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The Doctrines 

of the Churches of Christendom 

and of Other Religious Bodies 

Examined in the Light 

of Scripture 




ST. Louis, Mo. 





Copyright 1934 


St. Louis, Mo. 



The present volume is intended to serve as a guide to the study 
of the distinctive doctrines of the various religious bodies and move- 
ments represented in ISTorth America. 

In order to fulfil its purpose, both in the classroom and as a work 
of reference, a text-book of Comparative Symbolics must satisfy three 
major requirements: It must be comprehensive and complete; it 
must be up to date in its discussion of church-bodies and of the tenets 
held by them; and it must be objectively correct in its presentation 
of facts and in its interpretation of creedal statements. Accordingly, 
the authors of this Popular Symbolics have endeavored to include 
in their program all church-bodies, sects, cults, and movements, 
however small in membership or influence, represented in the United 
States and Canada to-day; they have permitted these various de- 
nominations to speak for themselves by quotation from their official 
literature and standard theologians; and they have striven to keep 
their judgment unbiased when interpreting the relation of these 
many divergent religious views to the teachings of Scripture. They 
have regarded these principles to be paramount if they were to deal 
fairly with the student, pastor, and layman who asks: What is dis- 
tinctive or characteristic of this church-body? What does it teach? 
What is the relation of its doctrine to the teaching of the Word 
of God? 

In view of the spirit of indifferentism which prevails in the 
religious world to-day, a spirit which, consistently, would make all 
the labor spent both in the writing and in the study of this book 
a purely intellectual exercise, and not a very profitable one, it is 
necessary to elaborate upon the point last mentioned. Our volume 
is a Lutheran handbook of Comparative Symbolics. That is to say, 
it is not satisfied merely to present the teachings of the various 
churches as a matter of historical interest, but finds it imperative to 
examine them in the light of Scripture. The spirit of Lutheran 
Comparative Symbolics is that of a burning love for the pure doc- 
trine and a corresponding burning hatred of all false doctrine. This ; 
feature of Lutheran Comparative Symbolics will, we are aware, be 
counted by many as a serious fault. A book presenting this feature 
cannot hope to achieve wide popularity: "In modern theology Po- 
lemics has been well-nigh abandoned. ... It is not probable that 
Polemics will be much cultivated in this generation; for there is 
a remarkable lack of enthusiasm for the differences between the re- 
ligious bodies among scholars really competent to distinguish them 



properly and to maintain them." (Charles A. Briggs, Theological 
Symbolics, p. 19 f.) And in our generation, owing to the ever- 
increasing dominance of the unionistic spirit, this situation has been 
most seriously aggravated. The terms false teaching, heterodoxy, 
heresy, false teacher, heretic, errorist, sectarian, are to-day obsoles- 
cent. Writers on Symbolics are asked to leave out controversial 
matters, to cease "waving the denominational flag." If they dare 
to deal with false doctrine as false doctrine and to insist on the sole 
legitimacy of the pure doctrine, they are accused of fostering ex- 
clusiveness, sectarianism, a bigoted, pharisaic, loveless Christianity. 
But in spite of the popular disfavor to be expected Lutheran con- 
fessionalism cannot do otherwise than present the pure doctrine as 
the one great need of the Church, bring it to the attention of those 
who know it not, and combat false doctrine wherever it appears. 
Even the liberal Briggs declared: "There is, however, room for 
Polemics if it be carried on upon the basis of the Symbols themselves, 
and especially after a comparative study of them" (1. c.). There is 
room for it, and there is need of it. Comparative Symbolics of the 
Lutheran kind is needed as long as there are men without and within 
the Church who are not fully acquainted with the pure doctrine of 
Scripture and as long as any Christian is in danger of being deceived 
by false teaching. And Scripture enjoins the study of that kind 
of Comparative Symbolics on all Christians. "Be ready always to 
give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason for the hope 
that is in you, with meekness and fear," 1 Pet. 3, 15. "Believe not 
every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God, because many 
false prophets are gone out into the world," 1 John 4, 1. The pastor 
is asked "by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gain- 
sayers," Titus 1, 9. The faithful pastor applies Scripture for doctrine 
and for reproof, 2 Tim. 3, 16. In order to shepherd "the church of 
God, which He hath purchased with His own blood," Acts 20, 28, 
he must both lead his flock into green pastures and guard it against 
the "grievous wolves," Acts 20, 29. And not only the pastors, but 
also the laymen are required to "try the spirits," "earnestly to con- 
tend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints," Jude 3. 

Scripture requires it, and the Lutheran Church requires it. 
The Lutheran Church thus speaks to her pastors: "Moreover, since 
for the preservation of pure doctrine and for thorough, permanent, 
godly unity in the Church it is necessary, not only that the pure, 
wholesome doctrine be rightly presented, but also that the opponents 
who teach otherwise be reproved, 1 Tim. 3 (2 Tim. 3, 16) ; Titus 
1, 9, for faithful shepherds, as Luther says, should do both, namely, 
feed or nourish the lambs and resist the wolves, so that the sheep 


may flee from strange voices, John 10, 12, . . ." (F. C., Th. D., 
Comp. Sum., 14).* The Lutheran Church wants books on Com- 
parative Symbolics placed into the hands of the laymen also : "These 
highly important matters concern also the common people and lay- 
men [as they are called], who, inasmuch as they are Christians, 
must for their salvation distinguish between pure and false doctrine" 
(1. c., 8). Men who subscribe to the Lutheran Confessions say: 
"These and like articles, one and all, with what pertains to them and 
follows from them, we reject and condemn as wrong, false, heretical, 
and contrary to the Word of God, the three Creeds, the Augsburg 
Confession and Apology, the Smalcald Articles, and the Catechisms 
of Luther. Of these articles all godly Christians should and ought 
to beware as much as the welfare and salvation of their souls is clear 
to them." (F. C., concluding paragraphs.) 

Comparative Symbolics of the Scriptural, uncompromising kind 
cannot but perpetuate the terms false teaching, heretic, sect. It does 
not aim to perpetuate the disunion in the Church. It aims to bring 
about a real union, a union in the truth; and that can be effected 
only by rejecting, banning, and interdicting that which causes the 
disunion false doctrine. Comparative Symbolics of the Scrip- 
tural kind is therefore outspokenly and vehemently antiunionistic. 
In no other way can the true spiritual interest of the Church be 
served. Klotsche has well expressed it thus: "This consensus de 
doctrina evangelii means not merely agreement in general or agree- 
ment in so-called fundamentals only, but agreement in all articles 
of revealed truth. Wherever a clear teaching of the Holy Scriptures 
is denied or repudiated there can be no true union, because there is 
no unity of the faith. 'We are anxious to advance that unity ac- 
cording to our utmost power by which nothing of the divine truth 
of the Holy Gospel is surrendered' and 'no room is given to the least 
error' (F. C., Th. D., XI, 95 f., Trigl., p. 1095). There can be no 
compromising with error. Church-fellowship with errorists is sinful 
unionism and can never be pleasing to God, for treating errorists as 
though they were brethren in the faith is a denial of, or at least in- 
difference to, the revealed truth of God. Let each man choose for 
himself this day between the errorists and Jesus Christ, who says: 
'I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life,' and again: 'Search the 
Scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal life, and they are 

* "Ein Prediger muss niclit allein weiden, also dass er die Scliafe unter- 
weise, wie sie reclite Christen sollen sein, sondern aucli daneben den Woel- 
fen wehren, dass sie die Schafe niclit angreifen und mit falscher Lehre 
verfuehren und Trrtum einfuehren; Avie denn der Teufel niclit rulit." Etc. 
(Luther, IX, 1100.) 


they which testify of Me,' and again: 'Till heaven and earth pass, 
one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the Law, till all be 
fulfilled.' What our fathers solemnly declared in the Preface to the 
Christian Book of Concord is our declaration to-day: 'Being- in- 
structed from the Prophetic and Apostolic Scriptures, we are sure 
concerning our doctrine and confession. . . . We also have determined 
not to depart even a finger's breadth from the subjects themselves 
or from the phrases which are found in them [the Confessions], but, 
the Spirit of the Lord aiding us, to persevere constantly, with the 
greatest harmony, in this godly agreement, and we intend to examine 
all controversies according to this true norm and declaration of pure 
doctrine' (Trigl., p. 21; 23)." (E. H. Klotsche, Christian Symbolics, 
p. 399.) The present book has many faults and shortcomings, but 
it is free from that thing the lack of which will be pointed to by 
many as its greatest fault it has kept itself free from an un- 
Scriptural tolerance of false teaching, from any attempt towards 
compromising with error. Those who are unionistically disposed 
will have nothing' to do with Comparative Symbolics of the kind 
here presented. But all those who tremble at God's Word, be they 
Lutheran, Catholic, or Reformed, will heartily agree with the method 
and spirit of this book, even though they may not at once agree 
with all of its conclusions. 

The collaborators on this volume believe that they have fairly 
presented the doctrinal position of the various churches and religious 
bodies. The chief works consulted have been listed in the Bibliog- 
raphy. (Among recent works the Christian Symbolics of E. H. 
Klotsche proved helpful in many statements of detail.) With regard 
especially to the sects of more recent origin, correspondence was 
had with headquarters. Absolute completeness has not been achieved. 
On two or three small bodies that have recently sprung up authori- 
tative information was not available at the time of locking the forms, 
and in view of the insistent demand for the publication of the book 
no further effort was made to include these. 

A comprehensive handbook of Comparative Symbolics for class- 
room and reference use has been a desideratum ever since the fourth 
edition of Prof. Martin Guenther's Populaere Symbolik, Lutheri- 
scher Wegweiser zur Pruefung der verschiedenen Kirchen und reli- 
gioesen G-esellschaften (first ed., 1872; second, 1881; third and 
fourth, edited and augmented by Dr. L. Fuerbringer, 1898 and 1913), 
was exhausted. The authors wish to acknowledge their indebtedness 
to Guenther's classical manual. Particularly the first part of the 
present volume is to a great extent an elaboration of the thetical 


material contained in the Populaere Symbolik. In structure the 
new book differs completely from Guenther, inasmuch as the earlier 
book treated the matter under doctrinal heads, cross-secting the de- 
nominations, while Popular Symbolics treats it by churches. An 
elaborate index supplies the grouping of denominational teachings 
under doctrinal heads, thus preserving the advantage of Guenther's 

To make the contents of the book more accessible to the students 
of doctrine, a system of numbered paragraphs, of cross-references in 
the body of the book (indicated by bold-face numerals) and in the 
index, and of italics has been used. Italics are employed, not for 
emphasis (except in rare instances), but in order to point the student 
to the index, where the various heads of each doctrine in dispute 
are assembled. Thus the student is enabled to study any doctrine 
in thesis and antithesis. The division into paragraphs, often some- 
what arbitrary, is intended to facilitate the use of the book as a 
reference work. 

The valuable assistance of Prof. Th. Laetsch, who in the capacity 
of censor has offered a number of helpful suggestions, is hereby 
gratefully acknowledged. The readers of this book owe special thanks 
also to Mr. E. Seuel, manager of Concordia Publishing House, who 
for years has been urging the publication of an English manual of 
Symbolics and whose liberal policy made available for the authors 
every facility that would enable them to perform their task and 
to complete it on schedule. 

Whatever shortcomings may be found in the book the authors 
will share the blame equally. Whatever growth in understanding of 
its subject-matter may result from it, in the class-room and in the 
homes of our pastors, teachers, and laymen; whatever strengthening 
of Christian faith and Lutheran conviction; whatever success in 
dealing with those of erring faith let the glory be His who alone 
can make men fit to teach and able to learn what the Spirit has 
revealed to human understanding regarding supernatural truth. 


Our esteemed colleague Dr. Theodore Engelder, the editor-in- 
chief of this volume, has been most reluctant, even in the circle of 
his collaborators, to acknowledge their appreciative comment upon 
the manner in which he acquitted himself of the responsible task of 
supervising the writing of this volume. But at the risk of displeas- 
ing him, we here desire to place on record, through an arrangement 
with the publisher, the grateful acknowledgments which are due our 
colleague, not only on our behalf, but on behalf of the Church at 
large, of the patience and concentrated effort during hours which 
should have been given to recreation, of almost infinite attention to 
detail, of theological erudition which has sounded the depths of Chris- 
tian doctrine and to which no part of Christian Symbolics is foreign 
territory, of caution, restraint, and insistence on punctilious correct- 
ness of expression both in his own section, the statement of Lu- 
theran doctrine, and in all the paragraphs of this work, labors to 
which we are glad to attribute the greater part of the qualities which 
will make Popular Symbolics a reliable work of reference. It is 
our wish and prayer that the ripe scholarship of this dogmatician 
may be preserved to the Church for many years to come. 





A. General Characteristics, pp. 1 25. 

B. The Teaching of the Lutheran Church and the Contrary Teaching 
in the Light of Scripture, pp. 25 136. 


A. The Eastern Catholic Churches, pp. 137 147. 

B. The Roman Catholic Church, pp. 147 206. 

C. Old Catholic Churches, pp. 206 208. 

Part III. R.EFORMED BODIES, pp. 209 377. 


Communistic Groups, Anti-Trinitarian and Otherwise, pp. 420 426. 




APPENDIX, pp. 477 479. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, pp. 481 494. 

ABBREVIATIONS, pp. 495. 496. 

INDEX, pp. 497 526. 


P. 113, 157, 1. 1: For "a human right" read "of human right." 

P. 134, 1.7: For "Micha" read "Micah." 

P. 170, 1.8 from bottom: Place quotation-marks after "Church." 

P. 271, 1. 4: Remove these statistics to p. 270, 1. 7 
( Seventh-day Baptists ) . 

P. 278, 309, 1.14: Place double quotation-marks before "that." 

P. 359, 393, 1.12: For "Sabbellianism" read "Sabellianism." 

P. 366, 1.20: For "Walther" read "Walter." 

P. 367, 1.24: For "in" read "for." 

P. 382, 410, 1.12: For "Samosatanian" read "Samosatenian." 






Die Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche die wahre sichtbare Kirche 
Gottes auf Erclen, Thesis X. That is the definition of the Lutheran 
Church, fixed by the Lutheran Confessions. According to the 
Formula of Concord the membership of the Lutheran Church is 
made up of those who unequivocally declare : "First [, then, we 
receive and embrace with our whole heart] the Prophetic and 
Apostolic Scriptures of the Old and ISFew Testaments as the pure, 
clear fountain of Israel. . . . We confess, in the second place, the 
three Ecumenical Creeds, namely, the Apostles', the Mcene, and 
the Athanasian, as glorious confessions of the faith, brief, devout, 
and founded upon God's Word. . . . We confess also the First, 
Unaltered Augsburg Confession as our symbol for this time, not 
because it was composed by our theologians, but because it has been 
taken from God's Word and is founded firmly and well therein. . . . 
In the fourth place, an extensive apology was composed and pub- 
lished in print in 1531. ... We unanimously confess this also. . . . 
In the fifth place, we also confess the articles composed, approved, 
and received at Smalcald in the year 1537. . . . And now, in the 
sixth place, ... we confess also the Small and the Large Catechism 
of Dr. Luther." Thorough Declaration, Compr. Sum., 3 8. Due 
to the fact that the doctrine set forth in the Lutheran Svmbols, as 

IS / 

embodied in the Book of Concord is throughout one and the same, 
the formal and explicit acceptance of only the Augsburg Confession 
or of Luther's Small Catechism carries with it the implicit accep- 
tance of the rest of the Confessions. "No one who without guile 
is an adherent of the Augsburg Confession will complain of these 
writings," the later confessions. Op. cit., 12. The promulga- 
tion of the principles and doctrines set forth, in these Confessions 
called the Lutheran Church into being, and the full acceptance and 



faithful application of these principles constitute her strength 
and glory. 1 ) 

2* The Lutheran Church is the BIBLE CHURCH. She receives the 
Word of God, the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, 
as the only source and norm of doctrine, the sole authority in the 
matter of Christian faith and life. On the authority of Scripture 
(1 Pet. 4, 11; John 8, 31. 32; Is. 8/20, etc.) she declares: "The 
Word of God shall establish articles of faith and no one else, not 
even an angel." Smalc. Art., P. II, Art. II, 15. Nothing may be 
taught in the Church "without the authority of Scripture." 
Ap. VI, 22; IV, 83. "The Holy Scriptures alone remain the only 
judge, rule, and standard according to which, as the only test-stone, 
all dogmas shall and must be discerned and judged." F. C., Ep. 
Sum. Con., 7. SOLA SCEIPTUEA is written on every page of the Con- 
fessions of the Lutheran Church. "Where is this written ?" is their 
first and last appeal. Small C., VI, 3. The Augsburg Confession 
is concerned only with "showing what manner of doctrine from the 
Holy Scriptures and the pure Word of God has been up to this time 
set forth in our lands." Preface, 8. Its last words are : "Accord- 
ing to the Scriptures." Conclusion, 7. The Catholic churches 
supplement and supplant the authority of Scripture with the 
authority of the Church. The Liberal bodies have set up reason 
and science as the sole authority. Pleading the right of private 
judgment, they assume the right to reject so much of Scripture as 
does not accord with their sense of religion. And while the 

1) Luther's Ninety-five Theses (1517) and his stand at Worms (1521) 
inaugurated the Reformation, which called the Lutheran Church into being, 
her members professing their faith in the Augsburg Confession (1530). The 
adoption of the Formula of Concord (1577), under the leadership of Martin 
Chemnitz, ended a thirty years' period of controversy going on in her midst; 
and standing firmly on the Book of Concord (published 1580), she withstood 
the assaults of the Counter-Reformation and the afflictions of the Thirty 
Years' War. The decadence which came in the wake of Pietism (about 
1700) and culminated in the reign of Rationalism (about 1800) was checked 
by a wide resurgence of the old Biblical faith in the early nineteenth cen- 
tury. While Lutheran confessionalism in Europe succumbed more or less to 
the influence of the Prussian Union and the new Rationalism (higher 
criticism, new theology, etc., etc. ) , it flourished in America. Henry Melchior 
Muehlenberg, "the patriarch of the Lutheran Church in America," organized 
the first Lutheran synod in this country, in 1748, Lutheran congregations 
having been founded as early as 1638; and C. F. W. Walther (d. 1887) and 
other loyal Lutherans in various parts of the American Lutheran Church 
placed Lutheranism on its original confessional basis. This revived con- 
fessional loyalty is exerting a growing influence within and without the 
Lutheran Church. (For Lutheran synods in America see 17n.) 


Eeformed churches have written the formal principle of Prot- 
estantism, "The Bible, the whole Bible, and nothing but the Bible," 
the doctrine of the supreme authority of Scripture, into a number 
of their confessions, they have permitted reason and philosophical 
considerations to interpret certain portions of Scripture and mold 
certain portions of their doctrine. The Lutheran Church faithfully 
adheres to, and consistently applies, the Scriptural principle. Her 
theology is "Schrifttheologie." Pier theologians are content to labor 
exclusively in the Scriptures. "It is the work of theology to learn, 
establish, confirm, and vindicate the divine truth from Scripture." 
A. Hoenecke, Ev.-Luth. Dogmatik, I, 254. And her faithful 
children bow to the supreme and sole authority of Scripture. 
Therein lies her strength. Her faith and life is founded not on 
the shifting sands of human opinions, but on the immovable rock 
of God's inspired Word. And that imbues the heart of the believer 
with divine assurance. 15* 18* 160* 

3* The Lutheran Church is the GOSPEL CHURCH. True to her 
name, Evangelical Lutheran, she testifies the Gospel of the grace of 
God (Acts 20, 24) in its purity and fulness. The heart of the Bible 
is the Gospel ; the sum and substance of the Gospel is the article of 
the justification of the sinner by grace, through faith, for the sake 
of Christ's vicarious atonement salvation, from beginning to end, 
by grace, 1 Cor. 2, 2 ; Acts 10, 43 ; Eom. 3, 2428 ; Eph. 2, 8. 9 ; 
and the Lutheran Church, deriving her teaching solely from the 
Bible, knows nothing save Christ, save salvation through His right- 
eousness. The chief, the central article of the Bible, of the Chris- 
tian religion, the material principle of the Eeformation, justifica- 
tion by faith, is the chief and central article of Lutheran theology, 
the theology of grace. A. C., IV; XXVI, 4: "The doctrine of 
grace and of the righteousness of faith ... is the chief part of the 
Gospel." XXVII, 48: "It ought to be taught chiefly in the 
Church." Ap., IV, 2: "In this controversy the chief topic of 
Christian doctrine is treated . . . [which is of especial service for 
the clear, correct understanding of the entire Holy Scriptures and. 
alone shows the way to the unspeakable treasure and right knowl- 
edge of Christ]." S. A., P. II, 5: "Of this article nothing can be 
yielded or surrendered, even though heaven and earth, and whatever 
will not abide, should sink to ruin. . . . Acts 4, 12 ; Is. 53, 5." The 
Catholic, Pelagianistic, theology has no use for this article. Its 
material principle is salvation through work-righteousness. The 
Reformed churches confess this article. But Arminianism has in- 


fected it with the Pelagianistic virus, and Calvinism, making the 
dogma of the sovereign majesty of God its material principle, gives 
none but the elect access to the grace of God, the forgiveness of sins, 
and assigns to the article of justification by faith a subordinate 
position. And the teaching of all Reformed groups on the Means 
of Grace nullifies, in effect, the article of justification through 
faith. 4. The full appreciation of the nature and importance of 
the article of justification by faith, which means that salvation in 
every way and respect is by grace, and the consistent application of 
this article is the outstanding characteristic of the Lutheran 
Church. "This blessed doctrine, the precious Gospel, they [the 
Eomanists] call Lutheran." Ap., XV, 43. And it is this doctrine 
alone which fully meets the sinner's need. Unless grace does all 
(sola gratia), the sinner is lost. And unless grace is for all (gratia 
universalis), the sinner must despair. "This article concerning 
justification by faith (as the Apology says) is the chief article in 
the entire Christian doctrine, without which no poor conscience can 
have any firm consolation or can truly know the riches of the grace 
of Christ." F. C., Th. D., Ill, 6. See 54. 55. 78. 90. 91. 178. 

4. The Lutheran Church is the GOSPEL CHURCH, the faithful 
administrator of the Gospel as the sole instrument of salvation. 
God has made the Gospel and the Sacraments the means by which 
the benefits of Christ's redemptive work are offered and conferred 
and saving faith is created and preserved, Eom. 10, 6 8. 17; John 
17, 20. Accordingly the Lutheran Church declares : "Thereby are 
granted not bodily, but eternal things, as eternal righteousness, the 
Holy Ghost, eternal life." A. C., XXVIII, 8. "These treasures are 
offered us by the Holy Ghost in the promise of the Gospel." F. C., 
Th. D., Ill, 10. "That we may obtain this faith, the ministry 
of teaching the Gospel and administering the Sacraments was in- 
stituted. For through the Word and Sacraments, as through in- 
struments, the Holy Ghost is given." A. C., V. 104. The doctrine 
of salvation through the MEANS OF GRACE is distinctive of Luther- 
anism. The Catholic churches have no use for means of grace,, for 
a Gospel and for Sacraments which offer salvation as a free gift. 
And the Reformed churches, while they hold, in general, that 
salvation is by grace, repudiate the Gospel and the Sacraments as 
the means of grace. It is clear that matters of fundamental im- 
portance are involved. The chief article of the Christian religion, 
justification by faith, stands and falls with the article of the Means 
of Grace. Justification by faith means absolutely nothing without 


the Means of Grace, whereby the righteousness gained by Christ is 
bestowed and faith, which appropriates the gift, is created. "True, 
the enthusiasts confess that Christ died on the cross and saved us ; 
but they repudiate that by which we obtain Him; that is, the 
means, the way, the bridge, the approach to Him they destroy. . . .. 
They lock up the treasure which they should place before us and 
lead me a fool's chase ; they refuse to admit me to it ; they refuse 
to transmit it; they deny me its possession and use." Luther III, 
1692. The Means of Grace are bound up with the very vitals of 
faith. Faith lives on the offer of the forgiveness of sins, as it comes 
to us in the certain promise and absolute guarantee of the Gospel 
and the Sacraments. Here, again, Lutheranism fully meets the 
sinner's need. C. F. W. Walther puts it thus : "The characteristic 
feature of our dear Evangelical Lutheran Church is her objectivity, 
which means that her entire teaching is designed to keep man from 
seeking salvation within himself, in the powers of his nature and 
will, in anything he does or is, and to bring him to seek salvation 
outside of himself. The teaching of all other churches is of a sub- 
jective character ; it trains man to base his salvation upon himself.-" 
"And this applies in a most marked manner to their denial of the 
Scriptural doctrine of the Means of Grace." F. Pieper, Lehre und 
Wehre, 36, 119. 

5, Once more, the Lutheran Church is the GOSPEL CHURCH. She 
observes and maintains the distinction between the Law and the 
Gospel. "Eightly to understand the benefit of Christ and the great 
treasure of the Gospel, we must separate, on the one hand, the 
promise of God and the grace that is offered and, on the other hand, 
the Law as far as the heavens are from the earth." Ap., Ill, 63. 
The Lutheran Church recognizes the vital relation of this article 
to that of the chief article of the Christian religion, justification by 
faith. Any commingling of the Law and the Gospel, not only the 
substitution of the Law for the Gospel, but also the injection of 
legal elements, demands, conditions, into the Gospel is destructive 
of the Gospel, of the article of justification by grace. Eom. 3, 28 ; 
4, 14; Gal. 3, 10; 5, 4. Ap., Ill, 62. In fact, the two articles 
coincide. Justification by faith means justification not on the basis 
of the Law, but on the basis of the Gospel. And here again 
Lutheranism fully measures up to the sinner's need. He obtains 
justification by distinguishing between the Law and the Gospel, 
by fleeing from the Law and its threats and casting himself upon 
the promise of the Gospel. In fact, this article must guide his 


every step in the way of salvation. The application, in the proper 
order, of the Law in its rigor and of the Gospel in its sweetness 
effects his conversion, his assurance of salvation, his sanctification, 
his preservation. "The distinction between the Law and the Gospel 
is to be maintained in the Church with great diligence/' F. C., 
Ep., V, 2. See 1061 

6* The Lutheran Church is the TRUE VISIBLE CHURCH; not the 
universal Church, not the only saving Church, not the only Chris- 
tian Church, but the true visible Church ; that is to say, the Church 
of the pure Word and the pure Sacraments. The invisible Church 
is built solely and exclusively upon the foundation of the apostles 
and prophets, Eph. 2, 20, and the visible Church may not forsake 
this foundation. The Christians, uniting for the common confes- 
sion of their faith and the hearing and preaching of God's Word, 
must preach and confess the pure Word. It is the only form of the 
visible Church that conforms to God's will. A union of any other 
kind is not countenanced by God. The disciples of Christ must 
continue in His Word, John 8, 31, teach all things Christ has com- 
manded them, Matt. 28, 20, hold fast the form of sound words, 
2 Tim. 1, 13; Jer. 23, 2831; Matt. 7, 15; 1 Cor. 1, 10; Eph. 4, 
36; 1 Tim. 4, 16; Tit. 1, 9; 2, 1. 7; 1 Pet. 4, 11. That is 
a true visible Church which "continues steadfastly in the apostles' 
doctrine," Acts 2, 42. The Lutheran Church does so. Deriving all 
her doctrines from Scripture (formal principle) and coordinating 
them with the cardinal doctrine of Scripture, justification by faith 
(material principle), she confesses and teaches the full Christian 
truth. The life of the Lutheran Christians is far from perfect, 
but the doctrine of the Lutheran Confessions is absolutely pure. 
Not one of her doctrines needs correction. "I verily desire to see 
a true Christian council in order that many matters and persons 
might be helped. Not that we need it, for our churches are now, 
through God's grace, so enlightened and equipped with the pure 
Word and the right use of the Sacraments, with knowledge of the 
various callings and of right works, that we on our part ask for no 
council." S. A., Preface, 10. And the Lutheran Church is the only 
true visible Church. Those religious bodies which deny the entire 
substance of the Gospel, the deitj of Christ and the redemptive 
work of Christ, are not Christian churches, but synagogs of Satan, 
Eev. 2, 9; 1 John 2, 23; 5, 20, 21, "outside of the Church of 
Christ." Ap., I. Those religious bodies which deny fundamental 
doctrines of the Bible while retaining essential portions of the sav- 


ing truth are, because of the believers born in their midst by the 
truth proclaimed in their midst, churches indeed. "We certainly 
must acknowledge that the Enthusiasts have Scripture and God's 
Word in other articles, and he that hears it through them and be- 
lieves it is saved." Luther, XVII, 2212. But by reason of their 
rejection of fundamental Gospel-truths they are false, impure, 
heterodox churches, sects. The Lutheran Church is the only Church 
which teaches the pure doctrine of Scripture unmixed with ra- 
tionalistic adulterations or any other form of human doctrine. 
That sets her apart from the others. That constitutes her 
peculiar glory. 

The difference between the Lutheran Church and the sects is 
a radical one. There are those who would classify all Christian 
churches, at least all Protestant churches, as sister churches, all 
alike possessing greater or smaller portions of the saving truth, 
none of them free from doctrinal aberrations. The Lutheran 
Church refuses to be thus classified. She is sui generis., the only 
true visible Church, the Church of -the pure doctrine. She differs 
from the sects not in mere externalities, but in the matter of doc- 
trine. And doctrine is the most important matter in the Church. 
The doctrine of Scripture deals with the issues of eternal salvation. 
Every single doctrine is bound up with these issues. ISTor does the 
Lutheran Church differ from the sects merely in minor doctrinal 
points, but in fundamental doctrines, which have the most direct 
bearing on the issues of salvation. That is the wondrous glory of 
the Lutheran Church, that she has preserved and preaches the 
Gospel in all its fulness and purit}?". "This is the sum of our doc- 
trine, in which, as can be seen, there is nothing that varies from 
the Scriptures." A. C., Concl. of first part. TrigL, p. 59. That is the 
speech of men who stand in holy awe of God's Word, realize the im- 
portance of the saving doctrine, and are filled with gratitude for 
the possession of the full truth of the Gospel. Men must not at- 
tempt to hush it with the cry of bigoted partisanship and pharisaic 
self-conceit. JSTor by pointing to the counterclaims of other 
churches. The question which is the true visible Church must be 
submitted to the judgment of Scripture. The Lutheran Church 'has 
submitted her Confessions. "This is about the sum of our doc- 
trine." And she is confident that he who faithfully applies the sole 
standard of doctrine, Scripture, will recognize her as the true 
visible Church. "Although this Confession was received with dis- 
favor by their opponents, still, thank God, it remains to this day 
unrefuted and unoverthrown." F. C., Th. D., Preface, 3. 


7* In other words, the Lutheran Church is ONE WITH THE OLD 
APOSTOLIC CHUECI-I. The Reformation did not bring in a new 
doctrine, but revived the original apostolic doctrine. It did not 
establish a new Church, but restored to the Church its pristine 
glory. The glory of the Church of the apostolic time was that 
"they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine," Acts 2, 42. 
And the glory of the Lutheran Church is her steadfast adherence 
to the apostolic doctrine. The holy Christian Church bears the 
name "Apostolic" (JSFicene Cr.) because the faith of her members is 
created by, and is rooted in, the Word of the apostles, John 17, 20 ; 
Eph. 2, 20; John 8, 31; Eom. 16, 17. And this characteristic 
of the Christian Church finds its adequate expression in that visible 
Church which confesses and preserves the full apostolic Word. That 
is the apostolicity of the Lutheran Church: she "confesses the 
Apostles' Creed" (F. C., Th. D., Compr. Sum., 4) and confesses it 
without alteration, subtraction, addition, or reservation. She "re- 
ceives and embraces the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures" (1. c., 
3), and receives them without alteration, subtraction, addition, 
or reservation. "All the world must admit that we have the Gospel 
as pure and unadulterated as the apostles had it; it has come back 
to its original purity." "The papists themselves know that in all 
these and all other doctrines we are the same as the old Church and 
may truly be called the old Church; for these things are not new, 
not invented by us. . . . We and they are one Church, teaching and 
believing one and the same Word of God." Luther, X, 471 ; XVII, 
1324. 1326. "Returning to the true conception of saving grace as 
'favor Dei propter Christum' over against its conception as 'gratia 
infusa/ the Church of the Reformation has returned to the apostolic 
purity of the Christian doctrine." F. Pieper, Chr. Dog., II, 14. 
The name Lutheran, to be sure, and the Lutheran Church as 
a visible organization did not come into existence until four hun- 
dred years ago, but the matter which the name signifies, the doc- 
trine, which is the heart and life of the organization, is as old as 
the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. Cp. Der Lutheraner, 
I, 97 if. The substance of Lutheranism did not find its first ex- 
pression in the Augsburg Confession. It is fully expressed in the 
Epistle to the Romans. What was new about the Augsburg Con- 
fession was the rejection of new errors, rather of old errors in 
a new form. The heresies repudiated by the Lutheran Confessions, 
the heresies of the Papacy and of pseudo-Protestantism, are the 
heresies against which the apostles warned the Church of all times. 


8, In other words, the Lutheran Church is, doctrinally, THE TRUE 
CATHOLIC CHURCH. She is not the Holy Christian Church, the 
Church Universal. The Catholic Church of the Apostles' Creed is 
the communion of "the truly believing and righteous men scattered 
throughout the whole world," "who agree concerning the Gospel." 
Ap., VII and VIII, 10. 20. And the Lutheran Church is not co- 
extentive with the Holy Christian Church. Not all who are Lu- 
therans by profession are Christians. And there are Christians 
scattered among all the sects. "The knowledge of Christ has always 
remained with some godly persons" under the Papacy. Ap., Ill, 
272. "We have no doubt whatever that even in those churches 
which have hitherto not agreed with us in all things many godly 
men are found." B. C., Preface, Trigl., p. 19. Not all Christians 
by far belong to the Lutheran organization. But the doctrine of 
the Lutheran Church is pan-Christian. It is the doctrine which 
demands the allegiance of all Christians. Moreover, it is the doc- 
trine which all Christians either do believe in essential points or 
would believe in all other points if they were properly instructed. 
For it is the Scripture doctrine. All Christians throughout the 
world accept, believe in, the chief doctrine of the Lutheran Church, 
salvation by grace. Otherwise they would not be Christians. "We 
know that those things which we have said are in harmony . . . with 
the whole Church of Christ, which certainly confesses that Christ 
is Propitiator and Justifier." Ap., Ill, 268. This, justification by 
faith, "is our doctrine; the Holy Spirit teaches it, as also all holy 
Christian people." Luther, XVI, 1689. And while many Chris- 
tians do not accept the entire body of the Lutheran teaching, "we 
are in great hope that, if they would be taught aright concerning 
all these things, the Spirit of the Lord aiding them, they would 
agree with us to the infallible truth of God's Word." B. C., Preface ; 
Trigl., p. 19. For every Christian fears God's Word. His Chris- 
tian nature hates false teaching and loves the truth. Therefore: 
"We know that those things which we have said are in harmony 
with the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures . . . and with the whole 
Church of Christ." Ap., Ill, 268. "Our Confession is true, godly, 
and catholic." Ap., XIII, 26. The Roman Catholic Church is not 
catholic; not a single Christian in the world believes that man is 
justified through works. The Eef ormed churches are not catholic ; 
not a single Christian subscribes in his heart to the doctrine of sal- 
vation outside of the Means of Grace. The faith of all Christen- 
dom finds full, adequate expression in the Confessions of the Lu- 
theran Church. That is the ecumenical character of Lutheramsin. 


"The doctrines of the Formula are the ecumenical truths of 
Christendom; for true Lutheranism is nothing but consistent 
Christianity. The Formula, says Krauth, is 'the completest and 
clearest confession in which the Christian Church has ever em- 
bodied her faith/ " Cone. Trigl., Hist. Intr., p. 256. The catho- 
licity of the Lutheran Church and the fact that the Lutheran 
Church is the largest Protestant body, world-wide in its spread, are 
entirely unrelated matters. Truth is not determined nor affected 
by numbers, by majorities. Athanasius standing alone, "Athanasius 
contra mundum" ; Luther at Worms, the sole speaker for the cause ; 
the confessors at Augsburg, a small minority, were the spokesmen 
of Christendom. 

The Lutheran Church is the true catholic Church because, to 
put it another way, her teaching supplies the needs of all. She 
imparts to the sinner the full comfort and assurance he needs, 
proclaiming the grace of God in Christ, universal grace, sole grace, 
grace bestowed through the Means of Grace. On every question of 
doctrine and life she gives the answer that satisfies the Christian, 
the Scriptural answer. She declares all the counsel of God, not 
neglecting any doctrine and emphasizing what Scripture em- 
phasizes. She opens the full resources of God's Word. The errors 
taught among the sects do not satisfy the Christians. These errors 
need to be replaced by the Lutheran, the Scriptural, teaching. 

Again, Lutheranism is ecumenic, not particularistic. The 
Lutheran Church is not a sect. The sects separated from the or- 
thodox Church in the interest of man-made doctrines and, in the 
nature of the case, uphold their sectarian peculiarities with sec- 
tarian bias and bigotry. The Eoman Catholic sect can see nothing 
but justification through works and the supreme authority of the 
Pope. The Baptists stand out for their dogma of immersion. The 
Episcopalians will yield many things, but not the dogma of the 
Apostolic Succession. The Lutheran Church has no party interest 
to serve. Her sole interest lies in the universal Christian doctrine. 
There are no Lutheran "peculiarities." There are indeed "dis- 
tinctive" Lutheran doctrines, Lutheran peculiarities. But these 
doctrines, which distinguish the Lutheran Church from the sects, 
do not constitute a divergence of the Lutheran teaching from the 
teaching of the Church. "Nothing has been received on our part 
against Scripture or the Church Catholic." A. C., Conclusion, 5. 
The peculiar doctrines of the Lutheran Church are the peculiar 
doctrines of Scripture, of Christianity. Contending for justifica- 


tion by faith, salvation through the Means of Grace, etc., the Lu- 
theran Church is not engaged in a party strife, but in the common 
cause of Christendom. 

9. The Lutheran Church is what she is, the Church of the pure 
-doctrine, by the grace of God. She does not owe it to any superior 
wisdom of Luther or any superior qualities of the Lutherans. It is 
the gift of God's pure, unmerited grace. "THROUGH GOD'S GRACE 
our churches are now enlightened and equipped with the pure Word 
and right use of the Sacraments." S. A., Preface, 10. That is not 
sanctimonious phrasemongery, but the utterance of one who lives 
in the theology of grace. One who believes in the sola gratia cannot 
-open his mouth in self-complacent boasting. He knows that, left 
to himself, he would at once reject the doctrine of salvation by 
grace, through the Means of Grace. "It is not my doctrine, not 
the product of my hand, but God's gift. Good Lord, I have not 
.spun it out of my head; it did not grow in my garden; it did not 
flow from my spring; it was not born of me. It is God's gift, 
not any invention of man." "We are nothing: Christ alone is all. 
If He turns away His face, we must perish, and Satan will triumph, 
even though we were as holy as Peter and Paul. Let us therefore 
humble ourselves under the mighty hand of God, that He may exalt 
us in due time; for God resisteth the proud and giveth grace to 
the humble, 1 Pet. 5, 5 f ." Luther, VIII, 27 ; XIV, 455. Luther- 
.anism does not breed self-conceit. The so la gratia speaks thus: 
"Who maketh thee to differ from another? And what hast thou 
that thou didst not receive? Now, if thou didst receive it, why 
dost thou glory as if thou hadst not received it?" 1 Cor. 4, 7; 
Eev. 3, 710. 

10* The Lutheran Church, THE CHURCH OF THE PURE DOCTRINE, 
MAKES MUCH OF THE PURE DOCTRINE. She holds it sacred. It is 
God's truth, revealed in Scripture. And she loves it. It provides 
the full knowledge of salvation. She cherishes it as her greatest 
treasure and will not yield up one particle of it. She is glad to 
observe the direction of the Lord: "teaching them to observe all 
things whatsoever I have commanded you," Matt. 28, 20. "Hold 
fast the form of sound words which thou hast heard of me/' 2 Tim. 
1, 13. The Lutheran Church is most liberal in all matters which 
do not concern the revealed doctrine. In matters on which Scrip- 
ture is silent, in matters of ceremony and church-government, she 
readily yields. A. C., VII; Ap., VII and VIII, 45; F. C., Th. D., 
X, 30 f. But she is unyielding where the pure doctrine is con- 


cerned. "The doctrine is not ours, but God's" (Luther, IX, 644) ;: 
and of that which is God's not one jot or tittle can be yielded.. 
"We cannot abandon truth that is manifest and necessary to the- 
Church." Ap., Preface, 16. 

The Lutheran Church, loving the pure doctrine, hates all. 
manner of false doctrine. She knows it for what it is, rebellion: 
against God, the invention of Satan, destroying or imperiling sal- 
vation. "We see how full the world is of sects and false teachers,, 
who all wear the holy name as a cover and sham for their doctrine- 
of devils." Large C., Ill, 47. "The enemy of mortals cunningly 
labored to scatter in the churches and schools the seeds of false 1 
doctrine and dissensions, to excite divisions combined with offense, 
and by those arts of his to corrupt the purity of the heavenly doc- 
trine." B. C., Preface. Trigl., p. 7. False doctrine is not a harmless^ 
affair. Men "must for their salvation distinguish between pure and 
false doctrine." P. C., Th. D., Compr. Sum., 8. Loathing false doc- 
trine as Christ and His apostles loathed it, Matt. 7, 15 ; 1 Tim. 6, 3ff.,, 
she will have no dealing with it, but denounces and condemns it 
wherever it shows itself and whatever form it takes. "ISFo room' 
is given the least error." P. C., Th. D., XI, 96. "Of this article 
nothing can be yielded or surrendered. . . . Here, too, there is no> 
yielding or surrendering. . . . Here, too, there can be no yielding 
or surrendering. ... It is in no way to be tolerated." S. A., II, 
Art. II. The Lutheran Church insists on tolerance as a principle' 
of the State. True to her doctrine of the separation of Church 
and State (165), she will not apply force, or have it applied,, 
against false teachers. She does not persecute. "We sincerely 
detest it." B. C., Preface ; Trigl., p. 21. Luther, X, 1534; XVII,. 
1326; IV, 622. But she will not tolerate false doctrine in the 
Church. She employs all the power of God's Word against it. She 
implants the love of the pure doctrine and the hatred of false doc- 
trine in her children. "The greatest abuse occurs . . . when false 
teachers rise up and offer their lying vanities as God's Word.^ 
Large C., I, 54. "Prom this preserve us, heavenly Father."' 
Small C., First Petition. 

Cherishing the pure doctrine as her greatest treasure, the 
Lutheran Church stresses doctrine. She is a doctrinal Church. 
She does not hold with those who demand an "undogmatic Chris- 
tianity," "not dogma, but life," "deeds, not creeds," "no creed, 
but Christ." She holds with Christ: "Teaching them to observe 
all things/' Matt. 28, 20, and with Paul : "Take heed unto thyself 


and unto the doctrine," 1 Tim. 4, 16. She holds that the teaching 
of the doctrine of God's Word produces the saving knowledge of 
Christ and of Christlike deeds and that the cry for deeds rather 
than doctrine has its origin in the dogma of salvation through 
works. The Lutheran Church attaches supreme importance to doc- 
trine., to the pure doctrine. The preaching and teaching of God's 
pure Word is her central activity, indoctrination her chief concern, 
doctrinal preaching the order of the day. "The true adornment of 
the churches is godly, useful, and clear doctrine/' Ap., XXIV, 51. 
"The Christian doctrine should be constantly treated and required." 
Large C., Short Preface, 24. Ap., XV, 41 ff. F. C., Th. D., 
Compr. Sum., 8. "They take no pains that there should be among 
the people a summary of the dogmas of the Church. . . . Good men 
can easily judge whither these things tend/' Ap., XXI, 43. 

The Lutheran Church is a doctrinal Church and therefore 
a strong Church. The strength of the Church lies in the almighty 
Word of God. John 6, 63; Acts 6, 7; 20, 32; 1 Pet. 1, 23; Is. 
55, 11. "The might of Christ and of the Church is not derived 
from worldly sources. . . . 'Out of the mouth of babes' the Lord 
ordained her strength." Luther, IV, 622. When the power of the 
Word is applied, that is, when the Church preaches the saving doc- 
trine; when the full power of the Word is applied, that is, when 
the Church preaches the pure doctrine, the Church prospers and 
grows and accomplishes "that which I please." The strength of 
the Lutheran Church is the pure doctrine, and her power increases 
as the appreciation of their precious heritage grows among her 
'Children. "Our Church's name, her history, her sorrows and her 
triumphs, her glory in what has been, her power for the good yet 
to be, all are bound up with the principle that purity in the faith 
is first of all, such a first that without it there can be no true 
second." C. P. Krauth, The Conservative Eeformation, p. 200. 

11* THE LUTHERAN CHURCH, devoted to the pure doctrine of 
'God's Word, is A CONFESSIONAL CHURCH. She is a confessing 
'Church. God requires the Church to confess her faith, Matt. 10, 
32.33; IPet. 3, 15. The truth that fills her heart compels her 
mouth to speak, Ps. 116, 10; Matt. 16, 16; John 1, 49; 6, 69; 
Acts 4, 20. And the current denials of the truth call for a straight- 
forward confession of the truth, John 6, 66 69; Gal. 2, 11 21; 
1 Tim. 3, 15. 16. Hence the Confessions of the Church. "We 
introduce . . . these writings as a witness of the truth . . . against 
the corruption of heretics." P. C., Th. D., Compr. Sum., 13. 4. 


Creedlessness is untruthful. When any teaching of the Bible is 1 - 
denied, the Church must reject the lie in plain,, unequivocal lan- 
guage, must put forth a creed. The cry "The Bible is our only 
creed" is an evasion of the truth and in reality springs from in- 
difference, from hostility to the Bible teaching. Truth does not- 
permit its adherents to halt between two opinions, but demands and 
produces a forthright confession. The Lutheran Confessions speak 
a forthright language; they do not gloss over the differences sep- 
arating the orthodox from the false Church. All the world knows 
where the Lutheran Church stands. "The papists cannot boast 
that we have sidestepped, have been afraid, or have concealed our 
faith." Luther, XVI, 928. As between the creedless and the creedal. 
churches, the creedal churches meet the demand of truthfulness. 
And as between the various creedal churches, the Lutheran Church, 
in her Confessions, meets all the demands of truth. 

The Lutheran Church is a confessing and a confessional 
Church. She demands of her children unqualified acceptance of,, 
and unswerving adherence to, the Confessions. A body of Lu- 
therans which refuses to stand four-square upon the Lutheran Con- 
fessions is not genuine. A Lutheran accepts the Confessions as- 
they stand. He does not accept them with reservations. The 
Lutheran Church asks her children to accept the Confessions not 
in so far as (quatenus) they agree with God's Word, as though, 
certain portions might not be expressive of the Scripture truth,, 
but fully and unqualifiedly, because (quia) all their doctrinal state- 
ments are divine truth. Nor does she force this unqualified accep- 
tance upon her children. She leaves God's Word to exert the pres- 
sure needed. The Lutheran Confession calls for unqualified 
acceptance and unswerving allegiance "not because it was composed 
by our theologians, but because it has been taken from God's 
Word and is founded firmly and well therein." F. C., Th. D., 
Compr. Sum., 5. 10. The Lutheran Church does not demand 
a blind and slavish subscription to the Confessions, but asks for 
an honest Christian investigation and leaves the rest to the power 
of the truth. And no man has ever yet, on comparing the Lu- 
theran Confessions with Scripture, been compelled by the truth to 
depart from them. This, then, is the Lutheran attitude : "By God's 
grace, I have most diligently compared all these articles with the 
Scriptures time and again and often have gone over them and 
would defend them as confidently as I have now defended the 
Sacrament of the Altar. I am not drunk nor thoughtless ; I know 


what I say. ... I mean by this writing to confess my faith, point 
by point, before God and all the world, in which I intend to abide' 
until my death and therein (so help me God !) to depart from this 
world and to appear before the judgment-seat of Jesus Christ."' 
F. C., Th. D., VII, 29 ff. "I do not know how to change or yield 
anything in them." S. A., P. Ill, Art. XV, 3. "Being instructed 
from the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures, we are sure concerning 
our doctrine and confession. . . . Therefore we also have deter- 
mined not to depart even a finger's breadth either from the subjects- 
themselves or from the phrases which are found in them." B. C., 
Preface; Trigl., pp. 21. 23. Cp. F. C., Th. D., XII, 40. They say 
the Lutheran Church is creed-bound. She is indeed. May she 
never unloose these bonds, the blessed bonds of the truth of Scrip- 
ture. Loyalty to the Confessions, Lutheran confessionalism, means 
loyalty to God's Word. And loyalty to God's Word breeds loyalty 
to the Lutheran Confessions. 

The Lutheran Church requires that "to this direction all doc- 
trines are to be conformed, and what is contrary thereto is to b& 
rejected and condemned." F. C., Ep., Sum. Cont., 6. That i& 
another feature of her confessional character. She will not tolerate 
any teaching that does not conform to the Confessions. She recog- 
nizes indeed but one authority in the Church, Scripture. Scripture 
"is the only true standard by which all teachers and doctrines are 
to be judged." F. C., Th. D., Compr. Sum., 3. The Lutheran Con- 
fessions would not supplant Scripture nor be placed alongside of 
Scripture, as of equal authority. "The Word of God alone should 
be and remain the only standard and rule of doctrine, to which the' 
writings of no man should be regarded as equal, but to which every- 
thing should be subjected." L. c., 9. No one who has imbibed the 
spirit of the Lutheran Symbols is going to commit symbololatry. 
But taken from Scripture, these Symbols are clothed with the 
authority of Scripture, Scripture alone is norma normans, the Con- 
fessions norma normata; but corresponding exactly to the norm of 
Scripture, they become themselves a norm, normata indeed, but' still 
norma. And the Lutheran Church insists that men and doctrines 
be tried by this norm. According to this norm, "because it has been 
derived from God's Word, all other writings should be judged and 
adjusted as to how far they are to be approved and accepted." 
F. C., Th. D., Compr. Sum., 10. The Church needs the creedal 
norm. It is necessary to meet the changing conditions and the false 
application of Scripture by the errorists with concise and definite 


formulations of the Christian doctrine. That unmasks the errorists, 
puts a stop to the machinations of "troublesome and contentious 
men" (B. C., Trigl., p. 21), and serves the simplicity of the faith 
of the believer. The Lutheran Church owes her doctrinal integrity 
to her insistence on the creedal test and obligation. 

The Confessions vitally affect the life of the Lutheran Church. 
They are not only the test exposing the error., but also the standard 
under which her children rally. "For thorough, permanent unity 
in the Church it is, above all things, necessary that we have a com- 
prehensive, unanimously approved summary and form wherein is 
brought together from God's Word the common doctrine, reduced 
to a brief compass, which the churches that are of the true Chris- 
tian religion confess." F. C., Compr. Sum., 1. The Lutheran Con- 
fessions, being derived from Scripture, are the bond uniting the 
Lutherans. They know their brothers by their confession and love 
their brothers because of their common confession. The Lutheran 
Church is not a fortuitous aggregation of men of different minds, 
but one body, its members animated by one mind, knit together by 
loyal adherence to the one Biblical faith. 

The confessionalism of the Lutheran Church is her strength. 
Clinging to the Confessions, which are founded upon God's Word 
and found their adherents upon God's Word, she is strong with the 
power of God's Word. God's power upholds her; God's favor rests 
upon her, Matt. 10, 32 ; Jer. 15, 19 21. "She is willing as indeed 
she must be if she wishes to live to abide by, and uphold, her 
confessional principle," and "her value in this land depends upon 
her fidelity to her Confession." Th. Schmauck and C. Belize, The 
Confessional Principle, XIII. XVIII. She declines and she 
nourishes as her confessional spirit wanes and waxes. "Wherever 
the Lutheran Church ignored her Symbols or rejected all or some 
of them, there she always fell an easy prey to her enemies. But 
wherever she held fast to her God-given crown, esteemed and 
studied her Confessions, and actually made them a norm and 
standard of her entire life and practise, there the Lutheran Church 
flourished and confounded all her enemies." F. Bente, Hist. Int., 
Trigl., p. IV. 

12, THE LUTHERAN" CHURCH, devoted to the pure doctrine of 
God's Word, is THE IMPLACABLE FOE OE UNIONISM. She loves the 
truth and cannot enter upon relations of church-fellowship with 
those who have espoused the untruth. Truth cannot endure error. 
Error can. The sects consequently, conceived in false doctrine, 


are by nature unionistic. The Catholic Church harbors all manner 
of opposing factions in her midst. The Eeformed churches have 
from their very beginning championed unionism. The true Lu- 
theran Church, obeying the voice of truth, Kom. 16, 17; Matt. 
7 15; 2 John 10, avoids those who bring in and maintain false 
doctrines. She abhors and abominates unionism for its hypocrisy 
in pretending unity where there is diversity. The only fellowship 
recognized by the Lutheran Church is that which springs from the 
unity of faith and doctrine. "The Church is originally a fellow- 
ship of faith and of the Holy Ghost in hearts, . . . which fellowship 
nevertheless has outward marks, so that it can be recognized, 
namely, the pure doctrine of the Gospel and the administration of 
the Sacraments in accordance with the Gospel of Christ." Ap., VII 
and VIII, 5. Church-fellowship without the fellowship of faith 
and confession is not expressive of the unity of the one holy Chris- 
tian Church, Eph. 4, 3 7, but a caricature of it, a sham. And it 
is a curse. Ignoring and condoning the error, it confirms the 
errorist in his delusion and blunts the unionist's sense of truth. 
To belittle the denial of any truth is to belittle that very truth. 
And that breeds indifference to the whole body of truth. And in- 
difference carries in its wake the loss of the truth, Gal. 5, 9. The 
false teacher brings untold harm upon the Church, the unionist 
more. "The unionistic bodies imperil the Church more than the 
worst sect; for the worst sect at least acknowledges that nothing 
but the pure doctrine ought to be preached in a Church; but 
unionism stands for the pernicious principle that man can never 
find and possess the pure truth and that, consequently, contending 
for the truth is wrong." C. F. W. Walther, Epistle-postil, p. 77. 
Denominationalism, which holds that God is pleased with the 
diversities represented by the various denominations, as being 
varieties of the same truth, is a wicked and pernicious thing. 
Unionism, which proposes to remove other evils of denomina- 
tionalism, is, because of its principle that the truth revealed in 
Scripture is, more or less, a matter of indifference, doubly wicked 
and pernicious. The Lutheran Church will have none of it. She 
stands for the truth and stands out for the whole truth. She will 
not discount the least article of the revealed doctrine in the in- 
terest of a fancied peace and spurious prosperity. They plead that 
only minor errors are involved. But "the controversies which have 
occurred are not, as some would regard them, mere misunderstand- 
ings or disputes concerning words" (F. C., Th. D., Preface, 9), 



"nice points/' "finely spun distinctions." The differences separat- 
ing the Lutheran Church and the sects deal with the fundamentals. 
And the persistent denial of the least important doctrine becomes 
a fundamental error when it turns into conscious rejection of the 
authority of Scripture. The Lutheran Church insists on full and 
honest agreement on the doctrines clearly revealed in Scripture as 
the basis of church union. She took that position four hundred 
years ago. She takes it to-day. "As regards the errors which they 
[the Catholic and Reformed churches] embraced, they were re- 
jected as sects, with which our fathers could not have church- 
fellowship without practically sanctioning these errors and becom- 
ing partakers of their sin. The Lutherans set forth the pure Chris- 
tian faith in their Augsburg Confession. On that they united; in 
the Lord's name they set up that as their banner; and because 
they spoke what they in their hearts believed as the very truth 
of God, they firmly declined to assume any responsibility for the 
doings and dealings of those who taught a different doctrine and 
established different churches. That is the position of the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church to this day." M. Loy, The Augsburg Con- 
fession, p. 337. They stigmatize that attitude as exclusivism. But 
the Lutheran Church is bound to be as exclusive as the apostles 
were, Rom. 16, 17; 2 John 10; Acts 19, 9, and she declares: 
"Impious teachers are to be deserted." Ap., VII and .VIII, 48. "To 
dissent from the agreement of so many nations and to be called 
schismatics is a grave matter. But divine authority commands all 
not to be allies and defenders of impiety.'" S. A., Of the Power, 42. 
"We have no intention of yielding aught of the eternal, immutable 
truth of God for the sake of temporal peace, tranquillity, and unity. 
Nor would such peace and unity, since it is devised against the 
truth and for its suppression, have any permanency." F. C., Th. D., 
XI, 95 f. That is the voice of the conscience of the Christian 
Church finding utterance in confessional Lutheranism. It is raised 
in behalf of the preservation of the saving truth. The Lutheran 
Church will not betray the truth. Nor will she betray the cause of 
the erring Christians in the sects. She will not bid their seducers 
Godspeed. 145+ 

13 The Lutheran Church loathes unionism, but loves, and labors 
for, a CHRISTIAN UNION, Eph. 4, 3. She is not separatistic. She 
charges those who separate from their brethren on the score of dis- 
agreement over adiaphora or of the prevalence of offenses in the 
sphere of life with sinful separatism. A. C., VII. Ap., Ill, 


VII and VIII, 49. F. C., Ep., X, 7. She is most patient with those 
who through weakness err in non-fundamental doctrines. We must 
"overlook certain less serious mistakes, lest the Church fly apart 
into various schisms." Ap., Ill, 111. Public harmony "cannot 
last unless pastors and churches mutually, overlook and pardon 
many things." Ap., Ill, 122. She labors with the erring in great 
leniency and patience. "The time for breaking off fraternal rela- 
tions with those also who err. in non-fundamental doctrines arrives 
then only when they stubbornly refuse to accept the convincing 
testimony of Scripture." F. C. W. Walther, Lehre und Wehre, 14, 
109. "I have no doubt that there are among you (.at Zurich, 
Bern, Basel, etc.) "right pious folk, who are sincere and want noth- 
ing but the truth; and I cherish the glad and firm hope that, 
though they are still somewhat entangled, in time, if we deal gently 
with these good weak people, God will happily end all error and 
misunderstanding. Amen." Luther, XVII, 2162. NOT is the Lu- 
theran Church content, after the divisions have taken place, to let 
matters rest .as they are. She stands alone, but is not self -centered. 
She concerns herself with the reunion of . broken Christendom. 
"God, the Discerner of all men's hearts, is our witness that we do 
not delight and have no joy in this awful division." Ap v Concl., 
Trigl., p. 451. "We beseech Him to look upon the afflicted and 
scattered churches and to bring them back to godly and perpetual 
concord." Ap., Preface, 19. 16. F. C., Ep., XI, ; 22. "It cannot be 
denied that we always sought peace and, as the psalm [34, 14] 
says, pursued it, that we offered it and begged for it." Luther, 
XVI,, 928. "We are. prepared to confer amiably concerning all 
possible ways and means in order that we may come together." 
A. C., Preface, 10. F. C., Th. D., XI, 96. 

And the Lutheran plan for healing the breach among the 
churches is the only God-pleasing, the only effective one. She does 
not gloss over the error, but denounces it for what it is, and presents 
the powerful truth of Scripture in the "not uncertain hope that . . . 
good and well-disposed men would be attracted by this renewed and 
repeated confession of ours." B. C., Preface, Trigl., pp. 11. 19. 
That is true Christian irenics. The Lutheran Church is polemical 
because she is irenical. She engages in polemics not for the sake 
of wrangling and self-glorification,, but in the interest of truth and 
peace. " 'Honest and earnest controversy/ says Dr. Philip Schaff, 
'conducted in a Christian and catholic spirit, promotes true and 
lasting union. Polemics looks to irenics. The aim of war is 


peace/ To this we heartily subscribe." The Confessional Principle, 
p. 41. "Every simple Christian can perceive what is right or 
wrong" when "not only the pure doctrine has been stated, but also 
the erroneous contrary doctrine has been repudiated and rejected," 
"and thus the offensive divisions that have occurred are thoroughly 
settled." F. C., Ep., XI, 22. Lutheranism is not divisive, but 
unifying. The straightforward profession of the truth has never 
yet caused a split in the Church. It heals the rupture that the 
denial of the truth causes. "All men must see that loyalty to God's 
holy Word does not divide, but truly unites." C. F. W. Walther, Der 
Lutheraner, 28, p. 36. The Lutheran program "Union in the 
truth" is the only one that promises real success. It appeals to 
every Christian. The Lutheran plan does not require him to accept 
any man-made conditions and dogmas, such as submission to the 
authority of the Pope or the acceptance of the Apostolic Succession. 
No Christian violates his conscience by accepting the Lutheran 
terms : agreement to "God's Word, the eternal truth," and to any 
and all declarations that witness to this truth. F. C., Th. D., Compr. 
Sum., 13. The Lutheran Church, the Church of the pure doctrine, 
is thus the only body which is equipped to bring about a Chris- 
tian union. "Gieseler, the great Eeformed Church historian, says 
(Theolog. Stud. u. Kritik, 1833, II, 1142) : <If the question be 
which among all Protestant confessions is best adapted for form- 
ing the foundation of a union among Protestant Christians, we 
declare ourselves unreservedly for the Augsburg Confession/ " The 
Conservative Reformation, p. 259. It is adapted for uniting all 
Christians because it summons them not to any man's side, but 
to God's side. 

14, The character of the Lutheran Church is reflected in her 
'CULTUS. She lives and moves and has her being in the grace of 
God, which comes to men in the Means of Grace. Accordingly, she 
-calls her people together in public worship to implore the grace 
of God, to appropriate the grace of God, to glorify the grace of God, 
and has provided a liturgy which fully meets these requirements 
of Christian worship. Her one great concern is to have men 
thoroughly instructed in the Gospel and fully assured of the grace 
-of God. Accordingly, she places in the center of the service the 
preaching of the Gospel, which proclaims and imparts the grace of 
( God, and the administration of the Sacraments, which seal and 
confirm the Gospel-promise. "In the divine service everything 
should among Christians subserve the Word and the Sacraments." 


Luther, X, 257. "Of all acts of worship that is the greatest, most- 
holy, most necessary, and highest, ... to preach the Word of God."' 
Ap., XV, 4:2. "The true adornment of the churches is godly, useful,, 
and clear doctrine, the devout use of the Sacraments, ardent prayer, 
and the like. . . . We mingle with it German hymns. . . ." Ap. r 
XXIV, 51. 3. A. C., XXIV, 7. There is indeed no absolute litur- 
gical uniformity in the Lutheran Church. That, again, is cliar-- 
acteristic of Lutheranism, which insists on unity in essentials, but 
liberty in adiaphorous matters. "The churches will not condemn 
one another because of dissimilarity of ceremonies." P. C., Th. D.,. 
X, 31. A. C., VII. XV. Ap., VII and VIII, 45. The Lutheran 
Church knows when and where to be liberal. Any service is truly 
Lutheran which preaches and praises the grace of God. But while 
the Lutheran Church does not insist on a full and uniform liturgy, 
she frowns upon undue individualism. She points out that the 
greatest possible measure of uniformity serves the interest of order 
and edification, 1 Cor. 14, 40. 26. "It is pleasing to us that for the 
sake of tranquillity [unity and good- order] universal rites be ob- 
served." Ap., VII and VIII, 33. F. C., Th. D., X, 9. "My dear 
sirs, get together in a friendly way, ... so that the practise will be 
the same and uniform among you throughout your district." 
Luther, X, p. 260. And the Lutheran Church offers her people 
a liturgy which cannot but appeal to the Christian. Neither pom- 
pous nor barren, but simple and majestic, it is worthy of the Gospel 
which it serves and impressive because of the Gospel-truths which it 
exhibits. Due to another trait of Lutheranism, its conservatism, 
the Lutheran order of worship, purged of the offenses which had 
crept into the liturgy, retains what the wisdom and experience of 
the Church offered for the edification of the people. "With a very 
grateful mind we embrace the profitable and ancient ordinances, 
especially since they contain a discipline which is profitable to 
educate and train the people." Ap., VII and VIII, 33 ; XV, 38 ; 
XXIV, 1. The ceremonialism and formalism of the Catholic 
cultus is the outgrowth of the Catholic doctrine that the sinner 
must appease the wrath of God by means of human work, worth, 
and merit. The specific Eeformed cultus, due to the Eeformed 
denial of the efficacy and objective nature of the Means of Grace, 
represents a quest after the grace of God revolving around human 
agency and subjective experience. The Lutheran cultus places the 
grace of God nigh unto the sinner in the Means of Grace. 


15* The POLITY of the Lutheran Church, as defined by the Con- 
fessions, is that of the Apostolic Church, fixed by Christ and the 
apostles. Its basic principle is the autonomy of the local congrega- 
tion (congregational form of church government). In the larger 
sense the Church is in no way autonomous. She is in every way, 
as in an absolute monarchy, subject to the authority of Christ and 
His Word. "One is your Master, even Christ," Matt. 23, 8. "If any 
man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God," 1 Pet. 4, 11. "He 
wishes His own voice, His own Word, to be heard, not human tradi- 
tions." Ap., XXVIII, 19. S.A., Of the Power, 11. But with 
respect to the matter of authority within the Church (church 
government in the technical sense) the Church forms a pure 
democracy, a brotherhood of believers, Matt. 23, 8, a sisterhood of 
congregations, the local churches managing their own affairs as 
self-governing bodies, subject to no superior authority and dealing 
with other churches in prosecuting the work of the Lord on the basis 
of absolute equality. The authority of the local congregation is 
supreme. "Tell it unto the church," Matt. 18, 17. "All things 
are yours," 1 Cor. 3, 21 f. "Christ gives supreme and final juris- 
diction to the church when He says: 'Tell it unto the church'" 
(S. A., Of the Power, 24), the local church, Matt. 18, 20. And: 
"No one should publicly teach in the Church unless he be regularly 
called" (A. C., XIV), called by the local church. 150* Again: 
"We believe, teach, and confess that the congregation of God of 
every place and every time has, according to its circumstances, the 
good right, power, and authority [in matters truly adiaphora] to 
change, to diminish, and to increase them." P. C., Th. D., X, 9. 
The Christian churches, made up of kings and priests, 1 Pet. 2, 9 ; 
Rev. 1, 6, the Lord's freemen, are sovereign, free from the domina- 
tion of men. 

The Lutheran Church has therefore repudiated all hierarchical 
systems of church government, according to which the Pope (papal 
system), or the bishops (episcopal system), or the session and 
assembly or synod (presbyterial system, synodical system), or any 
man or body of men, however constituted, rule the Church and the 
individual congregation or the individual Christian as by divine 
right. "The Levitical high priest was the chief priest by divine right" 
(S. A., Of the Power, 38) indeed, but this form of church govern- 
ment has given way to the liberty of the New Testament and must 
not be reestablished in any form. 160 164* Nor do the Lutheran 
Confessions recognize a divine right of the State to share in the 
government of the Church (Caesaropapism). 165* Christ estab- 


lished the Church as a Free Church. The churches of God of 
every place and every time may indeed delegate the management 
of certain of their affairs to groups within the congregation or to 
bishops, consistories, synods, etc. (representative Church), as best 
suits their peculiar circumstances, these bodies exercising their 
functions by human right and acting, where the ideal condition 
obtains, in an advisory capacity. The Lutheran Church treats this 
phase of church government as an adiaphorous matter, lying on the 
same plane as "the rites or ceremonies instituted by men," does 
not demand that they "should be everywhere alike" (A. C., VII), 
believes "that no Church should condemn another because one has 
less or more external ceremonies not commanded by God than the 
other" (F. C., Ep., X, 7. 4), but does insist that, whatever par- 
ticular forms of church government be established, the sovereignty 
of the local congregation be kept inviolate. 

Under the Lutheran polity the laity takes part in the govern- 
ment of the Church, not only within the congregation, but also in 
the representative Church at large (synod, etc.). 164* "The right 
to judge, and pronounce on, matters of doctrine belongs to each and 
every Christian, so much so that he is doing an accursed thing who 
impairs this right by a hair's breadth." Luther, XIX, 341. Thus 
the Lutheran Church jealously guards the rights of the Christian 
people and trains her members to exercise the privileges of their 
spiritual priesthood. It all goes back, by way of the articles of 
the Christian liberty and the universal priesthood of the believers, 
to the central article of justification by faith. 

16* The Lutheran Church has received the pure doctrine of God's 
Word as a SACRED TRUST. It is her peculiar calling faithfully to 
guard and administer it. The Church needs the Gospel of salva- 
tion by grace, needs it as it is taught by the Lutheran Church. 
"As our Church has been needed in the past, so she is needed in 
the present. She is needed not only for the motherhood to her own 
children, but for the great wants of Christendom and of the world. 
She is needed as a witness to that doctrine which is conceded in 
terms by the whole Protestant world, but which is invaded pri- 
marily or by necessary inference by every system which is at war 
with ours the doctrine of justification by faith." C. P. Krauth, 
The Lutheran Diet, 1877, p. 48. That means that, "if we as 
a Church no longer witnessed to this doctrine, we should as 
a Church be of no use in the world; no longer the salt of the 
earth, we should be fit only for the dunghill." F. Pieper, Ninth 


Eeport Atlantic Disk, p. 34. And the Church needs for her well- 
being the whole of the divine doctrine. She cannot perform her 
work as God would have it performed unless she applies every 
single article of it. It is for the Lutheran Church to spread it 
throughout Christendom and the world, preaching it with a loud 
voice and adorning it with a godly life. The Church is yearning 
for peace and concord. The testimony of the Lutheran Church 
and her insistence on loyal adherence to the full truth will achieve 
that measure of a godly union which by the gracious providence of 
God is in store for her. The Lutheran Church is charged with the 
preservation and spread of the pure doctrine. For that God raised 
her up. To that she has dedicated herself. "We cannot abandon 
truth that is manifest and necessary to the Church." Ap., 
Preface, 16. 

17* "That is the Evangelical Lutheran Church: oft misknown 
and unknown and yet well known; seemingly poor, yet possessed 
of great wealth and enriching many with the treasure of the pure 
doctrine, which far surpasses all the wealth of the world ; not held 
together by a powerful hierarchy, but knit together by her precious 
Symbols, the Book of Concord ; not busying herself with the man- 
agement of the kingdoms of this world, but busy in building up 
the kingdom of God and fighting the Lord's battles ; unpretending 
and humble-minded, but greatly rejoicing over the great things the 
Lord hath wrought for her and through her; her heart set. in holy 
wrath against the perverters and blasphemers of the Word, yet ever 
beating with loving compassion and tender solicitude for those who 
have gone astray." M. Guenther, Populaere Symbolik, p. 9. "Not 
the great number of her adherents, 2 ) not her organization, not her 

2) Statistics of the Lutheran Church, as given by the Lutheran 
World Almanac, 1931: Lutherans in Africa, 373,993; Asia, 432,893; 
Europe, 56,319,935; North America, 4,441,755; Oceania, 345,504; South 
America, 304,705. Total: 62,218,785. (The figure for Europe includes 
the churchless in the state churches and the Lutheran members of the 
Prussian Union.) In the United States 4,220,848 baptized, 2,251,311 com- 
municants, are distributed among the synods as follows: United Lutheran 
Church, 1,378,017 b., 660,749 c.; American Lutheran Conference (Am. Luth. 
Church, Augustana Synod, Norwegian Luth. Church, Lutheran Free Church, 
United Danish Church), 1,367,955 b., 650,725 c.; Synodical Conference 
(Missouri Synod, Joint Wisconsin Synod, Slovak Synod, Norwegian 
Synod), 1,332,267 b., 863, 148 c.; Church of the Lutheran Brethren, 2,000 b., 
800 c.; Eielsen Synod, 1,087 b., 700 c.; Danish Church, 19,577 b., 12,519 c.; 
Icelandic Synod, 8,524 b., 2,561 c.; Suomi Synod (Finnish), 34,479 b., 22,71 lc.; 
Finnish National Church, 7,890 b., 6,131 c.; Finnish Apostolic Church, 
50,000 b., 19,000 c.; independent congregations, 24,337 b., 14^027 <c. In 
Canada, 129,154 b., 59,564 c. 


charitable and other institutions, not her beautiful customs and 
liturgical forms, etc., but the precious truths confessed by her 
Symbols in perfect agreement with the Holy Scriptures constitute 
the true beauty and rich treasures of our Church as well as the 
never-failing source of her vitality and power." F. Bente, Con- 
cordia Triglotta, p. IV. 


"This is about the sum of our doctrine, in which, as can be 
seen, there is nothing that varies from the Scriptures." A. C.,. 
Conclusion of the first part. Trigl., p. 59. 


AUTHORITY IN THE CHURCH. The controversy on this point con- 
cerns a matter of fundamental importance the truth, infallibility, 
and certainty of the whole body of the Christian doctrine, and the 
very nature of faith. The Roman Catholic Church recognizes,, 
besides Scripture, the authority of tradition, of the councils, and of 
the Pope, the Eastern Catholic Church that of tradition and the 
first church councils. The Swedenborgians and others add new- 
revelations. The Quakers and others appeal to the "inner light."' 
The Unitarians and others accept Scripture only in so far as it 
agrees with reason. And the Reformed churches give reason a voice 
in the interpretation of Scripture. The Lutheran Church recognizes- 
no other source and norm of doctrine than the written word of the 
Bible. "We receive and embrace with our whole heart the 
prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments- 
as the pure, clear fountain of Israel, which is the only standard by 
which all teachers and doctrines are to be judged." F. C., Th. D. r 
Compr. Sum., 3. 9. Ap., IV, 107 ; III, 268. She rejects all human 
authority. "We concede neither to the Pope nor to the Church the- 
power to make decrees against the consensus of the prophets." 1 
Ap., XII, 66; VII and VIII, 23. S. A., P. II, II, 8. 14. She 
refuses to have reason put in judgment over Scripture. "We are 
certainly in duty bound to receive the words as they read and allow 
ourselves to be diverted therefrom by no objections or human con- 
tradictions spun from human reason." F. C., Th. D., VII, 45. Ap. r 
III, 175; VII and VIII, 27. And that is the teaching of Scrip- 


tare. "If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God/' 

1 Pet. 4, 11. "If ye continue in My Word, then are ye My dis- 
ciples indeed, and ye shall know the truth," John 8, 31. 32. "To 
the Law and to the Testimony !" Is. 8, 20 ; Deut. 4, 2 ; Jer. 23, 
1631; Matt. 5, 19; 15,9; Luke 16, 29. 31 ; Acts 17, 11; 20,27; 

2 Cor. 10, 5; Gal. 1, 8; Eph. 2, 20; Col. 2, 8; 1 Tim. 6, 3. 4; 
2 Tim. 3, 1517; Heb. 1, 1. 2; 2 Pet. 1, 19. And Holy Scrip- 
ture, the sole source of the saving doctrine, is the sole source OF 
SAVING KNOWLEDGE OP FAITH. ". . . which shall believe on Me 
through their "Word," John 17, 20. The theology and the faith 
which build on any human authority, are not Christian theology 
and saving faith, but human opinion and mere illusion. 2* 

makes the Bible the source of the Christian doctrine and the 
supreme and sole authority. The Lutheran Church teaches that 
the Bible does not merely contain the Word of God, but that every 
word of it is, because of verbal inspiration, the direct, immediate 
word of God. The Holy Ghost "spake by the prophets." Mcene 
Or., 7. "The Holy Ghost spake through them." S. A., P. Ill, 
VIII, 13. F. C., Th. D., X, 15. The Lutheran Confessions identify 
Holy Scripture with the Word of God. "God's Word, or Holy 
Scripture." Ap., II, 4, A. C., Preface, 8 ; XXVIII, 49. The Holy 
Ghost is the Author of the Bible; it is "the Scripture of the Holy 
Ghost." Ap., Preface, 9. What Paul wrote the Holy Ghost wrote. 
Ap., IV, 88. 107. Thus there can be no errors in Holy Scripture. 
It is "the pure, clear fountain of Israel." F. C., Th. D., Compr. 
Sum., 3. And that is the teaching of Scripture. "Which things 
also we speak, not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but 
which the Holy Ghost teacheth," 1 Cor. 2, 13 ; 1 Thess. 2, 13. "Unto 
them were committed the oracles of God." Eom. 3, 2. "All Scrip- 
ture is given by inspiration of God," 2 Tim. 3, 16. "Holy men of 
God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost," 2 Pet. 1, 21 ; 
2 Sam. 23, 2; Heb. 1, 1. 2. "The Scripture cannot be broken," 
John 10, 35 ; John 16, 13 ; 17, 17. Denying that the Bible is the 
Word of God in the full sense, rationalism discards Holy Scripture 
as the divine source of saving knowledge and strips it of its divine 
authority. The books of the Old Testament are the Word of God 
no less than those of the New Testament, Heb. 1, 1. 2. Both are 
the oracles of God, Eom. 3, 2. There are no degrees of inspiration, 
2 Tim. 3, 15. The Old Testament is invested with the same divine 


.authority as the New Testament, Luke 16, 29 ; John 5, 39. The 
Church needs it, Eph. 2, 20. And so "we receive and embrace with 
our whole heart the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of the Old 
.and New Testaments as the pure, clear fountain of Israel.-" F. C., 
Th. D., Compr. Sum., 3. "The prophetic Scriptures" that does 
not include, but specifically excludes, the Apocrypha. These books 
were not written by the prophets, by inspiration; they contain 
errors (Tobit 6, 71; 2 Mace. 12, 43 f. ; 14,411), were never in- 
cluded in the sacred volume which Jesus names Luke 24, 44, and 
therefore are not a part of Holy Scripture. No human decree can 
change apocryphal writings into canonical books. 

The prophetic and apostolic Scriptures are authentic .AS 


of their writings is God's Word as truly as the original Hebrew 
and Greek. A mistranslation is not God's word, and no human 
authority can invest it with divine authority. 

20* Holy Scripture, the Word of God, carries the full AUTHORITY 
of God. Every single statement, doctrine, command, of the Bible 
calls for instant and unqualified acceptance. "The things that 
I write to you are the commandments of the Lord," 1 Cor. 14, 37. 
"He that rejecteth Me and receiveth not My words hath one that 
judgeth him: the Word that I have spoken, the same shall judge 
him in the Last Day," John 12, 48. "My heart standeth in awe 
of Thy Word," Ps. 119, 161; Matt. 24, 35; Luke 24, 25; 1 Thess. 
2, 13 ; 2 Thess. 2, 15. The Lutheran Confessions are instinct with 
the awe of Holy Scripture. "Believe the Scriptures" (Large C., 
V, 76) ; bow to the authority of God's Word, is written on every 
page, into every article. 18. And they warn against treating God's 
Word as "some other silly prattle." Large C., Preface, 11. "It is 
amazing that the adversaries are in no way moved by so many pas- 
sages of Scripture." Ap., IV, 107. The Lutheran Confessions 
denounce the wickedness of the Enthusiasts, who "judge Scripture 
or the spoken Word and explain and stretch it at their pleasure," 
and the enthusiasm of the Papacy, which requires acceptance of its 
teaching "even though it is above and contrary to Scripture." S. A., 
P. Ill, VIII, 31 Those who deny the divine origin and char- 
acter of Holy Scripture reject its authoritativeness as a matter 
of course. 

21 + The Lutheran Church teaches the Scriptural doctrine of the 
EFFICACY of Scripture, holding that Scripture not only demands, 
but also creates the acceptance of its teaching, that its teaching 


produces faith and obedience. Holy Scripture is not a dead letter,, 
as the Enthusiasts teach; the power of the Holy Spirit does not 
merely attend the Word of Scripture, as the Eeformed hold, but is 
inherent .in it; Scripture does not compel a mere intellectual 
assent, resting on logical argumentation (72), but creates the living 
assent of faith. "God's Word is not like some other silly prattle, 
as that about Dietrich of Bern, etc., but, as St. Paul says, Bom. 
1, 16, 'the power of God.'" Large C., Pref., 11. "In those things 
which concern the spoken, outward Word, we must firmly hold that 
God grants His Spirit or grace to no one except through or with the 
preceding outward Word." S. A., P. Ill, VIII, 3. "With this 
Word the Holy Ghost is present and opens hearts, so that they, as 
Lydia in Acts 16, 14, are attentive to it and are thus converted." 
F. C., Ep., II, 5. The Lutheran article of the efficacy of Scripture 
is an article of Scripture : "The words that I speak unto you, they 
are spirit, and they are life," John 6, 63; 17, 20; 20, 31; Eom. 
10, 17; 1 Cor. 2, 4; 1 Thess. 1, 5; 2, 13; 2 Tim. 3, 16. 17; Heb. 
4, 12; 1 Pet. 1, 23. 

22* Holy Scripture is PERFECT. (The sufficiency of Scripture.) 
It contains everything that man needs to know in order to obtain 
salvation, to know and to do in order to lead a Christian life. There 
are no deficiencies in Scripture, to be supplied by oral tradition, 
pronouncements of the Pope, new revelations, or the modern de- 
velopment of doctrine. The Holy Scriptures "are able to make 
thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus," 
2 Tim. 3, 15 17. "I have not shunned to declare unto you all the 
counsel of God," Acts 20, 27; John 5, 39; 17, 20; Ps. 19, 7. 8;. 
Heb. 1, 1. 2. The Lutheran Church therefore permits no one, not 
even an angel, to establish and add to Scripture new articles of 
faith (S. A., P. II, II, 15) and denounces it as "sheer enthusiasm"' 
when the Pope (or the theologian) presumes to enrich the Chris- 
tian, Scriptural doctrine with the treasures "existing in the shrine 
of his heart." S. A., P. Ill, VIII, 4. F. C., Ep., Of the Summary 

23* Holy Scripture sets forth all doctrines of the Christian faith 
and life in clear terms, which can be understood by the simple no 
less than by the learned. Over against the view that Scripture is 
obscure, waiting for priest and Pope, the theologian and council,, 
to demonstrate its real meaning, the Lutheran Church upholds the 
PERSPICUITY of Scripture, "the clear word and teaching of the 
apostles" (Ap., VII and VIII, 25), "the pure, clear fountain of.' 


Israel." F. C., Th. D., Compr. Sum., 3. The words of Scripture 
are so clear that men must "devise sophistry whereby they elude 
.them." Ap., IV, 109. S. A., P. Ill, VIII, 3. That is the voice of 
v Scripture : "Thy Word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my 
path," Ps. 119, 105. 130; 19, 8. "From a child thou hast known 
the Holy Scriptures," 2 Tim. 3, 15; Deut. 30, 11; John 8, 31. 32; 
2 Pet. 1, 19. Because of its inspiration, authority, efficacy, suf- 
ficiency, and perspicuity Holy Scripture is the source and norm of 
the doctrines of faith and morals. 

INTERPRETER. The light, Ps. 119, 105; 2 Pet. 1, 19, needs no 
illumination. The true interpretation of Scripture consists in call- 
ing attention to, and reaffirming, the plain statements of Scripture, 
in letting Scripture speak for itself, in taking "the words as they 
read, in their proper and plain sense" (F. C., Th. D., VII, 45), and 
in ruling out everything that conflicts with the analogy of faith, 
that is, with the "clear passages of Scripture" (Ap., XXVII, 60), 
which set forth the doctrine of faith. ' Scripture is not waiting for 
.any human interpreters, for any individual or church council, or 
for reason to determine its true sense. It refuses to submit its 
statements and declarations to the interpretation and adjudication 
of any human tribunal. "No prophecy of Scripture is of any private 
interpretation," 2 Pet. 1, 20; Jer. 23, 31. 32. "Our eyes are to be 
cast far away from human reason." Ap., Ill, 175. 159. F. C., 
Th. D., VII, 50. 18, The doctrine that the interpretation of Scrip- 
ture must be derived from some human source denies the supreme 
authority of Scripture, subjects the Church to human authority, 
and makes way for the doctrines of men. 


AND STUDY THE BIBLE. Christ places the Scripture into the hands 
of all, John 5, 39. The apostles ask the entire congregation, not 
merely the presbyters, to read the epistles, Rom. 1, 1. 7; 1 Thess. 
5, 27; Col. 4, 16, including even the children, 1 John 2, 13. 14; 
2 Tim. 3, 15; Col. 3, 16. Far from prohibiting or restricting the 
reading of the Bible on the part of the laity, the Lutheran Church 
insists that "we must daily use it" (Large C., Preface, 13), must 
not be "idle and remiss in reading, hearing, and meditating upon, 
-God's Word.'" F. C., Th. D., II, 15. And "because these highly 
'important matters concern also the common people and laymen, 


who, inasmuch as -they are Christians/ must distinguish between.', 
pure and false doctrine" (P. C., Th. D., Compr. Sum.; 8), she is- 
bound to place the touchstone required by 1 John 4, 1 into the hands 
of her people, 164+ : 


( ' ' . ' 

2(5+ MAN HAS A NATUEAL KNOWLEDGE or GOD. He perceives the' 
eternal power and wisdom of God in the works of creation and 
providence, Eom. 1, 19. 20; Job 12, 71; Ps. 19, 1; 94, 9; Acts, 
17, 26 28, and is conscious of the eternal holiness and justice of 
God, his conscience holding him accountable to the divine Law 
written in his heart, Rom. 2, 14. 15. "Even the heathen had to 
a certain extent a knowledge of God from the Natural Law." P. C., 
Th. D., Y, 22. Ap., IV, 7. "No people has ever been so reprobate 
as not to institute and observe some divine worship." Large C., 
P. I, 17. Ap., VI, 17; XXIII, 12. This innate., natural knowledge 
of God, though it is most fragmentary and imperfect, is a true- 
knowledge and must be heeded. Atheism in its various forms, 
violently suppressing natural truths, constitutes a crime against 
man's nature and is fittingly characterized Ps. 14, 1. The same 
applies to agnosticism, pantheism, materialism, humanism. 

TION. The grace of God in Christ, which- brings salvation, John 
17, 3; 14, 6; Acts 4, 12, is revealed only in the Gospel, in the 
Bible. The works of creation and the Law written in the heart 
say nothing of it. "The world by wisdom knew not God," 1 Cor. 
1, 21. The Gentiles, having only the natural knowledge of God, 
"have no hope," Eph. 2, 12. "So, then, faith cometh by hearing- 
and hearing by the Word of God," Eom. 10, 17; Matt. 11, 27; 
16, 16. 17; 28, 19; John 1, 18; 5, 39; 17, 20. The teaching that 
the natural knowledge of God is sufficient for salvation is a flagrant 
denial of the central truth of the Christian religion, salvation by 
faith in Jesus; it teaches salvation by the Law, by obeying the 
dictates of conscience, by morality. The Lutheran Church teaches : 
"The heathen had to a certain extent a knowledge of God from the 
Natural Law, although they neither knew Him aright nor glorified 
Him aright, Eom. 1, 20 f ." P. C., Th. D., V, 22. "They have not 
the Lord Christ and, besides, are not illumined and favored by 
any gifts of the Holy Ghost." Large C., P. II, 66 f . Ath. Or., 1 f .. 
A. C., XVIII, 8. Ap., IV, 67. Large C., P. I, 18; P. II, 45. 



28* Concerning the nature of God the Christian Church teaches 


"God is a spirit," John 4, 24. "The heaven and heaven of heavens 
cannot contain Thee," 1 Kings 8, 27. "I Am that I Am," Ex. 3, 14. 
"There is one divine essence which is called and which is God: 
eternal, without body, without parts, of infinite power, wisdom, and 
goodness." A. C., I. "God is a spiritual, undivided essence." F. C.> 
Th. D., VIII, 68. Pantheism is subversive of all religion. Those 
cults which represent God as a material being teach a heathen re- 
ligion. The clear statements of Scripture: "He is not a man," 
1 Sam. 15, 29 ; "God is a spirit," forbid the literalistic interpreta- 
tion of the figurative, anthropomorphic, language of Ps. 11, 4 ("His 
eyes"); Ex. 6, 6 ("arm"), etc. 

29* Concerning the attributes of God, Scripture teaches that GOD 
ALONE is ETERNAL. Eternal being is a perfection of the Godhead 
alone, not of matter, not of time, as materialism' holds. God alone 
"liveth forever and ever," Eev. 4, 10; Gen. 21, 33 ; Is. 40, 28. "In 
the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth," Gen. 1, 1 ; 
Ps. 90, 2. "The properties of the divine nature are : to be almighty, 
eternal, infinite, and to be, according to the property of its nature 
and its natural essence, of itself, everywhere present, to know every- 
thing, etc." F. C., Ep., VIII, 7. Ath. Cr., 10. A. C., I. 

30, Scripture teaches that God, who KNOWS ALL THINGS, John 
21, 17, also "knows all things before they happen, as it is written 
Dan. 2, 28." F. C., XI, Ep., 3; Th. D., 4. 6. "Thou knowest my 
downsitting and mine uprising; Thou understandest my thought 
afar off. ... In Thy book all my members were written, which in 
continuance were fashioned, when as yet there was none of them," 
Ps. 139, 2. 16; Is. 37, 28; 41, 221; Dan. 2, 28; Matt. 26, 21. 34; 
Heb. 4, 13. The Socinians and others, denying that God foreknows 
what is casual and contingent, deny to God the perfections of 
omniscience and of immutability, Ps. 102, 27. The infallible fore- 
knowledge of God does not destroy the free agency of man. For 
1) the mere foreknowledge of a certain event is in no way the cause 
of its occurrence. And 2) God, the just God, holds man account- 
able for his actions, Acts 17, 31. "The beginning and cause of evil 
is not God's foreknowledge (for God does not create and effect evil, 
neither does He help or promote it) ; but the wicked, perverse will 
of the devil and of men, Hos. 13, 9 ; Ps. 5, 4." F. C., Th. D., XI, 7. 


.31, "God is a spiritual, undivided essence and therefore PRESENT 

.EVERYWHERE and in all creatures." P.O., VIII, Th. D., 68. 9; 

Ep., 7. "Though He be not far from every one of us. For in Him 

we live and move and have our being/' Acts 17, 27. 28 ; Ps. 139, 

710; 145, 18; 23, 4; Is. 43, 2; Jer. 23, 23. 24. The denial that 

'God is personally present everywhere on earth paganizes the con- 

ception of the Godhead. God is not inclosed in heaven. "The 
heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain Thee," 1 Kings 8, 27. 
'The heaven of the divine majesty, God's throne (Ps. 45, 6), is not 
.a locality with spatial dimensions, but is God's eternal, infinite 
.glory and majesty, His omnipresent and omnipotent power and 

dominion, Ps. 2, 4; 102,19. It is the right hand of God, Mark 
16, 19; Eph. 1, 20; 1 Pet. 3, 22, and the right hand of God is 
His omnipotent dominion, Eph. 1, 20. 21 ; Ps. 139, 7 10. Christ, 

; ascending to heaven, "ascended up far above all heavens, that He 
might fill all things," Eph. 4, 10. 68, 197, 

:32, The Christian Church teaches the article of the OMNIPOTENCE 

of "God, the Father Almighty" (the Apostles' Or.), "of infinite 
power" (A. C., I). While the ancient and the modern rationalists 
; subject God to the laws of nature and deny the possibility of 
miracles, the Bible teaches us to believe: "With God all things are 
possible," Mark 10, 27. And while the Eeformed insist that the 
laws of nature render the communication of the divine majesty to 
the human nature of Christ and the real presence in the Lord's 
Supper impossible, the Bible and the Lutheran Church insist: 
"With God nothing shall be impossible," Luke 1,37; Ps. 135, 6; 
Eev. 19, 6. 

:33, The article of the perfect HOLINESS AND RIGHTEOUSNESS of 
God, which is based on 1 Pet. 1, 16 : "Be ye holy, for I am holy" ; 
Eom. 1, 18 : "The wrath of God is revealed from heaven against 
:all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men"; Gal. 3, 10; Ps. 5, 4, 
but impaired or subverted by those who deny the sinfulness of sin, 
the wrath of God against the sinner, the Vicarious Atonement, as 
also by the Catholic teaching on the nature of venial sins and by 
all those who deny original sin, is affirmed in the Lutheran Con- 
fessions : "The eternal, immutable righteousness of God." F. C., 
Th. D., Ill, 57. "These things are not human trifles, but the com- 
mandments of the Divine Majesty, who insists upon them with 
.such earnestness, is angry with, and punishes, those who despise 
them." Large C., I, 330. 16. Small C., I, 211; III, 3 ff. 70 a. 


34* Scripture teaches that God is the GOD OF GRACE,, MERCY, AND 
LOVE. "The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long- 
suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth," Ex. 34, 6. "God 
so loved the world," John 3, 16 ; Eom. 5, 8 ; Eph. 2, 8 ; 1 John 4, 8. 
The grace of God in Christ is the real subject of all prophetic and 
apostolic teaching; the revelation of this attribute of God is the 
center of the entire revelation of God in Scripture, Acts 10, 43; 

1 Cor. 2, 2 ; John 1, 17. 18. And that is the teaching of the Lu- 
theran Church. God is "of infinite goodness." A. C., I. We should 
"see His paternal heart and His transcendent love toward us." 
Large C., II, 23. "Here in all three articles He has Himself re- 
vealed and opened the deepest abyss of His paternal heart and of 
His pure unutterable love." L. c., 64. "This proposition" is "the 
principal matter of all epistles, yea, of the entire Scriptures." Ap., 
IV, 87. The Lutheran Church has but one object, to lead men 
"to truly know the riches of the grace of Christ." F. C., Th. D., 
Ill, 6. The saving knowledge of God is the knowledge of His 
grace. The Calvinistic dogma that God withholds His saving grace 
from a part of mankind misrepresents God. So does the Catholic 
dogma that Christ left it to the sinner to complete the satisfaction 
for his sins. Those who reject the Vicarious Atonement altogether 
leave no room for the Christian knowledge of God. The gracious 
God is He who "was in Christ, reconciling the world unto Himself," 

2 Cor. 5, 19. 521 


35- "Our churches with common consent do teach that the decree 
believed without any doubting; that is to say, there is one divine 
essence which is called and which is God . . .; and yet there are 
three Persons, of the same essence and power, who also are co- 
eternal, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost." A. C., I. One 
God "Hear, Israel : the Lord, our God, is one Lord," Mark 
12, 29; Deut. 6, 4; Is. 44, 6; 1 Cor. 8, 4; three Persons 
"Baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of 
the Holy Ghost," Matt. 28, 19; 3, 16. 17; 2 Cor. 13, 14; three 
distinct Persons "The Lord said unto my Lord: Sit thou at 
My right hand," Ps. 110, 1; Matt. 3, 16. 17; John 5, 32; 14, 16; 
each possessing the one, the same divine essence, the one, the 
same omnipotence and majesty "I and My Father are one," 
John 10, 30; Jesus Christ being the one God, 1 John 5, 20; John 



5, 23 ; the Holy Ghost being the one God, Acts 3, 4 ; Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost essentially one, but personally distinct. That is 
the creed of Christendom. "They are not three Almighties, but 
one Almighty." Ath. Cr. Apostles' Or. Nicene Or. Ap., I. S. A., 
P. I. F. C., XII, Ep., 28 f. ; Th. D., 36 f. The God of the anti- 
Trinitarians, of those who hold that the Three Persons are but 
three modes or phases in which the "Father" revealed himself or 
that Jesus is a mere man (Unitarians [Humanitarians], Mod- 
ernists, etc.), and of the Arians, the Subordinationists, ancient 
and modern, who deny the unity of God, holding that the Son is 
not consubstantial with the Father, but of an inferior godhead, 
is not the true God, but an idol. 100* 

The Triune God is the God of our salvation. God so loved 
the world that He sent His only-begotten Son to save us through 
His vicarious atonement, that whosoever believeth on Him, through 
the power of the Holy Ghost, should have everlasting life, John 
3, 16; 2 Cor. 13, 14. The article of redemption stands and falls 
with the article of the Trinity. If Christ is not true God, the 
world is not redeemed. The denial of the Trinity is the death of 
the Christian faith and hope. "This is life eternal that they might 
know Thee the only true God and Jesus Christ, whom Thou hast 
sent," John 17, 3. Those who deny the Son and the Holy Ghost 
do not know the God of Salvation, 1 John 2, 23, and "they are 
outside the Church of Christ." Ap., I. Large C., Ill, 66. 

F. C., Ep., XII, 28. The three Ecum. Cr. A. C., I. III. Ap., I. 
S. A., P. I. F. C., VIII. Rationalism, finding voice in the anti- 
Trinitarians and the Subordinationists, 35, sets up the dogma that 
an eternal generation of the Son by the Father is an impossibility. 
The Christian Church confesses the deity of Christ: "The Lord 
hath said unto Me, Thou art My Son; this day have I begotten 
Thee," Ps. 2, 7; Micah 5, 2; Matt. 17, 5; John 1, 1; 3, 16. 18; 
8, 58; 20, 17; 1 John 4, 9. Denying the eternal generation of 
the Son, rationalism (Modernism, etc.) teaches that the Word, the 
Son, is a creature, not begotten, but made, or of a nature inferior 
to the eternal Godhead, and that Jesus is not the true Son of God, 
not very God, but is only called God because of His Godlike 
qualities. Scripture teaches that the Son, Jesus Christ, is God, 


Lord, Jehovah, in the full sense of the term. "This is His name 
whereby He shall be called, The Lord Our Righteousness," Jer. 
23,6; Ps. 110, 1; John 1,1; 20,28. "This is the true God/' 

1 John 5, 20, "who is over all, God blessed forever, Amen," Rom. 
9, 5. Scripture teaches that the godhead of the Son is the godhead 
of the Father, the one Godhead, John 10, 30; 14,9. Scripture 
ascribes to the Son, to Jesus, the very attributes which are of the 
essence of the Godhead, the one omnipotence, omniscience, omni- 
presence, eternal being, etc., Matt. 28, 18; Col. 2, 3; John 2, 25; 
21, 17; Matt. 28, 20; 18, 20; Eph. 4, 10; John 1, 1; 8, 58; 
Col. 1, 17; the very works of God, John 1, 3; Col. 1, 16; Luke 
7, 14; Matt. 9, 6; John 5, 27; and the full divine honor, Heb. 
1, 6; John 5, 23; Phil. 2, 10. He is "very God of very God," 
Mcene Cr. Against the contrary teaching "all godly Christians of 
both high and low station are to be on their guard as they love 
the welfare and salvation of their souls." F. C., Ep., XII, 30. 
"My Father is greater than I," John 14, 28, cannot apply to the 
divine nature of Christ, John 10, 30, but refers to His human 
nature (Ath. Cr., 31. F. C., Th. D., VIII, 61) in the state of 
humiliation, Phil. 2, 6. Luther, VIII, 477 f. 56, 

37* "I believe in the HOLY GHOST, THE LOED AND GIVER OP LIFE, 


Ath. Cr., 22. S. A., P. 1. F. C., Th. D., VIII, 73. Scripture teaches 
that the Holy Spirit eternally proceeds, as from the Father, John 
15, 26, so also from the Son. The Holy Spirit bears the same rela- 
tion to the Son as to the Father, being "sent" by the Son as by 
the Father, John 15, 26; 14, 26; 16, 7; Gal. 4, 6. Moreover, 
Scripture distinctly calls Him the "Spirit of His Son," Gal. 4, 6 ; 
"the breath of His lips," Is. 11, 4; the "Spirit of His mouth," 

2 Thess. 2, 8. The Spirit of God is the Spirit of Christ, Rom. 8, 9. 
Finally, the Holy Ghost is certainly spirated by Him who, when 
He breathed on His disciples, said: "Receive ye the Holy Ghost," 
John 20, 22. 

Ap., I. S. A., P. I. F. C., Ep., XII, 28 f. The Holy Spirit is the 
one God, Acts 5, 3. 4; 1 Cor. 3, 16; 12, 4 6; the omnipresent 
Lord, Ps. 139, 712 ; the omniscient Lord, 1 Cor. 2, 10 f . ; the 
omnipotent Creator, Gen. 1, 2 ; Ps. 33, 6 ; Job 33, 4, and Regen- 


erator, John 3, 5 ; Titus 3, 5. His personality, 1 Cor. 12, 11 ; John 
15, 26, is distinct from the personality of the Father and of the 
Son, John 14, 16. 26; 2 Cor. 13, 14; Matt. 28, 19; equal, because 
consubstantial, with the Father and the Son, Matt. 28, 19 ; the 
object of divine worship, Is. 6, 3. He is "the Lord and Giver of 
life" (Nicene Or.), with the Father and the Son the Author of 
our salvation, Matt. 28, 19; 1 Cor. 2, 10; 2 Cor. 13, 14. "He, 
therefore, that will be saved must thus think of the Trinity." 
Ath. Cr., 26. Anti-Trinitarianism and Subordinationism, denying 
the personality and eternal godhead of the Holy Ghost, cause men 
to reject the Giver of life, the God of Salvation. 


ALMIGHTY WORD OF GOD. Scripture teaches: "In the beginning 
God created the heaven and the earth," Gen. 1, 1. "Through faith 
we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, 
so that things which are seen were not made of things which do 
appear," Heb. 11, 3; Ex. 20, 11; Ps. 33, 6; Acts 17, 25; Heb. 
1, 3 ; Eev. 4, 11. The Christian Church has at all times accepted 
this record of creation as God's own infallible account. "I believe 
in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth." 
Apostles' Cr. Meene Cr. So also the Lutheran Church : "God, . . . 
the Maker and Preserver of all things, visible and invisible." 
A. C., I. XIX. Ap., XIX. Small C., II, 1. Large C., II, 7. 11. 
F. C., I, Ep., 2 ; Th. D., 34 f . Pantheism (the universe an emana- 
tion from God), dualism (matter eternal), atheistic evolutionism 
(all things developed from a primitive mass by chance or by a power 
inherent in it), theistic evolutionism (the primitive mass endowed 
at creation with self-developing powers), and humanism (world 
self -existing) are anti-Scriptural, paganish speculations. 




all things created that are in heaven and that are in earth, visible 
and invisible," Col. 1, 16; Heb. 1, 14 ("ministering spirits"); 
Eph. 6, 12; Ps. 104, 4; 1 Pet. 5, 8 ("your adversary, the devil") ; 
Matt. 10, 1; 13, 39; John 8, 44; 2 Pet. 2, 4; Jude 6. The 
term angel is not used to personify the forces of nature or 


moral evil, but designates personal beings Luke 1, 19 ("I"); 
1 Pet. 1, 12 ("desire"). Nor are they human beings in another 
state of existence. Matt. 25, 41 and Eph. 6, 12 sharply distinguish 
between men and angels. On the fantasy of the Shakers attributing 
sex to the angels see 453, (Cf. Matt. 22, 30.) Again, there is 
no redemption, no salvation, for the fallen angels, 2 Pet. 2, 4; 
Jude 6 ; Matt. 25, 41. While the Sadducees, ancient and modern 
(rationalists, Modernists), deny the existence of the angels, par- 
ticularly of a personal devil (Acts 23, 8), denouncing such teach- 
ing as the product of either superstition or deliberate deception, 
the Lutheran Church teaches her children to pray : "Let Thy holy 
angel be with me, that the wicked Foe may have no power over me." 
Small C., Morning and Evening Prayer. Large C., P. Ill, 80. 
A. C., XIX. Ap., XIX. 



NESS AND HOLINESS, Eph. 4, 24 ; Col. 3, 10. In the state of in- 
tegrity the will of man was in perfect conformity with God and 
His will, and all his bodily and spiritual qualities and faculties 
were "very good," Gen. 1, 31. Ap., II, 2022. F. C., Ep., VI, 2; 
Th. D., I, 10. The contrary teaching is that of Russellism (no 
essential difference between man and the brute) ; of Arminianism 
and Socinianism, etc. (the image of God nothing more than man's 
reason, moral sense, and dominion over the inferior creatures) ; 
and of the Roman Catholic Church (the image of God man's free 
will and the dominion of reason over the desires ; holiness a super- 
added gift, its loss leaving his original condition unimpaired). 

42, THE SOUL is IMMORTAL; immaterial, it is not subject to 
dissolution. Gen. 2, 7; Eccl. 12, 7; Matt. 10, 28; Luke 12, 4. 
See 184, And in consequence of man's possession of the divine 
image his BODY, too, though material, was IMMORTAL (posse non 
mori). It contained no germs of disease and death. Death, though 
now the natural order, had no place in the order of creation, but is 
the consequence of sin, Gen. 2, 17; Rom. 5, 12. See 182, Sin 
brought on the "corruption of the qualities of the body." Ap., II, 
25. 17. "God inflicted on man death of body on account of sin." 
Ap., VI, 64. (See Index: Immortality.) 


Eph. 4, 24 declare that the natural man does not possess it, and 
Gen. 5, 5 ; 6, 5 ; Eom. 3, 24, that the entire corruption of man's 
nature has taken the place of the original righteousness. Those 
who teach that the rationality of man, his moral sense, and his 
dominion over the inferior creatures constitute the image of God 
naturally deny its loss. The Roman Catholic Church also denies it, 
teaching that the original superadded righteousness, which indeed 
was lost, does not constitute the image of God, this consisting 
in man's free will, which was not lost. All who deny the total 
corruption of the human nature (original sin) and ascribe to man 
the full possession or a greater or less remnant of the original 
spiritual powers, of free will, etc., deny the Scriptural teaching on 
the loss of the divine image. This includes those who teach that 
fallen man is merely "very far gone from original righteousness." 
The Lutheran Church teaches "that, instead of the lost image of 
God in man, it [original sin] is at the same time also a deep, 
wicked, horrible, fathomless, inscrutable, and unspeakable corrup- 
tion of the entire nature and all its powers/' F. C., Th. D., I, 11. 
Ap., II, 15 f . S. A., P. Ill, I. 


44* GOD is NOT THE CAUSE OF SIN. "He is not a creator, author, 
or cause of sin" (F. C., Th. D., I, 7), Gen. 1, 31. Nor does God will 
the evil. F. C., Th. D., XI, 6 f. He did not create the reprobate 
unto sin and damnation, as supralapsarian Calvinism teaches. 
"Thou art not a God that hath pleasure in wickedness," Ps. 5, 4 ; 
Deut. 32, 4; Ps. 45, 7; Is. 65, 17; 1 John 1, 5. The Fall was 
not a matter of necessity, but, like all sin, of man's free choice. 
"The beginning and cause of evil is ... the wicked, perverse will 
of the devil and of men." F. C., Th. D., XI, 7. 81. Gen. 3, 17; 
John 8, 44; Eom. 5, 12; Jas. 1, 13. 14; 1 John 2, 16; 3, 8. 
A. C., XIX. Ap., XIX. S. A., P. Ill, I, 1. 

45* The sin by which our first parents, Adam and Eve, fell from 
their primeval state, was disobedience, THE DELIBERATE TRANS- 
GRESSION OF THE COMMAND OF GOD not to eat of the tree of the 
knowledge of good and evil, Gen. 2, 17 ; Gen. 3, 1 if. Desiring to 
be equal with God, they set their will in opposition to God's will, 
and declaring themselves independent of, and superior to, the Law 
of God, they made themselves equal with God, Gen. 3, 22, thus 
severing the divinely established relation between the Creator and 
the creature, the Father and the children, and becoming the enemies 


of God. The story of the Fall is not a myth nor an allegory, but 
the record of an actual occurrence, a matter of history no less than 
the story of Christ's temptation. Eom. 5, 12 19; 1 Cor. 15, 22; 
2 Cor. 11, 3; 1 Tim. 2, 14. S. A., P. Ill, I, 1; VIII, 5. Large C., 
II, 28. F. C., Th. D., I, 9. 

46, ORIGINAL SIN is taught under the twofold aspect of THE 


Adam's guilt was imputed to his descendants. "By the offense of 
one judgment came upon all men to condemnation," Eom. 5, 18. 
19. 12. "By reason of the disobedience of Adam and Eve we are 
all in God's displeasure." F. C., Th. D., I, 9. 6. 17. Ap., II, 5. 35. 
S. A., P. Ill, I, 1. The contention of the Pelagians, old and new, 
that no man can be held guilty of the sin of another denies the 
plain teaching of Scripture and involves the denial of the funda- 
mental truth of the Christian religion that our sins were imputed to 
Christ and Christ's righteousness to us, Rom. 5, 18. 19. 

Original sin is, furthermore, the total depravity of the 
entire nature of man. Natural man is entirely destitute of 
the original concreated righteousness and perfection and is ca- 
pable only of evil, inclined to every evil, and lusts only after 
evil. Pelagianism of the gross form denies the corruption of 
human nature, the loss of any spiritual powers. In its finer forms 
it denies the total corruption, teaching that man's free will was 
merely weakened or that original sin is but an ailment and weak- 
ness or that some remnant of good remains in fallen man. Scrip- 
ture teaches that natural man is "dead in trespasses and sin," 
Eph. 2j 1 ; that "that which is born of the flesh is flesh," John 3, 6 ; 
Job 14, 4 ; that "the imagination of man's heart is evil from his 
youth," Gen. 8, 21 ; that "the carnal mind is enmity against God," 
Rom. 8, 7 ; that "all have sinned and come short of the glory of 
God," Rom. 3, 23 ; Gen. 6, 5 ; Ps. 51, 5 ; Luke 11, 13 ; Rom. 7, 18 ; 
1 Cor. 2, 14; Eph. 4, 18; 5. 8. The Lutheran Church teaches: 
"Original sin is something in the nature, body, and soul of man, 
and in all his powers, namely, a horrible, deep, inexpressible cor- 
ruption of the same, so that man is destitute of the righteousness 
wherein he was originally created and in spiritual things is dead 
to good and perverted to all evil. . . . Now, since the Fall, man 
inherits an inborn, wicked disposition and inward impurity of 
heart, evil lust and propensity." F. C., I, Th. D., 2, 11 ; Ep., 
1316. A. C., II. Ap., II. S. A., P. Ill, I, 3. 

Original sin subjects man to God's wrath and eternal damna- 


tion. . Scripture leaves no room for the rationalistic plea that man 
can be held guilty of sin only if he himself has committed it, and 
only when the inclination to evil has produced an evil act. "We 
were by nature the children of wrath," Eph. 2, 3; John 3, 5. 6; 
Eom. 5, 12. 18. Accordingly, the Lutheran Church teaches: "On 
account of this corruption . . . and by reason of the disobedience of 
Adam and Eve we are all in God's displeasure. . . . Even though 
a person would think, speak, and do nothing evil (which, however, 
is impossible in this life since the fall of our first parents), his 
nature and person are nevertheless sinful, that is, thoroughly and 
utterly infected and corrupted before God by original sin, as by 
a spiritual leprosy," F. C., Th. D., I, 59. 13. A. C., II; III, 3, 
Ap., II, 5; III, 42. S. A., P. Ill, I, 1. 

47* CONCUPISCENCE, the innate evil propensity and lust, which 
remains in the regenerate, is TRULY AND PROPERLY SIN. "Paul 
says, Eom. 7, 7. 23 : 'I had not known lust (concupiscence) except 
the Law had said, Thou shalt not covet/ Likewise : 'I see another 
law in my members, warring against the law of my mind and bring- 
ing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members/ 
These testimonies can be overthrown by no sophistry. For they 
clearly call concupiscence sin, which, nevertheless, is not imputed 
to those who are in Christ." Ap., II, 39. The doctrine that not 
lust itself, but only the actual, conscious and voluntary transgres- 
sion of the Law partakes of the nature of sin, "that nothing is sin 
unless it be voluntary [inner desires and thoughts are not sins, 
if I do not altogether consent thereto]" (Ap., II, 43 f. S. A., 
P. Ill, III, 11. F. C., I, Ep., 11; Th. D., 18), denies the truth of 
Eom. 7, 7. And it is sophistry. Lust which brings forth sin, 
Jas. 1, 15, cannot but be sinful itself. Man transgresses God's 
Law because the flesh is enmity against God, Eom. 8, 7 ; Gal. 5, 17. 
In his daily repentance the Christian therefore views concupiscence 
as a cursed thing, Eom. 7, 14 24; Ps. 51, 5; 19, 12. 

48* ORIGINAL SIN is UNIVERSAL, inherited by "all men begotten 
in the natural way." A. C., II. Ap., II, 3. S. A., P. Ill, I, 1. 
F. C., Th. D., I, 7. 27. The universal scope of Job 14, 4; John 
3, 6; Eom. 3, 23; Eom. 5, 12 leaves no room for excepting the 
Virgin Mary. She did not except herself, but placed her sole hope 
of salvation in her "Savior," Luke 1, 47. The only human being 
untainted by original sin is the Virgin's Son, Jesus Christ, who 
was immaculately conceived through the power of the Holy Ghost. 
Luke 1, 35; Heb. 7, 26; 2 Cor. 5, 21. 


DAMNATION. The Lutheran Church distinguishes between venial 
and mortal sins in the sense that the Christian, through faith, re- 
ceives forgiveness of his sins of weakness, but that he who "pur- 
posely engages in sins against conscience" (see 75+ 84) commits 
a mortal sin; that is, he loses faith and sinks back into death. 
The Eoman and Greek Catholic churches distinguish between 
venial and mortal sins in the sense that certain lighter sins are in 
themselves venial, do not merit eternal punishment, but entail, at 
the worst, only temporal punishments. This distinction is anti- 
Scriptural, Gal. 3, 10; Deut. 27, 26; Jas. 2, 10; Matt. 12, 36 
("every idle word"), and vicious, minimizing the enormity of sin 
and deadening the conscience. The Christian conscience grieves 
over, and abhors, every transgression of the Law as the work of 
Satan, 1 John 3, 4. 8, and prays the Fifth Petition, Matt. 6, 12, 
in the spirit of Ps. 32. "Kepentance is not piecemeal, . . . does 
not debate what is or is not sin, but hurls everything on a heap, 
and says : All in us is nothing but sin." S. A., P. Ill, III, 36. 
If. 11. Ap., II, 40. 43. "Sin is everything that is contrary to 
God's Law. . . . The Law threatens its transgressors with God's 
wrath and temporal and eternal punishments." F. C., Th. D., 
VI, 13; Y, 17. Ap., Ill, 7. Small C., I, 211 While the Cath- 
olic teaching relaxes the rigor of the Law, the teaching of the 
Universalists and others (that no sin entails eternal damnation) 
removes it entirely. Gal. 3, 10. 

50. EVEN INFANTS COMMIT ACTUAL SINS. "The imagination of 
man's heart is evil from his youth," Gen. 8, 21, "from the womb," 
Is. 48, 8 ; Ps. 58, 3. Original sin, the "root and fountainhead of 
all actual sins" (F. C., Th. D., I, 5), inheres in the infants no less 
than in the adults and renders sinful whatever emotions and acts 
they are capable of. Ap., II, 3. The denial of actual sin in infants 
is based on the false assumption that the deliberate intent is of 
the essence of sin. (Infants are indeed innocent of the. conscious 
choice of evil (Deut. 1, 39; Jonah 4, 11) ; but poisoned by original 
sin, they are not absolutely innocent.) 


ITUAL THINGS. He is not free to think and do the good and does 
not desire to be free. He cannot but think and do evil and is 
proud of his bondage. He is spiritually blind, 1 Cor. 2, 14, spir- 


itually dead, Eph. 2, 1, and carnally alive, ruled by enmity against 
God, Rom. 8, 7. The bond-servant of sin, he cannot achieve his 
liberation, neither in whole nor in part, Gen. 6, 5; 8, 21; Jer. 
13, 23; Zech. 7, 12; Eom. 3, 11. 12; Eph. 2, 1. God's grace and 
power must do it all, Ps. 51, 10; 100, 3; Ezek. 11, 19; Matt. 
16, 17; John 6, 44. 65; 1 Cor. 12, 3; Col. 2, 12; Jas. 1, 18; 
1 Pet. 1, 3. 4. The Lutheran Church teaches the bondage of the 
will. "The Scriptures deny to the intellect, heart, and will of the 
natural man all aptness, skill, capacity, and ability to think, to 
understand, to be able to do, to begin, to will, to undertake, to act, 
to work, or to concur in working, anything good and right in spir- 
itual things as of himself, 2 Cor. 3, 5; Rom. 3, 12; John 8, 37; 
1, 5; 1 Cor. 2, 14; Rom. 8, 7; John 15, 5; Phil. 2, 13." P. C., 
Th. D., II, 12. 7. 24. 26. "I believe that I cannot by my own 
reason or strength believe in Jesus Christ, my Lord, or come to 
Him." Small C., II, 6. A. C., XVIII. Ap., XVIII. S. A., 
P. Ill, I. See 43* 78, The advocates of the free will, the Pela- 
gians, "who taught that man by his own powers, without the grace 
of the Holy Ghost, can turn himself to God" (P. C., Ep., II, 9) ; 
the Semi-Pelagians, "who teach that man by his own powers can 
make a beginning of his conversion" (1. c. 10) ; and the synergists, 
who teach that man "is too weak to make a beginning," but "can 
add something, though little and feebly, to it" (1. c. 11), impugn 
the fundamental truth that salvation is, from beginning to end, 
the sole work of God and frustrate the salvation, the conversion, 
of every man whom they lead into the delusion of autosoterism. 




"We have the forgiveness of sins according to the riches of His 
grace," Eph. 1, 7; Rom. 3, 24; Eph. 2, 8. "Everything that com- 
forts, that offers the favor and grace of God to transgressors of the 
Law, is, and is properly called, the Gospel, a good and joyful mes- 
sage that God will not punish sins, but forgive them for Christ's 
sake." F. C., V, Th. D., 21. 4j Ep., 7. A. C., IV; XII, 5 (German 
text). Ap., II, 33; IV, 55. The Catholic definition of saving 
grace as the good disposition and qualities in man by virtue of 
which he obtains the forgiveness of sins is not the definition of 
Scripture, which identifies grace with the mercy, love, and kind- 
ness of God, Ex. 34, 6. 7; Ps. 51, 1; 103, 812; John 3, 16; 
Rom. 5, 8 ; Titus 3, 4 7. Scripture specifically and emphatically 


excludes from this matter the good qualities and works of man. 
Here grace and works are contradictories. "If it be of works, then 
it is no more grace/' Kom. 11, 6; Gal. 5, 4; Titus 3, 5; 1 John 
4, 10. The Catholic definition of saving grace as infused grace is 
a constitutive element of the arch-heresy, salvation by works. The 
Apology therefore repudiates the conception of "grace as a habit 
by which we love God" and insists on the definition of grace as 
"the mercy of God towards us." Ill, 260. 

53* SAVING GRACE is GRACE IN CHRIST. God forgives sin for the 
sake of the vicarious satisfaction of Christ. "Being justified freely, 
by His grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus," 
Kom. 3, 34; Acts 4, 12; 10, 43; Eom. 3, 25; Eph. 1, 6. 7; 2 Tim. 

1, 9. "The grace of God is secured through Christ." Large C., II, 
.54. 29. A. C., IV; XII, 5. Ap., IV, 53; III, 268. F. C., V, Ep., 7; 
Th. D., 21. He propitiated the wrath of God. Ap., IV, 46 ; III, 
170 ; XXVII, 17. The religion of Unitarianism, Modernism, etc., 
which eliminates the vicarious atonement from the concept of sav- 
ing grace and the attribute of retributive justice from the concept 
of God, is a heathen religion. Large C., II, 66. See 34. 70. 73. 90. 

SALVATION. We owe our salvation wholly and solely to the sin- 
forgiving, life-bestowing grace of God, in no wise to our own power 
and merit. Dead in sins, the natural man cannot achieve his con- 
version and justification, neither in whole nor in the least part, 
Rom. 3, 2328 ; 6, 23 ; 11, 6 ; Eph. 1, 6 ; 2, 8 f . The advocates 
of free will (51) rob God of His glory and, leading men to look 
for salvation to non-existent powers and merits, render their salva- 
tion impossible. The Lutheran Church magnifies the sola gratia 
and gives to God "His glory entirely and fully, that out of pure 
mercy alone, without all merit of ours, He saves us according to 
the purpose of His will." F. C., Ep., XI, 15; II, 5f.; Ill, 10; 
IV, 7; Th. D., II, 5; III, 4. 9. 14. 25. 39; XI, 60. Ap., IV, 73. 
See 78. 

55. SAVING GRACE is UNIVERSAL GRACE. "God will have all men 
to be saved and to come unto the knowledge of the truth," 1 Tim. 

2, 4. "The grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to 
all men," Titus 2, 11; Esek. 33, 11; John 3, 16 f.; Rom. 11, 32; 
2 Pet. 3, 9. Christ redeemed all men, John 1, 29; 2 Cor. 5, 19; 
1 John 2, 2. See 70. The Gospel-call, offering grace and for- 
giveness of sin, is addressed to all human creatures, Mark 16, 15. 
Further, universal grace, the gracious will of God to save all men, is 


EARNEST AND SINCERE, Mark 16, 15; Matt. 11, 28; 23, 37; Luke 
19, 41; Acts 17, 30. Finally, saving grace is EFFICACIOUS grace. 
The Gospel, addressed to all, is the power of God unto salvation in 
every case, Kom. 1, 16; it fails of its effect only because of man's 
persistent resistance, Acts 7, 41. "We must in every way hold 
sturdily and firmly to this, that, as the preaching of repentance, so 
also the promise of the Gospel is 'universalis' ; that is, it pertains to 
all men, Luke 24, 47." F. C., Th. D., XI, 28. "The Holy Ghost . . . 
wishes to be efficacious and works through the Word." L. c., 41. 
Ap., IX, 521; XII, 53. F. C., Ep., XI, 10. 12. 1719; Th. D., 
15 f. 29. 34. 39. 68. 75. 78. Calvinism, denying that the Scripture 
statement on the universality of grace reveals the real will of God 
and insisting that God withholds His saving grace from some, 
dealing with these only through a so-called common, inefficacious 
grace, disfigures the gracious countenance of God, assigns, in effect, 
contradictory wills to God (F. C., Th. D., XI, 34), treats the 
universal call of the Gospel "as jugglery" (1. c., 29), and renders 
the assurance of salvation impossible. 79+ 104+ 177+ 178+ The 
sole cause of man's salvation is the unmerited grace of God (sola 
gratia) ; the sole cause of a man's non-conversion and damnation 
is his wickedness, his wicked rejection of God's saving grace, in 
no wise a lack of grace ; grace is universal ! "0 Israel, thou hast 
destroyed thyself; but in Me is thine help," Hos. 13, 9; Matt. 
23, 37; Luke 14, 1624; John 3, 18. 19; Acts 7, 51; 13, 46; 
Eom. 6, 23; 2 Thess. 1, 8. "Hence the apostle distinguishes with 
especial care the work of God, who alone makes vessels of honor, 
and the work of the devil and of man, who by the instigation of 
the devil, and not of God, has made himself a vessel of dishonor. 
Eom. 9, 22 f ." F. C., Th. D., XI, 79. 


ONE PERSON, OF TWO NATURES. "When the fulness of the time was 
come, God sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made under the 
Law, to redeem them that were under the Law," Gal. 4, 4. 5. The 
Son of God, the Second Person of the Trinity, very God by nature, 
became incarnate, John 1, 1. 14; Rom. 1, 3. 4; 9, 5; Gal. 4, 4. 5; 
Titus 2, 13 ; 1 John 5, 20. See 36+ Remaining very God, retain- 
ing the full divine nature, Col. 2, 9 ("In Him dwelleth all the ful- 
ness of the Godhead bodily^), He assumed, in the incarnation, 
human nature, the very nature of man, a nature like ours in all 
things except sin, 1 Tim. 2, 5 ("the man Jesus Christ") ; Gen. 


3, 15; 22, 18; Matt. 1, 1; 16, 13; Eom. 1, 3; 9, 5; Heb. 2, 14; 
Luke 1, 35; 2 Cor. 5, 21; Heb. 4, 15; 7, 26, God and man con- 
stituting one person (personal union), one individual, 1 Tim. 2, 5 
("one Mediator") ; 1 Cor. 8, 6 ("one Lord Jesus Christ") ; Matt. 
16, 13. 16 ("I," "Thou"); John 1, 14 ("His"). Over against 
those who deny the true, essential deity of Christ and those who 
deny His true, essential humanity the Christian Church teaches 
and believes "that Jesus Christ, true God, begotten of the Father 
from eternity, and also true man, born of the Virgin Mary, is my 
Lord." Small C., II, 4. Three Ecum. Cr. A. C., Ill ("There are 
two natures, the divine and the human, inseparably conjoined in 
one person, one Christ"). Ap., Ill (Of Christ). F. C., Ep., 
VIII, 5; Th.D., VIII, 6; Ep., XII, 3. 4. 20. 21; Th. D., XII, 
25. 26. 29. The redemption of the world called for a Savior who 
is God and man in one person, a Savior, who, dying in our stead 
(Heb. 2, 14; 1 Tim. 2, 5), offered a sacrifice of infinite worth 
(Ps. 49, 7. 8; Eom. 5, 10), whose every act is of a theanthropic 
character, Gal. 4, 4. 5 ; 1 Tim. 3, 16 ; Heb. 2, 14. "We Christians 
must know that, if God is not also in the balance and gives the 
weight, we sink to the bottom with our scale. By this I mean : If 
it were not to be said God has died for us, but only a man, we would 
be lost. . . . Yet He could not sit in the scale unless He became 
a man like us, so that it could be said : 'God died/ 'God's Passion/ 
'God's blood/ 'God's death/ For in His nature God cannot die; 
but now that God and man are united in one person, it is correctly 
called God's death, when the man dies who is one thing or one 
person with God." F. C., Th. D., VIII, 44. 40. 82 f . ; Ep., VIII, 18. 

OP THE VIRGIN MARY. Matt. 1, 18, 23; Luke 1, 31 35; Is. 7, 14. 
Apost. Cr. A. C., III. S.A., P.I, IV. Small C., II, 4. F. C., 
Th. D., VIII, 6. The denial of the Virgin Birth, inspired by gross 
rationalism (Unitarians, Modernists), is a denial of the truth of 
Scripture and of the power of God, Luke 1, 37, and is put forth 
in the interest of the denial of the godhood of Jesus and of His 
sinless manhood. 

GOD, EXPRESS A REALITY, a condition actually existing by virtue of 
the personal union. They are not mere phrases, as Eeformed 
theology would have it. 1) They are Scriptural propositions. The 
statement : "The Word was made flesh," John 1, 14, is equivalent 
to the proposition : God became man, God is man ; and the parallel 


statements that Mary's son is "the Son of the Highest," Luke 1, 32, 
David's son, "the Lord," Jer. 23, 5. 6, the child born at Bethlehem, 
"the mighty God," Is. 9, 6, the descendant of the fathers, "God 
blessed forever," Rom. 9, 5, the Son of Man, "the Son of the living 
God," Matt. 16, 13 17, are equivalent to the proposition that this 
man is God. But no statement of Scripture may be taken in 
a figurative sense unless Scripture itself demands it. 2) If the 
incarnation and the personal union are facts, and the Eef ormed 
freely accept them as such, if the statement that "the Word was 
made flesh" is not a mere phrase, then also the personal proposi- 
tions, which deal with and describe the situation that was created 
by the incarnation, must be taken at their full value. P. C., VIII, 
Ep., 10 f. 25; Th. D., 1719. 

COMMUNION. (Communion of natures.) The human nature of 
Christ is never and nowhere separated from the divine nature. 
The Reformed hold that the Godhead is beyond the bounds of the 
manhood. Scripture teaches that the Son of God has the human 
nature with Him, always and everywhere. The Word, which was 
made flesh, John 1, 14, never and nowhere ceases to be the God 
Incarnate. Wherever the fulness of the godhead of Jesus is, there 
it is bodily, Col. 2, 9. He who ascended far above all heavens, ac- 
cording to the human nature, and sat on the right hand of God, 
according to the human nature, He fills all things according to His 
human nature, Eph. 4, 10; Mark 16, 19. "There are not [in 
Christ] two separate persons, but only one person; wherever it is, 
there it is the one undivided person. . . . No, friend, wherever 
you place God, there you must also place with Him humanity; 
they do not allow themselves to be separated or divided from one 
another." P. C., Th. D., VIII, 8284. And this union of the two 
natures is a real union, carrying with it, consisting in, an actual, 
true, most intimate communion. Reformed theology, in general, 
refuses to admit an actual communion. Scripture declares that 
the Son of God took part of flesh and blood, Heb. 2, 14 ; that the 
glory of the Godhead shone forth from the flesh, John 1, 14 ; that, 
when men handled the flesh, they handled the eternal God, 1 John 
1, 1; that the fulness of the Godhead dwells not outside of, not 
beside the flesh, but in the flesh, Col. 2, 9. "The Christian Church 
always and at all times has simply believed and held that the divine 
and the human nature in the person of Christ are so united that 


they have a true communion with one another 5 * (F. C., Th. D., 
VIII, 17), not a communion of such a nature "as when two boards 
are glued together, where neither gives anything to the other or 
takes anything from the other" [as the Eeformed hold] ; "but here 
is the highest communion . . .; as the ancient teachers of the 
Church explained this union and communion of the natures by the 
illustration of iron glowing with fire, and also by the union of body 
and soul in man." F. C., VIII, Ep., 9 ; Th. D., 64. 


ticum.) Therefore "that which is indeed an attribute of only one 
nature is ascribed not to that nature alone as separate, but to the 
entire person, which is at the same time God and man." F. C., 
Th. D., VIII, 36. Thus Scripture ascribes the human attribute of 
suffering and dying to Jesus, true God, and does not shrink from 
saying that God died, Acts 20, 28 ; 3, 15 ; Eom. 8, 32. God cannot 
indeed die ; but since Jesus is true God and really died, according 
to His human nature, it is a blessed fact that God died indeed. 
"Not the mere human nature, whose property it is to suffer and 
die, has suffered for the sins of the world, but the Son of God 
Himself truly suffered, however, according to the assumed human 
nature" (I.e., 20), Eom. 1, 3 ("according to the flesh"); 1 Pet. 
3, 18. Those Eeformed theologians who refuse to speak of the suf- 
fering and dying of God as a reality, characterizing the Scripture 
statements to that effect as figures of speech, mere phrases, can no 
longer consistently speak of the infinite worth of the death of 
Christ ; and they are, in effect, denying the personal union. F. C., 
Ep., VIII, 26. "If I believe that only the human nature has suf- 
fered for me, then Christ is to me a poor Savior. . . . Now that 
God and man are united in one person, it is correctly called God's 
death." F. C., Th. D., VIII, 40. 44 f . "We were reconciled to 
God by the death of His Son," Eom. 5, 10. 


(Genus majestaticum.) The divine perfections, which belong to 
the divine nature essentially, belong to the human nature by com- 
munication. "In Him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead 
bodily," Col. 2, 9; John 1, 14; 17, 5. Christ is omnipotent not 
only according to His divine nature, but also according to His 
human nature, Matt. 28, 18 ("Unto Me is given all power") ; 


11, 27; omniscient, Col. 2, 3; John 2, 25; 21, 17; omnipresent, 
Eph. 4, 10; John 3, 13; Matt. 18, 20; 28, 20; the source of life, 
John 5, 26 f . ; 6, 55 ; Matt. 9, 6 ; the object of the worship due the 
Triune God, Ps. 72, 11; John 5, 23; Phil. 2, 911; Heb. 1, 6; 
Eev. 5, 12. According to the "unanimously received rule of the 
entire ancient orthodox Church" (F. C., Th. D., VIII, 57) that 
which was "given" to Christ (Matt. 28, 18; Phil. 2, 9) was not 
given to Him according to His divine nature (Ps. 102, 27; Mai. 
3, 6), but according to His human nature. And the majesty com- 
municated to the human nature does not consist in created gifts, 
limited powers, bestowed in the exaltation, but in "special, high, 
great, supernatural, inscrutable, ineffable, heavenly prerogatives 
and excellences in majesty, glory, power, and might above every- 
thing that can be named" (Ps. 45, 7; John 3, 34; Col. 2, 9; 
John 1, 14), "received when He became man." John 1, 14; Col. 
2, 9. F. C., 1. c., 13. 51. The Unitarians, denying the duality of 
natures, deny the communication of majesty as a matter of course. 
The Eeformed, while affirming the duality of natures and the per- 
sonal union, absolutely deny the possession by the human nature of 
the divine attributes. Some of them go so far as to deny the full 
divine worship to Christ according to His human nature. John 
5, 23; Eom. 9, 5; 10, 14; Phil. 2, 9. They thus divide the 
person of Christ and strip the work of Christ of that which gives 
it its infinite worth. Catholic theology takes the same position. 
Both systems are dominated by rationalism, since they reject the 
teaching of Scripture on the ground that the finite cannot be made 
the recipient of the infinite. Lutheran theology refuses to "indulge 
in a presumptuous manner in subtile inquiries concerning such 
mysteries, as though according to His human nature He is not at 
all capable of omnipotence, but rejoices without ceasing in the fact 
that our flesh and blood is placed so high at the right hand of the 
majesty and almighty power of God." F. C., VIII, Th. D., 96 ; 
Ep., 34 f. 


(Genus apotelesmaticum.) Every single act of Christ is a thean- 
thropic act. Only the man can die; but since Christ is the God- 


man, God concurred in the death. It was a theanthropic death, the 
death of the Godman, God's death. Scripture describes the works 
of Christ as being performed according to His human nature, 
Gen. 3, 15 ; 22, 18 ; Heb. 2, 14 ; Matt. 20, 28, according to His 
divine nature, Jer. 23, 6 ; Acts 20, 28 ; 1 John 3, 8, according to 
both natures, Gal. 4, 4. 5; 1 John 1, 7. Jesus Christ is one un- 
divided person also with reference to His acts, "one Mediator," 

1 Tim. 2, 5; 1 Cor. 15, 3; Gal. 1, 4; 3, 13; Eph. 5, 2. 25. If the 
two natures did not act in communion in every act of Christ's 
redemptive work, the death of Christ was a purely human death, 
without redemptive worth. God must be in the balance to give it 
weight. P.O., Th.D., VIII, 44; Ep., Ill, 3. 121; Th. D., Ill, 
4. 57 f. Excluding the divine nature from the human works and 
the human nature from the divine works, Reformed theology dis- 
rupts the person of Christ and invalidates His work. 



2 Cor. 8, 9 (Being rich, He was poor) ; John 1, 14 ("We beheld 
His glory"); Matt. 11, 27; 17, 11; John 10, 18; 18, 6; Col. 

2, 9; Heb. 12, 2 ("cross . . . shame") ; Matt. 8, 20; Mark 13, 32; 
Luke 2, 51 f . ; 22, 43 ; 23, 46 ; John 10, 18. John 17, 5 ("glorify 
Me") ; Eph. 1, 20 22. Salvation could not have been wrought 
except through Christ's humiliation. He must suffer and die, Gal. 

3, 13, and to that end retract His majesty, 2 Cor. 13, 4. But in 
order to give the sacrifice its infinite worth and to vanquish death 
and hell, He must retain full possession of all divine majesty and 
power, Gal. 4, 4 ; Eom. 5, 10. And the salvation gained by Christ 
in the state of humiliation is appropriated to men by the exalted 
Christ. Exalted, He sends the Spirit, John 16, 7; "gives repen- 
tance to Israel and forgiveness of sins," Acts 5, 31; provides for 
the needs of the Church, Eph. 4, 8 12 ; and rules all things in the 
interest of the Church, Eph. 1, 2023. F. C., Ep., VIII, 16; 
Th. D., VIII, 12. 2426. 51. 65. Keformed theology, denying the 
communication of the divine majesty to the human nature, rejects 



the above doctrine in toto. Instead, it teaches that the humiliation 
and exaltation took place also according to the divine nature, its 
humiliation consisting in the incarnation and the occultation of 
the godhead before men and the exaltation in its manifestation; 
and that the humiliation according to the human nature consisted 
not in the renunciation of the use of the divine majesty, but in the 
endurance of unusual shame and suffering, the exaltation in the 
bestowal of great, but only created, finite gifts. Eomanist theology 
follows the same general lines. In the Unitarian system the exalta- 
tion of Christ means that He occupies, though dead, the position 
of moral leadership of the world. 

64* Christ suffered not only in His body, but also IN His SOUL, 
Matt. 26, 38 ; Is. 53, 11, enduring THE PULL WEATH OF GOD, the 
agony of damnation, Gal. 3, 10. 13; Rom. 8, 32; Is. 53, 8; Matt. 
25, 41 ; 27, 46. His Passion achieved our redemption, Gal. 3, 13. 
Ap., Ill, 58. Large C., II, 27. P.O., Th. D., V, 20; VIII, 25. 

65* The article of the Apostles' and the Athanasian Creed "HE 
DESCENDED INTO HELL" does not refer to the suffering of Christ on 
the cross or His death and burial, but affirms that Christ, after 
the quickening, actually went into hell, the prison of the damned, 
not in order to deliver the fathers and saints of the Old Testament 
from the "limbo of the Fathers" for the believers of the Old 
Testament were fully saved by the Gospel of the Messiah, Acts 
10, 43; 15, 11; Rev. 13, 8; Luke 16, 22 nor to offer salvation 
to the unbelievers in "Hades" 185, but to exhibit Himself to hell 
as its conqueror and to triumph over all His infernal enemies, 
1 Pet. 3, 18. 19; Col. 2, 15; Eph. 4, 9. A. C., III. S. A., P. I, IV. 
F. C., IX. 

66* CHRIST ROSE PROM THE DEAD, Matt. 28, 5. 6, IN His OWN 
DIVINE POWER, John 2, 19; 10, 18; Rom. 1, 4, EXERCISED ALSO 


Th. D., VIII, 24 f. 55 f. The rationalists, old and modern, deny 
that Christ rose from the dead, some of them, that He raised 
Himself; the Reformed, that the human nature shared in this 
work. (Jesus raised Himself, and the Father raised Him, Acts 
2, 24; Rom. 8, 11; Eph. 1, 20. S. A., P.I, IV; P. II, I, 1; for 
the omnipotence of Jesus and of the Father is one and the same 
omnipotence, John 10, 30; 5, 19.) Raising Jesus, our Substitute, 
from the dead, God solemnly proclaimed the justification of the 
world, Rom. 4, 25 ; 8, 34. 


Luke 24, 39 ("flesh and bones"), the same lody that lay in the 
grave, Matt. 28, 6; John 2, 19, glorified, endowed with spiritual 
qualities, Phil. 3, 21, and sharing to the full the divine perfections 
communicated to the human nature, Matt. 28, 2 f. ; John 20, 19. 26 
(the closed sepulcher and shut doors; cp. Luke 4, 30; John 8, 59; 
Matt. 17, 1 ff.), but not deified. (355* 419,) "He did not lay 
aside His human nature." F. C., Th. D., VIII, 26. 78; VII, 991 

RIGHT HAND OF GOD (Mark 16, 19; Eph. 1, 20; Heb. 1, 3) MEAN 


(Ascension, Session), Eph. 1, 20 22; Ps. 110, 1; Matt. 28, 18; 
John 17, 5; Heb. 1, 13; 2, 8; 1 Pet. 3, 22. It does not mean 
that Christ, according to His human nature, withdrew His presence 
from this earth and is confined in heaven, as the Eeformed teach, 
who deny, in line with their denial of the communication of 
majesty, that Christ is present everywhere and rules all things 
according to His human nature. The "right hand" of God is not 
a circumscribed locality in a spatial heaven, but the infinite power 
and majesty of God, filling all in all and ruling all things, Ex. 
15, 6; Ps. 118, 16; 139, 710; Is. 48, 13; Matt. 26, 64. The 
terms "sitting in the heavens," Ps. 2, 4, "dwelling on high," Ps. 
113, 5, do not indicate a spatial altitude, but describe the eminence 
of God's power and majesty. So, then, Christ, who ascended up on 
high according to His human nature, Eph. 4, 8, fills and rules all 
things and is with us here on earth according to His human nature, 
Matt. 28, 20; Eph. 4, 10. The Three Ecum. Creeds. A. C., III. 
F. C., Ep., VII, 12 ("God's right hand is everywhere"). 32; 
VIII, 15; Th.D., VII, 119 (Christ is not "enclosed and circum- 
scribed with His body in a definite place in heaven") ; VIII, 23. 
27 f. 51 f. 78 f. See 31, 



Luke 4, 18 ; of the Gospel of the grace of God in Christ, John 
3,16; of the forgiveness of sins, Luke 24, 47. He is not a new 
lawgiver. The Gospel is not a new and better law. He expounded 
the Law indeed, thus performing "a foreign work" (F. C., Ep., 
V, 10), but did not amend it. If He had amended it, He would 
have broken it, Deut. 12, 32. The so-called "evangelical counsels" 


of Rome are in part fictitious, not given by Christ at all; and in 
part they belong to Christ's exposition of the Law. The command- 
ment requiring perfect love is a commandment given by Moses, 
Matt. 22, 3740; Eom. 13, 9; Deut. 6, 5; Lev. 19, 18. Christ 
calls it a new commandment, John 13, 34, because the Gospel 
produces the new powers needed for its fulfilment. Nor is the 
Gospel a new and better code of morals the observance of which 
insures salvation. And the Sacraments instituted by Christ are not 
ceremonial, legal ordinances. The Gospel and the Sacraments do 
not prescribe works, but offer the gift of salvation. It is the office 
not of Christ, but of Moses, of the Law, to demand, judge, and 
condemn, John 5, 45 ; 3, 17 ; the office of Christ, to effect and preach 
deliverance from the Law that condemns, Gal. 4, 4. 5 ; John 1, 17. 
A. C., XXVII, 12. Ap., IV, 15 ; III, 271 ; XVI, 55 ; XXVII, 15 f. 
P. C., V, Ep., 710; Th. D., 10 f. See 106, 107. 

TO THE WORLD. (Sacerdotal office.) "He was made under the Law 
to redeem them that were under the Law," Gal. 4, 5. "God was 
in Christ, reconciling the world unto Himself," 2 Cor. 5, 19 ; John 
1, 29. Three Ecum. Creeds. A. C., III. Ap., III. Small C., Art. II. 
Large C., Art. II. Maintaining this fundamental truth of the 
Christian religion against the various forms, phases, and degrees 
of its denial, the Lutheran Church teaches : 

a) That mankind was subject to the wrath of God and eternal 
damnation and that no man could reconcile God by his own expia- 
tion and observance of the Law. "When we were enemies, we were 
reconciled to God by the death of His Son," Rom. 5, 10; Ps. 5, 4; 
Rom. 1, 18 ; 2, 8 f. ; Eph. 2, 3 ; Gal. 3, 13. "By the deeds of the 
Law there shall no flesh be justified in His sight," Rom. 3, 20; Ps. 
49, 7. 8 ; Eph. 2, 1 ; Gal. 3, 10. "Neither is there salvation in any 
other," Acts 4, 12 ; John 14, 6 ; 1 Tim. 2, 5. "The Law always 
shows that God is angry." Ap., Ill, 7; IV, 37. 41. P. C., Th. D., 
V, 20; XI, 60. See 33. 

b) That Christ redeemed the world by His vicarious atone- 
ment. The active obedience of Christ, by which He perfectly ful- 
filled the Law, and His passive obedience, by which He bore the 
punishment of sin, were rendered in our stead and constitute our 
righteousness before God. Modernism and other forms of ration- 


alism declare that the innocent cannot take the place of the guilty, 
but Scripture declares : "God hath made Him to be sin for us who 
knew no sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God in 
Him/' 2 Cor. 5, 21. "The Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of 
us all/ 3 Is. 53, 6; 53, 41; Ps. 69, 4 f.; Matt. 20, 28; Eom. 8, 32; 
Gal. 3, 13 ; 1 Tim. 2, 6 ; 1 Pet. 1, 18 f. ; 2, 24. Eationalism re- 
pudiates the imputation of Chrises fulfilment of the Law to the 
sinner as immoral. Scripture teaches: "By the obedience of One 
shall many be made righteous," Horn. 5, 19 ; Ps. 40, 6 f . ; Matt. 
3, 15 ; Eom. 10, 4. Eationalism teaches that the redemptive value 
of Christ's work lies in the moral influence flowing from His life; 
Scripture, that it lies in the substitutionary character of Christ's 
life and death, 2 Cor. 5, 21, etc. "Christ has borne the punishment 
of sin and has been made a victim for us." Ap., Ill, 58. "His 
obedience, not only in suffering and dying, but also in this, that 
He in our stead was voluntarily made under the Law and ful- 
filled it by this obedience, is imputed to us for righteousness." 
F. C., Th. D., Ill, 15. "Our righteousness is to be sought outside 
the merits, works, virtues, and worthiness of ourselves and of all 
men and rests alone upon Christ, the Lord." F. C., Th. D., Ill, 55. 
S.A., P. II, I, If. F. C., III, Ep., 2; Th. D., 4, 30. 57; V, 22; 
XI, 15. 

c) That the vicarious satisfaction wrought the full and com- 
plete redemption of the world. "It is finished," John 19, 30. The 
acceptilationists hold that the death of Christ, pertaining to the 
human nature alone, had only finite merit, but was accepted by God 
as sufficient. Scripture teaches that it actually atoned for all sins, 
Eom. 5, 10; 1 John 1, 7. "Since it is the obedience [not only of 
one nature, but] of the entire person, it is a complete satisfaction 
and expiation for the human race." F. C., Th. D., Ill, 57. The 
Catholic teaching is that the vicarious satisfaction expiated only 
original sin, the sins committed prior to baptism, and the eternal 
punishment of sin ; that man is required to render satisfaction for 
the sins committed after baptism and for their temporal punish- 
ment; and that God is fully reconciled through the merits of the 
saints and the propitiation of the Mass. Scripture teaches that the 
vicarious satisfaction covers all sin, all guilt, all punishment, all 
wrath. Christ redeemed us "from all iniquities," Tit. 2, 14; John 

1, 29; 19, 30; Eom. 5, 10; 2 Cor. 5, 19; Heb. 10, 14; 1 Pet. 

2, 24; 3, 18. A. C., Ill; XXIV, 25. 28 f. Ap., Ill, 851; XXI, 
141 19. 22. 29; XXVII, 17. S. A., P. II, II, 1. 24. 26. Small C., 


Art. II. Large C., Art. II. F. C., Th. D. } V, 20. Calvinism, deny- 
ing universal grace, restricts the vicarious satisfaction to the 
elect. 55* Scripture teaches that it takes in all sinners. "He is 
the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only, but also for 
the sins of the whole world," 1 John 2, 2; Matt. 18, 11; John 

1, 29; Eom. 5, 19; 8, 32; 2 Cor. 5, 15; 1 Tim. 2, 5. 6; Titus 

2, 11 ; Heb. 2, 9 ; 2 Pet. 2, 1. "The human race is truly redeemed 
and reconciled with God through Christ." F. C., Th. D., XI, 15. 28 ; 
III, 57 ; V, 22. Ap., IV, 103 1 ; XIII, 8. S. A., P. II, I, 2. 

SATISFACTION, Bom. 8, 34; 1 John 2, If.; Heb. 7, 25; 9, 24 f. 
The Catholic churches, supplementing the intercessory work of 
Christ with the intercession and merits of the saints, depose Christ 
as the one Intercessor and, in effect, the one Propitiator, 1 Tim. 

2, 5 ; Acts 4, 12. "They make the saints not only intercessors, but 
also propitiators. . . . We must not trust that the merits of the 
saints are applied to us, that on account of these God is reconciled 
to us." Ap., XXI, 14. 27 ; IV, 41. A. C., XX, 9 f . ; XXI. See 100. 
Those who base salvation not on the substitutionary satisfaction, 
but on man's moral reformation (70 b) have no use for the inter- 
cession in the Scriptural sense. "Intercession" in their sense 
amounts to nothing more than that Christ aids the sinner through 
the influence of His teaching and example to effect his reformation. 
For the teaching of the Seventh-day Adventists on this point 

see 388. 




faith as the knowledge of Christ, the Savior, John 17, 3 ("This is 
life eternal, that they might know Thee, the only true God, and 
Jesus Christ, whom Thou hast sent") ; Luke 1, 77 ; Gal. 4, 9 ; Phil. 

3, 8 ; 1 Tim. 2, 4, or as assent to His gracious promise, John 3, 36 
("He that belie veth not the Son"); 5,46, or as confidence and 
trust in the promise of the Gospel, John 3, 16. 36 (believing in 
Him, on Him) ; Gal. 2, 16 ; Rom. 4, 20 f. ; 2 Tim. 1, 12 ; John 
3, 18 ("in the name") ; Mark 1, 15 ("believe the Gospel"). The 
three terms are thus used synonymously, each denoting faith in its 
entirety. Eome anathematizes the definition of faith as firm re- 
liance on the grace of God and defines it as the assent to the 
teaching of the Church, even as an assent which does not neces- 
sarily require the definite knowledge of its object (Koehlerglaube), 


Eom. 10, 14. NOT may faith be defined as the mere intellectual 
assent to the truths of Christianity, based on the laws of evi- 
dence. 21, Faith is based on God's Word and promise, Heb. 11, 1, 
the divine promise creating conviction, confidence, and trust, Job 
19, 25; Is. 45, 24; Matt. 9, 2; John 16, 33; Eom. 8, 38 f.; Gal. 
2, 20; Eph. 3, 12. "Faith is not only knowledge in the intellect, 
but also confidence in the will ; i. e., it is to wish and to receive 
that which is offered in the promise." Ap., Ill, 183. 106. 194; 
IV, 45 f. 48. 1131 A. C., XX, 23. 39. F. C., Ill, Ep., 6; 
Th.D., 11. 

1, 12; 3, 18; Acts 10, 43; 16, 31; Eom. 1, 16 f.; 3, 241; 8, 39; 
10, 9; 2 Cor. 5, 19. A. C., IV; XX, 231 Ap., IV, 45. 531; 
XIII, 21. F. C., Ill, Ep., 6; Th. D., 11. Making the "fatherhood 
of God" the object of faith instead of Christ and His merit, instead 
of the grace of God in Christ, is making of faith a superstition. 53* 
The object of saving faith is the whole Gospel, the entire work of 
Christ, not Christ's suffering and death alone (311) nor his resur- 
rection alone (450). Mark 1, 15; Luke 1, 3; Eom. 8, 34. 

AND OBEDIENCE, Gal. 5, 6 ("faith, which worketh by love") ; 2, 10; 
Matt. 3, 8. 10 ; 2 Pet. 1, 5 1, LOVE AND OBEDIENCE DO NOT CON- 

fides formata of Eome) . Faith justifies without works, Eom. 3, 28 ; 
4, 5 ; Acts 10, 43. Good works are, indeed, the signs and proofs of 
the existence of faith, Jas. 2, 17. 18; 2 Cor. 4, 13; John 13, 35, 
but they do not impart life to faith ; on the contrary, they are the 
results of living faith, Gal. 5, 6; Jas. 2, 17. f The doctrine that the 
observance of the Law, obedience to Christ as a new lawgiver, the 
Christian life, constitute either the essence or the chief part of 
faith not only outrages the language, Gal. 3, 12, but also keeps men 
under the curse of the Law, Gal. 3, 10. See 91, "Faith and good 
works are inseparably connected, but it is faith alone, without 
works, which lays hold of the blessing; and yet it is never and at 
no time alone." F. C., Th. D., Ill, 41. It is "the mother and 
source" of good works. F. C., Th. D., IV, 9. A. C., XX, 35. 
Ap., IV, 441 F. C., Ep., Ill, 11; Th.D., Ill, 13. 27. 32. 38. 


flesh, persisting in sinning against conscience and the warning of 
the Holy Spirit, results in the death of faith. "How can ye believe 
which receive honor one of another ?" John 5, 44 ; 2 Sam. 12, 7 if. ; 
Gal. 5, 6; Eph. 4, 30; 5, 5 f.; Jas. 2, 1. 171; 1 John 2, 4; 5, 4. 
Defining faith as the intellectual assent to the teachings of the 
Church, Kome finds no difficulty in declaring that heinous sins do 
not entail the loss of faith. 49* The Calvinistic teaching that the 
believer cannot lose faith even though he commits enormous sins 
involves the monstrous conception that the heart can be at the 
same time the temple of the Holy Ghost and the dwelling-place 
of Satan. 2 Cor. 6, 16 f . ; Eph. 2, 2. A. C., IV, 48. 64. S. A., 
P. Ill, III, 43 f. F. C., Ep.III, 11; Th. D., Ill, 27; IV, 31. 
See 84. 

76* INFANTS ARE CAPABLE OF FAITH. Their faith, created through 
Baptism (123), is not conscious, discursive faith, but true faith, 
personal and actual trust in the Savior. While the Catholics and 
Eeformed have joined the thoroughgoing rationalists in denying 
infant faith, the Lutheran Church abides by the plain teaching of 
Scripture. Scripture speaks of the faith of children in the most 
direct and explicit terms : "These little ones which believe in Me," 
Matt. 18, 6. It exhausts the resources of language in this direc- 
tion: Matt. 18, 2 ("little child"); Matt. 18, 6 ("little ones"); 
Luke 18, 15 ("infants") ; Matt. 21, 16 ("babes and sucklings") ; 
Luke 1, 15. 44 (unborn babe). Again, Scripture ascribes faith to 
little children when it ascribes to them membership in the kingdom 
of heaven, Matt. 19, 14; Mark 10, 14; Luke 18, 16, entrance into 
the kingdom of God being by faith alone, John 3, 16. 18; Heb. 
11, 6; Matt. 18, 10. Finally, as to the argument that infants are 
incapable of faith because of the undeveloped state of the reasoning 
faculty, Scripture teaches that faith is the product not of reason, 
but of the creative power of the Holy Ghost, Eph. 1, 19; Col. 
2, 12; 1 Cor. 2, 14; 2 Cor. 10, 5; Matt. 16, 17; 18, 3; Mark 
10, 15. Ap., IX, 52 f. Large C., IV, 47 f. 57. 


believed and turned unto the Lord," Acts 11, 21 ; Gal. 3, 26 ; Col. 
2, 12. "Faith is kindled in us in conversion. . . . This lays hold 
of God's grace in Christ, by which the person is justified." F. C., 
Th. D., Ill, 41 ; II, 71. Regeneration, vivification, illumination, 


are synonyms of conversion, 1 John 5, 1 : Col. 2, 12 ; Eph. 2, 5. 8 ; 
2 Cor. 4, 6; Acts 26, 18, frequently also repentance (80), in most 
passages also vocation, the effective call, creating faith, Rom. 1, 6 ; 
8, 30 ; 2 Tim. 1, 9. A. 0., XII. Ap., IV, 64 ; III, 126129 ; XII, 58 ; 
VI, 34 ("repentance, i.e., conversion or regeneration"). S. A., 
P. Ill, III, 4; P. C., Th. D., II, 25. 87; III, 20; V, 7 f. ; XI, 18. 
Paith, the reliance of the heart upon the grace of God offered in 
the Gospel, has no place in the conversion of Catholic theology, 
which instructs the sinners to convert themselves by producing such 
acts as fear, love, purpose to begin a new life and the lapsed to 
return to God by way of "penance" (contrition, confession, and 
satisfaction), distinctly and specifically excluding "faith, generated 
by the Gospel" (Trent, Sess. XIV, Can. IV) from repentance. Nor 
has it a place in the conversion or repentance of the theology of 
rationalism, which defines conversion as the moral transformation 
and reformation of the sinner, nor in the theology of the common 
revivalist, who "converts" the sinner by rousing certain definite or 
indefinite religious emotions in him. According to Scripture the 
sinner is revived, converted, saved, by faith. "What must I do to 
be saved ?" "Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ," Acts 16, 30 f . 

II, 25. God creates faith by His almighty power, Eph. 1, 19 f. 
("who believe according to the working of His mighty power") ; 
Ps. 51, 10; 100, 3; Jer. 31, 18; Ezek. 36, 26 f.; John 1, 121; 
3, 5; 6, 44; 1 Cor. 12, 3; 2 Cor. 4, 6; Eph. 2, 1; Col. 2, 12 f.; 
Heb. 12, 2; 1 Pet. 1, 3 (cp. John 11, 43), moved thereto solely 
by His grace in Christ, 2 Tim. 1, 9 ("not according to our works, 
but according to His own purpose and grace") ; Jer. 31, 20; John 
6, 65; Acts 11, 171; Eph. 2, 8; Phil. 1, 29; Jas. 1, 18; 1 Pet. 
1, 3. See 51+ 54+ The numerous organizations and churches which 
deny the doctrine of monergism ("sola gratia"), teaching instead 
Pelagianism (Man possesses the power of self -regeneration) or 
Semi-Pelagwnism, Arminianism, synergism in its various forms 
(Man can and must cooperate with God towards his regeneration, 
the production of faith), are compelled to ascribe to man powers 
which he does not possess, 1 Cor. 2, 14 ("The natural man re- 
ceiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, . . . neither can he 


know them"); Eph. 2, 1 ("dead"); Matt. 16, 17; John 15, 5; 
Eom. 7, 18, and to deny that the only powers he possesses are 
powers for evil, 1 Cor. 2, 14 ("They are foolishness unto him") ; 
Eom. 8, 7 ("The carnal mind is enmity against God") ; Jer. 13, 23 ; 
Matt. 12, 34; Eph. 4, 18; Hos. 13, 9. Leading man away from 
his only help, the mighty grace of God, and asking him to bring 
about his conversion by employing non-existent powers, they thwart 
his conversion, his salvation. A. C., V, XVIII. Ap., IV, 64; 
III, 129. Small C., Third Article; Second Petition. Large C., 

II, 52. 62. P. C., Ep., II, 4. 19; III, 6; Th. D., II, 71 361; 

III, 11. 41. The imperatives : "Believe," "Return," "Arise from 
the dead" (Mark 1, 15; Jer. 3, 12; Eph. 5, 14) do not call for 
the employment of powers inherent in man, as little as the com- 
mand of John 11, 43 asked Lazarus in the grave to exert his 
powers; but these Gospel exhortations and invitations bestow and 
effect what they call for, just as in the case of Lazarus. 

vinism teaches that wherever efficacious grace operates, it operates 
irresistibly. Scripture teaches a) that men do resist the Holy 
Ghost, who would convert them, and thus frustrate His gracious 
operation, Matt. 23, 37 ("How often would I have gathered thy 
children together . . ., and ye would not \") ; Acts 7, 51 ("Ye do 
always resist the Holy Ghost; as your fathers did, so do ye"); 

13, 46; Prov. 1, 241; Is. 65, 2; Zech. 7, 111; Luke 7, 30; 

14, 1624; John 3, 19; 5, 40; Eom. 10, 21, and b) that the 
grace dealing with those who remain unconverted is efficacious 
grace, operating with no less power than in the case of the con- 
verted, Acts 13, 46 (the Word preached to the unbelieving Jews 
was the very same Word as that which was preached to the believing 
Gentiles) ; Matt. 23, 37 ("This call of God ... we should not 
regard as jugglery" [P. C., Th. D., XI, 29], and it would have 
been that if it had been inefficacious) ; Acts 7, 51 (Only where 
power is put forth, can resistance take place) ; "... the perverse 
will of man which rejects or perverts the means and instruments of 
the Holy Ghost, which God offers him through the call, and resists 
the Holy Ghost, who wishes to be efficacious through the Word." 
P. C., Th. D., XI, 41. 29. 78; II, 571 73. 83; Ep., XI, 12. 
See 55* Eesistance is impossible where God deals with men in 
His uncovered majesty, possible where God operates through means. 



Faith is the essential element in conversion, Acts 11, 21 ; but since 
faith cannot find place in the secure and self-satisfied heart, for 
the reason that "hearts that are secure and do not feel the wrath 
of God loathe consolation" (Ap., XII, 51. F. C., Th. D., V, 9. 
Matt. 9, 121; 11, 28), contrition, that is, the knowledge of sin, 
the sense of God's wrath, the despairing of self-help (the terrors 
of conscience) is the indispensable prerequisite for conversion or 
repentance. Eepentance, conversion, takes place when the sinner, 
terrified by the curse of the Law, turns, by faith, to the grace of 
God in Christ. "The publican, standing afar off, would not lift 
up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote upon his breast, 
saying, God be merciful to me, a sinner/' Luke 18, 13; 2 Sam. 
12, 13; Jer. 3, 13; Joel 2, 12 f.; Acts 2, 371; 16, 291 A. C., 
XII. Ap., IV, 45; III, 21; XII, 1. 52. 91. S. A., P. Ill, III. 
F. C., Th.D., II, 54; V, 9. 

NOTE. Repentance, used as a synonym of conversion, in- 
cludes contrition and faith, Matt. 3, 2 ; Luke 13, 3 ; 15, 7 ; Acts 
11, 18 ; in the narrow sense, distinguished from faith, it is a syn- 
onym of contrition, Mark 1, 15 ; Luke 24, 47. F. C., Th. D., V, 7 1 ; 
VII, 68. Again, the contrition of the believer is essentially dif- 
ferent from the contrition of the unconverted sinner ; for the sorrow 
for sin and the renunciation of sin which is found in "daily con- 
trition and repentance" (Small C., IV), Ps. 51, 17; Ezra 9, 6; 
2 Cor. 7, 10, springs from the love of God. It is a fruit of con- 
version and comes under the head of sanctification. "How will 
men love God in true terrors when they feel the terrible and 
inexpressible wrath of God? . . . Neither is love present before 
reconciliation has been made by faith." Ap., XII, 28 38. 

The Catholic doctrine that repentance (penance, the return 
of the lapsed to grace) is preceded by faith is based on the per- 
version of the term "faith" (historical faith) ; the exclusion from 
penance of faith in the promise of forgiveness, making penance 
consist of contrition, confession, satisfaction, is a subversion of the 
Christian religion. Ap., XII, 34. In the Reformed theology 
repentance is an "evangelical grace" (West. Conl, chap. XV) which 
follows faith, its constitutive element being hatred of sin and the 
purpose to amend. While the Lutheran theology, too, speaks of 
"daily contrition and repentance," the Reformed definition and use 
of the term repentance is objectionable and vicious. It is not the 


Scriptural definition. Moreover, it obscures the fundamental truth 
that the sinner is saved through repentance (conversion), which 
consists of faith, in no wise through a "repentance" which con- 
sists of the hatred of sin and the purpose to amend. 

81+ "CONTRITION, that is, terrors smiting the conscience through 
the knowledge of sin" (A. C., XII), "the true sorrow of heart, 
suffering and sensation of death" (S. A., P. Ill, III, 2), Ps. 6, 
13; 38, 18; 51, 3f.; Is. 38, 15; Jer. 3, 13; Acts 2, 37; 
16, 29 f . ; Rom. 3, 20, is not an achievement of man, as Eome 
teaches. Contrition is not a "manufactured repentance" (S. A.,. 
1. c.), but the work of God, produced by the Law, Ps. 32, 4; Is. 
38, 13; Jer. 23, 29; John 16, 8; Eom. 3, 20; 2 Cor. 3, 6. It does 
not effect a moral improvement, but can, in the unconverted, only 
produce servile fear, despair, and hatred of God, 2 Cor. 3, 6 ; it does 
not merit God's grace, Eom. 4, 4 6 ; Acts 10, 43. Ap., IV, 83 ; 
III, 174. 179. 191; XII, 29; VI, 521 S. A., P. Ill, III, 151 
The contrition of the believers, finding utterance in the Penitential 
Psalms, is, as concerning the flesh, of the same nature as the con- 
trition of the unconverted, but as concerning the spirit it is sorrow 
for sin from love of God and expressive not of servile, but 
of filial fear. 



tians who feel and experience in their hearts a small spark or 
longing for divine grace . . . know that God has kindled in their 
hearts this beginning of true godliness. ... A spark of faith is 
kindled in him." F. C., Th. D., II, 14. 54; XI, 30. Faith is "to 
wish and to receive the offered promise." Ap., IV, 48; III, 106.. 
183. The doctrine that the longing for grace, for forgiveness for 
Christ's sake, is not of the nature of saving faith serves to keep 
the troubled child of God away from Christ, who has created this 
longing in him through the Gospel, through the gracious offer and 
conferring of forgiveness. Matt. 5, 6; John 1, 16; Phil. 2, 13. 

QF THE CHRISTIAN. "Except ye be converted," Matt. 18, 3, was 
addressed to the disciples, believers. Ps. 38, 171; 51, 17; 130; 
Jer. 31, 18; Matt. 6, 12; Eom. 7, 1425; Heb. 12, 1. "As often 
as believers stumble, they are reproved by the Holy Spirit from the 
Law and by the same Spirit are raised up and comforted again with 
the preaching of the holy Gospel." F. C., Th. D., VI, 14. Ap., III. 


Trigl., p. 213. S. A., P. Ill, III, 40. Small C., IV, 12. Large C., 
IV, 741 Perfectionism eliminates the daily contrition and re- 
pentance. The Catholic requirement that the sacrament of penance 
must be taken from time to time, at least once a year, makes of the 
daily repentance a periodical and mechanical affair and cannot but 
induce carnal security. $ 

vinism denies the amissibility of faith, Scripture warns all be- 
lievers against defection as an ever-present peril and cites the 
example of those who, once converted, lost faith and again became 
children of wrath and perdition. "Let him that thinketh he 
standeth take heed lest he fall," 1 Cor. 10, 12. "Which for a while 
believe and in time of temptation fall away," Luke 8, 13 ; Ezek. 
18, 26; Luke 11, 24 26; Eom. 11, 22; 1 Cor. 9, 27; Gal. 
4, 19; 5, 4; 1 Tim. 1, 19; Heb. 4, 11; 6, 6; 10, 26; 2 Pet. 2, 
20 22; Eev. 2, 5; David; Peter. Accordingly, the Lutheran 
Church teaches that he who "indulges his wicked lusts without fear 
and shame, resists the Holy Ghost, and purposely engages in sins 
against conscience" cannot "retain faith, God's grace, righteous- 
ness, and salvation." F. C., Th. D., IV, 31; III, 27; XI, 11. 56. 
A. C., XII, 7. Ap., Ill, 981; XX, 90. S. A., P. Ill, III, 421 
The Calvinistic doctrine engenders carnal security and thus operates 
towards bringing on defection. 75* 179* 


thou backsliding Israel," Jer. 3, 12; Ezek. 18, 26. 27. 31; Gal. 
4, 19; Eev. 2, 5; David (2 Sam. 12, 13; Ps. 51); Manasseh 
(2 Chron. 33, 111); Peter (Luke 22, 32, 611). "Him that 
cometh to Me I will in no wise cast out," John 6, 37, is a universal 
invitation and promise. A. C., XII. Ap., XXVIII, 13. F. C., 
Th. D., XI, 56. 75. The denial of the possibility of a second con- 
version, a reiterated regeneration (Novatianis'm), is preventive of 
a renewed conversion. (The Calvinistic system, which denies the 
amissibility of faith, also has no place for the restoration of faith.) 

Scripture does not recognize the distinction made here by the 
Catholic churches, the use of the "sacrament" of penance on the 
part of the lapsed (those who lose grace after baptism) for the 
purpose of obtaining grace constituting the difference. 77* The 
apostles use the same word, "repent," with the same meaning 
whether they are dealing with such as never had been baptized be- 


lievers, Acts 2, 38 ; 11, 18 ; 26, 20, or with such as once had been 
believers, Acts 8, 13. 22; Eev. 2, 5. 16. See 87* Nor does Scrip- 
ture recognize the distinction made by Eome, based on the alleged 
sacramental nature of penance, between the repentance obtaining in 
the Old Testament and that obtaining in the New Testament and 
between repentance beforehand after Christ's resurrection. The 
repentance preached by Paul to the Gentiles, Acts 26, 20, was the 
same as that preached by the prophets, Acts 26, 22 f . So also 
John the Baptist and Christ preached the same repentance before 
the resurrection of Christ, Matt. 3, 2 ; Luke 13, 3, as the apostles 
did after the resurrection, Luke 24, 46 f. S. A., P. Ill, III, 5 f . 30. 
Large C., IV, 74 f . F. C., Th. D., V, 5. 

OF SINS, GRANTED IN BAPTISM. "Our baptism abides forever; 
and even though some one should fall from it and sin, nevertheless 
we always have access thereto. . . . Eepentance is nothing else than 
a return to Baptism." Large C., IV, 77 f. A. C., XII. See 118. 
The covenant made by God with the sinner in baptism, granting 
forgiveness and eternal life, Mark 16, 16 ; Rom. 6, 3 f . ; 1 Pet. 
3, 20 f., remains valid on God's part, Is. 54, 10; Hos. 2, 19 f.; 
Eom. 3, 3 f. ; 11, 29; 2 Tim. 2, 13; the return to it, on the part 
of the penitent, is always open, Mark 16, 16. The Catholic doc- 
trine that mortal sins committed after baptism invalidate Baptism 
and that the "second plank after shipwreck 7 * is the "sacrament" of 
penance renders, where applied, the restoration of the lapsed im- 
possible. It leads men "to put faith out of sight" (Ap., XII, 91) 
and instructs them "to repose confidence in their own works," con- 
trition, confession, and satisfaction (S. A., P. Ill, III, 12). God 
did not institute the "sacrament" of penance. As for repentance, 
it is not a Sacrament, because it does not confer grace, but obtains 
grace by accepting it. As for the Catholic penance, it is an 
antichristian abomination, turning absolution into a prerogative of 
the priesthood and conditioning it on the penitent's own works 
and worthiness, thus keeping him under the curse, Gal. 3, 10; 5, 4. 
See 156. 157. 158. 

PRODUCT OF FAITH. 74. "Bring forth therefore fruits meet for 
repentance," Matt. 3, 8 ; Luke 6, 43 ; John 15, 5 ; Acts 26, 20 ; Gal. 
2, 20; 5, 6. "Then good works are bound to follow, which are the 
fruits of repentance." A. C., XII, 6; VI, 1. Ap., XII, 58; VI, 34. 


F. C., Th. D., Ill, 27. The renunciation of sin, the purpose of 
amendment, the willing obedience, etc., being the fruit of con- 
version, cannot form its constitutive element. Making the new 
obedience its constitutive element, as Eomanism and rationalism do 
(77), is ascribing salvation to works. Bom. 3, 28; 4, 5; Eph. 

2, 8 f. The Eeformed deviation touching this point is discussed 80+ 


CHRIST (SUBJECTIVE JUSTIFICATION). "God was in Christ, recon- 
ciling the world unto Himself, not imputing their trespasses unto 
them," 2 Cor. 5, 19. "Being justified freely by His grace through 
the redemption that is in Christ Jesus. . . . Therefore we conclude 
that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the Law," Rom. 

3, 2428; 2 Cor. 5, 19. 20; 1 Cor. 6, 11. A. C., IV. Romanism 
and rationalism teach that justification is not a forensic act of God, 
taking place outside of the sinner, but a physical act, effected 
within the sinner, God infusing good qualities into the heart of 
man, which man puts to use (thus the Catholic churches), or man 
effecting, more directly, his own moral transformation, his renewal 
(thus Modernism and the churches infected with rationalism), 
the righteousness of man thus consisting in his inherent holiness. 
In other words, justification is identified with sanctification. 
Scripture, however, teaches that justification is a judicial act, 
Ps. 130, 3. 4; 143, 2; Rom. 4, 68; 8, 331 (judgment, judge, 
accusation, advocate, acquittal), the ungodly being pronounced 
righteous, Rom. 4, 5 ("justifieth the ungodly") ; that good works, 
the holiness of life, have no bearing whatever on the sinner's justifi- 
cation, Rom. 3, 28, God forgiving sins freely, pronouncing him 
righteous who has no righteousness of his own, Rom. 4, 5 ("To him 
that worketh not, but believeth on Him that justifieth the ungodly, 
his faith is counted for righteousness") ; Ps. 130, 4; Rom. 3, 28; 
Eph. 1, 7; Col. 2, 13; 1 John 1, 9; that, since God demands 
a perfect righteousness of man, Matt. 5, 20 ; 22, 37 f ., which man 
cannot achieve, Rom. 3, 23 ; Gal. 3, 10 ; Jas. 2, 10, all who would 
obtain their justification through their own holiness remain under 
the curse, Gal. 3, 10; 5, 4; that God declares the sinner just on 
account of Christ's righteousness, Rom. 3, 24 ; Phil. 3, 9 ; and that 


sanctification is not the cause of justification, Eom. 3, 28, but its 
effect, Eom. 6, 111; Ps. 119, 32; Luke 7, 47. The Lutheran 
Church teaches : "To be justified does not mean that a righteous 
man is made from a wicked man, but to be pronounced righteous 
in a forensic sense." Ap., Ill, 131. 184. F. C., Bp., Ill, 7. 15; 
XII, 5; Th.D., Ill, 27. 41. 55. 62. 

While Modernism vehemently insists that the righteousness of 
one cannot be transferred to another, Scripture plainly teaches 
just this, that God imputes Christ's righteousness to us, not im- 
puting to us our sins, but forgiving them for Christ's sake, Jer. 
23, 6; Luke 24, 47; Acts 10, 43; Eom. 4, 68; 5, 181; 2 Cor. 
5, 19. 21; Eph. 1, 7. See 70* And when Scripture says that 
"faith is counted for righteousness," Eom. 4, 5, it expresses the 
same truth: the righteousness of Christ, appropriated by faith, 
constitutes our righteousness, Phil. 3, 9. The objection that Scrip- 
ture itself, in stating that the forgiveness of sins is free, gratuitous, 
denies that it was gained through the vicarious satisfaction of 
Christ, amounts to a gross perversion of Scripture. Scripture 
teaches that, while the forgiveness of sins does not cost us any- 
thing, it cost Christ His life. "Freely" because of the redemp- 
tion of Christ, Eom. 3, 24; Ps. 69, 4. "The 'gratuitous' excludes 
our merit . . . ; the merits of Christ are the price." Ap., IV, 53. 
43. 86. 89; III, 58. F. C., Ill, Ep., 4; Th.D., 9. 17. 32. Cal- 
vinism, denying universal grace, restricts justification to the 
elect. 267* Other impairments of the article of justification on 
the part of Eeformed theology are mentioned 3 

grace of God which forgives sins is not the fictitious grace of 
Unitarianism (53* 73), not the "infused grace" of Eomanism 
(52* 89), but the favor and good will of God toward the sinner 
gained by Christ's vicarious satisfaction. And it forgives sins 
freely. "Being justified freely by His grace" Eom. 3, 24. The 
Scriptural- concept of grace leaves no room for the concept of 
human merit. The forgiveness of sins is an unearned, unmerited, 
gift of grace. In the matter of justification grace and works are 
contradictories. "If by grace, then it is no more of works ; other- 
wise grace is no more grace. But if it be of works, then is it no 
more grace; otherwise work is no more work," Eom. 11, 6 ; 3, 27 f. ; 
4, 16. "The 'gratuitous' excludes our merits and signifies that the 
benefit is offered only through mercy." Ap., IV, 53 f. F. C., Th. D., 
Ill, 9. The Christian religion is the religion of grace. Eomanism 


and rationalism (Pelagianism and Semi-Pelagianism) stand for 
the pagan merit-religion. 89* 91* "If any one thus holds [that 
men merit the remission of sins], he holds to the faith of a Jew 
and heathen." Ap., VI, 17. 



through worlcs, Eom. 3, 20. 27; 4, 6, or the collaboration of faith 
and works, Eom. 3, 28; Gal. 2, 16; Phil. 3, 9, but by faith alone, 
Eom. 3, 28; Gal. 2, 16 ("Knowing that a man is not justified by 
the works of the Law, but by" [in no way except by] "the faith 
of Jesus Christ"), and not by faith as the source of good works 
or as a good quality or an act conformable to the Law, Eom. 4, 5, 
but by faith as the acceptance of the Gospel's gracious offer of the 
forgiveness of sins, Acts 16, 31. Faith alone justifies because only 
by faith can the offer of forgiveness be appropriated. Justification 
by faith and justification by works are contradictories, because 
justification by faith is justification by grace, and grace and works 
are contradictories, Eom. 11, 6; 4, 4 8; 3, 27 f. ; 2 Tim. 1, 9; 
Titus 3, 5 7. Gal. 5, 6 does not state that faith justifies by love, 
but simply that it worketh by love, produces love and obedience. 
The teaching of Eome and others that good works are necessary for 
obtaining and increasing justification, love being the energizing 
element of "faith" (in the Catholic sense) ; of the Arminians and 
others, who define faith as obedience to the Law ; and of those who 
teach that faith justifies as potential obedience (74) in brief, 
any teaching that induces the sinner to rely for his justification on 
the performance of all the good works demanded by the Law or of 
any or a single one of them keeps him away from Christ, under the 
curse, Gal. 5, 4; 3, 10; Eom. 4, 16. A. C., IV; VI; XX, 9 f. 23. 
Ap., IV, 40 49. 56. 73 ("If the exclusive 'alone' displeases, let them 
remove from Paul also the exclusives 'f reely/ 'not of works/ 'it is the 
gift/ " etc.). 8689 ; III, 26. F. C., Ill, Ep., 4 f . 10 ; Th. D., 913 
("Faith justifies not for this cause and reason that it is so good 
a work or so fair a virtue, but because it lays hold of, and accepts, 
the merit of Christ in the promise of the holy Gospel") . 16. 31 f. 55. 

PUNISHMENT OF SIN, Eom. 8, 1 ("no condemnation") ; 5, 1. Eome 
teaches that God remits only the guilt and eternal punishment, but 
not the temporal punishment of sin. (158,) That invrlves the 
monstrous conception that God at the same time pardons and 
punishes the sinner. It denies that God has actually "forgiven you 



all trespasses," Col. 2, 13 ; denies, further, that Christ actually re- 
conciled the world unto God, Rom. 5, 10 ; 2 Cor. 5, 19, and, requir- 
ing the penitent himself to clear the debt of temporal punishment 
partly through his own satisfactions, rendered here and in pur- 
gatory (185), partly through the satisfactions of others (97), ob- 
tained through indulgences, denies the sole savior ship of Jesus, 
Acts 4, 12 ; 1 Tim. 2, 5, who bore our punishment, Is. 53, 4 f ., fully 
completing the work of redemption, Heb. 10, 14. Where indul- 
gences are granted in a more or less open way for cash Acts 8, 20 
applies. A. C., XXV, 4. Ap., XII, 13 ; VI, 21. 79 ; XXI, 22. 
S. A., P. II, II, 24 ; P. Ill, III, 22 f. F. C., Th. D., V, 21. The 
afflictions of the believer are not of the nature of punishment, but 
are chastisements inflicted by the love of God for the trial of faith, 
Heb. 12, 611; 1 Pet. 1, 7. Ap., VI, 54. 63; XV, 45. On the 
doctrine of Universalism that God remits neither sin nor punish- 
ment see 430* 435. 

FECT. The forgiveness gained by Christ and granted in the Gospel 
is the forgiveness of all sins, Luke 24, 47. The believers have at all 
times the same full and perfect forgiveness, Ps. 103, 3; Is. 38, 17; 
Micha 7, 19; Rom. 3, 2225; Eph. 1, 7; Col. 2, 13; 1 John 
1, 7. Small C., Third Art. F. C., Ill, Ep., 9; Th. D., 9. There 
are degrees in faith, 2 Thess. 1, 3 ; 2 Cor. 10, 15. Ap., Ill, 21. 229 ; 
XII, 37. But the weak faith, grasping the same promise, obtains 
the same forgiveness that strong faith obtains. There are degrees 
in sanctification, 2 Cor. 4, 16; Eph. 4, 15; 1 Thess. 4, 1 ; 2 Thess. 
1, 3 (97), but justification is in no wise effected or obtained through 
sanctification. Rome and the other bodies which identify justifica- 
tion and sanctification necessarily posit the increase and decrease of 

4, 2022; 1 Cor. 2, 12; Eph. 3, 12 ("in whom we have boldness 
and access with confidence by the faith of Him"). Faith is in its 
very nature certainty, assurance, the opposite of doubt, Heb. 11, 1; 
Rom. 4, 20; Jas. 1, 6; for it rests upon the absolute truth and 
validity of the divine promise of the Gospel, Rom. 4, 21; 2 Cor. 
1, 20 ; 1 John 5, 8 f ., and is the product of the Holy Spirit, Eph. 
1, 19 ; Col. 2, 12. It is a monstrous supposition that God's promise 
could leave room for doubt and that the Holy Spirit would create 
a doubting attitude, which makes God a liar, 1 John 5, 20. Basing 


justification on works cannot but be productive of doubt, rather of 
the certainty of damnation. Therefore God justifies by grace, 
Eom. 4, 6. The teaching of Eome which requires the Christian to 
doubt and anathematizes the assurance of faith is a necessary con- 
comitant of the theology of work-righteousness. Ap., IV, 119 ; 
III, 27 f. 198. 219 ("Christ does not forbid to trust in God's 
promise") ; XI, 59; XII, 88; XIII, 20. S. A., Of the Power, 44. 
F. C., Ep., Ill, 9; Th. D., IV, 12. Faith' doubts not, though the 
Christian often doubts ; and this doubt, the voice of the flesh, must 
be reproved and combated as a grievous sin, 1 John 5, 10. 1 Cor. 
10, 12 and Eom. 11, 20 are aimed, not at the assurance of faith, 
but at carnal security. 

The Pietistic-Methodistic teaching is that the Holy Spirit 
gives the Christian the assurance of grace through new and peculiar 
sensations, impressions, and revelations wrought in the heart in- 
dependently of the Word and alongside of faith, and this is called 
the testimony of the Spirit. But the witness of the Spirit, Eom. 
8, 15 f. ; Gal. 4, 6, is nothing else than faith itself, the confident 
reliance, the divine assurance, wrought by the Holy Spirit through 
the Word. "He that believeth on the Son hath the witness in him- 
self," 1 John 5, 10. "Faith is when my heart, and the Holy Spirit 
in the heart, says: The promise of God is true and certain." 
Ap., IV, 113. "This faith is the witness of the Holy Spirit, which 
He bears with our spirit, that we are the children of God." Luther, 
VIII, 1376. The sensuous experience of grace, the feeling of 
peace, etc., must not be made the basis of the certainty of the for- 
giveness of sin. "We cannot always judge ex sensu [from feeling] ." 
F. C., Th. D., II, 56. The objective promise of the Gospel is the 
sole ground of faith, of assurance, Eom. 10, 6 8; 1 John 5, 8; 
Luke 11, 28; John 20, 29. Subjective experiences may be decep- 
tive. Nor does the Christian at all times have the precious feeling 
of grace and peace, 1 John 3, 20; Ps. 31, 22. And the grace and 
peace of God pass all understanding, Phil. 4, 7; John 14, 27. 
Therefore faith must rely, not 011 sensuous experiences and evi- 
dences, but on the Word, John 4, 48. 50; Heb. 11, 1 ; 1 John 3, 20. 


A HOLY LIFE IN GOOD WORKS. For "faith alone quickens" ; "it re- 
generates us and brings the Holy Ghost," the sole Author of sanc- 
tification. Ap., XII, 47 ; IV, 45. It is "faith which worketh by love," 
Gal. 5, 6. "They which have believed in God" are "careful to main- 


tain good works," Titus 3, 8 ; Matt. 7, 17 ; John 15, 5 ; Rom. 6, 11 ; 
12, 1; Eph. 2, 810; Gal. 5, 22. 24; Titus 2, 111; Heb. 11, 4; 
1 John 4, 19. Eom. 1, 17; Col. 2 } 12. The unregenerate, lacking 
faith, lack the love of God and, consequently, the ability and 
willingness to keep His commandments, to do good works. The 
imagination of the heart of the unregenerate is entirely evil, Gen. 
8, 21; Matt. 7, 16; 12, 34; Rom. 8, 71; 1 Cor. 10, 20; Eph. 
4, 18; Heb. 11, 4. "Men truly sin even when, without the Holy 
Ghost, they do virtuous works, because they do them with a wicked 
heart." Ap., IV, 35. The Pelagians and Semi-Pelagians, who 
ascribe spiritual powers to the natural man and deny that faith in 
Christ is the sole source of spiritual life, are only consistent in 
teaching that the unregenerate can perform truly good works. 

IV, 7. Man is not autonomous, but bound to the will of the Lord, 
the "one Lawgiver," Jas. 4, 12; Ex. 20, 2; Deut. 5, 32; Matt. 
4, 10; and the Lord has revealed His holy will in His Law, the 
Ten Commandments, which are therefore the sole standard of good 
works, Deut. 5, 32; 12, 32; Ps. 119, 9. 105; Prov. 30, 6; 2 Tim. 
3, 16. 17. Works performed according to any other standard, such 
as the commandments of the Church (of the Catholic churches) or 
man's own devotion with its self-devised holiness and self-imposed 
exercises (the monastic vows, the "evangelical counsels" of Rome, 
the countless forms of asceticism), are not good, but idolatrous 
works. There are also Protestant churches which demand the obser- 
vance of man-made regulations as a religious duty. See 110. 162 f. 
But "in vain they do worship Me, teaching for doctrines the com- 
mandments of men," Matt. 15, 9; Num. 15, 39; Deut. 12, 8; 
Ezek. 20, 18 f.; 1 Sam. 15, 22 f.; Matt. 15, 31; Mark 7, 913; 
Matt. 22, 37 40 ("On these two commandments hang all the Law 
and the Prophets"; nothing is commanded beyond or beside them) ; 
Col. 2, 16 23 ("will-worship," a worship set up by man's own 
will). Besides, the imposition of man-made laws on the Christians 
is violative of their blood-bought Christian liberty, 1 Cor. 7, 23; 
Col. 2, 2022. A. C., XX, If.; XXVI, 39; XXVII, 12. 20. 
36. 37; XXVIII, 19. Ap., VII and VIII, 34; VI, 77. Large C., I, 
92 f . 311 f. P. C., Th. D., IV, 7 ; VI, 15. 20 f. On the excellence 
of the works performed in the humblest calling, hallowed by God's 
institution and command, and its contrast, the sham sanctity of the 
monastic life, see A. C., XXVI, 9 1; XXVII, 13 f. Ap., XV, 25; 
XXVII, 24. Large C., I, 196 f. 


LIFE PERFECT. "Not as though I had already attained, either were 
already perfect/ 3 Phil. 3, 12; 1, 9; 2 Cor. 3, 18; 4, 16; 7, 1; 
Eph. 4, 15; 1 Thess. 4, 1. The Christian because of his totally 
corrupt flesh sins daily. "If we say that we have no sin, we deceive 
ourselves," 1 John 1, 8; Ps. 51, 2. 10; Prov. 20, 9; Eccl. 7, 20; 
Matt. 6, 12; Gal. 5, 17; Heb. 12, 1; 1 Pet. 2, 11. Indeed, "a pious 
Christian sins in all his good works' 3 (Luther, XV, 1551), which 
are tainted with the, wickedness of the flesh, servile fear, greed of 
glory, mercenariness, etc., Ps. 19, 12; 143, 2; Is. 64, 6; Matt. 

6, 12 ; Rom. 7, 14 f . And this situation endures unto death, Bom. 

7, 24. A. C., XII, 8. Ap., IV, 27; III, 38 f. 45. 58. 68. 83. 110 if. 
S. A., P. Ill, XIII, 2. Small C., Third Art. ; FiMi Pet. ; Bap- 
tism, 12 ("daily contrition and repentance"). Large C., II, 57 f. 
("Now we are only half pure and holy") ; III, 1. 86. .F. C., Ep., 
II, 12; IV, 13; VI, 4; Th. D., I, 14; II, 68. 79. 84 f.; Ill, 23. 32; 
IV, 8; VI, 7. 21. Scripture thus leaves no room for perfectionism, 
neither for that of Eomanism, Methodism, etc., which operates with 
the figment that concupiscence and the involuntary transgressions 
of the Law are not of the nature of sin (Gen. 8, 21 ; Matt. 15, 19 ; 
Eom. 7, 15 23; 1 John 3, 4), nor for that of the Holiness 
Churches, according to which entire sanctifieation is produced in 
certain individuals by an instantaneous act of God, destroying 
inbred sin, designated by them as the "baptism of the Holy 

3) All Christians are "baptized with the Holy Ghost," Luke 3, 16. 
This term describes the work of the Holy Ghost in saving, in regenerating 
and justifying the sinner, sanctifying and preserving the Christian, and 
bestowing upon him the gifts and power he needs in his Christian calling, 
Acts 2, 17; Is. 44, 3; Zech. 12, 10; Titus 3, 6; 1 Cor. 12, 3; Eph. 5, 18. 
1 Cor. 12, 3; 6, 11; Gal. 3, 1; Luke 11, 13. At Pentecost (Acts 1, 4. 5; 
2, 4. 14 f . ) the fulness of the Holy Spirit was given to the Church, that 
being signalized by the bestowal upon the disciples of a richer measure of 
the Spirit's gifts, greater understanding and boldness, as also by the gift 
of the extraordinary charisms, such as the occasion and times required 
(see also Acts 10, 45 f.; 11, 16). The fulness of the Spirit is the Church's 
abiding possession, John 14, 26; Eph. 3, 16; Rom. 15, 13, and it is in- 
cumbent on every Christian to avail himself of it to the full, Luke 11, 13; 
Eph. 5, 18. The term is used in an unscriptural sense by the extreme 
enthusiasts, who define the "baptism of the Holy Ghost" as the bestowal 
of sinless perfection ( see above ) , accompanied by miracle-working power 
(144), as the "second blessing," consequent upon the reconsecration of 
the soul to a higher and deeper life. 114. The term is used in an un- 
scriptural sense also by those who, while avoiding these extremes, deny 
that the regenerating and sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit comes under 


Eom. 7, 22 24 ; Gal. 5, 24. Perfectionism leaves no room for the 
daily contrition and repentance of him who "is wholly sanctified" 
and makes for spiritual pride, for carnal security or despair, for 

The assertion that God, who certainly demands perfect holi- 
ness, would not command the impossible goes directly against Scrip- 
ture (passages above) and is based on the fallacy that with the 
inability to perform a duty the obligation to perform it must neces- 
sarily cease. "Thus, therefore, it comes to pass that you theologians 
are so senseless and so many degrees below even schoolboys that, 
when you have caught hold of an imperative verb, you infer an 
indicative sense, as though what was commanded were immediately 
and necessarily done or possible to be done." Luther, XVIII, 1781. 
1623. 1 John 3, 9 describes the Christian according to the new 
man. The perfection of Phil. 3, 15 consists in the striving after 
perfection. Bph. 5, 26 f. ; 1 Thess. 5, 23 : entire sanctification is 
the object of God's sanctifying work in the Christian and will be 
fully achieved in heaven. Heb. 5, 13 ff. speaks of the perfection of 
maturity. Col. 3, 14 : perfection is predicated not of love, but of 
"bond." Ap., Ill, 110 f. Matt. 5, 48 calls for a love which is not 
limited, selfish, mean, but general and generous. Col. 1, 22; 2, 10 
deal with the perfection of justification, the bestowal of a perfect 
righteousness and the fulness of grace. See 372* 

The teaching of Rome that men may achieve superperfection, 
particularly by observing the "evangelical counsels," "the counsels 
of perfection," thereby performing more than the Law requires, 
works of supererogation, by which perfection and superperfection 
they achieve sainthood, their superfluous merit being expended for 

this term, limiting its meaning to the bestowal of a greater measure of 
the gifts of the Spirit, and not only sharply differentiate between these 
operations of the Spirit, but also describe the bestowal of richer gifts, 
greater power ("the baptism of the Holy Ghost"), as proceeding along 
the lines laid down, and insisted upon, by enthusiasm and emotionalism. 
As a rule, they conceive of it as a more or less immediate operation of 
the Spirit, divorced from the Means of Grace, unduly stress man's prepara- 
tion for it and the manner of such preparation, and have its occurrence 
marked by sensuous experiences. Some even go so far as to designate it 
as the chief and greatest blessing, while according to Scripture justifica- 
tion by faith is the chief and supreme thing in the life of the Christian, 
the greatest blessing, the source of all blessings. While the need of faithful 
work for the Church must be emphasized as strongly as possible, it must 
not be overemphasized to the detriment of the chief article of the Christian 


the benefit of others by way of indulgences, directly contradicts 
Scripture,, Luke 17,, 10 (passages above), and impugns the sole 
redeemership of Jesus. 92* 71* Matt. 19, 20 f . : Jesus is not 
counseling the young man to perform a work of supererogation, but 
is putting him to the test, which at once proved that, far from 
keeping the Law completely, he kept it not at all. A. C., XXVII, 
12. 44 f. 61. Ap., Ill, 239; XII, 14; VI, 45 f.; XXI, 29; 
XXVII, 24. 

The good works of the Christians, imperfect as they are, are 
still acceptable to God through faith, Christ's perfect righteousness 
covering their imperfection, Heb. 11, 4; 1 Pet. 2, 5. Ap., Ill, 172. 
P. C., Th. D., VI, 22. The Christians aim at keeping the Law 
perfectly, Rom. 7, 22; 2 Cor. 7, 1; Phil. 3, 12; 4, 8; Col. 1, 10; 
1 Pet. 2, 1. The daily experience of falling far short of the mark 
drives them daily into the arms of God's grace in Christ. 

98, GOOD WORKS ARE NECESSARY. God asks them of His children. 
"Let your light so shine before men that they may see your good 
works/' Matt. 5, 16 ; Acts 5, 29 ; Rom. 13, 5 ; 1 Cor. 9, 16 ; Bph. 

2, 10; 1 Thess. 4, 3 ; Titus 3, 8 ; 2 Pet. 1, 5 f. ; 1 John 3, 23. And 
faith cannot but produce them, Matt. 3, 8; 7, 17 f. ; Gal. 5, 6. 22; 
Jas. 2, 17 ; 2 Pet. 1, 5 f . BUT THEY ARE NOT NECESSARY FOR 
JUSTIFICATION, FOR SALVATION. The doctrine that good works are 
necessary for salvation "this godless opinion which sticks to the 
world quite tightly" (Ap., Ill, 85), to the pagan world, the Jewish 
world, the Catholic and rationalistic world, denies the chief article 
of the Christian religion (that the forgiveness of sins and eternal 
life are the free gift of God, gained by Christ alone, appropriated 
by faith alone), John 3, 16. 36; 20, 31; Acts 4, 12; 16, 30 f.; 
Rom. 3, 24. 28; 6, 23; 11, 6; Eph. 2, 81; 2 Tim. 1, 9; Titus 

3, 51; 1 John 5, 11 (91), destroys the Gospel, Acts 20, 24, and 
robs men of Christ, Gal. 5, 4, holding them under the curse, Gal. 
3, 10; Acts 15, 24. The rationalizations: Good works are neces- 
sary, therefore they are necessary for justification; faith is never 
without good works, therefore faith saves because of the good works, 
violate both Scripture and the laws of sound reasoning. A. C., 
VI. XX. Ap., Ill, 1 1 67 f. 104 1 235 1; XV, 1 f. F. C., IV, Ep., 
6. 15 1; Th. D., 7. 14. 16. 22. 30. 


perfect, and, polluted in every case with sin (97), they merit 
damnation. In so far as they are good, they are God's work in us, 


tain good works/' Titus 3, 8 ; Matt. 7, 17 ; John 15, 5 ; Rom. 6, 11 ; 
12, 1; Eph. 2, 810; Gal. 5, 22. 24; Titus 2, 111; Heb. 11, 4; 
1 John 4, 19. Bom. 1, 17; Col. 2, 12. The unregenerate, lacking 
faith, lack the love of God and, consequently, the ability and 
willingness to keep His commandments, to do good works. The 
imagination of the heart of the unregenerate is entirely evil, Gen. 
8, 21; Matt. 7, 16; 12, 34; Eom. 8, 7f.; 1 Cor. 10, 20; Eph. 
4, 18; Heb. 11, 4. "Men truly sin even when, without the Holy 
Ghost, they do virtuous works, because they do them with a wicked 
heart." Ap., IV, 35. The Pelagians and Semi-Pelagians, who 
ascribe spiritual powers to the natural man and deny that faith in 
Christ is the sole source of spiritual life, are only consistent in 
teaching that the unregenerate can perform truly good works. 

IV, 7. Man is not autonomous, but bound to the will of the Lord, 
the "one Lawgiver," Jas. 4, 12; Ex. 20, 2; Deut. 5, 32; Matt. 
4, 10; and the Lord has revealed His holy will in His Law, the 
Ten Commandments, which are therefore the sole standard of good 
works, Deut. 5, 32; 12, 32; Ps. 119, 9. 105; Prov. 30, 6; 2 Tim. 
3, 16. 17. Works performed according to any other standard, such 
as the commandments of the Church (of the Catholic churches) or 
man's own devotion with its self-devised holiness and self-imposed 
exercises (the monastic vows, the "evangelical counsels" of Eome, 
the countless forms of asceticism), are not good, but idolatrous 
works. There are also Protestant churches which demand the obser- 
vance of man-made regulations as a religious duty. See 110. 162 f. 
But "in vain they do worship Me, teaching for doctrines the com- 
mandments of men," Matt. 15, 9; Num. 15, 39; Deut. 12, 8; 
Ezek. 20, 18 f. ; 1 Sam. 15, 22 f. ; Matt. 15, 3 f. ; Mark 7, 913 ; 
Matt. 22, 37 40 ("On these two commandments hang all the Law 
and the Prophets"; nothing is commanded beyond or beside them) ; 
Col. 2, 16 23 ("will-worship," a worship set up by man's own 
will). Besides, the imposition of man-made laws on the Christians 
is violative of their blood-bought Christian liberty, 1 Cor. 7, 23 ; 
Col. 2, 2022. A. C., XX, If.; XXVI, 39; XXVII, 12. 20. 
36. 37; XXVIII, 19. Ap., VII and VIII, 34; VI, 77. Large C., I, 
92 f. 311 f. F. C., Th. D., IV, 7 ; VI, 15. 20 f. On the excellence 
of the works performed in the humblest calling, hallowed by God's 
institution and command, and its contrast, the sham sanctity of the 
monastic life, see A. C., XXVI, 9 f . ; XXVII, 13 f . Ap., XV, 25 ; 
XXVII, 24. Large C., I, 196 f. 


LIFE PERFECT. "Not as though I had already attained, either were 
already perfect," Phil. 3, 12; 1, 9; 2 Cor. 3, 18; 4, 16; 7, 1; 
Eph. 4, 15; 1 Thess. 4, 1. The Christian because of his totally 
corrupt flesh sins daily. "If we say that we have no sin, we deceive 
ourselves," 1 John 1, 8; Ps. 51, 2. 10; Prov. 20, 9; Eccl. 7, 20; 
Matt. 6, 12; Gal. 5, 17; Heb. 12, 1; 1 Pet. 2, 11. Indeed, "a pious 
Christian sins in all his good works" (Luther, XV, 1551), which 
are tainted with the wickedness of the flesh, servile fear, greed of 
glory, mercenariness, etc., Ps. 19, 12; 143, 2; Is. 64, 6; Matt. 

6, 12 ; Rom. 7, 14 f . And this situation endures unto death, Rom. 

7, 24. A. C., XII, 8. Ap., IV, 27; III, 38 f. 45. 58. 68. 83. 110 ff. 
S.A., P. Ill, XIII, 2. Small C., Third Art.; FiMi Pet.; Bap- 
tism, 12 ("daily contrition and repentance"). Large C., II, 57 f. 
("Now we are only half pure and holy") ; III, 1. 86. .p. C., Ep., 
II, 12; IV, 13; VI, 4; Th. D., I, 14; II, 68. 79. 84 f.; Ill, 23. 32; 
IV, 8 ; VI, 7. 21. Scripture thus leaves no room for perfectionism, 
neither for that of Romanism, Methodism, etc., which operates with 
the figment that concupiscence and the involuntary transgressions 
of the Law are not of the nature of sin (Gen. 8, 21 ; Matt. 15, 19 ; 
Rom. 7, 15 23; 1 John 3, 4), nor for that of the Holiness 
Churches, according to which entire sanctification is produced in 
certain individuals by an instantaneous act of God, destroying 
inbred sin, designated by them as the "baptism of the Holy Ghost/' 3 ) 

3) All Christians are "baptized with the Holy Ghost," Luke 3, 16. 
This term describes the work of the Holy Ghost in saving, in regenerating 
and justifying the sinner, sanctifying and preserving the Christian, and 
bestowing upon him the gifts and power he needs in his Christian calling, 
Acts 2, 17; Is. 44, 3; Zech. 12, 10; Titus 3, 6; 1 Cor. 12, 3; Eph. 5, 18. 
1 Cor. 12, 3; 6, 11; Gal. 3, 1; Luke 11, 13. At Pentecost (Acts 1, 4. 5; 
2, 4. 14 f.) the fulness of the Holy Spirit was given to the Church, that 
being signalized by the bestowal upon the disciples of a richer measure of 
the Spirit's gifts, greater understanding and boldness, as also by the gift 
of the extraordinary charisms, such as the occasion and times required 
(see also Acts 10, 45 f.; 11, 16). The fulness of the Spirit is the Church's 
abiding possession, John 14, 26; Eph. 3, 16; Rom. 15, 13, and it is in- 
cumbent on every Christian to avail himself of it to the full, Luke 11, 13; 
Eph. 5, 18. The term is used in an unscriptural sense by the extreme 
enthusiasts, who define the "baptism of the Holy Ghost" as the bestowal 
of sinless perfection (see above), accompanied by miracle-working power 
(144), as the "second blessing," consequent upon the reconsecration of 
the soul to a higher and deeper life. 114. The term is used in an un- 
scriptural sense also by those who, while avoiding these extremes, deny 
that the regenerating and sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit comes under 


Eom. 7, 22 24; Gal. 5, 24. Perfectionism leaves no room for the 
daily contrition and repentance of him who "is wholly sanctified" 
and makes for spiritual pride, for carnal security or despair, for 

The assertion that God, who certainly demands perfect holi- 
ness, would not command the impossible goes directly against Scrip- 
ture (passages above) and is based on the fallacy that with the 
inability to perform a duty the obligation to perform it must neces- 
sarily cease. "Thus, therefore, it comes to pass that you theologians 
are so senseless and so many degrees below even schoolboys that, 
when you have caught hold of an imperative verb, you infer an 
indicative sense, as though what was commanded were immediately 
and necessarily done or possible to be done." Luther, XVIII, 1781. 
1623. 1 John 3, 9 describes the Christian according to the new 
man. The perfection of Phil. 3, 15 consists in the striving after 
perfection. Eph. 5, 26 f. ; 1 Thess. 5, 23 : entire sanctification is 
the object of God's sanctifying work in the Christian and will be 
fully achieved in heaven. Heb. 5, 13 if. speaks of the perfection of 
maturity. Col. 3, 14 : perfection is predicated not of love, but of 
"bond." Ap., Ill, HOf. Matt. 5,48 calls for a love which is not 
limited, selfish, mean, but general and generous. Col. 1, 22 ; 2, 10 
deal with the perfection of justification, the bestowal of a perfect 
righteousness and the fulness of grace. See 372* 

The teaching of Eome that men may achieve superperfection, 
particularly by observing the "evangelical counsels," "the counsels 
of perfection," thereby performing more than the Law requires, 
works of supererogation, by which perfection and superperfection 
they achieve sainthood, their superfluous merit being expended for 

this term, limiting its meaning to the bestowal of a greater measure of 
the gifts of the Spirit, and not only sharply differentiate between these 
operations of the Spirit, but also describe the bestowal of richer gifts, 
greater power ("the baptism of the Holy Ghost"), as proceeding along 
the lines laid down, and insisted upon, by enthusiasm and emotionalism. 
As a rule, they conceive of it as a more or less immediate operation of 
the Spirit, divorced from the Means of Grace, unduly stress man's prepara- 
tion for it and the manner of such preparation, and have its occurrence 
marked by sensuous experiences. Some even go so far as to designate it 
as the chief and greatest blessing, while according to Scripture justifica- 
tion by faith is the chief and supreme thing in the life of the Christian, 
the greatest blessing, the source of all blessings. While the need of faithful 
work for the Church must be emphasized as strongly as possible, it must 
not be overemphasized to the detriment of the chief article of the Christian 


the benefit of others by way of indulgences, directly contradicts 
Scripture,, Luke 17, 10 (passages above), and impugns the sole 
redeemership of Jesus. 92* 71+ Matt. 19, 20 f. : Jesus is not 
counseling the young man to perform a work of supererogation, but 
is putting him to the test, which at once proved that, far from 
keeping the Law completely, he kept it not at all. A. C., XXVII, 
12. 44 f. 61. Ap., Ill, 239; XII, 14; VI, 45 f.; XXI, 29; 
XXVII, 24. 

The good works of the Christians, imperfect as they are, are 
still acceptable to God through faith, Christ's perfect righteousness 
covering their imperfection, Heb. 11, 4; 1 Pet. 2, 5. Ap., Ill, 172. 
F. C., Th. D., VI, 22. The Christians aim at keeping the Law 
perfectly, Eom. 7, 22; 2 Cor. 7, 1; Phil. 3, 12; 4, 8; Col. 1, 10; 
1 Pet. 2, 1. The daily experience of falling far short of the mark 
drives them daily into the arms of God's grace in Christ. 

98* GOOD WORKS AEE NECESSARY. God asks them of His children. 
"Let your light so shine before men that they may see your good 
works," Matt. 5, 16 ; Acts 5, 29 ; Eom. 13, 5 ; 1 Cor. 9, 16 ; Bph. 

2, 10; 1 Thess. 4, 3 ; Titus 3, 8 ; 2 Pet. 1, 5 f. ; 1 John 3, 23. And 
faith cannot but produce them, Matt. 3, 8 ; 7, 17 f. ; Gal. 5, 6. 22 ; 
Jas. 2, 17 ; 2 Pet. 1, 5 f . BUT THEY ARE NOT NECESSARY FOR 
JUSTIFICATION, FOR SALVATION. The doctrine that good works are 
necessary for salvation "this godless opinion which sticks to the 
world quite tightly" (Ap., Ill, 85), to the pagan world, the Jewish 
world, the Catholic and rationalistic world, denies the chief article 
of the Christian religion (that the forgiveness of sins and eternal 
life are the free gift of God, gained by Christ alone, appropriated 
by faith alone), John 3, 16. 36; 20, 31; Acts 4, 12; 16, 301; 
Eom. 3, 24. 28; 6, 23; 11, 6; Eph. 2, 81; 2 Tim. 1, 9; Titus 

3, 51; 1 John 5, 11 (91), destroys the Gospel, Acts 20, 24, and 
robs men of Christ, Gal. 5, 4, holding them under the curse, Gal. 
3, 10; Acts 15, 24. The rationalizations: Good works are neces- 
sary, therefore they are necessary for justification; faith is never 
without good works, therefore faith saves because of the good works, 
violate both Scripture and the laws of sound reasoning. A. C., 
VI. XX. Ap., Ill, 1 1 67 f . 104 1 235 1 ; XV, 1 1 F. C., IV, Ep., 
6. 15 1 ; Th. D., 7. 14. 16. 22. 30. 


perfect, and, polluted in every case with sin (97), they merit 
damnation. In so far as they are good, they are God's work in us, 


1 Cor. 4, 7; 2 Cor. 3, 5; Gal. 5, 22 f.', Eph. 2, 10; Phil. 1, 29; 
1 Thess. 5, 23 f. JSFor may we claim a reward for performing our 
duty, discharging our debt, Luke 17, 10 ; Kom. 13, 8. 98, Further- 
more, justification and eternal life are God's free gift. 91* 108* 198* 
Finally, the statement that grace may be merited is self-contradic- 
tory, for grace by its nature excludes merit. "If it be of works, 
then it is no more grace/ 7 Kom. 11, 6; 3, 24. Therefore those who 
have accepted the Catholic principle and claim eternal life as a 
reward of merit have renounced citizenship in the Kingdom of 
your reward in heaven," Matt. 5, 12; 10, 42; 19, 29; Luke 14, 14; 
1 Cor. 3, 8 ; Gal. 6, 9 ; Eph. 6, 2 ; 1 Tim. 4, 8. But our good works 
do not merit and earn these rewards, for the same reasons that they 
do not merit eternal life itself. It is a reward of grace. And per- 
forming good works in a mercenary spirit destroys their character 
as good works, 1 Cor. 13, 5. "It is taught on our part that it is 
necessary to do good works, not that we should trust to merit grace 
by them, but because it is the will of God." A. C., XX, 27 ; 
XXVI, 1; XXVII, 12 f. 38. 44. Ap., IV; III, 24. 41. 73. 217. 
2441; XV. F. C., Ep., II, 9; Th. D., II, 79; IV, 9. 


shalt worship the Lord, thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve," 
Matt. 4, 10; Luke 11, 2; Ex. 20, 3; Is. 45, 2124. When the 
Koman Catholics and the Eastern Catholics address prayers to 
angels and saints, they commit idolatry, Rev. 19, 10. Invoking the 
saints, asking for their intercession, allegedly efficacious because of 
their merits, and imploring their help is placing them beside God, 
our only Helper, Ps. 50, 15 ; 65, 2, beside Christ, our only Inter- 
cessor, Rom. 8, 34 ; 1 John 2, 1. 2. See 71, In spite of the theoret- 
ical distinction between "lahia" as due God alone, and "hyper- 
dulia," paid to the Virgin Mary, and "dulia" accorded the lesser 
saints, the saints, being invoked, are made the object of veneration 
and worship due God alone. The cult of Mary is plain Mariolatry, 
which is plain idolatry. The veneration of the relics of the saints 
and of their images is a low form of idolatry. The religious 
exercises of all those who deny the eternal deity of Jesus and of 
the Holy Ghost (Unitarians, all other anti-Trinitarians, Free- 
masonry and other related bodies) are also nothing less than 
idolatry. (The ISFonadorantes, a Unitarian party, who refuse to 


worship Jesus, differ from the Unitarians in general only in their 
consistency.) The god whom all these groups worship is an idol. 
Matt. 28, 19; John 3, 16; 5, 23; 10, 30; 14, 1; Eom. 9, 5; 2 Cor. 
13, 14; Phil. 2, 10. See 35+ Nicene Or., 7. A. C., XXI. Ap., 
XXI, 10 f. 34; XXVII, 53; Conclusion: "Is not their worship of 
the saints manifest pagan idolatry ?" S. A., P. II, II, 25 f. Large 
C., 1,1. 11.91; III, Iff. 



A SUPERSTITIOUS PRACTISE, a) Prayer for the dead cannot benefit 
either the damned, Luke 16, 22 f.; John 3, 18; Heb. 9, 27, or the 
blessed, whose bliss is perfect. 197+ And there is no second proba- 
tion, in the "intermediate state." 185* b) The Catholic doctrine 
that masses and prayers benefit the souls in purgatory deals with 
a fiction. There is no purgatory, Luke 23, 43. 185, And ascrib- 
ing meritorious and satisfactory worth to such masses and prayers 
is impugning the sole saviorship of Jesus, Acts 4, 12. "It conflicts 
with the chief article [which teaches] that only Christ, and not 
the works of men, are to help [set free] souls." S. A., P. II, 
II, 12. 1. Ap., XXIV, 11. 64. 89 f. "We have said that there is 
no clear and explicit Scriptural text in favor of prayers for the 
dead except the above text of 2 Mace. 12, 43 f." (Catholic Encyc., 
s. v. "Dead.") But 2 Mace, is an apocryphal writing. And the 
text would prove too much. According to Catholic doctrine masses 
and prayers must not be offered for the damned; yet those men 
had committed the mortal sin of idolatry. Hollaz : " c We know 
that the ancients speak of prayer for the dead, which we do not 
prohibit' (Ap., XXIV, 94). We do not reject, but retain the 
prayers commemorating and lauding the departed Christians, giv- 
ing thanks to God for their blessed departure from this life, and 
dealing with God's promise to grant the soul, separated from the 
body, the blessed rest in heaven, the body undisturbed repose in the 
bosom of the earth, and both a glorious reunion on the Last Day." 
Ex. Theo. Acroam., Part III, p. 709. 


MEANS OF GRACE. "Who are kept by the power of God through faith 
unto salvation," 1 Pet. 1, 5. "He which hath begun a good work 
in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ," Phil. 1, 6; 


John 10, 28; 17, 11; Rom. 16, 25; 1 Cor. 1, 8; 15, 1. 2; Eph. 
1, 19 (the mighty power of God produces faith and keeps on 
producing it) ; 1 Thess. 5, 24; 2 Thess. 3, 3. "Perseverance it not 
brought about by the will of man, but by the preservation of God." 
Luther, IV, 1009. "As soon as God would withdraw His gra- 
cious hand from him, he could not for a moment persevere in 
obedience to God." F. C., Th. D., II, 66. 16; XI, 17. 21. 23. 
45. 90; Ep., XI, 8. Small C., Third Art.; Third Pet.; Sixth Pet. 
Lutheran theology is the theology of grace, ascribing everything to 
converting grace, justifying grace, sanctifying grace, preserving 
grace. All who deny monergism in conversion also deny it in 
preservation. Catholic and Arminian theology teaches that the 
Christian owes his perseverance not alone to the grace of God, but 
also to his cooperation, that good works, the proper conduct, 
preserve the new life. "The decree of the Council of Trent, and 
whatever elsewhere is set forth in the same sense, is justly to be 
rejected, namely, that our good works preserve salvation or that the 
righteousness of faith, which has been received, or even faith itself, 
is either entirely or in part kept and preserved by our works." F. C., 
Th. D., IV, 30 35. We reject "the doctrine of the synergists . . . 
that free will . . . can also cooperate, by its own powers, with the 
Holy Ghost in the continuation and maintenance of this work." 
F. C., Th. D., II, 77. Semi-Pelagianism and synergism lead directly 
to defection, leading man to rely in some measure on his own 
powers and thus to renounce the grace of God, which alone pre- 
serves ; self-confidence is the ultimate cause of defection. The 
exhortations "Be thou faithful unto death" (Rev. 2, 10), "Work 
out your own salvation with fear and trembling" (Phil. 2, 12) do 
not imply that the Christian achieves his perseverance by his own 
powers, as little as the command to believe implies that man pro- 
duces saving faith. The powers called for in these exhortations are 
supplied and set in action solely by God, Phil. 2, 13. As to the 
argument that, since man himself brings about his defection, he 
must also be able to achieve his perseverance, Scripture rejects the 
deduction, 1 Pet. 1, 5; Hos. 13, 9. And it is not even logically 
valid. The Calvinistic error on final perseverance is discussed 179* 

PERSEVERANCE. On the strength of John 10, 28 f. ; Phil. 1, 6 ; 
1 Thess. 5, 24, etc., we are persuaded that "nothing shall be able 
to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus, our 


Lord," Rom. 8, 38 f. 30 (predestinated called justified glo- 
rified) ; 2 Tim. 1, 12 ; 4, 18. "I believe that ... He will give 
to me and all believers in Christ everlasting life. This is most 
'Certainly true." Small C., Third Art. "This doctrine affords also 
the excellent, glorious consolation that God ... in His purpose 
ordained how He would bring me thereto [call and lead me to 
salvation] and preserve me therein." F. C., Th. D., XI, 45. 89 ; 
II, 14; Ep., HI, 9. Ap., Ill, 218. The Catholics and Arminians 
;are but consistent in teaching that the Christian must not be certain 
of his final salvation. If the Christian were thrown upon his own 
resources, his right conduct achieving his perseverance, he could not 
but doubt and despair. The assertion that the Christian cannot 
have the assurance of final perseverance except by means of a special 
revelation lacks the authority of Scripture and denies the plain 
teaching of Scripture; the passages quoted above carry no restric- 
tion. The warnings against apostasy (84), Rom. 11, 201; 
1 Cor. 10, 12, are aimed not at the confidence of faith, but at 
carnal security, self-confidence; heeding them, the Christian casts 
himself upon the Gospel promise and thus obtains and retains the 
certainty of final salvation. So also the "fear and trembling" of 
Phil. 2, 12, resulting from the realization of our weakness and 
inability, does not replace the confidence of faith, but exists side 
by side with it and subserves it. The assertion that one who knows 
that he may become a castaway (1 Cor. 9, 27) cannot have the as- 
surance that he will not become a castaway may be logically correct, 
but is theologically false ; Rom. 8, 38. The difficulty which this 
matter presents cannot be solved by means of logic, but only by 
distinguishing between the Law and the Gospel. The convictions 
produced by the Law must not, and do not, eliminate the convic- 
tions produced by the Gospel, the assurance of perseverance, but 
subserve them. The Calvinistic error on this point is dis- 
cussed 179, 


THE LORD'S SUPPER. 2 Cor. 5, 19 : "And hath committed unto us 
the Word of Reconciliation." The Gospel, which is the primary 
Means of Grace (the audible Word), and the Sacraments (the 
visible Word) offer and confer the forgiveness of sins gained by 
Christ and thereby produce and sustain faith. The Gospel "is the 


power of God unto salvation," Eom. 1, 16. "Remission of sins 
should be preached in His name/' Luke 24, 47; Acts 11, 14; 
13, 26. 46; 14, 3; 20, 24; Rom. 10, 68; 1 Cor. 1, 21; 15, If.; 
Acts 2, 38 ("Be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus 
Christ for the remission of sins") ; 22, 16; Mark 16, 16; 1 Pet. 
3, 201; 1 Cor. 11, 25 ("new testament in My blood"); Matt. 
26, 28. John 17, 20 ("which shall believe on Me through their 
Word") ; Acts 20, 32; Eom. 1, 16; 10, 17; 1 Cor. 4, 15; 1 Thess. 

2, 13; Jas. 1, 18; 1 Pet. 1, 23; Is. 55, 10 f.; Titus 3, 5 ("the 
washing of regeneration") ; Luke 22, 19 ("in remembrance of 
Me"). "Thereby [by preaching the Gospel and administering the 
Sacraments] are granted not bodily, but eternal things, as eternal 
righteousness," etc. A. C., XXVIII, 8. Ap., IV, 67; VII and 
VIII, 15; XXIV, 70. S. A., P. II, II, 24. Large C., II, 38. P. C., 
Th.D., II, 57; III, 10. 16. A. C., V. Ap., Ill, 126; XII, 42; 
XXIV, 70. Large C., II, 45, 62 ("Through the same Word and 
forgiveness of sins He bestows, increases, and strengthens faith"). 
P. C., Ep., II, 19; Th.D., II, 4856; III, 41; XI, 69. The 
Law is not a Means of Grace. It does not deal with the forgiveness 
of sins, but proclaims God's wrath, Eom. 4, 15 ; 2 Cor. 3, 6 ; Gal. 

3, 2; John 1, 17. Ap., IV, 38. P. C., Th.D., V, 22. God has 
instituted the three Means of Grace, no more, no less, 1 John 5, 8. 
Passages above. "God does not wish to deal with us otherwise 
than through the spoken Word and the Sacraments. It is the devil 
himself whatsoever is extolled as Spirit without the Word and 
Sacraments." S. A., P. Ill, VIII, 10. God has bound us to the 
established order of salvation, salvation through the Means of Grace. 
Passages above. A. C., V. Ap., IV, 67; IX, 52; XIII, 13. S. A., 
P. Ill, VIII, 35. Large C., II, 45. P. C., Ep., II, 4. 13; 
XII, 22; Th. D., II, 4. 45; XI, 27. 76; XII, 30. See 4 

The teaching of Catholic theology on the Means of Grace has 
been molded by its central article, justification through works. The 
Gospel, a moral code ; the seven sacraments, "the Sacraments of the 
New Law" (beside which the Word occupies a subordinate posi- 
tion, saving, sanctifying grace being infused by the Sacraments 
alone, 112, 124), and various auxiliary means of grace, such as the 
sacramentals, prayers, pilgrimages, monkery, are not means by 
which God imparts the righteousness gained by Christ, but means 
which incite and assist man to acquire his own righteousness. 
This constitutes a fundamental error. The Enthusiasts deny the 
efficacy of the Means of Grace. While the Quakers dispense with 


them altogether, Reformed Enthusiasm, employing them, holds that 
grace comes through the immediate operation of the Spirit, that 
the saving power does not inhere in the Word and the Sacraments, 
that the "external invitation" does not carry with it the "internal 
efficacy of grace/' Calvin. Inst., Ill, chap. XXI, 7. Besides, it 
holds, in its Calvinistic form, that efficacious grace deals only with 
the elect. 55 + But the grace which is not bound up with the Means 
of Grace is a spurious grace, and the faith which is based on an im- 
mediate illumination of the Spirit is a delusion. The denial of the 
efficacy of the Means of Grace thus constitutes a fundamental 
error. Prayer is not a Means of Grace. Through the Means of 
Grace God deals with us, in prayer we deal with God. The prayer 
of faith asks for, and receives, what God offers and confers in the 
Word and Sacrament. Counting prayer and the exercise of other 
Christian virtues, such as Christian conversation, self-denial, etc., 
as Means of Grace confounds the effects of the Means of Grace with 
the Means themselves and, what is worse, commingles the Law and 
the Gospel. Insisting in this connection on fasting, total absti- 
nence, class system, etc., is, in addition, substituting the command- 
ments of men for the commandments of God. 162* See also 141* 

Matt. 28, 19; 26, 26 f. - Eom. 1, 16; 10, 17; Heb. 4, 12; Titus 
3, 5; Luke 22, 19. Since the minister is acting not in his own 
name, but in the name of God (1 Cor. 4, 1; 3, 5 7), his unbelief 
or immorality would not invalidate the promise of forgiveness made 
by God (Luke 24, 47) nor render the divine power inherent in 
the Word and the Sacraments inefficacious. The evil works of the 
scribes and Pharisees did not deprive the Word of God preached 
by them of its authority, Matt. 23, 2 f . The insincerity of the 
preachers characterized Phil. 1, 16 19 did not affect the truth of 
their message. So also, and for the same reasons, it is not the 
ministerial office which effects, or contributes toward, the validity 
and efficacy of the Means of Grace. "Our faith and Sacrament 
must not rest on the person, be he godly or wicked, ordained or 
unordained, called or sneaking in, the devil or his mother, but on 
Christ, His Word, His office, His command and ordinance." 
Luther, XIX, 1272. "Neither does this ministry avail on account 
of the authority of any person, but on account of the Word given 


by Christ. [Nor does the person of a teacher add anything to this* 
Word and office]." S. A., Of the Power, 261 67. A. C., VIII. 
Ap., VII and VIII, 3. 9. 29. 47. Large C., V, 15 f. F. C., Th. D. r 
VII, 76; XII, 35; Ep., XII, 27. On the relation of the faith 
of the recipient to the Means of Grace see 113* The Donatistie 
doctrine of the radical Enthusiasts that only a regenerate minister 
can administer the Word profitably and the Sacrament validly and! 
the Catholic teaching that only the ordained priest can forgive 
sins and "effect" the sacraments and that his "intention" is es- 
sential in this matter, destroys the objective character of the Means- 
of Grace and thus deprives the Christian of the assurance of faith 
based thereon. 156* 



Rom. 3, 20; 4, 15; 7, 7; 2 Cor. 3, 6; Gal. 3, 10. The sole pur- 
pose of the Gospel is to reveal the grace of God and impart the 
forgiveness of sins, Luke 2, 10; Acts 20, 24; Eom. 1, 16 f.; 2 Cor. 
3, 6. The Moravians, employing the Gospel also for the purpose 
of producing the knowledge of sin and effecting contrition, com- 
mingle the Law and the Gospel, thus hampering the effect of both. 
Ap., IV, 79. 102; III, 7. 14. 63. 136. 169; XII, 34. 53 f. S. A., 
P. Ill, II. III. IV. P. C., Th. D., II, 54; V; Ep., V. See 5* 

"Thou shalt," Matt. 22, 37 f. "Thou shalt not," Ex. 20 ; Deut. 
6, 1; Gal. 3, 10. 12; Eph. 2, 15 ("the Law of commandments 
contained in ordinances"). THE GOSPEL CONTAINS NO COMMANDS, 


WITH THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS, Luke 4, 18 f. ; John 1, 17 ; 3, 16 ; 
Eom. 1, 17; 3, 21; Eph. 1, 13; 2, 17. A. C., V, 3; XXVI, 4f. 
Ap., IV, 15. 431; III, 381; XII, 75. Large C., II, 67. E. C., 
Ep., V; Th. D., V. See 69* Eome, which conceives of the Gospel 
as the "New Law," Arminianism, which makes of the Sacraments 
legal ordinances and of faith a work, achieving which man gains 
salvation, and the sectarian preachers who find in the Sermon on 
the Mount, in the exposition of the Law there given, the essence of 
the Gospel, grossly confound Law and Gospel ; they make of the Law 
the instrument of salvation and thus render salvation impossible. 
"Christ is become of no effect unto you whosoever of you are 
justified by the Law ; ye are fallen from grace," Gal. 5, 4. The 
"social gospel" of Modernism, the doctrine of tliis-worldliness, 


aiming chiefly at the achievement of temporal well-being through 
right living, entirely obliterates the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the doc- 
trine of the forgiveness of sins, and otherworldliness. 181, 197+ 
The command of the Gospel calling for faith, 1 John 3, 23, is not 
a legal command, but the gracious invitation, expressed in the most 
forcible manner, to accept the offer of forgiveness. The faith de- 
manded by the Gospel is defined by the Gospel as the very opposite 
of human achievement, Eom. 3, 28 ; Eph. 2, 8. 9. 



thou shalt live/' Luke 10, 28; Lev. 18, 5; Gal. 3, 12. THE 

CONDITIONALLY, FREELY, GRATUITOUSLY. "Being justified freely by 
His grace/' Eom. 3, 24. 21. 28 ; 4, 16 ; 6, 23 ; 11, 6 ; Acts 20, 24. 
Ap., IV, 42. 1201; III, If. 6267. Large C., I, 3201; II, 67. 
F. C., Ep., V ; Th. D., V. The Gospel promise is unconditional. 
The teaching of Eome that the Gospel promises eternal life on the 
"condition of observing the commandments" and the cognate teach- 
ing of Eomanism and of Arminianism in its various species and 
varieties conditioning salvation on any work of man, on anything 
preceding or following faith, contrition or holiness of life, or on 
faith itself as an ethical act, nullify the Gospel and keep the sinner 
under the curse of the Law, Gal. 3, 10. 12. 13 ; 5, 4. See 99, 198, 

Large C., Ill, 68. Ap., IV, 121 While the Law needs to be 
applied at all times (mirror, rule, curb), it is not the Law, but 
the Gospel alone which creates willing obedience, Ps. 119, 32; 
Jer. 31, 3134; Eom. 4, 15; 12, 1; 2 Cor. 3, 6; Gal. 3, 2. 5. 
21. 22; Eph. 2, 15. The legalism of the Catholic and the ration- 
alistic systems, which make the Law the Means of Grace, and of 
the Methodist system, which aims to produce godliness by a mul- 
tiplicity of ordinances, regulations, and rules of conduct, many of 
them man-made, can only produce an unwilling, servile obedience. 

a single provision of it is in force under the New Testament. "Let 
no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an 
holy-day, or of the new moon, or of the Sabbath-days; which are 
a shadow of things to come, but the body is of Christ," Col. 2, 16 1 ; 
Acts 10, 11 1; 15, 10; Gal. 2, 35. 1214; 4, 1 1; Heb. 7, 11 1; 
9, 9 1; 10, 1; Jer. 3, 16 (The Jewish state and Temple has passed). 


a) Nor has God given any man or any body of men the .power, 
in matters of religion, to legislate for the Christians. "Stand 
fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free 
and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage," Gal. 5, 1 ; 
Acts 15, 10; 1 Cor. 7, 23; Col. 2, 1623. A. C., XXVIII, 42. 64. 
Ap., VII and VIII, 391; XV, 10. 15. 30; XVI, 55; XXIII, 
41. 64; XXVII, 58. F. C., X, Ep., 6,9; Th. D., 11. The Cath- 
olic and other hierarchical churches, which invest the ordinances, 
regulations, commandments of the Church with divine authority 
(96* 1621), are guilty of abrogating the law of Christian liberty 
and of usurping a divine prerogative. They cannot appeal to Acts 
15, 28 f. Acts 15, 10 forbids it. "Here Peter forbids to burden the 
consciences with many rites, either of Moses or of others." A. C., 
XXVI, 28; XXVIII, 42. "These necessary things" (Acts 15, 28) 
necessary, not absolutely nor for all times, but out of regard for 
the weak. "The apostles commanded to abstain from blood. Who 
does now observe it ? And yet they that do it sin not ; for not even 
the apostles themselves wanted to burden consciences with such 
bondage ; but they forbade it for a time, to avoid offense." A. C., 
XXVIII, 65. The same applies to 1 Cor. 11, 10. 

b) Those churches Catholic, Eeformed, and others which 
teach that one day in seven must be observed as the Christian 
Sabbath and "judge that by the authority of the Church the ob- 
servance of the Lord's Day instead of the Sabbath-day was ordained 
as a thing necessary, do greatly err. Scripture has abrogated the 
Sabbath-day, for it teaches that, since the Gospel has been revealed, 
all the ceremonies of Moses can be omitted." A. C., XXVIII, 
57 f. 32. They do greatly err; for 1) the Ceremonial Law regard- 
ing the observance of set days and seasons is abrogated, Eom. 
14, 51; Gal. 4, 101; Col. 2, 161 The "better covenant" (Heb. 
8, 6. 7. 13) with its observance of the spirit of the Sabbath com- 
mandment has replaced the inferior covenant, the manifold and 
minute external regulations belonging to the tutelage of Israel. 
2) God has not commanded that one day in seven must be kept holy 
unto Him. The fact that the observance of the seventh day was 
enjoined upon the Jews does not carry that implication. 3) God 
has not authorized the Church to substitute Sunday for the Sab- 
bath. Passages above. 4) "If I receive Moses in one command- 
ment, I must receive Moses entire ; it would follow that, if I accept 
Moses as master and lawgiver, I would have to submit to circum- 
cision, purify my clothes after the Jewish custom, and regulate my 
eating, drinking, dress, and entire mode of life according to the 


laws given the Jews." Luther, III, p. 6. Gal. 5, 3. The Third 
Commandment in its Old Testament form, Ex. 20, 8 11, contained 
ceremonial and moral elements. In its moral content, which is of 
perpetual obligation, it enjoins the public, common worship and 
the diligent and daily use of God's Word. The regulations pre- 
scribing the time and place of worship and the cessation of secular 
work belong to the Ceremonial Law, which, foreshadowing the bless- 
ings of the New Testament, passed with the coming of Christ. 
Passage above. Also John 4, 21; Is. 66, 23 (To the Christian, 
resting his soul in Jesus, every day is the Sabbath). Small C., 
Third Com. Large C., I, 82. 

c) The consistent Sabbatarians, such as the Seventh-day Ad- 
ventists, insist on the observance by the Christians of the Jewish 
Sabbath, of the seventh day of the week. If the Ceremonial Law 
were still in force, their position would be the only consistent one 
as far as the particular day is concerned, but would be utterly in- 
consistent in that they refuse to observe the hundred other pro- 
visions of the Ceremonial Law. There is real consistency in the 
tenet of the Southcottians (Christian Israelites) demanding 
observance not only of Ex. 20, 10, but also of Gen. 17, 11; Lev. 
20, 25 ; 21, 5 ; Deut. 25, 5 f ., and in the teaching of the Church 
of God and Saints of Christ. 473. 

d) The Eeformed contend that "the Second Commandment 
forbids the making of any representation of God" (Presbyt. 
Larger C., Q. 109) ; that the "Second Commandment," Ex. 20, 4 f., 
"consists of two parts," the 'former "curbing the licentious daring 
which would subject the incomprehensible God to our senses, or 
represent Him under any visible shape," the latter "forbidding the 
worship of images" (Calvin, Inst. II, cap. VIII, 17) ; that it is 
not "expedient that churches should contain representations of any 
kind, whether of events or human forms" (op. cit., I, cap. XI, 13) ; 
that "pictures may not be tolerated in churches as books for the 
laity, for we should not be wiser than God, who will not have His 
people taught by dumb idols" (Heidelberg C., Q. 98), thus stigma- 
tizing the use of pictures as idolatry. Ex. 20, 3 5 a does not do so. 
The prohibition deals with idolatry: "Thou shalt have no other 
gods before Me. . . . Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them 
nor serve them." The First Commandment prohibits idolatry in 
any and every form, including the idolatrous use of pictures 
(iconolatry). The point of the prohibition regarding images lies 
in the words : "Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them," these 



words being stressed also Dent. 4, 16 ; 5., 9 ; 27, 15. The devo- 
tional use of the pictures in public and private worship simply is 
not idolatry. In this matter Luther and other theologians take 
the position that v. 4 prohibits the religious use of pictures, but 
only for the time of the Old Testament. Distinguishing between 
the moral and the ceremonial content of the Decalog as set down 
Ex. 20, they hold that that part of the First Commandment in its 
Mosaic form, vv. 3 5, which forbids idolatry and the making of 
images for the purpose of worshiping them, belongs to the Moral 
Law, but that the provision which prohibits the making of pictures 
(exclusive of those forms which the Law itself prescribed, Ex. 
25, 18, or sanctioned) is a ceremonial regulation, applying only to 
Israel of the Old Testament (Guenther, Pop. Symb., p. 284), on 
a level with the various other specific and minute regulations 
prescribing the time, place, and manner of the public worship. 
It belongs to the pedagogic discipline of the Old Testament, Gal. 
4, 2, to which the Christians, no longer minors, must not be sub- 
jected. Luther: "God has indeed put two ceremonial regulations 
into the Ten Commandments, those concerning images and the 
Sabbath. ... 1 Cor. 8, 4 clearly shows that the provision touching 
images (Bilderei) in the First Commandment is a temporary 
ceremonial regulation, abrogated in the New Testament." (XX, 
147. 150.) "We forbid our little children to climb on benches and 
tables lest they fall, to enter the stream lest they drown; we do 
not place knives in their hands lest they injure themselves. We 
forbid things which are not wrong in themselves. Even so God 
trained the immature Jewish people with such commandments, 
barred external pictures lest they abuse them and fall into idolatry. 
But those who have understanding and are filled with the Spirit, 
have no need of such regulations." (Ill, 1048.) Cp. Large C., 
I, 82. Accordingly the Lutheran Catechism gives the First Com- 
mandment in the New Testamental form. Those portions of the 
Mosaic Law to which God in the Old Testament held the Gentiles 
accountable or which He reaffirmed in the New Testament, con- 
stitute the Moral Law that is binding upon all men. See 173* 

e) The law of the tithe is no longer in force, 2 Cor. 9, 7. 
The immature child needs specific and minute regulations, Gal. 
4, 1 3. The law of love accomplishes as much as, and more than, 
the law of the letter could effect, 2 Cor. 8, 710. (The Christian 
may, if he so wills, regulate his giving by tithing. And he gladly 
employs some such system as the apostle suggests 1 Cor. 16, 1 f.) 



THE LORD'S SUPPER, Matt. 2S, 19; 26, 2628; 1 Cor. 12, 13; 
1 John 5, 6. 8. Ap., XIII; XXIV, 69. Large C., IV, 1. 18; V, 1. 
The five supernumerary Catholic "sacraments" lack one or more 
of the features constituting Baptism and the Lord's Supper Sacra- 
ments, the divine institution, the visible element, and the promise 
of the forgiveness of sins. Eegarding confirmation see 126; 
penance, 87; order, 151; matrimony, 169* Extreme unction 
lioly unction is a fabrication of men. The anointing described 
Mark 6, 13 and Jas. 5, 14 was for the healing of the sick. It did 
not forgive sins or strengthen the soul. The forgiveness of sins is 
ascribed not to the anointing, but to the prayer of faith, Jas. 5, 15; 
so also the healing, v. 16. The Irvingites have one supernumerary 
"sacrament," the laying on of hands. The Quakers and others 
have gone to the other extreme, renouncing the Sacraments in- 
stituted by Christ. 114* 126* The Unitarians have divested them 
of their sacramental character, reducing them to the level of mere 
solemn obligations. The Universalists likewise make of them mere 
ceremonies, adding besides a third "sacrament," the consecration 
of children. Foot-wasliing, practised by the Mennonites, Bunkers, 
and others (515) as a church rite, was not instituted by Christ. 
His washing of the feet of His disciples was to serve as an "ex- 
ample" of loving, humble service, to be followed by them not 
merely by performing this one specific act of hospitality and ser- 
vice, Luke 7, 8 ; 1 Tim. 5, 10, but every other act of service that love 
calls for, John 13, 15. It is significant, too, that the New Testa- 
ment nowhere indicates that the apostles preached or practised it 
as a church rite. Indeed, it is mentioned but once in the New 
Testament subsequent to John 13 and is there, 1 Tim. 5, 10, not 
described as a church rite, but a work of service. It is true that 
the act of Christ, besides serving as an example, carried a sym- 
bolical meaning, John 13, 8 ; but any such significance cannot pos- 
sibly be attached to any ceremony performed by men. Cp., for 
entire paragraph, Deut. 4, 2; Matt. 15, 9; 28, 20. 

FAITH. 104* Acts 2, 38; Luke 22, 20 ("new testament"); Titus 
3, 5; Luke 22, 19 ("remembrance"). They bring the saving grace 
of God to man. Luke 7, 30; 1 Pet. 3, 21; 1 John 5, 8. They are 


efficacious means of grace not because of the visible element in itself, 
but because of the word of G-od therewith connected, the word of 
institution and promise: "that He might sanctify and cleanse it 
with the washing of water by the word/ 7 Eph. 5, 26. A. C., V, 
XIII. Ap., XII, 42; XIII, 3. 20. S. A., P. Ill, VIII, 10. Large 
C., II, 54. E.G., Ep., II, 1; Th. D., XI, 16. The Eeformed 
churches teach that the Sacraments do not impart the Spirit and 
grace, but merely symbolize the forgiveness of sins that has been, 
or later will be, bestowed, the regeneration that has been, or later 
will be, wrought. Catholicism defines the saving grace of the 
"sacraments" as their "power of sanctifying" (Trent, Sess. XIII, 
chap. Ill; Sess. VII Pro.). 

Since the Sacraments, "the visible Word," derive their efficacy 
from the Word, Eph. 5, 26, "the effect of the Word and of the rite 
is the same." Ap., XIII, 5. Their distinctive function is to con- 
firm the promise to the individual by means of the external element, 
Rom. 4, 11. Passages above. F. C., Th. D., XI, 37. 

belief neither invalidates the promise nor impairs the efficacy of 
the Means of Grace, Rom. 3, 3. 4. "A king gives you a mansion ; 
if you do not accept it, the king has not therefore lied or erred, 
but you have cheated yourself ; the king certainly gave it." Luther, 
XIX, 946. "Gold is not the less gold though a harlot wear it in 
sin and shame." Large C., IV, 59. ON THE OTHER HAND, THE 
of faith, created and strengthened by the Sacraments, to ap- 
propriate the blessing offered by the Word. Unbelief frustrates the 
salutary effect of the Sacraments. Mark 16, 16 ; Luke 22, 19 ; 
Acts 8, 36 f.; Rom. 4, 11; 1 Cor. 11, 2629; Heb. 11, 6. A. C., 
XIII ; XXIV, 30. Ap., Ill, 89 ; VII and VIII, 21 ; XXIV, 5 f . 
Small C., Baptism, 9. Large C., IV, 30 f. 52 f.; V, 10. 16. 18. 
F. C., Th. D., VII, 16. 89. On the question of the relation of faith 
to the Sacraments the Reformed churches "deny that their efficacy 
is due to their inherent virtue . . . and affirm that it is due to the 
attending operation of the Spirit and is conditioned on the presence 
of faith in the recipient." C. Hodge, Syst. Theol., Ill, 50. That 
destroys the objectivity of the Means of Grace and sets man adrift 
on the unstable sea of subjectivity. Consistently applied, it would 
necessitate rebaptism in the case of one who had received Baptism 
while an unbeliever. ("Even though a Jew should to-day come 
dishonestly and with evil purpose and we should baptize him in 


all good faith, we must say that his baptism is nevertheless 
genuine/' Large C., IV, 54.) On the other hand, Catholicism 
teaches that the "sacraments" confer grace ex opere operato, by 
virtue of the act performed, and denies that through faith the 
grace offered is received. That is paganism pure and simple, put- 
ting in place of faith the performance of a rite. "This is ab- 
solutely a Jewish opinion." Ap., XIII, 18. See 137* (Nor does 
the validity of the Means of Grace depend on the faith of the 
administrant. See 105* ) 


ORDINANCE. 1) The preaching of the Gospel is a permanent in- 
stitution, and Baptism is placed on the same level, Matt. 28, 19. 20. 
2) All who are born flesh of flesh need Baptism, John 3, 5 f. ; Gal. 
3, 261 S. A., P. Ill, V; VIII, 10. Small C., Baptism, 14. 
Large C., IV, 6 f. 31. Those bodies which have discarded Baptism, 
asserting that it was meant only for the primitive Church, nullify 
a plain command of Jesus, Matt. 28, 20; Deut. 4, 2, and violate 
a basic institution of the Christian Church. Those who teach that 
the "baptism with the Spirit and fire" (alleged to be the cleansing 
of the sinner effected by the Holy Spirit working immediately with- 
out the Means of Grace) takes the place of the "futile" water- 
baptism, divest Baptism of its character as an efScacious Means of 
Grace (118) and a permanent ordinance. They cannot support their 
position with Luke 3, 16 and the parallel passages. The statement : 
"He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire" cannot 
mean that Jesus does not give the Holy Spirit through baptism 
with water, that the Holy Ghost does not save through Baptism. 
Titus 3, 5 f . forbids that interpretation absolutely. It cannot mean 
that baptism with water has been abrogated. Matt. 28, 19 forbids 
that interpretation absolutely. 4 ) 

4) As to the meaning of Luke 3, 16: "He shall baptize you with the 
Holy Ghost" : Jesus is the promised Messiah, the Savior, who pours out the 
Holy Spirit upon the sinners, Titus 3, 5 f ., the Holy Ghost regenerating, 
justifying, sanctifying, and preserving men through the Means of Grace. 
"He shall baptize you with fire" : Jesus is also the Judge of mankind ; He 
will pour the fire of God's wrath upon the sinners who reject the offered 
salvation, Luke 3, 17. Cp. Luther, VII, 684, 9. Some take "fire" to be 
descriptive of the purifying work of the Holy Spirit, while others see in it 
a reference to the tongues of fire of Acts 2, 3 f . Be that as it may, the text 
cannot, for the reasons given above, carry the meaning that a "baptism 
with the Holy Ghost" has superseded the baptism with water. On the use 
of the term "baptism of the Holy Ghost" by the Holiness bodies and others 
see 97. 144. 372. 


CHURCH, THE DISCIPLES, Matt. 28, 16 f . ; John 20, 19 23 ; . 1 Cor. 
3, 21; 1 Pet. 2, 9 (147), BAPTISM is PUBLICLY ADMINISTERED BY 


BY ANY CHRISTIAN. A. C., XIV. S. A., Of the Power, 67 f. 
Cp. Visitation Articles, 37. The Reformed doctrine on the ad- 
ministration of Baptism (which out-Romes Rome) that only law- 
fully ordained ministers may administer Baptism, never a layman, 
is based, on the one hand, on the hierarchical conception that the 
ministry of the Word and Sacrament is not committed to the 
entire Church, but to certain individuals. 147* On the other hand, 
Reformism recognizes no cases of "necessity," since Baptism cannot 
effect the salvation of the dying infant and need not, Calvinism 
holding that its salvation is secured by an absolute predestination 
and Arminianism denying the damnableness of original sin. 

TISM, Matt. 28, 19; Acts 10, 47; Eph. 5, 26, THE MODE OF AP- 

is AN ADIAPHORON. Large C., IV, 36. 45. 65. 78. Baptizein and 
cognate words mean any kind of cleansing by water. The im- 
mersionists assert that these words cannot mean anything but 
immersion. It cannot be the meaning in Mark 7, 4 ("tables") nor 
in Luke 11, 38. Again, Heb. 9, 10 employs the word baptismos 
("washing''') to designate also such ceremonial acts of purification 
as were performed by sprinkling, Num. 19, 18; Heb. 9, 13 (No 
immersion of the tent and the unclean!). Matt. 3, 11 and Acts 
2, 17 show that baptizein is used to express affusion. It is used 
similarly 1 Cor. 10, 2 (Not the Israelites, but the Egyptians were 
immersed). If it indicates immersion in Acts 8, 38 and Matt. 
3, 16, that would prove what is not at all denied : that baptizein 
may mean to wash by immersion. But even here it need not neces- 
sarily mean that. The statement that one went down into the 
water and came up from it holds good whether he stepped into or 
under the water. Furthermore, Mark 7, 3 uses niptein ("wash"), 
which certainly indicates washing by any mode, as a synonym of 
baptizein, Luke 11, 38; Mark 7, 4 (baptismos). Finally, since this 
use of baptizein obtains also in profane Greek, the use of a dif- 
ferent word would have been called for in the baptismal command 
if Christ had meant to prescribe immersion. Insisting on im- 


mersion as the only valid mode of the application of the water, the 
immersionists are investing a man-made regulation with divine 
authority. Deut. 4, 2; Matt. 15, 9. 


The Trinitarian formula has been prescribed by Christ in institut- 
ing Baptism, Matt. 28, 19, and its use is essential. Its non-use 
would render a so-called baptism invalid just as much as the non- 
use of water. S. A., P. Ill, V. Small C., Baptism, 3 f. Large C., 
IV, 3 f . 6 f . The contention that Christ did not prescribe the 
Trinitarian formula cannot stand as long as Matt. 28, 19 stands. 
Nor do the passages Acts 2, 38 ; 8, 16 ; 10, 48 ; Eom. 6, 3 ; Gal. 
3, 27 state that the apostles substituted a different formula. These 
passages do not describe the mode of baptism employed by the 
apostles, but describe the Baptism administered by them as the 
Baptism instituted by Christ, founded upon the name, the work, 
of Christ, and uniting with Christ. And the Baptism instituted 
by Christ is the Baptism in the name of the Triune God. The 
"baptism" administered in Unitarian and other anti-Trinitarian 
communions is not a valid Baptism. Even if they should use 
a Trinitarian formula, the meaning officially attached to it deprives 
it of its Trinitarian sense and character. In language not the 
sound, but the sense counts. 

118. BAPTISM SAVES, Mark 16, 16; Matt. 28, 19; Luke 7, 30; 
GAINED BY CHRIST, Acts 2, 38; 22, 16; Kom. 6, 3; Gal. 3, 27; 
Eph. 5, 26; 1 Pet. 3, 21, AND IT REGENERATES, CREATING AND 

NESS, Titus 3, 5 ; John 3, 5 ; Col. 2, 12. Nieene Or., 9. A. C., 
II, 2; IX; XIII. Ap., II, 35 f.; IX, 52; XXIV, 18. S. A., 
P. Ill, III, 8; IV; V. Small C., IV, 510. Large C., IV, 231 
32. 75. F. C., Th. D., II, 67; XII, 31. Catholicism limits the 
saving efficacy of Baptism, teaching that it forgives only original 
sin and the sins committed prior to baptism and holding out to 
the lapsed "the second plank after the shipwreck," penance. 87*119* 
It thus deprives the sinner of the abiding comfort which Baptism 
offers. Acts 2, 38 and the parallel passages carry no such limita- 
tion. Baptism covers the entire life, the Christians being urged 
always to recur to their baptism for consolation and strength, Rom. 
6, 31; 1 Cor. 6, 11; 12, 13; Gal. 3, 261; Col. 2, 12; Titus 
3, 51; 1 Pet. 3, 21. Large C., 44. 601 77 ("Our baptism abides 


forever"); 82 f. ("The ship never breaks"). The Catholic doc- 
trine that Baptism eradicates original sin, the concupiscence re- 
maining being no longer truly and properly sin, denies Rom. 7, 
18 24; 8, 1; Gal. 5, 24 and fosters carnal security. Ap., II, 35 f. : 
"Augustine: 'Sin is remitted in baptism, not in such a manner 
that it no longer exists, but so that it is not imputed/" 376* 
The Eef ormed churches, driven by rationalism into Enthusiasm, 
deny that Baptism is an efficacious Means of Grace, holding that 
it does not convey forgiveness and work regeneration, but merely 
serves as a symbol and token of the blessing wrought and conveyed 
by an alleged immediate operation of the Spirit. Men are thus 
deprived of the assurance of the forgiveness of sins and the con- 
sequent strengthening of faith and the spiritual life which God 
would impart to them through Baptism. The teaching of Uni- 
tarianism and modern Liberalism in general that Baptism is noth- 
ing more than the solemn rite of reception into the Church, the 
pledge the Christian gives Christ on enlisting in His service, carries 
the Eeformed rationalism to its logical conclusion. The teaching 
of the Disciples of Christ that forgiveness is attached to Baptism 
as an act of faith, and of the Eeformed, that "Baptism has the 
necessity of precept, not that of a means" (Hodge, Syst. Theol., 

III, p. 584), some of them stressing the performance of the duty 
enjoined as the chief thing about Baptism, makes of the Gospel 
ordinance a legal requirement and, in the final analysis, of the 
religion of grace a religion of works. 

119* BAPTISM MUST NOT BE REPEATED, not, however, because 
"Baptism imprints an indelible character on the soul," which is 
a Catholic myth, but because Baptism covers the entire life. The 
Lord's Supper, as the sacramentum confirmationis, should be re- 
ceived frequently, 1 Cor. 11, 25. 26 ("as often"), but Baptism, the 
sacramentum initiationis, is applied but once, once for all. Matt. 
28, 19; Mark 16, 16. It stands for all time. 87* 118* Those who 
reject infant baptism (122) and baptism by any other mode than 
immersion (116) as invalid naturally rebaptize such as have been 
baptized in infancy and such as have not been immersed. Large C., 

IV, 55. The rebaptlsm of such as received Baptism in a heterodox 
church or have later lapsed or were unbelievers at the time of their 
baptism is inadmissible, since the validity of Baptism does not 
depend on the faith of the recipient or the ecclesiastical connection 
of the administrant. 105* 113* "Even though some one should 
fall from baptism and sin, nevertheless we always have access 


thereto." "We need not again be sprinkled with water." "Even 
though a Jew/'' etc. Large C., IV, 77. 54. "Cling to the first 
baptism and do not blaspheme it, for it is God's act ; God baptizes 
and gives the Sacraments ; therefore it is a good baptism." Luther, 
VII, 996. 991. 

BAPTISM, as little as for vicarious faith. "The just shall live by 
his faith," Hab. 2, 4. Therefore : "He that believeth and is bap- 
tized shall be saved," Mark 16, 16. And: "Be baptized every one 
of you," Acts 2, 38. The Mormon teaching that the living may and 
should receive Baptism for, in behalf of, the dead and thus insure 
their salvation subverts the fundamental Biblical doctrine of the 
necessity of personal faith for the appropriation of the salvation 
gained by Christ and puts in place of it the mechanical processes 
of paganism. Furthermore, the words of the institution, Matt. 
28, 19. 20, explicitly designate as the subjects of Baptism living 
human beings. Besides, there is no possibility of salvation after 
death, Heb. 9, 27. 185. 1 Cor. 15, 29 ("baptized for the dead") 
does not countenance vicarious baptism. This obscure passage has 
been variously translated and interpreted. Whatever may be the 
correct meaning, the translation "in place of and for the benefit 
of the dead" cannot stand in the face of the clear teaching of Scrip- 
ture on this matter. (Luther's translation: "ueber den Toten," 
at the graves of the dead, is grammatically correct and preferable 
to many others. See Luther, VIII, 1196 f.) 

UNHOLY, CHILDREN OF WRATH, John 3, 6 ; Eph. 2, 3. Over against 
the Reformed teaching that the children of believers are without 
and prior to Baptism, because of the covenant relation of the 
parents, "within the covenant," holy, Baptism merely symbolizing 
the blessing they already possess, the Lutheran Church insists that 
John 3, 6; Eph. 2, 3; etc., make no exception in favor of any 
class of human beings ; that the faith and covenant relation of the 
parent cannot be transmitted to the children through carnal gen- 
eration, Gen. 5, 3 ; Ps. 51, 5 ; that men become Abraham's children 
not by virtue of their natural descent from him, but by faith, 
Gal. 3, 7 ; and that these children are reborn and received into 
the covenant of grace through Baptism, John 1, 13 ; 3, 6 ; 1 Pet. 
3, 21. Ap., II, 3; IX. F. C., XII, Ep., 8; Th. D., 13. Cp. Visita- 
tion Articles, 38. The holiness of the children of a believing 
mother, 1 Cor. 7, 14, is of the same nature as the "holiness" of her 


unbelieving husband. "They are not holy in their own persons, . . . 
but they are holy unto you." Luther, VIII, 1061. Cp. 1 Tim. 4, 4 f . 
Ap., XXIII, 30. While the children of Christian parents are not 
born into the Church, but are received into the covenant of grace, 
into the Church, through the washing of regeneration, through 
Baptism, the blessing of Baptism belongs to them by God's will. 
Christian parents are commanded and privileged to bring their 
children to Baptism, Matt. 28, 19 ; Mark 10, 1316 ; Acts 2, 39. 
See also 122* "They belong to the promised redemption made 
through Christ, and the Church should administer it [Baptism and 
the announcement of that promise] to them." S. A., P. Ill, V, 4. 

122* The Lutheran Church teaches that "CHILDREN ARE TO BE 

RECEIVED INTO GOD ? S GRACE." A. C., IX. Ap., IX. S. A., P. Ill, 

V, 4. Large C., IV, 47 f . F. C., XII, Ep., 7 ; Th. D., 12. The 
Anabaptistic churches contend that "infant baptism is without 
warrant, either expressed or implied, in the Scriptures." Scripture 
calls for infant baptism. 1) Matt. 28, 19 contains no restrictions 
as to age. Terms of the same universal import as "nations" are 
used Mark 16, 15. 16. 2) Those who are made disciples through 
Baptism are described, Eph. 5, 26, as the "Church." But infants 
are members of the Church no less than the adults. 3) According 
to Mark 10, 13 16 the kingdom of God is open to little children. 
Its portal, which according to Matt. 28, 19 is Baptism, must not be 
closed to them. 4) Baptism has taken the place of circumcision, 
Col. 2, 11 f. If the application to infants in the type was meant to 
be abrogated in the antitype, an explicit declaration to that effect 
would have been imperative. 5) Entire families were baptized. 
Compare Acts 11, 14 ; 10, 48 ; 16, 15. 33 ; 1 Cor. 1, 16. If infant bap- 
tism is an unchristian practise, the inspired writers were guilty of 
using ambiguous language in employing this general term. See 
also Point 4. The antipedobaptists object 1) Infants are not in 
need of the forgiveness of sins and of regeneration. According to 
Eph. 2, 3; John 3, 6; etc., they need it no less than the adults. 
2) Children are incapable of faith and hence not fit subjects for 
baptism. See 76 and 123, 3) Matt. 28, 19 requires that instruc- 
tion precede baptism. The command "Make disciples of all nations, 
baptizing them," etc., "teaching them," etc., calls for baptizing 
and teaching, in the order applicable to the case. 4) Infant bap- 
tism is not expressly mentioned in the New Testament; therefore 
it was not in vogue. We have a perfect right to reverse the argu- 


ment : the fact that it is not expressly mentioned proves that it was 
practised arid accepted as a matter of course. 

Infant baptism is mandatory, Matt. 28, 19, therefore not 
merely permissive nor discretionary with the parents. 

BAPTISM ITSELF. It is the washing of regeneration, Titus 3, 5. 
The general term "us" includes the children. So also the general 
term "Church/' Eph. 5, 25 f., and the general term "man," John 
3, 5. Ap., IX. Large C., IV, 47 f. 57. All those who deny that 
children are capable of faith (76) will naturally deny the regen- 
erative effect of Baptism in their case. But while some of these, 
the Anabaptistic groups, refuse, consistently, to baptize infants, 
others practise infant baptism, the Catholics baptizing them in the 
faith of the Church (Eoman Catholics) or of the parents and spon- 
sors (Eastern Catholics), others in view of the prospective faith or 
on the strength of the covenant relation derived from the parents 
(121) or on the theory that in the case of infants faith is not 
necessary for salvation. Scripture, however, teaches the necessity 
of personal faith, Hab. 2, 4; Mark 16, 16. The Eeformed (ex- 
clusive of the Baptists and related groups) are, besides, inconsistent 
in administering the Sacrament, the efficacy of which they "condi- 
tion on the presence of faith in the recipient" (113), to such as 
are held to be incapable of faith. 

THE LORD, Matt. 28, 19 (necessity of precept), AS A MEANS OF 
GRACE, Mark 16, 16 (necessity of means denied by the Re- 
formed. 118). Large C., IV, 6 f . BUT THERE is NO NECESSITAS 
ABSOLUTA. Faith, which is absolutely necessary for salvation, is not 
wrought exclusively through Baptism. All Means of Grace have 
the same effect and confer the same grace. S. A., P. Ill, IV. He 
that believes the Gospel, through .the Gospel, is saved even though 
he may not have access to the Gospel in the form of Baptism, 
Luke 23, 43. The Eoman Catholic and Eastern Catholic churches 
teach that the sacraments alone are the vehicles of saving grace 
(sacramentalism, 104) and that Baptism is absolutely necessary 
for salvation. The Romanist doctrine that the Baptism of Blood 
(martyrdom) and the Baptism of Desire supply the place of or- 
dinary Baptism does not modify the dogma of the absolute necessity 
of the Sacrament, but rather emphasizes it, demanding an equiva- 


lent of the Sacrament. John 3, 5 does not teach the absolute 
necessity of Baptism, but is aimed at such as spurn the grace of 
God offered in Baptism., Luke 7, 29 f . "The contempt of Baptism,, 
not the lack of it damns" (Augustine). Insisting on the absolute 
necessity of Baptism,, Catholicism excludes those infants who are 
deprived of Baptism by reason of sudden death and the negligence 
of the parents from heaven. The Lutheran theologians hold that 
God, who intends the blessings of Baptism for these infants, Mark 
10, 14; Matt. 28, 19, deals with them as He dealt in the Old 
Testament with the female infants and those dying before the 
eighth day, who were not excluded from the covenant because of 
the lack of circumcision, Gen. 17, 7. 10. 12, that God works faith in 
them in a special manner, as in the case described Luke 1, 44, 
Speaking of the Jewish infants who died before the eighth day and 
of our children who died before Baptism could be administered,. 
Luther says : "They do not sin against the covenant of circumcision 
or Baptism. For since the Law prescribes that they must not be 
circumcised before the eighth day, would God damn those who die 
before that day ? Therefore we should commit their souls into the 
hands and will of their heavenly Father, who is, as we know,, 
merciful." (I, 1040. 1084. 1250. 1762.) See 122, There is no 
Scriptural warrant, however, for the article of the Westminster 
Confession, Declaratory Statement: "We believe that all dying in 
infancy are included in the election of grace" (theory of "un- 
covenanted mercies"). 

instruction in the Catechism meets the requirement of Scripture,. 
Matt. 28, 20; Luke 2, 411; Eph. 6, 4, and fits the confirmands 
for the reception of the Lord's Supper (1 Cor. 11, 28. Ap., XV, 41. 
Small C., Preface. Large C., Preface), while the confirmation rite 
proper serves to impress upon them and the congregation the 
glorious significance of Baptism. Large C., IV, 6 f . It is not, how- 
ever, a Sacrament, as the Catholic churches, the Anglo-Catholics, 
and the Irvingites hold, imparting and increasing grace and com- 
pleting Baptism. It was not instituted by Christ. Ap., XIII, 16. 
It is an act of desperation to quote Acts 8, 14 17 ; 2 Cor. 1, 21 f . 
for such proof. And it is Baptism, not confirmation, that imparts 
the Holy Ghost, Titus 3, 5 f . Baptism needs no completion ; the 
Christians need to appropriate and apply the full blessings of the 
Holy Ghost bestowed in Baptism. Large C., IV, 41 f. 



LORD AS A PERMANENT ORDINANCE, "to be used until the end of 
the world" (F. C., Th. D., VII, 44. 75 f. Ap., Ill, 89. Large C., 
V, If.), "till He come," 1 Cor. 11, 26 (1 Cor. 4, 5; Acts 1, 11), 
supplying the consolation and the confirmation of faith which all 
Christians of all times need, 1 Cor. 11, 24 f. ("in remembrance 
of Me"). Its repudiation as a permanent ordinance on the part 
of the Quakers and other organizations thus nullifies the explicit 
command of the Lord (cp. Gal. 3, 15) and frustrates His gracious 
provision. The contention that the use of external means is in- 
compatible with the spirituality of Christianity is not supported by 
such texts as Rom. 14, 17; Col. 2, 16; Rev. 3, 20, which have no 
reference to the Lord's Supper, and in effect charges Christ with 
a lack of spirituality. 

of the vine"), the elements appointed by Christ, Matt. 26, 26 29; 
Luke 22, 1820. A. C., X (German text). Ap., X, 54; XXII, 2. 
S. A., Of the Power, 6. Small C., Sacrament of the Altar, 2. Large 
C., V, 8. F. C., Th. D., VII, 9. Where men change the ordinance 
of Christ, substituting other elements, for example, water for wine, 
it is not a valid Sacrament. Cp. Deut. 12, 32; Matt. 28, 20; 
Gal. 3, 15. 


'OF A LOAF OR WAFERS, ARE ADIAPHORA. Matt. 26, 26; 1 Cor. 

11, 26 use the general term "bread," without any further specifica- 
tions. The Eastern Catholic Church, insisting on the use of leavened 
wheaten bread as essential, goes beyond the words of Christ and 
infringes on the Christian liberty. The same applies to the Roman 
Catholic Church, which insists on the use of unleavened wheaten 
bread, not indeed as essential, but as necessary because of the com- 
mand of the Pope. The Reformed object to the use of wafers. 
Some of them insist on the use of leavened bread; others regard 
this as a matter of indifference. The Lutheran Church applies the 
article of Christian liberty, taught 1 Cor. 7, 23; Gal. 2, 41 ; 
.5, 1 f. F. C., X. 

26, 26 f.; 1 Cor. 11, 26 ("Take eat drink"). "Apart from 
this use, when in the papistic Mass the bread is not distributed, it 


is to be regarded as no Sacrament. ... If the institution of Christ 
be not observed as He appointed it, there is no Sacrament." F. C., 
Th. D., VII, 85 f . 15. A. C., X. Not only the bread, but also the 
wine must be distributed. "Drink ye all of it/' Matt. 26, 27; 
Mark 14, 23. 1 Cor. 11, 26. 27. 28, addressed to the Corinthian 
Christians, disposes of the Roman Catholic contention that Matt. 
26, 27 was addressed to "the apostles as priests." "We condemn "the 
sacrilege whereby . . . the cup is withheld from them" (the laymen) 
"and they are [thus] deprived of His blood." F. C., VII, Ep., 24; 
Th. D., 110. A. C., XXII. Ap., XXII. S. A., P. Ill, VI, 3. 
Cp. Deut. 12, 32; Matt. 28, 20; Gal. 3, 15; 2 Thess. 2, 4. The 
argument in favor of the "communion in one form" based on the 
physiological truth that a true body always contains blood '("con- 
comitance") is inspired by gross rationalism. 


SACRAMENTAL ACTION. F. C., Th. D., VII, 83 f. (The distribution 
is essential, not the mode of it.) The Reformed, with some excep- 
tions, make of it an essential feature, commanded by Christ as 
symbolizing the rending of His body on the cross. Christ did not 
command it. He broke the bread indeed, but that was only in- 
cidental to the distribution. Scripture uses the term "break" here 
and elsewhere simply as synonymous with, and descriptive of, dis- 
tribution, Is. 58, 7 ("break" in the original) ; Lam. 4, 4 ("No man 
breaketh it unto them") ; Matt. 14, 19 ; Mark 8, 19 ; Luke 24, 30. 
And Christ's command: "This do," covers only what He com- 
manded them to do: "Take, eat; drink ye all of it this do." 
Besides, if the command "This do" covered the breaking, it would 
require the communicants, to whom it is addressed, to break it, 
which the Reformed themselves do not observe. Accordingly, 
St. Paul is silent as to the breaking when describing the sacra- 
mental action, 1 Cor. 11, 26 28. The breaking of the 'bread is 
an adiaphoron. However, since the Reformed insist on it as 
exemplifying and thus establishing the symbolical character of the 
Lord's Supper and as a visible demonstration of the absurdity of 
the Lutheran doctrine of the Real Presence ("The body of Christ 
broken within an hour into three thousand, four thousand frag- 
ments !!" Dav. Pareus), it is no longer an indifferent ceremony, 
but its omission has become a matter of confession. Cp. F. C., X. 
It is immaterial whether the element be conveyed directly to 
the mouth or be first placed into the hands of the communicants. 
The Reformed contention that Christ's command to "take" pre- 
scribes the latter mode is refuted by John 19, 30. 


UNDER THE BREAD AND WINE. "This is My body. . . . This is My 
blood," Matt. 26, 26 f. Since Christ, in giving the bread, gives His 
body, a union takes place between the earthly and the heavenly 
elements, 1 Cor. 10, 16 ("communion"); 1 Cor. 11, 2729. 
(Scripture does not explain, nor could the human mind grasp, 
the nature of this union. It is not a natural, physical, local union, 
but a supernatural one, peculiar to the Sacrament, hence called 
the sacramental union.) Accordingly, the Lutheran Church teaches 
the Real Presence. A. C., X. Ap., X. S. A., P. Ill, VI. Small C., 
Sacrament of the Altar, 2 f. Large C., V, 8 f. F. C., VII; Th. D., 
VIII, 2f. 921; Ep., XII, 24; Th. D., XII, 32. Eationalists of 
all types teach that the real body and blood of Christ are absent 
from the Lord's Supper, the Reformed churches, chief spokesmen 
of rationalism in this matter, holding that bread and wine merely 
represent Christ's body and blood, which, being enclosed in heaven, 
are absent from the Lord's Supper. The objection that Christ's 
body, a true human body, cannot be present is untenable in the 
face of Christ's declaration "This is My body." Furthermore, it 
pits the arguments of reason against those statements of Scripture 
which assert the omnipotence of God, Luke 1, 37, and His truth, 
Ps. 33, 4. Finally, it ignores the teaching of Scripture which 
ascribes to Christ, according to His human nature, the full omni- 
presence, Mark 16, 19; Eph. 4, 10, the omnipresence of the divine 
nature, described Jer. 23, 23 f. The Reformed further object that 
Scripture does not teach the Real Presence, that the words of the 
institution must not be taken in their literal, native sense, but 
must, in order to give a rational sense, be interpreted figuratively. 
The Lutheran Church refuses to make reason the interpreter of 
Scripture and insists that every word of the Bible must be taken 
in its native sense unless the Bible itself forbids it; that the word 
"is" can never, in no language, be made to mean "represent" ; that 
Scripture itself forbids the figurative interpretation in describing 
that which is received as the very body and blood that was given 
and shed for us; and that all this applies particularly when 
a testament or a divine command or an article of faith is involved, 
Gal. 3, 15. Ap., XXII, 2. John 6, 63 does not establish nor support 
the Reformed doctrine, since the passage does not treat of the 
Lord's Supper. Besides, Christ did not say: My flesh profiteth 
nothing. The denial of the Real Presence is not a light matter. 


It impugns the authority of Scripture, militates against the doc- 
trine of the communication of attributes, and deprives Christians 
of the comfort which the reception of the body and blood of Christ 
as the seal of the Gospel promise yields. When Calvin and his 
.school speak of the "real presence" of Christ or even of His body 
.and blood in the Lord's Supper, they do not mean the real, objec- 
tive presence of His body and blood, but a "real" spiritual presence ; 
that is to say, Christ appropriates to the believer the salvation 
.gained by the sacrifice of His body and blood; He is thus present 
by faith, subjectively present. 

While the "person of Christ" is present at the Lord's Supper, 
.as indeed He is everywhere, it is not "Christ whole and entire'' 
(Trent) that constitutes the heavenly element, as Eome declares, 
but, as Christ distinctly states, His body and blood, all ratiocina- 
tions to the contrary notwithstanding. 


Th. D., VII, 63), the bread and wine being partaken of in a natural 
way, the body and blood in a supernatural, indefinable, incom- 
prehensible way. The Eeformed churches deny the oral manduca- 
tion, the sacramental eating, recognizing only a spiritual eating of 
the body of Christ. However, the words of Christ "Eat; this is 
My body" and the term "communion," 1 Cor. 10, 16, can mean 
nothing else than that the bread and the real body of Christ are 
received in one and the same action, that a real, albeit supernatural, 
eating of the Lord's body takes place. There is indeed a spiritual 
eating and drinking of the body and blood of Christ. It consists 
in the appropriation, by faith, of the benefits of Christ's death. 
Spiritual eating is called for also in the Lord's Supper, but is not 
the same as the sacramental eating, which takes place besides the 
spiritual eating and subserves it. The Eeformed doctrine, denying 
the Eeal Presence and the sacramental eating, thwarts the gracious 
purpose of the Sacrament. P. C., Ep., VII, 2. 5. 41 f . ; Th. D., 
VII, 2 f. 64. 114. 118. 

Since the sacramental eating and drinking of the Lord's body 
and blood is inseparably connected with the physical eating and 
drinking of the bread and wine, constituting one action, the un- 
worthy communicant receives the true body and blood of the Lord, 
Matt. 26, 26 ("Eat; this is My body") ; 1 Cor. 11, 27. "The body 


of Christ is not only received spiritually by faith, which occurs 
also outside of the Sacrament, but also orally, not only by believing 
and godly, but also by unworthy, unbelieving, false, and wicked 
Christians . . ., however, not for life and consolation, but for judg- 
ment and condemnation/' F. C., Th. D., VII, 66; Ep v VII, 16; 
Th. D., 60. 72. 89. 123. Since the Eeformed recognize no other 
eating than the spiritual, their thesis that the unbeliever does not 
receive the Lord's body amounts to the truism that the unbeliever 
does not believe. And all who uphold this thesis do not, at bottom, 
believe in the Eeal Presence. F. C., Th. D., VII, 33. 

The dogma of transubstantiation is a direct denial of 1 Cor. 11, 26 f. 
("bread," in reality, not merely in outward appearance) and of 
1 Cor. 10, 16 (Is not the body of Christ the communion of the body 
of Christ? !) ; it is the source of superstitious and idolatrous prac- 
tises (following paragraphs) and is made to serve the glorification 
of the priesthood, the priest effecting transubstantiation by virtue 
of powers conferred by holy orders, performing a miracle com- 
parable to the Incarnation. The Lutheran Church has been 
falsely charged with teaching consubstantiation (the bread and 
the body form a third substance), impanation (the body is locally 
enclosed in the bread), and the like. The purpose of the "under, 
with, in the bread" is to "reject the papistical transubstantiation" 
(F. C., Th. D., VII, 35. 38), not to define the indefinable union, to 
explain it in terms of physics. F. C., Ep., VII, 42. 

ACTION, 1 Cor. 10, 16. (The bread "which we break," distribute, and 
eat is the communion of the body of Christ.) "Nothing has the 
nature of a Sacrament apart from the use instituted by Christ." 
F. C., Th. D., VII, 85. 15. 108. Eome and the High-church Epis- 
copalians (Anglo-Catholics) defend and demand the reservation of 
the host on the basis and in the interest of transubstantiation. The 
Irvingites practise it in the superstitious belief that the bread, once 
it is consecrated, retains some sort of sacramental quality. 

of transubstantiation, is A PERVERSION OF THE SACRAMENT IN- 
STITUTED BY CHRIST (the bread and body is to be eaten, Matt. 
26, 26, not to be reserved and adored) and plain idolatry. For 
what the Catholics adore as Christ, as God, is plain bread, 



a creature. It is a part of "the false worship, idolatry, supersti- 
tion/' introduced by the Papacy (F. C., Ep., Sum. Con. 4) and 
of a piece with the idolatry denounced Eom. 1, 25. F. C., Th. D., 
VII, 15. 87. 108. 126. 



FAITH. "This cup is the new testament in My blood/' 1 Cor. 11, 25. 
The "new testament" is the forgiveness of sins, Jer. 31, 31 34; 
Eom. 11, 27; 2 Cor. 3, 6; Heb. 8, 812; 10, 16, and "this cup 
is a new testament because of My blood here present; on account 
of this blood it is a new testament. For he who, receiving the 
cup, receives the blood of Christ, which is shed for us, receives the 
new testament, that is, forgiveness of sins and eternal life." Luther, 
XX, 278 f. The Lord's Supper offers the same forgiveness the 
Gospel offers and, in addition, seals and confirms the offer and gift 
by making us partakers of the very body and blood which was 
expended for our redemption, Luke 22, 19. 20. "This do in re- 
membrance of Me," 1 Cor. 11, 24. "This is the remembrance of 
Christ, that men teach and believe the power and fruit of His 
suffering." Luther, X, 2188. A. C., XXIV, 30. Ap., Ill, 89; 
XIII, 20; XXIV, 49. 69. 90. Small C., VI, 6. Large C., V, 
20 f . 60 f. F. C., Th. D., VII, 44. 53. The Lutheran Church makes 
much of the Lord's Supper because it transmits and confirms the 
remission of sins, "which is also its most necessary part." Large C., 
V, 20. She makes so much of the Eeal Presence and the sacra- 
mental eating because it subserves the spiritual eating, "which is 
its most necessary part." The Eoman Catholic Church makes little 
of Holy Communion as distinguished in her theology from the 
Mass. Its principal benefit is not the remission of sins, and it 
cleanses only of the venial sins. Eationalism makes even less of it. 
However much the Eeformed churches may differ among them- 
selves and from the thoroughgoing rationalists on the purpose and 
meaning of the Lord's Supper, some emphasizing the spiritual 
eating and others making of Communion the barest kind of a 
memorial celebration, they unanimously deny that the Sacrament 
conveys the forgiveness of sins, which must be looked for elsewhere. 
They withhold from men the comfort which this form of admin- 
istering the Gospel yields. (For that matter, they deny that 
the Gospel in any form conveys and bestows the forgiveness of 
sins. 104,) On the fantastic theory of the Swedenborgians see 421, 
See also 376, 


SUPPER. Luke 22, 19 f. ("The words 'for you' require altogether 
believing hearts." Small C., VI, 10.) "This do in remembrance 
of Me," 1 Cor. 11, 24 f. ("The faith of those who use the Sacra- 
ment should remember what benefits it receives through Christ.-" 
A. C., XXIV, 30.) 1 Cor. 11, 2629 : He that receives the Lord's 
Supper without faith eats and drinks the Lord's body and blood 
unworthily. Ap., Ill, 89. Small C., VI, 810. Large C., V, 33 f. 
F. C., Th. D., VII, 62. 68 f. The Catholic dogma that the Sacra- 
ments profit without faith on the part of the recipient (ex opere 
operato) turns them into pagan rites and subverts the fundamental 
article of the Christian religion that faith justifies and saves, 
Kom. 3, 28. 113, 


is PROPITIATED. The papistical Mass, in which the priest sacrifices 
Christ in an unbloody manner "for the sins, penalties, and satis- 
factions of the living and the dead," has nothing in common with 
the Eucharist instituted by Christ, Matt. 26, 26 f. ("Eat, drink" 
not: Sacrifice My body and blood); 1 Cor. 11, 26 ("Show the 
Lord's death" not : Eeenact it) ; Luke 22, 19 f. ("given and shed 
for you'" addressed to the communicants, not to the absent and the 
dead). It is a denial of the all-sufficiency of the sacrifice offered 
once for all on the cross, Heb. 9, 12; 10, 1. 12. 14. 18; 1 Pet. 
3, 18; John 19, 30. A. C., XXIV, 24 f. Ap., XXIV, 22. 56. 
Its "unbloody" sacrifice conflicts with Heb. 9, 22. It is, moreover, 
a denial of the article of justification by faith alone, justification 
here being accomplished by the work of men, of the priest and of 
the devout spectator. Kom. 3, 28. A. C., XXIV, 28 f. Ap., 
XXIV, 89. The teaching that the Mass accrues to the benefit of 
the absent and dead, transferring to them the merits acquired 
through devout participation of it 'by others, denies the Scripture 
doctrine of the necessity of a personal faith, Hab. 2, 4; Heb. 11, 6, 
of the sole saviorship of Christ (101), and of death's ending the 
period of grace (185). Various other papistical abominations 
derive their chief support from the Mass, such as the priesthood 
of the clergy (155), purgatory (185), and the invocation of saints, 
masses being celebrated also for the purpose of honoring the saints 
and obtaining their intercession (100). F. C., VII, Ep., 23; 
Th. D., 87. 109. The Eastern Catholic teaching is, in the main, 


that of the Roman Catholic body; that of the Old Catholics and 
the Irvingites approximates it in giving the Lord's Supper the 
character of. a sacrifice. 

"A Sacrament is a ceremony or work in which God presents 
to us that which the promise annexed to the ceremony offers. . . . 
A sacrifice, on the contrary, is a ceremony or work which we render 
God in order to afford Him honor." Ap., XXIV, 18. The dis- 
tinction between the sacrifices of praise and thanksgiving, Rom. 
12, 1 ; Heb. 13, 151; 1 Pet. 2, 5, and the sacrifice of Christ is of 
fundamental importance. "There has been only one propitiatory 
sacrifice in the world, namely, the death of Christ." Ap., XXIV, 22. 

XXIV, 6 f. Large C., V, 2. The Greek Catholic Church appeals 
to John 6, 53 in support of infant communion. But the eating and 
drinking of the body and blood of the Lord which is absolutely 
necessary for salvation is not the sacramental, but the spiritual 
eating and drinking; appropriating the benefits of Christ's death 
by faith, the baptized infant is saved. 



VII. VIII. S. A., P. Ill, XII. Small C., Third Art. Large C., 
II, 47 4:9. The Holy Christian Church (the Church Universal, 
the invisible Church), the body of Christ, comprises only believers, 
and all believers of all times and places. "And believers were the 
more added to the Lord," Acts 5, 14. "Ye are all the children of 
God by faith in Christ Jesus," Gal. 3, 26; John 11, 511; Acts 
2,41; Rom. 12, 5; Gal. 6, 10; Eph. 1,221; 2,1922; 5,2527; 
Heb. 3, 6. And since "the Church is originally a fellowship of 
faith and of the Holy Ghost in hearts" (Ap., VII and VIII, 5. 
1215) it is invisible. Luke 17, 201; Rom. 11, 31; Col. 3, 4; 
2 Tim. 2, 19. Rome defines the holy Christian Church, the One 
Church, as the visible society of those who profess the same Chris- 
tian faith, be they pious or impious, participate in the same sacra- 
ments, and are subject to their own bishops and, in a special 
manner, to the Roman Pontiff, obedience to whom is necessary for 
salvation. Such a body is not the Church of God, which has but 
one Head and Ruler, Christ, John 10, 27 f . ; Eph. 1, 22, and has 


no room for the hypocrites and the wicked, John 15, 6 ; Kom. 8, 9 ; 
1 Cor. 3, 16; Eph. 1, 23; 2, 2. Ap., VII and VIII, 318. More- 
over, -this conception of the Church is of a piece with the exter- 
nalism of the Catholic religion, which would achieve salvation 
through the fulfilment of the Law and the observance of man-mad* 
regulations and leaves no room for faith in Christ. (Eome defines 
the Church also as consisting essentially of the teaching, ruling 
body. 159* ) In line with the same externalism the Eastern Cath- 
olics define the Church as the visible society of those who are united 
in the orthodox faith, the hierarchy, and the seven sacraments. 
Defining the Church as the whole number of those who are 
illuminated and led by the inward light, be they Christians, Mo- 
hammedans, Jews, or Gentiles, the Quakers deny the chief article 
of the Christian religion, salvation through faith in the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ. John 10, 27 f.; 14, 6; Acts 4, 12; 1 Cor. 12, 3; 
Ps. 147, 20. The same applies to the Shakers, Swedenborgians, 

No visible Church may pose as ecclesia, extra quam nulla solus 
(no salvation outside of the Church), as Eome does. (See also 223*) 
The true meaning of this proposition is: "Outside of this Chris- 
tian Church, where the Gospel is not, there is no forgiveness." 
Large C., II, 55 f. 45. The religious bodies which have renounced 
the Gospel entirely, denying salvation through Jesus Christ, the 
Trinity, etc., are outside of the Christian Church. Eev. 2, 9. "The 
kingdom of Christ exists only with the Word and Sacraments." 
Ap., IX, 52. 

141* Though the Church is invisible, the absolute identification 
of its members, the believers, being impossible, it can be located 


PLACE. The Gospel and the Sacraments are the only means by 
which the Holy Ghost creates and preserves faith, Eom. 10, 17; 
1 Pet. 1, 2325; Mark 16, 151; Eph. 5, 26; Luke 22, 19; 
1 Cor. 10, 17; 12, 13. A. C., V. And wherever the Gospel is 
preached, it wins some for Christ. "It shall not return unto Me 
void," Is. 55, 10 f . ; Luke 8, 1115. A. C., VII. Ap., VII and 
VIII, 5 : "Which fellowship nevertheless has outward marks, so 
that it can be recognized, namely, the pure doctrine of the Gospel 
and the administration of the Sacraments in accordance with the 
Gospel of Christ." 7; IX, 52; XIV, 27. Luther: "God's Word 


cannot be without God's people. So also God's people cannot be 
without God's Word" (XVI, 2276). "The pure doctrine of the 
Gospel": the Church is found without fail wherever essentials of 
the Gospel are preached; but where the Gospel is preached in its 
purity, the marks of the Church stand out the more distinctly. 
"Definitions, rules, and canons ought to be given with respect to 
the ideal." Gerhard. 

The Eoman Catholic teaching on the marks of the Church 
deals with an entirely different matter. It sets up as the four 
chief marks of the Church her oneness, holiness, catholicity, and 
apostolicity, gives these terms a false significance, and contends 
that the exclusive possession by the Eoman Catholic Church of 
these attributes, alleged to be essential to the Church, marks this 
Church as the holy Christian Church. The matter is fully dis- 
cussed 224* The Eastern Catholic Church follows Eome in teaching 
that the Church cannot exist without the hierarchy, the episcopate, 
and its concomitant, the Apostolic Succession. Similarly, the 
Anglo-Catholics (High-church Episcopalians) "treat the Apostolic 
Succession as being not only of the bene esse, but of the esse,, of the 
official ministry and hence of the Catholic Church of Christ." 
"Living Church," January 31, 1931. The fact is that the Church 
does not need it even for its well-being and that the insistence on 
its necessity results in the male esse of the Church. 

The holiness of life, the exercise of Christian discipline, and 
any other kind of religious activity cannot serve as infallible marks 
of the Church. While all Christians lead a holy life, we cannot 
determine absolutely whether in any given case the observance of 
God's commandments proceeds from the hidden holiness of the 
inward man or is but the counterfeit holiness of the hypocrite, 
Eom. 2, 29 ; 12, 2; Matt. 6, 1 f. And while the neglect of church 
discipline is detrimental to a church, it remains a church as long 
as there are Christians at that place, gathered about the Word and 
Sacrament. There were Christians at Corinth, constituting a Chris- 
tian congregation, even though they had failed to excommunicate 
the impenitent sinner, 1 Cor. 1, 2 ; 5, 1 1 F. C., XII, Ep., 9. 26 ; 
Th. D., 14. 34. See 142. 

LOCALITY. "All that believed," living at Jerusalem, constituted the 
church at Jerusalem, Acts 2, 44; 4, 4. 32. So also 1 Cor. 1, 2; 
Eph. 1, 1; Phil. 1, 1; Col. 1, 2. The unbelievers united with 
the visible organization do not form an integral part of the local 


church. The fact that unbelievers are mingled with the church 
in its outward appearance does not deprive the visible body of its 
character and name as a Christian church, which it bears solely 
because of the believers there found, Eev. 2, 12. 14. 15; Matt. 13, 
2430. 4750; Gal. 1, 2 and 5, 4. A. C., VIII. Ap., VII and 
VIII, 11. 1719. 49. The Lutheran Church rejects the Donatistic 
error that a congregation (church) in which sinners are still found 
is no true Christian assembly." F. C., XII, Th. D., 14; Ep., 9. 
See 141. 

"The gates of hell shall not prevail against it/' Matt. 16, 18 ; Ps. 
48, 8 ; Luke 1, 33. In every period of time there has existed, and 
will exist, a communion of true believers, kept by the power of 
Christ from falling a prey to fundamental errors, Matt. 24, 24; 
John 10, 271; Eom. 11, 2 5. The Gospel and the Sacraments 
will remain efficacious and effective to the end of time, Matt. 
28, 19 f. ; 1 Cor. 11, 26. To deny the perpetuity of the Church, to 
say that the Christian Church has perished or is about to perish, 
is to deny the power and truth of Christ. A. C., VII. Ap., VII and 
VIII, 9. 20 f . 27. Small C., Third Art. Large C., II, 53. F. C., 
Th. D., XI, 50. 

Any particular church-body, however, local church or larger 
organization, may perish, succumbing to fundamental errors in its 
official teaching. The condition described Acts 20, 29 f . ; Kom. 
11, 2 5; Gal. 1, 6; 4, 9; Eev. 2, 5 may set in with respect to 
any part of the visible Church. The claim set up by the Eoman 
and Eastern Catholic churches that they cannot err, denies the 
manifest facts of history, past and present. S. A., P. II, IV, 10; 
Of the Power, 39. And the doctrine on which they base this claim, 
viz., that the teaching body, particularly the bishops, more par- 
ticularly the Pope, is infallible, involves a blasphemous assumption 
of the divine prerogative. 

work of the Church they are not needed. They were extraordinary 
charisms. God still works miracles in the Church, but He is the 
sole Judge of the need of the measure of the gifts to be bestowed, 
1 Cor. 12, 11 ("as He will"). "Therefore, where there are Christian 
men, there is the power to work such signs, when it becomes neces- 
sary. . . . But since the Gospel is now spread throughout the world, 


known to all, there is no need of such signs as were wrought in the 
days of the apostles." Luther, XI, 957. The teaching of the 
Irvingites, the Holiness bodies ("the Baptism of the Holy 
Ghost," 97, evidenced by the gift of tongues, of healing, .etc.), and 
others that the miraculous gifts of the Apostolic Age 5 ) belong to 
the necessary equipment of the Church of all times or that God has 
promised to restore them in these last days calls for the following 
observations: 1) Possessing and employing the Means of Grace, 
the Church is fully equipped to do its work, Matt. 28, 19 f . ; Kom. 
10, 17; 1 Cor. 11, 26; Luke 16, 29. 2) The spirit of Enthusiasm, 
which rejects the external Word as futile (S. A., P. Ill, VIII, 9: 
"It is the devil himself whatsoever is extolled as Spirit without the 
Word and Sacraments." 3. Ap., XIII, 12 f. F. C., Th. D., II, 
4. 80), has only assumed another form when it declares that the 
Word and Sacrament alone are incapable of building the Church. 
3) Scripture warns against miracle-mindedness, John 4, 48; 1 Cor. 
1, 22; 12, 31. 4) It is not for us to prescribe to God when and to 
what degree He musi; bestow His gifts, 1 Cor. 12, 11 ("as He will"). 
5) The signs were given for the confirmation of the pure Gospel; 
signs performed by errorists are works of Satan, Deut. 13, 1 3; 
Matt. 24, 24; 2 Thess. 2, 9 f . 6) Those churches which claim that 
the extraordinary, miracle-working gifts of the Apostolic Age have, 
been revived in their midst are bound to demonstrate every single 
one of them, such as the innocuous use of poison, Mark 16, 18, and 
raising the dead, Matt. 10, 8. 7) Mark 16, 1720 ("These signs 
shall follow them that believe : In My name shall they cast out 
devils," etc.) does not support the teaching under discussion. 
It does teach that the believers, the Church, having received the 
fulness of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost, possess also the power to 
perform miracles. Where the need for it arises, in the judgment 
of God, He will perform miracles through any believer. The need 
existed in the beginning of the preaching of the Gospel and was 
met by the abundance of charisms in the Church. But the text 
does not state that, wherever there are believers, in every age, in 
every community, there shall be a display of miraculous powers. 
Those who take it in any such absolute sense would have to apply 
it to every single one of "them that believe." But not even in the 
apostolic days did every one of them that believed speak with new 
tongues, etc. Besides, if Jesus had promised the recurrence of the 

5 ) The Irvingites go so far as to say that the apostolate itself is neces- 
sary for the well-being of the Church. 359. 153. 


extraordinary charisms to every age of the Church, He would have 
uttered an unfulfilled prophecy. V. 20 does not state that the 
Lord "will confirm" the Word with signs following in every age of 
the Church. It states that the Lord "confirmed" the Word with 
signs following. He confirmed it for the benefit of the first age 
and of every following age. 6 ) 



FALSE DOCTRINE. God will have nothing but His pure Word 
preached in the Church. "He that hath My Word, let him speak 
My Word faithfully/' Jer. 23, 2832; John 8, 31 f. He does not 
sanction false doctrine, but commands all men to shun it. "Now 
I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and of- 
fenses contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned and avoid 

6) The belief in divine healing, which is considered the normal ex- 
perience of the "sanctified" believers by many Holiness groups, 371. 382, 
is based on the following false premises : 1 ) All diseases are the direct 
result of sin. But Scripture teaches that sickness is sent also for other 
reasons, John 9, 3 ; the Book of Job. "Therefore afflictions are not always 
punishments or signs of wrath." Ap., VI, 61. 2) All diseases can be healed 
by a "complete surrender to Christ." Basing their doctrine on Is. 53, 4, 
the divine healers claim that Christ is man's "double cure," viz., from sin 
and from sickness. "When the soul is walking in harmony and obedience, 
the life of God can fully flow into the 6odi/. . . . The living, physical Christ 
must come into your life sharing His physical life with you in a union 
which is nearer than the connubial life, so near that the very life of His 
veins is transferred into yours." Simpson, The Fourfold Gospel, 60. 61. 
"The sanctified Christian receives the healing in Christ's body by faith and 
as he abides in Christ's living body." P. 64. But Scripture shows that 
Christ's healings were not always conditioned upon the patient's attitude 
toward Christ, e. g., Luke 22, 51. This doctrine is vicious, for Christian suf- 
ferers who do not find divine healing (e.g., Job, Epaphroditus, Timothy) 
must be driven to despair, since according to divine healers "they are hold- 
ing back part of the full testimony or service to Christ and can not be 
helped until this difficulty is removed." P. 60. 3) All who are healed are 
really healed, no matter what may be the evidence of their senses to the 
contrary. This premise is a desperate effort to cover up the many failures 
of the divine healers; and it is anti-Scriptural, for Christ's healings were 
instantaneous, and those whom Christ healed knew that they were healed. 
These people pervert God's order, who commands Christians in time of 
sickness to do both, to pray for God's help and to use the means which God 
has appointed, for "creatures are only the hands, channels, and means 
whereby God gives us everything, . . . neither should we in presumption 
seek other means than God has commanded." Large C., I, 26. 27. In 
dealing with divine healers the fact must not be overlooked that medical 
science and psychology are agreed that strong and persistent impressions 
and suggestions such as invariably precede the supposed divine cures 
modify the patient's functional disposition. 


them," Eom. 16, 17 f.; Matt. 7, 15; Acts 20, 2931; Gal. 1, 8; 
5, 9; Phil. 3, 2; 1 Tim. 6, 31; 2 Tim. 2, 17; 4, 15; Titus 
3, 10 f. ; 1 John 4, 1; 2 John 9 11. He does not sanction the 
diversity of denominations resulting from the teaching of false 
doctrine, but would have all Christians united in one visible 
Church, one in faith and one in doctrine, Acts 2, 41; 1 Cor. 1, 10; 
Eph. 4, 35. Matt. 10, 32 f . ; 2 Thess. 2, 15. The Lutheran 
Confessions call upon the Christians to have church-fellowship only 
with those who confess the pure doctrine (A. C., VII. Ap., VII 
and VIII, 5. F. C., Th. D., XI, 95 f.) and to separate from the 
heterodox teachers and communions. Ap., VII and VIII, 48; 
XXIII, 59. S. A., P. II, IV, 9 ; Of the Power, 37. 41 f . 52. 58. 
72. 79. B. C. Preface, Trigl., p. 7. 9. F. C., Preface, 9. Th. D., 
VII, 29; X. (Hence the need of confessions, creeds, symbols. 11,) 
Unionism, therefore, written into the platform of some bodies 
(Unitarians, Disciples of Christ, Moravians, Evangelical Synod, etc.) 
and practised by most sects, which asks the various denominations 
to form a union, or at least to maintain church-fellowship among 
themselves, despite their disagreement in doctrine, that allegedly 
being a matter of indifference, is a gross violation of the divine 
command. Furthermore, it does not serve the cause of unity, but 
perpetuates the division, since it demands toleration of the original 
cause of the division, false doctrine. It sins, further, against 
charity : instead of warning the errorists and the erring Christians, 
it palliates the error. It is immoral : it pretends a unity that does 
not exist and operates with dishonest, ambiguous formulas of union. 
Finally, it involves a denial of the truth, since he who consciously 
compromises with error, compromises and betrays the corresponding 
truth, Matt. 12, 30, and since it springs from indifference and 
fosters indifference, it tends to bring on the loss of the entire truth. 
John 17, 20 f. has reference to the unity obtaining in the in- 
visible Church, all Christians being one by faith in Christ, not 
to an external union to be achieved on the unionistic plan. Phil. 
1, 15 18 does not state that Paul was willing to tolerate false 
teaching. Both groups of preachers described preached the pure 
Gospel. "Whether in pretense or in truth" does not refer to the 
contents of their preaching, but to their motives. Membership in 
such non-ecclesiastical organizations as practise a false religion or 
teach false doctrine in any other form, for instance, secret orders 
(lodges), is another form of unionism. It is gross unionism, syn- 
cretism. 12. 



GOD. It is God's will and ordinance that His Word be proclaimed 
.and taught not only by the Christians in general, but also by 
ministers, men called to administer the Means of Grace publicly. 
"Are all teachers?" 1 Cor. 12, 29; 4, 1; Eph. 4, 11; Acts 20, 28; 
Heb. 13, 17; 1 Pet. 5, 2. God has explicitly directed every Chris- 
tian congregation to establish the pastoral office in its midst, Titus 
1, 5; 2 Tim. 2, 2; Acts 14, 23. A. C., V; XIV; XXVIII, 5 f . 
21 f. Ap., XIII, 11 f. ("The Church has the command to appoint 
ministers"). S.A., P. Ill, X; Of the Power, 10. 72. The Quakers, 
Plymouth Brethren, and others, who, moved by a misdirected anti- 
formalism, refuse to recognize and establish the pastoral office, have 
cast away a divine institution and the benefits it carries. 

MENTS TO THE CALLED MINISTER. "This true Church of believers 
and saints it is to which Christ has given the keys of the kingdom 
of heaven and which is therefore the real and only possessor and 
bearer of the spiritual, divine, and heavenly blessings, rights, 
powers, offices, etc., which Christ has procured and which are to be 
found in His Church." Walther, Kirche und Amt, I, Thesis IV. 
^ f He grants the keys principally and immediately to the Church, 
just as also for this reason the Church has principally the right 
of calling." S. A., Of the Power, 24. 67. Ap., VII and VIII, 28. 
"Preach the Gospel to every creature," Matt. 28, 19 f ., and "Whose- 
soever sins ye remit," etc., was spoken to those who have received 
the Holy Ghost, John 20, 22 f., to the Church, Matt. 18, 1720, 
the believers. "Ye [the members of the Church] are the royal 
priesthood," 1 Pet. 2, 9. "All things are yours," 1 Cor. 3, 2123. 
"The Church is above the ministers." S. A., 1. c., 11. 2 Cor. 4, 5; 
1 Pet. 5, 3. See 115* 160, 161* The sacerdotalism of the Catholic 
and Episcopalian churches denies this doctrine of the royal priest- 
hood of the believers and holds that the keys and all power in the 
Church have been given to the apostles and the bishops, their 
alleged successors. A more subtle form of hierarchism is repre- 
sented by the teaching of various Reformed bodies, viz., that the 
administration of the Gospel and the Sacraments does not belong 
originally to the Church, but to the incumbents of the ministerial 


office as such (115), Matt. 18,20. "The keys have been given to 
the Church and not merely to certain persons." S. A., 1. c., 68. 


Ap., VII and VIII, 28; XIII, 12 f.; XIV. No man may act as 
God's representative and spokesman whom God does not appoint 
as such. And no man may act as the representative and spokesman 
of the congregation in the public exercise of the functions vested 
in all unless the congregation empower., call, him, to do so. The 
congregation acts in the calling of the minister as the executive 
of God's will. "How shall they preach except they be sent?" 
Rom. 10, 15. "Separate Me Barnabas and Saul for the work where- 
unto I have called them," Acts 13, 1 3; 14, 23; 1 Cor. 4, 1; 
1 Cor. 12, 2229 ; Titus 1, 5 ; Jas. 3, 1. The Quakers, who deny 
the Scriptural teaching on the divine institution and nature of 
the Christian ministry, are consistent in denying the necessity of 
the call by the church. 


MEDIATE CALL. The apostles, who were called by Christ without 
human intermediaries, did not wait to have their successors in the 
ministry appointed in the same way, through an immediate call, 
but instructed the congregations, the possessors of all church power 
(Matt. 18, 17; 1 Cor. 3, 21 f.; 1 Pet. 2, 9), to elect and commission 
them, Acts 14, 23 ; 6, 2 f . ; cp. 2 Tim. 2, 2 ; Titus 1, 5. And these 
men, called by the congregations, are recognized as bishops, pastors, 
Titus 1, 7, as called by God, Acts 20, 28. Ap., VII and VIII, 28; 
XIII, 12 f. S. A., Of the Power, 13 f. The Irvingites, Quakers, 
and others have no divine promise, no authority of Scripture, for 
their "immediate call." The "inner" call of the Methodist system, 
which takes the place of the call by the congregation, amounts to 
an immediate call. The whole matter is gross Enthusiasm, ex- 
changing the certainty of the objective, external call for the un- 
certainty of subjectivism. In dealing with men who boast an 
immediate call, Luther would "ask them: Where are the signs, 
compelling us to believe? We are certainly not going to believe 
you on your bare word. And even if you show us signs, we will 
first inquire after your doctrine, whether it agrees with God's 
Word; for false prophets, too, can perform signs, as Moses said to 
Israel, Deut. 13, 1 4" (XI, 1910). 


CONGREGATION". 1) The church, the local congregation, possessing 
the keys, has supreme jurisdiction, possesses the plenitude of spir- 
itual, ecclesiastical powers. "Tell it unto the church," Matt. 
18, 171; 1 Cor. 3, 211; 1 Pet. 2, 9; 5, 3. In other words, the 
Gospel and the Sacraments have been committed not to a body 
within or above the church, but to the body of the Christians, to 
be administered by the called ministers in their name, Matt. 28, 
18 20; John 20, 22 1 2) The Christian people, not a particular 
class or order, are required to test the teachers, to reject or accept 
and retain them as teachers. "Try the spirits," 1 John 4, 1 ; Matt. 
7, 15. 3) The apostles had the churches elect the elders and other 
officers, Acts 1, 23; 6, 2 f. ; 14, 23 ("ordained," chosen by show of 
hands). Ap., VII and VIII, 28; XIII, 12 1 S. A., Of the Power, 
13 f. 24 ("The church has principally the right of calling"). 67 f. 
The Catholic churches despoil the churches of their God-given right 
to call their ministers, arrogating it to bishop and Pope. The 
Methodist system, too, infringes upon this right by giving the 
bishops and superintendents the authority to place the ministers. 
To some extent also the Presbyterian system, which requires that 
the call, issued by the congregation, be submitted to the presbytery 
for ratification. 



(Acts 6, 51; 1 Tim. 4, 14; 5, 22; 2 Tim. 1, 6), ECCLESIASTIC 
RITE. As the public, solemn attestation and ratification of the call 
to a Christian congregation it serves a good purpose, and because 
of the use of the Word of God in prayer and admonition, which 
forms a feature of it, it carries the divine blessing with it. 
Ap., XIV, 24. S.A., P. Ill, X; Of the Power, 63 f. 70. The 
Catholic view that ordination is a sacrament instituted by Christ, 
imparting the Holy Spirit, the power of forgiving sins by right of 
the priesthood and of effecting the sacrament and the character 
indelebilis, deals with myths throughout. 

Not ordination, but the call of the congregation makes the 
minister. 150. A. C., XIV. Ap., VII and VIII, 28 ; XIV. S. A., 
P. Ill, X; Of the Power, 241 63 f. The doctrine of the Catholic 
and Episcopalian churches that the episcopal ordination by virtue 
of the Apostolic Succession confers "holy orders" deals with two 
additional myths. The "holy order" of sacerdotalism does not 


exist (155), and there are no bishops iure divino. 154+ Further- 
more, Ananias, who "put his hands on Paul/' was neither an apostle 
nor a "bishop," Acts 9, 17. And they who performed the ceremony 
of the laying on of hands in the case of Timothy were simple 
presbyters, elders, pastors, 1 Tim. 4, 14. 

MITTED TO WOMEN. "Let your women keep silence in the churches, 
for it is not permitted unto them to speak, but they are commanded 
to be under obedience," 1 Cor. 14, 34 f. ; 1 Tim. 2, 11. Those who 
permit their women to serve as public teachers, such as the Quakers 
and an increasing number of Protestant churches, are thus abrogat- 
ing a plain command of God. While the Lutheran Confessions are 
silent on the question of the female ministry, an issue unheard 
of at that time, they sufficiently characterize the spirit that has 1 
introduced and justified it when they declare : "The Eoman Pontiff 
has assumed the power to frame such laws as he may wish and to 
dispense and exempt from whatever laws he may wish." Ap., VII 
and VIII, 23. Luther : "The Holy Ghost has barred women from 
the public ministry" (XVI, 2280). It is objected that changed 
conditions demand the repeal of this provision. But the basic 
situation has not changed. Nothing has changed the order of crea- 
tion on this point, 1 Tim. 2, 13, nor removed the fact mentioned 
verse 14. Gal. 3, 28 gives to woman an equal share with man 
in salvation, but abrogates neither the social order nor 1 Cor. 14, 34. 
See 515. 

APOSTLES. As the eye-witnesses of the work of Christ (Acts 1, 21 f. ; 
10,39.41) and the inspired, infallible teachers of the Church of 
all times (John 14, 26; 16, 13; Matt. 10, 191; 1 Cor. 2, 13; 
Eph. 2, 20; John 17, 20) the apostles have no successors. Their 
number was fixed, and at the death of James (Acts 12, 2) no one 
was chosen in his place. But as administrators of the Gospel, which 
is to continue "even unto the end of the world" (Mark 16, 15 f.; 
Matt. 28, 20), the pastors are their successors, the office of apostle 
and pastor being one and the same in this respect, 1 Pet. 5, 1 
(fellow-elder) ; Col. 1, 7 ("fellow-servant") ; 4, 7. A. C., XXVIII, 
5 f. S. A., Of the Power, 9 f. The Irvingites and others who be- 
lieve in the restoration of the apostolate with its special prerogatives 
are dealing with an impossibility ; no man living to-day was an 
eye-witness to the work of Christ. There is, further, no need of it; 


the inspired Word of the apostles answers the need of the Church 
for all times, John 17, 20; Eph. 2, 20. And there is no promise 
of God on this point. The only provisions the apostles made in this 
matter related to the pastoral office, Acts 20, 28 32; 14, 23; 
Titus 1, 5. 

(Ap., XV, 42), all other ecclesiastical offices flowing from it or 
subserving it. The minister has the care of the entire congrega- 
tion, of all its members, officers, and work, Acts 20, 28; 1 Tim. 
3, 5; Heb. 13, 17. To him has been committed the ministry of the 
Word, which Word is supreme in the Church, Acts 6, 4 ; Col. 1, 28 ; 
2 Tim. 2, 2. The establishment of the auxiliary offices does not 
rest upon a divine command, but is a matter of Christian liberty, 
to be regulated by the congregation in accordance with the needs of 
time, place, and circumstances. The deacons of Acts 6, 2 4 took 
over a part of the work of the apostles, the elders of 1 Tim. 5, 17 
assisted the minister in the rule of the church; but nowhere is 
the creation of these offices commanded. There are not grades 
in the ministry by divine right. All incumbents of the ministerial 
office are of equal rank. There is no provision in Scripture direct- 
ing that, where several presbyters were in charge of a congregation, 
one of them must be appointed as the head of the college of pres- 
byters, with the rank of "bishop," nor that a "bishop" must be 
placed over a "diocese." Where it was done, it was done in the 
exercise of Christian liberty. According to Scripture all the min- 
isters of the Gospel are fellows, of equal rank, 1 Pet. 5, 1 ; Col. 1, 7. 
See also 161, A. C., XXVIII, 5 f. Ap., XIV, 24; XXVIII, 12. 20. 
S. A., Of the Power, 60. F. C., Th. D., X, 10. The teaching of the 
Presbyterian Church that God has ordered the appointment of 
ruling elders and deacons goes against Scripture and offends against 
Christian liberty. The Catholics and Episcopalians go still farther, 
not only demanding the establishment of various grades in the 
ministry, but also investing the episcopate with the rulership, by 
divine right, of the Church. What this involves is set down 141+ 
147+ 160+ The alleged Scripture-proof for this doctrine hinges on 
the identification of the hierarchical episcopate with the office of 
the "bishop" as mentioned in the New Testament, and it is refuted 
by pointing out that Scripture identifies the office of bishop and 
presbyter, pastor, Acts 20, 17 and 28; Titus 1, 5 and 7; Phil. 1, 1; 
Acts 20, 17 (plurality of "bishops" at Philippi and Ephesus). 


A. C., XXVIII, 21. 30. 53. S. A., P. II, IV, 9; Of the Power, 
11. 60. 

A "PRIESTHOOD" endowed with superior sanctity and exercising the 
priestly functions of offering the sacrifice of the Eucharist and 
mediating between God and man. This conception of the ministry, 
held by the Catholics, Episcopalians, and other bodies (sacer- 
dotalism), encroaches in a more or less pronounced degree on the 
office and work of Christ, thus constituting sacrilege, and on the 
status and dignity of the Christian people, and that spells priestly 
arrogance. There is but one Priest, who offered one sacrifice for 
sin, Jesus Christ, Heb. 7, 17; 10, 12. 14. 18. Therefore Eph. 3, 12; 
1 Tim. 2, 5. See 138* And all Christians are priests, offering the 
sacrifices of prayer and service. "Ye are a royal priesthood" ( 1 Pet. 
2, 9) is addressed to all Christendom, not to a particular class of 
Christians. 1 Pet. 2, 5; 1 John 2, 27; Eev. 1, 6; 5, 10; Gal. 6, 1 
("spiritual"). The presbyters (elders) are never designated nor 
described as priests by virtue of their office. The ministers are 
distinguished from the laymen not by membership in a holy order, 
but by their incumbency of an office, and that an office of service, 

1 Cor. 3, 5; 2 Cor. 4, 5; Col. 1, 25. Ap., XIII, 71; XXII, 91; 
XXIV, 25 1 30 f . 58 f . S. A., Of the Power, 71. 

NAME OF GOD. "Eeceive ye the Holy Ghost; whosesoever sins ye 
remit, they are remitted unto them." John 20, 22 f . ; Matt. 18, 
17 20. That means that all Christians are empowered and 
directed, and that the minister, acting in the name of the congre- 
gation (147* 148), is empowered and directed, to transmit to the 
individuals the forgiveness of sins gained for all sinners on the 
cross and deposited in the Gospel (Eom. 5, 18 1 ; 4, 25 ; 10, 8 ; 

2 Cor. 5, 19 21; 104), to absolve him who asks for it, Luke 
24, 46 f . ; Matt. 9, 2. 8 ; 2 Sam. 12, 13. His absolution is God's 
absolution. "We receive absolution, or forgiveness, from the con- 
fessor as from God Himself and in no wise doubt, but firmly be- 
lieve, that by it our sins are forgiven before God in heaven," 
Small C., V, 16. 21. 27. A. C., XI; XXI, 3; XXVIII, 51 21. 
Ap., VII and VIII, 28 ; XII, 39 f. ; VI, 3 ; XXVIII, 13. S. A., 
P. Ill, IV. VII; Of the Power, 24. 60. 67 ("just as in a case of 
necessity even a layman absolves"). The doctrine of the Keformed 
churches and of the liberal bodies that no minister, no man, can 


forgive sins, that he can only announce that God stands ready to 
forgive and invoke God's forgiveness on the sinner, deprives the 
sinner of the special comforts which this form of Gospel-preaching 
yields. The objection that absolution is God's prerogative (Mark 
2, 7) is beside the mark, since the minister forgives sins not in his 
own name, but in God's name. The doctrine of the Catholic 
churches that only the priest can forgive sins robs the Christians 
of their rights and privileges; the doctrine that the power to for- 
give sins inheres in the priest by virtue of ordination and that on 
his decision as a judge the granting or withholding of absolution 
depends, puts the priest in the place of God; and the doctrine that 
absolution is conditioned on certain works performed by the peni- 
tent, on his worthiness, denies the full satisfaction made by Christ 
and renders the absolution based thereon nugatory. 87, 105, 
Ap., XII, 6; XXI, 25. S. A., Of the Power, 681 

AMONG us." A. C., XXY, 121; XL Ap., XI, 63; XII, 111; 
VI, 2 1 S. A., P. Ill, VII; VIII, 1. Small C., V, 1525. 
F. C., Th. D., XI, 38. It trains men in needful self-examination 
and brings home to the timid conscience that the absolution given 
by command and in the name of God covers the particular sins 
which burden it. The auricular confession of the Catholic churches 
is an antichristian abomination in that the confession to the priest 
is exacted as necessary, by divine ordinance, and as an act meriting 
the forgiveness sought. Eeformed theology stigmatizes and rejects 
confession to the minister as papistical, here again revealing its 
radicalism. The conservative Eeformation rejected the papistical 
abuses and retained what was beneficial in the customs of the 
Church. Pope and enthusiast offend equally against Christian 
liberty, one commanding, the other forbidding, that which is 
left free. 


NECESSARY. FOR IT is IMPOSSIBLE, according to the psalm : 'Who 
can understand his errors?' Ps. 19, 12." A. C., XI; XXV, 7. 
Ap., XI, 58; XII, 11. S.A., P. Ill, VIII. Small C., V, 18. 241 
The Catholic doctrine that all mortal sins with the attendant 
circumstances must be confessed and laid bare to the confessor 
in order that they may be forgiven and that this enumeration is 



necessary in order that the priest in his capacity as judge may 
impose the fitting penalties and satisfactions, is a most vicious 
feature of the vicious Catholic legalism. 1) It commands what 
God has not commanded. 2) It requires the impossible. 3) It 
substitutes the Law for the Gospel, conditioning salvation on a 
human performance and rendering the assurance of forgiveness im- 
possible. 4) It thus turns the ministry of the Gospel ("the ad- 
ministration of grace," Ap., VI, 6f.) into a harsh ministry of the 
Law, of inquisition after sin, of spiritual torture. 5) Auricular 
confession has thus been fashioned into a powerful instrument for 
the control, by the hierarchy, of the consciences, of the Church, 
and of the State. 6) Imposing penalties and penances where the 
sins have been forgiven is another perversion of the Gospel. Where 
God pardons, He does not punish. 92* 

18, 17 20 ("Tell it unto the church . . . whatsoever ye shall loose") 
"gives supreme and final jurisdiction to the church." S. A., Of the 
Power, 24. In the case of the incestuous person at Corinth action 
was taken by the congregation, by Paul as minister in the name of 
the congregation, 1 Cor. 5, 3 5. 11. 13; 2 Cor. 2, 6 10; 1 Cor. 
4, 1. 147* 148* "The bishop" (pastor) "has the power of the order, 
i. e., the ministry of the Word and Sacraments ; he has also the 
power of jurisdiction, i. e., the authority to excommunicate those 
guilty of open crimes and again to absolve them if they are con- 
verted and seek absolution." Ap., XXVIII, 13. A. C., XXVIII, 
20 f. S. A., Of the Power, 31. 60. 741 The doctrine that the 
power of excommunication and absolution inheres not in the con- 
gregation, but in the priest or bishop or a body within the church 
violates the sovereign rights of the church and fosters priestly and 
official arrogance. 1 Cor. 3, 21 f. ; 3 John 10. Eome interprets 
"church" in Matt. 18, 17 f. to mean the priests, the rulers of the 
Church. Cat. Kom.,, P. I, chap. X, Qu. 9. The text does not in- 
dicate that and Scripture everywhere repudiates such a definition 
of the "church." 140* 


160* CHRIST is THE SOLE HEAD OF THE CHURCH, Eph. 1, 22 f . ; 


CHURCH, Matt. 28, 20; 1 Tim. 6, 3 f.; 1 Pet. 4, 11 : "If any man 


speak, let him speak as the oracles of God/ 5 The Christians, the 
royal priesthood, 1 Pet. 2, 9, are not subject to any human authority 
in spiritual matters, Matt. 23, 7 f. ; Luke 22, 25 f. ; 1 Cor. 3, 21 f . ; 
1 Cor. 7, 23 : "Ye are bought with a price ; be not ye the servants 
of men" ; 2 Cor. 1, 24; 8, 8 ; 1 Pet. 5, 3 : "neither as being lords 
over God's heritage." The Christian people governs itself, Acts 
6,5: "The saying pleased the whole multitude"; 15 22 f.; 21,22. 
"Peter cites the agreement of all the prophets. This is truly to 
cite the authority of the Church." Ap., IV, 83. A. C., XXVIII, 5 f. ; 
20 f . 76. Ap., VII and VIII, 23 f . ; XXVIII, 12 f . 20 1 S. A., 
Of the Power, 25. 60. Large C., II, 51. The Eoman Catholic 
polity, subjecting the Christians to the government and rule of the 
hierachy, in which the Pope, the infallible, visible head of the 
Church, exercises the supreme (only) authority, making laws and 
decisions binding upon the Church, abrogates the sole authority of 
Christ and despoils the Christians of their priestly and royal estate. 
As to the claim that the Pope rules the Church as the successor of 
Peter, the first ruler of the Church, it is to be noted: 1) Peter was 
not given any precedence over the other apostles and the other 
Christians, Matt. 16, 19 ("thou") and 18, 18 ("ye") ; that Peter 
did not claim primacy nor lordship, 1 Pet. 1, 1 ("an apostle") ; 
5, 1 (fellow-elder) ; 5, 3 ; 2 Pet. 1, 19 (Scripture the sole authority) ; 
that the Church did not accord it to him, Acts 8, 14; 15, 6 f . ; 
19, 22 (No ex-cathedra decision by Peter) ; 2 Cor. 11, 5; 12, 11; 
Gal. 2, 9. 11. 2) The story of the Pope's successorship is a myth. 
As to the papal infallibility, Scripture teaches a) that there is but 
One who is infallible, Ex. 3, 14; Matt. 24, 35; Kom. 3, 4; Jas. 
1, 17, and b) that the apostles, inspired, are the infallible teachers 
of the Church of all times, John 17, 20; Bph. 2, 20, and that any 
departure from their teaching constitutes error, Gal. 1, 8 f . 3) His- 
tory teaches that the Pope is guilty a hundredfold of such departure. 
S. A., P. II, IV, If. 9 f . : "The Church can never be better gov- 
erned and preserved than if we all live under one head, Christ, and 
all the bishops, equal in office . . ., be diligently joined in unity of 
doctrine. . . . This teaching shows forcefully that the Pope is the 
very Antichrist, 2 Thess. 2, 4." S. A., Of the Power, 1 f. 11 f. 25. 
The doctrine that the bishops (Greek Catholic) or the national 
organization of the Church or the general assembly or the synod 
(Episcopal, Presbyterian, etc. 151) govern the Church by divine 
right, also militates against the sole sovereignty of Christ and the 
universal priesthood of the believers. 2 + 15+ 18, 


CLESIASTICAL BODY. It is a sovereign, self-governing body, Matt. 
18, 17 20. "Christ gives supreme and final jurisdiction to the 
church, when He says : 'Tell it unto the church. 7 . . . 'Where two 
or three are gathered together in My name.' " S. A., Of the Power, 
24. 1 f. 13 f. Ap., VII and VIII, 10. S. A., P. II, IV, 9. 12 f. 
While the local churches are bound to "keep the unity of the Spirit," 
to maintain Christian fellowship with their sister churches and join 
them in the common work of the Church, Eph. 4, 3 5 ; 1 Cor. 12, 
24 26 ; 2 Cor. 8, 1 7 ; Phil. 3, 15 f ., any organization which 
they may form for this purpose exists purely by human right. 
Synods and similar organizations cannot exercise jurisdiction by 
divine right. God has neither established the superchurch, the 
supergovernment of various Reformed bodies, (160), nor has He 
made the church at Eome "the mother and mistress of all churches." 
See in this connection Gal. 4, 26; Ps. 87, 5 (The Holy Christian 
Church is the "mother") ; Luke 24, 47 (The church at Jerusalem 
was the "mother church") ; Acts 15, 22 f. (The mother church at 
Jerusalem did not presume to dictate to the sister church at 
Antioch). See Government in Index. 

SOLE RULE AND GUIDE OF THE CHURCH, Matt. 28, 20; John 8, 31 f. ; 
2 Tim. 3, 17; 1 Pet. 4, 11, ANY CHURCH WHICH SETS ASIDE ANY 
REVOLT AGAINST GOD. Commandments of the Church, of men, 
cannot and must not "annul the commandment and ordinance of 
God." A. C., XXIII, 8; XXII, 9; XXVI, 281; XXVII, 24; 
XXVIII, 30 f. Ap., VII and VIII, 23. 38 f. ; XV; XXVIII, 20 f. 
The Eoman Catholic Church goes so far as to distinctly disavow 
the sole authority of Scripture, placing tradition and the pronounce- 
ments of the Pope on a par with Scripture, in effect above Scrip- 
ture (18), declaring, for instance, that, although Christ instituted 
the Lord's Supper "in the species of bread and wine," the Church 
is not bound "by the institution of the Lord." Trid., S. XXI, 
chap. I. 129. See also 96. 110 b. 111. 169. 170. 172. 173. 174. 
Setting the Pope above Scripture, above God, the Roman Catholic 
Church stands revealed as the Church of Antichrist, 2 Thess. 2, 3 f . 
The Greek Catholic Church is infected with the same spirit. 
18. 96. 128. 


While all Protestant churches profess the article of the sole 
authority of Scripture, there are various bodies whose regulations, 
for instance, on temperance, dress, amiisements, slave-holding, etc., 
alleged to be made on the authority of Scripture, but prohibiting 
what Scripture does not prohibit, virtually set aside the authority 
of Scripture. See also 167* 168, On slave-holding see Eph. 6, 5 ; 
Philemon 10 f.; 7 ) temperance, Eom. 14; 1 Cor. 8, 8; Eph. 5, 18; 
Ps. 104, 15; John 2, If.; dress, Matt. 6, 29; Esther 5, 1; feast, 
Luke 14, 14; John 2, 1. Deut. 12, 32; Jer. 23, 31 f.; 1 Cor. 
7, 23. 96, 110 a. b. 

CHURCH." A. C., XV. "Let all things be done decently and in 
order," 1 Cor. 14, 40. 26. 33 ; Eom. 14, 19 ; Eph. 5, 21 ; 1 Pet. 
5, 5; Acts 15, 10. 28. 29. A. C., XXVIII, 42. Ap., XV, 1. 32. 38; 
XXVIII, 15 f. F. C., X, Ep., 3 f. 9 f. ; Th. D., 15. 21. Those 
Protestant churches which teach that the rules and regulations 
established by councils, synods, etc., provided they are not in con- 
flict with God's Word, bind the consciences, on the theory that 
those bodies possess legislative authority by divine right, take the 
same position as the Catholic churches, which place the command- 
ments of the Church and the decrees of councils on a level with 
the Law of God, both parties offending against the sovereignty of 
Christ and the sanctity of the conscience. 1 Cor. 7, 23. 35; Eom. 
14, 1; Col. 2, 161 110 a. 



whether they are of God," 1 John 4, 1 ; Matt. 7, 15 ; Acts 15, 22 f . ; 
17, 11; 21, 22; Eom. 14, 12; 1 Cor. 2, 15; 10, 15; 1 Pet. 2, 9. 
Ap., VII and VIII, 48. S. A., Of the Power, 41. 49 f . Large C., 
Preface, 17. F. C., Ep., Sum. Con., 5; Th. D., Compr. Sum., 8. 
The Eoman Catholic Church denies the laymen this right, thus 
again setting itself above Scripture, above Christ, and setting the 
high estate of God's people at naught. 25, 

7) The Swedish colony on the Delaware River "was the first colony 
to forbid slavery in America, the edict being issued in 1638, and in 1642 
they issued the first edict of religious toleration in America" (Census 
Report, 1926, II, p. 700). 



BY THE CHURCH. The Church, wielding solely the power of the 
Gospel, cannot do the work of the State, which preserves order and 
promotes the temporal welfare of the citizens by the force of law 
and reason. JNor may she call upon the State for assistance in her 
work, the salvation of souls, for the civil power is not equipped to 
perform spiritual work. Mark 16, 15; Bom. 13, 4. Matt. 22, 21; 
John 18, 36; Luke 12, 13 f. The Lutheran Church stands for the 
independence both of Church and State. "The power of the 
Church and the civil power must not be confounded. Let it [the 
Church] not prescribe laws to civil rulers concerning the form of 
the commonwealth." A. C., XXVIII, 12 f. 8 f . Ap., XVI, 54 f. 
S. A., Of the Power, 31. Large C., II, 42. Eome intermingles 
Church and State by requiring the State to submit to its control. 
The Calvinistic theory requires the State to share in "the care of 
divine things" (Calvin, Inst., IV, cap. XX, 9) and to govern ac- 
cording to the Scriptures, which in effect subjects the civil govern- 
ment to the control of the clergy. Any usurping of power either by 
Church or State in the domain of the other results in misrule in 
both and is destructive of religious and civil liberty. There must 
be separation of Church and State. 166* 


166* The Christian owes the civil government, which is a divine 
institution, Eom. 13, 1 f., obedience and personal service (where this 
does not conflict with the obedience he owes to God, Acts 5, 29), 
Matt. 22, 21; Eom. 13, If.; 1 Tim. 2, If.; 1 Pet. 2, 131 17. 
A. C., XVI. Ap., XVI. Small C., Table of Duties, 41 F. C., 
XII, Ep., 12 f . ; Th. D., 17 f. Those serving the State in public office 
were therefore not required to resign from their office when they 
embraced Christianity, Matt. 8, 5 1 ; Acts 10, If.; 13, 7 f. Those 
bodies which prohibit their members from holding public office are 
thus keeping them from performing a duty which Christ requires 
of them. The argumentation that such office-holding is wrong be- 
cause the Bible contains no specific directions for the administra- 
tion of public office or would involve performing functions to which 
those bodies conscientiously object (Mennonites, Quakers), or be- 
cause the Constitution does not recognize the Bible as the supreme 


rule for the State (Eeformed Presbyterian Church of N. A.) is 
based on a misconception of the domain and functions of the State, 
which amounts to a commingling of Church and State. The State 
functions in an altogether different sphere and with radically dif- 
ferent instrumentalities than the Church. It deals with men not in 
the spiritual, but in the secular sphere and is therefore guided in 
its work not by Scripture, but by reason. 165* While the State 
may not demand of the citizen an obedience which God prohibits, 
it may in its legislation and administration tolerate what Scripture 
has forbidden, "because of the hardness of your hearts," Matt. 19, 8. 
The Christian may as an officer of the secular power make and 
administer laws which he as a Christian must not invoke. 


sword in vain," Eom. 13, 1 4; 1 Pet. 2, 14; Matt. 26, 52; Gen. 
9, 6 ; Luke 3, 14 ; Matt. 8, 5 f . ; Acts 10 (military men not re- 
quired to abandon their calling). "It is right for Christians to 
engage in just wars, to serve as soldiers." A. C., XVI. "The Em- 
peror may follow the example of David in making war to drive 
away the Turk from his country." A. C., XXI, 1; XXVIII, 11. 
Ap., XVI. Large C., I, 181. F. C., XII, Ep., 16. 18; Th. D., 21. 
The doctrine that war and all taking of human life (capital punish- 
ment} is contrary to the spirit of the Christian religion; that 
Christ has forbidden His followers the use of carnal force in re- 
sisting evil (non-resistance), commanding them to love their 
enemies, Matt. 5, 38 44; Luke 6, 27 29 (Quakers, Mennonites, 
and others), confounds the spiritual kingdom of Christ with the 
secular realm. Matt. 5, 38 f. does not contain maxims of civil 
government and does not deal with the rights' of the Christian as 
a citizen, but with his conduct as a Christian. And the duties 
which he owes God as a Christian and as a member of the secular 
estate do not clash. The Christian ruler loves his enemies and at 
the same time repels the enemies of. his country with force of arms. 
The Christian will bear wrongs patiently, suppressing all revengeful 
thoughts, and at the same time he owes it to himself and his family 
to protect his life and property. See Luther, VII, 467 f. 

The doctrine, of non-resistance would also estop the Christian 
from invoking the aid of the civil power (for instance, by suits 
at law) for his protection. The apostle, however, grants him that 
right, Eom. 13,4 ("He is the minister of God to thee for good"), 
and himself had recourse to it, Acts 22, 25; 23, 3. 12 17; 25, 11, 


the while exercising the spirit of patience and suppressing the 
spirit of revenge, according to Matt. 5, 38 f. Ap., XVI, 53. F. C., 
XII, Ep., 14; Th. D., 19. 



6, 16 grants the courts the right to demand the oath. Jesus Himself 
suffered Himself to be put on oath, Matt. 26, 63 f. Eom. 13, 1 f. 
requires obedience to all requirements of the magistracy which do 
not conflict with God's commands (A. C., XVI, 7), and God has 
not prohibited, but sanctioned the use of the oath wherever neces- 
sary, Heb. 6, 16 ; Deut. 6, 13 ; Gen. 14, 22 ; Josh. 14, 9 ; 2 Sam. 
21, 7; Ps. 24, 4; 63, 11; Is. 65, 16; Jer. 4, 2; John 16, 20. 23; 
Kom. 9, 1; 2 Cor. 11, 31; Phil. 1, 8. The Quakers, Men- 
nonites, etc., prohibit the judicial and any other kind of oath on 
the assumption that Matt. 5, 33 37 and Jas. 5, 12 pronounce all 
swearing sinful. This is another instance of literalistic misinter- 
pretation. "Swear not at all" cannot mean that the Christian must 
refuse to swear under all circumstances. Heb. 6, 16 and the parallel 
passages forbid such an interpretation. (It means that the Chris- 
tian, so far as he is concerned, must not and need not look to the 
oath to add weight to his word. Speaking, as he should, every 
word in the fear and as in the presence of God, his simple declara- 
tion is fraught with the sanctity and majesty of the truth.) Luther 
summarizes the doctrine of the oath thus : "With this understand- 
ing the question with which many teachers have troubled themselves 
has been easily solved, to wit, why swearing is prohibited in the 
Gospel and yet Christ, St. Paul, and other saints often swore. The 
explanation is briefly this : We are not to swear in support of evil, 
that is, of falsehood, and where there is no need or use; but for 
the support of good and the advantage of our neighbor we should 
swear." Large C., I, 65 f. 


instituted it in Paradise for the welfare of mankind, blessing it 
and guarding the sanctity of the domestic relations by His holy 
Law, and glorifies it in Scripture, Gen. 1, 271; 2, 18; Matt. 
19, 4; Ex. 20, 14; 1 Cor. 7, 2; Eph. 5, 2233; Heb. 13, 4; 
Ps. 127; 128; John 2, 111; Eph. 5, 32. A. C., XVI; XXIII, 19. 


Ap., XXIII, 7. 14. 33. Large C., I, 206 f. : "He also wishes us to 
honor it and to maintain and conduct it as a divine and blessed 
estate/' It is dishonored by Christian Science, which advocates 
a higher sexual relation than the "legalized lust" of matrimony; 
by the Shakers, who teach that Luke 20, 34 f. enjoins celibacy upon 
the believers (in this passage, however, "children of this world" 
means all still living in this world and "resurrection," the future 
resurrection) ; and by the Catholic churches, which teach that the 
state of celibacy is superior in sanctity and more pleasing to God 
than that of matrimony. But see 1 Cor. 7, 2 5. 9; 1 Tim. 5, 14: 
it is, normally, better to marry than to remain unmarried. 1 Tim. 
5, 9 f . : matrimony presents no obstacles to "diligently following 
every good work." "Matt. 19, 11: Not all men are fit to lead 
a single life." A. C., XXIII, 5. As to 1 Cor. 7, 26 : "It is good" 
not in the moral, spiritual sense, but "for the present distress"; 
v. 38 : "doeth better" in the same sense ; v. 40 : "happier" 
in the same sense : not spiritual, but temporal advantages. In gen- 
eral, 1 Tim. 4, 1 5 : the prohibition or any disparagement of 
matrimony is a doctrine of devils; the subversion of any divine 
institution must result in the corruption of morals. Ap., XXIII, 6. 
The Catholic churches, while teaching that matrimony is an 
impure estate as compared with celibacy (Ap., XXIII, 26), at the 
same time number it among the sacraments, alleging that Chris- 
tian marriage, solemnized by the priest, confers the grace of per- 
fecting the natural love and sanctifying the married. Eph. 5, 
25 33 neither calls Christian marriage a Sacrament nor describes 
it as such, not even in the Catholic sense. Christian marriage is 
indeed a "mystery" (Vulgate: "sacrament"), a mystery of faith, 
in that the right relation between husband and wife is made a type 
and semblance of the relation between Christ and His Church, but 
not a word is said here concerning the bestowal of "sacramental 
grace." The text teaches that marriage imposes sacred and sweet 
duties, but does not state that it confers the grace of holy love. 
(See Ap., XIII, 14 f.) Mormonism simply goes a few steps farther 
than Catholicism and makes marriage a necessary means of obtain- 
ing the fulness of the heavenly bliss. 


MATRIMONY." A. C., XXIII, 3. S. A., P. Ill, XI; Of the 
Power, 78. Large C., I, 213. 1 Tim. 3, 2. 4 : "A bishop, then, must 
be blameless, the husband of one wife, . . . having his children in 
subjection with all gravity"; Matt. 8, 14; 1 Cor. 9, 5. Eome 


prohibits the marriage of priests as sinful. Scripture denounces 
this law as "a doctrine of devils," 1 Tim. 4, 1 3. It is indeed 
a satanic doctrine in that it tramples under foot the Law of God 
and of nature and cannot but be productive of untold evils, Miatt. 
4, 7; 6, 13; 1 Cor. 7, 2. A. C., XXIII, 13. 22. Ap., XXIII, 6. 53. 
It is one of the marks of Antichrist. Ap., XXIII, 25. The same 
superstitious belief in the superior sanctity of the celibate state has 
caused the Greek Catholic Church to prohibit the marriage of the 
higher clergy, the bishops, etc., taken from the ranks of the monks, 
and a second marriage of the secular clergy. 1 Tim. 3, 2, which is, 
curiously enough, applied not to the "bishops," but to the priests, 
does not prohibit a second marriage, but bigamy. 

TIAN CHURCHES. Monogamous marriage is the only form of mar- 
riage recognized by Jesus as instituted by God for all times, Matt. 
19, 4 6 : "Have ye not read that He which made them at the be- 
ginning made them male and female and said, For this cause 
shall a man leave father and mother and shall cleave to his wife, 
and they twain shall be one flesh?" Gen. 2, 24. 18; Ps. 128, 3; 
Prov. 5, 18 f. ; 31, 10 f. While Scripture records instances of 
polygamous marriage in the Old Testament, it does not thereby 
sanction polygamy. It is forbidden in the Moral Law, Lev. 18, 18. 
The Civil Law of Moses did indeed permit it, Deut. 21, 15 17, 
as it permitted also divorces not sanctioned by the Moral Law, and 
for the same reason, "because of the hardness of your hearts," 
Matt. 19, 8. This toleration and regulation of polygamy as of 
divorce does not carry with it the sanction of the Moral Law. 
A thing may be right legally, but not morally. Small C., Sixth 
Com. Large C., I, 200. 219. While one branch of the Mormon 
cult repudiates the "revelations" promulgated by the founders of 
Mormonism, which justify and inculcate polygamy, the larger 
branch has never done so, though it opposes the practise of polyg- 
amy as forbidden by the law of the land. But see 476* 

ENGAGEMENT. The Moral Law covers this matter not only by the 
general command "Children, obey your parents in all things," Col. 
3, 20; Ex. 20, 12, but also by the specific recognition of the rights 
of parents with regard to the betrothal, contained in the provision 
"Thy daughter shalt thou not give unto his son," Deut. 7, 3 ; Ezra 
9, 12; Neh. 13, 25; Jer. 29, 6; Gen. 24, 31; Judg. 14, 2. "So, 
then, he that giveth her in marriage doeth well," 1 Cor. 7, 38. 


The fact that the New Testament recognizes and reaffirms the 
parental authority in this sphere proves that it is a matter of the 
Moral Law. Large C., I, 218. The Eoman Catholic Church ad- 
monishes the children to obtain the parental consent because of the 
respect and honor due the parents (Cat. Eom., P. II, VIII, Qu. 26), 
but denies that it is a matter of necessity. S. A., Of the Power, 78 : 
"Unjust also is the law which in general approves all clandestine 
and underhanded betrothals in violation of the right of parents." 
(Must, then, a marriage contracted without the consent of the 
parents be dissolved? "Hier sage ich, beileibe nicht, sondern was 
zusammengekommen ist und sitzt in oeffentlicher Ehe beieinander, 
das soil bleiben und sich mitnichten scheiden als aus Ursachen 
des . heimlichen Verloebnisses." Luther, X, 767.) 

27, 20 f ., is A PART OF THE MORAL LAW (Lev. 18, 23. 24: : "In all 
these the nations are defiled which I cast out before you" ; 20, 23 ; 
1 Cor. 5, 1 [HOd]), INVIOLABLE AS IT STANDS. The Eoman Cath- 
olic Church, while recognizing this law as a divine law, still as- 
sumes the right to "dispense in some of these degrees" and to create 
additional prohibited degrees (spiritual relationship). That is 
Antichrist, setting himself above the Law of God, 2 Thess. 2, 4; 
Deut. 4, 2; Matt. 28, 20; Jas. 4, 12. S. A., Of the Power, 78. 



soever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, 
causeth her to commit adultery," etc., and parallel passages. Who- 
soever dismisses a wife not guilty of fornication breaks the Law; 
whosoever dismisses a wife guilty of fornication does not break the 
Law. In the case of malicious desertion, which is a disruption of 
the marriage bond, the innocent party is also permitted to obtain 
a divorce and to remarry, 1 Cor. 7, 15. The law of the Eoman Cath- 
olic and Episcopalian churches which prohibits divorce and re- 
marriage in these cases is in conflict with the Law of God. For 
the Episcopalian teaching see 278* S. A., Of the Power, 78 : "Tin- 
just also in the tradition which forbids an innocent person to marry 
after divorce." (After the divorce has been procured, "both parties 
are free as they were before the relation was established." Dr. A. 
Graebner, Theo. Quart., IV, 474. Past. Theol., Dr. J. Fritz, p. 173.) 


TAUGHT THROUGHOUT SCRIPTURE. "Thou shalt not steal." "Thou 
shalt not covet thy neighbor's house," Ex. 20, 15. 17; Gen. 4, 4; 
24, 35; Is. 58, 7; 2 Thess. 3, 12; 1 Tim. 6, 17 f.; Jas. 5, 4; 
1 John 3, 17. A. C., XVI. Ap., XVI. Large C., I, 223. The con- 
trary doctrine of the Anabaptists, viz., that "a Christian cannot 
with a good conscience hold or possess property, but is in duty 
bound to devote it to the common treasury" (P. C., XII, Ep., 17 ; 
Th. D., 22) has been adopted by modern communistic sects. They 
find the prohibition of the private ownership of property in the 
teaching of Christ requiring His disciples "to forsake all," Luke 
14, 33. In the light of the above passages, however, these words 
of Christ cannot be taken as a prohibition of actual personal 
ownership. Christ is inculcating the spiritual detachment described 

1 Cor. 7, 29 f. Besides, the literalizing interpretation does away 
with all forms of ownership, including the communistic ownership. 
Nor do the passages Acts 2, 44 f. ; 4, 32 support the communistic 
principle. "They had all things common," ready to share their 
possessions and goods in the spirit of love and sacrifice with the 
needy brother, "according as any man had need." It was not 
a matter of compulsion, but of voluntary giving, Acts 5, 4. They 
did not establish joint ownership of property; private ownership 
continued, Acts 12, 12, and they ever had the poor with them, 

Acts 6, 1. 


CHRIST. Kom. 11, 5. 6 : "There is a remnant according to the 
election of grace. And if by grace, then it is no more of works; 
otherwise grace is no more grace." Eph. 1, 5. 6 : "Having pre- 
destinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to Him- 
self, according to the good pleasure of His will, to the praise of the 
glory of His grace." 2 Tim. 1, 9 : "Who hath saved us and called 
us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according 
to His purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before 
the world began." Kom. 9, 11. 23. Since predestination is nothing 
else than the eternal purpose and decree of God to do what He 
actually does for us in time, converting, justifying, preserving, and 
glorifying us, Eph. 1, 314; Eom. 8, 2830; 2 Thess. 2, 13; 

2 Tim. 1, 9 ; Acts 13, 48, election is by grace, as conversion, salva- 
tion, is by grace, Eph. 2, 8; 2 Tim. 1, 9. F. C., XI, Ep., 5. 7. 20; 
Th. D., 8. 75 : "Our election to eternal life is founded not upon our 


godliness and virtue, but alone upon the merit of Christ and the 
gracious will of His Father." There is no room for the election of 
grace in the theology of those religious bodies (Catholic, Arminian, 
Unitarian) which deny salvation by grace. They substitute for the 
election of grace an election of merit. There is no essential dif- 
ference between the teaching of the Catholic churches (that God in 
eternity chose men as His own on the basis of their good conduct, 
produced through the cooperation of grace and free will), of the 
Arminian churches (that election takes place in time, again on the 
basis of man's proper conduct, produced in the same way), and of 
the Unitarians, Swedenborgians, etc. (that no real election takes 
place, but that man decides the entire matter). In all of these 
systems it is not God who elects, but man, the decision of God 
resting on the decision of man. John 15, 16. And all of them 
deny the fundamental truth of the Christian religion, salvation by 
grace alone, in favor of the arch-heresy autosoterism. "All these 
are blasphemous and dreadful erroneous doctrines, whereby all com- 
fort ... is taken from Christians, and therefore should not be 
tolerated in the Church of God." F. C., Ep., XI, 20. 21. 

MEN TO DAMNATION, as Calvinism teaches. Scripture nowhere 
teaches that God was pleased to pass by and to ordain to dishonor 
and wrath a part of mankind. On the contrary, it teaches a) that 
the grace of God is universal, not particular, affirming that God 
will have all men to be saved, 1 Tim. 2, 4, and that He brings His 
efficacious grace to bear also upon such as are ultimately lost, Matt. 
23, 37; Acts 7, 51, and b) that those who are lost perish solely 
because of their rejection of the saving grace of God, Matt. 23, 37 ; 
Acts 7, 51 ; 13, 46. 55* 196* The argument that the dogma of 
the election of wratli is the necessary corollary of the doctrine of 
the election of grace ("since there could be no election without its 
opposite reprobation." Calvin, Inst., Ill, cap. 23, 1) could carry 
weight only if reason were permitted to construct doctrines by 
means of logical deductions. Besides, Scripture distinctly repu- 
diates this deduction. While it teaches that the Christians owe 
their salvation to the sovereign grace of God in Christ, it teaches 
that men are lost not in consequence of any action or decree of 
God or any lack of action, but solely on account of their wicked- 
ness, Acts 13, 48 and 46; Bom. 9, 23 ("vessels of mercy, which 
he had afore prepared unto glory") and 22 ("endured with much 
long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction"). F. C., 
Th. D., XI, 79. 80. As to John 12, 40; Eom. 9, 17 f.; 11, 810; 


1 Pet. 2, 8 : God hardens and casts men away not because of any 
eternal decree of reprobation to that effect, but solely because 
men harden themselves against, and cast away, the Gospel of grace, 
Kom. 11, 9 ("recompense") ; 1 Pet. 2, 8 ("stumble at the Word") ; 
John 12, 40 is preceded by vv. 35 37; Matt. 11, 25, by v. 20 f. 
F. C., Ep., XI, 5. 17 19. 21 : "All these are blasphemous and 
dreadful erroneous doctrines." Th. D., XI, 28. 341 7886; 
II, 58. 196. 


THAT ONE SHALL BE DAMNED.' " F. C., Th. D., XI, 9. Calvinism 
teaches an absolute predestination, which means that God predes- 
tined a number of men to damnation of His sovereign pleasure 
(decree of reprobation) and that the others owe their predestina- 
tion to life, their salvation, to the same fiat of the omnipotent 
Lord. Scripture teaches 1) that predestination, election, covers 
only the children of God (177) ; 2) that men perish not because 
they were ordained by God to death, but solely because they reject 
the saving grace of God (177) ; and 3) that the eternal election 
of God's children is a) based on the work of Christ, the Eedeemer 
of mankind, as the meritorious cause ("according as He hath chosen 
us in Him before the foundation of the world," Eph. 1, 4 : "Ac- 
cording to His own purpose and grace, which was given us in 
Christ before the world began," 2 Tim. 1, 9), and b) embraces the 
work of the Holy Spirit in the Means of Grace, by which they are 
made God's own, election thus providing for the salvation of God's 
children through conversion, justification, preservation ("God hath 
from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification 
of the Spirit and belief of the truth, whereunto He called you by 
our Gospel," 2 Thess. 2, 13 f. ; "who hath saved us and called us 
with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according 
to His own purpose and grace," etc., 2 Tim. 1, 9). "This eternal 
election of God is to be considered in Christ and not outside of or 
without Christ." F. C., XI, Th. D., 65 f. 924; Ep., 7. The teach- 
ings of Calvinism : Christ is not the cause of our election, but merely 
the Mediator of its execution; He redeemed only the elect (70 c) ; 
the Gospel is the power of God unto salvation only for the elect 
(104* 55), and in reality not even for them, their salvation spring- 
ing from the absolute decree of God and the immediate operation 
of the Spirit, are fundamental errors. There can be no faith except 


on the basis of the universal grace of God in Christ,, and the "f aith" 
that rests on anything outside of the Means of Grace is a spurious 
faith. The dogma of the absolute predestination cannot but pro- 
duce these "pernicious thoughts" : "If God has elected me to salva- 
tion, I cannot be condemned, no matter what I do; and again: 
If I am not elected to eternal life, it is of no avail what good 
I do." P.O., XI, Ep., 9. 21; Th.D., 10. 91. Central doctrine 
of Calvinism: the sovereign will of God. Central doctrine of 
Lutheranism, of Scripture : Christ, the Savior of all men, 1 Tim. 
4, 10, our righteousness, our salvation, Acts 10, 43; salvation 
through the grace of God in Christ, Eph. 1, 6; 2, 8; Acts 
20, 24. See 3 + 

CHILDEEN. "He ordained it" (my salvation) "in His eternal pur- 
pose, which cannot fail or be overthrown, and placed it for preserva- 
tion in the almighty hand of our Savior Jesus Christ, from which 
no man can pluck us, John 10, 28." F. C., Th. D., XI, 45. They 
may lose faith totally, for a time, but God restores it. "When His 
children depart from obedience and stumble, He has them called 
again to repentance through the Word.'" L. c., 75. 8. 17 21. 
56. 89 ; Ep., 8. Bom. 8, 30 ("predestinated called justified 
glorified") ; Matt. 24, 24 ("if it were possible") ; Luke 22, 32. 
The Calvinistic dogma of final perseverance is a distortion of the 
Scripture teaching on final perseverance. The dogma : Once in 
grace, always in grace ; no true believer can totally fall from grace, 
though he commit enormous sins, denies the Scripture teaching 
both as to temporary believers, Luke 8, 13, arid as to the temporary 
total loss of faith possible on the part of the elect. 84 and 75, 
A. C., XII, 7. S. A., P. Ill, III, 42. Furthermore, it breeds carnal 
security, leading to defection on the part of the believer and 
preventing the apostate from realizing his condition and throwing 
himself upon the Gospel, thus defeating final perseverance. 
Finally, the Calvinistic doctrine of final perseverance is but a 
corollary of the dogma of the absolute election, the absolute will 
of God, which is based not on divine revelation,, but on human 
speculation. But faith does not deal with human speculations. 
Its sole object is the revealed will of God, the grace of God in 
Christ dealing with us in the Gospel. That alone can create, pre- 
serve, and restore faith. F. C., Th. D., II, 5056; XI, 17. 102. 103, 

ETEHNAL ELECTION. "Give diligence to make your calling and 
election sure," 2 Pet. 1, 10. "He hath chosen us in Him," Eph. 1, 4; 


1 Thess. 1, 4; 2 Thess. 2, 13. "Rejoice because your names are 
written in heaven/' Luke 10, 20. Since the present state of the 
Christian is the realization of God's eternal purpose, of the decree 
of election, Rom. 8, 30 ("predestinated called") ; 2 Tim. 1, 9, 
the fact of our being called (converted) assures us of . our eternal 
election. And the Gospel, by assuring us of the grace of God, 
thereby assures us of our election and preservation, so that faith, 
which is always confidence, speaks as confidently of the one thing 
as of the other. The assurance of grace and the assurance of elec- 
tion are one thing. "Gaze upon the wounds of Christ and the blood 
shed for you; there predestination will shine forth." Luther, 
II, 181. "This election is revealed from heaven through the preach- 
ing of His Word." P.O., XI, Th. D., 65. 2533; Ep., 6. The 
Roman Catholic Church denies that the Christian can and should 
be certain of his eternal election, and on the basis of its funda- 
mental principle cannot but deny it. If grace is extended only to 
those who deserve it, the sinner can be certain only of his damna- 
tion. The Calvinistic "certainty" of election is a delusion. There 
can be no assurance where the Gospel, the universality of grace, 
is consistently denied; and the immediate revelation of the Spirit, 
on which this assurance is supposed to rest, is non-existent. 


tion gained by Christ has its final and full consummation in heaven. 
The mind of the Christian is fixed on the things above, and this 
transmundane spirit shapes and glorifies his present life. "Beloved, 
now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we 
shall be; but we know that, when He shall appear, we shall be 
like Him ; for we shall see Him as He is," 1 John 3, 2 ; Ps. 119, 19 ; 
Luke 21, 28; John 3, 16; Rom. 8, 23; 1 Cor. 1, 7; 2 Cor. 5, 8; 
Phil. 3, 20 f.; Col. 3, 1 f.; Heb. 11, 13; 1 Pet. 1, 9; 2, 11; 4, 7. 
Apostles' Or., 8. Nicene Or., 10. Ath. Or., 39. A. C., XVII. Ap., 
XVII. Small C., Sec. Art.; Third Art.; Seventh Pet. Large C., 
P. II, 31. 57 f . "This is the art and masterpiece of the Christian 
that he turn his back upon the world as that which must pass away 
and keep his eye fixed in firm and certain hope on that future life 
as that which abides eternally and unto which we belong. . . . 
Unto this eternal life we are baptized; for this Christ redeemed 
us with His death and blood; for that purpose we received the 
Gospel." Luther, IX, 932. 939. Modernism with its tJiisworldly 
outlook is the antithesis of Christianity. 107* 197, 




182* TEMPORAL DEATH, the separation of the material body and 
the immortal soul, Eccl. 12, 7 ; Luke 12, 20, is THE CONSEQUENCE^ 
AND PENALTY OP SIN. "As by one man sin entered into the world 
and death by sin, and so death passed upon all men, for that all 
have sinned," Eom. 5, 12; 6, 23; Gen. 2, 17; 3, 1719. Ap., 

11, 40; VI, 64. F. C., Th. D., I, 13; XI, 81. While no rational 
being denies the fact of death, as Christian Science does (Heb. 
9, 27), rationalism holds that man is subject to physical death ac- 
cording to the order of creation. 42* 

THE SOUL NOR OP THE BODY. The Materialists deny, and many 
Unitarians doubt, the immortality of the soul, but Scripture 
teaches that in death the soul passes from the state of earthly life 
into the state either of eternal life or of eternal damnation, Eccl. 

12, 7; Matt. 25, 46; Luke 16, 21 23. Socinianism, Sweden- 
borgianism, etc., hold that the disintegration of the body con- 
sequent upon death is identical with its annihilation, its extinc- 
tion (403* 140), but Scripture teaches the resurrection of the body, 
Dan. 12, 2; John 5, 28; Acts 24, 15. The references to the 
creedal statements of the Lutheran and the entire Christian Church 
on both points are given 189 195* 197* See also 42* 



OP HELL, Luke 23, 43 ("paradise," see 2 Cor. 12, 2. 4) ; 2 Cor. 
5, 8; Phil. 1, 23; 1 Pet. 3, 19; Eev. 14, 13. Small C., Seventh 
Pet. : "At last, when our last hour is come, grant us a blessed end 
and graciously take us from this vale of tears to Himself in heaven." 
Contrary to this, Russellism teaches that the soul dies with the 
body, thus reviving, in a way, ancient thnetopsychism. See Gen. 
25, 8 and Matt. 22, 31. 32; Acts 7, 59; Eev. 6, 911. On the 
teaching of the Christadelphians see 450* Adventism teaches the 
related error of psychopannychism (soul-sleep Scripture uses the 
term with reference to the departed children of God figuratively, 
to describe their deliverance from the labor and trials of the earthly 
life). The Socinian teaching that the disembodied souls exist in 
a state of coma, without consciousness and sensation, amounts to 



the same thing. The Greek Catholic Church describes the state 
of the disembodied souls of the just as one of incomplete bliss. 


THERE is NO THIRD, TEMPORARY, ABODE. Matt. 7, 13 f. ; Luke 
16, 22 f. The judgment pronounced at death is final," to be con- 
firmed in the final Judgment, Luke 2, 29; 23, 43; Heb. 9, 27. 
There is no salvation after death. There will be no second proba- 
tion in the future world, preparing the souls for the final Judg- 
ment, affording another opportunity for conversion, Prov. 11, 7; 
Eccl. 11, 3; Matt. 25, 10; Luke 16, 26; John 3, 1618; 2 Cor. 
6, 2. There is no purgatory, in which the full and final salvation 
of the believer is accomplished by his sufferings and the prayers and 
alms of the living, as the Eoman Catholic Church teaches out- 
right (92) and the Greek Catholic Church in effect. The doctrine 
of the purgatory cannot be established by means of 2 Mace. 12, 43 f. 
(101) nor by the authority of tradition and the Church (18) nor 
by means of 1 Pet. 1, 6 f. and 1 Cor. 3, 15, which refer to the trials 
and tests of the present life; and it denies the essence of the 
Gospel, free and full remission of sins through faith in Christ, 
John 3, 16. 36; 5, 24; Acts 4, 12. Ap., XII, 13 f. 26; VI, 77 f. ; 
XXIV, 64. 891 S.A., P. II, II, 12 f. ; P. Ill, III, 22 f. The 
teaching of Mormonism, Swedenborgianism, etc., and of modern, 
rationalistic Protestantism that in the intermediate state souls are 
still being saved denies the plain teaching of Scripture, dulls the 
earnest admonitions to make use of the present, the only season of 
grace, and, inducing carnal security, causes men to perish eternally. 
The modern teaching that "Hades" is the realm offering 
another opportunity for salvation to all or some of its inmates, 
second probation, is in conflict with Luke 10, 15 (would Jesus 
threaten to put Capernaum on probation with a view to ultimate 
pardon?) and Luke 16, 19 31 (no hope of pardon or relief for the 
rich man in Hades. The torments he suffered "in Hades" are 
the torments of eternal damnation, of hell). 65, 195, 

THIS WORLD. Luke 16, 27 29; Is. 63, 16. Aiming to establish 
contact with them, Spiritism is practising an infernal art, Deut. 
18, 10 12. Speaking of this matter in another connection, the 
Lutheran Confessions say: "Evil spirits have perpetrated much 
knavery [exercised their malice] by appearing as the souls of the 
departed and with unspeakable lies and tricks demanded masses, 
vigils, pilgrimages, and other alms." S. A., P. II, II, 16. 



INTO HEAVEN, Matt. 25, 3146; John 14, 3; Acts 1, 11; 17, 31; 

1 Thess. 4, 16 1; 2 Thess. 1, 710; Eev. 1, 7. The second advent 
is the final advent, Heb. 9, 26 28. Three Ecum. Or. A. C., III. 
Small C., Second Art. Large C., II, 31. While rationalism, also 
in its modernistic form, denies a second, visible coming of Christ, 
millennialism teaches, contrary to Scripture, 1) that the purpose 
of the second coming is the inauguration of the millennium. 2) It 
teaches the twofold resurrection. 190, 3) The teaching that the 
saints will reign with Christ in earthly glory denies the Scriptural 
teaching concerning the distressful, lowly, and outwardly mean con- 
dition of the Church here on earth, Matt. 5, 3 5; John 16, 33; 
Acts 14, 22. (The rulership of the Church is not a matter of the 
future, but of the present, 1 Cor. 3, 21 f. ; 1 Pet. 2, 9 ; Rev. 1, 6 : 
"hath made us kings." The revelation of her glory comes in heaven, 

2 Tim. 4, 18. 8.) Millennialism thus perverts the hope of the Chris- 
tians, fixing it not on the bliss and glory of heaven, 1 Cor. 1, 7 f. ; 
Phil. 3, 20 f . ; Titus 2, 13 ; 2 Pet. 3, 12, but on earthly felicity and 
splendor. 4) The Church of the millennium bears a secular char- 
acter; it constitutes a world-kingdom of outward peace and sub- 
stitutes for the Gospel, the sole means of conversion, secular in- 
strumentalities. Christ's Church bears a spiritual character, Luke 
17, 20; John 17, 20; 18, 36. 5) The teaching that the Church 
will no longer be torn by dissensions is contrary to Matt. 24, 11; 
2 Thess. 2, 8. And 6) the prediction of a complete, or an all but 
complete, conversion of the human race denies Matt. 20, 16 ; Luke 
12, 32; Bom. 9, 27. See 399 ff. 

Millennialism obtains much of its doctrine by literalizing the 
figurative language of Scripture. Is. 2, 2 4; 11, 6 9; Joel 
2, 28 f . ; Micah 4, 1 9 and similar passages foretell th-3 spiritual 
peace of the Church of the New Testament and its wondrous 
growth, mediated by the Gospel, Is. 9, 2 6; 11, 9; Matt. 10, 34; 
Luke 2, 131; John 14, 27; Acts 2, 161; 15, 131; Eph. 6, 15; 
Heb. 12, 22. See 404, Millennialism appeals chiefly to Rev. 20. 
But there the second coming of Christ is not so much as mentioned 
as establishing the millennium. And the reign of the saints there 
mentioned is not exercised on earth "the souls lived and reigned 
with Christ." The "thousand years," a symbolical number desig- 


nating a long and fixed period of time, began with the spread of 
the Gospel through the world. A. C., XVII : "They condemn also 
others, who are now spreading certain Jewish opinions, that before 
the resurrection of the dead the godly shall take possession of the 
kingdom of the world, the ungodly being everywhere suppressed." 
The Swedenborgians teach that the second coming has been taking 
place since 1757. 

HAND, Mark 13, 29; 1 Cor. 10, 11; 1 Pet. 4, 7; 1 John 2, 18; 
REVEALED. "But of that day and that hour knoweth no man. . . . 
Take ye heed, watch and pray," Mark 13, 32 f . ; Matt. 24, 42 ; Luke 
12, 40; 2 Pet. 3, 10. All attempts to set the day of the second 
coming, all chronological computations, based on the arbitrary in- 
terpretation of Scripture numbers and data, such as have been put 
forth by the Adventists, Bussellites, and others, are not only futile, 
but also wicked; they spring from idle curiosity and are destruc- 
tive of the watchfulness and constant preparedness required of the 


raising from the grave the bodies of all men, of the just and the 
unjust, Dan. 12, 2; John 5, 281; Acts 24, 15; Eev. 20, 12, 
reuniting the immortal souls with the identical bodies that were 
separated from them in death, Job 19, 26 ; John 5, 28 ; Bom. 8, 11 
("your mortal bodies") ; Phil. 3, 21. All Christendom confesses: 
"I believe . . . the resurrection of the body," Apostles 3 Cr. Nicene 
Cr. Ath. Cr. A. C., XVII. Ap., XVII. Small C., Third Art. 
Large C., II, 57 f. 60. F. C., Th. D., I, 47: "the present essence 
of our body." The denial of the resurrection of the body by the 
rationalistic groups, including Modernism, is a fundamental error, 
2 Tim. 2, 18 ("overthrow the faith") and 1 Tim. 1, 191; 1 Cor. 
15, 12 f. The Socinians and Eussellites substitute for the resur- 
rection of the body the creation of new bodies in the case of the 
blessed and, together with the Seventh-day Adventists, the an- 
nihilation of the wicked in body and soul. 195* Christian Science, 
denying the reality of death, has no place for the resurrection. 



John 6, 40. It will be a simultaneous, universal resurrection. 
Apostles' Cr. Nicene Cr. Ath. Cr., 38 : "At whose coming all men 


shall rise again with their bodies." A. C., XVII. Ap., XVII. 
Small C., Third Art. : "and at the Last Day will raise up me and 
all the dead." Millennialism teaches a twofold resurrection, the 
first restricted to the believers or martyrs, at the beginning of the 
millennium, the second taking in all the rest, at the end of the 
thousand years. The "first" of 1 Thess. 4, 16 does not refer to the 
alleged later resurrection of the unbelievers, but to what takes place 
with regard to the believers "which are alive" ; "then," v. 17. The 
"first resurrection" of Eev. 20, 5 is not a bodily resurrection, for 
the subjects of it are "souls," v. 4. Besides, John 5, 28 f., and 
6, 40 rule out the idea of a "first" bodily resurrection. 


DAINED," Acts 17, 31. The judgment executed by Christ at His 
second coming on the Last Day will be universal and final, Matt. 25, 
32. 34. 41. 46; Acts 10, 42; Eom. 2, 6; 14, 10; 2 Cor. 5, 10; 
Eev. 20, 121 Three Bcum. Cr. A. C., Ill, 6; XVII. Ap., XVII. 
The Unitarians and the related rationalistic bodies, including of 
course the Modernists, hold that the real judgment of men goes on 
in time, day by day, the final Judgment of Scripture being merely 
a crude dramatization of this truth. There is no place for the 
final Judgment of Scripture in the system of Universalism, which 
teaches the ultimate salvation of all. Millennialism holds that 
the Judgment will be executed during the millennium : Judgment 
Day = judgment period. The sentence pronounced on the wicked 
according to the Seventh-day Adventists and others imposes not 
eternal damnation, but annihilation. 195* On the teaching of the 
Adventists : "'investigative judgment, cleansing of the sanctuary," 
see 388* 390* 



judge the world in righteousness by that Man whom He hath or- 
dained," Acts 17, 31, by the "Son of Man," Matt. 16, 27; John 
5, 27; Dan. 7, 13 f. Because of the communication of attributes, 
Matt. 28, 18, all power exercised in the Judgment by the divine 
nature is exercised in and through the human nature. F. C., Th. D., 
VIII, 55. Eeformed theology in its consistent form declares that 
Christ's human nature is incapable of sharing to the full in the 
Judgment. See 258* Some Catholic theologians hold the same 
view. See 251* 


LIEVER, ACCORDING TO THE GOSPEL. "He that believeth . . . shall 
not come into condemnation [judgment]," John 5, 24; 3, 18. 
He appears before the judgment-seat not to be judged, but to be 
absolved. Nor will his sins, which are forgiven, be examined and 
published, Is. 43, 25; Jer. 31, 34; Micha 7, 19. The good works 
of the believers will be adduced as evidencing their faith, while 
the unbelievers will be sentenced to damnation because of their 
sins, Matt. 25, 31 46. The Catholic churches, together with the 
other Pelagianistic churches and bodies, teach that not only the 
wicked, but also the Christians will be judged according to the 
Law, that it is not "this faith that makes the difference between 
those who are saved and those who are damned" (Ap., III. Trigl., 
p. 213), but the individual's moral worth; and consistently ap- 
plying the principle of nomism, Eome teaches that also the sins 
of the believers will be revealed in the Judgment. The Law, 
which tells us that "we must all appear before the judgment- 
seat," 2 Cor. 5, 10; Matt. 12, 36, gives way to the Gospel as 
soon as it has accomplished its purpose, Eom. 10, 4 ; John 3, 18 ; 
"He that believeth on Him is not judged." (E. V.) The Catholic 
doctrine commingles Law and Gospel. 


CREATED AT THE BEGINNING, "shall pass away," Luke 21, 33 ; Matt. 
24, 3; 1 Cor. 7, 31 ("The fashion of this world passeth away") ; 
Heb. 1, 101; 2 Pet. 3, 10. 13; Rev. 21, 1; Is. 65, 17. A. C., XVII 
("at the consummation of the world"). Ap., Ill, 245 ("in this life 
and after this life") ; VII and VIII, 15 ("in the world to come") ; 
XVII; XXVIII, 10. Small C., Third Art. ("at the Last Day") ; 
Seventh Pet. Large C., II, 31. 53. 57. The solemn truth concern- 
ing the end of the world is denied by "the scoffers," 2 Pet. 3, 3 f . : 
"All things continue as they were from the beginning of creation" ; 
by ancient and modern philosophers, who use similar language; 
and by materialism, which teaches that matter is eternal. 


FIRE." Ath. Cr., 39. "This is the catholic faith," the creed of all 
Christendom, 1. c., 40. A. C., XVII. Ap., XVII. Large C., II, 66. 
Damnation has no interruption, no alleviation, no cessation. "These 


shall go away into everlasting punishment; but the righteous into 
life eternal/' Matt. 25, 46 ; 18, 8 ; 2 Thess. 1, 9. "Eternal" here 
means without end. 1) The eternity of damnation is as endless 
as the eternity of bliss, Dan. 12, 2; Matt. 25, 46; John 3, 36. 

2) Scripture exhausts the resources of language in expressing the 
concept of the endlessness of damnation, Eev. 14, 11; 20, 10. 

3) The paraphrastic terms of Mark 9, 44. 46. 48 leave no room for 
the idea of a cessation of the punishment. 4) The very nature of 
the coming eon, as distinguished from the present eon, is end- 
lessness. In opposition to Scripture the Restorationists (Univer- 
salists, Unitarians, Spiritists, etc.) teach that punishment admin- 
istered in the future world, which is not retributive, but remedial, 
or other means employed by God will result in the salvation of all 
men (restitution of all things, second probation, an extension of 
"Hades" as a state and place of probation.) See further Prov. 
11,7; Eccl. 11, 3; Matt. 25, 10; Luke 16, 26; John 5, 28 f.; 2 Cor. 
5, 10; 6, 2; Heb. 9, 27. A. C., XVII, 4. Contrary to Scripture 
the Anniliilationists (Socinians, Adventists, Eussellites, etc.) teach 
that the wicked will be put out of existence. When these errorists 
argue that the history of mankind cannot end in dualism and that 
eternal damnation does not accord with the mercy and justice of 
God, they judge God and His ways by human standards and make 
human speculations and sentiments count for more than God's 
Word, Eom. 9, 20 ; 11, 33 ; 1 Tim. 6, 15 f . The Restorationists 
indeed appeal to Scripture. But Acts 3, 21 ("restitution of all 
things") speaks of the establishment of the kingdom of God ac- 
cording to God's purpose and prophecy; cp. Matt. 17, 11. 1 Cor. 
15, 28 : The enemies will be subjugated, not converted, to Christ. 
Eom. 5, 18 : "All men" have been justified, objectively. 2 Thess. 
1, 9 and Eev. 20, 14: "Destruction," "death," does not mean ces- 
sation of existence. See passages above ; cp. 1 Tim. 5, 6. It is not 
a merciful, but a cruel theology which refuses to warn the sinner 
of the fatal result of unbelief. It tends to frustrate the merciful 
design of God to bring all sinners to repentance and thus becomes 
a contributory cause of the eternal damnation of many. 185* 



Ezek. 18, 20; Eom. 6, 23; 1 Cor. 6, 9; Gal. 3, 10; 5, 1921; 
Eph. 2, 3 ; 5, 6 ; Eev. 21, 8 ; Mark 16, 16 ; John 3, 1618. Ap., 
XVII. Large C., II, 66. F. C., Th. D., I, 6. 13 ; V, 23. Dam- 
nation is in no wise, as Calvinism teaches, the result of a decree of 


God to that effect or of a lack of the grace of God, Ezek. 33, 11 ; 
2 Cor. 5, 1921; 1 Tim. 2, 6; 2 Pet. 2, 1. F. C., Th. D., XI, 

61. 7883. 177* 


Matt. 25, 34. 46; 1 Cor. 15, 41 f.; 1 Thess. 4, 17; Heb. 4, 9; 
1 Pet. 1, 4; 1 John 3, 2; Rev. 21, 4. Luke 10, 20; 21, 28; 
Eom. 7, 24; 8, 171; 1 Cor. 1, 7f.; Phil. 1, 23; 3, 20 f.; 2 Tim. 
4, 7f.; Titus 2, 13; 1 Pet. 1, 8; Rev. 22, 20. Apostles' Cr. 
Nicene Cr. : "I look for the life of the world to come." Ath. Cr., 39. 
A. C., XVII. Ap., XVII. Small C., Second Art. ; Third Art. ; 
Seventh Pet. Large C., II, 57 f. F. C., Th. D., VI, 24 f . ; XI, 21 f . 
Materialism, Humanism, etc., deny the eternal life, Modernism 
does not deny it, but, inculcating presentworldliness, makes little 
of it. 107* 181* (The heaven of the blessed is not a physical 
locality, with spatial properties, but a "somewhere." It is there 
where God reveals Himself in His full, uncovered glory to the 
saints and the angels, Matt. 18, 10; Luke 1, 19: The angels, on 
earth, are in heaven. 31*) 

BY FAITH, Matt. 25, 34; Mark 16, 16; John 3, 1518. 36; Rom. 
6, 23; 2 Tim. 1, 9; 4, 7f.; Heb. 4, 3. 11; 1 John 5, 11 f.; Rev. 
2, 10. A. C., Ill; XVII; Ap., Ill, Trigl., p. 213 ("In order that 
the hope of eternal life may not be fickle, but certain, we must be- 
lieve that we have eternal life not by our works or merits, but 
from pure grace, by faith in Christ"); 241; XVII. Small C., 
Second Art.; Third Art. Large C., I, 22; II, 28 f. F. C., Ep., 
IV, 7; XI, 8. 13. 15; Th. D., I, 6; III, 9. 521; IV, 221; XI, 
8. 23. 60. There is no other way of salvation, Acts 4, 12; Eph. 
2, 12. Large C., II, 66. The sinner cannot be saved under the plan 
of salvation devised by the Catholic churches : eternal life the re- 
ward of good works (98* 99* 108) ; by the Unitarians and related 
bodies: salvation through moral transformation (108); and by 
the Universalists and related bodies : salvation by means of proba- 
tionary punishment or other methods employed in the future 
world (195). "The wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is 
eternal life through Jesus Christ, our Lord," Rom. 6, 23. 




199* A common name for the various branches of Oriental Chris- 
tianity, also known as the Greek Church or Greek Orthodox Church. 
The Eastern section of early Christianity produced the great ma- 
jority of the more prominent theologians, notable among these 
Ignatius, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Eusebius, Athanasius, 
Basil, the two Gregorys, and the two Cyrils. Their principal 
episcopal chairs were Antioch, Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Con- 
stantinople. The first seven Ecumenical Councils were strongly 
Eastern in character. The difference between the West and the 
East became more pronounced in the controversy regarding the 
date of Easter (325) and in the quarrel regarding the use of images 
for religious purposes. This debate raged for several centuries. 
The chief point of difference, however, was that concerning the 
procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son. The 
Latin Church maintained the "Filioque"; the Greek Church de- 
nied it. During the ninth and tenth centuries the Greek Church 
did active mission-work among Bulgarians and Eussians and has 
maintained herself in these territories as also in Greece and Asia 
Minor as the official representative of Christendom. In the year 
1053 the Patriarch of Constantinople addressed a letter to the 
Western Church which brought the charges of gross heresy the 
doctrine of the "Filioque," celibacy, and the use of unleavened 
bread in the Eucharist. When he persisted in these charges, ex- 
communication was pronounced upon the Eastern Church by the 
Pope's legate, and the patriarch countered this sentence with 
a decree excommunicating the Pope (A. D. 1054) . Since that 
time the Eastern Church has gone its way separately from the 
Latin or Roman communion. In its later stages it has been in 
a condition of spiritual apathy and dead formalism. 

As the various parts of the Byzantine Empire became indepen- 
dent, the Eastern Church organized itself nationally. The Eussian 
Church became independent of the Patriarch of Constantinople 
about 1700; Greece, in 1831. 

The Eastern Church accepts the decrees of the first seven 
great councils (the last at Nice, 787), the Mceno-Constantinopol- 
itan Creed in its original wording, without the "Filioque," but 


never acknowledged the Apostles' Creed nor the Athanasian Creed. 
It was not touched by the Reformation, in spite of the endeavors 
of Melanchthon and Andreae to win the Greek Church for the doc- 
trine of justification by faith. 

The modern confessions of the Greek Church were, written to 
counteract Calvinistic influence and to preserve the Greek Church 
between the contending influences of Eomanism and Protestantism. 
Peter Mogilas, Metropolitan of Kiew, drew up, about the year 1640, 
in the form of a catechism the so-called Orthodox Confession of 
the Catholic Apostolic Eastern Church. It was adopted by the 
four Eastern patriarchs in 1643, and it is the official creed of the 
entire Greek and Eussian Church. The Synod of Jerusalem, 1672, 
adopted a confession of faith prepared by Patriarch Dositheus, the 
so-called Confessio Dosithei. Other confessional writings of the 
Eastern Church are Platen's Catechism (Eussian, 1762) ; the 
Longer Catechism of Philaret (Eussian, 1839) ; and the Confes- 
sion of Metrophanes Kritopulus, prepared by this prelate at the 
request of some Lutheran theologian when he visited Germany 
in 1625. 

The Eastern Orthodox Church is represented in the United 
States by the Albanian Orthodox Church, the Bulgarian, the Greek, 
the Eoumanian, the Eussian, the Serbian, and the Syrian churches, 
711,925 communicants, served by 681 priests in 675 churches 

The World War with its disastrous effect upon the religious 
life of Eussia under the present Bolshevik regime has brought con- 
fusion into the Eussian Orthodox Church and also great uncer- 
tainty into the relation of American Orthodox bodies to the 
European parent bodies and to each other. About ten years after 
the war a movement was begun (not completed in 1933) toward 
the union of all the Orthodox Catholic congregations in America 
into one united American Orthodox Catholic church-body, to be 
governed by an American synod representing all national groups 
in this countiy, but independent of foreign control. The Eussian 
bishops in America under the archbishop loyal to the Patriarchate 
of Moscow authorized and established such an organization, auton- 
omous in authority, administration, and jurisdiction, but at one 
with the rest of the Eastern Orthodox Catholic churches in doc- 
trine, polity, discipline, and practise. The name of this body is to 
be the Holy Eastern Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic Church in 
North America. It was chartered as a religious corporation in 


Massachusetts in 1927 and is proceeding gradually to unite under 
the North American Holy Synod the members and the clergy of 
various racial and national origins who desire to enter. 

Doctrines of the Eastern Catholic Churches. 

200. a) The Source and Standard of Doctrine. Together with 
Scripture, tradition is an authentic source of faith. "Articles of 
faith owe their authority and proof partly to the Sacred Scriptures, 
partly to the ecclesiastical tradition and the doctrine of the councils 
and sacred Fathers/' Orth. Conf., 4. "How is divine revelation 
spread among men and preserved in the true Church? By two 
channels holy tradition and Holy Scripture. What is meant by 
the name holy tradition? By the name holy tradition is meant 
the doctrine of the faith, the Law of God, the Sacraments, and the 
ritual as handed down by the true believers and worshipers of God 
by word and example from one to another and from generation to 
generation." Lgr. C., 16. 17. "The Church is the sure repository 
of holy tradition." Ib. "The Holy Scripture is divine revelation. 
But we do not believe that the authority of the Catholic Church is 
less than the authority of the Scripture. Since the Holy Spirit 
is the Author of both, it is the same whether you hear the Church 
or the Scripture." C. Dos., d. 2. The Bible is not a clear book, 
since its variant interpretations have given rise to so many here- 
sies. Ib. "The Holy Spirit is the Author of the Holy Scriptures ; 
but also that which the holy Fathers have resolved in orthodox 
and local councils is given by the Holy Spirit." Orth. Conf., 72. 

Eegarding the canon of Scripture there is no argument. The 
Septuagint, which includes the Apocrypha, is the authentic Old 
Testament text. But theologians as well as synods have not been 
in agreement regarding the canonical authority of the Apocrypha. 
The Orthodox Confession uses passages from the Apocrypha as 

The reading of the Scriptures by the laity is discouraged. 
"'Should not the Sacred Scriptures be read generally by all Chris- 
tians? ISTo. It must be read only by those who are able to pene- 
trate into the profound things of the Spirit and who know how to 
investigate, to teach, and to read it. Those who are not so trained 
are prohibited by the Catholic Church from reading it in view of 
the damage that results. Especially the reading of certain parts, 
chiefly of the Old Testament, is forbidden on these grounds, even 
-as we forbid little children to partake of heavy food." C. Dos., q. 1. 


201* b) God. The Greek Church adheres to the doctrine of the 
unity of essence and trinity of persons in God. It accepts the 
doctrine that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father (qui ex 
Patre procedit) and rejects the clause "and from the Son" 
(Filioque) as an unwarranted Latin interpolation and corruption. 
"By the single procession of the Spirit (exnoQEvais) is meant the 
eternal procession, i. e., an eternal inner-Trinitarian process, like 
the eternal generation of the Son, and not the temporal mission 
(nefjiyjis) of the Spirit from the Father and the Son, concerning 
which there has been no controversy between the Eastern and 
Western Churches." Klotsche, Christian Symbolics, p. 35 n. 

202* c) The Fall of Man. Man was created to take the place of 
the fallen angels. Our bodies originate from the seed of Adam, 
while the soul is created new for every individual. (Creationism, as 
opposed to traducianism. Orth. Conf., 28.) In its original state 
the nature of man had an "image'* of God (reason and freedom 
of the will), but not "likeness." The essence of the Fall was 
man's misuse of free will, and his fallen state is one of moral 
weakness rather than one of radical corruption and positive guilt. 
Therefore "it rests within the free will of any one whether he 
would be good and a child of God or evil and a child of the devil. 
This is within man's power except that divine grace assists towards 
the good or draws him away from the evil, without, however, 
coercing man's free will." Orth. Conf., 27. 

203. d) Mortal and Venial Sins. The error of an absolute dis- 
tinction between certain sins as mortal and others as venial is 
shared with the Eoman Church by the Greek. "Mortal sin is that 
which is contrary to a plain prohibition of the divine Law or that 
which is a refusal of a divine command. When carried into action, 
such desire separates from the divine grace. The mere intention 
to commit such a sin injures the soul, but does not kill it." Orth. 
Conf., 18. "Venial sins are such as no man can avoid doing except 
Christ and the Virgin Mary. Such sin does not deprive us of grace 
or expose us to damnation." Ib., 43. "Actual sins committed 
purposely and in mature years against God's plain command, 
ignoring love to God and the neighbor, deprive us of divine grace. 
Such sin is removed by penance and the mercy of God in Christ 
when the priest during confession pronounces absolution to the 
penitent." Ib., 21. 

204* e) Predestination. The Calvinistic doctrine of predestina- 
tion is branded as "abominable, a sacrilege, insanity, slander, and 


blasphemy." Conf. Dos., d. 3. However, the Semi-Pelagian teach- 
ing of election is held. "How are we to understand the predestina- 
tion of God with respect to men in general and to each man 
severally? God has predestined to give to all men, and has ac- 
tually given them, preparatory grace and means sufficient for the 
attainment of happiness. Those who freely accept the grace given 
them, who make good use of the Means of Grace granted unto them, 
and who walk in the appointed path of salvation God has properly 
foreordained for salvation." Lgr. C., 123. The intuitu fidei is 
plainly taught in the following : "As He foresaw that some would 
use well their free will, but others ill, He accordingly predestined 
the former to glory, while the latter He condemned." Ib., 125. 

205* f ) Of Saints and Images. Angels and saints are invoked 
as intercessors between man and God ; especially the guardian angel 
is to be invoked. The saints by their prayers strengthen and offer 
before God the prayers of the faithful. Orth. Conf., 16 21. 
Lgr. C., 263. "Especially the Virgin has received grace beyond any 
other creature and is supreme over all angels, standing at the right 
hand of her Son." Orth. Conf., 42. The intercession of the saints 
on our behalf is called a mediatorship. Orth. Conf., C 52. In 
Greek theology Mary is said to be the object of hyper dulia as dis- 
tinguished from the dulia of the saints and the latria due to God. 
"The relics of the saints have been given us by our Lord Jesus 
Christ as salutary springs, from which manifold blessings flow." 
Lgr. C., 267. Also the cross (not the crucifix), holy vessels and 
books, and the images of Christ and the saints (never carved or 
molded, but only painted on flat surfaces) receive dulia. C. Dos., 
q. 4. The holy images, or icons, are in theology treated as represen- 
tations that call to mind the work of God and the help of the saints. 
In actual church practise, however, religion has to a large extent 
become a superstitious veneration of icons and other sacred objects, 
not far removed from fetishism. 

206* g) Justification. Since man has not become entirely cor- 
rupt through the Fall, having retained the ability to do good (free- 
dom of the will), the Greek Church teaches a synergism in that it 
grants to man the power to reject or to cooperate with grace. Man 
is justified by faith active in good works. Yes, he is able to do 
good works before his conversion. C. Dos., d. 14. The first question 
of the Orthodox Confession reads : "What must an Orthodox and 
Catholic Christian hold and observe in order to inherit eternal life ? 
Answer: Right faith and good works." While some theologians 


teach justification by faith alone, the official doctrine introduces 
works into faith. "We believe that man is justified not simply by 
faith alone., but by a faith which is active through love, that is, 
through faith and works." C. Dos., d. 13. See also above under 
"Fall of Man." Faith is simply the assent to the orthodox doctrine. 

207* h) The Church. "All true believers united by the holy 
tradition of the faith, collectively and successively, by the will of 
God, compose the Church; and she is the sure repository of holy 
tradition, or, as St. Paul expresses it, 'the Church of the living 
God, the pillar and ground of the truth/ 1 Tim. 3, 15." Lgr. C., 18. 
"The Church is a divinely instituted community of men, united 
by the orthodox faith, the Law of God, the hierarchy, and the 
Sacraments." Lgr. C., 252. On account of the Apostolic Succes- 
sion (see below, 211, 5) the Church is infallible. Moreover, the 
holy Fathers continue to serve as organs of the Spirit, safeguarding 
the Church absolutely against all error. C. Dos., d. 12. This is said 
not of the invisible Church, but of the Greek Catholic organization. 

208* i) The Commandments of the Church. Prominent in the 
life of the Greek Catholic are the Nine Commandments of the 
Church, regarded as of the same obligation as God's own command- 
ments. Each has its separate paragraph in the Orthodox Confes- 
sion: Fasting, obedience to the clergy, confession made four times 
a year, not to read heretical books, intercession for priesthood and 
government, observing special fastings and prayers, not to pervert 
church property to private use, and to observe the closed seasons. 
The infallibility of the Church and her authority to interpret the 
Bible serve to make the observance of these commandments a matter 
of conscience to every Orthodox Christian. Moreover, the Greek 
Church views good works merely as single acts that have their in- 
herent moral value, not as the outflow of spiritual life. In this sense 
the Orthodox Confession speaks of three cardinal virtues (prayer, 
fasting, almsgiving) and of four general virtues, which flow out of 
them (prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance). The Sabbath 
commandment is regarded as still binding on all men in so far as 
every seventh day must be kept holy. 

209* j) Church Liturgy. The cultus of the Eastern Church, 
although entirely vocal (no instrumental music being permitted), 
is magnificent and offers for the delectation of rude minds an 
almost barbaric pomp and bewildering changes of vestments, espe- 
cially during the celebration of the Eucharist, where the liturgy 


provides a highly wrought symbolism representing Christ's suf- 
fering and death. There is no congregational singing. Choirs 
chant the music, some of it ranking among the finest productions 
of musical art. 

210, k) Church and State. From early days, Orthodox Chris- 
tianity was the state religion of the Eastern Empire. This con- 
tinued to the fall of Constantinople, 1453. In Eussia the govern- 
ing body was the Holy Synod, consisting of prelates nominated by 
the Czar. Until the Bolshevik Eevolution the Eussian Church 
claimed every Eussian by birth and sternly repressed Protestant 
missions (oppression of Lutherans in the Baltic Provinces). The 
Eussian Church to-day is again under a general patriarch and is 
merely tolerated by the Communist rulers. 

211* 1) The Sacraments. The seven sacraments of the Greek 
Church are Baptism, unction with chrism, Eucharist, penance and 
confession, holy order, matrimony, and the anointing of the sick. 
A sacrament is defined as "a holy act through which grace, or, in 
other words, the saving power of God, works mysteriously upon 
man." Lgr. C., 2S4-. The statement that grace is "necessarily con- 
ferred upon those who receive them," C. Dos., d. 15, is not unlike 
the Eoman Catholic doctrine of ex opere operato. For the effective 
administration of the sacraments the inward intention of the priest 
must be to perform the purpose for which the respective sacraments 
are instituted, Orth. Conf., 100. 107, as in the Eoman Church. 

1) Baptism is considered absolutely necessary to salvation, 
also for infants, and a trine immersion is regarded as essential. 
Lgr. C., 290. Children are baptized in the faith of their parents 
and sponsors. In agreement with its doctrine of the Fall the Greek 
Church teaches that original sin is completely eradicated by Bap- 
tism, so that not even concupiscence remains. Orth. Conf., 103. 
In case of necessity any member of the Greek Church may ad- 
minister Baptism. Baptism confers an indelible character. C. Dos., 
d. 16. Converts from non-immersionist bodies are rebaptized. 

2) Immediately after baptism the believer is anointed with 
a chrism,, consecrated by a bishop, on forehead, chest, eyes, ears, 
lips, hands, and feet "for growth and strength in spiritual life." 

3) As in the Eoman Church, the Eucharist is both a sacrament 
and a sacrifice. Transubstantiation is taught, the bread (leavened 
wheat bread) being changed into the essence of Christ's body and 
the wine (which is served by intinction of the bread into the con- 
secrated wine, the communicant receiving both elements together 


201* b) God. The Greek Church adheres to the doctrine of the 
unity of essence and trinity of persons in God. It accepts the 
doctrine that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father (qui ex 
Patre procedit) and rejects the clause "and from the Son" 
(Filioque) as an unwarranted Latin interpolation and corruption. 
"By the single procession of the Spirit (SXTIOQEVOK;) is meant the 
eternal procession, i. e., an eternal inner-Trinitarian process, like 
the eternal generation of the Son, and not the temporal mission 
(jiGjuyjis) of the Spirit from the Father and the Son, concerning 
which there has been no controversy between the Eastern and 
"Western Churches." KLotsche, Christian Symbolics, p. 35 n. 

202+ c) The Fall of Man. Man was created to take the place of 
the fallen angels. Our bodies originate from the seed of Adam, 
while the soul is created new for every individual. (Creationism, as 
opposed to traducianism. Orth. Conf., 28.) In its original state 
the nature of man had an "image" of God (reason and freedom 
of the will), but not "likeness." The essence of the Fall was 
man's misuse of free will, and his fallen state is one of moral 
weakness rather than one of radical corruption and positive guilt. 
Therefore "it rests within the free will of any one whether he 
would be good and a child of God or evil and a child of the devil. 
This is within man's power except that divine grace assists towards 
the good or draws him away from the evil, without, however, 
coercing man's free will." Orth. Conf., 27. 

203. d) Mortal and Venial Sins. The error of an absolute dis- 
tinction between certain sins as mortal and others as venial is 
shared with the Roman Church by the Greek. "Mortal sin is that 
which is contrary to a plain prohibition of the divine Law or that 
which is a refusal of a divine command. When carried into action, 
such desire separates from the divine grace. The mere intention 
to commit such a sin injures the soul, but does not kill it." Orth. 
Conf., 18. ''Venial sins are such as no man can avoid doing except 
Christ and the Virgin Mary. Such sin does not deprive us of grace 
or us to damnation." Ib., 43. "'Actual sins committed 
purposely arid in mature years against God's plain command, 
ignoring love to God and the neighbor, deprive us of divine grace. 
Such sin is removed by penance and the mercy of God in Christ 
when the priest during confession pronounces absolution to the 
peniicJil." Ib., Bl. 

20' 1. e) J'rudc,Nl.iualAou. The Calvinistic doctrine of predestina- 
tion, in branded a.s "nbomimiblo, a sacrilege, insanity, slander, and 


blasphemy." Conf. Dos., d. 3. However, the Semi-Pelagian teach- 
ing of election is held. "How are we to understand the predestina- 
tion of God with respect to men in general and to each man 
severally? God has predestined to give to all men, and has ac- 
tually given them, preparatory grace and means sufficient for the 
attainment of happiness. Those who freely accept the grace given 
them, who make good use of the Means of Grace granted unto them, 
and who walk in the appointed path of salvation God has properly 
foreordained for salvation." Lgr. C., 123. The intuitu fidei is 
plainly taught in the following : "As He foresaw that some would 
use well their free will, but others ill, He accordingly predestined 
the former to glory, while the latter He condemned." Ib., 125. 

205* f ) Of Saints and Images. Angels and saints are invoked 
as intercessors between man and God ; especially the guardian angel 
is to be invoked. The saints by their prayers strengthen and offer 
before God the prayers of the faithful. Orth. Conf., 16 21. 
Lgr. C., 263. "Especially the Virgin has received grace beyond any 
other creature and is supreme over all angels, standing at the right 
hand of her Son." Orth. Conf., 42. The intercession of the saints 
on our behalf is called a mediatorship. Orth. Conf., C 52. In 
Greek theology Mary is said to be the object of hyperdulia as dis- 
tinguished from the dulia of the saints and the latria due to God. 
"The relics of the saints have been given us by our Lord Jesus 
Christ as salutary springs, from which manifold blessings flow." 
Lgr. C., 267. Also the cross (not the crucifix), holy vessels and 
books, and the images of Christ and the saints (never carved or 
molded, but only painted on flat surfaces) receive dulia. C. Dos., 
q. 4. The holy images, or icons, are in theology treated as represen- 
tations that call to mind the work of God and the help of the saints. 
In actual church practise, however, religion has to a large extent 
become a superstitious veneration of icons and other sacred objects, 
not far removed from fetishism. 

206* g) Justification. Since man has not become entirely cor- 
rupt through the Fall, having retained the ability to do good (free- 
dom of the will), the Greek Church teaches a synergism in that it 
grants to man the power to reject or to cooperate with grace. Man 
is justified by faith active in good works. Yes, he is able to do 
good works before his conversion. C. Dos., d. 14. The first question 
of the Orthodox Confession reads : "What must an Orthodox and 
Catholic Christian hold and observe in order to inherit eternal life ? 
Answer : Eight faith and good works." While some theologians 


teach justification by faith alone, the official doctrine introduces 
works into faith. "We believe that man is justified not simply by 
faith alone, but by a faith which is active through love, that is, 
through faith and works/' C. Dos., d. 13. See also above under 
"Fall of Man." Faith is simply the assent to the orthodox doctrine. 

207* h) The Church. "All true believers united by the holy 
tradition of the faith, collectively and successively, by the will of 
God, compose the Church; and she is the sure repository of holy 
tradition, or, as St. Paul expresses it, 'the Church of the living 
God, the pillar and ground of the truth/ 1 Tim. 3, 15." Lgr. C., 18. 
"The Church is a divinely instituted community of men, united 
by the orthodox faith, the Law of God, the hierarchy, and the 
Sacraments." Lgr. C., 252. On account of the Apostolic Succes- 
sion (see below, 211, 5) the Church is infallible. Moreover, the 
holy Fathers continue to serve as organs of the Spirit, safeguarding 
the Church absolutely against all error. C. Dos., d. 12. This is said 
not of the invisible Church, but of the Greek Catholic organization. 

208* i) The Commandments of the Church. Prominent in the 
life of the Greek Catholic are the Nine .Commandments of the 
Church, regarded as of the same obligation as God's own command- 
ments. Each has its separate paragraph in the Orthodox Confes- 
sion : Fasting, obedience to the clergy, confession made four times 
a year, not to read heretical books, intercession for priesthood and 
government, observing special fastings and prayers, not to pervert 
church property to private use, and to observe the closed seasons. 
The infallibility of the Church and her authority to interpret the 
Bible serve to make the observance of these commandments a matter 
of conscience to every Orthodox Christian. Moreover, the Greek 
Church views good works merely as single acts that have their in- 
herent moral value, not as the outflow of spiritual life. In this sense 
the Orthodox Confession speaks of three cardinal virtues (prayer, 
fasting, almsgiving) and of four general virtues, which flow out of 
them (prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance). The Sabbath 
commandment is regarded as still binding on all men in so far as 
every seventh day must be kept holy. 

209* j) Church Liturgy. The cultus of the Eastern Church, 
although entirely vocal (no instrumental music being permitted), 
is magnificent and offers for the delectation of rude minds an 
almost barbaric pomp and bewildering changes of vestments, espe- 
cially during the celebration of the Eucharist, where the liturgy 


provides a highly wrought symbolism representing Christ's suf- 
fering and death. There is no congregational singing. Choirs 
chant the music, some of it ranking among the finest productions 
of musical art. 

210* k) Church and State. From early days, Orthodox Chris- 
tianity was the state religion of the Eastern Empire. This con- 
tinued to the fall of Constantinople, 1453. In Eussia the govern- 
ing body was the Holy Synod, consisting of prelates nominated by 
the Czar. Until the Bolshevik Eevolution the Russian Church 
claimed every Eussian by birth and sternly repressed Protestant 
missions (oppression of Lutherans in the Baltic Provinces). The 
Russian Church to-day is again under a general patriarch and is 
merely tolerated by the Communist rulers. 

211* 1) The Sacraments. The seven sacraments of the Greek 
Church are Baptism, unction with chrism, Eucharist, penance and 
confession, holy order, matrimony, and the anointing of the sick. 
A sacrament is defined as "a holy act through which grace, or, in 
other words, the saving power of God, works mysteriously upon 
man." Lgr. C., 284. The statement that grace is "necessarily con- 
ferred upon those who receive them," C. Dos., d. 15, is not unlike 
the Roman Catholic doctrine of ex opere operato. For the effective 
administration of the sacraments the inward intention of the priest 
must be to perform the purpose for which the respective sacraments 
are instituted, Orth. Conf., 100. .107, as in the Roman Church. 

1) Baptism is considered absolutely necessary to salvation, 
also for infants, and a trine immersion is regarded as essential. 
Lgr. C., 290. Children are baptized in the faith of their parents 
and sponsors. In agreement with its doctrine of the Fall the Greek 
Church teaches that original sin is completely eradicated by Bap- 
tism, so that not even concupiscence remains. Orth. Conf., 103. 
In case of necessity any member of the Greek Church may ad- 
minister Baptism. Baptism confers an indelible character. C. Dos., 
d. 16. Converts from non-immersionist bodies are rebaptized. 

2) Immediately after baptism the believer is anointed with 
a chrism, consecrated by a bishop, on forehead, chest, eyes, ears, 
lips, hands, and feet "for growth and strength in spiritual life." 

3 ) As in the Roman Church, the Eucharist is both a sacrament 
and a sacrifice. Transubstantiation is taught, the bread (leavened 
wheat bread) being changed into the essence of Christ's body and 
the wine (which is served by intinction of the bread into the con- 
secrated wine, the communicant receiving both elements together 


in a spoon) into the blood of our Lord. The elements therefore 
receive the same adoration as is due Christ Himself and the Holy 
Trinity. Orth. Conf., 101. C. Dos., d. 17. Children receive the 
sacrament in infancy; after the seventh year confession is obliga- 
tory. The Eucharist as a sacrifice : it is called a true and propitia- 
tory, though unbloody, sacrifice for all the faithful whether living 
or dead. Orth. Conf., 107. 

4) Penance and confession, as in the Eoman Church, is made 
to consist of three acts : an act of contrition and one of confession 
by the sinner and an act of penance (satisfaction) imposed by the 
priest. Penance restores the sinner to the state of innocence which 
was his after baptism. Orth. Conf., 112. 114. Faith is not a part 
of penance. The individual sins must be confessed to the priest, 
who imposes some act of satisfaction, usually prayers, alms, 
fastings, pilgrimages. Ib., 113. Such confession should be made 
four times a year. Ib., 90. The Eoman system of indulgences is 
rejected by the Greek Catholic Church. However, the absolution 
from sin is reserved also in the Greek Church to the priesthood, 
which is the custodian of all graces which Christ has merited for 
the believer. 

5) Holy Orders. "The priesthood is that sacrament which 
was committed by Christ to the apostles and which through the 
imposition of hands is to the present day conferred by the ordina- 
tion of priests, the bishops taking the place of the apostles for the 
purpose of administering the holy sacraments and for advancing 
the salvation of men. . . . Through this consecration and succes- 
sion, which has been uninterrupted, those who have been ordained 
have the authority to teach the saving doctrine." Orth. Conf., 109. 
(Sacerdotalism.} "The office of a bishop is so essential that with- 
out it there could be no Church nor any Christians. He stands in 
uninterrupted apostolic succession, a living image of God on earth, 
the source of all sacraments of the Catholic Church." C. Dos., d. 10. 
Accordingly the choice (call) of priests is not in the hands of the 
laity, but their appointment rests entirely with the bishop, whereas 
the bishop is not chosen by the priests, but by the Holy Synod. 
C. Dos., d. 10. An indelible character attaches to persons ordained. 
Only these, and not the laity, are priests in the proper sense, and 
only they can forgive sin. In the priesthood there are three degrees 
of ordination, bishop, priest, and deacon. The first has the power of 
ordination, the second that of administering the sacraments, the 
third that of assisting in such ceremony. They possess their 


authority by divine right. The bishops are in a true sense the 
"rulers and heads" of the Church. C. Dos., d. 10. Eegarding the 
marriage of the clergy the rule prevails that all may enter matri- 
mony, except the bishops, who are selected, as a rule, from the 
monastic clergy (celibacy) ; priests and deacons may be married, 
but only once. 

6) Matrimony. By a misinterpretation of Eph. 5, 32 the 
Longer Catechism justifies the inclusion of matrimony in the num- 
ber of sacraments (362) ; yet a low estimate is placed upon the 
marriage state in comparison with the celibacy of the monks and 

7) Holy Unction, or unction with oil, "is a sacrament, in 
which, while the body is anointed with oil, God's grace is invoked 
on the sick to heal him of spiritual and bodily infirmities." Lgr. C., 
364. Hence its object is not, as in the Eoman Church, to prepare 
for death, but to aid the sick in his return to health. The sacra- 
ment is always performed publicly and usually by seven priests. 

212* m) Intercession for the Departed. Christ's descent is 
represented as a visit of His soul and divinity to Hades for the 
purpose of leading the souls of the Old Testament believers to 
paradise. Orth. Conf., 49. The Eoman idea of a purgatory is 
rejected; yet in Hades (the intermediate state) a purification takes 
place of those who felt contrition here on earth, but were not able 
to do good works necessary to salvation. For such souls, prayers 
are offered especially in connection with the Eucharist. Lgr. C., 376. 
In Hades the souls of the just do not enjoy complete felicity, nor 
do the damned suffer their full penalty, until in the last Judg- 
ment the just enter into glory and the wicked into eternal perdi- 
tion. Orth. Conf., 68. 

The thoroughgoing nomism of the Eastern Catholic Church 
finds its expression also in the doctrine of the final Judgment as 
it concerns the Christians. The Longer Catechism knows nothing 
of the part the Gospel plays in this matter. Qu. 232 : "Will He 
then condemn us even for evil words or thoughts ? Without doubt 
He will unless we efface them by repentance, faith, and amendment 
of life, Matt. 12, 36." John 5, 24 is ignored. 

213* Assyrian Jacobite Apostolic Churcli. One of the very an- 
cient separated Eastern churches, separated on account of mono- 
physitism, is represented among Assyrian immigrants by (1926 
Census) 3 parishes with 1,407 members. Its head is the Patriarch 
of Antioch, residence at Mardin, Dair el Zahfaran. It accepts the 



Nieene Creed, with the "Filioque" ; its source of doctrine is the 
Bible and tradition; has the seven Eastern sacraments, auricular 
confession, communion of the laity in one kind, veneration of the 
saints, and prayers for the dead. 

214* Church of Armenia in America. Numbering 28,181 mem- 
bers in 29 local organizations, the Armenian Church is made up of 
immigrants from Armenia in Asia Minor. In doctrine it is allied 
to the Eastern Church. Its government is episcopal in form. It 
denies the "Filioque," accepts the canons of the first three General 
Councils "as well as the writings of the recognized Fathers of the 
Church of the period of those councils." It has an Armenian ver- 
sion of the Bible, but regards the tradition of the Church as a norm 
of interpretation. Seven sacraments are accepted. Baptism is by 
immersion, eight days after birth, followed immediately by con- 
firmation (anointing and laying on of hands). The Lord's Supper 
is administered in both kinds, even to infants. Prayers for the dead 
are offered, and the saints are venerated. 

Several Nestorian churches, separated from the ancient Church 
on account of Nestorianism, are found in America. Two have 
church edifices in Chicago. 

Uniate churches. See 253* 

215. Doukhobors. A fanatical sect of Eussians, whose name in 
their own language means "Wrestlers with the Spirit/' who came 
into public notice in 1902 by their religious trek, or pilgrimage, 
into Canada. Because they refused to perform military services 
for the Czar, they were persecuted. Their religious processions in 
Canada drew the attention of the American press. By order of 
their fanatical leaders they left their homes, carried no food, and 
many wore no clothing. They expected to meet Christ at His 
second coming. Occasionally they would break forth in a weird 
strain of a psalm, which would rise, as it was taken up by one 
after the other, until it became a mighty wail of a multitude. Now 
and then the leader would stop, throw his arms wildly before him 
and exclaim, "I see Him; I see Jesus," at which his followers 
would go insane. These leaders have fallen from their positions, 
and some of them are in asylums, others in prisons, while the mass 
of the people have become practical farmers. From Vancouver to 
Manitoba there are forty-eight Doukhobor villages. Occasionally 
the fanatical strain asserts itself, and a colony will discard all 
clothing and make a pilgrimage until checked by the police. Their 
religious teachings include a rejection of the ministry and church 



organizations, since every one who is led by the Spirit is free from 
sinning; they believe that Christ was human, but that His soul 
reappears at intervals in living men. Klotsche, op. cit., p. 55. 

216* African Orthodox Church. A Negro body organized in 
1921 by George Alexander McGuire, an Episcopalian priest, who 
later obtained orders from Archbishop Vilatte, of the Assyrian 
Jacobite Apostolic Church,, though it is now autonomous and in- 
dependent. The membership (1926 Census) was reported to be 
1,568. It accepts the Holy Scriptures and tradition as the source 
of revelation, the Nicene Creed, without the "Filioque," holds that 
the Eucharist is both a sacrament and a sacrifice offered for the 
living and the dead, follows the Eoman liturgy, and regards the 
episcopacy as the central source of authority in matters spiritual 
and temporal. 

Afro- American Catholic Church. A Negro organization, 
founded in 1927, whose affiliations are with the American Catholic 
Church. Eeports one church and one station. 


217* The integrity of the apostolic institutions was lost to the 
Church at an early date. When St. Paul, even in his day, saw the 
"mystery of iniquity" at work, he had in view an ambitious clergy 
that exalted itself above the laity and an episcopal order that strove 
to make its station a dominating one in the Church. The distinc- 
tion between bishops and presbyters and the assignment of various 
functions of church government (including discipline) to the 
bishops marks this hierarchical tendency. The bishops of Eome 
enjoyed the additional distinction of occupying the see at the 
capital of the world, and the occupants of the Eoman bishopric were 
not slow to urge a definite primacy among the bishops of the 
Church, East and West. In the eighth century the Popes acquired 
also political power. 

Other abuses had crept in, which lowered the Christian con- 
sciousness of people and clergy and left the field open to the am- 
bitious machinations of the Eoman Pontiff. The infallibility of 
the Church; the merit of works, especially of the monastic life; 
purgatory; the veneration of images, each added an antichristian 
feature to Western Catholicism. The primacy of the Pope and his 
temporal power were universally acknowledged after the age of 
Pope Hildebrand (Gregory VII Canossa, 1077, Henry IV). The 
Dark Ages of priest rule and superstition followed. Simony be- 


came the common practise in conferring the episcopal and other 
remunerative offices. The education of the clergy languished, until 
many were ignorant of the meaning of the Latin ceremonial. The 
sermons, such as they were, treated mainly of the legends of the 
saints and their merits. The veneration of the saints and of their 
relics became a polytheistic and fetishistic cult which overshadowed 
the entire doctrinal contents of Christianity. Penances were as- 
sessed in a mechanical way, later to be given relief through in- 

The period is characterized by the scholastic theology, which 
endeavored to unite the metaphysics and logic of Aristotle with 
Christian theology. The monastic orders, becoming wealthy, 
degenerated morally and intellectually, until the mendicant orders 
arose, which proved quite as unable to stand prosperity. 

The complaints of an outraged laity compelled the initiation 
of efforts by various councils towards a reformation of the Church 
in head (Pope) and members (clergy). All these efforts proved 
abortive. The stake silenced the evangelical witness-bearing of 
John Huss (1415) and the protest of Savonarola (1498). Separa- 
tion from the Mother Church was penalized by persecution, most 
ruthlessly employed by the Spanish Inquisition. 

The Roman Catholic Church after the Eeformation hardened 
its heart against the Gospel through the canons and decrees of the 
Council of Trent. In order to prevent the collapse of Catholicism 
in Western Europe, the Society of Jesus (Jesuits, founded by 
Loyola, 1538) originated the Counter-Reformation. The Jesuit 
Bellarmine (died 1621) became the dogmatician of the Roman 
system of belief. The Thirty Years' War (16181648) was in- 
stigated by the Jesuits for the purpose of destroying by bloodshed 
and fire the evangelical Church wherever it had failed to succumb 
to political pressure. 

During the nineteenth century the spiritual pretensions of the 
Papacy expanded, while its temporal power contracted. Pope 
Pius IX assumed the functions of a council and in 1854 proclaimed 
the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, thus on his own respon- 
sibility deciding a question of belief on which the doctors of the 
Church were divided. In 1864 he issued an encyclical, together 
with a Syllabus of Errors, "aimed at the basic ideas of modern 
civilization and culture." But the climax was reached in 1870, 
when the Vatican Council, over the head of strong opposition in 
the Church and in the council itself, ratified the decree of papal 


infallibility and so fixed it as a dogma of the Church. This action 
is regarded as the triumph of Jesuitism. That same year witnessed 
the complete destruction of the Pope's temporal power, when Italy 
was reunited under the house of Savoy and the church-state became 
part of the kingdom. Through the concordat signed by Mussolini 
and the Pope in 1929 title to the Vatican palace and its gardens 
was restored to the Popes (Vatican City). 

In. France complete separation of Church and State became 
effective by legal enactment in 1906, when, among other provisions, 
all appropriations for public worship were repealed and all churches, 
chapels, episcopal palaces, and parsonages were declared the prop- 
erty of the State. 

In Spain there was a popular insurrection against the priest- 
ridden reigning house of Hapsburg, culminating in a revolution 
which swept away the throne and also terminated the union of 
State and Church. The entire property of the Eoman Catholic 
Church was nationalized (1933). Also in Mexico the Eoman 
Church lost all its prerogatives, all title to church property having 
passed to the State, which also has the entire control of education. 
Foreign-born clergymen most of the Catholic clergy were 
foreign-born are forbidden to officiate in churches or to teach 
in schools, and all monastic orders are prohibited. 

The first Catholic congregation in the territory now com- 
prising the United States was founded at St. Augustine, Fla., 
1565 (massacre of Huguenots). Missionaries appeared on the 
Pacific Coast about 1600 and on the Atlantic Coast a few years 
later. English and Irish Catholics came to Maryland in 1634. As 
late as 1774 the few Catholics living on Manhattan had to go to 
Philadelphia to receive the sacraments. Beginning with 1757, the 
Catholic Church had its own ecclesiastical superiors. In 1807 
about 80 churches were reported and a Catholic population of 
150,000. Estimates for 1860 vary from 3,000,000 to 4,500,000. 
The census of 1890 reported more than 6,000,000 communicants 
above nine years of age. 1930: 20,322,594 communicants (Cath- 
olic Directory for 1934), 17,494 churches, 24,712 priests. 


The teachings of the Eoman Church are found in the 
Ecumenical Creeds (the Apostles', the Mcene with the "Filioque," 
and the Athanasian), in the decisions of the General Councils 
(19 in number), particularly in the Tridentine and Vatican 
decrees, the authorized catechisms, the papal bulls and apostolic 


letters (encyclicals), and in books which have the approval of the 
respective bishop and the censor (imprimatur and nihil obstat). 

The Council of Trent (in the Austrian Tyrol), held between 
1545 and 1563 under the Popes Paul III, Julius III, Marcellus II, 
Paul IV, and Pius IV, was attended by about 200 bishops, 7 abbots, 
7 generals of religious orders, and by the representatives of Cath- 
olic kings and princes. Its doctrinal decisions are divided into 
decreta and canones, the latter being short propositions which con- 
demn the opposite Protestant doctrine and always end with 
anathema sit, "let him be accursed/' 

The Creed of Pope Pius IV consists of a dozen short para- 
graphs, which are an extension of the Mcene Creed, but pointed 
at the Protestant Eeformation, composed by Pius IV shortly after 
the conclusion of the Council of Trent. 

Roman Catechism. In its last sessions the Council of Trent 
left to the Pope, Pius IV, the preparation of a catechism. He 
selected for this task four distinguished theologians, who under 
the advice of Carlo Borromeo composed the catechism which after 
careful revision was published by order ,of Pius V in 1566 under 
the title Catechismus Romanus ex decreto Concilii Tridentini ad 
parochos. It must be regarded as one of the chief text-books of 
Catholic doctrine, although it met with opposition by the Jesuits, 
who did not approve of the Thomist principles embodied in it. 
Especially the sections on the auxilia gratiae and predestination 
were attacked l>y them. Since it is in agreement with the doc- 
trinal pronouncements of Trent and has been approved lay Popes 
and bishops, it can hardly contain doctrine which contradicts that 
of the Church in any essential point. Our references are to the 
English translation, Dublin, 1829 (in books and chapters), and 
to the Latin-German text of Buse, Velhagen and Klasing, Leipzig, 
1867 (in questions and answers). 

The papal bulls, decrees, and encyclical letters are also author- 
itative statements of Roman doctrine, although the claim of in- 
fallibility is not made for all of these documents. Of special 
importance is the Syllabus of Pius IX (December 8, 1864), 
directed against eighty errors of modern secularism and Prot- 
estantism. They are grouped under ten heads: 1. pantheism, 
naturalism, and absolute rationalism; 2. moderate rationalism; 
3. indifferentism and latitudinarianism ; 4. Socialism, Communism, 
secret societies, Bible societies, clerico-liberal societies; 5. errors 
regarding the Church and her rights; 6. errors regarding civil 


society, both in itself and in its relation to the Church; 7. errors 
regarding Christian and natural ethics; 8. errors regarding Chris- 
tian marriage; 9. errors regarding the temporal power of the 
Pope; 10. errors regarding modern liberalism. The Syllabus has 
been designated by Koman theologians as one of the papal docu- 
ments that bear the marks of inspiration. 

Also the liturgical texts like the Missale Romanum, the office- 
book containing the liturgy of the Mass (final revision 1634), and 
the Breviarium Romanum, containing the daily prayers (com- 
pleted 1632) are authoritative sources of Eoman doctrine. 

Standard works by modern Eoman Catholic writers : The 
Catechism of J. Deharbe, S. J., 1847. The Faith of Our Fathers, 
by James Cardinal Gibbons (92d edition). Catholic Belief, by 
J. Faa Di Bruno, ed. Lambert, 550th thousand, Benzinger 
Brothers, 1922. Lehrbuch cler Religion, W. Winners, 4 volumes, 
5th edition, Muenster, 1894. 


218* The Council of Trent acknowledges as the source of religious 
teaching "all the books of the Old and New Testament," and in 
these are included the Apocrypha of the Old Testament. Any one 
who does not receive these books as contained in the old Latin 
Vulgate as sacred and canonical is pronounced anathema. Further- 
more, the council prohibited any one from interpreting the Scrip- 
tures "contrary to that sense which Holy Mother Church whose 
it is to judge of the true sense and interpretations of the Holy 
Scriptures hath held and doth hold; or even contrary to the 
unanimous consent of the Fathers." Sess. IV. 

Without the interpretation of the Church the Scriptures are 
held to be an obscure book. As expressed by Di Bruno : "The 
Fathers of the Church plainly expressed their belief that the written 
Word of God by itself, without the help of tradition,, would always 
leave disputes unsettled, points of belief and morals undetermined,, 
and true religion a problem unsolved." Op. cit., p. 29. 

On these premises it is easily understood how Eoman theology 
had to vindicate for the Church herself the right to establish doc- 
trine, to say what is not orthodox Catholic teaching. The Church is 
infallible. It exercises its doctrinal authority through the resolu- 
tions of councils composed of bishops, who, under the headship of 
the Eoman Pontiff, pronounce decisions in matters of doctrine. 


Wilmers, op. cit., 2, 588 if. But does not such continued definition 
and promulgation of doctrines argue against the infallible nature 
of the Church? If a dogma is pronounced in one century, has 
not the Church erred in all previous centuries? Eoman theology 
does not recognize this difficulty. "The Church cannot promulgate 
any new doctrine. But it can develop more and more the truth 
entrusted to it, can define it more exactly and unfold the entire 
wealth of revelation with ever increasing clearness. By this process 
not one of the dogmas previously held is cast aside, nor are any 
such added that were not implicitly taught in earlier formulations. 
Occasion for such development was given by the heresies that arose 
from time to time. While previously many a one could not clearly 
understand revelation on account of the obscurity of Holy Scrip- 
ture, such difficulty was now removed through the pronouncement 
of the Church." Wilmers, op. cit., 2, 585. 

Not the Scriptures alone, then, or the Scriptures and the 
Fathers, so-called tradition, are the source of truth in Catholic 
theology; fundamentally the source of all religious knowledge is 
found in the Eoman theory of the development of doctrine through 
the continued revelation of truth by and in the Catholic Church. 
The Church is a living organ of Christ and herself a source of 
revelation. (Essentially, a form of Enthusiasm, Scliwaermerei.} 
Necessarily, then, the Scriptures must sink in value and impor- 
tance. They are nothing more than the teaching of the Church 
at the time when they were written. To take the Biblical writings 
as they stand in their original form is, according to this view, to 
overlook the successive expansions or limitations of their meaning 
which they have since experienced ; it is to mistake hints and out- 
lines for a finished structure. Successive occasions have called 
upon the Church to pronounce more definitely than the Scriptures 
have done on many points of doctrine; and by these, accordingly, 
the Scriptures must be interpreted, and not these by the Scriptures. 
It will be readily seen that this theory of development carries the 
theory of tradition a step farther, for a tradition of truths might 
be supposed to continue the same and to admit of no alteration or 
improvement even in the form of statement. As, however, the 
formal statements of doctrines have varied in successive ages, an 
explanation of this fact is needed to reconcile the apparent anomaly 
of a Church, such as that of Eome, incapable of changing the doc- 
trine of Christ, according to its own profession of being the 


authoritative organ of Christ Himself. The difficulty, then, is met 
by regarding the Christian faith as a deposit in the minds of the 
apostles and their successors a nucleus of divine truth to be acted 
on by reason and gradually unfolded in propositions and reason- 
ings and conclusions. The theory of development thus serves the 
same office in regard to the general theory of tradition which tradi- 
tion serves in regard to the Scriptures. As tradition is used by the 
Eomanist to interpret the Scriptures in his own sense, so is the 
theory of development employed for the interpretation of the 
testimony of tradition. 

Prom this point of view it is readily understood that, when it 
is acknowledged that certain doctrines were not known in the 
Church for several centuries and that for them there is no tradi- 
tion, the Eoman theologian is never in a quandary. For instance, 
the doctrine of transubstantiation was not known in the Church 
for many generations. The Roman Catholic will grant immediately 
that the formal statement of transubstantiation had not been made 
before such a time, but he will point out that the doctrine itself, 
so stated, had always existed, possibly was set forth already as 
a pia sententia, but waited its development in that explicit form 
until the occasions of the Church required such a statement of the 
doctrine of the Eucharist. Previous to the Council of Constance 
all contact with excommunicated persons was to be avoided, a prohi- 
bition which has since been limited to contacts with those who have 
been banned publicly or who have inflicted bodily injury on a priest. 
Wilmers, 2, 605. Evidently, then, there is no novelty of doctrine 
which may not be recommended on this ground as an explanation, 
that is, development, of some previously undoubted truth, in ac- 
cordance with the rule of Vincent "Cum dicas nove, non dicis 


The doctrine of papal infallibility was not defined before 1870. 
Gibbons raises the question "Did not the Vatican Council, in 
promulgating the definition of papal infallibility in 1870, create 
a new doctrine of revelation? And did not the Church thereby 
forfeit her glorious distinction of being always unchangeable in her 
teachings?" His answer is: "The council did not create a new 
creed, but rather confirmed the old one. It formulated into an 
article of faith a truth which in every age had been accepted by 
the Catholic world because it had been implicitly contained in the 
deposit of revelation." Faith of Our Fathers, 92d edition, p. 130. 


Rome and, the Bible. The fourth rule of the Congregation 
of the Index of Prohibited Books, approved by Pius IV and still 
in force, runs as follows : "Since it is manifest by experience that, 
if the Holy Bible in the vulgar tongue be suffered to be read every- 
where without distinction, more evil than good arises, let the judg- 
ment of the bishop or inquisitor be abided by in this respect, so 
that, after consulting with the parish priest or the confessor, they 
may grant permission to read translations of the Scriptures, made 
by Catholic writers, to those whom they understand to be able to 
receive no harm, but an increase of faith and piety from such 
reading (which faculty [permit] let them have in writing). But 
whosoever shall presume to read these Bibles or have them in pos- 
session without such faculty shall not be capable of receiving absolu- 
tion for their sins, unless they have first given up their Bibles to 
the ordinary [the bishop]." This prohibition has been followed up 
by later declarations. Pope Leo XII, in an encyclical dated May 3, 
1824, addressed the Latin bishops thus : "We also, venerable 
brothers, in conformity with our apostolic duty, exhort you to turn 
away your flocks from these poisonous pastures [i. e., the vernacular 
Bibles]. Eeprove, entreat, be instant in season and out of season, 
that the faithful committed to you (adhering strictly to the rules 
of the Congregation of the Index) be persuaded that, if the Sacred 
Scriptures be everywhere indiscriminately published, more evil than 
advantage will arise thence because of the rashness of men." And 
the way of the laity to the reading of the Holy Scriptures is further 
blocked by the second article of the Creed of Pius IV : "I do 
admit the Holy Scripture in the same sense that Holy Mother 
Church hath held and doth hold, whose business it is to judge the 
true sense and interpretation of them. Nor will I ever receive or 
interpret them except according to the unanimous consent of the 
Fathers." As the Holy Mother Church publishes no commentaries 
on the Holy Scriptures nor any "authorized interpretation" of Holy 
Writ, and as "the unanimous consent of the Fathers" is impossible 
(they having commented freely, each according to his ability), 
the layman might as well despair of ever understanding the Scrip- 
tures even if he had permission to read them. 

In the Index of Leo XIII (1897) the following sections are 
in point : "5. Editions of the Bible in the original tongues and in 
old Catholic translations, also those of the Oriental Church, which 
Lave been published by non- Catholics, no matter how faithful and 
complete they may seem to be, are allowed to be used only by those 


engaged in the study of theology and of the Scriptures, imder the 
condition, however, that these books neither in the introductions nor 
the explanations make any attack on the dogmas of the Catholic 
Church. 6. In the same sense and under the same condition all 
other translations of the Bible by non-Catholics, either in Latin 
or in any of the living tongues, are permitted. 7. All translations 
of the Scriptures into the mother tongue, also those that have been 
published by Catholics, are absolutely forbidden unless they have 
been approved by the Apostolic See or have been published, under 
supervision of the bishops, with annotations taken from the writings 
of the Church Fathers and learned Catholic authors. 8. Further 
are prohibited all Bible translations made by non-Catholics into 
living tongues, especially those of the Bible societies, that have been 
condemned by the Popes more than once; for in the preparation 
of these editions all the rules of ecclesiastical supervision have been 
disregarded. However, the use of these editions is allowed to those 
who are engaged in theological or Biblical studies, in accordance 
with Eule 5." 

The common doctrine of the Church is well expressed in the 
saying of Cardinal Manning, in his "Temporal Mission of the 
Holy Ghost," "We neither derive our religion from the Scriptures, 
nor does it depend upon them," p. 176; and by the editor of a 
leading English Eoman Catholic journal: "It is strange that any 
reasonable man in the present day can imagine for a moment that 
Almighty God intended the Bible as a text-book of Christian doc- 
trine." The Month, Dec., 1888. 

"Scripture is the great depository of the Word of God. There- 
fore the Church is the divinely appointed custodian and interpreter 
of the Bible. For her office of infallible guide were superfluous if 
each individual could interpret the Bible for himself." Gibbons, 
op. cit., p. 77. "Is the Bible a book intelligible to all? Far from it; 
it is full of obscurities and difficulties, not only for the illiterate, 
but even for the learned." P. 85. "The Scriptures alone cannot 
be a sufficient guide and rule of faith because they cannot, at any 
time, be within the reach of every inquirer; because they are not 
of themselves clear and intelligible, even in matters of the highest 
importance; and because they do not contain all the truths neces- 
sary for salvation." P. 89. 

"The Catholic Church existed before the Bible; it is possible 
for the Catholic Church to exist without the Bible, for the Catholic 
Church is altogether independent of the Bible. The Bible does not 


give any systematic, complete, and exhaustive treatment of the 
doctrines of Christ. In many respects it is, like a stenographer's 
note-book, partial and framentary, to be supplemented later on in 
more elaborate detail by other agencies. Christ never wrote a word of 
the Bible. One might naturally expect Him to have set the example 
by writing at least some portions of the Bible if he intended His 
followers to take their entire religion from it. Christ never ordered 
His apostles to write any part of the Bible. We might well expect 
such a command from Him if He desired the members of His 
Church to have recourse to the Bible for their religion. Christ 
could not have intended that the world should take its religion 
from the Bible, since so many millions of the human race to-day,, 
to say nothing of past ages, cannot read or write/' Thomas F. 
Coakley, Inside Pacts about the Catholic Church (Catholic Truth 
Society pamphlet), p. 21 f. 

Perry's "Instructions" argue against the Protestant principle 
of Sola Scriptura as follows: "The Protestant rule of taking the 
Scripture alone is not plain nor suited to the capacity of mankind 
generally. It is most unsuited to those who cannot read. How 
many such were there, especially in the earlier ages ! For there 
was no printing till more than 1,400 years after Christ. It is not 
suited to those who can read, but have not judgment to under- 
stand, etc. . . . And how many are there who can understand the 
sense of the Scripture ! That the number of such is vastly great is 
evident from plain fact; for we see that those who have not the 
Catholic Church to guide them disagree, etc. The Scripture itself 
says it is 'hard to be understood' and 'wrested by the unlearned and 
unstable to their destruction,' 2 Pet. 3, 16." It has been aptly said 
that the references to those who cannot read very well apply to 
Catholic countries, since in Spain there are 51 per cent, who 
cannot read, in Italy 48 per cent., in Portugal 75. As for the 
quotation from Peter it is evident that he does not refer to honest, 
simple-minded people, though not especially educated, but to men 
of perverted minds and of wicked intentions (see chap. 2, 12 15) ; 
"hard to be understood" is certainly a reference only to hard texts 
and difficult doctrines. Yet with reference to this text Catholics 
justify the bull against Bible societies issued by Pope Pius VII, 
June 29, 1816, in which the distribution of the Scriptures is termed 
"a crafty device by which the very foundations of religion are 
undermined"; "a pestilence, which must be remedied and abol- 
ished; a defilement of the faith, eminently dangerous to souls; 
impious machinations of innovators, wickedness of a nefarious 


scheme ; snares prepared for men's everlasting ruin ; a new species 
of tares which our adversary has abundantly sown." 

Kome's own use of the Scriptures defies all rules of sound 
hermeneutics. It is arbitrary, consistently ignores context, and 
never shrinks from mistranslation. The argument against celibacy 
derived from Paul's "A bishop . . . the husband of one wife" is met 
thus : "St. Paul means that a man who has been married twice 
should not be raised to the dignity of bishop. In those days they had 
to choose some married men to the. priesthood because they could not 
find enough single men to administer to the increasing number of 
the faithful." Questions Asked by Protestants, p. 42. Consistently 
Luke 15, 10 is translated "doing penance" instead of "that repents." 
The tremendous cult of Mary is based upon the angel's address 
"Hail Mary !" the angel's blessing being made to furnish proof 
that we should pray to the Virgin and that she will help those who 
petition her. Gregory YII based his exercise of spiritual and civil 
power on Gen. 1, 16. In all Catholic handbooks it is asserted that 
John 21, 15. 16, "Peed My sheep," gives the Pope power over the 
priests; "Peed My lambs," power over laymen. Chemnitz's 
Examen is a brilliant refutation of the use of Scripture made by 
the Council of Trent. 

220* Rationalism. In addition to Scripture and the Fathers, 
Home has a principle of religious knowledge in reason. Its theology 
is shot through and through with rationalism. Eeasonableness is 
the claim she makes for her system of doctrine. The adoration of 
the saints is brought into harmony with the First Commandment 
thus : "When a king declares that none shall step into his place, 
does he thereby deny that honor be paid to his magistrates?" 
Eom. C., 3, 2. 8. Man is able to obey the Law perfectly, for, says 
Bellarmine, "if that is denied, the commandments would not be 
commandments, and the Lord would be a cruel tyrant." Justif. 
4, 10. Mary must be conceived without sin because "God would 
not let the body in which His Son would dwell have a stain of sin, 
which would indeed have communicated itself in a way to the 
Son." Wilmers, 2. 180. The adoration of the Sacred Heart is de- 
fended thus: "If we may worship the human nature, or the body 
of Christ, then why not His heart, that noble organ of human 
nature ?" Wilmers, 4, 521. The Pope cannot err, for "the Church 
is the pillar and ground of the truth. If the whole fold cannot 
err, much less can the pastor, who has the keys or charge." Perry, 



221* In accepting the Athanasian Creed and the Mcene Creed 
with the "Filioque" clause., the Eoman Church teaches the proces- 
sion of the Holy Ghost from Father and Son, in distinction from 
Greek theology. 

God created the world out of nothing, but the Church does 
not regard the account in Genesis as necessarily and strictly his- 
torical. "The Catholic Church has no objection whatsoever to the 
theory of evolution in the mineral, plant, and animal kingdoms so 
long as the primary creative action of God be admitted. The world 
as created originally by God may have contained latent forces by 
whicK after a long series of ages evolution was accomplished. But 
in no case could the human soul have come into existence through 
evolutionary processes. The human soul owes its origin to the 
direct creative act of God. The Catholic Church teaches the 
ultimate creation of the world and the spirituality of the human 
soul. Holding fast to these fundamental doctrines, a Catholic may 
hold to the theory that life developed out of forces latent in non- 
living matter. A Catholic may hold, without doing violence to 
his faith, the theory that God created in the beginning nothing but 
a nebulous mass, endowing it with certain latent powers and 
energies which by a process of evolution should finally arrive at the 
world which we observe now." Coakley, op. cit., p. 32 f . 

222* Concerning the decree of predestination most of the scho- 
lastics followed Thomas in his teaching that both election and rep- 
robation, alike undetermined by anything in man, must contribute 
to God's glory. Moreover, the Council of Trent did not define the 
doctrine of predestination, but emphasized the uncertainty of sal- 
vation. No one can be absolutely certain of his salvation unless he 
has learned this by special revelation. Sess. VI, chap. XII. Ever 
since, the Semi-Pelagianism of Eoman theology has become evident 
in the formulation of this doctrine. Although Wilmers and others 
describe God as unmoved by any external motives, they attribute 
the decree of reprobation to the sins which He foresaw and 
and predestination to the graces which He foresaw. Bellarmine: 
"Eternal election may be viewed in a twofold manner. Inasmuch 
as it is the purpose to grant salvation, it is a matter of pure grace 
and one which requires no foreseeing of works. Inasmuch as it is 
the manner of carrying the purpose into effect, as it were, its 
execution in the heart of God, it requires the foreseeing of 
works. For God has not resolved to give eternal life as a reward 


except to those concerning whom Pie foresaw that they would da 
good." De Gratia et Lib., 2, 6. 14, col. 627. See 61* More care- 
fully Di Bruno: "As the salvation of the good is owing to God's 
grace, given to them in the measure that He foreknew they would 
make use of, and not resist, though they could have resisted it, 
it follows that those that are saved must be considered to have been 
predestined, because their salvation was not only foreseen, but 
effected by God, through His grace, which sanctified them and 
helped them in the good use of their free will left in them un- 
constrained." Op. cit., p. 314. 

Person of Christ. Concerning the union of the divine and 
human natures Eoman theology agrees with that of Zwingli. His 
humanity after His ascension was and is now limited to heaven. 
The human nature of Christ has never been truly united with the 
Logos. In agreement herewith, Christ's humanity receives not 
latria, but merely the hyperdulia which is accorded the Virgin. 
Bellarmine keeps separate the two natures and denies the omni- 
presence of Christ's human nature as definitely as Zwingli. Eome 
recognizes only a sustentation of the human nature by the divine. 
It also distinguishes a higher and lower part of the soul of Christ, 
the latter, inferior pars, alone experiencing the sufferings of the 
Passion; it also maintains that our Lord did not suffer the pains 
of eternal damnation. 


223* Romanism is a system of government. As a Church it i& 
an institution consisting of rulers and subjects. It is visible, "as 
visible as the republic of Venice." Bellarmine. It is the visible 
society of all who have received Christian Baptism and embraces 
not only the good and pious, but also many wicked. Rom. C., 1, 
10. 7. Only the heathen, the heretics, and the excommunicated are 
excluded from the jurisdiction of the Church. Practically the 
Church consists of the bishops and priests, the laity being called 
"children of the Church." 140. 159. 

That there is no salvation outside the (Roman) Church is the 
claim made by Pius IX in his Allocution of December 9, 1854: 
"It is to be held as a matter of faith that no one can be saved 
outside the apostolic Roman Church." Gibbons: "The Catholic 
Church teaches also that our Lord conferred on St. Peter the first 
place of honor and jurisdiction in the government of His whole 
Church and that the same spiritual supremacy has always resided 
in the Popes, or Bishops of Rome, as being the successors of 
St. Peter. Consequently, to be true followers of Christ, all Chris- 


tians, both among the clergy and the laity, must be in communion 
with the See of Borne, where Peter rules in the person of his 
successor." Op. cit., p. 95. In his Syllabus (17) Pius IX con- 
demned as an error "to entertain at least a well-founded hope for 
the eternal salvation of all those who are in no manner in the true 
Church of Christ." This "in no manner" is an important modifi- 
cation. Pius IV declared that "outside the true Catholic faith" 
not "church" "no one can be saved," and Di Bruno has the com- 
ment : "This condemnation is not intended to apply to the earnest 
Christian who has not the means of knowing the Catholic faith, 
for he thus belongs in some sense to the Catholic Church, being 
excused on account of involuntary or invincible ignorance." Op. cit., 
p. 209. Hence, "Catholics do not believe that Protestants who are 
baptized, who lead a good life, love God and their neighbor, and 
are blamelessly ignorant of the just claims of the Catholic religion 
to be the only one true religion (which is called being in good 
faith) are excluded from heaven." Op. cit., p. 189. Popularly 
stated: "He who knows the Church to be the true Church and 
wilfully remains out of it cannot be saved." Philipps, Questions 
Asked by Protestants, p. 102. Canon John Yaughan : "Then are 
we going to affirm that every man who is not in visible communion 
with the Catholic and Roman Church is to be eternally and ir- 
revocably lost? No. Far from it. We should never dream of 
making such a statement. And why? Because there is just one, 
though only one, circumstance that may excuse a man from sub- 
mitting to her authority. That one circumstance is a sincere and 
honest conviction that her authority is but a usurpation; in other 
words, a genuine inability to recognize the Church's claims." 
Is There Salvation Outside the Church, p. 9. 

224* Maries of the Church. Naming as the four chief marks 
of the Church: its oneness, holiness, catholicity, and apostolicity, 
Rome contends that its exclusive possession of these essential at- 
tributes of the Church marks it as the Holy Christian Church. 
Besides confusing the terms "attributes" and "marks," Rome is 
compelled to attach new meanings to the terms themselves. 1) It 
assumes to be the One Church because it represents the union of 
the faithful in the profession of the one faith, under one ruler, the 
Pope. But the faith uniting the Catholics as Catholics is not the 
one Christian faith, and its obedience to the Pope stamps it as 
the Church of Antichrist. Besides, the One Church existed before 
the rise of the Papacy. Furthermore, the discord among Roman 


Catholics in doctrinal matters is notorious. 2) Eome claims the 
attribute and mark of holiness, because "the Catholic Church 
teaches a holy doctrine, offers to all the means of holiness., and is 
distinguished by the eminent holiness of so many thousands of her 
children." Di Bruno, op. cit., p. 125. But the holiness of the 
Church lies, first of all, in the perfect holiness of Christ imputed 
to the believers, Phil. 3, 9. Again, the holiness of life, which all 
believers exhibit, cannot serve as an infallible mark of the Church 
because of the deception practised in this matter by the hypocrites. 
Moreover, Eome does not teach the holy doctrine of Christ. And 
the doctrine which it does preach cannot impart the righteousness 
of Christ nor produce the holiness of good works. 3) Eome claims 
the title of Catholic for its church because it is spread among all 
nations. But the Christian Church is catholic because it embraces 
all Christians of all times and countries. Besides, mere number 
does not indicate spiritual value. And the mere assumption of the 
name Catholic Church does not mean anything more in the case 
of the Eomanists than in the case of the Dowieites ("Christian 
Catholic Church"). 4) Eome finally claims apostolicity, insisting 
that it dates back to the apostles and, particularly, that it possesses 
the Apostolic Succession, by virtue of which the episcopal ordina- 
tion creates the priesthood with its prerogatives, and that this 
Episcopal Succession is necessary for the existence of the Church. 
But the Christian Church is apostolic because, founded by the 
apostles, it possesses the apostolic doctrine, John 17, 20; Acts 2, 42; 
Eph. 2, 20. As to the alleged necessity of the Apostolic Succession 
and of episcopal ordination: Scripture knows nothing of it; 
there were no bishops of this kind in the days of the apostles. 
See 153* 154* The diocesan episcopate arose after the founding 
of the Church and therefore cannot be essential for its existence. 
And the ministerial office is conferred through the call by the con- 
gregation. 150. 151* The Apostolic Succession is a myth. 


225* The Pope is the vicar of Christ on earth (Trid., Dec. VI, 
chap. I) ; has the supreme universal power in the Church (Sess. 
XIV, chap. VII) ; has power to appoint bishops (Sess. XXIII, 
can. 8). The Eoman Catechism calls him the "visible head and 
governor of the Church." Page 99. "He is the archbishop of the 
entire world, father and patriarch of the earth, sitting in the seat 
of the prince of the apostles and possessing the highest degree of 



dignity and jurisdiction, which he owes to no synod or other human 
arrangements. Page 319 f. 

The infallibility of the Pope was decreed at the insistence of 
Pius IX by the Vatican Council, 1870: "We, the sacred council, 
approving, teach, and so define as a dogma divinely revealed, that 
the Eoman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra, that is to say, 
when in the discharge of the office of pastor and teacher of all 
Christians, by virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines 
a doctrine regarding faith and morals to be held by the universal 
Church, is, through the divine assistance promised to the blessed 
Peter himself, possessed of the infallibility with which the divine 
Eedeemer willed that His Church should be endowed for defining 
doctrine concerning faith and morals ; and that therefore such de- 
finitions of the Eoman Pontiff are of themselves, and not from the 
consent of the Church, unalterable. But if any one shall venture 
(which may God avert!) to contradict our definition, let him be 

Efforts are still made to safeguard the time-honored tradition 
of the authority of the councils; as when Gibbons writes (speaking 
descriptively, however, not dogmatically) : "When a dispute arises 
in the Church regarding the sense of Scripture, the subject is re- 
ferred to the Pope for final adjudication. The sovereign Pontiff, 
before deciding the case, gathers around him his venerable col- 
leagues, the cardinals of the Church ; or he calls a council of his 
associate judges of faith, the bishops of Christendom; or he has 
recourse to other lights which the Holy Ghost may suggest to him. 
Then, after mature and prayerful deliberation, he pronounces judg- 
ment, and his sentence is final, irrevocable, and infallible." Op. cit., 
p. 125. 

Another difficulty is created by the doctrine which makes the 
Church the infallible teacher. The Creed of Pius IV states: 
"I acknowledge the Holy, Catholic, Apostolic, Eoman Church for 
the mother and mistress of all churches, and I promise true 
obedience to the Bishop of Eome, successor of St. Peter, prince of 
the apostles, and vicar of Jesus Christ." But the theologians point 
out that not the hearing church (the laity), but the teaching church 
(the governing clergy, bishops) is mother and preceptress of all 
churches (sacerdotalism), Wilmers, 2, 568. 

As noted, the dogma of papal infallibility was adopted only 
in 1870, and even then there was the most strenuous opposition to 
it on the part of some of the most brilliant and consistent thinkers 


and leaders of the Roman Church. On this point Dr. Doellinger, 
the noted Catholic theologian, says : "To prove the dogma of papal 
infallibility from church history, nothing less is required than a 
complete falsification of it [church history]. The declarations of 
Popes which contradict the doctrines of the Church or contradict 
each other (as the same Pope sometimes contradicts himself) will 
have to be twisted into agreement, so as to show that their heterodox 
or mutually destructive enunciations are at bottom sound doctrine 
or, when a little has been subtracted from one dictum and added 
to the other, are not really contradictory and mean the same thing." 
The Pope and the Council, p. 49 f . 

Among the contradictions alluded to by Doellinger we may 
specify: Pope Liberius professed Arianism; Zosimus endorsed 
Pelagianism ; Honorius I was condemned for heresy by three or 
four councils and by several Popes and was finally denounced by 
Leo II as "one who endeavored by profane treason to overthrow 
the immaculate faith of the Roman Church." Hadrian VI, when 
still professor in Louvain, denied that the Pope : is infallible and as 
Pope did not renounce this position. It is found in a reprint of his 
works published in Rome during his lifetime. 

If Scripture-proof for the infallibility of the Pope is de- 
manded, we are referred to Matt. 16, 18 ; John 21, 16 ; Luke 22, 32 
texts that contain no reference to the Popes nor to any one's 

While Catholic theologians try to impress Protestants with the 
limitations contained in the official definition of papal infallibility 
(see above) and emphasize the freedom of the Catholic to teach 
according to his private judgment, a loyal Catholic is, as a matter 
of loyalty, bound by every expression of the Pope, even if not 
pronounced ex cathedra. A Jesuit journal discusses "Catholic in- 
tegrity," or the attitude demanded of every theologian, as follows : 
"Catholic integrity involves several elements. There is the accep- 
tance of all revealed truth as infallibly taught ex cathedra by the 
Church and its Pontiff; he who will not go this far is an out-and- 
out heretic. Then there is the acceptance of the daily teaching of 
the Church, even when she does not pronounce ex cathedra and 
even when the doctrine taught may make no claim to be even 
implicitly revealed, but the denial of which would imperil revela- 
tion. He who will not go this far has missed the point of the full 
teaching power of the Church, is an indocile son, and has one foot, 
at least, on the exit from the Church. We must not forget that 


there is an ecclesiastical faith due from us as well as divine faith 
and that the universal refusal of the one is inevitably followed by 
the denial of the other. Thirdly, there is the acceptance of the 
directions of the Church and of its Pontiff in the exercise of our 
activities which either directly involve our Catholic faith and 
morals or, though of other concern, are open to lead us into real 
danger to our faith or moral life. Directions of the present Holy 
Father in this sense have borne on the teaching and study of 
philosophy, theology, Holy Scripture, and ecclesiastical history; on 
participation in political life in United Italy; on the organized 
action of Catholics for the betterment of social conditions in Italy, 
in France, and in Germany." America, July 4, 1914, p. 272. 

226. Temporal Power. The Pope became the king of kings 
in 755, when Stephen III girded on two swords, one on each side, 
emblems of temporal and spiritual power, and crowned Pepin king 
of France. ISTow, the Pope desired the old Roman Empire to be 
revived. In 800 Charlemagne, the son and successor of Pepin, was 
invited to Rome and crowned by Pope Leo III as "Emperor of the 
Romans." In return for this, Charlemagne decreed that one-tenth 
of all incomes must be given to the Church on the severest pains 
of forfeiture. But the Pope must have grounds for such assump- 
tions of power. And so the "decretals of Bishop Isidore," which are 
now universally considered to have been bold and unblushing for- 
geries, were promulgated between 847 and 853. About 858 the 
Donation of Coustantine, which is now acknowledged by Romanists 
to be spurious, was made to do service. These were requisitioned 
bj r Pope Nicholas I. The system grew as John XII placed the 
iron crown upon the head of Otho I, in 962, as the "King of the 
Holy Roman Empire of the Germans"; as Hildebrand enforced 
celibacy upon his English clergy, in 1073 ; as Adrian IV granted 
Ireland to King Henry II, in 1156 : and as Boniface VIII issued 
his famous bull Unam Sanctam, in 1303, which was quoted by 
Pope Pius IX in his encyclical of December 8, 1864, and is good 
canon law to-day. Here are its contents: "1. It is necessary to 
salvation that every man should submit to the Pope. 2. This is 
a necessary consequence of the dogma of papal supremacy. 3. It 
condemns the assertion by the State of any power over the church 
property. 4. The temporal power of Christian princes does not 
exempt them from obedience to the head of the Church. 5. The 
material sword is drawn for the Church, the spiritual by the 
Church. 6. The material sword must cooperate with the spiritual 


aiid assist it. 7. The secular power should be guided by the spir- 
itual, as the higher. 8. The spiritual has the preeminence over 
the material. 9. The temporal power is subordinate to the ec- 
clesiastical, as to the higher. 10. The temporal power, if it is not 
good, is judged by the spiritual. 11. To the ecclesiastical authority" 
(that is, to the Pope and his hierarchy) "the words of the prophet 
Jeremiah apply: 4 Lo, I have set thee this da.y over the nations 
and over the kingdoms to root up and pull down, and to waste, and 
to destroy, and to build, and to plant/ 12. When the temporal 
power goes astray, it is judged by the spiritual. 13. For obtaining 
eternal happiness, each one is required to submit to the Pope. 
14. The supremacy of the Pope, even in temporal things, is to be 
enforced. 15. The Pope recognizes human authorities in their 
proper place, till they lift their will against God." 

In his encyclical of 1864, Pius IX pronounces condemnation 
upon all those who will not acknowledge the Pope's authority to 
lay his commands upon states in such a way that not only family 
life, the school, and education pass entirely under the control of the 
Eoman Church, but that the Pope may even interfere in all legisla- 
tion and require its alteration. The Syllabus, appended to this 
letter, asserts the union of Church and State in the strongest terms. 
"The ecclesiastical power must exercise its authority without the 
permission or assent of the civil power." No. 20. "It has the right 
to employ force." No. 24. "'The Church ought not to be separated 
from the State nor the State from the Church." No. 55. 

This position has been upheld by the later Pontiffs. "Hence 
follows the fatal theory of the separation of Church and State. 
But the absurdity of such a position is manifest." The Great En- 
cyclical Letters of Leo XIII, p. 148. "It would be very erroneous 
to draw the conclusion that in America is to be sought the most 
desirable status of the Church or that it would be universally lawful 
or expedient for State and Church to be, as in America, dissevered 
and. divorced." Ib., p. 323. "The Church of Rome is one monarchy 
over all the kingdoms of the world, as the mind and soul of the 
body of a man, or as God in the world. Therefore the Church 
of Eome must not only have the spiritual power, but the supreme 
temporal power." Encyclical of 1879. 

After citing the principle of religious freedom and calling it 
"license," Leo XIII in his famous "Immortale Dei" (Nov. 1, 1885) 
said: "Prom this [license] the following consequences logically 
flow: that the judgment of each one's conscience is independent 


of all [papal] law; that the most unrestrained opinions may openly 
be expressed as to the practise or omission of divine [papal] wor- 
ship ; and that every one has unbounded license to think whatever 
he chooses and to publish abroad whatever he thinks." In the ideal 
state the Church has supreme authority in the making and ad- 
ministration of. the law. When separation of Church and State 
was declared in Portugal, Pius X, in his encyclical letter "lam- 
dudum," May 24, 1911, reprobated, condemned, and rejected this 
law, "which makes no account of God and repudiates the Cath- 
olic creed." 


227. Eoman theology distinguishes between man's original natural 
constitution, which included the flesh, by its very essence the seat 
of carnal desire (concupiscence), and a special endowment bestowed 
upon man by grace (donum gratiae superadditum) , which was 
necessary in order to subdue the rebellion of the flesh against the 
spirit. When, in the Fall, man lost these supernatural gifts, no 
important alteration took place in his nature. He had no perfect 
concreated holiness, therefore could not lose it. What he lost was 
his spiritual balance. Original sin is something negative, according 
to the Scotists, while according to the Thomists original sin is also 
something positive, consisting essentially in concupiscence. In 
order to satisfy the contending parties, the Council of Trent 
avoided, or rather carefully veiled, the point of controversy and 
stated that Adam through his own fault lost the holiness and 
righteousness wherein he had been "constituted," the ambiguous 
word constitutus being substituted for creatus. Thereby the whole 
Adam was changed for the worse. Sess. V. Original sin, then, has 
weakened and deflected, but not entirely destroyed and extinguished 
the freedom of the will. "Since all men through the fall of 
Adam have lost their innocence and have become unclean, yet their 
free will has by no means been extinguished, but has been weakened 
and distorted in its powers." Sess. VI, chap. I. "If one says that 
through the fall of Adam man's free will has been lost and ex- 
tinguished, let him be anathema." Sess. VI, can. 5. 

Original sin is eradicated in Baptism: "If any one asserts 
that [in baptism] the whole of that which has the true and proper 
nature of sin is not taken away, let him be anathema." The con- 
cupiscence which remains is not "truly and properly sin." Trid., 
Sess.V, : 5. : ' .' : "'' r 

The doctrine that original sin is not a corruption of the entire 
human nature^ but merely a loss of supernatural quality by which 



man was able to check his desires, is the entering wedge for the 
entire mass of Semi-Pelagian doctrines which stress man's ability 
to cooperate in his own salvation. 

An important exception is stated in Roman doctrine regard- 
ing the universality of the loss which humans sustained through 
the Fall. The exception is made in the case of the mother of our 
Lord. "From the first moment of her conception, by a spiritual 
grace and prerogative of God and with reference to the merits of 
Jesus Christ, Mary was preserved from every stain of hereditary 
guilt." Wilmers, .3, 177. The Vulgate translation of Gen. 3, 15 
("She will crush your head") is quoted as a Scriptural allusion to 
the Immaculate Conception. Mary was mortal indeed, but the 
theologians point out freedom from sin as one thing and im- 
mortality as another; hence, while in the fall of man the loss of 
the supernatural gift indeed produced death, preservation from 
the stain did not signify preservation from mortality. Wilmers, 
1. c., 179. The extravagant honors paid to the Virgin, as evidenced 
in the countless shrines and churches erected to her honor, the 
profusion of references to her in Roman literature and devotion, 
are dogmatically grounded in the preeminence accorded to her in 
the doctrine of a sinless conception. According to the "pious 
opinion" (not yet a defined dogma) of the theologians, Mary 
ascended to heaven (feast of the Assumption). 


228. Semi-Pelagianism runs through the entire Catholic presenta- 
tion of sin, grace, faith, justification, salvation. Man's nature is 
not utterly corrupt. He is able to obey the Law. Indeed, in a state 
of grace he is able to render perfect obedience. Yes, he is able to 
do more than God demanded of him. Salvation is brought about 
through a cooperation of man's free will with the grace of God 
(synergism) . 

"No one ought to make use of that rash saying, one 
prohibited by the Fathers under an anathema, that the ob- 
servance of the commandments of God is impossible for one that 
is justified, for God commands not impossibilities. . . . Although, 
during this mortal life, men, how holy and just soever, at times 
fall into at least light and daily sins, which are also called venial, 
not therefore do they cease to be just." Trid., Sess. VI, chap. XI. 

Good works are possible also before justification. "The good 
acts done by the help of grace before justification are not, strictly 
speaking, meritorious, but serve to smooth the way to justification, 


to move God, though merely through His mercy and condescension, 
to help us and render us better disposed for the same. But if, 
with the assistance of actual grace, good works are done by a person 
who is in a state of justifying grace, then they are acceptable to 
God and merit an increase of grace on earth and an increase of 
glory in heaven." Di Bruno, p. 59. 347 b. When Paul speaks of 
salvation without works, he "never meant to discountenance Gospel 
works, that is, internal or external acts or good works done by 
God's grace before being justified." Ib., 331. Not only before 
justification, but also after man has fallen into mortal sin, man 
can do good works. "When we are in mortal sin, we can do good, 
but cannot merit heaven." Deharbe. Such works do not merit 
anything; yet they are not useless. "The good done in mortal 
sin is very useful for obtaining from God's mercy the grace of 
conversion and sometimes for turning aside temporal punish- 
ment." Id. Cornelius (Acts 10, 4) is referred to as an example 
(though even according to Kome's definition he was not living in 
"mortal sin"). By the theologians, merit before and after justifi- 
cation is distinguished thus : God is just ; i. e., He is fair ; He will 
therefore give recompense to the man in response and propor- 
tionately to good works performed by him even before justification 
(meritum de congruo). But after the infusion of supernatural 
grace man is able to do supernatural works which can justly 
claim a supernatural rewa.rd from God (meritum de condigno). 

229. The distinction between mortal and venial sin is thus set 
forth: "Mortal and venial sins differ fundamentally in their 
effect on the soul; mortal brings immediate spiritual death, or 
separation from God, venial inflicts wounds more or less severe, 
but not immediately fatal; it cools, but does not dissolve the 
friendship of God. . . . Mortal sin is a thorough violation, or 
breaking, of a commandment oi' God witli full knowledge and 
deliberation. . . . Venial sin is either a slight infringement of 
the Law, or it may be in some cases a great violation of the Law, 
but rendered slight in the person who commits it through his want 
of sufficient knowledge, deliberation, or freedom. Venial sin is 
not a complete breaking of a commandment, but a tendency towards 
breaking it. ... Venial sin, although an offense against God, 
does not cause the forfeiture of God's friendship nor the loss of 
justifying grace, as mortal sin does; but it diminishes God's love 
towards us. ... It causes a stain and a guilt in the soul, of which 
we can easily obtain pardon ; and therefore it is in that sense called 


venial, from the Latin venia, pardon. . . . Mortal sin offends God 
grievously, causes death to the soul, and deserves everlasting 
punishment/ 7 Di Bruno, op. cit, p. 65 f. According to the uniform 
doctrine of the theologians venial sins entail only temporal 

Protestant theology also speaks of mortal sin, in the sense of 
sins that destroy faith. The Koman definition, however, dis- 
tinctly says that "not only unbelief, by which faith itself is lost, 
but also mortal sin, though faith be not lost on account of it," etc. 
Trid., Sess. VI, chap. XV. Of such it is said that they lose grace, 
but not faith. The lusts of the flesh which remain are not sinful 
and become sinful only when the will acquiesces in them. 47, 

On the teaching that deliberate intention belongs to the very 
nature of sin, is based also the denial of actual sin in infants. 
"Though poisoned by original sin and hence not entirely innocent, 
they are without the guilt of actual sin. Deut. 1, 39 ; Jonah 4, 11." 

23(X The process by which grace enters into the soul and undoes 
the evil of sin is described by Komanists in a manner which makes 
very clear the thoroughgoing synergism of their theology. The 
Eoman Catechism defines grace as "a divine quality inhering in the 
soul and, as it were, a glory and a light which removes all the stains 
from the soul and makes the soul itself more beautiful and 
glorious." II, 2, 49. Accordingly, grace is not a quality in God. 
but a quality infused and now dwelling in the soul, by virtue of 
which man may do good and obtain the forgiveness of sins. The 
theologians distinguish between actual grace, defined as "a pass- 
ing, supernatural, divine help, enlightening our understanding 
and moving our will and enabling us to perform any single good 
action"; and habitual grace, or the grace of justification, the last- 
ing condition of the Christian. Di Bruno., p. 59. Cp. Wilmers. 
4, 5. 6. 

"The goodness of God goes before and meets the soul and 
gives to every soul gratuitously a first grace (an actual, not justify- 
ing grace), by the aid of which the soul can perform good works 
(not, however, deserving heaven) and obtain further grace. . . . 
Most frequently one of the first graces is the grace to pray, in order 
to obtain more abundant help. . . . Every one can by prayer obtain 
more grace from God, prepare himself to obtain the free gift of 
justification, and, by cooperating or working with it, arrive at ever- 
lasting life. Almighty God, because He is eternal and all-knowing, 
knows beforehand the cooperation of the good with His grace, their 


good works, perseverance, and final salvation. As the salvation of 
the good is owing to God's grace, given to them in the measure 
that He foreknew they would make use of and not resist, though 
they could have resisted it, it follows that those that are saved must 
be considered to have been predestined, because their salvation was 
not only foreseen, but effected by God through His grace, which 
sanctified them and helped them in the good use of their free will, 
left in them unconstrained." Di Bruno, p. 314. , 

The popular presentation of the way of salvation as taught in 
the Koman Catholic Church may be illustrated by the following 
from The Hour, a Catholic paper published in Detroit, Michigan : 
"Man had sinned, and man should pay ; but man was incapable of 
paying a limitless debt. God alone could pay such a debt. The 
omnipotence and the wisdom of God shone forth in the Incarnation, 
and men were given a Kedeemer, who was at once man (of the race 
who should pay) and God, who alone could pay. Our divine Lord 
offered Himself in adequate payment of the infinite debt. He took 
our sins upon Himself, not in the sense that He was in any wise 
tainted with sins or took their stain upon Him this is unthinkable 
in the all-pure God. But as our Sponsor, as one who 'goes bail/ 
He bore in Himself the suffering necessary to expiate the debt of 
human sin. What, then, is the result ? All men 'saved' in the death 
of Christ? Is it only necessary to have faith in Christ to achieve 
heaven? Not at all. Even before the redemption, even when our 
first parents were in the full possession of God's wondrous grace 
and of faculties of mind and will unhurt by sin, they had to make 
a free choice, perform a free act of their own, to merit heaven. 
Their salvation, in a true sense, depended on their deeds, on their 
works. So, though Christ has truly died for our sins, died to save 
us, it is not only necessary that we have faith in Him, but it is 
necessary that we belong to the Church which He founded to preach 
His Gospel and to conserve and perpetuate the saving sacraments, 
and it is further necessary that we keep His commandments and 
the commandments of His Church. The Hour, July 10, 1924. 

231* Good works and Christ's merit, therefore, are the two causes 
of our state of grace. "We have the expiatory merits of Christ, 
which God is pleased to accept in our favor; but then with His 
satisfaction we must join our own penitential works." Perry, In- 
structions. In this connection it must be noted that, when Roman 
theology speaks of "good works," it has in mind not so much the 
good deeds which follow out of a virtuous heart, but that very 



specifically this term applies to prayers, fastings, and penances 
(237) and, further, the observance of the commandments of the 
Church and of the so-called evangelical counsels. 

Good works are regarded not only as in themselves meritorious, 
but even as an atonement for guilt. "The same work may be 
meritorious and propitiating and impetrating. Giving alms is 
meritorious since it aids the needy neighbor; propitiatory, since 
it involves self-denial on our own part. Prayer is meritorious since 
by it we honor God ; propitiatory, because God fulfils our petition." 
Wilmers, 2, 620. "Also the elect attain to salvation as a reward 
for their works. For, although they were chosen from eternity, 
they had to merit salvation through their good works." Id., 748. 
"Man must cooperate by his own activity in order to attain sanc- 
tifying grace." Id., 4, 15. "Man cooperates with the grace of 
God." P. 23. 

In addition to the works prescribed by the Law, the members 
of monastic orders perform certain works of supererogation. These 
are particularly three, proposed by the Church in her evangelical 
counsels (consilia evangelica) chastity, obedience, and poverty, 
the vows taken by the monks and nuns. These works are called by 
Bellarmine "more difficult, better and more perfect, and re- 
ceiving a higher reward than the works commanded by Christ." 
De Monachis, c. 7. According to Trid., Sess. VI, can. 21, Christ is 
a new lawgiver, the evangelical counsels allegedly being founded on 
the Sermon on the Mount. It follows that the Gospel is a doc- 
trine of works, is essentially Law. Trid., Sess. VI, can. 19. 

In addition, there is a vast amount of legislation, vaguely de- 
scribed as "the commandments of the Church/' which the Catholic 
is to observe and by which he may merit salvation. The Judaistic 
character of Romanism stands fully revealed in its insistence on 
these specific "commandments of the Church": 1) observance of 
the feasts of the Church; 2) the hearing of Mass on Sundays and 
holy days of obligation; 3) the observance of the fasts and absti- 
nence; 4) the obligation of the Easter communion. 

Add to this the Eoman contention that the Church (the 
apostles) changed the Sabbath into Sunday. The Eoman Catholic 
Church thus commands where God does not command (also in the 
case of the creation of new sacraments and prohibited degrees) ; 
furthermore, she dispenses from God's commands (prohibited 
degrees, parental consent), prohibits what God has not prohibited 
(celibacy, no remarriage in case of divorce for the cause of fornica- 


tion or wilful desertion) or what God has commanded (communion 
in one kind). 

In spite of this apparatus of works and human effort, or rather 
because of it, a Catholic never can have the assurance of the forgive- 
ness of sins, of the grace of God. Trid., Sess. VI, chap. IX. The 
perseverance of the saints is altogether uncertain since it is based 
upon man's cooperation through good works. Catholic doctrine 
speaks of "human and divine cooperation in the second birth and its 
consummation." J. A. Moehler, Symbolism, p. 155. "Eternal hap- 
piness," according to the Catholic Cyclopedia (sub v. Predesina- 
tion), is "primarily the work of God; secondarily, the fruit and 
reward of the meritorious actions." The merits which are here 
named are the following : "prayers, good works, and perseverance," 
perseverance thus being considered as work of man. If the 
perseverance of the believer is a matter of great uncertainty, he can 
naturalty have no assurance of it. Moehler goes so far as to say : 
"I think that in the neighborhood of any man who would declare 
himself under all circumstances assured of his salvation I should 
feel very uncomfortable and should probably have some difficulty to 
put away the thought that something like diabolical influence was 
here at play." Op. cit., p. 158. 

232. Justification by faith as taught in the Eoman Church can 
be understood only if the concept "faith" as defined in Catholic 
doctrine is kept in mind. By faith the Eoman Church does not 
mean the confidence of the heart that we through Christ have for- 
giveness of sin and a gracious God. Faith is primarily not trust, 
but an act of the understanding; "a virtue whereby we hold as 
true what God has revealed and the Catholic Church proposes to our 
belief." 8 ) Wilmers, op. cit., I, p. 57 f. We observe, this definition of 
faith includes also an understanding of the Law. In this we are 
confirmed when we read in the Canons of Trent that faith produces 
in the soul a fear of God's avenging justice. Only when the desire 
for forgiveness has been awakened and has been followed by the 
first beginning of charity, "justification" may take place. Sess. VI, 
(.'hap. VI. Accordingly, justification is something entirely different 
from justification in the Protestant, the Pauline, sense. It is not 
a forensic act, by which God declares a man who believes in Christ 
free from the guilt of sin, but a process within man by which God 
makes the sinner just and holy. 

8) The Koehlerglaube of the Catholic. (Fides implicita.) 


The Council of Trent condemned in five canons of Session VI 
the Biblical doctrine of justification by faith alone. The principal 
.are the following : Canon 9. "If any one saith that by faith alone 
the impious is justified, in such wise as to mean that nothing else 
is required to cooperate in order to the obtaining the grace of 
justification, and that it is not in any way necessary that he be 
prepared and disposed by the movement of his own will, let him be 
anathema." Canon 11. "If any one saith that men are justified 
either by the sole imputation of the justice of Christ or by the sole 
remission of sins, to the exclusion of the grace and the charity which 
is poured forth in their hearts by the Holy Ghost and is inherent in 
them, or even that the grace whereby we are justified is only the 
favor of God, let him be anathema/' (To understand this canon, 
one must keep in mind the Eoman definition of "grace" and 
"charity .") Canon 12. "'If any one saith that justifying faith is 
nothing else but confidence in the divine mercy which remits sins 
for Christ's sake or that this confidence alone is that whereby we 
are justified, let him be anathema." 

Fundamentally the Eoman doctrine of justification is governed 
by its complete misinterpretation of the work of Christ. Justifica- 
tion is not essentially an imputation of Christ's righteousness. This 
view is explicitly rejected. Christ has not earned righteousness for 
us, but has merited justification. By justification we are not pro- 
nounced righteous, but made righteous. Sins are not covered up, 
but are eradicated. In other words, justification is identical with 
sanctification. Hence such incongruous expressions as "to be more 
completely justified," Trid., Sess. VI, chap. X ; "Justification is 
attained by faith," and this is not trust in Christ's merits, but 
a belief that Christian revelation is true; Justification is com- 
pleted by faith active through good works, the fides formata; cp. 
Sess. VI, chap. VII. Oath. Encyc., V, 757 : " 'informed* by charity, 
or love of God." Good works are distinctly "not only fruits of 
justification, but preserve and increase the justice received." (Quite 
evidently this "justice" is a quality in man.) From this follows 
by simple necessity the doctrine that ""the good works of the just 
truly and properly are meritorious, deserving not only some kind 
of reward, but deserving life eternal itself." Bellarmine, quoted 
by Winer, Komparative Darstellung, 1837, p. 104. Lest this evalua- 
tion of good works be misunderstood, Bellarmine takes pains to 
say: "We believe that eternal life regarding its first and all its 
other degrees is granted for the good merits of God's children. 


It is a general teaching of Scripture that not only a special degree 
of glory, but glory itself is a reward of good works." Ib. 

Faith is not the important thing in justification. Faith is 
a purely intellectual acknowledgment of Catholic teaching, which 
may exist even when a person has become worthy of damnation 
through mortal sin, Trid., Sess. VI, chap. XV ; and as for the 
"grace" of justification, the Koman definition says nothing of divine 
love and pardon for the sinner, but looks upon grace as a quality 
in man which has been divinely implanted in the soularid which 
is now "a germ of supernatural life within us, by means of which 
a worthiness for eternal life is conferred." Wilmers, op. cit., II, 
p. 339. 228. 

Hence justification is assured only when the sinner has ful- 
filled certain "dispositions," among which the Council of Trent 
mentions fear of God, charity, and at least a desire for Baptism. 
Sess. VI, chap. VI. Di Bruno thus arrives at the following defini- 
tion : "Justification is a divine act which conveys sanctifying grace 
and by that grace communicates a supernatural life to the soul. 
The grace of justification does not merely cover sin, but blots it out, 
that is, blots out the guilt and stain arising from sin, and remits 
the everlasting punishment due to it," not, however, the tem- 
poral punishments. Op. cit., p. 56. 

Against the teaching of justification by faith alone Roman 
theology has directed its sharpest attacks ever since the curse of 
Trent was pronounced upon this doctrine. Scriptural warrant is 
denied for the teaching that faith may signify "reliance on Jesus 
for being personally saved through this very reliance alone" and 
for teaching "the doctrine of trust in Christ for personal salvation 
as the only requisite for justification." Di Bruno, op. cit., p. 322. 
"Trusting is not apprehending: God bestows His justification on 
us when He finds us disposed to receive it." P. 326. By this route 
again Di Bruno arrives at the doctrine of Trent, namely, "the 
necessity of faith, or belief in revelation, of hope or trust, fear and 
love of God, humility, repentance, purpose to observe the command- 
ments, and application of the Sacraments to obtain justification." 
P. 329. 

The popular catechisms reflect this teaching. Deharbe's Large 
Catechism has this : "Why is sanctifying grace called also the grace 
of justification? Because by sanctifying grace we are justified; 
that is, we pass from the state of sin to the state of righteousness 
and holiness." It is evident that no person can ever be certain of 


salvation when salvation is made to depend upon one's state of 
sanctification, that is,, upon one's holiness. It is true that even in 
the Canons of Trent, Sess. VI, chap. VIII, justification, the in- 
fusion of righteousness, is called a free gift, since no preparation 
of man may merit the grace of justification. Yet it is to be re- 
membered that self-disposition of man is credited with a meritum 
ex congruo. 228. Bellarmine goes so far as to say: "By faith we 
please God and to a certain extent merit justification." Justif., 1, 17. 


233, The seven sacraments are summarized in the Eoman Cat- 
echism as follows : "Baptism, by which we are born again to Christ ; 
confirmation by which we grow up and are strengthened in the 
grace of God; the Eucharist, that true bread from heaven which 
nourishes our souls to eternal life; penance, by which the soul 
which has caught the contagion of sin is restored to spiritual health ; 
extreme unction, which obliterates the traces of sin and invigorates 
the powers of the soul; holy orders for the public administration 
of the sacraments; and finally, matrimony, a sacrament instituted 
for the legitimate and holy union of man and woman, for the con- 
servation of the human race and the education of children in the 
knowledge of religion and the love and fear of God." Rom. C., 
p. 148. 124 

According to Roman definition "a sacrament is an outward 
sign of inward grace ordained by Jesus Christ, by which grace is 
given to our souls." Di Bruno, op. cit., p. 61. More fully it is 
defined as "an outward sign of a corresponding invisible grace 
ordained by Jesus Christ as a permanent means in the Church and 
which, by virtue of Christ's infinite merits, has power to convey to 
the worthy receiver the grace which it signifies. The object of the 
sacraments is to apply the fruit of our Savior's redemption to men 
by conveying, through their means, to our souls either the 'habitual 
grace' of justification or an increase of the same and a pouring in of 
other graces or the recovery of justification when lost." Ib. See also 
Trid., Sess. XIII, chap. III. 

Sacraments have their power ex opere operato (by the simple 
performance of the act), even when the recipient has not faith: 
"If any one saith that by the said sacraments of the New Law grace 
is not conferred through the act performed [ex opere operato], 
but that faith alone in the divine promise suffices for the obtain- 
ing of grace, let him be anathema." Trid., Sess. VII, Can. 8. ''' 


Concerning the indelible character received in Baptism, con- 
firmation, and ordination there is much dispute whether it has been 
received by the essence of the soul or by its powers, and if the 
latter, then by which of the powers, the reason, the will, etc. This 
character possesses certain marks. It joins the possessor with 
Christ. It distinguishes the possessor from those who do not 
have it. It disposes and enables one to celebrate the sacrament. 
It is a memorial of the sacrament and obliges the possessor to 
observe the divine Law. Theologians regard as especially effective 
the indelible character received in ordination. 

234 For the proper administration of the sacraments it is neces- 
sary that the officiating priest have the right intention. He must 
in his own mind have the .purpose "to do what the Church does," 
for instance, actually to absolve from sin in pronouncing the 
formula of absolution, actually to unite in matrimony those over 
whom the formula of marriage is pronounced; etc. This doctrine 
of intention seems to make the sacrament, on its human side, de- 
pend upon the personal rather than upon the official action of the 
minister and therefore to require a private intention in the min- 
ister's own mind to perform the sacrament and not merely a 
publicly expressed intention, for which the apparent fact that 
a man is acting in an official capacity is sufficient evidence. In 
this antithesis we have roughly indicated the point at issue between 
those theologians who require "interior intention" in the minister 
of a sacrament and those who hold that "exterior intention" is 
enough. There are various sorts of difficulties about this doctrine. 
Those Catholic theologians who hold that the "interior intention" 
in the minister of a sacrament is not required experience great 
difficulty in reconciling their view with the clear statements of 
their creed. The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent 
declare: "If any one saith that in ministers, when they effect and 
confer the sacraments, there is not required the intention at least 
of doing what the Church does, let him be anathema." Sess. VII, 
Can. 11. "The penitent ought not so to confide in his own per- 
sonal faith as to think that, even though there be no contrition 
on his part or no intention on the part of the priest of acting 
seriously and absolving truly, lie is nevertheless truly and in God's 
sight absolved on account of his faith alone." Sess. XIV, chap. VI. 
"If any one saith that the sacramental absolution of the priest is 
not a judicial act, but a bare ministry of pronouncing and declar- 
ing sins to be forgiven to him who confesses, provided only he 


believe himself to be absolved, or (even though) the priest absolve 
not in earnest, but in joke, ... let him be anathema." Sess. XIV, 
Can. 9. Unless these theologians can delete these canons from their 
creed, we shall have to consider them as under the anathema of 
their Church. The difficulties besetting the other party of Cath- 
olic theologians are presented by Cardinal Bellarmine in this cold- 
blooded manner : "No one can be certain, with the certainty of 
faith, that he receives a true sacrament, because the sacrament 
cannot be valid without the intention of the minister, and no man 
can see another's intention." Quotation by Littledale, p. 22. It will 
prove a most difficult task to convince the devout Catholic that 
he received a true absolution, since the mental attitude of the 
priest is made an essential factor in the efficacy of the sacrament 
of penance. 

235* Baptism. The Eoman Church baptizes in the name of the 
Triune God. It declares that an indelible character is imprinted 
by Baptism ; that it is necessary unto salvation ; that little children 
shall be baptized; that in baptism "we become children of the 
Church." Indeed, it is held that every baptized person in the 
world is a member of the Catholic Church unless he has openly 
declared his separation from it. Wilmers 2, 598. 607. From this 
follows that every Christian is under the jurisdiction of the Roman 
Church by virtue of his baptism. Trid., Sess. XIV, chap. II. 

In baptism "we receive a supernatural life bv the application 
of water and the Holy Ghost." However, through Baptism faith 
is not created, but is "presumed" in children : "God can remit the 
original sin and give them spiritual life simply by [their] being 
baptized, as He did to the Jewish children who were circumcised 
the eighth day, and when faith was presumed in them. . . . How 
can Baptism give supernatural life to a child if the child does not 
believe in it? ... God can give His grace to souls when they do 
not yet believe, but when faith can be presumed." Questions Asked 
by Protestants, p. 3. 5. Trent declares that infants do not believe 
"by their own act," but are baptized "in the faith alone of the 
Church." Sess. VII, Can. 13. In the Eoman ceremony the head 
of the baptized is anointed with the chrism. 

As to the fate of infants who die without baptism : "Though 
the Church, in obedience to God's Word, declares that unbaptized 
infants are excluded from the kingdom of heaven, it should not 
hence be concluded that they are consigned to the place of the 
reprobate. None are condemned to the torments of the damned 



but such as merit divine vengeance by their personal sins. All that 
the Church holds on this point is that unregenerate children are 
deprived of the beatific vision, or the possession of God, which 
constitutes the essential happiness of the blessed. . . . There are 
some Catholic writers of distinction who even assert that unbaptized 
infants enjoy a certain degree of natural beatitude, that is, a hap- 
piness which is based on the natural knowledge and love of God." 
Gibbons, op. cit., p. 273. The limbus infantum, 249, Concerning 
the rebaptism of non-Catholics the practise is not uniform. 

The doctrine of "baptism of desire" is stated by Gibbons thus : 
"If a man is heartily sorry for his sins, if he loves God with his 
whole heart, if he desires to comply with all the divine ordinances, 
including Baptism, but has no opportunity of receiving it or is not 
sufficiently instructed as to its necessity, God in this case accepts 
the will for the deed. Should this man die in these dispositions, 
he is saved by the baptism of desire." Op. cit., p. 271. Cp. Wil- 
mers, 2, 592 fL The "baptism of blood" death by martyrdom 
of such as have not received baptism is another figment invented 
to remove the difficulty in the doctrine that Baptism is indispen- 
sable to salvation. 

236, Confirmation. The Council of Trent, Sess. VII, Can. 1, 
declares confirmation to be a true sacrament and curses those who 
claim that it was of old "a kind of catechization of youths who 
were giving an account of their faith before the church" as also 
those who would permit every priest to celebrate this rite. Con- 
firmation is called "a sacrament from the beginning"' 5 ; but as a 
matter of fact, it was not looked upon fully as a sacrament until 
about the thirteenth century. Cardinal Gibbons defines this rite 
as follows : "Confirmation is a sacrament in which, through the 
imposition of the bishop's hands, unction, and prayer, baptized per- 
sons receive the Holy Ghost that they may steadfastly profess their 
faith and lead upright lives. This sacrament is called confirmation 
because it confirms, or strengthens, the soul by divine grace. Some- 
times it is named the laying on of hands because the bishop imposes 
his hands on those whom he confirms. It is also known by the 
name of chrism because the forehead of the person confirmed is 
anointed with chrism in the form of a cross." Op. cit., p. 280. Con- 
firmation takes place now at age six (formerly at age seven). 

The chrism is an unguent of olive-oil and balsam blessed by 
the bishop. The formula is: "I sign thee with the sign of the 
cross and confirm thee with the chrism of salvation in the name 


of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost." Confirma- 
tion is said to imprint upon the soul an indelible character and 
therefore cannot be repeated. Trid., Sess. VII, Can. 9. 

237, Penance. The satisfaction which Christ made for sin has 
released the sinner from guilt and from the eternal punishment 
due him for mortal sins, and such remission he receives by absolu- 
tion of the priest. However, there remain the temporal punish- 
ments due to sin, and these must be suffered either here or in 
purgatory and are remitted only by works of satisfaction, or 
penance, the third of the seven sacraments. Its essential parts 
are contrition, confession, and satisfaction. "If any one denieth 
that for the entire and perfect remission of sins there are required 
three acts in the penitent, which are, as it were, the matter of the 
sacrament of penance, to wit, contrition, confession, and satisfac- 
tion, which are called the three parts of penance, or saith that 
there are two parts only of penance, to wit, the terrors with which 
the conscience is smitten upon being convinced of sin and the faith 
generated by the Gospel, or by the absolution, whereby one believes 
that his sins are forgiven him through Christ, let him be anath- 
ema." Trid., Sess. XIV, Can. 4. 

1) Contrition is sorrow of mind and hatred of sin together 
with the resolution not to sin in the future. Trid., ib., chap. IV. 
Kom. C., II, 5, Qu. 31. When this sentiment arises from the love 
and fear of God, it is called perfect contrition ; if it arises from 
the fear of punishment or from other motives, it is called attrition. 
Now, since the penitent by attrition prepares a way for himself 
unto justice, Trid., Sess. XIV, chap. 4, and since true faith in Christ 
is demanded neither in attrition nor in the sacrament of penance; 
we have an explanation of the mechanical Roman idea of justifica- 
tion without Christ, partly through the acts of the penitent and 
partly through the absolution of the priest (opus operatum). Con- 
trition, it should be noted, is not regarded as wrought by God, 
but as the voluntary product of man when lie contemplates his own 
sinful condition. Trid., Sess. XIV, Can. 5. Also, the Council of 
Trent distinguishes between repentance before and repentance after 
the coming of Christ, Sess. XIV, chap. I. 

2 ) Confession. Eome insists that all mortal sins committed 
after baptism which one can remember must be confessed, i. e., enu- 
merated, with the particular circumstances, to a priest in order to 
obtain forgiveness. The power to forgive sins was given only to 
the apostles and their successors in office, the bishops and priests. 


Therefore only the clergy have the right to pronounce absolution. 
The priest as the judge authorized by the Almighty has the right 
to impart or to withhold forgiveness from the penitent. Since 
confession and absolution, together with satisfaction form the 
sacrament of penance, and since Eome teaches that the sacraments 
confer grace on the recipient ex opere operato, that is, by the mere 
external act ("the act performed"), it necessarily follows that the 
priest's absolution, given in good faith on his part, always confers 
.grace. "If any one saith that by the said sacraments of the New 
Law grace is not conferred through the act performed, but that 
faith alone in the divine promise suffices for the obtaining of grace, 
let him be anathema." Trid., Sess. VII, Can. 8. 

It is reasoned that, since the priests have the power to retain 
and to remit sins, they are also appointed to be judges over them; 
and since no true judgment can be formed on any case nor the 
measure of justice be observed in passing the sentence of punish- 
ment for a wrong committed unless the case have been fully in- 
vestigated, it follows that in his confession the penitent must 
reveal to the priest all sins one by one v Trid., Sess. XIV, chap. V. 
Furthermore, grievous sins are not only to be enumerated and 
made known, but also the particular circumstances of each sin must 
be declared, by which the weight (guilt) of the latter is either 
increased or decreased. 

The theory is that, since there can be no repetition of baptism, 
sins committed after baptism must be cleansed in another manner, 
and that is by the sentence of the priest, by which the faithful 
"might be freed, not once, but as often as, being penitent, they 
should from their sins committed flee thereunto." Trid., Sess. XIV, 
chap. II. The creed emphasizes that "all the mortal sins of which, 
after a diligent examination of themselves, they are conscious must 
needs be by penitents enumerated in confession," while venial sins 
"may be omitted without guilt and be expiated by many other 
remedies." As for mortal sins not remembered at the time of con- 
fession, these "are understood to be included as a whole in that 
same confession." Trid., Sess. XIV, chap. V. 

Public confession is not forbidden, but private (auricular) is 
commanded. A mortal sin deliberately held back is unforgiven. 
The priest is forbidden, under the severest penalties, to reveal any- 
thing confided to him in the confessional. Confession must be 
made at least once a year, during Lent, and after the seventh birth- 
day of the church-member. There are certain sins for which the 


parish priest cannot give him absolution, which are therefore re- 
served to the bishop or even the Pope. "Keserved cases," Trid., 
Sess. XIV, chap. VII. 

238. 3) Satisfaction. After confession has been made, the 
priest is in a position to impose works of penance commensurate 
with the sin confessed. If the sinner fails to perform them, his 
term in purgatory is lengthened. The works of penance are prayer, 
fasting, and almsgiving, also pilgrimages and other acts of self- 

a) "If any one saith that satisfaction for sins as to their 
temporal punishment is nowise made to God, through the merits 
of Jesus Christ, by the punishments inflicted by Him and patiently 
borne, or by those enjoined by the priest, nor even by those volun- 
tarily undertaken, as by fastings, prayers, almsdeeds, or by other 
works also of piety, and that, therefore, the best penance is merely 
a new life, let him be anathema." Trid., Sess. XIV, Can. 13. 
The Eoman handbooks quote in proof Luke 3, 1 : "Bring forth 
therefore fruits worthy of penance" and 13, 3 : "Except you do 
penance, you shall all likewise perish" and Ezek. 19, 30 : "Be con- 
verted and do penance for all your iniquities, and iniquity shall 
not be your ruin." (The words used in these passages signify repent 
or repentance and not the doing of some external act as a satisfac- 
tion for sin, or penance.) 

While penances are a powerful engine of priestly despotism, 
Borne also in this matter manifests her prudence in dealing with 
individuals. Penances are imposed by the Church not so much 
according to the "ability" as according to the liking of the penitent, 
thus rendering a "salutary" duty of her children still sweeter. It is 
held unwise, in general, to enjoin upon children to ask their 
parents 3 or other people's pardon for disobedience, disrespect, and 
little stealings, because such penances often produce aversion to con- 
fession and are generally not performed ; as a rule, the penance of 
fasting should seldom be imposed, and then only upon those who 
would gladly undertake it; almsgiving is never to be imposed, un- 
less it be cheerfully performed, etc. 

b) An indulgence is the remission in whole or in part of the 
temporal punishment due to sin after sacramental absolution. 
Hence it is not properly forgiveness of sin in the sense of restoring 
a sinner to God's favor ; that has been accomplished by the sacrifice 
of Christ. Nor, of course, is an indulgence in standard Catholic 
theology a permission to commit a sin. It is a remission of tern- 


poral punishment, and by this is understood any affliction of body 
or soul in this life or the next. As temporal punishments due to sin 
the popular handbooks specify "the ills of life: sickness, losses, 
shortcomings, fires, war, damages, oppressions, . . . and the pains 
of purgatory." Philipps, op. cit., p. 35. Eemission of such punish- 
ment is made by transferring to the sinner's account righteousness 
from the exhaustless treasury of superabundant works laid up by 
Christ and the saints and entrusted to the Church's keeping. 

Indulgences may be personal, when granted to a certain class 
of persons only (such as confraternities and other pious associa- 
tions) ; local, when attached to a certain place, e. g., a church; real, 
when attached to certain things or objects, such as crosses, images, 
beads, medals, and the like, and to be gained only by their owners. 
Incredibly richly endowed with indulgences is the rosary, a string 
of beads used in counting prayers. (The beads are usually fifty- 
nine in number six large beads, representing "Our Fathers," and 
fifty-three small ones, for "Hail Marys.") 

c) As expressed by Wilmers, "God leaves it to our choice 
whether we take our punishment here on earth or later in pur- 
gatory, and the punishment of sin on earth is the more tolerable." 
Op. cit., 4, 765. The popular literature is in full harmony with 
this. But even for the souls in purgatory, indulgences can be had 
by a minimum of effort on the part of the faithful. "What easier," 
says the Messenger of the Sacred Heart, "than to have the holy 
name of Jesus on our lips as we go from hallowed mound to mound 
and from row to row? Inclulgenced ejaculations are hardly valued 
enough. 'My Jesus, mercy!' 100 clays each time; 'Jesus, Mary!' 
300 days each time; 'Heart of Jesus, in Thee I trust!' 300 days 
each time : 'Sweet Heart of Jesus, be Thou my love !' 300 days 
each time. In less than a minute's time, if you have the proper 
dispositions of contrition and love, you have a thousand days' in- 
dulgence, a remission of temporal punishment that could have been 
acquired in olden centuries only by ten hundred days of penitential 
sackcloth and ashes." Whoever on the second of August, St. Por- 
tiunoula's Day, goes to H church of the Franciscan monks or makes 
u pilgrimage to Loretto in Italy (whither the house of the holy 
family at Nazareth was carried by angels in 1291) in order to 
confess and receive the Sacrament of the Altar, prays for the unity 
of the Eoman Catholic rulers, the destruction of Lutherans and all 
other heretics, and the elevation of the Papacy above the universe, 
is granted perfect indulgence and remission of sins for himself, 


which grant the Pope allows him to transfer upon his friends, in 
purgatory. Or he who in the month of May, which is given up to 
the worship of the Virgin Mary, takes part in a Marian devotion 
is rewarded with an indulgence for 300 days by the power of 
Pius VII. If he goes to confession and communion and prays for 
.the Church and against its enemies during the month of Mary, 
he is granted perfect or perpetual indulgence and permission to 
share it with his friends in purgatory. 

d) Indulgences originated in the penitential discipline of the 
early Church, in itself a legalistic business, superimposed on the 
Scripture doctrine of penitence and restoration. Only gradually, 
after passing through different stages of self-humiliation, penitent 
sinners were restored to the privileges of the Church. A more 
sinister change was wrought when penances were no longer regarded 
as an expression of sorrow for sin primarily, but as something that 
had merit in the eyes of the divine Judge, a compensation offered 
for transgression. Indulgences were commuted .penances, the 
various degrees of humiliation being bought off by a pilgrimage or 
by the giving of money to religious purposes. In a high degree 
the participation in a crusade was deemed worthy of a plenary 
indulgence, by which all the temporal punishment due to sin was 
remitted. When the doctrine grew in favor that the Church had 
an unlimited treasure of superfluous works which, for a considera- 
tion, could be transferred to the account of those who had a shortage 
of their own (see opera, supererogationis, 231), the financial pos- 
sibilities of indulgences were discovered. The traffic in indulgences 
led to Luther's posting of the Ninety-five Theses. The Council of 
Trent speaks of the need of expiating temporal punishments in 
these terms: "It is wholly false and alien from the Word of God 
that the guilt is never forgiven by the Lord without the whole 
punishment also being therewith pardoned. ... It beseems the 
divine clemency that sins be not in such wise pardoned us without 
any satisfaction." Sess. XIV, chap. VIII. "If any one saith that 
God always remits the whole punishment together with the guilt 
and that the satisfaction of penitents is no other than the faith 
whereby they apprehend that Christ has satisfied for them, let him 
be anathema.-" Can. 12. "If any one saith that it is a fiction that, 
after the eternal punishment has, by virtue of the keys, been 
removed, there remains for the most part a temporal punishment 
to be discharged, let him be anathema." Can. 15. 

Regarding indulgences the 25th Session adopted a separate 


decree which enjoined "that the use of indulgences, for the Chris- 
tian people most salutary and approved of by the authority of sacred 
councils, is to be retained in the Church; and it condemns with 
anathema those who either assert that they are useless or who deny 
that there is in the Church the power of granting them." There is 
an echo of the Reformation in the caution against abuses "by oc- 
casion of which this honorable name of indulgences is blasphemed 
by heretics." 

239. The Eucharist. Unleavened wheat bread, Rom. C., II, 4, 
qu. 13. 14, and wine mixed with water are the materia of the Lord's 
Supper, the words "This is My body; this is My blood" its forma. 
The words of the institution "Do this in remembrance of Me" are 
quoted as giving the apostles power to change bread and wine into 
the body and blood. From them this power has passed to their 
successors in priesthood, the Roman clergy, Trid., Sess. XXII, 
chap. I. The benefits of Holy Communion are these : Increase of 
sanctifying grace in man, suppressing evil desires and strengthen- 
ing the good, cleansing from venial sins. 

a) Transubstantiation is thus described in the Canons and 
Decrees of Trent: "Because that Christ, our Redeemer, declared 
that which He offered under the species of bread to be truly His 
own body, therefore has it ever been a firm belief in the Church of 
God, and this holy synod doth now declare it anew, that by the 
consecration of the bread and of the wine a conversion is made of 
the whole substance of the bread into the substance of the body of 
Christ, our Lord, and of the whole substance of the wine into the 
substance of His blood; which conversion is by the Holy Catholic 
Church suitably and properly called transubstantiation." Sess. 
XIII, chap. IV. Astounding as this miracle would be, the Roman 
definition of what happens with the earthly elements through their 
consecration is more than simply a transmuting of the bread into 
flesh and the wine into blood. The Council of Trent makes this 
further declaration: "Immediately after the consecration the 
veritable body of our Lord and His veritable blood, together with 
His soul and divinity, are under the species of bread and wine; 
but the body indeed under the species of bread and the blood under 
the species of wine, by the force of the words; but the body itself 
under the species of wine and the blood under the species of bread 
and the soul under both, by the force of that natural connexion and 
concomitancy whereby the parts of Christ our Lord, who hath now 
risen from the dead, to die no more, are united together; and the 


divinity, furthermore, on account of the admirable hypostatical 
union thereof with His body and soul. Wherefore it is most true 
that as much is contained under either species as under both; for 
Christ whole and entire is under the species of bread and under 
any part whatsoever of that species; likewise the whole (Christ) is 
under the species of wine and under the parts thereof. Trid., 
Sess. XIII, chap. III. Cp. Di Bruno, op. cit., p. 208. Creed of 
Pius IV. 131. 

b) The presence of the whole person of Christ His divinity, 
soul, body, and blood under either of the species is explained by 
a mutual inseparability called concomitance, which means that the 
body and blood, human soul and divine nature, of Christ must 
always go together. On this concomitance is based the practise of 
celebrating the Sacrament only "in one kind," or "under one 
species," the people receiving only the bread. The Catholic Church 
holds that twofold reception is not demanded by the nature or by 
the institution of the Sacrament. "If any one denieth that in the 
venerable Sacrament of the Eucharist the whole Christ is contained 
under each species, and under every part of each species when 
separated, let him be anathema." Trid., Sess. XIII, Can. 3. 

c) Another, even more serious, perversion of the Sacrament is 
based upon the doctrine of transubstantiation. It is the adoration 
of the host practised in the Eoman Church. "If any one saith that 
in the holy Sacrament of the Eucharist Christ, the only-begotten 
Son of God, is not to be adored with the worship, even external, of 
latria, and is, consequently, neither to be venerated with a special 
festive solemnity nor to be solemnly borne about in processions, 
according to the laudable and universal rite and custom of Holy 
Church, or is not to be proposed publicly to the people to be adored 
and that the adorers thereof are idolaters, let him be anathema." 
Trid., Sess. XIII, Can. 6. The reservation of the sacrament is based 
on the same concept of transubstantiation. The host is continually 
reserved in a receptacle on the altar, and the Catholic bends his 
knee as he leaves and enters his pew as an act of adoration paid 
to the consecrated wafer. 

d) The Corpus Christi Festival, featuring a procession with 
the consecrated wafer at its head, is celebrated as an expression of 
gratitude for divine favors, as a testimonial of the Catholic faith, 
and as propitiation for the indifference shown the sacrament by the 
faithful. It has often been an occasion of bloody persecution of 
non-Catholics. It is celebrated on the Thursday after Trinity 


; e) A wide-spread superstition related to the doctrine of tran- 
substantiation is the cult designated as Devotion of the Sacred Heart- 
of Jesus. Its subject is the actual, material, fleshly heart of Jesus. 
Wilmers' argument is: If the humanity of the flesh ( ? !) of Christ 
may be worshiped, then why not the heart, this noble part of the 
human body, in which the divine Word in a special sense made its 
dwelling-place? Op. cit., 4, 521. Leo XIII in 1899 consecrated 
all of mankind to the Sacred Heart as the "great act" of his 

v . f) Eucliaristic Congresses we celebrated with great pomp in 
order to increase the veneration for the consecrated host and at the 
same time give occasion to a display of 'Roman power to the 

g) The Council of Trent declares that transubstantiation has 
''ever been a firm belief in the Church of God." But the word was 
not used until about the year 1100, when Stephan, Bishop of 
Augustodunum, used it. It was 115 years later that the doctrine 
itself was adopted and promulgated by the Lateran Council 
(A. D. 1215) under Innocent III, and was reaffirmed by the 
Council of Trent. The doctrine was not held by Ephrem, Macarius, 
Theodoret, Vigilius, St. Chrysostom, and St. Augustine. 

240, From the doctrine of concomitance, Rome derives also the 
withholding of the cup from all except the clergy (Communion in 
one form). If the body and blood of our Lord are present in each 
element, it follows that by receiving the bread one also receives the 
blood of Christ. Leo IV (died 855), in testimony against the 
Manichaeans, who refused to drink the wine, made it obligatory to 
commune under both. However, since 1415 (Council of Constance) 
only the bread is administered to the laity. The reasons for this 
are popularly stated as follows: "1. because the apostles did not 
always give the wine to the people, as in cases of sickness and in 
prisons, where the wine could not be administered; 2. because of 
the danger of spilling the blood of Jesus in administering it ; 3. be- 
cause of the great aversion to drink of the same cup of which the 
diseased drink; 4. because in some countries it is hard to preserve 
or to procure wine; 5. because some people cannot drink wine; 
6. because Jesus gave to His Church the power to regulate these 
tilings." Philipps, op. cit., p. 28. The withholding of the chalice 
from the laity is given Scriptural sanction by referring to John 
6, 51 f. and 1 Cor. 11, 27. Gibbons: "Our Lord says : T am the 
living Bread which came down from heaven. If any man eat of 


this Bread., he shall live forever; and the bread which I will give 
is My flesh for the life of the world. ... He that eateth Me, the 
same also shall live by Me. He that eateth this bread shall live 
forever/ From this passage" (but see 131) "it is evident that 
whoever partakes of the form of bread partakes of the living flesh 
of Jesus Christ, which is inseparable from His blood and which, 
being now in a glorious state, cannot be divided ; for 'Christ, rising 
from the dead, dieth now no more/ Our Lord in His words quoted 
makes no reference to the sacramental cup, but only to the 
Eucharistic bread, to which He ascribes all the efficacy which is 
attached to Communion under both kinds, viz., union with Him, 
spiritual life, eternal salvation. St. Paul, writing to the Corin- 
thians, says: 'Whosoever shall eat this bread or drink the chalice 
of the Lord unworthily shall be guilty of the body and of the blood 
of the Lord/ The apostle here plainly declares" (not so, since 
in the next verse "and," not "or," is used) "that by an unworthy 
participation in the Lord's Supper, under the form of either bread 
or wine, we profane both the body and the blood of Christ. How 
could this be so unless Christ is entirely contained under each 
species ? So forcibly indeed did the apostle assert the Catholic doc- 
trine that the Protestant translators have perverted the text by 
rendering it : 'Whosoever shall eat this bread and drink the chalice,' 
substituting 'and' for 'or,' in contradiction to the Greek original, 
of which the Catholic version is an exact translation." Op. cit., 
p. 3001 

The Lord's injunction "Drink ye all of it" is made ineffective 
by such reasoning as this, from Di Bruno : "There is no reason 
why we should take those words 'Drink ye all of this' as addressed 
to the laity; for, first, it is clear that our Savior addressed these 
words only to the apostles, the Twelve, then present, and the 
apostles were priests, not laymen. If everything that was said to 
the apostles (that is, to priests) must be understood as addressed 
to laics, it would follow also that the words delivered by our Savior 
to the apostles: 'Go ye therefore and teach all nations, baptizing 
them' (Matt. 28, 19) ; 'Whose sins you shall forgive, they are for- 
given them, and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained' 
(John 20, 23), should be taken as addressed to every layman, wo- 
man, and child as well as to priests." (All of this certainly does 
follow!) "That the word 'alF in the text quoted refers only to the 
.apostles present, and not to any one absent, is shown clearly by the 
words that occur in St. Mark (14, 23) : 'And they all drank of it'; 


for if all who had to drink actually drank, there remained no one 
else to whom the word 'alF could be applied." ( ! ! ) Op. cit., p. 306 ; 
see 129* Consistently, the priests gathered in a retreat should all 
receive the cup at the celebration of the Eucharist ; as a matter of 
fact, only the celebrant receives the wine. 

241* The Mass. The Eoman Church defines the Eucharist as 
not only a sacrament, but also a sacrifice (sacrificium propitia- 
torium, more exactly, impetratorium). The same Christ who< 
brought the bloody sacrifice of His life on the cross in the Eucharist 
is offered forever without the shedding of blood for the satisfaction 
for sin of the living and the dead, of the present and the absent. 
The solemn act, embellished with magnificent ceremonial, in which 
the priest brings the unbloody sacrifice is called the Mass. 

a) "Forasmuch as in this divine sacrifice which is celebrated 
in the Mass that same Christ is contained and immolated in an 
unbloody manner who once offered Himself in a bloody manner on 
the altar of the cross, the holy synod teaches that this sacrifice is 
truly propitiatory and that by means thereof this is effected, that 
we obtain mercy and find grace in seasonable aid, if we draw nigh 
unto God contrite and penitent, with a sincere heart and upright 
faith, with fear and reverence. For the Lord, appeased by the 
oblation thereof and granting the grace and gift of penitence, for- 
gives even heinous crimes and sins. For the victim is one and the 
same, the same now offering by the ministry of priests who then 
offered Himself on the cross, the manner alone of offering being 
different." Trid., Sess. XXII, chap. II. "If any one saith that in 
the Mass a true and proper sacrifice is not offered to God or that 
to be offered is nothing else but that Christ is given us to eat, let 
him be anathema." Ib., chap. IX, Can. 1. "If any one saith that 
the sacrifice of the Mass is only a sacrifice of praise and thanks- 
giving or that it is a bare commemoration of the sacrifice con- 
summated on the cross, but not a propitiatory sacrifice, or that it 
profits him only who receives and that it ought not to be offered 
for the living and the dead for sins, pains, satisfactions, and other 
necessities, let him be anathema." Ib., Can. 3. 

b) From this concept of the sacrament as a sacrifice it is 
readily understood that masses may be read in private (missae 
privatae), without the presence of any lay communicants. The 
practise is defined by the Council of Trent : "If any one saith that 
masses wherein the priest alone communicates sacramentally are 
unlawful and are therefore to be abrogated, let him be anathema."' 


Ib., Can. 8. The officiating priest always communicates himself at 
the Mass. 

c) Of this sacrifice of the Mass the Eoman Church teaches that 
it is "truly propitiatory" and that by means thereof "this is effected 
that we obtain mercy and find grace in seasonable aid." Not only 
this, but "also for those who are departed in Christ and who are 
not as yet fully purified is it rightly offered, agreeably to a tradi- 
tion of the apostles." Trid., Sess. XXII, chap. II. 

While the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross is meritorious and 
made satisfaction for sin, the sacrifice of the Mass properly is im- 
petratory, i. e., gains by entreaty. There is no agreement among the 
theologians. "It may be called propitiatory, however, because it 
gains by entreaty the remission of guilt; it may be called satis- 
factory because it gains the remission of punishment; it may be 
called meritorious because it obtains the grace of doing good and 
of acquiring merit." Bellarmine, in Winer, op. cit., p. 148. 

d) Masses for the dead are prominent in Catholic theology 
and practise. 250* They are "offered . . . not only for the faithful, 
who are living, but also for those who are departed in Christ." 
Sess. XXII, chap. II. 

e) The Mass is called the "unbloody" sacrifice, but the term 
unbloody is not very clearly defined. On the one hand, Protestants 
are informed that no suffering is involved because the sacrifice is 
"unbloody." But Romanists are taught that there is real suffering 
endured. Only the mode of sacrifice is different; otherwise it is 
identical with that on the cross. "Whenever, therefore, we assist 
at Mass, let us represent to ourselves the Mass as another Calvary, 
which it is in reality. . . . Should not our hearts, though cold and 
hard as rocks, be softened at the spectacle of our God suffering 
for love of us and in expiation for our sins ? . . . If the wounds of 
the martyrs plead so eloquently for us, how much more eloquent is 
the blood of Christ shed daily upon our altars ?" Gibbons, op. cit., 
p. 318 f. Also Wilmers, 4, 548 f. 

Eoman theology is very uncertain on this point. Cardinal 
Cajetan, commenting on Heb. 10, 18, says: "From the fact that by 
the new law remission of sins is made by the one offering of Christ, 
he argues that no other offering for sins remains. For in such 
a case an injury would be done to the offering of Christ, as though 
it were insufficient." In Pauli Epp., p. 201, Ed. Paris, 1540. 
Cardinal Contarini gives this testimony, which is a flat contradic- 
tion of what Eome teaches now and is a denial of the decrees of the 


Council of Trent : "No Christian author, either ancient or modern,, 
of any name hath said that the Mass is a sacrifice of the priest 
ex opere operantis whereby, as if in rivalry of the sacrifice of 
Christ, the priest obtains for us remission of sins. Na} r ; Ambrose 
and Augustine affirm that in the Mass there is a remembrance and 
commemoration of that one sacrifice which Christ offered. ... 
Lo, it is expressly said that we make a remembrance of the Passion 
of Christ, by which one sacrifice we are reconciled to God." 
De Sacram. Opp., p. 359. 

242. Holy Orders. One of the fundamental tenets of Eomanisni 
is the teaching that "there is in the New Testament a visible and 
external priesthood" Trid., Sess. XXIII, Can. 1, whose "proper and 
especial functions" are the forgiving and retaining of sins and the 
sacrifice of the Mass. Rom. C., II, 2, 7. 24. In the ordination of 
priests "neither the consent nor call nor authority of the laity . . . 
is required." Trid., Sess. XXIII, chap. IV. The bishop ordains the 
candidates after establishing their fitness, assigns them to parishes, 
and deposes them as he sees fit. The clergy by virtue of their 
ordination have an indelible character impressed upon them. 
Trid., Sess. VII, Can. 9. Sacerdotalism. (Universal priesthood of.' 
believers denied.) 

a) The priesthood is divided into higher and lower orders con- 
stituting the "hierarchy of order" as follows: bishop, priest, 
deacon, subdeacon (major orders) ; acolyte, exorcist, lector, door- 
keeper (minor orders). The sacrifice of the Mass is at the heart 
of this system. The bishop by ordination confers the power to 
celebrate it; the priest exercises this power; the deacon is chief 
assistant at Mass ; and the members of the other five orders are in 
various stages of candidacy. 

b) Ordination appears in the catalog of Eoman Catholic sacra- 
ments. "Whereas by the testimony of Scripture, by apostolic tradi- 
tion and the unanimous consent of the Fathers, it is clear that grace 
is conferred by sacred ordination, which is performed by words and 
outward signs, no one ought to doubt that order is truly and 
properly one of the seven sacraments of Holy Church." Trid., 
Sess. XXI1J, chap. III. "But forasmuch as in the sacrament of 
order a character is imprinted which can neither be effaced nor 
taken away (character indelebilis) , the holy 83110$ with reason con- 
dems the opinion of those who assert that the priests of the New 
Testament have only a temporary power and that those who have 
once been rightly ordained can again .become laymen." Tb., 
chap. IV. 


c) The celibacy of the clergy is established in the confession of 
Trent : "If any one saith that clerics, constituted in sacred orders, 
or regulars, who have solemnly professed chastity, are able to con- 
tract marriage, and that, being contracted, it is valid notwithstand- 
ing the ecclesiastical law or vow, and that the contrary is nothing 
else than to condemn marriage, and that all who do not feel that 
they have the gift of chastity, even though they have made a vow 
thereof, may contract marriage, let him be anathema." Sess. XXIV, 
Can. 9. 

d) The tonsure is a ceremony signifying that the person re- 
ceiving it ceases to be a layman and is initiated in the clerical state. 
It is a smoothly shaven circular spot about three inches wide. The 
tonsure is not commonly used in our country. 

e) It is believed that the sacrament of holy orders was in- 
stituted by our Lord at the Last Supper and that "to the apostles, 
whom He then constituted priests of the New Testament, and to 
their successors in the priesthood was the power delivered of con- 
secrating, offering, and administering His body and blood as also 
of forgiving and of retaining sins." Trid., Sess. XXIII, chap. I. 
Accordingly, the chief powers conferred upon the priesthood are 
1) to offer the sacrifice of the Mass; 2) to forgive sins; and 
3) to administer the sacraments of Baptism, penance, Eucharist, 
and extreme unction and to unite in matrimony. Ordination alone 
is not sufficient to exercise lawfully all the priestly powers; the 
appointment to a parish by the legitimate ecclesiastical superior 
is also required. By this appointment the "power of jurisdiction" 
is added to the "power of orders." 

f ) The hierarchy. In the clergy is vested the government of 
the Church through the gigantic hierarchical corporation of bishops 
and archbishops, with the Pope at the head. Roman theology lists 
particularly the power of excommunication, exercised \)j the bishops 
through apostolic power. Trid., Sess. XXV, Dec. III. The epis- 
copal system is called the hierarchy of jurisdiction. More im- 
mediately the Pope exercises his power through representatives 
called legates (nuncios). 

The Pope is aided in the exercise of his function by the college 
of cardinals, seventy in number. Various departments of church- 
work are assigned to standing committees, called congregations, 
composed of cardinals. These committees as a body are the .TComari 
curia, or court. The cardinals elect the Pope. 

;>) The clergy conducts the worship of the "Roman Church with 


an elaborate cultus, centering about the sacrifice of the Mass. 
Architecture, sculpture, paintings, vestments, chanting, ceremonies, 
lights, incense, all contribute to the magnificence of Eoman worship, 
in which preaching is altogether subordinate, while the ritual calls 
for a pageantry which impresses cultured and uncultured alike. 
This ceremonial is made obligatory, being derived from apostolic 
discipline and tradition. Trid., Sess. XXII, chap. V. Those who 
regard the ceremonies as mutable are called anathema. Sess. 
VII, Can. 13. 

243* Matrimony. The Eoman Church pronounces its curse 
upon any one who says "that matrimony is not truly and properly 
one of the seven sacraments of the evangelic law, a sacrament in- 
stituted by Christ the Lord." Trid., Sess. XXIV, Can. 1. Yet it 
also pronounces anathema upon all who deny the unmarried state 
to be better and more blessed than the married. lb., Can. 10. Be- 
cause the Vulgate translates the word "mystery," Eph. 5, 32, with 
"sacramentum," Scripture warrant for this doctrine has been 
claimed. 169. A vast amount of legislation regarding the validity 
of marriage, its hindrances, annulments, and other dispensations, 
has grown up about this "sacrament." 

a) The Roman Catechism defines marriage as "the marital 
union of man and woman contracted between legitimate persons, 
unto an indissoluble union of life." II, 8, 3. Accordingly, divorce 
is prohibited on any ground, even adultery. Sess. XXIV, Can. 7. 

b) The Church prohibits marriages contracted without pa- 
rental consent, but denies "that marriages contracted by the chil- 
dren of a family without the consent of their parents are invalid 
and that parents can make such marriages either valid or invalid." 
Sess. XXIV, chap. 1. 

c) Canon law has established certain impediments to the con- 
tracting of marriage. They are classified as prohibitory and diri- 
ment (divisive). 1) Prohibitory impediments render a marriage 
unlawful ; but if ignored, the marriage is still valid. For instance, 
the marriage of a Catholic with a baptized non-Catholic is valid 
if performed by the priest, but requires a dispensation. The dis- 
pensation in this case is given only when the non-Catholic party has 
signed a promise not to interfere with the religion of the Catholic 
and to permit the children to be reared in the Catholic faith. 
"It is for a Catholic a sin, yes, a crime against the Church of Christ 
and the souls of her children, to consent to see them educated 
Protestants. Her promise was not right before God; and if she 


fulfils it, she remains in the state of sin until, repenting, she tries 
everything in her power to save the children from Protestantism." 
But "even if the children are educated Catholics, the Church dis- 
likes the marriage. Therefore Pope Benedict XIV has ordered that 
they shall not be contracted before the altar, but in the sacristy, 
as a sign that they are not entered into with the favor of the 
Church. From all this a Catholic is able to see that he ought 
never to make the acquaintance of a Protestant in order to marry 
her." Stolz, Mixed Marriage, pp. 30. 26. Quoted by Klotsche. 
2) Diriment impediments are an absolute bar. If in spite of them 
marriage is contracted, it is invalid and must be declared void. 
Such is marriage with a monk or clergyman, within prohibited 
degrees, when physically impotent, etc. Such marriages, when dis- 
covered, are declared null and void (annulment). 

The Church claims large powers of dispensation, which may 
be granted even in degrees of affinity forbidden in Scripture. Trid., 
Sess. XXIV, Can. 3. 

d) Clandestine marriages are subject to annulment, and 
Eoman morality once declared every marriage clandestine and 
invalid at which the Catholic parish priest of the man or of the 
woman is not present. "Those who shall attempt to contract mar- 
riage otherwise than in the presence of the parish priest, or of the 
ordinary [= bishop], and in the presence of two or three witnesses, 
the holy synod renders such wholly incapable of thus contracting 
and declares such contracts invalid and null, as by the present 
decree it invalidates and annuls them." Trid., Sess. XXIV, chap. I. 
In his Ne Tern ere decree, of 1908, Pope Pius X modified this con- 
dition. This decree pronounces all marriages of Catholics invalid 
unless performed by a parish priest in his own parish or by a bishop 
in his own diocese or by a delegate of either in the presence of 
witnesses. But if a priest is not available for a month, or in danger 
of death, the couple may express their mutual intention before two 
witnesses and are then considered lawfully married. 

e) In creating impediments to matrimony, the Eoman mo- 
rality goes far beyond the Scriptures. Among the impediments 
that render a marriage null and void it lists : blood relationship up 
to the fourth degree or third cousinship; affinity, or relationship 
by marriage, to the fourth degree or third cousinship of the husband 
or wife; spiritual relationship between sponsors and godchildren 
(but since 1918 no longer between sponsors and the godchildren's 
parents) as well as between baptized persons and their parents, and 



those who baptize them. The spiritual relationship in confirmation 
prevents the marriage of the sponsor with the parent of the child. 
Cath. Cycl., s. Impediments. 

f ) Bans of Matrimony. The law of the Church requires 
bridal couples to be called out in their respective parish churches 
three consecutive Sundays or holidays. This law is binding under 
pain of grievous sin. These announcements are called the bans of 
matrimony. If there is any reason for not being called out three 
times or for not being published at all, the reason must be made 
known to the bishop or his chancellor. 

g) Sanatio in Radice. This is a validation of marriage with- 
out requiring a renewal of the marriage consent. The definition of 
this sanatio is contained in the first paragraph of Canon 1138 : 
"The sanatio in radice of a marriage is its validation, carrying with 
it not only a dispensation from the impediment or its cessation, 
but a dispensation from the law requiring a renewal of consent, and 
also carrying with it, by a fiction of law, a retroaction upon the 
canonical effects of the marriage." It is employed for the purpose 
of making illegitimate children legitimate. Its action does not 
make the marriage valid from the beginning, but it makes the 
children legitimate from the beginning. To cap the climax, we 
have this in Canon 1138 : "This dispensation from the law requir- 
ing a renewal of consent may be given without the knowledge of 
one or of both parties." The New Canon Law, 1918. 

h) It is to be noted that according to Catholic doctrine, if 
Protestants wish to marry Protestants, that contract is valid, by 
whomsoever the ceremony may be performed. Also marriages con- 
tracted between non-Catholics before a civil magistrate are recog- 
nized as valid by the Catholic Church. However, the Catholic 
Church demands a promise before marriage that the children of 
a mixed union will be educated as Catholics and forbids bishops to 
allow such marriages without adequate safeguards that the promises 
will be "honestly made and faithfully fulfilled." 

In 1932 Borne issued a statement declaring that the marriage 
of a Catholic with a baptized non-Catholic is valid, though gravely 
sinful if contracted without a dispensation, while a marriage be- 
tween a Catholic and an unbaptized person is declared void. In 
marriages contracted between Catholics and non-Catholics a dis- 
pensation is henceforth to be granted only upon written guarantees 
which pledge both parties that all the children will be baptized and 
brought up in the Catholic faith. 


244* Extreme Unction. Extreme unction is referred to by 
Deharbe as "a sacrament in which by the anointing with holy oil 
and by the prayers of the priests the sick receive the grace of God 
for the good of their souls and often for their bodies." It is said 
to have been "instituted by Christ,, our Lord, as truly and properly 
a sacrament of the new law, alluded to indeed in Mark [6, 13], but 
recommended and promulgated to the faithful by James the Apostle 
[James 5, 14] and brother of the Lord." Trid., Sess. XIV, chap. I. 
The oil used in the anointing is called oleum infirmorum. Like 
the other sacraments, extreme unction is to be administered only 
by the priest. Every Catholic who has come to the use of reason 
and is in danger of death by sickness can receive this sacrament. 
"We should receive extreme unction when we are in danger of death 
by sickness, but, if possible, while we are yet conscious, and after 
the holy viaticum." Deharbe. Accordingly, the sick person, if 
possible, while he still has the use of his senses (but not necessarily 
so) and after he has made confession and has received the Eucharist 
in the form of viaticum, receives extreme unction. If the sick 
person is unconscious and speechless, the priest gives conditional 
absolution and then anoints him. 

245, The Sacramentals. Sacramentals are defined as "all the 
things blessed, or consecrated, by the Church for the divine service 
or for our own pious use, as holy water, oil, salt, palms, candles, etc., 
also the exorcisms, blessings, and consecrations used by the Church." 
They are called sacramentals "because they resemble the sacra- 
ments, though essentially different from them." The difference is 
said to consist in this, that, "while the sacraments were instituted 
by Christ Himself, the sacramentals were originated by the Church, 
which has received the power from Christ to do so; also, the 
sacraments effect interior holiness by the power which God gave 
them, while the sacramentals benefit soul and body by the prayers 
and blessings of the Church." Deharbe. Theologically the dif- 
ference has been stated thus : The sacraments produce their effect 
ex opere operate, while the sacramentals are rendered effective in 
virtue of the prayers of the Church (ex opere operantis). The 
sacraments can be applied only to human beings ; the sacramentals 
are applicable to man and nature, both animate and inanimate. 
The Judaistic and, in part, pagan origin of the Koinan ceremonial 
is disclosed in the comparison of the Roman sacramentals with 
Jewish and heathen customs. 

The most important of the sacramentals appears to be holy 


water, "blessed by a priest with a prayer to beg God's blessing on 
those who use it and protection from the powers of darkness." 
There are four kinds of holy water, each blessed in a different 
manner: baptismal water; water of consecrations; Easter water, 
distributed to the people on the eve of Easter ; ordinary holy water, 
used for the sprinkling of the people before Mass and for use at 
the door of the church. The faithful are urged "always to have 
holy water in their home and draw down upon them God's blessing 
and to drive away all contrary influences." Le Eoy, Credo ; quoted 
by Klotsche. The candles which the faithful use during the year 
are blessed on Purification Day (February 2, Candlemas). The 
blessing "is done by means of two candles held in the form of a 
cross before a person's face so as to touch the chin. At the same 
time the short prayer of the ritual must be pronounced by which 
God is asked to preserve the person blessed from all evil, especially 
from throat trouble." Schulze, Manual, p. 301 ; quoted in Klotsche. 
Yellow beeswax must be used. The palm-branches blessed on Palm 
Sunday are kept until the Ash Wednesday of the following year, 
when they are burnt and the ashes blessed, as a symbol of Lent. 
The fourteen stations of the cross usually are indicated by as many 
painted medallions on the interior walls of the church. Per- 
formance of this devotion entitles one to the same indulgences as 
a visit to the shrines in Jerusalem. Eighteen kinds of scapular 
have the approval of the Church. Scapulars consist of two little 
pieces of woolen cloth, joined by cords, worn under the clothing 
by devout Catholics, one segment on the breast, the other on the 
shoulder. They must be properly blessed and worn constantly to 
be effective. The estimation in which the Catholic holds a scapular 
comes close to fetishism. 

In the sacramentals much of the gross superstition of Eoman- 
ism is concentrated. Especially do the various benedictions in 
Latin formulas, provided for food and drink, animals, lands, 
houses, as charms or preventives against bodily and spiritual ills, 
constitute a mass of essentially pagan superstitions. 


246, The Catholic practises the adoration and veneration of 
saints, that is, of departed believers who by virtue of their sanctity 
have already entered into the bliss of heaven and who are regarded 
as able and willing to act as mediators between the worshiper and 
God. "'The holy synod enjoins on all bishops and others who 
sustain the office and charge of teaching that . . . they especially 


instruct the faithful diligently concerning the intercession and in- 
vocation of saints, . . . teaching them that the saints,, who reign 
together with Christ,, offer up their own prayers to God for men, 
that it is good and useful suppliantly to invoke them and to have 
recourse to their prayers, aid, (and) help for obtaining benefits 
from God. They think impiously who assert either that they do 
not pray for men or that the invocation of them to pray for each 
of us even in particular is idolatry." Trid., Sess. XXV. "The 
veneration and invocation of the holy angels and beatified souls 
are not in conflict with the law that God alone should be worshiped. 
For though Christians are said to adore angels according to the 
example of Old Testament saints, they do not give them that 
adoration which is due to God." Kom. C., 3, 2. 8. 

The Church alone determines for the faithful their objects of 
veneration. Hence public veneration is due only to those whose 
sanctity has been publicly proclaimed by the Congregation of 
Sacred Eites and whose names the Pope has entered in the catalog 
(canon) of saints. (Canonization of saints was not known to the 
Church till toward the end of the tenth century.) The Canon 
Law requires from two to four miracles for beatification and two 
miracles for canonization following beatification. If miracles are 
absent in the case of a deceased who suffered martyrdom, the Pope 
may grant dispensation from miracles. Eegarding the authenticity 
of these miracles Wilmers has the following remarkable petitio 
principii : "The question whether miracles are being worked to-day 
may be answered with a confident yes. If one wishes to know 
which facts are to be truly regarded as miracles the simple an- 
swer is : All those which in the bulls are represented as such." 
Op. cit., 2, 509. The merits of the saints are accounted for by the 
same theologian on the ground that they did not labor on earth 
only as individuals, but also as members of the Church; hence the 
bliss which they have gained does not exhaust their merits. Ib., 620. 
Wilmers quotes statistics of A. D. 1880, listing the number of 
saints who had died since 1500 A. D. as 416 ; of these 320 were 
canonized. Among the latter were 48 Italians, 49 Spaniards, 
36 Portuguese, but only one German and 5 Americans. Ib., 509. 

Much is made by the theologians of the distinction between 
the adorare,, used of prayers to God, and invocare, the honor paid 
to the saints. However, in church Latin neither adorare nor preces 
is used with reference to God alone, but also of petitions addressed 
to kings, etc. Quotations in Winer, op. cit., p. 46. We note finally 


the distinction of hyperdulia paid to Mary, and dulia, the honor 
paid to the other saints. (See 205*) 

Proof of the antiquity of saint-worship is discerned in the 
Apostles' Creed, thus : "The Christians of most denominations are 
accustomed to recite the following article contained in the Apostles' 
Creed: C I believe in the communion of saints/ There are many, 
I fear, who have these words frequently on their lips without an 
adequate knowledge of the precious meaning which they convey. 
The true and obvious sense of the words quoted from the Creed is 
that between the children of God, whether reigning in heaven or 
sojourning on earth, there exists an intercommunion, or spiritual 
communication by prayer, and, consequently, that our friends who 
have entered into their rest are mindful of us in their petitions 
to God." Gibbons, op. cit., p. 152. The Scripture evidence is ad- 
duced in the following : "The Church exhorts her children not only 
to honor the Blessed Virgin, but also to invoke her intercession. 
It is evident from Scripture that the angels and saints in heaven 
can hear our prayers and that they have power and the will to 
help us. (Gen. 48, 16 ; Tobias 12 ; Luke 15, 10 ; Zach. 1, 12. 13.) 
Now, if the angels are conversant with what happens on earth; 
if the prophets, even while clothed in the flesh, had a clear vision 
of things which were transpiring at a great distance from them; 
if they could penetrate into the future and foretell events which 
were then hidden in the womb of time, shall we believe that God 
withholds a knowledge of our prayers from Mary, who is justly 
styled the Queen of Angels and Saints ?" Gibbons, op. cit., p. 187. 
The influence of Mary's intercession exceeds that of the angels, 
patriarchs, and prophets in the same degree that her sanctity sur- 
passes theirs. Ib., p. 188. 

247* Mariolatry. The early Fathers of the Church knew noth- 
ing of the worship of the Virgin, who is not even mentioned by 
fifteen Fathers of the ante-ISTicene period, among them such 
voluminous writers as Cyprian and Arnobius. A. D. 403 Epipha- 
nius wrote, evidently in opposition to a cult which he saw spring- 
ing up : "Let Mary be honored, but let the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost be worshiped. Let no one worship Mary." The Immaculate 
Conception was decreed as a dogma by Pope Pius IX, and with 
it the Church was instructed to give all but divine honors to Mary : 
"We declare, pronounce, and define that the doctrine which holds 
that the blessed Virgin Mary, at the first instant of her conception, 
by a singular privilege and grace of the omnipotent God, in virtue 


of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Savior of mankind, was preserved 
immaculate from all stain of original sin, has been revealed by 
God and therefore should firmly and constantly be believed by the 
faithful. Let the children of the Catholic Church, most dear to us, 
hear these words and with a more ardent zeal of piety, religion, and 
love proceed to worship, invoke, and pray to, the most blessed 
Virgin Mary." Ineffabilis Deus, December 8, 1854. 

This placed the seal of the Church on the dogma of the Im- 
maculate Conception. But it was not until the year 1854 that this 
occurred. It had been discussed previously. The Franciscans long 
and violently advocated the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, 
and the Dominicans just as violently denied and denounced it. In 
all, fourteen Popes opposed the dogma. When it was first proposed, 
it was vigorously opposed by Bernard, who is now a canonized saint 
of the Eoman Church. Later, when Duns Scotus championed the 
doctrine, it was opposed just as strongly by Thomas Aquinas, who 
also is on the list of saints of the Church ; and when it was finally 
promulgated by Pope Pius IX, the Jansenist bishops protested 
against it. To the present day there is a dispute whether it is the 
conception of both the body and of the soul of Mary that was 
without sin. Wilmers maintains that Bernard refers to the con- 
ception of the body when he denies its holiness, while the Church 
speaks of the conception of Mary's soul when it asserts the Im- 
maculate Conception. Op. cit., 2, 184. 

Catholic literature makes the most extravagant claims for the 
virtues by which Mary is distinguished and for the power which 
she exercises in God's kingdom. In the "Secret of Sanctity" she 
is addressed thus: "In the presence of all the heavenly court 
I choose thee this day for my Mother and Mistress. I deliver and 
consecrate to thee as thy slave my body and soul, my goods, both 
interior and exterior, and even the value of all my good actions, 
past, present, and future, leaving to thee the entire and full right 
of disposing of me and all that belongs to me, without exception, 
according to thy good pleasure, to the greatest glory of God, in 
time and in eternity." The same manual recommends the Catholic 
"to do all our actions by Mary, with Mary, in Mary, and for Mary. 
We must do our actions by Mary ; that is to say, we must obey her 
in all things and in all things conduct ourselves by her spirit, which 
is the Holy Spirit of God," etc. "If we fear to go directly to Jesus 
Christ, our God, whether because of His infinite greatness or be- 
cause of our vileness or because of our sins, let us boldly implore the 


aid and intercession of Mary, our Mother/' "The Father has not 
given, and does not give, His Son except by her; He has no chil- 
dren but by her and communicates no graces but by her. God the 
Son does not communicate His merits or His virtues except by her. 
The Holy Ghost has not formed Jesus Christ except by her ; neither 
does He communicate His merits and His virtues except by her. 
Through her alone does He dispense His favors and His gifts." 
"Only by her all those who have found grace before God have found 
it at all. The Most High has made her the sole treasurer of His 
treasures and the sole dispenser of His graces." Eepublished in the 
New World, Chicago, during 1917. "The Glories of Mary" by 
Liguori contain this: "A sinner can be saved only by having 
recourse to the blessed Virgin, whose infinite mercy obtains salva- 
tion for those who would be condemned by infinite justice." P. 164-. 
Liguori goes so far as to declare that in the matter of a refuge for 
sinners now "there is but one, and that is Mary." 

248* The images of the saints and of Christ are to be venerated 
"because the honor which is shown them is referred to the proto- 
types which those images represent, in such wise that by the 
images which we kiss and before which we uncover the head and 
prostrate ourselves we adore Christ, and we venerate the saints 
whose similitude they bear." Trid., Sess. XXV. But there is no 
agreement among the theologians whether this honor is in fact 
directed to the objects which the images represent or (as Bellar- 
mine held) to the images themselves. In the popular usage the 
latter is certainly the prevailing attitude, as is evident "from the 
fact that one image of the same saint enjoys greater popularity in 
one place than does another image of the same saint in another 
place." W. Walther, Symbolik, p. 127. Similarly, the idea that 
the relics in themselves are vessels and instruments of the divine 
grace and miraculous power is firmly lodged in the popular belief. 


249* In Roman theology the hereafter is parceled out in five 
abodes for the spirits of the departed: heaven, purgatory, limbus 
patrum and limbus infantium, and hell. In heaven the purified 
souls enjoy the beatific vision. In hell those who died in the state 
of mortal sin are banished from God and suffer the tortures of 
damnation. Intermediate between heaven and hell is limbo, a name 
applied to the place where those souls are detained who are unable, 
for no fault of their own, to enter heaven. In the limbus patrum 


are the souls of the just who died during the Old Testament. It 
ceased to exist after Christ's descent, which had the purpose of 
liberating the souls languishing in limbo. Kom. C., 1, 6. 3. Wil- 
mers, 2, 245 ff. In the limbus infantmm are the souls of infants 
that died without baptism. One accepted theory holds that there 
is perfect natural happiness in limbo, but not beatific vision. 
Catholic theologians deplore the "absence of a clear positive revela- 
tion on the subject." 

250* Purgatory. If, after a man has confessed his sin to God, 
as He invites him to do, man claims to be fully and completely 
forgiven, as God declares him to be, the Koman Church pronounces 
such a man anathema. "If any one saith that, after the grace of 
justification has been received, to every penitent sinner the guilt is 
remitted and the debt of eternal punishment is blotted out in such 
wise that there remains not any debt of temporal punishment, to be 
discharged either in this world or in the next, in purgatory, before 
the entrance to the kingdom of heaven can be opened (to him), let 
him be anathema.-" Trid., Sess. VI, Can. 30. In agreement here- 
with, Cardinal O'Connell of Boston, in his book "The Catholic 
Church the True Church of the Bible," makes this declaration: 
"It is of faith that there is a place, which we call purgatory, where 
petty faults, or the temporal punishment due to sin, are expiated." 
P. 178. Di Bruno defines this state more fully thus: "Purgatory 
is a state of suffering after this life in which those souls are for 
a time detained who depart this life after their deadly sins have 
been remitted as to the stain and guilt and as to the everlasting 
pain that was due to them, but who have on account of those sins 
still some debt of temporal punishment to pay, as also those souls 
which leave this world guilty only of venial sins. In purgatory 
these souls are purified and rendered fit to enter into heaven, where 
nothing defiled enters." Op. cit., p. 161. 

Just what it is that purifies the sinner in purgatory Eome has 
not defined. With Bellarmine, it is generally held that the purify- 
ing agent is fire, and Bellarmine decides for a physical fire, not 
a figurative. Most of the popular instruction on this point stresses 
the fearful intensity of purgatorial suffering, as a means of im- 
pressing on the faithful the need of having prayers and masses read 
for the dead. For example : "The most distinguished teachers of 
the Church are of the opinion that the pains of purgatory surpass 
all imaginable pains on earth and that in their kind and manner 
they do not differ from the torments of hell. Thus St. Augustine 
says : This fire, though it lasts but for a time, is still very painful, 


for it surpasses every pain that man has suffered or can suffer 
during his earthly life' ; and, agreeing with him, St. Thomas 
Aquinas writes: 'The same fire torments the damned in hell and 
the just in purgatory; the least pain of purgatory surpasses the 
greatest pain that may be undergone here below.' It is true that 
the souls in purgatory, while they suffer, are consoled by the 
thought that they are in the grace of God, that their sufferings 
will end, and that, once freed, they will be elevated to heavenly 
bliss. Contrasting their state with the despair of the damned, who 
are without hope of a coming salvation, they bear their suffering 
with entire submission to the will of God. Yet their condition is, 
notwithstanding, in the highest degree sad, and so much the more 
so because they can no longer help themselves; for their time of 
grace has passed, and they are no longer able to obtain by their 
own works a mitigation or shortening of their punishments. For 
that reason such suffering souls are also called poor souls; for, 
being in want of real graces, they can do nothing but suffer. But 
what the suffering souls in purgatory can no longer do for them- 
selves may be accomplished for them by us, the members of the 
Church Militant here on earth, who are still in the time of grace, 
and especially by means of prayers offered by us in their behalf. 
By fasting and other works of penance we can also benefit the suf- 
fering souls." Catholic Universe, Cleveland, November 2, 1917. 

The Council of Trent maintained, Sess. XXV, that the doc- 
trine of purgatory is set forth in "the sacred writings and the 
ancient traditions of the Fathers." The handbooks of doctrine find 
confirmation of this teaching in the (superstitious) belief of the 
Jews in the efficacy of prayer for the dead, 2 Maccab. 12, 43 ff. The 
chief texts of the canonical Scriptures which are said to confirm the 
belief in purgatory are Matt. 5, 25. 26 : "Thou shalt by no means 
come out thence till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing/' 
where the context (v. 34), however, shows that hell is referred to, 
and 1 Cor. 3, 15 : "If any man's work shall be burned, he shall 
suffer loss, but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire." In 
the latter passage it is said that the man's work perishes, while ac- 
cording to Eome it is just the work that is to get a man out of 
purgatory. The apostle does not speak of a place of burning, but 
of a day. Bengel has rightly said: "This passage does not only 
not support purgatorial fire, but entirely extinguishes it." 185* 

The doctrine of purgatory is of late origin. Winners tries to 
find it in the offertory of the Mass for the dead: "Liberate the 
souls of all the faithful dead from the punishment of the infernus." 


His comment is : ''Undoubtedly hell (infernus) is to be under- 
stood as purgatory, the more so since many believe that the place 
of the damned and of the souls to be purged is the same, although 
the punishment is different." Op. cit., 2, 625. But there is no 
evidence of early consonant teaching on this point. The Benedictine 
editors of the works of Bishop Ambrose (A. D. 340 397) make 
the following acknowledgment : "It is not surprising that Ambrose 
should have written as he has about the state of departed souls; 
but it seems to be almost incredible how uncertain and how 
various the holy Fathers have been upon the same question from 
the very time of the apostles to the pontificate of Gregory XI 
(A. D. 1370) and the Council of Florence (A. D. 1439), that is, 
a period of almost fourteen hundred years. For not only does 
one Father differ from another, as in questions not yet defined by 
the Church was likely to happen, but they are not even found to be 
consistent with themselves." Works of St. Ambrose, Vol. I, p. 385, 
Admonitio ad Lectorem., Edit. Bened., Parisiis, 1868. Accord- 
ing to this admission there was a period of nearly fourteen hundred 
years during which there was no definite ground taken, no generally 
accepted teaching of the Eoman Church, in the matter of pur- 
gatory or the state of the dead. 

251* Final Judgment. Not only unbelievers, but also Chris- 
tians are judged by the Law. Kom. C., 1, 8. 4. Also the sins of the 
Christian will be published. The judgment is preceded by the 
general resurrection "in order that the bodies, together with their 
souls, may receive the merited rewards of eternal happiness or their 
penalties." That the judgment is pronounced by Christ also ac- 
cording to the human nature is held by some Eoman Catholic 
theologians, but is a teaching which is out of harmony with the 
general doctrine of Eome regarding the union of natures of 
Christ. 192, 


252* a) On the basis of Scripture Lutheran theology and also 
historic Eeformed theology look upon the Papacy as the fulfilment 
of Old and New Testament prophecies regarding the Antichrist. 
The Lutheran teaching on this point has found classical expression 
in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession and in the Smalcald 
Articles. The identification of the Papacy with Antichrist is valid 
to the present day, since the Eoman Catholic theology and practise 
is characterized now, as in pre-Eeformation times, by the following 
denials of Scriptural principles and saving truth : 


1) Salvation by works is an integral part of the entire system, 
vitiating it even in those points in which it has preserved certain 
truths of revelation. 2) The fundamental tenet of the Christian 
religion, justification by faith without the deeds of the Law, has 
been officially cursed by the Eoman Church. 3) The holy ministry, 
instituted as an office for the preaching of the Gospel, has been 
perverted into a legalistic priesthood, which tyrannizes over con- 
science. 4) It has changed the very concept of grace from the 
divine source of pardon and forgiveness into an infused ability of 
man to perform good works for his own salvation. 5) It has altered 
the concept of faith so that it no longer signifies the trust of a 
repentant sinner in the mercies of God in Christ, but is a mere 
intellectual reception of the facts of sacred history and theology. 
6) It has employed upon every occasion carnal force (political 
power) for the extension of its rule and the aggrandizement of its 
institutions, especially of its monastic orders. 7) It claims for the 
Pope prerogatives which belong to Jesus Christ alone. 8) It is 
to-day, as it was during the Middle Ages, an intensely mercenary 
institution, enriching itself particularly through the penances 
(satisfaction for sin) which it exacts from its adherents. 9) It has 
relegated the Bible to an inferior position as a source of revelation, 
discourages the reading of the Bible in the vernacular, and pro- 
nounces a curse upon the distribution of Protestant versions. 
10) It has fostered gross idolatry in the veneration paid to the 
saints and to relics. 11) It has externalized, and made mechanical, 
all religion through its doctrine of ex opere operato in the sacra- 
ments. 12) It denies the sufficiency of Christ's atonement for sin 
through its doctrine of the Mass, penances, purgatory. 

b) A chief characteristic of Antichrist in prophecy is his deep- 
grained untruthf ulness ; his is the spirit of lies, 2 Thess. 2, 3 11; 
1 Tim. 4, 1 3. His seductions are represented as the result of 
artifices that confound the simple, leading mind and heart astray. 
This we interpret as a reference not only to the fraud practised 
upon the believers with legendary saints, counterfeit relics, and 
fictitious miracles, but to the entire confused and self -contradictory- 
system of Eoman theology. It is a system based upon such mutually 
exclusive principles as Scripture, tradition, and human reason. 
It allows disagreement on such crucial matters as creationism 
versus evolutionism. It teaches the possibility of salvation for all 
who unwittingly oppose the Roman doctrine, yet burns at the stake 
those who depart from it in the definition of some minor doctrine. 


There is entire confusion among the theologians as soon as the doc- 
trine of Infallibility is to be practically applied ; a list of infallible 
decrees does not exist. The Church is infallible; the councils are 
infallible; the Pope is infallible the doctors do not attempt to 
solve the difficulty created by three infallible agents of revelation. 
There is to the present day no unanimity regarding the relation 
of the state to the religious school. As to the essence of original 
sin the definitions are so far apart that even the Council of Trent 
made no attempt to reach a decision. Good works have never been 
authoritatively defined, and the confusion in the handbooks also 
on this point is great. There is wide variation in the definition of 
mortal and venial sin, the ideas being so hazy that the Council of 
Trent actually established that faith need not be lost in one who 
lives in mortal sin. On predestination there are conflicting theories 
as wide apart as the synergistic and Calvinistic doctrines. Concordia 
Theological Monthly, 4, 736. 742. The sacraments are efficacious 
ex opere operate; yet the believer must have contrition to receive 
any spiritual benefit. Concerning the intention of the priest there 
is the old quarrel between those who require "interior intention" 
and those who are satisfied with the "exterior intention." Con- 
cerning the purgatorial sufferings views diverge greatly. Concern- 
ing the marriage contracted in the absence of the priest the ISTe 
Temere has established the Eoman principle, but the practise varies 
according to the political situation in different countries. There is 
much speculation as to the true nature and purpose of indulgences. 
There are contradictory definitions of what constitutes "temporal 
punishments." With regard to the Mass there is grave uncertainty 
as to the meaning of the term "unbloody sacrifice," some dogmati- 
cians claiming that there is actual suffering, others that the repeti- 
tion of the sufferings on Calvary is rather metaphysical than 
physical. Matrimony, on the one hand, is made a sacrament and 
is exalted in terms which no Protestant would apply to the in- 
stitution; on the other hand, it is treated as a concession to sinful 
flesh and therefore not as holy, by far, as the state of celibacy. 
As to what constitutes the essence of this "sacrament" the theolo- 
gians are not agreed. The supernatural character of certain relics 
and images, also of blessed means of devotion, as the rosary, holy 
water, etc., is impressed upon the believer; yet there is no agree- 
ment on the precise nature of these occult or miraculous qualities. 
Is worship directed to the images or to the prototypes which they 
represent? Predestination requires no foreseeing of works; pre- 


destination requires the foreseeing of works. Christ's humanity is 
locally enclosed in heaven ; yet the bread is changed into His body 
in the Eucharist. The sacrifice of this body on the altar is 
propitiatory; it is only impetratory. From eternal punishment, 
due for mortal sins, the sinner is released by Christ's satisfaction, 
of which he receives the benefit in absolution ; another dogma says 
that the power of the keys has been instituted to commute eternal 
to temporal punishments. Cp. Apology,, XII, 13. The doctors do 
not agree. 

Finally, it should be pointed out that the Papacy exerts its 
baleful dominion not outside of, but within the Church. (There 
are, as the Lutheran Confessions repeatedly state, true believers 
within the Roman Catholic denomination.) And thus we find that 
the marks of Antichrist set down 2 Thess. 2, 3 12 (the apostasy, 
the arrogation of divine prerogatives, the Satanic lies, the sitting 
in the temple of God, and the duration of his dominion) "plainly 
agree with the kingdom of the Pope." S. A., Of the Power, 39, 


253, A number of church-bodies have retained certain distinctive 
doctrines and customs of the Roman Catholic Church, but have 
rejected the authority of the Roman Catholic hierarchy. These 
are called Old- Catholic churches and are an offshoot of the Old- 
Catholic movement which came into prominence when the Vatican 
Council, 1870, had adopted the doctrine of papal infallibility. In 
Germany the priests who refused to accept the decree and who 
were excommunicated from the Church of Rome organized the Old- 
Catholic Church under the leadership of Doellinger. They were 
joined by Jansenist bishops of Holland and by Swiss communities. 
The Old-Catholic churches in America derive their clerical ordina- 
tion from the Old Catholics of Holland or the Eastern Church. 
Old Catholics have made attempts to align themselves with the 
Church of England, the Greek Church, and even with Protes- 
tantism; some are rationalistic in tendency. Old Catholics reject 
papal infallibility, the doctrine of Immaculate Conception, and 
compulsory celibacy, but also the "Filioque"; they encourage 
Bible-reading and use the national tongues in worship. Otherwise 
they retain the doctrines peculiar to Romanism. 

1. Old-Catholic Church in America. The 1,888 members 
(9 churches) of this body claim direct lineage from the Old- 
Catholic churches of Europe. Organized 1914. 

2. North American Old Roman Catholic Church. This is 


the largest of the American Old-Catholic bodies, numbering 14,793 
members in 27 organizations. In agreement with the Old Catholics 
of Europe it accepts as authority in doctrine the Scriptures, but 
also the teachings of the ancient undivided Church. 

3. American Catholic Church. Organized 1915, this sect 
numbers 1,367 members in 11 parishes. The Afro-American Cath- 
olic Church., in communion with the foregoing, consists of one 
Negro church and mission. 

4. Polish National Catholic Church of America. A Catholic 
organization which has repudiated the Pope and the Eoman priest- 
hood, but has also discarded a great part of the Apostles' Creed. 
It originated in 1904, when Polish immigrants became restive 
under the "absolute religious, political, and social power over the 
parishioners" given by the Council of Baltimore, in 1883, to the 
Roman Catholic priesthood and by the rather free exercise of that 
power on the part of certain Polish Eoman Catholic priests. The 
secession represented about 20,000 Catholic parishioners, chiefly in 
the East. The number (1926) is 61,574, organized in 91 branches. 
In 1921 the rule of celibacy was abrogated, and marriage of the 
clergy was allowed, but only with the knowledge and permission 
of the bishop and lay members of the respective congregations. 

The Profession of Faith asserts that "man, by following the 
Supreme Being, is in this life capable of attaining a certain degree 
of the happiness and of the perfection which is possessed of God in 
an infinite degree" ; that "faith is helpful to man toward his salva- 
tion, though not absolutely necessary," which is especially true of 
"blind faith." Good deeds, however, it holds "bring us nearer to 
God and to His Mediator, Jesus Christ, and make us worthy of 
being His followers and brothers and of being children of the 
heavenly Father." It rejects the doctrine of eternal punishment 
and believes that "even sinful man, after undergoing an intrinsic 
metamorphosis through contrition, penance, and noble deeds, may 
have a chance to regain the grace of God." Sin is regarded as 
a "lack of perfection in the essence of man, and as mankind pro- 
gresses in this knowledge of the causes of life and the nature of 
God and comes nearer and nearer to Him, sin will gradually grow 
less and less until it vanishes entirely. Then man will become the 
true image and child of God, and the kingdom of God will prevail 
upon earth." 

5. Lithuanian National Catholic Church. Another secession 
from the Catholic Church is this small Lithuanian body (1,497 


souls in 4 parishes) which is not connected with the Old Catholic 
Roman Church, but accepts the first four General Councils of the 
Church and uses the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed. The liturgy 
is Lithuanian. 

6. The Reformed Catholic Church. A body which seceded 
from Rome 1879 and holds the Protestant position in theology. 
It does not appear in recent census reports. 


The Uniate churches (uniates) are scattered groups of churches, 
formerly Greek Catholic, which acknowledge the Roman Pontiff, 
but are permitted to retain their traditional beliefs and practises. 
They are found mainly in Russia, Roumania, Armenia, Syria, and 
Abyssinia and have nine Eastern patriarchs. Hastings, Encycl. Rel. 
and Eth., XII, p. 174. The celibacy of the priests is not enforced, 
and the language of the people is used in worship. In Southern 
Russia the Uniate Church since the World War has adopted the 
title of Ukrainian Church. The government of the Uniates is 
provided for by a special commission at Rome. Adherents in the 
United States number 10,000. 


254* Originating in 1915 as a new form of Old Catholicism and 
deriving its clerical ordination from the Jansenist Church of 
Holland, this body is not Roman in any sense and can be called 
Catholic only in the sense of an extreme syncretism. All historical 
religions are held to be divinely inspired. Lay members need not 
profess any doctrine or creed. The Trinitarian formula is used in 
baptism. Its liturgy contains no "appeals for mercy," and there 
is no reference to everlasting punishment. Special attention is 
given to healing. There is a theosophical strain in its teaching, as 
when it asserts that "man, being in essence divine, can ultimately 
know the Deity whose life he shares and, by gradually unfolding 
the divine powers that are latent in him, can grow into knowledge 
and mastery of the universe, which is the expression of that divine 
life." In its literature the Creed of the Liberal Catholic Church 
is summed up as follows : "We believe that God is Love, and Power, 
and Truth, and Light; that perfect justice rules the world; that 
all His sons shall one day reach His feet, however far they stray. 
We hold the fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of man; we know 
that we do serve Him best when best we serve our brother man. 
So shall His blessing rest on us, and peace forevermore. Amen." 





255* 1. In discussing these churches we are compelled to use the 
plural,- because we are here not dealing with one body, albeit 
a divided one, having one definite doctrinal platform accepted by 
all who claim to be its members; but we are dealing with many 
bodies, representing a great variety of beliefs and possessing a num- 
ber of widely differing confessional writings. What places all of 
them in one group is their espousal, in some cases more consistent 
and complete than in others, of the fundamental principles held 
by Zwingli (14811531) and Calvin (15091564). The term 
Eeformed churches, originally a designation of all bodies which 
at the time of the Reformation arose in opposition to Rome, only 
gradually came to be applied to the churches which adopt the posi- 
tions of the two theologians mentioned. At first, Zwingli was' 
looked upon as an adherent of Luther. But when Carlstadt had 
proclaimed radical views and especially had denied the real 
presence of Christ's body and blood in the Lord's Supper, Zwingli 
defended him and soon wrote a treatise against the Lutheran posi- 
tion, referring to it in offensive terms. His attacks had to be an- 
swered, and the controversy was on. Zwingli and his chief follower, 
Oecolampadius, and other friends held a colloquy or conference 
with Luther and his chief adherents at Marburg in 1529 to remove 
the doctrinal differences; but while succeeding in many points, 
they did not reach an agreement in the doctrine of the Lord's 
Supper. At bottom it was the rationalism of Zwingli which was 
the stumbling-block. He was willing nevertheless to establish 
fraternal relations with the Lutherans (cf. 12), but they refused 
to treat a grave and fundamental difference in doctrine so lightly. 
The cleavage between the followers of Luther and those of Zwingli 
was emphasized when the latter submitted a separate confession of 
his faith to the Emperor at Augsburg in 1530. John Calvin like- 
wise at first was classed among the adherents of Luther. Gradually, 
however, it became evident that fundamentally his position was that 
of Zwingli. In the doctrine of the Lord's Supper he employed ex- 
pressions which made it appear as though he were in harmony with 
the Lutherans, but on closer examination it was seen that he denied 
the Real Presence just as well as Zwingli had denied it. Calvin 



was a great scholar and thinker and is looked upon as the principal 
exponent of Reformed theology. His chief doctrinal work has the 
title "Institutions of the Christian Religion." 

2. Both Zwingli and Calvin lived in Switzerland, Zwingli in 
Zurich, Calvin in Geneva, and in this country their views were 
adopted by practically all people that left the Roman Catholic 
Church. From here the Reformed influence spread to France, 
Southern German}*", the Netherlands, Scotland, England, and other 
European countries. Settlers from these countries brought the 
Reformed teachings to North America. All the large non-Lutheran 
Protestant denominations of our country, the Methodists, Pres- 
byterians, Baptists, etc., belong to this group. Owing to differences 
in doctrine which arose among them around the year 1600, we 
divide the Reformed into Calvinists and Arminians, a distinction 
which will be explained later. 

3. Confessional Writings. There are a great many confes- 
sional writings of the Reformed churches. We shall here enumerate 
merely the chief ones : The confession of Zwingli, presented to the 
Emperor at Augsburg, Ulrici Zwingli ad Carolum Imperatorem 
Fidei Ratio; the First Helvetic Confession of 1536, the chief author 
being Bullinger; the Geneva Catechism, by Calvin, 1536; also 
the Agreement of Geneva (Consensus Genevensis), 1551; the 
French Confession (Confessio Gallicana), 1559; the Belgian Con- 
fession (Confessio Belgica), 1561; the Heidelberg Catechism, by 
Caspar Olevianus and Zacharias Ursinus, 1562; the Second Hel- 
vetic Confession, by Bullinger, 1564; the Scotch Confession of 
Faith, by John Knox and others, 1560; the Anglican Confession 
of Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England, 1562; Canons 
of the Synod of Dort (directed chiefly against Arminianism), 
1619; the Swiss Agreement (Consensus Helveticus), by John 
Henry Heidegger, 1675; the Westminster Confession, 1648; the 
Larger Catechism and the Shorter Catechism of the Westminster 
Assembly, 1643 1649. Other important representative Reformed 
declarations of faith are the Repetition of Anhalt, 1579, and the 
Admonition of Neustadt, 1581. Some of these works are quoted 
by us from the edition of Niemeyer (Collectio Confessionum). 
Most of them will be found in Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, 
Vol. III. 

256* 4. In looking at the divergence of the Reformed teachings 
from those of the Lutheran Church, we find that rationalism is 
a striking feature of the Reformed churches. While proclaiming 


the Bible to be God's Word and the sole authority in religion, they 
more or less outspokenly hold that the Bible is not the only source 
of our religious doctrines, but that reason must be granted a voice 
when questions of religion are being decided. In the Catechism of 
Geneva, written by Calvin, we read : "Can you prove by means of 
your reason that nothing strange is contained in this article ? Yes, 
if it is granted that the Lord did not institute anything which is 
out of harmony with our reason.-" Memeyer, p. 163. 

Zwingli says in the Exposition of the Christian Faith : "What- 
soever is not infinite by nature cannot be at all places at the same 
time ; whatever is infinite is at the same time eternal. The human 
nature of Jesus is not from eternity ; hence it is not infinite. If it 
is not infinite, it is finite ; if it is finite, it is not everywhere. But 
we shall pass on. We alluded to the above in order not to neglect 
philosophic argumentation by means of rational conclusions." 
Niemeyer, p. 46. This position plainly makes reason the arbiter 
as to what we must accept in the Bible. That Reformed teachers 
still hold this position can be seen from a recent book by Loraine 
Boettner, The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination, where the 
author in the first sentence declares that his purpose is "to give 
a restatement to that great system which is known as the Reformed 
faith of Calvinism and to show that this is beyond all doubt the 
teaching of the Bible and of reason." Evidently reason is one of 
the pillars on which Reformed theologians wish to rest their doc- 
trines. Hence, in interpreting the Scriptures, they often make 
reason the judge whether a certain statement is to be taken literally 
or figuratively. 

257+ 5. The divergence of Reformed teaching from Lutheranism 
becomes especially evident in the teachings of this Church concern- 
ing the person of Christ. While defending the all-important doc- 
trine of the deity of Christ and placing themselves on the old 
creeds of the Christian Church, Reformed theologians have fallen 
into the Nestorian error of separating, or tearing apart, the two 
natures in Christ, virtually denying their true union. Thus it is 
taught that the divine nature in Christ exceeds, and extends 
beyond, the human nature. The Heidelberg Catechism says, 
Qu. 48 : "But does this not imply that the two natures are separated 
from each other, if the human nature is not at all places where 
the divine is? By no means; for since the Deity is incomprehen- 
sible and is omnipresent, it follows of necessity that it exists out- 
side of the human nature which is assumed and nevertheless like- 


wise in it and that it remains united with it in the personal union." 
In this manner it is denied that Christ since the incarnation every- 
where and in all places is God and man. In keeping with their 
position Eeformed teachers deny that there is a true communion 
between the two natures. Shedd says, Dogmatic Theology, Vol. II, 
p. 276 : "The human nature is not sufficiently capacious to contain 
the whole fulness of God." Finitum non est capax infiniti, the 
finite cannot contain the infinite, is their battle-cry. They hold 
that the statements "God is man," "This man is God" must not be 
taken literally, but are mere figures of speech. One of their 
authoritative writings, the Admonition of ISTeustadt, 1581 (p. 70), 
states: "If something human is attributed to God (Christ) and 
something divine to man (Christ), this is nothing but a figure of 
speech as far as the two natures are concerned." Well known is 
Zwinglfs declaration that the Scripture-passages we are here con- 
sidering employ a figure of speech called alloeosis, which consists 
in the substitution of one term for another. Similarly some 
Eeformed teachers deny that there is a real communication of 
attributes between the two natures, so that we can say : "God died 
for us." In the Admonition just quoted, p. 66, the Eeformed 
theologians say : "We deny most emphatically that in the person of 
Christ the essential qualities of the one nature are attributed to 
the other." Quite consistently, Eeformed theologians hold that 
Christ according to His human nature did not receive divine 
majesty and that, when He was exalted, He received only created 
gifts and limited power. Cp. Second Helvetic Confession : "We 
by no means teach that the divine nature suffered for us and that 
Christ according to His human nature is still in this world and 
at all places." In another one of their authoritative writings, the 
Eepetition of Anhalt (jSTiemeyer, p. 365), they say: "The gifts of 
the human nature of Christ, while transcending our reason and our 
powers of description, nevertheless must be distinguished from the 
qualities of the divine nature, which are eternal, infinite, and a part 
of its essence." The Heidelberg Catechism says, Qu. 47 : "Is not, 
then, Christ with us even unto the end of the world, as He has 
promised ? Answer : Christ is true man and true God. According 
to His human nature He is now not upon earth, but according to 
His godhead, majesty, grace, and Spirit He is at no time absent 
from us." 

Closely connected with this error is the view that in the per- 
formance of Christ's mission each nature does the work which 


belongs to it without true communion of the two natures. The 
Westminster Confession says, Art. VIII, 7 : "Christ in the work of 
mediation acteth according to both natures, by each nature doing 
that which is proper to itself (Heb. 9, 14; 1 Pet. 3, 18) ; yet by 
reason of the unity of the Person that which is proper to one 
nature is sometimes in Scripture attributed to the Person denomi- 
nated by the other nature (Acts 20, 28 ; John 3, 13 ; 1 John 3, 16)." 

258* That Christ humbled Himself and that He was exalted 
(states of Christ) is emphatically taught by Keformed theologians. 
But they did not avoid all error in speaking of this high doctrine. 
In their writings we find the view that Christ was humbled and 
exalted according to both natures and that, as mentioned before, 
the gifts which the human nature received were glorious, but finite 
gifts. One of them, Polanus, writes (Syntagma, 6, 22) : "Just as 
Christ humbled Himself according to His deity, not by laying it 
aside, but by hiding it in the form of a servant, which He had 
assumed, so He has been exalted according to this deity, manifest- 
ing it powerfully and completely in His glorious body." On the 
humiliation of Christ, Shedcl, an eminent Calvinist, professor at 
Union Seminary at the end of the last century, writes (Dogmatic 
Theology, Vol. II, p. 273) : "The finite and limited human nature 
hindered a full manifestation of the omniscience of the Deity. This 
was a part of the humiliation of the eternal Logos. He con- 
descended to unite Himself with an inferior nature, through which 
His own infinite perfections could shine only in part." 

As to Christ' s descent into hell Eeformed theologians are not 
of one mind. Some hold that the phrase refers to the intense 
sufferings Christ endured on the cross. Others believe it points to 
Christ's death and burial. Zwingli taught the latter view. The 
former is found, for instance, in the Heidelberg Catechism, where 
we read, Qu. 44 : "Why is it added, He descended into Hades ? 
Answer: That in my greatest temptation I may be assured that 
Christ, my Lord, by His inexpressible anguish, pains, and terrors, 
which He suffered in His soul on the cross and before, has redeemed 
me from the anguish and torment of hell." With respect to the 
resurrection of Christ we meet the view in Eeformed writings that 
it was effected solely by the divine nature, in no way by the human 
nature. The Kepetition of Anhalt says: "The divine nature in 
Christ raises the human nature from death, but the human nature 
does not raise itself." Niemeyer, p. 631. With all Christendom the 
Eeformed confess the doctrine of the session of Christ, that Christ 


seated Himself at the right hand of God; but they say that the 
right hand of the Father is a certain place and that the expression 
refers to Christ's rule according to His human nature with finite 
power and majesty. Cf. 68+ Zwingli says concerning this point in 
his Exposition of Christian Faith (Niemeyer, p. 45) : "Since this 
argumentation proves that Christ's body naturally, really, and truly 
must be at a certain place, unless we in a foolish and impious 
manner boldly wish to assert that our body, too, can be at many 
places at the same time, our opponents have to admit that Christ's 
body, according to its essence, taken by itself, naturally and truly 
is sitting at the right hand of the Father and thus is not present 
in the Lord's Supper." The Savoy Declaration of the Congrega- 
tionalists and the confession of the Baptists of 1688 voice the same 

The Eeformed view of the heaven which Jesus entered, seating 
Himself at the right hand of God, is well given in these words of 
J. J. Knap (Life beyond the Grave, p. 104) : "Christ left a definite 
place, the Mount of Olives, and went to another definite place, even 
heaven. . . ." P. 106 : "Heaven is a definite local place." A. Strong, 
Systematic Theology, p. 585 f., says : "The presence of Christ's 
human body is essential to heaven, and this body must be confined 
to place. ... As the new bodies of the saints are confined to place, 
so, it would seem, must be the body of their Lord." An examina- 
tion of authoritative Eeformed pronouncements will show that 
heaven is there described in local terms. Cp. Admonition of Neu- 
stadt and Second Helvetic Confession. 

On the question according to which nature Jesus will judge 
the world 011 the Last Day some Keformed theologians have taught 
that He will execute this judgment only according to His divine 
nature. Cp. the Admonition of ISTeustadt, p. 21. 

259* 6. The Eoman Catholic sacrament of penance, as we should 
expect, was rejected by Zwingli, Calvin, and their followers. With 
great earnestness they preached heart repentance. But they did 
not keep themselves entirely free from error on this vital subject. 
Instead of teaching that repentance consists of contrition or terror 
with respect to one's sins, on the one hand, and of faith, on the 
other, they define repentance as occurring when the "old man" dies 
and the "new man" arises, acts which are the fruits of repentance 
and not to be confused with repentance itself. The Heidelberg 
Catechism says, Qus. 88 90 : "'Of how many parts does the true 
repentance or conversion of man consist ? Of two parts : the death 


of the old and the arising of the new man. What is the dying of the 
old man? It is to feel heartily sorry over one's sin and to hate 
and flee it more and more. What is the arising of the new man? 
To rejoice heartily in God and to have the wish and desire to live 
according to His will in all good works." In a number of confes- 
sional writings that have emanated from, and have been endorsed 
by, Reformed church-bodies, we find a lack of clearness in the use 
of the word repentance. Calvin in the Geneva Catechism, chap, on 
Faith, speaks of repentance in terms which should be used only 
of those that have been converted, because he includes in his de- 
scription hatred of sin and love of righteousness, attitudes which 
are not found in the unregenerate. See also Calvin, Inst. Ill, 
156160. The Westminster Confession says (XV, 1) : "Repen- 
tance unto life is an evangelical grace, the doctrine whereof is to be 
preached by every minister of the Gospel as well as that of faith 
in Christ." 

260* 7. We now come to the doctrine of the Means of Grace, the 
Word of God and the Sacraments. It goes without saying that in 
Eeformed teaching these factors are regarded as divine gifts of 
which all Christians should gratefully avail themselves. But prayer 
is added to the "outward and ordinary means whereby Christ com- 
municates to His Church the benefit of His mediation." Larger 
Westm. C., Qu. 154. Besides, when the efficacy of the Word and 
the Sacraments is considered, a divergence from Lutheran teaching 
comes into view. It is held that the Word, Baptism, and the Lord's 
Supper are not means by which God imparts His Spirit and grace. 
In his Fidei Ratio, Zwingli speaks thus (ISTiemeyer, p. 24 f .) : "I be- 
lieve, yea, I know, that all Sacraments not merely do not distribute 
or convey grace, but not even bring or administer it. ... For just 
as grace comes from the divine Spirit and is given by it (grace 
taken in the Latin significance as meaning forgiveness, tolerance, 
and act of kindness), so this gift reaches only the spirit, but for 
the Spirit no guide or vessel is required, for it is itself Power and 
Conveyor by which all things are borne, and it does not require 
itself to be borne. Besides, we have never read in Holy Scriptures 
that sensuous things like the Sacraments are surely accompanied 
by the Holy Spirit. But if sensuous things were ever conferred 
together with the Spirit, it was the Spirit who did the conferring, 
not the sensuous things." Calvin admits that God usually converts 
by means of the Word ; but God so he avers, with an eye to the 
central doctrine of his system, that of the sovereignty of God 


can convert in a different manner, and "this other method He un- 
doubtedly employed in the calling of many people to whom He, 
only through inward illumination, without the means of preaching, 
gave true understanding." Inst., IV, 16, 19. 

That the Eeformed separate the Word of God and the Holy 
Spirit, not regarding the Word itself as being "spirit and life," 
John 6, 63, is brought out, for instance, in the following words of 
the Second Helvetic Confession, chap. 18 : "Let us believe that God 
teaches us outwardly in His Word through the ministers, but that 
inwardly He leads the hearts of His elect to faith through the 
Holy Spirit." 

This is the typical Eeformed position. In full agreement with 
this fundamental view Eeformed theologians say that the Sacra- 
ments are merely symbolical of the grace that has already been, or 
that later will be, communicated. Thus the Heidelberg Catechism, 
speaking of the Sacraments, says, Qu. 66 : "They are visible, holy 
signs and seals appointed of God for this end, that by the use 
thereof He may the more fully declare and seal to us the promise 
of the Gospel." These words can be correctly understood, but as 
spoken by the Eeformed they are not meant to signify that the 
Sacraments are efficacious Means of Grace. In the light of their 
other utterances we must hold that the word's "seal" and "sign" as 
here used by them signify the absence of inherent power. On ac- 
count of this teaching of theirs Eeformed theologians hold that faith 
belongs to the essence of the Sacrament and that, as a result, un- 
believers receive nothing but the outward elements when they par- 
take of the Sacrament of the Altar. The unworthy communicants 
so they emphatically state do not receive the body and blood 
of Christ in the Lord's Supper. The Agreement of Zurich says 
(Niemeyer, p. 195) : "Besides the fact that in the Sacrament noth- 
ing is received excepting that which is received by faith, this truth, 
too, must be held, that God's grace is not in such a way bound up 
with the Sacraments that whoever has the sign also has the thing 
signified." Hodge (Systematic Theology, Vol. Ill, p. 501) says: 
"These symbols of the Eeformed churches on the continent of 
Europe agree with those of our own Church not only in represent- 
ing the Sacraments as real Means of Grace, but also in denying that 
their efficacy is due to their inherent virtue or to him who ad- 
ministers them, and in affirming that it is due to the attending 
operation of the Spirit and is conditioned on the presence of faith 
in the recipient." 


261* With respect to Baptism the Eeformed confessions state that 
it merely symbolizes regeneration and the forgiveness of sins and is 
the outward token and seal that regeneration and purification has 
been effected by the Holy Ghost. The Geneva Catechism, written 
by Calvin, says : "What is the significance of Baptism ? It is two- 
fold, for in it the forgiveness of sins and after it spiritual regenera- 
tion are symbolized/' Niemeyer, p. 162. Shedd says on the signifi- 
cance of Baptism (Dogmatic Theology, Vol. II, p. 574) : "The 
Sacrament of Baptism is the sign and seal of regeneration. It is 
emblematic and didactic of this doctrine. Baptism is not a means 
of regeneration, as the Lord's Supper is of sanctification. It does 
not confer the Holy Spirit as a regenerating Spirit, but is the 
authentic token that the Holy Spirit has been, or will be, con- 
ferred; that regeneration has been, or will be, effected." While 
thus a low view of the Sacraments is taught, one is surprised to 
find that many Eeformed churches say that only ordained min- 
isters may administer Baptism, not permitting that in cases of 
necessity any Christian perform this Sacrament (sacerdotalism). 
Thus the Westminster Confession, XXVII, 4, after stating that 
there are only two Sacraments, continues : "neither of which may 
be dispensed by any but by a minister of the Word lawfully or- 
dained." The Presbyterian Book of Common Worship, p. 40, 
says : "Baptism not to be administered in any case by any private 

To proceed, the Christian who has learned the truth from 
Scripture that men are under the wrath of God from the first 
moment of their existence is amazed to learn that the Eeformed 
say children of believing parents are without and prior to baptism 
in the covenant of God and in the Church of Christ. See 121+ 
The Second Helvetic Confession, speaking of children of Christian 
parents, states : "According to evangelical teaching the kingdom of 
God is of such, and they are in the covenant of God. Why should 
not the sign of the covenant of God be given to them ? Why should 
they not be dedicated through Holy Baptism, since they are God's 
own and members of His Church ?" Chap. 20. 

In this teaching of the Eeformed we meet a strange incon- 
sistency. On the one hand, their statements deny that children 
can believe. Zwingli says in his confession Fidei Eatio: "We 
should not be ready to condemn those who on account of their age 
have no faith." Memeyer, p. 22. On the other hand, they declare 
that children of Christian parents are children of God and members 


of His Church. Of. also Second Helvetic Confession, chap. 20, as 
quoted above. 

On the significance of infant baptism Shedd says (Doctrinal 
Theology, Vol. II, p. 576) : "The infant of the believer receives the 
Holy Spirit as a regenerating Spirit by virtue of the covenant be- 
tween God and His people. Gen. 17, 7 ; Acts 2, 39. The infant 
of the believer consequently obtains the regenerating grace by virtue 
of his birth and descent from a believer in covenant with God, and 
not by virtue of his baptism." 

262* On no subject has there been such a persistent controversy 
between the Eeformed and Lutherans as on the Lord's Supper. 
It is here that the rationalism of the former, which chiefly divides 
them from the latter, becomes most apparent. Not only have 
Reformed teachers overemphasized certain external matters, as the 
use of leavened bread, rejecting wafers (as a protest against Eoman 
Catholicism), declaring, furthermore, the breaking of bread es- 
sential, saying that it symbolizes the breaking of Christ's body on 
the cross, insisting, besides, that the elements must be given into 
the hands of the communicants and not be conveyed directly to the 
mouth; but they also have inculcated a low view of the blessed 
Sacrament of the Eucharist, denying the real presence of our 
Lord's body and blood. Concerning the position of the Eeformed 
on the minor, external features mentioned a few quotations may be 
submitted. On the breaking of the bread the Heidelberg Catechism 
says, Qu. 75 : "How is it signified and sealed unto thee in the Holy 
Supper that thou dost partake of the one sacrifice of Christ on the 
cross and of His benefits ? Answer : Thus, that Christ has com- 
manded me and all believers to eat of this broken bread and to 
drink of this cup and has joined therewith these promises : First, 
that His body was offered and broken on the cross for me and His 
blood shed for me as certainly as I see with my eyes the bread of 
the Lord broken for me and the cup communicated to me; and 
further, that with His crucified body and shed blood He Himself 
feeds and nourishes my soul to everlasting life as certainly as I re- 
ceive from the hand of the minister, and taste with my mouth, the 
bread and cup of the Lord, which are given me as certain tokens 
of the body and blood of Christ." With regard to the use of 
leavened bread and the rejection of wafers those Eeformed churches 
which have this peculiarity declare that they wish to oppose papis- 
tical superstition, forgetting that they are legislating where God has 
not made any laws. 


We come to one of the chief points of difference between the 
Eef ormed and the Lutherans when we look at their interpretation of 
the words of institution of the Eucharist. The Eeformed churches 
hold that the words "This is My body" must not be taken in their 
proper, but in a figurative sense. While they are by no means 
agreed as to the interpretation, there being in their camp more 
than twenty different ways of interpreting them (cf. Krauth, Con- 
servative Eeformation, p. 607), they are all persuaded that the 
words must not be taken to mean that Christ's true body and blood 
are actually present and orally received by the communicants. 
Zwingli says, revealing his own position and at the same time 
grossly misrepresenting the position of the Lutherans: "That 
Christ's body according to its essence and in reality, that is, the 
natural body itself, is present in the Lord's Supper or that it is 
chewed with the mouth and our teeth, as the papists teach and all 
those who are looking back to the flesh-pots of Egypt, this we not 
only deny, but we maintain consistently that it is an error con- 
tradicting the Word of God." Confession, ed. Memeyer, p. 26. The 
Eeformed think that the Eeal Presence is ruled out by the ascension 
of Christ to heaven, which they explain as involving His being 
shut up in heaven in such a way that His body and blood cannot be 
present in the Lord's Supper. The Heidelberg Catechism says : 
"What does it mean to eat the crucified body of Christ and to drink 
the blood that He shed? It means not only to receive with a be- 
lieving heart the whole Passion and death of Christ and thereby lay 
hold on forgiveness of sins and life eternal, but besides, through 
the Holy Spirit, who lives at the same time in Christ and in us, 
to be united more and more with His blessed body in such a way 
that, although He is in heaven and we on earth, we are nevertheless 
flesh of His flesh and bone of His bones and live and are governed 
eternally through one Spirit, just as the members of the body live 
and are governed through one soul." When the Eeformed churches 
do say that Christ's body and blood are present in the Lord's 
Supper, they have in mind merely His spiritual influence, as the 
foregoing quotation shows. Very vehemently do they assert that 
Christ's body and blood are not received orally, but spiritually, by 
faith. Chap. XXIX, 7 of the Westminster Confession declares 
of the body and blood of Christ that they are not '"corporally or 
carnally in, with, or under the bread and wine, yet as really, but 
spiritually, present to the faith of believers in that ordinance as 
the elements themselves are to their outward senses." 


There are two views current in the Reformed churches on the 
benefits connected with the Eucharist. One is that the Lord's 
Supper is to be looked upon as a memorial meal, reminding the 
believing communicant of what Christ through His suffering and has accomplished for him. The other is that in the Lord's 
Supper a spiritual eating and drinking performed by faith takes 
place and unites the believer with Christ. Zwingli was the chief 
exponent of the former view, while in Calvin we find the latter- 
stressed. In the Confession of the Ministers of the Church at 
Zurich we read : "We teach that the memory of the body offered for 
us and of the blood shed for the remission of our sins is the chief 
thing, the beginning and end, toward which the entire ceremony 
of the Eucharist is directed." Calvin's view is reflected in these' 
words of the Geneva Catechism: "Why is the body of Christ 
represented by bread and His blood by wine ? This teaches us that 
the same power which bread possesses, to nourish our bodies for 
the sustenance of the present life, is exerted by the body of our Lord 
to nourish our souls in a spiritual way; and again, that, just as 
the wine delights the heart of man and renews his strength and fills 
the whole man with vigor, so a like benefit will come from the blood 
of the Lord for our souls." Memeyer, p. 164. How utterly do 
these words fail to bring out what the Scriptures teach on this 
subject! It is true (cf. quotations above) that Eeformed teachers 
often use language which is very similar to that employed by Lu- 
theran theologians. They frequently speak of the eating and drink- 
ing of Christ's body and blood. Their opposition to the teaching 
of the Scriptures becomes apparent at once when they are asked 
whether unbelieving, unworthy communicants receive Christ's body 
and blood in the Eucharist. In their reply they emphatically deny 
that such people partake of Christ's body and blood. Thus Art. 
XXIX, chap. 8 of the Westminster Confession declares : "Although 
ignorant and wicked men receive the outward elements in this 
Sacrament, yet they receive not the thing signified thereby." In 
this point all the Eeformed are agreed. Private communion is 
not sanctioned in Eeformed churches. Cf. Walther, Symbolik, 
p. 237. 

263* 8. When we come to the doctrine of the Church, we find that 
the Eeformed teachers distinguish, as do Lutherans, between the 
visible and the invisible Church, though the latter in Eeformed 
theology is not given the emphasis it should have and Scripture 
statements pertaining to the invisible Church are frequently trans- 


ferred to the visible. We criticize, besides, the manifestation of 
& legalistic spirit in the Reformed confessions when the marks of 
the Church are discussed. In the Belgian Confession we read: 
"The marks by which the true Church is distinguished from the 
false are the following: The pure preaching of the Gospel, the 
administration of the Sacraments according to the institution of 
Christ, and the exercise of church discipline for the punishment of 
vices." Memeyer, p. 380. It will be seen that this gives undue 
importance to a human factor, church discipline, which on account 
of our frailty is always imperfect. 

264* Regarding the office of the holy ministry the Reformed 
rightly maintain that it rests on divine institution. But we cannot 
sanction their view that the ministry of the Word does not belong 
to the whole Church, but merely to certain persons in the Church. 
In the Second Helvetic Confession we find this statement (ISrie- 
meyer, p. 492) : "Many people talk nonsense about the keys of the 
kingdom of heaven, which were given by Christ to the apostles. . . . 
We simply follow the Word of God and say that all ministers who 
have been rightfully called possess and administer the keys, or the 
use of the keys, when they preach the Gospel, that is, when they 
instruct the people entrusted to them, admonish them, comfort and 
reprove them, and exercise discipline over them. . . . They ad- 
minister the keys whenever they urge faith and repentance." 
Cf. the statement of the Westminster Confession, chap. XXX, which 
says that the keys of the kingdom of heaven have been handed over 
to the officers of the Church, by virtue of which they have the 
power to retain and to remit sins. While thus unduly exalting the 
ministerial office, attributing to its incumbents what belongs to the 
whole Church and to every individual Christian, they minimize the 
ministerial activity in what they teach on absolution. 158. They 
reject the doctrine, taught by the Lutheran Church, that the 
authority publicly to forgive sins is given to the ministers of 
Christ, their absolution being God's absolution. Zwingli, opposing 
this teaching, said (Expositio Christianae Fidei, Memeyer, p. 56) : 
"Whosoever believes in Christ receives forgiveness of sins. Just as 
nobody knows of somebody else whether the latter is a believer, so 
nobody knows whether the sins have been forgiven to any one, 
excepting he who through the light and power of faith is certain 
of his forgiveness. . . . Hence it appears frivolous to say, I absolve 
thee, and, I make thee certain that thy sins are forgiven." Bearing 
this in mind, it can easily be understood that the Reformed 


churches look upon confession made to the minister as a popish 
error. Their opposition to the auricular confession of the Eoman 
Catholics led them to this extreme, that they rejected the making 
of confessions to the pastor as such, thus branding an institution as 
wrong which,, while not commanded by God, nevertheless is useful 
and deserves commendation. 

265+ 9. We have to mention also that the Eeformed churches 
reveal their legalistic tendency by teaching that Sunday has taken 
the place of the Old Testament Sabbath and must be kept as the 
seventh day had to be kept by the Israelites. Of a number of ex- 
pressions in Eeformed confessional writings to this effect we shall 
quote one from the Westminster Confession,, chap. 21, 7 : "As it is 
of the law of nature that in general a due proportion of time be 
set apart for the worship of God, so in His Word by a positive 
moral and perpetual commandment, binding all men in all ages, 
He hath particularly appointed one day in seven for a Sabbath, to 
be kept holy unto Him, which from the beginning of the world to 
the resurrection of Christ was the last day of the week and from 
the resurrection of Christ was changed into the first day of the 
week, which in Scripture is called the Lord's Day and is to be 
continued to the end of the world as the Christian Sabbath." 
That the Eeformed churches do not teach the proper separation of 
Church and State is manifest from the "blue-laws" which arose in 
their camp, prescribing, e. g., the keeping of Sunday in Puritanic 
fashion. The kind of propaganda carried on by them for Prohibi- 
tion is likewise in point. 

A species of legalism is the Eeformed interpretation of what, 
according to their numbering and terminology, is the Second Com- 
mandment, Ex. 20, 4 f. : "Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven 
image or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above or that 
is in the earth beneath or that is in the water under the earth; 
thou shalt not bow down thyself to them nor serve them." The 
Eeformed hold that God forbids here, even to us Christians living 
in the time of the New Covenant, to make images representing God. 
The Heidelberg Catechism asks, Qu. 97 : "Are we, then, to have no 
image at all ?" And it replies : "God cannot and must not in any 
way be represented. . . ." Legalism manifests itself in the Ee- 
formed churches in connection with their cultus when they forbid 
things (rites, ceremonies, ornaments, festivals) which Scripture 
does not expressly sanction. The principle, Away with everything 
which the Bible does not mention ! is typically Eeformed. 


The church services of the Eeformed, where the old type 
inaugurated by Zwingli and Calvin is adhered to, are without form 
and void, a cold, barren affair; the whims of the preacher often 
decide what is to be included. There is no fixed liturgy to enrich 
and beautify the services. The churches partake more of the nature 
of lecture-halls than of places of worship; art is barred from 
furnishing its edifying, stimulating contributions in music, sculp- 
ture, painting, and architecture. Cp. Guericke, Symbolik, 72. 
Latterly the opposition to a definite, fixed order of worship which 
possesses both beauty and historical sanction has been much 
modified. To grasp what is fundamental in the old Eeformed 
church service, it is helpful to see that, while the Roman service 
is entirely sacramental, the Eeformed is entirely sacrificial; that 
is, it exclusively represents something that man does for God, 
instead of directing attention chiefly to that which God does for us. 

It will be seen from the above that our strictures of distinctive 
Eeformed teachings can be summarized under the heads of ra- 
tionalism and legalism, representing pernicious tendencies to which 
we all are prone and which seriously impair divine truth as revealed 
to us in the Holy Scriptures. 


266* As mentioned briefly above, the Eeformed churches are 
divided into two sections, a Calvinistic and Arminian wing. Nearly 
all of them can be classified as belonging either to the one or the 
other. The church-bodies which, historically speaking, are chiefly 
the exponents of Calvinism in America are the churches called 
Eeformed, the Presbyterians, the Congregationalists, and a number 
of the Baptist bodies. Arminianism, on the other hand, is taught 
by the Methodists, Cumberland Presbyterians, and some of the 
Baptists. It is important to remember that in most of these 
churches either Calvinism or Arminianism appears in a modi- 
fied form. 

Calvinism. We shall first devote a little space to the study 
of the peculiar views of the so-called Calvinistic churches. As the 
name indicates, they are followers of John Calvin, who brought the 
views held by him and his fellow-religionists into a comprehensive 
system. The teachings which distinguish them from the Arminians 
have to do mainly with predestination and conversion. Calvin 
proceeds from the great truth of the sovereignty of God as the 
foundation-stone of all his theological thinking. He places "in the 


forefront of his system God and His universal control." Fisher, 
History of doctrine, p. 300. Calvin argued that, if God determines 
everything in the world, then imperfection and evil-doing and the 
final damnation of the wicked must be in accord with the divine 
will. In keeping with this fundamental principle he taught a 
double predestination, one to salvation and one to damnation. He 
says : "Predestination we call the eternal decree of God by which 
He has determined in Himself what He would have every in- 
dividual of mankind turn out to be; for they are not all created 
with a similar destiny, but eternal life is foreordained for some and 
eternal damnation for others." Inst., Ill, 21, 5. Calvin himself 
says: "It is a horrible decree, I acknowledge." Ib., III, 23, 7. 
This terrible teaching is due to a striving after logical consistency, 
Calvin developing it, as has been stated., out of his doctrine of the 
absolute sovereignty of God; it is not built, as Christian teachings 
should be, on clear, unmistakable statements of the Holy Scrip- 
tures. The Bible-passages which Calvin appeals to in support of 
the wrong view mentioned can be shown not to contain the doctrine 
which he finds there. 177+ A corollary of the above teaching 
is the view, so terrible to every Christian heart, that God has had 
mercy not on all, but only on some. (Eejection of universal grace.) 
Calvin says : "We affirm that this counsel, as far as concerns the 
elect, is founded on His gratuitous mercy, totally and irrespective 
of human merits ; but to all those whom He devotes to condemna- 
tion the gate of life is closed by a just and irreprehensible, but in- 
comprehensible, judgment." Inst., Ill, 21, 7. Calvin was a supra- 
lapsarian, holding that God, whose will "is the cause of everything 
that exists" (Inst., Ill, 23, 2), decreed the fall of man. Many 
of his later followers were infralapsarians, holding that God did 
not decree, but only permit, the Fall. See also 299+ Calvin's posi- 
tion makes God the cause of evil, or of sin. 

From the foregoing it is evident that Calvin and his followers 
teach an absolute election. What is meant by this term is that they 
believe, when God elected, He did so without reference to the work 
of Christ or any other factor. While the Lutheran Confessions 
emphasize that God elected us Christians in Christ, Eph. 1, 4, that 
is, on the basis of the work which Christ performed as Savior of 
the world, Calvinists do not introduce this element, or factor, in 
their teaching of predestination. When they do speak of Christ as 
included in the decree of election, it is in an altogether different 
sense from that expressed by the Lutheran Confessions. In the 


Consensus Helvetians, chaps. V, VI, we read : "In this gracious 
decree of divine election Christ Himself also is included, not as 
a meritorious cause or basis preceding election itself, but as One 
who also before the foundation of the world was chosen as an elect 
and who therefore is especially the chosen Mediator for the execu- 
tion of the decree and our first-born Brother, whose precious merits 
God intended to use in order that He might grant us salvation 
without injury to His justice ; for Holy Scripture not only testifies 
that the election took place according to the sole good pleasure of 
the counsel and will of God, but it traces back the appointment 
and sending of Christ, our Mediator, to the love of God which He 
feels toward the company of the elect. . . . The appointment of 
the Mediator, Christ, as well as the salvation of those who have 
been given to Him as His property and inalienable inheritance is 
derived from election and is not designated as its foundation." 
An absolute election is likewise taught in the Consensus, or Agree- 
ment, of Geneva, written by Calvin, where these words are found: 
"If we are not ashamed of the Gospel, we have to confess, accord- 
ing to its clear teachings, that God according to His eternal good 
pleasure, whose cause is not dependent on anything else, has ap- 
pointed some according to His will to salvation, while others have 
been rejected/ 5 

Since the Calvinists hold such a view of divine election, it will 
not surprise any one to find that, in addition, they teach that no 
one is made a believer unless he is an elect and that those who are 
elect can never totally nor finally lose faith. Even enormous sins 
will not have this result in the case of the elect, that they will 
entirely fall away. The Synod of Dort in its canons, V, 6, has 
expressed itself thus : "God, who is rich in mercy, according to 
the unchangeable determination of election does not take the Holy 
Spirit from those that are His, not even in cases of enormous sins. 
Nor does He let them stray to such an extent that they lose the 
grace of being His children and the status of justification." The 
only admission which the Calvinists will make is that the elect, 
after they have been made believers, may lose the sense of God's 
favor and come into a state where God regards them with dis- 
pleasure; but that they should altogether fall away and become 
total unbelievers is impossible according to Calvinistic teaching. 
Cp. Canons of Dort, c. 5, 5. One of the distinct tenets of Cal- 
vinism, then, is the doctrine called that of the inamissibility of 
grace and faith or of the final perseverance of believers. It may be 



recalled that Cromwell on his deathbed asked his pastor whether 
it was truly the teaching of God's Word that, if a person is once 
in faith, he remains in faith and that, when his pastor assured him 
that such was the case, he replied that he was satisfied, for that 
he once was a believer he knew positively. (Carnal security. 179*) 
When we inquire more particularly what the attitude of God 
was toward those who in the end will be condemned, Calvinists say, 
in the words of the Westminster Confession : "The rest of mankind 
God was pleased ... to pass by and to ordain them to dishonor." 
Chap. III. In this way the sweet doctrine of universal grace is 
denied. In another statement the Westminster Confession says: 
"By the decree of God for the manifestation of His glory some men 
and angels are predestinated unto everlasting life and others fore- 
ordained to everlasting death." This is consistent Calvinism, which 
does not shrink from promulgating the horrible doctrine that God 
has actually foreordained or predestined a number of people to 
eternal perdition (decree of reprobation). With respect to the 
redemption of Christ strict Calvinists hold that it took place only 
for the elect (limited atonement). In the Formula Consensus 
Helvetica we read these words : "Just as Christ from eternity was 
elected as Head, Prince, and Heir of all those who in time will be 
saved through His grace, thus also in the time of the New Covenant 
He has become Surety only for those who through eternal election 
have been given to Him as His own people, as His seed and 
inheritance ; for only for the elect did He suffer His terrible death. 
According to the resolution of the Father and His own intention, 
them alone did He bring back into the bosom of divine grace, and 
them alone did He reconcile to His angry Father and free from 
the curse of the Law." It follows that justification, too, is for the 
elect only. (As to the legalistic tinge of the Eeformed doctrine of 
justification see Walther, Symbolik, p. 243 ff., and Concordia Theol. 
Monthly, 1934, p. 497 if. 

267 + Calvinists admit that God in the Scriptures calls all men to 
salvation, the respective passages being so very clear. But they 
hold that this general call of God is not of the same earnestness, 
seriousness, and power in the case of the elect and of those that 
are not elect. It is only the former for whom the divine call is 
seriously intended. The latter are called so that they may not have 
any excuse when they are ultimately condemned. The Westminster 
Confession states, chap. X, 1. 4 : "All those whom God hath pre- 
destinated unto life, and those only, He is pleased in His appointed 


and accepted time effectually to call by His Word and Spirit out of 
that state of sin and death in. which they are by nature to grace 
and salvation by Jesus Christ. . . . Others, not elected, although 
they may be called by the ministry of the Word, may have some 
common operations of the Spirit, yet they never truly come to 
Christ, therefore cannot be saved." One of the Keformed theolo- 
gians, Spanheim, writes in his book Elench. Controv. c. Luth. : "We 
of the Eeformed faith affirm that God, who could have saved all 
men, decreed in His eternal, unchangeable counsel, moved by His 
mere free good pleasure, to let some people, their number being 
great if compared with that of the elect, people who were not more 
wicked than the predestinated, lie in their miserable state and not 
to have mercy on them, but to deny them the saving grace and ef- 
fectual calling to the reconciliation which is in Christ, although 
He calls them outwardly in order that they may have no excuse." 
In this manner Eeformed theologians endeavor to bridge over the 
gulf which exists, in our thinking, between the two truths that God 
is merciful toward all and that, on the other hand, a great number 
of people are lost. See 55 + Calvinism, as we see from the above, 
finds the solution in denying that God earnestly seeks the salvation 
of those who are ultimately condemned and that He calls them in 
all seriousness to be His own. Since the Scripture passages speak- 
ing of the universal grace of God are many and clear, Calvinists 
have resorted to the expedient of distinguishing between common 
grace and special grace, the former directed toward all men, the 
latter toward the elect only, a distinction which has no basis in 

Quite consistently, Calvinists teach that whenever God does 
call men in all seriousness, His call is irresistible. Holding, with 
the Scriptures, that man in his natural state is a lost and con- 
demned sinner and that he cannot cooperate with God in his con 1 
version (total depravity), they believe that, whenever conversion 
does take place, it is due to an application of divine power which 
man cannot withstand. The Synod of Dort spoke as follows (chaps. 
3 and 4-; Rej. Err. 8) : "The Assembly rejects the errors of those 
who teach that God in the regeneration of man does not employ 
His almighty power in order thereby with force and infallibly to 
make the will of man incline to faith and conversion; but that 
man, in spite of all influences of grace employed by God to con- 
vert man, may nevertheless so resist, and actually often does so 
resist, God and the Spirit, who is seeking his regeneration and en- 


deavoring to bring him unto new life, that his regeneration is 
totally frustrated/' We, then, have this chain in the old Cal- 
vinism: Sovereignty of God predestination of certain people to 
eternal life the irresistible calling of those predestinated the 
inamissibility of grace on the part of these people and their final 
perseverance. Parallel to this runs another chain, most terrible to 
behold : Sovereignty of God predestination to damnation of very 
many people a call addressed to them which is not serious 
their remaining in unbelief their final damnation. 

It is true that churches which formerly were strictly Cal- 
vinistic, as, e. g., the Congregationalists and some Presbyterian 
bodies, have of late much modified their views. The Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America has adopted a "declaratory 
statement," added to its edition of the Westminster Confession, 
"setting forth the universality of the Gospel offer of salvation, de- 
claring that no man is condemned except on the ground of his 
sin." The Confession thus presents contradictory doctrines. 

268* Arminianism. It was about 1600 when a tendency began 
to manifest itself in Eeformed circles which opposed a number 
of views that Calvin had advocated. Unfortunately the proponents 
of the new position went too far in the other direction, not halting 
till they had reached the opposite extreme. Because one of the 
prominent leaders in this movement of revolt was a certain Jacob 
Arminius, who died at Leyden 1609, all the people who took part 
in the movement or shared the views expressed by its leaders were 
ultimately called Arminians. Other prominent defenders of these 
views were Bpiscopius, who in 1611 became professor at Leyden, 
and the renowned statesman and theologian Hugo Grotius (1583 
to 1645). The Arminian views later on were adopted chiefly by 
the Methodists. In 1610 the theologians who were in sympathy 
with the teachings of Arminius drew up five articles, which they 
called a remonstrance (protest) and in which they gave an account 
of their teaching and rejected the respective points of Calvinism. 
Hence they themselves were called Eemonstrants. Ever since that 
time theologians speak of the Five Points in which Calvinists and 
Arminians differ. These points refer to election, atonement, the 
total depravity of man, God's calling of the sinner, and the per- 
severance of the saints. Above we have set forth briefly what the 
Calvinists held on these subjects. The Arminians, or Kemon- 
strants, taught that predestination is conditional, being dependent 
on what God has foreseen regarding the faith and life of the person 


to be elected; that atonement is not confined to the elect, but is 
universal; that the doctrine of total depravity, asserting that man 
has no ability to convert himself or to cooperate in his conversion 
cannot be held; that God's calling of the sinner must not be 
described as irresistible; and, finally, that it is wrong to say that 
the saints cannot lose their faith and fall into unbelief. 

When the Arminians contend for universal atonement, on the 
one hand, and when they, on the other hand, deny that God's grace 
works and calls irresistibly and that true believers never can fall 
from faith, they use terminology which is entirely Scriptural. 
But when they make predestination dependent on what God has 
foreseen in man's life, and when they deny the Scripture teaching 
of total depravity, we emphatically have to voice our disagreement. 
With regard to election, Limborch, one of the Arminian theolo- 
gians, writes in his work entitled Christian Theology, VI, 3. 4: 
"We said that election is an act of God which occurs in time in 
order to show that it did not occur in eternity. We call it an act 
according to which He separates the believers in order to show 
that faith does not follow election, but precedes it and that it is 
not an effect of election, but a condition demanded by God in 
advance." There can be no doubt, then, that Arminians do not 
teach an election of pure grace. To substantiate that Arminians 
deny the total depravity of man, we quote the same theologian, 
Limborch, who in his Christian Theology, III, 4, 4, says: "The 
Scripture does not teach that in children there is a corruption 
which is truly and really sin. ... It ascribes to children such an 
innocence, freedom from what is wrong, and other qualities that 
they may be admitted to heaven." In the same connection he says 
that there is in man a tendency to commit certain sinful deeds, but 
"this tendency is not sin; however, it is the source and origin of 
sins if man follows it." 

Arminians deny that the sin of Adam was really imputed to 
the descendants of Adam. Original sin they do not regard as sin 
in the strict sense of the word, making a person subject to God's 
wrath (cp. their Apology, p. 84). 

What the Arminians teach on the image of God can be seen 
from this statement of Limborch (Theol. Chr., II, 24, 2. 5. 7) : 
"That image is nothing but the eminent nature and the excellence 
through which man especially was similar to God, and it consisted 
in the power and dominion which God gave to man over everything 
which He had created. . . . Some people demand, in addition to 
what has been mentioned, some other gifts, namely, original right- 


eousness and immortality, . . . but Scripture nowhere ascribes to 
the first man such full holiness and righteousness." In keeping 
with these views, the Apology of the Arminians, p. 60, rejects the 
teaching that the body of Adam originally was immortal, that is, 

Instead of teaching the total depravity of man before regenera- 
tion, the Arminians insist that there is left in natural man the 
power to obey when the Spirit calls (synergism). The same leader 
quoted above, Limborch, speaking in his Theologia Christiana of 
the fall of Adam, says: "Adam did not bring upon himself the 
inability to perform in the future what is good." Ill, 2. 25. In 
the same work, speaking of conversion, he shows himself an ad- 
vocate of free will and says: "One man, through the right use of 
his free will, which is aroused by divine grace, accepts the grace 
[offered him] ; another one, through misuse of his free will and 
through new stubbornness against divine grace, rejects it. Does, 
then, free will cooperate with grace? Yes; for otherwise there 
would be no obedience or disobedience in man. If you inquire 
whether cooperation of the free will is something good and salutary, 
I repty, Indeed it is. You will then say: Grace, accordingly, is 
not the chief cause of salvation. I reply : It is not the sole cause." 
IV, 14. 21. In their Confession of Faith the Arminians reject the 
Scripture truth that faith is solely a gift of God, saying: "This 
faith cannot be something which is effected without us." IX, 3. 

Closely allied to this is the teaching that the believer even in 
this life may arrive at a state of perfection. The same theologian 
whom we have just quoted says in the same work, V, 15, 2 : "For 
our part we gladly profess that there are various degrees of be- 
lievers and regenerate persons; for the habit of sinning cannot be 
exterminated at once, . . . but through firm and serious determina- 
tion and frequently repeated acts of holiness it is weakened and 
broken, and by and by, when through repetition the opposite habit 
arises, it is altogether extinguished. . . . That in a regenerate per- 
son natural corruption and a remnant of original lust should be 
and remain, which God does not intend to remove in this life, 
is not in agreement with reason and contrary to the Holy 

In harmony with this teaching is the view which Limborch 
voices on the ability to do good worlcs of people who are not born 
again. He declares (Theol. Chr., V, 3, 5) : "The question arises 
whether it belongs to the essence of a good work to flow from true 


faith in Christ. This is the universal teaching of our opponents. 
We, however, assert that this is not an indispensable condition for 
a good work when viewed by itself, but that it is merely required 
if an evangelical work is to be performed, for which God graciously 
has promised the reward of eternal life. The contrary opinion is 
hard and terrible and opposes both the Scriptures and sound 


In Article VIII of their Declaration the Eemonstrants (Ar- 
minians), denying that one can have the assurance of remaining 
a Christian, say: "How a true Christian can be certain that he, 
as is proper for believers, will persevere in faith, godliness, and love 
we do not see." When considering these teachings, one is justified 
in saying that the Arminians hold views which utterly fail to 
lay hold of the profound teachings of Holy Writ on the deep- 
seated character of man's sinful nature and on divine grace. 

269* There are also other doctrines in which they showed a de- 
cidedly rationalistic bent. That the old Arminians did not believe 
that the whole Bible is inspired and free from error is evident 
from a statement of Episcopius, one of their spokesmen, who 
(Instit. Theol., IV, 1, 4) declares: "The holy writers were fallible 
and suffered lapses of memory." In their endeavor to harmonize 
the teachings of the Bible with human reason they teach, among 
other things, that even those who do not know Christ may be saved. 
Limborch writes (Theol. Chr., IV, 4, 13) : "Nothing is to be said 
against the view that the results of Christ's redemption will be 
imputed to those also who, after He has been preached in the world, 
without any fault of their own have not come to know Him. It is 
true that this will not be done on account of a divine promise, but 
on account of infinite divine mercy and grace." What they have to 
say on the nature of the Gospel belongs to this class. In the 
Apology of the Arminians, p. 143, we are told that Christ in. the 
Gospel is placed before us as our Lawgiver. Similarly, Limborch 
(Theol. Chr., V, 66) designates the Sacraments as ceremonial com- 
mandments of Jesus Christ. We can therefore understand why 
they speak of faith as a good work which is performed in obedience 
to a commandment of God and why they insist, even in speaking of 
justification, that faith must be viewed under this aspect. 

With respect to faith the Arminian Limborch declares (Theol. 
Chr., V, 5, 2) : "Faith includes also obedience to the divine com- 
mandments." In the same work, VI, 4, 22, he discusses justifica- 
tion and declares: "One must know that we, in asserting that we 


are justified by faith, are not excluding, but including, good 
works." Furthermore he says., VI, 4, 30: "Faith itself is an act 
of obedience on our part which God prescribes to us." The Gospel 
is made a new Law. In speaking of the Gospel, Limborch says 
(Theol. Chr., Ill, 16, 3) : "Hence the teaching of the Gospel is the 
revelation of the last and most perfect will of God with respect to 
the eternal salvation of men. From this it becomes apparent that 
the teaching of the Gospel consists of two things : of command- 
ments, obedience toward which God requires, and of promises." 
That he regards faith, repentance, and regeneration as resting on 
commandments of Christ can be seen in the same work, III, 
16, 191 J. Van Baalen (Our Birthright, p. 177) says: "A Cal- 
vinist myself, I share the opinion that the origin of modern anto- 
soteric teaching may be traced ultimately to its beginning in Ar- 
minianism." Continuing on this road the Arminians went to the 
length of stating that good worlcs are necessary for salvation, 
Limborch saying (op. cit., V, 78) that the teachings of those who 
hold that man is justified by faith alone, without works of holiness, 
and who regard faith as consisting simply in the appropriation of 
the merits of Jesus Christ must be rejected. It is a position which 
makes the promises of God conditional, depending on the service 
man renders. Now it becomes clear to us why, in speaking of 
Christ's work here on earth, the Arminians merely point to Him 
as our Example, denying that lie fulfilled the Law as our Sub- 
stitute. Theol. Chr., Ill, 21, 2. Episcopius, another leader, did 
not hesitate to maintain that Christ could have sinned and been 
disobedient. Cp. Resp. ad. Def. Com., chap. 13. 

On the question of atonement and the redeeming value of the 
death of our Savior, Limborch writes (Theol. Chr., Ill, 21, 6) : 
"The death of Christ is called a sacrifice for sin. Sacrifices, how- 
ever, are not payments for debts nor a complete atonement for 
transgressions; but when they are offered, gracious forgiveness of 
sins is granted." In the same paragraph he says that the doctrine 
of the atonement, that Christ suffered the punishment which men 
had deserved and thus satisfied divine justice, has no basis in the 

When we come to the doctrine of the Sacraments, we find the 
Arminians in full sympathy with the rationalistic conceptions of 
Zwingli and Calvin. With regard to this subject there was no 
controversy between the Calvinists and the Arminians, and it will 
not be necessary that we here submit quotations from the writings 
of the latter. We should, however, mention Limborclr's views on 


the formula of baptism: "As far as the formula of baptism is con- 
cerned, we hold that our Lord Jesus did not lay down a definite 
rule." Theol. Chr., V, 67, 15. 

Some of their Christological views must be mentioned. That 
they teach the subordination of the Son to the Father and of the 
Holy Spirit to the Father and the Son, is evident from these words 
of Limborch (Theol. Chr., II, 17. 26) : "It is evident that with 
respect to these three Persons a certain subordination obtains. . . . 
There is a certain superiority of the Father over the Son and of the 
Father and the Son over the Holy Spirit in point of dignity and 
power. It is more exalted to beget than to be begotten, to send 
than to proceed ; the One who sends has power over the One that is 
sent, but not the One that is sent over Him who is sending." In 
this connection it may be mentioned that Limborch maintains that 
nowhere in the Scriptures is the Holy Spirit explicitly called God. 
The proof from Acts 5 he rejects. Cp. op. cit., II, 17. 23. Very 
definitely the Arminians declare that Christ, the Mediator, is not 
entitled to the same honor as God the Father. Speaking of the 
honor which is due to Christ as the Eedeemer who has ascended 
to heaven and been made King over everything, Limborch says 
(Theol. Chr., V, 18, 2) : "This honor is not the absolutely highest, 
but is subordinate to that of the Father." 

In their teaching on the meaning of Christ's sitting at the 
right hand of God the Arminians agree with Zwingli, holding that 
Jesus is now enclosed in a certain place and that omnipresence 
cannot be ascribed to Him. Cp. Limborch, Theol. Chr., Ill, 14, 28. 

That the Arminians were given to unionism can be seen from 
this statement in their Confession, XXII, 4 : "We believe that all 
churches which continue in the faith and confession of the in- 
dispensable truth must be considered as true churches even if in 
many other points they hold different opinions and in other matters 
do not a little err from the truth." 

The Arminian movement was not successful when first 
launched. At the Synod of Dort in Holland (1619) its views 
were uncompromisingly rejected, and soon its adherents were 
pitilessly persecuted. It never was able to found a large church- 
body, but the liberal views advocated by it gradually became pop- 
ular in Eeformed circles and outside of them and to-day un- 
doubtedly are far more widely accepted than those of the old 

For more recent movements within the Eeformed bodies 
Fundamentalism, Modernism, and Chiliasm see 392 ff. 



270* EEFORMED CHURCH IN AMERICA. After having dwelt on 
Eeformed churches in general, it is necessary for us to give an 
account of the individual church-bodies in America belonging to 
this group. Naturally, we first speak of those which have the 
epithet Eeformed in their official title. 

The Eeformed Church in America, its official name before 
1867 having been Eeformed Protestant Dutch Church in North 
America, dates back to early colonial days. The Dutch settlers 
who founded New Amsterdam, the present New York, were largely 
adherents of Calvinism. In 1628 the first Dutch Eeformed min- 
ister arrived, organizing a church "with at least fifty communi- 
cants." True to their Calvinistic origin, they were intolerant of 
other faiths. When the English in 1664 took possession of this 
territory this denomination numbered in New York and vicinity 
thirteen churches and six ministers. An organization of these 
churches, whose number was slowly increasing, was effected in 
1747, called Coetus, which till 1771 was subordinate to the Classis 
of Amsterdam, Holland. In 1792 the present ecclesiastical gov- 
ernment was established. The expansion of the Church was hin- 
dered to some extent by the use of the Dutch language in the 
services, a condition which has now almost disappeared. In the 
early part of the nineteenth century an aggressive mission policy 
was adopted, with the result that churches of this denomination 
are now found in many States of the Union. Its chief theological 
seminary is located at New Brunswick, N. J. The Church polity is 
the same as that of the Presbyterians; the names used, however, 
are different. The ministers and the elders and deacons of the 
local congrgation form the consistory ; all the ministers of a certain 
district with one elder from each church constitute the classis; 
four ministers and four elders from each one of a number of classes 
in a larger district form the provincial synod; and ministers and 
elders from each classis, approved by the respective particular or 
provincial synod, compose the General Synod. The Eeformed 
symbolical writings acknowledged by this body are the Belgic Con- 
fession, the Canons of the Synod of Dort, and the Heidelberg 
Catechism. For its teachings see 255 ff. and 266 ff. 

Statistics (1929) : 159,662 members. 

formerly as the German Eeformed Church, which name was 
changed to the present title in 1869. This Church, too, is identi- 


iied with the early history of our country, having been founded by 
the German settlers who in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies came to Pennsylvania, New York, and elsewhere, hailing 
chiefly from the Palatinate (Pfalz), the region so cruelly devas- 
tated by Louis XIV. In 1747 a coetus, or synod, was organized, 
which established connection with the Classis of Amsterdam, a rela- 
tion which continued till 1792. The confessional standard adopted 
when- the denomination organized as an independent body was the 
Heidelberg Catechism. This indicates that it belongs to the Cal- 
vinistic wing. Owing to an awakening of the missionary spirit, 
this body is now represented in a majority of the States of our 
Union. Its first theological seminary has its home at Lancaster, Pa. 
The polity of this body is the same as that of the Eeformed Church 
in America. A union with the Evangelical Synod of North 
America was effected on July 21, 1934. 346,712 members. 
Cp. 344. 

Eeformed in Holland in 1835, in a secession movement, had 
founded the Christian Eeformed Church, a number of these people 
immigrated to the State of Michigan and perpetuated their Church 
in the new home. An organization was here effected in 1857. 
Other congregations joined them; especially was the body aug- 
mented in 1882 by the accession of a number of churches from the 
Eeformed Church in America, which had become dissatisfied with 
the parent body on account of its spineless attitude toward Free- 
masonry. It is known as a conservative Church. Its doctrinal 
standards are the same as those of the Eeformed Church in 
America. The theological seminary is located at Grand Eapids, 
Mich. 51,821 members. 

ganized in 1924. It is the direct descendant of the body called 
the Hungarian Eeformed Church in America, which has ceased to 
exist. In doctrine and polity it is like other Eeformed churches. 
3,992 members (1926). 


271. When King Henry VIII (15091547) introduced a partial 
reformation in his country, this constituted more a break with the 
Pope than with Eoman Catholic doctrine and practise. Lutheran 
influence, however, was quite strong in England during the first 
decades of the Eeformation. Later on, owing to the activities of 
Bucer and others, it took on the Eeformed complexion. In 1571, 


after revisions and alterations, the Anglican Confession of Thirty- 
nine Articles was adopted. These famous articles are incorporated 
in the Book of Common Prayer, which, besides, contains the forms 
of worship. The Lutheran influence is still discernible, for the 
Calvinism of the articles is of a moderate character. The Thirty- 
nine Articles became the confession of the Established Church in 
England and, with a brief interruption, have retained this position 
till now. In the United States members of the Established Church 
of England, called the Anglican Church, were found at an early 
date, especially in Virginia. A separate organization for these 
people became unavoidable through the American Ee volution, be- 
cause the King of England nominally is the head of the Anglican 
Church. At a convention held in 1785 such changes in the liturgy 
and in the Thirty-nine Articles as had become necessary through 
separation of the colonies from the British crown were adopted. 
Several American bishops were consecrated in England and one in 
Scotland, and thus it was said the Apostolic Succession was 
secured. In 1801 a doctrinal platform was adopted, consisting of 
the Apostles' and the Nicene Creed and the Thirty-nine Articles, 
somewhat modified. 

272* The clergy consists of bishops, priests, and deacons. Every 
three years the General Convention assembles, which is the highest 
authority in the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States. 
It consists of the house of bishops and the house of deputies 
(pastors and laymen). The diocesan meetings are held under the 
leadership of the bishop. With respect to doctrine great laxity 
prevails in this Church to-day, many of the clergy being outspoken 
Modernists. The three parties, or tendencies, of the Anglican 
Church are represented in the daughter Church in the United 
States, too: the High Church party (Romanizing), the Low 
Church party (also termed the Evangelicals), and the Broad 
Church party (liberal). In the extreme section of the High 
Church party (Anglo-Catholics) one finds the Eoman doctrine of 
transubstantiation, holy water, the reservation of the sacrament, 
convents, and prayers for the dead. Here, too, confirmation is 
viewed as a sacrament. The close relation between this Church 
and the mother Church is fostered by participation of the bishops 
of the former in the Lambeth Conference, meeting in London 
every ten years and consisting of all bishops throughout the world 
that stand on the Anglican foundation. 


As mentioned before, this church-body represents a moderate 
Calvinism, with some papistic leaven remaining. Its divergence 
from the usual Eeformed position requires that we look at some of 
its errors more in particular. On original sin and the condition in 
which natural man finds himself, Art. IX of the Thirty-nine Ar- 
ticles, aside of some entirely Scriptural statements, says, rather 
weakly, that by original sin "man is very far gone from original 
righteousness and is of his own nature inclined to evil." 

274, In their official teaching on the holy Sacraments, Lutheran 
influence is still noticeable. Cp. Art. XXY, which says that by 
the Sacraments G-od "doth work invisibly in us and doth not only 
quicken, but also strengthen and confirm our faith in Him." In 
keeping with this, while Baptism, in Art. XXVII, is spoken of 
"as a sign of regeneration, or new birth," the article immediately 
continues, "whereby as an instrument they that receive Baptism 
rightly are grafted into the Church; the promises of the forgive- 
ness of sin and of our adoption to be the sons of God by the Holy 
Ghost are visibly signed and sealed, faith is confirmed." All this 
is frequently understood, however, to mean merely that Baptism 
is a sign of what is being done in a person by the grace of God 
and not the means of bringing about a change in him. On the 
other hand, one of their present-day bishops, Fiske, says (The 
Faith by which We Live, p. 162) : "In baptism there is a new 
birth unto righteousness, an upward life of the soul, which begins 
the moment it is incorporated into Christ." And again, p. 163 : 
"The baptized person is said to be born again because he has been 
incorporated into Christ by the life-giving Spirit." Episcopalians 
permit baptism to be performed by any baptized person in cases 
of sickness or in imminent peril if a minister cannot be procured. 
Cp. Book of Common Prayer, p. 281. 

As to the question whether infants can believe and thus ap- 
prehend the benefits of Holy Baptism, the Episcopalians evidently 
contradict themselves. In the Catechism, included in the Book of 
Common Prayer, they say, p. 573, having stated that repentance 
and faith are required of persons who are to be baptized: "Why, 
then, are infants baptized when by reason of their tender age they 
cannot perform them? Answer: Because they promise them both 
by their sureties, which promise, when they come to age, them- 
selves are bound to perform." This means that children are bap- 
tized in view of prospective faith. Over against this we find that 
in the form of baptism it is stated that the children are to be bap- 


tized to receive remission of sin by spiritual regeneration, p. 274. 
Of. also Fiske, p. 171 if. It seems that here there is no clear-cut 

On the Lord's Supper the teaching is plainly Eeformed. 
Art. XXVIII says : "The body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten 
in the Supper only after a heavenly and spiritual manner. And 
the means whereby the body of Christ is received and eaten in the 
Supper is faith." Cp. Catechism, p. 573. In other words, there is 
no oral eating and drinking of Christ's body and blood. When the 
Thirty-nine Articles speak of it, they are referring to the ap- 
prehension of Christ by faith. Of the wicked and those that are 
void of faith Art. XXIX declares in its superscription that "they 
do not eat the body of Christ in the use of the Lord's Supper." 
While this is the official teaching, there are Episcopalians who 
devoutly believe in the Real Presence. This is especially true of 
members of the High-church party, some of whom, as stated before, 
go to the other extreme and accept the Roman doctrine of tran- 

275* Concerning the ministry the Episcopalians say (B. of Com. 
Pr., p. 529) that from the apostles' time there have been three 
orders of ministers bishops, priests, deacons. That they regard 
this distinction between the ministers of the Church as resting on 
divine mandate is clear from the prayer included in the form and 
manner of making deacons (B. of Com. Pr., p. 531). Cp. also 
pp. 536. 548. Episcopal ordination is looked upon as a divine 
ordinance. Entering the ministry is called "taking holy orders." 
Episcopalians believe in the so-called Apostolic Succession. They 
hold that the apostles ordained bishops, who in turn ordained 
successors, which process has been going on till our own times, 
so that the bishops of the Episcopal Church to-day are through an 
unbroken chain the successors of the apostles. Bishop Gore says 
(The Religion of the Church, p. 65) : "If there is one Church, one 
visible society, to which all who are Christ's must belong, it must 
be made manifest where that Church is to be found. Continuity 
in doctrine is a great thing, but it is not enough. There must 
also be continuity of persons; otherwise any group of dissatisfied 
individuals may go off by themselves and still say, We are the 
Church." Quoted by Bishop Fiske, op. cit., p. 233. 

The full import of this teaching of the Apostolic Succession 
is seen when we bear in mind that according to the view of 
Episcopalians the existence of the Church depends on this succes- 


sion. Prof. Wm. H. Dunphy of the ISFashota House, an Episco- 
palian seminary, declares (Living Church, Jan. 31, 1931) : "What 
we uphold is the episcopate, maintained in successive generations 
by continuity of succession and consecration as it has been through- 
out the history of the Church and discharging these functions 
which from the earliest times it has discharged. Lambeth Con- 
ference, 1930," p. 115 f. "This, if it means anything, means that 
a bishop is a high priest of the Church, a successor of Christ's 
apostles, not only by an unbroken series of holders of sees, but by 
an unbroken chain of consecrations, transmitting the plenitude of 
apostolic powers, including the power to consecrate and ordain. . . . 
The apostolic succession is treated (by Episcopalians) as being not 
only of the ~bene esse, but of the esse of the official ministry and 
hence of the catholic Church of Christ. 'He that entereth in by the 
door is the shepherd of the sheep/ " 

276* With respect to absolution we find that the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer, p. 75 f., contains a general confession to be made "by 
the priest and all those who are minded to receive the Holy Com- 
munion," after which confession the priest turns to the people and 
says: "Almighty God, our heavenly Father, who of His great 
mercy hath promised forgiveness of sins to all those who with 
hearty repentance and true faith turn unto Him, have mercy upon 
you, pardon and deliver you from all your sins, confirm and 
strengthen you in all goodness, and bring you to everlasting life 
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen." All that is said here is 
right, but it does not cover everything the Scriptures say about 
absolution. The statement is more of a wish or prayer than of 
an actual pronouncement of forgiveness. 

Concerning a person who has been excommunicated Art. 
XXXIII says that he must be considered as a heathen and a pub- 
lican till he "be openly reconciled by penance and received into 
the Church by a judge that hath authority thereunto." It will be 
seen that the keys of the kingdom of heaven are thus placed into 
the hands of a person outside the local congregation. The ref- 
erence is to the bishop or his substitute. In keeping with this, the 
order for the administration of the Lord's Supper, or Holy Com- 
munion, contains in its general rubrics the direction that a min- 
ister ordering a parishioner to stay away from the Lord's Table 
"shall be obliged to give an account of the same to the ordinary 
within fourteen days after at the farthest," the ordinary being the 
bishop or his deputy, p. 85. 


277+ As to the government of the Church, Episcopalians hold 
that God has ordered that the Church should be ruled by certain 
persons, who are to be regarded as the government (a denial of the 
royal priesthood of all Christians sacerdotalism). In Art. 
XXXIV, in treating of the traditions of the Church, it is stated 
that whosoever sets aside the traditions and ceremonies of the 
Church "which be not repugnant to the Word of God and be or- 
dained and approved by common authority ought to be rebuked 
openly, ... as he that offendeth against the common order of the 
Church hurteth the authority of the magistrate and woundeth the 
consciences of the weak brethren." "Common authority" seems to 
refer to the ecclesiastical authorities, which are hereby placed 
above the Church. Cp. also the preceding paragraphs, in which it 
has been pointed out that according to Episcopal doctrine the dis- 
tinction between bishops, priests, and deacons is of divine institu- 
tion and that excommunicated persons can be received back into 
the Church only by the bishop or his deputy. 

278+ With respect to the observance of ordinances of the Church 
(not commanded in the Word of God) Art. XXXIV, just quoted, 
says that whoever sets aside the traditions and ceremonies of the 
Church is to be rebuked. Thus the keeping of these ordinances is 
made a matter of conscience. The right position would be to hold 
that such a person should be rebuked only if he causes offense and 
wounds the consciences of the weak brethren. Another instance 
of a legalistic attitude is found in what the General Convention 
in 1931 resolved on the matter of divorce when it failed to rec- 
ognize malicious desertion as a valid reason for divorce, stipulating 
merely that in case of adultery the divorce of the innocent party 
may be regarded as justified. 

Thus we behold in the Protestant Episcopal Church both 
hierarchical, or Eomanizing, and strictly Eeformed, that is, ra- 
tionalistic and legalistic, tendencies. General Theological Sem- 
inary in New York belongs to this church-body. 1,312,004 

279+ EEFORMED EPISCOPAL CHURCH. When in the seventies 
of the last century the Protestant Episcopal Church was agitated 
by a violent controversy on ritualism, Bishop G. D. Cummins of 
Kentucky and others, who were afraid that their Church was fast 
losing its evangelical character, in 1873 withdrew and founded 
a new church-body with the name given above. While professing, 
generally speaking, the teachings embodied in the Thirty-nine Ar- 


tides, several distinct features are to be noted in this body. In its 
platform of Thirty-five Articles it is more thoroughly Calvinistic 
than the mother Church. Not only does it reject the view of the 
Eucharist as a sacrifice, but it expressly refuses to believe what many 
in the Protestant Episcopal Church hold, that "the presence of 
Christ in the Lord's Supper is a presence in the elements of bread 
and wine" and that Baptism effects regeneration. Art. 25 of their 
confession expressly states that a Sacrament is regarded by them 
only as a symbol, or a sign. In harmony with Calvinistic churches 
it confesses that man is wholly (and not merely very far, as the 
Thirty-nine Articles say) gone from righteousness. The episcopacy 
is retained, not, however, as divinely prescribed, but merely as an 
ancient and desirable form of church government, a view in which 
Lutherans may concur. The doctrine of the Apostolic Succession 
is dropped. The striving of this body after greater freedom than 
the Protestant Episcopal Church allows is evident, too, in its pro- 
vision that the prayers contained in the Book of Common Prayer 
need not be used or may be altered when used, as long as the 
"substance of faith" is kept entire. 

Statistics (1926) : 8,651 members. 

ANGLICAN UNIVERSAL CHURCH. This body is not a part of 
the Protestant Episcopal communion. It was "organized in 1925 
for emphasis on the mystical nature, character, purpose, and power 
of the Sacraments and liberal interpretation of Christian funda- 
mentals. It reports 702 communicants in 10 parishes." (Year- 
book, 1932.) Headquarters are in ISTew York. 


280. In speaking of Presbyterians, we are considering one of the 
strong branches growing on the tree planted by Zwingli and Calvin. 
The doctrine professed by them we have discussed when studying- 
Reformed churches in general. What concerns us now is their 
name and history and a few distinctive traits. 

The name Presbyterian is derived from the New Testament 
term presbyteros, which our English Bible has translated elder. 
Presbyterians accordingly lay much stress on having elders in the 
church; in fact, their whole church government rests on the in- 
stitution of elders. They believe that God ordained the church 
should not rule itself, but be governed by properly elected elders. 
The name, then, is descriptive of the polity or government adopted 
by these churches. 



Their origin they can trace back to the work of John Calvin 
in Geneva, who organized the church in that city on the presby- 
terian basis. One of his foremost disciples was John Knox 
(1514 1572), who, when an exile, lived in Geneva and became 
acquainted with the organization of its church-life under Calvin 
and who, when he returned to his native country, Scotland, there 
introduced the presbyterian system. In 1560 the Scottish Parlia- 
ment adopted the confession of faith written by Knox and five 
associates and known as the Scotch Confession, and in 1567 it rec- 
ognized the Beformed Church with a presbyterian polity as the 
national Church, which it has remained up to our times. It is 
often referred to as the Kirk of Scotland. In the course of time 
various separations took place. In 1843 the Free Church of Scot- 
land was formed, which, while it adheres strictly to Presbyterian 
doctrine and practise, advocates complete separation of Church and 
State. In 1929, after some concessions by the State, the schism 
was healed. 

The presbyterian idea in the mean time found much approval 
in England, too. Many Englishmen were not satisfied with the 
episcopal polity followed by the Anglican Church. During the 
civil war between Charles I and Parliament the latter convened 
the so-called Westminster Assembly, in, 1643, which was in session 
till 1649. The object was to place the Church on a new basis. The 
Scottish Church sent representatives. The adherents of the epis- 
copal polity were few in number and soon withdrew. The Pres- 
byterians were by far in the majority and had things their own 
way. The chief results of the long deliberations were the West- 
minster Confession and the two Westminster catechisms, the larger 
and the shorter one. As to the dates see 255, 3 above. These docu- 
ments are the chief confessions of faith of Presbyterians the world 
over. The hopes of Presbyterians that after the defeat of the king 
the presbyterian polity would become that of the Established 
Church in England were not realized. 

In America we find Presbyterian congregations early in the 
seventeenth century. Many of the Puritans who settled in New 
England held Presbyterian views, and in some of the early churches 
we find the presbyterian polity in vogue. In the course of the 
century Presbyterian churches were established in most of the 
colonies on the Atlantic coast. The further development of Pres- 
byterianism in America will be discussed in connection with the 
various Presbyterian church-bodies. 



281* In doctrine the Presbyterian churches, where they have re- 
mained true to their confessions, adhere to the Eeformed teachings 
as promulgated by Calvin (on person of Christ, Baptism, Lord's 
Supper, etc.). While formerly the extreme Calvinistic position 
concerning election was taught, this particular doctrine of Cal- 
vinism now no* longer is proclaimed with the same distinctness, 
excepting in isolated cases. Besides the Westminster Confession 
and the Westminster catechisms the Canons of Dort and the 
Heidelberg Catechism are the chief confessional standards. 
See 255 ff. and 266 ff. 

282* How church government through elders functions in the 
Presbyterian churches requires a few remarks. The system is the 
same as in the churches which have the official name Eeformed; 
merely the terms are different. The elders of a church (the minister 
and the ruling elders) form the so-called session, which governs the 
local congregation and to which the deacons, who are likewise local 
officers, are responsible. Above the local congregations stands the 
presbytery, consisting of the pastor and one ruling elder from each 
of a number of congregations occupying a certain territory. Above 
the presbyteries stands the synod, formed by a number of pres- 
byteries, and above the synod stands the General Assembly. The 
session, the presbytery, the synod, and the General Assembly form 
the courts of the Church. When a pastor is called, the call is in- 
deed issued by the local congregation ; but to have validity, it must 
be ratified by the presbytery. It will be seen that the Presbyterians 
occupy middle ground between those who hold the congregational 
principle of church polity and those who favor the Episcopalian 
system. The government is called a representative government, the 
authority being exercised not by the individual Christians them- 
selves, but by their representatives. If this system were looked 
upon as a human arrangement which might be changed if circurcH 
stances should show that a change is desirable, we should not have 
to object to it. But since the claim is made that God Himself in- 
stituted this form of church organization, with the three grades 
of office, we have to voice our strong dissent. 

Presbyterian Bodies. 

(NORTHERN PRESBYTERIANS). In 1706 seven ministers, repre- 
senting about twenty-two congregations, organized a presbytery at 
Philadelphia. By 1716 this presbytery had grown to such an ex- 


tent that it formed itself into a synod with four presbyteries. In 
the eighteenth century there was much strife between the "Old. 
Side" Presbyterians, who were opposed to revivals and wanted none 
but graduates of universities or colleges to be called as pastors, and 
the "New Side" Presbyterians, who were in favor of revivals and, 
while they were but moderately concerned about the scholastic 
training of candidates for the ministry, were anxious to see them 
furnish evidence that they were filled with the Holy Spirit. In 
1788 the synod at its meeting adopted the Westminster Confession 
of Faith and the Larger and the Shorter Catechism and, in addi- 
tion, a constitution which consisted of a Form of Gfovernment, 
a Book of Discipline, and a Directory for Worship. The changes 
which had become necessary through separation of our country 
from Great Britain were made in the confessional standards. The 
General Assembly was created and made the governing body in 
the Church. In 1789 the first meeting of the General Assembly 
was held. Early in the nineteenth century occurred the secession 
of the Cumberland Presbyterians, the issue being whether men who 
were not specially trained and who were not sound in doctrine 
should be ordained to the holy ministry, the Cumberland Presby- 
terians taking the liberal view. With the Congregationalists of 
New England a plan of union was formed toward the end of the 
eighteenth century, which permitted Presbyterian ministers to 
serve Congregational churches and vice versa and in other ways 
gave evidence that the two churches considered each other sisters. 
This plan of union was abrogated in 1837, but only after a violent 
debate, the so-called Old School opposing union with the Congre- 
gationalists, the New School endorsing it. The latter issued the 
so-called Auburn Declaration, stating their beliefs, and then or- 
ganized an assembly of their own. In 1869 the two parties reunited 
on the doctrinal and ecclesiastical basis of their common standards. 
The Civil War occasioned the separation of the Southern Presby- 
terians, who resented the attitude of the Northern Presbyterians 
because the latter pledged their support to the Federal Government 
in the war between the States and in many sections declared slave- 
holding something forbidden by the Holy Scriptures. In the 
nineties of the last century came the storm which centered about 
Dr. C. A. Briggs, who was liberal in his theology and whose mem- 
bership was challenged. After much debating he was suspended 
(1893), but "Union Seminary, one of the influential schools of the 
Church, no longer, however, under its control, refused to remove 


him from his professorship. In 1903 a revision of the Confession 
of Faith, which had been under discussion for some time, was 
adopted. Three years later a union with the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church was effected. It cannot be denied that among 
Northern Presbyterians there has been a strong drift away from 
the strict Calvinism of the original standards of Presbyterianism. 
The doctrine of universal atonement is being advocated, and con- 
cerning "the doctrine of God's eternal decree" it is stated Presby- 
terians hold it to be "in harmony with the doctrine of God's love to 
all mankind, His gift of His Son to be the propitiation for the sins 
of the whole world, and the readiness to bestow His saving grace 
on all who seek it." (Declaratory Statement, adopted 1903). 
Princeton Seminary, with Hodge and Warfield among its former 
teachers, till recently was regarded as the bulwark of conservative 
Presbyterianism. Now this title must rather be granted to West- 
minster Seminary in Philadelphia, some of whose teachers for 
reasons of conscience left Princeton, where Liberalism had entered, 
and founded this new school, true to the historic faith of their 

Among the Northern Presbyterians is a large liberal element 
which adheres to the so-called Auburn Affirmation, a document de- 
claring that a liberal (= unbelieving) view on the following doc- 
trines is permissible : the inspiration of the Scriptures ; the Virgin 
Birth ; the vicarious atonement ; the bodily resurrection of Christ ; 
the performance of real miracles by Christ. 

The strength of the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
of America, according to the figures published in 1930, is 9,239 
churches, 1,918,974 communicant members. It is quite active in 
mission-work at home and abroad. Educational work is stressed. 

9) The Declaratory Statement, added 1903, contains these two para- 
graphs : "First, with reference to chap. Ill of the Confession of Faith : 
that concerning those Avho are saved in Christ the doctrine of God's eternal 
decree is held in harmony with the doctrine of His love to all mankind, 
His gift of His Son to be the propitiation for the sins of the whole world, 
and His readiness to bestow His saving grace on all who seek it; that con- 
cerning those who perish the doctrine of God's eternal decree is held in 
harmony with the doctrine that God desires not the death of any sinner, 
but has provided in Christ a salvation sufficient for all, adapted to all, and 
freely offered in the Gospel to all; that men are fully responsible for their 
treatment of God's gracious offer; that His decree hinders no man from 
accepting that offer; and that no man is condemned except on the ground 
of his sin. Second, with reference to chap. X, Sec. 3, of the Confession of 
Faith, that it is not to be regarded as teaching that any who die in infancy 
are lost. We believe that all dying in infancy are included in the election 
of grace and are regenerated and saved by Christ through the Spirit, who 
works when and where and how He pleases." 


With respect to its ministry it requires that as a rule pastors should 
be graduates of colleges. 

Of late a committee has been at work endeavoring to bring 
about a union of the Northern Presbyterians and the United Pres- 
byterians. Reporting in the beginning of 1934, the committee said 
that its efforts had been successful and that a plan of union would 
be submitted to the assemblies of the two churches. We are told 
that the doctrinal basis of union is to be the Westminster Confes- 
sion and the Westminster catechisms. The specific doctrinal de- 
clarations issued by the two churches in recent years, including the 
so-called Declaratory Statement of 1903,, are, as the report says, 
"included in the plan of union, not as doctrinal standards to which 
office-bearers in the United Church are to subscribe, but as his- 
torical, interpretative statements, ... to give information and 
a better understanding of our doctrinal beliefs." 

PRESBYTERIANS). This body, as stated above, owes its separate 
existence to the debate on slavery and to the question whether 
loyalty to the Federal Government should be affirmed by the Gen- 
eral Assembly when the Southern States seceded. Already in 1858 
discussions of the slavery question had become so heated that 
several synods and presbyteries, chiefly in the border States, seceded 
and formed a body called the United Synod of the Presbyterian 
Church. In 1861 the secession became general, forty-seven pres- 
byteries withdrawing from the Old School General Assembly. At 
that time the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the 
Confederate States of America was organized. Three years later 
this body joined with the above-mentioned United Synod, and 
a new name was adopted, the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States. Since the bitterness between the North and the South has 
disappeared, various efforts have been made to reunite the two sec- 
tions which separated in 1861. However, as the South is more 
conservative and more loyal to the doctrinal standards than the 
North, and as, furthermore, the attitude toward the Negro is not 
the same in the South as in the North, the Southern churches have 
considered it advisable to continue their status of separation. 
Instead of receiving colored people into the white churches, they 
induce them, upon accepting the Presbyterian faith, to form 
separate organizations, and the colored congregations, again, are 
organized in colored presbyteries. According to authoritative dec- 
larations this Church is strictly Calvinistic. It believes in the 


plenary inspiration and the inerrancy of the Bible. Women are 
not permitted to preach. It opposes the mixing of political and 
spiritual matters. Mission-work is carried on in a number of 
foreign countries. It has a number of theological seminaries, of 
which one is for Negroes. 444,657 members. 

with the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America in 
1920. Of. Census 1926, II, p. 1131. The various synods somewhat 
preserve their identity by keeping the name Welsh. It was also 
called Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church, owing its existence 
to the work of George Whitefield. The Welsh language is fast 
disappearing from the services. 

This church-body was organized in 1858. In it were brought to- 
gether Presbyterian bodies in the United States which originated 
in the Covenanter and Secession movements in Scotland. (As- 
sociate Synod and Associate Eeformed Synod.) The new body 
was based on the Westminster Confession of Faith and the West- 
minster catechisms. A Testimony,, consisting of eighteen articles, 
set forth the sense in which these confessions were adopted. It con- 
demned slavery and membership in secret, oath-bound societies; 
it decreed that no one should be admitted to the Sacraments unless 
he assented to the doctrines of the Church; and it insisted that 
only psalms should be sung in the services. "Public social cove- 
nanting" was declared a moral duty. Covenanting signifies mak- 
ing a pledge of loyalty to the church's position. Since 1881 in- 
strumental music is permitted in the churches of this body. The 
Confessional Statement, adopted 1925, endorses further modifica- 
tions : open communion, admission of lodge-members, abandon- 
ment of the exclusive use of psalms in worship, refusal to regard 
malicious desertion as a cause for divorce, the declaration that all 
who die in infancy are saved. The Census Keport (1926) says 
that the Church maintains its insistence on the plenary verbal 
inspiration of the Scriptures and is strongly conservative. 

Its theological seminary is located in Pittsburgh, Pa. (Xenia- 
Pittsburgh Seminary). 175,075 members. 

America). This Church is a direct descendant of the group 
which separated from the Established Church in Scotland in 1753. 
According to the Census Eeport of 1926 it can be characterized as 
follows : "It encourages 'public social covenanting/ provides against 


occasional Communion, opposes secret societies, and prescribes the 
exclusive use of psalms in praise services." In doctrine this church- 
body is strongly Calvinistic. 

350 members. 

has been in existence since 1822. It formerly was known as the 
Associate Eeformed Synod of the South. "Its distinctive prin- 
ciple is the exclusive use of psalms in praise." (Census 1926.) In 
doctrine the body is thoroughly Calvinistic. 20,541 members. 

JSToRTH AMERICA. The people who in 1774 founded the Eeformed 
Presbytery were the spiritual descendants of the old Scottish 
Covenanters, and they are still known by that name. This church- 
body refuses to allow its members to vote or to hold office under 
the present United States Constitution. They want the Christian 
religion recognized in the Constitution as the only true one. Only 
members in regular standing are admitted to the Lord's Supper. 
Only the children of church-members are admitted to baptism. 
"The metrical version of the psalms alone is used in the service 
of praise." Census Eeport. Musical instruments may not be used 
in the churches. Connection with secret societies is not permitted. 
7,049 members. 

NORTH AMERICA. This church-body owes its origin to a division 
which in 1833 occurred in the Synod of the Eeformed Presbyterian 
Church on the question of the relation of its members to the United 
States Government. The General Synod party represents the so- 
called ISTew Light faction. It is not so strict as the foregoing 
church-body. Its members are permitted to vote and to hold office, 
the decision whether to do so or not being left with the individual. 
1,929 members. 

of the nineteenth century a strong revival swept through large sec- 
tions of the United States. In some places these revivals were ac- 
companied by strange performances of the "revived," called "bodily 
exercises." In the Cumberland country, in Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, the Presbyterian churches were strongly affected by this 
movement. There was a division of opinion on the so-called 
"bodily exercises." One party, being much in favor of revivals, 
looked upon these physical manifestations as a sign of divine ap- 
proval; the other party, being antirevival in sentiment, regarded 


them with great disfavor. The revival feeling, however, was so 
strong in the Cumberland region that not enough preachers were 
available for the demand, and therefore men without academic and 
theological training were either made ministers or engaged as ex- 
horters. These men were permitted, too, to accept the confessions 
of the Church in a less strict sense, it being granted them espe- 
cially to make a reservation with respect to the idea of fatality 
(predestination) . The regular ecclesiastical authorities (the synod 
and the General Assembly) of the Presbyterian Church did not 
sanction, but forbade such practises. In 1810 the revivalistic Pres-. 
byterians in the section mentioned, after the synod and the General 
Assembly had dissolved their presbytery, formed a new presbytery, 
calling it by the old name, the Cumberland Presbytery. They 
wished at first to remain with the Presbyterian Church; but their 
presbytery grew rapidly, and soon it was too strong to be regarded 
merely as an outlawed faction of the Presbyterian Church. In 
1906, the majority of the churches of this denomination, which in 
the course of time had grown to be a large church-body, joined the 
Presbyterian Church of the United States of America, and the 
General Assembly declared the denomination dissolved; but a mi- 
nority voted to continue, and is doing so to this day. The Church 
is described as Calvinistic of the more moderate type. Some have 
called it the middle-road party between Calvinism and Armini- 
anism. Human responsibility is emphasized. 

According to their authoritative publication, called Origin and 
Doctrines, they teach the cooperation of God and man in con- 
version (synergism). P. 101. Quite consistently they teach a con- 
ditional election. P. 102. Man, according to their teaching, is 
elected to eternal life at the time when he gets to be a believer. 
Pp. 86 f. At the same time the old Calvinistic doctrine of the 
perseverance of believers is taught. The doctrinal standard is the 
Westminster Confession revised to reflect the views of these people. 
Their theological seminary is located at McKenzie, Tenn. 57,695 

this body reported 13,077 members. 

WALDENSIAN CHURCH. While this Church has a very in- 
teresting history, dating back, as it does, to pre-Reformation days, 
it need not here detain us long because its representatives in 
America are only a few small groups, found in widely separated 
localities. They have their own catechism. Their teaching and 


church polity, generally speaking, are those of the Calvinistic Pres- 
byterian churches. Their teaching is important for the history of 
doctrine on account of their overemphasis on good works. The 
confession of the Waldenses, adopted 1655, says, in chap. XXI, 
"that good works are so necessary to the faithful that they cannot 
attain the kingdom of heaven without the same." 


288* To understand the origin of these churches, we must re- 
member that soon after the Reformation had triumphed in Eri- 
'giand, Protestantism there brought forth these three tendencies: 
Anglicanism, Puritanism, Independentism (Separatism). The 
nature of Anglicanism can be gathered from what we said on the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. The Puritans were of the conviction 
that Popery had not been sufficiently eliminated from the Estab- 
lished Church, but they wished to remain in the Church and there 
bring about a change for the better. They wished, however, to see 
the people be given a voice in the government of the Church. The 
Separatists said, The Church as it exists is altogether corrupt; let 
us leave it. Robert Browne was a pastor who advocated the prin- 
ciples of the Separatists, and after him these people were called 
Brownists. He and his people emigrated to Holland in 1581, but 
two men who sold or spread his pamphlets in England were hanged. 
The like fate met others who championed Separatistic principles. 
An able advocate of these teachings arose when John Robinson of 
Scrooby, ordained in the Church of England, accepted the teach- 
ings of Browne and with friends and followers went to Leyden in 
Holland and lived there in exile. In 1620, on the Mayflower, 
a number of them came to America, founding Plymouth Colony. 
These people, the Pilgrim Fathers, then, were Separatists. Accept- 
ing the teachings of Calvin in other respects, they differed in their 
views on church polity. They, quite Scripturally, made the con- 
gregation supreme. According to their teaching each local church 
is independent. They were opposed both to "prelacy and presby- 
terianism." Soon afterwards the settlers came who founded the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony. They were Puritans, mostly inclined 
toward Presbyterianism, and in England had not made common 
cause with the Independents; but here in America they gradually 
lost their antipathy to the polity of these people, joined hands with 
the settlers of Plymouth, and together with them founded what is 
called Congregationalism. In 1640 there were 33 churches in New 
England, and all but two were of the congregational type. 


The amalgamation of these two elements of course was not ac- 
complished overnight. There was a good deal of friction at times ; 
one fiery Separatist was sent away. But gradually, owing largely 
to the efforts of Gov. Endicott of Salem and Dr. Puller, a physician 
of Plymouth, the two streams were united. To all intents and 
purposes Congregationalism now became a state religion, and the 
religious intolerance which these people had denounced in England 
they now practised themselves. Up till 1664 and 1665, in some 
colonies, only members of Congregational churches could vote, and 
until after A. D. 1800 there were places where the salaries of 
pastors were raised by public taxes. If anything touched the gen- 
eral religious life of the community, the civil authorities took the 
matter in hand. Generally speaking, however, in the course of the 
eighteenth century, when people of other denominations were com- 
ing into the colonies of New England, the Church ceased to be 
a state church. 

When the colonies grew, associations or consociations, that is, 
loose organizations without legislative authority, were formed. In 
1648 the Cambridge Platform was written, which was a general 
summary of doctrine, setting forth the teachings of the West- 
minster Confession with modifications in regard to polity. In En- 
gland the Savoy Declaration was drawn up and adopted by the 
Congregationalists, in 1658. It is very similar to the Westminster 
Confession, and here in America, too, it was recognized as a correct 
exposition of Congregational tenets. In the revival called the 
Great Awakening, which was begun in 1734 through the preach- 
ing of Jonathan Edwards, the Congregationalists took the lead. 

A few quotations must suffice to confirm what we have said 
on the Calvinistic character of the doctrine of the Congrega- 
tionalists. They state in the Savoy Declaration, chap. XX, 4 : 
"Although the Gospel be the only outward means of revealing 
Christ and saving grace and is as such abundantly sufficient there- 
unto, yet, that men who are dead in trespasses may be born again, 
quickened or regenerated, there is moreover necessary an effectual, 
irresistible work of the Holy Ghost upon the whole soul for the 
producing in them of a new spiritual life, without which no other 
means are sufficient for their conversion unto God." 

The Congregationalists took over into their own Savoy Con- 
fession the statement of the Westminster Confession, chap. Ill, 
3. 6 : "By the decree of God, for the manifestation of His glory, 
some men and angels are predestinated unto everlasting life and 


others foreordained to everlasting death. ... As God hath ap- 
pointed the elect unto glory, so hath He, by the eternal and most 
free purpose of His will, foreordained all the means thereunto. 
Wherefore they who are elected, being fallen in Adam, are redeemed 
by Christ, are effectually called unto faith in Christ by His Spirit, 
working in due season, are justified, adopted, sanctified, and kept 
by His power through faith unto salvation. Neither are any other 
redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, 
and saved, but the elect only/' 

Chiliasm is taught in these words of the Savoy Confession, 
chap. XVI, 5 : "As the Lord is in care and love towards His 
Church, hath in His infinite wise providence exercised it with 
great variety in all ages, for the good of them that love Him and 
for His own glory, so according to His promise we expect that in 
the latter days, Antichrist being destroyed, the Jews called, and 
the adversaries of the kingdom of His dear Son broken, the Church 
of Christ, being enlarged and edified through a very plentiful com- 
munication of light and grace, shall enjoy in this world a more 
quiet, peaceable, and glorious condition than they have enjoyed." 

Congregationalism lost heavily through its compromising at- 
titude toward other denominations. First their relations with 
Presbyterians have to be considered. As may be gathered from the 
above, the two churches were friendly' toward each other, and 
delegates were exchanged. It was recognized that they agreed in 
doctrine, except on the point of polity. In order to avoid con- 
fusion, a plan of union was drawn up in 1801 by the Presbyterian 
General Assembly and by the Connecticut Association of the Con- 
gregationalists, which tried to make it possible for Congrega- 
tionalists and Presbyterians to fellowship each other and even to 
belong to the same local congregations. In order not to interfere 
with each other's work, the Presbyterians did not put forth mis- 
sionary efforts in the New England States, and the Congrega- 
tionalists followed the same course with regard to the new States 
in the Middle West. This policy accounts for it that there are few 
Presbyterian churches in New England and comparatively few 
Congregational churches in the States west of New England. The 
Congregationalists seem to have been the losers, on the whole. It is 
held they lost two thousand churches through this plan of union 
with Presbyterians till it finally, in 1837, was terminated by the 
Old School Presbyterians. 

A policy whose results were positively disastrous was the 
toleration of Unitarian teaching in Congregationalist churches. 



Arminianism had made itself felt and paved the way for Socinian, 
that is, Unitarian, ideas. Around 1800 it was very evident that 
there was a Trinitarian and a Unitarian party in the ranks of the 
Church. Unitarianism had developed partly through the dissatis- 
faction with Puritanism and with Calvinism, even in the modified 
form in which the latter was preached by Jonathan Edwards 
(17031758) and his son, Jonathan Edwards, Jr. (17451801), 
and by Hopkins (17211803) and Emmons (17451801). These 
men originated what is known as the New 'England) Theology. 
Generally speaking, they tried to defend the truth with specula- 
tion rather than with the Scriptures. In contending for their doc- 
trines, they largely took their stand on experience. The greatest 
of them, Jonathan Edwards, Sr., one of the acutest thinkers 
America has produced, wished to uphold the doctrine of the 
sovereignty of God without making man a puppet of blind neces- 
sity, which latter state, the Arminians charged, was inevitably 
implied in strict, consistent Calvinism. With this end in view, 
he wrote his famous work Careful and Strict Inquiry into the 
Modern Prevailing Notions of Freedom of Will. In this treatise, 
which appeared in 1754, Edwards assumed a philosophical neces- 
sity which is not imposed on the will, but which belongs to will 
itself. He believed that his system left intact man's responsibility 
for all his acts and at the same time accounted for his absolute 
dependence on the grace of God in conversion. The doctrine of 
original sin he upheld by teaching that the human race, as con- 
stituted by God, forms one whole in which every member is 
"identical" with Adam and actually participates in the first sin. 
His successors concerned themselves much with the doctrine of the 
atonement and endeavored to make it palatable to human reason. 
Various theories were put forward. The one which gained widest 
approval was the so-called "governmental theory," which had been 
formulated by the Arminian Hugo Grotius. It holds that Christ 
in His Passion did not bear all the penalties which men had de- 
served, but, as man's Substitute, was punished merely sufficiently 
that God could forgive sins without creating the impression that 
sin is something to be made light of or to be treated with in- 
difference. Various later theologians, among them Timothy 
Dwight (17521817) and Nathanael W.Taylor (17861858), 
continued to modify Calvinism and to develop the JSTew England 
Theology. It is significant that, in spite of the rejection by some 
of them of clearly revealed Scripture doctrines which the old Cal- 


vinism had professed, there was no division in Congregationalism 
and those that defended Scripture teaching did not separate from 
those that opposed it. In this atmosphere of indifference, Unita- 
rianism found the very conditions it required for rapid growth and 
the spreading of its poison. Besides, the "half -way covenant," one 
of the makeshifts of early Congregationalism, permitting people to 
receive the ministrations of the Church (except participation in 
the Lord's Supper) even if they did not fully meet the require- 
ments of church-membership, tended to produce a spirit of laxity 
and indifference in doctrinal matters. 

When Henry Ware, a Liberal, was called as professor of 
divinity in Harvard College, it was plain that this school now ac- 
cepted Unitarian principles. Instead of separating at once, the 
Trinitarians continued in the same camp with their opponents. 
The Unitarians by and by became more bold, and finally a separa- 
tion proved inevitable. But irreparable injury had been done, 
a number of influential Congregational churches had accepted 
Unitarianism. Congregationalists say they lost 100 churches. 
Unitarians, however, make the claim that they won 150. Many 
congregations were divided, and often in these instances there was 
a dispute about the church property. All but two of the Boston 
churches joined the Unitarians. By 1840 the division had become 
complete. See Unitarianism, 423 ff. 

After this there was an awakening of denominational con- 
sciousness on the part of Congregationalists, and they became more 
active in spreading their teachings here in America. At the same 
time they began to organize as a denomination, starting to hold 
national councils (that is, conventions) every two years. The first 
representative gathering of American Congregationalists in modern 
times was held in 1852. In 1883 a Declaration of Faith was drawn 
up in St. Louis by twenty-five representative men, which, while 
not formally adopted as a confession, is regarded as their doctrinal 
basis by many churches. Of late, Modernism has made terrible 
inroads, a situation favored and promoted by the loose organiza- 
tion and liberal principles of the denomination. In 1913 the 
Kansas City Platform was adopted by the National Council, 
a declaration so indefinite that a Modernist has no difficulty in 
subscribing to it. Of Calvinism there is nothing left in this plat- 
form, unless one is willing to find a reference to it in the ambiguous 
statement which declares "steadfast allegiance to the faith con- 
fessed by the fathers." 


289* With respect to polity, as the name indicates, the local con- 
gregation is autonomous, and conferences or synods have none but 
advisory power. Membership in associations or conferences is not 
obligatory. Ordination to the ministry is effected, as a rule, by 
a "council of churches" called by the congregation of which the 
candidate is a member or in which he is to be installed as a pastor. 
Open communion is practised. Church-membership is granted if 
one declares willingness to lead a Christian life. Doctrine is not 
emphasized. Infant baptism is customary; the mode is optional. 
In 1924 the Evangelical Protestant Church of ISTorth America, 
whose churches had a congregational polity, joined the Congrega- 
tionalists. The body thereafter was called the Evangelical Prot- 
estant Conference of Congregational Churches. In 193.1 the so- 
called Christian Church, numbering about 100,000 members, joined 
the Congregationalists. The strength of the united Church, called 
the General Council of Congregational and Christian Churches, is 
1,048,281 members. 

Perhaps nothing better illustrates the doctrinal indifference 
prevailing in this denomination than the recent merger of its old 
theological seminary, Andover, founded to counteract the Unitarian 
influence of Harvard, with Newton Seminary, a Baptist school. 

We append the so-called Kansas City Platform, adopted 1913, 
so that cverjr reader may convince himself of the extent to which 
the present Congregationalist standard fails to confess distinctive 
Christian truths. 

PKEAMBLE. The Congregational churches of the United 
States, by delegates in National Council assembled, reserving all 
the rights and cherished memories belonging to this organization 
under its former constitution and declaring the steadfast allegiance 
of the churches composing the Council to the faith which our 
fathers confessed, which from age to age has found its expression 
in the historic creeds of the Church Universal and of this com- 
munion, and affirming our loyalty to the basic principles of our 
representative democracy, hereby set forth the things most surely 
believed among us concerning faith, polity, and fellowship. 

FAITH. We believe in God the Father, infinite in wisdom, 
goodness, and love; and in Jesus Christ, His Son, our Lord and 
Savior, who for us and our salvation lived and died and rose again 
and liveth evermore; and in the Holy Spirit, who taketh of the 
things of Christ and revealeth them to us, renewing, comforting, 
and inspiring the souls of men. We are united in striving to know 


the will of God as taught in the Holy Scriptures and in our purpose 
to walk in the ways of the Lord, made known or to be made known 
to us. We hold it to be the mission of the Church of Christ to 
proclaim the Gospel to all mankind, exalting the worship of the 
true God and laboring for the progress of knowledge, the promo- 
tion of justice, the reign of peace, and the realization of human 
brotherhood. Depending, as did our fathers, upon the continued 
guidance of the Holy Spirit to lead us into all truth, we work and 
pray for the transformation of the world into the kingdom of 
God, and we look with faith for the triumph of righteousness and 
the life everlasting. 

POLITY. We believe in the freedom and responsibility of the 
individual soul and the right of private judgment. We hold to the 
autonomy of the local church and its independence of all ecclesias- 
tical control. We cherish the fellowship of the churches united in 
district, State, and national bodies for counsel and cooperation in 
matters of common concern. 

THE WIDER FELLOWSHIP. While affirming the liberty of our 
churches and the validity of our ministry, we hold to the unity and 
catholicity of the Church of Christ and will unite with all its 
branches in hearty cooperation and will earnestly seek, so far as in 
us lies, that the prayer of our Lord for His disciples may be an- 
swered that they all may be one. 


290* The origin of the Mennonites must be sought in the Ana- 
baptist movement of the sixteenth century. Present historical 
authorities are agreed that Anabaptism has no connection with 
Lutheranism, but that it is essentially the very antithesis of 
Luther's fundamental principles and that it touches Eoman 
theology in many points. Mystical and ascetic tendencies which 
had been advocated from time to time during the Middle Ages 
were put to practical application by the various groups of Ana- 
baptists. It is difficult to trace clearly at all times the underlying 
principles of the various Anabaptist leaders in spite of the volumi- 
nous literature, since a variety of strange and divergent dogmatical 
opinions were advocated within the group known as Anabaptists. 
Denk was a pantheist ; Sattler primarily a moralist ; Hutt stressed 
chili asm; Hubmaier was a radical and unrelenting iconoclast; 
Muenzer advocated the utmost asceticism ; some leaders denied the 
Trinity and the deity of Christ; others taught the restoration of 


all things. The doctrinal standard of the Anabaptists cannot be 
denned because there virtually was no bond which united the 
various Anabaptist camps excepting the enthusiastic subjectivism 
which led to a very definite protest against the rigid and dead 
formalism of the Eoman Church and to a vigorous denouncement 
of Luther's doctrine of justification by grace without works. Ana- 
baptism may best be defined as a movement which stresses the 
mystical idea that God not only reveals Himself to man directly 
and immediately, but that man must also enter into an immediate 
and mystical communion with God through the Spirit's working 
directly upon the heart. Mysticism, however, always leads to 
asceticism. The Anabaptists claimed that their ascetic tendencies 
could be carried to fruition only by establishing a "community of 
saints" within the social order and therefore relentlessly enforced 
the ban in order to present the Church as the unspotted bride of 
Christ. They demanded absolute separation from the world while 
still in the world and therefore refused to take part in social, in- 
dustrial, enonomic, or political affairs of this world. Their mystical 
and ascetic aloofness developed into the worst kind of haughtiness, 
and they believed themselves to be God's chosen instrument to usher 
in the millennium. Anabaptism developed into a social and polit- 
ical revolt, which ended in the cataclysmic disorders at Muenster 
under Jan van Ley den in 1535, which is probably the world's 
greatest exhibition of perverted religion, arbitrary despotism, and 
carnal sensuality. 

Menno Simons (1492 1559), a Eoman priest from 1516 
until 1536, embraced the Anabaptist doctrine in 1536, affiliated 
himself with the more conservative members of the Anabaptists, 
was rebaptized by Obbe Philips, and spent the remainder of his 
life in gathering the remnants of the Muenster catastrophe and in 
organizing the scattered and leaderless Anabaptists into orderly 
congregations. Menno Simons was not a theologian in the true 
sense of the word, but systematized the doctrinal tendencies of the 
earlier Anabaptists and developed a strict and definite church 
discipline. He did this with such firmness and zeal that the Ana- 
baptists soon became known by his name. Mennonite historians 
usually deny that there is any connection between their Church 
and the movement which temporarily collapsed at Muenster and 
trace their history to the work of Conrad Grebel, a co worker of 
Zwingli and later the founder of the Swiss Brethren. Still the 
fact remains that Anabaptism, stripped of its coarse millennialism 



through the Muenster episode, continued in the Mennonite churches 
of Holland. The Swiss Anabaptists, known as Taeufer, and the 
Dutch Mennonites were exposed to bitter persecution because of 
their doctrine of non-resistance. These persecutions, however, 
rather aided their cause by uniting them internally and compelling 
them to seek refuge in Austria, Southern Eussia, Germany, and 
finally in America. The first colony of Mennonites in America 
was organized at Germantown, under the guidance and by the aid 
of William Penn, in 1683. In the following decades many Swiss 
Mennonites emigrated from Southern Germany to America, and in 
the seventies of the nineteenth century large groups of German and 
Swiss Mennonites came from Southern Eussia to the United States 
and Canada. In spite of the many migrations the majority of the 
Mennonites have retained their ancestral customs and language. 
The Census Eeport lists 87,164 Mennonites in the United States 
(in 1926) and 88,736 in Canada (Census of Canada, 1931). The 
two centers of Mennonite activities are at Scottdale, Pa., and 
Elkhart, Ind. 

291* The basic doctrinal principle of the Mennonite Church is 
emphasis upon the outward purity of the Church. Mennonites 
usually claim intimate relation with the JSTovatians, Paulicians, 
Albigenses, Waldenses, and similar movements which stressed 
abstinence from the world and advocated a life of self-negation. 
The Mennonites believe that the church must be a visible or- 
ganization of regenerate persons and that it must be kept holy by 
the strict exercise of the ban. Outside of this doctrine a large 
number of conflicting and contradictory tendencies are tolerated, 
so long as they can be made subservient to their basic conception 
of Christianity. Thus some Mennonites were Enthusiasts of the 
Quaker type ; others, Socinians, denying the doctrine of the Trinity 
and teaching that personal piety is the essence of Christianity; 
others, Pelagians and Arminians. Others rejected the Means of 
Grace, teaching that the Holy Spirit converts immediately (spir- 
itualism) or that the believer is united with Christ without Word 
or Sacraments (mysticism) ; others were Quietists, believing that 
faith is an intense consciousness of God without a definite knowl- 
edge concerning God. Wherever morality is stressed to the ex- 
clusion of doctrine, there the flood-gates to dissensions are opened. 
Since the personal holiness of the individual is the central theme 
of Mennonite theology, it was to be expected that there would be 
serious differences concerning this point. After the bitter per- 


secutions of the early years there was a strong tendency to become 
lax in their religious life and discipline. Jacob Ammon (Amen) 
became the recognized leader of that party which insisted on a 
literalistic interpretation of 1 Cor. 5, 9 11: "eat" (see 294). 
By 1698 a definite break occurred between the so-called Amish 
people and the Mennonites. In the two succeeding centuries both 
groups experienced numerous schisms concerning the question of 
the ban, while the two main bodies reunited at the close of the 
nineteenth century. The American Mennonites may be grouped 
into three main parties the Old Order Amish, representing the 
most conservative; the General Conference of the Mennonites of 
North America, the most liberal; and the Mennonite Church (the 
fusion of the original Mennonites and the main body of the Amish 
movement), forming the central party. 10 ) The differences between 
the sixteen divisions are less concerning points of doctrine than 
concerning practise. Some of the points of difference are so small 
that they can be understood only by such as come into direct 
contact with the Mennonites. The doctrinal position of all Men- 
nonites is summed up in the Confession of F/dth, adopted at Dort, 
Holland, in 1632. The doctrinal statements >)f the various groups 
do not differ essentially from the position confessed in the eighteen 
articles of the Confession of Faith. 

292+ The fundamental theme of Mennonite theology is the mys- 
tical doctrine that salvation is conditioned upon the "spiritual" 
knowledge of Christ. The Brevis Confessio, 1580, says that "Christ 
must be known and believed according to the spirit in His exalta- 
tion, ... so that the form and image of Christ is developed in us, 
that He manifests Himself to us, dwells in us, teaches us, com- 
pletes the miracles in us according to the spirit whi. h He per- 
formed while in the flesh, heals us of the sickness of cur spirit, 
blindness, impurity, sin, and death, n< urishes us with heavenly 
food, and makes us partakers of His div tie nature, so that by His 
power the old man in us is crucified an 1 we arise to a new life, 
experiencing the power of His resurrection." (See Schyn, Historia 
Mennonitorum, p. 193 ff., quoted by Tschackert, Entstehung, etc., 
451.) This pronounced mystical spiritualism is manifest through- 
out their doctrinal system. The Confession of Dort teaches that 
the Bible is God's Word and the infallible guide. But it does not 
teach that the Holy Spirit employs the Word as Means of Grace. 

10) See chart in Year-book of American Churches, 1933, p. 175. 


On the contrary, with the Anabaptists and the Reformed Church in 
general, the Mennonites are Enthusiasts, lay great stress on the 
immediate working of the Holy Ghost, who is said to "guide the 
saints into all truth." In his Geschichte der Mennonitengemeinden 
John Horsch, a prominent Mennonite, states that the Holy Spirit 
is the "inner word," who enables Christians to understand the 
Scriptures. Without the inner word, or the light, the Scripture is 
a dead letter and a dark lantern. P. 92, quoted by G-uenther, Sym- 
bolik, 108. Therefore the Confession of Dort speaks of the New 
Testament or the Gospel only as the Law of Christ, "in which the 
whole counsel and will of God are comprehended." Art. Y. "While 
some of the early Mennonites were vague on the doctrine of the 
Trinity and the eternal sonship of Jesus, the doctrinal statement of 
the Mennonites adopted in 1921 uses the terminology employed by 
the ancient Church. The Confession of Dort, however, avoids the 
expression "conceived by the Holy Ghost" and thereby permits the 
teaching of Menno Simons, condemned by the Formula of Con- 
cord, Th. D., XII, 25, that Christ brought His flesh and blood 
from heaven. Concrrning the doctrine of sin the Waterland Con- 
fession denies that A lam's fall brought guilt or punishment upon 
his descendants. Th i Confession of Dort and later doctrinal state- 
ments avoid this question entirely. The declaration in A State- 
ment of Christian Doctrine, Art. YI, that "man in his fallen 
estate is estranged from God, ... is utterly unable of himself to 
return to righteousness, even his mind and conscience being de- 
filed," must be received with qualifications; for the older confes- 
sions plainly teach the liberty of the human will to accept or reject 
the offered grace of God. Brevis Confessio, Y. Brevis Homologia, 

293* Meanonite theology has inverted the Scriptural relation of 
good woiks to justification and has made the mystical union of the 
believer with Christ the >asis and not the result of justification. 
Therefore regeneration i- viewed as a moral transformation, the 
Confession of Dort stati.ig: "As man is inclined to all unright- 
eousness, therefore the first doctrine of the New Testament is re- 
pentance and amendment of life Without faith, the new birth, 

and a change or renewal of life, nothing can help or qualify us that 
we may please God or receive any consolation or promise of salva- 
tion from Him." Art. VI. Mennonites say that we are saved 
through faith, but faith and obedience are continually identified. 
The Dort Confession declares : "All men without distinction, if 


they are obedient, through faith, follow, fulfil, and live according 
to, the precepts of the Law of Christ, are God's children." Art. III. 
Obedience to the Law of Christ, or the Gospel, to the will of God, 
to my Lord, these are ever -recurring phrases. The Shorter Cate- 
chism nullifies its Scriptural statement "Salvation is the unmerited 
grace of God purchased by Christ" (Qu. 3) by stating in Qu. 4: 
"Obedience from love of God is the life and light of faith." When 
Mennonites tell us that we obtain pardon for our sins through faith 
in Christ, then it must be remembered that Christ's work is said 
to consist primarily in giving us a new law, the Dort Confession 
expressly stating that Christ had finished His work before His suf- 
fering and death and that by His death Christ sealed the New 
Testament which He established and left His followers as an 
everlasting testament. Art. IV. It is significant that the Men- 
uonite confessions do not speak of justification as a forensic act, 
but continually identify it with sanctification. "Through faith 
[i. e., through obedience] we obtain the pardon of our sins, become 
sanctified, justified, and children of God, yea, partakers of His 
mind, nature, and image." Dort Confession, Art. VI. Using their 
own definitions, Art. VIII of A Statement of Christian Doctrine 
must be amended as follows : "Only those who by faith [i. e., obe- 
dience] and repentance accept the atoning work of Christ 
[i. e., Christ's new law] are redeemed from sin. Sonship is based 
on the new birth [i. e., a complete change of life] and fellowship 
upon obedience to God's "Word" (i. e., acceptance in heart and life 
of God's commandments). Mennonite theology thereby comes 
dangerously close to Eome's doctrine of infused righteousness, for 
the Shorter Catechism says: "Man is justified through the Lord 
Jesus alone, of whose righteousness we must become partakers 
through faith which worketh by love." Qu. 5. 11 ) 

294+ The Mennonites deny that a congregation in which sin- 
ners are still found is a true church (see 142). While the 
doctrinal statements apparently acknowledge a distinction be- 
tween the invisible and the visible Church, the Dort Confession 
ascribes all the Scriptural characteristics of the invisible Church 
to the visible Church and declares: "We confess a visible Church 
of God, consisting of those . . . who are united with God in 
heaven and incorporated into the communion of saints on earth." 
Art. VIII. Marks of the Church are said to be "her evangelical 

1 1 ) See the doctrinal summary of the Mennonites in Census Report, 
1920, II, 844, reprinted in Concordia Cyclopedia. 


faith, doctrine, love, godly conversation, pure walk and practise, 
observance of the true ordinances of Christ." Ib. In order to 
make sure that outward piety will be properly observed, the 
Dort Confession teaches "that, as the Church cannot exist and 
prosper nor continue in its structure without offices and regula- 
tions, therefore the Lord Jesus has Himself appointed His offices 
and regulations." Art. IX. The office is said to be threefold, viz., 
that of bishop, minister, and almoner. Mennonites strictly observe 
the rules concerning excommunication, "so that what is pure may 
be separated from that which is impure." A banned person must 
be "shunned and avoided by all the members of the Church, 
whether it be in eating or drinking or other such social matters." 
Dort Confession, Art. XVII. Some branches of the Mennonites 
apply the ban only to the Communion table. Believing them- 
selves to be "the communion of saints," the Mennonites are very 
separatistic, "withdraw themselves from the sinful world," forbid 
the marriage with an unbeliever, yea, with a non-Mennonite, in 
many instances excommunicating a member who does not marry 
"amongst the chosen generation." 

295 The Mennonite confessions deny the collative and effective 
power of the Sacraments. Baptism, usually performed by affusion, 
is said to be a "sign of a spiritual birth, an incorporation into the 
[visible] Church." Shorter C., 17. Considering baptism only "an 
evidence that we have established a covenant with Christ," Men- 
nonites reject infant baptism and therefore demand rebaptism of 
adults who had received infant baptism. The Lord's Supper is 
said to "represent to us how Christ's holy body was sacrificed on 
the cross" (Shorter C., 21) and "to remind us of the use of Christ's 
death and to exhort us to love one another." Dort Confession, X. 
Foot-washing is observed as a sign of true humiliation and of the 
purification of the soul. Ib., XI. Misapplying the doctrine of 
the separation of Church and State, Mennonites hold that Chris- 
tians, being members of Christ's kingdom and therefore under the 
"Gospel," cannot be a part of the administrative or civil powers. 
Chr. Fund., XIII. When demanding oaths, inflicting capital 
punishment, or waging wars, the civil powers are said to be acting 
under the Old Testament dispensation or under human laws. But 
since these matters are contrary to Christ's teachings, the Men- 
nonites will render obedience to the "government of the world" 
only in those things "which do not militate against the Law, will, 
and commandments of G-od." Dort Confession, XIII. 167* Men- 


nonites forbid all forms of luxury, some even the wearing of 
buttons, membership in secret societies, defense by force, litigation 
of all kinds. The woman is not permitted in public worship with- 
out the "devotional covering" for the head. The Mennonites have 
established an enviable record through their honesty, integrity, 
industry, and other civic virtues. 

296* The following descriptions of the various bodies in the 
United States is based upon material given to the Census Eeport 
for 1926 by Eev. J. A. Eessler, editor of the Mennonite Year-book, 
and upon his Year-book for 1932. 

1) The MENNONITE CHURCH represents two groups, the old 
Mennonites and the Amish movements, operating under the Gen- 
eral Conference since 1898, and is most closely identified with the 
history given in the preceding paragraphs. It reported 43,379 
members in 1932. 

2) The HUTERIAN BRETHREN (Jacob Huter) are commu- 
nistic. They use a peculiar dialect of German in their services and 
homes. Only about 700 members are found in the United States. 

members in 1926, are more liberal in their interpretation of the 
rules concerning worship and attire than other groups. 

4) The OLD ORDER AMISH MENNONITES refused to join the 
more liberal party in the Amish movement. They strictly adhere to 
the old customs concerning the ban, attire, and language. There 
have been three divisions among them concerning the ban. They 
numbered 6,006 in 1926. 

5) The CHURCH OF GOD IN CHRIST (Mennonite) was organ- 
ized by John Holdemann in 1859, believing himself called by God 
to reestablish and maintain the strict observance of the ban. They 
shun the banned, refuse to fellowship other denominations, con- 
demn the taking of interest. Since Holdemamr's death, in 1900, 
largely through the influence of Russian Mennonites, the views 
have been relaxed. Membership in 1932 for the United States and 
Canada was 2,500 members. 

6) The OLD ORDER MENNONITE CHURCH (Wisler) is a fusion 
of a number of groups under the leadership of Jacob Wisler, who 
condemned certain "innovations," e. g., Sunday-school, evening 
meetings, the use of English. 2,227 members in 1926. 

7) The EEFORMED MENNONITE CHURCH was organized by 
John Herr in 1812. Their principles agree with those of 6. 
They claim 1,764 members in the United States and Canada. 


was organized in 1860 in the hope of uniting at least the majority 
of the Mennonites. They differ from other bodies in not demanding 
a "devotional covering" for the women,, nor do they insist on foot- 
washing. They urge an educated ministry and mission-work. This 
group (which must not be confused with those of 1) numbers 
21,852 members. 

9) The DEFENSELESS MENNONITES seceded from the Old 
Order Amish on the ground that the need of a definite experience 
of conversion was not sufficiently emphasized. There were 1,060 
members in 1926. 

10) The MENNONITE BRETHREN IN CHRIST (9,925 members 
in the United States and Canada) stress entire sanctification, divine 
healing, and -the millennium. 

11 and 12) The MENNONITE BRETHREN CHURCH of North 
America (Schellenberger Bruedergemeinde), 6,484 members, and 
the KRIMMER BRUEDERGEMEINDE (from Crimea), 1,850 members, 
trace their origin to separations which took place in Kussia in 
protest against supposed laxity. They agree doctrinally with the 
other Mennonites excepting that they insist on baptism by im- 
mersion, the first group baptizing backward, the second forward. 
13 and 14) The MENNONITE KLEINE GEMEINDE (1,155 members 
in the United States and Canada) and the CONFERENCE OF 
DEFENSELESS MENNONITES (818 members in the United States) 
are of Eussian origin. 15) THE STAUFFER MENNONITE CHURCH, 
restricted to Lancaster, Pa., numbers 243 members. 16) The 
CENTRAL CONFERENCE is composed of congregations, chiefly in 
Central Illinois, which remained independent of conference affilia- 
tions because the demands of membership seemed too strict and 
later formed their own organization. They reported 3,124 members 
in 1926. 17) Five unaffiliated congregations with 348 members. 


297+ The Baptists make the claim that in every century since the 
time of the apostles there have been persons or sects holding their 
peculiar views. What we at once concede is that the Baptists can 
trace their history back to the time of the Eeformation. In the 
first quarter of the sixteenth century we find so-called Anabaptists 
(rebaptizers) in Germany and Switzerland. These people insisted 
that baptism in infancy was not what Jesus had instituted, that 
adult baptism was required, and that those who had been baptized 


in infancy would have to be baptized again tenets which are dis- 
tinctive of the Baptists to-day. Immersion was not always taught, 
it seems. Through the influence of Menno Simons (see 290) Bap- 
tist views were spread in the Netherlands, and from there they 
came to England. The first Baptist church in London was estab- 
lished in 1611. Owing to Mennonite influence, the early Baptist 
churches in England were Arminian rather than Calvinistic. The 
first Calvinistic Baptist church in London was formed 1638. In 
1641 a party separated from this church and set up as its char- 
acteristic principle the belief that baptism had to be by immersion. 
Baptists holding Arminian views were called General Baptists, 
while those clinging to Calvin's teachings were termed Particular 
Baptists. In England the General and the Particular Baptists 
were united in 1891. In America probably the first Baptist church 
was founded by Eoger Williams when he established the colony of 
Providence, E. I., in 1639. Having been a minister in Salem, he 
was banished from the Massachusetts Colony because "he broached 
and divulged new and dangerous opinions against the authority of 
magistrates." At Providence he turned to Baptist principles. He 
first baptized a certain person, and this man then baptized (that is, 
rebaptized) him. The early Baptist churches in America belonged 
to the Particular or Calviuistic branch. Although later on Ar- 
minian views were widely held by American Baptists, finally the 
Calvinistic type of doctrine was accepted by most of them. Gen- 
eral Baptists gained a foothold especially in the South. In 1788 
a Negro Baptist church was organized. The Free Baptists, who 
likewise arose about the time of the Eevolution, stood for Arminian 
views. The great revival which swept the country around 1800 
resulted in a movement toward a stricter Calvinism among 
Baptists. When, about the same time, the question of the founding 
of missionary societies was discussed and many Baptists opposed 
the introduction of such agencies, fearing that thereby a dangerous 
ecclesiastical machinery might be set up destructive of the in- 
dependence of the local congregation, special names were applied 
to them, for instance, Old School, Antimission, Hard Shell, and 
Primitive. The last term became the most wide-spread. The 
majority of Baptists, however, favored the establishing of mission- 
ary societies and were designated Missionary Baptists, unless some 
other peculiarity put them into a special class. The chief divisions 
of these people, usually called Baptists without a qualifying 
epithet, are Northern, Southern, and National (colored). It 


should be noted that in the early years of our country Baptists 
were much persecuted. With the Great Awakening (1740), it 
seems, attempts at suppression disappeared. It is undoubtedly due 
to the great amount of persecution which their fathers had to 
endure that Baptists emphasize religious liberty and separation of 
Church and State. The struggle between the New Lights (revival- 
istic) and the Old Lights (antirevival) was a prominent feature of 
Baptist church-life in the eighteenth century. Foreign mission- 
work was carried on by the Baptists at an early time. Witness the 
names Carey and Judson. Owing to a division of opinion on 
slavery, Northern and Southern Baptists in 1845 separated from 
each other. The chief confession of the Baptists is the one issued 
by the London Baptist churches in 1688, which agrees essentially 
with the Westminster Confession and the Savoy Declaration, ex- 
cepting of course in the chapter relating to Baptism. It was 
adopted with some additions by the Philadelphia Association in 
174:2, the result being the Philadelphia Confession, a strongly Cal- 
vinistic document. Besides these the New Hampshire Confession, 
adopted in 1832, must be mentioned. The confessions, however, 
are not binding and have no special authority. 

298* The Baptists, generally speaking, hold the errors which are 
common to all Eeformed churches, errors pertaining to the use of 
reason in religion, the person of Christ, the Means of Grace, the 
real presence of Christ's body and blood in the Lord's Supper, and 
the legalistic view of the keeping of Sunday. 

Thus in their teaching on the communion of the two natures 
in Christ the Baptists in their confession of 1688 voice the same 
teaching which is found in the Westminster Confession, that "by 
reason of the unity of the person that which is proper to one nature 
is sometimes in Scripture attributed to the person denominated by 
the other nature." On the doctrines of predestination and conver- 
sion they divide into a Calvinistic and an Arminian section. 

Calvinistic Baptists in the confession of 1688 accept the teach- 
ing of the Westminster Confession : "By the decree of God for the 
manifestation of His glory some men and angels are predestinated 
unto everlasting life and others foreordained to everlasting death." 

Their distinctive errors of course have reference to Baptism. 
While sharing the Keformed position that Baptism does not convey 
forgiveness and work faith in man (cp. the statement in Reach's 
Catechism, p. 96 : "Baptism is an ordinance of the New Testament 
instituted by Christ to be unto the party baptized a sign of his 


.fellowship with Him"), they hold, first, that baptism must be per- 
formed through immersion and, secondly, that only adults are to 
be baptized. With respect to immersion the confession of the Bap- 
tists of 1688 declares : "Immersion, or dipping, of the person into 
water is necessary for a proper administration of this ordinance." 
The so-called New Hampshire Confession declares: "Christian 
Baptism is the immersion in water of a believer." 

The other point is of even greater moment, the denial of 
Baptists that infants are to be baptized. The confession of the 
Baptists drawn up in 1688 says concerning those that are to be bap- 
tized, that this class are those people who "actually profess re- 
pentance towards God, faith in, and obedience to, our Lord Jesus 
Christ." The New Hampshire Confession (cf. the above quotation) 
expresses the view that a person must be a believer before he can 
be baptized, the implication being that children, held to be in- 
capable of faith, must be denied this Sacrament. Since infant 
baptism as viewed by the Baptists is not valid, they hold that 
people baptized in infancy have to be rebaptized. The Baptist con- 
tention rests on rationalistic considerations and not on the teach- 
ings of Scripture. 

In polity Baptists are congregational, or independent. Ad- 
mission to church-membership is by vote of the church. As a rule, 
the candidate is examined by a committee. There is no age limit, 
but the admission of very young children is frowned upon. Ordi- 
nation comes after a person has been licensed to preach and is 
performed by a council of sister churches. The larger associations 
which are formed to make joint work possible have no authority 
over the individual churches. 

Their sixteen bodies in the United States at the beginning of 
1931 numbered 9,216,562 members and formed the largest Prot- 
estant denomination in the United States. The Calvinistic wing 
is by far the more numerous. 

Calvinistic Baptists. 

299* NOHTHERN BAPTISTS. This church-body is often called 
the Northern Baptist Convention. As indicated above, the churches 
of this body belong to the Missionary Baptists. In doctrine many 
of these people have become quite liberal. Their most prominent 
theological seminary is that of Eochester, N. Y. This is the de- 
nomination of Fosdick, Eockefeller, Shailer Mathews, and of the 
Divinity School of Chicago University. 1,404,685 members. 


SOUTHEEN BAPTISTS. (Southern Baptist Convention). 
Northern Baptists were so opposed to slavery that they would not 
accept a slaveholder as missionary. The Southern Baptists, be- 
longing likewise to the Missionary Baptists, then withdrew, form- 
ing their own organization in 1845. This body now is the largest 
Baptist body in the United States, its strength in 1930 being 
3,770,654 members. The Southern Baptists are more conservative 
than those of the North, and many of them still practise close 
communion. Their chief seminary is at Louisville, Ky. 

NATIONAL BAPTIST CONVENTION. This is the great Baptist 
body which consists of colored people. Organized in St. Louis, Mo., 
in 1886, it belongs to the wing formed by the Missionary Baptists. 
In their loosely knit organization these people have much friction, 
separating and reuniting. 3,465,000 members. 

Baptist conventions are no longer fully loyal to the Scriptures,, 
these people banded themselves together in 1905 under the name 
Baptist General Association and in 1924 reorganized their body, 
taking the name American Baptist Association. On account of 
their adherence to the old views the nickname Landmarkers is often 
given to them. Another title by which they at times are designated 
is Church-Equality Baptists, because they believe that "only the 
local church can administer the ordinances, thus making for the 
perfect equality of the churches in all their associated work." 
175,700 members. 

PRIMITIVE BAPTISTS. As has been alluded to above, these 
people in their fear of ecclesiasticism (the government of the 
church by a class) are opposed to the introduction of missionary 
societies. Besides, it is argued, the New Testament does not men- 
tion the formation of such societies by the apostles; and since it 
constitutes our rule in matters of faith and practise, we should not 
have such societies either. Accordingly, "modern money-based so- 
called benevolent societies" are branded as wrong. Naturally, the 
establishment of a denominational organization is looked upon as 
forbidden. "We, then, find the strange situation that these Baptists 
have no conventions or conferences. Local churches exchange their 
constitutions and the minutes of their meetings for mutual ap- 
proval; and if the doctrines set forth therein are not approved, 
the respective church is simply dropped from the list of sister 

In doctrine they are intensely Calvinistic. Some of them are 


supralapsarians, holding that the alleged eternal decree of repro- 
bation logically, when viewed in the relation of cause and effect, 
must be placed before the decree of the fall of man, which implies 
that God decreed the damnation of those that are lost without 
reference to their unbelief, although they add that this was done 
in such a manner as not to compel any one to sin and as not to 
expose God to the charge of approving of, or fellowshiping, sin. 
The majority of them, however, are infralapsarians, holding that 
the decree of reprobation logically must be placed after the fall of 
man. See also 266 + It is their teaching that "Baptism, the Lord's 
Supper, and washing the saints 3 feet are ordinances of the Gospel 
and should be continued till Christ's second coming." Here it may 
be noted that f oot-washing is practised in some of the other Baptist 
divisions also. While professing in other respects the usual Bap- 
tist beliefs, they refuse to establish Sunday-schools, and most of 
them will not permit instrumental music in their churches. They 
are opposed to secret societies. 81,374 members (1926). 

COLORED PRIMITIVE BAPTISTS. Founded after the Civil 
War, in 1865, this body holds the same beliefs as the white 
Primitive bodies. 43,978 members (1926). 


Baptists experienced, as did other church-bodies, that the introduc- 
tion of Arminian views resulted in laxity in doctrine and church 
discipline. Soon after the beginning of the nineteenth century 
a number of them who were strongly opposed to such deterioration 
began to teach peculiar views, which were intended to keep Cal- 
vinism unadulterated. Their position is somewhat difficult to 
explain. They say that, in creating Adam and Eve, God put some- 
thing of His essence into them, and all the descendants of Adam 
who have received a portion of this divine essence are God's chil- 
dren ("seed of God") and were redeemed by Christ and will be 
saved. But Satan, too, put into the first parents something of his 
essence, and those of their descendants who have become sharers 
in this evil essence, constituting "the seed of the Serpent," are not 
among the people whose sins Christ atoned for, and they will 
be lost. 

In their church polity they are like the Primitive Baptists; 
many of them will not have a salaried ministry. Sunday-schools 
are not permitted, and no mission-work is carried on. Foot- 
washing is observed. 304 members (1926). 

SEVENTH-DAY BAPTISTS. These people differ from all other 


Baptists in teaching that the seventh day, Saturday, must be kept.. 
A church representing this teaching was organized in 1671 in New- 
port, E. I. They are Calvinistic. Open communion is practised 
by them. Their Handbook declares, p. 36, that the seventh day is 
the Sabbath of Jehovah and must be kept sacred in commemora- 
tion of the creation of the world as a type of the rest of the saints 

in heaven. 

Arminian Baptists. 

301* FREE-WILL BAPTISTS (Bullockites). These people separated 
from the Free Baptists under the leadership of several men, one 
of them being Jeremiah Bullock. In teaching they agree with the 
Free Baptists. Their congregations are located in Maine and New 
Hampshire. 36 members. 

FREE- WILL BAPTISTS. Formerly these people were called 
Original Free-will Baptists, the adjective "original" having the 
purpose of distinguishing them from the Free Baptists described 
below. Since the merger of the latter body with the Northern 
Baptist Convention the epithet "original" has been dropped. 
Coming from the fold of the General Baptists, the body was or- 
ganized in 1729. "What characterizes them is their strong Ar- 
minianism, the emphasis in their teaching resting on the view that 
man has a free will in spiritual things, the ability to decide for or 
against Christ, and also foot-washing, anointing the sick with oil, 
and their refusal to let women take over an office in the church. 
They practise open communion and are very emotional in their 
services. Their strength is chiefly in the South. 75,592 members. 

dred associations of Baptists.) Having sprung from the Elk Eiver 
Association, which was founded in 1898 and separation from which 
took place on account of the stern Calvinism of this body, the 
Duck Eiver Association, found in some of our Southeastern States, 
professes a mild form of Calvinism, teaching that atonement was 
universal. Foot-washing is regarded as one of the divine ordi- 
nances. 7,340 members. 

UNITED BAPTISTS. This body was formed by a union of 
some Separate Baptists, who at first sponsored Arminian views, 
and of some Eegular Baptists, who laid claim to being the descen- 
dants of the original English Baptists. The union was made pos- 
sible by mutual concessions : the Separate Baptists in question be- 
came less outspoken in their advocacy of Arminian teachings, and 
those Eegular Baptists who took part in the union were willing to 


let the rite of foot-washing, which they formerly had opposed, be 
practised. The church-body adheres to close communion. 18,903 

Statistics (1926) : 67 churches, 7,264 members. 

came into existence in 1901. Its religious teachings are those of 
the Free-will Baptists. 13,396 members. 

FREE BAPTISTS. Another name used for this denomina- 
tion is "Free-will Baptists." Eepresented chiefly in New England 
and New York, they organized in 1789, the leader being Benjamin 
Randall. Their characteristics were : Arminian teachings as to the 
doctrine of predestination and conversion, the permission given to 
women to preach, and open communion. We may speak of them 
in the past tense because since 1911 the denomination has ceased 
to exist, having merged, a few scattered congregations excepted, 
with the Northern Baptist Convention. 

302* SEPARATE BAPTISTS. The American origin of this body 
dates back to the time of the Whitefield revival (in the forties of 
the eighteenth century), when those who supported the revivalistic 
methods of Whitefield were opposed because they were willing to 
employ lay preachers and because they insisted that everybody who 
wished to be regarded as a Christian would not only have to ex- 
perience, but also feel, conversion. They were called New Lights. 
Once upon a time they were numerous; but through uniting with 
other Baptist bodies, their ranks were weakened, and to-day their 
number is small. Congregational in polity, Arminian in the doc- 
trines of predestination and conversion, they hold that God has 
given Christians three ordinances : Baptism, the Lord's Supper, 
and foot-washing. 4,803 members. 

REGULAR BAPTISTS. Those who use this title to describe 
their religious connection maintain that they are the descendants 
of the original Baptists in England, at whose time the distinction 
between General and Particular Baptists had not yet arisen. They 
are, however, by no means observing an attitude of neutrality as to 
the differences between Calvinism and Arminianism, but are in 
sympathy with the teachings of the latter. Their individual 
churches have not been united in one well-organized denomination, 
but are content with meeting in associations. Close communion is 
held to, and most of their churches keep the rite of foot-washing. 
23,091 members. 

GENERAL BAPTISTS. Among the early Baptists in the United 


States were General Baptists, given to Arminian views. Cp. 297+ 
People calling themselves by this name did not form an organiza- 
tion till 1824, when under the leadership of Benoni Stinson four 
Indiana churches united. They practise open communion and, in 
some instances, foot-washing. 31,501 members. 

founders of this body were of Swedish extraction. Of very recent 
origin, its churches are located chiefly in Minnesota. It is opposed 
to participation in war. 222 members (1926). 

Northeastern States of the country, these people constitute a very 
small communion. Their first church was founded in 1653 in 
Providence, E. I. They stand for the six principles enumerated in 
Heb. 6, 1. 2 : repentance, faith, Baptism, laying on of hands, resur- 
rection, eternal judgment, overlooking entirely that the holy writer 
is by no means professing to present an exhaustive list of funda- 
mental teachings. In their general theology they are Arminian. 
293 members. 

German Baptist Brethren (Dunkers). 

304* The founding of this denomination was partly due to the 
repugnance with which a number of people in the State Church in 
Westphalia, Germany, viewed the cold formalism of the churches 
and the laxity in morals of the church-members about them. Dis- 
gusted with these conditions and being withal actuated by a strong 
subjective Enthusiasm, one of them, Alexander Mack, founded an 
organization one of whose distinctive features was that of trine 
immersion, whence the name Dunker (or Dunkard, in German 
Tunker, Taeufer). Soon similar congregations were organized in 
other parts of Germany and in Holland and Switzerland. Persecu- 
tion by the State because of charges of separatism made them think 
of emigration. In 1719 the first company of them arrived and 
settled in Gerniantown, Pa. In 1729 another large company of 
them came to Pennsylvania, the great asylum for all who were 
persecuted on account of their religion. It is thought that the 
great majority of the members of this sect emigrated to our 
country. We note with interest that Christian Saur, who printed 
the first German Bible in America, was a member of the Brethren 
church in Gerniantown. Prom Pennsylvania they quickly spread 
to other States. While at first the German or the Dutch language 
was used exclusively, they now have but a few churches left which 
use a foreign language at all. 


305* The Bunkers, wishing to avoid worldliness, set themselves 
apart by demanding of their -members that their attire be plain, 
that the wearing of jewelry be avoided, that places of amusement 
be shunned, that tobacco and liquor be not used. In doctrine, too, 
they somewhat resemble the Mennonites, teaching non-resistance 
and refusal to bear arms (owing to their literalizing interpretation 
of Matt. 5, 39) and refraining from the taking of oaths. 

In their platform of 1881, chap. XIII, they declare that 
Brethren are not permitted to take part in political activities by 
voting for a party and by accepting office at the induction into 
which an oath must be taken. 

Baptism is performed by trine forward immersion, the can- 
didate kneeling in the water and receiving confirmation through 
the laying on of hands immediately after baptism, while still in 
the water. Infant baptism is opposed. When the Lord's Supper, 
which is always held in the evening, is celebrated, the love-feast 
and the rite of foot-washing, which is held to be divinely prescribed, 
precede it. The hand of fellowship and the kiss of charity are 
added to the ceremonial of foot-washing, for which the sexes meet 
separately. In the services the women are expected to be "veiled," 
which means, according to their terminology, that they must not 
be without a cover for their head (misapplication of 1 Cor. 11, 13). 
The sick are anointed with oil in the name of the Lord a prac- 
tise due to the misunderstanding of Jas. 5, 14. Cp. 111+ They are 
opposed to secret societies. 

As to polity, the power of discipline and the election of the 
ministers rest with all the members of the local church. There 
are State district conferences and a general conference, which latter 
is the chief authority. A distinction is made between ministers 
and bishops, the former being pastors of minor rank, candidates 
for the office of bishop, while the latter are the full-fledged pastors. 
Formerly the ministers served without compensation, but the 
exigencies of modern life, especially in the cities, have induced 
many congregations to adopt a salaried ministry. The name 
which these people apply to themselves is simply Brethren. 

306* There are five distinct bodies of Brethren : 

KERS) . This is the largest branch of the German Brethren com- 
munion. What we said above of the Dunkers in general applies 
to them. They are adhering to the old customs, but with moderate 
insistence. They foster Sunday-schools and colleges. With them 



the conferences are quite powerful. Bethany Biblical Seminary 
at Chicago belongs to them. 128,392 members. 

conservative, these people not only teach strict fidelity to the old 
customs and ways, but are opposed to Sunday-schools, missions, 
and denominational schools. The pastors do not receive salaries. 
This body was founded in 1881. 3,036 members. 

a question of polity on which these people in 1882 separated from 
the Conservative Bunkers. While the latter are granting much 
authority to the conferences, the progressives will let them have 
advisory power only for the local churches and the individual be- 
lievers. Opposition to "worldiness" is less marked here than with 
the Conservative Bunkers. 26,026 members (1926). 

founded in 1728 by John Conrad Beissel, a mystic. Biifering with 
Alexander Mack on the question of Sabbath observance, he with- 
drew from the original Bunker communion and championed, be- 
sides Sabbatarianism (the duty of observing the seventh day in the 
week), asceticism, celibacy, and the community of goods. His 
vagaries reached their climax when he, in 1732, at Ephrata, Pa., 
founded a sort of double monastery, erecting a building for men 
and another for women, where his ideas of unworldliness were 
practised. At present celibacy has been dropped by this sect as 
a prescribed mode of life, but the communistic feature has not yet 
entirely vanished. 144 members (1926). 

5) CHURCH OF GOD, OR NEW BUNKERS. This branch of the 
Brethren is likewise very conservative. It was founded in 1848, 
when a number of Bunkers insisted that Bible things should be 
called by Bible names and that the Church accordingly should be 
called by the Bible name foretold by prophecy, "The Church of 
God." When their ideas were not accepted by the main body of 
Bunkers, they withdrew. 650 members (1926). 

River Brethren. 

307+ These people resemble the Mennonites in doctrine and prac- 
tise; in fact, the founders of this body were Mennonites, who in 
1752 settled near the Susquehanna Eiver in Lancaster County, Pa. 
Owing to their proximity to the river or to their custom of bap- 
tizing in the river, they were called Eiver Brethren. Through 
divisions it has come about that there are now three branches of 
this denomination. 


1) BRETHREN IN CHRIST is the name of the largest body of 
these people, the designation having been adopted in 1863. Their 
peculiar beliefs include trine immersion, the rite of foot-washing 
in connection with the observance of the Lord's Supper, and non- 
resistance. Their clergy, which is not salaried, consists of bishops, 
ministers, and deacons, the bishops being the regular pastors, the 
ministers the assistant pastors, and the deacons the men that are 
in charge of the business affairs. Membership in secret societies 
is considered sinful. They believe in "prayer veiling" for women 
and the wearing of modest apparel, with non-conformity to the 
fashions of the world. 4,320 members. 

2 ) OLD ORDER OR YORKER BRETHREN is the title of the branch 
which in 1843 separated from the other Eiver Brethren, maintain- 
ing that the old tenets were not adhered to strictly enough, espe- 
cially those of non-resistance and non-conformity to the world. 
Because the majority of those withdrawing lived in York County, 
Pa., they were called Yorker Brethren. A peculiarity of theirs is 
that they have no church-buildings and frequently hold their ser- 
vices in large barns. 472 members. 

3) UNITED ZION'S CHILDREN is a body of Brethren which was 
formed in 1853 when "questions of administration or ceremonial 
detail, particularly in connection with a church-building," had 
brought on dissension. In distinction from the Brethren in Christ 
they hold that, when the ceremony of foot-washing is observed, the 
same person should both wash and dry the feet, while the Brethren 
in Christ let one person wash and another person dry. After their 
leader, Matthias Brinser, they were originally called Brinsers. 
905 members. 


308+ Bohemia might rightly be considered a furnace where, even 
before the Eeformation, the Gospel was purged of some of the 
Eoman errors through the work of John Huss. But his martyrdom 
in 1415 left his followers without a leader and without a unifying 
confessional standard. Internal strife and bitter persecution almost 
obliterated the work of Huss. The better element among the 
Utraquists and the Taborites, 13 ) seeking in vain true piety and spir- 

12) Not to be confounded with the Methodistic United Brethren in 

13) The Utraquists (utraque specie) or Calixtians (calix, i.e., cup) 
were conservative, while the Taborites, who had settled at Mount Tabor., 
were radical. 


ituality in the Bohemian national Church, withdrew in 1457 and 
ten years later organized the "Brethren of the Law of Christ," also 
known as the Unitas Fratrum, but usually identified with the 
Waldensians and Picards (Beghards). The distinctive features 
were: 1) the earnest desire to organize the serious-minded laymen 
as exclusive groups, which should act as a leaven within the 
established national Church. These groups hoped to supplant the 
perfunctory worship of the State Church with a service which was 
patterned after that of the Apostolic Church, and proposed to 
govern the Christian life by a code of rules based on a literal 
interpretation of the New Testament; 2) its consistent opposition 
to all formulated creeds and its resultant latitudinarianism. The 
first synod (1457) declared that "a godly life is essential as evi- 
dence of saving faith and is of greater importance than the dog- 
matic formulation of creed in all details so as to be binding 
upon all." Moravians and Their Faith, p. 4. 

At the beginning of the Lutheran Eeformation the Brethren 
numbered about 400 parishes with 200,000 members, had their 
own catechism and hymnal, operated printing-presses, and even 
had their own bishops. Luther repeatedly conferred with them. 
Cp. St. Louis edition, X, 334, and Koestlin, M. Luther, I, 635 fi 3 . 
But not finding their peculiar type of spirituality in Wittenberg, 
the Brethren opened negotiations with the Strassburg theologians. 
During the succeeding decades the Eoman Catholic Counter- 
Eeformation almost exterminated the Unitas. Only a small group, 
"a hidden remnant," carefully observed the Unitas principles, es- 
pecially continuing the episcopate "in the secret hope of a resus- 
citated Unitas." 

The resuscitation of the Unitas Fratrum occurred a century 
later, when in 1722 Christian David revived the principles of the 
original Unitas and led the ISTeisser family to the estate of Count 
Zinzendorf, in Saxony, establishing a colony called Herrnhut, i. e., 
the Lord's Watch. Soon several hundred Bohemians, Moravians, 
Lutheran Saxons, and a sprinkling of Eeformed settled at the 
Moravian colony and willingly adopted the same distinctive 
features which had characterized the original Unity. The mystical 
and pietistic tendencies appealed to Zinzendorf, the godchild of 
Jakob Spener. The religious colony retained "the ordinances and 
statutes received from the fathers (as formulated by Comenius in 
Eatio Disciplinae), which had made this Church an instrument in 
promoting the spiritual life of its living members, in quickening 


the dead, in confirming the feeble and wavering, and in correcting 
the obstinate and insincere." Corpus Confessionum, IV, 4. Zinzen- 
dorf supported the idea of a "little church within the Church" and 
added rules and statutes, commandments of the Church, which 
governed the entire conduct of the members of this religious com- 
munity and purposed to present, as far as possible, "the communion 
of saints, a living communion of Jesus Christ in the fellowship of 
faith and the observation of God's commandments." Ib., 2. Zinzen- 
dorf hoped to make the Unitas "a grand association upon the 
basis of experimental religion and practical piety." (Moravian 
Manual, 31.) His plan was to create throughout the world, 
primarily among the Germans of America, "little retreats, cut off 
from the world, for the promotion of personal spirituality and the 
development of a holy brotherhood." Ib., 32. By overemphs dzing 
the spirituality, the Unitas at Herrnhut became even more indif- 
ferent in doctrinal matters than the original Unitas. Zinzendorf 
found no difficulty in uniting the divergent tendencies on a broad 
Pan-Protestant union. He viewed dissenting creeds only as so 
many "modes of teaching" (Lehrtropen), and the Augsburg Con- 
fession was adopted solely as a matter of expediency, viz., to satisfy 
the demands of the government, which was Lutheran. Zinzendorf 
at first did not desire to organize a distinct religious body, but in 
1735 "the episcopate, which had been so wonderfully preserved, 
was transferred upon David Nitschmann by Daniel Jablonski and 
Christian Sitkovius, the surviving bishops of the ancient succes- 
sion." Manual, 25. Zinzendorf became the second bishop, and 
under his aggressive leadership the body was officially recognized 
in Germany and England and began its far-flung mission en- 
deavor, organizing "religious communities governed by laws having 
for their object a total separation from the sinful follies of the 
world." Ib., 26. 

The missionary zeal prompted the Moravians to send a group 
of colonists to Savannah in 1734, where the two Wesleys became 
acquainted with the exclusive polity and pietistic tendencies of the 
Herrnhuters. At the same time a settlement was started at Phil- 
adelphia, at the invitation of George Whitefield, which was later 
transferred to Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Lititz, Pa. These colonies 
were semicommunistic and strictly observed the regulations con- 
cerning the division of the members according to age and stations 
into separate "choirs" under the supervision of one or more elders. 
The communities were exclusive, only Moravians being granted the 


right of residence. The Moravians immediately entered upon an 
aggressive missionary program, not for the expansion of their 
denomination, but solely for the conversion of men, which accounts 
for the negligible increase of the Moravians numerically. In 1843 
the American communities discontinued their exclusive policy and 
their peculiar ecclesiastical polity, while these features are con- 
tinued in Continental Europe to the present time. Manual, p. 44. 

309* The present Moravian Church has remained true to the 
ideals of the ancient Unitas in stressing both unionistic and 
pietistic tendencies. The Moravians do not accept creeds with 
binding force, but "in common with all Christendom adhere to 
the doctrines contained in the Apostles' Creed and further recog- 
nize that the chief doctrines of the Christian faith are clearly set 
forth in the first twenty-one articles of the Augsburg Confession," 
without in the least binding the consciences, "especially in those 
countries where the Augsburg Confession has not the same 
authority as in Germany/' Moravian Manual, p. 84. The Mo- 
ravian principle is "In essentials unity, in non-essentials liberty, 
in all things charity/' This principle permits them to seek "unity 
in variety/' and they believe that "the heart of the Gospel can be 
expressed in various forms," yes, 'that it is but natural that con- 
scientious Biblical interpretation will produce a variety of views." 
It is claimed that these divergent views are not necessarily con- 
tradictory nor confusing, if they are viewed as different rays of one 
and the same light. Eesolutions of 1909, quoted in Corpus Con- 
fessionum, s. v. Moravians, IV, 74. Moravians advocate unionism, 
believing that the peculiar mission of their Church is to effect 
a higher and living unity by unifying the divergent viewpoints 
among Christians as far as these can be traced to the Scriptures. 
Ib., p. 6. Therefore the Synodal Eesolutions heartily endorse the 
overtures of the Lambeth Conference which advocate the closer 
union of evangelical bodies without doctrinal unity. Ib., 71. Mo- 
ravians seek a "positive unity, i. e., the personal, mystical union, 
with Christ as the living force of Christianity and offer the hand 
of fellowship to every one who accepts this basis, though he may 
incline to the Lutheran or the Eeformed viewpoint" (ib., 6), be- 
lieving that "only one thing is needful, namely, to love our Lord 
in sincerity and to live to His glory." Sovocol in Bibliotheca Sacra, 
88, 452. With the evangelical churches Moravians accept the doc- 
trine of inspiration, the Trinity, the deity of Christ, the atonement, 
the resurrection, etc. Concerning the work of Christ they differ 


from Protestant churches in teaching that Christ is our High 
Priest only according to His human nature (Catechism, Qu. 40), 
and they deny the Holy Spirit's procession from the Son. Easter 
Morning Litany. 

310* But in spite of their avowed broad confessional position 
Moravians "will not tolerate any doctrine which is contrary to 
their conception of the summary of the Holy Scriptures" (Corpus 
Confessionum, 1. c., 28), and they have in fact committed them- 
selves very definitely to the Calvinistic theological system, except- 
ing the doctrine of predestination. The basic principle of the 
Herrnhuter is the one-sided emphasis placed upon personal and 
emotional piety. Zinzendorf had tried to popularize the Halle 
Pietism, and in this endeavor he was carried to such extremes that 
his mystical subjectivism became sickly and puerile. Though the 
Church later on was purged from this sentimental extravagance, 
the United Brethren are still definitely committed to the prin- 
ciple that "the aim of the Church is to constitute a living Church 
in which every individual is a true Christian." Catechism, 125. 
Synodal Eesults, 1914. Moravians believe that the peculiar pur- 
pose of their Church is to keep its members "in constant con- 
fidential intercourse with Christ . . . and to carry the new life of 
the regenerate child forward towards its maturity and its perfec- 
tion in eternity." Manual, 88 f. To foster "the continual intimate 
communion of the pardoned sinner with the Savior," Moravians 
stress the observance of disciplinary measures and the diligent use 
of spiritual exercises. "By the term discipline the Church under- 
stands a training of its members for their calling of grace." 
Manual, 111. While many of the specific commandments, rules, 
and ordinances, e. g., the choir system ; daily services ; the com- 
munal life to exclude all sinful follies; the Brethren's, Sisters', . 
and "Widows' Houses, under a spiritual superintendent, have been 
abrogated in all but the European "Continental Province" 
(Manual, 43 fL), yet "every church is bound to profess adherence 
to a printed code of regulations embodying its discipline" (Manual, 
115), i. e., rules and regulations governing the Christian life. 

311* While the Moravians stress the observance of rules in the 
interest of developing and accentuating pious and sentimental love 
of the Eedeemer, they, on the other hand, are Antinomian, reject- 
ing, in the final analysis, the preaching of the Law both to the 
unconverted sinners and to the Christians. They "make the 'bloody 
merit of Jesus' the beginning, middle, and end of their sermons, 


their hymns, their liturgy," etc. Corpus Confessionum, 1. c., 9. 
In other words, the preaching of Christ's death is said to work 
contrition, conversion, and sanctification ; and thus, with Agricola, 
they practically relegate the Law to the court-house and expect, 
to give only one example, their missionaries to convince the heathen 
of the damnableness of idolatry by proclaiming the bloody sacrifice 
of Jesus. Ib., 55. The omission of the Law from the teaching on 
Christian life is significant. This undue emphasis of the bloody 
merit of Christ, with the exclusion of the preaching of the Law, is 
called the Moravian "blood theology/' Cp. Guenther, 218. Fully 
in accord with this principle, Moravians define the "new birth" as 
a deep and thorough conviction of sin, as an earnest longing for 
grace and peace, and as laying hold of Christ's redemption by faith. 
Manual, 87. Faith is defined not only as trust in Christ's merit, 
but also as "a willing consecration to His service." Ib., 89. Such 
faith is said to be engendered when one does not resist the divine 
call addressed to him by the preaching of the death of Christ and 
the inner testimony of the Spirit, but is awakened to a sense of his 
misery and throws himself into the arms of the Savior. L. c., Sovo- 
col, 452. From this it is evident that Moravians embrace the Ar- 
minian view concerning free will, ascribing to unconverted man 
the ability not to resist, and reducing total depravity to a negative 
condition, namely, "that man has no strength to save himself" 
(Manual, 86), while Scripture teaches that natural man is spir- 
itually dead and an enemy of God. 

312* In order to stress the believer's mystical union with Christ, 
more specifically the atoning Savior, Moravians have abandoned 
the Lutheran view of the Sacraments and adopted what is prac- 
tically the Eeformed view, believing that infant baptism is not 
necessary as the Sacrament of initiation, 1 Cor. 7, 14, but is a 
public testimony that the child is to be reared in the nurture of 
the Lord. Corpus Conf., 22. The Lord's Supper is considered 
"an opportunity for self-examination and for renewing the union 
with the Lord." Ib. Moravians clearly manifest their Reformed 
principle by stating that sick-communion ought to be celebrated 
in the presence of some members of the congregation in order to 
express the idea that communion is a joint celebration (Gemein- 
schaftsmahl) . Ib. To confirm the believer's joy and love in the 
Savior, they overstress the importance of outward means, such as 
liturgically attractive services, the rite of confirmation, numerous 
festivals, special gatherings for the respective ages and classes of 


members, Bible classes, song services, love feasts, and especially the 
regular Sunday services. Ib. The Christian Sunday is said to be 
founded upon the completion of the first and the second creation, 
i. e., the resurrection of Christ, and therefore all distractions are 
proscribed on Sunday. Ib., 21. 

313+ The emphasis which Moravians have always placed upon 
emotional religion has made this Church rich in its liturgy and 
hymnody (e.g., James Montgomery). The sincerity of the Mo- 
ravians has made them pioneers in mission-work, has prompted 
them to insist upon a thorough religious training of the youth 
in the home and in parochial schools. The United Brethren have 
exerted a deep influence on other churches, notably the Methodists, 
and have acted as a leaven during the reign of gross rationalism. 

The church polity can be described as democratic, though the 
general supervision of the congregations rests with the provincial 
synods. Calling and installation of the ministers are in the hands 
of the Directing Board. Corpus Conf., 30. The Moravians claim 
to be the oldest Protestant Episcopal Church, tracing the episcopal 
succession to Matthias von Kumwald, in 1467. The bishops alone 
have the right of ordination, but otherwise their authority is 
limited. The congregations are in charge of deacons and pres- 
byters. The various mission endeavors are governed by the respec- 
tive provincial synods, of which there are two in America and one 
each in Germany and England. The general synod, with head- 
quarters in Herrnhut, deals with matters of faith and discipline 
and governs the foreign mission-work. 31,699 members. 

In addition to the Unitas Fratrum there are two small 
branches of Moravians, viz. : 

Evangelical Unity of Bohemian and Moravian Brethren 

in North America. 

314+ This body, comprising 5,241 members and confined to the 
State of Texas, "is a child of the old Unitas founded in Bohemia,. 
1457." (Eev. Hegar, Huss Memorial School, Temple, Tex.) The 
Edict of Toleration, 1781, granted religious liberty to Lutherans 
and Eeformed, but not to the Unitas. The Brethren became 
members of the tolerated churches or organized churches under the 
leadership of Lutheran or Eeformed ministers, at the same time 
retaining the distinctive features of the ancient Unitas. "The 
emigrants out of these two churches, the Lutheran and Eeformed 
churches in Czechoslovakia, have united again on the free soil of 


America on the foundation of the old Unity." Id. Their doctrinal 
position is "as close as possible to the old Unity and consequently 
very close to that of the Moravians." Id. 

The Bohemian and Moravian Brethren Churches. 

These Brethren, virtually one parish (303 members in three 
stations in Linn County, Iowa), claim the same origin as the 
Moravian Church. They recognize the Helvetic and the West- 
minster Confession and use the Heidelberg Catechism. Census 

Eeport, II, 1064. 


315* In the Established Church of England as well as in other 
state churches the spiritual life at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century was at low ebb. Earnest Christians felt this, and a re- 
action set in, one of the results of which was Methodism. In 1729 
several upright young men in Oxford, John (1703 1791) and 
Charles Wesley (17071788) and George Whitefield (171470), 
with others of like disposition, met regularly for the reading of the 
Scriptures, for prayer, and for mutual admonition to practise godli- 
ness. Because it was noticed that they strictly adhered to certain 
spiritual exercises, employing definite methods, as it were, in their 
effort to cultivate a true, God-pleasing Christianity, they were 
nicknamed "Methodists," a name which they did not repudiate. 
In spite of his enthusiastic devotion to the pursuit of piety John 
Wesley says that at this period of his life he was not converted, the 
true meaning of Jesus' work and of justification still being hidden 
from him. Mission-work in Georgia and contact there with the 
Moravians, while fruitful in some respects, did not bring him the 
peace of mind he sought. The great change, so he avers, came 
when in 1738, in a meeting of Moravians in London, he was listen- 
ing to the reading of Luther's Preface to the Epistle to the Eomans. 
There, at 8.45 in the evening, according to his account, he accepted 
Jesus as his own personal Savior and was converted. The three 
men mentioned were clergymen of the Church of England, and in 
this capacity they soon began an almost unparalleled activity. 
Because they soon were excluded from many Anglican churches on 
account of their peculiar doctrines, they commenced to hold services 
in the open air, and the crowds were immense. The movement 
they inaugurated, it must be remembered, was really going on in 
the Established Church, and there was no intention of founding 
a new denomination. But John Wesley's employment of lay 



preachers, the independent course taken by him in preaching in the 
open, and his erection of special churches aroused opposition in the 
Anglican Church, which ultimately forced the Methodists to or- 
ganize for themselves. In 1744 John and Charles Wesley and four 
other Anglican ministers, joined by four lay preachers, instituted 
the system of annual conferences, a step which helped to create 
denominational consciousness. When in 1784 John Wesley, having 
become convinced that "presbyter" and "bishop" are terms for the 
same office, ordained a superintendent, or bishop, and two pres- 
byters for the American Church, it became apparent that the breach 
with the Established Church had been effected, although Wesley 
himself to the end of his life claimed membership in the Anglican 
communion. Whitefield, as early as 1741, had separated from the 
Wesleys because he had become a Calvinist, while they championed 
Arminian views on predestination and conversion. The Calvinistic 
branch of Methodism, founded by Whitefield, has practically dis- 

The further development of Methodism in England, the chief 
feature of which in recent years was the merger, in 1932, of three 
Methodist bodies, we cannot here trace. In America it had repre- 
sentatives and adherents before the Eevolutionary War, of whom 
an Irish lay preacher by the name of Embury, who gathered a con- 
gregation in New York, is notable. After independence had been 
achieved, when many Anglican divines to whose parishes Meth- 
odists had largely belonged were leaving the country, and when 
great confusion obtained as to the administration of the Means of 
Grace, lay preachers, without proper call and without ordination 
presuming to administer the Sacraments, Wesley, as mentioned 
above, ordained a superintendent, or bishop, for the Church in 
America (Thomas Coke) and two ministers, or elders (presbyters). 
When Coke and his associates had come to America, a conference 
was held Christmas, 1784, at which his appointment was confirmed 
and another man, according to Wesley's direction, a prominent lay . 
preacher, Erancis Asbury, was elected and ordained as bishop, ar- 
ticles of religion and an order of worship were adopted, and a num- 
ber of ministers were ordained. Thus Methodism in the United 
States was successfully launched. The other chief events of its 
history will be told as we survey the rise and growth of the various 
Methodist bodies. The official confession of Methodism is the 
Twenty-five Articles, prepared by John Wesley, which are based 
on the Thirty-nine Articles of the Anglican Church. But inasmuch 


as this revision of the Thirty-nine. Articles consists chiefly in the 
omission of what was objectionable to Wesley, it is not truly repre- 
sentative of Methodist teaching. 

316, The peculiar tenets and practises of Methodism are set forth 
in Wesley's sermons, his Notes on the New Testament, and in the 
official publication entitled Doctrines and Discipline of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, issued by the bishops of this Church. 

Speaking of the distinctive features of Methodism, we may 
first mention that it professes the common Eeformed views, and 
next reiterate that the Wesley branch of it, which is practically 
the only one in existence, is Arminian in what it teaches on elec- 
tion, conversion, original sin, and the character of the message of 
Jesus. Cp. the chapter on Arminianism. It is true that in the 
Articles of Eeligion the teaching that the unconverted have a free 
will in spiritual things is rejected (Art. 8) ; but anybody who in- 
vestigates will find the Census Report to be correct, stating: "In 
theology the Methodist Episcopal Church is Arminian," and he 
will find, too, that what is here said of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church applies to all other Methodist bodies excepting the little 
group designated Calvinistic Methodists. In "Scripture Doctrine of 
Predestination, Election, and Reprobation" John Wesley unhesitat- 
ingly calls himself an Arminian, a defender of the free will. Meth- 
odism has been called "Arminianism on fire." Fisher, Hist, of 
Doctr., p. 342. In the Large Catechism for the German congre- 
gations of the Methodist Episcopal Church, by W. Nast, we read, 
p. 45 : "In spite of the inability to do good and the tendency to do 
evil found in natural man, there remains so much of the divine 
image in which man was created that in his heart he must approve 
of the divine Law and that he retains freedom of will to let himself 
be redeemed from sin by the proffered grace of God." H. C. Shel- 
don, himself a Methodist, in his History of Christian Doctrine says : 
"Methodism appears on the whole as an advocate and propagandist 
of Arminianism." 

We must particularly draw attention to the emphasis of Meth- 
odism on holiness, or saiictification. Being the outgrowth of a 
revulsion against laxity of the professed Christians, not in doctrine, 
but in morals, naturally a holy life was stressed, and unfortunately 
soundness in doctrine was treated as of minor importance, a one- 
sided course which has led to disastrous results, the large Meth- 
odist bodies having become hot-beds of Modernism. In teaching 
holiness, Methodists say they are not speaking of "an absolute and 



sinless perfection/' but of "freedom from sin, from evil desires and 
evil tempers, and from pride," the implication being that the one 
who is sanctified no longer sins consciously. Evidently this posi- 
tion confuses justification, through which we are declared entirely 
free from sin, and sanctification, the striving after personal holi- 
ness, which remains imperfect in this life. That the critics of 
Methodism are not unjustly charging it with teaching perfec- 
tionism appears from Qu. 126 of the Standard Catechism of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, which, in speaking of entire sanctifi- 
cation, or Christian perfection, says : "The inward conflict between 
flesh and spirit is finally overcome, so that duty becomes privilege 
and God's child loves Him with all his heart and mind and soul 
and strength, and his neighbor as himself." See 371* 372. 

To attain this perfection, methods are employed which, though 
not wrong in themselves, become a legalistic yoke because com- 
pliance with them is prescribed as a duty. Thus, where the rules 
are followed, each congregation is divided into classes of about 
twelve persons,- with a leader for each, who has to see each person 
in his class once a week at least and report equally often to the 
minister and the steward of the congregation. Among the or- 
dinances of God which all are expected to observe "fasting, or 
abstinence," is listed. Cp. Doctrine and Discipline, 28 if. Cp. also 
61. "When the qualifications of pastors are discussed, prayer and 
fasting and Christian conference are mentioned among the in- 
stituted Means of Grace. Ib., 134. 

317* As is well known, Methodists, as a rule, cultivate a highly 
emotional type of religion, to bring about conversion and entire 
sanctification, by urging that every one should strive to feel the 
iuitness or the indwelling of the Spirit in his heart. They are 
representatives of an unsound "enthusiasm" in religion. Where 
that feeling is present, the individual is said to have the assurance 
of being justified and a child of God. The Methodist Catechism 
says, Qu. 121: "What is the witness of the Spirit? It is the 
divinely wrought conviction, by the direct operation of the Holy 
Spirit, that I am a child of God." Let the reader observe that it 
is the immediate operation of the Spirit to which this witness is 
ascribed. The objective divine assurance or testimony placed be- 
fore us in the Scriptures and apprehended by faith is dethroned, 
and in its place is put something entirely subjective, a feeling in 
man himself which has no more stability than feelings generally 
have. The high-pressure methods of the revivalist or exhorter, 


aided by the urgings of excited friends and the singing of senti- 
mental hymns, produce it, and with the cessation of these powerful 
efforts it is likely to depart. 

Christ is distinctly viewed as a new lawgiver. In their cate- 
chism the Methodists state that Jesus adds something to the Ten 
Commandments, supplementing them by provisions based on the 
law of love (cf. 3, p. 65 f.). 

On repentance the Standard Catechism of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church says, Qu. 116: "What is repentance? Kepen- 
tance is the turning from sin to G-od, the surrender of every prin- 
ciple and motive of conduct that is contrary to the law of love and 
the welfare of the kingdom of God." 

318* That the Methodists have many rules which they emphasize 
can be seen from their official publication Doctrines and Discipline 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 130 ff. There we read, 
133 : "The Means of Grace are either instituted or prudential." 
Of the prudential means 133 ff. say : "Prudential means we 
may use either as Christians, as Methodists, or as preachers. 1. As 
Christians: What particular rules have you in order to grow in 
grace? What fruits of holy living? 2. As Methodists: Do you 
ever miss your class ? 3. As preachers : Have you thoroughly con- 
sidered your duty, and do you make a conscience of executing 
every part of it ? Do you meet every society and their leaders ? 
These means may be used without fruit ; but there are some means 
which cannot, namely : watching, denying ourselves, taking up our 
cross, exercise of the presence of God. 1. Do you steadily watch 
against the world? Yourself? Your besetting sin? 2. Do you 
deny yourself every useless pleasure of sense? Imagination? 
Honor? Are you temperate in all things? For instance, 1. Do 
you use only that kind and that degree of food which is best both 
for body and soul ? Do you see the necessity for this ? Do you eat 
no more at each meal than is necessary? Are you not heavy or 
drowsy after dinner ? 2. Do you use only that kind and that degree 
of drink which is best both for your body and soul ? Do you choose 
and use water for your common drink and only take wine medic- 
inally or sacramentally ? 3. Wherein do you take up your cross 
daily? Do you cheerfully bear your cross, however grievous to 
nature, as a gift of God and labor to profit thereby? 4. Do you 
endeavor to set God always before you? to see His eye continually 
fixed upon you ? Never can you use these means but a blessing 
will ensue. And the more you use them, the more you will grow 
in grace." 


On the commandment "Remember the Sabbath-d.ay to keep it 
holy" the Standard Catechism of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
declares, Qu. 35 : "What does this commandment teach us ? To do 
with our might what our hands find to do in our earthly calling 
during six days of the week. To refrain from all labor, save works 
of necessity and mercy, on the day set apart for rest and worship 
and on this day to impose no unnecessary burdens upon those in 
our employment or under our control/' 

The legalistic tendency of Methodism, instances of which have 
been noted above, receives further illustration when we read that 
for its pastors any use of tobacco is put on the list of prohibited 
things. Cf. Doctrines and Discipline, 160 and 333. Here we 
may mention, too, the division of members into probationers, or 
preparatory members, and full members. The period of probation, 
or preparation, formerly had to last at least six months; now its 
length is indefinite. 

On the Sacraments chap. XVI of the Articles of Religion con- 
tains a paragraph which is Scriptural as far as it goes : "Sacra- 
ments ordained of Christ are not only badges, or tokens, of 
Christian men's profession, but rather they are certain signs of 
grace and God's good will toward us, by the which He doth work 
invisibly in us and doth not only quicken, but also strengthen and 
confirm our faith in Him." Unfortunately the Scriptural position 
is forsaken when Baptism and the Lord's Supper are discussed. 
Cp. 260. 

On Baptism chap. XVII of the Articles of Eeligion declares : 
"Baptism is not only a sign of profession and mark of difference 
whereby Christians are distinguished from others that are not bap- 
tized, but it is also a sign of regeneration, or the new birth." 

On the Lord's Supper the Articles just referred to say, chap. 
XVIII: "The body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten in the 
Supper only after a heavenly and spiritual manner. And the 
means whereby the body of Christ is received and eaten in the 
Supper is faith." 

On the Church the Methodist Articles of Religion state, chap. 
XIII : "The visible Church of Christ is a congregation of faithful 
men in which the pure Word of God is preached and the Sacra- 
ments duly administered according to Christ's ordinance in all 
those things that of necessity are requisite to the same." Lu- 
therans define the visible Church as a body of believers, among 
whom there are hypocrites. We note that the last part of the 
definition is omitted by the Methodists. 


On the call to the office of the holy ministry, the larger cate- 
chism of the Methodists drawn up for the German congregations 
says, p. 109 : "What is the divine call to the ministry ? It is an act 
of the Holy Spirit which inwardly impels a regenerate person to 
enter the ministry of the Gospel." 

With the Methodists excommunication does not rest with the 
local congregation, but with a committee, which is thus described 
in Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
341: "The accused member shall be brought to trial before a 
committee of not less than five members of the church. They shall 
be chosen by the preacher in charge, and if he judge it necessary, 
he may select them from any part of the district. The accused 
may challenge for cause. The preacher in charge shall preside at 
the trial." 342 says : "If the accused person be found guilty by 
the decision of a majority of the committee, the preacher in charge 
shall then and there pronounce the sentence of expulsion." 

That the Methodists, like so many other church-bodies, do not 
carefully distinguish between the functions of the Church and the 
State is notorious and has, especially through the activities of 
Bishop Cannon in Washington and through its Coinittee on Morals 
(prohibition, Anti-Saloon League), brought down much well- 
deserved criticism on their Church. 

Quite peculiar is the gradation of the clergy and their as- 
sistants in Methodist churches: pastor (elder), deacon, local 
preacher (lay preacher), exhorter. On the question of polity there 
have been several separations. Three systems are represented : 
the episcopal, the conference, and the congregational system. We 
simply divide all Methodists into Episcopal and non-Episcopal 


Episcopal Methodist Bodies. 

ing with the mother Church of Methodism in America, the Church 
of Coke and Asbury. Growing quickly, it experienced a secession 
when, in 1793, James O'Kelly of Virginia and a number of others, 
dissatisfied with the powers of the bishops, left and founded a body 
called Eepublican Methodists, later on developing into the so-called 
Christian Church. Another secession, due to opposition to the 
episcopate, resulted in the formation of the Methodist Protestant 
Church, in 1830. A rupture of major proportions occurred when, 
in 1845, owing to disagreement on the slavery question, the 
Southern Methodists withdrew. In 1860 a number of members 


separated and organized the Free Methodist Church,, which will 
be described below. 

In order that its affairs may be properly administered, the 
Church is divided into districts, each one of which is, by the 
bishops, placed in temporary charge of a superintendent (presiding 
elder). The bishops (general superintendents) are the overseers 
of the whole Church. The rights of the congregations are curtailed 
by giving the bishops the right to place the ministers. There are 
quarterly, district, mission, annual, and general conferences. The 
highest legislative and judicial body is the General Conference, 
meeting every four years, which is composed of ministerial and lay 
delegates in equal number. It is, then, evident that the polity of 
this church-body is not purely episcopal, but can be so described 
in a limited sense only. Pastors, according to the rule adopted 
1804, were not permitted to remain with one church longer than 
two, next, after a change of the rule, three, and ultimately five 
years. While this rule now has been rescinded and a pastor may 
stay with a given church indefinitely, annual reappointment by the 
bishop is required in such a case. In matters of ritual much 
freedom is granted, though this body has a liturgy modeled after 
that of the Anglican Church. "Characteristic services are the 
love-feasts, regarded as reviving the agape of the primitive Church, 
at which all present partake of bread and water while engaged in 
religious conference and testimony, and the watch-night service 
at the close of the old and the beginning of the new year." Census 

Statistics (1931) : 4,019,919 members. 

Bishop James 0. Andrew of Georgia through inheritance and mar- 
riage became a slaveholder and the laws of Georgia did not make it 
possible for him to free his slaves, a step which the Methodist 
church law prescribed if it could be taken, there was no reason 
of charging him with unfaithfulness toward the regulations of the 
Church. The opponents of slavery in the Northern wing of Meth- 
odism, however, objected to his functioning as bishop and at the 
General Conference succeeded in bringing about the adoption of 
a resolution which represented their view. The result was that 
in 1845 the members of the Methodist Episcopal Church who lived 
in the Southern States formed an organization of their own. In 
spite of strong attempts to reunite the two large wings of Meth- 
odism, this has not yet been accomplished. 



Statistics (1931) : 2,603,095 members. 

was the founder of this large colored body, the organization taking 
place in 1816 in Philadelphia. Its origin was not due to doctrinal 
differences with the parent body, the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
but to the race question. 545,814 members (1926). 

This is a small colored body which separated from the African 
Methodist Episcopal Church on questions of administration. 1,003 

in New York in 1820 on account of the humiliating treatment ac- 
corded Negroes in the white churches, this body grew rapidly in 
the South after the Civil War. In its teachings it conforms to the 
large Methodist bodies. 456,813 members (1926). 

matters, but practical considerations made it appear desirable to 
these people, originally belonging to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South, to form their own organization. This was done in 
1870. 202,713 members (1926). 

founded as early as 1813, in Wilmington, Delaware, this body of 
colored Methodists has remained small. Nothing particularly 
distinctive is to be reported concerning it. 10,169 members (1926). 

ored body, founded in 1869 at Boydton, Va. 4,538 members 


Non-Episcopal Bodies. 

321* METHODIST PROTESTANT CHURCH. After others had be- 
fore them revolted against the appointive power of the bishops 
with respect to the clergy and had insisted on lay representation 
in the conferences, the people who founded this body withdrew 
from the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1830 and formed their 
own organization, having no bishops and presiding elders or dis- 
trict superintendents. Though not in polity, in doctrine they agree 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church. Their own church govern- 
ment is presbyterian. Their theological school is Westminster Theo- 
logical Seminary, Westminster, Md. 

Statistics (1926) : 192,171 members. 

founded in Georgia in 1852, when in certain quarters people were 


dissatisfied with the polity of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South, to which they belonged. Although congregational in polity, 
it has the usual Methodist system of conferences. 9,691 members 

product of a movement which was antislavery and which would 
not brook ecclesiastical interference with the free promulgation 
of abolitionist sentiment, this body was founded in 1843 in 
Utica, N. Y. What was termed a republican form of government, 
in which the laity had equal rights with the ministry, was in- 
stituted, and three special stipulations as to membership were 
accepted: 1. No member was allowed to have slaves or to abet 
slavery. 2. Every member was put under prohibition with respect 
to the use or manufacture of intoxicants 3. No member was per- 
mitted to belong to secret societies. The doctrine of entire sanc- 
tification is stressed in this body. 

Statistics (1926) : 21,910 members. 

FREE METHODISTS. A number of Methodists who felt con- 
vinced that worldliness, a strong ecclesiastical machinery, tolera- 
tion of slavery, and membership in secret societies were doing great 
harm to true Methodism withdrew from the Methodist Episcopal 
Church and at Pekin, 1ST. Y., in 1860, founded the body bearing 
the name given above. Their superintendents, corresponding some- 
what to the bishops in the Methodist Episcopal churches, are elected 
for a term of four years. In the conferences laymen have the same 
representation as ministers. They stress entire sanctification. 
Other features are the insistence that the members do not use or 
manufacture intoxicants and the exclusion of instrumental music 
and choir singing from the churches. 

Statistics (1926) : 36,374 members. 

PRIMITIVE METHODISTS. Called at first Camp-meeting 
Methodists in England, the founders of this body, having emigrated 
to America in the first half of the last century, here organized 
churches like those they had left in their native country. This 
branch of Methodism has no bishops or presiding elders. In it 
pastors may serve a congregation for an indefinite number of years, 
which means that a pastor may be reelected again and again, be- 
cause every year there has to be an election for pastor. The annual 
conference has the right to refuse ratification of the choice of the 
congregation if "grave reasons" dictate such a course. These 
people are known for their noisy and passionate preaching, which 


brought upon them the nickname Ranters. 11,990 members 

KEFORMED METHODISTS. These people separated from the 
main body of Methodists in 1814 because they did not agree with 
the majority as to church government. Many of them have joined 
the Wesleyan Connection or other groups. 390 members (1926). 


which separated from the Methodist Episcopal Church South in 
1881 and which is opposed to the episcopacy, granting its churches 
the right to elect each its own officers annually. 1,229 members 

in 1866 by the uniting of several organizations, this colored body, 
according to the census of 1926, has a membership of 4,086. In 
polity it agrees with the Methodist Protestant Church. 

body, credited in the census of 1926 with three churches and 535 

colored body, founded 1905 in Arkansas, whose teachings and 
church government are like those of the Methodist churches ex- 
cepting that there are no bishops. But the pastor who is chosen 
to preside over the denomination makes "all appointments to offices 
in the Church as well as to pastorates." The laymen share in the 
work of the local church and in that of the General Assembly. 
187 members. 

HOLINESS METHODIST CHURCHES. Having arisen since 1900 
in North Carolina, these churches, while using the name Meth- 
odists, do not affiliate with other Methodist churches. In 1931 
they were credited with 467 members. Another name for them 
is Lurnbee Eiver Mission. 


322* The histoiy, doctrine, and polity of the United Brethren 
(not to be confused with the Unitas Fratrum) are closely related 
to Methodism. Its founder and leading theologian, Philipp Wil- 
liam Otterbein (1726 1814), had been trained for the Eeforrned 
ministry in Germany and came to America in 1752 to minister to 
the spiritually neglected and scattered Germans of Eeformed 
antecedents, settling first at Lancaster, Pa. About 1754 Otterbein 



claimed to have had a deep religious experience, and he strenuously 
opposed the "educational religion" (book-religion) of his denomi- 
nation. His doctrinal principle of "the assurance of personal 
salvation/' similar to Wesley's "second experience" or the pietistic 
tendencies as advocated by Albrecht (Ev. Association) in this 
country or the Moravian subjectivism,, and his revival meetings, 
protracted prayer-meetings, love-feasts, and the class system 
aroused the opposition of his coreligionists. Drury, History of the 
United Brethren, 174 ff. American Church History Series, XII, 
2. 3. About this time he and the Mennonite preacher Martin 
Boehm (1725 1813), who also preached "experimental religion," 
began to conduct revival meetings among the Germans in Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland, and Yirginia. In 1774 Otterbein accepted 
a call to an independent German congregation at Baltimore, and in 
1789 a conference of several ministers, formerly lay workers under 
Otterbein, took place, and in 1800 a definite organization was 
formed with Otterbein and Boehm as the bishops. Since a number 
of divergent theological tendencies, e. g., the Eeformed, Lutheran, 
Mennonite, and Dunkard, were represented, it was necessary to 
adopt a unionistic confession. The theology was Arminian, and the 
church polity of the new organization was strictly Methodistic. 
Though the most fraternal relations existed between the United 
Brethren and the Methodists, the language question was one of 
the reasons why an amalgamation of the two bodies did not take 
place. Cp. 324+ 341+ The theology of the United Brethren is es- 
sentially that of Methodism. With the exception of one controversy 
concerning man's depravity, their general conferences were con- 
cerned with questions of discipline. In 1889 the article forbidding 
"connection with secret combinations" was modified to apply to 
those secret combinations "which infringe upon the rights of those 
outside their organization and whose principles and practises are 
injurious to the Christian character of their members." Since 
this was interpreted as permitting membership in fraternal and 
benevolent orders, a protesting minority withdrew and became 
known as Old Constitution Brethren. 

323+ 1. THE CHURCH OP THE UNITED BRETHREN has laid down 
its doctrines in thirteen articles in the "Confession of Faith." 
(Book of Discipline; cp. also J. Weaver, A Practical Comment on 
the Confession of Faith.) With all evangelical Christians this 
confession professes the fundamental Christian doctrines. Con- 
cerning the doctrine of man the United Brethren are Arminians. 


After a long controversy the conference of 1853 defined depravity 
as "absence of holiness, which unfits man for heaven, but does not 
involve guilt." Berger, History of U. B., 306. Hence the phrase 
"Man is fallen from original righteousness/' Art. VIII, is not used 
in the Scriptural sense. With the Eeformed bodies they over- 
emphasize the visible side of the Church, and with the Methodists 
they recognize only the "inner call." They emphasize the doc- 
trine of sanctification as "the work of God's grace by which those 
who have been born again are separated in their acts, words, and 
thoughts from sin." Art. XI. With the Methodists they believe 
that the desire to sin is removed. Cp. Weaver, 1. c., 147 f . The 
Christian Sabbath is said to be divinely appointed. Art. XII. The 
power of the Sacraments as Means of Grace is denied, the mode of 
baptism and the manner of celebrating the Lord's Supper as also 
the baptism of children and the "example of the washing of feet" 
are left to the judgment of the individual. 

The United Brethren, in emphasizing a life of prayer and 
devotion to Christ, have resorted to legalistic measures and have 
adopted definite rules and regulations governing the conduct of 
their members. The class system is employed to keep a watchful 
eye on the members, and "in cases of neglect of duty of any kind 
or disobedience to the order and discipline of the Church, admoni- 
tion and, if necessary, expulsion is to take place." Discipline, 
16 25. Intoxicating drinks, slave-holding, are strictly forbidden; 
the use of tobacco is discountenanced ; social and political reforms, 
such as abolition of child labor, and the temperance movement, 
have played a prominent part in the church activities. 

The church polity is quasi-episcopal, the "stationing" com- 
mittee, composed of the bishop and the conference superintendents, 
supplying the charges with pastors. The General Conference is the 
court of highest appeal. Women may be licensed to preach. 
377,436 members. 

do not differ from the main body doctrinally, but only in matters 
of discipline, particularly concerning the lodge question. Cf. above. 
Their doctrine and discipline is contained in Constitution and Dis- 
cipline, 1929. 17,872 members. 

3. THE UNITED CHRISTIAN CHURCH, numbering 577 mem- 
bers, broke away from the main body on account of questions re- 
lating to infant baptism, voluntary bearing of arms, and reception 
of members in oath-bound societies. 



(Not to be confounded with the Evangelical Synod.) 
324. Founded by Jacob Albright (Albrecht, 17591808), who, 
originally a Lutheran, had turned Methodist, this body is con- 
sidered one of the branches of Methodism. After his "conver- 
sion" Albright, in 1796, began to preach among the German people 
of Eastern Pennsylvania. Entertaining the view that the German 
language would not survive long, the Methodist authorities would 
not grant him permission to found German Methodist congrega- 
tions. On account of this he independently took up German re- 
ligious work and ultimately founded a new church-body in 1803. 
His adherents were called Albright People or Brethren (Albrechts- 
leute, Albrechtsbrueder) or German Methodists. The name which 
they themselves chose for their body was Evangelical Association 
(Evangelische Gemeinschaft). Within recent years this name has 
been changed to Evangelical Church. First their work was done 
in the German language only. At present, however, it is carried 
on in a number of languages, English being dominant. In 1807, 
when an organization had been effected, Albright was elected 
bishop; he died the following year. In general the body was 
modeled after the Methodist Episcopal Church; the circuit system 
and the itinerant ministry were adopted. This organization 
manifests great missionary zeal and has spread in our own and in 
foreign countries. A schism occurred in 1891, when a number 
of churches withdrew and a few years afterwards founded the 
United Evangelical Church. This breach was partly healed in 
1922, when the latter body merged with the Evangelical Church, 
certain groups, however, remaining apart. 

The doctrine of the Evangelical Church is that of the Meth- 
odists: it is Arminian, and perfectionism is a prominent feature. 

In the catechism of this denomination, Qu. 206, we read : 
"The Holy Spirit reproves the world of sin in order to arouse 
people to repentance, and He bestows on all who do not resist the 
ability of converting themselves." (Synergism.) In their Articles 
of Faith they say that Christian perfection is a state in which sin 
has lost its power over us and we rule over the flesh, the world, 
and Satan, yet in watchfulness. Chap. 3. 

On good works their catechism declares, Qu. 317: "What 
must be our view of good works? They are the effects and fruits 
of true faith and of the gracious work of the Holy Spirit in our 
hearts, having no meritoriousness, but being necessary for sal- 


Speaking of the visible Church, the Articles of Faith declare : 
"The visible Church of Christ is the communion of the true be- 
lievers." In the same confession, p. 36 ff., they lay down a number 
of regulations concerning dress and forbid their members to 
manufacture, to sell, or to use intoxicating liquor and to own 
slaves. According to their teaching the decrees of the Church are 
binding by divine right. Ib., p. 83 f . Infant baptism is not 
universally practised. If a person baptized in infancy earnestly 
desires rebaptism, this may be granted him. (Decision of the Gen- 
eral Conference in 1839.) 

Like the other Eeformed bodies, these people deny the efficacy 
of Baptism and the real presence of our Lord in the Eucharist. 
On Baptism their Articles of Faith declare, Art. XV : "Baptism 
is not only a sign whereby we profess ourselves Christians, a sign 
whereby Christians are distinguished from the unbaptized and 
obligate themselves to perform all Christian duties, but it is also 
a symbol of the washing that has taken place inwardly, regenera- 
tion, or the new birth." As to the Real Presence their Articles of 
Faith, p. 19 f., say that the eating and drinking of Christ's body 
and blood is of a spiritual, heavenly nature and is performed by 
means of faith. Their polity is of the type which is characteristic 
of Methodism. There is a General Conference, meeting quadren- 
nially, an annual, and a quarterly conference. Pastors are ap- 
pointed annually by the bishop and the presiding elders; through 
reappointment a pastor may serve a parish seven consecutive years. 
The bishops serve four years. Excommunication is performed not 
by the congregation, but by a committee consisting of the bishop, 
the presiding elder, and select members of the local church. This 
body has theological seminaries at Naperville, 111., and at Read- 
ing, Pa. 203,764 members. 

the Evangelical Church and the United Evangelical Church 
merged, a party in the latter remained aloof and, organizing 
separately, adopted the name given above. Their standing apart 
is due to the difference in views on church polity, indicated by the 
adjective "congregational.-" 20,449 members. 


325* Since this church-body has now united with the Congrega- 
tionalists (cp. 289), it might have been treated where the latter 
denomination was discussed; but historical considerations and the 


fact that its former still call themselves by the old name, 
continuing their old teachings and policies, the congregations being 
autonomous, make it advisable to insert a special chapter on it. 
Cp. 335. 

The beginnings of this denomination take us back to the year 
1793,, when Eev. James O'Kelley, a Methodist minister of Virginia, 
dissatisfied with the extent of the authority and power accorded the 
Methodist bishops, together with a number of other pastors, left 
the parent organization and established a new Church. Cp. 319. 
Having first called themselves Eepublican Methodists, they soon 
adopted the title "Christians." Not long afterwards, under the 
leadership of Abner Jones, a secession occurred in the Baptist 
circles of Vermont, the new organization likewise calling itself 
"Christian." A few years later, in 1804, we find Barton "W. Stone 
of Kentucky at the head of a similar movement among the Pres- 
byterians of his neighborhood, and by his group, too, the name 
"Christian" was chosen. While these three movements arose in- 
dependently of each other, the prime movers of each agreed in de- 
claring the Bible to be their only platform and Christian character 
the only test of church-membership. By and by these three streams 
united. The cause suffered a blow when Rev. Stone and more than 
fifty churches joined the Disciples, who were led by A. Campbell. 
A breach caused by the slavery question in 1854 was again healed 
in 1890. In 1931 this denomination joined hands with the Con- 
gregationalists, the united bodies taking the title "General Council 
of the Congregational and Christian Churches." We have to add 
that from 1906 on this denomination was known as the Christian 
Church (American Christian Convention) and that in the census 
of 1926 it was listed as "Christian Church (General Convention 
of the Christian Church)." Here and there these people have been 
called New Lights by their opponents. 

326* The Christians reject creeds and declare the Bible to be 
their sole platform a meaningless course, since all other denomi- 
nations are professing the same allegiance to the Bible. In 1924 
their Commission on Christian Unity, addressing twenty-four de- 
nominations with a view to union with them, declared : "The basis 
of union shall exclude all man-made exactions and interpretations, 
which have never been otherwise than both arrogant and divisive. 
It shall derive its government, always to be democratic, from the 
people composing it. ... No test of faith shall be established other 
than the acceptance of Jesus Christ as Savior and the Word of God 


as a standard for the conduct of life and the guide of the Church. 
. . . The designation of this body of believers shall be Scriptural, 
instead of being derived from some feature of ecclesiastical prac- 
tise." Dr. Burnett, as spokesman of the Christian Church, writes 
(pamphlet on Eev. Abner Jones, p. 24) : "Why, I ask, denounce 
two men of equally good character, but who chance to see truth 
from different angles and within different limitations? We must 
know men by their fruits, but their fruitage must be in service and 
not in doctrine. Christian character is in life, not in doctrine; 
in service, not in commandments; in heart, not in intellect; in 
love, not in syllogisms." After such statements we are not sur- 
prised to hear that these people do not teach the doctrine of the 
Holy Trinity, this term not occurring in the Bible ; which explains 
why they have been called Unitarian Baptists. In fact, one of their 
leaders, McKinney, openly rejects the doctrine of the Trinity 
(Positive Theology, p. 196 f.). He says that belief in a Triune 
God militates against sound reason. In the same work, p. 241, he 
does not hesitate to speak of the eternal generation of the Son as 
an "obvious absurdity." He denies that Jesus Christ is the infinite 
Jehovah. Ib., p. 231. While they officially assert that they follow 
nothing but the Bible, the same representative unhesitatingly 
avows that their teachings are based on "reason and revelation." 
Ib., p. 195 f. They hold that baptism should not be neglected. 
While the majority of them practise immersion, baptism through 
sprinkling is likewise recognized. The only test for fellowship is 
Christian character. Cp. The Origin and Principles of the Chris- 
tians, by J. P. Burnett, p. 3. One of their boasts is that they were 
the first denomination to restore open communion. Ib., p. 43. 
Naturally the greatest latitude as to doctrine is granted. In their 
polity they are congregational. The ministerial office in their 
midst is open to women. 97,706 members. 


327* Several views strongly urged at the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century led to the founding of this large body. Briefly 
stated, they were these: that the many divisions, which are such 
a marked characteristic of the visible Christian Church, are con- 
trary to God's will ; that the insistence on human creeds is largely 
responsible for this divided state of the Church; that the inspired 
New Testament, instead of human creeds, should be made the rule 
of doctrine and life ; that a hurtful factor in a denomination is the 


centralization of power at the expense of the rights and privileges 
of the local congregations. 

Here truth and error are mingled. While it is true that the 
divisions in the Church are contrary to God's will and that no 
superchurch may despoil the local congregations of their rights 
and privileges, it is not true that the insistence on creeds which 
are taken from Scripture is responsible for the divided state of the 
Church. Though the Bible is the sole rule of doctrine and life, 
creeds are necessary in order to bring out what the Church believes 
over against current errors. In Kentucky opinions of this kind 
were spread by Eev. Barton W. Stone ; in Western Pennsylvania, 
by Eev. Thomas Campbell and his son Eev. Alexander Campbell, 
all three being Presbyterian ministers, who at first did not wish to 
form a new denomination. Soon the Campbells approached the 
position of the Baptists by rejecting infant baptism and accepting 
immersion as the proper mode of performing this Sacrament. 
Stone likewise began to accept Baptist views, and in 1832 Alex- 
ander Campbell and his followers and Stone and his adherents 
entered into fellowship with each other. Not all the followers of 
Stone, however, were willing to participate in this union; a num- 
ber of them remained separated and helped to constitute the so- 
called Christian Church. Cp. 325, As to the name for the new 
denomination, Stone preferred the title "Christians," while Camp- 
bell gave the preference to "Disciples." The result was that both 
names were used, which is still the case, though the term "Dis- 
ciples" seems to be gaining in favor. It became evident that 
A. Campbell was the great theological leader of the body, ready 
to cross swords in religious debate with any comer, and after him 
the members were nicknamed Campbellites. The Church grew 
enormously, especially in the Middle West, for instance, in Ken- 
tucky, Indiana, and Missouri. Toward the end of the nineteenth 
century two parties developed in this antiparty denomination, the 
progressives and the conservatives, the latter stressing the old an- 
tipathy to ecclesiastical organization and objecting, furthermore, to 
the use of instrumental music in the church. These latter are 
now referred to as Churches of Christ. The Disciples have been 
very active in conducting evangelistic campaigns. It is said that 
in 1925 they added 90,000 new members to their lists. Their 
educational and foreign mission endeavors are very considerable. 
At several State universities they have established "Bible chairs." 


328+ In point of doctrine the Disciples agree with the Baptists 
in the insistence of the latter on immersion and the rejection of 
infant baptism. What is perhaps most characteristic of them is 
their opposition to man-made creeds. "The Disciples" so says 
one of their writers, B. A. Abbott, in The Disciples, p. 55 "\have 
no written authoritative statement of doctrine." They have 
"always held to the New Testament as a sufficiently simple and 
clear statement of the contents of a Christian's privilege and duty." 
Ib., p. 57. How little, however, they succeeded in steering a creed- 
less course is shown by the books which they publish setting forth 
their position, it being evident that they themselves feel the neces- 
sity of telling the world how they interpret the New Testament, 
the book accepted by all Christians. What renders their whole 
plan utopian is the circumstance that too many people, professing 
obedience to the New Testament, will not accept it in its true, 
native sense; hence creeds are necessary. We find that the Dis- 
ciples put the Old Testament on a lower level than the New. 
Abbott declares, op. cit., p. 62 : "Christianity's supreme and 
authoritative statement is in the New Testament. We say the 
New Testament because all that is permanent and universal in the 
Old Testament has been brought over into the New Testament and 
expressed in a more spiritual form through the life of Christ." 
In judging of the teachings of the Scriptures, reason by them is 
regarded as one of our guides. "Sense is his [that is, man's] guide 
in nature, faith in religion, reason in both." A. Campbell, The 
Christian System, 6. Ed., p. 3. In their opposition to human creeds 
they object to the terminology which in the course of time has been 
adopted by the Church to safeguard its beliefs over against errors. 
A. Campbell mentions as terms of this kind "Holy Trinity," 
"three Persons of one substance, power, and eternity," "original 
sin," "total depravity," "to satisfy divine justice," and many 
others. And after submitting this list, he writes : "Concerning 
these and all such doctrines, and all the speculations to which 
they give rise, we have the privilege neither to affirm nor deny, 
neither believe nor doubt, because God has not proposed them to 
us in His Word and there is no command to believe them. . . . We 
choose to speak of Bible things by Bible words." Ib., p. 103. There 
is here an unwarranted insistence on something the Bible itself 
does not command or urge the rule that none but Biblical terms 
should be used in our statements of Christian doctrine. See 11+ 


329* When the doctrine of the Trinity is discussed, A. Campbell, 
it is true, is not in sympathy with those who deny "the true and 
proper divinity of the Son of God and of the Spirit of God" 
(op. cit., p. 8), but the only confession which his Church demands 
from applicants for membership, "that Jesus is the Christ, the 
Son of the living God," has notoriously been so emptied of its 
Biblical meaning by Unitarians that they, too, are able to sub- 
scribe to it. And hence it is not surprising to read that Unitarians 
have been given membership in the denomination of the Disciples. 
Cp. Klotsche, Christian Symbolics, p. 347. When the person of 
Christ in the state of humiliation is considered, His possession of 
divine majesty is denied by A. Campbell, saying that the Son 
" 'divested himself of His antecedent glory." Op. cit., p. 129. It 
is quite striking that Alexander Campbell, when alluding to the 
Holy Spirit, often uses the pronoun "it." Cp., e. g., op. cit., p. 48. 

330* As to man's natural state this theologian says (op. cit., 
p. 15) : "Man with all his hereditary imbecility is not under an 
invincible necessity to sin. Greatly prone to evil, easily seduced 
into transgression, he may or may not yield to passion and seduc- 
tion. Hence the differences we so often discover in the corruption 
and depravity of man. All inherit a fallen, consequently a sinful, 
nature, though all are not equally depraved. Thus we find the 
degrees of sinfulness and depravit}^ are very different in different 
persons." Here both the doctrine of original sin is denied, and the 
errors that man has a free will in spiritual things and that uncon- 
verted man can do good works are taught. Of children the same 
author and teacher declares (op. cit., p. 15) : "They are thus in- 
nocent, though they be as respects actual and personal transgres- 
sion accounted as sinners by Him who inflicts upon them the 
peculiar and appropriate wages of sin." Just as in these matters 
Arminian views are held by Campbell and his followers, so in the 
doctrine of election. Speaking of this great doctrine, Campbell 
remarks: "God is not indeed in this whole affair a respecter of 
persons. It is at character and not at person that God looks." 
Ib., p. 19. In other words, he teaches an election in view of man's 
good conduct. In strong language he denounces the teaching that 
the Holy Spirit without the cooperation of ourselves creates new 
life in us, man not helping, but resisting till his heart has been 
changed. Cp. The Christian System, p. 239 f. He openly speaks 
of three things which we must do for ourselves faith, repen- 
tance, baptism (immersion). Ib., p. 47. 


33 1 The doctrine of justification by grace through faith is sadly 
perverted when this same theological teacher declares that it is not 
faith, but an act of faith, an act resulting from faith, that is, im- 
mersion, which places the sinner into the state of one who has fully 
been pardoned. Cp. ib., p. 166 ff. In agreement with Keformed 
theologians in general, he defines repentance as "ceasing to be evil 
and learning to do well" (ib., p. 38), thus confusing justification 
and sanctification. Similarly subversive of Scripture is this 
theologian's view of the good works of a Christian, when he makes 
this statement on the causes of justification: ec We have the grace 
of God for the moving cause, Jesus Christ for the efficient cause, 
His blood the procuring cause, knowledge the disposing cause, the 
name of the Lord the immediate cause, faith the formal cause, 
and works for the concurring cause." Ib., p. 216 f. 

In his effort to avoid emphasizing faith at the expense of 
Christ Himself Campbell goes to extremes. He says (The Chris- 
tian System, p. 94) : "Faith never can be more than the receiving 
of testimony as true, or the belief of testimony; and if that tes- 
timony be written, it is called history, though it is as much history 
when flowing from the tongue as when flowing from the pen. 
Let it be again repeated and remembered that there is no other 
manner of believing a fact than by receiving it as true. If it is 
not received as true, it is not believed; and when it is believed, 
it is no more than regarded as true. This being conceded, then it 
follows that the efficacy of faith is always in the fact believed or 
the object received and not in the nature or manner of believing." 
It is true that Christ is the only object of saving faith. But to 
describe faith as A. Campbell does is not Scriptural. 

332* As to Baptism this church-body holds that it is to be per- 
formed upon the confession that Jesus is the Son of God. Cp. Ab- 
bott, op. cit., p. 19. It is defined as "the pledge to live a white life. 
It is the token given to God and society that one is determined to 
keep himself unspotted from the world. It is in this sense that 
Baptism is for the remission of sins." Ib., p. 127. Baptismal 
regeneration in the sense in which the Lutheran Church under- 
stands this term is rejected. A. Campbell says of Baptism (The 
Christian System, p. 42) : "Without previous faith in the blood of 
Christ and deep and unfeigned repentance before God neither im- 
mersion in water nor any other action can secure to us the blessings 
of peace and pardon," thus denying that Baptism is a Means 
of Grace for the creation of faith. We, of course, agree with 


him when he continues : "To the believing penitent it is the means 
of receiving a formal., distinct, and specific absolution, or release, 
from guilt." But when he in the same connection maintains that 
only those who have been baptized "have the full and explicit 
testimony of God assuring them of pardon/' he is quite strangely 
overemphasizing the importance of Holy Baptism. Baptismal 
regeneration is frequently spoken of by A. Campbell. In his view, 
regeneration and the act of immersion, if performed on a believer, 
are identical. He holds that not through becoming a believer, but 
through the act of immersion one is brought into the full posses- 
sion of the forgiveness of sins. Cp. op. cit., p. 171 if. Opposing 
infant baptism, on the one hand, and teaching, on the other, that 
there is no regeneration without baptism (immersion), this leader 
of the Disciples naturally does not believe that children can be born 
again. He has expressed himself thus: "Infants, idiots, deaf- 
and-dumb persons, innocent pagans, wherever they can be found, 
with all the pious pedobaptists we commend to the mercy of God." 
Ib., p. 203. 

333* In the Lord's Supper, observed every Sunday with open 
communion, they hold that the loaf and the cup "stand for Christ's 
body and blood." Abbott, op. cit., p. 133. "The taking of the loaf 
and the drinking of the cup are commemorative of the Lord's 
death." A. Campbell, op. cit., p. 273. Bread and wine are referred 
to as symbols, as emblems. Ib., p. 273. That the real presence is 
altogether denied by these people is clear from Abbott's statement 
(op. cit., p. 143) : "To partake of it [the Lord's Supper] without 
thinking of Christ, to partake of it simply as a 'church ordinance,' 
to partake of it because it is a custom or is expected of us, is to 
miss its depth and to eat of nothing but bread, to drink of nothing 
but the blood of the grape." Like other Eeformed bodies, the 
Disciples insist "the loaf must be broken." Cp. A. Campbell, 
op. cit., p. 272. 

334* With respect to the nature of the Gospel, expressions are 
employed by Campbell which present the Gospel rather as an edict 
publishing a law with which we have to comply than as the good 
tidings gladly to be embraced by us. "The Gospel has in it a com- 
mand and as such must be obeyed," is one of his propositions. 
Op. cit., p. 165. Quite prominent among the teachings of this body 
is the view that God has instituted Sunday as a holy day which His 
children are required to observe. Cp. Abbott, op. cit., p. 151. 

In conclusion we have to advert once more to the strong cen- 


sure voiced by the Disciples with respect to the divided state of 
Christianity. Justified as this censure largely is, the cure pro- 
posed by them would make matters infinitely worse, because it 
would merely tend to increase the indifference in doctrinal matters, 
which is appalling enough even now. What they advocate, as has 
been briefly pointed out above, is the abolition of all creeds and 
the acceptance of the principle that the New Testament is a suf- 
ficient basis for united church-work. Thus they may be numbered 
among the chief proponents of a bold, radical type of unionism. 
In their church polity they are congregational. 1,546,206 members. 
CHURCHES OF CHRIST. As noted in the remarks on the 
Disciples, a conservative element in this church-body was opposed 
to the use of instrumental music in church services and to the 
organization of missionary societies "with a money basis/' Since 
the churches forming this group are not cooperating with the Dis- 
ciples, they have to be listed separately and have since 1906 been 
thus treated by the United States Census Bureau. "Other matters 
in regard to which there was controversy were the introduction of 
the 'modern pastor' and the adoption of 'unscriptural means of 
raising money/ " United States Census Eeport. 433,714 mem- 
bers (1926). 


335* The congregations forming the Christian Union trace their 
origin to a number of independent movements between 1792 and 
1864 that desired "liberty of conscience as the privilege of every 
believer and the right of private judgment in all spiritual matters/' 
The leaders in these movements rejected all denominational names 
and creeds. The movement began under the leadership of the 
Methodist minister James O'Kelly of Baltimore in 1792, who 
seceded from the Methodist Church not primarily because of dif- 
ferences in doctrine, but because in his opinion the Methodistic 
church government was unscriptural, therefore sectional and 
divisive. Union Bible Theology and History, 126. Similar move- 
ments were inaugurated among the Calvinistic Baptists by Abner 
Jones and among the Presbyterians by Barton Stone. Later these 
men separated from O'Kelly chiefly on the question of immersion, 
the doctrine of the deity of Christ, and the practise concerning an 
unconverted membership and joined the movement which cul- 
minated in the organization of the Christian Church (which united 
with the Congregational Church in 1931) and the Disciples of 
Christ (Campbellites). Cp. 325. Life History of Eev. J. V. B. 


Mack, 156 f. In the succeeding decades new unions were formed 
in Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri, without forming a definite 
organization. These unions were known locally as Christian 
Union, In Christian Union, The Church of Christ in Christian 
Union, etc. The heated and partisan discussion of the slavery 
question temporarily checked the proposed union of these indepen- 
dent movements. But the publication of the Christian Witness by 
Rev. J. P. Given of Columbus, 0., rallied the various Unions and 
united them in their opposition to all partisan political discussion 
in the pulpit. 

336* In 1865 a definite organization was effected, and the follow- 
ing seven points were adopted as Christian Union principles : 
1) the oneness of the Church of Christ; 2) Christ the only Head; 
3) the Bible the only rule of faith and practise; 4) good fruits the 
only condition of fellowship; 5) Christian union without con- 
troversy; 6) each local church governs itself; 7) partisan political 
preaching discountenanced. Christian Union Bible, etc., p. 146. 
Similarly to the Winebrennerians, or Church of God, the 
Christian Union is organized on the assumption that denomina- 
tional names, or "cognomens/ 7 are in themselves sectional and 
schismatic and that no factional designation for a congregation or 
group of congregations is permissible, but that the "Scriptural 
names Church of God or Churches of Christ" must be used. L. c., 
35. 39. 45. Its aim is to remove sectionalism and to unite all 
professing Christians in one great Christian brotherhood. P. 95. 
The leaders believe that Christian Union among the various 
denominations is readily attainable, since the present denomina- 
tional differences are solely in "matters of organization." What 
the Church needs is merely to recognize the Bible as "the basis 
upon which all fair-minded Christians can stand together in one 
great organized body." L. c., 137. The Church of Christ is defined 
as "the body of pious and devout persons associated together for 
the sacred worship of God Almighty." P. 35. And upon this mis- 
conception of the Church the Christian Union people base the 
statement that "the unity and oneness of all followers of Christ is 
set forth in the Lord's sacerdotal prayer as an essential prerequisite 
for the conversion of the world." P. 115. There is a hopeless con- 
fusion of the Holy Christian Church and the so-called visible 
Church evident throughout their literature. Pp. 57. 97 ft They 
condemn "joining any denomination," since every Christian is 
already a member of the Church of Christ. The demand of 



a denomination that reception into membership be conditioned 
upon "probation, baptism, the right hand of fellowship, and such 
things" is said to be only establishing denominational doors and 
stealing "the hearts and souls for whom Christ died, who alone is 
the Door/' Pp. 52. 53. But the adherents of Christian Union do 
not understand the unity of the Christian Church, nor do they 
work for the unity of Christendom, but are advocates of the grossest 
kind of unionism. Cp. 374* 

Consistent with their wrong premise, they reject all creeds, 
since they do not distinguish between creeds as the Church's con- 
fession and human traditions. Christian Union claims that all 
creeds are human laws without any basis or justification in God's 
Word and that such creeds bear the seed of dissension and are at 
the bottom of all divisions in Christendom. P. 26. And yet they 
formulate a creed when they require of candidates for membership 
to give satisfactory evidence of their regeneration (p. 127) and 
when they claim that "experimental religion is the fundamental 
principle of Christian Union" (p. 77) and say: "If any one has 
accepted Christ by faith after due repentance and is living a de- 
voted life in the fear of God, he is a brother and has the right to 
read and interpret the Bible for himself/' P. 143. The Bible is 
said to be the only rule of faith and practise, but at the same time 
it is stated that every one must be permitted to "possess and exer- 
cise private opinions according to his own best judgment," decid- 
ing for himself whether he wishes to accept or reject the various 
ordinances, "which are respectable and will do no one any harm," 
e. g., Baptism, foot-washing, the Lord's Supper. The goal of all 
Christians, in short, must be "to grant to others the same right that 
every one claims for himself, namely, to read and interpret the 
Word of God as they honestly understand it." P. 143. See 2, 11, 

The Christian Union is not in the strict sense of the word 
a denomination, but rather a federation of congregations, which 
are absolutely self-governing. Councils, quarterly, district, and 
general, have been organized for the purpose of fellowship and for 
the transaction of such business as pertains to the movement in 
general. 8,791 members. 


337, The Plymouth Brethren (also known as Darbyites) is the 
popular designation for a number of independent movements which 
originated in England and Ireland during the early decades of the 
nineteenth century as a protest against the secularization of re- 


ligion due to the intimate relation between Church and State. 14 ) 
The movement was popularized by John N. Darby (1800 1882), 
who became the recognized leader of an "assembly of brethren 5 ' at 
Plymouth, England. By his learning and personal magnetism, 
coupled with tireless zeal, Darby gained many adherents, e. g., the 
Biblical scholar Tregelles, George Mueller, the founder of orphan- 
ages, William Kelly, H. C. Mackintosh. Darby's early contacts with 
the Irvingites undoubtedly influenced him in his opposition to all 
creeds, denominationalism, and particularly to an ordained min- 
istry, and crystallized his conviction that the pristine purity of the 
Apostolic Church can be attained only if the spiritual nature of 
the visible Church is properly emphasized, the New Testament 
"gifts and offices" recognized, and the premillennial coming of 
Christ is duly stressed. Darby was the recognized leader of the 
Brethren movement until 1848. But his egotism and dogmatism 
and the highly developed individualism of the members, unchecked 
by ecclesiastical organization or denominational creeds, led to 
various schisms among the Brethren. Generally speaking, they 
may be divided into "open" and "exclusive" Brethren. The points 
of cleavage among the various parties are largely various opinions 
concerning the fellowshiping of teachers and members whose doc- 
trine or life is not fully in accord with the Brethren's view of 
Scriptural teaching. The Census Eeport for 1926 lists six divisions 
of Brethren in the United States. Since according to their funda- 
mental principle they refuse to adopt "human" or sectarian names, 
but use only such names as "are common to all Christians" the 
Census Eeport indicates the various divisions by numerals. 
Group I, 4,877 members; II, 13,497 members; III, 684 members; 
IV, 1,663 members; V, 2,152 members; VI, 88 members. The 
differences between the various groups solely concern discipline and 
cannot be discussed here. In doctrine the various groups are sub- 
stantially in accord, and the doctrinal position is outlined in a tract, 
What do You Believe ?, reprinted in Census Eeport, II, 256. 

338* The distinctive feature of Plymouth Brethrenism is the em- 
phasis placed upon the visible unity of the New Testament Church, 
claiming that the unity of Christ and the believer and vice versa 
was meant to be visible. Eidout, The Church and Its Order accord- 
ing to Scriptures, passim. The communion of saints is denned as 

14) The Oxford movement, under Cardinal Newman and, after his 
defection to the Roman Catholic Church, under Edward Pusey, was the 
direct opposite of the Brethren movement. 


"a united company ; i. e., there is, and ought to be, one Church 
composed of believers and including all believers . . . ; for member- 
ship in any sect, denomination, or party, is a denial of the divine 
truth of the 'one body/ '" The Believers' Blue Book, 109 f. Accord- 
ing to the Brethren, "believers before Pentecost did not form a part 
of the body of Christ," but the Holy Ghost was sent for the express 
purpose "of forming the body of the glorified Christ ... by uniting 
believers to Christ and to one another." Eidout, 1. c., 10. 9. All 
Scripture-passages which speak of the una sancta are applied to 
the "company which aims at carrying out the New Testament 
pattern [of the Church] ; . . . owns the one name Christ; fol- 
lows the one guide-book, the Bible." The Believers' Blue Book, 
116. The Brethren believe that the visible unity of the Church 
requires the exercise of a threefold discipline, viz., preventative 
to determine that the candidate for reception really believes on 
Jesus Christ ; corrective to cleanse the Church of incipient evil ; 
and preservative to put away the false professors and evil men. 
Eidout, 1. c., 8089. 

The theory that the Church is the visible body of Christ is 
predicated upon two false premises. First, the Brethren believe 
that the Holy Spirit personally and immediately presides in the 
church and that the decisions of assemblies are "the righteous judg- 
ments of the Holy Ghost." Eidout, 1. c., 98 ff. The reception of 
members and the excommunication of evil men is said to take place 
under the direct "presidency" of the Holy Spirit, whereby the 
Church is established as the visible body of Christ. But Eidout 
admits that it is possible for an assembly not to be acting under 
the "personal guidance" of the Holy Spirit, and thereby the entire 
theory of a local congregation's being composed of only believers 
is overthrown. The many schisms in their midst and the resultant 
denunciations lead one on to ask: Who was acting under the per- 
sonal guidance of the Holy Spirit? Cp. Carson, The Heresies of 
the Plymouth Brethren, 120 ff. Plymouth Brethren try to meet 
these objections by stating that during the New Testament dis- 
pensation "the Holy Ghost is forming the Church as a chaste 
virgin to Christ, whereas the marriage will not take place until 
Christ will present her to Himself as a glorious Church, without 
spot, at His second coming." Eidout, 12 f. 

339* Secondly, Brethren deny the possibility of defection, teach- 
ing that members' "formed into the body of Christ" cannot fall 
away and be lost (Straight Paths, 9), since that would be "a break 


in the chain of the sovereign electing love of God" (Blue Book, 95) 
and "the body of Christ would be imperfect forever." P. 83. But 
what of the manifest backsliders? The Brethren argue, on the 
basis of 1 Cor. 3, 15, that "the worker suffers loss in having little 
or no reward for his labors, but he himself shall be saved." P. 85. 
Eternal life is said to be given as a free gift immediately upon the 
sinner's conversion and never to be lost, but the believer's service 
may not stand the test of the Judgment. Straight Paths, 9. 
Therefore the believers are admonished "to work out their salva- 
tion," i. e., to serve in order to obtain the greatest reward possible, 
since a fourfold reward is said to be offered according to the degree 
of faithfulness, to wit, the crown of incorruption, of righteousness, 
of life, and of glory. P. 10. 

340* The basic principle of the visible unity of the Church with 
its Head has affected every other doctrine. The Brethren believe 
that John 17, 20. 21 must apply to the local assembly. Straight 
Paths, 3. Because of their peculiar view of the Holy Spirit's 
presence in the local congregation every order of ministry is re- 
jected as "usurpation of the prerogatives of the Holy Spirit." 
Blue Book, 107. In presenting the doctrine of the verbal inspira- 
tion the Brethren's interest is primarily to show that, since con- 
version is entirely and exclusively by the Word, therefore it is not 
through the agency of the ministry. P. 16. Creeds are rejected as 
harmful. Eidout, 35. Believing that Christ directs the affairs of 
the local assembly through the Holy Spirit, the Brethren teach 
that, "when a company is gathered for worship, all should be left 
to the Spirit to use whom He may choose in prayer, praise, or 
exhortation." (What do You Believe? p. 7.) They believe that the 
Head will supply His body with the necessary gifts without the 
intervention of seminaries, bishops, or congregations and that the 
Holy Ghost will introduce the New Testament gifts, to wit, evan- 
gelists, pastors, and teachers, to the Church according to necessity. 
Eidout, 55 69. According to Plymouthism the essence of wor- 
ship is praise. The Father and the Son are said to be the objects of 
worship, while the Holy Spirit "is the power of worship, the energy 
of praise." L. c., 46. 47. The Church is said to "find the great 
occasion for worship in the breaking of bread on every Sabbath as 
a memorial of the Savior's dying love." P. 49. The meetings for 
the breaking of bread are held in private homes, Acts 2, 46, as are 
also other meetings, under the pretense that "the very thought of 
an earthly sanctuary is foreign to the genius of Christianity." 


Eidout, 111. Brethren speak of Baptism as the "believer's Bap- 
tism," indicating their belief, "that Baptism is the symbol of the 
identification of the believer with Christ in His death, burial, and 
resurrection" (Blue Book, 122), rejecting infant baptism and in- 
sisting upon immersion. The Brethren entertain extreme views 
concerning the premillennial coming of Christ, believing that the 
dead and living saints shall enter glory "when He comes, first, 
privately for His own and then, later, with His own to take His 
reign." Blue Book, 180. The purpose of Christ's coming is said 
to be that Christ might "present the Church (not a part of it) to 
Himself a glorious Church." L. c., 197. These are the doctrines 
commonly believed and stressed among the Plymouth Brethren. 
Concerning other doctrines there is a wide divergence of opinion, 
some entertaining Valentinian views concerning Christ's person 
(Mackintosh: "Christ only passed through Mary, like water 
through a pump"), others holding that Christ's death was mainly 
to show His devotedness to God; Darby held antinomian views. 
In Germany K. Brockhaus advocated the doctrine of entire sanc- 
tification, or absolute freedom from the dominion of sin. 



341. The churches comprising the General Eldership of the 
Churches of God, also known as Winebrennerians, seceded from 
the German Eeformed Church. In the early years of his ministry 
in the Eeformed Church at Harrisburg John Winebrenner (1797 
to 1860) employed Wesleyan methods in his endeavor to awaken 
his congregation from the dead formalism which had become gen- 
eral in the American churches during and after the Eevolutionary 
War. While the Great Awakening swept through the English- 
speaking churches of America, the Germans, with rare exceptions 
(cp. the movements inaugurated by Otterbein, Boehm, Albright), 
were not affected by the so-called experimental religion. Wine- 
brenner's revivalistic methods and his condemnation of the per- 
functory observance of religious rites and ceremonies in the 
Eeformed Church met with such violent opposition that he with- 
drew from the organization in 1825. In the succeeding five years 
he claimed "to have seen more fully the errors and corruptions of 
the Church and to have been led to a change of views concern- 
ing Baptism, confirmation, foot-washing, church titles, govern- 
ment," etc. History of the Churches of God, 26. "The restoration 
of primitive Christianity was the watchword of Winebrenner and 


his followers," who declared that the government by presbyters, or 
elders, was the only Scriptural form. L. cit., 35. Their one-sided 
literalism led to a rejection of all sectarian names and creeds and 
to the introduction of foot-washing and baptism by immersion 
only. The Winebrennerians are related to the Bunkers, to the 
Mennonites, and especially to the Methodists. Winebrenner "could 
have found in other churches everything which he believed and 
desired to teach and practise, but he could not find these things in 
any one Church" (1. c., 38) and therefore organized a distinct body 
in 1830. 

342, The Winebrennerians have no creed. Although they claim 
for every one the right of private judgment, they have embodied 
the "leading matters of faith, experience, and practise" in the 
Twenty-seven Points of 1849 and in the Doctrinal Statement of 
1925. Winebrennerian theology is Arminian. When they say 
that man's redemption is possible only through the vicarious atone- 
ment of Christ, IV, then this statement must be understood ac- 
cording to the acceptilation theory. The statement that human 
works must be excluded from justification, VII, is virtually denied 
by the declaration that only they who "live virtuous and obedient 
lives will be saved. (Doctrinal Statement.) Man is said to be 
"a free moral agent and to have moral ability because man is 
commanded to repent and to believe in order to be saved." VI. 
Winebrennerians, believing that faith without works does not save, 
view regeneration primarily as a moral transformation. VIII. The 
perseverance of saints is said to be conditioned solely upon man, 
who, as a free agent, willingly does right and must continue in this 
state. Weber, 129. Concerning the Church they teach, with the 
Mennonites, that the Church is the visible communion of believers, 
XXII, and cannot remain a Church unless all sinners are excluded 
from the visible Church, while according to Scripture a congrega- 
tion does not lose its character as a church through the admixture 
of hypocrites or even public and manifest sinners. See 142, Wine- 
brennerians also exclude children from the Church because of the 
alleged inability of children to believe. Cp. Guenther, Pop. Symb., 
351. Winebrennerians are chiliasts, believing in the visible reign 
of Christ and in the resurrection of the just at the beginning, and 
the resurrection of the unjust at the end, of the millennium. 
XXIV. XXV. Although they claim that the preaching of the 
Gospel is the direct mission of the Church, they have always taken 
an active part in advancing what they consider reform movements, 


e. g., temperance, abolition of wars, obligatory observance of 
Sunday. The Churches of God do not recognize Sacraments, but 
believe in three ordinances commemorating three fundamental 
facts in Christ's mission, to wit, foot-washing, symbolizing Christ's 
humiliation; the Lord's Supper, Christ's death; and baptism by 
immersion, Christ's burial and resurrection. Weber, 131. Infant 
baptism is rejected, because children are said to be unable to be- 
lieve, while this body believes that immersion and faith belong to 
the essence of Baptism. X. The Lord's Supper is received in 
a sitting posture and always at night. XII. Foot-washing is made 
obligatory upon all members. XI. 

The cliurck polity is presbyterian, the local church electing its 
pastor, elders, and deacons. These constitute the church council 
and have the governing power. Elderships (conferences or synods) 
have the exclusive right of ordination. The various elderships con- 
stitute the General Eldership. 31,396 members. 


343* According to Mr. J. M. Eose (Census Eeport, II, 1312) the 
body of the Social Brethren was organized in 1867 by a number 
of persons in Illinois as a result of disagreements over interpreta- 
tion of Scripture and points of decorum in the various denomina- 
tions to which they belonged. They mututally agreed to unite 
themselves into a separate body and to formulate rules for its 
conduct which they believed to be in accordance with God's Word. 
They claim to stress the following points : the infinite power, 
wisdom, and goodness of the Triune God; the authority and con- 
sistency of the Scriptures, comprising the Old and New Testa- 
ments; regeneration and sanctification through Jesus Christ; 
eternal salvation of the redeemed and eternal punishment for 
apostasy; the ordinances of Baptism and the Lord's Supper are 
only for true believers; baptism may be by sprinkling, pouring, 
or immersion; lay members of the church should have the right 
of suffrage and full speech, and ministers are called to preach the 
Gospel and not for political speeches. 1,214 members. 


344* Claiming that the doctrinal difference between Luther and 
Zwingli was nothing more than a lamentable quarrel concerning 
the Lord's Supper, the Eeformed, particularly in Germany, have 
consistently endeavored to effect a union with the Lutheran 
Church. In the opinion of these unionists Luther and Zwingli 


"had worked so hard to make their respective systems compatible 
with the Word of God and reasonable to the human mind that 
they were loathe to give up their fundamental schemes. . . . The 
fury of the theologians (during the Crypto-Calvinistic controversy) 
made the Word of God almost as scarce as it had been prior to the 
Eeformation, while the disagreement was of a personal opinion 
only, since Christ does not give any explanation of the part that 
bread and wine take in the bestowal of the blessings of His Last 
Supper. Why endeavor to clear up a process left a mystery by the 
Son of God Himself?" Evangelical Fundamentals, Eden Publ. 
House, pp. 13 15. Kepeated attempts in succeeding centuries to 
unite the two churches on an ambiguous confession were unsuccess- 
ful, but indifference over against doctrine and the ascendency both 
of Pietism and Eationalism had prepared the soil for the union 
which Frederick William III of Prussia ordered in 1817. His Book 
of Worship, which was summarily introduced both in the Eeformed 
and Lutheran churches, ignored the doctrinal differences between 
the two churches and thus established the Evangelical Church 
(Unierte Kirche). The so-called Prussian Union was not a fusion 
of the Lutheran and Eeformed churches, but a unionistic affair, 
in which all distinctive doctrines were to be treated as non- 
essentials and left to the judgment of the individual. Therefore 
the terms Lutheran and Eeformed were not to be used any longer, 
but the more generic name Evangelical was to become the official 
name of the Church. Cp. Meusel, Kirchl. Handlexikon, s. v. Union. 

To perpetuate the principles of the Prussian Union among 
the immigrants who had settled in the territory surrounding 
St. Louis, Mo., six pastors met at Gravois Settlement, St. Louis 
County, Mo., in 1840 and perfected an organization not prima- 
rily of congregations, but rather of pastors. The following doc- 
trinal statement was adopted : 

"The German Evangelical Church Association of the West, 
as a part of the Evangelical Church, defines the term Evangelical . 
Church as denoting that branch of the Christian Church which 
acknowledges the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ments as the Word of God, the sole and infallible guide of faith 
and life, and accepts the interpretations of the Holy Scriptures 
as given in the symbolical books of the Lutheran and Eeformed 
churches, the most important being the Augsburg Confession, 
Luther's and the Heidelberg catechisms, in so far as they agree; 
but where they disagree, the German Evangelical Association of 


the West adheres strictly to the passages of Holy Scripture bear- 
ing on the subject and avails itself of the liberty of conscience 
prevailing in the Evangelical Church." During the subsequent 
years a number of similar organizations were effected, and in 1877 
these various synods, being united in principle concerning doctrine 
and polity, formed the German Evangelical Synod of North 
America. Though there was at no time an organic union with the 
Evangelical Church of Prussia, the Evangelical Synod received 
moral and financial support from the state churches of Germany, 
and especially from the Basel Mission Society, which sent a number 
of Evangelical pastors to America and thus helped to mold the 
unionistic and pietistic tendencies of the Evangelical Synod. 
314,518 members in 1926. 15 > 

345* The boast of the Evangelical Synod is that its latitudinarian 
doctrinal position makes it possible for Lutherans and Reformed to 
dwell together in unity by treating the so-called points of dif- 
ference as non-essentials. Though popular opinion often identifies 
the Evangelical Synod and the Lutheran Church, Evangelical 
leaders do not desire to be known as Lutherans, but rather con- 
sider their Church as "a member of the body of the Church, whose 
head .is Christ." Granting all church denominations who accept 
Jesus equal "right of membership in the body of Christ" is not 
considered a sign of indifference or disregard for the fundamental 
and essential things, but is rather "a relegation of relatively un- 
important and inconsequential matters to a sphere where they will 
not render impossible the consummation of a greater spiritual, even 
if not organic, union that all Christendom with a few notable ex- 
ceptions is striving for." Evangelical Fundamentals, I, 39 f. 
Unionism is a characteristic of the Evangelical Synod. When 
Dr. C. F. W. Walther warned against the unionistic tendencies of 
the amended constitution of the Evangelical Church (Der Luthe- 
raner, I, 42 ff.), Rev. Nollau declared in "Ein Wort fuer die gute 
Sache der Union": "Is it not possible for us (Lutherans and 
Evangelicals) to labor conjointly? Let us fight with united front 
against the real, the most dangerous enemy, against unbelief !" 
Cp. Alb. Muecke, Geschichte der deutschen Evangelischen Synode, 
1915, 106 ff. 

Union without unity is impossible. Though the Evangelical 

15) Since this section was written, the Evangelical Synod merged 
with the Reformed Church in the United States, the new denomination 
to be known as the Evangelical and Reformed Church. See 270. 


Synod professes to recognize Lutheran and Eeformed symbols, its 
theological tendencies are Eeformed. It must be borne in mind 
that the difference between the Lutheran and the Eeformed Church 
is not centered in the doctrine concerning the Lord's Supper, in 
fact, not in any specific doctrine, but in. the different fundamental 
principles. The rationalizing, temporizing, unionizing tendencies 
of the Eeformed Church predominate in the Evangelical Synod, 
while a few ambiguous phrases are expected to satisfy loyal Lu- 
therans. The Evangelical doctrine is contained in the very brief 
Evangelical Catechism (1929). (Cp. also an abridged translation 
of Dr. Iriori's Ev. Fundamentals, II.) 

346* With the Lutheran Church, the Evangelical Catechism 
teaches that "the death of Christ was necessary for our redemption 
because we, lost sinners, could be redeemed neither by teaching nor 
by example, but only by the sacrifice of our Lord Jesus Christ in 
His suffering and death" (Qu. 65). But the nomistic tendency of 
the Eeformed Church is evident in the Evangelical Catechism, not 
only in the literal interpretation of the "Fourth" Commandment, 
which is said to require of us "to hallow the Lord's Day by resting 
from worldly employment," etc. (Qu. 39), but primarily in its 
conception of the mission of the Church. As a member of the 
Federal Council of Churches, the Evangelical Synod teaches that 
the Church must extend the kingdom of God "as the rule of God 
established in the hearts and lives of men (Qu. 93) as set forth in 
the Sermon on the Mount" (Qu. 94). In the doctrine of Christ's 
person the Catechism avoids all reference to the much-disputed 
question of the personal union and disposes of the communication 
of attributes, resp. the communicated omnipresence, with the am- 
biguous statement that "the ascended Christ is in heaven in the 
full power and glory of God" (Qu. 70). The Small Catechism, 
however, definitely denies the communication of attributes in the 
Scriptural sense by stating that Christ received all power after His 
ascension as "the glorified Son of Man" (Qu. 83). The Evan- 
gelical Synod explicitly teaches salvation after death by teaching 
that "Jesus went to the place of the departed spirits and brought 
them the message of salvation" (Qu. 67), since "they who died 
before Christ's death had no way of knowing what He had done." 
Expl. of C., 80. The claim is made that whosoever had an oppor- 
tunity in this world to come to faith cannot expect another, but 
the spirits in Hades can be saved if they now wish to accept the 
Gospel. Irion, 1. c., 195. 


347, Though the Evangelical Catechism correctly defines faith 
and justification, it prepares, the way for the doctrine of work- 
righteousness by its definitions of repentance, conversion, and 
sanctification. While Scripture and the Augsburg Confession, 
Art. XII, define repentance as contrition AND faith, the Evangelical 
Catechism states that "true repentance consists in conviction of 
sin, sorrow for sin, confession and renunciation of sin, and longing 
for grace" (Qu. 79). Omitting faith in the merits of Christ from 
the term "repentance" makes of conversion merely a moral change 
and places sanctification before justification. The Evangelical 
Catechism defines conversion or regeneration as "the beginning of 
a new life within us/' i. e., "the turning from the broad way of 
a sinful life and entering into the narrow way of a godly life" 
(Qus. 83. 84), again omitting all reference to faith. Evangelical 
belief is that, "when the Holy Spirit has helped us to recognize 
and overcome the danger of our sinfulness, His work must be car- 
ried to completion by the process of sanctification" (Ev. Fund., 
II, 88), and by "daily transforming and renewing us in all our 
thoughts and actions, the Holy Ghost makes us acceptable to God." 
Cat., Qu. 86. 

348, In the doctrine of the Church the Evangelical Catechism 
follows the Heidelberg Catechism and other Eeformed confessions 
in their emphasis upon personal piety as the requisite of member- 
ship in the Holy Christian Church, and not the Augsburg Confes- 
sion (Art. VII) and Luther's Large Catechism, which teach that 
faith in the righteousness of Christ is the sole basis of member- 
ship. The Evangelical Catechism states that "the Church is called 
holy because the Holy Spirit works mightily in it by Word and 
Sacrament to the end that all its members shall be made holy" 
(Qu. 89), but omitting all reference to justification. Cp. Ev. Fund., 
II, 91. By "'communion of saints" Evangelicals understand that 
"all Christians should love and help one another in all things" 
(Qu. 96). In the interest of this error the Evangelical Catechism 
purposely places a semicolon, not a comma, between "Holy Chris- 
tian Church" and "communion of saints." Confusing the so-called 
visible Church with the Holy Christian Church, the Evangelical 
Catechism answers its question "Has the Church already become 
all that we confess concerning it ?" with the words : "It has indeed 
existed at all times as the true Church, but has frequently erred 
and been corrupted." The Evangelical Church, however, "is cer- 
tain of its future perfection" and therefore "stands for the unity 


of the Spirit in the bond of peace, as laid down in the Augsburg 
Confession. ... At present the Universal Christian Church is an 
unrealized ideal." But the Church will attain this ideal "when 
Christian principles will be established in every relation of life" 
(Qu. 29), when "all Christians stand together in their emphasis 
on the essential teachings. To insist on outward uniformity of 
doctrine or worship as a sign of union involves a forced and there- 
fore a false union." Ev. Fund., II, 91. 

349* The absolution, patterned after the Lutheran formula, omits 
the words "and I forgive you," etc. Deutsche Agende, 1889. The 
Lord's Supper is "the Sacrament by which we receive the body 
and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ as the nourishment of our new 
life." Evangelical C., Qu. 125. This ambiguous formula is in- 
tended to satisfy Lutherans in the Evangelical communion. That 
the Eeformed doctrine of the Lord's Supper is held by the Evan- 
gelical Synod is evident from its Small Catechism, which stresses 
that only the new man receives the body and blood of the Lord 
and that only the worthy reception constitutes the eating and 
drinking. The antagonistic attitude over against private com- 
munion shows that the Evangelical Synod denies that the Lord's 
Supper is a real Means of Grace. Sick-communion is observed 
only as a congregational celebration by asking relatives or church 
officials to participate. Ev. Fund., II, 139. Agende, p. 224. 
Cp. also Westminster Confession, chap. XXIX, 4. 262* 

That a liberal tendency has always manifested itself in the 
Evangelical Church with its loose confessional position is self- 
evident. In 1880 Prof. E. Otto of the Theological Seminary was 
charged with too liberal an attitude, and in his defense he stated 
that a contrast of a conservative and liberal element was only 
beneficial. Synod granted that a certain freedom of doctrine ought 
to obtain, but insisted that it must remain within the bounds of 
"synodical consciousness" ( Gesamtbewusstsein der Synode) and 
Christian doctrine must be taught according to the principles of 
positive religion. Cf . Muecke, Ev. Synode, 200 f . In recent years 
the Evangelical Synod has become increasingly modernistic. 


350* The United Church of Canada, numbering 2,017,375 souls, 
is a union of the Methodist, Congregationalist, and Presbyterian 
churches of Canada. This union was advocated, and. finally effected 
in 1925, "not merely for economy in men and money, but especially 
because it is believed to be the desire of the Lord and the burden 


of His prayer on the eve of His Passion." The Baptist Church 
definitely refused to join the union, and the Anglican Church, 
though sympathetic to the movement, believed that its view of the 
historic episcopate offered an insuperable barrier. The leaders of 
the movement entertain the hope "that this settlement of unity 
may in due time, as far as Canada is concerned, take shape in 
a Church which may fittingly be described as national." (Basis of 
the Union.) The United Church, however, is not a state nor 
a national Church, although an act of Parliament was necessary 
before the union could be consummated. This act was necessary 
to make the United Church the official trustee of the rich legacies 
held in trust by the uniting churches, not to effect an ecclesiastical 

It is self-evident that the United Church is a unionistic body 
and that the three constituent denominations were compelled to 
give up distinctive doctrines. The statutory belief maintains 
"allegiance to the evangelical doctrines of the Keformation as set 
forth in common in the doctrinal standards adopted by the Pres- 
byterian Church in Canada, by the Congregational Union of 
Quebec, and by the Methodist Church." But the Twenty Articles 
in which the doctrines of the United Church are set forth ignore 
the basic principles of Calvinistic-Presbyterian theology, while the 
Arminian-Methodistic theology is endorsed. A large percentage of 
the Presbyterian congregations refused to join the United Church 
and continued their denomination, numbering 870,728 members. 
Census of Canada, 1931. 

351* According to the official doctrinal statement the United 
Church professes belief in the fundamental doctrines of the Chris- 
tian Church. But Methodistic influence is discernible throughout 
the document. The statement concerning sin: "We believe that 
our first parents, being tempted, chose evil and so fell away from 
God and came under the power of sin, the penalty of which is 
eternal death, and that all men are born with a sinful nature, that 
we have broken God's Law" (Art. V) is ambiguous, inasmuch as 
it omits reference to hereditary guilt and the total depravity of 
man and thereby leaves room for the Pelagian-Arminian error of 
the freedom of man's will. Faith in Christ is defined as "a saving 
grace whereby we receive Him, trust and rest upon Him alone for 
salvation as He is offered to us in the Gospel, and that this saving 
faith is always accompanied by repentance wherein we confess and 
forsake our sins" (Art. X). This is an ambiguous definition and 


must be compared with the undue emphasis which is constantly 
placed upon the believer's personal holiness and upon Christ's work 
as man's Teacher, the creed declaring that "Christ has revealed the 
Father, making known the perfect will of God" (Art. VII), and 
that "only through harmony with the will of God as summarized in 
the Moral Law shall be fulfilled the brotherhood of man wherein 
the kingdom of God is to be made manifest" (Art. XIV). 269* 
With all Arminians the confession of the United Church declares 
that "Christians may attain that maturity and full assurance of 
faith whereby the love of God is made perfect in us" (Art. XII). 
Of the ministry the body teaches that "the church under the 
guidance of the Holy Spirit recognizes and chooses those whom He 
calls, and should thereupon duly ordain them to the work of the 
ministry" (Art. XVII), thus holding the Methodistic error con- 
cerning the "inner call." The Sacraments are said to be "Means 
of Grace, which quicken, strengthen, and comfort our faith." But 
Art. XVI clearly shows that the Sacraments are considered means 
of grace in the sense of all Eeformed bodies. See 260 262, 

The United Church is the result of indifferentism and 
unionism. The unholy fruit of indifferentism is rationalism, 
Modernism. Many of the leaders in the United Church have pub- 
licly denied all fundamental articles of the Christian religion. 
According to J. N. Sturk, in The Looting of a Legacy, the official 
publication of the United Church, the New Outlook, is published 
in the interest of Modernism, and in its columns the inspiration of 
the Bible, the divinity of Christ, the fall of man, the vicarious 
atonement, the resurrection of the body, in fact every fundamental 
Christian doctrine, have been and are being denied. See 393 ff. 


352* The community churches, also known as union or federated 
churches, are defined by 0. F. Jordan, editor of the Community 
Churchman, Park Eidge, 111., as follows: a) "In some cases de- 
nominational churches have broadened the terms of membership 
to include all professing Christians, . . . giving them the privilege 

16) The Census Report for 1926 does not use the term "community 
church," as being too ambiguous. It carefully distinguishes between 
federated and independent churches. Federated churches are defined as 
those organizations which are made up of two or more denominational 
organizations for public services and social activities, the component 
groups, however, retaining their connections with the respective denomina- 
tions. The 1926 Census Report listed 361 such churches, 301 in rural com- 
munities. Under a separate caption the Report lists 259 independent 


of continuing their benevolent contribution to their several boards. 
In these churches it is possible to be a Christian without being a 
denominationalist. ... b) Federated churches are such where 
two or more churches continue their separate organizations, but 
have one minister, one service of worship, and one community 
program. ... c) In other communities an independent church has 
been organized broad enough to include all denominations. . . . 
]STo one is asked to give up any religious opinion or loyalty already 
formed. The only new thing in such a situation is the new spirit 
of toleration of religious opinion." What Is a Community Church? 
page 2. That represents the ideal of unionism. 

353+ The leaders in this movement advocate a thisworldly religion. 
The July, 1932., issue of the monthly Community Churchman ad- 
vocates that all community organizations should be used for mutual 
uplift and as an endeavor "to make sacred the every-day struggle 
for existence." All great events should be observed, "which will 
call attention to the basis of a happy and unselfish life; for, the 
more the great religious verities can be incorporated into the com- 
mon community efforts, the fewer will need to be our church ap- 
pointments." The program of the community church is sum- 
marized as follows : "Each church, when wisely led, studies its 
community needs and works out a program of service adapted to 
the community. A church in a college town is conscious of stu- 
dents; a church in an agricultural village is conscious of assisting 
agriculture. One may find in community churches gymnasiums, 
amateur dramatics, Boy Scouts, Campfire Girls, libraries, lyceum 
courses, dinners, neighborhood rallies, city-planning commissions, 
and a multitude of similar activities. Of course, the biggest thing 
a church does for any community and its primal purpose is its 
religious service." Questions and Answers on the Community 
Church, p. 4. This religious service means that "the great religious 
values, regardle'ss of where they are presented or practised, will 
need to be carefully taught. Every great upward movement has 
emanated from some personality, and for our use Jesus as a person 
should be intelligently understood." A minister in the community 

churches, which are divided into four groups : a ) independent denomina- 
tional congregations who refuse to affiliate with their denomination; b) in- 
dependent missions or Sunday-schools which were established by Christian 
workers on undenominational lines; c) community, union, non-denomina- 
tional, interdenominational churches which represent the movement of the 
consolidation of small or weak churches, especially in rural communities; 
d) churches which were organized by individuals without denominational 
connection. Census Report, 1926, II, pp. 589. 638. 


church must be prepared to "heal the souls of his fellows, to offer 
definite inspiration in days of difficulty, to present constructive 
processes for the attainment of ideals, to give from the experience 
of himself and of others a word about God and reality/' The Com- 
munity Churchman, 1. c. This presupposes that "the pastor is 
granted complete freedom to preach the principles and ideals of 
the kingdom of God as he is given the light to interpret them." 
Prom the constitution of Mariemont Community Church. The 
community church has no doctrinal basis other than tolerance of 
all denominations and the definite aim to develop "single church 
consciousness and a new community ideal.'" 

While the community churches are either independent units, 
unrelated to any denomination, or are members in a number of the 
older denominations, the leaders have organized as the Community 
Workers of the United States of America (77 W.Washington St., 
Chicago) to provide a center of fellowship and cooperation among 
pastors and leaders in the community-church movement and to 
consult with churches which seek pastors willing to serve com- 
munity churches. The churches have never met nor organized, and 
therefore it is impossible to give statistics ; but the claim is made 
that over 2,000 churches are now to be classified as community 
churches, although the Census Keport has classified the majority of 
them with the respective denomination in which they still hold 


354, Caspar Schwenkfeld (1490 1561), a Silesian nobleman, 
occupies a peculiar and isolated position among the Enthusiasts of 
the Reformation period. Being an ardent disciple of the German 
mystic John Tauler, Luther's opposition to Rome's ceremonialism 
appealed to Schwenkfeld, and he became a staunch supporter of 
the Lutheran Reformation in Silesia. By 1525, however, he def- 
initely broke with the Wittenberg theologians because in his 
opinion Luther, emphasizing the doctrine of justification, did not 
sufficiently stress sanctification. Being a thoroughgoing Enthusiast 
and mystic, he rejected the Word and the Sacraments as Means of 
Grace and developed a peculiar type of Enthusiasm, which went 
beyond that of Zwingli, Carlstadt, and Muenzer. Being a student and 
thinker of no mean ability, this lay theologian soon became involved 
in religious controversies with practically all the contemporary 
theologians. Persecutions compelled him to seek refuge in various 
cities, and he endeavored to gather small groups of men "who love 



the glory of Christ" and to spread his mystic principles by his 
voluminous writings. These are now in process of publication by 
the Schwenkfelder Board of Publication and will comprise about 
twenty volumes. 

355. Schwenkfeld's entire theology is predicated on the premise 
that a subjective experience of the love and grace of God is the 
essence of Christianity. This experience, said Schwenkfeld, cannot 
be engendered in man through the Means of Grace or any other 
creature, but the Holy Spirit enters the soul of the believer solely 
through the "Eternal Word." In 1525 Schwenkfeld endeavored 
to mediate between the Lutherans and the Sacramentarians by 
proposing a highly speculative conception of the essence and pur- 
pose of the Lord's Supper. He declared that in the words of in- 
stitution the body of Christ is Christ Himself and that the sacra- 
mental eating is a mystical partaking of Christ as the food of the 
soul and thus is really "bread," for the nature of bread is to be 
food for the body. This controversy undoubtedly helped Schwenk- 
feld to crystallize his peculiar notions concerning the person of 
Christ. Since, according to his views, God will bestow His grace 
without any means, therefore it cannot be conveyed through Christ 
if He is a true human being, a creature. If Christ is to be the 
Mediator of God's love, and if the communicant is to receive the 
true Christ, then the created human nature must be entirely 
eliminated. Therefore he held to the peculiar view that Christ's 
human nature was not created, but born of the Father out of the 
Virgin and therefore capable of deification and "glorification." 
Thus Schwenkfeld went beyond all Enthusiasts in denying all 
created Means of Grace. He calls his doctrine "the knowledge of 
the reigning King of heaven." This error is condemned by the 
Formula of Concord, XII. Viewed negatively, the center of 
Schwenkfeldian theology is the opposition to the efficacy of the 
Means of Grace, and considered positively, it is the emphasis placed 
upon the error of the deification of Christ's human nature as the 
only means whereby the divine grace can be conveyed to the believer. 
Over against the Kestorian Sacramentarians Luther emphasized the 
doctrine of the communication of attributes, while Schwenkfeld 
advanced Eutychianism (Monophysitism) against both Luther 
and Zwingli. 

356, With these notions, Schwenkfeld developed the following 
theology: Man is incomplete until God's love and grace fill him. 
God's ethical essence must become man's property. (Compare the 


Osiandrian doctrine of the infused righteousness of God.) This 
divine righteousness is conveyed to the believer by the "Eternal 
Word/' the "glorified or deified human nature of Christ." Faith 
is the soul's mystical union with the absolute God and His ethical 
righteousness, and therefore justification cannot be viewed as the 
imputation of Christ's perfect obedience, but it is the union with 
the "glorified reigning King in heaven." Schwenkfeld therefore 
repudiated every fundamental and distinctive Lutheran doctrine 
and stated that he would rather unite with the papists than with 
Luther. The Formula of Concord rejects the following additional 
errors of Schwenkfeld: denial of Baptism as a Means of Grace; 
perfectionism; the claim that without public excommunication 
there can be no true church; the efficacy of the Word and the 
true administration of the Sacraments are dependent upon the 
renewal of the minister (XII). 

357* Because the adherents of Schwenkfeld were definitely op- 
posed to a regular church organization, they could not obtain 
recognition nor immunity during the unsettled times of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries. Bitter persecutions finally 
prompted about 200 members of the small Schwenkfeldian remnant 
to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in 1734. Due to their doctrinal posi- 
tion and historical background they continued their exclusiveness 
and emphasized leading "a quiet and peaceable Christian life ac- 
cording to the will of Christ in all meekness and lowliness as the 
quiet in the land, and being true and faithful in their spiritual 
as well as their temporal calling." Since 1895 they no longer object 
to the bearing of arms, joining secret societies, and rendering an 
oath; but they still observe the rigorous rules of church discipline 
and emphasize experimental religion. The Schwenkfelders believe 
that it is the duty of their churches "to mediate the higher social 
virtues and moral ideals [which they have inherited from their 
more exclusive ancestors] to those that shall come after them." 
Although they number only six churches and 1,569 members 
(1926), they support a school of higher learning at Perkiomen- 
ville, Pa., maintain a publishing house, and carry on foreign 


358* The distinctive doctrine of the two groups known as the 
Catholic Apostolic Church (3,408 members) and the New Apostolic 
Church (2,938 members) is the fantastic theory that the Lord's 
second coming cannot take place without the existence of the 


twelvefold apostolate. The momentous events of the closing years 
of the eighteenth century, e. g., the French Kevolution, had aroused 
the deep conviction in many that the time of the Lord's second 
corning had arrived. These people, however, believed that the 
Church was not ready for His coming, and therefore they insisted 
upon praying for a revival of the gifts which had marked the 
early Church. All the troubles of the Church, the many heresies 
of the ancient and modern Church, the many schisms and divisions, 
the indifference, and the decline of morals, the large number of 
defections, were said to be due to the absence of the apostolate and 
of the charismatic gifts, especially that of prophesying, including 
an authoritative teaching office. Edward Irving (1792 1834), an 
unusually gifted pulpit orator and pastor of a Presbyterian congre- 
gation in London, gave a large place in his sermons to the hope 
of an early restoration of the charismatic gifts and of the early 
return of Christ. About 1830 a number of ecstatic phenomena 
were viewed as the restoration of the gift of prophecy. The con- 
tents of these prophecies were said to indicate the Lord's early 
return and the Church's duty to prepare for it. According to 
Irving's interpretation of Acts 1, 11; 1 Thess. 4, 15; Matt. 
28, 20, etc., the Lord's return can take place only during the time 
of apostles, and therefore a "visible active apostolate, identical with 
the former apostolate established in the early Church," was con- 
sidered indispensable to the Church. In 1835 twelve men, includ- 
ing Henry Drummond, N. Armstrong, claimed to have been 
directly called as apostles and as such assumed the right to take 
up every doctrinal question, every form of worship or of church 
government which was in dispute, and to settle these questions by 
their "apostolic authority." When their letters to the ecclesiastical 
and secular rulers of virtually the entire Christian world remained 
unheeded, the "apostles" ordained "angels" (evangelists), who were 
commissioned to organize churches in all Christian nations after 
the pattern of the Apostolic Church. London with its seven 
churches (patterned after the seven churches of Asia Minor) was 
the center of the movement. (Cp. the statement prepared by the 
Irvingite W. W. Andrews for Schaff, Creeds, I, 911.) Schaff cor- 
rectly says: "This movement is one of the unsolved enigmas of 
church history. It combines a high order of piety and humility 
of individual members with astounding assumptions, which, if well 
founded, would require the submission of Christendom to the 
authority of its inspired apostles" (I, 908). 


359* The Irvingites believe that "the twelve apostles were the 
twelve spiritual canals going forth from the Great Apostle, Jesus 
Christ, so that through their doctrines and decrees they would 
make it possible for the Holy Spirit to flow through the ordinances 
of the Church and through the laying on of hands to bestow the 
Holy Spirit upon every member, to lead and direct all persons in 
whom the various gifts of the Holy Spirit became manifest, and 
thus to prepare the Church as a pure virgin and to lead her to the 
Lord when He appears." Apostles or Not? p. 11. Cp. Andrews, 1. c. 
This can be done only through "apostles," and therefore the twelve- 
fold apostolate must be present in the end dispensation, the 
New Apostolic Church going even so far as to claim that without 
twelve apostles the body of Christ is incomplete and crippled. 
Apostles or Not ? p. 24. All the charismatic gifts with which the 
first apostles were endowed are said to have been given to the office, 
and therefore the "apostles" in the dispensation immediately pre- 
ceding Christ's coming "have direct mission from the Lord, so that 
He could speak through them and make known His will through 
them" (p. 48). 

360 Though the Irvingites profess to accept the great evangelical 
truths expressed in the three Ecumenical Creeds, with the excep- 
tion of the "Filioque" (though II . W. J. Thiersch claimed not to 
have renounced the Lutheran Confessions when joining the Apos- 
tolic Church), yet the fundamental principle of the Irvingites 
seriously endangers the central doctrines of the Christian religion. 
The Bible cannot be considered the all-sufficient norm nor per se 
the power of God unto salvation because the Irvingites claim that 
the Bible must have "living apostles, prophets, who rule the com- 
munities with their instructions and dispense the blessings pre- 
scribed in the Bible" (p. 53). The doctrines of the vicarious atone- 
ment and of justification by faith are relegated to the background, 
because the Irvingites teach that, in rising from the dead, Christ 
became the Head of redeemed humanity and that the believers 
must be united with the body of Christ through the Sacraments. 
Andrews, 1. c. They say that "the Lord did not complete the work 
of His redemption in the early Church, but will effect a thorough 
redemption from eternal death and destruction through the present 
office of grace." The New Apostolic Office, 26. Through the apos- 
tolate a thorough transformation of mankind to the image of Christ 
is to be effected (24). Therefore justification is understood not 
only in its forensic meaning, but also as an actual moral trans- 


formation. Guenther, 224:. The vicarious atonement must lose its 
value according to the Irvingites, who say that, "while it was 
a divine person who became incarnate, He had no advantage of 
His godhead in His earthly life, but did everything as man, 
upheld, guided, and energized by the Holy Ghost." Andrews, 1. c. 
The work of the Holy Ghost, beginning with Pentecost, consists 
in "glorifying Jesus and manifesting the energy of the Man whom 
God has exalted." Jesus is glorified in and through His body, the 
Church, which is constantly in need of supernatural gifts, visions, 
and dreams if it would properly glorify Jesus. Andrews, 1. c. 

361* The three sacraments, Baptism, Communion, and Sealing, 
are said to be absolutely necessary as the means to unite redeemed 
humanity with the body of Christ. The New Apostolic Office, 14. 
The Eucharist is considered the center of all worship, and "as the 
antitype of the priestly act of Melchizedek," it is observed as a sac- 
rifice of praise by the "priests" for the congregation with a great 
deal of ritualism patterned after the daily sacrifice of the Old 
Testament. Tithing is part of the eucharistic service. Although 
the heavenly elements are said to be received only in a spiritual 
manner and the doctrine of transubstantiation rejected, yet the 
Irvingites believe that the consecrated elements retain some sacra- 
mental quality and a supernatural power to intercede before God. 
Guenther, 334. In conformity with the arrogant claims of the 
"apostles" the holy sealing, also called baptism with the Holy 
Ghost or holy anointing, is the "dispensing and reception of the 
Holy Spirit, the bestowal of citizenship in the heavenly Jerusalem, 
the security of redemption and future glory" and cannot be re- 
reived "through faith alone," but "only through the laying on of 
hands by 'the apostles'" (I.e., 17. 19). According to the New 
Apostolic Church the sacraments can be applied also for the dead 
who through no fault of their own could not come to the knowl- 
edge of truth during their life. The theory is that the departed 
apostles continue the work of preaching which Christ began at 
His descent into hell. The departed are brought to the living 
apostles by the perfected saints and angels, and thus there is sal- 
vation after death if the living apostles can perform the sacraments 
on some living person instead of on the departed. See Scheurlen, 
Die Sekten der Gegenwart, 133 f. Anointing the sick with holy 
oil is also observed by the Irvingites. Guenther, 287. Only the 
"apostles," who claim to be directly called by the Holy Ghost, have 
the Office of the Keys and the power to forgive sins. It is their 


exclusive right and duty to supply the separate congregations with 
bishops, priests, and deacons. Ordination is considered a divine 
institution. A fourfold grade of the ministry apostles, prophets, 
evangelists, and pastors is said to be the necessary instru- 
mentality of conveying God's grace and bringing Christ's body to 
the stature of His fulness. Andrews, 1. c. Some of the Irvingites 
were perfectionists, and all are strict millennialists, believing them- 
selves to be the 144,000, Kev. 14, 1 5, who are sealed with the 
Holy Ghost. Apostles or Not ? p. 72. 

362* The fact that the Lord did not return during the lifetime 
of the "twelve apostles" greatly disturbed the Irvingites. 17 ) Some 
attribute the non-appearance of Christ to the fact that these 
"apostles" were unable to prepare the Church, even as the first 
apostles did not succeed in preparing the Church for Christ's second 
coming. Others claim that the deceased apostles continue their 
activities in behalf of the Church, and they are awaiting further 
direction from the Lord. This is the position of the CATHOLIC 

In 1862 the German bishop claimed that the spirit of prophecy 
had called Preuss as an additional apostle. This claim led to 
a separation and to the organizing of the NEW APOSTOLIC CHURCH. 
While the original body teaches that no new apostles have been 
called since about 1840, the New Apostolic Church believes that, 
as there were more than twelve apostles in the first Church, e. g., 
Paul, Barnabas, so there may also be more than twelve apostles 
in the end dispensation. The chief apostle (Stammapostel) is con- 
sidered the visible head of the Church on earth, whose importance 
to the present Church is said to be far greater than that of the 
first apostles, yes, whose work for the Church is virtually placed 
on a par with that of Christ. Scheurlen, 1. c., 131 f. 


363. The Salvation Army was founded by William Booth (1829 
to 1912), who at the age of seventeen became a lay preacher in 
the Wesleyan Methodist Church at Nottingham, England. In 1853 
he entered the ministry of the New Connexion Methodists as pastor 
and evangelist. Supported by his wife, "the mother of the Army," 
he decided to become an evangelist over the protest of his superiors 
and met with remarkable success as an itinerant evangelist in 
various parts of England. In 1865 he began to preach to the 

17) The New Apostolic Church especially resents the name Irvingites. 


neglected masses of London's Bast End, where his unconventional 
methods, e. g., street preaching, processions, bands, emotional sing- 
ing, etc., aroused the enmity of the ministers, but gained for him 
many loyal and enthusiastic followers. In the most uncomfortable 
and disreputable buildings the roughest, most ignorant, and 
wildest men and women of London were brought together and ac- 
cepted the ministrations of Booth and his wife. By 1878 the 
number of stations had grown to eighty, and the work which had 
been known as the Christian Mission was officially organized and 
called the Salvation Army. The organization is quasi-military, and 
its orders and regulations are modeled after those of the British 
army. Booth became its commander-in-chief and introduced a 
strictly autocratic form of government, demanding unquestioning 
obedience of all subordinates. In 1880 the Salvation Army "opened 
its campaign" in America, but two years later the first defection 
under Thomas Moore occurred, which resulted in the organization 
of the American Rescue Workers. In 1896 the General's son, 
Commander Ballington Booth, and his wife seceded from the Army 
and organized the Volunteers of America. (See below.) To-day 
there are approximately 10,000 posts in the world, over 1,000 in 
the United States. 

The work of the Army is twofold. Its prime purpose is said 
to be the spiritual regeneration of fallen mankind by endeavoring 
to persuade fallen men and women to lead clean lives. Their 
highly emotional type of preaching, of "testifying," and of sing- 
ing makes an impression, at least temporarily, upon many derelicts. 
Especially in recent years the second purpose of the Army's work, 
social welfare, has been more generally recognized, and in many 
quarters the Army is now considered the best agency to deal with 
the wayward and the needy. Public favor has made it possible for 
the Army in this country to establish 79 hotels for men and 
women, 12 boarding-houses for young women, maternity hospitals 
for erring womanhood, orphanages, settlements in the poor quarters 
of the great cities. Prison work and parole, family relief, aid to 
stricken areas, and similar humanitarian endeavors are so prom- 
inent that the Salvation Army is frequently treated solely as a 
social agency, while it is overlooked that in its social service the 
Army workers aim to bring the "gospel of salvation ~by character 
to the neglected masses." 

364* The Salvation Army therefore must be viewed as a religious 
movement or denomination. Although it has no formal creed, yet 
it has a very definite theological system, which is contained in 


Handbook of Doctrine (London, 1927, 170 pages), prepared under 
the personal supervision of General Bramwell Booth. Although giv- 
ing little attention to doctrinal differences, its theology is strongly 
Arminian, featuring especially an Enthusiasm which is very much 
akin to Quakerism. (Its Enthusiastic theology has vitiated practi- 
cally all fundamental Christian doctrines.) Concerning Scriptures 
the Handbook, p. 3, declares that "they only constitute the divine 
rule of Christian faith and practise." But the subjective "ex- 
perience of God's people" plays a prominent part, and the Bible 
is not accepted as the verbally inspired Word of God, but as "the 
record of God's special revelation given directly to man" (p. 6), 
making "known God's messages to man" and "man's experiences 
of God" (p. 8). God is said still to reveal His will immediately, 
for "He speaks directly to men, . . . going straight to the heart, 
making them feel what they ought to do." God "speaks to His 
people through their spiritual leaders" (p. 114). In its extreme 
Enthusiasm the Army denies that the Sacraments are Means of 
Grace, and it even rejects Baptism and the Lord's Supper entirely 
"as abrogated Jewish ceremonies." "Our communion with God 
is not conditioned on human instrumentality." Appendix, p. 3. 
The all-important baptism is said to be the baptism with the Holy 
Spirit, which "results in the purifying of the heart and in power 
for service." For Baptism the Salvation Army has substituted 
the commandments of the Church, e. g., dedication of children, tes- 
timony, uniform-wearing, pledging total abstinence, being sworn 
in, and these regulations are said to accomplish the same ends 
that the advocates of "water baptism" claim for Baptism. Ap- 
pendix, p. 9. Concerning the Lord's Supper the Army claims that 
"John's silence in this matter both in his gospel and in his epistles 
is evidence that no new and essential ceremonial- was insti- 
tuted" (10). True observance of the Lord's Supper is said to 
consist in remembering Christ's death by engaging in spiritual 
conversation "particularly in connection with" [the regular] 
"eating and drinking" (14). 

365, Though coming into contact with sin in all its horrible con- 
sequences, the Salvationists do not see the truly damnable char- 
acter of sin, stating that it is "a disorder or disease which disturbs, 
upsets, defiles, injures, man's whole being" (56). When the Hand- 
book declares that "sin is inward opposition to the will of 
God" (54), it has in mind the continual yielding to sin, whereby 
the "will is weakened, the conscience dulled, the mind darkened" 


(56). Concerning Adam's fall it declares emphatically that "man's 
spiritual powers were marred, but not destroyed. God speaks 
through man's conscience, kindles in him good desires, and is at 
hand to make him more than superior to the evil in his disposi- 
tions and surroundings" (54). "Free ivill enables man, by choos- 
ing the good, to rise to the highest heights of holiness or, by 
choosing evil, to sink to the lowest depths of sin" (45). That 
man is a child of wrath by nature is denied, for "no one will perish 
for the sins of his forefathers who does not make such sins his 
own" (54). The evil tendencies, "no matter how evil, may be over- 
come in the strength of God" (51) and do not involve total 
depravity; in fact "spiritual death, like bodily death, is not at once 
complete and does not imply the absence of will-power" (58). 
Hence man is able to work out his own salvation, for "God com- 
mands the sinners to repent (and that means to "be saved") ; and 
this implies that they are able to do so" (96). The Salvation 
Army is thoroughly Pelagian. 

366* Though William Booth claimed that the "bleeding Lamb" 
is the central doctrine of the Army, and though its emblem con- 
tains the word "blood," the Salvationists actually deny the mca- 
rious atonement. "The death of Jesus Christ should not be rep- 
resented as the literal or actual payment of the sinner's debt" (72). 
The Salvation Army people are thorough-going nomists, teaching 
as to the purpose of Christ's coming that it "was sufficient to make 
amends for the damage done the honor of the Law" (65) and that 
because of Christ's sacrifice "men entertain a far more profound 
respect for the Law and justice of God than would have been the 
case had He sent the human race to hell" (73). The greatness of 
our guilt and the justice of God having been demonstrated by the 
death of Christ, the way has been opened whereby that debt could 
rightly be forgiven and pardoned (65. 73). The death of Christ 
revealed God's mercy and permitted God "to let His love and 
mercy flow out in forgiveness to those who repent and trust the 
Savior" (67). And in this sense "Christ is a propitiation for sin, 
or satisfaction to divine justice" (68). 

367* From this it will be evident that the Salvationists use 
Scriptural terms in the Arminian-Methodistic sense. Regenera- 
tion is not that act whereby God opens our mind and heart to see 
and accept the Savior's vicarious obedience as our own, but it is 
"change of character, by which we are made once more in goodness 
and truth and love after the likeness of God" (105). Conversion 


is said to be "the beginning of a new spiritual life, the soul starting 
life afresh with everything new" (103), so that "the ruling prin- 
ciple of life has been changed from selfishness to love of God and 
the fellow-man" (105). Justification is described as that act 
whereby God "in virtue of Christ's sacrifice does justice to that 
sacrifice by pardoning the believing penitent," i. e., "making us 
actually righteous." The ground of the sinner's forgiveness is 
"the love of God as shown in the sacrifice of Christ" (lOOf. ; see 
above). The conditions for salvation (forgiveness) are repentance 
and faith. Repentance is described as "the sincere determination 
to forsake sin and to obey God, to long for pardon, to make restitu- 
tion as far as possible." God cannot forgive until man has met 
this condition; for "if God forgave unrepentant sinners, He would 
harden them in their sins" (93 96). Faith is necessary to sal- 
vation, or forgiveness, as "that act of personal heart trust by which 
the sinner commits himself to God and accepts the forgiveness 
which God so freely offers." That the Army's faith is merely trust 
in God's love, confidence that God will do His part if man "fully 
complies with the previous conditions," is evident from the state- 
ment that "faith for sanctification is of the same kind as saving 
faith. Sanctifying faith involves intellectual belief that God is 
able, willing, and has promised, to sanctify" (144). That saving 
faith does not embrace Christ and His righteousness, according to 
the Army, is evident furthermore from the error that there is sal- 
vation for the heathen. John 1, 9 is said to teach that even the 
heathen "have a measure of light" and know "something of God's 
love, mercy, and Fatherhood." Even though they have no knowl- 
edge of Christ, "they will be accepted on the ground of Christ's 
atoning sacrifice" (which has vindicated God's justice and made 
reconciliation possible). "Obeying the light is the condition of 
their salvation, just as faith in Jesus is the condition of ours" 
(109 111). Hence the Army denies the sola fide, justification by 
faith, but claims that " 'believing on Jesus' is spoken of as the 
condition of salvation, John 3, 36, simply because saving faith 
presupposes, and is impossible without, repentance" (99). 

368. The doctrine of work-righteousness invariably leads to the 
error of "entire sanctification." The Salvation Armyists are ex- 
treme perfectionists. See 372 Throughout its Handbook the 
Army defends its principle that man's salvation depends on man's 
character. "While God does everything possible to induce and help 
man to be good, He permits him to be tempted and leaves him 


free to act as he chooses" (120). Man's free will and not God's 
gracious purpose in Christ is the ground of man's predestination; 
in fact, predestination is concerned not with individual persons, but 
with a principle. "God has declared that He is 'no respecter of 
persons/ but He has clearly shown that He is a respecter of char- 
acter." Those persons "who possess a certain character shall enjoy 
particular blessings for which they are fit and prepared" (77f.). 
"God chooses those who themselves choose to do what He says" 
(79). "Election depends entirely upon man's own conduct" (80). 
Thus the certainty of man's salvation is taken out of the mighty 
hand of God, and man is to seek the assurance of his salvation in 
the subjective conviction that a great change has taken place in 
him. The Army teaches that the first witness of man's salvation is 
the Holy Spirit, "who reveals directly to the person's own heart 
the fact of his forgiveness and acceptance. The other witness is 
man's own spirit, or conscience, which tells him that his heart is 
changed, etc." (108f.). Only he can have the assurance of salva- 
tion who "has fully complied with God's conditions," and he only 
so long as "he obeys and trusts the Savior" (109). 


369. In 1882 Thomas E. Moore was placed in charge of Salva- 
tion Army work in the United States, but withdrew from the 
London headquarters and organized the American Eescue Workers. 
These claim to be thoroughly American in their principles and 
methods and stress the right of separate existence on the premise 
that the work of the Salvation Army "is of such character and 
importance that it can best be done under American methods and 
rule" (Book of Eules, p. 5). The purpose of the American Eescue 
Workers is defined as being "a movement, military in its methods, 
organized for the reaching and uplifting of all sections of the 
people and bringing them to the immediate knowledge and active 
service of God." Constitution, Art. I. Its workers must "give 
every evidence of a change of heart and must live for the bettering 
and saving of humanity" (Art. II). The cardinal doctrines are 
emblematized in the American Eescue Workers' banner, the back- 
ground of white representing purity, the five-pointed red star sym- 
bolizing the blood of Christ, the border of blue representing the 
heavenliness, and the fringe of yellow typifying the fire of the 
Holy Ghost (Art. X). Its theology is virtually identical with that 
of the Salvation Army, with this possible exception that the Eescue 


Workers claim to be not only a philanthropic and evangelistic so- 
ciety, but a Christian Church, where the Sacraments of Baptism 
and the Lord's Supper are administered. P. 5. Art. XIV. About 
100 stations. 


370, In 1896 Commander and Mrs. Ballington Booth organized 
the Volunteers of America. The main reason for the separate 
existence of the Volunteers is expressed in the Manual of Kules, 
Article III, reading: "It is and shall be, so far as the operations 
in the United States are concerned, an American institution, rec- 
ognizing the spirit and justice of the Constitution of the United 
States, and it is not, and never shall be, controlled or governed by 
any foreign power whatsoever." While the Salvation Army was 
absolutely autocratic in its discipline and government, the Volun- 
teers wanted to espouse the democratic principles of self-govern- 
ment. Otherwise the Volunteers have patterned their society after 
the parent organization in methods, doctrines, and aims, and it is 
considered "a movement military in its methods, organized for the 
reaching and uplifting of all sections of the people and bringing 
them to the immediate knowledge and service of God" (Art. II). 
The spiritual work is considered its real work, while its benevolent, 
philanthropic, and humanitarian endeavors are of secondary im- 
portance, being considered only a means to the end of bringing the 
Gospel to the neglected and unchurched. No charitable work may 
be done at a given place unless spiritual work is first established. 
The Volunteer movement must therefore be considered a Church. 
But its doctrinal basis is extremely plastic and latitudinarian. 
While ordinarily its converts are directed to join the church of 
their preference, latterly the Volunteers, "realizing the need of more 
active members, have made efforts to unite the converts with the 
organization as church-members." Manual, p. 39. Even members 
of other denominations may become members of the Volunteers 
"so long as they do not introduce doctrinal arguments with the 
view of proselytizing among other church-members" (Art. XV). 
Doctrinally the Volunteers are closely related to the Salvation 
Army, having adopted the same fundamental principles. They 
differ from the Army inasmuch as they do not treat the Sacra- 
ments so disparagingly. The Constitution prescribes that the 
Sacraments shall be administered to all who desire them, but "the 
observance of the Sacraments is not to be considered as an es- 
sential condition of membership" (Art. XVI. See also pp. 65 72). 


While, on the one hand, the Volunteers believe that the "Scrip- 
tures teach and urge all Christians to be cleansed in heart from 
inbred sin" (Art. XIII), still, on the other hand, the Manual pre- 
scribes a form of confession to be spoken at the celebration of the 
Lord's Supper containing the following: "We acknowledge and 
bewail our manifold sins and wickedness, which we from time to 
time have committed by thought, word, and deed" (p. 71). The 
Volunteer Prison League, under the direction of Mrs. Ballington 
Booth, is the outstanding benevolent work of the society. 133 sta- 
tions; 28,756 members. 


371+ During the closing decades of the last century the convic- 
tion was voiced in many Eeformed circles, especially in the Meth- 
odist Church, that the original power and spirituality of Wesley's 
doctrines were rapidly disappearing from the churches. Almost 
simultaneously a large number of preachers in widely scattered 
sections of our country organized prayer bands within their respec- 
tive denominations and local churches (ecclesiolae in ecclesia) in 
the hope of restoring the "original power and purity of the Apos- 
tolic Church and to spread Scripture holiness." The bishops of 
the Methodist Church viewed these movements within their com- 
munion with alarm and in 1894 stated in their Pastoral Letter: 
"There has sprung up among us a party with 'holiness' as a watch- 
word. . . . Eeligious experience is represented as if it consists of 
only two steps, the first step out of condemnation into peace and 
the next into Christian perfection. The effect is to disparage the 
new birth and all stages of spiritual growth if there be not pro- 
fessed perfect holiness. Such terms as 'saints,' 'sanctified,' are 
restricted to the few who have reached the height of perfect purity 
and improperly denied to the body of believers." Du Bose, History 
of Methodism, II, 90 f. 

In the main the Holiness bodies are Arminians. The doc- 
trinal statement of the ISTazarene Church contains the essential 
doctrinal points of the Holiness groups: "We deem belief in the 
following sufficient: 1) in one God, the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost; 2) in the plenary inspiration of the Old and New Testa- 
ments; 3) that man is born with a fallen nature and is therefore 
inclined to evil, and that continually; 4) that the finally im- 
penitent are hopelessly and eternally lost; 5) that the atonement 
through Jesus is for the whole human race and that whosoever 
repents and believes on the Lord Jesus Christ is justified and re- 


generated and saved from the dominion of sin; 6) that the be- 
lievers are to be sanctified wholly subsequent to regeneration 
through faith in the Lord Jesus; 7) that the Holy Spirit bears 
witness to the new birth and also to entire sanctification of be- 
lievers; 8) in the return of our Lord, in the resurrection of the 
dead, and in the final Judgment." Nazarene Manual, 1925. 

The various Holiness bodies differ on many points of doctrine 
and practise. The gift of tongues as the initial physical sign of 
"baptism with the Holy Ghost" is stressed by some ; others believe 
divine healing is a normal experience of sanctified believers ; prac- 
tically all teach the premillennial coming of Christ; some practise 
foot-washing: others are strongly anticreedal; the majority is 
opposed to war, secret societies, luxuries. But they are all agreed 
that the doctrine of entire sanctification is the articulus stantis et 
cadentis ecclesiae and therefore make every Scriptural statement 
subservient to this distinctive doctrine. There is of course no prac- 
tical difference between the perfectionism of Eome or Wesley and 
that of the modern Holiness bodies. Eome and Wesley predicate 
perfection of the believer on the premise that evil inclinations are 
involuntary and therefore not really sin, while the Holiness bodies 
base the attainability of entire sanctification on a second cleansing, 
subsequent to, and distinct from, regeneration, whereby the evil 
propensities are entirely removed. Nazarene Manual. 

372. According to Holiness and Power, by A. M. Hills (one of 
the best-known writers on the Holiness movement and quoting 
profusely from Holiness books), entire sanctification (baptism of 
fire, baptism of the Holy Ghost) is not human perfection, not the 
believer's consecration and growth in good works, but God's act 
of cleansing the believer (p. 54). A. B. Simpson, one of the early 
exponents of entire sanctification, says that perfection is not "AT- 
tainment," i. e., an increasing of sanctification, but "oBtainment," 
i. e., an instantaneous and complete deliverance from all inbred 
sin, a distinct experience subsequent to regeneration. The Pour- 
fold Gospel, 30. Entire sanctification is considered a necessary 
experience, for "regeneration removes the love of sin, justification 
the guilt of sins already committed, and sanctification the inclina- 
tion to sin in the future." Hills, 91. 

The Holiness writers claim that original sin does not involve 
guilt until it is approved by the free agent (Hills, 97. 83), yet 
state that God is not pleased with the unlovely fruits which are 
produced by our "moral disease." Therefore it is not sufficient 


that man has forgiveness of his actual or voluntary sins, but "he 
must have relief in the 'basement story' of his moral nature." 
Since regeneration, in the opinion of the Holiness bodies, can only 
correct the evil will and renew man's free will, so that the Christian 
is inclined to good, but not eradicate nor entirely remove the way- 
ward tendencies, therefore Christ has procured "a full salvation," 
"salvation to the uttermost," not only covering our voluntary trans- 
gressions by His forgiveness, or by justification, but also destroying 
sin by "sanctification." Hills, 92. 97. In the opinion of some 
Holiness writers, sanctification is tantamount to an infusion of 
Christ. Simpson writes: "When we are dedicated to God (entirely 
sanctified), Christ comes to live in us and transfuses His life 
through our being. . . . He lives in us as truly as though we were 
visibly dwelling under His wing. God is again manifest in the 
fiesh." The Fourfold Gospel, 39. 40. The same writer claims that 
the "saint's" mental faculties can successfully shut out all mundane 
thoughts and be unaffected by sinful pleasures, or even esthetically 
beautiful things of this world. He pictures the act of sanctification 
as the emptying of a skull, which is then filled with God's penetrat- 
ing fire, so that all mental faculties become the willing servants of 
God. Man} 7 Holiness teachers declare that in sanctification the 
"living physical Christ comes into our life, sharing His physical life 
with ours in a union which is closer than the connubial life" (The 
Fourfold Gospel, 61), and that because of this union "we shall have 
the power of Christ in our bodies," i. e., (Mvine healing. Wholly 
Sanctified, 129. Although not all Holiness bodies teach divine 
healing, the majority believes that the Spirit-baptized Christians 
can rise physically and intellectually above their former pos- 
sibilities. Hills, 229 f. 

According to the Holiness people there is no relation between 
justification and sanctification, while Scripture teaches that sanc- 
tification follows necessarily and immediately upon justification. 
As justification does not admit of any progress, but is always com- 
plete, embracing the merits of Christ, so, according to the Holiness 
preachers, sanctification is instantaneously complete, being received 
by faith just as justification. Hills, 287 f. The idea of the 
Wesleyan perfectionist that the regenerated, but still unsanctified 
believer "obtains more knowledge, better habits, and more stability, 
even to his establishment, as a means of reaching sanctification" is 
rejected when Hills says: "The early Church remained in prayer 
ten days for God's sanctifying Spirit to come. 'Suddenly' lie came, 


and from the moment they were sanctified men." Hills, 55. The 
modern perfectionists believe that from the moment of their "bap- 
tism by the Holy Spirit" there is no growth or progress in perfec- 
tion, since the "saint" is determined and enabled to fulfil Christ* s 
law perfectly. But after all, such sanctification is only a relative 
perfection ; for Hills says that it is not an "absolute perfection" 
since God alone is absolutely holy nor a "sinless perfection" 
since it is possible to fall nor the perfection of the believer's 
glorified state (p. 93). The same writer says: "Sin must not be 
painted in too dark colors, so as to offend every conception of divine 
goodness in the heart of man. Nor must the standard of holiness 
be set too high" (p. 41). Entire sanctification is said to consist in 
serving Christ perfectly with the measure of knowledge the "saint" 
possesses ; and he will pray, "'Lord, I give Thee all I know to give, 
just as well as I know how. ... If I do not give all, it is because 
1 do not know how, and Christ cannot hold me responsible for what 
I do not know." Forty Witnesses, in Hills, 248. In the words of 
Simpson, "God adapts the standard of our duty to our circum- 
stances, ability, and growth, and we are FULLY obedient as God 
calls us forward step by step." Wholly Sanctified, 110 f. 

The Holiness people cannot ignore the temptations with which 
the "saints" are beset, but emphatically declare that their evil in- 
clinations do not come from within, but are entirely from without, 
"for the heart is made pure, the enemies are without, and the 
fort royal is all friendly to the King." Saved to the Uttermost, 
25 32, in Hills, 90. Since, it is said, the temptations come en- 
tirely from without and the "saint" overcomes them, therefore 
"God can credit him with an obedience all the more pleasing." 
Wholly Sanctified, 105. 

The whole theory of entire sanctification is based on ration- 
alism and Enthusiasm. Employing the scholastic axiom "A debere 
sequitur posse," the Holiness teachers say that God never gives 
a "must" without a "may." Hills, 279. "What shall we say of these 
commands in Eph. 1, 4 ; Col. 1, 22, etc. ? Is God a heartless tyrant, 
issuing commands to a race of moral beings that none are able to 
keep? If holiness is not attainable, then God commands what is 
impossible. . . . But God's commands are enablings." Hills, 
101 124. Passages which declare that God or Christ is able to 
succor us in the hour of need, e. g., Heb. 2, 8 ; Jude 24, are said 
to declare that, since Christ is able, therefore He must cleanse us 
from all sin, i. e., also all inclination to sin. If God is able to 



eradicate the indwelling sin, but fails to do so, then He "would 
induce imperfect spiritual and moral purity when He might just 
as well effect perfect purity." Hills, 130136. 165. 

A close examination of the many passages which are adduced 
in support of the doctrine of entire sanctification, perfection, or 
holiness will show that these passages speak of justification, con- 
tinual justification, new obedience, God's promise to help in temp- 
tations, or that they have been torn out of their context, e. g., Col. 
3, 14. 15; Heb. 5, 13 ff., or that they are subjected to an arbitrary 
exegesis, e.g., Matt. 23, 19: Believe that the altar (i.e., Jesus) 
sanctifies (i. e., makes holy) the gift (i. e., the regenerated, but still 
unsanctified believer). Hills, 264. Passages which clearly teach 
that entire sanctification is impossible in this life are simply 
brushed aside, e. g., Eom. 7, 14 25. In this passage, Paul is said 
to be "using himself as an example to represent those who are 
living below their privilege as believers, or he is depicting some 
past experience in his life." Hills, 174. In Phil. 3, 11 15 Paul 
is supposed to mean that he had not attained "the perfection of the 
resurrection state." Hills, 178. See 97* 

Perfectionists, however, do not base their doctrine chiefly 
upon garbled Scripture-passages, but rather on the countless 
"testimonies of the saints," who are said to have experienced entire 
sanctification. Such testimonies fill the literature of the Holiness 
writers and constitute a prominent part of Holiness revivals, camp-, 
prayer-, and class-meetings. Like all Enthusiastic errors, so also 
the doctrine of entire sanctification must lead either to security or 
to despair: to security, because it eliminates daily repentance, is 
a dangerous anticipation of the heavenly perfection, and promotes 
pride and conceit; to despair, when the conscience awakes to the 
fact that God's perfect Law condemns this supposed perfection. 

373* The Holiness bodies will be treated under two main divi- 
sions. The first section will include those groups which separated 
from their respective denominations, particularly the Methodist 
bodies, in order to develop their distinctive doctrine of entire sanc- 
tification. These independent groups, in widely scattered parts of 
the country, united and finally coalesced into eleven denominations. 
In addition to these there are eight colored Holiness bodies. While 
all churches in this group stress the doctrine of entire sanctifica- 
tion, they differ on other doctrines, e. g., foot-washing, charismatic 
gifts; some are related to the so-called Brethren churches; some 
are episcopalian, others presbyterian, in church government. It will 


be necessary to state the doctrinal position of each group separately. 
(Cp. Index, s. v., Foot-washing, Chiliasm, Divine Healing, Charis- 
matic Gifts, Tongues, Baptism of Fire.) The second division of 
Holiness bodies comprises the evangelistic associations. 376+ 

first decade of this century a large number of Holiness congrega- 
tions, or "assemblies," entered individually upon an aggressive 
revivalistic missionary program. Believing themselves to be "mem- 
bers of the general assembly of the first-born, Heb. 12, 23," these 
groups were opposed to "establishing themselves into a sect, that is, 
a human organization which forms articles of faith and has un- 
scriptural jurisdiction over its members and which separates itself 
from other members of the General Assembly, or the Church of 
God." Constitution, adopted 1929. But a definite association of 
the independent local groups was considered valuable, and in 1914 
about 100 delegates, representing a variety of denominations, as- 
sociated themselves together as the Assemblies of God. Head- 
quarters were established at Springfield, Mo. 

Since the majority of members had been members of Meth- 
odist churches, the articles of faith are patterned after the Ar- 
minian confessions, but are "not intended as a creed for the 
Church." In addition to the doctrine of entire holiness the 
Assemblies believe in the direct and immediate witness of the 
Spirit as an inward evidence of salvation; in the doctrine that 
every local assembly is an integral part of the Church; in divine 
healing; in the gift of tongues as the initial physical sign of the 
full consummation of sanctification ; in the premillennial coming 
of Christ. Tithing for the support, not the salary, of the pastors 
and missionaries is observed. 47,950 members. Missions on thirty 
foreign fields. 

2) CHURCH OP CHRIST (HOLINESS) was at first interdenomi- 
national and antisectarian, but gradually developed into a new 
denomination, being represented chiefly in Mississippi and Vir- 
ginia. In addition to the Arminian doctrines it emphasizes entire 
sanctification, baptism by immersion, the gift of the Holy Ghost, 
foot-washing, and divine healing. 4,919 members. 

374 + 3) THE CHURCH OF GOD (General Assembly of Churches 
of God) was organized in 1886 and reorganized in 1907 to meet 
the peculiar views concerning entire sanctification and related doc- 
trines held by a number of people in various denominations of 
Tennessee. Its doctrine is Arminian. It teaches that the gift of 


tongues is a witness of the experience of entire sanctification; 
it believes in the complete restoration of the spiritual gifts, in- 
cluding divine healing; it practises the washing of the saints' feet 
and tithing; it forbids the use of liquor (even soft drinks), par- 
ticipation in war, membership in secret orders, and the wearing of 
jewelry. Minutes, 1931, pp. 96. 97. The denominational terms 
Church of God and Holy Christian Church are used promiscuously 
in the official minutes. The church government is said to be pat- 
terned after the Apostolic Church, for "as the first Church had its 
headquarters at Jerusalem/' so the Churches of God have their 
headquarters at Cleveland, Tenn. As the Apostolic Church was 
"theocratic in its government, James speaking with the counsel 
and perfect agreement of the council, Acts 15, 19," so the will of 
God is said to be recognizable to-day when "the Church strictly 
adheres to the leadings of the Holy Church." Minutes, 13 17. 
In 1931 this body claimed 1,000 ministers and about 30,000 mem- 
bers, including a number of colored churches. 

4) THE CHURCH OF GOD (Anderson, Ind.) claims that it is 
not a denomination, but a "reformation movement" which should 
"ultimately affect the entire Church and bring it to the realization 
of the grand Scriptural ideal that spiritual fellowship with Christ 
and with each other and devotion to Scriptural ideals constitute 
a sufficient bond for the followers of Christ." Brief Sketch, 5. 19. 
This movement was organized under the leadership of Daniel 
S. Warner and now has its headquarters at Anderson, Ind. 

Its doctrinal system is predicated on the theory of the moral 
agency of man and the supernaturalism of religious experience, 
stressing the doctrine of entire sanctification as a definite ex- 
perience subsequent to regeneration. It believes in divine healing 
and other "spiritual gifts," practises foot-washing, baptism by im- 
mersion, is opposed to war and membership in secret societies. Its 
distinctive doctrine is that "the Church of God originally was not 
an aggregate of individuals, . . . but the concrete embodiment of 
the spiritual body of Christ" (Brief Sketch, 14), and it is there- 
fore said to have had the Spirit, divine charismata, and offices 
based on these charismatic gifts, e. g., prophets, healers, teachers, 
in other words, both purity of doctrine and a theocratic form of 
government. Both are said to have been lost through Rome's er- 
rors, but are being restored, the purity of doctrine through the Lu- 
theran Reformation and the theocratic form of government through 
the Church of God reformation movement, which rejects all 


ecclesiasticism and has established the ideal of the Spirit-filled and 
Spirit-directed Church (I.e., 19). The Church of God rejects all 
creeds as "a system of human authority in church relationships and 
in spiritual operations" and all denominational lines, since it "rec- 
ognizes the Lord's people in all communions and feels an irresistible 
drawing in the Spirit toward them." The claim is made that there 
can be no perfect unity with such believers until they are willing 
to give up the unscriptural systems of ecclesiasticism and to recog- 
nize the principle of theocracy in the Church (I.e., 21 f.). Only 
such authority is to be recognized in the Church of God as 
"exists in the individuals by virtue of their divine gifts and 
qualifications" (I.e., 20). 

375, 5) THE CHURCH OF THE NAZARENE is the fusion of some 
ten distinct Holiness movements which had been organized in 
New York, the New England States, California, Texas, and the 
Southeast around 1900. The Nazarene Church is essentially in 
accord with Methodism, both doctrinally and politically. Its dis- 
tinctive mark is the emphasis which is placed upon the doctrine 
that in His atonement Jesus has made provision not only to save 
men from their sins, but also to perfect them in love. Nazarene 
Manual. The doctrinal position of the Nazarene Church is very 
broad (cp. 371), "requiring only such avowals of belief as are 
essential to Christian experience," i. e., entire sanctification, grant- 
ing liberty to its members in the doctrine of Christ's second com- 
ing, in the mode of baptism, but rejecting the belief in the gift of 
tongues and divine healing. It is the largest body among the 
Holiness groups, numbering about 1,500 churches, claiming 80,000 
members, and carrying on an aggressive mission program at home 
and abroad. Headquarters are at 2923 Troost Avenue, Kansas 
City, Mo. 

seceded from the Pentecostal Holiness Church as a protest against 
the quasi-episcopalian form of church government in the parent 
organization. (Cp. Book of Discipline.) Its doctrinal stand is vir- 
tually identical with that of No. 10. 

7) THE HOLINESS CHURCH grew out of the evangelistic 
preaching of the Methodists H. Wallace, J. Singer, and H. Ashcroft 
in Southern California. It emphasizes the same doctrinal prin- 
ciples, rules, and regulations which govern the other Holiness 
bodies, including the "privilege of divine healing" and the doctrine 
of Christ's premillennial coming. Though organized as early as 


1896,, it has made little progress numerically and is confined to 
California and Kentucky, with 32 churches. 

8) THE (ORIGINAL) CHURCH OF GOD, a group of 50 churches 
with 2,487 members, organized in 1886, claims to be the first 
Church which was organized according to the pattern of the 
Apostolic Church. Its Minutes (Chattanooga, 1931) state that 
"it stands for the whole Bible rightly divided, the new Testament 
being the only rule for government and discipline" (p. 37). The 
usual Holiness tenets are stressed, also divine healing, gift of 
tongues, baptism by immersion, foot-washing, tithing, opposition 
to secret societies and worldly amusements. 

also as the Apostolic Faith Assembly, Full Gospel Assembly, etc., 
7,850 members, believe that "membership in the Church is obtained 
only by sincere repentance, water baptism, and the baptism of the 
Holy Ghost as evidenced by speaking in other tongues." Divine 
healing, entire sanctification, and especially the imminent and per- 
sonal return of Christ, opposition to secret societies and war, ob- 
servance of foot-washing, are some of the outstanding tenets. 
Cf. Census Keport, II, 1089. The more extreme form of the 
earlier Methodist revivals is typical of the Full Gospel missions 
(Holy Boilers). 

the Holiness movement of the South and Middle West during the 
years 1895 to 1900. It includes principally the Fire-baptized 
Holiness and the Pentecostal Holiness Church, which were united 
at Falcon, 1ST. C., in 1911." Discipline, published by P. H. Pub- 
lishing House, Franklin Springs, Ga. Its basis of union demands 
the acceptance of the doctrines of entire sanctification, the gift of 
tongues as the initial evidence of the baptism with the Holy Ghost, 
divine healing, the imminent premillennial coming of Christ. The 
word "hell" in the Second Article is defined as "the place of the 
departed righteous." The attendance at "all places of worldly 
amusement" is proscribed, likewise the use and distribution of 
tobacco, needless ornamentation, church bazaars, etc. The mode of 
baptism and the practise of foot-washing is left to the individual. 
8,096 members. 

11) THE PILGRIM HOLINESS CHURCH is a fusion of a number 
of Holiness churches, notably of the International Apostolic Holi- 
ness Union and of the Pilgrim Holiness Church, which had been 
a district of the Nazarene Church. Its doctrinal motto is: "In 


essentials unity, in non-essentials liberty, in all things charity." 
According to its manual the specific purpose of the Pilgrim Holi- 
ness Church is to preach the so-called "full Gospel/' i. e., salvation 
from actual sins through justification and from original sin 
through entire sanctification ; the premillennial coming of Christ; 
divine healing; and evangelization of the entire world. The 
manual (Cincinnati, 0.) proscribes frivolous conversation, sale and 
use of tobacco, liquor, and drugs, dances, baseball, membership in 
lodges, and military training. 15,040 members. 


(formerly using the word Ethiopian instead of Apostolic) numbers 
1,047 members. Its general purpose is evangelistic. 2) CHURCH 
OF GOD (APOSTOLIC), 492 members, teaches perfectionism, bap- 
tism by immersion, and practises foot-washing. 3) CHURCH OF 
GOD IN CHRIST, 20,263 members, stresses the possibility of entire 
sanctification, in evidence of which the gifts of speaking in tongues 
and divine healing are said to be given. Baptism is by immersion ; 
the washing of feet is observed. 4) THE FREE CHURCH OF GOD 
IN CHRIST, 874 members, historically and doctrinally related to the 
preceding group, opposing tithing and war. 5) THE FREE CHRIS- 
TIAN ZION CHURCH OF CHRIST, 187 members, is Methodistic in 
doctrine, but is opposed to the episcopal system. 6) CHURCH OF 
members, is organized as a fraternal order. Its founder, Wm. 
Christian, "who, by virtue of a divine call, created the office of 
chief/' teaches that the "Freemason religion is the true mode of 
religion" and that his "organism shall be known as operative 
Masonry and its first three corporal degrees shall be Baptism, Holy 
Supper, and feet-washing." Dues in the nature of tithes are col- 
lected; the churches are known as temples; the sick are anointed. 
TRUTH), 5,844 members, seceded from the preceding group, largely 
due to the difference in the management of the order. 8) THE 
CHURCHES OF GOD, 29 churches, believe that "the body of believers 
in any one place is the church in that place, for on account of 
the unity of Christ there can be but one church in a particular 
place, though there may be several meeting-places" (Star Book). 
The group teaches entire sanctification, divine healing, and other 
charismatic gifts (I.e., pp. 20. 21. 31). 



376* In this chapter a number of organizations will be treated 
which are not denominations, but rather associations of churches 
or of members in various denominations or of individual workers 
having one thing in common, namely, to conduct evangelistic or 
missionary work, chiefly in the interest of spreading the doctrine of 
entire sanctification and related doctrines. These associations are 
undenominational and usually show little inclination to organize 
definite congregations; others again concentrate their work in the 
foreign fields. The associations are numerically small, and it will 
not be feasible to give statistics, because some report only the 
workers and those actively identified with the various movements. 
(See Index, s. v. Perfectionism, Charismatic Gifts, Divine Healing, 
Foot-washing, Chiliasm.) 

Baptizers), a loose association of 53 German-Swiss congregations, 
was founded by the Swiss-American Rev. S. H. Proehlich. The 
body holds views which in some respects are akin to those held by 
the Mennonites, the doctrine of entire sanctification constituting 
a prominent feature. Similarly to the Novatians, they believe that 
he who has arrived at the state of perfection and again enters the 
state of sin cannot receive forgiveness, thereby denying second 
conversion. They reject infant baptism and teach that in the 
baptism of adults, sins are not only forgiven, but "entirely burnt 
away." 5,709 members. 

2) THE APOSTOLIC FAITH MISSION is not, properly speaking, 
a denomination, but "an evangelistic movement on Scriptural 
plan, carried on by preachers, evangelists, and special workers 
who feel they are called by God and who work without salary or 
collections." Census Eeport. According to its confessional pub- 
lications it emphasizes, in addition to peculiar doctrines of the 
Holiness group, particularly the doctrine of divine healing (both 
by personal visits and by correspondence, as also by "discerning the 
Lord's body" in the Lord's Supper), the literal millennium, and 
foot-washing. Its missionary work is carried on chiefly in Japan, 
China, Korea, and South America. 

which originated in the evangelistc movement among the un- 
churched masses by the Presbyterian minister A. B. Simpson of 
New York in 1881, is an association of members in the various 
Protestant churches "who seek fellowship with one another and 


with the larger association of kindred believers, without affecting 
their denominational relations." Manual of 1931, p. 6. The ob- 
jects are "to hasten the return of our Lord by following His 
program for this age, which is to preach the Gospel in all the 
world and to deepen the spiritual life of Christians everywhere by 
the testimony of the Holy Spirit," i. e., entire sanctification. It is 
by far the largest and most aggressive missionary association, num- 
bering 332 local "branches" in the United States with 22,737 
members. Seeking to avoid any sectarian aspect, it is averse to 
establishing independent churches, many of its most active and 
liberal supporters being members in various Protestant churches. 
The association "engages only in such activities as contribute to 
world evangelization." In this country its work has generally been 
restricted to the spiritually neglected masses. On the foreign fields 
over 500 white and over 1,000 native workers are employed, with- 
out duplicating the work of any existing Gospel agencies. 

Being undenominational, it has no official creed and permits 
the local branches absolute liberty in the mode of baptism and in 
church government. Membership in the Alliance is based solely 
upon acceptance of the fundamental Christian doctrines. The 
Alliance, however, demands that the fourfold or "full" Gospel be 
recognized, i. e., a) Christ must be preached as the Savior from 
sin; b) as the Sanctifier (entire sanctification, q. v.) ; c) as the 
Healer (divine healing, q. v.) ; d) as the coming King (pre- 
millennial coming, s. v. Chiliasm) . Headquarters are at 260 W. 
44th Street, New York. 

378* 4) THE CHRISTIAN CONGREGATION (two churches) wants 
to systematize charity. 5) CHURCH or DANIEI/S BAND numbers 
SOCIATION, a voluntary organization of 14 congregations, with 
headquarters at Tabor, Iowa, engages about 150 workers in home 
missionary work and 26 workers in foreign fields. The society has 
no formal creed, but emphasizes the "full" Gospel (q. v.). 

of the missionary activity of the Metropolitan Methodist Church 
of Chicago, carries on an aggressive missionary program in all 
parts of this country and in foreign countries. Believing that 
Matt. 19, 21 must be understood lite-rally, no one connected with 
the organization, including the teachers at the large Bible school 
in Waukesha, Wis., receives a regular salary. Its theology is Ar- 
minian, stressing in particular the preaching of the "full" Gospel. 


cooperating evangelical churches which seek "better opportunities 
for cultivating deeper spiritual life and engage in aggressive work." 
Preamble to Constitution. Most of its missionaries,, trained at the 
Fort Wayne Bible Training-school, are sent to foreign mission- 
fields under the direction of the Christian and Missionary Alliance. 
It subscribes to the Arminian theology and stresses in particular 
entire sanctification, the premillennial coming of Christ, divine 
healing, non-resistance, baptism by immersion. 

9) MISSIONARY BANDS OP THE WORLD was organized by the 
Eev. Vivian A. Dake, in 1885, in order to engage talented young 
people of the Free Methodist Church in mission-work. It is prac- 
tically a denomination, though it is still largely a missionary move- 
ment, engaging about 50 ministers in the United States and some 
55 workers in foreign fields. Doctrinally it is closely related to 
the Free Methodist Church, emphasizing entire sanctification, 
divine healing, opposition to secret societies and to war. 

10) THE PILLAR OF FIRE (formerly the Pentecostal Union) 
was organized by Mrs. Alma White, the wife of a Methodist min- 
ister, in 1901, "for the purpose of engaging in works of benevolence, 
charity, and missions." Mrs. White had carried on missionary 
enterprises in a number of Colorado towns entirely separate from 
her husband's pastoral work and due to opposition separated from 
the Methodist Church, believing that "the Methodist Church as 
such had ceased to exist and had lost its spirit and truth." Why 
Pillar of Fire ? p. 20. 22. Mrs. White's Church is committed to 
the doctrines and principles of historic Methodism, "taking an un- 
compromising stand against sin and proclaiming the doctrine of 
holiness" (1. c., 30) . Mrs. White believes that it was her specific 
calling to adapt methods in church-work to the changed conditions 
of our age, e. g., ordaining women as bishops, wearing special garb. 
2,44:2 members. 


379* The center of a new religious movement carried on by 
Mrs. Aimee Semple McPherson Hutton, still referred to generally 
as Mrs. McPherson. A Canadian by birth (1890), she was con- 
verted at the age of 17 by Robert Semple, a traveling evangelist, 
who soon afterwards became her husband. Semple died in China, 
and the widow returned to America. She married Harold 
McPherson, made revival tours, and a separation from her husband 


followed. McPherson obtained a divorce on the grounds of deser- 
tion. She has since married David Hutton, from whom she has 
again been separated (1934). Mrs. McPherson bears the title 
Pastor of Angelus Temple, an institution which she has built up 
through her preaching. A mural painting above the organ grill 
portrays her "vision" of the second coming of Jesus Christ. The 
movement claims 186 branch churches (94 in California) with 
a membership of over 100,000. The membership of the Temple 
itself was 20,000 in 1930. The institution has 30 missionaries in 
foreign lands. 

Originally Mrs. McPherson's work was Pentecostal in char- 
acter. "When Mrs. McPherson first came to Los Angeles, she was 
associated with the 'tongues' movement at Victoria Hall. The 
movement at Victoria Hall was then a genuine 'Holy Koller' 
movement so far as physical facts go. For many years before that 
time she was a most prominent figure in the 'tongues' demonstra- 
tion, which attended all her revivals. Her first husband was a 
'tongues' preacher, preaching in unknown tongues. She claims in 
her writings that she was convicted under his preaching while he 
was speaking in an unknown tongue. She claims that her second 
husband received the gift of 'tongues' under her ministry. During 
her first revival in Los Angeles, the 'tongues' manifestations be- 
came so noisy in her meetings that people living near by complained 
to the police, and I have personally talked with the officers who 
were assigned the task of protecting the community about the tent 
from these demonstrations." E. P. Shuler, McPhersonism, p. 36. 

380, The work at the present time is organized as the Echo Park 
Evangelistic Association, Inc. The denominational connection is 
uncertain. Mrs. McPherson has advertised herself as a Baptist 
preacher. The Declaration of Faith (edition 1933) states the or- 
thodox Christian position on the Scriptures, the Trinity, the fall 
of man, the plan of redemption, salvation through grace, and the 
last things, while the Eeformed doctrine finds expression in the 
paragraphs on the Sacraments (Baptism "a blessed outward sign 
of an inward work, a beautiful and solemn emblem"; the Lord's 
Supper "a precious type of the Bread of Life," etc.). Eegarding 
divine healing: "We believe that divine healing is the power of 
the Lord Jesus Christ to heal the sick and the afflicted in answer 
to believing prayer." Applicants for membership "must show 
evidence of having genuine born-again experience." 


381+ Mrs. McPherson claims direct revelations. God speaks to 
her through trances. Therefore to her have been given certain 
powers that have been withdrawn from those ministers who wor- 
ship "a Christ that was." In the opening paragraph of a booklet 
entitled Lost and Eestored, Mrs. McPherson states very frankly 
that "the message contained in this booklet was given in vision and 
prophecy under the inspiration and power of the Holy Ghost." 
The title of another book, This Is That, is an allusion to Acts 2, 16, 
thereby claiming for her ministry the fulfilment of the prophecy 
in Joel regarding the pouring out of the Spirit. "Beginning with 
a miraculous conception in her mother's womb of a baby girl as 
a result of a sacred vow entered into between that mother and God 
and ending with messages to the nations and to the saints, de- 
livered from God Himself through his prophetess, this book will 
go down to unborn generations, should her movement continue, 
as a revelation, a book of God, a book as certainly inspired as the 
Bible and relating to a woman as certainly inspired as Isaiah or 
St. Paul." E. P. Shuler. A description of herself in the same 
book, p. 776, represents her as God's bride. She thus describes her 
endowment with the gift of interpreting tongues: "One day as 
I was worshiping the Lord in other tongues, as the Spirit gave 
utterance, I suddenly became conscious of the fact that I could 
understand the words that the Spirit was speaking through me. 
. . . No one in the assembly had had the gift of interpretation up to 
this time. ... As the pastor spoke, the power was flowing through 
my being. . . . The brother pointed over the audience in my direc- 
tion and said: 'Somebody here has got the interpretation.' . . . 
The next meeting wherein a message in tongues was given through 
the brother, I yielded to the Spirit, who seemed literally to lift me 
to my feet and spoke through me in English the interpretation of 
the message which had been given in tongues. I was amazed to 
find how easy it was." This Is That, 1919 edition, pp. 69. 70. 54. 
Also regarding this book she claims direct inspiration. "It is as 
a direct result of these gifts and operations of the Spirit that the 
following messages and visions are recorded. Sister McPherson 
claims no authorship, as, when these messages were spoken through 
her, she was completely under the power of the Holy Spirit, her 
tongue and voice were controlled by the Spirit as though speaking 
in tongues; only that they came in English. Those who were 
present copied down the messages word for word as spoken" 
(p. 635). 



382* Divine healing is prominent in McPhersonism. According 
to her theory we are saved and healed by faith as a result of the 
death of Jesus Christ upon the cross. She predicates her healing 
under the atonement on Matt. 8, 17 : "Himself took our infirmities 
and bare our sicknesses." 144, footnote. 

Angelus Temple has for its program the so-called Four- 
square Gospel, the four elements emphasized being: conversion; 
divine healing; baptism of the Holy Ghost, including "tongues"; 
and the premillennial return and reign of the Lord (chiliasm). 
Mrs. McPherson's stormy domestic life and unblushing mercenary 
spirit have not materially affected the following which she has 
gathered through her personality, her bold claims of immediate in- 
spiration and miraculous power, and her gift of organization. In 
England the movement is known as Elim Four-square Gospel 
Alliance. In Germany its representative is the Elim Christen- 


383* The majority of the Swedish immigrants who came to this 
country during the second half of the nineteenth century had been 
members of the Swedish State Church and upon their arrival in 
America quite naturally united with the Swedish Augustana 
Synod, which had maintained fraternal relations with the Lutheran 
State Church in Sweden. An appreciable number of immigrants, 
however, came from the free churches of Sweden which had seceded 
from the Lutheran State Church following the great revival of the 
nineteenth century. Under the leadership of a number of lay 
preachers, and particularly of Paul Waldenstroem, the Swedish 
Mission Covenant was organized, without a definite confession. 
The immigrants coming from these mission societies did not feel 
at home in the Lutheran Augustana Synod and therefore organized 
independent congregations, or "mission" churches. In 1873 a num- 
ber of these societies, especially in Illinois, united and formed the 
Swedish Lutheran Mission Synod, and in the following year others 
organized the Ansgarius Synod. Since the work of these two 
bodies was identical, they united in 1885 as the Swedish Evan- 
gelical Mission Covenant. In reality this is only a loose organiza- 
tion and a voluntary union of congregations with a very broad and 
liberal confessional basis. Pietism and unionism are outstanding 
characteristics. The present president, the Rev. C. V. Bowman, 
defines the doctrinal standard of the Mission Covenant as follows : 


"The Covenant emphasizes particularly the necessity of having 
spiritual life through faith in Jesus Christ. It likewise emphasizes 
the importance of organizing local Christian churches of believers 
only, not a mixed multitude of believers and unbelievers. In 
matters of doctrine the Mission Covenant fully realizes the im- 
portance of adhering closely to the teachings of the Word of God; 
but appreciating the fact that godly men and sincere students of 
the Bible differ widely in their conceptions of some Bible-truths, 
the Covenant has not formulated a creed, and made its acceptance 
a condition for membership in the Covenant churches. . . . The 
Covenant prefers to emphasize the importance of searching the 
Scriptures and holds that the spiritually enlightened Christians 
will find in the Bible itself the most satisfactory guide to the 
truth." 36,838 members. 

Mission Covenant was organized in 1885, a number of mission 
congregations declined to join the union and organized the Swedish 
Evangelical Free Mission, later changed to Swedish Evangelical 
Free Church. It allows still greater liberty in doctrine than the 
Mission Covenant, permitting its ministers to have their own con- 
victions concerning such doctrines as the atonement, Baptism, and 
Holy Communion. The only requisite for church-membership is 
conversion and the Christian life. Baptism is usually administered 
by immersion. 8,166 members. 

ASSOCIATION traces its origin to the spiritual awakening which 
swept over the Scandinavian countries and resulted in the forming 
of "free churches." These independent churches in Norway and 
Denmark sought bonds of fellowship with similar movements in 
other countries, especially with the earlier Congregationalist move- 
ment. Immigration brought many members of these free churches 
to America, where associations were formed and fraternal relations 
established with the Congregational Church. In 1910 a national 
association was organized at Chicago. 3,781 members. 


384. Founded at Chicago in 1896 by John Alexander Dowie, 
ostensibly for the restoration of the Apostolic Church and 
organized with apostles, prophets, elders, etc. Dowie was a Con- 
gregational preacher, ordained in Australia 1871. He began to 
practise divine healing, then came to America and built Zion 


Tabernacle in Chicago, 1893. He assumed in 1901 the title "Elijah 
the Kestorer" and in 1904 advanced to "First Apostle." Prominent 
throughout his extraordinary career as a cult-leader and indus- 
trialist is the claim that faith-healing is of the essence of Chris- 
tianity. He drew large crowds to the Auditorium, and later to his 
tabernacle, through his attacks on liquor, smoking, and the use of 
medicine. The cult teaches baptism by immersion, the millennium, 
tithing as an obligation, and abstinence from pork. The apostolate 
is regarded as a mark of the true Church "throughout the Chris- 
tian dispensation." "Perfection comes later in the Christian life. 
. . . The salvation of Jesus Christ eliminates sin from the spirit, 
from the soul, and from the body." Leaves of Healing. Since 
1899 the organization is established at Zion City, north of Chicago, 
and conducts business enterprises which have had a value of 
millions. In 1906 Dowieism claimed 17 branches, 35 ministers, 
and 5,865 members. A missionary campaign in New York proved 
a failure and broke Bowie's influence. He was accused of im- 
morality and of mismanagement of funds, was deposed 1906, and 
died 1907. Wilbur Glenn Yoliva, his son-in-law, became his suc- 
cessor. The organization is no longer listed in the census reports 
as a religious body. (See Census Kep., 1926, II, 644.) The Zion 
City establishments were bankrupt in 1932. 

In its later stages the cult has given much prominence to 
chiliasm. The doctrine of the general resurrection is termed "one 
of the greatest perversions of Scripture which Satan has succeeded 
in foisting upon the Church." When the saints are awakened, 
a period of 1,000 years elapses before the resurrection of the un- 
godly. The dispensationalism of the new chiliasm is taken over, 
with additions of date-setting, based 011 much violent wresting of 
Scripture. In the story of Elisha's mocking "the two 'bears are 
the types of the first and second beast that appear immediately 
after the Eapture, one coming out of the sea and the other coming 
out of the earth; and the forty-two children represent the 1,260 
days, or the three years and six months, or the forty-two months, of 
tribulation." The Lord's coming is close at hand. The year 1934 
marks the close of the "times of the Gentiles." Sometime before 
September 16, 1936, the Eapture will occur. In 1942 the Battle 
of Armageddon will be fought. Different from Dowie, who denied 
plenary inspiration and taught a continuous revelation, Voliva 
claims rigid adherence to the Scriptures. The organization con- 
tinues to claim apostolic character, with something of a hierarchy 


including apostles, elders, evangelists, deacons, and deaconesses. 
The form of government in the Church is called theocratic, "which 
means the rule of God, the Church having no narrow creed, but 
takes the whole Bible as its rule of faith and practise." 


385* The Advent movement originated with William Miller 
(1772 1849), who claimed that the millennium would be ushered 
in by the premillennial coming of Christ. Miller furthermore be- 
lieved that the prophetic portions of the Bible foretell the exact 
time of the Lord's visible return and the establishing of His glori- 
ous reign in this world. According to Miller "the cleansing of the 
temple" in Dan. 8, 13 means the cleansing of the earth at Christ's 
second coming and is to take place at the end of 2,300 days, 
i. e., 2,300 years. According to his computations Jerusalem was 
restored in 457 B. C., and therefore Christ would return about 
1843. Thousands in the existing churches, especially the Baptist 
denomination, Miller was a licensed Baptist preacher, ac- 
cepted the theory and prepared for the coming of the Lord. When 
the time set by Miller had passed, a second date, October, 1844, 
still found many awaiting the Lord's return. 

After these two disappointments the majority of Miller's fol- 
lowers in the various denominations were sobered; some churches 
had also by this time taken a definite stand against the Millerites, 
and therefore the adherents of the Advent movement formed an 
independent organization in 1845 to perpetuate the distinctive doc- 
trines developed by Miller, particularly the imminence of Christ's 
premillennial coming and the soul-sleep (psychopannychism) . 
But divergent opinions were held by various leaders of the loosely 
organized body, primarily concerning the Sabbath, the immortality 
of the soul, the eternal punishment of the wicked, resulting in 
several divisions. One body, the Evangelical Adventists, taught 
the doctrine of the Trinity, eternal punishment of the wicked, the 
immortality of the soul, and the conscious state of the dead. This 
branch, however, disbanded about 1915, and there are now five 
groups, the largest being the branch known as 

386* 1) THE SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISTS. A group of Millerites 
under the leadership of Joseph Bates, James White, and his wife, 
Ellen G-. White, believed that Miller's interpretation of Dan. 8, 
13. 14 was correct concerning the time, but not the character of the 
event. They said that the cleansing of the sanctuary prophesied 


for the year 1844 was not to take place in the earth, but in heaven. 
During the early years after the failure of Miller's prophecies this 
group held that in 1844 the period of human probation had ended 
and that Christ had entered upon the so-called investigative judg- 
ment, to be followed shortly by His personal and visible appearing. 
This is the so-called shut-door theory, which is no longer held. 
Of. D. M. Canright, in his critique, The Life of Ellen G. White, 
pp. 103 ft'. Adventists believe that it is their special duty to preach 
to the world that the "hour of God's Judgment has come," Kev. 
14, 6 14, that man should therefore "come out of Babylon" and 
obey the commandments, in particular also that concerning the 
Old Testament Sabbath. This group of Adventists has been ob- 
serving the Sabbath since 1844 and adopted the name Seventh-day 
Adventists in 1860. A general conference was organized in 1863, 
with headquarters at Battle Creek, Mich., now in Washington, D. C. 

387* It is difficult to define the position of the Adventists on 
many fundamental doctrines. The statements of their fundamental 
beliefs are not only ambiguous, but often misleading when ex- 
amined in the light of their other writings, especially the works 
of Mrs. Ellen G. White. The Seventh-day Adventists refuse to 
accept creeds on the ground that "the Bible contains a sufficient 
rule for faith, morals, and practise." The truth of the Gospel is 
said to be "a growing, dynamic thing, that must not be shackled 
by the cold formularies of men." A. L. Baker of the Adventist 
Press Association in Weber, Eeligions and Philosophies, 144. 
Though they claim that "the Bible contains an all-sufficient revela- 
tion of God's will to men" (Fundamentals of Belief), they also 
believe that "the gift of prophecy together with other gifts of the 
Spirit should be manifested in the Church in every age." What do 
Seventh-day Adventists Believe ? Mrs. Ellen White "is looked upon 
as having possessed the gift of prophecy and having received mes- 
sages of instruction for the Church from time to time by the direct 
inspiration of the Holy Spirit." Quoted by the Adventist H. E. 
Eogers in Census Eeport, II, 24. The Adventists are gross 
Enthusiasts. 1 Mrs. White believes "that the listening ear can 
hear and understand the communications of God through the 

18) Their Enthusiasm probably explains the contradictory doctrines 
entertained in their midst and the frequent changes made. Guenther, 
Populaere Symbolik, quotes Adventist writers who deny the spirituality 
and omnipresence of God, the Trinity, the consubstantiality of the Son, 
the incarnation of Christ. Present representatives of the Adventists em- 
phatically profess belief in these doctrines. 



things of nature/' . . . but that "in the Word we have clearer lines 
of the great work of atonement." Steps to Christ, 89. 92. The 
.same author declares that even the heathen have not only heard 
God's voice in nature, but that they have also been touched by the 
Holy Ghost and are recognized as God's children. Desire of 
Ages, 638. 19 > 

388* The doctrinal system of the Seventh-day Adventists can best 
be understood in the light of their central theme, the peculiar 
notions concerning the cleansing of the sanctuary. Fundamental 
Beliefs states : "The true sanctuary is the temple of God in heaven, 
which is to be cleansed at the end of the 2,300 days of Dan. 8, 
13. 14 (1844), when Christ entered upon the judgment phase of 
His ministry in heaven. Its completion will close human proba- 
tion. ... In the time of the judgment, God sends forth a procla- 
mation of the approach of Christ's second coming and brings to 
view a work of reform to prepare a people to meet Him at His 
coming. . . . This investigative judgment determines who of the 
dead is worthy to have a part in the first resurrection and who of 
the living will be translated." The standard, or norm, according 
to which Christ is conducting this investigative judgment since 
1844 is the will of God as contained in the Decalog. Adventists 
believe that the introduction and observance 'of Sunday instead of 
the Jewish Sabbath is the abomination foretold Dan. 7, 25 and the 
mark of the Antichrist. The "cleansing of the sanctuary" consists 
in judging and condemning the churches which observe the Sun- 
day, prophecied Eev. 14, 8. Only strict Sabbatarians will have part 
in the "first resurrection," which will take place after all nations 
have been warned of the sin of defiling the Sabbath. The Old 
Testament tithing system is considered mandatory. Dietary rules 
as given to the Jews, including the prohibition to eat pork, form 
a prominent part in their religion, the claim being made that de- 
liverance from sin and healing from diseases through correct diet- 
ing are complementary functions of the Gospel. Baker, 1. c., 139. 

389* Such Judaizing tendencies virtually abolish the Gospel. 
Adventists cannot distinguish between Law and Gospel. Mrs. White 
writes : "In the Law is embodied the same principle as in the 
Gospel." Desire of Ages, 608. Eeligion, according to Seventh-day 
Adventists, does not consist in systems, rites, or creeds, but in 
"genuine goodness" (I.e., 497). It is true that the Adventist 

19) Both books are published by the Review and Herald Publishing 
Association, owned and operated by the Seventh-day Adventists. 


publications abound with statements which stress the vicarious 
atonement of Christ, which speak of faith embracing Christ and 
justifying from the sins that are past. But these declarations must 
be understood in their proper setting. Faith is not viewed as the 
hand which appropriates Christ and His merit, but is said to take 
hold of Christ's divine power, "inducting the believing into the 
covenant relationship, where the Law of God is written on his 
heart, and through the enabling power of the indwelling Christ 
his life is brought into conformity to the divine precepts." Fun- 
damental Beliefs. Adventists teach that good works are necessary 
to salvation. Atonement, 157. True, they state that we are "jus- 
tified by Christ's blood for the sins that are past" but they con- 
sider it equally important that we "are saved from the power to 
sin by His indwelling." Justification is therefore not based on the 
"Christ for us" but on the "Christ in us." Mrs. White writes : 
"Our only ground of hope is in the righteousness of Christ im- 
puted to us and in that wrought by His spirit working in and 
through us." Steps to Christ, 68. Naturally the Adventists make 
much of the believer's mystical union with Christ, which is said 
to result in man's moral transformation and the ability to keep 
the Law of God. According to Mrs. White, Christ's work con- 
sisted chiefly in showing that the Law of God could be kept in 
humanity. "Christ came to reshape the sin-marred character of 
man after the pattern of His divine character and to make it 
beautiful with His own glory." Desire of Ages, 38 f. 296. 308. 
310. 123. 604. Steps to Christ, 11. 26, and passim. Conversion 
therefore is defined as "an entire transformation of life and char- 
acter by the recreative power of God through faith in Jesus." Fun- 
damental Beliefs. 77, Such Arminian principles presuppose the 
doctrine of the freedom of human will and a denial of the total 
depravity of man, Mrs. White teaching that all men are able to 
chose between truth and error, for none are so vile that they cannot 
consent to enter into covenant relation with God. Desire of Ages, 
458. 258. 763. 

390. Adventists have developed an eschatology in accord with 
their phantastic theories. They teach that "Christ has made 
provision for the atonement for the sins of men and in the final 
day of accounting will formally blot out the sins of men." What 
do Seventh-day Adventists Believe ? They view Christ's priesthood 
as the antitype of the Old Testament sacerdotal office, because, 
as the daily sacrifices were intercessory, so Christ until 1844 


interceded for men's sins, which had been brought into the heavenly 
sanctuary. But as the sins of the Jewish people were judged and 
removed on the Day of Atonement and the sanctuary again 
cleansed, so also Christ has entered "upon the judgment phase of 
His priestly office" in 1844 and "is now removing the sins of those 
in whom His salvation has become efficacious." Fundamental 
Beliefs, 14. (Cp. Guenther, Populaere Symbolik, pp. 193. 227. 
Canright, op. cit., 138.) Adventists believe that Christ could inter- 
cede for men even after their death, since the dead are said to be 
in a state of unconsciousness until their resurrection (soul-sleep). 
(Adventists adopt an arbitrary punctuation in Luke 23, 43, viz., 
"Verily I say unto thee to-day : "Thou," etc.) The doctrine of the 
soul-sleep is based on the theory that "human nature is in- 
herently mortal and that immortality and eternal life come only 
through the Gospel and are bestowed only upon believers at the 
second advent of Christ." The Adventist doctrine of man's 
mortality is said to release God from the stigma of everlastingly 
torturing the wicked, to make the phantasy of spiritism, the 
communication with the dead spirits, impossible, and to give that 
honor to Christ which His vicarious death merits. Baker, op. cit., 
144. At the second coming of Christ the righteous dead will be 
raised and the righteous living translated and taken to heaven for 
thousand years to rule with Christ and judge the wicked. At the 
close of the millennium, Satan and the wicked, who will be raised 
in the second resurrection, will make their final assault upon the 
saints, only to be consumed and annihilated by a terrible con- 
flagration, which will at the same time regenerate the earth as the 
everlasting abode of the saints. 

The Adventists reject infant baptism, baptize by immersion 
only, as a sign of, and following, true repentance. Obedience to 
every commandment of God, including "the keeping of the Sab- 
bath," must precede a valid baptism, and therefore the baptism of 
the churches which do not observe the Sabbath is not recognized. 
(The Nature of Christian Baptism, 57 f., quoted by Guenther, 
309.) Baptism cannot give forgiveness of sins if, as Adventists 
teach, the atonement is incomplete. See 389, also above. The 
anointing of the sick is practised by them. They observe the 
custom of foot-washing prior to the celebration of the Lord's 
Supper, which they consider symbolical of Christ's death. Women 
are eligible to the ministry. Absolute separation of Church and 
State is advocated. The church polity is congregational. 110,998 


391* 2) THE ADVENT CHRISTIAN CHURCH. The prediction of 
Jonathan Cummings that Christ would return in 1854 aroused the 
criticism of the majority of the Millerites, who had given up the 
attempt of setting the time of Christ' s return after the sad ex- 
periences in 1844. But by 1854 Cummings's belief in the mortality 
of the soul and the extinction of the wicked had definitely fixed 
a breach between his followers and the original Millerites. His 
doctrines are essentially the same as those of the Seventh-day Ad- 
ventists, excepting that he taught that Sunday must be observed 
instead of the Jewish Sabbath. In 1855 Cummings organized the 
Advent Christian Church, whose distinctive doctrines are embodied 
in the Declaration of Principles (1900) and include the following: 
Man was created for immortality, but through sin forfeited his 
birthright. All dead are unconscious, the righteous to receive im- 
mortality and the unrighteous to suffer complete extinction at 
Christ's second coming. Salvation is free to all who in this life 
accept it on the condition that they turn from sin, repent, believe, 
and consecrate themselves. At Christ's second coming sin will be 
abolished in this world. The earth will become the eternal home 
of the redeemed. They do not practise foot-washing, stating that 
"Baptism and the Lord's Supper are the only ordinances." Women 
are eligible to the office of the ministry. 29,430 members. 

3) THE CHURCH OP GOD (ADVENTIST) agrees essentially 
with the Seventh-day Adventists, excepting that Mrs. White is not 
recognized as a prophetess nor any other church name considered 
permissible except Church of God. The doctrines are set forth in 
forty articles, "What the Church of God Believes, and Why." 
(Stanberry, Mo.) 1,686 members. 

4) THE LIFE AND ADVENT UNION (numbering only 535 
members) is closely related to the Advent Christian Church, dif- 
fering on minor eschatological questions, e. g., the wicked dead 
shall not be raised at all : Christ's second coming is near, since the 
millennium a period of religious persecution is already past. 
(What the Bible Teaches.) 

5) CHURCHES OP GOD IN CHRIST JESUS embrace the former 
Brethren of the Abrahamic Faith, Eestitutionists, Age-to-come 
Adventists, and similar associations. They differ from the other 
Adventists in believing that the kingdom of God shall be estab- 
lished with Jerusalem as its capital, the believers to be joint rulers 
with Christ. Of. Census Eeport, II, 43. 3,528 members. 




392* A movement representing the evangelical party in the 
Reformed churches of the United States. It originated about 1910 
as a reaction against Modernism, which then was in its early 
ascendancy. The movement came into public notice through the 
publication, beginning 1909, by the Moody Bible Institute Press 
of Chicago, of twelve volumes of essays entitled "The Funda- 
mentals." Two unnamed laymen defrayed the expense of printing 
these volumes and sending them to every Protestant minister in 
the United States. 

Fundamentalists stress the great doctrines of evangelical 
Christianity the deity of Christ, the atonement made through 
His blood, justification by faith as a gift of divine grace, the work 
of the Holy Spirit, the resurrection of the dead, the final Judg- 
ment, and heaven and hell. 

Aside from the Reformed type of its theology (rejection of 
objective justification, of the union of natures in Christ, of Bap- 
tism and the Lord's Supper as Means of Grace) Fundamentalism 
limits the conditions of Christian fellowship to the fundamentals 
and therefore is inherently unionistic. Denominational connection 
is not a bar to complete fellowship so long as the fundamentals are 
confessed. The eschatology of Fundamentalism is chiliastic. With 
a few notable exceptions, leading Fundamentalists are mille- 
narians of the dispensationalist type and engage in a militant 
propaganda for this error. Chiliasm, 399. 

The Christian .Fundamentals League, with headquarters at 
Los Angeles, accepts members on subscription to the following 
fundamentals : "1) the divine inspiration, infallibility, and absolute 
authority of the Holy Scriptures; 2) the personality of God the 
Father; 3) the deity, virgin birth, vicarious death, physical resur- 
rection, ascension, exaltation, and coming glory of our Lord Jesus ; 
4) the personality, deity, and work of the Holy Spirit; 5) the 
personality of Satan; 6) the great Scriptural doctrines of sin, 
salvation by grace, redemption, regeneration, justification by faith, 
separation, prayer, resurrection., the reward of believers and re- 
tribution of unbelievers; 7) the evangelization of men everywhere 
and the ministry of the Word to build up believers and complete 
the body of Christ." Official Tract. 

A related organization, the World's Christian Fundamentals 
Association, has adopted the following confession of faith : "1) We 


believe in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as 
verbally inspired of God and inerrant in the original writings and 
that they are of supreme and final authority in faith and life. 
2) We believe in one God, eternally existing in three persons, 
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. 3) We believe that Jesus Christ 
was begotten by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary and 
is true God and true man. 4) We believe that man was created in 
the image of God; that he sinned and thereby incurred not only 
physical death, but also that spiritual death which is separation 
from God; and that all human beings are born with a sinful 
nature and, in the case of those who reach moral responsibility, be- 
come sinners in thought, word, and deed. 5) We believe that the 
Lord Jesus Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures as 
a representative and substitutionary sacrifice and that all that be- 
lieve in Him are justified on the ground of His shed blood. 6) We 
believe in the resurrection of the crucified body of our Lord, in His 
ascension into heaven, and in His present life there for us as 
High Priest and Advocate. 7) We believe in 'that blessed hope/ 
the personal premillennial and imminent return of our Lord and 
Savior Jesus Christ. 8) We believe that all who receive by faith 
the Lord Jesus Christ are born again of the Holy Spirit and 
thereby become children of God. 9) We believe in the bodily 
resurrection of the just and the unjust, the everlasting felicity of 
the saved, and the everlasting conscious suffering of the lost." 
Eiley, What Is Fundamentalism? 


393, Modernism is that movement within the Christian Church 
which rejects the authority of the Bible as the inspired record of 
divine revelation and gives to human reason the deciding voice 
in all matters of religion and morals. 

The father of Modernism is F. E. D. Schleiermacher (died 
1834), in whose writings we find the following well-defined teach- 
ings of present-day Liberalism: 1) Christianity is not absolute, 
but only one form of religion. 2) Human feeling and inward ex- 
perience are the true source of religious ideas. 3) The idea of 
a transcendent God practically disappears. He does not regard 
Him as personal (pantheism; Spinoza). 4) The divinity of Christ 
is eliminated ( Sabbellianism in the doctrine of the Trinity). 

5) Sin is the conflict between man's sensual and his spiritual 
nature (Plato) and not the will of man in conflict with God. 

6) The aim of ethics is a Christian civilization. 7) The Church 


as an external organization is needed only as an opportunity for 
the beginner in his seeking after religion ; the real Church must 
be seen in the union of all the religions, comprising those without 
as well as those within Christianity. To these ideas Ferd. C. 
Baur (died 1860) added the demand that the remnants of "supra- 
naturalism, irrationalism, and mysticism" in Christianity must be 
overcome by a religion "more humanized, rationalized, subjectified, 
and spiritualized." Albrecht Eitschl (died 1889) made religion 
still more subjective by demanding that "every objective teaching 
is to be tested and judged by the practical value for my own inner 
life or experience. Whatever in the Bible I find of value for my 
own inner life, that I accept as true; whatever I cannot thus 
utilize for my inner self I pass by." He rejected the natural 
depravity of man, denied the wrath of God over the sinner, rejected 
justification as a forensic (imputative) act, and defined the king- 
dom of God as humanity organized according to the law of Christ 
(social gospel}. 

Modernism in America subscribes to the radical criticism of 
the Bible. With the German critic J. Wellhausen (died 1918), 
it holds that in all religions the development goes from animism 
to monotheism. Christianity is part of such an evolution and has 
an organic historical connection with many other religions. (Com- 
parative Keligion, History of Keligion School; Gunkel, Bousset, 
Troeltsch, Soederblom. ) 

Popularized in America chiefly by Lyman Abbott (the Out- 
look) and W. Eauschenbusch (social gospel) and espoused by 
leaders in the Federal Council of Churches, Modernism has gained 
a control all but complete in the Congregational Church, largely 
dominates the Methodist and Baptist churches, especially in the 
North, and has a preponderating influence in the Episcopal and 
more lately also in the Presbyterian Church. 

394* Since it is difficult to frame a creed out of mere negatives or 
to articulate into a confessional statement the denials of the new 
religion, the task of stating exactly the tenets of Modernism is 
a difficult one. Dr. A. T. Pierson in the Missionary Eeview (1911) 
suggested that the creed of Modernism would read somewhat like 
this : 

"I believe in a conception of God, a multiplication of infinities, 
and in creation by spontaneous generation and eternal evolution; 
and in Jesus Christ as a distinguished ethical teacher, who was 


born of natural generation, suffered as a martyr for what He be- 
lieved to be the truth, and was crucified, dead, and buried. He 
was reputed and believed by His disciples to have risen from the 
dead and to have ascended into heaven and to be coming again to 
reign on earth as King. 

"I believe in the Infallible Ego as the ultimate court of appeal 
in all matters of truth and duty; a universal Church, composed 
of all who are honest in their opinions and upright in their con- 
duct; in the communion of the cultured and the philanthropic; 
in the reformation of bad habits and the inculcation of virtue; 
in the proper care of the body and the education of the mind; in 
scientific progress, college training, and the 'spirit of the age'; 
in 'two great commandments the love of God and the service of 
fellow-men; in a life of altruism and so in undying influence 
for good/ " 

That this is not a caricature of modern Liberalism becomes 
evident by comparison with the creed which the Christian Eegister, 
commonly regarded as an organ of the Liberals, suggested March 6, 
1913 : "I believe in God, the ineffable creative spirit of an evolving 
universe. Where I discern goodness, beauty, or truth, there I see 
God made flesh. I believe in all true teachers, and especially in 
Jesus, the greatest religious genius of history. He was born of holy 
human wedlock. Pie taught men by precept and example that we, 
like him, are sons of God and brothers of one another. He died 
not to appease the wrath of God, but the wrath of men a martyr 
to his cause. I believe in man. Behind him are millions of years 
of evolution. But he is still in his infancy. Before him are eons 
of developing life, eons which challenge him to further conquest 
over nature and himself, fuller comradeship with his fellow-man 
and with God. I believe in the coming of a new Catholic Church, 
a spiritual community, world-wide in its extent, embracing all the 
good of present religions and also values that are yet to be. I be- 
lieve in the gradual advent of a new social order, whose major 
motive power will be not acquisition, but service. I believe that 
the eternal life does not wait upon death, but is in the here and 
now." The resurrection, final Judgment, and the end of the 
world are denied, and the future life is seriously questioned. 
Death is not the result of sin, but was included in the order of 
physical existence. 

The position of Modernism on some fundamental doctrines : 


395* a) The Scriptures are a record of religious experience. The 
Bible is not the Word of God, but at best contains the Word of 
God. The unique inspiration of the Bible is denied; Isaiah and 
Paul were "inspired," but not their books. 

b) There is no essential difference, but only one of degree, 
between the revelation of God through the writers of the Bible and 
that given through Confucius, Plato, or Spinoza. All religions 
are essentially the same. The term "heathen" as applied to ethnic 
religions is inappropriate. 

c) Its doctrine concerning God is pantheistic. God is "the 
spiritual forces of the world in which we live," "the unseen forces 
of the universe." Gerald B. Smith, Biblical World, 1919, p. 634. 
"The progress of science has steadily reduced belief in a wonder- 
working God to an orderly, law-observing God." Eichard Koberts 
in The Christian God, 1931. "I no longer believe in a Great First 
Cause. My God is a great and ever-present force, which is manifest 
in all the activities of man and all the workings of nature. I be- 
lieve in a God who is in and through and of everything not an 
absentee God, whom we have to reach through the Bible or a priest 
or some other outside aid, but a God who is close to us. Science, 
literature, and history tell us that there is one eternal energy, that 
the Bible no longer can be accepted as ultimate." Lyman Abbott, 
Harvard Address. "We are, so to speak, a portion of the eternal 
divine substance, detached from its source (or feeling itself to be 
such), wrapt up in matter and put to sleep, rendered unconscious 
of its glorious origin, limited in a thousand ways, and then bidden 
to evolve toward that from which it came." E. J. Campbell, 
Homiletical Eeview, 1911, p. 391. 

396* d) The Modernist does not speak of the preexistence, or 
eternity, of Jesus or of Him as the "only-begotten Son of God"; 
he speaks rather of "the incarnation," leaving each one free to 
define the term in a way that will eliminate the supernatural if he 
so prefers or in any other manner that will render the doctrine con- 
sistent with rationalism. Jesus is not the only-begotten Son of 
God, descended from heaven to bear the sins of lost men; He is 
rather a son of God just as all men are sons of God. He differs 
in the degree of divinity attained by Him, but not at all in the 
nature of that divinity which all men have by virtue of being sons 
of God. His death was not a sacrifice to satisfy divine justice, but 
was an object-lesson of sublime devotion, of the incomparable iden- 
tification of Jesus with His brethren; the price which He had to 


pay for having discovered to men the fatherhood of God and the 
brotherhood of mankind. His death was that of a martyr and was 
intended to be an exhibition of God's love, not for men who are 
hopelessly in the grip of sin, but who are simply helpless and who 
in their effort to save themselves may be stimulated by the moral 
influence of His act of "devotion. His second visible coming is 
denied. "Why is it, then, that the Church holds so tightly to the 
terms and Scriptures and theologies which conceive of Jesus as 
divine if not to honor Jesus? The answer is, not that the Church 
is trying to lift Christ up to God, but to think of God in terms of 
Christ. The essential is not merely the Godlikeness of Christ, but 
the Christlikeness of God. . . . Former debate spoke in terms of 
the divinity, or deity, of Christ. The present emphasis is on the 
Christlikeness of Deity. The course of church history does indeed 
look as if men were trying to give increasing honor to Christ, but, 
after all, the back-lying aim has been and is to interpret God in 
terms of Christ. The various theological formulas have been so 
many instruments of such interpretation. . . . All the elaborately 
contrived doctrines of miracles, of incarnation, of Trinity, of 
atonement, no matter how difficult to understand intellectually, are 
clear enough in their central intent, namely, to show God in 
Christ." Bishop McConnell in The Christlike God. 

"Qu. Why did Christ have to die for man's sin if God is 
omnipotent? I am at a complete loss to understand the doctrine 
of the atonement" "A. You are probably thinking of Christ's 
death either as a propitiation offered to an angry God or as a means 
of removing an obstacle to the further carrying out of His will. 
The first idea has no warrant in the New Testament. It is es- 
sentially a pagan view and quite loses sight of the fact that in the 
New Testament Christ is always set forth as God's gift, to us and 
as the supreme expression of His love. The second idea may also 
be seriously misunderstood. It can be taken to mean that there 
was some obstacle in God which the death of Christ removes. I be- 
lieve it is correct to say that the obstacle was in man. What could 
such an obstacle be? Only one thing: sin. God desires the de- 
struction of sin, but sin is something which mere omnipotence can 
never abolish. Sin is an attitude of the human will, and God can- 
not change that unless we allow Him to do so. The sufferings of 
Christ are the means whereby God seeks to win our will to Him- 
self. They are an expression at one and the same time of His 
great and abiding love for men and of His aversion to sin. He 


would forgive, but He can forgive only as we repent, and He 
manifests Himself in Christ to produce in us the spirit of repen- 
tance and thereby make us forgivable." Dr. S. Parkes Oadman in 
New York Herald Tribune, October 11, 1929. 

Typical in their substitution of vague verbiage for the de- 
finitions of the Christian creed are the expressions of Harry 
E. Fosdick on the deity of Jesus Christ. First of all he quotes 
with approval the statement of another that the deity of Jesus "is 
not primarily a statement concerning Jesus . . ., but a statement 
concerning the invisible God." Then he urges that "a phrase such 
as 'Jesus is God' is not to be found either in the Scriptures or 
the creeds." Then he becomes nebulous : "Jesus was man, and He 
must be God in what sense He can be God being assuredly man." 
Next he theologizes, and by stressing the "absolute immanence of 
God," he draws the conclusion that a mixture of the human and 
the divine has little that a Modernist need shy at: "All the best 
in us is God in us. This makes faith in the divine Christ in- 
finitely easier than it was under the old regime." Finally he 
waters down the central doctrine of Christianity into this, that 
"in everything that matters to our spiritual life very God came 
to us in Christ . . . ; that side of God character, purpose, redeem- 
ing love we do find incarnate in Christ." Fosdick, The Modern 
Use of the Bible, pp. 252269. 

397* e) Conversion. There is constant reference to the heavenly 
Father, whose children include the whole human race. The doc- 
trine that men must be born again and receive the Spirit of adop- 
tion in order to become the "sons of God" is set aside. For con- 
version is substituted a moral effort, "the will to imitate the 
example of Jesus." Hence the emphasis on the group, while the 
individual counts for little. 

f) Economico-political reform. War is condemned as inher- 
ently sinful. "We must seek in season and out of season for social, 
industrial, political, diplomatic, and even governmental forms in 
which the spirit of Jesus will function naturally. . . . The vision 
of a social and industrial order whose laws are so perfectly the 
laws of Christ and whose spirit is so essentially the spirit of Christ 
that to live in a world like that would be a joy, to serve in it 
a sacrament. . . . War is just the final expression of the implicit 
hostilities of our social and industrial order. It is deeply rooted 
in economic causes. ... I do not believe that we shall ever have 
peace as long as industry is organized on a competitive instead of 


a cooperative basis." Gains G. Atkins, The Spirit of Jesus in Inter- 
national Kelationships, 1916. "When religion was once actually 
applied to the soul's relation to God, it played havoc with spiritual 
autocracy; now, when it is being applied in fiery earnestness to 
national and international matters, it is determined and destined 
to play havoc with political autocracy ; to-morrow, when it is to be 
applied to our social problems, it will play havoc with economic 
autocracy." Daniel Evans, in Christian Work, 1918, p. 100. 

g) The Church is not a divine institution, but an agency to 
bring in the kingdom of God. Social gospel. The gospel the new 
law. See quotations under e) and f). 

h) The Sacraments. "Baptism and the Lord's Supper are 
memorable and beautiful symbols; we have a right to use them to 
assist our faith; we have no right to make them a fetter to any 
man's freedom. As long as they express the unity of the spirit 
they are good, as soon as they become causes of contention and 
separation, they are accursed." Dr. Washington Gladden in The 
Christian Work, 1918, July 6. 

i) The hereafter. Modernism declines to have much concern 
about the hereafter (othenvorldliness) and stresses the life here 
on earth. Secularism. 460, 

j) Being essentially naturalistic, Modernism denies the pos- 
sibility of miracles, substitutes evolutionism for creation, and 
denies the virgin birth and resurrection of our Lord and the 
existence of good or evil spirits. 

398, k) Modernism rejects the confessional principle (church 
creeds) and accordingly fosters unionism and syncretism.' "Be- 
lieving that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of theology, 
we welcome to our fellowship every one who is seeking truth and 
righteousness, whatever his faith or opinion may be, leaving 
each one free to think and act for himself. No creed or ritual is 
imposed as a requisite of membership, but simply a desire to help 
forward the cause of spiritual culture and the higher life." Joseph 
Fort Newton, quoted in Christian Work, 1918, p. 16. 

Non-Christian critics are perfectly aware of the essential dif- 
ference between Modernism and Biblical theology. "Christianity 
according to Fundamentalism is one religion. Christianity accord- 
ing to Modernism is another religion. . . . There is a clash here 
as profound and as grim as between Christianity and Confucianism. 
Amiable words cannot hide the differences. . . . The God of the 
Fundamentalist is one God; the God of the Modernist is another. 


The Christ of the Fundamentalist is one Christ; the Christ of 
Modernism is another. The Bible of Fundamentalism is one Bible ; 
the Bible of Modernism is another. The Church, the Kingdom, 
the salvation, the consummation of all things, these are one thing 
to Fundamentalists and another thing to Modernists." The Chris- 
tian Century (modernistic). "They,"- the Modernists, "reject reve- 
lation. They reject