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SJJL 1\ l^citi=M\nJ-4i^£^i._,|.c>2^^^^ 

rr--^ >,' 




iraitslukir fom.lfje iredi, 



He that hath my -word, let him speak my wobd faithfullt, 
What is the chaff to the wheat? saitii Jehovah. 




18 5 8. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in tlie year 1858, by 


In the Cleric's OITicc of the District Court of the Southern District of New York, 

Thomas, Printer and Stcroolypcr, New York. 



The extraordinary dclaj'-, wliicli has attended the issue of tliis revision, is readily 
accounted for by tlie distance of the reviser from the place of publication, and his 
occasional engagement in other duties, which compelled him to be absent from home, 
sometimes for long periods. The "work itself has been prosecuted with an intense desire 
to make a faithful and perspicuous translation of the words of inspiration. Antiquated 
phraseology has been exchanged for the language of the present day. Errors in the 
Common English Version have been corrected, and obscurities removed. The most simple 
and appropriate terms have been sought, to give expression to the meaning of the original, 
and every effort has been employed to make the ordinary reader acquainted with the mind 
of the Holy Spirit. 

The general principles, which have controlled the revision, arc expressed in the 
following rules and instructions : — 

"General Rules fur the direction of Translators and Revisers employed hy the 

American Bible Union. 

"1. The exact meaning of the inspired text, as that text expressed it to those who 
understood the original scriptures at the time they were first written, must be translated 
by corresponding words and phrases, so far as they can be found, in the vernacular tongue 
of those for whom the version is designed, with the least possible obscurity or indefiniteness. 

" 2. Wherever there is a version in common use, it shall be made the basis of revision, 
and all unnecessary interference with the established phraseology shall be avoided ; and 
only such alterations shall bo made, as the exact meaning of the inspired text and the 
existing state of the language may require. 

" 3. Translations or revisions of the New Testament shall be made from tlie received 
Greek text, critically edited, with known errors corrected. 


" Sjjecial Instructions to the Revisers of the English New Testament. 

"1. The Common English Version must be tlie basis of the revision: the Greek Text, 
Bagster & Sons' octavo edition of 1851. 

" 2. Whenever an alteration from that version is made on anj' autliority additional to 
that of the reviser, such autliority must be cited in the manuscript, either on the same 
page or in an appendix. 

" 3. Every Greek ^rord or phrase, in tlio translation of whicli the phraseology of tlie 
Common Version is ciiangcd, must be carefully examined in every other place in -which it 
occurs in the New Testament, and the views of the reviser be given as to its proper 
translation in each place. 

" 4. As soon as the revision of any one book of the New Testament is finished, it shall 
be sent to the Secretary of the Bible Union, or such other person as shall be designated 
by the Committee on Versions, in order that copies may be taken and furnished to the 
revisers of tlic otiier books, to be returned Avith their suggestions to tlie reviser or revisers 
of that book. After being re-revised witii the aid of these suggestions, a carefully prepared 
copy shall be forwarded to the Secretary." 

There is i\o pretense or supposition, that this work is perfect. It is published to call 
forth criticism. The desire is that its faults should be detected, in order that they may bo 
corrected. No one wlio really loves tho truth, will prefer that a mistake or oversight of 
his sliould pass current for tlic word of God. To Icnow and do His will, should constitute 
the sole aim of a disciple of the Divine Teacher. Whoever, by a just criticism, contributes 
his mite to tlie correction of a living translation of the Sacred Oracles, so as more 
clearly to bring out the truth, deserves more gratitude than the man who discovers a mine 
of gold or of diamonds. 



urn IkllW VERSION. 


The former treatise have I 
made, Theophilus, of all that 



TON fieu irpwTOv Xoyov 
eTTOiTjcraixrjv irept iravTcov w Oeo-' 



The former "Narrative, 1 
'Theophilus, I 'composed, of 

* The common English title of this book is not truthful. 
There is no such book extant as " The Acts of the Apostles ". 
The Acts, public or oflicial, of not one of them are recorded. 
It is, indeed, more truthfully given in all the Greek copies 
which I have seen, "Acts of the Apostles ". "We cannot avoid 
saying of this book, that it contains all the acts of all the 
Apostles, reported to us. But while this may be its current 
value with us, still we should have it translated and presented 
just as it appears in the original — Acts of the Apostles. And 
this certainly is as true as the original, because true to it. 

The text selected by the Bible Union, being our standard 
copj"^, we should have it "Acts of the Holy Apostles ", 
nPA3EIS TQNAFIQN AJIOSTOAQN, which lacks plenary 
authority. The Vulgate has Actus Apostolorum, more in ac- 
cordiinco with truth. The Hebrew translation of the Biblia 
Polyglotta has also "Acts of the Apostles ". See its transla- 
tion of our common Greek into the Hebrew. S. Lee. S. T. B. 
London, 1831, Samuel Bagster. As there were no ujjholy 
apostles, wo cannot appreciate the propriety of the epithet 
HOLY, unless Judas be the exception. 

" Tov fiEv 'Ttqcatov Xoyov. The former treatise. Tlie former 
Narrative. A treatise is rather a philosophical or a logical 
dis3ussion of some thesis or topic — a logical and methodical 
discourse. Such is not this book of Acts. It is a narrative 
of certain sayings and doings of the Messiah, his Apostles, 
their associates and contemporaries. 

The word loyos in the com. vcr. is represented by treatise, 
account, communication, speech, utterance, ivords, tidings, 
preaching, and saying. But only in this place treatise. 
Account or narrative seems much more apposite to Li^ke's 

Memoirs of Jesus Christ. Ho calls his gospel "a declaration" 
of the things concerning Christ. Cranmer, the Geneva and 
Rheims, in their respective versions, give treatise, merely fol- 
lowed in the com. ver. Murdock's ver. of the Syriac gives 
hooh ; but this is no more pertinent. "Wicl if gives sermon. 
Boothroyd gives relation, as also Granville Pemi, Esq. The 
word treatise is appropriately followed by upon. Such a work 
Luke has not given to us. 

'' Q Qaorpds. — i2, exclamatory, is retained, or translated 
by O, and Oh, indicative of strong feeling or emotion ; but in 
simple address it is not necessarily so, being merely the sign 
of the vocative. Hence Beza omits it, Wiclif also. Tyndale 
has given it a special sense, " Dear friend ", and is followed 
by Cranmer, and the Eheims vers. The Geneva gives it no 
representation, nor even do the King's translators translate or 
transfer it, in eh. 27 : 21, where we have to AvSqds translated 
Sirs, com. ver. To be consistent they ought not to have 
transferred it before Geopde. Luke in his Gospel having 
addressed him as "most excellent" (KqartoTs), it seems 
enough, in his second dedication, simply and more familiarly 
to call him, Theophilus. The copy of Beza which I use was 
printed, London, 1581, and crowded with his critical notes and 
annotations. lie was decidedly, by common consent, the 
most learned and able Latin and Greek critic of the sixteenth 

^ The aorist indicative is here better rendered by our imper- 
fect, composed, which is really an aorist, or an indefinite, than 
by our perfect, have compioscd. 

Iloiaw signifies, to mahe, form, construct. When applied to 
a narrative it is more congenial with our lang'Uage to render it 
composed, as in this revision. 



Jesus began both to do and 

2 Until the day in wbicli he 
was taken up, after, that he 
through the Iloly Ghost had 
given commandments unto the 
apostles whom he had chosen : 

3 To whom also he shewed 
himself alive after his passion, 
by many infallible proofs, being 
seen of them forty days, and 
spealdng of the things pertain- 
ing to the kingdom of Q-od : 

4 And being assembled to- 
gether with tliem, commanded 


0iAe, (hv rfp^aro 6 'Irjarovs 
TTOLeiv re Kca SiSaa-Keiv, " ^yjii 
7]^ rjfjiepas eVretAa/iei/o? rots 


'Aylov, Qvs i^eke^aro, dvekrj^OT], 
^ 6l9 Koi irapea-TTjcrev iavrov 
^covra fxerd to Tradeiu avTov, 4v 
TToAAor? TeKjMqpioLS, 81 -qfi^paiv 
recra-apaKovra oTVTavojx^vos av- 
TOLS, Kca Xiywv ra Trept r^? 
^acrcXelas rov deov. ^ koI 
(rwa\t^ofJievQS TTaprj-yyuXev av- 


allthat Jesus ''began both to do 
and to teach, even to the day, 
on which he was taken up, after 
that he, through the =Iioly 
Spirit had given 'command- 
ment to the Apostles whom 
he had ^chosen ; to whom also 
he showed himself alive, after 
his suffering, ""in many con- 
vincing 'proofs, 'during forty 
days '■appearing to them, and 
speaking of the things pertain- 
ing to the Kingdom of God ; 
and having convened them 
'together, he commanded them 

■' '-Began lo do and teach ". " Performed and taught ", 
Wakcftuld ; '"' did and taught ", Bootbroyd. In vindication of 
this version iic affirms, on considerable authority, " That tlio 
verb aQyfifcai, with tlic infinitive of another verb, defines tlie 
time of the verb ". But tlie fact iliat all the Evangelists to- 
gether did not relate all that Jesus did and taught, seriously 
impairs tlic value of tlio criticism. And tiie aiDrmation of 
John, " that the world could not contain the books that might 
liave been written ", had all his sayings and doings been re- 
corded, seems to question the propriety, if not the validity-, 
of his conclusion. 

' Holy Spirit occurs in the com. ver. of the Old Testa- 
ment seven times. In the New Test. Holy Ghost occurs 
ninetj'-one times ; not once in the Old Test. Why the royal 
translators and some others so translated this word, I presume 
not dogmatically to aflirni. Could it have been that tlioy un- 
derstood that the Holy Spirit of the former Dispensation was 
to become, and did become, the Holy Ghost, or the Holy Guest, 
of the New 1 

In our currency, we have almost exclusively given the title 
"ghost", to the spirit of a dead man. Unless by "Holy 
Ghost " our contemporaries understand Holy Guest much 
more suitable and intelligible to them, it will be better uni- 
formly, in the New Testament as in the Old, to use, as its 
representative. Holy Spirit. 

The transcendent glory of the New Constitution and Church 
of Jesus Christ is, that while Jesus, the Lord of glory, is its 
living head, the Holy Spirit is its Holy Quest ; and thus the 
New Constitution is written upon the fleshly tables of the 
lieart, while the Old was written on granite or marble tables, 
and presented to the outward eye. How justly, in harmony 
with this view, does Paul say to the Corinthian Church, "You 
are the temple of the living God, as God has said, I will dwell 
'n them, and I will be their God, and they shall bo my peo- 

' EiTeilaaepoi — dedissel, Beza ; " having commanded ", 

Boothroj'd; "after he had given a charge", Dodd. ; "having 
given commandment ", Wesley, Anonymous, London, 1836 ; 
" after giving his commands ", Wakefield ; '• after giving a 
charge", Thom. Reference seems here to be had to Luke 
2i : 48, to a specific command to wait for plenary power. 
There is no good reason why the com. ver. should assume the 
plural in this case. .Either a special command or a general 
commission must bo understood. 

^ Ese'Ae^aro. There is a general consent among trans- 
lators and critics that reference is here had to the special call 
of apostles at the commencement of his public ministry ; and, 
therefore, a pluperfect sense is given to the verb. Stuart's 
Grammar of the New Testament, p. 102. 

'■ Ep Tto'/J.ots -rey.fiijQiois. In or %— not among, in this 
case. His showing himself alive was not one among many 
signs or proofs— but during forty days' living, or appearing, 
among them, they had many opportunities of realizing and 
identifying his person. 

' " InfaUiblo proofs ", com. ver. Arguments, Wiclif 
tokens, Tyndale and Cranmer; "infallihle tokens", Geneva; 
"many arguments", Bheims; "proofs", Wakefield; " plu- 
sieurs preuvos ", French ; " in muUis argumenlis ", Vulgate ; 
Biblia Sacra Pol. S. Lee. S. T. B. London, 1831. To these, 
we prefer " convincing proofs", Wakefield. Tsy.fniQtov occurs 
but once in the N. T. " Many convincing manifestations ", 
De Wetto ; " by numerous signs ", JIurdock's trans, of the 
Syriac Peshito version. 

1 Jm, before words of time, means during. 

^ I take this participle in its active sense. 

' "And having assembled them together". "And being 
assembled together with them ". "And when eating together ". 
These three versions have been given to awah^ofCBvos—axg-a 
ments and versions have been adduced for each of them, and 
by critics, too, of high rank — translators and commentators. 
We shall first hear the versions, "And when he had eaten 



rliera that they should not de- 
part from Jerusalem, but wait 
for the promise of the Father, 
which, saith he, ye have heard 
of me. 
5 For John truly baptized 


Tols airo 'lepocToXvfxcou [xtj X'^P^' 
^eadat., aXXa TrepLfxeueiu ttjv 
hvoLyy^Xlav tov irarpos. t]v 
TjKovaraTe jxov "^ otl ' {coduuijs 
fxeu e^aiTTLcrev vSart, vfxels' de 


not to depart from Jerusalem j 
but to await the gift "'promised 
them by the Fatlier, which, 
says he, you have heard from 
me : for John indeed "immersed 

bread with them, he instructed them not to depart from Je- 
rusalem ", Murdock's trans, of the Syr. Pesh. Et congregans 
eos, "And congregating tliem ", Beza, London Ed., 1581, with 
Junius and Tremelhus. "And being assembled with them ", 
Granville Penn, Esq., London, 1830. "And eat with hem and 
. commanded, that they shuldon not departs, fro Jerusalem ", 
Wiclif, 1380. "And gaddered them togeder", Tyndale, 1534. 
"And being assembled together with them ", Authorized 
version, 1611. "And gathered them together", Cranmer, 
1539. "And gathering them together ", Geneva, 1557. "And 
eating with them ", Kheims, 1582. Boothroyd, with all these 
premises before him, rondei's tlie passage thus, "And then 
assembling tliem together, he commanded them not to de- 
part, &c." 

Prof. Ilackett, for whose ability and candor I entertain a 
very high regard, in his recent very learned " Commentary on 
the Original Text of the Acts of the Apostles", Boston, 1852, 
says, " The active sense of this verb has not been proved ", 
and gives it " being assembled ", giving Jleyer, Olshausen, and 
De Wette, as confirmatory of his conclusion. " Having as- 
sembled them together ", is, however, maintained by some 
distinguished scholars, I might say by many. Doddridge 
renders it, " having assembled them together ", stating, too, 
" that some critics, ancient and modern, particularly Cliry- 
sostom and Theophylact, understand the word avvaXi^o/iepos 
as expressive of Christ's eating with his disciples during 
the forty days ". But he adds, " The notes of Eisner and 
Raphelius seem abundantly sufficient to justify the version 
I have given ". "V7e have also avvavXi^o/iai — una commoror, 
living together, in the same avhj — hall, or court, which has 
been seized by some, in aid of their version of " eating to- 
gether ". But, in our esteem, Leigh is our best authority. 
In his Critica Sacra, London, ed. 1650, on Acts 1 : 4, he gives 
convescens, congregans — conversans ; and adds, Item, qua 
pastor dispersas oves sub tectum coUegit ; quiB signiflcationes 
Optimo congruerent huic loco, quia Ohristus discipulos fugiti- 
ves velut disperses, oviculas iterum collegit, et ad spiritualem 
militiam armavit. There is nothing in " eating together ", re- 
levant to a mission ; but there is something in congregating, 
or calling together a company of persons, in order to the bet- 
ter accomplishment of their mission, or for commissioning 
them. That such an assignation or appointment was made, we 
learn from Matthew 28 : 16, in connection with Matt. 26 : 32 
— " I will go before you into Galilee, after I am risen again ". 
This appointment is fairly indicated in these passages with 
their context 

'" Enayyeha is here, by a metonomj^, used for Ihe lliing 
promised. The promise itself having already been given, they 
could not bo required to await it. 

" E[iam:i,am> vSctri, v/ists Se ^aTtrwO'ijOBade cy Ttvevfiaxi ayiif/. 
" Immersed in water " — "Immersed in the Ilohj Sjiirit ". The 
Banrco family, and the HaTtn^co branch of it, have become 
famous through all Christendom, They are honorably de- 
scended from a very ancient family, in classic heraldry. They 
are descended from /3a7t by an onomatopoeia, " which coins a 
word from sound, by which alone its moaning may be ascer- 
tained ". It is self-interpretive, Vfo have dip and j^lwige 
from the sound of any instrument or material variously 
brought into contact with water. Dip, bap tmH plunge, indi 
cate the sounds made by variously applying any solid substance 
to water. The air echoes plunge, when a person is suddenly 
immersed in water — it echoes diji and hap, when persons or 
other solid substances are suddenly submerged. 

Being words of action, and not of mode, they can have 
but one literal and 2^^'oper meaning. Bantco occurs in the 
N. T. three times, always trans, com. ver. by dip. Bami^m 
occurs eighty-one times, transferred seventy-eight times, 
thrice translated wash, by a metonymy of the efTect for the 
cause. Bamtauoe occurs only four times, once translated 
washing by the same figure. Banrtarrje occurs fourteen times, 
exclusively applied to John, the Harbinger. Banriofia is 
universally transferred in the com. ver. John, the Harbinger, 
is the only one called Baptist in King James' version. 

In tracing their ancestral history up to Moses and his law 
of ceremonial observances, we find, on a grand occasion, the 
whole tribe of modes of wetting were convened, in Banrco, 
Paivca, Xsio, ^Pavrt^ca, on special duty, each one in 
his own official service, with his armor on. The priest was 
to 2^our oil into the palm of his left hand ; he was then 
to dij) his right forefinger in the oil that was in his left 
hand, and then to sprinkle of the oil seven times before the 

Prof. Stuart, of Andover, affirms, that all lexicographers and 
critics of note agree that /Sstitco and pami^co indicate to 
dip, plunge, or immerse. Bib. Eepository, 1833, p. 298. In 
support of which, he cites Lucian, in Tiinon, Plutarch, 
Strabo, Themestius, the Sybyllino verse concerning the 
city of Athens, Josephus, Homer, Pindar, Aristotle, Aris- 
tophanes, Heraclides, Herodotus, Aratus, Xenophon, Diodorus 
Siculus, Plato, Epictetus, Hippocrates, Heliodorus, cum multis 

To these we might add the testimony of Wall, Locke, Tillot- 



witli water; but yc shall be 
baptized with the Holy Ghost 
not many days hence. 


^aTTTLcrdijarecrde iv ITveufxari 
'Aylcp, ov fxera TroAAay ravras 


in water, but you shall be 
immersed in the lioly Spirit, 
not many days hence. 

son, Sockcr, Samuel Clarke, Locke, tlio philosopher, Wall, Wells, 
IMshop Isicholson, Dodilridgo, AVhitfield, AYesley, Macknight, 
and the Assembly of Divines, as concurring -with this inter- 
pretation of the words of this family. So testifies also the 
wliole Greek Church. The ancient versions — the Sj'riac, (both 
tlie Pcshito, 2d century, and the Philoxcnian, Ctli centur}"^,) 
the Arabic Polyglott, 7tli centurj"-, the Propaganda, a. d. 1071, 
all give the same family — " amacla " — immerse, of ivhich word 
the Greek representative is paTiri^io. 

" ITfcv/inTi 'Ayiti). In y. 2 of this same chapter, we have 
Hi'ev/inros'Ayiov. In v. 8 we liavo -rov'Ayiov HfEv/iaros', v. IG 
we again liavc to nrcv/ia to Ayior ; and, again, another form 
ch. 2 ; 4, JTi'eiyirtTog liyiov. 

TJic Boole of tlio Acts, or of Acts of Apostles by some of 
tlic Ancients was not inappropriately called "Tlie Gospel of 
the Holy Spirit." He is, indeed, more frequently spoken of in 
tliis book than in the whole Pour Gospels. His personal 
attributes, mission, and work, are more fully developed in the 
details of tlie apostolic mission tlian in any other portion of 
the Christian Scriptures. Speculative Tlieologians, in their 
metaph3'sics, have, indeed, been much perplexed in their 
versions and criticisms upon the anarthrous forms of this 
Divine person. 

After a very special and protracted examination of his 
Divine personality and his work, we Iiavo much confidence in 
the result indicated in the following analysis and synthesis 
of the Christian oracles, and especially of this book; and 
because of its importance, and to prevent frequent allusions 
and references to the special positions and attitudes in which 
he appears, we judge it expedient, in the opening of tliisBook 
of Acts apostolic, to take a critical and full view of this third 
personal manil'ostation of Jehovah. We have one Jehovah in 
tlie person of the Pather, in the person of the Son, or leord 
Incarnalc, .ind in the person of the Holy Spirit. 

lli'ev/ia 'Aytof is without the Greek article, though in ren- 
ileriiig it, wo are required to nse the English definite article 
iiiE. The Greek o, ij, to, commonly called the Greek article, 
Jiust not bo confounded witli our definite English article, 
merely because they arc called by the same name. Their 
uses, in the two languages, are by no means parallel. We 
are constrained, by the laws of the two languages, to employ 
the English article frequently, when it is not used in the 
Original, and wee versa. Bach case must be considered with 
reference to the general principles of composition which ob- 
tain in the English and in the Greek respectively. We 
usually translate o 0eos, simply God, not " Ihe God." Yet it 
is, with but few exceptions, 6 Ocog, " the God," in the Origi- 
nal. In IMatt. 1 : 23, we correctly translate, MeiF 7;ftcov 6 
0EOS, "God with us," and not "//je God with us." So in 

many places. Sometimes, liowever, we find the article oniittcu 
before Ocas, as in Matt. 22 : 32. In the first part of this 
verse, wo have o 0cog, and we translate properly, "I am llie 
God of Abraham &c." — but in the latter clause we have ovy. 
Eoriv 6 Osoe, 0eos vcy.Quiv aV.n ^covrcov, litcrall^'^, "the God is 
not God of dead, but of living," but properly, "God is not 
'the' God of 'the' dead, but of 'the' living." Here, wo 
not only omit the Greek article, where it is in the text, but 
supply the Enghsh article in three places, where there is no 
article in the original. In Mark 12 : 27 and Luke 20 : 38, we 
have the parallel passages, and the same construction. Tlie 
use or omission of the Greek article, in these places, is 
governed by a very general principle of the Greek language, 
according to which they employed the article simply to dis- 
tinguish between the subject and the predicate of a sentence. 
In the sublime and abstract language of John's introduction 
to liis Gospel, wo have a similar case. Ev a/ixn, without an 
article, we translate, " in the beginning." But in the latter 
part of the 1st verse of this chapter, we have ©cos i/v b 7.oyos. 
Why do we not translate, in the order of the Greelc, and say, 
" God was the word " ? — clearly, because o 7.oyos is shown to 
be the subject of the sentence, not only by tlie context, but 
by the use of the article before loyoe, and its omission before 
0eoe. This principle of employing the Greek article or not. 
according as it is connected with the subject or predicate of a 
sentence, might be illustrated at great length, but it would be 
foreign to the purpose of this note to enter upon so extended 
a field of criticism. 

This word npuvfuc occurs very frequently in the scriptures, 
and with various adjuncts. We note, these five expressions 
TtpEVfta (spirit), TO Ttpevfia. (the spirit), m>evfta ayiov (spirit 
holy), TO ayiop nvev/ia (the holy spirit), and to itvEVfia to 
ayiov (tlie spirit the holy). Let us consider first, the question 
does the use or the omission of the article, in the Greek, de- 
termine the fact, whether it is the divine, that is, the infinite, 
or a finite spirit, which is spoken of? In Mark 9 : 20, '^ tho 
spirit (to itvEofia) tare him." Hero wo have the article — but 
it is a demoniacal spirit, that is spoken of. So elsewhere. In 
Mark 1 : 10, "and the spirit (to ■jtvavfia), like a dove," &c. 
Here we have the article, as before, but now it means tho 
Holy Spirit or " the spirit of God " (to Ttvsvfia tov 0aov), as 
Matthew expresses it 3 : IG. In Luke 9 : 39, "Lo a spirit 
[TtvEVfca), taketh him," &c. Here there is no article, and it is 
a demoniacal spirit. In ch. 24 : 37, " They had seen a spirit 
(nvev/ca), and v. 39, " a spirit (nvevfta), hath not flesh and 
bones," &c., without the article. But then, also, without the 
article, Jno. 3:5," of water and of the spirit (nvEvftaxos) ; " 
so frequently in the epistles; as in Gal. 5 : 25, "If we live in 
the spirit (Tti'cv/iari.), let us also walk in tho spirit (TtPEVftaTi)" ; 



6 When they therefore were 
come together, they asked of 


Tj/xepaf. " Oi fxev oSv avveX- 
dovTes iirrjpcoTcou avrov X^yovT^s, 


They now having come 'to- o 
gether, "asked him, saying, 

I" This agrees with the command to " continue in Jerusa- 
lem ", Luke 24 : 49. Some interpreters, with the concurrence 
of Do Wette, construe the participle substantively, "Tliey 
now, who came together ". Grammatical enough, but not in 
accordance with the author of this book, in the case 
alluded to. So Olshausen judiciously remarks on this 

passage, when dissenting from De "Wette, as quoted by 
Pi'of. Ilackett, 01 fim> ow aweXO-ovreg; They noio having 
come together. 

1 EmjQcormv, literally were aslcing, tantamount to ashed, 
and in most instances, in our idiom, represented by ashed. 
Matt. 15 : 23. John 4 : 40 ; 8 : 7 ; 12 : 21, &c. 

again Eph. 2 : 22, " Habitation of God through the spirit 
{ev Ttvev/tart) " ; and in 1 Tim. 3 : 16, " Justified in the spirit 
(ev Ttvsvfiari)."* 

From these citations, it is clear, that the Greek article docs 
not of itself, necessarily, indicate anything as to the quality, 
nature, or essence of the novm with which it stands connected 
but those must be ascertained from other sources. What 
other aids hare we in respect to the word nvaifta 1 Besides 
the general scope of the context, there are both epithets and 
attributive or limiting clauses. Thus, to "sjiirit," we have 
added, "unclean," "dumb," "deaf," "evil," "demoniacal," 
"pythonic," &c.— also "holy," "of God," "of Christ," "'of 
the Lord," " of adoption," " of his son," &c. By these and 
such like tests, and not by the use or omission of the article, 
must we determine the quality, nature, or essence of the 
TcvBVfia, in any place. The article may or may not be used 
with any one of these expressions. This will depend upon 
its logical, that is, its syntactical relation in the thought of 
the speaker or writer. The article is in fact a contrivance of 
syntax to render words, however general, so individual, dis- 
tinctive, or definite, as that they may be fitted to form the 
subject of a proposition ; hence its introduction or omission 
will bo governed by this general principle, and the same word, 
therefore, with precisely the same essential signification, will 
be found with or without the article, according to its syn- 
tactical relation in the context. 

The uses of the word nvEVfia afford ample illustrations of 
this ruling principle in the Greek language. It means, gener- 
ally, spirit — neither definite nor specific in itself — but, by the 
use of some adjunct, it may be rendered so, and then it will 
take or reject the article according to the general rule of the 
language. Thus Tipcv/ia becomes definite, because specific, by 
the adjunct ayiov. The adjective specifics what spirit, and, 
when placed after the noun, stands in the relation of the 
Hebrew genitive, and exerts, along with its qualifying sense, 
also a limiting and individualizing influence upon the noun. 
Therefore we find Ttvevfta, when succeeded by aytov, uni- 
formly without the article ; yet always most specific and 
definite. There is no room for mistake. Thus (Luke 2 : 25, 
20) it is said of Simeon, that the Holy Spirit was upon him. 
Here it is nvevfta aytov, without the article. Yet in the next 

* In these critical notes, the common version is adopted, 
for convenience of reference simply, 

verse, in narrating the effect of this spirit, it is said, "It was 
revealed to him by the Holy Spirit," &c. («jro rov Tivcv/tcnroe 
rov nytov), with the article before both nvsv/ia and ayiov, 
clearly because of the relation which this second introduction 
of the word sustains to the subject, as already introduced in 
nvcv/ia ayiov. The article does not introduce the idea of de- 
finitencss, or individuality, but simply demonstrates the Tfvev- 
fia in the second place, as the nvevfta, already named, which 
was not simply a spirit, but a particular, that is the Holy 
Spirit. So in the next verse (27), the connection of thought 
being now clearly and closely established, the specific adjunct 
nytov is dropt, as no longer necessary, and we have simply 
rrt) iivcv/iart, the spirit, that is, the spirit already referred to, 
known to be the Holy Spirit, not by the article simply, but 
by that to which the article refers, to wit, the nvtvfia aytov, 
first mentioned. 

So far from the article being necessary to give definitencss 
or individuality to jtvev/ta Aytov, it is its very definite and 
individual character that enables it to stand without the arti- 
cle. It is a great mistake to suppose that jtvevfia aytov is an 
abstract noun, Uvav/ia alone may be used as an abstract 
noun, but surely )iot with the qualifying and specific adjunct 

The Christian dispensation, being a dispensation of, or 
through the Holy Spirit, he is in the very beginning of the 
kingdom, as it was formally set up on the day of Pentecost, 
most appositely set forth in his individual, personal, and spe- 
cific character, as 7tvav/ia aytov ; not an influence of some- 
thing else, an efi'ect or product of some superior antecedent 
cause, but a concurring and self-acting personal divine agent, 
in consummating and completing the work of redemption. 
Therefore our Saviour said in his farewell discourse (Jno. 
14 : 2C), that the Father would send in his, the Son's, name 
"the advocate," the Holy Spirit, "who should teach them," &c. 
It is here to nvcvfta to aytov, and in this first chapter of Acts 
every thing is in perfect keeping with this divine distribution 
of the parts assigned to the Son and the Spirit respectively, 
in the salvation of man. In the first verse the command- 
ments given to the apostles are referred to this promised 
{nvEVfia aytov) Holy Spirit, b TtaQaxXrjros, In the 4th verse, 
the narrative represents the Saviour as commanding them to 
tarry at Jerusalem till this promise of the Father should be 
fulfilled— identifying it with the baptism in the Holy Spirit 
{nvsvfia aytov"), — which had been promised by John, the 



him, saying, Lord, wilt thou at 
this time restore again the king- 
dom to Israel ? 
7 And he said unto them, It 


Kvpte, el iv tS ypovco rovra 
airoKaOicTTaveis ttjv fiacnXeiau 
\t(S 'IcrparjX,' ^ JEiTre Be wpos 


Lord, dost thou at this time 
restore the kingdom to Israel? 
And he said to them, It is not 7 

Baptist 5 and in the 8tli verse, in reply to their questions con- 
cerning the restoration of the kingdom to Israel (v. 0), he 
tells them, "they shall receive power, after that the Holy 
Spirit (rov dytov Ttvevfcaros) shall have come upon them," &c. 
Here there can be no mistake. The to itvevfia 10 ayiov — 
promised in Jno. (14 : 20) — is the nvavfta ayiov, in which 
the Harbinger promised, they should be immersed, the same 
atvevfia aytov, for which the Saviour bid them to tarry at 
Jerusalem, and the ro dytov nvsv/tta, which was to come upon 
them, in order to endue them with power, &c., as found in 
V. 8. The identity of the subject indicated by the several 
expressions nvevfta dytov, to Ttvevfia to dyiov, and to dyiov 
itvEVfia, cannot be doubted. To those who think that the 
idea of the personality of the Spirit was not distinctly held 
by the Jews, and who yet contend that this idea is only 
properly and fully conveyed by the expression to nvevfia to 
dyiov, it may be suggested, that in the only places (three in 
all), where the expression ''■ Kobj S^nrit" occurs in the 
Septuagint, this arrangement of the article with the noun 
and adjective is uniformly employed. The same form is also 
used by Peter (in Acts 1 : IG), to designate the Spirit, prophe- 
sying by the mouth of David. 

As to the use of tho definite English article, the, always 
before Holy Spirit, it is found necessary in the fact, that we 
recognize the Spirit's .agency always in relation to (ha Father, 
and to the Son. We may and do sometimes say "Father, 
Son, and Holy Spirit," but this rather to unify than to dis- 
tinguish. Were there scriptural warrant for addressing the 
Holy Spirit directly, as is sometimes done, we would omit the 
English article. 

'Tdatt, — cv Hvevunri 'Ayirp. These baptisms, or immer- 
sions, are spoken of by Matt. 3:11; Mark 1:8; Luke 
3:16; Jno. 1 : 33 ; and 1 Cor. 12 : 13. In all these places 
the preposition ev is expressed both before iSatt and nvsv- 
uari, except that in Luke, where ev is omitted, as in this 
case, before vSatt. The insertion or omission, therefore, of 
the preposition does not alter the construction or the sense ; 
in either case, the noun is the dative of the manner, or the 
way in which, or after which, or the place or medium in 
which, the action is performed. Both the preposition ev and 
the dative case-ending indicate the same primary thought, 
that of relative place. The Sanscrit has an " implementive 
or instrumental," a "dative" and a "locative" case, all of 
which are expressed, in the Greek, by the one, dative. But 
the primary and distinctive import of all these is " locative." 
This is also the import of the preposition ev, and, therefore, 
we find the case-ending of the dative, sometimes with, and 
(Sometimes without, the preposition, in precisely the same con- 
nection, and in the same sense. This is so common a liberty 

of the Greek language, that we need not illustrate it by other 
examples. As iSati stands to the immersion by John, so 
precisely does ev nvevftatt stand to the immersion by Christ. 
The relation, in both cases, is expressed by the dative or 
locative case, and is clearly that of where or in which the 
action was performed. It should be noted by those who 
speak of this connection, as the dative of instrument, that 
whilst the genitive is the whencc-casQ, and the accusative the 
iohilher-iis.&e, the dative is strictly and properly the where- 
case, and can only be used to express insirumentalily in a 
strictly passive sense. It is not properly employed to express 
concurrent action or co-agency. Hhe action in this case is 
expressed by "immerse," the agents were John and Christ, 
the whither or object vfias, those addressed, and the place — 
that in which, in the action of John, vSatt, in water, and in 
the action of Christ, ev JTvevfiati ^ytq>, in the Holy Spirit. 

There are five distinct conceptions of tho Holy Spirit in tho 
Holy Scriptures. The first is his nature, all Divine; the second, 
his 2'erson, distinct from that of the Father and the Son ; the 
third, his ojfice of illuminator and sanctifier; the fourth, his 
influence ; the fifth, his work, peculiarly developed in creation, 
providence, and redemption. 

1. In creation he "moved upon the face of the waters," im- 
pregnating them with life-giving power; Gen. 1 : 6. "By his 
Spirit he has garnished the heavens ; " " his hand has formed 
the crooked serpent ; " the milky way ; Job 26 : 13. The 
Spirit of God has made me. Job 33 : 4. "The Spirit gave the 
apostles utterance," Acts 2 : 4. 

2. In providence, annually renewing the face of the earth. 
" Thou sendest forth thy Spirit, and thou renewest the face 
of the earth." Psalm 104 : 30. By the Holy Spirit the 
humanity of Jesus the Messiah was created out of the person 
of the Virgin Mary. The Holy Spirit (UvEvfia 'Ayiov) shall 
come upon thee, Luke 1 : 35. Therefore she was found with 
child by the Holy Spirit, Matthew 1 : 18. Hence the Christian 
church commenced by the direct and special influence, or 
creative power, of the Holy Spirit, Acts 2. The Father sent 
his Son into the world; the Son promised to send, and did 
send, with the concurrence of his Father, the Holy Spirit; and, 
by his gifts vouchsafed to the apostles, they instituted the 
Christian church, Christ's mystical body, of which he is tho 
living, active, and efficient Spirit. 

3. In redemption, Ho is the sanctifier, and comforter, or ad- 
vocate, of the claims of Messiah, shedding abroad copiously, 
the love of God in the heart of his people; making inter- 
cessions for us with groanings inexpressible, which only he 
that searches the heart can interpret. 

Such are the evangelical developments of the remedial dis- 
pensation, all found in the Divino essence and personalities. 



is not for you to know the times 
or the seasons which the Father 
hath put in his own power. 

S But ye shall receive power 
after that the Holy Grhost is 
come upon you : and ye shall he 
witnesses unto me, both in Je- 
rusalem, and in. all Judea, and in 
Samaria, and unto the uttermost 
part of the earth. 

9 And when he had spoken 
these things, while they beheld, 
he was taken up; and a cloud 
received him out of their sight. 

10 And while they looked 
steadfastly toward heaven as he 
went up, behold, two men stood 
by them in white apparel ; 

11 Which also said. Ye men 
of Gralilee, why stand ye gazing 
up into heaven? this same Je- 
sus which is taken up from you 
into heaven, shall so come in like 
manner as ye have seen him go 
into heaven. 

12 Then returned they unto 
Jerusalem, ft-om the mount called 


avTOVS) Ov^ vfjLcov icTTL yvSivai 
)(p6uovs rj KaLpovs ovs b HaTrjp 
edero iv rfj ISlo. i^ova-ia. ^ aAAa 
Xyylreade SvvafXLU, iireXOovTOS 
Tov 'Ayiov IIvevfiaT09 i(j) vpias, 
Kou ecreadi [mol fxapTvpes €v re 
'IepovcraX7]/j, /cat eV iraarj rfj 
'lovBaia Kcd Sa/xapeia /cat eojy 
i(r)(a.Tov rrjs yjjy. ^ ^at ravra 
elircov, /SXcTTovTcov avrav iTrrjpdrj, 
Kol i'€(l)eXr] VTreXafieu avrov airb 
Tcou 6(j)daXfj.u}i> avrmv. " /cat 
coy arevi^ovres rfcrav els tov 
ovpavov, TTopevofxevov avrov, /cat 
l8ov av8pes dvo TrapeicTTr/Keiaau 
avTols ev icrOrJTL XevKjj, ^^ oi kol 
ehrov, ' AvBpes raXiXaioi, tL 
iarTrjKare ifx/SXeTTOvres ety tou 
Qvpavov ; ovTos b Irjaovs 6 
avaXr](ji6els d(f) vfxwv ely tov 
ovpavbv, ovTcos iXevaeTUL oi> 
TpOTTOv ideacracrOe avrov iropev- 
6p.evov ety rov ovpavov. ^^ Tore 
viricTTpey^av ety 'lepovcraXyp, dwo 
opovs rov KaXovfxevov ' JEXaLcovos, 


for you to know times or 'oc- 
casions, which the Father 
has reserved for his own "dis- 
posal. But you shall receive s 
'power, after that the Holy 
Spirit is come upon you: and 
you shall be witnesses for "me, 
both in Jerusalem, and in all 
Judea, and in Samaria, and to 
the. uttermost parts of the 

And when he had spoken 9 
these things, while they be- 
held, he was taken "up, and a 
cloud received him out of their 
sight. And while they were lo 
gazing "into the heaven as 
he went up, behold, two men 
stood by them in white ap- 
parel; who also said, Galile- ii 
ans, why stand you gazing 
into the heaven? This same 
Jesus, who is taken from 
you into the heaven, shall so 
come, in like manner, as you 
have seen him going into 
the heaven. Then they re- 12 
turned into Jerusalem, from a 
mount called ^Olivet, from 

■■ Xqovove rj^ovs, " times or occasions ". " The seasons 
of time, or the exact time ", Wakefield. 

• E&aro sv rij tSta e^ovaici; "put in his own power", 
com. ver. ; "appointed in his own authority". These, how- 
ever literal, are not in the common currency of our present 
language. Men may place a matter in their own hands — in 
their own disposal. And by a very common figure, we speak 
of "reserved rights", wo very seldom put, that which we 
possess, in our own hands. It is, therefore, a figurative ex- 
pression, tantamount to — reserving or placing in one's own 
dispensation or disposal. It is, indeed, p.^ovaia, moral power, 
or authority of dispensation — at one's own disposal. 

» jivvafii,v, not here e^ovaia, moral power or authority, 
indicative of the powers of the Christian age — "the world 
that was to come ". There was not only eSovota, authority — 
or moral power — but also Swa/nig, intellectual strength and 
miraculous power — equal to their day and work. 

" Mov, for /tot, is substituted by the authority of Lachmann 
and Tischendorf (abbreviated Ln., Tf.). The difference between 
" ray witnesses ", and " witnesses for me " is considerable. My 

witnesses might depose against me, and not be "witnesses 
fur me ". I therefore, a priori, prefer the latter to the former 
— the text to the emendation, 

•• " Was taken up ", eitriqd-q, not aveX7]g>d-ij, v. 2, indicating 
the commencement, not the completion of his ascent. He, 
it appears from the terminology here employed, gradually 
and with great dignity, ascended, not as a flash of lightning, 
nor as a meteor passes away, but slowly and with majesty, 
that they might clearly perceive and be assured of his return 
to his native heaven. Several of the old versions read, "And 
while they were looking steadfastly, as he was going towards 
heaven ". 

" Ets rov ovQai'ov; into the heaven. In vv. 10, 11, we have 
this precise formula four times, and, therefore, we must 
have it just as often in the version. We have also ete twice 
in vv. 12, 13, and should have into Jerusalem, and into the 
upper room, for in both instances they went not only lo, or 
unto, but into Jerusalem, and into the upper room, 

* " Olivet ", olive yard. 



Olivet, wMcli is from Jerusalem 
a sabbath-day's journey. 

13 And when they were come 
in, they went up into an upper 
room, where abode both Peter, 
and James, and John, and An- 
drew, Philip, and Thomas, Bar- 
tholomew, and Matthew, James 
ihc son of Alpheus, and Simon 
Zelotes, and Judas the hrothcr of 

14 These all continued with 
one accord in prayer and sup- 
plication, with the women, and 
Mary the mother of Jesus, and 
with his brethren. 

15 And in those days Peter 
stood up in the midst of the dis- 
ciples, and said, (the number of 
the names together were about 
an hundred and twenty,) 

16 Men and brethren, this 
scripture must needs have been 
fulfilled, which the Holy Grhost 
by the mouth of David spake 
before concerning Judas, which 
was guide to them that took 

17 For he was numbered with 
us, and had obtained part of this 

IS Now this man purchased a 
field with the reward of iniquity ; 


b ecTTLv iyyvs 'Iepov<xaX.r][JL, crafi- 
^arov ^)(ou oSov 

^"^ Kal ore elaiiXdov, avi^rjcrav 
els TO virepcpov ov rjaav Kara- 

fJi€VOVT€S, TeJJirpOS Kcd'IoLKW- 

/3o9 Kol 'IcoavvTjs Kal 'Av8pias, 
*Pi\L7T7ros KOL Ocofxas, BapBoXo- 
ixalos K(u MarOaios, 'laKoo^os 
'AX(j)al.ov KOL Sl/jLCou 6 ZrjXcorrjs, 
Koi 'Jov8a9 'laKco^ov. ^'^ ovtol 
rravTes rjo-av irpoa-KaprepovvTes 
ofxodv/jiadou rfj irpocrev^fj Koi rfj 
BeT^cret, avv yvvai^X kol M^apia 
rfj /j.T)Tpl Tov 'Irjcrov, Kal crvp 
roLs aBeX^ols avroD. 

■^ KAIiv TaTs Tjixepais ravrais 
avacrras JJerpos eV jxicra} rmv 
piaOrjTcov ehrev rjv re o^Xos 
ovofxaTCdv eTTtroavTO coy eKarov 
eUoa-LV ■'^'' "AuSpes ddeXcpol, 
eSet TrXrjpcodrjvac rrju ypa(j)r]u 
ravTrjv, rjv irpoeLire to JIvevp.a 
TO ' AyLov dia <TT0/iaT09 Aa^l8, 
irepl 'lovSa tov yevofxevov oSrjyov 
Tols avXXa/3ovcrc tov 'Irjo-ovw 
OTt KaTTjpidfxrjfjievos rjv avu 
TjixLV, Kal eXa)(e tov KXrjpov ttjs 
ScaKovias TavTrjs. ^^ Ovtos }xlv 
ovv iKTrjaaTO ■)(coplov e/c tov fiia- 
6ov Trjs adiKias, Kal irprjvrjs 


Jerusalem, a sabbath-day's 
3'journey. And when they had 13 
entered, they went up into the 
upper room, where abode both 
Peter, and James, and John, 
and Andrew, Philip and Tho- 
mas, Bartholomew and Mat- 
thew, James, son of Alpheus. 
and Simon Zelotes, and Judas, 
the brother of James. These H 
were all 'persevering with one 
consent, in prayer and sup- 
plication, with women, with 
Mary the mother of Jesus, and 
with his brothers. 

And in those days Peter is 
stood up in the midst of the dis- 
ciples, and said, (the number 
of the names together being 
about one hundred and twen- 
ty), 'Brethren, this scripture 16 
must needs have been fulfilled, 
which the Holy Spirit, by the 
mouth of David, before spoke, 
concerning Judas, who was 
guide to them that seized Je- 
sus. For he was numbered 17 
with us, and had obtained part 
of this ministry. (Now a field 18 
was purchased with the re- 
ward of his iniquity, and he. 

5' E%ov, having, not = uTCexov, distant. Ilackett, in loco., 
" having from" ; Sdbhali haiens iter, Vulgate ; " distant 
from", Syriac; "containing a saboth". Tyndale. So, also, the 
Geneva. " contcyning a sabbath dayes iorney ". " Distant a 
sabbath day's journey ", Eheims ; " distant about seven fur- 
longs ", Syriac A''ersion. 

' ITiJoay.a^reoem signifies, to jjersist in adherence to, to be 
intently engaged in, to attend constantly to. Acts 2 : 42 ; Eom. 
13 : 6, &c. ; to remain constantly, Acts 2 : 46 ; to attend con- 
stantly, Mark. 3:9; to continue with, Mark 8:13; 10 : 7. 

» " Men brethren " occurs some eleven times in this book 
of Acts. A Hebraism, in our idiom, simply equivalent to 
brethren. Men, brethren and fathers, is a proper address, 
ivhen three distinct classes are present ; but " jnen brethren " 

are not two classes, while men and brethren are. Without a 
conjunction between them, with us, they simply indicate 
brethren, which is more Anglo-Saxon than " men brethren ". 
In a brother we always find a man, while sometimes we may 
find a man, but not in him a brother. 

Men of Galilee, men of Judea, men of Israel, men of Cyprus, 
men of Macedonia, &c., &c., are, with us, Galileans, Jews, 
Israelites, Cyprians, Macedonians, &c., &c. Murdock's Syriac 
has men. The English Rheims ver. of the Vulgate has " you 
men brethren ". Beza, London Ed., 1G81, has Viri fratres ; 
Boothroyd's London Ed., 1836, has simply "brethren " ; our 
com. ver. follows Tyndale's; Thompson, "men brethren". 
"We do not say, men and Virginians, men and Pennsylva- 
nians, &c. 



and falling headlong, he burst 
asunder in the midst, and all his 
bowels gushed out. 

19 And it was known unto 
tiR the dwellers at Jerusalem ; 
insomuch as that field is called 
in their proper tongue, Acelda- 
ma, that is to say. The field of 

20 For it is written in the 
book of Psalms, Let his habita- 
tion be desolate, and let no man 
dwell therein : and. His bishop- 
rick let another take. 

21 Wherefore of these men 
which have companied with us, 
all the time that the Lord Jesus 
went in and out among us, 

22 Beginning from the bap- 
tism of John, unto that same day 
that he was talien up from us, 
must one be ordained to be a 
witness with us of his resur- 

23 And they appointed two, 
Joseph called Barsabas, who 
was surnamed Justus, and Mat- 

24 And they prayed, and said. 
Thou, Lord, which knowest the 
hearts of all me?j, shew whether 
of these two thou hast chosen, 

25 That he may take part of 
this ministry and apostleship, 
from which Judas by transgres- 
sion fell, that he might go to his 
own place. 

26 And they gave forth their 
lots; and the lot fell upon Mat- 
thias ; and he was numbered with 
the eleven apostles. 


■y£Uo/xevo9 iXa-K-rjcre ixearos, /cat 
i^e^vdr] TTOLvra to, airXay^va 
avTov, Kol yvaxTTOv iyevero 
■ rois KaroiKOVcnu lepovcra- 
Xrj/x, dxTTe icXydTJvac to ■)(a)p'Lov 
iKelvo rfj ISia SiaXeKTW avrav 
' AiceXBafia, Tovrecm ■^(copiov 
atfiaTos. yiypairrai yap iu 

/S/jQAo) ^FaXp-cov, revrjdrjTCO rj 
eiravXis avTov ep-qpLos, Kal p.rj 
ecTTCt) 6 KaroLKtav iv avrfj, Ka\, 
Ti]v iiTLcrKOTn^v avrov Xa^oL 
eTep09. ^^ -del ovv twv avueX- 
OovTcov Tjpuv av8pS)v eV iravrl 
XPOv<^ eV CO elcrrjXde Kal i^rjXdev 
i(j) rjpLas 6 KvpLos 'Irjaovs, ^ ap^a- 
p.€vos OLTTO Tov fiairTLcrp-aTos 
'ladvvov ecoy rrjs r]p.epas rjs di>e- 
Xrj(])dr) dcf) r]pS>v, pdprvpa rrjs' 
dvacTTacreas avTov yeuecrdai aw 
r) eva tqvtcov. Kal eaTt]- 

aav 8vo, 'Ico(rr}(j) tov KaXovpievov 
Bapaafidv, os €T7eKXr]6r] 'lov- 
(TTOs, /cat MaTOiav. ^' Kal wpo- 
a-ev^dp.€UOL ehrov, 2v Kvpte 
KapSioyvaxTTa TrdvTCou, dva8ei^oi> 
e'/c TovTcov T&u 8vo eva bv e^eXe^co 
Xa^elv TOV KXrjpov Trjs 8taK0- 
v'las TavTTjs Kal diroaToXris, e^ 
^y Trape^T] 'Iov8as, iropevdrjvai, 
ety TOV TOTTOv TOV 'lSlov. ^'' ^at 
e8coKav KXr}pov9 avTcov, Kal eire- 
aev 6 kXtjpos eVt MarOiav, kol 
o-vyKaTeyjrrjcjiLadr] p-eTO. Tav ev8e- 
Ka diroaToXcov. 


falling headlong, burst asun- 
der in the midst, and all his 
bowels gushed out. And it 19 
was known to all the dwellers 
in Jerusalem ; insomuch as that 
field is called in their proper 
tongue Aceldama, that is to 
say, the field of blood.) For it 20 
is written in the book of 
Psalms; Let his habitation 
be desolate, and let no man 
dwell in it, and his "-epis- 
copate let another take. 
Wherefore, of these men that 21 
have accompanied us all the 
time that the Lord Jesus went 
in and out among us, begin- 22 
ning from the immersion of 
John, to the day that he was 
taken up from us, must one 
be appointed to be witness 
with us of his resurrection. 
And they appointed «two, Jo- 23 
seph, called Barsabas, who 
was surnamed Justus, and 
Matthias. And they ■'praying 21 
said : Thou Lord, who knowest 
the hearts of all men, show 
which of these two thou hast 
chosen, to take a part in this 25 
ministry and an Apostleship, 
from which Judas by trans- 
gression fell, that he might 
go to his own place. And 20 
they gave forth their lots; and 
the lot fell upon Matthias, 
and he was numbered 'to- 
gether with the eleven Apos- 

'' Episcopate, This term, being now canonized by Webster, is 
more apposite than any other word in our currency, to indicate 
the office of oversight or superintendency. The only question 
with us is, whether it would not be more intelligible to the 
masses to say " his office of Superintcndant ", or with Wiclif, 
" his bishoprick let another take ". ETttay.onrj = oversight. 

' JEoTTjaav Svo. Literally " they placed two ", but idiomati- 
cally, they nominated or appointed two. 

■' UQoosvf.aiisvot scTtov " they praying said " 

« ^vyy.a.reriiijipiaO'ri. This indicates more than that he was 
numbered with. IIo was numbered together with, i. e. en- 
rolled among them, Beza, Calvin, De Wette, Hackett. The 
fact here stated justifies the version given of v. 25, " a par( 
in this ministry, and an Apostleship " from which Judas fell, 
lie was a perfect and complete substitute, possessing all the 
qualifications equally with him. His treachery and fall are 
thus made to strengthen and complete the apostolic tef^ti 




And when the day of Pente- 
cost was fully come, they were 
all with one accord in one place. 

2 And suddenly there came a 
sound from heaven, as of a rush- 
ing mighty wind, and it filled 
all the house where they were 

3 And there appeared unto 
them cloven tongues like as of 
fire, and it sat upon each of 

4 And they were all filled 
with the Holy Ghost, and began 
to speak with other tongues, as 
the Spirit gave them utterance. 



KAI iv T(S crvfjJirXrjpova-daL 
rrjv rjfiepav rrjs JIevTr)KoaT7J9, 
rjcrav airavres ofJLodvfxadov irn- 
ToavTO. ^ Koi iyeuero a(f)vco e/c 
Tov ovpauov rj-)(Os cocnrep <j)epo' 
ixevrjs TTVoris ^laias, kol eTrXy- 
paxreu oXof tov oIkov oi ricrav 
KadrjpiivoL' ^ Kou a)(f)dr}(rai> av- 
T019 diafiepi^o/j-evat yXwcraai, 
(hcrei irvpos, eKcidicri re e0' eva 
eKOLCTTOv avTOiv, ^ KaliTrXrjcrdrjcrav 
aTTavTcs Jlvevfiaros 'jlyiov, koI 
rjp^avTO XaXilv irepats yXaia- 
aais, Kadws to Hvevfia i8i8ov 
avTols a.iro<p6^yy€(r6ai. ^ 'Hcrav 


When the day of ■'Pentecost 
was fully •'come, they were all 
with one accord in one place. 
And suddenly there came a 
sound "=out of heaven, as of a 
rushing mighty ■'wind, and it 
filled all the house where they 
were sitting. And there ap- 
peared to them tongues "dis- 
tributed, as of fire, and it sat 
upon every one of them. And 
they were all filled with the 
'Holy Spirit, and they began 
to speak in other tongues, as 
the Spirit gave them ^utter- 

°- Hevrrjy.oarrjs, from jtEvrrjy.oorti = Ttetn-ijy.ovrr;, fifty. 

The Pentecost commeaced the fiftieth day from the first day 
of unleavened bread — on the morrow after the Paschal Lamb 
was offered. 

'• Sv/t7t^ri^ova9'ac. The verb avfm).r;^oco occurs only three 
times, and exclusively in Luke's writings — twice in his 
Gospel and once here — " completely filled ". The action of 
the verb (literally, to be completed) refers to the interval be- 
fore his arrival. Olsh., Ilackett. "And when the days of 
Pentecost were fully come " ; Mur., S^'riac Peshito Version. 
" The morrow after the seventh Sabbath ". The Jews were on 
that day to celebrate a holy convocation according to the law. 

■= Ey.rov ovpavov, literally oKiq/" heaven, usually represented 
from heaven. 

^ Uvotje ficaiae, a mighty blast ; y/ejioftBvtjs, a rushing miglity 
wind ; fc^ead'ai, rapid and violent motion. H/oi must be 
regarded here as the nom. case to eTthjQcoasv. The echo or 
sound filled the apartment in which they were assembled. 
Had it been in the temple it would doubtless have been 
named. No symbol of spirit known to mankind, is better 
than the wind. John 3:8. 

* " Separate tongues as of fire, and it settled upon each of 
them ", Thompson. " Distinct tongues as of fire, and it sat 
upon each of them ", Wesley. " Tongues which were divided 
like flame, and they rested upon each of them ", Murdock. 
"Divided tongues as of fire, and a tongue sat on each of 
them ", Boothroyd. He adds, " Calvin, Heinrichs, and many 
of the older commentators render the participle disparted, or 
cleft, and suppose it to describe the flame as exhibiting in each 
instance a tongue-like, forked appearance". ^la/tsQi^ofisvat 
yXcooaai. /lMfieniC,ofiai. occurs in the N. T. 12 times, 8 
of which are in Luke's writings, translated com. ver. by di- 

vided, 5 times ; parted, 6 times ; cloven, once, (in this passage 
only). Garments and property are "patted", kingdoms, 
families, and food, are divided. It would seem apropos, that 
one tongue was visible on the head of every apostle. Wake- 
field freely translates it, "And they saw, as it were, tongues of 
fire, distributing themselves and settling upon them ". 

^ JTvsvfiarog ^yiov; wo have Ttvev/ta, xo mvevfta, nvev/ia 
'Ayiov, to iiyiov }tvev/iia, and ro nvev/ua to 'Ayiov in the 
Christian Scriptures, and samples of each in the book of Acts. 
These, too, occasionally occur in connection with the third 
person of the Divinity, or Godhead. 

That the same personality is occasionally indicated by each 
of them, is conceded by all learned men, so far as known to 
us. Our best Greek texts distinguish them, when supposed to 
refer to the Holy Spirit, by capital letters. 

On a special examination of every passage in this book where 
these terms occur in Luke's writings, his gospel and his Acts, 
we find it with the article, to itvevfia, thirty-two times, with- 
out it nineteen times. In almost every case with the article, 
the Holy Spirit is intended, and sometimes without it. 

Now, as there is but one Holy Spirit of a Divine conception 
in the Christian religion, we are constrained to think that 
when any one is said to he filled with, or led by a Holy Spirit 
whether with or without the article, the Spirit of God is in- 
tended and intimated. But that Spirit, now as formerly, dis- 
tributes or confers his graces as he wills, and especially in 
answer to the prayer of faith. It is God who works in us to 
will and to do, of his own benevolence — ro &e?.eiv kcu ro 
EVEQyuv. Phil. 2 : 13. 

^ Ano<pd-ByyBa\>ai is found only in this book, and occurs 
but three times, chap. 2 : 14 ; 26 : 25. In this place it inti- 
mates more than ordinary utterance. "As the Spirit gave 




5 And there were dwelling at 
Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out 
of every nation under heaven. 

6 Now when this was noised 
abroad, the multitude came to- 
gether, and were confounded, 
because that every man heard 
them speak in his own language. 

7 And they were all amazed, 
and marvelled, saying one to 
another. Behold, ai"e not all these 
which speak, Galileans ? 

8 And how hear we every man 
in our own tongue, wherein we 
were born ? 

9 Parthians, and Medes, and 
Elamites, and the dwellers in 
Mesopotamia, and in Judea, and 
Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, 

10 Phrygia, and Pamphylia, 
in Egypt, and in the parts of 
Libya about Cyrene, and stran- 
gers of Rome, Jews and prose- 

11 Cretes and Arabians, we do 


5e eV 'lepovcraXrju. KaTOiKOvvres 
'lovSoLOL avdpes evXa^eis airo 
TravTos eOvovs ru>v viro top ovpa- 
vov. ^ yevofiivrjs 5e Trjs ^covrjs 
TavTTjs, ovprjXde to irX-qOos Kol 
avve^vOr)' otl tjkovov els eKacrros 
Tjj I8ia BiaXeKTCp XaXovvTCov av- 
rStv. ^ i^Lo-ravTo Se irduTes 
/cat idavfia^ou, Xeyovres Trpos 
d?iXr]Xov9, OvK ISov Trdures ovtol 
elariv ol XaXovvT€S JTaXiXaioi ; 
^ KOL ir&s rifieis aKOVOfiev eKaaros 
rfj IBla BiaXeKTO) -^ficov iu rj kyev- 
VTjOripiev, " HdpQoi KoiX MrjdoL 
KoX 'JSXapuTai, KOL oi KaroiKovvres 
TTjv MecroTroTafjLiav, 'lovSalav re 
/cat KainraSoKLau, Hovtov kcll 
rrju 'Acriav, ^^ ^pvylau re /cat 
Ha/xcpvXiav, AlyvivTov kol ra 
p-eprj TTjs Aifivr]s rrjs Kara Kv- 
pr]V7]V, KOLL ol hnBriixovvTes 'Pco- 
fxaloL, lovSaioi, re /cat irpoa-q- 
XvTOCf ^ Kprjres kol ' Apa^es, 


And there were dwelling a 
in Jerusalem Jews, ""devout 
men, of every nation under 
heaven. Now when this was c 
noised abroad, the multitude 
came together, and were con- 
founded, because 'every one 
heard them speak in his own 
'tongue. And all were a- 7 
mazed, and marvelled, saying 
one to another, Behold, are 
not 'all these who speak, Ga- 
lileans ? And how hear we, 8 
every man in our own tongue, 
'in which we were born ? Par- 
thians, and Medes, and Elam- 3 
ites, and those ""inhabiting 
Mesopotamia, — both "Judea 
and Cappadocia, Pontus and 
Asia, Phiygia and Pamphilia, lo 
and the parts of Lybia about 
Cyrene, and Roman strangers 
— both Jews and Proselytes, il 
Cretes and Arabians, — we hear 

them to make solemn addresses", Thom. Eisner, on this 
passage, quoting Diogenes Laertius, lamblichus, and Kypke, 
shows that it is applied specially to indicate oracles or pro- 
phetic responses. So used by Josephus, Strabo, and Philo. 
— See Doddridge. "As the Spirit gave them utterance " has 
respect to the import of the communications rather than to 
the i'act of their mere powers of speaking, or of expressing 

'" JEvXa^etg occurs but three times in N. T., always rendered 
devout. Its whole family — svXapsia and svXafieofiai are found 
but seven times. It is only in Hellenistic Greek found in this 
usage. The pious Eneas and the devout Greeks correspond 
with this use of it. It is probable that the Jews, then 
sojourners in all nations, were represented in this great anni- 
versary of the giving of their law by men the most pious and 
devout in their nation. 

' Ele ixaaros : literally eacJi one, but in our usage, every one, 
is more congenial. In some eighty occurrences in the N. T. it 
is, with some few exceptions, translated by every one. 

' ISitt Sialetctoj : literally dialect. This word in the Christian 
scriptures is found but six times, and these are found in "The 

Acts." It is with us more familiarly rendered tongue. This, 
as in the case of ^anTiaua, we prefer to a mere trans- 

' Jlavxes is doubtful, and is rejected by Sch., Ln., and Tf. 
But Hackett and some others regard it as emphatic. It is, 
indeed, if genuine, a figure of amplification. 

I Ev fi — in which, not, " wherein ". 

"" Eor the dwellers, now also obsolete, substitute those in- 
hahiling, as not only more modern, but more indicative of the 
regimen and more in harmony with it. Inhahit, in our verna- 
cular, is both transitive and intransitive. 

" " Judea ". Some eminent critics, such as Dr. Bloomfield 
and Granville Penn, Esq., regard this as a vitiation of the 
common reading. "Idumea exactly, fits the geographical order 
of the countries named, Judea does not — ^Parthians, and 
Medes, and Elamites; those who inhabit Mesopotamia and 
Idumea ". , Besides, it is not likely that, in such a collation of 
countries, Judea, in which they were assembled, would bo 
named — and named, too, out of its proper place. But Bagster'a 
text, being the standard text, renders this position gratuitous. 
Otherwise wo strongly incline to Idumea. 




hear them speak in our tongues 
the wonderful works of God. 

12 And they were all amazed , 
and were in doubt, saying one to 
another, What meaneth this ? 

13 Others mocking, said, These 
men are full of new wine. 

14 But Peter, standing up 
with the eleven, lifted up his 
voice, and said unto them. Ye 
men of Judea, and all yc that 
dwell at Jerusalem, be this 
known unto you, and hearken 
to my words : 

15 For these are not drunken, 
as ye suppose, seeing it is but 
the third hour of the day. 

16 But this is that which was 
spoken by the prophet Joel, 

17 And it shall come to pass 
in the last days, saifch God, I will 
pour out of my Spirit upon all 
flesh: and your sons and your 
daughters sliall pi'ophesy, and 
your young men shall see visions, 
and your old men shall dream 
dreams : 


aKOvojxev XaXovvTcou avTcau rals 
rjfxeTepaLS yXwaaais to, jxeyaXeTa 
Tov Oeov S ^2 ' E^iaravTO 8e 
TrauTes /cat Bi-qiropovv, aXXos 
irpos aXXov Xiyovres, Ti av OeXot 
TOVTO elvai ; ^^ JErepoL 8e ^Xev- 
a^ovT€s eXeyoj/, ' On yXevKovs 
fX€fji€crTa)p.evoi elcTL. 

SraOils Se Herpos crvv toIs 
evScKa, eirrjpe rrju (j)cour]i> avrov, 
/cat a7re(f)dey^aT0 avrols,' Av8pes 
lovSaloL, /cat ot KaroLKOvvres 
'lepovcraXrjp, airavT^s, tovto vplv 
yvcoarou earco, /cat ivcoTLcraa-de 
ra prjfiaTa /xov. ov yap twy 

uyuety VTroXa/x/Savere, ovrot /xe- 
OvovoTLV 'ia-Tt yap wpa TpiTy Trjs 
Tjixepas' aXXa tovto Icttl to 

elpTj/xevov Sta tov 7rpo(j)r)TOv 
'IcorjX, ^^ KcLL 'doTTai iu raty 
icrxo^Tais rjixepais, Xeyei 6 Oeos, 
€K-)(ea) diro tov irvevjiaTos p-ov 
eVt iracrau aapica, Kai, 7rpo(br]Tev 
aovaiv o'l v\ol vfia>v koL a'l Ovya- 
Tepes vp.a>v' Kca ol veaviarKoi, 
vp.S)V opacreLS o^j/ouTai, Kai ol 
Trpea/SvTepot, vp-cou ivviruLa evv- 


them speaking in our own 
tongues the "majestic works 
of God. And they were all 12 
amazed and perplexed, saying 
one to another. What means 
this? Others (mocking) said, 13 
pThey are full of 'sweet 
wine. But Peter, standing up u 
with the eleven, raised his 
voice, and said to them, ■■Jews, 
and all you that reside in Jeru- 
salem, be this known to you, 
and hearken to my words : for 15 
these men are not drunk, as 
you sujjpose, seeing it is but 
the third "hour of the day. 
But this is that which was ic 
spoken 'through the prophet 
Joel, And it shall come to 17 
pass, in "the last days, that 
I will pour out of my Spirit 
uj)on all flesh, and they shall 
prophesy. Your young men 
shall see visions, and your old 
men shall dream 'in dreams: 

" Ta /eeyaXeta is more than mighty, or wonderful. Tijv fis- 
yalEtoxrjra is rendered magnificence, Acts 19:27j majesty, 
2 Peter 1 : 16. In this context, its full import of grandeur is 
called for. " Wonderful dispensations of God ", Thompson ; 
" Wonderful works of God ", Wakefield, Boothroyd, Wesley ; 
" Wonders of God ", j\Iur. Syriac. 

P Men is supplied in com. vers. XXsva^oprss is repudiated 
by Gb., Sch., Ln., and Tf., and Siay}.£vai,ovras substituted. 

1 D.Evxovs, mustum vinum recens ox uvis expressum 
et syneodochice, quivis dulcis potus quasi, a sweet wine. — 
Stockius, Wesley, Thompson, Geneva, Kheims. Musto, Vulgate, 
Wicldiflf. New wine, Murdock, cum multis aliis. The Pente- 
cost occurred in June, the First Vintage in August. Conse- 
quently, it could not bo new wine. 

' AvSosg lovdaioi, Jews ; born in Jerusalem, al y.aroiy.ovv- 
res. " Jews, and Jewish converts, or Jews born in Jerusa- 
lem, and Foreign Jews." Hackett, cum multis aliis. 

" Nine o'clock in the morning. 

' ^ta, through, not hy. V. 16. 'Tno frequently indicates 
hy, as an author ; but Sia, through, as an agent, or messenger. 
So Vigerius, p. 670, Sec. 6, " cum dativo, ut plurimum reddi- 
tur sub ". 

» In these writings, '•' the last days " generally, if not 
always, indicate the Christian age. Indeed, the conclusion 
of the Jewish dispensation was the commencement of the 
Christian. As the morning star sets in daj', so did the 
Harbinger decrease as the sun of righteousness arose with 
healing in his wings. Jesus Christ is, in this view of the pre- 
mises, properly said to have "Appeared in the end of the 
world ", to put away sin-offerings by the sacrifice of himself. 

" " Shall dream dreams ", or dream with dreams ; for cwTtvwis 
Mill gives ewnvia. With Prof. Hackett and some other 
translators, we, in this case, prefer Griesbach's text. 




18 And on my servants, and 
on my hand-maidens, I will pour 
out in those days of my Spirit; 
and they shall prophesy : 

19 And I vs'ill shew wonders 
in heaven above, and signs in 
the earth beneath; blood, and 
fire, and vapour of smoke. 

20 The sun shall be turned 
into darkness, and the moon into 
blood, before that great and nota- 
ble day of the Lord come. 

21 And it shall come to pass, 
that whosoever shall call on the 
name of the Lord, shall be saved. 

22 Ye men of Israel, hear 
these words ; Jesus of Nazareth, 
a man approved of God among 
you by miracles, and wonders, 
and signs, which God did by him 
in the midst of you, as ye your- 
selves also know: 

23 Him, being delivered by 
the determinate counsel and 


iTviacr6r](T0VTai. ^^ Kal ye eVt 
Tovs dovXovf fiov Koi eVi ray 
SovXa9 /J.OV, iv Tois rjixipats eKei- 
vats eK-)(eS> airo tov Trvev jxaros 
fiov, Kcu 7rpo(pi]Teu(rov(ri. ^^ kol 
Scocrco Tepara eV t<5 ovpavco avco, 
KOL crrjixeia em rris yrjs Karco, 
aifia Kal irvp Koi drfilSa Kairvov. 
6 tJXios fJieTa(rTpa(j):^creTaL ety 
(TKOTOs, KCU 7] (reXr]vr] els al/xa, 
Trplv 7] eXOeiv ttjv r)ixepav Kvpiov 
TTjv fxeyaXrjv Kal eTrKpapr}. ^^ Kal 
earai, iras os av eirLKaXeayjrat 
TO bvofia Kvpiov, craO-qcreTaL. 
' Av8pes ' larpaTjXlraL, olkov- 
crare tovs Xoyovs tovtovs' 'Irj- 
(Tovv TOV Na^wpa'iov, avBpa oltto 
TOV Oeov airoBebeLyp.evov els bvvafJLecn kcu Tepacrt Kal 
(rrjfxeiois, ols ewoLrjae 8t avTov 6 
Oeos ev p.ecr(o vfiav, KaOas Kal 
avTol oibaTe, ^^ tovtov ttj wpi- 
crfxevrj fiovXy Kal irpoyvcixreL tuv 


and on my man servants, and 18 
my maid servants, in those days 
I will pour out of my Spirit, 
and they shall prophesy. And 19 
I will show wonders in the 
heavens ''above, and signs on 
the earth beneath — ^blood and 
fire, and smoky ''vapor. The 20 
sun shall be turned into dark- 
ness, and the moon into blood, 
before that great and illustri- 
ous day of the Lord come. 
And it shall come to pass, that 21 
every one who shall call upon 
the name of the Lord, shall be 
^saved. Israelites, hear these 22 
words : Jesus, the Nazarene, a 
man approved of God among 
you, by miracles, and wonders, 
and signs, which God did by 
him, in the midst of you (as 
you, yourselves also know) — 
him having seized, who, by the 23 
"declared counsel and fore- 

■" Peter inserts avco, orjfteia, y.arm, not in tlie Hebrew. 

== " Smoky vapor ", Tliompson. " Clouds of smoke ". The 
rcQaTa itat ai]ftcia have placed in apposition to them, atfia, 
TtvQ, arfiidcc xanvov, i. e. the prodigies and signs are blood, 
fire, and smoky vapor. These are but the portents of the 
destiny, and not the desolations of the Jerusalem that then 
was. Such are the re^ara ev -cc^ ovqavt^, and the atjfieia em 
Trjs yrjS. 

y Sm&rjoerat, shall be saved from the then impending judg- 
ments. The context gives it this meaning in this place, though 
usually in this Book of Acts, it refers to the future and eternal 

• 'Q^cOftEvn pavXfj xat TtQop'toaei 0sov. In this phrase oqc^oj 
is emphatic and important. It is defined by the words deter- 
mine, ordain, declare, limit, in our com. ver., Luke 22 ; 22 ; 
Acts 10 : 42. Which of these four shall be selected in any 
given passage is, of course, according to the context, in the 
judgment of the translator ; and that, generally, is according 
to his analogy of faith. But to these four definitions may be 
added — termino, finio, definio, do definilionem rei, Aristotle, 
Scapula, Robertson. To define, and to declare, are its most 
etymological and general acceptations. 

That the person, mission, and work of the Lord Jesus 
Christ was declared, promulged, marked out and defined, in 
the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms, no enlightened 
Christian can or will deny. In cases of this sort, our rule in 
translation is to give, not a particular, or a private interpreta- 
tion, but either a generic, or a specific one, as the case may 
clearly indicate. We have the genus, the species, and the 
individual in words, and their acceptations, as we have in ani- 
mals or plants. Where there is no reasonable doubt, we prefer 
the precise individual meaning, clearly indicated in the con- 
text ; next to this, the specific ; and when neither is clearly 
indicated, the generic sense ; thus giving an equal chance to 
every one to form his own judgment of the word or sentence, 
as to the meaning of the Spirit. 

Christ Jesus being the centre and circumference of the 
Bible, the Alpha and the Omega of the whole volume of God, 
of whom Moses in the Law, and all the Prophets, the Evange- 
lists, and the Apostles, spoke and wrote, the sun of the 
spiritual and the moral universe, the testimony which God 
the Father has given of him, is the spirit of the whole oracle 
or testimony of God. Rev. 19 : 10. 

'O^t^co occurs eight times in the N. T. represented by 
determinate, Luke 22 : 22 ; ordain, declare, limit. See Acts 
10 : 42; 11 : 29; 17 : 26, 31; Romans 1 : 4; Heb. 4 : 7. 




foreknowledge of Q-od, ye have 
taken, and by wicked hands 
have crucified and slain: 

24 Whom God hath raised 
up, having loosed the pains of 
death : because it was not pos- 
sible that he should be holden 
of it. 

25 Tor David speaketh con- 
cerning him, I foresaw the Lord 
always before my face ; for he is 
on my right hand, that I should 
not be moved : 

26 Therefore did my heart re- 
joice, and my tongue was glad; 
moreover also, my flesh shall rest 
in hope: 

27 Because thou wilt not 
leave my soul in hell, neither 


0€ov €k8otou Xa^ovres, 8ia ^(ei.- 
pcav auo/Jicop Trpocnrr]^avT€s avel- 
Aere- "^^ ov 6 Oeos avecrrTjae, 
Xvcras ras aBivas rod Oavarov, 

KadoTL OVK TjU SwUTOU KpaTcl- 

crOaL avTov inr avrov. ^ AafiXB 
yap Xey&, els avrov, Jlpocopco/xrju 
Tov KvpLOV iucaTTLOp fxov 8ia Trav- 
Tos' OTL e/c de^icov p.ov iorrlv, tva 
jXT] (raXevdco' ^"^ Sia tovto ev- 
(j)pavd'q T] Kapdia fxov, Kal rj-yaX- 
XidaaTO tj yXcocraa p-ov krt 8e 
Kal 7} adp^ p.ov icaTaa-KTjvaxreL 
eV eATTiSi. ^'^ oTt OVK iyKara- 
Aen/^eiy Ttjv \lrv)0P /xov els a.8ov, 


"knowledge ofGod was yielded 
'up, you have, by wicked 
hands, crucified and slain, 24 
whom God has raised up, 
having loosed the 'bands of 
death, because it was impos- 
sible that he should be held 
under it. For David speaks for 25 
■•him : I have always regarded 
the Lord, as before my face ; 
for he is on my right hand, 
that I should not be moved. 
Therefore did my heart re- 2C 
joice, and my tongue was 
glad : moreover my flesh shall 
rest in hope, "that thou wilt 27 
not leave my soul among the 
"■dead, neither wilt thou suifer 

°- nqoyvaiais occurs but twice in the Christian scriptures. 
In both cases it refers to God's foreknowledge. This, indeed, 
in condescension to our modes of yiewing events. To a being 
inhabiting eternity — to whom all things past, present, and to 
come are ever and alike present — forelcnowledge or past know- 
ledge applies not. Eternity past and future are a nunc slans, 
an everlasting now. Does not he "inhabit eternity"? Is. 
57 : 15. 

i" Ey.Sorov — dedilus, yielded up. This is literal, but, being 
a much litigated passage, we prefer being literal to a fault. 

" Bonds, hands, cords, pangs, have been by divers trans- 
lators and critics regarded as appropriate representatives of 
loSivas. With much probability Beza conjectures that as the 
Hebrew il:an, with the variation of one little point, may in- 
differently signify pains or bonds, the former is here preferred, 
because agreeing best with the connection — else it must signify 
the confinement to which the pains of death had brought him. 
Dodd., compare Matth. 24 : 15. Rev. 17 : 1.— But as the bands 
of death better agree with what follows we prefer it. Again 
there seems to be an allusion to David's triumph over the 
Philistines, or over Saul, supposed to bo described, Ps. 18 : 5. 
in these words : — 

The cords of Hades enclosed me, 
The snares of death were laid for me, 
In my distress I called upon Jehovah, 

Then the earth shook and trembled. 

The foundation of the mountains rocked. 

We prefer this view of it, as appropriate to Christ's resur- 

^ Ell avrov:— for him, or in reference to him, impersonating 

• 'On com. ver. is frequently rendered by for, diat, because, 
" because that ". The last of these is as redundant as for to. 

That is most generally adapted to declare its full sense, and 
in better taste than because, or because that. Vigerius on art 
and rotvvv, p. 547. London, 1824. 

f Ete aSov. Such is the reading of the selected Gr. te?ct. 
But, although in tlie main we regard it as the best Ed. of the 
N. T., we cannot uniformly conform to it. In this case we 
prefer eis adijp, the marginal reading adopted by Griesbach, 
Lachmann, and Tischendorf. The object of this hope 

was, that his soul or life would not be lost among the dead. 
" In hope that thou wilt not leave, &c., not " because ". 

'ASijs is by Komanists and some Protestants frequently 
rendered hell. The king's translators of the Bible render 
iiXia, sheol, in the Old Testament, hell. Yet, says Leigh, in 
his Critica Sacra, "All learned men know that grave is more 
proper than hell. The Hebrews had no word proper to indi- 
cate hell, as Christians understand it. They had Tophet and 
Gehinnom. The Hebrew Sheol signifies a place dark and 
obscure, where nothing can be seen. Job calls it " the land 
of darkness ". The Romans had their infernal, as well as 
their supernal regions, their Orcus and their Plutonic realms. 

Christians believe and teach, that there is a Heaven, a Ha- 
des, and a Gehenna. Their Hades is a state of separation 
of body and spirit. The body returns to the earth whence it 
was created, and the spirit returns to God who gave it. This 
separation continues till the Resurrection of the dead. Then 
the wicked dead shall be turned into Gehenna and the righte- 
ous shall ascend to their Father and their Savior, and continue 
forever with them. The Apostolic use of this word, and their 
application of the saying of our Lord, " Thou wilt not leave 
my soul in hades, nor suffer thy Holy One to see corrup- 
tion", indicate that Jesus, the Messiah, was not in his body 
to perish, not even to decompose ; and though really dead, and 
his body interred, should see no corruption ; but, as from a 




wilt thou suffer thine Holy One 
to see corruption. 

28 Tliou hast made known to 
me the ways of life; thou shalt 
make me full of joy with thy 

29 Men and brethren, let me 
freely speak unto you of the 
patriarch David, that he is both 
dead and buried, and his se- 
pulchre is with us unto this day. 

30 Therefore being a prophet, 
and knowing that God had sworn 
with an oath to him, that of the 
fruit of his loins, according to 
the flesh, he would raise up 
Christ to sit on his throne ; 

31 He seeing this before, spake 
of the resurrection of Christ, 
that his soul was not left in hell, 
neither his flesh did see corrup- 


ov8e 8cocr€LS rou ocrtou aov Ideiv 
8La(j)dopai'. ^^ iyvapLcras fiot 
oSovs ^corjs' TrXrjpaxreLs /J.e ev- 
(j)poavvr)9 fMera tov Trpoa-awov 
arov. " ' AvBpes aSeX^oL, i^ou 
eiireLU fiera nrapp-qarias Trpos vfias 
Trepl TOV iraTpidp^ov AaplB, otl 
Kctl ireXevTria-e koll eTa.(j)Tj, /cat to 
jxvijjxa avTov Icftlv iv tj/juv a.^pi' 
TTjs rifiipas TavTrjf. ^"^ ■jrpof^rjT-qs 
otv virap^cov, koX elScos' otl opKco 
wpLOcrev olvtw 6 Oeos, e/c Kapirov 
Trjs 6(r(f>vos avTOu to KaTO. crapKa 
avaaTTja-eiv tov Xpio-Tov, Ka- 
dicraL €Tri tov dpouov avTov, 
Trpoidcov iXdXrjore irepl ttjs 
dvacTTacreais tov XpLcrTOv, otl 

OV KaT€X€L(f)0T) 7] "^V^ OVTOV Cty 

ahov, ovSe 77 crdp^ avTOV eiSe 


thy Holy One to see cor- 
ruption. Thou hast made 28 
known to me the ways of 
life : thou wilt make me full 
of joy with thy presence. 
Brethren, let me freely speak 29 
to you of the Patriarch David, 
that he is both dead and bu- 
ried, and his sepulchre is 
with us to this day. But so 
being a prophet, and '^know- 
ing that God had '■sworn to 
him, that of the fruit of his 
'loins he would raise up the 
Christ, to sit on his throne; 
he, 'foreseeing this, spoke of 31 
the resurrection of the i-Christ, 
that his 'soul should not be 
left among the "dead, nor his 

state of suspended animation, would awalcen and resume his 
whole personality. He was, therefore, but some tliirty-scven 
hours in the grave, portions of three days and three nights. 

'^ EiSojg, active, Do >Yettc ; knowing, Haekett. 

'' O^xcocofioasv: literally, had sworn with an oath, covenanted 
with David. — Covenants and oaths are, in the ancient Jews' 
usage, in reference to God and man, used as equivalents. Ps. 
89 : 3. " I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have s\oorn 
to David." Still, in an exact version, the latter is to be pre- 
feri'ed to the former. 

' To y.ara aa^xa avaarrjosiv tov Xotarov seem to be redun- 
dant after oaipvos avtov — they are, however, retained by 
Scholz, and in the selected text of Mill, Bagster's Edition. 
A majority of Editors omit them. 

The whole answer to the whole question given by Peter, to 
whom were vouchsafed " the keys " of the kingdom, or reign 
of heaven, commands the profound regard of all mankind. 
Being honored by the great Master with such a conspicuous 
position, does not his whole conduct in the premises merit 
the most profound respect for the answer he gave under this 
plenary inspiration and direction 1 

' JlQo'cSmv '. He foreseeing this. It is thus rendered, Gal. 
3 : 8, com. ver. And the scripture foreseeing that, com. ver., 
foreseeing this, Dodd., Booth., Rheims. — He sjJohe prophetical- 
ly, Thom. And he foresaw, Mur. He saw before, Tyndal. 

<• " The Christ". The Messiah. These are equivalent names 

— both oflioial and perfect equivalents in their respective 
tongues. It is not a Christ nor a Messiah. And as both 
titles belong to one and the same person, it behoves that he 
stand in the same rank in both. Although there were many 
Christs, or anointed kings and priests, that preceded and pre- 
figured him, still he alone is the Christ of God. He was pro- 
mised and prefigured as the prophet, the High Priest, and the 
King of Zion, equally the son and the Lord of David. The 
Jews and the Christians so received and represented the 
Messiah. The controversy was, Is Jesus of Nazareth the 
Messiah — the Christ of God ? To maintain this was the main 
drift of all apostolic preaching and teaching. So important is 
it, then, that it should stand before all men in the proper atti- 
tude. In reading the five historical books of the Christian 
religion, every intelligent reader must have observed that 
the issue concerning Jesus of Nazareth is. Is he, or is he not, 
the Christ ofiohom Moses in the law, and all the prophets wrote ? 

1 Hvevjia is found some 400 times, but never represented by 
sovX, or life. A man may lose his soul or life, but can never 
lose his spirit. Hence no such intimation as the loss of a 
spirit is found in the Bible. The spirit is, indeed, the man 
proper, and never can die, any more than an angel spirit. There 
will be spiritual bodies for human spirits; "for there is a 
spiritual body as well as animal body." It is worthy of notice 
here, v. 31, that ij ^v/ji avxov is rejected from the text by the 
celebrated collators, Griesbach, Lachmann, and Tischendorf. 

■" Eis aSov — )/ tjivxri avrov : " That he " (Christ) " was not left 
in Hades," Booth., '"that his life was not left in the grave," 




32 This Jesus hath God raised 
up, whereof we all are wit- 

33 Therefore being by the 
right hand of Grod exalted, and 
having received of the Father 
the promise of the Holy Grhost, 
he hath shed forth this, which 
ye now see and hear. 

34 For David is not ascended 
into the heavens, but he saith 
himself, The Lord said unto my 
Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, 

35 Until I make thy foes thy 

36 Therefore let all the house 
of Israel know assuredly, that 
God hath made that same Jesus 
whom ye have crucified, both 
Lord and Christ. 

37 Now when they lieard this, 
they were pricked in their heart, 
and said unto Peter and to the 
rest of the apostles. Men cini, 
brethren, what shall we do ? 

38 Then Peter said unto them, 
Eepent, and be baptized every 


8ia(l)6opdv. ^^ TOVTOV TOV 'It]- 

o-ovv avearrjaev 6 Oeos, o5 irdv- 
rey T^/xety ca-fxev /xaprvpes. rfi 
de^Lo. oSv TOV Oeov vyjrcodeis, rr^v 
re eTrayyeXiav tov Ayiov Hvev- 
fiaros Xaficou irapa tov iraTpos, 
e^ejj^ee tovto o vvv v/xeis /QAeVere 
KOL OLKOveTe. ^* 01) yap /Ial3l8 
dvifirj els tovs ovpavovs, Xiyet 8e 
avTos, Ehrev 6 Kvpios t<S Kvpia 
p.ov, KdOov e/c Se^Lcov fiov ^^ ecos 


BLOvTaviToBavcrov. ^^ ' AcrcbaXcos 
ovv yLvcocTKeTco iras olkos I(rpar]X, 


Oeos eTTOiTjcre, tovtov tov 'Irjcrovv 
ov vfxeis ecTTavpaxraTe. 

' 'AKOvaavTes 8e KaTevvyrj- 
crav Trj icapSla, elTrov re irpos tov 


(TToXovs, Tl TTOLTjcropev, dv8pes 
d8eX(f)0L; ^^ HeTpos 8e e(f)rj irpos 
avTOvs, MeTavorjaaTe, kol fiair- 


flesh see corruption. This 32 
Jesus has "God raised up, of 
which we are all "witnesses. 
Therefore, being exalted by 33 
the right phandof God,andhav- 
ing received of the Father the 
promise of the Holy Spirit, he 
was shedding 'forth this which 
you now see and hear. For 3-1 
David is not ascended into the 
heavens; but he himself says, 
The Lord said to my Lord: 
Sit thou on my right hand, till 35 
I make thy foes thy footstool. 
Let all the house of Israel, 36 
therefore, assuredly know, that 
God has constituted that same 
Jesus, whom you have ■•cruci- 
fied. Lord and Christ. Now 
when they heard this, they 37 
were pierced to the heart, 
and said to Peter, and to the 
other Apostles, Brethren, what 
shall we do ? Then Peter 38 
said to them, ^Eeform and be 

Wakefield, " not left in the mansion of the dead," Thom., " his 
soul should not be left in the unseen world," Dodd., " that his 
soul should not be left in hell," Eheims. " Not left in Death," 
Penn. The words " his soul " are omitted by A.B.O.D. 
Syriac, Coptic, iEthiopic, and Vulgate. Adam Clark. But fj 
■</wxi is found in the text, selected as the most approved. 

'IT tpv'/t] is 110 times, translated life and soul, once mind, 
and once heart, and heartily. 

" God is never called a fvyjij. But he is emphatically called 
by his own son — Hvsv/ia. Not a spirit but Spirit. God is 
never called a Holy Ghost, but there is a Holy Word and a 
Holy Spirit of equal divinity, power, and glory, with himself. 
There is Jehovah God, the Father, and Jehovah God, the Son, 
and Jehovah God, the Holy Spirit, in the Christian revelations. 
Such were not the Jewish ; but such are the Christian reve- 
lations and manifestations of Jehovah Elohim. 

The following profound note on n^x Deus — El, Eloah, Elohim, 
is worthy of a place here : — Duo haec nomina conjuncta distin- 
guunt verum Deum a false nominatis Diis, Deut. 10 : 17 ; Dan. 
2 : 47 ; 11 : 36. — ^Elohim significat relationem quandam Dei 
ad creaturas, designat, nomcn, dominium, et potentiam Dei, 
auctoritatem et vim quam exerit in mundo. Critici Sacri, 
p. II. Printed, London, 1650. A. D. 

° Oil navreg &c. of which (fact) we all are witnesses. The 
resurrection of Jesus, being the consummating act of approval 
of his innocence of the charges alleged against him, is hero 
made conspicuous, being affirmed by all the apostles present 
from the sensible demonstrations which they had of it. 

p Trj Se^ia: Dative of the instrument. By the right hand 
of God exalted. 

Some versions have to the right hand of God. Booth., Dodd. 
Penn. — at the right hand of God — ^Wakefield, Thompson. — 
By the right hand of God. Wic, Tyndale, Cran., Gen., 
Rheims, Murd. 

1 ESex^s : " sent forth this gift", Murd. " Shed forth", Tyn- 
dale, Cranmer, Geneva, Dodd. It is well represented by shed 
or, rather, " was shedding," by some regarded as here indi- 
cative of a continued act — at the time of his speaking. For it 
occurred while he was yet speaking. 

' " Both" appears to be redundant — for " made that same 
Jesus" — we prefer " constituted " that same Jesus Lord and 

• MeTavorjaare nal paTtrta&ijrta cxaoros vficov. Reform, not 
repent, is the first part of the response, or the first step after 
faith. No apostle ever employs any part of the verb /teta- 
(teloftai, literally indicating repent, in any exhortation to saint 




one of you in the name of Jesus 
Christ, for the remission of sins, 
and ye shall receive the gift of 
the Holy Ghost. 

39 For the promise is unto 
you, and to your children, and 
to all that are afar off, even as 
many as the Lord our God shall 


TLadrjTco eKacTTOs vjxaiv eVi tw 
ovofxaTL 'Irjcrov XpLcrrov els oi^e- 
CTLV afxapTLCov KoX Xrji^ecrOe ttjv 
Scopeav Tov 'Ayiov JIvevfJMTOs. 
^^ v/XLV yap iariv rj iirayyeXia 
Kcd Tols T^KVOLS vficov, Kcu irdcri 
TOLS els fxaKpav, qaovs av irpo- 
(TKaXecrriTaL Kvptos 6 Oeos rffxav. 


'immersed, every one of you, 
in the "name of Jesus Christ, 
"for the remission of sins, and 
you shall receive the ^gift of 
the Holy Spirit. For the 39 
promise is to you, and to your 
children, and to all those that 
are afar oif, even as many as 
the Lord our God shall call. 

or sinner, in the whole of their reported labors in the N. Testa- 
ment. Yet that word is found in the Christian Scriptures as 
in use by Paul and Matthew. They never used it in preaching 
the gospel. They commanded all men everywhere to reform — 
" to turn to God " — '.' to do the first works" — " To cease to do 
evil " ; to bring forth works meet for feith ; a change of views, 
a change of heart, and a new life. The fiexavoia family appear 
fifty-eight times, in the New Testament, and the fterafialofiai 
family only five times ! ! There is, indeed, an outward re- 
formation of life, not proceeding from evangelical faith, of con- 
siderable value in a worldly point of view, but which is not 
akin to that reformation, or repentance into life, preached and 
expounded in the Christian Scriptures. 

Evangelical repentance is summed up Acts 2 : 38-41. Prin- 
ciples lie aback of these acts, which are developed, or perfected 
in the details given. And specially the question propounded 
in some particular cases applies to every Christian or immersed 
person, "ireto what were you immersed ? " Acts 19 : 3-5. 
They responded, Eie to Icoavvov ^amta/in. Into John's haptism. 
He preached to them the gospel. They now understood and 
believed it. And what then 1 EpaTttiaO'rjaav eis to ovo^a tov 
Kv^tov Jnaov, They were immersed into the name of the Lord 

lleform, and be immersed. McTaPoiirars. Mcravosco, the 
verb, and fisTavoia, the noun, occur frequently in the Christian 
Scriptures, the former 34 times, the latter 24 times. They 
are uniformly translated in the com. ver. by one and the same 
word — the verb by repent, and the noun by repentance. This 
is manifestly wrong, inasmuch as we, in so doing, stultify the 
Spirit of inspiration by employing one word, when he emplo3's 
two. He uses ftsTafisXofiat as well as /laravosm. The Holy 
Spirit in commanding sinners, always employs fiBravoeco. In 
speaking of evangelical repentance, he never uses fteraftelo- 
fiat; this word is found only five times in the N. T. It is 
used in the case of Judas, who repented without reformation, 
but never occurs in any case of conversion or change of moral 
conduct. Christians are said to repent, in the sense of ftExa- 
usXofiai, when they merely grieve, or are sorry for something 
done. Paul in this sense repented. " I do not repent, said he, 
though I did repent ", that I wrote to you. 

In preaching what is usually called repentance, no inspired 
person ever used nei:afiB>.ofiai, but always fcexavoeco. The former 
indicating only painful retrospections of the past, accompanied 

with fearful anticipations of the future. A change of views, a 
change of feelings, or of the affections, and a change of life, 
or of conduct, are all implied and commanded by John, by 
Jesus and his apostles, in preaching repentance, or rather, a 
reformation of purpose, of affections, and of conduct towards 
God, all of which are indicated and implied in [leiavoia. 

Merafieleta is not found at all in the Christian Scriptures. 
The verb is only used five times in the Greek text of the 
Christian oracles, and one of these in reference to Judas, when 
he returned to the Chief Priests and Elders the price of tho 
betrayal of his master. 

t See N. j, 1 : 5. 

" Eni. rcg ovofiari : This indicates authority ; and in such 
cases is well represented by our prepositions in or upon ; in 
the name, or upon the name of the Lord be immersed every 
one of you — sis, immediately following, intimates transition 
into a new state, or relation ; such as matrimou}-, citizenship, 
servitude, or freedom. 

" Eis is found some 1700 times in the N. Test, translated by 
into, unto, for, to, in order to ; its most common version, cum 
verbis significantibus motum. Wo have the phrase sis dSov 
but this only as an abbreviated formula for sis oixov aSov, Sca- 
pula. V. 37. Efs atpsaip. We enter into contracts, states, con- 
ditions — into marriage, into servitude, into freedom, into 
Christ, into the church, into heaven. Eis and sv can never be 
substituted the one for the other. As any one in any state 
cannot enter into it, so he that is commanded to repent, or to 
reform, or to be baptized sis—for, in order to, or into any 
state, condition, or relation, cannot be supposed to be already 
in that state, condition, or relation, into which he is com- 
manded to enter ; or for which, as a subject, he is to become, 
he is to do, or he is to suffer, anything. Hence those im- 
mersed by Peter were immersed into Christ, into a relation, 
and into privileges not secured to them before. 

Eis immediately following and indicating transition, not rest, 
like sv, intimates an important change, if not in the character, 
at least in the state of tho proper subject of this Divine Lawi 
or Ordinance of admission. 

" Trjv ScoQsav tov 'Ayiov Hvsvfiatos. MmQsa indicates the 
freest and most benignant gifts ; while StoQov means a legal 
gift or offering, which law or custom enacts. So witness our 
most estimable lexicographers and concordances. 




40 And witli many other words 
did he testify and exhort, saying, 
Save yourselves from tliis unto- 
ward generation. 

41 Then they that gladly re- 
ceived his word, were baptized: 
and the same day there were 
added unto them, about thi'ee 
tliousand souls. 

43 And they continued stead- 
fastly in the apostles' doctrine 
and fellowship, and in breaking 
of bread, and in prayers. 

43 And fear came upon every 
soul: and many wonders and 
signs were done by. the apostles. 

44 And all that believed were 
together, and had all things 
common ; 

45 And sold their possessions 
and goods, and parted them to 
all men, as every man had need. 

4G And they, continuing daily 
with one accord in the temple, 
and breaking bread from house 
to house, did eat their meat 
with gladness and singleness of 

47 Praising God, and Iiavinc: 


'JErepois re XoyoLs TrAeLocrt 
8L€fiapTvpeT0 KoL irapeKaXeL Ae- 
■ycov, Sa6r]TC airo ttjs yeveas rrjs 
CTKoXias TavTTjS' 01 piev ovv 

dapLevco^ aTToSe^dpLevot top Xoyov 
avTOv e^aTTTLadyaav /cat irpocr- 
eredrjaav rfj rjpLepa eKeiurj ■^vyaL 
mcrel TpL(r)(j.XLai. 

' Hcrav de TrpoarKaprepovv- 
rey r^ SiSa^fj twv dirocrToXoiv 
Kca rfj KOLVCovia kol rfj KXaarei tov 
aprov KUL TULs Trpoo-eir^aLs. eye- 
vero 8e iracrr) 'v|/'i'xJ7 (fto^os, ttoXXo. 
T€ Tcpara kou crrjpLeLa 8ia rSiV diro- 
(TToXaiv iyiuero. ^^ wavTes 8e ol 
TTicTTevovTes Tjcrau eiri to avro, kol 
elxov oLTravTa Koiva, ^^ kou to. 
KTi-jpLara kou ras vwdp^eis iirhrpa- 
iTKOv, Koi 8iep.€pL^ou avrd irdcn, 
KaOoTL av Ti9 y^p^iav et;^e' ^^ Kad' 
ijpepau re wpoaKapTepovvTes 6p.o- 
dvjia8ov iv TcS lepa, kXcovtes re 
Kar oIkou aprov, /xeTeXd/xfiavov 
Tpo(f)rj^ iv dyaXXiacret kou d(j)eXo- 
Ti]TL KapSlas, alvovvT€s tov 


And with many other words ic 
he testified, and exhorted, say- 
ing. Save yourselves from this 
froward generation. 

They, therefore, having dl 
gladly received the 'word, 
were >immersed ; and the 
same day there were 'added 
about three thousand souls. 
And they perseveringly con- 42 
tinned in the Apostle's teach- 
ing, and in the "contribu- 
tion, and in the breaking of 
the loaf, and in the i^rayers. 
And fear came upon every 43 
soul ; and many wonders and 
signs were done by the 
Apostles. And all that be- 44 
lieved were together, and had 
all things common, and sold 45 
their j)ossessions and goods, 
and distributed them to all, 
as any one had need. And 4C 
they, continuing daily with 
one accord in the temple, and 
breaking bread from house to 
house, did eat their food with 
gladness and singleness of 
heart, praising God, and hav- 47 

^ Tov Xoyov : Tlie word — the message. Sec chap. 1, v. 1, 
of this book : " The message ", " the gospel ", or " the word of 
life " is generally presented in, or by this term, often expres- 
sive of the To Evayyehov. 

y SeeN.j, 1 :5. 

' The supplement to them is pleonastic, and better omitted. 
It is italicised by Wesley, omitted by Wakefield and others. 

"^ Kotvmvia occurs in the N. T. 20 times; translated 
fellowship 12 limes, communion 4 times, contribution and 
distribution, communication and communicate severally once. 
There is communion in all acts of social worship, in ob- 
serving not the Lord's supper alone, but in pr.aycr, praise, 
the meeting on the Lord's daj', and in contributions for the 
poor saints, or in contributions to a Missionary fund — the 
Bible Union, or to any grand humane enterprise. Sec Rom. 
15 : 26 ; 2 Cor. 9 : 13. The contribution of money for the 
wants of the brotherhood, appears to be its import in this 
passage as in Kom. 15 : 10. Paul desired Philemon to have 
communion with him in aid of Onesimus, a servant. 

" The English version unites aTtoaroJ.cov with both nouns : 

The Ajmstles'' doctrine and fellowship. With that combination, 
wo should have had, regularly, the genitive after the second 
noun, without a repetition of the article. See W., §18, 4. 
Some (Vulg., Bloomf.,) assume a hcndiadys : the communion 
in the breaking of bread. The analysis is not only awkward, 
but opposed by r;/ before xXaaet. — tj; y.Xaaei.i:ov a^rov denotes 
the breaking of the bread, as performed at the Lord's Supper". 
See 20 : 7, 11 ; 1 Cor. 10 : 16. The expression itself may 
designate an ordinary meal, as in Luke 24 : 35 ; but that here 
would be an unmeaning notice. There can be no doubt that 
the Eucharist, at this period, was preceded unifornilj' by a 
common repast, as was the case when the ordinance was in- 
stituted. Most scholars hold that this was the prevailing 
usage in the first centuries after Christ. We have traces of 
that practice in 1 Cor. 11, 20, sq., and, in all probabilit}', in v. 46 
below. The bread only being mentioned here, the Catholics 
appeal to this passage as proving that their custom of distri- 
buting but one element (the cup they withhold from the 
laity) is the Apostolic one. It is a case obviously in which 
the leading act of the transaction gives name to the trans- 
action itself". — HacTcett. 




favour vsrith all the people. And 
the Lord added to the church 
daily such as should be saved. 

Now Peter and John went up 
together into the temple, at the 
hour of praj'er, being the ninth 

2 And a certain man lame 
from his mother's womb was 
carried, whom tliey laid daily 
at the gate of tlje temple wlrich 
is called Beautiful, to ask alms 
of them that entered into the 
temple ; 

3 Who, seeing Peter and John 


Oeou Kcu G)(ovTe9 -yapLV irpos 
oXov Tov Xaov. '0 Be Kvpios 
TrpoaerideL rovs (rco^ofievovs Ka6' 
Tjfxepav rfj eKKXTjo-la. 

CHAP. m. 

JEUI TO avTo Be JJeTpos ical 
laavvqs avefiaivov eis to iepou 
eiri TTjv copav ttjs Trpocrev^rj^ ttju 
ivvaTTju. ^ KUL TLS avTjp ^(oXos 
e'/c kolXms fJ,T]Tpo9 avTov VTrap-^av 
e/SaaToi^eTO- ov iTtOovv Kad' rj/xe- 
pav irpos Trjv Ovpav tov lepov 
TTjv XeyofjievTju ' Qpaiav, tov al- 
THv eXerjixocrvurju irapa tS)V el- 
ar7ropevop.eucoi> els to lepov. ^ os 


ing favor with all the people. 
And the Lord daily added the 
••saved to the 'congregation. 

Now Peter and John went 
up together into the temple, 
at the hour of ''prayer — the 
ninth hour. And a certain 
man, lame from his birth, 'was 
carried thither, whom they 
daily flaid at the gate of the 
temple, which is called ^Beau- 
tiful, ''to ask alms of those 'en- 
tering into the temple, ^who, 

^ Tove aco^oftavovs. "The Greek asserts not a purpose 
but a fact", Hackett. They were actually saved, not to be 
saved. jToi's aco^o/iepovg. "The saved", those that "were 
saved ", Boothroyd ; " That were cured ", Thom. ; " who were 
saved", Dodd. 

' Ey.y.Xi]ai.a is represented in the com. ver. by Church, singu- 
lar and plural, 112 times; by assemhlij, throe times, neither 
of which in our tongue exactly represents the word, which 
etymologically indicates the called out, or a community called 
out from the world, while living in it; Church, being a com- 
pound of y.vQcos and oixos = KVQtoty. compounded : whence 
KyrJce, is applicable to a material building for the Lord, as well 
as to the community which meets in it. The word Congrega- 
tion is also too vague, for it indicates merely an assembly. 
Still in the appropriated currency of our day and people, and 
because of its indicating a community assembled, or a con- 
gregation in one place, it, better than any other word in 
our currency, intimates its evangelical significance. We, there- 
fore, after much reflection, give it our suftVage, and would so 
have it represented in all the Christian Scriptures. Add to 
N. v., p. 17. — For SIS we prefer fur to any other repre- 
sentative in this language, because of its present use; in- 
asmuch as to, into and unto, its other representatives, would 
not more fully or clearly represent it with the article here 
found — " for the remission of sins ". The word occurs over 
1750 times in the Christian Scriptures, represented in the N. 
T. by to, into, unlo, for, at. When indicating any means to 
any end, for is its generally current value. Hence wo 
find — "for a testimony", "for a memorial", "for a sign", 
" for a journey ", " for a witness ", " for remission ", " for a 
possession ", &c., &c. 

'' " And Peter and John were going up to the temple at the 
last hour of prayer ", Tonn's Ver., London, 183G ; " at the 

hour of prayer, the ninth hour", AVcsley ; "being at the 
ninth hour", Dod. ; "at the ninth hour", Wiclif; "ninth 
hour of prayer", llheiras, Tyndalo, Cranracr, Geneva; "being 
the ninth hour ", JIurdock ; " at that hour of prayer ", Wake- 
field ; " now at the same time, that Peter and John, were 
going up to the temple, at the hour of prayer, at the ninth 
hour ", Thompson ; " at the last hour of prayer ". — The 
Vatican Manuscript alone reads " last ". — Not noticed by 
Wotstcin, Granville Penn, London. 1837. 

Tijv spvarijv. The believing Jews, not being yet sopaialed 
from their Jewish brethren religiously, respected their insti- 
tutions. Regarding six o'clock as their sunrise, or iirst hour 
of the day, the ninth hour, here named, corresponds with our 
three o'clock P.M. This hour was consecrated to their even- 
ing sacrifice. The Jewish converts to Jesus Christ, for some 
considerable time religiously' observed some of their own pe- 
culiar institutions. 

' Baord^co, com. ver. renders by carry, bear, take iip. The 
verb being hero found in the imperfect tense indicates an 
imperfect act. He was being carried not there — but thither. 

' 'JEtiiOovv is also imperfect, because it states what is 

'"' '■Beauty Gate", Si/iaiap, Thompson ; " specious''', Rheims. 
— TriP XEYo[iepr,v coQttuop — called Beautiful. This gate was 
on the East side of the temple. Its immense folding doors 
— of Corinthian brass — some 75 feet high and 60 broad 
covered with plates of Gold and Silver, were, at the rising 
sun, most beautiful — indeed, beyond description. 

'' TOW aireiv — is usually called a Telle infinitive, denoting the 
purpose or final cause — equivalent to iva, onmg, in order to ask. 
' HixQci reap eionoQavoficpiiip, from those in the act of enter- 
ing, not yet entered into the temple. 
' Os here, as elsewhere, often stands for ovros — this one. 




about to go into the temple, ask- 
ed an alms. 

4 And Peter fastening his 
eyes upon him with John, said, 
Look on us. 

5 And he gave heed unto 
them, expecting to receive some- 
thing of them. 

6 Then Peter said. Silver and 
gold have I none; but such as I 
have give I thee: In the name 


IBcov Herpou kol 'Icoavvrju )U.eA- 
Aoi^ray elcrievat, els to lepou, 
TjpcoTa]v Xa^eiv. 
^ drevlaas 8e Jlerpos els avrov 
avu TcS 'Icoavuy, ehre, SXe^jrou 
els rjfjLas. ^ '6> 8e e7retj(ev avTols, 
TrpoadoKau tl Trap' avrwv Xa- 
I3elv. ^ eiire 8e Herpos, 'Apyu- 
pLov Koi ■)(pvaLOv ov)(^ VTToip^et 
p.or b 8e e^co, tovto (tol d[8(op,L. 


seeing Peter and John about 
to go into the temple, asked 
••alms. And Peter, 'earnest- 
ly looking upon him with 
John, said. Look on us. And 
he gave heed to them, expect- 
ing to receive something from 
them. Then Peter said: Silver 
and gold I have ""not, but 
"what I have, I give you. °In 

I" Jlpcora eXeijfioavvijp XajSelv, literally " asked to receive 
alms " ; " begged to receive alms ", Anonymous ; " an alms ", 
Thompson, l^eslej' ; '■ to ask alms ", Doddridge j " asked to 
receive alms", Rheims; les jjria delui don]ier I'aumone. French 
com. Fest. 

1 Arepioas. Fixing, or having fixed, his eyes upon him ; 
deQned in Latin by defigo. indicating intensity of action ; in 
our idiom happily expressed by earnestly looking. 

■" " Silver and gold I have not". Ilownver use may have 
sanctioned the phrase — "Silver and gold I have none", it 
cannot be jiistllicd. "None", is an abbreviation of "not one," 
which does not apply to these metals named, in the form of 
money. " Silver and gold I have not ", was strictly true in his 
case, and more eloquent than to say he had not an obolus or a 

" 'O Sb e%m, literally t]iaX which I have ; but in our lan- 
guage, what I have is its present currency, and tantamount 
in value. So Wafcef., Mur. Syriac ver., Dodd., Thomp. cum 
multis aliis. 

o Ev rco ovofiaxt, — and sis ro ovofia, are two formulas, 
wholly incommutable, and well marked, in this book of Acts. 
No person in the annals of the Bible, till the close of its 
canon, was baptized or immersed "in the name of the Father, 
the Son, or the Holy Spirit" — nor in any name whatever. 
They were all baptized into the name of the Father, the Son, 
and the Holy Spirit. These are very important fixtures in the 
Greek of the Now Testament. In all cases of authoritj' we 
have EV tio ovofiari, never bis to ovoaa. 

We have in the Book of Acts four prepositions occasionally 
found in connection with ovofia, which has itself three forms 
in Grecian usage. — The poets sometimes prefer owofia, the 
Aeolians ovo/ia, indicative of name, fame, celebrity, and pre- 
text. It is, in "Critica Sacra" — philosophically defined, 
"quasi oveofta, a juvando ut cujus usuram agnosceres. Nomen 
quasi notamen — Acts 1 : 15. " The number of names " — indi- 
cative of persons. 

In connection with ovofin, wc find in this single book of 
Acts ete, Bv, BTii, and Sia, indicative of, at least as many shades 

and varieties of thought, modes of action, passion, and de- 

We have sis to ovofta, into the name ; ev ro ovofiwii, in the 
name ; snl to ovo/ia, upon the name ; and Sia lov ovo/iaros, 
through the name, or hy the name. These, historically con- 
sidered, indicate four distinct ideas, in reference to certain 
public acts. — B. g. An alien becomes a citizen, 1st by immi- 
grating into a country ; 2nd by adopting, in the name of God, 
its constitution and renouncing all former allegiance ; 3rd by 
calling upon God to witness and attest his sincerity ; and all 
these through the ofQcers of state, or courts appointed for 
such solemnities. Such is the use of these prepositions, in the 
aflairs pertaining to the kingdom of Grace, over which, presides 
his Divine Majesty — Jesus, the King of kings, and the Lord 
of lords. 

"In the name of the Lord ", equivalent to by the authority of 
the Lord. Ever since his coronation in the heavens, he is the only 
authority for any Christian act, observance, or institution. 
Nothing is ever done, or commanded to be done, in the name 
of the Father, or in the name of the Holy Spirit, from the com- 
mencement of the Acts of the Apostles to the end of the 

The reason is obvious. — On his ascension into the Heavensi 
and formal investiture with the government, management, and 
ultimate judgment of Angels and of men — all things are to be 
done in his name, or by his authority. — Hence in Christian 
Baptism, as enacted by himself, he commands all converts to 
be immersed not in, but '" into (ste) the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of tlie Holy Spirit." This is purely a 
Christian Institution — not of Moses nor of the prophets. — 
Hence the Formula is a perfectly original and unprecedented 
institution. There iiad been washings, cleansings, and purify- 
ings amongst Jews, Samaritans, and Gentiles, by various 
authorities and enactments. But not one like this ; — into the 
name of the Father, into the name of the Son, and into the name 
of the Holy Spirit. Therefore— in the kame— and into the 
NAME indicate two distinct and inconvertible acts which no 
grammar nor dictionary in the civilized world can equivalence 
or synonymize. 




of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, rise 
up and walk. 

7 And he took him by the 
right liand, and lifted him up : 
and immediately his feet and 
ancle-bones received strength. 

8 And he, leaping up, stood, 
and walked, and entered with 
them into the temple, walking, 
and leaping, and praising God. 

9 And all the people saw him 
walking and praising God : 

10 And they knew that it was 
he which sat for alms at the 
Beautiful gate of the temple : 
and they were filled with wonder 
and amazement at that which 
had happened unto him. 

11 And as the lame man which 
was healed held Peter and John, 
all the people ran together unto 
them in the porch that is called 
Solomon's, greatly wondering. 


eV TcS ouo/xaTt, 'Ir]crov XpLorrov 
Tov Na^aypaiov, eyeipat koll irept- 
Trdrei. ^ ICal Tridcras avrou rrjs 
Se^ids X'^'-pos ■^yeipe' 7rapaxpT]/J.a 
Se icrTepecodrjcrav avTOv at /3a- 
creis /cat rd acpvpd, ^ kou i^aX- 
Xo/xevos ecrrrj /cat TrepieTraTet, kou 
darjXde aw avTols els to lepov, 
TrepLTrarcou /cat aAAo/iez'os' /cat 
alvoov TOV Oeov. " /cat eidev av- 
Tov irds Xaos TrepviraTovvTa kou 
alvovvTa tov Oeov ^^ eTreyLvoi- 
(TKov re avTov otl ovtos rjv 6 
TTpos Trjv iXerjfiocrvvrjv KaOrjixevos 
eVt Trj flpaia ttvXj] tov lepou- 
KOU eTrXrjcrOrjcrav 0a/x/3ovs kou e/c- 
(TTacrecos iirl tcS av/xfie^-ijKOTi 

KpaTovvTos 5e tov laOivTOs 
XpXov TOV HeTpov /cat 'Icodvvrjv, 
<xvve8pa/jie irpos avTovs irds 6 
Xaos eVt Trj cttoS. Trj KaXov/xevr) 
2oXo/J.a)VTOS, iKdafxfioL. ^"^ I8(bv 


the name of Jesus Christ of 
Nazareth rise up and walk. 
And seizing him by the right 7 
hand, he lifted him up; and 
immediately his feet and 
pankles received strength. And 8 
ileaping forth, he stood, and 
walked, and entered with them 
into the temple, walking, and 
leaping, and praising God. 
And all the people saw him 9 
walking and praising God: 
and they ■^well knew that it lo 
was he, who sat for alms, "at 
the Beautiful gate of the 
temple : and they were filled 
with wonder and amazement, 
at that which had happened 
to him. 

And while the lame man, ii 
who was healed, 'held fast 
Peter and John, all the people 
ran together to them, "upon 
'the porch, called Solomon's, 
greatly wondering. And when 12 

^ His feci and anldes. " Bonos " is, com. ver., a supple- 
ment unnecessary. It was rather his ankle joints that were 

1 Ei aV.ofisvos. Tliis would indicate leaping forward, rather 
than leaping up. He was sitting, as intimated by y.n&q/iBpos. 

' 'Oti. ovtos, very definitely indicates the person alluded to 
— the identical person that sat begging. 

And they well knew — eTteyivcaaxov, They recognized, may 
not be forcible enough. It is, hoivever, in our present currency 
indicative of an effort. But no effort was here necessary — at 
the first glance they seem to have known hitn as a familiar 

" JEnl It; nv),ri — in this context would indicate that he sat 
upon the gate. Eni is found in the N. Test, in company with 
ihrce cases, and this fact makes it a hard case, on some occa- 
sions, to give a decided preference. IJjion is decidedly its most 
distinctive, and probably its most etymological and common 
import. It is found in construction with genitive, dative, and 
iccusative, occasionally translated by upon. And very fre- 
quently so found in Luke's and Paul's writings. At is a sort 
of compromized representative of it, in Luke's and Paul's de- 
partments of the Christian Scriptures. This is a happy expe- 
dient, and places the English reader in the same predicament 

with a Jew or a Greek. The context, therefore, must, in all 
cases, decide ; and that is our special umpire in all ambiguous 
cases. Nothing essentially doctrinal is in jeopardy — but per- 
spicuity being the desideratum, that will bo better secured 
in this case by the context than by either dictionary or 

' li^arovvTos — avrovg — Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. Holding them 
fast ; or, " as he held them fast " — or, " kept near to them ". 
De Wette, Meyer, Ilackett concur in the former meaning, and 
in our judgment with satisfactory evidence. 

" Eni. rfj aroa — for the preceding reasons given, we have 
hero preferred " upon the porch called Solomon's." 

" ^Toa SolofccovTos. This porch is named twice in this book 
— here and in ch. 5 : 12. Again once in John 10 : 23. This 
portico, or hall, was in the court of the heathen on the Eastern 
side of the temple. The common opinion has long been and 
yet is — that, being placed on the spot where Solomon had mado 
the entrance into the old Temple, it still retained his name. 
There are not wanting some distinguished moderns who think 
that it was the identical porch that Solomon himself reared. 

Josephus calls this porch E^yov Ealoftmvrog. Hackett, 
Tholuck. Lightfoot afiirms the conviction that the Jews in- 
dviHed the cour* of the Gentiles by this name. 




12 And when Peter saw it, 
he answered unto the people, 
Ye men of Israel, why marvel 
ye at this? or why look ye so 
earnestly on us, as though by 
our own power or holiness we 
had made this man to walk ? 

13 The God of Abraham, and 
of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God 
of our fathers hath glorified his 
Son Jesus ; whom ye delivered 
up, and denied him in the pres- 
ence of Pilate, when he was de- 
termined to let him go. 

14 But ye denied the Holy 
One, and the Just, and desired 
a murderer to be granted unto 

15 And killed the Prince of 
life, whom God hath raised from 
the dead; whei'eof we are wit- 

16 And his name, through 
faith in his name, hath made 
this man strong, wliom yo see 
and know: yea, the foith which 
is by him, hath given him this 
jjerfect soundness in the pi-es- 
ence of you all. 


5e Uerpos air^KpivaTO irpos top 
Xaov, ' AuSpes 'IcrpaTjXiTai, tl 
6avp.a^eTe CTrt toutco, tj rjpLV n 
dreul^ere, coy I8ia dvvdpei, rj ev- 
cre^eca TreTroirjKoa-c rod Trepirra- 
Tetv avTQvj ^^ 6 0€os 'A^padfi 
/cat 'IcraaK koI 'Iukco^, 6 Oeos 
tS)V Traripcov '^p.cou, iSo^acre rov 
TTOida avTov 'Irjcrovv ov ifxeh 
TrapedcoKare, /cat Tjpvqcracrde av- 
Tov Kara irpocrairov JliXdrov, 
KpLvavTOs iK€iuov (XTroXvetv. 
vfjiets Se TOP ayiov /cat SlKaiov 
r]pvr]a-a(T9€, kou yTrjaacrde au8pa 
<j)ovia -^apLcrdrjvaL vpXv, ^'^ rov 
de dp^rjyop Trjs ^^y direKTeipare- 
ov Oeos rjyeLpev e/c veKpcov, ov 
rjixeLS fidprvpes icr/JLeu. ^'^ kou 
evrt Ty TrtVret tov ovop-aros av- 
Tov, TOUTOv bv 6ea>pelre kou. 
olSare, eaTepewcre to ovopa av- 
TOV- KOU T] iriaTLs rj 8l uvtov 
eScoKeu avTiS ttjv oXoKXrjpiav 
TavTTju direvavTL ttuvtcou vpcou. 


Peter saw it, he addressed the 
people ; — Israelites, why mai- 
vel at this? or why look 
so earnestly on us, as though, 
by our own ^'strength, or ''pie- 
ty, we had caused this man to 
walk? Tlie God of Abraham, 13 
and of Isaac, and of Jacob, 
the God of our fathers, glori- 
fied his ^servant Jesus, whom 
you delivered up, and dis- 
owned, in presence of Pilate, 
when he was determined to 
'acquit him. But you dis- 14 
owned the Holy and the Just 
One, and desired a murderer to 
be granted to you: and killed 15 
the Author of »the Life, whom 
God raised from the dead: 
whose witnesses we are. And le 
upon the faith in his name, he 
has made this man strong, 
whom you behold and know. 
Yes, his name, and the faith 
which is through him, has 
given him this perfect sound- 
ness, in presence of you all. 

" jdvvafiei indicates plysical strength or ability, and neitlior 
moral nor official power. Therefore to be apposite to the occa- 
sion and tlie fact, it is, in this case, more appropriately rendered 
strcnfrlh, than power. On other occasions it may, without 
hazarding any ambiguity, be appropriately rendered jiowcr, as in 
chapter 4 : 33. 

^ Evaefista, occurs 15 times in the N. T. — ^It is fourteen 
times translated godliness — hero holiness. There seems to 
bo an impropriety in this change. Indeed dyiorrjg, and ayito- 
avvij, occur in the N. T. only 4 times, always translated holi- 
ness. Between these and cvasfieia there is a difference. The 
latter usually denotes a quality of mind or heart. The former 
has respect to state or relation. In these there are no degrees 
of comparison. No person in matrimony or citizenship, is 
more married, or more a citizen than another. 

To live in harmony with either state, more or less conjugally, 
or loyally, is conceiveable. — But piety is an attribute of man, 
himself, apart from all couTentional, arbitrary, or legal arrange- 
ments. Leigh's Critica Sacra, Schrevelius, Doddridge, Wesley, 
Thompson, Geneva, and some others, " godliness". 

y JTatg in the Hebrew Greek indicates — a child, a ser- 
vant, a son, a maid, a yoimg man, and is so found in N. T. 

usage, com. ver. — Being in a quotation from Isaiah 42 : 1, by 
Mattiiew applied to Jesus — it should liere be servant, not son. 
" Behold my servant — my elect, whom I uphold, in whom my 
soul delights &c." Again v. 26, 27. The com. ver. more fre- 
quently renders it servant, than child. 

JIaiSa, servant. Hats occurs in this book of Acts applied 
to 'Jesus Christ four times, translated com. ver., twice son and 
twice child. With us child is common gender. It is, there- 
fore, once translated maid, Luke 8 ; 24, once maiden, Luke 
8 : 51 — also by servant — Jesus wns personally a son — officially 
a servant, v. 13. 

^ Anolvoi is, in this book, suitably represented by the 
words to ]jut away, release, forgive, dismiss, depart, set at 
liberty. To acquit in a case of trial before a magistrate is, in 
our pi'esent currency of courts, preferable to put away, re- 
lease, depart, or to set at liberty. 

" Tlie life. In this association of ideas — it is due to the 
original, and to the reader — that as it is definitely irjs ^lorjg, 
and connected with Aqxrjyor, the Prince or Author of it, 
should be rendered The Prince of the Life — of all life, indeed, 
but here especially, The Life Eternal. 




17 And now, brethren, I wot 
that through ignorance ye did it, 
as did also your rulers. 

18 But those things which 
God before had shewed by the 
mouth of all his prophets, that 
Christ should suffer, be batb so 

19 Repent ye therefore, and 
be converted, that your sins may 
be blotted out, when the times 
of refreshing shall come from tlie 
presence of the Lord ; 

20 And he shall send Jesus 
Christ, which before was preach- 
ed unto you : 

21 Whom the heaven must 
receive, until the times of resti- 


^"^ /cat vvu, aSeA^ot, oida on 
Kara ayvoiav hrpa^are, wcrirep 
Kol ol ap-)(ovTes vixwv 6 Be 

Oeos a, TrpoKaTT^yyecke 5ta arro- 
fjiUTOs iravTcou tcou 7rpo(jir]Tcou av- 
Tov TraOelv tov Xpiarov, iirXy]- 
pooarev ovTco. ^^ ixeravoiqaraTe 
ovv K(u €7ri(rTpe\j^aTe, ety to e^a- 
XeLCpdjjvaL vp.cov ras apLapTLas, 
OTTCos av eXdcoaL KaupoX di/ayj/v- 
^€cos OLTTO irpoacoirov tov Kvplov, 
^^ Koi dirocTTeiXr) tov irpoKeKt]- 
pvypiivov vplu 'Irja-ovu XpLCTTOv^ 
^^ ov Sel ovpavov /xeu de^aadac 
a.)(pL ^(poucov anvoKaTa(TTa(T€Cds 


And now brethren, I know 17 
that "-you acted in ignorance, 
as also did your rulers. But 
God has thus accomplish- 18 
ed those things which he had 
formerly announced by the 
mouth of all his prophets, 
"that the Christ should suffei*. 
Reform, then, and •'turn, I'j 
that your sins may be blotted 
out, and that seasons of re- 
freshing may come from the 
presence of the Lord : and 20 
that he may send 'Jesus Christ, 
the one before ^prepared for 
you, whom the heavens must, 21 
indeed, ^retain until the times 
of the ''completion of all things, 

"^ Kaza ayvoiav sTr^a^are, you acted in ignorance, is better 
than "through ignorance you did it" — or "you acted accord- 
ing to ignorance," — thougli it be more literal. A " zeal accord- 
ing to knowledge " is also too literal — ,an intelligent zeal is in 
better keeping with our present vernacular, and equally true 
to the original. 

•= JTad-eivrovX^tarov — That the Christ — not Christ — should 
suffer. It was not of a Christ— but of the Christ the prophets 
spoke, as here alluded to. 

'' ETtwTQstpaTE — is fully represented by lurii, or " turn to 
him," Wakef., Dodd., Tyndale, Geneva. Return, Thompson. 
In the com. ver. of the Acts it is translated by turn eight 
times; and in Luke's Gospel turn and return five times. 
" Turn from your present course, or character." — IlaclceU. 

' Tov, in this verse should, in our conception of it, be placed 
before Jesus Christ, if the reading we prefer bo adopted. Gb., 
Sch., Ln., Tf,, UQoxs^eiQiafievov, " And that he may send the 
Jesus Christ before announced to you" whom the Heaven 
must retain &c. 

'" n^QXB-/,Bi.Qi.a^evov (Gb., Sch., Ln.. Tf.) is by distinguished 
critics preferred to n^oy.ExrjQvy/isvov, the former represented 
by hefore appointed or hefore jtrejiared, the latter by before 
announced. The former, we presume, to be the genuine read- 
ing. But as to the significance they are materially the same. 
Both indicate a previous arrangement or purpose. It is an 
unquestionable fact, that his mission or work was previously 
announced and prepared — as Christ himself is the Lamb that 
was slain from the foundation of the world, in all the proceed- 
ings of redeeming grace — and also that he will appear a second 
time without a sin-ofl'ering, at the consummation of the medi- 
atorial interposition. 

^ Almost all the modern versions, have receive. Yet with 
Murdock, I prefer retain. Eeception and retention are with 

us, now very distinguishable acts and ideas. It is true, in fact, 
that the heavens must retain the Messiah, our Lord, until the 
final consummation of this drama of humanity. 

Ilackett and some others would have receive still retained 
in the text. We concur with him that Sexottai by itself 
is no where rendered retain, but wc connect it with ax^t 
as fully indicative, in our currency, of, to retain. Is not 
"to receive a person into our house until any specified time — 
to retain him till that time arrive ! " How, otherwise, could 
the heavens retain him until ? The most literal rendition in 
this case is, therefore, equivalent to that proposed. But in 
either case there is no difference in the sense. He must con- 
tinue in the heavens till the consummation of all the promises 
concerning his church. 

" To receive " indicates a special act — but to retain a con- 
tinued act — and this ax^'i imports. — In any case — he must 
continue in the heavens, till the consummation of all the 
promises touching the earthly career of his church. 

'■ Axjii . . . Ttavrmv, "until the limes of the restoration of all 
things," to primitive order and felicity. This seems to be an 
allusion to the Kat^oi avayw^ecoe — the restoration of primeval 
rectitude and felicity, contemplated in the triumphant epoch 
of Christ's reign. 

AnoxaraoTaasMs. This is 'one of the hapax legomena — 
completion, Boothroyd, Murdock ; restoration, Wakefield ; con- 
summation, Thomp ; restitution, Wesley, Rheims, Wickliff ; all 
things be restored again, Tyndale, Geneva, Cranmer ; regula- 
tion of all things, Dodd. We yet prefer completion, because 
more generic, as the full sense of all the prophetic oracles. 
Leigh's Critica Sacra, while giving restitutio — observes; — 
Astronomis, Eeversio Stellae ad eum locum undo discesserat. 

Referring to Moses and all the prophets concerning the 
times of the Messiah, as Peter now does, it would seera to ua 




tution of all things, which God 
hath spoken by the mouth of 
all his holy prophets, since the 
world began. 

22 For Moses truly said unto 
the fathers, A Prophet shall the 
Lord your Grod raise up unto 
you, of your brethren, like unto 
me ; him shall ye hear in all 
things, whatsoever he shall say 
unto you. 

23 And it shall come to pass, 
that every soul which will not 
hear that Prophet, shall be de- 
stroyed from among the people. 

24 Yea, and all the prophets 
from Samuel, and those that 
follow after, as inany as have 
spoken, have likewise foretold 
of these days. 

25 Ye are the children of the 
prophets, and of the covenant 
which God made with our fa- 
thers, saying unto Abraham, And 
in thy seed shall all the kindreds 
of the earth be blessed. 

26 Unto you first, God hav- 
ing raised up his Son Jesus, sent 
him to bless you. In turning 
away every one of you from his 


TravTcov, d)v iXdXrjo-eu 6 0eoy Sia 
(TTOfiaros iravTcav ayicov avrov 
'!rpo(j)r]Tcoi> air aicovos. Wco- 

ar]9 yap irpos rovs rrarepas 
ehrrev, On wpo^rjTrjv v/juv ava- 
crrr](TU KvpLos 6 Oeos vfiav e/c 
Ta>v dSeXcpcov vp.a>v, as ip-i' av- 
rov ocKovcreaOe Kara iravra ocra 
av Xakqa-Q Trpos ^^ 'icrrai 
8e, irdcra ■y^vyj], rjTis av p,r] olkov- 
crrj Tov 7rpo(f)r}Tov eKelvov, i^oXo- 
dpevd-qareraL e/c tov Xaov. ^* JTat 
iravres Be o't 7rpo(j)riTai diro Sa- 
p.ovrjX Kou Tihv Kadrj^rjs, ocroi 
eXaXrjcrav, koX TvpoKarriyyeiXav 
ras T]p,epas ravras. vp.€Ls eare 
viol Tcov 7rpo(j)7]Tau, Kal rrjs Sta- 
OrjKTjs ys 8te6eTo 6 Oeos Trpos 
Tovs irarepas rjp.a)u, Xeycov Trpos 
A^paap., Kou T(S crTr€pp.aTi crou 
evevXoy-qOrjo-ovTaL Trdcrat at Tra- 
rptal rrjs yrjs. ^^ '^YpXv Trparov 
Oeos dvaarrjcras tov TraiSa av- 
Tov 'Irjaovv, aTreaTeiXev avrov 
evXoyovvra v/xds, iv rm aTrocrrpe- 
(f)€iv eKaarov oltto rav Trovrjpmv 



which God has spoken through 
the mouth of all his holy pro- 
phets, since the world began. 
For Moses, indeed, said to the H2 
Fathers, That a prophet shall 
the Loi'd your God 'raise up 
for you, from among your 
brethren, as he raised me up ; 
him shall you hear in all things, 
whatever he shall say to you. 
And every soul who will not ?i 
hear that prophet, shall be 
destroyed from among the 
people. And, indeed, all the U 
prophets, from Samuel and 
those following in order, as 
many as have spoken, have 
also foretold these days. 
You are 'the sons of the pro- 25 
phets, and of the covenant 
which God made with our 
fathers, saying, to Abraham, 
"And in thy seed shall all 
the kindreds of the earth be 
blessed." God having raised 26 
ed up his' 'servant Jesus, sent 
him first to you, to bless you 
in turning away, every one of 
you, from his iniquities. 

that the completion of tlie ancient oracles respecting Messiah 
and his kingdom covers the whole area of his premises ; and, 
therefore, meets all the demands of the case better than 
restitution, restoration, regulation, or consummation : whether 
promises or predictions, (and these include the whole prophetic 
school,) completion is quite apposite. 

' AvaoTTjasi = b''j5'' , ivill raise up — cause to appear cos e/is; 
nice me. Hence a rendition quite as peculiar as the former 
— not like to me — but like as he raised me up. 

J Tloc . ..... Tijs Sta&tixtjs, sons of the covenant, or 

institution — viol here Hebraistically indicates heirs ; parti- 
cipators — still the sons of the prophets is the proper expres- 
sion of the original. AH believers — all Christians are heirs in 
common of all the spiritual blessings promised in the seed of 

Sons, rather than c/w7(Z}-e)7, of the prophets — inheritors of the 
blessings which the prophets foretold — heirs of covenanted 

mercies. On these promises he urges their right and duty to 
accept these promised blessings. 

' Tov TtatSa Iijaovv. — Irjoovv is, in this case, rejected as 
spurious by Gb., Sch., Ln. and Tf.— iTats is found applied to 
Jesus only once in Matthew as a servant, and in Luke's 
writings five times; — once in his Gospel, referring to him 
where literally a child, ch. 2 : 43 ; and in his Acts four times ; — 
twice rendered in com. ver., son Jesus, and twice child Jesus. 
This is an anomalous license. It is most generally, in other 
cases, rendered servant. The Jews are called "sons of Hie 
Prophets," not merely of the four major prophets, or of the 
twelve minor prophets, as the Jews call them in distinction 
from the Patriarchal prophets. They were educated by these 
sixteen Jewish Prophets, being weekly read in their syna- 
gogues. Hence, we presume, they were called "sons of the 
prophets ; " and, therefore, ought to have recognized and 
acknowledged thair own Messiah. 




And as they spake unto the 
people, the priests, and the cap- 
tain of tlie temple, and the Sad- 
ducees came upon them. 

2 Being grieved that they 
taught the people, and pi-eached 
through Jesus the resurrection 
from the dead. 

3 And they laid liands on 
them, and put them in hold unto 
the next day: for it was now 

4 Hovvbeit, many of them 
which heard the word, believed ; 
and the number of the men was 
about iive thousand. 

5 And it came to pass on the 
morrow, that their rulers, and 
elders, and scribes, 

6 And Annas the high priest, 
and Caiaphas, and John, and 
Alexander, and as many as were 
of the kindred of the high priest, 
were gathered together at Jeru- 

7 And when they had set 
them in the midst, they asked, 
By what power, or by what name 
have ye done this ? 

8 Then Peter, filled with the 
Holy Ghost, said unto them. Ye 
rulers of the people, and elders 
of Israel, 

9 If we this day be examined 
of the good deed done to the 


AAAOYNTDN 8e avrau 
Trpos Tov Xaov, eTrea-Trjcrav av- 
Toh OL Upets Kou 6 a-TpaTrjyos 
TOV lepov KOU ol SaSSovKOtoi, 
^ SiaTTOUOVfJievoi 8ca to SiSacKetv 
avTovs TOV Xaov, koI KaTayyeX- 
Xecv €v tS 'IrjtTov ttjv avaaTcucnv 
Tr]v e/c veKpav kou, iirefiaXov 
avTols Tas ^eipas, kcu edevro els 
T-qprja-LV els ttjv avptov r/v yap 
((TTrepa tJSt]. ttoXXol 8e t&v 
aKOvaravTCOv tov Xoyov CTTtcrrei)- 
(Tav Kal iyevrjOr] 6 aptOjios Tmv 
av8pS>v dxrei ^iXiaSes TrevTe. 
^ 'JEyeveTO Se iTrl ttjv avpiov 
crvva)(6rjvat, avTav tovs ap-)(ov- 
Tas KOU, TrpecrfivTepovs koH ypa/x- 
/xaret? ely 'iTjpovaaXrjp,, " Kal 
' Avvav TOV dp-^iepea KctX Kdia- 
(j)ap kou. 'looavvTjv kol 'AXe^av- 
dpov, Kal oaoL rjo-av e/c yivovs 
dp)(LepaTiKOv. Kal arrjaavTis 
avTOvs iv TcS p-eo-o), iirvvOavov- 
TO, 'JSv iroia 8vvap.ei rj eV Troi'ra 
ovopaTt iiroLrjo-aTe tovto vpels; 
^ ToTe H^Tpos TrXrja-Oeis Hvev- 
paTos 'Aylov, ehre rrpos avTOvs) 
' Ap-^ovTes TQu Xaov Kal irpecrfiv' 
Tepoi TOV 'laparjX, " et rjpels a-rj' 
pepov dvaKpivopeOa im evepye- 


And while they were sj)eak- i 
ing to the people, the priests, 
and the captain of the temple 
guard, and theSadducees came 
upon them, being 'indignant 2 
that they taught the people, 
and preached, that through 
Jesus is the resurrection from 
the dead. And they laid hands 3 
on them, and put them in 
prison, until the next day: 
for it was already evening. 
But many of those who heard 4 
the "word believed; and the 
number of the men became 
about five thousand. 

And it came to pass, on the 6 
morrow, that their rulers, and 
elders, and scribes, and Annas, G 
the High Priest, and Caiaphas, 
and John, and Alexander, and 
as many as were of the "ponti- 
iical family, were gathered to- 
gether in Jerusalem. And 7 
"placing tl).em. in the midst,' 
they asked, tin what strength, 
or in whatname, have you done 
this? Then Peter, filled with 8 
the Holy Spirit, said to them, 
Eulers of the people, and El- 
ders of Israel, if we be ex- 9 
examined this day concerning 
a good deed done to an infirm 

1 jdiuTtovovfiEvot, "being grieved," is not indicative of the 
feeling of the Apostle Paul, in witnessing the malice of a 
wicked spirit, reported in Acts 16 : 18. In that case Paul was 
indignant. In this case the Saduoees and the priesthood 
could bo no less indignant, while witnessing the power of the 
Apostles' doctrine, in stultifying their doctrine of no resurrec- 
tion of the dead, We, therefore, prefer " indignant " to 
''grieved", as more truly indicative of their feelings on this 
occasion. The word is found only in these two cases in the 
Apostolic Scriptures. 

"■ Tov Xoyov, the word. This has exclusive reference to the 
gospel of the resurrection of Jesus Christ. It was the special 
message of the day. 

" Ev. yevovs aqy^uQa'ti.y.ov. Pontifical family is, in our 
currency, more definite and perspicuous than the "kindred 
of the High Priest," which might comprehend more than 
were personally interested in the premises. Those specially 
interested were, doubtless, present. 

° " When they had set them." Placing them, indicates tho 
whole work comprehended in arriaavTes avrovg. 

r JToin SvvttfiEt, not notq s^ovata — physical strength. In 
what strength — in what name? There was strength and au- 
thority also in the name of the Lord. But as to the spectators 
— in this case of physical infirmity — ^their attention was ab- 
sorbed in the strength put forth. 




impotent mau, by what means 
lie is made whole ; 

10 Be it known unto you all, 
and to all the people of Israel, 
that by the name of Jesus Christ 
of Nazareth, whom ye crucified, 
whom God raised from the dead, 
svcn by him doth this man stand 
here before you whole. 

11 This is the stone which 
was set at naught of you build- 
ers, which is become the head 
of the corner. 

12 Neither is there salvation 
in any other: for there is none 
other name under heaven given 
among men, whereby we must 
be saved. 

13 Now when they saw the 
boldness of Peter and John, and 
perceived that they were un- 
learned and ignorant men, they 
marvelled ; and they took know- 
ledge of them, that they had been 
with Jesus. 

14 And beholding the man 
which was healed standing with 
them, they could say nothing 
asrainst it. 


aria dudpcoirov aadevovs, iu tlvl 
ovTQS cricraxTTai' yvcoarov 

earco iraatv vfuv Koi Travri rca 
XacS 'IcrpuTjX, on iv t(^ ovofiart 
'Irjcrov XpLCTTOv tov Na^mpalov, 
ov vfj-ets ea-TavpcocraTe, ov 6 0eos 
■^yetpev e/c veKpcov, iv tovtco ov- 
Tos irapiarrfK^v ivcoinov v/xwv 
vyL-qs. ^^ ovTos iartu 6 XiOos 6 
i^ov0€i>Tj6el9 v(j) v[j.u)V tS>v oIko- 
■SofiovvTcov, 6 yevop-evos els Ke^a- 
Xr/v yoivlas. ^ koL ovk eariv ii> 
aXXo) ovSein rj acoTypia' ovre 
yap bvop.a iariv erepov vtto tov 
ovpavov TO SeBo/xevou ev avdpco- 
TTOLS, iu CO del crcodrjuai r] 

^^ OecopovvTes 8e ttju tov Ile- 
Tpov irapprjcriav Kca 'Icoavvov, 
/cat KUTaXa^op-evoL otl avdpcoTroL 
aypap.p,aTOL elo'i /cat l8iaTac, 
i6avp.a^ou, iir^yivaxTKov re av- 
Tovs OTL (Tvv Tco iTjCTou r]aav 
^'^ TOV 8e avOpcoTTOv jBXiirovTes 
(Tw avTols ecTTCoTa TOV Tedepa- 
irevp-evov, ovSev €l)(ov avTeLireiv. 


man, in what "name he is made 
whole, be it known to you lo 
all, and to all the people of 
Israel, that in the name of 
Jesus Christ, the Nazarene — 
whom you crucified — whom 
God raised from the dead, 
by him does this man stand 
before you sound. This is H 
the stone which was set at 
nought by you, the builders, 
which is 'made the head of the 
corner. And 'the salvation is 12 
not in another person; for 
there is not another name un- 
der the heaven, given among 
men, by which it 'behooves ■ 
us to be saved. 

Now, "considering the '■free- 13 
dom of speech, of Peter and 
John, and having "perceived 
that they were 'illiterate, and 
persons in private life, they 
marveled; and they knew 
them well, that they ^used 
to be with Jesus. And 
beliolding the man who was H 
healed, standing with them, 
they 'had nothing to say 

1 Ev rivi — reference is here to ovofia, as the answer given 
clearly intimates — In the name of Jesus Christ. 

' 'O yevofiEvoe — made ets y.8rpahjv. 

' The common version does not indicate the fullness of the 
original. It is in the original // aanriQia — not salvation in 
general, but the salvation which the gospel brings — not a sal- 
vation of the body, of the soul, or of the spirit, but of the. man. 
— OvScpt, no persQn ; a},!.o> ovSevi, not another person. 

' j^si, heJwoves. — Nor is it presented with a must he, as a 
fatal necessity ; nor with a may be, as of doubtful import ; but 
as claiming, commanding, behooving, us to embrace it, which 
latter word is inclusive of all its claims, and of all our wants. 
It is necessary, expedient, blissful. 

^sc fully indicates this, by three of its current acceptations 
— must, should, ought. No one word fills its area so well as 
behoove, which word is selected in Luke to indicate all the 
causes concurring in the death of Christ. Thus it behooved 
Christ to suffer &c., Luke 24 : 7, 26, 40, where all these terms 
— must, ought, behoove, occur. 

" QscoQovvreg, considering, not merely seeing, or looking at 
it, but contemplating upon it — considering it. To theorize on 

premises implies more than seeing them, or even looking at 

' HaQ^rjOM, boldness of speech, 2 Cor. 7 : 4. The dative of 
this word is used adverbially, and indicates speaking, writing, 
acting boldly, or with much freedom. Hez-e, contextually 
viewed, it indicates a freedom of speech which they could not 
reconcile with the apparent condition, education and circum- 
stances of men in private stations of life. Freedom of speech, 
in all the associations of this scene, best harmonizes with the 
circumstances, and the terras employed. 

" KaraXapofievoi, "when they saw", Wakefield; "when 
they observed ", Boothroyd. " Having perceived ", Hackett. 
The tense diflers from that of the other participle. 

" Ay^afiftaroi iStcorac, " illiterate and obscure". Hack. ; 
" unlearned and obscure", Booth. ; " unlearned and common 
men", Wakefield ; " sans lettres, du commun peuple", French. 
So in most modern versions. S. Lee, Polyglott. 

y On avv rq) Iijaov rjaav indicates more than a casual inter- 
view. They were wont to be with Jesus. 

' Atnemeiv — to contradict, to speak against — literally, they 
had nothing to speak against it, or, they could say nothing 
against it. 




15 But when they had com- 
manded them to go aside out of 
the council, they conferred among 

16 Saying, What shall we do 
to these men ? for that indeed a 
notable miracle hath been done 
by them is manifest to all them 
that dwell in Jerusalem, and we 
cannot deny it. 

17 But that it spread no fur- 
ther among the people, let us 
straitly threaten them, that they 
speak henceforth to no man in 
this name. 

18 And they called them, and 
commanded them not to speak 
at all, nor teach in the name of 

19 But Peter and John an- 
swered and said unto them. 
Whether it be right in the sight 
of God to hearken unto you 
more than unto Grod, judge ye. 

20 For we cannot but speak 
the things which we have seen 
and heard. 

21 So when they had further 
threatened them, they let them 
go, finding nothing how they 
might punish them, because of 
the people: for all me7i glorified 
God for that which was done. 

22 For the man was above 


'^ K€X.€V{ravT€s 5e avrovs e'^co 
Tov arvveSpiov aTreXOeiv, crvvi- 
fiaXou irpos aXkfjXovs, ^ Xiyov- 
rey, Tl Troiria-oiiev tols avOpmiroLs 
TOVTOLs; oTt fiev yap yvcoa-TOV 
arjixeiov yeyove 8t avraiv, Trdcn 
TOLS' KaroLKOvarip lepovcraXrjfj. 
(pavepou, KoX ov 8vva/xeda apvr]- 
craadaL' ^"^ aAA' tva. fxr) eVt 
irXetov>e/xr]df] eh rov Xaou, 
aireiXrj aTreiXrfo-co/ieda avrdis fxr]- 
K€Ti XaXelv iTTL Tw ouofiari tovtco 
/xrjdeul avOpwircov. ^ Kca KaXe- 
aavres avrovs, iraprjyyeLXav av- 
Tols TO KaOoXov jxTj (f)deyyecr6aL 
/jL7]8e StSao'Keii' eVt to) ovofxaTi 
rod 'Irjcrou. ^ 6 Se lUrpos kou 
'Ioavvr]s aTTOKpcdei/res rrpos av- 
rovs eiwov, JEl hiKaiov eariv 
evcoTTLOP rov Oeov, vficou aKovecu 
jxaXXov 7] TOV Oeov, Kplvare. 
^^ ov dwdp-eda yap fj/xetp, a ei5o- 
fxeu KOU rfKova-afxev, /j,t] XaXelf. 
'^^ 01 Se 7rpo(ra7reiXr](rd/xei'OL drre- 
Xvcrav avrovs, p-rjSev evplaKov- 
res TO TTws KoXacrcovrac avrovs, 
did rov Xaop, otl wavres iSo^a- 
^ov TOV Oeov eTTt rw yeyovori. 
^ ercov ydp rjv TrXeiovcov recr- 


against it. But having com- 15 
manded them to withdraw 
from the council, they con- 
ferred with one another, say- 
ing. What shall we do to these is 
men ? for, that, indeed, a "no- 
torious miracle has been 
wrought by them, is manifest 
to all those who dwell at Jeru- 
salem, and we cannot deny it. 
But, that it may ''be spread no 17 
further among the people, let 
us strictly threaten them, that 
they speak, henceforth, to no 
man "upon this name. And 18 
they called them, and com- 
manded them not to speak at 
all, nor to teach, ujjon the 
name of Jesus. 

But Peter and John answer- 19 
ed, and said to them, Whether 
it be right in the sight of God, 
to hearken to you, rather 
than to God, judge. For we 20 
cannot but speak the things 
which we have seen and heard. 
So, when they had further 21 
threatened them, they dis- 
charged them, finding no 
means of punishing them, be- 
cause of the people; for all 
were glorifying God, for that 
which had been done. ''For the 22 

* rvtoarov, "signal", Booth., Doddridge; notorious, Rheims ; 
manifest sign, Murdock. 

I" jdiavEftijO-r] being passive, we prefer, on all the premises, 
to retain the passive form — that it may he spread. 

° Eitt and ev tij> ovofiart tovrcp. These arc not identical 
expressions. To speak upon a name, and to teacli in a name, 
are not equivalent enunciations. The latter has respect to 
authority, and the former to a topic, or subject. ,The mysteries 
of this name constituted the secret of their power with the 

Etzi Tfp ovofcari rov Irjoov. In as much as we have in the 
original Scriptures three forms of expression connected with 
ovofta TOV Irjaov Xqiotov, of very different import, it seems to 
me not merely expedient, but obligatory, that we should give 
\Q an English reader three corresponding formulas in our 

language, such as '• in the name of" — "upon the name of" — 
and "into the name of". These three formulas are as distinct 
in sense as In form. Tlie first indicates authority, viz., in the 
name of the king, or commonwealth. The second indicates 
the subject, on which the authority terminates, the citizens 
of the commonwealth, and the third the reason wliy, or object 
for which, the action is performed. By the authority of the go- 
vernment, I, A. B. will speak to you upon American citizen- 
ship, and then I will introduce you into the possession of it. 

To this agree, so far as I know, all Grammarians and Lexico- 
graphers. So we find it in the Apostolic commission. In the 
name of the Lord, I baptize you into the name of the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Spirit, for, or in order to introduction 
into his kingdom. 

'^ In conformity with the order and arrangement of words 
in the Greek text we might, grammatically, render this verso 




forty years old on whom this 
miracle of healing was shewed. 

23 And being let go, they 
went to their own company, and 
reported all that the chief priests 
and elders had said unto them. 

24 And when they heard that, 
they lifted up their voice to God 
with one accord, and said, Lord, 
thou art Grod, which hast made 
heaven, and earth, and the sea, 
and all that in them is ; 

25 Who, by the mouth of thy 
servant David hast said, Why 
did the heathen rage, and the 
people imagine vain things? 

26 The kings of the earth 
stood up, and the rulers were 
gathered together against the 
Lord, and against his Christ. 

27 For of a truth against thy 
holy child Jesus, whom thou 


crapaKOVTa 6 avOpcoiros e0 hv 
^yeyovei to (rrjixehu tovto rrjs 

^^ ' AiroXvOlvT^s 8e rjXBov 
irpos TQVS Idiovs, kou aTrrjyyeiXav 
ocra. Trpos avrovs ol apyiepus kol 
o'l Trpea^vrepoL eivov. ^'^ ol 8e 
aKOvcravT^S, ofiodvfxaSou rjpav 
(j)covrjv Trpos tov Oeov, kol e'nrou, 
AeoTTora, av 6 Oeos 6 TroLrjcras 
TOV ovpavou KOU T-qv yrjv kol ttjv 
OaXaa-croLV kcH Travra to. iu avTols, 
"^ 6 Sia aTOfiaTOs Aa^ld tov 7rai~ 
86s o-ov elirav, 'IvaTL i(ppva^av 
edvrj, KOU. Xaol ifMeXeTrjcrav Keva ; 
-^ TrapecrTTjcrav ol fiacriXels Trjs 
yrjs, KOL ol ap)(ovT€s avvr}'}(dr](Tav 
i-Tn TO avTo /cara tov Kvpiov, 
KCLi Kara tov XpiaTov avTov. 
^'^ Svvrj)(67)o-av yap eV dXrjOelas 
iiii TOV (xycov 7ral8a crov, Irj- 


man on whom this miracle of 
the healing was wrought, was 
more than forty years old. 

And now, having been dis- 23 
charged, they went to their 
own 'friends, and announced 
all that the priests and 
elders had said to them. 
And they, ^hearing, raised a 24 
voice to God, with one accord, 
and said, ^Sovereign Lord, thou 
art the God who hast made the 
heavens, and the earth, and the 
sea, and all that is in them ; 
who by thy servant David's 25 
mouth hast said, '"Why did 
nations rage, and people 
imagine a vain thing? The 2C 
kings of the earth presented 
themselves, and the Princes 
were gathered together against 
the Lord, and against his A- 
nointed. For, of a truth, in this 27 
'city, against thy holy 'son, Je- 

ns follows — " of years, for was of more than forty the man 
on whom had had the miracle tiiis of the healing." This is 
exactly according to the order and meaning of tlie words in the 
Greek text before me. Nor could all the rules of grammar, 
alone, or without a knowledge of the subject, as well as of the 
verbiage in which it is clothed, enable any one to give the 
exact ideas, contained in the original oracle of the inspired 
writer. This fact, incontrovertible as it is, demonstrates, how 
much depends upon a translator's knowledge of the subject, as 
well as of the language from which, and of the language into 
which, he transfers the ideas which existed in the mind of the 
original writer or speaker. 

" JTooe rovs iStovs, to their man friends, not especiallj' to 
the Apostles. 

f 01 Se axovaaiTEs. It seems better to preserve the parti- 
cipialconstructionhere, and to render the ol, they. 

^ JeoTtoTa. This title is given to the Messiah, 2 Pet. 2:1; 
Judas 4. It occurs ten times in the New Testament — five 
times indicative of our Master in heaven, and five times of 
masters, or proprietors of men. Here it seems fitting to give 
to it all its grandeur, and therefore, we render it Sovereign 
Lord. This is warranted by the current difference between 
SsaTtorrjs and y.vQwe. This the spirit of the context seems to 
require. It is found five times indicative of supreme power 
or authority. Judas 4, Our only sovereign God and Lord. 

^ 'Ivan, an abbreviation of Iva ti ysv!]rnt, why, or in order 
to which might bo — Hackelt. 

' J<Jr Tfj Ttolet ravrrj, after ahj&aias is found in many ancient 
copies, but rejected by Bloomfield, though resting on good 
authority' — HacJcetl. It is found in most ancient manuscripts, 
(Vul.) the two uncial Mss. Codd., Clermont, Augiensis, and 
the Codex Alex., which last after aov adds TtoXec. So also 
reads the Latin with the Coptic, Arm., Ethiop. versions, 
Irenaeus, Cyril, Tertullian, and other fiithers. 

There can be no just ground of supposing the clause an 
addition in the oldest copies extant, until a still older copy 
can be produced, which has not the clause. See Ann. to the 
Book of the New Covenant, London Ed., 1807. By Gran- 
ville. Penn, Esq., Hackett. — On the authority of Griesbach, 
Scholz, Lachmann, and Tischendorf, I would restore this 

Penn's work, now lying before me, is, in my judgment, a 
work of much learning, ingenuousness and real merit. His 
version is dedicated to the Universal Church. London, 1837, 
two vols, octavo. He renders the passage thus, v. 27 : For, of 
a truth, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and 
people of Israel, were gathered together in this city, against 
thy Holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed. — This was 
certainly true in fact. 

J Ilais is applied to Jesus only six times in the Christian 
Scriptures — four times in the Acts, once in Luke's Testimony, 
and once quoted from the Septuagint, Matt. 12 : 18. It is 
translated, com. ver., servant ten times, child twice. In other 
cases, and once, on allusion to the Lord Jesus, when he is 




hast anointed, both Herod, and 
Pontius Pilate, with the Gen- 
tiles, and the people of Israel, 
were gathered together, 

28 For to do whatsoever thy 
hand and thy counsel determined 
before to be done. 

29 And now, Lord, behold 
their threatenings : and grant 
unto thy servants, that with all 
boldness they may speak thy 

30 By stretching forth thy 
hand to heal ; and that signs and 
wonders may be done by the 
name of thine holy child Jesus. 

31 And when they had pray- 
ed, the place was shaken where 
they were assembled together; 
and they were all filled with the 
Holy Ghost, and they spake the 
word of God with boldness. 

32 And the multitude of them 
that believed were of one heart, 
and of one soul: neither said 
any of them that ought of the 
things which he possessed was 
his own; but they had all things 

33 And with great power 
gave the apostles witness of the 
resurrection of the Lord Jesus: 
and great grace was upon them 

34 Neither was there any 
among them that lacked : for as 
many as were possessors of lands 
or houses sold them, and brought 
the prices of the things that were 

35 And laid ificm down at the 
apostles' feet: and distribution 


aovv, ov 'i\pL<Ta9, 'Hpcobrjs re 
Koi HovTLOs JJiXaTOSy crvv edvecri. 
Kol Xaols 'IcrpayX, ^^ TrotTjaai 
ocra Tj x'^tp o-ov kcu rj fiovXrj crov 
TTpocopia-e yeuecrOac. ^^ kol to. 
vvv, Kvpie, emSe eVt ray aireiXas 
avTa>v, Kou Bos tols SovXois crov 
fiera Trapprja-ia? iracTrjs XaXeiu 
TOP XoyOV (TOV, '^^ iv T(S Tr/v 

X^^P^ o-ow eKTeiveiu ere ely lacnv, 
KoX crrjp.e'La kol repara ylvecrdaL 
di,a TOV ovofJiaTOs rov ayiov irai- 
86s (TOV 'Irjcrov. ^^ KdX BerjOev- 
Tcov avru>v ecraXevOr] 6 tottos ev a 
rjarav avveyp-ivoi, kolI eirX'r]cr6r]- 
crav airavTes IIvevfiaTOs 'Ayiov, 
K(U eXdXovv TOV Xoyov tov Oeov 
/xeTO. irapprjo-ias. 

32 rj.QY ^l ttXtjOovs rav ttl- 
crrevo-avTcciv rjv rj KapSia kol t) 
'^vyr] P-'i<^' KOL ov8e els tl t&v 
virapxpvTdiV avTm kXeyev \8iov 
elvai, aXX rjv avTols awavTa 
Koiva. ^^ /cat fieyaXy Bvva/xet 
oariBiBovv to p-aprvpLov ol airo- 
cTToXot. TTjs avacTTaaeas tov Kv- 
piov 'Irjcrov, x^P'-^ "^^ fieyaXr] rjv 
eiii vavTas avTOvs. ovBe yap 

ivBerjs Tis VTTTjpx^v ^v avTols' 
oaoL yap KTiqTopes x^P'-^^ V ^''■' 
Ktwv virrjpxov, ircoXovvTes €(j)epov 
Tas Tcav TnTrpao-KOfieucov, 
^^ Ka\ eTidovu irapa tovs ttoBus 
Tcav airoaToXwv- BieStBoTO Be 


8US, whom thou hast anointed, 
both Herod and Pontius Pilate, 
with the Gentiles and the peo- 
ple of Israel, were assembled, 
to do whatever thy hand, and 28 
thy counsel had before 'deter- 
mined to be done. And now, 29 
Lord, behold their threaten- 
ings, and grant to thy servants,, 
that, with all boldness, they 
may speak thy word, by 3o 
sti'etching out thy hand to 
heal ; and that signs and won- 
ders may be done, by the 
name of thy holy son, Jesus. 

And, they havingprayed, the 31 
place in which they were as- 
sembled together was shaken, 
and they were all filled with 
the Holy Spirit, and spoke the 
word of God with boldness. 
And the multitude of those 32 
that believed were of one heart 
and of one soul, neither did any 
of them say, that any of the 
things which he possessed was 
his own; but they had all 
things common. And with 33 
great 'power the Apostles gave 
testimony concerning the re- 
surrection of the Lord Jesus : 
and great grace was upon them 
all. For neither was there any 34 
among them who lacked ; for 
as many as were possessors of 
lands, or of houses, sold them, 
and brought the prices of the 
things sold, and laid them 
down at the Apostles' feet. 
And "it was distributed to 35 

found in the temple ansivering questions, it is properly trans- 
lated child. In the Acts, it is tn'ice translated son, and 
twice cJiild. In this case, we think, in all dignity and pro- 
priety, it should be translated son. 

■■ Uqoo^i^oi, occurs 8 times in N. T. rendered by determined, 
ordained, declared, Kom. 1 : 4, limitelh. Luke uses oqi^co, 
six times out of its eight occurrences. Translated determined, 
ordained, determinate. Paul uses n^oo^i^m five times out 
of its six occurrences. Etymologically, it indicates, to mark 

out before, to bound or to limit before. Hence, Heb. 4 ; 7, 
" He limiteth a certain day". Whether used to indicate a 
purpose, a delineation, description or prediction, as respects 
the ^ivine knowledge, or will, it equally involves one and the 
same radical idea. With God there is nothing past, present 
or future. He fills, he inhabits eternity. 

I Meyahj Swccftst, with great power, i. e. physical demon- 
stration, not e^ovatft, authority. 

'" j^ieStSoTo, being impersonal — it was distributed. 




was made unto every man ac- 
cording as he had need. 

36 And Joses, who by the 
apostles was surnamed Barnabas, 
(which is, being interpreted, 
The son of consolation,) a Le- 
vite, and of the country of Cy- 

37 Having land, sold it, and 
brought the money, and laid it 
at the apostles' feet. 

But a certain man named Ana- 
nias, with Sapphira his wife, sold 
a possession, 

2 And kept back j)art of the 
price, (his wife also being privy 
to it,) and brought a certain part, 
and laid it at the apostles' feet. 

3 But Peter said, Ananias, 
why hath Satan filled thine heart 
to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to 
keep back part of the price of 
the land ? 

4 While it remained, was it 
not thine own ? and after it was 


CKaara kuOotl av tls xpeiav 

'Icoarris Be 6 eTnKXrjOus 
JBapva^as vtto twv aTroarToXcov, 
o ecTTi /x€d€p/j.rjvevo/x€vov, vlos 
TrapaKXyjcrews, Aevtrins, Kvirpios 
Tcp yevei, virap^ovTos avTcp 
aypov, Tra>Xr]cras rjueyKe to xPV' 
fia, Kol eOrjKe Trapa tovs ttoSus 



'Avrjp 8e TLS 'Avavias ovd~ 
fxaTL, (Tvv Smrfpeiprj Tjj yvvaid 
avTov, iTrwXyae KTrj/xa, ^ kol 
ei>o(r(f)L<TaTO airo tt^s TL/j.rjS} crvu- 
etdvLas /cat r^y yvvaiKOs avTOv, 
/cat ipeyKas papos Tt Trapa tovs 
TToSay Tu>v ccTToaToXcov tdr]Kev. 
^ elire fie IliTpos, 'Avavia, diaTi 
e7rXrjpco(Tev 6 SaTavas ttju Kap- 
Slav crov, -^evcracrdaL ere to 
JTvevp-a TO AyLov, kou voa<j)L- 
craadai airo ttjs tl/jltj^ tov ^co- 
plov; ov)(i p.ivov croX epi^ve, 
KOU irpaOev ev t^ arj i^ovcria 


'every one, according as any 
one had need. 

Now Joses, who, by the 
Apostles, was surnamed Bar- 
nabas (which is, being trans- 
lated. Son of Consolation), 
a Levite, a Cyprian by birth, 
having land, sold it, and 
brought the money, and laid 
it at the Apostles' feet. 


"But a certain man named 
Ananias, with Sapphira his 
wife sold a possession, and 
"purloined from the price (his 
wife also being privy to it), 
and brought a certain part, 
and laid it at the Apostles' 
feet. But Peter said, Ananias, 
why has pSatan ^possessed your 
heart, to ''lie to the Holy 
Spirit, and to purloin from 
the price of the land ? While 
it ■■remained, was it not your 

° ^e, hut, in contrast with Barnabas. 

" Evoacpiaaro, Ind. mid. purloined, took away for himself. 
The mid. voice is most apposite to this case, indicating the 
selfishness and hypocrisy of the man. Purloin is not obsolete, 
though not so much in use as formerly. It is found com. vcr., 
Tit. 2 : 10. It is, in com. ver., twice represented in this book 
by " kept back." There is no absolute impropriety in keeping 
hack ; but there is always in purloining. This is a complex 
sin. It was not simply keeping back, but feloniously keep- 
ing back, with intent to conceal, associated with deliberate 

The Septuagint employs voofi^oftai. Josh. 7 : 1, in the case 
of Achan, It is well defined by Leigh in his Critica Sacra : 
Non est lotam rem auferre sed paululum tantummodo aWtra- 
here. Beza employs intervertit, which he interprets by callide 
surripuil. In our vernacular, to emlezzle, to filch, most ex- 
actly represents it. We prefer purloin, because already fa- 
miliarized in com. ver. "Kept to himself ," "Waket. and Boothr.; 
"eanied away apart," Murd., Syr. 

SupeiSvtas, having been cognizant, having participated in a 
knowledge of it, being privy to it. 

P '0 Saxavae, a proper name, and retainable here. 

ETtlriqoioEv, literally filled up ; in our more modern style 
possessed your heart. W-ri^oco, used here metaphorically, ia 
taken from a ship sailing before the wind. " When a man is 
filled with the commandment, or with temptation, as the sail 
of a ship by the wind, he is said to be filled with it," Oritica 
Sacra. It is found almost one hundred times in the N. T. Oi 
these, some fifty times it is represented by fulfill, com. ver. 
It here indicates a full possession of the heart. 

Possessed— ViintaWy filled. This is a bold figure in either 
case, to indicate a strong temptation. It is the language of 
earnestness or surprise. 

1 Wevaaad-ac, to lie, to deceive, not the Holy Spirit ab- 
stractly contemplated, but through the Apostles. 

•• Ov/,t ftevov aoi e/teve. Literally, Remaining, did it not re- 
main to you ! And being sold, remained it not in your power? 
In our idiomatic currency, we would say : " While it remained 




sold, was it not in thine own 
power ? why hast thou conceived 
this thing in thine heart? thou 
hast not lied unto men, but unto 

5 And Ananias hearing these 
words, fell down, and gave ujp the 
ghost. And great fear came on 
all them that heard these things. 

6 And the young men arose, 
wound him up, and carried him 
out, and buried him. 

7 And it was about the space 
of three hours after, when his 
wife, not knowing what was 
done, came in. 

8 And Peter answered imto 
her. Tell me whether ye sold 
the land for so much ? And she 
said. Yea, for so much. 


V7rrjpj(e; t'l otl edov iv rfj Kap- 
Sia (Tov TO Trpayfia tovto; ovk 
4\f/evcra) avOpaTrois, aXXa too 
0eS. ^ 'Akovcov Se 'Avavlas 
Tovs Xoyovs TovTovs, TretTcov e^e- 
yjrv^e' Kou iyeveTo (pofios /xeyas 
eirl iravTas rovs aKOVOvTas tclv- 
Ta. avaaTavT€s 8k oi veaiTepoL 
avvea-TetXav avrovy kcH i^euey- 
KavTes eOa^^av. 'Eyiv^TO fie 

cos apwv TpLcov Staarrjixa, Koi rj 
yvvrj avTOV jxr] elSvia to yeyovos 
elcrrjXdeu. ^ aTceKpidr) Se avTrj 6 
JleTpos, JElire /xot, el too-ovtov 
TO y^coplov (XTreSocrde; H Se elwe, 
JSfaL, TOcrovTov. ^ 'O Se IleTpos 


own? and after it was sold, 
was it not in your own power? 
•Why have you 'conceived this 
thing in your 'heart ? you have 
not lied to men "only, but to 
God. And Ananias hearing 6 
"these words, "falling, expired ; 
and great fear came on all that 
'heard these things. And the 6 
young men yarose, wrapped 
him up, and 'carrying him 
out, buried him. "Now an 7 
interval of about three hours 
occurred, and his wife, not 
knowing what was done, came 
in. And Peter said to hei-, Tell 8 
me whether you sold the land 
for so much? And she said 
verily, for so much. Then 9 

was it not your own? And after it was sold, was it not in 
your own power, or at your own disposal ? " We opine that 
the interrogative character of this sentence continues to its 
close, i. e. to vTtrjQx^- 

Our reasons are two — It is so pointed in our most approved 
texts. And, again, because the impassioned speaker con- 
tinues the same style of emotional feeling in another inter- 
rogation: — Ti ort s&ov Ev rij y.a^Sia aov to nqayfia tovro ; 
why have you conceived this thing in your heart ? 

« Ti oTi, for Tt sariv ort, as in v. 9, what is this ? Fritzsche, 
Meyer, De Wette. 

' Ed-ov, aor. ind. mid. of zcO-ijfit, literally, why have you 
placed, or deliberately machinated, this in your heart 1 The 
whole contour of the stylo indicates a deliberate design, call- 
ing forth a burst of feeling, bordering on excitement, on the 
part of the Apostle. 

For a similar use of rtdrifii see Luke 1 : G6 ; 21 : 14. Acts 
19 : 21 ; 27 : 12. In Luke's currencj' rtO-qfu, in such cases, is 
indicative of settled design, fixedness of purpose, strong deter- 
mination. Hence the aggravation of the sin of Ananias and 
his wife. They concealed, wiOi intent to lie, for popularity. 

" "Only" is supplied, but not called for. It is true in 
fact that he lied to men, and to God. And therefore it is 
implied. Modern translators differ. Hackett saj's it is logic- 
ally correct to translate ovx . . , alia, not so much as ; but 
this is defective in form, and less forcible. Others, like Booth- 
royd, and Penn, supply only. It is therefore a matter of taste, 
or discretion. 

' TavTa, after ay.ovvrae, is of doubtful authority ; rejected 
by some editors, wanting in the vulgate and some other ver- 
sions. It is applied to a single event, Lachmann, Hackett, &c. 

" JIeaa)v tjeyiule, falling, expired. This participial form. 

when followed, as in this case, by an active verb in the aorist, 
may indicate that the act expressed in the verb was the 
result of that expressed by the participle, and, especially, 
when ««« is wanting between the participle and the verb. 

^ "Who heard these" would he better than "that heard 
these things." — This is a matter of taste, and not of etymology. 

y And the young men — avaarajrtae, arising, or having 
arisen, avveaTCilav (as nsQisareilav), wrapped him up, and e^e- 
PEyy.avTse, 1st aor. part., having carried him out &c. 

» ESspeyy.avreg, having carried him forth, out of the city. 
Most probably as the Jews did not usually bury within their 
citj' walls, and not in consequence of his judicial death. 

" Eyevero, now it came to pass. — There was an interval 
of about three hours. — Then &c, " me Staorrj/ia is not here the 
subject of eyevero, but forms a parenthetic clause and (see on 
1 : 10) introduces the apodosis of the sentence. De Wette, 
Meyer, Fritzsche." So Hackett in loc. This Hebraistic use 
of xai in the apodosis of a sentence, after an expression or 
idea of time, is frequent in the N. Testament. See Brud. Gr. 
Concord, p. 450. "Intercessit autem ferme horarum trium 
intervallum quum uxor quoque ipsius, nesciens quod factum, 
ingressa est." Beza. " Factum est autem quasi horarum trium 
spatium, et uxor ipsius, nesciens quod factum fuerat, introivit." 

^«, now; Scaatrjfta, an interval of about three hours; 
eyevero, occurred ; rj yvvtj avrov, and his wife. This pre- 
vents the necessity of the supply of the article, and the trans- 
lation of xai by ^'' ■when,'''' as in some versions. To yeyovos, 
what had occurred. This agrees with the perfect tense of the 
participle, and with the active rather than with the passive 
sense. It was what had come to pass a providential act and 
not a mere act of Peter. 




9 Then Petei- said unto her, 
How is it that ye have agreed 
together to tempt the Spirit of 
the Lord? behold the feet of 
them which have buried thy hus- 
band an at the door, and shall 
carry thee out. 

10 Then fell she down straight- 
vsray at his feet, and yielded up 
the ghost. And the young men 

'came in, and found her dead, and 
carrying licr forth, buried kcr by 
her husband. 

11 And great fear came upon 
all the church, and upon as many 
as heard these things. 

12 And by the hands o? the 
apostles were many signs and 
wonders wrought among the 
people ; (and they were all with 
one accord in Solomon's porch. 

V6 And of the rest durst no 


etvre tt/jo? avTtjv, Ti on <Tvve(f)co- 
vrjdrj vjXLv TreLpdcraL to irvevfxa 
Kvpiov; l8ov, oi iroSes tcou 6a- 
■^avTCDV Tov cLvBpa crov, (.in rfj 
6vpa, Koi i^olo-ovcrl ae. ^^ ' Eire- 
cre 8e Trapa^rjp.a irapa tovs tto- 
5af avrov, koL i^e\f/v^ev' eiareX- 
6ovT€s 5e OL veavioTKOL evpov avrrjv 
veKpau, KOL l^eveyKavTes eda^av 
Trpos Tou avhpa avTrjs. kcu 

iyevero ^o^os p-iyas €0' oXrjv 
TTjv iKKXrjcrLav, koI eVt iravras 
Tovs cLKOvovras ravra. 

^ Alo. 8e tS>v )(eipcov tcou 
aTTOcTToXcov iyevcTO crrjiieLa koL 
Tepara iu t<S Xaw jroXXa' Kal 
■fjcrav op.odvjj.aSoi' airaures iv rfj 
(TTOa ^oXoiJ.coi>TQs' ^ TCOV 8e 
XotTTcov ov8e).9 iroXp-a KoXXaarOat 


Peter said to her, ""Why is it, 
that you have agreed together, 
to tempt the Spirit of the Lord ? 
Behold the feet of these who 
have buried your husband are 
at the door, and shall carry 
you out. 'Then she instant- lo 
ly fell down at his feet and 
expired : and the young men 
came in and found her dead, 
and carrying her out, buried 
her by her husband. And u 
great fear came upon all the 
''congregation, and upon all 
those hearing these things. 

And "through the hands of 12 
the Apostles were many signs 
and wonders done among the 
people, (and "«they were all 
with one accord in Solomon's 
porch. And of the ^rest durst 13 

^ Ti on, why is it tliat? SvvBtpcovtjOi], 3d pcrs. sing. aor. 
ind. pass. — it was concerted, vfiiv, by j'ou — an instance well 
sustained of the dative after the passive, instead of the gen. 
with vTto. 

' Eneas Se, and she fell ; TtaoaxQrjfia, immediatelj', just then, 
as Peter pronounced the last word, ^e has merely a copulative 
sense. And the young men, eiaeXO'oprsg, coming in, found 
her dead. And carrying her out, e^eveyy.avTes, they buried 
her, sd-axpav. 

^ And great fear camo upon all the congregation, am o).qv 
irjv exxXi/acav. Any assembly in this book being called an 
enxXijata, and the word occurring 131 times in the Christian 
Scriptures it has been much in controversy, and consequently 
has caused much strife amongst Christians. It should be 
known and deliberated upon, that this word sxxXiiaia is 
represented in the Christian Scriptures by the following 
words, church, churches, assciMy. It is, by apostolic use, 
indicative of any meeting or assembly of persons in any place, 
at any time, or for any purpose, with, or without a special call 
of those in authority. In the 19th chapter of Acts, com. v., it is 
thrice represented by the word assembly. Its etymological 
import is simply called out, or congregated. Hence assembly, 
concourse, or congregation, of any sort is indicated in and by 
the word eKxXrjaia. 

' ^la, indicating insintm<;ntaZi7y, is, in all books, and especial- 
ly in the Christian Scriptures, interchangeably rendered hy, or 
through. Whatever metaphysics may say, by and through 
are equally indicative of both Divine and human agency. We 
have many instances of this in the com. ver., such as Rom. 

6:21: "Grace reign through (^Sca) rigliteousness ly {Sia) 
Jesus Christ our Lord." The condemnation by, or through 
Adam, and the righteousness by or through Christ are repre- 
sented by one and tlie same Sia, &c. Such also is our popular 
use of by and through. Where there is no established anti- 
thetical difference in the meaning or use of particles in the 
Christian Scriptures, we should not create it; and where 
there is, we should not annihilate it. All that God has done 
for man, since he created him, has been through (Sta) agencies. 
Indeed, we are informed by Paul, Eph. 3 : 9, that God created 
all things {8ia) through Jesus Christ. Moreover, by, and 
through, are used at the present time interchangeably'. 

" ilTtapTes, refers to the Apostles mentioned in the last 
clause. Olsh., De Wette, Mey., Bengel, extend it to all the 
believers. Hack. 

f 'Ofto&vfiadov ttTtavrsg ev rf] aron SoXoftcavrog. Solomon's 
porch, being a place of much resort, and the disciples as yet 
being all Jews, and having a common national right to resort 
thither with their own nation, it was for them legitimate 
missionary ground ; and there, with much boldness, they an- 
nounced the claims of Jesus as the Messiah. 

^ "And of the rest." The sense otrcov lommv is explained 
by the last clause. Doddridge, Boothroyd, Hack. Dr. Light- 
foot explains this "q/" the rest," "of the one hundred and 
twenty," from which Dr. Whitby dissents. Beza, would render 
noXXaad-at, in this passage, " to attack." This is too far fetched, 
and inappropriate to the contextual scope. They feared hypo- 
critically to join them. 

Tiov 8e Xommv. Tjiterally, of the remainder. Those yet 




man join himself to them : but 
the people magnified them. 

14 And believers were the 
more added to the Lord, multi- 
tudes both of men and women.) 

15 Insomuch that they brought 
forth the sick into the streets, and 
laid the.m on beds and couches, 
that at the least the shadow of 
Peter passing by might over- 
shadow some of them. 

16 There came also a multi- 
tude out of the cities round about 
unto Jerusalem, bringing sick. 
folks, and them which were 
vexed with unclean spirits ; and 
they were healed every one. 

17 Then the high priest rose 
up, and all they that were with 
him, (which is the sect of the 
Sadducees,) and were filled with 

18 And laid their hands on 
the apostles, and put them in 
the common prison. 

19 But the angel of the Lord 
by night opened the prison doors, 
and brought them forth, and said, 

20 Go, stand and speak in the 


avTols, aAA' ifJL€yaXvv€v avrovs 
6 Aaoy [xaXXov 8e Trpoa-erL- 
OevTo TnarevovTes rm Kvpia, 
TrXrjdr] avdpav re Kal yvuaiKcow 
^^ aiare Kara ras irXaTeias iK(jii- 
p€LV Tovs aaOevels, kou ridevaL 
eVt kXivcou kou Kpafi^aTCOv, Iva 
ip-)(op.ivov Herpov kccv rj crKia 
eyriaKiacrri tlvI avrav. ^^ crv- 
vr]p-)(€TO 8e Kcu TO irXijOos' rmv 
Tvipi^ TToXecov els 'lepovo-aXr/p,, 
(f)€povTes dadeveh kol 6)(Xov/u.e- 
vovs VTTo Trvevfjidrcov aKaddprcou, 
QLTLves edepairevovTo airavres. 

'AvacTTOLS 8e 6 dp-^iepevs 
Kat Traures ol aw avrcS, t] odaa 
atpeais twv SaSSovKalcou, iirXr}- 
a-drjcrav ^rjXov, ^^ koH iwifiaXov 
Tas '}(eLpoLs avTQ)V iirL tow diro- 
aToXovS) Kol kdevTO avTovs 4v 
TTjprja-eL drj/xoaia. ^^ ayyeXos 
Se Kvpiov dia ttjs vvktos ■^voi^e 
Tas 6vpas Trjs (pvXaKi]9, i^aya- 
yoiv re avTovs eiire, Jlopev- 
ecrde, /cat cTTadivTes XaXeiTe iv 


no man join himself to them, 
And believers were still more 14 
added 'to the Lord, multitudes 
of men and also of women), in- 15 
somuch that they brought 
forth their sick into the streets, 
and laid them on beds and 
couches, that at the least, the 
shadow of Peter, passing by, 
might overshadow some of 
them. And the multitude of 16 
the surrounding cities also 
came together into Jerusalem, 
bringing the sick and those 
harassed with unclean spirits, 
and they were every one 

But the High Priest aris- 17 
ing, and all who were with 
him (being the party of 
the 'Sadducees), were filled 
with zeal, and '■threw their 18 
hands upon the Apostles, and 
put them in public ''custo- 
dy. But an umgel of the Lord, 19 
under '"cover of the night, open- 
ed the jirison doors, and bring- 
ing them forth, said, "Go stand 20 
and speak in the temple to the 

unconverted dared not to associate themselves with them. 
The remainder, though an exact representation of -vcov Se Xoc- 
Tteov, seems to bo somewhat indefinite. The term, f.aos, peo- 
ple, immediately after, is its best exponent. None could look 
upon these wonder-working men without fear and reverence. 
The fate of Ananias and his wife is as a fearful caveat against 
hypocrisy. If every one "glorified God for that which was 
done" (ch. 4 : 21), in the case of the impotent man, why 
should not these keep back from presumptuous sin, from the 
spectacle before them in the case of Ananias and his wife ? 

I" EfisyaXvvBp avrove, magnified them. The Apostles, at this 
time, were greatly exalted in the esteem of the multitude, as, 
in the sequel, still further appears. 

As quassare is more than quatere, laxare than tangere, 
jactare than jacere, so vexare is more than vehere, yet not one 
of these, shaken, troubled, terrified, strangled, is so grievous as 
the feeling indicated in the text. According to Critica Sacra, "It 
is to be distracted hither and thither having no power of itself." 

' Toj xvQiqi. This verse is evidently parenthetic. — Believers 
not added in the Lord, as some would have it, but to the Lord. 
Its case depends on the verb. 

) " Sadducees." The reason of their activity in this case, is 
happily illustrative of our indebtedness to sectarianism, at 
least in one respect ; its eternal vigilance to guard proof texts 
against all violence. The Sadducees saw in Christ's resur- 
rection the refutation of their system; and therefore they 
violently seized the Apostles, because their preaching that 
doctrine was fatal to their distinguishing tenets. 

^ Em^alov. This verb indicates strong violence. Tlicy 
fiercely thresv their arras around them, or their hands upon 
them. Tq^rjaei, with us, custody. 

1 Ayyslog. Why an angel should here become some particular 
angel is destitute of authority. Had some angel been named 
in the context, there might have been some reason for the de- 
finite article. 

"> ^la, through the night, or under cover of the night. 
More seems to bo indicated than the escape by night — rather 
by means of the night — e^ayayoiv re avrove erne, bringing 
them out, said. 

" Jlo^eveaO'e, — arad'Bvres — go, and, standing in the Templo, 
speak. This form abounds in Luke's style. 




tenaple to the people all the 
words of this life. 

21 And when they heard that, 
they entered into the temple 
early in the morning, and taught. 
But the high priest came, and 
they that were with him, and 
called the council together, and 
all the senate of the children of 
Israel, and sent to the prison to 
have them brought. 

22 But when the officers came, 
and found them not in the prison, 
they returned, and told, 

23 Saying, The prison truly 
found we shut with all safety, 
and the keepers standing with- 
out before the doors : but when 
we had opened, we found no 
man within. 

24 Now when the high priest, 
and the captain of the temple, 
and the chief priests heard these 
things, they doubted of them 
whereunto tliis would grow. 

25 Then came one and told 
them, saying. Behold, the men 
whom ye put in prison are stand- 
ing in the temple, and teaching 
the people. 

26 Then went the captain with 
the officers, and brought them 
without violence : for they feared 
the people, lest they should have 
been stoned. 


rep lepco T(S Xaw iravra to, pi^/xara 
Trj9 Cfi}r]9 TUVTTjs. AKOvaav- 

T€9 5e elcrrjXOov vtto tov opOpov 
ils TO lepou, Kol iSiSaCTKOU. 
Trapayevojxevos 8e 6 ap-^tepevs 
Kol ol aw avTcp, crvveKaXecrav 
TO crviieSpiou /cat iracrav ttjv ye- 
povcrlav tojv vlcou 'IcrparjX, kol 
airea-TeiXav els to Sea-fxcori^piov, 
a-^Orjvai avTOvs. ^^ ol 8e virrjpi- 
Tac irapayevoixevoL ov^ evpou av- 
Tovs iv TYj (j)vXaKfj' dvacrTp€\f/av- 
rey 8e airy]yyuXav, "^^ XiyovT€s, 
0TL TO fJLeu 8eo-p.coTr]pLov evpoiJ.ei> 
KeKXeiarfxevov iv Traarj da(j)aX€la, 
KOL Tovs (pvXaKas e^co eaTWTas' 
irpo TOiv QvpSiv dvoi^avTes Se, 
ea-co ovSeva evpo/xev. ^^ '/!?$• 5e 
r^Kovarav tovs Xoyovs tovtovs o 
re lepevs /cat 6 aTpaTrjyos tov 
lepov KCCL ol dp')(L€p€Ls, diTjTropovv 
TrepL avTwv, tl av yevoLTO tovto. 
" irapayevofxevos 8e rty dir^yyet- 
Xev avTois Xeycov, ' Oti l8ov oi 
dv8pes ovs edecrde iu ttj ^vXaKrj, 
elcrlu ev tw lepcS ecrTcoTes kol 8l- 
8d(rK0VTes tov Xaov. ^^ ToTe 
aireXdwv aTpaT'qyos (tvv toTs 
V7rr]peTais, rjyayev avrovs, ovp-eTa 
fitas, i(f)o^ovi'TO yap tov Xaov, 
'iva fxr] XtdacrdSxTLv. dyayov- 


people, all the words of this 

And when they heard that, 21 
they entered into the temple 
-early in the morning, and were 
teaching. But the High Priest 
came, and those that were with 
him, and called the council 
together, and all the senate of 
the children of Israel, and 
sent into the prison to have 
them brought. 

But when the officers came 22 
and found them not in the 
prison, they returned and re- 
ported, saying: The prison in- 23 
deed we found pshut with all 
psecurity, and the guards, 
standing before the entrances; 
but on opening, we found not 
one within. 'Now when the 24 
High Priest, and the Captain 
of the temple, and the chief 
Priests, heard these words, 
they were in perplexity about 
them, what this might come to 
be. But ■■one came and report- 25 
ed, saying, Behold, those whom 
you placed in the prison are 
standing in the temple and 
teaching the people. Then, 26 
the Captain went, with the of- 
ficers, and brought them with- 
out force (for they feared the 
people), that they "might not 
be stoned. 

° 'Tno tov o^d-Qov. Literally, under the dawn of day. Oq- 
d-Qos occurs but three times in tlie N. Test., and always 
represented by ■' early in (lie morning." Its use amongst the 
Greeks was equivalent to our " daton of day," usually called 
" the hreah of day." 

P KexXeiafiEvov, being the ace. sing. neut. perfect pass., indi- 
cates in all aaipa),sia, security, or firmness of defense, im- 
pregnable. 'On, in this verse, is a pleonasm, because reciting 
the words of others. This is not unusual with Luke. And 
the guards standing (rather, being perfect participle, it is 
tantamount to our having been placed). E^ca, outside, is 
omitted by Gb., Sch., Ln. and Tf. Tcov &vqcov, the entrances 
—doors, too specific. 

1 Now COS, as the High Priest &c. — These words, rovg Xoyovs 
Tovrovg. MirjnoQovv, imp. were being perplexed = in perplexi- 
ty ; nsQi avrcov, about them — " to what this might amount." 

■■ ^e, but, in this perplexity ; iig, a certain one ; na^a- 
yevofiBvoe, having come (aor. part.) ; reported, aTtrjyyeiXev, 
'Ore, pleonastically used ; cvg eO'Ea&s, those wliom you placed 
in 111 fvXaxij, the prison ; SoTcoreg, perf. part., having taken a 
stand =are standing; SiSaaxovrsg tov Xaov, and teaching 
the people. 

■ The English translation, as well observed by Prof. 
Hack., here assumes an impossible connection, as, after verbs 
of fearing, fir;, urjnms and the like do follow, but never 
\va itij. 




27 And when they had brought 
them, they set them before the 
council : andtheliigh priest asked 

28 Saying, Did not we straitly 
command you, that ye should 
not teach in this name ? and 
behold, ye have filled Jerusalem 
with your doctrine, and intend 
to bring this man's blood upon 

29 Then Peter and the other 
apostles answered and said. We 
ought to obey God rather than 

30 The God of our fathers 
raised up Jesus, whom ye slew 
and hanged on a tree : 

31 Him hath God exalted with 
his right hand to be a Prince and 
a Saviour, for to give repentance 
to Israel, and forgiveness of sins. I 


rey 5e avTovs ecTTTjcrau iu rw av- 
feSpLco- Koi eTrrjpcoTrjo-ev avTOvs 
6 dpxt-^p^vs, ^^ Xiywv, Ov ira- 
payyeXia TraprjYye'ikapi.ev Vfuv fxrj 
BiSacTKeiv iirt tS bvop-ari tovtco; 
KoiX l8ov irerrXr^pwKare rrjv '/e- 
povaaX'qiJL Trfs 8i8a^T]9 vfxau, koi 
fiovXecrOe hvayayeiv i(j)' -^p-ds 
TO cdpa Tov dvOpairov tovtov. 
^^ ' A-TroKpiOiis 8e 6 Herpos kcu 
ol dirocTToXoL sIttov, Ueidap^elu 
8eL OeS jxaXXov rj di/dpcoiroi^. 
^^ 6 Oeos Tcov irarepcov rjpCov 
rjyeipeu 'Irjcrovu, ov vp-ets 8Le)(eL- 
picracrde Kpepdcravres iin ^vXov 
^^ TOVTOV 6 0€O9 dp-)(r]yov koL 
crcoTrjpa vyj/cocre Trj 8e^i5. avTOv, 
8ovvai peTuvoiav tco IcrparjX Kcd 

" L ' " 32 *■ ' " 

a(pe(nv apapTLWv. Kai 77/xet? 


And 'having led them away, 27 
they placed them in the 
council : and the High Priest 
asked them; — Did we not 28 
strictly command you not to 
teach "upon this name? and, 
behold, you have filled up 
Jerusalem with your doctrine, 
and are intending to bring the 
blood of this man upon us. 

But Peter and the Apostles 29 
answering, said. We ought to 
obey God rather than men. 
The God of our fathers has rais- 30 
ed up Jesus, whom you slew, 
having hanged him on a tree. 
This person has God exalted 31 
to his right hand, a 'Prince and 
a Saviour, "to grant repentance 
to Israel, and forgiveness of 

' Ayayovres, having led them aioay, i. o. from the Temple ; 
Eorrjaav, tlicy caused them to stand, they placed them. 

" See v. 17, ch. 4. — This strict charge, on the part of the 
council, shows how much they dreaded the name of Jesus 
Christ. To speak ^ipon it, or to speak hy it, was to them 
" terrible as au army with banners." — They, therefore, pro- 
hibited a word upon that subject — from this view of the whole 
case, or premises, we concur with those who prefer upon, to in 
or hy. Besides em com. ver, is rendered some 150 times by 

' This verse is grammatically and logically in apposition. 
Irjoovv rovrov, AQyrjyov, Sioti^Qa, — Iijoovv under the regimen 
of riyeiQav, and rovrov Aoy/jyov Xmrrjqa under that of vyjoiae, 
and in apposition with Iijaovv, as we must regard it. Wo 
then render it — " Tliis Prince and Saviour God has exalted to 
his right hand to grant reformation," or " the benefit of reform- 
ation to Israel, even the remission of sins." Eemission of sins 
is always, and in all cases, an act of Sovereignty, of pure 
grace. Hence it is not, in any case, ex merito, based upon any 
thought, volition,- word, or deed of any sinner in the universe. 
Grace and merit are as incompatible as light and darkness, 
as good and evil. If of grace, it cannot be of works, of any 
work. If of works, or of any work, it cannot be of grace. 
Otherwise, grace and work cease to be of any difference. It is 
an act of grace, and all grace is sovereign. There is not, nor can 
there be, any grace that is not an act of absolute sovereignty. 
So the oracles of God, and so the oracles of man, of enlightened 
and cultivated reason, have always decided. This view of the 

subject is not, at the bar of right reason, incompatible with 
making or propounding faith, repentance, baptism, or prayer, 
as means of receiving pardon. The beggar cannot thir.k that 
the extending of his arm, or hand, to receive alms, annihilates 
the nature of alms, or converts the receiving of them into a 
work of merit. No more can common sense, unperverted by 
false views, imagine that pardon, based on any principle of 
faith, repentance, prayer, or baptism &c., annihilates the 
nature, or entrenches upon the charar.ler, of grace, even if 
crowded with the absurd prefixes of free, sovereign, and 
special ; not one of which is found in Holy Writ. 

By a special reference to Acts 11:18; Luke 1 : 74 ; Acts 
14 : 3 ; Bom. 15 : 5 ; Eph. 3 : IG ; 2 Tim. 2:18; Eev. 3 : 21 
&c., com. ver., it will appear that dtScoftac is occasionally rep- 
resented in Luke, Paul and John, by the words grant, bestow, 
and to give, give gratuitously, &c. 

De Wette understands giving or granting repentance, in the 
sense of giving time or space for it. This may,.in some cases, 
be equivalent to granting it, but to confine it to this view 
would stultify, or annihilate it, as properly a gift. 

w 1(^0 grant repentance." Tiiis indicates the benefit of 
repentance — the forgiveness of sins. Legally we do not grant 
to the lawless and disobedient, any benefit to repentance. God 
mercifully grants repentance, pardon and acceptance. Hence 
promises the most precious are annexed to faith and repent- 
ance. In Hebrew style, God grants repentance to life, b> 
granting pardon and acceptance, through the sacrifice of tho 
Lord Jesus, received by faith. 




32 And we are his witnesses 
of these things ; and so is also 
the Holy Grhost, whom Grod hath 
given to them that obey him. 

33 When they heard that, they 
were cut to the heart, and took 
counsel to slay them. 

84 Then stood there up one 
in the council, a Pharisee, named 
Gamaliel, a doctor of the law, 
had in reputation among all the 
people, and commanded to put 
the apostles forth a little space ; 

85 And said unto them. Ye 
men of Israel, take heed to your- 
selves what ye intend to do as 
touching these men : 

86 For before these days rose 
up Theudas, boasting himself to 
be somebody ; to whom a num- 
ber of men, about four hundred, 
joined themselves : who was 


icTfjLeu avTOv fxapTvpes rS)v pruia- 
Tav TOVTCov, Kcu TO HvevfjLa 8e 
TO Aytov, b e8coK€V 6 Oeos roty 

W€L6ap-^0V(TLV avT<^. 

'^^ 01 8e aKovcravTes SieTrpl- 
ovTO, KCU ifiovXevovTO dueXeLU 
avTovs. avacTTas oe tls eu tw 
(Tvvedpido ^apicraLO^, ouo/xaTC Ta- 
[j.a\irjX, I'o/jLodLdacrKaXos t'lixlos 
iravTL TCp Xam, iKeXevcrev e^co 
fipax^ " Tovs airocTToXovs ttoltj- 
crai, ^'^ elire re Trpos avTOVs, 
' AvSpes lo-parjXiTat, 7rpo(re-^6Te 
iavTOLs eVi roty avOpwirot? tov- 
TOLS tc fieXXcTe irpdcraeLV. irpo 
yap TovTcov t&v rjixepcov dvearrj 
0ev8ds, Xi-ycov eivai Tiva iavTOV, 
cp irpocreKoXXrjOri dpidjxos du8pa)U 
aaei T€TpaKOcricov by dvypidrj. 


sins. And we are his wit- 32 
nesses of these tilings ; and 
so is also the 'Holy Spirit, 
whom God hiis given to those 
who obey him. »Now tliose o'i 
hearing, were exasperated, 
and they were making up 
their mind to slay them. 
But a certain one, arising in 3t 
the Sanhedrim, a Pharisee, 
Gamaliel by name, a teacher 
of law, 'honored by all the 
people, commanded to put 
the Apostles out, for a little 
while, and said to them, 
"Israelites take heed to your- 35 
selves, what you ''execute 
upon these men. For be- 35 
fore these days Theudas arose, 
declaring himself to be some- 
body, to whom a number of 
men, about four hundred, 'at- 
tached themselves ; who was 

Jovvai fieravoiav, i. c. — " the grace or disposition to exercise 
it." Compare 3 : IG ; 18 : 27, John 16 : 7, 8. Hackett, De 
Wette, and others give this doctrinal view of it. When the 
Lord grants Iiealth or wealth &c., does ho only grant the dis- 
jmsilio7i to acquire it? He grants the blessing at once ; but it 
may be through mea7is. But to Judas, he gave not repentance 
— though he did repent. But God gave no benefit to his repent- 
ance. Does not the piirase, or formula, indicate, that ho 
gave them the avails or benefit of it? — namely pardon. Per- 
haps it is safer to say he gives both. 

* Kai TO npsv/ca Se to 'Ayiov. — Mb is, in this case, oxegetical 
as is evident from its position between nvsv/ta and ^yiov, 
the Spirit, viz. the Holy one ■which God has given to them 
that obey him; 6 (neuter), which, sSmy.ev (aorist), God gave 
to those, TCBiOaQ'/fivaw avrtj). This preserves the idiom. 

y 01 Ss ay.ovaavTee, noio those hearing; Sten^iovro (lit- 
erally), tvere being sawn through. This expression, in this 
passive form, indicated not what they were doing, nor feeling, 
but the dealh blows the Apostles were inflicting on them as 
opposers of the truth. 

£/3ovXevovzo, and they were mahing up their minds. It 
seems to have been the object of this historian to express 
not what was done, but what was being done. There was 
much time occupied by these events, and much continuity in 
all their affairs. The confinuatiue force of the Greek imp. is 
beautifully exhibited in this narrative, all of which is entirely 
lost in the com. ver. 

Avcletv avrove, to put them aside. The Greek and English 
ariB idiomatically the same here. In both the phrase is under- 

stood in the sense of to Icill, but to put them aside is more 
literal, and therefore to be preferred. 

' Tliis gives the genuine meaning of zuuog. 

» AvdQcg laqa-qUxai, — Israelites, is more forcible, as well as 
more in our usage, than men of Israel. — They stand in appo- 
sition. In such cases the common yields to the special and 
not the special to the common. Hence not 7nen, nor men oj 
Israel, but Is^raclitcs. 

"Men of Israel" is more literal than Israelites; so is 
"men, brethren, and fathers," than "brethren and fathers," 
as we give it. This is measurably a matter of taste, and also 
of grammar. — Grammatically they stand in apposition, and 
not in regimen. Man, in our vernacular, is absorbed in all 
nationalities; because Virginians are mere of Virginia, men 
of Israel are also Israelites. Being in one case in the original, 
we should, as far as idiom permits, place them in one case in 
our version. But the title Israelites is equal to men of Israel, 
and more in harmony with the spirit and feeling of the orator, 
especially when animated. 

■■ IT(jaaaetv sitt, to execute upon; more familiarly and 
literally expressed by to do upon them. But to do officially, 
in legal usage, is to execute. 

' But if Tt^oaxXivco bo preferred, as the true reading, of 
which, to me, the evidence is not satisfactory ; then it would 
indicate only an inclination to him rather than an adhesion. 
There being nothing of real consequence in the matter, in 
either view of it, we are disposed to leave it sub judice. 




slain ; and all, as many as obey- 
ed him, were scattered, and 
brought to nought. 

37 After this man rose up Ju- 
das of Galilee, in the days of the 
taxing, and drew away much 
people after him : he also perish- 
ed ; and all, even as many as 
obeyed him, were dispersed. 

38 And now I say unto you. 
Refrain from these men, and let 
them alone : for if this counsel 
or this work be of men, it will 
come to nought : 

39 But if it be of God, ye 
cannot overthrow it ; lest haply 
ye be found even to fight against 

40 And to him they agreed : 
and when they had called the 
apostles, and beaten them, they 
commanded that they should not 
speak in the name of Jesus, and 
let them go. 

41 And they departed from 
the presence of the council, re- 
joicing that they were counted 
worthy to suiFer shame for his 

42 And daily in the temple, 
and in every house, they ceased 
not to teach and preach Jesus 


/cat TravTes ocrot iwudovTco avTw, 
8ie\vdr}crav kcu iyeuouTo els ov- 
8iv. fxera, tovtov auearr) 

'lovSas 6 raXiXalos, iv rals "rjiii- 
paLS TTjs diroypacprjs, Kol anve- 
(TT7](re Xaov Ikuvou oiricrco avTov' 
KOLKelvos dircoXeTO, Kol Traures 
ocroL eTreidovTO avrS SiecrKopTTLo-- 
drjaav. ^^ /cat to, vvv Xeyco 
vfxlu, dTToa-TTjTe diro twv dvOpa- 
TTCOV) TovrcoVf /cat eacrare avrovs' 
oTt idv rj i^ dvdpcoTTCov rj /SovXrj 
avTf] 7] TO k'pyov tovto, KaraXv- 
6-q(T€TaL' ^^ el 5e e/c Oeov iaTtv, 
ov dwaaOe KaraXvcrat avro, fxr]- 
TTore /cat deofj.a)(ot, evpe^ijre. 
*" ' EireicrBTjaav 8e avrw' kcu 
TrpoaKaXecrdfxeuoL tovs diroaro- 
Xovs, 8e[pavTes iraprjyyeiXav fir] 
XaXelv eVt tcS ovofxarc tov 'Jt]- 
croO, /cat direXvaav avrovs. 01 
fM€v ovv iiropevovTo ■)(a.lpopTes 
diro TrpocrcoTTOV tov crvveSpiov, 
OTL vwep tov ovofxaTos avTOv Ka- 
TT]^ia)0i]arai>dTip.acr6T]Par ird- 
aav re ■^[j.epav Iv rw lepcS /cat 
/car oIkov ovk eravouro 8i8acrKOv- 
T6S /cat €vayyeXL^op.evQL 'Irj<rovi> 
TOV XpiaTov. 


slain; and all, as many as 
obeyed him, were scattered 
and brought to nothing. 

After this man, "^ Judas the 37 
Galilean rose up, in the days 
of the 'enrollment, and drew 
away sufficient people after 
him : and he utterly destroyed 
himself; and all, as many 
as were obedient to him, 
were dispersed. And now I 38 
say to you, "Withdraw from 
these men and let them alone ; 
for if this purpose, or this 
work be of men, it will be de- 
stroyed; butifitbeof God,you 
are not 'able to destroy it, and 
^lest, perhaps, you be found 39 
to fight against God. And they 40 
were persuaded by him ; and 
having called the Apostles, 
and ''scourged them, they 
commanded that they should 
not speak "upon the name of 
Jesus, and released them. So 41 
they departed from the pre- 
sence of the council, rejoicing 
that they were esteemed wor- 
thy to be dishonored for ' his 
name. And they did not 42 
cease teaching every day, in 
the temple, and in every house, 
and 'proclaiming Jesus the 

•i Judas the Galilean rose up in the days of the enroll- 
ment, Xaov ty.avov. I think that>ov should he taken in its 
primitive sense; sufficient, or enough, Xaot no)lot, is many 
people. He drew away sufBcicnt people after him — y.aaeivos, 
by crasis, for xat bxeivos, and he arccolero, aor. mid. utterly 
destroyed himself, and all, as many as persuaded themselves 
to him srtet&ovro (aor. mid.) nuTiji (dat.) were dispersed, is 
here in the passive form of Sisono^. I think the mid. and 
pass, forms used by this historian should be preserved. 

• Others have it, "In the days of the registration" — having 
reference to the levying of the tax, ev tats jjfie^atg aitoy^arprje, 
Boothroyd, "Wakefield, Hackett, Penn. 

»" "VVe presume the dual ra v. 38 refers to these two directions 
--^Refrain from these men. Let them alone," equal to "I say 
these two things to you " — " withdraw from these men," and 
" let them alone." Ka).aXvd't]aerai, future ind. pass, of xara- 

Ivo), to loosen down. " It will be dissolved or destroyed ; " 
or "It will come to nothing," is too far from the passive 
form, and withal a little too strong in its signification. It is 
rendered destroy and dissolve in the com. ver., but in this 
place only "come to nought.'''' 

' Ov Svvaad'e xaralvaat, you are not able to destroy it. 
This enables us to retain the infinitive form of y.aiahxo. 

^ The transposition of "lest perhaps" is sanctioned by 
De Wette and others. It is, however, a matter of taste. 

^ Literally, "having scourged them." Equivalent in our 
English idiom, to " had scourged them," which is more usual. 
zleqco, excorio. 

' Avxov is repudiated from the text by the best Manu- 
scripts. Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. 

1 The difference between 'preaching and teaching Jesus 




And in those days, when the 
number of the disciples was 
multiplied, there arose a mur- 
muring of the Grecians against 
the Hebrews, because their wi- 
dows were neglected in the daily 

2 Then the twelve called the 


J^N Be Tois rjixipats ravrais 
TrXrjOvvovTOiv t&v fxadrjrau, eye- 
v€TO yoyyvcTfxof rmu "^EXXrjVL- 
(TTcHi' irpos Tovs 'JSfipalovs, otl 
TrapedewpovvTO iv rfj BiaKOvla 
rfj KaOrjjxepLvrj at XVP^^ avraiu, 
7rpo(rKaXea-a.p.evot 8e ol ScodeKa 


•■Now, in those days, the 
number of the disciples be- 
ing 'multiplied, a murmuring 
of the "Hellenists against the 
"Hebrews occurred, because 
their own widows were "neg- 
lected in the daily ""ministra- 
tion. Then the Twelve, having 

Christ, is very distinctly specified in this passage — ^It, in fact, 
pervades the narratives of the propagation of Christianity. 
The ntj^v^ is but a lierald, and his worlc is to herald, to an- 
nounce, proclaim, or preach: but the SiSaay.alos, from StSaay.u), 
teaches. He simply addresses tlie underslanding didactically. 
lie may explain, or expound, or interpret a doctrine, or even 
a fact, or an event. But here his work ceases. But the 
preacher proclaims a person, or facts, or events, of public im- 
portance, and may herald his advent, and announce his mission. 
The Apostolic preaching had Jesus for its subject, and the 
Apostoiic teaching had Christ for its B\ibject. They preached 
Jesus as the Christ, and they taught Christ as the most grand 
and Divine official in the universe. 

^ ^e is here merely continuative and connective, not re- 
sumptive nor adversative. Either and, or now may, in this 
position, represent its full force. Noio, in the beginning of a 
paragraph, is generally preferred, but, where intimate connec- 
tion is indicated, and, for the most part, is to be preferred. 
Such is the case before us, in one point of view, but in an- 
other it may be regarded as the opening of a new scene, not 
logically related to the facts stated in the preceding narrative, 
and, therefoi-e, we prefer now. 

1 nl.rjO'vvovTcov. W/ijO'vva), found twelve times in N. T., is. 
with one exception, always translated by the word multiply, 
as more expressive of its import than our word increase. 
■With only two exceptions, itlrjO-oe occurring thirty-two times 
in our com. ver. is rendered muUilude. And what is the fact 
here ? In a few days the disciples increased from 120 to 3120, 
in a few days more, to 5000. Acts 4 : 4, and 21 : 20. There 
were "many myriads of the Jews" that believed. 

" Not Greeks, 'E).).7]vsg, — Hellenists. The " Greek Jews 
against the Hebrew Jews." 

" n^os TOWS 'E^Quiovs, against the Hebrews. While n^og 
occurs some 750 times in the N. T., and is commonly ren- 
dered to, and unto, it is occasionally, necessarily rendered 
against, as well as among, because in appearing in certain 
attitudes, and in certain crises, or places, we appear for, or 
against certain purposes, persons, or undertakings. Jesus 
once spoke a parable — tiqos rove yem^yovs — in reference to 

certain husbandmen, and to their proper representatives, but 
in most English versions it is rendered '■^against them." See 
also Acts 0:1; 9:5; Mark 12 : 12. He spoke a parable 
" against them," com. ver., yet he spoke it to them. " Dash 
thy foot against a stone," n^os lidov, Luke 4 : 11. " Murmured 
against his disciples," Luke 5 : 30. " Kick against the goads," 
n^os xsvTQa, Acts 9 : 5. 

° 'On naQB&£ci)Qovvro. Literally, looked at askance, implied- 
ly with some degree of neglect. Widows were not universally 
neglected, but avrmv, of themselves, i. e. their own widows. 
Ha^a&Eco^ovvTo, used to be " less regarded." This view is 
intimated in the radical conception of the verb na^ad'BcoQsco — 
" to look at things side by side," hence comparatively to 
regard less. See Xen. Memorabilia 4, 87. Dem. 1414, 22. Dio- 
dorus Sic. Sect. 30. p. 218. In the N. T. this is an ana^ 

I" Ev Tn 8i.ay.ovia. Some prefer administration in this 
place. Ministration, Dodd., T3'ndal ; Cranmer, distribution ; 
Thompson, ministration or administration, ^taxovia de- 
notes all voluntary ministrations, from the humblest to the 
most august, from that of a church deacon to that of an 
apostle, even to that of the Lord Jesus Christ. Koman 
magistrates, the apostles, and the Lord himself are, in the 
N. T., represented under the word Seaxovoi, "ministers of 
God." Sister Phoebe was a Staxovog, a deaconess (com. gen.), 
or servant of the Church of Cenchrea, Rom. IG : 1. By the 
same apostle and in the same epistle ch. 15 : 8, Jesus Christ 
is called a Siay.ovog, a deacon or "minister of the circum- 

We have our ministers of state, ordinary and extraordinary. 
So has God. He made his Son, his angels, his prophets, 
priests, and kings, his diay.ovot, his deacons in the drama of 
Creation, Providence, moral government, and redemption. 

It is of Rome, and her descendants, and especially of the 
Greeks, and not of Jesus Christ, to name one class of ecclesi- 
astics deacons, to the exclusion of all others. It should also 
be noted of Siaxovos and SovXog, that diaxovia and dovXeiat 
arc never convertible terms. The same person may, indeed, 
be a SovloB and a Stay.ovoe, but the relation, or attitude, is not 
thereby changed. 




multitude of the disciples u7ito 
them, and said, It is not reason 
that we should leave the word 
of God, and serve tables. 

3 Wherefore, brethren, look 
ye out among you seven men of 
honest report, full of the Holy 
Ghost and wisdom, whom we 
may appoint over this business. 

4 But we will give ourselves 
continually to prayer, and to the 
ministry of the word. 

5 And the saying pleased the 
whole multitude : and they chose 
Stephen, a man full of faith and 
of the Holy Ghost, and Philip, 
and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and 
Timon, and Parmenas, and Ni- 
colas a proselyte of Antioch, 

6 Whom they set before the 
apostles : and when they had 
prayed, they laid their hands on 


TO TrXrjOos T&v ixadrjTOiv, elirov, 
OvK apearov icmv -qfJLcis, Kura- 
X^v^avras tov Xoyov tov Oeov, 
SiaKOueiu rpaire^aLS. ^ eVtcr/ce'- 
yj/acrde odu, a8eX(f)oi, av8pas i^ 
vjxaiv [xapTvpovfiivovs eirra, irXrj- 
pus JIveufxaTOs Aytov kcu cro- 
(j)Las, ovs KaTaarTrja-ojJieu iirl rrjs 
Xpelas TavTrjs' rnxels 8e rfj 

7rpo(rev)(rj kcu rfj BiaKOpla tov 
Xoyov Trpoa-KapTeprjcrofiev. Kai 
rjpecrev 6 Xoyos ivcoTriov TravTos 
TOV irXrjOovs' kcu i^eXe^ai^TO 
^Tefpavov, auSpa TrXi^pt] wla-Tecos 
Koi Uvev/xaTOS' 'Aylov, /cat ^i- 
Xnnrou, kcu JJpoyppov Kol Ni- 
Kavopa, Kou Tipiava Kal-IIapp.e- 
vav, KOL NiKoXaov 7rpoar]XvTov 
'AvTiO)(ea, ** ovs eaTrja-av lv<x>- 


ev^dp.euot eTredrjKav avTols Tas 


"called the multitude of the 
disciples to them, said : ■'Ee- 
linquishing the word of God to 
serve tables is not pleasing to 
us. Wherefore, brethren, look 
out among you seven men "of 
attested character, full of the 
Holy 'Spirit and of wisdom, 
whom we may appoint over this 
"business ; but we will give our- 
selves 'wholly to prayer, and to 
the ministry of the word. And 
the speech was pleasing in the 
mind of all the people ; and 
they chose Stephen, a man full 
of faith and of the Holy 'Spirit, 
and Philip, and Prochorus, and 
Nicanor, and Timon, and Par- 
menas, and Nicholas, a prose- 
lyte of Antioch : whom they 
presented before the Apostles ; 
and, ™praying,they ""laid their 

1 IlQoay.aleau/ievoi (1st aor. part. mid. of nQoay.a).eo/iai, 
advoco), having called. 

■■ Text — Relinquishing the word of God to serve tables is 
not pleasing to us, is in sti'ict conformity to the Greek con- 
struction of the text as we judge, and better comports with 
the occasion and the feelings of the Apostles than any version 
of it we have seen, and has this preeminence that it im- 
pinges not in the least upon the grammatical construction 
and import of every word in the text. It is true it might be 
more literally read, Having relinquished the word of God, &c. 
But this evaporates the spirit of the response, and in the con- 
struction of the 1st aorist participle is not absolutely de- 

• MaQTviiovftEvove, attested character, "good fame," Wic- 
lif ; " good testimony," Murd. ; '•' of reputation," Thompson. 

' nlrj^ais ■Ttvevfiaroe. Literally, "fidl of Holy Spirit," though 
there is no article in the original, yet v/e prefer to retain the usual 
form, " The Holy Spirit." It may be questionable, indeed, whether 
Buch a possession of the Holy Spirit as was given to the apostles, and 
by which they were enabled to work miracles, etc., was a special pre- 
requisite, in the case of these seven, more than in other members of 
the chiirch. That they wore to possess the influence and personal 
abiding of the Spirit of God ; such a possession of the Holy Spirit 
manifested in such demonstrations of its sanctifying power, as to 
qualify them for a fiiithful discharge of their special duties, was all 1 

important to their office, and, therefore, in all similar cases, it 
should still be made an indispensable prerequisite. 

" Em rtjs ;f(>fi«ag ravTijs, over this business, over this ne- 
cessity. The latter is more in accordance with scriptural 
usage. It was, however, an employment, and they were to 
make it a calling, a business. It was a necessary employment, 
and being an employment it interfered with the Apostles' 
proper business; and viewed in this contextual light it falls 
under the character of a business, and is a worJc as much as 
was the special work lying upon the Apostles. 

" JI^oanaQTs^eco, generally rendered by continue. It im- 
plies earnestness, urgency, a continued steadfastness, " instant 
in prayer." To persevere with strength, Critica Sacra. 

"■ nQoaev^afiBvoi eTCe&tjxav avrois rag x^t^as. This specially 
refers to the Apostles, while praying for these seven deacons 
elect, they placing their hands upon them solemnly set them 
apart to the work to which they had previously been elected 
by this great congregation. In pursuance of this solemnity, 
and the undivided attention of the Apostles to the preaching 
of the gospel, we are informed that the word of the Lord 
Tjv^ave (increased) in its influence and power, insomuch that 
even of the priests a great multitude became obedient to the 

WW «xhey laid their hands upon them."— This Apostolic 
usage, in appointing to office, was indicative of the devotion 




7 And the word of God in- 
creased ; and the number of the 
disciples multiplied in Jerusalem 
greatly; and a great company 
of the priests were obedient to 
the faith. 

8 And Stephen, full of faith 
and power, did great wonders 
and miracles among the jjeople. 

9 Then there arose certain of 
the synagogue, which is called 
the synagogue of the Libertines, 
and Cyreuians, and Alexandrians, 
and of them of Cilicia, and of 
Asia, disputing with Stephen. 

10 And they were not able to 
resist the wisdom and the spirit 
by which he spake. 

11 Then they suborned men, 


)(€ipa9. Kcu 6 Aoyoy tov Oeou 
T]v^ai>e, Koi iirXrjOvveTO o apiOixos 
Totv fjLadrjTMV iu 'lepova-aXy/j. 
cr(j)o8pa, TToAuy re o)(Xo9 tcov 
lepecou inrrjKovou rfj TriaTeL. 

s STE^ANOE 8k wX^prj^ 
TTLCTTecos KaL 8vi>a/j.€co^ iwoiei re- 
para KCU (TTj/xeia fieyaXa iu rcS 
Xaa, avecrrrja-av 8e rives rcov 
€K rrjs cnji/aycoy^? ttj? XeyofievTjs 
Aifieprlucou, Kal Kvprjvaicov koX 
^ AXe^av8pecov, Kal rS>v anro KtXi- 
Kias Kal 'Aa-las, av^rjrovvres rcS 
Sre(f)dvco' ^^ kcu, ovk '[a")(yov dv- 
riarr^uat rfj cro^ia Kal ra TTJ'eu' 

/jiari a> eXdXet. ^^ rore vire^a- 
Xov av8pas Xiyovras, "On aKyj- 


hands upon them. And the 7 
word of Grod ''was increas- 
ing, and the number of the 
disciples in Jerusalem was be- 
ing greatly multiplied, and a 
^'great crowd of the priests 
'was becoming submissive to 
"the faith. And Stephen, full 8 
of faith and power, did great 
wonders and miracles among 
the people. 

"Then there arose certain of 9 
the Synagogue — of that com- 
posed of the freedmen — Cy- 
renians and Alexandrians, and 
of those from Cilicia, and of 
Asia, putting questions to Ste- 
phen ; and they were not able lo 
to resist the wisdom and the 
''spirit by which he spoke. 
And they 'privately jprocured u 

of the person to God — and to some specific sorvico — also 
accompanied witli pra3-er, indicating that, as the liands were 
laid upon him, God would impart to him llie grace and the 
spirit of that o.Tice. E^^teOr^xav avrots rne xet^as. 

^ Hv^ave, imperfect active, was increasing. This imperfect 
form of the verb happily illustrates a continued progressing 
influence upon the community, ivhich our indefinite past tense 
does not express. 

y Ho^.vs re o%).oi. This is a bold representation of a great 
crowd of the priests, and intimates a great excitement, a 
tumult, an uproar. 

» T^uy.ovm indicates a submissive hearing, especially in New 
Testament usage, l)ut with a dative in the imperfect it means 
were becoming submissive, and clearly indicates the progress 
of the reformation of the priests. 

»' '• The faith" — here indicative of the Evangelical system. 
Ty TtioTct. 

■ Then there arose certain persons of the Synagogue that is 
called Libertines, and Cyrenians, and Alexandrians, and of 
those from Cilicia and Asia, disputing with Stephen, and they 
were not able to resist the wisdom and the spirit by which ho 
spoke. This is an awkward sentence grammatically contem- 
plated, yet of easy interpretation. In his mind, he is about 
to say, " certain of the Libertines " {roiv h^sgnvcov), of the 
Freedmen, but in the act of writing this, he throws in as 
explanatory (ex rt^s awctycoyijs Ti/s leyofisprjs) out of the Syna- 
gogue, that being called ihe Liherlines. Still the sense is 
clear : — Then certain of the Synagogue, that being composed 
of freedmen, rtjs leyoftevrjs (part. pr. pass, of leyco), to lay, 
to arrange together, or, as we say of a discourse, to compose. 
The participle is also in the Gen. Putting' questions to 

Stephen is both better grammar and sense than disputing 
with Stephen, and is in harmony with the most radical mean- 
ing of avt,qreco, mutuo quesro, alterior discepto. Sec Critica 
Sacra on this passage under ov^r,Teto, ov^i/reiv, non solum 
significatum altero de re aliqua disquirere, Acts : 9, and 
9 : 29. Sed cliam rei alicujus novitate perculsum alterum 
interpellarc, Jlark 1 : 27, and 9:10. 

AtpeQTiviov, denotes a class of Freedmen, both Cyrenians 
and Alexandrians. Critics have much debated this namei 
each with seeming probability, but without much assurance. — 
These Freedmen, if we so call them, being Jews, had their 
own language at Jerusalem. Had these three been distinct 
classes, regular usage would have called for rmv, before each 
of them. Pierce contends that they were inhabitants of a 
city, or district of Lybia, called Libertina. Quito probable, 
(Boothroyd), could we find such a place. 

•> 'Si elaXet. This being the dative of the cause, or instru- 
ment, or we must assign this defense to the immediate inspira- 
tion of the Holy Spirit. Hence the impregnability of his 

" 'TitepaXov, they suborned. We have been at considerable 
pains in tracing, in Greek literature, sacred and profane, the 
current acceptation of to save these Jewish infidels 
from the imputation of bribery and murder. But it has been 
a fruitless effort. 'Tito^aV.m is to suhorn, to hire or employ 
men to falsify, to swear a man's life away for a paltry reward. 
Subjicio and suborno are its whole area. To suhorn is simply 
to put on a lie of any sort for a reward of any sort. It is 
found but this once in the Christian Scriptures. Stephen died 
for the truth through the falsehood and bribery of a corrupt 




which said, We have heard him 
speak blasphemous words against 
Moses, and against God. 

13 And they stirred up the 
people, and the elders, and the 
scribes, and came upon Am, and 
caught him, and brought him to 
the council, 

13 And set up false witnesses, 
which said. This man ceaseth 
not to speak blasphemous words 
against this holy place, and the 
law : 

14 For we have heard ban 
say, that this Jesus of. Nazareth 
shall destroy this place, and shall 
change the customs which Moses 
delivered us. 

15 And all that sat in the 
council, looking steadfastly on 
him, saw his face as it had been 
the face of an angel. 



Then said the high 
Are these things so "? 

2 And he said. Men, brethren, 
and fathers, hearken ; The God 


Koajxev avTOV Xa\ovuT09 prj/xara 
fiXd(r(f)i]fia els Ji£cocrr]U /cat tov 
Oeou. ^^ SweKLvrjcrav re tov 
Xaov Kot Toys' TrpecrfivTepovs koL 
Tovs ypa/x/xaTeis, koI eirtaTavTes 
avvrjpirao-av avTov, kou ■^yayou 
els TO (TweSpiop, ^^ ea-Trjcrdv re 
fxdpTVpas ylrevBeis XeyovTas, '0 
audpcoTTOs ovTos 01) TraveTai prjjxaTa 
l3Xacr(j)r]fxa XaXwv /cara tov tottov 


^"^ aKriKoajxev yap avTOv XeyovTos, 
' Otl 'Itjctovs 6 Na^copoLos ovtos 
KaraXvcret tov tottov tovtov, kou 
dXXd^eL TO, edr] a TvapeScoKev tjixlv 
Mcoijcrrjs. " Kou axeviaavTes 
els avTov airavTes ol KaOe^ofxevoL 
ev Tcp (TvueSpico, eiBov to irpo- 
acoTTOv avTOV cocret TrpocrcoTTOv 


JEiwe Se 6 dp-^Lepevs, El apa 
TavTa qvtcos e)(€i; ^ ' Be efjirj, 
' AvSpes d8eX(f)o'l /cat iraTepes, 


men who said. We have 
heard him speaking reviling 
words against Moses and 
against God. And they "ex- 12 
cited the people, and the 
elders, and the scribes, and 
came upon him, and seized, 
and brought him to the coun- 
cil, and set up false witnesses, 13 
saying, This man ceases not to 
speak •'words against this holy 
place, and the law : for 'we u 
have heard him saying, that 
this Jesus, the Nazarene, will 
destroy this place, and change 
the customs which Moses de- 
livered us. And all ^who sat in 15 
the council, looking steadfastly 
on him, saw his face, as if it 
had been the face of an angel. 


Then the ''High Priest said, l 
Are these things so? And he 2 
said, 'Brethren and fathers. 

'TjiEpakov, vitopall.ui, v. 13 ; subjicio, suppono, as well as 
suhorno. — To suborn — to procure privately, or by collusion — 
to procure by any indirect means. The connection here 
would indicate, not so much that they were foresworn, as pri- 
vately furnished with answers or instructions. 

"^ B).aa<f7}/ia, is of doubtful authority, and repudiated by 
Griesbach, Sch., Ln., and Tf. — The Vatican, Ephrem, Beza, and 
Alexandrian MSS., and the most ancient versions, know not 
the reading. 

B),aag>r]fia, in this place, which is a pleonastic supplement 
of a later age ! for IoImv ^r]fiaTa y.ara. as the first two manu- 
scripts read, and (njftaTa lalmv y.ara as the last two, express 
the sense of pXaotpri^ia, Granville Penn, Esq. London, 1837. 
This is, more than probably, a justifiable view of this read- 

" In this case, they stirred up the lyeople, is too gross. The 
people were commoved, or put into commotion : elders, priests, 
scribes, and people were commoved; and they seized and 
brought Stephen into the Sanhedrim. They caused false 
witnesses to stand up saying, in the most definite language. 
The man, this one, ovroe, does not restrain himself (indicative 

middle) }.tycov, saying, or from speaking, or from uttering 
slanders against tov ■xonov xov aytov tovtov, (most emphatic) 
this, the consecrated place, and the law. 

' For we liavo heard of him ; no, but we have heard him 
saying, that this Jesus the Nazarene will demolish, xaralvoei 
■tov Tonov TOVTOV, xai aXXa^et T« ed'r;, will change the customs 
which Moses na^sSwxsv, gave over, ijfttv, to us. 

^ And all these, xaO-e^ofccvoi, seating themselves in the 
Sanhedrim, aTsvtaavree, fixing their eyes upon him, saw his 
face, cuaet, used here in comparison, like the face of an angel. 

i" Then the High Priest said — Then the Chief Priest said. 
Some prefer the latter, some the former. '0 a^x'^^^^e never 
means the Chief Priest. We have Chief Priests some sixty 
or more times in com. ver., High Priest, some fifty times. In 
the singular number, o a^xte^evg always indicates the High 
Priest ; the plural, Chief Priests, never includes him. 

' There appear but two classes addressed here, not men, 
and brethren, and fathers. AvS^ee, qualifies both nouns, and 
therefore, being not a distinct class, we absorb it in brethren 
and fathers. With this concur Prof. Hack. " Brethren and 




of glory appeared unto our fa- 
ther Abraham when he was in 
Mesopotamia, before he dwelt in 

3 And said unto him, Get thee 
out of thy countiy, and from thy 
kindred, and come into the land 
which I shall shew thee. 

4 Then came he out of the 
land of the Chaldeans, and dwelt 
in Charran. And from thence, 
when his father was dead, he 
removed him into tliis land 
wherehi ye now dwell. 

5 And he gave him none in- 
heritance in it, no, not so muclt 
as to set his foot on : yet he 
promised that he would give it 
to him for a possession, and to 
his seed after him, Avhen as yd 
he had no child. 

6 And God spake on this wise. 
That his seed should sojourn in 
a strange land; and that they 


aKOvcrare. 6 Oeos rrjs So^rjs 
ax^Orj ra ■Trarpi rjfxiop 'Al3paa./x 
bvTL iu rrj MeaoiroTafXiq., irplv 
Tj, KaroLKYjcraL avrov iv Xappav, 
^ Koi dire wpos avrov , ' E^eXOe 
e/c rrjs yrjs <rov kou e/c rrjs (Tvy- 
yevelas crov, kcu 8evpo els yr]v 
7]v av croL Sei^co. Tore e^eA- 
dcov e'fc yrjs XaXBaioiv, KaTcoKrj- 
crev eV Xappav KaKeWev fxera 
TO airodaveiv tov waripa avrov, 
p,eTa)KLcreu avrov els rrjv yrjv 
ravrrjv els rjv vp-els vvv Karoi- 
icelre- "^ /cat ovk eScoKev avrco 
KXrjpovojXLav ev avr^, ov8e /SijfMa 
TTodos' KOU eirrjyyeiXaro avrco 
Sovvai els KaTaa"}(ecriv avrrjv, koI 
Tco (TTreppari avrov jxer avrov, 
OVK ovTos avrca reKvov. " eXa- 
Xrjcre 8e ovrcos 6 Oeos, ' On earat 
ro cnreppa avrov irapoiKov ev yfj 


hearken : The God of J'the glory 
appeared to our father Abra- 
ham, when he was in Meso- 
j)otamia, before he dwelt in 
i-Iiaran, and said to him, " Go 
forth out of your country, and 
from your kindred, and come 
into a country that I will 
show you." Then he came 
out of the 'land of the Chal- 
deans and dwelt in Haranj 
and thence, "after his father 
was dead, God caused him 
to remove into this land, in 
which you are now dwell- 
ing: but he did not "give 
him an inheritance in it, not 
even a foot breadth. Yet he 
promised that he would give 
it to him, for a possession, and 
to his seed after him, when, 
as yet, he had no child. Then 
God spoke thus to Mm: That 
his seed should be sojourners in 
a strange land, and that they 

Fathers," Booth. — Viri fratres et patres, Vulgate. So also the 
Italian, SpaiiLsh, and French. Biblia Sacra Polyglot. Dr. Leo ; 
also Adam Clark in loco. 

' TVie God of (rt]s SoSrjs) the glory. "We have ?/ paaileia, 
rj Svvafitg, xtu ■!/ So^a, in the Lord's prayer. In the Acts we 
have So^n four times, twice in this chapter, once tvilh, and once 
without, the article, v. 55. Again we have it eh. 12 : 23, eScoy.e 
Tijv So^nv Tit) 0eci>, and ch. 22 : II, utio rrjs So^rjg tov rpcoTog 
exswov. There is a specific glory indicated in some, of these 
cases, but not in all. In the case before us we see no special 
reason for the article, before glory, unless allusion be made to 
the call of Abraham out of Ur of the Ohaldees, where God first 
appeared to him, which glorious appearance gave to that place 
the name ov^, or ottr, contracted Ur, which in Chaldee means 
light. In Hebrew and Ohaldee "nx signifies light and fire. It 
is, therefore, highly probable that, as on other occasions. Bethel, 
Beersheba, Gershom, Eliezer, etc., commemorate Divine mani- 
festations and interpositions ; so Stephen here may allude to 
the special manifestations of Jehovah to the people of Abra- 
ham, and, therefore, prefixes the article, or those who inter- 
preted his speech did so allusively ; at all events, we should 
licre insert it as we find it in this significant scene. 

'O Qeos Trjs SoSrjg, literally, the God of the glory — liaa — 
the light, or the visible splendor, in which he appeared to the 
Fathers of Israel. The symbol of his presence. Bloomf., Do 
VT., (oyd-^, seen ly, or appeared to, Abraham. — Ev Xa^^ap, 

Charran, com. ver. Ilaran. From this place Abraham was 
called to the promised land. Stephen, by this allusion, seems 
to endeavor to subdue prejudices, by associations familiar and 
agreeable to his audience. 

In the same felicitous manner, v. 3, he emphasizes on his 
call, ey. rr]g yijs oov, and en Tijg ovyyevsiag aov, — forsake your 
country and your kindred— just what the martyr Stephen 
and his associates were virtually doing, in joining themselves 
to the Christian party. — Ex Ttjg yrjg, out of the country of their 
kindred ; etg yr^v, into a country. The power of the article 
and of the want of it is well exhibited here, out of the into a 

k Xa^^av, now the resort of wandering Arabs, is a monu- 
mental name. It was Haran, in Mesopotamia, monumental 
of the son of Terah, father of Abraham, Nahor, and Haran. 

1 Here there is no article before yi;. Yet we allow it be- 
cause this land is already defined and made definite. In this 
we differ from, and excel, the Greeks who had only one 

■" After, rather than when, his father was dead. Msra with 
Ace. jjosl, after. 

" Ovx sScoxev avTCff y.Xr}Qovoftiav ev avTjn, he gave him not 
an inheritance in it, ovds ^ijfia TtoSog, not oven afoot breadth. 
How precisely the sense is here given by the absence of the 




should bring them into bondage, 
and entreat them evil four hun- 
dred years. 

7 And the nation to whom 
they shall be in bondage will I 
judge, said Grod : and after that 
shall they come forth, and serve 
me in this place. 

S And he gave him the cove- 
nant of circumcision. And so 
Ahraham begat Isaac, and cir- 
cumcised him the eighth day ; 
and Isaac hegat Jacob, and Jacob 
begat the twelve patriarchs. 

9 And the patriarchs, moved 
with envy, sold Joseph into 
Egypt : but Grod was with him, 

10 And delivered him out of 
all his afflictions, and gave him 


dXXoTpla.) Kcu SovXcacTOVCTLU avro 
Koi KaKcocrova-tv, err] reTpaKocria. 
'^ Kol TO ^dvos, 03 lav SovXev- 
arcocri, Kpiuco eyca, eiireu 6 Oeos' 
/cat /xeTO, ravra i^eXevcrovTac, 
/cat XaTpevcrovai jxol eV t<S tottco 
TOVTCO. ^ KoiX eScoKCv avTcp dia- 
drjKTjv TrepiTOixrjs' Koi ovtcop iyev- 
urjcre tov 'IcraaK, /cat Trepterepev 
avTov rfj Tjp-ipa rfj oydorj' /cat 6 
'lo-aaic TOV 'laKcofi, /cat 6 'laKcofi 
T0V9 dcoSeKa 7raTpidp)(a9. " kol 
ol 7raTpidp)(aL ^T]XcocravTes tov 
'I(ocn](j) diri8ovTO ety AiyviTTOv 
/cat ijv 6 Oeos /ier avTov, 
^^ KOL e^etXeTO avTov €/c iraaav 
Tcov dXl'yj/ecov avrou, kcu eScoKev 


should enslave, and oppress 
them "fourhundred years. And 1 
the nation to whom they 
shall be in bondage, I will 
ppunish, said God, and after 
this they shall come forth 
and 'serve me in this place. 
And God gave Abraham a 8 
■■covenant of circumcision ; and 
so 'he begat Isaac, and circum- 
cised him the eighth day. 'And 
Isaac begat Jacob, and Jacob 
begat the twelve patriarchs. 
And the patriarchs, "moved 9 
with envy, sold Joseph into 
Egypt. But God was with 
him, and delivered him out of lo 
all his afflictions, and gave 

" " Four hundred years." This is a round sum, ratlier than 
a precise one. Paul, in a chronological argument concerning 
the superiority, in point of antiquity, of the Promise, to the 
giving of the Law, makes that interval four hundred and 
thirtj"^ years (Gal. 3 : 17), beginning with the calling of 
Abraham, at the age of 75 years. This event antedated the 
giving of the Jaw 430 years — the interval which Paul com- 
putes, between the first promise made to Abraham, concerning 
the Seed, in- whom all the families of the earth should be 
blessed. The whole period of the sojourning of Abraham and 
his seed, from the first promise to him, at 75, till the Exodus, 
was 430 years ; 215 before their descent into Egypt, and 215 
years in it. — The covenant of the promised seed antedates the 
covenant of circumcision, consummated on the birth of Isaac, 
twenty-five years. 

The sum of four hundred and thirty is computed as follows : 
From the promise to the birth of Isaac, 25 years. From the 
birth of Isaac to that of Jacob, 00 years, Gen. 25 : 26 ; Jacob 
was 130 years old, when ho went down into Egypt. Tliese 
added, give 215 years. And just as long time his children 
dwelt in Egypt, Gal. 3 : 17.— See Dr. Whitby, Dr. Adam 
Clark in loco. 

p K^tveo.eyoj. Kqivco is represented by " sue at law," judge, 
ordain, esteem, determine, condemn, decree, damn, avenge, 

1 Aar^evaovai. Aar^evco, represented by serve, sevciitcen 
times; four times by worship, com. ver. Serve is generic, 
worship is specific ; and, therefore, ia this case we prefer the 
genus to the species, inasmuch as the Jews' religion was 
rather a fleshly service than a spiritual worship. They served 

in the oldness of the letter, but Christians worship and servo 
God in newness of sjnrit and in truth, and not in the oldness 
of the letter. 

■■ jdiad->]Krjv Tte^tTO/urje, he gave him a covenant of circum- 
cision, an institution of circumcision. .^taO/jxij occurs 33 times 
in N. T., represented by testament 13 times. It properly indi- 
cates an institution, not a testament, only in the case of a tes- 
tator. Generically, any institution proposed by one party. Zvp- 
&rjKt] with the Greeks indicated a covenant or contract between 
two parties, equal or confederate. But a is, or may 
be, absolute, and enacted by one party in power, to which sub- 
mission and acquiescence may bo duo from another party. 
Such are all Divine institutions. 

• OiiTcos eyswr]ae lov laaaK, ne^UTEfiev. The ovtcob 
here has respect to the circumcising, as the context indicates, 
and yet it is not in our idiom so historically direct as wo 
could wish. But, the point being so well understood hy the 
Jews, he proceeds with the genealogy and not with the details 
of circumcision, which everybody understood. 

' Kat 6 Jaaay. tov^. This is preceded by eyepvtjae rov 
lanax. Here, as in other cases, we iiave tlie article, to give 
eminence or special conspicuity, as in the same verse rovs 
SioSsxa narqiaQ%(ts — the twelve patriarchs — presuming that 
they were notorious persons. 

" Zr]).oyaavTes. Zrj?.oco is used in four acceptations in the 
Christian Scriptures, It indicates simple desire and zeal. It 
is taken in bonam partem and in ihalam partem. 1 am jealous, 
I am zealous, I desire, I covet. " Covet," says Paul, " the best 
gifts," not for your own sake, but for the sake of others. 
Here it is taken in a bad sense, in malam partem, the patri- 
archs were moved with envy. 




favour and wisdom in the sight 
of Pharaoh king of Egypt ; and 
he made him governor over 
Egypt, and all his house. 

11 Now there came a dearth 
over all the land of Egypt and 
Chanaan, and great affliction ; 
and our fathers found no suste- 

12 But when Jacob heard that 
there was corn in Egypt, he 
sent out our fathers first. 

13 And at the second time Jo- 
seph was made known to his 
brethren : and Joseph's kindred 
was made known unto Pharaoh. 

14 Then sent Joseph, and call- 
ed his father Jacob to Mm, and 
all his kindred, three score and 
fifteen souls. 

15 So Jacob went down into 
Egypt, and died, he, and our fa- 

16 And were carried over into 
Sychem, and laid in the sepul- 
chre that Abraham bouglit for a 
sum of money of the sons of 
Emmor, the father of Sychem. 


avTW ')(p.pLV Kat (ro(j)iai> evavriov 
^apaco fiacnXeais Alyvirrov, koL 
KarecTTrjo-ev avrov rjyovfxevou eV 
AlyvTVTOv KCil oAoy tov oIkov av- 
rov. TjXOe 8e Xt/xos i(j) oXt]u 
TTjv yrjv AlyvTTTOv Kol Xavaav, 
Kol dXl'^Ls ixeyaXr]- /cat ov)(^ ev- 

pccTKOU )(opTa(r/j.aTa ol Trare/jey 

' " 12 ' ' <^^ ' r ^ /D 

rjfxcoi'. aKovaas oe laKcop 

ovTO. (TLTa eV AlyvirTO), i^aire- 

crreiXe tovs Tvarepas rjfxaiv wpa- 

TQV ^^ Kcd iv Tc3 SevTcpcc ave- 

yucopladr] 'Icocrrjcj) tol9 a5eA0oiy 

avrov, Kal (j)avepov iyeuero tc3 

(Papaca to yevos tov 'Icocrr](j). 

^* ccirocrTelXas 8e 'Icoarj^ ytzere/ca- 

XecraTO tov iraripa avTOU 'la- 

Kcofi, Kal iracrav ttjv avyyiv^iav 

avrov, iv i^v^als l^8o[xr]KovTa- 

irdvTe. ^^ Kare^t] 5e 'JaKcb/3 ets 

AtyvTTTOv, KOL iTeXevTr)(Teu av- 

7"oy Kal ol irarepes rip-cov Kal 

/xereTedrjcrau els 2v)(e/x, Kal eVe- 

0r]a-au ev tS p.vr]piaTL o wvrjcraTO 

'A^paap, Tifxrjs apyvpiov, irapa 

rav VLwu '£l/x/j.op tov Sv^ifx. 


him 'favor aiad wisdom in 
the sight of Pharaoh, king of 
Egypt: and he made him 
governor over Egypt, and all 
his household. 

Now there came a "famine u 
upon all the land of Egypt 
and Canaan, and great afflic- 
tion : and our fathers found 
no sustenance. But Jacob, 12 
'having heard that there was 
J'grain in Egypt, "'first sent our 
fathers. And at the second 13 
time, Joseph was^made known 
to his brethren ; and Jo- 
seph's kindred ''became well 
known to Pharaoh. 

Then Joseph sent and U 
called his father Jacob to 
him ; and all 'his kindred, 
•■seventy-five souls. So Jacob is 
went down into Egypt, and 
died, he and our fathers, and 16 
were carried over into She- 
chem, and laid in a sepul- 
chre — that which Abraham 
"■purchased with a sum of 
money of Hamor, father of 

' God gave to Joseph '/,a^iv aofiav — both anarthrous. 
But not a favor and a wisdom — this would have been only a 
special case. But it is unlimited, like Uvevfia 'Ayiov, not 
merely indefinite, but abstract or absolute, as the case may be. 
Like grace, or favor, it may be absolute and without measure, 
or it may be, in certain circumstances, a special grace, favor, or 
gift. It is, therefore, not a favor and a wisdom, nor the favor 
and the wisdom, but, superior to both, and more honorable, 
undefined favor and wisdom in the presence of Pharaoh, the 
king of Egypt. 

'" Atfloe — d-hipK fuya}.t] ovy^ •/fiqtaa/xaTa — all indefinite, 
— famine, tribulation, no sustenance. 

* Axovaas, part, aor., having hoard, but quite as truthful 
and as tasteful, when Jacob heard. 

1 Stroe, fourteen tunes found in N, T., twelve times rendered 
wheat, twice corn, com. ver. Frumentum is its most general 
sense, triticum, often. Grain is a generic term, including all 
sorts, therefore preferable here. 

' U^corov, adverb, first, first time. E^aTtsarede, they were 
literally his apostles, in quest of food. 

" AvEyveoQta&i} — avayvmqi^ofiai. This is an ana^ ?.Eyo- 
fiEvov, found only in this place in N. T. Joseph was made 
known, or revealed to his brethren. We need not pleonastic- 
ally say he was again made known, but simply made known, 
never before having been made known. 

'' 0aveqov to yEvoe, his kindred became well-known. 

» Avrov — omitted by Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. — fairly, however, 

•' These " seventy-five souls" must include the five sons of 
Ephraim and Manasseh — and probably other descendants of 
Joseph, to sustain the reading adopted ; of which, however, 
we have never seen a wholly satisfactory vindication. Wo 
follow the text of Bagster. IlEvre is of doubtful authority. 

' '0 (ovtjaaro — ri/irjs aqyvptov, purchased with a sum of 
money, an estimate of silver. Ha^a, beside of the sons of 
Hamor. Tov ^vxsft — tov ev Sv%Bfi, rejected by Ln. 

^ Ilaqa icav vUav EftfwQ tov Svy^sfi, near to. Dr. Clark's 
correction of the text hero is plausible. Whether the purchase 
here mentioned was made by Abraham or by Jacob is liti- 
gated on manuscript authority. But as manuscripts are still 



KING jambs' version. 

17 But when the time of the 
promise drew nigh, which God 
had sworn to Abraham, the 
people grew and multiplied in 

18 Till another king arose, 
which knew not Joseph. 

19 The same dealt subtil ly 
with our kindred, and evil-en- 
treated our fathers, so that they 
cast out their young children, to 
the end they might not live. 

20 In wliicli time Moses was 
born, and was exceeding fair, and 
nourished up in his father's house 
three months: 

21 And when he was cast out, 
Pharaoh's daughter took him up, 
and nourished him ibr her own 


^^ KaOcos 8e rjyyi^ev 6 -^povos 
TTJs iirayyeXias ^s ai/xocrev 6 Oeos 
Tco 'A^paafJi, Tjv^rjaep 6 Aaoy /cat 
iirXTjOvvdr] eV AiyvTTT^, ^^ oC)(pi^ 
o5 dvearr] /SacrtAeus" ^repos, os 


KaTaao(j)i(rap.ei/o^ to yiuos rnxcoi^y 
eKaKooae tovs Trarepas rjfxcov, tov 
TTOieiv eKdera ra j^pecfir] avrau, 
els TO fiy ^aoyoveladai. ^"^ ^Ev 
(^ KOLLpm iyevurjdr} Mwcrrjs, kcu 
■fjv daTelos t(3 0€(S- by dueTpa(l)T} 
pjpjvas TpeLs eV tS ol/cop tov ira- 
Tpos avTov. ^ iKTeOevTa de av' 
tov, dveiXeTo avTov ri OvyaTTjp 
0apacb) icai dveOpe^aTO avTOV \ 


Shechem. "^But, according as 17 
the time of the promise, which 
God has sworn to Abraham, 
was drawing near, the peo- 
ple had grown and multi- 
plied in Egypt, ''till another 18 
Ising arose, who had not known 
Joseph. 'The same 'hav- 19 
ing treated our race craftily, 
oppressed our fathers, that 
they might expose their ^in- 
fants, in order that they 
might not be presei-ved alive. 
At this time Moses was born, 20 
and was 'exceedingly beauti- 
ful ; who was nourished in his 
father's house, three months. 
And, he being exposed, Phara- 21 
oh's daughter "adopted him, 
and "nourished him for her own 

accumulating vre shall not enter into the merits rif the question, 
on which there is not an element of faith or piety depend- 

It is not a historic fact, that Abraham bought this field, 
or plot of ground. — This discrepancy is happily corrected by 
Adam Glark. His critical note on the passage we shall here 
quote in full. 

" Two accounts seem here to be confounded. 1st. The pur- 
chase made by Abraham of the cave and field of Ephron, 
which was in the field of Machpelah ; this purchase was made 
from the children of Heth, Gen. 23 : 3, 10, 17. 2nd. The pur- 
chase made by Jacob, from the sons of Ilamor, or Emmor, of 
a sepulchre, in which the bones of Joseph were laid ; this was 
in Sychem, or Shechem, Gen. 33 : 19 ; Josh. 14 : 32. The word 
Abraham, therefore, in this place, is certainly a mistake ; and 
the word Jacob, which some have supplied, is, doubtless, more 
proper. Bp. Pearce supposes that Luke originally wrote, o 
lovrjoaTo riftrjs a^yvQiov, which he bought for a sum of 
money ; that is, which Jacob bought, who is the last person 
of the singular number spoken of in the preceding verse. 
Those who saw that the word wvrjaaro, bought, had no 
nominative case joined to it, and did not know where to find 
the proper one, seem to have inserted Apqaa^i, Abraham, in 
the text,, for that purpose, without sufficiently attending to the 
different circumstances of his purchase, from that of Jacob." — 
Acts 7 : 16. 

Some think that Dr. Clark is not sufficient authority for 
correcting the text, against the authority of so many manu- 
scripts. Some of which read " our father," without any proper 
name. But the Syriac — the oldest translation — retains the 
name Abraham. Murdock's Syriac reads it, " which Abraham 
bought with money of the sons of Emmor." And as we 

have not all the ancient manuscripts, we shall retain this till 
we find some more plausible authority for repudiating it. 

^ But (lia&ws) according to the time of the promise which 
God {cbfioXoyqasv, Ln., Tf., on the authority of A.B.C. vul. 15, 
36, so Alf.) openly declared. 

■■ A%^ii ov aveoTj] ^aaJ.evs ire^os. Ln. and some others 
add s7z' Aiyvmov, in Egypt. 

' Ovroe, this king, v. 18. 

i Karaao^toafiEvos to ysvoe fjftmv, having craftily treated. 
Ingeniosus adversus aliquem, Acts 7 : 19, Oritica Sacra. It is 
worthy of notice, that this is the identical word found in the 
Septuagint, Exodus 1 : 10, as expressive of the wicked subtilty 
practiced upon the Israelites by the Egyptian despotism, well 
defined, " Sophismatis, et argutis fallaciis utor adversus ali- 
quem, quasi falsis ct sophisticis rationibus et cavillationibus 
redarguens. LXX. Interpretes utuntur hoc verbo. Ex. 1 : 10 — 
Dealt sublilely, Penn. Mischievously politic, Thorn. Unjustly, 
"Wak., Wes. Craftily, Murd. 

'' Tov Ttoieip Ex&era ra PQecpij avrmv, by casting out, or ex- 
posing their babes that they might not live. 

1 Kai. 7jv aaretog rcj) 0s(i>. He was exceeding beautiful, 
beautiful to Qod. The Hebrews, to express the superlative 
degree, were sometimes accustomed to add to their nouns the 
word God. Hence we read in Hebrew of " the cedars of God," 
" the mountains of God," indicative of lofty mountains and 
towering cedars. Moses then was beautiful to Qod, that is, 
superlatively beautiful. Uohg fieyah] rep Qsrff, Jonas 3 : 3, 
Sept., the same form of the Hebrew superlative. — Hack. 

"■ Avstkero, not from the water; but tollere liberos, adopted. 

" Aved'^eyiaro avTov iavTjj cig vlov, nourished him ; sig, in 
order to, or for a son to herself, for her own son. Avrov with 
the participle is not an accusative absolute. 




22 And Moses was learned in 
all t]]e wisdom of the Egyptians, 
and was mighty in words and in 

2.3 And when he was full forty 
years old, it came into his heart 
to visit his brethren the children 
of Israel. 

24 And seeing one of them 
suffer wrong, he defended him, 
and avenged him that was op- 
pressed, and smote the Egyp- 

25 For he supposed his breth- 
ren would have understood how 
that God by his hand would de- 
liver them : but they understood 

2(i And the next day he shew- 
ed himself unto them as they 
strove, and would have set them 
at one again, saying, Sirs, ye 
are brethren ; wliy do ye wrong 
one to another? 

27 But he that did his neigh- 
bour wrong, thrust him away, 
saying. Who made thee a ruler 
and a judge over us? 

28 "Wilt thou kill me, as thou 
didst the Egyptian yesterday ? 

29 Then fled Moses at this 
saying, and was a stranger in the 
land of Madian, where he begat 
two sons. 

30 And when forty years were 


eavrrj ety vlov. "" kolI iTracSevdij 
Maxrrjs iracry ao^ia AiyuTrricoi/' 
r]v 8e Svvaros eV Aoyoty /cat iu 
epyois. ^'^ 'fis 8e iiTXiqpovTO 
avTCp TecrcrapaKovTaerr]^ ■)(povos, 
du€J3r] eVi TTju KapSlau avTov 
i7n(rKe\j/aardai tov^ d8eX(pov9 av- 
Tov Tovs v'lovs 'Icrpait]X. ^'^ /cat 
IScou Tiva dSiKovfxevoi/, rj/xv- 
varo Kca eTrocTja-ev iKSlKrjcrtv tco 
KaTaTTOuovp-ivcp, irara^as rou A.I- 
■yvTTTiou. "^ iuofJLL^e 8e avvuvai 
T0V9 aSeA^ouy avrov, otl 6 (9eoy 
8La ■)(e^ipos auTov 8l8cocnu avTois 
crcoTTjplav ol 8e ov crvvrJKav. 
^ rfj re hrtovcrrj r)ixepa axjidrj 
avTols /J.a)(o/x6voi,s, /cat avvrjXa- 
creu avTovs et? eiprjvrjv, elTrcou, 
' Av8p€s, d8eX(j)0L iare vfxels' 
Ivari dSiKelre dXXrjXovs; ^^ '0 
8e dSiKOiv Tou 7rXi](nou, aTrcocraTO 
avTov, elircdv, Tls ere KarecTTrjcrev 
ap^ovra koX SiKaarrju i(j) rj/xd^; 
^^ [XT] dveXeiv /xe crv deXeis, ov 
rpoTTOv dveiXes X^^^ '""^ -Alyu- 
TTTLOv; ^''^ ' JEfjivye 5e Ifcocrys iv 
Tcp Xoya> TOVTO), /cat eyevero ira- 
poLKOs eV yy Ma8Laix, ov iyivvq- 
creu vlovs 8vo. ^^ ICal TrXTjpco- 


son. AndMoses was "educated 22 
in all the wisdom of the Egyp- 
tians, and was i-mighty in his 
words and in ihis actions. 

And when he was full forty 23 
years old, it came into his 
heart to look after his brethren, 
the children of Israel. And see- 24 
ing one of them ■'wronged, he 
defended him, and avenged 
him who was oppressed, 
smiting the Egyptian. He 25 
supposed, "indeed, his breth- 
ren would have imderstood 
that Grod, by his hand, would 
deliver them : but they did 
not understand. And the next 26 
day, he 'showed himself to 
them as they were quaiTcl- 
ing, and would have "compel- 
led them to peace, saying, You 
are brethren ; why do you 
wrong one another ? But he 27 
who did his neighbor wrong, 
thrust him away, saying, Who 
made you a ruler and a judge 
over us ? Will you kill me, as 28 
you killed the Egyptian yester- 
day? Then Moses fled 'at this 29 
saying, and was a stranger in 
"the land of Midian, in which 
he begot two sons. And when 30 

" EnaiSav&i} naof] aoiptq, dative, not of the instrument, 
but of the manner. De Wette, Win., and some others, render 
it, by the wisdom of the Egyptians, as the instrument of his 
culture. "The accusative would be the ordinary case after 
this passive." — Hack. 

P ^vvaros ev f.oyoig, not so fluent as Aaron, but above him 
in strength, as his speeches fully attest. 

' Avrov should be added to cv Xoyots xai epyois. — Gb., Sch., 
Ln., Tf. It is more definitive, and seems to be demanded. 

>• ASixovftavov, injured by violence, Ex. 2 : 11. JSTtotrjas?' 
exSixtjaif, avenged the wrong, or wrought redress. Uara^as 
TOP AtyvTiriov, smiting, killing the Egyptian. 

• ^e is frequently, in Luke's style, very elegantly rendered, 
indeed — vero, which in such cases as this, we conceive is in 
better taste than autem, igilur, sed, tamen, guin, ov porro. 

' £ij>&r] avrotSi showed himself, appeared — to them — two 

of liis countrymen. After ears — v/icce is redundant. 'Jpari, 
usually rendered why, is an abbreviation of three words, Iva 
■ti yevrjrat, in order to what should it be = tohy ? 

" ^vvT;).aac7', drew together, compelled — would have com- 
pelled them to peace, as the sequel shows, but failed, through 
the acerbity of their temper. Only found in this passage N, 
T. Not by violence but b}"^ argument. 

" Ev to^ ).oy(i) rovTri>. This is superlatively definite, be- 
cause it became a pregnant fact in his future history. Exodus 
2 : 12. Pharaoh now sought his life. 

>«• Er yu Madiafi, in the land of Midian, or rather Madiam. 
It is common to omit the article before yji, "when any ad- 
jective or adjunct is connected immediately with it," just as 
in the case of JJvevfta, with 'Ayiov. Cases of special import 
not requiring it, the adjective itself being definitive. See 
V. 36 ; 13 : 19, sv yn Xavaav. 




expired, there appeared to him 
in the wilderness of mount Sina, 
an angel of the Lord in a flame 
of fire in a bush. 

31 When Moses saw it, he 
wondered at the sight ; and as 
he drew near to behold it, the 
voice of the Lord came unto 

32 Saying, I am the God of 
thy fathers, the God of Abraham, 
and the God of Isaac, and the 
God of Jacob. Then Moses 
trembled, and durst not behold. 

33 Then said the Lord to him, 
Put off thy shoes from thy feet : 
for tlie place where thou standest 
is holy ground. 

34 I have seen, I have seen 


devTCov irQ)V recrcrapaKOVTa, cixpdr] 
avTCo iv rrj iprjfjLa) tov opovs Sivd 
ayyekos Kvplov ev (j)Xoyi -jrvpos 
fidrov. ^^ 6 8e Mcoarrj^ IScov 
idavp.acre to opap.a- irpoo-cp-^o- 
p.ivov 8e avTov Karavorjo-ai, eye- 
v€TO (f)ovr] Kvplov irpos avrov, 
^"^ 'Eya 6 Oeos^ rSiv rrarepo^v 
(TOV, 6 0eos 'A^paap. kcu 6 O^os 
'IcraaK Kcd 6 Oeos 'laKcofB. ' Ev- 
rpofxos Se yevofxevos Mcoarjs ovk 
iroXp-a Karavorjaai. ^ elire 8e 
avTcS 6 KvpLos, A.vcrov to vtto- 
8i]p.a Tcou TToScou crov 6 yap 
TOTTOS eV (p 'iaTTjKas, yr] dyia 
eaTLV. I8a)v €l8ov tyjv kolkco- 


forty years were expired, there 
appeared to him , in the wilder- 
ness of the mountain, Sinai, a 
"messenger of the Lord, ^in a 
flameoffireinabush. Andwlien 31 
Moses saw it, he wondered at 
the sight ; and, as he drewnear 
to 'contemplate it, the voice of 
the Lord came "to him, saying, 
I am the God of your fathers, 32 
the God of Abraham, and the 
God of Isaac, and the God of 
Jacob. Then Moses trembled 
and durst not look. Then 33 
the Lord said to him. Put off 
your '■shoes from your feet, for 
the j)lace on which you stand 
is 'holy ground. ""Truly I have 34 

^ "An angol of the Lord." Eather in this case, a messenger 
of the Lord. There does not appear to have been an augel hero ; 
for the Lord himself was liorc and spolco to Moses, in his own 
person. Tlic supernatural lire was, in this cose, a messenger of 
the Lord, to indicate liis own presence. We are clsewlicro told 
" He maketh the winds his angels, and a jlamc of fire his minis- 
ter." Paul to tlie Hebrews, founds an argument in favor of tlie 
supreme Divinity of the Lord Messiah, on the name given to 
him, in contrast with that given to the higest ranic of created 

The Jews said the law was given by angels, and gloried in it. 
But saj's Paul, he gives this title and style to the winds and 
lightnings of heaven. But to the Son he saith : " Thy throne, 
God, is for ever and ever, etc. — God thy God has christed — 
anointed thee with the oil of joy " above all coordinate functiona- 
ries. This beautiful and triumphant argument of the supreme 
Deity of the Lord Jesus is measurably lost in the com. ver. AVe, 
therefore, prefer to translate angel by messenger, especially when 
an argument depends upon it. All missionaries, whether spiritual 
or material, are properly styled angels. But all angels arc not 
properly styled spirits. 

It would seem expedient, in all such cases, either to transfer 
the word angel, or uniformly translate it messenger. And so of 
the words anoaxolog, dtaxovog, evayyeXiarrjg, Tt^ca/Svre^os, 
entaxoTtog, Apostle, Deacon, Evangelist, Presbyter, Bishop. This 
class of words has a currency and a sense in the Apostolic writ- 
ings, which they have not in their mere etymology. It is rather 
Hebraistic than Grecian, and can be ascertained only through a 
rery strict analysis of New Testament usage. They ought all to 

have been appositely translated or transferred in their original 
form. There is, however, no controversy as to their meaning. 

y Et> tpoyt nv^og /3«rou. ITvQog here supplies the place of an 
adjective, in tlie fie> tj fiame of a bush. Comp. 9:15; 2 Thcss. 
1 :8. 

' Karavorjaen, not to behold, nor to observe a vision (a rare 
work, indeed !) but to contemplate, to consider, animadvert ; not 
in its present appropriated acceptation, but in its original ety- 
mological sense, to turn the mind to an object or subject. We 
find it well defined by an old critic long laid on the shelf. Non 
est, simpliciter intelligere, inspicere, sed magno studio mentem in 
rem intendore. — Parens on Hebrews 3 : 1. Crit. Saer. 

" IlQog avTop omitted by Ln., Tf., a probable omission with 
Griesb. 'O Oeog before laaax and before lay.aip omitted by Ln. 
and Tf. The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is equipollent. 

^ 'TnoSr]/ia, a distributive singular for the plural. — Hackelt. 

' Fq Ayta eorii', comparatively k\v of the Christian profession 
realize the full force of this family — 'Aytog, ayiorrjg, ayiuiavvrj, 
ayia^co, etc. Its root etymological is simply ayq, a negative or 
privative of yi], earth. AVc are aware that some derive it from 
a^co, colo, vencor, 1 luorship, I venerate; and a few from ayoe, 
vcncratio, a word of two very diverse significations — in i'oiiani et 
malam cadit significationem. ilj'ip, Kodesh, non rem sanetam, 
neque sanclitatur, sed Sanctuarium sivc locum sanctum significat, 
Ps. 110 : 3 (ut Ps. 20 : 3, et G3 : 3) non quidem Templum sed 
vel urbem Ilierosolyma, uti Kimchius voluit, vel potius arccm 
Sionis, Bootius Animadversiones. Sac. Lib. 2. Leigh, Holiness 
to the Lord, Separation to the Lord, is the radix, the tap-root of 
this tree of life everlasting. 

"i iScov eiSov = ipiixi hi«"i , truly I have seen. An infini- 
tive absolute before a finite verb indicates the reality of an 




the affliction of my people which 
is in Egypt, and I have heard 
their groaning, and am come 
down to deliver them. And 
now come, I will send thee into 

35 This Moses, whom they 
refused, saying. Who made thee 
a ruler and a judge? the same 
did God send to he a ruler and 
a deliverer by the hand of the 
angel which appeared to him in 
the bush. 

36 He brought them out, af- 
ter that he had shewed wonders 
and signs in the land of Egypt, 
and in the Red sea, and in the 
wilderness forty years. 

37 This is that Moses, which 
said unto the children of Israel, 
A prophet shall the Lord your 
God raise up unto you of your 
brethren, like unto me ; him shall 
ye hear. 

38 This is he, that was in the 
church in the wilderness with 


(TLV rov Xaov /lov rod eV Alyv- 
TTTco, /cat Tov arevayixov avrcou 
rjKOV(ra' /cat KarejSrp^ i^eXeadai. 
avTovs' /cat vvv Sevpo, a7rocrreA(3 
ere eh AtyviTTOV. '^^ Tovtov tov 
Mavarjv ov r/purjaavro dirovres, 
Tls ere KaTeaT7](reu ap^ovra /cat 
SiKacTTrjv; tovtov 6 Oeos ap'^ovra 
/cat XvTpcoTTjv aTrecTTetXev ev x^'^P'- 
ayyeXov tov 6(j)6evTOS avTco ev 
Trj jBaTCp. ^^ ovTos e^rjyayev av- 
Tovs, TTOLrjcras TepaTa /cat arjfxeTa 
ev yfj AlyvTTTOv kuI ev epvOpa 
daXacrcrr], /cat ev Trj eprjixa eTrj 
TecrarapaKOVTa. Ovtos ecTTLv 

6 ]\£covcrr]s 6 cIttcov toIs viols 
IcrpaTjX, JTpo(j)r]TT]v v/niv ava- 
(TTrjcrei KvpLos 6 Oeos vpwv e/c 
Tav dSeXcjyaiv vfxcov i>s ep.e' av- 
Tov aKOVcrecrOe. '^^ Ovtos enTiv 
6 yevojxevos ev ttj eicKXrjcria ev 


seen the affliction of my people, 
who are in Egypt, and have 
heard their groaning, and am 
come down to deliver them. 
And now, come, I will sendyou 
into Egypt. This Moses, whom 35 
they had rejected, saying. Who 
made you a ruler and a j udge ? 
God sent 'the same to be a rul- 
er and a deliverer, by the hand 
of the messenger that appear- 
ed to him in the bush. He 36 
brought them out, after show- 
ing wonders and signs, in the 
'land of Egypt, and in the Eed 
Sea, and in the wilderness, for- 
ty years. This is the Moses 37 
who said to the children of 
Israel, The Lord your God will 
raise up a prophet for you, of 
your brethren, as he raised me 
up ; you shall hear Mu'm. This as 
is he who was in the ''congre- 
gation in the wilderness, with 

act, or an efiect of it in the highest degree. See Geseniiis, 
Heb. Gram., § 128, 3. Some prefer aTtoaredai to 
The subjunctive could be used as future CW. § 42, 4), adopted 
probably from the Sept. — liackcU. 

' Tovtov is here emphatic. HQvi^aavTo, one person's act, 
B here representative of the nation v. 27, t«s as naTeoTijaav 
t^xovra etc., who constituted you a captain over us? 

Aqyfitna. y.itt SixaoTriv=).vTQo}T>jv, tliey renounced Moses as 
•K Ruler and a Judge, yot God constituted him their Ruler and 
Redeemer ; and that, too, by the hand of an angel. Tov 
ogp&£vros, the one who was seen hy Mm, ov who appeared to 
him, in tlie unconsumed burning bush. 

^ Ev yn AiyvTirov xai. ev epvO'^a ^a^aaarj, not in a land of 
Egypt, nor in a Red Sea ; for although anartlirous in fornrthey 
are definite in the grammatical fact, that adjectives and dejini- 
iive circumstances, dispense with the proper or peculiar use of 
the article. This further illustrates and confirms the fact that 
Uvevfta 'Aytov is not grammatically a Holy Spirit, any more 
than yij AiyvxTov is, grammatically, a land of Egypt. 

^ AvTov ay.ovaeaO-e is repudiated from the text by Gb., 
Sch., Ln., Tf., and so is xv^toe and vftaiv by Gb. 

^ This is a very definite verse. Olirog eartv o yerofuvos — 
rt] eKx},rjaiq — ir] e^Tj/cct) — rov ayysXov — tov Xa}.ovvTO£, cv rcj) 
oQst — Toiv TtarcQcov. It settles the grammatical and historical 
import of cxxlrjOKt beyond logical or grammatical debate. It 
was and is, and evermore shall be, a people called out, an 

assemhly ; persons convened hy aulliority, a people obedient 
to a Divine call. But Xoyia ^oivTa are likewise anarthrous, 
yet not to be represented living oracles, but the life-giving 

Exxlrjoiu. "In the church in the wilderness." "In the 
congregation in the wilderness." This term is found in the 
Christian Scriptures 115 times ; of these, 111 times translated — 
com. ver. — church, and thrice, assembly. In the Septuagint 
version of 0. Testament, we commonly find axxXijatn, where 
in the English we have congregation : while in the New, 
com. version, we find congregation once, and assembly' once 
for the Greek exxlr,oin, 115 times. With us the word 
" church" and meeting are most current. Of dissenting de- 
nominations it was said formerly they go to '■'meeting," 
but now they all go to "church" as the Jew goes to his 

A new and improved version should harmonize 
these denominational diversities. We, therefore, substitute 
the word " congregation," iis most appositely representing the 
original. True the words " called out." or •' the called out," 
were it a current designation, would still more literally de- 
velope the import of exxlijoia. It is associated with navr/yo^ia, 
in Heb. 12 : 23, which is rendered the " General Assembly" — 
even the congregation of the " First Born." KvQwxt, as an 
abbreviation of xv^wv oixos, a house of the Lord, is not found 
in Ecclesiastic antiquity. The Scotch Kyrk, or kirk, or the 
Saxon Cyric, or circ, or the Danish Mrke, was applied to the 




the angel which spake to him in 
the mount Sina, and with our 
fathers : who received the lively 
oracles to give unto us : 

39 To whom our fathers would 
not obey, but thrust him from 
them, and in their hearts turned 
back again into Egypt, 

40 Saying unto Aaron, Make 
us gods to go before us : for as 
for this Moses, which brought us 
out of the land of Egypt, we wot 
not what is become of him. 

41 And they made a calf in 
those days, and offered sacrifice 
unto the idol, and rejoiced in the 
works of their own hands. 

42 Then Grod turned, and gave 
them up to worship the host of 
heaven; as it is written in the 
book of the prophets, ye house 
of Israel, have ye offered to me 
slain beasts and sacrifices hj the 
space o/' forty years in the wilder- 

43 Yea, ye took up the taber- 
nacle of Moloch, and the star 


rfj iprjixco fMSTO. tov ayyiXov tov 
XdXovvTOs avTcp iu tw bpei SlvS, 
/cat Tcov Traripav r/fxcov, oy ede^aro 
Xoyia ^aivTa Sovvai rjixlv. ^^ a 
ovK ■r]6iXy](Tav virrfKooi yGvecrOai 
ol warepes i^p-au, dXX' aTrcocravTO, 
/cat i(TTpa^y](rav rais KapBiaLS 
avrtav ety A'lyvirTOV, ^^ uttovt^s 
Tw 'Aapcov, HoLrjcrov rfplv Oeovs 
ot TrpoTTopevcrovTat rjp,a>v 6 yap 
Moiay]? 0VT09, oy i^^yayev rjp.a.s 
e/c yrjs AlyvTrrov, ovk o'l8a/xev tl 
yiyovev avT&. ^'" JTat kpocr^- 
TTOvqcrav kv rais rjpiepais eKeiuaLS, 
/cat avrjyayov Ovcriav ra elScoXcp, 
Koi eu(j)paii'ovTO kv tois epyois 
TU)v x^tpau avrav. ^^ "^(rrpexj/e 
8e 6 Oeos, Koi TrapeScoKev avrovs 
XarpeveLU ry (TTpaTiS. tov ovpa- 
vov- KaOcos ykypaTTTat kv jSi/BXca 
Tcov irpocjirjTciov, Mrj (r(f)ayLa /cat 
dvcrias TrpocrrjueyKare fioL krr] 
TeacrapaKOVTa kv rfj kpr]jxa>, oIkos 
^ Icrpa-qX; ' ^ kcu aveXd^ere rrjv 
cTKrjvrjv TOV MoXo^, Kca to 


the messenger that spoke to 
him in the mount Sinai, and 
with our fathers, who received 
the life-giving oracles to give to 
us : whom our fathers would 39 
not obey, but 'thrust him from 
them, and in their hearts 
turned back again into Egypt, 
saying to Aaron, Make us *'» 
Jgods to go before us : because, 
as for this Moses, who brought 
us out of the land of Egypt, we 
do not know what is become 
of him. And they '■made a i 
calf in those days, and offered 
sacrifice to the idol, and 're- 
joiced in the work of their own 
hands. Then God '"turned and 42 
gave them up to worship the 
"army of heaven : as it is writ- 
ten in the book of the pro- 
phets; house of Israel, have 
you offered to me slain beasts 
and sacrifices, during forty 
years in the wilderness ? °You 43 
even took up the tabernacle 
of Moloch, and the star of 

hsuso, in which Christians met for worship. In tho Greek 
church, and in some Roman communities, xvQtay.a, included 
Ecclesiastic goods. — Wo cannot but regret the present cur- 
rency of this indefinite term. — Any one can understand " con- 
gregation" a " meeting of the people," " an assembly ;" but 
how few know much, or anything, of " a ckurch," as indicative 
of that in Greece, Rome, England, America, or that in ancient 
Jerusalem ? 

' Arccoaavro (3 pers. plur. aor. 1 mid. from aTtcaO-eoftai), they 
thrust him from tliem ; so rendered, Acts 7 : 27, 39, twice ren- 
dered cast away, Rom. 11 : 1, 2; put away, 1 Tim. 1 : 19. 

' 0Eovg ol nQOTtoQsvaovrm, a literal translation of Exodus 
32 : 8, pluralis excellentifc. Aaron made but one calf, but 
they asked for gods, Qeoi, in the Hebrew biin''iJX. Ourog, this 
Moses, like isle, in Latin, is contemptuous — that Moses ! W. 
§ 28.— Hackett. 

^ Efcoaxonoit]aav. The science and art of calfmaking arc 
not found in any Greek extant. It was an Egyptian art. 
" The calf," like the ox at Memphis, called Apis, and that at 
Ileliopolis, called Mnevis. Win., Ilealw. I. p. 044 — Hackett. 

I Ev^^atvovTo ev rote epyoie. This festive celebration is 

mentioned Ex. 32 : C. Tots e^yois shows it to have been a 
conjoint operation of the people. 

■" 'O 0EOS — Eor^exfiB — Tta^sSoxcv avrovg i.nrgEVEiv r/; OT^a. 
rca, God turned away from them — abandoned them to servo, 
or worship, the hosts — the stars of heaven. 

" Hr^arta, not azQarcta. The latter is used only by Paul, 
and the former only by Luke, and is by him indicative of a 
host, and so found, Luke 2 : 13 ; Acts 7 : 42, the host of heaven. 
Tl] oTQariq TOV ov^avov, the army of heaven : sun, moon, and 
stars. " From the Hebrew this star-worship is called Sabaism, 
from saa."— ffacieW. Educated in Egypt the hot-bed of poly- 
theism, the Jews were fur ages the victims of creature-worship. 
It was the capital sin against the theology of the Jews, as 
sain^worship and an^cZ-worship is the capital and soul ruining 
sin of the Roman apostasy. 

° " No, you apostatized and took up the tabernacle of your 
god Moloch," i. e. to carry it with them in their marches or in 
religious processions. The Tabernacle was, no doubt, intended 
to resemble the one consecrated to Jehovah. Stephen follows 
the Scptuagmt.— Hackett. The Seventy supply the name of 




of your God Eemphan, figures 
wliich ye made to worship them : 
and I will carry you away be- 
yond Babylon. 

44 Our fathers had the taber- 
nacle of witness in the wilder- 
ness, as he had appointed, speak- 
ing unto Moses, that he should 
make it according to the fashion 
that he had seen. 

45 Which also our fathers, 
that came after, brought in with 
Jesus into the possession of the 
Gentiles, whom God drave out 
before the face of our fathers, 
unto the days of David ; 

46 Who found favour before 
God, and desired to find a taber- 
nacle for the God of Jacob. 

47 But Solomon built him an 

48 liowbeit, the Most High 
dwelleth not in temples made 
with hands ; as saith the prophet, 

49 Heaven is my throne, and 
eai'th is my footstool : what 
house will 3'e build me? saith 
the Lord : or what is the place 
of my rest? 

50 Hath not my hand made 
all these things? 

51 Ye stiff-necked, and un- 
circumcised in heart and ears, 
ye do always resist the Holy 
Ghost : as your fathers did, so 
do ye. 

52 Which of the prophets 
have not your fathers persecut- 
ed? and they have slain them 


acrrpov rov Oeov vfxaiv 'Peix<lia.v, 
Tovs TVTTOvs ovs €TroLr](raT€ irpo- 
(TKvvelv avTOLs' Kol fxeroLKLa v fids' 
iireKetva JBa^vXavos. H. 

a-Krjvi-] Tov fxaprvplov rjv ev tols 
warpacriu yp-Su iu rfj, 
KadcDS Sierd^aTO 6 XaXai> rS 
Mcocrrj, TTOLrjaac avrrju Kara tov 
TVTTou ov ecopaKEt' rjv Kau 

elarrjyayov 8La8e^ap.evoi oi irare- 
pes rjp.aiu fxara Irjcrov iv rfj Kara- 
a-)(i(TeL Tu>v idvtjiu, ccv e^coaev 6 
pcDv i-jixav, ecoy tS)V rjjxepccv Aa- 
fiiS- '"' 09 evpe )(aptv iuccnnov tov 
Oeov, KCcl r)Ti](raT0 eupeiu crKr]- 
uco/xa tS OecS ^laKafi. SoXo- 
jxcbv 8e d)Ko8ofir)(rev avTa oIkou. 
^^ '^AA.' ou^ v\lrL(TT09 ii> X^P^" 
TTOLrjTOis vaois KaTOLKel, Ka9co9 
irpo(l)rjTr]s Aeyet, ^ '0 ovpavos 
p.01 0pouos, rj 8e yrj vttottoSlov 


SofxycreTe jxol; Xiyei Kvpios' rj 
Tis TOTVos TTjs KaTairavcTeois fiov; 
ovyi 7] ^eip fiov eiroLrjcre TavTa 

SKXrjpoTpd^XoL, Kca dire- 
pLTfirjToi Trj Kapbia kol toIs (ha\u, 
vfjLHs del Tcp Uvevp-aTL tw Ayim 
dvTL7rL7TTeT€, CO? ot TTwripes vp-cov 

KoL Vp,eLS. '^^ TLVCL TOtV TT/JO- 

(prjTuiv ovK iSlco^av ol iraTepes 
v/xcou; KOL direKTeivav tovs irpo- 


your god Remphan, images 
which you made to worship ; 
therefore, I will carry you away 
beyond Babylon. Our fathers 44 
had the ^tabernacle of testimo- 
ny in the wilderness, as he had 
appointed, speaking to Moses, 
that he should make it accord- 
ing to the pattern that he had 
seen: which tabernacle also our 45 
fathers having received, they 
brought in with Joshua, into 
the possession of the heathen, 
whom God drove out before 
the face of our fathers, until 
the days of David ; who found 46 
favor before God, and desired 
to find a tabernacle for the 
God of Jacob. But Solomon 47 
built him a house. Neverthe- 48 
less, the Most High does not 
dwell in temples made with 
hands; as the prophet says: 
The heaven is my throne, and 49 
the earthis my footstool. What 
house will you build for me? 
says the Lord : or, what is the 
place of my rest ? iDid not 50 
my hand make all these ? ' 

StifFnecked and uncircum- 61 
cised in heart and ears, you 
are always resisting the Holy 
Spirit: as your fathers did, 
so you are doing. Which of 52 
the prophets did not your fa- 
thers persecute? They 'even 
slew those who 'had pre- 

tho idol from tradition, but thiore is almost equal authority, 
says Baur, for reading bbia, Milkom, a proper name. The 
variation would bring the Greek into greater conformity to 
the Hebrew. — To aaxQov rov Qeov, i. e. an image resembling, 
or representing a star ^yorshiped hy them as a god. V,y 
Pefifav the Seventy express ■js'ms wJiicli, like most of the 
ancient translators, tliey took to be a proper name, some of 
the ablest modern scholars defend the correctness of that 
translation. In this case the Greek name must have sprung 
from a corrupt pronunciation of the Hebrew name. See Ge- 
Benius, Lex. p. 463. — Hackell. 

p " Tabernacle of the Testimony" — so called because it 
contained the two tables of the constitution, or supremo law, 
given to the twelve Tribes. 

1 Enoirjae, is aor. 1, and should not bo rendered by our perf. 
as in the Com. Vers. The supply of the word " things " is 
unnecessary, and is, therefore, omitted here. 

■■ "Even they slew those " is the exact order of the original 
text. Still, as in our usage, They slew even those, is quite 

• Who had 2yi'cviously announced, who showed lefore, who 




wliich shewed before of the com- 
ing of the Just One; of whom 
ye have been now the betrayers 
and murderers ; 

53 Who have received the law 
by the disposition of angels, and 
have not kept it. 

54 When they heard these 
things, they were cut to the 
heart, and they gnashed on him 
with their teeth. 

55 But he, being full of the 
Holy Ghost, looked up stead- 
fastly into heaven, and saw the 
glory of God, and Jesus standing 
on the right hand of God, 

56 And said, Behold, I see the 
heavens opened, and the Son of 
man standing on the right hand 
of God. 

57 Then they cried out with 
a loud voice, and stopped their 
ears, and ran upon him with one 

58 And cast him out of the 
city, and stoned him: and the 
witnesses laid down their clothes 
at a young man's feet, whose 
name was Saul. 

59 And they stoned Stephen, 
calling upon God, and saying. 
Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. 


KaTayyeiXapTas wepi rrjs eXev- 
o"e(My Toi) SiKalov, ov vvv vfi€i9 
irpoSoraL icat ^oveh yeyevrjcrde' 
^^olrives eXa^ere tov vofxov ety 
Starayas dyyeXcou, /cat ouk c(pv- 
Xa^are. °^ 'Akovovtcs 8e ravra, 
SieTTplovTO Tai9 KapSlais avTcou, 
Koi efipvxpv Tovs oSovras eV 
avTov. ^^ "^ Yirapyodv 5e irXTjpris 
IIpev/xaT09 'Ayiov, arevLcras eiy 
TOV ovpavov, eide So^au Oeov, 
Kcu ^Irjcrovv earaiTa e/c Se^tcov 
TOV 0€ov, ^^ Koi elrrev, ^ISov, 
tfecopco TOVS ovpavovs avecpyp-e- 


e/c Se^tcov icrTcora tov Oeov. 
^^ Kpd^avTes Se (pcovfj p.€ydXr), 
arvvi(r)(OV to. aTa avTuiv, kcu 
app-rjaav 6p.o6vp.a8ov eV avTov 

^^ KOL €KfiaX6vT€S e^CO TTJS TTO- 

Xecos, eXido^oXovv. Kai ol p.ap- 
Tvpes diriOevTO Ta lp.aTLa avTcov 
rrapd tqvs vroBas veaviov kuXov- 
p.ivov JEavXov, ^^ kcu eXiOo^o- 
Xovv TOV STe(j)avov, iirLKaXovp-e- 
vov KOL XeyovTa, Kvpte 'Ir](rov, 


at TO TTvevp.a p.ov. 




viously announced the coming 
of the Just One, of whom you 
have now been the betrayers 
and murderers — you who have 53 
received the law by the 'minis- 
tration of angels, and have 
not kept it. When they heai'd 54 
these things, they were cut to 
the heart, and they gnashed 
on him with their teeth. But 55 
he, being full of the Holy Spi- 
rit, looked up steadfastly "into 
the heaven, and saw the glory 
of God, and Jesus standing on 
the right hand of God, and 
said : Behold, I see the heaven 5g 
opened, and the "Son of man 
standing on the right hand of 
God. Then they cried out 57 
with aloud voice, and stopped 
their ears, and ran upon him 
with one consent, and cast him 
out of the city, and stoned 
him. And the witnesses laid 5S 
oft" ''their garments at the 
feet of a young man, named 
Saul. And they stoned Ste- 59 
phen, 'invoking, and saying. 
Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. 

foretold, are equally intelligible and equally excgetical of the 
word nQoy.araYyeXlm. Ayyslos is transferred into our tongue, 
literally with us, an angel, a messenger, a nuncio. Nihil est 
absurdi si statuamus nuncium eo loco angelum dici. Grit. Sac. 

Ohives — e<pv).n^are — you yourselves have received the Law, 
and have not kept it. 

' " Disposition of Angels," com. ver. ats Staxayas ayyeXco%', 
ordinance of Angels, Tyndale; ministration of Angels, Rheims ; 
in-dispositione angelorum, Vulgate ; par le ministere des angos, 
rrench. To me, it would seem, as if the tables were handed 
down through ranks of angels, as to persons standing on the 
rounds of a ladder, one below another in a line reaching from 
the threshold of heaven down to Moses. 

This is indicated in the terms selected, in all the ancient 
and modern versions that we have seen. 

" £is TOP ovpavov — towards heaven, Thomp., Doddridge, 
Murdock, Wakefield; to heaven, Wesley; %mto heaven, 
Rheims; into heaven, com. ver., Boothroyd, WicklilTe, Tyn- 
dale, Cranmer, Geneva. It must literally have been into 

heaven, because he saw the heavens opened and Jesus stand- 
ing on the right hand of God. This case illustrates the 
looseness of translators and revisers, and, therefore, we so 
particularly notice it, and because of its bearings in more im- 
portant cases. 

' Son is found in the original with a small letter; still, 
in our style, I do not object to a capital S, provided only it be 
uniform in all other cases in the whole volume. 

'' Upper garments, Wakefield ; " Clothes," iMurd. 

* ETtiy.alovuEvov Xtyovra. Literally invoking and say- 
ing. " Calling on the Lord." In the Greek, calling on, and 
saying. Lord Jesus. The English requires the insertion of the 
object, who was " the Lord Jesus." We are, therefore, not 
to insert the word God, with our common version, which 
word it has retained from WickliiTe. " eloped God to help." 

The Latin is correct, invocantem et diccnlem Domine Jesu, 
Granville Penn in loco. This is the strongest evidence, in a 
given case, of the faith of Stephen, in the Divinity of Jesus 




60 And he kneeled down and 
cried with a loud voice, Lord, 
lay not this sin to their charge. 
And when he had said this, he 
fell asleep. 


And Saul was consenting unto 
his death. And at that time 
there was a great persecution 
against the church which was 
at Jerusalem ; and they were all 
scattered abroad throughout the 
regions of Judea and Samaria, 
except the apostles. 

2 And devout men carried 
Stephen to his burial, and made 
great lamentation over him. 

3 As for Saul, he made havoc 
of the church, entering into every 
house, and haling men and wo- 
men, committed them to prison. 

4 Therefore they that were 
scattered abroad went every 
where preaching the word. 

5 Then Philip went down to 


5e TO. yovara, €Kpa^e (pcovfj /xe- 
yaXy, Kvpie, jxr] aTrjaris avTols 
TTjv afxapTLau ravrrju. Kcu tovto 
elircov iKoip-Tjdr]. 


JSavXos 8e Tjv crvvev8oKa>v rfj 
dvaipecrei avrov. ^ Eyivero de 
iu eKeivrj rfj rjixipa Sicoy/xos /xeyas 
eTTt Tr]u eKKXrjcrtav rrjv iu 'lepo- 
croXvjxoLS' iravres re SLecnrdpr}- 
aav Kara, ray ■)(a3pas rrjs 'lovSaias 
KCU Sajxapeias, TrXr]v twv divo- 
aroXcov. ^ crvveKOfiLcrav 8e tov 
Srecpavov avSpes evXafiels, kol 
eTTOirjo-avTO kott^tov fxiyav eV 
avTw. ^ ^avXos Se eXv[xa[v€TO 
TTjv eKKXr]criav, Kara rowy o'ikovs 
ela7rop€vofjLevo9, crvpcou re duSpas 
/cat yvvoLKas 7rape8i.8ov et? (f)v- 
XaKTjv. ol jxev o^v Siacnrapeu- 
rey SiyXdou, evayyeXi^ofxevoi tov 

^ 0IAinnOS Se KareXdwu 


And he kneeled down and 60 
cried out, with a loud voice. 
Lord, lay not this sin to their 
charge. And when he had said 
this, he fell asleep. Now Saul 
was consenting to his death. 


Now on that ^day there l 
'arose a great persecution 
against the congregation, 
which "was in Jerusalem ; and 
they were all scattered abroad 
throughout the '■districts of 
Judea and Samaria, except 
the Apostles. Yet devout men 2 
jointly bore 'away Stephen to 
the grave, and made great la- 
mentation over him. But Saul iJ 
■'wasted the congregation, en- 
tering into the houses, and 
"dragging forth men and wo- 
men, he committed them to 
prison. Nevertheless, the ''dis- 4 
persed, passed along preach- 
ing the ^word. Philip, indeed, 5 

y J<!v By.etvrj t[1 W'^Cif- And on that day. In, on, and un 
are derived from a Saxon verb signifying — lo come to. to meet, 
to pass. Hence they all denote nearness, closeness, contiguity. 
Webster. "J» that day," with us, frequently indicates a 
length of time — a period of time, beyond a certain day — or a 
single day. Reference is here, obviously, to Stephen's Martyr- 
dom, and the consequent dispersion of the Church that was in 
Jerusalem. This is confirmed by another reference to it, 
chap. 11 : 19 ; ol /icv ow diaana^evres raio rijs Ohxpecoe rtjs 
ysvo/tevijs ent Srefavii), making that very day the epoch of 
the dispersion of the Church. 

'■ EyEvaro. Ftvoftai, indicates to come into existence, or to 
hegin to be. As more definite we may prefer began to be — to 
there was. In our currency they are nearly equal ; still his- 
torical accuracy is better secured by the former than by the 

• Tijv after ex-Arjatav is demonstratively expletive —and 
justifies " that was in Jerusalem." 

I" Tag xeo^ae — xco^a in com. ver. is represented by country, 
Tigion, land, ground, field, coast, occurring 27 times. Ter- 
ritories is here too large ; coasts, too maritime ; and lands, in- 
apposite to the territory. — District, or region, is our remain- 

ing choice. With us district is less Koman, and more popular 
than region. 

° Svvey.o/aaav — bore away together — to the grave, Hackett. 
Less ambiguous we prefer — jointly bore away Stephen. Exxofit^a} 
was appropriated to funeral pomp, like offerre with the Romans. 

'' Avftatvo/iai, is an &7ta^ P.syo/tBvo}'. Havoc is a Saxon 
word, and indicates a hawJc. He hawJced the Church would 
be hypercritical, and, therefore, inapposite. — " He made havoc" 
of it is little better. We prefer Jliltoii's use of the term, or 
rendition of it — he wasted the Church. Being hero the 
imperfect of Ivfiaivo^iai, indicating a continuous devastation 
we would translate it. — But Saul wasted or was wasting the 
congregation entering into the houses of the disciples — aava 
Tovs ocy.ovs, etanoQevoftsvos ovqwv &c., Meyer, Hack. 

" Xvoaiv — Eovqov as in com. ver. John 21 : 8, should here be 
represented by dragging — as fishes in a net. — So it is found 
in Acts 14 : 19, " after stoning Paul, they dragged {Bovqov) 
him out of the city." 

■■ 01 HE<D ovv. Nevertheless — " They that were dispersed " 
usually contracted into "the dispersed;" more sententious 
and equally grammatical. 

^ Evayye?.i^o/ievoi tov loyov, literally, evangelizing the word. 




the city of Samaria, and preach- 
ed Christ unto them. 

6 And the people with one 
accord gave hsed unto those 
things which Philip spake, hear- 
ing and seeing the miracles which 
he did. 

7 For unclean spirits, crying 
with loud voice, came out of 
many that were possessed with 
them: and many taken with pal- 
sies, and that were lame, were 

8 And there was great joy in 
that city. 

9 But there was a certain 
man, called Simon, which be- 
foretime in the same city used 
sorcery, and bewitched the peo- 
ple of Samaria, giving out that 
himself was some great one : 

10 To whom they all gave 
heed, from the least to the great- 
est, saying, This man is the great 
power of God. 

• 11 And to him they had re- 
gard, because that of long time 


eiy TToXiu Trjs Sa/xapdas, e/c^- 
pvcraev avTOis top XpLarov. 
" Trpo(Tei)(pv re ol b)(Xot Tols Ae- 
yopiivoLS VTTO Tov ^iXlttttov 6/xo- 
dv/xa8ou, iv T<S uKovetv avrovs 
Kou l3Xe7reLU ra crrjp.eLa a eTroUi. 
^ TToXXcov yap tcov e^ovrcov Trvev- 
HaTa oLKaOapra, fioavra fxeyaXr) 
(j)(ov^ e^r]p-)(eTO- iroXXol 8e wapa- 
XeXvjxivQL Kcu ■)(a)Xoi edepaTrevdrj- 
(Tav. ^ KOU iyevero xapa, fxeydXrj 
iu rfj TToXei eKelvrj. " 'Avrjp 8e 
TLs ovofiarL Sifxcov irpovTrrjpx^i' 
ev rfj TToXei /xayevcou kou i^taTcov 
TO eOvos Ttjs SafxapeLas, Xeycov 
eluat TLva eavrov fiiyav ^ a> 
7rpo(ru)(ov iravres oaro fiLKpov 
ecas jxeyaXov, X^yovres, Ovtos 
iavLv rj Svvap.LS tov deov rj /xe- 
ydXij. ^^ Upoau^ov 8e avr<S, 
dia TO LKava ■)(^povm tols fxayeiais 


having gone down to a city of 
Samaria, ''was announcing the 
Christ to them : and the multi- 6 
tudes were, with one accord, 
giving heed to the things spok- 
en by Philip, when they 'heard 
and saw the miracles which 
he was doing: for, from 'many 7 
who had unclean spirits, they 
were going out, crying with a 
loud voice ; and many palsied 
and lame were healed. And 8 
there was great joy in that city. 

But there was there, before, 9 
a certain man, named Simon, 
who formerly, in the same 
city, had practiced sorcery, 
and ''astonished the people of 
Samaria, boasting that he was 
some great one. To whom 10 
they all gave heed, young and 
'old, saying, This man is the 
great power of Grod. And to 11 
him indeed they gave heed, be- 
cause that for a long time, he 

It first appears in tlie Cliristian oracles, Mattiicw 11 : 5. — In 
tlie passive sense " tlie poor are evangelized j" or it may be 
rendered "the poor have the gospel preached to them." But 
we have another Evangelical formula tantamount, in many in- 
stances, to this. It is first found Matt. 4 : 23, Jesus — taught 
(SiSaancov) in the Synagogues of Galilee and was preach- 
ing {miQvaalov') the gospel of the kingdom, to cvayyeXeov rrjs 
paaclctas. This subject merits a treatise rather than a note. 
We can only note the following facts. — 1. Ktjqv^ — a public 
herald — occurs but thrice in the Christian Scriptures, and is 
always rendered preacher com. ver. ; literally, in Greek cur- 
rency, it indicates a public crier and a herald, CriticaSacra.-r- 
The Septuagint use it for a word which signifies clamare, to 
cry aloud, Jonah 3:7; also for a word signifying vocare, to 
call ; and puhlice profiteri, Gen. 4 : 43 ; also for a word signi- 
fying voce lata ac plena personare, Hosea 5 : 8. "Blow the 
cornet in Gibeah, the trumpet in Kamah, cry aloud at 
Bethaven, after thee Benjamin !" When used to denote 
preaching it is always used metaphorically, Critica Sacra. 
We preach, ro EvayeXhov, the gospel, we teach, t] ScSaxt;, the 
doctrine of Christ. See note on v. 25. 

■> Kr/^vcaco occurs 61 times ; 5 times publish, teach, jproclahn, 
and 54 times preach. We have of the same family ntj^vS, and 
XTj^vyjia, the latter 8 times always rendered preaching, and 
xrjQv^, 3 times preacher. The whole family, then, appear in 
Holy Writ 72 times. Of these, 65 are preach and preaching and 

preacher. — The SiSaoxco family, of six members, Sidaxrty.og, 
StSaxros, 8i8aay.aha, SiSaaxa).og, SiSaxij, occurs in the above 
members of it, in all 114 times; represented in our language 
by teach, teaching, teacher, or Doctor, Doctrine, didactic, or 
ajH to leach. Preach and teach are therefore two distinct 
employments, never once confounded, or substituted, the ono 
for the other, in all the oracles of God. 

' Uv TO) ay.ovEiv — ev, with the infinitive, denotes, not the 
cause, but the occasion. Kuhner's Greek Grammar, Hackett. 

J Instead of "from many" we may read "out of many" 
without violating any law or reason ; and also without any 
more precision of sense. 

I' Eiiarcov. Imperfect active of e^iaxr]fu and e^taram, ob- 
stupefacio — to astonish, to amaze, to confound, to astound, to 
have no sense left — obstupuere animi, Virgil ; extra se esse, to 
be out of one's self, Beza. Hence the word ecstasy. There is 
no one Latin word which doth sufficiently express that Greek 
word ; for it signilieth — pra3 admiratione apud se non esse, et 
do statu mentis dejici, Mark 2 : 12, Vulgate.' Miron, Beza; 
obstupesco, vel percellor: for the Greek word signifieth mere- 
tem alicujus veluti araovere, which the Latin percellor also 
doth, Beza, Critica Sacra. Astounded, that is — astonished to 
dumbness, Webster. 

1 " From young to old," is the exact rendering, if wo change 
" from small to great." We repudiate unto as antiquated and 
out of use amongst our best writers. 




he had bewitched them with 

12 But when they believed 
Philip, preaching the tilings con- 
cerning the kingdom of God, 
and the name of Jesus Christ, 
they were baptized both men 
and women. 

13 Then Simon himself be- 
lieved also : and when he was 
baptized, he continued with 
Philip, and wondered, beholding 
the miracles and signs which 
were done. 

14 Now when the apostles 
which were at Jerusalem heard 
that Samaria had received tlie 
word of God, they sent unto 
them Peter and John : 

15 Who, when they were come 
down, prayed for them that they 
might receive the Holy Ghost : 

16 (For as yet he was fallen 
upon none of them : only they 
were baptized in the name of 
the Lord Jesus.) 


e^ecrraKeVat aiirov?. "Ore de 

iTTiarevcrau rro 0iXL7nrcp evayye- 
Xi^Ofxepu) TO, irepl ti]s ^acnXelas 


'Irjcrou Xpia-Tov, ifiaTTTL^ovTO 
avSpes re kou yvvaiKes. ^^ 6 Se 
Sifxcou KaL avTos eiriaTevcre, kou 
fiaTTTLo-Oeis y]v wpoaKapT^pav tS 
^lXltttto)' Oecopwv re (n]fj.eLa kcu 
8vvaix€LS fxeyaXa? yLvo/ieva?, i^l- 
crraro. "* ' AKovcravres 8e o'l ei> 
lepoaoXv/xoLS' ixTrocrroAoi, ort 
deSeKtai rj SajxapeLa tov Xoyov 
TOV Oeov, aTrear^iXav irpos av- 
Tovs TOV UeTpov Kol ' IcoduvTjv 
^'^ olTLves KaTa^dvTes irpocnjv- 
^avTo irepl avTcou, oiroas Xd^cocTL 
llvevpia ' AyLov. ^^ outtq) yap 
r]v en ovSevl avTau eTTtTreTrrco/cos", 
fxovov 5e ^e^aTTTLcrixivoL VTTTJpy^ov 
eis" TO bvofxa tov Kvplov 'lyaov. 


had astonished them with his 
'"sorceries. But when they 12 
"believed Philip, preaching the 
things concerning the king- 
dom of God, and the name of 
Jesus Christ, they were im- 
mersed, both men and women. 
Also Simon himself beheved; la 
and when he was immersed, 
lie constantly "adhered to Phi- 
lip, and, beholding tlie mira- 
cles and signs wiiich were 
done, he was astonished. 

Now when the Apostles u 
who were at Jerusalem, heard 
that Samaria had received 
the word of God, they sent 
to them Peter and John, 
who, when they had come 15 
down, prayed for them, that 
they might receive the pploly 
Spirit. For as yet, "he had le 
fallen upon none of them : only 
they had been immersed into 
the name of the Lord Jesus. 

"■ Tais ftavciais, witli his sorceries. He is, tlierefore, pro- 
l^erly called Simon the sorcerer. — One of the tribe that con- 
tended with Moses. 

" EmoTtvaav tio <I>ih7t7tii>, literallj'^, ihey helieved in Fhilij) 
preaching — in what he jireiichcd. 

° IlQoayMQreQcov, semper adsum. lie constantly adhered. 

I' Aaflutai Tti/cvfici 'Ayiop. That they might receive the 
Holy Spirit. This is literally a holy spirit or, as printed in 
our standard text, Holy Spirit. There are not wanting some 
who now, as formerly, have imagined that without the article, 
and without capital initials a holy spirit, or a Uoly temper is 
all that can he understood and expected in such cases. Fatal 
to such hypothesis is the fact, that, in our accredited originals, 
wo have it, in both cases, with, and without the article, and 
with, and without capital initials. In the very next occur- 
rence in the next verse and in the same Bagstcr's approved 
text, it is printed in capital initials. To itvev/ia to 'Aytov, 
with the article, nor is this a solitary case. We have many 
such. See ch. 1 : 5, note o, and ch. 10 : 38, note . 

1 He had fallen upon none of them. They had only been 
immersed into the name of the Lord Jesus. It may, indeed, 
be appropriately rendered. It had fallen upon none of them, 
but while gender is regarded, it must also be regarded and 
remembered, that the Spirit is appropriately personified hy 
the Lord himself, and commissioned as his agent or mis- 
flionary. — John reports his personal mission and work in a 

language and stj'le most precise, definite, and unmistakable — 
under the commission of \i\s jiersonal amhassador or advocate, 
John IG. The mere Etymologist would translate the 10th 
verse as follows : — " because at that time it had fallen on not 
one of them." This would be apposite to a gust of wind, a 
shower of rain, or a flash of lightning. The ambiguity in 
some minds on this subject arises wholly, as we conceive, 
from the fact that there are no genders in heaven, nor amongst 
spirits, nor in the Qetorijs (an a7r«| f.eyoftevov), the Godhead. 
Again the Tather, Son, and Holy Spirit arc a special manifest- 
ation or revelation of Qewrqe, or Jehovah, in ^adaptation to a 
special emergency in the universe. Eternally it was Jehovah. 
In creation it was God, the Word, the Spirit. But the Word 
that was in the beginning in or with God, and that was God, 
became a man, and therefore masculine, though embracing all 
hmnanity, no one personality; irrespective of sex or gender. 
Woman — or womhman, being created out of one yerson, became 
a second person in humanity, as the wonn was in Divinity. — 
Hence the Holy Spirit equally personal, proceeding from both, 
became a third person and though equally Divine was neither 
first nor second but third — hence neither and neuter are one 
in essence and constitute a third manifestation or personality 
of the absolute Jehovah. The pronominal neuter is a mere 
grammatical contingency growing out of the clumsiness and 
awkwardness of our composite language, an imperfect vehicle 
to introduce Jehovah Elohim into human head, human heart, 
or human tongue. 




17 Then laid they their hands 
on them,, and they received the 
Holy Ghost. 

18 And when Simon saw that 
through laying on of the apos- 
tles' hands the Holy Ghost was 
given, he offered them money. 

19 Saying, Give me also this 
power, that on whomsoever I 
lay hands, he may receive the 
Holy Ghost. 

20 But Peter said unto him. 
Thy money perish with thee, 
because thou hast thought that 
the gift of God may be purchas- 
ed with raonej^ 

21 Thou hast neither part nor 
lot in this matter: for thy heart 
is not right in the sight of God. 

22 Repent therefore of this 
thy wickedness, and p'ray God, 
if perhaps the thought of thine 
heart may be forgiven thee. 


Tore eTr^Tidovu ras '^(upas iir 
avrovs, koH eXajx^avov JJpev/xa 
"Ayiov. ^^ 0eacrafX€uo9 8e 6 
Sl/xcov, OTL 8ia rrjs eTridiaecos 
tS)V ■)(eipaiv T&v dTrocrroXcoj/ 81- 
Borai TO Jlvivixa to AyLov, 
Trpoo-^veyKeu avTols -^prjixaTa, 
^^ Xeycov, Aot€ Kap.o\ ttjv e^ov- 
crlau tuvttjv, li>a a av unQSy Tas 
yelpas, Xafx^dvrj Uvevjxa' AyLov, 
^^ Uerpo? 8e eiwe Trpoy avTov, 
7o dpyvpcoj/ (Tov crvu crol elrj eh 
dircoXeiav, otl ttjv Scopeav tov 
Oeov ii/ofxicras' Sid ^(prjuaTcou 
KTaadai. ^^ ovk ccttl crot /xeph 
ov8e KXrjpos eV rm Xoycp tovtco. 
?7 yap KapBia crov ovk kcmv ev- 
6eia evcaiTLOv tov Oeov. " p.eTa- 
vorjaou ovu dwo ttjs KUKias crov 
TavTrjS, Kol 8erjdr)TL tov Oeov, el 
dpa d^eOrjcreTaL (tol rj e-TTLvoLa 
Trjs KapSias crov. "^ els ydp 


Then they laid hands on them, 17 
and they received the 'Holy 
Spirit. And when Simon °saw 18 
that, through laying on of 
the Apostles' Iiands, the Holy 
Spirit was given, he offered 
them 'mone}'-, saying. Give to lo 
mo also this jijower, that on 
whomever I lay hands, he 
may receive the Holy Spirit. 
ButPetersaidtohim,mayyour 20 
silver go to destruction with 
you, because you have pre- 
sumed to procure the gift of 
God through money. To "you 21 
there is no jiarfc norjsortion in 
this tiling, for your heart is not 
right in the sight of God. Re- 
form, therefore, from this your 22 
wickedness, and pray 'the 
Lord, if, perhaps, the "device 
of yoLU' lieart sluill bo forgiven 

The great Teacher himself changed the gender of tlio II0I3' 
Spirit in his valedictory promise reported by the beloved 
disciple, who slept in his bosom; he christed, or cliristened 
liim. u Tta^axlijTos. — Ilonco the new style TTE/npco avrav — 
sxsivos sXO'iov — ey.sivos Sfie So^aaei — rov euov },ij\j)srai — ex tov 
sfiov ).r}\j)srai, avay/ehu viuv, John IC : 12-15. I more 
than question the propriety oi sacrificing a Divine impersona- 
tion, or a Divine personality, to the capricious etiquette of our 
Ac, s/ts, il. He is our most worthy pronoun, and why fastidi- 
ously sacrifice the JXaQaxhytos, to our least worthy ! ! 

'■ Ekafipavov Ttvsvfia 'Ayiov. They received ilie Holy Spiril, 
or they received Holy Spirit — is equally grammatical — why 
not the latter rather than the former ! Especially since in the 
next verse we find ro m'ev/ta to 'Ayiov. But wo shall be 
told in the latter case it is the subject of the proposition. It 
is, however, the same Holy Spirit whether the sulyect or the 
predicate of the proposition. But Simon when stipulating for 
this power, or authority of imparting the gift, uses the anar- 
throus form, — so we find it in John 20 : 22, after the same 
verb ; but in Acts 10 : 47, in a similar attitude, we find the 
ro Ttvmifia to 'Aytov vouchsafed to the believing gentiles on 
ths imposition of Paul's hands. 

* For d-eaaa/iepoe, read idaiv, Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. : and Tf.'s 
Stereotype Kd., for ro nvcv/ca ro aytov, simply to Tipav/m. 

' We have here y,Q>]/taTa — riches — and in v. 20, to n/yyv^ioi' 
— money or silver. 

AnyvQior — properly indicates silver, and nine times in 
twenty occurrences is so rendered in the com. ver. ; while 
yoi]iia in the plural number is aUvaj's represented by ric}ies or 
money, com. ver. 

" " To 3'ou there is no part nor portion in tliis speech " is 
more literal — or grammatical — as 7.oyoe is sometimes so ren- 
dered in the com. ver. — Ei> Xoyro tovto), in Ihis word, doctrine, 
or gospel, 01s., Neand. ; in this tiling, viz., the gift of the 
Spirit, Ben., Mey., De Wotte, as quoted by Ilackett. 

' zlerjO'rjTi. tov &eov, com. text. ^BijO'rjTi tov xvqwv, Ln., 
Tf. — Griesbach marks it as supported by great authorities. It 
is also more in harmony with the genius and spirit of that 
epoch — The Lord Jesus being then recognized as recently 
constituted the reigning sovereign — the head of the church — ; 
is in this case declared to be the immediate source of this 
special mission of the Spirit. "He has shed forth that which 
you now sec and hear." 

^ El aQa cTtcvoia. Tins word is only used once in N. T., and 
is not represented by the word thought. — Device or 7nachina- 
tion is its proper representative. The Vulgate and Erasmus 
give cogitatio. Nimium dilute, says Critica Sacra. — Emroia, 
pronsus hie respondet Mehreeis voci Zamam. Beza in loc. Vida 
Drnsjum in loco, Grit. Sacra. 




23 For I perceive that thou 
art in the gall of bitterness, and 
in the bond of iniquity. 

24 Then answered Simon, and 
said, Pray ye to the Lord for 
me, that none of these things 
which ye have spoken come up- 
on me. 

25 And they, when they had 
testified and preached the word 
of the Lord, returned to Jeru- 
salem, and preached the gospel 
in many villages of the Samari- 

26 And the angel of the Lord 
spake unto Philip, saying. Arise, 
and go toward the south, unto 
the way that goeth down from 
Jerusalem unto Gaza, which is 

27 And he arose, and went : 
and behold, a man of Ethiopia, 
an eunuch of great authority 
under Candace queen of the 
Ethiopians, who had the chai'ge 
of all her treasure, and had come 
to Jerusalem for to worshijj, 


■yoX-qv TTLKpias kolL avvSecrfiov 
dSLKLUs bpa (re ovra. ^^ 'AiroKpi- 
deis 8e 6 S'lfx&v etVe, Aer^Or^re 
vfiels inrep ip-ov wpos tov Kvptov, 
OTTcos p.TjSei' iireXdrj eV' e/ie (hv 

^^ 01 p£v ovv 8Lap.apTvpap.evoL 
Kca XaXrjaavTes tov Xoyov tov 
Kvpiov, virecTTpey^av els 'lepov- 
craXrjp, iroXXas re Kap-as twv 
JEapapeLTav evrjyyeXlcravTO. 

^^ ' AyyeXos 8e Kvpiov eXd- 
Xrja-e irpos ^lXlttttov, Xeycov, 
AvacTTrjdL KOLL iropevov KaTa p,e- 
arjp^plav, eVt ti]u 68ov rrjv 
KfiLTa^aivovcrav diro 'lepovaaXrjp. 
el? JTa^aw avrrj eaT\v eprjpLOs. 

KOLL oLvaaTOLS ivropevdr)' kou 
\8ov, dvrjp AlOio'y^r evvov-)(os Su- 
vdaTtjs Kav8dKr}s ttjs fiaa-LXia- 
arjs AWlottcov, by rjv eiri Trdarjs 
TTJs yd^7]9 avrrjs, os iXrjXvdei 
TrpocrKvvrja-cov els 'lepovcraXyp., 


you ; for I perceive that you 23 
are in the gall of bitterness, and 
in the bond of iniquity. Then 24 
Simon, answering, said, Pray to 
the Lord for me that none of 
these things, which you have 
spoken, may come upon me. 
They therefore, when they had 25 
testified and preached the word 
of the Lord, set out on their 
return to Jerusalem, and they 
preached the gospel in many 
''villages of the Samaritans. 

But an Angel of the Lord 2e 
spoke to Philip, saying. Arise, 
and go toward the south, to 
the way that goes down fi'om 
Jerusalem to Gaza (which is 
the way through the desert''). 
And he arose and went ; and 27 
behold a man of Ethiopia, 
an "officer of great authority, 
under Candace, queen of the 
Ethiopians, who had the charge 
of all her treasure, and had 
come into Jerusalem to "wor- 

^ JJoX^as Ts xcoftas icov Safidosirtov evrjyyekiartvro, Aor. 1, 
mid. Villages being here the object of this verb, we must 
render it in grammatical harmony with this fact; and they 
evangelized many villages of the Samaritans. 

JEvi/yyehaavTo may state the result of their labors while 
they had been absent, or what took place on their return to 
Jerusalem, Kuin., DeWette. Mej''. This latter view agrees 
best with the order of the narrative. 

Tfiis verb, according to a later Grecism (Lob. ad Phryn. page 
267) may take its object in the Accusative as well as in the 
Dative, Com. V. 40; 14 : 15, 21; 16 : 10; Luke 3 : 18; Gal. 
1 : 9 ; TV. § 32 : I ; Hackett, p. 125. 

Dismissing the labors of Peter and John, he continues the 
narrative of Philip. They went to Jerusalem — and Philip 
towards Gaza. 

" They went back to Jerusalem," or " returned to Jeru- 
salem," is more in our modern style, if we do not regard the 
fact, that they did not immediately and straightforward prose- 
cute their journey to Jerusalem — but we are informed, that 
on their return they communicated the glad tidings to many 
Tillages of the Samaritans. 

y E^ftog, being an adjective, is found as such fifteen times 
in the N. Test. This occurrence may, or may not be an ex- I 

ception — but it is the only one that is not obviously associated 
with a noun in concord, and here it may through avTi] qualify 
68og. Some refer it to Gaza, sixty miles southwest of Jeru- 
salem. Hence Hug, Scholtz, Meyer, and others suppose that 
this is the place here described by s^tj/uos, desert. But Gaza 
was not destroyed A. D. G4 or 06, when this book was com- 
pleted, and if even later it could not have received this name. 
There having been several ways, at least two, well known to 
history, we presume that the angel directed Philip to the 
course which he took in order to meet the officer of Queen 
Candace. Two roads actually exist to this day, one of which 
passes through the desert inhabited by nomadic Arabs. There 
was a plurality of queens of this name. 

" This Eunuch is distinguished by the title — Swaartis y.av- 
day.rjs rrje paaihaaijs AiO'ioTCcov — Candace the queen of Ethio- 
pians. Strabo and Dio name this queen as warring against 
the Romans in the 23d year of Augustus Ccesar. — Ethiopia 
was that portion of Africa south of Egypt. Pliny also names 
Candace a queen of the Ethiopians. 

"■ nooaKwijacov cis 'IsQovaahjft. He not only came to 
Jerusalem to worship, but he came to worship, eie le^ov- 
aa?.tife, into or within Jerusalem. — We find a different formula 
of worshiping at this centre. Paul in the textus receptua 




28 Was returning ; and sitting 
in his chariot, read Esaias the 

29 Then the Spirit said unto 
Pliilip, Go near and join thyself 
to this chariot. 

30 And Philip ran thither to 
Idm, and heard him read the 
prophet Esaias, and said, Under- 
standest thou what thou read- 
est ? 

31 And he said. How can I, 
except some man should guide 
me ? And he desired Philip that 
he would come up, and sit with 

32 The place of the scripture 
which he read was this, He was 


^^ yu re v7ro(rTpe(j)cou kol Kadfj- 
fxevos eVt Tov apjxaTOs avrov, 
Kcci aveyivcoaKe tov 7rpo(prjTr]v 
'Haalav. elTre 8e to TTpev- 

fxa Tw 0iXl7nrcp, JJpoaeXde kou 
KoXkqOrjTL T(S app-UTt tovtco. 
^^ IIpoa8pap.a>v Se 6 f^iXtmros 
TjKovcrev avTov apayivaaKOVTOs 
TOV TTpocfyrjTrjv 'HadCav, kol 
e'nrev, 'Apd ye yivaarKUs a ^va- 
yivcoo-Kets; ^^ 'O Be eiire, Jim 
yap av 8vvaip.r)v, eav p.r) tis oStj- 
yr/crrj [le; IlapeKaXecre re tov 
0iXi7r7rov avafidvTa Kadiaat avv 
avTcp. ^^ rj 8e wepLoyr] Trjs ypa- 
(j)r}9 7]v dveyivcocTKev, rjv avTrj, 


ship ; and he was ^returning, 28 
and, sitting upon his chariot, 
he was reading Isaiah, the 
prophet. ^Moreover the Spirit 29 
said to Philip, Go near and 
■"join yourself to this chariot. 
And Philip 'having run up to 30 
him, and heard him reading Isa- 
iah, the prophet, said. Do you . 
understand what you are read- 
ing? He replied, How can I, 'M 
except some one should "guide 
me ? And he ^invited Philip 
to come up and sit with him. 
Now the ''passage of the Scrip- 32 
ture, which he was reading, 

Bays: ave/3/;v ct^oaxvviiacop ev'Is^ovanlij/i., Acts 24: 11. The 
Eunuch went worshiping i7ito Jerusalem ; while Paul says, I 
went up worshiping in Jerusalem. We adjust this diflerence 
by repudiating the reading in the Textus Receptus in Acts 
24 : 11, and by substituting eig for ev on the authority of 
Lachmann and Tisehondorf in Bagsters' Improved Greek text". 
Etg, indeed, is grammatically and naturally associated with 
verbs indicative of motion or progress ; while ev is appropri- 
ately connected with verbs intimating rest, repose, or cessation 
from action. It is a beautiful fact that n^oaxvvem, occurring 
sixty times in the Christian Scriptures, is uniformly, in every 
case, represented by the word worship. 

It is also another remarkable fact, and worthy of all com- 
mendation, that Tt^oaevxri, prayer, and vtQogcvxo/iat, I pray, 
occurring in the Christian Greek Scriptures one hundred 
and twenty-three times, are invariably represented by pray 
and prayer. What an unspeakable blessing to the world — to 
Christendom especially, had the same law been observed in 
reference to Baptize, Baptism, bishop, preslyler, deacon, &c., 
&c. ! There lives not the man who could compute the gain 
to the Church and to the world from such a fact. 

A question on eis 'leQovaaXrjfi. — Did the Eunuch go to wor- 
ship within Jerusalem, or go into Jerusalem to worship? — 
These are very difierent ideas or objects. If a Jewish prose- 
lyte he went to, or into Jerusalem to worship the God of the 
Jews as the God of the whole earth — the One only living and 
true God. But if he went merely to worship to, into, or unto, 
Jerusalem, or to do homage to the localities there, he had 
need to have propounded other and different questions than 
those he submitted to Philip. 

But may not the idea embraced in the original be more ap- 
positely couched in the formula he had come to worship 
within Jerusalem — in the spirit of a pious Jew, as represented 

in the songs of degrees, Ps. 122 : 3. To Jerusalem — " the 
Tribes go up, the Tribes of the Lord — to the testimony of 
Israel to give thanks to the name of the Lord. For there are 
placed the Thrones of Judgment — the thrones of the house 
of David. — Peace be within thee ! Because of the house of 
the Lord our God I will seek thy good." This was the great 
attractive centre of all who recognized the God of the Jews, 
as the One only living and true God. 

^ Hv re vTtooTQBtpcov xai y.aO'ijftevog em. — And he was re- 
turning, &c., ent, upon his chariot — and he was reading — a 
happy indication of the appositeness of the imperfect to 
express continuity of action. 

. " ^e, moreover, 1 Cor. 15 : 1. The Spirit said : apinoach, 
TtQoaelOe xat y.olhjd'rjrt, and join yourself to that chariot. — 
" And do you understand what you do read .' " said he ; rather 
are you understanding what you are reading 7 A happy illus- 
tration of the continualive force of the present tense. 

'' Ko}.h]d-i}rt — — to cleave to, to keep company, to 
join. In ten occurrences in Luke's and Paul's use of this 
word it is six times rendered join, com. ver. 

" HQoaSQUficov. 2d Aor. part. Active of Tt^oor^e-^co, curro, 
ran to him, having run up to him. 

f Eav ttrj bSrj'yi]ari — from oSos, a way, and aym, I lead. Go 
before me, lead me. — So Homer, Od. 10 : 263 ; Xeno. Cyro. 
4 : 5, 13; Mem. 3:24. A leader in war, to guide by leading 
the way. 

^ UaQBxaXeae — invited him — xa&taat avv avTcp. 

•> JUe^ioxi T^s YQa<pi]g, the passage of Scripture, not the 
place. See Stobaeus in Ecc. Phys. p. 104, a Dion. Hal. de 
Thuc. 25. Cic. ad Attic. 13 : 25. 




led as a sheep to the slaughter ; 
and like a lamb dumb before his 
shearer, so opened he not his 
mouth : 

03 In his humiliation his 
judgment was taken away : and 
who shall declare his genera- 
tion? for his life is taken from 
the earth. 

34 And the eunuch answered 
Philip, and said, I pray thee, of 
whom speaketh the prophet this? 
of himself, or of some other 
man ? 

35 Then Philip opened his 
mouth, and began at the same 
scripture, and preached unto him 

36 And as they went on their 
way, they came unto a certain 
water: and the eunuch said, See, 
licre is water ; what doth hinder 
me to be baptized? 

37 And Philip said, If thou 
believest with all tiiine heart, 
thou mayest. And he answered 
and said, I believe that Jesus 
Christ is the Son of God. 


'iQs TTpo^aTOV im (r(j)ayr]v riyOrf, 
Kcci as afivos iuavTiou rov Kel- 
povTOs avTOU a^covos, ovtchs ovk 
avoLye.1 to aTOfia aurov. ei> 

Ttj Taireivaxret avrov rj Kplcns 
avTov TJpOr], TTju Se yeveav avrov 
TLS 8ir]yr](TeTai; on aiperaL arro 
Trjs yrjs r) (^(or] avrov JLiro- 

Kpideis Be 6 €vvovy^os rS ^lXltt- 
TTca etTTe, Aeop-ai (tov, irept rivos 
7rpo(f)')]ri]9 Xeyei rovro; Trep]. 
iavrov, rj irepX erepov rivos; 
^^ 'Auol^as Se 6 ^/AiTTTTOs- ro 
arop-a avrov, kcu ap^ap.evos airo 
rrj? ypaiprjs ravrrjs, evrjyyeXi- 
aaro avrw rov ^Itjctovv. ^*' as 
5e iiropevovro Kara ri]v o8ov, 
yjXOov iiTL TL vScop' Kai (])i]cnu 6 
evvov-^os, 'ISov vScop' ri KcoXvet 
pe ^a7rrt(rdijvai. ; jEtVe 8e 6 
^IXlttttos, El TTiareveLs i^ oXrjs 
rrjs Kaphias, e^eanv. 'ArroKpL- 
deis de eiire, Hicrrevai rov v'lov 
rov Oeov dvat rov 'Itjotovv XpL- 


was this, " He was 'led away as 
a sheep to slaughter: and as 
a lamb is 'silent before the 
shearer, so ''he opens not his 
mouth. In his humiliation, his 3a 
'condemnation was extorted ; 
and who shall declare his gen- 
eration? for his life is "violent- 
ly taken from the earth." And 31 
the officer, replying to Philip, 
said, I beg of you, of whom 
does the prophet speak this ? 
of himself, or of some other 
person? And Philip opened 35 
his mouth, nuil began at \\w 
same Scripture, and announc- 
ed to him Jesus. 

And as they were going 3fi 
along the "road, they came 
"upon a certain water : and the 
officer said, — Behold water ! 
What hinders my being im- 
mersed? AndPhilipsaid,Ifyou 37 
believe with all your heart, you 
may. And he answered, and 
said, I believe that Jesus Christ 
is the son of God. And he 38 

' H/.O'ri, he was led away. And, as a silent lamb — afcovos, 
all lambs are dumb, but not silent. This Lamb of God was 

' Ei'ui'xiov rov y.ciQia'Tog avrov, in sight of, before, in pre- 
sence of the shearer — or devourer. 

Kunai'Tog, specially elaims attention. While tondeo in its 
mildest construction indicates simply to shear, it more literally 
and generally means to chslroij, consume, devour. Represented 
in Latin by depasci, and in Homeric currency — to consume, to 
devour. I'l.'ll :500; Od. 11: 578. 

Etiecqe Tcolviceotof <povov. He slaughtered many a horned 
beast, Sophocles, Az. 55. 

Shorn, or shearing, is not apposite to this case — too tamo 
for the occasion. The idea here is slaughter, not lamb shear- 

I* Ovy. nvoiysi. 3d per. sing. pres. Ind., ho is not opening 
his mouth. 

" His legal trial is taken away," Thompson. Through vio- 
lence and punishment he was taken away, i. e. from life, De 
■\Vctte. The Hebrew sustains this view. " The generation 
amongst whom lie suffered who shall fully declare," Hackett. 
His judgment was taken away, might indicate in our style, 
that he was bereft of his reason. 

1 '11 y.Qiaie avrov rj^O'i/. In com. ver. xpcais is represented 
by judgment, damnation, condemnation, accusation. His con- 
demnation was extorted — They constrained him to witness 
against himself — and then exclaimed " aioay with him," " cru- 
cify him." So at^to is occasionally understood ; and in this 
case, it is more apposite than in any other known to us-in 
Holy Scripture. 

"' Taken from the earth is too tame for this case. The Hebrew 
is rt^h asiaaaii ^si'g tantamount to: Through violence and. 
punishment he was taken away, from earth or from life. And 
his cotemporaries, or generation, who shall fully declare ? — 
or exhibit, Meyer, Robinson, De Wette. Their wickedness 
was unparalleled. 

" Taken from the earth " is, we repeat, too tame. It has 
in its concomitants the idea of violence — hence we prefer 
violently taken from the earth. 

" Kara rijv oSov — And as they were going along the road. 

Behold loater, tSov vSco^. There is here no supplement 
necessary. The exact Greek requires no supplement in this 
case ; more especially because rt vScoq — a certain water, or u 
water — immediately precedes. 

" The phrase here is bm ri vSioq — literally, they came upon 
a certain water, not etg, to, but em, upon a certain water. 




38 And he commanded the 
chariot to stand still: and they 
went down both into the water, 
both Philip and the eunuch ; and 
he baptized him. 

39 And when they were come 
up out of the water, the Spirit 
of the Lord caught away Philip, 
that the eunuch saw him no 
more : and he went on his way 

40 But Philip was found at 
Azotus: and passing through, he 
preached in all the cities, till he 
came to Cesarea. 


And Saul, yet breathing 
out threatenings and slaughter 
against the disciples of the Lord, 
went unto the high priest, 

2 And desired of him letters 
to Damascus to the synagogues, 
that if he found any of this way. 


arov. ^^ Kcu eKeXevcre o-TrjuaL 
TO apfxa- KoX KaTe^Tjcrav dix(j)o- 
repoi els to vScop, o re i^lXtTnros 
KCLL 6 evvov)(os' KoX e/SaTTTicrev 
avTov. '*" OTe Be dvel3rjcrai> e'/c 
Tou vBuTOs, Uvevjxa Kvpiov ■^p- 
iraae tou ^IXcinrov koL ovk 
eiSeu avTov ovKeTt 6 evvov^os, 
iiropeveTo yap ttjv 68oi> avTov 
yaipcov. " ^iXnTiros be evpedr] 
els 'A^coTov Kai 8Lep)(6/J.evos ev- 
Tj-yyeXi^eTO ray TroAcip Tracras, 
ecus Tov eXdelv avTov els Kaiaa- 


'O AJE UavXos eTL epfirvewv 
aTreiXijs kcu ^ovov els tovs jxadr]- 
TOLS tov Kvptov, TTpocreXdcop TW 
apxiepel, ^ rjTrjcraTO Trap' avrov 
eTTLCTToXas els Aap.a<TKov irpos 
TOLs (Tvvayaiyas, oiras eav Tivas 


commanded the chariot to 
standstill; and they both went 
down "into the water, Philip 
and the officer, and he im- 
mersed him. And when they 39 
were come up out of the water, 
the Spirit of the Lord caught 
Philip away, that the officer 
saw him no more ; for he went 
on his journey rejoicing. But io 
Philip was found in Azotus : 
and, passing along, he an- 
nounced the tidings in all the 
cities till his entrance into 


■"But Saul yet 'breathing i 
»out threatening and slaughter 
'against the disciples of the 
Lord, went to the High Priest, 
and desired "from liim letters to 2 
Damascus, to the "Synagogues, 
that if he found any of "that 

p And they both went down into, etg — not enc. It is here 
anreflijaai' sis, they wont down into, and again ave^i^aav ex, 
they came up out of — tlie water. 

1 Je and ^T^, throw the reader back to ch. 8 : 3, and resume 
the history of Saul of Tarsus, who was merely introduced to 
us as a violent persecutor, and now further evidence of the 
fact is adduced. Therefore we prefer but to and, as the 
proper connective in this case. 

■" Effjivcov — ev and nvsco, Jlo, spiro. The etymolog}' of 
words, though not always an infallible index of their current 
value, or of their special import, in a given case, is, neverthe- 
less, frequently of indispensable importance to a full apprecia- 
tion of their proper significance. — To illustrate this fact and 
the case before us, wc remark, that nvevfta, spirit, comes from 
stpsco, spiro, whose perfect passive is ncnvevfiat — whence 
nvevfta — a breath, a spirit. It is, therefore, an immediate 
product, or effect of an oracle of God — of the breath or in- 
spiration of God. So wo read that God "breathed into his 
nostrils the breath of life," DiTi mil — ■'uach, chaiy ira — breath 
of lives, animal and spiritual. This was literal inspiration. 

In the case before us Saul was breathing of threatenings 
and slaughter. — Breathing of threatenings, and breaking of 
bread are the same form, or fonnula of words. 

• AjteiXtjs xttt ^bvov, governed by EfiTtvsco, spiro. 

t Ets TOVS fiaO-Tiras. against the disciples. Ets is gram- 

matically represented by inter, apud, pro, per, ad, usque ad, 
de, adversus, and by a. Hebraism indicates the Dative. Pis- 
cator's Index of words. Oritica Sacra. Between, among, 
with, for, through, for to, even to, into, unto, concerning, 
against, and towards. Such is its well-established currency. 
Of those, which is to be preferred, in any given case, must bo 
decided by the subject and the context. It is essentially a 
particle of relations, and,is associated with the idea oi motion, 
progress, or change of position. While ev denotes both re- 
lative and absolute repose, ets represents relative and absolute 
motion or progress. 

" lino avrov, from him, or from himself; tiqos tos ovva- 
ytayas, to tlie synagogues — not for himself, along the ivay — 
for their destiny is fixed, eis ^afiaaxov. The local destination 
of the letters, Hack. — This settles his course and the end or 
object of it. 

"• The synagogues had tlicir presbyteries, or presbyters ; 
and these had authority to commission Saul to defend their 
religion against the attacks of the disciples. 

" Tr}s oSov, i. e., y.rtT s^oxrjv, of the ivay, in regard to faith, 
manner of life. Hack. — The way which they call heresy, itara 
tijv b8ov, Acts 24 : 14; ch. 19 : 23; 22 : 4. This formula is 
frequent with Luke. Nusquam, in Novo Test, legem significat 
nisi quid adjiciatur ex quo, id possit intelligi, Critica Sacra. 
See Acts 24 : 22, 




whether they were men or wo- 
men, he might bring them bound 
unto Jerusalem. 

3 And as he journeyed, he 
came near Damascus : and sud- 
denly there shined round about 
him a light from heaven : 

4 And he fell to tlie earth, 
and heard a voice saying unto 
him, Saul, Saul, why persecu- 
test thou me 1 

5 And he said. Who art thou, 
Lord ? And the Lord said, I am 
.Jesus whom thou persecutest. 
It is hard for thee to kick against 
the pricks. 

G And he trembling, cand as- 
tonished, said, Lord, what wilt 
thou have me to do ? And the 
Lord said unto him, Arise, and 
go into the city, and it sliall be 
told thee what thou must do. 

7 And the men which jour- 
neyed with him stood speech- 
less, hearing a voice, but seeing 
no man. 

8 And Saul arose from the 
earth; and when his eyes were 
opened, he saw no man : but 
they led him by the hand, and 
brought him into Damascus. 

9 And he was three days with- 


evprj Trjs odov ovras avSpas re 
Kol yvvaxKas, 8e8efiiuov9 oiyayrj 
ety 'lepovcraky/jt,. "^ eV 8e tS 
TTopevecrOai, iyevero avTov lyyi- 
^€Lv Trj AajxasKW, kou i^al(j)prjs 
7repLr]crTpa\jreu avrou 0c5? diro 
Tov ovpavov- * KOU irearav iin 
TTjv yrjv, r]K0V(re (j)cour}u Xeyov- 
(xav avTM, SaovX, SaovX, tl /xe 
SicoKeL^; '' JEiwe Se, Tis el, kv- 
pie; O Se KvpLOs eiweu, 'JSyco 
elfiL 'Irjcrovs ov av SicoKeLS' 
o-Kkrjpov (TOL irpos Kevrpa. XuktI.- 
^ew. ^ Tpe/jLcov re koc dap.fimw 
elire, KvpLe, rl p.e deXeis ttoltJ- 
crai; Kou 6 KvpLOs irpos avrov, 
'AvaaTTjOi Koi eLaeXde els ttjv 
ttoXlv, Kcd XaXr)6r)(reTaL (tol tl ere 
SeX TTOielv. 01 8e avBpes ol 

crvvohevovres aurw elarrjKeLcrav 
evveol, oLKOvQVTes p-ev rrjs (^covrjs, 
p.ri8eua 8e Qecopovvres. ^ 7)yep6rj 
8e SavXos awo ttjs yrjs' ave- 
coyixeucov 8e twv o^OaXp-av av- 
rov, ov8eva efiXeire, ^eipaycoyovv- 
rey Se avrou ela-qyayov els Aa- 
p^acTKOv. ^ Koi r]v rjpiepas rpels 


way, whether they were men 
or women, he might bring 
them bound to Jerusalem. Now 3 
"in the journey, he came near 
Damascus : and, suddenly, 
there flashed around him, a 
light from heaven, and ^having 4 
fallen upon the earth, he heard 
a voice saying to him, Saul, 
Saul, why do 'you perse- 
cute me? And he said, who s 
art thou. Lord? 'AndtlieLord 
said, I am Jesus, whom you 
persecute ; ■'it is hard for you 
to kick against the goads. 
And he, trembling and aston- 6 
ished, said. Lord, what wilt 
thou have me to do ? And the 
Lord said to him, "Arise, and 
go into the city, and it shall be 
told you what you must do. 
And the men who were jour- 7. 
neying with him, ""had stood 
speechless, hearing,indeed, the 
voice, but seeing no person. 
But Saul 'was raised from the 8 
earth; and, fthough his eyes 
were opened, he saw no per- 
son : but they led him by the 
hand, and brought him into 
Damascus. And he was there 9 

* Ev Se T(j) ^o^evead'tti, in the journey, or while he jour- 
neyed, Hack. Eyevaro avrov eyyi^etv. This is a case of the 
Infinitive with tlie accusative as the subject. 

neQirjarq\i>Bv avrov (pioe, light, not as a body, but as an 
element, 7Za*/je<^ around him — as lightning. 

^ And falling, having fallen, £7ti, upon the earth. The 
participial rendering requires not the supplementary and be- 
fore the Aorist -iixovoe. 

' Tlwa, and (/lee are yet regarded as the sacred style, but 
only retained in worship and worshipful style. We cannot as 
yet wholly repudiate this usagej but, with the exception of 
specific prayer or addresses to God, or in his addresses to 
any person, we presume to dispense with it as a mere spe- 
cimen of antiquity, no longer to be indulged. 

» 'O Se KVQios siTtev. The clause is omitted by Ln., Tf., and 
declared doubtful by Gries. — It is not needed. Indeed, all 
from axhjpov to avrov is omitted by Gb., Knapp, Sch., Ln. Tf. 
following Erasmus. There is, indeed, nothing gained or lost 

to truth, with or without it. — If retained, we omit the article, 
and render y.evr^a, spurs or sharp points. 

■■ From oxf.rj^ov, to ^axrc^stv, has been transferred to this 
place from oh. 26 : 14, Hackett, Dodd., &c. Westen has pro- 
duced instances of this proverb from Greek and Roman 
authors. Kevr^a, a goad, Wakefield. Thompson, Wesley, 
Murdock. Griesbach regards this as a spurious reading. 

° A^Xa avaar. But rise up and enter into the city, and 
that which behooves j'ou to do (to bo doing). This verb ex- 
presses a continuous acting, not an act completed, Lidd. and 
Scott. Rob. 

■' And the men — journeying with him, eiarijxctaav cwsoi — 
3d per. plural, pluperfect — had stood speechless. 

° Eye^O-ij, aor. 1. ind. pass., was raised up, ab ayst^co. 

' AvEfoyfiavovSertovof&alfioiv — perfect part. pass. ; though 
his eyes were opened he saw no person; xet^aycoyovvreg, 
Paul ; xei^aycoysco, manu duco, part, pros., duce'ites manu, 




out sight, and neither did eat 
nor drink. 

10 And there was a certain 
disciple at Damascus, named 
Ananias ; and to him said the 
Lord in a vision, Ananias. And 
he said, Behold, I am here, Lord. 

11 And the Lord said .unto 
him, Arise, and go into' -'the 
street which is called Straight, 
and inquire in the house of Judas 
for one called Saul of Tarsus : for 
behold, he prayeth, 

12 And hath seen in a vision 
a man named Ananias, coming 
in, and putting Ids hand on him, 
that he might receive his sight. 

13 Then Ananias answered. 
Lord, I have heard by many of 
this man, how much evil he 
hath done to thy saints at Jeru- 
salem : 

14 And here he hath authority 
from the chief priests, to bind 
all that call on thy name. 

15 But the Lord said unto 
him. Go thy way : for he is a 
chosen vessel unto me, to bear 


jXT] fiXiircov, Kca ovk e(j)ayeu ovde 
eTTiev. ^'^ 'Hv 8e tls ixa6rjTr]s 
eV AafxacTK^ ovo/xaTi Avavias, 
Kcu ehre irpos avrov b Kvpios kv 
opafiaTt, 'A.vavia. '0 Se elir^v, 
'I8ov eywj Kvpie. ^^ '0 8e KvpLos 
irpos avTou, ' AvacrTas 7ropev6r]TL 
eTTi TTjv pvjxrjv rrjv KaXovp.evr]v 
EvOeiav, KoL ^rjT-qcrov iu olklo. 
'Iov8a Sav\QV ovofMaTi, Tapaia. 
ISov yap 7rpo(r€V)(eTai, ^^ koI 
eiSev iu opapuart av8pa ouofiari 
'Avaviav elcreXdopra kou iiridevTa 
avT(S -^elpa, oTTCoy ai/a/3Ae\|nj. 
^^ 'AireKpidr] 8e 6 'Avavlas, Kv- 
pie, (XKrjKOa ttTTO TTOAACBI' TTSpl 
TOV av8p09 TOVTOV, OCTa KaKO. 

iiroLrja-e tols ayiois aov iv 'lepov- 
aaXrip,' /cat d)8e e^ei i^ovcriav 
■napa tS)V dp^iepecov, BijaaL irav- 
ras Tovs e-mKaXovpiivovs to ouop.a 
(TOV. ^^ JEiwe 8e irpos avrov 6 


eKXoyrjs p-OL icrTiif ovros, rov 


three days ^without seeing, 
and did not eat nor drink. 

Now, there was a certain 10 
disciple at Damascus, named 
Ananias : and the Lord said 
to him in a vision, Ananias! 
And he said. Behold, I am here. 
Lord. And the Lord said to n 
him, Arise and go ''upon the 
street which is called Straight, 
and inquire in the house of Ju- 
das for one called Saul, of Tar- 
sus: for behold he is praying to 
'me, and has seen in a vision 12 
a man named Ananias coming 
in, and putting his hand on 
him, that he might receive his 
sight. Then Ananias answer- 13 
ed. Lord, I have heard, by 
many, of this man, how much 
evil he has done to thy saints 
who are in Jerusalem. And 14 
here he has authority from 
the chief Priests, to bind all 
'those invoking thy name. But 15 
the Lord said to him, "-Go, for 
he is a chosen "instrument for 

' And he was three days without seeing. Mr; filejtav, and 
eat not nor drank. To agree with drank it should be the 
imperfect and not the preterite, the imperfect is yet read eat 
as well as ale. We eat and drank is still in use amongst our 
best writers. 

■> Ent ti]v ^vfirjv, upon the street. Literally, as directions 
to find houses should be given — Go up on the street called 

' Paul always prayed, as a Jew. Still I am not tenacious 
of supplements. It is a fact that ho then prayed to Jesus, 
which he had never done before. 

"For behold he prays." — Did Paul, who affirmed, that, 
" touching the righteousness that is in the law, ho was blame- 
less " — never before pray ! ! Certainly he prayed, else he 
could not have said this, or that he had, as a Jew, "lived in 
all good conscience before God," even to the day of his con- 

I submit, therefore, that the facts in the case demand the 
supplement " to me." " For behold," said Jesus, "he prays to 
me, or in my name." 

' Tovs cTttKalovfisvovg, tJiee calling on thy name. Who calh 
is more apposite to a class. All calling upon thy name — is not 
BO specific — i. e., indicative of a class. These are professionally 

— habitually, so employed. Hence, as indicative of a class 
rather than of an act, we prefer those that call, to those 

'' JIoQevco — 7toqm)Oftai, proficiscor — pergo, ite.rfacio ; often 
used in this sense, Oritica Sacra; go, Thonip., Wes., Penn, 
Wakefield ; arise and go, Murd., Booth. 

> Sy.Evos cyloyiis fiot,, a chosen vessel, Murd., Thomp., Booth., 
Penn, Wake. ; paazaaai, properly to bear up, to lift up, Jos. 
Ant. 7 : 11, 7; John 10 : 31 — to exalt my name. We prefer 
to carry — "It signifieth only to carry," Grit. Sacra. It is 
rendered to htar, Murd., Wake., Penn, Wes., Thomp. To hear 
and carry, are used as synonyms in vessels or ships of burthen. 
Evcomov, in conspectu, coram. 

Vessel, instrument. We prefer tho latter. Vessel, now- 
a-days, is more appropriate to ships and seafaring life. Zxevos, 
indicates any kind of instrument. — ^The genitive use of 
cxXoyes is rather Hebraistic than Grecian. It is a strong ex- 
pression of the idea — an instrument of choice — rather than 
a chosen instrument. But we cannot legitimately think that 
there is any special reference to an eternal, or to a temporal 
choice, but to the admirable adaptation of the man to the work. 
However true that doctrine may be, it is not in tho premises 
before us. Both truth and error are weakened by violence. 




my name before the Gentiles, 
and kings, and the children of 

16 For I will show him how 
great things he must suffer for 
my name's sake. 

17 And Ananias went his way, 
and entered into the house : and 
putting his hands on him, said. 
Brother Saul, the Lord (even Je- 
sus that appeared unto thee in 
the way as thou earnest) hath 
sent me that thou mightest re- 
ceive thy sight, and be filled 
with the Holy Ghost. 

IS And immediately there fell 
from his eyes as it had been 
scales : and he received sight 
forthwith, and arose, and was 

19 And when he had received 
meat, he was strengthened. Then 
was Saul certain days with the 
disciples which were at Damas- 

20 And straightway he preach- 
ed Christ in the synagogues, that 
he is the Son of God, 


/Sacrracrat to ovojxa fxov ivcoTrtou 
WvS)v Kol ^acriXecov, v'lcov re 
'IcrpayX. ^^ eya yap vwoSei^co 
avrS, oaa Set avTov virep tov 
ovofxaros /xov iraOeiv. 

^ 'AirriXde 8e 'Avavias Kot 
elcrrjXOev els rrjv olKLav, kol eTndeh 
eTT avTov Tas '^elpas elire, SaovX 
a8eX(j)€, 6 KvpLOs direcTTaXKe fie, 
Irjarovs 6<^6eis col ev rfj 68cS 
fi rjpyov, oTTtay avafiXe'^rjs kou 
irX-qcrdys JUvevfxaTos Aylov. 

Kcu evdecos aireirecrov ourro 
t5)v 6(j)daX/xciov avrov axrel XeTTt- 
Ses, ave^Xe-^e re irapaxprj/J-a, 
Koi avao-ras efiairTLO-Or], ^^ kol 
Xafiav rpo^rjv ei'ia~)(y(Tev. ' Eyi- 
vero 8e 6 SavXos jxera tcov ev 
AapacTKco p.a6r}Ta)V -qp-epas Tivas' 
Kol evdecos ev toxs crvvayayals 
eKrjpvaa-e tov XpiaTov, otl ovtos 
ea-Tiv 6 vlos tov Oeov. e^l- 


me, to bear my name before 
the Gentiles, and kings, and 
the children of Israel : for I lo 
will "indicate to him how great 
things he must suffer on ac- 
count of my name. 

And Ananias "went away and n 
entered into the house, and 
haviiig laid his hands on him, 
said, Brother Saul, "the Lord, 
even Jesus, who appeared to 
you in the way as you came', 
has sent me, that you may 
receive sight, and be ^filled 
with the Holy Spirit. And 18 
immediately there fell from 
his eyes, as it wei'e scales : 
and he received sight "forth- 
with, and arose, and was im- 
mersed : and having taken food 19 
he was strengthened. Then 
"•Paul was some days with the 
disciples who were at Damas- 
cus. And immediately he 20 
•proclaimed Christ in the syna- 
gogues, that this is the Son 

■" 'TTtoSsi^m — vTcoSety.vvfu, premonstro — indico. I roill show 
him, or indicate to him — is more in harmony with our style. 

" A7tt]Xd-e, went away, £7ti0-£i£ — y,etqae — and '■'■put his 
hands" on him, ■VVake. ; '■'laid his hands," Murd. ; "having 
laid his hands," Thomp. ; " laying his hands," Penn ; "pulling 
his hands," TVes. ; when he had put his hands, Booth. ; and 
put his hands, Geneva, Cranmer; imposing hands, Rlieims; 
and laid on him his hands, Wiclif. 

° Iqaovs 6 oipO'eis — o xvqios, per apposition — the Lord Jesus, 
"Wakefield ; our Lord Jesus, Murd. ; the Lord, even Jesus, 
Thomp. ; the Lord Jesus, Murd. ; " Ihe Lord has sent me, Jesus 
who appeared to thee," Wesley. We prefer, the Lord, even 
Jesus who appeared, &c. 

f Filled with Holy Spirit — with capitals Holij Spirit does not 
at any time denote a mere spiritual influence, and, in the case 
of Paul, it was not an ordinary influence that was vouchsafed 
to him. He was Aposlolically a temple of the Holy Spirit, and 
not merely, as all Christians are, possessed of its sanctifying, 
comforting influence. But theologically we do not discuss 
this suhjeot, but only say that according to the text before us 
it is printed as the Holy Spirit, although anarthrous, and 
doubtless has reference to his personal abiding. 

1 na^ax^rjfia. is omitted by Gb., Ln., Tf. ; xai avaorag, is 
not necessarily rendered having risen, It is by the highest 

authorities exsurgens. See Thesauros GrsecsB Lingua3 Re- 
dactus secundum Constantini Methodum et Schrevellii Ee- 
seratus — Concinatus &c. Gulielmi Bobertson, An. Dom. 1676. 
A'nd arose and ivas immersed — " on this Hebraistic use of the 
word see Gesen. Lex. p. 919 " — Hack. Aaflmv r^oytjv, having 
taken food. 

■■ '0 Sav}.oe. Gb., Sch., Ln., and Tf. omit 6 SavXoe in this 

• JEntj^vaae. He proclaimed Jesus (^tov Iijaovv, Gries., 
Sch., Ln., and Tf.) that he is — or that himself is the Son 
of God. 

" He preached Christ, that he was the Son of God "— 
That "Jesus is the Christ" — and that "the Christ, is the 
Son of God," are two forms of the great apostolic proposition, 
announced, debated, and established in that age. To preach 
thus, was to announce it, with all evidence, and with all 
authority. Paul having formerly denied this fact, gave groat 
prominence and weight to it in his annunciations of it. 

" To teach " and " to preach " Christ, were technical or 
professional phrases in that age. They were then regarded as 
different works ; as enlisting soldiers and training them. The 
xijovaoio and the StSaauro families have neither consanguinity 
nor aflSnity. The latter is always teach, the former is always 
preach, publish, or proclaim. They never ought to be con- 




21 But all that heard 7im were 
amazed, and said, Is not this he 
that destroyed them which called 
on this name in Jerusalem, and 
came hither for that intent, that 
he might bring them bound unto 
the chief priests ? Mj 

22 But Saul increaseir'the 
more in strength, and confound- 
ed the Jews which dwelt at Da- 
mascus, proving that this is very 

23 And after that many days 
were fulfilled, the Jews took 
counsel to kill him. 

24 But their laying wait was 
known of Saul. And they watch- 
ed the gates day and night to 
kill him. I 

25 Then the disciples took! 


aroLvro 8e -Travres ol aKovovres 
Kol e\eyou, Ov)( ovtos gcttlv 6 
TTopdrjaas eu 'lepovaaXy/x tovs 
imKaXovfxevovs' to ouo/xa tovtq, 
KOL code els tovto eXeXvdei tva 
8e8e/xeuou9 avrovs oiyayrf em tovs 
dp)(LepeLs; ^^ ^avXos 8e fxaXXov 
eve8vuaiJLOVTO, kou avve-yyve tovs 
'Iov8aiovs TOVS KaToiKovvTUs ev 
AafxacTKiSf^a)v otl ovtos 
eaTLv 6 XpiaTos. ^^ as 8e eirXr]- 
povvTO rjfxepat, LKave),, avuej3ov- 
XevcravTO ol Iov8aloL dveXelv 
avTov ^ eyvatadr] 8e t<3 JSavXa 
1] iTTt^ovXr] avTcov. TrapeTrjpovv 
Te Tas TTvXas rjpepas re kou 
vvKTos, OTTCos avTov dveXcoo-L' 
Xa^ovTes 8e avTov ol paOrjTca 


of God. But all that heard 21 
him were 'amazed, and said, Is 
not this he who destroyed 
those who invoked this name 
in Jerusalem, and came hither 
fov this purpose, that he might 
bring them bound to the chief 
Priests ? But Saul increased 22 
the more in strength, and "con- 
founded the Jews who dwelt 
in Damascus, ^proving that 
this person is the Christ. Now 23 
when many days were accom- 
plished, the Jews consulted to 
"kill him. But their ==conspir- 24 
acy was ''known to Saul, and 
they watched the gates, day and 
night, that they might kill him. 
Then the disciples 'took him 25 

founded or substituted one for the other. The teacher is a 
StSaaxaXog, and his teaching a SiSayji, or doctrine, ■whereas 
tlie preacher is a xij^v^, and his preaching a xe^vy/ca, or pro- 
clamation. These are works sometimes contrasted, at least 
distinguished in the New Testament. " They censed not to 
preach and teach Jesus Christ," or to leach Christ to the 
initiated; and to preach him to the i^ninitiated. See also 
2 Tim. 1 : 11. There we find xi^^v^ uTtoaroXos cO-yaiv, xni 
SiSaaxaXos concentrated in one man. Paul was a '■'■ ^neacher, 
and a teacher, and an apostle," sent to the nations. 

We now have preachers many, and teachers many, and often 
in the same persons ; but no apostles save " The Twelve " and 
Paul, who, though dead, are still speaking to us. 

' E^taravro Se navree — e^ioirjfti — tarafiai, ohstupescOj oh- 
stupefacio. Ad verbum declarat — they were extra se esse, 
Beza, whence the word extacy quasi extra se sit raptus. So 
percellor or ohstupescoj for the Greek word signifleth, raentem 
alicujus veluti loco commovero, which the Latin percello doth, 
Beza. See 2 Cor. 5 : 13. Transported. And they were 
amazed, Acts 2:7; 8 : 13 ; 9 : 21 ; 10 : 45 ; and 12 : 16. 
Amazed, astonished, hewitched-~-he.side one's self, wondered. 
So it isrendered in the com. ver., in its 17 occurrences. 

" " Disputed with those Jews who understood Greek." 
Syriac Version, ch. 6 : 1. The Grecian disciples murmured 
against the Hebrews. 

' " Proving that this person is the Christ," is better than 
proving that this one is the true Christ. 

" Avcleiv, to put him aside. To kill him was their scheme. 

^ Em^ovlrj, conspiracy. Wiles — lying in wait is obsolete. 

But their conspiracy was known. See Ilelian 3 : 5, 9. Xev., 
Hell. 3 : 3, 4, 5. Also Sept. Hist. 2 : 22. And Tia^s Trj^ow, 
imp. Thej' watched the gates narrowly, both day and night. 
Ts xai oTtcos, in order that, avBlwoB — they might put him 
aside. AvaiQsm — here found Aor. 2d Sub., avtXco, 3d per. 
plur. — that they might abolish or destroy him. 

y Authorities for both are about equal, known to, or known 
by, Saul. We prefer the former. It was not known by him 
as the means, but to him as the end. 

' Then the disciples, Xapovres, " taking him by night, lot 
him down through the toall in a basket," Dodd., Wakefield ; 
" hy the side of the wall," Bloomfleld ; through the wall — by 
an aperture, 01s. ; by the side of the wall, Dodd., Wake'fleld. 
^ca. By a comparison of 2 Cor. 11 : 33 Sta must here mean 
through, i. e., ly an aperture, Bloom. ; " let him down in a 
basket through an opening in the city wall," 01s. z/ja 
&v^tSos — sporta, a basket, a pannier. Some think that sporta 
was a measure twice as large as copihinus, because Paul was 
let down in a sj)orta, Critica Sacra; Christ distinguishes 
between cophinos and sporlas, Matthew IG : 9, 10. It is also 
used Matthew 15 : 37; Mark S : 8, 10; Crit. Sacra.— There 
must have been an opening in the wall — to justify the use 
of Sia. XaXaaavree, lowering him, or letting him down. This 
event is more fully detailed by Paul himself— " Through a 
window in a basket was I let down by the wall," 2 Cor. 
11 : 33. Such windows in walls are noted in the East, Jos. 
11 ; 15. See Aristoph. Vesp. p. 354-379. Athen. p. 214.— 
There is an engraving of a part of the present wall of Dam. 
in C. and H. i, p. 110. See also Aristoph. Ves. p. 354 and 379. 
Athen. p. 214. 




him by night, and let him down 
by the wall in a basket. 

26 And when Saul was come 
to Jerusalem, he assayed to join 
himself to the disciples : but 
they were all afraid of him, and 
believed not that he was a dis- 

27 But Barnabas took him, 
and brought him to the apostles, 
and declared unto them how he 
had seen the Lord in the way, 
and that he had spoken to him, 
and how he had preached bold- 
ly at Damascus in the name of 

28 And he was with them 
coming in and going out at Je- 

29 And he spake boldly in 
the name of the Lord Jesus, and 
disputed against the Grecians : 
but they went about to slay him. 

30 Which when the brethren 
knew, they brought him down 
to Cesarea, and sent him forth 
to Tarsus. 

31 Then had the churches I 
rest throughout all Judea, and] 


vvKTos, KaOrjKav Blol tov rei^ov^, 
^aXdaavTes iv crirvpiSL. ^^ Ila- 
payevajxevos 5e o SavXos ety '/e- 
povcraXrjiJ., iireipdro KoXXdcrdai 
Tols ixadrjTOLS' koX iravTes e0o- 
^ovvTO avTov, [irj TricrreuouTes 
on ia-TL fiadrjT-qs. ^"^ Bapvdfias 
8e iinXa^ojxevos avTou, riyaye 
irpos Tovs dirocTToXovs, kou Strj- 
yrjcraTO avTots irSis iu rfj oScS 
elSe Tou KvpLov, kcu on iXdXr]- 
crev avrai, /cat ttws iu AafiaaKcS 
iirapprjcnacraTO kv T<p ovoixaTi 
TOV 'Itjo-ov. ^^ KCU rjv /xer av- 
T&v elo-7ropevofJ.evos kol cKiropevo- 
fxeuos iu 'lepovaaXTjfM, kol irtxp- 
prjaria^oixevos iv tS ouofxan tov 
Kvpiov 'Itjo-ov, ^^ iXdXet re kcu 
avve^rjTU irpos tovs 'JEXXtjvl- 
CTTas' oi 8e iire^eipovv avTOV 
dveXa.v. ^^ iinyuovTes Se ol 
d8eX(f)o). KaTTjyayov avTOv els 
Kaiadpeiav, kcCi k^airicrTeiXav 
avTOV els Taparov. Ai [xev 

ovv eKKXrjcrlaL Kaff oXrjs ttjsi 


by night, and let him down 
through the wall in a basket. 
But «coming into Jerusalem, 26 
he was attempting to attach 
himself to the disciples; but 
they were all fearing him, not 
believing him to be a dis- 
ciple;, But Barnabas took him 27 
and brought him to the Apos- 
tles, and fully declared to 
them, howhe had seen the Lord 
in the way, and that he had 
spoken to him, and how he 
had boldly preached at Damas- 
cus, in the name of Jesus. 

And he was with them, com- 28 
ing in and going out in Jeru- 
salem, and preaching boldlyin 29 
the name of the Lord '■Jesus, 
and was talking and "disputing 
with the Hellenists; but they 
undertook to kill liim. The 30 
brethren, having ''ascertained 
this, conducted him into Caesa- 
rea, and sent him out into Tar- 
sus. Then the "congregations 31 
had peace, throughout all Ju- 

" But naqayofiEvoB, Aor. Part, coming (ejs) into Jerusalem. 
ETteiqaxo, he was allempling, (the imperfect shows a continuous 
attempt). 'O Xavlos is omitted by Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. KaX}.a- 
od-ai — attach liimself — rote fiad-ijrais, to the disciples, and they 
were all fearing him (imp. mid. following ace.), not, marsvomes, 
believing him to be a disciple — or that he is a disciple. 

■> Jesus is omitted by Ln., Tf. 

" "And was disputing with the Hellenists." These were 
the Jewish converts who spake the Greek language. The 
Palestine Jews were called Hebrews. They spoke the Syro- 
Chaldaic — the Aramaen — n^os more properly • wi</t than 
against, and more frequently to than either. 

" And he spake and disputed with the Judaising Greeks," 
Penn. " A murmuring arose against the Hebrews on the 
part of the Greek converts," 6 ; 1, Penn. Translators have 
thus varied, for the sake of placing the same people before the 
reader in various attitudes. And so did the Apostles in pre- 
senting the same Gospel facts. Still this is a matter of taste 
and not of authority. 

^ ^E, "but come to a knowledge of it," is in our day and 
style, better represented by ascertained— iov " brought him 
down to " — conducted him into Ccesarea. 

" The term exuhjaia is not found in this book in the 
singular number applied to a plurality of churches or com- 
munities scattered over one or more provinces or cities, 
we, therefore, in this case prefer the com. reading to the read- 
ing of Ln. and Tf. We have the church of God, the church 
of Christ, but we have not a church of churches, in apostolic 

Paul's conversion is here alluded to, as possessing great in- 
fluence on the churches — ^botii on their peace and prosperity. 

Exuhjotai — BTtXrjd'vvovTos — congregations were multiplied. 
The idea of national, imperial, or provincial churches is with- 
out one vestige of authority in all the handprints and foot- 
prints of the Apostolic writings or labors. The Church of 
Galatia, the Church of Asia, the Church of Galilee, Samaria, 
or Judea — of the Jews or of the Gentiles — occurs not once in 
the Acts, or in any other book in the N. Testament ; but we 
often read of the churches in numerous districts. Such as the 
churches of Judea, Samaria, Syria, Cilicia. "Churches of 
Christ" — CHURCHES of the Gentiles, Churches of Asia, churches 
of Macedonia, " churches of God," Ac, &c. In all such cases, 
as already intimated, it is not Cliurch in Greek but exxhjaia, 
'= congregation " or "assembly." The Church of Rome, of 



KING jambs' version. 

Galilee, and Samaria, and were 
edified ; and walking in the fear 
of the Lord, and in the comfort 
of the Holy Ghost, were multi- 

32 And it came to pass, as 
Peter passed throughout -all 
quarters, he came down also to 
the saints which dwelt at Lydda. 

33 And there he found a cer- 
tain man named Eneas, which 
had kept his bed eight years, and 
was sick of the palsy. 

34 And Peter said unto him, 
Eneas, Jesus Christ raaketh thee 
whole : arise, and make thy bed. 
And he arose immediately. 

35 And all that dwelt at 
Lydda and Saron saw him, and 
turned to the Lord. 

3G Now there was at Joppa 
a certain disciple named Tabi- 
tha, which by interpretation is 
called Dorcas ; this woman was 
full of good works and alms- 
deeds which she did. 

37 Arid it came to pass in 
those days, that she was sick. 


'/ouSa/a? Kol raXiXaias kclL Sa- 
[xapeias el)(ov dprjvr^v, oliiodo- 
fiov/xevai Ka\ TTopivo/xevai. Tcp 0o- 
/3(» rov Kvpiov, kol rfj irapaKXrj- 
aet, Tov 'Ayiov Ilvevfiaros eTrXtj- 

32 'EFENETO de nirpov 
diepvop.evov Sta TravTcov, KareX- 
a€iv Kai Tcpos Tovs ayLovs tovs 
KaroiKOvvras AvSSav. evpe 

8e e/cei avOpairov TLva Alveav 
bvQjxaTL, i^ ircov oktco KaraKel- 
fxevov em. Kpafi^aTco, os r]v irapa- 
XeXv/xeuoff. '^^ kol ehirev avra 6 
IJeTpos, Aluea, larai ere 'Irjarovs 
6 XpLCTTos' avacrTr]6i kolI (TTpco- 
arov creavTa. Kai evQicas dvecTTT]' 
KUL eioou avTOV Travres ol kutol- 
Kovvres Av8Sav koX tov Sapco- 
vav, olrLves iirecrrpe'^av eVi tov 

^^ 'Ev 'loTTTrrj 8e tis rjv p.a6r}- 
Tpta 6vop,aTi TajStda, r] Step/xnf)- 
vevofievr] XeyeraL AopKas' avrr) 
■qv "TrXrjprjs ayadwv epycov kol 
eXeTj/xocrvvcov cov CTTOtef , eye- 
VCTO 8e ev tols r)p.4paLs iKeivais 


dea, and Galilee, and Samaria, 
being edified ; and, walking in 
the fear of the Lord, and in 
the consolation of the Holy 
Spirit, they were multiplied. 

'Now it happened that 32 
Petei', while passing through 
among all, came down also to 
the ^saints that dwelt at 
Lydda: and there he found a 33 
certain man, named iEneas, 
who had kept his bed ''eight 
years, and was sick of the 
palsy. And Peter said to him, 34 
iEneas, Jesus, the Christ, heals 
you. Arise and make your 
bed. And he arose immediate- 
ly. And all who dwelt at 35 
Lydda, and Saron, beheld him, 
and turned to the Lord. 

Now there was, in Joppa, a 36 
certain disciple, named Tabitha 
('which by 'interpretation is 
called, Dorcas) : this woman 
was full of good works, and of 
alms i-which she did. 'Now it 37 
came to pass in those days that 

England, of France, of Germany, &c., &c., ought to be re- 
garded as solecisms. A national Church is as foreign to the 
Bible and reason as a national priest, a national prophet, or a 
national bride. Still more incongruous to. speak of a national 
congregation, as the congregation of Judea, Samaria, Asia, 
Prance, England, or the United States. 

f .Js and xai here should be represented by two words in 
our language — now and also — and especially as commencing a 
new subject. 

^ JI^os rove aytove, not ^ytaa/tevovs, ch. 20 ; 32, sanctified 
ones, but ayiovs, saints. 

It has been questioned by some, whether Sia mavrcov does 
refer to roTtcov or to ayiiov understood. We prefer the 
former, because in Luke's currency, in some twenty oc- 
currences in this book, it uniformly refers to places. 

•■ ES eriov ovxn — otti of eight years— /rom eight years be- 
fore, during eight years. 

£jr.^parit), upon a cot or small bed ; but, for sick and 

infirm persons, a couch, is more appropiate, as indicating a 
state of infirmity — a softer bed. He was paralytic. 

' 'H, relating to the name and not to the person, should be 
rendered which, or that, of all genders. The former is more in 
use. MaO-ijTQia — disciple — an ann^ f.eyoftevov. 

' ^isQftrjvEvofievt], part. pres. pass., heing explained, too 
philosophical; being expounded, too didactical. Being inter- 
preted is its radical meaning from 'Hq/.ies — Mercury — messen- 
ger of the gods, classic. Its family, occurring only seven 
times in the N. T., is uniformly represented by interpret, 
interpretation, i. e., explanation. 

^ 'Qv enocet — which she did, do alms — is not so established 
as to give or bestow alms. But this is not the solitary subject 
of the verb. Good works and alms are comprehended. No 
term can apply to both so well — wo can give alms, but not 
good works, but we can do or practice both. 

1 Eyevero Se. Now it came to pass, in those days, that this 
woman, being enfeebled, died. This preserves the accusative 




and died : whom when they had 
washed, they laid her in an up- 
per chamber. 

38 And forasmuch as Lydda 
was nigh to Joppa, and the dis- 
ciples had heard that Peter was 
there, they sent unto him two 
men, desiring him that he would 
not delay to come to them. 

39 Then Peter arose, and went 
with them. When he was come, 
they brought him into the upper 
chamber : and all the widows 
stood by him weeping, and shew- 
ing the coats and garments which 
Dorcas made, while she was with 

40 But Peter put them all 
forth, and kneeled down, and 
prayed ; and turning him to the 
body, said, Tabitha, arise. And 
she opened her eyes : and when 
she saw Peter, she sat up. 

41 And he gave her his hand, 
and lifted her up ; and when he 
had called the saints and widows, 
he presented her alive. 

42 And it was known through- 
out all Joppa : and many believ- 
ed in the Lord. 

43 And it came to pass, that 
he tarried many days in Jop23a 
with one Simon a tanner. 


There was a certain man in 
Cesarea, called Cornelius, a cen- 


aaOevrjcraaav avrrjv airoOavelv 
Xovaavres Se avrrju kOrjKav iv 
vir^paico, eyyvs oe ovcrrjs A.vo- 
8r]s Tjj 'loTTTrr), ol fx.a6r]Tal olkov- 
(ravT€s OTL Hirpos karlv kv avrfj, 
direcTTeiXav 8vo avBpas 7rpo9 av- 
Tov, TrapaKaXovvres p-rj oKVi^crai 
SieXOelv ecoy avTCop. avaaTas 

8e Herpos (rvurjXdev avroXs' ov 
7rapayevop,evou avrjyayov els to 
virepaou, /cat irapecrTrjcrav aura 
iracrai. at ')^poLL KXaiovaaL koI 
iTn8eiKvvp.evaL ■^(LTaivas kcu lp.a- 
Tia oaa iiroleL p-er avrau odcra 
77 AopKOLS. '^^ CK^aXcop Se e^co 
irdvTas 6 JUerpos, dels ra yova- 
Ta TTpocrrjv^aTO' kol eTricTTpe'^as 
TT/aoy TO (rcop.a, eiire, TajSidd, 
dvda-TTjdi. 'H 8e ■^voL^e rouy 
b^6aXp.ovs avTTjs' kcu IBovaa 
Tov UeTpou, dveKadicre. 8ovs 
5e avrfj X^^P^^ dveariqaev avTrjv 
(f>covr)(Tas 8e tovs dy'iovs kcu Tas 
XVP^^} Trapea-TTjarev avTtjv ^aaav. 
^^ yvaxTTOv 8e iyeucTO Kaff oXr\s 
Trjs 'loTnrrjs, /cat TToAAot iiriaTev- 
crav eiri tov IvvpLOv eyepsTO 
8e rjp.ipas tKavds p-elvai avTov iu 
'loTTTrrj irapd tlvl 2ip.a>vL ^vpa-et. 

'ANHP 8i TLS Tjv iv Kaiaa- 
p£ia 6uop,aTL KopvrjXios, eKaTov- 


she, being sick, died. And, 
having washed her, they plac- 
ed her in an upper room. 
And Lydda being near to Jop- 3? 
pa, the disciples, having heard 
that Peter was in that place, 
sent two men to him, entreat- 
ing, that he would not delay 
to come through as far as to 
them. Then Peter, arising, 39 
went with them ; whom hav- 
ing come, they led into the 
upper room ; and all the 
widows stood by him weep- 
ing, and shewing vests and 
mantles, ""all which Dorcas 
made while she was with 
them. But Peter, putting 40 
them all forth, kneeled down 
and prayed; and turning to 
the body, said, Tabitha, arise. 
And she opened her eyes. 4i 
And when she saw Peter, she 
sat up, and he gave her his 
hand, and caused her to stand 
up ; and having called the 
saints and widows, he present- 
ed her alive. And it was 42 
known throughout all Joppa, 
and many believed in the 
Lord. And he tarried many 43 
days in Joppa, with one Simon, 
a tanner. 


"Now a certain man in Cae- 1 
sarea, called Cornelius, a cen- 

construction and dispenses with the addition of y.(tt — and 
having washed her, they placed her in an upper room. 

•" '• All which. " It is not exactly a supplement. 'Oaa 

is in the copy of the approved Greek text 

" ,Js, now — (»?f is omitted by Gb., Ln., Tf.). It is un- 
necessary, and redundant ; a certain man in Cassarea, (opo- 
itart) by name, Cornelius; ex OTvatQrje rtjs y.a},ovftevr]e lTah>tr}s, 
ad lUeram, of a band the called Italian., or that being called 
tlie Italian. But this, too, is not our present vernacular. We 
wonlil now say, of a band called the Italian hand. 

"VTe have a rule applicable to this case, of high authority, in a 
very learned tract, called " Constantinl Khodocanacidis Chien- 
sis Tractatus De Articulis"; appended to some editions of 
"Wm. Robertson's " Thesaurus Grceca Lingna, " printed Can- 
tabrigise a.d. 1676.— Rule 2d. Nomen substantivum sen appel- 
lativum si conjunctura habet adjectivura exigit articulum ; ita 
tamen ut si adjeclivum preponalur, unicus articulus ipsi pre- 
flxus sufflcit. Vide Demosthenes pro Corona. 

Others resolve this case so as to read, of a band, that called 
the Italian, which would make this clause unnecessarily 
parenthetical, and redundant. 




turion of the band called the. 
Italian band, 

2 A devout man, and one that 
feareth God with all liis house, 
which gave much alms to the 
people, and prayed to God al- 

3 He saw in a vision evident- 
ly, about the ninth hour of the 
day, an angel of God coming in 
to him, and saying unto him, 

4 And when he looked on him, 
he was afraid, and said, What is 
it, Lord? And he said unto him, 
Thy prayers and thine alms are 
come up for a memorial before 

5 And now send men to Jojj- 
pa, and call for one Simon, whose 
surname is Peter : 

6 He lodgeth with one Simon 
a tanner, whose house is by the 
sea-side : he shall tell thee what 
thou oughtest to do. 


rapyrjs e/c cnreiprjs rrjs KaXovjxi- 
vr)s 'IraXLKrj^, ^ evaefiris Kol 
(j)o^ov/xeuos TOP Oeov aw iravrl 
T(S o'lkco avTOV, TTOLcou T6 cXej]- 
fjioavvas iroXkas ra Aaa, kol 
S^ofxevos Tov Oeov StairavTos' 
eldeu iu opd/xart (j)avep(Jos, acrei 
copav euvaTTju rrjs rj/j,epa9, ayye- 
Xov TOV Oeov eicreXdovTa vr/ooy 
avTov, Kcu elirovra avrco, Kop- 
vt]Xl€. '0 8e drevLcra? avT(S 
KCU ip.<j)o^os yivopevos elire, 2Y 
ecTTL, Kvpie; etVe 8e avTw, Al 
Trpocrev^ai aov kou al eXerjp.O(rv- 
vai (TOV ave^T](rav els p-vrjixocrv- 
vov ivcoTTLOv TOV deov. "^ /cat uvu 
TrefxyJAOu els 'loinnjv auSpas, kcu 
p.eTa7re/M^at Sip-ova os eivLKaXel- 
Tai HeTpos' " oi)Tos ^evi^eTat 
irapa tlul JlipovL jSvpcrei, a» eaTiv 
oIklu Trapa daXaoraau- ovtos 
XaXrjaeL ctol tI ere 8el iroielv. 


turion of the band, called the 
Italian Band, a "devout man, 
and one who feared God, 
with all his family, who gave 
much Palms to the people, and 
iprayed to God continually; 
he distinctly saw in a ■'vision, 
about the ninth hour of tlie 
day, an angel of God coming in 
to him, and saying to him, Cor- 
nelius ! And when he 'looked 
on him he was afraid, and said ; 
What is it, Lord ? And he said 
to him, your prayers and your 
'alms are come up for a me- 
morial of you before God. And 
now "send men to Joppa, and 
call for one Simon, whose sur- 
name is Peter. He 'lodges with 
one Simon, a tanner, whose 
house is by the "sea-shore. He 
will tell you what you ought 

" Evae^qs, a ^nous man, Booth., Thomp. Religious, Rheims, 
Wiclif. Devout, Penn, Tyndale, Oranmer, Geneva, Wakef. 
Righteous, Murd. Devoted, or devout, is more expressive. It 
is, in its four occurrences, com. ver-, once godly, and three 
times devout. 

P Hoimv re ekerjfioavvag noXlae, alms always, com. ver. oc- 
curs fourteen times, yet doing alms is not in our currency, 
while giving alms is popular. 

1 Jeofievos rov Oeov, beseeching God, asking of God, and 
was praying to God. Praying evermore, Wic. Pray'd God, 
Tynd., Oran., Gen. Always praying, Rheims. Prayed to 
God, Wes., Booth., Penn, Thomp., Mur., Wakef. 

■■ £v oQafiari. Literally in vision ; but all versions have a 
vision, and that with propriety, too ; inasmuch as a particular 
vision is referred to — besides, "in vision", is generic and ab- 
solute, wliich in this case could not be true. Cornelius ! 
Vocative simply, rather than interrogative. 

■ 'O Se arevtaae, and steadfastly looking ; or, when he had 
fastened Jiis eyes upon him. Such is its currency in the 
N. T. When ho looked, or earnestly gazed upon him, he 
became terrified, or was affrighted. 

« Al elerj/ioavvat, alms, or alms deeds, in all versions, except 
Thompson's, in which " acts of benevolence " is used ; but this 
is too general. 

" MaraTtB/txpnt, send, or call for, com. ver. ; the former is 
preferable. In all versions it is represented by one or otlior. 

" Ovros iert^srat, ind. pass., is being entertained ; with us, 
lodges with, ovtos J.ahjaEi aoi ri ae Sec noteiv, omitted by Gb., 
Sch., Ln., Tf. It is, however, the end of the mission, the pur- 
pose of the call. 

Ovros, this person, is more definite and emphatic than 
he, though frequently so rendered. In emphatic cases, this, 
or this person, is most eligible. 

" He shall tell thee what thou oughtest to do " — ovros 
}.a).tjaei. aoi ri oe Sec Tioceiv — is repudiated from the text by 
Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. 

" Ilatia &alaoaav, literally, near a sea. 

This appears a very vague direction, especially if we insert, 
as a prefix, our indefinite article. In this case this would 
seem inapropos. Near sea, near lake, near home, near town, 
are our familiar formulas ; not near a sea, near a lake, near a 
home, near a town. H3'percriticism stands reproved in this, as 
in some other cases, in the insertion of our indefinite articlo 
where the noun is anarthrous in Gree,k. These are beacons 
not to be disregarded. 

But again, "near sea" is idiomatic of "the sea-shore" or 
" sea-side," for which we sometimes have Tta^a rtj)- O-alaaauv^ 
near the sea, that is, of course, a special sea in every case. 




7 And when the angel which 
spake unto Cornelius was de- 
parted, he called two of his 
household servants, and a devout 
soldier of them that waited on 
him continually ; 

8 And when lie liad declared 
all these things unto them, he 
sent them to Joppa. 

9 On the morrow as they 
went on their journey, and drew 
nigh unto the city, Peter went 
up upon the house-top to pray, 
about the sixth hour : 

10 And he became very hun- 
gry, and would have eaten : but 
while they made ready, he fell 
into a trance, 

11 And saw heaven ojsened, 
and a certain vessel descending 
unto him, as it had been a great 
sheet knit at the four corners, 
and let down to the earth : 

12 Wherein were all manner 
of four-footed beasts of the earth, 


Ds Se aTrrjXdev 6 ayyeXos 6 
XaXau T(3 KopvTjXico, ^cavrjcras 
8vo tS)v o\k€t5>v avTov, Koi (TTpa- 
TiooTTjp evcrefirj tcou irpoaKapTe- 
povPTCou avra, ^ koll i^rjyrjcra.- 
p.evo9 avTOLS airavra, aireaTeiXev 
avTovs eis ttjv ^loirir-qv. " Ty 
8e CTravpLOu 68oi7ropovvTcov iKel- 
vcdv Kol rfj TToXu ey/L^ovTcov, 
avi^r] Jlerpos eVi to 8cop.a 
wpoa-ev^acrdai., irepl apav eKTTjv. 
"* iyevero 8e irpoaireLvos, kou 
rjdeXe yevcraadar irapacTKeva- 
^ovTCov 8e eKeivcou, iireTrecreu eV 
avTOv eKCTTacTLSi Kal 6ecopetTov 
ovpavov aveayixevov, kou Kara- 
^oLvou Itt avTov (TKevos TL ms 
oOovrjv p.€yaXr]v, Tea-aapcTLV ap- 
)(CU9 8e8ep.evov, kol Kadiep-evov 

Travra to, T€Tpa7ro8a TrJ9 yrjs /cat 


to do. And when the angel 7 
who spoke to Cornelius was 
gone, he called two of his do- 
mestics, and a devout soldier 
of those who waited on him ; 
and having 'fully related all 8 
these things to them, he sent 
them to Joppa. y Again, on the £> 
next day, while they were on 
their journey, and drew near 
the city, Peter went up 'on the 
house-top to pray, at about the 
sixth hour. Andbecomingvery lo 
hungry,he"desiredtoeat. Now 
while they were preparing, he 
fell into a ''trance, and ■'saw the ii 
heaven open, and a ''certain 
vessel descending to him like 
a great white sheet, bound to- 
gether at four corners, and let 
down to the earth ; in which 12 
were all kinds of four-footed 
animals, and wild 'beasts, and 

'Siaci a/i/ios, ns sand, not as a sand on the sea-shore. The 
same law that would justify a sea-shore would here justify a 
sand, which of course would not be innumerable! 

" E^ijytjattftsros, f'dh/ related. Literally, exegctically de- 

y ^e, again^ on the next day. ^e is here continualive, well 
represented by, and, generally, but when reiteration is implied, 
again, with us, is more in our idiom. 

' Literally " onto ", but not in our educated currency. It is 
not found in "Webster, but is in Worcester. Went wp ujwn 
is too pleonastic. We prefer ascended, ascended the house- 
top. Septuagint usage is in favor of the term, building. 
Flat roofs were more in use then than now. The terra roof 
would be apposite, if more in our currency. Garret would be 
its Scotch representative — house-top leaves the place where 
with us, as the original presents it. 

' He was desiring is too indefinite, too continuative. At the 
end of his prayer rather than during it, he desired to eat. 
Js will suit either rendition. With us, and is not necessarily 
continualive, any more than Both are sometimes so. The 
next verse indicates an event of hunger — he desired to eat. 
The sense of hunger greatly awakens the sensorium, and, 
appositely to the occasion, he fell into a trance, in harmony 
with the keen demands of appetite. 

>' Exaraats, an ecstasy, literally, standing out of hunself 

His outward senses were no encumbrance to him. He gazed, 
as a spirit disembodied, upon the scene before him. 

' Oecopei, He, literally, theorises, considers with emphatic 
attention. It is a sort of historic present, and might be 
rendered, he fully considered, or contemplated the exhibition, 
the scene. But the action, being continualive is properly 
present to his inspection, but it is told in the imperfect tense, 
and, therefore, satv is admissible. OO'ovtiv, sheet or cloth; 
occurring only twice in N. T., and represented by sheet, we 
prefer it to cloth. Sheets are often joined at the four corners. 
This is more definite, and larger than oiyoviov, which may be 
any sort of linen cloth, as used elsewhere, five times referring 
to the envelopes of the Savior's corpse. In Homer's Od. 7. 
107, o&ovrj indicates fine while linen of any size, sheet or 

^ Zxcvos ri cog od'ovijv ftcyaXijv reoaaQOiv, omit, by Ln., Tf. 

' Kat la d-iiqia is omitted by Ln., Tf., but according to Gb. 
it is a probable omission, and might be in the text. 

'Tmj^xe, third sing. imp. of vnaQf,ci>, to begin, to start, to 
arise or spring up. Horn. Od. 24-286. Arch. Oho. 10G8. 
Dem. 408. 22. The whole scene represents a new creation, 
springing into life. 

It is remarkable that Wiclif, Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva, and 
Rheims, as well as the common version, omit the article four 
times occurring in this verse. So do Murdock, Wak., Wes. 




and wild beastsj and creeping 
things, and fowls of the air. 

13 And there came a voice to 
him, Rise, Peter ; kill, and eat. 

14 But Peter said, Not so. 
Lord ; for I have never eaten 
any thing that is common or un- 

15 And the voice spake unto 
him again the second time, What 
God hath cleansed, that call not 
thou common. 

16 This was done thrice : and 
the vessel was received up again 
into heaven. 

17 Now while Peter doubted 
in himself what this vision which 
he had seen should mean, behold, 
the men which were sent from 


TO, Orjpla Kcci ra ipTrera Koi ra 
ireTecua tov ovpavov. ^^ kou iyi- 
vero (pcovr/ Trpos avTov, 'AvaaTas, 
Jlerpe, Bvaou kou (pdye. ^* '0 
Se lUrpos eiTre, MrjSafJLm, Kvpiv 
OTL ovSeiTOTe e(j)ayov irav kolvov 
7} aKaOaprov. ^° KaX (f)coj/7J ird- 
Xlv €K SevTcpov irpos avTov, A. 6 
Oeos iKudapiae, av purj kolvov. 
" TovTO fie iyeuero em Tpls' kou 
TrdXiv dveXrj^Bri to (TKevos €is 
TOV ovpavov. 

^^ 'iOy 8e kv eavT^ SiijTropei. 6 
niTpos, TL av £ir] to opa/xa o eiSe, 
Kal ISoVf ol avBpes ol aTrecrTaXfxi- 


reptiles of the earth, and 
birds of the air. And there 13 
came a voice to him, 'Rise, 
Peter ; kill and eat. But Peter 14 
said, Not so, Lord ; for I have 
never eaten ^any thing com- 
mon or unclean. And the 15 
■"voice said to him again, a 
second time ; What God has 
cleansed, that call not you, 
common. This was 'done ic 
thrice, and the vessel was 
taken up again into the heaven. 

Now as Peter was Jponder- n 
ing in himself, what the vision 
which he had seen couldmean; 
behold the men who were ""sent 

and Booth. Penn twice omits it. Thompson gives it three 
times, omitting it only once. It should have been either 
always omitted or always given, so far as any relevant reason 

f Avaarae, avtorrjfit is a favorite with Luke. He employs 
it 72 times in his writings, while all other writers in the N. T. 
employ it only thirty times. It is idiomatically, with him, of 
the eifect of an imperative, when coupled with an imperative, 
as, having arisen, Peter, slay, and eat. Peter, rise : slay, and 
eat, It is so translated, arise, or rise, by all the translators 
from Wiclif .to Thompson and Boothroyd. 

Fcvofiai is of great latitude in sense and currency — do, 
make, he, fulfill, come, come to pass, happen, seem, arise, he- 
come, befall, perform, wax, being assembled, continue, marry, 
' &c., &c. It takes its meaning from its context, or contact with 
other words. It seems to be a very general representative of 
its associates, especially in N. T. currency. Its special mean- 
ing is in its special context. Its latitude is equal to our 
auxiliary be, though not its proper representative. In this 
passage it seems more contextual to understand eyevexo than 
sme, because the Toice had not before said, "what God 
cleansed," but "arise, slay, and eat." It now says, av ftij 
xoivov — " Do not you account impure," Bloomfleld ; " as 
common," Eob. Hesych. ; /utj xotvov foj a«a&aqrov leye. It 
also means to pollute, profane, or desecrate, with an accusative, 
as in Acts 21 : 28. 

^ Jlav, quodvisjoay thing whatever, impure or unclean. 

■■ Kai gjcovrj »ahv, literally a mice, as before, yet, with the 
sxception of the Bheims, "Wakefield, Thompson, and Murdock, 
all English versions make it definite on the assumption that 
it was the same voice before heard. This is our idiom in such 

' TovTo Ss eyepcTo ent r^te, now this happened thrice ; or 

was done thrice, in our idiom, exact to the text. — Em r^is, 
to or i/iiO three, exactly represented. According to others, 
'•reproduced three times," but this is not the fact, for this 
would be equal to four editions of it, the first reproduction 
being the second copy. 

Ev&vs is, by Ln., Tf. substituted for nakiv, immediately, for 
again. So Alf. : eis lov ovpavov, into the heaven. 

32s 8b, — commencing a new — literally, now as, 
tantamount to lohile ; because it was a continuous exercise, 
not a transient act of his mind. 

) ^lomoQem, twice rendered perplexed, and three times in 
this book, doubt and doubled, com. ver. which is its whole 
currency in this book. Doubt, and doubting imply delibera- 
tion, ^laitoqeto is represented by hsesito, ambigo, sed signi- 
ficat inlerrogare sen inquirere cum dubitantione atque admi- 
ratione. Lorin in Acts 2 : 12. Critica Sacra. Vox htec Lucas 
attonitam quandam admiratione significat. Acts 2 : 12 j 5 : 24 ; 
10 : 17. GrotiuB in loco, Crit. Sacra. "We therefore prefer 
pondering, because of its generic sense, as covering the whole 
area of Luke's statement, and especially because he was in 
doubt as to the meaning of his vision. 

■" AnsoraXfievot, part.perf. passive, exegetically those haviitg 
been sent, but with us those who were sent, or those sent, fully 
indicate the fact of their previous mission, with regard to 
their present appearance. JEm tov nvXcova, atrium veatibu- 
lum, porta, janua, with one exception always rendered gate 
in N. T. com. vor., once only porch. IlvXrji its radix, is always 
in N. T. rendered gate. In classic Greek, a gate-way, a gate- 
tower, or a gate-house. Poly. 4. 18. 2, Luc. Hipp. 5 &c. Luc. 
Nigrln. 23, an antechamber. The 12 gate-houses of the apo- 
calyptic city for the accommodation of the angelic porters, is 
a representative idea. In Acts 12 : 10 we have xriv ihiqav tov 
itvlmvos, the door of the gate-house, the place of inquiry. 




Cornelius had made inquiry for 
Simon's liouse, and stood before 
the gate, 

18 And called, and asked 
whether Simon, which was sur- 
named Peter, were lodged there. 

19 While Peter thought on 
the vision, the Sjairit said unto 
him, Behold, three men seek 

20 Arise therefore, and get 
thee down, and go with them, 
doubting nothing : for I have sent 

21 Then Peter went down to 
the men which were sent unto 
Iiim from Cornelius ; and said, 
Behold, I am he whom ye seek : 
what is tiie cause wherefore ye 
are come ? 

22 And they said, Cornelius 
the centurion, a just man, and 
one that feareth God, and of 
good rojjort among all the nation 
of the Jews, was warned from 
God by an holy angel to send, 
for thee into his house, and to 
hear words of thee. 

23 Then called he them in. 


uoL (XTTo Tov KopvrjXiov, diepcoTj]- 
cravres ttju olKiav JlifMcouo^, eire- 
(TTTjarav liil tov irvXwva' Kol 

(j)coprjaravTes iirvvOauovro, el Sl- 
jxwv 6 iirLKaXov/xevos Herpo^ ev- 
daSe ^€v[^€TOLt. ^^ Tov 8e Hi- 
rpov €u6v[xovix€vov 7T€pl TOV opa- 
[xaTos, ehrev avTC^ to Jluevpa, 
'I8ov, avbpes Tpeis ^tjtovctI ere- 
'^^ aXka avaaTas KaTajStjOi, kul 
TTopevov aw avTols, ixrjSev Sta- 
Kpivojxevos' Slotl eyco airia-TaXKa 
avTovs. ^^ KaTa^as 8e UeTpos 
irpos Tovs av8pas tovs airecTTaX- 


avTov, eiwev, 'I8ov, iyco d/xi ou 
^rjTeLTe' tIs r) aiTca 8l tjv irape- 
aTe; ol Se eiirov, KopvrjXLOS 

eKaTOVTapxr]^} o.vr]p ^LKaios kol 
(f)ol3ovp.euos TOP Oeou, papTvpov- 
p.€vos Te vTTo oXov TOV k'Ovovs 
TOiv 'lovSaiCdv, i-)(p7}paTLa6r} vtto 
ayyiXov ayiov, peTaTrepAJraardal 
ere ety tou olkov avTov, koI ukov- 
aac prjpaTa irapa aov. ^^ JSlcrKa- 


from Cornelius, having in- 
quired out Simon's 'house, 
stood at the gate, and calling, 18 
they asked, whether Simon, 
surnamed "Peter, "was lodging 
there. While Peter "thought 19 
attentively of the vision, the 
Spirit said to him. Behold 
three men are pseeking you. 
Arise therefore, go down and 20 
accompany them, doubting 
nothing, for I have sent them. 21 
iThen Peter went down to the 
men, and said. Behold, I am he 
whom you are seeking. What 
is the reason for which you are 
come? And they said, Cor- 22 
nelius, the centurion, a just 
man, and one who fears God, 
and of good report among all 
the nation of the Jews, was 
instructed from God, by a ho- 
ly angel, to send for you into 
his house, and to hear words 
of you. . ■'Then, calling them 23 

I Simon's house. It is hero otxta. — See note t. below. 

■» Surnamed Peter. It depends on the translation of Mat- 
thew IC: 18, what should be the translation of Petros here. — 
If Matthew 16 : 13-18 he translated, as in my judgment it 
ought to be, it would read as follows, v. 16 — " And Simon Stone 
answered, and said, Thou art the Christ, the son of the living 
Qod. — " And Jesus answered and said to him, Happy are you, 
Simon, son of Jonas : for flesh and blood has not revealed this 
to you, but my Father who is in heaven. And I also say 
to you. that you are called a stone, and on this Kock I will 
build my church, and the gates of death, or the grave, shall 
not prevail against it." Then, in this case, it should be ren- 
dered, " Surnamed Rock." 

This version would be fatal to popery, to all who read it, 
with an honest heart, in our vernacular, and in our opinion it 
would be a faithful expression of the original. And can there 
be, or should there be, a special law for translating any word 
in this book? Do not the context and the scope of the pas- 
sage demand this? Wo may add, that Jesus may, in all 
probability, have alluded to the fact of his calling him stone, 
when he was known only by the name, Simon — In anticipation 

of Ids confession, he called him Simon Stone — or, if any one 
prefer it, Simon Rook. 

For to Cornelius, Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. have avrw, to him. 
This appears preferable, merely because there is no other 
person introduced. Not was departed, but departed == anrj}.- 

" Scpi^arai, is leing entertained there j rather too formal, 
though in good keeping with modern usage — resides there, 
dwells there, is probably more apposite both to ancient and 
modern use. 

° For evO-vftovfievoe Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. substitute die&v. 
/lovfiavov, carefully considering neqi, about or concerning the 

P Tovs aneoraXftevovs ctTio Ii.oQvriX.iov Tt^os avTov, omitted 
by Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. Zrjrovac ae, pres. ind. act., are seeking 
thee. Tts fj aixta St tjv na^eaxe ; what is the motive through 
which you are approaching me? Atria, ratio, reason or motive. 

1 ^e, then, connecting the time and the speech. 

■• Ovr, in this case, is more appositely represented by then. 
Peter is not found in the approved text in this verse. It ia 




and lodged them. And on the 
mon-ovv Peter went away with 
them, and certain brethren from 
Joppa accompanied liim. 

24 And the morrow after they 
entered into Cesarea. And Cor- 
nelius waited for them, and had 
called together his kinsmen and 
near friends. 

25 And as Peter was coming 
in, Cornelius met him, and fell 
down at his feet, and worshipped 

26 But Peter took him up, 
saying, Stand up : I myself also 
am a man. 

27 And as he talked with him, 
he went in, and found many that 
were come together. 

28 And he said unto them, 
Ye know how that it is an un- 
lawful thing for a man that is a 
Jew to keep company, or come 
unto one of another nation; but 
God hath shewed me that I 
should not call any man com- 
mon or unclean. 

29 Therefore came I 2mto you 
without gainsaying, as soon as 
I was sent for: I ask therefore 
for what intent ye have sent for 

30 And Cornelius said. Four 
days ago I was fasting until this 
hour; and at the ninth hour I 
prayed in my house, and behold, 


Xecrafxeuos odu avrovs i^evLcre. 
Tfj Se iiravpLOV o Hirpos e^rjXOe 
avu avToh, Kai TLves tS>v dSeX- 
(j)U)V Twv arro rrjs 'loTnrrjs crvvjjX- 
dov avT(S. ^^ Kcu rfj eiravptov 
ciarrjXOov els ttjv Kaiaapeiav 6 
8e KopvrjXios rjv Trpoo-boKau av- 
rovs, crvyKaX€(rafj.€uos rovs crvy- 
yevets avrov Koi tovs avayKaiovs 

^^ 'f2s 5e eyivero elo-eXdeiv 
Tov Jlerpov, avvavTTja-as avra o 
KopvrjXios, Treacou inl tovs tto- 
8as TTpocreKVurjaev. 6 Se Jle- 

rpos avTov TJyeipe Xiycov, 'Ava- 
ctttjOl' Kayco avros avOpwiros 
elp-L' ^'^ Kai (Tvvo/xtXcop avra 
elo-rjXde, Kai evpio-Kei avveXrjXv- 
Ooras TToXXovs, ^^ e(j)7] re irpos 
avTovs, 'Yp-els iiria-Taarde. my 
ade/xtTov ecTTLU auSpl Iov8aico 
KoXXaaOai rj irpoaepxecOaL aX- 
Xo(pvXq)' Kai i/xol 6 Oeos eSei^e 
fj.i-]8eua KOLvov rj aKaOaprov Ae- 
yeLv avdpcoTTOv " 8io Kai avav- 
Tipp-^TCos rjXOov /u,€Ta7r€fj.(j)6eLS' 
irvvOavofxaL odv, rivi Xoycp /^ere- 
Trep.'^aa-de fxej '" £Ial 6 Kopvrj- 
Xios e(j)r], 'Atto TerapTrjS rnxipas 
/ie^/Oi TavTrjs rrjs copas rjpjqv vrj- 
arTevcou, Kai ttjv ivvar-qv copau 
Trpocreu^o/ievoy iv rro oiKO) p.ov' 


in, he entertained them. And 
on the next day Peter went 
with them, and certain breth- 
ren from Joppa accompanied 
him. And on the next day, 21 
he "entered into Cassarea : and 
Cornelius was waiting for 
them, having called together 
his kindred and intimate 

Now, as Peter was entering, 25 
Cornelius met him, and falling 
down at his feet, he wor- 
shipped him. But Peter rais- 2G 
ed him up, saying, Stand up. 
I myself also am a man. And, 27 
conversing with him, he went 
in and found many assembled. 

And he said to them, You 28 
well know it is unlawful 
for a man, who is a Jew, to 
associate with, or to approach 
one of another nation ; and yet 
God has shewed to me that I 
should not call any man com- 
mon or unclean. And there- 2u 
fore I came without objecting, 
as soon as I was sent for. I 
ask then, for what purpose 
you have sent for me. 

And Cornelius said, Four so 
days ago, I was fasting till 
this hour; and at the ninth 
hour I prayed in my 'house, 

eiaxaXsaaftsvoe, then calling them in, lie entertained them. 
Lodged them is not equal to s^evias, from ^ein^co, hospitio 

' (JEtat]?.&£v not eiaijXO-ov, Ln., Tf.), he entered into, etc., 
and avayy.ttiovs yidovs, literally necessary friends. Littleton, 
in his celebraled Dictionary, expounds a necessarius, a par- 
ticularly engaged person. 

' OcHos, oiKia. These words frequently occur in the Chris- 
tian Scriptures ; both are translated, com. vor., house, house- 
hold, home. Somo late writers have assumed that oiy.og and denote two distinct institutions. The former a greater) 
or more respectable house than the latter. Such as a master's 
house, compared with the dwelling-place of his servants. The 
former, oixog, as indicating a family of adults and infants ; 
the latter, a family of servants, with or without infants. They 
contend that both in the Septuagint of the Old, and in the 
Greek of the New, this distinction in their use obtains. We 
have found no authority for this difference. On the contrury, 
we have found that both terms are used in the Christian 
Oracles to indicate one and the same house, ov fafiiily- For 




a man stood before me in bright 

31 And said, Cornelius, thy 
prayer is heard, and tliine alms 
are had in remembrance in the 
sight of God, 

32 Send therefore to Joppa, 
and call hither Simon, whose sur- 
name is Peter; he is lodged in 
the house o^ one Simon a tanner, 
by the sea-side : who, when he 
Cometh, shall speak unto thee. 

33 Immediately therefore I 
sent to thee; and thou hast well 
done that thou art come. Now 
therefore are we all here present 
before God, to hear all things 
that are commanded thee of God. 

34 Then Peter opened his 
mouth, and said. Of a truth I 
perceive that God is no respect- 
er of persons : 

35 But in every nation, he 
that feareth him and worketh 
righteousness, is accepted with 

36 The word which God sent 


/cat ibov, avrjp karr] evcoinov fxov 
iu eaOr^TL Xafxirpa, ^^ Kai (prjcn, 
KopvrjXie, elarjKOvcrdr] arov r] 
7rpoarev)(7J, koI al eXeT}p.ocrvvaL 
aov iixvr](r6r]crav ivanriou rov 
0€ov. ^^ irip.'y^ov o5u els 'Jott- 
irrjv, Kou p-eraKaXecraL JJlpcova os 
eTriKaXeiTat Uerpos' ovtos ^evi- 
^erac iv oIklo. Slpovos ^vpcrecos 
irapa QaXaa-aav os •jrapayevop.e- 
vos XaX-^aet aoi. ^ 'JE^avrrjs 
odv eTre/xyj/a Tvpos ere' av re /ca- 
XS)s iiroirjaras Trapayevop-evos. 
vvv odu rravres ypels evainov 
rov Oeov Trapecrp-ev dKOvaat 
iravra ra irpocmTayp.eva aroi 
VTTO rov deov, 

^'^ 'AvoL^as 8e Jlerpos to (tto- 
pa. elirev, ' JEir aXTqdeias /cara- 
XapfiavopaL, qtl ovk earri irpocr- 
coTToX'^irTT^s o Oeos, ^"^ dXX iv 
TravTL k'dveL 6 (j)o^ovp.evos avrou 
KOU epya^op.evos BiKaiocrvvrjv, 
SeKTos avT<S icTTi. ^ rov Xoyov 


and behold, a man stood before 
me, in bright apparel, and 3i 
said, Cornelius, your prayer 
is heard, and your alms are 
had in remembrance before 
God. Send, therefore, to Jop- 32 
pa, and call here Simon, whose 
surname is Peter. He is en- 
tertained in the 'house of one 
Simon, a tanner, by the sea- 
shore ; who, when he is come, 
will speak to you. Immedia- 33 
tely, therefore, I sent to you, 
and you have done well that 
you have come. Now then, 
we are all here present before 
"God, to hear all things that 
are commanded you by God. 
Then Peter, 'opening his 34 
mouth, said, In "truth, I per- 
ceive that God is not a '■re- 
specter of persons ; but, in 35 
every nation, he that fears 
him, and works righteous- 
ness, is "acceptable to him. 
You know the 'message, 36 

example, Paul calls the household, ov family of Stephanas 
both an otxoe, and an oty.m. — Luke, in his Gospel, ch. 7 : 6, 
calls the centurion's house an oixia, and in v. 10 it is called 
an omos. So of Jairus' house. In Luke 8 : 41 he calls it 
otxoe, and again v. 51, he calls it oixta. JIark, in his Gospel, 
calls this house an oixo£, ch. 5 : 38, and Matthew calls it otxia, 
ch. 9 : 23. In the parable concerning a liouse divided against 
itself, recorded by Matthew, Mark, and Luke, in the two former 
it is called oixia, and by Luke it is called oixoe, ch. 12 : 39. 
But stronger still, the same house, in the same verse, is called 
both oixos and oixta, Luke 10 ; 5. " Into vfhatever house you 
enter, say, Peace be to this house." We need not further ex- 
pose the frailties of some critics, who in the present century 
have so largely written and justified their dispensation of 
Christian ordinances on the presumption that these two words 
represent two distinct households. 

" For Oeov, regarded as more probable by Griesbach, Lach- 
mann prefers xv^wv as the more probable reading. Either of 
them, is equal in authority. Ta Ti^oareray/icva, part. perf. 
pass., the things which have been prescribed, or commanded 
by God. 

" Then Peter avoi^at to arofia, opening his mouth, said. 

This form is more explicit and direct, and dispenses with the 
conjunction and, which has no representative in the original. 

* £71 alrj&eiae. Literally upon truth, as, " upon my word." 
But this is in bad taste among us. "Of a truth," is obso- 
lete, far-fetched, and incongruous with cm. Its more common 
representatives in our language are in, on, upon. In truth, 
cTt alrjd-fias, is peculiar to Luke in the N. T. In truth, is 
analogous to our, zm fact. We prefer on all the premises, " in 
truth I perceive." 

^ IlQooco7tolt]jtTt;s, qui accepit personam. James 2 : 9. n-^oam- 
Ttolrjrpia, faciei acceptio. Col. 3 : 25. "The outward state or 
condition of men, i. e. country, sex, state of life, riches, wis- 
dom, learning." Critica Sacra. 

1 Jexroe avret), acceptable to him, Dodd., Thomp., Bheims ; 
acceple to Mm, Wiclif; accepted by Mm, Wakefield, Wes.. 
Penn, Boothr. ; with him, Murd ; acceptable to him, Hackett. 

" To ^rifia, verbu7ii dictum, factum, mandatum, sententia, 
sermo, res, negoiium. Both in Hebrew and Greek, word, is 
used for, a thing, or matter, Orit. Sacra ; res factum, manda- 
tum, sermo, Rob. ; things, Acts 5 : 32 com. ver. Luke 1 : 37 j 




unto the children of Israel,preach- 
ing peace by Jesus Christ : (he 
is Lord of all :) 

37 That word, I say, ye know, 
wliich was published throughout 
all Judea, and began from Gali- 
lee, after the baptism of John 
preached ; 

38 How God anointed Jesus 
of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost 


bv aTreareiXe tol9 viols 'IcrparjX, 
evayyeXi^ofievos ^Iprjvrjv Bia 'Ir)- 


Kvpt-os. u/iety o'lSare to yevo- 

fxevov prjfia Kaff oXrjs rrjs 'lov- 
Saias, ap^a/ieuop arro rrjs raXi- 
Xaia9, /xera to fia7rTta-p.a b l/cj;- 
pv^ep 'Icodvues' ^^ 'Irjaovv tov 
diTO Na^ap^T, d>s expicrev avrov 
6 Oeos HvevixaTL 'Ayicp kolI 8v- 


which he sent to the children 
of Israel, preaching peace 
through Jesus Christ, he is 
Lord of all; — you know that 37 
'message which was pub- 
lished throughout all Judea, 
beginning from Galilee, after 
the immersion which John 
preached ; — concerning Jesus 38 
of Nazareth ; how God "anoint- 
ed him with the 'Holy Spirit 

2 : 15-19 ; that message which he sent, Dodd. This I prefer 
to any other representative of ^i/ta in this case. We have 
our messages from kings, and councils, and governments, and 
they are all ^rj/iara, words of significance, and words of 
authority. Jesus is the messenger of the everlasting cove- 
nant, and the Gospel is the message of God to a world in 
rebellion. It is a message of peace, a word, or message of 
reconciliation, published not to Jews only, but to Jews and 

* ExQiaav avrov, christed, or anointed him, empowered 

^ n-vexiiiati 'Aytcp xai Svvafiet, not with a Holy Spirit 
and a power, but with the Holy Spirit and power abso' 
lute. A holy spirit and a power are wholly indefinite, 
therefore incomprehensible. The history of Jesus Christ 
has been written, but the history of the Holy Spirit has 
never been written. The Holy Spirit represents not a spirit 
of God, nor an angel of God, but all Divinity, and Divinity 
too, in all its grandeur. 

But it appears in numerous and various manifestations, in 
Creation, in Providence, in moral government, and in redemp- 
tion. But all these, works one and the same Spirit. "By 
his Spirit he garnished the heavens, and formed the crooked 
serpent," or the milky way. Job 26 : 13. " Thou sendest 
forth thy Spirit and thou renewest the face of the earth," 
Ps. 104 : 30. But these he consummates by the winds of 
heaven. So by his word, the breath of the Lord, his Spirit 
quickens us. 

HvEvfia 'Ayiov, in its anarthrous form, is found in the con- 
ception of Jesus, Matt. 1 : 18 ; 1 : 20. Again in his promised 
baptism in nvev/tart Ttv^t, Matt. 3 : 11. He also cast out 
demons Ttrev/tan Gbov, Matt. 14 : 28, etc., etc. In the triune 
manifestation of God there is a Father, a Son, and a Holy 
Spirit, and these are, essentially, necessarily, and absolutely, 
Divine. As there are uo degrees in absolute humanity, so are 
there none in absolute Divinity. These are the elements of 
all true criticism and interpretation of the oracles of inspira- 
tion on this most mysterious and Divine theme, as we con- 
ceive of them. 

Hfcvfiazi 'Ayuij. See ch. 1 : 2, note e. To our previous 
remarks on this subject we would add as further exegetical and 
confirmatory : 

In this Book of Acts we find Jlfavfia'Aytov twenty-two times, 
and in the whole Christian Scriptures ninety-two times. — The 
Book of Acts is, therefore, emphatically the book of the dis- 
pensation of the Holy Spirit. It is ninety times translated in 
the common version of the Christian Scriptures Holy Ohost, 
and twice Holy Spirit. It should be uniformly Holy Spirit. 
Luke, in his Gospel, introduces it twelve times — while, in all the 
other historical books of N. T., it is found only fourteen times. 
Matthew, in his Gospel, introduces him, and that, too, in refer- 
ence to the creation, or generation and baptism of Jesus, in 
the anarthrous form, cli. 1 : 18, 20; 3 : 11. So, also, Mark in 
his Gospel, ch. 1 : 8. But after this, in the absence of Aytov, 
they both prefix the article, and thus he, who is first introduced 
as HvEVfia Aytov, is immediately designated to nvevfta. 

Luke also, first introduces him Hvsvfia Ayiov, ch. 1 : 15, 
and, again, in v. 35, with regard to Christ's conception, he ap- 
pears as Ilvevfta. Aytov, and, again, in reference to baptism, 
ch. 3 : 16. John the Baptist says of him, " he will baptize you 
in Holy Spirit and in fire ". 

And John, too, when he first introduces the Holy Spirit, 
and intimates his baptism, presents him in the same anarthrous 
form, ch. 1 : 33. So, all the Evangelists in their Gospels in- 
troduce him. And, in this Book of Apostolic Acts, when first 
introduced, both in giving instruction to the Apostles, and in 
reference to baptism, ch. 1 : 2, 5 ; he is presented as Hvevfta 

After being thus so systematically designated in reference to 
his birth, baptism, and mission, as simply and absolutely JlftEv- 
fta Aytov, he is occasionally, indeed often, being now well 
known, styled to nvevfia, to nvcvfta Aytov, and to nvsvfia to 
Aytov. And all this in good taste, and in conformity to the 
Biographies and Histories of that era. It is, therefore, a gra- 
tuitous criticism to assume that IIvEvfia Aytov does not al- 
ways indicate, in reference to this glorious personality, the 
same definite Divine personality into which, or into whose, 
name, equally with that of the Father and the Son, all Chris- 
tians are immersed. We thank God that we can have the full 




and with power: who went about 
doing good, and healing all that 
were oppressed of the devil ; for 
God was with him. 


vaixHf OS SirjXdev evepyerau ical 
IcofjLevos rravras tovs KaraSvva- 
crrevo/xeuovs' vtto tov diafioXou, 
oTt tfeos rju jxer avrov koll 


and with power; who went 
about, from place to place, 
doing good, and healing all 
that were oppressed by the 
devil ; for God was with him. 

assurance of understanding, that Ilveviia jiymv, like Jesus 
Christ, is the divinely-established designation of the Christian's 
Advocate and Sanctifier. 

"We may further say, on all our premises, that Upcvfia'Ayiov 
is nowhere in Holy Writ used as applicable to any Christian 
man, however sanctified and adopted into the family of God. 
It is an appropriated name — as much as Jesus is in the New 
Testament, or as Joshua was in the Old. We have many bap- 
tists now-a-days, but no John the Baptist. The Hebrews had 
many Christs of the house of David and of the house of Aa- 
I'on ; but now both Jews and Gentiles liave but One Christ; 
— and, tijerefore, he is the Christ — the only Christ of God, 
emphatically, ike Lord's anointed. 

Again, and finally on this topic ; — We are never said 
in the Christian Scriptures to be baptized in tits Holy 
Spirit, but uniformly in Holy Spirit. We have three 
baptisms set before us in the Christian oracles : — a bap- 
tism in ivatcr, in spirit, and in fire. They are in the Greek 
Scriptures uniformly anarthrous, and not in the water, in tlie 
fire, in the Spirit. We may be baptized in Holy Spirit, in 
water, or in fire ; but not in a Holy Spirit, in a water, or in 
a fire. 

Again, every person is said to be baptized into some- 
thing as well as in something. Hence the Apostolic com- 
mission reads — immerse them into the name ; not m the 
name of the Theiotes or Godhead — into " the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." This 
formula is pregnant with exalted conceptions of a special 
relation to the Father as now our Father ; to the Son as 
our kinsman Kedeemer; and to the Holy Spirit as our Ad- 
vocate with the Father through the dignity and merit of the 
Lord Jesus. 

To be immersed in fire is rather the symbol of destruction. 
It is, indeed, a symbol of purification of metals, but not of 
persons. To a promiscuous audience, it may be said, the obe- 
dient will be purified and the disobedient consumed. Hence 
the choice of two baptisms — obey and be purified, disobey 
and be consumed. 

It has been noted that the most sublime operations of the 
Godhead have been ascribed to the anarthrous JSvevfia 'Ayiov. 
It was the Holy Spirit — or, according to Matthew, Holy Spirit 
(IIvEvfia 'Ayiov) that created the body of Jesus — evQEd-r; ev 
ynar^i exovaa ex JTvevfiarog 'Ayiov. She was pregnant by 
Holy Spirit, not by a Holy Spirit. Again it is affirmed, v. 20, 

" that conceived in her was by ITvevfiaros 'Ayiov ". And Jesus, 
too, it is afijrmed b}' John, will immerse in Holy Spirit or in 
Holy Spirit and in fire — not in the Holy Spirit and in the fire. 
He has also promised to give a Holy Spirit, but not the Holy 
Spirit, to them that ask him. Appears it not then, that ITi>eii- 
fia 'Ayiov and to Hvavfia to 'Ayiov, and to 'Ayiov Hvsvfia are 
in the Christian currency, like the currency — o Itjaove, Irjaovs 
Xqiotos, and o Iijaovg 6 Xqiotos ! We have in Jlark 1 : 1, 
Ii]aov Xqioxov viov rov Qsov ; but when a full confession of 
faith, the most approved by him, was expressed by Peter, 
(Matt. 16 : 16.) it is in these words : Hv m b X^iaros, o vtos 
rov 6sov Tov ^lovros. Here we find in one afiirmation the 
articleybar times, once for every predicate of the Saviour. Tlie 
Christ the Son of the God — the Living one. 

Hence a question arises whether, at any time, or in any 
case, ITvBvfia'Ayiov does not represent all that is indicated by 
TO HvEvfia to 'Ayiov personally and officially contemplated, 
especially when this Divine agent is referred to ; or whether 
any personal spirit, angelic or human, is ever represented bj'^ 
Uvevfia 'Ayiov, in any passage in the Christian Scriptures. 

To settle this question, another may be propounded. Is 
there not evidence, full and satisfactory, that the agent that is 
by one apostle named Hvsv/ia 'Ayiov is by the same apostle 
named to Hvev/ia to 'Ayiov, while speaking on the same sub- 
ject? Paul to the Corinthians, in his memorable dissertation 
on spiritual gifts and on the Spirit, whence they emanate, 
1st Epistle, ch. 12, thus speaks : nepi Ttvsv/uanxiov — Concern- 
ing spirituals — on spiritual gifts, states, as prefatory, that no 
one can say that Jesus is Lord, but by JTvivfcan 'Ayic^ — by a 
Holy Spirit, or by Holy Spirit, anarthrous. 

But this anarthrous Holy Spirit, almost in the same breath 
becomes to Ss avxo itvevfia — one and the same Spirit, jast as 
there is o Se avroe xvqios, and 6 Se avros Qeos, one and the 
same God ; and yet this to avro nvev/ia is first introduced 
HvEvfta 'Aytov — cv HvEVfiari 'Ayiio ! But if this do not give 
full satisfaction to the most curious, we have another fact of 
paramount authority, viz. : that which is ascribed by Paul 
to Hvcvfta 'Ayiov, anarthrous, is by him, again, ascribed to to 
Jlvsvfia TO 'Ayiov. 1 Cor. 12: 3. " No one can say that Jesus is 
Lord, but by IIvEvfiari 'Ayicii." This, although anarthrous, is 
construed by the Holy Spirit — but literally by Holy Spirit. 
But logically, as well as grammatically, he reasons thus : There 
are three Siai^easig — one class of gifts, one class of services, and 
one class of operations. We may admit, if any one calls for it, 
that there are classes of gifts or offices, classes of services, and 
classes of operations, subjectively and objectively contemplated. 
But there is — "to Ss avto vtvev/ua", and there is — "o avTos 
xvqiog", and there is — " o avTog Qeos". Three Divine agents, 




39 And we are witnesses of 
all things which he did, both in 
the land of the Jews, and in Je- 
rusalem ; whom they slew and 
hanged on a tree : 

40 Him God raised up the 
third day, and shewed him 
openly ; 

41 Not to all the people, but 
unto witnesses chosen before of 
God, even to us, who did eat and 
drink with him after he rose from 
the dead. 

42 And he commanded us to 
preach unto the people, and to 
testify that it is he which was 
ordained of God to he the Judge 
of quick and dead. 

43 To him give all the pro- 
phets witness, that through his 
name whosoever believeth in him 
shall receive remission of sins. 

44 While Peter yet spake these 
words, the Holy Ghost fell on all 
them which heard the word. 

45 And they of the circum- 
cision which believed, were as- 
tonished, as many as came with 
Peter, because that on the Gen- 
tiles also was poured out the 
gift of the Holy Ghost. 

46 For they heard them speak 
with tongues, and magnify God. 
Then answered Peter, 

47 Can any man forbid water. 


TifJLHS ecrfieu fidprvpes TravTCov wv 
iTToirjcrev 'Iv re rj? ypp^ rav \Iov- 
dalcou Kcu iv 'lepovaaX-^/u.' ov 
ai>eiXov KpeixdcravTe9 eVt ^vXov. 
^^ TOVTOV 6 Oeos Tj-yeipe rfj rplrrj 
rjfjiipa, KCU eScoKeu avTOV i/x^aurj 
yevicrdat' ov iravTL ra XacS, 
dWd fidpTvat tols '!rpoK€-)(ei.poTO- 
VTffjLeuois VTTO Tov 0eov, TJp.'LU, 
olrLves avve^ayo/xev koL arvve- 
TTLOfxev avTCo, fxera to avaaTrjvaL 
avTov tK veKpcov Kai irap-qy- 
yuXev rjiuv KTjpv^aL ra Xatp, /cat 
Sia/xaprvpacrBaL, otl avTos icTTLv 


i" \ -^ 43 ' 

{wVTCiiV Kdl ViKpaV. TOVTCp 

irdvTes ol 7rpo(l)rJTac jxapTvpov- 
(TLV, a(f)€crLV d/xapTtwu Xafidv 8ia 
TOV ovojxaTOS avTov ivavTa tov 
TTiaTevovTa ely avTOv. ' Etl 

XaXovvTOs TOV HeTpov Ta prj- 
fiaTa TavTa, eVeTrecre to llvevfia 
To'AyLOv eVt iravTas tovs olkov- 
ovTas TOV Xoyov. ^^ Kca i^iaTT]- 
crav 01 e/c irepLTOfMrj^ irio-Tol ocroi 
(TVVTjXOov TcS JJeTpa, on kcu iiri 
TO. edvr) Tj Scopea tov 'Ayiov 
IIvevp.aTOs ^KKi^Taf ^^ tJkovov 
yap avTcav XaXovvTcov yXaxra-ai^, 
Kol fieyaXvvovTcov tov Oeov. 
TOTe aTreKplOr] 6 HeTpov, *^ Mtjtl 


And we are witnesses of all 39 
things which he did, both in 
the land of the Jews, and in 
Jerusalem ; whom they slew, 
hanging him on a tree. Him 40 
God raised up the third day, 
and shewed him openly ; not 41 
to all the people, but to wit- 
nesses before chosen by God, 
even to us who did eat and 
drink with him after he rose 
from the dead. And he com- 42 
manded us to 'announce to the 
people, and to testify that it is 
he himself who is ordained by 
God, to be the judge of the 
living and the dead. To him 43 
all the prophets testify, that 
whoever believes in him 
shall, through his name, re- 
ceive remission of sins. While 44 
Peter was yet speaking these 
words, the ''Holy Spirit fell on 
all those who heard the word. 
And those of the circumci- 45 
sion, who believed, as many 
as came with Peter, were as- 
tonished because that on the 
Gentiles also, the gift of the 
Holy Spirit was poured out. 
For they heard them speak 46 
with other'' tongues, andmagni- 
fy God. Then Peter answer- 47 

' Kij^v^at xai. Siafiaqrvqaad'ai., to herald, or to announce 
and attest to the people, to proclaim and to testify that it is 
he who is or^ajnet/. 'ii^tofievog, co^t^ca, determined, ordained, 
declared, such are its representatives in com. vor. He is both 
appointed and declared to be the judge of all. 

■• rXmaaais, not in one tongue, but in tongues, consequently 
the ereQats, before employed, is here implied and should bo 
supplied. It is, indeed, more than logically implied, for it is 
intimated in the words, rors ansnQt&'i] 6 JTet^os, then Peter 
responded, or answered — their inquiries of course. 

three Divine functions, and three Divine operations— em- 
bracing the personalities of Jehovah — in the Father, in the Son, 
and in the Holy Spirit, or the Holy Guest of the Christian 
temple. As for the definitive titles of any one of these Divine 
personalities, or operations, we should not be hypercritical. 
The diction of the Spirit is all sufficient, and alone sufficient, for 
the least and the greatest head or heart in all the ages of the 
reign of grace. And hence, without any speculative theology 

or Christology, that which, by one Christian writer under 
supernatural guidance, is ascribed sometimes to nvcvfia, is 
again ascribed to to itvev/ia by himself; and again by others 
to HvBVfca 'Aytov — and to to jiytov Uvev/ta — and to make it 
superlative in some cases, to Uvev/ta 10 'Aytov, which caps the 
climax of grammatical precision and of exegetical development. 
In one sentence IIvevftaAytov is tantamount to ro IlfEVfitt. — as 
o 6eos is to Jehovah. 




that these should not be bap- 
tized, which have received the 
Holy Grhost as well as we ? 

48 And he commanded them 
to be baptized in the name of the 
Lord. Then prayed they him 
to tarry certain days. 

And the apostles and brethren 
that were in Judea, heard that 
the Gentiles had also received 
the word of God. 

2 And when Peter was come 
up to Jerusalem, they that were 
of the circumcision contended 
with him, 

3 Saying, Thou wentest in to 
men uncircumcised, and didst 
eat with them. 

4 But Peter rehearsed the mat- 
ter from the beginning, and ex- 
pounded it by order unto them, 

5 I was in the city of Joppa 
praying : and in a trance I saw a 
vision, A certain vessel descend, 
as it had been a great sheet, let 


TO vScop KcoXvaat dwarai. tls tov 
firj fiaTTTKrdrjvai tovtov^, otriues 
TO Hvevfxa to Ayt.ov ^'Xafiov 
Kadas Koi -qfius; ^^ TrpocreTa^e 
T€ avTOVs fiaTrTtadrivat iv rm 
6vo/J.a.TC tov Kvpiov. TOTe rjpa- 
TTjo-av avTov iirtp-eivai rj/xepas 


"HKOr:EAN 8e ol oLTToaTO- 
\ot Kcu ol a8eX(j)o\ ol ovTes kutu 
T-qv 'lovSatav, otl kou to. idvrj 
iSe^afTO tov Xoyov tov Oeov- 
^ KCU oTC avefirj IIsTpos ety 'lepo- 
croXvfj.a, SieKpluouTO irpos avTov 
ol e/c TrepiTO/XT]?, ^ XeyouTey, "Otl 
7rpo9 auSpas ocKpo^vcTTLav €-^ov- 
Tas 6l(Tr]X6e9, Kol avve^ayes av- 
Tol^. ^ 'Ap^afievos Se 6 HeTpos 
i^eTideTO avTols KaOe^rjs Xiycav, 
'' ' Eyw rjp.r]u iv TroAet loinrrj 
7rpoo-€v^o/j.€vo9, KOL clSou iv e/c- 
aTacret opapa, KaTa^alvov aKevos 
TL as odovrju /xeydXrju, Tecraap- 


ed. Can any man 'forbid the 
water, that these should not 
be immersed, who have ^re- 
ceived the Holy Spirit, as well 
as we ? And he command- -18 
ed them to be immersed ^in 
the name, of the Lord. Then 
they requested him to remain 
some days. 

And the Apostles and breth- 
ren, ""throughout Judea, heard 
that the Gentiles also had re- 
ceived the word of God. And 
'when Peter went up into Jeru- 
salem, they of the circumcision 
^disputed with him, saying. 
You associated with men who 
were uncircumcised, and ate 
with them. But Peter re- 
lated the matter from the be- 
ginning, and set it forth in 
order to them, saying, I was 
in the city of Joppa, praying ; 
and I saw, in a trance, a vi- 
sion, something descend, like 
a great sheet, let down from 

' KioXvaai, forbid, hinder, not suffer, not permit, obstruct, 
withhold. To vSioq, the water, not water, indicative of pre- 
eminence. The com. vcr. gives to this word, hinder, as well 
as to forbid, to loilhsland. The primary meaning given by 
Lidd. and Scott, and Rob., to cut short, indicates more than 
forbid. It implies not merely withholding, but hindering, or 
debarring water. True no Gentiles before had been admitted 
into the Church, nor were they looked for, or sought after, 
by the Jews, who had assumed that salvation belonged exclu- 
sivelj'^ to them. 

' They had received, to ILvcvfia to 'Ayiov, that same to 
Jlvcvfia TO 'Aycov of which he had spoken, and they had wit- 

* Ev rtp ovofiari, in the name, or by the authority of the 
Lord, he commanded them to be immersed. Iqaov X^tarov is 
annexed by Ln., and possesses strong claims in the esteem of 
Griesbach. Ets to ovofia, and ev tco ovofiart are never sub- 
stituted in Sacred, or Classic Literature, as synonyms. The 
authority by which any act is performed must never be con- 
founded with the meaning, or intention of it. 

•■ Kara Tt]v lovSaiav, "that were in Judea" com. ver. This 

version might indicate some place in Judea, as bv lovSain. 
But y.ara here ought to be represented by throughout, as it is 
found in com. ver. of Luke's Gospel, and in this book, as well as 
in classic Greek. In Luke's writings we find it so represented. 
In his Gbspel 8 : 1. 4, 39 ; 23 : 5 ; 9 : 31, 42 ; 10 : 37 ; 
24 : 5. 

' ICal ore, does not indicate " then, token," but, " and token, 
Peter went up, they of the circumcision ". " Who were " is 
not in the text, and is redundant. " Thou wentest in," does 
not, in our stylo, represent the sense, as well as, you associated 
toith. Associate is not found in King James' version of N. T. 
It was not then in fashion, occurring only twice in the old. 
But now, no term is more apposite to this and other passages 
in the New Testament. 

J udiEKQivovro, " contended with him," com. ver. This and 
Jude, V. 9, are the only places, in the Christian Scriptures, 
where this word is represented by, contend. The Devil con~ 
tended about the body of Moses. Disputed, is more apposite 
to questions of debate, and especially in such a category. Wo 
find it thus rendered, Kom. 14 : 1, applied to such cases, 
as " doubtful disputations." 




down from heaven by four cor- 
ners; and if; came even to me: 

6 Upon the which when I had 
fastened mine eyes, I considered, 
and saw four-footed beasts of 
the earth, and wild beasts, and 
creeping things, and fowls of the 

7 And I heard a voice saying 
unto me, Arise, Peter; slay, and 

S But I said, Not so, Lord: 
for nothing common or unclean 
hath at any time entered into 
my mouth. 

9 But the voice answered me 
again from heaven. What God 
hath cleansed, that call not thou 

10 And this was done three 
times: and all were drawn up 
again into heaven. 

11 And behold, immediately 
there were three men already 
come unto the house where I 
was, sent from Cesarea unto me. 

12 And the Spirit bade me 
go with them, nothing doubting. 
Sloreover, these six brethren ac- 
compajiied me, and we entered 
into the man's house : 

13 And he shewed us how he 
had seen an angel in his house, 
which stood and said unto him. 
Send men to Joppa, and call for 
Simon, whose surname is Peter; 

14 Who shall tell thee words, 
whereby thou and all thy house 
shall be saved. 

15 And as I began to speak, 
the Holy Ghost fell on them, as 
on us at the beginning. 

16 Then remembered I the 


(TLv ap-)(a'is KadiefMCvrjv eK tov ov- 
pavov, KOL rjXdev oi^pis dfiov' 
" ety rju arevicras Kareuoovu, kcu 
€i8ou TO. TeTpdiroSa ttjs yrjs' /cat 
TO. drjpla /cat ra epTrera kcu to. 
Tveruva tov ovpavov. rJKOvaa 
Be ^covrjs Xeyovcrrjs fJ-ot, 'Ava- 
crras, IleTpe, Ovcrou koH (j)ay€. 
^ ehrov 8e, MTjBap&s, Kvpiv on 
irdv KOLVov 7) d-KadapTov ov8e- 
TTore el(rrjX6eu ety to aTOfia p.ov. 
" d.7reKpidrj 8e fioL (povrj e/c 8iv- 
Tepov e/c TOV ovpavov, ^A 6 
Oeos eKadapicre, av jxrj ko'lvqv. 
^^ TOVTO 8e iyeveTO eVt r/>ty, /cat 
TvaXiv dvecnracrdri airavra els tov 
ovpavov. Kal ISov, i^avTrjs 

Tp€L9 dv8p€s iirecTTTjcrav eVt ttjv 
olKiav iv y rjprjv, dTre(rTaXp.ivoL 
drro Kaiaapelas irpos p.e. eiire 
8e poL TO irvevpa, avveXdelv av- 
T0L9, prjBlv 8iaKpLvopevoV' 77A- 
60V 8e aw ip.ol Kal 01 e^ dSeX- 
(j)o\ ovTOL, Kal €l(rr]X6op.ev ety tov 
oiKOv tov dv8pos, aTrrjyyeiXi 
re rjpuv Tras d8e tov dyyeXov 
iv TcS o'lKcp avTOV oTTaOivTa Kal 
eiTTOVTa avT(S, 'AiroaTeiXov eiy 
loinrrjv dv8pas, kcu p.eTairep^\raL 
Slpcova TOV iiriKaXovp-evov Ue- 
Tpov, oy XaX-qareL p-qpaTa irpos 
(re, iv ois (rcodrjarj av Kal Tray 6 
oIkos aov. ^^ €v 8e tw dp^aada't 
pe XaXelv, eVeVeo-e to IIvevp.a 
TO 'Ay tov iir avTovs, coairep Kal 
icf) rjpds iv d.p-)(fj. ^^ ipiviadrjv 


heaven by four corners, and it 
came even to me. Upon which, c 
when I had ^earnestly looked, I 
considered, and saw four-footed 
animals of the earth, and wild 
beasts, and reptiles, and birds 
of the air. And I heard a voice, 7 
saying to me, Arise, Peter ; kill 
and eat. But I said, not so, 8 
Lord ; for nothing common or 
unclean, has, at any time, en- 
tered into my mouth. But a 
the voice 'answered me again 
from heaven ; What God has 
cleansed, that call not you 
common. And this was done 10 
three times; and all were 
drawn up again into heaven. 
And behold, there were im- 11 
mediately three men already 
come to the house where I 
was, sent from Csesareato me. 
And the Spirit bade me go 12 
with them, doubting nothing. 
And, moreover, these six 
brethren accompanied me ; 
and we entered into the man's 
house ; and he told us, how 13 
he had seen the ""messenger 
in his house, who stood and 
said to him ; "Send to Joppa, 
and call for Simon, whose 
surname is Peter, who will 14 
tell you words, by which you 
and all your "house shall be 
saved. And as I began to 15 
speak, the Holy Spirit fell on 
them, as on us in the "begin- 
ninff. Then I remembered 16 

'' Arevtaas xazcvoovv, I had earnestly looked, better than 
" fixed my eyes." Looking steadfastly, 'Wesley, Mur. Loolced 
earnestly, Wakefield, Boothroyd. I fixed my eyes, Thompson. 

1 ATtexpcO-ri, 'Were it not that, in its whole currency, (two 
liundred and forty-seven times), it is represented by answer, 
question, or no question, we would haye prefered the word, 

" ATtooTstlov — avS^ag, "men", is omitted, or repudiated by 
Gr., Sch., Lach., and Tf., Bagster's Imp. Text. 

" See Note on ch. 10 : 2. "" See Note w. p. 83. 

° JEV a^xHi fsll on them as on us — them, of the Gentiles, and 
us, of the Jews — '■' as in the beginning." It is a logical infer- 
ence from these words, that from the day of Pentecost, to the 
calling of the Gentiles, no similar display of the Spirit had 




word of the Lord, how that he 
said, John indeed baptized with 
water; but ye shall be baptized 
with the Holy Ghost. 

17 Forasmuch then as God 
gave them the like gift as he did 
unto us, who believed on the 
Lord Jesus Christ, wliat was I, 
that I could withstand God? 

18 When they heard these 
things, they held tlieir peace, 
and glorified God, saying. Then 
hath God also to the Gentiles 
granted repentance unto life. 

19 Now they which were 
scattered abroad upon the per- 
secution that arose about Ste- 
phen, travelled as far as Phe- 
nice, and Cyprus, and Antioch, 
preaching the word to none but 
unto the Jews only. 

20 And some of them were 

gheek text. 
(5e rov prj/iaTOs Kvpiov, tSy e'Ae- 
y^v, 'Icodvvrjs fJ.£v i^aTTTia-eu v8a- 
Tiy viiels 8e jSairTLcrOrio-ea-de ev 
ITueu/JLaTL 'Aylcp. ^^ JEi odv ttjv 
'L(Tr)v 8copeai/ eScoKcu avrols 6 
0€os C09 Koi Tjfuv, inaTevaaaiv 
eVi Tou Ivvptou 'Irjaovv XpicTTov, 
iyca Se t'ls rjp-rju Bvvaros KcoXvcrai 
Tov deov; ^^ 'AKOvaravres de 
ravra rjcrv^aaav, kcu ido^a^ou 
TOV Oiov, XiyovT€s, ' Apaye koI 
TOLs edveaLV 6 Oeos rrjv fiera- 
voiav e8coK€i> els ifo-qv. 

^^ 01 p-ev ovv SiacTTrapei'Tfs aTTo 
rrjs 0Xi-^€co9 Trjs yevo/xevrjs eVi 
^Te^dv^, SirjXdou eW ^olv'lktjs 


8evl XaXovvres tov Xoyov el fxr] 
pLOVov ' Io8aLQis. "^^ rjaav 8e Ttves 

revised version. 

the declaration of the Lord, 
how he said, John, indeed, 
immersed in water, but you 
shall be immersed in the Holy 
Spirit. pSince, then, God n 
gave them the 'same gift even 
as he did to us, when we 
believed on the Lord Jesus 
Christ; who was I that I 
could withstand God? "-When 18 
they heard these things they 
were silent, and glorified 'God, 
saying, God, then, indeed, has 
also granted to the Gentiles 
the reformation 'to life. 

Now they who were scat- lo 
tered abroad, upon the per- 
secution that arose about 
Steplien, ti'avelled as far as 
Phenicia, and Cyprus, and An- 
tioch, speaking "the word to 
none but "Jews. And some 20 

been given, else tlioy would not have gone so far back. The 
interval between the day of Pentecost, and the calling of the 
Gentiles, in Ctesareu, is put down, by our best Biblical scholars 
and commentators, as about seven or eight j'cars. See the 
clironology of our most approved Polyglott Bibles. Adam 
Clark makes it some 11 or 12 years. Take the lowest figure, 
and the Holy Spirit, in its public manifestations of super- 
natural gifts, descended only twice — at the commencement 
of the reign of Christ among the Jews, a. d. 33 and among 
the Gentiles, a. d. 41. Now the Holy Spirit is given to them 
that believe, as the Holy Guest, to dwell in their hearts, as a 
sanctifier, and a comforter, or an advocate. 

This scene in Cassarea, and that in Jerusalem, are called — and 
they are the only scenes, that, in Holy Scripture, arc called — 
the Baptism, or immersion of the Holy Sjiirit. They spoke 
as fluently in foreign tongues, as in tlieir vernacular. The 
display was sensible, visible. 

P El, if then, rather, since then. The premises necessarily 
conceded. TviV lar/V Sco^eav, the equal gift, is the same gift. 
The former is literal, the latter is more familiar and as truth- 

1 larjf Sco^eicf TttoTsvaaatv, the same gift. It was only to 
them that believed, indicating that only such are the temple 
of the Holy Spirit — the Holy Guest. His miraculous gifts 
wore a sign to those that were out of the Church. 

•" Ay.ovoavres, 1st aor. part., on hearing, they were silent — 
having heard ; 7]ovy_aoav, the}' were quiet. 

• ESoia^ov, imp., were glorifying God ; aonye, perhaps then, 
God eSioy.EV has granted also to the nations ti]v fietavomv cis 
Z(oip> The reformation to life- not fieru/teleia, -pcenilcnlia. 

but /laravoia, resipiscentia, reformation, or returning to a 
right understandings recovery. Suetonius, change of life. 

' Eis, ad, crga, towards, on to, changed to, into^=€ts ^(orjv ; on 
to. or into life. A slate of mind changing the course of life, iu 
order to life in its proper intent, enlargement, and enjoyment 
God grants repentance, or the benefit of repentance into life. 

" The word, tov }.oyov. This formula now becomes a sort of 
technical term, indicative of </ic message, the last message of God 
to the world. It is called " the word of the kingdom "- '■ the 
word of life " — not the letter, or law, but the word, or gospel. 

This 19th V. resumes the narrative, from the death of 
Stephen. The 8th, 9th, and 10th chapters, to the 19th verse 
of the 11th chap., constitute a digression. The 8th chapter 
gives an account of the conversion of the Samaritans, and 
the Ethiopian oflicer; the 9th gives an account of the con- 
version of Saul of Tarsus ; the 10th the conversion of the 
Gentiles. The 11th to the 19th v. gives an account of Peter's 
visit to Jerusalem, and the explanation of his conduct in going 
to the Gentiles Here, again, the history of the Acts of the 
Apostles is resumed, detailing their labors, trials, and success. 
Paul and Barnabas became prominent actors, and their proper 
labors engross the principal incidents recorded in this book. 
They commenced at Antioch, in Syria, to act in concert, under 
the sanction of a solemn ordination, and mission. 

Tov Xoyov, the xuord. See ch. 1 : 1, note a, on 'kayos. The 
word, the message, the lurthen of the prophets, all, or severally, 
indicate a special message from God — or from man — preceded 
by the article, in this book, it is specific — the gospel, the word 
of reconciliation. 

" "To none but Jews only." This is rather a vulgarism. Only, 




men of Cyprus and Cyrene, 
which when they were come 
to Antioch, spake unto the Gre- 
cians, preaching the Lord Jesus. 

21 And the hand of the Lord 
was with them: and a great 
number believed, and turned 
unto the Lord. 

22 Then tidings of these 
things came unto the ears of the 
church which was in Jerusalem : 
and they sent forth Barnabas, 
that he should go as far as An- 

23 Who, when he came, and 
had seen the grace of God, was 
glad, and exhorted them all, 
that with purpose of hearb they 
would cleave unto the Lord. 

24 For he was a good man, 
and full of the Holy Ghost, and 
of faith : and much people was 
added unto the Lord. 

25 Then departed Barnabas 
to Tarsus, for to seek Saul : 

26 And wlicn he had found 
him, he brought him unto An- 
tioch. And it came to pass, that 
a whole year they assembled 
themselves- with the church, and 
taught much people. And the 
disciples were called Christians 
first in Antioch. 


i^ avTav avBpes KvirpLot kcu Kv 
prjvaLOi, OLTLves ela-eXOovTes ety 
^AvTLO)(eLav, iXaXovv irpos rovs 
'JEXXrjVLCTTas, evayyeXi^o/jLeiiot 
Tov Kvpiov 'Iijaovu. ^ KCU rjv 
■^elp Kvpiov fX€T avTcov TToXvs' re 
dpid/j.09 TTLo-Tevcraf eirecTTpe^^v 
eVi TOV Kvpiov ^^ ' HKovaOrj 8e 
Xoyos ils Ta dtra rrj^ eKKXrjcrla^ 
Trjy ev 'lepoaoXvp-oLS irepX av- 
Tcoi'' Koi i^aTrecrreiXau Bapva- 
fiau SieXdeiv eco^ 'Aiirto^^ela^. 
^ oy irapayevopievos koL IScov ttjv 
■yapLV TOV Oeov e)(a.prj, kolL -irape- 
KaXet iravTas Trj Trpodecrei Trjy 
KapBias 7rpo(r/x€i>€Lu tc3 Kvpico' 
OTL rjv avrjp ayaQui^ kol TrX-q- 
prjs UvevpaTos 'Ayiou kol tt'l- 
(TTecos. KCU 7rpoaeT€6r] o^Ao? 
Ikuvos t<S Kvpio). ^^ ^E^rjXde 5e 
els Tapaov 6 Bapvafias ava^rj- 
TTJcraL SavXov, ^^ /cat evpcov av- 
Tov Tjyayev avrov eh 'AvTLo-)(eiav. 
eyeveTO 8e avTovs iviavTov oXou 
crvva)(dr]vm eV Trj iKKXrja-la, kol 
Sida^at 6-^Xov iKavou, )(pr]/jiaTL- 
aat re irp&TOv eu 'AvTio-^ela tovs 
pLaQrjTas Xpio-Tiavovs. ^^ 'JEv 


of them were men of Cyp- 
rus and Cyrene, who, having 
come into Antioch, spoke to 
the Hellenists, "preaching the 
gospel of the Lord Jesus. 
And the hand of the Lord was 21 
with them, and a great num- 
ber believed and "turned to 
the Lord. Then tidings of 22 
these things came to the ears 
of the congregation which 
was in Jerusalem ; and they 
sent forth Barnabas, that he 
should go 'through to Antioch ; 
who, when he came and be- 23 
held the grace of God, was 
glad, and exhorted them all, 
that with purpose of heart, 
tliey should adhere to the 
Lord. For he was a good man, 21 
and full of "the Holy Spirit 
and of faith. And a great 
multitude was added to tiie 
Lord. Then Barnabas depart- 25 
ed to Tarsus to seek Saul. 
And when he had found him, 26 
he brougiit iiim to Antioch. 
And it came to pass that, dur- 
ing a wiiole year, they were 
assembled with the congrega- 
tion, and taught 'a great mul- 
titude. And the disciples 
were called "Christians first 
in Antioch. 

is wholly redundant. Either, " to Jeios only ", or, only to Jeios. 
is current English. 

" EvayyEh^oftEvoi top Kvqiov Iqaovv. Though Evayysli^co 
occurs fifty-six times in N. T., it is only twice presented with a 
'person foi?*its burthen. The word is preached, the Gospel is 
preached, but Jesus is only preached twice, in the import of 
evnyyeh^co. He is hero preached the Lord, and in ch. 5 : 42, 
lie is preached the Christ. This is an eloquent fact, and gives 
to the two predicates of Jesus transcendant glory. He is the 
anointed Lord, and the Christed Jesus. Ho is the Lord, and 
the Christ of the Universe. 

" Eiiear^eyjEv, turned over upon, cast themselves upon the 
Lord. '■^ See Note on chap. 13. v. 4. 

" Kai StdaSai o-/},ov Ixavov. 'Ixavos, in com., ver., is repre- 
sented by worthy, large, great, enough for, many, much, long, 

security, a good while, long while, sore, sufficient, able, meet. 
In forty occurrences it has fourteen representatives. Of these, 
not one is equal to it. Sufficient, most nearly, in generic 
sense, represents it. Beza prefers dignus. We have a homely 
word, or phrase, which well represents it. We say of such a 
one " he has got ", or received, " what he ought ". It miiy bo 
good, bad, or indifferent. It was suitable to him — that which 
he deserved. It was so in this case. He merited " a great 
multitude", and he got it. 

" " The disciples were called Christians first in Antioch." 
The persecution commenced at the martyrdom of Stephen, 
and became the means of disseminating the gospel of the grace 
of God. A large and flourishing church in Antioch, was one 
of the fruits. The disciples, proving and maintaining that 
Jesus was the Christ, obtained from them the name of Chris- 
tians first in Antioch, the capital of Syria, called after Antio- 
ohus Epiphanes, a monster of iniquity. It became the seat 
of a flourishing church, and the occasion of a name, oven 




27 And in these days came 
prophets from Jerusalem unto 

28 And there stood up one of 
them named Agabus, and signi- 
fied by the Spirit, that there 
should be great dearth through- 
out all the world: which came 
to pass in the days of Claudius 

29 Then the disciples, every 
man according to his ability, de- 
termined to send relief unto the 
brethren which dwelt in Judea. 

30 Which also they did, and 
sent it to the elders by the hands 
of Barnabas and Saul. 


Now about that time, Herod 
the king, stretched forth his hands 
to vex certain of the church. 

2 And he killed James the 
brother of John with the sword. 


TavraLS 8e rah rifxepais KaTrjXOov 
cLTTo lepocroXvfxcou Trpo^rjrai eh 
'AvTLQ-^eLav. dvaiTTas de els 

i^ avTcou ovo\xaTL ' Aya^os, ^crrj- 
fxave Slu tov Hvev/xaros, Xifxou 
fieyav /xeWeiu ea-earOaL i(f) oXrjv 
TTju olKovfievrjv octtls koll eye- 
vero em KXavBiov Kaiaapos. 
^" Tcov Be ixaOrjTcov KaOas Tjviro- 
peLTO TLS, wpLaav eKacrros avrcou 
els BiaKoviav TrepAJ/ai tols Karot- 
KOvaLv ev rfj 'lovSala dSeX^ois' 
o KOLL eiroirjaav, dwocTTeiXavTes 
irpos Tovs irpea^vrepovs Sid j^ei- 
pos IBappafia /cat SavXov. 


KA2^ eKelvov Be tov Katpou 
eire^aXev 'HpcoBrjs 6 ^acriXevs 
Ttt? ^elpas KaKcocral rivas tc5j^ 
aTTO rrjs eKKXriarias. ^ dvetXe Be 
'laKco/Sou TOV dBeX(j)ov 'Icodvvov 


And in those days prophets 27 
came down from Jerusalem 
to Antioch. And one of them, 28 
named Agabus, having stood 
up ''made known through the 
Spirit that there would be a 
great famine throughout all 
the land, which occurred in 
the days of 'Claudius. Then 20 
■•the disciples, every one, ac- 
cording to his ability, de- 
termined to send relief to the 
brethren that dwelt in Judea ; 
which they also did ; and sent 30 
it to the Elders by the hands 
of Barnabas and Saul. 


'Now, about that time. He- l 
rod, the king, stretched forth 
his hands to 'persecute cer- 
tain persons of the congrega- 
tion. And he killed James, 2 
the brother of John, ^with the 

popular when Luke wi'ote this book. His allusion to the 
origin of this name is an evidence of its then extended cur- 

■' ^ipaaras, liaving stood up ; ea/jftavs, made known, not 
merely, intlmaled. — Hack. 

' KataaQoe, Offisar. Is rejected by Gb., Sch., Ln., and Tf. It 
is a historic fact that Claudius Ceesar, so called in Roman histor 
ry, is the person here named. He was poisoned b)"^ his wife 
Agrippina, a. d. 54. Being born nine years before Jesus 
Christ ; this event happened a. d. 45, which fact well synchro- 
nizes with the details of this book. Another Claudius sat on 
the same throne, born a. d. 246. Ho was a great military 
chieftain, and died a. d. 270. There having been two Clau- 
diuses, one of German, and one of Gothic descent, may have 
occasioned the insertion in the margin, which finally crept into 
the text. 

•• Tmv fiaO'tiTcov, attracted into the genetivo by ne. Instead 
of ol /laO'ijrai. xa&aie rjvno^siro rts avreap. — Mey., De Wette, 
Hack. Bagva^a, Dor. Gen. 19 : 14 ; Luke 13 : 29 ; John 1 : 43. 
The disciples, in proportion as {rts) any one was prospered, de- 
termined, each of them. See 1 Cor. 16 : 2. Tis, while liter- 
ally, any one, is tantamount in our day and currency to, every 
one. Still as rte. Acts 2 : 45, is, com. ver., every one, (yet in 
tliat case more pertinently, any one), so here, every one deter- 
mined to send relief, according to his ability. 

After a long critique on this word, Leigh, in his invaluable 
Critica Sacra, in allusion to this passage, says : — " Saspius vero 
ad animi propositum. seu destinationem ac decretum transfcr- 
tur. Acts 11 : 29 and 17:31". There is here no formal nora. 
case to loQiaav. It is understood to be: "certain of the 
brethren", or every one of the brethren, in prosperous circum- 

' Kar exBtvov Se rov xat^ov ; Ss, now, secundum, juxta, cum.^os, opportunitas ; mature and seasonable time. Tempore 
enim venire rerum omnium est, inquit Cornicus. The Greeks 
make a difference between x^oroe, lime, and xai^og, season, if 
not always, generally ; hence xai^os, opportunitas, mature and 
seasonable time. Solomon, as well as the Greeks, sometimes 
placed season and lime in antithesis ; " due season", Luke 12 : 42; 
Gal. 6 : 10 ; Heb. 11:15; Acts 24 : 25. Herod, it seems, judged 
this time of famine, and necessary contribution to the necessi- 
ties of the poor brethren, a suitable season for him to persecute 
and oppress them. He laid hands upon the Christians to 
maltreat, as cjceflnlEv t«s x"?"^ intimates. And, seeing it to 
be a^eorov rots lovSatois, pleasing to the Jews, he seized Peter 
as a feast for them, and, having killed James with the sword, 
he intended to present to them another repast. 

'' Kaxoio, to hurt, to harm, to vex, to treat evilly, to injure. 
With us, the word persecute, covers the cases here named. 

'"' Maxaipa, being here anarthrous, would seem to sanction 




3 And because he saw it 
pleased the Jews, he proceeded 
further to take Peter also. Then 
were the days of unleavened 

4 And when he had appre- 
hended him, he put him in prison, 
and delivered liim to four qua- 
ternions of soldiers to keep him ; 
intending after Easter to bring 
him forth to the people. 

5 Peter therefore was kept in 
prison : but prayer was made 
without ceasing of the church 
unto God for him. 

6 And when Herod would 
have brought him forth, the 
same night Peter was sleeping 
between two soldiers, bound 
with two chains ; and the keep- 
ers before the door kept the 

7 And behold, the angel of 
the Lord came upon liim, and a 
light shined in the prison; and 
he smote Peter on the side, and 
raised him up, saying, Arise up 
quickly. And his chains fell off 
from his hands. 

8 And the angel said unto 


fia^alpa. " koI iScov on dpearrov 
ecTTL Tols ' Iov8aioi9, 7rpocre6e.TO 
(TvXXa^eiv kol Jlerpov -qaav 8e 
rjjxipat Tcov a^vpxov. * ov kou 
TTLaaas eOero ety (f)vXaKr]u, irapa- 
8ovs TeacrapcTL rerpadLot^ (rrpa- 
TL(OTU)V (f)vXa(raeiv avrov, fiov' 
Xop-evos jxera to Trdcrxa dvaya- 
yuv avTov tS Xa(^. ^ 6 ixlv odv 
Ilerpos irijpelTO ev rfj 0vAa/c^' 
7rpo(rev)(rj fie 171/ eKTevrjs yivo/jLevrj 
VTTo r^y €KKXr](rLas irpos tov Oeov 
vTrep avTov. 

*" Otg fie efxeXXev avrov irpod- 
yecv 6 'Hpcodrjs, rfj vvktI eKeivr) 


sword. And because he saw 
that it pleased the Jews, he 
proceeded further to seize Pe- 
ter also. (And then were 
•■the days of the unleavened 
'loaves.) And 'having appre- 
hended him, he put him in 
prison, and delivered him 
to four 'quaternions of sol- 
diers, to guard him, intending, 
after the passover, to bring 
him forth to the people. Pe- 
ter, therefore, was kept in 
prison, but learnest prayer, 
■without ceasing, was made 
by the congregation to God 
for him. 

^u 6 nirpos KOLixc^^€vos fieraPv ^ ^"^ ^^^f, J?«™J ,^0"?^ 
L, '^ " t> R/ r^ / have brought mm lorth, m 

ovo o-TpaTicoTCov, oeoefxevos aXv- - - - '2- 

creo-i fiucrt, (jivXaKes re irpo rrjs 

dvpas irripovv rrju ^vXaKrfv. 

kclI I80V, ayyeXos Kvpiov eVe'- 

CTTTj, Kcu (f)M^ eXa/JAJ/ev iv tco oi- 

KTjfxaTi.' Trard^as fie ttjv TrXevpdv 

TOV Jlerpov, yjyeipev avTov Ae- 

ycav, 'Avacrra iv ra^ei. Kou 

i^eTreaov avTov ai dXvaeis e'/c tcov 

^eipcov. ebre re 6 ayyeXos irpos 

that night, Peter was sleeping 
between two soldiers, bound 
with two chains ; and keepers, 
before the door, guarded the 
prison. And behold a mes- 7 
senger of the Lord stood near, 
and a light shone in the prison, 
and, striking Peter on the 
side, he raised him up, saying, 
rise up quickly. And his 
chains nfell off from his hands. 
And the messenger said to him, 8 

a sword. But this is a special case, because " the article fails 
when the idea is general." He was slain by the sword ; so in 
our usage we have " the gallows ", " the Penitentiary ", " the 
Work-House ", not a gallows, a Penitentiary, a Work-House, 
as penal institutions. These are idiomatic formulas. See 
Hackett and others on this passage. 
But wo have in this context another such case : 
'■ Haav Se -q/is^ai rtov a^vfimv, ad verbum, "noio were days 
of the unleavened." But idiomatically Now, or, then, (as the 
case may be), were the days of unleavened bread. 

These are valuable examples, that supersede the ordinary 
rules of Greek syntax and etymology, when applied to Hebrew 
idioms ; and in some very grave cases, such as the anarthrous 
Hvevfia, when qualified by aywv. Though to us apparent 
anomalies, they are not to be disregarded, much less to be an- 
nihilated. Loaves, in the above case, is a more serious sup- 
pression than the article ^, in the case of ftaxai^a, though it 
mdicates several instruments. Literally, And the days of the 
unleavened were. 

' Ttov a^v/tcov, of the unleavened. The article is here used 
to direct attention to the feast of unleavened bread, and 
should be translated : It was not in days of unleavened bread, 
in a general sense, but of the unleavened bread, in a specific 

' JItaoag, aor. part., having seized; Tta^aSovg, part., having 
given him over to four detachments of four soldiers, fvlaoaetv 

k TexQaStov, occurring but once in the Christian Scriptures, 
should be rendered according to Roman usage. A quaternion 
was a company of four soldiers. There were, therefore, six- 
teen soldiers on duty, four at each time, in turns, keeping 

I Extevrie, intentus, assiduus. It is indicative of extended 
or protracted and earnest prayer. — Crit. Sacr. Ilaqt, Ln., Tf. 
Gb., prefer to inep. 

II E^eneaov — ex tav %siqmv, not out of, but from his hands. 
They could not have fallen out of, unless he had held them in 
his hands. Xetq, in Greek currency, includes the whole ^ore- 
arm, or any part of it. 




him, Gird thyself, and bind on 
thy sandals : and so he did. And 
he saith unto him, Cast thy gar- 
ment about thee, and follow me. 

9 And he went out, and fol- 
lowed him, and wist not that 
it was true which was done by 
the angel; but thought he saw 
a vision. 

10 When they were past the 
first and the second ward, they 
came unto the iron gate that 
leadeth unto the city; which 
opened to them of his own ac- 
cord: and they went out, and 
passed on through one street; 
and forthwith the angel departed 
from him. 

11 And when Peter was come 
to himself, he said, Now I know 
of a surety, that the Lord hath 
sent his angel, and hath de- 
livered me out of the hand of 
Herod, and from all the expecta- 
tion of the people of the Jews. 

12 And when he bad consid- 
ered the thing, he came to the 
house of Mary the mother of 
John, whose surname was Mark, 
where many were gathered to- 
gether, praying. 

13 And as Peter knocked at 
the door of the gate, a dam- 


avTOV, Hepi^coaai, kou vTroBrja-aL 
Ta cravhaXia aov. ' Hiiroirjcre de 
ovT<o. Kol Aeyet avT^ Hepifia- 
Xov TO IjxaTLOv aov, Ka\ aKoXov- 
dec /xot. " JTat i^eXdav tjko- 

XovdcL avT(S' KOL OVK jiSec OTl 

aXT]9es icTTi to yivo/xepov 8ia tov 
dyyeXov, eSoKei 8e opa/xa ySAe'- 
Tret,]/. SieXdovTes 8e TrpcoTi^u 

^vXaKYjv KOL SevTepav, rjXdov iTri 
TT)v "TTvXrjv T-qv criSrjpav, tt/u (pi- 
povcrav us t^v ttoXiv, ^tls avTO- 
p-aTt] r)voi)(dr] avTols' Koi e^eA- 
6ovT€S 7rpoT]Xdov pvp.rjv p.iav, koL 
€v0ecos aTrco-TT] 6 ayyeXos cltt 
avTOv. ^^ KOL 6 UeTpos y€v6p.e- 
vos iv eavT(S, etVe, JVvu oiSa 
aXrjdas otl e^aweaTeiXe Kvpios 
TOV ayyeXov avTov, /cat i^eiXero 
pe Ik x^'/ooy 'HpaBov koL tto,- 
(Trjs Trjs irpoaSoKias tov Xaov 
Tmv 'Iov8aL(i)v. ^^ o-vviScou re 
rjXOev iirl ttjv o'lKiav Mapias Trjs 
fXTjrpos 'Icoauuov tov eiriKaXov- 
p.€vov MapKOv, ov ricrav iKavol 
crvvridpoL<Tp.ivoL kol 7rpoarev)(o- 

^^ KpovcrdvTOs 8e tov Herpov 


Gird yourself and bind on your 
sandals. And he did so. And 
he said to him. Cast your gar- 
ment around you, and ""follow 
me. And Peter went out and fol- 9 
lowed him, and "had not "per- 
ceived that what was done by 
the messenger was Teal, but 
thought that he saw a vision. 

When they had passed the lo 
'first and the second watch, 
they came to the iron gate, 
that leads into the city ; which 
opened 'spontaneously to 
them; and they went out, 
and passed on through one 
street. And forthwith the 
messenger departed from him. 
Then Peter, having come to H 
himself, said, Now I 'certainly 
know that the Lord has sent 
his messenger, and has deliver- 
ed me out of the hands of He- 
rod, and from all the expecta- 
tion of the people of the Jews. 

And when lie had oonsid- 12 
ered the matter, he went to 
the house of Mary, the mother 
of John, whose surname was 
Mark, where many were as- 
sembled, praying. And "when 13 
he knocked at the door of 

"' Ay.ot.ovd-u, not go with me nor come with me, but follow 
me, siicli is its almost universal import. 

" Kai OVK r]Ssi on ahj&sg, pluperfect, he had not perceived 
that the scene, through which he had passed, was real. 

" OuK jjSet, "wist not," is obsolete; knew not, is its repre- 

V AXi]d-es, literally true; here, more appositely to the case, 
it should be, red. 

1 Uqcotip' Sevre^av, both are anarthrous, because, in 
such cases, it would be pleonastic. There could not be two 
first and two second watches, hence a first watch and a second 
wiitch, being stationed, all versions, ancient and modern, refer 
to them as the first and t/ie second. 

■■ Avrofiartj, automaton like, that is " of itself." The word 
spontaneoitshj with us happily represents it. "Of its own 
accord," may be more familiar to most ears, but too peri- 

' It may be a matter wholly of taste, which is somewhat 
arbitrary, but so it is with me — "I certainly know," is more 
forcible, than I know certainly. 

" Now (Ss) he — for rov Har^ov we read avrov, on the 
authority of Gb., Sch., Ln., and Tf. And when he knocked 
at the door, etc. Tijv -ihiQav rov nvXajvoe — the door of the 
gate-^vay, Thomp. ; the gate of the court, Murd. ; the door of 
the gate, Penn, Wesley; entry dom; Kheims, Tyndale, Cranmer. 
tli£ door of the pordi, Wakefield ; tli£ door of the oxUer gate, 




sel came to hearken, named 

14 And when she knew Pe- 
ter's voice, she opened not the 
gate for gladness, but ran in, 
and told how Peter stood before 
the gate. 

15 And they said unto her, 
Thou art mad. But she con- 
stantly affirmed that it was even 
so. Then said they, Itis his angel. 

16 But Peter continued knock- 
ing. And when they had opened 
the door, and saw him, they were 

17 But he beckoning unto 
them with the hand to hold 
their peace, declared unto them 
how the Lord had brought him 
out of the prison. And he 
said. Go shew these things unto 
James, and to the brethren. And 
he departed, and went into an- 
other place. 

18 Now as soon as it was day, 
there was no small stir among 
the soldiers, what was become 
of Peter. 

19 And when Herod had 
sought for him, and found him 
not, he examined the keepers, 
and commanded that they should 
be put to death. And he went 


TTfu Bvpav Tov TTvXwvos, TTpoaijX- 
de iraiBicTKri viraKovaai, ovofxaTL 
PoSj]' ^^ Koi eTTLyvovo-a rrjv 
^a>vr}u TOV lUrpov, caro rrjs x^' 
pas ovK TJvoi^e tov irvXwva, eicr- 
Spapovcra de dwi^yyeiXeu icTTavai 
TOP JleTpov irpo tov TrvXavos. 
ol 8e Trpos avrrjv ehrov, Maivr}. 
'H 8e 8ua-)(ypt^eT0 ovtcos exetj/. 
o'l 8' eXeyou, 'O ayyeXos avTov 
iaTiv. ^^ '0 8e Herpos iirepeue 
Kpovcow auoL^auTes Se eiSou av- 
Tov, Kol i^ecTTrjaav. ^^ KaTacreL- 
aas 8e avrols Tjj x^'-P'- <^'7?''j 
8Lr]yr]craTO avToh irws 6 Kvptos 
avTov €^riyayev e'/c ttjs (pvXaKrjs. 
€hre 8e, 'ATrayyeiXaTe 'laKCo^co 
/cat roty a5eA0oty raura. Kai 
i^eXdcov iiropevdr] ely tTepov t6- 
TTOv. ^ reuopevrjs Se -qpipas, 
7ju Tapa^os OVK oXlyos iv toIs 
(TTpaTLCOTai^, Tt, apa 6 IliTpos 
eyeveTO. ^^ 'HpcoSrjs 8e CTri^rj- 
Trjcras avTov kol ixrj evpcov, ava- 
KpLvas Tovs (f)vXaKas, e/ce'Aeucrei/ 
aTraxOrjvaf kol KareXOcov airo 


the gate, a maid servant, 
named Rhoda, went to hear- 
ken. And recognizing Peter's 14 
voice, she did not open the gate, 
for gladness ; but ran in and 
told them that Peter was 
standing before the gate. And 15 
they said to her. You are 
crazy. But she ^confidently 
affirmed that it was even so. 
Then they said. It is his ^^mes- 
senger. But Peter continued 16 
knocking. And when they 
had opened the dooi*, and saw 
him, they were astonished. 
But he, beckoning to them 17 
with the hand to be quiet, 
declared to them how the 
Lord had brought him out of 
the prison. And he said, Go 
tell these things to James, 
and to the brethren. And he 
departed and went to another 

Now, as soon as it was day, 18 
there was no small stir among 
the soldiers, as to what had 
^become of Peter. And when 19 
Herod had sought for him, and 
did not find him, he examined 
the keepers, and commanded 
that they should be put to 
death. And he went from 

" Maivji, ftaivoftat, you are crazy, 2d sing, prcs., ind. !ff da 
Stiay,v^i^eTo oirms sy.eiv, but she pertinaciously continued to 
afDrm tliat It was even so. 

'' Ills messenger, ayysXog. This word so often 

occurring in the Christian Scriptures, sometimes indicates a 
heavenly, and sometimes an earthly messenger. The no- 
tion that every one, especially every good man, has a guardian 
angel in constant attendance, is older than the N. T., and still 
cherished in many minds. In this place, it might be supposed 
to indicate a messenger sent by Peter, rather than Peter him- 
self in person. But amongst the Jews, it was generally a 
cherished idea, that every good man had a guardian angel. 
Luke simply narrates, but comments not on the occasion. 
Neither shall we. 

On weighing all that I have read and thought on the 
propriety of translation in general, and the word angel in 
particular, I feel a preponderance of reason and propriety, in 
favor of translating rather than of transferring words of 
this class. This more especially obtains in this word, and 

in those indicative of ofSce in the Christian Church. The 
abuse of such terms in popular currency, is, with me, a pre- 
ponderating argument. The ideal forms entertained of angels, 
especially of their personalities, is an additional argument in 
their case. Coleridge says, " After much thought on 

the subject of angels as a divine kind of finite beings, I find 
no sufBcing reason to hold it for a revealed doctrine, and 
assuredly it is no truth of philosophy, which, as I have else- 
where remarked, can conceive but three kinds — 1st. The 
infinite reason ; 2nd. The finite rational ; and 3d. The finite 
irrational — that is, God, man, and beast. What, indeed, even 
for the vulgar, is, or can an archangel be, but a man with 
wings, better or worse, than the wingless species, accord- 
ing as the feathers are white or black? I would that the 
word had been translated instead of Anglicized in our English 
Bible." New Edition, Notes in Hackett : vol. 5, p. 125. 

=' It might be, in modern style, not a Utile agitation as to 
what Peter came to he. Too stiff and formal! 2'a()a;{og is well 
represented by commotion, indicating both inquiry and alarm. 




down from Judea to Cesarea, and 
there abode. 

20 And Herod was highly dis- 
pleased with them of Tyre and 
Sidon. But they came with one 
accoi'd to him, and having made 
Blastus the king's chamberlain 
their friend, desired peace, be- 
cause their country was nour- 
ished by the king's country. 

21 And upon a set day, Herod 
arrayed in royal apparel, sat upon 
his throne, and made an oration 
unto them. 

22 And the people gave a 
shout, saying, It is the voice of a 
god, and not of a man. 

23 And immediately the angel 
of the Lord smote him, because 
he gave not God the glory: and 
he was eaten of worms, and gave 
up the ghost. 

24 But the woi'd of God grew 
and multiplied. 

25 And Barnabas and Saul 
returned from Jerusalem, when 
they had fulfilled their ministry, 
and took with them John, whose 
surname was Mark. 


Now there were in the church 
that was at Antioch certain pro- 
phets and teachers; as Barnabas, 
and Simeon that was called Ni- 


TT]9 'lovSaias' els rrjv Kaiadpeiav 
SLiTptfiev. ^^ 'Hv 8e 6 'HptoSrjs 
6vfxofxa)(Sv Tvpiois koI SlScovl- 
OLS' 6fj.odvfj.adov de iraprjcrav 
Trpos avTOv, kcu Trelcravres SXa- 
CTTov Tov eirl tou Koiravos tov 
fiacrtXecos, yrovvTO elprfinfv, 8ta 
TO Tp€(l)e(r6at avTwv rrfv ■^copap 
(XTTO TtfS fiaa-LXiKTJs. 

^^ TaKTjj de T]p.epa 6 'ITpcoSrfs 
ivSvadfievos ecrBrJTa fiacnXiK^p, 
KUL KaQia-as em tov fi-qfxaTOS, 
edrffLTfyopei irpos avTOvs. ^ 6 de 
SrjpLos e7re(j)a)vei, Oeov (J)ccvt} kol 
ovK dvOpcoTTOv. ^^ 7rapa)(pfjfj.a de 
eiraTa^ev avTOV dyyeXos Kvpiov, 
dvff (bu OVK eScoKe ttjp So^av t« 
Oeo)' Koi yevofj.evos cTKaXrjKO- 
jSptBToy i^eyJAV^ev. ^* 6 8e Xoyos 
TOV Oeov rfv^ave kol eTrXrjdvueTO. 
"^^ Bapva^as Be kol SavXos inre- 
(TTpeyjrav e^ ' lepovcraXep., irXrf- 
paxravTes ttjv dtaKovlav, av/XTra- 
paXa^ovTes kol 'Icoavvrfv tov eVi- 
KXrjdevTa MdpKOv. 


'^H'EAN Be TLves ev 'Avtlo- 
)(ela KaToc Trfv oScrav eKKXrfalav 
7rpo(j)r]Tat Kal BiBacrKaXot, o re 
Bapvdfias Kal Svfxecov 6 KaXov- 


Judea to CcEsarea, and abode 

And Herod ^being enraged 20 
at those of Tyre and Sidon, 
they came with one accord 
to him, and, having made 
Blastus, the king's chamber- 
lain, their friend, desiredpeace ; 
because their country was sup- 
ported by the king's country. 
And, on an appointed day, 21 
Herod, arrayed in royal appa- 
rel, sat on his throne, and 
made a speech to them. And 22 
the people shouted, saying. It 
is the voice of a God, and not 
of a man. And immediately a 23 
^messenger of the Lord smote 
him because he did not give 
God the glory. And, having 
been eaten by worms, he ex- 

But the word of God 'con- 2-1 
tinned to grow, and extend. 
And Barnabas and Saul re- 25 
turned from Jerusalem, when 
they had fulfilled their min- 
istry, and took with them John, 
whose surname was Mark. 


Now there were in the con- l 
gregation that existed in An- 
tioch, certain prophets and 
•teachers, as Barnabas and Sim- 

y &vfiofiay,iov, part, pres., being enraged at them, &c. (o 
IIocoSr]s, is rejected by Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf.) 

' And tiie word of God continued to grow rjv^ave. Kai 
e7i).riO-vv£To, imp., pass., and was extended. It grew in the ac- 
cession of the people, and extended over the territory', or 
among the people. The word of God, or the Gospel of God. 
was proclaimed and made progress. — Murd. The word of God 
increased and multiplied. — ^Penn, Thomp. " Grew and multi- 
plied." — Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva. Increased and multiplied. 
— Kheims. There are pleonasms in sacred as well as in com- 
mon style. Aoyog, says Ilackett, suggests the complex idea of 
doctrine and disciples, and the verbs, that follow, divide the 
idea into parts. 

» Certain prophets and teachers. Tives is rejected by Ln., 

Tf., but by Gb. is regarded as a probable omission. It is, in- 
deed, redundant, placed, as it is, in apposition to the words n^o- 
<pT}rat xai StSaoxalot, now there were prophets and teachers. 

In Antioch, xara -niv ovaav. Kara is a preposition of great 
latitude, and is represented by the following words : according 
to, against, apart, at, aside, after, by, of, concerning, touching, 
in, in every, down. By the annexation of ly, it is used ad- 
verbially, as in the following cases: ia.\ly, for every day; 
Acts 3:2; 16 : 5 ; 17 : 11, 17; 19 : 9; private/y, Gal. 2:2; 
chnritab/i/, Rom. 14 : 15, etc. 

These prophets and teachers were in Antioch, not neces- 
sarily of Antioch ; yet they were really of the Church, as the 
Evayyehov Kara Mar&atov, xara Maqxov, xara Aovnav, starnr 
laiawriv, were of them, as writers, or reporters. 




ger, and Lucius of Cyrene, and 
Manaen, which had been brought 
up with Herod the tetrarch, and 

2 As they ministered to the 
Lord, and fasted, the Holy Grhost 
said. Separate me Barnabas and 
Saul, for the work whereunto I 
have called them. 

3 And when they had fasted 
and prayed, and laid their hands 
on them, they sent them away. 

4 So they being sent forth by 
the Holy Ghost, departed unto 


fievos Niyep, koI A-ovklos 6 ICv- 
pTjvaios, Mavarjv re 'IIpa)8ov tov 
rerpdpxov (TVVTpo(})o^, k<u Sav- 
Xos- ^ XetTovpyouuTcov 8e avT&v 
T(S Kvplco Kal vrjcrTevovTcou, elire 
TO JJvevfia TO ' Ayiov, 'A(f)opL- 
(TUTe 8-q fJLOt. TOV re Bapvd^av 
Kcu TOV JSavXov ety to epyov o 
TrpoaKeKXrjpat avTOVs. ^ ToTe 
VTjcrTevcravTes Koi Trpocrev^dpe- 
voL, Koi hnOevTes Tas x^pas av- 
Tols, diriXva-av. * OvTOt p-ev 
oSv iK7rep.(f)devTes vtto tov Jlvev- 
paTOs TOV "^ Ayiov, KaTrjXdov eis 


eon, who is called Niger, and 
Lucius the Cyrenian, and Ma- 
naen, '■who had been brought 
up with Herod the Tetrarch, 
and Saul. While they were 
"ministering to the Lord, and 
fasting, the Holy Spirit said, 
■•Separate for me Barnabas 
and Saul to the work, for which 
I have called them. 'Andwhen 
they had fasted, and prayed, 
and laid their hands on them, 
they ''sent them away. So they, 
being sent forth »by the Holy 

But in what sense, of them 1 By election, or by the mis- 
sion of Christ, or from Jerusalem, or any other place, is not to 
be inferred from the grammatical construction. This must be 
learned from history, not from grammar. Barnabas and Paul, 
■we know, were not of Antiocb, though, in their travels, they may 
have been there, once and again. And here, too, was Simeon 
the black, according to Adam Clark; "because", says he, "of 
skin or hair ". But neither did the Greeks, nor do we Ame- 
ricans call any man black, or white, because of his hair, or his 
coat, but because of his skin. The Roman, Niger, is derived 
from the Greek, vsx^og, morluus, dead. We have not, in the 
Greek tongue, a common noun that radicates in, or that com- 
mences with, Neg, long vowel, or short. Hence negro has no 
representative in Greek ; nor, indeed, in Latin. Niger, in La- 
tin, fteXas, in Greek, and "inia {niger fuit), in Hebrew, repre- 
sent the color called hlack ; so Job 30 : 30 says : " My skin is 
black upon me ". 

^ Svvr^ofos, una educatus. An infant nourished by the 
same mother, Hdt. 1 : 99 ; one coeval, and of the same origin, 
Id. 2 : 65. We have no phrase more apposite than, " Who 
had been brought up with Herod ". or, was educated with 

" AeirovQyovvrcov Se avrcov tij> xvqic^. Oura ministrarent ; 
id est cum munere suo fungerentur docendi, viz., ao prophetan- 
di ; nam Paulo ante, doctores ac prophetas fuisse dixerat : ita- 
que Ohrysostomus recte interpretatus est Xsirovgyovvrmv, mi- 
nistrantihus ; id est preedicantihus, Syrus et Arabs prascanti- 
bus; nom Xeirovqyeiv, retulerunt ad publicas preces propter 
adjunctam jejunii mentionem. — Crit. Sac. This leirovQyetv re- 
fers exclusively to what is called public service ; from Xenos, 
public, and e^yov, work. The Mass in Rome, and the Com- 
munion Service in England, are properly called. Liturgy. The 
performance of the ritual of public worship, is, however, its 
general scope and intent. Tor these the State, or body eccle- 
siastic, is responsible. 

Casauban, of the highest reputation for sound learning in 
this, as in other departments of literature, affirms that this 
word leirovQyta properly indicates, and represents, all religious 
services ; that private, or public prayer, or any religious service, 
is represented as Liturgy. The verb occurs but three times, 
and the substantive six times in the Christian Scriptures, 
represented by ministration, or service of a public character ; 
sometimes, indeed, personal and private, 2 Cor. 9 : 12 ; Heb. 
10 : 11. This public service, offered to the Lord, is ordained 
for our good and for his glory. It is, indeed, our honor and 
happiness to perform it in spii'it and in truth. 

'• AfOQtoaTB dt] fioi, separate to mo truly. Inprosa Stj sem- 
per postponitur et verlilur sane. It is redundant, Acts 13 : 2 
— Crit. Sac. In the Christian Scriptures Sr; is 

found but six times. It is not represented at all in this case. 
Com. Ver. j^rj strengthens the command, oh. 15 : 3G ; Luke 
2 : 15.— Hack. 

° Em&evres preceded by vijarevaavreg xai nQoasv^a/iB- 
vot, aoristic participles — and having fasted, and prayed, and im- 
posed hands on them, or, when they had fasted, and prayed, 
and laid their hands on them, are equally grammatical. The 
latter is, perhaps, more popular in the living age. Their is 
supplemental, and, to some minds, necessary as definitive of the 
coijperants in this work. 

' They sent them away, or, dismissed them. The former we 
prefer, because the latter is, in our forensic currency, to discard 
from office, to discontinue. — Webster. 

^ JE>ate/cy>3'£vres vTto tov Hitav/naros tov lAyiov, hy the Holy 
Spirit. This specific formula occurs in this book sixteen 
times, the formula to Aytov Jlvevfia seven times, and Mvev/ia 
'Aywv, anarthrous, or indefinite, occurs nineteen times, always 
indicative of the same Spirit, uniformly in capital initials, in 
Bagster's text. But, to classify them under the species of defi- 
nite, and indefinite, of the former, in this single book, we have 
twenty-three occurrences, and of the latter nineteen, in all 






Seleuciai and from thence they 

TTjv SeXevKeiau, eKeideu re d-n-e- 

Spirit, went down into Seleu- 

sailed to Cyprus. 

irXevcrav eiy Trjv Kvirpov. ^ ical 

cia ; and thence they sailed into 

forty-lwo occurrences. In all the other books of the Christian 
Scriptures, we have, of the definite form, eighteen, and of the 
indefinite, ihirUj-two occurrences. We are, from a strict ana- 
lysis of all these cases, confirmed in the judgment that Hvsv/ia. 
'Aywv, whether with, or without the article, uniformly repre- 
sents the Holy Spirit. In the com. ver., it is represented, in 
the Christian Scriptures, by Holy Ghost, eighty-two times, 
an(J by Holy Spirit, only four times. Such is its history. 

Both Theology, and Christology, have suffered no little from 
ultra, or hypercriticism on this third personality of Jehovah. 
New Testament usage is our safest index, or guide, in ascer- 
taining the current value, or import of its most prominent 
terms, and forms of expression. Our special code, if we either 
need, or have such a code, is simply New Testament usage- 
Be it then noted, that every proper name found in the nomi- 
native, or, properly, the naming case, in the first chapter of 
Matthew, on its first presentation, is anarlhrous, or indefinite. 
It reads : BIBAOS yevcaecag IHSOT Xqiozov, vlov jda^iS 
vlov Apqaafi. On certain theories these eiglit anarthrous nouns 
should be translated : A hook of a generation of a Jesus, a 
Christ, a son of a David, a son of an Abraham. 

To illustrate farther, a primordial principle, we shall select a 
prominent case of the same category, found in the Gospel history. 
It is that of Pontius Pilate, a public and an ostensible actor in 
the drama of Christian history. He first appears anarthrous, 
but is made definite by the addition of re;/ tiysfiovt, Pontius Pi- 
late, the governor. So is ITi^ev/ia, Matt. 1 : 18-20, made defi- 
nite by 'Aytop. Holy Spirit being known to the Jews as the 
Divine Spirit — the Spirit of God — it was enough for them to 
say, that Jesus was begotten by Holy Spirit. This was as 
much a personal name as Pontius Pilate, there being no other 
spirit so introduced in Jewisli or Christian history. There 
never was but one ITvsvfca 'Ayiov, since the apostasy of Adam, 
known, or recognized in the Patriarchal, or Jewish oracles. 
This is a highly important and suggestive fact. 

But to return to Pilate. After his introduction he is seven 
times named by Matthew without his surname, Pontius, but 
being a conspicuous personage, a representative of Cesar, he 
has the article prefixed six of these seven times. It is only 
once omitted, and that is the appeal made to him by certain 
Pharisees, (Matt. 27 : C2), instead of which they substitute xv- 
Qie in the vocative. 

The same style occurs in Mark. He names him ten times in 
chap. 15. In nine of these occurrences, the article is prefixed, 
yet he never calls him governor. In the Acts, his name oc- 
curs, ch. 3 : 13 ; 4 : 27 ; 13 : 28, only once preceded by Pon- 
tius. Paul, too, names him once, 1 Tim. C : 13, when speak- 
ing of Christ's confession to, or before, Pontius Pilate. 

Now, with, or without the article, does not Piiate, in every 
instance, indicate Governor Pilate ? And, with equal, or supe- 

rior assurance of faith, and of understanding, may we not afBrm, 
(no particular designated spirit being in the premises), that 
the Spirit of God, or the Hvsvfta rov Qeov, the Svevfta 'Aywv, 
the TO Hvevita Aywv, and the to Mvevfia to Ayiov, severally 
do, in Apostolic usage and currency, uniformly indicate one 
and the self-same Spirit of God, or the Holy Spirit? 

No logic, no metaphysics can, as we conceive, entrench up- 
on this position, that will not shake the whole basis of the 
hitherto well-sustained and documented science of Hermeneu- 
tics in general, and of Bible Ilermenevitics in particular. 

But, to some minds, there is a plausible objection, and, as 
far as known to us, but one objection found in Matthew 3 : 11. 
It is : avros vftae ^amtoei ev JTvev/iart AyKif xat nvqe. Being 
indefinite, it is presumed that it cannot indicate the Holy 
Spirit, personally contemplated, but officially, or in some special 

Paul says : All our fathers were baptized into Moses in the 
Cloud, and in the Sea. And here some have assumed a paral- 
lelism between "in holy Spirit," and "in fire," that, as the 
Israelites were baptized into Moses, in the cloud, and in the sea, 
so Christians are immersed into Christ, in the Holy Spirit and 
in fire. This, tosome minds, may appear plausible. But will the 
facts sustain, or justify it 1 We presume not. Tire is not a sym- 
bol of any spiritual blessing. On the contrary it is the symbol 
of a fearful calamitj'. And so our Lord interprets it. A baptism 
in fire is destruction. So the winnowing shovel separates the 
chaff from tlie wheat, that, while the latter is preserved in the 
garner, " the chaff is to be consumed in an unquenchable fire". 
Salvation, and damnation, are the alternatives presented by 
Jesus Christ. John baptized in water, into repentance. His 
commission reached no farther. But ho warned those who 
repudiated his ministry, that his successor would baptize in 
the Holy Spirit, and in fire — not the same subjects in both, but 
one class in the Holy Spirit, afterwards to be poured out; and 
the other class, in the fire, afterwards to be poured out. No 
preacher, who preceded Jesus, ever preached of the baptism 
of fire — " the damnation of hell ", of the burning lake, " the 
unquenchable fire", as did the Prophet whom John immersed 
in the Jordan. The sum of John's preaching was the last 
chapter of Malachi. He baptized his converts in the Jordan, 
and directed them to his Master, assuring them that, if they 
obeyed him, they should receive his Holy Spirit. If not, he 
would consume them in an unquenchable fire. 

There were then two immersions, in his eye : one for purifi- 
cation, and one for destruction — an immersion in spirit, and an 
immersion in fire. Both are figurative, or at least metaphori- 
cal. Neither spirit, nor fire, can be sprinkled upon us, nor can 
we be poured, or sprinkled into them. But there is life in 
Spirit, and destruction in fire, and we can be immersed in, or 
subjected to them. 



5 And when they were at Sal- 
amis, they preached the word of 
Grod in the synagogues of the 
Jews. And they had also John 
to their minister. 

6 And when they had gone 
through the isle unto Paphos, 
they found a certain sorcerer, a 
false prophet, a Jew, whose name 
was Bar-jesus: 

7 Which was with the deputy 
of the country, Sergius Paulus, 
a prudent man; who called for 
Barnabas and Saul, and desired 
to hear the word of Grod. 

8 But Elymas the sorcerer 
(for so is his name by interpre- 
tation) withstood them, seeking 
to turn away the deputy from 
the faith. 

9 Then Saul, (who also is cal- 
led Paul,) filled with the Holy 
Ghost, set his eyes on him, 

10 And said, full of all sub- 
tilty, and all mischief, thoii child 


yevo/JLei/OL iu SaXafuui, KUTrjy- 
yeXkov TOP Xoyov tov 0eou ii> 
Tois arvvaycoyais raiu 'lovdaLcow 
€V)(ov 8e Koi 'Icoavvrjv VTrrjpeTrjv. 
** SieXOovres 8e rrjv vrjaov cc^pi 
IIa(j)ou, evpov riva fiayov ■^ev- 
8oTrpQ(l)riT7jv 'lovBaiov, a ovo/xa 
Bapvqcrovs, os 'f)v aw t(3 dv- 
OvTraTco Sepylcp HavXco, dvdpl 
(TVveT^. ovTOs TrpocTKaXeaape- 
vos JBapva/Sau /cat JSavXou, eVe- 
^■qrrjcrev aKOvcrai tov Xoyov tov 
0eov. ^ dvBlaTaTO 8e avTols 
'-EAf/^ay, 6 fxayos' ovtco yap 
pedep/xrjveveTat to ovo/xa avrov' 
^r]Tcov Sia(TTpe\l/aL tov dvOvTrarov 
diro TTJs irio-Tecos. " SavXos Se, 
6 Kcu JIavXo9, TrXrjadeis Hvev- 
paTOs 'Ayiov, kcu dTevlcras et? 
avTov ^^ eLTrev, 'f2 TrXrjprjs Trav- 
Tos doXov Kol Trdo-rjs paSiovpylas, 


Cyprus. And ''when they were s 
in Salamis, they preached the 
word of Grodin the synagogue 
of the Jews, and 'they had also 
John as their attendant. And c 
when they had gone through 
the iwhole island as far as Pa- 
phos, they found a certain sor- 
cerer, a false prophet, a Jew, 
whose name was Bar-Jesus— 
who was with the proconsul 7 
of the country, Sergius Paulus, 
i<a prudent man ; who called for 
Barnabas and Saul, and desired 
to hear the word of God. But 8 
Elymas, the sorcerer, (for so is 
his name, :being translated), 
opposed fchem, seeking to 
turn aside the proconsul from 
the faith. Then Saul, (also 9 
called Paul), ""filled with the 
"Holy Spirit, "having looked 
earnestly upon him, said, O 10 
full of all psubtilty and all 

'■ Fevo/tevot, aor. part., equal to ovreg, and when they were 
there ; or, being there, they announced ; or, were announcing tov 
).oyov tov Qeov, the word of God, the word of the God. 

• Etxov, iriip., loere accustomed to have, we say : They had 
John &c. 

i Misl&ovrcs, add 6}.r]V, Qb., Sch., Ln., Tf. 'OXrjv rrjv v>]- 
aov, the whole Island of Paphos. Evqov, they found, avSpa, 
a certain man, /layog. After eiiQov, Ln. and Tf. add, avS^a. 
" They found a certain magician, a Jew, named Baijesus." — 
Wakefield. "A certain sorcerer, a Jewish false prophet, whose 
name was Barjesus." — Penn. "A magian, a false prophet, a 
Jew, whose name was Barjesus." — Thomp. "A certain man, 
a sorcerer, a Jew, who was a false prophet, and whose name 
was Barsuma." — Murd., Syr. Admitting man into the text, 
Murdock's version is exact. It is, however, redundant, like 
men, brethren, and fathers, the two last implying, or containing 
the first. 

^ AvQ'vTt'ar(o, deputy governor ; awerei), a man of under- 
standing, Wakef, Thomp., Wiseman, Mur. ; a well informed 
man, Boothr. Prudent man, Penn. It is, in its four occurrences 
in com. vers, represented by, prudent. He appears to have 
been a person oi good understanding, intelligent, with us ; yet 
prudence being the attribute most conspicuous in this case, we 
give it preference. 

' Mi 9-s^fcriveveTai, pros. ind. pass., his name leing translated, 

or, being interpreted which, in com. ver. in its seven occur- 
rences, is its representative. 

'" nhjaO'ecs ZTpev/taros 'Ayiov. See note on v. 4. 

" JTvevfiaras'Aytov is, in the selected text of the Bagsters', a 
misprint. It should be here JJvevfiaTog'Aytov; we correct it 
gramatically, and find we are sustained in their Hexapla of 

° Arsviaag eig avrov, having loolced, or loolced intensely 
upon him, said. 'PaScovpyta is an ccTta^ Xsyo/iEvov, found in this 
place only. We found of the same family, ^qSiovgyrifia, Acts 
18 : 14, there rendered, lewdness, here, mischief, maleficenlia. 
Beza, Pise. It indicates a propensity to perpetrate all sorts 
of wickedness. Crit. sac. 

f ^olov — ^(tScovQyr]Tas. The former occurs twelve times in 
N. T., represented by subtilty, deceit, craft, guile ; the latter 
seven times in N. T., com. ver. 

'PqStovpytag, found only in this place. Another member of 
this family occurs once ; viz. ^aSiovQyijfia, Acts 18 : 14, " wick- 
ed lewdness," com. ver. The former, SoXog, denotes all kinds 
of dissinmlation, Kom. 1 : 29, exquisila diligentia ad insidian- 
dum. — Basil, Calvin. He feigns one thing, and does another. — 
Crit. Sac. The latter, ^aStov^yta, is represented by malefl- 
centia, and, according to Beza and Piscator, denotes a person 
prepense to perpetrate any wicked deed. — Vatablus. Eras- 
mus derives it from ^aS tov, facile, and e^ya^o/iat, operor. One 
who is easily induced to perpetrate crime. 




of the devil, tJwic enemy of all 
righteousness, wilt thou not 
cease to pervert the right ways 
of the Lord ? 

11 And now behold, the hand 
of the Lord is upon thee, and 
thou shalt be blind, not seeing 
the sun for a season. And im- 
mediately there fell on liim a 
mist and a darkness ; and he 
went about seeking some to 
^ead him by the hand. 

12 Then the deputy, when he 
saw what was done, believed, 
being astonished at the doctrine 
of the Lord. 

13 Now when Paul and his 
company loosed from Paphos, 
they came to Perga in Pam- 
Ijhylia: And John departing 
from them, returned to Jeru- 

14 But when they departed 
from Perga, they came to An- 
tioch in Pisidia, and went into 
the synagogue on the sabbath- 
day, and sat down, 

15 And after the reading of 


vie SiajSoXov, e^^pe iracrrjs SiKat- 
oavvrjs, ov Travcry 8iacrTp€(f)a>v 
ras 68ovs KVpiov ra? eu^eiay; 
^^ Koi vvv ISov, X'^'-P '^^^ Kvpiov 
iin <re, koX ear] TV(f>Xos fxr) j8Ae'- 


IIapa\pr)ixa 8e eireirea-ev eV av- 
Tou aj(Au? KOL (TKoros, Kcu irepia- 
ycav e^rai x^ipaycoyovs. ^^ rore 
l8cov 6 avQvTvaTOs to yeyovos eiri- 
arevaev, eKTrXyjcraofxevo^ eVt rfj 
StSaxy TOV Kvpiov. 

^'^ 'Ava^devTes Be airo Trj^JId- 
(jiov ot Trept TOV HavXov, t]X6ov 
els Jlepyrjv Trjs UafKJyvX'ias. 
'Icoavvrjs Se aTroxcoprjcras air av- 
Toiv, virecTpe-^ev els 'lepoaro- 
Xvfxa. ^'^ avTol 8e BieXOovTes 
airo Trjs Uepyrjs, irapeyevovro 
els ' AvTio-^eia-v tt]s JlicnSlas, koL 
elareXdovTes els ttjv crvvaycoyrjv 
Tjj r)/xepa tcov tTafifiaTcov, eKaOi- 
aav. ^^ MeTo. Be ttjv avayvaxTtv 


mischief, p^son of the Devil, 
enemy of all righteousness, 
will you not cease to ^pervert 
the "-right ways of the Lord? 
And now behold "the hand of il 
the Lord is upon you, and you 
shall be blind, not seeing the 
sun for a season. And imme- 
diately there fell on him a mist, 
and a darkness; and he went 
about seeking some persons to 
lead him by the hands. Then 12 
the pi'oconsul, 'having seen 
what was done, believed, "be- 
ing astonished at the doctrine 
of the Lord. 

And, loosing from Paphos, 13 
they who were ''with Paul 
came into Perga of Pam- 
philia; and John, departing 
from them, returned into Jeru- 

But they themselves, de- 14 
parting from Perga, came into 
Antioch of Pisidia, and went 
into the synagogue on "the 
Sabbath day, and sat down. 
And, after the reading of the 15 

I'P vh, anarthrous, 

1 zliaorQeipm alwaj's ''pervcrl^^ or "perverse." Com. ver. 
Here, by circumlocution, " turn away, to pervert the mind, ^la- 
or^Ecpcov, part. pres. active. Perverting the riglit ways = the 
straight ways of tlio Lord. 

■■ Ev&etas, SSovg. EuO-vs is found eight times in N. T., ren- 
dered both straight, and right, in com. vers. The former is 
iigurative of the latter. 

• XeiQ TOV KVPIOV. Literally, a hand, a stroke, of the Lord = 
the Lord's hand is upon you. It is not a prayer for it, but a 
judgment announced. So the event declares. The article pre- 
fixed to both oSovg and evO-sias is awfully definitive — the ways 
of the Lord, tbe kigiit ways. Yet the judgment was limited 
ay,oi xacQov, for a time, not perpetually. 

' iSatv, part, aor., having seen. The governor, or deputy, 
believed cTttarevaev cuTtXriaao/iepos, indicative of great moral 
force. In its fourteen occurrences in N. T. suTth/aaca is repre- 
sented, in com. ver., by amaze and astonish. It is only used 
by Matt., Mark., and Luke. The cause, or instrument of this 
astonishment is found in ti; HiSaxtj rov xoQtov. ^tSa/ji 's found 
in N. T. twenty-nine times represented by doctrine, and once 
by "what is taught" Titus, 1:9. In the plural number only 
once found, and then it is human opinions, or human teachings. 
It is frequently mistranslated by the word doctrine, instead of 

teaching. Instances, Matt. 7 : 28 ; 22 : 33 ; Mark 1 : 22 ; 4, 2 ; 
12; 38; Luke 4 : 82; Acts 2: 42; Cor. 14 : 6; 2 Tim. 4:2; 
and probably in other passages. It is, in these cases, the act 
of teaching, and not the lesson taught. 

" ExTtlriaaofiBvoe sTti rrj StSaxn, Matt., Mark, and Luke, only 
use this tprm in the Christian Scriptures ; ten times translated 
by astonished, twice by amazed. Struck with amazement, is 
perhaps, to most minds, most expressive of the mind, or the 
feelings of the proconsul, always translated deputy, com. ver. 
which is not specific, but generic. We, therefore, prefer pro- 
consul. Governor. — 'VVakefleld. Deputy-governor. — Penn. 
Proconsul. — Thomp., "Wes., Murd,, Dodd. ; found only four 
times in this book. 

' 01 TtEQi. rov Jlavlov, those about Paul; his pupils, or per- 
sons attending him, or upon him ; j^Afl-o*' eis He^ynv, came into 

" Tn rijieQct icov Sa^^arcov, literally, on the first of the 
Sabbaths. In Luke 13 : 14 and 14 : 5, we have the gen. 
sing. In Acts 16 : 13, we have, as here, the gen. plural, most 
probably indicative of one of the consecrated weeks of the 
Jewish year. The same formula occurs, Acts 20 : 7, translated 
the first day of the week. Sec Cruden's Concordance on the 
second Sabbath after the first. 




the law and the prophets, the 
rulers of the synagogue sent un- 
to them, saying, Ye men and 
brethren,' if ye have any word 
of exhortation for the people, 
say on. 

16 Then Paul stood up, and 
beckoning with his hand, said, 
Men of Israel, and ye that fear 
God, give audience. 

17 The Grod of this people of 
Israel chose our fathers, and ex- 
alted the people when they dwelt 
as strangers in the land of Egypt, 
and with an high arm brought 
he them out of it. 

18 And about the time of forty 
years suiFered he their manners 
in the wilderness. 



airicm.ikav o'l apyicTwaywyoi 
irpos avTovs, XeyovT€s, AvBpes 
a8eX(j)oi, ei ecrrt Xoyos iv vfxiv 
irapaKXrjarecos irpos rov Xaov, X4- 
yere. ^^ 'Avaa-ras 8e IlavXas, 
KCU KaracreLcras rfj X^'-P'-' f^^^j 
' Av8pes ' la-pa-rjXiTai, Koi ol (f)o- 
fiov/xevoi TOP Oeov, aKOvaare. 
^^ 6 0eo9 rou Xaov tovtov 'lapa- 
T]X i^eXe^aro tovs Trarepas rjfiav 
KCU TOV Xaov v'^coarev iv ttj irapoi- 
Kta iv yfj AiyvTTTCp, /cat //.era 
^paxLOVos vyjrrjXov i^riyayev av- 
Tovs i^ avTTJs' /cat coy Tccraa- 
paKovraeTT] ypovov eTpoTro^opr]- 
crev avTOVs iv Trj ip-j^fxcp' ^^ kcu 


Law and the Prophets, the 
rulers of the synagogue sent 
to them, saying, Brethren, if 
you have a ^word of exhor- 
tation for the people, speak 

Then Paul stood up, and 16 
waving with his hand, he 
said : Israelites, and you who 
fear Grod, hearken. The God 17 
of this ypeople chose our Fa- 
thers and 'exalted the people, 
when they "dwelt as strangers 
'in the land of Egypt, and with 
a 'high arm he brought them 
out of it. And for •'about the 18 
period of forty years he nour- 
ished them in the wilderness. 

^ El eoTi Xoyos ev vfttv. If there be in you a word. An 
idiom similar to est pro hdbeo, governing the dative. If you 
have a word, say it. 

'' la^arjl is rejected by Gb., Sch., and Tf. after rovTov. 

• BQmy.iovos v\pr]).ov — {npioosv. " He elevated the people — and 
with an elevated arm." These words are used with great uni- 
formity in the Christian Scriptures, com. ver., i^ijXog, in its 
eleven occurrences, is uniformly rendered high, com. ver., and 
if oca, in its Uoenly occurrences, is represented thirteen times 
by exalt, and seven times by lift up. Wo can find no more 
apposite representatives in our vernacular. 

' Ev Tt] ita^oixiq, commoratio. This term, occurring twice in 
the N. T., indicates delay, or, sojourn in a country. Karoi- 
ma denotes fixed residence, so Grit. Sacra, and so classic use. It 
properly signifies the neighborhood of some persons. Signifi- 
cat proprie viciniam aliqubrum hominum qui simul in aliquo 
loco cohabitant. Bucer on Ecclesiastic Government, p. 9. 

■■ £V yn AiyvTtTcp, literally, in a land, in Egypt. Had 
the writer intended an Egyptian land, he could have found 
the adjective, AcyvTirtog, occurring four times in this book 
of Acts, and once in Hebrews 11 : 29. This is the 
only instance, out of six cases, where the dative form 
is used. It is a pure Latinism. The dative is sustained 
by manuscripts, ODBGH, Chrysostom, Theophylact, and 
CBcumenius. The gen. has A.B. 13; 133, 137, and all ancient 

" Mern Pqa-/,iovoe ixpijlov, a high arm. — Murd., Penn. Up- 
lifted arm. — Wes., Thomp., Wake., Dodd. This is more grand, 
and apropos. 

'' 'iis, as, when, since, about, as soon as, after, while, when, 
S,-c., Sfc. ; when, and while, in respect of time, are common re- 
presentatives of cos, in com. ver., Acts 1 : 15. We have, in 

harmony with very many translations, preferred about. The 
number of the names were about one hundred and twenty J 
and here, he endured their manners about the space of forty 

" JE'T^o7ro9PO())7(7£»' is repudiated by Gb., Schott, and Tf., and 
EXQocpo^o^riaEv substituted; he provided nourishment, or, bore 
them as a nurse. Dent. 1 : 31, 2 Mac. 7 : 27. So the Syriac, 
Sclavonic, Arabic, Copt, and Ethiopic. "Fed them in the wil--, 
derness." — Wake. Ho fed them. — Murd. Trenicllius, than 
whom of his ago we have few superior Biblical critics, says, Tqo- 
noyo^aco, est instar nutricis ferre et educare. T^onocpoQt- 
^stv, dicitur cum melior pejores fert mores, quos tamen non 
approbat, ut bonus maritus cogitur mores uxoris morosee ftrre. 
Aretas, Crit. Sac. Doddrige says; "The Syriac renders this 
by a word which signifies to nourish, or, educate, so that Beza 
conjectures, they read, erQOfo^oqtjaav ; " and while preferring 
the common reading, he admits that Dr. Hammond thinks 
this to have been the true reading. Compare Deut. 1 : 31 and 
Ezek. 16 : 4, 5, 8. Most of the later editors prefer this word 
to er^oTtopo^tjaev, " endured their manners." It is well at- 
tested and better suits the connection, since what the apostle 
would here bring to view, is not so much the forbearance of 
God to his people, as his interpositions in their behalf. — 
Hackett. " He nourished ", this reading is better supported 
and agrees with fact, as well as with the conciliatory designs 
of the speaker. — Gr., Boothr. Some of the fathers also, with 
the Syriac, Arabic, Coptic, and Ethiopic, give this reading. 
This reading, says Adam Clark, confirms the marginal conjec- 
ture and excellently, agrees with the scope of the place, and 
is, at least, a reading of equal value with that in the commonly- 
received text. This fact superadded, we judge, gives it para- 
mount claims in the proposed revision. 




19 And when he had destroy- 
ed seven nations in the land of 
Chanaan, he divided their land 
to them by lot, 

20 And after that, he gave 
unto them judges, about the space 
of four hundred and fifty years, 
until Samuel the prophet. 

21 And afterward they desired 
a king: and God gave unto them 
Saul the son of Cis, a man of the 
tribe of Benjamin, by the space 
of forty years. 

22 And when he had removed 
him, he raised up unto them Da- 
vid to be their king : to whom 
also he gave testimony, and said, 
I have found David the son of 
Jesse, a man after mine own 
heart, which shall fulfil all my 

23 Of this man's seed hath 
God, according to his promise, 
raised unto Israel a Saviour, 
Jesus : 

24 When John had first 


KadeXcav ^Ovt] eVra iv yfj Xa- 
vaavy KaTeKXr]po8oT7]cr€u avTols 
TTjv yrjv avT&v. ^** KciX fxera 
ravTa, coy erea-i TerpaKOcriots Kai 
■jrevTrjKOVTa, eScoKe Kpira^ ccoy 
SafiovrjX rod Trpo^rjTov ^^ kolku- 
6ev rjT-qcravTO fiacriXia, kcu eSco- 
K€v avTOLs 6 Oeos tov SaovX 
vlov Kls, avhpa e/c ^vXrjs Bevia- 
puv, errj Teaa-apaKOVTa' ^^ kcu 
p^eraarrja-as avrov, rj-yeipev av- 
Tols TOV AafilS eh fiacriXea, a 
/cat dire fxapTvprjaas, Ei!pov Aa- 
/318 TOV TOV 'lecra-ai, avSpa KaTO. 
TTjv KapBiav p.ov, by irovqan irav- 
Ta TO. 6eXj}p.aTa /jlov. ^^ Tovtov 
6 OeOS OLTTQ TOV (TTripp/iTOs Kwr 
iTTayyeXtav -qyupe tcS 'IcrparjX 
acoTvpa 'Irjaovv, TrpoKTjpv^av- 
Tos 'Icoavvov irpo Trpoo'COTrov ttJs 


And when he had 'subjected 19 
seven nations, in the land of 
Canaan, he ^divided their land 
to them by lot. And after 20 
these things, during about four 
hundred and fifty years, he 
gave them judges until Sam- 
uel, the Prophet. 

And after that they 'asked 21 
a king for themselves. And 
God 'granted to them Saul 
the son of Kish, a man of the 
tribe of Benjamin, during 
forty years. And having re- 22 
moved him, he raised up for 
them David, to be king; to 
whom also he testified, say- 
ing, " I have found David, the 
son of Jesse, a man after my 
own heart," who shall per- 
form all my ^desires. Of this 23 
man's seed, has God, accord- 
ing to promise, ''bi'ought up 
for Israel a saviour — Jesus; 
John having 'first preached, 24 

f And y.aO'elcap, part, aor., having put down, suhjected ; 
" destroyed " is too strong. 

' Tor ><aTey.}.i]QoSoTt]ocp, Gr., Scliol., Ln., Tf., substitute 
xon£it7.riQovo/ir,oav, assigned — avroig, to them as a possession, 
Hellenistic for tlie Hiphil of irtj — rt]v yrjv avrcov, their land. 
by promise. Hack. In behalf of this substitution, wu have 
MSS. ABODEGH and over Jijly cursive manuscripts. So de- 
pose Chrysostom, Tf., and others. 

"With Kuinool we saj'^, Utraque lectio eundem gignit sensum, 
sed naTsxlij^ovo/itiaev, utpote difflcilior est preferenda, et jure 
hanc lectionem in textum receperunt, Matthieius et Gries- 
bachius. Scilicet xaraHXtj^ovofietv non tantum notat, possi- 
dere, obtinere sed etiam sensu Hiphilico possidendum tradere. 
Judd. 11 ; 24r. Uavxa (Ta Ed'vri scilicet) oaa Karcxhj^ovo/iijaev 
v/uiv KUQios, omnes gentes quas vobis possidendas dedit domi- 
nus. Deut. IS : 1 ; Num. 34 : 18 ; Deut. 3 : 29. See Kuinoel 
in loco, Acts 13. Lond. ed. A. D. 1835. 

^ Exr;aamo fiaatXea, aor. mid., "They asked a king for 
themselves," better, we think, than desired. A desire expressed 
= asJced. 

' God gave them tov Saov). vlov Ktg. Literatim, the Saul, son 
of a JGsh. AvS^a ey, cpv?.i]s Bmnafiiv, en; teaaa^ay.ovra, literatim, 
a man, of a tribe, of a Benjamin. Such a version is an ultraism 
so evident, as to constitute a reproof to those who imagine that 

the presence of the article, is, in all cases, necessary to indi- 
cate definiteness. It might be rendered, less definitely, thus, 
a man of Benjamin's tribe. In contrast with this indeflnite- 
ness, we place the most important and the most emphatic pro- 
position in the Christian Scriptures, found in Matt. 16 : 16, 
ov at 6 X^ioTog, 6 vlos rov Oaov rov ^covroe. Ad verbum. Thou 
art the Christ, the son of the God, the Living One, In pre- 
cision and deflniteness, this is not surpassed in any language ; 
nor in any oracular proposition known to me. 

' To d-aXtjuaxa, com. ver., will, in the plural, it cannot be 
wills. We must, therefore, substitute desires. In this we are 
sustained by the editors of the Englishman's Greek concor- 

'' EyetQe. Eyays is here substituted by Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf., 
and with good reason. He has brought a Savior to Israel. Ad 
verbum, Of this person's seed, God, etc. 

Ayio is a favorite with Luke. He uses it forty times in his 
Gospel and Acts. All other writers in N. T. use it only thirty 
times. The style of every inspired writer, or penman, in N. T., 
is as peculiar as his personality. Their faces, we presume, 
were not better marked than are their respective styles. 

I EQoKTjQvlavtog Imavvov, John having previously an- 
nounced, etc. ; " Before whose appearance John proclaimed 
a baptism of reformation to all the people of Israel", Thomp, 
" John first preached a baptism of repentance to all the peo- 
ple of Israel ", Wakefield. " When John had first preached 




preached, before his coming, the 
baptism of repentance to all the 
people of Israel. 

25 And as John fulfilled his 
course, he said, Whom think ye 
that I am? I am not he. But 
behold, there cometh one after 
me, whose shoes of his feet I am 
not worthy to loose. 

26 Men and brethren, children 
of the stock of Abraham, and 
whosoever among you feareth 
God, to you is the word of this 
salvation sent. 

27 For they that dwell at Jeru- 
salem, and their rulers, because 
they knew him not, nor yet the 
voices of the prophets which are 
read every sabbath-day, they 
have fulfilled them in condem- 
ning him. 

28 And though they found no 
cause of death in him, yet desired 
they Pilate that he should be 


elcrodov avTOV l3aTrTicrfj.a /xera- 
voias TravTL tS Xaw 'Icrpa-^X, 
^^ CBS" Se eirXrjpov 6 'Icoauvrjs top 
8p6/JLOV, e'Aeye, Tiva /xe virouoa.T€ 
elvac; ovk elfxl iyco, aAA' Idov, 
€p)(eTaL jxer i/xe, ov ovk el/xl 
oi^LOS TO VTrodijfia rau 7ro8ai> Xv- 
aac. ' Av8pes a8eX(f)oi, viol 

yivovs 'Al3paa/x, kou ol iv vplv 
(j)o^ovpievoL Tov Oeov, 6 Xo- 
■yos TTjs (TcoTrjplas Tavrrfs dire- 
crraXr]. ol yap KaroLKOVVTes 

iv 'lepovaaXrjp, /cat pt oip-^ovTes 
avTcov, TOVTOv ayvorjcavTes, kou 
ras (poovas tcov 'irpo(f)r]Ta)v ras 
Kara Trdv aa/30aTov dvayivco- 
(TKop-evas, Kplvavres iirXrjpcocrav 
^^ KOU fJLr]8ep,Lav alrlav Oavdrov 
evpovT^s, yrrjaavTO HiXarov 
dvaipedrjvat avrov. coy 8e ire- 



before his ""entrance on 
work, an immersion of re- 
formation to all the people of 
Israel. Now while John was 25 
completing his course, he said, 
Whom dp you suppose me to 
be? "I am not he. Butbehpld, 
pne is coming after me, the 
shoes of whose feet I am not 
worthy to loose. Brethren, 26 
sons of the "race of Abraham, 
and those among you who 
fear God, to you is the word 
of this salvation sent. For 27 
they who dwell in Jerusalem, 
and their rulers, not ""know- 
ing him, and the ^utterances 
of the prophets, which are 
read every sabbath, have, 
in condemning him, fulfilled 
them. And although they found 28 
not the least cause of death 
in him, yet they desired Pilate 
■to put him to death. And 29 

before his appearance, the baptism of repentance to all Israel", 
Boothr. " John having preached to all the people of Israel, be- 
fore his coming," etc., Penn. " And he/ore his advent he sent 
John to proclaim the Baptism of repentance to all the people 
of Israel", Murd, " John having first preached, before his co- 
ming, the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel", 
Wes. These may serve to show how many diverse arrange- 
ments of words, there may be in the taste or style of translators, 
without materially changing the sense; of these, however, 
Thompson and Wakefield are, in our judgement, most truthful 
and apposite to the Original. 

■" JjQoatoTtov iTje eiaoSov avrov. EiaoSos is found five times in 
N. T., represented by coming, entering, and entrance — to enter 
into, JUqoaioTtov, face, countenance, appearance, person, pre- 
sence, in com. ver. seventy-four times. II()o Tt^oaconov, positum 
est pro simplici TtQo = before, Heb. ijsi, vide Mai. 3:1; Matt. 
11 : 10. EiaoSoe, ingressus aditus, John 1 : 19, ss. 27 ; Matt. 
3 : 11. In our idiom, as "John was fulfilling his course". 
Kuinoel, in loco, vol. 3, p. 209. "Before whose appearance 
John first preached a Baptism of repentance" (or, an immer- 
sion of reformation) to all people of Israel ", "Wakefield. "John 
having preached, to all the people of Israel, before his coming, 
the baptism of repentance ", Penn. 

° Ovx eifu eyco — 6 aant]^. I am not the one promised, tcj; 
la^arjl, v. 24. This elliptical form, his attitude and general 
appearance, indicated his humble conceptions of himself, and 
accprds with ov ovx eim agtos to vnoSijfta rcov no8cov hiaai. 

° Tlot yevovs ApQaaft. Jij-os, in its twenty-one occurrences, 
com. vers., is represented by kind, nation, kindred, country, 
stock, offspring, horn, generation, countrymen, diversities. "Des- 
cendants of Abraham's offspring" — ycvos, rather descendants 
of the race of Abraham. Wakefield prefers it, and it is more, 
in our idiom, used to denote the lineage of a family. Stock 
applies to parent, race to the series of discendants : eS is pre- 
fixed to aTtBoraXri by Ln. and Tf., and ABD. The Textus 
Recep. Gh., Sch. — was sent out. 

I" " This one not having known (failed to recognize), and the 
declarations of the prophets (govevaed by the same participle), 
by having condemned him to death, they fulfilled them, i. e. 
the declarations." " This is the most approved translation." 

■i Kai ras ycovas, the utterances of the prophets ; eTtltj^maav, 
they fulfilled ; rag xara Ttav aa^parov avayivcoaxofievas, which 
are read, according to the sabbath ; that is, each, or every Sab- 
bath-day. Kara, in its five hundred occurrences, in N. T. is 
represented by a larger suit of connectives than any preposi- 
tion in the language. 

' Ev^ovree, part, aor., having found, firjSeftiav ; no cause — not 
the least cause of death. This gives to /i7]Seuiav its entire force. 

• Avaiqt&Tjvat, infin., to put Mm to death. It indicates either 
private or public execution. Luk. 23 : 32 ; Acts 2 : 23 ; 10 : 39 ; 
12 : 2; 22 : 20; 26 : 10; Septuagint Exod. 21 : 29, here it re- 
presents iniah. In 2 Sam. 10 : 18, hsn. See also Hdian 2 : 1, 
Plato seqq. 876, d. 




29 And when they had ful- 
filled all that was written of him, 
they took hiin down from the 
tree, and laid him in a sepulchre. 

30 But God raised him from 
the dead: 

31 And he was seen many 
days of them which came up 
with him from Galilee to Jeru- 
salem, who are his witnesses un- 
to the people. 

32 And we declai-e unto you 
glad tidings, how that the pro- 
mise which was made unto the 

33 God hath fulfilled the same 
unto us their children, in that 
he hath raised up Jesus again; as 
it is also written in the second 
psalm. Thou art my Son, this 
day have I begotten thee. 

34 And as concerning that he 
raised him up from the dead. 


Xeaav awavra ra irepi avrov ye- 
ypa/Mfieua, KudeXovres oltto tov 
^vXov, 'iOrjKav ds ixvr]fi£ov. ^'^ 6 
5e 0609 vyeipev avrov e/c veKpmu, 
^^ 09 co(pdr) eVt rjfiipas TrXeiovs 
TOis avvava^acnv avriS (xtto rrj? 
JTaXiXaia^ ety 'lepovcraXy/n, otn- 
vis elai fxapTvpes avrov Trpos rov 
Xaov. ^^ KoX ■fjp.iis Vfidy evayye- 
Xi^ofxeda rrju Trpos rovs warepas 
eKayy^Xlav yevoiiiviqv^ ^^ on 
ravrrjv 6 Oeos iKTreTrXrjpcoKe rois 
reKVOLS avrau rjfilv, dvaarrjo-as 
'Irjcrovv coy kcu eV ra yj/aXp,^ 
rm Sevrepcp yiypairrai, Tloy fxov 
ei (TV, iyco crrjfiepov yeyivvrjKa 
ere. ^* On 8e apionjcrev avrov 
e/c veKpSv, firjKeri /xeXXovra viro- 


when they had fulfilled all 
tfiat was written of him, they 
took him down from the 'tree, 
and laid him in a sepulchre. 
But God raised him "from the so 
dead ; and he was seen many 31 
days by "those who came up 
with him from Galilee into 
Jerusalem, who are his wit- 
nesses to the people. And 32 
"we are declaring to you glad 
tidings, how that the promise, 
which was made to the fe- 
thers, God has completely 33 
fulfilled the same to us their 
children, he having raised up 
Jesus ; as it is also written in 
the "second Psalm, " Thou 
art my Son, to-day I have be- 
gotten thee." And that 34 
he raised him up from ^the 
dead, no more to return to 

' SvXov, staffs ij-ec, laoof^, s<oc/l, constitute its representatives, 
in the N. T. It may be remarked, that ornv^os, occurring 
twenty-eight times, and arav^oco forty-four times, in N. T., are 
immutably represented by cross and- crucify, and illustrate, if 
not^^roue, tliat words oCmood, or sjjccijic action, have but one 
meaning; a fact when fully contemplated, and weighed, settles 
many a controversy in the subject of ordinances, human and 

" Hyctffev avrov ey. vcy.Qtav. It is worthy of note that we 
find not in any case in all Luke's writings, rmv vey.Qcov, used 
to indicate a class of persons, raised from the dead, jusl or un- 
iust .' Even in Paul to the Corinthians, chap. 15, in saying so 
much of the resurrection, it is six times out of seven anar- 
throus — a resurrection of the dead. Tlie philosophy of this 
may, perhaps, be found in the fact that in Corinth, and some 
other cities, the doctrine of a resurrection of the dead, or of 
certain dead persons, was treated by the Greeks with much 
contempt. It was called " the hope of worms". 

In 1 Cor. chap. 16, when argued by Paul, he first meets the 
objection, or rather, the denial of the fact in these words, ava- 
araaie vey.Qiov ovy. eartv ; a resurrection of dead persons there 
is not. It was not the resurrection of the dead, for a long time 
after the promulgation of Jesus as the Christ. It was the 
question of a resurrection of the dead. The main objections 
to this oracle are met and refuted, 1 Cor, 15 chap. 

Some interpret, v. 30, thus " God raised him up from among 
dead persons ", not tcop vixqiov, as a class, but vex^wv, as a 
Icind, or quality in the abstract. Hence the omission of the 

" Olrtvss, to this, add vw, by authority of Sch., Ln., Tf., 
Gb., who are now his witnesses ; avrov, said to be " the geni- 
tive objective ", not of possession. 

" Kai Tiftstg iifias evayyeh^o/ucO'a. " And we are declaring 
to you the glad tidings of the promise made to the fathers, 
how God hath performed," etc., Wakefield. "And lo ! we 
also announce to you that the promise which was made to our 
fathers, God has fulfilled it to us their children," Murd. " And 
we declare the glad tidings of the promise which was made to 
the fathers ; for God has fulfilled it." Penn. "And we declare 
unto you glad tidings concerning the promise," Boothr. Uv 
ayyEh^ofie&a has a double accusative only here. Enay- 
yehav stands, in the first clause, with the usual efifect of that 
attraction ; Ilackett, in loco. 

And noiv we announce to you, as joyful tidings, the promise 
made to the Fathers, which God , has fulfilled to us their chil- 
dren ; having raised up for us Jesus : as also in the first Psalm. 
It has been written, ysy^aTt. perf. ind. pass. ', first Psalm, Tt^uirt^ 
for SevTB^co, Gb., Ln., Tf. 

* It has been alledged, though apparently incorrect now, yet 
nevertheless true, that what we call the second Psalm was an- 
ciently the first ; or what is now called the first was originally 
not numbered with the Psalms, but contemplated as an intro- 
duction. Both the Syriac and the Septuagint, it is admitted, 
differ from our notation and enumeration of the Psalms, 

y 'Oti Se aveoTrjoBV avrov ex vey.qmv. And that he raised 
him up from the dead, no more to return to corruption, he says, 
etc.; £K»^£K^(a»',_persons are understood. The living and tho dead 
include all mankind, from Adam till the last-born, in human 




710W no more to return to cor- 
ruption, he said on this wise, I 
will give you the sure mercies 
of David. 

35 Wherefore he Scaith also in 
another psalm, Thou shalt not 
suffer thine Holy One to see cor- 

36 For David, after he had 
served his own generation by the 
will of God, fell on sleep, and 
was laid unto his fathers, and 
saw corruption : 

37 But he, whom God raised 
again, saw no corruption. 

38 Be it known unto you 
therefore, men and brethren, 
that through this man is preach- 
ed unto you the forgiveness of 
sins ; 

39 And by him all that be- 
lieve are justified from all things, 
from which ye could not be just- 
ified by the law of Moses. 


(TTpe^eiv eh 8ia(j)6opau, ovtcos 
e'lprjKev, Otl Saxrco vfuv ra oa-ia 
Aa^),8 TO. Trta-rd. ^^ 8io Koi eV 
irep^ Xeyei, Ov Scoaeis tov oatov 
aov IBeiv ^Lafpdopdv. ^^ Aa0i8 
pev yap I8ta yepea vrrr] pert] eras 
rfi TOV Oeov fiovXy, eKoiprjOr], 
Koi irpoaeredr] Trpos tovs warepas 
avTOV, KCLi eiSe dia(j)dopdv' ^ ov 
Se 6 Oeos, Tjyeipev, ovk dSe 8ia- 
(j)dopdu. ^^ rvcoarov ovv earco 
vplv avdpes ddeX^ol, otl 8ia tov- 
Tov vplv a(j)e(ns dpapnmv KUTay- 
yeAAerat* kul awo iravTcov cov 
OVK rjdvviqdrjTe iv tm vopa> Hfcocre- 
coy ducaLcodrjvai, iv tovtco irds 6 
TTLaTevcov SiKaiovTai. /SAeTrere 


•corruption, "he said thus, " I 
will give to you the "-faithful 
mercies of David." Where- 35 
fore he says also, in another 
psalm, " Thou wilt not 'give up 
thy Holy One to see corrup- 
tion." ForDavid, indeed, after 36 
he ""had served his own gen- 
eration by the will of God, 
"fell asleep, and was 'added to 
his fathers, and saw corrup- 
tion. But he whom God ^rais- 37 
ed again, did not see corrup- 

Be it known to you there- 38 
fore, brethren, that through 
this '■person is announced to 
you the forgiveness of sins. 
And by him all that believe 39 
are justified from all things 
from which you could not be 
justified by the law of Moses. 

chronology. MrjxsTt, no longer in time. MelXoma, pros, part., 
ftsllco, to be about to be. 'TTtoavQepciv, in its thirty-five occur- 
rences in N. T., is represented by return, turn back, to turn 
back again ; com. yor., come again. Acts 22 : 17. "We do not 
think that any one can ever return to that place, or condition, 
in which ho never was before. Jesus could not return to cor- 

' Jtaip&oqav, found in N. T. only in this book of Acts, and 
only six times in it, and always' translated corruption ; and of 
these six times, four are in this chapter, v. 34, 35, 36, 37. In 
the classics, nor in the Septuagint, does it ever indicate cor- 
ruption as the effect of putrescence. (See Rob. Lex., Stay.). 

» EtQtiy.ev, pres. ind., he has said. Oircog, thus, (in this wise 
obsolete). "I will give to you ra oata jJit§iS ta mora, the 
sure mercies of David." 

' 'Oaios is found but seven times in the approved Greek text 
of N, T. In this passage alone, it is translated " sure mercies ", 
faithful mercies. David's name being connected with Saia, 
and Tce mora, gives us the key of interpretation. We find the 
true, the covenanted, mercies guaranteed to David, 2 Sam. 
7 : 12, 17. These sure mercies were not his son Solomon's 
fortunes ; nor those of any other king descended from him, 
antecedent to Jesus of Nazareth, who was finally crowned the 
Divine and human autocrat of all creatures. We have, then, an 
immense interest in these covenanted mercies to our older 
brother David, even, the beloved, in whom we inherit all 
things. If Christ's, wo are Abraham's seed, and David's seed, 
and heire according to these sure, or covenanted mercies. Is. 

55:3, 4 ; Heb. and Sept. 'Oaws respondet tw ni&Pl, apud 
Ilebrajos ut ayios rri) lai'ip, Drusius, Acts 2 : 27. 

<= Wherefore, also, in another psalm = yia?./ttp, he says, Thou 
will not give (^Seoasis) rov baiov, the Holy one, to see, or suffer 

'^ David fitv, indeed, vnrj^ETijaas ifl tov Oeov flovXr; — xai ecds 
Stny>d'o^av. We have here vTte^eism, whence inrj^trije, an 
officer, minister, and servant. The verb occurs three times in 
this book of Acts, and the noun four times, ^laxovos, thirty 
times, minister, deacon, servant, are its representatives, ^ovXot 
occurs one hundred and twenty times, and the verb SovXsveo 
twenty-four times. This family indicates ail sorts of servants : 
from the Lord Jesus, down to the meanest servant, or slave, 
in any age or countr3', 

" Ey.oi-fiijO-t), was laid down to sleep ; the sleep of death, 
Homer, Od, 3 ; 397 ; compare Od, 12 : 372. In this form it is 
tantamount to death, " he fell asleep" — he died. 

f U^ooereO-i], not gathered, but added to his fathers in 
the unseen world, indicative of his spirit returning to God, 
rather than his body returning to dust. 

^ He whom God raised, riyuqcv, third sing, first aor. ind. 
act, of eysi^oi, cxcilavil, " did not see corruption ". Destruc 
lion and corruption are not constitutional synonyms, as some 
versions seem to indicate. Etymology is not an infallible 
guide. The corrupting force is generally from within, the 
destructive, from without, 

I" zfia rovTov belongs to acpeats rather than the verb, 
" Through this one the forgiveness of sins is announced to you." 
Comp, 10 : 30 ; Luke 24 : 47. Hackett. 




40 Beware therefore, lest thtit 
come upon yon which is spoken 
of in the prophets; 

41 Behold, ye despisers, and 
wonder, and perish : for I work 
a work in your days, a work 
which ye shall in no wise be- 
lieve, tiioiigh a man declare it 
unto you. 

42 And when the Jews were 
gone out of the synagogue, the 
Gentiles besought that these 
words might be preached to 
them the next subbatli. 

43 Now when the congrega- 
tion was broken up, many of the 
Jews and religious j^roselytes 
followed Paul and Barnabas; 
who speaking to them, persuad- 
ed them to continue in the grace 
of God. 

44 And the next sabbath-day 
came almost the whole city to- 
gether to hear the word of God. 

45 But when the Jews saw 
the multitudes, tliey were filled 
with envy, and spake against 
those tilings which were spoken 
by Paul, contradicting and blas- 

40 Then Paul and Barnabas 


Qvv jXTj iTveXdrj 4(j) vfjids to elprj- 
fxevov ev tols '7rpo(l)i]Tai9, ' ' ISe- 
re, ol KaTMppourjTcu, kul dau/j.a- 
(rare kcu MJiavLadiiTe- ort epyou 
eyco epyaQo/iai eV ra?^ i^/xepats 
vjxmv, epyov co ov p.r] 7naTev(n']Te, 
€av TL9 iK8n]yr]Tai, vpuv. 

" ' M^iovTCov 8e e'/c rj}? crvva- 
yayrj^ rcav 'lovSalcav, irapi.Ka- 
Xovv Ta edur] eh to /xeTa^v aa/B- 
(BaTOv XaXi-jdrjvaL avrols to. prj- 
fxaTa TavTU. Xv6iLai]s Se r?;? 
avpaycoyi]?, rjKoXouBTjaav ttoXXoI 
tSsv lovSaicov KUL Twv cre^oiJ.e- 
vcou TrpocrrjXuTcov tco JJavXco kol 
Ta JBapua/Ba' o'lTLves TrpoaXa- 
Xovi'Tes' avT0i9, eirecdov avrovs 
eTTi/xei'eiu Trj -^apcTL tov Oeov. 

' ^ Tw Se kp-yppivco cra^^axw 
ayehov Trdcra i) itoXls avuriy^d')] 
a.KOvcraL tov Xoyov tov Oeov. 
"^ ISovTes Se ol 'lovSaioi tovs 
o-)(Xov9, e.'iTXi]6T](Tav Qi^Xov, /cat 
avreXeyou toIs viro tov Jlav- 
Xov Xeyofxevoi.?, avTiXeyovres kol 
^Xa(r(j)i]/J.ovvTes. '^^ irapprjcna- 
(TUfxevoL de 6 JIavXos Kol 6 J3ap- 


Beware, then, lost tliat come 40 
upon you which is written in 
the prophets ; 'Behold, you do- 41 
spisers, and wonder and perish. 
For I execute a work in your 
days, a work which you will 
not believe, thougli any one 
should fully declare it to you. 
And as they 'were going out, 42 
the Gentiles besought them, 
that tlieso words might be 
spoken to them the next Sab- 
bath. Now when the '■con- 43 
gregation was dispersed, many 
of the Jews and religious 
proselytes followed Paul and 
Barnabas, who, 'addressing 
them, persuaded them to per- 
severe in the grace of God. 
And on the "next Sabbath, al- 44 
most the whole city assembled 
to hear the word of God. But 45 
"when the Jews saw the mul- 
titudes, they were filled with 
"zeal, and spoke against those 
things which were spoken by 
Paul, contradicting and revil- 
ing. Then Paul and Barnabas 4C 

' Pro verbis, qv,:j ixi Alcx.incli'ini mterpretos ita oxijres- 
scnint. JSere, ol y.araf^oi'rjrai — y.rtt c/i^leipare d'av/naaars 
Q-nv/iaaia, y.uv arf:riuia!>ijT£, etc. Tlio Hebrew original, in our 
alphabet, is in tbe following words: Ucu baggoyim vehahhilu vc- 
hitta mdai temaliu Id pod pod himeycem lo tuamimi hi ycsuppar. 
Com. ver. is not greatly dissimilar. " Behold you among the 
heathen, people, and regard, and bo astonislicd; be astonished, 
for I am working a work in yonr days; which, when it shall be 
told yon, you will not credit." See Kuinoel, in loco. 

' K^ioi'TiDV ds nhriaf Ttaosy.aJ.ovt', Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf., instead 
of E^iovTcov Se cy. Ti;s avDaycoyijs rmv lovSutcop, com. reading. 
Then, having gone out, of their own accord, they hesought, or, 
entreated. Luke uses this word uioro than any of the Oliristian 
historians, and Paul more than Luke and all other New Test, 

^ AvOeiai^g, part. aor. pass. I'/ic synagogue having been 
dismissed. Tiio word ''synagogue ", like our word '•church" 
was then indicative of the house, and of the people that met in 
it for worship, and was used occasionally to indicate both. 

1 UQoalnlea] is found only in this chapter, and in ch. 28 : 20 
in the Christian Scriptures. It indicates speaking lo, or \oilh, 
one ; and that with earnestness. 

"■ On the nox-t Sab., Gb., Sch., Ln., and Tf. read eY,o/i€vio, 
for the Textus Recoptus, eoy^ousi'oi. The sense is the same, 
a/^eSop Ttaon I'j nolis aviitjy^O't] nxovam ; almost the whole city 
were assembled, or brought together. 

" But the Jews having seen, iSorreg, (part, aor.), the crowds, 
were full of zeal, and they contradicted the things, leyoftei'ote, 
spoken by Paul — ^).na<prifwvifXBs — aPTtXeyovxEs — y.nt ; omitted 
by Ln., Gb., but higiily probable. 

" Indignation, or, zeal, not, envy, as some would have it. 
ApTtleyovTee is neither superfluous nor Hebraistic, but, liko 
the participle united with its finite verb in the classics, empha- 
sizes tti'TEleyov, Jloy., Ilackett. I think the term, zeal, is, in 
its ancient and modern acceptation, its most obvious repre- 
sentative with us. Tt is, according to knowledge, a virtue, 
but otherwise a vice. "Envy," Mur., Booth., Wakef. "Jea- 
lousy," Pcnn. '■'•Zeal" Wesley, Dodd., Thonip. 




waxed bolJ, and said, It was 
necessary that the word of God 
sliould first liave been spoken to 
you: but seeing ye put it from 
you, and judge yourselves un- 
wortliy of everlasting lil'e, lo, 
\vc turn to the Gentiles: 

47 For so hath the Lord com- 
manded us, sai/iiig, I have set 
tliee to be a light of the Gen- 
tiles, that thou shouldest be for 
salvation unto the ends of the 

4S And when the Gentiles 
heard this, they were glad, and 
glorilied the word of the Lord: 
and as many as were ordained 
to eternal life, believed. 

49 And the word of the Lord 
was published throughout all 
the region. 

50 But the Jevi's stirred up 
the devout and honourable wo- 
men, and the chit.'f men of the 
city, and raised persecution 
against Paul and Barnabas, and 
expelled them out of their coasts. 

51 But they shook oft' the 
dust of their feet against them, 
and came unto luonium. 

52 And the disciples were 
filled with joy and with the 
Holy Ghost. 


va/3a9 ehrov, 'Y^uv rju avayKoiov 
TTpcoTOv XaXr]6rjvaL rov Xoyov rov 
060V' eTreidf] Se aircoOeicrOe av- 


Tovs rrjs alcovLov ^o)rj?, ISov arpe- 
(fyo/xeda ei? ra eOvq. ' ' ovtco 
yap ivTiraXraL 6 icvpios, 
TeOeiKo, <re eh (j)(os iBvQiv, rov 
dvai ere els (rcoryplav eW ecr)(a- 
Tov rrjs yy)?. '^^ 'Akovovtu 8e ra 
eOvr] e-^aipov, icaL eSo^a^ou tov 

Xoyov TOV Kvpiov, KOt eTTKTTeV- 

aav ocroL rjaav Terayp-evot els 
^corjv alcoviov. '^^ Scecjiepero 8e 
6 Xoyos TOV Kvpiov Sl oXrjs tyjs 
j(U)pas. ^^ ol 8e 'lovSaioi Trapco- 
rpvvav ras cre^op-evas yvvaiKas 
Kol ras evo~)(rjp.Qvas kcll tovs 
irpcoTOvs rrjs iroXecos, ical iinjyei.- 
pav Sicoypov ewl rov TlavXov koll 
TOV Bapva^av, kcll i^ej3aXov av- 


Se eKTiva^ap.evoL rov KovLoprov 
TCOV TToScov avTcov eV avTovs, i)X- 
6ov els ' Ikovlov. o'l Se pa6i]TaL 
eTrXrjpovvTO ■)(apas koI TIvevp.a- 
Tos A-ylov. 


became bold, and said ; It was 
necessary that the word of 
God shoidd first have been 
spoken to you. But seeing 
you put it from yon, and judge 
yourselves unworthy of the 
everlasting life, behold we turn 
to the Gentiles. For so has ^n 
the Lord commanded us, say- 
ing; I have I'placed you for a 
light of nations that you might 
be for salvation even to the 
ends of the earth. On hearing 48 
this the Gentiles rejoiced, and 
glorified the word of the Lord, 
and as many, as were "deter- 
mined for everlasting life, be- 
lieved. And the word of the 40 
Lord was published through- 
out all- the region. But the 50 
Jews stirred up the devout 
and honorable women, and the 
chief men of the city, and rais- 
ed a persecution against Paul 
and Barnabas, and expelled 
them outof their borders. But fli 
they shook oif the dust of tiieir 
feet against them, and went 
into Iconiuni. And the dis- r)2 
ciples were filled with joy 
and with the Holy Spirit. 

1' TsO'ciy.a as sis fiog sOvcop, Ihave jilaced you for a liglil of 
nations: so spoko tho Lord, and such wore, and are, the Apos- 
tles. JPis aoiTijoiaf £W3 say/tTov rijs y>]s ; I have ordained you, 
for salvation to the end of the earth. Tov sivcu as, infin. pres., 
Telic sense, that thou niayest bo for salvation to the end of 
the earth. 

'1 Kai STttarsvaav boot ijoav rsrcty/tsvot sis ^corjv aicovio); 

Taaaci) is found only eight times in the Christian Scriptures ; 
Liike employs it five times, Paul twice, and Mathew once. In 
Luke's writings, it is represented by "i-«i" = ^;Z«Mj; " ordain- 
ed ", " determined ", and " appointed ". Paul speaks of magis- 
trates as " ordained " of God, and of t!ie Christians in Corinth, 
that "they had addicted themselves to the ministry of saints". 
Of Jesus it is said, he "appointed his frieiuls to meet him at 
a certain place." Such is its current value in the Christian 
Scriptures. As many, then, as were resolved, or determined 
for eternal life, were attentive hearers of tho word ; and, there- 
fore, believed. " But all things are of God, who has reconciled 
us to himself," bj' tho means so ordained. Dr Doddridge 

says, T cannot think with Sir Norton Knatchbnll, that r£T«y/(£- 
roi is tantamount, in tliis place, to owrjyiisvoi., as nniny as were 
met together = the Gentiles, believed; nor, witli the great 
Joseph Mode's interpretation, that rerayiiivoi sis ^laiji' atco- 
riov is a, periphrasis to express •' proselytes of the gale". In 
lloni. 13 : 1, it is properly rendered, in the margin of some 
Testaments ordered, with Dodd. we prefer determined, bo- 
cause as ambiguous as tho original. 

AVc cannot but approve the conclusion of a considerable dis- 
sertation of the learned and judicious Kuinoal on this passage. 
His words are: lam additus c.v gentilihus fideni hahuissc oaoi 
r;onr, y.. r. L Unde conser/uilur, vcram causani, cur a Deo vilce 
(Stcrnce destinati fuerint gentiles faisse ipsoruni fidem oh quam 
Judcei se felicitate ilia indignos rcddiderunl. Of which, the 
sum is: It is now added, that some of the Gentiles believed ; 
from wliich fact it follows, that the true cause why the Gentiles 
were by God ordained lo eternal life was (heir fuilh ; as the 
rejection of Ids Divine doctrine icas the cause, on account of 
which the Jews rendered themselves unworthy of this felicity. 




And ifc came to pass in Ico- 
nium, that they went both to- 
gether into the synagogue of the 
Jews, and so spake, that ii great 
multitude, both of the Jews, and 
also of the Greeks, believed. 

2 But the unbelieving Jews 
stirred up the Gentiles, and 
made their minds evil-affected 
against the brethren. 

3 Long time therefore abode 
they speaking boldly in the 
Lord, which gave testimony 
unto the word of his grace, and 
granted signs and wonders to be 
done by their hands. 

4 But the multitude of the 
city was divided : and part held 
with the Jews, and part with 
the apostles. 


'EFENETO 8e kv 'Ikomco, 
Kara to avro elaeXOelu avrovs 
et? TTjv crvvayayyrjv tS>v 'lovSai- 
cov, Kou XaXrjaat ovTas cocrre 
TTicrTeva-ai 'lovSaicov re koI 'E\- 
Xrjvcav ttoXv irXrjdos. ^ ol Be 
aTretdovi/Tes 'lovSaioi iin^yeipau 
KoL iKaKcocrav ras •v/'u^ar rav 
eOvcHv Kara rau aSeX^ai/. ^ I/ca- 
vou fxev odv ■)(p6vov BUrpvy^av 
irapprjaLa^Ofxevot. im ra Kvpio) 
Ta fiaprvpovvTi tw Xoyc^ rrjs ya- 
piTos avTov, Kal SiSovtl cn]/XHa 
KOU Tepara yLveaOai 8ia tcov x^i- 
p5)V avrSiV. layiaQy] 8e to 

irXrj&os Trjs TroAewy kcu ol 
ycrau aw toIs 'lovBaiois; oi 8e 
crvv TOLs airocTToXoLS. ^ 'Os 8i 


And it occurred in Iconi- 
um, that they, ■'at the same 
time, went into the synagogue 
of the Jews, and 'spoke so 
that a great multitude, both 
of the Jews, and also of the 
Hellenists, believed. But the 
'unbelieving Jews "stirred up 
the Gentiles, and 'disaffected 
their *minds against the breth- 
ren. For 'a long time, there- 
fore, they continued there, 
speaking boldly respecting the 
Lord who ^'attested the word 
of his grace, granting signs 
and wonders to be done by 
their hands. 

But tiie multitude of the 
city was divided. Some were 
with the Jews, and the 
others with the Apostles. And 

■■ Kara ro auxo, analogous to, em to avzo, ch. 3 : 1, together. 

• Kat ?.a?./]aai oirios, and they so spake. So Hackett and 
others. Wakefield supplies Paul and Barnabas, because named 
at the close of the preceding ciiapter. This seems to be unne- 
cessary. "And so spake." Spake is obsolete, or nearly so. — 

' An:etd-ovvTes, nTtetO-ijaavres. — Ln., Tf. The unbelieving 
Jen's. ATteiO-eia is found three times in this book, associated 
with the Jews. Paul to the Plebrews, and to the Romans uses 
it more frequently than any other inspired writer; and, in the 
sense o{ disobedient, he and Peter use it seven times. 

» ETteycioav, found only in this and in the preceding chapter 
in the Christian Scriptures, raised persecution, ch. 13 : 50. 
Here " stirred up". This is more than " over-excited ", as some- 
times found in classic use. 

' Ey.axwaav. With one exception, (Pet. 3 ; 13), this word is 
confined to this Book of Acts. '■'■Made evil affected " their 
minds, com. ver. ; "evil entreated", ^^ vexed", ''hurt", not 
much better. '' Harmed ", 1 Pet. 3 : 13, no better. 

"* Of one hundred and fifteen occurrences in N. T. i/wxii is only 
twice represented by mind. Life and soul are its almost uni- 
versal representatives. Beza on this passage says : 3Iale af- 
fectos reddidemnl. Cum alioquin hoc vocabulum alibi soleat 
usurpari pro opprimerc sen affligere, seu damnum aliquod inferre ; 
ut Acts 12 ; 1 ; 14 : 2. Crit. Sacra. \:je3 cum sex punctis est 
anima, animus. (1) Halitus oris, anhelitus, spiritus, fiatus, 
ventus, Gen. 1 : 20. Sic animce nomen Latinis el Greeds pro 

anhelitu sumitur, pulmo animm pra3largus anhelat. (2) Vita, 
cujus anima fo7is est ct origo. Job 2:0; Ps. 7 : 2, 3. 

Conceiving it important to discriminate between the soul 
and the spirit, the anima and the animus, we have liere, as 
occasionally before, drawn liberally on Leigh's Oritica Sacra. 
London ed. a. d. 1G50. 

'^ 'ly.avov, xpovov, Ster^tyjav. Jxavoe is a favorite term in 
Luke's style. He employs it twenty-nine times, while all the 
other N. T. writers use it only twelve times. In his writings it 
is represented by icorthy, large, great, enough for, many, much, 
long, security, good while, long while, sore. It is, in some of the 
other N. T. writers, represented by the word meet, able, and 
three times in Paul's second Letter to the Corinthians, by the 
word sufficient. This last representative is broad enough for 
its whole currency in the Christian Scriptures. Still it ap- 
pears not exactly apposite in this place. It would be rather 
an ambiguous epithet to affirm of speaking upon the Lord. 
They spoke a sufficient time upon the Lord ! Sufficient for the 
theme ^ or sufficient for the people ? Connected with time, 
as it is here, we may try it in other places. A certain man 
had demons for a sufficient time ; of a sufficient season ; of 
sufficient time Simon had bewitched them with sorceries ; 
Paul talked a sufficient time " till break of day ". In such 
iissociations it would be more apposite to say for a long time. 
See Acts 8:11; 14 : 3 ; 18: 18 ; 20 : 11 ; 27 : 7, &c. 

y We would have preferred was testifying lo the word of his 
grace, being a continuative testimony, were it not, that it is 
followed by SiSovrt, a dative of the manner, by granting signs 
and wonders to be done through their hands. 




5 And when there was an as- 
sault made both of the Gentiles, 
and also of the Jews, with their 
rulers, to use them despitefuUy, 
and to stone them, 

6 They were ware of it, and 
fled unto Lystra and Derbe, 
cities of Lycaonia, and unto the 
region that lieth round about : 

7 And there they preached 
the gospel. 

8 And there sat a certain man 
at Lystra, impotent in his feet, 
being a cripple from his mother's 
womb, who never had walked. 

9 The same heard Paul speak : 
who steadfastly beholding him, 
and perceiving that he had faith 
to be healed, 

10 Said with a loud voice, 
Stand upright on thy feet. And 
he leaped and walked. 

H And when the people saw 
what Paul had done, they lifted 
up their voices, saying in the 
speech of Lycaonia, The gods 


eyevero opfit] t&v idvav re kou 
'lovSaioov aw Tols ap^ovcriv av- 
TCtiv, vfipicraL /cat XiOofioXria-aL 
avTovs, " (Tvvi.86vT€s Kare^vyov 
gIs Tag TToAeiy rrjs' AvKaovias, 
Avarpav kou Aepfirji', Kcci rrjv 
7repi)(copov, KaKel rjcrav evayye- 

Kal TL9 avrjp iv Ava-rpois 
aBwaros toIs irocriv eKoidrjTO, 
^coXos e/c KoiXiag p.r}Tpos avrov 
v7rdp)(cov, OS ovSeiroTe Trepi^ire- 
TTUT-^Ket. ^ oItos rJKOve rod Uav- 
Xov XaXovvTOS' by dreulcras av- 
Tw, Koi l8cou on TTia-Tip e)(ei tov 
crcodrivat, etire ixeydXy rrj (pco- 
vfj, 'AvacrrrjOt eVt rouy 7ro5ay 
crou opOos. KaX yXXero koI 
TrepieTTciTei. 01 8e o)(Xoi ISou- 
Tes iiroLTjcrev 6 UavXos, eirrjpav 
TTjv ^covrjv avTcou AvKaouLo-rl 


when there was a 'rush, both 
by the Gentiles, and also by 
the Jews with their rulers, 
"to use them spitefully, and 
to stone them, they, being 6 
aware of it, fled down into 
Lystra and Derbe, cities of 
Lycaonia, and into the sur- 
rounding country. And there 7 
they ''announced the gospel. 

And, a certain man in Ly- 8 
stra was sitting, 'impotent in 
his feet, a cripple from his 
birth ; who had never walked. 
The same heard Paul speak; 9 
who, looking intently upon 
him, and ""perceiving that he 
had faith to be healed, said 10 
with 'a loud voice, 'Stand up- 
right on your feet. And he 
^leaped and walked. And when il 
the people saw what Paul had 
done, they raised their voices, 
saying in the ""Lycaonian, 

» 'O^ftij rtov s&vcov, re lovSaiiov. A violent attempt of 
the Gentiles, as well as of Jews. 'Op/ir; is once rendered, com. 
Ter., assault; and the verb, o^fiam, to rush, to run violently. 
In classic use, »(>/"? is represented by rush, assault, violent 
attempt, impulse. 

* 'T^Qtaat, xat hd-o/Solijaat, to outrage, and to stone them, " to 
msult them, and to stone them." — Murd., Booth. " To use them 
despitefuUy and to stone them." — Wes. " To assault, and stone 
them." — Thomp. 

'' Kay.ei ijaav svayyeh^oficvoi. And there they were an- 
nouncing the Gospel. Such is its appropriated meaning, liter- 
ally, evangelizing. 

° Hs^iETtETCa-njuet. Some editors write this pluperfect with- 
out an augment. — Ilackett. 'iTtaoy^cov, heing, appears redun- 
dant, and is, therefore, rejected by Gr., Sch., Ln., and Tf. It 
does not correspond with res — t<s avij^ xeolos, a certain man, 
aSvvaros tots noaiv, imbecile, or, impotent in his feet. X<o- 
los, claudus, in classic usage, is represented by lame, halting, 
crippled, feeble. Its Hebrew representative is 'I'l Ibk claudus 
manu. Hence the name Appius Claudius who was first called 
"Appius the lame ". On this case Webster gives, " primarily, 
one who creeps, halts, or limps ; one who has lost, or never 
enjoyed the use of his limbs ", and refers to the Acts of Apos- 
tles in proof. This was a splendid miracle, and won for Paul 
the title of Mercury among the Greeks. 

■• Kac iScov art ntortv exet tov ucoO'tjvai, literally thus ren- 
dered, "and having perceived that he had faith of being healed", 
or confidence of being healed (unquestionably appropriated tO' 
his own case), Paul, with a bold, or a loud voice, said : stand 
up straight upon your feet. 

' Meyalr) rr; ^mpr}. The manner in which he exerted his 
voice, not to the power or volume of it. — Hackett. 

'' " I say to you, in the name of the Lord Jesus," is not in the 
Textus Receptus published by the Bagsters. It is omitted on 
the authority of the Uncial and most cursive manuscripts — the 
Vulgate, iEthiopic, Chrysostom, Theop., and Occ. See Alford. 
The proper force of the presence, or absence, of the article be- 
fore a noun, is well illustrated in this case. This was a special 
faith in a special case. We may have faith in the Christ of 
God, and not faith in being cured by him of any particular 
disease of mind, or body, under which wo may be languishing. 
The patient, before us, had not only faith in Jesus the Christ, 
but also faith that, on his own special appeal to him, he would, 
through this Apostle, be healed. 

^ 'EXaro rather than tjUeto, denoting a single act. Salta- 
vit, 3d sing. 1 aor. mid. of alXofiat, salio, ho bounded. 

*• Saying in the Lycaonian, or in the speech of Lycaonia. 
Lycaonic, Hackett. The speech of Lycaonia, is more properly 
Lycaonian ; not, according to the dialects of the nations, Ly- 
caonic. As the Persian, Grecian, Roman, are the appropriate 




are come down to us in the like- 
ness of men. 

12 And they called Barnabas, 
Jupiter; and Paul, Mercurius, 
because he was the chief speaker. 

13 Then the priest of Jupiter, 
which was before tlieir city, 
brought oxen and garlands unto 
the gates, and would have done 
sacrifice with the people. 


Xiyovres, 01 6eol ofJLOicodei^res 
a.v6 puiTTOis Kare^rjcrav Trpoy 77/zaf* 
" iKaXovv re tov fxlv Bapvd^av, 
Ala' TOV fie UavXou, 'JSp^rju, 
eireiBr] avTos rjv 6 rjyov/xevos tov 
Xoyov. ^^ 6 8e lepeuy rov Aio^ 
TOV bvTOs irpo TTjs TToXecos avrSiv, 
Tavpovs Kol (TTefxpiaTa iiri tovs 
TTvXwva^ iveyKas, aw toIs o'^Xols 
7j6eXe dveiv. ^^ ' AKovcravTes 8e 


The gods are come down to 
us, in the likeness of men. 
And they called Barnabas, 12 
'Zeus, and Paul, 'Hermes, be- 
cause he was ^the chief speak- 
er. 'Then the priest of the 13 
Zeus "that was before the 
city, brought oxen and gar- 
lands to the gates, and, with 
the j^eople, wished to of- 
fer sacrifices '"to them. Which 14 

names of the tongues of Persia, Greece, and Rome, so should 
tlie hmgnage of the people of Lycaonia be denominated, or 
distinguished from the tongues of other countries. Its classic 
root is LuJcos, a wolf. 

■ And tliey called Barnabas, Zeus, and Paul, Hemes. These 
were the facts ; but not so the common version of them. The 
question thence arises : "Why translate these proper names, or 
adopt a Roman version of tliem, and in similar cases not trans- 
late Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Jlelchizedcck, Jloses, Samuel, 
David, Daniel, Peter, &c., itc. 

Jupiter and IMercury are merely a substitution of a Roman 
currency for a Greek currency. AVe would, in such cases, prefer 
Uio retention of the original name, especially when a histori- 
cal fact is involved. 

' '0 i)yov/ici'os rov loyov. The leader of the discourse, is 
equivalent to tlie cliief, or leading speaker. It is by some suji- 
posed, tliat, as Paul spoke more than Barnabas, and more offi- 
cially, the audience were led to think that Barnabas was a 
Divinity, and Paul his interpreter, or oracle. This view of the 
subject enhances the courteousness, and tlie most honorable 
port and bearing of tliis most Divinely accomplished ambassa- 
dor to the Gentile world, towards his fellow-laborer Barnabas, 
and will everywhere pass at par value. 

^ jje, in this attitude, is rather continuative than adversa- 
tive, and is, therefore, by most revisers and translators render- 
ed then, or and. — Dodd., Wes., Thomp., Walce., Penn, Booth., 
Wic, Tyn., Gran., &c. There are, however, those who 
prefer iu/, which is sometimes slightly adversative as well as 
continuative. We think, however, that, in harmony witli all 
tlie honors conferred, this is named as the consummation, and, 
though in bad taste, and in worse theology, it is the consum- 
mation of the climax of honors conferred on Paul and Barna- 
bas by a polytheistic population. 

' It should be here noted, that avxtov, as connected with 
nolscoi, city, is repudiated as a spurious reading by Gb., Sch., 
Ln., Tf. 

Tov ovTog, after rov ^toe, stands in apposition with it. 
ilany cities were placed under the protection of some particu- 
lar deity, and the image of that deity placed at the entrance, 
1.0 signify that he was the guardian and protector. To 

this, Luke everywhere, as accurate as he is circumstantial, re. 
fers. Lystra, it appears, was under the guardiansliip of Jupi- 
ter Propuleius, which Luke translates : Tov ^los rov orroe 
TtQo rrjs nolecoe, the Jupiter that ivas before the city ; whicli is 
another term for Jupiter Custos, the guardian. All these 
deities had ihe'iv 2}ricsts, rites, and sacrifices, and each a pecu- 
liar service and pi-iest for the office that he bore; so that Ju- 
piter Brontes, Jupiter the Thunderer, had a different service 
from Jupiter Custos, Jove the Guardian. Hence wo see with 
what accuracy Luke wrote: The person, who was to ofierthem 
sacrifice, was the priest of Jupiter Custos ; under whc^e 
guardianship the city of Lystra was; and who, the priest 
supposed, had visited the city in a human form ; and Barnabas 
(probably, fur tlio reasons already assigned), he imagined to be 
tlie person. And as Jlercury, the god of eloquence, was tlie 
general attendant of Jupiter, the people and the priest supposed 
tliat Paul, who had a powerful commanding eloquence, was 
that God also disguised. A beautiful figure of such an imper- 
sonation of Jupiter, as, is supposed, formerly stood before the 
gate of Lystra, still remains ; and a fine engraving of it may 
be seen in Gruter's Inscriptions, Vol. 1, p. 20. Adam Clarki 
in loco. 

Concei'ning these garlands, both Ovid and Virgil sing. 

The former says : — 

" Rich curling fumes of incense feast the skies, 
A hecatomb of voted victims dies. 
With gilded horns and garlands on their head. 
In all the pomp of deatli to tli' altar led." 


And Virgil sings : — 

'■ The victim o.\-, that was for altars prest, 
Trimm'd with white ribbons and with garlands drest, 
Sunk of himself, without the gods' command, 
Preventing the slow sacriflcer's hand." 

Drtden's Virgil. 
'" To them is a supplement essential to the proper concep- 
tion of the discourse of Paul and Barnabas, reported in verses 
14-18, which every reflecting reader must keep in his mind, as 
necessary to his apprehension of the point and drift of the 
address of Paul and Barnabas, and the rending of their own 




14 IV/dch when the apostles, 
Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they 
rent their clothes, and ran in 
among the people, crying out, 

15 And saying, Sirs, why do 
ye these things? We also are 
men of lilve passions with you, 
and preach unto you, that ye 
should turn from these vanities 
unto the living God, which made 
heaven, and earth, and the sea, 
and all things that are therein : 

16 Who in times past suffered 
all nations to walk in their own 

17 Nevertheless he left not 
himself without witness, in that 
he did good, and gave us rain 
from heaven, and fruitful seasons, 
iilling our hearts with food and 

18 And with these sayings 
scarce restrained they the peo- 
ple, that they had not done sa- 
crilice unto tliem. 

19 And there came thither 
certain Jews from Antioch, and 
Iconium, who persuaded the 


01 mroaToXoL Bapva^as kolI JJav- 
Aop, Siapprj^avTes to. IfxaTLa av- 
Ta>v ela-eiTrjBricrav eh rou byXov, 
Kpa^ovres ^^ Kca Xiyovres, ' Av- 
8pes, TL ravra TroceLre; koI rj/j.ei9 
bpLOLOiraOeis ecrp-ev vptv avBpco- 
TTOL, evayyeXi^opevoL vpds diro 
TOVTcou T&v paraicov i7rLcrTpe(f)eLV 
eVi Tov Oeou tov ^wvTa, 'os iirol- 
7](Te TOV ovpavov Koi tttjv yrjv kou 
Tiju daXaaraav koX iravTO, ra kv 
avTols' ^^ OS eV rats irapco'^p.i- 
vats yeveoLS elacre Tvavra ra kOvri 
TTopevecrdac rais oSoTs avTwv 
■'■'' /cat TOL ye ovk dpaprvpov iav 
Tovd(j)T]Kev, dyaOoTTOLOiv, ovpavo' 
Oev rjplv verovs SlSovs kou Kaipovs 
Kap7ro(j)opovs, ipirurrXav Tpo(f)7]s 
KOU €vcj)pocrvvr]s ras Kapbias 
rjpcov. ^^ Kat ravra Xeyovres, 
poXis Kareiravaav rovs o^Aou? 
rov pr] dveiv avrois. 

" 'JETrrjXdov Be diro 'Avrio- 
X^las Kol 'Ikovlov 'lovSaiot, Kal 


when the Apostles, Barnabas 
and Paul, heard, they rent 
their clothes, "and leaped forth 
into the crowd, crying out, 
and saying, Why do you do is 
these things? We are °men 
of liice nature with your- 
selves, declaring to you glad 
tidings, that you should turn 
from these vanities to the 
living God, who made the 
heaven, and the earth, and 
the sea, and fall things that 
are in them ; who, in ithe ages 1g 
past, suffered all the nations 
■■to go on in their own ways. 
Nevertheless, he did not leave 17 
himself without 'testimony, in 
that he did good, and gave you 
rain from heaven, and fruitful 
seasons, filling your hearts 
with 'food and gladness. And is 
"with these sayings they 
scarcely restrained the peo- 
ple, that they did not oifei 
sacrifice to them. 'Then Jews lu 
came over from Antioch and 
Iconium; and having persua- 

" For eiasnrj8r,aav, Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf., substitute e^enijdt]- 
aav. They leaped out into tlio crowd exclaiming and saying: 
Men ! why do j'ou do these things ? 

■' AVe are men, eoftcv avO-Qconot — bfioionaO'cie iiuv, of 
pnssions similar to yourselves, evnyyeXi^o/ccpot, announcing to 
you glad tidings, that you should turn away from these vani- 
ties to the living God, who has made the heaven, and the earth, 
and the sea, and all things that are in them. 

P To nnv, was an abbreviated formula representing the 
whole Universe, in the Aristotelian ago. Tn. Ttavra, and namn. 
■ta, are not always identical in sense ; the latter t« has some- 
times the position and power of a relative pronoun, which is 
the case here. Therefore, in this case, we prefer " all things 
thai are in them, to all things in them ". 

1 JJaqtityjifitvaii, from 'jtaqof/fifiai, preteriius, found only in 
this place N. T., indicative of ages long since, or fully passed 

■■ UoQcvEoOrtt, not properly "to walk in their own way," 
rather to go on in their own course. 

' Km Toi ye ovk a/iaQTVQov, etc. And yet, indeed, he did 
not leave himself unallcsled. 

Fe, enclitic, gives point and pungency to this expression. 
A/taoTVQog, is an aTta^ Isyoftevov, in this book, but in this 
sense it is found in Josephus Antiq. 14 : 7, 2j Plutarch de 
Solent Anini. 23 ; Thuc. 2 : 41. Doing good, &c. Better col 
located in English thus: "And yet, indeed, doing good, giving 
{vfuv instead of f/fiip, Gb., Sch., Ln. — Tf. omits both) to you 
rain from heaven and fruitful seasons, filling your {yfioiv not 
>lftiov) hearts with food and gladness." 

' The heart receives not food ; but, rhetorical Ij^, the heart, 
is the receptacle of all comfort; hence the fullest expression of 
the satisfied desires of every category. 

" Tavra hyovres, saj'ing these things they, with difficulty 
{/whs from fwlog, labor), restrained the multitude from oU'er- 
ing sacrifice to them. 

' Then (^de) Jews (sTirjXO-ov) came over from Antioch and 
Iconium, neiaavtes, and having persuaded tovs oyj.ove, the 
multitudes. Translators are almost equally divided in present- 
ing this in singular and plural, muUitude and niuUitudcs. Being 
plural in all the best texts, we deem it proper to appear in the 
same number in the version, as in the original. 




people, and having stoned Paul, 
drew him out of the city, sup- 
posing he had been dead. 

20 Howbeit, as the disciples 
stood round about him, he rose 
up, and came into the city : and 
the next day he departed with 
Barnabas to Derbe. 

21 And when they had preach- 
ed the gospel to that city, and 
had taught many, they returned 
again to Lystra, and to Iconium, 
and Antioch, 

22 Confirming the souls of the 
disciples, and exhorting them to 
continue in the faith, and that 
we must through much tribula- 
tion enter into the kingdom of 

23 And when they had or- 
dained them elders in every 
church, and had prayed with 
fasting, they commended them 
to the Lord, on Avhom they be- 

24 And after they had passed 
throughout Pisidia, they came 
to Pamphilia. 

25 And when they had preach- 
ed the word in Perga, they went 
down into Attalia : 

26 And thence sailed to An- 
tioch, from whence they had 
been recommended to the grace 
of God, for the work which they 

27 And when they were come, 
and had gathered the church to- 
gether, they rehearsed all that 
God had done with them, and 
how he had opened the door of 
faith unto the Gentiles. 

28 And there they abode long 
time with the disciples. 


ird(ravTes tovs oyXovs, koL Xidd- 
(ravTes rov JIavXov, eavpov e^a> 
Trjs TToAeco?, VQjxia-avres clvtov 
Teduavai. ^^ KVKXcocravTCOp 8e 
avTOV tS)u /j.a6r]Tcou, duaaras 
eicrrjXdev eiy rrju iroXiw Kou ry 
iiravpiov i^rjXde aw ra Bap- 
vdfia els Aip^rjv. evayyeXL- 

(rap.evoi re rrjv woXiv eKelurjv, 
KOL /ji.a6rjTev(ravTes lkuvovs, vire- 
(TTpe^av eip rriv Avarpav kou 
'Ikovcov kou ' AvTLO')(etav ^ im- 
(TTTjpi^ovTes Ttt? ■v|fuxay rotv fxadr}- 
Twv TrapaKoXovvTes i/J.p.eueiv rfj 
TricTTet, KOU OTL Sid TToXXtav 6Xi- 
■\^ea>u 5ei 77/iay ela-eXdeLu els' ttjp 
fiao-iXelav rov Oeov. ^^ X^^P^' 
Tovrjaavres de avrois Trpecrfivre- 
povs Kar eKKXijcriav, Trpoaev^d- 
fxeuoL fiera vrjo-reLciv, irapeOevTo 
avTovs Tco Kvplco els op ireTncTTev- 
KeLcrav. ^* kou SceXdopres ttjp 
JTio-Ldtap, r/XOop els IIaix(j)vXlap- 
^^ KOL XaXrjcraPTes ep Hepyrj top 
Xoyop, KaTe^r)(Tap els 'Arra- 
Xeiap- ^^ KaKeWep dTreirXevcrap 
els 'ApTio^eiap, oOep r)<Tap -rrapa- 
SeSofjiepoi rff -^apiTL rov Oeov els 
TO epyop o errXripaicroLP. "^^ Trapa- 
yepopepoi 8e kou avpayayoPTes 
TTJP eKKXrjcrLap, dprjyyeiXap ocra 
eTTOLTjarep 6 Oeos p-er avTcap, kou 
OTL rjpoi^e Tols edpecn dvpap ttl- 
cTTecos. ^^ SteTpifiop fie e'/cei x/'o- 
pop ovK oXiyop crvp toIs padrj- 


ded 'the multitudes, and hav- 
ing stoned Paul, they were 
dragging him out of the city, 
supposing that he "was dead. 
But, while the disciples were 20 
standing about him, ris- 
ing up, he entered into the 
city. And the next day he 
went out with Barnabas into 
Derbe. And when they had 21 
announced the glad tidings to 
that city, and made many 
disciples, they returned into 
Lystra, and Iconium, and An- 
tioch, confirming the souls 22 
of the disciples, exhorting 
them to continue in the faith, 
saying that we must, through 
much tribulation, enter into 
the kingdom of God. And, 23 
having appointed for them eld- 
ers in every congregation, 
and having prayed with fast- 
ings, they commended them to 
the Lord, in whom they be- 
lieved. And, having passed Z'l 
through Pisidia, they came to 
Pamphylia. And when they 26 
had spoken the word in 
Perga, they went down into 
Attalia; and thence they sail- 26 
ed to Antioch, whence they 
had been commended to the 
grace of God, for the work 
which they performed. 

And when they came, and 2T 
had assembled the congrega- 
tion, they rehearsed all that 
God had done with them, 
and that he had opened a 
door of faith to the nations. 
And they continued no little 28 
time with the disciples. 

" " That he had been dead,'' is not only ambiguous, but 1 seen. They had not dragged, but, according to the text, were 
reckless of all the texts, ancient and modern, that we have | dragging him out of the city, when he revived. 




And certain men which came 
down from Judea, taught the 
brethren, and said, Except ye be 
circumcised after the manner of 
Moses, ye cannot be saved. 

2 When therefore Paul and 
Barnabas had no small dissension 
and disputation with them, they 
determined that Paul and Bar- 
nabas, and certain other of them, 
should go up to Jerusalem unto 
the apostles and elders about this 

3 And being brought on their 
way by the church, they passed 
through Phenice and Samaria, 
declaring the conversion of the 
Gentiles : and they caused great 
joy unto all the brethren. 

4 And when they were come 
to Jerusalem, they were receiv- 
ed of the church, and of the 
apostles and elders, and they de- 
clared all things that God had 
done with them. 



KAI TLves KareXOovres diro 
Trjs 'lovSaMS, idcSaaKOu tovs 
d8eX(j)ow, Otl lav /xt] TrepLre/ji- 
vrjade tco edei Mavaico?, ov 8v- 
vacrOe craQrivai. revo/xevrjs 

o5u araaecos koll crv^rjTr](rea>s 
ouK oXiyrjs t(S HavXo) /cat tc3 
Bapvafia irpos avTovs, era^au 
dva^alueiu UavXov kolI Bapvd- 
fiav Kai TLvas aXXovs e^ avrasv 
TT/Joy Tou? ttTTOcrroAouy Kai irpe- 
crfivrepovs etp 'lepovcraXrjp., -jrepl 


ovv irpoirep^devTes viro r^y e/c- 
KXrjcrta9, Strjp^ovro tt]V ^OLViKrjv 
KoX Sajxapeiav, eKdn^yovfievoc rrjv 
eTTLCTTpocjirjv tS)v lOvmv Kai iiroL- 
ovv yapav pieydXt]v Tracn toIs 
d8eX(j)OLs. TrapayevofxevoL 8e 

els lepovaraXrjij., d7re8ey(dr]crav 
VTTO TTjs eKKXycrtas Kai tg>v diro- 
(TToXcou Kai tS)v Trpeo-jBvTepcou, 
dvqyyeiXav re ocra o 0€os iiroi- 


And certain ^persons that 
came downfrom Judea, taught 
the brethren, saying; Unless 
you are circu2ncised after the 
custom of Moses, you cannot 
be saved. When, therefore, 
Paul and Barnabas had no 
little ^dissension and discus- 
sion with them, they deter- 
mined that Paul and Barna- 
bas and certain others of 
them, should go up into Jeru- 
salem to the Apostles and 
elders about this question. 
And being brought on their 
way by the 'congregation,they 
passed through Phenicia and 
Samaria, declaring the con- 
version of the Gentiles ; and 
caused great joy to all the 

And when they were come 
into Jerusalem, "they were 
received by the congregation, 
and by the Apostles and elders, 
and they declared all things 
that God had done by them. 

=■ Tie, aliquis, rives, certain persons. Tlie masculine gender 
is most worthy in all such cases. "VVe sometimes substitute 
persons. Tivbs xarald'ovTee, Certain men coming down, Wes. j 
" Some who came down," Wakef. ; " Had gone down," Penn. ; 
" Came down," i\rurd., Tliomp. ; " Came," Dodd. ATto rtjs lov- 
Sams, from Judea (to Antioch understood), eSidaay.ov tovs 
aSclcpovs — leyotTESy after eSiSaoy.ov must be supplied, in the 
sense, that the following brt may redound, Kuinoel. Tcj> eOei 
Miovoecos, in the manner Moses prescribed, or, prescribed by 

JJe^trfi7;&-rjrs is preferred by Ln. and Tf. to ne^trsfimjaO'e. 
Griesbach regards it as supported by good authorities. Tio 
sd'ei, according to the custom. Dative of the manner. 

y revofievrjs ovv araoBcos — itvrovs — conlroversia et dispuia- 
tione acri. In ch. 14 : 4, we find a schism amongst the citizens ; 
and in Acts 23 : 7, a similar one between the Pharisees and the 
Sadducees. Sraais occurs four times in the book of Acts, 
and only four times in all other portions of the Christian 
Scriptures. In com. ver. it is represented by insurrection, se- 
dition, dissension, uproar ; and once by standing. Hence its 
special meaning, in any given case, depends upon its context. 

Sv^rprrjats occurs twice in this chapter, and only once beside 
in the Christian 'Writings, Acts ch. 28 : 29 ; in this last in-- 

stance it is represented by reasoning, and in this chapter by 
disputation and disputing. 

The verb aviijreco is in favor with John Mark, occurring six 
times in his gospel, and only four times in Luke's writings. 
In Mark, com. ver., it is five times represented by question, 
and once by reason. But for av^Tjrrjaecos, in this place, and in 
V. 7, in some manuscripts, it is ^rjTjjaews, which occurs in this 
sense, at least six times in the Christian Scriptures. 

" 01 fuv ovv TtQone^iipd'EVTBs vno itjs ey.x7.rjains. Some, as 
Hammond, on 1 Cor. 16 : 11, interpret these words thus: Hi 
igitur ah ccclesia honorifice deducti. Morus and Heinrichsius 
so interpret them, i. e. " they were sent away with all necessary 
provisions for the journey. ^^ But no passage can be adduced 
from any writer of respectability to sustain such an interpre- 
tation. HQonefino), in its eight other occurrences in N. T., is 
represented by accompany, conduct, or bring forward, a person 
on a journey, Xen. Cyr. I. 4, 25 ; Homer's Odys. E. 37, 146, are 
quoted to sustain this interpretation. But their poetry, or 
their prose, is quite out of place in Luke's horizon. 

" ATtsSejcO-ijaav, they were kindly, or benignantly received. 
In ch. 2 : 41, and in ch. 21 : 17, we find aofievme before tdt- 
Savro, rather aneSe^avro, according to Ln., Tf. 




5 But there rose up certain of 
the sect of the Pharisees, which 
believed, saying. That it was 
needful to circumcise them, and 
to command them to keep the 
law of Moses. 

6 And the apostles and elders 
came together for to consider 
of this matter. 

7 And when there had been 
much disputing, Peter rose up 
and said unto them, Men and 
brethren, ye know how that a 
good while ago, God made choice 
among us, that the Gentiles, by 
mj mouth, should hear the word 
of the gospel, and believe. 


8e Tives TU)V airo rrjs alpecrecos 
tS>v 0apL(TaL(£iv TTiinaTevKOTes, 
Xeyovres, Otl del TreptTefjLveiv 
avTOVs, TrapayyeXXcLV re TrjpeLv 
rov vofxov Mcovaeas. 

" Svvr]-)(6r]a-av 8e ol aTrocTTO- 
XoL Koi ol TTpecr^vTepoL ISelu irepX 
Tov Xoyov TOVTOV. 7ro\Xi]9 de 
av^TjTrjcreais yevojxevrjs, avaaras 
Herpo^ etVe 7rpo9 avrovs, ' Av- 
8pes aSeXcpoL, v/xet^ eTno-Taade 
OTL d(j) rjixepav dpxaicou 6 Oeos 
ev rjfuu i^eXe^aro Sia rod crro- 
jxaros [lov aKOvcrat ra kdvT] tou 
Xoyov TOV evayyeXiov, koL tti- 


But ''some of the sect of 5 
the Pharisees, who believed, 
rose up, saying, that it was 
necessary to ^circumcise them, 
and to command them to keep 
the law of Moses. 

And the Apostles and 6 
elders came together to con- 
sider of this matter. And 7 
when there had been much 
discussion, ■'Peter rose up 
and said to them ; Brethren, 
you know that at first God 
made choice 'among us, that 
the Gentiles, by my mouth, 
should hear the word of the 

'■ E^aveartjaav Ss tipcs tuiv aito rtje alQeaecos t(OV 'I'aqi- 
aatcov ; But there arose some of the sect of the Pharisees ; or — 
But certain persons of the-sect of the Pharisees who beheved, 
arose ; or, with Hackett, '• But there arose some of those from 
the sect of the Pharisees." " Thereupon some of the sect of 
the Pharisees who believed, rose up, and said," Thomp. " But 
some of the sect of the Pharisees that believed, rose up and 
said," Dodd. " And they related how certain believers of the 
sect of the Pharisees had ris^ up, and said," AVakef. " But 
there rose up, said they, certain of the sect of the Pharisees 
who believed," Wesley. "And some who from the sect (or 
doctrine) of the Pharisees, had believed, rose up, and said," 
Murd. " But some of the sect of the Pharisees who had be- 
lieved, arose, saying," Pcnn. " And there arose certaine of 
the heresie of the Pharisees that believed, saying," Rheims. 
" But saj'ed they, certaine of the secte of the Pharises rose 
up, which dyd beleue, saying," Geneva. "Then rose up 
certayne of the Secte of the Pharises which did beleue, say- 
ing," Cranmer. " Then arose ther op certayne that were of 
the secte of the Pharises and dyd beleve sayinge," Tyndale. 
" But summe of the eresie of farisies that bileuden, risen up 
and seiden," Wicklifie. Such is the scale-descending of thir- 
teen English versions, as quoted, upon one of the most 
transparent verses in the Christian Scriptures. The changes 
in orthography are not much greater than the changes in the 
sense, so far as perspicuity, precision, and force are con- 

Are those of a. sect that believed, and those /row a sect that 
believed equivalent, or exactly equivalent, alike definite and 
perspicuous ? Are " believers of the sect of the Pharisees," and 
" some of the Pharisees that believed," tantamount and equally 
definite indications of position? Is currency coin, or are cur- 
rency and coin convortible terms'? Literally, the Pharisees I 

thought tliat it was necessary to command them to circumcise, 
and to keep the law of Moses. 

Al^sarig. The Pharisees and the Sadducees constituted each 
an heresy or an al^cote. Hence, in v. 5, we read of certain per- 
sons of the heresy or sect of the Pharisees. Converted Phari- 
sees constituted the first heretics or heresiarchs in the Christ- 
ian Church ; or translated from the synagogue to the church 
their respective theories. Like all Heretics, in all ages, they 
were sensitive and tenacious of their respective peculiarities. 
Hence their tenacity of certain Jewish rites and ceremonies. 
They had the honor of occasioning the first Christian conven- 
tion. They were punctiliously sensitive of the claims of Moses, 
and his law of ceremonies. Thus, in Jerusalem, they placed 
themselves under the shield of Moses and Abraham. 

■= Their central dogma is in the following words : oti Set tteqc- 
refivsiv avrovg, na^ayyef-Xetv is rrjQeiviov voftov Mcovaccos. It 
behooved them first to be circumcised, and then to keep the 
law of Moses. They must be subjected to circumcision, and 
keep the law. Such was the issue — circumcision and the law 
of Moses. 

•i Avaaras Unr^os. In possession of the floor, Peter opens. 
AvSqes aSeHpot. More implicated than any other man in that 
assembly, having immersed the Gentiles by a special command, 
without any conference, or agreement with any other Apostle. 
Hence his apology, S 0eos cp riftiv s^eXe^aro Sia tov OTOfta- 
ros /wv axovaai ra sO'vr] tov Xoyov lov cvayyeXiov, xai m- 

' Ev rjfiiv, is better sustained in this passage than ev vfuv, 
preferred by Ln., Tf. Peter modestly uses the plural. It is, 
indeed, a Hebraism. (Hebrasi enim verbo ina comitem ad- 
dere solent praspositionem a ; Nehemiah 9 : 7, S'paxa tpm lOX 
cui placuit prohatus fuit Abrahamus. Add 1 Chronicles 
28 : 4, 5. The Septuagint renders it thus : e^eXeSaro ev efioi— 




8 And God, which knoweth 
the hearts, bare them witness, 
giving them the Holy Ghost, 
even as ha did unto us : 

9 And put no difference be- 
tween us and them, purifying 
their hearts by faith. 

10 Now therefore why tempt 
ye God, to put a yoke upon the 
neck of the disciples, which 
neither our fathers nor we were 
able to bear? 

11 But we believe, that 
through the grace of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, we shall be saved, 
even as they. 

12 Then all the multitude 
kept silence, and gave audience 
to Barnabas and Paul, declaring 
what miracles and wonders God 
had wrought among the Gentiles 
by them. 

13 And after they had held 
their peace, James answered, say- 
ing. Men amd brethren, hearken 
unto me. 

14 Simeon hath declared how 
God at the first did visit the 


8 ^ ' S ' 

crreucrai. Kai o KapoLoyvcocrTr]^ 
0eo9 i/J.apTvpr]ar€u avTols, 8ovs 
avTOLS TO Hvevua to 'Ayiov, 
KaOm Kol r]jxlv " /cat ov8kv Sie- 
Kpive fX€Ta^v rfp-oHv re /cat avTccv, 
Ty vrtcrret Kadapltras Tas Kapdias 
avToov. ^^ vvv o6i> TL Treipd^eTe 
Tov Oeov, eTTL&eLvat ^vyoi/ eVt 
TOP Tpa^rjXou t&v fxaOriTau, ov 
ovT€ ol TraTepes rjfiaiv ovTe rjixa.^ 
la^vaa/xeu (3aiTTd(rat ; dXXa 

8id TTJs ■)(aptTos Kvpiov 'Irjaov 
XpLCTTov 7n(rrevo/ (rcodrivai, 
Kaff QU TpOTTOV KaK^lvoi. ^'^ ' Mai- 
yrjcre Se Trav to vrXijOop, kou 
7]KQVov Bapvd^a koI UavXov 
e^7/yov/Li£i>cop ocra eiroiTjaev 6 
Oeos (jTjfiela Koi Tepara iu tols 
eduecri 8l avrav. ^^ MeToc, 8e 
TO cnyrjo-ai avrovs, d.7reKpi6r) 
^laKOifios, Xeycou, ' A.v8p€s aSeA- 
0ot, aKOvcraTe /xov. ^* Sv/iecov 
i^r)yy)<jaTO, Ka6u>s irpaTov 6 Oeos 


Gospel, and believe. And 'God, 8 
who knows the liearts, bore 
them testimony, giving them 
the Holy Spirit, even as to 
us ; and put no difference 9 
between us and them, having 
purified their hearts by the 
faith. Now, therefore, why lo 
do you try God by putting 
a yoke upon the neck of the 
disciples, which neither our 
fathers, nor we, were able to 
bear? But, 'through the grace ii 
of the Lord Jesus, we believe 
that we shall be saved, even 
as they. 

Then all the multitude 12 
were silent, and heard Barna- 
bas and Paul declaring what 
'■signs and wonders God had 
wrought among the Gentiles 
by them. 

And after they were si- 13 
lent, James addressed them, 
saying ; 'Brethren, hearken 
to me. Simeon has declar- u 
ed how God first visited 

etvuc ^aat}.ea. E§e?,e^azo ev £o).ofia>v rro vlio'iaat (^avrov) 
sTtt &^ovov. Vide Vorstius de Hebraism. N. T., p. 002. See 
also Kuinoel in loco. 

' Rat 6 xa^Swyymarijs Oeos — Sovs avrois to Uvev/ia ro 
'Ayiov. Confessing judgment, he pleads his justification on 
the basis of a Divine oracle, and of a Divine gift to the Gen- 
tiles, even the ro Uvev/ia to 'Ayiov, in its greatest, largest am- 
plitude. It is not only the Holy Spirit in all the amplitude 
of his grace, but as more definite and exegetical he adds, Ka&ws 
xai rjntv, even as to us, Jews ; and still more pleonastically, he 
adds, rn Ttcoret xa&a^ioag rag teaQSias avrcov, having purified 
their hearts by the faith. 

^ Xoiaxov is here omitted by Gb., Sch. and Tf. Lord Jesus 
is all sufBoient. Jta tris %aqnoi, the charily. This word has 
obtained a very latitudinarian currency in the N. T., com, ver. ; 
being represented by ten words -.favor, grace, thank, pleasure, 
liberality, benefit, joy, thankworthy, gift, acceptable ; while 
from the same root, xapiafia, occuring seventeen times, is uni- 
formly represented by gift ; and %a<iit,ofiat by give, frankly 
forgive, grant, deliver. Were we at liberty to select any one 
term, to the exclusion of every other, we should give our 
suffrage for favor. In our present currency, it would be 
adequate to the scope of the original. We should not place 

sovereign, or special before it, because all grace is necessarily 
sovereign, sjiecial, and free. It may, in degrees, be great, 
greater, and greatest ; but, uniformlj', it is free and sovereign. 

'' Sij/ista teqata. Not convertible terms ; all signs are 
not wonders, nor are all iDonders, signs ; neither are all mira- 
cles, signs, nor all signs, miracles. Xtifieiov, in some eighty oc- 
currences in N. T., is some fifty times represented by sign; by 
miracle more than twenty times, and occasionally by loJcen, 
tantamount to sign, and sometimes by wonder. 

' AvSqeg aSsP.ytoe. ASelcpoc, in some three hundred and fifty: 
occurrences in N. T. is represented by brother, or brethren. 
AvrjQ is, some two hundred and twenty times, represented by 
man; and, in reference to married men, by husband, some 
fifty times. 

When avSqes aSeXrpoi occur, as they do only in this book of 
Acts, and in it some twelve times, we represent them togethev 
by the word brethren. Peter introduced this formula, and on 
Pentecost the converts caught it and used it. Stephen used 
it, but with the addition of the word fathers — ''Brethren and 
Fathers." Because avS^es equally applies to both, and is ab- 
sorbed alike in both, we prefer, " Brethren and Fathers." So 
Paul uses them Acts 13 : 15 ; 22 : 21 • 13 : 26, 38 j 23 : 1, 6 j 
28 : 17. 




Grentiles, to take out of them a 
people for his name. 

15 And to this agree the 
words of the prophets ; as it is 

16 After this I will return, 
and will huild again the taber- 
nacle of David which is fallen 
down ; and I will build again 
the ruins thereof, and I will set 
it np : 

17 That the residue of men 
might seek after the Lord, and 
all the Gentiles, upon whom my 
name is called, saith the Lord, 
who doeth all these things. 

IS Known unto God are all 


e7r60"/ce'\|/aro Xa^eiv i^ iOvcou 
Xaov inl rco ovofiari, avrov. 
" /cat rovTco av/Kpcovovanv ol 
XoyoL tS)V 7rpo(j)r]Tuiu, KaOas ye- 
ypairrai, ** Mera. ravra ava- 
crTpe-[j/co Kcu auoLKoSo/xi^crco rrjv 
OTK-qvrjv Aa/SiS ttjv ireTTTCoKviav' 
Kat ra KarecrKafi/uLeya avTrjs olvol- 
Ko8o/xr}cr(o, kcu dvopOcocrco avrrjv 
oTTCoy av eK^TjTrjo-cacni' ol Kara- 


pLov, Kca TTavra ra edvrj, i(j) ouy 
iTTLKiKXrjTai TO ovopd pov eTT 
avTOVs' Xeyec Kvpios 6 iroiav 
ravra irdvra. ^^ rvaard air 


the Gentiles, 'to take out of 
them, a people for his name. 
And with this the words of 15 
the prophets agree ; as it is 
written, After this I will re- 16 
turn, and will rebuild the '•ta- 
bernacle of David 'which is 
fallen down, and I will re- 
build its ruins, and I will 
set it up ; that "the rest 17 
of men may seek after the 
Lord, even all the nations, 
upon whom my name is call- 
ed, says the Lord, who does 
all these things. "Known to 18 

) AajSetv eS eO'vcov J.nov em tcji ovoftart uvrov. To take 
out of the nations a people for his name. cTti is redundant. 
Rejected by Ln., Tf., Gb. 

Upon his name, is a literal version of eTtc rrp opo/iari av- 
rov — " To take from among them a people for his name," 
Thomp. " To take out of tliem a people for his name," Wakef. 
"To elect a people for his name out of the Gentiles," Murd. 
" To take out from them a people for his name," Penn. " To 
take out of them a people for his name," Wcs., Booth. " To take 
from among them a peopleybr the honor of his name," Dodd. So, 
Bubstantiallj'', are all the versions that we have seen. For the 
glory of his name, being the God of the Gentiles as well as of 
the Jews, he commanded his Gospel to bo announced to all 
nations, intending thereby, as a means to an end, to collect out 
of all the tribes and nationalities of earth one new com- 

This amounts to no more than his commission to the Apos- 
tles indicates ; " Preach the gospel to every ci-eature," the whole 
human race. The question here is upon stii, which is repu- 
diated by Ln., Tf. ; and is by Gb. regarded as a probable 
omission, which, indeed, very little affects the sense — a people 
for his name is, without utic, fairly indicated. 

i^rtt, with the dative, is, in the com. vor., translated 6;/, at, 
unto, in, of. In its more than one thousand two hundred oc- 
currences in the N. T. it is frequently, with the dative, repre- 
sented by in. In the single book of the Acts, in a hundred and 
seventy five occurrences, it is found in construction with the 
genitive, accusative, and dative, and is frequently represented, 
com. ver., by in, on, or upon. JDeus infer Oentiles sibi coUegit 
cmtum, qui essel populus Dei peculiaris sicut olim ludiei," 
Kuin. In this view, we fuUj"- concur. Vigerus on Grecian 
idioms, De prepositione, mi, p. 612. London ed. 1824. 

'^ Trjv axrivr;i> ^aptS. Sxtjrr; answers to Hebrew !136 indicat- 
ing a tent woven of leaves or reeds, in use among shepherds, Eo- 

senmtiller, Amos 1 : 2. But ow?*';? is put for any sort of house. 
Hero it is an image of the kingdom of David, as in other places 
an image of mount Zion, on which David's palace stood. Virtu- 
ally, it represents the original political state of the nation. See 
Kuinoel on this passage. 

1 KaTsaxa/i/ecva — xaraanaTcrco, found here, and in Rom. 
11 : 3, perf. part. pas. = ruins. Its root is axanrco, diruo, 
fodio, that which has fallen to the ground and which is dug 
up. Ta y.wcEoy.afifieva, dirula, is found in the Alexandrian 
ver., Amos 9 : 1, 12. " I will restore its ruins," Wakef. Some 
recognize here, the Hebraism which converts the first of two 
verbs into an adverb, qualifying the second. " I will again re- 
build," Meyer. De Wette and Winer reject that explanation. 
Hackett also ; and so do we. " I will build again its ruins," 
Penn. " Restore its ruins," Wakef. Too ambiguous, or 
elliptical. "I will build again the ruins thereof," Wesley. 
" That which was in ruins in it," Murd. 

■" 01 xarai-otnoi rcov avd'Qmnmv tov Kvqiov, aai navra ra 
sdvr}, etp ovs ent>isx?.rjTac ro ovofia fiovtii avrovg — " The residue 
of men." Karalontoi is found only in this place in the N. T., 
representing all the world beyond the Jew.s. This passage 
represents the whole Gentile world, and intimates their parti- 
cipation in this salvation in common with the Jews. " God is 
immutable, and hath decreed ktz aicuvog, olim, anliquissimis 
temporibus, regnum condere, in quod non tantum Judcei sed 
etiam Gentiles, sine legis ritualis observatione reoiperentur. 
In other words, he willed that not only the Jews, but also un- 
ciroumcised Gentiles, should belong to his peculiar people, 
Kuinoel, in loco. 

'^ rvcoara an aicovoe, textus receptus, {son no Qeip mavra 
ra cQya avrov) — Griesbach's reading, Kuin. "To God aro 
known all his works from eternity," Thomp. "Known unto 




his works from the heginning of 
the world. 

19 Wherefore my sentence is, 
that we trouble not them, which 
from among the Gentiles are 
turned to God: 

20 But that we write unto 
them that they abstain from 
pollutions of idols, and from for- 
nication, and //w;i things stran- 
gled, and//wM blood. 

yi For Moses of old time 
hath in every city them that 
preach him, being read in the 
synagogues every sabbath-day. 

22 Then pleased it the apos- 
tles and elders, with the whole 
church, to send chosen men of 
their own company to Antioch, 
with Paul and Barnabas j mime- 
ly, Judas surnamed Barsabas, 
and Silas, chief men among the 
brethren : 

23 And they wrote letters by 
them after this manner; The 
apostles, and elders, and breth- 
ren, send greeting unto the 
brethren which are of the Gen- 


alavos icrri t(3 OecS wavTa to, 
epya avTOv. ^^ 8io iyco Kplvca 
[XT] 7rap€vo)(Xeli' rot? avro t&u 
iduwu i7rLcrTpe(j)ov(ri.v eVt tou 
Oeov ^^ aXXa eTncTTeiXaL avrois 
Tov d7r€)(€crdaL dvo toov dXiayrj- 
fiarcov rau elScoXcou /cat r^p Trop- 
velas kclI tov ttulktov koI tov at- 
fxaTos. Maarjs yap ck yeveaiu 
dp-)(aLa)V Kara ttoXlv tovs Krjpvcr- 
crovTa^ avTov e^et eV rats avva- 
ycoyals Kara irdv crd^^aTOv dva- 

^^ T6t€ e'So^e rotp aTrocrToXois 
/cat rory Trpea-fivrepocs crvv oXy 
Trj €KKXri(TLa, eKXe^a/xei/ov^ av- 
8pas 4^ avrav 7re/x\j/ac eif 'Au- 
Tio)(eiau avu r^ UavXco kcu 
JBapva^a, 'Iov8av tov iiriKaXov- 
pevov Bapaa^aV) kou SlXap, av- 
8pas riyovpevovs iu rots' dSeX- 
^oty, ^^ ypd^avres 8ia )(eLpo9 
avr&v raBe, 01 drroaroXoL kou 
ol Trpea^vrepoL kou ol dBeX(j)o\, 
rots' Kara rr]v 'Avrto^etav kou 


God from everlasting are all 
his works. "Wherefore my 19 
judgment is, not to trouble 
those who from among the 
Gentiles turn to God ; but to 20 
write to them, that they ab- 
stain from pollutions of the 
idols, and ^fornication, and 
things strangled, and blood. 
For, ifrom ancient times. Mo- 21 
ses has, in every city, those 
who preach him, being read 
in the synagogues every sab- 

Then it pleased the Apos- 22 
ties and the elders, with the 
whole congregation, to send 
'chosen men, from among 
themselves, to Antioch, with 
Paul and Barnabas ; — Judas, 
surnamed Barsabas, and Silas, 
leading men among the breth- 
ren. And they wrote by 23 
them these words: — The Apos- 
tles, and elders, and 'breth- 
ren, greeting — To the breth- 
ren of the Gentiles in An- 

God are all his works from eternity," Wes. "Who made 
these things known from the beginning," Penn. "Known 
from of old are the works of God," JIurd. " Known — from 
the beginning of the world," Wakef. " Known, etc., from the 
beginning of the world," Dodd. Eari rto esq, nnvra ra e^ya 
uvrov, omitted by Gb., and Tf. To me, of doubtful authority. 
It is a true oracle, but iiere unnecessary. 

° ^10 syco y.Qivco. " Wherefore I judge," Wes. " Therefore 
I say to you," Mur. " My opinion is," Wakef. " My judg- 
ment is," Penn. " I judge," Hack. ' Therefore' it is my judg- 
ment," Thomp. " Wherefore my judgment is," Dodd. 

V UoQveia, fornication. Various substitutes for this word 
have been proposed. See Kuincel. M. L'Enfant explains 
this of -victims offered by prostitutes out of their scandalous 
hire (Deut. 23 : 18) which, he says, makes a beautiful sense. 
Heinsius, at large, vindicates this interpretation, and shows 
that Athanasius uses no^vsta for noQvty.i] Ovaia, Doddridge. 
Kuincel gives some six columns of dissertations on the ac- 
ceptations of this word, backed by eminent names. With 
Bosenmuller, Morus, and other distinguished names, we con- 
cur, that this word is not to be taken in any private inter- 

pretation, but in its full amplitude, or generic acceptation in 
sacred literature. 

' Moses — has them that {xrj^vaaovras avrov — ) are preach- 
ing him, not SiSaaxovTas — teaching him. The words arc never 
confounded, nor substituted the one for the other, in the Christ- 
ian Scriptures. Preaching and teaching Christ are as distinct 
as malcing or gaining disciples is from leaching them. The 
preacher's work and the teacher's work are frequently contra- 
distinguished in the Apostolic currency. In the case of the 
synagogues in opposition to Jesus, they proclaimed the divine 
mission of Sloses, and claimed authoi'ity for him against the 
claims of Jesus the Nazarene. Hence we are informed that 
'' daily in the temple, and from house to house, they ceased 
not to teach and to preach Jesus, the Clirist," SiSaanovrss nai 
evayyeXi^oftevoi Irjoovv tov Xqiotov. 

■■ ExlB^afievovi passes into tlie accusative, because the ob- 
ject of the governing verb ; anoaroXois serves, at the same time, 
"as the subject of the infinitive," Ilackett. " For Sitas, in the 
Acts, we have always Silvanus in the Epistles." Sdns, Si- 
Xovapos ; the former his Jewish, the latter his Gentile name. 

' Km ol before aSeXcpoi is omitted by Ln Gb. marks it as a 
probable omission). 




tiles in Antioch, and Syria, and 

24 Forasmuch as we have 
heard, that certain which went 
out from us, have troubled you 
■with words, subverting your 
souls, saying. Ye must be cir- 
cumcised, and keep the law ; 
to whom we gave no such com- 
mandment : 

25 It seemed good unto us, 
being assembled with one ac- 
cord, to send chosen men unto 
you, with our beloved Barnabas 
and Paul : 

26 Men that have hazarded 
their lives for the name of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

27 We have sent therefore Ju- 
das and Silas, who shall also tell 
you the same things by inouth. 

28 For it seemed good to the 
Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay 
upon you no greater burden 
than those necessary things ; 

29 That ye abstain from 
meats offered to idols, and from 
blood, and from things stran- 
gled, and from fornication : from 
which if ye keep yourselves, ye 
shall do well. Fare ye well. 

30 So when they were dis- 
missed, they came to Antioch ; 
and when they had gathered the 
multitude together, they deliver- 
ed the epistle. 

31 Which when they had 
read, they rejoiced for the con- 

32 And Judas and Silas, being 
prophets also themselves, ex- 
horted the brethren with many 
words, and confirmed ihem. 

33 And after they had tarried 
there a space, they were let go 
in peace from the brethren unto 
the apostles. 


Svplav KoH KiXiKLav a8eX(f)ols 
Tols i^ eOvav, -^^aipeiv. 'Eir- 

etSr) rjKovaafiev on rives i^ yfxcou 
i^eXOovres erdpa^av Vfxas Xo- 
yoLS, avacTKeva^ovTes ras '^V)(as 
vjxcov, Xiyovres TrepLTefiveaOaL 
Kca TTjpelv TOP vofjiov, ols ov 8l6- 
areiXd/xeda' ^^ eSo^ef t^/xlu ye- 
vojxivois 6p.o6vp.a8ou, iKXe^ap.e- 
uovs dvSpas Trep-yj/at irpos, 
aw Toh dya77r]Tols rip-cov Sap' 
vd^a Kol UavXco, ^^ dvOpwiroLS 
TrapaSeScaKoat ray •^v)(a.s avrcov 
VTrep rod 6vop.aTos tov Kvplov 
T]p.a)v 'Itjctov Xpiarov. ^^ dire' 
cTTccA/ca/iei' o^v 'Iov8av kou S'l- 
Xau, Kcu avTOVs Bid Xoyov diray- 
yiXXovras rd avrd. ^^ eSo^e 
yap t£ 'Ayicp IIv6vp,aTi kou 
7jp.Lv, p,r]Sev TrXeov eiriTiOecrOai 
vpiv fiapos, ttXtjv t5>v iiravayKes 
TOVTCov, ^^ aTre^eo-^at eiScoXoOv' 
Tcov KOU aiparos kcu ttviktov koL 
TTOpveias' i^ cov SiarrjpovvTes 
eavTOVs, ei) irpd^ere. eppaxrOe. 
^^ 01 pev ovv aTToXudivTes 
r]X6ov eiy ' AvTi6-)(eLav' kou arvva- 
yayovres to "TrXrjdos, erreScoKav 
T1JV en-KTToXrjv. avayvovres 

Se, e-)(apr)(rav iiri rfj TrapaKXrjcrtL. 
^^ 'Iov8a9 8e KOU SlXas, Kai aii- 
rol 7rpo<prJTai ovTes, 8ia Xoyov 
rroXXov irapeKaXecrav tovs d8eX- 
(jjovy, KOI eTrearTypi^av. Uoirj- 
aavres 5e ^povov, dTcXvdrjcrav 
/ier' elpr}vr]9 dyro rav d8eX^cov 
TTpos TOVS dirocTToXovs. ^^ ^8o^e 


tioch, and Syria, and Cili- 
cia. Since we have heard, 24 
that some persons who went 
out from us, have troubled 
you with words, subverting 
your souls, 'saying. You must 
be circumcised, and keep 
the law ; to whom we gave 
no commandment ; it seem- 25 
ed good to us, being assem- 
bled with one accord, to send 
"chosen men to you, with our 
beloved Barnabas and Paul; 
men who have hazarded their 2G 
lives for the name of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. We have sent, 27 
therefore, Judas and Silas, who 
also themselves will tell you 
the same things by word of 
mouth. For it seemed good to 28 
the Holy Spirit, and to us, to 
lay on you no greater burden 
than these necessary things; 
To abstain from meats ofier- 29 
ed to idols, and from blood, 
and from things strangled, 
and from fornication ; from 
which, if you keep yourselves, 
you will do well. Fare- 
well. So, then, having been 30 
dismissed, they ''came into 
Antioch : and when they had 
assembled the multitude, they 
delivered the epistle ; and 31 
having read it, they rejoiced 
over tire consolation. And 32 
Judas and Silas, being also 
themselves prophets, exhort- 
ed the brethren with many 
words, and established them. 
And after they had made some 33 
stay, they were dismissed, 
with '"peace from the breth- 
ren to the = Apostles. >But it 3i 

' Aeyovxss TisqirefivsaO'ai. Tijoeip lov vofiov is omitted 
by Ln., Tf., and by Gb., is regarded as a probable omission. 

" For s-As^afiF-fovs, Ln. would substitute exhinjuevoig, which 
Gb. marks as a reading not ijuite so strongly supported. 

" For 7/XO-op, Ln. would substitute]?.&-ov, which Griesb. 
thinks probable, 

'»' Mev EtQi]vt]g, with peace. Judas and Silas now return to 
Jerusalem. Silas next appears with Paul at Antioch, 

=' For uTioorolovg Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. substitute anooxEilav 
ras avTovs, with much authority. 

y This verse is repudiated by Gb., Ln., Tf., and others 
Verba hujus versus in multis Oodd. desunt. In others, it 




34 Notwithstanding, it pleased 
Silas to abide there still. 

35 Paul also and Barnabas 
continued in Antiocli, teaching 
and preaching the word of the 
Lord, with many others also. 

36 And some days after, Paul 
said unto Barnabas, Let us go 
again and visit our brethren, in 
every city where we have preach- 
ed the word of the Lord, and, 
sec how tliey do. 

37 And Barnabas determined 
to take with them John, whose 
surname was Mark. 

38 But Paul thought not good 
to take Mm with them, who de- 
parted from them from Pamphy- 
lia, and went not with them to 
the work. 

39 And the contention was so 
sharp between them, that they 
departed asunder one from the 
other : and so Barnabas took 
Mark, and sailed unto Cyprus. 

40 And Paul chose Silas, and 
departed, being recommended 
by the brethren unto the grace 
of God. 

41 And he went through Sy- 
ria and Cilicia, confirming the 


8e T(S SiXa €Tnp.€Lvai avfov. 
^^ HavXos 8e kol Sapvd^as Ste- 
rpifiov iv ' AvTLoyeia, 8L8acrKov- 
T€s KOL evayyeXi^o/jLeuoi., fxera /cat 
irepcou iroXXcov, tov Xoyov tov 

META 8e TLvas Tjfxepas 
elTre JlavXos tt/jo? Bapvdfiav, 
JETnaTpi-^avT^S 8y] iirLaKeyj/a)- 
fxeOa T0V9 d8eX<j)ovs r)fj.a>v /caret 
iraaav iroXiv, kv ai^ KaTTjyyelXa- 
fiev TOV Xoyov tov Kvpiov, irms 
e'xovcn. Bapvdfias 8e i^ov- 

XevaraTO crv/x7rapaXa/3eiv tov 'Ico- 
avvTjv tov KaXovfxevov MapKOv 
^^ HavXos 8e rj^lov, tov omo- 
crravTa arr avrav diro Hapitpv- 
Xias, Kcu fjitj crvveXOovTa avTols 
els TO epyov, fxy a-vixirapaXa^eiv 
TovTov. eyeueTo ovv Trapo^v- 

(Tfios, Mcrre d7ro-)(copLcrdT]vac av- 
Tovs aTT aXXr]Xcov, tov tc Sap- 
va^av irapaXa^ovTa tov MdpKov 
eKirXeva-ai els Kvirpov ^^ Hav- 
Xos Se eTTiXe^dp-evos SlXav e^- 
rjXde, TrapaSodels Trj ^dptTt tov 
Oeov VTTo Tcov d8eX(f)u)V. ^^ Si-qp- 
X^To 8e TTjv Svpiav /cat JCiXtKiav, 
ima-Tripi^av rap iKKXrjcTLas. 


pleased Silas to remain there 
still. Paul and Barnabas, also, 35 
continued in Antioch, teacli- 
ing and preaching the word 
of the Lord, with many others 

And some days after, Paul 36 
said to Barnabas, Let us visit 
=the brethren in every city, in 
which we have preached tlie 
word of the Lord, to sec how 
they do. And Barnabas "de- 37 
termined to take John with 
them, whose surname was 
Mark. But Paul thought it 38 
not ''proper to take him with 
them, who departed from 
them in Pamphylia, and did 
not go with them into the 
work. And there arose a 39 
'-contention so that they sep- 
arated one from the other ; 
and Barnabas tooli Mark, 
and sailed into Cyprus. But 40 
Paul ''chose Silas, and de- 
parted, being commended by 
the brethren to the favor of 
God. And he went through 41 
Syria and Cilicia, 'establishing 
the congregations. 

reads /tovos Ss lovSae sTCo^svO-tj. The Syriac, Arab., Poly- 
glott, Copt., Sclavonic, Chrysostom, Theophylact, omit it. 

' 'Hfiaiv is rejected by Gb., Sch., Ln., and Tf. It appears, 
indeed, redundant. 

' E^ovhvaato, determined : not as in some editions, c/Sou- 
AsTo, wished, Hack. 

i> B^Lov, thought it not just, Tvorthy of him, or, thought it 
not right. Of seven occurrences of this verb in N. T., and of 
forty of the adjective, a^wg, it is, with some five or six excep- 
tions, rendered worthy. 

' JEysvero Tta^oSvofios, literally, a paroxysm of feeling arose 
between them, or a contention indicative of Paul's intense in- 
terest in his mission. But neither yielded ; and so they parted. 
This controversy occurred in the first year of the second half 
of the first century. .. 

■^ Ende^aftEvos occurs but twice in N. T., John 5 : 2, com. 
ver., " luhich is called." " Having chosen," Thomp., Penn., 
and TVes. "Chose," Murd., Booth., Wakef. "Made choice 
of," Dodd. "Having chosen for himself," Hack. _ 

' Encartj^t^cov t«s ey.xh}Oiae, cslahlisliing the congregations. 
Exxltjaia. occurs some one hundred and sixteen times in N. T. ; 
one hundred and thirteen times rendered by the word church, 
and three times by assembly. In Ephesus there was a regular- 
ly constituted Christian assembly, or ey.xXtjaca, the word here 
used and represented hy the word assembly, when applied to a 
moh ; but when to a Christian meeting for worship, in com. ver. 
is represented by the word church. This ought not grammati- 
cally nor. historically so to be. This word, or any one repre- 
sentative of it, is not found in the Christian Scriptures. We 
have xv^corrjs, kuriotes, four times, translated by dominion 
three times, and once by government ; we have neither kyrJce 




Then came he to Derbe and 
Lystra: and behold, a certain 
disciple was tliere, named Timo- 
theus, the son ofa certain woman 
•whicli was a Jewess, and believ- 
ed, but his father was a Greek : 

2 Which was well rejiorted 
of by the bi-ethren that were at 
Lystra and Iconium. 

3 Him would Paul have to go 
forth with him; and took and 
circumcised him, because of the 
Jews which were in those quar- 
ters : for they knew all that his 
father was a Greek: 

4 And as they went through 
the cities, they delivered them 
the decrees for to keep, that 
were ordained of the apostles 



Karr^VTrjcre 8e els Aepfirjv kou 
Avarpav kou. i8ov, fxaOrjTrjs tls 
riv eKei, ovojxaTL Tt/xodeo9, vlo9 
yvvaLKOs tlvos 'lovbaia? TnaTrjs, 
irarpos Se ' EXXt^vos' ^ 09 e/j.ap- 
TvpeiTO VTTO Tcov iv AvarpoLs kou 
'Ikovico a8€X(f)u)v. ^ tovtov rjde- 
Xrjcrev 6 UavXos crvv auTco e^eA- 
delu, Koi Xa^cou Trepierefiev av- 
Tou, Sia rovy 'lovSalovf tovs 
ovras eu roty tottols iKelvois' 
rjdeLcrau yap airavres tov warepa 
avTOv, oTi EXXrjv virrip-^ev. 
coy 8e 8i67ropevouTO ras iroXeis, 
TrapeSidovu avrois (pvXacrcreiu ra 
Soyfiara ra KeKpip-eua vno rcov 
dirocTToXcov kol tcov Trpecr^vrepav 


Then Paul came to Derbe 
and fLystra; and, behold, a 
disciple was there, named Ti- 
mothy, (the son of a woman 
who was a Jewess and a be- 
liever, but his father was a 
Greek,) who was "^well at- 
tested by the brethren in 
Lystra and Iconium. Paul 
wished him to go forth 
with him, and took and cir- 
cumcised him, because of 
the Jews who were in those 
quarters; for they all knew 
that his father was a. Greek. 
And as they went through 
the cities, they delivered to 
them, for their observance, the 
''decrees that had been 'ordain- 
ed by the Apostles and elders 

nov curate in the original tongues, and, of course, not in the 
original Christian Scriptures. 

In North Britain they have a kyrlce, made of the first sylla- 
ble of y.v^ios, and oixog, contracted into huriok, now written 
Icyrk in Scotland, and church in England. But these, origin- 
ally oi slone or brick, cannot represent a Christian community. 

The ey.y.h;ata family occurs in N. T. some one hundred and 
fifteen times, three times translated, com. ver., assembly, and one 
hundred and twelve times church. This has been, and j'et is, a 
very unfortunate fact. Brick and stone may be culled out, but 
can never be called out, as the word eyx^tjata intimates. The 
called out are thinking, willing, moving, acting agents, such as 
men and women ; and such only can constitute the living 
temple — the living, acting, moving, body of Christ — the real 
house of God on this earth — the positive living "pillar and 
support of the truth," to be seen, known, and read by all men. 
We have been obliged to continue this word church, and with 
it a perpetual conflict. According to the Constitution of the 
Bible Union, I presume we are bound to translate where it 
can be done, and not to transfer Hebrew, Greek, or even Ro- 
man terms, susceptible of translation, unless, indeed, such 
terms are almost universally, and, without litigation, admitted. 
"We, therefore, expect to see this word church repudiated, and 
the word congregation, or assembly, substituted for it. Wo 
are aware of the difficulty of effecting such a change. Time, 
however, can and will accomplish it. 

We find the word Exnltjaia used throe times in the 19th 
chapter of this same book, to represent what we now call a 
mob, a tumultuous assemblage of the people. Out of one hun- 

dred and fifteen occurrences in the Christian Scripture it is, 
with the exception of these three cases, uniformly rendered 
church ; in these three exceptions, assembly. 

Swaymy)] is found fifty-seven times in N. T., and with two 
exceptions it is transferred synagogue, because, like our word 
" church ", it jyiy-five times represents stone and lime buildings. 
It is twice applied to the people — once in this book, ch. 13 : 43, 
" congregation. " ; and once, James 2:2," assembly ". It is 
expedient, indeed, important, to state that the verb awaym, 
which occurs in N. T. some sixty-three times, is Ji/ly times 
represented by "gather", ''gather together"; hy assanbly, 
took in, bestow fruits, or " stow away fruits ", " resort ". — In 
all, thirteen times. 

f jdcQ^riv xat Avarpav. In ch. 14 : 16, Avarpav Meopi^v, 
because the journey now is from East to West, formerly from 
West to East. Tivos is here omitted by Gb., Sch., Ln., and Tf. 
There is, indeed, no need for it. 

^ 'Os E/iaQxvqeiro, well attested, by brethren in Lystra, 
Timothy was not circumcised, because his father was a Gun- 
tile. Nor was it allowed a mother to circumcise a son, his 
father not concurring in the act. So teach the writers of the 
Talmud, as quoted by Kuin., vol. 3, p. 243. 

'' To. doyfiara ra xcy^ifieva ino icov anoaro}.cov. jJoyfta 
occurs three times in Luke's writings, and only twice in 
Paul's. In Luke's writings, N. T., always represented by 
decrees ; in Paul's, by ordinances. This is its whole currency 
in N. T. 

' Ta y.ey.qifieva vita reop anoatolcov xai nQaofivieQtov rcov 

sv 'leqovaalrjfi. The elders here are those of the church of 




and elders which were at Jeru- 

5 And so were the churches 
established in the faith, and in- 
creased in number daily. 

6 Now when they had gone 
throughout Phrygia, and the 
region of Galatia, and were for- 
bidden of the Holy Ghost to 
preach the word in Asia ; 

7 After they were come to 
Mysia, they assayed to go into 
Bithynia : but the Spirit suffered 
tliem not. 

8 And they passing by Mysia, 
came down to Troas. 

9 And a vision a25peared to 
Paul in the night: There stood 
a man of Macedonia, and prayed 
him, saying, Come over into Ma- 
cedonia, and help us. 

10 And after he had seen the 
vision, immediately we endeav- 
oured to go into Macedonia, as- 
suredly gathering, that the Lord 
had called us for to preach the 
gospel unto them. 

11 Therefore loosing from 
Troas, we came with a straight 


Tcov iu ' lepovcraXrjfjL. ^ al fxkv 
ovv eicKXr/a-iat ia-repeovpTO ry 
TTLo-rei, Kol eTrepiacrevov T(S aptO- 
/x<p Kaff rj/x^pav. 

** Ai€X9ovT€9 Se T7]v (PpvyLav 
Kca Trjv JTaXariKiju •^capav, KcoXv- 
Bevres virh rov 'Ayiov Uvev/xa- 
Tos XaXrjaat rov Xoyou iv rfj 
'A a la, ^ iXdovres Kara rrjv Mv- 
o-Lav eneipa^ov Kara rrjv JDl- 
Ovviau TTopeveadat' /cat ovk e'la- 
(xev avTovs to irvevfxa. ^ wapeX- 
dovT€s 8e rrjv Mv(riav, Kare/Bij- 
aav els TpooaSa. ^ kol opap.a 
8ta TTjs vvKTOs iocpdrj rcS HavXc^' 
'Avrjp TLS rjv MaKe8a)v icTTois, 
'irapa.KaX5>v avrov Kal Xeycov, 
Aiafias els MaKeSouiav, (3or]6r]- 
(Top rjpXv. 'S2s 8e TO opapta 

ei8eVj, evOecos e^r)Tr](rap,ev e^eX- 
Qelv els Trjv M^UKedoviau, avp^L- 
(3d^ovTes oTi TrpocTKeKX'rjTat -^p-ds 
6 Kvpios evayyeXicrao-dac av- 
Tovs. ^^ 'Auaxdevres odu airo 
Trjs TpcoaSos, evOvSpoprjcrapev 1 


who were in Jerusalem. And s 
so were the congregations es- 
tablished in the faith, and 
daily increased in number. 

Now when they had gone u 
throughout Phrygia, and the 
region of Galatia, and (being 
'forbidden by the Holy Spirit 
to sjJeak the word in Asia) 
after they came to Mysia, they ^ 
attempted to go into Bithy- 
nia; but the ''Spirit suffered 
them not. So passing along 8 
Mysia, they came to Troas. 
■And a vision appeared to Paul o 
in the night. There stood a 
man, a Macedonian, who be- 
sought him, saying, come over 
into Macedonia, and help us. 
And after he had seen the lo 
vision, we immediately "-en- 
deavored to go forth in- 
to Macedonia, being assured 
that the Lord had called us 
to preach the gospel to them. 
Therefoi-e, loosing from Tro- ii 
as, we ran by a "straight 

Jerusalem. They enacted ra xcn^ifcsva, the judgments, " that 
were ordained" com. ver. This word, in tliis single book of 
Acts, is, in com. ver., represented by " sentence" " that tvhich is 
determined" " concluded," " question," " condemning." " The 
determinations," Thom. ; " the injunctions," Mur. ; " the de- 
crees," Term, "Wakef., Bootbr., Dodd., Wes. ; " inslituta," the 
institutions, Beza. A judgmerH of the human mind may be- 
come any one of these ; in its development and execution, we 
have, with much propriety, transferred this word dogmata 
into our language, and hei'e it might, in our currency, with all 
propriety, read, " ilieij delivered to them the dogmata of the 
.npostles and elders to keep." But their dogmata were always 
infallible, while ours are always fallible. 

J KiaXvS'spTEs v7to rov 'Ayiov IIvEvftaxoe. Proldbili sunt a 
Spiritu Sancto ne in Asia doctrinam evangelii traderont. " By 
Asia hero we must understand Ionia, as in ch. 2 : 9," Kuinoel. 
The prohibition to proceed into Bythinia, was only the direct- 
ing of Paul's course into Europe. 

k To IXvevfia Irjaov, " the Spirit which ho sends," Ilackett. 
This appears somewhat anomalous. There is no parallel 
passage in the Christian Scriptures. So, however, read the 
Vatican, Eph., Beza, and Alex, MSS. See Wetstein and 

Birch. " Nomen Jesus in omnibus novis Uhliis deletum inve- 
nitur per Nestorianos falsarios, ut claret ex bibliis turn Latinis 
turn GriBcis ante schisma et scriptis et translatis." John 
Faber (Malleus Ilcereticorum), ap. West. not. Penn, p. 311. 

1 'O^afia Sia rtjs wxrog mfO^ rrp HavhiJ. 'OQafta is, with 
one exception, confined to the Acts of Apostles, being eleven 
times in this single book, and only once out of it, in the Chris- 
tian Scriptures. Acts 7 : 31, it is rendered, com. ver., sight, 
in all other cases, msioui 'O^aaig once occurs in this book 
Acts, 2 : 17, also rendered vision. Visions are the boldest 
relief dreams. The eyes of the understanding are, indeed, 
illuminated, and the object stands out in alio relievo. 

"■ E^iiTJiaafcev. Being in the first person plural, Luke for 
the first time informs us, that he was 6no of the oompitey that 
first carried the gospel into Europe. Paul alone saw the 
vision; the Macedonian entreating them, saying, "Cross over 
into Macedonia, and help vs ; " but they were aJl invited to 
enter into Europe. 

" Ev^vS^oftrjoafiev, we ran in a straight course, nautically, 
before the wind. Neapolis, hero named, was a city of Thrace, 
having a harboi' on the Strymonic Gulf. 




course to Samothracia, and the 
next day to Neapolis ; 

12 And from thence to Phil- 
ippi, which is the chief city of 
that part of Macedonia, and, a 
colony: and we were in that 
city abiding certain days. 

13 And on the sabbath we 
went out of the city by a river 
side, where prayer was wont to 
be made; and we sat down, and 
spalce nnto the women which 
resorted thither. 

14 And a certain woman 
named Lydia, a seller of purple, 
of the city of Thyatira, which 
worshipped God, heard us: whose 
heart the Lord opened, that she 
attended unto the things which 
were spoken of Paul. 

15 And when she was bap- 
tized, and her household, she 
besought lis, saying. If ye have 


ely 2afxodpaKT]v, rfj re eTnovcrr) 
els NediroXLu, eKeWeu re els 
^lXlttttovs, tJtis eaTi Trparr] rrjs 
/xeplSos Trjs MaKeSovias ttoXls 

'Hfiev 8e ev ravrrj tyj vroXei 
diarpifiovTes rjixepas Tivas, ^^ rfj 
re rjliepa t&v aa^^aroov e^rjX- 
Ooixev e^co rrjs TroXecos Trapa tto- 
Tap.ov, ov ivofML^ero 7rpoa-ev)(r) 
elvat,, Kol Kadiaavres eXaXov- 
fiev Tois (TVveXOovcraLS yvvai^L 
^ Kal TLS yvvT] bvop-axL Avhia, 
7rop(j)vpo7rcoXts woXecos Ovarel- 
pcov, (re^ofxevrj tqv Oeov, rjKOvev 
rjs 6 KvpLOs Siyuoi^e ttjv KapSiau, 
Trpoae^eiu rots XaXovjxevois vtto 
Tov JIavXov. ^^ d>s Se ifiaTrrl- 
(rdr], /cat 6 oIkos avTrjs, irapeKa- 
Aecre Aeyouo-a, El KeKpiKare fie 


course to Samothrace, and the 
next day to Neapolis; and 12 
thence to "Philippi, which is a 
chief city of that part of Ma- 
cedonia, and a colony. And 
we abode in that city some 
days And on the sabbath, U 
we went out of the city by the 
side of a priver, where there was 
a customary place of ""prayer ; 
and we sat down, and spoke 
to ■•the women that resorted 
there. And a woman, named 14 
•Lydia, a seller of purple, of 
the city of Thyatira, who wor- 
shiped God, heard us; whose 
heart the Lord opened, to 
attend to the things spoken 
by Paul. And when she was 15 
immersed, and her 'house- 
hold, she besought us, say- 
ing, "Since you have judged 

" Pliilippi lay ton miles farther west, located on the bank 
of the river Gangitas. 'Urts — no^covca. On this river was a 
nQooEV/rij, an inclosure for prayer and meditation. 

P Gangas was then its name. 

1 nqooEv/jri was not always a synagogue, or a building. It 
hero appears to have been an inclosure in the open air, set 
apart to this use ; lustrations were performed liere, which at 
that time wore usual amongst the Jews. Neander, Kuincol, 

^ Tttie avpsXO'ovaais yvvai^t. The probability is, that this 
was a temporary substitute for a synagogue, a meeting place 
for worship. Hence Paul spoke to rais avpelO'ovaats yvvai^t, 
the women assembled. 

■ Kai rig yvvr;, js. t. L Lydia was a very common name 
among the Greeks and Romans. It coincides admirably with 
the name of her country. — Ilackett. 

Lydia seems to have been a proselyte to the Jews' re- 
ligion. She was a Greek, according to her name ; Lydia being 
a common name amongst the Greeks. The Lord had opened 
her heart, so that she attended to the preaching of the word. 
Therefore she believed, and was immersed, and also her house- 
hold, in like manner. She was, it seems, also the head of a 
family. The otxoe avrrjs, as Meyer remarks, consisted proba- 
bly of women who assisted her in business. Ilackett. Pious 
Jews and proselytes had places of prayer as well as liours for 

"A seller of purple cloths ", from Thyatira, on the confines 

of Lydia and Mysia. Mxovs, third pers. sing, imp., ind. of 
ay.ovco. In this, and in numerous other cases, the imperfect 
should be rendered in exact harmony with the time which it 
denotes — was hearing, or was listening to Paul ; whose heart 
Si7]voi^e, first sing, first aor., the Lord had opened, so that 
she attended to the preacher. It was the Lord that had 
arrested her attention, and opened her heart; hence she 
readily and joyfully received the word of the Lord, then and 
there announced. JJ^oaaxeiv, to attend, or to hearken, to the 
words uttered. 

' 'O oixos is found more than one hundred times in N. T., 
and outia nearly one hundred times ; both are used not 
merely to indicate the building, but also the family. This 
is a very common figure in all languages ancient and modern, 
more prevalent, however, amongst the Jews, whose tribes and 
families, because of the mitre and the sceptre, were so reli- 
giously registered and kept. The otxoe avrije, as Meyer well 
observes, probably consisted of females who assisted her in 

° El. y.exQiv.are is, by Ilackett and others, rendered "jf ije 
have judged," rather, since you have jiulged. If and since 
arc equally the representatives of ci. Frequently it would 
be much more intelligibly represented by since, than b}' if. 
" Since you have risen with Christ in baptism, set your affec- 
tions on things above, and not on things on the earth," is much 
more intelligible and pointed than if, — as though it were a 
doubtful matter. 



KING jambs' version. 

judged me to be faithful to the 
Lord, come into my house, and 
abide there: And she constrained 

16 And it came to pass as we 
went to prayer, a certain damsel 
possessed with a spirit of divina- 
tion, met us, which brought her 
masters much gain by sooth- 

17 The same followed Paul 
and us, and cried, saying, These 
men are the servants of the most 
high God, which shew unto us 
the way of salvation. 

18 And this did she many 
days. But Paul being grieved, 
turned and said to the spirit, I 
command thee in the name of 
Jesus Christ to come out of her. 
And he came out the same hour. 

19 And when her masters 
saw that the hope of their gains 
was gone, they caught Paul and 
Silas, and drew them into the 
market-place unto the rulers, 

20 And brought them to the 


TTLCTTTjv T(S KvpLCp elvui, cicreA- 
doures ei? tou olkov /xov, fxei- 
vare- Kol Trape^iaa-aro T^fxds. 
'JEyevero 8e iropevofJiivcov rjfJiOdv 
ds 7rpo(rev)(W, TraiSla-Kiji/ tlvo. 
e^ovaav 7ruevp.a Hvdcovos airav- 
rrjcrat rjjjuu, rjTCs ^pyaa-lav iroX- 
X-qv Trapelx^ Tols KVplots avTrjs, 
pavrevofieur}. ^'^ avrr] KaraKO- 
kovdycracra tcS HavXco /cat tj/xlv, 
CKpa^e Xeyovaa, Outol ol av- 
Qpamoi SovXoL rov Oeov rod 
v'^lcTTOV elcnv OLTtves KarayyiX- 
Xovatv rjiMU oSoi/ orcorrjpla^. 
^^ TovTo 5e IttoUl iirX iroXXas 
r]p.epas. BLairovrjOels Se 6 Uav- 
Aos", /cat iincrTpi^as, T(S Trvev- 
p.aTL elTre, JTapayyeXXco crot iu 
Tw ovofiaTL 'Irjcrov XpLcrrov, 
i^eXOelv air avrrjs. Kcu ^^rjX- 
Oev auTTJ rfj wpa. ^^ 'ISovres ^e 
ot KvpiOL avTTjs, on e^rjXOev rj 
eATTtp TTjs ipyacria? avrcou, eVt- 
Xa/Sopevoc tou llavXov kol tou 
SiXau, e'iXKvaau ety ttju dyopau 
CTTt T0V9 ap^ouTas' KUL Tvpoar- 


me to be faithful to the Lord, 
come into my house, and there 
remain. And she "constrained 

And as we went to prayer, 16 
a certain ^''maid, having a 
spirit of divination, met 
us, who brought her masters 
much gain by soothsaying. 
The same 'followed Paul and 37 
us, and cried, saying. These 
men are the servants of the 
most high God, who show to 
us the way of salvation. And 18 
this she did many days; but 
Paul, ^outraged, turned and 
said to the spirit, I com- 
mand you in the name of Je- 
sus Christ to come out of her. 
And he came out the same 
hour. And when the masters 19 
saw that the hope of their gain 
was gone, they caught Paul 
and Silas, and drew them into 
the market-place, before the 
magistrates. And brought 20 

'' Knt TtaQEfiiaijaro I'l/tag, atque adeo nos coegit, nempe pre- 
cihus. A similar uso of Tta^a^ia^o/tni is found Luke 14 : 23, 
" compel them to come in ". Socrates when urging his disci- 
ples to enter upon tlie arduous path of virtue, uses a similar 
phrase, eym Se cTte rrjv a^exrjv j]xetv ^ta^o/iat. Pricajus and 
Eisner on Luke 24 : 29. 

" JltttSianijv xcva, represented by damsel^ maid, maiden, and 
five times in Paul to the Galatians, bond maid, lond woman. 
HvEv/ia Hvd'covos, a Pythonic spirit; Saifiovtov fiavriitov, a 
fortune-telling spirit. This name is given to those persons 
who were believed to bo able, by some Divine inspiration, to 
foretell future events. Plutarch on the eclipse of the oracles, 
p. 414, says, tovs eyyuOTQtfivd'ovs EvQvy.letas nalat, wvi Hv- 
Otovae n^oaayoQevofuvoi.. Tliey were formerly called Eury- 
cloan Ventriloquists (from Eurycle, the inventor of this form 
of divination), but now they are called Pythians. 

^ Avrrj xaraxokovO'rjaaaa rco Uavhi/, x. r. 1., followed after, 
Lulie 23 : 35, and here followed Paul, is its whole currency in 
K, T. Its root is xoXXa, gluten, glue, hence xollao) glulino, 

I adhere like glue, pres. pass. xoUaofcat, agglutino, adkareo, 
adhere with persevering assiduity. Thus was Paul and his 
fellow-laborers haunted with this hypocritical demon, the 
most odious one reported in the Christian Scriptures. 

J' But Paul, outraged with this demon, said, JJaqayyellco 
aoi ev T(j> ovofiari Ir]Oov Xqiotov, E^s}.x)'etv mi avrrjg. And 
in an instant the command was obeyed. In the name of Jesus 
Christ come out of her. Here, wo find Jesus, and Christ, both 
anarthrous, not the Jesus, the Christ. This would have been, 
at this time and place, wholly redundant. 

» These greedy dogs, seeing their demon gains forever 
fled, enraged, laid violent hands on Paul and Silas, and 
carried them before tove aQuovrae, the magistrates. These 
senators or magistrates of free towns were free of the city of 
Rome, and were eligible to all citizen privileges there. Paul 
and Silas were brought before the prastors, or city judges — 
magistrates, or mayors, as then understood — ; one was chief 
or president. Cicero, speaking (Agrar. II., c. 34) of the duum- 
viri, or qualuorviri, says, " Cum in cteteris coloniis duumviri 




magistrates, saying, These men, 
being Jews, do exceedingly 
trouble our city, 

21 And teach customs which 
are not lawful for us to receive, 
neither to observe, being Eo- 

22 And the multitude rose up 
together against them: and the 
magistrates rent off their clothes, 
and commanded to beat them. 

23 And when they had laid 
many stripes upon them, they 
cast them into prison, charging 
the jailer to keep them safely: 

24 Who having received such 
a charge, thrust them into the 
inner prison, and made their feet 
fast in the stocks. 

25 And at midnight Paul and 
Silas prayed, and sang praises 
unto God: and the prisoners 
heard them. 


ayayovT^s avrovs tous (rrpa- 
Ti]yo'LS, elwou, Ovtol ol avOpcoiroL 
eKTapdcraovcnu rifxav ttju tto- 
Xlv, 'lovSaioL v7rdp)(0VT€S' koI 
KarayyeXXovcnv eOr] a ovk e^- 
ecTTLV rjixLU 7rapaSe-)(ea6at ovSe 
TTOLeiv, 'PcofxaloLs oSai. ^^ Kcu 
crvueTrearrj 6 0^X09 /car avrav 
KoL OL arpaTrjyol Trepipprj^avres 
avTcov ra Iparia, CKeXevou pa^8i- 
^^LV ^^ TToXXd? re eTndev-res av- 
Tols TrXrjya?, efiaXov eZ? (jivXa- 
Krjv, irapayyeiXavTes ra decrfJLo- 
(pvXaKi, acr^aAa)? Trjpeiv avrovs' 
'^'^ oy irapayyeXiav Toiavrrjv sIXtj- 
(f)co9, efiaXeu avrovs ety rrjv iaco- 
repav (j)vXaKr]u, kcu rovs iroBas 
avrav r]cr(j)aX'L(raro eh ro ^vXov. 
^^ Kara 8e to ixecrovvKnov JJav- 
Xos Kal SlXas '!rpo(rev)(ofievoL 
v/xvovv rov Oeov iirrjKpoccivTO 8e 
avTcov OL BeafiLOL. ^^ a(jivco 8e 


them to the magistrates, say- 
ing. These men, being Jews, do 
"exceedingly trouble our city, 
and teach '■customs, which are 21 
not lawful for us to receive, 
or to observe, being Romans. 
And the multitude rose up 22 
together against them, and 
the magistrates, 'having torn 
off their garments, command- 
ed to beat them. And when 2a 
they had laid many stripes 
on them, they cast them 
into prison, charging the jailer 
to keep them safely; who, 24 
having received such a charge, 
thrust them into the inner 
prison, and made their feet 
last in the •'stocks. And at mid- 25 
night Paul and Silas "prayed 
and sung praises to God; and 
the prisoners heard them ; and 2(i 

appollentnr, hi so prajtores appellari volobant." Tliis explains 
why the Eoman prastors held the rank of the Grecian oTiiartjyoi, 
the title assumed by the Philippian magistrates. It is the only 
case iu which Luke gives this name to the rulers of a city. 

» ExxaQaaaovaiv. This word is found in the Christian 
Scriptures only in this passage. TaQaaam, or taQaiTm, its 
root, is found seventeen times, and is always represented by 
the word trouUe. Jerusalem and its potty prince were aw- 
fully troubled when Jesus was born, as supposed, in their 
political sense, the predicted king of the Jews. 

^ "And teach customs", eO-}]. Every form of Paganism, 
or Polytheism, was tolerated in Rome. The gospel and its 
institutions alone were interdicted. It was a privilege claimed 
by every Eoman to worship whatever god, or goddess, he 
pleased. Foreigners, indeed, were occasionally inhibited from 
introducing foreign divinities. Romans, it is said, were posi- 
tively inhibited circumcision. 

' 01 oTQarr/YOi, the magistrates, ne^t^^t/^avrsg avrcov ra 
Ifiaria, having torn off their garments — those of Paul and 
Silas — , commanded to beat them. " The imperfect tense," as 
well observed by Prof. Hackett, and others, "in narration 
stands instead of the aorist, when the writer would represent 
the act as passing under his own eye." This is presumed to 
be one of the instances to which Paul alludes when ho says, 
" 2'hnce was I beaten with rods." 

'• £ig TO ^vXov — EiXrjtpcos, perf. part. act. laufiavto, having 
received this command, carried and immured them in the 
inner part of the prison. "And confined their feet in the 
stocks," Murd. j ^^ fastened their feet in the stoclcs," Walref. ; 
"secured their feet in the stocks," Penn, Thomp., Wes., 
Dodd., Boothr. How definite the command, and how precise 
the obedience ! The jailer, in the first place, conducted them 
into (£«s) prison, the innermost prison. In the second place, 
ho seoured them into (««) the block. He appears to have 
been a very conscientious and law-abiding character. The 
sequel, indeed, developes and consummates this character 

' H^oasv/fi/ievoi vftvovv rov Qsov. We find Ttfoasvxofiai 
eighty-seven times in N. T., always translated pray in some 
of the flections of that word. Its associate, vfiveco, is found 
only four times in N. T., twice translated, sing praise to 
God, and' twice, sung a hymn. 'Tftvem, Latinized hymno, 
also represented by ago gratias, I give thanks ; laudo, I 
praise ; celehro, I celelrate. This was a rare occurrence. At 
midnight Paul and Silas praying (hymned), praised God. 
EnaxQoaofiai. This word is found nowhere else in the N. T. 
Exaudio == sTtt and axgoaofiai, to hear perfectly, to listen. 
This is most apposite to the occasion. Listened to them 
while they sung. Hackett, " The imperfect describes the act 
the aorist would have merely related it." 




26 And suddenly there was 
a great earthquake, so that the 
foundations of the prison were 
shaken: and immediately all the 
doors were opened, and every 
one's bands were loosed. 

27 And the keeper of the 
prison awaking out of his sleep, 
and seeing the prison-doors open, 
lie drew out his sword, and would 
have killed himself, supposing 
that the prisoners had been fled. 

28 But Paul cried with a loud 
voice, saying, Do thyself no 
harm : for we are all here. 

29 Then he called for a light, 
and sprang in, and came trem- 
bling, and fell down before Paul 
imd Silas; 

30 And brouglit them out, 
and said, Sirs, what must I do 
to be saved ? 

31 And they said, Believe on 
the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou 
shalt be saved, and thy house. 

82 And they spake unto him 


(reicryuoy eyivero jxiyas, cocrTe cra- 
XevOrjvaL ra defxeXia rov dea-fxca- 
Triplov avea-^Brjcrav re irapa- 
)(prjfxa at dvpat iracrai, /cat Trau- 
T(ov TO. Secrfia aviOt]. ^ e^virvos 
Se y6u6p.euos 6 8ear/xo(f)v\a^, kou 
IBcov dvewyfxevas ras dvpas tt]s 
(pvXaKTJs, airaara/xeuoe /J.a)(aipav, 
e/xeAAey iavTou duaipeiu, vapi- 
^cov €K7r€(j)evyevai tovs 8eap.[ov9. 
'^^ i(l)aivr](re 8e (j)covfj p.eydXrj 6 
UavXas Xeycov, MrjSev irpd^rj? 
creavTcS kukov airavres yap 
ia-peu evddSe. ^^ Airy eras 8e 
(j}aTa dareTrrjBrjcre, kou 'ivrpopLOs 
yevop.€vos TrpocreTreo-e rcS IlavXa 
KOU r<S SlXa' ^? Koi irpoayaycov 
avTovs e^co, e0^j KvpiOL, tl p.€ 
Set TToieip aco6S>; ^ 01 8e 
elwov, HiaT€vaov em rov Kvptov 
'Irjcrovu Xptarov, koL crcoOrjcrr] av 
Koi 6 oIkos (tov. ^^ Kai iXdXrj- 
aav avT(^ tov Xoyov rov Kvpiov, 


suddenly there w^as a great 
earthquake, so that the foun- 
dations of the piison were 
shaken, and immediately all 
the doors were opened, and 
everyone's 'bands were loosed. 
And the keeper of the prison, r, 
awaking out of his sleep, and 
seeing the j)rison-doors o^jen, 
drew his sword, and would 
have killed himself, supposing 
that the prisoners ^had fled. 
But Paul cried with a loud 28 
voice, saying, •'Do yourself no 
harm: for we are all here. 
Then he called for 'lights, and 29 
sprung in, and came tremb- 
ling, and fell down heiore 
Paul and Silas, and brought so 
them out, and said, Sirs, what 
must I do, in order to be 'sav- 
ed? And they said. Believe 31 
on the Lord Jesus Christ, and 
you shall be saved, and your 
family. And they spoke to 32 
him the word of the Lord, 

f Kta TCavrwv ta Ssofca aveOi]. The opening of the doors 
is rather to be ascribed to the power which caused the earth- 
quake, tlian to the earthquake itself. — Ilackett. But the 
climax of the miracle is found in the last item, " the hands of 
every one (of every prisoner) zvere loosed." AveO-rj is first 

aor. act. of avirj/ni. 

^ E-^Ttetpevysvai is here found in the perfect, because the 
act, though past, is connected with the present : " supposing 
the prisoners lo have Jled,^' or, to have escaped. 

'■ Not a few, critics and others, have perplexed themselves 
no little, on the question, — How could Paul, in the darkness 
of the prison, have known the jailer's intention ? Or, how, 
in such circumstances, could ho exclaim, " we are all here ? " 
Doddridge supposes that Paul might have heard him exclaim, 
and, benevolently intending to compose his mind, addressed 
him. To explain miracles is not the province or work of a 
translator or commentator; and to compare the conceptions 
of a person possessing a spiritual gift, with the conceptions 
of any one not possessing such a gift, is quite as unphilosophic, 
illogical, and unsafe. " Turn Paulus alia voce acclamavit ; 
Noli vim tibi inferro (E vocibus hominis Paulus hoc cogno- 
vorat), omnes cnim hie sumus." " Then Paul, with a loud 
voice, said to him, Do yourself no harm, for we are all I 
here." I 

Paul, it is assumed, by most commentators, knew his 
voice. So Kuinccl remarks on this passage. But Morus, Ro- 
senmullerus, Stolzius, and others thus explain it: What must 
be done by mo that the gods may not punish mo, because I 
have so harshly treated men so acceptable to them ? Or, to 
use his own words : Qjiid faciendum ne dii me jmniant. quia 
viros diis adeo gratos tarn durilcr tractavi 1 But Kuinool, and 
most of the movo learned translators into the living tongues, 
thus render it: Quid mild faciendum ut salutem (Elernum 
consequor ? Ool. v. 31, What must he done hy me ; or. What, 
shall I do, thai I niay obtain eternal safety 7 In practical 
response, we read, v. 33, sflaTttiaO'r] avros xai ol avrov 
TtavxEB 7tagaxQri/ia. This last word immediately is necessa- 
rily connected in the context with the words exegelical of it, 
ev exeii'D r/j w^ri rjjg iwinos, the jailer washed the prisoners' 
stripes; after which refreshment, he himself and all his house- 
hold were immersed in the same hour of the night. 

' <PcoTa. The noun is plural ; whether generic or specific, 
it should be represented in such a case as plural. 

1 The Apostle understood him as inquiring, not for any 
temporal protection from the civil powers, but from the sins 
of liis life. The answer indicates a generous and ample salva- 
tion tendered equally to himself and family. The develop- 
ment of this answer wo have in the next verse. 




tlie word of the Lord, and to all 
that were in his house. 

33 And he took them the 
same hour of the night, and 
washed their stripes; and was 
baptized, he and all his, straight- 

34 And when he had brought 
them into his house, he set meat 
before them, and rejoiced, be- 
lieving in God with all his 

35 And when it was day, the 
magistrates sent the sergeants, 
saying. Let those men go. 

36 And the keeper of the 
prison told this saying to Paul, 
The magistrates have sent to let 
you go : now, therefore, depart, 
and go in peace. 

37 But Paul said unto them. 
They have beaten us openly un- 
condemned, being Romans, and 
have cast ns into prison; and 
now do they thrust us out privi- 
ly? nay, verily; but let them 
come themselves and fetch us 

3S And the sergeants told 
these words unto the magis- 
trates: and they feared when 


Kou iraaL rots iu rfj oIkio, avrov. 
^^ Kcu irapaXa^oiv avTOvs iu eKelvr] 
rfj copa TTjs vvKTOs eXovaeu oltto 
rav TrXrjytov, kou ifiaTTTiadr] av- 
Tos KCU ol avrov iravres rrapa- 
)(prj/xa. avayayav re avrovs 

els Tov o'lkou avrov, irapeOrjKe 
rpaire^av, Kal riyaXXidcraro irav- 
OLKL TTeiTLcrrevKCds Tw &e(S. 

^"^ 'Hp-epas Be yevop.evy}s 
aireareiXav o\ crrparrjyoX rovs 
pa(38ov)(ovs Xeyopres, 'AttoXv- 
crov rovs a.v6pa>TTOvs eKelvovs. 
^^ ' AirrjyyeLXe 8e 6 8ecrp.o(j)vXa^ 
rovs Aoyovs rovrovs wpos rou 
IlavXov, On airearaXKacnv ol 
(rrparrjyol, tva aTroXvdrjre- vvv 
ovv e^eXdovres, Tropeveade eu 
elprjvr). ^' '0 de IlavXos e(f)r] 
Tvpos avrovs, Aeipavres tj/xS? St)- 
p-oo-ia, cLKaraKpirovs, avOpcoirovs 
' Pcopaiovs VTrap^ovras, efiaXov 
els (jyvXaKTjU, kol vvu XaOpa iipas 
eKJiaXXova-LV J *ov yap' dXXa eX- 
dovres avrol e^ayayercoaav. 

^ AvriyyeiXav 8e rois arparrj- 
yois ol pal38ov)(Oi. rd pr]p.ara 
ravra' kou e^ofirjQriaav olkov- 


and to all who were in his 
house. And he took them 
the same hour of the night, 
and washed their stripes, and 
was immediately immersed, 
he and all his family. And 
when he had ifbrouglit them 
into his house, he set food 
before them, and rejoiced, be- 
lieving in Qod with all his 
family. And when it was 
day, the magistrates sent the 
'officers, saying, Release those 
men. And the "keeper of the ; 
prison told Paul, The "magis- 
trates have sent to release 
you ; now, therefore, depart, 
and go in peace. But Paul : 
said to them. They "have 
beaten us openly uncondemn- 
ed, being Romans, and have 
cast us into prison, and now do 
they cast us out privately? 
Nay, indeed, but let them 
come themselves, and lead us 
out. And the officers told 
these words to the magis- 
trates, and they feared when 

'' Arnynyeov re avrovs etg rop oixov avrov, Tta^cO'ijXE T^a- 
Tte^ar, he broHglit thorn up into his house, spread his table, 
had a joyful feast with all his family (Ttavocy.i), nsTtcarsvxcos 
TM Qeto, himself believing in God with his household. 
Ilosychius et ex eo Phavorinus ■navomei. (ita quoque scribi- 
tur) aw b).io roj otxro. This definition is sustained by Kuinasl, 
in loco, note on vv. 33, 34, vol. 3, pp. 252, 253. 

1 'PafiSovxot, lictores, who preceded the chief magistrates 
in their processions, clearing the way and securing to them 
the respect of the multitude. They also apprehended and 
punished criminals. Twenty-four attended a diclalor, twelve 
preceded a constd, and six a masler of the horse. 

" JeofiofvXa^. In the Christian Scriptures this word 
occurs only in this chapter, vv. 23, 27, 30, translated, v. 23, 
the jailer, vv. 27 and 36, the hecper of the prison. 

" £rpttTtiyoe, in the Christian Scriptures, is exclusively Luke's 

word. It is found twice in his gospel, and eight times in his 
Acts. In the former it is translated captain, in the latter by 
both captain and magistrate ; from this chapter to the end 
of the Acts it is represented by magistrate, com. ver. " Prop- 
erly it is one tuho leads an army," but in the course of time 
it was extended to the magistracy — prcefeclus, prator — pro- 
p>rie qui excrcitum ducat. Beza on Acts 10 : 20. Gra3cis 
scriptoribus axQartjyoi dicti sunt, que Romaj prcelores. Beza, 
in loc. Syrus, Luke 22 : 4. Vertil principes exercitus tem- 
pli. Critica Sacra. 

° jJst^ttvTss ■^ftag Sijfiooici, axatnitpnovs. .dsiQas, first aor. 
part, act., verbi Sbqco, exeorio ; whence excoriate, to flay, or 
to wear off the sJcin. Such is, and such was, the current value 
of this word, being Romans, too.' Every Roman citizen was 
free from stripes and every kind of torture, which was in- 
flicted upon slaves. Kuinoel abounds with examples of this 
fact, vol. 3, p. 253, in loco. 




they heard that tliey were Ro- 

39 And they came and be- 
sought them, and brouglit them 
out, and desired them to depart 
out of tlie city. 

40 And they went out of the 
prison, and entered into the house 
of Lydia: and when they had 
seen tlie brethren, they com- 
forted tliem, and departed. 


Now when they Iiad passed 
througli Amphipolis, and Apol- 
lonia, they came toThessalonica, 
where was a synagogue of the 

2 And Paul, as his manner 
was, went in unto them, and 
tliree sabbath-days reasoned with 
tliem out of the scriptures, 

3 Opening and alleging, that 
Chi'ist must needs have suffered, 
and risen again from the dead: 
and that this Jesus, whom I 
preach unto you, is Christ. 

4 And some of them believed, 
and consorted with Paul and Si- 1 


cravres on 'Pa>ixaloL elcn, ^^ kou 
eXdovTes irapeKaXecrav avrovs, 
Kcu i^ayayovres rjpcormv i^eXde'iu 
TrJ9 TToXecos. ^^ e^eXOovres 8e 
iic TTJ9 (jivXuKrjs eXarjXOov ei? ttjv 
AvSlav Koi l86i>T€9 Tovf dSeX- 
(j)ovy, TrapeKaXecrau avroiis, kolL 


'Afx(j)l7roXi.i' Kcd ' AttoXXcoviui', 
r]X6ov ds Oea-aaXovUrju, oirov 
rjv 7] crvvayooyrj rwv TovSaicou. 
^ Kara 8e to elcoBos tco HavXw 
elo-rjXde irpos avTovs, kou eVt 
orajS^aTa rpta 8LeXeyeT0 avTols 
OLTTO tS>v ypa,<^SsVy ^ 8cauocy(ai/ 
Koi TrapaTLOeiMevos, otl tov Xpi- 
(TTOV e8ei 7ra6elv koI avaa-Trjvai 
e'fc veKpcov, /cat otl ovtos icrTiv 6 
XpLCFTos 'Ir](rov9, bv iyco KaTay- 
yeXXco vplv. Kai TLves i^ av- 
Tcou iTreicrdrjcrav, /cat irpocreKXr]- \ 


they heard that they were 
Romans. And they came and 39 
"■besought them, and led 
them out, and desired them to 
depart out of the city. And 4o 
they went out of the prison, 
and entered into the ihouse of 
Lydia, and when they had 
seen the brethren, they ex- 
horted them, and departed. 


Now when 'Paul trnd Silas 1 
had passed through Amphipo- 
lis and Apollonia, they came to 
Thessalonica, where there was 
the 'synagogue of the Jews. 
And Paul, as his 'custom 2 
was, went in to them, and 
three sabbaths reasoned with 
them "from the Scriptures, 
opening them and setting 3 
forth that the Christ must 
suffer, and rise again from the 
dead; and that this Jesus, 
whom I announce to you, is 
the Christ. And some of them 4 
believed and ''adhered to Paul 

I' ntt^ixa).Eanv avrovs, y.nt a^ayayovres ijQCoriov. JJaQaxa- 
?.cco, in its more than hundred occurrences in N, T., is repre- 
sented by heseech and entreat more frequently than by any 
otlior n'ord. 

1 JEtaijXO'op etg tijv AvSiav is put for £«s t>jv AvSias oty.op. 
Tlie preposition eis, prefixed to tlie names of persons, indi- 
cates tlie place in which the person is, and that to such an 
extent that sts tr/V AvSiav is 2)laced for eis iqv AvStas omov. 
Koenius Wesselingius ad Herod., p. 101. For eh ri]v AvStav, 
many books have, Tt^os ttjv AvSiav, which reading is preferred 
by Bongelius, Griesbacbius, and JMatthasius, and argued at 
considerable length ; for no higher reason, as it seems to me, 
than a proof of scholarship : for there appears not the slight- 
est difference between them. 

^ For they, Paul and Silas is substituted by Wakefield, as a 
supplement, especially due at the beginning of a new chapter, 
or paragraph. 

• !ff avvayioyi]. Definite, WO presume there was but one 
synagogue in that district. With the exception of Hackett, it 
is generally a synagogue. But why, through this book, in all 
other cases, translate the article in our language, and in this I 

same chapter, v. 10 and 17, translate it, and omit it here ! 
This appears rather more arbitrary than philological. 

Ariicttlus cmiihasin hahel et indicat Thessalonicte tantum 
celchriorem syjiagof^am fuisse, in reliquis Macedoni/e oppidis 
nonnisi pruscuchas {v. ad IG, 13) at recte monuerunt. Grotius, 
Wetsteihius, Ilounianus, Kosenmiillerus, Ileinrichsius, Kuinoel, 

' Kara Ss to EtQ)d'os rq} JJavho starjX&s. Paul's custom 
was, first to visit the Jewish synagogues, before he preached 
the gospel to the Gentiles. 

" Not EX, but ano, from the Scriptures ; not shewing, but 

' /Jinvoiytov naqariO'EfcEvoe. In the judgment of 
sound critics, avras must here be understood as representing 
y^atpas. We have, in this assumption, the concurrence of 
Grotius, PricsBus, Elsnerus, Jlorus, Kosenmiillerus, and others 
of minor ftime, cited by Kuinool, vol. 3, p. 258. Opening and 
selling forth, that the Messiah, or the Christ, must suffer. 

*' ]J()oaEylq()coO-rjaav rii> Jlavlui, they adhered — sectari ali- 
quem — or, to join ones'self to another. Pliilo, de Decal., p. 7C0, 
quoted by Kuinoel. So Olsbausen, AVahl, Kobinson, Ilackett, 
Sectatores Paul! et Silas fectro sunt. IlQoaylr,goEad-at, adhse- 
rcre, adjungtre se aliqui, to johi ones'self to any one. 




las: and of the devout Greeks 
a great multitude, and of the 
chief women not a few. 

5 But the Jews which believ- 
ed not, moved with envy, took 
unto them certain lewd fellows 
of the baser sort, and gathered 
a company, and set all the city 
on an uproar, and assaulted the 
Iiouse of Jason, and sought to 
bring them out to the people. 

G And when they found them 
not, they drew Jason and cer- 
tain brethren unto the rulers of 
the city, crying. These that have 
turned the world upside down, 
are come hither also ; 

7 Whom Jason hath receiv- 
ed : and these all do contrary to 
the decrees of Cesar, saying, that 
there is another king, one Jesus. 

8 And they troubled the peo- 
ple, and tlie rulers of the city, 
vvlien they heard these things. 

9 And when they had taken 
security of Jason and of the 
other, they let them go. 

10 And the brethren immedi- 
ately sent away Paul and Silas 
by night unto Berea: who com- 


pcodrjaav t(S_ IlavXco kcu t(S Sl- 
Xa, TU)v re crefiofxipcov EXXtjvcov 
TToXv irXrjdos, yvvaiKcov re rStv 
TrpcoTcov ovK oXlyac. "^ ^rjXacrav- 
Tes 8e OL oLTreLdovvres 'Iov8a7oi, 
Koi 7rpo<TXa/3ofj.€uoi. rav dyopaicou 
Tivas av8pas irovrjpovs, kou 6)(Xo- 
TTOirjcravTes, iOopv^ovv rrjv tto- 


aovos, i^rjrovu avTovs dyayeiv 
els TOP dij/xov " /xv) evpovres 8e 
avT0V9, eavpov tqv 'lacrova Kai 
TLvas dSeX^ovs iiii tovs tto- 
XLTap-)(as, jSoavres, Otl ol ttjv 
olKOVfj.€jJ7]v dvacTTaTcoaavTes, ov- 
TOL KCU iv0d8e Trdpeicriv, '^ om 
vTTo8e8eKr(x,i 'laarcav kou ovtol 
Tfavres dTrivavri rSiV 8oyfxdTa)v 
Kaicrapos irpaTTOVcri, ^aaiXea 
Xeyovres erepov eivai, 'Irjaovv. 
^JErdpa^av 81 tov 6)(Xov kou. 
Tovs iroXiTdp-^as dKovovras rav- 
Ta- ^ Kol XajBovres to iKavov 
Trapa rod 'laaovos koI t&v Xol- 
irav, direXvaav avTOvs. 01 

8e a5eA0ot evdems 8ia T?p vvktos 
e^eTre/x^jfau tov t€ HavXov kou 
TQV SlXav els BipQLav o'lTLves 


and Silas ; and of the devout 
Greeks a great multitude, and 
of the principal women not a 

But the Jews who did not fi 
'believe, moved with envy, 
gathered some vile men of the 
street yidlers, and raised a mob, 
and set all the city in an up- 
roar, and assaulted the house 
of Jason, and sought to bring 
them out to the people ; but c 
not finding them, they dragged 
Jason and certain brethren 'be- 
fore the "city rulers, exclaim- 
ing, These men, who have 
turned the world upside down, 
are come hither also ; whom 
Jason has received ; and all 7 
these act contrary to the ■'de- 
crees of Ca3sar, saying, That 
there is another king, — Je- 
sus. And they troubled the 8 
people, and the rulers of 
the city, when they heard 
these things. And having 9 
taken 'security of Jason and 
the others, they dismissed 
them. And the brethren im- ic 
mediately sent away Paul and 
Silas "^by night to Berea, who 

^ AtcuOovvtss, omitted by Gb., Sch., Lu. It is nevert'.ieloss 
implied, for certainly they were unbelieving Jews, if Jews at 
all. AVo should, indeed, rather regard it due to the nation of 
Jews, that anEiOovvres should be a genuine reading, inasmuch 
as only a portion of that people acted in this affair, and to 
specify this class was due to the nation as a whole. 

I" Tiov ayoQcucov, "thoso Street, or marlcel-house lomigcrs, 
were wont to crowd about the city gates," Ilackett ; " dis- 
orderly raiiZc," Wakef. ; " mischievous men," Penn; "a mob," 
Murd., Thomp. ; " multitude" Boothr. 

' Em, occasionally in the com. ver. of this book, is ren- 
dered leforc ; and in cases of this sort, it is preferable to the 
com. vcr. to. 

» Tovg nohtaQy,ne, the 'prefects of the city, or civil magis- 
trates. " EavQov violently dragged lason before the magis- 
trates," Thomp., Wak. ; " the rulers of the cily," Boothr., 
Penn ; " chiefs of the city," Murd. 

■' /toyfiatuiv. Dogmata is a mere transference of this word 
and indicates its true import, then and now, a settled opinion . 
but when uttered by civil or ecclesiastic lords, it becomes 
magisterial, autlioritative. Hence, in v. 7, it becomes the de 
cree of Cesar, that is, an opinion demanding acquiescence, un- 
der a penalty. Hence, v. 8, exnga^av, the statement alarmed 
them. Their character, interest, and honor were all imper- 
illed. Ilenco, V. 9, ht^ovres to Ixavov, having taken security, 
or enough to satisfy, "that the peace should not he violated, 
and that the alledged authors of the disturbance should 
leave the city." Neander. But some restrict the stipulation 
to the first point (Meyer) ; others to the last. Kuinoel. Tojv 
XoiTtMv, the others who, with Jason, had been brought before 
the tribunal. See v. 0. Hack. 

" Aa^ovres ro liia>tov, we call " bail," or " security," Tiav 
loiTtcav, " Theso others had been brought before the tribunal 
with Jason." Hackett. 

i" Jia rrjs vvKtos. This indicates impending danger ap- 




ing thilhcr, went into the syna- 
gogue of the Jews. 

11 These were more noble 
than those in Thessalonica, in 
that they received the word 
with all readiness of mind, and 
searched the scriptures daily, 
whether those things were so. 

12 Therefore many of them 
believed ; also of honourable wo- 
men which were Greeks, and of 
men not a few. 

13 But when the Jews of 
Thessalonica had knowledge that 
the word of God was preached 
of Paul at Berea, they came 
thither also, and stirred up the 

14 And then immediately the 
brethren sent away Paul, to go 
as it were to the sea: but Silas 
and Timotheus abode there still. 


Trapayevo/xeuoc, ety ttjv crvva- 
■ycoyrjv tcov 'lovSaicov aTryecrau. 
^^ ovTOL 8e r]crav evyevearepoL 
Tojv iv OeacraXovLKYj, oltlvgs 
iSe^auTO tov Xoyov /xera irao-rjs 
TTpoOvfjiias, TO Ka6' rjfxepav dua- 
Kplvovres ras ypa(j)a^, el e^oi 
ravra ovtcds. ^^ ttoXXoX fxeu odu 
i^ avTau iTrlarevaau, /cat rcov 
'JUXXrjvidcov yvvaLKav tS)v ev- 
cryrip-ovcou kou, dvBpaiv ovk 6X1- 
yoL. ^^ coy 8e eyvcaaav ol dno 
Ti]9 OecrcraXoviKTjs 'lovSaloi, otl 
Kol ev rfj Sepoia KaTTjyyeXr) vtto 
TOV riavXov 6 Xoyo9 tov Oeov, 
TjXOou Ka/cet craXevovTes tovs o)(- 
Xov9. evOecDS 8e tots tov 

HavXov i^aireaTeiXav ol ccSeX- 
(j)ol TTopeveaduL tuy eVt Tr]v 6d- 
Xacrcrav VTrefjL€vou 6e o re SiXas 
/cat 6 TLfxodeos e'/cei. ^^ 01 8e 


coming thither went into the 
synagogue of the Jews. Now 11 
these were "more noble-mind- 
ed than those of Thessaloni- 
ca, in that they received the 
word with all ^readiness of 
mind, ^searching the Scrip- 
tures daily to see if these things 
were so. Therefore many of 12 
them believed ; also of honora- 
ble women, who were Greeks, 
and men, not a few. But 13 
when the Jews of Thessaloni- 
ca knew that the word of 
God was preached by Paul 
in Berea, they came thither 
also, and '■stin-ed up the rabble. 
And then the brethren, imme- u 
diately sent away Paul 'even 
to the sea. But Silas and 
Timothy abode there still. 

jjrehended. Ets Bsqomp, Bercea, now known as Verria, a 
clay's journey south-west of Thessalonica. 

' Evyeveareqot, "more noJZe," Boothr., Dodd. j "more gen- 
erous^'' Thomp. ; " more iiieraZ," Murd. ; " more in^enwous ; " 
Penn, Wes. More nohle minded, not in the factitious nobility 
of earth, but in the generous sympathies of piety and humanity 
with the Divine will. 

'' Uqo&vfuttB, readiness of mind. Readiness to ivill, 2 Oor. 
8 : 11 ; a willing mind, 8 : 12 ; ready mind, 8 ; 19 ; fonoard- 
ness of mind, 9 : 2. Such is the N. T. currency. Alacrity, 
promptness of mind. Critica Sacra, " voluntarily ; " Yulgate, 
" ex loto corde." " From the whole heart," Luther. 

^ Avny.QtvovTEB. Avaxqivm is found five times in this book, 
represented by examine and search, once in Luke's gospel. 
In Paul's epistles it is used ten times, and is represented by 
discern, examine, asking a question, and judge six times. It 
indicates in its composition strict discriminating inquirj'^, exa- 
mination.' Kqivo), y.Qiaii, y.qvtrjqiov, h^ittjs, xqitixos are its 
family, and crime too, which it alone decides, is by affinity 
amongst its legalized descendants, because by it detected and 

* SaXevovres, to which is added by Ln., »at ra^aaaotTes. 
With two exceptions, aaXevm is represented by shake, com. 
ver. The exceptions are move, and slir. It is a favorite with 
Luke. Of its fifteen occurrences in N, Test, he uses it eight 

times. "They shook the people" is quite as apposite as, 
" they stirred it]} the j)eople," their minds of course. But that 
excitement was their object, and excitement against Paul, its 
specilic object, is not unlikely, nay, indeed, most probable ; it 
is thought expedient to express that conception of the move- 
ment. Still if it were so, to decide the matter by a special 
translation is of doubtful propriety. While a license in this 
case may be allowed, there are not a few cases in which it 
would be intolerable. 

' 'He em rrjv d-alaaaav. Not a few interpreters — such us 
Beza, Grotius, Erasmus, Schmidius, Ilezellius, Eckermanus, 
and others — think that Paul was carried to the sea-coast, as 
if from that region, on board of ship, he would sail to Athens ; 
while, in fact, by a journey on foot, he would hasten on 
through Macedonia and Thessaly to Athens. We quote from 
Kuinosl the following exposition of it, "Alii pulant, Paulum 
deductum esse ad oram maris, ut ilium Judcei persequi desi- 
ncrent, quasi navi conscensa ex illo regione enavigasset, max 
autcm cum reipsa, tcrreslri itinere, per Macedonian et Thes- 
saliam Alhenas contendisse. Jtaque we sm irjv &aXaaaav 
verlunl: quasi, velut ad mare." Vol. 3, p. 261. Acts 17 : 14. 

'Sis sTtt, in this place, denotes usque ad mare, even to the 
sea. The Syriac, Arabic, and iEthiopic interpreters so under- 
stand this word. The particle o5s, when accompanied by the 
preposition eni., is equal to ewe, equivalent to the Roman u»- 
que ad, vel rede ad. Kuinoel, in loco. 




15 And they that conducted 
Paul brought him unto Athens: 
and receiving a commandment 
unto Silas and Timotheus for to 
come to him with all speed, tliey 

IG Now while Paul waited 
for them at Athens, liis spirit 
was stirred in him, when he 
saw the city wholly given to 

17 Therefore disputed he in 
the synagogue with the Jews, 
and with the devout persons, 
and in tlie market daily with 
them that met with him. 

18 Then certain philosophers 
of the Epicureans, and of the 
Stoics, encountered him. And 
some said, What will this bab- 
bler say ? other some. He seem- 
eth to be a setter forth of strange 
gods : because he preached unto 
them Jesus, and the resurrec- 

19 And they took him, and 
brought him unto Areopagus, 


KadidTuivTes rov JIavXou, rjya- 
yov avTov eW 'Adt^vcov kol Xa- 
^ovres evToXT]v irpos rov SlXau 
KotX TifxaOeov, tva cos Ta)(j.aTa 
kXOaxTL Tvpos avTou, i^rjeaav. 

'JEu 8e TOLS 'AOrjvaLs e/c- 
8e-)(oiJLevov avrovs rov UavXov, 
irapo^vviTO to irvevfjia avTov ei> 
avTw OecopovvTi KarelScoXov ou- 
crav Ti]u TToXiv. ' SieXeyero 
/xeu ovv iu TTj (rvvaycoyrj toIs 
'lovSaloLs /cat toIs cri^o[xivois, 
Koi €i> rfj dyopa Kara iracrav 
i^ixepav irpos tovs TrapaTvy)(a- 
uouras. ^ rives Se ratv ^ JEttl- 
Kovpeictiv Kol Twv SrasLKav (jyiXo- 
cro(j)cov crvve^aXXov avrw' koli 
Tifes eXeyou, Tl av OeXoL 6 airep- 
p-oXoyos oiiTos Xeyeiv; 01 Se, 
tSfSucov baLp-ovLoav doKel Karayye- 
Xevs eivar otl top 'iTja-ovv kol 
rrjv avacrraa-Lv avToTs evijyyeXl- 
^ero. ^^ iirtXa^oixevoL re avrov, 
iiri TOP ^Apeiov Trayov TJyayov 


And they who conducted 15 
Paul, brought him to Athens; 
and having received a com- 
mandment to Silas and Timo- 
thy to come to him, as soon 
as possible, they departed. 

Now while Paul was wait- 16 
ing for them at Athens, his 
spirit was 'roused in liim, 
when he saw the city ^ wholly 
devoted to idols. Therefore 17 
he disputed in the 'synagogue, 
with the Jews, and with the 
devout persons, and in the 
market, daily, with those who 
met with him. Then 18 

certain philosophers of the 
"Epicureans and of the Stoics 
encountered him; and some 
said, what would this "chat- 
terer say ; and others, he 
seems to be a publisher of 
"foreign gods, because he an- 
nounced to them Jesus and 
the Resurrection. Now they 19 
took him and brought him to 
the ^Areopagus, saying, Can 

1 UaQo^vvEXO to nvsviia. JlaQo^vvo/tni, found here and 
oiico 1 Cor. 13 : 5, his spirit vas j)rovohcd (as tlie word is ren- 
dered com. ver., 1 Oor. 13 : 5), excited^ stirred up., av avrca, 
in Mm. It was, however, suppressed. He addressed them 
very courteously. 

■' KazEiSw/.oi'. One of the many aTta'i }.cyou£t>a of this book 
of Acts. " "Wholly addicted^'' or " wliolly given," is pleonastic, 
but no more than called for. Petronius, a contemporary of 
Paul, in his 17th Satire, makes Quartilla say of Athens, '• You 
can more easily find a god than a man in Athens." 

1 Paul found a sj'nagogue in Athens, and a way into the 
Agora, or Forum. There was no called auditory. He spoke 
^Qos TODS nuQarvy/^avovrae, to those who happened to be 
there. Cicero, de oratore, 1 : 4, calls the Athenians the in- 
venters of all learning. His words are, "Athena omnium 
doctrinarum invenlrices." And in his oration for Flaccus, 
c. 26, he says: "humanity, religion, learning, institutions and 
laws, whose monuments are known and diifused throughout 
the world, all originated in Athens." 

There were many Forums in Athens. Of these two were 
most celebrated, called Vetus et Novum,, the old and the New. 

" Tivcs Sc ETtixov^eicov rcov ^ro'ixcav g>i?.oaoipcav ovve- 

palov avraj, certain ones, or, some of the Epicurean and Stoic 
philosophers encountered Paul. 

Like the Jewish Sadducees, these Epicureans were very great 
trifiers, or frivolous persons. " Dum vivimus, vivamus," was 
their oracle. 

" A babbler, one uttering scraps on any subject. So they 
understood his quotations from the Jewish Scriptures. 

'0 OTiso/toloyos, garridus. " Non ana rov aneiQetv tovs 
loyovg, but rather rra^« to Xeyeiv one^fiara, quasi semini- 
legas dicas, quod sala in agris depascanUir; melaphora a 
passerculis, aliisque aviculis su77ipta, quas neque magnopere 
sunt esui, neque cantu delectant, sed garrilu perpetuo sunt 
molestse." Beza. " Demosthenes addressed jEschines bj' the 
same name, three hundred years before Paul was there." 
Broughton on the llevelation, quoted in Critica Sacra. 

" Foreign gods, and new gods, unknown before, are suppos- 
ed by them to have been indicated by tov Irjaovv xat ttjv ava- 
araatv. These words, in their polytheistic ears, sounded as 
though a male and female Divinity were intended. 

p Aoetov nayov, a rocky eminence, west of the Acropolis. 
Eni, is often represented by to and upon. They placed him 




saying, May we know what 
this new doctrine, whereof thou 
speakest, is? 

20 For thou bringest certain 
strange things to our ears; we 
would know therefore what these 
things mean. 

2-1 (For all the Athenians 
and strangers which were there, 
spent their time in nothing else, 
but either to tell, or to hear 
some new thing.) 

22 Then Paul stood in the 
midst of Mars-hill, and said, Ye 
men of Athens, I perceive that 
in all things ye are too super- 

23 For as I passed by, and 
beheld your devotions, I found 
an altar with this inscription, 
Whom therefore ye ignorantly 
worship, him declare I unto you. 

24 God that made the world, 
and all things therein, seeing 
that he is Lord of heaven and 
earth, dwelleth not in temples 
made with hands; 

25 Neither is worshipped with 
men's hands, as though he need- 


Xiyovres, Awd/ieBa yuavai, tls 
T] KaivT] avTT] rj vtto aov XaXov- 
IxevT] StSaxvS ^'^ ^evl^ovra yap 
TLva elaipepeis ds ras ocKoas 
rjix&v ^ovXofxeda ovv yvavai, 
TL av OeXoL Tavra elvai. ^AOrj- 
vaioL 8e iravres kol o'l eTrcS-r]- 
fxovvTes ^evoL els ovSev erepov 
evKaipovu, rj Xeyeiv tl kol ockov- 
eiu KaLvorepov. 

^^ Uradeh 8e 6 IlavXos eV 
ixicr^ Tov 'Apetov irayov, e'cprj, 
''AvSpes' 'AdrjualoL, Kara iravTa 
CO? 8eL(nSaiixov£aTepov9 vp-as 6eco- 
pS). ^^ 8iep)(oix€vos yap Kal ava- 
Oecopav TO. aefiaapiara vp.av, 
eiipov Kal I3cop,oi> iv a> eweye- 
ypaiTTO, 'AyvcocrTcp OeS. ov ovv 
ayvQovvres evcrefielTe, tovtov iyco 
KarayyeXXco vplv. 6 06O9 o 

iroirjcras tov Kocrp-ov Kal iravra 
TO. iv avTcS, ovTOs ovpavov Kal 
yr]9 Kvpios virapxcov, ovk ev X'^i- 
poTTOir\Tois vaoL9 KaroLKiL, ouoe 
VTTO -^eipav avdpcoTTCov Oepaireve- 


we know what this new doc- 
trine is, of which you speak? 
For you bring some strange 20 
things to our cars. We wish, 
tiicrefore, to know what these 
things mean. 

For all Athenians and stran- 21 
gers who were there, s])ex\t 
their time in nothing else, but 
either in telling or hearing 
some new thing. Then Paul 22 
stood up in ithe midst of the 
Areopagus, and said ; Atheni- 
ans ! I perceive that, 'in every 
respect, you are 'exceeding- 
ly devotional. For as I 23 
passed along and observed 
'the objects of your worship, 
I found an altar with this in- 
scription. To AN Unknown 
God : him, therefore, whom 
you, not knowing, worship, I 
declare to you. 

God who "made the world 21 
and all things in it, seeing 
tiiat he is Lord of heaven and 
of earth, dwells not in temples 
made with hands; neitlier is 25 
ministered to by men's liands, 

upon, or brouglit him to, the Areiopngus, or Mars Hill, not to 
the court so called. 

Concurring in opinion with Doddridge, Calvin, Neander, 
Do Wetto, Kuinojl, "Winer, Ilackett, and sundry other scholars 
and critics, that Paul is not standing on trial before the Areio- 
pagus, or supreme court of Athens, but standing in sight of 
its temple of justice, we regard his discourse as a popular ad- 
dress^ and not as a defense before a civil or judicial tribunal. 

1 Ev fieaiff rov Apetov nayov, the highest court of justice 
in Athens, which had specially the cognizance of whatever re- 
spected religion. But in the judgment of our most sober 
critics, it remains uncertain whether A^biov Ttayov here re- 
presents a place, or an assembly, tlie hill, or the court as- 
sembled on it. ■ 

"• Kara navra is well rendered, " in every respect ", by 
Hackett. "From every thing I see," Thomp. ; " in all things," 
JIurd. ; " altogether," Wakef. ; " by all things," Penn ; " in 
all 2'laccs," Boothr. 

• We quote the following judicious exposition of this word 
from Leigh's Crit. Sacra. JeiaiSiufioveareQos, " Too full of 
demons already, I shall not need to bring any more among you 

— a worshiper of demon gods. .JsiaiSaifiovia, superstition. 
Timor Dei inanis, Cicero. This word is found Acts 25 : 19. 
Superstitiosior, Vulgate. Per trope, dcvotieux, French vulgate. 
In the margin, "ic mot signifie, qui est expose envers, afin 
qu'on y rende quelque service de religion." See Critica Sacra. 
More religious than others. "lie (Paul) announced liimself 
as one that would guide their SstoiSat/tovin, not rightly con- 
scious of its object and aim, by a revelation of the object to 
which it thus ignorantly tended." Neander. 

' Avad'ecoQuiv ia asfSaa/tara v/tcot', they had gone beyond 
their contemporaries in erecting an altar to " the unknown 
God." This justified the ingratiatory manner'in which Paul 
addressed them. No other city, or jjeople, had thus confessed 
their ignorance and their devotion. It was a grand concep- 
tion, to erect an altar to the Gnr-AT unknown in the centre 
of Grecian civilization ! 

" Ovy. Bv y,stoo7toir]Tots vaoig y.aroixEi. Stephen, in Acts 
7 : 48, uses the same phrase which Paul here uses, having for 
its subject, 6 v\j>iaxoe — ev '/etoonoiTjroie vaois y.arotxei. Luke 
is, doubtless, the author, as well as the reporter of these 




ed any thing, seeing he giveth 
to all life, and breath, and all 
things ; 

26 And hath njade of one 
blood all nations of men for to 
dwell on all the face of the 
earth, and hath determined the 
times before appointed, and the 
bounds of their habitation ; 

27 That they should seek the 
Lord, if haply they might feel 
after him, and iind him, though 
he be not far from every one 
of us: 

28 For in him we live, and 
move, and have our being; as 
cei'tain also of your own poets 
have said, For we are also his 

29 Forasmuch then as we are 
the offspring of God, w« ought 
not to think that the Godhead 
is like unto gold, or silver, or 
stone, graven by art and man's 

30 And the times of this igno- 
rance God winked at; but now 
commandeth all men every where 
to rejjent : 


T(XL irpocrSeoiJi.evo^ tlvos, avros 
8l8ovs waa-L ^a>r]v Kca Trvor]v Kara 
irdvra- ' eTroirjo-e re i^ eVoy 
aluaros wdv edvos dudpcoTTCov, 
KarouceLv eVt Trav to TrpoacoTTOv 
TYjs yyjs, bplcras TrpoTeray/xevovs 
Kaipovs kolI Tas opoOeaias Trjs 

I in 27 >* " \ 

KaroLKias avrcov Q^tclv tov 

KvpLoi/, el apa ye xjrrjXaCJiT^a-eiav 
avTov Kou evpoLev, KaLTOiye ov 
jxaKpav diro evo9 eKacTTOV rjpLwv 
virdp^QVTa. €v avTco yap ^m- 

yu.ej' /cat Kivovp-eda kul icrp^ev 
a>p /cat Tive? Tcov Kad v/jlocs ttolt]- 
Tcou elprjKacri, Tov yap kou yevos 
ea-fxev. 1 €vos ovu v7rap-)(0VTes 
TOV Oeov, ovK 6(j)eiXofMeu vojxi- 
^€Lv ■)(pvcr(S 7) dpyvpcp t) XiBco, 
■)(apayp.aTL T6-)(yr)s /cat ivdvp.rj- 
aews duOpcoTTOV, to Oelou eivat 

Op.OLOV. *^° T0V9 OVV XpO- 

vovs TYjs dyvoias vTreptScov 6 
Oeos, Tavvv trapayyiXXei tols 
dv6pa)Trois Trdcn iravTa^ov fxeTU- 


as though he needed anything, 
seeing he gives to all, life and 
breath, and all things; and 26 
has made of one blood every 
nation of men, to dwell on all 
the face of the earth, 'having 
determined the appointed sea- 
sons and limits of their abode; 
that they should seek the 27 
Lord, if, perhaps, they might 
feel after him and find him ; 
although, indeed, he is not 
far from any one of us ; for by 2S 
him we live, and move, and 
have our being ; as even some 
of your own poets have said ; 
'"For we, indeed, his ofl^spring 

Since, then, "we are the off- 29 
spring of God, we ought not 
to think that the Godhead is 
like to gold or silver, graved 
by art or man's device. And 30 
the times of this ignorance 
God ^overlooked, but now com- 
mands all men every where. 

" 'OQtaas ■TtqoTcrayfiEvovi — or, Tt^oorarayftspove, Gb., Sch., 
Ln., Tf. ; a more approved reading, xat^ove, etc. "Having 
determined tlie appointed times, and tlie boundaries of their 
habitations," Penn. "Having fixed from the first the ap- 
pointed times and boundaries of their habitations," Wakef. 
"And he hath separated the seasons by his ordinance: and 
liath set bounds to tlie residence of men," JMurd. . " Having 
marked out times previously arranged in order, and the bound- 
aries of their habitations for them to seek the Lord," Thomp. 
" And hath determined their appointed times, and the bounds 
of their habitations, that they might seek God," Boothr. 
"Having marked out the times fore-allotted, and boundaries 
of their habitations," Dodd. "We see nothing gained or lost 
to rival theorists in their controversies on these words. Ac- 
cording to Adam Clark, instead of Ttoorsray/iEvovs y.aiQovg, 
the times before appointed, ABDE and more than forty other 
MSS., with the Syriac, all the Arabic, the Coptic, Aethiopic, 
Slavonian, Vulgate, and Itala, read 7t^oarcrrey/tei>ovs y.aiQove, 
the appointed times. The difference is, n^oraaaeiv is to 
''place before others" but TtQaaraaaEiv is to " command, de- 
cree, or appoint.^' 

ngoarexayfiBvoi KaiQoi are constiluled, or " decreed times," 

and '•' the bounds of their habitation." Dr. Clark adds, 
" Every nation had its lot thus appointed of God, as truly as 
Israel had its land. But the removal of the Jews by the 
Saracens, the Saracens by the Turks, the Greeks by the 
Romans, the Romans by the Goths and Vandals, and so of 
others, show, that a people may forfeit their original in- 
heritance." This, we presume, is a conceded point. The 
approved reading, I concur with Dr. Hackett, is, nooareTcyfts- 
vove, rather than nQoierayfcsvove, common Text. 

" Tov ya^ ycvns eofiev. For we, indeed, Ms offspring 
are. These words are the first half of a hexameter found in 
Aralus, a Cicilian poet, whose poem antedates Christ some 
270 years. 

' Paul concedes its truth. The same idea is also found in 
other Greek writers. Prof. Hackett quotes from the hymn 
of Gleanthus, addressed to Jupiter Tonans, almost the same 
words, " sx aov ynq yevos eafisv." Paul, in his manner of 
quotation, generalizes the idea, using the words, tives ei^i]. 
y.aai, certain Greeks have said, etc. 

y 'VnsQiScav. In the Septuagint its most common import 
is, " conlcmn, permitted, svffered," Kuin. " Overlooked," 
Boothr. ; " condemning," Wakef. 




31 Because he hath appoint- 
ed a day, in the which he will 
judge the world in righteous- 
ness, by that man whom he hath 
ordained: whereof he hath given 
assurance unto all men, in that 
he hath raised him from the 

32 And when they heard of 
the resurrection of the dead, 
some mocked: and others said. 
We will hear thee again of this 

33 So Paul departed from 
among them. 

34 Howbeit, certain men clave 
unto him, and believed : among 
the which was Dionysius the 
Areopagite, and a woman named 
Damans, and othLM-s witli them. 


After these things, Paul de- 
pai'ted from Athens, and came 
to Corinth ; 

2 And found a certain Jew 
named Aquila, born in, 
lately come from Italy, with his 
wife Priscilla, (because that Clau- 
dius had commanded all Jews to 
depart from Kome) and came 
unto them. 

3 And because he was of the 


voelv ^^ StoTL ^arrjaev rj/xepav, 
ii> f] fxeXXei Kpivetv ttjv olKOVfxe- 
vriv Iv SiKaioavpr]. eV dvBpi a> 


avaarrricras avTov e'/c veKpau. 

AK0vcrauT€9 oe apacrracnu 

veKpcov, oi fj.ev iyXtva^ov oi 8e 

ehrov, 'AKOvcro/JieOa aov iraXiv 

TTCyOt TOVTOV. itat 0VTC09 O 

HavXos i^T]X6ei/ e/c /xecrov av- 
Tcov. Ttve^ Be av8pes KoXXrj- 

OivTGS avTW, iTTLcrTeva-au' 4v oh 
Koi ALOVvaios 'ApeoTraytTij^, 
Kol yvvT] ouop-ari Aajxapis, kou 
erepoL aw avToh. 


META fie ravTo, ■^mpLaOa.s 
6 IlavXos e/c tS>v 'A6tjvS>v rjXdev 
ds KoptvBov Koi evpcov rtva 
'lovSaiou ovopLari 'AKvXau, Hov- 
riKov rco yevet, irpocr^aTa)? eXrj- 
Xvdora diro rrjs IraXias, kol 
JIplcTKiXXau yvvoLKa avTov, Sia 
TO St.aTeTa)(evai KXavStov X'^P^' 
^eadat iravras tovs 'lovSaiovs e/c 
rrjs Papn^s, TrpocrrjXdev avTols' 
^ KOL 8id TO bpLOTexyov elvat. 


to reform. Because he has 31 
'appointed a day, in which he 
will judge the world in righte- 
ousness, by that man whom 
he has appointed, giving assu- 
rance to all, having raised him 
from the dead. And when 32 
they heard of a resurrection 
of the dead, some mocked ; 
and others said, we will hear 
you again concerning this mat- 
ter. So Paul departed from 33 
among them. But "certain si 
persons adhered to him and 
believed : among whom, was 
Dionysius the ■'Areopagite, 
and a woman named Daman's, 
and others with them. 


After these things 'Paul i 
left Athens, and went to Co- 
rinth. And having found a 2 
certain Jew named ■■ Aquila, 
born in Pontus, lately come 
from Italy, with his wife Pris- 
cilla, (because Claudius had 
commanded all the Jews to de- 
part from Rome), he came to 
them. And because he was 3 

' Ev avSft fj5 wQiae, hy the man whom he has appointed. 
Because a definite clause follows avd^i, he omits the article. 
Stuart's Gram., §88, 3. t^ stands by atlraclion for the accu- 

Kqivsiv Tr]v oiHovfteprjv. Otxovficvijv occurs eighteen times 
in N. T., represented by world fourteen times, and earth once. 
" Judge all the earth," Murd. ; " The world," Thomp., Wes., 
Penn, Boothr., cum multis aliis. 

'Qqioe, appointed, or decreed ; define is its most exact re- 
presentative. So decides Crit. Sacra, "definio, Ileb. 4: 7, item 
definire certo scope deslinare." 

"■ l\vE3 Ss ai'Spsg v.oD.rjd'evres, aliquot autem viri se ei 

KoV.aio, in its ten occurrences, N. Test., is six times re- 
presented by join, three times by cleave, and once, to " hcepi 
company." These are all, more or less, antiquated, for ■^hich 

we now substitute the word associate, in all cases of com- 
panionship ; " associated with him " is only tolerable, and does 
not quite express the full sense. 

'' Areopagite, one of the judges of the court at tlie Areopagus. 
Tradition says, by Eusebius, that he was afterwards bishop of 
the church in Athens, and died as a martj'r. 

° 'O Unvlos is rejected by Ln., Tf. Paul is, however, the 
subject of the narrative. His name is, therefore, found in 
almost all the versions, Wiclif, Tynd., Cran., Geneva, Dodd., 
Thomp., Wakef., Wes., Jlurd., Boothr. HlO-ev cte Koi)iv3-ov 
— XcoQcaS-us, having left, or I'eraoved from, Athens, canio to 

'^ OfOfiart Anvlav. Axvlns is a Latin name. He was a 
Jew, a axTjvonoioe, a tent-maker ; rwa lovSawv, a Jew by 
birth, now a Christian ; exiled, indeed, as a Jew, not as a 
Christian, as reads the decree of Claudius. 




same craft, he abode with them, 
and wrought, (for by their occu- 
pation they were tent-raalcers.) 

4 And he reasoned in the syn- 
agogue every sabbath, and per- 
suaded the Jews and the Greeks. 

5 And when SiUis and Timo- 
tlieus were come from Macedo- 
nia, Paul was pressed in the 
spirit, and testified to the Jews, 
that Jesus was Christ. 

G And when they opposed 
themselves, and blasphemed, he 
shook his raiment, and said unto 
them. Your blood he ujDon your 
own lieads: I am clean: from 
henceforth I will go unto the 

7 And he departed thence, 
and entered into a certain manh 
house, named Justus, one that 
worsliipped God, whose house 
joined iiard to the synagogue. 

8 And Crispus, tlie cliief ruler 
of the synagogue, believed on 
the Lord witli all his house: and 
many of tlie Corinthians hearing, 
believed, and were baptized. 

9 Then spake the Lord to 
Paul in the night by a vision, 


kix^ve Trap avrois kcu elpya^ero- 
Tjaav yap crKrjvoTroiol rrjv re)(VT]v. 
dieXeyero 8e iu rrj avvaycoyfj 
Kara irav crd^^aTov, eireide re 
^lovdalovf Kal ' EXX7]vas. ^ 'Os 
Se KaTyjXOov diro tt]s 3faKe8o- 
vias o re JllXas kou 6 Tifxodeoy, 
(TWH^eTO TO) TTuevpaTL 6 Hau- 
Aos", SLafxapTvpofxeuos tols 'Iov- 
8a[oc9 Tov XpLCTTOv 'Itjctovu. 
** avTiTaacrofJiivaiv Se avrcov kcu 
^XaacprjfxoviiTCOu, iriva^d/xevos 
TO. IpaTia, etvre Tr/joy avrovs. To 
alfia v/xcou eVi rrju K€(j)aXr]v>' 
KaOapos eyco, diro tov vvv ely rd 
eOvrj TTopeva-Q/xai.. ^ .Kal /xera- 
/3a9 eKeideu ■^XOeu ety oiKLav ripos 
ovopaxL lovarov, crefiofievov tov 
deou, ov rj oiKia rju avvopLopovcTa 
TTj crvvaycoyy. KpiaiTOs de 6 
dp-^Lcrvvaycoyos iirLcrTevcre t(3 kv- 
pla aw oXcp tcS o'lkco avTov- Kal 
TToXXol TGiV KopLv6i(av dKOVOV- 
Tes eiriaTevov kou ifiaTTTi'^ovTO, 
^ JEhre Se 6 KvpLOs 8l opdfxaTos 
eV vvktI Tca HavXco, Mrj (po/3ov, 


of the same trade, he abode 
with them, and "worked : for 
by occujpation they were tent- 
makers. And he reasoned in 4 
the synagogue every sabbath, 
and endeavored to 'persuade 
both Jews and Greeks. But 5 
when Silas and Timothy were 
scome from Macedonia, Paul 
was constrained in spirit, 
earnestly testifying to the 
Jews, that Jesus was the 

And when they resisted and « 
reviled, he shook his raiment, 
and said to them. Your blood 
be on your own heads. I am 
clean. Henceforth I will 
go to the Gentiles. And he " 
departed thence, and enter- 
ed into the house of a cer- 
tain man named Justus, who 
worshiped God, whose house 
was adjacent to the syna- 
gogue. But Crispus, the chief 8 
ruler of the synagogue, be- 
lieved on the Lord with all 
his ""family : and many of the 
Corinthians, hearing, believed, 
and were immersed. Then 9 
the Lord said to Paul in a 
vision by night. Be not afraid, 

" JEioyn^ero, worked for his subsistence. 'Ofwrey^vog, prac- 
tised tlie sumo art or trade. Tip' rexvijv, a limiting accusa- 
tive like TO)' — rnoTiov, in Judo, v. 7. Ilackett. The Jewish 
law, al'lor tlieir exile, hold that a father who taught not his 
son a trade, taught him to be a thief. So the latter Eabbis 

f 'EUqvas, Greek proselytes ; tTtsiO-e, persuaded, or was' 
persuading, tried to persuade tlie Jews. " Persuaded the 
.Jews and Gentiles," Murd. ; " conoihated the affections," 
Thomp. ; " striving to persuade," Penn ; " endeavored, to per- 
suade," Boothr. 

^ Karr^.Q-ov, came down (Silas and Timothy). Svvst/,£ro tco 
Ttrevfiaxi 6 Ilniilos, Paul was pressed in spirit. For m'ev/can 
Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. prefer Xoyrti. " The evidence decides for 
rq} ).oyio as the original word, Griesbach, Mey., Tf." Hack. 
Our text prefers, rqi Ttvsv/enrt. Should we prefer Gb., Sch., 
Ln., and Tischendorf's selected readings, we should read it, 
" Paul was engrossed with the word." 'With our text, we 
render it, "was impelled by the Spirit," or, his own spirit. 

Ilackett, the Vulgate, Kuinool, Olshausen, De "Wette, and Ro- 
binson, prefer, " the word," and so do we. But we follow 
copy, in this case, however, doubtfully. Paul was, no doubt, 
much stirred up by the presence of Silas and Timothy, and 
became more fervent in spirit. 

SvvEy,m occurs twelve times in N. T. In nine of these it is 
used by Luke, translated, com. ver., by taken with, thronged, 
straitened, hejjt in, held, stopjycd their ears, that is, '' held them.'" 
"Lay sicJc of a fever," or, seized by a fever. Elsewhere by 
straiten, constrain, taken withy or seized. Murdoek's version 
of the Syriac renders this passage, " Paul was impeded in dis- 
course, because the Jews stood up against him and reviled, 
as he testified to them that Jesus is the Messiah." This 
indicates that it was %vord, .and not sinril, in his understand- 
ing of the Peshito Sj'riac version, the oldest known. 

I' Svv oho TCO oty.(o airov, with all his family. Such is the 
frequent acceptation of oiy.og in the Christian Scriptures, 
indicating the parents and the children, the masters and the 
servants, as it does in the Septuagint of 0. Test. 




Be not afraid, but speak, and 
hold not thy peace : 

10 For I am with thee, and 
no man shall set on thee, to hurt 
thee : for I have much people in 
this city. 

11 And he continued there a 
year and six months, teaching 
the word of God among them. 

12 And when Gallio was the 
deputy of Achaia, the Jews 
made insurrection with one ac- 
cord against Paul, and brought 
him to the judgment-seat. 

13 Saying, This fellow per- 
suadeth men to worship God 
contrary to the law. 

14 And when Paul was now 
about to open his mouth, Gallio 
said unto the Jews, If it were 
a matter of wrong, or wicked 
lewdness, O ye Jews, reason 
would that I should bear with 


aXXa XaXei Koi /jLtj cncoTn^arj^' 
^^ StoTL iya el/XL fxera aov, /cat 
ovdels eiTiOrjcreTaL croi rou kukco- 
aai o"e* Blotl Xaos iari ixol tto- 
Xvs iu Trj TToXeL ravrr]. ^^ 'JEkcc- 
dicre re iuiavTou /cat ixrjvas e^, 
8i8aa-Kcou Iv avroh top Xoyou 
Tov 0eov. 

^ raXXioivos Se dudvTrarevov- 
Tos TTjs A-)(aias, KareTriaTrjaav 
ofxoOvfiaBov ol 'lovSaloi t(S Uav- 
Aoj, /cat vyayov avrov Itvi to 
firjixa ^^ XeyovT€9, " Oti Trapa 
TOV vojxov ovTos dvaTTelBei tovs 
avd pm-TTOvs crefieaOai tov Oeov. 
^^ 3£eXXovT09 Se tov JTavXov 
dvoiyeiv to crTop-a, direv 6 JTaX- 
Xlcov irpos tovs ' lovSalovs, JEl 
fjiev ovv Tjv d8iKT]pia tl rj paSi- 
ovpyrfp-a irovrjpov, co 'IovSolol, 
Kara Xoyov av rjvecryppLrjv vp.cov 


but speak, and be not 'silent j 
for I am with you, and no lo 
man shall assail Jyou to iiurt 
you : for I have many people 
in this city. And he con- 11 
tinned there a year and six 
months, teaching the word of 
God among them. 

And when Gallio was gov- 12 
erning Achaia as 'procon- 
sul, the Jews, with one 
consent, made insurrection 
against Paul, and brought 
him to the judgment-seat, 
saying, This 'fellow persuades 13 
men to worship God contrary 
to the law. 

And as Paul was about U 
to open his mouth, Gallio 
said to the Jews, Were it, 
indeed, a matter of '"wrong, 
or a wicked act, Jews, it would 
be reasonable that I should 
bear with you. But if 15 

' 3£i] atco7i>]ai;g, do not be silent, or, be not silent. The 
latter is more imperative than the former, and less persua- 

1 JETttO-Tjasrai ooi, and no one shall attack thee, lelic, to hi- 
jure thee. " No one shall attempt it with success, or, ecbatic, 
so as lo injure thee," De Wette, Ilackett. ^lort lace can fioi 
Ho).vs, '^ I have much people," i. e., "many luho are appointed 
to be such. See oh. 13 : 48." Hack. 

The passage here referred to is, boot rjanv Tcrayfievoi sig 
i,(or}v aimviov. The orthodoxy of Prof. Haokett is unques- 
tionably apparent, we know it well. Still "■the many who 
are appointed to be such," is unnecessarily exegetical of what 
is not in the text, nor in the context. We know no passage 
in Lulce's writings in which he presumes to draw upon the 
secrets of a volume in the cabinet of heaven, that has not a 
transcript in any library in our planetary system which can 
be consulted by man. One thing is historically and critically 
plain, that the Lord had all the people in Corinth. They 
were all his, and it was a large population. Hence in the 
ratio of population should all Christian efforts be made. 

' Avd-vTtarevovTos rrjs A^aia, " was governin" Achaia as 
proconsul." Hackett. Avd-vnniBvco, Proconsul sum, I govern 
as proconsul. Gallio, brother of Seneca the moralist, formerly 
called Novatus, was exceedingly bland and kind to all. "Nemo 
mortalium uni tarn dulcis quam hie omnibus." said Seneca, his 
brother. Does not Luke here corroborate Seneca, and Seleca 

Luke 1 No man so agreeably affable to one man, as he was 
to every one. 

'0/tod-vfia8ov, unanimously, with one mind, with one ac- 
cord, com. ver. KarBTcaorrjoav — y.aTsiptOTi}iti, an ciTxa^ Xsyo- 
fiavov, insurgo, made insurrection, rose up against. 

1 The indictment against Paul was, this person, fellow, as 
implied in the word ovros, literall)', this one. In the vocative 
it is used for heus tu — alas for you ! Littleton, " scornfully." 
"This one," "this felloio," Dodd., Wes., Tynd., Cran., Gen. 
Avansidet, persuades men to worship God contrary to law. 
All persecutions are prompted and defended on such allega- 
tions. Persuadeo — whence comes Pitho, the goddess of elo- 
quence — Latin suada unde suadic, medulla. Crit. Sacra. 

"■ ASiy.>]/ca, here only found, and in cli. 24 : 20 ; Apoc. 18 : 5, 
matter of wrong, evil doing, iniquity. Such is its whole cur- 
rency in N. T., connected with ^aStovQyijfta, an ana^ leyofts- 
vop. 'FuSiov^yttt, ch. 13 : 10, com. ver., mischief, a reckless 
wicked deed. Here it is represented by facinus, malum. 
Crit. Sacra. "Injury, or evil jnactice," Penn ; "injustice, or 
wicked heinousness," "Wes.; "fraud, or base act," Murd. ; 
" legally, or ethically," Hack. Any gross enormity, outrage. 
Aoyog indicates any communication, word, doctrine, saying, 
question, matter, fame, account, treatise, thing, intent, tidings 
sjjcech, reason, idterancc, preaching, act of injustice, or wicked 
mischief. Dodd. Matter of wrong, or tuicked act, concen* 
trates both ideas, as we presume. 




15 But if it be a question of 
words and names, and of your 
law, look ye to k: for I will be 
no judge of such mailers. 

16 And he drave them from 
the judgment-seat. 

17 Tlien all the Greeks took 
Sosthenes, tlie chief ruler of the 
synagogue, and beat him before 
the judgment-seat. And Gallio 
cared for none of those things. 

IS And Paul after this tarried 
there yet a good while, and then 
took his leave of the brethren, 
and sailed thence into Syria, and 
with him Priscilla, and Aquila; 
having shorn his head in Cen- 
chrea: for he had a vow. 

19 And he came to Ephesus, 
and left them there : but he him- 
self entered into the synagogue, 
and reasoned with the Jews. 

20 When they desired 7uw to 
tarry longer time with them, he 
consented not: 

21 But bade them farewell, 
saying, I must by all means keep 
this feast that cometh in Jeru- 
salem: but I will return again 
unto you, if God will. And he 
sailed from Ephesus. 


^^ el 8e ^ijTTjfxd icTTt irepl Xoyov 
Koi 6voixa.T(av Kol vojxov tov Ka& 
vjxas, oyjreo-de avroi- Kpcrrjs yap 
iyco TOVTCou ov ^ovXofxai elvai. 
^^ li^al diT'^Xaaev avrovs dnro tov 
^ijfiaro^. ^ iwiXafio/j.ei'oi Se 
wavres ol EXXrjves Scocrd4vr]v 
TOV dp^icrvvaycoyov ^tvittov e'fx- 
irpoadiv TOV j8??/iaroy /cat ovSeu 


^^ '0 AE IlavXos eTi Trpoar- 
fxetvas I'jfxepa^ LKavas, toIs d8eX- 
(j)oi9 diroTa^dpievos, i^ewXet eh 
T1JU Svplav, Kol crvu avTw Hpi- 
(tklXXo. KciX A.KvXas, Keipafievos 
TTjv Ke<^aXrjv ev Key)(peais' el^e 
yap ev)cqv. KaTyuTTjae 8e ety 

' JE(f)ecroi', KdKeivovs KaTeXiirev 
avTov- avTOs 8e elcreXdav els ttjv 
crvuaycoyrjv, 8LeXe)(67] roty 'lov- 
8aLois. ^^ epcoTCovTcov 8e avTCov 
iiri TrXeiova ■)(povou /xeiual irap' 
avTols, ovK eTveuevcrev dXX 
direTa^aTO ovtoXs, elwcov, Ael fie 
iravTCos ttjv eopTTjv ttjv epy^ofie- 
vrju TTOifjcrat, ety ' lepoaoXvfxa- 
iraXiv Se dvaKUfx^jrco Trpos vfids, 
TOV Oeov deXovTos- KaX dvrjy^Or] 


it be a question concerning 
a doctrine, and names, and 
your law, look you to it : for 
I will not be a "judge of these 
matters. And he "drove them 16 
from the judgment-seat. Then 17 
all the I'Greeks took Sosthenes, 
the ruler of the synagogue, 
and beat him before the judg- 
ment-seat: and Gallio cared 
for none of these things. 

And Paul tarried yet many 18 
'days, and, having bid adieu 
to the brethren, sailed forth 
into Syria, and with him 
Priscilla and Aquila; having 
shorn his head in Cenchrea: 
for he had a vow. And is 
he came into Ephesus, and 
left them there. But he him- 
self, entering into the syna- 
gogue, reasoned with the 
Jews, and though they re- 20 
quested him to remain longer 
time with them, he did not con- 
sent: but bade them farewell, 21 
saying, I must by all means 
keep the approaching feast at 
Jerusalem : but I will return 
to you again, if God will ; 
and he "sailed from Ephesus. 

" Ou flovlofcai, I will not he a judge. Ei Se ^/jTtj/ea eon 
7TEQI Xoyov ovo/iar(ov po^iov tov y.aO^ Vftas, oipsad'e 
nvToi. To translate this climax of Gallio in the spirit of it, 
without impinging upon the letter of it, is a desideratum. 
As we conceive of it, spirit and letter, we prefer the following, 
If it he a question concerning a word, and of names, and of 
llie laio amongst you, look to it yourselves : for I will not be a 
judge of such matters: It will not materially affect the spirit, 
or the import of it, should we adopt the marginal reading in 
the text, according to Ln., Tf. and Gb., and make it plural in- 
stead of singular, If it be questions concerning a word (or 
even of a doctrine). We prefer tvord, as more apposite to his 
conceptions and spirit on the occasion. 

° AjtriXaaev, from ani^laco, an ana^ Xeyofuvov in this book. 
He drove them away, compelling their departure. 

p 01 'EUrjvcg, omitted by Ln., Tf., Gb., a probable omission. 

This omission conceded, it would read. And they all beat 
Sosthenes the president, or ruler of the synagogue. 

"Sosthenes was probably the successor of Crispus, v. 8, or, 
as Briscoe conjectures, may have belonged to another syna- 
gogue in the city. The Greeks, always ready to manifest 
their hatred to the Jews, singled him out as the object of 
their personal resentment." Hack. 

OuSev rovTcavj the dispute between the Jews and Gentiles. 

q Ert—fifisQus ly.ttvas. See note on hapog, ch. 19 : 26. 

•■ JCTa^o' avrotg, omitted by Lu., Tf. Its presence or absence 
affects not the sense. 

• Avr}xd-i]—avayco, 1st aor. 3d pers., and he sailed from 
Ephesus. Avayio is represented by led up, brought, launched 
forth, loosed, offered, and by sailed, in com. ver., three times. 
Its meaning is often made contingent upon its associations. 
Here being connected with traveling on water, it is repre- 
sented by sailed. 




22 And when he had landed 
afc Cesarea, and gone up and sa- 
luted the church, he went down 
to Antioch. 

23 And after he had spent 
some time there, he departed and 
went over all the country of 
Galatia and Phrygia in order, 
strengthening all the disciples. 

24 And a certain Jew, named 
ApoUos, born at Alexandria, an 
eloquent man, and mighty in the 
scriptures, came to Ephesus. 

25 This man was instructed 
in the way of the Lord: and be- 
ing fervent in the spirit, he spake 
and taught diligently the things 
of the Lord, knowing only the 
baptism of John. 

26 And he began to speak 
boldly in the synagogue: whom, 
when Aquila and Priscilla had 
heard, they took him unto them, 
and expounded unto him the 
way of God more perfectly. 

27 And when he was disposed 
to pass into Achaia, the brethren 
wrote, exhorting the disciples to 
receive him : who, when he was 
come, helped them much which 
had believed through grace. 


airo Trjs 'JEcfiecrov ^ kcu kutcX.- 
6wv els Kaiaapeiav, ava^as kcu 
dairaa-a/Mevos rrjv iKKXrjo-iav, 
Kare^T] els 'Avn6)(etav. ^^ /cat 
iroLrjcras j^povov riva, e^rjXOe, 
Siep^ofxevos Kade^ijs tt]v FaXa- 
TLKTjv ^copav KCU 0pvyLav, ein- 
crrrjpl^cou Trdvras rovs p.a6r]Tds. 

^ 'lovSoLOs 8e Tis 'AttoXXcos 
6v6p.aTL, 'AXe^avBpevs tw yevei, 
dvrjp Xoytos, KarrjvTrjorev els 
' ^(j)eaov, Svuaros cou ev rats 
'ypa(j)aLS. "^ ovros r/u Karrj^r]- 
p-evos Tr]v 6801/ Tou Kvplov, /cat 
^ecov Tco TTuev/j.ari, iXccXei, kol 
eSiSacTKeu dKpi/3cos ra rrepl tov 
Kvpiov, eincrTap,evos povov to 
^diTTLapa 'Icoduvov ^^ ovros re 
rjp^aTO TrapprjcTLa^eadaL ev rrj 
awaycoyfj. aKovcravres 8e av- 

TOV 'AkvXuS kol JIpLCTKlXXa, 

irpocreXafiovTO avrou, kol uKpi- 
fiearepov avrS e^eOevro ttjv tov 
Oeov oSou. fiovXop.evov 8e 

avTOv BieXOelv els ttjv 'A-^atav, 
7rpoTpe\}/ap,euot ol dSeX^ol epya- 
y^av Tols paOrjToxs dwoSe^acrdat 
avTov OS 7rapayevop.evos crvve- 
fiaXeTO TToXv tols ireTnaTevKocn 


And after he had gone down 22 
to Cesarea, and gone up and 
•saluted the congregation, he 
went down to Antioch. 

And having spent some ta 
time there, he departed, pass- 
ing through all the coun- 
try of Galatia and Phrygia in 
order, "establishing all the dis- 

And a certain Jew, named 24 
Apollos, born at Alexandria, 
an ^eloquent man, and mighty 
in the Scrijjtui'es, came down 
to Ephesus. This man was 25 
instructed in the way of the 
Lord, and being ^''iervent in 
spirit, he spoke and taught dili- 
gently the things concerning 
the Lord, though he knew only 
the immersion of John. And 26 
he began to speak boldly in 
the synagogue: whom, when 
Aquila andPriscilla had heard, 
they took him to them, and 
expounded to him the way of 
God more 'accurately. And 27 
when he was disposed to pass 
into Achaia, the brethren 
wrote, exhorting the disci- 
ples to receive him: who, 
when he had come, afForded 
much aid to them who had 
^believed through the gift 

' AanaaafiEvos. Aana^o/uac, in its more than fifty occur- 
rences in N. T., is represented by salute, greet, emhracc, on 
meeting and parting with brethren, indicative of the highest 
natural and Christian affection. The whole atylrjOia was, in 
this case, saluted with a Christian adieu. 

" EittaTTi^i^cov, found only in this book, and only four 
times, is three times represented by confirming, and once by 
ttrengthening, associated always with the church, or disciples. 

^ Av7]i7 loyws. This adjective is found only in this place 
in the Christian Scriptures, literally a verbose man, a man of 
eloquence. In its highest acceptation of eloquence it was 
applicable to Apollos His association with Paul was inti- 
mate. Paul planted the Church in Corinth, and Apollos 
watered it. His eloquence was based upon his power in 

using the Christian gospel and the Jewish prophets, so far as 
Paul distinguishes it. 

" " Instructed in the doctrine of the Lord, and being 
fervent in spirit, he spoke and taught exactly the things of 
the Lord," Boothr. Bible intelligence, fervor in spirit, and 
his knowledge of John's mission and baptism were the con 
stituents of his eloquence, sustained by a candid and inquisi- 
tive temper. At this time he only knew the baptism of 

" xai Uptaxilla — e^e&cvro trjv tov Qeov oSov, " ex- 
pounded to him more perfectly the way of God," Pennj 
"expounded accurately the passages concerning the Lord," 
Thomp. ; " laid before him the way of God more exactly," 
"Wakef. ; " fully showed him the way of the Lord," Murd. 
ITa^^riata^eod'at, " to speah boldly," Hack. 

y 2:vvefialsro «. r. L, " contributed much to those who 




28 For he mightily convinced 
the Jews, and that publicly, 
shewing by the scriptures, that 
Jesus was Christ. 


And it came to -pass, that 
while Apollos was at Corinth, 
Paul having 2:)assecl through the 
upper coasts, came to Ephesus ; 
and finding certain disciples, 

2 He said unto them. Have ye 
received the Holy Ghost since 
ye believed ? And they said 
unto him. We have not so mucli 
as heard whether there be any 
Holy Ghost. 

3 And he said unto them. 
Unto what then were ye bap- 
tized? And they said, Unto 
John's baptism. 

4 Then said Paul, John verily 
baptized with the baptism of 
repentance, saying unto the peo- 
ple, that they should believe on 
him which should come after 
him, that is, on Christ Jesus. 

5 When tliey heard this, they 


5ta Trjs ■)(dpLTOs- ^^ evrouco? yap 
T0L9 'Iov8aloL9 diaKaTr]Aey)^eTo 
Brj/xocrla, eiTL^eLKvvs 8ta tS)U ypa- 
(jjwv, eivaL tou XptcrTov ^Irjaovv. 


'ETENETO Se eV rrS tov 
'AttoXXco eivaL iu Kopivdca, Hav- 
Xov BteXdovTa ra avcorepcKa fxe- 
pr), iXdeLU ely Ecjiecrov kou ev- 
pcou TLvas fxadrjTo.?, elire irpos 
avTov^, El JJvevpa A^yiov eXa- 
l3eT€ 7narT€V(TavTes ; 01 8e e'nrov 
Trpos avTou, 'A.XX' oufie et JIv^v- 
pa Ayiou iarcv, rjKOvcrapev. 
" Eiiri re rrpos avTOvs, Els tl 
ovu i^aTTTLcrdrjTe ; 01 de ehrov, 
Els TO 'laiavvov fiaTTTio-p-a. 
Ehre de UavXos, 'Icoavvys /xev 
efiaTTTLcre fiaiTTLcrpa p-eravolas, 
T(£ Xa<S XeycoVf ety rov ip-^op.evov 
p.€T avTov 'Iva ino-TevacoaL, tov- 
TeaTLv els tov XpLaTov Trjaovv. 
^ 'AKOvcravTes Se efiaTTTLcrdria'av 


v^hich he had ; for he power- 28 
fully and thoroughly in public 
convinced the Jews, clearly 
showing by the Scriptures, 
tluit Jesus was the Christ. 


And while ''Apollos was at i 
Corinth, Paul having passed 
through the upper parts, 
came into Ephesus; and find- 
ing certain disciples there, he 2 
said to them, Did you on 
believing receive the Plply 
"Spirit? And they said to 
him, we have not, indeed, 
heard, that there is a Holy 
S2:)irit. And he said to them, 3 
••Into what then were you im- 
mersed ? And they said, Into 
John's immersion. Then said i 
Paul, John, indeed, 'admin- 
istered an immersion of re- 
formation, saying to the peo- 
ple, that they should believe 
on him who would come after 
him, that is, on Jesus the 
Christ. Having •'heard this, 5 

have believed," Hack. ; " lie greatly assisted all tliem that 
believed," Murd. 

^la Ti]s y.aoiros, " through grace" Hack., "Wcs., Penn ; to 
say the least, is a very ambiguous rendering in this place. 
"By his gift," 'Thonip., "Wakef. "Alii exponant, 'In dextri- 
tate quadam gratiosa, quas et jucunditatem et utilitatem audi- 
toribus,' " Crit. Sacra. Tlie gift of Apollos seems to me the 
grace here indicated. All men who believe, believe through 
grace. That was not peculiar to those in Ephesus. But the 
gift of Apollos is that noted here. Xa^te, though generally 
rendered grace, in com. vcr., cannot always be so rendered. 
It is, therefore, in the com. ver. represented by favor, thank, 
thanks, pleasure, liberality, joy, thanlc-worlhy, benefit, gift. 

That the Christ was Jesus, and that Jesus was the Christ, 
is an evangelical metastasis. The eloquent Apollos, well 
Tersed in the Jewish Scriptures, knew that if he proved that 
the promised Christ was Jesus, he proved that Jesus was the 

' JEysveto Se tv rep, "and it came to pass," or, it hap- 
pened, are common versions of eyEvero, in such historic con- 
nections as this. The latter is equivalent to, it chanced, as 
in profane usage ; not to be allowed here. " "While Apollos 
was at Corinth " it occurred, or came to pass ; but there is 

nothing meant but this, "While Apollos was in Corinth," and, 
therefore, with Wakef., Murd., AVes., Thomp., Hack., we prefer 

" JSlafSere TtioxBvoavrse ; Did you on believing receive the 
Holy Spirit? This indicates that John's baptism was not 
Christian baptism; for in the latter they could not have been 
baptized without hearing of it. 

The context indicates that the anarthrous Hvevfta 'Aywv 
here represents the Holy Spirit, not as yet fully revealed to 
them ; for soon as immersed, and Paul had laid his hands on 
them, the Holy Spirit came upon them, and they were en- 
dowed with the Holy Spirit, in gifts of tongues and prophesj'-, 
V. 6. 

^ JEis, in its more than 1800 occurrences in N. T., is, in the 
com. ver., generally represented by to, into, unto, for, and very 
seldom by in, which, indeed, ought never to be done. The 
Greeks having cv, in, as well as etg, into, and for. 

' Xqwtov is here omitted by Gb., Ln., Tf., for which Itj- 
aovv is substituted. Tovreanv, not tovrov eariVj but rovro 
eari = hoc est — ^that is, on Jesus. 

E^aitiiae panrtofta. Litei'ally, immersed an immersion. 

•i Me, and having heard, or, having heard. 




were baptized in the name of 
the Lord Jesus. 

6 And when Paul liad laid 
his hands upon them, the Ploly 
Grhost came on them; and they 
spake witli tongues, and j>roph- 

7 And all the men were about 

8 And he went into the syn- 
agogue, and spake boldly for the 
space of three months, disputing 
and persuading the things con- 
cerning the kingdom of God. 

9 But when divers were hai'd- 
ened, and believed not, but spake 
evil of that way before the mul- 
titude, he departed from them, 
and separated the disciples, dis- 
puting dailj'^ in the school of one 

10 And this continued by the 
space of two years; so that all 
they which dwelt in Asia heard 
the word of the Lord Jesus, both 
Jews and Greeks. 

11 And God wrought special 
miracles by the hands of Paul: 

12 So that from his body were 
brought unto the sick handker- 
chiefs, or ai^rons, and the dis- 


€Ls TO bvoixa Tov Kvpiov 'Irjaov. 
" Kol i-mOivTOS avrols tov Jlav- 
Xov Tas ')(Hpas, rjXBe to Jlpevfxa 
TO A.yLov eir avrovs, eXaXovu 
re yXco(TcraLS kcu irpoeijjrjTevov. 
Tjcrav 8e oi iravTes a,v8p€s wael 
8eKa8vo. ^ EicreXOwv Se ety rrju 
avuaycoyrjv, iirapprjo-id^eTO, iirl 
pLrjvas TpsLs 8LaXeyop€vos' kol 
Treldcou Ta irepl ttjs /SacrtXelas 
TOV Oeov. " 'f2s 8€ TLves iarKXrj- 
pvvovTO Kou rjireidovv, KaKoXo- 


TrXr]6ovs, aTrocTTas air avrwv 
d(j)copLa-e tovs fiaOrjTas, Kaff rjixe- 
pav 8iaXeyoixevQs eV t^ cry(oXfj 
Tvpdvvov TLvos. ^^ Tovto 8e 
eyeveTO eTrl errj 8vo, cocrre TrduTas 
TOVS KaTOLKOVVTas Trju 'Ao-lav 
CLKOvaaL TOV Xoyov tov Kvpiov 
Irjcrov, lovSaLOvs re /cat ' J£X- 
Xr]vas. Awdp-eLs re ov tols 

TV^ovaas iiroleL 6 Oeos 8id Ta>v 
^€ipa)v JIavXov, ^^ oJcrTe kol erri 
TOVS dcrOevovvTas i7n(j)epear6ai 
airo TOV )(pcoT09 avrov o-ov8apia 


they were immersed into the 
name of the Lord Jesus. And fl 
when Paul had laid his hands 
on them, the Holy Spirit came 
on them, and they spoke 
with tongues, and prophesied. 
Now all the men were about 7 
twelve. And he went into 8 
the synagogue, and spoke bold- 
ly for about three months, 'dis- 
cussing and persuading as to 
things concerning the king- 
dom of God. But when some 9 
were hardened, and believed 
not, but spoke evil of the 'way, 
in the presence of the multi- 
tude, he departed from them, 
and separated the disciples, 
discussing daily in the school 
of one Tyrannus. And this 10 
continued during two ^years; 
so that all those wlio dwelt 
in Asia heard the word of the 
Lord Jesus, both Jews and 
Greeks. And God worked 11 
''special miracles by the hands 
of Paul : So that fi'om his body 12 
were carried to the sick, hand- 
kerchiefs, or 'aprons, and the 

' ^laksyo/isvos is found in "Acts" ten times, represented, 
com. ver., by reasoning, disputing, preaching, and preaching 
unlo. JiaXeyofisvoe xat itaiOcov, '■^disputing and persuad- 
ing"', ^- Clark, Wakof. ; "discoursing and persuading," 
AVes. ; " reasoning and recommending," Ihomp. ; "seeking 
to 2'ersuade them," Hack. " The first accusative specifies the 
aim of the act, in hoc loco, ta. ^aadeias," Kuinool. After 
much consideration, we would, in our age and country, prefer 
discussing and pleading the things pertaining to the kingdom 
of God. 

Hei&ai' avTovg ta Tts^i top Kvqiov Jijaov Xotarov, " he de- 
livered to them the doctrine of the kingdom," Kuin., in loco. 
"Discussing and persuading," though literal, is not in our 
idiom. In asummary of three months' labor, allusion is had 
to the debates, discussions, and pleadings had upon the per- 
son, claims, character, and kingdom of Jesus, and to the 
earnestness of the preachers. 

' Kaxoloyovvres, speaking evil of the way. Tqv oSov, the 
way, the faitli, and the practice, "not concretely, the sect, or 

party," Ilackett. AfiaQias rovg fcctOTjTag, separated the dis- 
ciples from the sj'nagogue, ep rp oxoXrj — rather in the school- 
house than in the school. Tv^appov rtpoe, some think, is 
justly reprobated as an interpolation. It is not, they say, in 
Luke's style, and is redundant. AVe are of a differet opinion. 
This word rts is a peculiar favorite of Luke, and is found 
more frequently occurring in his writings in an indefinite 
sense, than in all the other evangelists, or in all the epistles 
of Paul. 

^ JETtt enj Svo, exclusive of the three months referred to 
V. 8; for rovro '-expressly opposes the preaching in the 
school of Tyrannus, to that in the synagogue," Hack. Vazt 
— Aaiap. This is not the continent of Asia, but a Roman 
province of which the capital was Ephesus. 

'■ Ov rag rvyovaag well represented by extraordinary, or 
special. All miracles are equally supernatural, but do not all 
appear alike supernatural. Of these there may be great, 
greater, and greatest. 

' ^ovSttQin t] otfiiKip&ia. Common handkerchiefs and 




eases departed from them, and 
the evil spirits went out of them. 

13 Then certain of the vaga- 
bond Jews, exorcists, took upon 
them to call over them whicli 
had evil spirits, the name of 
the Lord Jesus, saying. We ad- 
jure you by Jesus whom Paul 

14 And there were seven sons 
of 07ie Sceva a Jew, and chief of 
the priests, which did so. 

15 And the evil spirit an- 
swered and said, Jesus I know, 
and Paul I know; but who are 



i] cnixiKLvdia, /cat airaXXacra-e- 
crOat. air avraiv Tas vocrovs^ to. 
re Trvev/xaTa ra Trovrjpa e'^epx^" 
adai. dir avrau. ' Eire^^ipr]- 

aav hi TLves diro tcou Tre/Jiep^o- 
fieucou 'Iov8alcov i^opKiarcov ovo- 
p.a(^£Li> ein tovs e^ovras ra irvev- 
fxara ra irovrjpa to ovofia tov 
Kvp'iov 'Irjcrov, Xiyovres, 'OpKt- 
^ vp.ds TOV 'Irjaovv ou 6 
UavXop K7jpvar(T€i. ^'^ ' Haav 8e 
TLves vlo). SKevd lovSalov dp-^i€- 


'' diroKpiOev 8e to irvevfxa to 
TTovrjpov ehre, Tov Irjcrovv yivco- 
CTKCO, Kol TOV TIavXov irrlaTafxar 
vfx^Ls Se Tives icrTe; ^^ KaX 


diseases departed from them, 
and the evil spirits went out 
of them. Then certain ot the 13 
Jewish 'exorcists, who went 
about from place to place, 
also attempted to pronounce 
the name of the Lord Jesus 
upon those who had evil 
spirits, saying, We adjure you 
by the Jesus whom Paul 
pi'eaches. And there wei-e \i 
seven sons of one ""Sceva, a Jew 
and chief of the priests, who 
did so. And the evil spirit is 
answered and said, Jesus I 
'acknowledge, and Paul I 
know : but who are you ? 

aprons, taken from persons at work, as these terms indicate, 
became tlie veliicles of omnipotence. 

Tag voaove, ra — Ttvevfinra. I'wo kinds of diseases are hei'e 
indicated, physical and spiritual, or tlioso tlie fruits of ma- 
terial nature or of physical causes, and those of evil spirits 
All ttvraiv is omitted by Gb., Sch., hn.^ Tf. 

' TivBs aTto taiv 7tsQtegx,o/t£Pcop, n, r. L, com. ver. Tives rcov. Gb.. Tf., Islny. give this more approved reading. 
Kai joins itvss with Paul, in the act expressed in ovo/ia^siv, 
they also attempted to call. HsoicQ/fifievav, not opprobri- 
ously vagabond, but wandering Jews, E^o^y.iarrjs, exorcisla. 
" Qui tanquam Dei nomine adigit ad veri confessionem aut 
factum aliquod. Augustinus adjuratorem vertit." Grit. Sa- 
cra. " Expellers of demons," Dr. Whitby. Mr. Bisooe (at 
Boyle's Lecture, ch. 7, § 0, p. 281, et seq.) has produced 
many passages from Iren., Origen, Epiph., and Josephus, show- 
ing that several Jews at this time pretended to a power of 
casting out demons. See Dodd., in loco. " Such as used 
magical arts, adjuring demons, etc.," Boothr. 

'O^y.t^o/tsv is substituted by bQy.ii,ta, on the authority of 
Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf., we adjure you, for, I adjure you. We 
must, in this case, prefer the Received Text for the amended, 
inasmuch as it conflicts with the antecedent and subsequent 
context, and with the judgment of the gi'eat majoritj' of critics, 
ancient and modern. It is seldom we feel more assurance 
than in this case, in dissenting from these distinguished critics. 
The seven sons of Sceva, a Jew, we learn in the subsequent 
verse, were coUperants in this case ; hence, and for other rea- 
sons, we prefer the received text to that of Gb., Sch., Ln., 
and Tf. 

' Sy.eva, Doric genitive, similar to Baovaftn, ch. U : 30j 
Bo^^a, Luke 13 : 20; Jmrn, John 1 : 43. ' 

' Tov Iijaovv, tov UavJ.ov STttara/iat. This 
demon was a critic, and well versed in the import of Greek 
terms. " I knmo Jesus, and liave some acquaintance with 
Paul," Murd. ; " Jesus, indeed, I know, and Paul I know,'' 
Ponn ; " Jesus I knoiv to my cost, and Paul I know as his ser- 
vant," Dodd. J " Jesus I know, and I have some knowledge of 
Paul," Thomp. ; " I acknowledge Jesus, and am acquainted 
with Paul," Adam Clark. " Jesus I know, 1. e., his au- 
thority and power, entora/iat, I Jcnow fully ; stronger than 
the other verb, and applied to Paul in opposition to them," 

We have fanciful critics, and those of more profound judg- 
ment. This appears to good advantage in the contrasts here 
given. We institute no inviduous comparisons. We all look 
at objects from different standpoints.. Where two inspired 
men use a word in different acceptations, it may be resolved 
by ascertaining their scope, design, or the special cases to 
which they refer. Enwrafiai, ab sTti andwrafcat, to stand 
tyjore a thing, whereas to understand is to stand under it, 
as vTtoazaate, persona, Heb. 1 : 3. Yet this standing upon 
a subject, or this standing under it, may in different attitudes 
indicate the same knowledge of it. In either case there must 
be a very particular and intimate acquaintance with it. I feel 
a distinction in these terms difficult to define exactly. I am 
disposed upon all my premises to acquiesce with Critica Sacra. 
The Latins borrowed their nosco and cognosce from yipcoaxo. 
Non nuda el simplex nolitia, sed affectiva cum desiderio, ap- 
prohatione et dilectionc conjuncta. 1 John 4:8; Malt. 7 : 23, 
and 25 : 12. Not a naked and simple notion, hut associated 
ivith affection, desire, and a^^prohation, terminating in de- 
light. It is an Hebraism. 

Tn Tti'txi/iri. ro TTorrjpoi: Emphatically, the wicked the 




16 And the man in whom the 
evil spirit was, leaped on them, 
and overcame them, and pre- 
vailed against them, so that they 
fled out of that house naked and 

17 And this was known to 
all the Jews and G-reeks also 
dwelling at Ephesus; and fear 
fell on them all, and the name 
of the Lord Jesus was magni- 

IS And many that believed 
came, and confessed, and shewed 
their deeds. 

19 Many of them also which 
used curious arts, brought their 
books together, and burned tlieni 
before all men; and they counted 
the price of them, and found it 
fifty thousand pieces of silver. 

20 So mightily grew the word 
of God, and prevailed. 

21 After these things were 
ended, Paul purposed in the 
spirit, when he had passed 
through Macedonia, and Achaia, 
to go to Jerusalem, saying, After 
I have been there, I must also 
see Rome. 

22 So he sent into Macedonia 


€(()aXXofj.evos eV avTovs o avOpm- 


pov, /cat KaTaKvpL€V(ras avToav, 
'laxvcre kut avrav, coaTe yvfxvovs 
Kol T€Tpavp.aTL(Tix4vovs iK(l)vyelv 

€K TOV o'lKOV eKelvOV. ^"^ TOVTO 

5e iyeuero yvcoaTov Tracrtv 'lov- 


oiKovai Tiqv ' Ed^ecrov, kol iire- 
Trecre ^of^os iTU wavTas avTOVS, 
Kcd i/xeyaXvusTO to bvopa rod 
Kvpiov 'Irjcrov. ^^ JloXXoi re 
Tan/ TT^inaTevKOTwv TJp^^ovTO i^- 
ofioXoyovfjievoL kol auayyiXXov- 
re? Tas irpa^eis avTCov. ^'^ iKavol 
de Tcou TO. irepUpya Trpa^avTcou, 
(TvveveyKavTes Tas filfiXovs ko-tI- 
Katov eucoTTLOV wavTCov kou avv- 
v\ry]^icrav tols TipLas avTtav, kou 
evpou apyvplov fxvpidSas TreWe. 


Kvpiov Tjv^ave kou Icryyev. 

'illS 8e iTrXTjpcodrj TavTa^ 
edeTO IlavXos eu tw irvevfJLaTL, 
SieXdcou Trju AfaKeSovcav kol 
'Axaiocu TTopeveaOaL els 'lepov- 
craXrjix, elTrcov, ' Otl /leTO. to yevi' 
a-Qai fie CKei, Set /xe kol 'Pcop-rju 
ISeTv. 'AiroaTeiXas 8e els Trjv \ 


And the man in whom the ic 
evil spirit was, leaped on 
"them, and overcame them, 
and prevailed against them; 
so that they fled out of that 
house naked and wounded. 
And this was known to all n 
the Jews and Greeks dwelling 
at "Ephesus; and fear fell on 
them all, and the name of the 
Lord Jesus was magnified. 
And many who believed is 
came, and "confessed, and de- 
clared their deeds. Many of 19 
them also, who practiced 
magic arts, brought together 
their books, and burnt them 
in the presence of all, and 
they counted the price of 
them, and found it fifty thou- 
sand pieces of silver. So 20 
powerfully grew the word of 
God, and ^prevailed. 

When these things were 21 
ended, Paul firmly purposed 
in ispirit, when he had pass- 
ed through Macedonia, and 
Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, 
saying, after I have been 
there, I must also see Rome. 
So he sent into Macedonia 22 

spirit, tlie evil spirit. This is as emphatic as ro Jlvmi/ia to 
'Ayiov, the Spirit the Holy, the Holy Spirit. This emphatic 
form is again presented ro nvev/ca ro novij^ov, v. 10. Tlie 
analogy is remarlcably strildng. The master spirit of all evil, 
and the master spirit of all goodness, while often anarthrous, 
are, on prominent occasions, presented before us as equally 
conspicuous, the one as the fountain of all evil, the other as 
the fountain of all good. 

"■ E^aUofisvos, leaping upon them ; xaraxv^iavaas, having 
overpowered them, Wakef, JIurd. Avrwp, in this place, is 
substituted by aftforsiyov, Ln., Tf., regarded by Gb. as of 
much authority, and marked as probable. 

Tois Mtrotnovai r>]v E(peaov, to those inhabiting or dwell- 
ing in Ephesus. 

° E^ofwUyovfievot, openly confessed; avayyellovree rne 

nQa^sis, and reported their practices, superstitious practices. 
01s., Mey., De Wette. Sins in general, Kuin., Hack. 

V Ilv^ecpe iay,vev = not ovl\j extended, but augmented 
in its power. 

' EOero — ev xoi nrsvftaTc, strongly ^wrjmsed; with us, de- 
cided. Paul and his spirit are sometimes distinguished as 
God and his spirit are spoken of in Holy ATrit. He, Paul, 
purposed in his mind — not in his sold, but in his sjnril — to 
visit Rome, ^ci /is xai'Pco/n/v iSiip, it beliooves nie to see 
Rome, after I have visited Jerusalem; not to fulfill any de- 
cree, "or revealed purpose of God." Hack. 

The Apostle Paul never intended to say, that he, or any one 
else, must do anything merely to fulfill a Divine purpose, un- 
less a Divine oracle had enjoined it. He certainly believed 
that God had purposes to accomplish by him ; but until re- 
vealed to him, he felt no obligation to consummate them. 




two of them that ministered 
unto liim, Timotheus and Era- 
stus ; but he himself stayed in 
Asia for a season. 

23 And the same time there 
arose no small stir about that 

24 For a certain 9na7i named 
Demetrius, a silver-smith, which 
made silver shrines for Diana, 
brought no small gain unto the 
craftsmen ; 

25 Whom he called together 
with the workmen of like occu- 
pation, and said, Sirs, ye know 
that by this craft we have our 
wealth : 

26 Moreover, ye see and hear, 
that not alone at Ephesus, but 
almost throughout all Asia, this 
Paul hath persu^ided and turned 
away much people, saying, that 
they be no gods which are made 
with hands. 

27 So that not only this our 
craft is in danger to be set at 
nought; but also that the tem- 
ple of the great goddess Diana 
should be despised, and her mag- 
nificence should be destroyed, 


UfaKeSovlau 8vo tcou SLaKovovv- 
Tcov avTcS, Tifiodeov Kai JEpa- 
arov, avT09 iTTecr)(e -^povov ety 
TTjv 'Acriau. ^^ 'Eyevero 5e 
KOTO, Tov Kacpov eKelvou Tapa-)(os 
ovK oXiyos Trepl rfj^ 68ov. Arj- 
pirjTpLOs yap TLs ovojxaTL, dpyv- 
poKOTTOs, TTOi&v vaovs apyvpovs 
' Aprip-L^os, 7rapeL-)(€T0 tois re;(- 
VLTais ipyacrlav ovk oXiyrjv 
^" 0U9 avvaOpoicras, kcu tovs 
Trepl Ta TOiavra kpyaras, eiirev, 
' Av8pe^, iTTiaracrde otl e/c rav- 
Tr]S TTjs epyacrias ?} eviropia rjpcou 

> 2(iv/i - \j/ 

eaTi' KaL aecopeire kul uKovere 
on 01) povov 'JS^ecrov, aXXa 
o~^e8ov TTaarjs ttjs 'Acrias 6 Uav- 
Xos ovTos Treiaas p-erecrTrjaeu 
LKavov oxXov, Xeycou otl ovk elal 
deal oi Bia -^(eipcov yi.vop.evoL. 
^' 01) p.ovov de TOVTO KLv8vveveL 
rjp.iv TO piipos els aireXeypLov iX- 
9e2v, aXXa koll to tt]s p.eyaXr]S 
Oeas 'ApT€p.L8o9 lepov eh ovSev 
XoyLcrdrjvaL, p.eXXeiv 8e kol Ka- 
daLpeladaL ttjv p,eyaXeL0Tr]Ta av- 


two of those who ministered 
to him, Timothy and Erastus : 
but he himself stayed in Asia 
for' a season. And the -same 23 
time there arose no small stir 
about the ■'way. For a certain 24 
man, named Demetrius, a 
silver-smith, who made silver 
shrines for 'Artemis, brought 
no small gain to the artisans; 
whom he called together, witli 25 
the workmen of like occupa- 
tion, and said. Sirs, you know 
well, that by this employ- 
ment we have our 'prosperity. 
Moreover, you see and "hear, 2() 
that not only at Ephesus, but 
almost throughout Asia, this 
Paul has persuaded and turned 
aside many people, saying, 
that they are uo gods which 
are made with hands; so that 27 
not only this our ^trade is in 
danger of coming into con- 
tempt; but also that the 
temple of the great goddess 
Artemis will be despised, and 
her magnificence destroyed, 

■■ Jle^i ri;5 oSov — xnra rov aaioov ey.sivov. About the time 
of acoomplisliing his purpose of visiting Rome, there arose 
some opposition, some ne\v difliculties concerning the tuay ; 
not tlio waj' to Rome, nor the journey thither; but the way, 
" everj wliere then spolcen against." 

'OSog frequently occurs in this hook, "the tvay of God;" 
and, in otlier books of tlio Holy Scriptures, such as " the way 
of Cain," " the way of Balaam." Paul, -when persecuting 
Christ, demanded letters of authoritj', against any of " this 
way " that he might find. 

» Artemis, from Aorstit]e, integer, ob virginitatis illibataj 
laudcm — Diana. 

A^Tniiii, com. Tcr., Diana, occurs five times in this chapter. 
Nowhere else found in N. Test. We know no good reason 
for changing the name of this goddess. These silver shrines 
were mere images of the temple at Ephesus, of which the 
manufacture in city was very groat. 

' Ov3 ovraD'^otans, y-rtt rovg nsQi t« rotnvra coyarag x. r. ),. 
Artizans, so-called, and laborers in attendance, mechanics and 

common hands. His argument was, t] svno^ta fjftcov, our 
prosperitj' arises from this employment. 

" QeojQEire ay.overE, a true argwnentum, ad hominem: 
3'ou see and know, therefore. Some would render it, see and 
ImoxD ; but this assumes their ignorance of their own inter- 
ests, which would be inapposite to the occasion. 

'Ixai'og was a favorite with Luke. He employs it twenty- 
nine times in his book of Acts and Gospel, while all the other 
writers of the N. Test, only employ it twelve times. It is 
necessarily a vague term, having not less than fourlecn repre- 
sentatives; consequeutly much depends on its connections. 
It is one of a small class of words that is so sympathetic as 
to assume the gesture of every associate. Thus it is, worthy, 
great, large, many, enough, long, aliJce, security, good while, 
while, sore, meet, ahle, sufficient. It is like the Scotch unco. 

" Ov fiovov Se rovro ttivSwevet ij/uv ro fieQog, " this husi- 
ness," as some interpret it; others, "this part of our reli- 
gion." We presume, their business was more in their hearts 
than their religion. 




■whom all Asia, and the world 

28 And when they heard these 
sayings, they were full of wrath, 
and cried out, saying. Great is 
Diana of the Ephesians. 

29 And the whole city was 
filled with confusion: and having 
caught Gains and Aristarchus, 
men of Macedonia, Paul's com- 
panions in travel, they rushed 
with one accord into the theatre. 

30 And when Paul would have 
entered in unto the people, the 
disciples suffered him not. 

31 And certain of the chief 
of Asia, which were his friends, 
sent unto him desiring him that 
he would not adventure himself 
into the theatre. 

32 Some therefore cried one 
tiling, and some another; for the 
assembly was confused, and the 
more part knew not wherefore 
they were come together. 

33 And they drew Alexander 
out of the multitude, the Jews 
putting him forward. And Alex- 


rrj^, 7}v oXt) rj 'Aala kcu rj olkov- 
fxevT] (re^erat. ^^ ' AicovcravTes 
8e /cat yevofxeuoL irXrjpeL'j Ovfiov, 
eKpa^ou XeyovTe9, MeyaXr] rj 
' Apre/xi? 'E^ecricDv. ^^ Kal 
eTrXrjcrOr] rj ttoXls oXtj avyyv- 
creco^- (DpixTjcrav re 6fxo6vfxa8ov 
ei? TO dearpov, crvvapTracravTes 
ralov KoX 'ApicTTap-^ov MaKe- 
dovas, crvveKdrjiMOvs tov JTavXov. 
Tov de IJavXov ^ovXopiivov 
elcreXdelu ety tov brjpov, ovk elcov 
avTov ol jxaO'qTai. ^ tlv^s Se 
KCU tSjv Aaiap'j^wv ovres avTw 
(pcXoi, 7rep.\j/apTe9 rrpos avTov, 
TrapeKuXovu p-rj dovuai eavTou eh 
TO OeaTpov. ^^ aXXoL pev ovv 
aXXo TL CKpa^ov rju yap rj e'/c- 
KXrjcna crvyKe)(ypevr], koll o'l 
irXeiovs OVK rjdeiaav, tlvo9 eueKev 
(TVveXijXvdeia-av . '^^ eK 8e tov 
oxXov TTpoe^L^aaav 'AXe^ai" 
8pou, irpo^aXovTcov avTou tcou 
'Iov8a[cov 8e 'AXe^avSpos 


whom all Asia and the world 

And when they heard this, 28 
they were full of wrath, and 
cried out, saying, Great is 
Artemis of the Ephesians. 
And the whole ^"city was filled 29 
with tumult, and having 
caught Gains and Aristaixlius, 
Macedonians, Paul's compan- 
ions in travel, they rushed 
with one accord into the the- 
atre. And when Paul Avould so 
have gone in to the people, 
the disciples suffered him not. 
And some of the chief men of 31 
Asia, who were his friends, 
sent to him, entreating him 
not to venture himself into 
the theatre. Some, therefore, 32 
cried one thing, and some an- 
other: for the ^assembly was 
confused, and the grea<ter part 
knew not wherefore they were 
come together. And they 33 
drew Alexander out of the 
crowd, the Jews urging him 
^forward. And Alexander, wav- 

" 'Rnohs 6).ri. 'Oh] is rejected by Ln., Tf., omitted on the 
authority of AB 13, 40, and Coptic, Arm. 'Ofwdvftadov, coii- 
corditer — uno animo, with one consent. 

* Sv ya^ }j exxXijata avyxexv/ceri]. JSxx?.i]aca here I'ejJresents 
a mob, a tumultuous assembly, concourse of people. In N. Test, 
it is appropriated to a Christian congregation, or the whole 
Christian community. Literally and appropriately, in N. T. 
currency, it is represented by the word congregation, or as- 
semlly, a meeting of a people, always communicating the idea 
of calling out, or of their being called out of the world. The 
root, By.xat.sco, evoco, I call out, is not found in the Christian 
Scriptures. Exxl^jaia, in its one hundred and fourteen oc- 
currences, is only three times translated assembly. In every 
other case it is misrepresented by the word church, an ab- 
breviation of xvQtov citxos, contracted into kuriolc, or hyrke. 
It answers to, or it responds to the Hebrew Imhal et cdah 
from yaad, that is, to assemble, or, to congregate. Crftica 
Sacra. It is added by the same high authority, exxh]oia, pro- 
prie ccetum aliguem, a superiori aliquo convocatum in finem 
poUiticum vel ecolesiasticum denotat. The same high author- 
ity says, " The English woi-d church is ambiguously taken by 
the people for the place of the assembly, and for the assembly 

itself." It is as lawful for us to call it congregation, as for 
the Papists to call it assembly. See ch. 7 : 38 ; 1 Cor. 1 : 2, 
•r^yiaOftEVOis £v ^piaro> Ii]aov, y.hjrots dytots, ovv Ttaai rois 
£7ttxct?.ov/ievot3 TO ovo/ia tov Kvqiov Vifuov Irjaov JC^wtov, sv 
TtavTi TOTtrt) avTcov re xai ij/tcov, " to the sanctified in Christ 
Jesus, called saints, zcith all that call upon the name of our 
Lord Jesus Christ in every place, both their Lord and ours." 
Such is Paul's exegetical development of a particular church 
of Christ, and of the church universal as he understood the 
genius, relation, and character of that institution. 

T/te definition of a thing is the true 2Mlosoj)hy of its name. 
So God himself gave names to his own opei'ations in the 
drama of creation. And so taught he his son Adam. Hence 
whatever significant names Adam gave were appropriate 
names ; and God himself approved them giving to him a di- 
ploma, so that whatsoever name he gave to any living creature 
that became the name thereof." 

y JTooe/StiSaaavj " 2>rodire, faciebanl," Knin. ; "they thrust 
forward," Wes., Dodd. ; " they dragged him," Penn ; "put- 
ting- him forward" AVakef. ; " urged forward," Hack. In 
this verse wo have tiqo^uIIco, and n(>opi§tti,ia, each found 
only twice in the Christian Scriptures, and used by Luke, the 




aiider beckoned with the hand, 
and would have made his de- 
fence unto the people. 

34 But when they knew that 
he was a Jew, all with one voice 
about the space of two hours 
cried out. Great is Diana of the 

35 And when the town-clerk 
had a2:)peased the people, he said 
Ye men of Ephesus, what man 
is there that knovveth not how 
that the city of the Ephesians is 
a worshipper of the great god- 
dess Diana, and of the image 
which fell down from Jupiter V 

3G Seeing then that these 
things cannot be spoken against, 
ye ought to be quiet, and to do 
nothing rashly. 

37 For ye have brought hither 
these men, which are neither 
robbers of churches, nor yet 
blasphemers of your goddess. 

38 Wherefore, if Demetrius, 
and the craftsmen which are 
with him, have a matter against 
any man, the law is open, and 
there are deputies: let them im- 
plead one another. 

39 But if ye inquire any thing 
concerning other matters, it shall 
be determined in a lawful assem- 


Karaaeicras rrjv X^'/*"' rjOeXev 
aTroXoyeLcrdac rw S-qfJ-O). ^ im- 
yvouTCou 8e on 'Iov8a.los iarc, 
<j)avq iyivero fxia e/c iravTcov cwy 
eVi coyoay 8vo Kpa^ovrcou, JifeydXr] 
1] ' ApTe[xis 'jE(f)eaicou. ^" Kara- 
(TTelXas 5e 6 ypajXfxaTivs rov 
6)(Xov, (j)7]crlu, ' AvSpes 'JE(j)e- 
(Tioi, TLs yap icmv dvdpcairos os 
ov yivaxTKei ttjv J^cpeaLcov ttoXlv 
veajKopov ovcrav ttjs p.eyaXr]9 
dea9 'AprepiSos koL tov Aioire- 
Tovsj ^^ avavTLpprjTcov ovv ov- 
Tcov TOVTcov, Seou eaTLi' vp-as 
KarecrraXp.ei'OUf vTrap^eiv, koI 
p.rj8eu irpoireTes irpaTTeiu. ^^ yyd- 
yere yap tovs av8pas tovtovs, 
ovre UpocrvXovs ouVe l3Xacr(jir)- 
povvras Trjv Oedv ^^ ei odu Ar]p.T]TpLOS koX ol trvv 
avrm Tej^inTai vrpos riua Xoyov 
i'^ovcriv, dyopatOL dyovrai, kcu 
dvdviraTol elcnv iyKaXeiraxrav 
dXXrjXoLS. ^^ et 8i tl irepl ire- 
pcov eTTt^rjTeiTe, iu rfj evv6p.cp e/c- 
KXijcrca eVtAu^T^crerat. ^'^ Ka\ 


ing the hand, would have 
made his defense to the peo- 
ple. But when they knew 34 
that he was a Jew, all with 
one voice, about the space of 
two hours, cried out, Great is 
Artemis of the Ephesians. 

And when the »city-clerk 35 
had appeased the people, he 
says, Ephesians, what man is 
there who knows not that 
the city of the Ephesians 
is a worshipper of the great 
Artemis, and of the image 
which fell down from Jupiter ? 
Seeing then that these things 'M 
cannot be spoken against, you 
ought to be quiet, and to do 
nothing rashly. For you have 37 
brought hither these men, 
who are neither robbers of 
temples, nor yet revilers 
of your "goddess. Therefore, if 38 
Demetrius, and the artisans 
that are with him, have a 
complaint against any man, 
the law is '•open, and there are 
proconsuls: let them accuse 
one another. But if you in- 39 
quire any thing concerning 
other matters, it shall be de- 
termined in the lawful "assem- 

former exclusively, and the latter once by Matt. 14 ; 8. 
"Then was Alexander advanced out of the multitude, the 
Jews having put him forward," Boothr. ; " but when they had 
thrust Alexander out of the crowd, the Jews pushing him 
forward, and he, waving his hand, wished to make a defense 
to the people," Thomp. ; " Waved his hand, and wished to 
make a defense," Murd, Penn. 

' '0 y^a/tftarevs, " scriba in multis Asiaj civitatibvis magl- 
Btratus erat et personam primariam in senatu agebat, leges in 
tabulas referebat earumque conservator et custos erat pra3- 
legebat etiam, qua3 in concione populi pra)legenda erant, ut 
adeo commode voc. y^afifearcvs etiam reddi possit prefectus 
tabularii, archivarius, Canzler, cf. do scribis veterum, eorum- 
que diversis ordinibus Trotzius ad calcera Herman! Hugonis 
libri de prima scribendi origine, p. 436, seq." Kuinoel, in loco, 
p. 298, Tom. 3. 

"In Asia Minor, as coins and inscriptions show, such was 
the title of the heads or chiefs of the municipal government ; 

their duties being to register the public acts and laws, and to 
keep the records," Winer, Hack. 

Necay.o^ov, literally lemple-swecper, was an honorary title 
granted to certain Asiatic cities, because of their care and 
expense bestowed on the temple and worship of their elect 
deities. Kuinoel, 311. 4. There was a similar tradition in 
regard to a statue of Artemis in Tauris (Eurip., Iph., T. 977), 
and also one of Pallas at Athens (Pausan., I., 26. 6). Hack., 
p. 276. 

* 'Je^oavlovs ovts p}.aaipr]fiovt<ras triv d'eav vficov. 'Tficov 
rejected by Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf., as is " &eas " in v. 35. Tov^ 
rove, Gaius and Aristarchus. 

' AyoQacoc = rjfie^ai ayovrai = ayoqaioi, courts are held, 
= the law is open, ch. 16 : 19 ; 17 : 5. Kai avd-vnaioL etai, 
the class is referred to; there being but one in every 

■= Ev rji cvvoftio emXriata. This indicates that their meet- 
ing or assemblage was an illegal one. There may be a syna- 




40 For we are in danger to 
be called in question for this 
day's nproar, there being no 
cause wJjereby we may give an 
account of this concourse. 

41 And when he had thus 
spoken, he dismissed the assem- 


And after the uproar was 
ceased, Paul called unto him 
the disciples, and embraced z/tcm, 
and departed for to go into Ma- 

2 And when he had gone over 
those parts, and had given them 
much exhortation, he came into 

3 And tliere abode three 
months. And when the Jews 
laid wait for him, as he was 
about to sail into Syria, he pur- 
posed to return through Mace- 

4 And there accompanied him 
into Asia, Sopater of Eerea; and 
of the Thessalonians, Aristar- 
chus and Secundus; and Gains 
of Derbe, and Timotheus; and 
of Asia, Tychicus and Trophi- 

5 These going before, tarried 
for us at Troas. 

6 And we wailed away from 


yap KivBvvevofxev iyKaXela-Bat 
a-ToicrecoS' irepl rrj? o-rjfx^pov, jxr]- 
Bevos alrlov v7rdp-)(ovTos Trepl ov 
8vvi](T0fJ.eda aTToSovvac Xoyov rrjs 
(rvcrTpo(j)rjs ravTrj?. Kou ravra 
eliTOiv, oiTreXvcre ttjv iKKXTjcrlau 

MET A 8e TO iravaraaOai top 
Oopvfiov, TTpocrKaX^arapevos 6 
UavXos Tovs ixadrjras, koH acnra- 
adixevos, i^rjXde Tropevdijvat els 
TTjv MaKeSoviav. ^ dteXdav 8e 
rd pepr) eKetva, kol irapaKaXiaas 
avT0V9 Xoycp rroXXS, rjXOev els 
rrjv 'JEXXdBa- ^ TTOirjcras re firj- 
vas rpels, yevopevTjs avrcS eVi- 
^ovXtjs vtto tcou 'JovSaicoif /neX- 
XovTL dvayecrdaL els riqv Svplav, 
eyevero yvtap.-q rov vivocrTpe^eiv 
Sid WaKeBovias. crvveiireTO 8e 
avTM dxpi' Trjs 'AcTLas Scairarpos 
BepOLoios' Oeaa-aXovucicov Se, 
'ApLCTTapxos Koi SeKOvvSos, KOU 
rd'ios Aepfiaios Kal TipoOeos' 
'Aaiavol 8e, Tv)(lkos koI Tp6(j)t.- 
p.os. ^ ovTOL irpoeXOovres epe- 
vov rjpds eu TpcodSi- " i^peis 8e 
e^errXevcrapev perd rds rjpiepas 


bly. For we are in danger 4C 
of being called in question for 
this day's ""uproar, there being 
no cause in reference to which 
we shall be able to give an 
account of this concourse. 
And when he had thus spoken, il 
he dismissed the assembly. 

CilAF. XX, 

And after the "disturbance l 
had ceased, Paul called to 
him the disciples, and em- 
bracing them, departed to go 
into Macedonia. And when 2 
he had gone over those parts, 
and had given them much 
^exhortation, he came into 
Greece, and having spent three 3 
months there, he resolved to 
return through Macedonia, 
the Jews having laid ^wait for 
him, as he was about to em- 
bark for Syria. And there 4. 
■■accompanied him to Asia, So- 
pater of Berea, and of the 
Thessalonians, Aristarchus and 
Secundus; and Gaius of 
Derbe, and Timothy; and of 
Asia, Tychicus and Trophi- 
mus. And these goingbefore, 5 
tarried for us at Troas. And c 
we sailed away from Philippi, 

goguo of Satan, as •well as a synagogue of Jews — so of the 
cliurch — a church of Christ, and a church of Antichrist. 

'' Eyxalsia&ai araascos Ttsqi, to bo summoned, called to 
account, concerning this riot. So would wo designate such 
an assemblage. Riot " at common law is a tumultuous dis- 
turbance of the peace by throe or more persons." Webster. 

' Tov d-oQvpov, ex d-^ooe ot por], clamor, also pugna, hatlle, 
cunlcnlion. In its whole currency in N. T., com. ver., it is 
represented by tumult, uproar. The verb -O-o^vfiso/uai is also 
found tivice in this book, ch. 17 : 5, set on an uproar. With 
us the word disturbance, being generic, rather than specific, 
is, we tliink, preferable in this place. 

E^i]).Oe noQsvO-qvai. This is quite pleonastic. Departed 
to go, departed for, is our present formula. We presume not 
to improve Luke's style by our proTincialisnis. 

f UttQay.alaaas avrovs Xoyqi nolho. This 7taqaxa}.e(o is one 
of Luke and Paul's favorites. They almost monopolize its 
use in the Christian Scriptures. Of more than one hundred 
occurrences in N. T., they use it over eighty times. To exhort, 
to comfort, to heseech, are its most popular representatives. 

" E7ti^ov},i}g. This is exclusively one of Luke's words, and 
found only in this single book of Acts. Laying, or lying in 
wail, are its only representatives, com. ver. lnsidia>, snares, 
stratagems, would be sometimes more definite. It is of ent 
and povXt), because those that lie in tuait for one another 
take counsel together. Crit. Sacra. 

'' ^vvsiTZEZo 8s avrcp. i^vpsTio/zui is an ana^ ).syofievov, 
found only in this place in the N. T. — comilor, to accompany. 
We have ijtio and iitofiai, opcror and sequor, as well as cTtco, 
dico, now out of use in the present tense. Instead of an 
augment, t is inserted after e through all modes. 




Philippi, after the days of un- 
leavened bread, and came luito 
them to Troas in five days; 
where we abode seven days. 

7 And upon the first day of 
the week, when the disciples 
came together to break bread, 
Paul preached unto them, (ready 
to depart on the morrow) and 


Tcou a^v/xcou airo (^lXlttttcov, kcu 
rjXdofxev irpos avrovs ety ttjv 
TpcoaSa a)(pi.9 rjfjiepcou.TrevTe, ov 
SierpL'^aiJiei' r]p.epas eTTTo.. 'JEv 
5e 7-17 /xia TCOU cra/B/SaTCOv, crvv- 
7]ypLivu>v TU)V jjLadrjTav tov kXo.- 
crai apTov, IlavXos dLeXeyero 
avTols, piXXcov i^ievai rfj iirav- 


after the days of unleavened 
bread, and came to them to 
Troas, in five days, where we 
abode seven days. 

And on the first day of 7 
the 'week, when we canie 
together for the breaking a 
'loaf, Paul discoursed with 
them, ready to depart on 

' "And on the first iny of the week, we being assembled 
to break bread;" not rair /ta!>i]Twr, but r,fiaiv, as in the 
com. ver. Ilackett. Tliis is based on the authority of Gries- 
bach, Scliolz, Laclimann, and Tiscliendorfj followed by Wesley, 
who has it, "And on the first day of the week, when we were 
met together, to break bread." 

" Upon the first day of the week which was called the 
Lord's day, the Christian sabbath, to break bread." " The 
Eucharist as the Syriac has it, intimating by this, that they 
were accustomed to receive the holy sacrament on each 
Lord's day." Adam Clark. 

" And on the first day of the week, when we assembled to 
break the Eucharist," Murd. Syr. ver. " And on the first day 
of the week, when the disciples met together to break broad, 
to celebrate the Eucharist," Doddridge. He adds, " it is well- 
known that the primitive Christians administered the Eu- 
charist every Lord's day." 

El' Se Trj fiia Tcav aapparcov. The force, or import, of 
the definitive article is forcibly indicated here. Before Qeoe, 
in the Christian Scriptures, it uniformly represents Qic God 
of all Qic Israel of God, whether in blood, Jew or Gentile. 
It distinguishes Jesus, God, and Christ always as the subject 
of a proposition from every other Grod, Jesus, or Christ. 
There were many Gods, Jesuses, and Christs in the days of 
the Apostles ; but they were not honored by any inspired 
man with the article o. See Acts 7 : 45 ; Ileb. 4:8; Col. 
4:11, etc. 

The article before /«« rificQn, or before fua, without rjfieQa, 
ill the New Test., is always indicative of one and the samp 
day. It therefore indicates, in this connection, the day of 
the meetings of the first Christians, to remember and lienor 
the day of the Lord's resurrection. On this day the Holy 
Sinrit descended, in Jerusalem, on the first Christian church 
in full assembl}' met. For rmv ftaO'rjrcov tov, ij/icov is sub- 
stituted by Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. We met — we met "to break 
bread," or to Ireah a loaf. 

K).aaie, fraclio, Luke 24 : 35 ; Acts 2 : 42, is its whole 
currency in the N. Test. The meeting of, or on, the first day 
of the wc42k, alluded to here, and in the Epistle of Paul to 
the Corinthians, was for this purpose ; hence their contribu- 
tions were, on this day, to be made bj' special requirement 
from Paul. 1 Cor. 16 : 2. This also indicates Christian 

oflerings to the Lord, in behalf of liis cause and people. 
There is no- specific reason assigned for this assembling, but 
communion in xvorsliip, and communion in conlrihuling to the 
Lord's cause and people. Paul to the Corinthians commands 
the latter, and the practice of the Christian church at Troas 
is commendatory of the former. 

If Bagstcr's Greek text must in all cases be preferred, we 
should then read it, "And on the first day of the week, the 
disciples having assembled to break a loaf." 

And on the first of the week, cv Se rr; fua tiov on/H^nrcov. 

Eis is here tantamount to TtQcoros. See Blatt. 28 : 1, ox/'e 
Se aUjSflarcoi), the end of the sahhath. Oipe, vcspcra, serum 
did — late of the day. The period of the day sunset and mid- 
night. It ceased at midnight; only used by Matthew and 
Mark. The otps, or end of the sab-jatli, was the sTtiytoayovon 
— the dawning — eis fuav aafSflaTcov, of the first of the week. 
In the instance before us, rj/iEQa is understood as indicated by 
/iia — the day of the week, and not the time of the day. 

The first Aa.j of the week and the first day of creation arc 
solemnly associated in the memory of the Christian. Light, 
in the drama of creation, was the first ofl'spring of creative 
power. " Ilail ! holj' light, of heaven _/i7-6'< 6o)-a.'" Thus by 
his bidding God made darkness the mother of light. Light 
sprang from eternal darkness at the bidding of God, and Jesus 
from the night of the grave brought immortality to light. 
Hence Christ's first communion with his disciples was upon 
this day. Hence its consecration to the memory of that 
event. Hence it became the day of solemn and joyful assem- 
blies. Conventibus Christianorum sacris et eucharistice cele- 
bratum fuisse ex hoc loco patet. Vide Mosheimius, de rebus 
Christi, ante Constantini Mosh., p. IIG, Kuin., cum multis aliis. 

i A^Tos occurs some ninety times in tlie N. T. In com. 
ver. it is always translated loaves in the plural number; but 
in the singular number, one case excepted, always hrcad. 
In the case excepted there was a sort of necessity for trans- 
lating it loaf, because a whole ship's company had but one 
loaf. In that case to have translated it one hread, would 
have been wholly inapposite. Such laxity is peculiarly faulty, 
in a case, where Paul argues the unity of the church from 
the fact that in its assemblies they had but "one loaf," of 
which they all partook. In this case the argument makes 
loaf, and not bread, indispensable. See ch. 2 : 42. 




continued his speccli until mid- 

8 And there were many lights 
in the upper cliamber, where 
they were gathered together. 

9 And there sat in a window 
a certain young man named Eu- 
tychus, being fallen into a deep 
sleep: and as Paul was long 
preaching, he sunk down with 
sleep, and fell down from the 
third loft, and was taken up 

10 And Paul went down, and 
fell on him, and embracing him, 
said. Trouble not yourselves; for 
his life is in him. 

11 When he therefore was 
come up again, and had broken 
bread, and eaten, and talked a 
long while, even till break of 
day, so he departed. 

12 And they brought the 
young man alive, and were not 
a little comforted. 

13 And we went before to 
ship, and sailed unto Assos, there 


piou, Traperuve re tou Xoyov 
IJ-^XP'' /J-^o-ovvKTLov Tjcrav 5e 
Xa/j-irades iKaval iu tcS virepooco 
01) -qaav avvi]yp.euot. " Kadrjixt- 
vos Se TLs ueaviay opo/xari JEv- 
TV)(os eVi TTjs Ovpidos, KaTa(j)€po- 
fieuo^ viruco /SadeL, SiaXeyo/xeuov 
Tov UavXov i-Tn irXdov, kut- 
ez/ex^ety avro tov vttpov, eireaeu 
airo TOV Tpiareyov Kara), kol 
■rjpdT] veKpos. " KaTajSay 8e 6 
llavXos iTreireaev avTcS, kol crvp.- 
TrepiXafimv dire, Mr] 0opv/3ec- 
ade' 7) yap "^v^y avrov iu avT<5 
eaTLv. ^^ 'Avafias Se Koi kXcc- 
aras apTOv kol yevcra/jieifos, eV/)' 
LKavov re op.LXr](ras oc)(pi9 avyrjs, 
ovTcos igrjXdev, -rjyayov 5e 

TOV Tralda ^covTa, koI irapeKXrj- 
6r]crav ov pLeTplcos. ^ 'IIp,eLS 8e 
7rpoeXdovT€9 eVt to ttXoIou, dvrj- 
X^VP-eu eis" ttji/ ' Acrarou, eKelOeu 


the morrow, and continued 
his speech till midnight. And 8 
there were many lamps in the 
uf)per ''chamber, where we 
were assembled together. And 9 
there sat in the open window 
a certain young man, named 
Eutychus, who had fallen into 
a deep sleep : and as Paul 
was long 'discoursing, he 
sunk down with sleep, and 
fell from the third story, and 
was taken up dead. And lo 
Paul went down, and fell 
upon him, and embracing him, 
said, Be not troubled, for his 
"'life is in him. And when he li 
had come up, and liad broken 
the "loaf, and eaten, and talk- 
ed a long while, even till day^- 
break, so he departed. And 12 
they brought the young man 
"alive, and were not a little 
comforted. And we went for- 13 
ward to the ''ship, and sailed to 

i< For tjaap read ijuep, Gb., Sell., Ln., Tf. Haav de laftna- 
deg ly.arai — ev rri> v!Ts^ri>ip, in tlio upper room. 

■ jduAsyofiEvov 10V Hav'kov em nXeiov, while Paul was long 
discoursing, not preaching. In modern times, wo conlbund 
2Jreaching, discoursing, and leaching. This is a frequent 
source of confusion and error, in many minds. When and 
where the Apostles, once and again, use two words in the 
same connection, we ought also to use two. See ch. 5 ; 42, 
where both words occur in the same period as indicating two 
distinct works, preaching and teaching. 

For rcov iiaSrjrcop tov, Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. substitute iifimv ; 
making it read, We. having assembled to Jircah hread, Paul 
discoursed loilh them, instead of, " The disciples came together 
' to break a loaf,' or ' to break bread,' and Paul discoursed to 
them." We cannot make \t preached to them; for, in com. 
ver., in no other passage than this, is dialsyofiai rendered to 
preach. .In its thirteen occurrences in the Christian Scrip- 
tures, ten of which are in this book, it is represented by 
dispute six times, bj'^ reason four times, and once by " sp)ealc- 
eth." The distinctions which etymology would suggest, are 
not alwaj's regarded with minute accuracy in the Hellenistic 
dialect. It seems certain that this dialect has been much in- 
fluenced in its forms and significations by the ordinary use of 
the Hebrew, or, to speak more correctly, the Syro-Chaldaie. 

JiaJ.eyo/iat is better rendered by dissero than by any other 

Roman word. Dissero, to discourse, to declare. " Dissert 
cum aliquo de re aliqud, in utramque 2^(irtem." Cicero. To 
discourse with any one concerning anything on either side, 
pro or con. 

m 5pv^,y — for his life is in him — soul, or life, are equally its 

" Top aqrov, Tf., Ln., Mey., Hack., not a loaf, but the loaf. 
revaaftevoe, V. 11, and having calen. Love-feasts were usual, 
in connection with the Eucharist, or Lord's supper generally 
preceding it. Here, as they sat very late, it may have been a 
refreshment before separating. 

Klaaag uqtov xai yevoafisvos. This was an ordinary mea! 
for refreshment. The same formula, xXaaas aQxov, breaking 
bread, or, breaking a loaf at that day, and amongst that peo- 
ple, intimated any refreshment by food, special, or common. 

"■ Hyayov — they brought him into the assembly ^covra, 
living, alive ; TinoexX/jO'ijaai' ov /terQicoe, and were not a little 

P "And we went before him to the ship," Penn. "We 
went before to the ship," Thomp. " We going before into 
ship," A7es. " Then we went forward to the vessel," Wakef. 
" But we went before into the ship," Dodd. " And we went 
on, board the ship," Murd. "And we went before to the 
ship," Boothr. Doctors differ in small, as well as in great, 




intending to take in Paul: for so 
liad he appointed, minding liim- 
self to go afoot. 

14 And when he met witli us 
at Assos, we took liim in, and 
came to Mityleiie. 

15 And wc sailed thence, and 
came tlie next day over against 
Cliios; and the next day we ar- 
rived at Samos, and tarried at 
Trogyllium; and the next day 
we came to Miletus. 

10 For Paul had determined 
to sail by Ephesus, because he 
would not S2:)end the time in 
Asia: for he hasted, if it were 
possible for him, to be at Jeru- 
salem the day of Pentecost. 

17 And from Miletus he sent 
to Ephesus, and called the ciders 
of the church. 

IS And when they were come 
to him, he said unto tliem. Ye 
know, from the first day that I 
came into Asia, after what man- 
ner I have been with you at all 

19 Serving the Lord with all 
humility of mind, and with many i 
tears and temj^jtations, which be-| 


fxeXXovTfiS avaXafx^aveiv roi> 
TIavXov ovTUi yap rju SLarera- 
yixivos, jxiXXav avros Tre^eveiv. 
^'^ ajs- Se crvuefiaXeu rj/uu eh tt]u 
' Ao-crov, avaXafiovres avTov rjX- 
dofxev els MltvXt]vi]V' " KUKel- 
deu aTTOirXevcravTes, rfj einovcrrj 
KaTiivTrjcrafiev avTLKpv J^iov Trj 
Be irepa TrapefiaXo/xeu els 2a- 
fxov Kal ixelvavres ev TpcoyvX- 
Xlm, rfj e)(oixevrj rjX0ofieu els Ml- 
Xtitov. ^^ eKpive yap 6 IlavXos 
TTapairXevcraL ti]u' JE(f)ecrov, oircos 
[xrj yevrjTaL avrm ■)(^povorpi^rjcraL 
eu rfj 'Acria- ecnrevSe yap, el 
Svparov 7}U avrcS, rrjv 7]p.epav 
rrjs IlevTTjKocrTris yevecrOai els 
' IepocroXvp.a. 

'Atto de Trjs MlXi^tov irep.- 
•yj/as els ' jE(l)ecrou, p-ereKaXecraTO 
Tovs irpea^vrepovs ttjs IkkXt]- 
crlas. ^^ o)? 8e irapeyevovTo rrpos 
avTov, elirev avrots, 'Yfxels eV/- 
(TTaade, airo wpcorrjs rjp.epas d(j)' 
rjs €7rel3r]u els ttjv 'Acriav, ttois 
p.e6 vp.S)v Tov TTavra )(poi/ou 
eyevopjYjv, BovXevcov tS Kvpia 
pieTa Tvaarjs Ta7reivo(j)po(rvur]s kol 
TToXXcov SaKpvcov Kal TrecpacrpLcou, 


Assos, there intending to take 
in Paul : for so he had "lappoint- 
ed, intending himself to go on 
foot. And when he met us U 
at Assos, we took him in, and 
came to Mitylone. And hav- is 
ing sailed thence, we came 
the next day over against 
Chios; and the next day we 
arrived at Samos, and remained 
at Trogyllium; and the next 
day we came to Miletus; for i: 
Paul had determined to sail 
past Ephesus, that he might 
not spend the time in Asia; 
for he hastened, if it were 
possible for him, to be at Je- 
rusalem on the day of Pente- 
cost. And from Miletus he 17 
sent to Ephesus, and called 
for the 'elders of the con- 
gregation. And when they 18 
were come to him, he said to 
them : Yoa. well know from 
the first day that I came into 
Asia, '■'•in what manner I have 
always been with you, serving 19 
the Lord with all humility of 
mind, and with many tears 

matters. TVc most incline to ATakcfleld, though wo had so 
rendered it, before we consulted him. As confirmatory of our 
version of it, wc find in Mark 14 : 35. it i.s so rendered com. 

1 Ourco ytiQ ap Siarerayfespog. Taaaco, Staraoaa), nporaa- 
ao/iai, SiaTeray/tevog, are of one livmily in their root, and 
more frequently used by Luke than any other N. T. writer; 
raaaco five times used by Luke, and four times by all other 
inspired writers. 

JlQOTaoao/iat — only by Luke, and only once — before ap- 
pointed, ch. 17 : 20 ; and Siarnoaco sixteen times in N. T., 
nine of which by Luke, translated, com. ver., hy command, 
appoint, ordain, set in order, here appointed; ordaiiied to 
eternal life, ch. 13 : 48. The civil magistrates are ordained 
of God, Horn. 13 : 1, yet inaugurated by man. Tarrcoi or 

raaao) — ch. 13 : 48 — as many as were ordained to eternal life, 
believed — as were disposed, or determined for eternal life. 
" Determined," Boothr., Dodd. ; " so disposed," Wakef. Luke 
is not speculating or philosophizing on the subject. It is de- 
clared as a fact, a Divine and glorious fact. God granted to 
the Gentiles the benefit of repentance oven to everlasting 

■■ JjQBa^vTEQovg. The word, occurring sixty-seven times in 
New Testament, is, with one exception, represented by elders, 
once old, and once eldest, in the plural. 

'"'" Jloie, "how," "after what manner," "hy what means." 
It is both declarative and interrogative in N. Test, currency, 
in our idiomatic style. In what manner is, with us, as wo 
judge, in better taste. 




fell mo by the lying in wait of 
the Jews: 

20 And how I kept back noth- 
ing that was profitable unto you, 
but have shewed you, and have 
taught you publicly, and from 
house to house, 

21 Testifying both to the 
Jews, and also to the Greeks, 
repentance toward God, .and 
faith toward our Lord Jesus 

22 And now behold, I go 
bound in the spirit unto Jeru- 
salem, not knowing the things 
that shall befall me there : 

23 Save that the Holy Ghost 
witnesseth in every city, saying, 
tliat bonds and alHictioris abide 

24 But none of these things 
move me, neither count I my 
life dear unto myself, so that I 
might finish my course with joy, 
and the ministry which I have 
received of the Lord Jesus, to 
testify the gospel of the grace 
of God. 



/3oi;Aa?f Tciu 'lovdaicop- ^° tw? 
ovSeu v7reaT6i.Aafx,r]u rcov crvfj.(j)e- 
pouTcov, Tov fxr] dvayyeiXat v/juv 
Kol Sidd^ai v/xds Sij/xoaia /cat 
Kar o'lkovs, ^^ Sia/xapTvpo/JLevos' 
'lovBaiois re /cat ' EXX-qan rrjv 
els TOV Oeov fxeravoiau, /cat TTt- 

(TTIV TTfJV ds TOV KvpLOV rjpiSiV 

ISoi) iyco 8edep.evos t(S irvevfiaTL, 
TTopevop-aL ety lepovaaXrjfx, Ta 
iv avTrj avvavTrjcrovTa fxot, jjutj 
dSm, ^^ TrXyv qtl to Uvevixa 
TO ' AyLOV KaTa ttoXcv SiafxapTV- 
peTui Xeyov, otl dea-fxa jxe kcu 
dXt-yf/eis fxevovcTLV. ^'^ dXX' ou8e- 
vos Xoyov, ovSe kyoi ttjv 
\l/u)(7]v p.ov Tip.iav ip.avTcS, co? 
TeXeLcoaai tov hpojxov pov p&Ta 
■^apds, /cat ttjv dLUKOviav rjv eXa- 
fiov irapd tov Kvplov 'Irjcrov, 
BiapiapTvpaa-BaL to evayyeXiov 
Trjs -^dpiTOs TOV 0€ov. ^^ /cat 


and trials, which befell me 
by the plots of the Jews : 
and that I have kept back 20 
nothing that was profitable, 
but have declared to you, 
and have taught you both 
publicly, and from house to 
house, testifying both to the 21 
Jews and Greeks, 'reforma- 
tion "toward God, and faith 
toward our Lord Jesus Christ. 
And now behold, I go bound 22 
in spirit to Jerusalem, not 
knowing the things which 
will befall me there: except 23 
that the Holy Spirit testifies 
in every city, saying, that 
bonds and afflictions await me. 
But none of these things move 24 
me, neither count I my life 
dear to myself, so that I may 
finish my course with joy, and 
the ministry which I have re- 
ceived from the Lord Jesus, 
to 'testify the gospel of the 
grace of God. And now be- 25 

' MeTcci'oia. Sou di. 2 : 38. 

•• Eis tov KvQwf—cig top 6eov — eis. In tlio philosophy 
of this preposition there is motion, progress; not repose, not 
absohite rest. AVhereas ev is indicative of repose, rest, quies- 

Eopontance, or reformation, toward (Jod, is, to say tlie least, 
awkward and chunsy ; and faitli toward tlie Loi'd Jesus is no 
bettor. It is, however, so consecrated and familiar tliat we 
realize not its dissonance with either reason or taste. Ward, 
toward, from the Saxon weard, and this i'rora Ihe radix of the 
lloman verto, versus to turn — toirnrd. Motion to is the incipient 
idea. ]\[otion to, into, unto, or on to. Ilencc the splendidly 
awkward conception, from giorij to glory — an eternal ascent. 
Ecpontanoe, or reformation, toward God, and failh toward 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Godward, Christward, are equally 
proper, in and of themselves. Froward is only (vomward, or 
turning from. 

Why God should be the special object of rcjmitance, or 
reformation, and our Lord Jesus Christ the special object of 
faith in the Apostolic teachings, is an interesting question, on 
which one remark at present must suffice. Sin terminates upon 
God in its dishonoring- him, and faith upon Jesus Christ as 
honoring him in expiating it. 

I ^lanaorvQaaOai to evnyyeliov rijg '/rcQirog tov 0eou. Of 
fifteen occurrences of this word in N. Test., ten are found in 
Luke's narratives; to witness, to teslifij, to charge, arc its rep- 
resentatives in his writings, com. ver. 'J'lirco times charge, in 
Paul's Epistles to Timothy and Titus. "Tcstificor, ohtestor,per- 
gens testificari," Beza. " Bxprimitur vis prcpositionis Sia, vel 
potius cxacte testificans ut praipositio Sta notet peuctralionom," 
Piscator. In the Septuagint it is in all cases the representative 
of Tisn- Leigh's Crit. Sacra. It properly indicates, / call God 
to witness that the following words indicate the truth. It indicates 
to us the solemn and earnest manner in which the apostle Paul 
preached the gospel. 




25 And now behold, I know 
tliat ye all, among wiiom I have 
gone preaching the kingdom of 
God, shall see my face no more. 

26 Wherefore I take you to 
record this day, that I am pure 
from the blood of all men, 

27 For I have not shunned to 
declare unto you all the counsel 
of God. 

2S Take heed therefore unto 
yourselves, and to all the flock 
over the which the Holy Ghost 
hath made you overseers, to 
feed the church of G''d, which 
he hath jiurchased with his own 

29 For I know this, that 
after my departing shall griev- 
ous wolves enter in among you, 
not sparing the flock. 

30 Also of your own selves 
shall men arise, speaking per- 
verse things, to draw away dis- 
ciples after them. 


vvu l8ov iyco oiSa, ore ovKerc 
o'yf/eo-Oe TO TrpoacoTTOv fxov v^^ls 
iravres, iv ol? 8iT]Xdou Krjpvarcrcov 
TTju ^aaiXdav tov Oeov. ^^ 8io 
/xapTvpo/xai. vpuv iu rrj cn]pepov 
rjjxepa, on Kadapos iyco airo tov 
alpiaTOs iravTcov ^ ov yap vire- 
(TT6iXap,r]v TOV p.7] OLvayyeTkai 
vplv irauav ti]u fiovXrjv tov 
Oeov. ^^ 7rpo(Te)(eT6 ovv eavTols 
Kol TTavTL T(3 TTOifivicp, iu w vpas 
TO Uvevpa TO Ayiov edeTO iin- 

(TKOTVOVS, TTOipLalveiU TT]V IkkXtj- 

cTiav TOV Oeov, rjv TrepceTroLrja-aTO 
Sia TOV ISiov aLp.aTos. ^^ eyco 
yap oiSa tovto, otl el(reXevcrov- 
Tac peTO. Tr]u a(f)i^Li> p.ov Xvkol 
jiapeis els vpas, p.r] (peiSop-evoi, 


aviSiV ava(TTT]crovTai auSpes Xa- 
XovuTes ^LeaTpappeva, tov oltto- 
(Twav T0V9 padTjTas ottlctco av- 


hold, I know that you all, 
among whom I have gone 
preaching the kingdom of 
God, will see my face no 
more, wherefore I take you 2fi 
to "witness this day, that I 
am clear from the blood of all. 
For I have kept nothing back, 27 
but have declared to you the 
whole "counsel of God. Take 2S 
heed, therefore, to yourselves, 
and to all the flock in 
which the Holy Spirit has 
constituted you "»overseers, to 
feed the congregation of the 
Lord, which he has purchased 
with his own blood. For I 2U 
know this, that after my de- 
parture fierce wolves will 
enter in among you, not 
sparing the flock. Also from so 
among your ownselves, men 
will arise, speaking ^jjerverse 
things, to draw away disciples 

" 'On xaO'UQos £yio an:o rov aluaros ttuvtcov. Eyco y.aOa- 
rios — in apposition — no verb intervening, ahv.aj's imply the 
substantive voi'b. It seems most probable that eyw — pro- 
bably from the Bccotian /wj/a — gave to \is the pronoun J, 
which, in the absence of evcr3'- verb, indicates / am. Here, 
then, associated only vith an adjective, euii is essentially 

Tov at/taros, literally, the Moody but, substantivelj'', the 
life ; for the blood is the scabbard of the life of every 
earthly animated being. Jlavxmv, of course, in this same 
sententious oracle, implies avdqcomov. 

Ev irj orjfisQov I'juetia, in the Attic style, or dialect, is 
tantamount to t;;Je weoa, hoc die, this very day, liodiernus 
dies. This is superlatively formal and impressive. 

" Tr]v ^ovXijv — fiovXi; is one of Luke's favorites. In its 
twelve occurrences in the Christian Scriptures, he employs 
it nine times. In arguing the internal evidences of the 
Christian records, one who is attentive to the peculiar style 
of the inspired writers, could testify to their respective style, 
as wo testify to the faces of men. The man that wrote the 
Acts of the Apostles, could not have written the testimonies 
of Matthew, Mark, or John ; nor could any one of them, by 
anj' possibility, h.ave written the two books of Luke. 

1"he counsel of God is not the advice, opinion, consuUution, 
jDiK.'ciicc, or deliberation, but the purpose, design, ivill, direction, 
command of God. It is used in these difl'orent shades, all 
comprehended in his revealed will. 

"" E:iwy.o7tovs, hishnps, ovcvscevs. Instead of one bishop to 

.1 whole diocess, the church at Ephesus had a plurality of 
bishops over it. 

For @eov, Gb., Ln., Tf. have, I judge, with more propriety, 
if not with more authorit}'', substituted xv^tov. Davidson's 
Lectures on Biblical Criticism. Hack. 

'JJp Tte^isTtoirjaaro 3ia tov iSiov aitiaros. IlsQiTtoicofiai, 
found only here and 1 Tim. 3 : 13, jyurchase ; "purchased hy 
his Hood," "purchased a good degree," , (1 Tim. 3 : 13), 
whence is derived the word Tte^mottiaig. 

This word, tte^motrjaig, is found /Zue times only in N. Test. ; 
and, in com. ver,, is represented by purchased 'possession, 
Eph. 1 : 14 ; ohlain salvation, 1 Thess. 5:9; ohlaining 
glory, 2 Thess. 2:14; saving the soul, Heb. 10 : 39 ; a 
2>eculiar people ; a j^eople of acquirement. Greek Concordance. 
Such is the entire history of the inspired use and currency 
of this litigated word. Like all other words of much con- 
secrated currency, it has passed through a fiery furnace. 

According to the Critica Sacra, peculium, Ep. 1 : 14; 
acquisitio, 1 Thess. 5:9; ecclesia — the church of God is 
so called, which Peter calls (1 Ep. 2 : 9) 2'optdus acquisi- 
tionis, his acquired or purchased people. AcquisiviL per 
sanguinem suum ; id est, per mortem cruenlein Filii sui. 
Grotius. Conscrvalio, Heb. 10 : 39; 1 Pet. 2 : 9. Aaoe 
eis TtsQiTtoujoiv ; a peculiar people; ^^ ti people for purchas- 
ing." According to the Greek, for so the verb is used, 
Acts 20 : 28 ; also 2 Thess. 2 : 14. Grit. Sacr., p. 207. 

^ ^tear^afifieva. This is also one of Luke's words: of its 
seven occurrences, it is five times employed by him. Ho 



KING jambs' version. 

31 Therefore watcli, and re- 
member, tliat by tlie space of 
tlirec years I ceased not to warn 
every one night and day with 

32 And noAv, brethren, I com- 
mend you to God, and to the 
■word of liis grace, which is able 
to build you up, and to give you 
an inheritance among all them 
Avhicli are sanctified. 

33 I have coveted no man's 
silver, or gold, or apparel. 

34 Yea, ye yourselves know, 
that these hands liave ministered 
unto my necessities, and to them 
that were witli me. 

35 I have shewed you all 
tilings, how that so labouring 
ye ouglit to support the weak, 
and to remember the words of 
the Lord Jesus, how he said. It is 
more blessed to give than to re- 

36 And when ho had thus 
spoken, he kneeled down, and 
prayed Avith them all. 

37 And they all Avept sore, 
and fell on Paul's neck, and 
kissed him. 

38 Sorrowing most of all for 
the words wliicli he spake, that 
tliey should see his face no more. 
And they accompanied him unto 
the ship. 


Tav. ^ dio ypi]yope'LT€, /J,vr]/j.o- 
vevovre? ore Tpisrlau vvKra koI 
y/xepau ovk iiravcra/xrjv jxera 8a- 
Kpvcoi/ i/ovderai/ eua eKaaTov. 
•^^ /cat Tavvv irapaTiOeixaL v[ias, 
a8£X(j)ol, Tw Oecp koI tS Xoyca 
Trjs )(aptT09 avrov, t(S dvi'ap.ei'co 
€7rocKo8op.r]a-ac Kol 8o0i/ai vfuu 
KX7]povop.Lav iv Tols rjyLacrp.e.voLs 
TracTLu. apyvpLov rj ^pucriov 

rj 1/xaTicrf.tov ovSepos i'm6vp.T]ara- 
^' avTOL 8e yLvaxTKere otl tols 
■)(peiai.s p-ov Koi rots odcn /xer 
ejuov vTrrjpeTrjcrav al ^e?pe^ aiirai,. 
^■^ Trdvra i)7re8ec^a. vplv, otl ovtco 
KOTnavras Set duriXajiLfiauecrdai 
Tcov dadevovvTav, pLvr^povevuv re 
Twv Xoycov Tov Kvp'iov 'Irjaov, 
OTL avTos eiwe, MaKapiov Icttl 
8L8ovaL fxaXkov ?; Xap-fidveiv. 
^ Kai ravTa clircov 6eis to. yova- 
ra avTov, aw irda-LV avTois Trpocr- 
ijv^aro. 'iKavos 8e iyeuero 

KXavdp.os TrdvTcov kcu ^TTLirecrov- 
rep eTTt tov TpayrjXov tov Jlav- 
Xov, KaTe(j)lXovv auTov ^^ 68v- 
vcopievoL p-aXtaTa eVi tcS Xoyco w 

elpr]K€L, OTL OVKeTL p.eXX0V(TL TO 

irpocranrov avTOv decopeiv. irpo- 
eirepnrov 5e avrov ds to irXotov. 


after them. Therefore watch, 31 
and remember, that during 
three years I ceased not to 
Avarn every one night and day 
Avith tears. And noAV, "bretli- 32 
ren, I commend you to God, 
and to the Avord of his grace, 
which is able to build you up, 
and to give you an inheritance 
among all tliem who are sanc- 
tified. I have coA^eted no 33 
man's silver, or gold, or ap- 
parel. You yourselves knoAV, 34 
that tliese hands have minis- 
tered to my necessities, and 
to those that Averc Avitli me. 
I have shown you in all re- 35 
spccts that by so laboring 
you ought to support the Aveak, 
and to remember the Avords 
of the Lord Jesus, that ho liim- 
sclf said. It is more blessed to 
give than to receive. And 36 
when he had said this, he 
kneeled down, and prayed Avith 
them all. And they all Avept 37 
much, and having fallen on 
Paul's neck, they kissed him, 
sorrowing especially for the 38 
words Avhich he had spoken, 
that they Avould see his face no 
more. And they accompanied 
him to the ship. 

quotes it once ii-oni tlic Saviouf. Literally the vei-b Siaarostpm, 
perverto, distorqueo. Hero it is perversa ct dcpravata. Via; iin- 
pioriim dicuntur iiorverste. Grit. Sacra. Distorqueo, to distort, 
is its most literal representative. 

" ASc^.ipoi, omitted by Lii., Tf., as also v/av, after Sovvca. 
Both are, indeed, implied. Ep roig rjycaa/iievote naatv, amongst 
all the sanctified. Aytj is the root of a large family, a nega- 

tive of YV — not of the earth — the siti-polhited earth. Sancti- 
fication as well as justification and adoption, indicate both an 
act and a state. There is one that justifies, sanctifies, adopts 
and saves, as well as pardons a fallen man. There is a stale 
of justification, of sanctifcation, of adoption and of sulvation. 
In states there arc no degrees, in charactei' (here is an indefinito 




And it came to pass, that after 
we were gotten from them, and 
had launched, we came with a 
straight course unto Coos, and 
the day following unto Rhodes, 
and from thence unto Patara: 

2 And finding a ship sailing 
over unto PJienicia, we went 
aboard, and set forth. 

3 Now when we had dis- 
covered Cyprus, we left it on 
the left hand, and sailed into 
Syria, and landed at Tyre; for 
there the ship was to unlade her 

4 And finding disciples, we 
tarried tliero seven days: who 
said to Paul through the Spirit, 
that he should not go up to Je- 

5 And when we had accom- 
plished those days, we departed, 
and went our way ; and they all 
brought us on our way, with 
wives and children, till we tocrc 
oat of tlie city: and we kneeled 
down on the shore, and pra3red. 

G And when we had taken 
our leave one of another, we 



'f2S 8e iyeuero ava)(6rivaL 
rjfxois awoaiTaardivTas arr avr&v, 
evOvSpofXTjaavTes rjXdofxev ety ttju 
Kwv, TTj 8e e^rjS els ti]V Podov, 
KUKeWev eh Jldrapa. ^ kcil eu- 
povT€s ttXoIov Siairepai' els ^ol- 
viKijv, eiri^avres avrj^OTjpiev. 
^ 8e r-qv Kvirpov, 
Koi KaTaXiiTovTes avrrju evcovv- 
jjLOv, eirXeopiev els Svpiau, /cat 
KaTr])(dr] els Tvpov eKelae 
yap rjv to ttXolov aTro(j)opTL^o- 
fjLevov TOP yopiov. '^ kcu avev- 
povres Tovs /J.adr}Tas, errep-eiva- 
[xev avTOV rjjxepas eirra- o'lrLves 
T(S JJavXcp eXeyov 8ia rov irvev- 
/jLutos, P-t] ava^alveiv els 'lepov- 
craXi^p.. "^ ore 8e eyevero r] 
e^apTLcraL ras rj/xepas, e^eXOov- 
res eTTOpevopeOa, irpoirepiTrovTcov 
rjp.S.s Travrmv aw yvuai^l /cat 
TeKVOLS ecos e^co rrjs iroXeas, kcu 
devres to. yovara eirl tov alyia- 
Xov irpocrrjv^dpieOa. ^ koL daira.- 
(Tap.evQi dXXi]Xovs, eTrejBrjp.ev els 


When now it came to pass, 
that we put to sea, having de- 
parted from ythera, we came 
with a straight course to Cos, 
and the day following to Rho- 
des, and thence to Patara. 
And having found a ship cross- 
ing 'over to Phenicia, we went 
on board, and set sail. Now 
having had a view of Cyprus, 
and having left it behind on 
the "left hand, we sailed to 
Syria, and landed at Tyre : for 
there the ship was to unlade 
her cargo. And having sought 
out the ''disciples, we remained 
there seven days; who said to 
Paul, through the Spirit, that 
he should not go up to Jeru- 
salem. But having '^complet- 
ed the days, we went on 
our way; and they all with 
their wives and children con- 
ducted us on our way, till we 
were out of the city; and 
having kneeled down on the 
shore, we prayed. And hav- 
ing embraced one another. 

y ATioaTtriaOcj'zae. A:Toa:tam is, with one exception, found 
only in Luke, represented, com. ver., by draw, zvithdraw, draw 
aivay : liero, qfler wc were gotten, away. " Separated from 
thorn," Dodd., AVakcf. ; " having dcpavted from them," Do 
AYctte, Rob., Murd. ; " torn away?'' Wes., Penn ; separated 
from," Hoothr. " Having torn ourselves from them " is too 
violent; we prefer, having departed from thom. 

' ^diaitBomv. ^inTtuQitco, in its six occurrences in N. T., is 
represented by 2^asscd over, gone over, only hero sailing over, 
com. ver. This is an implied use of the word, for which wo 
sue no propriety. We might as well say, in speaking of one 
2mssing over a country, that he walked over it, which is not 
implied in Stanenrnv; better say crossing over, leaving the 
manner to tho discretion of the reader. 

" KarahTtovres «dt/;7' cvcovvfiov, on the loft, an adjective, 
not an adverb. " Proprie aQtarcnos est sinister," Kuinool, 
Hack. ; " sed cmn dextrcc partes apud voteros boni liabeban- 
tur ominis; sinistrto autcm infelicis, indo factum ut Grtcci 

ipsius nominis mentionom formidarent, ot pro, aQtare^os fre- 
quenter diceront svaipv/toi', quasi dicas bone nominatum," 
Kuin., in loco. Ava^airnvTSi Se r>;v KvTtQoj', " and having 
had a view of Cyprus." Avntpaivio is found only hero, and in 
Luke 19 : 11. There it is translated appear, literal]}-, having 
had Cjiprus brought xip to sight. 

^ Kai la'evQovrss tovs liaOTiias. The article and the pre- 
position in these words are untranslated in com. ver. ; fully 
expressed it should bo read, and having sought out the disci- 
jilcs. Ai', employed only by Luke, and by him but 
twice, is translated by found, Luke 2 : IG, and hero by find- 
ing. Had it boon, this would have sufficed; but the 
preposition is thereby regarded as redundant, and untrans- 
lated ; a license of dangerous precedent. 

' ESn^Tt^co, in its second occurrence, 2 Tim. 3 : 17, is ren- 
dered thoroughly furnished, hero, fully accomplished ; with us, 
" co?npletcd," Boothr. ; " tho days wore ended," Thompson, 
Wakcf ; "finished," AVcs. 




took ship; and they returned 
home again. 

7 And when we had finished 
om- course from Tyre, we came 
to Ptolemais, and saluted the 
brethren, and abode with them 
one day. 

S And the next day we that 
were of Paul's company depart- 
ed, and came unto Cesarea; and 
we entered into the house of 
Philip the evangelist, which was 
one of the seven ; and abode with 

9 And the same man had four 
daugthers, virgins, which did 

10 And as we tarried there 
many days, there came down 
from Judea a certain prophet, 
named Agabus. 

11 And when he was come 
unto us, he took Paul's girdle, 
and bound his own hands and 
feet, and said. Thus saith the 
Holy Ghost, So shall the Jews 
at Jerusalem bind the man that 
owneth this girdle, and shall de- 
liver /tm into the hands of the 

12 And when we heard these 
things, both we, and they of that 
place, besought him not to go 
up to Jerusalem. 


TO irXoLov, eKelvoL 8e vTrecrrpe-^au 
els TO, 'iSia. ^ 'Hfj.e'Ls Se tov 
ttXovv SiavvaravTes otfiro Tvpov 
KaTTjuTT^cra/JLev els UroXefiaiSa, 
Kot acnraa-afxevot tovs a.8eX(j)ovs 
ifielva/iev ^/xepap ixlav Trap' av- 
TOLS- ^ TTJ 8e iiravptov e^eXdov- 
Tes oi wepl tov UavXov tjXOov 
els KaLcrdpeLaw kol elaeXOovTes 
els TOV oIkov €>LX'uKTrov tov evay- 
yeXio'Tov, tov ovtos e'/c twv eiVTa, 
ep.eLvap.ev Trap avTw. ^ tovtco 
he ifcrav dvyarepes Trapdevot Tecr- 
crapes Trpo(j)7]T€vov(TaL. ^^ eVi- 
p.evovTCOv 8e rjpLCov 7]p.epas ttXcl- 
ovs, KaTrjXde tis cltto tt)s Iov- 
Salas TrpocprjTrjS ovofxaTL ' Aya- 
^os' ^^ Kal eXOcov Trpos, 
Kal apas rrjv ^(cvqv tov HavXov, 
8r}(ras re avTov Tas x^^pccy /cat 
TOVS TToSas ehre, Ta8e Xeyei to 
Hvevp-a to Ayiov, Tov avdpa 
ov eoTTiv 7] ^covr] avrrj, ovtco 8iq- 
arovcTLV ev 'lepova-aXr/p, oi 'lov- 
Saioi, Kal TrapaScocrova-Lv els xel- 
pas e6va>v. ^ 'f2s 8e r}Kovaap.ev 
TavTa, TrapeKaXovp.ev yfieis re 
/cat ot ivTOTTLOi, TOV p.y avafiai- 
veiv avTOV els 'lepovaraXrjpi. 


we went on board the ship, and 
they returned home. Now we, 7 
having completed the voyage, 
came down from Tyre to Pto- 
lemais, and iisaluted the breth- 
ren, and remained with them 
one day. And the next day 8 
we 'departed, and came to Ce- 
sarea; and entering into the 
house of Philip the evangelist, 
who was one of the seven, we 
remained with him. Now the a 
same man had four daughters, 
virgins, who prophesied. And lo 
as we remained there several 
days, there came down from 
Judea a certain prophet, nam- 
ed fAgabus. And when he n 
came to us, he took Paul's 
girdle, and binding his own 
hands and feet, said. Thus, 
says the Holy Spirit, So shall 
the Jews at Jerusalem bind 
tlie man who owns this girdle, 
and shall deliver him into the 
hands of the Gentiles. 

Now when we heard these 12 
things, both we, and they of 
that place, besought Paul not 
to go up to Jerusalem. Then 13 

^ AoTtaaafiavoi., oscidor, aviplector, to salute. Kom. IG : 16, 
" Salute one another with an holy kiss." Paul uses this word 
very often — nineteen times in the sixteenth chapter of the 
Romans — indicative of the most cordial greetings and saluta- 
tions. This being a very solemn and affectionate adieu, it is 
presumed that no word in our currency so fully expresses it, 
as the word embraced. This gives the fullest latitude to the 
reader, to "infer the manner of the adieu. 

• The phrase, ol nsQi tov Ilavlov, after e^eX&ovrce, is repu- 
diated, by some of our best critics, as an interpolation. Prof. 
Hackett affirms it to be untenable. It is retained in Bagster's 
text. But that is not sufficient authority against the testimony 
of collators, Elz., Gb., Sch., Ln., and Tf. 

For dd-ov, elO-o/iEv is substituted by the Elz., Gb., Sch., 
Ln., Tf. 

<Pih7t7tov TOV cvayyeharov, Philip the Evangelist. " This 
title appears to have been given to those who had no stated 
pastoral charge, but who traveled from place to place, and 
preached as they had opportunity," Hack. "Evangelists in 
the Apostolic age were not the regular and constant teachers 
of the church, but were sent by the apostles into various 
cities ; iit vol elemenla rcligionis Christiana traderint ml in- 
stitutionem Apostolorum continiuircnt," Kuin., as referred to by 
Professor Hackett, vol. 3, p. 31C. It is only found here in 
the book of Acts, and twice in Paul's epistles, Bph. 4 : 11 ; 
2 Tim. 4 : 5. 

' Ayn/3os — ns vtQoipTjTae, a certain prophet, first named ch. 
11 : 28, and again in this place. He is known to us only as a 
Christian prophet. 




13 Then Paul answered, What 
mean ye to "weep, and to break 
mine heart ? for I am ready not 
to be bound only, but also to 
die at Jerusalem for the name 
of the Lord Jesus. 

14 And when he would not 
be persuaded, we ceased, saying, 
The will of the Lord be done. 

15 And after those days we 
took up our carriages, and went 
up to Jerusalem. 

16 There went with us also 
certain of the disciples of Ces- 
area, and brought with them 
one Mnason of Cyprus, an old 
discij)Ie, with whom we should 

17 And when we were come 
to Jerusalem, the brethren re- 
ceived us gladly. 

IS And the day following Paul 
went in with us unto James : and 
all the elders were present. .,. 

19 And when he had saluted 
them, he declared particularly 
what things God had wrought 
among the Gentiles by his min- 

20 And when they heard it, 
they glorified the Lord, and said 
unto him. Thou seest, brother, 
how many thousands of Jews 


^ aireKpcOr] 8e 6 IlavXos, Tl 
TTOLelTe KXalovres kcu awOpv- 
TTTOvres fJiov rrjv KapBlav; iyco 
yap ov p.6voi> Sedrji>aL, dXXa /cat 
airoOavelv els lepovaaXrjp, irol- 
[jLcos ex&) vnep rod ouo/maTos rod 
Kvpiov 'lyaov. ^'^ My ttciOo' 
jxivov 8e avrov, y(rv)(a.a-ap.€i> el- 
TTovres, To OiXrjfia tov Kvplov 

JMera 8e ras yp-ipas ravras 
aTro(TKeva(rap.6voL ave/Saluopev eh 
'lepovcraXrip,. awrjXdov 5e 

/cat rav p-aOyrau oltto ICaicra- 
peias avu -qplv, ayovres Trap a 
^evLcrOwixev, 3£i>d(rcoui Ttut Kv- 
TTpio), dpxaico paOrjTrj. 

" rENOMENDN Se ypiS>v 
els 'JepocroXvp.a, dcrpevcos eSe- 
^avTO Tjpds ol dSeXcjiOL. ^^ rfj 
8e eTTiovcrr] elo-rjei 6 IlavXos (Tvv 
r/p,2i> irpos 'laKCofiov, Travres re 
irapeyevovro ol Trpecr/SvTepoi.. 
^^ KCU do-Tracrdixevos avroiis, e^rj- 
yevro Kaff ev eKaarrov a>v ewoirj- 
(rev 6 Oeos eu tois eduecri 8ia rrjs 
SiaKoi'las avTOv. ^ ol 8e olkov- 
aavres e86^a^ov tov Kvpiov ei- 
TTOV re avTWf Oewpels dSeX^e, 
Trocrai p.vpid8es elcrlu 'Iov8aicov 


Paul answered. What do you, 
weeping and breaking my 
^heart? for I am ready not 
only to be bound, but also to 
die at Jerusalem for the name 
of the Lord Jesus. And when l-J 
he could not be persuaded, we 
ceased, saying. The will of 
the Lord be done ! 

And after those days we 15 
packed up our ''baggage, and 
went up to Jerusalem. There 16 
went with us certain of the 
disciples of Gesarea, bringing 
us to Mnason a Cyprian, an 
old disciple, with whom we 
should 'lodge. 

Now when we were come 17 
to 'Jerusalem, the brethren 
gladly received us. And the 18 
day '■following Paul went in 
with us to James, and all the 
elders were present. And 19 
when he had saluted 'them, 
he related particularly what 
things God had wrought 
among the Gentiles through 
his ministry. And when they 20 
heard it, they glorified the 
Lord, and said to Paul, You 
see, brother, what ""myriads 
of Jews there are who have be- 

^ Svv&(yv7trovTes fiov trjv y.aQSiap ; breaking ray heart? 
Their distress was unnecessary. Eroc/cois B%to. "We have a 
bold oxymoron, equal to this, chap. 5 : 41, y.wnjlimd-riaav ari- 
fiaad'rivai, were accounted worthy to be disgraced, to suffer 
shame for his name. Hack., Kuin. Elogaus oxymorum inesse 
observarunt, Cassaubonus et "Wolfius. 

'■ Emaxsvaaaftevot is here preferable to cmooy.^aaa/ievot, 
Ln., Tf., Gb. Hack., "having pached up our laggage, and 
prepared for the joui'ney ; " " making up our baggage," Dodd. ; 
" we have put our goods upon," Penn. Dr. Bloomfield asks, 
why anoaxEvaaa/cevoi should not mean to pack up baggage, as 
the same verb signifies exonerarc ahum. I apprehend the 
reason to be, because to pach up signifies onerare, and is the 
reverse of cxoncrare. Matthroi reads, ejiiax., Seholz, aTcoax. 

' AyovxEs — MvaocoiH stands by attraction for «yo>'T6s?ra^a 
Mvaacovi na^ (p ^evtad'coftev, bringing us to Mnason, with 
whom we should lodge. (01s., Mey., De "Wette, Hackett.) 

A^'/,aitii fia&ijTr] = fia9>]Trj aTt a^xrjg, an ancient, not an 
aged disciple. "Wo more familiarly say, an. old disciple. He 
may have been converted on the day of Pentecost. Hack. 

1 This seems to be the Jijlh time the apostle visited Jeru- 
salem, since he set out against the brethren at Damascus. 
Tor eSe^avro, aTtsSa^avro is preferred by Ln., Tf. 

'• Tri — cmovaia, on, or immediately after, their arrival. 

1 Aonaaafievos avrovs. In N. T. currency it is generally 
represented by salute, embrace, greet. 

jdia itjs SiaKovms avrov, through his ministry. 

" Hoaac /woiaScs, what myriads, multitudes, believe. Zj- 
).corai TOV voftov, zealots for the law, an objective genitive. 




there are whicli believe; and 
they are all zealous of the law. 

21 And they are informed of 
thee, that thou teachest all the 
Jews which are among the Gen- 
tiles to forsake Moses, saying, 
that they ought not to circum- 
cise thei?- children, neither to 
walk after the customs. 

22 What is it therefore? the 
multitude must needs come to- 
gether: for they will hear that 
thou art come. 

23 Do therefore this that we 
say to thee : We have, four men 
which have a vow on them ; 

24 Them take, and purify 
thyself with them, and be at 
charges with them, that they 
may shave their heads : and all 
may know that those things 
whereof they were informed con- 
cerning thee, are nothing; but 
that thou thyself also walkest 
orderly, and keepest the law. 

25 As touching the Gentiles 
which believe, we have written 
and concluded that they observe 
no such thing, save only that 
they keep themselves from things 
offered to idols, and from blood, 
and from strangled, and from 

26 Then Paul took the men, 
and the next day purifying him- 
self with them, entered into the 
temple, to signify the accom- 
plishment of the days of puri- 
fication, until that an offering 


Twv TreTTta-TevKOTCou. koL iravres 
^TjXcOTOi TOV VOfjLOV virap^ovcTL, 
^^ KaTrj-^Orjcrav Se -rrepl aov, on 
diroaTacriav SiSaaKeis anro Mca- 
crecos tovs Kara ra edvr) wavras 
' Iov8aiovs, Xiyaiv ixr] TrepLTe/xuetu 
avTovs Ta TeKva, fxrjSe roty edecrt 
TrepLTrareiu. tl qvv ecTTt; irav- 
Tcos 5et TrXrjdos avveXdelv olkqv- 
crovTai yap otl iXyXvdas. tov- 
TO odu TTOLrjcrov o crot Xeyo/xev 
eiaiu T]fXLU avope^ recrcrapes €U)(rjv 
e^ovT€s €(p eavTcow tovtov9 

TrapaXaficov ayvicrOrjTL avu av- 
TOLs, Kol Sairavrjcrov kit avTols, 
tua ^vprjacovrat rrjv Ke(j)aXr]v, 
Kcu yvaxn Traures otl cou Karr]- 
)(r)VTaL irepX crov ov8ev icrnv, 
aXXa aroiyets kcu avros tov vo- 
fjLOv (pvXdaacou. 7rep\ 8e tcou 

TreinarTevKOTCou idvav r/fj.eis' eVe- 
aTeiXafxeu, Kpivavres fiTjBev tol- 
ovTov TTjpeLu avTOVs, ei [ir] (j)v- 
Xacro-eo-dai avTovs to re elBcaXo- 


KOL TTopvdav. ^^ ToTe Ilav- 
Xos irapaXa^CDV tovs avSpas, rfj 
e)(oiJ.eur) rjiJiepa crvu avTols dyvi- 
aOiis elcryei, ely to lepov, 8tay- 
yeXXcov ttjv eKirXypcocriv Ttav 
rjfxepaiu tov dyuta/xov, «o? ov 


lieved ; and they are all zealous 
for the law; now they have 2] 
been informed concerning 
you, that you teach all the 
Jews who are among the 
Gentiles "apostasy from Mo- 
ses, saying, that they ought 
not to circumcise their chil- 
dren, neither to walk after the 
customs. What then is °it? 22 
The multitude must needs 
come together; for they will 
hear that you have come. Do 23 
this, therefore, which we say 
to you: We have four men 
who have a pvow on them- 
selves ; 'taking these with 24 
yourself, purify yourself with 
them, and bear the charges for 
them, that they may shave 
their heads: and all will know 
that those things of which 
they were informed concern- 
ing you, are nothing, but that 
you yourself also walk order- 
ly, and keep the law. 

'But as respects the Gen- 26 
tiles who have believed, we 
have already written and con- 
cluded, that they observe no 
such thing; only that they 
abstain from things offered to 
idols, and from blood, and 
from things strangled, and 
from all kinds of lewdness. 

Then Paul 'took the men, 20 
and the next day purifying 
himself with them, entered 
into the temple, announcing 
the fulfillment of the days 
of purification, till the offer- 

" ATtoaraata, standing off, not merely, standing off, but 
standing off from. This term, now transferred into our lan- 
guage, needs no representative. JIavras, omitted by Ln., Gb., 
as somewhat doubtful. 

" Tl ovp cart ; what then, is it ? more familiar than, what, 
therefore, is it? 

p Jews alone made such vows. This settled their nationality. 

■I TovTovg maQaXa/Scop ayruod'riri aw avrotg, Sanavi^aov 
en avroig, talcing these with thyself, purify thyself with 

'■ Jla^t Se rcov neTtiarevnorcop eO'pcop, but, with respect to 
the Gentiles who have believed, ^/leie, we (the apostles and 
brethren at Jerusalem), comprehends the whole assembly 
convened at Jerusalem, reported, " The apostles, the elders, 
and the brethren," ch. 15 : 23, Antiochian, Syrian, and Cili- 
cian Gentiles, constituted the brethren addressed. 

■ na(>a).aP(ov refers to his connecting himself with them, 
as in v. 24, not to his taking them to the temple. Sw avtoit 
belongs to ayinaO'sis, not to Eiatjsc, Mey. Hack., "announcing 
the fulfillment of the days of the purification." 




should be offered for every one 
of them. 

27 And wlicn the seven days 
were almost ended, the Jews, 
which were of Asia, when they 
saw him in tlio temple, stirred 
up all the people, and laid liands 
on him, 

28 Crying out, Men of Israel, 
help. This is the man that 
teacheth all men every where 
against the people, and the law, 
and this place: and further, 
brought Greeks also into the 
temple; and hath polluted this 
holy place. 

29 (For they had seen before 
with him in the city, Trophi- 
mus, an Ephesian, whom they 
supposed that Paul had brought 
into the temple.) 

30 And all the city was mov- 
ed, and the people ran together: 
and they took Paul and drew 


Trpoar]V€)(6i] virep iuos iKoia-Tov 
avTcov rj irpoar^opoi. coy 5e 

i'lxeXXov at eVra rjpiepai avv- 
TeXet(r0ai, ol airo rrjs Aalas 
'lovSaioi d^aaajxevoL avrov iv 
Tco lepcS, crvvi^eov iravTa rov 
o)(Xov, Kol (.ire^aXov tols ^et/jas 
eV avTOu, ^^ Kpa^QVTes, "AvSp^s 
'Icrpai-jXlTai, ^orjOelre. ovros 
ecTTLV 6 avOpcoTTOs o Kara tov 


TTOV TQVTOV TTavTas TTavTa^ov 8C' 
SaaKcow eTL re koX ' JEXXrjvas 
elarrjyayeu els to Upou, koX kcko/- 
ucoKe TOV ayiov tqttov tovtov. 
^^ 'Haav yoLp irpoecopaKOTes Tpo- 
(j)Llxov TOV 'JE(pecrcov 4v Trj iroXei 
crvv avTcS, ov ivofii^ov otl els 
TO lepov elcTTjyayev 6 JIavXos. 
iKivrjdTi re ?) iroXis oXtj, kol 
eyeveTo a-vvdpop.rj tov Aaoii* koX 
iiriXa^op-evoL tov JJavXov, elA- 


ing should be offered for each 
one of them. 

Now as the seven <dayswere 27 
about to be completed, the 
Jews who were of Asia, when 
they saw him in the temple, 
stirred up all the people, and 
laid hands on him, crying out, 2S 
Israelites, help ! This is the 
man who teaches all men 
every where against this 
people, and the law, and this 
place : and furtlier "also has 
brought Greeks into the tem- 
ple, and has polluted this holy 
place. For they had for- 20 
merly seen with him in the 
city, "Trophimus, anEphesian, 
whom they supposed that Paul 
had brought into the temple. 
And all the city was moved, 30 
and the people ran "together, 
and seizing Paul, they dragged 

' Al BTtra ijfiCQcti refers to rjfieQoiv tov ayvia/tov, v. 2G. 

01 aTto T/;s Aaias lovSaioi, the Asiatic Jews — proconsular 
Asia — not the continent so called. 

Two opinions liave been entertained of the bearing of the 
import of these seven days, whether in reference to the com- 
pletion of the vow itself, or in reference to the period when 
the vow would cease — the first being the vow itself, and the 
other the completion of its time. The last is, in our judg- 
ment, preferable to the first ; for the first is opposed to evqov 
uB Tjyviofievov av rei) leQta, ch. 24 : 18. The vow was yet upon 
him at the time of his arrest. 

'ils 8s sasD.ov, now as the seven days were about to be 
completed, i. e., according to the views generally entertained, 
Ihe seven days during which the vow of these Nazarites was 
Btill to continue, after Paul became a party to it (Beng., Kuin., 
Olsh., De "W.). Al, in this case, refers to the days mentioned 
v. 26. " Al, before enta ri/iEQcov, in this connection most na- 
turally recalls the riue^cov rov ayvta/iov just spoken of," Hack. 
" When the seven days were almost ended," Wakef. ; " as the 
seven days were to be completed," Thomp. ; " and when the 
seventh day arrived," jMurd. ; " were about to be accom- 
plished," Wes., Dodd. ; "when the seven days were almost 
ended," Boothr. 

" Ert re xat, and further also. This with Luke is a com- 
mon phrase. In this book, chs. 1:1; 2 : 26 ; 9:1, etc., and, 

further also, moreover. Ts is found above one hundred and 
fifty times in this single book of Acts, and but seven times in 
his gospel. 

" Trophimus the Ephesian first appears in ch. 20 : 4, and 
again in 2 Tim. 4 : 20. Paul left him sick at Miletus. Wo 
hear no more of him. 

" ZvvSQofttj, an uTta^ Xsyofuvov, found only in this place 
It indicates a concourse, especially a crowd rushing together, 
or hastily assembled. Its family sprang from TQexco, I run — 
awTQcxco, I run together with others. Hence, in classic 
currency, it represents any crowd of persons suddenly called 
together, or assembled; even a mob. SwS^oftos, from ovi- 
Tosy/o, any tumultuous crowd, hastily gathered for any intent, 
or purpose, constitutes a concourse. It is composed of those 
who, from passion, or excitement, convene. 

EiXxov — Uqov, they dragged him out of the temple; and 
ExXeioO-ijoav al &vQai, the doors were closed. Drew him out 
is too mild, too tame for this scene, and this language. Some 
opine, intending to kill him, but fearing that his blood would 
pollute and desecrate the sanctuary. Levites alone could law- 
fully enter the holy place. The altar of burnt-offerings, pos- 
sessing horns, was the only canonized and conservative refuge 
of the blood-stained sinner. They dragged hinr :\xt, and im- 
mediately the gates were closed. 




him out of the temple. And fortli- 
•\vitli the doors were shut. 

31 And as they Avent about to 
kill him, tidings came unto the 
cliiof captain of the band, that all 
Jerusalem Avas in an uproar ; 

32 Who immediately took sol- 
diers and centurions, and ran 
down unto them. And when they 
saw the chief captain and the sol- 
diers, they left beating of Paul. 

83 Then tlie cliief captain came 
near and took him, and command- 
ed Mm to be bound with two 
chains : and demanded who he 
was, and what he had done. 

34 And some cried one thing, 
some another, among the multi- 
tude : and wlicn ho could not 
know the certainty for the tumult, 
he commanded him to be carried 
into the castle. 

35 And when he came upon the 
stairs, so it was that he was borne 
of the soldiers, for the violence of 
tlio people. 

3G Por the multitude of the peo- 
ple followed after, crying. Away 
with him. 

37 And as Paul was to be led 
into the castle, he said imto tlie 


Kov avTou e^co rod Upov- koI 
evOicos eKXeicrdrjcrav al dvpat. 
^^ ^rjTovvTtov fie avrov aTTOKTei- 
vai, ave^Tj (j)acn9 rS •}(iXiap-)(a 
tt]s cnrelprjS) otl oXtj crvyKe-)(v- 
rat 'lepovcraXyfji- '^^ os e^avTrjs 
TrapaXajScou aTpaTuara? kou cKa- 
TOVTap-)(ovs, KareSpa/xev iir av- 
Tovs. ol fie ISoures rov yiXlap- 
■)(ov Koi Tovs (TTpaTicoTX?, ewav- 
cravro TVirrovTe^ rov JIavXov. 

Tore eyyicra^ o ^tAtap^os" fTJ^^" 
XafSeTO avTov, /cat eKeXevcre 8e- 
OrjvaL aXvcreat Svar koI invv- 
Odvero tls av elr], kou tI ecTTL 
ireTTOLrjKccs. ^'^ aXXoL de aXXo tl 
ejSoav iv tcS o^Am" fxr] Svpufxe- 
vos 8e yvavaL to acr^aAe? fifa 
Tov 6opvl3ou, e'/ceAeucrez/ ayeadai 
avrov eif tt]v TrapepL^oXiju. ^ ore 
8e iyevero irri tov9 ava^adjxov^, 
(Tvue^rj ^acTTa^ecrdai avrov viro 
Tcov crrpartcorcov 8m rrjv ^lav rov 
o)(Xov. ^'' rjKoXovOei yap to ttXtj- 
6os TOV Xaov Kpa^ov, Alpe avrov. 

^^ JifeXXcov re elcrdyecrdac els 
T7]v 7rape/xl3oXrjv 6 IlavXos Xeyei 


him out of the "temple : and im- 
mediately the doors were shut. 
And '■■as they Avorc seeking to 31 
kill him, "Avord came up *to the 
chiliarch 'of the cohort, that 
all Jerusalem fAvas in confu- 
sion ; Avho immediately took 32 
soldiers and centurions, and ran 
doAvn ^upon tliem. And when 
tlioy saAY the chiliarch and the 
soldiers, they '■ceased from beat- 
ing Paul. Then 'the chiliarch 33 
klrcAV near and took him, and 
commanded him to be bound 
Avith two chains and inquired 
Avlio ''lie might be, and Avhat he 
had done. 'But some "'in the s-i 
"croAvd -were shouting one 
tiling, and some another : and 
Avhen he could not know the 
certainty, ""on account of the 
tumult, he commanded him 'to 
be led into the castle. And 35 
Avhen 'he Avas "on the stairs, 
•it came to pass that he Avas 
borne by the soldiers, "on ac- 
count of the violence of the 
"croAvd. Por the multitude 38 
of the people foUoAved, cry- 
ing out, AAvay Avith him ! 
And as Paul was "about to 37 
be led into the castle, he said 

* In accordance with the text, a colon is placed after " temple." 
So Wesley, Wakef., Penn, Scarlett. 

^ ZsTovvTcov, " a3 they were seeking." Penn. Eras., " quo- 
rentibiis illis ; " S. Pr., " ils cherchaient." 

" AvE^rj yiaats, " Avord came up." So Eob., Lex. [avn^aivo) 
The propriety of giving ava its proper force "up," is obvious; 
tlie commander was stationed in tlio tower of Antonia, to wliicii 
there was an ascent by steps. See avn^aO-/iovg, in v. .35. 

*■ Tiff y^ilianyjo, " to the chiliarch." Tliis word, which liter- 
ally siguilies " the commander of a thousand men," is transferred, 
as we liave no single term corresponding to it. 

" Ti]g 07tsiQt]s, " of the cohort." AVosley, Dick., Dodd., Scar- 
lett, Murdock. 

"■ Siiyy.F.jrvrah " Was in confusion." Penn, AVakef., Dick. S. 
Pr., " etaii en confusion." See Hob. Lex. on tliis verb. 

'"' ^Tc avrovg, " upon them." Rob., Lex., sni (cum accus.) 
" with accus. pi. of persons, upon." 

'■ ETtavaavro TVTtTovres, " ceased from beating." AVeslcy, 
Penn, Dodd., Scarlett. 

' " The chiliarch." See v. .31, note. 

' ^/j tans, " drew near." AValccf., Dodd., Rob. (Lex.) 

'' Av eiT], " he niiglit be." Tliis ojitative shoidd not be ren- 
dered as an indicative. It is to be distinguished from the indica- 
tive which follows it, rt eart. See TroUope (Gram.), p. 142. 
Beza, Vulg., Eras., " esset." 

' z/s, " but." This particle is adversative. So AVakof. Do 
AVetto, " abcr ; " Sehott, " voro ; " Vnlg., Eras., Bez.a, " autem." 

'" Ev, " in." The primary signification of ev is appropriate. 

" Oxlrii, "crowd." Rob. (Lex.), a crowd, throng;" Vulg., 
iMont., Eras., Beza, " turba ; " G. and S. Pr., De Sacy, " foule ; " 
Do AVette, " Volke." Tliis word should be distinguished from 
7th]0-os in translating. See v. 36". 

" Epomv, " wore shouting." Liddell and Scott's Lex. The 
imperfect should have its usual continiiative force here. So Vulg., 
Mont., Eras., Beza, Sehott, " clamabant." 

1' z/«a {with, accus.), " on account of." Eob. (Lex.) 

1 AyeaOcu, " to be led." See this verb in Kob. and Liddell's 
T^x. Vulg., Mont., Eras., Beza, Cnstal., " duel ; " Sehott, " de- 
duci." So (E. V.) Mark 13 : 11. Luke 4 : 1, 29 ; 22 : 54. 

' Eyevero, "he was." Dodd., Penn, Sharpe, Wakef., {^'Faul 
was ; ") S. Pr., " il fut." 

° Etii tovs avn^ad-fiovg. After ncutov verbs, " on is the 
appropriate proposition. 

' Sut'e^i], " it ciimc to pass." Dodd. Beza, " evcuit ; " S. 
Pr., " il arriva." See this verb, Eob. (Lex.) 

" ^tfi, " on account of." See v. 34, note. So Penn, Kend. 

» " Crowd." See v. 34, note. 

" " Me)l(ov — Eiaaysiad-ac, " about to be led." Penn, Kend. 
Sehott, " inlroducendus ; " Mont., " Puturus — induci;" S. Pr., 
" on allait faire entrer Paul." 




chief captain, May I speak unto 
thee? Who said, Canst thou 
speak Greek ? 

38 Art thou not that Egyp- 
tian, which before these days 
madest an uproar, and leddest 
out into the wilderness four 
thousand men that were mur- 
derers ? 

39 But Paul said, I am a man 
which am a Jew of Tarsus, a city 
in Cilicia, a citizen of no mean 
city: and I beseech thee suffer 
me to speak unto the people. 

40 And when he hath given 
him license, Paul stood on the 
stairs, and beckoned with the 
hand unto the people. And 
when there was made a great 
silence, he spake unto them in 
the Hebrew tongue, saying, 


Men, brethren, and fathers, 
hear ye my defence ivhich I make 
now unto you. 

2 (And when tliey heard that 
he spake in the Plebrew tongue 
to them, they kept the more si- 
lence : and he saith,) 


Tw -^iXLapx^p, El e^earl fJi.OL el- 
ireLv TL TTpos are; 5e €(j)r}, 
' JEXkr^vLO-TL yLvaoTKUs ; '^^ ovk 
apa (TV ei 6 AiyvTTTios o irpo 
TOVTCov Tav r]jJL€p^v ai/acrrarco- 
cras Kcu. i^ayaycou ely rrju kprj- 
ixov rovs reTpaKicrxiXlovs avSpas 
tS)v (TLKapiaiv; ^' -EiTre Se 6 
IlavXos, 'JEyco avOpcoTTOS /xev 
el/xt, 'lovSahs Tapaevs, rrjs Kl- 
XiKias OVK dcrrjfiov TroAeco? ttoXl- 
TTjS' Seofiai 5e crov, eTTLTpe^j/ou 
fXOL XaXrjcraL wpos tov Xaov. 


6 IlavXos ecrray eVt tSi^ ava- 
fiaOjxav KaT^creLcre rfj x^'^P'- "^^ 
XacS' TToXXijs 8e crLyr]s yevo/xi- 
vr}9, irpoa-ecpavrjcre rfj 'Ej3pat8i 
SiaXeKTO) Xeycou, 


' Av8pes aSeX^ol koll Trarepes, 
aKovcrare p,ov ttjs irpos vvv 
oLTToXoyias. ^ 'AKOvaavTes Se 
OTL rfj 'E^paidi SiaXeKTO) Trpocr- 
e(j)a)U€i. avTo2s, fiaXXov irapecrxpv 
rj(rv)(iLav. Kai ^rjcnv, ^ 'Eya 


to the chiliarch, May I speak 
to you? Who said, Do you 
know ''Grreek? Are you not 38 
then that Egyptian, who 
before these days made an up- 
roar, and led out into the wil- 
derness the four thousand "as- 
sassins ? But Paul said, I am, 39 
indeed, a Jew from 'Tarsus, a 
city in Cilicia, a citizen of no 
mean city ; and I beseech you 
to permit me to speak to the 
people. And when he had 40 
permitted him, Paul stood on 
the stairs, and waved with his 
hand to the people ; and when 
there was made a great si- 
lence, he spoke to them in the 
Hebrew -tongue, saying, 


Brethren, and ''fathers ! j 
Hear my defense which I now 
make to you. And when they i 
heard that he spoke the He- 
brew tongue, they kept the 
greater silence. And he says, 

•i 'E}.h]vioTi ytpcooHeis, do j-oii know Greek? "The adverb 
stands in place of the object, and laleiv is not to be supplied," 
Kuin., Hack. Tovs ^vqwti eTCiaraftevovs, Xen., Cyr., 7. 5. 31, 
.and in Latin, Grace nescire. Mey., De Wette, Hack. 

' Oux aQa av si 6 AiyvTtriog 6 tiqo rovrmv icov rjfteQcov, y.. r. ).., 
" art thou not that Egyptian who formerly led out into the 
wilderness the four thousand of the assassins ? " Thomp. 
Eis rt]v e^tjfiov, viz. between Egypt and Palestine, as he came 
from that direction. Tovg ter^axtay^ihovs, the four thousand. 
Tholuck as quoted by Ilackett. " The event seems to have 
been quite recent, the precise number being so well known. 
Eelix — when procurator of Judea — was familiar with this fact, 
occurring as it did during his administration of its affairs. 
They were called the Sicarii, taking their name, or receiving 
it, from the Roman sica, a curved dagger, adapted by its 
form to be concealed beneath the clothes. They could use it 

for striking a fatal blow, in a crowd, without being observed." 

' Eyco avO'QcoTtos /t^v eifti lovSatos Ta^aave, T>;g KiXtxtas 
ovx aorjfiov Ttblecos noXirrjs, I am, indeed, a Tarsion Jew. 
TaQocvg and TnQavg, nomen urhis Syria — Ta^oevg and Tuqoos 
— are both found in the original Scriptures — a Jew of Tarsos, 
or TnQaevg. 

^ Ti] 'Efioaxdi Sialenrti), in the Syro-Chaldaic. See John 

'■ ASBlrpot y.a.1 TtwteQK. Here, as in ch. 7 : 2, avSqeg is a 
mere qualification of adslytot vcateQsg. Some, however, 
suppose that avS^sg represents those present, who were 
neither Jewish brethren nor Sanhedrists, nor civil rulers. It 
is more, however, in consonance with the Jewish idiom to re- 
gard it as above, inasmuch as Paul appeals only to the Jews, 
speaking in the Hebrew tongue. See Wakef., Wesley, Penn, 




3 I am verily a man which am 
a Jew, born in Tarsus, a. city in 
Cilicia, yet brought up in this 
city at the feet of Gramaliel, and 
taught according to the perfect 
manner of the law of the fathers, 
and was zealous toward God, as 
ye all are this day. 

4 And I persecuted this way 
unto the death, binding and de- 
livering into prisons both men 
and women. 

5 As also the high priest doth 
bear me witness, and all the 
estate of the elders ; from whom 
also I received letters unto the 
brethren, and went to Damascus, 
to bring them which were there 
bound unto Jerusalem, for to be 

6 And it came to pass,, that, 
as I made ray journey, and was 
come nigh unto Damascus about 
noon, suddenly there shone from 
heaven a great light round about 

7 And I fell unto the ground, 
and heard a voice saying unto 
me, Saul, Saul, why persecutest 
thou me ? 

8 And I answered, Who art 
thou. Lord ? And he said unto 
me, I am Jesus of Nazareth, 
whom thou persecutest. 


flip elfXL avrjp 'lovbaxos, yeyeu- 
vr}/xevo9 eV Tapcr^ ttJ? KiXiKLas, 
avareOpafxixivos Se iv rfj woXei 
TavTT} Trapa tovs TToBas Tap.a,- 
XirjX, ireTTaLdev/jLevos Kara aKpi- 
fieiav TQV Trarpcaov vofiov, ^tjXco- 
Tr]s vira.p-)(a)V rod 0eov, KaOas 
iravTes Vfiels ia-re a-^/xepov * oy 
TavTTju. TTjv bbov iScco^a a^pi 6a- 
varov, Sea-fxevcov koX 7rapadt8ov9 
eis" ^vXaKas avBpas re /cat yvval- 
Kas, ^ coy Kcu 6 dp^iepev9 fxaprv- 
pel fiOL, KCU TTOLU TO TTpecrffuTe- 
ptov Trap' cou kcu iirio-ToXas 
de^afievos irpos tovs d8eX(f)ow, 
els AaixacTKOv i7ropevo/j.i]v, a^cov 
Kou TOVS iKeicre ouTas, SeSep-evovs 
ds 'lepovcraXrjp,, tua TLp.a>p-q6u>- 
a-tv. ** iyevero 84 p.oi Tropevo- 
p.4vco Kol iyyl^ouTi rfj Aap.a(rK(S 
Trepl fjL€crr][jL^ptau i^aL(f)vrjs e'/c tov 
ovpavov irepiaa-Tpd'^aL (j)cos iKa- 
vov Trepl e/xe' eirecrov re els to 
e8a(j)os, Kal rJKOvcra ^covrjs Xe- 
yova-rjs fioi, SaovX, SaovX, t'l 
p,e SicoKeisj ^ 'Eya 8e direKpi- 
Orjv, Tis ei Kvpie; Ehre re irpos 
pe, 'Eyco elp.L 'Irjcrovs 6 Na^w- 
poLos ov (TV 8ia>Keis. " 01 8e 


I am indeed a Jew, born in 3 
Tarsus in Cilicia, yet brought 
'up in this city, and taught at 
the feet of Gamaliel, accord- 
ing to the perfect law of our 
fathers, and was as zealous to- 
ward God, as you all are this 
day. And I persecuted those 4 
of this 'way to death, binding 
and delivering into prison both 
men and woman, as also the 5 
high priest and the whole 
body of the elders can bear me 
testimony ; from whom also I 
received letters to the breth 
ren, and went to Damascus, 
to bring those that were bound 
there to Jerusalem, to be pun- 
ished. And as I was on my 6 
kjourney, and was come nigh 
to Damascus about noon, sud- 
denly there shone froni heav- 
en a great light around me : 
and I 'fell to the ground, and 7 
heard a voice saying to me, 
Saul, Saul, why do you per- 
secute "me ? And I answered, 8 
Who art thou. Lord? And 
he said to me, I am Jesus of 
Nazareth, whom you perse 
cute. And they who were 9 

' Avazed'^a/cfcepos — avaT^Bfco, to nourish, to bring up. 
In our country and currency, to raise, raised up — a provin- 
cialism to be avoided. We raise live stock, and we raise 
families. Wo nourish children. We supply the means of 
support, of growth, and physical and mental development. 

ITeTtatSevfievos has respect to his education, but avaze- 
&^aufievos to his physical development. While born at 
Tarsus, he was both brought up to manhood and educated in 
Jerusalem. ' 

' Tavxrjv rt]v oSov, those of this way. It is with us, in this 
ago and country, to say A is of " this way of thinking," and 
B of " that way of thinking." These we regard as provincial- 
isms which should not have any place in the book which every 
man should road, and whose style must, more or less, enter 
into tiiat of all who love to read it. Its formative influence 
is observed in all who make it a study. 

Ax^^ Oavarov. The result, not the aim, as well observed 

by Grotius and Hackctt. To persecute Christians to death, 
however irreligious, on the part of persecutors, is nevertheless 
a legible and conspicuous monument on their part, in attesta- 
tion of the vMue which they profess to cherish for true religion. 
In the very act of persecution, all persecutors confess that 
true religion is Of transcendent importance. And even 
infidels hate it, because it threatens eternal ruin to all those 
who oppose its claims and pretensions. To banish, to kill, or 
even to imprison any one for his faith, is a tribute paid to the 
faith which he professes, indicative of the impotcncy of those 
who war against it. No infldel can be a martyr in its proper 

■■ Not '^ event" eno^Bvofitjv — was journe3'ing. We say in 
our idiom, was on his journey. 

1 Eneaa is, in our text, clianged into Eittoov. The former 
is an Alexandrian form. Hackett. 

'" See ch. 9 : 4, note z. 




9 And they that were with 
me saw indeed the light, and 
were afraid; but they heard not 
the voice of him that spake to 

10 And I said, What shall I 
do. Lord? And the Lord said 
unto me, Arise, and go unto 
Damascus, and there it shall be 
told thee of all things which are 
ajDiJointed for thee to do. 

11 And when I could not see 
for the glory of that light, being 
led by the hand of them that 
were with me, I came into Da- 

12 And one Ananias, a de- 
vout man according to the law, 
having a good report of all the 
Jews which dwelt there, 

13 Came unto me, and stood, 
and said unto me, Brother Saul, 
receive thy sight. And the same 
hour I looked up upon him. 

14 And he said, The God of 
our fathers hath chosen thee, 
that thou shouldest know his 


(Tvv e/xol ovres to /xep (f)a>s iOed- 
aavTo, Kol e/x(j)ol3oi, iyeuouro' 
TTjv 8e (pcovyv ovK rjKovaau tov 
XaXovvTos ixoL. uirov de, Ti 

TTOtycrco Kvpce; 'O 8e KVpLOS dire 
irpos fxe, 'Ava(TTa9 Tropevov els 
Aap.a(TKOv. KUKei crot XaXr]6r]- 
aerat Trepl Traurcou atv riraKTai 
croL TTOiTJcrai. ^^ 'i7y 8e ovk ive- 
/SXeirov airo rrjs 8o^rj9 tov (pajTos 
eKelvov, ■^(eipaycoyovpeuos' vtto 
t5)v crvvovTcciv pot, r]X6ov us Aa- 
pacTKOV. ^^ 'Avavias 8i Tts, 
avrjp evcre/3T]S Kara tov vopov, 
papTvpovpevos viro iravToiv tcov 
KaTOLKQVVTCov ' lovSaicov, ^^ e'A- 
dav Trpos pe /cat iirurTas ehre 
pot, SaovX a5eA0e, dva^Xeyfrou. 
Kdyco avTy Trj copa dpe^Xeyp-a els 
avTQV. ^ 6 8e elirev, 'O Oeos 
Twv iraTcpcov rjpoov 7rpo€>(etpt- 
craTO (re yvaivai to deXijpa av- 


with me, saw indeed the light, 
and were afraid: but they 
understood not the "voice of 
him that spake to me. And lo 
I said, What shall I do. Lord? 
And the Lord said to me. 
Arise, and go into Damascus; 
and there it shall be told you 
concerning all the things 
which are appointed you to 
do. And as I could not see ii 
for the splendor of that light, 
I was led by the hand by 
those who were with me, and 
came into Damascus. And 12 
one Ananias, a "devout man ac- 
cording to the law, well spok- 
en of among all the Jews who 
dwelt there, came to me, and 
stood, and said to me, Brother 13 
Saul, receive your sight, and 
the same hour I looked up 
upon phim. And he said, The u 
God of our fathers has chosen 
lyou, that you should know his 

" Trjp 3e (pavT]v ovK r;y.ovaav. TV'akef., Wes., Penn, Murd., 
Thompson liavo " /jca?- ; " Boothroyd has "distinctly heard." 
In IlebreH' usage it is often equivalent to understand and 
obey. And as they saw the light, we must suppose they 
heard; for why should one sense he paralyzed, and not the 
other 1 It is, therefore, more consonant, to employ the figura- 
tive sense, understand^ than the literal, liear. Axovsi some- 
times passes into oi Se. So we And it in Mark 14 : 11. Kobin- 
son's Greek Lex. This is a Hebraism very common in the 
gospels ; to hear is to understand, and sometimes to obey, in 
Hebrew usage. Sec Gcsenius. 

Kai sfi(fo(loi syavovTO. Omitted by Ln., Tf. ; a probable 
omission by Gb. 

° JEvas/3i/s, not evXa^rjg, is the true reading in this place. 
Hack., "cum multis aliis." 

P Not avapXstpov, as chap. 9 : 12, but nvafllexjia. £is avtov, 
I looked up, upon him. 

1 ITqov/fiiqioaTO as yvcovai — 7tQoy,etQi^ioftai; found only 
here and in ch. 26 : 16. " Hath chosen thee," com. ver., and 
in ch. 26. We have again in this book, ch. 10 : 41, TtQa^ei- 
(oxovsoftai rendered " diosen before.^' 

These two words, 3r^o/,st^t^ofiai and nQoxci^oroveoftai, are 
not precise equivalents. The former is rendered, in the Vul- 
g»te, preeordinavit te, has foreordained thee ; by Erasmus, 

preparavit te, he has prepared thee ; by Beza, designavit te, 
he has designed thee ; by the Syriac, Arabic, and iEthiopic, 
conslituit te. he has constituted thee, or appointed you. Non 
gravate verto. "I do not with regret," says Edward Leigh, 
author of the " Critica Sacra," the sacred criticisms, on both 
Testaments, Hebrew and Greek, "translate Ti^oexet^taaro, in 
this place, swiipsit Ic ut cognoscas voluntalem ejus, he has 
taken you, chosen you, or drawn you. By the Greek classic 
writers, aiqovfiai, representative of 103) may indicate, to 
choose, to \laim,, to elect. See Phil. 1 : 22;2Thess. 2: 1, 3 ; 
Hebrews II : 25. Ai^sofiai, eligo, is tantamount to " I have 
chosen thee." Clioosing rather to suffer affliction, com. ver. 
of Heb. 11 : 25. " Chosen thee," in this place, covers the whole 
area of this word, so far as we can trace its history in holy 
and classic ■v^ritings.- 

JIqoy,Ei^oToveofiai,prius designor, Acts 10 : 41. It is found 
nowhere else in holy writ ; and here, in its participial form, 
jrpo xBtQorovriuEPots — the longest word in the Christian Scrip- 
tures — a composite term of three words, jt^o, ante, before ; 
XciQ, hand, and retvco, tendo, extendo, in its elements, / before 
stretched out my hand ; tantamount, in miniature, to, 1 choose. 
The etymological history of the word choose, as given by Web- 
ster and Richardson, in its Anglo-Saxon origin, is: ceosan, 
cisan, chest, choice, anciently written chose ; to cull out one 
thing before another ; tantamount to eligo, elect, or choose out 




will, and see that Just One, and 
shouldest hear the voice of his 

15 For thou shalt be his wit- 
ness unto all men of what thou 
hast seen and heard. 

16 And now why tarriest 
thou? arise, and be baptized, 
and wash away thy sins, calling 
on the name of the Lord. 

17 And it came to pass, that, 
when I was come again to Je- 


UKOvcrat (j)covr]u e/c tov (TTOfiaros 
avTov' ^^ OTL ear) fiaprvs avrai 
TTOoy wavTas dvdpanrovs, cov eco- 
paKas KUL -qKovaas. kul vvv 

TL ixiXXeis; avaaras /SaTTTtcraL 
Koi a-rroXovcraL ras ap-aprtas aov, 
e7nKa\ecrap.euo9 to bvopa tov 
Kvpiov. ^^ 'EyeveTO 8e p.OL vtto- 
aTpexjravTi. els 'lepovaaXrjp,, koll 
'jrpoarev)(opivov pov iu tcS lep<S, 


will, and see that Just One, 
and hear the voice of his 
mouth. For you shall be his 15 
■■witness to all men, of what 
you have seen and heard. 
And now why do you delay? IG 
Arise, and be immersed, and 
wash away your sins, invok- 
ing the name of the "Lord. 
And when I returned to Je- 17 
rusalem, even while I prayed 

of, to prefer, to select from others of the same class, tribe, or 
condition. For some reason, from coesan, Saxon, up to luiup 
to collect, select, or to choose, intimates a classyVom wliich, and 
a class to wliich, the person or tiling to which preference 
is given, is assigned. Indeed, all this is implied and expressed 
in the word preference, which we have taken from the Eomans 
of ancient pagan Eome. Preference, in its etymology and 
in our currency, is placing one thing or person before another. 
This appears equally true in creation, providence, moral gov- 
ernment, and in redemption. 

HqoayfiiQOToveofiai, prius designer. But why the word 
X«'(>, hand ! and that, too, as the central idea in the radix of 
this word ! Its philosophy and philology is thus given by 
plenary authority. Gresca vox dicta est a porrigindis digitis 
quo gestro suffragabatur olim populus. So Erasmus and Beza. 
In former or ancient times, the people gave their suffrage by 
stretching out their fingers ; what we laconically call a shew 
of hands, or fingers. See Critica Sacra, ad verbum,, 

' 'Ore EOT] fta^ve. Ma^rvs and fiaQWQ always have in them 
the full orbed idea of a witness. The slain witnesses have 
had the posthumous honor of having this word, almost if not 
altogether, appropriated to them. They constitute, in the 
minds of the multitude, the only martyrs. But it is a super- 
lative mistake. 

Paul and the original twelve were all martyrs, in its proper 
sense, from the day of Pentecost to the last verse, and to the 
last word of John at the close of the Apocalypse. All other 
martyrs, so called, are unworthy of the name, as used in the 
Christian Scriptures. Webster, in his Dictionary, says, "a 
martyr is one who by his death bearswitness to the truth of 
the Gospel." This is true lexicographically, or in the cur- 
rency of English and other modern languages. But currency 
is not always gold ; and, in this case, it is base coin. No one 
could be a witness of Christ's death, burial, resurrection, or 
ascension, who did not witness, or see, with his oton eyes, 
those events j and this is precisely tantamount to saying, that 
no one could be a martyr on any other testimony than on 

that of one, or more of his five senses. This is the reason 
why Paul was born out of due time, and never could have 
been a martyr, had not Jesus Christ visibly appeared to him, 
and so spoke that he both saw him, and heard his voice. 
Hence the declaration, you shall be his witness, or martyr to 
all men, of what you have seen and heard. 

' Avaoras ^amiaai anolvaai ras a/ia^rias aov. We 
have here three imperatives in fact, and two in form. Avaoras. 
This verse is felicitously exegetically developed by Professor 
Hackett. We shall quote the whole of it : 

"Avaarag stands opposed to /ccV.eig, that is, without delay. 
See on ch. 9 : 18. JSamiaae, be baptized; or, with a stricter 
adherence to the form, have thyself baptized (De Wette). 
One of the uses of the middle voice is to express an act which 
a person procures another to perform for him. This is the 
only instance in which the verb occurs, in this voice, with 
reference to Christian baptism. 

"Kai arcoXovaai rat afia^rias aov, and wash away youi 
sins. This clause states a result of the immersion, in lan- 
guage derived from the nature of that ordinance. It answers 
to cte aipeoiv afinQTicov, in ch. 2 : 38. Immersion is rep- 
resented as having this importance or eflicacy because it 
is the sign of the repentanae and faith which are the 
conditions of salvation. ETtiy.a}.saaftevos to ovofia avrov sup- 
plies, essentially, the place of £jr< t(j> ovo/iari, Irjaov Xqwtov, 
in ch. 2 : 38. See the note on that clause. Tov Kv^tov, after 
ovo/ia, has much less support than avrov. It is rejected 
by Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. The pronoun can refer only to Christ. 
Corap. ch. 9 : 14." 

Prof. Hackett sustains the com. ver. of this verse. His 
words are: "This clause states a result of baptism in Ian 
guage derived from the nature of that ordinance. It answers 
to Ets acpEoiv aftn^icov, in Acts 2 : 38, i. e., submit to the rite 
in order to be forgiven. In both passages baptism is rep^ 
resented as having this importance or efficacy, because it is 
the sign of the repentance and faith, whiclLare the condition* 
of this salvation " See Hackett, 22 ; 10. 




rusalem, even while I prayed in 
the temple, I was in a trance; 

IS And saw him saying unto 
me, Make haste, and get thee 
quickly out of Jerusalem; for 
they will not receive thy testi- 
mony concerning me. 

19 And I said, Lord, they 
know that I imprisoned, and 
beat in every synagogue them 
that believed on thee : 

20 And when the blood of 
thy martyr Stephen was shed, 
I also was standing by, and con- 
senting unto his death, and kept 
the raiment of them that slew 

yi And he said unto me. De- 
part: for I will send thee far 
hence unto the Gentiles. 

22 And they gave him au- 
dience unto this word, and then 
lifted up their voices, and said. 
Away with such a fellow from 
the earth ; for it is not fit that 
he should live. . 

23 And as they cried out, and 


yeveadaL fxe eu iKaracreCf ^^ kol 
18€LU avTOv Xeyoprd /xoi, JSTrev- 
crov Kcu e^eXOe ev rd^ei i^ '/e- 
povcraXijfi' diort ov irapaSe^ov- 
ral aov ttjv fxaprvpiau irepl i/j.ov. 

Kdya ehrov, Kvpie, avrol eV/- 
aravTai, on iyco rj/uLrju (f)vXaKi- 
^cov KCU Sepcou Kara rdy crvva- 
ycoyas tovs TrLarevovTas eVt ere'* 
'^^ KOL ore i^eyelro to cup-a Sre- 
(j)duov Tov fxapTvpos crov, kou 
avTos rjprjv i(pe(TTC09 /cat ctvvev- 
SokSu rfj dvaipecreL aurov, kol 
(^vAacracov ra Iparia rcou dvac- 
povvTCou avTOv. ^ Kcu eiTre Trpos 
fxe,. Uopevov, ort, iyco els edvr) 
paKpdu e^airocTTeXco ere. 

^^ Hkovov 8e avTOv a^pt rov- 
Tov TOV Xoyov, Kol eirijpav tt]v 
(jycourji' avTcav XeyovTes, A.lpe 
arro Ttjs yrjs tov tolovtov ov 
ydp KadfjK0i> avTov ^jjv. ^^ Kpav- 
ya^ovTCov 5e avTav, kcu. pvjTTOvv- 


in the temple, I was . in a 
'trance; and beheld him say- 18 
ing to me. Make haste, and go 
quickly out of Jerusalem; for 
they will not receive your 
testimony concerning me. And 19 
I said, Lord, they know that 
I imprisoned, and beat in every 
synagogue those who believed 
on thee : And when the blood 20 
of Stephen thy "witness, was 
shed, I also was standing by 
consenting, and kept the rai- 
ment of them who slew him. 
And he said to me. Depart; 21 
for I will send you out far 
'hence to the Gentiles. 

And they heard him up to 22 
this word, and then raised 
their voices, and said, Away 
with such a fellow from the 
earth: for it is riot fit that he 
should "live. And as they 23 
shouted, arid threw up their 
^'clothes, and cast dust into 

' Exaraaii. Literally, an ecstasy. This word occurs eight 
times in the N. T., four times translated trance, twice amaze- 
ment, and twice astonishment. Trance, in Luke's style, four 
times indicates an ecstasy, or suspension of the senses. It 
is such a paroxysm as suspends the action of all the senses 
for a time, and places the mind beyond the control of the 
plysical laws of our being. 

3fs accompanies ycvsaO-ae, though eyevero has the same 
logical subject. 

" See y. 15, note r. 

Tr] avaiQEOi omitted by Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. 

■' StsXXco, I send ; ajto, from me ; c^, out ; 
or, I send out from me. ATtoareX'/.co whence arcoaxolos, and 
whence anoarolrj. This is a very peculiar word. It is first 
found in N. Test., Matt. 10 : 2; but it is of higher antiquity. 
It was used by the Greeks from a very high antiquity. It 
was first indicative of any one sent out with power, or au- 
thority — miltcre cum potestate et auloritate aliqua. 

Tilt captains of ships, long before the Christian era, were 
by the ancients called apostles. Chamier, quoted by Leigh, in 
his Crit. Sacra, says, "Significat cursum navis dirigere et de 
dirigendis navihus disponere et conslituere." Indeed, aroj.oe 
classem significat; hence the commander of a fleet, or navy 

was called, by the ancient Greeks, an apostle, or apostolos. 

Jesus Christ, the great captain of salvation, is called an 
apostle, rather the apostle, as well as the high jniest of our 
religion, Ileb. 3:1; certain brethren, 2 Cor. 8 : 23, are called 
the apostles of the churches — messengers, com. ver. Epa- 
phroditus is called an apostle of the church at Philippi. All 
persons commissioned by an individual, a city, a government, 
and sent with any message, or on any erraud,.is entitled to 
the full import and meaning of the word apostle. But those 
whom Jesus Christ himself educated, inspired, and commis- 
sioned, are the only apostles clothed with his authU'ity, and 
entitled to all obedience, respect, and honor by all the disci- 
ples of the Lord Jesus Christ, emphatically himself called the 
apostle, as well as the high priest of our religion. 

E^aitoaTeV.o), 1 will send you out as an apostle. This 
phrase cannot be exactly rendered in our language. 

" AxQc rovTOv TOV Xoyov. This is specially definitive of the 
very word on the utterance of which he was interrupted. 
"We have a similar instance of such definiteness in the narra- 
tive, in ch. 19 : 25. Ov yag xad'ijy.ov avrop %rjv, for it was in- 
expedient, or, it was not fit that he should live. 

^ 'PmrovvTiov ra Ifiaria, " not throwing off their garments 
as a preparation for stoning Paul " (Grotius, Hack.) being 




cast off their clothes, and threw 
dust into the air, 

24 The chief captain com- 
manded him to be brought into 
the castle, and bade that he 
should be examined by scourg- 
ing; that he might kiiDw where- 
fore they cried so against him. 

25 And as they bound him 
with thongs, Paul said unto the 
centurion that stood by. Is it 
lawful for you to scourge a man 
that is a Roman, and uncon- 
demned ? 

26 When the centurion heard 
that, be went and told the chief 
captain, saying, Take heed what 
thou doest; for this man is a 

. 27 Then the c'hief captain 
came, and said unto him. Tell 
me, art thou a Roman ? He 
said, Yea. 

28 And the chief captain an- 
swered. With a great sum ob- 
tained I this freedom. And Paul 
said. But I was //-ec-born. 

29 Then straightway they de- 
parted from him which should 
have examined him: and the 
chief captain also was afraid, 
after he knew that he was a 
Roman, and because he had 
bound him. 

30 On the morrow, because 
he would have known the cer- 


^aXXovTcav ds tov aipa, ^* eKe- 
Xevcrev avTov b ■^LXiap-)(Os ccye- 
aQai ei? Tr]v 'iTap^\x^oXr]v, emaiv 
fxacTTL^iu du6Ta^ecr0ai avTov, \va 
eitiyvo) hi iqv alnau ovtcos CTre- 
^oavovu aura. ""^ cop 5e irpoe- 
recuev avTov toIs Ifxacnv, eiVe 
TTyOoy Tou earatra eKaTOVTap-)(ov 
6 JJavXos, El dvOpcoirov 'Pco- 
ixalov Kca aKaraKpiTov e^ea-rcv 
vfuu fiaa-TL^eiv ; ^^ '^/coucra? 5e 6 
iKarovrapy^os, irpoaeXOwv aTrrjy- 
yeiXe tcS ■^(tXidpxcp Xeycov, ' Opa 
TL jxeXXeis Troieiv 6 yap dv- 
OpcoTTOs ovTos 'Pco/xaios ea-TL. 
^^ UpoaeXOav 8e 6 ■)(iXLap)(09 
eiireu avTcp, A eye p.0L, el av 
Pcop.a1os el; 8e e(j)r], Nai. 
^^ ' ATreKplOr) re 6 ^iXlap-^os, 
'JEyco TToXXov Ke(j)aXaiov rrjv tto- 
Xireiau ravrrju eKTrjo-ap-iju. 'O 
8e JJavXos ^<j)'r]i Eycn 8e Kal ye- 
yevvT] ^^ EvOecos odu ixTre- 
(rrrjcrau dw avrov ol p-eXXovres 
avTov duerd^eiu. Kal 6 ^fA/a/);>(oy 
8e e(j)ol3i]dr), etnyvovs otl '2-^co- 
palos ecTTi, Kal ore rjv avrov 8e- 

^^ jTfj 8e eiraupLov jSovXop.evos 
yvutvaL TO da^aXes, to tl KaTTj- 


the air, the chiliarch com- 24 
manded him to be brought 
into the castle, and ordered 
that he should be examined 
by ^scourging, that he might 
ascertain wherefore they cried 
out against him. And as they 25 
were binding him with 'thongs, 
Paul said to the centurion who 
stood by. Is it lawful for you to 
scourge a man who is a Roman, 
anduncondemned? When the 26 
centurion heard that, he went 
and told the cliiliarcii, saying, 
Take "heed what you are about 
to do; for this man is a Roman. 
Then the chiliarch came, and 27 
said to him, Tell me, are you a 
Roman? He said. Yes." And 28 
the chiliarch answered, With 
a great sum I obtained this 
citizenship ; and Paul said. 
But I was born ivit/i it. Then 29 
immediately they departed 
from him who were about to 
have examined him; and the 
chiliarch also was afraid after 
he knew that he was a Roman, 
and because he had bound him. 

On the next day, being de- so 
sirous to know with certainty 

now a prisoner — rather tossing them in a frenzied mood into 
the air — at the same time casting dust into the air. This is 
usually done by mobs and infuriate persons, to excite the pas- 
sions of those around them. 

y 'O p}.iaQX,og — cy.eXcvoEV — /caari^iv npera^ead'at avrov, the 
chiliarch gave orders that he should be examined hy scourg- 
ing. Such was Roman civilization compared with ours, or 
rather with Christian civilization. Emcov, directing ; saying 
is too tame for such an oracle at such a time. J^Ttco is some- 
times represented by command, Luke 4 : 3 ; 9 : 54 ; 2 Cor. 
4 : 6, etc. 

" 'Os Se Tt^oarsivcv avroi- roig l/taoiv, "as they stretched Mm 

forth for the thongs," De "Wette, Meyer, Kob. Others say, 
" stretched him forth with the thongs,'" consisting of a plu- 
rality. It would appear with those in use, according to law. 
This seems to be indicated by the fact that the chiliarch com- 
manded him to be unbound, as soon as he" understood that 
he was a Roman citizen. Hack. 

Binding him as a prisoner was not illegal, but binding him 
for scourging was illegal, and, therefore, the centurion feared 
the law, and released him. 

» "Take heed," lacks authority, and is rejected by Gb., and 
others. It is merely a supplement. The most approved read- 
ing is Rimply, '•Wfiat do you ? " This man is a Roman ! 




tainty wherefore he was accused 
of the Jews, he loosed him from 
Jiis bands, and commanded the 
chief priests and all their coun- 
cil to appear, and brought Paul 
iown, and set him before them. 


And Paul, earnestly behold- 
ing the council, said, Men a^id 
brethren, I have lived in all 
good conscience before God un- 
til this day. 

2 And the high priest Ananias 
commanded them that stood by 
him, to smite him on the mouth, 

3 Then said Paul unto him, 
God shall smite thee, thou whited 
wall: for sittest thou to judge 
me after the law, and command- 
est me to be smitten contrary 
to the law ? 

4 And they that stood by, 


yopuTai irapa rav ' lovSalcoi/, 
eXvcreu avrov diro rau Seo-jxcou, 
Kol iKeXevcrev iXOelv tovs ci.p)(t.e- 
pus Koi oXov TO aweSpiou av- 
Tcov Kou Karayaycov tov UavXov 
ecTTrjcreii ety aurouy. 


Tco avveSplcp eiirev, AvSpes dSeX- 
0ot, iyco Traar) crvveihiqam dyadfj 
TreiroXLTevpaL ra OetS d^t rav- 
Trjs Trjs rjfxepas. de dp^ie- 

p€iis 'Avavias iirira^e tols irape- 
(TTcoaLV avTW, rvTrreiu avrov 
^ Tore 6 UavXos 
e'lTTe, TviTTCLv ae 
p.eXX€L 6 Oeos, TOL)(e KCKouia- 
jxeve' Kol (TV Kadrj Kplvcov /xe 
Kara tov vopov, koX Trapavopatv 
KeXeveis [xe TvirTecrOai; * 01 8e 

TO (TTOfia. 

Trpos avTov 


on what account he was ac- 
cused by the Jews, he loosed 
him from his bonds, and com- 
manded the chief priests and 
all their council to appear, and 
having brought down Paul, he 
placed him before them. 

CHAP, xxiir. 

And Paul, earnestly behold- 
ing the council, said, ""Breth- 
ren, I have lived to God with 
all good conscience until this 
day. And the high priest 
Ananias commanded them 
who stood by him, to strike 
him on the mouth. Then 
Paul said to him, God. will 
strike you, you whited wall: 
for do you sit to judge me ac- 
cording to the law, and com- 
mand me to be struck con- 
trary to the law ? And they 

■■ Areviaas Se o Uavlos re^ avveScov. Earnestness in 
oratory is well defined, and recommended in tliis case. 
Arcvt^co, oceulos in aliquem defigo, io fasten, to fix, ivith a 
piercing, penetrating gaze, the eyes upon a person or ohject. 
Something of excitement, or of intensity of feeling, is un- 
ambiguously indicated by Paul in liis exordium on this occa- 
sion. There is much of argument and eloquence in a look. 
There is an all-puissant, all-subduing glance of the eye j and 
Paul, in his earnestness and point on this occasion, affords us 
a fine specimen of it. 

T(i/ ovpeS^tfo — ovrsS^wv, Sanhedrim council. Luke, in this 
single book, refers to it fourteen times, and once in his gospel. 
All the other writers in the N. T. refer to it only seven times. 
Its etymology is fully indicative of its distinctive character — 
ovv, together, sS^a, secies — a silling together. Moses and his 
seventy elders gave it a local habitation and a name, in both 
sacred and profane history. SvveS^iov, in Grecian history, 
indicates a council, a court — et locus in quern conveniunt 
senalores. Thesaurus Grmcce Lingues. Num. ch. 11 ; Deut. 
27 : 1 ; 31 : 9 ; Ezekiel 8 : 11; In one acceptation of it, " An 
assembly of prelates and doctors convened to regulate matters 
of discipline in Church affairs." 

Looking in the face of the whole tribunal, lie, with an 
intrepid cduntenanco, alSrras eyco Ttaarj owetSiioct aynO-i;. 

Ego optima gaudens conscienlia voluntatis divin a ad hunc 
usque diem.' Activum, Ttolncviv, et medium, Ttohrcvead'at^ 
nolat rempullicani adminislrare, publicum in civitate munus 
administrare. Thucyd. viii. 07. Kuin. vol. 3, p. 330. Con- 
science, in this case, is well defined. It is a judge, whose 
verdict upon our own acts, in thought, in volition, in word, 
or in action, creates within us pleasing or unpleasing asso- 
ciations or feelings, as contemplated in reference to a perfect 
law of perfect happiness, and an omniscient Judge. 

ZvvsiSrjOst aya&rj Ttcnohrevfiai. It is worthy of notice, 
that in some thirty-two occurrences of this word avpstdijais, 
in the Christian Scriptures, it is always, in com. ver., trans- 
lated conscience. 

JTohrsvo/uat is found only twice, and Ttohrsv/ia once, in 
the N. Test. Both words are, com. ver., translated conver- 
sation ; the latter, literally, enfranchisement, or community. 
Greek Concordance of N. Test. ; the former, "/ have lived," 
Acts 23 : 1 ; and Phil. 1 ; 27, conversation. But this is 
ohsolele. Webster, "familiar intercourse." Behavior, in 
general, is intended ; and such was its currency at the date 
of the com. ver. 

The natural or syntactic order of this sentence is as foU 
lows, and ought, in my judgment, to be preferred : " Brethren, 
I have lived to God, with all good conscience, until this day." 




said, Revilest thou God's high 
priest ? 

5 Then said Paul, I wist not, 
brethren, that he was the high 
priest: for it is written, Thou 
shalt not speak evil of the ruler 
of thy people. 

6 But when Paul perceived 
that the one part were Saddu- 
cees, and the other Pharisees, 
he cried out in the council, Men 
and brethren, I am a Pharisee, 
the son of a Pharisee: of the 
hope and resurrection of the 
dead I am called in question. 

7 And when he had so said, 
there arose a dissension between 


wapecTTcoTes cIttou, Tov ap^iepea 
Tov 0€ov XoL8opeL9; "^ ' JS(j)r} re 
6 IlavXos, OvK ySeti/ dSeXcpol, 
OTL itTTLV ap^L€p€vs' yeypaTTTac 
yap, ' Ap^ovra tov Xaov aov ovk 
epei9 KaK(as. *" Pvovs 8e o Ilav- 
Xos OTL TO ev fxepos io-A UaSSov- 
Kaioov, TO 8e eTepov ^aptcraicov, 
eKpa^eu iu tcS crvueSpicp, ' Av8pes 
adeX(po\, iyco ^apLcralos el/xi., 
vlos 0apLaaLOV' irepX eXirLBos 
Kcd avacTTacTicas veKpav iyco Kpl- 
uofjLai. TovTO 8e avTov XaXrj- 
(ravTOS, iyeueTO aTaa-is t&v ^a-\ 


who stood by, said, Do you 
revile Q-od's 'high priest? 
Then said Paul, ''I knew not, 
brethren, that he was the 
high priest; for it is written, 
You shall not speak evil of 
the ruler of your people. 

But when Paul perceived 
that the one part were Saddu- 
cees, and the other Pharisees, he 
cried out in the council, Bretli- 
ren, I am a 'Pharisee, the son 
of a Pharisee: 'concerning a 
hope and a resurrection of the 
dead I am now judged. And 
when he had so said, there 

' 'O a^x's^ea tov Qeov, pontificem, qui jussu et auctoritate 
Dei agit, vicem Dei gerit. Convieiis proseindere. Kuin. The 
high priest Ananias, not the Annas or Ananus named 4:6; 
Luke 3:2; John 18 : 13. "He, unquestionably," says 
Winer, " is the son of Nebedfeus, who obtained the office of 
high priest under procurator Tiberius Alexander, a. d. 48, 
the immediate successor of Camidus or Camithus." (Josep. 
Ant. 20 : 5, 2. Hack.) 

A pontiff, who by the command and authority of God acts 
for God, most certainly stands in his place; and we must 
approach to God and commune with God through him, while 
through him God communes with us. Such a dignitary is 
not to be contemned. 

Ovx ji8etv aSelfot, on saxiv apxce^svg. These words have 
long been in debate. Oameranus, Marnixius, Thiessius and 
Heinrichius regard these words as used ironically ; equivalent 
to, that he did not execute the office. Others interpret them, 
that he did not acknowledge him to be high priest, but as 
usurping this dignity. But, as well observed by others, if 
the apostle did not wish this dignity to enure to him, he 
would not have said that he did not know. Ova jjdstv, but 
rather ova oiSa lovrov aQ^ieqea. I do not know, or acknow- 
ledge, this person as high priest of this people. Kuin. 

Ananias had been dispossessed of this oflBce, and Jonathan 
raised to that dignity. On the death of Jonathan, it con- 
tinued for some time vacant ; Jind, in this interval, Ananias 
undertook to fill it, but without proper authority. Boothr. 
" I was not aware that he was the high priest," Ovy. rjdsiv 
on cariv a^xts^Evs, cannot be fairly translated, / do not 
acTcnowledge him to be high priest. Nor is it probable that 
Paul would enter into a. discussion of the legality of his claim. 
He simply declares his own ignorance of the fact, having been 
some time absent from the country. He, however, apologizes 

for his charge or allegation of hj'pocrisy, and more especially 
as Ananias was, at least, a magistrate in authority. 

■i '• I did not know." This might not be literally true, and 
yet, in the Hebrew license of this verb, it was true. It is 
equivalent, in Hebrew currency, to perceive, to know, to make 
known, to acknowledge, and to consider. At the moment the 
idea of the judge, absorbed the idea of the high priest, so 
that Paul did not consider, or regard him as acting the high 
priest but the civil judge. 

° " I am a Pharisee," was true, in one sense, so far as he 
was the son of a Pharisee. But this is an oratorical argument, 
on the principle — Divide and conquer. It was as lawful as 

f Heoi e).jcidoe apaarnascos vsxQaiv syco y.oivofiai, de spe 
et resurrectione mortuorum ego in judicium vocor. Beza, 
Biblia Sacra, I. Tremellio et Francisco Junio, London. 
1581. Literally, according to the text, concerning a hope 
and a resurrection of the dead, I am judged. " Concern- 
ing the hope," Boothr., Wakefield. They supply the. " For 
hope's sake and a resurrection of the dead," Meyer, De 
Wette. Or, by Hendiadys, "the ho2JC of the resurrection," 
Kuin., 01s., quoted by Hack. "For a hope even of a resur- 
rection of the dead," Thomp. " The hope and resurrection of 
the dead," Dodd. " The hope of a resurrection," Penn. So 
many theories of the resurrection of the dead, extant and 
obsolete, we prefer to be strictly literal. Hence, according to 
Bagster's Improved and Corrected Text, we render it " con- 
cerning a hope and a resurrection of the dead I am now 
judged." Other reasons give t) this an importance greater 
than the then existing controversy between the Pharisees 
and the Sadducees. Instead of ^aqiaaiov, <Pn^iaaimv ia 
regarded as a better reading by Ln., Tf., Gb. 




the Pharisees and the Saddu- 
cees: and the multitude was di- 

8 For the Sadducees say that 
there is no resurrection, neither 
angel, nor spirit : but the Phari- 
sees confess both. 

9 And there arose a great cry : 
and the scribes that were of the 
Pharisees' part arose, and strove, 
saying. We find no evil in this 
man : but if a spirit or an angel 
hath spoken to him, let us not 
fight against God. 

10 And when there arose a 


pLcraioiv KoX tS)V Sa88ovKaicou, 
Kou ecr^Lcrdr] ro ttA^^oj. ^ Sa8- 
bovKoioL fx,eu yap Xeyovcn fir] ei- 
vat avaaracnv, firjSe ayyeXov 
IxrjTe TTvevfxa' ^apio-aloL Be ofxo- 
XoyovcTL TO. dfifpoTepa. " iyevero 
de Kpavyr] fieyaXr]' koI avaarav- 
rey ol ypaixfiareLS Tov fxepovs rcav 
(^aptcratcBj/ hieixayovTO Xeyoure^, 
OuSev KUKou €vp[(TKOfxev iv TcS 
avdpaiirco tovtco' et 5e wvevfia 
iXaXrjcrev avra r] ayyeXos, p.r) 
6€0jxa)(a>/xei'. ■^*' UoXXt}^ 8e ye- 


arose a ^dissension between the 
Pharisees and the Sadducees; 
and the multitude was divid- 
ed. For the Sadducees say 8 
that there is no resurrection 
nor angel, nor spirit ; but the 
Pharisees confess ''both. And 9 
there arose a great clamor ; 
and the scribes who were 
of the Pharisees' party arose, 
and strove, saying. We find 
no evil in this man : but, if 
an angel or spirit spoke to 
him, — ' And when there arose lO 

'"' Sraaes^ insurrection, sedition, dissension, u2'>roar, stand- 
ing. Such is the whole currency of axt^co, in N. Test. Its 
usual representatives in the N. Test, are : rend, divide, open, 
hrealc. It is, with one exception, only found in the historical 
books. In Hebrews, ch. 0:8, it is literally and properly 
rendered standing ; because, applied to the tabernacle, in- 
dicating its mere continuance; literally, /jauwig- a standing. 
This word is a valuable monument of the fact, that often the 
subject and the context must decide the sense or meaning of 
a word, especially when it has a liberal currency. 

!> Mt;Se ftyyeXov ftrjre nvev/ia, are often represented by 
neque, neither, but when, as here, in conjunction, in one 
member of a sentence, they stand to each other as neither 
and nor, in our vernacular. But in certain cases, as in the 
one before us, when preceded by a negative absolute, we 
extend it to the whole category — no resurrection, no angel, 
no spirit. Mijde adds a second denial to the first, while 
firjTB expands this denial into its parts. See Matt. 5 : 34, 
35, 30, Hack., Winer, Stuart. Hero are four speciiications. 

Tn nuforega, holh. Yet there are three specifications of 
the Sadducean infldelitj' — avaoxaaie, ayyeXos, m'svfia, no re- 
surrection: nov angel, nor spirit. Boothroyd gets out of this 
grammatical difBculty by translating it, "7io resurrection nor 
angel or spirit.^'' Also Hack. But Penn has it, " there is no 
resurrection, nor angel, nor spirit ; " and instead of " the 
Pharisees confess both," he gives it, "confess all these." This 
difficulty has occurred to many thinkers. It occurred to 
Chrysostom. But it is found in the oldest Greek poets and 
philosophers. Hence Kuiiioel decides " vocabulum a,u^oTe^a 
de duobus usurpari solet, sed tria nominala sunt, qua Saddu- 
^,(si infelicitala esse dicuntur, tenendum igitur est aftcporsgov 
etiam de pluribus did." Ohrysostomus, vol. .3, p. 384, 

It is, indeed, found in Homer's Odys. 15. 78, afitpotEQov, 
xvSoe re ayXa'ir], oveiaq. We regard it as indicative 
of only two distinct ideas, giving two specifications of the 

second — angel and spirit — as representative of a future state 
— and a spiritual universe — a literal resurrection, and a literal 
spiritual universe, both which were denied by the Sadducees, 
and affirmed by the Pharisees. Ta a/iy>orsga — Prof. Hackett 
has it, according to the above analysis, " a resurrection, and 
the reality of spiritual existences, whether angels, or the souls 
of the departed." There yet appears a cloud in the horizon 
of many on the true analysis of man, as to the true constitu- 
ency of man. Man, in Holy Writ, is contemplated as a minia- 
ture trinity in his nature, the " lilcest image " of God in the 
universe. Hence the grand reason for his redemption. The 
word angel necessarily denotes no personality in the uni- 
verse. It is essentially and exclusively an official name. It 
applies to men, winds, lightnings, pestilence. These are 
scripturally called God's angels, Psalm 78 : 49. It is applied 
to men — even the spies, entertained by the innkeeper Eahab, 
are called angels, James 2 : 25. Acts 12 : 15. Fire and 
lightning are God's angels, Ileb. I : 7. They are called 
ministering spirits, officially. They are in nature spirits, but 
in office and employment ministers. Man has a body, a house. 
He has also a yvy^tj, a soul, a life animal. He has also a 
npBvfia, a spirit. These three make one man. 1 Thess. 
5 : 23. To draw the lines of distinction, though somewhat 
palpable, is not a task to be undertaken here. We can 
only say that the S2nril is from God; the animal soul is 
the seat and centre of the animal instincts. In the lapsus 
of humanity it predominates over the spirit, the reason 
and conscience of man. Hence the necessity of a spiritual 
new birth. That which is born of the flesh is Jlesh, and 
that which is born of the spirit is spirit. 

' Ol, YQaftftaratg.- The SaSSovxaiot fuv and the (Pa^ioaioi. 
Se stand in contraposition ; hence we have avaaravres ot 
ypa/f/iarsig, and hence the x^avyri /leyaXri, the great clamor 
and the favor shown to the apostles by tlie Pharisees, because 
of their more cogent evidence of a resurrection in the asser 




great dissension, the chief cap- 
tain, fearing lest Paul should 
have been pulled in pieces of 
them, commanded the soldiers 
to go down, and to take him by 
force from among them, and to 
bring him into the castle. 

11 And the night following 
the Lord stood by him, and said. 
Be of good cheer, Paul : for as 
thou hast testified of me in Je- 
rusalem, so must thou bear wit- 
ness also at Rome. 

12 And when it was day, cer- 
tain of the Jews banded together, 
and bound themselves under a 
curse, saying, that they would 
neither eat nor drink till they 
had killed Paul. 

13 And they were more than 


VQ[x4vr]s arTcccrecos, evXafSrjdeh 6 
)(cXtap)(os /J-rj diaaTracrdfj 6 Hav- 
Xos VTT avTcou, e/ceAeucre to crpa- 
reu/aa Kara/Sav apiracraL avrov 
e/c fxicrov avrav, ayeiv re els ttjv 

^^ TIT 5e eTTiovcrri vvktl iin- 
aras avrS 6 Kvpios elire, OapaeL 
UavXe- ms yap dLe/xaprvpco ra 
irepX ifxov ely 'lepovcraXijfj., ovrco 
are Set /cat els 'Pcofxrju p-aprvprj- 
crat. ^^ reuop,evrjs de rjp.epas, 
iroLTja-avTes riues Tav lovBaicov 
av(TTpo(pT]v, avedejxaTLarav eav- 
Tovs, Xeyovres [xrjTe (payelu p-rire 
TTieiu ecos ov airoKTeivcoaL rou 
HavXov ^^ Tjcrav 8e irXeiovs 


a great dissension, the 'chili- 
arch, fearing that Paul would 
have been pulled in pieces by 
them, commanded the soldiery 
to go down, and take him by 
force from among them, and 
to bring him into the castle. 
And the night following, the H 
Lord stood by him, and said, 
Talie courage, for as you 
have testified of me in Jeru- 
salem, so must you also bear 
i-testimony in Rome. 

And when it was day, the 12 
Jews, having formed a icombi- 
nation, bound themselves un- 
der a curse, saying, that they 
would neither eat nor drink, 
till they had killed Paul : and 13 

tion of the real avaaraais tmv vexQcov^ in the case and person 
of the Lord Jesus. The literal resurrection of the dead, in 
the person of the son of Mary and the son of God, was the 
omnipotent argument, wielded with irresistahle power by the 
eye-witnesses of the fact, against Sadduceeism and every form 
of materialism and infidelity which any form of philosophy, 
falsely so called, has ever obtruded upon mankind. 

Mil d-ao/iaxcofiev is, we think, justly repudiated by Gb., 
Sch., Ln., and Tf. It is nowhere else found in the Christian 
Scriptures. We have &eoftaxos once only in the Christian 
Scriptures, Acts 5 : 39 ; but the verb &sofiaxeco never, but in 
this place ; and that, without adequate evidence, from ancient 
manuscripts or versions. 

While Bagster's text retains, "let us not fight against 
God," it must be conceded that it is without satisfactory 
luthority. Sundry critics repudiate it, and the evidences 
are against it. 

' JEvXaj3);d-eis is somewhat of doubtful authority in this 
place ; for which, cpofitj&sts is substituted by Ln., but by 
Gb. regarded as not so strongly supported. We, therefore, 
give our suffrage for evXa/Hi^d'ecs, and retain the com. ver. 

k Havle, deservedly, as we think, is repudiated by Gb., 
Ln., Tf., Sch. ^tBfta^rv^m, 2d per. sing. 1st aor. mid., from 
8ta/ia^Tvpovfcai, eliam atque etiam obtestor. You must again 
and again witness for me. " So must thou testify," Boothr., 
Wes. " So thou must bear witness," Thomp. " So must thou 
bear testimony," Penn. " So also art thou to testify," Murd. 
" So must thou also testify," Wake. " So shall thou also bear 
testimony," Dodd. Sic et opoftet eliam Romce testifioare — 
Bern — So it behooves you also to bear witness at Rome. 

^lafiaQTV^ofiai is, etymologically, more than fta^TVQeco — 
eofiat, yet are they frequently represented by the same word, 
in the com. ver., as well as in others. The prefix Sta to 
ftaqrv^eai, extends, or intensifies, its value or import. It is 
more continuative in its operations and activities. It is 
clumsily expressed by thoroughly testify, ov fully ov completely 
testify. Yet this is only expressive of its full signification. 
This is one of the cases, or instances, wherein the Greek 
language excels our language. In this case, it contemplates 
a continuous effort, 

' For ttvee rmv lovdattov ovarQOfip', are substituted ov- 
orQocpr]v 01 lovSaioi by Gb., Ln., Sch., Tf. " Some of the Jews 
combined together and bound themselves under a curse, 
saying : that they would neither eat nor drink till they had 
killed Paul." Boothr. " Certain of the Jews banded together 
and bound themselves under a curse." 

Xvar^oyir], concursuSy sedilio, Arabs bene, seditio. Tumul- 
tuarium enim et seditionum concursum significat: ut ovar^e- 
tpeiv est populum factiose cogere — sic avoTQoipr] est factiosua 
coeptus. Crit. Sacra, in loco. So the Septuagint, on Judges 
14 : 8, avaxQotfij rov Xaov — is, seditio coitio populi. Hence 
they use it for conjuratione, "ilUp, avaraaig, a confederacy, a 
conspiracy. The Romans, in their patriotic mood, would 
say, on any ominous movement of conspirators, Qui rcmpuh' 
licam vult salvam esse me sequatur. Such was the avaraaig, 
the avvuifwaia, of the Greeks. " Having formed a combina- 
tion," Mey., Rob., Hack. 

This combination, literally, said, " We anathematize our- 
selves that we will neither eat nor drink till we have killed 




forty whicli had made this con- 

14 And they came to the chief 
priests and elders, and said, We 
have bound ourselves under a 
great curse, that we will eat 
nothing until we have slain 

15 Now therefore ye with the 
council signify to the chief cap- 
tain, that he bring him down 
unto you to-morvow, as though 
ye would inquire something more 
perfectly concerning him: and 
we, or ever he come near, are 
ready to kill him. 

16 And when Paul's sister's 
son heard of their lying in wait, 
he- went and entered into the 
castle, and told Paul. 

17 Then Paul called one of 
the centurions unto him, and 
said. Bring this young man unto 
the chief captain; for he hath a 
certain thing to tell him. 

18 So he took him, and 
brought hhn to the chief cap- 
tain, and said, Paul the prisoner 
called me unto him, and prayed 
me to bring "this young man 


TearcrapaKovra ol TavTTjv rrju 
(TvucofjLocriav ireiroLiqKOTes' oi- 
TLves irpocreXdovTes tols ocp-^Lc- 
pevcrt Koi roty irpecrfivTipois ei- 
TTOv, AvaOe/xaTi av^OejxaTLa-afi^v 
iavTOvs, firjSevof ytvaacrQai ecos 
oil a7roKT€ivcoixev tov IlavXov. 

15" 9'"*^/ '^ 

VVV OVV V/M619 €fjL(paVi(raT£ TO) 

■)(t,Xi.ap-)(w crvv T(S o-vueSpico, oircos 
avpiov avTov Karaydyrj wpos, CO? fieXXopTas biayLvoicrKeLV 
OLKpi^ea-repov to. irepX avTOV' 
riixels Se, rrpo tov iyyicrat avrov, 
eTOLjxoL icriiev tov dveXeii^ avrov. 
'AKOVcras de 6 vlo^ r^y dSeX- 
^rjs IlavXov TO eveSpop, irapa- 
yepofievos Koi elcreXdcop els rrjv 
TrapcfjifioXrjv, dirrjyy^iXe T(S Jlav- 
Xq>. Trpoo-KaXecrd/xepoy 8e 6 

TTavXos €va Tcov iKarovTap')(cov, 
e'077, Tov veaviav tovtov dird- 
yaye irpos top )(tX[ap-)(OP' e^ei 
yap TL aTrayyeiXai avra. ^ '0 
[xev odv wapaXa^cop avTop rjyaye 
TTpos TOP ■)(tX'iap-)(OP, Kai (prja-ip, 
'O becrp-tos UavXos TrpoaKaXe- 
crdfievos p-e r/pcoTrjae, tovtop top 


there were more than forty 
who had formed this con- 
spiracy. And they went to U 
the chief priest and elders, 
and said. We have bound our- 
selves under a great "curse, 
that we will eat nothing till 
we have slain Paul. Now, 15 
therefore, you with the "coun- 
cil, signify to the chiliarch that 
he bring him down to you to- 
morrow, as though you would 
inquire something more exact- 
ly concerning him : and we, 
before he can come near, will 
be ready to kill him. 

And when Paul's sister's 16 
son heard of the ambush, he 
went and entered into the 
castle, and told Paul. Then 17 
Paul called one of the "cen- 
turions to him, and said. Bring 
this young man to the chili- 
arch; for he has a certain 
thing to tell him. And so he is 
took him, and brought him to 
the chiliarch, and says, Paul 
the ^prisoner called me to 

"■ Aved'efiartaaftev Savrovs. We have cursed ourselves — 
as explained, v. 13, ovpco/coaiav neTtotijxoTee, conjuratio, Orit, 
Saor., in loco. The reflexive of the third person (as in v. 12) 
may follow a subject of the first or second person. Kuhner's 
Greek Gram, and Buttman ; Ilackett. 

" SvpeS^eo) — avveS^iov, consessus, always, in N". Test., trans- 
lated council. Com. ver., — it was called the cowt of the 
seventy and two, and was held only in Jerusalem ; from which 
the Jews retained this word, calling the judges the Sanhe- 
drim. None might appeal to any other. Num. 11 : 26. 
Critica Sacra. Synagogues are ecclesiastic conventions. 
Synedria are conventions of civil judges, more frequently 
alluded to, and named, in this book of Acts, than in all the 
other Christian Scriptures, hul never once applied to any 
Christian assembly, summoned or convened for any act of 
Christian discipline, legislation, or judgment. It alwa3's 
refers to a pagan or a Jewish institution ; never to any 
Christian assembly. 

Xi).i,aQ%fo aw rc;) ovveS^tcff^xiXta^yfis, seventeen times 
occurring in this book, always rendered chief captain. Com. 
ver. The chiliarch, often called a tribune, had, as his name 
indicates, the command of a thousand men. Tribunus mili- 
tum — John 8 : 12 — vertendum fuit prtefectus cohortis. A 
military tribune, called the prefect of a cohort ; for so the 
Latins called him. whom the Greeks called a chiliarch. But 
adds Crit. Sacra, a tribune is he who presides over a legion. 
These, among the Jews, were called chiliarchs. Grotius, Leigh. 

° 'Eva rcov ixarovtapx'o*' — ''^ov aveXeiv depends on etotftot 
as a genitive construction. Hack. E^aravra^xos is often 
rendered centurion ; because, in fact, he was the captain or 
commander of one hundred men ; and such is its etymology. 

P 'O Sea/ttos indicates that Paul was still a prisoner, and 
that by a chain. The Koman custom was to attach the chain, 
on the person of the prisoner, to the arm of a Eoman soldier. 




unto thee, who hath something 
to say unto thee. 

19 Then the chief captain 
took him by the hand and went 
with him aside privately, and 
asked him; What is that thou 
hast to tell me ? 

20 And he said, The Jews 
have agreed to desire thee, that 
thou wouldest bring down Paul 
to-morrow into the council, as 
though they would inquire some- 
what of him more perfectly. 

21 But do not thou yield unto 
them: for there lie in wait for 
him of them more than forty 
men, which have bound them- 
selves with an oath, that they 
will neither eat nor drink till 
they have killed him : and now 
are they ready, looking for a 
promise from thee. 

22 So the chief captain then 
let the young man depart, and 
charged him, Sec thou tell no man 
that thou hast shewed these 
things to me. 

23 And he called unto him 
two centurions, saying. Make 
ready two hundred soldiers to 
go to Cesarea, and horsemen 
threescore and ten, and spear- 
men two hundred, at the third 
hour of the night ; 

24 And provide them beasts, 
that they may set Paul on, and 
bring him safe unto Felix the 


veaviav ayay^lv Trpos ere, k-)(ovTa 
TL XaXrjcraL aot. ' JEiriXa^o- 

ixevos de rrj^ x^Lpos avrov 6 -^i- 
Xiap')(os, Kcd ava)(Copr](Tas Kar 
IStau iirvpffaveTO, Ti icrriM o e-^eis 
airayyaXai [jLot; ^^ JEhre Se, 
Ore ol 'lovBaXoL avvedevro tov 
epcoT^cral ere, ottcos avpiov els to 
avveBpLov Karayayrfs tov JJav- 
Xov, (By ixeXXovTes tl ocKpi^earTe- 
pov irvvOaveaOai rrepX avTov. 
av odu fJLTj "TTeiadfjs q.vTols' 
evedpevovcrt yap avTov i^ avrcou 
avBpes irXeiovs TecrcrapaKOVTa, 
o'LTLves aveOepouTLcrav eavTovs 
jx-qTe (^ayelv jx-qTe Tnelv ecos ov 
aveXacTLv ovtov kol vvv eToi/xoi 
eicTL 7rpo(T8e-)(op.evoL ttjv arro aov 
eirayyeXlav. ^^ 'O p.ei> ovv ■)(l- 
Xiap-)(os aireXvcre tov veaviav, 
TrapayyeiXas fxijdevl eKXaXijaaL, 
oTi TavTa eve(j)avL(ras irpos fie. 
^^ KaX irpocTKaXeaap.evos Svo 
TLvas Tcou eKaTOVTap^cnv ehrev, 
' JETOLfiaa-aTe (XTpaTicoTas Biuko- 
(t'lovs, ottcos iropevdcSoTLV ecos 
Kataapeias, kol LTrTrels e^Sojxr)- 
KOVTU, Kol 8e^LoXd^ovs SiaKO- 
CTLOVS, airo TpiTrjs copas ttjs vvk- 
Tos' KTrjVT] re Trapacrrrja-ac, 

Lva eiTL^i^aa-avTes tov HavXov 
diacrcocrcoo-i irpos ^rjXiKU tov 


him, and requested me to bring 
this young man to you. Then 13 
the chiliarch took him by the 
hand, and went with him aside 
privately, and asked him. 
What is that you have to say 
to me ? And he said. The 20 
Jews have agreed to request 
you, that you would bring 
down Paul to-morrow into the 
council, as though they would 
inquire something about him 
more perfectly. But do not 21 
you yield to them : for there lie 
in wait for him more than forty 
men of them, who have bound 
themselves with an oath, that 
they will neither eat nor 
drink till they have killed 
him ; and now are they ready, 
ilooking for the promise from 
you. So the chiliarch let 22 
the young man depart, and 
charged him, Tell no person 
that you have showed these 
things to me. And he call- 23 
ed to him some two of the 
■^centurions, saying, Make rea- 
dy two hundred soldiers, and 
seventy horsemen, and two 
hundred spearmen, to go to 
Cesarea,- at the third hour of 
the night; and let them pro- 24 
vide beasts on which they may 
place Paul, and bring him safe 
to Felix the governor. And he ^5 

' II^ooSs-/,oftevot Ttjp — ETtayyehttv — Looking for, expecting, 
waiting for — the promise. No word, of the same frequency 
of occurrence in this book, is more uniformly represented by 
one word than this is — by the word promise. Its only ex- 
ception is found, I. John 1 : 5, in the word message ; and in 
this case alone does it extend beyond one idea. A message, 
indeed, generally, in the evangelical economy, is a promise. 
A message, howeyer, is more general, including a promise, or 
a threatening. In John's first epistle, it indicates an annun- 
ciation or message, and not simply a promise. 

' x^vo rtvas Tcov ixarovraQxoiv — us is indefinite — it may 

be doubtful whether two or more ; but two, at least. Tis, 
joined with numerals, renders them indefinite. So Winer, 
Kuinoel, Hack., Stuart, etc., regard it. 

^e^iolapovs " occurs only here, and in two obscure writers 
of the iron age. Its meaning is a riddle," De "Wette. The 
proposed explanations are these : TtagafvXaKss, military lictors 
who guarded prisoners ; so called from their taking the right- 
hand side (Suid., Beza, Kuinoel). Lancers (Vulg., Eng. ver.), 
a species of light-armed troops (Meyer), since they are men- 
tioned once in connection with archers and peltasts. Codex 
A reads, Ssiio^oXove. Jaculantes dextra. Syr., Hack. 




25 And he wrote a letter after 
this manner: 

26 Claudius Lysias, unto the 
most excellent governor Felix, 
sendeth greeting. 

27 This man was taken of the 
Jews, and should have been kill- 
ed of them : then came I with 
an army, and rescued him, hav- 
ing understood that he was a 

28 And when I would have 
known the cause wherefore they 
accused him, I brought him forth 
into their council ; 

29 Whom I perceived to be 
accused of questions of their law, 
but to have nothing laid to his 
charge worthy of death, or of 

30 And when it was told me 
how that the Jews laid wait for 
the man, I sent straightway to 
thee, and gave commandment to 
his accusers also, to say before 
thee what they had against him. 

31 Then the soldiers, as it was 
commanded them, took Paul, 


rjyeixova' "^ ypdyj/as iirLcrToXrjv 
Trepie^ovcrav tov tvttov tovtov 
^'^ KXav^LOs Avcrlas tS Kparl- 
arcp rjyejxovL ^rjXiKi yalpuv. 

Tov av8pa TOVTOV (rvXXT)(j)- 
devTa VTTO Tav lovSalcov, /cat 
fieXXovTa avaLpeicrOaL vtt avTwv, 
eTTicrray cw t(S (TTpaTev/xaTi 
i^eiXofxrjv avTov, /j.a6mv otl 
'Pcop.alos' icTTi. ^^ fiovX6/xevo9 
fie yvS)vaL ttjv aWlav 81 rjv iveK- 
aXovv avTW, KaTrjyayov avrov 
e«y TO avveopiov avTcov ov 

evpov eyKaXovfievov wepl ^rjTrj- 
fiaTcov TOV vojxov avrav, fxrjBev 
8e a^iov OavtxTov r/ Becrfxcov ey- 
kXtjixol e)(0VTa. ^^ fiTjvvdelo-rjf 
8e fjLOL iiri^ovXris et? tov av8pa 
fxeXXeiv ecrecr^at utto Tav 'lov- 
8aL(ov, i^avTTjs eirefv^a irpos (re, 
TrapayyelXas kcu tols KaTrjyopois 
Xeyeiu tu Trpos avTov em. aov. 
' JEppcocro. 

^^ 01 fxev oSv (TTpaTicoTai, 
KaTo. TO StaTeTay/xevov avTOis, 


wrote a letter after this "man- 
ner: Claudius Lysias, to the 26 
most excellent governor Feljx, 
sends greeting. This man was 27 
taken by the Jews, and was 
about to be killed by them; 
but I came with the soldiery, 
and rescued him, having learn- 
ed that he was a Eoman. 
And when I wished to know 28 
the cause for which they ac- 
cused him, I brought him 
forth into their council : and 29 
found him to be accused about 
questions of their law, but to 
have nothing laid to his 
charge worthy of death, or of 
bonds. And when it was told 30 
me how the Jews laid wait 
for the man, I sent him 'im- 
mediately to you, and gave 
commandment to his accusers 
also, to say before you what 
they had against him. Fare- 

Then the soldiers, as it was 31 
commanded them, took Paul, 

■ JIeQiEj(,ovaav tov tvixov tovrov. " Containing this oul- 
line." Tvnoe, represented by print, figure, fashion, example, 
ensample, pattern, in com. ver. Proprie significat notam in- 
sculptam pulsatione. 

' MeXXsiv, omitted by Ln. 'Tjto rcov lovSatojv, omitted 
by Ln. and Tf. To fiaXletv eaeaO-ot, Kuin. objects, as an 
anacoluthon, indicating a want of sequence, not correspondent 
with the remainder of the sentence j and, therefore, should 
be written firjvo&siarjs /teV.ovaijg eaead'ai, or /tijvo&evros Ss 
ftoi — sTtt^ovltjv ftelXatv eaead'ai. " The writer falls out of his 
construction here. He sa3's fc7]wd-eia)]s at the beginning of 
the sentence, as if he would have added rijg ftellovaiiB ; but, 
in the progress of the thought, adds fieXXeiv, as if he had 
commenced with firiwaavrmv . . . etptpovhjv. The idea of 
the thing disclosed, yields to that of the persons who disclose 
it." Hack. " And when it was made known to me that the 
Jews laid wait for the man, I sent him immediately to you, 
and commanded his accusers also to say before you what they 

had against him. Farewell." Booth. "But having been 
informed of a plot laid against the man by the Jews." Wake. 
" And when it was shown me that an ambush was about to 
be laid for the man by the Jews." Wes. " But when it was 
signified to me that an ambush would be laid by the Jews." 
Dodd. " But receiving intelligence of a plot against the man 
which the Jews were in act to execute." Thomp. " Indicalis 
auteni mihi insidiis guts a Judeeis ei strucrentur, statim eum 
ad te misi, et accusaloribus ejus prxcepi, ut accusationes suas 
coram te proferrent." Kuin. " Quum autem mihi indioatum 
esset insidias huic viro factum iri a Judaais eo ipso memento 
misi eum ad te : et denuntiavi quoque accusatoribus ut quoe 
habent adversus eum dicant apud te. Vale." This 

we presume to be a full expression of the original text, and 
would render it : But soon as it was indicated to me that an 
ambush was about to be laid by the Jews, against this man, I 
immediately sent him to you, having given orders to his accu- 
sers to state to you whatsoever they Jiave against him." 
Edyaiao. Farewell. Om., Ln,, Tf. 




and brought him by night to 

32 On the morrow they left 
the horsemen to go' with him, 
and returned to the castle : 

33 Who, when they came to 
Cesarea, and delivered the epistle 
to the governor, presented Paul 
also before him. 

34 And when the governor 
had read the letter, he asked of 
what province he was.- And 
when he understood that he was 
of Cilicia; 

35 I will hear thee, said he, 
when thine accusers are also 
come. And he commanded him 
to be kept in Herod's judgment- 


And after five days, Ananias 
the high priest descended with 
the elders, and with a certain 
orator named Tertullus, who 
informed the governor against 

2 And when he was called 
forth, Tertullus began to accuse 
him, saying, Seeing that by thee 
we enjoy gi'eat quietness, and 
that very worthy deeds are done | 


avaXa^oures tov IlavXou, rjya- 
yov Sta TTJs VVKTOS us ttjv 'Au- 
TLTraTplSa. ^^ rrj 8e iiravpiov 
eacravres tovs 'vKTrels irop^vecrOaL 
avv avTcp, vnea-Tpey^av els ttjv 
TrapepjBoX^v ^^ olrLves elaeX- 
dovres €LS TTju KaLaapeiav, koL 
dvaSovres ttjv iiriaToXTju tS 
Tjyep.ovL, TrapearTrjcrav /cat rov 
JJavXov avTw. ^^ avayvovs 5e 
6 rjyepcov, koI iirepcoTrjcras e/c 
TToias iiTap-)(ias eaTL, kcu ttvOo- 
pevos oTi OLTTO KlXiklo-s, ^ Aia- 
Kovcropac aov, e(f)r], orau koI o'l 
Kar-qyopoL aov TrapayeucopTUt,. 
' EKeXevcre re avrov Iv rw irpai- 
Tmpica TOV 'HpaBov (pvXaarae- 


META Se irevre rjpepas Ka- 
Tefir] 6 a.p-)(i€pevs 'Avavias pera 
roov TTpecr^vrepcou kcu pr^ropos 
TepTvXXov Tivos, otrives €i>e(f)a- 
VLcav rco rjyepovL Kara tov Uav- 
Xov. KXrjOivTos 8e avTOv, rjp- 
^UTO KaTrjyopeiv 6 TepTvXXos 
Xeycov, " JIoXXtJs elprjvr]s Tvy- 
yavovfes Sea aov, kcu KaTopdco- \ 


and brought him by night to 
Antipatris; and'on the mor- 32 
row they left the horsemen to 
go with him "(and returned to 
the castle) : who, when they 33 
came to Cesarea, and delivered 
the epistle to the governoi", 
presented Paul also before 
him. And when the governor 31 
had read the letter, he asked 
of what province he was." And 
when he understood that he was 
of Cilicia, he said, I will hear 35 
you, "when your accusers are 
also come. And he command- 
ed him to be kept under guard 
in the "pretorium of Herod. 


Now after "five days, Ana- l 
nias the high priest came 
down to Cesarea with the 
elders, and with a certain ora- 
tor named Tertullus, who ap- 
peared before the governor 
against Paul. And when he 2 
was called, Tertullus ""proceed- 
ed to accuse him, saying, See- 
ing that through you we enjoy 
much 'peace, and that many 

■■ Eaaavree tovs Ijtnses, having left or permitted the horse- 
men to go with him, they returned to the castle; rdic.tis 
equitalibus qui cum eo irent, reversi sunt in castra. Beza. 
For Tio^evead-a, ccTts^x^a&ai is substituted by Ln., Tf., and 
thought probable by Gb, 

^ '0 tjyeficov is repudiated by Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. It is, how- 
ever, an appropriate supplement. Ene^corriaae, «. r. L, having 
asked from what province he is. This suggests his profession 
of being a Roman citizen. 

" ^laxovaoftai aov. I will hear you fully. 

* JEc rco Tt^airco^iq) tov 'HqcoSov, in Herod's prcetorium. 
The residence of the Roman procurators. A palace built by 
him at Caasarea ; then occupied as the residence of Eoraan 
pro3urators. Hack, 

* MsTa 8s Ttevrs tjfietyas, post quinquc dies advenit Ananias, 
potius die quinto — on the fifth day, Kuin. Michaelis, Din- 
dorflus, Rosenmiillerus count these daj-s from the captivity 
of Paul in Jerusalem, as cited by Kuin., in which view Meyer, 
De Wette, and Hackett agree. * 

^ H^^aro y.aTrjyoQeiv, hegan to accuse^ or, proceeded to ac- 
cuse. Tertullus instituted, if not in form, in fact, three dis- 
tinct counts, or charges — sedition, heresy, profanation of the 
temple, vv. 5, 0. Instead of y.azo^d-cofiarcop, some copies 
read Sto^&ioftarcov, which reading Grotius, Griesbach, and 
Valokenarius approve. Kuin. 

° I[o}.).7]s Et^rivrje, " much peace," rather than '' great quiet- 
ness;" "many worthy deeds," rather than "very worthy 




unto this nation by thy provi- 

3 We accept it always, and 
in all places, most noble Felix, 
with all thankfulness. 

4 Notwithstanding, that I be 
not further tedious unto thee, I 
pray thee, that thou wouldest 
hear us of thy clemency a few 

5 For we have found this 
man a pestilent fellow, and a 
mover of sedition among all the 
Jews throughout the world, and 
a ring-leader of the sect of the 
Nazarenes : 

6 Who also hath gone about 
to profane the temple: whom 
we took, and would liave judged 
according to our law : | 


fiarcou yivofieucov t(3 kOveL tovtco 
dta r^y arrjs Trpovoias Travrj] re 
Koi 7ravTa)(ov, d7roSe)(6/xeda, 
KpaTLCTTe 0rjXi^, fxeTot. iraarris 
iv)(api(7Tias. * 'iva Se fxr] ein 
TrAetoi/ (re iyKoirrco, irapaKaXS) 
uKovcrai ere. r]p.cav cruiro/icoy tt) 
o-fj iiTLeLKeia.. ^ evpovres yap tqv 
auSpa TOVTOV Xoifxou, koI kiuo- 
vvra arracTLv Traat roiy 'lovBaiois 
Tots Kara ttjv olKov/xeurji/, irpa- 
TOcrTaTTjv re Trjs rav Na^copalcop 
alpeaecos' oy Koi ro lepov 

eTreipacre (3el3r)Xo}(rai, bv kcu e'/c- 
paTr] Kou Kara tov vj/iere- 
pov vojxov rjdeXricraiiev Kpiveiv. \ 


very worthy ''deeds are done 
this nation through your 
prudent administration; we 
receive it in every way, and 
•every where, most 'noble Fe- 
lix, with all thankfulness. But 
that I may not weary you 
longer, I pray you of your cle- 
mency to hear afew words from 
us. For we have found this 
man a pest, and exciting dis- 
turbance among all the ^Jews 
throughout the world, a chief- 
leader of the sect of the Naza- 
renes : who also has gone about 
to profane the temple : whom 
v/e took, and would have judg- 
ed accordinn; to our "law : but 

•' JIoXIcov being understood. 

^ta Trjs aijs nQovoiae. HQOvoiae is found only here and in 
Kom. 13 : 14 ; here providence, tliere provision. 

The verb itqovoEio is found three times, and is uniformly 
translated provide, com. ver. Providing for good and against 
evil, classifies all the duties of civil government. Prudence is 
itself a species of providence. 

Evxa^taria is a favorite with Paul. With two exceptions, 
found in the Apocalypse, he engrosses its whole currency in 
the Christian Scriptures. His use of the verb Evjca^torsca is 
quite as remarkable. TertuUus the orator justifies his use 
of it. 

• TVe concur with Eobinson and others, in preferring " every 
way, and everywhere," to " always, and in all places," as be- 
ing more apposite to the use of vtavri;. 

' K^ariars <P/;?.iS, most noble, most excellent. Tertullus, 
Claudius Lysias, Luke, and Paul are alike courteous in their 
use of this complimentary term. In tlie same style he uses the 
phrase, r/; an cTtietxeia, gentleness, clemency. Gentile, gentle, 
and genteel are of the same family, and in Latin, French, 
Spanish, and Italian of the same radical orthography. Gen- 
tleness is one of the most conspicuous fruits of the Holy 
Spirit, and, therefore, he alone creates a true gentleman. The 
language of Tertullus is heartless flattery. Felix, according 
to Tacitus, Josephus, and hoary tradition, was one of the most 
corrupt and corrupting governors over sent from Rome into 

^ Aotfiov, pro }.otficoS)]s, vol 7.otfuy.og, ut Lat. peslis pro 
pestifer. Kuin. A pest, for a pestilent fellow, "exciting 
disturbance among" ov unto all the Jews, amongst them- 
selves, not amongst the Romans. Na^co^aicav, a term of re- 
proach. OIs., Hack. 

^ 'Os TO Uqov sneiQaoe psprjXaiaat, ov xai ex^artjaaficv. 
The following words connected with these are omitted by 
Ln., Tf., (Gb.,— a probable omission)-" y.ara tov ^/icere^ov 
vo/cov rjd'eXrjoaftev v.qivEiv. (V. 7.) naQaf.O'cov Si Avaiag b 
%i.}.Mq%os fcera 7toX/.rj£ /Siots £« roiv %et()ct)»' rj/xcov anr^yayB, 
(V. 8.) y.ekevaae rove y.arrjyo^ove avrov e^xeoO'ac cm ae." 
They are, indeed, repudiated by Ln. and Tf., thought doubtful 
by Gb., regarded as an interpolation by Mill, Beng., Morns, 
Heiur. But with Kuinoel, after considerable vacillation, I 
concur. His conclusion is: "After weighing the objections of 
Mill, Beng., Mor., and Heinr., and their motion to have them 
striken out of the text — equidem tamen verba texlus genuina 
existimanda puio — notwithstanding I am of the opinion that 
they arc to he regarded as the genuine words of the text." 
They are rejected by De TVette, Mill, Bengel, Lachmann, and 
some others. But inasmuch as they are reported as found in 
different forms in a majority of extant manuscripts, I must 
vote for their retention. 

The following are the popular versions of this passage: 
"And having seized him, we wished to judge him according 
to our law. But Lysias the chiliarch came, and with great 
violence took him out of our hands." Syriac Peshito. " Q«<i 
templum quoque tentavit profanari: guem etiam prehensum 
volumus secundum Legem noslram indicare sed inlerveniens 
tribunus Lysias cum magna vi abducit eum e manibus no- 
striis." Beza, edition of Junius and Tremellius, Old and New 
Testament, London, a. d. 1581. " Who attempted to profane 
the temple, and whom we, therefore, seized: by examining 
whom thou canst obtain knowledge of the things of tvhich we 
accuse him." Penn. " fVho attempted to profane even the 
temple, we apprehended him, and would have judged him ac- 
cording to our latv." Thomp. To the same effect, Boothr., 
Dodd., Wes., Wakef. See oh. 21 : 31. 33, 




7 But the chief captain Lysias 
came u2}on m, and with great 
violence took him away out of 
our hands, 

8 Commanding his accusers 
to come unto thee : by examin- 
ing of whom, thyself mayest take 
knowledge of all these things 
whereof we accuse him. 

9 And the Jews also assent- 
ed, saying, That these things 
were so. 

10 Then Paul, after that the 
governor had beckoned unto him 
to speak, answered, Forasmuch 
as I know that thou hast been 
of many years a judge unto this 
nation, I do the more cheerfully 
answer for myself: 

11 Because that thou mayest 
understand, that there are yet 
but twelve days since I went up 
to Jerusalem for to worship. 

12 And they neither found 
me in the temple disputing with 
any man, neither raising up the 
people, neither in the syna- 
gogues, nor in the city : 

13 Neither can they prove 
the things whereof they now 
accuse me. 


"^ irapeXOcov 8e Avcrlas 6 X'-^^' 
apyos uera ttoXXtJ? ^Las e/c rav 
X^ipuiv rjpcov airrj-yaye, KeAevaas 
Tovs Karrjyopovs avTov epxecrdai 
eVt ere'" Trap' ov Swi^crrj avros 
avaKpivas rrepl iravrcov toutcou 
eTTLypavat cav rjnei^ KaTrjyopovfiev 
avTOV. " JSvuedevTO 8e /cat ot 
'TovSaloL, ^dcTKOUTe^ ravra ovrais 

^^ 'ATreKpidr] 8e 6 TZaOAoy, 
v^vtravTos avrm tov rjyefiovos 
XeyeLV, 'jEk TroXXav €Ta>u bvra 
ae KpLTTjv TcS eduei tovtcd ivi- 
a-TOiixevos, evdv/xorepov ra Trepl 
ipavTov airoXoyovpaL. 8vva- 

peuov crov yvSivai on ov ttXclovs 
elcrl p.0L TjpepaL rj BeKuSvo, dcj) 
rjs dvejSrjv Trpoa-Kvurjcrcoj/ iu 'le- 
povaaXriix' koI ovre iv rro 

lepm evpov p.e irpos Tiua StaXe- 
yofievou rj iTnava-TaaLV ttoiovvtu 
o)(Xov, ovT€ iv rats crvvayajyais, 
ovre Kara rrjv iroXiv oilre 

irapaa-Trjcrai /xe Bvvavrai Trepl av 
vvv KaTtjyopovai pov. ^'^ 6p.oXo- 


the chiliarch Lysias came upon 7 
us, and with great violence took 
him away out of our 'hands, 
commanding his accusers to 8 
come to you : by examining of 
whom you yourself may obtain 
knowledge of all these things 
whereof we accuse 'him. And 9 
the Jews also assailed '■him, say- 
ing that these things were so. 

Then Paul, after that the gov- lo 
ernor had beckoned to him to 
speak, answered: — 'Knowing 
that you have been for many 
years a j udge for this nation,! do 
the more cheerfully answer for 
myself; it being in your power u 
to know that there are yet but 
twelve "days since I went up 
to Jerusalem to worship. And 12 
they neither found me in the 
temple disputing with any 
man, neither stirring up the 
people, neither in the syn- 
agogue, nor in the "city: nei- 13 
ther can they prove the things 
of which they now accuse me. 

' In ficra nolhjs ptas, Tertullus misfates the fact. On the 
appearance of Lysias, the Jews released Paul without any 

1 Em ae, before thee. Hack. Avax^taie indicates an}' form 
of inquisition. 

■■ For avved-evro, Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. substitute avvened-evro. 
They did more then assent, they assailed him at the same 
time. It is again found in eh. 23 : 30. 

1 Ex 7to}.),(ov arcov, since many years. K^trrjv governs 
e&vei. The relation was for their benefit. Hence the dative. 

■" ^vvaftevov aov yvaivat, while, or since, you are able to 
know, you may know, it being in your power lo know. H Se- 
xaSvo later editions omit. " The best mode of reckoning the 
twelve days is the following — beginning with the day of their 
arrival at Jerusalem (ch. 21 : 17) ; second, their interview 
with James (21 : 18) ; third, the assumption of the vow 
(21 : 26) ; fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh, the vow continued, 
to have been kept seven days, being interrupted on the fifth ; 

eighth, Paul before the sanhedrim (22 : 30 ; 23 : 1-10) ; ninth, 
the plot of the Jews, and the journey to Antipatris 
(23 : 12-31); tenth, eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth, the 
days at Otesarea (24 : 1), on the last of which the trial was 
then taking place. The number of complete days would, 
therefore, be twelve ; the day in progress at the time of 
speaking is not counted. So Wetstein Augm., Meyer, Do 
Wette, and others." Ilackett. 

Acp Tje, an abbreviation for ano t^s ?/«e^«s »;s. IlQooy.vvr]- 
ocov, worshiping, or, in order to worship. Arp 7;g elliptice po- 
situm est pro ap' rjfte^as fjs avs^riv, et in Jerusalem positum 
pro Eig leQovaalrjfc. Kuinoel, in loco, 

" For cniavaraatv some read cTttoxaatv, substituted by 
Ln., Gb., not so well sustained. Vox rarior occurrit apud 
Joseph. C. Apion 1. 20. Ovxi ex rrjg avTrjs eitiavaraaeiae, qui 
in eadem seditione fuerat. Esr. V, 70. £ai 
Srjfiaycoyiag uai BTitotaaetg noiovfievot, verbum cnwvvtaraod'ai 
concursum facere legitur ap. Joseph. Ant. 14, 1, 3. Kuin. 




14 But this I confess unto 
fchee, that after the way which 
they call heresy, so worship I 
the God of my fathers, believing 
all things whicli are written in 
the law and in the prophets: 

15 And have hope toward 
God, which they themselves also 
allow, that there shall be a re- 
surrection of the dead, both of 
the just and unjust. 

16 And herein do I exercise 
myself, to have always a con- 
science void of offence toward 
God, and toward men. 

17 Now, after many years, I 
cjime to bring alms to my na- 
tion, and ofterings. 

18 Whereupon certain Jews 
from Asia found me purified in 
the temple, neither with multi- 
tude, nor with tumult: 

19 Who ouglit to have been 
here before tiiee, and object, if 
they had aught against me. 

20 Or else let these same here 
say, if they have found any evil 


yS) 8e TOVTO crot, OTt Kara rrju 
68ou Tjv Xeyovaiu alpecrtv, ovtco 
Xarpevco tcS Trarpaco Oea, ttl- 
(TTevcov iracTL tols Kara tov vo/xov 
/cat T019 7rpo(()i^Tais yeypapLiMevois, 
^^ iXirlSa e)((iou ely tov Oeou, r)v 
Koi avTol avTOL TrpocrSe^oiiTat) 
avaaracTLv fJLeXXeiv ecrecrdaL ve- 
Kpcov, SiKaicou re Koi aSiKcov 
ev Tovrco oe avros acTKco, aiv- 
pocTKOTTOv (rvv€i8T]cnv ex^'^ wpos 
TOV Oeov Koi Tovs avOpcairovs 
BiawavTos. ^^ 81 ercov 8e irX^io- 
vav Trapeyevofxrjv iXtrjixoarvvas 
TTOLrjarcov els to edvos p-ov kol 
'wpo(r(j>opas' ^^ iv oh evpov p.e 
■rjyvLcrpLevov iv T(S Upm, ov fJ.€Ta 
b)(Xov ov8e p€Ta dopvjSov, TLves 

86 OLTTO TTJS ' AcTiaS 'lovSoiOl,, 

" ovs Set eVt aov irapelvai kol 
KaTrfyopelv el tl e^oiev irpos pe. 
^^ 7/ avToX ovTot eliroLTCocrav, el tl 
eipov ev ep.ol aSiKrjpa, aravTOs 


But this I confess to you, that 14 
after the way which they call 
a °sect, so I worship the God 
of my fathers, believing all 
things which are written in 
the law and in the prophets: 
and have a hope towards God, 15 
which they themselves also 
^entertain, that there is to be 
a resurrection of the dead, 
both of the just and also of 
the unjust. And in this do ic 
il exercise myself, to have 
always a conscience void of 
oEFense towards God and men. 

Now, after many years, i" 
I came in order to bring 
alms to my nation, and to 
make "-offerings; on which is 
■occasion certain Jews from 
Asia found me purified in the 
temple, but neither with a 
crowd, nor with tumult : who 19 
ought to have been here be- 
fore you 'to accuse me, had 
they any charge against me ; or 20 
else let these themselves say, 

° Kaxa TTjv o8ov rjv Xeyovatv al^soiv, which they call 
a seel — literallj'^, heresy. At the beginning it was a word of 
middle signification, and, in general, signified any opinion 
good or bad. No7i sum in eadem cum illo haresi, i. e. sen- 
teniiam — I am not of the same ojjinion with him. Tull, 
Paradox. Secta odiosus est vocahulum quam hieresis: a se- 
cundo dicitur. Iltsresis Grajcis dicitur ab elegendo. Eccle- 
siastical writers take it for an error in religion, and so it may 
bo defined. Heresy is, however, regarded rather as a funda- 
mental error taught and defended with obstinacy. Two things 
are regarded as essential to heresy. 1st, it must respect and 
concern the articles of our faith ; 2dly, there must be a stub- 
born and a pertinacious affirmation of it: there must be error 
in ralione, et pertinacia in voluntate. Taken in Scripture, 
malem partem. Leigh's Crit. Sacra. The word is found ch. 
5 : 17 ; 15 ; 5 ; for a sect, ch. 24 : 5, and 28 : 22. 

Ai^sTixos, Titus 3 : 5, indicates one who takes pleasure in 
sectarisms. Crit. Sacra. 

p Nexocov, after avaaraaiv, is rejected by Ln., Tf., Gb. as a 
reading not stronglj' supported. A resurrection of the just 
and of the unjust. 

P Aaitco, I exercise myself, not in force and compass equal 
to this term. I use diligence, skill, and constancy. Aaxco 
meditare est et ex exercere se in re aliqua. Gregorius. It is 
constantly to meditate and exercise one^s self in any thing 8ia- 
navros, perpetually, tvithout ceasing. 

' UQoofo^as, ohlations, offerings, ch. 21 : 26. Kom. 
15 : 16. Heb. 10 : 5, 8, 10, 14, 18. Grjeoi appellabant 
TiQoaipoQav. When they had finished their social prayers, 
bread and wine were presented to the minister who was 
accustomed to recite the words of the Supper and its institu- 
tion. This was after, and independent of their contributions 
to the poor. Crit, Sacra. 

' £v oil eipov fte r/yvea/tepop sv rfff Is^ep. Ev ols, in hu 
dum occupor, dum ejusmodi pietatis officia exsequor, while 
engaged in these services, or duties, the Jews found me puri- 
fied— certain Jews from, Asia— exatBd a tumult, not I, as my 
accusers allege. The verb is wanting, and the context sug- 
gests the supplement. For cv ols, Sch., Ln., Gb. suggest 
ev als, 

' Et T« exoeiv. 




doing in me, while I stood be- 
fore the council, 

21 Except it be for this one 
voice, that I cried, standing 
among them. Touching the re- 
surrection of the dead I am 
called in question by you this 

22 And when Felix heard 
these things, having more per- 
fect knowledge of that way, he 
deferred tiiem, and said. When 
Lysias the chief captain shall 
come down, I will know the 
uttermost of your matter. 

23 And he commanded a cen- 
turion to keep Paul, and to let 
him have liberty, and that he 
should forbid none of his ac- 
quaintance to minister, or come 
unto him. 

24 And after certain days, 
when Felix came with his wife 
Drusilla, which was a Jewess, 
he sent for Paul, and heard him 
concerning the faith in Christ. 

25 And as he reasoned of 


fxov eTTL Tov (rvve8pLOV ^ r) Trepl 
fjiias ravTr)s ^mvrjs, rjs eKpa^a 
i(TTOJs iv avTois, Otl irepi ava- 
crracrecoy veKpiJou iyco KpivofxaL 
a"f]ixepov v(() vficov. 

'^^ 'AKOvcras 8e ravra 6 0rjXL^ 
dvelSaXeTO avTovs, aKpifiiarepov 
elSays to. irepl rrjs 68ov, elinraiu, 
' Orau Avcrtas' 6 ■^iXiapxos' Kara- 
^fj, Siayuoocrofiai, ra Kaff vfids' 
^^ dcara^afxevos re t<S eKarovTO.- 
PXV rTyyoetcr^at tov HavXov, e\^LV 
re avecriv, /cat firjdeva kcoXv^lv 
Tcov ISicov avrov virrjpeTHV r] 
7rpoo-ep)(€(rdai. avrcS. 

^ M^era Se rjixepas Tivas irapa- 
yevop-evos 6 0jjXl^ aw Apov- 
criXXr) rfj yvvaiKl avrov ovcrrj 
'lovSaia, ju.ere7re'/i\|Aaro roi' Hav- 
Xov, Kal rJKOva-ev avrov irepl rrjs 
els Xpiarov Tricrrecos. ^^ SiaXe- 
yop.4vov Se avrov vrepl ScKaco- 


"if they found any evil in me, 
when I stood before the coun- 
cil, except it be for this one 21 
'expression which I made 
standing among them. Con- 
cerning the resurrection of the 
dead I am this day called in 

And when Felix heard these 22 
things.knowing more accurate- 
ly the things in regard to the 
"way, he deferred them, and 
said, When Lysias the chiliarch 
shall come down, I will thor- 
oughly examine the matters 
between you. And he com- 23 
manded the centurion that 
Paul should be kept, and that he 
should have a ''relaxation, and 
that he should forbid none of his 
acquaintance to minister, or 
come to him. And, after some 2-1 
days, when Felix came with 
his wife Drusilla (who was 
a Jewess), he sent for Paul, 
and heard him concerning the 
faith in ^relation to Christ. 
And as he reasoned concern- 25 

" JJ!i rt ei^ov, If thcy have any thing against me, if they 
found anything in me. ASixiifia, anything unjust, any- 
thing wicked. Zravros ftov am tov ovvciIqiov, when I ap- 
peared, or, while I was standing em, before. This versatile 
preposition freely takes the condition, color, or sense of its 
associates, or associations in the Christian Scriptures. When 
in connection with magistrates, courts, or councils, it is gen- 
erally in the Christian Scriptures, com. ver., represented by 

' Em, in this case, is the prefix to tov oweS^tov, and indi- 
cates the attitude of trial before a court. JleQt is equally 
latitudinarian in its currency, and in cases of this sort it 
answers to our word concerning. The trial hero is na^c ava- 

" Avapttllofiai, here 0r]h^ avsfia?.sTo, he deferred them. 
It is. an anral ^eyofcevov, fowad only in this one case N. T. 

Ax^i^Eare^ov, found only in this book in the Christian 
Scriptui'es — more perfectly, thrice ; more perfect, once. 

■diayvcooofiai, Siayvwats. This is one of Luke's special 
words, and is indicative that he was & physician. The Siayvco- 
ais of disease is as old as .^sculapius, deified after his death 
for his Siayvcoais and his Tt^oyvmaig, precognition of disease. 
Luko, Acts 2 : 23, has also this word. Besides Luke, Peter 

only once uses it. Its use indicates a thorough knowledge. 
Pelix is distinguished for a full developed inquisitiveness in 
all cases brought before him. Therefore he trembled before 
the logic and rhetoric of Paul (v. 25). He promised to hear 
him thoroughly, and to examine the case of Paul when chief 
captain Lysias had come down. 

== £%eif re nveatv. Aveais, liberty, relaxation, rest, take ojf 
his chains. After Paul, avrov is added by Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf. ; 
7] nQooEQxeaOai rejected by Ln., Tf., and doubtful by Gb. 
Triqeiad'ac avrov, being passive, and not mid. voice, should not 
be, to keep him, but, that he should be kept. Aveats means a 
relaxation. This is, in a case, the only word in our language 
that represents its acceptation in this passage. Our jail limits 
more than indicate aveats, and our word liberty transcends it. 
Tliis is a special relaxation of the rigors of the law, in Paul's 
favor, amounting to a release, and yet it was not legally a 
release. " To keep Paul at rest," Murd. ; " without confine- 
ment," Wakef. 

y Felix with Drusilla his wife were curious to hear Paul 
while in Judea, and sent for him. They heard him on the 
thrilling theme, me^i rrje eig Xocarov Ttioxsiog, the faith into, 
or towards Christ, in relation to Christ. 




righteousness, temperance, and 
judgment to come,: Felix trem- 
bled, and answered. Go thy way 
for this time; when I have a 
convenient season, I will call 
for thee. 

26 He hoped also that money 
should have been given him of 
Paul, that he might loose him: 
wherefore he sent for him the 
oftener, and communed with 

27 But after two years Por- 
cius Festus came into Felix' 
room: and Felix, Avilling to 
shew the Jews a pleasure, left 
Paul bound. 


Now when Festus was come 
into the province, after three 
days he ascended from Cesavea 
to Jerusalem. 

2 Then the high priest and 


avvTfjs Kol eyKparetay koX tov 
Kpl/xaros TOV /^eAAoi/roy kcrecrOai, 
6fi(j)ol3os yevo/xevos 6 ^rjXt.^ aire- 
Kpldij, To vvv e'^^oi/ TTopevov 
Kaipov Be fJL€TaXafia)v /LLeraKaXe- 
crofxat ae' ap.a de kol cXttc^cov, 
on ■)(pr]p.aTa SodrjcreTai, avrcp viro 
TOV UavXov, owas Xvarf avTov 


■irep.7r6fJi.evos mpLtXcL avra. ^^ Aie- 
TLas be TrXrjpcodeicrrjs eXa^e Slo.- 

8o-)(OV 6 ^TjXl^ IIopKlOV ^TjCTTOV 

deXcov re xdptTas KaTadecrdaL tois 
'lovSacoiS' 6 $T]Xi^, KaTeXiTre tov 
UavXov 8e8e/u,evov. 


^HSiTOS oiiv emfias Trj 
eirap^ia, p.eTa Tpels r(p.epas ave^rj 
els ' IepocroXvp.a airo Kaicrapeias. 
^ eve(f)dvL(rav 8e avTcS 6 dp^ce- 


ing justice, 'self-government, 
and the judgment to come, Fe- 
lix trembled, and answered, Gro 
your way for this time ; when 
I have a convenient season, I 
will send for you. "At the 26 
same time hoping that money 
would have been given him 
by Paul, that he might re- 
lease him, he therefore sent 
for him the oftener, and con- 
versed with him. But after 27 
two years Felix had a succes- 
sor, Porcius Festus ; and Felix, 
willing to show the Jews a 
favor, left Paul bound. 

CHAP. xxy. 

Now when Festus had come i 
into the 'province, after three 
days, he went up from Cesa- 
rea to Jerusalem. Then the 2 
high priest, and the chief of 

» jjiuleyouevov, though represented by disputing, com. 
7or., six times ; by reasoning, four times ; preaching, twice ; 
speaking, once; discoursing, or discussing, is its generic 
sense. Words have their genera and sjiecies, as well as 
plants and animals. The abstract or generic idea in this word 
is dissero, dicendo rem diducere, to deduce a matter, a fact, a 
cause, or a thing by discussion, or reasoning — the dialectic 
art. There is neither preaching nor teaching, neither dis- 
cussing nor exhorting, neither affirming nor denying in the 
essence or act of reasoning. It is a simple comparison of 
objects, and for deduction. 

The faculty of reasoning is exhibited in comparing and de- 
ducing. When Paul reasoned on certain topics Felix trem- 
bled. His response demonstrated the power of Paul's reason- 
ings in his presence. Eaead-ai is omitted by Ln., Sch., Gb. 
It appears redundant or pleonastic, but pleonasms are allow- 
able in such cases. 

^ 'Otvcos hat] avrov omitted by Sch., Ln., Tf., and doubtful 
by Gb. It naturally occurs from slitcQcov, ort y,qr)iiaTa dod'r]- 
asrat, and seems to be a circumstantial inference of much 

'iiftdet avrep, 3d sing. imp. ind. act. of 6/udeco, colloquor, he 
conversed with Paul familiarly. This word is found only four 
times in the Christian Scriptures. It indicates familiar con- 
rersation — " una versari sed hie aocipitur pro colloqui" Beza. 

" Talked together," " communed together" is its currency and 
import in N. T., the topic may be either good, or evil. It 
seems to have been conducted on the part of JFelix from a 
mercenary spirit, as the sequel warrants. 

" Ena^xta, found only twice in this book of Acts, is rep- 
resented by the word province, a verbal from cnaq^oiiai, au- 
spicor, coopi, from whioh tna^xos, prasfectus — from cvtt and 
«^X<o> incipio — also Ena^xorr]?, identical in import with ent- 
atiy.itt, a province. Aqxh, the root, does not indicate that which 
is passive, but that which is active in originating. Aq'/.ri non 
principium passivum sed activum signiflcat, a 5M0 omnes crea- 
tur£B principium suura duount : quam interpretationem utrius- 
que Testamenti pagina evincit. It is taken for the magi- 
strate, I/uke 12 : 11. Titus 3 : 1. A^x'"' <jui mero imperio 
utuntur. Those who under God have plenary power, and by 
that power command, administer justice within their respec- 
tive dominions. Hence a province is a department of an 
empire placed under the management or government of one, 
invested with supreme authority, whether it be human or 
divine, or both. In this view Jesus Christ, Heb. 12 : 2, is 
called Autorem fldei et consummatorem fidei — the author and 
founder of the faith ; not a particular or special faith, but the 
faith, the whole Christian institution. Grit. Sacra. This ia 
that province assigned to Jesus Christ by the apostles. 




the chief of the Jews informed 
him against Paul, and besought 

3 And desired favour against 
him, that he would send for him 
to' Jerusalem, laying wait in the 
way to kill him. 

i But Festus answered, that 
Paul should be kept at Cesarea, 
and that he himself would de- 
part shortly thither. 

5 Let them therefore, said he, 
which among you are able, go 
down with me, and accuse this 
man, if there be any wickedness 
in him. 

6 And when he had tarried 
among them more than ten days, 
he went down unto Cesarea; 
and the next day sitting on the 
judgment-seat, commanded Paul 
to be brought. 

7 And when he was come, the 
Jews which came down from 
Jerusalem stood round about, 
and laid many and grievous com- 
plaints against Paul, which they 
could not prove ; 

8 While he answered for him- 
self. Neither against the law of 
the Jews, neither against the 


pevs' Kca ot TTpSiTol Ta>v lovSalcov 
Kara tov UavXov, kcu wapeKa- 
\ovv avTov, ^ aLTOv/xevoL .)(apLi' 
KaT avTOV, OTTO)? /ieTa7rep.^f/T]TaL 
avTov els 'IepovcraX7]fjL, iveSpav 
iroLOvvres dveXetv avrov Kara tijv 
o86v. * pikv oSi/ ^rjcrros aire- 
KpiOr], TTjpeccrdai rov UavXov Iv 
Katcrapeia, eavTov 8e fieXXeiu €v 
Ta.-)(e.i iKTropevecrdaL. ^ 01 oi)v 
Svi/arol iu vjxiv, (f)rjarL, crvyKara- 
j3dvT6s, et TL larriv iu tw duSpl 
TOVTCO, KaTrjyopeLTCoo-au avrov. 
" Aiarpv^as fieeV avrols rj/xepas' 
TrXelovs i] 8eKa, Kara^ds eh Kar 
aapetav, rfj eiravpLov KaOicras 
eVt TOV fir][xaTos, eKeXevcre tov 
IlavXov d^drjvat. Trapayevo- 
p-ivov 8e avTOV, TrepLia-Trjarau ol 
drro 'Iepo(roXvpcov Karafie^rjKo- 
rey lovSacot., iroXXa koc (Sapea 
aLTtajxara (pepouTes Kara tov 
IlavXov, d ovK ^Lcrxvov d7ro8e7^ac, 
aTToXoyov/xeuov avrov/ On ovre 
eh TOV vofxov t5>v 'Iov8al(ov, ovre 


the Jews, informed.him against 
Paul, an^ besought himi ''ask- 3 
ing for themselves a favor 
against him, that he would 
send for him to Jerusalem, 
preparing an 'ambush to kill 
him on the way. But Festus 4 
answered that Paul should be 
kept in ■'custody at Cesarea, 
and that he himself would 
shortly depart thither. Let 5 
the 'powerful among you, said 
he, go down with me and ac- 
cuse this man, if there is any 
wickedness in him. 

And when he had tarried o 
among them more than ten 
days, he went down to Cesa- 
rea; and the next day sitting 
on the judgment-seat, com- 
manded Paul to bo brought. 
And when he was come, the ^ 
Jews who came down from 
Jerusalem stood around 'him, 
and laid many and heavy com- 
plaints against Paul, which 
they could not prove ; while s 
he answered for himself, Nei- 
ther against the law of the 
Jews, ^nor against the temple, 

^ For 6 apx'^^^''s is substituted ol a^x'^^^'s by Ln., Tf., a 
reading not so strongly supported by Gb. The priests and 
elders ■were as much as ever enraged against Paul, and no- 
thing but his blood would satisfy their malice. Gb., Boothr. 

" HveS^ap Ttoiovvree. " Forming a plot to kill him," Penn ; 
" having laid an ambush," Thomp. ; " placing an ambush," 
Murd. ; " lying in wait to kill him," Wes. ; " preparing an 
ambush," Hack. ; '" to lie in wait to destroy him," Boothr. 

■" AnexQidrj — exnojjevead ai. This indicates not a refusal, 
but an intiraation that he should be still kept at Csesarea, in- 
asmuch as Festus was about to return to that place, and 
would, when there, judge his case. 

Tii^ctoO-ae. " That Paul was in custody," Thomp. ; " kept 
in custody," Hack. 

' 01 ovv dvvaroi ev vfiiv, the poiverful, not the ahle. Not 
those who are able have it in their power. Gal., Grot., Hack. 
" Let the chief men among you go down with me," Thomp. ; 
"let those, fherefore, among you who are able, said he, 
come down with me," Penn ; " Let those, therefore, among 
you who are able," Murd. Verba ol Svvaroi iv v/iiv Eras- 
mus, Grotius alii explicant : quibus coramodum est CiEsnrum 

venire. Sed ut Pricajus recte monuit, hoc si Lucas voluisset, 
scripsisset. Josephus uses ol Svputoi in the same sense, and 
many other wi'itei's as indicative of j}oiver, whether physical, 
moral, 6r ecclesiastical. 

' JTegtsoTTjoav, "stood around Mm, not the tribunal," 
Kuin. ; "stood round about," "stood around him," Hack., 
Penn ; " stood around," Thomp. ; " Surrounded him," Murd. 
" Most manuscripts omit xara. rov IIav7.ov, after fs^ovrss," 
Hack. Tf. has y.arafeQovxee, instead of rpepovree, before xara 
rov Havlov. AnoSet^ai — aTtoSeiHPVfti, froho, demonslro, Acts 
2 : 22. 2 Thess. 2 : 4. 

^ Ovre cig rov vofiov — to lepov — sis Kaian^a. Ovre three 
times very specific — neither against the law, the temple, nor 
against Cassar, 

£is is seldom translated against. For the most part it 
occurs in cases of trial, charge, or legal prosecution. Rela- 
tion to, for, or against, is often indicated by it. The context 
must decide its value. JEig X^iarov may, according to the 
import of the preceding verb, be either for, or against Christ. 

OvTE eig KaiaaQa re rjfia^rov, neither have I in any respect 
sinned against Oa3sar. 




temple, nor yet against Cesar 
have I offended any thing at all. 

9 But Festus, willing to do 
the Jews a pleasure, answered 
Paul, aad said, Wilt thou go 
up to Jerusalem, and there be 
judged of these things before 

10 Then said Paul, I stand at 
Cesar's judgment-seat, where I 
ought to be judged: to the Jews 
have I done no wrong, as thou 
very well knowest. 

11 For if I be an offender, 
or have committed any thing 
worthy of death, I refuse not to 
die : but if there be none of these 
things whereof these accuse me, 
no man may deliver me unto 
them. I appeal unto Cesar. 

12 Then Festus, when he had 
conferred with the council, an- 
swered. Hast thou appealed unto 
Cesar? unto Cesar shalt thou go. 

13 And after certain days, 
king Agrippa and Bernice came 
unto Cesarea, to salute Festus. 

14 And when they had been 


ely TO lepov, ovre els Kaicrapa tl 
TjfxapTOu. " 'O <5^crroy Be tols 
lovBaloLS OeXcou ■)(apiu Karade- 
aOai, oLTTOKptdeh t<m UavXa eirre, 
OeXeis el? lepocroXvfxa duafias, 
eKel Tvepl tovtcou KpivearOac eV 
epLov; ^° EiTTe 8e 6 TIavXos, 
JEirX Tov firjiJ-aros Kalcrapos 
ecTTCos elp-i, od p.e 8ei KplvecrdaL. 
lovSalovs ov8eu i^ScKTjaa, ws koll 
(TV KaXXtou eTTLytvaxTKets' ^^ el 
p,eu yap dScKO) /cat a^Lov Oaudrov 
Trerrpa^a Ti, ov TrapaiTOvpLaL to 
diroOavelv el 8e ovSev eaTiv cou 
ovTot. KaTTjyopovai p.ov, ousels' 
fie SvuaTac avTols )(apLcracr6aL. 
Kaiaapa eTriKaXovfxai. ^^ ToTe 
6 0r]a-TOS (TvXXaX'^cras /xeTot tov 
(rvp/3ovXiov, dweKpldri, Kaicrapa 
eTTLKeKXrjcrat, em Kaicrapa tto- 

'Sp-epav 8e Btayevopevcov 

TLvwv, 'AypiTTTras 6 fiacriXeiis Kcu 

BeppiKrj KaTrjUTTjcrau els Kaicra- 

peLau, dcTTracTopievoL tov 0rjcrTOU. 

as 8e TrXeiovs rjpiepas SieTpL^ov \ 


nor yet against Cesar have I 
at all offended. But Festus, 9 
willing to do the Jews ahfavor, 
answered Paul, and said, Will 
you go up to Jerusalem, and 
tliere be judged of these things 
before me? Then said Paul, lo 
I stand at Cesar's judgment- 
seat, where I ought to be 
judged: to the Jews I have 
done no wrong, as you 'your- 
self very well know. For if I u 
am doing wrong, and have 
committed any thing worthy 
of death, I refuse not to 
die; but if there is nothing 
in these matters of which they 
accuse me, 'no man can de- 
liver me up to them : I appeal 
to Cesar. Then Festus, when 12 
he had talked with the coun- 
cil, answered, '•You have ap- 
pealed to Cesar, to Cesar shall 
you go. 

And after certain days, king 13 
Agrippa and Bernice came to 
Cesarea to 'salute Festus. And u 
when they had been there many 

^ Kaxa&soO-ni, second aor. infin. mid. of y.azarid^Tjfu, repo- 
nere,'to reinstate himself; cli. 24 : 27, to ingratiate himself with 
the Jews, Felix left Paul a prisoner. On oh. 24 : 27 Kuinoel 
makes the following remark: "Xnoiv, %n^tTa, x^Qnae nara- 
Tt &Ead-ai Ttvi denotat, gratiam inire apud aliquein, v,t suo 
tempore vicissim res grata expectari vel otiam posoi possit," 
of which examples from Demosthenes, Plato, Diodorus are 
adduced,- and further refers to ICypkius, Eisner, Wetstein. 
It is an act of prudent selfishness to confer a favor upon a 
person, in expectation that in some emergency it may redound 
to our advantage ; nay, that it may be demanded as a right. 
" To do the Jews a pleasure," com. ver. 

' £711 TOV pqfiaros, «. r. L Em, followed by a genitive, oc- 
curs Matt. 27 : 19. In connection with judges and tribunals, 
and in appearing before them, connected with a genitive, siti is 
often represented by the word lefore. 23 : 30 ; 24 : 19 ; 25 : 26 ; 

1 Xaqt^, to give, to give frankly, to grant, to forgive. 
Here alone, in com, ver., it is represented by to deliver up; 

forcnsically, to deliver, to give up ; in our currency, to deliver 
into custody. "No one can, give me up to them, merely to 
gratify," Dodd. ; " no one has power to deliver me up to 
them," Penn ; " no one should deliver me up to gratify 
them," Boothr. ; " no one can gratify them at my expense," 
Wakef. ; " no one may sacrifice me to their pleasure," Murd. 
— a very free translation — ; "no man can give me up to 
gratify them," Thomp. 

Katoa^a sjity.a).ov/tat — eTtixttf.eo/iai, ovftai — cognominor, 
modo passive, modo active sumitur, et utroque, to call upon 
another for help in extremity, sometimes merely to call, to 
name, Ileb. 11 : IG. 1 Pet. 3 : 15. Grit. Sacra. 

k ^vllahjoae, communing with, talking roith, conferred 
with, is its current value, N. T. fisra — ovfifiovhov, in its 
currency five times, N. T., counsel, twice council. ETttxenlr,- 
ant; hast thou appealed to C^sar? Frequently surnamed 
call on, or upon. 

1 AoTtaao/ievot. Salute, greet, and embrace are its repre- 
sentatives in N. T., com. ver. Here sahUe is most apropos. 




there many days, Festus de- 
clared Paul's cause unto the 
king, saying, There is a certain 
man left in bonds by Felix : 

15 About whom, when I was 
at Jerusalem, the chief priests 
and the elders of the Jews in- 
formed me, desiring to have judg- 
ment against him. 

16 To whom I answered. It 
is not the manner • of the Ko- 
mans to deliver any man to die, 
before that he which is accused 
have the accusers face to face, 
and have license to answer for 
himself concerning the crime 
laid against him. 

17 Therefore, when they were 
come hither, without any delay 
on the morrow I sat on the 
judgment-seat, and commanded 
tlie man to be brought forth; 

18 Against whom, when the 
accusers stood up, they brought 
none accusation of such things 
as I supposed: 

J 9 But had certain questions 
against him of their own super- 
stition, and of one Jesus, which 


6€T0 TO. Kara top IlavXov Xiycov, 
'Avqp TLS icTTL KaTaXeXeL/x/jLeuos 
iiTTo 0r]XLKOs SecTfiLOs, Trepl ov, 
yeuofjieuov fj.ov elf 'lepoo-aXv/j-a, 
iue(j)avi(rau ol ap)(Lepexs koc ol 
Trpea-^vrepoi tcou 'lovdalcap, al- 


ovs aTreKplOrjv, on ovk eariu 
eOos 'PcDfxaioL? -^apl^ecrOal riva 
avOpcoTTOv ds cLTrcoXetau, rrplu rj 
Karrjyopovixevos Kara irpocrcoTrov 
e)(OL T0V9 Karrjyopovf, tottov re 
aTToXoyias Xa/Sot Trepl tov iyKXrj- 
jxaros. ^^ avveXOovrav oiiv av- 
T(x)V ivOahe, auafioXrjv pLrjSepLLav 
TTOirja-afMevof, rfj i^rjs KaOicras 
im TOV firjfiaTos, eKeXevcra a-^^Orj- 
vai TOV avSpw Trepl ov orTa- 
OevTes ol KaTrjyopoL ov8ep.Lav 
aWlav eire^epov cav virevoovv 
eyoi' ^^ ^rjTr]p.aTa 8e Tiva Trepl 
TYjs IBias SeicnSai/xouLas' e'L)(ov 
Trpos avTov, kcu Trepi tlvos 'Itjctov 


days, Festus "set fortli to the 
king the facts concerning Paul, 
saying, There is a certain man 
left prisoner by Felix ; about 13 
whom, when I was at Jerusa- 
lem, the chief priests and the 
elders of tlie Jews brought an 
information, asking for them- 
selves justice against Iiim ; to 16 
whom I answered : It is not 
the custom of the Eomans to 
deliver any man to die before 
he that is accused "have his ac- 
cusers face to face, and have 
an opportunity to answer for 
himself concerning tlie charge. 
Therefore, when they had come 17 
hither, without any "delay on the 
morrow, I sat on the judgment- 
seat, and commanded the man 
to be brought ; against Avhom, 18 
pwhen the accusers stood up, 
thoy brought no accusation 
of such things as I surmis- 
ed : but had certain questions 10 
against him respecting their 
own 'religion, and of one Je- 

" AvbO-cto, " laid the case of Paul before the king " Penn, 
Wakef. ; laid the business " Dodd. 

" jEie ancoleiav omitted by Gb., Ln., Tf. 

Xa^i^soO'ai Tiva uvd'qumov, " to gratify any man with the 
condemnation of another," Wakef. ; " to give up any man to 
destruction," Thomp., Dodd. ; " to give up a man gratuitously 
to be slain," Murd. ; " to give up any man," Penn ; " to de- 
liver up any man to die," Boothr. 

° AvapoXrjv — an ana^ Xeyofievov — delay. 

P 'Tnevoovv eyco, imperfect active of vmovoeo), suspicor. 
"Against whom, when his accusers stood up, they brought no 
accusation of such things as I supposed," Dodd. "And his 
accusers stood up with him, and they were not able to sub- 
stantiate any criminal charge against him as I liad expected," 
Wakef. " They advanced no charge of such things as I ex- 
pected," Thomp. 

After vTtBvoovv eyto, Ttovrj^av is added by Ln., doubtful by 

'Tnevoovv, " which is suspected" Haokett ; " expected" 
Wakef., Thomp. j « supposed," Wes., Penn. 

1 ^ataidatfiovtag, and SsiatSaiftovears^og, ch. 17 : 22, are 

the only occurrences of this word in the N. T., rendered, com. 
ver., superstition, and superstitious. 

Not too superstitious, some say, because Paul would not 
have aroused their prejudices. This is doubtful. " Much 
given to Divine worship," not too superstitious, as our trans- 
lators have expressed. "Veyne worshiperes," Wiclif; "more 
than others attentive to religious matters," Bloomfleld. This 
is sufficiently paraphrastic. Pollux has assigned Seeai8iu/tcov 
to the pious. It is by some supposed that Paul used it in 
this favorable sense, to propitiate the ears of the Athenians. 
None doubt that Paul found a true bill when he charged the 
Athenians of being exceedingly devoted to the worship of the 
shades or spirits of dead hero-men. 

'^ ^sioiSat/x.oveijreQove, a vox medio, may signify also, more 
superstitious," Hack., who on ch. 17 : 21-23 adds : " It is im- 
probable, as a matter ol just rhetoric, that the apostle em- 
ployed it in that reproachful sense at the outset of his re- 
marks." He proceeds to deduce their seeking after God 
(which Paul, doubtless, considered as something good) from 
this SswiSatfiovia, or religious propensity, so prevalent among 
the Athenians. He announces himself as one who would 
guide their SeiaiSat/tovia, not rightly conscious of its object 




was dead, whom Paul affirmed 
to be alive. 

20 And because I doubted of 
such manner of questions, I 
asked Mm whether he would 
go to Jerusalem, and tliero be 
judged of these matters. 

21 But when Paul had ap- 
pealed to be reserved unto the 
hearing of Augustus, I com- 
manded him to be kept till I 
might send him to Cesar. 

22 Then Agrippa said unto 
Festus, I would also hear the 
man myself. To-morrow, said 
he, thou shalt hear him. 

23 And on the morrow, when 
Agrippa was come, and Bernice, 
with great pomp, and was en- 
tered into the place of hearing, 
witli the chief captains and prin- 
cipal men of the city, at Festus' 
•commandment Paul was brought 

24 And Festus said, King 
Agrippa, and all men which are 
here present with us, ye see this 
man about whom all the multi- 


Tedvi]KOTOS, ov eipaaKev 6 Hav- 
Aoy ^rjv. '^*' awopov/j.ei'os 8e eyco 
eh Ti)v Trepi tovtov ^i]tti(tlv, eAe- 
yov, el ^ovXoLTO iropeveaOai els 
lepovaaXrjfx, KUKel Kpiveadai 
irepl TovTcov. "^^ tov Se JIavXov 
eTTiKaXecrafxeuov TrjprjOrjvat, avrov 
els TTjv TOV Sej3aaT0v SiayvaaLv, 
eKeXevaa TTipelcrOat avrov, ecos 
oi) ire/j.^jrco avrov irpos Kaiaapa. 
" 'AypiTTTras Se irpos rov ^rjcrrov 
e(pr], JE^ovXojxr]v Kcu avros rov 
audpcoTTOV aKOvcrat. '0 Se, Av- 
piov, (j)r]crLV, aKOvcrrj avrov. 

Trj o5v eiravpLov eXOovros 
rov 'AypLinra kou, ttJs HepvLKrjs 
fiera ttoAA^s" (l)avracrias, kou 
elcreXOovroov els ro aKpoarrjpLov, 
aw re rots ')(LXiap-^oLs kcu avS- 
pacTL roLs Kar e^o-^rjv oven rrjs 
TToXecos, KCU KeXevaavros rov ^r]- 
arov, rJx^V ° IlavXos. ^'^ Kai 
(f)-)]cnv 6 ^rjaros, 'Ayphrira (3a- 
aiXev, Kal wavres oi avjXTrapovres 
rjIXLV avBpes, decopecre rovrov 


sus, who had died, whom Paul 
affirmed to be alive. And be- 20 
cause I doubted how to in- 
vestigate such questions, I 
asked him whether he would 
go to Jerusalem, and be judg- 
ed concerning tliese matters : 
but Paul having appealed, to 21 
be kept as a prisoner, with a 
view to the 'examination of 
Augustus, I commanded iiim 
to be kept till I shall send 
him to Ca3sar. Then Agrippa 22 
said to Festus, I -myself also 
would wish to hear the man. 
To-morrow, said he, you shall 
hear him. 

And on the morrow, when 23 
Agrippa had come, and Ber- 
nice, with much pomp, and 
had entered into the place of 
'audience, with the chiliarchs 
and principal men of the city, 
at the command of Festus, 
Paul was brought forth. Then 2.1 
Festus says. King Agrippa, 
and all men who are jii'es- 
ent with us, you see this 

and aim, to a state of clear self-consciousness, by a revelation 
of the object to which it thus ignorantly tended. Neander, 

&i>r}aKeia is the word used by James and Paul to indicate 
religion in its Jewish and Christian sense and currency, and 
much more in concert with its object and design than Seiai- 

' .diayvcoaofiai — Staypwatg. The latter term occurs but 
once in the Christian Scriptures, and is here rendered, in com. 
ver,, hearing, the hearing of Augustus. Cognition is its most 
appropriate representative in our vernacular. The judgment, 
or hearing of a cause — a trial, or an investigation, or examina- 
tion — presents it in its full import. Any one of these, indeed, 
answers the present occasion. This is a striking instance of 
the freedom of interpretation of metaphorical language. Co- 
gnosco instead of connosco, or of con and nosco. 

Cicero uses this word as equivalent to malce inquiry, and 
Suetonius, to judge, or determine a matter. Physicians have 
introduced this word into their science and art, and now we I 

have the dcayvwais — diagnosis of disease, or its symptoms — 
as an English word naturalized and nationalized. 

' E^ov7.o/ii]v avros. E^ovlofiat, was minded, willing, 
intended, disposed, would. Such is the variety of its rend- 
erings, com. ver. I myself was willing, quite analogous to 
Paul's style, Rom. 9 : 3, Tjvxofitjv yuQ avxos. Like the Jews, 
said Paul, For I loo viyself was wishing to be accursed from 
Christ, avaO-/}/ia etvat— not when he wrote to the Eomans, 
but comparing himself to them in his former state, as if he 
had said, "As they are now so once was I," wishing to be 
accounted accursed from Christ. So Agrippa said to Festus, 
EfiovXofitjv xai avros, I also myself am wishing to hear him, 
I desire to hear him. Agrippa ad cujus aures plura de Jesu 
et Christianorum secta pervenerant. Vide 26 : 28. Kuin. 

I 3l6ra 7toU)}s tpavraaias, cum ingenti pompa — with great 
pomp — uasld'ovrmv ets ro ax^oarri^iov, having entered with 
great pomp into ro ay.^oari]^iov, the Hall of audience — the 
place of hearing — found only in this place N. T., Auditorium, 



KING jambs' version. 

tude of the Jews have dealt with 
me, both at Jerusalem, and also 
here, crying that he ought not 
to live any longer. 

25 But when I found that he 
had committed nothing worthy 
of death, and that he himself 
hath appealed to Augustus, I 
have determined to send him. 

26 Of whom I have no cer- 
tain thing to write mito my lord. 
Wherefore I have brought him 
forth before you, and specially 
before thee, king Agrippa, 
that after examination had, I 
might have somewhat to write. 

27 For it seemeth to me un- 
reasonable to send a prisoner, 
and not withal to signify the 
crimes Idid against him. 


Then Agrippa said unto Paul, 
Thou art permitted to speak for 
thyself. Then Paul stretched 
forth the hand, and answered for 
himself : 

2 I think myself happy, king 
Agrippa, because I shall answer 
for myself this day before thee, 
touching all the things whereof 
I am accused of the Jews : 


irepX 01) irav to TrXrjdos tcou Iov- 
Salcou iveTV)(ov {jlol eV re lepo- 
croXvfJiOLS Kol iv6d8e, eTn^ocovTes 
/xrj deiu ^f}i/ avrov iirfKiri. iyco 
8e KaraXa^ofxeuos /xySeu a^iov 
Oavarov avrov 7re7rpa-)(evaL, /cat 
avTov fie TOVTOv iiriKaXecTafjLevov 
Tov JJe^acTToi/, cKpcua 7rep.7reiv 
avTov. '^'^ irepX ov acrcpaXis tl 
■ypdyj/ai rco KVpla ovk e^^co' 5to 
irpo-qyayov avrov e(j) vjxav, /cat 
fxaXia-ra iin crov, ^acrlXev 'Ay- 
piTTTra, OTTCos rrjs dvaKpicrecos 
yevofxivrjs o")(ai tl ypayat. aAo- 
yov yap jxol Sokei, 7rep,7rovra 
Sea-fiLOv, fxr] /cat rds Kar avrov 
alrlas crr]\x.dvai.. 


'ArpinnA:^ Se Trpo? tov 

UavXov ^(j)r], ^ EinTpeireraL ctol 
vTrep creavrov Xeyeiv. Tore 6 
JIavXos aTreXoyeLTO, ^Kreivas ti]v 
j^etpa, ^ IIep\ ivdvrcov cov eyKa- 
Xovpai vTTo 'lovSaicov, /SacrtAeG 
Aypimra, ■^y-qpai e/xavrov pa- 
Kapiov ixiXXcov diroXoyelcrdai eVt 
aov aTjp,epov' ^ p-dXio-ra yveo- 


man about whom "all the mul- 
titude of the Jews have inter- 
ceded with nie, both at Jeru- 
salem, and also here, crying 
out that he ought not to live 
any longer. But when I found 25 
that he had committed noth- 
ing worthy of death, and he 
himself having appealed to 
Augustus, I deteirained to 
send him : of whom I have 2G 
"nothing certain to write to 
my sovereign, wherefore I 
have brought him fortli be- 
fore you; and especially be- 
fore you, king Agrippa, that 
after examination, I may have 
something to write. For it 27 
seems to me "unreasonable to 
send a prisoner, and not also 
to signify the charges against 


Then Agrippa says to Paul, i 
You are "permitted to speak 
for yourself. Then Paul 
stretched forth his hand, and 
answered for himself: I think 2 
myself happy, king Agrippa, 
because I shall answer for my- 
self this day before you, con- 
cerning all the things of 
which I am accused by ''Jews: 

" The procurator could say, nav to TtXjjO'og rwv lovSatcor, 
" all the whole multitude of the Jews." A very vague charge, 
iTti^ocovrss ftrj Seiv ^rjv avrov firjxcrt. 

Euerv/fiv fioi, in malem j'arlem, interceded with me. " Some 
manuscripts read, Sjjv avrov, others, avrov ^r]v — and so in the 
next verse some read, Oavarov avrov, and others, avrov Oava- 
rov." Hack. 

' JTe^i ov, concerning whom I have nothing sure, definite 
io write to the sovereign. " In o^co n yQaxpai, the pronoun be- 
longs to the first verb, not to the second," Kuin., Hack. 
" Some repeat aatpales after n (Mey.), which is not necessary," 
Hack. For y^axpui Ln., Tf. y^a^pco, Gb. doubtful. 

" " Tor it is unsuitable when we send up a prisoner, not to 
designate his offense," Murd. ; " unreasonable in sending a 
prisoner, not to signify the charges against him," Wes., Penn ; 
" without specifying the charge," Thomp. ; " signifying the 
charge," Wakef. ; " the charges," Boothr. 

" EntroETiBrni oot vttho aeavrov leyeiv. For vticq, Ln., Tf., 
Gb. would substitute ns^i. Nothing important in deciding 
this case; whether concerning himself, or for himself, is quite 
equal in law, or equity. And whetlier wo represent sntrQeTieo 
by svjfer, or permit, or have leave, or license, or liherly, is 
wholly a matter of taste, as it is, indeed, in a hundred other 
cases. In our taste, we would prefer, " you are permitted to 
spcah for yourself ^^ or, thou art permitted to speak for thy- 
self. You should be followed by yourself, and tliou by thy- 
self a congruily which is not always appreciated, or even 

'' Grammatically, there is a difference between Jews, and the 
Jeios. Tlie former may be only a clique; the latter is the 
whole nation. We appreciate the difference between, Ameri- 
cans have taken Cuba, and, the Americans have taken Cuba 
As a scribe, or even as a prudent man, Paul would not have 
represented himself before King Agrippa as having the whole 




3 Especially, because I Icnow 
thee to be expert in all customs 
and questions which are among 
the Jews: wherefore I beseech 
thee to hear me patiently. 

4 My manner of life from my 
youth, which was at the first 
among mine own nation at Je- 
rusalem, know all the Jews, 

5 Which knew me from the 
beginning, (if they would testi- 
fy,) that after the most straitest 
sect of our religion, I lived a 

6 And now I stand, and am 
judged for the hope of the 
promise made of God unto our 
fathers : 

7 Unto which ^nvmisc our 
twelve tribes, instantly serving 
God day and night, hope to 
come. For which hope's sake, 
king Agrippa, I am accused of 
the Jews. 

S Why should it be thought 


arrjv ovra ere iravrav rcov Kara 
'lovSatovs idcou re /cat ^rjTrjfjLaTav. 
8io Se'o/xat aov, fiUKpodvfxcos' 
ocKOVcral fxov. ^ rrjv jxeu ovv 
filcocTLV fJ-ov rrjv e/c i^eorrjTos, ttjv 
anv dp-)(T]s y^vojxivrjv iv ra kOveL 
fxov €v 'Iepo(roXvfioi?, Hcracri 
Traures' ol 'lovSaioi, "^TrpoyLua- 
aKoures p-e aucodev, iav deXaxTL 
paprvpelu, on Kara rrjv aKpi- 
^earrar-qv atpecnv ttjv riperepas 
6p7]crKeia9 e'^cra ^apLcraiof 
^ Koi vvv Itt iXiriSt Tr]s irpos 
Tovs varepas iTrayyeXlas yeuo- 
pevrjs vTTo rod Oeov ecrrrjKa Kpi- 
vop.evos, els rjv to 8co8€Ka(j)v- 
Xov rjpcvv eV eKTeveia vvKta kcu 
r\pipav Xarpevov eXwl^eL Karav- 
TTjcrai' TTCpl 7)9 iXrridos iyKaXov- 
pac, ^aa-LXev'AypLTnra, viro rcov 
^lovSalcou. ^ tl; chnaTov Kplve- 


because I know you to be 
especially 'skilled in all cus- 
toms and questions which are 
among Jews; wherefore I be- 
seech you to hear me pa- 

My manner of life from my 
youth, which was at the first 
among my own nation at Je- 
rusalem, all the Jews know, 
who have ""known me from 
the beginning, if they would 
testify, that after the strictest 
sect of our religion, I lived a 
Pharisee. And now I stand, 
and am judged for the hope 
of the jjromise made by God 
to our fathers: to the accom- 
plishment of which promise 
our twelve tribes, earnestly 
serving God day and night, 
hope to attain; on account 
of which hope, king Agrippa, 
I am accused by Jews. What ! 

nation of the Jews combined against him; he yery legally 
and judiciously says, Jews, certain Jews. 

On this vTto lovSaiiov Professor Haekett says — " without 
tlic article (conip. 22 : 30), because lie would represent the 
accusation as purely Jewish in its character." Very good, in- 
deed ; but not quite enough. Purely Jcivish may include 
the whole nation of the Jews ; but that was still too formida- 
ble for the occasion. To have the Jewish people all in com- 
bination against him, was, indeed, greatly enhancing the argu- 
ment against himself. But Paul, still more prudently, gives 
the bald indefinite word Jews, indicating a mere clique, and 
neither a tribe, nor a nation, nor a whole people. It is not 
often that we find an illustration, so unambiguous and forci- 
ble, of the grammatical power of the presence or absence of 
the article. The power of its absence can only be valued 
by the power of its presence. " The head and front of his 
offending " extends only to an indefinite class of Jews. We, 
therefore, prefer, " I am accused by Jews," to, " I am accused 
by the Jews." 

' Mahara yvcoaxqv, especially intelligent, is good ; but we 
think, skilled, especially skilled, is better. 

Wisdom, skill, and knowledge, are not synonymous, but 
often confounded. There is no writer known to us tliat does 
not often confound these terms. And, indeed, our lexico- 

graphers are perplexed in defining them. "Webster himself 
is bewildered in his efforts to discriminate and clearly dis- 
tinguish them. Our very best writers and orators confound 
them. Knowledge is both speculative and practical. Jfis- 
doni is the maximum of knowledge, prudence, and discretion 
combined. We may have much knowledge, and no wisdom. 
Wo sometimes find intelligent fools, and comparatively igno- 
rant wise men. "I wisdom dwell with prudence, and find 
out the knowledge of artful devices," said the wisest and the 
most intelligent man of Bible history. Knowledge is theo- 
retic and speculative ; wisdom is discriminating and practical. 
" The Sophia of the Greeks, and the Chachemah of the He- 
brews, are indicative of that prudence and discretion which 
enable men to perceive what is fit or suitable to be done, ac- 
cording to the knowledge they may possess of the circum- 
stances of time, place, persons, manners, and end of doing." 
So defines Alexander Cruden in his Concordance ; and in 
this definition he excels all the lexicographers that come 
within my horizon. 

■^ UQoyivmaxovxes fte avco&sv. " Who knew me from the 
first," Wes. ; " who were acquainted with me many years 
ago," Wakef. ; they have a prior knowledge of me, from an 
early period," Thomp. ; " Who have known mo from the be- 
ginning," Penn. 




a thing incredible with you, that 
God should raise the dead ? 

9 I verily thought with my- 
self, that I ought to do many 
things contrary to the name of 
Jesus of Nazareth. 

10 Which thing I also did 
in Jerusalem : and many of the 
saints did I shut up in prison, 
having received authority from 
the chief priests ; and when they 
were put to death, I gave my 
voice against them. 

11 And I punished them oft 
in every synagogue, and com- 
pelled them to blaspheme; and 
being exceedingly mad against 
them, I persecuted them even 
unto strange cities. 

12 Whereupon, as I went to 
Damascus, with authority and 
commission from the chief 

13 At mid-day, king, I saw 
in the way a light from heaven, 
above the brightness of the sun, 
shining round about me, and 
them which journeyed with me. 

14 And when we were all 
fallen to the earth, I heard a 
voice speaking unto me, and 
saying in the Hebrew tongue, 
Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou 
me ? It h hard for thee to kick 
against the pricks. 

15 And I said. Who art thou. 
Lord ? And he said, I am Jesus 
whom thou persecutest. 

16 But rise, and stand upon 
thy feet: for I have appeared 
unto thee for this purpose, to 


rai Trap v/xtu, el 6 Oeos veKpovs 
iyelpei; ^ iyco p.ev oSi/ eSo^a 
epavTcp irpos to ovopa Irjaov 
ToD JSFa^copalov 8eiu TroAAa euav- 
rla Trpd^ar b koH iiroirjcra. iu 
'lepocroXvfioLs, kcu ttoXXovs twv 
aylcov iyco ^vXaKois KareKXeLcra, 
TTjv irapa tcou dp^Lepecou i^ov- 
(Tiav Xaficov dvaipovfxivaiv re 
avTcou KarrjveyKa -^rjcpov. kol 
Kara iraa-as ray crvvaycoyas iroX- 
XaKLS TLfxaprnv avTOVs, rjvayKa^ov 
^Xa(r(f)r]iJ.eLV' TrepLcrcra^ re ep.- 
paiuopeuos avrols, eStcoKOv eas 
Kol els ras e^a> TroAeiy. ^^ eu ols 
Koi TTopevopevos els rrjv Aapa- 
(TKov per e^ovcrlas kcxX ejrcrpoTrrjs 
Trjs irapa ratv dp-^Lepecov, ^^ype- 
pas pecr7]s, Kara ttjv 68ou eiSou, 
fiacnXev, ovpavoOev virep ttjv 
XapwpoTTjra tov rjXLOv, TrepiXa- 
pyjrau pe (pcos Ka), rovs avu epoi 
TTOpevopeuovs. ^^Travroov 8e Ka- 
TaireaovTCov rjpoiv els rrjv yr]v, 
TJKOVcra (jycovrjv XaXovcrav irpos 
pe Kal Xeyovaav rfj 'E^pat^L 
SiaXeKTCp, SaovX, SaovX, t'l pe 
8icoKeLs/ (TKXrjpov croL irpos Kev- 
rpa XaKTi^etu. ^^ 'Eyco 8e ehrov, 
Tls el Kvpie; 'O 8e eiireu, 'Eyco 
elpi 'Irjcrovs ov crv 5icu/ce£?. dX- 
Xa dvaarrjOi, Kal o-tyjOl eirl rovs 
iro8as crov els tovto yap o}(j)Orju 


Is it judged incredible with 
you ''that God raises the dead ? 
I, indeed, thought •with myself 9 
that I ought to do many things 
against the name of Jesus of 
Nazareth. Which things I also lo 
did in Jerusalem : and many of 
the saints I shut up in prisons, 
having received authority from 
the chief priests ; and when 
they were put to death, I gave 
my vote against them. And H 
punishing them often through- 
out all the synagogues, I com- 
pelled them to revile 'Jesus, 
and being exceedingly mad 
against them, I persecuted 
them even to foreign cities. 
In doing this, as I went to Da- 12 
mascus, with authority and com- 
mission from the chief priests, 
at mid-day, king, I saw along is 
the ^way a light from heaven, 
above the brightness of the sun, 
shining round about me, and 
those that journeyed with me. 
And when we had all fallen to 14 
the earth, I heard a voice speak- 
ing to me, and saying in the 
Hebrew tongue, Saul, Saul, why 
do you persecute me? It is 
hard for you to kick against 
■■goads. And I said. Who art 15 
thou. Lord? And he said, I 
am Jesus Avhom you perse- 
cute. But rise, and stand upon 16 
your feet : for I have appear- 
ed to you for this purpose, to 
make you a minister and a wit- 

" Ec is very generally translated by if: by that, in the com. 
vei'. r«j interrogative, wliat? indicative of surprise. According 
to punctuation in Bagster's selected readings, ive punctuate and 
render it, What ? Is it judged, etc. 

' To revile Jesus. Jesus, in this place, is a necessary 
supplement to ordinary readers. Indeed, it is contextually 
the sense of the passage. It was not as some, if not 
many, of the uneducated imagine, to blaspheme God. To 

speak against Christ, or to speak disparagingly of him, ia 

^ Karn tz/v oSov, " on the way," De AVette, (Mey., Eob.) ; 
" along the way," Hack. 

'■ Instances of this formula are given, from Greek and Itoman 

" Nam qu!B inscita est, 
Adversum stimulum calces." — TEnENCt,, 




make thee a minister and a wit- 
ness both of tliese things which 
thou hast seen, and of those 
things in the which I will appear 
unto thee ; 

17 Delivering thee from the 
people, and from the Gentiles, 
unto whom now I send tliee, 

18 To open their eyes, and 
to turn them from darkness to 
light, and from the power of 
Satan unto God, that they may 
receive forgiveness of sins, and in- 
heritance among them which are 
sanctified by faith that is in me. 

19 Whereupon, king Agrip- 
pa, I was not disobedient unto 
the heavenly vision : 

20 But shewed first unto them 
of Damascus, and at Jerusalem, 
and throughout all the coasts of 
Judea, and then to the Gentiles, 


(TOL, irpo^eipLcracrdaL ere VTrrjpe- 
TTjv /cat fiaprvpa cou re eZSey cou 
re 6(j)6:^(ro/xa[ croi, i^aLpov/jie- 
vos ere e'/c rod Xaov kou t&v 
eOvav, eh ohs vvv ere airoa-TeXXo}, 
avol^ai 6(p0aX/j.ovs' avrcov, tov 
eiricrTpe'^at diro (tkqtovs els (j)a)s 
Kol rfjs e^ovcTLas tov ^araua em 
TOV Oeou, TOV Xafietv avrovs 
a(f)e(rLV ap-apTLUiV, kcu KXrjpov ev 
Tols rjyLacrfJLevoLS, irlcrTeL Trj eh 
ep.e. ^^ ' Odev fiaa-iXev 'Ayptir- 
Tva, ovK eyeuofirjv am-eLOrjs rfj 
ovpauL(£) oTTTaaia, aXXa tols ev 
jda/iacTKiS rrpcoTov kol 'lepocro- 
Xvfiocs, eh irdcrau re Tr]u )(c6pau 
r^y 'lovSaias, kcu Toh edvecriu, 


ness both of those things you 
have seen, and of those things 
in which I will appear to you ; 
delivering you from the peo- 17 
pie, and from the Gentiles, to 
whom I now send 'you, to la 
open their eyes, that they may 
turn from darkness to light, 
and from the power of Satan 
to God, that they may 're- 
ceive forgiveness of sins, and 
an inheritance among them 
that are sanctified, by the 
faith respecting ^me. 

Whence, king Agrippa, I lo 
was not disobedient to the 
heavenly vision, but showed 20 
first to those of Damascus, 
and at Jerusalem, and through- 
out all the region of Judea, 
and then to the Gentiles, that 

' For »/«>', Gb., Ln., Tf. substitute eyco. 

' Tov lajieiv, v.. r. L, expresses the direct object of tlie 
Bocond infinitiye, and the alternate object of tlie first. Hack. 

This is an impressive, as well as a most perspicuous and 
connected summary of means and ends. Paul's work is sen- 
tentiously expressed under the figure of " opening " closed 
oyes, or blind eyes. This was his work, being declared in 
this place as the end of his mission. Their work, whose eyes 
were enlightened, is also explicitly declared. It is distinctly, 
1st, turning from darkness to light ; 2d\y, and, consoquenti}'', 
that they might receive, first, a " remission of sins ; " and, 
in the next 2''i>ce, "an inheritance amongst the sanctified; 
and then again the means arc proposed — "through faith," or 
" by faith." It is Ttwtec t;; sis e/ie. 

^ IIiaxBi rr] eis e/ie. " Our English translators, and some 
others, join with ^ytaofi87'os ; but the words specify evidently 
the condition by which believers obtain the pardon of sin, and 
an interest in the heavenly inheritance." Ilackett. J?<s is 
seldom represented by upon, and even in those cases it may 
be, if not more, intelligibly rendered " in regard to," in re- 
ference to" or, in order to some end, or object. 

Eis = Ttwret rrj. This is the distinctive and most charac- 
teristic instrument in the Evangelical dispensation, or the 
present existing administration of the remedial system, con- 
summated in the person, the mission, and the work of the 
Lord Jesus Christ. Faith is, however, but an instrument. 
It is never an ultimate end, but a means to the attainment of 
ultimate ends. 

The translators of the Received Version were quite arbi- 
trary in their respect to the presence of the article. Some 
forty times they have annihilated it in their version, when 
the apostles wrote it as all important to the proper and pro- 
fitable understanding of the mind of the Spirit. 

ITioTtg, faith, and t; mans, the faith, are very distinct 
ideas, "^''e have this most important common noun in the 
apostolic writings in tivo very different, distinct, and clearly 
appreciable attitudes ; suhjectively and objectively contem- 
plated. When used subjectively, in reference to a j^trson, un- 
less it become itself the subject of a proposition, it is an- 
arthrous ; when objectively, with the article always, or with 
some other distinguishing connective, indicative of its special 
significance and association. On turning to Paul's splendid 
development of the renowned " cloud of witnesses," he sum- 
mons the mighty men of faith to demonstrate his own defi- 
nition of it. lie first defines faith, and gives tiuenty-three 
cases of it, illustrative of it as a principle o£ action in its sub- 
ject. In each and every one of these cases it is anarthrous. 
In conclusion (Ileb. H : 39) he says, ovroi navres /tn^rv^r]- 
O-evree Sta rijs Ttiarccos. Thus distinguishing the faith objec- 
tively, from faith subjectively contemplated ; — an inheritance 
through the faith. 

Eis efts, towards me, into mo, are awkward and clumsy 
formulas of speech. WitJi regard to me, or respecting me, 
are not only good English, but as fashionable as unto me, to- 
ward me, concerning me, upon me, at me, all of which, and 
many similar are, in com. ver., constituted representatives c f 
ets, in its numerous and various associations. 




that they shaulcl repent and turn 
to God, and: do works meet for 

21 For these causes the Jews 
caught me in the temple, and 
went about to kill inc. 

22 Having therefore obtained 
help of Grod, T continue unto this 
day, witnessing both to small 
and great, saying none other 
things than those which the 
prophets and Moses did say 
should come: 

23 That Christ should suffer, 
and that he should be the first 
that should rise from the dead, 
and should shew light unto the 
people, and to the Gentiles. 

24 And as he thus spake for 
liiraself, Festus said with a loud 
voice, Paul, thou art beside thy- 
self; much learning doth make 
thee mad. 

25 But he said, I am not mad, 
most noble Festus; but speak, 
forth the words of trutli and 

26 For the king knoweth of 
these things, before whom also 
I speak freely. For I am per- 
suaded that none of these things 
are hidden from him; for this 
thing was not done in a corner. 


aTvayyiXkcov fxeravoelv, kcu ettl- 
crrpe^eiv eVt rov Oeov, a^ia rrjs 
■ fxeravoLas epya rrpacrcrovTas. 
'^^ eusKa TOVTcou /xe ol 'IovBolol 
avXXal3ofxeuoi. iu ra iepco, eVei- 
poovTo Biay^upicracrdaL. ^^ einKov- 
pias ovv Tvy^cav Trjs Trapa rov 
OeoD, cc^pc TTJs' Tjfxepas' ravrrj^ 
ecrTrjKa, paprvpovjxevos p-i-KpS re 
KoX /xeyaXcp, ovSeu eKTos Xeycov 
cov re ol 7rpo(j)rJTaL iXaXr/crav 
peXXovTwv yiveaOaL kcu Mccarjs, 
^^ et •Ka6r]Tos 6 XpLcrros, el 7rpa>- 
Tos 4g avafTTacrecos veKpcov (pco? 
peXXeL KarayyeXXeci/ rS Xam kul 
rols k'duecn. ^^ Tavra 8e avrov 
airoXoyovfievov, 6 ^rjcTO^ fieya- 
Xt] TTj (pcovfj e(f)r], Maivrj UavXe- 
ra TToXXa ere ypap^para et? pa- 
vlav irepLTpiireL. ^^'0 8e, Ov 
paivopai, (j)r]ai, KpaTLcrTe ^rjcrre, 
dXX aXrjOeias kclI cra)(l)pocrvvr]9 
prjpara dTrocpOeyyop-ai. ^^ ivri- 
crraraL yap irepl tovtcou 6 fiaen- 
Xev9, irpos ov kou Trapprjcna^o- 
pievos XaXco- Xaudaueiv yap avrov 
TL TOVTCov OV weiOopat ov8ev ov 
yap icxTiv ev ycovla Treirpayp-evov 


tliey should 'reform and turn 
to God, and do works proper 
for reformation. For these 21 
causes the Jews seized me in 
the temple, and tried to kill 
me. Having, however, ob- 22 
tained the help of God, I con- 
tinue to this day, testifying 
bo til to small and great, say- 
ing no other things than those 
which the prophets and Mo- 
ses did say would come : that 23 
the Christ ™was to suffer, and 
that he first, by his resurrec- 
tion from the dead, would 
show light to the people, and 
to the Gentiles. 

And as he thus spoke for 2i 
himself, Festus said with a 
loud voice, Paul, you are mad, 
much learning has made you 
mad. But he says, lam not mad, 25 
most excellent Festus; but 
speak the words of truth and 
of a sound mind. For the 26 
king well knows concerning 
these things, before whom, 
therefore, I speak boldly; for 
I am persuaded that none of 
those things are hidden from 
him: for this thing has not 
been done in a "corner. King 27 

I We are still more penetrated with the conviction that 
fteravoeo) and fteravota should be represented in all cases by 
reform and reformation. They are not equivalents to /isra- 
/ia?.o/iat and /taTu/isksta. When and where the Holy Spirit 
uses two words, we should not use only one. Pwnitentia is 
not reformatio. A change of views is not a change of con- 
duct, nor a change of life. That sinners should not only be 
;)«n'fcj?<^regret, and mourn over the past — not merely profess 
reformation, but ilo worh meet, or suitable to such profession 
of reformation. Marn/teXeia is mere painful and sorrowful 
reminiscences of the past, pregnant with fearful forebodings 
of the future; but a change of views, a change of mind and 
purpose, a change of heart and of life are represented by /ue- 
rnvoia. Tlicrc are worhs meet and suitable to a change of 
views and a change of heart which are called worh meet for 

■" El TtaO-tjros 6 X^taros, might otherwise be rendered, whether 
W'f Christ can suflir. De Wctte, Mej'. " Not whether ho must 

suffer in order to fulfill the Scripture." Hackett. " Some make 
ei = bxi, i. e., the sign of a moderated assertion." Hack. " That 
the Christ would suffer death," Wakcf., Penn ; " sliouU suffer," 
Thomp., Boothr. According to Hackett, the Apostle " ap- 
proaches the question on the Jewish side of it, not on the 
Christian, and that was, whether the Messiah being such as many 
of the Jews expected, could suffer." Others make ci equal ort, 
tliat, = that he would suffer, and that he would rise, etc. He is, 
indeed, the TtQororoy.oe sy. rcov vbxqcov with Christians. But 
such was not the Messiah expected by the Jews. And, there- 
fore, the point in debate was whether, according to prophecy, 
the Messiah coidd suffer death. Paul proved that he could die, 
and did die, according to tlio Scriptures. 

" SwfQoavvr], sobriety. So rendered in its two other occur- 
rences in Paul's writings. It is an antithesis of fiavta ov ftaivo- 
fiai — ahqx>, of truth, " as opposed not merely to falsehood, 
but to the fancies and hallucinations of a disordered intellect." 




27 King Agrippa, believest 
thou the prophets ? I know that 
thou believest. 

28 Then Agrippa said unto 
Paul, Almost thou persuadest 
me to be a Christian. 


TovTo. ^^ Tna-Teveis /Saa-iXev 
'Aypimra tois 7rpo(j)r]TatsJ olSa 
OTL TTLCTTeveLS. ^^ ' 8e 'AypiiT- 
iras TTpos Tov IlavXov ^(f)r], 'Ev 
oXiyco fxe ireiOeis XpicrTiavov 


Agrippa, do you believe the 
prophets? I know that you be- 
lieve them. ThenAgrippasaid 28 
to Paul, You in alittle time per* 
suade me to become a "Chris- 

° Ev ohyq> — yqovit), in a Utile time. At this rate you per- 
fiuade mo to be a Christian. By taking ev o),iyii> as quanti- 
tative instead of lemiwral, Mayor brings out this sense from 
the expression, " with little effort you persuade me to become 
a Christian." In otlier words (said sarcastically), "you ap- 
peal to me as if you thought me an easy convert to your 
faith." " Should ev fieyaltn, according to Mey. and Tf., be 
adopted as the current reading in Paul's reply, instead of ev 
ito}.hf, tliis would be correct ; but the testiinonj' for the com- 
mon text outweighs that against it," Hack., Neander, De 
Wette. It is at present held to be unphilological to translate 
m> o?.ty(i> almost (Beza, Grotius, Eng. Ver.). " The Greek for 
that sense would have been ohyov Set, or 7ta^' oliyov. 
Agrippa appears to have been moved by the apostle's earnest 
manner, but attempts to conceal his- emotion under the form 
of a jest," Hack. 

Whatever may have l)een liis motives or convictions, sin- 
cerely or insincerely expressed, he gives conspicuity and 
emphasis to the Christian name as then of some notoriety. 
As to the origin of this name, the consideration of which we 
deferred to this place though occurring ch. 11 : 26, we are 
called upon to notice. The word Xqtariavos is found only 
tliree times in the Christian Scriptures, Acts 11 : 26 ; 26 : 28 ; 
1 Pet. 4 : 10. Whether this name was self-imposed, or im- 
posed on the disciples of Christ by their enemies, is even yet 
a litigated question. The com. ver. makes the disciples j)as- 
sive in receiving this name ; so does Wakef., Murd., Dodd., 
Thomp., Bootlir., Wiclif, Tynd., Cranmer, the Genevan, the 
Kheims, all lying before me. I have before me also the London 
Polj'glott, published by Bagster and Sons, under the super- 
rision of the distinguished Dr. Lee. In this admirable work 
at one opening, we have the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, German, 
French, Spanish, Italian, and English Old Testament and 
New ; and in all these, so far as we understand them, we find 
them unanimous and uniform in presenting the disciples at 
Antiooh not as active, but as passive, in receiving the name 
Chrislian. Superadded to these authorities the impressive 
fact that every creature in the universe is passive, in receiving 
a name, confirms our convictions that neither Paul nor Barna- 
bas, nor any inspired man, then and there, first called the dis- 
ciples of Christ at Antioch Christians. Sacred history, from 
its first to its last page, presents this view. God himself 
gave the first man a name. Adam gave to his wife the name 
Eve, or life, and to the whole animal creation around him. 
He did this work so appropriately that God confirmed it all; 
for Moses says, " The Lord God brought every beast of the 

field, and every fowl of the air to Adam to see what he would 
call them. And whatsoever Adam called every living creature, 
that became the name thereof." Gen. 2 : 19. Adam was, 
therefore, the most learned zoologist that ever lived. 

But we must hear the profound Kuinoel on this verb chree- 
malizoo. X^t]ftarci,co (clircematizoo) among the Greeks in 
Attica indicated to transact anything, or so to transact a 
matter that it should thence obtain a name. His own words , 
are: "Atticis erat res agcre; apud recensiores res ila agere 
ut nomen inde adispicaris hinc significalione intransiliva." 
In consulting Thesaurus Grcecm Lingua, secundum Constan- 
tini methodum et Schrevellii, Reseratus, concinnatus, et adorna- 
tas, studio et induslria Guilelmi Robertson, Cantahri giae, a. d. 
1C76, we find this name dilated upon in the words following, 
to wit: " XQ7]fiartaat rovg fca&ijrag X^toztarove, nam cogno- 
menta hominibus imponi solebant ex negotio quod tractabant, 
vel ex efBcio quo fungebantur; item oraculo reddo. Rcspon- 
sum do at postulala, ut nQEofisiae xpw"''''?^'"- Diodorus." 
To this high authority we shall only add that of Leigh's Crit. 
Sacra, London, a. d. 1650: ^^Xnij/cart^co, o/cac, nominor, Divi- 
nitas nuncior. Kom. 7 : 3, xpw'''^"^'> vocabitur scil. adultera 
— she shall be called an adulteress." Acts 11 : 26 it indicates 
" to be called," " to be named," not to call themselves. Let 
us hear KuinoBi a little further. " Quasritur, imposuerintne 
Chrisli Sectalores sibi ipsi hoc nomen, an illud acceperint ab 
aliis. Christi cultores ipsos primum uses esse Cliristianorum 
appellatione non modo probari nequit, sed etiam gravibus ne- 
gari potest argumentis. Primum enim, si sibi ipsi peculiare 
nomen vindicassent, invidiam adversus se graviorem excitas- 
sent, et magis magisque aluissent." " That the Christian wor- 
shipers placed this name upon themselves is not only void of 
all scriptural evidence ; but can be denied tviih weighty ar- 
guments. If they had asserted, or vindicated a right to the 
name, they would have only excited a more grievous enmity 
against themselves, and more and more nourished it." So 
reasoned Kuinoel. Besides, the Greek text, fairly interpreted, 
affords no authority for such an idea. That it may with all 
propriety, and with little or no reasonable offense, now be as- 
sumed and worn by the disciples of Christ everywhere, is 
not to be questioned, at least, comes not within our present 

But it may be said. Does not the word x^l/tari^co in He- 
brew style intimate a Divine oracle? Does it not in the 
Christian currency imply or involve a Divine communication, 
or suggestion? We can positively say that while this may 
sometimes be the case, it does not necessarily indicate such aa 




29 And Paul said, I would to 
God, that not only thou, but 
also all that hear me this day, 
were both almost, and altogether 
such as I am, except these bonds. 

39 And when he had thus 
spoken, the king rose up, and 
the governor, and Bernice, and 
they that sat with them : 

31 And when they were gone 
aside, they talked between them- 
selves, saying. This man doeth 
nothing worthy of death, or of 

32 Then said Agrippa unto 
Festus, This man might have 
been set at liberty, if he had 
not appealed unto Cesar, 


yeviadaL. ^^ ' 5e HavXos ehrev, 
JEv^aL/xrjv av rw ^em, Kol iv 
oXiyca kol iu ttoAAw ov fxovov 
ere, aXXa kcu iravTas tovs clkovov- 
rds fjiov (TTqixepov, yeveadai tolov- 
Tovs oirolos Kayco el/M, irapeKTos 
rau Beajxav tovtcou. ^"^ Kal rav- 
To. elirouTos avTov, avearr] 6 
j3a<TiXev9 Kol 6 iqyeficov, rj re 
BepvLKT], Koi oi (TvyKaO-qixevoi 
avTois. Kai ava^priaavTes 

eXaXovv irpos aXXrjXovs Xeyovres, 
' Otl ovSev davarov a^iov rj 8e- 
crp.cou wpacrcret o avOpcoiros avros. 
^^' Aypiinras 8e t<S ^rjara €^r], 
' AiroXeXvcrdaL iSuvaro 6 avdpco- 
iros ovTos, et jxr] eTreKeKXyro 


tian. And Paul said, i"! would 29 
to God, that not only you, but 
also all that hear me this day, 
were, in a little or much 
time, such as I am, except 
these bonds. 

And when he had said these 30 
things, the king rose 'up, and 
the governor, and Bernice, and 
they who sat with them, and 31 
when tlioy had gone aside, 
they talked among themselves, 
saying, This man docs nothing 
worthy of death, or of bonds. 
Then Agrippa said to Festus, 32 
This man might have been set 
at liberty, if he had not ap- 
pealed to Cesar. 

idea. Its use in the Christian Scriptures does not always in- 
dicate such an idea. For example, in its nine occurrences it 
is fully exhausted by the words, called, admonished, spoke. 
Rom. 7 : 3, she shall be called an adulteress, according to 
law, not according to a Divine suggestion, or impulse. " It 
was revealed," Luke 2 : 26, and it is once represented by the 
mere term spoke, Ileb. 12 : 25, and by the Romans translated 
in their own currency to name, named — appellor, nominor. 
X^rjfia, its root in Greek, is, negolium res, consilium, necessi- 
tas. They assume too much who say it necessarily involves 
the idea of a Divine oracle in this connection. It may, or it 
may not, is the most that can be philologically and truthfully 
said of it. It would, indeed, be assuming too much, to affirm 
that it here indicates a special Divine communication. It is 
quite as possible and as probable, that because the disciples 
of Jesus spoke so much of his being the Cfirist, that their 
enemies indignantly called them Christians. This becomes 
more plausible from an allusion to the sufferings of the early 
Christians on the part of Peter, 1st Ep. ch. 4 : 10, " If any 

man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed, but let 
him glorify God in that name ; " or, " on account of that 
name," Penn. It is the most probable presumption, that be- 
ing the custom in all the sects of philosophy to call the school 
after its founder — Platonists, Pythagoreans, Aristotelians; or 
as the Christian sects, Lutherans, Calvinists, Arminians, etc., 
glorify their founders. So did t,he disciples either voluntarily, 
or by constraint, the author and the founder of the faith. 
" If any man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed, 
but let him glorify God on that account." 

P Ev^aiftrjv av rtp Obco, I could pray to God, according to 
mj feelings. Av, with the optative, intensifies the idea, «ni 
ev oXiyv ev ■jtolho. Eft] (v. 28) omitted by Ln., Tf., Gb. 
For noUcii, Ln., Tf., Gb. substitute, as a better reading, «*- 

1 After aveartj, re is properly inserted before d fiaadevs, 
both the king and the governor, etc. Then the Icing rose up 
is in better taste. 




And when it was determined, 
that we should sail into Itiiiy, 
they delivered Paul and certain 
other prisoners unto one iiiimed 
Julius, a centuridn of Augustus' 

2 And entering into a ship 
of Adramyttium, we launched, 
meaning to sail by the coasts of 
Asia, one Aristarchus, a Mace- 
donian of Thessalonica, being 
with us. 

3 And the next day we touch- 
ed at Sidon. And Julius cour- 
teously entreated Paul, and gave 
him liberty to go unto his friends 
to refresh himself. 

4 And when we had laijnched 
from thence, we sailed under] 


' iliSi Se eKpldr] rov diroTrXeiv 
rjfxd? eis" ttju ' IraXiav, irapeSl- 
8ovu Tov re JJavXov Kai nuas 
irepovi' Sea/xcora? eKarovTapyrj, 
ovofxaTL 'lovXico, (rireLprjs Se^a- 
arrjs. ^ einfiavTis de TrXolcp 
'A8pafjiVTTr]ua, /xeAAoirey TrXeiv 
Tovs Kara ryv Aaiav Toirovs^ 
dii7])(dr]/xeu, ovTos aw rj/Mv ' Api- 
(TTap-^ov MuKeSouos OeacraXovi- 
Keco9. ^ TTj re ireptji. KaTi])(drj/x€v 
eh SlBcovu- (j)LXav6po:)7ra)9 re 6 
lovXio? Tw UavXcp ■)(^pr](raiJievos, 
e7rerpeyf/e irpos (piXovs iropev- 
QivTU, iiTLixeXdas TV'}(elv. * ko.- 
KeWei> dvay(QivT€s VTrewXevcraixev ^ 

REVISED version. 

And when it was determin- 
ed that we should sail to Italy, 
they delivered Paul and cer- 
tain other prisoners to a cen- 
turion of the Augustan "cohort, 
named Julius. And entering 
into a vessel of Adramyttium, 
^\ve put to sea, being about 
to sail by the coasts of Asia., 
Aristarchus, a Macedonian of 
Thessalonica, being with us. 
And the next day we landed 
at Sidon : and Julius courte- 
ously treated Paul, and gave 
him liberty to go to the 
'friends, to partsike of their 
kindness. And when we had 
•■loosed from, thence, we sailed 

" Ey.QiO^i] rov fiTTOTti.eiv iiuas. Not their departure, but the 
time of it. tlial ice (Lulco and company) should sail. Tlic 
infinitive witli rov is generally indicative of purpose. Tivag 
ereoovs dEoumrtte, certain oilier jmsoners ; erc^os, other ; tan- 
tamount to nUos — ojteiQtjs 2'«/?aar/;s, of the Augustan band or 
cohort — called Italian — generally composed of Italians. 

^ nloKo AS^reiwTt7/pft), a ship of Adramyttium, a sea-port 
of Mysia. MeUovti, by Gb., Tf. and IMeyer, is preferred to 
ueV.ovT£s — ambiguous according to De "Wette. JlJ.ecp tods 
y.ara rijp Aaiav roTtovs ; £«s after nlsiv seems to be wanting, 
and is in some texts supplied. By what authority we know 

' Kaxri%OrifiEv us SiScovuj first per. plur. aor. 1. ind. pass., 
of y.arayco, deduco. We landed at Sidon, ra y.ara, deorsum, 
downwards, et nvw, duco ; literally, wc were home down into 
Sidon, a Phoenician city. Our Saviour had visited the con- 
fines of Tyre and Sidon ; reported Matt. 15 : 21. Tovs rpdovs, 
not his friends, but the friends, i. e., the brethren. This 
title, ol If dot, oi the brethren, occurs 3d John, v. 15, twice. 

(pilaviyQCOTtros re 6 lovhos rrp Jlavho ■/_Qr]on/tE7'os. X^ao), 
commodato do, quasi e manu in manwn ; I henignanlly jjlace 
my hand in yours. Captain Julius treated bcnignantly, jyhi- 
lanlhropically ; courteously, is not enough ; inost henignanlly. 
Captain Julius was a true Koman gentleman. 'HfuQas inra 
may be indefinite ; about a week. Hack., ch. 20 : 6, " Means 
probably about a week. 

'' Avaxd'Evres v7ten).EvaaiiEi> rrjv Kvnqov — Evavriovs. Ai'ttyco, 
subduco, adduco, produco, reduco ; nvaysir, proficere, ascen- 
dere. — Orit. Sacra. This is a word of special favor with Luke. 
In the Christian Scriptures avnyco is found twenty-four times ; 

and of these, out of Luke's writings, only three are found. So 
largely in the use of this word, he gives much latitude to its 
import, as well as a very free circulation. Our translators 
found themselves obliged to give no less a variety in their 
version of it. On examining it with much care, we find they 
have given to it the following variety of representatives : lead, 
lead up, bring, bring up, bring up again, take up, launch, 
launch forth, offer, loose, sail, set forth, depart. Here are 
thirteen distinct and distinguishable acts represented in the 
currency of one man by one and the same word ; and these 
occurring in only two of the twenty-seven documents that 
constitute the Christian Scriptures ! 

How much, then, depends upon the subject, and the con- 
text, and the discrimination of the interpreter or translator. 

As further developing the progress of our language and of 
the literature, the tasto and science of the age we live in, and 
more especially the marvelous change that has silently and 
progressively come upon our language and our taste, we shall 
give a few versions of the 4th and 5th verses of this 27th ch. 
" And whanne we remoueden fro thennes we vndirsaileden to 
Cipro, for that "Wyndis werun contrarie. V. 5, And we seiledon 
in the see of Silici, and Panfili : and camen to Liatris that is 
Licie." "Wiclif, A.D. 1380. Y. 4, "And from thence lanched 
we, and sayled harde by Cypers because the wyndes were 
contrarye. Y. 5, Then sayled we over the sea of Cilicia and 
Pamphilia and came to Myra a cite in Lyciia." Tyndale, 
A. D. 1534- v. 4, "And whan we bad launched from thence, 
wo sayled hard by Cypers, because the Wyndes were con- 
trarye. V. 5, And whan wo had sayled over the see of Oylicia 
and Pamphilia we cam to Myra which is in Lycia." Cranmer, 




Cyprus, because the winds were 

5 And when we had sailed 
over the sea of Cilicia and Pam- 
phylia, we came to Myra, a city 
of Lycia. 

6 And there the centurion 
found a ship of Alexandria sail- 
ing into Italy; and he put us 

7 And when we had sailed 
slowly many days, and scarce 
were come over against Cnidus, 
the wind not suffering us, we 
sailed unto Crete, over against 

8 And hardly passing it, came 
unto a place which is called. 
The Fair Havens; nigh where- 
unto was the city of Lasea. 


T^i> Kvirpov, Sia TO tovs avejxovs 
eivai IvavTLOVs. to re ireXayos 


(j)vXiav BiairXevcravTes, KanqXOofJLev 
els Mvpa TTjS AvKias. " KaKO, 
evpcov 6 €KaTovTap-)(os ttXoiou 
'AXe^avSpluov irXiov els ttjv 
'iTaXiav, eve^i^aa-ev rjpds els 
avTO. ^ iu iKavals 8e -qpepais 
/3pa8vTrXoouuTes, kol poXis yevo- 
jxevot KaTO. ttjv Kvibov, fxt] irpo- 
(xeavTOS rjpas tov dvepov, vTreir- 
Xevarap.ev ttjv Kpr]T7]V KaTa 
SaXpLavrjv /xoXls Te irapaXe- 
yojxevoL avTTju, ■rjXOop.ev els tottov 
TLva KaXovfieuou KaXovs Aipe- 
vas, o) eyyvs rju ttoXis Aacraia, 


under Cyprus, because the 
winds were contrary. And 
when we had sailed over the 
sea along Cilicia and Pamphy- 
lia, we came to Myra, a city 
of Lycia: and there the cen- 
turion found a ship of Alex- 
andria sailing into Italy, and 
he put us on board of "it. 
And when we had sailed 
slowly many days, and with 
fdifiiculty came off" Cnidus, 
the wind not permitting us, 
we sailed ^under Crete, over 
against Salmone; and ''coast- 
ing along it with difficulty, 
came to a certain place called. 
The Fair Havens ; near which 
was the city of Lasea. 

j^ D. 1539. V. 4, "And from thence we launched, and sayled 
harde by Cyprus, because the "Windes were conti-ary. V. 5, Then 
sayled over the sea by Cilicia and Pamphilia, and came to 
Myra, a citie in Lycia." Cranmcr, a. d. 1557. Y. 4, " And 
when vve had loosed thence vve sailed vnder Cypres, because 
the windes were contrarie. V. 5, And sailing the sea of 
Cilicia and Pamplia, wo came to Lystra which is in Lycia." 
Rheims, a. d. 1582. V. 4, " And when we had lanched from 
thence wo sailed vnder Cyprus, because the winds were con- 
trary. V, 5, And when we had sailed over the sea of Cilicia 
and Pamphylia wo came to Myra, a citie of Lysia." Com. Vcr. 
A. D. 1611. 

Such was the progress, and such were the changes in our 
English Sacred Scriptures during 231 years. 

It will be observed, that the proper names changed less than 
the common nouns. The reason was, the originals from which 
they were borrowed were substantially the same, being 
Grecian and Roman. Again, it will be noted in many places, 
that a few instances only appear in these two verses of a 
change in the verbiage in our version, compared with the 
authorized of 1611. These were not made by any assembly 
recognized in Protestant Christendom, but were made bj the 
unauthorized editors or publishers of them. This is the most 
convincing argument in vindication of the labors of the Bible 
Union to have a thorough revision. These selections were 
made without an election of any place. 

• Literally, " upon it." Luke abounds in nautical ex- 
pressions, and to do him justice, we ought to translate it, 
technically, " ho put us on board of it. 

' Ilohe. The com. ver. supposes their having sailed so fai 
for the difficulties they had to encounter, which is absolutely 
the import of itohs. See again v. 8, which, in the com. ver., 
sustains this change. 

^ 'TTicTtlcvaaftep t>]v KQrjrrjv Ea'/.fiwvriv, we sailed 
under Crete against Salmone. Under Crete, not literally ! 
but under its protection against the wind and the swollen 
waves dashing upon its wind-beaten side. On the leeward, or 
sheltered side of the island. " "We sailed under Crete against 
Salmone." This promontory is yet recognized, " forming the 
eastern extremity of that island," and still retaining the origi- 
nal name. The allusions to this island and its wind-beaten 
side, and its present map, all correspond with the references 
here found. 

'' Molls re TinQaXeyofiEvot avTijv, ITnQnXeyo/icii, prater- 
lego, ]}ralernavigo. Proprie significat, q. d. lego liltus vel 
Oram liUoris lego, I scan the shore of the sea. The Romans 
had in their nomenclature praternavigatio, a ^uQajtlovs — a 
sailing ly, or along the coast. " Nautical authorities assure 
us that this place is the furthest point to which an ancient 
ship could have attained with northwestwardly winds, be- 
cause the land turns suddenly to the north." Hack. 

(j5 — Aaaaitt. i^ is here governed as an adverb by ayyvs. 

Crete, once covered with its hundred cities in which Chris- 
tian churches abounded, spread over an area of 270 miles 
in length, and 50 in breadth, celebrated ibr its lying poets, ac- 
cording to Epimenides, is now called Candia, and famous only 
for what it once was. 




9 Now, when much time was 
sjDent, and when sailhig was now 
dangerous, because the fast was 
now aU'eady past, Paul admon- 
ished tlicm, 

10 And said unto them, Sirs, 
I perceive that this voyage will 
be with hurt and much damage, 
not only of the lading and ship, 
but also of our lives. 

11 Nevertheless, the centurion 
believed the master and the 
owner of the ship more than 
those things which were Sjaoken 
by Paul. 

12 And because the haven 
was not commodious to winter 
in, the more part advised to de- 
part thence also, if by any means 
they might attain to Phenice, 


" 'iKavov Se )(p6pov diayevofie- 
vov, Kcu ovTos rjdr] eTna-^aXovs 
Tov TrAooy, bia to kolI ttjv vrj- 
(TTeiav T]8i-) TrapeXrjXvdevai, ira- 
pjjuei 6 JIavXos Xeyav olvtols, 
' AvBpes, OecopS) ore p-era v^pecos 
/cat TToXXrj^ ^-qp^ias ov p.6vov tov 
(popTov /cat TOV irXoiov, aXXa kol 
Tcou ■\\rv)(av rjp&v p-eXXeiv eaecr- 
Oat TOV ttXovu. ^^'O 8e iicaTov- 
Tap-)(os Tc3 KvfiepvrjTrj kclL tm 
vavKXrjpco eTreldeTO paXXov rj 
roty VTTO TOV HavXov Xeyop-evoi^. 
dvevdeTOV 8e tov Xtp-evog inrd- 
p)(ovTos TTyOoy Trapa^eipacTLav, o'l 
TrXeiovs effevTO /3ovXr]v dva)(^drjvac 
KOLKnOev, eiircos SvvaivTO kutuv- 
TrjcravTes ds 0OLuiKa Trapa^^ei/xa- 


Now a 'long time having 9 
elapsed, the navigation being 
now unsafe (because also the 
fast was already past), Paul 
exhorted them, saying. Sirs, I li) 
'perceive that the voyage will 
be with violence and much 
loss, not only of the cargo 
and ship, but also of our lives. 
Nevertheless the centurion il 
believed the i-helmsman and 
the owner of the ship rather 
than those things spoken by 
Paul : and because the haven 12 
was 'incommodious to winter 
in, the majority also advised 
to depart thence, if by any 
means they might attain to 
Phoenix, to winter, which is a 

' 'Jy.apov Se y_^ovov Siaysvotievov, a long lime having now 
transpired. 'ly.avoe, in a former note, we have shown to be 
of great latitude, reaching from what is merely sufficient or 
enough to that which is great, and worthij, and able, and all 
potent, sufficient for any given purpose, or as a means to any 
proposed end. T>]p vrjareiav is generally thought here to 
refer to the great fast observed on the celebrated day of the 
great national expiation — the tenth of Tisri — about the au- 
tumnal equinox. "Philo also says that 'no prudent man 
thought of puting to sea after this season of the year.'" 
Jahn's Archa3ol., § 357. The Greeks and Romans thought 
that sailing in the Mediterranean was not safe after the middle 
of October nor till after the middle of March. And this is 
not far from the figures on the Atlantic. 

i 0ea)ffs(o. Literally, to see, with regard to physical na- 
ture, but to 2^crceive, with regard to the intellectual, the moral, 
and the religious. AVe, however, metaphorically represent the 
perceptions of the inner man by the outward senses of the 
animal man. Hence we see, and hear, and feel internally, as 
well as externally. 

'' Kvpeovrjrri — ky.aTovra(>y,OB — vavy.lrjoij). Here stand three 
officers, the shipmaster, the centurion, and the oivner of the 
ship. The last was most interested ; the shipmaster or pilot, 
most responsible, having persons, and property, and his own 
life at stake ; the centurion least concerned while at sea, but 
most responsible when on land. 

In this book we have two words in the original, representa- 
tive of the same officer; Ixarovraqxie, only found in tliis 
book of Acts ; and enarovra^xog, used by both Matthew and 

Luke — the former by Luke only. TVe can give no reason for 
it. ATc have in classic Greek the word r/^j^os, a 2>rince, from 
which the English word arch, a preflx to bishojis and some 
political potentates; and we have in classic Greek aoxr; of 
largo currency as a constituent of the highest officials in all 
realms. Wo observe, once more, that a^ixi;, wherever found, 
indicates, in the words of the distinguished Edward Leigh, of 
the first half of the sixteenth century, non principiwn pas- 
sivum ; sed activum significat, a quo omnes creaturas prinni- 
pium suum ducunt : quam interpretationera utriusque Testa- 
menti pagina evincit. Amama, Antibarb. Bib. Lib. 3. Prin- 
cipium, John 1:1; height of place, or superiority of man in 
his office, 1 Cor. 15 : 24. It is taken for the magistrate, Luko 
12 : 11. Titus 3 : 1, aqyai, qui mero imperio utuntur — those 
who have primary and plenary power under God. 

But we must distinguish the nvfie^prjrije from its two asso- 
ciates. Here the helmsman, or the pilot, stands first, he is 
the master of the ship. He guides and commands its course, 
and, in this sense, he is not poetically nor rhetorically, but 
in fact the governor and director of the ship, and, as such, 
must be obeyed in his station by all aboard. To this effijet 
says Kuinool : " Sed xv/Se^pt^Ttig est gubernator navis, qui cla- 
vum tenet, et puppim dirigit." He holds the helm, and directs 
the ship. 

1 AvevO-erovi was incommodious, inconvenient. The ques- 
tion was, whether they should abide in that harbor or seek 
another, not whether they should proceed to Italy at that 
season. " Paul preferred that they should remain there, and 
the event justified his discernment." Hack. Oi TtXuovs, the 




and there to winter; which is an 
haven of Crete, and lieth toward 
the south-west and north-west. 

13 And when the south wind 
blew softly, supposing that they 
had obtained their purpose, loos- 
ing thence, they sailed close by 

14 But not long after there 
arose against it a tempestuous 
wind, called Euroclydon. 

16 And when the ship was 
caught, and could not bear up 
into the wind, we let her drive. 

16 And running tinto a cer- 
tain island which is called Clau- 
da, we had much work to come 
by the boat : 

17 Which when they had 
taken up, they used helps, un- 
dergirding the ship ; and fearing 
lest they should fall into the 
quicksands, strake sail, and so 
were driven. 

18 And we being exceedingly 
tossed with a tempest, the next 
daij they lightened the ship; 

19 And the third day we cast 
out with our own hands the 
tackling of the ship. 

20 And when neither sun nor 
stars in many days appeai'ed, 
and no small tempest lay on 
us, all hope that we should be 
saved was then taken away. 

21 But after long abstinence, 
Paul stood forth in the midst of 
them, and said, Sirs, ye should 
have hearkened unto me, and 
not have loosed from Crete, and 
to have gained this harm and 

22 And now I exhort you to 
be of good cheer : for there shall 


crai, XifJiiva ttjs Kpr^Trfs /3Ae'- 

TTovra Kara X'lfia kol Kara ^wpov. 

VTTOTrvevcravTos 8e votov, 86- 

^apres rrjs Trpodeaeco? KeKparr]- 

K.4vai, apavres aa-crov irapeXi- 

yovTO TT]V KprjTriv. p-er ov 

iroXv 8e e^aXe /car avrrj^ avepios 

TVijjcavLKOs, 6 KaXovp,6vos JEvpo- 

kXv8u)v. ^^ (rvvoLpiraarOivTos 8e 

Tov ttXolov, /cat p,rj 8vvapivov 

auTO(j)daXp.eLU tco avepco, ewiSov- 

T€s i(j)epop.e6a. ^^ vrjaiou 8e tl 

V7ro8papovTes KaXovpevov KXav- 

8t]v, p,oXi9 la~)(y(rap.ev irepiKpa- 

T€L9 yevecrOat rrjs crKd^r]S' ' r]v 

apavres, ^orjOeiais i-)(pavTO, vtto- 

^covvvvres to ttXolow (j)ofiovp6uo[ 

re pLT] els rrju crvpTLV eKirecrcocn, 

^aXacravTes to cTKevos, ovtcos 

i(j)epovTO, ^ S(f)o8pios 5e yeipia- 

^opipcov rjpaiv, Trj e^rjs iKfioXrjv 
» - 19 ^^ " ' » ' 

eTTotoi'i'ro' /cat ttj Tpirr] avro- 

)(eipe9 TT]V aKevrju tov irXoiov 

ippl^apev " yttT/re Se rjXiov, 

p-TjTe acTTpcov €7n(j)aiuovTcou iirX 

irXeiovas rjp-epas, ■)(€Lp.u)vos re 

ovK. oXiyov i7nK€ip,€uov,. Xolttou 

TrepLjipe'iTO Traara eXiris tov crco- 

^eadai 7]pa?. TroXXrjs 8e acri- 

Ttas VTrap-)(ovcrT]s, TOTe crTadeis' 6 

JJoxiXqs eV yuecro) avTcou direv, 

JESeL p.€u, CO av8pes, 7r6idap-)(T^- 

aavTas pot prj dvayecrdat diro tt]s 

ICprjTTjs, KepSijcraL re ttju v/Sptv 

TavTrjv Kcu ttjv ^rjpiav. ^^ /cat 

Tavvu Trapatvco vp.ds evdvp.eiv 


haven of Crete, facing (south- 
west and northwest. 

Now when a south-wind 13 
blew moderately, thinking to 
have gained their purpose, hav- 
ing weighed anchor, they sailed 
close by Crete. But imme- 14 
diately a "whirlwind, called 
Euroclydon, struck against 
the ship. And when it was 15 
borne away, and could not 
bear up against the wind, giv- 
ing up, we let it drive. And IG 
running under a certain small 
island, called Clauda, with 
difficulty we were able to se- 
cure the boat : which when 17 
they had taken up, they used 
helps, undergirding the ship ; 
and fearing lest they should 
be stranded on the sand bank," 
they lowered the sail, and so 
were driven. Now we being 18 
exceedingly tempest tossed, 
the next day they lightened 
the ship ; and the third day 19 
we cast out with our own 
hands the tackling of the ship. 
And when neither sun nor 29 
stars had for many days ap- 
peared, and no small tempest 
lay on us, at last all hope 
that we should be saved was 
utterly taken away. 

But after much abstinence, 21 
Paul stood in the midst of 
them, and said, Sirs, you 
should have hearkened to me, 
and not have loosed from 
Crete, and so have "sustained 
this harm and loss. Yet now 22 
I exhort you to be of good 
cheer; for there shall be no 

majority. A consultation being had — the majority were for 
proceeding to Phoenice, a port in Crete. Strabo mentions a 
liarbor of this name on the south of Crete, and Ptolemy men- 
tions a town called Phoenix, with a port which he names 
Phoenious. On the contrary, Stephanus Byzantinus calls the 
town Phoenicus, which Hierocles again calls Phenice. Karn 
Xtfia xat Kara xco^ov, looking towards, facing, rather than 
looking 10. Lips and Corns, i. e., the points from which the 

winds so called blew, viz., the southwest and the northwest. 
Hackett is very felicitous, as Avell as laborious in his exposi- 
tion of the usual terms in this description. 

"> Tufiovtf.os, a whirlwind, called a Typlion, Euroaquilo — 
Northeastern, Euroclydon. 

" T>]v ovQTtv, the syrtis ; so called as drawn together by 
currents of the sea. Jlob. 

" KeQSrjoai, Literally, gained, sustained. 




be no loss of a7iij man^s life among 
you, but of the ship. 

23 For there stood by me this 
night the angel of God, whose 
I am, and whom I serve, 

24 Saying, Fear not, Paul; 
thou must be brought before 
Cesar: and lo, God hath given 
thee all them that sail with thee. 

25 Wherefore, sirs, be of good 
cheer: for I believe God, that it 
shall be even as it was told me. 

26 Howbeit, we must be cast 
upon a certain island. 

27 But when the fourteenth 
night was come, as we were 


dirofioXrj yap 'yj^v^^fjs ovde/xia 
ecTTai. 4^ vncov, irXrjv tov ttXolov. 
^^ Trapea-TT) yap fxot. tj} vvktI 
TauTTj ayyeXos tov Oeov, ou el/xc, 
w Kal Xarpevco, ^"^Xeycov, Mr] 
(f)ofiov JlavXe, Kaiarapi ere Sei 
TTapaaTrjvaf kou l8ov Ke^apiaTal 
aoL 6 Oeos iravras tovs irXeovras 
ixera arov. ^^ Alo evdv/xelre av- 
Spes' TTLcrTcvco yap rc3 OeS on 
ovTCos ecrrac Ka& ov Tpoirov Ae- 
XaXr^ral pot. ^^ els urjaou 5e 
Tiva Set rj/ias iKTrecreiv. ^"^'jQs 
5e TecrcrapearKaiSeKarr) vv^ kyi- 
veTO, diacfiepop-epcou Tq/xSu iu t(3 


loss of any man's life among 
you, except the ship. 

For there stood by me this 23 
night the angel of God, whose 
I am, and whom I also i>wor- 
ship, saying. Fear not, Paul; 24 
lyou must be brought before 
Cesar: and lo, God has given 
to you all those who sail with 
you. Wherefore, sirs, be of 25 
good cheer : for ■■I believe God, 
that it shall be even as it was 
told me. But still, we must 26 
be cast upon "some island. 

But when the fourteenth 27 
nia;ht was come, as we were 

p Aar^evco, I worskijj, I serve. In its ttoenly-one occur- 
rences iu the Clu'istian Scriptures, it is, in com. ver., rendered 
fov.r times loorship, and seventeen times serve. "It is deriv- 
ed," saj's Erasmus, " of the particle }.a, which is added (pre- 
fixed) for more vehemency, and tlie word r^etv, which signifies, 
to Iremhlc, because it is the use of servants to he much afraid, 
and Iremhlc at the presence of tlieir masters." Suidas saj'S, 
it is idem quod mercede servire, and sustains it out of profane 
writers, tlie same as to serve for xoages. It is specially taken 
for sacrifice, which is a special part of Divine worship, accord- 
ing to both law and gospel, Kom. 12 : 7. " Ovata and lar^sta 
are joined together." Orit. Sacra. 

AaxQEia. In its Ave occurrences in N. T., four of which 
are found in Paul's Epistle to the Hebrews and Romans, it is 
represented by tlie word service, and God, in every case, is 
expressed, or implied. 

ITooay.vveco is the word consecrated to worship in its highest 
and most sublime sense, when and where Jehovali J3lohi7n is 
the object, or where persons of great dignity, as his ambassa- 
dors, arc addressed. Its Roman representative is adoro. In 
the Septuagint it is, indeed, used promiscuously in reference 
to the homage paid to God and man. "Signiflcat, proprie, 
capitis inclinati gestum, cum moto a fronte galero, caput sub- 
mittimus. Erasmus. Adorare est manum ori admovere. It 
signifieth an outward reverence of bowing down the body to 
the ground, as well civil as religious homage. It properly 
signifleth, in falling down to worship, by which word Corne- 
lius is represented as to his manner of worshiping Peter, 
Acts 10 : 25." Crit. Sacra. 

" The Hebrew word Shachah doth properly signify, to hoiv 
down, and, therefore, is used of such bowing down, as is not 
for adoration as Ps. 42 : 5, 6, and in divers otiier places. This 
Greek word also siguifies to use some gesture of body in 

woi'shiping, and sometimes to fall doion." Dr. Pulk against 
Gregory Martin. 

" It comes from xvcov, canis, a metaphor from the manner 
of spaniels, when they couch and croucli on tlie ground before 
their masters. Zanchius on the second commandment: or, 
according to others, from kuoj, osculor — lo kiss — because an 
ancient custom of adoring amongst the Persians was by kiss- 
ing the hand, the mouth, or the knees, which was the most 
profound homage, or adoration. Vide Beza, Matt. 2 : 11 ; 
Rivet on Ps. 22 : 29 ; and Grotius on the second command- 
ment." Crit. Sacra. 

1 KaiaaQi as Ssi naQaozrjvat. zlei, it is necessary, it he- 

Key^aQiarat — aov, God has given you all that sail with you. 
They should be all saved for the sake of Paul, because Paul 
had prayed for them. Such is the view of Calvin, Bengel, 
Olshausen, De "Wette, Ilackctt, and others. Bengel here 
remarks : " Facilius midli mali cum paucis piis scrvantur, 
qtiam unus plus cum muliis reis peril. Navi huic similis 
mundus." " JIany wicked persons can be more easily 
saved with a few pious persons, than one pious person perish 
with many wicked persons." Or, more sententious, "Many 
wicked can be more easily saved with a few pious, than one 
pious perish with many wicked. Tlie world is like to this 

Uiarevco, I believe. This indicates his consciousness of 
an authority, of which he felt himself possessed, over the 
minds of his fellow-passengers. 

■ Eig vrjaov — xiva, upon some island. Such indeflniteness 
is in good keeping with all the scenes before them. It is also 
in harmony with the tenor of all Divine responses, or commu- 
nications to man, as to the future events of his life. Definite 
in end, indefinite in the means of escape. 




driven up and down in Adria, 
about midnight the shipmen 
deemed that they drew near to 
some country ; 

28 And sounded, and found it 
twenty fathoms: and when they 
had gone a little further, they 
sounded again, and found u fif- 
teen fathoms. 

29 Then fearing lest they 
should have fallen upon rocks, 
they cast four anchors out of the 
stern, and wished for the day. 

30 And as the shipmen were 
about to flee out of the ship, 
when they had let down the 
boat into the sea, under colour 
as though they would have' cast 
anchors out of the foreship, 

31 Paul said to the centurion, 
and to the soldiers. Except these 
abide in the ship, ye cannot be 

32 Then the soldiers cut off 


'ASpia, Kara fxea-ou rrj^ vvktos 
VTrevoovv oi vavrac Trpoaayeiv 
Tiva avTols -y^apav ^^ kcu fioXi- 
aavT€s edpov opyvias ukoctl" 
fipayv de diaaTrjcravTe^, Koi 
irdXiv ^oXiaavTes, evpov opyvias 
SeKawevre' ^^ (f)oj5ovfX£voi re 
fiTjircos eiS" Tpa)(eis Toirovs e/cjre'- 
acocTLV, CK Trpv/xvrjS' pt^f/avres 
ayKvpas Tearcrapas, rjir^ovTo rjjxe- 
pav yevea-dai. ^^ Tciv Se vavrSyu 
^rjTOvvTcov ^vyelv Ik tov itXolov, 
KCU ■^(a.XaaavTcov rrjv a-Ka(f)rju els 
7-772/ OdXaarcrav, irpo^acreL coy e'/c 
irptopas jj-eXXouTcov dyKvpas' e/c- 
T6LU€Lv, ^^ ehrev 6 JJavXos tw 
iKaTOVTap-)(r] /cai tols orTpaTLCo- 
rais, 'Edv p-rj ovtol p.eiucoaiv ev 
T(S irXoLCp, vfieis acoOrjuai ov 
SvvacrOe. ^ Tore oi arpaTLcoTaL 


borne along in the 'Adriatic 
sea, about mid night the seamen 
thought that they drew near 
tosomeland; and sounded, and 28 
found it "twenty fathoms; and 
when they had gone a little 
further, they sounded again, 
and found it fifteen fathoms. 
Then fearing lest we should 29 
have fallen upon 'rocks, they 
cast four anchors out of the 
stern, and longed for day. 

And as the "seamen were 30 
about to flee out of the ship, 
when they had let down the 
boat into the sea, under pre- 
tense of carrying anchors out 
of the foreship, Paul said to 31 
the centurion, and to the ''sol- 
diers, Unless these abide in 
the ship, you can not be saved. 
Then the soldiers cut oft" the 32 

' TsaaaQsay.atSsxaTT] wS, the fourteenth night — suicc they 
put to sea — SitttpEQOftsvcov rjficov sv rq> AS^tit, we being borne 
through (the waves) in the Adriatic. " It has been said that 
the modern Malta lies too far south to be embraced in the sea 
so designated. The statement is erroneous. The Adriatic in 
our ancient maps was the name of the sea lying between Italy 
and Greece ; but in its wider sense comprehended the Ionian 
Sea around Sicily, near which stood Melite." Hack. 

■ BQa'/,v Ss Siaattjoavrse, a short interval of time, and a 
short distance of space. The first sounding was twenty 
fathoms, the second, fifteen. This rate of decrease, in the 
depth of the water, on the coasts of Malta, is yet pretty much 
the same, according to the statements of modern sea-captains. 
The firmness of the bottom as anchor-ground is yet cele- 
brated. In St. Paul's Bay, the traditionary locality of this 
shipwreck, every circumstance stated here, as to the entire 
locality, is in good keeping with every allusion here, as shown 
in all the modern references to it. 

' JEts rqaxBts ronovs, upon rough = rocky places. 

Strong and fearful apprehensions are inseparable from such 
a position. [Wo can confirm this fact from our own expe- 
rience, having been shipwrecked on the coasts of Scotland in 
just such a bay, and on such a rocky bottom, that our 
anchors could not hold against the surges of the sea and the 
tossings of the tempest.] " By cutting away the anchors, 
(t«s ayy.v^as ^cQtelovrai), loosing the bands of the rudders, 
( nvEiTSi Trttf l^avxTiiQtas), and hoisting the artemon (sTta^avres, 

I rov tt^refiova), all of which could be done simultaneouslj', the 
ship was immediately under command, and could be directed 
with precision to any part of the shore which ofTercd a pros- 
pect of safety." Hvx,ovro fj/ce^av yersaO'ai, they desired that 
day might come. 

" Tcop Se vavrcov, K. T. ).. This movement, so heartless, con- 
firms the idea that the seamen believed that the ship was so 
seriously damaged as to render uncertain its fortunes for the 
night. Xalaaavtcop triv anaipriv, having lowered down the 
boat — so recently hoisted on- board — ayxvQae eKteivetv, to- 
carry, not cast out, anchors. But for Paul's attention and 
discrimination, they would most likely have accomplished 
their purpose, and jeopardized the lives of man3^ 

^ Emsv ar^axicorats. Paul, apprehending that the officers 
of the ship were implicated in the plot, addressed himself to 
the centurion and the soldiers. They had charge of the 
prisoners, as the centurion had particular care of the apostle. 
Except these (the seamen), said ho, abide in the ship, you 
cannot be saved. Soldiers could not manage the ship, and 
without the aid of mariners the ship could not be brought to 
land. This would indicate that the purpose or plan of aban- 
doning the ship was very general, seamen and sailors alike 
implicated in it. Hence the position taken by Paul, that it 
was essential to their preservation that the seamen be pro- 
hibited from leaving the vessel. Thus means and ends are 




the ropes of the boat, and let 
her fall off. 

33 And while the day was 
coming on, Paul besought them 
all to take meat, saying, This 
day is the fourteenth day that 
ye have tarried, and continued 
fasting, having taken nothing. 

34 Wherefore I pray you to 
take so7ne meat; for this is for 
your health: for there shall not 
an hair fall from the head of 
any of you. 

35 And when he had thus 
spoken, he took bread, and gave 
thanks to God in presence of 
them all; and when he had 
broken it, he began to eat. 

36 Then were they all of good 
cheer, and they also took some 

37 And we were in all in the 
ship two hundred threescore and 
sixteen souls. 

38 And when they had eaten 
enough, they lightened the ship, 
and cast out the wheat into the 


aTreKoyJAav to, a")(OLv'La. ttjs crKa<j>r}s, 

v 3/ J \ J " 33 " 

Kttt eiacrav avrrfv eKirecreLu. a-XP'- 
8e ov e'fieXXev -^[xepa yiveaOai, 
TrapeKuXei 6 HavXos atravTas 
/xeraXafieiv Tpo^rjS, Xeycov, Tea- 
a-apea-KaiSeKdrrjv irriiJLepovrjjxipav 
irpoaSoKcovTes, acriTOL SiaTeXelTe, 
p,T]8ev •n-poa-Xa^o/xevoi. ^^ 8lo 
irapoLKaXai v/xS.9 irpocrXa^HV rpo- 
(f)rjs' TovTO yap wpos rrjs u/xere- 
pas crcoTTjpias VTrapx^r ov8evo9 
yap vp.S>v Opi^ e/c ttjs K€(j}aXrjs 
Trea-etTai. ^^ JEiirav 8e ravra, Kal 
Xafiwu apTOV, evxaplcrrrjcre rm 
Oeo) eucoTTiov iravrcov, Kal KXacras 
■rjp^aTO ea-Bieiu. ^^ evOvfxoL 8e 
yeuofxevoi irdvTes, Kal avrol irpo- 
aeXd^ovTO Tpo^rjS' ^^ rjix^v 8e ev 
Tco irXolco al irdcraL ■\jrvxal, 8ca- 
KocTLai i^8op.r]KOVTae^. ^^ Kope- 
adevTes 8e Tpo^rjs, eKov^i^ov to 
TrXolov, eK^aXXop,€UOL tov arrov 
els Ttju OdXaaaav. ^^ Ore 8e 


='ropes of the boat, and let it 
fall off. And while the day 33 
was coming on, Paul besought 
them all to take food, saying, 
'This is the fourteenth day 
that you have been waiting, 
and continue fasting, having 
taken nothing. Wherefore 31 
I pray you to take some food, 
for this is 'necessary for your 
preservation : ""for there shall 
not a hair perish from the head 
of any. of you. And when he 35 
had thus spoken, having taken 
•■a loaf, he gave thanks to Grod 
in presence of them all ; and 
when he had broken it, he be- 
gan to eat. Then were they 36 
all of 'good cheer, and they 
also themselves took some 
food. Now all the souls Ho- 37 
gether in the ship were two 
hundred and seventy-six. And 38 
when they had eaten enough, 
they lightened the ship, and 
cast out the wheat into the 

y Ta axotvia rijs ay.aipTje, the ropes of the boat, most proba- 
bly those that fastened it to the vessel, not those by which 
they were lowering it. Notwithstanding the assurance which 
Paul cherished of the salvation of all on board, he is as special 
and particular in the direction and use of means as if he had 
no such assurance; indeed, as if the event desired were 
wholly contingent on the proper use of the proper means. 

= XrjftEQov rjfiegav, appositional. 

" TovTO yaQ TtQoe rris vftsre^as ocorijpiag iiTia^xei, for this 
is essential to your salvation. This is, in fact, not too strong: 
means are necessary to every proposed end. Without ade- 
quate means, no end can bo attained, or obtained. 'TTta^x"', 
sum ; ra vTtsxovTa, quee quia habet, bona, facuUates ; often, 
"t^e bonis et figurative de omniius quts in hac vita diligi so- 
lent." Grotius. Sum and eifti are in their respective tongues 
absolute. Appropriate food is essential to every form of 
life, vegetable, animal, spiritual. 

•» 0^t^ en TTJS Keipahie Tteasirat. Literally, for of not one of 
you a hair from the head shall perish ; or, according to the 
textus receptus : for of not one of you a hair fiom the head 
shall fall. JUeaeirai is repudiated as a false reading by Gb., 
Sch., Ln., Tf., and for it anolurai is adopted. 

^ Aapwv a^rov. Literally, having taken a bread, properly 
with us, a loaf. Bread is generic, a loaf is specific j " our 
daily bread" is not our daily loaf nor our daily meat. Paul 
argues from one loaf, one body of Christ ; not, as we think, from 
one bread, or one particle of a loaf. "A^rov, bread. This 
word by Hebraistic usage often signifies food in the New 
Test. But ylaaag, which follows, appears to exclude that 
sense here." And this, with equal propriety, applies to the 
monumental loaf of blessings which commemorates one Lord, 
one faith, one immersion, one God and Father of all, one body, 
one Spirit, one hope. These are the seven pillars of the Chris 
tian temple. 

' Evd'vfioi, cheerful — they all became cheerful. The con 
sequence was, TtQoasXapovro tgotprje. Despair annihilates, pro 
tempore, appetite ; but the return of hope creates, or invigor- 
ates it. 

^ Al' TCaoai tjiv%ai, all the souls together. Has, in this ad- 
verbial sense, is seldom found but in connection with numer- 
als, equal to to Ttav, together. jdiaKoaiai hpSo/nrjxovrae^, two 
hundred and seventy-six. This, according to calculations 
made, was quite a large ship, measuring from eleven to twelve 
hundred tons. 




39 And when it was day, they 
knew not the land: but they 
discovered a certain creek with 
a shore, into the which they 
were minded, if it were possi- 
ble, to thrust in the ship. 

40 And when they had taken 
up the anchors, they committed 
themselves unto the sea, and loosed 
the rudder-bands, and hoisted 
up the mainsail to the wind, and 
made toward shore. 

41 And falling into a place 
where two seas met, they ran 
the ship aground; and the fore- 
part stuck fast, and remained 
unmoveable, but the hinder part 
was broken with the violence 
of the waves. 

42 And the soldiers' counsel 
was to kill the prisoners, lest 
any of them should swim out, 
and escape. 

43 But the centurion, willing 
to save Paul, kept them from 
their purpose, and commanded 
that they which could swim, 
should cast themselves first i?ito 
the sea, and yet to land: 

44 And the rest, some on 
boai'ds, and some on broken pieces 
of the ship. And so it came to 
pass, that they escaped all safe 
to land. 


rjfiepa eyevero, rijv yrjv ovk aTve- 
yivaxTKOv koXttov fie riva /care- 
voovv e^ovra alyiaXov, el? ov 
ifipvXevaavTo, el SvvaLVTO, e'^cS- 
crac TO irXoLov. koI tcls ayKV- 

pas TrepieXovres elcou els ttjv 
daXacrcrav, afxa avevres ras 
^evKTrjpias Ta>v TrrjSaXicov /cat 
eirapavres tou dprefioua rfj irve- 
ovcTT] Karel^ou els tov alyiaXov. 
irepLirecrovTes Be els tottov 8i- 
OaXacrcrov, eircoKeiXav rrju vavv 
/cat r] fxev vpcopa epeiaacra efxetveu 
daaXevTOS, ?) 8e eXuero 
VTTo TT]s ficas Tcov KV/Jt-drcov. tSi> 
8e aTparicoTcov jBovXrj eyevero 
"iva Tovs Secr/xcoTas dTTOKTeiucocri, 
fxrjTis eKKoXvfifiijcras Sia^vyoi. 
*^ o 8e €KaT6uTap)(os fiovXa/xevos 
SLaacocraL tou IlavXou^ eKcoXvcreu 
avTovs TOV fiovXrjixaTos, e'/ceAeutre 
re TOVS 8vuap.euovs KoXvp.^au, 
d-TToppu^avTas TrpcoTOVs eVt ttju 
yrju e^Leuai, Kol tovs Xonroiis, 
ovs eVt (raulcriu, oijs 8e eVt 
TLUcou Tcou diro TOV ttXolov. kcu 
ovtcos iyeuero wduras SiacrcoOrjuai 
eVt TTjv yrju. 


And when it was day, they 39 
'recognized not the land, but 
they perceived a certain inlet 
having a shore, into which 
they determined, were ib pos- 
sible, to thrust the ship. And 40 
having fentirely cut away the 
anchors, they abandoned them 
to the sea, and at the same 
time having unfastened the 
rudder-bands, and hoisted up 
the foresail to the wind, they 
made toward shore. And 41 
having fallen into a place 
where two currents met, 
they ran the ship aground ; 
and the prow sticking fast, 
remained immovable, but the 
stern was broken by tlie 
violence of the waves. And 42 
the soldiers' counsel was to 
kill the prisoners, lest any 
of them should swim out, 
and escape. But the captain, 43 
willing to save Paul, kept 
them from their purpose, and 
commanded that they who 
could swim should cast them- 
selves first into the sea, and 
get to land; and the rest, 44 
some on ^boards, and others on 
some of the things from the 
ship. And so they rj] escaped 
safe to land. 

' Ttjv Yr]v — s7teyivcoa)tov, they did not recognize the land 
in view. Being shipwrecked on its coasts, probably at a con- 
siderable distance from the principal harbor. 

Kolnov — aiyialov, "they perceived a certain inlet — creek — 
having a shore, on which they could run tlio ship with a hope 
of saving tlieir lives. Luke uses here the correct hydro- 
graphical term." Hack. 

His 6v — TtXoiop, into which they determined to thrust forth 
the shipi Eloid-soD, found only in this book in N. Test., ch. 
7 : 45 ; 27 : 39. Drove out is its representative ch. 7 : 45; 
here, to thrust forth. 

The whole family, in N. T. use, is composed of e^oj, foras, 
foris ; B^cod-ev, extra, extrinsic, quod foris est ; to sSai&ev, 
exterior pars, of frequent occurrence ; and eSwO'eeo, expello, 
ch. 7 : 45 ; and here, to thrust forth in any direction. E^co- 

aai, expellere, first apr. inf. act., to thrust forth, to drive ashore 
the ship. " To force the ship," Thomp. ; " to drive the ship," 
Murd. ; " to have thrust the ship," Dodd. 

' Kai. T«s ayiwQas — 0-alaaaav, " and having entirely cut 
away the anchors, they abandoned them to the sea." Our 
English translators followed the Vulgate in their inaccurate 
version of this clause, ^fta — TtrjSahcov, at the same time hav- 
ing unfastened the lands of the rudders. Most of the ancient 
vessels were furnished with two rudders. Hack. 

^ " Pieces from the ship." Hack. These of course were 
boards ; and as boards are already specified, it seems to mo 
that some things more movable must have been intended, of 
which there were then, as now, a variety on which a drowning 
man, or one apprehensive of being drowned, would gladly 




And when they were escaped, 
then they knew that the island 
was called Melita. 

2 And the barbarous people 
shewed ns no little kindness: 
for they kindled a fire, and re- 
ceived us every one, because of 
the present rain, and because of 
the cold. 

3 And when Paul had gather- 
ed a bundle of sticks, and laid 
them on the fire, there came a 
viper out of the heat, and fast- 
ened on his hand. 

4 And when the barbarians 
saw the venoinous beast hang on 
his hand, they said among them- 
selves, No doubt this man is a 
murderer, whom, though he hath 
escaped the sea, yet vengeance 
suffereth not to liv.e. 

5 And he shook off the beast 
into the fire, and felt no harm. 

6 Howbeit, they looked when 



KAI diacradevre^, Tore iire- 
yvaxjav on M^Xitt} t) vrjcros 
KaXurai. ^ 01 8e fidpfiapoi 
irapeL-)(QV ov Tr]i> rvy^ovcrav ^iXav- 
OpcoTTMu dua^avres yap 
TTVpau, TTpo&eXafiopTO iravras 

■t]p.ds, 8ta TOP V6T0U TOV i^eCTTO)- 

ra^ Kcu Sid ro ■\\rv-)(os. ^ Svarpi- 
yjravTOS Se tov HavXov (ppvyd- 
vcov ttXtjOos, Kca iindivTOS eVi 
T-qv TTvpav, e)(L8va e/c rijs 6epp.rjs 
i^eXdovaa KaOri'^e ttJ? ^(eLpos 
avTov. (US' 8e elSou oi fidp^a- 
poL Kpefiafievou to drjplov e/c r^y 
X^i'Pos avTov, eXeyop irpos dXXrj- 
Xov9, Havrcos <^ovevs kcrriv 6 
dvOpairos ovtos, ov SiacrcodevT-a 
e/c Trjs OaXaaarjS rj Slkt) ^rjv ovk 
etacrev. ^ '0 p.ev oSv aTroTivd- 
^as TO Orjpiov ety to irvp, iTraOev 
ovBeu KaKov. ol 8e TrpoaeSo- 


And Avhen we had fully es- 
caped, then we "ascertained 
that the island was called Mel- 
ite. And the barbarous peo- 
ple showed us no '■common 
philanthropy : for they kindled 
a fire, and brought us all to 
it, because of the present rain, 
and because of the cold. 

And when Paul had gather- 
ed a great number of 'dry 
sticks, and laid them on the 
fire, there came a viper out of 
the heat, and fastened on his 
hand. And when the barba- 
rians saw the venomous crea- 
ture ■'hanging on his hand, 
they said among themselves, 
No doubt this man is a mur- 
derer, whom, though he has 
escaped the sea, yet justice 
permits not to live. And he 
shook off the creature into the 
fire, and suffered no harm ; but 

« For tTteyvwaav, Ln., Tf. substitute eneyroifiEv, and with 
Jiuch internal evidence : riftiv, in the second verse, and the 
other two sections of this chapter, each commencing with a 
first person plural, are all sufiBcient to justify such a reading. 
EniyvcofiBV, v. 1 ; avrjxS'ilfiev, V. 11 J and ijf.&oftsv, V. 16. 

Aiaoco&cvres is more than acad-svres. In Matt. 14 : 36, it is 
very happily rendered, made j)erfectly wJwle, and here it is, 
safely escaped, or fully escaped. "And when we had fully 
escaped." .dia auget signiflcationem, sicut apud Latinos, per. 
This preposition increases the signification of words. Leigh, 
Grit. Sacra. 

^ Ov Ttjv rvxovaav cpdav^Qconiav, no common philanthropy . 
Tvxovaav, from Tvy/,avca. Luke and Paul are the only inspired 
writers that use this word. They were educated men, and 
are the two most copious writers of the New Testament, hav- 
ing written more than the half of it. In their acceptation and 
use of this word, they have made it tantamount to the follow- 
ing words, com. ver., " in he," " io ohtainj" " common," " seeing 
that," to "meet with," "no little," "may he," "may chance." 
Obtain is most frequently its representative. "No common 
Jcindness," "many kindnesses," Syriac Version. Even amongst 
miracles, some were e.vtraordinary. Oi Se /3tx^j3a^oi TCa^stxov. 
DaQ^aQoe, used only by Luke and Paul in the Christian 
Scriptures. It it well represeted by foreigner, whether civil- 

ized or uncivilized. We, nowadays, enhance its import, and 
make it tantamount to savage. 

' EvoT^sipavrog, from avar^epco, converto, convolvo in fas 
ceni — noio Paul having gathered, or "when Paul had gather- 
ed." " Now Paul having collected " 7t).ri&og, a great number 
of dry sticks. E^i-Sva, a viper. The Greeks applied this term 
to that reptile in distinction from other serpents, as is evident 
from Aristotle, lib. I. c. 6, aXX ol /isv aXXoi. wotov.ovoiv otpcis, 
7/ S" ey^iSpa ftovov ^(, vipers are the only viviparous 
serpents in Europe. Hack. At present unknown in Jlalta. 
JEy. rtjs d-eQ/iiie, from the heat. " It seems to have Iieen cast 
into the fire. EntO-avroe sTtt rrjv nvQav. This latter supposi- 
tion is required by the second sense of ex trig O'eq^rie, and is 
entirely consistent with the first." Hack. Ana irig O-aQftrje 
is preferred by Grotius, PricsBus, Bengelius, and Griesbacli. 
Still aTto rather appears as a gloss, en more generally is pre- 
ferred, because more frequently indicative than ajto of a cause. 
Ex rrje Ttf.Tjyijg, propter plagam, Apoc. 16 : 21. Ex ajutxqov 
loyov, ob tevem causum. Soph., CEd. Col. 612, quoted by Kuin., 
in loco. 

'' JJavrmg. Surely, by all means, no doubt, in no wise, are 
its common currency, ^ovevs is always represented, com. 
ver., by murderer, from tpovsvio, to kill, whence cpovog, murder 
slaughter, ch. 9 : 1. 




he should have swollen, or fallen 
down dead suddenly: but after 
they had looked a great while, 
and saw no harm come to him, 
they changed their minds, and 
said that he was a god. 

7 In the same quarters were 
possessions of the chief man of 
the island, whose name was Pub- 
lius ; who received us, and lodged 
us three days courteously. 

8 And it came to pass, that 
the father of Publius lay sick, of 
a fever, and of a bloody-flux: 
to whom Paul entered in, and 
prayed, and laid his hands on 
him, and healed him. 

9 So when this was done, 
otliers also which had diseases 
in the island, came, and were 
healed : 

10 Who also honoured us 
with many honours; and when 
we departed, they laded ws with 
3uch things as were necessary. 


KOiV avTov fxeXXetu TrifiTrpao-Oai 
T] KaTaTTLTTTeLV a(j)vco veKpov eifl 
TToXv 8e avTcov 7rpoar8oKcovTCi)u, 
Koi OeccpovvTCov p,r)8ev aroirov eh 
avTov yivofxeuov, /xeralBaXXo/xe' 
uoi eXeyop 6eov avTou eivai. 
^ 'Mv 8e Tols Trepl tov totvov 
eKelvou viTrip-)(e ^co/Jt'a rco irpcoTW 
Trjs vrjcrov, ovofxaTL HoTrXia, by 
dua86^d/x€V09 rjixas rpels rjixepas 
(jilXocppSvcos i^evLcreu. ^ iyevero 
5e TOV Trarepa tov HottXiov ttv- 
peTols Kol 8vaevT€pia crvve-)(oixe- 
vov KaTaKHcrOai' irpos ov 6 
IlavXos elcreXOcov, Kol irpocrev^d- 
fievos, imdeh Ta9 x^^P^^ avra, 
IdcraTO outov. tovtov odu 

yeuofievoV) /cat ol Xoittol ol e)(op- 
Tes dcrdeveias iv Ty vrjcrw, irpo- 
o-i]p-)(ovTO KUL eoepairevovTO' oi 


-qpLOLs, KCLi dvayofxivoLs eireOevTO 
TO. 7r/)o$> Tr]v ■)(peiav. 


they expected that he would 
bo 'inflamed, or that he would 
suddenly fall down dead. But 
after they had looked a great 
while, and saw no harm come 
to him, they changed their 
minds, and said that he was 
a god. In the same parts 7 
were possessions of the 'chief 
of the island, whose name 
was Publius; who received 
us, and lodged us three days 
courteously. And the father 8 
of Publius lay sick of a fever, 
and of a bloody ^flux: to 
whom Paul went, and pray- 
ed, and laid his hands upon 
him, and healed him. So 
when this was done, others 9 
also who had diseases in the 
island, came, and were healed ; 
who also honored us with lo 
many '■honors; and when we 
departed, they laded us with 
such things as were necessary. 

• JJpoaeSoKcov — TtpoaSoxaco. Look for, wait for, expect, 
tarry for, com. ver., are its representatives ; of these, expect is 
most in keeping with our popular idiom. That ho would, ac- 
cording to Webster, is preferable to should. It frequently 
denotes simply an event under a condition, or supposition, — 
that he would be inflamed. "That he would suddenly fall 
down dead," Hack. ; " that he would have swollen, or fallen 
down dead," Boothr., Penn, Wes. ; " that he would swell, or 
fall down dead," Thompson ; " would suddenly swell, and 
fall down on the ground," Murdock. " lUi tamen expecta- 
bant, ut vel intumesceret, vel mortuus subito concederet." 

' Tri> nQcoTio rijs vrjoov, the chief, or chief of the island. 
" In illo autem tractii prmdia erant Public, insula) primario," 
Kuin. " And there were lands in that quarter, belonging to a 
man named Publius, who was the chief man of the island," 
Murd. "Now in the neighborhood of that place lay the 
estate of the chief man of the island, whose name was Pub- 
lius," Thomp., Penn ; " of a chief man of the island," "Wes. 
This is not true to the original. It is ttp n^corq), the chief. 
Ho was the Roman governor, as Paloy, Lardner, Tholuck, and 

others have alleged. In harmony with our usage, we prefer, 
the chief of the island. 

' JIv^BTotg Stat dvacvreqtct, with fevers and a dysentery. 
" A fever and a dysentery," Thomp., Penn ; " a fever and a 
bloody flux," Wes., Murd., Wakef., Dodd. We lack authority 
and sometimes reason, for making that which is plural, singu- 
lar, as in the case before us. The plural has been supposed to 
describe the fever with reference to its recurrent attacks, or 
paroxysms. This is one of those expressions in Luke's style 
that have been supposed to indicate his professional training 
as a physician. " To whom Paul entered in " is not so apposite 
or truthful as, to whom Paul went. 

'' HoXXais Tt/cais ertfiijaav rifias. We concur with Prof. 
Hackett, and others, that rtfiats ought not to be rendered 
rewards, as though the apostle received any remuneration for 
the exercise of his gift of healing the afflicted Publius, or for 
ivny cure performed by his spiritual gifts. The acquaintances 
formed by them during their abode in Melita, were exceeding- 
ly courteous : for whatever favors were received by them on 
their departure, were not received as a reward for their ser- 
vices — " for that would have been at variance with the com- 
mand of Christ (Matt. 10 : 8)." Hack. 




11 And after three months 
we departed in a ship of Alex- 
andria, which had wintered in 
the isle, whose sign was Castor 
and Pollux. 

12 And landing at Syracuse, 
we tarried tJwre three days. 

13 And from thence we fetch- 
ed a compass, and came to Ehe- 
gium : and after one day the 
south wind blew, and we came 
tlie next day to Puteoli: 

14 Where we found brethren, 
and were desired to tarry with 


^^ Mera Se rpe'is ixrjvas avrj- 
■)(di]fxei> eV irXoiw TrapaKexet/J-a- 
KOTL ii> rfj VTjcrco, 'AXegav8pLV(p, 
Trapaarjpicp Aioo-Kovpots' ^^ /cat 
KaTa)(divTes els SvpaKovcras, rjfxepas rpeis' ^^ o6ev 
irepLeXOovTes Karrfprrjcrafjeu els 
'Prfyiov, Kou fxera fiiav rfp-epav 
hnyevofiivov votov BevrepoLoi 
ijXOofxev els UotloXovs' ^'^ ov 
evpovTesa.8eX(j)ovs, irapeKXr]6rfp.ev 
eir avTots einpielvat, rjpiepas eTrra. 


And after three .months' we 11 
departed in a ship of Alexan- 
dria, which had wintered in 
the isle, whose sign was Cas- 
tor and jPollux. And landing 12 
at Syracuse, we tarried there 
three days. And thence we 13 
coasted'' round, and came to 
Ehegium : and after one day, 
the south wind having risen, 
we came the next day to Pu- 
teoli: where we found breth- 3^ 
ren, and were desired to tarry 
'with them seven days, and 

' "At the end of three months," equivalent to, after three 
months, /lern — r^ste ftijms. These three months are the time 
that tliey remained on the island, which were, probably, the 
months of November, December, and January; the season 
admitted of their putting to sea earlier than usual. Ev nlouo 
naQay.s/,EtfiaxoTi, " in a ship that had wintered there." Luke 
does not say why this vessel had wintered there. It is a cir- 
cumstance which shows the consistency of the narrative. 
The storm which liad occasioned the wreck of Paul's vessel, 
had delayed tliis one so long that it was necessary, on reach- 
ing Molita, to suspend the voyage until spring. 

i JIa^aar]ftri> .Jioaxovqoie, with the sign, or distinguished hy 
the sign of Castor and Pollux: This sign was usually carved 
or painted on the prow. Those were regarded as the tutelar 
genii, or divinities, the guardians, or gods of seamen. " The 
figure that was used for Castor and Pollux," as Dr. Lightfoot 
says, " was that of two young men on horseback, with each 
of them holding a javelin in his hand." According to others, 
the sign of Castor and Pollux was that of a double cross. 
With others, two fictitious deities, the sons of Jupiter by 
Leda ; with others, a sign in the zodiac called the twins. 

k Jlegtel&ovTBs, having come round or about. The sense of 
the preposition it is impossible to determine with accuracy. 
One supposition is, that it refers to their frequent alteration 
of the ship's course ; in other words, to their tacking, because 
the wind was unfavorable. Another is, that they were com- 
pelled by that cause to follow closely the sinuosities of the 
coast, to proceed circuitously. De Wette says, which is much 
less probable, that they may have gone around Sicilj"-, or the 
southern extremity of Italy. Eis 'Pajytov, unto Khegium, now 
Regio, which was an Italian sea-port opposite to the north- 
eastern point of Sicily. Here they remained a day, when the 
wind, which had been adverse since their leaving Syracuse, be- 
came fair, and they resumed the voyage. EntyEvofiEvov vo- 
tov, a south-wind having arisen upon them. Compare the 
compound participle in v. 2, and in vv. 27, 20. The dative of 

the person is often expressed, after e««, with this force. See 
Herodotus 8 : 13, Sevrc^atot, on the second day. Com. ver. 
has, John 11 : 39, for he hath been dead four days — rera^raws. 
"This adverbial use of the ordinals is classical." Kuin., § 264. 
3. 6. Ets JIoTiolovg, "Puteoli. nowPuzzeoli, was eight miles 
northwest from Neapolis, the modern Naples. It derived its 
name from putei, being famous for the baths which abounded 
there." Hack. 

1 En avrois. Em is often rendered into Latin by ad. In 
Rom. 2 : 2 it is rendered against. "Against those," Yat., 
Great English Bible. By Tremellius, and Beza, " adversus eos." 
It is so in Wiclif, Tyndale, Cranmer, Geneva, Rheims ; indeed, 
in all the versions quoted in this Revision, with the exception 
of Wakefield and Murdock; in the former by ujjon, and in the 
latter by, in regard to. In the Apocal. 7 : 15 it is translated, 
in one clause of a verse, by upon, and among — " he that sittcth 
{eni) upon the throne shall dwell (eTti) among them." It is 
argued in justification of the latter that in the Vulgate it is 
rendered super illos ; but it is again argued that the sense is, 
cum illis — with them, and this is sustained, because the Hebrew 
)>S is used for b5», cum — ivith. 

In the com. ver. em is represented by the following words — 
at, among, about, against, above, because, beside, by, before, 
in, into, for the space of, to, upon, on, of, over, unto, toward, 
with, through, touching, under. As a connective, like one of 
the natives of our forests and climate, it seems to assume the 
color of every tree on which it is found ; still it has a specific 
nature of its own, but it has an indefinite power of assimila- 
tion, and merely connects harmoniously its associates with 
one another, according to their specific nature, or gravity. 
Here it is apposite to render it, with them, or among them. 

They stayed with the brethren one week. The weekly 
feast of the primitive church was a great attraction. Wo 
learn it from ch. 20 : 7. It was not on a first day of a week, 
but, as. Doddridge renders it, on the first day of the week, 
when the disciples as usual met together t(i break a loaf. 
This was their spiritual banquet. 




them seven days: and so we 
went toward Kome. 

15 And from thence, "when 
the brethren heard of ns, they 
came to meet us as far as Appii- 
forum, and The Three Taverns; 
whom when Paul saw, he thank- 
ed Grod, and took courage. 

16 And when we came to 
Eome, the centurion delivered 
the prisoners to the captain of 
the guard : but Paul was suffered 
to dwell by himself, with a sol- 
dier that kept him. 

17 And it came to pass, that 
after three days, Paul called the 
chief of the Jews together. And 
when they were come together, 
he said unto them, Men and 
brethren, though I have com- 
mitted nothing against the peo- 
ple, or customs of our fathers, 
yet was I delivered prisoner from 
Jerusalem into the hands of the 

IS Who when they had ex- 
amined me, would have let me 
go, because there was no cause I 
of death in me. 

19 But when the Jews spake ( 


KaX ovTcos ety rrjv 'Pcofirjv tJXOo- 
/X€u. KOLKeWev OL a5eA0ot 

OLKOvcravTis to, Trepl ■r]ixmv, e^rj- 
Xdov ds airavTrja-iv rj[xiu aypis 
'Attttiov ^opov K(u TpiStv Ta- 
^epvau' ovs Idcou 6 UavXos; 
€vyapL(TTr](ras t^ ^^(p} ^Aafie 

^^ "OTE 5e riXBop^v ety 'P©- 
p.t]v, o kKarovrapYps irapiBcoKe 
Tovs dea-fXiov9 rm a-TpaToireddpxrj' 
T^ 8e HavXo) eTreTpaTTT] piveiv 
Kaff eavToi/, aw T(S (pvXacra-oPTi 
avToua-TpaTtooTrj. ^'^ '^EyeWro 5e 
pera r]p.epas rpeis (TvyKaXecra- 
adat TOP UavXov rovs ovras r&v 
lovhamv TrpcoTOVS' crvveXdovTcov 
5e avTwv, eXeye irpos avTOvs, 
A.v8pe9 d8eX(f)o'i, iyco oiidev 
euavTiov TrotTjcray rco Aaco i] tols 
ede<TL Tols TrarpcpoLs, Becrpios i^ 
'IspocroXvpcov TrapeSodrju els ray 
■)(€Lpas Tbiv '^Pcopaicav ^^ otrtves 
dvaKpLvavTis pe efiovXovro diro- 
Xvcrai, did to p.r}8epiav alriav 
Oavdrov v7rdp\Hv iv ipoi. ^^ dv- 
riXeyovTav 5e tG>v 'lovBaicov, 


' then we went towards Rome. 
And from thence, when the 15 
brethren heard of us, they 
came to meet us as far as 
Appii Forum, and the Three 
Taverns; whom when Paul 
saw, he thanked God, and 
took courage. And when we ig 
came to Rome, the "centurion 
delivered the prisoners to the 
commander of the camp, but 
it was permitted to Paul to 
dwell by himself, with a sol- 
dier who guarded him. And n 
after three days, "he called 
the chief of the Jews together, 
and when they were come 
together, he said to them, 
Brethi-en, though I have com- 
mitted nothing against our 
people, or the customs of our 
fathers, yet I was delivered 
prisoner from Jerusalem into 
the hands of the Romans ; 
who when they had examined 18 
me, would have ""released me, 
because there was no cause 
of death in me. But when 19 
the Jews spoke against it, I 

" 'O iy.aTopra^xog — arqatoneSa^xn, the centurion deliyered 
the prisoners to the commander of the camp, i. e., the prajtorian 
camp, where the emperor's guard was quartered. See Philip. 
1 ; 13. The centurion Julius, when he had brought the prison- 
ers to Rome, delivered them up bound to the praetorian pre- 

In the times of the Roman emperors this custom obtained, 
that the accused sent from the provinces to Rome, to Cissar, 
were delivered up in custody to the prastorian prefect; and 
that they might be safely kept, and have more liberty, they 
were bound by a longer chain than that worn upon their 
journey. Of these there were on hand at that time an un- 
usually large number. By the letters of Festus, and the interces- 
sions of Julius, it came to pass tliat Paul's liberties were much 
enlarged, and, though a prisoner, he enjoyed a comparative 
freedom. He was permitted to have a lodging for himself, 
with the single soldier that guarded him. "Paulo aulem pcr- 

missum est seorsim. mancre cum milite qui eum custodirel." 
Kuin., vol. 3. pp. 381, 382. For the received reading in our 
text (e/s 'Piofirjv, 6 Exarovra^yfis Tta^eScoxs tods Seofiwvs Ttj) 
OT^aroTCeSapxij' rco Sa IIavX<^ enerpaTtT}), Ln. probably, and 
possibly Gb., would substitute, els 'Pio/iriv, uTterpanrj rqi 

" For Tov UavXov substitute nvrov, Ob., Sch., Ln., Tf. 

Tovs Ttpoirovs lovSaicav, the chief or principal men of the 
Jews, of course, of the unbelieving Jews. When assembled, 
he said to them. Brethren, not, "men and brethren." Com- 
mitted, here, is equal to, I have perpetrated, I have committed 
no trespass. 

"" EpovXovro uTtolvaat. BovXofiat is represented, com. ver.j 
by mind, will, intend, dispose ; anoXvaai, to release, set free ; 
released me, or, set me at liberty- They would have released 




against it, I was constrained to 
appeal unto Cesar; not that I 
had aught to accuse my nation 

20 For this cause therefore 
have I called for you, to see you, 
and to speak with you: because 
that for the hope of Israel I am 
bound with this chain. 

21 And they said unto him, 
We neither received letters out 
of Judea concerning thee, nei- 
ther any of the brethren that 
came shewed or spake any harm 
of thee. 

22 But we desire to hear of 
thee, what thou thinkest: for as 
concerning this sect, we know 
that every where it is spoken 

23 And when they had ap- 
pointed him a day, there came 
many to him into Ids lodging: 


rjifayKaadTjv iinKaXiaraa-daL Kai- 
crapa, ovy^ coy rov eOvovs fJ.ov 
e)(cou TL Karrjyop-^crcu, ^^ Sea 
TavTrjv odu ttju alrlav TrapeKa- 
Xecra vjxas iSeiu kou Trpoa-XaXr]- 
crar eueKev yap rrjs iXirlBos rov 
'larparjX ttjv aXvcnv ravrrju ire- 
piKei/xaL. ^^ 01 8e irpo^ avrov 
eiirou, 'JIfxely ovre ypd/x/xara 
irepl crou i8e^d/xe0a diro rrjs 
lov^alas, ovre irapayevojxevos 
TLS Tav aSeA^tSi/ aTrrjyyeiXsv t] 
eXaXijae rt irepX aov Trovrjpov. 

a^tovfjieu oe Trapa aov aicovaai 
a ^pofcif' Trepl [xev yap rrjs a'l- 
pecreoos ravrrjs yvcocTTOv iarcu 
7]p2v OTi iravaTa^ov avTiXiyerai. 

1 a^ap.evot oe avrco 7]p.epau, 
rjKOU irpos avrou ely ryv ^eviav 


was "compelled to appeal to 
Cesar; not that I had any 
thing to charge against my 
nation. On this account, there- 20 
fore, I have invited you, that I 
might see you, and speak with 
you: pfor on account of the 
hope of Israel I am compassed 
with this chain. 

And they said to him, We 21 
neither received letters from 
Judea concerning you, nor lias 
any one of the brethren who 
came, reported or said any 
harm of you ; but we think it 22 
proper to hear from you, what 
you think : for as it irespects 
this sect, we know that it is 
every where spoken against. 

And when they had appoint- 23 
ed him a day, there came many 
to him into his ■'lodging; to 

° Hvnyy.aoO'ei' sTCiy.a),Banodai, I was necessitated,' obliged, 
compelled to a]ipeal. This version of e7tty.ahofcai is given to 
tliis word in every case (six times) in reference to Paul. To 
surname, and to call upon, are more frequently its representa- 
tives, com. ver. 

Avayxa^oi — cogo — always, eotn. ver., constrain, compel. The 
latter generally denotes extrinsic violence ; the former exter- 
nal and internal motives, or reasons of action. 

f ^ta ravrijv ovv rijv airiav, on this account ; 7taQay.a7.saa, 
I have besought you, invited you, desired you, exhorted you. 
Of these, invited seems most apposite from our stand-point. 
Had it been simply called, sy.ahaa would have sufficed. In 
com. ver. it is represented by comforted, besought, desired, 
prayed, exhorted, inlrealed. 

'Ei'sxep — laffftrjX, on account of the hope of Israel ; xijv aXv- 
aiv ravrrjv ne^ixEtfiat, I am compassed by this chain. Although 
an arm only was bound, his liberty was encompassed, was 
taken away. 

There is something exceedingly kind and courteous in this 
address to his alienated Jewish brethren. In his exordium 
he disabuses their minds as to his position towards them. 
They had placed liim in the hands of the Romans. He was 
compelled to iippeal to Caesar, not to prefer charges against 
them, but in self-defense ; not to inculpate them, but to ex- 
culpate himself. He touchingly alludes to the hope of Israel, 
and assures the court and the audience that for this hope's 
sake he was a prisoner in chains. 

' JleQi — Tf/s aiosaccog. Alricaii is found nine times in N. 

Test. ; com. ver., sect, five times, and heresy four times, rep- 
resent it. There appears no justifiable reason for this dis- 
tinction. " Originally al^eats was a word of middle significa- 
tion, and generally signified any opinion, good or bad. The 
Christians constituted a sect amongst the Jews. It is said to 
have been derived from secando, while the Greeks say it is 
derived from eligendo." Leigh, Grit. Sacra. Every schism is 
a heresy, whether good or bad, so far as the term al^cats is 

■■ Eis ttjv Scvtttv. The term implies that it was a place in 
which he w'as entertained as a guest. (Hesych.) Compare 
Philemon, v. 22. " Those critics are right who distinguish it 
from the ' hired house,' mentioned v. 30." ' Hack., Pennjf 
Bootbr., Wes. The apostle was, at first, as it would be na- 
tural, received into some one of the Christian families ; but, 
after a tune, for the sake, probably of greater convenience, or 
independence, he removed to apartments which would be more 
entirely subject to his own control. He had now n^etovett 
more persons than before to hear him. Ols sSeri&Bro, from 
exTtd'rj/u, to expound — once rendered, / cast out, to set forth, 
found only in this book; once, to cant out; thrice, to ex- 

^iniiaQzvqofiBvoi, used only by Paul and Luke, indi- 
cates testifying or loitnessing — exhibiting the facts and 
documents, and expounding and applying them. Luke em- 
ploys it ten times, and Paul five times. It is eminently indi- 
cative of the apostolic method of exhibiting the claims of 
Jesus. His documents were the writings of Moses and the 




to whom he expounded and tes- 
tified the kingdom of God, per- 
suading them concerning Jesus, 
both out of the law of Moses, 
and ovt of the prophets, from 
morning till evening. 

24 And some believed the 
things which were spoken, and 
some believed not. 

24 And when they agreed not 
among themselves, they depart- 
ed, after that Paul had spoken 
one word. Well spake the Holy 
Ghost by Esaias the prophet 
unto our fathers, 

26 Saying, Go unto this peo- 
ple, and say, Hearing ye shall 
hear, and shall not understand; 
and seeing ye shall see, and not 

27 For the heart of this peo- 
ple is waxed gross, and their 
ears are dull of hearing, and 
their eyes have they closed; 
lest they should see with tlicir 
eyes, and hear with llidr ears, 
and understand with tlidr heart, 
and should be converted, and I 
should heal them. 


irXdoves' oty i^eTLdero Biajxap- 
TVpofi^vos TTjv ^acnX^iav rov 
Oeov, ireiOccv re avrovs ra irepl 
Tov 'It]<tov, cciro re tqv vojxov 
Mcocrecos kcu ttJv 7rpo(()rjTau, airo 
TTpaL ecas ecriripas. ^* kcu ol /xeu 
eVei^oi/TO Tots' Xeyofxei/OLs, ol Se 
-^TTLorTOvu. ^^ d.avfji,(j)a)i'ot 8e ov- 
res TTpos aXXrjXovs aireXvovTO, 
dirovTos TOV TIavXov prifxa 'Iv, 
Otl KaXas to Huev/xa to Ayiov 
iXaXrjae Slu 'HcraCov tov irpo- 
(j)r]TOV irpos Tovs iraTepas •^jJ.cou, 
^® Xiyov, JTopevdrjTL irpos tov 
Xaov TOVTOv Koi elire, 'Akotj 
OLKOvar^Te, kcu ov /mt] crvvrJTe' /cat 
fiXsTTOVTes /3Aei|Aere, /cat ov /xr/ 
tSrjTe. iirayyvdrj yap rj Kap- 

Sia TOV Xaov tovtov, kclI toIs 
cucrt fiapicos rjKOVcrav, kcu tovs 
6(j)6aXp.ovs avTav iKafipAJcrav 
fjLrjTTOTe 'iBcoai TOis o^daX/xois, 
/cat TOLs axriv aKOvo-cocrt, Kal ttj 
KapSia avuioa-L, kou iTricrTpeyl/coari, 
Kal Ida-co/xat, avTOVs. rvcoaTov 


whom he expounded and tes- 
tified the kingdom of God, 
persuading them of the things 
concerning Jesus, both out of 
the law of Moses, and out 
of the prophets, from morn- 
ing to evening. And some 21 
believed the things that were 
spoken, and 'others believed 
them not. So not agreeing 25 
among 'themselves, they de- 
parted, Paul having said one 
word. Well spoke the Holy 
Spirit by Isaiah the prophet 
to our fathers, saying, Go to 26 
this people, and say. Hear- 
ing you "will hear, and will 
not understand; and seeing 
you will see, and not per- 
ceive; for the heart of this 27 
people is become gross, and 
their ears are dull of hear- 
ing, and they have closed 
their eyes, lest they should 
see with their eyes, and hear 
with their ears, and under- 
stand with their heart, and 
should be converted, and I 
should heal them. Be it 28 

prophets. His labors were only from morning to evening. 
Thus he taught in his own lodging, in the capitol of the world, 
testifying both to the Jews and to the Greeks repentance God- 
ward, and faith Ohristward. Some, indeed, believed, but 
many believed not the things that were spoken. 

■ 01 ftev, and ol Ss, indicate two parties, but which con- 
stituted the majority we are not informed. The proportion is 
a matter of inference. 

» Aavfiyicovoi, Ss ovreg n^os aXXrjlovs, being discordant with 
one another ; more in our modern style, not agreeing among 
themselves. Of course, there must have been some contro- 
versy. Paul listened to them, doubtless, with an attentive 
ear. He comprehended the drift and point of all they said. 
Ho, therefore, speaks his last words ady'iseiXy. 

The audience, we presume, were for the most part Jews. 
This we gather from his last words, rather his ^ijfia ev, one 
word, a sentence, indeed, in one word. It was spoken by 
the Holy Spirit through Isaiah the prophet, to our fathers, 
Tt(og TOVS TcazcQas r]fiu)v. 

Axoji axovaere, >tai ov fir) avvtjXB- xat fiXsTtovreg ^},e\jiere, 
ov fit] iSrjTs, a combination of a verb and noun as necessary 

to express the infinitive absolute with a finite verb in Hebrew. 
Gesenius, Heb. Gram., § 128. 3. " The frequency of this con- 
struction in the N. Test, is undoubtedly Hebraistic." Hack. 
'^Hearing you will hear and xuill not understand ; and see- 
ing you will see, and will not comprehend." 

Matt. 13 : 14, 15, gives the reason of this axorj axovasre, ov fir; avvrjre. xat ^XcTtovres ^XexfiETS, ov ftrj iSi/re. 

" Ay.or] axovaare pro simplici «xof acre ex hebraismo ut /?^e- 
Ttovzsg pleipere pro pleipere." V. Vorstius, de Hebraism, 
p. Gil. "Audietis ncc tamen intelligetis, videbebitis, nee 
tamen perspicietis. Our nihil interiecturi sint hujus nee ra- 
tionera hie versus continct — eitapivO'ri yag, v.. t. 1., stupida 
enim facta est mens hujus populi. IIa%eiv ut "i^li!!! notat pin- 
gue, obesum reddere, et proprie ad corpus pertinet, sed deinde 
transfertur ad mentem ut a^ ipilJMi i- e. ubi paulo post legitur 
'pSi avvievat intelligere atque usurpatur ut h. 1. de iis, quo 
vim eorum qua vident et audiunt quamvis clare sunf atque 
perspicua, tamen non intelligunt et percipiunt, saltem non 
recte perspiciunt." Kuinoel, Matt. 13 : 15-17. 

» Ov jit] avvrjTB " may express the future result with more 
certainty than the future indicative." Hack. 




28 Be it known therefore unto 
you, that the salvation of God is 
sent unto the Gentiles, and tliat 
they will hear it. 

29 And when he had said 
these words, the Jews departed, 
and had great reasoning among 

20 And Paul dwelt two whole 
years in his own hired house, 
and received all that came in 
unto him, 

31 Preaching the kingdom of 
God, and teaching those things 
which concern the Lord Jesus 
Christ, with all confidence, no 
man forbidding him. 


ovv earco v/uv, otl Toiy edveatv 
OLTTicrTaXr] to arcoTr]piov rod Oeov, 
avToi Kol aKOvaovTai. Kai 

ravra avrov gIttovtos, airrjXOov 
OL 'lovSaioi, ttoXXtjv e'xovres iv 
iavT0L9 arv^rjTrjcnv. 

2° "EMEINE de 6 UavXos 
Sierlav oXrjv iv IBico fiLordciofiaTi, 
KOL airebe^^TO iravras tovs et- 
cnropevoixepovs irpos avTov, ^^ kt]- 
pvcrcrcov ttjv fiacriXeiav tov Oeov, 
Kou Bl^o.o'kcov ra irepl rov Kv- 
piov 'Irjcrov XpuTTOv, fxera ira- 
arjs Trapprjo-ias aKcoXvrco^. 


known, therefore, to you, 
that the salvation of God is 
sent to the Gentiles, and they 
'will hear it. And when he 29 
had said these things, the Jews 
departed, and had much reason- 
ing among themselves. 

And Paul ''remained in his 30 
own hired house during two 
whole years, and gladly re- 
ceived all who came to him, 
^announcing the kingdom of 31 
God, and teaching the things 
concerning the Lord Jesus 
Christ, with all boldness, and 
without molestation. 

» Kai ay.ovaovrai, and they also will hear it. 

■" E/ieive, remained. This, as well observed by sundi'y 
critics, indicates that Paul's condition and circumstances, here 
detailed, had passed away before this book was written ; a 
fact of some importance to the curious inquirers on the sub- 
ject of the chronology of this book. These two whole j'ears 
living in his own hired house gave a good opportunity to the 
disciples of Christ to contribute to his necessities. "We know 
that he was not forgotten by the Phillppians. 

Again it is a monumental proof of Paul's hospitality. He 
was living in a rented house, but he kept an open house for 
all the friends of his Slaster. We thank Luke for the follow- 
ing memento : aneSeXBTo navrae rove sioTCo^evofisvovs TtQos 
avrov. He received all that came to his house, or that came 
to him ; for so intimated anode/^o/iat, all that came to him he 

* We have a perspicuous and most definite statement of the 

two distinct departments of the Evangelical ministry in the 
last period of this history — the Kti^vaamv ttjv ^aailtiav tov 
Oeov, the proclamation, the annunciation, or the preaching 
of the kingdom of God ; and the SiSaay.cav ta ■jteqi tov Kvqiov 
Irjaov Xqtorov, the teaching of the Lord J^sus Christ ; and 
this with the manner of it, fiera Ttaaije Tta^^tjotas axolvruis — 
nemine prohihente. This he might not have ecjoved in Jeru- 
salem, no person hindering or inhibiting him. We are in- 
formed that he did this with all boldness ; or, with all con' 
Jidencc he announced the reign of the Lord Jesus Christ. 

We should say that the 29th verse is held doubtful by Ln., 
Tf., but is by Gb. regarded as of almost equal authority with 
the other portions of the book. The name of Paul, in v. 30, 
is omitted by Gb., Sch., Ln., Tf., but for this he is all suffl 
cient. And he remained, is quite equal to, Paul remained; 
he being the subject of the section, and the last person named 
in the narrative. 






I. — Tub former uarrative, Tlieophilus, I coin- 
posed, of all that Jesus began both to do and 

2 to teach, even to the day, on which he was 
taken up, after that he, through the Holy Spirit 
had given commandment to the Apostles whom 

3 he had chosen ; to whom also he showed him- 
self alive, after his sufl'ering, in many con- 
vincing proofs, during forty days appearing 
to them, and speaking of the things pertaining 

4 to tlie Kingdom of God ; and having convened 
them together, he commanded them not to de- 
part from Jerusalem ; but to await the gift 
promised them by the Father, which, says he, 

5 you have heard from me : for John indeed im- 
mersed in water, but you shall be immersed in 
the Holy Spirit, not many days hence. 

6 They now having come together, asked him, 
saying. Lord, dost thou at this time restore the 

T kingdom to Israel ? And he said ta them. It is 
not for you to know times or occasions, which 
the Father has reserved for his own disposal. 

8 But you shall receive power, after that the 
Holy Spirit is come upon you : and you shall 
be witnesses for me, both in Jerusalem, and in 
all Judea, and in Samaria, and to the uttermost 
parts of the earth. 

9 And when he had spoken these things, while 
they beheld, he was taken up, and a cloud re- 

10 ceived him out of their sight. And while they 
were gazing into the heaven as he went up, be- 

hold, two men stood by them in white apparel ; 
wlio also said, Galileans, ivhy stand you gazing 11 
into the heaven? This same Jesus, wlio is 
taken from you into the heaven, shall so come, 
in like manner, as you have scon liim going into 
the heaven. Then they returned into Jerusa- 12 
lem, from a mount called Olivet, from Jerusa- 
lem a sabbath-day's journey. And when they 13 
had entered, they went up into the upper room, 
where abode both Peter, and James, and John, 
and Andrew, Philip and Tliomas, Bartholomew 
and Matthew, James, son of Alpheus, and Simon 
Zelotes, and Judas, the brother of James. These 14 
were all persevering with one consent, in prayer 
and supplication, with women, with Mary the 
mother of Jesus, and with his brothers. 

And. in those days Peter stood up in the 15 
midst of the disciples, and said (the number of 
the names together being about one hundred 
and twentj'), Brethi-en, this scripture must needs 16 
have been fulfilled, wliich the Holy Spirit, by the 
mouth' of David, before spoke, concerning Judas, 
who was guide to them that seized Jesus. For 17 
he was numbered with us, and had obtained 
part of this ministry. (Now a field was pur- 18 
chased with the reward of his iniquity, and he, 
falling lieadlong, burst asunder in the midst, 
and all his bowels gushed out. And it was 19 
known to all the dAvcUers in Jerusalem ; inso- 
much as that field is called in their proper 



loiig-iic ^VceUlaiiia, lluit is to say, the field of 

20 hlood.) For it is -written in tlio book of 
Psalms ; Lot liis habitation bo desolate, and lot 
no man dwell in it, and Ins episcopate let an- 

21 otlicr take. Wherefore, of these men that liavc 
acconi])anied ns all tlio time that the Loi-d Jesns 

22 went in and ont among ns, beginning Irom tlio 
immersion of John, (o the day that he was 
taken nj) irom us, nuEst one be appointed to be 

23 witness witli ns of his resnrreetion. And the}' 
appointed two, Joseph, called Earsabas, who 

24 was surnamed Justus, and IMatthias. And they 
praying said : Tliou Lord, who knowest the 
hearts of all men, show which of these two 

25 then hast chosen, io take a part in this ministry, 
and an apostleship, from whicli Judas by trans- 
gression i'oll, tbat he might go to his own place. 

26 And tliey gave fortli their lofs ; and the lot fell 
upon Mattliias, and lie was nnmbcrcd togctlicr 
witli the eleven A]iostles. 

II. — When the day of Pentecost was fully 
come, they were all with one accord in one 

2 place. And suddenly there came a sound out 
of heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and 
it fdled all the house where tlioy were sitting. 

3 And tlierc appeared to tlicni tongues distrib- 
uted, as of fire, and it sat upon every one of 

4 them. And they wore all filled with the Holy 
Spirit, and they began to speak in otiicr tongues, 
as tlie spirit gave tiicm utterance. 

5 And there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews, 
devout men, of every nation under heaven. 

6 Now when this Avas noised abroad, the multi- 
tude came together, and were confounded, be- 
cause every one heard them speak in his own 

1 tongue. And all were amazed, and marvelled, 
saying one to another. Behold, are not all these 

8 ■who speak, Galileans? And how hear we, 
every man in our own tongue, in which wc 

9 were born ? Parthians, and Medes, and Elam- 
ites, and those inhabiting Mesopotamia, — both 

10 Judca and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, Phry- 
gia and Pampliilia, and the parts of Lybia 
about Cyrcne, and Roman strangers, — both 

11 Jews and ]n-osclytcs, Cretes and Arabians, — 
we hear them speaking in our own tongues 

1 2 the majestic -works of God. And they -were all I 

amazed and perplexed, saying one to another, , 
What means this? Others (mocking) said. They 13 
are full of sweet wine. But Peter, standing up 14 
with the eleven, raised his voice, and said to 
them, Jews, and all yon that reside in Jerusa- 
lem, be this known to you, and hearken to my 
words : for tlicsc men arc not drunk, as you 15 
suppose, seeing it is but the third liour of the 
daj'. But (his is tliat which was spoken 16 
tiirough the pro])het Joel, And it shall come 17 
to pass, in the last days, tliat I will pour out 
of my Spirit upon all flesli, and they sliall 
prophesy. Your young men shall see visions, 
and your old men shall dream in dreams : and 18 
on my man servants, and my maid servants, in 
those days, I will pour out of my Spirit, and 
tliey sliall ]irophcsy. And I Avill show won- 19 
dors in tlie heavens above, and signs on the 
oartli bcncatl) — blood and fire, and smoky va- 
por. The sun shall be turned into darkness, 20 
and the moon into blood, before that great and 
illustrious day of the Lord come. And it shall 21 
come to pass, that every one who shall call 
npon the name of the Lord, shall be saved. 
Israelites, hear these words : Jesus, the Naza- 22 
rene, a man approved of God among yon, by 
miracles, and wonders, and signs, which God 
did by him, in the midst of you (as you, your- 
selves also know) — him having seized, Avho, by 2? 
the declared counsel and foreknowledge of God 
was yielded np, you have, by wicked hands, 
crucified and slain, whom God has raised up, 24 
having loosed the bands of death, because it 
was impossible that he should be liold imder it. 
For David speaks for him : I have always re- 25 
garded the Lord, as before my face ; for he is 
on my right hand, that I should not be moved. 
Tlierefore did my heart rejoice, and my tongue 26 
was glad : moreover my flesh sliall rest in 
hope, that thou wilt not leave my soul among 27 
the dead, neither wilt thou suffer thy Holy One 
to see corruption. Thou hast made known to 28 
mo the ways of life : thou wilt make me full 
of joy with thy presence. Brethren, let me 29 
freely speak to you of the Patriarch David, 
that he is both dead and buried, and his 
sepulchre is with us to this day. But being 80 
a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn to 



liim, tliat of the fruit of his loius he -would raise 
31 up tlio Christ, to sit on liis throne ; lie, foresee- 
ing this, spoke of the resurrection of the Christ, 
that liis soul sliould not bo left among tlio dead, 
!12 nor his flesh see corruption. This Jesus has 
God raised up, of whicli we are all witnesses. 

33 Therefore, being exalted by the right hand of 
God, and having received of the Father the 
promise of the Holy Spirit, he was shedding 

34 forth this which you now see and hoar. For 
David is not ascended into the heavens ; but 
he himself says, Tlie Lord said to my Lord : 

35 Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thy foes 
3G thy footstool. Let all the house of Israel, 

therefore, assui-edly know, that God has con- 
stituted that same Jesus, whom you have cru- 

37 cified, Lord and Clirist. Now when tlicy heard 
this, tliey were pierced to the lieart, and said 
to Peter, and to the other Apostles, Bretlircn, 

38 what shall we do? Then Peter said to them, 
Eeform and be immersed, every one of you, 
in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission 
of sins, and you shall receive the gift of the 

39 Holy Spirit. For the promise is to you, and 
to your children, and to all those that arc 
afar oil", even as many as the Lord our God 

40 shall call. And with many other words he 
testified, and exhorted, saying. Save yourselves 
from this froward generation. 

41 They, therefore, having gladly received tlie 
word, were immersed ; and the same day, there 

i2 were added about throe thousand souls. And they 
perseveringly continued in the Apostle's teach- 
ing, and in the contribution, and in the break- 

43 ing of the loaf, and in the prayers. And fear 
came npon every soul ; and many wonders and 

44 signs were done by the Apostles. And all 
that believed were together, and had all things 

45 common, and sold their possessions and goods, 
and distributed them to all, as any one had 

46 need; A.ud they, continuing daily with one 
accord in tlie temple, and breaking bread from 
house to house, did eat their food with glad- 

47 ness and singleness of lieart, praising God, 
and having favor with all the people. And 
the Lord daily added the saved to the con- 

IIL — Now Peter and John went up together 
into the temple, at tlie hour of prayer — the 
ninth hour. And a certain man, lame from his 2 
birth, Avas carried thither, whom they daily 
laid at the gate of the temple, Avhich is called 
Beautiful, to ask alms of those entering into 
the temple, who, seeing Peter and John about 3 
to go into the temple, asked alms. And Peter, 4 
earnestly looking upon him with John, said. 
Look on na. And he gave heed to tlicm, ex- 5 
pecting to receive something from tliem. Tlien 6 
Peter said, Silver and gold I have not, but 
Avhat I have, I give you. In the name of Jesus 
Christ of Nazareth rise up and walk. And 7 
seining him by the right hand, he lifted him 
up ; and immediately his feet aud ankles re- 
ceived strength. And leaping forth, he stood, 8 
and walked, and entered with them into the 
temple, walking, and leaping, and praising God. 
And all the people saw him walking and prais- 9 
ing God : and they well knew that it was he, 10 
who sat for alms, at the Beautiful gate of the 
temple : and they were filled Avith Avonder and 
amazement at that Avhich had happened to 

And while tlie lame man, Avho Avas healed, 11 
held fast Peter and John, all the people ran 
togctlicr to ihcm, upon tlie porcli, called Solo- 
mon's, greatly Avondering. And Avhcn Peter 12 
saAV it, he addressed the people; — Israelites, 
Avhy marvel at tlils? or Avhy look so earnestly 
on us, as though, by our OAvn strength, or piety, 
Ave had caused this man to Avalk? The God 13 
of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the 
God of our fathers, glorified his servant Jesus, 
Avhom you delivered up, .and disoAvned, in pres- 
ence of Pilate, Avhen he Avas determined to 
acquit him. But you disowned the Holy and 14 
the Just one, and desired a murderer to be 
granted to you : and killed the Author of the 15 
Life, Avhom God raised from the dead : Avhose 
Avitnesses Ave are. And upon the faith in his 16 
name, he has made this man strong, whom you 
behold and knoAV. Yes, his name, and the 
faith, Avhich is through lain, has given him this 
perfect soundness, in presence of you all. 

And noAV, brethren, I knoAV that you acted in 17 
ignorance, as also did your rulers. But God 18 



has thus accomplished those tilings -which he 
had formerly announced by the mouth of all 
Iiis prophets, that the Christ should suffer. 

19 Reform, then, and turn, that your sins may be 
blotted out, and that seasons of refreshing may 

20 come from the presence of the Lord : and that 
he may send Jesus Christ, the one before pre- 

21 pared for you, whom the heavens must, indeed, 
retain until the times of the completion of all 
things, which God has spoken through the 
mouth of all his holy prophets, since the world 

22 began. For Moses, indeed, said to the Fa- 
thers, That a prophet shall the Lord, your 
God, raise up for you, from among your breth- 
ren, as he raised me up ; him shall you hear 
in all things, whatever he shall say to you. 

23 And every soul who will not hear that prophet, 
shall be destroyed from among the people. 

24 And, indeed, all the prophets, from Samuel and 
those following in order, as many as have 

25 spoken, have also foretold these days. You 
are the sons of the prophets, and of the cove- 
nant which God made with our fathers, say- 
ing, to Abraham, " And in thy seed shall all the 

26 kindreds of the earth be blessed." God hav- 
ing raised up his servant Jesus, sent him first 
to you, to bless you in turning away, every one 
of you, from his iniquities. 

IV. — And while they were speaking to the 
people, the priests, and the captain of the tem- 
ple guard, and the Sadducees came upon them, 

2 being indignant that they taught the people, 
and preached, that through Jesus is the resur- 

3 rection from the dead. And they laid hands on 
them, and put them in prison, until the next day : 

4 for it was already evening. Bi;t many of those 
Avho heard the word believed ; and the number 
of the men became about five thousand. 

5 And it came to pass, on the morrow, that their 

6 rulers, and elders, and scribes, and Annas, the 
High Priest, and Caiaphas, and John, and Alex- 
ander, and as many as Avere of the pontifical fami- 

7 ly, were gathered together in Jerusalem. And 
placing them in the midst, they asked. In what 
strength, or in what name, have you done this? 

8 Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said to 
them, Eulers of the people, and Elders of Israel, 

if we be examined this day concerning a good 9 
deed done to an infirm man, in what name he is 
made whole, be it known to you all, and to all 10 
the people of Israel, that in the name of Jesus 
Christ, the Nazarene — whom you crucified — 
whom God raised from the dead, by him does 
this man stand before you sound. This is the 11 
stone which was set at naught by you, the build- 
ers, which is made the head of the corner. And 12 
the salvation is not in another person ; for there 
is not another name under the heaven, given 
among men, by which it behooves us to be 

Now, considering the freedom of speech, of 13 
Peter and John, and having perceived that they 
were illiterate, and persons in private life, they 
marveled ; and they knew them avcU, that they 
used to be with Jesus. And beholding the man 14 
who was healed, standing with them, they had 
nothing to say against it. But having com- 15 
manded them to withdraw from the council, 
they conferred with one another, saying. What 16 
shall we do to these men ? for, that, indeed, a 
notorious miracle has been wrought by them, is 
manifest to all those who dwell at Jerusalem, 
and we can not deny it. But, that it may be 17 
spread no further among the people, let us 
strictly tlireaten them, that they speak, hence- 
forth, to no man upon this name. And they 18 
called them, and commanded them not to speak 
at all, nor to teach, upon the name of Jesus. 

But Peter and John answered, and said to 19 
them, "Whether it be right in the sight of God, 
to hearken to you, rather than to God, judge. 
For we can not but speak the things which we 20 
have seen and heard. So, when they had fur- 21 
ther threatened them, they discharged them, 
finding no means of punishing them, because of 
the people ; for all were glorifying God, for that 
which had been done. For the man on whom 22 
this miracle of the healing Avas wrought, Avas 
more than forty years old. 

And now, having been discharged, they went 23 
to their oavu friends, and announced all that the 
priests and elders had said" to them. And they, 24 
hearing, raised a voice to God, with one accord, 
and said. Sovereign Lord, thou art the God who 
hast made the heavens, and the earth, and the 



25 sea, and all that is in them ; who by thy servant 
David's mouth hast said, Why did nations rage, 

26 and people imagine a vain thing? The kings 
of the earth presented themselves, and the 
Princes were gathered together against the 

27 Lord, and against his Anointed. Eor, of a truth, 
in this city, against thy holy son, Jesus, whom 
thou hast anointed, both Herod and Pontius 
Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of 

28 Israel, wei-e assembled, to do Avhatever thy hand, 
and thy counsel had before determined to be 

29 done. And now. Lord, behold, their threaten- 
ings, and grant to thy servants, that, with all 

30 boldness, they may speak thy word, by stretch- 
ing out thy hand to heal ; and that signs and 
wonders may be done, by the name of thy holy 
son, Jesus. 

31 And, they having prayed, the place in which 
they were assembled together was shaken, and 
they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and 

32 spoke the word of God with boldness. And the 
multitude of those that believed were of one 
heart and of one soul, neither did any of 
them say, that any of the things which he pos- 
sessed, was his own ; but they had all things 

33 common. And with great power the Apostles 
gave testimony concerning the resurrection of 
the Lord Jesus : and great grace was upon them 

34 all. Eor neither was there any among them who 
lacked ; for as many as were possessors of lands, 
or of houses, sold them, and brought the prices 

35 of the things sold, and laid them down at the 
Apostles' feet. And it was distributed to every 
one, according as any one had need. 

36 Now Joses, who, by the Apostles, was sur- 
named Barnabas (which is, being translated. 
Son of Consolation), a Levite, a Cyprian by birth, 
having land, sold it, and brought the money, 
and laid it at the Apostles' feet. 

V. — But a certain man named Ananias, with 

2 Sapphira, his wife sold a possession and pur- 
loined from the price (his wife also being privy 

- to it), and brought a certain part, and laid it 

3 at the Apostles' feet. But Peter said, Ananias, 
why has Satan possessed your heart, to lie to 
the Holy Spirit, and to purloin from the price 

4 of the land? While it remained, was it not 

your own? and after it was sold, was it not 
in your own power ? Why have you conceived 
this thing in your heart ? you have not lied to 
men only, but to God. And Ananias hearing 5 
these words, falling, expired ; and great fear 
came on all that heard these things. And the 6 
youug men arose, wrapped him up, and carry- 
ing him out, buried him. Now an interval of 7 
about three hours occurred, and his wife, not 
knowing what was done, came in. And Peter 8 
said to her. Tell me whether you sold the 
land for so much? And she said verily, for 
so much. Then Peter said to her. Why is it, 9 
that you have agreed together, to tempt the 
Spirit of the Lord? Behold the feet of these 
who have buried your husband are at the door, 
and shall carry you out. Then slie instantly 10 
fell down at liis feet and expired : and the 
young men came in and found her dead, and 
carrying her out, buried her by her husband. 
And great fear came upon all the congregation, 11 
and upon all those hearing these things. 

And through the hands of the Apostles were 12 
many signs and wonders done among the people, 
(and they were all with one accord in Solomon's 
porch. And of the rest durst no man join 13 
himself to tliem, but the people magnified them. 
And believers were still more added to the 14 
Lord, multitudes of men and also of women), 
insomuch that they brought forth their sick into 15 
streets, and laid them on beds and couches, that 
at the least, the shadow of Peter, passing by, 
might overshadow some of them. And the 16 
multitude of the surrounding cities also came 
together into Jerusalem, bringing the sick and 
those harassed with unclean spirits, and they 
were every one healed. 

But the High Priest arising, and all who 17 
were with him (being the party of the Saddu- 
cees), were filled with zeal, and threw their 18 
hands upon the Apostles, and put them in public 
custody. But an angel of the Lord, under 19 
cover of the night, opened the prison doors, 
and bringing them forth, said, Go stand and 20 
speak in the temple to the people, all the words 
of this life. 

And when they heard that, they entered into 21 
the temple early in the morning, and were 



teaching. But the High Priest came, and those 
that were with him, and called the council to- 
gether, and all the senate of the children of 
Israel, and sent into the prison to have them 

22 But when the officers came and found them 
not in the prison, they returned and reported, 

23 saying : The prison indeed we found shut with 
all security, and the guards, standing before the 
entrances ; but on opening, we found not one 

24 within. Now when the High Priest, and the 
Captain of the temple, and the Chief Priests, 
heard these words, they were in perplexity 

25 about them, what this might come to be. But 
one came and reported, saying. Behold, those 
whom you placed in the prison are standing in 

26 the temple and teaching the people. Then, the 
Captain went, with the officers, and brought 
them without force (for they feared the people), 
that they might not be stoned. 

27 And having led them away, they placed them 
in the council : and the High Priest asked 

28 them ; — Did we not strictly command you not 
to teach upon this name ? and, behold, you have 
filled up Jerusalem with your doctrine, and are 
intending to bring the blood of this man upon 

29 But Peter and the Apostles answering, said, 

30 We ought to obey God rather than men. The 
God of our fathers has raised up Jesus, whom 

31 you slew, having hanged him on a tree. This 
person has God exalted to his right hand, a 
Prince and a Saviour, to grant repentance to 

32 Israel, and forgiveness of sins. And we are 
his witnesses of these things ; and so is also 
the Holy Spirit, whom God has given to those 

33 who obey him. Now those hearing, were ex- 
asperated, and they were making up their mind 

34 to slay them. But a certain one, arising in the 
Sanhedrim, a Pharisee, Gamaliel by name, a 
teacher of law, honored by all the people, com- 
manded to put the Apostles out, for a little 

35 while, and said to them, Israelites, take heed to 
yourselves, what you execute upon these men. 

36 For before these days Theudas arose, declar- 
ing himself to be somebody, to whom a number 
of men, about four hundred, attached them- 
selves ; who was slain ; and all, as many as 

obeyed him, were scattered and brought to 

After tliis man, Judas the Galilean rose up. 37 
in the days of tlie enrollment, and drew away 
sufficient people after him : and he utterly de 
stroyed himself ; and all, as mahy as were obe 
dient to him, were dispersed. And now I saj 38 
to you. Withdraw from these men and let them 
alone ; for if this purpose, or this work be ol 
men, it will be destroyed ; but if it be of God, 39 
you are not able to destroy it, and lest, 
perhaps, you be found to fight against God. 
And they were persuaded by him ; and having 40 
called the Apostles, and scourged them, they 
commanded that they should not speak upon 
the name of Jesus, and released them. So 41 
they departed from the presence of the council., 
rejoicing that they were esteemed worthy to be 
dishonored for his name. And they did not IP- 
cease teaching every day, in the temple, and in 
every house, and proclaiming Jesus the Christ. 

VI. — Now, in those days, the number of the 
disciples being multiplied, a murmuring of the 
Hellenists against the Hebrews occurred, be- 
cause their own widows were neglected in the 
daily ministration. Then the Twelve, having ? 
called the multitude of the disciples to them, 
said : Eelinquishing the word of God to serve 
tables is not pleasing to us. Wherefore, breth- 3 
ren, look out among you seven men of attested 
character, full of the Holy Spirit and. of wis- 
dom, whom we may appoint over this business ; 
but we will give ourselves wholly to prayer, 4 
and to the ministry of the word. And the 5 
speech was pleasing in the mind of all the peo- 
ple ; and they chose Stephen, a man full of 
faith arid of the Holy Spirit, and Philip, and 
Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, and Par- 
menas, and Nicholas, a proselyte of Antioch : 
whom they presented before the Apostles ; and, 6 
praying, they laid their hands upon them. And 7 
the word of God was increasing, and the 
number of the disciples in Jerusalem was being"" 
greatly multiplied, and a great crowd of the 
priests was becoming submissive to the faith. 
And Stephen, full of faith and power, did great 8 
wonders and miracles among the people. 



9 Then there arose certain of the Synagogue — 
of that composed of the freedmen — Oyrenians 
and Alexandrians, and of those from Oilicia, and 

10 of Asia, putting questions to Stephen ; and they 
were not able to resist the wisdom and the 

1 1 spirit by which he spoke. And they privately pro- 
cured men who said, We have heard him speak- 
ing reviling words against Moses and against 

12 God. And they excited the people, and the 
elders, and the scribes, and came upon him, and 

13 seized, and brought him to the council, and set 
up false witnesses, saying, This man ceases not 
to speak words against this holy place, and the 

14 law : for we have heard him saying, that this 
Jesus, the Nazarene, will destroy this place, and 
change the customs which Moses delivered us. 

15 And all who sat in the council, looking stead- 
fastly on him, saw his face, as if it had been the 
face of an angel. 

VII. — Then the High Priest said, Are these 

2 things so ? And he said. Brethren and fathers, 
hearken : The God of the glory appeared to our 
father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, 

3 before he dwelt in Haran, and said to him, 
" Go forth out of your country, and from your 
kindred, and come into a country that I will 

4 show you." Then he came out of the land of 
the Chaldeans and dwelt in Haran ; and thence, 
after his father was dead, God caused him to 
remove into this land, in which you are now 

5 dwelling : but he did not give him an inherit- 
ance in it, not even a foot breadth. Yet he 
promised that he would give it to him, for a pos- 
session, and to his seed after him, when, as yet, he 

6 had no child. Then God spoke thus to him: 
That his seed should be sojourners in a strange 
land, and that they should enslave, and oppress 

7 them four hundred years. And the nation to 
whom they shall be in bondage, I will punish, 
said God, and after this they shall come forth 

8 and serve me in this place. And God gave 
Abraliam a covenant of circumcision ; and so he 

— begat Isaac, and circumcised him the eighth day. 
And Isaac begat Jacob, and Jacob begat the 

9 twelve patriarchs. And the patriarchs, moved 
with Gwrj, sold Joseph into Egypt. But God 

10 was with him, and delivered him out of all his 

afflictions, and gave him favor and wisdom in 
the sight of Pharaoh, king of Egypt : and he 
made him governor over Egypt, and all his 

Now there came a famine upon all the land of 11 
Egypt and Canaan, and great affliction : and 
our fathers found no sustenance. But Jacob, 12 
having heard that tliere was grain in Egypt, iirst 
sent our fathers. And at the second time, 13 
Joseph was made known to his brethren ; and 
Joseph's kindred became well known to Pha- 

Then Joseph sent and called his father Jacob 14 
to him ; and all his kindred, seventy-five souls. 
So Jacob went down into Egypt, and died, he 15 
and our fathers, and were carried over into She- 16 
chem, and laid in a sepulchre — that which 
Abraliam purchased with a sum of money of 
Hamor, father of Shechem. But, according as 17 
the time of the promise, which God had sworn 
to Abraham, was drawing near, the people had 
grown and multiplied in Egypt, till another king 18 
arose, who had not known Joseph. The same 19 
having treated our race craftily, oppressed our 
fathers, that they might expose their infants, in 
order that they might not be preserved alive. 
At this time Moses was born, and was exceed- 20 
ingly beautiful ; who was nourished in his 
father's house, three months. And, he being 21 
exposed, Pharaoh's daughter adopted him, and 
nourished him for her own son. And Moses 22 
was educated in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, 
and was mighty in his words and in his actions. 

And when he was full forty years old, it came 23 
into his heart to look after his brethren, the 
children of Israel. And seeing one of them 24 
wronged, he defended him, and avenged him 
who was oppressed, smiting the Egyptian, He 25 
supposed, indeed, his brother would have under- 
stood that God, by his hand, would deliver 
them : but they did not understand. And the 26 
next day, he showed himself to them as they 
were quarreling, and would have compelled 
them to peace, saying. You a