpavots Kal errl 

of this phrase marks the close con- version of the LXX. Patria is occa- 

nexion of vv. i and 14, and shews that sionally so used, and is found also in 

what has intervened is a digression. a quotation of our present passage 

KdpnTo K.T.X.] The usual phrase for in the metrical treatise [Tert.] adv. 

'kneeling' in the New Testament is Marcionem iv 35. 

6e\s TO. yovara. The present phrase is Similarly the rendering of the 

found again only in a quotation from p es hito ^orora^ J^a must 

i Kings xix 18 in Bom. xi 4; in a , .. ., , ,, * 

quotation from Isa, xlv 23, to *& me ^ a11 fa ^erhood': comp. *&**- 

Kaptyei irav yaw, in Eom. xiv 1 1 ; and ^o\ara=M^ti 'the name of father- 

in Phil, ii 10, iva ev raj ovopari 'Irjaov hood' in Aphrahat (Wright 472 f.). 

irav yow Kafiflfa, an allusion to the The Latin and Syriac versions there- 

same passage of Isaiah. fore warrant us in rendering the pas- 

irarepa] The insertion after this sage in English as 'the Father of 

word of TOW Kvpiov fowv 'ITJO-OV XpioroS whom all fatherhood. . .is named \ 

is a mischievous gloss, which obscures On the teaching of the passage it 

the intimate connexion between the is worth while to compare Athanasms 

absolute irarjp and irava irarpta. It Orat. contra Arian. i 23 ov yap 6 0tbs 

is absent from N*ABCP. avdpamov /*t)itfTTat' aXXa p.a\\ov of 

15. Trao-a irarpia\ Uarpid denotes avdpanroi 8ta TOV 0eov t nvpias KOI (tovov 

a group of persons united by descent oXgftSg ovra 

-from-a-common~father~or, more gene- oi5roi irarcpes <ovopd<rdr)<Tav TV i&i 

rally, a common ancestor. It has thus TCMV* eg avrov yap ircura. irarpia ev 

the narrower meaning of 'family' or ovpavois KOI eirl yfjs ovopdgerai: and 

the wider meaning of 'tribe'. It is Severian od^oe. (Cramer 159) 

exceedingly common in the genea- TO ovopa rov irarpbs OVK d<p' i^icSj/ 

logical passages Of the LXX, where it dvfj\6ev ava>, dXX* avadev rjXdev els qpas, 

often stands in connexion with of/to? BTJ\OVOTI &s (pva-fi ov Kal OVK ovofian. 

and 0^X77. St Paul plays on the deri- fwvov. 

vation of the word: iraTpia is derived The difficulty supposed to exist in 

fronnrarjjp: every n-arpta, in the visible St Paul's speaking of 'families' in 

or the invisible world, is ultimately heaven may have led to the mistrans- 

named from the one true Father (o lationj of the A.V. 'the whole family.' 

, the source of all fatherhood. The same difficulty led Theodore to 

The literal rendering is ' every adopt (perhaps to invent) the reading 

family'; but the point of the passage tparpia. (so the Paris codex: the form 

cannot be given in English without is found both in Inscrr. and MSS for 

a paraphrase. The Latin rendering <f)paTpia,seel)ieterichjByzant.Archiv. 

'omnis paternitas' seems to be a bold i 123), on the curious ground that this 

effort in this direction ; for paterni- word denoted not a crvyyeveia but 

tasy like 'fatherhood' in English, is merely a tnJon/jua. The insertion of 

an abstract term and does not appear the gloss referred to above had pro- 

to be used in the sense of 'a family', bably blinded him to the connexion, 

It is true that Jerome (ad loc. and frarp6s...7rarptd, upon which the whole 

adv. Helvid. 14), in order to bring sense depends. 

out a parallel, renders irarpial of the The difficulty is not a serious one: 

LXX by paternitates : but in his own for the addition ev ovpavois KOI errl 

version (Numb, i 2, etc.) he does not yfjs, like the similar phrase in i 21, 

introduce the word, nor does it occur ovopa&ufvov ov p.6vov ev T<*> altavi 

as a rendering of irarpid in the Latin rovro> aXXa Kal V r<3 /uXXom, is 

l6 /a 


vfjuv Kara TO 7rAoim>s TT/S 0^79 
KpaTaicaOfjvai $ia TOV Trvev/ULctTOS avTOV 
els TOV <T(*) avBpiairov, 1? KaToiKtjcrai TOV xpi&TOV Sia 
7T/<TTft)S ev TctTs KapSicus v/uuSv iv ayctTTf/' eppifyo- 

perhaps only made for the sake of 
emphasis. We may, however, note the 

Rabbinic use of K^DS (familia) 'the 
family above and the family below': 
see Taylor Sayings of Jewish Fathers 
ed. 2, p. 125, and Thackeray St Paul 
and Contemp. Jewish Thought p. 

ovou.aeTai\ 'is named', i.e. derives 
its name: for the construction with 
CK compare Soph. 0. T. 1036 o>or 
tavoiMao-drjs en ri>x^s Tavrr)s 6s el (sc. 
Oidiirovs'), and Xenoph. Memorab. iv 
512 e(J>rj Be KOI TO dta\eyea6ai ovofut- 
vdfjvat e< TOV K.T.\. 

1 6. TOV 60-0) avtipatirov] This phrase 
finds its full explanation in 2 Cor. 
iv 1 6 bio OVK evKaKovpcv, d\\' el KOI 
o ego rm&v av6pamos S 
cXX' o ?o-co i//i<3v avatuuvovTfu 
KM r^epa. ' Our outward man' is in 
the Apostle's subsequent phrase 17 
tiriyetos rjp&v aMa TOV <rtfi>o vs , which 
is subject to dissolution : our inward 
man ' is that part of our nature which 
has fellowship with the eternal, which 
looks 'not at the things which are 
seen, but at the things which are not 
seen.' There is no reason to seek for 
a philosophical precedent for the 
phrase : at any rate Plato Rep. sSgA, 
which is persistently quoted, offers no 
parallel ; for there o evrbs &v6pa>iros, 
' the man who is within him ', is only 
one of three contending constituents 
(the others being a multiform beast 
and a lion) which the Platonic parable 
supposes to be united under what is 
outwardly a human form. 

In St Paul the phrase occurs again 
inRom.vii22. And in i Pet. iii 3 f. we 
have a contrast between 6 efadev... 
IfMTtcav Koo-fws and o KpVTtrbs Trjs 
Kapo'ia.s avdpanros ev T$ d<pddpT<p TOV 
*i<nx.iov KOI Trpaewy irvevpaTos. 

17. KaroiK^crai\ KaroiKelv is rare 
in St Paul, who more frequently uses 
f '*"" or evouteiv. It occurs again only 
in Col. i 19, ii 9, and we have KOTOIK.^- 
rfpiov in Eph. ii 22. When used in 
contrast to itapouteiv the word implies 
a permanent as opposed to a tem- 
porary residence (see Lightfoot's note 
on Clem. Rom. pref.}; where it occurs 
by itself it suggests as much of 
permanence as olneiv necessarily does, 
but no more. 

* dydirrj] Reasons for joining 
these words with what precedes have 
been given in the exposition. In 
favour of this collocation it may also 
be observed (i) that eV dycmrj forms 
tfl e emphatic close of a sentence 
several times in this epistle ; see i 4 
and note, iv 2, 16 : and (2) that the 
anacoluth&n which follows appears to 
be more natural if the fresh start is 
' mad e by the participles and not by an 
adverbial phrase; compare, e.g., iv 2 
dvexopevoi aX\7/X<ai ev dydirg and CoL 
^ 2 o-w^ao-Bevres ev^dydirrj. 

eppifw/ze'Mu] St Paul is fond of 
passing suddenly to the nominative 
of a participle, as in the two passages 
last quoted, to which may be added 
CoL iii 16 6 Xdyos...eVoiKetV<o <rV 
SiMo-navres : see Lightfoot's note on 
that passage. There is therefore no 
reason for supposing that iva is be- 
lated, as was suggested by Origen, 
and as is implied in the rendering of 
the A. V., ' that ye, being rooted ', &c. 
On the contrary, Iva depends directly 
on the participles which precede it. 

For the metaphors compare (i) 
Col. ii 7 eppifapevoi (coi jroiKo8opav- 
fievoi ev OVT& nal |3q8<Mou/i><H T# 
TTt'orct, and (2) Col. i 23 ei ye ei 
irivrei rede/icXica/icvoi KOI e'S 


and I Pet. V IO, where 6e[i.e\i&<rci is 


[Ill 1820 

tr6ai (rvv TTcuriv TOIS dyiois TL TO wXaros teal /ufJKOS KCU 
a0os, I9 yi/c5i/af re Ttjv v i jrepfid\\ovcrav TIJS 
wydiriiv TOV xpicrTOv y iva ir\rip(a6f\Te eis irav 
TOV 6eov. 90 T<0 Se 


7roi<rai vTTepeKTrepurcrov cov 

found in NKLP, though not in AB. 
For the combination of the metaphors 
Wetstein cites Luciau de Saltat. 34 
rives pi{ai Kai depeXia rrjs 


1 8. elwxvoTjre] A late word, found 
but once elsewhere in the Greek 
Bible, Ecclus. vii 6 (B : but K AC 
have the simple verb). It suggests 
the difficulty of the task, which calls 
for all their strength. 

KaTaXafte<r6at] The middle is found 
thrice (Acts iv 13, x 34, xxv 25), and, 
-as here r in-the sense of-' to perceive'; 

ir\a.Tos K.T.X.] Theodore's comment 
is admirable and sufficient : iva etiry 
apiTos TO peyedos airb T&V trap 
ovofwrtav. St Paul is not think- 
ing of the measures of the ' holy 
temple', as some of the moderns 
suggest; nor of the shape of the cross, 
as many of the ancients prettily 
fancied. He is speaking in vague 
terms of the magnitude of that which 
it will take them all their strength 
to apprehend the Divine mercy, 
especially as now manifested in the 
inclusion of the Gentiles, the Divine 
secret, the Divine purpose for man- 
kind in Christ. To supply TTJS ayan-ijs 
TOV xpurrov out of the following 
sentence is at once needless and 
unjustifiable. With the intentional 
vagueness of the phrase we may com- 
pare JDidache c. 12 a-vvea-iv yap erre 
dfgiav KOI apurrepav. 

19. vjrep/SaXXovoW] 'Yirepf3d\\eiv is 
used with either an accusative or a 
genitive (Aesch. Plat. Arist.) of the 
object surpassed. So too wrepc'xeu' : 
comp. PhiL ii 3 virepexovras eavrow 
withPhiLiv7 qvirepexovvairavravovv. 

r\ voovpev K.OTOL. 

els K.T.X.] 'up to the measure of: 
comp. iv 13 fls p*Tpov iJXtKi'af ToO 
irXyptoparos TOV xpiorou. The Apostle's 
prayer finds its climax in the request 
that they may attain to the complete- 
ness towards which God is working 
and in which God will be all in all. 
Ideally this position is theirs already 
in Christ, as he says to the Colossians 
(ii 9): ev OVT& KoroiKei irav TO ir\q- 
ptajjia. TTJS BeoTifros trwfiaTiK&s, Kai core 
ev OVT^ Trir\T)pu>fjievoi, K.T.\. Its reali- 
sation is the Divine purpose and, 
-accordingly,~~~the~^postle's Highest 
prayer. On the sense of TO 

TOV deov see the exposition. We may 
usefully compare with the whole 
phrase CoL ii 19, where St Paul 
describes the intermediate stage of 
the process, saying of the Body: 
avgei TT)V avgyviv TOV 6eov. 

The reading of B and a few cur- 
sives, Iva ir\r)pa>6fl irav TO n-Xijpiop.a TOV 
&oG, offers an easier construction, but 
an inferior sense. 

20, 21. 'Have I asked a hard 
thing? I have asked it of Him who 
can do far more than this ; who can 
vastly transcend our petition, even 
our imagining : of Him whose mighty 
working is actually at work in us. 
Glory be to Him! Glory in the 
Church and in Christ Jesus glory in 
the Body alike and in the Head 
through all the ages of eternity'. 

2O. TO> 8e 8wa/ixa] Compare the 
doxology in Eom. XVi 25, Tip 8e 8wa- 
pevtp v/uu on/pi^at, K.T.X. 

vnepeiarepurvov] This word occurs 
twice in St Paul's earliest epistle, but 
not elsewhere : i Thess. iii 10 WKTOS 
xal rjfitpas virepeKirepi<TO~ov beopcvoi, V 


Tt]V Svvctfjuv TY\V evepyovfjLGvnv ev qfJiTv, ** avTtp n So^a ev 
rfj eKK\r}cria Kai ev XptcrTtS 'lrj(rov els iracras TS yeveas 

TOV aiwvos TtZv aicovcov d/uujv. 

IV. ^TlapaKaXco ovv VJJLOS e*yo 6 Beer/^os ev Kvpico 
7repi7raTfj<rai r^s K\n<rea>s fc e/cX^^re, *juera 
ces Ta7reivo<ppO(rvvris teal TrpavTrjTOS, /iera ftaicpo- 

13 qyel<rdai avrovs virepcKirepio-<rov ev alcavtov Kol OTTO T&V yeve&v ', and see 

dydirrj. Here it is employed as a the note on v. 5 above. 

preposition to govern v>v oirovpe&a'. IV. i 6. ' I have declared to you 

so that the construction is, 'to Him the Divine purpose, and the calling 

that is able to do more than all, far whereby you have been called to take 

beyond what we ask '. The phrase your place in it. I have prayed that 

vircp navTa, which was to have been you may know its uttermost meaning 

followed by a atrov/ne&z, has thus for yourselves. Prisoner as I am, I 

become isolated through the exuber- can do no more. But I plead with 

ance with which the Apostle empha- you that you will respond to your 

sises his meaning. calling. Make your conduct worthy 
Compare PhiL iv 7^__of ypur_position. Eirst and-foremostj- 

Tov~~6eov~fi virpej(ov(ra iravra cultivate the meek and lowly mind, 

vow. , the patient forbearance, the charity, 

TTJV evepyovpevriv] 'that worJceth' : a without which a common life is im- 

sufficient rendering, though the force possible. For you must eagerly pre- 

of the passive can only be given if we serve your spiritual oneness. Oneness 

say 'that is made to work' : see the is characteristic of the Gospel. Con- 

detached note on evepyeiv. Compare sider its present working and its pre- 

Col. i 29 Kara TTJV ivepyeiav avrov TTJV destined issue: there is one Body, 

evepyovfievTjv ev cpol ev Suz/a/x. animated by one Spirit, cherishing 

21. ev rf) K.T.A.] 'in the church one Hope. Look back to its imme- 

and in Christ Jesus'. The variants diate origin: there is one Lord, to 

help to shew how striking is the true whom we are united by one Faith in 

text. For (i) the order is reversed Him, by one Baptism in His name. 

in D 2 Gr 3 ; and (2) nal is dropped in Rise to its ultimate source: there is 

KLP etc., whence the rendering of one God, the Father of all, who is 

the Authorised Version, 'in the over all, through all and in all '. 

church by Christ Jesus'. With this i. IlapaKaXa ovv v/wis] The same 

timidity we may contrast Jerome's words occur in Rom. xii i, after a 

comment ad loc. : 'Ipsi itaque deo sit doxology which, as here, closes the 

gloria : primum, in ecclesia, quae est preceding chapter. 

pura, non habens maculam neque agios] Comp. CoL i 10 vepararfia-an. 

rugam, et quae propterea gloriam agios rov nvptov, I Thess. ii 12 els ro. 

dei recipere potest, quia corpus est irepmarfiv VIMS agios rov deov TOU> 

Christi : deinde in Christo Jesu, quia Ka\ovvros vpas, Phil, i 27 povov aiW 

in corpore assumpti hominis, cuius rovfvayye\iovTovxP t<rrovir ^ lTevecr O e * 

sunt uniuersa membra credentium, For irepararflv and its synonyms see 

omnis diuinitas inhabitet corpora- the note on ii 2. 

liter'. 2. Taircivoffrpoovinjs] For the low 

yeveds] Compare CoL i 26 dirb r&v sense of this word in other writers, 

EPHBS. 2 12 



[IV 36 

rrjv evoTtiTa TOV TTi/eujuaro? ev TO> 

4 ei/ crwjjia Kai ev Trvevjua, KaBtos KCLL eK\i]6rjTe ev 
a e\7ri$i Tfa KXr^crews VJJLWV 5 ei<s Kvpios, I 

6 eh Beds KCU iraTrjp TrdvTtav 6 em 

7ri<TTK 9 ev 

and for the place of 'humility* in the 
moral code of Christianity, see Light- 
foot's note on PhiL ii 3: and for 
jrpavTTjs and paKpodvpia, see his note 
on Got iii 12. 

dvexopevot] For the transition to 
the nominative participle see the note 
on iii 17. 

3. cnrovo'dgovTes] 'giving dili- 
gence': 'satis agenfes' Cypr., 'solli- 
citi' Vulg. For the eagerness which 
the word implies, see the exposition. 

evoTTjTa] Considering that St Paul 
-lays_ao- much stress on unity, it is 
remarkable that he uses the abstract 
word 'oneness' only here and in v. 
13. In each case he quickly passes 
to its concrete embodiment here ev 
cr&pa, in V. 13 els av8pa reXetov. In 
both places it is followed by defining 
genitives TOV irvevpaTos and (v. 13) 
TTJS irivretos ica! rffs ciriyvwretas TOV 
viov TOV deov. It is possible to take 
TOV ifvevfMTos here of the Holy Spirit, 
as the producer and maintainer of 
Unity : comp. / noivatvia TOV ayiov 
irvevpaTos, 2 Cor. xiii 13 ; and 8O 
perhaps Koivovia irvevfuiros, Phil, ii i. 
But it is equally possible to regard 
* the spirit ' as the ' one spirit ' of the 
'one body' : see the next verse. 

o-wdfo-pto] Peace is here the bond 
of oneness. In Col. iii 14 f. Move' 
is 'the bond of perfectness ', while 
'peace' is the ruling consideration 
which decides all such controversies 
as might threaten the unity of the 
Body : see Lightfoot's notes on that 


4. ev a-Spa] Having already broken 
his construction by the introduction 
of the nominative participles, St Paul 
adds a series of nominatives, of which 

the first two may be regarded as in 
apposition to the participles ' being, 
as ye are, one body and one spirit'. 
The others are then loosely attached 
with no definite construction. In 
translation, however, it is convenient 
to prefix the words 'there is' to the 
whole series. 

ev irvevpa] For the 'one spirit', 
which corresponds to the 'one body', 
see the note on ii 18 ev evl irvevpari. 

eXTTi'Si K.T.X.] Comp. i 1 8 17 eXirls 
TTJS K\r/o-ea>s avTov. God's calling is 
the general ground of hope: 'your 

~caHing',~LeTHis~calling~of you^makes 

you sharers in the one common hope. 

5. els Kvpios] Comp. i Cor. viii 6 

c * t A ^ * ' )>r\ f 

rfpiv eis Geos o itanjp, eg ov TO iravra 
Kal rjpeis els OVTOV, KOI els Kvpios 'liyrroGs 
Xptaros, St' ov TO, itavra Kal rjpels Si 
avrou : also I Tim. ii 5 els yap 6e6s$ 
els Kal pea-iTrjs K.r.X. 

fiia TTIOTCS] One faith in the one 
Lord united all believers: comp. 
Bom. iii 30 els 6 deos, os 8tKauoo~ei 
irepiToptiv K irurre&s Kal aKpoftvoriav 


ev ptarmo-pa] Baptism 'in the name 
of the Lord Jesus' was the act which 
gave definiteness to faith in Him. It 
was at the same time, for all alike, 
the instrument of embodiment in the 
*one body': i Cor. xii 13 ical yap ev 
evl irvevpaTt qpets irdvres els ev atopa 
fj3airrlo~0ripev ) eire 'lovSatoi eire "EXXij- 
ves, eire o~ov\ot eiTe eXevdepoi. 

6. eirliravrvv /c.r.X.] Comp.Bom.ix5 
6 eav eirl irdvreav debs evKoyrfrbs els TOVS 
aluvas. Supreme over all, He moves 
through all, and rests in all. With ev 
irao-tv we may compare i Cor. xv 28 
iva $ 6 6ebs irdvra, ev trao-iv, though 
there the emphasis falls on 



Kal iv Traoriv. 'ei/< $e eKflMrrw ;;ua>i> 
*/ X<*P K Kara TO jmeTpov Ttjs Selects TOV %purTOV. 
8 $10 \eyei 

K.OLL I A CO K N A M AT <\ T O ? C A N 6 p <i> TT O I C. 

The text of XABCP (eV iratriv) is the complete maturity of the fulfilled 

undoubtedly right. D 2 G 3 KL, with the Christ'. 

Syriac and Latin, add i/juv: and a 7- n x^P ts 1 BD 2 ^th some others 

few cursives have vfuv, which is repre- omit the article: but it has probably 

sented in the A.V. When we hare fallen out after e86di}. 

restored the reading, we have to ask fierpov] Comp. Bom. xii 3 cKcurra 

what is the gender of iravreov and cos 6 Beits epepurev perpov frtoreox. The 

iratriv. The Lathi translators were word, which is found in only one other 

compelled to face this question when passage of St Paul, 2 Cor. x 13, 

rendering em iravrw and &o irwnav. occurs thrice in this context; see vv. 

All possible variations are found, but 13, 16. This repetition of an un- 

the most usual rendering seems to be accustomed word, when it has been 

that of the Vulgate, l super omnes et once used, is illustrated by the re- 
ictJ, jghich-also has good-early currence~ofei/ot?j, w. 3, 13. 

authority. The fact that irarijp itwrwv 8. dib Xeyet] The exact phrase 

precedes might suggest that the mas- recurs in r 14. "We find xal nakiv 

culine is intended throughout: but Xey> following ycypcnrrai, in Rom. 

em iravrtov at once admits of the xr 10 ; comp. also 2 Cor. vi 2, Gal iii 

wider reference, see Rom. ix 5 quoted 16. We may supply 17 ypaxfrq, as in 

above; and we shall probably be Bom. x n and elsewhere, if a nomi- 

right in refusing to limit the Apostle's native is required. 

meaning. mafias] In the ixx of Ps. Ixvii 

7 13. 'Not indeed that this one- (Ixviii) 19 the words are: 'Avajias els 

ness implies uniformity of endowment fyog tfx/uaXurcucra? alxna\<ocriav, e\a- 

or of function. On the contrary, to /3 So/xara ev avdpwrois (av0pam-<p B* b ). 

each individual in varying measures ' The Psalmist pictures to himself a 

by the gift of Christ has been en- triumphal procession, winding up the 

trusted the grace which I have already newly-conquered hill of Zion, the 

spoken of as entrusted to me. The figure being that of a victor, taking 

distribution of gifts is involved in the possession of the enemy's citadel, and 

very fact of the Ascension. When with his train of captives and spoil 

He ascended, we read, He gave following him in the triumph.... In the 

gifts. He, the All-fulfiller, descended words following, Hast received gifts 

to ascend : and He it is that gave among men, the Psalmist alludes to 

apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors the tribute offered either by the van- 

and teachers a rich variety, but all quished foes themselves, or by others 

for unity : to fit the members of the who come forward spontaneously to 

holy people to fulfil their appropriate own the victor, and secure his favour' 

service, for the building of the body (Driver, Sermons on the O. T., 1892, 

of the Christ, until we all reach the pp. 194 f.)- 

goal of the consciously realised unity, St Paul makes two alterations in 

which cannot be reached while any the text of the LXX : (i) he changes 

are left behind the full-grown Man, the verbs from the second person to 

12 2 



[IV 9, 10 

10 d 

/i \ 


O ^ ^ '*, ' ' 

9 ro oe ANEBH TL e&Tiv ei 
KctTWTepa fjieprj TIJS 7*?s; 1 
6 dvafids vTrepdvo) irdvTtav TWV ovpavayv, iva 7r\tip(a(rri 

aimjs e<TTiv 


the third, (2) he reads eSw/cf v 8o/*ara 
rots avQptoirois for eXa/Sts So/iara eV 
dvGpdirois. Accordingly of the two 
words which he selects to comment 
on, dvafias and cdconev, the second is 
entirely absent from the original of 
the text. The explanation is thus 
given by Dr Driver (ibid. pp. 197 f.) : 
'St Paul is not here following the 
genuine text of the Psalm, but is in 
all probability guided by an old 
Jewish interpretation with which he 
was familiar, and which, instead of 
received gifts among men, para- 
phrased gave gifts to men.... The 
~Targum on the~~PsaIms renders -:- 
"Thou ascendedst up to the firma- 
ment, prophet Moses, thou tookest 
captives captive, thou didst teach the 
words of the law, thou gavest them as 
gifts to the children of men"'. The 
Peshito Syriac likewise has : ' Thou 
didst ascend on high and lead capti- 
vity captive, and didst give gifts to 
the sons of men*. For other ex- 
amples of the influence of traditional 
Jewish interpretations in St Paul's 
writings, see Dr Driver's art. in the 
Expositor, 1889, vol. ix, pp. 20 ff. 

9. KaTe/Sij] For the addition of 
irparov, see the note on various read- 

Karcorepa] So far as the Greek 
alone is concerned, it might be allow- 
able to explain this as meaning ' this 
lower earth'. But the contrast wep- 
ava> TOP ovpav&v is against such an 
interpretation. And the phrase is 
Hebraistic, and closely parallel to 
that of Ps. Ixii (Ixiii) 10 cureXevcroprai 
etsr TO Karcarara rijs yijs, ie. Sheol, or 
Hades; and of Ps. cxxxviii (cxxxix) 
1 5 fv rols Karororots (B Karararco) rrjs 
yijs. Whether we interpret the phrase 
as signifying ' the lower parts of the 

earth 5 or 'the parts below the earth* 
is a matter of indifference, as in 
either case the underworld is the 
region in question. The descent is to 
the lowest, as the ascent is to the 
highest, that nothing may remain un- 

IO. avros effTiv /e.r.A.] 'He it is 
that also ascended': so in -v. n Kal 
avrbs edaxev. 

virepdvai] 'above', not 'far above' : 
see the note on i 21. 

iravr&v T&V ovpava>v\ 'all heavens' t 
or 'all the heavens'. The plural ov- 
pavoi, which, though not classical, is 
frequent-in-the_JJ[ew Testament^js_ 
generally to be accounted for by the 
fact that the Hebrewword for 'heaven' 
is only used in the plural. But certain 
passages, such as the present and 
2 Cor. xii 2 ea>s rpirov ovpavov (comp. 
also Heb. iv 14), imply the Jewish 
doctrine of a seven-fold series of 
heavens, rising one above the other. 
For this doctrine, and for its history 
in the Christian Church, see art. 
' Heaven' by Dr S. D. F. Salmond in 
Hastings' Bible Dictionary. The 
descent and ascent of 'the Beloved' 
through the Seven Heavens are de- 
picted at length in the Ascension of 
Isaiah (on which see my art. in the 
same dictionary). 

wXi/paMrfl] The context, which de- 
scribes the descent to the lowest and 
the ascent to the highest regions, 
suggests the literal meaning of 'filling 
the universe' with His presence: 
comp. Jer. xxiii 24 ^ vx i r v ovpa- 
vov Kal TTJV yfjv cy& irhrjpa>; Xcyct 
Kvptos. But in view of the use of the 
verb and its substantive in this epistle 
in the sense of 'fulfilment', it would 
be unwise to limit the meaning here. 
He who is Himself 'all in all fulfilled" 


<ra TrdvTa. "ical auros IAOOKSN row jutev cr7ro<rra\0i/s, 

e 7rpo<ptJTas 9 TOI)S Se evayyeAtfrras, TOI)S e 
KCM StSaencaAoi/s, M 7T|Oos roV KaTaprurfJiov 

(i 23) is at the same time the fulfiller ei>ayye\urras\ The term ' evange- 

of all things that are, whether in lists ' denotes those who are specially 

Leaven or on earth. We may not lose engaged in the extension of the 

sight of the Apostle's earlier words in Gospel to new regions. It is found 

i 10 di>aK(pd\aua(ra<r0ai ra travra ev r& again Only in Acts Xxi 8, 2 Tim. IT 5. 

Xpurrm, TCI eir\ rots ovpavois KOI TO. cirl iroipevas] Used only here of Christ- 

TTJS yrjs. The local terminology of ian teachers, though it is applied to 

descent, ascent, and omnipresence our Lord in Heb. xiii 20, i Pet. ii 25 

thus gains its spiritual interpretation, and v 4 (dpxtiroiprjv)', comp. John x 

ii. O.VTOS edaiKev K.T.X.] *1T0 it is ii, 14. Comp. also the use of iroipai- 

that gave some for apostles 1 etc. veiv in John xxi 16, Acts xx 28, 

Compare i Cor. xii 28 KOI ovs pw I Pet. v 2, Jude 12. It suggests the 

o debs ev rf) eKK^aia irpwrov feeding, protection and rule of the 

ouy, Bevrcpov TTpo^ifros, K.T.A. flock. 

is here used, because the StSao-xoXow] 'Teachers' are joined 

Apostle is commenting on the eftaxev with 'prophets' in Acts 

The-So/uara they follow^hem'in~theTist~in i Cor. 

of the ascended Christ are some of xii 28 ; but we have no other refer- 

them apostles, some prophets, and so ence to them as a class, except in 

forth. "With avrbs eScoKev compare Rom. xii 7 (o didao-Kcov, ev rfj 8i8aa-Ka- 

avros ecmv KM 6 avafias in the pre- Xi'a). 'Prophets and teachers' are 

ceding verse. also mentioned in the Didache c. 15 

<BrooToXow...7rpo0i7Tasj 'Apostles (quoted in the exposition). The 

and prophets' have already been ' pastors and teachers 'are here sepa- 

spoken of as the foundation of the rated from the foregoing and linked 

Divine house (ii 20), and as those together by the bond of a common 

members of the holy people to whom article. It is probable that their 

the mystery of the Christ is primarily sphere of activity was the settled 

revealed (iii 5). congregation, whereas the apostles, 

Under the term 'apostles' no prophets and evangelists had a wider 

doubt the Twelve and St Paul are range. 

chiefly referred to : but that the 12. KaTapTurpov] The verb Ktmip- 

designation was not confined to them ri&iv is discussed by Lightfoot on 

was shewn by Lightfoot (Gal. pp. 95 f.), i Thess. iii 10 (Notes on Epp. p. 47). 

and has since been illustrated by the He illustrates its prominent idea of 

mention of apostles in the Didache. 'fitting together' by its classical use 

Prophets are referred to in Acts xi for reconciling political factions, 

27 f. (Agabus and others), xiii i, xv and its use in surgery for setting 

32 (Judas and Silas), xxi 9 (prophet- bones. In the New Testament it is 

esses), 10; i Cor. xii 28, xiv 29 ff. used of bringing a thing into its 

For the prominent place which they proper condition, whether for the 

hold in the Didache, see the exposi- first time or, as more commonly, after 

tion. For a discussion of both terms lapse. Thus we have (i) Heb. xi 3 

I must refer to my articles * Apostle', ican/prtV^at TOUS al&vas pypari &eoZ r 

'Prophet', in the Encyclopaedia, xiii 21 jearapr/o-at VIMS ev iravrl dyad<p 

elf TO iroif]<rai TO deXrjfia avrov, I Pet. 

1 82 


[IV 13 

dyiwv CK epyov 



v 10 Karapria-fi, onjpiget, <r0ev<r: 
(2) literally, Mark i 19, of putting 
nets hi order ; metaphorically, of 
restoration of an offender, Gal. vi I 
jcorapTtfere TOIOVTOV, and of the rectifi- 
cation of short-comings, I Thess. iii 10 
KarapTia-ai TO voTeprjfMra TIJS mareos 
vfi&v. The sense of restoration prevails 
in 2 Cor. xiii 9 roOro KOI e^xofteda, T^J/ 
Karapruriv, which is followed by 
in v. 11: in i Cor. i 10 
ev T$ O.VT& vot follows 
the mention of a-^itrfMTa. 

For the form see Clem. Strom, iv 
26 (P. 638) T$ TOV o-wrffpos KarapTurpa 
Te\eiovpevov : and comp. Aristeas, 
Swete Introd. to LXX 544, irpbs 
dyvrjv eiriaitefyiv Kol rpoTrav egaprurpov. 

Jn_this_passage_ieaTgpjrHr/aog sug- 

gests the bringing of the saints to a 
condition of fitness for the discharge 
of their functions in the Body, without 
implying restoration from a disor- 
dered state. 

els epyov BtoKovias] The nearest 
parallel is 2 Tim. iv 5 epyov iroirja-ov 
evayye\itrrov (for epyov mareus in 
2 Thess. i ii is 'activity inspired by 
faith', comp. i Thess. i 3): but the 
sense here is much more general than 
if we had els epyov diaKovav. 

AiaKovia is the action of a servant 
(8iaKovos) who waits at table, etc.: 
comp. Luke x 40, xvii 8, xxii 26 f., 
Acts vi if. But it has the same 
extension as our word 'service', and 
it was at once applied to all forms of 
Christian ministration. Thus 17 8ta- 
Kovia TOV Xoyoy is contrasted with 17 
Ka6rifjiepivT) SIUKOVM in Acts vi i, 4. 
And it is used with a wide range 
extending from the work of the aposto- 
late (Acts i 1 7, 25, Rom. xi 1 3) to the 
informal 'service to the saints' to 
which the household of Stephanas 
had appointed themselves (els Stojco- 
viav TOIS dyiois eragav eavrovs I Cor. 
xvi 15). Here we may interpret it 


of any service which the saints render 
to one another, or to the Body of 
which they are members, or (which is 
the same thing) to the Lord who is 
their Head. 

The phrase els epyov Sianovias is 
most naturally taken as dependent on 
Karapno-pov. The change of preposi- 
tions (n-poj...s) points in this direc- 
tion, but is not in itself conclusive: 
the absence of the definite articles 
however, with the consequent com- 
pactness of the phrase, is strongly 
confirmatory of this view. Themean- 
ing accordingly is : 'for the complete 
equipment of the saints for the work 
of service'. 

oiKoSoftyv] l building ' rather than 
' edification': for the picturesque"- 

ness of the metaphor must be pre- 
served. Comp. ii 21 Tracro otKodo/n/ 
...a#, and the note there. The 
phrase els olKoSopfjit K.T.X. gives the 
general result of all that has hitherto 
been spoken of; as in . 16, where it 
is repeated. 

13. KOToim/VcD/iei/] This verb is used 
nine times in the Acts, of travellers 
reaching a place of destination. Other- 
wise it is confined in the New Testa- 
ment to St Paul. In i Cor. xiv 36 it 
is contrasted with ege\0etv: rj d<p* 
vft&v o Xoyoy TOV Qeov erj\0ev t rj elf 
vpas fj.6vovs Ka.Ti]VTT}o-e v ; ('were you 
its starting-point, or were you its only 
destination ? ') : see also i Cor. x n 
rip&v, els ovs TO re\r] TO>V alcovwv Ka-njv- 
TrjKev, PhiL iii 1 1 et ira>s KaTatrnjo~<o els 
TTJV e^avaoraa-iv K.T.\. Unity is our 
journey's end, our destination. 

ol TTowes] i.e. 'all of us together'. 
As often in the phrase ra iravra, 
when it means 'the universe of things', 
the definite article gathers all the 
particulars under one view: comp. 
Rom. XI 32 avveK^eio-ev yap 6 6ebs 
row TTOITOS els diteiQiav iva TOVS iravras 
7, I Cor. X 17 6Vt els &pns t ev 

IV 14] 



TJJS Trtcrrews Kai TJ/S 

TOV vlov TOV 

Oeov, eK avSpa. TeXeiov, els juteTpov qXucias TOV 
/tearos TOV 'XjpLcrTov* I4 iW p.riK6Ti wjmev vtfirtoi, 

<r<5/Lta ol TroXXoi etr/xei/, o{ yap TraWes eic 
TOV >os aprov peTexppev. 

els. ..els. ..els] The three clauses are 
co-ordinate. In accordance with the 
general rule Ka.To.vrav is followed by els 
to indicate destination. 

evoTTjTa] See above, on v. 3. 

TrtWecos] Comp. pia jn'orts, 0. 5. 
Both iriffreats and eiriyv<oo~ea>s are to 
be taken with the following genitive 
TOV vlov TOV deov : comp. Gal. ii 20 ev 
jriorei <3 TJ5 TOU vlov TOV deov. The 
unity springs from a common faith in, 
and a common knowledge of, Christ 
as the Son of God. 

emyvcoo-eas] 'knowledge', not 'full' 
tached note on eiriyvcoa'is. 

TOV vlov TOV deov] St Paul's first 
preaching at Damascus is thus de- 
scribed in Acts ix 2O, etcypvo-o-ev TOV 
*Ii}crovv OTI ovYds eaTiv 6 vlos TOV deov. 
In his earliest epistle we have the 
Divine sonship mentioned in con- 
nexion with the resurrection: i 
Thess. i IO dvapevciv TOV vlov avrov IK. 
r&v ovpavav, ov tfyeipev e< T&V veicpoov, 
'Irjcrovv, K.T.X.: and this connexion is 
emphasised in Bom. i 3 TOV opurdev- 
TOS vlov deov ev bwapei KOTO. irvevfM 
dyuocrvvTjs e dvaoTacrews vexputv. On 
the special point of the title in the 
present context see the exposition. 

avdpa] The new human unity is in 
St Paul's language els naivbs avdpat- 
iros (ii 15). Here, however, he uses 
dvfjp TcXetof, because his point is the 
maturity of the full-grown organism. 
Man as distinguished from angels or 
the lower animals is av6 punas. He is 
dvTjp as distinguished either (a) from 
woman, or (&) from boy. It is in view 
of this last distinction that dvrjp is 
here used, to signify 'a human being 
grown to manhood'. Comp. i Cor. 
xiii II ore tfpijv vijirtos...5Te yeyova 

dvfo : so here, in the next verse, we 
have by way of contrast tva 

It is specially to be observed that 
St Paul does not say els &v8pas TA- 
ovs, though even Origen incidentally 
so interprets him (Cramer Catena, 
ad loc. y p. 171). Out of the imma- 
turity of individualism (vjirtoi), we 
are to reach the predestined unity of 
the one full-grown Man (els &v8pa 


/teVpoj/j 'the measure' in the sense 
of *the full measure'; as in the 
phrases juerpov tfftrjs Horn. H. xi 225, 

<ro(f>iT)s peTpov, Solon iv 52. To fteTpov 

T^y-i/Xt/Maf-is-quoted by Wetstein" 
from Lucian Imag. 6 and Philostra- 
tus, Vit. Soph, i 25, 26, p. 543. 

iJXwaas] A stage of growth, whether 
measured by age or stature. It is 
used for maturity in the phrase 
yXiKiav exeiv (John ix 21, as also in 
classical Greek). 

TrXjjpw/LiaTos] We cannot separate 
'the fulness of the Christ' in this 
passage from the statement in i 23 
that the Christ is 'being fumlled' 
and finds His fulness in the Church. 
When all the saints have come to the 
unity which is then* destined goal, or, 
in other words, to the full-grown 
Man, the Christ will have been ful- 
filled. Thus they will have together 
reached 'the full measure of the ma- 
turity of the fulness of the Christ'. 

14 1 6. ' So shall we be babes no 
longer, like little boats tossed and 
swung round by shifting winds, the 
sport of clever and unscrupulous in- 
structors; but we shall hold the truth 
in love, and so grow up into the 
Christ. He is the Head : from Him 
the whole Body, an organic unity 
articulated and compacted by all the 
joints of its system, active in all the 


6pJievoi Kal TrepxfrepdfJievoi Train-} dvefJiw -rifc 

ev Trj Kvfiia TWV dvBpcoTrtav ev iravovpyia irpos Trjv 

functions of its several parts, grows Origen ad loc. uses the expression 

with its proper growth and builds KvftevTiK&s 8i8do-Kei.v, for the meaning 

itself in love*. of which we may compare c. Cels. iii 

14. vijmoi] In addition to I Cor. 39 ov8ev vodov KOI KV^VTIKOV KOI ire- 

xiii 1 1, quoted above, compare I Cor. ir\ao-pevov Kal iravovpyov ex. OVTa>v (of 

iii if. OVK ij8vvqdt]v \a\TJo-ai vpuf us the Evangelists). 

TTvevfiaTiKois aXX* tag (rapKivois, <os r&v dv6puma>v\ A. similar depre- 

vqiriots ev Xptora yaXa Vfias eVoritra, ciatory use of of avdpanroi is found in 

ov /3pc5/ia, ovira> yap e8vva<rde. OoL ii 8, 22, the latter of which 

K\v8a>vi^6fievoi} Comp. Luke viii passages is based on Isa. xxix 13. 

24 T<5 dvepco KOI TW K\v8a>vi TOV ufiaros, iravovpyia] In classical Greek irav- 

James i 6 6 yap ftuntpivopcvos eoutev ovpyos, which originally means 'ready 

K\v$a>vi 6a\a(T(n]s di>efii^ofj.evy Kal to do anything', has a better and a 

pimopev<p, "When used metaphori- worse meaning, like our word 'cun- 

cally K\68a>p is 'storm' rather than ning' in biblical English. The better 

'wave': comp. Demosth. defals. leg. meaning is found e.g. in Plato Rep. 

p. 44 2 K\v8cava KOI {jiaviav TO, Kade- 4090 iravovpyos re KOI <ro(j)6s. It 

OTO irpaypara qyovitevav, Philo de prevails in the LXX, where the word is 

K\v8tova TroXvv arro TOV crmjuaro; pos is another equivalent : comp. 

Plut. Coriol. 32 Kadaarep Prov. xiii I vibs iravovpyos vinJKOos 

ev x ei P**vi TToXXw Kal K\vSa>vi rfjs irarpi The only place where the ad- 

TroXfcos. So we find the verb used hi jective occurs in the New Testament 

Josephus Ant. ix 1 1 3, o Srjpos Topaa-- is 2 Cor. xii 16, where St Paul play- 

o-opcvos Kal K\v8a>vi6[i,evos. fully uses it of himself, virdpxo>v irav- 

ircpi<pep6[ivoi\ i.e. swung round. It ovpyos SoXo> eXaftov. St Luke 

occurs, but only as an ill-attested uses iravovpyia of the 'craftiness' of 

variant for irapafycpea-dai 'to be carried our Lord's questioners in reference to 

aside, out of course', both in Heb. xiii the tribute-money, thus hinting at the 

9 (8i8axais fl-otKtXoi? Kal evais (if} irapa- cleverness with which the trap was 

<pepe<rde), and hi Jude 12 (rc<>eXat laid, whereas St Mark and St Matthew 

aw8poi VJTO dvefuav iropaffiepofievat). employ harsher words (vTToKpicris, 

iravri dre'/xw] This is to be taken irovqpia). In his quotation from Job 

with both participles : the K\v8a>v is v 13 in i Cor. iii 19 St Paul renders 

due to the avepos, as in Luke Viii 23 f. DDTID by ev TQ iravovpyia avrav, 

TTJS StSao-KoXtas] l of doctrine': the where the LXX has ev rfj (ppovfoei 

article marks the abstract use of the avr&v. In 2 Cor. xi 3 he says o otpis 

word. f^rjirdrrjtrev'EvavevTfj iravovpyia OVTOV, 

KujSia] 'playing with dice'(Ki3/Sot), referring to Gen. iii i, where DVlJJ is 

'gaming', and so, metaphorically, represented in the LXX by <pow/6ra- 

' trickery'. 'Ev is instrumental: 'by ros. Lastly, we find the word in 2 

the sleight Qf men '. KvjSevetp is used Cor. iv 2, py irepararovvres ev iravovp- 

in the sense of 'to cheat' in Arrian yiq fti]8e 8o\ovvres TOV \6yov TOV 6eov. 

Epictet. ii 19 28. Epiphanius Haer. There it is the context which deter- 

xxxiv i describes Marcus as payings mines that a bad cleverness is meant. 

virapxav nvfteias eyaretporaTos , and ibid. In our present passage Origen links 

21 says that no KvfievriKtj eirlvoia can the word with evrpe^eia, another 

jstand against the light of truth, word for 'cleverness'. But the clever- 


Slav Ttys 7T\dvtis 9 15 dXqdevovTes $e ev dytfiry av^(rtt)fJLi/ 
*s avTOV TO, TrdvTa, os iffTiv n K(j)a\tj, X|tM<rTOS, 1<5 e 
ov TTCCV TO (TwfjLa <rvvap[jLO\oyoviJLevov teal (rvv/3i/3a6- 

ness is condemned by its reference, found in the New Testament. The 

irpos TT)v peQobiav rfjs irXdvqs. large meaning of dXjdeca in the Christ- 

pe0o8iav] Comp. vi 1 1 ra$ pedodias ian vocabulary, and especially the 

TOV 8ia/36Xov. Me0o8ta and peBobeveiv immediate contrast with ir\dvtj in this 

come from pe0o8os, which is originally passage, may justify us in the render- 

a way of search after something, and ing given above. The clause must 

BO an inquiry (used e.g. by Plato not be limited to mean 'being true in 

of a scientific investigation), and so your love', or 'dealing truly in love'. 
ultimately 'method'. The verb pedo- evdydirp] For the frequent repeti- 

Seveiv, however, came to have a bad tion of this phrase hi the epistle, see 

sense, 'to scheme', 'to employ craft', the notes on i 4, iii 17. Truth and 

Polyb. xxxviii 4 10. In the LXX it is love are here put forward as the twin 

soused in 2 Sam. xix 27 pc6(o8evo*ev conditions of growth. 
o doCXos o-ov. No other instance of ra iravra] 'in all things', in all 

fj.s0o8ia is cited ; but for p.edo8os in the respects, wholly and entirely : corn- 

bad sense see Plut. Moral. 176 A, Arte- pare the adverbial use of TO, irdvra ev 
mid. Oneir. iii 25, -- 7r5omin-i-23.- 

In all the passages where os e<mv] This introduces a new 

it occurs in the New Testament jrXaw/ thought, by way of supplement : the 

will bear the passive meaning, 'error/, position of els aurav before TO irdvra 

though the active meaning, 'deceit', shews that the former sentence is 

would sometimes be equally appro- in a sense complete. We feel the 

priate. There is no reason therefore difference, if for the moment we 

for departing from the first meaning transpose the phrases and read avgtj- 

of the word, 'wandering from the a-atpev ra iravra els OVTOV, os eorw r\ 

way', and so, metaphorically, 'error', Ke^>aXj : such an arrangement would 

as opposed to 'truth'. Here it stands practically give us the phrase au'if- 

in sharp contrast with afaidevovrcs. a-topev els TTJV Keff>a\yv, which would 

It seems best to take irpos TTJV almost defy explanation. Similarly 

fjicdooiav TTJS 7T\dvr]s in close connexion in Col. ii 10 ev avry is separated by 

with ev iravovpyia, which otherwise irerr\ijpa>pevoi from off eortv, which 

would be strangely isolated. The pre- again introduces a new thought after 

position irpos will then introduce the the sentence has been practically 

standard of reference, somewhat as in completed. 

GaL ii 14 OVK 6p6<nro8ova-iv irpbs TTJV 16. e o^] Compare the parallel 

dXqdeiav TOV evayyeXiov. We may passage, Col. ii 19 ov Kpar&v TTfV 

render, c lyy craftiness in accordance Ke(pa\jv, e| ou irav TO o-apa 8ta r&v 

With the wiles of error'. d<f>&v KOI o-uvbeo-fuav eirij(opTjyovii.evov 

15. dXrjdevovres] ' maintaining the KOI o-vv$i$aoi>.fvov aSgfi ryv avgrjo-iv 

truth'. The Latin version renders, TOV 6eov. Here, however, the inser- 

'ueritatem autem facientes*. The tion of xptoros in apposition to KG- 

verb need not be restricted to truth- $0X17 gives us a smoother construc- 

fulness in speech, though that is its tion. 

obvious meaning in Gal. iv 16 wore o~vvapno\oyov^evov\ This word does 

e\0pos vft&v yeyova afa)6eva>v vjuv; not occur in the parallel passage, 

the only other place where it is Its presence here is doubtless due 

1 86 



d<J)fi$ TTJS eTTixpptjyias KCLT evepyeiav ev 

to its having been used in the'meta- and even of his gripping arms, Id. 
phor of the building in ii 21. See Alcib. 2. 

the detached note on <rvvappo\oyiv. 

o-wpifiagoftevov] In CoL ii 2 <rw- 
/Si/Sao-tfei/res probably means * instruct- 
ed ', as it does in the LXX. But here 
and in Col. ii 19 it means 'united', 
In classical Greek it is commonly used 
of * bringing together' or 'reconciling* 
persons. It is possible that in its 
present context it is a term borrowed 
from the medical writers. 

afpfjs] The word atpq has very 
various meanings. Besides its com- 
mon use (i) for 'touching', 'touch' 

That 0^17 in the sense of a band or 
ligament may have been a term of 
ancient physiology is suggested by an 
entry in Galen's lexicon of words used 
by Hippocrates (GaL xix p. 87) : dtpds' 
TO. a/i/un-a irapa TO at/rat, i.e. bands, 
from the verb 'to bind'. At any rate 
it seems clear that the word could be 
used in the general sense of a band 
or fastening (from an-ru), and that 
we need not in our explanation of 
St Paul's language start from dtpij in 
the sense of 'touch'. 

and 'a point of contact', from airmpcu, Lightfoot indeed, in his note on 
it also signifies (2) 'kindling', from CoL ii 19, adopts the latter course, 
arrroo in a special sense, (3) 'sand', as and seeks to bridge the gulf by means 
a technical term of the arena (see my of certain passages of Aristotle. But 
-note-on PassioPe^\~(^)~a. Aristotle-again_and_agaija_cmtrasts__ 
plague', often in the LXX None of d(j>ij 'contact* with o-ufwpvons 'cohe- 
these senses suits the present context sion'; and in the most important of 
or the parallel in Col. ii 19 irav TO the passages cited he is not speaking 
era/la 8ia T&V dxp&v KOI <rvv8ca-p,c>>v of living bodies, but of certain dia- 
emxoprjyovp.voi> nal <nv0tlSag6fi.evov. phanous substances, which some 
For in both places the function suppose to be diaphanous by reason 
assigned to the dxpai is that of hold- of certain pores ; de gen. et corr. i 8 
ing the body together in the unity (p. 326) otfre yap Kara TUS d<pds (i.e. 
which is necessary to growth. 'at the points of contact') eVScgerae 

But the word has another sense Suevai 8ia T&V 8ia<pav&v } oure 8ia T&V 
which connects it with an-Tfi), 'I fasten' iropatv. In fact in Aristotle aty 
or 'tie'. The wrestler fastens on his appears to mean touching without 

joining: hence e.g. in de caelo i 12 
(p. 280) he argues that contact can 
cease to be contact without tpdopd. 

c A.<pr) then may be interpreted as a 

evdidtotrtv avTDVf Dion, general term for a band or fastening, 

which possibly may have been used 
in the technical sense of a ligament, 
and which in CoL ii 19 is elucidated 
through being linked by the vinculum 
of a common definite article with 
a-Meo-fios, a recognised physiological 

cmxopqyias] The word occurs again 
in PhiL i 19 8ta T^S vp&v 

opponent with a a<^ atpvieros: comp. 
Plut. Anton. 27 d<f>^v S* ^ev 17 <ruv- 
a<pvKTov } moral. 86 r eZ |8Xa- 
&v roXXa KOI 

H. de Dem. 18 rots atfXjjraw TJ;S 
vfjs Xeea>s Icrxvpas ras d(pas Trpoa-fivai 
Set (eat OH^VKTOVS TCLS \aj3ds. The word, 
together with some kindred wrest- 
ling terms, was used of the union of 
the Democritean atoms: Plut. Moral. 
769 F rats icar' 'Eiriicavpov d<pdis Kal 
TrepiTrXoKals, comp. Damoxenus ap. 
A then. 102 E <al (rvpirXcKOfievTjs 

d(frds. We find ap.p.a used emxoprjyias TOV irvevfMTos 'irjaov Xptcr- 
in the same sense of the wrestler's TOV, 'through your prayer and the 
grip, Plut. Fab. 23 a/u/iora Kal XajSdc, supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ'. 


Commentators are wont to explain it are the conditions of growth on which 

as meaning 'an abundant supply', thus the Apostle is insisting. 

differentiating it from xopTY'' ? ' a Aristotle, who does not employ the 

supply'. But this interpretation of compound forms, frequently uses 

the preposition in this word, as in x o Pny f ' v an( ^ XP7y i/a * n contrast with 

firlyvoMrts, does not appear to be sub- itctftvulvat and (frva-is. In Pol. iv I 

stantiated by usage. (p. 1288) he says that education has 

The xopW supplied the means of two pre-requisites, natural gifts and 

putting a play on the Athenian stage, fortunate circumstances, <pv<rw and 

The verb xP r iy f i v soon came to mean xP17^ a Tv xnp^ ( a provision or equip- 

' to furnish' or 'supply 'in the widest ment which depends -on fortune). 

sense. A little later the compound The best physical training will be 

verb cirixopriyciv was similarly used, that which is adapted to the body 

There is a tendency in later Greek to best framed by nature and best pro- 

prefer compound to simple verbs, vided or equipped (mzXXtara ire<j>vKort 

probably for no other cause than the <ai Kexopyyriftevcp) : comp. iv n (p. 

greater fulness of sound. The. force 1295). So again, vii 4 (p. 1325) ov 

of the preposition, before it ceased to yap olov re iro\a-eiav yeveadai rrfv 

be felt, was probably that of direction, dpiorjp Svea <rw/i/*erpov xP 1 iy' ia ^ *3 

'to supply to': compare the Latin (p. 1331) deirai yap nal ^opi/ytas nvog 

compounds with sub, such as sup- TO {fiv KaX<Ss, JEth. Nic. x 8 (p. 1178) 

plere, submmistrare: and' see 2 Cor. S6fe 8' av [17 TOV vov apery] ieal rfjf 
JX IP o 8f 

crireipovTi, Gal. iii 5 o otiv eirtxofnjycav 8ei<rdai TTJS ^diK^s, 1 II (p. Iioi) TI ovv 

vfiiv TO irvevfia. Even if ejrt^op^yjf/naro Ka>\vei \eyeiv evdaipova TOV jcar* aper^v 

means ' additional allowances ' in TcXciav evepyovvra KOI rote euros dyadots 

Athen. Deipnosoph. iv 8 (p. 140 o), this ucavms KcxopTrmpevov, K.T.X. ; and many 

does not prove a corresponding use more instances might be quoted. The 

for the other compounds : and in any limitation to a supply of food, where 

case an 'additional supply 7 is some- it occurs, comes from the context, and 

thing quite different from an 'abun- does not belong to the word itself, 

dant supply'. which is almost synonymous with 

The present passage must be read naTao-ieevij, and differs from it mainly 

in close connexion with Col. ii 19, by suggesting that the provision or 

where (rp.a...firtxopriyovii.cvov offers a equipment is afforded from outside 

use of the passive (for the person and not self-originated. 
' supplied ') which is also commonly This general meaning of provision 

found with xopijyetcrdat. But in what or equipment is in place here. The 

sense is the body 'supplied' by means body may properly be said to be 

of its bands and ligaments? It is equipped or furnished, as well as held 

usual to suppose that a supply of together, by means of its bands and 

nutriment is intended, and the men- ligaments ; and accordingly we may 

tion of 'growth' in the context appears speak of 'every band or ligament of 

to bear this out. But we cannot its equipment or furniture'. The 

imagine that the Greek physicians rendering of the Geneva Bible (1560), 

held that nutriment was conveyed by if a little clumsy, gives the true 

the bands and ligaments, whose func- sense: 'by euerie ioynt,for thefumi- 

tion is to keep the limbs in position ture thereof. But as the word 

and check the play of the muscles 'equip' does not belong to biblical 

(Galen iv pp. 2 f.). Nor is there any English, we must perhaps be content 

reference to nutriment in the context with the rendering, 'by every joint of 

of either passage : order and unity its supply*. The Latin renders, 'per 

1 88 


[IV 17 

eves eKaarTov /uepovs TY\V avfycriv TOV 

els oiKO^o/ULrjv avTOV ev aycwn;. 
I7 Toim> ovv \eya) Kai, ev icvpiq), 
irepiwaTelv KaBdos Kai Ta eQvn TrepnraTei ev 

omnem iuncturam [some O.L. autho- 
rities hare tactum]stibministrationi8\ 
which adequately represents the ori- 

KOT evepyciav] These words are to 
be taken closely with ev /ierpw evos 
eKcurrov pepovs. For the further de- 
finition of an anarthrous substantive 
by a prepositional clause, comp. v. 14 
ev iravovpyiq irpos TTJV pedoftiav rfjs 
ir\dvr}s. It is just possible that we 
are here again in presence of a tech- 
nical term of Greek physiology. 
Galen (de facult. natural, i. 2, 4, 5) 
distinguishes between epyov, 'work 

done', 'result', and cWpycuz, 'the 
working process', 'function': the 
impulse that produces the evepyeia 
being bvvaius. The meaning would 
accordingly be 'in accordance with 
function in the full measure of each 
several part', 'as each part duly fulfils 
its proper function*. At the same 
time we must not lose sight of the 
strong meaning of evepyeia in St Paul : 
see the detached note on evepyelv and 
its cognates. 

TTJV av^triv K.T.X.] 'maketh the 
increase of the "body\ The distance 
of the nominative, irav TO o-oyta, is the 
cause of the redundant TOV O-COIMTOS. 
All that was required was a#|, but 
the resolved phrase lends a further 
impressiveness : comp. CoL ii 19 av 
rfjv avr)<riv TOV Qeov. 

tls oiKodo/ji^v OVTOV}* unto the build- 
ing thereof. He recurs to the meta- 
phor which he has already so used in 
V. 12 (els oiKo8ofJiT}v TOV o-w^iaror), and 
has again touched upon in o-wap/w 

ev dycarrf} Once again this phrase 
closes a sentence : see the notes on 
i 4, iii 17. 

1724. ' This then is my meaning 
and my solemn protestation. Your 
conduct must no longer be that of 
the Gentile world. They drift without 
a purpose in the darkness, strangers 
to the Divine life; for they are igno- 
rant, because their heart is blind and 
dead: they have ceased to care what 
they do, and so have surrendered 
themselves to outrageous living, de- 
filing their own bodies and wronging 
others withal. How different is the 
lesson you have learned: I mean, the 
Christ : for is not He the message you 
have listened to, the school of your 

instruction ? In the pei'son of Jesus 
you have truth embodied. And the 
purport of your lesson is that you must 
abandon the old life once and for all; 
you must strip off the old man, that 
outworn and perishing garment fouled 
by the passions of deceit : you must 
renew your youth in the spiritual 
centre of your being; you must clothe 
yourselves with the new man, God's 
fresh creation in His own image, 
fashioned in righteousness and holi- 
ness which spring from truth '. 

17. fMpTJpofuii] 'I testify 'or 'pro- 
test'. See Lightfoot on Gal. v 3 and 
i Thess. ii ii (Notes on Epp. p. 29). 
MaprvpeTi/ 'to bear witness' and/*ap- 
Tvpetffdat ' to be borne witness to ' are 
to be distinguished in the New Testa- 
ment, as in classical Greek, from pop- 
Tvpeo-dai, which means first ' to call to 
witness' and then absolutely 'to pro- 
test' or 'asseverate'. 

ev Kvplai] See the exposition on v. i. 

vpas] emphatic, as vpcls in v. 20. 

TreparaTetv] See the note on ii 2. 

ra e6vrj\ The alternative reading, 
Ta XotTra e0vrj, has but a weak attesta- 
tion : see the note on various readings. 

IV i8, 19] 



18 ' ** ' V r >t 

" " Trj oiavoia, OVTCS 


;s TOV 6eov, Sid Ttjv ayvoiov 
ovarav ev CIVTOK Sid TY\V Trtapwcriv Trjs 

es eavTOVs Trape^toKav 
cureXyeict ets epycuriav dkaBaparias Trdarris ev 

St Paul's usage varies: (i) they had 
not ceased to be eBvrj as contrasted 

With 'lovdatot, Bom. XI 13 vpiv Se Xeya> 

Tots fdveo-iv, also xv i6 and Eph. ii 
n ; yet (2) in a sense they were no 
longer edvij, I Cor. xii 2 oiftare on ore 
e&vrj fa JC.T.X. Here at any rate the 
meaning is plain : 'there is a conduct 
which characterises the Gentile world: 
that you have done with '. 

fiaraiorTjTi] St Paul uses the word 
again only in Rom. viii 20, TTJ yap 
liaraionjTt j; Kriaris virfToyrj. It suggests 

ledge because their heart is incapable 
of perception. 

irwpaxriv] H<opa>o~ig rrjs Kapftias is to 
be distinguished from o-K\r]po<ap8ia, 
as 'obtuseness' from 'obstinacy'. See 
the additional note on irc6p<o<ris. 

19. OTnjXyqjcoTes] They are 'past 
feeling' ; i.e. they have ceased to care. 
'An-aXyew ('to cease to feel pain for', 
Thuc. ii 61) comes to have two mean- 
ings: (i) despair, as in Polyb. i 35 5 
TO 8e irpod>av&s ireirraicbs aobnv iro\l- 

it. i i 

revfjia Kal TOS dirrjXyrjKvias 

to attain any true purpose: comp. 
Eccl. i 2, etc. naTaioTTjs fMTaiar^T<av. 
We have similar language used of the 
Gentile world in Rom. i 21, epa.Taua- 
0T)<rav ev rots BiaXoyurfjoHg avrcov Kal 
carKOTitrdij TI acrvveros avr&v KapBia. 

1 8. ovres] to be taken with mn)\- 
\oTpKafifvoi, as in Col. i 21 KOI VIMS 
irore ovras dirr)\\OTpia>[icvivs K.T.X. To 
join it with eo-Korcopevot would give us 
a very unusual construction; whereas 
djrr)\\oTpia>iJ.evoi is used almost as a 
noun, see the note on ii 12. Accord- 
ingly 'being alienated from the life of 
God' does not imply that they had at 
one time enjoyed that life : it means 
simply being aliens from it. 

rrjs ^ofjs TOV 6cov\ the Divine life 
communicated to man: to this the 
Gentiles were strangers, for they were 
adeoi, ii 12. For the proclamation of 
the Gospel as ' life' see Acts v 20 
iravra ra prjpara rrjs ^ofjs Tavrrjs. 

rf)v o'o-ai'] This is not to be taken 
as emphatic, as it would have to be if 
we punctuated after cV avrots. It 
introduces the cause of the ignorance. 
They have no life, because they have 
no knowledge: and, again, no know- 

and so elsewhere; (2) reck- 
lessness, Polyb. XVi 12 7 TO yap (pda-Keiv 
evia T&V <TQ>/iaf<oi> ev (pearl Tidepeva p,f) 
itoielv (TKiav dirrj\yrjKvias earl ^fvx^js, 
i.e. such a statement shews a perfectly 
reckless mind. 'Desperation' and 
'recklessness of most unclean living' 
(misspelt 'wretchlessness' in Article 
xvii) are moods which stand not far 
apart. The Latin rendering 'despe- 
rantes* does not necessarily imply the 
variant ArrHArriKOTec (for ATTHA|-H- 
Korec) which is found in D 2 (G 3 ). 

da-eXyela] The meaning of dcreXycta 
is, first, outrageous conduct of any 
kind; then it comes to mean specially 
a wanton violence; and then, in the 
later writers, wantonness in the sense 
of lewdness. See Lightfoot on Gal. 
v 19: 'a man may be duddapros and 
hide his sin; he does not become 
da-e\yT)s until he shocks public de- 

epyaviav] From the early meaning 
of epyov, 'work in the fields' (comp. 
Hesiod's v Epya u ij/wpai) comes cpya- 
TTJS 'a field-labourer', as in Matt, ix 37, 
etc., and epyac<rd<u, which is properly 
'to till the ground'. The verb is then 


oimos eidBeTC TOV OKTTOI/ ai ef 

ev ra) 'lrj(rov, ^aTroBeorBai i5/>tas Kara TJ}I/ irporepav 

widened to mean the producing of without further definition; and, as the 

any,Tesult by means of labour. 'Epya- context does not fix a particular mo- 

o-to is used in Acts xvi 16, 19, xix 24^ ment, they may be rendered in Eng- 

in the sense of business or the gains lish either by the simple past tense 

of business; and still more generally or, perhaps more naturally, by the 

in Luke xii 58 dos epycurlav (=da perfect 

operam) am)\\ax6M O.IF avTov. 21. ei ye avrbv ^Kov<rare] See the 

In the New Testament epyae<r6ai, note on iii 2. Et ye does not imply 

like epyov, is transferred to moral a doubt, but gives emphasis. It is 

action (as cpydgecrdai TO dyadov Rom. closely connected with avrov, which 

ii 10, KUKOV xiii 10). Here tls epyao-lav itself is in an emphatic position: 'if 

irdo~T] s aKadapo-lat is a resolved expres- indeed it is He whom ye have heard'. 

sion used for convenience of construe- ev avr] ' in Him ' as the sphere of 

tion instead of cpyae<rdai irao-av ana- instruction; not 'by Him' (A. V.) as 

dapo-iav. It means no more than the instructor. 

'performance' or 'practice': c in opera- Kadtos K.T.A.] This clause is ex- 
tionem omnis immunditiae'. __ planatory of the unfamiliar phrase- 

greediness'^ or ology which has been used. For 

'rapacity'; i.e. 'with entire disregard dXijdciav pavdavciv, duoveiv, ev Tfj d\rj- 

of the rights of others', as. Lightfoot deta 8i8a<riteirdai, would present no 

explains it in his note on Col. iii 5. difficulty. Truth is found in the per- 

HXfovegia often means more than son of Jesus, who is the Christ : He 

'covetousness': irXeoveKrelv is used is Himself the truth (John xiv 6): 

in the sense of 'to defraud' in the hence we can be said to 'learn Him'. 
special matter of adultery (eV ro> aXrjdeid] In the older MSS no dis- 

TrpdypaTi) in i Thess. iv 6. Com- tinction was made between dX^deia 

in'enting on ev ir\eove^ia Origen (Cra- and d\ijdeia: so that it is possible to 

mer, adloc?) says p,era TOV ir\eoveKTfiv' read Kadas eoTtv d\T)0eia, ev TO> 'li/o-ov, 

eKfivovs 8e (fors. Sri) <$v TOVS ydpovs 'as He is in truth, in Jesus'. Or re- 

vodevo/jiev, and below anaBapaiav de ev taining the nominative aXij&uz, and 

ir\eoveiq rfjv poixdav oioftai civcu. See still making 6 xpurrbs the subject, we 

further the notes on v 3, 5 below. may render 'as He is truth in Jesus'. 

20. e/Lia^ere] The expression pav- Of these two constructions the former 

Qaveiv TOV xptoroi' has no exact paral- is preferable; but neither suits the 

lei; for pavdaveiv is not used with an context so well as that which has been 

accusative of the person who is the given above. 

object of knowledge. But it may be 22. dirodea-dai] The clause intro- 

compared with other Pauline expres- duced by the infinitive is epexegetical 

sions, such as TOV xP t(TTOV rapoXa- of the general thought of the preced- 

petv (Col.ii6), evSva-afftiai (GaLiii 27), ing sentence: 'this is the lesson that 

yv&vai (PhiL iii 10), and indeed duoveiv ye have been taught that ye put off' 

in the next verse, which does not etc. 'ATTO&V&U, standing in contrast 

refer to hearing with the bodily ear. with c'vSvaaa-dai, is equivalent to the 

The aorists at this point are not to drreKtivaraa-dai of the parallel passage, 

be pressed to point to the moment of CoL iii 9 , direnSva-dfievoi TOV ira\aiov 

conversion : they indicate the past av6punrov <rvv THIS irpdt-fo-iv avrov, 


dvcurTpofynv TOV TToXaiov avBpwirov TOV <f)6eipofjivov 
Kara ras 7T*0i///ias T^S cx7rctT>?s, * 3 dvavovo"6ai Se TO) 
7rvevfj.aTi TOV i/oos vjjutiV) a4 Kc ev$v<raa'6ai TOV Kaivov 
avBpajTrov TOV KOTO, 6eov KTi<r6evra ev SiKaiocrvvri icai 
TTJS d\T]6eia<s. 

TOV veov. The metaphor body of our Lord, Col. i 22, ii n. 
is that of stripping off one garment 24. Kara 0eov] ' after God': God 

to put on another. Compare also Himself is the TWOS after which the 

Bom. xiii 12 dn-o&o/ietfa ovv TO. cpya new man is created. The allusion is to 

TOV oxorovs, ev8v<rape6a Be TO oTrXo TOV Gen. i 27 *car' eueopa &o ciroirjircv 

<JXOTOS. avTov, the language of which is more 

dva<rrpo<pyv\ Comp. dvefrrpdfafiev closely followed in CoL iii 10 rov veov 

jroTe in ii 3; and for awrrpe<e<r0at TOV dvcutaivovpevov els eiriyveaffiv KO.T 

as a synonym of ireparareiv see the clitova TOV urio-avros OVTOV. 
note on ii 2. ocnorqrt] For the usual distinction 

TraXaiov av6pa>irov\ Comp. Rom. between 6<norjs and Siicaiotrvvi;, as 

vi 6 o TTaXaios T)p.v Hvdpanrog awe- representing respectively duty towards 

<rravpa>6rj. TLaXaiis stands in contrast God and duty towards men (Plato, 

alike to KCUVOS(V. 24), new in the sense Philo), see Lightfoot's note on i Thess. 

~of 7yW7i7^ard~to~WoF(Coiriii^o), new fi 10 oo-ias KOI dueaicts (Notes on Epp. 

in the sense of young. The ( old man' p. 27 f.). The combination was a 

is here spoken of as <j>deip6pevos, in familiar one ; comp. "Wisd. ix 3, Luke 

process of decay, as well as morally i 75. 

corrupt ; we need in exchange a per- d\t]6eias] to be taken with both the 

petual renewal of youth (dvavcovo-diu), preceding substantives, 'in righteous- 

as well as a fresh moral personality ness and holiness which are of the 

(KOUVOS avQp&iros}. The interchange truth'; not as A. V. * in righteousness 

of tenses deserves attention: airoQl- and true holiness'. There is an inv- 

o~dai...<pdeipofievov...dvaveova6ai...ev8v- mediate contrast with 'the lusts Hf 

vaa-dtu. Viewed as a change of gar- deceit', KOTO TOS ciridvpias T^S dirarijs 

ments the process is momentary; v. 22; just as in v. 15 dXytievovTcs 

viewed as an altered life it is con- stands in contrast with TT)S 7r\dvr}s. 

tinuous. Truth as applied to conduct (see also 

23. irvevpaTi TOV voos] The mind v. 21) is a leading thought of this 

had been devoid of true purpose (cv section, and gives the starting-point 

fumuonjrt TOW voos, v. 17), for the for the next. 

heart had been dull and dead (fait TTJV 25 V. 2. *I have said that you 

irtopamv TTJS Kapbias, v. 1 8). The spi- must strip off the, old and put on the 

ritual principle of the mind must new, renounce the passions of deceit 

acquire a new youth, susceptible of and live the life of truth. Begin 

spiritual impressions. The addition then by putting away lying : it is con- 

of TOV vobs vp&v indicates that the trary to the truth of the Body that 

Apostle is speaking of the spirit in one limb should play another false. 

the individual : in itself dvaveovo-dai See that anger lead not to sin ; if 

TOJ irvcvftaTi would have been am- you harbour it, the devil will find a 

biguous in meaning. We may com- place among you. Instead of steal- 

pare his use of TO o-<Zpa TTJS a-apKos ing, let a man do honest work, that 

v in speaking of the earthly he may have the means of giving to 


95 Aio d'TToBejULevoL TO -^sevSos AAAeire 


a6 d pn'zecee KAI Mi4 AMApr^Neje- 6 

eirt TrapopyurfjLM vfjuSv, ^jujjSe didore TOTTOV 

others. Corrupt talk must give way sin not' (but R. V. marg. has 'Be ye 

to good words, which may build up angry'). The Hebrew means literally 

your corporate life, words of grace in 'tremble': so Aquila (i&oveio-de) : but 

the truest sense: otherwise you will it is also used of anger. 
pain the Holy Spirit, the seal of your 6 rj\ios K.T.X.] Grotius and others 

present unity and your future re- cite the remarkable parallel from 

demption. The bitter temper must Plut. de amore fratr. 488 B elra 

be exchanged for the sweet for kind- //zer$ai TOVS HvdayopiKovs, ot yevei 

ness and tenderheartedness and for- pjdev irpooyKovres aXXo KOIVOV \ayov 

givingness. God in Christ has for- pcrcxovres, f arore irpoax&eiev elf XoiSo- 

given you all, and you must copy p[ a s wf opyrjs, irplv rj rbv ffaiov 8vvat 

Him, for you are His children whom r as 8eias epfidXXavres dXX;Xois ral 

He loves. In love you too must live, do-ircurapcvoi SieXvovro. For the form 

such love as Christ's, which is the of the precept compare Deut. xxiv 

love of sacrifice'. 15 avdypepbv djroBcoa-eis rov p.i(r6ov 

25. a.7rodf[j,cvoi] repeated from air- avrov (sc. TOU irevrjTos), OVK eVtSutreTai 

~~o0e<fdai t v. 22; b~ut~~the metaphor o~^Xtos~eff'~ai}r^ : a.nd~Uvanff. PetriT 

of the garment is dropped, and the 2, 5, and the passages quoted by 

sense is now more general, not 'put- Dr Swete ad loc. 
ting off' but 'putting away\ So in irapopyurpu] The word does not 

Col. iii 8 wvl 8e airo6ea-&e Kal vpels ra appear to be found outside biblical 

irdvra, opyyv, ic.r.X., before the meta- Greek, although irapopyi^ofuu (pass.) 

phor has been introduced by atrenbv- sometimes occurs. In the T/ra. it 

trdpevoi (v. 9). We cannot with pro- always (with the exception of a 

priety give the same rendering here variant hi A) has an active meaning, 

and in v. 22, as 'putting away 'a gar- 'provocation', whereas irapogvo-pbs 

meut does not in English signify put- is used in the passive sense, 'indigna- 

ting it off. tion': irapopyietv and irapoj-vveiv are 

TO ^reSSos] The word is suggested of common occurrence and often ren- 

bydjs dXrideias in the preceding verse; der the same Hebrew words. Here 

but it is used not in its more general irapopyurpbs is the state of feeling 

sense of 'falsehood', but in the nar- provocation, 'wrath 1 , napopyigeiv oc- 

rower sense of 'lying', as is shewn curs below, vi 4. 
by the next words. Comp. John viii 27. St'SoreTojroi'JInRom.xiiipSare 

44 orav XoXjJ TO i/reSSos, K.r.X. roirov rfj opyr/ the context ('Vengeance 

XaXetTf K.T.X.] An exact quotation is Mine') shews that the meaning is 

from Zech. viii 16, except that there 'make way for the Divine wrath'. 

we have irpbs rbv for pera rov. In The phrase occurs in Ecclus. iv 5 pr) 

Col. iii 9 the precept prj ifrevftetrde els 8s rfmov dvQpwirip Karapcuratr6aL (re, 

dXXi/Xovs occurs, but without the xix 17 8bs rmrov vop<p 'Ytya-rov (give 

reason here given, which is specially room for it to work), xxxviii 12 KOI 

suggested by the thought of this larpy 86s roirov (allow him scope). It 

epistle. is found in the later Greek writers, 

26. opyl&ade K.T.\.] Ps. iv 4, Lxx. ; as in Plutarch, Moral. 462* 8el 8e 

where we render 'Stand in awe and /tijre rrai&vras avrfj (sc. 1% opyjf) fit- 

IV 28, 29] 




Swat TOTTOC : but it is perhaps almost a 
Latinism: comp. locum dare (Cic. al.). 

&o/3dX<] There is no ground for 
interpreting this with some of the 
older commentators as meaning here 
'a slanderer': for although the word 
is not used by St Paul outside this 
epistle and the Pastoral Epistles, its 
sense is unmistakeable in vi. 1 1. 

28. o K\ejrTa>v] The man who has 
been given to stealing,as distinguished 
from o jcXcTmjf, a common thief, and 
also from o K\tyas, one who has stolen 
on a particular occasion. 

K.T.X.] "Compare i CorTTiv 

a8 o 

, /uta\\oi> 

KOTTidrio epya^6fj.evoi rats ^epcriv TO dyaBov, \va 
Tto xpeiav e^oim. a9 7ras \oyos (Tempos 


%peias } 'Ivct S<w ^dpiv Tols 

contrasted with the 'good' fish (TO 
/caXa). In these places the word is 
used in the sense of * worthless': and 
the original meaning of 'corruptness' 
has entirely disappeared. It does not 
follow that the word as used by St 
Paul means only 'idle* or 'worthless ', 
like the pfjfM dpyov of Matt, xii 36. 
The context requires a stronger sense; 
the sin rebuked is on a level with 
lying and stealing. If it does not go 
so far as the al<rxpo\oyia of Col. iii 8, 
it certainly includes the /teopoXoyia 
and evrpaireXla which are appended 

12 Kom&fiev epyagofjifiiot rais Ibicus 
and i Thess. iv. n epyde<rdai 
pav. On the other hand 
we have in Bom. ii 10 and Gal. vi 10 
the phrase epydfccrdai TO dyadov (which 
is to be compared with epyae<r6ai TTJV 
dvofiiav, frequent in the Psalms and 
found in Matt, vii 23). Here the 
combination of the two phrases gives 
an effective contrast with K^em-eiv. 
For the addition of Idiais see the note 
on various readings. 

29. Xoyos o-airpos] SaTrpos pri- 
marily means 'rotten ' or ' corrupt ' : 
but in a derived sense it signifies 
'effete/ and so 'worthless.' It is 
often joined with TraXatos, which it 
approaches so nearly hi meaning that 
it can even be used in a good sense of 
'old and mellow' wines. Ordinarily, 
however, it signifies 'old and worn 
out' : see the passages collected by 
Wetstein on Matt vii 18. In the 
Gospels it stands as the antithesis of 
dyados and Ka\6s: Matt, vii 17 f., xii 
33, Luke vi 43, of the 'bad' as con- 
trasted with the 'good' tree and 
fruit; Matt, xiii 48 of the 'bad' as 


el TIS ayaQos] For et TW, 'whatever', 
comp. Phil. iv. 8. 'Ayadts is morally 
good, in contrast to a-airpos, and not 
merely 'good for a purpose,' which 
would be expressed by evSerot. Corn- 
pare Rom. xv 2 eicaoTof rm&v T<5 
ir\r)(riov dpetriteTat els TO dyadbv irpbs 

T^S XP f ' as ] Xp'o is (i) need, (2) 
an occasion of need, (3) the matter in 
hand. For the last sense compare 
Acts vi 3 ovs KaracmriaoiKv cirl rfjs 

xP c ' as TOVTTJS, and Tit. iii 14. Wetstein 
quotes Plut. Pericl. 8 6 HepwcX^y irepl 
rbv \6yov cv\a$r)s $v, COOT' del irpbs TO 
jiadifav TJVX TO T ts 6*is f"}^ 
lirj^ev fKirea-etv anovros avrov irpbs- 
TTJV irpoKcipevrjv xpeiav dvapfworov^ 
The meaning here is, 'for building 
up as the matter may require', or- 
'as need may be'. 

The Old Latin had ad aedifica- 
tionemjidei, and the bilingual MSS 
D 2 *G 8 read iri<rrea>s for xptias. Jerome 
substituted. 'opportunitatis' for Jidei'. 
Further evidence is given in the note 
on various readings. 

For xP ts m respect of 



3 Kal Mj \V7reiTe TO Trvevia TO 

aKOVov(Tiv. Ka fMj V7reiTe TO Trvevfia TO arfiov TOV 
6eov, iv w eo"<f)pa f yi(r6r]Te ets ijfjiepav caroXv 
3X ircura TTiKpla xai QVJJLOS Kal opyri Kal Kpavyrj Kal 


speech compare Col. iv 66 \6yos aroXi5rpcoo-ij/ TTJS nepuroujtreats. The 

vp&v irdvroTe ev xapvn, aXan ijpru/ios Spirit was the seal of the complete 

(seasoned with the true 'salt' of incorporation of the Gentiles. Corn- 

speech), and CoL, iii 16 <p8ais jrvevfM- pare further I Cor. xii 13 Kal yap ev 

TIKOIS ev \apvri x.r.X. Compare also evl irvevpan facts irdvres els ev o-a>p.a 

the contrast between evrpaire\ia and j3a7mV0i7/zej>, etre 'loi/Satot etWEXXjj- 

fvxapurTia below in v 4 ; and see the ves, K.T.\. 

detached note on xP ls - ^ e cannot 31. n-ttcp/a] The three other pas- 

reproduce in English the play upon sages in which this word occurs 

the two meanings of x^P ts m * tt ^ s borrow their phraseology directly or 

passage. indirectly from the Old Testament 

30. M \virelre] Compare Isa. Ixiii. (Acts viii 23, Rom. iii 14, Heb. xii 15). 

10 irapeagwav TO irvevpa TO aytov avrov. Here the usage is genuinely Greek, 

On our present passage is founded and may be compared with Col. iii 19 

the remarkable injunction of the py mKpaivetrde irpbs auras. Aristotle 
-Shepherd-of Hermas in regard to in-discussin^fTarious forms of anger 

\vmj (Mand.x). The interpretation says (JEth. Nic. iv n): ot pev ovv 

there given is capricious and purely opy/Xot T^DS pev opyigovrat, Kal d!$ 

individualistic : apov ovv ana o-eavrov ov Bel, KOI e<jf ois ov del, Kal fjLa\\ov rj 

TTJV \vmjv Kal 1$ dXIfte TO irvevfM. TO Bel' iravovrai Se ra^ea>s...of de iriKpol 

ayutv TO ev (rot KaToiKovv...TO yap BvcrdiaXvToi, Kal TTO\VV xpovov opyi^ov- 

irvev/Jia TOV 0eov TO Bo&ev els Tqv crapKa TOI jeare^o wt yap TOV 6vp.6v. It 

TavTTjv Xviryv ov% virocfrepei ovdl arevo- appears, then, that mitpia is an em- 

X&piav, ev&vo~ai ovv TTJV fXapoTJjTo, bittered and resentful spirit which 

K.T.X. To St Paul on the contrary the refuses reconciliation. 

Spirit is the bond of the corporate dvpos K.T.X.] Compare Col. iii 8 

life, and that 'grieves' Him which opyrjv, 0vp6v, naxiav, fj\ao-<pr}piav, al- 

does not tend to the 'building-up' of o-xpoXoyuu', and see Lightfoot's notes 

the Christian society. We may com- on these words. The Stoics distin- 

pare Bom. xiv 15 yap 8ia fip&na guished between dw/uos, the outburst 

6 dBe\^>6s <rov \vrreiTm, OVKCTI KOTO, of passion, and opyij, the settled feel- 

ay&miv irepararels: and Jerome on ing of anger. 

Ezek. xviii 7 (ValL v 207) : 'in euan- upavyj] 'outcry' : but, here only, in 

gelio quod iuxta Hebraeos Nazaraei the bad sense of clamouring against 

legere consueuerunt inter maxima another. Its meaning is defined by 

ponitur crimina, qui fratris sui spi- its position after opyiy, and before 

ritum contristatterit 1 '. That which j8Xaer^>?//*ta ('evil speaking' or 'slander- 

tends not to build but to cast down, fog*)* 

that which grieves the brother, grieves dp0j?r<o] Compare i Cor. v. 2 Iva 

the Spirit which is alike in him and dp6ff e< pfoov vp&v o TO epyov TOVTO 

in you. irpagas. St Paul uses the word again 

etr<j>payurdi)Te'] The whole clause is only in I Cor. vi 15 and Col. ii 

an echo of i 13 f. eo-<j>payio-dr]Te T$ 14. 

ys eifoyye\ias T ayi(o..,fls KO.KIO\ 'malice', not 'wickedness' I 


eis dAAf/A.oi/5 xprj(TToi, 
K fca&as Kal 6 Beos ev XpicrTa) e^apicraro vfuv. 

comp. Tit. iii 3 ev KOKIGC *al (pdoiw it is so on account of the clause which 

Stdyovres. follows : they among themselves must 

32. xpjjorot K-T.X.'] The parallel do for themselves what God has done 

passage, Col. iii 12, has: ev8vo-a<rde... for them. 

o~7r\dyxva o(Knp/*ov, ^pj/oToriyra, TO- Origen, who noted the variation, 

jreivo<ppocrvvt)v, wpatfriyra, [uucpodvfitav, was led by it to interpret ^apifd/tej'ot 

dvexofievoi aXXifXrap, Kal x a P t l Jiev oi in the sense of 'giving' as God has 

favrols, eav ns irpos nva e\fi /io/LpiJi' 'given' to us, as in Rom. viii 32 ircas 

Kadas Kal 6 Kvptos exapia-aro vplv, oSrat ojj^i Kal avv aurra TO irdvra xapi- 

KOI vp.els. In our epistle the demand o-crai ; The kindness and tender- 

for humility and forbearance has been heartedness which we shew els oXXq- 

made before (iv 2); kindness, tender- Xous, he says, is in fact shewn rather 

ness, forgivingness are now enforced. to ourselves, Sto TO wo-o-<opovs focis 

vtnr\ayxvoi\ The word occurs eivai...Tavra fie eavrois ^apifo/ieda, otro 

again only in i Pet. iii 8. It is not Kal 6 debs rjp.iv ev Xpto-Tw exapiVaro. 

found in the LXX, but occurs in the But the parallel in CoL iii 13, where 

Prayer of Manasses (v. 7) which is one eav ns irpos rtva exa paptpyv is added, 

of the Canticles appended to the is hi itself decisive against this view. 

Greek Psalter. It is also found, with The Latin rendering 'donantes... 

its substantive evtrJrKayxvta, in the (l&nauit' \eudsTit no support, as may 

Testam. xii patriarch. Hippocrates be seen at once from Col. ii 13 'do- 

uses it in a literal sense of a healthy nantes tiobis omnia delicta\ a use of 

condition of the oTr\ayx va > ^ ^ e s ^ so donare which is Ciceronian. 
uses /nfyaXoo-7rXayx"oy of their enlarge- ev Xptora] 'in Christ', not 'for 

ment by disease. Euripides, Rhes. Christ's sake ' as in A.V. Theexpres- 

192, has ev<nr\ayxvia. metaphorically sion is intentionally brief and preg- 

for 'a stout heart'. The use of the nant. Compare 2 Cor. v 19 0eos %v 

word for tenderness of heart would & Xptora Koo-pov fcaroXXaVercuv nm3, 

thus seem to be not classical, but where the omission of the definite 

Jewish in origin, as Lightfoot suggests articles, frequent in pointed or pro- 

in regard to (nr\a.yxvie<r6ai in his verbial sayings, has the effect of pre- 

note on Phil, i 8. noXvtnrXayxi/os senting this as a concise summary of 

occurs in Jas. v n, with a variant the truth (o Xoyos TTJS KaroXXayfJs). 

iro\vev(nr\ayxvos : see Harnack's note In Col. iii 13 we have simply o Kvpios 

on Herm. Vis. 132. (or 6 Xptords). Here however the 

eavrois] For the variation of the mention of o 6e6s enables the Apostle 

pronoun after the preceding els aXXjJ- to expand his precept and to say yi- 

Xow see Lightfoot's note on Col. iii 13 vea-6e ovv fjufiijral TOV 6eov K.T.\. 
dvexopevoi dXkqXav Kal xapi&fievoi eav- txapiVaro] ' hath forgiven '. ' For- 

Tots. To the instances there cited gave' (Col. iii 13 A.V.) is an equally 

should be added Luke xxiii 12 eye- permissible rendering. It is an error 

VOVTO Be <pi\oi...p,er oXXjfXow irpov- to suppose that either is more faithful 

Trfjpxov yap ev ^x^P a ovres irpos avrovs, than the other to the sense of the 

where the change is made for variety's aorist, which, unless the context 

sake (Blass Gram. N. T. 48, 9). decides otherwise, represents an in- 

The same reason suffices to explain definite past. 

the variation here. If eavrois is the] On the variants here and in 

more appropriate in the second place, v 2 see the note on various readings. 

13 2 


V. *yiv<rOe ovv fJUfJLtjTat TOV Beov, ofs TCKVCC 
*Kai 7rept7raTeiT ev dydTry, icaflws Kal 6 xpurTos 
7rt}(rev i//xas KOI TrapeSioicev eavrov vvrep vjuuSv irpoc- 
<J>OP<N KM eyci'&N Tft) 6&S eic OCMHN ey co A i AC. 

V. i. /ii/ijjrai] Again and again ceedingly common. St Paul uses 

we find in St Paul's epistles such <popd again only in speaking of 'the 

expressions as pi^Tal rj^v (i Thess. offering of the Gentiles', Bom. xv. 16: 

i 6), [uprjTai p.ov (i Cor. iv 16, xi i). 6v<ria he employs again four times 

lufieio-dai JIMS (2 Thess. iii 7, 9). only (once of heathen sacrifices). It is 

Here he boldly bids his readers therefore probable that here he bor- 

* follow God's example', 'copy God', rows the words, half-consciously at 

Comp. Ign. Eph. i /u/*i?ra( ovres 0eov, least, from the Psalm. 

Troll. I evpeov vpus as eyvuv fupqTas els oa-fJ^v euwSi'as] 'Ocr/xt; is found 

ovras Beov. in the literal sense in John xii 3. 

TfKva dyamiTo} 'as His beloved ehil- Otherwise it occurs only in St Paul 

dren\ The epithet leads the way to and in every case in connexion with 

the further precept rat irepiirareiTe ev eva>8ia, which again is confined to his 

ayatrr). epistles. The passages are 2 Cor. ii 

2. n-apcSoMcey] The closest parallels 14 16 r^v oa-ftriv rfjs yvtoaeats avrov 

are in % 25 Kadcts Kal o xpurros qya- <j)avepovvn 8f rjfiov ev rravri roirca' 8r 

~7nj(rev'T^v~eKii^rfiriav Kai eavrov TrapeSca- JLpurrov cvadia eaftev T 0ea ev rolf 

Kev virep avrrjs, and Gal. ii 2O rot) vlov <r(oofievois KOI ev TOIS airohXvftevots' 

TOV faov rov ayair^a-avTos fte Kal irapa- ols fiev otr(ja) CK K.T.X., and 

Soyros eavrov virep e/iov. But WO may PhiL iv. l8 ireir\ypa>fi,(u 8fd/j,evos irapa 

also compare Gal. i 4 rov Sovros eavrbv ''EiraCppoo'iTOv TO. Trap' v/iSv, oo-fiiyv evca- 

virep T&V apapTi&v ypaJv, and in the bias, Ovtriav dexn/i/, evdpearov TOJ 0ew, 

Pastoral Epistles o Sous eavrov dvri- where the wording is closely parallel 

XuTpov virep irmrrwv (i Tim. ii 6), os to that of the present passage. The 

e8a>Kev eavrbv virep ypv (Tit. ii 14). Apostle is still employing Old Testa- 

In Rom. viii 32 the action is ascribed rnent language: ocr^ evadias, or els 

to the Father, virep TJ/XCOV irdvrwv wapf- oa-prjv evv&ias, occurs about forty times 

8<a<ev avrov, and in Bom. iv 25 we in the Pentateuch and four times in 

have the verb in the passive, os irape- Ezekiel. The fact that he uses the 

defy Sea TO. 7rapa7rra)/Ltara Tj/wSi/. In metaphor with equal freedom of the 

the last two passages, as in the fre- preaching of the Gospel and of the 

quent occurrences of the word in the gifts of the Philippians to himself 

Gospels, there is probably a reference should warn us against pressing it too 

to Isa. liii 9, 12. It is to be noted strongly to a doctrinal use in. the 

that in none of these passages is any present passage, 

allusion to the idea of sacrifice added, Jerome, doubtless reproducing Ori- 

as there is in the present case. gen, comments as follows : ( Qui pro 

vp&v] For the variant ty/uaw see the aliorum salute usque ad sanguinetn 

note on various readings. contra peccatum dimicat, ita ut et 

irpoo-<popav Kal 6vaiav\ These words animam suam tradat pro eis, iste 

are found in combination in Ps. xxxix ambulat in caritate, imitans Christum 

(xl) 7 dvo-iai> <al irpoo^opav OVK 17^X17- qui nos in tantum dilexit ut crucem 

trat (quoted in Heb. x 5, 8). Upoo-- pro salute omnium sustineret. quo- 

4>opa is very rare in the LXX (apart modo enim ille se tradidit pro nobis, 

from Ecclus.), whereas Bvo-la is ex- sic et iste pro quibus potest libenter 


3 Ropveia $e Kat aKaBaptria tratra t) irXeove^ia 
oi/o/iae<r0ft> ev vjuuv, KaBtas TrpeTrei dy'iois, 4 Kai a'u 

Kat fjLWpoXoyia tj evrpaireXia, a oik dvfJKev, a\\a 

occumbens imitabitur eum qui obla- dicadapo-ia irao-a. Neither is it a sy- 

tionem et hostiam in odorem suaui- nonym for aitadapvia 7700-0 : for in 

tatis se patri tradidit, et fiet etiam CoL iii 5 (quoted below on v. 5) it 

ipse oblatio et hostia deo in odorem stands even more clearly apart at the 

auauitatis'. So too Ohrysostom: 'Op^s close of the list, being introduced by 

TO wrep ex0p3i> naQtiv art otrpr) J<o- Kat TJ/V, as here by the disjunctive if. 
8ias eWt, 6v<ria evirp6<r8tK.Tos ; KOV 4. ala^porrjs] occurs here only in 

aaroddvgs, rare e<rg 6v<ria' TOVTO pipy- the Greek bible ; but in Col. iii 8 we 

cravQal cari TOV deov. have wv\ 8e dirodevde icai vpels ra 

3 14. 'The gross sins of lust and Trairo, opyqv, dvpov, KOKIOV, 

rapacity must not even be mentioned /u'ai>, ala-xpo\oyiav e TOV 

^for are you not numbered with vpav. 
saints? Nothing foul, nothing even p.a>po\oyta\ Comp. Pint. M or. 504 B 

foolish must pass your lips: let the ovrats ov ^e'yerot TO iriveiv, el irpoo-enj 

grace of wit be superseded by the Tip irivciv TO <naarav dXX' 77 p,a>po\oyia 

truer grace of thanksgiving. You pedrjv iroiel r^v otvioa-iv. 
know for certam that these black sins %] The disjunctive particle sepa- 

exclude from the kingdom. Let no rates evTpan-e\ia from altrxponjs and 

false subtilty impose upon you: it is /tapcXoyta, which are in themselves 

these things which bring down God's obviously reprehensible. Moreover 

wrath on the heathen world. With the isolation of etn-pcwreX/a prepares 

that world you can have no fellowship the way for the play upon words in 

now : you are light, and not darkness its contrast with cvxapurria. 

as you were. As children of light evrpairekia] versatility nearly al- 

you must walk, and find the fruit of ways of speech and so facetiousness 

light in all that is good and true, and witty repartee. Aristotle regards 

Darkness has no fruit : with its fruit- it as the virtuous mean between 

less works you must have no partner- scurrility and boorishness : Eth. Nic. 

ship: nay, you must let in the light ii 7 13 wep\ 8e TO rj8i> TO pev ev n-atStci, 

and expose them those secrets of 6 per pea-os evTpdire\os nal 17 ftidtieo-is 

unspeakable shame. Exposure by the euYpoTreX/a, ij 5e un-ep/SoX^ /3a>/ioXo^i'a 

light is manifestation : darkness made KCH 6 e'x^v avrrjv /3ca/xoXo^o?, o 8' eXXet- 

manifest is turned to light. So we iran> aypoinos TIS KOI q egis aypontia. 

sing: Sleeper awake, rise from the In certain circumstances, however, na\ 

dead : the Christ shall dawn upon ol fttopoXoxoi fvTpdire\oi irpoa-ayopevov- 

thee'. rat cos ^apt'ei/rcs (ibid, iv 14 4); this 

3. T) irXeovegid] Comp. iv 19 els does not mean that evTpaTreXta be- 

epycuriav aKadapcrias ircurrjs cv TrXco- comes a bad thing, but that the bad 

vej-iq. It is clear that ir\eovei-ia has in thing (fiapoXoxia) puts itself forward 

the Apostle's mind some connexion under the good name. Comp. Rhet. 

with the class of sins which he twice ii 12 ad fin. r\ yap evrpaire\ia ireircu- 

sums up under the term aita0ap<ria Sevpevrj vfipis eo-Ttv: this is not given 

Tracra: yet it is not included, as some as a definition of the word: the point 

have supposed, in this class : other- is that as youth affects vfipis, so evrpa- 

wise we should have expected the TreXwz, which is a kind of 'insolence 

order iropveia 8e KOI TrXeovegia KOI within bounds', is also a characteristic 



[V 5 

S TOVTO yap iarre yiviaaricovTes on 

of youth. Although this quick-witted 
raillery might easily be associated 
with impropriety of conversation 
and this danger is doubtless in the 
Apostle's mind yet the word itself 
appears to remain free from taint, 
This may be seen, for example, by its 
frequent association with xP ls an< ^ 
its derivatives : comp. Josephus^wfa'g. 
xii 4 3 jjcr&ts 8e rl ry xapiri KOI 
cvrpcnrfXtft rov veav'uriatv: Plutarch 
Mor. 52 D (of Alcibiades) /tera evrpa- 
<Sv KOI xdpiTos. 

Comp. Col. iii 18 ws dvrjuev 
ia, and see Lightfoot's note, in 
which he illustrates the use of the 
imperfect in this word and in irpooijKej> 
and KaBfjuev (Acts xxii 22) by our own 
past tense* ought '(=' owed'). 

evxapitrrid] St Jerome's exposition 
deserves to be given in full, as it 

with certain learned persons among 
the Greeks, to use the word cvxapm'a 
[the editions give evxapurrid] as dis- 
tinguished from eucharistia, Le. to 
distinguish between gratiosum esse 
and agere gratias, I suppose that the 
Apostle, a Hebrew of the Hebrews, 
used ^ e current word and intended 
to hint at his own meaning in the 
signification of the other word : and 
this the rather, because with the 
Hebrews gratiosiis and gratias agens 
are expressed, as they tell us, by one 
and the same word. Hence in Pro- 
verbs (xi 16) : yvvq evxdpurros eye/pet 
dvdpl 86gav, mulier grata suscitat 
uiro gloriam, where it stands for 
gratiosa. We should appear to be 
doing violence to the Scripture in 
thus daring to interpret mulier 
gratias agens as mulier 

-throws~lightTK>t~6nly on thlTinterpre- 
tation of the passage but also on the 
history of biblical commentary. 'Up 
to this point,' he says, 'the Apostle 
seems to have introduced nothing 
foreign to his purpose or alien to 
the context. But in regard to what 
follows, some one may raise the ques- 
tion, What has "giving of thanks" to 
do immediately after the prohibition 
of fornication and uncleanness and 
lasciviousness and shamefulness and 
foolish speaking and jesting ? If he 
was at liberty to name some one 
virtue, he might have mentioned 

"justice", Or "truth", or "love" : though 

these also would have been somewhat 
inconsequent at this point. Perhaps 
then by "giving of thanks (gratiarum 
actio)" is meant in this place not that 
by which we give thanks to God, but 
that on account of which we are called 
grateful or ingratiating (grati sii/te 
gratiosi) and witty (salsi) among men. 
For a Christian must not be a foolish- 
speaker and a jester : but his speech 
must be seasoned with salt, that it 
may have grace with them that hear 
it. And since it is not usual, except 

were it not that the other editions 
agree with us: for Aquila and Theo- 
dotion and Syinmachus have so ren- 
dered it, viz. yvvrj x<*P lTOS > i^vlier 
gratiosa, and not evxapurros, which 
refers to the "giving of thanks".' 

Thus far St Jerome. But whence 
this subtle feeling for Greek, this apt 
quotation from the Greek bible, this 
appeal to various translators instead 
of to the ' Hebrew verity' ? We have 
the answer in an extract from Origen's 
Commentary, happily preserved in 
Cramer's Catena: OUK dvfjue Se roTs 
ayiois ov8e avrq [sc. eurpcwreXi'a], aAXa 

pa\\ov rj ev ira<n irpbs Beov evxapurria.' 

rjyovv evxopurria naff fjv evxapivravs 
*< .jfaptevras TWOS <frapev fia>po\ayov 
per ofo KOI evrpdireXov ov Set elvai, 
cvxapurrov Se KOI xapiWo. KOI en-el 
davvrjdes eon TO eltreiv ' ciXXo }m\\ov 
evxapiTia' (sic legendum: ed. evxapi- 
ort'a), ra^a dvrl TotJrov e^P 1 ? " 07 " TS ""' 
SXXou Keifievrj \tt-fi nal earev ' aXXa 
/*aXXoi/ evxapurria'. ical /t^n-ore edo? 
rijs evxapurrias nut 

earl T< 


TOW dirb 

dvrl TT?S evx a P lT ' as 
pun-las) KOI efyapiVou, K.T.X. He then 


Trees irdpvos- n dtcdQapTOs $ TrXeoveKTijs, o ecrTiv etBu>\o- 
, OVK e%ei K\npovop.iav ev Ty /BcuriXeia TOV 

proceeds to cite the LXX and other vii 2, xii 17 f. In i Thess. iv 6 it is 

versions of Prov. xi 16. St Jerome's used in connexion with the sin of 

comment is thus fully accounted for, impurity, TO /w) virepfiaivetv Kal ir\eo- 

and we are able to see how closely he vexreiv ev TO> n-poy/uart TOV d8e\<pbv 

followed Origen, his indebtedness to avrov. Certain forms of impurity 

whom he expresses in his preface, involve an offence against the rights 

Since this note was written my friend of others ('thou shalt not covet thy 

Mr J. A. F. Gregg has examined the neighbour's wife'). Accordingly jrXeo- 

Paris MS of the Catena, and found vegut occurs in close proximity to sins 

that in both places it gives the word of impurity in several passages. The 

cvxaptTia. This word indeed appears context in such cases gives a colour 

to have no substantial existence and to the word ; but it does not appear 

to be a mere conjecture on the part that ir\eove^la can be independently 

of Origen. used in the sense of fleshly concu- 

"We cannot suppose that St Paul piscence. The chief passages, besides 

meant anything but 'thanksgiving' by those which have been cited above, 

evxapurria. But he was led to his are I Cor. v 9 ff. eypafya vftiv ev Tfj 

choice of the word by the double eirurro\fj pr) o-uvavapiyvvo-dai iropvots, 

meaning which certainly belongs to ov irdvras rots iropvois TOV Koa-pov 

the adjective evxapurros (comp., for TOVTOV r) TOIS irXeoveKTcus Kai~apjfaiv~ 

example, Xenoph. Cyrop. ii 2 I ev- rj '8&>XoXarpais, rei cJ^eiXere apa en 

XapurrdraToi \6yot). See the note on TOV Koa-fiov et-eXdelv. vvv 8e eypaijfa. 

iv 29 iva 8$ x<*P lv TO ^ S OKOVOVO-IV. pr) o-vvavafiiywo-Qat eav TIS do'e\<pbs 

5. tWe ywcoo-KovTes] This appears ovopa^oftevof ij iropvot r) irXeoveicnjs y 

to be a Hebraism for 'ye know of a etSoXoXarpqs ?/ Xot'Sopos 7 pedva-os rj 

surety'. The reduplication with the aptrag, T& Toiovra fitfe a-vveo-diew : 

infinitive absolute (-line! Vhjand the vi 9 f. rj OVK oiSare OTI adiKoi deov 

like) Occurs 14 times in the Old jScwtXetav ov KXripovofirja-ovo-iv ; pr} rrXa- 

Testament. The LXX generally render vavde- OVTG iropvoi OVTS etSwXoXdrpat 

it by yvovTes yvtoo-efrde, etc. Some- ovTe fiotxol OVTS /iaXcueo! OVTS dpa-evo- 

times the reduplication is simply Kolrai OVTS KkeitTai ovTf ir\eoveK.Tai, ov 

neglected. In I Sam. xx 3, however, pt6vo-oi, oti Xo/Sopot, ovx apirayes 0am- 

we find yivcao-K<av oldev, and in Jer. \elav deov KXj/poTO/w/ovwow In the 

xlix (xlii) 22 the actual phrase rre former passage ir\eovKrais comes in 

ytviao-Kovres on occurs in several MSS somewhat suddenly when nopvois alone 

sttb asterisco, being a Hexaplaric has been the starting-point of the 

reading which in the margin of Codex discussion ; but the addition u ap- 

Marchalianus is assigned to Symma- iraiv shews that the ground of the 

chus. discussion is being extended. The 

irXeoveKTrjs] See the notes on v. 3 latter passage recurs largely to the 

and iv 19; and compare CoL iii. 5 language of the former. For a further 

iropveiav, dicadapo-lav, irddos, emdvpiav investigation of ir\eovegta, and for its 

KaK/jv, KOI TTJV -irXfovef-iuv TJTIS eovlv connexion with etSooXoXarpia, see 

ei'SooXoXarpi'a. In the New Testament Lightfoot's notes on Col. iii 5. 
the verb irKeovfUTelv is confined to TOV ^pwrroO KO.I deov] The article 

two of St Paul's epistles: it regularly is sometimes prefixed to the first only 

means 'to defraud', 2 Cor. ii. n (iva of a series of nearly related terms: 

/ti) Tr\eoveKTT)6a)[j.ev virb TOV Saraffi), compare ii 2O eVt T^ 6ep,t\ica T&V 


(TTOV Kcd Beov. 6 juriBeis vjutds cwraraTa) KBVOIS \dyots, 
TavTa yap ep^eTai q opyrj TOV Bepv eni roi)s i/tovs 
aTreiBias. 7 ju>} ovv yiveatie awftero^ot avTwv 

7TOT6 <TfCOTOS, VVV $ (f>UJS 6V KVpllti' ftJS TGKVO, 

* 9 6 yap Kapiros TOV (ptaTos ev Trdcrri dyaBo)- 
caioaw7 Kal dXrideia" %0 o/)uabi/Ts T'I <TTW 
TO. Kvpita* n Kal jmrj arvvKowwveiTe TOK epyoK 
TOV encorovs, juaAAoi/ $e KO.I 

a7rooTo\<a>/ Kal 7r po(j)T]Tcav t Hi 12 TTJV clearly out of place : I Cor. xir 24 

irappTja-iav K.OI irpo<rayayqvy iii 1 8 Tt TO eav 8e rravres irpo(f>T]Tev<i>mv, elcreXdfl 84 

jrXaros <al {J.TJKOS Kal vfyos /cat {3d0os. ns airurros 'rf IBuorrjs, Aey^crat virb 

6. Kevois Xo'yois] The only parallel iravrmv, dvaKpiverai viro iravratv, ra 
is a close one; CoL ii 8 dia.,.Kevrjs ttpvirrh TTJS Kapdias avrov (pavepa yive- 
dirarys. Kews when used of speech rat, where the verb eXeyx" seems to 
is practically equivalent to i/rev&fc : suggest the explanatory sentence TO 
comp. Dldach 2 OVK carat o Xoyos upvarh... (fravepa yiverai. So in our 
(TOV ^CD^JJS, ov Kevos, oXXa fiepea-Tat- present passage eXcyx Te ^ 8 i m ^edi- 
P.CVOS 7rpaci : also Ariat. Eth. Nic. ii ately followed by ra yap Kpvfpfj yivo- 
7 i Kcycorfpot__(Xoyot) /*raj and~"subsequently we fiave TO 
d\T)daKOTfpoi: Galen de diff. pills, iii 6 de n-owra e\ey\6fjieva viro TOV fpatrbs 
(Kiihn viii 672) OVTCOS ativ nai rovs (pavepovrat. Accordhigly it is best to 
Xo-yous e'w'ore -^ev8els ovopaov<ri nevovs. interpret the word in the sense of ' to 

7. o-vK(j.Toxot] This compound and expose' ; a meaning which it likewise 
trovKoivtoveire in v. ii may be con- has in John iii 20 fua-el TO (j>a>s ical 
trusted with the three compounds oi5 ep^erai irpos TO ^>c5s, iva prj eXeyx&fj 
(TW/cXiypoTO/ita, trvvcr&pa, on/fieTo^a, by TO epya avrov (contrast Iva (j)avepa>dji 
which the Apostle emphasised their in the next verse). This signification 
entry into the new fellowship (iii 6). is illustrated by Wetstein from Arte- 

9. ayaQctovvrj] Comp. Rom. XV. 14, midorus ii 36 ^Xtos O.TTO dvo-6)s egava- 
Gal. V 22, 2 Thess. ill. It repre- TeXXVTaKpvnT<WXeyxeiT<Si>XeXj70o/ai 
sents the kindlier, as ontaiotrvvri repre- SOKOVVTOV, and also from the lexico- 
sents the sterner element in the ideal graphers. 

character: comp. Rom. v 7. With this interpretation we give 

10. SoKiiM&vrf s K.T.X.] Comp. Rom. unity to the whole passage. The 
xii 2 els TO doKipdgciv v(Ms TITO tifXqpa contrast throughout is between light 
TOV feov, TO dyadbv Kal evdpeorov Kal and darkness. First we have, as the 
re\eiov: and Col. iii 20 TOWO yap result of the light, that testing which 
evapftrrov ea-Tiv ev Kvpim. For the use of issues in the approval of the good 
fvdpeo-Tos and its adverb in inscriptions (fioiujuaf <=<); secondly, as the result 
see Deissmann New Bibelst. p. 42. of the meeting of the light with the 

1 1. eXtyxcTe] The ordinary mean- darkness, that testing which issues in 

ing of eXcyxeiv in the New Testament the exposure of the evil (eXeyxeiv). 

is 'to reprove', in the sense of 'to And then, since e\eyxf<r6at and <pave- 

rebuke'. But in the only other pas- povo-Gai are appropriate respectively 

sage in which the word occurs in to the evil and the good (as in John 

St Paul's writings (apart from the iii 20, quoted above), the transforma- 

Pastoral Epistles) reproof in words is tion of the one into the other is 

V 1214] 



yivofjieva VTT' avTtSv a'urxpov ZGTIV 

jravra eXeJieva VTTO TOV >WTOS (j>av6- 

yap K 

\eyeiv 13 ra 
povTat, irav yap TO tpavepovfjievov (fxus eVrrti/. 14 8io \eyei 

''Eyeipe, 6 KaBevScw, 

Kttt dvOLGTOL K TU>V V6Kp(*)V 9 

Kal iri<f)ava't <roi 6 

marked by the change of the verbs: 
\eyxojJiva..,(pavfpoiiTai...Tb (pavepov- 
pcvov <p&s cWtir. 

12. ala-xpov etrrtv Kal \eyeiv] The 
order of the sentence deserves atten- 
tion : TO. yap xpv<f)fi yivopfva stands 
closely connected with e\eyxere, and 
forms a special interpretation of ra 
epya TOV tTKorovs: whereas aiarxpw 
tOTtv Kal \eyeiv means simply that 
they are 'unspeakably shameful'. 

13. TO. 8e 7rat>7;a] This might be 
taken to mean * but all these things', 
namely ra Kpv(pfj yivopfva VTT avr&v. 
It seems however more in St Paul's 
manner to interpret ra Trawa as 'all 
things', and to regard the article as 
linking together the individual ele- 
ments (iravra) and presenting them as 
a whole. The statement accordingly is 
universal in its reference. All things 
when they come to be tested by the 
light cease to be obscure and become 

tpavepovpevov] ' Omne enim quod 
manifestatur lumen est', Vulg. To 
render with the Authorised Version 
'for whatsoever doth make manifest is 
light' is to do violence to the Greek 
(for there is no example in the New 
Testament of the middle voice of 
tpavfpovv), and to offer a truism which 
adds nothing to the meaning of the 
passage. In St Paul's mind 'to be- 
come manifest 'means to cease to be 
darkness, and to be a partaker of the 
very nature of light : ' for everything 
that becomes manifest is light'. Thus 
the Apostle has described a process 
by which darkness itself is transformed 
into light. The process had been 

realised in those to whom he wrote: 
$re yap irore <r*coros, vvv 8e <ps (v. 8). 

14. dio Xe'y] Comp. iv. 8. Seve- 
rian (Cramer's Catena ad loc.\ after 
saying that the passage is not to be 
found in the canonical writings, adds : 
-^apur^a ^v rore Kal irpoa-evxfjs Kal 
i/raX/ian/ wo/SaXXoyros rot) jrvevparos, 
Kaffcos \eyet cv rfj irpbs Koptvfliovs' 
"Erao-ros vfj.Sn> ^oX/io? exft, JTpoa-evx^v 
?... 7X0? ofc on eV evl TOVT&V T>V 
wvevpaTiKcav ^aX/xcSv froi jrpoereu^dSv 
exetro ToSfo~o~cia>T)p6vev(rev. The~at^~ 
tempts to assign the quotation to an 
apocryphal writing are probably mere 

errupavo-ei] For the variants en-c- 
^auo-et and emtyavaeis see the note 
on various readings. 

15 33. ' Be very careful, then, of 
your conduct. By a true wisdom you 
may ransom the time from its evil 
bondage. Cast away folly : under- 
stand the Lord's will. Let drunken- 
ness, and the moral ruin that it brings, 
be exchanged for that true fulness 
which is the Spirit's work, and which 
finds glad expression in the spiritual 
songs of a perpetual thanksgiving ; in 
a life of enthusiastic gratitude to the 
common Father, and yet a life of 
solemn order, where each knows and 
keeps his place under the restraining 
awe of Christ. The wife, for example, 
has her husband for her head, as the 
Church has Christ, the Saviour of His 
Body : she must accordingly obey her 
protector. So too the husband's pat- 
tern of love is Christ's love for the 
Church, for which He gave up Him- 
self: and wherefore? To hallow His 


I<5 B/Ye7reT ovv dicpifiiSs TTWS TrejOwrareZre, jUi) o>s 
a<ro<j)oi d\\' tas crofyoi, 1<5 eayopaojU6j/oi TOV Kaipov y 

Bride by a sacramental cleansing, to xiv 3 f. 'Egayopaetv is only used by 

present her to Himself in the glory St Paid, and in the two other places 

of a perfect beauty, with no spot of in which it occurs it has the meaning 

disfigurement, no wrinkle of age. But of ' buying out ' or ' away from } : Gal 

Christ's Bride is also Christ's Body : iii 13 Xpwrros 7/^3? e'^yopoow CK rrjs 

and the husband must love his Wife Kardpas, iv. 5 Iva rovs vjrb vouov et-ayo- 

as being his own body. Who hates pday, This meaning of 'ransoming, 

his own flesh? Who does not feed redeeming 'is found in other writers. 
and tend it 1 So is it with Christ and There seems to be no authority for 

the Church : for we are the limbs of interpreting the word, like <rvvayopd- 

His Body. Is it not written of i and <ruva>vtl<rdai, as *to buy up' 

marriage, that the two shall be one (coemere). Polyb. iii 42 2 is cited as 

flesh 1 Great is the hidden meaning an example, egrjyopao-e nap OVTCOV rd 

of those words. I declare them to be re povogv\a jrXoZo irdvra (Hannibal 

true of Christ and the Church: your bought all the boats of the natives in 

part is to realise their truth in your order to cross the Rhone) ; but the 

respective spheres : as the fear of sense of ' buying up ' is given by the 

Christ is met by Christ's love, so let addition of irdvra, and the verb itself 

the wife fear, and the husband love'. both there and in Plut._6fcggs.^2-need- 

i-jj-s BX-7T] St~PauT~frequently mean no more than 'to buy'. In 

uses @\ciriv in the sense of 'to take Mart. Polyc. 2 we have the middle 

heed' : (i) with the accusative, as in voice as here, but in the sense of 

Col. iv. 17 /SXeVe Tijv BiaKovlav (look to, * buying off' (comp. the use of eo>m- 

consider), Phil, iii 2 roi/s KVVCLS K.T.X. <rdai and eWpiW&u), 8ta /Ss Spas 

(beware of); (2) with iva or /?, fre- f*\v alaviov Ko\a<nv egayopa6p.evoi. 
quently ; (3) with TTWS, here and in A close verbal parallel is Dan. ii 8 

I Cor. iii 10 cuaaros be /SXcTrero irtSs oi8a on naipov v/ms eayopdeTe, ' I 

fjrotKodopei. Here only we have the know of a certainty that ye would gain 

addition of aKpi^&s^taJce careful the time' (Aram. ft3T }-in?K fcU^i; *fy. 

heed'. On the variant irus aVpt/3o5s but this meaning is not applicable to 

see the note on various readings. our passage. The Apostle appears to 

Tj-eptTraTeWj The repetition of this be urging his readers to claim the 

word takes us back to v. 8 <BS TCTO present for the best uses. It has got, 

<PO>TOS irfparareiTe. The particle ovv so to speak, into wrong hands * the 

is resumptive. The metaphor of dark- days are evil days' they must pur- 

ness and light is dropped, and the chase it out of them for themselves. 

contrast is now between qo-o^ot and Accordingly the most literal transla- 

o-o^ot. tion would seem to be the best, 're- 

16. ela-yopafo/iewu] Comp. Col. iv deeming the time'; but not in the 

5 ev o-o(pici irepiirareiTG irpbs roi>s ?(, sense of making up for lost time, as 

TOV Kaipbv egayopa6fj,vot. 'Ayopdgetv in the words ' Redeem thy misspent 

is used of persons by St Paul only in time that's past'. 
the phrase ifyopa^re Ti/wjy, i Cor. vi rbv icatpoi/] A distinction is often 

20, vii 23, ha each case the metaphor to be clearly marked between \povos 

being of purchase into servitude. So as 'time' generally, and itaipos 'the 

we have in 2 Pet. ii i rov dyopdo-avra fitting period or moment for a par- 

avrovs SecnroTTjv. It is used of the ticular action 7 . But Kaipos is by no 

redeemed in the Apocalypse, v 9, means limited to this latter sense. 


OTI ai yfjtepai irovnpai eurw. * 7 Bid TOVTO juj) yive<r8e 
afypoves, d\\d crvviere TI TO BeXrjfjLa TOV Kvplov * 8 Kat 
MH MeOfcKecee ofNcp, ev to <TTIV otcrwr/ a, d\\.d 

Thus in St Paul we have 6 vvv Kaipos, assimilation to the text of our passage, 

Bom. iii 26, viii 18 (ra n-ad^ara rov but that Origen confirms it (Tisch. 

vvv Koipov), xi 5 : and o Kaipos alone, Not. Cod. Sin. p. 107). As the words 

for the time that now is, or that still ev oivois occur in the preceding verse, 

is left, Horn, xiii n etSoVec TOV umpov, the change in B is probably due to a 

on Spa rfSr] VIMS e vnvov eyepdfjvai, desire for uniformity. 
I Cor. vii 29 o Kaipos ovveoTa\pevos aaoma] Comp. Tit. i 6 reKva e%a>v 

early. See also Gal. vi IO cos Katpbv jrtora, pfj ev KaTTjyopia ao-omct? TJ dv- 

exofjiev, which Lightfoot takes to mean viroraKra, i Pet. iv 4 py (rvvrpexovrotv 

'as we have opportunity'; but he vpj&v els rrjv avr^v TTJS da-arias dvdxya-tv. 

allows that ' there is no objection to The adverb is used in Luke xv 13 

rendering it "while we have time",' faevKopirurev TTJV ovaiav OVTOV >v 

and compares Ignat. Smyrn. 9 cos eri do-toTcas (comp. v. 30 6 KaraQayav crov 

Kcupbv e^o/zev, and [2 Clem.] 8, 9: TOV ftlov fiera iropvwv). 

irovrjpai\ Compare vi 13 avrurrrivai ir\r)povcr8e ev irvevpart] The sequence 

ev rfj ypepci TTJ irovypq, and GaL 14 of thought appears to be this: Be 

fKTovcdvosT.ovfv.e(rT03Tos_irjojfTipoC. not drunk with wine, but find your 

Though 'the days are evil', they are fulness through a higher instrument 

capable in some degree at least of tality, or in a higher sphere. If the 

transformation: the time may be preposition marks the instrumentality, 

rescued. So Origen interprets the then irvevpa signifies the Holy Spirit : 

whole passage: olovel eavTois TOV KOI- if it marks the sphere, irvevpa might 

pov dvovnevoi, e^oi/ra as irpos TOV still mean the Holy Spirit, but it 

avQpcomvov fiiov irovrjpas f/fiepas. ore would be more natural to explain it 

v e'is n 8eov TOV naipov KaravaXiffKo- of spirit generally (as opposed to 

fie v, (ovT)o~dfj.G0a avTov KOI dvrrjyopao'ap.ev flesh) or of the human spirit. In the 

eavTois ojinrepct ireirpapcvov TQ T&V dv- three other places in which we find ev 

0p<uira>v KaKici...gayopa{6pevoi 8e TOV irvevpari in this epistle there is a like 

Kaipov ovra ev rj^epais novrjpcus, olovel ambiguity : ii 22 cruz>otKO&o/xeIcr$e ds 

fj.eTcnroiovfj.fv TOS Trovr/pas fjiiepas fis KaToiKrjT^piov TOV 6eov ev irvevpaTi, iii 5 

dya&ds, K.T.\. Severian's comment direKa\v<p0r) TOIS dyiots diro(rr6\ois av- 

(also in Cramer's Catena) is similar : o TOV KO\ irpofpfrais ev Tjreu/um, vi 18 

ei-ayopa.6fj,evos TOV dXXorptoi' 8ov\ov jrpoo~ev)(o[J-evoi ev iravrl KcupiS ev irvev- 

egayopdgfTat ical KTarai O.VTOV. eirel ovv /nan. In every case it appears on the 

o Kaipos 6 irapaiv dovXevei TOW irovrjpotSf whole best to interpret the phrase as 

egayopdo~ao*de avrov, <$o~Te KaTo^piJo-a- referring to the Holy Spirit : and the 

adai avT& irpbs evo-cfteiav. interpretation is confirmed when we 

17. mviere K.T.\.~\ Comp. v. io observe the freedom with which the 
8oKifidovres K.T.\. For the variant Apostle uses the preposition in in- 
avvievTes see the note on various stances which are free from ambi- 
readings. guity ; as i Cor. xii 3 ev nW/win deov 

18. firi (iedvo~K0-0 o/o>] So Prov. XaXcov, 13 ev evl irvevpaTt e^airno-6rjfjLev } 
xxiii 31 (LXX only), according to the Bom. xv 16 7rpoo-<popa...yyiao-iJ.evT) ev 
reading of A. B has ev oivots, X oivois. irvevpari dyica : compare also Bom. xiv 
We might hesitate to accept the 17, where there is a contrast some- 
reading of A, regarding it as an what resembling that of our text, ov 


povcrBe ev TrvevjuiaTi, * 9 \d\ovvTes eat/rots -^aXjuois tad 
VJJLVOIS Kal wSats TTvevjuaTiKaTs, aSoi/res Kal T/raAAoj/res 
Trj KapSia VJULWV TO> Kvpiw, * ev%api<rTOvvTs Trai/rore 
uTrep TrdvTcov ev di/o/uart TOU icvpiov fjjuwi/ 'Itjcrou XpKTTOV 
Bey KOL TraTpi, 9I v7roTacro'o/>tei/O aAA;Aots i/ <po(3ta 
At yvvaiKes, rots Idiots dv$pd<rtv s 

a * 

eortv 9 /SaertXet'a rot) 0>S fip&vis Accordingly the defining epithet 

icat jrocrt?, aXXa SiKaiocrvw) ical elpyvt) fiariKals is reserved for this last word 

Kal xapa > irvevpan ayta). in both places. On the variants in 

If then we adopt the interpretation, this verse see the note on various 

'Let your fulness be that which comes readings. 

through the Holy Spirit', how are we 20. evxapurrovvres K.T.X.] So in 

to render the words in English ? The CoL iii 17 Kal itav o rt caw wot^re eV 

familiar rendering ' Be filled with the Xoyo> ^ ci epyw, Trqvra ev 6v6fMri 

/Spirit' suggests at first sight that the Kupiov 'Iijo-ov, evxapurrovvres T& 6e& 

injunction means ' Become full of the irarpi bi avrov. Compare I Thess. V 

Holy Spirit'. Such an injunction 16 TroWore ^at/sere, a8taX7rra)s irpoa-ev- 

however has no parallel : had this xc<r&, ev iravri 

been-the^postleVmeaning he would 22. At K.T.X.] As a matter 

almost certainly have, used the geni- of construction this clause depends on 

tive (comp. e.g. Acts ii 13 y\evKovs the preceding participle: 'submitting 

pcpeoT&fjievoi eltriv) : and he would yourselves one to another in the fear 

probably have cast his precept into of Christ : wives, unto your own hus- 

the form of an exhortation to pray bands, as unto the Lord '. Af yvvatKcg 

that such fulness might be granted, accordingly stands for the vocative, 

Nevertheless this rendering, though as in Col. iii 18, at ywaines, viroTcur- 

nbt strictly accurate, suffices to bring a-co-de rots dv8pd<riv, cos dv^Kev ev Kvpitp : 

out the general sense of the passage, compare the vocatives ot avfyes, TO 

inasmuch as it is difficult to distin- rewa, etc. lower down in the present 

guish between the fulness which passage, vi i, 4 f., 9. When this 

comes through the Spirit, and the section was read independently of the 

fulness which consists in being full of preceding verses, it became necessary 

the Spirit : the Holy Spirit being at to introduce a verb ; and this is 

once the Inspirer and the Inspiration, probably the cause of the insertion 

We may therefore retain it in view of i5jrorao-<rr0e or wraravo-eaQaHTov in 

of the harshness of such substitutes most of the texts : see the note on 

as ' Be filled in the Spirit' or 4 by the various readings. 
Spirit'. tetms] The parallel in CoL iii 18 

19. \a\ovvrcs K.T.X.] Comp. CoL iii shews that this word may be inserted 

16 Bidda-Kovref Kal vovBerovvres favrovs or omitted with indifference where 

, vfjivois, taSals irvevpariKdis ev the context makes the meaning clear. 

ffiovres ev rais KopBiaig VJUCOP TO> So we find Idiais with xepviv in I Cor. 

See Lightfoot's notes on that iv 12; but not according to the 

passage : ' while the leading idea of best text, in Eph. iv 28, I Thess. 

i/<-aA/Mor is a musical accompaniment, iv 1 1. It was often added by scribes, 

and that of v^vos praise to God, 6>S?' in accordance with the later prefer- 

is the general word for a song', ence for fulness of expression. 

V 2326] 




ia), a3 on dvqp earTiv KG^>a\*} TT;S yvvaacos w 
fce^>a\*7 Ttys efflcA^crtas, ai/Tos (rwTtjp TOV 
TOS. 34 aAAa ols if KK\n<ria v7roTd<r<rTcu TW 
oimos KCM < ^waiices TOM dvbpourw ev iravri. 
avdpes, dyawdre TS yvvcuicas, /cantos KCM d 
vyaTTtjO'ev TY\V eKK\*i<riav KCU eavTov TrapeScoicev virep 

> ^ s6' j \ e / /3 / " -\ * * 

avnjs, " ti/a avTqv ayicurri Kauapiaras TW AovTpw TOV 

* 5 O1 

23. <u"7p] The definite article (o) is 
absent in the best text : 'a husband 
is head of his wife', or, more idiom- 
atically in English, 'the husband is 
the head of the wife 9 . The article 
with yvvaiKos defines its relation to 
OM/P. So in i Cor. xi 3 Ke<pa\r] de 
yvvaiKos 6 avrfp, ' a woman's head is 
her husband', it defines the relation 
of awjp to the preceding ywautos. 

gyros o-can/p] On the variant icat 
OVTOS eoriv cnoTijp see the note on 
various readings. The true text in- 
dicates the special reason why the 
Apostle here speaks of Christ as the 
Head. He will not however enlarge 
on the subject, but returns, with oXXd, 
to the matter in hand. 

24. oXXa <&] In order to retain 
for dXXo its full adversative force 
many commentators interpret the 
precedhlg words, aiJTos <ra)T^p TOV 
(rafMTos,a& intended to enhance the 
headship of Christ, as being vastly 
superior to that of the husband : so 
that the connexion would be, 'but 
notwithstanding this difference', etc. 
The interpretation adopted hi the 
exposition saves us from the neces- 
sity of putting this strain upon the 
Apostle's language. As in several 
Other places, aXXa is used to fix the 
attention on the special point of 
immediate interest : comp. i Cor. xii 
24, 2 Cor. iii 14, viii 7^ Gal. iv 23, 29 : 
if this is not strictly 'the resumptive 
use 'of aXXa, it 18 akin to it The use 
of ir\fiv at the end of this section 
(. 33) is closely parallel 

25. Ol Mpes K.T.X.] So in CoL iii 

19 ol avSpes, dyairare ras yvvaiKas KOL 
^ irutpaiveo-06 irpbs avrds. 

26. ayiao-rj Kadapio-as] 'Cleanse and 
sanctify' is the order of thought, as 
in i Cor. vi n oXXa ajreAowra<r&, 
oXXa ^yiao-^re : cleanse from the old y 
and consecrate to the new. But in 
time the two are coincident. It was 
no doubt the desire to keep KaQapiaas 
closely with r5 Xourpw K.T.X. that led 
to the rendering of the Authorised 
Version, 'sanctify and~cleanse'r~To~~ 
render Ko0apl<ras 'having cleansed' 
would be to introduce a distinction 
in point of time : we must therefore 
say 'cleansing' (or 'by cleansing'). 

For the ritual sense of Kadapifa, 
see Deissmann (Neue Sibelst. pp. 
43 f.), who cites CIA in 74 nadapi- 
C eOT6 > ( OT 'c) 5e diro tr(K)6p8a>v na\l xoi- 
pea>v\ /ca[i yvvaiKos], \ov<rap,cvovs 8e 
Karajce^aXa avdrjpepbv fi[cnropev]e<rdai. 

raXovrp^j Three allied words must 
be distinguished: (i) Xovrpov 'the 
water for washing', or 'the washing' 
itself ; (2) Xovrp^, 'the place of wash- 


'the vessel for wash- 

ing', 'thelaver'. Each of these may 
in English be designated as 'the bath'. 
We may take as illustrations of (i) 
and (2) Plutarch, vita Alexandri 23 
JcaraXvcras de *cal TpfTTOfifvos irpbs Xov- 
rpbv ?j aXeipua, and Sympos. p. 734 B, 
where after speaking of i? mpl ra 
Xowrpa TroXwra^cta he relates that 
'A\eav8pos pev 6 fiao-iXevs ev TO> 
Xourpaw irvperratv ficadcvftev. In the 
LXX (i) and (3) are found: Xowi/p is 
used for c a laver' 16 times : \ovrpov 
represents n^O"D in Cant, iv 2, vi 6 


ef^> * * r ai*r i > \ t *>!*.$* 

voaTO's ev prifjiaTi, *'tva TrapcurTticrri avTos eavTto evoo^ov 

(of sheep coming up 'from the wash- when 'the word of God' comes to a 

ing'), and occurs in Sir. xxxi (xxxiv) prophet, Luke iii 2 eyevero ftpa 6cov 

30 /3airrt6pevos OTTO vfKpov Kal ira\iv eirl 'ladtnjv: comp. pfjp-a 6eov in this 

airropevos avTOv, ri eo<f>e\ij<revTy \ovrpy epistle, VI 17. It IS also used more 

OVTOV ; In Ps. lix (Ix) 10, cvii (cviii) specially (4) of the Christian teaching, 

10 VI7D ">*P 'my washpot' is rendered as in i Pet i 25 (from Isa. xl 8) TO 8e 

by Aquila \eftrjs \ovrpov fjtov (the LXX p?/*a Kvpiov (ifvet els TOV al&va- TOVTO 

hsiB \cfirjs TrjseXirio'ospov). The Latin 8e e<mv TO prjpa TO evayye\io-Qev els 

versions maintain the distinction by, and Heb. vi 5 KO\OV ycvo-apevovs 

the use of labrum for 'laver' (in the 6tov p^o. The most remarkable 

Pentateuch: olla, etc. elsewhere), and passage is Bom. x 8 ff., where, after 

of lauacrum for 'washing' in Canticles, quoting Deut. xxx 14 eyyvs <rov TO 

In Ps. lix (Ix) 10 Jerome's version has p^a eWw, ev T oropar/ o-ov Kal ev 

olla lanacri: in Sirach Cyprian and T KapSia o-ov, the Apostle continues 

the Vulgate have lauatio, but Au- TOVT eoTtv TO pwa T^S morccos o 

gustine thrice gives lauacrum. Kqpvo-cropev. art eav 0/10X07^07/5 TO 

For patristic references confirming PW a * v T $ orofiarl a-ov OTI KYPIO2 

the meaning of ' washing' for \ovrp6v t IH2OY2, Kal mtrr&uo-ijs K.T.X. Here 

see Clem. Alex. Paed. iii 9 46, Dion. TO mi** stands on the one hand for 

Alex. ep. xiii ad fin., Bpiph. expos, the Christian teaching (comp. . 17 

fid. 21, Dind. m 583 ; and contrast &a p^iua-os XptoroS), and on the other 
-Hippol^^J-ed^-Bonwetsch-Achelis-i for the Christian confession which" 

pt 2, p. 262 /zcra TTJV TTJS KoXvpfiijdpas leads to salvation. With this must 

avayewrja-tv. be compared i Cor. xii. 3, where the 

The only other passage in the New same confession appears as a kind of 

Testament where XowpoV occurs is formula, and is sharply contrasted 

Tit. iii 5 co-ao-ev ypas 8ia \ovrpov with a counter-formula ANA8EMA 

ira\ivyeveo-ias Kal dvaicaivcoa-fcas irvev- IH2OY2. Compare, too, Phil. ii.II 

fiaroy ayiov. Both there and here the irao-a y\aa-o~a cgoiw\oyqo'r)Tai OTI KY- 

Authorised Version correctly renders PIO2 IH2OY2 XPI2TO2. 

it 'the washing': 'the bath' would not In the present passage it is clear 

be incorrect, though somewhat am- that the phrase cV pijfMTi indicates 

biguous: 'the laver' is incorrect, some solemn utterance by the accom- 

and has probably been suggested by paniment of which 'the washing of 

the Latin ' lauacro', which has been water' is made to be no ordinary 

misunderstood. bath, but the sacrament of baptism. 

ev pjfcari] In the New Testament Comp. Aug. tract. 80 in Joan. 3 'De- 

pripa represents the various uses of trahe uerbum, et quid est aqua nisi 

the Hebrew "\^ (i) A spoken word aqua? accedit uerbum ad elementum, 

of any kind, as in Matt, xii 36 pqpa et fit sacramentum ; etiani ipsum tam- 

apyov. (2) A matter, as in Luke i 37 quam nisibile uerbum '. 

OVK abwaT^o-ei irapa TOV 6eov irav pfjpa, "What then was this prjfia 1 Chry- 

' nothing shall be too hard for God' sostom asks and answers the question 

(where jrapa TOV reproduces a Hebrew thus: 'Ev pw*an, <^crc'* imltg; ev 6v6- 

idiom, the passage being based on fwrt irarpos Kal vlov Kal ayiov irvev- 

Gen. xviii 14 /*^ dBwanjo-ei irapa TOV pans : that is to say, the triple 

0eov [the true reading, supported by formula of baptism. In the earliest 

the old Latin, not irapa TO> &&>] time, however, baptism appears to 

pfjaai), and Luke ii 15 TO pfjua TOVTO have been administered 'in the name 

(3) In a solemn sense, as of Jesus Christ' (Acts ii 38, x 48, 


TIJV eKK\t](riav, /#} exovcrav arvriXov rj pvTida tj TI r<v 
TOIOVTOW, o\V wa rj dyia Kal a/zw/uo?. a8 oi/Ts 6(j>el~ 

camp, viii 12) or 'the Lord Jesus' presents no difficulty ; the meaning is 

(Acts viii 16, xix 5); and on the use 'with a word which is appropriate 

of the single formula St Paul's argu- to this washing', the pfj/j-a being 

ment in i Cor. i 13 seems to be based sufficiently defined by the context. 
(M Hav\os etrravpa>6rj vnep vp&v, rj els There appears to be no ground for 

TO ovopa Iiav\ov ej3a7mo-0ip-e;). The supposing that the Apostle here makes 

special prjiia above referred to points any allusion to a ceremonial bath 

the same way. The confession on taken by the bride before marriage. 

KYPIOS IH2OYS was the shortest and There is no evidence for such a rite 

simplest statement of Christian faith in the Old Testament, the passages 

(comp. Acts xvi 31 ff. iriorcvvov rt sometimes cited being quite irrelevant 

TOV Kvpiov *lrjo-ovv Kal a-mdfav <ri> nai o (Ruth iii 3, Ezek. xxiii 40). In the 

oticos <rov...Kai e^airritrOri avros KOI ol legend of 'Joseph and Asenath' there 

avrov airavres irapaxprjpa). That some is no such ceremony, though it is true 

confession was required before bap- that after her long fast Asenath 

tism is seen from the early glosses washes her face and hands before she 

upon the baptism of the eunuch, Acts puts on her bridal costume. Nor 

viii 37, and that this soon took the does it appear as a Christian cere- 

form of question and answer (rcpco- mony, though it probably would have 
~ suggested~~by i Petr~iii~2i; ------- 

where the context contains phrases regarded as alluding to it here. St 

which correspond with the second Paul's thought is of the hallowing of 

division of the baptismal creed of the Church, and thus he is at once 

the second century. Indeed the origin led to speak of the sacrament of 

of the creed is probably to be traced, baptism. 

not in the first instance to the triple 27. TrapcMmjo-i/] Comp. 2 Cor. xi 2 

formula, but to the statement of the TJppo(rdp,T)v yap VJJMS evl dvftpl irapQlvov 

main facts about 'the Lord Jesus' as dyvrjv Trapaorj/om T xP l<rr - Here 

a prelude to baptism 'in His name'. Christ Himself (aurds, not avmjv, see 

When under the influence of Matt, the note on various readings) presents 

xxviii ig the triple formula soon the Church all-glorious to Himself. 

came to be universally employed, the "EvSoloi/ is the predicate : the word 

structure of the baptismal creed occurs again in i Cor. iv 10 vpeis 

would receive a corresponding ela- /dooi, focls fie art/iot, and twice in 

boration. St Luke's Gospel, vii 25 (of glorious 

It is probable, then, that the p^/xa apparel), xiii 17 (of glorious works). 
here referred to is the solemn mention omXcw ^ pun'Sa] ' spot of disfigure- 

of the name of the Lord Jesus Christ ment or wrinkle of age'. Neither 

in connexion with the rite of baptism, word is found in the LXX. Comp. 

either as the confession made by the 2 Pet. ii 13 cnnAoi /cal /-wS^ot : Plut. 

candidate or as the formula employed Mor. 789 D ols 17 yeAa/tcw; ird\ia Kal 

by the ministrant We may therefore pvrts cpireipias pap-ros eirKpaivcrai : 

render the passage: 'that He might Diosc. i 39 (de oleo arnygdalino) mp 

sanctify it,deansingitl>yt7ieiaa8hmg fie <cal <nrl\ovs Ve irpovdarw KO\ e'cpq'- 

of water with the word'. Xets (freckles) KO\ pvrlBas. 

For the use of the preposition dyia Kal a/iw/ios] Comp. i 4 elvai 

we may compare vi 2 eV eVayyeXio. r^ias ayiovs Kal dpoapavs Karevwjriov 

The absence of the definite article awrou eV ayairy, and see the note there. 


\ovariv Kai ol <w/fy>es dyairav TOS eavTtfiv yvvcuicas cos 
TO. eavrtSv ariafjuxra* 6 dyair&v Ttjv eavrov yvvaiKa 
dyaTra, ^ovSeis yap TTOTG Ttjv eavrov ardpKa 

efjii<rr](rev, dX\d KTpe(j)ei KOI QdXvrei avTtjv, KaBcos Kai 6 
XpiarTOs Trjv eKK\ticriav, 3 ort fA\n eoytei/ TOV crcJjuaTOS 
avTOV. 3I ANTi TofToy KATAAeiyei ANGpconoc TO'N 

CA'pKA Ml' AN. 3a TO (JLV(TTnplOV TOVTO jUeya O*T/I/, 

28. otiroas] This is not to be taken 31. ami TOVTOV] Comp. avff mv, 
as the antecedent to <as rot eavr&v 2 Thess. ii 10, and four times in St 
o-ta/taro, which means 'as being their Luke's writings. It has been suggested 
own bodies '. It refers to the general that dvrt here means ' instead of, the 
drift of what has gone before: 'thus', contrast being with the idea of a 
'in this same manner'. This is the man's hating his own flesh (v. 29); 
meaning of ourcos in Matt, v 16 ovrof and the mention of a-apf- in both 
Xaft^aro) TO <fxos vpuv, K.T.\.: that is verses is pleaded in favour of this 

_to_say,_las_theJamp-shineth (?.-! 5); interpretation; In-the-few-passages 

not 'in such a way... that they may in which St Paul uses am, however, 

see' etc. it does not suggest opposition, but 

29. o-apxa] The change from cr<S/*a correspondence : KUKOV dvrl KCIKOV, 
to <rdpg gives a fresh emphasis to the Rom. xii 17, i Thess. v 15 ; KO/H; ami 
thought, and at the same time pre- n-ept/SoXatou, i Cor. xi 15. This of 
pares the way for the quotation in course is in no way decisive of his use 
v. 31. of the word in the present passage : 

eKTpefai Kai 6a\irei\ Each of these but it seems on the whole more 

words is .once used by the Apostle natural to suppose that dvrl TOVTOV 

elsewhere, but in reference to the is intended as equivalent to ev 

nurture of children: below, vi 4 c- , , /. , 

' TOVTW which 


Kvpiov : i Thess. ii 7 as eav Tpo0os in the LXX of Gen. ii 24. Comp. 

Ba\irrj ra eavTfjs Tfnva. Jerome ad loc.: 'apostolua pro eo 

30. fiAij] The relation of the quod ibi habetur evenev TOVTOV, id est 

parts to the whole is here empha- propter hoc, posuit dvrl rovrov, quod 

sised, as is the relation of the parts latine aliis uerbis dici noa potest'. 

of the whole to one another in iv 25 The only other variant from the LXX 

Sri eo-fiev d\\j\a>v /aeXi/. With the in our text is the omission of mJroO 

latter compare Bom. xii 5 of n-oXAot after irarepa and fujrepa : see, how- 

ev tr&pa la-fiev ev Xptor^, TO S^ Kaff els ever, the note on various readings. 

aXXifXcDp fie\Tj: with the former i Cor. 32. TO pvaTT)pu>v K.T.X.] The mean- 

vi 115 TO a-cafurra vfiv p.e\T) XptoroO ing of fj-vcrnjpiov is discussed in a 

<rriv, xii 27 vfifis 8e core trco^a XptaroO separate note. In St Paul's use of 

icat [ie\t] CK fiepovs. the word we must distinguish (i) its 

For the addition ex TTJS a-apubs avrov employment to designate the eternal 

KOI CK To5v ooreo/ avrov see the note secret of God's purpose for mankind, 

on various readings. bidden from the past but revealed in 

V 333 



\eyia els XpurTov Kal eis Ttjv eKK\ti(riav. 


cos eavrv 


yvvri va 





Christ; comp. in this epistle, i 9, iii 4, 
9, vi 19; Col. i 26 f., ii 2, iv 3; Rom. 
xvi 25; i Cor. ii i, 7: (2) a more 
general use of the word in the plural, 

1 Cor. iv i, xiii 2, xiv 2: (3) the use 
of the singular for some particular 
secret of the Divine economy or of 
the future; as in Rom. xi 25 TO 
{MMrrqptov TOVTO (of the partial blind- 
ness of Israel, which has been figured 
by the olive-tree), i Cor. xv 51 iSou 
ILvaTJipiov vpu> \eya> (of the last 
trump). The remarkable phrase in 

2 Thess. ii 7 TO pvo-rypiov TJJS dvopias, 
connected as it is with a thrice 
repeated use of diroKa\.v<pdf}vcu, ap- 
pears-to-form-part-ofLan Jntentiona 
parallel between 'the man of sin' and 
our Lord. The remaining examples 
are in the Pastoral Epistles, i Tim. 
iii 9 ro ftAxrrqpiov rfjs iriareas, iii l6 

fieya eariv TO rfjs evtre- 

The use of the word in our text is 
not quite parallel to any of the above 
uses. The union of husband and wife 
as 'one flesh' is a [iv<rnfpiov, or con- 
tains a pvcm^piov (according as we 
interpret TO pvtmjpiov TOVTO as refer- 
ring to the actual statement of Gen. 
ii 24, or to the spiritual meaning of 
that statement : the word fuja-njpiov 
hovers between 'the symbol' and 'the 
thing symbolised' in Apoc. i 20, xvii 
5,7). This pvo-rypiov is of far-reaching 
importance (peya): but all that the 
Apostle will now add is that he is 
speaking (or that he speaks it) con- 
corning Christ and the Church. 

The Latin rendering 'sacramentum 
hoc magnum est' well represents the 
Greek; for ' sacramentum ' combines 
the ideas of the symbol and its mean- 
ing. It is hardly necessary to point 
out that it does not imply that St 


Paul is here speaking of marriage as 
a sacrament in the later sense. 

eyude \eyto] The insertion of the 
pronoun emphasises this teaching as 
specially belonging to the Apostle. It 
was his function in a peculiar sense 
to declare the mystical relation of 
Christ to the Church. 

els] 'with reference to': comp. Acts 
ii 25 AavclS yap Xey els avTov. 

33. n\^v ital vpels] that is, Do you 
at least grasp this, the practical lesson 
of love on the one part and of rever- 
ence on the other. 

Iva (froftfjTai] This carries us back 
to v. 21 ev <p6@tp Xpiarov. There 
appears to be a double reference to 
this in i Pet. iii i 6, which clearly 
is not independent of our epistle: 
'Ofiotoos yvvalties vTroTao-o-opevac rot? 
tSiots dv8pd<riv...Trjv ev <o'/3o> ayvffv 
dvaarpo^v vpav : and then as if to 
guard against a false conception of 
fear, pr) (pofiovufvai fujdepiav irrorjcnv 
(where the actual phrase comes from 
Prov. iii 25 KOI ov <pofir)6q<rfl m-mja-iv 

For the ellipse before Iva the near- 
est parallel seems to be i Cor. vii 29 
TO \oarov Iva <a\ ol e^ovres yvvatKaf cos 
pr/ e^ovres mo-iv. For a change from 
another construction to one with iva, 
see above v. 27 faj ?xouo-ai/...aXX' Iva. 
#..., and a nearer parallel in i Cor.. 
xiv 5 0e\a e irdvTas vpas \dhe1v- 
yXtooxrats, pa\\ov 8e iva 7rpo<pr)TevT)Te. . 
VI. i 9. 'These principles of rever 
ence and love extend through the* 
whole sphere of family life. Children 
must obey: it is righteous: and the? 
old precept still carries its special 
promise. Fathers must insist on 
obedience, and must not make dis- 
cipline more difficult by a lack of 
loving patience. Again, slaves must 



VI. *Td TKi/a, VTTaKOveTe roZs yovevariv vjuuSv ev 
KVpiw, TOVTO yap CCTTIV Shccuov a TiMA rdw TTAT^PA. 


e7rayye\iaj 3 fN<\ ef coi reNHTAi KAI GCH 
NIOC eni THC THC. 4 Kot* ol waTepes, /z) 

obey: with a trembling fear and a He did not in His reply go to the 

whole-hearted devotion, looking to Decalogue either for 'the first* or for 

their masters as to Christ Himself, 'the second, like unto it' (Mark xii 

They are Christ's slaves, doing God's 28 ff.). 

will in their daily tasks ; not rendering It is possible to understand Trpcarrj 

a superficial service to please an here, as in the Gospel, in the sense 

earthly lord; but with their soul in of the first in rank v ; or, again, as the 

their work, serving the Lord hi heaven, first to be enforced on a child: but 

not men on earth: for the Lord neither interpretation gives a satis- 

accepts and rewards all good work, factory meaning to the clause ev eiray- 

whether of the slave or of the free. ye\ia, unless these words be separated 

And the masters must catch the from irpwry and connected closely with 

same spirit : the threatening tone what follows 'with a promise that it 

must be heard no more: they and shall be well with thee', etc. This 
their slaves have the same_heavenly however is-exceedingly-harsh^and~it - 

Lord, before whom these earthly dis- breaks up the original construction 

tinctions disappear'. of the quoted passage, where iva 

1. Ta Tcicva] Comp. CoL iii 20 ra depends on Tipa. K.T.X. t viraKoveTe Tails yovevmv Kara 3. iva et> K.T.A.] The quotation 

iravroy TOVTO yap evapearov eoriv ev does not correspond to the Hebrew 

Kvpia. text either of Ex. xx 12, 'that thy 

2. TJTIS etrriv K.T.X.] 'which is the days may be long upon the land 
first commandment with promise', which the Lord thy God giveth thee', 
The obvious interpretation of these or of Deut. v 16, 'that thy days may 
words appears to be the best It be long, and that it may go well with 
has been objected (i) that a kind of thee, upon the land which the Lord 
promise is attached to the second thy God giveth thee '. St Paul quotes 
commandment of .the Decalogue, and with freedom from one of the LXX 
(2) that no other commandment has texts, which have themselves under- 
a promise attached to it after the gone some change, due in part to 
fifth. It may be replied (i) that the assimilation : Ex. xx 12 iva ev o~oi 
appeal to the character of God in the yevrjrcu. (these four words are omitted 
second commandment is not properly in A and obelised in the Syro- 
speaking a promise at all, and (2) hexaplar) *cat iva iMucpoxovios yevrj eirl 
that many commandments, not of the Tfjs yfjs TTJS dyadijs rjs ~K.vpi.os o deos 
Decalogue, have promises attached to crov 8ioa>o-iv aoi: Deut. v 16 iva eS 
them, so that the Apostle may be 0-01 yevqrai KOI Iva fiaKpoxpwios yevg 
thought of as regarding these as the (A ; toy F ; -01 $re B ab sup. ras.) rt 
subsequent commandments which his rfjs yfjs TJS JLvpios 6 6e6s trov Si'Swo-tV 
expression implies. 'EiroAq is not of a-ot. 

necessity to be confined to one of the cVl TTJS yfjs] The omission of the 

'Ten Words'. When our Lord was words which follow in the LXX gives 

asked noi'a eWlv eWoX^ irpoarr) iravrtiv ; a different turn to this phrase: so 

VI 59] 



that it may be rendered 'on the 
earth' instead of 'in the land'. 

4. of jrarcpes] Comp. Col. iii 21 
of irarepes, fifj epcdi&TG TO Tm v/uraK, 
?pa /i^ ddvfico<riv. 

n-apopy'tfere] See the note on 
irapopyurp&, IV 26. 

iraideia] Comp. 2 Tim, iii 16 

TO, TeKva vfJL(Sv f d\\a eKTpefpere aura ev nAiAei 
N o Y e c i' A K Y p i o Y. s Of $ov\oi , VTrcucoveTe . TOIS Kourd 
crdpKa KvpioK jwera <f)d@ov Kal Tpo/mov ev dirXoTriTi TI/S 

Tip %pi<rT<d, 6 /7 KOT 6(j>6a\fjLo^ov\iav 
dv6pa)7rdpe(TKOL d\\! ft>s $ov\oi XpurTov TTOIOVVTCS TO 
TOV 6eov, CK ^f^i/s 'j^er' evvoias $ov\e Jot/re?, 


dyaBov, TOVTO Kopfurerai irapa Kvpiov, eiVe 
eire eXevBepos. 9 Kai ol Kvpioi, TO. aura iroieiTe 

15 (of the reception of Titus), PhiL ii 
12; and, for the corresponding verbs, 
Mark V 33 <j>o^dei<ra Kai rpcpovoro. 
The combination occurs several times 
in the LXX. 

an-Aonyrt] In I Chron. xxix 17 ev 
aTrXonjrt KapBias renders *?5< ^% 
F or this word and o(p0a\iJLo8ov\ia 'see 
Eightfoof s notes on Col7iii 22. 

6. dvdpanrdpeo-icoi] Comp. Ps. Iii 
piifj 6 o Gets Sieo-nopmo-fv otrra dvffpat- 
jrapnco>v, Ps. Sol iv 8 f. avdpohrav dv- 
6pa>irapla-Ka>v..,dvdpayiFdpe<TKov \a\ovv- 
ra fwvov /tera doXou. See also GaL i 
10, i Thess. ii 4. 

k faxes'] Comp. CoL iii 23 3 
& v iroirjre, ^VXTJS cpyd&o-dc, <og r& 
K vpi<o KOI OVK dv6pomois. The parallel 
suggests that the phrase should here 
also be taken with what follows, and 
not, as in A.V., with what precedes. 
Moreover the preceding sentence is 
more forcible if 'doing the will of God' 
stands by itself as the interpretation 
of 'as servants of Christ'. 

7. peTcvvolas] 'EKifrvxrjs is opposed 
to listlessness : per evvoias suggests 
the ready good- will, which does not 
wait to be compelled. 

8. el86res K.T.X.] Comp. Col. iii 24 
elBores OTI dirb Kvpiov djro\fo\lreo-6e 
-rffv dvrajr68oa-iv TTJS K\rjpovofilas r<p 
Kvplta Xpto-r<5 SouXeuerc- o yap d8iKa>v 

Kal OVK eoriv 

v, irpos firavopQaxriv, irpbs iraideiav 
eV StKaioo-wj/. The word is not 
nsed elsewhere by St Paul, though he 
Tised the verb irai8eva>, 'to discipline', 
or in a severer sense 'to chastise', 
Although the substantive may signify 
simply education or training, yet 
* nurture' (A.V.) is too weak a word 
for it in this place. It is better to 
render it 'discipline'. Comp. Heb. 
xii 1 1 Trao-a nfv TraiBeia npos pev TO 
irapbv ov 8o<ei x^pas etvat d\\a \vm)s. 

vovdeo-iq] Comp. i Cor. xii, Tit. 
iii 10. It is less wide in meaning 
than muSet'a, and suggests a warning 
admonition. With this injunction 
compare Didache 4 OVK dpels TTJV 
Xp orou aTro row ufou o~ov 17 dirb TTJS 
Qvyarpos orou, dXXa ajro veonjros 8i8d- 
gcis TOV 0ooi> TOV dcov. 

5. Of SouXot] Comp. Col. iii 22 
of SoOXoi, vjraKovere Kara irdvra TOIS 
KOTO crdpKa Kvptois, /IT) ev 6<pda\- 
/toSouXtats, cog dvdpamdpeo-Kot, dXX* 
fv aTrXonyrt Kap8ias, <po{3ov[jifi>oi TOV 

<pd(iov KOI Tpofiov] Comp. i Cor. ii 
3 (of St Paul's preaching), 2 Cor. vii 

KOfilo*eTai o 

9. of Kvptoi] Comp. Col. iv. i 
Kvpiot, TO 8iKaiov K al T^V tVon/Ta 




irpos ai/rous, dvievres Tt}v ctTretXtji/, eiSores on KO.I avriov 
vjuiidv 6 Kvpios earTiv ev ovpavois, Kal 7rpo<rto7ro- 

OVK earTiv Trap ctim. 
10 Tot/ Xotirov ev^vvafjtovfrBe ev Kvpita KOI ev rep 

avTOv. ev$v(raar6e TY\V iravoTrXiav TOV Beov 

e, el86res or* Kal vfifls and blood, but spirit ; and they wage 

Kvpiov ev ovpavti. their conflict in the heavenly sphere. 

ra aura] i.e. 'deal in like manner You must be armed therefore with 

with them '. The phrase is not to be God's armour. Truth and righteous- 

pressed too literally: it signifies in ness, as you know, are His girdle and 

general, 'act by them, as they are breastplate; and in these His repre- 

bound to act by you '. sentative must be clad. In the confi- 

dvievrts] There is no parallel to dence of victory you must be shod 

this use of the verb in the Greek with the readiness of the messenger 

bible : but in classical Greek it is used of peace. With faith for your shield, 

either with the genitive or with the the flaming arrows of Satan will not 

accusative in the sense of 'giving up', discomfit you. Salvation is God's hel- 

' desisting from'. met, and He smites with the sword 

With this passage Wetstein com- of His lips. Your lips must breathe 
j)are8Seneca_y%^.-6o7-iTos > quibus perpetual-prayer; Prayer-toopsjour- 

rector mans atque terrae lus dedit watch, and it will test your endur- 

magnum necis atque uitae, Ponite in- ance. Pray for the whole body of 

flatos tumidosque uoltus. Quicquid a the saints : and pray for me, that my 

uobis minor extimescit, Maior hoc mouth may be opened to give my 

uobis dominus minatur. Omne sub own message boldly, prisoner though 

regno grauiore regnum est '. I be '. 

Kal avroav Kal vpaiv] See the note 10. Tov XotTrov] This is equivalent 

on various readings. to TO XowroV, with which St Paul 

B-poo-oMroXjjft^ta] Comp. Acts x 34. frequently introduces his concluding 

See also Lightfoot's note on Col. iii injunctions: see Lightfoot's note on 

25. With the whole passage compare Pm'L iii i. For the variant TO \oarov 

Didache 4 OVK eVmilets fiouXw crov in this passage see the note on various 

rj iraidiffKij, rots eVt TOV CIVTOV 6eov readings. 

eXjri&vtriv, ev iriKpiq. crov fujirore ov evdvvapova-de] This verb is confined 

M tf)o@T]dr)<rovTai TOV eV apfyorepois in the New Testament to the Pauline- 

6eov ov yap ep^erai KOTO irpoo-unrov epistles aud one passage in the Acts, 

KoXeom, oXX' <' ovs TO irvevpa qroi- SaOXos 8c fjt,a\\ov evedwapovTO (ix 22) :. 

fjuurev vp&is de of 6\>vXoi viroTayijirea-Qe it appears in the LXX rarely, and never 

TOW Kvplois vfji&v, tag ruTTip 0cov, ev without a, variant. 'Evdwapovv (from. 

aivxvvy Kal (pofitp. evdvvdfjtos) is scarcely distinguishablev 

10 20. 'My final injunction con- from dwa/iow (CoL in, Heb. xi 34), 

cerns you all. You need power, and which is found as a variant in this, 

you must find it in the Lord. You place. 

need God's armour, if you are to u. n-aiwrXiai/] 'Armour', as con- 
stand against the devil. We have to trasted with the several pieces of the 
wrestle with no human foe, but with armour (6VXa). So it is rightly ren- 
the powers which have the mastery of dered in Luke xi 22 T^V iravo7r\iav> 
this dark world : they are not flesh auroS afpet ' $ rejro/0. Comp.. 

VI 12] 



TO SvvacrBai i/juas (TTfjvai Trpos TOR /ULeBoSias TOV 

Siaj36\OV **OTl OVK e(TTW ^{JLLV tf 'JToXr] TTjOOS CUfJUX, Kat 

crapica, d\\d vrpos TS a^as, TT^OS ras e^ovcrias, irpos 
Kocr/moKpctTOpas TOV CTKOTOV? TOVTOV, Trpos T 

iravoTT\iav xP v rf v 'armour of gold', 
2 Mace, xi 8 ; eirfyvucrav irpoireirra- 
KOTO. NiKavopa ovv rfj iravoir\ia 'they 
knew that Meaner lay dead in his har- 
ness', ibid. xv. 28. It corresponds to 
the Latin armatura(=omniaarma). 
The rendering 'whole armour' (comp. 
'complete harness' 2 Mace. iii. 25) is 
redundant, and in the present pas- 
sage it distracts attention from the 
important epithet row deov. ' Put on 
God's armour' is the Apostle's injunc- 
tion. His meaning is presently made 
clear by his quotations from the de- 
scription of the Divine warrior in Old 
Testament prophecy. For-further- 
illustrations of iravoir\ia see the notes 
on vv. 13 f. 

pedodias] See the note on iv 14. 

12. 770X17] This word is not used 
by prose writers in the general sense 
of struggle or conflict. It always re- 
tains, except in a few poetical phrases, 
its proper meaning of 'wrestling'. 
Theodore ad loc. says : 'inconsequens 
esse uidetur ut is qui de armis om- 
nibus sumendis et bello disputauit 
conluctationem memoretur: sed nihil 
differre existimat, eo quod neque uera 
ratione de conluctatione aut de militia 
illi erat ratio ', etc. 

alfta ical vapitd] Comp. Heb. ii 14 
TO. TraiSta KfKoiv<avr)Kev ai/xaroy ical trap- 
KOS. The more usual order, crapg KOI 
alpa, is found in Matt, xvi 17, i Cor. 
xv 50, Gal. i. 1 6. The expression occurs 
in Ecclus. xiv 18 ovrats yevea <rapKos KOI 
ai/AdTos, 77 fifv reXeurfi, erepa 8e yevvd- 
rat, and xvii 31 (where it is paralleled 
by yfi KCLI o-TToSos). J. Lightfoot, on 
Matt, xvi 17, says : 'The Jewish writers 
use this form of speech infinite times, 
and by it oppose men to God'. He 
cites especially the phrase 'a king of 

flesh and blood'. In the Book of 
Enoch (xx 4) the offspring of the 
angels who sinned with the daughters 
of man is described as ' flesh andblood' 
in contrast with 'living spirits'. 

dpxds K.T.X.] Comp. i 21, iii 10. 

KocriMOKpaTopas] The word Koa-fWKpa- 
r<op has two significations, (i) 'Ruler 
of the whole world' : as in the Orphic 
Hymns in Sol. n, in Pan. u, and 
in a scholion on Aristoph. Nub. 397, 
Secroy^oxrts d j3a<ri\ci>s ra>v Alyvirricw 
Koa-fioKparaip yeyovas. In the Rab- 
binical writings the word is trans- 
literated and used in the same sense : 

cratores, ruling from one end of the 
world to the other: Nebuchadnezzar, 
Evilmerodach, Belshazzar ' ; and of the 
angel of death in Vajikra R., where 
however Israel is excepted from his 
otherwise universal rule. (2) 'Ruler 
of this world ' : thus standing in con- 
trast to iravroKparap, 'ruler of the 
whole universe.' It corresponds to 
d apxcov TOV Kooyzov (TOVTOV), John 
xii 31, xiv 30, xvi n, and to the 

Jewish title of Satan D^yn H&. Ac- 
cordingly we find the Valentinians 
applying it to the devil, Iren. (Mass.) 
i 5 4> ov Kal KoarfioKpaTopa KoXovcrt. 

In 2 Mace. God is spoken of as d TOV 
Koa-pov /SacriAevff, vii 9, and d Kvptos TOV 
Koo-fiov, xiii 1 4 ; and corresponding titles 
occur in the late Jewish literature. 
But no such expressions are used in 
the New Testament, where the world 
is commonly regarded as falsely as- 
serting its independence of God. ' All 
the kingdoms of the world and the 
glory of them' are in the power of 
Satan (Matt, iv 8, Luke iv 6) : only in 
the apocalyptic vision do we find that 
iyeveTQ rj /SaertXeta TOU KOO~[WV TOV KV- 



[VI 13, H 

panted Ttfc Trovnpicts ev rots eTrovpavioK 

dva\dfiere rfjv iravoiMav rov 6eov, iva 

(rrfjvai ev Trj qfJiepa. rip Trovtjpa KCU diravra 

p.evoL crTtjvai. * 4 <TTtJTe ovv TrepizcocAMeNoi THN 6 c <J> f N 


piov T)fiv Kgl TOV xpurrov avrov ( ApOC, 
xi 15). God, on the other hand, is 
addressed as nvpic rov atipavov ital TTJS 
yfjs (Matt xi 25, Luke x 21). 

The second of the two meanings is 
alone appropriate here. It is not of 
world-wide rule, but of the rule of this 
world, that the Apostle speaks; and 
this is made clear by the addition of 
TOV O-KOTOVS TOVTOV. The expression 
as a whole is not easy to render into 
another language. We find mundi- 
tenens in Tert. adv. Marc, v 18, adv. 
Valent. 22,defuga 12; and mundi- 
potens in de anima 23, and in Hilary 
in ps. cxviii. But the o_rdinary_Latin 

vens', implying a variant virovpavtois. 
The same rendering is found in 'the 
Armenian version, so that it goes 
back to the Old Syriac, as is further 
shewn by its occurrence in Ephraim's 
commentary. Theodore knew of this 
interpretation (prob. from the Peshito), 
but condemned it. 

13. awzXa/3ere] Comp. Judith xiv 3 
ai/aXa/3<Ws OVTOI ras iravoir\ias avraiv : 
Joseph. Ant. iv 5 2 ras iravmrkias ava- 
XaftovrfS evdeoas exapavv els TO cp-yov, 
XX 5 3 KcAeua TO aTpdreupa irav ras 
iravoTr\ias avakaftov qiceiv els r^v 'Awa>- 

irovrjpq} Gomp.-V l6- 

rendering is aduersus (huius) mundi irovrjpai elcriv : also Ps. xl (xli) i ev 

rectores tenebrarum harum. The ' */.** hh*x .< _*.. 

Peshito boldly paraphrases: 'the 
rulers of this dark world'. This 
fairly represents the Apostle's mean- 
ing : it is with the powers which rule 
this world, their realm of darkness, 
that we have to contend. In English 
'the world-rulers of this darkness' is 
hardly intelligible. The familiar ren- 
dering (though suggested by a faulty 
text, which added TOV alcoves) suffi- 
ciently gives the sense : ' the rulers 
of the darkness of this world*. 

ra Tn/ev/iaTiKo] 'the spiritual hosts' 
or 'forces '. The phrase ra 
TTJS irovrjpias differs from ra 
ra irovTjpd in laying more stress upon 
the nature of the foe. The rendering 
* hosts' is preferable to 'elements', 
because it suggests personal adver- 
saries: 'forces', in the biblical sense, 
would be equally suitable, but to 
modern ears it has the same imper- 
sonal meaning as 'elements'. 

ev TOIS eirovpaviois~\ Comp. i 20, ii 6, 
iii 10. The Peshito has 'and with the 
evil spirits which are beneath the hea- 

qpepq. Trovr/pq pvo*frai avrov 

6 KVplOS* 

Karepyavdpevoi] This verb is very 
frequently used by St Paul, and 
always in the sense of ' producing' or 
'accomplishing'. It occurs 18 times 
in the Epistles to the Romans and the 
Corinthians; but in the later epistles 
only in Phil, ii 12 rf/v eavroav o-oyrrjpiav 
Karepyd^etrSe. Here therefore it is 
most naturally interpreted as 'having 
accomplished all that your duty re- 
quires'. There is no reason to desert 
the ordinary usage of the New Testa- 
ment for the rarer sense of 'over- 
coming ', which occasionally occurs in 
the classical writers. The Latin ren- 
dering 'in omnibus perfecti' (om. in 
amiat.), if not a corruption of 'omni- 
bus perfectis', must be regarded as 
a loose paraphrase: Jerome in his 
commentary has 'uniuersa operati'. 

14. irepifao-dpcvoi /c.T.X.] With 
the description which follows com- 
pare I Thess. V 8 ei/Suo-ajnevoi dapaxa 
7rtoTfo)r Kal aycmrjs Kai ireptKe<pa\aiav 
traiypias. Both passages are 

VI J5-I7] 




AiKAiocVwHC, * 5 Kai V7ro$tj<rdpjivoi T o y c TT d A A c ev ereu- 
fjiacria TOY eyArreAiOY THC eipdNHc, l6 ev Trcuriv dva- 
\a/3oi/res TOV Bvpeov TJ/S 7Ti<rTft)s, ev w di>M7<recr06 iravTa 
TO. fie\n TOV TTovripov TO. TTewvptafjieva arfiea'ac * 7 Kai 

based on Isa. lix 17 eVdv'craro ducai- 
(MTVVTJV co? dtapaKa, KOI ireptedero vept- 
Ke(pa\aiav <ra>TTipiov eirl TTJS Ke<j>a\rjs. 
In our present passage the Apostle 
has also drawn upon Isa. xi 4 irarajei 
yrjv T& Xoyco TOV oro/xaros avrov, KOI ev 
irvevftaTi Sio ^ftXetai' awXel ao-f/3^- KOI 
carat SiKaiocrvvT) egaxrfievos T^V o<r<f>vv 
avTov, KO.I dXr}0eia cl\r)fj.evos ras TrXet/- 
pas. On these passages is also founded 
the description of the Divine warrior 
in Wisd. v 18: Xj^^eTai iravoirh.lav TOV 
f)\ov avTov t KOI oir\o7roiTJ<rei TTJV Kr'urtv 
els aftvvav exdp&v evftv<reTai dcapana 
8iKaioarvvr)V, KOI irepidija-cTcu KopvBa 
Kpicriv avviroitpiTOv \^fj,^erai dmrlda 

15. erot/iao-ta] The word is used 
in the LXX for a stand or hase: but 
it is also found in the following pas- 
sages, Ps. ix 38 (x 17) TTJV eToinaa-iav 
Tys napbias avTtov 7rpotre<r^i' TO ovs 
a-ov (Heb. 'Thou wilt prepare (or 
establish) their heart, Thou wilt cause 
Thine ear to hear'), Ixiv 10 (Ixv 9) 
i/roi/Ltao-as TTJV Tpotpr/v avTaiv, OTI OVTIOS 
17 erot/tao-ta <rov (comp. Wisd. xiii 12 
els eTotfuuriav Tpocpfjs}, Na. ii 4 * v 
fll*.epq iToipcurias avrov. The Apostle 
means to express the readiness which 
belongs to the bearer of good tidings. 
He has in his mind Isa. Hi 7 irdpeifu 
(os <opa eirl T&V opecov, ws Trades evay- 
ye\iofj.evov CLKOT)V elpijvijs, which in 
Bom. x 15 he quotes in a form nearer 
to the Hebrew, o5s eopatoi ol iroftes T>V 

1 6. ev Trao-iv] For the variant eirl 
see the note on various readings. 
l iraa-i occurs in the description of 
the Roman armour by Polybius (vi 23), 
eirl Se ira<ri TOVTOIS irpoa-eiriKoa-povvrai 
irrcpiva ore(pdv<a K.r.X. The meaning 

is, in any case, 'in addition to all': 
comp. Luke xvi 26 KOI ev iraa-i TOVTOIS 
peragv foav K.T.\., where there is the 
same variant cVt. 

6vpeov\ Comp. Polyb. vi 23 ?ort 
S' 17 'Pto/jLoiKfj iravoirkia irpwrov fiev 
dvpeos, ov TO fiev ir\aros earl TTJS nvp- 
rfjs eirifpaveias irevff i7f7roSta', TO 5e 
faJKOs iro8v Terrdpav 6 8e peifav, en 
KOI TroXaummoff. The scutum con- 
sisted, as he tells us, of two layers 
of wood glued together and covered 
first with linen and then with hide: 
it was bound with iron above and 
"below, and~had an iron~boss affixed" 
to it. The amis, or clypeus, was a 
round shield, smaller and lighter. 

ireirvpa>iJieva o^eVat] Wetstein gives 
many examples of the use of flaming 
missiles: they were often employed 
to destroy siege-works, as well as to 
wound or discomfit individual soldiers. 
Thuc. ii 75 TrpoKaXufi/iara ei^e Seppeis 
KOI i<pdcpa<:, a>ore TOVS epyaop.evovs 

KOI TO v\O. JLU/T6 TTVptftOpOlS OUTTols 

j3a\\eo'dai ev d<r(pa\eiq TC eivai. Liv. 
xxi 8 'Phalarica erat Saguntinis mis- 
sile telum hastili abiegno et caetero 
tereti praeterquam ad extremum 
unde ferrum exstabat: id, sicut in 
pilo, quadratum stuppa circumliga- 
bant linebantque pice... id maxime, 
etiamsi haesisset in scuto uec pene- 
trasset in corpus, pauorem faciebat, 
quod cum medium accensum mit- 
teretur conceptumque ipso motu 
multo maiorem ignem ferret, arma 
omitti cogebat nudumque militem 
ad insequentes ictus praebebat'. The 
exact expression occurs in Apollodor. 
BibL ii 5 de Hercule: T^V v8pav... 
(3aX<av fteXefft TreTrvpoapevois qvdyitcurev 

ege\0eiv. For the absence from some 



[VI 1820 


Ti4N nepiKecJ)AAAiANTOY 


7rpo<rev%fjs KO.I Severe ws, Trpoffev^ofJievoi ev 
ev Tri/evjuaTi, /c2 els ai/ro dypvTrvovvres ev vcury 
Kal Severn Trejo* TTOLVTWV TWV dy'ivov, 
T9 Kai vTrep efjiov, iva fjioi So6rj AG^OS ev dvoi^ei TOV CTTO- 
fJLaTos yuoy, ev Trapprjcria yvwpia'ai TO jmv(TTijpiov TOV 

> -\ I an t\ f /D ' J -v / / > 

evayye\iov vtrep ov Trpearpevw ev aXvcrei, iva ev 

cws SeF JULE 

texts of the article before 7rc7rvpo>/tera 
see the note on various readings. 

17. 7repe<aAat'ai>K.r.\.]SeeiThess. 
V 8 and Isa. lix 17, quoted above. To 
o-arrypiov is found in Luke ii 30, iii 6, 
and in St Paul's speech in Acts xxviii 
28 : in each case it comes directly or 
indirectly from the LXX. 

equivalent to Aa- 

jSere: comp. Luke ii 28, xvi 6 f., xxii 17 
(Segdpevos iroTrjptov). 

rr)v paxcupav TOV trvevftaros} The 
phrase is accounted for by Isa. xi 4 
(quoted above), though the actual 
words do not there occur. 

pfjfM deov] For prjjM see the note 
on V 26. Comp. Isa. XI 4 TO Xdyo 
TOV oropciTos avrov, and Heb. iv 12 
ft>v yap o \6yos TOV deov Kal evepyrjs 
KOI TopwTepos VTrep iravav uja.\<upav 
Sifrtofwv, K.T.A. 

1 8. Trpoa-evxijs] For the connexion 
of this with the prjfia deov compare 
I Tim. iv. 5 dyia^erai yap Sta \6yov 
deov Kal eirevl-eas, 

Sejjcreeas] This word is joined with 
irpoo-evxj, for the sake of fulness of 
expression : see Phil. iv. 6, i Tim. ii i, 
v 5. 

*v irvevu.ari\ e in the Spirit': seethe 
note on V l8. 

els OVTO] Comp. Rom. xiii 6 els 
avro roCro irpocrKaprepovvTes,. 

dypvjrvovvrcs] 'Aypvirveiv and ypq- 
yopelv are both used in the LXX to 
render "Ij?^, 'to keep awake', 'to 

watch'. Oomp. Mark xiii 33 /3XreT6 
dypwrrveire, 35 ypyyopelre ovv, xiv 38 
ypr)yopem KOI Trpoo-eu^etr^e : Luke 
xxi 36 dypvrrveiTe ev iravrl Kaip& 8eo- 
fiei/ot : and the parallel passage Col. 
IV 2 TTJ Trpoa-evxg wpoo-Kaprepetre, yprj- 
yopovvres > av-rfj ev eu^apiort'a. 
wpoo-Kaprcpyget] _ Ihe-verb-is-eom 

mon, but no independent reference 
for the noun is given. 

19. teal virep eftov] The change 
from irepi to virep helps to mark the 
introduction of the special request: 
but there is no real difference of 
meaning, as may be seen from the 
parallel, CoL iv 3, Trpoo-evxopevoi a/ui 
Kal irepi rj^v, iva K.T.A. 

Aoyos K.T.A. Comp. Col. iv 3 iva 
o debs dvoir) tfiuv tivpav TOV \6yov, 
and Ps. 1 (Ii) 17 fa x^ 7 ! P iOV dvoi- 
|s, Kal TO aTopa pov dvayyeXei rr)v 
a'ivea-iv (TOV. 

u.var^piov] Comp. Col. iv 3 f. AoAiJ- 
(rai TO /wvoTi}ptoi TOV xpioroC, Si' 6 Kal 
Se'Se/xai, Iva (pavep<o~<o avro cos Sei u,e 
AaA^o-at. For fiv(mjpu)v see i 9, and 
the references there given. For the 
absence from some texts of TOV evay- 
-yeAt'ov see the note on various readings. 

20. 7rpe<r/3euo>] Comp. 2 Cor. v 20 
virep Xptoroi) ovv 7rpetr/3ti;o/io>. 

ev d\vo-ei] Comp. Acts xxviii 20 
eiveKev yap TTJS eXirio'os TOV 'lapai/X TTJV 
a\vo-iv Tavnjv ircpiKeipai, 2 Tim. i. 16 
ryv a\vcriv pov OVK eiraio-xvvdr]. 

21 24. 'Tychicus will tell you 


3l/Y ^ S" \ t ~ \ 3 3. f f 

a li/a 06 eiorire KCU vjuteis ret /car e/ue, TI 
TrdvTa f yva)pi<rei VJMV TV%IKOS 6 dyctTrriTos d$ 

\5>/ 3 / nn t\ )f I \ t r* 


CM/TO TOVTO 'iva yvwTe TO, jrepl fjfjLaiv Kal 


33 Eipqvri rots do"e\<j)ols Kal dyoTrri fiieTcc 
airo Beov vraTpos Kal Kvplov 'Ir](rov \purTov* S4 'H 
LCTa TrdvToov Ttav dyaTrcovTaw TOV Kvpiov i^/ULoSv 
XpurTov ev d<p6ap<ria. 

how I fare. I am sending him to TI Trpao-o-ta] 'how I fare' : as in 

bring you information and encourage- the common phrase cu irparreiv. But 

ment. I greet all the brethren with there is no parallel to this usage in 

one greeting: peace be theirs, and the New Testament; for in Acts xv 29 

lore joined with faith. Grace be ev npagere appears to be used in the 

with all who love our Lord in the sense of KaXws irorfo-cTe. 

immortal life in which He and they 23. rots aScX^ots] The term dS-A- 

are one'. <o$ was taken over by Christianity 

2 1 . "ivaTde K.r.X7J~Slmost~the same from Judaism. See Acts ii 29, 37 

words occur in Col. iv 7 f. : TO KUT e/te iii 17, vii 2, etc., where it is addressed 

iravra yvapio-ci vfiiv Tvxmos 6 dyairrjTos by a Jew to Jews. Similarly before his 

a.8e\<f)bs teal irurrbs SIOKOVOS, Kal <rvv8ov- baptism Saul is addressed by Ananias 

Xos ev Kvpicp, ov eirepAJfa Trpbs els as d8e\<j>6s, Acts ix 17. Here the 

avrb TOVTO, Zva yv&Te TO. irepl r/fu&v KCLI general term takes the place of the 

irapaKakea-ri TOS KapBias vp,v- On the special names which occur in most of 

phrases common to both passages it is the epistles addressed to particular 

sufficient to refer to Lightfoot's notes. Churches. 

xat vfj-els] This may be taken in aymrrj peTa iriareas] Love accom- 

two senses: (i) 'ye also', i.e. as well panied by faith. Faith and love the 

as others to whom the Apostle is Apostle looked for and found among 

sending a letter at the same time those to whom he writes : see i 15, 

and by the same messenger : for and comp. Col. i 4. He prays that 

although this meaning would not be they may together abide with them. 

at once obvious to the recipients of 24. x"P ls ] The familiar tWacr/toy, 

this letter, the words might naturally with which St Paul closes every 

be used by the Apostle if he were epistle (see 2 Thess. iii 17 f.), takes 

addressing a like statement to the here a more general form and is 

Colossians : (2) 'ye on your part', with couched in the third person. This 

an implied reference to the knowledge is in harmony with the circular na- 

which the Apostle had gained of their ture of this epistle. 

condition (i 15 duovo-as T^V nad' v^as ev d<pdap(ria] 'A<p6apo-ia signifies 

ITLVTIV K.T.X.). The latter interpreta- indestructibility, incorruptibility, and 

tion, however, is somewhat forced, so immortality. *&<j>6apros and a- 

and the former is rendered the more <pdap<ria are used of the Deity ; e.g. 

probable by the close similarity be- by Epicurus ap. Diog. Laert. x 123, 

tween the parallel passages in the np&Tov per TOV 0ebv &ov atpdaprov 

two epistles. Ka l funtdpiov vopifav (cos Jj Koivri TOV 


fleov v6r)<ris vireypatpi]) ftqdtv pyre TTJS tv opoieapaTt fiKovos <p6apTov avOpumov, 

d(p0apcrias aXXoYptop pjrc TTJS fMKapto- I Tim. i 17 d<f)6dpT<p doparat /UOPO> 0e: 

Tyros dvo'iKfiov aura irp6<rairrf irav and of the dead after resurrection, 

8c ro $vXaTTj/ avTou Swaptvov rr^v I Cor. XV 52 eyepft/owrat acpdapnu. 

pera drfrdapcriag funcapioTTfra iff pi avrov It is also used as an epithet of 

doae : and Plutarch, Aristides 6, TO oretpavos (i Cor. ix 25), KXqpovofu'a 

tfeibi' rprt SOKCI 8ia<pfpeiv, d<p0apcriq (i Pet. i 4), and triropa (ib. 23 ; Comp. 

/cal KOI dperfj. They are like- iii 4). The substantive occurs in 

wise used by the Stoics of the /cooler; I Cor. xv 42 virciperat iv (ptiopij., 

Chrysippus ap. Plut. Moral. 425 D, cyeipfrai ev d(j>0ap<riq, 50 ov$e ij (pdopa 

ov\ TJKKTTO. rovrov (sc. the fifVof TOTTos Tr)v d<p6ap(riav K\r}povofj,ei, 53 ^" VP 

in which the Kotr/nor is situated) trw- ro <p6aprbv TOVTO evSva-aa-Qcu. d(p0ap- 

elpyetrdai trpos rr)v Btapovtiv <al diovti viav, KOI ro dtnjrov TOVTO evo'vo-acrdai 

dcpdapviav : and by the Epicureans of aQavaviav. It occurs again in Rom. 

their atoms. [Comp. the title of Philo's ii 7 TOIS p.ev icaff vnopovriv epyov dyadov 

treatise, Uepl d(pdaptrias /cocr^ou.] dogav KOI rifi^v KOI d<pdap<riav gr)Tov(nv f 

In the Greek Old Testament &- fayv alwviov, 2 Tim. i 10 Karapyyo-avTos 

(pdapTos occurs twice: Wisd. Xli I TO p.ev TOV 0dvarov t (poTia-avros fie a>r)V 

yap &tp6aprdv trov irvevfia. I<TTW eV KOI d(p0ap<rtav Sta TOV evayye\iov. (In 

ira<riv, xviii 4 TO ci<p6apTov vopov <{>&s. Tit. ii 7 it has been interpolated after 

The same writer in two notable pass- d(p0oplav, o-envvnjTa, having come 

ages connects the d<p&ap<ria granted in probably as a marginal gloss on 

to men with the dtfrdapo-ia of God's d(p0oplav.') 

own nature:Ji^3_J|rt_ol0-os-iro<r' In alHhese passages there can be no 
avdptoirov fir* d<pdap<riq, KCU elicova doubt as to the meaning of d<p0apcrta. 

TTJS iMas IdtoTTjTos (v. I. didioTjTos) If ^ alavios is the life-principle 

firolrjcrev OVTOV $6ov& 8e 8iafZ6\ov which is already at vrork,.d<p0apcria is el(rfi\0ev els TOV jcoer/ioi', K.T.X., the condition of immortality which 

vi 1 8 f. dydirrj fie n/pqoHs vofiatv ov-tys will crown it in the future. 
(sc. TTJS <ro<j>tas), Trpotro^^ 8e v6[uov The use of the word in the epistles 

(3fj3aico(risd(pdapo-iaf,a(p0ap(riaSeyyijs of Ignatius deserves a special con- 

eivcu iroKi faov. The only other ex- sideration, if only because we find in 

amples are found in 4 Mace, (of men Rom. 7 the expression dy&nrj a<p0apTos. 

who pass to an immortal life), ix 22 In Eph. 15 f. Ignatius is speaking of 

Sa-irep ev irvpl p,era(rx' l ll Jiari ^l JLevos ^s false teaching and false living as de- 

dfpdapcriav, xvil 12 ij0\o0erei yap Tore structive of the 'temples' of God, with 

dper^ Si' vTTop,ovijs ooKifjid&va-a TO VIKOS an allusion to I Cor. iii 17 TIS rov 

ev d<pdapa-ia ev (cog iro\vxpovl<a. Sym- vaov TOV 0eov <p0eipsi, K.T.X. He de- 

machus used the word in the title of clares that of oiKo<p06poi, those who 

Ps. Ixxiv (Ixxv), eirtviKioe irepl d<p0ap- violate God's house, forfeit the king- 

orias yfra\fi6s (LXX pr) 8ia(p0iprjs). dom of God. If this be SO for the 

So far then the meaning ofa<p0apTos bodily temple, still more does it hold 

(d(pdaptria) is clear, and there is no of those who 'violate ((pdfipeiv) the 

tendency to confuse it with &<f>0opos faith of God by evil teaching'. They 

(d<p0opia). The latter adjective occurs and their hearers are defiled and shall 

once in the LXX: Esther ii 2 ^ny^Va) go into the unquenchable fire. He 

TW j8ao-iX Kopdtria a<j)0opa KaXa TW proceeds : Aid TOVTO pvpov eXaftev eirl 

flBei (comp V. 3 copao-ta TrapdcviKa xaXa TTJS Kf<pa\rjs OVTOV 6 Kvpios, iva Trvey 

Ty flBei). Tfl fKK\r)o-ia dxpQapariav. He is playing 

In the New Testament we find upon the two senses of (pdeipeiv, 

a<p0apros used of God, Bom. i 23 physical destruction and moral cor- 

TT)V 86av TOV d<pdapTov 0eov ruption: but that the sense of in- 


corruptibility or immortality predomi- passage of Justin (Ap. i 15, comp. 

nates when the word a<j>dap<ria is attunfrdopoi ibid. 18). 
introduced is shewn by the contrasted Since, however, <pdcipeiv and $0opa 

6W<oSi'a TTJS Bidaa-KoXlas of the devil, express the physical and moral ideas 

who would carry us away 'from the which are negatived in d(pdapo-ia and 

life which is the goal set before us' d<p0opia respectively, it was quite 

(c TOV irpoK.eip.evov tfiv). The phrase possible that a<j>6ap<ria should come 

has a noteworthy parallel in Ireu. iii to be regarded as denoting not only 

1 1 8 iravrax60ev irveovras TTJV axfrdapcriav the indissolubility of eternal life, but 

icat dvafrnvpovvras TOVS dv0ptoirovs (of also the purity which Christian thought 

the four Gospels) : comp. 141 and i 6 1 ; necessarily connected with eternal life. 

the metaphor being perhaps derived And this may explain the uncertainty 

from the XptoroO eva8ia and the 007*7 which attends Origen's use of the 

ex fays els tcsnjv of 2 Cor. ii 15 f. word in some passages. Thus in his 

In Magn. 6 we have els -nmov KOI treatise on Prayer, 21, we read ra 

dtSaxfjv d<p0apo-ias, but the context 8ie(p0app,4va epya fj \oyovs $ vofoaTa, 

does not throw fresh light on the Taireiva rvyxavovra KOI eViXiynra, rfjs 

meaning of the word. Philad. 9 TO d<f>0apo-ias d\\6rpia TOV Kvpiov. He 

8e evayyeXiov dirdpno-pA eanv d<p0ap- seems again to play on two possible 

o-las recalls 2 Tim. i 10. In Trail, n senses of d<p0apo-ia in c. Gels, iii 60, 

%v av o nafnros OVT&V a(f>6apros stands where our present passage is referred 

in contrast with napnov davarrjcpopov. to : eirel 8e wu rj xP ls T v @ f v e>OTt 

In Rom. 7 we have ovy iffio/uu rpotpff Itera irdvTew T&ILJCI > 

(pdopas followed by jrd^ia <9e'Aa> TO at/xa TO>V TOV 8i8curKa\ov r&VTffs ddavatrLas 

OVTOV, 5 e<mv dydirrj a(p0apTos. In fiadtjfidrcav, 'Sorts dyvos' ov povov c dito 

this passage we have a combination iravros pvo-ovs ' (the words of Celsus), 

of the ideas which appear separately aXXa KOI TV e\arr6va>i> elvai vofu^o- 

in Troll. 8 eV dyaar^, o ecrnv alpa 'Irja-ov fjxvav aftapn/fidrajv 0appwv /iueicr^o), 

XptoroO, andjBjpA. 2o'aaproiKX<3vT, K.T.X. In his Commentary (on this 

o eariv (pdppaKov ddavao-ias, dvr&oTos verse) Origen combats an extreme 

TOV fiT) dirodavelv oXXa ijv ev 'Irio~ov view which interpreted d<j)6apo-ia as 

XptoT^ Sta iravros. [Comp. Clem, implying strict virginity. He does 

Alex. Paed. i 47 6 3pTos...els d(pdap- not reply, as he might have replied, 

viav Tpe'<o>v.] Both the dOavavia and that in Scripture d(J>dapo-ia is always 

the d(p6apo-ta of Ignatius are lifted used of immortality; but he suggests 

out of the merely physical region by that <pdopd is predicable of any sin, 

the new meaning given to 'life' by the so that d<p6apo~ia might be implying 

Gospel: but the words retain their absolute freedom from sin of any 

proper signification in the higher kind: wore rovs dycmavras rov Kvpiov 

sphere, and still mean freedom from w&v 'tyo-ow Xpto-rov lv d<j>dapo-ig, elvai 

death and from dissolution. ' KfyQapcria. TOVS irdo-ys dpaprias dnexofievovs. The 

is not confused with d<p6opia or later Greek commentators also in- 

d8ia<p6opia, so as to denote freedom terpret d^dapa-La in this place of 

from moral corruptness. incorruptness of life. The Latin 

I cannot point to any passage in commentators, who had in incorrup- 

the writers of the second century in tione to interpret, sometimes preferred 

which 8<p6apTos and d<f>0apo-ta are used to explain it of soundness of doctrine, 

of moral incorruptness, though the but with equally little justification 

words are common enough in the from the earlier literature. 

usual sense of immortality (see Athe- How then are the words to be 

nag. de Res. passim). On the other understood? It has been proposed 

hand a^dopot occurs in a well-known to connect them with 17 x<W> so that 


the Apostle's final prayer should be &tal to this interpretation. It is 

an invocation of X op & d<pdapo-i<h i.e. better to keep the words dd>0apiria 

of grace together with that blessed closely with T&V aymrvvrw rov Kvpnv 

immortality which is the crowning jp&v 'Irjvovv Xpurr6v, to render them 

gift of grace. But this cannot be 'in incorruptibility', and to explain 

regarded as a natural expansion of them as meaning 'in that endless 

his accustomed formula, even if the and unbroken life in which love has 

disposition of the sentence be not triumphedoverdeath and dissolution'. 


On the meanings of %a/w and 

i. The word x*P ls nas a remarkable variety of meaning even in the Meanings 

earliest Greek literature. It is used in classi- 

cal litera- 

(1) objectively, of that which causes a favorable regard, attractive- ture: 

ness : especially (a) grace of form, gracefulness ; and (&) grace 
of speech, graciousness : " 

(2) subjectively, nf tha favorable regard felt towards a person, 

acceptance or .favour : 

(3) of a definite expression of such favorable regard, afavour (xapiv 

Sovvat) : 

(4) of the reciprocal feeling produced by a favour ; the sense of 

favour bestowed, gratitude (xapiv dnoSovvai, 

(5) adverbially as in the phrases \apw nvos, 'for the sake of a 
person, or a thing' ; npos yapiv nvi n irpdrreiv, 'to do some- 
thing to please another'. 

Greek writers of all periods delight to play upon the various meanings Play on 
of the word ; as in such sayings as i? xP ts X<*P lv <pep. meanings. 

The Greek translators of the Old Testament used x a pis almost exclus- The Greek 
ively as a rendering of the Hebrew |D, a word connected with 13PI 'to O.'T. 
incline towards ', and so ' to favour '. 

Thus in the Pentateuch we find the phrase evpetv x^piv (20 times, Penta- 
besides ex*iv xP lv t f r tne sam e Hebrew, once) and the phrase dovvat teuch. 
Xapiv (five times); each being regularly followed by a term expressive 
of relation to the favouring person, evavriov TWOS, evmiriw TWOS or irapd TIVI. 

In Buth and the books of Samuel we have evpeiv x dptv ev o<J>dc&nols Euth and 
TWOS (12 times), where the same Hebrew phrase of relation is more Samuel. 
literally translated 1 . 

Up to this point we have no other use of the word at all. In Kings Kings and 
and Chronicles however, besides 5pi> x<*P lv evavriov (once), we twice find Chroni- 
X^ptv used as an adverb. cles. 

In Esther, besides evpeiv x^piv (six times : once for TDH, and once for Esther. 
this and jn together), we have *ap used for r6-1T3 in vi 3, riva. dogav jj 
Xapiv eironjvapev K.T.\., 'What honour and dignity hath been done to 
Mordecai for this ? ' (A.V.). In a Greek addition xv 14 (= v 2) we read TO 
rov crow ^ap/row ficarov. 

1 This rendering is found once in the Pentateuch, Gen. xxxiii 8. 



able esti- 
by a 





bility with 
God and 


In the 

literature : 
* mercy'. 

Enoch : 


The N. T. 
and He- 
esp. ' the 
quent on 

The distinctive meaning then of xapis as representing f ft in the historical 
books of the Old Testament is the favour which an inferior finds in the eyes 
of his superior. It is to be noted that bovvat x<*P tv is here correlative to 
evpelv \apw. It does not mean 'to favour', but c to cause to be favoured' 
by another. It thus differs altogether from the true Greek phrase 
t 'to grant a favour'. 

In the Psalms the word occurs twice only : xliv (xlv) 2 

ev xctXttrtp crow, Ixxxiii (Ixxxiv) II \dpiv Kal dogav 6\<rei. In each Case 
it renders JO, which has acquired a certain extension of meaning. 

In Proverbs we find it 21 times, the plural being occasionally used. 
Thrice it renders fltfl, which is commonly represented by cv6Wa. The 
general meaning is favour or acceptance hi a wide sense, las the condition 
of a happy and successful life. Such x"V ls is as a rule the accompaniment 
of wealth and high station : but God gives it as a reward of humility, iii 34 
raireivois Se 6 > t'8a><ni> \apiv\ 

In Ecclesiastes \apis is used twice for }H, and again the sense is wide. 

It is remarkable that in Isaiah, Jeremiah and (with few exceptions) 
the Prophets generally x<*P LS * s no * found at all. The exceptions are 
three passages in Zechariah (always for fri), iv 7, vi 14 and xii 10 (eVc^ta... 
irvevpa xaptros Kal oiKTip/tov) ; Ban. i 9 e6We...rt/xi)i' Kal X**P IV (&ff?) tvav- 
Tiou...(Theodot....r eXeov Kal otKTctp/top evwriov,..); and Ezek. xii 24, the 
adverbial phrase^-^os^^ggtv. 

InTlfie^Wisdom books we find, as we might expect, a more extended 
use of the word: and the sense which corresponds with fn appears side 
by side with various Greek usages. It is specially noteworthy that twice 
we have the combination x^P ls Ka ' <& e s [fv] rots exXeKrots avrov (Wisd. 
iii 9, iv 1 5). 

"With this last expression we may compare Enoch v 7, 8 Kal rots 
Tots eorat ^><3s Kal X^P ts Ka ' elptfvtJ.Tore Sodfoerai TOIS 

It appears from the foregoing investigation that the Hew Testament 
writers inherited a wealth of meanings for the word xpts ' 

() the purely Greek significations, which were familiar to all who used 
the Greek language, but which to some extent fell into the background, in 
consequence of the appropriation of the word to a specially Christian use; 

(&) the significations which the word had acquired through its use by 
the Greek translators of the Old Testament to represent |D. 

Of the latter significations the most important was that which we find 
in the latest books, namely, the favour of God, or rather the blessed condi- 
tion of human life which resulted from the Divine favour a sense in which 
the word came, as we have seen, to range with such spiritual blessings as 

cXeo?, <<$ and elpijvrj. 

allowance must be made for the more 
independent use of %</$ without a term 
of relation in the later Old Testament 

1 This phrase needs to be considered 
in the light of what has been said of 
Sovvat xdpiv tvavriov rwfa (see Gataker 
Cinnus, ed. Lond. 1651, p. 90!); but 


Turning now to the New Testament, we observe that the word is not Distribu- 
found in the Gospels of St Matthew and St Mark ; but that it occurs in *j onin , the 
every other book, with the exception of the First and Third Epistles of tament! 8 " 
St John 1 . We may consider first those writers whose phraseology is in 
general most remote from that of St Paul. 

In St John's Gospel x^P K * s found only in the Prologue: i 14^X17/317$ St John's 
Xapiros Kal d\r]6elas...l6 CK rov 7T\rjp(ofjiaTos avrov 17/16?? names eXajSo/iey Kat Gospel: 
Xapiv av xP lTOS '" I 7 ^ xfy is KM V aXif&ta 8ut 'lyo-ov XpioroS eyei/ero. S, ? m 
These verses are closely connected and offer a single emphatic presenta- r Ogue ' 
tion of x**P ls as a blessing brought to man by Jesus Christ. Grace and 
truth together stand in contrast to the law as given through Moses. 
A fulness of grace and truth pertains to 'the Word made flesh'. Out 
of that fulness we all have received : we have received 'grace for grace' 
that the gift in us may correspond with the source of the gift in Him. 

The only other occurrences of the word in the Johannine writings do Other 
not help us to interpret the words of the Prologue. In 2 John 3 we have Johannine 
merely the greeting ^apts, e\eos, eipjwj (comp. the Pastoral Epistles). In ooJjs - 
the Apocalypse we have the salutation x^P ts Ka * "P 7 ? 1 "? diro 6 a>p, JC.T.X., and 
the closing benediction, 77 x&P ls T v Kfptov 'I^foO XptoroC /tera raw ayi'aw, 
in each case Pauline phrases with a peculiar modification. 

The Epistle of St James contains the word only (iv 6) in an allusion to St James. 
and a quotation from Prov. iii 34 (see above)._ 

IlTJude 4 we read n)i rov 6eov ^optra peTandcvres els da-e\yeiav. This St Jude. 
form of the accusative is not found elsewhere in the New Testament, 
except in Acts xxiv 27. Xdpis does not occur in the opening salutation 
of the epistle (eXeos vplv KOI dpijvr] Kal dydirt) iF\i)dvvdfirj). It is observable 
that the whole of the phrase above quoted, with the exception of the word 
dueXyeia, is absent from the parallel passage, 2 Pet. ii i ff. In 2 Peter, 2 St Peter. 
however, we have the salutation x<*P ls "M"* * a * P'?'"7 irkrjdwdeir], and in 
iii 1 8 the injunction avt-dvere 8e ev x^piTt Kal yvuxrei TOV Kvpiov qfiStv. 

We now come to the Lucan books, in the latter of which at any rate St Luke's 
we shall be prepared to find tokens of the direct influence of St Paul. In G s P e l : 
Luke i 30 the angelic salutation Xmpc, Kf^pm^ew? is followed by evpes opening 
yap xapiv napa r<5 6e a, a purely Hebraistic expression. In ii 40 we read ?^ te - r !'. 
of the Child Jesus, x**P ls ^ e0 ^ ?" >7r ' O&TO : and in ii 52 'I^o-ot/s TrpoeKorrrev use 
rfj 0-otpia Kal ^XtKta KCU ^aptrt irapa 0ey /cat dvdpcairois (comp. I Sam. ii 26 
TO iraiftapiov Sa/iou^X eiropevero p.eydXvv6p,evov KCU. dyadov, Kal pera Kvpiov 
Kal fj-era dvdpamvv). The phraseology of the first two chapters of St Luke's 
Gospel is largely derived from the historical books of the Old Testament : 
and these uses of x<zpi? are characteristically Old Testament uses. In iv 22, 
cdavpafav ejrl rols \oyois TTJS x^P lTOS ) <- T -^-} w have another obvious Later on, 

Hebraism. But the remaining examples of the word give us purely Greek 


1 No account is here taken of ex- the Vulgate and the Bohairic. For a 

amples of x&pu> used adverbially with confusion between the same words see 

a genitive. In 3 John 4 /ietfor^pca' Tobit vii 17 xdpiv &vrl TIJS MTT^S ffov 

Totruv oi>K fy X a P^ v t ^ seems im- TOI/TIJS [xap^ H], Ecelus. xxx 
possible to accept the reading x^P l " 
which is found in B, a few cursives, 



Greek Usages: iroia vfiiv xP ls rriV; (vi 32, 33, 34): pf) e^ X<*P IV f$ 8ot5X&> 

art eiroirjircv TO, Stara^^eWa , (xvii 9). 

The Acts : In the Acts we find in the earlier chapters clear instances of the Old 
Hebraistic Testament use of xP 15 ' " 47 *X OVTfs X?P IV n Ps o\ ov TOV XooV, vii 10 



The new 
meaning : 

in con- 
with the 
of the 

the term 

to express 
the free- 
and uni- 
of the 


tion of the 
word in 
with his 

<5 x&P LV Ka ' <ro<piav fvavriov $apaa>, vii 46 evpev 
TOV 0fov. Perhaps we should add to these iv 33 x**P LS Te peyo^n fa rl 
iravras O.VTOVS, and vi 8 2re(pavos Se irXijprjs ^aptros xat ovvdpeag eVoiet 
repara, K.r.X. ; but it is possible that we have here a distinctively Christian 
use of the word. Of purely Greek usages we have x"P ira naraOevdai, ia 
xxiv 27) and X"P IV KOTaQfo-dat in xxv 9; also alrovpevoi x"*P tv Kar> O&TOV in 
xxv 3 (comp. the use of xapie<rdat in xxv n, 16). 

But there is another class of passages in the Acts in which xP ls * 8 
found in a new and Christian sense. The first of these is xi 23, where 
we read of St Barnabas at Antioch, lB<oi> TT)V x^P lv r ^ v rov 6eov e^api/. 
The emphatic form of the expression helps to mark the introduction of the 
new phrase : and it may be observed that, wherever throughout the book 
the word occurs in this sense, it is (with the single exception of xviii 27) 
followed by a defining genitive. The passages are the following: 

xiii 43 irpoffuAveiv Ty ^apiri TOV 5eoD, 

XiV 3 TO) KVplCp Tip fJMpTVpOVVTl TU> Xoyop TT)S ^CptTOS OVTOV, 

26 odev Jjo-av Trapadedoitevoi TTJ ^aptrt TOV 6eov, 

XV II Sia TJJS xdpfros TOV Kvpiov 'Iijo-ow irurrevofiev q-cod^vat naff bv_ 


40 TrapadoOeis TTJ ^aptrt TOV nvpiov, 

xviii 27 ffui/e/SaXero TroXu TOIS ireirurTfVK6(nv Bta rijf ^aptros, 

XX 24 o'lapapTvpaa-dai TO cwayycXto*' TTJS X^PITOS TOV Qtov, 

32 ?rapart&/uu vfids T$ Kvpitp KOI rj> Xoya> tys x&P iros OVTOV. 

It is noteworthy that this use of xP ls belongs to the narratives which 
deal with the extension of the Gospel to the Gentiles : see especially xv u. 
The surprising mercy of God, by which those who had been wholly outside 
the privileged circle were now the recipients of the Divine favour, seems 
to have called for a new and impressive name which might be the watch- 
word of the larger dispensation. 

Although it is not probable that the introduction of xP Lf into the 
Christian vocabulary was due to St Paul, yet there can be little doubt 
that the new and special use of it which we have just noted was closely 
connected with his missionary efforts, and that he did more than any one 
to develope the meaning of xps as a theological term. To him, for 
example, we owe the emphasis on the freeness of the Divine favour 
which is marked by the contrast of x<*P ls with oVpctXi/pxi, 'debt', and 
with epyov in the sense of meritorious 'work'; and the emphasis on 
the universality of the Divine favour, which included Gentiles as well as 
Jews, in contrast to 'the law' which was the discipline of Israel 

Moreover he seems in some sense to have appropriated the word, as 
though he had a peculiar claim and title to its use. The first of his epistles 
opens and closes with an invocation of XO/H? upon his readers : and every 
subsequent epistle follows the precedent thus set. In 2 Thess. iii 17 f. he 
declares that this may be regarded as his sign-manual, authenticating as it 


were his epistle : C O tunrturpbs ry tpfi ^pt IlauXou, o cartv OTjpetov ev TFCUTTJ special 
gv OVT&S ypd<par % XP IS T v xvpiov qpcav 'irjtrov Xpurrov fiera iravrwv mission : 


The following series of passages will serve to shew how closely he 
connected the word with his own special mission to the Gentiles. 

(a) In regard to himself as proclaimer of the universal Gospel. () in * 

I Cor. ill IO TT)V X<*P LV T v Qeov TT)V fio0erai> /tot, <as trocpbs apxi- }ji m g e lf 

1 Cor. XV lo xdpiTi 8e Beov dpi o elfju, KOI 17 \apis avrov T) els epe 
ov nevrf eyevydrj, aXXa irepur<rarepov avratv iravrov eVcon-iao-a, owe cyco Se 

dXXa 17 xP tf ro ^ ^w C 7 ?] ^ p e V ot '- 

2 Cor. 1 12 OVK eV aorpia trapKutf) aXX' e ^apm deoi) dvetrrpcupijfjiev fv 
TO Koa-fJLO), irepuram-epms 8e irpbs VJJMS. 

2 Cor. iv 15 i*a yap Traira St' vjuaf, Iva. rf. ^apt; irXfovaoracra Sta rSar 
irXfiovav TTJV evxaptoriav irepura-eva-ri els TTJV 86av row fleov. 

Gal. i IJ f. o d(f>opi(ras (*e...Kal KaXea-as dia TTJS ^dptros avrov..Jva 
vayye\ia>ii,ai avrbv ev rots edvecriv. 

GaL ii 7 f* t^ovres on 7re7rioT6v/M ro evayyeXtoi' r^s aKpo/3v<rrias...Kai 
yvovres rr)V X^P tv T ^ v ^oBeitrav p.oi. 

Gal. ii 21 OUK aderra T^ X&pw TOV 0eov- el -yap &ta vopav /c.T.X. 

Horn, i 5 &' ^ eXdftofiev \aptv icai CTrooroXi^y ftg waico^y iri<rrea>s ev 

Rom. xii 3 Xeya> yap dta T^S ^aptros rrjs 8o0eiaTjs pot iravri ra> OVTI ev 
: that is, with all the force of my special commission and authority, 
to you to whom it gives me a right to speak. The phrase is taken up 
again in v. 6. 

Rom. XV 15 <s eiravaiufurriaKcav vpas, diet T^V XP IV T ') v ^oBela'av poi 
OTTO TOW deov els TO etvai p,e \evrovpybv Xptorou 'Ijytrot) els ra edvrj. 

Phil, i 7 ev re TOIS betrfiols p-ov teal ev TTJ aVoXoy/a icat /3c/3ata)Vet rov 
euayyfX/ou (TVVKOIVCOVOVS fiov rfjs ^aptroj iravras vpas ovras. It Was for 
the wider Gospel that St Paul was hound. 

See also Eph. iii i 13, and the exposition. 

(6) In regard to the Gentile recipients of the universal Gospel ( 6 ) * n re \ 

2 Thess. i 12. The persecution which the Thessalonians suffer is a Gentile 
proof that 'the kingdom of God', for which they suffer, is truly for them, converts.. 
They as believers are equated with 'the saints': in them, no less than 
in Israel (Isa. xlix 3), the Name is to be glorified 'the Name of the 
Lord Jesus in you, and ye in Him 5 , Kara -rffv xdptv roO 6eov I^MBV KOI 
Kvpiov 'Jija-ov Xpwrrov. 

2 Thess. ii l6 o dyairfoas rj^as xal 8ovs irapaK^ijcrtv tumvtav <al eXiriSa 
ayadfjv ev ^dptrt, TrapaKoXecrat vpav ras Kapdias. By grace 'the COnsola- 
tion of Israel ' is widened to the consoling of the Gentiles. The thought 
is: For us too it is through grace, which has extended it (and may 
you realise it!) to you as well. 

1 Cor. i 4 eVi IT/ xdptrt TOV 6eov Ty doOeioy vplv ev Xpt<rr<5 'Ij/trov. 
You have been called into fellowship, v. 9. 

2 Cor. vi I TrapaKaXoO/Lief firj els nevbv T^V \apiv rov 6eov Sc|aa > dcu vpas. 

2 Cor. viii I yvopiopev Be vfjuv, d$e\<poi, TTJV X^P IV r v & f ov TTJV 8c8o- 
ev TOIS enK\ij<rtais TTJS MaKeSovtat. The contribution to the Jewish 

EPHES. 2 15 


Christians was a signal witness to the fellowship into which the Gentiles 
had been brought by grace. It was a proof that grace was being con- 
tinually given to those who made this return of grace. St Paul plays 
on the senses of the word with great delight in this connexion: ?. 4 TTJV 
X&PW *ai fqv Koiva>viav Trfs Stanovlas rffs els rovs ayiovs : V. 6 eirireXecrj; els 
Vftas Kal TTJV xP w TOUTTIV'. V. J ivo, ical ev TO.VTT) rfj \apiri irepurcrevrjre : 
V. 9 yivnaa-Kere yap rffv X^P IV Tov Kvpiov ijp&v 'lijerov [Xptorov] : V. 1$ ev 
1% x"P in Tawm Tfl SuntovovpevT] v<p* Tjpa>V. ix. 8 bwarei Se o deos iratrav 
\ irepur<revcrat els vpHs: V. 14 eirivodovvratv vfiay Bia rffv V7repjBa\- 
\owrav x&pw TOV 6eov e<f> vptv. The play on words was a truly Greek 
one: comp. Soph. Ajax 522 x&P ls X I *P IV y*P toriv rj r/xrovor' del. 

Gal. i 6 perari0c(T0f airo TOV K.d\ltravros vpas ev ^aptrt Xptoroi) els 
^ erepov edayye\tov. 

Gal. y 4 icanjpyijdrjTe diro Xpiarov drives ev v6(iq> SiKcuova-de, rijs ^aptrot 
e|e7reo-are. You have separated yourselves from that which was your 
one ground of hope. 

Col. i 6 d<f>* rjs rfpepas i} nova-are KOI eireyv&re rf]v x L P iV TQV & OV * v 
aXrjQeia. This is again in connexion with the declaration of the uni- 
versal scope and fruitfulness of the Gospel 

See also Eph. ii 5 9, and the exposition. 

The ad- A review of these passages makes it impossible to doubt that St Paul's 

mission uge o f ^apis is dominated by_^e^hojight-of-the-admission-of"the~Gentiles~ 
to~the'pTivileges^which had been peculiar to Israel. Grace was given to 

dominates *^ e Gentiles through his ministry: grace was given to him for his ministry 

his use of to them. The flexibility of the word enables him to use it in this twofold 

the word, manner. The Divine favour had included the Gentiles in the circle of 

privilege: the Divine favour had commissioned him to be its herald for 

the proclamation of that inclusion. 

This is in This being so, we recognise the fitness with which St Luke, the corn- 
harmony panion of St Paul and the historian of his mission, uses the new name 
Litter urt ^^ P 600 ^^ reference to the proclamation and the reception of the 
oftheActs. universal Gospel among the Gentiles. 

Later ft * s unnecessary to follow the history of the word into the Pastoral 

history of Epistles, where it is somewhat more widely used (comp. 2 Tim. ii i, Tit. iii 7), 
the word, though its specially Pauline usage may be illustrated by Tit. ii ii; or 
into the Epistle to the Hebrews, where the reference is quite general; 
or into i Peter, which adopts so much of the phraseology of St Paul's 
epistles. As the first great controversy of Christianity passed out of 
sight, terminology which had been framed with peculiar reference to it 
became widened and generalised; and the word 'grace' in particular lost 
Orace its early association, while it remained in the new Christian vocabulary 

versus an ^ waa destined, more especially in its Latin equivalent gratia, to be the 
reew . wa ^ c i iwor( i o f a y erv different and scarcely less tremendous struggle. 

Variously 2. Closely connected with St Paul's use of ^apis is his incidental use 
explained, on one occasion only of the word x a P tTOVV (Eph. i 6). Its meaning both 

there and in Luke i 28, the only other occurrence of the word in the New 

Testament, has been variously explained. 


The verb x a P iro ^ v properly signifies 'to endue with x&P ls ' : an< ^ its Its mean- 
meaning accordingly varies with the meaning of x<*P ls ' Thus from xP 15 ^Qh^h 6 * 
in the sense of * gracefulness of form 3 (compare Horn. Od. ii 12 fatnrfa-bjv of ^,5. 
8* &pa T> ye x^P lv tarexevev 'Adjvrj), we have the meaning 'to endue (j ree t 
with beauty': Niceph. Progymn. ii 2 (ed. Walz. I 429) Mvppav <f>v(ris pev usages: 
exapiroMrev els poptpqv: comp. Ecclus. ix 8, in the form in which it is to endue 
quoted by Clem. Alex. Paed. iii ii 83 mrovrpe-^ov 8e rbv o<p0a\pbv OTTO with ? 
yvvaiKos iccxaptrcapci^s (Lxx. evpopfav). Again, from the sense of 'gra- be uty > 
ciousness of manner' we have the meaning 'to endue with graciousness': ^Mfous- 
Ecclus. xviii 17, ' Lo, is not a word better than a gift? And both are e ss >. 
with a gracious man (irapa dvSpl K* xapmu/ieVw) : a fool will upbraid 
ungraciously (a^aptora*)'. 

The above are Greek usages. A Hebraistic use, ,of 'being caused to Hebraistic 
find favour' in the eyes of men, is seen in Ps.-Aristeas Ep. ad PMlocr. use 
(ed. Hody, Oxf. 1705, p. xxv; Swete's Introd. to LXX p. 558 L 4 ff.): in 
answer to the question, How one may despise enemies 'How/fear irpbs 
iravras avdp&irovs eSvoiav KOI Karepycurapevos <pi\ias, \6yov ovdevos av e^oiy 
TO 8e K%apiTa)(r0at. irpbs iravras avdptoTrovs, not Ka\bv 8pov fth.T)<pevat irapa 
Beov TOVT e<m Kpdriarov 1 . 

In Luke i 28 the salutation Xalpe, Ke^aptrajuefi;, 6 nvpios pera trov St Luke : 
gives rise to the unuttered inquiry iroratrbs etrj 6 donao-pos ovros ; and the 
ajngel_proceeds : 

Gen. vi 8). Thus Kexapa-toftevri is explained in an Old Testament sense as an 0. T. 
37 evpovara x^P lv n&pb. r<p 6e&: and the meaning of ^aptToSv accordingly is ^; v i n ' e i v 
'to endue with grace' in the sense of the Divine favour 2 . This was favoured', 
doubtless the meaning intended to be conveyed by the Latin rendering 
gratid plena, though it has proved as a matter of history to be somewhat 
ambiguous 3 . Similarly the Peshito has *A\cvr^^ inAso. Unfortunately, 
the Old Syriac (sin and cu) fails us at this point. Aphrahat (Wright 180, 2) 
and Ephraim Comm. in Diatess. (Moes. 49) both omit the word in question, 
and read 'Peace to thee, blessed among women' 4 . 

1 A few further examples of -xaptrovv The Latin Version (practically the 

may here be noted : same in both its forms) has: 'dedit 

In Test, xii Patriarch. Joseph i, we eis in omni opere gratiam '. 

Tiave tv faffereia ywv Kal 6 Ctywrros Epiphanius (Haer. Ixix 22): 6 5& 

ireo-KtyaT6 yae- iv <j>v\axjj ^jj,t)v Kol 6 Mwuff^s trov&et K 0eov Kexa-pira- 

a-wriip ^xapfo-wc-^ px. This is of course fitvos iip&ra. ov ravra, o\Xd Kal rb in 

BU allusion to Matt, xxv 36, and %a/>- Afdirepov, K.T.\. 

T<aare is probably borrowed directly a In the Apocalypse of the Virgin 

from Eph. i 6; the word being used (James Apocr. Anecd. i, 115 ff.) the 

simply in the sense of 'bestowed grace Blessed Virgin is constantly spoken of 

upon me': it is paralleled in the con- and even addressed as ^ Kexapirujdvi). 

text by j/ydirrjffe, ty6\ae, dvfoaye, 8 Ambiguity almost necessarily arose 

JjhevOfyuffe, tpotfffrjffe, ditdpeif'e, TTO/JE- when gratia came to have as its pre- 

JcdXeffe, l\we, o-vvi]y6pi]a-e, eppi5<raTo, dominant meaning a spiritual power 

\f/<a<re, as well as by tirerictya.. of help towards right living, 

Hennas Sim. ix 24 3 6 oSv Ki5pios * Not unconnected with this may 

ilS&v -ri\v dir\6TijTa afc&v Kal vaoav be the confused reading of the Latin 

vqirifa-qTa, ^ir\-^6vvev avTovs iv rots of Codex Bezae: 'habe benedicta dma 

icdirots TWJ> x ei pwj> avT&v, xal tx a pl T<a ~ tecum j benedicta tu inter mulieres.' 
<rei afirous iv irday irpdj-ei avr&v. 




St Paul 
is empha- 
sising his 
own word 

us with 




A various 

stom's in- 

on the 
senses of 
Xdpis and 
its deri- 

bat misses 
St Paul's 

In interpreting St Paul's meaning in Eph. i 6, els evatvov 
Xapa-os avrov f)s exapbaKrev t}pas ev ry rjyamjufvu, it is important to bear 
in mind that he is emphasising his own word xP ls - And we must compare 
certain other places in which a substantive is followed by its cognate verb: 
Eph. i 19 Kara TTJV evepyeiav...T)v ev^pytjKev (where he is thus led to a some- 
what unusual use of evepyeiv: see the detached note on that word): ii 4 
8ia TTJV iro\\f)v ayairr)V avrov T)V qyamjarev TJUO.S : IV I rrjs JcXiJtretas tjs 
cxXgdqrc: 2 Cor. i 4 Bta TTJS napaK\fi<rea>s TJS irapaKoXovftftia avToi. The 
sense appears to be, ' His grace whereby He hath endued us with grace 9 . 
This is a more emphatic way of saying, ' His grace which He hath bestowed 
on us': it does not differ materially from the subsequent phrase of v. 8, 
' His grace which He hath made to abound toward us '. 

The Peshito version seems to recognise this meaning of the passage in 
its rendering ^A*^ ^J&Z.^TI oco, ' which He poured on us '. The Latin 
version, however, renders: 'gratiae suae in qua gratificauit nos'. The 
verb 'gratifico' appears to have been coined for this occasion. The com- 
ment of Pelagius on the verse gives the meaning which was probably 
present to the translator's mind: 'In qua gratia gratos fecit nos sibi 
in Christo'. The interpretation was perhaps the natural issue of the 
corruption of T/S into ev #, which is found in D 2 G 3 and later authorities 
and is probably a scribe's grammatical emendation. The relative qs is to 
be explained by attraction to the case of its antecedent, as in 2 Cor, i 4,_ 
jjuoted-above. It-is simplest-to suppose"that"it~stMds~f6F^ : there appears 
to be no warrant for a cognate accusative, r)v exapfavHrev. 

Chrysostom's interpretation of exapi<rev quas is marked by a deter- 
mination to compass every meaning of the word. In the first instance 
he notes quite briefly (Field p. no p): OVKOVV el els TOVTO 
eiraivov 86ijs TTJS \apiTos avrov, Kal iva 8eirj TTJV xP lv a ^ 
avTri. Here it would seem as though he took exaptToxrev rjfuis as simply 
meaning 'endued us with grace'; in that grace, he urges, we ought 
to abide. But presently it occurs to him (in B) to contrast 
with exapia-aTo. Thus he says: OVK ciwev ( ?js ^a/weraro', dXX' '; 
T)p,as'' TOVTCOTIV, ov \iovov afj.apTTjfj.aToav dirr)\\aev aXXa icat eirepdtrTOVs 
eiroirjo-f. He gives as an illustration the restoration of an aged and 
diseased beggar to youth, strength and beauty (the old Greek idea of 
^aptf): otrrcos e^ffKijirev rjp&v Tr\v ^fvxn"t Ka * "aX^y xal vo6eivt)v Kal eire- 
pao~rov iroir)<rev,.,ovT(ii)s rjfias eirixdptras eiroiijo'e Kal avrco irodeivovy. 
He then quotes 'The king shall desire thy beauty* (Ps. xlv 12). He is 
then led off by the phrase Kexapvrtoaeva prjuaTa to speak of the 'gracious- 
ness of speech' which marks the Christian: ovxl x a P^ ft/ eKelvo TO Ttatblov 
elvai tpauev, onep av uera TTJS TOV crtopaTos pas Kal n-oXX^f exg TTJV ev 
rols pfjuao't x a P lv i ToiovToi eltriv ol iritrroi.,.Ti xapiecrTepov T$>V pi)ua- 
Tov 8f a>v tmoTa<ro'6ue6a TIB 6to/3dXo), Si' av ovvrao'o~6(j,e0a ro> ^piorw; 
TTJS 6uo\ayias 'w/c TT}S irpb TOV Xovrpov, TTJS peTa TO \owp6v; But 
in all this he is wilfully going back from St Paul's use of X"*P 15 > an< ^ 
introducing the sense of charm of form or of speech which belonged to 
vv in non-biblical writers. 



'The Beloved' as a Messianic title. 

i. In the LXX 6 rfyairjipevos occurs several times as a name of the chosen i. Use in 
people, as personified in a single representative. In the Blessing of Moses *^ ie r ^ r ^ t 
it is used three times to translate Jeshurun t-'HK'? : Dent, xxxii 1 dire\d- lL 


6 ^yamjfievog, xxxiii 5 KOI carat ev rig ifyainipcvcp a.px<av, 2,6 owe eortv 
iaa-irep 6 debs roC jyainjpevov. It again represents Jeshurun in Isa. xliv 2 
fir) (f)o@ov, Trais ftov 'laKtu/3, Km o rjyairrifievos 'itrptnjX ov eeXea/ijf : here 
3 ltrpar)\ is an addition of the LXX (in the Targum it also occurs in this place, 
but as a substitute for Jeshurun}. 

It is also used to render T"JJ ' in the address to Benjamin (without the 
article) Deut. xxxiii 12 ^yam)fj.evos virb Kvpiov (Hin* TH?) 

fos '. and in Isa. V I &<ra> 8f} T< 7fyeMn^ei/G> 007101 TOV dyairrjTov 

ainrek&vl [toy. a/nTrcXoav fyevqdr) r& rfyainjfJLfvy K.7-.X. 
"We may note also its occurrence in_Bar.Jii_37IaK<<3-TM-n-atyt-avToi> 
rip r)yairr)iifv& [vir] avrov: and in Ban. iii (35) 8ia *A/3/)oa/i 
rbv yyaartfli.evov virb trov (comp. 2 Chron. XX J airfpnan 'Aftpaap TQ 

2. In the LXX we find two distinct meanings of 6 dyamjros. 2. Of & 

(1) Like o ^yairrjij.evos, it is sometimes used for 1HJ 'beloved. 5 Thus <tyMnjr<5s. 
we find it in Ps. xliv (xlv) tit. $8r, faep TOV dyam,: in Ps. lix (k) 5 ' Beloved> - 
and Ps. CVJi (cviii) 6 OTTO? av pva-daanv ol dycnnjTol a-ov. 

In Isa. v i, as we have already seen, where 6 ^yaTrrjfievos represents *in^ 
o dyamjTos is used for ifa, in order to make a distinction 1 . 

(2) But we also find o oyamjros used, according to a Greek idiom, for 'Only'. 
an only sou. In the story of the sacrifice of Isaac it occurs three times 
where the Hebrew has TFP 'only': Gen. xxii 2 rbv vlov a-ov rbv dymrri- 

TOV: comp. vo. 12, 16. Of Jephthah's daughter we read in Judg. xi 34 
rn*D? K'C! pni\: for this the A text has nai avrrj [wvoyev^s avr$ 
(to which many cursives add irepi^KTos OVT$): B has ical Ijv avnj 
y fin^s (et haec unica ei Aug locufc ). In Amos viii 10 and Jer. vi 26 

is used as the equivalent of 'a mourning for an only child' 2 : 

1 It also represents "Vj^ in Jer. . solitarium quam unigenitum sonat : si 
sxxviii 20 (xxxi 20) vlits dyajnjrds el " m esse * dilectux siue amabilis, ut 
'E^pafr, and 3HI in Zech. xiii 6 as LXX transtulerunt, IDE) poneretur.' 
ftrfcfar *'V * ^ *>W [A rou Even Greeks at a late period seem to 
AyamroOlnov. have found a difficulty in the use of 

2 Jerome, writing on Jer. vi 26, S"""^! * * he ri ltt e ^7 * 
shews that he failed to recognise the ?/ SSa v ? )e Dett ' F .' ? ^'/X m 5 - 
idiom at this platse : 'ubi nos diximus m ^^ has ' as a cl * atlon of Gen - xxu 

inHebraicoscribiturlAID.quodmagis 1r5 ' r<5 ''' Ti " f"> v y ev 3- Dr Hort P omts 



COlnp. Zech. xii 10 KO^OVTM cif afobv nonerov cos eV dyamjT^ 

, Use in 

'O dya- 
?njT<5s in 
the Gos- 

Its mean- 

Not an 



3. In the New Testament we find 6 yyamjpevos in Eph. i 6, the passage 
which has given occasion for this investigation. 

C O ayajnjros is used, both directly and indirectly, of our Lord in the 

At the Baptism: 

Mark ill Su el 6 vlos IMV 6 dyamjTos, ev trol evBoKijcra. 
Matt, iii 17 OVTOS eartv 6 vlos pav o dycanjTos, ev $ evdoiajo-a. 
Luke iii 22 as in St Mark, but with a notable 'Western* 

variant 2 . 
At the Transfiguration : 

Mark ix 7 OVTOS mi 6 vlos p>ov 6 dyamjTos. 

Matt, xvii 5 OVTOS COTIV o vlos ftov 6 dyamjTos, ev a evdoKT)<ra. 

Luke ix 35 OVTOS eoriv 6 vlos futv 6 cXeXey/teros 3 . 

Comp. 2 Pet. i 17 'O vlos ftov o dyamjTbs OVTOS ccmv. 
(3) Indirectly, in the Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen. 
Mark xii 6 en era x', vlbv dycanjTov. 
Luke XX 13 irefv^at TOV vlov ftov TOV dyamjTov. 
St Matthew has no parallel to this clause. 

If the third of these examples stood alone, it would be natural to 
interpret it in accordance with the Greek Jdiom^eferred__to_aboy-e:-and- 
_a_close_parallel-might--be-fouad^in~TobiOii 10 (N text), pia a-ot virfjpxcv 
Bvyanjp dyairrjiy. But it is diflScult to separate its interpretation from 
that of o vlos ftov 6 dyairrjTos, which is twice applied directly to our Lord. 
Of this three renderings are possible : 

(1) ' Thou art My only Son ', 

(2) ' Thou art My beloved Son ', 

(3) ' Thou art My Son, the beloved '. 

The first of these renderings is vigorously championed by Daniel Heinsius, 
Exerdtt. ad N. T. p. 94 (ed. Cantabr. 1640) on Mark i u. The second is 
familiar to us in our English Bible, and in St Mark at least it suggests 

out (Two Dissert, p. 49 n.) that from 
his comment we can see that lie found 
the word povoyevT) in his text. 

The usage belongs to classical Greek 
from the time of Homer: see Od. ii 
365, iv 727, 817, and comp. II. vi 
400 f. From prose writers we may 
cite Demosth. Midias p. 567 01) ftty 
"Ntic^paT&s y' offrwj 6 TOV TSiiciov 6 &ya- 
mrros ircus, and Xenoph. Cyrop. iv 
6 1 iBaipa. . . &pri yeveidffKOVTa, TOP HpiffTov 
iraida Tbv &yairt]T&v, Aristotle shews 
an interesting extension of the usage, 
when in referring to the lex talionis 
he points out (RJiet, i 7) that the 
penalty of 'an eye for an eye' be- 
comes unfair when a man has lost 

one eye already; for then he is de- 
prived of his only organ of vision 
(&yairt]Tbv y&p d^fprjTtu). 

1 "We may note that in Prov. iv 3 
Tfl is represented by dyairdpevos. 

This word is used of Christ in Just. 
Dial. 93 &yye\ov iKeivov...rbv dyeurtb- 
ftevov i>ir' UVTOV TOV Kvplov Kal 6eov'. 
but there it stands for the more usual 

<re (D abc...) : from Ps. ii 7. 

3 This is the reading of KBL syr rin 
arm sah boh a. It is undoubtedly to 
be preferred to that of ACD syr "**"' 11 
b c vg, which have 6 dyavijTos with St 


itself as the most obvious translation. Yet there is some reason for sup- 
posing that the third interpretation was that which presented itself to the 
minds both of St Matthew and of St Luke. 

St Matthew assimilates the utterances at the Baptism and the Trans- but a dis- 
figuration, writing in each case OSros eariv 6 vlos ftov o dycwrijTos, ev a> 
evBoKrja-a. It is possible that the right punctuation of this sentence is 
that which is suggested in the margin of the text of Westcott and Hort 
at Matt, iii 17: Ovros eariv 6 vlos pav, 6 dyairrfrbs ev o> evSoM/cra. For in 
Matt, xii 1 8 we find a remarkable change introduced in a quotation from 
Jsa. xlii i. The Hebrew and the ixx of this passage are as follows: 

v^o \n 
npy? Tfl3 

'lcuca/3 o vais /nou, avriX^ofiat avrov' 

'itrpaijX 6 eK\eKTos fiov, wpoo-eSe^aro avrov 17 J^ujpj /*ou. 

But St Matthew has: 

o irais (iov ov 
6 dycmrjTos fiov ov ev8oKijo-ev 17 

There is no justification for rendering ^TD? otherwise than as 'My 
Elect' 1 . It would seem therefore that St Matthew, in substituting^My 

repeated phrase of his Gospel 
o dyairqTos ev <p evdoKrjo-a: and it follows that he regarded o dyajrr}Tos as 
a distinct title and not as an epithet of o vlos /uou. 

St Luke, by his substitution of o e/cXeXey/tci/oy for o ayemrjTos (ix 35), and to 
appears likewise to indicate that the latter was regarded as a title by itself, St Luke : 
for which the former was practically an equivalent. 

It is worthy of note that the Old Syriac version, in every instance and in the 
(except one) in which its testimony is preserved to us, renders o tuos pov Old Syriac 
o dyairrjTos by >-> "?o ^Ti=a 'My Son and My Beloved': the conjunction veision 
being inserted to make it clear that the titles are distinct 2 . 

It is further to be urged on behalf of this interpretation that the words The two 

Si et 6 vlos uov of the Voice at the Baptism according to St Mark directly allusions^ 

in Mark i 

1 This passage, Isa. xlii i, is ex- mentators. Thus in Harnack's note ir " 

plicitly referred to the Messiah in the on r$ yyairtifitvy in Ep. Barn, iii 6 

Targum, which renders it thus: NH we read: 'Nomen erat Messiae apud 

^nnan *"pni n*J'TlpK Kn^D 'HUP ludaeos ex les. 42, i repetitum', with 

nonD ma 'BeholdMyservantMessiah; Deferences to Liicke, EinLin die Apok. 

Iwillupholdhim: Mine elect, in whom ?* n P- 28 . r n l *> and Langen Da S 

MyWordisweU-pleased'. Judenthum in PaJast. z. Z. Chnsti 

Curiously enough the Latin trans- P- l6a ' 4 2 7- Hilgenfeld in his edition 

lation of this which is given in the of ?g ? a ' * ? oia * he tradition. 

Polyglots of Le Jay and Walton has ... 2 So Matt - 1U r 7 ( s ^ <), Luke 

dilectusmeus as the rendering of n>H3. f 32 / sm: cu ***) Matt ; XVU .S 

The mistake is perhaps due to a re- (J : Bin va ? at )> Luke 1X 35 (: sin 

membrance of the Vulgate in Matt. **=X."to =& ^XeXey/^of). For 

xii 18. However it may have origin- Mark i n we have no evidence. The 

ated, it is time that it was corrected: one exception is Mark ix 7 (sin 

for it has misled a series of com- "ii""ua *^=a : cu vacat). 


reproduce the language of Ps. ii 7, 'The Lord hath said unto me, Thou art 
My Son'. If therefore we may suppose that 'the Beloved' and 'the Elect* 
were interchangeable titles in the religious phraseology of the time, we 
have in the Voice a combination of Ps. ii 7 with Isa. xlii i, and 'the Son' 
who is set as King upon the holy hill of Sion is identified with 'the Servant 
of Jehovah'; so that in the Divine intimation of the Messiahship the ideas 
of triumph and suffering are from the outset linked together. 

4. Early 4. In the early Christian literature outside the New Testament we 

Christian frequently find o qyamj^ei/os used absolutely of Christ ; and also o tfycan}- 

'0 AyLnj- P* vos ""<"* a combination which recalls Isa. xliv 2. The former occurs 

ftfros&b- thrice in the Epistle of Barnabas: iii'6 6 Xao? ov TjToifuurev ev T ^yainj- 

eolutely: pevto avYov, iv 3 o ftfovrarqs trvvreriujKcv roiis Kaipovs KOI TO.S type pas, tva 

raxvvjj o qycanjiicvos OVTOV nal ciri TTJV Khjpovopiav ffgrj, iv 8 trvvfrpl^T] avr<av 

f) Stadq*)?, tva 77 TOV TJya.irrifj.evov *Ir]<rov fVKaTao~<ppayia~dfj els TTJV napdiav 

rjpav. See also Ignat. Smyrn. inscr. cxicX^o-t? 6eov irarpbs Kai TOV rjyam)- 

fievov 'irja-ov Xpurrot): Ada Theclae I iravra ra \oyta TOV K.vpiov...Ka\ TTJS 

yevvr/a-eas Kal rfjs dvaoTcureas TOV rjyo,irr)p.evov ey\viecuvev avrovs, KOI TO, 

pcyoXcta TOV ^ptorow K.T.X. 1 : Clem. Paedag. i 6 25 avrtKa yovv {3a3mop.4vfo 

TO> Kvpiw air ovpav&v eir^ijtrei' {pavy pdprvs ^yairrnKVov flos pov el ail 

dyainjTos, eyw OTjpepov yeyewtjKa tre. 

similarly 'O ayarniTos is used throughout the apocryphal Ascension of Isaiah, as 
6aya,iri}T6s. though it were a recognised appellation of the Messiah : and although it 


Jewish usage. 

Combina- We find the combination o rjyainjuevos n-als in Clem. Rom. lix 2, 3: and 
^^J^ o dyairrjTos natg in Ep. ad Diogn. 8, and, as a liturgical formula, hi Mart. 
Polyc. 14, Acta Theclae 24. In Herm. Sim. ix 12 5 we have TOV vloi) 
avrov TOV qyamjpevov VTT OVTOV : comp. Sim. V 2 6 TOV vlov OVTOV TOV 

The Apos- A number of references to yyamipevof and dyamjTos in the Apostolic 

tolie Con- Constitutions are brought together by Harnack in his note on Ep. Barn. 

a itutions. y. Specially to be observed are v 19 (Lag. p. 152, L 14) Tore oifrovrai 

Toy ayamiTov TOV Qeov, ov eeiteimjo'av, which shews that the dyaTrr/Tos of 

Zech. xii 10 was interpreted of Christ: and v 20 (Lag. p. 153, L 24), where 

the title of Ps. xliv (xlv) oJSq virep TOV dyamjTov is similarly explained 

(comp. Jerome Commentarioli in Pss., Anecd. Mareds. u'i pt. i, and 

Corderius Catena in Pss. ad loc.}. 

Summary. The case then for regarding 'the Beloved' as a Messianic title in use 
among the Jews in New Testament times may be stated thus. 

i. 'The Beloved' (o qyamipevos LXX) is used in the Old Testament 
as a title of Israel It is easy to suppose that, just as the titles 'the 
Servant' and 'the Elect 'were transferred from Israel to the Messiah as 
Israel's representative, so also the title 'the Beloved ' would become a title 
of the Messiah. 

1 In Iren. i 10 1 (Mass.) we read : Kd contain a reference to Eph. i 10 

rip frffaptcov els TOUS otpavots dv&Xqifriv <w'a/ce0aXeu(i<rew0ai T4 irdvTa, it is pro- 

TOU '^yamifJL^vov X/ucrroD 'lycrou TOV bable that 6 fiyavim&o* was directly 

xvplov ijfuar : but, as the next words suggested by Eph. i 6. 


2. When the first and the third of our Gospels were written, 'the 
Beloved' and 'the Elect' were practically interchangeable terms. For in 
St Matthew we find o ayamyros pav in a citation of Isa. xlii i, where the 
Hebrew has *Tfl? and the LXX renders literally o AcXc/cros pov. And, 
conversely, St Luke substitutes o eVcXeXry/zeVos for 6 ayamjros in the words 
spoken at the Transfiguration. 

3. Each of these substitutions in a different way favours the view that 
in St Mark's twice repeated phrase 6 vlos pav 6 dyampros a separate title is 
given by 6 dyamjTos, and not a mere epithet of vlos. 

4. The Old Syriac Version emphasises the distinctness of the title by 
its rendering ' My Son and My Beloved'. 

5. In Eph. i 9 St Paul uses eV r<5 ^yamjfievo as the equivalent of cv 
T& xpurry, in a context in which he is designedly making use of terms 
which had a special significance in Jewish phraseology. 

6. In early Christian literature o ^yairr^evos is undoubtedly used as 
a title of our Lord ; and it is difficult to suppose that its only source is this 
one passage in St Paul 

7. If the Messianic portions of the Ascension of Isaiah cannot be 
regarded as pre-Christian, yet the persistent use hi them of 6 dyamjns as 
the designation of Messiah suggests that the writer must have thought it 

consistent with verisimilitude ^m_ajKorkjrefaich_affected_tO-be_a_Jewish 

prophecy of Christ 


On the meaning of fj,v<mjpi.ov in the New Testament. 

History of The history of the word /jnxmjpiov is curious and instructive. Starting 
the word, vsith a technical signification in pagan religion, the word passes through 
a neutral phase in which the original metaphor has ceased to be felt, and 
in the end is adopted as a technical term of the Christian religion. The 
fact that it ends as it began in signifying a religious rite readily suggests 
that it was borrowed by Christianity directly from paganism. With certain 
limitations this may be true. That the Christian Sacraments of Baptism 
and the Eucharist were called pvarfipia is probably due, in part at least, 
to the fact that the word was in common use for rites to which these 
Sacraments seemed to present some parallels. But, if so, it is certain 
that the borrowing process was considerably facilitated by the use of 
faMrnjpiov which is found in the New Testament; and_yhatjasej_as_jpe_ 
shall see,_has_no-direet-eonnexion-withrthe~^r1ginal technical sense of 
the word. 

i. Its deri- i. We find in the classical Greek writers a group of words pvea, 
vation and jivonjs, {worry piov all of which are technical terms: 'to initiate', 'one 
classical who is ini ti a t e d', 'that into which he is initiated'. Of the derivation of 
pve<o nothing certain can be said. It has often been stated that the root 
is to be found in pva>. But /xvo-as means 'with the eyes shut'; and though 
the word is sometimes used by transference also of shutting the mouth, 
it is always necessary that the word 'mouth' should be expressly added 
in order to give this meaning. We cannot be certain therefore though 
in itself it is not improbable that the first meaning of the word is one 
of secrecy. We must be content to say that in usage pvarniptov signifies 
a religious rite which it is profanity to reveal. 

Later use. In later Greek the word was used metaphorically of that which may 
not be revealed, a secret of any kind 1 . Thus we have a line of Menander 
(incert. 168), fi.v<rnjpi6v <rov f4 Kareiirgs r <iA^>: 'tell not thy secret to 
a friend'. 

i. Usageof 2. The word is not used by the LXX in translating any Hebrew word of 
the Greek the canonical books of the Old Testament. But in the Greek of Dan. ii, 

where the original is Aramaic, it is used eight times 2 to render KH, a word 
i? x PI borrowed from Persian and found in Syriac as ^1*^1. It is here used 

in reference to Nebuchadnezzar's dream and its interpretation by Daniel: 

1 In Plato Theaet. 156 A the word has (9), a passage which has fallen out of 
not lost its original meaning at all, as the LXX by hamoeoteleuton, but is pre- 
is shewn by apfajros in the context. served in Theodotion's version. 

2 We may add to these Dan. iv 6 


the 'mystery' was revealed to Daniel by the God who alone reveals 
'mysteries'. The word 'secret' seems fully to represent the meaning. 

In the remaining books of the Greek Old Testament we have the O. T. 
following examples of the use of the word 1 : Apocry- 

Tobit xii 7 pvcmjpiov /Sao-tXe'cos neaXop upvifrai, ra 82 cpya TOV 6eov 

aVaKaXiforetv j/8d|cos (repeated in v. 1 i). 
Judith ii 2 edeTO /Lier' avr&v TO . fjLvcmjpiov rrjs j3ov\rjs avrov (when 

Nebuchadnezzar summons his servants and chief men). 
2 Mace, xiii 21 irpooyyyetXev Se ra /auon/pia (of Rhodocus, who 'dis- 

closed the secrets' to the enemy). 

Wisd. ii 22 Kai OVK <[yva><rav pvo-njpia tieov, ovde fiurdov rfarurav 
wnoTijTos (of those who put the righteous to torture and death: 
' their malice blinded them '). 
Wisd, vi 22 TI 8e eari? (rcxfria KOI TTWS eyei/ero amjyyeXw, 

KCLI OVK a7roKpvi/ra> vplv pvcrnqpta. 
Wisd, xiv 15 pwrrypta ' KM re\erds (of heathen mysteries: comp. 

fivo^ras 0ido-ov in xii 5)- 
Wisd. xiv 23 17 yap T(KVO(f)6vovs reXeray r) Kpvffria fjLvonjpta (again of 

heathen mysteries). 
Ecclus. iii 1 8 irpaeo-iv mroKoXvirrei TO, fwo-njpia OVTOV [N ca : not in 

Ecclus._xxii_22 _ fwamjpiovdiroKah.v\lt6Ci>g-Kai 7rXj?ys-5oXtaf-(of the 
things which break friendship). 

Ecclus. xxvii 16 o diroicah.virT<ov (j,v(TT^pia d7T<o\f<rev irioriv (and 
similarly with the same verb in vv. 17, 21). 

In the other Greek translators of the Old Testament we have occa- Other 
sional examples of the use of the word. 

Job xv 8 'Hast thou heard the secret of God?' So A.V.: Heb. 


R.V. ' Hast thou heard the secret counsel of God ? ' marg. Or, 

' Dost thou hearken in the council ? ' 

LXX ^ ovvraypa Kvpiov any/coos ; Symm. Theod. /iuon/ptov. 
Fs. xxiv (xxv) 14 LXX KpaTaiatfj-a Kvpios TV (poftovpevtov avrov. 

Theod, Quint. /luoriyptov. 

Prov. xi 13 'a talebearer revealeth secrets'; LXX 
a7roKaXv7rr /SouXay ev (rvvedpiy. Symm. fi.vonjpi.ov. 
Prov. xx 19 (not in LXX): the same words. 

Isa. xxiv 1 6 bis (not in LXX): TO pvorijpiov ftow e/itot bis. A.V. 'My 
leanness ! my leanness ! ' 

We see from these examples-(i) that the word (jLvarfoiov was the natural The word 
word to use in speaking of any secret, whether of the secret plan of a cam- * s use< * ^ 
paign or of a secret between a man and his friend. It is but sparingly any seere ' 
used of a Divine secret : it may be that the earlier translators of the Old 
Testament purposely avoided the word on account of its heathen associa- ^ tll ^ 
tions. We see moreover (2) that its natural counterpart is found in words K a\virr&.v. 

1 Of cognate words we may note : /wi5(ms yap tynv TTJS TOV 6eoS 
(ivffTiKus= l secretly,' 3 Mace, iii 10: 'she is privy to the mysteries of the 
of Wisdom, in Wisd. viii 4 knowledge of God '. 



like dn-ojcoXvirrcu' and 

i?, words which are equally applicable to all 

3. Later 

4. The 
and the 


* The mys- 
tery of 
iniquity ', 

3. An important link between the usage of the Greek Old Testament 
and the usage of the New Testament is found in the later Jewish Apo- 
cryphal literature. Thus, we may note the following examples from the 
Book of Enoch : 

viii 3 (apud Syncett.) of Azazel and his companions : irmrres OVTOI 
tfpavro avaKa\vTTTfiv TO /Auanfpia rats yvvatgiv avrcov. 

IX 6 (Gizeh fragm.) efij/Xtuo-ei/ ra pvarfjpia TOV alatvos T& ev TW 
ovpavv: so in x 7, xvi 3 ter, of the same matters 1 . 

4. In the New Testament, apart from the Pauline Epistles, the word is 
only found in one passage of the Synoptic Gospels (with its parallels) and 
four times in the Apocalypse. 

Mark iv II vplv TO pvtmjptov 6V8orat TTJS (3cun\cias rov tfeow (Matt. Luke 
vftiv dedorai yveavai TO. ft.v<rrrjpia rijs ficuriXeias TOV deov [Matt. TO>V ovpavoavj). 

'The secret' of the kingdom was revealed to the disciples, while the 
multitudes heard only the parables which contained but at the same time 
concealed it 

Apoc. i 2O TO fj.varripiov rS>v enrol aorepov ovs ei&es... 

In this place the word pvoryptov follows immediately after the words 
a /Lic'XXei ylvfo-dai pera TO.VTO. These words and fivtrrjpiov itself are printed 
in small uncials in the text of Westcott and Hprt, with a reference to 
-Dani-ii-29. Whether~a~direct^lluslon~to~the Book of Daniel was intended 
by the writer may be doubted. The sense of \iv<rri\piov in Dan. ii appears 
to be quite general ; whereas here we seem to have an instance of the 
use of the word in a somewhat special sense, as either the meaning 
underlying an external symbol, or even the symbol itself. See below on 
Apoc. xvii 5, 7. 

Apoc. X 7 Kai erc\c<T0T] r6 MyCTriplON TO? Oeofi ? evrjyye^urev TO'j'C 
eAY T o? Aof Aoyc Tofc npo<J>rif&c. 

"With this we must compare Amos iii 7 (ixx) eav 

irpos TOVS 8ov\avs avrov TOUS irpo(p^Tas (HID 1173 

pv<rrqptov, which apparently had been avoided by the LXX, has now become 

the natural word for the Divine 'secret'. 

Apoc. xvii 5> 7 Ka * ^i TO perwrov avr^s ovopa yeypafifj-evov, jj.v(mjpiov t 
BABYAflN...ey< epw trot TO pvo~rrjpiov rijs yvvaiKos KOI TOV drjpiov. The 
name Babylon is itself a /Ltuon?ptop, that is, a symbol containing a secret 
meaning. In the second place the fj-vtrrr/piov is rather the meaning of the 
symbol, as in i 20. 

5. We now come to the Pauline Epistles. The earliest example we 
meet with is an isolated one. The word is used in describing the opera- 
tions of the Antichrist in 2 Thess. ii 7. The Man of Iniquity is to be 
revealed (dn-oica\w0^, . 3). At present however there is TO KUTCXOV s 
TO diroKakv(p6TJvai avrbv ev T<J> OVTOV temper TO yap ftvcrrrjpiov ^ffiij eWpyemu 

1 The Greek fragments of the Book Aethiopic text, see Anrich Mysterien- 

Here we find that 

of Enoch are reprinted in the last 
volume of Dr Swete's manual edition 
of the Septuagint (ed. i, 1899). For 
references to the word 'mystery' in the 

wesen, p. 144, notes : it occurs several 
times in connexion with 'the Tablets 
of Heaven '. 


rfie dvopias' povov 6 KaT^x cav ^P rt * CK pevov yivrjroju Kai rort dirona- 
\v(p6^o~eTai 6 avopos, K.T.X. 

Here there can be little doubt that the word pvtmjpiov has been a secret to 
suggested as being the natural counterpart to the aTro/coAt^ts already ^ * e " 
spoken of. The Man of Iniquity is the embodiment of the principle of veae * 
iniquity in a personality. The restraint which at present hinders him 
from being 'revealed' is spoken of first as a principle of restraint (TO 
Karexov), and then as a personal embodiment of that principle (o Kcn-e^ow). 
While the restraint is effectual, the dvopia cannot be 'revealed' as o avo- 
pos. But already it is at work, and it will be 'revealed' later on : till it 
is 'revealed' it is a 'secret' TO pvorqpiov Tr)g dvopias. There is perhaps 
an intentional parallel with the 'secret' of the Gospel, which waited to be 
revealed in its proper time 1 . 

In i Cor. ii i St Paul is reminding the Corinthians of the extreme ' The mys- 
simplicity of his first preaching to them: Kayv IXdtov npbs vpas, d8e\<pot, **%?* 
?jK6ov ov naff virepox^v Xoyou ^ (ro<pias KaTayytAXow vpiv TO pvoTqpiov 2 TOV 
0eovj ov yap e<ptva TI eldevai ev vpiv el pr) 'Iqo-ovv 'Kpurrbv KOI TOVTOV etrrav- 
papevov. Not with any superiority of 'wisdom' had he come to them; not 
as a publisher of the Divine secret: nay rather as knowing nothing save 
Jesus Christ, and Him as crucified (the message of the Cross being, as 
he had already said in i 18, folly to the Greeks). But, although for the 
moment he seems to disparage 'wisdom' and 'mysteries', he presently 


to vtjirioig of iii i): and he continues in v. 7: aXXa \a\ovpev deov a-otplav 
ev pvarripito, Tr}v diroKeiepvppevijv, fjv Trpoapurev 6 0ebs irpb TOV alwvcov fls 
86gav rjp&v. This use of the word is the characteristically Pauline use. 
It denotes the secret Purpose of God in His dealings with man. This 
is par excellence the Mystery. 

In i Cor. iv i the Apostle describes himself and his fellow-workers as The plural 
vmjpfTas XptoroS KOI ol<ov6povs pvarripi<ov 0eov } ' entrusted for the sake of / iro 
others with a knowledge of the Divine secrets'. The word is twice again 
used in the plural : in i Cor. xiii 2 KO.V c^ca irpo(pT]Tciav KOI eidoo TO pvorjpia 
iravra KOI iravav TTJV yvetaiv, where its connexion with prophecy is note- 
worthy: and in i Cor. xiv 2 irvcvpari Be XoXe? pvorjpia, where it is connected 
with speaking in a tongue which no one understands, in contrast with 
such prophecy as is intelligible to the Church. 

1 There is a merely verbal parallel Syriao Pesbito and the Bohairic. It 
to T& pv<rr/ipun> TTJS avopias in the de- has also some Latin support. On the 
scription which Josephus (B. J.i 24 i) other hand pa.pr6ptov is the reading of 
gives of Antipater. In contrast with K C BD 2 G 3 LP, most cursives, the Latin 
others who uttered their thoughts Vulgate, the Sahidic, Armenian and 
freely, and were accused by him for Aethiopic; and it has the support of 
their unguarded utterances, the taci- Chrysostom and some other patristic 
turnity and secrecy of Antipater are writers. It may have come in from a 
emphasised : TOV 'AvTiirdrpov filov otf/c recollection of TO pap-rfpiov TOV -xpiarov 
Sv ijpapTev TIS eliriav Kaidas pvarfipwv. in i 6. The substitution destroys the 
His life was a villainous secret. completeness of the contrast between 

2 It is to be noted that here there is v. i and v. 7, and gives altogether a 
a variation of reading : PMSTIJOIOV is weaker sense. 

read by K*AC, some cursives, the 



'A mys- 


' The mys- 
tery' par 

Epistle to 



Epistle to 

One more example is found in the same epistle (i Cor. xv 51), of the 
change at the Second Coming: Ibov (tuonjpiov viuv Xryo>. This may 
be compared with the use of the word in the latter part of the Book 
of Enoch. 

In Bom. xi 25 the problem of the unbelief of Israel, which accords 
with ancient prophecy and in some strange way is bound up with ' mercy' 
to the Gentiles, is spoken of as a Divine secret: ov yap Bf\a> vpas 
dyvoelv, aeX<ot, TO fivarqpiov TOVTO,...OT ir<upa>(ris dirb pepovs T<p 'Itrpafjj\ 
yeyovev, K.T.\. 

In Bom. xvi 25, 26 we hare again the characteristically Pauline use 
of the word : KOTO mroKakvfyiv pvtmjpiov xpovois alcoviois creo-iyrjuevov, 
cpavcptodevTos Be vvv, Sta re ypa(p<ov irpo$rfriK&v HOT eiriTayrjv TOV almviov 
6eov els viraKorjv moreens els irdvra ra edvt) yvopurdevros. This is the 
secret of secrete, the eternal secret now at last revealed in the Christian 

This last passage shews that the use of the word which we find in the 
Epistles to the Colossians and the Ephesians is no new one. The Mystery 
par excellence has a special reference to the Gentiles. In fact it is nothing 
less than the inclusion of the Gentiles as well as the Jews in a common 
human hope in Christ. So in CoL i 26, 27 we read: TO (ivamjpiov TO 
diroKeKpVfip.evov OTTO rcav aloavcav KOI dirb TV yevewv, vvv Se etpavepadr) 
rots dyiois UVTOV, ois ^6e\rjaev 6 0eos yva>pi<rai ri TO TT\OVTOS TTJS 
TOV fJMtrrrjpiov TOVTOV ev Tols eQveaLiv,_oi(mv Xpiorog ev-vfuv^- 
Sot-Tjs. 'Christ in you Gentiles' that is the great surprise. None could 
have foreseen or imagined it. It was God's secret. He has disclosed 
it to us. 

In Col. ii 2 the same thought is carried on in the words, els eiriyvaxriv 
TOV pvorijpiov TOV 6eov, Xptorov, ev <p elo~lv iravres ol 0t)<ravpol rfjs o~o(pias 
KOI yvcotrecos diroKpvtpoi. Here 'the mystery of God' is Christ as the 
treasury of the hidden wisdom which it is granted them to know. 

In Col. iv 3 the Apostle bids them pray that he may have opportunity 
XaXTJcrai TO p.v(rr^piov TOV xpiarovf fit' o KOI deBepai, iva <pavep<aa-<n avTo fas 
Sei p.e XaX^o-at. 

In the Epistle to the Ephesians the word occurs five times in this same 
sense. We need but cite the passages here. 

i. 9, IO yvcoplaas T/JLUP TO fivarripiov TOV 6e\r](MTOs avToC, Kara TTJV evboKiav 
avrov TJV irpoedero ev auro> els oiKovopiav TOV ir\t)ptofMTos T&V Koip&v, dvaK((pa- 
\aiKxracrdai TO travra ev TO> xpurra. 

iii 3 6 Kara diroKaXv^fiv fyv<upi<r0rj [tat TO /ivonjpiov, KaOws vpoeypa^fa 
ev oXtyo), TTpos o 8vvao~6e dvayivcoa'KOVTes vofjvai TTJV o~vve<riv fiov ev roi 
p,vo*rr)pi(p TOV xpurrov, o eTepais yeveats ov< eyvcapia-drj TOIS vlois T&V dv- 
dpairiav as vvv direKa\v$>6ri TOIS dyiois aTrooroXots auToO KOI npo^Tais ev 
irvcvp-an, etvai TO, e6vr) awtdajpovofta KOI o~uvo-a)fj.a KOI o~vvfj.eTo^a, TTJS eirayye- 
\ias ev XptoTw 'Iija-ov Sta TOU evayyeXiov. 

iii 9 * a * <^>BT/o~at TIS 17 oiKOVOfiia TOV fivo-njpiov TOV diroKeKpv(ip.evov dirb 
Tcav aiavcw ev T 6e& T TO navra KTio-avrt. 

VI 19 ev irappT)o~iQ yvatplo-at TO (JLvarrfpiov TOV evayyeXiov virep o$ npe- 
afBevu* ev aXvo-fi. 

The Mystery, then, on which St Paul delights to dwell is the unification 


of humanity in the Christ, the new human hope, a hope for all men of all 
conditions, a hope not for men only but even for the universe. 

The word pvorfpiav occurs once more in the Epistle to the Ephesians, This 
and in a sense somewhat different from any which we have hitherto mystery', 
considered. In Eph. v 32 we read : TO pwrrfpiov TOVTO peya e'errt'v, eya> 
fie Xeyca els Xpurrbv KOL els TT/V eKK\r)ariav. St Paul has cited the primaeval 
ordinance of Marriage, which closes with the enigmatic words KOL eaovrat, 
of Bvo els a-apita plav. This saying is true, he seems to say, of earthly . 
marriage; but it has a yet higher signification. The ancient ordinance 
is not merely a divinely constituted law of human life ; it has a secret 
meaning. It is a fivanjpiov, and the p.v(mjpiov is a mighty one. I declare 
it in reference to Christ and to the Church. I say no more of it now: 
but I bid you see to it that in common life each one of you is true to its 
first and plainest meaning, for the sake of the deeper meaning that lies 
hid in Christ. 

The sense in which the word here occurs may be illustrated from later A symbol, 
writers. Justin Martyr, for example, uses it somewhat in the same way or its . 
when he speaks for instance (Trypho 44) of certain commands of the meanm ^' 
Mosaic law as being given els pvorjpiov TOV XpioroC : or, again, when he 
says of the Paschal lamb (Trypho 40) TO fnxrr^piov ovv TOV irpoftarov... 
TVJTOS yv TOV Xptorov. The Paschal rite contained a secret, not to be 
revealed till Christ came. Thus TO fwo-Typtov is practically a symbol or 
be fulfilled. 

We have still to consider two passages in the Pastoral Epistles. In ' The mys- 
i Tim. iii 9 we read that a deacon is to hold TO pvo-rrjpiov TJJS mo-rcas * e ?y ? f ^ 
ev nadapa avveiB^a-et. It is not required of him, as of the bishop, that he ' 
should be StSatcrt/cos. Hence no secret lore can be meant : he is not the 
depositary of a secret tradition, as the words might have seemed to imply 
tad they been spoken of the bishop. The phrase in its context can only 
refer to such elementary and fundamental knowledge as any servant of the 
Church must necessarily have. 

In the same chapter (v. 16) we read: K<U o/toXoyou/wwas peya ecrrlv TO 'Themys- 
TT)S evo-e/3eias pvonqpiov. and the words are followed by what appears to* e ^j.^ , 
be a quotation from a Christian hymn. The epithet * great', which is here go ess * 
applied to 'the mystery of godliness', is the same as in Eph. v 32. It 
refers to the importance, not to the obscurity, of the mystery (see the note 
on that passage). But the use of this epithet is the only point of contact 
in the expression with the phraseology of St Paul : for the word ev<reficia 
belongs to the peculiar vocabulary of these as compared with the other 
Pauline epistles. 

In both these instances the word pvcmjpiov appears to have a more A more 
general meaning than it has elsewhere in St Paul's writings. The sum of general 
the Christian faith seems to be referred to under this term. It is perhaps naeanm g' 
a natural expansion of what we have seen to be the characteristically 
Pauline use of the word, when the special thought of the inclusion of the 
Gentile world in the Purpose of God has ceased to be a novel and en- 
.grossing truth. But whether such an expansion can be thought of as 


directly due to the Apostle himself is a part of the difficult problem of 
the literary history of these epistles. 

Conolu- We have found, then, no connexion between the "Sew Testament use 

sion ' of the word 'mystery' and its popular religious signification as a sacred 
rite, which the initiated are pledged to preserve inviolably secret. Not 
until the word has passed into common parlance as 'a secret' of any kind 
does it find a place in biblical phraseology. The New Testament writers 
find the word in ordinary use in this colourless sense, and they start it 
upon a new career by appropriating it to the great truths of the Christian 
religion, which could not have become known to men except by Divine 
disclosure or revelation. A mystery in this sense is not a thing which 
must be kept secret. On the contrary, it is a secret which God wills to 
make known and has charged His Apostles to declare to those who have 
ears to hear it. 


On evepyetv and its cognates. 

The meaning of evepyeiv and the cognate words in St Paul's epistles has Limita 
been so variously understood that it is desirable to attempt a some what 
more complete investigation of them than has hitherto been made. That 
the sense which they bear in the New Testament is in some respects 
peculiar is in part due to a fact which it may be well to note at the 
outset : namely, that, wherever its ultimate source is directly expressed, 
the evepyeia is always attributed either to Divine or to Satanic agency. 
The prevailing thought is that of a Divine evepyeia. In the two passages 
in which the evil spirit is spoken of as exerting evepyeia, there is evidence 
in the context of an intentional parallel with, or parody of, the methods of 
Divine action : see above in the note on Eph. ii 2, and Lightfoot's notes 
on 2 Thess. ii 3 n (Notes on Epp. pp. in ff.). This limitation lends 
-a-certain-impressiveness-to-this-whole-series-of-words; Even^where 

eiv is used of human action (Phil, ii 13) we are reminded that God 
Himself is 6 evepymv TO evepyelv. And it is further in harmony with 
this conception that wherever in St Paul's writings evepyeia is attri- 
buted to things, as opposed to persons, the form of the verb used is 
not evepyelv but evepyeia-dai. 

I. At the base of all these words lies the adjective eWpyos, which i. 
signifies 'at work': compare evapxos, 'in office', used in documents pre- adjectives 
served in inscriptions and papyri. It is found in Herod, viii 26, of certain ^^ 5 \ 
deserters who came into the Persian camp /3iW re deopevoi KO.I evepyol ci aB8 i ca i 
povXofievoi eivai. The word has various shades of meaning, as ' active ', writers. 
' busy ', ' effective ' (of troops), 'under cultivation ' (of land), ' productive ' 
(of capital) ; and in most cases the opposite condition is described by apyos. 
The later form is evepytfs (Aristotle has eVpyeWaros). In Polybius both 
forms occur, and they are frequently interchanged in the manuscripts. 
The LXX has evepyos once, Ezek. xlvi i, of the six 'working days'; but Biblical. 
never cvepyjs. In the New Testament, on the contrary, evepyos is 
only form 1 . We have it in i Cor. xvi 9, 6vpa yap fwi dveayev 
not evepyrfs : that is, an ' effective ' opportunity of preaching : for the meta- 

1 This form of the word lent itself Jerome, when he quotes the passage 

readily to confusion with empy/js. In in commenting on Isa. Irvi 18, 19, 

the two passages of St Paul in which has evidens, though elsewhere he has 

it occurs the Latin rendering is evidens efficax. For farther examples of the 

(or manifesto) which implies Ivap- confusion see the apparatus to my 

in Greek MSS. In Heb. iv 2 edition of the Philocalia of Origen, 

is actually found in B; and pp. 140, 141, 144. 

EPHES. 2 1 6 



2. The 




St Paul. 

phor of the 'open door' compare 2 Cor. ii 12, Col. iv 3. In Philem. 6, Biros 

if Koivavia TTJS TTiWetos crov evepyj)s yevrjTat, it means 'productive of due 
result', 'effective': and in Heb. iv 12, <Sv yap o \6yos TOV Qeov KOI cvepyqs 
icoi Tojiovrepoy virep irao-av fM^aipav SiWo/*oi', it again seems to mean ' effec- 
tive ' ; but perhaps the word was chosen with a special reference to &v : 
for evepyos and evepyeiv are used of activity as the characteristic sign of 
life 1 'alive and active'. 

2. The substantive evepyeia is employed by Aristotle in a technical 
sense in his famous contrast between 'potentially' (Swa/iet) and 'actually' 
(evepyeia). We have it too in the Nicomachean Ethics in the definition of 
TO avQptoirivov ayadov, which is declared to be ijn>X*i s ^vepyeia HOT ape-njv 
fv /3i'o> TcXeto) (i 6 15, p. 1098, i6 a ); and in this connexion a contrast is 
drawn between evepyeia and e|. 

It is interesting to compare with this the definition of the term in 
physiology as given by Galen, de natural, facultt. i 2, 4, 5. He distin- 
guishes carefully epyov 'result', evepyeia 'action productive of epyov', and 
dvvapis, 'force productive of evepyeia'. 

In the Greek Old Testament the word occurs only in "Wisdom and 
in 2 and 3 Maccabees. It is used twice of the operations of nature, 
Wisd. vii 17, xiii 4; once hi the phrase ovx oirKatv evepyeia, 'not by force 
of arms' (xviii 22) ; and again in the notable description of Wisdom as the 
eo~oirrpov aKTjXid&Tov TTJS TOV deov evepytias (vii 26). It IS used in 2 Mace, iii 
_gQ_3_ Mace, iv 2i.ji^i2.-28^of-a-miraGulous-interpo8ition~of~Pivme~t)owerr 

2 Thess. ii 
9, ii. 

The instances last quoted suggest that already the way was being 
prepared for that limitation of the word to a superhuman activity which 
we noted at the outset as characterising its use in the New Testament. 
St Paul, who alone uses the word, has it five times expressly of the 
exercise of Divine power (Eph. i 19, iii 7; Phil, iii 21; Col. i 29, ii 12). 
In Eph. iv 1 6 it is used in the phrase naf evepyeiav, without an express 
reference indeed to God, but of the building of the Body of the Christ j 
so that this can hardly be regarded as an exception. 

On the other hand it occurs twice of an evil activity. In the descrip- 
tion of the incarnation of iniquity, which is to parody the work of Christ 
and to claim Divine honours, we have the expression, ov eoriv rj irapovo-ia 

' evepyeiav TOV "Sarava. Already the Apostle has said, TO yap pvarripiov 
evepyeiTai TTJS dvopias : and lower down he adds, of those who are to 
be deceived by the signs and wonders of this false Christ (OTHJLCIOIS KOI 
Tepao~iv ^cvfious), irepjirei avro'is 6 deos evepyeiav ir\avi]s els TO Triorevo-ai 
This 'working of error', which makes men believe the 

Wisd. xv ii we read 

OTL ^yvArjaev Tbv irKaffavn 
Kal Tbv epitvefoavTa, a&rtp 


Kal ep,<f>va"Jj<ravTa irvevfj.a 
The passage which underlies 
of course, Gen. ii 7 eve^ffijm 
vpbffwrov afrrov irvoty fw^s, Kal 
b avtipwiros els 


1 In Xenophon Memordb. i 4 4 we 
have $2a tfjuppovd re Kal evepyd, in 
contrast with the etSai\a a<ppot>d re Kal 
ddvyTa of sculptors or painters. Com- 
pare also Athan. de incarn. 30 el yap 
Si; veKp&s TIS yei>6pei>os o6dev tvepyefo 
5tiva.Ta.i /c.T.X. "rj TTWS, etirep O$K SVTIV 
evepyuv [sc. b X/otorij], veKpov yap t8t&v 
IffTi TOUTO, adrbs roij frepyovi/Tas Kal 
TIJS evepyeias irafat, if.T.X. In 

this is, 

v els TO 



false pretender (who is 'the lie', as Christ is 'the truth'), is itself a 
judgment of God. We may compare 'the lying spirit' sent forth from 
God to deceive Ahab, i Kings xxii 21 23. 

3. The verb cvepyelv, after the general analogy of denominatives in -, 3. The 
means primarily 'to be at work', 'to work' (intrans.), and is accordingly 
the opposite of dpyciv. So Aristotle freely employs the word in connexion 
with his special sense of eVpyeta. Polybius, whose use of the word is for tive. 
the most part somewhat peculiar, has this first and most natural meaning 
in a passage in which he prophesies the filling up of inland seas : iv 40 4, 
pevovoys ye 8) TTJS avrijf ra^etas irepi TOVS TCHTOVS, Kal T&V amW TTJS ey^co- 
<res evepyovvrav KOTO. TO awexes. We may compare also Philo, de leg. 
alleg. iii 28 (Mangey, p. 104) orav irapovo-a [sc. 77 X a P&\ Spaarripioos evcpyg. 
But indeed the usage is too common to need illustration. 

A further stage of meaning is used when the verb is followed by an Transi- 
accusative which defines the result of the activity. Then from the in- ** ve - 
transitive use of 'to work' we get a transitive use. There appears to be 
no example of this in Aristotle: but instances are cited from Diodorus 
Siculus and Plutarch, and it is common in later Greek. In Philo, de 
uit. contempt. (M. p. 478), the meaning is scarcely different from that of 
irpdrreiv: a yap vqfpovrcs ev orafii'ots enetvoi...vvKTa>p ev <ncoTp ficdvovres... 
evepyova-iv: and this is often the case in other writers. So far as I am 
aware, the accusative always expresses 'that which is worked', and never 
~* that~whichris~made 7 'to work" 7 . That~~is to say, evepyew does not seem ever 
to mean 'to render evepyw', in the sense of 'to bring into activity'. 
Thus, though Polybius uses again and again such expressions as evepyrj Polybius. 
iroiovftxvoi Tr)v f<po$ov (xi 23 2), and evepyea-Tepav diro(patvovo~i TTJV vav- 
(xvi 14 5), he does not use cvepyeiv as equivalent to evepybv 
In the one place where this might seem at first sight to be 
his meaning (xxvii I 12 evepyeiv e7rera|ai> rots 2p^owo-t rqi> (ru/i/ia^iav) 
this interpretation cannot be accepted in view of the strong meaning 
('assiduous', 'energetic', 'vigorous') which cvepyos (-TJS) invariably has in 
this writer. We must therefore render the words, 'to effect the alliance*. 

We come now to the Greek Old Testament. In the intransitive sense Greek 
cvt-pyeiv is found in Num. viii 24 in B, as the substitute for a somewhat - T< 
troublesome phrase of the original, which AF attempt to represent by 
\eiTovpyeiv \eirovpyiav ev epyots. It occurs again in Wisd, xv II (quoted 
already) and xvi 17 ev TO> iravra (rftevvvvrt vSort TrXcTov evrjpyei TO irvp. 
The transitive sense is found in Isa. xli 4, TIS eVij'pyqo-e KOI eVoiijo-e 
in ProV. XXi 6 o cvepy&v 6rio~avpio-fiara y\mo-o-T] i^evSei, and XXXI 12 
yap TG> dvdpl dyadd. 

In the New Testament evepyelv comes, apart from St Paul's epistles, Gospels, 
only in Mark vi 14 (Matt, xiv 2) 810: TOVTO evepyovo-iv at dwdfieis ev avTtp, Intransi- 
where the connexion of the word with miraculous powers is to be noted. tlve * 

In St Paul we find the intransitive use in three passages. The first St Paul. 
is GaL ii 8, 6 yap evepyqa-as Ilerpa) els airoorroAijv rjys 7repiTo/?s evqpyijo'ev JJitwaMtt- 
els TO, fdvr], 'He that wrought for Peter', etc. The connexion of * 
with miraculous interpositions, which we have already observed, 
and which will be further illustrated below, may justify us in interpreting 

1 6 2 




'to be 

this passage, in which St Paul is defending his apostolic position, in the 
light of 2 Cor. xii II f., ovBcv yap vo-Tepijo-a r<5i> virep\iav diro&ToXav, el 
KCU ovdev etfu- TO p.ev orj/ieia TOV aTrooroXov KaTeipya<r0rj ev vfiiv ei> irao"g 
vrroftovfi, arjpeiois [re] KOI Tepaviv KOI bvvap.ecru>. Compare also [Mark] 
XVI 2O TOV Kupiov a-vvepyovvTos not TOV Xoyov flfpaiovvTos Bid T&V etrcaio- 
\av6ovvrutv o-T)p.ela>v } Acts xiv 3, xv 12, Heb. ii 4. In any case we must 
avoid the mistake of the Authorised Version, which renders 'He that 
wrought effectually in Peter... the same was mighty in me'. We cannot 
attribute to St Paul the construction evepyelv nvL in the sense of evep- 
ye'iv ev TIVI, though it may have come in at a later period through a 
confusion with evcpydgeo-dat, which is a compound verb 1 . In Eph. ii 2 
we have the intransitive use again in TOW irvevfiaros rov vvv evepyovvros 
tv rots viols TTJS direidias- In PhiL ii 13 we have TO 0e\eiv KO.I TO cvep- 
yelv, where the word is exceptionally used of human activity, as we have 
already noted, and is introduced as a kind of echo of the preceding o 

The transitive sense occurs in the passage just cited, Phil, ii 13 o 
evepy&v. . .TO 6e\tv K.T.X. ; also in Gal. iii 5 o evepyav dwdpeis ev Vfiiv, and 
in a specially instructive passage, i Cor. xii 6 ii, &aipms eyepyi/^aroy 
ettri'v, *cal o avrbs fads, 6 tvepy&v TO. irdvra ev 7racriv...a\\o) Be evepyijfJMTa 
o"vvdfiea>v...irdvTa Be TO.VTO. evepyel TO ev KOI TO avro irvevfia. Here again. 
the reference is to miraculous powers. In Eph. i ii we have Kara irpo- 
decriv TOV TO ndvra evepyovvros KOTO T^y_j3o.vXi7y_ro-^eX^jLtaTos-aT;Toii T -where- 
we must render 'who worketh all things': for we are not justified in 
supposing that it can mean 'who setteth all things in operation': the 
thought of 'moving the universe', expressed in Heb. i 3 by (pep<ov TO, 
^S Swdpeats OUTOU, must not be introduced here. Simi- 


larly in Eph. i 19, KOTO TT)V evepyeiav TOV Kpdrovs TTJS lo~\vos OVTOV rjvt 
evqpyrjKev ev TW xP ltrr $ eyeipas avrov K.T.X., we must render 'according to 
the working... which He hath wrought '. If the original is more emphatic 
than such a rendering may seem to imply, this is due chiefly to St Paul'a 
general attribution of evepyelv and evepyeia. to Divine operation. 

4. We now come to the point of chief difficulty, the use and meaning 
of evepyela-dai. 

Prom the meaning of evepyelv c. accus., 'to work, effect, do', we 
readily get a passive use, evepyelvdat, 'to be wrought, effected, done', 
wrought', rj, nus poiyjjfag uges it of a war * being waged': in i 13 5 he says that, 
Polybius. contemporaneously with certain wars between the Romans and the 
Carthaginians, irapa rots "EXX^o-tj/ o KXeo/i/wcos <a\ovfjievos evrjpyeiTO 
TToXe/Ltos : comp. Joseph. Antt. xv 5 3. Again, in ix 12 3 he uses 
ev Kotpw evfpyovfj.eva>v as a variant upon his previous phrase T&V / 
86X0 v KCU crvv Kcupn irpaTTOfievaiv : and in ix 13 9 he lays stress on a 

1 In Athenag. Supplic. 10 we have is adequately explained as dativus 

an apparent, but perhaps only ap- commodi. A more doubtful looking 

parent, instance of such a construction: instance is Clement. Horn, vii u Koi 

KO.LTOI Kal avrb rb erepyovv TOIS ex- 5*4 TOUTO a/j-aprdvovvi vbffovs evepyeiv 

^xavovffi irpofltiTiKus ayiov TrvevfJLO. dirop- S^arat. 
potay elvai <pap.ej> TOV Oeov. The dative 


general's choice of those 5V <$v /cat 'pel? av eVfpyqtfiJo-rrai TO npiBev, 'his 
decision shall be executed', 'his plan shall be carried out'. This is the 
sense which the form bears in the only passage of the Greek Old Testament 
in which it occurs, I Esdr. ii 2O evfpyeiTai TO. Kara TOV vabv. 

Although Aristotle does not use evepyeiv in a transitive sense, yet we Aristotle. 
find a few instances of the passive evepyela-dai in his works. 

Hep! $im3i> ii 7 (827, 33*). The sun irfytv iroiei (826, 37 b ): but the 
moisture may be so great, Save /tj) 7rreuVrtfai : rare 17 vyporj]S aur?, els 
yv OVK evrjpyqdr) Treats, K.T.X., ie. in which irtyis has not been wrought 
or effected by the sun. 

$ixr. uKpoda-. ii 3 (195, 28 b ). He has been classifying causes and 
effects (aina KO\ mv atria). Causes are either Kara Bvvap.iv or evepyovvra : 
they are Bwd^eis in respect of Swaro, and evepyovvra in respect of evep- 
yovpeva : of the last an instance is ofie o oiKobofjuvv r<ode ro> ol<o$ofj,av[j.fva>. 
Potential causes and possible results are contrasted with effective causes 
and effected results. 

Uepl-^x^ 5 iii 2 (4 2 7 7 a )- The text is uncertain; but there is a con- 
trast between cWa/m and ro> etvai, followed by a further distinction: 
ro> 8' eivai ov, dXXa r evepyeto-dai buuperov, 'in the being carried into 
effect' or 'realised'. 

Uepl Koo-p. 6 (400, 23 b ). God is to the universe what law is to the 
state: 6 rrjs TrdXtwy vofws aKivijTos &v ev rcus T5v ~)(po>iJ.eva>v ^ry^ms_jrm> 

In accordance with law one man goes to 
the Prytaneum to be feasted, another to the court to be tried, another to 
the prison to be put to death: yivovrai 5e KOL 8t}fio6oiviai<av 
T 6v<riat Ka\ ypooatv depairf?ai...aX\a 8e a'XXots evepyovfjLeva KOTO, ptav irpocr- 
ragiv TI vopipov eov<riav. Here the word is used in no philosophic sense, 
but simply means ' carried out' or 'done' 1 . 

It is interesting to note that in Xenophon we have two examples 'Apy<r0ai 
of the passive of apyeiv. Cyrop. ii 3 2 ovdev yap avrois apyeirat T<Si> ^ n Xeno- 
irpdrrco-dat 8eopcva>v, ' they leave nothing undone', 'let nothing lie apyov'. P hon< 
Hiero 9 9, if it be made clear that any one who finds a new way of 
enriching the state will be rewarded, ovSe av-nj av <i/ a-Ktyts apyoiro: 
a few lines below we have this repeated in the form, TroXXovs av KO\ TOVTO 
fopfir)a-eifv epyov itoifi(rdai TO (TKoireiv TI ayadov. The use of apyeiv 'to be 
idle' (of persons) and dpyelo-Oai 'to be left idle' (of powers) may prepare 
us for a corresponding use of evepyelv 'to be at work' (of persons) and 
evepyela-dai ' to be set at work ' (of powers). 

In the New Testament all the examples of cvepyeto-dai, with the'Evepyei- 
notable exception of James v 16, belong to St Paul. The passages are ff<?cu in 
the following: StPauL 

(1) I Thess. ii 13 f. \6yov deov, os Kal evepyeiTai ev vfj.1v Tols iriarevovo'iv. 

vfjxis yap fUfiijTai lyevrjQrjTf ...... on TO, avrci errddcre Kal vpeis K.T.\. 

(2) 2 Thess. ii 7 TO yap fivtrr^piov rjftr} evepyeiTai TIJS avopias povov 

6 Korexaj' apri, /e.T.X. 

(3) 2 Cor. i 6 eiTe irapaKa\ovpe@a, virep -njs vn&v irapaK^ija-ecas TTJS 

evfpyovfievrjt ev vTrofiovj] TO>V OUT&V iradrjfMTtav av Kal Tj/xets 

This instance is not given in Bouitz's index. 


(4) 2 Cor. iv 12 cSffTc o ev yfuv cvepyeirat, ij 8e g ev vpiv. 

(5) Gal V 6 aXXa IT'UTTIS Si dydmjs evepyovpevr]. 

(6) Rom. vii 5 f. ra iradyfiara r&v dpapriav TO, 8ih TOV j>6p.ov 

ev rois fte\riv T)pa>v els TO Kapjro(f)opfjcrai r<5 Bavartf wvl &e 
KaTTjpy^dr]fjiev K.r.X. 

(7) CoL i 29 eis o KOI Kotrica dycavi^oftevos KOTO. TTJV evepyeiav OVTOV TrjV 

evepyovfJLevTjv ev ep,ol ev dvvdpei. 

(8) Eph. iii 2O Kara rrjv bvvap.iv TTJV evepyovfievijv ev rjfuv. 

Not the In approaching the consideration of these passages we are met by the 

middle dictum, which has received the sanction of Lightfoot 1 , that evepyeio-dai is 
voice. always middle, 'never passive in St Paul'. It is difficult to reconcile this 
judgment with the observed fact that evepye'ia-dai is never used by St Paul 
of persons, while evepyelv is always so used. If the words be respectively 
passive and active, this distinction is perfectly natural: but there seems 
no reason why the middle should be specially applicable to things in 
contrast to persons 2 . Moreover, so far as I am aware, there is no trace 
of a middle in any other writer. The aorist where we find it is always 
evripyr)6r)v. The one passage of Polybius which appeared to offer an 
example to the contrary, ii 6 7 Karcnr\r){-iv KOL fyofiov evepyrja-afjievoi rots 
ras TrapaXtW OIKOVO-I, is now emended with certainty by the substitution 
of evepyaa-dfievoi, which at once restores the proper construction of the 
dative and gives back a well recognised idiom. 

-0?he-sense - If-then~we~decide that in St Paul as elsewhere evepyela-ffai is passive, we 
of the h ave to as fc whether that sense of the passive of which we have already 
passive: f oun( j examples, 'to be carried out, effected, done', will give a satisfactory 
ttSngs to sense m * ne passages before us. 

be done, The very first of them refuses this interpretation. The Divine message 

but of ^ ^ e GrOSpel (o \6yos TOV Beov) evepyelTai ev TOIS iriarrevovo-iv. St Paul's 

powers to meaning here appears to be 'is made operative', 'is made to produce its 

be set in appropriate result ' : another writer would probably have given us evepyei, 

operation. <j g O p era ti ve ' ; ^ut St Paul prefers the passive, the agent implied being 

God o fvepy&v. The Gospel is not allowed to lie idle and unproductive : 

it is transmuted into action : the Thessalonians share the sufferings which 

are everywhere its characteristic accompaniment. 

Similarly in (3), the TrapaKX^o-ts is made effective only by fellowship in 
the sufferings of the Gospel: and the thought in (4) is closely allied. 

In (2), whereas the evil spirit may be said hepyelv (Eph. ii 2), the 
pvorryptov TTJS avofiias, the counterpart of the fjLvarrjpiov TOV xpurrow, is said 
evepyeicrdai, ' to be set in operation '. 

In (5) the sense appears to be : 'faith is made operative through love', 
without which it fails of its action (apyei) 3 . With a like interpretation (6) 
presents no special difficulty. 

In (7) and (8), especially when compared with Eph. i 19 Kara T^V evep- 

1 See his note on Gal. v 6. yovfi.fri) here as passive, though unlike 

3 Compare Greg. Naz. Or. SIB (i St Paul he thinks of a human agency: 

559 D) Kal el evepryeia., evepyvjffriffeTai Strom, i 4 (p. 318) irus o6n &fJ.<pu diro- 

Sij\ov6Ti, otiK eveprfffffei, Kal oftov T$ SSKT^OI, evepyov T^P nrianv Sib. TTJS 
frepyyBijiHU iratifferai. 
8 Clement of Alexandria took 


^v evijpyijKev *c.r.X., we again find the passive appropriately used. 
St Paul says 77 evepyeia evepyfiTai, not evepyel, because he regards God 
as o evepyvv. 

It is to be observed that in actual meaning evepyciv and evepye'urdat 
come nearly to the same thing. Only the passive serves to remind us that 
the operation is not self-originated. The powers 'work' indeed ; but they 
'are made to work*. 

The passage in St James's Epistle (v 16 iro\i> l^xvet dfyw SIKMOV Jamea v 
evepyovpevri) is notoriously difficult. We must not hastily transfer to this i<5. 
writer a usage which so far as we know is peculiar to St Paul. Tet it 
is at least possible that here too evepyovpevrj means 'set in operation' by 
Divine agency. 

In later times evepyeiv was used in the sense of 'to inspire', whether the Later use 
inspiration was Divine or Satanic. But this usage has no direct bearing for . <in - 
on the meaning of the word in the New Testament. epiration'. 


On the meaning o 

i. 'Bjrfyt- i. The word eiriyv<o<ris is not found in Greek writers before the time 
oSssical 31 ^ -^ exan< kr *be ^eat. 'Emyivcoo-Keiv, however, is used occasionally by 
authors, ahaost all writers. Thus in Homer, Od. xxiv 216 ff., when Odysseus 
proposes to reveal himself to his father, he says : 

aura/3 eya> irarpos Trctpijo-o/iat ip/ierepoto, 

ai KC [i fmyvcag KOI ^patrtrerai o0daX/uot<rij/, 

r)f Kev dyvotfja-i iro\vv xpovov dptpls covra. 

If he discern me and read me with his eyes, 
Or know me not, so long I am away. 

Again, in Od. xviii 30 f., the beggar Irus challenges Odysseus to fight 
him in the presence of the suitors : 

( wv, "iva Trdvres emyvcoaxn KOI oi8e 


* that these may know us, how we fight ' : that they may discern which is 
the better man of the two. 

In Aesch. Ag. 1 596 ff. it is used of Thyestes at the banquet : 

/>> / NO* 

avTiK ayvoiq. \apa>v 
ecrdfi ftopav aftpa>Tov } <os opas, yevei. 
emyvoiis epyov ov Karaitnov 

Here, as in Od. xxiv 216 ff., it is used in contrast with ayvoia, 'not recog- 
nising', 'not discerning'. 
In Soph. Aj. 1 8 f. we have : 

*cai vvv fireyvas ev p fir' dv8pl dva-fj-evel 
ficuriv /cuKXoCiT'j AMVTI.- r<p 0aite(r<p6pq>. 

'And now thou hast discerned aright that I am hunting to and fro on 
the trail of a foeman' : so Jebb, who says in a note : "eWyww with partic. 
(KVK^OVVT) of the act observed, as Xen. Cyr. 8. i. 33 eireyvws tf av...ov&eva 
ovre opyi6(j,erov...ovTe xcupopra". 
Soph. El. 1296 f. : 

8' OTTO)? 

' And look that our mother read not thy secret in thy radiant face' : Jebb, 
with a note: " 'irtyvmo-erai, 'detect' : the dative is instrumental". 

In Thucydides there are two distinct usages of the word. The first 
is the same as that which we have already noticed : e.g. i 132 : irapmrotri- 
irdfifvos <r<ppayi8a, Iva... fir) eVtyvw, Xuet Tas eViorXas: i.6. that the receiver 


of the letter might not detect what he had done. The second corresponds 
with a special meaning of ytiwo-Ka, 'to determine' or 'decide' (i 70, ii 65, 
iii 57) : it does not directly concern us here. It is nearly synonymous with 

If now we inquire what is the force of the preposition, or in other The force 
words how does emyivaaa-Keiv differ from yivaaKeiv, we may note first of all * *?je P re " 
that the simple verb would have given the meaning, intelligibly if less posi lon> 
precisely, in all the cases which we have cited. There is no indication 
that emyivvo-Kfiv conveys the idea of a fuller, more perfect, more advanced 

We find a large number of compounds in eVi, in which the preposition It signifies 
does not in the least signify addition, but rather perhaps direction. It n p* ad- 
seems to fix the verb upon a definite object. Thus we have eVatvetv, Jjjre'riioii 
firiSetKvvvai, emfaTelv, emKaXcw, emKr/pva'a-etv, emHpareiv, cirntpvirrcw, em- 
HeXeffdcu, emfitfiv^a-Kea-dai, eirivoeiv (excogitare\ eirixoprjyeiv. , So also eiriKowos 
means ' common to ' and is followed by a genitive or dative of the object. 
In these cases we cannot say that the compound verb is stronger than the 
simple verb. The preposition is not intensive, but directive (if the word 
may be allowed). It prepares us to expect the limitation of the verb to 
a particular object. 

Thus ytvaxnteiv means 'to know' in the fullest sense that can be given A limita- 
to the word 'knowledge' : eiriyivaxrueiv directs attention to some particular tiB sug- 
point in regard to which 'knowledge' is affirmed. So that to perceive ge 
a particular thing, or to perceive who a particular person is, may fitly be 
expressed by eirtyivao-Ketv. There is no such limitation about the word 
, though of course it may be so limited by its context. 

2. We may now consider the usage of the LXX. In Hebrew the 2. The 
ordinary word for 'to know' is J?T. But in the earlier books of the O.T. v , erb "* 

th.6 LXX. 

is used in the sense of discerning or recognising. Thus it is the word 

employed when Jacob's sons say to him : 'Know now whether it be thy son's 
coat or no. And he knew it, and said, It is my son's coat' (Gen. xxxvii 32 f.). 
So again in Gen. xlii 8, ' And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew 
not him'. Here, as we might expect, the word is rendered by emyivao- 
Throughout the historical books eiriyivcao-Keiv generally represents 
though occasionally it is a rendering of JHJ. In the Prophets, how- 
ever, *P3n is very rare, and emyivcaa-Keiv is used forty-five times to render 
JH?. To shew to what an extent the two words were regarded as identical 
in meaning, we may note that in Ezekiel the phrase 'they (ye) shall know 
that I am the Lord' is rendered about thirty-five times by yixaa-ovrai (yv<o- 
<rf(rdc), and about twenty-five times by emyvaxrovrai (eTriyixoo-eo'de) 1 . 

In the later books of the LXX we come across the word eiriyvtoms, of The noun. 
which hitherto we have said nothing. It occurs four times in books of 

1 For the distribution of the render- the simple verb alone occurs (save as 

ings between the two translators of a var. lect. of A) in chapters xsviii to 

Ezekiel see Mr Thackeray's article in xxxis. 
Jbwm. of TheoL Studies, Apr. 1903: 


which we have Hebrew originals. Three times eiriyv&tris ffeov represents 
D*n?K nyn (Prov. ii 5, Hos. iv i, vi 6, the only places where this expres- 
sion seems to occur). The fourth occurrence of the noun is again in Hosea 
(iv 6), where in the same verse njPJ is rendered first by yv&<ris and then 
by eiriyvoHrts*. 

Besides these passages we have only 2 Mace, ix n, els eiriyvaHriv 
c\0e?v &/9 /ttzo-nyt, 'to come to knowledge tinder the scourge of God'. 
Symmachus used the word in Ps. Ixxii (Ixxiiij 1 1, * Is there knowledge in the 
Most High?', where the Hebrew is nift, and the LXX have yv&ms. 

It may be worth while to add that in Wisdom we have yv&a-ts Qeov 
twice, but eirlyvoMns does not occur at all In Ecclesiasticus also we have 
yvaxris Kvpi'ov, but eiriyvaxris is not found. 

Thus we learn from the Greek O. T. nothing more than that the 
word was coming into use, and that it was employed in a familiar passage 
of Hosea, the first part of which is cited in the N. T. ; 'I desired mercy, and 
not sacrifice; and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings' (Hos. 

3. Verb 3. In Sehweighauser's index to Polybius emytvao-Keiv appears as 

occurring eight times. It regularly means 'to discover' or 'discern': 
once it is coupled with /jaQeiv (iii 32 8, eiriyv&vai *al /ia&u>); three times 
it is strengthened by a-a^Ss. The noun eiriyvaxris occurs twice (iii 7 6, 
31 4). In each case LtheJ^torian4s-defending-the-study~of~genefarKistory 
as contrasted with mere narratives of particular wars. In the latter place 
he speaks of 'the knowledge of past events', rrjv T&V irape\T]\vd6T<ov ri- 
using in the context two parallel phrases, TTJV rS>v irpoyeyovarmv 
and TTJS r&v irpoyeyovoT<ov U7ro/tw;erea>s. In iii 7 6 he says that 
a statesman cannot dispense with 'knowledge' of this kind, rfc r&v irpoeiprj- 
fjievtov firiyvmreos. There is no indication whatever that any strong meaning, 
such as full or advanced knowledge, was attached to the word. 

4 . The 4. We now come to the New Testament. In the Gospels and Acts 
verb in the eVtyyajtr/eeiv is found in the sense of 'perceiving', 'discerning', 'recognising', 

8 P e j us j; as j n c i asg i ca i authors. It is interesting to compare Matt, xi 27, ov&fc 
rbv vlov t K.T.X., with the parallel in Luke X. 22, ovBels yiwoa-Kei ris 
6 vlos, /c.r.X. In Luke i 4> "* liriyvtps irepl oov KaTijx^drjf \6ytav TTJV 
v, we have the word used with good effect to indicate the discern- 
ment of a particular point in regard to things already known. 

and in St In St Paul's Epistles we find both the verb and the noun. In Rom. i 32 

Paul. we nave: i T i VS TO 8iKaia>fia TOV 6eov firiyvovres, which is to be compared 

with v. 21, fitort yvovrfs TOV deov. The difference, if there be one, is that 

emyvovTfs is more naturally used of knowledge of a particular point. In 

1 Cor. xiv 37 eiriyivcoa-Kerat a ypd<f>a> i5/ztv on Kvpiov early evroXij, and 

2 Cor. xiii 5> 7 OWK emytvao-Kere eavroiis ort 'Irja-ovs Xpitrros ev vpw; it is 
again used of discerning or recognising a special quality. It is used of 
the recognition of persons in I Cor. xvi 18, eiriyivao-iteTe ovv TOVS roiewrour, 
and in 2 Cor. vi 9, cos ayvoovpevot KM firtyivaxrKopfvoi (comp. the passages 

1 In i Zings viii 4 tirlyvw<ns stands in Esther [xvi 6] it is a variant of K* 
for hl?:f in AE, but B has yj>u<ris t and for etyv 


cited above, Horn. Od. xxiv 216 ff., Aesch. Ag. 1596 ff.). In CoL i 6 f., dtf %s 
fjpepas i/Kouo-are KOI eireyvare. TTJV x^P LV TO " ^ eo ^ * v d\ri6fiq' na6a>s Ipa- 
0ere /c.r.X., there may be a suggestion of discriminating and recognising 
as true: we have yivwo-iteiv rf^v xP iV i n 2 ^ or - v^i 9 Gal- ii 9- So too in 
I Tim. iv 3, eircyvaxom rrjv d\q6eiav. 

There remain two remarkable passages in which St Paul plays on Plays on 
yivaa-Kfiv and its compounds. 2 Cor. i 13, ov yap oXXa ypd(popev vfiiv *ke wor d 
aXX' ^ a dvayivtoa-KCTe TJ /cat lifiyivaxruere, e\iria> fie ort ews reXous eVt- 
y<rr0e, Kadtos KOI eireyvatre TJpas dirb pepovs, on /cai^/ia vfj.v etrpjev 
KaQanep /cat vpeis ri^v. The last part of this is plain enough: 'ye have 
recognised us, in part at any rate, as being a glory to you, as you are 
to us'. "With the former part we may compare iii 2 'ye are our epistle, 
yivuHTKopevr] KOI dvayiva><rKoiJ.evr)', the full-sounding word being placed 
second. So here the sound of the words has no doubt influenced the 
selection: ( ye read and recognise'. But we cannot say that riy'<B0-/cv 
refers to a full knowledge of any kind, especially as it is subsequently 
joined with OTTO pepovs. 

In i Cor. xiii the Apostle compares yv&<ns, as a spiritual gift, with In com- 
dydjrTj. Tvoa-is is after all in our present condition but partial ; e/c pepavs ^^ on / 
yap yivdxrKOfjiev : the partial is transient, and disappears on the arrival of ffKea , ^ lvw ~ 
the perfect. So the child gives way to the man. We now see mirrored 
images which suggest the truth of things: we shall then see 'face to 
"faceT The words recalTlihe promise of~God~that He would speak 
to Moses 'mouth to mouth' and not 81 almyfumov (Num. xii 8): also 
Deut. xxxiv 10, Moxri?;, ov eyvat Kvpios avrbv irpo&mirov Kara Trpovamov '. 
and Ex. xxxiii n, 'The Lord spake unto Moses face to face, as a man 
speaketh unto his friend '. St Paul continues : &pn ynxoovcw CK pepovs, rare 
fie eiriyixocrofjiai Kaduts /cat eireyvtoa-dqv. The thought of fuller knowledge 
which is here given is expressed, not by the change from ytwaovcco to its 
compound, but by the contrast with & fiepovs and by the denning clause 
introduced by Kadeas 1 . We see this at once if we try to cut the sentence 
short, and read only: apri yivavita) e< fiepovs, Tore fie this 
would be unmeaning; for there is no ground for supposing that it could 
mean by itself, 'then shall I fully know'. It is probable that emyvao-ofiat 
is introduced because eirfyvtotrdrjv (of knowledge of a person) is to follow. 
At the same time we may admit that the full-sounding word is purposely 
chosen to heighten the effect at the close. That no higher kind of know- 
ledge is implied in the compound word is seen when we compare Gal. iv 9, 
yvoiTfs deov, /ioXXoi/ fie yvaxrdevres virb deov. 

The only remaining instance of the verb in the N. T. is in 2 Pet. ii 21, In 2 Peter. 
KpeiTTov yap rjv aurotp ftrf eireyvtoKevat rf/v 68bv TTJS diKaioavvrjf rj emyvovoriv 
VTroa-rpe^ai /c.r.X. 

The noun eiriyvcatris is freely used by St Paul. It is generally followed, 'Eirfy?<ns 
as we might expect, by a genitive of the object: thus, dfiapTias, Rom. iii 20; in .S* I>aul s 
of God or Christ, Eph. i 17, iv 13, Col. i 10 (cf. 2 Pet. i 2, 3, 8, ii 20); TOU itiveo^the 
avrow, Col. i 9 ; TOV pvovriplov TOV 0eov, CoL ii 2 ; d\T)6eias, object; 

1 So quite correctly Euthymius Ziga- afobv (so. rbv 0e6t>) irMof T& ykp ' 
benus ad Zoc. : 'rire Se liriytxixrofMi* Kal iireyvdxrOiip ' rb ir\4ov 8i)\ol. 



without a 

5. The 
view that 

ledge.' * 



I Tim. ii 4, 2 Tim. ii 25, iii 7, Tit. i i (of. Heb. x 26) ; iravros 
Philem. 6. We do indeed find yv&<ris similarly used of God and of Christ 
(2 Cor. x 5, Phil, iii 8) ; but eiriyvauris had the advantage of avoiding the 
ambiguity as to whether the following genitive was objective or subjective 
(as in Rom. xi 33, pd0os...yv&<rea>s 6eov). Accordingly as a rule yv&<rts is 
used where knowledge in the abstract is spoken of, but eiriyvvcris where the 
special object of the knowledge is to be expressed. 

Rom. i 28, OVK (SoKifKxrav TOV 6eov ex tv * v fifiyvotretj is no exception 
to this rule. In Rom. X 2, ffi\ov deov f\ovo*iv, aXX* ou /car* eiriyma-iv, the 
word may perhaps suggest the idea of discernment: as also in Phil, i 9, 'that 
your love may abound more and more ev emyvao-ei KCU navy ato-Byo-ei, 
els TO 8o</iai/ K.T.X.' : and in Col. iii 10 f., 'putting on the new man, 
which is renewed eis eViyvwow KOT eluova TOV Kritravros UVTOV, OTTOV OVK 
evi *EXXiji> K.T.X.', where there is no contrast with any imperfect knowledge, 
but the knowledge referred to may perhaps be specially the discernment 
and recognition of the abolition of the old distinctions of race and condi- 
tion. But perhaps it is unnecessary to search for any particular subtilty 
of meaning in the word. 

5. This long investigation has been necessitated by the determination 
of commentators to interpret eirtyvtocris as a fuller and more perfect kind 
of yvcaa-is. Thus Grotius on Eph. i 17 says: 'emyv&ais proprie est maior 

exactioirgue cognitio ', a remark which he repeats on G_o.I.-i_o. In-dealing- 

-however with eiriyvaxris ajBoprtasHmnRomT iii 20 he is more cautious, 
and says: ' eV/ywao-is idem quod yvavis, aut paulo amplius'. Among the 
moderns Fritzsche (on Rom. i 28), Alford, Ellicott and Lightfoot take the 
same view. Lightfoot comments on the word twice (Phil, i 9 and Col. i 9). 
At the latter place he says : ' The compound eiriyvaxris is an advance upon 
yvajo-is, denoting a larger and more thorough knowledge'. He cites in 
favour of this view Justin Martyr Try ph. 3 (p. 221 A): en-urrjiuj TIS eoriv 
T! Trape^ovcra avr&v r&v avQpwtsivwv na\ Tcav &eia>v yva)criv\ eirevra Tfjs TOVTCBV 
QeioTrfTos KOI diKaiovvvrjs eirLyvaxnv ; The context of this passage requires to 
be carefully considered. In the preceding sentences Justin has been dis- 
cussing the nature of philosophy : it is, he says, 'the science of the existent 
and the knowledge of the true' (eVion;/*;/ earl TOV ovros <al TOV dXrjdovs 
eiriyvaxns). His interlocutor objects that eirio-rjfn] has different meanings : 
it means one kind of thing when applied to generalship, seamanship or 
medicine; another in regard to things human and divine. And then he 
asks (in the words already cited): 'Is there an eirurr^fjaj which affords 
a knowledge (yv&o-is) of the actual things human and divine, and after 
that a knowledge (eirlyixaa-is) of the divineness and righteousness of 
these same things?' Here the distinction (if we are to press for one) 
is between a knowledge which reveals to us the things themselves, and 
a knowledge which discerns certain qualities of those things. 

1 Justin is here employing a current 
definition of cro^a. See Philo de con- 
gressu (Mangey i 530) <ro(f>ia 
ILI\V Oeltav K< 
aMtav, and the references given iu 

Wendland's edition iii 88. Gomp. 
also 4 Mace, i 16, ffotpla. Si) Tolvvv 
yvuffis Oelwv Kal dpffpuirlvw vpa,y- 


Lightfoot also cites St Chrysostom on Col. i 9 : fywre, d\\a del n KOI Chryso- 

v&vai. To do this passage justice we must look first at St Chrysostom's atom, 
comment on the preceding words (v. 6), dfi $s rjp.fpas j/fcoware *eat eireyvooTe 

\dpiv TOV deov ev dXrjdeia, Kadoas epdQere aVo 'E7ra0pa K.T.X. He says : 
eSea<r&, apa eyvowe rfjv x<*P iV TOV Qeov. From this it does not appear 
that he can have laid much stress on the preposition. So when he comes 
to the phrase tva v\r]padffre TTJV firiyvmo~iv TOV dcXif/ucros avrou, it is on 
ir\T)pa>df)Te that the stress of his comment falls: 'fva 7r\rjp<odfjTe', (pTjvlv, 
ovx i va Xd/SijTe' e\a/3ov yap- aXXa TO \eiirov iva 7r\r)pa>dr)Te. Then below 
he says : Tt Se e <rtw f Iva ir\T)pa>6rJT TTJV eiriyvato~tv TOV de\r){J.a.Tos OVTOV '; 
8ia TOV vlov irpoaayecrdai avTta, OVKCTI 81 dyyeXcav. OTI [iev ovv Set 
irpoo'dyca'dai, eyvatTS' \eiirei 8e vptv TO TOVTO padeiv, /cat 8ia Tt TOV vlov 
eire^ev. Again no stress falls on rtyow There is indeed something 
more to be learned, viz. TTJV eiriyva>o-iv TOV tfeXiJ/uoTos avrov : but it is not 
a fuller knowledge of the will of God which is in question. So he 
continues: 'KOI alrovpevoi', (prjtri' pera TroXX^s TTJS trirov^s- TOVTO yap 
8eiKWo~iv, OTI cyvatTe, dXXa Set Tt (eat eiriyvavai. Here eyvotTe corresponds 
to St Paul's ireyva>T TTJV x&P"' TOV & eov ' c You have learned something', 
he says, 'but you must needs learn something more'. The 'something 
more ' is conveyed by Tt *ai', not by the change of verb. If we are to 
make a distinction it must be between general knowledge (eyvwre) and 
particular knowledge (cmyv&vai). We cannot on the strength of this 

_^_s_entence_alone_insist_on_a_new_sense of emyivoo*Keiv, viz. -to learn 

further'. It is of course conceivable that a late writer might be led 
by the analogy of some compounds with rt to play upon the words in 
this particular way : but we have no proof of it at present ; and even if 
it were true for the fourth century, it would be hazardous to carry such 
a meaning back to St Paul. 

Another passage cited by Lightfoot, Clem. Alex. Strom, i 17, p. 369, and 
need not detain us. It is itself borrowed from Tatian ad Graecos 40; and Clement 
the ov naT eiriyvaHriv which both passages contain is a mere reproduction anirhT" 
of St Paul's words in Rom. x. 2. 

Dr Hatch in his Essays on Biblical Greek (p. 8) refers to Const. Hatch 
Apost. vii 39, with the remark that it makes firiyvato-is 'the second of the ites , 
three stages of perfect knowledge : yvoo-is, eiriyvtao-is, ir\T)po<popia'. Unfor- (jogtjt u _ 
tunately for his readers he does not quote the passage. The writer, who tions. 
has been expanding precepts of the DidacM, says : 6 /ieXXo>i/ Ka-nj^eio'dat 
TOV \oyov TTJS d\T)deias irai8evea-0a> irpo TOV fJajrria-paTos (cf. Did. 7) T^V 
Trepi TOU dyevvrfTov yvcao'iv, TTJV irepl vlov povoyevovs emyvcoo'iv, TTJV nrpt TOV 
dyiov irvevpaTos ir\rjpo<popiav. That is to say, a catechumen before Baptism 
must be instructed in a knowledge of the Holy Trinity. The writer is in 
want of synonyms : he may even fancy that he is working up to a climax, 
and may have chosen emyvtoa-ts as a word of fuller sound than yvSxns. But 
nothing is to be gained from verbiage of this kind for the strict definition 
of words. 

Two interesting examples of eiriyivao-Keiv and eiriyva>o~ts may here be Further 
added. Clem. Alex. Q.D.S. 7 f. : OVKOVV TO pcyurrov KOI KopvfaioraTov illustra- 
TWV irpbs TTJV fayv fiadrniara>v...yvcavai TOV 6cbv...6epv eort KTT]o~ao~dai &ia 
KO\ KaTaX^6o)f...>7 [lev yap TOVTOV ayvoia ddvaros eorti, rj Se 


firiyvaxris avrov Kal olKfiaxris Kal rj irpos avrbv ayanrj Kal f 
fuan/i <OTJ. rovrov o$v irp&tov ciriyvaivai TW ^ijtroftevcp r^v ovruts 
irapaKcXeuerqt, ov ov$e\s eirtyivcacTKei el 6 vlbs Kal < av 6 vibe diroKa- 
Aui^i;' eirfiTa TO fieyeQos rov trayrijpos /ACT' etteivov Kal TTJV Kaivorrjra rfjs 
Xapiros paGf-lv. It is noticeable that liriyvaxns comes in for the first 
time in contrast to ayvoia. The first requirement for the true life is 
fmyv&vcu. It is quite clear therefore that eiriyvaxris here is not a fuller 
or more advanced knowledge. 

Eus. JET. E. vi ii 6, a passage in a letter of Alexander of Jerusalem to 
the Antiochenes, which was brought to them by Clement of Alexandria. 
Alexander speaks of Clement as avftpbs evaplrov Kal BoKip.ov, ov "are KOI 
vfifis Kal emyv<a<readf. This is rendered by Rufinus uirum in omnibus 
uirtutibus probatissimwm, quern, nostis etiam. uos et eo amplius cognos- 
cetis\ This no doubt gives the general sense well enough. But the 
contrast in the Greek is between eldevai and firiyivcoo-Kctv, and not, be it 
noted, between yivua-Kciv and finyivao-Kfiv. The meaning appears to be 
{ ye know him by name, and ye shall now get to know him in person': 'ye 
have heard of him, and ye shall now make his acquaintance'. There is no 
reason for supposing that the Antiochenes had ever seen Clement up to 
this time: otherwise we might seek to explain eiriyvtoa-ea-d* as 'ye shall 
recognise him as such as I have described him '. 

Con- So far then as we are to distinguish between yv&vis __ 

elusion. we may_say_-tbat-yy^OTy-i8-the-wider-word~aii6!.~expresses * knowledge ' in 
the fullest sense: eiriyvato-is is knowledge directed towards a particular 
object, perceiving, discerning, recognising 2 : but it is not knowledge in the 
abstract: that is yva><ris. It follows that the genitive after yv&ais may be 
either subjective or objective: but the genitive after eVfywotw denotes the 
object of the knowledge. 

1 So Jerome (de uiris ill. 38) uirum did not suggest a fuller or further 
ilhistrem et probatum, quern uos quoque knowledge: E y&p JKTJ rafcto ia-n 
scitis et nunc pleniw recognoscetis. yi>&ffis 8eov Kal frrlyixaffis 0eov dXX' 6 

2 Origen's comment on* Eph. i 17 iirtyivtJiitrKuv olovel &j>ayj>upl&i 6 ir\at 
(Cramer, p. 130) presses the sense of elSws ^ire\4\ijffro, fooi *^ tiriytxixrei' 
'recognition', in accordance with a ylvovTat 6eav ira\ai ySeffav avrbv Si- 
favourite view of his. It is worth re- fare? * (ju>7i<rdri<rovTai Kal tiriaTpa^trovTai, 
cording, if only as shewing that to vpbs Kfyiov iravra. ri v^para T^S 7^$'. 
him at any rate the word 


On the meaning of ir 

The precise meaning of the word rr\^pa>iM has been a matter of much The 
controversy among biblical critics. It was discussed at great length by 
C. F. A. Fritzsche in his commentary on Romans (1839), voL ii pp. 469 f, 
and to him subsequent writers are in the main indebted for their illustra- 
tions from Greek literature. Fritzsche's long note was drawn from him 
by the statement of Storr and writers who followed him, that irXifptD/ta 
always has an active sense in the New Testament. He, on the contrary, nouns in 
starts with the assertion that substantives in -/to have a passive sense. '^ a ** ave a 
He admits a few cases in which irXnpoa^a has an active sense: such 
Eurip. Troad. 823: 



, KaXXurrap Xarpeuu* 1 

and Philo de Abr. 46 (Mangey, ii 39), where faith toward God is called 
irapTjyopTjfjia ySi'ov, TrX^pojua xp r l (rr "> v eXffi&av. But he insists that in such 
cases 7rX7pa>/ia means 'the filling' or ' fulfilling ', and not 'that which fills' 
(complendi actionem, non id quod complet). He then proceeds to show 
that the fundamental sense of TrXiJpoyui is a passive sense. 

But we must note carefully what he means when he thus speaks of 'id quo 
a 'passive sense'. In ordinary parlance we understand by the passive MS corn- 
sense of 7rX77p</i, 'that which is filled' (id quod completum es); but of ^ e ia ' 
this Fritzsche has only one plausible example to offer, viz. wXjjpta/wra, 
as used in naval warfare as an equivalent of 'ships' (to this we shall return 
presently). He himself, however, uses the expression 'passive sense* to 
cover instances in which ir\TJpa[j.a means 'that with which a thing is filled 5 
(id quo res completur s. completa est). This extension of phraseology 
enables him, with a little straining, to find an underlying passive significa- 
tion in all instances of the use of TrX^'pw/ia, apart from those which he has 
already noted as exceptions. 

Lightfoot, in his commentary on Colossians (pp. 257 273), discusses Light- 
the word TrXiypea/na afresh, and deals (i) with its fundamental significa- *? t .' s . 
tion ; (2) with its use in the New Testament ; (3) with its employment cnticism 
as a technical term by heretical sects. At the outset he recognises 
the confusion which Fritzsche produced by his unjustifiable use of the 
expression ' passive sense '. Thus he says : ' He apparently considers that 
he has surmounted the difficulties involved in Storr's view, for he speaks 
of this last [id quo res impletur] as a passive sense, though in fact it is 
nothing more than id quod implet expressed in other words'. 



and modi- 
fication : 

the result 
of the 
of the 

yet strictly 

of this 
theory il- 

sense not 
to be in- 
sisted on. 

Lightfoot, accordingly, starting with the same postulate of the passive 
signification of all verbal substantives in -pa, undertakes to find a genuine 
passive sense underlying those instances in which Fritzsche had interpreted 
ir\T)pa>fj.a as id quo res impletur. ' Substantives in -/', he says, 'formed 
from the perfect passive, appear always to have a passive sense. They 
may denote an abstract notion or a concrete thing ; they may signify the 
action itself regarded as complete, or the product of the action ; but in 
any case they give the result of the agency involved in the corresponding; 

Lightfoot appears to have correctly diagnosed the formations in -/ia, 
when he says, 'they give the result of the agency involved in the corre- 
sponding verb'. It is, however, unfortunate that, in his desire to be loyal 
to what he speaks of as a 'lexical rule', he insists that 'in all cases 
the word is strictly passive'. For the maintenance of this position 
involves again an extension of the term 'passive', not indeed so violent 
as Fritzsche's, but yet unfamiliar and easily leading to misconceptions. 
Thus, to take one instance, we may allow that naXvpa is in the first place 
the result of 'hindering', i.e. 'hindrance'. But when the 'hindrance' is 
thought of not merely as an abstract idea, but as a concrete thing, it has 
come to mean 'that which hinders'; that is to say, it has acquired in 
usage what we should naturally call an active signification. And yet the 
theory in question demands that KcSiXvpa, the result of the agency of the 
verb Ka>\va>, shall be 'strictly passive'. 

-The-straits~to~which Lightfoot is put by this theory may be illustrated 
from his interpretation of the word -irk^pa^a in Mark ii 21, the saying 
about the new patch on the old garment. The true text of St Mark at 
this point is somewhat rough, but not really obscure: No man seweth 
a piece of new (or undressed) cloth on an old garment; 8e pj, aipet 
TO TrXifpayia oaf avrov, TO K.O.IVOV rov TraXaioS. Our old translators rendered 
TrXTjpoyta, 'the piece that filled it up'; taking 7rX7Jpca/i in the sense of 
'the supplement'. It cannot be denied that this gives an admirable 
meaning in this place. Perhaps a stricter writer would have said di/cwrX^- 
pvpa, for dvajrXrjpovv seems to differ from irhqpovv in the same way as 'to 
fill up' differs from 'to fill' : it suggests the supply of a deficiency, rather 
than the filling of what is quite empty to start with. Apart from this, 
which is perhaps somewhat of a refinement, we might render the words 
literally : 'the supplement taketh therefrom, to wit, the new from the old'. 
But Lightfoot boldly refuses the obvious explanation, and, insisting on his 
theory, interprets TO irhqp&pa as ' the completeness which results from the 
patch' : 'the completeness takes away from the garment, the new com- 
pleteness of the old garment'. "We must hesitate long before we dissent 
from the interpretations of so great an expositor: but we are sorely tempted 
to ask if there is not a nearer way to the truth than this. 

To return: if we are to have a theory to cover all these formations 
in -pi, it seems wisest to abandon altogether the traditional rule 'that 
substantives in -/*a have a passive sense ', and adopt in its place the wider 
rule 'that they give the result of the agency of the corresponding verb'. 
This result may be thought of as primarily an abstract idea. But it is 
a common phenomenon in language that words denoting abstract ideas have 


a tendency to fall into the concrete. The result of * mixing' is 'mixture' 
(abstract); but, again, the result is 'a mixture' (concrete) 1 . 

But before we discard a venerable tradition, let us try to do it some False 
measure of justice. There must hare been some reason for a rule which analogy 
has dominated us so long: and the reason appears to be this. There are f per fe c t 
two familiar sets of substantives in Greek which are derived from verbs : passive '. 
they are commonly spoken of as those ending in -tris and those ending 
in -pa. When we compare them for such verbs as iroiea, npaao-w, S/Sca/tt, 
fiiywfjii, we find that the one class (TTOIIJO-IS, irpagis, Boats, /u'f t?) expresses 
the action of the verb 'making', 'doing', 'giving', 'mixing'; while the 
other class (iroirma, irpayfia, dofia, /w'yfia) represents the result of that 
action 'a thing made', 'a deed', 'a gift', 'a mixture'. Avast number 
of similar examples can be cited, and at once it appears that we have 
a simple distinction between the two classes : substantives in -era have 
an active sense, substantives in -\M have a passive sense. Moreover we 
observe an obvious similarity between the formations in -\ia and the perfect 
passive of the verbs from which they are derived : 

ireiroirjfuu, ireiroirjitevos, iroirjfia 
TreirpayfjMi, ireirpaypevos, irpaypa 

It is probable that this 'false analogy' has had something to do with Forms in 
propagating and maintaining the idea that these formations are specially -/MT-, not 
connected with the passive. It would certainly conduce to clearness and m ~' ua> 
accuracy if these formations were spoken of as formations in -par-, as their 
oblique cases show them to be. The formative suffix is added directly 
to the root or to the strengthened verbal stem: as p,iy-, fuy-fiar-; won/-, 
iroiTj-paT-; whereas for the perfect passive the root is first reduplicated, 
p.e-p.iy-[iai, ire-jroiTj-pai, The original meaning of the formative suffix -par- 
is now altogether lost to our knowledge. It appears in Latin in a stronger 
form as -mento-, and in a weaker form as -min-; cf. ' ornamentum ' (from 
* ornare '), and ' fragmen, -minis ' (from ' frangere '). Side by side with these 
Latin forms we have others in -tion-, as 'ornatio, -onis', and 'fractio, -onis', 
which are parallel to the Greek derivatives in -o-i-. 

The help that we gain from comparative grammar is thus of a negative Usage 
kind ; but we may be grateful for it, as releasing us from bondage to the alo " e ani 
old rule which connected these formations with the passive of the verb, ffoirsig- 
We are now thrown back upon usage as our only guide to the discovery nification. 
of a general signification which may serve as the starting-point of their 
classification. It may be questioned whether we ought to demand such 
a general signification; but if we do, then 'the result of the agency of 
the corresponding verb' may serve us well enough. Thus irpayfia is the 
result of 'doing', i.e. 'a deed'; Styia, the result of 'giving', 'a gift'; 
ornamentum, the result of 'adorning', 'an ornament'; frogmen, the 

1 It happens that 'a mixture', when and is passive ; but 'a legislature' is 
it ceases to be an abstract, is passive ; active and ' legislates '. 
BO, too, 'a fixture' is 'a thing fixed', 




result of 'breaking', 'a fragment'. But it is quite possible that this 
result should be followed by a substantive in the genitive case, so as to 
express the same relation as would be expressed if the corresponding 
verb were followed by that substantive in the accusative case. Thus 
ornamentum domus would express the same relation as ornare domum : 
and jea>Xu/ta TTJS emxfipy<rea>s, as K<a\veiv rrfv firixfiprj<riv. When this IS 
the case, the word may fairly be said to have an active sense. In Latin 
we have such instances as solamen, leuamen, nutrimen, momen (=moui- 
meri), and many others; most of them having fuller forms, perhaps as a 
rule later, in -mentum. 

Classi- We may conveniently classify the Greek words of this formation in -/*or- 

fication : under three heads : 

neutral, (i) Where the verb is intransitive, and accordingly there is nothing 

transitive about the corresponding substantive: as aytowoyxo, aJWy/ia, 
dKafcovevfM, aX/ia, <tyiaprf)/za, /Stdrevjua, yeXaoyia, Kav^rjua. 

passive, (2) Where the verb is transitive, and the substantive corresponds to 

the object of the verb, and thus may rightly be said to have a passive 
sense : as ayyeX^ta, dyopao-fia, ayvppa, atri?/Lta, aKova-p-a, dicpoapa, ye'wi^a. 
and active. (3) Where the verb is transitive, and the substantive is no longer the 
object of the verb, but the object can be expressed as a genitive following 
the substantive : as ayXaioym, ayvurp,a, aypevpa, adpourpa, aiaprjpa, aXXottofia, 
afj.Ha, apvyp-a, avcureuriia, evSety/jia, ^fdvcr/Lta, /u'/w/pxi, o^/tr/ia. Why should 
not these be called active \ 

Usage It is important to notice that in distinguishing between classes (2) and 

sometimes (3) usa g e j s our only guide: there is nothing whatever in the nature of the 
formation which points us in one direction rather than in another. As 
a matter of fact many words oscillate between the two meanings. "AyoX/uz, 
for example, may be the object 'honoured' (as ayoX/nara 6e&v), or that 
'which gives honour' to the object (as aya\p.a 86p#>v): /Spw^a may be the 
food eaten' or the canker that eats: 00707/10, the cattle that are fed, or 
the food that feeds them: but it is seldom that both meanings are thus 
retained together. 

Forms in If the forms in -/iar- perplex us by their apparent inconsistency, the 
-<ri- also forms in -o-t- are scarcely less unsteady. They ought properly to remain 
meaning *^ e abstract region to which they certainly belong; but they are very 
unwilling in many cases to be so limited. They choose to descend into the 
concrete, and in doing so they often coincide with the corresponding forms 
in -par-. Thus in practice we find that TO| and ray/aa can both mean 
'a rank'; irpais and irpdypa, '& deed'; evdetgis and evdeiypa, 'a proof; 
epanja-is and eprarq/xa, 'a question'. The starting-points of the two sets 
of words are different: the forms in -o-t- denote the action in process; the 
forms in -/uzr-, the action in result. In the first instance always, in the 
second sometimes, the primary meaning is an abstract one ; and so long as 
the abstract meaning is retained the distinction between the two sets of 
words is clear enough. When however the abstract gives way to the 
concrete, the distinction often disappears. 

The use of We have said enough on these two formations in general to clear 
flj e wav f or a consideration of the word n\ijpa>p.a, which has suffered 
hitherto from the loyalty of its expositors to a grammatical canon against 


which it was determined to rebel. We may first examine some of the as a nau- 
examples ordinarily cited. We begin with two nautical usages of the ticaltermj 
word. NaSj* irXrjpovv, or 7rXi;poS<r0ai, is 'to man a ship', or 'to get it 
manned'; and the result of such action in either case is TrXiJpca/aa, which 
has the concrete meaning of 'a crew', that TrXijpayia sometimes means 
' the ship', as being ' the thing filled ' with men, is not a strictly accurate 
statement. For in the passages cited (Lucian, Ver. Hist, ii 37, 38, and 
Polyb. i 49) the literal meaning is 'crews'; though 'to fight with two 
crews' (OTTO 8vo 7r\ijpa>tJLdTtav paxevtiai) is only another way of saying, 'to 
fight with two ships'. The other nautical use of 7r\ypa>pa for a ship's 
'lading' or 'cargo' is again a perfectly natural use of the word when it 
is concrete. To say that in these two instances TrXifpw/ta does not mean 
'that with which the ship is filled' is to make a statement difficult to 
maintain : and it is not easy to see what is gained by maintaining it 

There is a whole class of instances in which the word n-Xi/pajua has as a ' full 
a somewhat stronger sense, viz. that of 'the full complement'. Thus incomple- 
Aristid. Or. xiv p. 353 (Dind.) we have pyre avrapKeis etrco-Qai TrXypeopa cvbs ' 

olicfiov (rrpaTevfjtaTos Trapaa-^eo-dai, i.e. enough to put it at full strength. So 
ir\TJpa>pa Spanos (Eccles. iv 6) means 'a handful'; TrX^pcopa o-irvpltios, 'a 
basketful' 1 . In these cases the 'fulness' spoken of is a 'complement' in 
the sense of entirety: it is strictly a 'fulness' in exchange for 'emptiness'. 

Another shade of meaning may be illustrated by the well-known passage as 'that 
of Aristotle, in which he is criticising Plato's Republic (Arist. Pottt. iv 4). 
The simplest conceivable form of a city, Socrates had said, must contain six 
kinds of artisans or labourers weaver, husbandman, shoemaker, builder, incom- 
smith, herdsman ; and in addition to these, to make up a city, you must plete'. 
have a merchant and a retail dealer. ' These together ' to use Aristotle's 
words 'form the pleroma of a city in its simplest stage': raCra mura 
yivfrai TrXf/pw/na TJJS irpcoTrjs iroXeeay. If you have all these elements present, 
then your extremely simple city is complete. They are its pleroma. With 
them you can have a city, without them you cannot. Nothing less than 
these can make a city, qud city, complete. 

This last example is of special interest in view of St Paul's use of Eph. i 23. 
ir\ijpa>(ta in Eph. i 23, where the Church is spoken of as that without 
which in a certain sense the Christ Himself is incomplete. For the 
theological import of the word, however, reference must be made to the 
exposition, pp. 42 ff., 87 fi 7 ., 100 f. The present note is confined to its 
philological signification. 

1 Comp. Mark viii 20 : irtxruv <r<f>\ipL- we can but say that on no theory of 

duvir\i]p&fjLaTaK\afffj.dTui>ypaTe; 'How the meaning of irX^/xiytara could it 

many basketfuls of fragments took ye ever have been tolerable to a Greek 

up?' 'Basketfuls' is a harsh plural; ear. If St Mark wrote it so, the 

but St Mark's Greek is certainly not other Evangelists were fully justified 

less harsh. As to Mark vi 43, Kttl rjpay in altering it, even though the later 

copyists were not. 



On the word 

A meta- 
phor from 

Details of 
the con- 
of ancient 


cations of 
contract ; 



of work. 

St Paul's 

The history of this word is of sufficient interest to deserve a special 
note ; and its investigation will incidentally throw some fresh light on 
one of St Paul's favourite metaphors. 

The materials for our knowledge of the methods of construction of 
large public buildings in Greece have been greatly increased of late by 
the publication of a series of inscriptions. The most important of these 
are the contracts for the quarrying and preparing of stones for sacred 
buildings at Eleusis in the fourth century B.O. (CIA iv 1054 b ff.), and the 
contracts for the construction of an immense temple of Zeus at Lebadeia 
in Boeotia, a work which was never brought to completion 1 . The latter 
are printed in CICr, GS i 3073, and also with a most instructive commentary 
in E. Fabricius de architect. Graeca (1881): they appear to belong to the 
second century B.C. _ 

The Lebadean inscription opens with a direction to the contractor to 
have the whole of the contract carved on tablets which were to be set up 
in the sacred enclosure 2 . It proceeds to state that, if the contractor be 
guilty of fraudulently putting in bad work (naKorexvov), or of any breach. 
of the regulations, he shall be fined (^/ualtyrcrcu); and later on we find 
a similar penalty attached to negligence on the part of the workmen. The 
payment is to be made by instalments, a portion being reserved until the 
work has been finally passed after careful examination by the vaoiroioi and 
the ap^iTfKrwv: teal o-vvreke&as oXop TO epyop, orav SoKificurdf], xojtucracrdc* 
ro fmSeKOTov TO wro\ei<p6ev. 

We cannot fail to be reminded of St Paul's words in i Cor. iii 10 ff. : d>s 
a-otpbs apxiTfKT&v 6eyx\iov edrjKa, aXXos Se eVoiKoSo/ifi. exaoroj 8e /8Xe- 
7Tera> TrtSs ciroiitodofifi' @fif\tov yap aXXop ovSels 8vvaTai Beivat, irapa TOV 
Kfip-evov, os eariv *lr]o~ovs Xpwrros' 8e TIS erri TOV 6ep.e\iov 
%pvo~iov } dpyvptoV) \idovs npiovs, ^wXa, ^dprov, KoXa/ttJ/i/, caorov ro ep-yov 
fpavepov yci^crerat, T) -yap ijp,epa 8rj\cao~ei' OTI ev irvpl anoKoXvnrerai, nai 
exaorou ro epyov otrolov eoriv TO irvp avTo SoKipdo-et. ei TWOS TO epyov 
o eiroiKo86iJn)O~i', pio~6bv Xi/fi^erac ft TWOS TO epyov 

1 Compare Pausan. ix 39 4 TOVTOV 
p.v Si] dik Tb fdyeBos TJ xal TUP iroX^u&w 
TO dXXe7rdXXi;Xoi' &<f>elKa<rit> r^Lepyov. 

2 Fabricius estimates that there 
must have been at least 16 of these 
tablets, and that they must have con- 
tained altogether not less than 130,000 
letters ; and these dealt only with a 

small fraction of the whole building. 
The payment was reckoned at the rate- 
of a stater (=3 drachmas) and three 
obols for the cutting of a thousand, 
letters. This preliminary work was 
to be done within ten days from the 
first advance of money to the con- 


The inscription has a further interest in connexion with this passage, Further 
in that it records a contract for the continuation of work which has already iUustra- 
advanced to a certain stage. Stones already in position are spoken of as 
Keipevoi Kal reXop e\ovres I COmp. CIGr, IMA ii 1 1 o vuv Keipevos dtpeXtos* 
The Apostle has combined with his metaphor the conception of the Day 
of the Lord that tests by fire (Mai. iii in;), and this accounts for the 
remainder of the remarkable phraseology of the passage. With the words 
which follow (v. 17), ei TIS TOV vabv TOV deov (pdeipei, (pdepet TOVTOV 6 deos, 
it may not be altogether irrelevant to compare (Ldb. 32 ff.) /cat eav TWO, 
vyifj \L6ov 8ia<pdelpij...Tpov diroKaTaorqirei doKipov rots ISiois dva\&pao'iv, 
ovdev ejrnt<a\vovTa TO epyov TOV de duupdapevra \idov edei e/e TOV lepov 
fvros y/J.epa>v jreire, K.T.X. 

We may pass now to the passage which has suggested this note, Eph. ii Eph. ii t\. 
21 7rao~a oiKoSopr) o-wappoKoyovpfvr], and endeavour to find the exact sense 
of the verb appdXoyeiv. We must begin by considering certain analogous 
forms which occur in the phraseology of building. 

AitfoXoyo? is a word frequently found in company with remap. The Builder's 
one is a fitter of stones, as the other is a joiner of wood. For \i6o\6yoi * erm s. 
Kal TeKToves see Thuc. vi. 44, vii 43, and other references given by Bliimner AiOo\6yos : 
Technologie iii 5. The original meaning appears to have been 'a chooser at first 'a 
of stones 5 ; and that this was still felt is seen from Plato Legg. ix 858 B, 
naQcmcp rj \i6o\6yois rj icai TWOS eTepas dpj^ofievots o~vo*rao~e<os, irapa<popij- 

a TO Tfpoatpopa TTJ 

: and X 92 E, ov8e yap avev (TfUKpmv TOVS fieyaXovs <f>ao~lv ol \ido- afterwards 
Xoyot \t0ovs ev Kelo-dai. But the word obtained a technical meaning in the 'a fitter 
fitting of stone-work where every stone was cut to measure. Julius Pollux s * ne - 
gives Xt0oXoyof and XitfoXoyeti' as synonyms of \i6ovpyos and \idovpyetv 1 : 
moreover, as an equivalent of Xi0oorpa>roi>, he gives Xt&Xoyg/ta, which is 
found in Xenoph. Cyrop. vi 3 25., 

In the earlier building, and probably always in certain classes of work, The pro- 
stones were selected to fit, rather than cut according to prescribed mea- cess of 
sures. But in the temple-building with which our inscriptions deal the |f ^i? 1 - 6 " 
exact measures were defined in the contracts, and the stones had to be S ' 

hewn accordingly. No mortar was used, and the whole process of fitting 
and laying the stones was a very elaborate one. It is fully described in the 
contract for the paving of the styldbates in the Lebadean inscription. 

There were two parts of the blocks (Karacrrpoar^pcs) which had to be Preparing 
worked : the lower surface (/3a<m) and the sides (appal). In each case not the stones. 
the whole of the surface was smoothed, but only a margin, the interior 
part being cut in, so that there might be no projections to produce uneven- 
ness when the stones were brought together. The margins were carefully 
smoothed, first with a fine tool, and then by a rubbing process. The 
smoothness was tested by the navuv, a straight bar of stone (\l0ivos 
navtov) or, for the larger surfaces, of wood (v\ivos KOVCOV). The Kavvv 
was covered with ruddle (ptXro?), and then passed over the surface: 
wherever the surface did not take the ruddle, it was shewn to be still 
uneven; and the work was continued, until the surface, when rubbed 

1 Pollux vii 118 ff.: \i8ovpy6v, not tine MS, which at this point seems 
Xi0ou\ic6j>, is the reading of the Pala- to present a better text. 


with the KCUHOV, was uniformly red. With this compare Eurip. JS. F. 945 

ftaBpa \ (poiviKt, navovi KOI TVKOIS jjppxja/ieva. The names given in the in- 

The ter- scriptions to the processes of polishing and of testing respectively were 

nunation T p twtaro x yeu> and /uXroXoyctv. These terms are not found in literature: 

used wide- no doubt they were simply masons' words ; and it is possible that the 

ly by false termination (-Xoyi>) was due to a false analogy with the familiar Xt0o- 

analogy. Xoyeo'. It is clear at any rate that the original meaning of the termination 

has completely disappeared in these compounds. Another word of the 

same order is ^tpoXoyew/, of working in mosaic: see Tobit xiii 17 at 

ir\a.Tciat 'lepovcraX^/x jSqpvXXcp icat avdpaKi jcat \idco IK Soucpcip ifatpoXo- 

yqdijffovrai. If this were shewn to be an early word, we should incline 

to give the termination its full meaning in the first instance, and then to 

suppose the whole word transferred from the selecting of the pieces of 

mosaic to their setting: but it may quite well be regarded as formed 

merely by analogy, like Tpi/i/MwoXoyi> and /wXroXoytti'. 

So in .Ap/to- it i s reasonable to believe that in appo\oyeiv we have yet another of 

y etv ' these formations due to analogy : for the termination cannot in this case 

have ever had its proper force. If this be so, the exact technical 

meaning of appos ceases to be of moment for the understanding of the 

Various verb. Probably appos meant first a 'fitting', then the joint or juncture 

senses of wnere one stone was fitted to another, and then, in the sense in which 

a/J/i s * we have already had it, the side of the stone which is worked so as to 


appears to be the juncture of two drums of a column : for there each 
appos is to have two epiroXta (dowel-holes) and one bronze n-oXos (dowel) : 
so that it seems that the epiroXia must be one in the lower drum and 
one in the upper. Compare Ecclus. xxvii 2 ava peo-ov dppav \L6a>v 
Trayijtrerat TraoxraXos. 

'Ap/>Xo- 'ApfjLo\oyeiv, then, represents the whole of the elaborate process by 

notes the wmcn s t nes are fitted together: the preparation of the surfaces, in- 
whole eluding the cutting, rubbing and testing; the preparation of the dowels 
process, and dowel-holes, and finally the fixing of the dowels with molten lead. 
The word is a rare one ; but the two examples of it which are cited are 
Used by both of interest 1 . Sextus Empiricus, speaking of the weakness of divina- 

Sextus tion from the signs of the Zodiac, says (M. v 78): TO Se irdvrw /euptwraroi/, 
Jiiinpiri- v >&/> >> - i&> a * \ / 

cug eitaaTov rtov Qatoitov ov trwe^es cart o-copxz, ovo axnrcp r)p (to \oyrjfjLevov 

TIB irpb eavTov Kai /$' ai5ro (rvvfjTrrai, fjujBepias p.erav irarTovoTjs Staora- 
and in an treats, *.r.X. The other example is a beautiful epigram of Philip of 
epigram. Thessalonica in the Anthology (Anth. Pal. vii 554), on a monument raised 

to a stonemason's boy by his own father's hands. 

Aarwroy 'Ap^tTeXijs 'Ayadavopi ircuSi Qavovri 

Xep&lv mfrpcus jJpp-oXoyj/o-f raqboi/. 
atat irerpov eKeivov, ov OVK eKo\a^e a-i&rjpos, 


<pev' ori/Xi; (pdi/jLevo) Kovfprj fteve, KCIVOS iv 
"Ovrcos irarp(pT] xP eiredqite \l6ov. 

x The word occurs, but perhaps not Comm. in Apocal. c. 65 au'ri/ 5f >] ir6\is 
independently of St Paul, in Andreas t% &yl<av 


In dear remembrance of a son 
A father cut and set this stone: 
No chisel-mark the marble bears, 
Its surface yielded to his tears. 
Lie on him lightly, stone, and he 
Will know his father's masonry. 

The compound o-wappoXoyelv is not found apart from St Paul He The corn- 
uses it both in this passage and in iv 16, where he applies it to theP onn ^ 
structure of the body. Such an application was easy, as dppos was also 
used of the joints of the body (4 Mace, x 5, Hebr. iv 12): but the word 
was probably only chosen because it had been previously used in its 
proper sense, and because the Apostle delighted in combining the archi- 
tectural and physiological metaphors, as when in the context he twice 
speaks of 'the building of the body' (vv. 13, 16). In the parallel passage 
in Colossians (ii 19) his language is different, as there has been no 
employment of the metaphor of building. 


On irwpoMTt,? and 

n<6pwtrt$ In Eph. iv 18 the "word rrwpaxris has been uniformly interpreted as 

rendered < blindness ' in the Latin, Syriac and Armenian versions, and, with perhaps 
' blind- j^ one exce ption (Geneva 1557,' hardenes '), in the English versions, until 
Ep S h. ivi8. *^e revis i n f J^Si, i n which it is rendered 'hardening'. The word and its 
cognate verb irtapovv deserve a fuller investigation than they have hitherto 
received, We shall consider (i) their derivation and history, (2) their use 
in the New Testament, (3) their interpretation in early versions and com- 
mentaries, (4) the confusion of irmpovv, ir<opu><ris with Trrjpovv, Tnjpajtrts, (5) the 
use of nr\p6s and its derivates to denote ' blindness'. 

i. Deriva- i. u&pos (in MSS frequently iropos) or \idos iraptvos (iropivos) is a kind 
tion and o f mar kie, tophus. Theophrastus Lap. 7 thus describes it : iropos 6 \i6os, 


. Aristotle-speafcs-of-stalactites-as-oi~7rop)t~~oi~~j'~~Toip 

(Meteor. 4, 10). In the medical writers irmpos is used for (a) a node or bony 
in medical formation on the joints, (&) a callus, or ossification which serves as a mortar 
writers. ^ Q un jte the portions of a fractured bone. But it is not used, apparently, 
in the wider sense of the Latin callum or callus, for a callosity or hardening 
of the flesh : that in Greek is TV\TJ. H&povv accordingly signifies (a) to 
petrify; as in a quotation from Pisis in Suidas, ras t/e/iaSas irapovvra KOI 
<r(j>iyyovTa \ida8ei rpoircp: (6) to cover with a callus; Diosc. i 112 

v n vea pffi fa 86 TO dirapvTa natpol : in this technical sense ir&povv and rro>- 
a technical ~ , .-, . -, . ,. ,, -,. -, .. ,, 

pow and their derivatives are common in the medical writers : otherwise 


vv is exceedingly rare. 
Also of There is a further development of meaning (c), to deaden or dull, of 

which I have only been able to find one independent example outside 
biblical Greek. Athenaeus (xii 549) cites a passage of Nymphis of Heraclea, 
in which ira>pova-6ai is used to express the insensibility of the flesh by 
reason of excessive fat. Dionysius the tyrant of Heraclea virb Tpvfpfjs KOI 
TTJS Kaff rjiiepav d8ri<payias eXadev virfpo-aptajo-as. He would fall into a coma- 
tose condition, and his physicians could only rouse him by pricking him 
with long needles : fJ-expi P*v ovv nvog VTTO rrjs ireira>pa>fj.evr]s eie rov orearoy 
crapnos OVK cvciroiet rffv aio-drjmv el fie irpos TOV Ka&apbv roirov y f$e\6vr) 
bte\6ov<ra ediye, TOTS Stijyet/aero. Aelian, V. H. ix 13, tells the same story, 
paraphrasing as follows: %v V apa TOVTO eiripeXes crepois bpav, e<rr av O\T} 8ia 
rfjs ireir<op<aiJ.evrjs nal rpoirov nvit dXXorpias avrov aapKos facipirev f/ ySfXowy, 
aXX* cKflvos ye eneiro \L6ov buxpepw ovSev. It is clear that the likeness to a 
stone, which Aelian introduces to explain what was probably an unfamiliar 
use of irapoixrdai, refers not in the least to the hardness of the flesh for 
the needle could pass through it but to its deadness or insensibility. 

ON nnpncic AND rmpncic. 265 

The word has thus travelled some distance from its original meaning, and of 
and it was destined to go still further. The idea of insensibility could be obscura- 
transferred from organs of feeling to the organ of sight: and accordingly in *jg t 
the one place in which it occurs in the Greek Old Testament it is used of 
the eyes : Job xvii 7 ireirmpavTai yap dirb opyfjs 01 o<pda\fioi fiov. We render 
the Hebrew at this point, 'Mine eye is dim by reason of sorrow' 1 . The 
verb nn3 is used of the eyes in Gen. xxvii i (of Jacob), where the LXX has 
f)fj,^\vvBr]ffav\ Deut. xxxiv 7 (of Moses), LXX qpavpcofyaav: Zech. xi 17, 
LXX eKTV(p\a>drj<reTai. The other Greek translators of Job used tjpavpto- 
6r)o-av instead of Tren-wpamu. The word had thus come to be practically 
equivalent to ireir^pcovrat, 'are blinded', which is found as a variant 
in - a A. 

Thus we see that irtopa><ris, losing its first sense of petrifaction or hard- Change of 
ness, comes to denote the result of petrifaction as metaphorically applied to meanin g- 
the organs of feeling, that is, insensibility, and more especially iu reference 
to the organs of sight, obscuration or blindness. 

2. ntopovv and ir<ap<oo-is occur eight times in the New Testament : four I- In the 
times in St Paul, three times in St Mark, and once in St John. amlnt ^ 

(l) 2 Cor. iii 14 oXX* 7r<op<odt] TO. voypaTa avrStv. , p *, 

'Moses put a vail on his face, that the children of Israel might not gaze 2 c or> yj 
(arevia-ai) on (or unto) the end of that which was being done away'. But in 14. 

vented their seeing eVapcudi? rd vo^ftara avrav. 'For unto this day the 
same vail at the reading of the Old Testament remains, not being lifted (or 
unvailed) for in Christ it is done away but to this day whenever Moses 
is read a vail lieth upon their heart . . . But all of us with unvailed face 
etc. . . . But if our gospel is vailed, it is in them that are lost that it is 
vailed, in whom the god of this world ervcpXaxrev TO. vo^ara T&V caria-Tatv, 
els TO fj.rj avydcrai TOV <f)a>Tio~nbv TOV evayye\iov '. 

The context has to do with seeing and not seeing. Not seeing is not 
really due to the vailing of the object: it is the fault of the minds which 
should be able to see : if vailing there still be, it is a vail upon the heart. 
The minds of the Israelites eWpoJ^i; : the minds of unbelievers the god of 
this world eTv(p\a>o-ev. Accordingly intellectual obtuseness or blindness is 
the sense which is most appropriate to this context. Indeed to speak of a 
mind or understanding as being 'hardened 3 appears to be an unparalleled 
use of words. 

(2, 3) Bom. xi 7, 25 6 eirifyrei 'LrpaJ/X, TOVTO OVK eVe'ru^ey jj 8e eVcXoyi) Eom. xi 
firervxev oi 8c \oarol cira>pa>6r)<rav . . . Trmpaxris djrb p-epovs reS 'icrpai^X 7 2 5- 

The context speaks of the failure of a portion of Israel. Some, ' the 
election', attained what they sought: the rest C7ra>p<6dr)o-av : 'as it is 
written, God gave them a spirit of deep sleep (KaTavvgeas); eyes that 
they should not see, and ears that they should not hear'. This is 
followed by a quotation from Ps. Ixviii [Ixix], in which occur the words, 

1 Jerome's translation of the Hexa- Hebrew he gives caligauit db indigna- 
plar text has here obscurati sunt db tione oeulus meus. 
ira oculi i>iei : in rendering from the 


' Let their eyes be darkened that they may not see '. It is here to be noted 
that the one thought which is common to the two passages used to illustrate 
the TTto'poxrtr is the 'eyes that see not'. Thus again the meaning is, 'they 
were rendered obtuse or intellectually blind': and 'they were blinded* is 
a more appropriate translation than 'they were hardened'. In v. 25 the 
context throws no light on the meaning. The irupaMris pepovs reproduces 
the thought of v. 7: part of Israel suffers from it: 'the election' is again 
referred to in v. 28. 
Epn. iv 1 8. (4) Eph. IV 18 8ia rf/v irwpaxriv rfjs KopSias avrSv. 

The Gentiles are described as 'darkened in their understanding (CO-KO- 
TUfievoi TTJ Siavoia), being aliens from the life of God because of the 
ignorance that is in them by reason of the zrwpoxn? of their heart', oa-ives 
ainf\yr]KoTes eavrovs 7rapeS<oKav rfj d(re\yeia K.T.A. The whole thought of 
the passage is parallel with that of Bom. i 21 ft, and there are several 
coincidences of language. The ' darkening of the understanding' and the 
'Trtapaxris of the heart' may be compared with the words ea-Koria-6rj 17 
darvveros avr&v napbia. Here the deadness or insensibility of the heart 
stands between the darkening of the understanding and the loss of feeling 
or moral sense which produces despair or recklessness. Moral blindness, 
not contumacy, is meant. 'Hardness' might perhaps be allowed as a 
rendering, if we could secure that it should not be misunderstood in the 
sense of o-jcX^pojcapfi/o, 'stubbornness'. 'Hardening' is a specially mis- 

leading translation-: it is not the-process7~but the result, which is in 

question intellectual obtuseness, not the steeling of the will. 

St Mark. (5) Mark iii 5 <rvv\virovfj,fvos ri TTJ irapcotret rfjs KapSias avr&v, 

Mark iii 5. Before healing the man with the withered hand, our Lord asks, ' Is it 
lawful on the sabbath day to do good, or to do evil?' "When the Pharisees 
were silent, ' He looked round on them with anger, being grieved at the 
iTKiptaa-is of their heart '. The context is not decisive as between the mean- 
ings moral obtuseness or blindness and wilful hardness. Nor do the 
synoptic parallels help us: Luke (vi 10) simply drops the clause; Matt, 
(xii 10) drops rather more, and inserts new matter. 

Mark vi (6) Mark vi 52 aXX' fy 17 Kap&ia avrmv ireTrapajpevr]. 

5 2t "When our Lord had come to the disciples walking on the water, 'they 

were exceedingly amazed in themselves; for they. understood not concern- 
ing (or in the matter of) the loaves; but their heart was Treirfap&pevrj'. 
Here the interpretation 'hardened' seems needlessly severe: the point is 
that they could not understand. Luke omits the incident: Matt, (xiv 33) 
substitutes 'And they that were in the boat .worshipped him saying, Truly 
thou art the Son of God'. 

Mark viii (7) Mark viii 17 7TrG>po>fiew7i' e^cre TTJV KapSiav vprnv; 

J 7' "When the disciples had forgotten to take bread and misunderstood our 

Lord's reference to the leaven, Jesus said, '"Why reason ye because ye have 
no bread ? Do ye not yet perceive nor understand ? Have ye your heart 
ireir&p&pevTjv ? Having eyes see ye not, and having ears hear ye not ? and 
do ye not remember . . . ?' Here the close connexion with ' the unseeing 
eye' favours the interpretation 'moral blindness'. Indeed 'hardness' 
suggests a wilful obstinacy, which could scarcely be in place either here or 
in vi 52. Luke has not the incident : Matt (xvi 9) drops the clause. 

ON nnpncic AND nHpncic. 267 

(8) John xii 40 TCTV(])\COKCV avr&v roiig 3(f>da\fjiovs KOI tircopaxrev avr&v St John. 

John xii 

' For this cause they could not believe, because that Esaias saith again : 4 ' 
He hath blinded their eyes, and emvpaxrev their heart, that they may not 
see with their eyes and perceive (vorjo-axriv) with their heart', etc. This is 
a loose citation of Isa. vi 10, according neither with the ixx nor with the 
Hebrew. LXX eVa^wftj yap q Kapbia TOV \aov TOVTOV, KCU rois mcrlv avr&v 
fiapeas fficovarav, KOI TOIIS otpQaXpovs eKappvo-av, \tr\ irore idaxnv rols 6<j>da\pois 
Kal Tois <o<rlv aKova-axriv KOI rfj KapSta <rvv(riv K.r.X. Heb. 'Make the heart 
of this people fat ', etc. (JDlpn). 

We must note the parallels : 

rerv(p\ca<ev . . . Iva pr/ tiSoxrw' 
eircapacrev . . . Iva fit) voqtraxriv 

Hapovv here denotes the obscuration of the intellect as rv(p\ovv denotes 
the obscuration of the sight. If eircapaxrev is intended hi any way to repro- 
duce the verb 'to make fat', then 'dulness' or 'deadness' rather than 
'hardness' is the idea which would be suggested, and we have a close 
parallel with the passage quoted above from Nymphis ap. Athenaeum. 

The above examination of the contexts in which napoo-is is spoken of Contexts 
appears to shew that obtuseness, or a dulling of the faculty of perception suggest 
equivalent to moral blindness, always gives an appropriate sense. On the ' ob * T jf se ' 

-other-hand-the-context-never-decisively-favours-the-meaning hardness-,-moral 
and this meaning seems sometimes quite out of place. blindness. 

3. We pass on to consider the meaning assigned by early translators 3. Versions 

and commentators. an ^ com- 

. . ... mentators. 
(i) 2 Cor. m. 14. 

T \- j u * () Ver- 

Latm, sea ootusi sunt sensus eorum. sions. 

Syriac (pesh.), _^/rf.^-i-^ > onoih.^\^ 'they were blinded in their 

minds' 1 (the same verb renders eTv<p\(<rev in iv 4). 

Armenian 2 , 'but their minds were blinded' (cf. iv 4). 

So too Ephr., adding 'and they were not able to look upon the mysteries 
which were in their law'. 

(2) Rom. xi 7. 
Latin, excaecati sunt. 

Syriac (pesh.), coccsJh-*^ 'were blinded'. 

Armenian, 'were blinded '. So Ephr. 'with blindness they were blinded 
for a time ', etc. 

(3) Horn, xi 25. 

Latin, dbtusio Ambrst. Hilar. 

caecitas clar vg Ambr. Aug. 

Syriac (pesh.), t^=0v ^o^cc^. 'blindness of heart'. 
Armenian, 'blindness'. 

1 According to another reading Syriac (see Euthaliana, Texts and 
(ed. Lee) 'their m nds were blinded' Studies, iii 3 72 98). For the same 
(tom**Jx~n\. reason I refer to Ephraim's Commen- 

2 I quote the Armenian version be- * ar y written in Syriac, but preserved 
cause it often afford evidence of Old to us onl y "* Armenian. 


(4) Eph. iv 18. 
Latin, caecitas. 

Syriac (pesh.), .^ooaraA A\crt*oCh. 'blindness of their heart'. 
Armenian, ' blindness ' (' of their heart '). 
Ephr., 'blindness ' (' of their minds '). 

(5) Mark iii 5. 
Latin, caecitas a b e f q vg. 

emortua . . . corda c (d) ffi r. 
Syriac (sin.), ^qqaral ^\o&u=n ' deadness of their heart'. 

(pesh. hier.), ^om=al &\cuzn ' hardness of their heart '. 
Armenian, ' bh'ndness '. 

(6) Mark vi 52. 
Latin, dbcaecatum f vg. 

dbtusum a b c d i r (ff contusum). 
Syriac(sin.),-iG2fc. 'blind'. 

(pesh.), V ~\^-T (used for eira^vvd^ Matt, xiii i & Acts xxviii 27) 

'fattened', and so 'stupid'. 
Armenian, ' stupefied ' as with deep sleep. 

(7) Mark viii 17. 
Latin, caecatum f vg. 

obtusum (-a) a b c d ff i. 

_ _ Syriac (sin.),-= CCS.SD blinded^ - - 

(pesh.), vxn 'hard'. 

Armenian, ' stupefied ' as with amazement. 

(8) John xii 40. 
Latin, indurauit a b e f ff q vg. 

D TTv^)\ti>K.ev avTotv TIJV KapBiav ) omitting the inter- 
d excaecauit eorum cor J vening words. 

! hebetauit Vig. Taps. 

Syriac (pesh.), CTSTM^ 'they have darkened' (=><rKoria> elsewhere). 
(sin cu defective.) 
Armenian, 'stupefied' as with amazement. 

The mean- In the great majority of cases the Latin interpretation is either caecitas 
^8 f , or obtusio. On the second of these words something needs to be said. 
' . ofr tun( ji ere m eans to beat and so to blunt.(e.g. the edge of a sword). Then 

it is applied metaphorically: 'aciem oculorum obtundit' Plin.; 'obtundit 
auditum' Plin.; 'multa quae acuant mentem, multa quae obtundant' Cic.; 
'obtundat eneruetque aegritudinem ' Cic. Obtmus is similarly used: 
' mihi autem non modo ad sapientiam caeci uidemur, sed ad ea ipsa, quae 
aliqua ex parte cerni uideantur, hebetes et obtusi' Cic.; so often of sight: 
and also of hearing, 'obtusae aures': and of the mind, 'sensus oculorum 
atque aurium hebetes, uigor animi obtusus '. So again the adverb : ' croco- 
dili in aqua obtusius uident, in terra acutissime' Solin. Ambrosiaster's 
comment on 2 Cor. iii 14 well illustrates the force of obtusi : 'quae obtusio 
infideh'tatis causa obuenit : ideo conuersis ad fidem acuitur acies mentis, ut 
uideant diuini luminis splendorem'. Obtusus is the opposite of acutus. 
There is no idea of ' hardness ' in the word. Obtusio therefore was admir- 

ON nnpncic AND nHpncic. 269 

ably adapted to express the sense of moral obtnseness or blindness con- 
veyed by ircapaxrig. 

The remarkable rendering emortua corda in some Old Latin MSS of Excep- 
Mark iii 5 corresponds to the variant veKpaxrei which appears only in Codex tionalren- 
Bezae 1 . This variant has received unexpected support through the dis- <^g^ S " 
covery of the Sinaitic Syriac. ness'j 

In one passage only (John xii 40) does the Latin render by indurauit. 'hardness'. 
Here it is to be noted that excaecauit could not be used, as it had occurred 
just before to render rerv(j>\a>Kfv.' There appears to be no manuscript 
authority for the rendering of Vigilius, hebetauit (de trim, xii p. 3i8) 2 . 

The Peshito Syriac always interprets in the sense of 'blindness' in Syriac 
St Paul: in St Mark it has 'hardness' twice, and 'fatness* once: inf en ^ er ' 
St John it has 'darkness'. The Sinaitic Syriac has 'blindness' twice in mg ' 
St Mark, and 'deadness' once, where however it is rendering veKpaxris. In 
St John its reading is not preserved. The Ouretonian Syriac fails us at all 
these points, as also does the Armenian version of Ephraim's Commentary 
on the Diatessaron 3 . 

Origen. In Matth. t. xi. c. 14 (Ru. iii 498), after having twice used {&) Com- 
cTv<p\a>o-ev in reference to 2 Cor. iv 4, he speaks of those who are 'not the me . n tators.. 
planting of God, ciXXa TOV irapacravTos avrmv TTJV itapdiav KOI 
emdevros avrj/'. 

TTJv~$uu>oiav KOI 

Sevres TOV Xoytoyiop OVK eftXeirov TO j3ov\r]/jLa T&V ayiav 

In Joann. fragm. (Brooke ii 297 f.), dvcxpepco-tiai eirl TOV irovrjpdv . . 
TV<p\<oaravra TIV&V TOVS 6<pda\povs KOI irrjpe6o~avTa \lege irtoptoa-avTa] avTtav 
Kap8iav . . . a'XXos ovv 6 Tv(p\cov TOVS offrdaX/jiovs KOI ira>pv Tas Kapdt'av, KOI 
aXXor o Icopevos K.T.X. Ibid. p. 301, rrjs SeairoTuajs KOL <ra>Ti)piov dtdacrKoX/a? 
j/ dtTTpairfj Tv<p\ovs /cat 7rt7ra>pa>/i/our earrjXiTevo-e TOVS 'louSat'ous. 

These are the only relevant passages which I have been able to find in 
the Greek of Origen. They all suggest that he took irwpovv in the sense of 
the destruction of moral or intellectual sight. 

In Ep. ad Rom. L viii c. 8 (Ru. iv 631), *sed excaecati sunt spiritu 
compunctionis ' ( = dXX' eirtapcodrjaav irvevpari Karavv^etas). 

Ibid, 'et hie enim oculos et aures cordis, nou corporis, dicit, quibus 
excaecati sunt et non audiunt'. 

Ibid. c. 12 (Ru. iv 639), 'pro his qui caecitate decepti, id est, cordis 
obtusione [=7ra>p<6o-ei] prolapsi sunt . . . cum uero . . . coepisset Israel 

1 It is to be noted that in Tischen- cf. Matt, xxii 12, where 6 6e e<f>i[i.&0i] 
dorfs note 'D' is omitted per incuriam is rendered, 'but he, his mouth was 
after 'pe/e/xicret'. It would seem to be shut'. It is found also in Eph. ii 14 
due to this that in Wordsworth and for <j>pay[j.6s. It renders rv<p\ovi> in 

. White's Vulgate veKpticrei is said to be 2 Cor. iv 4, i John ii 1 1, and in John xii 

found in no Greek MS. 40 'He hath shut (-e-WAi) their eyes 

2 On this Book see below pp. 291 , 303. and He hath shut (e-ioM) their heart '. 
8 In regard to the Coptic I owe to my A longer form, derived from the same 

brother Forbes Eobinson the following root, is used in both dialects of shutting 
information. The root used in all a door: but the simple form is not so 
oases is -e-tojw. (Sah. TU>M), 'to shut' : used in the New Testament 


discutere a semetipso caecitatem cordis, efc eleuatis oculis suis Christum 
uerum lumen aspicere', etc. 

In Gen. horn, vii 6 (Ru. ii 80), commenting on Gen. xxi 19, 'God 
opened her eyes ', he quotes Bom. xi 25 and says, 'ista est ergo caecitas 
[=7ra>po>o-is] in Agar, quae secundum carnem genuit : quae tamdiu in ea 
permanet, donee uelamen literae auferatur per euangelium dei et uideat 
aquam uiuam. nunc enim iacent ludaei circa ipsum puteum, sed oculi 
eorum clausi sunt . . . aperti ergo sunt oculi nostri, et de litera legis 
uelamen ablatum est'. 

In Levit. horn, i i (Ru. ii 185), after quoting 2 Cor. iii 16, he says, 
'ipse igitur nobis dominus, ipse sanctus spiritus deprecandus est, ut omnem 
nebulam omnemque caliginem, quae peccatorum sordibus concreta uisum 
nostri cordis obscurat, auferre dignetur', etc. 

In all these passages it would seem that not only the translator, but 
also Origen himself, interpreted Trapaxns in the sense of 'blindness'. I can 
find but one passage that looks in another direction; but it does not 
disprove our view of his ordinary use of the word. 

In Exod. horn, vi 9 (Ru. ii 149 f.), commenting on Ex. xv. 16 mro\i6a>- 
dyTaHrav, ea>s av irapeXdy 6 \a6s aou, he says (quoting Rom. xi 25) : 'coecitas 
[=7r<Bp<B(m] enim ex parte contigit in Israel secuudum carnem, donee 
plenitudo gentium, subintroiret : cum enim plenitudo gentium subintra- 
uerit, tune etiam omnis Israel, qui per incredulitatis duritiam factus fderat 
- sicut-lapisrsaluabitur ; ; - 

This comment shows that Origen recognised the derivation of 

from ircopos, a kind of stone, and that upon occasion he was prepared to 
play upon it ; but it does not prove that he would ordinarily have taken it 
to mean 'hardness'. 

Chryso- Chrysostom. Cramer catena in Jo. xii 40 ot;^ 6 deos eirtapcao-ev avrv 

stom. f}] V Kdpftlav . . . TOVS 8e fivarpoirovs ru<p\a>6evTas viro rov 5ia/3o\ov. 

Som. vii in 2 COT. (ed. Ben. X 483 f.) ij yap Wpaxrts yvcaprjg earTiv 
avaw&fiTOV na\ ayvtofiovos . eirei KOI ev r otyei Mcovo-ewg ov 8ia 
cueiTo [sc. ro KaXv/ajua] tzXXa 8ta rqv TOVT<OV iraj(vn}Ta Kai vapKiKrjv yv<afj,rjv. 

Horn, xiii in Ephes. (xi 96) O.TTO TOVTOV q iraptoms, diro TOVTOV r\ 
rfjs Siavoias. eort yap (patTos Xd/t^ravros fcntorifrBai, orav of otpdaXpol a 
wow dordcvfis 8e yivovrai r) xyp&v eirtppofj irovijp&v 1} pev/juiros ir\r}fjifJivpa. 
^ Kal evravda, orav 17 TroXX^ pvprj rStv /3ia>r<3i irpayfMTav TO HiopanKov 
Mv eTTweXvcn/ TTJS fiiavoias, ev tmaTOMrei yiverat. Kal Kaddirep ev S8an Kara 
ftddovs neip-fvoi rov qXiov OVK av 8vvr)6eir)fiev opav, &<rirfp TWOS o~ia(ppdypaTos 
rov TroXXov avtodev emuetfievov vBaTos' OVTCH 817 Kal ev rots o(f)Qa\p,ol$ TTJS 
Stavoias yiveTat -irwpwaris Kapblas y TOVTCOTIV dvaurdqaia, OTUV p.r)8els Trfv ^n>X^ v 
Kartureir) <poj3os . . . TTtopcoo-ir Se ovbap.6dev yiverat aXX' TJ diro dvaur6rj(rias' 
TOVTO Siacppdrrei TOVS wopovs orav yap pevpa ireinjyos els eva awayijrat TOTTOV, 
vfKpov yiveTai TO pe\os KOI dvaio-dijTov. 

Here he is trying to get at the meaning of a word which puzzles him. 
He fancies that it is derived from n-opoc, and denotes an obstruction of 
the pores, producing insensibility. We shall see in a moment that the 
word was often written iropcao-ts : indeed in Cramer's Catena, which quotes 
an earlier part of Chrysostom's comment at this place, it is so spelt. 

ON nnpncic AND TTHPHCIC. 271 

On the other hand it is to be noted that in commenting on Heb. iii 12 
he says (xii 63 o): <MTO yap o-K\r)porr)Tos 17 dirurria ytverai' KOI KaQarrep r& 
ireira>pa>p.eva r&v fraparav ical crK\r}pa OVK eiKei rais r5>v larpajv ^epa-tv, oSrot 
/cat at -^rux"* 1 a * o-K\rjpwdei<rai OVK futov T> \oyto TOV 6eov. 

Among later Greek commentators we find occasional references to Later 
<TK\T]poKap8ia in connexion with the passages in which ircapaxris is men- common- 
tioned : but the interpretation 'insensibility' or * moral blindness 9 is gene- a ors " 
rally maintained. 

4. Instead of irtopovv and Trapaxm we have the variants- irqpovv and 4- 
o-tf in the following Mss 1 : ^ Q B a ion i 

- i MSS 

Mark in 5. 17.20. 

viii 17. D (irein)pa>ij,evr) sic). 
John xii 40. K n p* 5 *** (Did. de trin. i 19) [n had at first eVj/poJrjjo-ev] 2 . 

63.122.259 (these three have Tre-nrfpconev). 
Rom. xi 7. 66**. 

This confusion maybe taken as corroborative evidence of the fact which 
we have already learned from the versions, that ireapooo-ts was very com- 
monly regarded as equivalent to ' blindness ', a meaning at which 
also had arrived from a very different starting-point 3 . 

5. Efypo's and jrenTjpmfifvos signify ' maimed ' or ' defective ' in some 5 
-jnember~of'the~body, eye or ear, hand or foot. Frequently the member 

is defined, as in the epigram, AnthoL Falat. ix n i m/poy o pev yviots, 6 8' <maimed': 

1 > V 

ap ofifiaffi. 

But Trijpos and its derivatives, when used absolutely in the later Greek but used 
literature, very frequently denote ' blindness '. This was fully recognised f 
by the old lexicographers (e.g. Suidas injpos' o iravrcnraa-i ^ 6pv), but it 

1 Forms in vop- or iropp- are also may be some connexion between this 

iound : Mark iii 5 in T h harlecr ; vi 52 in variant and the more widespread one 

X T al; viii 17 in T; Bom. xi 25 in L 4irelpa.ffev, tentauit : (2) at John xvi 6 

alpauc; Eph. iv 18 in P 17 Cramer^'. (jj X^ TreirX-fipWKev {/(uav TT\V KapSlav) 

So too in Job xvii 7 (referred to above), Tischendorf notes : ' go <ireir<apwKei> 

while H e>B A have ireiriipuvTai, some (obduravit, ut xii 40)'. I owe to Dr 

cursives have ireirbpuvTai. Skeat the following information : the 

z In connexion with cod. tt it should Gothic in both places has gadaubida, 

be noted that the Shepherd of Hennas 'hath deafened' (Goth. d<zw&-s=Eng. 

ias two allusions to these Gospel 'deaf'); in Mark iii 5, viii 17 (vi 52 

passages, Mand. iv i i, xii 4 4; in the vacat) the same root is used : 'the 

former of these N reads irev^purai. for root-sense of " deaf" seems to be 

TreirdptoTiu, at the latter it is not ex- ".stopped up " well expressed in Eng. 

taut. [Of the Latin versions of the by dumb or dummy, and in Gk by 

Shepherd the Yulgata or Old Latin ri/0X6s, which is radically the same 

has obturatum est, the Palatine excae- word as deaf and dumb '. 

catum cat, in Mand. iv 2 i; in Mand. 8 The two words are brought to- 

xii 4 4 the Vulgata has obtuswm est, gether in the comment of Euthymius 

while the Palatine is defective.] Zigabenus on Eph. iv 18 irdpuo-is 51 

I insert at this point two curiosities: /cal dvaurOiiffla xapSlas T; ir^puffts roO 

(i) in Acts V 3 K* reads Start iinjpuffev SiopariKov T^S ^nrxift,9 vijpoi iiripporj 

4> varavfa -ri)v KapSlav aov ; and there vaduiv ical ir\-fiwvpa, ytiovlav. 


appears to have somewhat fallen out of sight in recent times. It may be 
well therefore to give some passages by way of establishing this usage. 

Plutarch Timol. 37 #817 irpto-fivTepos &v airrj^vvBrj rrfV fytv, elra TeXeW 
padr) per oXlyov (and, lower down, TTifpeoa-ts and Trem/payi/i/os). 
Id. 7m 55 \cyovo-tv OTI TOV "Qpov vvv pev etrdrage vvv S' fe\tav Karliruv 
v<pmv TOV o$0aX/ioi>, ra r<5 y\ita ird\iv direScone, irXrjy^v p.ev olwrropevot. 
KOTO prjva pflataiv TTJS a-eXqvrjs, irypucriv 8e TTJV ei&ei^iv, K.T.\. 
Philo de somniis i 5 ov iravrdirao-iv a)*/3Xets KOI irypol ycyovapev, dXX* 
elireiv art K.T.X. 

Lucian de domo 28, 2Q "HXtos . . . tarai TTJV jmpaxriv of Orion Who is 

!_! T I H 


Justin Martyr Tryph. 12 ert yap ra wra v^3j; irtypcutTai, of o0^aX/tol 
jjpiaiTat, xal TreTra^wrat 17 KapSt'a. 
33 T " ^ < " Ta v/*w" 7re(j>paKTai KOI at KapBiai TreirrjpavTai [in marg. 


Id. Apol. i 22 gaXovr /cal TrapaXuTtKovs /cat CK yever^s 
irciroiTjKcvcu avrov ttai veKpovs aveyelpcu. Here we must obviously read irrjpcvf 
with the older editors. Compare Tryph. 69 TOWS yevcT^s xal KOTO, n^ 
o-apKo mjpovs, where the context requires the meaning 'blind'. So too we 
have in the Clementine Homilies xix 22 n-epl TOV la yeverijs irrfpov 
and in Apost. Const, v 7, 17 (Lagarde 137, n) T& 
The expression comes ultimately from John ix i <pXo'i> 

The ancient homily, called the Second Epistle of Clement, c. i, offers 
an example of the same confusion between nypos and irovypos. Hi/pot Svres 
TJ7 biavoia is the reading of cod. A, and is supported by the Syriac rendering 
'blind': but cod. C has irovrjpoi. Lightfoot renders, 'maimed in our 
understanding', and cites Arist. Eth. Nic. i 10 TOIS iii) 7rn7pa>/zeW? irpbs 
dpeTTjv (where, however, ircmjpmpevos may quite well mean 'blinded'), and 
Ptolemaeus ad Flor. (in Epiphan. Haer. xxxiii 3, p. 217) /zi) fiovov TO T!JS 
^vx^js op,fj.a dXXa /cal TO TOV <rca/zaro? ircirTjpeofAevaov. The context, however, 
in the Homily appears decisive in favour of 'blinded': for the next 
Sentence proceeds : dpavpeoo-iv ovv TrepiKei{j.evoi KOI Totavrrjs dx^vos yefwvref 
ev TTJ opdo-ei, dveftXtyafiev K.r.X. Compare Acts of SS. Nereus and 
Achilles (Wirth, Leipsic, 1890) c. 21 TTT/POS &v bia Trpoo-evxijs TTJS Ao/ie- 
rtXXa? dvefSXcil/ev. 

Clem. Alex. Protrept. C. 10 124 o/z/zaYcoi; p.*v ovv ij irjpa>o-is Kal TTJS d/coifc 

Celsus ap. Orig. C. Gels, iii 77 atriao-0at TOVS ogv P\eirovras as iremjpco- 

Id. ibid. VI 66 Ko\dfcrdai TT/V otyiv Kal PXdirrco-dai Kal vop.ieiv irt)pov<r6ai. 

Euseb. H. E. ix 8 i Kara r<5i> o<pda\p&i> o~ia<pep6vr<os cirl ir\eiarov yivopevov 
(TO voo^jfia) pvpiovs oo-ovs avdpas a/za ywai^t /cal Trato-l trrjpovs aVpyaero : 
ibid- ix IO 15 irrjpbv avTov d<f)irjariv. 

Chrys. Horn, vi in Eph. (on Eph. iii 2 : of St Paul's conversion) ical TO 
<5 <f)a>Ti eKeivtn rw 

This Certain words or special usages of words are sometimes found in the 

meaning ear i y literature of a language, and more particularly in its poetry, and are 

ON nnpncic AND nHpncic. 273 

then lost sight of only to reappear in its latest literature : meanwhile they as old as 
have lived on in the talk of the people. Urjpos would seem to have a history Homer, 
of this kind. For in Homer II. ii 599 we read of Thamyris, the minstrel 
who challenged the Muses: 

al de xoXo>crajUj/at Trrjpav Getrav, avrap aotSiji' 
6ea"ire<rir]v a(pe\ovTO Kal eK\e\a0ov KiBapurrvv. 

The simplest interpretation is that they made him Uind, and further 
punished him by taking away the blind man's supreme solace. Aristarchus 
says that injpos does not mean 'blind' here; but his reason is not con- 
vincing: 'because', he says, 'Demodocus was blind and yet sang very 
well'. This shows at any rate that Aristarchus knew that m)p6s could 
mean 'blind': and indeed Euripides (quoted by Dr Leaf in toe.} so 
took it. 

We find then the following significations of irapaxris 1 : Summary. 

(1) turning into ir&pos: 

(2) more generally, the process of petrifaction: 

(3) a concomitant of petrifaction, insensibility: 

(4) with no reference to hardness at all, insensibility of flesh (due to 
excessive fat): 

(5) again with no reference to hardness, insensibility of the organs of 
sight, and so obscuration of the eyes. 

-At this-point-theword-has-practically-reached-the same-meaning as-had 

been reached from quite another starting-point by irfpaHris. The two words 
are confounded in MSS, and perhaps were not always distinguished by 
authors at a still earlier period. 

In the New Testament obtuseness or intellectual blindness is the 
meaning indicated by the context ; and this meaning is as a rule assigned 
by the ancient translators and commentators. 

There seems to be no word in biblical English which quite corresponds Difficulty 
to irwpooo-ts. The A.V. gives ' hardness ' in the Gospels, and ' blindness ' in of render- 
the Epistles. 'Hardness' has the advantage of recalling the primary" 1 ? 

. ./. .. - ji 1 T. j. J.U- J j. x 1. J T. ilT j. TTWp&WW in 

signification of the word. But this advantage is outweighed by the mtro- English: 
duction of a confusion with a wholly different series of words, viz. o-K\r}pv- 
vetv, cncAqpdrjys, (rK\ijpoKap8ia. These words convey the idea of stiffness, 
stubbornness, unyieldingness, obduracy; whereas Trcopaxris is numbness, 
dullness or deadness of faculty. In a-K\t]poKap8ia the heart is regarded 
as the seat of the will: in trcopaxris rrjs <ap8ias it is regarded as the seat 
of the intellect. "We feel the difference at once if we contrast the passages 
in which the heart of the disciples is said to be neirmptofi.^^ (Mark vi 
52, viii 17) with the words in [Mark] xvi 14, aveiSttrev TTJV dmtrriav avraiv 
Kal <TK\TjpoKap8iai>, ore TOLS deaarafievois CIVTOV eyrjyepfjLfVov en veKp&v OVK. 
eiricrreva-av a stubborn refusal to accept the evidence of eye-witnesses'^ 
So in Rom. ii 5 obstinacy is denoted by o-ccX^poTijf : KOTO, 8e rrjv o-K\7/po- 

1 I omit from this summary the irupta/j^vii, on the other hand, is nearer 
technical usages of the medical writers to that of dvbrjToi /cot fipaSeis ry 
referred to above. TOV iri<rre6eiv K.T.\. in Luke xxiv 25. 

2 The idea conveyed by KapSLa, TTC- 

EPHES. 2 1 8 

274 ' 


is mis- 

rrjra trov KOI dperavoyTov napbiav 0rj<ravpieis (reavTto opyijvt compare Acts 
XIX 9 y 8e rives f(TK\.T)pvvovTo KOI jprtiffaw 1 . 

If 'hardness' does not always suggest to an English ear unbendingness 
or obstinacy, its other meaning of unfeelingness or cruelty (for we com- 
monly regard the heart as the seat of the emotions 2 ) is equally removed 
from the sense of ireapaxns. 

For these reasons 'hardness' cannot, I think, be regarded as other than 
a misleading rendering of irapaxris : and 'hardening' (B.Y.) is open to the 
further objection that it lays a quite unnecessary stress on the process, 
whereas the result is really in question. 

'Blindness of heart' comes nearer to the meaning than 'hardness of 
heart'; and 'their minds were blinded' is far more intelligible in its 
context than 'their minds were hardened'. The objection to it is that 

ness' gives 
the sense, 

but varies it introduces an alien metaphor. 'Deadness', however, is open to a like 

the meta- 

must not 
be lightly 

objection; and 'dullness' is too weak. 'Numbness' and 'benumbed' are 
not for us biblical words, nor would they quite suit some of the contexts, 
but they might be useful marginal alternatives. On the whole, therefore, 
it would seem best to adopt 'blindness' and 'blinded' as being the least 
misleading renderings : and in John xii 40 to say, ' He hath blinded their 
eyes and darkened their hearts'. 

The length of this discussion may perhaps be justified by a reference 
to the unproved statements which are found in Grimm's Lexicon (ed. 

JThayer). such as t ir<apoa>_. (7r<3pos,-hard-skin,-a-hardenmg,-induration)' 

to cover with a thick skin, to harden by covering with a callus', 'ir<o- 

'peatns -rijs napMas [hardening of heart], of stubbornness, obduracy'. The 
note in Sanday and Headlam, Romans, p. 314, is more careful, but yet 
contains the explanation that 'a covering has grown over the heart', and 
throws doubt on the usage of Tnjpos to which I have called attention 
('perhaps occasionally used of blindness'). My object has been to in- 
vestigate a very rare word, the ancient interpretation of which appears to 
me to have been too lightly thrown aside. 

1 It is interesting to note in our 
Litany the petitions for deliverance 
(i) 'from all blindness of heart', 
(j) 'from hardness of heart, and con- 
tempt of thy word and command- 
ment': the latter is shewn by the 
context to represent <rK\i)poKapdta, 
while the former doubtless corresponds 

to iruputris rrjs xapSias. 

2 Compare Burns's hues in his 
'Epistle to a Young Friend': 
I "waive the quantum of the sin, 

' The hazard of concealin': 
But och, it hardens a' within, 
And petrifies the feelin'. 


On some current epistolary phrases. 

During the last ten years immense accessions have been made to our J. c ^*_. 
knowledge of the life and language of the Greek-speaking inhabitants o; 
Egypt in the centuries immediately preceding and following the Christian 
era. The publication of the Berlin series of papyri began in 1895 and has 
been steadily continued ever since 1 . Simultaneously scholars in our own 
country and elsewhere have been busy in discovery and transcription. Ko Private 
part of this rich material has a greater human interest than the private 
letters which passed between master and servant, parent and child, friend 
and friend, in those far off daysi The dry soil of Egypt has preserved them 
from the fate which everywhere else overtakes correspondence intended to 
serve but a momentary purpose and wholly destitute of literary merit. To important 
the historian who desires to give a picture of the life of a people these J. * . 
simple documents are of unparalleled interest. To the palaeographer they , , ' 
offer specimens of handwriting, often precisely dated and generally assign- grapher, 
able with certainty to a limited period, which bid fair to effect a revolution 
in his study. To the student of the JNew Testament they open a new store- and the 
house of illustrative material : they shew him to what an extent the writers Biblical 
of 'the Epistles' stood half-way between the literary and non-literary styles 
of their day; and, together with the mass of similar documents leases, 
receipts, wills, petitions, and so forth which the great papyrus-finds have 
placed at our disposal, they form an unexpected and most welcome source 
from which he may draw illustrations of the biblical vocabulary 2 . 

I have called attention in the exposition (pp. 37 f.) to a phrase which The illus- 
frequently occurs in St Paul's letters and which receives illustration from !^* ion of 
this epistolary correspondence; and, although the Epistle to the Ephesians p b rasea 
from its exceptionally impersonal character offers few points of contact from 
with the documents in question, I take this opportunity to draw together papyrus 
some interesting phrases which they offer to us, in the hope that other * et ters. 
workers may be induced to labour more systematically in a new and 
fruitful field. 

1 Aegyptische Urkunden aits den Grenfell and A. S. Hunt (1898-9); 

Jconiglichen Museen zu Berlin, Grie- Fayum towns and their Papyri, edited 

chische Urkunden (three volumes) : by Grenfell, Hunt and D. G. Hogarth 

transcribed by Wilcken, Erebs, Viereck, (1900). 

etc. These are cited below as B.P. (= 2 Professor G. Adolf Deissmann led 

Berlin Papyri). The other collections the way in his Bibelstudien (1895) and 

principally drawn upon are: Greek Neue Bibelstudien (1897): but new 

Papyri chiefly Ptolemaic, edited by material is being rapidly added to the 

B. P. Grenfell (1896) ; The Oxyrhynchus stores upon which he drew. 
Papyri (two volumes), edited by B. P. 

18 2 




i. Apion 
to Epi- 

A well 



2. Antoni- 
us Maxi- 

The same 

3. Tasu- 
charion to 

I shall begin by giving one or two specimens of letters, more or less 
complete; and I shall then confine my attention to particular phrases. 

'Airt<ov 'Eiripdxa T< irarpl KOI Kvpiea ir\eiara \alpeiv. 

Upb per irdvT&v evxppai <re vyiaiveiv nal Bia iravrbs epupevov evTV\eiv 
pera TTJS d8e\<pijs pov Kal rrjs Gvyarpos avrrjs KOI TOV dbe\<pov pov. ev^apurrca 
TO> Kvpia ScpaTrtSi OTI pov Kivfivvevo-avros els 6a\a.(T(ra.v ecraxre. evdeoas ore 
el<jrj\6ov els MTJOTJVOVS, eXajSa ftiariKov irapa Kaio-apos %pvo-ovs Tpeis, Kal-KoXcas 
poi eoriv. epo>T& 0-e oSv, Kvpie fiov jrarijp, ypotyov p.oi lirurroXiov^ Trp&rov {lev 
irepl TTJS <ro>TT]plas erou, fievrepov irepl TTJS rcav d8e\(f)aJv /tow, rpirov iva <rov 
irpoaKuvr](ra> rtfv X*P av > Tt /** ciraiBevo-as Ka\cas t Kal e< TOVTOV 
irpoKCHJrat r&v 6emv 6e\6vr<av. aaircurai Kaniratva TroXXa Kal TOVS d8e\<povs 
KOI 2epr]i>[\\av KOI TOVS <pt\ovs pov. eirep^fd croi TO odoviv p.ov Sia 
ecrri 8e JLIOU ovofia 'AwcSws Ma^i/xos. epp<rdai tre ev^o/iat. 

Ksvrupia 'AdrfvoviKT]. 

There is a postscript written sideways to the left: 'AoTrafcrat are 
o TOV 'Ayadav Aaifj.ovos--.Kal Tovp/Scov 6 TOV FaAXaWoi; Kal.... 

This is a letter to his father from a young soldier who has had a rough 
passage 1 . It was written in the second century A.D., and is exceptionally 
free from mistakes of grammar and spelling. The boy has had a good 
education and is duly grateful to his father. He seems to have taken a 
new name on entering upon military service. 'Avr&vis is an abbreviation 
-for Amos r as-o&W-is-for-otfoMOK I~~have~read 7ro*cotrat 2 ~in place of 

Viereck's irpoito(jjii)(rcu : the papyrus has nponoa-ai (probably intended for 
irpoKoirorai). Compare Gal. i 14 irpoeKotrrov lv T<p 'Iov&arfia> vircp woXXovs 
ev T<5 yevei /now: Luke ii 5 2 'lijtrovs irpoeKoirrei* TQ (rofpiq, Kal 
is the epistolary aorist; 'I am sending'. 

'Avravios Mat-ipos ^aftivr] Ttj d8e\<pfj irXelara \aipeiv. 

Upb pev irdvrwv ev^opai o~e vyiaiveiv, Kal 'ya> yap OUTOS vyiaiva*, pviav 
aov iroiovpevos irapa TOIS cvddfte deals 3 . eKopurdprjv ev eiriarokiov irapa 
'AvTcaveivov TOV (rvwroXeiTov rjpav Kal emyvovs o~e eppcopevrjv \iav e%dpT)v' Kal 
'yco Siot iraa~av d(poppriv ovx OKV& croi ypcfyai irepl TTJS o-caTrjpias pov Kal T&V 
fp&v. atrTratrai Mia^t^oj' iro\\a Kal JLoirprjv TOV KVpiv pov. d<rirdeTai <re ij 
o~vp{3i6s pov Av<pt8ia Kal Mdt-tpos epptaadai o~e eS^opai. 

This is written by the same hand as the preceding*. The soldier boy 
writes his new name. He has apparently married and settled down. 

a -}(apeiv. 

TLpb pev irdvTtov ev^ojuai crat vyiaiveiv, /cat TO Trpoo~Kvvt]pa crov TrotoS irapa 
T& Kvplto ^apdirtdi. yivaxrKf OTI oVdatca IlToXe/^aiov KaXa^ccriTa d&ira\ia-paTa 
Tfjs olKias els TO ArjprfTpiav. eS otiv iroiytrgs ypd^rov poi irepl TTJS oiKias OTI 
TI e7rpa|as. KOI TOV dpaj3a>va TOV Sapairtcavos 'VapaicXor 1 SeSawfa avT&. Kal 
yp&fyov poi irepl Tys diraypatprjs. el iroieis TT\V aTroypa^v epo KaXa>? iroteis 

2 I have since found that Deissmann 
has also suggested this reading. 
8 Krebs begins the new sentence with. 

and puts no stop after deoTs. 
4 JB. P. 632. 

1 . P. 423. I have omitted the 
brackets by which the Berlin editors 
indicate letters supplied where the 
papyrus is illegible, and I have slightly 
varied the punctuation. 


ei ...... ypd^fov fioi ev^ajftov, eiva airoi/uicra> KOI dvair\cvtra> rrpos <re. Kal irepl 

T&V orraptW, (J.T) TTcaXet aura. doTrdofjLat TTJV d8f\<prjv fiov Taow&ppiv Kal r^v 
dvyarepa BeXXaiov. do~irdeTat trot AtSu/io? Kal 'HXioSwpos. do-Traferat vp,as 
HTO\f polos KOI Tifteplvos Kal SapajnW. do~irdouat Sapamcov 'luovdov Kal ra 
OVTOV, Kal Sa/Lta Kal ra reVci/a avrov Kal 77 yvwj, Kal "Hpaw Kal Ta/3ovs Kal 
do*irdeTai vuds SaropveTXos. eppKxrdai (re eZ^ofiai. denrdferai 
He.iv Kal TO. reava avrrfs. 'EXew; do-7rderat T^V fj.rjrepav [tov TroXXa 
Kal TOVS d8f\(povs. dtnrd^erai vuas Xaipijiia>i>...vos. 

This is a second century letter from the Fayftm 1 . Tasucharion makes A less 
mistakes in spelling and accidence. She has a large circle of friends, correct 
I cannot explain KaXa^etrtra'. dcnraXia-nara : d<r<pd\urua is a pledge or " 
security; comp. Trapao-^aXtV/iara in B. P. 246, 14. UapaK\os would appear 
to stand for TrapaxaXw tre. 

'A.(j,fjLQ)vovs T& yXuKtrrdra) srarpl ^aipcti'. 4. Ammo- 

Ko/no-aftez/os a-ov TO eiriaroXiov Kal emyvava-a on $e<3i> ^eXovrwv SteGwdrjs, ? OTl T? 
f^dpr/v TroXXd' Kal awT^s Spas dfpopftrjv evpav eypafya trot ravovra TO ypduuara 
(Tirov8dgov(ra irpoa-Kvvfjo-e (rat. raxvTfpov TO eiriyovra epya (ppovri&Te. eav fj 
fjiiKpa n wrj/, eare. fdv aot eVeKj/ KaXddiv 6 KOfu6p.evos (rot TO eVioroXeiov, 
7re/i7ra>. da-rrd^ovre ere ol aw irdvras Kar ovofia. dairafere a-e KeXep Kal of 
auroi) irdvras. epp(rde act e^op,at. 

Another second century papyrus from the Fayum 2 . The false concords An -an- 
arersurplising : KOfita-duevos, firiyvoyo-a, evpav, mrovSdgovifa. *JLirlyovra 

cveKrj stand for eVeiyoira and eVeyKj/ : irdvras in each case is for irdvre s. wnter ' 
The phrase avrrjs mpas (comp. avrfjs (Spa in another letter on the same 
papyrus) is found in Clem. Horn, xx 16 : comp. Evang. Petri 5, where it 
must be read for auroy Spas. 'Eav 17 uiKpd n ftirrj, carat, 'whatever she asks 
shall be done.' 

Qeaav TvpoWfi) T& Tt/ztoararo) TrXetora ^aipeiv. ,~~ 5. Theon 

'HpaK\fidr)s 6 aVoStSous o-ot rrpt jrurro\^v errriv fj.ov d8e\<poS! 810 TrapaKaXcS 

o-e fJLfra irdays Swdpeas e\etv OVTOV (rvveaTafievov. qparrja-a Se Kal 'Epfuav 
TOV d8e\<pbv 8td ypawTov dvrjyelardai trot irepl TOVTOV. ^aptto-ai 8e /lot TO. 
fjilyiOTa fdv (TOV TTJS eirio-rjpao-las fiiXJI- wpo Se irdvraov vyiaiveiv ae ev\ofiai 
dj3ao-KaiTa)s TO. aptora irparrav. eppaao. 

This is a brief letter of introduction, written in the year 25 A.D. 3 A letter 
Among the many interesting expressions contained in these few lines we of intro- 
may particularly note the phrase ex af ovro v o-vveo*rapevov, Uterally have lon " 
him recommended to you, which finds a parallel in the e^e pe Trapynj/jievov 
of Luke xiv 18, 19. 

I. Comuig now to details, we begin with the opening formulae. I. Opening 

i. Xaipcu/, TroXXa ^atpi/ and 7rXora ^a/petv are all common. In the 
New Testament we find x a ^P elv i u J ames i l ' a l so ni * wo letters in the Ip ess * 
Acts (xv 23 and xxiii 26). In the Old Testament it occurs in letters 
inserted by the Greek translators in i Esdr. vi 7, viii 9, and Esther viii 13 
(xvi i). It is found many times in the Books of Maccabees, where also we 
have TroXXa x a b eiv > 2 Macc - M J 9- The Ignatian Epistles give us as a rule 
1 S. P. 601. a B. P. 615. 3 Ox. P. 292. 




with various additions. St Paul has a modification of the 
usual Hebrew formula : see the note on Eph. i i. 

Another introductory form occasionally occurs, in which the imperative 
is used. Thus in B.P. 435 we have: Xatpe, OuaXeptave, iraparov d8eX<po: 
and in B.P. 821 : Xatpe, nvpie p,ov irarep 'UpdttrKos' tre doTfra^OfWU 1 . Compare 
with these Origen's letter to Gregory, preserved in the Philo&dia (c. xiii), 
Xaipe ev 6ey, icvptc fiov o-irovbaiarare KOI atoWt/uararc vie Tpijyopie, irapa 
'Qptyevovs : and Ep. Barn. I Xcuperc, viol KCU Qvyarepes, ev oVoftarc Kvplov rov 
ev eipqvrj z . 

i. Opening 2. Three of the letters which we have given above begin after the 
sentence, address with the words irpo fiev irdvrav efyppai ere vyuuveiv. With this we 
may compare 3 John 2 ayamjre, irep\ iravrwv evxopai o~e evoSovffdai KOI 
vyiatvctv, Ka&a>s evoBovrai (rov >/ fox 1 !' Although no variant is recorded, it is 
difficult at first to resist the suspicion that rpo iravrav was what the writer 
intended to say 3 : but on further examination of the passage it would seem 
that wepl irdvrav is required to give the proper balance to the clause 
introduced by Kados. We have here at any rate an example of the 
appropriation of a well-known formula, with a particular modification of 
it in a spiritual direction. 

The commonest formula of this kind in the second and third centuries A.D. 
runs as follows: 

ev) navratv 

The typi- 
cal form. 


qpepav) irapa r$ Rvpico SapcwnSc: B.P. 333, 384, 6oi, 625, 7 J 4> 775> 
843; and, with the addition Of pera TWV <r<ai/ iravr&v after vyiafaeiv, 276; 
with the addition of itai rots ovwaols ^cots 4 , 385, 845. The first clause 
stands alone in 602, 815 ; and, with pera r&v <ra>v Travrcov, in 814. 

Other variations are: irpo travros erjxofial <re vyiaiveiv, K.r.X. in 38; xal 
8ta 7ravra)[v] evxopai crai vyetaiveiv, K.T.X 5 in 846: wpo r>v o\<ov eppag-Qai <re 
eu^o^tai fjLfra rutv <r>v ircnrrav KOI 8ta iravros <re evrv^eiv in 164. 

Alterna- A different formula occurs in 811 (between 98 and 103 A.D.), Ilpca ph 

tave forms, ^avratv avajKaiov 81 ewtcrroX^s ere d<nrci(recrdai KOI ra d/Socr/ccuTa Sovvat : and 

in 824 (dated 55/5^ A - D - ^7 Zeretel), irpb fiev icavront dvayxauov q 

dia eiri<rro\rjs <re d(Tird<ra(r0ai. 

1 Add to these Faytim Pap. 129, 
aZjoe, K&pie nfudrraret Ox. P. irz, 

Xalpois, Kvpla pov "Zepyvla [..] vapa 

2 Probably not independent of this 
is the opening of the so-called 'Apos- 
tolic Church Order' (the 'BrtTo^ 
Spew) : Xaipere, viol ical Bvyarepes, ev 
dv6fta,Ti Kvplov "Lifffov XjotcrroD. 

3 It is however to be noted that 
in B. P. 885 Schubart restores the 
text thus : 6&ucncrr[os 'Airo\(\wlq>) 
T$ ^ifvrdry xalpeiv.] ILcpl irdi/T<a[v 
eSxofMi ffe fryuttveuf.] He^ov. [ . . ] 
This is a papyrus of cent n from the 
Fayum. Now in nos. 884, 886 we 

have letters from Theoctistus to the 
same Apollonius (apparently) : but in 
each the instructions begin imme- 
diately after the word xa/>eu>. This is 
the case also in B. P. 48 written to 
Apollonius by Cylindrus and addressed 
on the verso 'A.iro\\wj>iip 0eo/mVrov: 
comp. letters written to him by 
Chaeremon B. P. 248, 249, 531. It is 
probable therefore that Schubart is not 
justified in offering the supplement 
ftixopal <re vyiaivew. 

4 In B. P. 82 ^ we have rit irpoffntv-rini, 
ffov irapck r<f Al T$ Kturitp : comp. 38 
TrapA vSuri TOW fleow. 

5 Perhaps Sid. iravrtis was intended. 


It is curious to find the phrase irpo pev irdvruv at the end of a letter 1 , 
as we do in Ox. P. 294: irpo ^/ irdvrav trtavrov eVtyteXou eti>* vyiaivgs. 
cirio-Kotirov 2 ArjpTjTpovv Kal Aatpitova TOV irarepa. eppaxro. This letter is 
dated 22 A.D. Similarly in Ox. P. 292 (A.D. 25) quoted above, irpb 8e 
irdvruv vyialveiv <re fv^Ofiai dftaa-Kavroos TO apiora irpdrrcav. eppaxro. 

As we go back to an earlier period we find a difference in formula. An earlier 
Thus Grenfell gives us a letter of the second century B.O. from the Thebaid *yP e - 
which opens thus: [el] eppcao-at epptopeda Be KOI avrol Kal Kal 'A$po6Wa Kal 
frdvydrrjp KOI )/ iraioio-Kr) Kal 77 6vyarr)p avrf)s (Greek Papyri 43). A papyrus 
of the Ptolemaic period published by Mahaffy has, ^apis TOW deals iroXXi) el 
vyiaiveis vyiaivei 8e Kal ACOVIKOS: and another, Ka\a>s iroieis el vyiaiveis' 
vyiaiva> KOI OVTOS. I assume that another which he cites as deciphered by 
Mr Sayce is of the same date: here we read, /caX<Ss iroieis el epptoam KM TO. 
\oara <rot KOTO, yv&wv evriv eppcofieda 8e Kai foels (Flinders Petrie Papyri, 
Cunningham Memoirs of Roy. Irish Acad. viii pp. 78 80). So in a letter 
cited by Deissmann (Bibelstutdien pp. 209, 210) from Lond. Pap. 42, dated 
July 24, 172 B.C.: el eppa>nev&> roXXa Kara \6yov caravra^ e"i)V av cas rots deois 
evxopevr) 8iare\a>. KOI avTrj S' vyiaiyov Kal TO iraibiov Kal ol ev O'IKCO Trdvres, 
aov diairavTos pveiav iroiovpevoi. 

3. This last formula, futeiav n-oieurOai, is of special interest, inasmuch as 3. 'Making 
it occurs several times in St Paul's epistles. I have already cited an mentlon 
-example-of-its-usejn_aJetter_ofLthe_second_century_A.j).,j^JienJt>y_an _ 
educated hand (B. P. 632). The passages in St Paul are as follows : 

I Thess. i 2 ~Ev^apUTTOvp,ev r<p 6e& irdvroTe Trepl Trdvrcw vfJL&v pveiav i Thess. 
iroiovpevoi eiii ra>v Trpoa~ev^cav jj/zc5i> dStaXe/Trros' fjairujLovevovres vpav TOV epyov l "*" 


TJfiatv 'Irjo~ov Xptorou efjarpoo~Qev TOV 6eov Kal irarpbs JjfJtoav, eldores, K.T.X. 

Lightfoot in commenting on this passage 3 (Notes on Epistles of St 
Paul, pp. 9 f.) decides to punctuate after d8ta\eiirrcos : "Westcott and Hort 
punctuate before it. Another uncertainty is the construction of epirpoa-dev 
TOV deov K.T.X., which Lightfoot joins with the words immediately preceding 
and not with p,vr)[wveuovTfs. It would seem that St Paul first used a phrase 
which was familiar in epistolary correspondence, and that then out of 
fiveiav iroioviAevoi, in its ordinary sense of ' making mention ' in prayer, grew 
the fuller clause p,vrnjMvevovres...eiJ.irpo<r0ev TOV deov, whether this means 
'remembering your work,' etc., or 'remembering before God your work/ etc., 
in the sense of making it the subject of direct intercession or thanksgiving. 

Rom. i 9f. MapTVs yap ftoi eo-nv 6 0eos...<os aStaAewrreoff fiveiav vfiau' Bom. i 9 f. 
TToiovpai irdvroTe eirl T&V irpoa-evx^ f*ov deopevos et irtos ^817 JTOTC evoScadr/a-opai 
ev T$ dehrfuari TOV deov e\Betv irpbs VIMS. 

Here again the punctuation is uncertain. Lightfoot places the stop 
after iroiovpai, Westcott and Hort after pov. We may note the addition of 
vfitav after fiveiav (comp. fjiveiav o-ov in Philem. 4) : it is added in the inferior 
texts of i Thess. i 2 and Eph. i 16. 

1 Comp. James v 12 irpb ir&vTtav tie, 3 To the few illustrations of 
a8e\<t>ol fM>v, py o/tPiJere. trreiv collected by Lightfoot may now 

2 Comp. Ox. P. 293 (A.D. 27), em- be added many others from the papyri: 
(7K07roO 8^ {>fJ.S.3 Kal irdvTas TO^S ev otip. e.g. B.P. 423 (cited above). 


Philem. 4f. Et^apumo r& Be& pov irdvrore pvciav <rov -noiov{j.evos eir\ r&v 
irpotrevx&v /tot;, OKOV<OV <rov TJJV dyaTs-rjv...oiro>s jj KOtv&vta TTJS wtoreoas trov 
evepyijs yevrjTai, K.r.X. 

As Lightfoot points out, the 'mention' here 'involves the idea of 
intercession on behalf of Philemon, and so introduces the Srras /e.rA/ 

Eph. i 1 6. Eph. i 16 Ov iravopat fv^apttrroii/ virep vfi&v jivetav irotovpevos eirl r&v 
irpo<revx&v /<">v, iva 6 6e6s K.T\. 

Phil, i 3. In Phil, i 3 the same phrase is in the Apostle's mind, but he varies his 
expression : Ev^apiora) r<p 6e& jwv eirl irdtrrj ry pveia vpatv iravrore ev watrrf 
5j<rei fiov virep iravr<ov V[j.a>v pera \apas rf)v $er)<riv Troiov/Jtevos K.r.X. 

2 Tim. is. In 2 Tim. i 3 the variation of phraseology is very noteworthy : Xapiv 
e^w TW ^tw, <u Xarpevo) ajro irpoyov&v ev trvvi8^<ret, <os d8ia\iirr<as 
e^a> rrjv irepl o-ov fiveiav ev rats derjtrea-iv fjiov, VVKTOS Kal i/fiepas emirodav <re 
ISeiv, fiejanip-evos <rov T&V SaKpvav, K.T.X. The word y.veia meets US but once 
more in the New Testament 1 : i Thess. iii 6 on ex ere f-veiav TJ^WV dyad^v 
iravrore eirurodovvres iftflv, Kaddirep Kal rjneis vfias. 

Prayer of As no clear example appears to have been cited hitherto for the use of 

Tantalus, ^ ve i av iroielo-Qcu in reference to prayer, it may be interesting to quote the 
account of the prayer of Tantalus preserved in Athenaeus vii 14 (p. 281 J) : 
*O yovv TTJV r&v 'ATpS(3i itovqcras Ka^oSoy a^iKOfievov avrov \eyei irpos rovs 
&eovs Kal trvv&iaTpiftovTO. cov(rias rvxeiv rrapa TOV AIDS aiTjJo-aer&u OTOV 
TOV Se, irpos ras djro\av<reis dirXytrrajs diaKeipevov, virep avrcbv re_ 

avrov rponov rois deois' e<p' ois 

dyavaK.TT)<ravra TOV Ata TOV (j,ev evfflv aTroreXeo-ai Sia TTJV vTrotr^eo-ty, K.T.A. 

n. Closing II. We pass now from the opening of the letter to its close. 

i Saluta- * '* e most strikm & pa 1 "^ 61 with the Pauline epistles is found in the 
tions. * exchange of salutations. There are three formulae : (i) (Wa^o/wii, ' I greet 
A/; (2) do-irao-at, 'I ask you to greet A. on my behalf; (3) acnra&Tcu, 'B. 
sends a greeting to A. through me '. 

Of the first we have but a single example in the New Testament, and 
this does not proceed from the author of the epistle, but from his 
amanuensis. In Eom. xvi 21 in the midst of a series of salutations, of 
which sixteen are introduced by atnrcuratrQe and four by tWa^n-ai 
{-oirai), we read: "Acnrafoficw VIMS eyoi Tepnos 6 ypafyas TTJV eirtaroX^v ev 

After the Epistle to the Romans the richest in salutations is the Epistle 
to the Colossians : CoL iv. 10 f. 'A.<nraercu VIMS 'Apicrrapxos o trwai^/adXtoros 
/zot;, KOI MapKos 6 dve^ios Bapva/3a, (irepl oil eXdftere eWoXds, eav eXdrj irpos 
vfjtas oe^airde avTov^) KCU. 'Iijtrous 6 \tyopevos 'lovoTos...dtrirdgeTai vfMs 'lira(ppas 
6 e vii& vpHs Aovxas 6 larpbs o dyairyrbs KOI Ai;/u,as* d(nrd(ra<r0e 
TOVS ev AaoSiKta doe\<povs Kal T3v(J.<f)av Kal TTJV KaT OLK.OV avTrjs KK\rjcriav. 
Many parallels to this list might be offered from the papyri, but sufficient 
have been already given in the letters above cited. 

is found only in 2 Pet. 115 variant rats /we&us for rots xP ^ ais i n 

<rtrov5affi>> Si Kal &c4<rrore #x et " "f^ 5 Bom. xii 13, see Sanday and Headlara 

TJJV iufy e1-o$ov TIJV TOVTUV [wr/fjajv Romans, ad loc, 
For the curious Western 


2. The name of an individual is often followed by a phrase which 2. The 
includes his household. Thus, B. P. 385 /cal damtfopK rf}v prjTtpa /tow /cal 

TOVS doVXipowr pov, Kal SepTrpcovit' Kal TOVS irap* avTovl 523 curiraa'ai TTJV 
o-uvfiiov (7ov Kal TOVS evoiKovs iravTes 1 . The nearest parallel to this in the 
New Testament is the greeting sent to the household of Onesiphorus, 
apparently soon after his death, 2 Tim. iv 19 : "Acnratrat Hp'urnav /cat 'AjcuXov 
Kal rbv 'Ovqcrupopov OIKOV (comp. i 1 6 f). It is possible that a further 
parallel is to be traced in the Pauline phrase, rj /car' OIKOV avTfjs (O.VT&V, o-ov) 
eKK\r}o*ia, which may be an expansion of the current phraseology, in the 
sense of 'those of their household who are believers' : it has been perhaps 
too readily assumed that the meaning is 'the church that assembles in their 
house '. 

3. Where several persons are included in a greeting, the phrase KOT 3. 'By 
ovopa frequently occurs. B. P. 261 do-7rderai ae 'Hpols /cal ol ev oi/cp iravrfS name ' 
/car' QVOU.O.' 276 doTrrdgofiai -upas iravres tear ovofta, Kal 'Qpiye vr\s vpas aertra&Tcu 
iravres'. 615 aoTraovre <re ol trot iravras /car' ovopa: 'Jl^da'Tra^ovTcu. vpas TO 
TTGiBia iravras /car 1 ovo/jia, U.To\epaios, Ti/Sepit'oj, ^apamtavl comp. 449,815; 

845, 923. 

An exact parallel is found in 3 John 15 do-jragovrai <re of tpi\oi' dWdfov 
TOVS ^iXous /car' ovo/na. But the phrase is not used by St Paul. 

4. At the close of the Epistle to Titus we read: 'A.(nraovrai o-e ol per 4. Friends. 
ep.ov iravres' acnraa-at TOVS ffiiXovvras rfaas ~ev Trtwret. To~thls~~several 
interesting parallels may be offered : B.P. 625 oWdb/iai TJJV d8f\(pjv 

TroXXd, /cal ra re/cva auri/s Kal [....] Kal TOVS (pi\ovvras rHias iravres: 814 aaira- 

b/tuu y A.ira>\\ivaptov Kal OvaXepiov Kal Tefuvov [ ...... Kal TO~\VS (ptXovvros iravTfs : comp. 332. Still more noteworthy are the following, from the 
letters of Gemellus (A.D. 100 no): Fay. Pap. 118 do-jrdfou TOVS QiXovvres 
ae iravres Trpoy a\T]6iav: 119 aa-ira^ov 'Hirayadbv Kal TOVS <f)i\ovvres Tjfta.s Trpbs 

5. These letters almost always close with eppaxro (eppa>a-0e), or epp&adai 5. Fare- 
o"e (VIMS) e$xp<U' This formula occurs but once hi the New Testament, ^ e & 
namely at the close of the apostolic letter in Acts xv 29, "Eppa>o~6e. In 
Acts xxiii so^Eppcao-o is a later addition. 

In the Pauline epistles the place of this formula is taken by his 
characteristic invocation of 'grace.' Jude and 2 Peter end with a doxology : 
2 and 3 John break off after the salutations: I Peter closes with an 
invocation of 'peace': James and I John with final admonitions, introduced 
by 'A8e\<pot p.ov and Tc/cw'a respectively. 

III. We may go on to observe certain phrases which constantly occur TTT. Con- 
in the course of a letter, and which belong to the common stock of ordinary ventional 
letter-writers. phrases. 

i. Foremost among these is KO\O>S Troirjaeis introducing a command or i. Of in- 
a request. Thus, B. P. 93 KaX&s iroija-ets dtairfp^as av-rfj T^V SeX/LtartK^w rjv direct re- 

335 (Byzantine) KaXcoy ovv Trorfcris n-e/w/re ( = we//u) /tot curd: 814 " S ' 
cSf TTOITJCTIS, Kopurapevos pov TO eiricrroKiov, el Treats p>t 8iaKOcrias dpa^jud? 

TL&vres and irdvras are often interchanged. 


(the same phrase is repeated at the end of the letter). It occurs also in 
B. P. 348, 596 (A.D. 84), 829 (A.D. 100), 830, 844 Us (A.D. 83), 848. The 
construction with the participle is by far the most common. 

In a similar sense eS irouja-ets is used: B. P. 248, 597 (A.D. 75), Ox, P. 
113, 294 (A.D. 22); but this is less common. 

We have an example of this formula in 3 John 6, ovs xaXa>s iroifacis 
irpmrfittyas dgitos TOV deov. The past tense occurs to express gratitude in 
* Phil, iv 14, irXi)i> KoXo>? ciroujtrare (rvvKoivtov^a-avres (un> rfi 6\tyeii comp. Acts 

X 33 (TV re KO\O>S eiroirj&as irapayevoftevos. 

2. Of di- 2. A similar formula is TrapcucaXw o-e, of which it may suffice to quote 

rect re- ^ wo examples in which 816 precedes : B. P. 164 810 TrapoKoXa o$v o-e, <iXrare : 

' Ox. P. 292 (c. A.P. 25) bio 7rapaKaXo> o-e /*era irdoTjs dwdpeas e%eiv avrbv 

oweaTafievov. In B. P. 814 we have similarly OVTOS epo>r<S ire 

prfrrjp, irefifllns irpos ejae K.T.\.: and in Ox. P. 294 (A.D. 22) epomo Se o-e 

In 2 Cor. ii 8 we have: Bio 7rapaKaX<5 vpas Kvp&frai els avrov 
comp. Acts xxvii 34 810 TrapajcaXw vfMs fj.eTa\a^el.v rpoffis. A glance at the 
concordance will shew how common is the phrase irapandXa olv (8e~) vfias in 
the epistles of the New Testament. 'Epcarav is also used, though less fre- 
quently, in similar cases: e.g. 2 John 5 K<U vvv epa>Ta> o-e, Kvpla. Both verbs 
occur in Phil. IV 2 f. ~Evo8lav TrapaxoXo /cat Swrvxyv TrapaxaXco TO avro 
(ppoveiv ev Kvpi<a. val epcaTtS not 

AYln^be papyri, we find sometimes the interjectional use of the 
phrase, and sometimes the construction with the infinitive. 

3. Litro- 3. Just as KO\&S iroirja-eis and jrapcucaXa) ere are circumlocutions which 
ducing in- so ft e n the introduction of an order or help to urge a request 1 , so the way 
formation. ^ p re p are <i f or a pi ece of news by the prefixes yivooo-Keiv ere 8e\a> or 
ytv&a-Ke. The former is by far the more frequent. Its regular use is to open 
a letter, after the introductory greeting: B. P. 261 TeivaxrKeiv <re 6e\a>, eya> 
KOI OifoXepuz, eav 'Hpois TeKg, ev^o^eda e\delv irpos o-e (here it stands 
outside the construction) : 385 Tetvcofriteiv <re 0eXo> on p.6vrj Ipl eyta : 602 
TIVOHTKIV o-e 6e\co OTI eKrfkvBe Trpbs efte Sou^Ss, \eya>v OTI 'Ayopcurov p.ov TO 
pepos TOV e\evos: 815 Teivoa-Kiv <re 0e\a>, rr\v emoro\T]v trow eXa/3a (again 
outside the construction). In 822 it is curiously disconnected: TIVOO-KIV tre 
6e\a>, pf) fie\Tj(rdTio <roi <irep\T&v O-ITIKWV evpov yeopyov^ K.T.X. For further 
examples see B. P. 815, 816, 824, 827, 843, 844, 845, 846. 

On the other hand, yivaxrite generally occurs in the body of the letter, 
though sometimes it comes at the beginning, as in B. P. 625 Tei'i/worcce, 
a&eX$e, eVcXqpoWijv els TO, jSouKoXia : and hi Ox. P. 295 (A.D. 35) TivaxrKe OTI 
SeXevKos e'X^toi' tS8e iretpevye. We find it in the Ptolemaic period in the two 
papyri published by Mahafly (Cunningham Memoirs viii pp. 78, 80): 
yivaHnte fie nal OTI K.T.\., and (with a participle) yi'j/ao-Ke 8e p.e exovra 
K.T.X. For further examples see B. P. 164, 814 bis, 845, Fay. P. 117 bis 
(A.D. 108). 

To the former phrase we have a parallel in PhiL 112, which practically 
begins the letter, though a long thanksgiving precedes it: TWo-mi/ 8e v/*5s 

1 In Modem Greek ous TrapafcaXw corresponds to our word 'please'. 


/3ouXo/u, dfieX<pot, on TO, KOT epe K.T.\. We may also compare Rom. i 13 
ov 0e\a> fie vpas dyvoeiv, doe\<pol } OTI n-oXXoKiff irpoeOeprjV eXdetv irpbs vpas, 
K.T.X.: this expression is a favourite with St Paul, and it opens, after a 
doxology, his second letter to the Corinthians (i 8); comp. also 0eXo> Se 
(yap) vpas clftevai in I Cor. xi 3, Col. ii I. 

The latter phrase is well represented in Heb. xiii 23 iWoxere rbv 
dde\(pbv jpv Tipo&eov oVoXeXv/teW. Other examples might be given, 
but they are of a didactic character and not statements of ordinary 

4. Satisfaction finds expression in the terms cxdpyv and Xlav exprjv : 4. Bx- 
as in B. P. 332 fXP1 v Kopurapemj ypdppaTa ort ccaXws dtetnodjjre : 632 (given pressing 
above) u emyvovs a-e eppapevrjv \iav exdprjv. "We may also compare a?? s 
fragment of a letter (2nd cent. B.O.) quoted by Deissmann (Bibelstudien 
p. 212), Lond. P. 43 : Trvvdavopcvr) pavddvetv ere Alyvima ypdppara o~uvexdpr)v 
(rot KO.L cfiavrfi OTI K.T.\. 

In Phil iv 10 we read: 'E^op 1 ?" dc ev Kvpitp /teyoXcos ort ij8rj ITOTC 
dvedakere TO virep e/xov (ppovelv. And we have the strengthened phrase in 
2 John 4 ''Exaprjv \lav on eSprjKa SK TV renvav trov irepiirarovvrtav ev aXrjdeia, 
and in 3 John 3 'E^ap^" yb-p \lav epxopevatv d8e\<pa)v Kal paprvpovvrav aou 

Another form of expressing satisfaction is the use of the phrase 5. Ex- 

ort X"*P IS To ' s ^ eo 'S lifafujv els 'A\edv8piav : Fay. P. 124 dXXa TOW Qeols eorlv nea ,, 
oTt ovSffiia eariv irpoXrjp.'^ris fyeiv yeyevrjfievrj. A letter of the 

Ptolemaic period (Cunningham Mem. viii p. 78) begins : xP TO 
TroXX^ et vyuziveis. In Oo;. P. 113 we have : x^P tv *X m 6eols irao-iv yivtoo-Koav 


Xttpi? r<0 ^effl is frequent in St Paul's letters : x"P'" ^X w T ? ^ e< ? ^ 8 found 
only in 2 Tim. i 3 ; comp. i Tim. i 12 ^apw e^o> T evdwaftcoo-avri p.e Xpiar<S 

IV. In conclusion, a few phrases may be noted, which, though not IV. Va- 
specially connected with the epistolary style of writing, are of interest as nova N.T. 
illustrating the language of the New Testament. fSated 1 

I. Ta KO.T epe. Ox. P. 120 (4th century) &xpis &v yv& ir&s TO. KOT i. Ta /car' 
ai/xal airoTidaiTcu, et infra TO, Kara o~e otoinrjcrov as irpeirov cariv, pr) reXeov 
dvaTpair&fiev : GreVif. P. (Ptolemaic) 15 ra naff jj/tap 8tc|a[yayeij/]. 

Comp. Acts XXIV 22 8iayv<6o-0fuu ra ica^* vpJas, Eph. vi 1 1 iva fie eifi^re 
KOI vpcis ra icar' e'fie, Phil, i 12 ra Kar' e'^te /iSXXor els irpOKoirrjv rou euayyeXiou 
v, Col. IV 7 ra Kar' e'/ne Trawa yvcupia-ei v\uv 

2. ^Hfii; Trore. J?. 2^. 164 fito Trapa/taXcS ovr ere, (piXrare, rjbr} ITOTE jreltrai 2. 
awroi' rou eX^f iv : 4*7 cwraXXa^oi' o^y o'eauroi' OTTO Trawo? p-erecopov, Iva ^8rj 
Trore dpepipvos yevy, Kal ra epa peTeutpioia ^817 Trore TVX^V o^j) : Oa?. ^*. 237 
Vli II (a petition) emtrxeiv re avrov TJOTJ wore cirelovra pot, irporepov pev <as 
dvopov Karoxfjs X^P tv > v ^ v $f irpo<pdcrt vopov ovdev avra irpocnJKovros 1 . 

1 On the technical terms pertupos Grenfell and Hunt, Ox. P. iipp. iSoff., 
and Karox^i in these extracts gee 141 &.. 


Comp. Bom. i IO deopevos ft na>s J}8rj wore euoSo^tjcro^at cv rep &Xqju,art 
rot) deov e\0fiv Trpbs vp,as, Phil, iv IO e^dpijv dc ev Kvptai yLteyaXa? ort ^(817 TTOTC 
aVtfaXere TO UTrcp 6/u.ov (ppoveiv, e(j) w Kal l<ppoveiT qiaupelfrde 8e. 

3, Swa- 3. Swaipeti/ Xdyov. 5. .P. 775 ^XP"! 5 "" y^vofie fid KOI avvapapfv \oyov : 

peiv Ktryov. Q Xt p^ II3 g,. t ?Sa)ieaf awr^ S^XaCT-oi/ /tot, ti/a truvapoftai avr$ \6yov : Fay. P. 
109 ort (rvinjp/juii Xayov ra Trarpt cai XcXoMroypa<pi?Kc /* Ka 

Comp. Matt, xviii 23 dvdpn7ra> ^ao-tXet os rjO&rjo-ev o~uvapcu Xoyov /ttra TJ 
avTou- dp^afievov 51 avrov a~uvaipciv irpotnjxfli) eis ai5r^ 6(pt\rT]s 
pvp'uav Tahavrcav, XXV 19 crvvaipei Xdyoj* /Lter* OUT&V. 

4. KejLt^a>s e^ety. Pr. Pop. 18 KO^COS EX KOI TO vr\may fiov (cat 
MeXas 1 . The same phrase is cited from Arrian JUpict. diss. iii 10 13, orav 
o larpbs ciirg Koju^as e^ets (comp. ii 18 14). 

Comp. John iv 5 2 firvdtro oSv TTJV Spav nap avrav Iv fl 

NvKrits 5- NVKPOS KOI Tjfj.epas, JB. P. 246 (2/3 cent. A.D.) ort WKTOS /cal ij/j.fpas 
-ijftepas, evTvyxavco rq 0ea virep vp.S>v z . 

Comp. I Thess. iii 10 WKTOS Kal qpepas VTrepeKirepura'QV 8e6[tevoi els TO 
iv vft,wv TO irpoffaarov, I Tim. V 5 Trpooyiewt rats 8e^a i fO'a> ndi rais 
Kal ypepas, and many other passages. 

1 The letter is given by Deissmann, fy' o& SiKcuov y&p a^jr^v \viri<r0<u, wept 

Bibelst. p. 215, who has noted the o$$ev6r qitovffa. yap 8n XuwctTat. Comp. 

parallel. He however cites it thus: i Cor. xvi 10 &v 5t ZKQ-g Tt^^eos, 

Kal rbv tinrov (sic) pav. The emendation jSX&rere Si/a d^>6j8ws yvi)Tai irpbs i>/juis. . . 

is fairly obvious. pf) ris ovv abrbv QovQevfiing. In PhiL 

2 In the same letter we read : Kal ii 28 we have the word dXiwire/ws. 
irepl 'EpfMtivys fneki)<rdTW i>fjSv TTUS 


Note on Various Readings. 

The Greek text printed in this edition may be briefly described as in 
general representing the text of KB. Accordingly it is hardly to be dis- The pur- 
tinguishedj except at a few points, from the texts printed by Tischendorf Pse of 
(ed. viii) and by Westcott and Hort. The purpose of this note is to discuss this note> 
certain .variants of special interest: but first it may be instructive to give 
the divergences of our text from B and tf respectively, to observe the 
main peculiarities of the Graeco-Latin codices D 2 and G 3 , and to indicate 
the relation to one another of the various recensions of the Latin Version. 

i. The divergences from B, apart from matters of orthography, are as 
follows: i. Diver- 

i i [eVE(eo-a>] ] om. B*: see the special note which follows. fromJB 

3 Kal Trcmijp] om. B alone: see the commentary adloc. 
5 'L/o-oS Xptoroii] xy W B : this deserves to be noted in connexion 

with the similar variant in i 1. 
1 3 ea^payiffd^T^ea^payiffd^B rbut-note-that-this-word-ends a line -- 

15 ayamjv] om. B: see the special note. 
17 &?] So B. 
1 8 vp>v\ om. B. 

20 eirovpavioif] ovpovowB: supported by 71 213, some codices of the 

Sahidic, Hil 1100 Victorin. 

21 dpxfjs Kal eov<rias\ ef-av&ias KOI apxr/s B alone. 

ii I TOIS irapmrr&fjicuriv Kal rats apapTiais] rots irapmrraifuicriv KOI rats em- 

dvfiiats B alone. 

5 TOIS irapcnrT(>iuuriv\ ev rots irapaiFTcafuunv KOI rats CTriQvfuais B alone: 
the substitution of em6vp.iais in ?. i followed by its insertion in 
this verse is remarkable. 
o-wefaoiroirja-ev] + ev B : probably by dittography, but there is some 

considerable support for the insertion. 
13 roO xptorov] om. TOV B alone. 

22 &ov] xv B alone. 
iii 3 OTL] om. B. 

5 ajTooroXoty] om. B Ambrst only. 

9 <pa>ri(rai\ + iravras B : see the special note. 
19 ir\ripa>df)Te els irav] ir\i}pa>dr) irav B VJ 73 Il6. [17 adds s vfuit 

after TOV 6eov teste Tregett.] 
iv 4 Ka&os teal] om. KOI B. 

6 jcal ev irao-iv] om. KOI B 32 Victorin. 

7 ijjLuSf] vpav B. 

j X0fs] om. 17 B, with D 3 and other authorities; but it may have 

fallen out after (86fy. 
9 KaTfprf\ + Trpcorov B : see the special note. 


IT 16 a&rov] eavrov, with considerable support. 

23 T$ TTvevfjuxri] pr. ev B alonQ (except for the uncertain testimony of 

a version). 

24 evbva-aa-dai} evBvo~ao-0c B*, with K and some others; but probably 

it is an itacism. 
32 ylvfcrde fie] om. 8e B, with considerable support: moreover D 2 *G 3 

read ow.] r}fuv B: see the special note, 
v 17 rov Kvpiov] +ij(juav B alone. 

19 i/rqX/tow] pr. cv B. 

irvevfianiuus] om. B. On this and the preceding variant see the 
special note. 

20 'lr)<rov Xpiorov] j^u ItJ B alone. 

23 eortv Ke<pa\Tji] KecpcX?; eariv B. 

24 oXXa CDS] om. cos B. 

31 rov rrarepa icat T^J; pjqrepd} irarepa KOI [up-epa B, with D 2 *G S . 

32 els rrfv cK<\ijcriav\ om. ets B. 
vi i eV KupiV] om. B, with r> 2 *G 3 . 

2 ccrrtv] om. B, with 46. 

7 av^pwTrots] avdpatiro> B, with slight support. 

10 eySwa/ioSo-^e] ^wapjovcrde B, with 17 and Origen, cat. in com- 

l6 ra ireirvpu>p.evd\ om. ra B, with D S *G 3 . 

19 row euayytXiou] om. B, with G 3 Victorin. 

20 ev ayrw] avro B alone. 

2. Diver- 2. The divergences from K are as follows : 
gences j j XptoroO 'I^o-owi) tv ;ftJ K : see the special note. 

[ev 'Etpearta] ] om. 85* : see special note. 
3 TOV Kvplov TJpeHv] TOVKV KOI <ro>TTjpos T]fj,eav N* alone. 

o evXayfoas yp-as] om. TJ/ZOS X alone. 
7 e^o^ici'] (rxop.ev N*, with G 3 * and some support from versions. 

14 o mi/J og etmv N, with D 2 etc. 
r^f 5o|js] om. TJJS N, with 17 35. 

15 d-yoTTTji/] om. K : see the special note. 

l8 rijs dogrjs rfjs K\Tjpovop.las] TTJS K\T)povop,ias rr)S bo^rjs N alone. 
20 fvrjpyrjKfv] (VT)pyT)(rev K, with most authorities against AB. 
ii 4 ev \e] om. ev N* alone. 

7 X* (alone) omits this verse through homoeoteleuton. 
10 avrov] 65 K* alone. 

18 81 avrov] +01 ap.<porepoi ev evi N* alone, per errorem, 5t* OVTOV 
having ended the column and page. It would seem therefore 
that the length of the line in the archetype is represented by 
exoMeNTHNTTpocArtofHN, which was at first missed. 
2O avrov Xpierrov 'liyow] rov J(v N*. 
1U I rov Xpiarov 'Irjcrov] Om. Iijaow N*, with D 2 *G 8 etc. 

9 fv r 6c$] ra 0tS N*. This was Marcion's reading (Tert. c. Marc. 
v 18). 


iii ii ev T& Xptorai 'LjtroS] om. r^> N*, with D a etc. 

1 8 vij/os Kal ftddos] Patios KOI v^os M, with A etc. 
iv i ev Kvpiqt] ev jo> K, with aeth. 

8 <al eSvKfv] om. KOI K*, with many authorities. 

24 evdva-aa-dai] cvSvo-aadc K, with B* and others. 

SiKauHrvvfl Kal oo-tonjrt] ocrtor^n /cat dtKatocrvvrj N* alone : but 
Ambrst has m ueritate et iustitia. 

25 aX^etav exaoros] CKCUTTOS a\r)detav N* alone. 

/tera TOU frXijtrtov] Trpo? TOI wXi7(rioi X* alone : Lucifer has adproxi- 

28 x^P "'"] P r *Swus N*, with AD 2 G 3 etc. : see the special note. 

exa\ fx^rat N* alone : comp. Clem 371 iva e^rf. 
y 2 v/xwi'] Tjfuav K : see the special note. 

irpo(r<j)opav Kal 6vviav\ 6v(nav KM irpoo-(j>opav N alone. 
4 KOI ^opoAoyta] 17 p.a>po\oyut N*, with AD 2 *Gr 3 etc. 
6 Sia raSra yap] om. yap N* alone. 
17 5eXj;/Lia] <#>pov;/*a N* alone. 
20 rou Kvpiav ^jLwSj/] om. T/^WV X alone. 

22 at yuvatKes] + VTrorao-o-f vdaxrav N : see the special note. 

23 avrbs o-o>r^p] avros o <ra>Trjp N*, with A 17 etc. 
27 avros eavrqi] avros aura) N* alone. 

if TI T&V TOIOVTCOV] om. rj TI N* alone. 

om. /cat 

reKi/a N* alone. 
29 TJIV eavrov a-dpKo] TTJV crapKa avrov X* alone. 
31 Trpos TT/V yvvdiKa aurou] 717 yvvaiKt N*: see the special note. 
Ti 3 tra yrjs] bis scriptum N* alone. 
5 CTrXori/rt T^S /capSias] om. rrjs N etc. 

8 ort cKaarTos edv TI troiri&rj] on eav iroiqa-rj eKaoros N alone. 

9 KOI auT<Si/] /cat eavTcov N* alone : see the special note. 
ovpavois] ovpavoa N, with some others. 

IO ev Kvpito] ev rat JMO N*, with 91. 

19 Iva fiot Hodrj] iva dodrj poi N* alone. 

20 ev avTto irappi?crcacr(i>/iat] irappr)<ria(r<o[JLai ev avra> K alone. 

21 ei'fijjTe *cat v/^ets] KOI v/tew tSi/re N, with many others. 
iriaros SiaKovos] om. SICIKOVOS N* alone. 

3. If the combination KB represents a line of textual tradition which 3. The 
is of great importance here as elsewhere in the New Testament, on the r ?- eco * 
ground that its readings are usually justified by internal considerations, eo di ceg . 
scarcely less interest attaches to another line of tradition commonly spoken 
of as the ' Western text/ because it is mainly attested for us by two Graeco- 
Latin codices D 3 and G 3 . D 2 is Codex Claromontanus (cent, vi), and is 
thus indicated to distinguish it from D, Codex Bezae of the Gospels and 
Acts. G 3 is Codex Boernerianus (cent, ix), and was once part of the same 
codex as A (Sangallensis) of the Gospels 1 . 

1 E a is a copy of D 2 , and F 2 is pro- text is concerned. Accordingly I have 
bably a copy of G 3 so far as its Greek not cited the evidence of 









of interest 
inD 2 orG 8 . 

At the beginning of the history of each of these codices a Greek text 
and an Old Latin text have been brought together in the same volume, and 
a process of assimilation has begun, partly of the Greek to the Latin and 
partly also of the Latin to the Greek. If we had the immediate parent of 
either of these codices we should probably find corrections of this nature 
introduced in the margin or in the text itself. Thus it may have been in 
the immediate ancestor of G 3 that in Eph. iv 15 ahjdevovres 8e was changed 
into a\rj6eiav Se iroiovvres, because the corresponding Latin was tieritatem, 
aitiem facientes. The like process had already been taking, place in the 
codex from which D 2 and G 3 are ultimately descended. For most of the 
obvious Latinisations are common to them both. Thus in ii n viro rrjs 
\eyofj.evi)s irepirofiris ev (rapid xcipoirouiTov was rightly rendered db ea quae 
dicitur circumcisio in came manufacta: but an ignorant scribe took 
manufacta. as the ablative agreeing with carne, and accordingly we find in 
D 2 G 3 the strange reading ev <rapKl ^POTTOM;'. Another example is ii 20, 
where the true reading is dicpoya>viaiov. The Latin rendering for ' corner 
stone' was angularis lapis (summits angularis lapis, Jerome): hence we 
find in D 2 G 3 that \tdov is added after dicpoya>vialov. 

Besides this process, by which the Greek texts of these codices have 

been considerably affected in detail, we may distinguish another element of 

modification which may be called the interpretative element. Thus in ii 5, 

in the parenthetical sentence xqpn-t core o-eo-aMrpevoi, we find prefixed to 


main sentence : ov Tfi x^P lTl D 2 > *> x < *P tTl ^3- As cuius is found at this 
point in the Old Latin, it is possible that the inserted pronoun is due to 
the Latin translator, and has subsequently passed over to the Greek text. 
The similar clause in ii 8, rfi yap x4p* n^ owoxr/twot, is changed in D 2 
into 177 yap O.VTOV \dpiTt. (recroxr/tei/ot ecrpev. The change to the first person 
is due to the e<* ij/tfis of the previous verse, and to the eo-ftey of . 10: the 
c'| vfi&v of v. 8 had also passed into e rjpav, probably at an earlier stage, 
for it has a wider attestation. Another interesting example is the comple- 
tion of the broken sentence in iii i by the addition in D 2 of Trpar/Sevw after 
r&v fdv&v: a small group of cursives add KenavxTjfMi from a similar motive. 
More serious is the change in iii 21, where in the true text glory is ascribed 
to God ev ry KK\Tj(rta KOI ev Xptor<p 'Iijo-oC. The words in this order appeared 
so startling that in one group of MSB (KLP) ml was dropped, so as to give 
the sense 'in the Church by Christ Jesus' (A.V.). In D 2 *G 3 the order is 
boldly reversed (ev xy / /cat rfj eKKhrjo-ia); and they are supported by Am- 
brosiaster and Victorinus. It is probable that to this class we should assign 
the addition of ut<S avrov after ev ro> tfyairq/j.evto in i 6 : but it is to be noted 
that this reading has a wide attestation and is undoubtedly very early 
(D 2 *G 3 8*** vg 0044 Victorin Ambrst Pelag etc.: also Ephraim in his com- 
mentary, preserved in Armenian, has 'in His Son'). 

Other interesting readings belonging to one or both of these codices are : 
ii 15 /carapyrjo-ay] Karapruras D a * alone, 
iii 12 ev ireiroi6ri<rei\ ev ro> f\ev6epa>Qr)vai D 2 * alone (not unconnected with 

the rendering of irapprja-iav by libertatem Victorin Ambrst). 
2O virep iravra Troifja-cu] om. wrep D 8 G 8 , with Vg Ambrst etc. 


iv 16 HOT evepyeiav] om. G 8 , with d 2 Iren int (Mass. p. 270) Lucifer 

(Hartel p. 200) Victorin Ambrst (cod). 
19 airrjkyrjuores] can)\iriKOTS D a ,a<pr)\mKOTfs G 8 , with Vg (desperantes) 

goth arm aeth etc. 

29 Tiff xP' af ] ""1 s TTOS D 2 *G 3 : see the special note. 
Y 14 em<pava-ct <roi 6 ^ptoros] emif/avo-cis rav %y D 2 * : see the special note. 

In conclusion certain readings may be noted in which one or other of Variants 
these codices has somewhat unexpected support from one of the great uncials, with unex- 

i i XptoroS 'Irja-ov] D 2 , with B and a few other authorities. support. 

7 exofifv] ea-xofiev D 2 *, with N* (comp. B in Col. i 14). 
ii eK^jpadrjiiev] eK\r}drifiev D 2 G 3 , with A: not unconnected perhaps is 

the rendering sorte uocati sumus of vg. 
v 31 om. rov et TTIV D 2 *G 3 , with B only. 
vi i om. fv avp'uf D 2 *G 3 , with B Clem Alex (P. 308) Tert (c. Marc. v 18) 

Cyprian (Testim. iii 70) Ambrst (cod). 
16 TO. irfirvpapevd] om. TO D a *G 3 , with B. 
19 om. TOU evayyeXlov G 3 , with B Tert (c. Marc, v 18) Victorin. 

It is clear from this list that B at any rate has admitted a ' Western' 
element in this epistle as in others. 

4. Parallel with the Latinisation of the Greek texts of D 2 and G 3 has 4. The 
been the process of correctingJbhe-Latin-texts^-da-and-ga^to-conform-them ^ Latin; 
to the Greek. In consequence of this correction we cannot entirely rely on " e 

these texts as representing a definite stage of the Old Latin Version, unless 
we can support their testimony from other quarters. Yet the remarkable 
agreement between d 2 and the text of Lucifer in the passage examined 
below is somewhat reassuring. 

The history of the Old Latin of St Paul's Epistles needs a fuller invest!- History ot 
gation than it has yet received. To what extent it was revised by St Jerome * ne Old 
is still obscure. Some useful remarks upon it will be found in the article *-' atm - 
in Hastings's Bible Dictionary (Latin Versions, the Old) by Dr H. A. A. 
Kennedy; and also in Sanday and Headlam, Romans, Introd. 7 (2) and 
notes on v 3 5, viii 36. 

The relation of the chief Latin recensions may be judged to some extent Latiir 
by a concrete example. For Eph. vi 12 flf. we are fortunate in having a con- * exts f 
tinuous quotation in Cyprian Testim. iii 117 (comp. Ep. Iviii 8) and also in ^P~' ^ 
Lucifer of Cagliari (Hartel p. 296). I2 a ' 


non est nobis conluc- non est uobis conluc- nou est nobis conluo- 

tatio aduersus camera et tatio aduersus camera et tatio aduersus camera et 

sanguinem,sedaduersus sanguinem, sed contra sanguinera, sed aduersus 

potestates et principes potestates, contra huius principes et potestates, 

huius mundi et harura mundi reetores tenebra- aduersus round! rectores 

tenebrarum, aduersus rum harum, contra spiri- tenebrarum harura, con- 

spiritalia nequitiae in talia neguitiae in cae- tra spiritalia nequitiae 

caelestibus 1 . lestibus. in caelestibua. 

1 I have followed the true text of uobis', but 'nobis' is found in the 
Cyprian, which is to be found in Har- better Msa and in Ep. Iviii 8. 
tel'a apparatus. Hartel's text gives 



We may note at the outset that Lucifer's text at this point is found 
word for word in Codex Claromontanus (da), the only difference being that 
there we have the order 'sanguinem et carnem', which is probably the 
result of correction by the Greek of the codex. 

noUs. Cyprian and the Vulgate give the true reading. But * uobis ' is 
read by g 3 m (the Speculum, a Spanish text), Priscillian and Ambrosiaster. 
TertulUan, however, Hilary and Ambrose have 'nobis'. The Greek evi- 
dence is remarkable from the fact that B deserts its usual company. 'H/uir 
is found in KAD 2 C KLP 17 etc., supported by Clement and Origen and the 
Greek writers generally : also by boh arm syr(hkl). c Y/uv is found in BD 2 * 
G 8 and some cursives : besides the Latin support already cited, it is sup- 
ported by the Gothic and the Aethiopic versions, and by the Syriac Peshito, 
which doubtless gives us here the Old Syriac reading, as we gather from 
Ephraim's Commentary. 

It is quite possible that the variation has arisen independently in 
different quarters, for in Greek it is among the commonest confusions. It 
serves however admirably as an illustration of the grouping of our Latin 

Sed aduersus (or contra) potestates. A single clause seems in the oldest 
Latin to have represented irpos ras apx^ ^P s e&n><rlas (or KOI egovo-ias) 
of the Greek text. It may be that principes was being consciously reserved 
to be used in the following clause (n-pos TOVS Koa-paKparopas): for there is no 

^Greek-evidence-for-the-omission~of"~^os~~T r af~ap;fas: Yet d 2 m Lucif Hil 

(ed. Vienn. p. 489) have the single clause although they use 'rectores' (Hil 
mundi potentes) in the later clause. It is noteworthy that d 2 is not in this 
case brought into conformity with the Greek (irpos ras dpxas na\ egovo-ias) 
of D 2 . 

On the renderings of Koa-ftoKparopas see further in the commentary ad 


propter boo induite propterea accipite ar- propterea accipite ar- 

tota, arma, ut possitis ma del, ut poesitis reals- ma dei, ut possitis resis- 

resistere in die nequis- tere in die malo, in tere in die malo et omni- 

simo, ut cum omnia per- omnibus perfect! stare, bus perfect! stare, state 

feceritis stetis adcincti praecincti lumbos ues- ergo succincti lumbos 

lumbos uestros in ueri- tros in ueritate. uestros in ueritate. 

Lucifer agrees with d 2 , except that the latter has 'omnibus operis' in 
place of ' in omnibus perfect! ', and ' stetis ' for ' stare '. 

induite. So m ' induite uos '. 

tota arma. The omission of ' dei' by the best MBS of the Testimonies 
is confirmed by Ep. Iviii 8. It is interesting to note in connexion with 
'tota arma' that Jerome ad loc. says ' omnia arma...: hoc enim sonat 
Trai/oTrX/a, non ut in Latino simpliciter arma translata sunt'. Yet Cod. 
Amiat. gives us 'arma', and the Clementine Vulgate 'armaturam'. 

nequissimo. In v. 16 'nequissimi' retains its place in the later recen- 

cum omnia perfeceritis. It is strange that this excellent rendering was 
not maintained : see the commentary ad loc. 


ut.. Metis accincti. This corresponds to the reading of D 2 ^G 3 trr^re 
for <rrijvaf or^re otiv. In m we find 'estote', or according to some MSS 
* stare, estote '. The Vulgate shews correction by a better Greek text. 


induentes loricam ius- induentea loricam ius- et induti lorica ius- 

iitiae et calciati pedes in iitiae et calciati pedes in titiae et calciati pedes in 

praeparatione euangelii praeparatione euangelii praeparatione euangelii 

pacis, in omnibus adsu- pacis, in omnibus adsu- pacis, in omnibus sumen- 

mentes scutum fidei, in meutes scutum fidei, in , tes scutum fidei, in quo 

quo possitis omnia ignita quo possitis omnia iacula possitia omnia tela ne- 

iacula nequissimi extin- nequissimi candentia ex- quissimi ignea extiu- 

guere, et galeam salutis stinguere, et galeam sa- guere; et galeam salntis 

et gladium spiritus, qui lutis et gladium spiritus, adsumite et gladium spi- 

est sermo dei. quod est uerbum dei. ritus, quod est uerbum 


Lucifer agrees with d 2 , except that the latter has ' salutaris' for 'salutis' 
{comp. Tert. c. Marc, iii 14). 

ignita. Tertullian in an allusion (ut supra) has ' omnia diaboli ignita 
tela' : ' candentia' is found in m. 

adsumite : supplied in the Vulgate, to correspond with 8eao-0e which 
is omitted by D 2 *G 3 . 

sermo : characteristic of the Cyprianic text : comp. Tert. ut supra. 

The text of ViglliuTTapsensis^Alf ica, c. 484)~is~of ~sufficient~interest Tto 
be given in full (de trin. xii, Chifflet, 1664, p. 313) : 

'Propterea suscipite tota arma dei, ut possitis resistere in die maligno; 
et cum omnia perfeceritis state cincti lumbos in ueritate, et calciate (? cal- 
ciati) pedes in praeparatione euangelii pacis : super haec omnia accipientes 
scutum fidei, et galeam salutaris accipite, et gladium spiritus, quod est 
uerbum dei'. 

Comp. c. Varimadum iii 24, p. 457 : 'In omnibus adsumentes scutum 
fidei, in quo possitis omnia iacula nequissimi candentia exstinguere, et 
galeam salutis et gladium spiritus, quod est uerbum dei '. This agrees with 
Lucifer. The variety of text is worth noting in connexion with the ques- 
tion of the authorship of these treatises 1 . 

The following readings deserve attention either for their own importance Special 
or as throwing light on the history of the text. The authorities cited are readings 
selected as a rule from the apparatus of Tischendorf or Tregelles, and the of mterest - 
citations have been to a large extent verified, and sometimes corrected and 


XpioroO *I?o-o5 BD 2 P 17 syr (hkl) boh vg (am) Or 01 * Ambrst Pel ood : i i Xoto-rO 
3 Ir)<rov XptoroC NAG 3 KL etc. syr (pesh) arm vg (fu al) Eph (arm) Victorin. 

1 On the authorship of the de trini- Athanasius extant only in this Latin 

tate see Journ. of Th. St. i 126 ff., version'. See also the note on the 

.592 ft.: it is suggested that 'Book xii text of vi 16, below, p. 303. 
is probably a genuine work of St 

19 2 



It is not easy to decide between these readings. The full title 'our 
Lord Jesus Christ' would help to stereotype the order 'Jesus Christ'. This 
order in itself is perhaps the more natural, especially in Syriac, 'Jesus the 
Messiah' : the Peshito has it even in the last words of this verse. A copyist 
would be more likely to change Xptoros 'L/o-ov? into 'Irja-ovs XptoroV than 
vice versd. 

The testi- B persistently has XptoroO 'Ljo-oC in the openings of the Epistles: it is 
monyof B. o ffce n deserted by N, and once by all uncials. This fact may suggest the 
possibility of a revision on principle. In this particular place it appears as 
if the scribe of B began to write TY XY> but corrected himself in time. Yet 
the support which B here has makes it hazardous to depart from it. It 
is otherwise in v. 5, where B stands alone in giving the same reversal 
of order. 

i i , roTc 

"rote O?CIN [CN ' 

i i 

The case for the omission of ev 'Ecpccr<g> has been so clearly stated by 
recent critics 1 , that it will suffice to present the main evidence in the 
briefest form, to call attention to a recent addition to it, and to set aside 
some supposed evidence which breaks down upon examination. 

i. Not in i. The words were not in the text used by Origen [f A.D. 253]. This is 
Origen's conclusively shewn by his endeavour to explain rot? otio-iv as an independent 
phrase. In~X>amer J 8~Catena ad'loc. we read : 

'Qpiyevrjs Se <f>r)<ri' 'ETTI p.6va>v 'H(f>eo~ia>v evpofiev Kcipevov TO TOTc 


of Basil. 

a. Evi- 
dence of 
MSS KB 67. 

from Mt 

TOTc O^CI- ical fitjTOVfiev, el JJ.T) irape\Ket irpo&Keipevov TC TOTc AfiOIC TOTC 
ofci 2 , TL dvvarai aypaiveiv. Spa ovv el py, wovrep ev TW 'E|oSo) ovopa ^rjtriv 
eavrov 6 xpj/jttaTt^iaj' Moxrei TO *QN, ovrcas ot p.eTe^ovres TOV OVTOS yivovrai 
owes, KoXovfievoi olovel fK TOV fifj eivcu els TO eivat' K.T.X. 3 

This comment is no doubt referred to by St Basil [f A.D. 379] in the 
following extract, at the close of which he declares that the words ev 
'E<prp were wanting in the older copies in his own day: 

*AXXa /cat TOIS 'Ecfreo-iois eVtoreXXaj', cos yvtjo-l&s qvcofievois TB OVTI 81 
ovras avToiis I8ia6vrcos tovofiacrev, eartov TOTc ipfoiC TOTc 
KAt TTlCTOtc 6N XplCT<?) 'iHCOf. ovTto yap KOI of Trpo T)fJ.v Trapa- 
Kai finely ev rois ircikaiois Toav dvnypa<p<ov evprjuanev (Basil, contra 
Eunom. ii 19). 

2. The words eV 'E<pecrq> were originally absent from K and B; and 
they are marked for omission by the corrector of the cursive 67 in the 
Imperial Library at- Vienna (cod. gr. theoL 302). 

An interesting addition to the documentary evidence for the omission 
has been made by E. von der Goltz, who has published an account of 

1 See Lightfoot Biblical Essays 
pp. 377 ff., Westcott and Hort Intro- 
duction to N.T., ' Notes on select read- 
ings' ad loo., Hort Prolegg. to Romans 
and Ephesians pp. 86 ff., T. E. Abbott 
Ephesians pp. i ff . 

2 Perhaps we should read r< roTc 

Tb rote of ci. 
8 Origen's comment is reproduced 
in an obscure way by St Jerome, who 
probably was unaware of any omission 
in the text, and therefore failed to 
understand the drift of the explana- 


a remarkable cursive of the tenth or eleventh century in the Laura on 

Mt Athos 1 . This MS (cod. 184) contains the Acts and Catholic Epistles, Cod. Laur. 

as well as the Pauline Epistles, and once contained also the Apocalypse. l8 4- 

The scribe declares that he copied it from a very old codex, the text of 

which agreed so closely with that found in the commentaries or homilies 

of Origen that he concluded that it was compiled out of those books. The 

margin contains many quotations from works of Origen, which appear to 

have stood in the margin of the ancient copy. At the end of the Epistle 

to the Ephesians is the following note 2 : op airo rS>v ? rfjv irpbg 

<epo/xe'vooi/ er}yr}nitv TOfteov avrawyveoow (leg. dvraveyv<&<r6r)) 

The scribe's error shews that this note was copied from an uncial original, 

-ON having been read for -OH. This MS omits eV 'E$e'<ra>, and makes no 

comment on the omission. Thus we have positive evidence to confirm the 

conclusion that the words were absent from the text of Origen. 

3. The only other trace of the omission of the words is found in the 3. Mar- 
fact that Marcion included our epistle in his edition of the Pauline Epistles ci n - 
under the title 'TO THE LAODICEANS '. This he could hardly have done if 

the words eV 5 E$e<ro> had stood in the salutation. 

4. None of the versions gives any support to the omission. The only 4. Yer- 
two about which a doubt could be raised are the Old Syriac and the Latin, 

i) The-Old-Syriac-can-often-be-conjecturally-restored-from-theeom G 

mentary of Ephraim, which is preserved in an Armenian translation. It is Syriac : 
true that Ephraim does not mention the words 'in Ephesus\ His brief 
comment is: 'To the saints and the faithful; that is, to the baptized 
and the catechumens'. But that no conclusion can be drawn from this no evi- 
is at once seen when we compare with it the corresponding comment on deneefrom 
Col. i i : 'To the saints, he says, and the faithful : the baptized he calls Eptoaim. 
saints, and the catechumens he names faithful': yet no one would argue 
from this that the words ' at Colossae ' were absent from his text. 

(2) Lightfoot holds that there are indications in early Latin commen- Latin : 
taries that the texts used by their writers either did not contain the word supposed 
Ephesi, or contained it in an unusual position which suggests that it was evidence 
a later interpolation, Hort makes no reference to evidence to be derived 
from this source, and it may perhaps be assumed that he was not satisfied 
that a valid argument could be constructed. But as Dr Abbott has recently 
repeated Lightfoot's suggestions, it is necessary that the passages in question 
should be examined in detail. 

i. yicTOBiNUS, as printed in Mai Scriptorum veterum nova cottectio from 
iii 87, has the following comment : ' Sed haec cum dicit sanctis qui sunt yictor- 
jfidelibus JEphesi, quid adiungitur ? in Christo lesu'. I confess that I do lnua ' 
not understand how Lightfoot could render this, ' But when he says these 
words " To the saints who are the faithful of Ephesus," what does he add ? 
"In Christ Jesus' 5 .' For such a rendering would require Jideles, not fide- 
libus 3 . If the text be sound, qui sunt can only be taken in Origen's 

1 Sine textkritische Arbeit u. a. w. z l.c. p. 78. 

Texte . Untersuch. neue Folge ii 4 3 We are warned that this essay is 
(1899). 'printed from Lecture-Notes' (p. 376). 









sense 'the saints who ABE,' and fidelibus must stand in apposition to 
sanctis. But there is no trace of such an interpretation in Victorinus: 
and as he himself explicitly cites the passage in the usual manner lower 
down, we may well conclude that the words in this place have suffered in 
the process of transcription. Even if we conjecturally substitute fideles 
for fidelibus, and render, 'to the saints who are faithful in Ephesus', we 
cannot say that Victorinus is giving us a direct citation as contrasted with 
a mere allusion. For haec in the sentence before us does not refer to the 
words sanctis, etc., but to the preceding phrase Paulus apostolus lesu 
Christi per voluntatem dei, which Victorinus has just told us were also 
used in the Second Epistle to the Corinthiana So that the passage runs : 
'But when he says these (same) words to the saints who are faithful at 
Ephesus, what is added ? In Christ Jews'. The position of Ephesi is thus 
accounted for by the emphasis thrown upon it for the purpose of contrast 
with the Corinthian Church. It seems clear then that no evidence of a 
variation of reading can be drawn from Victorinus. 

ii. Lightfoot suggests that AMBROSIASTER may not have had Ephesi in 
his text: (i) because 'the commentary ignores the word Ephesi altogether' : 
(2) because his note suggests that he, or an earlier writer whose note he 
adopts, had in his mind rots dyiois TOIS o5<rtv /cat irurrois, which he regarded 
as meaning 'the saints who are also faithful'. 

But, in regard to (i), a similar omission of the locality occurs in the 
-cor*espondmg-ttotes"on^he~Epistleto~th^Galatians and ~tb~fche Colossians : 
and generally the author's comments on corresponding phrases are directed 
to bringing out the meaning of the word 'saints' and its connexion with 
4 Christ Jesus '. Moreover the text, as given in the Vetus Editio of Ambrose, 
after citing v. i runs thus : 

Solito more scribit: Apostolum enim ee esse Christi Jesu dei uoluntate 
testator: Sanctis et fidelibus in Christo Jesu qui sunt Ephesi. Non solum 
fidelibus scribit : Bed et sanctis : ut tune nere fideles sint si fuerint eancti in 
Christo Jesu. Bona enim uita tune prodest ac creditor sancta si sub nomine 
Christi habeatur: alioquin contaminatio erit: quia ad iniuriam proficit crea- 

The Benedictine edition (and hence Migne, from which Lightfoot 
quotes) omits the words Sanctis et fidelibus in Christo Jesu qui sunt 
Ephesi. In the quoted text of v. i as given in both editions the 
corresponding words are as follows: Sanctis omnibus qui sunt Ephesi) 
et fidelibus in Christo Jesu. The variation is noteworthy. On internal 
grounds it would seem to belong to the commentator ; but in that case he 
does not ignore the word Ephesi. 

With regard to (2), we should be more ready to admit the cogency 
of the argument if the comment ran: non solum sanctis scribit, sed 
et fidelibus. 

iii. SEDULIUS SCOTUS, a compiler of the eighth or ninth century, writes 
(Migne, P. L. eiii 795) : 

Sanctis. Non omnibus Ephesus, sed his qui credunt in Christo. Et fidelibus. 

Omnes sancti fideles sunt, Don omnes fideles sancti Qui sunt in Christo 

lesu. Plurea fideles sunt, sed non in Christo, etc. 


Lightfoot lays no stress on the omission ofEphesi. 'But', he says, 'the 
position of qui sunt is striking. It would seem as though some transcriber, 
finding the reading sanctis qui sunt et fidelibus in Christo Jesu in his 
copy and stumbling at the order, had transposed the words so as to read 
sanctis et fidelibus qui sunt in Christo Jesu. This altered reading may 
have been before Sedulius, or some earlier writer whom he copies '. 

Fortunately we have some information as to the source which Sedulius A parallel 
was drawing from at this point. The Commentary on the Pauline Epistles, *? 'Prima- 
which is falsely attributed to Frimasius, may or may not be earlier than 
the work of Sedulius. At any rate the following passage from it is worth 
quoting as a parallel 1 : 

Sanctis omnibus qui sunt Ephesi. Omuls sanctus fidelis, non omnis fidelis 
sanctus. Baptizatis fidelibus slue fideliter seruantibus sanctitatem: eatechu- 
menis qui habent fidem, quia credunt, sed non habeut sanctitatem. Et fidelibus 
in Christo lesu. Qui licitis utuntur. Gratia etc. 

The Commentary of Pelagius, printed in Vallarsi's edition of St Jerome The 
(xi, pars iii), seems to lie behind both the preceding extracts. It runs source 
thus: ' probably 

is Pela- 

Omnibus sanctis. Omnes sancti fideles, non omnes fidelea sancti. Quia gins 

possunt etiam catechumen! ex eo quod Christo credunt fideles did : non tamen 
sancti sunt, quia non per baptismum sanctificati. Siue sic intelligendum, quod 
scribat fideliter seruantibus gratiam sanctitatis. Qui sunt Ephesi, et fidelibus who read 
in Christo lesu. Non omnibus ESphesiis, sedThis qui credunt in Christo. Ephesi 7 . 
Gratia etc. 

i 15 K&1 T&N [AI-^TTHN] efc TTANTAC TO^C A 

"We must consider this passage in connexion with the parallels to 
be found in the two other epistles which were carried by the same 

i. Eph. i 15 aKova-as TTJV naff vpas irioriv ev r< Kvplc* 'liyo-oO Ka\ TT/V 
]. els irdvras TOVS ayiovs. 

ii. Col. i 4 aKOv&avrcs TTJV iritrTiv Vficov eV Xptorw 'irja-ov KOI rrjv dymrrjv 
[rjv ?X CTC ] e ' s ifdvras roiis ayiovs. 

iii. Philem. 5 aKovtav erov Tr/v ayanrjv <al TTJV moriv yv cx ty ^ s fa 1" 
Trpos] TOV Kvptov 'IT)(TOVV Kal els irdvras TOVS ayiovs. 

In (i) we have the following readings : Eph. i 15. 

(1) jcal TT)v els Trdvras TOVS ayiovs N*ABP 17 Or'** 129 Cyr tritie()3 Aug 
(depraed. ss. xix 39). 

(2) KOI TTJv aydirTjv els IT. r. a. P 2 *G 3 . 

(3) Kal Triv dydiniv TT)V els IT. T. a. K C D 2 C KL al pier Chrys Thdrt 
Dam al. 

The. Latin, Syriac, Bohairic and Gothic Versions may be claimed 

. 333. ascribe it to a Gallic writer: it is 

On this Commentary see Haussleiter closely related to the Commentary of 

in Zahn's Forschungen zur Geschichte Bemigius. 
d. NTliehenKanons iv 24 ff. He would 


either for (2) or for (3) j and so also Victorin bia Ambrsfc Aug (Ep. 
ccxvii 28) al. 

(4) KOI ri)v els iravras TOVS dylovf dydirrjy 6 cursives, the Catena text 

Col. i 4. In (ii) B stands alone in omitting TJV *x er "without giving any substitute. 

It thus presents a reading difficult at first sight from the grammarian's 
point of view, but quite in accord with Pauline usage. The position of ev 
Xpiorxp 'Iqo-oii after ir'umv in the same verse is a parallel; and other 
examples are given in the note on Eph. i 15. As the article was likely 
to be inserted by scribes, we may claim the reading of D 2 C KL (TTJV dydmfv 
rfpf} as indirectly supporting B; and the insertion of ty e^ere may be 
regarded as another way of meeting the difficulty, and as perhaps suggested 
by TJV e%is in iii. 

Philem. 5. In (iii) scribes who took ty e%ets as exclusively referring to T^V iritrnv 
found a difficulty in the phrase iriartv *\eiv els irdvras TOVS dyiavs, and 
accordingly D 2 with many cursives, the Syriac, Armenian and Aethiopic 
Versions, invert the order and read rr)v KIOTO/ KOI r^v dydmjv. But the 
difficulty is really non-existent; for -njv aycanpi KOI r^v iriariv are alike 
included in ip> e^eis, and the order oflers an example of the grammatical 
figure called chiasmus : see Lightfoot ad loc. 

Internal We now return to consider the readings of (i). If external authority be 

evidence alQne-Considered,-we-cannot-refuse-to-accept~(r): But~internal~evidence is 

favours strongly adverse to it. We cannot give n-itms the meaning of 'loyalty' or 

^ " 'trustworthiness', in view of the parallels in the other epistles: and we 

have no example of such an expression as 'faith towards all the saints'; 

for, as we have seen, Philem. 5 cannot be regarded as sich. Moreover 

we expect from the two parallels that we should find a mention of ' love ' at 

this point in the Epistle to the Ephesians. 

The argu- It has been urged that the fact that St Paul writes TJ)I> na.6' vfias 

ment from instead of T^V iriortv vfi&v prepares us for an unusual collocation ; and that 
Kad' ^y. contrast involved is between r^v Kaff v^as and rfjv els iram-as TOVS 

dyiovs (Hort). But Dr T. K. Abbott has shewn (ad loc.} that 
in such a connexion is by no means unusual hi later Greek. He cites 
Aelian, V. H* ii 12 ij KO.T OVTOV aperf, Diod. Sic. i 65 77 Kara -ri\v dpxfjv 
airo6e<ns (laying down the government); and, in the New Testament, 
Acts xvii 28 T<Si> naff vp,as TTOIIJTCOV, XVlii 15 vopav TOV na6* vftas, xxvi 3 
T&V KCLTO. 'lovdaiovs e6a>v. Accordingly Tr)? Kaff vpas iri<mv ev T(p Kvpito 
'Irja-ov is not appreciably different from T^V iriortv vpav ev T& Kvplat 'I^o-oO, 
which would closely correspond with CoL i 4. 

The con- If in spite of the authorities which support it we reject (i), there can 

struction be no doubt that (2) must be the reading of our choice. For we then have 

TV*} 7n7J> a close parallel to Col. i 4, when that passage has been purged of accre- 

-changes. ^ ons - Moreover the same phrase has in each epistle given occasion for 

the alterations of scribes; and (3) and (4) are seen to be alternative 

methods of escaping from the construction TTJV dydmjv els irdvras TOVS 

dyiovs. This construction is, however, as we have seen, frequent in 

St Paul's writings. Accordingly we may claim the evidence of (3) and 

(4) as practically supporting (2), of which they are obvious modifications: 


go that we have the evidence of all the Versions, as well as N C D 2 C KL etc., 
to support D 2 *G 2 against N*ABP (0 unfortunately is missing from i I to 
ii 18, and again from iv 17 to the end). 

It is possible that the loss of the word in the chief MSS is due to Possible 
homoeoteleuton. The resemblance between AITHN and &TTHN is so close, komoeo- 
that aymniv may have been passed over in teleuton. 

11 21 TTACA oiKOAOMH. 

Haa-a 77 otKodopri is read by 8 a ACP, with many cursives and some ii 21 
patristic evidence. 

Origen (cat. 151) has been cited for this reading, but the article isOrigen's 
absent from the only codex we possess. On the other hand the Athos MS reading, 
described by von der Goltz ( Texte u. Unters. neue Folge ii 4, p. 75) has irao-a 
q oiKoSp/t)/ written above as an alternative to iraa-a otKoSofu? : and the margin 
contains the following note: TO psv pryrov TOV viro^vrnwros' ev fp irao~a OIKO- 
5o/x?) Svev TOV apdpov. rj Se eqyr)<rts p-lav \eyova-a TTJV oiKoSo/t^j/ rldr/a-i Kal TO 
apdpop. The reference may perhaps be to the words TTJ ircury oiKotiopfi, which 
occur later in Origen's comment. It is interesting however to note that in 
the supplement which Mr Turner (Journ. of Theol. Studies, April 1902, 
pp. 407 f.) has conjecturally added to correspond with Jerome's Latin, the 
words ircura q~6lKo8ojTi) are introduced. ThlTchange has apparently~l5een 
made on the ground that Jerome here writes universa aedificatio, and not 
omnis aedificatio as before: for I understand that Mr Turner had not seen 
the evidence of von der Goltz's MS. 

We cannot do otherwise than accept the reading of the principal author- The article 
ities. The insertion of the article was probably a grammatical correction, inserted 
intended to secure the sense at a time when otKo&o/wJ had come to be ^^^~ 
regarded almost exclusively as concrete in meaning. See the note in the grounds, 
commentary ad loc. 

ill 9 C|>60TIC<M Tfc H OiKONO/V\f&. 

I have discussed the internal evidence for this reading in the common- iii 9 
tary. The external evidence is conflicting. Qoyrlffu rls 

Somom (without irdvTas') is read by K*A 67** Cyril (de recta fide ad * K 
reg. ed. Aubert 1638, p. 123). To this Greek evidence we may add that of 
Origen as gathered from Jerome's commentary. For though in the text 
Vallarsi prints illuminare omnes, the word omnes is not found hi some 
codices, and the subsequent comment indicates at two points that omnes 
was not present to the commentator's mind. 

$<orrtu iravras has the authority of NBCD 2 G 3 KLP etc., of various 
Greek writers, and of all the versions, with the partial exceptions in Latin 
of Hilary (in Ps. ix 3, ed. Vienna p. 76), Aug (de gen. ad lit. v. 38, ed. 
Vienna p. 162). 

It may be that the absence of B from its usual company is due here and 
elsewhere in the epistle to Western contamination. 


iii 18 ^yoc KA! B&Ooc. 
iii 18 tifos The main evidence is as follows : 

" ityos KOI /Satfos BCD 2 G S P 17 and other cursives, together with all 

versions (exc. Syr). 

fiddos Kal vtyos NAKL and many cursives, Orig Ens Chrys etc. 

Old The exception of the Harklean Syriac is due to the correction by 

Syriac. Greek MSS of the earlier Syriac reading. The Peshito had the curious 
order fyos KOI pd6of KOI fjajKos KOI TrXoror, and Ephraim's commentary 
attests this for the Old Syriac. 

Origen's Origen in his commentary undoubtedly accepted the reading fiddos 
evi ence. ^ ^ os ^ although incidentally he speaks of the Cross as having both 
ityos and fiddos. We find also ftddos not (tyros in Horn, in Jerem. xviii 2 
(Ru. iii 243). The text of von der Goltz's Athos MS has J3adog Kal vtyos. 
But a note in the margin says that ttyos Kal fiados was read in the text of 
the copy of Origen's commentary, though he himself in his comment had 

o '/I \ ff i 

paaos KCU uyos. 

The result The interpretation of such evidence is uncertain. If, as in the reading 
uncertain. i as t discussed, we suppose that B has admitted a "Western element, the 

claim of the reading of KA Orig (fiaQos Kal fyos) is very strong. I have 

however printed ttyos /cat @ddos in deference to the judgment of "Westcott 

and Hort. 

v 9 

iv 9 This is the reading of N*AC*I> 2 G3 17 67**. 

B u t np&Tov is added in N C BC KLP and most cursives. The versions 
are divided : d 2 g 3 agree with their Greek, and there is no addition in sah 
boh aeth. On the other hand irparov is attested by f vg (though not, appa- 
rently, by the original scribe of Codex Amiatinus) : also by syr goth arm. 
Ephraim's comment is a strange one, and it leaves us uncertain whether 
the Old Syriac had the addition or hot : ' Now that which ascended what 
is it (saith he) but the body, which descended by means of death into 
Hades ? for that is the lower region of the earth '. 

The Latin translator of Irenaeus has no addition (M. p. 331); but it 
must be remembered that this is the case with the Latins generally with 
the exception of Ambrosiaster. 

Clement (exc. Theod., P. 979) has no addition. It is noteworthy that he 
ends the sentence with KOTC^, and continues thus : 6 Karafias avros e<mv 
elf TO. Ka.Tc6ra.Ta. TTJS yf}s Kal dvaftas virepdvco T&V ovpavwv. 

Origeu, though he does not make this transposition, recognises the 
same connexion of thought: inJoann. xix 21 KOI TO- Els ra KareoVara TTJS 
yrjs o Kara/Say, ovros eart /cat acajSar: comp. xix 2O /cat yap els TO. KorooTepa 
(sic) pepr) TTJS yijs 6 Karaftds, K.T.\. These passages throw no light on Origen's 
reading in regard to irp&rov : nor does the passage cited from the Latin of 
his commentary on Ezekiel (Ru. iii 358): nor again the incidental citation in 
Catena p. 162. Jerome's commentary however in its text has no addition, 
and this may perhaps be an indication of Origen's text at this point. 

The strangest point about this reading is the company in which B 
finds itself. 


17 K&8&C K&t T& G6NH. 

A small group of uncials with many cursives read <a6ms <al ri \oiira iv 17 ri 

K'Dg^KLP): so also syr goth arm 5 but not the Old Syriac as^i?. 
attested by Ephraim's commentary. 

The addition is of an interpretative character. 


iv 28 TATc xepclN r6 ^r A 9^ N 
This is the reading of K C B. Other readings are: iv 28 TCUS 

TO dyaQbv TOIS x*po~w ^> *nany cursives, and the text of the Catena 

TOIS lo-icus xepvlv TO dyadov K*AD 2 G 3 and some cursives. 

TO dyadov TOIS Idiots ^epcnV K and some cursives. 

T-O dyadov P 17 67** cod Laur 184 (v. der Goltz, p. 78). This is sup- 
ported by m and by Clem. Alex. (P. 308, 371). The comment of Origen 
would not require any other reading than this. 

The versions do not give us much help in a reading of this kind. 

iv 29 npdc olKoAo/wftN THC 

Ad aedificationem fidei is the ahnost universal reading in Latin codices 
and fathers. Jerome ad loc. says, ' Pro eo autem quod nos posuimus ad 
aedificationem opportunitatis, hoc est quod dicitur Graece TTJS xP e ' as > m 
Latinis codicibus propter euphoniam mutauit interpres et posuit ad aedifi- 
cationem fidei'. Jerome's rendering is found in Codd. Amiatinus and 
Puldensis (the latter having opportunitatis fidei), but it has not succeeded 
in displacing the older Latin rendering in the ordinary Vulgate MSS. 

The only Greek patristic evidence cited for 7riWos is Greg. JNyss. in Clement's 
Eccl&dast. vii 6 (Migne p. 727), Basil Begg. pp. 432, 485, alibi. It is how- reading. 
ever to be noted that, although in Clem. Alex. Strom, i 18 90 (P. 371) 
we have irpbs olKodoptiv TTJS xP"' as > y 6 ^ m ^ ne opening sentence of the 
Paedagogus we have the expression els olKo8op,^v TTIOTCG)?. 

It has been suggested to me that the reading of D 2 * and Iren. Haer. Gomp. 
(praef. ad init,) in i Tun. i 4 should be borne in mind in the consideration x Tim - * 4- 
of this variant: /xaXXoi/ ^ oiKo8ofj.^v dcov T^V ev rriWet (D 2 C has 
the true reading being olKovopiav). 

v 32, v 2 

The reading of B is e^api'traro ^yamja-ev vpas ital irapedcoKf? eavrbv iv 32, y c 
vjrep vn&v. N has . (17/10? N c ). . .^v. 

The reading in iv 32 may be considered by itself. B has the support of "' 
D 2 (but not d 2 ) KL : but the same combination reads q/up also in the parallel 
passage, Col. iii. 13, where B goes with the other uncials in reading V/MV. 
The context would admit of, but vfiiv is the more natural : and it is 
supported by 8 AG 3 P (the cursives and the versions are divided). 


The readings in v 2 must be considered together. We can hardly allow 
a change of the pronoun in the two clauses coupled by nai The evidence 
of the uncials is as follows: 

as K*ABP, jfias KD 2 G 3 KL : 
v B, jJ/wSv KAD 2 G 3 KLP. 

The pro- 

bv scribes 

V 14 

By change 
of a letter, 




In Modern Greek u/*r and focis are indistinguishable in sound, and 
this was probably the case when our MSB were written, for the scribes 
perpetually confuse them. The context usually settles the question : but 
where either will make good sense, it is difficult to come to a decision. On 
the whole we may be satisfied to read the pronoun of the second person 
throughout this passage. 

v 14 erri<f>&fcei coi 6 xpicroc. 

By the change of a single letter we get the reading eVu/mvo-ei o-oi 6 
xpurros. I have already given (p. 119) a passage from Jerome ad loc., in 
which he tells of a preacher who quoted the text as follows: ' Surge Adam 
qui dormis, et exsurge a mortuis, et non ut legimus eirufravo-ei o-ot Xptp-rds, 
id est orietur tibi Christus, sed em^rawrei, id est continget te Christus\ 

There seems to be no Greek evidence to corroborate this. For though 
Cramer's Catena ad loc., p. 196, L 31, has em^ava-ei o-ot o Xptoro?, this 

and Field's apparatus (p. 279) shews that several scribes have written 
emfyavo-ei for em^ava-ei. In Latin however we find continget te Christus in 
the old Roman edition of Ambrosiaster ad loc., and in Augustine on Ps. iii 
6 (ed. Ben. iviib). 

If this reading is due to a mere mistake, there is another which involves 
conscious alteration, viz. emtyavcreis TOV xpiorou. It is found in Cod. Claro- 
montanus (D 2 ), the Latin side of which has continges Christum. It was 
known to Chrysostom: indeed it probably stood in the MS which he was 
using for his commentary. For though, according to Field's text and 
apparatus, in the first place in which he quotes the verse he gives us 
eVt$awo-et o-ot o xprros, yet a few lines lower down his comment runs thus : 
Kat eTwIravtreis, (prjtri, TOV ^pioroC' ot Se <pao-iv 'ETTMpauo-et o-ot o ^pto-ros' 
/i2XXoi> Be TOVTO eari. This comment is far more natural if the text of the 
Catena be right, which gives in the first place ejri^avo-eLs TOV ^pto-roS. 
Continges Christum is found in Victorinus ad loc., and in some MSS of 
Ambrosiaster : also in the Latin translator of Origen (Ru. ii 400, iii 78). 
Ruricius, epp. lib. ii 1 1, gives alternative readings : 'et continges Christum 
siue inluminabit te Christus*. Moreover Paulinus of Kola, ep. xxxii 20, 
has : 'Surge inquit qui dormis, et erigere a mortuis, et adtinges Christum' : 
comp. ep. ix 2, 'quamuis iamdudum ei dixeritis: Erige te a mortuis, ut 
adtingas Christum'. 

V 15 dfcpi- 
8ws irws. 

v 15 BAerrere O?N KpiB>c n&c 

This is the reading of N*B, 17 and other cursives, Or 08 *: and the order 
is supported by the Bohairic version, which however reads aoVXoW after 


have BXeVere ovf, a8e\<poi } 7r<5f aKpifia>s irepurartiTe, and this is 
supported by the Vulgate and Pelagius o^ Joe. (as edited). D 2 G 3 KLP have 
the same reading without the insertion of dSeX^oi : this is supported by 
the Syriac and Armenian versions, and by Chrysostom, Lucifer, Victorinus 
and Ambrosiaster. In d 2 axpt/StSy is not represented. 

r 17 

This is read by KABP 17 67**...syr arm. v 17 

D 2 *G 3 have o-wiovres, and D 2 c KL...have wvtAvres which is supported <rwlere. 

by Chrysostom and others. 

The Latin rendering was Propterea nolite ejfici (fieri) imprudentes, 

sed intellegentes, etc. It is quite possible that the participle came in by the 

process of Latinisation. . 

V 19 vp^AMOtC K<\t Y MN O |C K *t <pA&Tc TTNeYM&TlK&fC K.T.A. 

The readings of this verse are compared with those of CoL iii 16 by v 19 
Lightfoot, Colossians, pp. 247 f. Here it may suffice to note that B (i ) inserts 
eV before ^a\p.ois, with P 17 67**: (2) omits irvevfiaTiKdis, with d 2 and some 
MSS of Ambrosiaster: (3) reads rfj KapMq, with N*0r cat , against ev ry KapMq, 
or lv rats Kapftiais. Of these variants (i) and (2) are probably errors, but 
(3) may be accepted, 

V 22 Af TYNATKGC, TOfC [AfoiC 

The only MS which at present offers this reading is B. Clement of v 22 Ai 
Alexandria however cites the passage thus (P. 592) where he quotes vv. 21 
25, but where he begins his citation with v. 22 he inserts vnoraa-a-eadoxrav 
(P. 308). Jerome says that the subditae sint of the Latin 'in Graecis 
codicibus non habetur'; and he was probably guided by Origen here. 

The other readings are : 

(a) Ai yvvaiKcs, TOIS Idiots dvSpdcriv viroTd<r<rea-6e KL...syr ntr Chr 
(5) At ywaiKes, VTroTd<r<re<rde rots Idiots dvdpeurw T)%Q S 
(c) Ai rots ISlots avdpamv viroracr(rfcr6a>(ra.v COparm 
Clem 308 

(a) and (&) preserve the vocative construction, which is found below in 
v. 25, vi i, 4, 5, 9, and in the parallel passages in Col iii 18 ff. 
(&) gives vTroTao-oreo-^e in the same position as in CoL iii 18. 
(c) departs from the true construction, and perhaps is not independent 
of I Cor. XIV 34 dXXa viroraa-a-ecrdciarav. 

It is to be noted that in the chapter numberings of Euthalius a new 
capitulum e'*begins with this verse. 

v 23 <\YTC>C ccorAp TOY ct*>M<vroc. 
This is the reading of N*ABD 2 *G 3 latt., except that X*A prefix 6 to v 23 

ND 2 b KLP read KOI avrbs eon wrr/p TOV crw^arof. The change was 
doubtless intended to make the language more smooth, but it weakens the 



v 27 TN<\ 

y 27 atfrds For avros we find auYJp in D 2 K and many cursives : also in Chrysostom. 
But here again the sense is obviously weakened by the change. 


So the words stand without addition in N*AB 17 67** and in von der 
Goltz's Athos MS. This last piece of evidence confirms the view that 
Origen knew of no addition (Ru. iii 61). We have further evidence from 
the Bohairic and Aethiopic versions, and from Methodius (Sympos. 54, 
Jahn p. 17). 

But the great mass of authorities add the words CK TT)S a-apKos OVTOV KOI 
f< TO>V oareav avrov. Irenaeus read them and commented on them (Mass. 
v. 2 3, p. 294). They are derived from Gen. ii 23, Tovro vvv GO-TOW TV 
ooretw p,ov KOI arap en TTJS vapKos pov, the verse which immediately precedes 
that which St Paul goes on to quote, * For this cause shall a man leave,' etc. 
It is not impossible that St Paul should himself have made this adaptation 
as a preliminary to his quotation : but the strength of the evidence against 
the words justifies us in regarding them as an early gloss. 

V 31 CT_p.dc_TAN_pY-NAT.KA-Af-T-O-Y.- 

V 31 irpbs 


of the 

In Gen. ii 24 the evidence for the LXX is as follows : 

irpbs TTJV ywatKa avrov, Z>E and most cursives, supported by Origen in 
his comment on Eph. v 31. 

rfj ywaiKi avrov, A and some cursives. 
Unfortunately the evidence of NB is wanting.' 

The passage is thrice quoted in the New Testament. 

In Matth. xix 5 the reading is rjj ywai<\ avrov in almost all authorities. 
In Mark x 7 the whole clause KCU. wpoo"icoXX7jd^o"Tai npos rrjv ywalita avroO 
is wanting in KB. For the MSS which have this clause the evidence is : 


rfj yvvaiKi auToi), AGLNA... 
In Eph. v 31 the main evidence is : 

irpos rfjv yvvaiKa OVTOV, N C BD 2 C KL 

T ff yvvaiKt avrov N* (om. avrov) AD 2 *G 3 17 

Origen (Cat. ad loc.) expressly states that St Paul omitted the clause of 
the LXX irpocTKO\\ijd^freTai irpbs TTJV yvvtuica UVTOV. In C. Gels, iv 49 he 
quotes, as from St Paul, yeypairrai yhp on tveitev TOVTQV /caraX'^ 
av6pa>iros rov jrarepa KOI TIJV firjTepa /cat jrpoo-KoXXjj^o-crat irpos TTJV yvvaiKa 
avrov, KOI eaovrai ol 8vo els traKpa fiiav. TO [ivcmjpiov rovro /xeya eWtV, /c.r.X. 
Here however he is quoting loosely from memory, as is shewn by his giving 
fvenev TOVTOV for St Paul's dvri rovrov. Again in Gomm. in Matth. t. xvii 
c. 34 he first quotes, as it seems, from the LXX, and then adds St Paul's 
words : but he does not give a continuous quotation from St Paul. These 
two passages therefore are not really inconsistent with his statement as to 
the omission of the clause by St Paul 


It appears that from Marcion's text of the epistle the clause was also 
absent. For Tertullian c. Marc, v 18 cites the passage thus: ' Fropter hanc 
(v.l. hoc) relinquet homo pattern et matrem, et erunt duo in came una. 
sacramentum hoc magnum est' ('hanc' would seem to refer to 'ecclesiam') : 
comp. c. Marc, iii 5 'Suggerens Ephesiis quod in primordio de homine 
praedicatum est relicturo patrem et matrem, et futuris duobus in unam 
carnem, id se in Christum et ecclesiam agnoscere '. Epiphanius in a con- 
fused note (c. haer. xlii, schol. 3 in Ephes., p. 373) corroborates this 

It is remarkable that the only evidence of Greek MSS for omission of 
the clause is that which we have already noticed in Mark x 7. 

vi 9 

This is the best reading in itself, and it has the strongest authority, being vi 9 KO.I 
supported by N* (eavr.) ABD 2 *P 17 vg. afl? Kal 

The Latin of Clarom. (d 2 ) has et uestrum ipsorum, and in consequence 
of this the second nal of the Greek is dropped by the corrector : so that we 
get the reading Kal av-rw vp&v D 2 C , which is also found in G 3 . 

Cyprian, Testim. iii 73, has et uestrum et ipsorum (om. et 2 cod. Monac.): 
this Corresponds to /cat vu&v Kal O.VT&V X c (eavr.} L. 

The reading of the Textus Receptus Kal vp&v avr&v has but very slight 

vi 10 TO? AoiTToy. 

This is read by X*AB 17, and is supported by the true text of Cramer's vi 10 
Catena ad loc., which at this point almost certainly represents Origen (see 
Journ. of Th. St. iii 569). 

As TO Aoroi, or \oiir6v alone, is frequent in St Paul's epistles, we are 
not surprised to find the variant TO \oar6v hi N C D 2 G 3 and many other 

vi 16 CN 

The preposition h is given by KBP 17... Cramer's Catena ad loc. supports vi 16 
this reading in its text, although Chrysostom from whom it is quoting at 
this point has r/. The Latin rendering is in omnibus, with the rarest e 

On the other hand eVt watriv is found in AD 2 G 3 KL and many other 
authorities. Ambrosiaster has super his omnibus. In Book xii of the 
de trinitate, ascribed to Vigilius of Thapsus, we find the rendering super 
haec omnia (Chifflet p. 313). This Book, however, according to a recent 
theory is a Latin translation of a Greek treatise (see references in the note 
on p. 291 above, see also p. 269 n.). In c. Varimad. iii 24 Vigilius has the 
usual rendering in omnibus. 


vi 16 rA 

n BD2 * G - The co ^ination is inter- 
, ma / be merel y accidental Origen has the article in his 
comment in the Catena, and in his comm. in Exod., Ru. ii 126. In his 
common Joann. xxxii 2 (Ru. iv 406) the article is present, but a little 
lower down (p. 407), though Delarue has it, Huet and Brooke omit it In 
the passages cited by Tregelles (Ru, i 266 and in Pros. Mai 12) we have 
only allusions from which no argument can be drawn. 

vi 19 rd MYCTHRION TO? 

r T J h0 r iS8i n f '--"yy^W by BG 3 is supported by Victorinus. In 
rcO ay- ***-*X<** T we have the phrase comtantiam manifestandi sacra- 
apertione oris, which points to the same omission. 


'A.ya6(>s, ii 10, iv 28 f., vi 8 

ayadufffoij, V 9 

dyair&v, ii 4, V 2, 25, 28, 33, vi 24; 

6 -^yairrjfji^vos, i 6 

dydin], i 15, ii 4, iii 19, vi 23; <b 
d-ydinj, i 4, iii 17, iv 2, 15, 16 
s, V I, vi 21 
', V 26 

ol 7101, i i, 15, 18, ii 19, iii 18, 
iv 12, vi 18; ayioi, iii 8, v 3; 'dyios 

TJJS a\i)9elas, i 13; KaObs fffriv d 
0a, iv 21 
d\T)Beteiv, iv 15 
vi 20 

apaprdveiv, iv 26 
d/tapr/a, ii I 
dyn^, iii 21 
a/*w/tos, i 4, V 27 
dvapalveiv, iv 8 ff. 
dvayivdiffKetv, iii 4 

/cai afjLiaftos, 14, v 27 ; rd irvevpa. rb 
iiyiov, i 13, iv 30; Ja6s 017105, ii 21; 
ol aytot aTrooToXot, iii 5 
ayvoia, iv 1 8 
aypvirveiv, vi 1 8 
^Seiv, V 19 
dSe\<p&s, vi 21, 23 
a^eos, ii 12 
aT^ta- (roO x^trroO) i 7, ii 13; o^a icai 

<ro/>, vi 12 
a'ipeiv, iv 31 
V 12 
, V 4 
iii 13, 20 

y 6 aiaji* oSros, i 21; TOU 
roi5rov, ii 2; ol aftSpes, iii 9, ii; ol 
tTrepxAp-cvoi, ii 7 ; 6 aiwi TW^ al6i><av, 
iii 21 

dicaQapffla, iv 19, V 3 

dtcdGapros, v 5 


<k/u/3ws, V 15 
dicpopvffTla, ii II 
dxpoywvicuos, ii 20 

ta, iv 21, 24 f., V 9, vi 14; 6 X6yoy 



dva\aft,pdveiv, vi 13, 1 6 
dvaveoCffOtu, iv 23 
drd(TTa, V 14 
dva<TTpt<j>eff6ai, ii 3 
dvaffrpoijyfi, iv 22 
avepos (T^S St5a<r/caXias), iv 14 
dvel-txi>ta<rTos, iii 8 
i, iv 2 
V 4 

pa r\eiov, iv 13 
s, vi 6 

avOpwwos' ets ?va KCUV&V, ii 15 J 
iii 1 6 ; 6 iraXai6s, iv 22 ; 6 
iv 24 ; oi uZoi TWJ' divdpdrirwv, iii 5 
dvi&ai, vi 9 
fipoi&s, vi 19 
drri TOI&TOV, V 31 
vi 13 
irepuraTeiv, iv I 

iv 19 

dir7i\\oTpi<afj^t>oi, ii 12, iv 18 
dirarav, V 6 
dirdri), iv 22 

direlOta' ol viol rrjs, ii 2, V 6 
vi 9 
vi 5 




i 5 

diroKoXvipis, i 17, iii 3 
diroKaraXXdcrcreiv, ii 16 

iii 9 

fiveiv, ii 16 

airo\fa-p(acris, i 7, 14, iv 30 
<fo-6<rroXos, i i, ii 20, iii 5, iv ii 
dirorideffBai, iv 22, 25 
appap&v, i 14 

j, i 21, iii 10, vi 12 
v, ii 2 

, iv 19 

CKT000J, V 15 

x, v i8 

ii 21, iv 15 
TIS, iv 1 6 

(emph.), ii 14, iv iof., v 23, 27 
&<j>e<ris, i 7 
a<p-fl, iv 1 6 
d<p6apata, vi 24 
&(j>p<av, v 17 

idos, iii 18 

v, v 10 
S6fj.ara, iv 8 

86a, iii 13, 21 j els tircuvov (T^J) 
i 6, 12, 14; 6 Trarfy) rrjs 56i)s, i 17; 
rijs 56|i;s, i 18, iii 16 
vi 7 

SoOXos, vi 5 f., 8 
Strapis, i 19, 21, iii 7, 16, 20 
duped, iii 7, iv 7 
Supov, ii 8 

eyelpeiv, i 20, V 14 
0Mj, T<, ii u, iii i, 6, 8, iv 17 
et ye, iii 2, iv 21 
elSca\o\dTpi)s, V 5 

i 2, ii 17, iv 3, vi 15, 23; ^ 
, ii 14; TTotcti' elpjvi}v, 
ii 15 
KK\i](rla, i 22, iii 10, 21, v 23 S., 27, 

29, 32 
K\eyeff0ai, i 4 

iv 29 
V 29, vi 4 


flacriXela rod xpiffrov Kal ffeov, V 5 
j&Xos, vi 1 6 
P\aff<f>Ti[, iv 31 
fi\eireiv ffwj, v 15 


i 5, 21 

yvwplfriv, i 9, iii 3, 5, 10, vi 19, 21 
TVWCTIJ, iii 19 
ydvara Kaftirreiv, iii 14 
yoveis, vi i 

ris, vi 18 
Sfoptos, iii i, iv i 
d^xeffffat (ireptKe<pa\alca>), vi 17 
&a/3o\os, iv 27, vi n 

(T^J ^jrayyeXfaj), ii 12 
, iv 12 

iii 7, vi 21 
dtdcota, ii 3, iv 18 
diSaffKa\la, iv 14 
i, iv ii 

4v afo$), iv 21 
s, vi i 

iv 24, v 9, vi 14 
6, ii n, iii 13, iv 8, 25, v 14 
a, ii 15 

e\axio'T6Tepos, iii 8 
e\tyxw, v n, 13 
?\eos, ii 4 

s, vi 8 
s, i 18, ii 12, iv 4 

ii 7 
v 27 

i>dvpafi0v<r6cu, vi 10 
evStiffaffBai, iv 24, vi ii, 14 
evepyeia' KO.T& (rty), i 19, iii 7, iv 16 
evepyelv, i n, 20, ii 2, iii 20 
PKO.Keiv, iii 13 
iv 3, 13 
ii 15, vi 2 
e%ayopdfea>, v 1 6 
e^urxfaw, iii 1 8 

el-ovffia, i 21, ii 2, iii 10, vi 12 
eirayyeMa, i 13, ii 12, iii 6, vi 2 
e'lrawos, v. S6^a 

(alwves), ii 7 
i 17, iv 13 
feiv, iv 26 

ii 3, iv 22 

v 14 
la, iv 16 
eiroiKoSofteiffffai, ii 20 
evovpavlois, ev rots, i 3, 20, ii 6, iii 10, 
vi 12 



t, iv 28 
tpyaela, iv 19 

Zpyov (SutKovlas), iv 1 2 ; tpya. ii 9 f., V 1 1 
vi 15 
vi 3 

ii 17, iii 8 
etayyt\ioi>, i 13, iii 6, vi 15, 19 

iv n 
V 10 
evSoicia, i 5> 9 
eXo7', i 3 
fl}Xo7i;7-<5s, i 3 
ei3Xo7^a, i 3 
eft*ota, vi 7 

, iv 32 
V 4 
eiv , i 1 6, V 20 

V 4 
V 2 
ii 15 f. 

(roC 0eoO), iv 18 

iv 30 ; 

3)\uda., iv 13 
77X105, iv 26 
fy^/>a ' a7ro 
v 16, vi 13 

daXireiv, V 29 

dt\i}fJ.a (6eov, Kvplov), i I, 5, 9, n, 

v 17, vi 6; T& OeX-fifnara, ii 3 
^e^^Xtos, ii 20 
0e/ieXtoC<r0at, iii 17 
6"X^s, iii 13 
0i//i($s, iv 31 
6vpe6s, vi 1 6 
0v<r/a, v 2 
!;, vi 14 

iv 21 

?Sios, [iv 28], V 22 

19? vi 10 

v, V 26 
Ka0fet', i 20 

KO.IVOS AvSpuiros, ii I5> iv 24 
Kaip6s, i 10, ii 12, v 16, vi 18 
iv 31 

iv I, 4 iv ri 76>>aTa, iii 14 

KapSla, i 18, iii 17, iv 18, v 19, vi 5, 22 

Kapirbs TOV fare's, V 9 

i) Ka6' tfjuis iriffns, i 155 r& /for* 
4, vi 21 ; ol Ko.6' iva, v 33 
tv, iv 9 f . 
K6fffwv, i 4 

KaTa\a/jL^dvecr0ai, iii 1 8 

/caraXe/Trew, V 31 

KaTovrav, iv 13 

KCLTapyeiv, ii 15 

KaraprurfMS, iv 12 


vi 13 
iii 17 

ii 22 

fdpi, iv 9 
/cau%a<r0at, ii 9 
X67ot, v 6 
f}, i 22, iv 15, v 23 

v, iv 28 
K\i}, i 14, 18, v 5 
K\7jpovff6ai, i ii 
/cX^cris, i 18, iv i, 4 
"ieXvSwj'fftffflai, iv 14 
Kopl&iv, vi 8 
Koirtav, iv 28 
KOfffJWKpdropes, vi 12 

KO&flOS, i 4, U 2, 12 

KparaioSffOcu, iii 16 
Kpdros (TIJS ftrxfos o^roO), i 19, vi IO 
, iv 3 1 

V 12 

, ii 10, 15, iii 9, iv 24 
iv 14 

iv Kvpltf, ii 21, iv i, 17, v 8, 
vi i, 10, 21 ; iv r$ Kvply 'Iijo-oO, i 15 
i 21 

X670S, vi 19; T^S dXij^eks, i 13; crairpbs, 

iv 29 ; KCVOIS X67ots, v 6 
XOITTOS' ol XoiTrof, ii 3; [ri XotTrA 

iv 17]; ToO XoiTToO, vi 10 
"\ovrpitv, v 26 
Xi5eH, ii 14 
\vTreiv, iv 30 

fjLO.Kpo6vfj,la, iv 2 
HaKpoxpbvios, vi 3 
fiavddpeiv rbv xp^T^t iv 20 
fiapripeaQa.!., iv 17 
/j.aTau.6Tijs, iv 17 



vi 17 
(pvo-n/jpiov), v 32 

i 19 
fj.edodia, iv 14, vi ii 

, V 18 
iv 25, V 30 
iv 16; T& Kcwtirepa /u^pij, iv 9 

ii 14 

fjxradiS6vai, iv 28 
/t^rpov, iv 7, 13, 16 
yu%os, iii 1 8 
fu/j.Trn/js, v i 
[Ufftiv, v 29 
pvelav iroteicrOai, i 16 
/j,v>l/j,oj>etieiv, ii ii 

Hvvrfipiov, i 9, iii 3 f., 9, v 32, vi 19 
fjuapo\oyla, V 4 

pa<5s, ii 21 

veicp6s, i 20, ii i, 5, v 14 
J^TTIOS, iv 14 
voeii>, iii 4, 20 

v6fjLos (TUV ivTO\uv & ddypcuriv), ii 15 
j>ov6e<rla, vi 4 
iv 17, 23 

Trapa,Ka\eii>, iv i, vi 22 

irapairrdifMTa, i 7, ii I, 5 

irapurravcu, V 27 

irdpoiKos, ii 19 

irapopyifeiv, vi 4 

irapopyur/MS, iv 26 

Trapprjffla,, iii 12, vi 19 

irappil<ria,e<r6ai, vi 20 

Traj* Trcwra oiKodofjir), ii 21; iraffa irarpia, 

ill 15; ol TrdvTeSi 1V 13 ^"4 irdfra, 

i 10 f., 23, iii 9, iv IO , 15, v 13; 

iv ira<rii>, i 23, iv 6, vi 1 6 
iraTijp ($eos), i 2 f., 17, ii 18, iii 14, 

iv 6, v 20, vi 23 
iraTpta, iii 15 
Ilai/Xos, i i, iii i 
:t, i 16 

s, iii 12 
irepi&t>vvff6ai, vi 14 
jre/MK0aXaa, vi 17 
Trepiirareiv, ii 2, 10, iv I, 17, v 2, 

8, 15 

&os, ii 12, 19 

olicetb? (TOW 0eoG), ii 19 

olKoSofjrf, ii 21, iv 12, 1 6, 29 

olKovo/j-ia, i 10, iii 2, 9 

olvoj, v 1 8 

d\tyor &> 6\iyci>, iii 3 

ovopa, i 2i, v 20 

6vofi.dfE<r0at, i 21, iii 15, v 3 

<5/>7i}, ii 3, iv 31, v 6 

6pyle<r6ai, iv 26 

6fft6rtis, iv 24 

<5o7i'?7 6i5u5fas, V 2 

<5<r0i5s, vi 14 

oiipavol, i 10, iii 15, iv 10, vi 9 

<50e\e', V 28 

6tf>0a\[u>5ov\la, vi 6 

d<p6a\fMl TTJS Kapdlas, i 18 

iraideia, vi 4 

?raXat6s dvffpuiros, iv 22 

irdXi;, vi 12 

Tra^oTrXfa, vi ii, 13 

iravovpyla, iv 14 

irapaSidbvai, iv 19, v 2, 25 

v, i 8 
, ii ii 

, iv 14 
iriicpfa, iv 31 

i 13, 19 

s, i 15, ii 8, iii 12, 17, iv 5, 13, 
vi 16, 23 

7TWTOS, i I, VI 21 

TrXav^, iv 14 
TrXdros, iii 18 

V 5 

/a, iv 19, V 3 
v, i 23, iii 19, iv 10, v 18 
i 10, 23, iii 19, iv 13 
v, 6, iv 25 
wXo&rtoj, ii 4 

B-XoOros, i 7, 18, ii 7, iii 8, 16 
irvevfJta' T^S ^0776X^05 TO ayiov, i 13 ; 
TO a7tov roO ^eoO, iv 30; a^Tou (sc, 
Beov), iii 16; <ro<plas Kal aT 
i 17 ; ToO pods {ffjLuv, iv 23 ; 
ii 18, iv 4; froriis rov 
iv 3 ; ^ -irvetfjLaTi, ii 22, iii 5, v 18, 
vi 18; [u&x&i-po. TOU irve&fjuiTos, vi 17; 
Toi5 TrvetfiaTOS TOU yOy tvepyovvros iv 
Tots vlots r^r a7ret0os, ii 2 
irvevfumicis, i 3, V 19; T& nvevparticd, 
vi 12 



(irpo&effiv), iii u; 
i 1 6 ; iroteurflot atf^aw, iv 16 
ii 10 
iv ii 
ii 12 

s, iii 10 
irov-rjpia, vi 12 

iroviipos, 6, vi 16; Wp<*> v 1 6, vi 13 
iropvda, V 3 
jro/wos, V 5 

7TOUS, 1 22, Vi 15 

Trpourffeiv, vi 21 
irpavrijs, iv 2 
irptireiv, V 3 
irpefffiefeiv, vi 20 
irpoypa<j>eiv, iii 3 
i 12 
', ii 10 

oBea-iv, Kara, i u, iii n 
irpoopleu>, i 5, ii 

/i, ii 18, iii 12 

i, i 16, vi 18 
, vi~T8 

irpo<m>XXa<r0cu, V 31 . 
irpofffopd, V 2 
irpoffuiro\i]fj.ij/la, vi 9 
TrporiBecrOcu, i 9 
<irpo<pi)Tai } ii 20, iii 5, iv w 

i,, vi 16 

TIJS KapSlas, iv 1 8 

> v J 7 
, iii 17 

v 27 

<rairpos, iv 29 

<r<i^, 3 v 29, 31; & <rapK*, ii ii; 
^ T^ ffa/wcl a^roC, ii 15 ; KarA <rapKa, 
vi 5 ; 7rp6s aZ/ta /cal trap/at, vi 12 

0-^evviiva.i, vi 16 

(TKOTOS, V 8, II, VI 12 

i, iv 18 

a, i8, 17, iii 10 
ffo<f>oi, V 15 
v 27 

iv 3 
(rraupos, ii 16 

iv 29, vi 19 

i, ii 21, iv 16 
i, iv 16 

s, v 3 
v, ii 6 
s, iii 4 

ffw(aoiroie~a>, ii 5 
V 17 
iv, ii 6 

ffvvk\i]pov6fji,os, iii 6 
ffWKOivaveiv, V ii 
(TwjK^roxos, iii 6, v 7 
ffvvoiKoSo/j.eiff6cu, ii 22 

ii 19 
s, iii 6 
<r<f>pa.ylfcff6ai, i 13, iv 30 

, ii 5, 8 

iv 16, V 23, 28; (roO 
i 23, iv 12, v 30 ; &> (TtDjua, ii 16, iv 4 
<r tarty TOV <rt6/taros, V 23 
, i 13 
, r<5, vi 17 

ii 3? 

Taireivo<ppofffyii, iv 2 
r&j'a, v i, vi i, 4; 


TAetos-(di'^p)r~iv 13 
eiv, iv 3 

Si56vai, iv 27 
Tp6/tos, vi 5 
s, vi 21 

p, V 26 
vloOeffla, i 5 

s' roO 0eoO, iv 13 ; rrjs diredlas, ii 2, 
v 6; rwy avOpdirwv, iii 5 
V 19 
v, vi i, 5 

i 21, iv 10 
{nreppd\\etv, i 19, ii 7, iii 19 
virepeKirepiffffov, iii 20 
i>irodeiff6ai, vi 15 
biroTiiffffeiv, i 22, v 21, 24 
flfos, iii 1 8, iv 8 

<j>avepovff6at, v 13 
<j>0elpeff6cu, iv 22 

V 33 

v 21, vi 5 
(ppay/J.6s, ii 14 
^piyj/tru, i 8 
tpfoei, ii 3 
0ws, V 8 1, 13 

i 18, iii 9 


iv 32 jfurr6i' iv Tip xp iff TVt i 10, .12, 20; 

TOVTOVf 111 1 1 14 ip flf JOWT(3 "LllffOV Tl2 KVpiti} "}jLMV t 

s, i a, 6f., ii 5, 7f., vi 24; (3o0era, iii ii ; iv Xpurr$, i 3, iv 32 ; iv 

), iii 2, 7 f., iv 7 ; fret d$ x&P lv Xpiffr^'Iijaov, i i, ii 6f., 10, 13, 
TOIS dKojJoww, iv 29 iii 6, 21 ; xw/oir Xpurrov, ii 12 

XaptTovv, i 6 

28 ^'dXXetj', v 19 

ii ii . TJ/O,\/J,(>S, v 19 

, iv 28 ; jr/)6j olKodofJLTjv TTJS xpcfai ipevdos, iv 25 

^ v 2 9 ^^xA' i* faxfyi vi 6 
XpyffTfo, iv 32 

XPlffT&riis, ii 7 ^5iJ, v 19 


Adoption, 27 f., 143 

agapae, 122 

Ambrosiaster, 143, 172, 268, 301 ; 

Eoman edition of, 294, 300 
Anthology, epigram of Philip of Thes- 

salonica, 262 f. 
Antioch, Church in, 5, 55 
aorist, meaning and rendering of, 142, 

190, 195, 205 ; epistolary, 167, 217, 

apostles and prophets, 69, 77 f., 97 f., 
163, 181 

Aristotle, on a^i}, 186 ; xPW&v> 187 ; 
efa-paire\la, 197 ; &pyeia, .242 ff. ; 
irMipufjut, 259 

Armenian version, evidence for Old 
Syriac, 214, 267 n. 

article : qualifying phrase added with- 
out art., i 15 n., ii n, iii 4 n., iv i ; 
anarthrous subst. with further defi- 
nition, iii n n., iv 14, 16 n. ; art. 
with first only of related terms, 
v 5 n. ; art. with the second of two 
nouns, v 23 n. 

Ascension of Isaiah, on evil spirits, 
154; seven heavens, 180; the Be- 
loved, 232 

Ascension of cur Lord, 24, 96, 179 f. 

atonement : redemption through blood, 
29 j blood of a covenant, 62 f. ; 
reconciliation, 65 f. 

Baptism, 178, 206 f . ; confession at, 
125, 206 f. ; origin of baptismal 
creed, 207 ; Voice at the Baptism, 
230 f. 

Beloved, the, 28 ; detached note on, 
229 ff. 

Body, of Christ, the Church, 41 ff.j 
fulfilling Him, 43 f., 87 ff., too f.; 
quotations from Clement, 140 j Origen 
and Chrysostom, 45 ; one body, 65 f., 
93 f. ; fellow-members of ('concor- 
porate'), 78; growth of, 102 ff., 131, 
183, 188 ; building of, 99, 182, 188 ; 
Christ the Head of, 41 ff., 103, 124!!; 
the Saviour of, 124^; lying is a sin 
against, no f. ; 'in a bodily way', 

88 ; ' the15od 
building, metaphor derived from, 67 ff., 
112 f. ; building and growth, 71, 99, 
113, 182, 1 88; rooted and founded, 
85 f. ; of Greek temples, 260 ff. 

Calvary, legend of, 119 n. 

Christ : the rendering of ' Messiah ', 6; 
with and without the article, 22, 32 j 
the titles 'Christ ' and ' Jesus', 23 f., 
107; 'Christ' and 'the Lord', 72, 
90 ; * Christ' and ' the Son of God', 
roo ; 'in Christ', 22 ff., 32 f., 57 f.; 
'without Christ ', 56 f., 158 ; Christ 
in us, 85 j to 'learn Christ ', 106, 
190 ; the kingdom of, 117; the fear 
of, 123, 127, 209; see also Body, 
Fulness, Mystery 

Church, the, 80, 89, 124^. ; its relation 
to Christ, see Body, Fulness : the 
household of God, 67 ; God's house, 
68 f.; God's temple, 71 f. ; Christ's 
ecclesia, 68 f. 

Clement of Alexandria, on the Church, 

Colossians, Epistle to, 136! ; passages 
discussed, (i 24) 44, (i 26 f.) 238, 
(ii- 9 ) 88, (ii J3 f.) 153 



Corinthians, First Epistle to : passages 
discussed, (ii i ff.) 237, (ii 6, 8) 154, 
(iii 9) 165, (iii 10 ff.) 260 f., (xii 6) 
152, (xiii) 251. Second Epistle to, 
122; its opening, 18 ; passages dis- 
cussed, (i 13) 251, (i 21) 147, (iii 14) 
265, (v i) 165, (v 19) 195, (viii i) 

corner-stone, 68 f., 163 f. 

Dative, of definition, ii in.; of time, 

iii 5 n. 
Didache', date and value of, 98 n. ; on 

apostles and prophets, 98; list of 

warnings, 112 n. ; parallels quoted 

from, 176, 200, 2ii f. 
dispensation, 32, 144 f. 

Elect, the: see detached note on 'The 

Beloved', 229 ff. 
election: the principle of selection, 

25 ff. ; the ultimate purpose of, 33 ff. 
English versions; early, i ir, 23, iv 

of Christ, 42 ff., 100 1 j of God, of 
the Deity, 88 f. ; detached note on 
, 255 ff. 

16 ; 70, 132 n. , 264. A. V., in, 23, 
ii 9, 20, iii 15, 21, iv 21, 24, 32, 
v 13, 26, vi 4, 6; 57, 92, 99, 118, 
120 n., 132, 136. E. V., i n; 76, 

Ephesians, Epistle to : a circular 
letter, n; omission of 'inEphesus', 
ii f. and note on variants, 292 ff.; 
absence of salutations, 12 ; analysis 
of, 13 1 ; summary of, 130 f. 

Ephraim Syrus, commentary preserved 
in Armenian, 142 f., 145, 148, 152, 
214, 267 n., 288, 290, 293, 298 f. 

epistolary phrases, 37 f. ; opening salu- 
tations, 141 ; detached note on, 
275 ff. 

Esdras, Second (Fourth) : parallels 
quoted from, 39 n., 48 

Fatherhood of God, 27 f., 38, 83 ff., 

93 t, 174 
flesh: of Christ, 63 f. ; 'the body of 

His flesh', 88, 161 ; 'in the flesh', 

56, 72; 'one flesh', 126; 'blood 

and flesh', 213 
Fritzsche : notes on eidoicia, 144 ; iirt- 

TVWCTIS, 252; irK-fipufi.a, 255 
fulness, 87 ff.; of the times, 32, 3911.; 

Galatians, Epistle to : passages dis- 
cussed, (ii 7, 9) 75, (ii 20) 108, 183, 
(ii 8) 243 f., (v 6) 246 

Galen : see Medical -writers 

Gentiles: use of the term, 157 f., 189; 
problem of their inclusion, 5 f., 35 f., 
55 f. ; former condition of, 56 ff., 
60 f., 105 f.; new position of, 58, 62, 
67, 78 f. 

grace : opening salutation, 141 ; closing 
formula, 137, 217 ; St Paul's use of 
the term, 28, 51 f., 75 f., 95 ; to 
'give grace', 113, 193 f.; grace of 
speech, 116, 198 f.; detached note 
on xd/jts, 221 f. 

Hebraistic phrases : ' sons of ', 49, 156, 

168 ; ' purpose of the ages ', 80 ; 

' inheritance', 116 ; ' walking', 153 ; 

'heavens', 180; 'know of a surety', 


Hippocrates : see Medical writers 
humility, a new virtue, 91 

Inscriptions : temple-barrier, 60, 160 ; 
on building, 164, 260 ff. 

James, Epistle of : passages discussed, 
(iv 6) 223, (v 12) 279 n., (v 16) 247 

Jerome : his commentary on Ephesians 
mainly from Origen, 143, 147, 162, 
171 f., 173, 196, 198 f., 297 f. ; his 
revision of the Vulgate, 147, 289; 
various readings or renderings, 78 
(concorporales), 147 (pignus), 164 
and 288 (summus angularis lapis), 
171 f. (propositum), 174 (paterni- 
tates), 177 (in ecclesia), 193 and 299 
(opportunitatis), 208 (propter hoc), 
290 (tota anna) ; on a legend of 
Calvary, 119 n. ; on bishops, 123; 
on the Gospel ace. to the Hebrews, 
194 ; on Clement, 254 n. ; on Jer. 
vi 26 (&yairi]Tl>s), 229 n.; on Job 
xvii 7 (ireirtbpwvTai), 265 n. 

Jerusalem, conference at, 8 ; see 



Jesus: see Christ 

Jewish thought, contemporary, 41^ 49, 

133 n -> i54 i7S 180, 

Kneeling, in N.T., 82 f., 174 

Latin versions, 289 f . : see Jerome 
Lord, the : see Christ : ' in the Lord ', 
72, 90, 118, 128 

Man, Divine purpose for, 14, 130; not 
changed by sin, 29 ; worked out by 
election, 29, 33 ; through the Church, 
44 f.; 'nature' of man, 50; new 
making of man in Christ, 52 f., loij 
'one new man', 65, 94; 'a perfect 
man', 100 f. ; the individual and the 
whole of humanity, 102 f.; 'the old 
man ' and ' the new man ', 107 ff. : 
see also Unity 

Medical writers, illustrations from: 
Hippocrates, 186, 195 ; Galen, 187,!, 
200, 242 ; Dioscorides, 207, 264 

Messiah^ the-hope-ofthe-Jewi-6-fV~ 
22 f. : see Christ 

ministry, the Christian, 97 ff. 

mystery: source of the word to St 
Paul, 30 f. ; his use of it, 208 f . ; 
the Divine 'secret', 39, 76 ff., 81 ; 
the epithet 'great', 126; 'the mys- 
tery of the gospel', 136, 216; de- 
tached note on (MffTrjpiov, 234 ff. 

Origen: his commentary on Ephesians, 
quoted, 45, 143, 148 f., 152, 163, 

!73 l8 3 f - JP ' I 95. i9 8 f - (^Xa- 
piffTla), 203 (tt-ayopatftievoi), 219 
(ttyOapffLa), 254 (^iriyvuffis), 269 f. 
(irdipuffis), 292 (om. iv 'E06ry), 298, 
302 ; text of Greek fragments, 199 ; 
newly edited, 297, 303 ; notes in 
von der Goltz's MS, 292 f., 297 ff. : 
see Jerome 

Papyri, illustrations from, 275 ff. : 
further citations, 37, 146, 151, 159, 

Pastoral Epistles, phraseology of, 209 
and 239 f. (fj.vffT-fipi.ov), 141 (opening 
salutation), 151 and 155 (6 vvv aldv), 
153 (absence of irepiiraTeiv), 193 


(StdjSoXos), 196 (Soyvcu eavrov), 200 
), 226 (XC/HS), 251 f. (dirl- 
\t]0elas), 283 (x&pw %x<a) ; 
further passages noted in i Timothy, 
(i 17) 218, (ii i) 216, (ii 5) 178, 
(iii 13) 148, (iv 5) 216, (iv 13) 168, 
(v 5) 284, (v 8) 163, (vi 17) 169; 
in 2 Timothy, (i 3) 280, (i 8) i66f., 
(i 10) 170 and 218, (i 8 12) 172, 
(i 16) 216, (iii 16) 211, (iv 5) 181 f., 
(iv 19) 281; in Titus, (i 5) 166, 
(ii 7) 218, (iii 3) 195, (iii 4) I5 6, 
(iii 5) 206, (iii 10) 211, (iii 14) 193, 
(iii 15) 281 

Paul, St : preparation for his mission, 
5, 25, 61 j his sense of the problem 
which faced him, 7, 75 f. ; his en- 
deavours for reconciliation, 8 f., 55 ; 
cause and effect of his imprisonment, 
9 f., 74 ; his relations with Ephesus, 
12 ; his style, 19, 47f.; his relation 
to the life and words of the Lord, 

23 f. 

Peter, First Epistle of : dependent on 
Ephesians, 151, 171, 175, 209; pas- 
sages discussed, (ii 9) 148, (iii 21) 

Primasius, commentary attributed to, 

prophets, Christian: see Apostles 

Eabbinic literature, 48, 151, 175, 213, 

231 n.: see Jewish contemporary 

readings, various : see notes on i 6, 

iii 9, 13 f., 21, iv 6, 19, 29, v 22; 

and the detached note, 285 ff. 
redemption, 29, 36, 147 f. 
revelation, 39, 76 f. ; see Mystery 
Bomans, Epistle to, passages discussed, 

(i 9 f.) 279, (vi 6 ff.) 108, (viii 28) 

171, (x 8 ff.) 206, (xi 7, 25) 265, 

(xii 3) 225 
Eome, St Paul at, i ; its influence on 

his thought, 5, 10 

Salutations, opening, 17!., 141, 277 f.; 

closing, 137, 217 ff., 280 f. 
slavery, 128 ff. 
Spirit, the: the 'earnest of the in- 




hejitance ', 35 f.'; meaning of, 38 f., 
49, 66, 72, 78, 92 f.; 'unity of the 

Spirit ', 92" f. ; the Spirit and the 
. corporate life, 113; 'filled with the 
'. Spirit', 121 f.; 'the sword of the 
"Spirit 1 , 135 f.; see irvev/M 
spiritual powers, 41, 49, 132 f. 
Stephen, teaching of St, 3 f. 

Temple, description of the, 59 ; in- 
scribed barrier in the, 60, 160; 
substructures of the, 69 ; naos and 
hieron, 71 ; building of Greek 
temples, 260 f. 

Testaments of the xii Patriarchs, 
quoted, 154, 195, 227 n. 

Thessalonians, First Epistle to : pas- 
sages discussed, (i 2 f.) 279, (ii 13 f.) 

246, Second Epistle to: passages 
discussed, (i 11) 182, (i 12, ii 16)^25, 
(ii 7) 209, (ii 7 ft.) 236!., 242,^246, 
(iii 17) 137 : 

Tychicus, it f., 136 f. 

Unity, St Paul's efforts on behall of, 
7 ., 55 ; ' the one ' and ' the many ' 
of Greek philosophy, 32 ; unity of . 
mankind in Christ, 52 f., 65, 91, 
94 ; abolition of distinction between 
Gentile and Jew, 55 f., 59 ff-, 64; 
' the unity of the Spirit ', 92 f. ; unity 
in diversity, 95 f . ; the unity of the 
faith ', 99 : see also Body, Man 

Vigilius of Thapsus: authorship of de 
trin. sii, 269, 291, 303 



cop . 2 



St. Paul's epistle to 

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, Si 


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