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Full text of "The oecumenical documents of the faith [microform]. The creed of Nicaea. Three epistles of Cyril. The tome of Leo. The Chalcedonian definition"

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Besides the main topic this book also treats of 
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THE OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 
OF THE FAITH 



EXE YriAINONTQN AOH2N 



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THE CREED OF NICAEA. THREE EPISTLES OF CYRIL 
THE TOME OF LEO. THE CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 



EDITED WITH INTRODUCTIONS AND NOTES BY 



T. HERBERT BINDLEY, B.D. 


MHRTON COLLEGE, OXFORD 

PRINCIPAL OP CODRINGTON COLLEGE AND CANON OF BARBADOS, AND 
SOMETIME EXAMINING CHAPLAIN TO THE LORD BISHOP 



METHUEN & CO. 

36 ESSEX STREET, W.C. 

LONDON 

1899 



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PLYMOUTH 

W. BRENDON AND SON 
PRINTERS 



PREFACE 

A CUBED is the outward verbal expression of an inwardly 
existing Faith, and Faith is a spiritual energy which 
sympathetically welcomes a revealed Truth. The reve- 
lation of the Truth in the Person of the Incarnate Son 
of God is a historic fact. Its firm outlines have been 
preserved in the Greeds of the Church; its limitless 
embrace .is beyond the powers of fallen man ; yet each 
age of reverent scrutiny on the part of the regenerate 
has added something to the apprehension of its breadth 
and length and depth and height. 



* # 



The aim of the present volume is more simple. It 
is to present the original texts of the outlines of the 
Church's teaching, and to endeavour to elucidate them 
by means of historical and dogmatic annotations. 

* # * * * 

Any editor of well-known documents must necessarily 
be under great obligations to those who have worked and 
edited before him, and I wish to take this opportunity 



x PREFACE 

of making the fullest acknowledgment of my own in- 
debtedness in this respect. My thanks are also due to 
the editor of the Church Quarterly Review for allowing 
me to reproduce, in the notes upon the Eevised Creed 
of Jerusalem (pages 70-76), some of the arguments and 
language which I had used in an article which appeared 
in that Eeview in April, 1899 (vol. xlviii. 190). 

T. H, B. 

CLIFTON, 

Festival of St. Michael and All Angels, 
1899. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

GENERAL INTRODUCTION . . i 

THE CREED OF NICAEA . . . n 

Introduction . . . . . . 13 

Text . . . ... 17 

Notes . . . . 19 

Appendices to Creed of Nicaea . . 55 

Creed of Caesarea . . . 57 

Creed of Jerusalem . . . . , 58 

Creed of Alexandria . . 59 

Creed of Justin Martyr . . ... 60 

Creed of Apostolic Constitutions . . 61 

Creeds of Antioch . . ... 63 

Revised Creed of Jerusalem . . 69 

History . . . . 70 

Notes . . . ... 76 

Detached note on "Filioque" . . .88 

Creeds of Epiphanius . , 93 

THE EPISTLES OF CYRIL . . 97 

Introduction . . . ... 99 

Analysis of Second Epistle to Nestorius . . .102 

Text of Second Epistle to Nestorius . . .104 

Notes . . . . . 108 

Third Epistle to Nestorius . . . .116 

Analysis . . . , . 117 

Text . . . ... 121 

Notes . . . ... 134 

The Twelve Articles . . . . . 143 

Epistle to John of Antioch . . . . 160 

Analysis . . . . . . 164 

Text . . . . . . 166 

Notes . . . ... 173 

Appendix . . . . 177 



xii TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

THE TOME OF LEO . . . ... 187 

Introduction . . . ... 189 

Analysis . . . ... 193 

Text . . . ... 195 

Notes . . . ... 205 

THE CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION OF THE FAITH . . . 217 

Introduction . . . . . . 219 

Analysis . . . '. 225 

Text . . . ... 229 

Notes . . . ... 235 

Appendix . . . ... 245 

TRANSLATIONS . . . . . 251 
Epistles of Cyril 

Second to Nestorius . . ... 253 

Third to Nestorius . . ... 258 

To John of Antioch . . . . . 272 

The Tome of Leo . . ... 279 

The Chalcedonian Definition of the Faith . . . 292 

GENERAL INDEX . . . ... 299 

INDEX OF TEXTS . . . ... 308 



THE 

OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 
OF THE FAITH 

GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

THERE are two avenues by which we may approach the 
documents which enshrine the Faith of the Catholic 
Church the one purely dogmatic, the other historical. 
In the one case we deal simply with finished results, 
technical statements of Catholic truth; in the other we 
investigate the causes which led to the truth being ex- 
pressed in the particular language of the formularies 
before us. But it is indeed really necessary to combine 
the historical with the dogmatic study of the great 
symbols of the Faith if we wish to properly appreciate 
their significance; for the exact terminology of the 
Creeds and their allied documents cannot be fully under- 
stood unless the history embedded in the phrases be 
known. In some instances this involves a knowledge of 
the heresies whose false or imperfect presentation of 
doctrine caused certain truths to be formulated by the 
Church in terms which at the same time excluded certain 
errors. This is only to say that, while the truths were 
undoubtedly held from the. beginning, they were often 
latent in the Christian consciousness rather than verbally 
expressed, until the denial of them obliged the Church to 

B 



2 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

ponder upon her Faith, and to put it into reasoned words. 
And the finished dogmatic results, as we now know them, 
were not attained without much sifting of language and 
disentanglement of logic. 

For example, it was not until Sabellianism attacked the 
Tri-personality of the Godhead, extending the unity of 
nature into a unity of person, that the Church found it 
necessary to co-ordinate her belief in the Deity of the 
Son and of the Spirit with her intellectual hold upon 
monotheism. Nor was it until Arius rationalistically 
denied the Eternal Divinity of the Word that she had to 
discover terms to express her faith in the Essential Unity 
of the Father and the Son existing in personal distinct- 
ness. Similarly it was due to the attacks of Apollinarius, 
Nestorius, and Eutyches upon the completeness of either 
the Humanity or the Divinity of her Lord that the 
Church was led to work out the right expression of her 
belief in the Two Perfect Natures united in His One 
Divine Personality. 

The Baptismal Formula was unquestionably recognized 
by the Church as the "Hypotype" (uTrorJ-Trwcn?) the 
outline of essential credenda which was to be filled out 
and enriched as necessity arose.* " Make disciples of all 
the nations, baptizing them into 

THE NAME OF 

THE FATHER AND 

THE SON AND 

THE HOLY SPIRIT" (Matt, xxviii. 19). 

This doctrine of the One God existing in Three Persons 
is the basis of all Christian creeds, although the several 

* Gomp. Vincent Ler. Common. 23. 



INTRODUCTION 3 

acts and operations of each Person may not be in all cases 
described. This fact is recognized in the summary ex- 
planation of his creed appended to it by Eusebius of 
Csesarea at the Nicene Council: TOVTWI/ e/cacrroj/ elvai 
Koi virdpxew Tricrrevovre^ ILarepa a\t]9>s ILarepa, KOI 
Yto> a\rj6S>$ "Yiov, KOI lived/ma "A.yiov a\y6a>s "A.yiov 
/caOw9 /cat o KU/HO? yimu>v aTrooTeXXcov et? TO 
rovs eavrov paOyTas elirev, /c.T.X. [Matt, xxviii. 
19]. Similarly the second creed of Sirmium (Socr. ii. 30) : 
To Se Ke<J>a\aiov Tracr*?? T^9 TTiWeco? KOI 6 (3e(3aidTr)s ecrrlv 
"iva Tpias aei (j>v\drTr)Tai, KaOu>$ aveym/uev ev TW 
euayyeX/w [Matt, xxviii. 19]; the Homoion Creed of 
Acacius at Seleucia (Socr. ii. 40); and the Synodal letter of 
Constantinople, 382,- which recognizes the Mcene Creed 
as " an expansion of the baptismal profession " (Theodor. 
H.E. v. 9). Epiphanius likewise argues the "Unity in 
.Trinity and Trinity in Unity" from the triple assertion of 
belief in the creed : Trto-Teuo/xej/ yap et? eva Qeov TLarepa 
TT avroKpd.ro pa. To Se TTicrreuo/xej/, o^x a7r\u>s elptjrai, 
a\\' % TrtWis etV TOI/ 0eov. Kat et's eva K. 'I. X/HOTOV* 
ov% a?rXft)9 e'lptjTai, aXX' ei<? Qeov fj TTKTTIS. Kat et? TO 
"A.yiov HlvevfJia ' KOI ovx avrXw? e'lpijTai ' aXX' et? fj,iav 
doo\oyiav, Kal ek /ULiav emoriv Oeoryros, /cat ftiav 
ojAoova-ioTtira, elf rpia reXeia, ju,iav Se Oedrrira, fj.lav 
ovcriav, /Jiiav Soo\oylav, ]u,lav KvpioT^ra, airo rov Tria-revo- 
ftev, Kal TTia-TevofJieV) KOI TTLarrevofJiev (Haer. 74. 14). * 

Accordingly we find that the actual interrogations and 
responses made at baptism seldom embrace more than a 
belief in the Three Persons of the Trinity, to which was 
sometimes added a reference to Baptism, Forgiveness of 
Sins, Eternal Life, and the Church. 

* Comp. Basil, de Sp. Sanct. 26, 27 ; Athan. ad Afros, 11. 



4 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Thus the baptismal profession mentioned by Cyril as in 
use at Jerusalem was simply 

Tria-revo) els rov Harepa 

\ i \ -\ * ( i 

Kdl CIS TOV LlOV 

KOU 9 TO "Ay toy TLvevfta 
(Catech. xix, 9), to which he adds in another place 



KOI 



(ib. xx. 4.) With this may be compared Tertullian's words 
(de coron. 3), "Dehinc ter mergitamur amplius aliquid 
respondentes quam Dominus in evangelio determinavit": 
upon which light is perhaps thrown by his treatise " de 
baptismo," cap. 11, and by Cyprian's Epistles on the 
Novatian controversy (Epist. 69 ad Magn. ; 70 ad Episc. 
Num.), from which we may deduce the following bap- 
tismal interrogatories : 

Credis in Deum Patrem 

et in Filium Christum 

et in Spiritum Sanctum ? 
Credis in remissionem peccatorum 

et vitam aeternam per sanctam ecclesiam? 

The same evidence is found in a passage in the work 
de Trvnitate, which Vigilius of Thapsus probably took 
from Athanasius : " Conf essio fidei immo ipsa fides sanc- 
torum et testamentum quod disposuimus ad Patrem et 
Klium et Spiritum Sanctum, ad sacrum lavacrum re- 
generationis venientes, conf essi sic 

Credo in Deum Patrem Omnipotentem 

et in Jesum Christum Filium Ejus Unigenitum 
et Spiritum Sanctum." 

Yet these brief confessions, which formed the "Sym- 
bolum" proper, by no means exhausted the subject-matter 



INTRODUCTION 5 

of the Faith which was taught to the catechumens during 
their preparation for baptism. We may gather from 
Cyril's lectures that their instruction embraced two kinds 
of teaching. First, a large body of Church doctrine on 
such subjects as the Being of God, Christ, the Incarnation 
(the Yirgin-birth, the Cross, the Burial, the Eesurrection, 
the Ascension), the Future Judgment, the Holy Spirit, 
the Soul of man, his Body (Marriage, Food, Fasting, 
Dress), its Eesurrection, the Laver of Baptism, and Holy 
Scripture (Catech. iv.). This teaching formed the 
Apostolical Tradition, the Canon of the Truth, or Eule of 
Faith,* and naturally varied in its form and language. 
Secondly, the candidates were taught the exact words of 
the local creed of their Church, which was to be com- 
mitted to memory, and neither to be written down nor 
recited in the presence of the unbaptized (Cyr. Catech. 
v. 12 ; Euffin. in Symb. Ap. 2). 

The authors of the Oecumenical Documents of the 
fourth and fifth centuries were chiefly concerned to 
express in unmistakable language the respective truths of 
the Tri-personality of the One Godhead; the true Deity 
of the Second and Third Persons of the Trinity; the 
complete and permanent Humanity united to the com- 
plete and permanent Deity of the One Christ, These 
truths were educed from the Church's conscious faith as 
it faced the false teaching of various heretical .leaders. 
Five typical forms of doctrinal error are more particularly 
dealt with in these documents the Arian, Macedonian, 
Apollinarian, Nestorian, and Eutychian to our survey of 

* In the notes and introductions which follow, the word "creed" is 
used somewhat elastically to designate the regulafidei as given, e.g., by 
Irenaeus and Tertullian, which obviously was not couched in precise and 
unvarying terms, as well as the creeds proper of local churches and of 
councils. 



6 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

which a sixth may be prefixed the Sabellian as in one 
sense preparatory to the Arian in the region of specula- 
tive theology. Of these heresies, the Sabellian, Arian, 
and Macedonian were mainly Trinitarian, and the last 
three mainly Christological.* 

To justify this broad classification, it will be convenient 
to here briefly indicate the characteristic points of each of 
these heresies, leaving the more detailed examination of 
them for the notes. 

Sabellianism confused the distinction of the Persons in 
the Godhead. Arianism separated the essential unity of 
the First and Second Persons. Macedonianism was an 
extension to the Third Person of the same question which 
Arianism had raised with respect to the real Deity of 
the Second. 

Apollinariamsrn, although really a recoil from the 
Arian disparagement of the Divinity of Christ, started 
(quod minime reris) from the Arian tenet which denied 
that Christ possessed a human soul. Nestorianism prac- 
tically ascribed to Christ two Persons a Divine and a 
Human regarding Him as a mere man advanced in a 
transcending degree by union with the Son of God, 
Eutychianism acknowledged in Christ only one Nature 
the Divine. 

Thus, "theologically," Sabellianism "confounded the 
Persons," and Arianism and Macedonianism " divided the 
substance"; while Christologically, Sabellianism, Arianisjn. 
and Nestorianism issued practically in iPsilanthropism ; ) 
and Apollinarianism and Eutychianism were ultimately 
Docetic. More particularly Arius impugned the co- 

* Germs of quasi-Sabellianism are indeed found as early as the time of 
Justin Martyr (dial, 128), and Arianism did from the first trench upon 
Chriatology, since it denied the perfect Humanity of Christ. 



INTRODUCTION 7 

essential Deity and the Perfect Manhood of our Lord; 
Apollinarius attempted to rescue His Divinity at the 
expense of His Humanity; Nestorius assailed His One 
Divine Personality; Eutyches eliminated His Human 
Nature. 

This resilience from an exaggerated insistence upon one 
aspect to an equally exaggerated insistence upon another 
aspect of the mysterious unions of the Three Divine 
Persons in the One Essence of the Deity, and of the Two 
Natures in the One Divine Person of Christ, sprang from 
the positive rather than from the negative character of 
each heresy in turn. The strict function of heresy is not 
to deny. Heresy is the self-willed choice (aipea-is) of a 
particular mode of thought which impairs the fulness of 
the Truth handed down by the Church from the first.* 
Each heresy affirmed some one side of Truth ; the heresy 
lay in exaggerating it out of due proportion to, or to the 
entire exclusion of, the complementary truths of the 
Faith. The undue insistence upon one side of a doctrine 
led to the overlooking and ignoring of another equally 
important presentation of a complementary article of 
faith, and when this neglect was perceived the disregarded 
truth was again brought forward, forced into prominence, 
and exaggerated into a corresponding and antithetic 
heresy. 

Sabellianism, for instance, rightly emphasized the Unity 
(novapxia), but wrongly denied the Tri-personality of the 
Deity. Arianisin laid stress upon the real Sonship, bat 
ignored the co-essential Deity of the Word. Maeedonianism 
maintained the temporal ministry of the Spirit, but 
rejected His eternal Deity. Apollinarianism passionately 

* Tertullian de praesor. haer. , 6. 



8 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

affirmed the Perfect Divinity of Christ, but gave up His 
complete Humanity. Nestorianism reaffirmed the com- 
plete Humanity, but rejected the Personal Divinity. 
Eutychianism held to the Personal Divinity, but gave up 
the real Manhood. 

It was this unbalanced onesidedness of heresy that 
made possible that subtle sympathy which has often been 
remarked as existing between even those doctrinal errors 
which were apparently diametrically opposed. Heresies 
may have been mutually exclusive historically without 
being so philosophically. It was not impossible for a 
Sabellian to pass over without difficulty to the Arian 
position, for both alike held that God was Uni-personal 
and Christ a creature.* Arms and Apollinarius each 
regarded the Logos as occupying the place of Christ's 
human soul ; and on this point both were Docetic. 
Nestorius was a Pelagian "bad Christology leading to 
bad anthropology," or vice versa;} while he also had 
points of affinity with Sabellianism.J Nestorius and 
Eutyches both recognized, the one actually and the other 
verbally, a pre-existence of Christ's Manhood before its 
union with the Son of God. The term " Theotokos " 
refuted Nestorianism directly, but it also excluded 
Eutychianism, whose Christ was neither Divine nor 
Human, but a fusion of Divinity and Humanity which in 

* The Priscillianists, for example, held Sabellian and Arian tenets 
simultaneously ; Leo Epist. 15 ad Turrib. 

t Cp. Bright, Waymarks of Church History, p. 127 ; and a writer in 
the Church Quarterly Review, xvi. 298. Pelagianism and Nestorianism 
were condemned together at Ephesus (Canons 1 and 4). Curiously 
enough, Nestorian and Pelagian views were again united in the teaching 
of some Anabaptists at the Reformation. See the tenets of John Denke 
in Ranke, Reform, iii. 559 ; Hardwiek, Articles, p. 85. 

J See the note on Cyril's Anathema V. 



INTRODUCTION 9 

reality was neither. Not seldom too the words of an 
early writer like Ignatius or Tertullian,* and particularly 
those of Athanasius, and even of Cyril, will be found to 
have anticipatorily guarded against later heresies in 
language designed to counteract earlier ones.f 

There is also another point of view from which these 
heresies may be studied. All sprang from a common 
groundwork of mistaken reverence for the Divine honour. 

o 

Sabellius feared to impair the Divine Monarchia by 
admitting a distinction of Persons. Arius feared to dis- 
honour the Paternal Fount of Deity by allowing to the 
Son co-essentiality with the Father. Apollinarius thought 
it derogatory to the Son of God to unite to Himself a 
human soul (and body). Nestorius shrank from the 
humiliation implied in the human birth of One Who was 
Personally God.J Eutyches declined to grant to a 
Human Nature its complete integrity in union with the 
transcending nature of the Godhead. 

This pseudo-reverential temper || may be traced to two 
causes. Ifc was partly the result of a fusion of Oriental 

* Instances are given in the notes, but see especially Ignat. Eph. 7, and 
Tertullian's treatises ."adversus Praxean," and "de carne Ohristi." 

t See e,g. Athanasius, de Inc. Yerbi D. 17 ; Orat. c. Arian. ii. 10 ; 
iii. 31, 43 ; ad Max. 3 ; contr. Apollin. i. 10 (Eutychianism) ; Orat. c. 
Arian. i. 45 ; ii. 8 ; iii. 30 (Nestorianism) ; Epist. ad Adelph. and Epist. 
ad Epict. (Nestorianism and Eutychianism) ; comp. Leo Epist. 109, and 
Epist. of Chalc. Council to Marcian, Mansi, vii. 464. Cyril Epist. ad 
Joan. (Eutychianism). 

t See Oyril contr. Nest. iv. 5, where he attributes to him an excessive 
tti\a,j3fi.a on this very ground. 

Similarly Gnosticism repudiated the Incarnation as incompatible 
with the nature of the Supreme, and regarded Sacraments as unworthy 
channels of Divine grace. Irenaeus i. 14, 3. 

|| " Irreligiosa de Deo sollioitudo," as Hilary calls it, de Trin. iv. 6. 



io OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

philosophy with Christian dogmata, issuing in Docetic 
and Maniehaean notions which regarded matter as in- 
herently evil,* and consequently as something with which 
the Deity could not worthily come in contact. It was 
due also to that natural human pride or selfwill which 
refuses to receive a revelation of the Divine Nature or 
mode of working which does not accord with its own pre- 
determined theories. It is to this latter rationalizing 
spirit of intellectual haughtiness that Arianisra, Nestor- 
ianism, and Pelagianism must be chiefly referred, while 
Apollinarianism and Eutychianism are better, traceable to 
the former source. 

* It was on this ground that the Priscillianists rejected the doctrine of 
the resurrection of the body "quia concretio corporis non sit congruens 
animae dignitati" (Leo Epist. 15 ad Turrib.). 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 



TH AHAS HAPAAOeBISH 
TOIS AHOIS HISTEI 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 

OF the circumstances which led to the Nicene Council 
and the precise formulation of its Creed it will only be 
necessary to give a very brief outline. 

One day in the year 318 or 319 a discourse was 
delivered by Alexander, bishop of Alexandria, on the 
great mystery of the Trinity in Unity. Exception was 
taken to its teaching by one of the Alexandrian clergy 
named Arms, on the ground that it tended to obliterate 
the distinction of the Three Persons in the Godhead, and 
therein savoured of Sabellianism.* Arius proceeded to 
disseminate his own views, which exaggerated those 
elements which he conceived to be implied in the Son- 
ship of the Second Person, until he arrived at the point 
where Sonship was replaced by creatureship, and the 
co -eternal and co- essential Deity of the "Word was 
surrendered. 

After repeated failures to reclaim Arius to orthodoxy, 
Alexander was obliged to excommunicate him. His party, 
however, grew in numbers, and a large council was held 
at Alexandria in 321 which investigated the Arian 
teaching and condemned it. Meanwhile Arius had found 
partisans in Nicomedia and in Palestine, whither he 
had gone after leaving Aegypt. Thence he wrote to 

* So Socrates H.E. i. 5; but if Constantino was correctly informed 
(Epist. to Alexander and Arius apud Socr. i. 7 ; comp. Sozom. i. 15), it 
would seem that Arius had already given utterance to his views, and that 
Alexander submitted a test question to his clergy. 



14 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Alexander,* and also popularized his views both in prose 
and in verse (" Thalia ").f Alexander issued an encyclical 
letter,| but the heresy continued to spread in the East. 
The Emperor Constantine, who naturally underrated the 
dogmatic importance of the dispute, attempted to allay the 
trouble by addressing a letter to Arius and Alexander, in 
which he described the controversy as arising out of foolish 
speculation on an insignificant matter. This letter was 
sent by the hand of Hosius of Oorduba to Alexandria late 
in 324 A council was held and Arius again condemned. 
That the word o^oova-iov was here debated seems probable, 
both from Socrates' statement (iii. 7) that Hosius raised a 
discussion about the terms oucria and uTroWao-jp in order 
to oppose Sabellianism, and also from the fact that the 
word ojuooucnov was afterwards strongly insisted upon by 
the Emperor, doubtless at Hosius' suggestion, in the 
council of Mcaea. || 

Constantine now conceived the idea of summoning a 
general council of bishops from all parts of the Church, 
whose duty it should be to settle the question of faith, 
and two other matters which were disturbing the unity of 
the Church. IT It met at Mcaea, in Bithynia, June 19, 



* Athanasius de Synodis, 16. 

t The "Thalia," or " Banquet," was a collection of songs, dealing with 
the most sacred mysteries, written in a metre made infamous by its asso- 
ciation with the wanton songs of Sotades, the obscene Maronite poet, 
dr. B.C. 280. Socr. i. 9 ; Athan. Or. c. Ar. 1. 2, 4, 5 ; de syn. 15 ; 
Philostorg. ii. 2. Martial, Epigr. vii. 17, terms his own poems "lasciva 
Thalia." 

J Socrates i. 6. 

Socrates' account is not free from confusion ; but it is natural to 
connect this discussion with Hosius' doings in Alexandria. 

||. Eusebius-Caes. apud Socr. i. 8. 

1T The Paschal Question and the Meletian schism in Aegypt. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 15 

325. Preliminary discussions were held,* in which the 
Scriptural teaching upon the "Word, Wisdom, and Son of 
God was carefully examined, the chief passages adduced 
heing Proverbs viii. 22 ; Matt. xix. 17, xx. 23 ; Mark xiii. 
32 ; Luke ii. 52 ; John v. 19, x. 30, xiv. 28 ; Acts ii. 36 ; 
1 Cor. xv. 28 ; Phil. ii. 7 ; Coloss. i. 15 ; Heb. i. 3. Some 
of the debates are described by Athanasius,t who him- 
self, as Alexander's archdeacon, took a prominent part in 
them. When it was found that Scriptural terms were 
accepted in an unreal sense by the Arians, the necessity 
was clearly forced upon the orthodox of expressing the 
real sense of Scripture and the true faith of the Church 
in terms of which the meaning could not be explained 
away. 

Accordingly it was agreed that a dogmatic standard of 
faith should be adopted. An Arian creed produced by 
Eusebius of Mcomedia was at once rejected for its 
blasphemy. Then Eusebius of Caesarea produced the 
ancient creed of his Church, which was perfectly ortho- 
dox but not sufficiently technical. This was taken as a 
base, and amplified by three phrases specially selected as 
incapable of Arian evasion eic TW ovcrias rov Harpos 
yevvyQevra ov TroiijOevTa buoovcnov rut ILarpi and by 
some others taken or adapted from the creeds of 
Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria.]: Anathemas were 
appended condemning various Arian tenets. 

Any further remarks upon the phraseology of the creed 
are reserved for the notes which follow. Meanwhile it is 
well to observe, first, that the method of the Mcene 

* Sozom. i. 17. 

t De decretis Nio., Epist. ad Afros., de Synod. 
$ These creeds are printed below in the Appendix to the Nicene Creed, 
and should be carefully compared with the Nicene and with each other. 



i6 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Council was one and the same with that of the early 
dogmatic apologists, namely, the reinforcement of the 
common tradition of the Church, which had been held 
from the beginning. The Council added nothing new to 
the facts of Apostolic belief ; it simply restated them in 
the face of novel opinions, -which would have impaired 
their integrity.* Secondly, what was new in connexion 
with the Council was its adoption of an oecumenical 
creed, proposed for subscription as a test of orthodoxy. 
Hitherto the traditional Eule of Faith had been embodied 
in various local formularies and creeds, catechetical and 
baptismal, differing verbally in the different Churches. 
"Without interfering with these, there was now for the 
first time brought into existence one definite standard of 
right belief accepted by the representatives of the whole 
of Christendom. 

Our knowledge of the exact forms of the local symbols 
is very imperfect, partly because of the dislike of Church 
teachers to give in a consecutive order the words of their 
baptismal symbol, and partly because the importance 
gained by oecumenical or conciliar creeds pushed the 
others into the background. The evidence seems to show 
that there were two methods followed in connexion with 
the creeds of local Churches after Nicaea. In some cases 
the Mcene Creed was taken as a basis and expanded in 
order to meet with more definite language some particular 
heresy like that of Apollinarius, or Marcellus, or Mace- 
donius; in others the existing local creed was enriched 

* Op. Athan. de synod. 5, of the ITicene Fathers, typafav ofa 
""ESo^ev" dXX' "Oiirws Trioretfet rj KaOdhiKty &/cX?7<r/a," Kal eiiOfa &/j,o\&y'ri<ra,v 
TTWJ Triffre6ovffu>, Ivo. Sel&o-iv 8n /ATJ vedrrepov dXX' airoaro\iK&v iartv afrriav 
rit ^/)6j/7?/ta, Kal & fypafav O&K 41- OI)TW eiiptdy, dXXd ravr 1 effrlv Hirep 
ol 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 17 

with Nicene and other phrases. Instances of the former 
method will be seen in the local creed of Constantinople 
as represented by the recension of the Mcene incorporated 
in the Chalcedonian Definitio Mdei, and in the longer 
creed of Epiphanius (Ancor. 119); of the latter, in the 
revised creeds of Antioch and of Jerusalem (see 
Append, vi., vii). 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 

1 ILicrrevo/Jiev 

els eva Qeov Harepa TravroKparopa 



oparusv re KM aoparow 



KGU e/9 eva Kvpjoy 'Irj&ovv 
rov Ytoj/ rov 

yevvt]6evTa eic TOV Tiarpos 

TOVT' ecrrlv e/c rfjs ova-las rov IlaT/oo? 
Qeov e/c Oeoi;, 



K 

10 0eov aXqOivov CK Qeov ah 



ov 



OjULOOVCriOV T6D IIaT/0/, 

Si 08 ra Travra eyevero 

ra re ev TOO ovpavw KO.I ra ev Ty yy, 

15 TOV Si ^a? TOVS CivBpdOTTOVS, Kttl 

Sia rr]v ^/aerepav a-wrriplav, KareXdovra, 
KCU trapKfaOevra, 



KOI 



20 Kai avaa-ravTa ry rpiry f/fiepa, 

aveXOovra els TOV? ovpavovs, 
ep^ojuevov Kpivai u>vras KOI i/e/cpov? 
i ei9 ro''A.yiov livevpa. 




i8 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Touj <5e Aeyovras 7 Hv irore ore OVK tjv, 
25 feat TLpiv yevvyOfivai OVK ijv, 





OVK OVTWV eyevero, 

t r t ' i| / 

erepag virocrTcuretos rj overtax 
eivai 



rj KTIOTTOV 
30 *? TpeTTTOV 

y aX\oiwTov rov Ytw TOU 0eov, 
TOUTOU? avaOe^.aTL^ei fj ay/a KaOoXiKrj /cat 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 19 



NOTES ON THE CREED OF NICAEA 

TEXT. In the lack of any authentic Acts of the Council, 
the primary authorities for the Text of the Creed are 
Eusebius of Caesarea and Athanasius. The former em- 
bodied the Creed in a letter written to his diocese at the 
time of the Council which is extant in four recensions : 
(1) Appendix to Athan. de deer. syn. Me.; (2) Socrates 
H.E. i. 8; (3) Theodoret H.E. i. 12; (4) Gelasius Hist. 
Cone. Nic. ii. 35, this last possessing no independent 
value. The first three are referred to below as E A 
E s , E T . 

Athanasius himself gave the Text of the Creed in his 
letter to Jovian 3 (Bened. ed. i. 239), which is also in- 
serted by Theodoret in his history, iv. 3. Other authorities 
are Socrates i. 8, Basil Epist. 125, Cyril of Alex. Epist. 3 
ad Nest., and a document presented by Eustathius of 
Sebaste and others to Liberius in 365, apud Socr. iv. 12. 
These are referred to respectively as A, S, B, C, Eust. 

None of the variations are important, but it may be 
well to note them at once. 

Line 4 etp era juLovoyevq 6eov K.'I. X. Eust. 
6 omit /movoyevrj Eust. 

9 KCU (pti)$ 6/C 0. $. E T . 

14 eTTi T^S yfc A, Eust. 

15 omit TOV S. 

18 omit KOI E s , A, . 
21 omit rovs 0, Eust. 



20 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

22 KOI TraXiv epx- ^. 

23 roll. TO "Ay. E s . 

29 omit^KTivTov G,E T ,Eust. 
32 om# TGI/TOW #, -# r . 

omit ayia C, E SA , Eust. 

omit KOI aTrocrro\iKri E A . 

On the variations in the Text read in the Council of 
Chalcedon see below page 236. 

ILcrrei/o/xei/. Conciliar Creeds were naturally couched 
in the plural number, and Baptismal Creeds, as naturally, 
in the singular: Cyr. Jer. Catech. xix. 9; xx. 4. The 
latter was the general cast of "Western Creeds, the forms 
given by Irenaeus iii. 4, 1, and by Tertullian, adv. Prax. 
2, being apparent exceptions. Some of the Liturgical 
Eastern Creeds are likewise in the singular number; 
e.g. Apost. Const, vii. 41; Lit. of St. James (Trio-ret/co), 
Brightman, East. Lit. p. 42 ; Lit. of Syr. Jacobites 
(Priest, "We believe"; congregation, "I believe"), ib. 
p. 82; Lit. of St. Mark (wrem], ib. p. 124; Ninth 
Cent. Byz. Lit. (Vto-Teua)), il). p. 321 ; and this use 
has asserted itself in the modern Greek Orthodox Church. 
In Augustine the form varies. The Creed commented on 
de fid. et sywib. was seemingly in the plural; that in 
Serm. ad Catech., 2, "credo," but 3, " credimus." 

The plural number witnesses to the Church's corpo- 
rate unity, to unselfishness in the Faith, and to the 
brotherhood of the saints. Nor is this feeling wholly 
absent from those Creeds which begin with the first 
person singular, for the plural number generally appears 
in the second article (" Jesus Christ OUT Lord "), where 
from the opening word we should naturally have expected 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 21 

"my" and not "our." The sentiment finds its highest 
expression in the Paternoster, lidrep J//AWI/. 

ILVns, faith, belief, is a. correspondence with the 
unseen, an unfaltering sense of confidence in its object. 
It is that which endures as seeing the invisible One 
(Heb. xi. 1, 27). Faith is therefore primarily a spiritual 
and moral energy, not an intellectual one. 



k The preposition adds a further force 
to the idea of belief, and expresses the transference 
of confidence and devotion from self to God. The 
distinction between irurreveiv and TrurTeveiv et? is well 
expressed by Augustine, Tract, xxix. in loan. 6: "Hoc 
est opus Dei ut credatis in Eum quern Ille misit. Ut 
credatis in Eum, non ut credatis Ei. Sed si credatis in 
Eum, credatis Ei : non autem continue qui credit Ei, 
credit in Eum. Nam et daemones credebant Ei, non 
credebant in Eum. Eursus etiam de apostolis Ipsius 
possumus dicere: credimus Paulo, sed non credimus in 
Paulum; credimus Petro, sed non credimus in Petrum. 
Quid est ergo credere in Eum? Credendo amare, cre- 
dendo diligere, credendo in Eum ire et Ejus membris 
incorporari." Comp. Tract, liv. 3, and pseudo-August. 
Serin. 181 de tempore: "Non dicit, Credo Deum, vel 
credo Deo, quamvis et haec saluti necessari sint. Aliud 
enim est credere Illi, aliud credere Ilium, aliud credere in 
Ilium. Crederi Illi est credere vera esse quse loquitur: 
credere Ilium, credere quia Ipse est Deus: credere in 
Ilium, diligere Ilium." 

Pearson ascribed this distinction to Augustine, but 
overlooked the fact that Augustine found it already 
drawn in St. John. Indeed the difference between 
e:? (eVt c. accus.) and TT. c. dat., though 



22 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

especially marked in St. John, is clearly observed through- 
out the New Testament (see John vi. 29, 30 ; 1 John 
v. 10 ; Acts x. 43, xvi. 31, xxvi. 27, xxvii. 25 ; Gal. ii. 16 ; 
Phil. i. 29 ; 1 Pet. i. 8). It is justifiable therefore to 
insist upon its full force here, notwithstanding that it 
was not always observed in the phraseology of the early 
creeds, whether Greek or Latin. 

2 eva Qeov. Emphasis is laid on the Unity of God in 
all creeds which were in use where philosophical specula- 
tion or Gnostic heresy denied the unity of the First 
Principle: Gaul (Iren. i. 10, 1, iii. 4, 1, iv. 33, 7), 
Carthage (Tertullian de virg. vel. 1, adv. Prax. 2, de 
praescr. haer. 13 [not Cyprian]), the East (Origen de princ. 
i. praef., Lucian apud Socr. H.E. ii. 10, Euseb.-Caes. ib. i. 8, 
Cyr.-Jer. Catech. vi., vii., 1 [but not xix. 9, Bapt. Creed]). 
Scriptural authority is particularly explicit on this point ; 
Deut. iv. 35, vi. 4; Isaiah xliv. 6, 8; 1 Cor. viii. 4 f. ; 
Eph. iv. 6. Ruffinus is no doubt right in tracing the 
phrases eva Qeov . . . eva K. 'I. X.,to St. Paul's words, 
1 Cor. viii. 6. " Orientales ecclesiae omnes paene ita tra- 
dunt Credo in Uno Deo Patre et rursus in sequenti 
sermone ubi nos dicimus Et in Christo Jesu unico Filio 
Ejus Domino nostro, illi tradunt Et in Uno Domino 
nostro . . . Unum scilicet Deum et Unum Dominum, 
secundum auctoritatem Pauli Apostoli profitentes " (Kuff. 
in symb. 4). But the recurrence of the numeral again 
before " Holy Spirit " in the third division of some early 
creeds, e.g. those of Caesarea, Jerusalem, Alexandria, 
seems rather to show that the purport of its insertion in 
each case was to mark the distinctness of the Three 
Persons in the Godhead ; indeed Eusebius' own words in 
the anti-Sabellian appendix to his creed imply this (see 
them cited page 3). 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 23 

The doctrine of the Unity of God, although a majestic 
contribution to the purity of religion, was not the final 
revelation of the Nature of the Deity. 



2 ILarepa. Comp. Eph. iv, 6, e& 9<?o? KOI 
TravrtoV) 1 Cor. viii, 6, et? Oeo? 6 irarrip. With the excep- 
tion of the creeds of Marcellus (apud. Epiphan. Haer. 72) 
and Tertullian (in all three forms), this word is found in 
this position in all creeds. Yet the idea of Fatherhood 
is implied even in those creeds which omit the word, by 
the use of such phrases as rov Ytw avrov, Filius ejus, 
Dei Filius, in the following section. It is indeed 
primarily in relation to the Son that the First Person 
in the Trinity is termed "Father" in the creeds. But 
inasmuch as the Fatherhood is archetypal (Eph. iii. 15), 
we need not exclude the thought of God's Fatherly 
relation to all creation (eg o ra iravra, 1 Cor. viii. 6; 
cp. Creed of Antioch), and, in an especial sense, to 
believers as His adopted sons; Bom. viii. 15; John xx. 
17 ; 1 John iii. 1. 

2 iravTOKparopa. " All sovereign." The word asserts 
the universal dominion of God, and is inadequately repre- 
sented by " omnipotens," "almighty," in 'the Latin and 
English creeds. 

iravroKparwp belongs to Biblical Greek, and is used in 
the versions to translate both msav "(Lord of) Hosts," 
and itf, "Almighty," 2 Sam. v. 10, vii. 8, 26, etc. ; Job v. 
17, viii. 5. In the N.T. it is used only by St. John (nine 
times in the Apocalypse), but appears 2 Cor. vi. 18 in 
a quotation from the LXX. which is difficult to trace 
(perhaps 2 Sam. vii, 8). It invests the idea of God with 
a spiritual and moral, not a metaphysical, significance. 



24 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Comp. Cyr.-Jer. Catech. viii. 3, iravroKpdrmp yap eirriv, 6 
TrdvroDV KparSiv, 6 Travrav eou<naa>i>. Theoph. ad Autol. 
i. 4 ; Greg. Nyss. contr. Eunom. ii. Ruffin. in symb. 5 ; 
Novatian de Trin. 2. A similar and nearly equivalent 
phrase, "Rex saeculorum" ( = 6 fiatriXev? rcav alwvwv of 
1 Tim. i. 17), occurs in a creed of pseudo- Augustine 
(Serin, in redd. symb. 215 : Hahn Bibl. d, Symb. p. 58) 
and of Fulgentius of Euspe (Hahn, p. 61). 

3 iravTdDV oparwv re KOI aoparav TTOI^T^J/. The 
emphatic onravrdov of the Caesarean Creed (" which might 
imply the creation of the Son and the Holy Spirit ") is 
here altered into Trai/rw; nor does cbraraw in this 
connexion occur elsewhere except in the Creed of the 
Apostolic Constitutions vii. 41, the confession of Adaman- 
tius (Hahn, p. 18), and the Creed of Charisius of 
Philadelphia, Cone. Ephes. Act. vi., Mansi, iv. 1361 (Hahn, 
p. 318): but comp. Hippol. Philosoph. x. 32, airdvrwv 
TroirjTtjs Koi Kvpio$. 

This clause is characteristically Eastern. It was the 
tendency of Oriental mysticism to lay exaggerated stress 
on the position and functions of unseen spiritual powers, 
and it was therefore necessary to assert their dependence 
upon the First Principle. Especially did the dualistic 
theories, which constantly troubled the East, and pene- 
trated the West (Gaul and Africa), in the form of Gnostic 
heresies which separated the Supreme God from the 
Creator of the world, necessitate the insertion of some 
words in the creeds to identify the Creator or Demiurge 
with the One God. See the forms given by Irenaeus 
i. 10. 1, rov TreTroitiKOTo. rov ovpavov KCU ryv y^v KOI ray 
6a\dcraras KOI Travra ra ev avroi$: iii. 4. 1, factorem (al. 
fabricatorem) caeli et terrae et omnium quae in eis sunt ; 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 25 

and Tertullian de praescr. haer. 13, de virg. veland. 1, 
mundi creatorem. Similarly the early Jerusalem Creed, 
Koinrriv ovpavov Kal yfc, whence it .passed into the 
Epiphanian and later forms, but did not establish itself 
in the Western creeds until the seventh century. Comp. 
Origen, c. Gels. i. 25, ^ yap ao/wra)? o^dXoyovtfiv TO 
KQIVOV ovo/u,a, .TO, o 0eo9, y Kal fijt-era TrpotrO^K^ rfjs, 6 
Srt/uuovpyov TWV oXcov, 6 7rofjjTJj9 ovpavov Kal y>/? words 
which seem to point to such a clause in the Creed of 
Alexandria (see below, page 59). 

Creation is here attributed to the Father as the sole 
Source and End of all finite being : 1 Cor. viii, 6, e oS ra 
Travra. The true doctrine of creation was expressed by 
Athanasius de Inc. V.D. 3, where he cites Past. Herm. 1, 
Heb. xi. 3, and adds e OVK ovrwv ra TraWa 6 6eo9 
TTeTroltitcev Sia rov ISlov Ao'yoy (see below on 6Y o$ ra 
Travra eyevero). 

4 Kal. The conjunction is significant. The same belief 
is professed in the Second Person as in the First ; and so 
again below, /cat aV TO "Ay. Zli/eu^aa. Comp. John xiv. 1, 
TTiCTTei'eTe et9 rov Qeov Kai i$ e/ae Trurrevere. So Hilary 
de Trin. ix. 19, " Believe in God and believe in Me." 



4 eva Ky'/Hov 'I^trow XpfcrroV. Ef9 Kypfop comes from 
Ephes. iv. 5 ; the whole phrase from 1 Cor. viii. 6. This 
is the historic title borne by the Second Person of the 
Trinity, Incarnate. In contains three appellatives : 

(1) Ku/)to9 = mn*. Comp. John viii. 58 with Exocl. iii. 
14 ; Luke ii. 11, SCOT^/O 09 eirriv X/)jcrT09 Ku/oto9 : Acts 
x. 36, OyT09 ecrriv fravrtvv Kv/ot09 : Eom. x. 9-13 with 
Joel ii. 32; and Psalm xxxiv. 9 with 1 Peter ii. 3, 
although Hort (ad loc.) does not think that any "such 



26 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

identification [of Jehovah with Christ] can be clearly 
made out in the N.T." 

(2) 'I^crov? = V5JW, God the Saviour, the Divine Man, 
Salvator Mundi. Luke i. 31, ii. 21 ; Matt. i. 21. 

(3) X/H<rro's = rTO, the Anointed; the Fulfiller pri- 
marily of Jewish national expectations and prophecy, 
and, through these, of all Gentile longings and aspira- 
tions. John i. 41, iv. 25 ; Luke ii. 32 ; Eom. xv. 8-12. 

5 rov Ytoi/ rov Qeov. The phrase is verbally identical 
with that of Nathanael (John i. 49) and of Martha (John 
xi. 27). Comp. Luke i. 35 ; Hebr. i. 5 ; John xx. 31 ; 
Matt. i. 20. 

The fact of the Divine Sonship stands prominently 
forward, rov Ytoi/ replacing rov hoyov of the Caesarean 
Creed. This is the case in nearly all creeds, and in view 
of the Arian tenet it would naturally be insisted on by 
the orthodox at Mcaea. 

6 yevvq9evra CK rov Hen-pop. This clause is taken 
from the Alexandrian, Antiochene, and Jerusalem creeds, 
all of which add, with the Caesarean (which read yeyevvy- 
/jievov}, 7T/30 [trdvrwv ru>v] alwvwv. These last words were 
probably omitted here for the sake of grammatical clear- 
ness. They retained their natural place in the revised 
Jerusalem Creed,* which followed a different construction 
from the Mcene. They witness to the Eternal Generation 
of the Son, but the expression is not Scriptural. t)ur 
Lord's own phrase (John xvii. 5) is TT/OO rov rov KO<TIJ.QV 
eivai, or (ib. 24) vrpo /cara/3oX^? /cocr/xov. 

* Throughout these notes the "revised Jerusalem Creed" denotes the 
formulary attributed to the One Hundred and Fifty Fathers of Constan- 
tinople by the Chaleedonian Council. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 27 

The Arians admitted the Son's Generation from the 
Father, but rejected the logical consequence of this 
admission in the case of a Generation which was Divine 
and unique. True Generation from a Divine Being must 
imply in the One Generated the possession of the same 
Divine Nature, and the Generation itself must therefore 
be of an eternal character. 'E/c rov Harpos. was thus 
explained and defined as eK rfjs ov<rta$ and oyuoowno?. 
See further, on the anathemas. Hilary of Poitiers (de 
Trin. viii. 13) argued the unity of Nature, as opposed to 
a mere concord of will, between the Father and the Son, 
from the unity of all who partake of the Eucharist. 
This union results (he says) from the Father being in 
Christ and Christ in us. 

6 jULovoyevq. On the construction, see the next note. 
This word emphasizes, not the Generation, but the unique 
Personal Being of the Son. So it had been used by the 
Council of Antioch in A.D. 269 in the synodal letter to 
Paul of Samosata : TOVTOV 8e rov Yi'oi/ yevvr)rov, /j-ovoyevt) 
Ytoi/, eiKova TOV aopdrov Qeou rvy^avovra, irpwroTOKov 
TTCWJ?? KT/creft)?, 2o0/av KOI Koyov KOI &vva/u,iv 6eou, TT/OO 
alcovwv ovra, ov irpoyvwcrei a\\' ovaria KOL vTrovTCKrei Qeov, 
Qeov Ytov, e'v re TraXaia ml vea SiaQriKy eymtcores 
6/ji.o\oyov/j.ev KOI Krjpv(r<roiu.V* (apud Hahn, p. 178; 
Eouth Eel. Sacr. ii. 466), 

In the Arian controversy the word was not of great 
dogmatic importance, inasmuch as it was accepted by the 
Arians and its force evaded by making "generation" 
practically synonymous with "creation." Nor did the 

* A comparison of these terms with Lucian's Creed seems to show 
that the Council was here using some phrases from the Baptismal Creed 
of Antioch (see pages 64 foil,), 



28 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

uniqueness of the Son's Generation exempt Him from 
" creatureship." See Arms to Eusebius of Mcomedia, 
apud Theodor. H.E. i., 5 cited below. In the Dated creed 
and Fraud of Nice (A.D. 359) [tovoyevt] is explained by 
IJLOVOV GK IJLOVOV, a direct substitution for the Mcene 

TOVT (TTLV K T%$ OlKTiaS TOV HctT/OOf. 

Instances of the Arian use of /xoi/oyei/jfc occur in his 
own letter to Eusebius of Mcomedia, OeXr^a-n KOI /3ovX>; 
VTre&Tq irpo xpovwv KCU Trpo alwvtav TrXtypjj? 0eo? /JLOVoyevfo 
aj/aXXo/<wTO? : and in his " Blasphemies," apud Athan. de 
synod. 15, A.OITTOV 6 Yto? OVK &v (vTrijpe <5e 6e\ij<rei 
Trarpwa), [JLovoyevw 0eo? <rriv. It is similarly joined 
with Geo'p in the Lucianic (Second Antiochene, " Dedica- 
tion") Creed; in a creed of Marcellus (apud Euseb. 
contr. Marc. i. 4), els TOV 'Yiov avrov TOV /u.ovoyevfj OeoV : 
and in precisely identical words in the Creed of Theo- 
phronius (Third Antiochene), Athan. de synod. 24. In 
the Homoion Creed of Acacius at Seleucia the phrase is 
practically Mcene, Qeov e/c 0eou povoyevfj (Athan. de 
synod. 29), and so in the profession of Eustathius and 
other Homoiousians (apud Socr. iv. 12), '? e'ra povoyevfj 
0eoi/, K. 'I. X. 

As qualifying YtoV it occurs in the first, fourth, and 
fifth creeds of the Antiochene series (Athan. de synod. 22 
foil., Socr. ii. 10, 18, 19) and in the Sirmian confessions 
(Socr. ii. 30, 37). 

Moj/oyei/>79 was represented in the Latin creeds by 
unicus, and so Leo in his Tome, but elsewhere in his 
writings he employs unigenitus. The old Latin versions 
give unicus, but the Yulgate has unigenitus, and this 
form prevailed eventually in the Latin creeds from the 
fourth century onwards. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 29 

7 TOUT' ea-riv e/c rfjv overlap TOU IlaT/oo?. 

The construction of the clauses yevvrjOevra e/c TOU 
ILarpo?, fj-ovoyevrj, TOVT ecrriv eic T)j? ovcrlas TOV HaTpos, 
Qebv e/c 0eou, is not free from ambiguity. Hort, after a 
rigid analysis of the grammar and history, concluded that 
povoyevtj did "double duty, combined alike with e/c TOU 
and with Oew e/c 0eou," the clause TOUT' ea-Tiv e/c 
ova-la? TOV II. being parenthetic. " Thus there would 
be no real pause between the seven words e/c TOU Ilcn-po? 
povoyevfj Qebv e/c 0eou." The familiarity of the phrase 
povoyevw 0eo'9, based upon St. John's usage (i. 18), is 
abundantly proved, but there is also sufficient authority 
for regarding Qeov e/c 0eou as an independent phrase by 
itself; e.g. in the Caesarean Creed of Eusebius, in the 
Lucianic Creed of Antioch, and in a creed of Gregory 
Thaumaturgus. (Hahn, p. 254; Mansi, i. 1030.) The paren- 
thesis, if it be a parenthesis, is extremely awkward, and 
does not appear to have been admitted into any local 
creed which was expanded by means of Nicene additions.* 
On the other hand, it is certain from the statements of 
Eusebius and of Athanasius that the words e/c TJ/S oucr/a? 
TOU HaT/Jo's were meant to interpret, not ^ovoyevrj, but 
yewyQevTa e/c TOU Ilcn-po'?. (Eusebius, apud Socr. i. 8; 
Athan. de deer. Me. 19, ad Afros 5.) On the whole, it is 
perhaps simpler to understand both /movoyevq and TOUT' 
e/c T>JS oucr/a? TOU IlaTpo'? as explanatory of e/c TOU 
V, and to take Qebv e/c 0eou independently as a 
fresh clause in apposition with TOV Yt'ov TOU 0eou, and 
as adopted from the Caesarean Creed. 

e/c T>/9 oucn'a? TOU ILrrpo'? was, as we have already 
remarked, the first of the three crucial phrases which 
were found by the Council to be imperatively needed to 
* Except in the Epiphanian shorter creed. 



30 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

secure the reality of the Sonship. The incidental 
accounts which we possess of the course of the debates 
show that the force of other phrases, whether taken from 
Scripture or from existing creeds, was evaded by the Arians. 
None of the phrases were absolutely new ones, as Athan- 
asius pointed out;* e/c TW ovcrias, e.g., had been used by 
Theognostus of Alexandria in his Hypotyposes towards 
the end of the third century. Eusebius of Nicomedia had 
distinctly rejected it in his letter to Paulinus of Tyre;t 
and the Arians generally thought that it subjected God to 
necessity, but Athanasius showed that necessity was not a 
correct term to use in describing that which was inherent 
in the Nature of God. j 

8 Qebv eK Qeov. These words, as we have seen, 
were taken from the Creed of Caesarea. The preposition 
(e/c) denotes origin and derivation from the Father as 
3Fons Deitatis. The absolute possession of life from 
another is the essential character of Sonship ; John v. 26 ; 
comp. viii. 42, xvi. 28. Augustin. Tract, xlvii. in loan. 8, 
"Ab Illo processit ut Deus, ut aequalis, ut Filius Unicus, 
utVerbum Patris." Compare the Valentinian Ptolemaeus 
on John i. 1 quoted by Irenaeus i. 1. 18 (ed. Harvey), TO 
K Beou evvtjOev 9eo? 



9 $wp e/c 3?eoT09, Heb. i. 3 naturally suggested the 
comparison of the simultaneous birth of light and its 

* Athan. de deer. Nic. 25 ; comp. ib. 19, ad Afros. 5, de synod, 33 
foil., Epist. Euseb. Caes. 

t Theodor. H.E. i. 6, oik K T^S ofolas cuJroO 7670^6?. 

$ Athan. Orat. iii. 62-66. 

Mr. Ottley (The Doctrine of the Incarnation, i. 291) ascribes these 
words to Irenaeus himself, but Irenaeus appears to be quoting Ptolemaeus, 
as the Latin version states. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 31 

source with the Eternal Generation of the Son from the 
Father ; and it became a favourite simile with Christian 
writers. Comp. Origen de princip. iv. 28 ; Tertull. adv. 
Prax. 8, 13; Apol. 21 ("lumen de lumine"); Tatian, 
Orat. 5 ; Dionysius-Alex. apud Athan. de sent. Dion. 18 ; 
Justin Mart. Dial. 128 ; Athan. de deer. NIC. 23 and 25 
(citing Theognostus) ; Augustin. Serm. ad Catech. 8. 

10 Qeov aXyOivov etc Qeov aXrjQivov. This phrase is not 
traceable in any extant creed previous to Nicaea, but as 
neither Athanasius nor Eusebius deemed it necessary to 
defend it as of an especially Mcene character, we may 
reasonably infer that it was taken from some creed. The 
words Qeov aXyQwov actually occur in the early Jerusalem 
Creed. Athanasius uses the phrase Qeov aXyOivov eV 
Qeov a\t)0ivov> citing 1 John v. 20, Exposit. Fid. 1. Comp. 
Orat. c. Arian. iii. 9, edmev v\\uv OTITOV a\rjQivov Harpos 
oXqQivov ear i yewy/ua : and again avrog Se 6 Yio? e/c TOU 
liarpos eWi $ucm /ecu aXtjOivov 



11 yevvyOevTa ov iroirjQevTa. This is the second 
characteristic phrase of the Council; and in defence of 
it Athanasius (de deer. Me. 25 foil.) quotes Dionysius of 
Alexandria and his namesake of Eome as witnesses to 
the blasphemy of terming the Son a "creature" or a 
"work." That the Logos was ^oir\Qevra was the great 
Arian contention. They ranked Him amongst the 
creatures of God efr roii/ Trotij/^aToav KOI yevtjTwv 
(Encycl. of Alexander apud Socrates i. 6). Arius' own 
words in his letter to Alexander (apud Athan. de synod. 
16) were vTroa-rija-avTa iSlu OeXjjfjt-ari arpeirrov KOI 
ava\\oio)TOv } /cr/ov/ia rov'Qeov re\eiov aXX' oi^x <? ev ru>v 
KTi<rfj.dTQ)v. But the words iSlw QeXaTi rob the con- 



32 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

cession of arpeirTov of its value (see below on rpeTrrov), 
while oi/x cu? eV TW /cTto-ywctTw is a refinement which yet 
does not remove the Logos from the category of beings 
separate from the Father's nature. 

12 ofj-oovcriov T<W ILarpi- This, the third crucial 
phrase, was selected by the Council as concentrating in 
itself the force of various Scriptural expressions which 
denoted the real Godhead of the Son. It had in fact been 
disowned by Eusebius of Nicomedia on the very ground 
that it implied the true Sonship ; Ambros. de fid. iii. 15, 
125, "Nam quid est aliud cur o(j.oo\xnov Patri nolint 
[Ariani] Filiurn dici nisi quia nolunt verum Dei Filium 
confiteri? sicut auctor ipsorum Eusebius Mcomediensis 
epistula sua prodidit scribens : Si verum, inquit, Dei 
Eilium et increatum dicimus, O/AOOWJ-IOI/. cum Patre in- 
cipimus confiteri. Haec cum lecta esset epistula in concilio 
Mcaeno, hoc verbum in tractatu fidei posuerunt patres, 
quia id viderunt adversariis esse formidine ; ut tamquam 
evaginato ab ipsis gladio ipsorum nefandae caput haereseos 
amputarent." Arius himself had also expressly rejected 
the term in his "Thalia," ovSe yap ecrnv to-o? aXX' ovSe 
o/jtocwcrto? [liarpi] (apud'Athan. de synod. 15). Athan- 
asius' account of the reasons for its adoption are given de 
deer. Nic. 18 foil., ad Afros 6, de synod. 45; and the 
following extracts will be sufficient to illustrate his 
position with regard to it: et /cat w oi/rw? ev rat? 
eto-iv al Xe^et? aXXa rt]V e/c T>V ypatywv Si'dvoiav 
(de deer. Nic. 21): a little before he had said 
Se n e/c ILarpos TOV Ylou yevvqcris a\\t] Trapa rrjv 
(pixriv etTTi, /ecu ov (Jiovov o/xoio? aXXa KCU 
ea-n rijs TOV liarpo? oi/cr/a?, /cat ev /j.ev eitriv 
avrbs KCU o Tiarrip w? aiJro? eiptjKev, aet ^e ev T$ TLarpi 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 33 

e<TTiv 6 Aoyo? Kal 6 TiaTtjp ev TO> Ao'yw, w$ ecrnv TO 
aTravyaarfJia irpb? TO (/>?' TOVTO yap /ecu fj Xe^tj a-rj/naivei. 
Sia TOVTO f) (rvvoSo? TOVTO voovva /caXw? 6ft.oov<nov 
eypa^av 'iva Selfatnv a\\ov eivai TWV yevt]TU>v TOV Aoyoi/. 
Then in ib. 25 he cites Dionysius of Alexandria as 
having admitted the use of the term. Again, ad Afros 6, 
evTavOa ot 7rc<rKOiroi crvvrjyayev etc TW>V ypa<j>S>v TO 
Tr/v re Trqyyv KOI TOV Trora/jiov, KOI TOV 



Trpo? Tyv vTroVracrij/, KCU TO, 'Ei/ TW 0wr/ arou 
(f)U>s, KOI TO, 'Eyco KCU 6 HaTrjp ev eV/xei/ ' /cat 
\evKOTepov \onrov KOI CTU^TO/XCO? eypa\jrav O/JLOOIKTIOV T<a 
TLctTpi TOV "Ycov ' TO, yap 7rpOipri/u.eva TravTa TCIVTIJV exet 
Tnv (Dj/matrlav. In the de synod. 45 he defends its Nicene 
use against the Arian objection that it had been rejected 
as Sabellian by the Antiochene Fathers in 269. Ot /xei/ 
yap TOV 2a/xo(TaTea Ka^eXwre?, crw/xaTtKw? K\a[Ji.(3dvovTs 
TO o/noovcriov, TOV HavXov crofafacrOai re OeXovTO? KOI 
\eyovTOs Et $ e avOpanrov yeyovev 6 XJOICTTO? 0eo?, 
OVKOVV oju-oovcrios eVn TCO HaTpl, KOI avayK)] Tpei$ ovvias 
eivai, {JLLO.V [lev Trpotjyov/ULevtjv, ra? Se vo e eKeivijs' Sta 
' etVorwp euXajSjjOeWe? TO TOIOVTOV cro'0fcr/Aa TOV 
eipqKaari M.y eivai TOV XpicrTOV 6ju.oov<nov' 

OVK <TTl yap OVTft)? 6 YlO? TT/OO? TOV TittTepa, ft)? IC/09 

evoei. Oi 8e Tyv 'A-peiavqv a'lpecriv avaOe/u.aTi<ravT$, 
QewpricravTes Ttjv Travovpylav TOV TiaiiXov, Kal \oyia-dfjLevoi 
fj,r) OVTCOS Kal eiri TWV acrw/AaTwv Kal /xaXtcrra eiri Qeov, TO 
6fJLOov(riov (rrj/jLaivecrOat, yivuxTKOVTe? re [Arj KTicr/ui.a, aXX' e/c 
TJ/9 ovarias yewtifia eivai TOV Aoyoi/, Kal Tt)v ovcriav TOV 
os apxqv Kal pifav Kal irrjyrjv eivai TOV Ytou Kal 
OjttoioVjj? fi/ TOV yevvri<ravTOs . . . TOVTOV 

VKV eiKOTO)? eip^KUffl Kal OVTol O/JLOOVCTIOV TOV Yl'oV* 

* Comp. Basil contr. Eunom. i. 19, who takes the same line as Athan- 
asius. Hilary de synod. 86 gives a different account of the rejection of 
the word at Antioch, which he says was due to the fact that Paul himself 
accepted it. 
D 



34 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Tertullian had used its Latin equivalent adv. Prax. 4, 
" Filium non aliunde deduce sed de substantia Patris " ; 
i~b. 13, " solem et radium ejus tarn duas res et duas species 
unius et indivisae substantiae numerabo quam Deum et 
Sermonen Ejus, quam Patrem et Filium" (comp. Apol. 
21; adv. Marc. iii. 6). Justin Martyr taught the same 
truth, Dial. 128, speaking of the Son of G-od as His 
"Power," Awa/uy yeyevvfja-Qai airb rov IXarpo? . . . ou 
Kara a,Troro/j.r)v, obp a7ro/u.epio]u,evj<]$ rfjs rov Har/oo? ov<rla$. 
Origen too, according to Pamphilus, had used the very word 
o/jioovcriov* to express the Son's relation to the Father. 

Yet the word was not, even in Nicene times, one of 
unmistakable precision of meaning ;f it was only as 
denning, and defined by, the other clauses in the Creed 
that it was thereby invested with a technical meaning 
which it never afterwards lost. Athanasius himself was 
by no means wedded to the use of it. In his Orations it 
only occurs once (i. 9), and once in his Expositio Fidei 
(ch. 2), but more frequently de synodis, ad Serap., ad 
Afros, and contr. Apollin. 

13 Si ov ra Trdvra eyeWo. The phrase is taken from 
the Caesarean Creed, and is based upon 1 Cor. viii. 6; 
John i. 3 ; Col. i. 16. In theological language the Son of 

* Pamphil. Apol. pro Orig. Frag. 3 in comm. in Heb. apud Kouth 
Eel. Sacr. iv. 318 (see Bigg, Bampton Lectures, p. 179, note). 

t The shifting uses of oMa prevented this. Philosophically ofota. 
had been used to denote both the " idea " which logically precedes the 
thing, and also the material thing considered by itself. Thus with the 
Stoics it was equivalent to Shy or trw/tct. The Gnostics introduced its use 
into theology (Iren. i. 5, 1), where it held its idealistic sense. '0/tooi5o-tos 
would thus mean "of essential unity." All species of the same genus 
would be 6/w>ot5<na with each other. But as God is unique in Nature and 
Essence, One Who is bpoofotos with Him must be Very God also. And 
this is exactly what the Nicene Fathers meant (Athan. de synod. 50, 51). 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 35 

God is the " Instrument of creation," the mediate Agent 
of its "becoming." His action is thus co-ordinate and 
co-operant with that of the Father (John v. 1*7). All 
finite being, phenomenal and noumenal, springs from (c) 
the Father through (Sid') the Son. To write <? oil of the 
Son would be Sabellianism. Creation, if we may so 
speak and understand it, is the expression by the Word 
of the thought of God under finite conditions the giving 
a distinct creaturely existence to His "ideas" (Eev. 
iv. 11). And while He is immanent in the cosmos He 
yet transcends it (Eph. iv. 6). On physical grounds 
creation out of nothing is unthinkable ; it is " by faith 
that we make it thinkable" that the visible order as a 
whole has not been brought into finite being out of things 
which appear (Heb. xi. 3), but from out of its archetype 
in the "idea" of God. It "was life in the Word" 
(John i. 3 ; see Augustin. ad loc.\ and even now He is its 
principle of consistency and its ultimate end (Col. i. 16 ; 
Eev. xxii. 13). Hence He is termed f) apxy rfjs /cr/crew? 
rov 6eou (Eev. iii. 14), " the deep principle by which any 
creation becomes possible" (Mason, Faith of the Gospel, 
p. 77). This view of creation guards us from looking 
upon it as a "paroxysm of initiation," and leads us to 
regard it as a continuous act of the will of God (John 
v. 17 ; Heb. xi. 3). It is possible to see in this relation 
of the Word to the created universe an d priori reason 
for the Incarnation. On the one hand is God Infinite 
and Unknowable; on the other man craving a knowledge 
of God. The Divine immanence in creation suggests a 
mode whereby God may be revealed to man. The Incar- 
nation bridges over the gulf, unites the finite and 
Infinite, and so reveals God as alone He could be revealed 
to a created intelligence. 



36 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

15 rov Si was rovg avQpwirovs. This reason is 
perhaps distinct from that of the Atonement, which is 
given in the immediately succeeding words. The Caesarean 
Creed did not contain this phrase : it read simply rov Sia 
ryv fujterepav arwrripiav <rapKwOevTa ; so that the words 
must have been inserted to convey an additional idea. If 
so, they perhaps point to the satisfaction of the spiritual, 
moral, and intellectual demands of man's rational nature 
(wholly irrespective of the Fall) by Christ's revelation of 
the Triune Nature of God. 

Osiander (quoted by Westcott, "Gospel of Creation," 
Essay in Epistles of St. John, page 315) finds support for 
the Scotist view of the necessity of the Incarnation in the 
distinction of these two clauses, &i ^5? row avQpwirovs, 
Kai Sia rrjv ^erepav a-arrripiav. His words are " Quis non 
videat Spiritum Sanctum hie duas inter sese longe 
diversissimas causas ostendere propter quas Filius Dei 
descenderit de caelis et homo f actus sit 1 Quarum prior 
est quia nos homines eramus homines, propter ipsum et 
imagine ejus conditi, qui conditi nunquam fuissenms nisi 
ipse quoque voluisset homo fieri et inter nos versari. 
Posterior causa est quia peccatum corrueramus in 
mortem, unde nos eruere et salutem nobis restituere 
dignatus est." 

But the verb /ccn-eAfloVra belongs to both clauses, and 
implies the assumption of a passible humanity and a 
human life, albeit of Perfect Man, lived under the con- 
ditions of fallen man. Our Lord came "in likeness of 
flesh of sin" (Eom. viii. 3). 

More probably the words were inserted in view of the 
Arian blasphemy that the Son's existence was relative to 
ours, and were intended to say, "He was not made for our 
sakes, but He did become incarnate for us." The Arian 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 37 

view is given by Alexander (Encycl. apud Socr. i. 6), Si 
yap TreTroirjrai, Iva jJ/Aa? Si avrov 009 Si opyavov 
6 Oeo's ' KOI OVK av virecrrn ei /my %/u.a$ 6 Qeos %Qe\ev 
And again by Athan. Encycl. ad Episcop. 
Aegypt. 12, rore yap yeyovev ore fleBovXyrai avrov 6 
0eo? St)[juovpyf]<rai' ev yap ru>v Travruiv epywv eari Kai 
CWTO'S ; and again, quoting the Thalia, Or. c. Ar. i. 5, eira 
6e\rj<ra$ jj/ua? Sqfuovpytjvai, rore Sy TreiroirjKev eva riva, 
/cat wv6fj.acrev avrov A.oyov Kal !o<piav KOI Yiov, "iva ^/ 



i avrov 



16 /ecu Sia ryv yuerepav a-torypiav. We have already 
seen that this phrase is adopted from the Caesarean Creed. 
In Scripture the purpose of the Incarnation is uniformly 
viewed as the salvation of the world (Luke xix. 10; 
John iii. 16, 17, xii. 47). 

Kare\0ovra. This verb describes the laying aside of 
the outward manifestations of Divine Glory, the " separ- 
able accidents" of Deity the /ceWn9 of Cyril's epistles 
(see note, ad loc.) to which the Son of God voluntarily 
submitted in the act of Incarnation. He placed Himself 
under such conditions and limitations as belong to perfect 
human nature and of these in our fallen state we are 
probably not capable of forming a judgment in order to 
become really and truly Man (Phil. ii. 7 foil.). The 
word KareXQovra is responded to by ave\Bovra below, 
which describes the reassumption by the Son of God, now 
in His glorified humanity, of all that had been laid aside 
(see Leo's teaching on the " self - emptying " in the 
Tome, 3). . 

Kare\B6vra did not appear in the Caesarean or early 
Jerusalem creeds, and was probably taken up from the 



38 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Anfciochene. But the whole phrase KareXOovra e/c rwv 
ovpavwv as it stands in the revised Jerusalem Creed is 
found in effect in Cyril's Catecheses, iv. 9, Sia raj 
a/m/ma? rumv e ovpavwv KartjXOev e?ri 



17 a-apKwQevra.. ^apKoo^ai is not found in the N.T., 
but occurs in late medical writers, Aretaeus and Galen, 
in the sense of " becoming flesh." In ecclesiastical writers 
(so far as I have noticed) it is always used of the Incar- 
nation. Irenaeus, i. 10. 1, has arapKoOevra inrep 
rj/uerepas crwr^/j/a?. Arms and Euzoius also wrote 
Bevra according to Socrat. i. 26, though Sozomen, ii. 27, 
gives crapKa avaXafiovra, and this is the more usual 
expression: e.g, in the creed of the Apost. Constit. ; the 
First Antiochene or Eusebian encyclical of 341, Socr. ii. 
10, Athan. de synod. 22 ; the Homoion creed of Seleucia, 
359, Socr. ii. 40, Athan. de synod., 29. 

a-apKuQevra stood alone in the Caesarean Creed, but the 
Council rightly felt that by itself it was not an effective 
safeguard of the Incarnation from Arian evasion. It did 
not, for instance, exclude the Lucianic tenet that the 
Word took flesh only, without a human soul (Epiphan. 
Ancor. 33, AOVKICLVO? yap KCU irdvres A.ovKiavi<rT<u 
apvovvrai rov Ytoi/ rov Qeov tyvyjiv ei\ri<j)evat' crdpica /J.GV 
/JLOVOV (JHurw ecrxrjKevai. Comp. Lucian's Confession of 
Faith, apud Kufimus on Euseb. H.E. ix. 6, in Eouth, Eel. 
Sacr. iii. 286, " Deus . . . Sapientiam suam misit in hunc 
mundum carne vestitam "). Nor does it lift the Incarna- 
tion above the level of a mere Theophany. The Council 
therefore added from the Jerusalen Creed evavOpwirrtcravTa, 
"dwelt amongst men as Man"; and the two verbs 
together correspond to St. John's 6 Ao'yo? arapg eyevero 
KCU ea/oyvwaev ev 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 39 

The Arian view was unequivocally expressed in the 
creed of Eudoxius of Constantinople a-apKwOwra OVK 
evavOpwTr^cravTa' ovre yap tyvyyv avQpWTrlvrjv avei\r]<j)ev, 
a\\a <rap yeyovev, 'Iva Sia crapKos TO?? avOpcbtrois ws Sia 
TrapaTreTaoyAaTO? Oeo? q/u.iv xp^cmVfl' ov ovo <f>v<rei?, eTrei 
/j.r] reXeto? yv avOpwTros, aXX' aim ijsvxw @ e <>? ev (rapid 
(Halm, p. 261. Comp. Athan. c. Apollin. i. 15, ii. 3). In 
order to expressly reject this heresy and Apollinarian 
developments of it, the Armenian Church expanded this 
clause of their creed as follows evavOpwirqa-ev, eyevvriBri 
reXei'to? e'/c Ma/cna? T^S ay/as TrapOevov Sia II. Ay. <wcrre 
Kal viv KOI vovv KOI iravra. ocra earrlv ev 



unru) a\rjOivu)$ KCU ov SoKqarei (Hahn, p. 152). Justin 
Martyr employed the rarer expression avSpov/mevov, Apol. 
i. 31. 

18 evavOpwir^aravTa. The verb is peculiar to ecclesias- 
tical Greek, and is not used in the N.T. Here it replaces 
ev avQpdoiroui 7ro\iTev<raju.evov of Caesarea. It is intended 
to express the permanent union of God with Human 
Nature ; but, as it afterwards proved, it was not sufficiently 
technical to exclude heretical theories as to the mode of 
the union, whether by the conversion of the Godhead 
into flesh (Apollinarianism), or by union with a human 
person (Nestorianism ; see Cyril. Epist. 2 ad Nest.). 

No clause dealing with the mode of the Incarnation 
finds place in the Mceue Creed. Earlier Western creeds 
generally contained one : e.g. Irenaeus iii. 4. 1, " Qui . . . 
earn quae esset ex Virgine generationem sustinuit " ; and 
more definitely Tertullian de praescr. haer. 13, "delatum 
ex Spiritu Patris Dei et Virtute in Yirginem Mariam, 
carnem factum in utero ejus et ex ea natum." Comp. 
Marcellus yevvt]6evTa eic Ilveyyuaro? 'Ay/ou /ecu Maptas 



40 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



TrapQevov. The two operations, Luke i. 35, Matt. i. 20, 
are variously expressed, generally in Greek by e/c followed 
by the simple copula (KOI), but more usually, in Latin by 
" de Sp. S. ex Maria V." Augustine, de fid. et symb. 8, 
has "per Sp. S. ex V. M."; and Serm. ad Catech. 6, "de Sp. 
S. et V. M."; and so Leo in his Tome. It is curious that 
the popular Latin version of the West represented the 
e/c , . . KOI of the Greek by de . . . ex ; whence comes our 
own English version "% the Holy Ghost of the Virgin 
Mary." 

Such a clause was useful in excluding the Apollinarian 
and Yalentinian notions that the Body of Christ was not 
derived from the substance of His mother (see note 
below on the Tome, 2). It naturally found a place in 
the later revised creed of Jerusalem, and had often been 
dwelt upon by Cyril in his Lectures : e.g. iv. 9, yevvyOels 
& ay/a? napOevov KOI 'Ay/ov IIveiVaT09 : x ii- 3, e/c 
TrapOevov KOI Ilv. 'Ay. Kara TO euayyeXiov evavOpw- 



19 TrafloVra. So the Caesarean Creed, simply; no 
description of the mode of the Passion being added. 
The Jerusalem Creed read (instead of iraQovra) a-ravpw- 
Qevra /ecu ra^evra ; and some of the earlier Western 
creeds, and the later Jerusalem, inserted the historic 
detail of the name of the Eoman procurator: e.g. Iren. 
iii. 4. 1, "passus sub Pontio Pilato"; Tertull. de virg. vel. 
1, "crucifixum sub P. Pilato "; Eevised Jerusalem, vravpto- 
Qevra re VTrep rj/jiw eVi II. ILAaTOu /cat TraOovra. This 
express mention of Pilate by name is of constant re- 
currence in early Christian writings ; Acts in. 13, iv. 27 ; 
1 Tim. vi, 13 ; Ignat. Magn. 11 ; Trail. 9 ; Smyrn. 1 ; 
Just. Mart. Apol. i. 13 ; Dial. 30 ; and it was doubtless 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 41 

from Christian sources that Tacitus gained his knowledge, 
Ann. xv. 44, " Auctor nominis ejus Chrestus Tiberio im- 
peritante procuratorem P. Pilatum supplicio adfectus 
erat." Its insertion in various creeds probably dates 
from earliest days when in preaching to the heathen it 
was necessary to insist on the historic reality of the 
Passion, which they might be tempted to regard as merely 
a " myth " veiling a moral lesson, Augustine says that it 
was intended to fix the date of the Crucifixion (de fid. et 
symb. 11, "Addendum enim erat judicis nomen propter 
temporum cognitionem"), but the better known name of 
the Emperor would have served such a purpose more 
effectually. 

The reading of the early Jerusalem Creed, /ecu ra^eVra, 
which finds no place here, was naturally retained in the 
revised formulary. The Burial, as an article of the faith, 
was indeed ranked by St. Paul amongst the "first 
principles" of Christian instruction, because of its im- 
portance in leading to the Eesurrection (1 Cor. xv. 3). 

Cyril himself in his Lectures also dwells upon Christ's 
Descent into Hades, though the clause itself does not 
appear in the collated text of his creed as usually given. 
Catech. iv. 11, KarfjXQev els ra KaraxOovia] xiv. 18, 19, 
Kare\06vTa et? aSyv. The phrase is found also in the 
Sirmian "Dated" Creed of May 22, 359, drawn up by 
Valens and Ursacius, and read five days later at Arimi- 
num KOI els ra mraxOovia /careAOoVra and this is its 
first actual appearance in a creed. This Arian formulary, 
after a revision at Mce* on October 10, which left this 
phrase unaltered, was finally adopted at Constantinople 
on December 31, with the reading /ecu ay ra KaraxOovca 
KareX^XvOora (Socr. ii. 37, 41; Theodor. H,E. ii. 16). 
The clause is next found in the orthodox creed of Aquileia 



42 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

as given by Euffinus, A.D. 390 "Descendit in inferna" 
neither the Eoman nor Eastern creeds possessing it 
(Euff. in symb. Ap. 18). There can be little doubt that 
the fact of our Lord's descent into Hades did form part 
of the regular instruction delivered to catechumens, 
although it might not be formulated in the creed. As 
Euffinus says (I.e.), it was implied in the clause "was 
buried." There was a real severance between the vital 
union of Soul and Body. The Body was laid in the 
tomb, the Spirit went to the place of the departed. Our 
Lord's Death was a real death ; and so bhe clause has its 
importance as excluding Doeetic notions, and as em- 
phasizing the existence of the Human Soul in Christ, 
which the Arians and Apollinarians denied. 

In the Latin Western creeds the inseparable Personal 
Union of God the Son with both the Soul and the Body 
is expressed by the subject of each verb being the same 
"Mortuus, sepultus, descendit" (comp. Athan. c. 
Apollin. i. 18, ii. 15). Cyril of Alexandria, in his Second 
Letter to Nestorius, argues for a real Incarnation on the 
same ground of the identity of Person of the Only- 
begotten with Him who suffered. 

20 avavravra ry T/uVfl fjftepa. All complete creeds 
contain clauses couched in nearly identical terms on the 
Eesurrection, Ascension, and Second Advent ; the revised 
Jerusalem Creed adding to this clause from 1 Cor. xv. 4, 
Kara ras y/oa$a?, where the allusion is no doubt to Psalm 
xvi. 10, Hosea vi. 2, and to Christ's words, Luke xxiv. 
46. The Scriptural prophecy dealt with the fact of the 
Christ's resurrection, not with the exact interval between 
His death and rising again. John ii. 19 and Mark x. 33 
are the only recorded utterances of our Lord which refer 



THE GREED OF NICAEA 43 

to the duration of this interval. Athanasius, de Inc. Y. 
Dei 26, gives three reasons for this particular period of 
three days : (a) Not on the same day, lest the real Death 
should be denied ; (&) not on the second day, lest His incor- 
ruption should not be clearly manifested; (c) not later 
than the third day, lest the identification of His Body 
should be questioned and the events forgotten. 

21 aveWovra V TOV? ovpavov?. The phrase is not to 
be understood in the sense of a literal local ascent. The 
visible Ascension which the disciples witnessed (Luke 
xxiv. 51 ; Acts i. 9) was symbolical of the definite with- 
drawal of the Eisen Lord into the higher plane of 
spiritual being upon which He had entered as Man 
concurrently with His Eesurrection. " Heaven " is not a 
place but a spiritual state, and the Ascension was the 
natural sequel to the Eesurrection (comp. Eph. iv. 10 ; 
Heb. vii. 26). 

Note the omission here, as in the Caesarean model, of 
any clause relating to the Session at the right hand of 
God. Place is given it in both the earlier and later 
creeds of Jerusalem and in that of Lucian of Antioch, as 
well as in the three forms given by Tertullian, but not in 
Irenaeus. The metaphor denotes the position of honour 
and felicity (1 Kings ii. 19 ; Psalm xvi. 11, ex. 1), power 
and sovereignty (Matt. xxvi. 64; Heb. viii. 1). It is 
based upon Eph. i. 20; 1 Peter iii. 22; Col. iii. 1; Heb. i. 3, 
x. 12, xii. 2; comp. Eom. viii. 34; Acts vii. 56; 1 Cor. 
xv. 25. Comp. Primasius (cited by.Westcott on Heb. 
viii. 1), " Plenitudinem majestatis summamque gloriam 
beatitudinis et prosperitatis debemus per dexteram in- 
telligere in qua Filius sedet." 



44 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Cyril in his Lectures, xi. 17, xiv. 27-30, arguing against 
Arianism, emphatically urges that the Session at the right 
hand, with the possession of the Divine Glory which it 
implied, belonged to the Son from all eternity, and did 
not begin after His Ascension. [Hence perhaps the 
change from Kadia-avra of the early Jerusalem Creed to 
the present tense, Ko.9e%6fj.evov, in the revised.] But the 
point intended by the clause is that the Incarnate Son, 
Jesus Christ, in His twofold Nature, Human as well as 
Divine, assumed by His Ascension that Divine position 
and glory which had ever been His in His Divine Nature. 
The throne of God is now shared (Eev. iii. 21) by One 
Who is clad in our nature, the Perfect Sympathizer 
(Heb. v. 1-10), the unceasing Intercessor (Heb. vii. 25), 
the Advocate turned towards the Father. (1 John ii. 1.) 
Comp. Iren. i. 10. 1, KOI ryv evcrapicov els TOV? ovpavovs 
avaXrf^riv ("et in came in caelos ascensionem ") ; Athan. 
Expos. Fid. 1, fjij.lv eeiev avoSov re els ovpavov? OTTOV 
irpoSpo/Jio? el<T)j\.Oev inrep ^/j.u>v 6 KVpiaKOs ai/0/xo7ro [ = the 
Lord's Humanity] ev w /u.eX\ei Kplveiv ftWa? /cat j/e/c/oou?. 
Kuffin. in symb. Ap.. 31, "Ascendit ergo ad caelos, non 
ubi Yerbum Deus ante non f uerat, quippe qui semper erat 
in caelis et manebat in Patre, sed ubi Verbum caro 
factum ante non sedebat." This doctrine has been the 
inspiration of such hymns as Michael Brace's "Where 
high the heavenly temple stands"; and Dr. Blight's 

stanza 

" His Manhood pleads where now It lives 
On heaven's eternal throne." 



22 epy6fji.evov Kpivai ^wvras /ecu veKpov?. The phrase 
comes originally from 1 Peter iv. 5. The present par- 
ticiple should be given its own force. The " coming " in 
present judgments is not less true than that doctrine of 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 45 

the Lord's Second Advent which was prominent in the 
minds of the early Christians, who naturally regarded the 
"coming" rather as an event than a process (Acts xvii. 
31 ; Eom. ii. 16 ; 1 Thess. ii. 19, v. 4 ; 2 Tim. iv. 1 ; Eev. 
xx. 12). The future participle rj^ovra is found only in 
the Caesarean of the Greek creeds; but the familiar in- 
fluence of the Latin "venturus " has penetrated even into 
the English translation of ep^ofj-evov in the "Mcene" 
Creed. 

The Caesarean Creed also added iraXiv ev Sogy after 
tfgovra. This idea of the "glorious majesty" is strictly 
Scriptural (Matt. xvi. 27, xxiv. 30, xxv. 31; Mark viii. 38, 
xiii. 26; Luke ix. 26, xxi. 27), and found a place in the 
majority of creeds, Western and Eastern. Irenaeus, i. 10. 1, 
KO.I rt]v eK ru>v ovpavtov ev 777 S6y rov ILarpoq Trapov<rlav 
avrov: ib. iii. 4, "in gloria venturus"; Tertull. de praescr. 
haer. 13, "venturus cum claritate"; Lucian of Antioch, 
ojmevov fiera 6t]9 /cat ^wa/xew?: early Jerusalem, 
ev 6fl : revised, -waXiv epxofAevov pera 



A further clause stood in the early Jerusalem Creed (as 
in the Apost. Const, vii. 41, and in the later Jerusalem) 
expressive of the eternity of Christ's regal office, in words 
taken directly from Luke i. 33 ov rij$ /SacriXeia? owe 
evrai re'Xo?. The phrase was valuable against a minor 
deduction from an erroneous conception of the Logos 
which was associated with the name of Marcellus. " The 
theory ascribed to him was that the Logos was an 
impersonal Divine power, immanent from eternity in God, 
but issuing from Him in the act of creation, and entering 
at last into relation with the human person of Jesus, who 
thus became God's 'Son.' But this 'expansion' of the 
original Divine unity would be followed by a 'contrac- 



46 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

tion,' when the Logos would retire from Jesus, and God 
would again be all in all" (Bright, Notes on the Canons, 
p. 99). 1 Cor. xv. 24 was therefore naturally but wrongly 
interpreted of the surrender by Christ of such kingship 
as must for ever belong to Him as God. Cyril combated 
this notion in his Lectures (iv. 15, rov X/wroi/ e ovpavwv 
TrpoardoKO. . . . (3a<ri\evovra (3aari\elav ovpaviov, alwviov 
i areXevrrjrov. 1 A.(r<pa\lov yap ju,ot KOI ev rovrw, 
t] TroXXoi eicriv ol \eyovres reXos elvai rfj$ ILpicrrov 
(3a<Ti\eias : xv. 27, KO.V TTOTC TWOS aKova-ys \eyovros on 
re'Ao? exet ^ X/otcrrov jSacriXe/a, im.i(Dj(rov ryv aipecriv ' rov 
SpcLKOvros ecrriv a\\t] Ke<j)a\t} Trpocrtpdrws irepi rijv 
TaXariav avafaeiara) ', and a similar clause was inserted 
in creeds which were equally opposed to Marcellus and 
Athanasius; e.g. the fourth Antiochene, presented to 
Constans in 342, 08 fj (3aa-i\ela a.KardTrav<rros o3<ra 
Siaju-evei els TOV$ aicbvas' ea-rai yap Ka6e6/Ji.evo$ ev Se^ta 
rov Ilar/oo? ov /U.OVQV ev ru> alu>vi rovrtp aXXa Kal ev 
rw peXXovei (Socr. ii. 18). This was repeated in the 
Philippopolis recension of the same creed in 343, in 
the Makrostich of 344, and in the first Sirmian Creed 
of 351. 

23 KOI. The copula must again be given its full signi- 
ficance. The doctrine of the Holy Trinity which is thus 
implicitly asserted forms, as has been already said, the 
framework of these more elaborate expressions of the 
Faith. Athanasius has an interesting passage on this 
point, ad Afros 11, which is worth quoting in full : AI/TJ? 
yap r) ev Nucdia (rvvoSos aX^Ocop o-r^Xoy/oa^/a Kara Tracn/? 
aijoecreco? eamv, avrt] /ecu rovp fi\aa-<})t]fji.ovvra$ els ro Hvevpa 
TO ' A.yiov /cat \eyovra$ avro Kricr^a avarpeTrei. eiptjKores 
yap ol Trarepe? Trept rys els rov Ytoi/ 7n<rre(as> einjyayov 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 47 

ev6vs ILicTTevo/Jiev /cat els TO TLvev/u.a TO ' Aytov, tra TeXeiav 
KOI TrXripr] Tyv els T*]V ' Ay/av T/uacJa TT'KTTLV OjUoXoyjfcravTe?, 
TOV x a P aKTt !P a T W ^ X/)<rT< TTfcrreco?, /cat T^y SiSaarKoXiav 
T*js /ca0oXt/c79 eKK\q<rias eV TOI/TO) ywo/Mcraxn. AfjXov yap 
i Trap' VJMV KQLI irapa Tracrt Ka9ecrTr]Ke, /ecu ovSeis av 
aju,(j>l/36\ov els TOVTO crxoiri T^V SiavoiaV) co? 
ou/c eWiJ' jy/xwv j; TT/crrt? ei? r^ KTIGIV, a\\' ef? eva Geof 
Harepa TravTOKpaTOpa, TTCIVTUIV opaTWV re /cat aopaTwv 
' KCU et? era Kwptoi/ I?;crow ^LpurTOv, TOV 



TOV yuovoyev^ ' /cai ei? eV nvev/wa "Aytoi/ ' era 9eoi/ 
TOV eV T^J ay /a /cat TeXe/a T/ota^t yivcacrKO/Jievov (comp. ad 
Jovian. 4). 



23 V To f 'Aytov Ilveyyua. The Caesarean, Alexandrian, 
and Jerusalem creeds in uniformity with the first two 
articles et? era 0eov . . . ei? era Kvpiov I. X. read here 

'els ev ILv. "Aytov, and it seems strange that ev should 
have dropped out, particularly as it has direct Scriptural 
authority (Eph. iv. 4 ; 1 Cor. xii. 13). Athanasius him- 
self naturally uses this form when referring to the Mcene 
Creed as really a confession of faith in the Holy Trinity, 
ad Afros 11 (quoted in last note), and so also Alexander 
of Alexandria, apud Theodor. H.E. i. 4 (see Appendix iii.). 
Comp. Joan Damasc. de fide orth. 8, o/jto/w? Tria-TevoiJ.ev els 
ev Hi/. "Ayjov, /c.T.X. 

24 Tou? Se Xe'yovTa?, /c.T.X. The anathematisms which 
follow are an integral part of the document, although 
they do not add anything to the substance of the creed, 
but only condemn a number of Arian statements respect- 
ing the Second Person of the Trinity, which were contrary 
to the Church's teaching and untenable in her com- 
munion. Their presence shows that the Council did not 



48 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

intend its creed to be a Baptismal symbol or a popular 
declarative creed superseding the existing formularies of 
the different local churches, but simply a "dogmatic 
standard constructed for a particular emergency," and 
proposed for signature as a test of orthodoxy. 

Had the Council intended to draw up a complete creed, 
there were clauses at hand in the creed of Jerusalem, on 
the Paraclete, Baptism, Forgiveness of Sins, the Church, 
the Resurrection, and Eternal Life ; but evidently neither 
Eusebius of Caesarea, who had only quoted the creed of 
his Church as far as the clause Tria-revofjiev KCU e!$ ev 
HvevfJia "A.yiov, nor the Council generally thought it 
necessary to cite or insert clauses on subjects as to which 
no heterodoxy had been expressed " confessi sunt quod 
negabatur; tacuerunt de quo nemo quaerebat" (Jerome 
Epist. 41 ad Pam. et Ocean). Compare on this point of 
omission the Eusebian encyclical of Antioch in 341, 
which, while fairly adequate on the Second Person, ends 
TTHTTevo/Jiev /ecu els TO "A.yiov Tivev/J.a. Et Se Set irpoa-Qeivai 

I \ \ \ 1 / \ C ~ 5 / 

ma-rev oju.ev KCU Trepi aapKos avaarraa-eoDS Kai fco*;? cuwviov 
(Athan. de Synod. 22 ; Socr. ii. 10). 

It was not until the Ephesine Council in 431 that it 
was converted into a Baptismal profession (canon 7), and 
not until Chalcedon in 451 that it was termed a 
cnV/SoXo^. The Council of Laodicaea (canon 7) in 363 
spoke generally of TO, rfj$ Tr/o-rew? a-vju.f3o\a, but without 
distinct reference to the Nicene Creed. The anathema- 
tisms were naturally not taken over into local creeds, 
which were otherwise expanded from the Nicene. They 
are, however, still retained, and expanded to include 
similar denials respecting the Holy Spirit, in the en- 
larged creed recited in the Armenian liturgy (Hahn, 
p. 153 ; Brightman, i. 426). 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 49 

The object of the anathematisms was to afford no loop- 
hole for the evasion of the strict meaning of the terms 
used in the creed. Some of the anathemas appended to 
various Arianising creeds did offer such loopholes: e.g. 
the insertion of xpovo? and o>? eV rS>v /erttr/Aarwy in the 
anathemas of the Dedication creed of 341. 



24 *Hr Trore ore owe $v. " Once He was not." This 
phrase was intended by Arius to deny the eternal co- 
existence of the Son with the Father (Alexander ap. 
Theodor. H.E. i. 4 ; id. encycl. ap. Socr. i. 6 ; Athan. Or. c, 
Arian, i. 5, etc.}. Arms' rationalistic temper of mind led 
him to import into Divine relations some of those limita- 
tions which are necessarily inherent in human relations. 
As a human son is posterior in time to his father, so 
Arius concluded that the Divine Son must be of later 
existence than the Divine Father. "There was," there- 
fore, " when He did not exist." He overlooked the fact 
that "Father" and "Son" are correlative terms, not 
necessarily involving any notions of before and after; 
and that even in the human sphere fatherhood "and son- 
ship spring into co- existence simultaneously (comp. 
Athan. Or. c. Arian. i. 26 foil, iii. 6). The Catholic 
doctrine of this Eternal relation had been expressed by 
Origen, de princ. iv. 1. 28, owe earnv ore owe %v, a direct 
negative to the Arian teaching ; Horn, in lerem. ix. 4, aei 
yew/5 o liartjp rov YtoV: comp. de princ. i. 2. 4, 10, 
and apud Apol. Pamphil. pro Orig., 6 Ecor^p aei yewdrcu 
(Routh Eel. Sacr. iv. 304); and by Dionysius of Home 
contr. Sabell. apud Athan. de deer. Me. 26, et yap 

. , '- "V ^ <? # 1 f . 1 \ a\ ? 11 > * TT I 

yeyoi/ei/ Y 109, tjv ore owe tjv aec oe t]v, et ye ev ru> ilarpi 
eo-ri, wp cwroV facri, KOI el Aoyo? KOI 2o0/a KCU Awa/xt? 6 
Xpicrro's passages which show that the Arian position had 

E 



50 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

been already met and refuted in the third century, and 
that the Catholic "Theology" was fixed long before the 
date usually assigned to it. Comp. Alexander writing to 
Alexander of Byzantium in 324, apud Theod. H.E. i. 4, 
avayicri TOV Hare/oct ael eivai liarepa. "Ear* Se Tiaryp 
ael Tra/ooVro? TOV "Yiov Si ov \prifi.a.rl^ei Tiarrip. And 
again, apud Epist. Ar. ad Euseb. Nicom., id. 5, ael 6 Oeo?, 

i \ <v<t\ . ./ > i st if \ i < r\ * 

aei o I to? oure eirivoia ovre aroyuo) TIVI Trpoayei o Weos 

/> <\/> *> . ' V /~V ^ IN 

TOV Jiiov aei t)eof, aei 



25 7r/ofj/ yevvtjOyjvcu OVK yv. This formula, which Arius 
used in his letter to Alexander owe ?i/ T/OO roy yew/jy- 
O^ai, Athan. de synod. 16; and again to Eusebius of 
Nicomedia TT/otv ywvr)6y OVK $v, Theodor. H.E. i. 5; 
comp. Athan. Or. c. Ar. i. 6 is really only another 
method of expressing the idea contained in ?jv vore ore 
OVK %v ; i.e. it is not a denial of an assumed Catholic tenet 
that the Son did exist before His Generation, but an 
Arian statement that His Generation implied a previous 
period when the Son did not exist. It was due to a 
misconception of the Generation as a temporal or pre- 
temporal act instead of as an intemporal relation. Comp. 
Augustin. Tract. 42. 8 in loan., " Quod vero de Deo pro- 
cessit Verbum aeterna processio est : non habet tempus 
per Quern factum est ternpus. Nemo dicat in corde suo 
antequam esset Verbum quomodo erat Deus ? Nunquam 
dicas antequam esset Verbum Dei. Nunquam Deus sine 
Verbo fuit." 

Eusebius' explanation of this anathema is certainly not 
the interpretation which the Council intended it to bear. 
He turned it into a mere truism, by making the " Genera- 
tion" mean the Human Birth. His words, as given in 
his letter to his diocese (apud Athan. Append, to de deer. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 51 

Nic., and Theodor. H.E. i. 12), are, "En /myv TO ava- 
Oe/naTifavQai TO " TT/OO TOW yevv>]Qfjvai OVK qv " OVK O.TOTTOV 
evofiltrOtj, rft> Trapa Traari p.cv Gfj.o\oyia-Qai elvai CIVTOV 
Yiov TOV Qeov KOI TT/OO Ttjs KaTa <rapKa yew/i^ws* Athan- 
asius twice refers to these words of Eusebius, as though 
they implied a supposed denial by the Arians of the 
Son's existence before His Incarnation; de synod. 13, de 
deer. Nic. 3. The passage is indeed omitted in Socrates' 
transcript of the letter (H.E. i. 8), and Bull believed it to 
be an Arian interpolation (Del F.N. iii. 9. 3), but on 
scarcely sufficient grounds. 



26 e OVK OVTWV eyeveTO. This also was Arms' own 
phrase: Athan. de synod. 14; Alexand. encycl. Socr. i. 8; 
Arms' letter to Euseb. Nicom., Theod. i. 4. It became 
the watchword of the thorough-going Arians, the Ano- 
maeans, who were termed in consequence "Exoukontians," 
Socr. ii. 45 ; Athan. de synod. 31, Theodor. Haer. iv. 3. 
It is directly opposed by the e/c TJ;? oiWa? of the creed. 



27 e ere/oa? uTOo-Tao-ew? ) ovcr/ao. That the Son was 
foreign in essence to the Father was taught by Arius in 
his Thalia (apud Athan. de synod. 15, SeVo? TOV Yi'ou 
/car' ova-lav 6 TictTrip) and by Eusebius of Mcomedia (Epist. 
ad Paulin. Tyr. apud Theodor. i. 6, OVK etc TW overlap 
avTOv yeyovos . . . a\\' eVe/oov Ty <j>v<rei). 

It is clear that the Mcene Fathers used i/7roWa<rt? and 
ova-la, here synonymously. Without going deeply into 
philosophical refinements, we may say that ova-la repre- 
sented abstract being, while uTroVracn? represented a 
concrete form of being. 'YTroWacn? was not-originally a 
philosophical term, but after passing through various 
materialistic uses (Socr. iii. 7) it acquired a fundamental 



52 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

meaning of " reality." In the N.T. its use is still unfixed. 
Thus in 2 Cor. ix. 4, xi. 17 ; Heb. iii. 14, it means that 
which gives a basis, "confidence"; in Heb. xi. 1, that 
which gives reality ; but Heb. i. 3, " essence." In ecclesi- 
astical usage it was originally equivalent to ova-la ; and so 
the Nicene Fathers, Aegypt, and the West generally, 
spoke of the One Personal God as /*/ct ovcria or /u'a 
uTroWacrt? (see Athan. ad Afr. 4, 4 <5e vTroVracris ovcria 
ecrrl, KCU ovSev a'AAo crri^aivo^evov e\i y avro TO ov : de 
synod. 41 ; Or. c. Ar. iii. 65, 66, iv. 1. 33 ; Euseb, Caes. 
Letter to dioc. ; Jerom. Epist. xv. 4) ; but in the East it 
acquired a more specific sense, " that in virtue of which a 
Person is what he is " ; and so Basil (Epist. 28) and the 
Easterns spoke of /ua ovcria existing in rpeis uTrocrraoret?. 
These two modes of speaking were discussed in the 
Council of Alexandria held in 362, and mutual explana- 
tions were made (Athan. Tom. ad Ant. 5. Socr. iii. 7 
misrepresents the meaning of the synodal letter, which 
did not disapprove of the words ovcria and vTroVraov?, but 
recommended adherence to Nicene Terminology). In 
Latin sulstantia represented ovcria and vTroWctcw when 
both were synonymous : when they were distinguished 
substantia represented ovcria (since essentia was disliked, 
though Augustine preferred it, de Trin. vii. 10, and Leo 
used it in the Tome, 2), and persona translated VTTO- 
crracrig, its Greek equivalent, TT/OOO-WTTOI/, being now often 
used instead of uTroVracn?. Cyril uses both as synony- 
mous in his fourth Anathema. Thus the Latin phraseology 
was "una substantia, tres personae." In the fourth 
century (j>vcri$ (natura) came into use, and Cyril employed 
it as equivalent to uTro'crracns (see further in the note on 
Epist. 3 ad Nest.). Vincent of Lerins, however, used 
substantia for natura; and wrote, "In uno eodemque 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 53 

Ohristo duae substantiae sunt: sed una Divina, altera 
Humana " (Common. 13), much as Melito of Sardis had 
written of Christ's Two Tatures as ovcriai in his third 
book on the Incarnation (apud Routh Eel. Sacr. i. 115). 
Augustine, again, used natum as equivalent to sufotantia, 
de Trin. vii. 7. 

29 KTto-ToV. This word is read here by Socr. i. 8, and in 
Eusebius' transcript of the creed in his letter, according to 
Socrates and Athanasius. Theodoret alone omits it from 
the Eusebian transcript, and it was omitted in the version 
of the creed read in the Second Session at Chalcedon 
(Mansi, vi. 956). 

The " creatureship " was a corollary of the denial of a 
true Sonship. Here was shown the illogical position of 
Arianism. It began by emphasizing the Sonship, and 
ended by robbing it of its verity. For Sonship implies 
community of nature with the Father, whereas Arianism, 
by denying the 6/xoownov, placed the Son amongst created 
beings, and made Him in consequence alien to the nature 
of the Father. " If Son, then not creature ; if creature, 
then not Son," said Athanasius, tersely summing up the 
dilemma, de deer. Me. 13. The Arian view developed 
as its premisses were pushed home. Arius did not at first 
see what his original denial involved. By insistence on 
the ayevvrivia of true Deity, the Son fell into the order of 
KTKTTCI, and therefore was aAAoV/uop KCU avo/moios Kara 
Travra rfjs TOV Harpos ov<ria$ KCU IStoTqros (Athan. Or. c. 
Ar. i. 6). The attribution to such a being of Divine titles 
was simple paganism : indeed, Arian thought was largely 
coloured with polytheistic conceptions of Deity (Athan. 
ad Afr. 5 ; Or, c. Ar, i. 10, 18 ; ad episc. Aeg. 4, 13). 



54 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

30 rpeTTTov tj aXXotwrov. By rpeirTov, "capable of 
moral change," the Arians meant in effect "peccable," 
OVTOV rpeirrri^ elvai (frva-ew, aperfjs T /ecu /ccuc/a? 



, wrote Alexander to his namesake of Byzantium 
(Theodor. i. 4), describing Arms' teaching. Owe eamv 
, ft>? 6 Tiarrjp, aXXa T/OCTTTO? ecrri 0vcr, w? ra 
, sang Arms in his Thalia (Athan. Or. c. Ar. i. 9). 
In another place Arms made this immutability dependent 
upon the Son's own volition : vTroa-Tfoavra iSiw OeX^art 
arpeTTTov KOL avaAAoiWov (Epist. to Alex. ap. Athan. de 
synod. 16); comp. the Thalia (Athan. ib. 5), KCU ry IMV 
<j>v<rei) (bffTrep Travres, OVTGO KO.I avros o Aoyo? earl 
T/OCTTTO?, TW ^e Idlw avTe^ovo-tw, ew? (3ov\eTai, ju.evei /cctXo?' 
ore fjievroL OeXei, Svvarai rpeiretrOai KOI avros wcrirep KOI 
ijjwe??, rpeTrr^? wv tpvcrew : and Arian blasphemies quoted 
by Athan. encycl. ad episc. Aeg. 12, /ecu T^ jj.lv 
T/oeTTTO? <TTI, TU> Si' lSl<p avTeov(ri(0, w? fiovXeTCLi 
/caXo's, ore /wei/rot OeXei, dvvarai TptTrea-Oai KOI avro<f 
(acnrep KOI TO, Travra. 

Alexander's encyclical (Socr. i. 6) relates how the 
question had been pushed home" Could the Word of God 
be changed (rpaTr^vai) as the Devil changed?" And the 
answer was, " Yes, He could ; for He was r/oeTrr^? $iWo?, 
yevrjTos KOI T/OCTTTO? vTrdp^wv." Athanasius of Anazarbus 
boldly said that the Son of God was one of the hundred 
sheep (Athan. de synod. 17). 



APPENDICES 

TO 

THE CREED OF NICAEA 



I. Creed of Oaesarea. 

II. Creed of Jerusalem. 

III. Creed of Alexandria. 

IV. Creed of Justin Martyr. 

V. Creed of the Apostolic Constitutions. 

VI. Creeds of Antioch. 

VII Eevised Creed of Jerusalem. 

History, Annotations, and Detached Note 
on " Filiogue." 

VIII. Creeds of Epiphanius. 



I. CREED OF CAESAREA 



Epist. Euseb. apud 
Socr. i. 8. 

Theod. i. 12. 

Athan. App. to De 
Deer. Nio. 



ei$ era Qeov Ilare/oct TravTOKparopa, 
rov rav cnravrcov bparwv re KOI aoparcov 



KOI els era ILvpiov 'Ijyorow X/OWTOI/, 
TOV TOU Qeov A.6yov, 
Qeov etc Qeov, 



etc 



Zcoijv e/c 
Yiov 



7racr>7? 



TTCLVTCW TU)V 



CUCOIW C/C 



TOU 



Si 08 KOI eyevero ra iravra ' 

rov Sia rnv rj/j-erepav (rcorriplav crapKcoOevra, 

KOI ev av9p<f)7roi? f !ro\irev(rafji.evov } 

KOI iraQovra, 

KOI avavTavTO. ry rplrn ^/Aepa, 

KCU ave\6bvTa TT/OO? TOV ILarepa, 

j^ovTa. TraXiv ev S6fl Kpivat u>vra$ /cat 

veKpovs ' 

KCU elg ev ILvev/Aa "Ayiov. 



57 



58 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



II. CREED OF JERUSALEM 

COLLECTED FROM THE CATECHETICAL LECTURES OF CYRIL 

Iii<TTevo/u.ev els eva Qeov liarepa TravroKparopa, 

TroLt]ri]v ovpavov KOI yijs>oparS)v re iravrcov /ecu aoparwv' 
KOI els eva JLvpLov 'Iqcrovv X/UCTTOJ', 

rov "Ytov rov Qeov TOV /u-ovoyevti, 

rov e/c rov TLarpov yevvrjOevra Qeov aXyOivov Trpo 
7ravT(av TCOV aicovwv, 

Si oft ra Travra eyevero, 

(TapKwOevTO, KOI evavOpwinjaravTa, 

crravpwOevTa KOI ra^'evra, 

ava<rravra T^ rplry q]u.epa, 

KCU aveXOdvra els TOV$ ovpavovs, 

KOI KaOlcravTa e/c 8eiu>v TOV Tiarpos, 

KOU ep%6/j.evov ev 6y Kpivai ^oJi/ra? /cat veitpovs, 

oi> rtjs (3a(ri\eta$ OVK ecrrat re'Ao? ' 
KOI el$ ev"A-ytov Tivev/u,a, 



rov 



TO XaX^crav ev roi$ 
KOI els ev ($airri<TiJ.a. /ueravolas els a<j>e<nv 
KOI els /u-iav ay lav KaOoXtKqv eKK\r}<Tiav ' 



/ecu els crapKos avacrracriv ' 



/ecu els 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 59 



III. CREED OF ALEXANDRIA 

RESTORED FROM EPISTLE OF ALEXANDER TO ALEXANDER 

OF BYZANTIUM (apud Theodoret H.E. i. 4) 

AND ORIGEN (contr. Cels. i. 25) 



ei$ /AOVOV ayevvr)TOV Tiarepa. 
Orig. rov Stj/juovpyov ru>v 6'Xwy, 

Orig. TY)V TTOiyrriv ovpavov KOL yJfc 

KCU et? eva Kvpiov lycrovv J 

rov Yiw rov 0eou TOV /u-ovoyevy, 
yevvyOevTa e/c row IlaT/oos ?rpo 
arpeiTTov KOI avaXXotcoroj/, 
eiKova airapaXXaKTOv TOV Harpos, 
Si od TO. iravra eyevero, 

(fropea-avra a\rj9S>^ Kai ov Sotcr/rei e/c 
OeoroKov Ma/3/a?, 



rcov alu>vu>v et? 



yevei 



crravp(a6evra KCU airoOavovra, 
avacrravra eic yeK/ocoi/, 

ev ovpavots, 
ev Seia rijs / 
ev ILvev^a "Aytov ' 
iav KOC /j.6vt]v KaOciXiKtjv ryv 



rt]v e/c v&cpwv 



60 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



IV, CREED OF JUSTIN MARTYR 

COLLECTED FROM HIS WRITINGS* 

Ap. i. 8, 67. [ILiarrevofJiev ety] era Qeov rov Trdvrwv ILarepa KOI 



D.105. [/cat eis] rov "Yiov avrov 'Ijcrow "Kpurrov rov 

inovoyevfj, 

i- 21. rov A.6yov rov Qeov, 

D - 8S - rov TrpwroroKov Traav/? /cr/trew?, 

i. 22, D. 61, 105, 128. e/c rov Ilar/oo? yevvtjQevra, 

. - n ) T \ / 

! 6. ot ou ra Travra, 

ii82> rov crapKooOevra, avOpdoTrov yevo/Jievov, 

i- 106 6 i05 D< 66> 85< ^" T ^ p napOevov Map/a? yeye.vvriiJ.evov, 

i. is, 21, 61. (rravpuOevra eirc IIovTioi; ntXctToi/, 

D. 126, i. 21, 42. vraOdvra, cnroOavovra, 

i. 21, D. 85, 100, 107. avaarravra rjj rpirg jj/wepa e/c veKpuiv, 



i. 21, D. 42, 85, 132, ttVeXOovrO, Gl 9 TOl/? OVpCtVOVS, 

D - 32> KaOi^ovra ev deia rov Kvpiov Travrwv 

Harp 6s, 
i.50,6i,53,D.ii8,is2. Ka l ^aXiv ju.era 



(T0/Ji.evov Kpirrjv vrtov Ka veicpwv 
i- 61, D. 7. [Kal et?] Ilj/ei/^a "A.yiov 

TO 5ta TWI^ Trpo(j>rir(i)v [\a\tj(rav\ 
Dt 63- 



' 61. /SaTTTitr/ua ei? a<j>e<nv a/uiapriuiv 



avaaracriv. 



* Bornemann's scheme of Justin's Creed, in the Zettschrift fur 
Kirchengesehidhte, iii. 1879, had not come under my notice when I selected 
these phrases. His scheme is not so full, nor is it arranged on the same 
plan ; but Justin unquestionably held these truths, and it is interesting 
to see how they coincide, often verbally, with other and later creeds. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 61 



V. CREED OF THE APOSTOLIC 
CONSTITUTIONS 

vii. 41. 

IL<rrevft> KOI PaTrrifanai 19 era ayevvqrov povov aXtjQivbv 
Qebv 

TravroKpdropa, rbv liarepa rov Xpurrov, 
KTi(TTt]v Kal Srifuovpybv TOJV airavrwv. 
01) ra iravra' 



KOI et? rov Kypioi/ 'Irjvovv TOV XptcrroV 
rov [tovoyevfj avrov YtoV 



rov irpwroroKOv 



rov TT/OO aiutvoov evSoKia rov ITa-r/oo? yevvrjOevra 
81 o5 ra Trdvra eyevero ra ev ovpavois Kal em 

yrtl opara re Kal aopara, 
rov ETT' ear-^arcov rS>v rnu.epu>v Kare\06vra c 

ovpavwv Kal cra/o/ca ava\a/36vra, 
eK TW ay/a? irapBevov Ma/)/ap yevvqQevra, 
l TroXirevird/jievov oo-tw? Kara rovg VO/JLOV? rov 

Qeov Kal IXarpo? avroii, 
i crravpwOevra ewl TLovriov IltAaTov, 
Kal airoOavovra virep ^/mcov, 
Kal avacrrdvra e/c ru>v veKpwv /xera TO TraOeiv rfl 



l ave\96vra el? TOU? ovpavovs, 
Kal KaOecrOevra ev Seia rov Ilarpo?, 
KOI iraXiv epxofJi.evov eiri crvvreXeia rov aiwvo? 

/aera So^ys Kpivai a>vra$ Kai veKpov?, 
08 7% /3a<nAe/as OVK eWat reXos* 



62 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



KOI 6*9 TO TLvev/u.a TO " 
TOUT' ecrrfy TOV irapaK\r)Tov, 
TO evepyfjarav ev Traa-iv T0?9 avr' aawo? ay/oi?, 
v&repov Se cnro(rrd\ev Trapa rov Tiarpo? Kara 
evayyeXtav rov SCOT^/OO? ^/AWJ/ /cai 

I^CTOU X/OifTTOl/, 

i /xeTa TOU? ctTroa-roXovs Se iraa-iv rots TTICTT- 
evovcriv ev ry ayia Ka0o\iKfl KOI 



crap/Co? 



/cat e? a<pe(riv dy 

/cai et? (3aa-iXeiav ovpavatv, 

KOI et? ^w^v TOU /xeXXovT09 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 63 



VI. CREEDS OF ANTIOCH 
I. LUCIANIC FORM 

THIS "ecthesis," the Second of the Antiochene series,. 
was adopted by the Dedication Council of Antioch in 
341. The Council asserted that it had been written by 
Lucian ;* and that the greater part of it was the work of 
Lucian is probable enough ; but there are evident marks 
of affinity between this creed and some of the phraseology 
of the letter of the synod of 269 to Paul of Samosata.t 
The anti-Sabellian addition at the end, along with the 
words TOV rwv o\u>v Syfjuovpyov in the first article, and 
the central phrase arpeirrov re KCU ava\\oi(arov ' [rtjv] 
rfjs Qeortjros . . . eiKova are all Origenistic in tone (comp. 
his Comrn. in loan. xiii. 36 ; contr. Gels. i. 25 ; viii. 12) ;| 
the last phrase is indeed thoroughly Alexandrian, and 
was freely used by Alexander and by Athanasius, stand- 
ing as it did in the Alexandrian Creed. The anti- 
Sabellian affirmation of Eusebius, appended to his recital 
of the Caesarean Creed at NicaeaJl is most probably 
based upon Lucian's, although it is just possible that the 



* Sozom. iii. 5, 'EX^yop ravrriv rty irl<mv b\t>ypa<t>ov 
AOVKIWOV TOV v NiKO/jLySelq. fj.aprvp'/iffavTos, &v5pbs rd re dXXd 6doKi/j,wdTov 
Kal ras Jep&s ypafias els &Kpov ^^pt/3w/c6ros ' irbrepov $k aXyOus ravra, tyaffav, 
^ rfy ISlav ypaffiv ffepvoiroiovvres r$ a^i6(MTi rov pdprvpos, "heyeiv OVK tyw, 

t Quoted above, note on fiovoyevy, 

$ Gwatkin, Studies of Arianism, page 117 foil. 

Alex. Epist. ap. Theod. H.E. i. 4 ; Athan. c. Gent. 41, 46, 47; Or. 
c. Ar. i. 26, ii, 33, iii. 5, 11. (I owe these last references to Gwatkin 
op. cit.) 

11 Quoted above, page 3. 



64 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Dedication Council borrowed from Eusebius. The verbal 
coincidence is certainly too striking to be accidental. 

The Lucianic Creed has been preserved by Athanasius 
de synod. 23, by Socrates ii. 10, and in a Latin version by 
Hilary de synod. 29. In its present form it is probably 
the result of two revisions of the original baptismal 
creed of Antioch, which was amplified, first, by Lucian, 
with the insertion of Scriptural phrases and an anti- 
Sabellian appendix, and then enlarged at Antioch in 341 
by a few other phrases and the addition of the two 
anathemas, which seem specially adapted to admit of 
Arian subscription, by their inclusion of xpdvov in the 
first, and ou? eV TW KTia-^araav (and its parallels) in the 
second.* 

The clauses which we may conjecture to have stood in 
the earliest form of the creed are underlined. 

Tiicrrevo/uiev (a/coXouOw? rg evayyeXiKfl KOI 

7rapaS6<rei) 

6t9 eva Qeov liarepa 7ra.vTOKpa.TOpa, 
TOV TWV oXtoy SrifjiLOvpyov re Kal 



ov Ta 



eva J.vpiov ' 



TOV "Yibv avTOv TOV jmovoyevfj Qeov, 
Si ov TO. 



TOV yevvrjQevTO. irpb TMV al&vwv e/c TOU 

Harpo'?, 
Qebv eK Qeov 
o\ov e o\ov, /J.OVQV eK /AOVOV, 

* Corap. Arius' letter to Alexander, ap. Athan. de synod. 16, fopeirrov 
l ava\\oluTot> /cr/cr/ta TOV Qeov r&eiov, dXX' ofy tbs v rd>v Kriff/J-drwy ' 
, dAV ovx ws Sv rlav 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 65 



reXeiov e'/c reXetov, /?acrtXe'a e'/c 
"Kvptov ctTTO Kw/o/ov, 
Ao'yoi/ oi)j/Ta, 2o0/ai> wcrai>, 

6bv, aXyOeiav, avdarra<nv, 
eva, Qvpav, 
aTpeirrov re KOI araAXo/corov, 

^g Oeor>?TO? outrtay re /cat /3oi>X^g /cat 
KOI Sdq$ rov Zlar/oo? airap- 



rov TrpwTOTQKov 



TOI/ wra ej/ a/o^ TT/OO? rov 0eoi>, Aoyov 
Oeoz/, /cara ro elpriiJ.evov ev ru> evay- 
yeX/w Kat 0eo? ^ o Aoyo?, 5t' oS ra 
Travra eyeVero, /cat ev ra iravra 



rov eV* ecr\aroi>v rtav fyepuiv KareXOovra 

amOev, 
KOI yevvt]OevTa e/c irapOevov Kara rag 






yevo^evov, 



/j.ea-irr)v Qeov Kal avOpunriav, a 



re TW 7rtWew9 JJ/ACOJ/, ffai apxvyov rtj<; 

e/c 



TOU ovpavov ovx " Lva iroito ro Oe\t]fj.a 
ro e/j.ov aXXa TO Oe'Xi/^ca TOV 



TO? 



W TraOwra UTTC/O ^ 



/cat ayao-TavTa ^Trep ^tet/ T^ T/o/Tff ^epa, 
KCU ave\96vra eis ovpavov?, 
/cat KaOecrOevra ev Segia rov 



/cat 'TraXtv epxd^vov /xera ^0^9 /cat 
Kptvai ^wray /cat vetcpovy' 



66 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



/cat els TO IIi/ey/Aa TO " Aytot/ 

TO et? irapdK\t](nv /cat ayiacr/Aov /cat 
reXe/wcriv Tot? TrtcrreuoyiTi SiSo/Jievov 
/ca0a>? KOI o KV/HO? jy/^" 'LycrouV X/otoro? Sieraaro rots 
jmaOtjrais \eywv IlopevOevres iJiaOrjreva-are TraVra ra 
eSvt] jSaTTTt^oi'Te? auVou? et? TO OVO/U.CL rov IlaT/oos Ka TOV 
Ytow /cai TOV Ay/ov IIj/eJ/jiaTO?' SrjXovori IlaTpop aXrjOws 
ILarpos ovros, Ytoy o'e aXyQSJs Ytou WTO?, Toy 6"e ' Ay/oy 
a\t]9u)$ 'Ay/oy IIi/ey/jtaTO? OJ/TO?, TW 
oy^e ay/>w? neifievw, dXAa a-tj^aivovrw 
oiKeiav e/cao-Toy TWV dvo/j.aoiJ.ev(jw vTrocrraa'iv re /cat 
i/ /cat Soav' a)? efj/at T^ /uei/ VTrocTTao-ei T/O/, T^ fie 



ev. 



Tavrt]V oSv exovre? TIJV Trlcrriv Kal e apxfjs KOI 
TeXoy? e^ovTe? ei/amov TOU 0eoy KOL TOV X/MOTOV, 
^v KctKo8oiav avaQenari^o^ev. 
ei Tts 7ra/oa T>?V yyt^ TWJ/ ypoKptov opOtjv Triarrtv 
i, \eyu)v y xpovov t] Kaipbv q alwva q elvai rj yeyovevai 
o rov yevvnQnvai rov Yiov, avaQe^a eWw. 
KCU ei ri$ \eyei rov Yi'w /CT/cr/xa cos w r>v KncrfJi-ardDV q 



ru>v yevvtifjircov, y Troy/na co? e ru>v 
KCU IJLT) co? at Oeiai ypa<J)ai TrapaSeSwKev, rcov 
eKaarrov aty' e/cauToy* q ei ri aXXo SiSacncet, rj 

ai, Trap' o TrapeXa^o/xev, avaOe/na e 
i? yap Tracn Tot? CK Ty Oetwv ypa<j)S>v Tr 
U7TO TC 7rpo<prjr5)v Kai ctTrocrToXcov aXj?0ivw? Te 
e/x06/3ft)? Kat TTto-Teuo/xev /cat 



2. LATER REVISED FORMS 

It is interesting to compare the Lucianic form with two 
others, which are here printed as illustrative of the plan 
on which early local creeds were, after Mcaea, enriched 
by phraseology taken from the Nicene formulary. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 67 

The first is only a fragment, extracted from the " Con- 
testatio " (Mansi, iv. 1109) which Eusebius the Constanti- 
nopolitan advocate drew up in 429 in refutation of 
Nestorius, whom he compared with Paul of Samosata; 
and is supplemented by three clauses (the last three) 
rescued by Caspari and Heurtley from Chrysostom (Horn, 
xl. in 1 Cor. xv. 29). 

The second is the full text of the Creed of Antioch to 
the end of its second division, which Cassian gives (de 
Incarn. vi. 3) with the object of refuting Nestorius by 
means of his own baptismal profession. 



(A.) 



Qeov oXriQivov etc Qeov a 

6fj.oov(riov ru> ILarpl, 

Si ou KCU 01 aiwves KanjpricrOtjirav KOI TO, 

Travra eyevero' 
rov Si fi/j-a? KareXOdvTa 
KCU yevvrjBivra e/c Ma/ota? Trjs ayt'a? 

aenrapOevov, 
/cat (TTapwOevTO. eTri HOVT/OU IliXarov 



Chrys. KOI ek a^apriwv afacriv, 

Chrys. KOI e/'? vsKpwv 

Chrys. KCU fit? 



68 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

(B.) 

cass. de Credo in tmum et solum verum Deum, Patrem 
incarn.vi.3 omnipotentem, 

creatorem omnium visibilium et invisibilium 

creaturarum : 
Et in Dominum nostrum lesum Christum, 

Filium ejus unigenituni, 

et Primogenitum totius creaturae, 

ex eo natum ante omnia saecula 

et non factum, 

Deum verum ex Deo vero, 

homoousion Patri, 

per quern et saecula compaginata sunt et 
omnia f acta : 

Qui propter nos venit, 

et natus est ex Maria virgine, 

et crucifixus sub Pontio Pilato 

et sepultus, 

et tertia die resurrexit secundum scripturas, 

et in caelos ascendit, 

et iterum veniet judicare vivos et mortuos. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 69 



VII. REVISED CREED OF JERUSALEM 

Iii(rrevo/u.V eis em Qeov liarepa iravroKpdropa 

Troiqrriv ovpavov Kat yfjs, oparwv re iravrcov KOI 

aopdrtov ' 

t et? eva Kuptov 'Ijfcrow XpfcrroV 
rov Yi'ov TOU 0eou rov Moj/oyei/^, 
TOJ/ eK TOU TLarpos yevvt]Qevra TT/OO iravrwv rcov 



aidomv, 



Qeov aXyQivov e/c Geoi; a 

yevvtjOevra ov 

6/JLOOvcriov TOD 

^(' oS ra Travra eyeveTO ' 

rov Si jy/xa? TOU? av0pu>7rov$ KOI Sia rijv y/ 

epav <r(orripiav KareKQovra e/c ruiv ovpavwv, 
/cat (rapKcoOevra. e/c IL/eu/xaTO? 'Ay/oy /cat 

Ma/)/ap T^? 7rap9evov, 
/cat evai/Opco7rr?cravTa, 
(rravpcoOevTa re inrep ^/xwi/ eTrt IIoj/Ttou IltXa- 

TOV, 

/cat TraQovra, /cat ra^evra, 
/cat aj/acrrdWa T>? rpirt] rt/mepa Kara ra$ 



/cat aveXOovra ei's TOI/? ovpavov?, 

/cat KaQe6/u.evov e/c SeiS>v rov Harpos, 

/cat Tra'Ati/ epxo/uevov ftera So&s Kpivai 



/cat veicpovs, 



ov r^9 /3a(rtXeta? ov/c ecrrai reXo? ' 



70 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



Kai ei$ TO ILvev/jia ro"Aytoi' TO Ku/of ov TO Zwoiroiov, 
TO e/c TOU IlaT/oo? Kiropev6fj.evov } 
TO crw IlaT/o/ /ecu Ytw arvvjrpO(rKVVOvfJi.evov /cat 



<5ta 



TO ajrav <ta TWJ/ 

etV /way aymv KaOdXiKyv KOI a7ro<rTO\iKt]v 



ev 



KCU fayv rov /u.e\\ovTO$ atwvo?. ? A / 

The history of this formulary is of special interest, 
because it is the Creed which, in the almost universal use 
of Christendom, has (with two additions in the West) 
supplanted the original Mcene Symbol and wrongly 
usurped its name. Moreover, it was mainly due to the 
association of this Creed with the Council of Constanti- 
nople of 381 by the fathers at Chalcedon that the earlier 
synod gained its oecumenical character. 

Its authorship is a matter of conjecture, but a careful 
examination of its wording shows it to be a revision of 
the early Creed of Jerusalem. As some of its clauses are 
clearly directed against Apollinarianism, Marcellianism, 
and Macedonianism, its date cannot be earlier than about 
A.D. 360. It has been very plausibly suggested* that 
a revision and enrichment of the Jerusalem Creed may 
have been carried out by Cyril about the years 362-364, 
after he returned to his diocese on the accession of 
Julian, at the time when he and his friend Meletius had 
finally severed themselves from the Acacian (Homoion 
and Homoiousion) party, and decisively adopted "the 
Nicene standard in its integrity." Whether this was so 

* Hort, Two Dissertations, p. 96. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 71 

or not, the document had for its base the early Jerusalem 
Creed. One long Mcene extract, which included the 
all-important O/AOOVGTIOI/ T$ Tiarpi, vindicated its loyalty 
to the Mcene faith; and for the rest it proceeded on 
Jerusalem lines, incorporating words and phrases from 
Cyril's own lectures, from the creeds of sister churches, 
and from Scriptural sources. The Mcene anathemas 
were naturally not appended, as the Creed was intended 
for general ecclesiastical purposes, popular and bap- 
tismal, 

Two Mcene clauses which one might have expected to 
find in it were not employed : (1) The explanation of <k 
rov TLarpos by rovr evTiv eic TW ovcrias rov Xlarpo?', and 
(2) the denning phrase TO, re ev TW ovpavw KOI TO. ev T# y# 
after Si' ov ra Trdvra eyeWo. Possibly the reason in both 
cases was doctrinal: the first may have been abused by 
Apollinarians, and pressed into the service of their tenet 
that the Flesh of Christ was co-essential with the Deity ; 
the second may have been seized upon by Macedonians as 
implying that the Holy Spirit was one of the "things 
made " through the Son. The next point in the history 
of the formulary is its getting into the hands of Epi- 
phanius before the year 374. Now Epiphanius was re- 
siding at Eleutheropolis (less than thirty miles south-west 
of Jerusalem) until 367, and after his removal to Cyprus , 
was in constant communication with Palestine. In 374 
he wrote an exposition of the doctrine of the Trinity at 
the request of some Pamphylian presbyters, which he 
termed o 'Ay/cupwro? (Ancoratus, The Anchored One). 
In the last chapter but one, after emphasizing the 
necessity of keeping the faith and teaching it to others, 
he inserts a Creed which only differs from the revised 
Jerusalem formulary by the addition of the two Mcene 



72 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

clauses above referred to, and the anathemas.* These 
Nicene additions may have been made purposely, with 
a view of making the whole formulary the symbol of his 
own diocese of Constantia, .or may have been due to 
a mechanical assimilation of the one document to the 
older and better known one. The former theory may 
derive some support from the fact that he goes on to say 
that this Creed ought to be learned by every catechumen 
who is about to proceed to the holy laver. It is possible 
that Epiphanius, in those days of inexact citation, in- 
tended the Creed to be received as a transcript of the 
Nicene; but his words about it are not free from 
obscurity. He proceeds, /ecu avrr] IAW % Trta-Ti? irapeSoOri 
aTro TWV ayutiv airocrToXaiv /eat ev e/e/cAjycrta 77; ayta TroAet 



aTTO Travnov 6/xou TWV ayioov eTrtcncoTrcov vvrep Tpia/cocrcoi> 
<5e/ca rov aptO/xoV. These words are remarkable and, as 
they stand, untrue ; but Epiphanius' rhetoric is never to 
be too closely pressed. The reference to the number of 
the bishops is generally understood to designate the 
Council of Nicaea, and if so, we must assume that 
Epiphanius regarded the Creed as practically Nicene, 
because of its Nicene phrases. But what is the precise 
force of 7$ ay/a Tro'Aet ? Is it meant to describe Nicaea ? 
or is it a rhetorical descriptive epithet (borrowed from 
Rev. xxi. 2) in apposition with e/c/cA^cr/a? or is it to be 
taken literally of "the Church in the Holy City," 
Jerusalem? Perhaps the passage is corrupt. At all 
events the insertion of another KOL before aTro iravraov 
would give a consistent and true statement ; namely, that 
the Creed was composed of apostolic, Jerusalem, and 
Nicene teaching. A suggestion, however, has been 

* In the anathemas the place of Krwrbv 4} Tpeirr6v is taken by 
= mutable). 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 73 

thrown out that Epiphanius was referring to the " Council 
of Sardica, which, according, to Sozornen, collected some 
300 bishops from the West, and seventy from the East ; 
250 according to Theodoret."* But an examination of 
the language of Socrates and Sozomen in reference to the 
action of the Sardican Council shows that the special 
point elucidated by the formulary drawn up in 343 was 
the oiAooixriov, whereas the chief expansion in the Epi- 
phanian Creed is in the final section relating to the Holy 
Spirit.t 

Nothing more is heard of this formulary until seventy- 
seven years later the imperial commissioners at Chalcedon 
referred to "the exposition of the 318 fathers who had 
met at Mcaea and the exposition of the 150 who had met 
at a later time!' This was at the close of the first session. 
In the second session reference was again made to the 
"ecthesis"of the 318 and the 150; but the assembled 
bishops called for the Creed of Nicaea to be read. This 
was done, and then the commissioners ordered TO, eWe- 

* Swainson, Nicene and Apostles' Creeds, pp. 80, 86. 

t Socrates (ii. 20) states that the Sardican Council Tbv Spov re TT)S 
irkrrews TTJS it> NiKalg, Kparfoavres Kal rb av6fj.oiov ^Kj8aX6j'fes, TO bpoofoiov 
i/'avepcirepoj' Kdid6a,<ru>. This is explained by Sozomen to mean an 
enlargement of the Nicene Creed on this particular point. His words are 
(iii. 12), 'E^0ej'TO S Kal atfroO Tiji'ifcaura Trtorews -ypa^V fTepap, 
pkv TTJS & NtKa(a, <f>vX&TTov<rav d rty avTT]v didvoiav, Kal oi5 irapd 
Sia\\d,TTOvffav riav tKelvys p^&rwv. 'A/^e'Xei "0<nos /cat IipiToyevi]S 
delffwres iVws ^ vojuffOeiev noi Kaivoroneiv TCI SbS-avra, rots & 
Hypa\f>a.i> 'lovXlq} Kal e/Aaprtipavro Ktipia, rdSe yyeiffBai' Karct xpelav 8 
ffa<j>i]veia,s rty abryv didvoiav ir'Xarvvai, Sxrre fity tyyevfaOai TO?J ra 'Apelov 
<f>povowiv, dTTo/cexpijju^ots rf/ ffWTQp.1^ rijs ypaffis els &TOTTOV 'eknev roi/s 
airelpovs StaXe^ews. May not the last portion of what is given hy 
Theodoret (H.E. ii. 8), as part of the letter of the Sardican Council (but 
which is not found in the letter as preserved by Athanasius, Apol. c. 
Arian. 49), be this more copious exposition ? It certainly answers fairly 
well to Sozomen's description. 



74 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

9evra of the 150 also to be read ; and Aetius, the arch- 
deacon of Constantinople, read the revised Jerusalem 
Creed, at the conclusion of which the bishops exclaimed, 
" This is the faith of all the orthodox : this we all believe."* 

The question now arises, how did this revised Jerusalem 
Creed, known to Epiphanius in 374, come to be associated 
with the 150 fathers of Constantinople in 381? There 
is but little that can be called evidence, but it is at least 
likely that the Creed did come before the Council of 
Constantinople and receive its approval. The grounds of 
this probability are these : 

The Council's letter to the emperor described its own 
work as falling into three divisions: (a) it had renewed 
concord; (&) it had given voice to a-wro/novs opovs, rriv 
re rS>v Trareptov TTIO-TIV ru>v ev Nt/ca/a Kvpuxravre?, /ecu ra$ 
/car' avT79 e/c$vet<ra9 atpecret? avaOe/xaTtcravTe? ; (c) it had 
decreed certain canons, f This letter must be read in 

* Mansi, vi. 957. 

t Ibid. iii. 557. The whole letter may be conveniently given in a footnote. 

T$ etfcre/Seordry jSatnXa QeoSotrly rj 0,7(0, fffoodos r&v ^TriffKdiruv TUIV K 
6ia(p6p(ai> tirap-xiiav ffvveXQbvTWV & "Kuvffrai>Tivovir6\ei,. 

'ApXTJ pfr i)/juv TOV 7r/)6s Ti)v <rfy efoefleiav ypApfMTOs, e^apitrria irpbs rbv 
Qebv rbv avaSel^avra, rrjs i>(j,eTpas e^cre/Set'as rijv paviXdav, M KOLV% rwv 
KK\tl<n(av elpfyy Kal rijs vyiovs irlffreus ffrijpiy/JLy' awoSiSbvres d T$ Qeif 
rty 6<pei\o/j,tvi)v e^x a / )to " r ^J', foayKalws ml ria, yeyevij^va /card rfy aylav 
(rtivodov irpbs rqv ffty G&ff4fleuu> d,va.<f>pofj,ev' /cal STL awekQbvres eis rty 
KwvffTavTivo6iro\ii> /caret rb ypd^a TTJS <r^s eiJfrejSeias, irpGrrov ptv Avevew- 
ty irpbs dXXijXoys oft&voiw &retra 5 /cai <rvi>r6fj,ovs Spovs ^e<j><av^- 
v, rfy re r&v irarfywv Trlcrriv TUIV iv Ni/ca/y /ci/pc&a'az'res, /cal rets /car" 
K$uef<ras alp^erets avaOefMT'uravTes. irpbs d Totrois, sal tnrty rrjs 
as T&V KK\i]ff<.G>v pTiroijs Kavovas &plaa,/j,ev tiirep airavra ryde ypQv T$ 
ypa/j,/j,an {nrerA^a^ev. deopeda, rolvvv T^S cr^s evvefidas ^Trt/cv/sw^^at TTJS 
ffvv6Sov Tfy \f/r)<pov' Iv' Sxrirep ro?s TTJS KXijcrews ypAfifJuuri T^V 4KK\t]fflav 
Ter/yuij/cas, oifrw /cat T&V do^dvTUv tTrt<r<f>payl<rgs Tb T&OS. b d Ktf/uos aTripl^rj 
crov TJ]V (SaffiXeiav ev dpriv-g /cat diKaKxrtivg, /cal Trapairty^y yeveais yeveuv, 
/cal irpoffOelri ry eiriyely Kpfoei ml TT]S jSao-iXefas TT^S tirovpaviov rty diri- 
Xavw tppupivov <re, /cal ft train rois /caXoTs diairpeirovTa b Qebs yaplvatTO 
Ty olKov/j.&ri, ei^ats TWV ayluv, TOV (is dXi;5ws eiVe/SeoraTOJ' /cal Qeotpi\effTa.- 
TOV /3a<rtXea. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 75 

connexion with the Epistle of the Council of 382 to 
Damasus and others, which stated that for the proof of 
their orthodoxy it was sufficient for them to refer to the 
tome from Antioch, and to a similar formulary, Trepv<nv 
ev "K-oovcrravTivovTroXet Trapa T^? oiKOV/meviKW e/creOeVrt 
crvvoSov ' ev oils TrXarvrepov r^v iria-Tiv wfj.oXoyria-a.fjLev KOI 
TWV eWyx? KatvoTO/utiOeKTUiv aipevewv avaQe[Aa.Ti<r/u.ov 
eyypa<j>ov TreTrotjfca/xev.* Now the first Constantinopolitan 
canon exactly answers to the confirmation of the Mcene 
faith, and the anathematization of heresies referred to in 
these words. But what was "the more expanded con- 
fession of the faith " ? May it not have been the revised 
Creed of Jerusalem, presented perhaps to the notice of 
the Council hy Cyril (as Dr. Hort has suggested), 
defended by Gregory of Nyssa,f and so entered upon 
the Acts, and apparently stamped with the Council's 
approval? Cyril's see was the most venerable in 
Christendom, but he himself had long been under 
Western suspicion as decidedly inclined to Semiarianism, 
both as a nominee of Acacius and as a friend of Meletius ; 
while it appears from a further passage in the letter just 
cited that the Council was determined to vindicate his 
orthodoxy, ranking him with Nectarius of Constanti- 
nople and Flavian of Antioch, and describing him as TOV 
alSeariiJLWTaTOV KOI OeofaXecrTaTov KuptAAoi/ . . . TrAefcrTa 
TT/OO? TOVS 'A.peiavov$ ev dicupopois TOTTOIS aOXj/cravra. The 
simplest way of effecting their purpose, and probably the 
best and most natural way that would occur to an 
assembly of bishops in that age of conciliar creeds, 
would be to give the sanction of their approval to Cyril's 
creed. In this way we can account easily and reasonably 

* Theod. H.E. v. 9. 

t Comp. Niceph-Callist. H.E. xii. 13. 



76 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

for the tradition which locally connected that creed with 
Constantinople and the 150 fathers of 381, a tradition 
which "does not seem likely to have been a mere 
invention." * 

At Chalcedon, as we have seen, it was accepted with 
acclamations in the second session, and was subsequently 
in the fifth session inserted in the Council's Definitio 
Fidei, because of its valuable teaching on the doctrine of 
the Holy Spirit. 

The causes of its ultimate displacement of the Mcene 
Symbol are not far to seek. The one was elaborately 
constructed to meet a special want, and its anathemas 
rendered it unsuitable for popular ecclesiastical uses : the 
other, both in stateliness of rhythm and in fulness of 
doctrinal statement, is superior to the Mcene and 
eminently suited for -liturgical recitation. 

We now proceed to comment on such clauses in this 
Creed as have not been remarked upon in the previous 
notes upon the Mcene. 



TO Jlyeu/xa TO "A.yiov TO JUvpiov TO ZWOTTOIOV. 

A triad of epithets is here employed to emphasize the 
real Deity of the Spirit. 'He is declared to be different 
from all other Spirits as One Who is Holy, Divinely 
Sovereign, and Life-giving. 

TO "Ayiov. Conip. John xiv. 26. This epithet expresses 
the essential characteristic of the Divine Spirit. He is 
personally and intrinsically Perfect (Hort on 1 Peter 
i. 15) as God (Lev. xi. 44, 45), and the governing principle 
of His revelation and dispensation is holiness that is, 
perfection (Matt. v. 48 ; Heb. vi. 1). 

* Hort, p. 75. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 77 

TO Kuptov=nw of the Old Testament: compare 2 Cor. 
iii. 17, 18, o Se Kv/oto? TO ILvevfta ecrnv , . . /mera/mop^ov- 
/j.e6a KO.6a.Trep airo HLvpiov livev/naros ( = "as from a 
Divinely-Sovereign Spirit "). To Kvpiov is thus decisive 
against the Macedonian position that the Spirit was " not 
only a creature, but one of the ministering spirits, differ- 
ing from the angels only in degree"; Athan. Ep. ad Serap. 
i. 1. Cyril of Jerusalem evidently had this heresy in his 
mind when he wrote Catech. iv. 16, oti KOI \peiav exovtrt 
Opovoi Kal KvpLoryreg ap^ai KOI e^auariaii and again, xvi. 23, 
where he speaks of the Spirit as eTncrrdrns KOI Sidda-KoXos 
of all the spiritual hosts, KOI ra /xei/ ecrriv eij \eirovpyiav 
cwroo'TeXXo/Aei/a, TO Se epevva KOI ra fldOt] rov 9eov. 



TO ZWOTTOIOV, " Life-giving," not merely " life-transmit- 
ting." The Spirit is faoiroiw because He is Himself Life, 
Eom. viii. 2, TO Trvev/ma rfjs fafo This epithet, like the 
others, is Scriptural (John vi. 63 ; 2 Cor. iii. 6), and is thus 
explained by Athanasius (ad Serap. i. 23), ra Se 
.... faoTTOiovjuievd ecrTt Si avrov, TO Se /utj fterexov 
dXX' avTo perexpiJievov teal faoTroiow ra Krtcriu.ara, irolav 
e'x (Tvyyeveiav Trpo? ret yevfjra, J? TTW? oXws av en; ru>v 
Kri<Tfj.ar(av, airep ev eiceivto Trapa rod Aoyow ^oooTroterTat ; 
This epithet is also Cyrilline, Catech. vii. 16, xvi. 12. 

The Holy Spirit is Life-giving in Creation, giving and 
sustaining life and order and beauty : in human history, 
moulding the character and shaping the destiny of indi- 
viduals, nations, and races: in grace, first imparting 
spiritual life, and then renewing and strengthening it. 
Hence He is termed "Creator Spiritus" (comp. Mason, 
faith of the Gospel, pp. 225 f.). But although Scriptural, 
neither these epithets nor the phrase which follows are 
strictly technical for the Spirit is o^oovcnov with the 



78 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Father and the Son. Comp. Athan. c. Apoll. i. 9, 
o/AoouVio? yap 17 T/HCC?: ad Serap. i. 27. Probably the 
word 6/jioova-Lov was felt, when the Macedonian contro- 
versy arose, to be too closely attached to the doctrine of 
the Second Person to be used again with wisdom. Yet 
Damasus (apud Theod. H.E. v. 11) used the phrase "of 
one and the same essence (/xmp /ecu T^? avrfjs oucr/ap) with 
the Father and the Son": and later it became the usual 
term : e.g. Epiph. Haer. 74 ; Invocation in Lit. of St. Mark 
(Brightman, i. 134); Creed of Charisius, Hahn, p. 319. 
The doctrine of the co-essential Trinity had been clearly 
stated by Tertullian adv. Prax. 2, " Tres autem non statu 
sed gradu, nee substantia sed forma, nee potestate sed 
specie ; unius autem substantiae," etc. 

K TOV IIar/oo9 eKTropevo/mevov. As, in the language of 
Scripture which is followed in the technical confessions 
of the Church, the relation of the Son to the Father is 
described by the term " generation," so that of the Spirit 
is that of " procession," both being ineffable eternal rela- 
tions. The phrase combines 1 Cor. ii. 12 with John xv. 
26 : it is frequent in Athanasius, ad Serap. i. 15, 20, 22, 
25 ; iii. 2. 

eK TOV ILarpos has the same force here as when used of 
the Son; that is, it denotes co-essentiality. The Son is e/c 
TOV TLaTpos yevvrjQevra: the Spirit etc TOV Har/oo? e/c- 
iropevoimevov. There was a difficulty felt on the subject 
of this nomenclature, and Athanasius himself uncon- 
sciously stated it in arguing for the Sonship of the Logos, 
Orat. c, Ar. iv. 15, el Se etc TOV Qeov e&Tiv, Sia T\ fty 

OTt TO GK TWOS VirdpXOV l/?05 (TTIV KIVOV 



teal e&Tiv ; This would involve the Spirit being also 
" Son " because e/c TOV IlaT/oo?. The Arians seized upon 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 79 

the point, and were rebuked (ad Serap, i. 15-17) on the 
ground that speculation was irreverent. 

The temporal mission of the Spirit is not referred to 
in this Creed, though it finds a place in Tertullian, de 
praescr. haer. 13, "misisse vicariam vim Spiritus Sancti 
qui credentes aget"; adv. Prax. 2, "Qui exinde miserit 
secundum promissionem suam a Patre Spiritum Sanctum 
Paracletum." 

On the " Filioque " addition in the West, see detached 
note, page 88. 

TO ITVV II. KOI Y. FV/A'Tr/oocncwov/xevoi' KOI <rvv8oa6- 



This clause cannot be traced to any earlier Creed that 
has been preserved; but the diction resembles that of 
Athanasius ad Serap. i. 31, TO crvvdoga&iJievov ILarpi /cat 
Ytw Kal QedXoyovjUievov /uLera rov A.6yov : ad lov. ad fin. 
a-vveS6aarav avrb ru> ILarpl KOI ru> Ytw. The resemblance 
to the language of the Creed found in the common text of 
Cyril Catech, iv. 16 disappears in the critical text of 
Eeischl. 

The idea underlying this clause is that the association 
of the Spirit with the Father and Son in equal worship 
and doxology exhibited the constant Christian belief in 
His co-essential Deity. The lex adorandi expressed the 
lex credendi. The same association is found in the 
Baptismal formula, Matt, xxviii. 19; in the Apostolic 
benediction, 2 Cor. xiii. 4 : comp. the Ter Sanctus of the 
Triumphal Hymn, Isa. vi. 2; Eev. iv. 1-8. On the 
"Gloria Patri" see Basil, de Sp. Sancto, 4, 73. Somewhat 
similarly an anonymous writer, probably Hippolytus or 
Gaius, apud Euseb. H.E., v. 28, had appealed to the 
devotional hymnody of the Church as testifying to the 



8o OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Deity of Christ. On the value of liturgical formularies 
as preservative of the truth, see Bull. Serm. 13, "The 
ancient Liturgies were so framed that they were a kind 
of systems of orthodox divinity and antidotes against 
heresy," etc. 

TO \d\qa-av Sia ru>v 7r/)o0jjTW. This clause expresses 
the Scriptural teaching on the inspiration of "holy men of 
God " (2 Peter i. 21). It thus unites the old Dispensation 
with the new, showing that there was no such antagonism 
hetween them as Marcion held, but that it was the same 
Spirit of God Who spake in times past through the 
prophets (Heb. i. 1) Who now, as the Vicar of Christ, 
speaks through the Church to the hearts and consciences 
of Christians ; comp. too Mark xiii. 11. 



els. ptav . . . eKKXrja-iav. Following a group of clauses 
introduced by KO.I (implying TrKTrevo^ev), another KOI 
would have been natural here, especially as the clause is 
not grouped under o/jLoXoyov/j-ev (Hort) ; but it is certainly 
contrary to the structure of this Creed to read these 
words in construction with \aXfja-av (as Ffoulkes, follow- 
ing Valetta, in D. C. B. ii. 448). Such a construction is 
found, however, in the Creed of the Apost. Const, and in 
that of Seleucia (Socr. ii. 40, Ath. de syn. 29). A clause 
referring to the Church was customary in early creeds : 
e.g. Cyprian Epist. 70, 76 ; Arius and Euzoius, Socr. i. 26 ; 
Marcellus, Epiphan. Haer. 52; early Creed of Jerusalem 
(but after ? eV jSaTTio-yua, /r.r.A.) ; and Tertullian alludes 
to some recognition of the Church in the creed (de bapt. 
6, 11), although he does not give it a place in the Rules 
of Faith which he sets out at length. 

It is remarkable that the Latin version (followed by 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 81 

our English) has ignored ei$, and reads "et imam. 
sanctam," etc., without any Greek authority. The prepo- 
sition here, as in the first opening of the creed, is 
important : it denotes the transfer of confidence from the 
individual self to the corporate society, the organism of 
which the Christian forms a part, and in which alone he 
finds his true life. It is a protest against "individualism." 
The word e'/c/cXiyo-m was employed by the Greek trans- 
lators to represent the Hebrew word which denoted the 
gathering together of the representative heads of the 
people of Israel, " the assembly." It is thus associated in 
Biblical Greek, as in classical, with a " calling out " from 
a larger body, and " assembling together." The use of the 
word in Stephen's apology (Acts vii. 38) of " the ancient 
congregation of Israel" gives the key to its transferred 
use, general in the N.T., of the Christian congregation, 
the true Israel of God (Hort, Christ. Ecclesia, pp. 3 foil.). 



This clause els f^iav . . . eKKXyalav and the following 
ones are placed in the third division of the Creed under 
the Article dealing with the Holy Spirit, because the 
Church is now living under His Dispensation, and from 
Him draws all her life and powers of grace. We may 
note in the history of Eevelation three Dispensations : 
1, that of God,, simply; in the Old Testament; 2, that 
of the Son, during Christ's Life on earth ; 3, that of the 
Spirit, since the Day of Pentecost. 

The four "notes" or inward characteristics of the 
Church here given are Unity, Holiness, Catholicity, and 
Apostolicity. The first and fourth are originally peculiar 
"to Eastern creeds. The second alone finds place in the 
Cyprianic Creed and that of Marcellus. The third first 
occurs in a creed (after appearing in the Mcene anathe- 

G 



82 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

mas) in that of Arius and Euzoius (328), then in the 
early Jerusalem Creed (along with the first and second), 
the Apost. Const, (along with the second and fourth), but 
not in a Western Creed until about the year 400 (see 
the Creed of Nicetas of Eometiana in Hahn, p. 49).* 
We may now examine them separately. 

/jiiav. Strictly speaking, the Unity of the Church is 
necessarily an invisible Unity, since the greater number 
of its members have already passed beyond the vail. 
The Unity is that of the One Body of Christ, quickened 
by the One Spirit (Eph. iv. 4-6). 

" One Family we dwell in Him, 
One Church, above, beneath." 

The language of the Creed is often quoted as though it 
referred solely to the external unity of that portion of 
the Church which is visible because "militant here on 
earth"; but it is at least questionable whether this 
thought falls within the horizon of the Creed. The 
Western Church at a later time explicitly excluded this 
interpretation of the clause " The Holy Catholic Church " 
in the Apostles' Creed by adding in apposition to it the 
words " The Communion of Saints" the spiritual fellow- 
ship, that is, of the seen and unseen, wherein we are 
united with all the Saints of all the times, now in our 
actual present position as part of a spiritual host in the 
spiritual Kingdom of God.f 

* With these "notes" maybe compared the three characteristics of 
"the Visible Church of Christ" given in Article XIX. ; and the points 
enumerated in Acts ii. 41, 42 Baptism, Apostles' doctrine (opposed to 
heresy), the Koivwvla (opposed to schism), the Breaking of the Bread 
(Holy Communion), the Prayers (Public Worship). 

t Some excellent thoughts upon the Unity of the Visible Church will 
be found in Lecture vi. of F. W. Puller's Primitive Saints and the See 
of Rome. On other interpretations of "Sanctorum Communio," see 
Zahn, Apostles' Creed, Engl, transl. pp. 188 ff. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 83 

In the English version of the Creed, made in 1549 and 
repeated in succeeding Prayer Books, the omission of 
the word "One" in this clause was probably due to the 
defectiveness of the Latin texts which were consulted 
(see Oliurcli Quarterly Eewew, viii. 372). 

aylav. The Holiness of the Church is a necessary con- 
sequence of its constitution : it is the Body of Christ and 
the Temple of His Spirit. Thus, notwithstanding grave 
defects in the individual members, -St. Paul addressed his 
letters to the "holy ones" (aytois) in the various churches 
of Corinth, Eome, Philippi, Ephesus, and Colossae. Comp. 
Acts ix. 32 ; Jude 3. 



This epithet is thus explained by Cyril: 
ti fJiev oSv KaXeirai Sia TO Kara Trocars eti/at T^S 
ctTTO Tre/oaTW yfjs ew? irepaTtov' KOI Sia TO 
KadoXiKuts Kcii ai/eXXiTTO)? dVaj/ra TO, ei$ yvwviv 
v e\6eiv ofalXovTa Soy paTa Kepi re opaTwv Kal 
irpayiJ.a.Ttov, eTTiovpaviwv TC KOI eiriyeiav, KOI Sia 
TO TTOV yevo$ avBpunrwv els ev&efteiav viroTacrareiv, ap^ovTdov 
TG KOI apxof*.ev<av, Xoy/cov re Kal t&amov ' KCU Sia TO 
Ka9o\iKKs laTpeveiv fjiev Kal Oepatreveiv airav TO TWV 
apapTiuiv etSo<s TOOV Sia ^i/xw K ai (rw/Aaro? eTriTeX 
KeKTrj<r9ai Se ev aurp iracrav ISeav dvo / aa^O)Uev)?9 a 
ev epyoi$ re KCU Xoyoi? /cat Trvev/JiaTiKois TravTOiois x a P '?~ 
/xaa-ii/ (Cateeh. xviii. 23). The original ecclesiastical use 
of the word is to denote "universal," "general," as opposed 
to " particular." So Ignatius, Smyrn. 8 (church) ; Just. 
Mart. Dial. 82 and Tlieoph. ad Autol. i. 13 (resurrection) ; 
Epist. Smyrn. Poly. mart, (church). Thus it became easy 
for it to be used as a definite epithet for the orthodox 
body distinct from local schisms, and so to denote that 



84 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

organism which preserved the truth distinct from heresy, 
Examples of this sense will be found Clem. Alex. Strom. 
vii. 106, 107; and in Latin in the Murator. frag. (Light- 
foot, Ignatius, ii. 310). Comp. Pacian. ad Symp. passim; 
August, de civ. Dei, xiii. 12, " Universa ecclesia ex multis 
constat ecclesiis." 



Primarily this epithet denotes the 
" mission " of the Church into the world, John xx. 21 ; 
but other reasons for its use are not to be excluded. The 
Church is built on the Apostles (Eph. ii. 20); it dates 
from their days, and preserves their doctrine, and con- 
tinues their ministry. Clem. Alex. Strom, vii. 108, /u,la 
yap % -jrdvTtov yeyove rS)v aTrotrroXcov coanrep SiSaarKoXia, 
OVTIOS <5e KOI % TrapdSocris. So Tertullian in a useful 
passage de praescr. haer. 20, "The Apostles founded 
churches, others received the faith from these : itaque tot 
ac tantae ecclesiae una est ilia ab apostolis prima ex qua 
omnes. Sic omnes primae et omnes apostolicae," etc. 



ev jSaTTTwvjta. The earlier Jerusalem Creed, no doubt 
under the influence of Mark i. 4 and parallels, added 
jueTCH/oia?> which also stood in the shorter Baptismal 
confession. The word was no doubt omitted in the 
revision as tending to limit unduly the idea of Christian 
baptism. John's was the baptism of repentance only 
(Acts xix. 4) ; Christ's is also a baptism of regeneration 
(Matt. iii. 11) : comp. Basil, de Sp. Sancto, 36. Ambrose 
in Luc. ii., "aliud fuit baptisma paenitentiae, aliud gratiae 
est " (quoted by Swete on Mark i. 4). The phrase ev 
j8a7TT/cr/xa comes from Eph. iv, 4, and denotes One and 
Same Baptism into the Name of the Blessed Trinity, 
whereby all are admitted into the One Body. The 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 85 

iteration of the spiritual birth is, of course, as impossible 
as that of the physical birth (John iii. 4), but that is not 
the point here insisted upon. The distinction between 
the One Christian baptism and other baptisms Jewish, 
Johannine, etc. is referred to Heb. vi. 2. 

els afaariv aftapriSiv. The remission of sins necessarily 
follows from the nature of the sacrament of baptism 
(Acts ii. 38). The spiritual sphere of existence upon 
which the believer enters is a sphere of forgiveness, and 
although acts of sin may be committed they may be daily 
remitted. "Semel abluimus baptismate, cottidie abluimus 
oratione" (August. Serm. ad Catech. xv. ; cp. de Serin. 
Dom. Ivi. 13). "A^ecnp a/j.apTiu>v is synonymous with 
in Eph. i. 7; Col. i. 14. The metaphor in 
is to be traced to the use of the word in Deut. 
xv. 1 ff. for the " release " of debts every seventh year ; 
cp. Matt. vi. 12; and eviavros a^ecrew? of the year of 
Jubile, Lev. xxv. 10. It must be remembered that there 
is a further analogy between the spiritual birth and the 
physical birth besides that of the impossibility of itera- 
tion. Neither is a guarantee for freedom from the 
possibility of disease and death in its own sphere. 

Trpoa-SoKutfjLev. Compare 2 Peter iii. 12. 

avda-raariv veicpwv. The anarthrous phrase is Pauline, 
1 Cor. xv. 21, " a resurrection of dead persons "; that is, 
the general resurrection, and the form of expression 
excludes any false notions which might attach to the 
word a-apKos (carnis). Indeed, the phrase, crapKos avdcr- 
racn? (resurrectio carnis), though common in early creeds, 
occurs nowhere in Scripture, and its unguarded use 



86 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

amongst Christians gave rise to heathen scoffs and mis- 
interpretations. Cyril avoided it in his Lectures, though 
it stood in his Creed; xviii. 1, 22, 28. The Aquileian 
"hujus carnis"* was still more open to misconstruction, 
although it was really only meant to guard the "identity" 
of the future resurrection body with the present earthly 
one. According to St. Paul's illustration this "identity" 
is analogous to that of the seed and the plant (1 Cor. 
xv. 36), where the principle of life is continuous, though 
the outer organism wherein that life manifested itself is 
changed. The essential identity of the body therefore, 
which even in this life is dependent upon constant 
change, will be preserved through the changes involved 
in death and dissolution. "Alter et idem." Luke 
xxiv. 39. 

Christianity knows nothing of the "immortality of 
the soul " apart from the body. That was a conception of 
pagan philosophy which is really destructive of the belief 
in the continuance of our distinct and complete personal 
existence. The Christian doctrine teaches the restoration 
of the full personality of the individual which only 
exists, as we know it, in the vital union of body and 
soul (cp. Matt. x. 28). Personal identity may be held to 
consist in a fundamental, individualized energy which is 
gifted with the power of clothing itself with a suitable 
organism adapted to its environment. 

fayv TOV /xeXXoi/To? alwvos. This expression replaces 
the coji/ alwvLov of the earlier creed, which was also the 

* " Hujus carnis " appears also in the Creed of Nicetas of Rometiana 
or Remesiana (Hahn, p. 49), and in the creed delivered at the traditio 
synaboli on Palm-Sunday in the Mozarabic ritual (Hahn, p. 69). Zahn 
quotes also Pseudo-Aug. Serm. 242, and Missale Florentinum in Oaspari, 
iv. 302. 



THE CREED OF NlCAEA 87 

general Western form of the article, " vitam aeternam " ; 
but the Apost. Const, and Arius and Euzoius (Soc. i. 26) 
read, et? fyhv TOV /meXXovros alwvo?. 

fco>7 is essentially independent of time. It comprehends 
time and transcends it, being in actuality supra-temporal. 
Eternal life consists in the knowledge of God, "Quern 
nosse est vivere" John xvii. 3 ; 1 John v. 20 advanced, 
illuminated, and intensified by the beatific vision, 1 John 
iii. 2. The beginnings of this knowledge may be an 
actual absolute present possession ; yet the time that now 
is, is embarrassed by limitations its knowledge is only 
partial (1 Cor. xiii. 9) whereas the "coming age" will be 
one of open vision and freed from all that hampers and 
obscures (Matt. xii. 32 ; Luke xviii. 30, xx. 34 f.). 



OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



NOTE ON THE CLAUSE "FILIOQUE" 

A MOMENTOUS addition to the clause <?K rov^ILarpos CK 
Tropevoju-evov now stands in the Western versions of the 
Creed, by which the " procession " of the Spirit is stated 
to be " from the Son " as well as " from the Father." The 
history of the addition is a little obscure, but the date of 
its first appearance in a creed can (if the received texts 
are to be trusted) be fixed exactly.* The third Council 
of Toletum (Toledo) A.D. 589 was summoned by King 
Eeccared in ' order that the Visigoths in Spain, who had 
hitherto professed the Arian faith, might publicly pro- 
claim their renunciation of Arianisni and adherence to 
Catholicity. The Council accordingly recited first the 
original Creed of Mcaea of 325, and then the " Symbol 
of the 150 " as in the Chalcedonian Definition, but with 
two additions (a) Deum de Deo ( = 0ew e/c Qeov of 
Mcaea); (&) et Filio ["a Patre et Filio procedentem"].f 
No reason can be assigned for these insertions save that 
they were believed to belong to the true text of the 
Creed, and were therefore, if not in the exemplar already, 
either written mechanically by the scribe or inserted 

* Doubt as to the genuineness of the Acts of the first Council of 
Braga in 411 forbids their being appealed to in argument. They repre- 
sent Bishop Pancratian as making a confession of his faith, which contains 
the words, "Credo in Spiritum Sanctum procedentem a Patre et Verbo" 
which were acceded to by the assembled bishops (Mansi, iv. 287). 

t The evidence of the MSS, still requires to be more thoroughly 
investigated. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 89 

because he thought that they ought to be there.* Once 
inserted, the liturgical use of the Creed made the addi- 
tions familiar. Nor was the doctrine a new one in the 
West. Tertullian had given exact expression to the 
true doctrine, adv. Prax. 4, "Spiritum non aliunde puto 
quam a Patre per Filium"; ib. 8, "Tertius est Spiritus a 
Deo et Filio; sicut tertius a radice fructus ex frutice, et 
tertius a fonte rivus ex flumine, et tertius a sole apex ex 
radio . . . Ita Trinitas per consertos et connectos gradus 
a Patri decurrens monarchiae nihil obstrepit." Similarly 
Hilary of Poitiers, de Trin. xii. 55, 57, had written of the 
Spirit, "ex Patre per Filium"; while Augustine, Tract, 
xcix. in Joan. xvi. 7, had been even more distinctly clear 
on the " Double Procession."' 

The Spanish orthodox too had adopted it at an earlier 
Council of Toledo in 447 "The Father is unbegotten, 
the Son begotten, the Paraclete not begotten, but proceed- 
ing from the Father and the Son." The phrase " a Patre 
Filioque procedens" occurs twice; and there can be little 
doubt that the reading is correct, j- 

The controversy between the East and West in the eighth 
century turned at first upon this doctrine of the procession 
and not upon the insertion of the Filioque in the Creed, 
which was apparently not detected until the beginning of 
the ninth century. Nor would Pope Leo III., while up- 
holding the doctrine, admit the insertion into the Creed 
at Rome, although pressed by Karl and legates from the 

* Dr. Neale (History of Holy Eastern Church, Introd. ii. 1153) 
suggested that her acute controversy with Arianism led "the Spanish 
Church to dislike the idea that the Father should have an attribute, 
namely, of producing the Holy Ghost, which the Son had not, and there- 
fore to make the addition to the Constantinopolitan Creed" (Swete, 
Hist, of the Doctr. of the Procession of the H. Spirit, p. 164). 

t Hahn, p. 210. 



90 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Council of Aachen, A.D. 809, to do so. Thus the Eoman 
Creed remained alone of Western symbols without the 
addition. Pearson and 'Neale* hold Nicholas I. (858-867) 
responsible for the ultimate insertion of the Filioque in 
the Eoman Creed ; but whether this be so or not, it was 
not until two hundred years later that it was popularized 
at Eome, when Benedict VIII., A.D. 1014, adopted the 
custom of chanting the Creed in the Liturgy. 

The real point in the discussion of the doctrine between 
East and West turned upon whether the Spirit could be 
said to proceed from the Son in the same way that He 
proceeds from the Father. No one maintained this, 
which would be an infringement of the monarchia.f 
Tarasius of Constantinople in 787 proclaimed his belief 
in TO nj/eu/xa TO ayiov TO Kvpiov KOI faoiroiovv TO e/c TOV 
TLctTpos Si Ylov eKiropevo/Jievov (Mansi, xii. 1122) ; and 
this was really the belief of Easterns and Westerns. The 
doctrine of the "Double Procession" was probably 
brought to the English by Augustine from Eome, and 
was thus naturally held by them from the first. 
Gregory the Great had taught it explicitly (Moral, i. 22, 
Horn, in Evang. ii. 26), and it found expression in the 
Synodal letter of the Council of Haethfelth, 680 (Baed. 
H.E. iv. 17). Still more emphatic was the action of the 
Eeformers who imported it into the Litany of 1544 and 
into the Articles of 1563 (Article V., taken from the 
Conf. of Wiirtemberg, A.D. 1522). 

That the doctrine is as implicitly taught in Scripture 
as that of the Trinity, an examination of the following 
texts will show : 

1 Cor. ii. 12 : TO Trvevju-a TO e/c TOV Qeov. 

* Pearson, Art. viii., p, 576; Neale, op. tit., p. 1167. 

t Tertullian had argued this point expressly, adv. Prax. 4, 



THE GREED OF NICAEA 91 

John xv. 26 : 6 Trapa TOU Hcnr/ao? eKTropeverai. 

Matt. x. 20 : TO irvevfjia, TOV Ilarpo? v/xcov. 

Eom. viii. 9, 10 : Tn/eu/xa Qeov . . . Trvev/ua X/HCTTOU 
(synonymous). 

Gal. iv. 6 : TO Trvev/ma TOV Ytov avTov- 

Phil. i, 19 : TO Trvev/ma fycrov X/noTov. 

1 Peter i. 11 : TO 7n/ei//ua 

Acts xvi. 17 : TO Tn/ev/ia ' 

Compare John xv. 26 : 6 Trapa/cX^TO? ov eyw 
vfji.iv irapa rov Yiarpos : xvi. 14, e/c TOV e/xou 
xx. 23, Aa/3eTe Trvevpa ayiov, on which Augustine com- 
ments, "Quid enim aliud significavit ilia insufflatio nisi 
quod procedat Spiritus Sanctus et de Ipso ? " And again, 
"Insufflando significavit Spiritum Sanctum non Patris 
solius esse Spiritum, sed et suum " (Tract, xcix. in Joan, 
xvi. 13 ; ib. cxxi. 4). 

Compare too John xiv. 16, 17 : 6 EEaT^ip a\\ov Trapd- 
Suxrei V/JLIV, 'Iva $ //te0' vft.u>v el TOV alwva, TO irveu/Aa 
aXrjOeias, . . . 5/ E/o^o/jcai TT/OO? iy/*a?: Matt, xxviii. 20, 
'Eyco /xeO' v/u.u>v elfu . . . ewp T^? (rvvreXelas TOV aiS>vo$. 
So that we may say that the Spirit as truly represents the 
Son as the Son represents the Father (John xiv. 9). 
Thus Cyril argued the Divine Personality of Christ from 
the fact that the Spirit was Christ's Own; Epist. 3 ad 
Nest., Anath. 9 ; comp. Apol. adv. Theod. 9; contr. Nest. 
iv. 1. Cyril's belief in the "Double Procession" was 
clear (see the passages cited by Swete, p. 143 f., and by 
Pusey, p. 130); but in the Nestorian controversy he 
declined to be drawn off from the main point at issue by 
Theodoret's explicit denial of the procession from the 
Son. The chief thing Cyril insisted upon was His 
mission from the Son, but even this was involved to a 
certain degree with His essential relation to the Son, 



92 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

On the whole subject see Swete, op. tit., and Pusey, A 
Letter on the clause "And the Son" in the Nicene 
Creed, 1876* 

* Both these works were reviewed in the Church Quarterly Review 
iii. 421 foil. 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 93 



VIII. CREEDS OF EPIPHANIUS 

A. THE SHORTER FORM 

Ancoratus 118. 

Hi(rrevofji.v et? eva Qebv Harepa TcavroKparopa. 

ovpavov re KOI 7*79, oparwv re Travrwv KOI 



aopcmoy ' 

/cat et? eva Kvptov 'Ijjcrow XpioroV, 
rov YtW TOV Qeov rov povoyevfj 
TOV eK TOV Ilar/oo? yevvqOevra. Trpo iravroov TCOV 



e/c rfj$ ov<ria$ rov Ilar/oo?, 



e/c 



Qeov ci\r]@ivov e/c Qeov a 

yevvrjQevra ov TroirjOevra, 

OIAOOVVIOV TW liar/)/, 

Si ov TO. Travra eyevero, ra re eV TO?? ovpavoi? /cat 

ra ev rfi yy' 
rov Si' 4/xa? TOW? avOpwirovs KOI Sia ryv ri 



Kare\B6vra e/c rS>v ovpavwv, 
i vapKcoOevra e/c IIvei//jiaTO? 'Ay/ou KCU Map/a? 
T?? irapOevov, 






crravpwOevra re v'jrep ri/nuiv CTTI liovrlov HiXarov, 
/cat TraOoVra /cat ra<j>evra, 

dvacrravTa Tfl rpiry rj/Jt.epa Kara ras 

ave\06vra ei's TOU? ovpavou?, 



94 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



/ecu KaQe^o^vov e/c Se^ioav TOV Harpo?, 

/ecu ira\iv ep^o/Jievov /xera So r]$ Kpivcu ^coi/ra? KCU 



ov TW fiaariXeias OVK arrow reXo?' 
KOI ci^ TO H.vev/u,a TO ayiov TO Kvpiov KCU TO 
TO e/c TOV IlaT/oo? e/CTropevo/uei/ov, 
TO arvv TiaTpl KCU Yiw crv/u.'jrpoa'KVvovfji.evov KCU 



TO \a\rj(rav Sia TW 
et? HIQV ayiav Ka9o\iKrjV KOI a 

6/xoAoyou/xei/ eV ^ctTTTicr/ua et'j afacnv a 

7rpo<rSoKa)[jt.ev avacrTacnv 
/ecu ^o)^ rou fi,e\\ovTOS 



Toy? <5e Aeyo^ra?^!!^ Trore OVK tjv, Kal irpiv 

?1&tf./!J/ > / 1 / t / 

ou/c ?;j^, rj OTI e^ ou/c OJ/TWV eyeveTO, q ef erepa? 
vTrocrracreco? ?j ovcrias <j)a<TKOVTa$ eivai pevarTW 17 
aXAoicorw TOV TO? 0eoi? YioV, ToJTOf? a 



KCti 



B. THE LONGER FORM 
Ancoratus 119. 

i? em 0eoi/, IlaTe/oa TravTOKpaTOpa, TTCIVTWV 



T KOL 



KOI ek eva Hivpiov'Iy(rovv Xptcrrov, TOV Ytw TOU 0eov, 
e/c Qeov HaT/oo? /j.ovoyevrj 



TOVTecrTiv BK T^? ofcria? TOU 



Qeov e/c 0eou, $0)9 e/c ^COTO'P, 0eov aXrjQivov e/c 
0eov 



ov 



OfJLOOUVlOV TW IIaT/0/ 



^. ra iravra eyevero, TO, Te ev TO?? ovpavot? 
TO, eV Ty yy, opaTa, Te /cai aopaTa, 



THE CREED OF NICAEA 95 

\ n ) t r> \ l n r \n\\t I 

TOV OL Jf/wa? Toy? avupooTTOvs Kai oia Ttjv tj/Jierepav 
Kare\Q6vra KOI crapKwOevTa, rovr- 
yevvyOevTa TeAe/w? e/c T*/? ay/a? Mapta? 
T?/? aenrapOevov Sia IlyeiVaTO? ' Ay/ov, 

, TOVTSCTTI reXeiov avOpcoirov Xa- 



KCU (noxa /cat vow feat 



evrlv 



OVK CLTTO (nrepfiaro^ avSpo?, ovSe ev a 
a\\' ? eavrbv crap/ca avaTr\a<ravra ei? 
ayiav evorjTa' ou /caOaTrep ei/ 
eveirvevcre re /cat eAaAjfcre /cat evrtpyrjcrev, aAAa 
TeAe/w? evavQponTnfjaravra (o ya/o Aoyo? cra/o^ 
eyeVero, 01) rpoTryv VTroirras ovSe /xera/3aAd)j/ 
TJ?V eayroi; deortjra els avOpWTroTrjrct), et? /xiav 
cruvej/cocravTa eayrou ayi'av TeAetOTJjra re /cat 
Oeorrjra (el? yap rn Kypio?'I?/a-oi/? Xpicrro? 

\ 'n/ r ' ^ /^v / ' '^ T7" / ' 

/cat oy oyo, o awro? Weo?, o ayro? liypto?, o 
ay'ro? /3aari\evs). 

TOV avrov ev (rapid, 
l m>a<rravra KCU aveXOovra ei? roy? ovpavovs ev 
T<W 



ev eia TOV 

ev ayrw TU> trw/xari ev $ofl Kpivai 
ve/cpoy?, 

oy T^? j8acriAe/a? oy/c eWai reAo?' 
i eip TO "A.yiov Ilyey/xa TTfcrreyo/xej/, 

TO AaA?j<rav ei/ VO//MO feat K*jpvav ev Tot? 

Tat? /cat Karafiav eiri TOV 'lopo'd^v, AaAow 
ej^ a7rocrToAot?, OIKOVV ev ay/ot?' 

ev OVTW oTt e<rTlv Hvev/Aa ' A.yiov, 
Iivev/m.a Qeov, Ilj/eyywa TeAetoi/, Jli/ey/xa 7rapd/cA>?- 

TOV, a/CTiCTTOJ/, 



96 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS. 

e/c TOV TLarpos eKTropevo/aevov /cat e/c rov Ytov 

Xa/x/Savoywei/oi' /cat 7ri(TTev6/ji,evov 
'TTicrTevojui.ev et? /itav KaOoXiKyv /cat aTrouToXt/c^i' < 
/cat ei? eV /SaTTTtcryaa /xeTai/ota?, 
/cat et? avao-Tacrtv veKpwv /cat Kpianv SiKaiav 

/cat (Tw^arfav, 

/cat et? /3ac7tXetav ovpavutv /cat et? ^w^j/ atwvtov. 
Tou? ^e Xeyoimx? OTI ^j/ TTOTC 6Ve owe fy o Yto? 5j TO 
IIvei;/x,a TO "Aytovj '^f 6Vt e^ ov/c WTWV e'yeVeTO r\ e^ eTe/oa? 
UTrocracreo)? 5? oucrtas, 0acr/coj/Ta? etVat TpeTTTOi/ ?? aXXotooToV 
Ytov TO? 0eou ^f TO "A.yiov TLvev/na, TOVTOVS ava9e/m,a- 
n r\ KaOoXiKtj Kal aTrocrToXt/c^ e/c/cX^<r/a, 4 WTtjp vfJiSiv re 
/cat 4/^' /cat 'jraXiv avaOe/u.aTio/ui.ev rov? fit] o/>toXoyowTa? 



veKpcav teat Tracray Ta? atpeireis Tag /UL>] e/c 



TTtWew? oi/cra?. 



THE EPISTLES OF CYRIL 

II. AND III, TO NESTORIUS AND TO JOHN 
OF ANTIOCH 



H 



Tn KEX GLOEIAE, CHEISTE, 

Tu PATEIS SEMPITEENTTS ES FILIUS. 

TU AD LlBEEANDTJM MUNDUM SUSCBPISTI HOMINEM 
HOBEUISTI VlEGINIS UTEEUM. 



THE EPISTLES OF CYRIL 

INTRODUCTION 

THE circumstances which led to the intervention of Cyril 
in the Nestorian controversy must be briefly told. 

After the death of Sisinnius, at the close of the year 
427, Nestorius, a priest of Antioch and pupil of Theodore 
of Mopsuestia, was consecrated in April, 428, to the see 
of Constantinople. He took with him from Antioch a 
domestic chaplain (syncellus) named Anastasius, who was 
an ardent disciple of Theodore's teaching and methods of 
thought.* In one of his Advent sermons upon the In- 
carnation Anastasius decried the Catholic practice of 
calling the Virgin Mary "Theotokos" QEOTOKOV ryv 
Mapictv KaAemo fjirjSeis' Map/a "yap avQptoTros rjv* VTTO 
avOpwTrov Se Qeov re)(6f]vai aSvvarov (Socr. vii. 32). 

This teaching Nestorius publicly approved, and he him- 
self preached a course of sermons in which he drew a 
plain distinction between the man Jesus, born of Mary, 
and the Son of God Who dwelt in him.t Eusebius, a 
lawyer, afterwards Bishop of Dorylaeum, led the Catholic 
opposition to this erroneous doctrine, and denounced 
Kestorius as a heretic, refuting him by his own creed 

* On the widespread influence of Theodore and his responsibility for 
Nestorianism and Pelagianism, see the Church Quarterly Eeview, i, 
115 foil. 

t These sermons are extant in a Latin version made by Marius 
Mercator. 

99 



ioo OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

(see above, p. 67). Marius Mercator at the same time 
published a tract against Nestorius; but neither he nor 
Eusebius accurately grasped the vital point of the heresy. 
They treated it as if Trinitarian (Paulianist or Photinian) 
.instead of Christological. Nestorius never denied the 
Personality of the Word: he did deny that the Word 
really became Flesh. 

Nestorius' sermons soon began to circulate at Eome 
and in Aegypt, particularly amongst the monks. Cyril, 
in his Paschal homily for Easter 429, written early in 
January, took occasion to dwell upon the Unity of 
Christ's Person, and the doctrinal value of the Virgin's 
title of Theotokos ; and when his attention was especially 
drawn to the mischief which Nestorius' sermons were 
doing, he issued an encyclical letter to the Monks of 
Aegypt in which he stated the Catholic doctrine of the 
Incarnation, carefully distinguishing the abstract Deity 
from the concrete Person of the Word Who, Himself un- 
changed, took Flesh. 

This encyclical reached Nestorius in Constantinople 
and kindled his keen resentment against Cyril, whom he 
proceeded to calumniate. Meanwhile Pope Caelestine, 
into whose hands Nestorius' sermons had come, wrote to 
Cyril asking if they were really productions of Nestorius. 
Upon this Cyril wrote to Nestorius, urging him to restore 
peace by employing the term Theotokos (Epist. ad Nestor. 
1). Nestorius' reply was simply evasive; but he now 
took the opportunity of writing to Caelestine respecting 
four Pelagian bishops at Constantinople, and ending his 
letter with an attack upon the Catholics who called the 
Virgin Theotokos. On receipt of this letter and the 
tracts which accompanied it Caelestine employed Cassian 
to refute Nestorius, which he did in Seven books on the 



EPISTLES OF CYRIL 101 

Incarnation. Meanwhile Cyril had received from, his 
agents at Constantinople copies of further Nestorian 
writings, and also learnt the names of his calumniators, 
who turned out to be certain Alexandrians who had been 
convicted for various crimes. Hereupon, in February, 
430, he wrote his Second Letter to Nestorius, which now 
follows (Epist. ad Nest. 2, " Obloquuntur "). 



102 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



ANALYSIS OF CYRIL'S SECOND LETTER 
TO NESTORIUS 

A. Introduction. Injurious reports about me are being 

circulated by unworthy persons, 
whom God will judge. 
Let me remind you to hold fast and 
teach the true faith, lest you cause 
any to stumble. 



B. Doctrinal. 



The meaning of the Mcene Faith in 
the Incarnation: not conversion of 
the Godhead into flesh, or into a 
whole man ; but by a Personal Union 
to soul and flesh the WORD became 
MAN, -the two different Natures, 
Godhead and Manhood, retaining 
their diversity, yet uniting to make 
One Lord and Christ and Son. 
Hence the Word has two generations 
Begotten before the ages of the 

Father, 
Begotten also, after the flesh, of 

the Yirgin ; 

not a mere man upon whom the 
Word descended, but the Word 
Himself born in His Human 
Nature. 



CYRIL AD NEST. II. 103 

Thus God suffered and died and rose 
again, not in His Godhead, but in 
His Manhood. 

So we worship One Christ, not a man 
along with (cr vv) the Word. 

To reject this Hypostatic Union is to 
make Two Sons. 

It was not a union of the Word to a 
human person, but the Word became 
flesh; i.e. He partook of our flesh 
and blood, yet still remained God. 
This is the teaching of catholicity 
and antiquity. 

Thus the Virgin is Theotokos, not the 
bearer of the Godhead, but of the 
body and soul which were personally 
united to the Word. 

C. Conclusion. Do you so think and teach, and pre- 
serve peace to all. 



104 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



EIII2TOAH AEYTEPA TOY AHOY 

KYPIAAOY 
IIP02 NE2TOPION 

eiXajSeoraT^ nal fleo^tXeordry orvXXeirov/ryip Neoro/jfy KfyiXXo 



KATA$AYAPOYZI /*ei/, W? /tavflawo, Ttve? 

0eo<re/3e/a? ' /cai TOVTO crvxvW) ra? 






re'Xei (rvvoSov? Kaipo^vXaKovvres f^aXicrra, KOI ra 



TTOV KOI repTreiv oloftevoi ryv (rrjv aKorjV' KOI 

/mev ovSev, eXeyx^ei/re? 5e /cat 10 



TOVTO x/o^o*?' o (Uev, ort TV<J)\OV$ ySiKet Kal TrefjjTa?' o 
5e, w? fJDjTpi t(j>os eTravareivas ' 6 8e, Qepa.Tra.ivy (7vy/ce/cXo- 
0)? xpvcrlov a\\OTpioV) Kal ToiavTqv eo'X'/'cw? aet rr\v 
ij^iv, r/v oi5/c av evaiTO rt? crvfi^vai TKTI Kal TU>V 
\iav e^Opwv. TT\^V ov TroXv? TCOV TOIOVTW 6 Xoyo? e/xot, 15 
iVa /x^re V7re/o TOV Sea-TTOTijv Kal SiSd&KaXov, fMj 






TOVS Trarepa? TO T^? evovarrjs e/mol 



perpov. ov yap ev^exerat ra? TWJ/ (j>av\(ov SiaSpavai cr/caio- 

Eom. iii. 14. TJfTCC?, ft)? ai^ eXotTO T(? SlttftlOVV. a\\' KlVOl 

apa? Kal TriKpias /mea-TOV e^oi/re? TO arTo/ma, Tft)20 

ctTroXoyjycroi'Tcu KpiT^' TCTpafio/Jiai Se iraXiv eyw 
TT/OO? TO OTt /xaXtcr.Ta Trpeirov e/j^avTO), Kal VTro/xvj/a'ft) /cai 
w? ae\<j)ov ev Xpio-Tw, T^? (5t^acr/caXta? TOV Xoyov /cat TO 
Tfl fricTTei 0/3Oj/J//ua //tera Tracrj/? ao"^aXe/a? Trotercr^at TT/OO? 
Matt, xviii. e. TOV? Xaov?' evvoeiv TC 6Vt TO (r/caj/o'aXtcrat /cat 25 






CYRIL AD NEST. II. 105 



eva TWV /uiiKpwv TWV iria-TevovTwv es 
Tov e'xet Tyv ayavaKTyviv' el oe Srj -TrX^Ou? e'irj 
TO(ravT)] TWV XeXi/7r///ieW' J TTCO? o^x cnraa-qs evrexvias ev 
Xpe/a KaOea-ryKafJiev, Trpop ye TO (Sefv eyW0poVfc>9 TrepteXetV 
30 ra <r/cav<SaXa, /cat TOV vyta T^? iricrrecas KaTevpvvai Xoyov 
TO?? graven TO a\r]6e$', e<7Tcu ^e TOVTO /cat /^aXa 6pOu>s, 
el rots TU>V ay/coi/ Trarepcov irepiTvyxavovTes Xoyot?, Trept 
TroXXou re avrovs iroiela-Bai (nrovda^otiu.ev, /cat doKifj.d- 
ovre$ eavrovs, el e<rjj.ev ev Tfl Trtcrret, Kara TO 2 Cor. xiii. 5. 
35 yey/oa/tt/xeVoi/, Ta?9 eiceivwv opOais /cat a 
ra? e>/ ^/w?i/ ewota? e5 /xaXa crfyUTr 

"E^)jj TO/I/W ^ dyta /cat /xeyaXj; cruvo^op, avTW TW e/c 
Geou /cat IlaT/oo? /caTa ^>i;criv yevvrjOevra Ytw ftovoyevfj, 
TOV e/c 0eou a\rjOivov Qeov a\rj6ivov, TO 0w? TO e/c TOU 
40 0WT09, TOV 6Y ov Ta Tra^Ta TreiroiriKev 6 TLaTyp, 
crapKwOijvai, evavOpcvirfja'ai, TraOeiv, avacrTrjvai 
rHJ.epa, /cat aveX0eti/ et? ovpavov?. TOVTOIS /cat 
5et /cat Tot? Xoyotp /cat TO?? doyttacnv, evvoovvTas TI TO 
(rap/cwO^j/at /cat evavOpunrfjcrai SrjXoi TOV e/c 0eou Ao'yov' 
45 oi5 yap <f>afji.ev, OTI v\ TOV A.6yov <f)v<rt$ /weTaTrou/Oetcra yeyove 
(rap aXX' ou<5e 6Vt etp o\ov avOpcoTrov /xeTe/3X>/0J?, TOV 
e/c \^yx% Ka ^ (TWjwaTOS* e/ceti/o ^e fj.a\\ov, OTI trapm e^u- 
Xu>M-evt]v tyvxtf Xoyt/c)J ei/cotra? o Aoyo? eawTw /ca0' VTTO- 
a-Tacriv a^pao-Tw? Te /cat aTrepti/o^TW?, yeyovev avOpwiros 
50 /cat Kexpyy-aTiKev uto? avQpwirov, ou /caTa Be\)]criv [tovyv y 
evSoKiav, aXX' oOo'e to? ej/ TrpocrX^et Trpotrcoirov IJLOVOV' 
/cat oTt Sia<popoi IJLGV at Trpo? evoT^Ta T*JV aXijOivriv arvvevex~ 
etf 5e e a^olv XptcrTO? /cat Yto?' oi)x ? 
<5ta0opa? avupt]/jt.lvt]s Sia Ttjv evctxriv, a?ro- 
55 TeXecracrcoi/ ^e /xaXXov ^/utj/ TOV eva Kuptov /cat Xpt<rrov /cat 
Te /cat avOpunroTrjTos, Sia TW a<f>pa<TTOv /cat 
Trpos evoV^Ta irvvSpo/Jifjs. oimo Te XeyeTat, /cat- 
Tot Trpo atwvwv exwv T>?V virap^iv /cat yei/v^Oets e'/c 



io6 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



yevvtjQfivai KOI Kara <rap/ca e/c yvvatkw, ovx <? 
avrov 0uo-e&)9 apyyv rov efvai Xafiova-y? ev rp ay/a irapOevw, 60 
oi/re fjitjv SerjOetvys aray/catW 6Y eavryv Sevrepas yevv/r 
crews /j.era rqv e/c IlaTpo?' ecrTt yap et/catoV re o>ov /cat 
aywaOe? rw inrdp^ovTa TT/OO TTO^TO? aiu>vo$ KCU crvvaiSiov TW 
IIaT/)i, 5ercr0ai \eyeiv ap^tjs rfjs ei? TO etVat Sevrepai}' -ei 



Nic. Symb. ^e " <5t zjjua? /cat ^ta rrjv yfAGTepav crwTriplav " 65 



evuxras eavrw 6 Aoyo? /caO' VTr6(rra<nv TO avdpwirivov, 
TrpoyXOev e/c ywat/co?, TawT^TOt Xe'yeTat yevvtjQrjvaL crap- 
KIKU>S. ov yap irpwrov avOpumos eyevvydri KOLVOS e/c rfjs 
ayta? irapQevov, eW OVTCO /caTaTre^o/T^/cev CTT' auTO> o 



Ao'yo?' aAA' e^ avrfjs /u^T/oa? ej^w^et?, virofielvai Xe'yeTat70 
yevvrja-iv crapKiKrjv, CDS Ttjs iSias cra/o/co? T^ yevvrjcriv 
oiKeiov/u.evo$. OVTU> (j>a/j.ev avrov KOI Tradelv KOI 
ovx w? TOU Geow Ao'yoy iraOovros et? t'5/aj/ 0i;o-^ 
i? SiaTpija-i? tfXwv riyovv ra erepa rcov rpavfJiaTtov' ciTraOe? 
yap TO Qeiov ori /cat aa-co/narov' eireiS^ e TO yeyoi'0?75 
auToi? 'tSiov (rw/na TreTrovOe, ravra TTO\IV avros Xeyerat 
TraOeiv inrep THJLWV' r\v yap 6 aTraQtjs ev T> Tracr^ovTt 
crco/xaTt. Kara rov 'i<rov 6"e rpoirov /cat eVt TOV re&vavai 
voovfj.GV. a6avaro$ [tev yap Kara {frixriv /cat a(j>Bapro9 /cat ^toi; 
/cat faoTTOids etTTW 6 rov Qeov Aoyo?' 7rei3tj Se ro 'iSiovso 
Heb. ii. o. ai/TOu TToXiv (rw/xa xa/otTt 0eoy, /caOa ^(rti' 6 
Ilai/Xo?, UTrep 7rai/TO? e'yevcraTO Qavarov, \eyerai Tra- 
Qeiv auTO? TW UTrep ^wj^ Oaj/aTOJ^' oux ^? ef V ireipav e\0tov 
rov OavaroV) ro ye TJKOV etV T^I/ avrov <j)V(riv' aTTOTrXtj^ia yap 
rovro \eyeiv rj (frpoveiv' aXX' 6Vt, /caOavrep etyrjv apTtco?, jj 85 

auToi/ eyei/craro Oavdrov. ovrco /cat e'yj/yep/xeV>7? ai/TOV 
crap/co?, TraXiv fj avda-ratris avrov \eyerai, ovx $ ' Jre ~ 
(rovro? et? <p0opav' /u^ yevoiro' aXX' ort TO avrov TraXti/ 
eyr/yeprai crw/ua. oimo Xpto^TW em /cat Kuptov 6/xoXoyjy- 

<? avOpwirov cru/otTrpocr/cwowTe? TW Ao'yw, tVa 90 
(j>avra<ria 7rapei<rKpivr]rai, Sia rov \eyeiv ro 



CYRIL AD NEST. II. 107 

aXX' w? eva KOI rov avrov Tr/oocr/cwoui/Tep, ori w a\\6rpiov 
rov Ao'yoi/ TO crw/jca OVTQV, IJ.G& o$ KOU avro? a-vveSpevei 
ru> liar pi' ov% wp Svo TraXiv crvveSpevovrcw vlStv, aXX' a>? 
95eyop Kaff evo/)(Tiv [tera rtjs <ra/)/cop. eav Se ryv /caO' UTTO- 
evaxriv qv w? avetyiKrov *} w$ a/caXX^ 7rapaiTU>jui,eOa, 
et? TO Svo XeyeH/ viovp* aj/ay/oy yap 7ra<7a 6*4- 
opivai, KCU eiTretv rov ja-ev, avSpwirov iSiKws, ry rov Yiou 
K\^a-ei reriw/jievov' lSiK$>$ Se vaXiv, rov e/c Qeov 
100 iioT?T09 oj/o/xa Te /cai xp*]/u.a eypvra <pv(riKU)$. 

Ov Staipereov rotyapovv ei? vlovs 8vo rov eva 
'Ij/orow X/H<TTOI>. ovY/crei Se Kar ovSeva rpoirov rov opOov 
rfo 7r/o"Teft)f Xoyoy ei? TO OI/TW? ex eij; > K&V el TpocrwTrwv 
evuxriv e7rt0j;/Atfa)ar/ Ttve?' ov yap e'iprjKev f) ypacj)}], ori 6 
105Ao'yo? avQpWTTOV TTyooVcoTrov rjvcacrev eavrw, aXX' John i. 14. 
oVt ye'yove <rap^. TO 5e cra/o/ca yevevQai rov Aoyov, oi/5ei/ 
erepov ea-riv, el fty on Tra/oaTrXj/cr/w? J/A"" Heb. ii. u. 
/u.ere<rxev aiVaTop /cat a-apKo$,.'lSi6v re (rw/wa TO v^^ 
e7TOt/<raTO, /ca: 7rpofj\0ev avOpunros e/c ywaiicos' OVK onrofie- 
110/3X?/cw? TO e/at 0eo? /cat TO e/c Geoi; yevvqOfjvai IlaTpop, 
aXXa /cat ev Tr/oocrX^ei cra/)/co? /Ae/xev)?/cw? oVep $j/. TOUTO 
irpecr/Sevei Travra^ov T^? aicpifiovs -jriWecop o Xoyo?' oi/Vw? 
TOU? ay/oi/? Tre^pov^Kora? irarepas' ovro) reOafi- 
OeoroKOV eiTreiv rqv ay lav TrapOevov' ov% eb? TJ/? TOV 

-, -, . A ' /' j/ '/I/ /^x? \ ^T 

115 Aoyov 0ucreft)f ?/TO T>/? feoT^TO? avrov ryv apxyv rov eivai 
\a[3ovart]<; K rys ay/a? TrapOevov' aXX' w? yevvtjBevros e 
rov ayiov <ru>/ji,aro?, i/rv^coOeWo? Xoyi/cw?, a> /cat /caO' 
emOels o Ao'yof, yevvrjB?jvai \eyerai Kara cra/o/ca. 
TauTa /cat j/w e^ ayaTD/p T^? ei/ X/OIO-TW ypa^tav irapa- 
wp aSe\(j)ov ical Siaju.aprvpofJi.ai evwiriov iTim. v. 21. 
rov ILpivrov Kal rwv K\eKrS>v ayye\(av, ravra 
qfj.cov Kal <j>poveiv KOI SiSda-Keiv' *lva (rwforai ru>v eKK\ 
*l eipqvr], Kai rrjs o/xovo/ap KOI ayaTTJ?? o crvvSetrfJios afip 
Sia/u.evfl TOtp tepevo-i rov Qeov. 



io8 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



NOTES ON CYRIL'S SECOND LETTER 
TO NESTORIUS 

9 TepTreiv oloimevoi rrjv a-tjv CLKO^V. 

Alluding to the long-established jealousy between the 
sees of Constantinople and Alexandria, which had no 
doubt led these excommunicated persons to seek refuge 
at Constantinople. 



45 4 TOV Aoyov (jtvcris ^eraTroirjOec^a, K.T.\. 

This was the tenet of Apollinarius, or at least of his 
extreme followers. Curiously enough, Apollinarianism, 
though due to a recoil from Arianism, was yet in its first 
position the denial of the Human Mind in Christ in 
agreement with it (Athan. c. Apoll. ii. 3). The heresy 
passed through three stages of development. First, the 
human j/ovp, as being the seat of sinful thoughts and in- 
clinations, was considered to imply the Arian Tpeirrov, 
and was surrendered for its place to be supplied by the 
Divine Logos. Next, the Human Body which Christ took 
from the Yirgin was deemed to be, by His assumption of 
it, made co-essential with the Deity. Lastly, it was held 
that Christ's Body was not of Human but of Heavenly 
origin e ovpavov a portion of the Deity materialized, 
as it were ; " the Godhead converted into flesh." See 
again Epist. 3, and Leo's Tome, 2, where Eutyches is 
charged with a revival of this notion. Athanasius had 



CYRIL AD NEST. II. 109 

argued against the Arians (Orat. iii. 30) that the crap of 
John i. 14 was equivalent to avQpwiros, and the two 
coarser forms of Apollinarianism were combated very 
fully in his Epistle to Epictetus of Corinth in 372, the 
acceptance of which became a test of orthodoxy in the 
Nestorian controversy (see Epist. ad loan, ad fin.). Apol- 
linarius distinguished between the anima rationalis and 
the anima animans. The latter he allowed that Christ 
possessed (Theodor. Dial. 2), but a few of his followers 
seem to have even denied this. See Leo. Serm. 24 in 
Nat. Dom. 4, "Apollinaris . . . Eilium Dei ita veram 
humanae carnis credidit suscepisse naturam, ut in ilia 
carne diceret animam non fuisse, quia vicem ejus ex- 
pleverit ipsa Divinitas." Serm. 28 in Nat. Dom. 8, 
" Quidam autem aestimaverunt in carne Christi humanam 
animam non fuisse, sed partes animae ipsam Verbi im- 
plesse Deitatem. Quorum imprudentia in hoc transit, ut 
animam quidem fuisse in Domino faterentur, sed eamdem 
dicerent mente carnisse, quia sufficeret et horaini sola 
Deltas ad omnia rationis officia. Postremo iidem asserere 

s. 

praesumpserunt partem quamdam Yerbi in carnem fuisse 
conversam; ut in unius dogmatis varietate multiplici, 
non carnis tantum animaeque natura, sed etiam ipsius 
Verbi solveretur essentia." Comp. Leo. Epist. 59. 5, 
"Nee dicimus Christum ita hominem ut aliquid ei desit 
quod ad humanam certum est pertinere naturam, sive 
animam, sive mentem rationalem, sive carnem : quae tria 
falsa et vana Apollinaristarum haereticorum tres partes 
varias protulerunt." 

The. Apollinarians were sound on the doctrine of the 
Trinity; ryv TpidSa opoovcnov elvai <j>acrlv (Socr, ii. 46). 
The heresy was first condemned at the Council of Alex- 
andria of 362 (Socr. iii. 7; Athan. Tom. ad Ant.). 



o OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



46 ovSe OTI els o\ov avOpwirov 

Comp. Athan. Or. c. Ar. ii. 47, KOI yap axrirep ' 
aKOvaravTe? o Ao'yo? uap% eyevero, OVK avrov o\ov <rdpKa 
voovftev TOV Aoyov, a\\a (rdpKa evSva-d/nevov KOI yevo/u.evov. 
Greg. Naz. Epist. 101, 102 ad Cled. contr. Apoll. Comp. 
too the eleventh anathema of the first Sirmian Creed, 
Socr. ii. 30, E'/rt? TO '0 Aoyo? <rap eyeVero CLKOVGOV, TOV 
Ao'yov els crdpKa /u,eTaBe{3\f](rQa.i vo/u.loi, t] rpoTrtj V7ro/xe- 
[tevriKOTa avei\q(f>evaL rr)V tra/o/ca, aj/aOe/Aa eWco: and see 
the comments of Hilar. Poit. upon it, de syn. 48. 

48 ewocra? o A. eawrw Ka0' vTrovracrtv, 

" united to Himself Personally." Nestorius would not 
admit of a Personal Union of the Two Natures in Christ. 
He allowed only a conjunction or intimate association 
(ovvdfaia) between the Logos and the man born of the 
Virgin, an "accidental" (not "essential") union (eWn? 
crxeTf/o/); and thus he ascribed to Christ a distinct 
human personality, which was dwelt in by the Son of 
God as a temple, used as an instrument, worn as a 
vesture, and even admitted to a share in His titles 
(Serm. 1, 2, 4). Two dicta of his give the keynote of 
his position: Am TOV tj>opovvTa TOV (popovfAevov <re/3co 
(Cyril, adv. Nest. i. 11, Epist. ad Nest. 3) and 'Eyco TOV 
yevo^evov Sifjujviaiov KOI Tpifiyvidiov OVK av Qeov oVo/xa- 
a-aifju (Socr. vii. 34). He thus, as the Chalcedonian 
fathers termed it, "rent the mystery of the Incarnation 
into a Duad of Sons" One Begotten of God and one 
born of the Virgin. This separation into two persons 
had already been condemned by Athanasius, Or. c. Arian. 
iv. 31-33 ; comp, Petav. de Inc. i. 9, iii. 3. 



CYRIL AD NEST. II. in 

50 Kara 6e\t](riv /movyv 5? evSoKiav. 

This was the position of Theodore, whom Nestorius 
followed. He held that the indwelling of the Logos in 
Christ was a moral one, /car' evSoKiav, comp. Luke iii. 22, 
an indwelling differing only in degree, but not in kind, 
from the indwelling of God in His saints, and capable of 
being illustrated by the marriage union of man and wife 
into " one flesh." Jesus thus became the chief of all the 
"adopted" sons of God. This Nestorian view had been 
anticipatorily dealt with by Athanasius, Or. c. Arian iii. 
30, v Ai/0/oa)7T09 Se yeyove, KO.} OVK et? avQpwirov ijXOev, /c.r.X. 



53 oux w? TJ7? Twv <})vcre(tiv diaffropa? avflpq/Aevt]? Sia rqv 



evwarw. 



This truth was constantly emphasized in the Christo- 
logical controversies, and these very words of Cyril were 
adopted in the letter of the Ephesine Council to the 
deposed Nestorius (apud Leo. Epist. 26, Mav, ad. Leon), 
and were also incorporated in the Chalcedonian Definitio 
Fidei, 4. Comp. Vincent. Ler. Common. 13, "Est in 
Christo Yerburn, anima, caro; sed hoc totum unus est 
Christus . . . Unus autem non corruptibili nescio qua 
Divinitatis et Humanitatis confusione, sed integra et 
singulari quadam unitate Personae. Neque enim ilia 
conjunctio alterum in alterum convertit atque mutavit, 
sed ita in unum potius utrumque compegit, ut manente 
semper in Christo singularitate unius ejusdemque Personae, 
in aeternum quoque permaneat proprietas uniuscujusque 
Naturae." Leo. Serin. 21; Tome, 3. Tertullian's 
writings were the ultimate source whence this language 
was taken; see adv. Prax. 27, "Et adeo salva est utriusque 
proprietas substantiae," etc. See below on a<ruyx u/T&) ? * n 
Chalc. Def. 



ii2 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



56 cufrpavTOv KOI 

Cyril echoes Athanasius in insisting on the mysterious- 
ness of the Incarnation ; see e.g. Or. c. Ar. i. 41. Comp. 
Augustin. Serai. 215, "Deo gratias, quia id quod com- 
petenter non potest dici, potest fideliter credi!" ib. 244, 
"Expone quomodo natus si semper fuit. Non expono; 
non possum." 



59 ov% 0)9 TJ?9 Betas avrov ^ucrewp apyr)V> K.T.\. 

This was what Nestorius imagined was implied in 
OeoTo/co?. It was an actual tenet of Paul of Samosata; 
Athan. c. ApolL i. 20, mo? Aeyere Qeov 9 HavAo? 6 
2a/AO<raTev9; TOUTO yap T?9 e/ceivov acre/3e/a9 TO TrpoVx^a, 
6eov 6/^oXoyeiv TOV e/c Map/a9, TT/JO atcoi/coi/ /*ev /rrpoopto- 
Sevra, e/c Se M.apia$ rqv apyyv 



67 TrpoijXOev CK ywaiKo?. See note below. 



72 oi/rft) (pafiev avTOVKoi 

Since the Person, the Self, the " Ego " of the Incarnate 
Son was Divine it became possible and right to speak of 
the acts of either Nature as those of God. Accordingly 
St. Paul spoke of the crucifixion of the Lord of Glory 
(1 Cor. xi. 8) and of the Second Man being "from 
* heaven" (1 Cor. xv. 47), and St. John of the Son of 
Man being "in heaven" (John iii. 13).* The technical 
term for this method of speaking is Antidosis (avrlSotns) 
or Communicatio Idiomatum, whereby all that can be 
predicated of the Divine or Human Nature may with 
equal propriety be predicated of the One Divine Person 
of Christ. It is the Person who acts or suffers ; it is His 
Nature, Divine or Human, which makes Him capable of 

* The reading of Acts xx. 28 is too uncertain to form the basis of 
an argument. 



CYRIL AD NEST. II. 113 

either (Hooker, v. 52). Leo drew this out at length in 
the Tome, 5. Nestorius would not or could not see the 
validity of this method of speech, nor allow that the Son 
could enter the sphere of human life while still remaining 
within the Divine sphere. He held, and rightly, that 
God could not be born secundum Deitatem, but he thence 
argued wrongly that He could not be born secundum 
Humanitatem, and that Oeoroicos was an inappropriate 
title for the Virgin. In other words, he failed to dis- 
tinguish between the Personal God Incarnate and His 
impassible Godhead. 

90 oi5x ft>? avOpwirov (TVfJi.'jrpoa-Kvvovvres rw Aoyw. See 
below on Anath. 8. 

109 irpofjXOev avQpa&Tos er yvvaiKW. So again in 
Epist. 3, but the phrase is Athanasian: ad. Epict. 12, 
e/c Se Ma/o/a? airrop 6 Aoyo? o-a/o/ca Xa/3w irpoqXBev 
avOpunros. Comp. contr. Apollin. i. 9, 0eo? Aoyo? e/c 
trapOevov rfjs cxy/a? Mfr/o/a? irpoeXQwv av 



114 OeoroKov. "She who bare [as to His Human 
Nature] Him who is [personally] God." 

This epithet was of very ancient use in the language of 
the Church; Theodoret (Haer. iv. 12) refers it to "the 
Apostolical Tradition," and indeed its equivalent is found 
in Scripture : Luke i. 43, r\ ^rnp rov Kvpiov /JLOV. Comp. 
Ignat. Ephes. 18, 6 yap 0eo9 WMV 'Iiyo-oup 6 Xptcproy 
eKvoQopriOti VTTO Ma/oia? /car' oiKovoftiav. The usual Latin 
equivalent was " Deipara," but Tertullian practically used 
the phrase "Mater Dei" (de pat. 3, "Nasci se Deus in 
utero patitur matris"), and Leo (Serm. 21, Epist. 165) 
I 



ii4 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

used " Dei genetrix." Origen (according to Socrates, vii. 
32), in his commentary on Bom. i. 5, gave an ample 
exposition of the use of the word: ep^vevcav TTWS 
" 0eoTo'/co? " AeyeTcu TrXdreco? e^raa-e. Eusebius himself 
used it (Yit. Const, iii. 43), and placed in the mouth 
of Coiistantine in his Oration (ad Sanct. Coet. 11) the 
expression Qeov ^Typ Kopy. Alexander (Theod. H.E. 
i. 4) spoke of Christ taking a body, etc rw deoroxov 
Ma/>m?, and so Athanasius Or. c. Ar. iii. 14, 29, 33 ; 
iv. 32; Cyril. Jer. Cat. x. 19; Ambros. Hexaem. v. 20 
(Mater Dei). 

The doctrine emphasized by the term Theotokos is that 
of the One Divine Personality of Christ. He was God 
before He became Man, and His Personality remained 
unchanged by His Human conception and birth from the 
Virgin only to His Divine Nature was thereby added 
Human Nature. 

Nestorius would not admit the legitimacy of the title. 
He shrank from the condescension of God implied in it. 
He refused to allow that from the initial moment of His 
conception by the Virgin the Personality of Him whom 
she bore was Divine. He could not " call a child of two 
or three months old, God " (Socrat. vii. 34), He thought 
that, as a middle term between GeoTo/co? and 'Ai/fyo<M7ro- 
TOKOS (Evagr. i. 7), she might be called X/HCTTOTOKO?. 
In an unreal sense he would probably have allowed 
0eoTo/co?, meaning thereby that Mary was the mother of 
one who was afterwards by advancement so closely 
associated with the Son of God and " possessed " by Him 
as to share His title of " God" (Epist. ad Caelest.). The 
Child of Mary was thus not Geo?, but Geo^o/oop 
aj>0/K07T09. With a singular want of logical perception 
Nestorius was willing to call the Virgin Geo<5oxos 



CYRIL AD NEST. II, 115 

(Serin. 7); but this, as Cyril showed, involved the 
0eoTo/ro?. Nestorius missed the point of St. Paul's great 
Christological passage (Phil. ii. 6-8), which turns upon 
the identity of Him who existed ev pop^y Qeov with 
Him who took iw<>riv Soii\ov. 



THE THIRD EPISTLE (SYNODICAL) 
OF CYRIL TO NESTORIUS 

INTRODUCTION 

NESTORIUS' reply to Cyril's Second letter (Mansi, iv. 891) 
betrayed an inability to distinguish between "God" 
and "Godhead." In AprL 430, Cyril answered Pope 
Caelestine's letter of the previous year (Easter, 429), and 
a council at Eome in August condemned Nestorius, 
giving him ten days to recant. The matter was placed 
in the hands of Cyril, who held a council at Alexandria 
in November, which drew up this Third letter, to which 
twelve anathematisms were appended (Epist. ad Nest. 3, 
" Cum Salvator "). It was sent at once to Constantinople, 
along with Caelestine's letter, by the hands of four 
bishops. 

Meanwhile Theodosius, on November 17, had issued 
the summons for a General Council to meet next 
Pentecost. 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 



117 



ANALYSIS OF CYRIL'S THIRD LETTER 



WITH TWELVE ANATHEMAS 



A. Introduction. Our reasons for writing: Duty to 

Christ, to the Faith, and to the 
scandalized Church. 



B. Hortatory. 



C. Doctrinal. 



Uniting our counsel with that of the 
Roman Synod, we exhort you to 
refrain from perversion of the Truth 
under pain of excommunication. 

Your excommunication of others is 
disannulled. You must accept the 
right sense of the Mcene formulary 
as well as its Terms, and abjure your 
profane doctrines in the anathema- 
tisms appended hereunto. 

The Mcene Creed. 

The doctrine of the Incarnation: the 
Word was made Flesh, yet remained 
God. There was no change of Flesh 
into the Nature of God, nor of the 
Nature of God into Flesh. While a 
Child in the Virgin's lap He yet 
filled Creation as God. 



n8 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

The Hypostatic Union: we worship 
One Christ, GOD and MAN Personally 
united, 
not merely connected by dignity 

or authority, 

not admitting of a double applica- 
tion of the title Christ, 
not a God-carrying man, 
but a true Union of Natures, like 

that of soul and body. 
Thus there is One Christ, Son, and Lord, 
not a conjunction of man and 

Word in a union of honour, 
or of juxtaposition, 
or of " accidental " participation. 
Indeed, "conjunction" is an in- 
adequate term; 

" union " is the right expression. 
He did indeed speak of His Father as 

His God, 
but this was in virtue of the 

" emptying." 

We refuse to say, " I worship him who 
is worn on account of Him that 
wore him," 
or, " The assumed is called God along 

with the Assumer." 
Christ is ONE, not two, who suffered, 

died, and rose again. 
We partake of the Holy Eucharist 
because it is the Mesh of One who 
is GOD, and therefore Life-giving. 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 119 

The words of Christ in the Gospels are 
referable to One Person in Two 
Natures; some pertain to His God- 
head, and some to His Manhood. 

He is High Priest, not for Himself, but 
for us only. His Holy Spirit mani- 
fests His Glory to man. 

By virtue of the Hypostatic Union the 
Virgin Mary is Theotokos not that 
the Word had His beginning from 
her, nor that He needed a birth in 
time, but He blessed our birth, and 
removed the curse, and sanctified 
marriage. 

D. Conclusion. This is the true ancient Faith, to which 

you must unequivocally assent. 

E. Appendix. It is necessary for you to subscribe the 

following anathematisms : 

Anathema to him who 

(1) denies that the Yirgin is Theotokos, 

(2) denies that the Word is Personally 
united to Flesh, ONE CHRIST, 

(3) severs Christ into two persons 
joined in dignity, 

(4) refers Scriptural sayings respecting 
Christ to two different persons, one 
human and one Divine, 

(5) asserts that Christ is a God-carrying 
man, 



120 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

(6) denies that the Word is alike God 
and Man, 

(7) asserts that the man Jesus was 
energized by God the Word, 

(8) asserts that co-worship is due to a 
man assumed by God the Word, 

(9) denies that the Spirit was Christ's 
Own, 

(10) denies that our High Priest was 
the very Word of God, who offered 
for us only, 

(11) denies that Christ's Flesh is that 
of the Life-giving Word, 

(12) denies that the Word Himself 
suffered and died in the Flesh. 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 121 



EHISTOAH TPITH TOY AHOY 

KYPIAAOY 
HP02 NE2TOPION 



TV eff\af3effT<iT(j> Kal deoffe^effrAry ffv\\eirovpj$ Neffroply KiJpiXXoj Kal y 
5 ffweXflouou crtfj'oSos iv ' AXeijcwSjodp ex T^S AiywTmaKTjs Sioi/c^crews iv 



TOY 2ft)T^/oo? ^cov Xeyoi/T09 ei/apyw? 
rj fji.r]Tpa virep efj.e OVK earn (JLOV agios, Kal Matt.x. 37. 
6 0iXwj/ viov rj Ovyarepa inrep e/xe OVK earn /JLOV 

f, TI 7ra0co/xei/ ^/xe??, ot Trapa T% 0-^9 euAajSeta? a- 
Tou/xej/ot TO VTrepayaTraa-Qai rov TravTow fi/u.u>v 
Xpicrrov; r/9 ^jwa? ev fnj.epq Kpla-ews ovyarai Swrja-erai ; ?? 
evpijcro/m-ev Ttjv ct7roXoy/av, cricoTrriv OUTGO Ti/u.'ricravTG$ T>]V 



irl rats Trapa <rov yevofj-evais /car avrov 
15 /cai er/Aei/ cravTOV ySiKeis [J.QVQV, ra rocavra <j}pova>v KO.I SiSaa- 



iJTTcov av %v y (ppovris' eireiSri Se Tracrav e(TKavSd\ia-a$ 
eKK\t]criav, Kal ,vfJLr)v at/oecrew? aqOovs re Kal J-evys eju,(3e- 
Xaoi? Kal ov\i TOI$ eKeicre /JLOVOIS, a\\a yap 



TO?? airavTaxov, irepiYive^Qt) yap TWV <rS>v efyyqa-etiw ra 



on Q /0\ '. n if ^ >f<^ /.?/ %/ 

av pipA.ia TTOCOS GTI rats Trap ^/xow triwirais ap/cecret Aoyos J 
n TTW? ou/c avayKrj [ji.vtjcrOfjvat \eyovros rov %.pi<rrov M.q 
vofAifrtjre on t}\0ov (3a\eiv eiprivyv Girl Matt. x. 84,36. 
Ttjv yrjv' ovK'ij\Oov fia\eiv elprivriv, a\\a ftdxaipav' 
tfXOov yap Si^da-ai avOpunrov Kara rov Trar/oo? 

25aiToy, Kal Ovyarepa Kara rfjs /utirpos avrfjg, trio- 



122 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

recos yap aSiKovju.evt]s, efiperco /JLW cos e&JXos Kai e7rKr<j)a\t]s 
v\ Trpop yovea? auScop' jj/oe/xemo 8e KOI 6 rys els re/cm KCU 



TO? //y a/melmv 



Heb. xi. 35. \oi7rov TO*? evareflecriv 6 Odvaros, "iva Kpelr- 
TOVO? di/acTTacreft)? TUX W( >" I J Kara TO yeypa/Ji^evov- 30 
u TOLVVV 6/x.ou TJJ ayta CTUJ/O^W, T^ /cara Ttjv fj.eydXriv 
<rvvei\ey/Jivr], "irpoeSpevovros rov ocrLwrarov KOI Oeo- 
ae\<j)ov KGU <rv\\eirovpyov Jj/xcov KeXecrrivou 



TOU eTTLcrKOTTOv KOI TpiT(p (rot 



, crv/ji,(3ov\vovTes cnroa-xecrOai ru>v OUTW 



/cat eea-Taj,ji.ev(iov SoJidrdw a KCU (oveis KCU 



avOe\(r6at 8e rrjv -opQqv TTIVTIV, rr\v raf? 
irapaSoOeicrav ef /ox^? ^ f ^ ^^ ay/w^ 1 airouroXdov KCU 
Lukei. 2. ei/ayyeXi<7TWj/, o< /cat aiyroTrrai /cai VTTtjperai 
rov \6yov yeyovacriv' rj el ^ TOVTO dpdcreiev q <rtj euXa-40 
fieia, Kara rriv opicrQeicrav TrpoQetriJ.ia.v ev rots ypdjULfAacrt rov 
]u.vr)ju.ovev6evro$ oa-uardrov KCU Oeocre/SecrTarov ei 
KOI (rvXXeirovpyov f]fmv TW 'Pco/wa/wv KeXeorr/j/oi/, 
aravrov ovSeva K\fjpov eyovra juieO' q/u.wv, ovSe roTrov n 
\oyov ev rots iepevui rov Qeov KO.L eiritTKOTrois. ovSe yap 45 
evoe'XeraL irepuo'eiv ^ap e/c/cXjycr/a? ovra) re9opvft)]/jLevas 
Kal <TKavSa\i(r9evras Xaoi'? Kal Triomv op6t]v dOerov/u.6V)iv 
KOI Siaa-TTw/uieva Trapa crov ra irol^via, rov arwfav o0e/X- 
oj'TOp, eiTrep ria-Qa Ka9' r]/u,as op9>j$ 86t]$ epao-rqs, rrjv rwv 
ayiaov irarepoov l~)(yrj\aru>v eva-efleiav. &7rqari oe rots irapa 50 
rrjs cr^s euXa/3e/a9 Kex^pi^M-evois SLO, r^v Trio-riv, y KaOai- 
peOeicri Xaikots re Kal K\rjpiKOt i s, KOIVWVIKOI Trdvres e<r/u.ev. 
ov yap e<rri SUaiov rovs 6p9a <j>povelv eyj/w/corap crais 
aSiKeia-Qat x/^^otp, ori <roi /caXwp Trotowrep avreipqKaa-i. 
TOVTO yap avro /caTa/xe/x^w/cap ev ry eTrto-ToXjj ry ypa<j>- 55 
ei<rfl Trapa trov Trpos rov TJJP /xeyaX^p 'Pw/x^p 
crvveirlarKOTrov jj/xwv KeXecrrivov. OVK d/o/cecrei <?e 
ev\a(3ela TO <rvvo/ji.o\oyfj(rat /JLOVOV TO 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 123 

f3o\ov, TO eKreOev Kara Kaipovs ev 'Ayto> Tivev/uari irapa 
60 T/9 ay/a? Kai /oieyaX^ <rvvdSov } rfjs Kara Kcupovg 

ev ry Nt/caeeov' vevotjKas yap KOI j/ppfi/eycra? OVK 
(?te(TTpa)U/Aei/ft)9 <5e /mXXov KO.V o^toXoy^? 177 <p(avfl rrjv 
' aXXa yap UKoXovOov e'yypa^w? /cat ev 



y(rai, OTI Kai avaQe^arl^ei ? /otej/ ra cravrov fj-iapa. KOI 



65 Xa 5oyM ara > <ppovrj<rei? e Kai StSdeis, a Kai qfjieis dVai/re?, 
ot re /cara T^J/ ecnrepav Kai rt]v ewav eTriarKoiroi Kai SiSdcr- 
Kai Xawi/ >/you/xej/o(. crvveOero 8e Kai q Kara rr\v 
ayla a-vvoSos, Kai ^/xet? aVavre?, co? o'pOw? e 
/cat aveTTtX^TTTft)?, rai? ypa^e/trai? eTTftrroXa?? Trpo? 
70 ev\d(3eiav irapa T^9 'AXe^avSpewv eKK\t]<ria$. 
Se Tovrots y/Jiwv rof9 ypdf*.[ji.a(riv, a re 5e? <f>poveiv Kai Si- 



Kai &v 






yap Trjs /caOoXi/c^? KOI a'TrocrToX/KJj? KK\r}aria<; fj 
7ro"T9, / ayj/aii/ovcrti/ a7rai/re9 ) oi' re Kara rqv e<nrepav Kai 
75 rrjv eu>av 6p66Sooi eT 



IIISTEYOMEN et? eva Oebv Ilarepa TravTO/CjOaro/oa, 
6/)arwv re Kat do/sarov TTOI^TIJV' Kai eis eva Kvpiov ' 
X/)t(TTc>v, rbv Ytbv TOII Geoi), yevvij^evra IK TOU 
/Aovoyevr), TOVTCCTTIV, EK T^S ovcrtas rov IlaTpos' Oebv eK 

80 0eou, $ws eK ^corbg, 6eov aA^ivov IK Qeov dXry^tvov' yev- 
vijfleVra, ov TTOiij^evTa, 6/^oovcriov T(p HOT/H' 8t' oS TO, 
Travra lyevero, rd re Iv T<J) ovpavip Kat TO, Iv TJJ yfj' rbv Si' 
i^/tas TOVS avfljocoTTovs Kat Sta T^V ^jaerepav crwTjypt'av KareA- 
^ovra Kat frapKiaOevra /cat Ivav^/owTr^o-avra Tra^ovra 

85 avaoravTa 717 T/OITJJ i7/*/3a f dveX^ovra et's ov/oavovs, I 
evov K/otvat ^wvras Kai veK/>oiJs' Kat ets ro"Ayiov 
TOUS Se Aeyovras^Hv irore ore OVK ijv Kat Iljoiv 



yv, Kat ort 1^ OVK 6'vTcav lyevero, ^ 1^ ere/ja? wo- 
OTcurecos rj owtas (jidcrKovTas etvat T) TpeTrrbv ij dAXotcoTov rbi/ 
90 Ytov TOV Geov, TOTJTOVS avadeparifa rj KadoXiKrj Kat 



124 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



Se TravTOxy Tat? TU>V aytW vraTeptov O/L 
ytat?, at? ireTrotyvTai, XaXowTO? ev avTois TOV' A.yiovTivev~ 
fJiaTos, /cat TWJ/ ev avTOts evvoioov t'xi/^XaTOWTe? TOV (TKOTTOV, 
KOI fla<rt\LKr]v wcrTrep epyo^evoi Tplfiov, (f>a/u.ev OTI avTOs o 95 






Movoyej/}?? TOV 0eov Ao'yo?, 6 e' avrrjs yew/j?0et? rfc outr/ap 
TOW IlaT/oo?, 6 K Qeov a\rjQivov 0eo? aAj/^fj/o?, TO $w? TO 
e/c TOW $ft)TO?, o 5i' oy Ta Travra eyevero, ra re ev TW ovpavw 
KOI ra ev Tfl yii, rfjs rjfJLerepas eveKa (rcorypias KareXOwv, KOI 
KaOels eavrov ei$ Kevcoa-iv, ea-apKwOt] re KOI evqvOpwTrq&e, 100 
rovT(TTL, crapKa \a(3(i)v e/c Tqs ay/a? TrapOevov, KCU iSlav 
avryv TroiJ/irayUevo? e/c /mrJTpas, ryv raO' jj/ta? vire/meive yev- 
vt](riv, KOI TrporjKQev avOpwiros e/c yvvaiKos, ov% oirep qv 
a7TO)8ej6X^Kft)?, aXX' el KCU yeyovev ev TrpocrX^et cra/)/co? 
KCU ai/xaTO? /cat oi/Vco yae/>iev)//cco? 6Ve/o |v, 0eo? o^Xown 105 

a\t]9eia ovre c*e rqv cra/o/ca <j)a/u.ev ei$ Oeorqros 
(frvcriv, ovre [Aqv et? <j>vcnv o-a/o/co? T^V airop'p^rov 
TOV Qeov Ao'yoy TrapevexOtjvai <pv(riv, arpeirro's yap CCTTI 
Cp.Johnviii.S5. KQI avaXXoiWo? TTOi/TcXft)? o auTO? aet /xeVwv 
ib. x. so. Kara Ta? y^oa^a?' opw/xei/o? ^e /cai ^pe^>o? /cat 110 
Mai. m. 6. (nrapyav(iofji.evo?, u>v eri KOI ev KO\TTW T% 
reKOV(rt]S TrapOevov, Tracrav eirX^pov rrjv KTIO-IV co? 0eo?, /cat 
trvveSpos tjv TW yeyevvtjKOTi. TO yap Oeiov cnroarov Te etTTi 
/cat a/xe'yefle? /cat Treptoptcr/Aov oi;/c aveyeTai* 

'UvuxrOai ye /x^j/ cra/o/ct /caO' vTroWao-tv 6/uoXoyowTe? TOV 115 
Ao'yov, eVa Trpoa-Kvvov/Jiev Yt'w /cat Kvptov'Ijjo'ow XptcrTW, 
am (Wepo? TtfleVre? /cat SioplfrvTes avOpcmrov /cat 



/cat 



T>?Tt' Kevotytovia yap TOVTO /cat eVepov oO<5eV* oure 

w t(Jt/cw? oVojoca'^oi/Tes TOV CK 0ou Ao'yov, /cat 6/xoiw? 120 

\W \> ' . *-\\> & ' 

? Xf )lo " rol/ eTepov TOI/ K yuvaiKos aAA eva /xovov 
Xpt<TTOV TW e/c 0eou /cai IlaTpo? Aoyov /xeTa 
t(Jta? (rap/co's. TO'TC yap avOpwrnVw? /ce'p(pta-Tai (UeO' 
/catVot TO?? allots TOU Xa/3etv TO IIveu/x,a 51501*? auTO?, /caf 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 125 



125 OVK e'/c /xeVp ov, KaOa (fryariv 6 />ta/cap(09 evayyeX- John m. 34. 
terras 'Icoavi/jj?. aXX' ovS' e/ceti/o' ^a/xev, on KarwKJjcrev o e/c 
Geov Aoyo9, 009 eV avOpcairca KOIVW TW e/c rw ay/a? irapOevov 
yeyevvtjfjiem, tva /*>? Oeo</>o'po9 avQpu>iro$ vooiro Xpta-To'p. 
et ya/o /cat ea-Kr/vcoa-ev ev fjfJLtv o Aoyo?, Johni. u. 

ISQeiprjTai Se KO.I ev X/jfcrrft) KaroiKrj&ai irav TO Col. a. 9. 
ir\r]p(i)IJia rfjg Oeorrjro? <r(a/ut,aTiK(a$' aXX' ouj/ evvow- 
v, OTL yev6/u.evo$ (rap, ou^ wcrTrep ev TO?? ay/ot? /caroi- 
Xeyerai, /cara TW roi> /caJ ei/ avrw T/OO'TTOV yevea-Oai 
Siopi6/iJie6a rrjv KaroiKricriv' aXX' ejwOe)? /cara 



135 oi//c ei? cra/)/ca rpaTreJ?, Toiavryv eVotj/craTO TJ?V KaroiKt]<nv, 
r)v dv e'xetv Xe'yoiro /cat ^ TOU avOpwirov ^X^ Tpop TO 



apa X/)t<7T09 /cat Yio9 /cat Ku/)to9j o^x <*? cruva- 



ttTrXco? TJJI/ w? evorqri T^? a^ta? ^yow avOevrlas 
avOpcairov Trpo? 0eoV 01) yap ei/o? ra? 0uo-e*9 >; 

/a, /cat yow IleV/oo? re /cat 'Iwavj/j;?, i<rorifji0i /u.ev aX- 
X)?Xo(9, /ca0o /ca) aTroVroXo* /cal aytoi (j.a6tjTai, TrX^v oi))( 
eT? Oi ^yo' oiyre /a^ /cara irapadeanv rov T^? vvva<j)eia$ 



voovfjiev rpOTrov, OVK aTroxpq yap rovro Trpb? evcacriv 
145 ^vcrtK^v' ofrre /x^v a>9 /cara /xeOe^tv axcTt/c^i', wp /cat 



TW KI//HOO, /cara TO yey/oa/x/x- icor. vi. 17. 
i', eV TrvevjUid eV/jiev vrpo? airroV /xaXXoi/ 5e TO T^? 
oi/o/xa TrapaiTOv^eOa, W9 ou/c exov i/cavwf <rt][Jifjvcu 
rrjv evbxriv. aXX' oy5e 0ew '^ Aeo-TroV^i/ TOV XptcrTOv TOV e/c 
150 Oeoy IlaTpo? Aoyov oVo/ia^o/xev' tVa jui/ TraXtv ava<j>avSov 
etV ^o TW eVa XptcrTW /cat Ytw /cat Kvptoi/, /cat 
fa9 e'y/cX//jiaTf TreptTre'crco/xej/, 0ew eavTOU /cat Aeo- 
TTO'TJV TTOIOWTCS auTo'v. ej/co0ei? yap, <B? ^5>; TrpoetVo/xev, 6 
TOI/ 0eou Aoyos crap/ct /caO' UTro'crTacrt)/, 0eo9 /*ev ecrTt TCOV 
155 6Xy, SetTjrofa Se rov TTCIVTOS' ovre e auT09 eavTOU 



evnv, ovre Aeo-vroT^;?' ey?j0e9 yap, ^aXXov 5e ^5>; /cat 
6W<re/3e9, TO oyVa) (ppoveiv tj Xe'yetv. e0Jj /Aei' yap 



126 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

John xx. 17. eavrov TOV ILarepa Kalroi 0eo9 &v (j)v<rei KOI 
eK rrjs own 019 avrov, a\\' OVK jjyvo^/ca/xev, on juera TOU etvai 
0eo?, Kal av9pu)7ro9 yeyovev o VTTO 0ea5, /caret ye TOV 160 
"Tr/oeVovTa vo'/x,ov T# T^? avdpunroTqros tyvcrei. avros Se 
eavrov TTfo? av yeVotro 0eo? ?? Aeo"7roTJ?9 1 OVKOVV, 0)9 



/cal OCTOJ/ f/cev ? ye TO Trpeirov TO?? T/9 . 



/xeT/ooi?, UTTO 0ea> /xe0' ^/xwv eavrov elvai (pqariv. OVTGO 
Gai. iv. 5. ye'yove /cat WTTO vo/nov, Kalroi XaA^cra? auT09l65 
/cat vo/u-oOerris vTrdp^wv, to? 0eo?. 

e \eyeiv eV! Xpto-Tou Ata TOI/ (fropovvra 
TOV <popovfji.evov crej8co, o^ia TW aoparov Trpocr/cww TOV 6/3(6- 

/XCVOV, (pplKTOV TTpO? TOl/TW KO.KIVO ITTIV '0 \t]<j)6ei$ 

TW XajSoWi (rvyxprifjiaTL^ei 0eo'?. 6 ya/o TauTa Xe'ytov 5m- 170 
Te/Avei TraXfv et? ^Jo xpia"rov$,Kai avOpwirov 'la-rtjo'iv ava /Ae/oo? 
idiKu>? KOI 0eov 6/xo/co?' apveirai yap o/uoXoyou/xeva)? T^V 
e'v&xnv, /ca0' r/v ovx ? erepos erepw (rv^Trpoa-Kweirai ris, 
ovre /ULqv ovyxpqiuiaTifai 0eo?' aXX' et? voen-cu Xpi(7TOp 
'I>?crou? ; Yio? MovoyevW; /xta TrpocrKvvqcrei Ti/xw^evop /xeTai75 

o/xoXoyou/xev ^e ; 6Vi ai/ro9 6 e/c 0eou 
Yi09 /cat 0eo9 Movoyev^? Kalroi Kara 
i Peter iv. i. ^vcrtv foYav vTrdp^cDv cnraOris, <rapK\ TreVovOev 
/caTa Ta9 y papas' Kai >jv ev TW arravputOevri 
ra T% to^/a? crapKO? aTraOats oiiceiov/jievos TrdOq, 
Heb. ii. 9. ^aptri Se Qeov Kal virep iravros eyevararo 
Oavdrov, SiSovs aura TO i'^tov crw/ua, Kairoi Kara <j>v(riv 
Johnxi. 25. iiirdp^wv far/, Kal avTO$ wv ^ avao"Ta<rf9. "iva 
yap afipyrw Swa/mei TraTJ/craf TOV 0avctTov, 0)9 ev ye Srj 
Col. i. is. Trpcory ry loia (rapKi, yevqrai TrpcororoKOS 
i Cor. xv. 20. e/c ve/c/owv Kal airapx^} TU>V /ce/cot/x^/xevwv, 
re ry avQpunrov fyvtrei rqv els a<f>6apariav 
\apir i Qeov, KaQcnrep e^/nev apriws, virep 
Heb. ii, 9. TavT09 e'yevcraTO 0avaTOv* rpuj/u.epo$ Se 
o^/cuXeuora? TOV aSyv. axrre /cav XeyjjTai ^t' 






CYRTL AD NEST. III. 127 

av6pu>7rov yeve&Oai y avacrra&is rwv venputv, 1 Cor. xv. 21. 
dXXd j/oovyuev avQpomrov rov e/c Qeov yeyovora Ao'yov' KOI- 
\eXvcrBai Si' avrov rov Oavdrov TO /cpdVop' tfei Se Kara 
/catpovp cop eTp Yiop KOI Kvpio? ev T# 86fl rov liarpos, 'Iva 

TJV O^KOUjUeVJJV 6V SlKaiOVVVfl, KaOa Actsxvii. 31. 

yeypairrai. 

'Amy/ca/wp <Se KUKeivo TrpocrOrjaro/uLev' /carayyeXXoj/Te? 
yap rov Kara crap/ca Bavarov rov Moi/oyevous i Cor. xi. 26. 
Yiou roi; 9eou, rovrea-riv, 'I^crou XpicrTOv, T^ re e/c veKpwv 

200 avafi'iuxriv, KGLI rnv els ovpavovs avaX^iv o/xoXoyovvre?, 
T^J/ ai/a/yua/cTOj/ ev ra?9 e/c/cXjycrmi? re\ov/u.ev \arpelav' 
Trp6(rifji.ev re ovrta ra?? /wycrmcu? euXoy/at? /cat dyta^o/xeOa, 
jj-ero^oi yivofj-evoi T^? re dy/a? crapKro? /ecu TOU rt/x/ov 
ai'yUOtTO? TO? TrayTW ^/xwj/ Scor^po? Xpiarrov. KOI oi/x ^09 

205o-ap/ca KOivtjv ^e^o^evoi, /mr] yevoiro' ovre [tyis w? avSpbs 
yyiao-ju.evov /cat crwa^OeWo? rw Aoyw /card T^J/ evoV^Ta 
, ^yow cop 0e/av evoLKtja-iv ean^/roTOp' dXX' <w? 
dXjj6wp KCU i^tttv auTOu TOU Aoyoy. a>^ yap wj/ 
/cara 0u<rtv top 0eop, etreiSt} yeyovev ev -rrpop r^ eavrov 

2100-ap/ca, faoirotov cnrefavev avrrjv, axrre Kav \eyy Trpo? 
4/xap 'A/x^i/ d/xijv Xeyw v//uv, edv /x^ (frdyrjre John vi. 53. 
ryv a-dpKa rov viov rov avOpwirov Kal iriyre avrov 
TO al/xa' oi)x wp avOpwirov ru>v KaO' ^wap ew? /cai 
efj/at \oyiov/u.e6a, TTU>S yap y dvOpwirov crdp 

215 e<rrai, Kara <j>variv ryv eayT^p ; dXX' top i'oYav a\)]6S>s 
rov Si jj/xa? Kdt uiou avQpunrov yeyovoVo? Te /cai 



Tap <Je ye ej^ TO?? ei)ayyeX/oi? Toy 

VTrocrTacreo-f ^ucrlv o?Te /xJji/ 7rpO(7(07rot? 
220 ov yap ecrTt 6WXoup o eT? /cat /xoVo? XpiaTOp, /cav e/c 
vo^Tat /cat SiaQopwv Trpayndrwv etp evoryra ryv au.epicrrov 
a-vvev)]vey/u.evo$, KaQdirep d/xeXet /cat aj/0pw7rop e/c i/^yx^p 
voe?rat /ca( crco/xaTop, /cat 01) Snr\ov$ /xaXXoy, dXX' etp e 



128 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

a/x0otV' aXXa ra? re avOpwirtva?, KOI irpo<s ye TOVTCO ra? 
Oe'iKaf, Trap ei/o? eipfjarOat SiaKeurofJieOa <f>povovvTe$ o'p0a>9. 22! 
oTav /Aej/ yap OeoTrpeTrw? Xey# Trepi eaurou ewpa/cw9 
Johnxiv. 9. e/xe ecopa/ce TOJ/ Ilarepa, /cat 'Eyw /cat o 
ib. x. so. Ilar^p ev ecr/uev, rrjv Oelav avrov KOI airo^prj- 
TOV e'vj/oouyuev <f)v<nv, Ka6' tfv KOI ev euTi Trpo? TOV eavrov 
2 Cor. iv. 4, Col. Ilarepa ^m Trjv TOLVTOTrjTa TW ovorias, et/ccoj/Te23i 



i. is, Heb. i. s. /ca^ xapa/CT^p /cat aTTayyatTyua 

' orav <5e TO TJJ9 avOpa)7roT?TO? /xerpov ou/c art/xa^ov, 



i. 40. TO?? 'lou&x/ot? TrpocrXaA); Nuv ^e /xe 
airoKrelvai, avOpwrrov 09 TJ/V aX?y0efav v/Ai)/ XeXa- 
\tjKa, TroXiv ovSev yTTOV avrov TOV ev icroT^ri re /ca) 
TOV Ilarpo? 0eov Aoyov KOI e/r TUIV Ttjs avdpw- 



TTOT^TO? avTov /xerpcov e7Tiya'wo-/co/>iev. et yap ecrrtv ai/ay- 



TO TTicTTeuetv, OTI 0eo? u>v <p\>vei yeyoi/e 
avOpunros e/^^u^WyUevo? ^i/X?? Xoyt/cjj* Trofo^ aV l}( 0f Xo'yov 
TO eTraio'Xwea'Oai Tivas TO?? Trap' aimn/ (jxavais, el yeyo- 
vaviv av9punro7rpe7ru>s ; ei yap TrapatTOfro TOU? avOpu>7r(t) 
TrpeVoi/Ta? Xoyov?, T/? 6 avay/caVa? yevecrOat KaO' *// 
avQpwTOV ; 6 ^e ica0ei9 eavTov Si ^09 et9 e/coucrtov 
Sia Troiav ahiav TrapaiToiTO av TOVS TJJ Kevuxrei 
\6yov$\ evl TOiyapovv TrpocrwTrw TW ev TOI? euayyeX/ot 9 24 
7racra9 avaOeTeov (piavas, vTrocrTatrei /MOL TY\ TOV Aoyof 
iCor. viii. e. o-ecrap/cWyaeV??. Kvpi09 yap elV 'lycrovs Xpt(r- 
T09, /caTa Ta9 ypa0ct9. 

Heb. iii. i. Et <5e 5J? Ka\oiTO KOI a7rocrToXo9 /cat 

ap^tepeu9 T^9 6/xoXoyta9 qimwv, <5>9 lepovpywv TU> 0ew25 
/cat IlaTpt TJ)V 7rpo9 J/M^'' O^TW Te /cat Ji' avTov TW 0ew 
/cat IlaTpt 7Tpo<7/co/j^o/Ae^j/ T^9 7r/<7Te9 o/xoXoytai/' /cat 

^ \ 1 > rf A TT ^ , '\ 5 ^ "5 1 ' j 

/i^j/ /cat et9 TO Aytov il^eu^ia TraAtv avTov eivai (paftev 
TOV eK Qeov Kara (fiva-iv Ytov Movoyevfj, /cat owe avOpunrw 
Trpocri/e/xoy/xei/ Trap' auTOV eTepw, TO TC T^9 iepwcrJi/^9 oi/o/xa, 25 



iTim.ii. 6. /cat avTO 5e TO XP^M' yeyove yap /AecrtT>?9 



. CYRIL AD NEST. III. 129 

Qeov icai avOpwTrwv KOI Sia\\aKTt]s etp etprjvtjv' eavrov 
avaOeis etp oarfJLtjv evwSlas TU> 0eoo KCU Eph. v. 2. 
Tiarpi. roiyaproi /cat e^aovce Qva-'idv KOI Heb. x. 5-r. 
2607rpocr0opay OVK ydeXyaras, o\OKavru>iJ.ara (Ps. xi. 6-8). 
/cat Trept a/xaprta? OUK Jju^o/cijcra?, aw/Aa $e Karyp- 
IJ.QI ' TOTS elnov 'ISov ?7/cft), ei^ Ke^aXiSi (3ij3\iov 
efj.ov, rov Troifj(ra.i, o Qeog, TO 



<rov 
' 



TO i'^oi/ cnS/Aa, /cat ou^ uire/o ye /xaAXov 
ya/o aj/ eSeyQr] Tr/oocr^o/oa? ^ 6vcria$ vtrep eavrov, Kpelr- 
TCQV aTracrrjs a/mapria? inrap'xwv w? 0eo?; et yap TraWe? 
tfimapTOv Kal vcrrepovvrai rijs S6q$ rov Eom.iii.23. 
Qeov, KaOo yeyova/mev ^/xe?? eroifj.oi Trpop 7rapa<j)0pav, KCLI 
270 KaTijp'pctfcrTJjfrev ^ avOpWTrou ^wcn? T^V ajJLapriav (avTO? 6e 
ovx ovToo), KCU ^TTUij^eOa Sia TOVTO rfjs Sotjs avrov' 
av e'lt] Xotirov afi^L^oKov, on reOvrcu Si ^a? KCU imep 
6 a/ut.vo<! 6 a\t]0ivos ; KOI TO \eyeiv on 
eavrov inrep re eavrov KOI qfjiwv, afJLOip7](reiev av 
275 TU>V el^ Svar(re/3eiav eyK\i]fJt,dr()v' 7T67rX/yWyaeAj//ce yap Kar 
ovSeva rpOTTOV, OVTG MV eTrolrjcrev a^apriav. Tro/ap ovv 
7rpo<r^>opap, aydapT/ap OVK ovorys, efi flirep av yevoiro 



/cat /naXa et/coTtop ; 



"Orav <Se Xeyg Trept TOU IIveu/xaTOp 'E/cetvo? Johnxvi. u. 

280e'^e <5o^a<ret' voovvres 6pOS>$, ovx w? So&s eirioea T^P Trap' 
erepov <f>a/ji.ev, rov eva XptcrTW /cat Ytoi/ rnv Trapa rov'A.ylov 
IIi/ey/xaTO? Soav eXetv' on /u.t]Se Kpeirrov avrov /cat 
avTov TO Ilp'eu/xa auTOu. eVeto^ ^e et'p ev8eiiv T^P e 
0eoT^TO? e'xp^TO TW t<Stft) Ili/eujuaTt Trpo? /xeyaXovpytai/, 

285 SeSoa(r6ai -Trap' avTOu (prjariv, warirep av el /cat Tt? Xe'yot 



Trept T^P evovarrjs layyos OVTU) TV)(pv yyovv eiri- 
e^>' OTWOVV, on oo^acrovcnv e/j.e. el yap /cat e<mv 
ev uTToa'Tao'ei TO Ilveu/xa ISiKfl, /cat 5^ /cat j/oetTat /caO' 

> /1>'TT / > * ' "X/ 4 '' . '\%' ^ ' ' 

eauTO, Kauo lii/eu/aa ecrTt /cat ou^ J- to? aXX ovi' e<7Tiv OVK 
K ' 



130 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

John xv. 26. aXXoVptoi/ avrov' Trvevfia yap aXtiOeias a>i/o-290 
i&. xiv. 6. fuurrai, /cat eWi XpttTTOs jy aXi?0eta' /cat TT/OO- 
Xerrat 7ra/o' aurou, KaOairep a/meXei /cat e/c TOU 0eou /cat 
IlaTpo?. evepyfjcrav roiyapovv TO Hj/ev/xa /cat cua x ei P$ 
aytW aTTOO'To'Xeoi/ ra trapado^a /nera TO aveKOeiv rov 

'Irjarovv rov X/oi<7TW et? TOV ovpavov, 295 



avrov. eTricrrevQr) yap, cm Oeo? /cara c 
ecrTi iraXiv avTO? evepywv Sia rov ISiov IIveJ/xaTO?. 
Johnxvi.u. rovTO /cale0acT/ce/OT e/c roi? e/xov 
/cat aj/ayyeXe? u/Af i/. /cat ovri irov ^>a/xev, w? e/c 
TO IIi/ev/>ia e<7Tt (roffrov re KCU Svvarov' iravreXeiov yap KCU 300 
es ecrri iravros aya9ov. eireiS*] e T^? TOV IlaT/oo? 

KCU cro0/a?, rovrevri rov Yiou, Hj/eu/xa 



/cat 



<5e 0ew evwOevra crapKi KCtO' viroarraa-tv fj ay la 
Tra/oOeVo? e/cTeTO/ce cra/o/ct/cco?, TayT^TOt /cat OeoroKOV eTm/305 
<j)a[JLev avrtjv, ovx w? T^? TOU Aoyov <j)vare<as rfjs inrd 
Johni. i. ' T^ a/>x^ exown?? avro crap/co'?' f v yap ev a 
/cat 0eo? ^v o Aoyo? /cat o Ao'yo? $v -Trpo? TOV 0eov, 
/cat auTOS ecrTt TWJ/ alwvcw o Troiyrfo, avvaiSiov ru> IlaTpt, 
/cat rwv b\(av 6 Sr]/jiiovpy6$' aXX' co? ^5ij TrpoetVo/xej/, e 
/caO' irjrocrraa-iv evuxras eavrw TO avOpunrivov, /cat e/c /x^T 



<rapKiKtjv, ovx 9 eijet? aray/catoo? 



/cat 



rov alaivos /catpot? yew?/(reft)9' aXX' tVa /cat avr^j/ T?? 

ew? ^/wwv euXoy^cr^ TJ/J/ apx^v ' /cat reKOva-qs ywat/co? 315 
ei/ft)0ej/Ta (rap/ct, Travo-rjrai \OITTOV y Kara iravrbs rov 
yevov$ apa, ire/m-Trovcra Trpop OavaToi/ Ta e/c y^? ^/xcoi/ (rwfJi.ara ) 
Gen. iii. 16. /cat TO Ey XuTrat? Te^ reKva Si avrov 
Karapyovpevov, a\t)6es aTro^rivy TO c^ta T^? TOU Trpo^rov 
isa.xxv. 8. (jiwvrjs KaTeVtei/ 6 OavaTO? tcrxvcray, /cat 320 
Apoc. vii. ir. TraXtj/ a^etXev 6 0eop Trav SaKpvov airo 



TrpocrcoTroy. ravrys yap ei/e/ca T^S atVta? 



CYRIL AD NEST, III. 131 

avrov oiKovo/HLKui? leal ovTov euXoy^crat rov ya/jiov, KOI 
aTreXOefv /ce/cXjj/xeW ev Kava T>?P FaXtXa/ap John 11.2. 

325 oftov row ay/of? aTocrroXoi?. 

Taura <j>poveiv SeSiSayjuLeOa Trapa re ru>v ayltav cnro- 
(rrdXcav KCU evayyeXivruiv KOL Trao-Jjs Se rfjs Oeoirvevcrrov 
ypaffis, KOI e/c T% rwv /aa/cap/aw irarepoDv aXrjOow o//oXo- 
y/a?. TOirroi? dVatri /cat r^ o-jv ev\a/3eiav (rwaivearai xp*l, 

330 /ca) crvvOea-Bai <5/%a SoXov Travro?. a ^e ecrrtj/ ai/ay/ca?oi/ 
avaOe/ji.ari(rai rrjv a-tjv evXdfieiav, vTroTeraKTai TySe fj^wv 

Tfl eTTKTToXrj. 

a'. Ei TIS ou'x o/ioXoyet Gew eTmi /rara aXr/Oeiav rov 
'E/u/wvoi^X, /cat 5m royro Oeoroicov rnv ay lav TrapQevov' 
335yeyew)jKe yap aa/)/a:wp vapKa yeyovora rov etc Qeov 
Aoyov' avaOefjia rrw. 

/3'. E't Ttj ov^ o/AoXoye? <ra/w<7 /caO' inrovraviv q 
rov CK 0eou IlaT/oo? Aoyoi/, eVa re elvai X/OIITTW /wera 
ISias traptcbs, rov avrov dtj\6von OeoV re OJULOV KCU av 
340 Toy, avaBefia eWw. 

y. E'/rt? CTT! TOU ei/o? Xpicrroi; Siaipei ra? uT 
//era TJJI/ ev&criv, pdvfl (rvvairr^v aura? (rvvafaia ry Kara 
rrfv aiav } yyovv avOevrlav y SwaGreiav, KOL ov\i &*) l^-oXXov 
<rvvdS(p TjJ KOL& evwriv <pv<riKt]v, avuOeima eurw. 
345 '. E'/ rf? TTpocrccnrois Svorlv tjyovv VTro<rrd(T(n ras re 
ei/ roT? euayyeXt/co?? fi a.7ro<rro\iKois avyypdfj(,fjia(ri 
SiavefJiei (frwvas, rj eirl Xpi(7Tw Trapa rS>v ayi<av Xeyo/xeva?, 
'^ Trap' avrov irep\ eavrov' tea} rap /u.ev w? avOpwTru) Trapa 
TOV e/c 0eoy Ao'yot 1 iSucws voov/nevw Trpoud'Trrei, rap 5e top 
350 0eo7rpeTrap />tww TW e/c 9eoy Ilarpop Aoyw, avdOe/Aa 7Tco. 
e', Et' TI? ToXpta Xe'yetv 6eo<j>6pov avOpwtrov rov HLpicrrov, 
KOLI OV^L Srj ]u.aX\ov Qeov etvat Kara aXijOeiav, wp "Ytov ei/a 
yeyove ffap 6 Aoyop /caJ Johni. i#. 
TrapaTrX>/(r/ft)? ^JM?I/ ai/waro? Heb. ii. u. 
355 Kai o-ap/cos, dva^e/xa 



132 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



f '. Ei' n$ \eyei Qeov y Aco-TroV^ eivai rov Xptcrroy rov 
K Qeov Tiarpb? A.oyov, ml ov)(l y /na\\ov rov avrov OjMo- 
Xoy Qeov re o/aov KOI avOpuTrov, co? yeyovoros crccpAro? rov 
Aoyoi/ /rara TGC? ypa^a?., avaOe^a eirrft). 

'. Ei Tf? <f>t](rlv, w? avOpcoTTov evripytjcrBai Trapa rou36( 
Qeov Aoyov TW 'I^crow KCU ri]v rov Mowyewy? ev 
7repifj<f)6ai, 009 erepw Trap' ayrov virapyovn, 



eWco. 



^'. Ei' rip ro\ju.a \eyeiv rov ava\r)(f>6evra avQpwirov 

Seiv ru> Qeu> Aoyw KCU a-wSo^dfacrOat 36i 
v Qeov, w? erepov ev erep ' TO yap Sw 
ael TrpocrriOefJi.evov rovro voetv avayKacrei ' tcai ovx 1 $*l paX- 
\ov JULIO. TrpotTKui/^crei ri/na rov 'E/x/xai/ow/X, KCU [tlav avrta 
rrp> Soo\oylav avairefJiTrei, KaQo yeyove <rap 6 Ao'yo?, 
avdOe/na eWft). 37( 

6'. E'i Ti? tf)ti(rl rov eva ILvpiov 'I^crow Xpt<7TOV SeSod- 
crOai Trapa Toy Hvev/u.aro$ wp aXXoT/o/a Svvdjjiei ry SL avrov 
Xpwy-evov, Kai Trap' avrov \aflovra TO evepyeiv SvvacrOai 
Kara Trvevjmdrcw ciKaOaprwv, Kal ro TrXqpovv et? avdpwirov? 
rag 6eocrt]/J.ias, /cat oy^i Sy /iaXXoj/ 'IO'LOV avrov rotfi 
a, <j)t}(rl } Si ov Kal ev^pyrjKe Ta? 6eo(ni/u.ia9, ava 



. ui. i. i. 'Ap^iepea /cai a7ro(TToXoi/ TJ?? o/toXo- 

y/a? ^/jtwi/ yeye^crOat Xpurrov q 6eia Xeyet ypa0^, Tpo?- 
Bph. v. 2. KeKOfj-uce oe vTTep fjfiwv eavrov els oarp.t]v evcoSlas 38< 
rw QeS> Kal TiarpL e'i Tt? roiwv ap^tepea <f>ri<n 
aTTOcrroXov y/Acov yevevOai, OVK avrov rov e/c 0eoy 

W / v r c v fV t ^ " f\ .'%>>'/ 

OTC yeyoj/e crapg 1 KCU /cat; ^/xa? avupunro? aAA a>? erepov 

J>p'V/\ /.l\V -\/ 

Trap ayTOJ/ tot/cw? avupwrrov e/c yyj/af/co? ^ ei Ti? Xeyef 
y?rep eayToi; Trpocrei/ey/cen/ ai/Tov T^ irpoa-^opav, 
ovx^ <5^ juaXXoi/ yvrep IAOVCOV q/u.<ic>v' ov yap av eSey 
2 Cor. v. 21. 7rpocr<j)0pa$ 6 /u,ri elSw a^apriav' 



e<TTft). 



CYRIL AD NEST, III. 133 

m'. E't rt? oux o/jtoXoye? ryv rov Kup/ou <rdpKa faoiroiov 

390etVcu KCU ISlav avrov rov e/c Qeov IZarpo? Aoyou' aXV w? 

erepov TIVOS Trap' avrov, <rvvrjfj.fji.evov fj.ev avrui Kara ryv 



aiav, yyow w? [J.6vrjv Oeiav evoiKtjariv ecr^^/coro?, Kal 
rj [j.a\\ov ^WOTTOIW, a)? e^^ev, 6V( ye'yoi/ei/ f'Jm rov Aoyoy 
TOU ra iravra faoyove.lv ia-)(vovro9, ava6efj.a eWco. 
395 i^' , E'/ ris oi/x o/x,oXoyef TW TOU Qeov Aoyov -TraOovra 
f ecrravpto/mevov crapKi Kal davdrov Heb. ii. 9. 



yevcra/j.evov <rapKi, yeyovora re irpwroroKOV Col. i. is. 



e/c rtov VGKpwv, KaOo far) eori /cat ^IwoTroto? w? -Oeo?, 
amOe/j.a ecrr. 



i 3 4 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



NOTES ON CYRIL'S "THIRD LETTER 
TO NESTORIUS 

31 ofjiov rii ayla <rwo<So>. The synod at Rome under 
Caelestine, held at the beginning of August, 430. Cyril 
had sent to Rome in April an account of all that had 
passed, together with copies of his Letter to the Monks 
and of his two Letters to Nestorius. Caelestine in the 
synod had quoted the authority of Ambrose ("Veni 
Redemptor Gentium "), Hilary, and Damasus, with all of 
whom Cyril was in agreement, and the synod condemned 
the teaching of Nestorius, committing the execution of 
the sentence to Cyril. The pope wrote seven letters, all 
dated August llth, to the bishops of the principal sees in 
the East and to the clergy of Constantinople. These 
were sent to Cyril to be forwarded by him. 

41 Kara T^V 6pi<r6ei(rav irpoOea-fJilav. Ten days after the 
receipt of Caelestine's letter was the period assigned in 
which Nestorius might recant his error. 

55 ev Ty eTTiarToXy vy ypafaicrfl irapa <rou. This was the 
letter written about Easter, 429, by Nestorius to Caeles- 
tine, in which he advocated the use of " Christotokos " 
instead of "Theotokos." It was carried to Rome by 
Antiochus (of. Mansi, iv. 1197). 

69 rai? ypafaitrai? eTricrroXacg . . . KK\r]<ria?. The First 
and Second Letters of Cyril to Nestorius. 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 135 

100 Ka6elg eavrov et? KWWFIV. Here, and below, the 
KeWn? is defined to consist in the condescension involved 
in the Incarnation. See note on KareXQovra in Nicene 
Creed, and compare Leo's words in the Tome, 3. 

108 ctTpeTTTO? yap evri, /c.r.X. The same thought is 
repeated again, Epist. ad loan. 

110 Kara ret? ypa<pd$. Cyril evidently had in mind 
the Scriptural citations in Alexander's encyclical of 324 
(apud Socr. i. 6), Ho?? $e rpeTrros y aXXotarro? 6 \eywv Si 

f f m \ i ~ -r-r \ \ TT \ ) t. \ >-ri > 

eavrov JLyw ev rw Liar pi Kai o LLartjp ev S/JLOI Kat iLyw 
/cat o Hartjp ev eup-ev' Sia Se rov I 7rpo^rov"18ere /j.e ori 
eyw el/ju Kal OVK j/AAo/co/xcu ; John x. 30 ; Mai. iii. 6 ; 
comp. John viii. 35. 

111 wi/ eri KOI ev KoXirw, /c.r.X. Here again is the 
Communicatio Idiomatum used in a startling paradox. 
Less startling, because more familiar, examples of it 
exist in the Christmas Sequence "Adeste Fideles," and 
the Christmas hymns of Charles Wesley and J. Byrom. 
Comp. the sermon preached at Constantinople in 429 by 
Proclus of Cyzicus (Orat. i. 9), '0 CWTO? &v ev TO?? /coXTrot? 
TOU Harpo? Kal ev yaa-rpl irapOevov' 6 avros ev ay/caXai? 
M^Tpo? KOI eirl irrepvywv ave/Awv' /c.r.X. (Bright. Hist. 
Church, p. 313). 

124 TO .Hvev/u,a didovs avros. Cyril's text agrees with 
that of the oldest uncials, N B (John iii. 34). The 
argument is that Christ cannot be merely an anointed 
man, because He Himself bestows the Spirit out of His 
own fulness of possession. 

128 6eo<popo$ avdpoDTTOs. See Anath. 5. 



136 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



136 vi rod avdpwTov "^vx^i irpos TO ISiov eavrtjs 
This analogy is not a perfect one, but it is a sufficient 
illustration of a natural union in which two unconfused 
"substances" constitute one person. Cyril employs it, 
Epist. ad Succens., Epist. ad Valer., Schol. 8, 27, and it is 
also used by Theodoret, Dial. ii. Inconfusus, Epist. 143; 
by the author of the Quicuinque ; by Gregor., Naz. Epist. 
101 (ad Cled. i. 4); and by Augustine, Epist. ad Volus. 
It is discussed by Petavius de Inc. iii. 9 (Ottley, Incarn. 
ii. 279). 

143 Kara TrapaOea-iv, " by juxtaposition," a co-existence 
of two things or persons one by the side of another. 

145 /caret [teOegiv a-xeriK^v, " by an acquired participa- 
tion." Cyril's language is tinctured with terms of the 
Stoic philosophy, in which <rxeTt/co's =" non-essential," 
" accidental," not springing from the nature of the object. 
Such qualities were termed cr^e'cra?. The Stoics, accord- 
ing to Chrysippus (apud Stobaeus Eel. i. 17, p. 144, 
Gaisford; p. 376, Heeren), distinguished between irapa- 
6e<n$, /Jilis, Kpaa-is, and (rvyyvvis. They defined TrapdOecri? 
as (r(ajj.ar(av <rvva<j)r] Kara ras eTrt^aveia?, w? eirl rw croopwv 
v, KOI TU>V sir} rwv aiyia\S>v t/^wj/ Kal a/uL/JLWv. 
? is explained as a complete interpenetration, as in 
the case of red-hot iron. Kpacn? applies to a mechanical 
mixture, as of certain liquids, such as wine and water. 
Si/yx^i? is a chemical combination resulting in a third 
substance. The philosophical use of these terms is im- 
portant in view of the employment of Kpacris and 
(Tvyyya-is in the Eutychian controversy. Compare too 
Epist. ad Joan. 

148 <rvva<pela is rejected as inadequate; "association," 



CYRIL AD NEST. Ill, 137 

" conjunction," " connexion," stops short of " union." See 
P. E. Pusey's note on adv. Nest. i. 3 in Libr. Path. p. 19. 

167 TrapairovfjieOa, /c.r.X. These were two dicta of 
Nestorius, Cyr. adv. Nest. ii. 11, 12. Similarly in his 
Serin. 1 he had said, rnv Oeodoxov ru> 0ew Aoyw 
<rvv6ed\oya>fjiev imop^v, and again Serin. 2, rtjv 0o/>ou- 
pevyv TW <j>opovvri own/Aw/Aey <pv<riv. In each case the 
<rvv, as Cyril shows in Anath. 8, implies non-identity. For 
another dictum see above, p. 110. 

. 173 <w? ere/oof ere/ow. See note on Anath. 8, p. 153. 

180 oiKetov[j(.vo$. "Making His own," "appropriating." 
Cyril uses oiKeiova-Oai as Athanasius used ISioiroteiv, see 
Orat. c. Ar. iii. 33, rov Ao'you ISioTroiov^evov TO. rfjs 
a-apKos, ib. 38 ; de Inc. Y.D. 6, 8, 31 ; Epist. ad Epict. 6 ; 
contr. Apoll. i. 12, 13. Comp. for oiKeuxrrai ib. ii. 16; 
Cyril, Apol. adv. Orient. 12; Schol. 36. This point is 
enforced in Anath. 12, and again Epist. ad Joan. 

197 mrayye'XXoi/Te? yap, K.T.\. Dr. Swainson gathered 
from these words that "some Creed was used in Cyril's 
time in the Eucharistic office" (Mcene and Apostles' 
Creeds, p. 107), but Cyril's meaning surely is that the 
service itself was a proclamation of the Death, Eesurrec- 
tion, and Ascension of Christ. He evidently had in mind 
some such words as are found in the Liturgy of St. Mark, 
rov e'jotw Qavarov /carayyeXXere [1 Cor. xi. 26] KOI Tt\v 
ey.*]v avacrTctariv /cat avaXq^jsiv oyuoXoyefre o% ( ? ^ e '^ 
e'Xflco (Brightman, i. 133). Comp. Lit. of Copt. Jacobites 
(ti>. i. 177); Lit. of St. Basil (ib. i. 405); and Lit. of 
St. James (ib. i. 52). The recital of the Creed in the 
Liturgy does not seem to have been customary before the 
latter half of the fifth century. Its first introduction is 



138 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

generally attributed to Peter the Fuller, Patriarch of 
Antioch, 471-488, whose example was followed at 
Constantinople by Timothy, 511-517. The custom spread 
but slowly. From Spain, after the third Council of 
Toledo, 589, it passed into Gaul and England, and finally 
was adopted at Eome in the eleventh century. The 
original Nicene Creed was supplanted by the " Constanti- 
nopolitan" during the sixth century. The recital of a 
creed at services other than the Eucharist cannot be 
traced earlier than the ninth century. It was then said 
at Prime, and from thence, at the Eeformation, passed 
into the English daily Mattins. 

201 TYJV avaiimaKTOV reXov^ev \arpeiav. For the 
phrase comp. Lit. of St. Jas., aj/cuVtccKros Qva-ia ; and again, 
Lit. of Syr. Jacobites, Brightman, i. 53, 87. This argu- 
ment from the Eucharist was frequently used in the 
Christological controversies, and has its own importance.* 
Thus Cyril reasons that we should not eat Christ's Flesh 
in the Sacrament unless we believed it to be the Flesh of 
God, and therefore Life-giving. The Hypostatic Union is 
shown from the purpose of the Sacrament. 

Leo again (Epist. 59, Serm. 91) argued against Eutyches 
that we should not communicate unless we believed 
Christ's Flesh there received to be most true and real.f 

* See Gore, Dissertations, p. 274, who cites the Epist. ad Caesar, apud 
Eouth Opusc. ii. 128 ; Gelasius de duab. Nat. in Chr. adv. Eutych. et 
Nest. ibid. ii. 139 ; Augustine ; Ephraim of Theopolis ; Rupert of 
Deutz ; and Leontius of Byzantium. But the parallelism was already 
a matter of Christian teaching in Justin Martyr's day (Apol. i. 66). 

t " In quibus isti ignorantiae tenebris in quo hactenus desidiae torpore 
jaouere ut nee auditu discerent vel lectione cognoscerent quod in ecclesia 
Dei in omnium ore tarn consonum est, ut nee ab infantium linguis veritas 
corporis et sanguinis Christi inter communionis sacramenta taceatur" 
(Epist. 59). "Sic sacrae mensae communicare debetis ut uihil prorsus 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 139 

Christ's Perfect Manhood is shown from the fact of the 
Communion. 

Theodoret (Dialog, ii. Inconfusus) argued the co-existence 
of the Two Perfect Natures in Christ from the fact that 
the consecrated elements retain their nature as bread and 
wine. 

A higher part is united to a lower. The Bread is 
related to Christ's Body in the Sacrament as the Manhood 
is to the Godhead in Christ's Personality. Both really 
exist, and both are distinct. But, as in the case of the 
analogy of the union of body and soul, so here: the 
illustration must not be pressed beyond the point that 
both the hypostatic and the sacramental unions are 
mysteriously real (Bright, Later Treat., p. 208). The 
absorption of the Humanity by the Godhead (Euty- 
chianism) would imply a corresponding annihilation of 
the properties of bread and wine. The early Church 
never ventured to attempt any definition on the real 
mystery of the hypostatic or the sacramental union. 
While the reality of the union in each case was firmly 
held, the mode of the union was declared to be ineffable. 

218 Ta? Se ye eV T. eu., K.T.\. On this reference of the 
Gospel sayings to the Two distinct Natures of Christ, see 
Hilary Poit. de Trin. ix. 5, 6. He further distinguishes 
three periods in the Word's existence, to each of which 
certain expressions are properly to be referred : the pre- 

de veritate corporis Christ! et sanguinis amlrigatia. Hoc enim ore sumitur 
quod fide creditur, et frustra ab illis AMEN respondetur, a quibus contra 
id quod accipitur, disputatur" (Serm. 91). In the first passage there is 
allusion to the then universal practice of infant communion (see Cypr. de 
lapsis, 9, 25; Augustin. Serm., 174. 7 ; de pecc. mer. i. 20. 26 j 24. 34 ; 
Apost. Const, viii. 13 ; cp. Bingham, xv. 4. 7) ; and in the second to the 
" Amen " said by the recipient in response to the words of delivery. 



i 4 o OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

incarnate (wholly Divine), the incarnate (involving two 
kinds of expressions applicable to the Two Natures), 
and the post-resurrection period (when the Manhood is 
perfected in the Godhead). 

243 Kema-iv, As has been already remarked, the 
"abasement" or "emptying" in Cyril's view, as in St. 
Paul's (Phil. ii. 7), clearly consisted in the condescension 
involved in the Incarnation. Comp. Schol. 12, Christus 
est Unus (Pus. ed. vii. 373).* How, being and remaining 
God, the Son of God yet lived as Man amongst men 
we cannot with our present faculties explain. The twin 
truths of His One Personality and His Duality of 
Natures must be held side by side. Of Perfect Manhood 
we are able to learn only from His example, and it is 
perhaps presumptuous to speculate upon any possible 
analogy between the limitations which 'certainly exist in 
fatten manhood, and those which may or may not exist 
in Perfect Manhood. Oornp. below on Anath. 9. 

246 vTrocrracm /uaa 777 rov Aoyou crecra/o/cco/xe^. This 
phrase must be held to explain the sense in which Cyril 
used the expression /A/a Averts rov Aoyov o-etra/o/cw/AeV^ 
elsewhere, believing it to be Athanasian ;f Epist. ad reg. 
i. 9; adv. Nest. ii. 1; Epist. 1 ad Acac.; Epist. 2 ad 

* See further illustrations in Blight's Waymarks in Church History, 
Appendix G. 

t The phrase is found in a work, De Incarn. Verbi Dei, which Cyril 
and others accepted as Athanasius', but which is now regarded " as one 
of the many [Apollinarian] forgeries circulated under the names of 
Athanasius, Gregory Thaumaturgus, Julius," etc. (Robertson, Athanasius, 
p. Ixv.). The whole passsage is as follows : '0/j.o\oyou(j.ev Kal elvai rbv 
atirbv Tlbv Qeou /cat Qebv /cari irveuna, "Clbv d avOpdiirov /card <rdp/ca 01) 5i5o 
0&rets, rbv 2ra Tlbv, fj.lav irpoffKVvi]Ti)v Kal /J,lav airpocrictiviiTOV, dXXa [day 
(ftiiffiv TOV Qeov A.6yov ffecra.pKia/j.tvyv, pera. TTJS <ra/>/c6j ai3ro0 fiiq. 7rpo<r/cuvi}cret 
Kal irpoffKiivov^vijv^eneA. ed. iii. 1). 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 141 

Succens.; ad Eulog. By fiia 0i/cn? he evidently meant 
that no change took place in the Personality of the 
Word by His Incarnation. His Divine Person and 
Nature remained the same, although He had become 
Man. M/ct <pvvis as thus understood is equivalent to / 
or /ula vir6<jra(n<s- The ambiguity of the word 
may be illustrated by the use of the English word 
" nature." In each human person there is a union of two 
"natures" that of the body and that of the soul, yet 
both together constitute the one "nature" of man. In 
Christ alone were Godhead and Manhood united in One 
Being (see Bright, Later Treat., p. 174). The fact remains 
that although the phrase was orthodox in Cyril's mouth 
and with his explanations, its ambiguity was most unfor- 
tunate, and subsequently led to misunderstanding and an 
obstinate adherence by Eutyches to the term /J.LO. 
employed in another sense and unguarded by 
In fact, Eutyches' perversion of the Cyrilline expression 
led to the disuse of $v<n<s in this sense by Catholic 
writers; and in the Chalcedonian Definition, following 
Leo's Tome, the distinction, without severance, of the 
dvct) 0wret9, duae naturae, in Christ was expressly ac- 
centuated. 

291 Trpoxetrai Trap avrov (see above, p. 91). The 
phrase is important, especially as explained by eTreiSr] e 
rfj$ TOV Tiarpb? Awa/iews KOI 2o$>/a?, K.T.X., below, as 
showing Cyril's views of the Double Procession of the 
Spirit (cp. Anath. 9). 

314 a/a KCU avrnv TJ/S UTT. jy/x. euXoy^cr^ ryv 

God who came on earth this morn, 

In a manger lying, 
Hallowed Birth \>j being born, 

Vanquished Death by dying. 



138 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

generally attributed to Peter the Fuller, Patriarch of 
Antioeh, 471-488, whose example was followed at 
Constantinople by Timothy, 511-517. The custom spread 
but slowly. From Spain, after the third Council of 
Toledo, 589, it passed into Gaul and England, and finally 
was adopted at Eome in the eleventh century. The 
original Mcene Creed was supplanted by the " Constanti- 
nopolitan" during the sixth century. The recital of a 
creed at services other than the Eucharist cannot be 
traced earlier than the ninth century. It was then said 
at Prime, and from thence, at the Eeformation, passed 
into the English daily Matting. 

201 T)]V avaipaKTOv reXou/xev \arpeiav. For the 
phrase comp. Lit. of St. Jas., di/ai/xaKTo? Ovaria ; and again, 
Lit of Syr. Jacobites, Brightman, i. 53, 87. This argu- 
ment from the Eucharist was frequently used in the 
Christological controversies, and has its own importance.* 
Thus Cyril reasons that we should not eat Christ's Flesh 
in the Sacrament unless we believed it to be the Flesh of 
God, and therefore Life-giving. The Hypostatic Union is 
shown from the purpose of the Sacrament. 

Leo again (Epist. 59, Serin. 91) argued against Eutyches 
that we should not communicate unless we believed 
Christ's Flesh there received to be most true and real.f 

* See Gore, Dissertations, p. 274, who cites the Epist. ad Caesar, apud 
Routh Opusc. ii. 128 ; Gelasius de duab. Nat. in Ohr. adv. Eutych. et 
Nest. ibid. ii. 139 j Augustine ; Ephraim of Theopolis ; Rupert of 
Deutz; and Leontius of Byzantium. But the parallelism was already 
a matter of Christian teaching in Justin Martyr's day (Apol. i. 66). 

t " In quibus isti ignorantiae tenebris in quo hactenus desidiae torpore 
jaeuere ut nee auditu discerent vel lectione cognoscerent quod in ecclesia 
.Dei in omnium ore tarn consonum est, ut nee ab infantium linguis veritas 
corporis et sanguinis Christi inter conmrunionis sacramenta taceatur" 
(Epist. 59). "Sic sacrae mensae communicare debetis ut uihil prorsus 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 139 

Christ's Perfect Manhood is shown from the fact of the 
Communion. 

Theodoret (Dialog, ii. Inconfusus) argued the co-existence 
of the Two Perfect Natures in Christ from the fact that 
the consecrated elements retain their nature as bread and 
wine. 

A higher part is united to a lower. The Bread is 
related to Christ's Body in the Sacrament as the Manhood 
is to the Godhead in Christ's Personality. Both really 
exist, and hoth are distinct. But, as in the case of the 
analogy of the union of body and soul, so here: the 
illustration must not be pressed beyond the point that 
both the hypostatic and the sacramental unions are 
mysteriously real (Bright, Later Treat., p. 208). The 
absorption of the Humanity by the Godhead (Euty- 
chianism) would imply a corresponding annihilation of 
the properties of bread and wine. The early Church 
never ventured to attempt any definition on the real 
mystery of the hypostatic or the sacramental union. 
While the reality of the union in each case was firmly 
held, the mode of the union was declared to be ineffable. 

218 Ta? Se ye ev r. eu., /c.r.X. On this reference of the 
Gospel sayings to the Two distinct Natures of Christ, see 
Hilary Poit. de Trin. ix. 5, 6. He further distinguishes 
three periods in the Word's existence, to each of which 
certain expressions are properly to be referred : the pre- 

de veritate corporis Christ! et sanguinis ambigatis. Hoc enim ore sumitur 
quod fide creditor, et frustra ab illis AMEN respondetur, a quibus contra 
id quod accipitur, disputatur" (Serm. 91). In the first passage there is 
allusion to the then universal practice of infant communion (see Cypr. de 
lapsis, 9, 25; Augustin. Serm., 174. 7; de pecc. mer. i. 20. 26; 24. 34 j 
Apost. Const, viii. 13 ; cp. Bingham, xv. 4. 7) ; and in the second to the 
" Amen " said by the recipient in response to the words of delivery. 



140 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

incarnate (wholly Divine), the incarnate (involving two 
kinds of expressions applicable to the Two Natures), 
and the post-resurrection period (when the Manhood is 
perfected in the Godhead). 

243 Kevwa-iv. As has been already remarked, the 
"abasement" or "emptying" in Cyril's view, as in St. 
Paul's (Phil. ii. 7), clearly consisted in the condescension 
involved in the Incarnation. Comp. Schol. 12, Christus 
est Unus (Pus. ed. vii. 373).* How, being and remaining 
God, the Son of God yet lived as Man amongst men 
we cannot with our present faculties explain. The twin 
truths of His One Personality and His Duality of 
Natures must be held side by side. Of Perfect Manhood 
we are able to learn only from His example, and it is 
perhaps presumptuous to speculate upon any possible 
analogy between the limitations which certainly exist in 
fallen manhood, and those which may or may not exist 
in Perfect Manhood. Oomp. below on Anath. 9. 

246 v7rocrTa(rei fjna 777 TOV Aoyou orecra/o/cco/xeV^. This 
phrase must be held to explain the sense in which Cyril 
used the expression /x/a Averts TOV Aoyov cre(ra/w0yUeV>/ 
elsewhere, believing it to be Athanasian ;f Epist. ad reg. 
i. 9; adv. Nest. ii. 1; Epist. 1 ad Acac.; Epist. 2 ad 

* See further illustrations in Bright's Waymarks in Church History, 
Appendix G. 

t The phrase is found in a work, De Incarn. Verbi Dei, which Cyril 
and others accepted as Athanasius', but which is now regarded " as one 
of the many [Apollinarian] forgeries circulated under the names of 
Athanasius, Gregory Thaumaturgus, Julius," etc. (Robertson, Athaiiasiiis, 
p. Ixv.). The whole passsage is as follows: '0/j,o\oyov/j.ei> Kal elvai rbv 
avrbv flbv Qeov Kal Qebi> Kara Trvevfj.a, lbv 5 avdp&Trov /caret ffapKa. ' oti Svo 
<j>v<reis, TOV eva Tlbv, play irpoa-Kw^rijv Kal /j,lav airpoffKforiTov, dXXA /j,lav 
fyfaiv TOV Qeov A.6yov ffecrapKUftevriv, /JLera rijs (rapubs avrov /up 
Kal 7rpo<r/cwoi;ytt^7?^-(Bened. ed. iii. 1). 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 141 



Succens.; ad Eulog. By ^m ^wcrts he evidently meant 
that no change took place in the Personality of the 
Word by His Incarnation. His Divine Person and 
Nature remained the same, although He had become 
Man. M/a Qv&is as thus understood is equivalent to / 
Trpoa-unrov or /a[a vTroVracn?. The ambiguity of the word 
0vcn9 may be illustrated by the use of the English word 
" nature." In each human person there is a union of two 
"natures" that of the body and that of the soul, yet 
both together constitute the one "nature" of man. In 
Christ alone were Godhead and Manhood united in One 
Being (see Bright, Later Treat., p. 174). The fact remains 
that although the phrase was orthodox in Cyril's mouth 
and with his explanations, its ambiguity was most unfor- 
tunate, and subsequently led to misunderstanding and an 
obstinate adherence by Eutyches to the term 
employed in another sense and unguarded by 
In fact, Eutyches' perversion of the Cyrilline expression 
led to the disuse of 0ucn9 in this sense by Catholic 
writers; and in the Chalcedonian Definition, following 
Leo's Tome, the distinction, without severance, of the 
Svu> (f)vcrei9, duae naturae, in Christ was expressly ac- 
centuated. 

291 Trpoxeirai Trap avrov (see above, p. 91). The 
phrase is important, especially as explained by eTreiSr) 3e 
rfjs TOU HaT/oo? Awa/^eco? Kcu 2o0/a?, K.T.A., below, as 
showing Cyril's views of the Double Procession of the 
Spirit (cp. Anath. 9). 

314 "iva KCU. avryv rfjs VTT. ^. evXoyqa-fl rqv a 

God who came on earth this morn, 

In a manger lying, 
Hallowed Birth by being born, 

Vanquished Death by dying. 



142 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

320 KaTCTriei/ 6 Odvaros, K.r.A. So the LXX. of Isaiah 
xxv. 8 (adding Kvpios before 6 0eo?), reversing the 
meaning of the Hebrew "He hath swallowed up death 
for ever " (cp. 1 Cor. xv. 54). 

323 oiWoAu/ao?="in virtue of His Incarnation" (see 
note below on Epist. ad Joan., p. 174). 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 143 



THE TWELVE ARTICLES 

WITH the exception of the seventh the Twelve Articles 
deal with points already treated in the Epistle, though 
the same order of treatment is not observed. They lack 
the breadth of statement which the Epistle itself dis- 
played, and one may be permitted to regard their 
composition as an unfortunate mistake, both as a matter 
of theology and of policy, if, at least, we judge them by 
their immediate results. It is, at the same time, quite 
probable that Cyril and the synod saw no other way 
of bringing home 'to Nestorius the extreme error of his 
teaching. But anathemas are not to be lightly used or 
lightly put by; and although Cyril doubtless meant the 
Letter to explain the Articles, as a matter of fact the 
Articles were at once separated from the Letter and dealt 
with alone. In this dislocation they clearly needed 
amendment, since they emphasized only one side of the 
truth, and that in the baldest manner, so that they 
appeared to John of Antioch, to whom Nestorius sent 
them, and to others, to lean towards Apollmarianism.* 
Indeed, it was with difficulty that they were believed to 
be the genuine work of Cyril. Andrew of Samosata, 
representing the " Oriental " bishops, attacked them, and 
Theodoret criticized them in a series of observations 
which he sent to John. Nestorius put out Twelve 

* Theodor. Epist. 112. 



i 4 4 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

counter- Anathemas (which are here printed from Marius 
Mercator's Latin translation, Mansi, iv. 1099; Hahn, 316).* 
Andrew for the most part criticized Cyril's unguarded 
wording, which made it not uneasy for heretical con- 
structions to be put upon them. Theodoret misunderstood 
Cyril's teaching on the Hypostatic Union, with which he 
was really in accord, and this misunderstanding under- 
lies all his criticisms. Nestorius, with the exception of 
the last counter-anathema, merely re-emphasized his own 
blunders. 

Cyril replied to Andrew (Apol. adv. Orientales) and to 
Theodoret (Apol. adv. Theodor.), and wrote at length in 
refutation of Nestorius (Tom. v. contr. Nest.). Later, 
about August, 431, he wrote a further " Explanation " of 
the Anathemas. 

The following notes are written in the light of these 
subsequent writings, and with the help of Dr. Bright's 
analysis in Later Treatises, pp. 158 foil. The Anathemas 
are printed again in full for convenience. 

ARTICLE I. 

Cyril. Et rig ovx o/AoXoye? 0ew etvai Kara, aX^Oeiav 
rov 'E/x/Actvoi^A, Kal ia rovro QeoroKov ryv ayiav irapOevov' 
yeyewrjKe yap crapKLKoos trap/cot yeyovora rov e/c 0eoO 
Aoyov' avdQe/j.a eVrw. 

Nestorius- ^ ^ emn ( l ui est Emmanuel, Deum 

counter- Verbumf esse dixerit et non potius nobiscum 

anathema. j) emilj ^QQ G& ^ inhabitasse earn quae secundum 

nos est naturam per id quod unitus est massae nostrae, 

quam de Maria virgine suscepit, matrera etiam Dei Verbi, 

* The texts vary in a few places. I have followed Hahn. 
t Mansi, Verum. 



CYRIL AD NEST, III. 145 

et non potins ejus qui Emmanuel est sanctam virginem 
nuncupaverit ipsumque Deum Verbum in carnem versum 
esse, quam accepit ad ostentationem deitatis suae ut 
habitu inveniretur ut homo, anathema sit. 

Theodore*. Inasmuch as Divinity is immutable, God 
the Word was not made flesh by nature nor changed into 
flesh, but He took flesh and tabernacled in us. Phil. ii. 5 
foil, shows that " the form of God " was riot changed, but 
remaining what it was took " the form of a servant." He 
was not naturally conceived of the Virgin, thus deriving 
the beginning of His existence from her ; but He fashioned 
for Himself a temple in the Virgin's womb, and was with 
that which was begotten. The Virgin is Theotokos, not 
because she bare naturally One who was God, but because 
she bare man united to the God who had fashioned him. 
Otherwise God the Word would be a creature of the 

\ 

Holy Spirit (Matt. i. 23). The child is called Immanuel 
on account of the God who assumed, and the Virgin is 
Theotokos on account of the union of "the form of God" 
with the conceived " form of a servant." 

Such is the substance of Theodoret's observations obviously 
Nestorian, and yet only failing of Catholicity through an in- 
ability to realize the impersonality of the human nature 
assumed by the Word. 

orientals. a/wa/c<? implies an ordinary natural birth, 
and that the Word was thereby changed into flesh. " The 
Word was made Flesh" (John i. 14) is similar to the 
expressions "made sin" (2 Cor. v. 21) and "made a curse" 
(Gal. iii. 13), and must not be understood of a literal 
change. 

Cyril's Reply. The Incarnation of course involved no 
change in the Divine Nature of the Word. He became 
L 



146 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Man without ceasing to be God. It was a Union without 
any confusion, and the formula " Theotokos " guards the 
truth of the Union. By crap/cucw was meant Kara crapm, 
opposed to an Apollinarian QeiKw, and not implying a 
denial of the mystery of the Virginal Birth, The phrase 
"made flesh" means "was Incarnate and made Man," 
born after the Human Nature through the Virgin, and 
is not on a par with the similar phrases quoted.* 

ARTICLE II. 

Gym. Ei' ri? ov% o/ioXoye? vapid Kad' inrocrraanv 
fivtavQai rov CK Qeov liarpos A.6yov, eva re elvai XyowToV 
ftera rqs ISictf (rapKos, rov avrbv SrjXovori Qeov re OJJLOV 
KOI avQpWTTOV, avaOejUia ecrrw. 

Nestorms. Si quis in Verbi Dei conjunctione, quae ad 
carnem facta est, de loco in locum mutationem divinae 
essentiae dixerit factam, ejusque divinae naturae carnem 
capacem dixerit ac partiliter unitam carni, aut iterum in 
infinitum incircumscriptam divinae naturae coextenderit 
carnem ad capiendum Deum, eandemque ipsam naturam 
et Deum dicat et hominem, anathema sit. 

Nestorius evidently thought that Cyril's teaching on the 
union of the Word with flesh involved either a local change 
on the part of the Divine Essence or an infinite extension of 
the flesh to enable it to unite with Deity. 

Theodoret. Theodoret admitted One Christ and would 
call the Selfsame God and Man, but distrusted the new 
phrase "Hypostatic Union" as hitherto unknown. He 
suspected it of involving a mixture of the flesh with 
the Godhead, which would destroy the integrity of each 
Nature. 

* See this point dealt with again very fully in Chr. est Unus, p. 241 
foil., Pusey's transl. Libr. Fath. 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 147 

This anathema was apparently not attacked by Andrew. 

Cyril's Reply. "Everts KaO' vTTOGTTacrtv means a union in 

true Personal Being. There is only One Christ, who is 

both God and Man. The denial of this has necessitated 

some phrase that emphasizes the truth. 



ARTICLE III. 

E'/ Tts evri rov evo9 X/HCTTOU Siaipei TCI? 
/xera rt]V eixaanv, /Jidvfl (rvvaTrrwv avra? <rvva- 
ia 777 Kara rrjv alav, yyovv avQevrtav q Swaa-reiav, /ecu 



evuxriv 



Si quis non secundum conjunctionem unum 
dixerit Christum, qui est etiam Emmanuel, sed secundum 
naturam, ex utraque etiam substantia tam Dei Verbi 
quam etiam assumpti ab eo hominis imam filii connex- 
ionem, quam etiam nunc inconfuse servant, minime con- 
fiteatur, anathema sit. 

Theodoret. Theodoret complained of the subtlety and 
obscurity of the distinction drawn by Cyril between 
arwafala and crvvoSos. He particularly objected to the 
phrase /caO' evuxriv <J>VCTIKYIV, which he understood as im- 
plying a union that was involuntary and of necessity, and 
thus depriving God of His lovingldndness. St. Paul 
teaches that the " Selfemptying " was a voluntary act. A 
Union implies a distinct apprehension of the things 
united; therefore the hypostases or natures of the God 
who took and of the man who was taken must be called 
two, although after the Union piety compels us to confess 
One Christ, just as the two natures of mortal body and 
immortal soul make one man. 

Here we may note that Theodoret was misled, through want 
of a clear definition of the terms, into confusing the ideas of 
Person and Nature. 



148 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

orientals. In his Epistle to the Monks [cap. 15] Cyril 
had admitted two Hypostases with which this present 
Anathema is inconsistent. ^tvtriK^ implies an ordinary 
process of nature, and thus robs the Union of its super- 
natural character. 

oyrii's Eepiy. <3WfKr? means a "real" Union KaB' inro- 
a-racrLv, as opposed to a " moral " or " acquired " one (eV 
<rxra, crxeri/cj/), such as Nestorius held to exist. It 
involves no notion of necessity. The Godhead and the 
Manhood are distinct, but the Personality is One. The 
doctrine of the Incarnation is not satisfied by an asso- 
ciation of two persons, a Divine and a human. 

JNote here that Cyril had Athanasian precedent for this use 
of </>WIK^. Atlianasius had spoken of 17 ao-uy^uros <f>v<ri,Kr) 
eVtotris rov Aoyou irpbs ri)v tStav avrov crapKa, contr. Apollin. 
i. 10; comp. ii. 5, <-ucriKi) yevvijcrts KCU dXiJTOS evwcris. 



ARTICLE IV. 
Cyril. Et' rt? TT/ooCTWTrcH? Svcrlv yyovv vTrocrracrecn 



ra? re eV TOI<S evayyeXtKois KOI aTro<TTO\iKOis <njyypa^a.<n 
8iave/u.ei ^wi/a?, ^ eirl Xpitrrft) irapa ru>v ay'uav Xeyo/xeVa?, ^ 
Trap' avrov Tre pi eavrov' KCU ra? /J.ev w? avOpwTrcp Trapa TOV 
eK Qeov Koyov ISiKws voov/u,evu> TrpocraTrreij rap ^e cb? 
TW e/c Qeov TLarpos Aoyw, ava6e/jia 



eWco. 



Si quis eas voces, quae tarn evangelicis quam 
epistulis apostolicis, de Christo, qui est utraque, con- 
scriptae sunt, accipiat tanquam de una natura, ipsique 
Dei Verbo tribuere passiones tentaverit tarn carne quam 
etiam Deitate, anathema sit. 

Here again is a want of definition : natura is evidently held 
to imply its own persona, and two natures to demand two 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 149 

persons. There is an inability to distinguish between the im- 
passible Divine Nature and a Divine Person with a passible 
Human Nature. 

Theodoret. Theodoreb assumed that Cyril taught a 
mixture of the Word with Manhood, and hence was 
driven to ascribe both the God-befitting and man-befitting 
terms respecting Christ to One Person. This, he thought, 
was to degrade the "Word, as Arius and Eunomius did, 
inasmuch as the man-befitting terms belonged to the 
" form of the servant," not to the " form of God." He 
then quoted a number of texts to enforce his argument : 
Matt, xxvii. 48, xxvi. 39 ; John xii. 27 ; Mark xiii. 22 ; 
Matt. xxiv. 36 on the one side: and John xvi. 15; Matt. 
xx. 18, 19 ; John viii. 26 on the other. 

Theodoret was here grappling with the difficulty of the 
Kevoxris without the help of the Personal Union to guide 
him. 

orientals. The complete Union is granted, but there is 
no confusion of the Godhead with the Manhood, other- 
wise the former is degraded, and that would be Arianism. 

Cyril's Bepiy. Cyril emphatically disclaimed all notion of 
mixture or confusion. He admitted the distinction of 
the Scriptural terms, but showed that whether Divinely 
or Humanly spoken they referred to the One Person of 
Christ. The texts implying humiliation belonged to the 
Word in virtue of His Incarnation ; He became Man, and 
therefore spoke and felt as Man. 

If the Orientals agreed with him as to the Personal Union 
they could not object to Theotokos, which asserted it. 

Note that in Cyril's anathema TT/JOO-WTTOV is used synony- 
mously with moo-Towns for "Person" (see note on Nicene 
Anathemas, page 52). 



150 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Note also that the last words in the Formulary of Eeunion 
(Epist. ad Joan.) admit the distribution of Gospel sayings to 
the Two different Natures, while ascribing them all to One 
Person. 

ARTICLE V. 

Cyril. E'/ Tt? roX/wa \eyeiv 9eo(j>6pov avQpwirov roi> 

Xpt<7ToV, Koi OV\L Sri fjiSXXov Qeov etvai Kara aX^Beiav, w? 
"Yiov ei/a KOI (frvaret, Ka6o yeyove crap 6 Aoyo? KOI Keicoiv- 



KOL 



ecrro). 

Nestorius. Si quis post assumptionem hominis naturali- 
ter Dei Filium unum esse audet dicere, cum sit et 
Emmanuel, anathema sit. 

Theodoret. Certainly God the Word shared with us in 
blood and flesh arid soul; but He was not changed into 
flesh. The very word "sharing" implies distinction of 
the two. We worship Him that took and that which 
was taken as One Son. The term Qeocpopos avOpcmros is 
not objectionable: it was used by Basil the Great. It 
does not mean that Christ was a man endowed with some 
particular divine grace, but with all the Godhead of the 
Son (Coloss. ii. 8, 9). 

Here we must note that Theodoret first states a truism, and 
then falls into an error of fact. 0eo<o/3os avOpwrros ( = a 
God-bearing man; i.e. a human person carrying God) was a 
distinctly Nestorian phrase,* and had not been used by Basil, 
who wrote 17 &o<f)6pos a-dpg, de Spirit. Sanct. 12; and avdpiairov 
Gebv 'Ljcrow X/OIOTOV, Horn, in Psal. xlix. These terms were 
orthodox ; just as Athanasius had written 'Iijcrovs X/HOTOS Oeos 

* Cyril, contr. Nest. iv. 1 ; v. pro. It was also closely allied to a 
form of Sabellianism which had been combated by Athanasius. See 
Orat. c. Ar. iv. 20, et pen o3i> rbv ttvOpwirov Sv tybpeffev a A6yos, aMv elvat 
Myowt rbv Tidv rov OeoO rbv novoyevTJ, Kal ^T; rbv hbyov Tf6v K.T,\. 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 151 

IOTI (rdpKa <o/)o>v, Or. c. Ar. iii. 51. Comp. the decrees of the 
Illyrian synod in 371 apud Theodor. H.E. iv. 8; 6ju,oAoyo{yv 
. . . Qebv ovra crapKO^opov, KCU OVK avOpwirov 6eo<j>6pov, 

The Easterns do not appear to have objected to -this 
and the following Anathema. 

Cyril's Reply. No change of the Word into flesh is implied : 
but 6eo(popos might be applied to any saint in whom God 
dwells. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Cyril. Ei' rt? Aeyet OeoV q ACO-TTOT^V eivai TOV 

Xpiorrou TOV CK Qeov IlaTpo? Ao'yov, KOI ov)(l St) fj.SX\ov 
TOV avTOv 6/AoAoye? Geo'v re O/JLOV KOI avOpwirov, cb? 
yeyoi/oVo? crap/co? TOU Ao'you /cara ret? ypa^a?, ava 



Nestorius. Si quis post incarnationem Deum Verbum 
alterum quempiam praeter Christum nominaverit, servi 
sane formam cum Deo Verbo initium non habere et hanc 
increatam, ut ipse est, esse dicere tentaverit, et non potius 
ab ipso creatam confiteatur, tamquam a naturali domino 
et creatore et Deo, quam suscitare propria virtute promisit: 
Solvite, dicens ad Judaeos, templum hoc et triduo susci- 
tabo illud ; anathema sit. 

Theodoret. Theodoret quoted Gal. iv. 7 ; John xv. 15 ; 
Isaiah vii. 14, ix. 6 to prove that after the Union, although 
the "fora of servant" remained, the name of servitude 
was no longer used ; but even the " form of servant " was 
called God on account of the "form of God" united 
to it. The nature of what was assumed is shown by 
Isaiah xlix. 3, 5, 6 to be "form of servant," and it was this 
which was " formed from the womb." 

The point of these observations is not very clear. Perhaps 
Theodoret felt that, in so far as the " form of servant " was 



152 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

created in the Virgin's womb, there was a sense in which the 
Word was God and Lord of it. But he could not express 
this, because he did not distinctly grasp the unity of Person 
in the Word and His Manhood. 

Cyril's Reply. There is no dualism ; Christ is One Person 
to whom, as Man, the term of servitude belongs. He 
cannot be God and Lord of Himself. 

Note that a distinction is to be drawn between Christ being 
God and Lord of a human person associated with Himself, 
which involves a. dualism, and His being God and Lord of His 
Own Manhood. 

ARTICLE VII. 

Cyril. E't Ti? 0j/<jfv, cos avdpunrov evqpyfja-Oai irapa 
TOV Qeov A.6yov rov 'Iqa-ovv Kal ryv rov ftovoyevovs 
evolav Trepirj^Oai, 009 erepw Trap avrov virapxovri, 
avaOe/ma eorw. 

Nestorius. Si quis hominem, qui de virgine creatus est, 
hunc esse dixerit Unigenitum, qui ex utero Patris ante 
luciferum natus est, non magis propter unitionem ad 
eum qui est Unigenitus naturaliter Patris, Unigeniti cum 
appellatione confiteatur eumque participem magis factum, 
Jesum quoque alterum quempiam praeter Emmanuel 
dicat, anathema sit. 

Theodoret. Since man's nature is mortal and God the 
Word raised up the temple. of His body and glorified it, 
the " form of the servant " is glorified through the " form 
of God"(Eph. i. 19, 20). 

orientals. 1 Christ was not "energized-" as the saints 

were, but yet St. Paul speaks of % evepyeia TOV tcparovs 

rfjs io-xvos avrov yv evr/pyqKev ev TU> Xpicrrw eye/pa? avrov 

K veKpwv (loo. cit.}. 

Cyril's Reply. Christ is not " energized " from without ; He 



CYRIL AD NEST, III. 153 

is Himself the Word who " energizes." His resurrection 
is claimed as His Own work (John ii. 19), and it was in 
His Human Nature only that He was glorified. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

Cyril. E? rf? roAywa Aeyety rov ava\t]<f>6eVTa avOpwirov 
avju-Trpoa-KweicrOai Seiv ru> 0e<w Aoyw teal . 



009 erepov ev erepta'* TO yap 
"Zvv ael TrpoarTiOe]u.evov TOVTO voeiv az/ay/eacra ' /ecu 



Si] fx,a\\ov fjiia Trpoa-Kvvqa-ei TifJ.a TOi/'Ey ) Mai'oi/J7A, KOI fJLtav 
avru> TV\V Soo\oyiav waTTe/mirei, KaOo yeyoi/e crap^ 6 
Ao'yo?, avaBe^a ecrrw. 

Nestorius. Si quis servi formam per se ipsam, hoc est, 
secundum propriae naturae rationem colendam esse 
dixerit et omnium rerum dominam esse, et non potius per 
societatem, qua beatae et ex se naturaliter dominicae 
Unigeniti naturae conjuncta et connexa est, veneratur, 
anathema sit. 

Theodoret. We offer only one doxology to the Lord 
Christ, who is at once God and Man ; but the properties 
of the Natures are distinct, for the Word did not change 
into flesh, nor was the man transmuted into God. 

Orientals. We do not recognize two Persons or two 
Sons, but One Son, whom we adore. 

Cyril's Eepiy. Any phrase that involves the notion of a 
duality of persons is wrong, [e.g. 6 ava\ri<f>6eis ai/ 



* This expression is peculiar. Nowhere else in this connexion does 
Cyril write iv Mpy, and the iv seems to be an intrusion, perhaps due to 
a mistaken reduplication of the last two letters of the preceding word. 
We must translate, with Harms Mercator (who cannot have read &), 
tamquam alterum cum altero, " as if one person with another " [so Dr. 
Brighton a private letter to the present editor]. Floury ("comme Tun 
etant en 1'autre") and P. E. Pusey ("as one in another") miss the point 
of the emphasis on <rtv. 



154 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

"the man assumed," and Theodoret's antithesis of "the 
Word" and "the man"; both of which phrases involve a 
human personality side by side with the Divine.] 

Note that this anathema was adopted in an expanded form 
by the Fifth General Council (see Anath. ix. below, p. 182), 
and also that Athanasius had already dealt with this question 
of the one worship of the Incarnate Son, Epist. ad Adelph. 3, 
Ou KTtcrjua Tr/aoo-KWofytev ' p) yevoiro* K.r.X. 



ARTICLE IX. 

Cyril. Et rts (frycrl rov eva JLvpiov 'Irja-ovv "Kpurrov 

Seod<r6ai irapa TOV IIveiVaTO? <w? aXXoT/o/a Svvd/jiei TQ 
Si avrov xpw/jievov, KOI Trap' avrov \a/36vra TO evepyeiv 
SvvaarQai Kara Trvey/uarwv aKaOaprcw, /cat TO TrXypovv ei$ 
avOpwTrovs rap Oeocny/x/a?, KOL ov)(l St] /xaXXoi/ 'LIOV CLVTOV 
TO Iivevju.a, <prj<rl, Si ov Kai evr/pyriKe Ta? Oeoo-^/xm?, avd6efj.a 



eWco. 



Nestorius. Si quis formae servi consubstantiatem esse 
dixerit Spiritum Sanctum et non potius per illius media- 
tionis, quae est ad Deum Verbum ab ipsa conceptione, 
habuisse dixerit copulationem seu conjunctionem, per 
quam in homines communes simul nonnunquam miser- 
andas curationes exercuit, et ex hoc f ugandorum spirituum 
eveniebat esse potestatem, anathema sit. 

Theodoret. Theodoret accused Cyril of anathematizing 
prophets, apostles, Gabriel, and Christ Himself, citing 
a number of texts which speak of Christ as anointed by 
the Spirit. He then proceeded to admit one -half of 
Cyril's contention by urging that it was not God the 
Word who was formed and anointed, but the Human 
Nature which He assumed. He also admitted that the 
Spirit was the Word's Own as being of the same Nature 
?) and proceeding from the Father, but denied 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 155 



that He had e Yiov n Si YMW rnv faap&v. Such a 
statement would be blasphemous and contrary to Christ's 
words, TO ILvev/na 6 e/c TOU HaT/oo? eKTropeverai (John 
xv. 26). 

Note first that Theodoret imagined that Cyril denied the 
anointing of the Manhood of the Word, and secondly that he 
misquoted John xv. 26 by substituting IK for irapd. 

orientals. Two points were put forward. First, Cyril 
had at first, in his Epistle to the Monks, admitted that 
Christ was influenced and even quickened by the Spirit 
of God; comp. Matt. xii. 28. Secondly, the emphasis 
laid on the Spirit being Christ's own tended towards 
a distinction being made in the " common " action of the 
Three Persons of the Trinity. They admitted that 
Christ's miracles were wrought both by His own power 
(rfl otWa oWa/xei) and by the Spirit's energy. 
Cyril's Eepiy. He intended the anathema to exclude the 

- 

notion, which Nestorius seemed to hold, that the action of 
the Spirit upon Christ was like in kind to His action on 
ordinary men. The Spirit was His own Spirit, for although 
He proceeds from the Father He is not alien from the 
Son (owe a\\6rpLov ecrrl rov Ytov) ; and since " all that 
the Father hath " is the Son's too, therefore the Spirit is 
His. He wrought the miracles, having as His own the 
Spirit, who is e avrov KCU ovcruaSw e/ATre^v/eo? ai/rw 
(Explic. xii.). Comp. contr. Nest. iv. 1. 

For the bearing of this upon Cyril's views as to the 
eternal derivation of the Spirit from the Son as well as 
from the Father, see the note above on Filiogue^ page 91. 

ARTICLE X. 

Cyril. ' Apx te P e/ct KC " a'TTOoroXov TJJS 6/xoXoytcts JJ/AWV 
X/OJCTTOI/ 4 Oeia Ae'yet ypa<j)r}, TrpocrKeKO/MKe e 



156 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



t 1 f <-. f \ \ ' o' ^ /~v " ^ TT ' " 

VTrep ty/Atov eavrov et? ocr/Ap eucoom? TOO Uew KCU llarpt. et 
rt? TotW apxiepea facrl /cat aTroVroAoy ^ucoi/ yemrOat, 
owe aurov TOV e/e 0eou AoyoiV ore yeyove orap KOI KaO' 
jy/xa? avOpwiros' a\\' w? erepov Trap' avrov i'&/ew? avdpwirov 
CK yui/atKo's' j) Tf? Xeyet /cat UTTC/J eavrov 
avrov rr\v Trpoirtyopav, KOI ovxi *i /xaXXov VTrep 
f)(j.5)v' ov yap av eder/Or] TrpoarQopas 6 M e(<5ob? a/mapTiav' 



earrw. 



Nestorius. Si quis illud in principio Verbum ponfcificem 
et apostolum confessionis nostrae factum esse seque ipsmn 
obtulisse pro nobis dicat, et non Emmanuelis esse aposto- 
latum potius dixerit oblationemque secunduin eandem 
dividat rationem ei, qui univit, et illi, qui unitus est ad 
unam societatem Eilii, hoe est, Deo, quae Dei sunt, et 
homini, quae sunt hominis, non deputans, anathema sit. 

Theodoret. It was not God the Word, but the human 
nature assumed by Him that took the name of the 
priesthood of Melchizedek, and experienced the feelings 
of our mortal nature. It is heterodox to confuse God 
the Word with him who, as our High Priest, offered 
himself on our behalf, and who had in himself the 
Word both united to him and. inseparably conjoined. 

Note how easily Theodoret slips from speaking of the 
impersonal human nature into giving it a separate human 
personality. 

orientals. The Orientals practically agree with Cyril. 
Christ is our High Priest ; His Humanity is the sphere of 
His priesthood. 

Cyril's Bepiy. After citing some words from Nestorius 
which he deemed heretical, Cyril proceeded to emphasize 
the particular point intended by this anathema, namely, 
that our High Priest is God the Word Incarnate. There 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 157 

was no advancement of a man towards moral union with 
the Word. Christ's Human Nature brought upon Him 
the function of Priest, but He exercised it as the Word 
of God. Comp. contr. Nest. iii. 3. 

ARTICLE XL 

Cyril. Ei' Ti9 ofy 6/mo\oyei rrjv TOV Kvpiov vapKa 
ov eivai KOI loiav avrov TOV e/c Qeov liarpos Aoyov' 



<w? ere/Dou nyo? Tap avrov, crvvrj/jL/nevov /JLW avTta Kara 
alav, yyovv w? jmovrjv Oeiav evoiKycriv e<r;(7/coTO9, KOI 



Sri /u.aX\ov faoTTOiov, wf etyyjuiev, orl yeyovev iSta TOV 
Aoyou TOV TO. iravra faoyoveiv Itr^yovTO^, avaQe^a ecrrw. 

Nestorius. Si quis unitam carnem Verbo Dei ex naturae 
propriae possibilitate vivificatricem esse dixerit ipso 
Domino et Deo pronunciante : Spiritus est qui viviflcat, 
caro nihil prodest, anathema sit. Spiritus est Deus, a 
Domino pronunciatum est. Si quis ergo Deum Verbum 
carnaliter secundum substantiam carnem factum esse 
dicat, hoc autem modo et specialiter custodite, maxime 
Domino Christo post resurrectionem discipulis suis 
dicente: Palpate et videte, quoniam spiritus ossa et 
carnem non habet sicut me videtis habere, anathema sit. 

Theocioret. Theodoret detected Apollinarianism lurking 
in the mention of flesh only, without express mention of 
the soul and the perfect manhood. The flesh was of 
course the Word's own, being the assumed nature, and is 
lifegiving because of its union with the Godhead. 

orientals. The reiteration of 18 lav . . . ISla, which lays 
stress on its being the own flesh of the Word, looks like 
Apollinarianism, as though His flesh was not of human 
origin. Again, since Cyril had admitted that the Man- 
hood was glorified by the Spirit, it is out of place to 
reject the phrase trw^/xei/o? avTw /caret T^V aiav. 



158 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Cyril's Reply. The emphasis laid upon the flesh being 
Christ's own is to prevent Nestorius attributing it to a 
separate human person (comp. contr. Nest. iv. 6). He 
himself entirely rejected the idea that Christ's flesh was 
of heavenly origin. 

" Flesh " is used, John i. 14, to mean the whole of man, 
and it is used in the Anathema in the same sense, not as 
excluding " soul." 

ARTICLE XII. 

Cyril. Et 779 oux o/xoAoya rov TQV Qeov Aoyoy 
TaQovra crapKi /cat ea-ravpwinevov erapicl KOI Oavdrov 
yeycra/xei/oi/ (rapKi, yeyovora TG TrpwroroKOV e/c ru>v veicpwv, 
Kd6o / (m KOI ^woTTOto? w? Geo?, avaBe^a eWft). 

Nestorius. Si quis confitens passiones carnis has quoque 
Verbo Dei et carne simul in qua facta est, sine discretione 
dignitatis naturarum tribuerit, anathema sit. 

Theodoret. The passible only can suffer; therefore it 
was the "form of the servant" that suffered, although 
the " form of God " made its sufferings its own on account 
of the union. It was not the (Divine) Christ who 
suffered, but the man assumed by God. 

Note here that while Nestorius is orthodox, Theodoret is 
not, as he again distinguishes two persons. 

orientals. How could the Word suffer? Cyril had 
himself admitted the impassibility of the Godhead. To 
say "God suffered in flesh" is inadequate, as it still 
implies that God was passible, and this is either Patri- 
passianism or Arianism, a degradation of Deity. 
Cyril's Reply. To suffer in flesh does not involve suffering 
in Godhead. The Word could not suffer as God, but 
only as having become passible Man. It is the Personal 



CYRIL AD NEST. III. 159 

Union of One who is God with Human Nature that 
makes the Atonement efficacious. 

Note that the lack of any qualification in this Anathema, 
such as that in the Epistle itself, which affirms the impassi- 
hility of the Word in His own Nature, laid Cyril justly open 
to the charge of holding that the Deity suffered ; and this was 
eagerly seized upon by those who were on the look-out for signs 
of Apollinarianism. Theopaschite language of the strongest 
kind was common enough in early writers (see Lightfoot's note, 
Clement ii. 15) in order to emphasize the real Deity of Christ, 
but it had its own dangers. By Gnostics it might be per- 
verted to imply passibility in the Godhead; by Apollinarians 
and Monophysites to denote the obliteration of the Human 
Nature ; and by Sabellians to destroy the distinction of Persons 
within the Trinity. Athanasius was more cautious; comp. 
e.g. Or. c. Ar. iii. 32, o#ev TTJS o-apKos 7racrxown}s OTJK ^v 
CKT&S ravnjs 6 Aoyos' 8ia- rovro yap avrov Aeyerai KCU rb 
7ra0os, K.T.A. On the Apollinarian "degradation of Deity 
to a condition of suffering," see Athan. contr. Apoll. ii. 12. 



THE EPISTLE OF 
CYRIL TO JOHN OF ANTIOCH 

INTRODUCTION " 

ON receipt of the letters from Caelestine and Cyril 
Nestorius preached a sermon, admitting the use of 
Theotokos alongside of Anthropotokos, but preferring 
Christotokos. He then framed the twelve counter- 
Anathemas to Cyril's, which have been already com- 
mented on, and secured the support of John of Antioch, 
Andrew of Samosata, and Theodoret of Cyrrhos. Andrew 
and Theodoret, as we have seen, wrote against the Twelve 
Articles, and Cyril replied, composing also Five Tomes 
in refutation of Nestorius' sermons. 

In June, 431, the prelates were assembling at Ephesus 
for the great Council. Some of them, John of Antioch 
and his party, were late. Cyril, eager to vindicate the 
truth, and perhaps betraying some want of faith and 
patience, insisted on opening the Synod on June 22. 
Nestorius refused to appear. Cyril's Second Letter was 
read and approved, and Nestorius' reply condemned. The 
Letter of Caelestine to Nestorius, and Cyril's Third Letter 
with the Anathemas, were then read and inserted in the 
Acts. They were accepted as orthodox, although no 
special acclamations of approval are recorded.* The 

* Mansi, iv. 1139. The Easterns certainly believed that the .Council 
had approved of Cyril's, Articles (see their second petition to the Em- 
peror, Mansi, v. 403), and such was the belief of the Commissioners 
at Chalcedon, Sess. i., Mansi, vi. 937. Both were probably in error. 

160 



CYRIL AD IOAN. 161 

deposition of Nestorius followed. A Synodal Letter to 
Theodosius informed him of all that had been done, and 
that the Council had found that the Epistles (eVfo-ToXa?) 
of Cyril agreed with the Nicene Creed. Nestorius also 
wrote inveighing against the Council's actions. 

On June 27 John and the Easterns arrived, held a 
separate council, deposed Cyril and Memnon of Ephesus, 
and excommunicated the rest pending their condemnation 
of Cyril's Anathemas. A record of their proceedings 
was also sent to the Emperor. 

Two days later the true Council was severely repri- 
manded in a letter from the Emperor, and its acts 
annulled. 

After the arrival of the Roman legates early in July 
several further sessions were held, and John of Antioch 
was excommunicated.* The Emperor and the Pope were 

* The following is the text of "the Synodal Epistle : 

'H ayla Kal olKovpeviK^ tr^oSos }] ev "E(p<rcf! ffvyKporydeiffa K 6ea"jrlfffj.aros 
rtav etoepeffraruv jSacrtXe'wj' rots K<x0' K<i<rTrii> tira.p-xj.av re ml iro\u> eVt- 
ffK^wois 7rpe<r/3i/repois SMKOVOIS Kal Tr&vri r(f \ay. 

Swax0eWui> yp&v Kara T& eicre/3es 7pdjU,ju,a tv r-g 'E0e0-uj> ju,TjTpo7r6Xet, 
&ir<TTri<r&i> rives $ rj/j-tiv, fores rbv apidptiv rpi&Kovra /J,iicp$ irpbs, l^apxov 
rfjs eavr&v airo<rra(rlas ^ff%i;/c6Tes rbv T^S ' Avrio'X.f'wv e'lrlffKoirov 'Iwdvvriv' &v 
Kal T& dv&fJ.ard ecrri ravra. irpwros oCros 'Iwdwys 6 'Avrio%elas rrjs 
ral 'Iwdvvrjs Aa/M<TKov } 'AXel-avSpos 'Aira/zeias, ' ' A\et-avpos ' 
'I/t^oios Nt/co/tf?5efas, $ptriXas 'Hpa/cXe(as, 'EXXdStos TapiroO, 
' Avafapfiov, Qe6Supos Ma/)/cta?ov7r6Xews, ILtrpos Tpaia^ouTriXews, IlaOXos 
"Eniays, IIoXuxp6i'tos 'Hpa/cXeiwrwi' ir6Xews, Ei^iJptos fv&vtav, MeXfrios 
Neo/cattrape/as, Qeo5&pr]Tos KiJpou, 'ATplyytos KaX^Wyos, Ma/ctiptos Aao5t- 
rfjs {J,ey<i\'ris, Zw<rus l E<r/3oi)j'Tos, ~2a\oti<rrios Kupfaov KiXiKtas, 
s Kao-TttjSdXiys KtXt/clas, QtiaXevr'ivos MourXoj8Xd/ci?s, Ei/orciflios 
oO, $/XtT7ros QeoSoffiavuv, Aa^t^X re, Kal Ae^taj'dj, 'Ioi/Xaj'6s re, Kal 
KrfptXXos, 'OX^7Ti6s re, Kal Aioyevi)*, IIoXi6s, Qeo<j>&vys QiXaSeXfalas, 
fpa'iavbs AiryotfcrrTjs, A^pijXtos Eipi;you^6Xews, Moucraios 'Apddov, 'EXXdStoS 
IlroXe^aWos' ol rives rys eKKX9?(ria<mKT?s Kowuvias pySeplav 'exovres aSeiav 
tis e aiiBevrlas leparucty, els rd SfoavQal rims eK rai;r7/s j&airreiv % ci^eXe?^, 
Sia rb Kal rims tv atirots etvat. KaOupwevovs, 7rp6 irat>rut> t&v ra Neoropfou 

M 



162 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

informed of these actions, but Theodosius sent a com- 
missioner, Count John, with full powers and a letter which 
betrayed an entire misunderstanding of the position of 
affairs. It assented to the deposition of Cyril, Menmon, 
and Nestorius, who were thereupon placed under arrest. 
A demonstration of Monks at Constantinople awakened 
Theodosius to his mistake, and in September a deputation 
from each party met him at Chalcedon. He ordered 
a new patriarch to be consecrated for Constantinople, 
and the rest of the prelates to return to their homes. 
John of Antioch continued to condemn Cyril and his 
supporters, and the Emperor endeavoured in vain to 
effect a reconciliation by means of a conference. An 
Antiochene council framed six Articles * in opposition to 
Cyril's, who replied that he insisted only on Nestorius' 
condemnation, and explained that his own Articles meant 
nothing but a rejection of Nestorian tenets. He anathe- 
matized Apollinarius and all other heretics. John was 
now satisfied, but the " Easterns " wavered. Eventually 
Paul of Emisa was sent to confer with Cyril. Confessions 
of faith were interchanged, and the terms of reunion em- 
bodied in a letter addressed to Cyril. This was sent to 
Antioch for John to subscribe ; it included the condemna- 
tion of Nestorius' writings and the recognition of his 



Kal TCI KeXeorfou 0/><w?5/t<xra Tn<f>epofj,evoi ffa^ffrara, &ire8elxOr)ffav, &K rov 
fjstl eXArflat jice0' i)/j,Qv Neoro/ifou Kara^^iracrfltu* oiis rims d&yfJLari. KOIV$ 17 
ayla, cfooSos irdvys ptv ^KK\ij<ria<rri.K^s KOivuvlas dXXorpfovr tiroltiffe, ira<rav 
8 afrrwv tvtpyeiav lepcmKty Tre/neiXe, 5t" ^j jjStvavTO px&irreiv f) c& 



* "We adhere to the Nicene Creed and the exposition of it by the 
blessed Athanasius in his letter to Epictetus. But the new dogmas, 
advanced in certain letters or articles, we reject as calculated to create 
disturbance." So ran the first article, the only one now extant (Fleury, 
Oxf, trans, iii, 155), 



CYRIL AD IOAN. 163 

successor at Constantinople. After a little time, under 
pressure from the Court, John agreed, and Cyril announced 
the restoration of communion on April 23, 433. He 
then wrote the following Letter ("Laetentur caeli") to 
John, inserting in it the Formulary of Eeunion. 



1 64 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



ANALYSIS OF CYRIL'S EPISTLE TO JOHN 

OF ANTIOCH 

A. Introduction. The happiness of peace. 

The visit of Paul of Emisa. 



B. Doctrinal 



It is now clear that dissension was un- 
necessary. 

The Formulary of Eeunion. 

The Mcene Creed is sufficient, yet, 
as expressive of our convictions, 

We confess 

Jesus Christ, Perfect God and Per- 
fect Man, 

Co-essential with the Father as to 
Godhead, 

And with us as to Manhood: in 
Union of Two Natures One 
Christ. 

The Virgin is Theotokos, because 
from the moment of conception 
Her Offspring was God the Word. 
There is a Unity of Person with 
distinction of Natures, as the 
Gospel sayings imply. 



CYRIL AD IOAN. 165 

I am accused of saying that the Flesh 
of Christ came down from heaven ; 
but this is excluded by my insistence 
upon Theotokos, and by the words of 
Isaiah vii. 14, and of Gabriel, Luke 
i. 30 and Matt. i. 23. 

We say that Christ came down from 
heaven, following St, Paul (1 Cor. xv. 
47), because He is One with His own 
flesh which was born of the Virgin. 
The Word in His own Nature is un- 
changeable and unalterable. 

There was no mixture, or confusion, or 
blending. He, impassible, suffered for 
us in the flesh by an "oeconomic" 
appropriation. We follow the Fathers, 
especially Athanasius, and the un- 
alterable Mcene Symbol. 

C. Conclusion. You will know how to treat our calum- 
niators, 

We send you a correct copy of Athana- 
sius' Epistle to Epictetus, since many 
of the current copies are corrupt. 



i66 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



EIHSTOAH TOY AITOY 

KYPIAAOY 
EPOS IfiANNHN EIII2KOIION ANTIOXEIA2 

fiov ayairijTif dSeX^y Kal ffv\\eiTovpy$ 'Iw&vvg KtfptXXos tv Kv 

yaipeiv 

Psalm xcv. u. EY$PAINESeQ2AN ol ovpavol 
. ii. 14. aya\\ia(r9(ti y yn' XeAvrat yap TO /xecr- 
rov (ppay/uiov KOI Treiravrai TO \wrovv teal 
airda-w avflpyrat T/OOTTO?, TOU TTOVTWV 
Xpio*TOU rats eaurou eKKKya-iais ryv 
euovro?' KeicXriKOTWV Se TT/OO? TOI/TO ^/xaj :at 
effTaTtoV KOI Oeo(pi\e(rraT(av (3curi\eu>v' o* Trpoyoviicfjs 
ev<re(3ela$ apia-roi fj/XwraJ yeyowre?, <70aX^ /uev 

ev iSiais tyvxais rrjv 6p9t}v 

' e^alperov Se iroiovvrai (j>povriSa ryv virep Twi>15 
dytwi/ eKK\rj<nS>v, t'l/a /cat SiafioyTOV exuxriv etp atwa 
<5oav, /cat euKXeecrTar^v aTrotyyvuxri ryv eavrwv 
01$ icai avros 6 TU>V dvvdjmecov Ku/oiop irKovcria X L pi 
TO. ayaOa ' KCU SiSaxn /u.ev KaraKpctTeiv ru>v 
Xapi^erai Se TO VIKO.V. ov yap av Sia\jsev(raiTO Xeyft)v20 
isam. ii. so. Zw eyw, Xe'yet Kuptos* on TOUS 



Toivvv els ryv 'AXe^dvSpeiav TOV Kvpiov 
/wou TOW QeotyiXea-Tarov aSe\(f>ov KOI <rvX\eirovpyov IlauXoy, 

a /cat <r<j)dSpa 



CYRIL AD IOAN. 167 

TOIOVTOV fj-ecriTevovTO?, /ecu TO?? inrep Svva/Jiiv TroVotp eXo/xe- 
vov Trpocro/uXetV, a/a TOV TOV SiafioXov viKyvy <f>6ovov, KOI 
crvvatyy ra Stflpqjut.eva, /cat TO, /u.erav Siefipi/mjmeva ovccWaXa 
TrepteXwi/, 6/u.ovoia KOI elpfyfl trreipavuxTr] ra? re Trap' rjfj.lv 
30 /cat Tap Trap vfj.lv e/c/cX^crtap. riva fJ.lv yap Siypqvrai rpo- 
TTQV, TrepiTTov eitreiv' \prjvai Se /u,a\\ov vTroXa^avu) TO, 
TW r?9 elprivrjs irpeTrovra Kaipu* Kal <f>poveiv Kal \a\eiv. 
rja-Otjimeis roiwv enl rfy vvvrvyia TOV /u.vri/u.ovevOevTOs Oeocre- 
[Seyrarov avdpd?' o? ra^a TTOV KOI aywj/a? eetv ov 
35 VTrevotjvev, avairelOwv ^/xa? on XP*1 ^vva\j^ai Trpo? 
ra? e/cfcX^cr/ap, /cat TOV ru>v erepoS6wv a<f>avi(rai 
a-Tra/XjSXwat re vrpop TOVTW T^? TOV Sia(36\ov 
TO Kevrpov, ITO//X.WP 8e OVTWP exoj/Tap etp TOUTO 
w? /u.r]8eva TTOVOV inrocrrrjvaL TravreXw' /jLe/JLvq/neOa yap TOV 
^TO? 1&lprivr}V Ttjv e/nr)v SiSw/Jii Johnxiv. 27. 
elpvfvrjv Ttjv efj.riv a0/j?/at y/Afv. SeSiSayjU-eOa Se 
l \eyeiv ev Trpoo-euxaf? Kupte 6 0eop ^wv Isaiah xxvi. 12. 
eiprjvriv So? nfJ-lv, irdvTa yap ctTre^w/ca? fijj.lv- co<TTe 
el T? ei/ [AeOeei yevoiTO Ttj? Trapa Qeov 
45 eiprivtis, avevSey? eWai TraKro? ayaBov. 

Se TrepiTTrj Trai/TeXwp /cat ou/c eua0op/AO? TWJ/ e/ 
Sixo&Taaria yeyove, vwl /xaXto-Ta TreTr 
TOV Kvplov fj.ov TOV Oeo^fXecrTaTOi; IlauXoi; TOU e 
Trpo/coyUtVavTOs, aSid^XrjTov e^ovTa Trj<$ 

i/, /cat TauTqv <TVVTeTaxOai 6ia{3e(3aiovfjt,evov 



Trapa Te T% cr^p OCTIOT^TOP /cat TWI/ 



67rto-/co7Tft)v. e^et ^e oi/TW? ^ arvyypa<j)r], /cat auTatp \ee<riv 



Ilept Se TIJS OeoTOKOv irapOtvov OTTWS /cat (frpovovpev Kal 

55 A,eyojnev, TOV re rpoTrov TIJS Ivav^/xoTrija-ews TOT) Movoyevovs 

Ytov TOU 0eov, avayKatws, OVK Iv TrpovOrJKys joie/aet, dAA' ev 

irA^|00<j!)Optas et'Sa, ws av<a6ev UK T rlav 6ei(av ypafywv, e TC T^S 

7rapa8oo-ews TWV dytcov TraTepwv TrapetA-r^oTes IffX^'Kajwev, 8ia 



168 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



epovpev, ovSev Tb crwoAov 7rpoon$VTs Tf) TWV olyiwv 
TWV iv NtKaia eKTefleio-^ Trwrm. wg yap e<$>7/*ev 60 
TT/OOS Tracrav e^apud Kai v<re/3da<s yvwcrtv, Kai Tra 
KaKooias a.iroKrjpvw. epovpev Se oi5 

dAAa .TJ7 6ju,oAoy 

Tots eTTi^veo'^ai jSovAojaevois, ev ois TOI 
8ia(rK7TTOju,e^a. . 65 

Oiyapovv TOV Kvptov ^/*a)v 'I^crouv Tbv Xpto-T^v, 
TOV Ytbv TOU 6eoS TOV Movoyev/, Geov TeAe60v KOI avi9/3a)7rov 
TeAetov e/< ^vxrjs AoytK7js Kat CTW/WITOS' TT/OO atwvwv ]u,ev IK TOU 
IIaT/)bs yevvTj^evTa Kara TTJV 9eor}]Ta, TT' OT^aTOt) 5e TWV 
^e/awv TOV avTov 8t' ^ju,as Kai 8ta T^V v^eTepav o-WTiyptav, IK 70 
Mapias T^s irap9evov KOTO, T^V avOpfairor^TO,' o^oovanov T^ 
liarpl TOV avTov KOTO, TJ)V Bec/Tyra, Kail opoovcriov r^uv Kara T^V 
o,v6p(airoTfjTa' Bvo yap ^vcrewv evwcrts yeyove' Sto va Xpto"Tov, 
efva YJov, eva Kvpiov o^oXoyovjjLev. KOTO, Tawijv Ti]V TIJS 

IvwVews evvotav ojixoAoyov/iev T^V dyiav 7rap0evov75 
8ia Tb Tbv 0ebv Aoyov orapKwOfjvai Kat Ivav^pwTr^crai, 
i ! a-ur^s T'ijs o-uAAi/^ews Ivwa-at eavT<j) TOV 1^ awijs Xt]<f>devTa 
vaov. TttS 8e euayyeAiKas Kat aVocrroAiKas Trept TOU Kvplov 
^>wvas, icr/iev TOVS ^eoAoyovs avSpas, Tots ^ev KotvoiroiowTas, ws 
e<^)' evos 7r/)ocr(07rov, ras 8e StaipouvTas, ws ITTI 8vo ^iVewv' Kai 80 
Tas jmev ^eoTT/oeTreis KaTa T^V fleoV^Ta TOU XpiaTou, Tas Se 
TaTTfivas KaTa T^V dv^yowTTOTijTa TrapaSiSovTas. 

Tairrcu? v/xwv evT^xovre? ra?? te/oa?p ^corafr, owrco re /cat 
. iv. 5. eavrovs ^/oovowra? evpivKovres' e?? yap 
/u/a TTiVrtf, ev jSaTTTfo-jaa* e<?oaa-a//iev TOV Twv85 

OeoV aX^Xot? o-uyx at 'p VTe ?3 ort rat? 
ypafiais Kai Tfl vrapaSoa-eL TU>V ay/wi/ 
o'v/j.^alvova'av e^owi TT'KTTIV di re Trap' ?//>t?i' 
at Trap' iVuv eKK\tj<riai' eireiSr] Se eTrvQ6jj.tiv TWV 
Ttva?, CT^JJKOOV aypiW 

epevyecrQai KO.T ejmov Xoyov?, cop e ovpavov 
Ka,Ta.KOju,i(r9ev, KCU OVK e/c T^P ay/a? TrapOevov \eydvro? TO 




CYRIL AD IOAN. 169 

dyiov <Ta>jaa Xpttrroi/, Seiv yriQrjV o'Xtya irepl rovrov Trpos 



av6r\roL Kal fj.ovov eores TO 



95 TTW? '? rovro Traprive-)(0rire yi/co/xjs mt TOcrauT?v 

fj.wpiav\ eSei yap e<5ei araQw evvoeiv, on 



dVa? ^/ur^ o VTrep T^? TTiWeco? aywi/ cruyfceKpo 
8ta{3e(3aiov/ji.evois, em ^eoro/co? ecrrtv ^ dym 7rap0ei/o9. 
aAX' eivrep e^ ovpavou, KCU OVK e^ aurJjp TO ayiov crw/ta 

100 yeyevtjcrOai (f)a/j.ev rov 'rravrcov >}/xwj/ a-wrfjpos Xpt<rTOV, 
ay ert VOO?TO OGOTOKOS ; T/ra yap oXco? TeVofcev, ei jujj 
?, 6Vf yeyevvijKe Kara crap/ca TOV 'E/AjtAavou)JX; 
yeXaarOoxrav roiwv ot ravra r rrepl e/nov 
ov yap \jsevSerai Xeywi/ 6 /uaKapio? 
'I^ou ^ TrapOevos ev yaarrp} e^ei, ical Isaiah vii. 14. 
re^erat Ytoi/, /cat Ka\eo-ov<ri TO ovofj.a Matt. 1.28. 
auTOu 'E/x/Aaj/ov)yX' o eo-Tf fJLeOep/JLrjvevofJievov Me0' 
^//wi/ o 0eo?, a\t]9evei Se Traj/TW? /cat o ayto? Ta(3pit]\ 
Trpo? T^ lf-o.KO.piav TrapQevov eiirwv M.r} <j>o(3ov Lukei. so, BI. 
' eSpe? yap X<*P iV Tapa TK> Oew' /cat t^ou 
ev ya&rpl, Kal rey vlov, Kal /caXeVet? 
TO oj/o/xa auTou 'Iqcrovv. AUTO? yap Matt.i.2i. 
crcoaret rov \aov avrov a-Tro TWI/ aju-apricov avrwv. 
"Orav 8e \eyofj.ev eg ovpavov KOI amQev rov Ki/ptoi/ ^(J.wv 

115'Ij;crow rov XpicrTW, ov% wf avwOev Kal e ovpavov Kare- 
vexOeia-w rfjs ay/a? auTOu crap/co?, Ta TomuTa <f>a(tev, 
e'jrofJi.evoi Se /m.aX\ov rw 6e(nre<rlq> TiavXw SiaiceKpayori 
<ra0w? TrpWTO? avQpWTros e/c yij$ ^OI'KOS, iCor. xv. 47. 
6 Sevrepos avftpwiro? [6 Kupto?] e ovpavov. fj.eff.v- 

I20??/te0a ^e Kal avrov rov ScoT^po? Xeyoj^TO? Ovdels ava- 
(3e(3t)Kev elf rov ovpavov, ei fty 6 e/c rov Joimiii. is. 
oupavou Karaflas, 6 m'o? TOU aj/Opw-Trov' Kairoi yey- 
evvtjrai Kara crapKa, KaOawep enfiyv aprlcos, eK rfjs ayias 
TrapOevov, eTreiSrj Se 6 avwOev Kal e ovpavov KarafioirricrQv 

125060? Ao'yo? KeKevwKev eavrov, fj.op(f>riv Phii.ii. 7. 



170 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

SovXov Xa/3cW, /cat Kexpn^driKev vto$ avOpanrov, jmera 
rov peivai o fiv, TOUTeWt Oeo'p- aTpeTrrop yap KOI dvaX- 
XotWo? Kara <f>v<nv e<rriv' cop et? %Sri voovpevos per a T7? 
to7ap trap/cop, e ovpavov \eyerai /caTeXOetV, coi/o'/Aao'Tat <5e 
iCor. xv. 47. /cat ayO/owTro? e^ ovpavov, reXetop wv ej/130 
Oeortjri, KCU reXeios ev av9pa)7roTt]Tt o avro?, KOU wp ev evl 

IGor. viii. 6. TTpOCTCtiTTft) VOOVfJt,VOS' eT? yap KupiO? 'I>7(70V? 

Xpio"TOp, /cdV ^ TWJ/ (pvcretw /uy ayyo^rai Siatyopa, e 8>v 



TV\V 



Tou? $e Xeyoj/rap 6Vt /cpgcrtp 
eyei/ero rou 0eou Aoyou -Trpo? T^ <rapra, 



crt] OCTIOTW eTTtorTO/jit^eiv. ei/cop yap Tivap /cat raura Trept 
e/aoi/ BpvXelv, cos ^ Tre^povtjKOTOs t] eipt]KOTO$. eyao e rotr- 
oyro^ a0e(7T?/ca TOU ^pov^irai rt roiovrov, coo-re /cat /xatVe- 

Jamesi. 17. crOat J/0/Xt^CO TOV? Oir]OeVTa$ oXft)?, OTt rpOTT^ 

aTTocr/ctacr/xa Trept r^ Oe/av rou Aoyov 0ucrtv <rviu.f3ijvai 
Mai. in. 6. ^i/j/arat' yuevet yap o ecrrtj/ aet, /cat ov/c >;XXo- 
twrat* dXX' ou<5' av aXXotco^et^ Trcoirore Kal /uera/3oX^? 
onraOtj Se Trpop rovrw rov rov Qeov Aoyoi/ 
o/uoXoyou^ei/ dVai/rep, /cai/ et Traversas airropH5 
TO jmv<rrqpiov, eavr<p -TrpooW/AW opwro ra T?; 



<rap/ct <TV/u(3e(3t]K6ra TrdQr]. ravry roi teal 6 vav<ro(j>os 

IPeteriv. 1. IleTpO? XptCTTOU Ol5v, 0J/(Tt, 7Ta0OJ/TOP UTTep 

J7//,tov o-ap/ct, /cat oux^ T^ $wret T^? a/Spr/rov deorqros. 
Yva yap ai/ro? o rw oXwi' Swr^p etVaf Tricrrev^rai, Kar 150 
oliceiaxnv oiKovopuKrjv els eavrov, <? e^^i/, ra r^9 t^t'a? (rap/cop 
avafiepei iraQr]' OTTOIOV earn TO ^ta T% TOU Trpotyqrov 
isaiah 1.6. 0o)^? Trpoava^dDvov/nevov, cop e^ auTOu Toi/ 
VCOTOV /uou deSwica et? /xao-Ttyap, Tap <5e crtayo'i/a? 
/AOV et? paTTtV/xaTa, TO c^e TrpoVcoTroV /AOU ou/cl55 
a'7rearrpe\jsa cnrb ala-^vv^s e/xTTTucr/xaTCov. 
"OTi (5e Tat? TCOI/ dytW Trarepwv c?o'fdt? e7ro/A0a 
, /AaXtora c5e Tat? TOU fjLaicaplov /cat 7ravev(Jt^ov 



CYRIL AD IOAN. 171 



fifj.u)V 'A.Qava<rlov } TO Kara TL yovv oXwp e$w (f>epear6ai 
160 7rapaiTOv/u.evot, TreireicrQoo fj.ev % a-rj o<rioV7 

TW aXX>v fj.tjdei^ TrapeOpra ' av Kal 

TroXXas, TOU? efjiovroiv Xoyov? e avru>v TnuTOv/xevop, el M 

TO JUJJKO? eSeSieiv TOV ypayUyuaro?, yu^ apa TTW? yevrfrai Sia 

rovro irpoo-Kopes. /car' ovSeva Se rpOTrov ardXevecrQai vapa 
165Ttvwv avexofJieOa ryv o/otcrOeio-aj/ TrtcrTiv, ^TOI TO TJJ? 

jrtWeco? o-uju/3oXoi/, Tra/oa TWV ay(W ^/xwi' Trarepw, rwv ev 

Nt/cata (rvve\66vT(tiv Kara Kaipovs' ovre 



eai/TO?? 5? eTepot?, 7 Xe^ij/ a/deti^af TWJ/ ey/cef/xej^wv e/cefcre, 5/ 
yow Trapaftfjvai <rvX\a^v, /we/oti/>?/AeVot TOU XeyovTos 
/xeTcu/oe opia alwvia a eQevro ol Prov. xxii. 28. 
o-ou' 01) yap ^crav auTO O6 XaX- Matt. x. 20. 
p, aXXa TO Ilj/ey/tia TOW Geou /caJ IlaTpo'?' o 
eKiropeverai fj.lv e avrov, ecrri de OVK aXX- John xv. 26. 
orpiov TOV "Ytov KttTa ye TOV T^? 'ouov'ap Xo'yov. /cat TT/OO? 
175 ye TOVTO ^/xa? ot TWJ/ ay/coj/ /xi/o-Taywywj/ TricrTOvvTai 
Xoyoi. ev /xev ya/o Ta?9 Trpd^ecri TWV aTroa-ToXwv yey/o- 
a?TTat 'EX^o'^Te? 5e /caTa T^ Mya/ai/ Actsxvi. 7. 
eTreipafav et? T^ BtOi/j//ai/ 7ropey6^j/at, /cat ou/c 
et'acrev auTOV? TO Tri/eu/xa 'Iijcroi;' eTrtorreXXet 5e /cat 
180 6 Oeo-Trecrio? IlauXop Ot Se ev crapK\ OVTC? Rom. viii. 8, 9. 
9ew apeVat ou (Jui/ai'Taf, v/xe?? ^e ov/c e<TTe ev 

i aXX' ev irvev/j-aTi, e'/Trep Ilveu/xa 0eou 
vfi.lv. el 8e Ti? 7rveiv/xa Xpi<rToi7 ov/c e 



OUK e<TTtV ai/TOW. 



185 "OTV 5e Tive? TU>V TO, opOa Sia&Tpefaiv elwOoTCW T? 
e/xa? TrapaTpeVwcrt 0wva? eip TO auTO?? 5o/co9v, /xJ; Oavpa- 
TOWTO ^ cr^ ocrtoV^p, elSvta OTI KOI ol airo Tracrjy? atpe- 
er Ttjs OeoTrvevvTOv ypa^f)^? Ta? T?? eavTwv TrXav^p 
OT/XXeyov(7iv a^op/xa?, Ta &a TOZ) f Ay/of IIveuyixaTO? 6p6S>s 
190 etpjy/xeVa Ta?s eavTWV /ca/covo/at? Trapa<j>6eipovTes, KOI 

0Xo'ya. 



172 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

'E?reJ Se fjLefjt,aOjjKafJi,v on KOI ryv TT/OOP rov jULatcapiov 
'ETr/KTJfTOi/ eTrwroXV rov Travev^rnuLov Trarpb? 
vaviov, op6o8d(a$ e'xovcrav, TrapcKpOelpavTe? rives ei 
Ka<nv, W9 evrevdev aSiKei<r6ai TroXXou?, Sia rovro 
n KCU avayKalov eirivoovvres rois a^eX^oFf, e avnypd(f)(iDv 
iwv ru>v Trap' YIIMV KOL aTrXavw? e^ovrcov, a 



ra iVa ry cr^ ocriorqri- 

<re KOI virepevxpflwov fj^v o Ku/oto? Sia<f>v- 
Xa^et, Tt/xtwTare ae\<J>e. 200 



CYRIL AD IOAN. 173 



NOTES ON CYRIL'S LETTER TO 
JOHN OF ANTIOCH 

11 rS>v . . . (3a<n\e(av. Theodosius II. and Valen- 
tinian III. 



52 trvyypa^. In its original form this document was 
the work of Theodoret, and it had apparently been ex- 
hibited to the Emperor in a shorter form during the 
conference at Chalcedon in September, 431, 



56 owe ev TrpocrOriKW fjiepet, "not by way of a supplement 
(to the Nicene Symbol)." Trpoa-Qeivcu is thus used by the 
bishops at Antioch in 341 at the end of their first creed, 
Socr. ii. 10, Athan. de synod. 22 (see their words cited, 
p. 48). 

71 OJULOOVO-LOV TO) ILarpi, K.T.\. This phrase finds a place 
again in the Chalcedonian Definition. The latter half, 
"co-essential with us as to Manhood," had occurred in 
Nestorius' Sermon 3, and had no doubt come into partial 
use before this as a " counter-statement to the doctrine of 
Apollinarius that Christ's Body was consubstantial to 
the Godhead." It was not, as yet, a well-known and 
accepted Catholic phrase ; and this may explain Eutyches' 
subsequent hesitation respecting it (see below, pages 191, 
207, 239). Comp. Vincent. Lerin. Common. 13 (written in 
434), " In uno eodemque Christo duae substantiae sunt, 
ed una Divina altera humana . . i una consubstantialis 



174 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Patri, altera consubstantialis matri ; unus tamen idemque 
Christus in utraque substantial 



91 e ovpavov . . . crft^ct X/UO-TOV. This Apollinarian 
tenet had been ascribed to Cyril by Nestorius in his 
letter to Caelestine. 

112 A.VTOS yap a-uxrei, K.T.\. This is added from the 
Angel's words to Joseph, Matt. i. 21. 

119 [o Kvpios] eg ovpavov. The text is doubtful. The 
reference to it just below implies the omission of 6 
Kv/uo?. Cyril " apparently knew and used both read- 
ings " (Hort) of this verse. But in John iii. 13 next 
quoted he certainly omitted 6 &v ev rS> ovpavw. 

127 aVpeTTo? yap teal ai/aXXo/coro?. This phrase, which 
Cyril had already used in his Third Letter to Nestorius, 
occurred both in the Creed of Alexandria and in that of 
Antioch, and was therefore naturally employed by the 
bishop of the one city writing to the bishop of the other. 
See above, pp. 59, 65. 

132 et? Kvpiop 'Irjcrovs X/MCTTO?. Here again Cyril cites 
the Creed, or perhaps directly from 1 Cor. viii. 6, as in 
Epist. ad Nest. 3. 

135 Kpacris rj a-vyxvcris. This again was laid to Cyril's 
charge as an Apollinarian error. His disclaimer is 
valuable as anticipating the condemnation of the Euty- 
chian notion of the fusion or blending of the Two 
Natures. See below. 



151 oiKovo/MK^v, "oeconomic," i.e. "inherent in the In- 
carnation. oiKovofAia is constantly used by ecclesiastical 



CYRIL AD IOAN. 175 

writers for the " Dispensation " whereby the Son of God 
manifested Himself in flesh, while QeoXoyia expressed 
the Divinity of His Person. Euseb. H.E. i. 1 ; Basil. 
Epist. 8. 3 ; Athan. Or. c. Ar. ii. 9, c. Apollin. i. 2, 18 ; 
Theodor. Dial, ii., ryv evavQpwirwiv rov Qeov Aoyou 
KaXovjuiev OIKOVO/JLICIV : comp. ib. iii. juxta Jin. Chale. 
Def. 3. See Lightfoot's note on Ephes. i. 10 and on 
Ignat. Eph. 18 (ii. 75). Tertullian had used OeoXoyia 
in a different sense, of the relations of the Divine Per- 
sons in the Trinity (adv. Prax. 2, 3, 8). 

157 rai9 TW ay. TT. 6aiv, /c.r.X. Cyril no doubt had 
in mind the Fathers from whose writings extracts had been 
made in the Sixth Session of the Council of Ephesus, 
and appended to the Nicene Creed as a kind of Definition 
of Faith. They comprised passages from Peter of Alex- 
andria, Athanasius' Orations and Epistle to Epictetus, 
Julius' Epistle to Docimus, Felix' Epistle to Maximus, 
the Paschal Letters of Theophilus of Alexandria, Cyprian, 
Ambrose, Gregory of Nazianzum, Basil, Gregory of 
JSTyssa, Atticus of Constantinople, and Amphilochius of 
Iconium. See Vincent. Common. 79, who omits the last 
two. 

169 / fj.iavyovv Trapa[3fjvavarv\\a(3riv. So Basil (Epist. 
258) had written to Epiphanius in 377 "that 'not the 
smallest addition* could be made to the Nicene Creed 
except on the Divinity of the Holy Spirit" (Bright, 
Canons, p. 39). 



192 rt]v irpos T. /*. 'ETT/KT^TOI/ eiria-roXriv. The letter 
dealt with two forms of Apollinarian error, and was often 
appealed to in later controversies. 



APPENDIX 
TO THE EPISTLES OF CYRIL 



N 



ANATHEMATISMS OF THE FIFTH 
GENERAL COUNCIL AT CONSTANTINOPLE 

A.D. 553 

Mansi, ix. 367 ; Hahn, p. 168. 

I. Et Tt9 oi)x o/xoAoyet TLarpos /cat Ytou /cat ' Aytov Tivev- 
)ixaT09 ftiav (frvviv >/Tot oucrtav /j,iav re Swa/uuv /cat eov<riav, 
rpiaSa o/uoova-iov, ju-iav Oeorqra ev rpuriv inroa-rda-ecriv 

7T/ooo-ft)7rof9 7rpO(rKvvovfjLevt]v' 6 roiovro? avdOefjia 
o. E?9 yap 9eo9 /cat ]3aT>7/o, e ofi rd Trdvra, /cat e/9 
Kvpto? Ij(rov9 Xpt<TT09) ^t' o5 Ta TTCtj/Ta, /cat eV Tivev/na 

et A 5 f- \ / 

Aytov, ev a) ra iravra. 

II. E't rt9 oi^x o/ioAoyet, TOV 0eoy Aoyoy eti/at ra9 ovo 

9, T)?V re Trpo alwvwv e/c TOV IIaT/)09j d^p6vu>^ /cat 



rr(v re en e(rxdrwv rS>v ^epwv rov avrov 



Kare\0ovro$ e/c rS>v ovpavwv /cat cra/o/cw^eWo? e/c T^? ayta?. 
evS6ov OeoroKOv /cat aenrapQevov Map/a? /cat yevvyQevros 
e aur^s ' 6 T0ioi/T09 avaOe/xa eWw. 

III. EiVt? \eyei, aXXov elvai rov Qeov Koyov rov davfia- 
rovpyr)<ravra '/cat d\\ov rov X/otcrrw rov TraOovra, q rov 
Qebv A.6yov crvveivai \eyei rip X/of<rra> yevo/^eva) e/c ywaitcos, 

1\ ' ^ -? * 3 '\\ > }f \\ ' \ 1 \ ' ' " ^ N 

7 ev auroj etvai w? aAAov ev aAAo), aAA oix wa KOI TOV 
awrop 1 Ku/otov rifj-wv 'I>?(7ow X/)t(7TOV, TOV Tou 0eov Aoyov 
<rapK(*)9evra /cat evavOpcoTr^cravra, /cat TOW aurov ra re 
0au/xara /cat ra 7ra0^, a7re/o eKova-iw? virey.eive cra/o/c/' 6 



T0toi/T09 dvaOepa eWco. 



IV. Et' Tt? Aeyet, /cara X^/ tv ^ fTa evepyetav rj Kara 
iarorifJi.lav rj Kara avdevrlav t] dva^opdv y <rxeW ^ Svva^iv 

179 



i8o OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

ryv ewariv rov Qeov Aoyov TT/OO? avQpwirov yeyevfjvOai y Kara 
evSoKiav, a>? apecrQevros rov 0eov Aoyov TOU avOpwTrov, airo 
rov ed icdi /caXw? ooai avru> 7rept avrov } /caOws Geo&opo? 
paivofjievos Xeyet, ?? Kara 6[i.<tivv/Jiiav, tca& f}v 01 Necrropiavoi 
TOV Qeov Aoyov 'Irjcrovv /ecu XptcrTW /caXowre?, /ca< TOV av~ 
/cextt)pfO"/xevft)? Xptcrrov /cat utoi/ oVo/^a^oj/Te?, :aJ 6^1/0 

o^avws Xeyovre? /cara /AW^V T^fv Trpoarqyopiav 
KGU rifJ-nv KOI aiav KOI 'TrpoarKvvqcnv, /cat ev TT/OOCTCOTTOV /cat 
eva Xptcrroj/ viroKpivovTai \eyetv' aXA' oy^ o/uoXoyet 
eVaxrtvTovGeoi' Aoyou 7rpo?(Tap/ca efj^lrv^dDfj.GVtiv 
/cat voepa /cara crwOeow ^youv /ca0' u'Troo'Taortj/ 
Ka0a>? oi ayiot Trarepe? eSiSa^av' /cat <5ia TOUTO //.mv aurou 
r^v vTroa-rao-iv, a etrnv o Kv/no9 'I^a-ou? Xptcrro^ et? r^9 
ay/a? rpiaSos' 6 TOLOVTOS avaOe/u.a eara). rEoXyr/ooTrft)? 
yap voovfjt-evt]? rfj? evwarewg ot fjiev TJJ acre(3eta ' A.7ro\ivaplov 
/cat Ewryxow? a/coXou0owT09 TW d^ai/tcr/xw TWI/ arvve\06vr(ov 

rqv Kara (rvyxwiv rqv emviv 



oi Se ra OeoSwpov /cat Necrroptov (fipovovvTe? Tfl Siaipea-ei 
XaipovTe? o"xert/c^ r^v emcriv eTreurdyovcriv. 'H [tevroi 
ayt'a rou 6eoG e'/c/cX>ycrta, e/carepa? aipe<re(o$ Tnv a<re/3eiav 
aTTO/SaXXo/xei'jf, T^V ei/wtnv TOU 0eov Ao'yov irpo? T^I/ crap/ca 
/cara <rvvOe<riv o^ioXoyet, 6Vep ecrrt /caO' VTro'crracrtJA 'H 
yap ^ara (rvv&e<nv evu>tn$ em rov Kara Xpt(7Tov /AWT^ptou 
ou /aoVoi/ atrvyyvra ra <rvve\66vra Sia<j>vXarrei, aXX' ou^e 
Siaipeariv eVioVxerai. 

V. Et TI? T^V /juav uTroWacrtv TOV Kyptou ^Mwv 'If/a'oy 
Xpt(TToJ) oyVft)? e/cXa/xj8aj/et, wj eiuSexoiu-evriv -TroXXwj/ UTTO- 
a-raa-ewv trniJ-acriav, /cat cJm TOWTOV etVayetJ/ eTTixeipei e?rt 
TOV fcaTa XptcrTOf [j,v<rrripiov Svo VTrocrracreis %roi Svo 
TrpoVwTra, /cat TCW Trap' avTOu etVayo/xej/ft)!/ 6Vo 
eV 7rpoVft)7roi/ Xey^t /caTa a^tav /cat Tt/x^v /cat 
KaQairep QeoSwpog /cat NecrTopto? ^aivofjievoi <rvveypa\[f- 
avro' Kai crvicoQavrei ryv ayiav ev "SLahxtjSovi (rvvoSov 



APPENDIX TO CYRIL 181 

W9 Kara ravTr/v ryv a<re(3rj evvoiav xpwaftevqv TW rfjs pia? 
VTrocrrao-ew? pr/paTi, a\\a M 6/u,o\oyei TOV TOV Qeov 
Aoyov (rapia, KaO' vTrotrracriv evcoOfjvai KOI oia TOVTO ftiav 
avTOV Trjv VTrocrracrti' %TOi ev TrpoortoTrov, OVTWS re /cat 
ayiav ev "K.oi\KtjS6vi (rvvoSov fj.iav vir6(TTa<nv TOV 
f)ij.<av 'lya-ov Xpto-rov 6/xoXoy^crat ' 6 TOIOVTOS avd 
eWft). Ovre yap irpocrO^Krjv TrpocrcoTrov qyovv v 
e7reSearo f) ay/a rpias KOI arapKU>6evros TOV ew? rijs ayi 
rpidSo?, Qeov Ao'yov. 

VI. Ei' ris KaTaxpwrucWj a^' OVK aXqSux;, OeoroKOV 
\eyei rtjv ayiav evSoov aenrapOevov M.apiav rj Kara ava- 
(fropdv, 0)9 avOpwirov \jsi\ov yevvrjOevTO?, a\\' ovxi TOV Qeov 
Aoyov (rapicwOevTos [/cat TJ/9J e avrys, ava<j)epoiu.evr]$ Se 
KUT eKeivov T^? TOV avOpwirov yew^crew? eTrl TOV Qeov 
A-oyov, wj crvvovTa TW avOptairw yevofJiivty' KOLL <rvKO<pavTei 
Tyv ayiav ev XaA/cj^bVt vvvoSov, w? /cara raur^v Tyv ci(re(3rj 
eTTivot]9ei(rav Tra/oa QeoScopov evvoiav OCOTOKOV Tyv TrapOevov 
eiTrovarav' y e'i TI$ avQpwrroTOKov avTyv KaXei ^ x.P La " ro ~ 
TOKOV, a? TOV X/otcrTov M ovTOs Qeov, a\\a M Kvpiws Kal 
/caret a\q8eiav QeoTOicov avTt]v o/xoXoye?, Sta TO TOV irpo 
TWV alutvcw eK TOV TiaTpbs yevvriQevTa Qeov A.6yov CTT' 
ecr^arwv TWV y//m.epu)v e aur% crapKwBfjvai, OVTW re evirepSis 

l Ttjv ayiav ev XaX/c7<Sow vvvoSov QeoTOKOV avTnv 6/aoXo- 
' o TO(ovT09 avd6e/u,a euro). 

VII. Et Tf9 ev Svo 0uoreo- Xe'ywv M <9 ev OeorJjTi /cat 

i TOV eva Kvpiov ^/xwv 'Irjcrovv XpicrTOi/ yvwpi- 
6ju.o\oyei, 'iva Sia TOVTOV (rr)/u,dvfl T*]V ia<j)0pav TU>V 
, e &v aa-vyxvTws % a^pacrTos evaxris yeyovev, OVTC 
TOV Aoyoy els T^V r^9 ocap/co9 (J-eTairoiriQevTO^ <j>v<nv ovre 
apKos 7rp09 Ttjv TOV A.6yov <fr\><n 
yap eKarrepov oirep e<rTi Ty <j>v<Tei, Kal 

/caO' vir6<rTa<nv, aXX' evrt Siaipearei Tfl ava 
TOiavTrjv \a/u,/3avei (JHavtjv eTrl TOV /cara X/otcrroi' 



182 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

iwarripiov r) rbv api6/u,bv rwv (pvo-ec&v 6/no\oyS>v 
TOV avrov evbs Kvp/oy fjfiSiv 'Irjarov rov Qeov \oyov 
(rapKwOevro?, IJ.YI ry Oecvpia i^ovy ryv oia^opav rovrwv 
Aa/A|8oVet, eg &v /cat crvvereO)], OVK avaipovju.evriv Sia rqv 
evuxnV) etp yap e afji^oiv Kal Si ew? a/x0oVepa 
a\\' eTrl TOVTW Kexp>irai T<a apiO/my ft)? /cexft)/ofcrM ei/a ? 
KOI ISiovTroa-TCiTOv? e^ei ra? (j>vcrei$' 6 TOIOVTOS avaOe/Jia 



VIII. Ei' ri? e/c Svo <j)v<re(av, deorrjros ical avOpto- 
TTOT^TO? o/JLoXoywv rtjv evcixriv yeyevfja-Qai, rj ju.lav fyvaiv 
TOV Qeov Aoyov crecrapKw/JLevtjv XeycDV, IM\ OVTC&S avra 

aj^, KaOcnrep KOI oi dyioi Trare/oe? eSiaav, on e/c 
0ucrea)9 KOI rfjs avOpwirivqs, TJ?? evcotrew? KaO' 

s, eT? Xpio-ros aTrereXea-Qr], a\\' e/c TftV TOIOVTWV 
/Jiiav <})V(nv ^roi ovviav OedryTOS' KOI crap/co? rov 
X/3t(TTOu elcrayeiv eTri-^eipel' o roiovros ava6e/jia eVrft). 
Ka0' uTrocrTacrti/ yap Xeyoi/re? TOJ/ [Aovoyevij Aoyov qvS)<rdai 
OVK avdxv<riv riva ryv els aXXrjXovs rwv (f>vtrewv 
<})a[JLev, fjivov(rt]s Se [taXXov e/care/oa? oVep <rrlv 
crapKi VOOVIJ.GV rov Aoyov. Aio /cat eT? ecrriv 6 
0eo? /caJ avOpcairo?, 6 avrb? o/wooJcrio? TW Tiarpl Kara rrjv 
Oeorrjra, /cat 6/xoovcno? ^/w^ o awros /cara T^ avOpw- 
Trorrjra. 'ETT/CTJ?? yap /cat TOUS ava /xepo? Siaipovvra? 
re/xvovra? /cat TOW? cruyxeovra? TO r^p 0eta? OLKOVO- 
iMvrvipiov rov ILpiarrov aTroirrpefarai /cat avaOe^a- 
rtei f] rov Qeov e/acAjycna. 

IX. Et Tt? Trpoa-KvvetcrOai ev Sv&l (j>v<re<n \eyei rbv 
Xptorrw, e^ ov Svo Trpoaricvvria-eis etVayovrat, ISia ru> Gew 

A/ \n' ' /I / . W \ / 

Aoya) /cat tota TO> avupcoirto t] et rt? eTrt avaipearei rrj? 
crap/co? ^ eTrt oTvyx^cret T^? Oeorqros /cat T^? avOpwjrorrjro?, 
TI fiiiav <j>v<riv yyovv ova-lav rwv <rvve\Q6vrwv reparevofJievos, 
ovrw Trpo&Kvvei rbv Xpto-roV, a\\' ov^i /JLIOL Trpoo'Kvvya'ei 
rbv Qeov Aoyov crap/cwOeVra /xera T^? t^/a? auroy orap/co? 



APPENDIX TO CYRIL 183 

Trpocr/cwet, KaOdirep y rov 0eou KK\rja-ia -TrapeXa/Sei/ e 



TOiouVo9 avdOe/na ecrno. 



X. E* Tt9 oux o/AoXoyet, TOI/ eWaupw/xeVoi/ (rap/ct Kuptoi> 
L/<row Xptarroi/ efrat 0eoi/ aXyBivov KOI Kvpiov rfjs 
KCU eva T*j$ ay/as rpidSos' 6 rotovro? avdOefAa 



eOTTCO. 



XI. E'/ Ti? /x^f avaOe/j-ari^ei "A-peiov, Evvdjutoi/, Ma:e- 
i/, 'A.Tr6\ivapiov, Neoro/oiov, Eurvx^a :at 'Qpiyevrfv 
fiera TCW acre^Scov aurwv (ryyypa/x/xaTWj/, Kat TOU? aXXoi/9 
alperiKovg TOU? KaTa/cpt^eVra? feat dvaOe/j.ari(T~ 
VTTO rfjs ayia? /ca0oXi/c% /cat a'TrotrroXt/c^? eVc/cX^cr/a? 
<cat TCO^ TrpOipr]fji.V(av ayiwv Tecra-dptov (rvvoSwv, KOI TOU? 



fa ofioia TU>V 



vowra? /cat M^XP TeXov? T?/ oiKeia aore/3e/a e 
o roiovros avdOe/u.a eWw. 

XII. E'/ Tt? avrnroieirai QeoSwpov rou a(re/3ov?, TOU 
Mo\^oye(TT/a9, TOU etVoi/ro?, aXXov etVat TOV 0eov Ao'yoi' 
/ecu aXXoi/ TOJ/ Xpto-roj/ UTTO TTaOwv ^vx^? ^at TWV 



<rap/co? eTTtOv/Aiuiv evo^ovfjievov KOI TU>V 



) ml oimo? e'/c Trpo/coTT^? epywj/ (3e\TiG)~ 
Oevra KOI GK TroXireia? a/xco/xoi/ /ccrracrTaWa, w? \jri\ov 
avOpwirov ftaTrTia-OfjvaL ei? oj/o/ua Ilarpos /cat Ytov /cat 
' Ay/ov IIvey/xaTO?, /cai 5ta TOU /3a7TTt<TyaaTO? T^V x c '/ 3tl ' T0 ^ 
'Ay/ou IIi/eJ/xaTOS \aj3eiv, KOI vtoOea-ias ai<a6rjvcu } KCU KO.T 
iVoTJjTa /3a<7tXt:J7s elicovos et? TrpocrcoTroi/ TOU 0eou Ao'you 
Trpo(TKVvei<rQa.i, KCU fjt-era T^V aj/aaTacrtv arpeTrrov rats 
GWOLaig /cat ava/JidprriTOV TravreXw yevecrOai' /cat Tra'Xtv 
etpjj/coTO? TOU auTOU acre/Sou? 0eo<Scopou, T^V ema-iv rov 0eou 
Aoyou Trpo? TOJ/ XptOTTOi/ TOtauT^i/ yeyei^crflat, omv o 
a-TrocTToXo? eTTt avSpbs /cat ywatKO?' ecrovTat 01 6Vo ets 
o-ap/ca /Atai/* /cat -7rp09 Tat? aXXats avapiO/n^TOig OUTOU 
/8Xacr$>7/At'at? ToX/x^crai/TO? etireiv, on /j.era ryv avacrrcxriv 
6 Kupt09 Tot9 fJiaO^rai? /cat etVcoi/' Aa/5eTe 



1 84 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

"Aytov, ov (SeoWei/ avrois livev/uia "AytOi// aXXa 
JULOVOV ei/e^ucr^crej/' ofrro? Se /cat rrjv 6fJLO\oyiav 



TU>V 

/wera T^V ayaoracrti/, TO' '0 Ky/oto? /AOV /cat o 
0eo? /Jiov, elire, M eiprj(rOai irepl rov Xptcrrou Trapa TOU . 
Oco/xa, a AX' eTTt TW irapaSo^w r^? ai/a(rTa(7eft)9 e/cTrXayei/ra 
TOJ/ 0co/xai/ v/ULvrjo-di rov 0eoV, TW eyeipavTa Toy 



TO 5 



ywe^ 7ra/>' ai;Tou 5^0ei/ ep^veta crvyKplmv 6 avros QeoSwpos 
TOV X/otcTTW IlXaTftm /cat Mai/txatw /cat 'ETrt/cou/ow /cat 
Map/a'aw Xe'yei, 6Vt, (aa-irep eKeivcav e/cao-TO? eu/oa/Aej/o? 
oiKeiov S6y/u.a TOVS avrw ^aOrireva-avras 7re7rot>;/ce /caXeto- 
Oat nXaTWi/t/coi'9 /cat Ma^xatou? /cat 'ETa/coi/pet'ov? /cat 
Map/cwovi<rTa9, TW opoiov T/OOTTOV /cat TOU Xpt<7Tou ey/oa- 
/AeVou SoyfJia e avrov X/otcrTtai/ou? /caXetcrOat' et Tt? roivvv 
avTiTTOietrai TOV elptj/m.evov acrefievTarov QeoSwpov /cat TWJ/ 
acre/Saw ai/Tow (rvyypa/m./ui.arcov, ev ot? Ta? Te elpr]jui,eva$ /cat 
aXXa? avapi9]m^TOVS /3Xa<70>;/>ifa? ee)(ee Kara TOV fteyaXov 
Qeov /cat 2ft)T^/oo? ^/AWV 'I^ov ILpicrTOv' aXXa /x^ ava0e- 
fjittTi^ei avTOV /cat Ta acre/3^ auTOU (rvyypa/x/xaTa /cat 
Trai/Ta? TOV? 8exo/JLevov$ y /cat e/c^t/cowTa? ai/TOV 5; Xeyoi/Tas, 
6p6oS6w avTov eicOea-Oai, /cat TOU? ypafiavTas virep CLVTOV 
/cat TW a<ref$S)v avTov arvyypa/ji/jiaTwv, /cat TOU? Ta o/xota 
<j)povovi>Ta$ y <j>povri<ravTas TTCOTTOTG /cat /we^(/ot TeXov? e/x/wet- 
j/ai/Ta? T^ TOtavTfl aipe<rei ' avaQe^a eWw. 

XIII. Et TI? di/Tt7rotetTat TWV dcre/3wj/ criyypa/A/xaTft)J/ 
QeoSwpiTOV, TWV KttTa T^? aXj/floi'? TrtcTTew? >cat T^? ev 
'E0e<ro) TT/owT)?? /cat ayta? arwoSov /cat TOU ei/ ay tot 9 Kv- 
pi\\ov /cat TW^ SwSeKO. avTov /ce^aXatW, /cat iravTcov >v <rvv- 
eypa\[sa,TO virep QeoSwpov /cat Nea-Topiov, TWV SvcrarepStv, 
/cat vTrep aXXwv TOOV TO, avTa Tot? irpoeiprj/uievois QeoSwpw 
/cat NecTTO/otw (frpovovvTwv /cat Sexoftemv O.VTOVS KCU Ttjv O.VTWV 
/cat o't' auTwi' acre/Sets /caXet TOV? 






APPENDIX TO CYRIL 185 

SiSa<TKa\ov$, TOU? KO.& viroarracriv ryv evcocrtv TOV Qeov 
\oyov 0/oovovvTa?' /cat enre/o OVK avaOe/^ari^eL TO, et/o>//jieva 
acre/Si) a-vy/pa/m/mara. KCU TOVS ra o[J,oia TOVTOLS <ppovy- 
cravTa? q $povoiWa?, /cat iravras Se TOU? ypd^avTa? Kara 
T%9 opBrjs 7rl<rT(0$ rj TOV ev ay/ot? Ky/o/AAoy 'KCU TU>V ScaSeica 
CLVTOV /ce^>aXa/ft)i/, KOI ev TOiavTfl acre/Seta 
6 TOIOVTOS avdOepa ecrrft). 

XIV. Et Tis avTiTTOieircu r?9 eTria-ToXrjs rtj$ 
7rapa"I/3a yeypd^Oai Trpo? Ma/7v TOI/ nepo-jji/, T^? apvov- 
TOV 0ew Ao'yov etc T^? ay/a? OGOTOKOV /cat 
Ma/o/af crayo/ccoOeWa avOpomrov yeyevtjarQcu, 
Xeyowr79 ^e \lsi\bv avOpcDirov e^ auT% yevvriQfjvai, ov vaov 
co? aXXoi' etvai TOV 0eov Ao'yov /cat a'XXov 
KOI rov ev o.yloi<s Ku/otXXov TJfv opOrjv 
TTIO-TIV Ktjpv^avTa Sia(3aX\ov<rt]$ cb? aipertKOv 
KCU ofJLoldas 'A-TToiXivapia) TU> Sv&cre/Sei ypa\}savTa' KCU 
/xe/u^o/xev^? T>?V ev 'E^ecrw TT/OCOT^V ay/av cruvo^ov, ft)? 
Kpta-ecos KOI ^TJ/crea)? Neo-Topiov KaOeXotxrav' KCU TO. 
Ke(f>a\aia TOV ev ay/ot? Kup/XXov a(re(3fi KOI evavTia 
6p6g iricTTei cnroKa\ei y avTrj aveBris eiria-ToX^, Kal 
QedScopov KOU Ne<TTo'/)iov /cat Ta cxrefifj avTU>v S6y/u.aTa 
o~uyypdfji.fji.aTa' el Tt? TOLVVV Trjs ei'/ojftue'v^? eTrtcrToX^? 
, /cai /xi; avaOefJiaTL^et avTyv Kal TOW? 

iJ?, /cat XeyovTa?. ain^/v o'/o0^v etvai ^ /xepo? aim/?, 
/cat yyoa^avTa? /cat ypd<j>ovTa$ i/Trep avTrjs rj TCOV Trepie- 
acrefieiwv, /cat ToX/xw^Ta? TavT>?v e/c^t/cetv ^ 
IVT^ ao-e/3e/a? oVo/AOTt TWV dy/wv TraTe/owv 
cty/a? ev XaX/c^o'vt cri/vo'^oi', /cat TOWTOI? /xe^pt TeXov? 
e/x/aetVai/Ta? ' o TOIOVTOS avaOe/uia e<TT(a. 



THE TOME OF LEO 



HA2IN THS TOT MAKAPIOT 
HBTPOT SfiNHS 'EPMHNETS 



THE TOME OF LEO 



INTRODUCTION 

THE circumstances under which the Tome was written 
were these. 

Eutyches was the archimandrite of some three hundred 
monks in a large monastery near Constantinople. In 431 
he had joined the long train of anti-Nestorian abbats and 
monks, whose representations to the Emperor Theodosius 
had led to the release of Cyril and to the imperial 
acceptance of Nestorius' deposition. He was now an 
old man of seventy, and his life had been passed in the 
seclusion of his monastery. An unfortunate obstinacy of 
mind, united with an incapacity for holding the balance 
of theological truth,* led him, in his zealous opposition 
to Nestorianism, to deny the reality of the Human 
Nature in Christ. On this ground a charge was brought 
against him by a former intimate friend, Eusebius of 
Dorylaeum, in a synod which happened to be sitting at 
Constantinople on November 8, 448, under the presidency 

* So Leo speaks of him as " multum imprudens et nimis imperitus" ; 
and again (Epist. 29) as erring "imperite atque imprudenter " ; and still 
more strongly (Epist. 33 ad Synod. Ephes.) as "ostendere se nullum 
unquam studium cognosoendae veritatis habuisse, et superfluo honorabilem 
visum, qui nulla maturitate cordis ornavit canitiem senectutis " (comp. 
too Epist, 88 ad Flav.). 

. 189 



igo OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

of the Archbishop Flavian.* So high was the estimation 
in which Eutyches was held that it was only with the 
greatest reluctance that Flavian consented to hear the 
formal charge of heresy, and to summon the archiman- 
drite to make his defence. The synod adjourned, but it 
was not until the seventh session, on November 22, that 
Eutyches appeared, accompanied by soldiers and monks 
and an imperial commissioner. Confronted with the 
teaching of Cyril in his Letter to John, on the distinction 
of the Two Natures in Christ, Eutyches admitted a 
"Union out of Two Natures " (evwcri? e/c Svo (frvarmv), but 
declined to acknowledge the existence of Two Natures 
after the Incarnation, and wished to put in a written 
statement of his own. This, however, he appeared un- 
willing to read out,| but said that he confessed Christ as 
Perfect Man from the flesh of the Virgin.! In deference 
to the synod he further admitted, though reluctantly, that 

* There was always a large number of Bishops staying in Constanti- 
nople on business connected with their own churches. These " could 
easily be collected by a message from the Archbishop," and this <rtvo8os 
frSij/tovva "became a recognized part of the ecclesiastical machinery, and 
as time ran on gained a prescriptive authority " (note in Oxf. trans, of 
Fleury, iii. 406). It was not a permanent assembly, but an irregular 
convocation, which was found very useful for the despatch of the business 
of the Patriarchate. Its practical usefulness is illustrated by the words 
of Anatolius in the Fourth Session of the Council of Chalcedon (Mansi, 
vii. 92), " A custom has long prevailed that Bishops who are staying 
(frdrinowTas) in Constantinople should assemble when occasion requires 
for such ecclesiastical affairs as accidentally occur." Its existence un- 
doubtedly had aided largely in establishing the Patriarchal jurisdiction 
of Constantinople, which was confirmed, in spite of the Roman protest, 
by Chalc. canon 28. 

t He appended it to his letter to Leo (apud Leon. Epist. 21), but it 
has not been preserved. 

J "I adore the Father with the Son, and the Son with the Father, 
and the Holy Spirit with the Father and the Son. I confess that His 
Incarnate Presence came from the flesh of the holy Virgin, and that He 
was made Perfect Man for our salvation." 



TOME OF LEO 191 

Christ was co-essential with us as to His Manhood,* and 
repeatedly said that he did not wish to speculate upon 
the Nature (<J)va-io\oyeiv) of One who was his God. Much 
reasoning and argument were expended, and when the 
discussion finally narrowed down to the question, "Do 
you confess Two Natures after the Union ? " Eutyches' 
reply in the negative, from which nothing could move 
him, left no room for doubt as to his heresy, f Only one 
course was open, and in all sorrow Flavian, in the name 
of the synod, pronounced sentence of excommunication 
and deposition on the archimandrite and any who should 
adhere to him. Eutyches intimated to the commissioner 
Florentius his intention of appealing to Rome, Alexandria, 
and Jerusalem, and wrote to Pope Leo complaining of 
ill-treatment, and anathematizing Apollinarius, Valen- 
tinus, Manes, Nestorius, and all heresies. Flavian also 
wrote to inform Leo of the facts of the case, but his 
letter met with some delay in transit, for on February 18, 
449, Leo, who had surmised from Eutyches' letter and 
from another which he had received from the Emperor 
that Flavian had acted with some want of charity, wrote 
to Flavian expressing his surprise that he had not been 
informed of the case (Epist. 23). Flavian's original 
letter, with the acts of the synod, arrived later, and was 
acknowledged on May 21st. His second letter, in response 

* See note above on Form, of Reunion, p. 173 ; and below on the 
Tome, p. 207, and again on Ghalc. Def., p. 239. The admission was 
evidently so reluctant that it failed to convey the impression of sincerity, 
for Flavian twice asserted that Eutyches did not admit the Human co- 
essentiality (Epist. 22 and 26 in the Leonine collection). 

f From evidence subsequently given by Basil of Seleucia it appeared 
that Eutyches had said that he would agree to abide by the ruling of the 
Bishops of Eome and of Alexandria on the point, implying that he did 
not believe that they would admit the Two Natures. 



192 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

to Leo's of February 18, did not reach Eome until near 
the end of June, after Leo had written the Tome (Epist. 
26, 36). Meanwhile Theodosius, in response to the desire 
of Dioscorus of Alexandria, who had become a zealous 
partizan of Eutyches, had written on March 30 summon- 
ing a General Council to meet at Ephesus on August 1st. 

Eutyches possessed a good deal of court influence, and 
by the Emperor's orders a preliminary synod sat at Con- 
stantinople on April 8th to revise the acts of the " Home 
Synod," which Eutyches asserted were inaccurate, but 
which were confirmed in all essential particulars. Another 
petition was presented to the Emperor by Eutyches, and 
a second court of review was instituted on April 27, 
where it was pretended that Eutyches had been condemned 
before his trial, and that the acts of the Council had 
been falsified. Flavian's confession of faith was demanded 
and produced. He adhered to Nicaea, Constantinople, 
and Ephesus, and acknowledged in Christ after the In- 
carnation Two Natures ev /uua vTrocrrda-et, KOI ev evl 
Trpoarwirw, and would admit (in Cyrilline language) One 
Nature of the Divine Word Incarnate and made Man. 

The Emperor nominated Dioscorus as President of the 
coming Council, and invited the Western Bishops and 
Pope Leo. The latter saw no necessity for a Council, 
and would have preferred it to have been held, if at all, 
in Italy. He nominated three legates to represent him 
at Ephesus : Julius, Bishop of Puteoli ; Renatus, a priest ; 
and Hilarus, a deacon. 

On June 13, 449, amongst other letters, he wrote, as a 
fuller answer to Flavian's first letter, the celebrated Tome, 
which as a doctrinal formulary was subsequently accepted 
at Chalcedon, and declared authoritative on the subject 
of the mystery of the Incarnation. 



TOME OF LEO 193 



ANALYSIS OF LEO'S TOME 

A. Introductory. 1. Eutyches has fallen into error 

through ignorance and theological 
incompetency. 

B. Doctrinal. 2. He should have studied the Creed, 

St. Matthew and St. Paul, and 
Old Testament prophecies, which 
teach the reality of the Incarnation. 

3. Two Natures without confusion met 
in One Person. 

4. The Son of God is born after a new 
order in time, and by a new 
mode of birth from a Virgin; 
yet with Flesh like ours, only 
faultless. The Selfsame is Very 
God and Very Man, each Nature 
working in its own sphere. 

5. The communicatio idiomatum. The 
properties of each Nature, while 
remaining distinct, are yet refer- 
able to the One Person of the Son 
of God. Eutyches has rejected 
this truth, and " dissolved " Jesus 
by denying His Human Nature, 
and by holding Docetic views of 
His Body and His Passion. 
o 



i 9 4 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

6. Eutyches' confession "of two 
natures before the union" is as 
impious as his denial of the Two 
Natures after the Incarnation. 

C. Hortatory. Endeavour to reclaim him, and if 

he repents and condemns these 
errors in writing, restore him. 

D. Conclusion. For the due execution of the matter 

we are sending three legates to 
the Council. 



THE TOME OF LEO 

DILECTISSIMO FRATRI FLAVIANO LEO 

I. Lectis dilectionis tuae litteris, quas miramur fuisse 
tarn seras, et gestorum episcopalium ordine recensito, 
tandem quid apud vos scandal! contra integritatem fidei 

5exortmn fuisset, agnovimus; et quae prius videbantur 
occulta, nunc nobis reserata patuerunt. Quibus Eutyches, 
qui presbyterii nomine honorabilis videbatur, multum 
imprudens et nimis imperitus ostenditur, ut etiam de ipso 
dictum sit a propheta: Noluit intelligere, ut lew PS. xxxv. 4. 

10 ageret, iniguitat&m meditatm est in cuUli suo. Quid autem 
iniquius, quam impia sapere, et sapientioribus doctiori- 
busque non cedere? Sed in hanc insipientiam cadunt, 
qui cum ad cognoscendam veritatem aliquo impediuntur 
obscuro, non ad propbeticas voces, non ad apostolicas 

15 litteras nee ad evangelicas auctoritates, sed ad semetipsos 
recurrunt ; et ideo magistri erroris exsistunt, quia veritatis 
discipuli non fuere. Quam enim eruditionem de sacris 
novi et veteris testamenti paginis acquisivit, qui ne ipsius 
quidem Symboli initia comprehendit ? Et quod per totum 

20 mundum omnium regenerandorum voce depromitur, istius 
adhuc senis corde non capitur. 

II. Nesciens igitur, quid deberet de Verbi Dei incar- 
natione sentire, nee volens ad promerendum intelligentiae 
lumen in sanctarum scripturarum latitudine laborare 

25illam saltern communem et indiscretam confessionem 
sollicito recepisset auditu, qua fidelium universitas pro- 



r 9 6 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Kom. symb. fitetur : Credere se in JDeum Patrem omnipo- 
tentem et in Jemm Christum Filium ejus unicum, Dominum . 
nostrum, qui natus est de Spiritu sancto et Maria virgine. 
Quibus tribus sententiis omnium fere haereticorum 30 
machinae destruuntur. Cum enim Deus et omnipotens 
et Pater creditur, eonsempiternus eidem Filius demon- 
Nic. symb. stratur, in nullo a Patre differens, quia de .Deo 
Deus, de omnipotente omnipotens, de aeterno natus est 
coaeternus, non posterior tempore, non inferior potestate, 35 
non dissimilis gloria, non divisus essentia; idem vero 
sempiterni genitoris unigenitus sempiternus natus est de 
Spiritu sancto et Maria virgine. Quae nativitas tem- 
poralis illi nativitati divinae et sempiternae nihil minuit, 
nihil contulit, sed totam se reparando honrini, qui erat40 
deceptus, impendit, ut et mortem vinceret et diabolum, 
qui mortis habebat imperium, sua virtute destrueret. Non 
enim superare possemus peccati et mortis auctorem, nisi 
naturam nostram ille susciperet et suam faceret, quern 
nee peccatum contaminare nee mors potuit detinere. Con- 45 
ceptus quippe est de Spiritu sancto intra uterum matris 
virginis, quae ilium ita salva virginitate edidit, quemad- 
modum salva virginitate concepit. 

Sed si de hoc christianae fidei fonte purissimo sincerum 
intellectum haurire non poterat, quia splendorem per- 50 
spicuae veritatis obcaecatione sibi propria tenebrarat; 
doctrinae se evangelicae subdidisset. Et dicente Matthaeo: 
Matt. i. i. Liber generationis Jesu Christi filii David, filii 
Abraham, apostolicae quoque praedicationis expetisset 
instructum. Et legens in epistola ad Eomanos: Paulus,W 
Kom. i. i ff. servus Jesu Christi, vocatus apostolus, segregatus 
in evangelium Dei, quod ante promiserat per prophetas suos 
in scripturis sanetis de Mlio suo, quifactus est JSi ex semine 
David secundum carnem, ad propheticas paginas piam 



TOME OF LEO 197 

60 sollicitudinem contulisset. Et inveniens promissionem 
Dei ad Abraham dicentis : In semine tuo bene- Gen. xu. 3, 
dicentw omnes gentes, ne de hujus seminis xxii - 18> 
proprietate dubitaret, secutus fuisset apostolum dicentem : 
Abrahae dictae sunt promissiones et semini ejus. Gai. m. ie. 

65 Non dicit : et seminibus, quasi in muttis, sed quasi in uno : 
et semini tuo, quod est CJvristus. Isaiae quoque praedica- 
tionem interiore appreliendisset auditu dicentis: Ecce, 
virgo in utero accipiet et pariet filium, et wca- isaiah VH. 14. 
bunt nomen ejus Immanuel, quod est interpret- Matt. i. 23. 

Indium:, nobiseum Deum. Ejusdem prophetae fideliter 
verba legisset : Puer natus est nobis, filius datus isaiab ix. e. 
est nobis, cujus potestas super humerum ejus, et wcabunt 
nomen ejus: Magni Consilii Angdus, Admirabilis Gon- 
siliarius, Deus fortis, Princeps pads, Pater futuri saeculi. 

75 Nee frustratorie loquens ita Verbum diceret carnem fac- 
tum, ut editus utero virginis Christus haberet formam 
hominis et non haberet materni corporis veritatem. An 
forte ideo putavit Dominurn nostrum Jesum Christum 
non nostrae esse naturae, quia missus ad beatam Mariam 

80 semper virginem angelus ait: Spiritus sanctus LUC. i. 35. 
superveniet in te, et virtus Altissimi obumbrabit tibi; 
ideoque et quod nascetur ex te sanctum vocabitur Filius 
Dei t ut, quia conceptus virginis divini fuit operis, non de 
natura concipientis fuerit caro concepti. Sed non ita 

85 intelligenda est ilia generatio singulariter mirabilis et 
mirabiliter singularis, ut per novitatem creationis pro- 
prietas remota sit generis. Fecunditatem enim virgini 
Spirifcus sanctus dedit, veritas autem corporis sumta de 
corpore est; et aedificante sibi sapientia domum: Prov. ix. i. 

90 V&rbium caro factum est, et habitavit in nobis, loan. i. u. 
hoc est in ea carne, quam assumsit ex homine, et quam 
spiritu vitae ratioualis animavit. 



198 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

III. Salva igitur proprietate utriusque naturae et sub- 
stantiae, et in imam coeunte personam, suscepta est a 
maj estate humilitas, a virtute infirmitas, ab aeternitate 95 
mortalitas ; et ad resolvendum conditionis nostrae debitum 
natura inviolabilis naturae est unita passibili, ut, quod 
nostris remediis congruebat, unus atque idem mediator 
Dei et hominum, homo Jesus Christus, et mori posset ex 
uno et mori non posset ex altero. In integra ergo veriioo 
hominis perfectaque natura versus natus est Deus, 
totus in suis, totus in nostris. " Nostra " autem dicimus, 
quae in nobis ab initio Creator condidit et quae reparanda 
suscepit. Nam ilia, quae deceptor intulit et homo decep- 
tus admisit, nullum habuerunt in Salvatore vestigium. 105 
Nee quia communionem humanarum subiit infirmitatum, 
ideo nostrorum fuit particeps delictorum. Assumpsit for- 
mam servi sine sorde peccati, humana augens, divina non 
minuens ; quia exinanitio ilia, qua se invisibilis visibilem 
praebuit, et creator ac Dominus omnium rerum unus voluit no 
esse mortalium, inclinatio fuit miserationis, non defectio 
potestatis. Proinde qui manens in forma Dei fecit hom- 
inem, idem in forma servi factus est homo. Tenet enim 
sine defectu proprietatem suam utraque natura ; et sicut 
formam servi Dei forma non adimit, ita formam Dei servi 115 
forma non minuit. Nam quia gloriabatur diabolus, hom- 
inem sua fraude deceptum divinis caruisse muneribus, et 
immortalitatis dote nudatum duram mortis subiisse sen- 
tentiam, seque in malis suis quoddam de praevaricatoris 
consortio invenisse solatium; Deurn quoque, justitiael20 
exigente ratione, erga hominem, quern in tanto honore 
condiderat, propriam mutasse sententiam; opus fuit 
secreti dispensatione consilii, ut incommutabilis Deus, 
cuju's voluntas non potest sua benignitate privari, primam 
erga uos pietatis suae dispositionem sacrameuto occultiore 125 



TOME OF LEO 199 

compleret, et homo diabolicae iniquitatis versutia actus in 
culpam contra Dei propositum non periret. 

IV. Ingreditur ergo haec mundi infima Filius Dei, de 
caelesti sede descendens et a paterna gloria non recedens, 

I30novo ordine, nova nativitate generatus. Novo ordine, 
quia invisibilis in suis visibilis factus est in nostris, in- 
comprehensibilis voluit comprehendi ; ante tempora 
manens esse coepit ex tempore; universitatis Dominus 
servilem formam obumbrata majestatis suae immensitate 

135 suscepit ; impassibilis Deus non dedignatus est homo esse 
passibilis, et immortalis mortis legibus subjacere. Nova 
autem nativitate generatus, quia inviolata virginitas con- 
cupiscentiam nescivit, carnis materiam ministravit. As- 
sumpta est de matre Domini natura, non culpa; nee in 

140 Domino Jesu Christo ex utero virginis genito, quia nativi- 
tas est mirabilis, ideo nostri est natura dissimilis. Qui 
enim verus est Deus, idem verus est homo ; et nullum est 
in hac unitate mendacium, dum invicem sunt et 
humilitas et altitudo deitatis. Sicut enim Deus non 

Hsmutatur miseratione, ita homo non consumitur digni- 
tate. Agit enim utraque forma cum alterius com- 
munione quod propriun est; Verbo scilicet operante 
quod Verbi est, et came exsequente quod carnis est. 
Unum horum coruscat miraculis, aliud succumbit injuriis. 

150 Et sicut Verbum ab aequalitate paternae gloriae non 
recedit, ita caro naturam nostri generis non relinquit. 
Unus enim idemque est, quod saepe dicendum est, 
vere Dei Filius et vere hominis Filius. Deus per id quod 
in principio emt Verbum, et Verbum erat apud loan. i. i. 

165 Deum, et Deus erat Verbum ; homo per id quod Verbum 
caro factum est, et habitavit in noUs. Deus per G>. 14. 

id quod omniaper ipsumfacta sunt, et sine ipso . s." 

factum est nihil; homo per id quod factus est Gai.iv. 4. 



200 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

ex muliere, factus sub lege. Nativitas carnis manifestatio 
est humanae naturae ; partus virginis divinae est virtutis 160 
indicium. Infantia parvuli ostenditur humilitate cuna- 
rum ; magnitude Altissimi declaratur vocibus angelorum. 
Similis est rudimentis hominum, quem Herodes impie 
molitur occidere; sed Dominus est omnium, quem Magi 
gaudent suppliciter adorare. lam cum ad praecursoris 165 
sui Joannis baptismum venit, ne lateret, quod carnis 
velamine divinitas tegeretur, vox Patris de caelo intonans 
Matt. m. 17. dixit : Hie est Mlius meus dilectus, in quo mihi 
lene complacui. Quem itaque sicut hominem diabolica 
tentat astutia, eidem sicut Deo angelica famulantur 170 
officia. Esurire, sitire, lassescere atque dormire evidenter 
humanum est. Sed quinque panibus millia hominum 
satiare et largiri Samaritanae aquam vivam, cujus haustus 
bibenti praestet, ne ultra jam sitiat ; supra dorsum maris 
Cf. PS. xcii. 3 f. plantis non desidentibus ambulare, et elationes 175 
fluctuum increpata tempestate consternere, sine ambigui- 
tate divinum est. Sicut ergo, ut multa praetereain, non 
ejusdem naturae est flere miserationis affectu amicum 
morfcuum, et eundem remoto quatriduanae aggere sepul- 
turae ad vocis imperium excitare redivivum ; aut in ligno 180 
pendere, et in noctem luce conversa omnia elementa 
tremefacere ; aut clavis transfixum esse, et paradisi portas 
fidei latronis aperire ; ita non ejusdem naturae est dicere : c 
loan. x. 30; ~Ego et Pater unuin swnus, et dicere: Pater 

xiv.28. major Me est, Quamvis enirn in Domino Jesui85 
Christo Dei et hominis una persona sit, aliud tamen est 
unde in utroque communis est contumelia, aliud unde 
communis est gloria. De nostro enim illi est minor ; 
Patre humanitas; de Patre illi est aequalis cum Patre 
divinitas. 190 

V. Propter hanc ergo unitatem personae in utraque 



TOME OF LEO 201 

natura intelligendam et Films hoininis legitur descendisse 
de caelo, cum Films Dei carnem de ea virgine, de qua est 
natus, assumpserit, et rursus Filius Dei crucifixus dicitur ac 

195 sepultus, cum haec non in divinitate ipsa, qua Unigenitus 
consempiternus et consubstantialis est Patri, sed in 
naturae hunianae sit infirmitate perpessus. Unde uni- 
genitum Filium Dei crucifixum et sepultum omnes etiam 
in Symbolo confitemur secundum illud apostoli: Si enim 

200 cognovissent, numquam Dominum majestatis icor. 11. s. 
cruciftxissent. Cum autern ipse Dominus noster atque 
Salvator fidem discipulorum suis interrogationibus eru- 
diret, Quern me, inquit, dicimt homines esse Matt.xvi.i3ff. 
Filium hominis ? Cumque illi diversas aliorum opiniones 

205 retexuissent, Vos autein, ait, guem me esse dicitisl Me 
utique, qui sum Filius hominis, et quern in forma servi 
atque in veritate carnis aspicitis, quern me esse dicitis? 
Ubi beatus Petrus divinitus inspiratus et conf essione sua 
omnibus gentibus profuturus Tu es, inquit, Christus Filius 

210 Dei vim. Nee immerito beatus est pronuntiatus a Domino 
et a principal! petra soliditatem et virtutis traxit et no- 
minis, qui per revelationem Patris eundem et Dei Filium 
est confessus et Christum, quia unum horum sine 
alio receptum non proderat ad salutem; et aequalis 

2l5erat periculi Dominum Jesum Christum aut Deum 
tantummodo sine homine aut sine Deo solum hominein 
credidisse. Post resurrectionem vero Domini (quae 
utique veri corporis fuit, quia non alter est resus- 
citatus, quam qui fuerat crucifixus et mortuus) quid 

220 aliud quadraginta dierum mora gestum est, quam ut fidei 
nostrae integritas ab omni caligine mundaretur? Collo- 
quens enim cum discipulis suis et cohabitans atque con- 
vescens et pertractari se diligenti curiosoque contactu ab 
eis, quos dubietas perstringebat, admittens, ideo et clausis 



202 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

ad discipulos januis introibat, et flatu suo dabat Spiritum 225 
sanctum, et donate intelligentiae lumine sanctarum Scrip- 
turarum occulta pandebat; et rursus idem vulnus lateris, 
fixuras clavorum et omnia recentissimae passionis signa 
LUC. xxiv. 39. monstrabat dicens : Videte manus meas et pedes 
quia ego sum. Palpate et tridete, quia spiritus carnem etzw 
ossa non hdbet, sicut me videtis halere ; ut agnosceretur in 
eo proprietas divinae humanaeque naturae individua per- 
manere; et ita sciremus, Verbum non hoc esse quod 
carnem, ut unum Dei Filium et Verbum confiteremur et 
carnem. Quo fidei Sacramento Eutyches iste nimium aesti- 235 
mandus est vacuus, qui naturam nostram in Unigenito 
Dei nee per humilitatem mortalitatis nee per gloriam 
resurrectionis agnovit. Nee sententiam beati apostoli et 
i loan. iv. 2 f. evangelistae Joannis expavit dicentis : Omnis 
spiritus, qui confitetur Jesum Christum in came wnisse, enszw 
Deo est ; et omnis spiritus, qui solvit Jesum, ex Deo non est; 
et hie est Antichristus. Quid autem est solvere Jesum, 
nisi humanam ab eo separare naturam, et sacramentum, 
per quod unum salvati sumus, impudentissimis evacuare 
figmentis ? Caligans vero circa naturam corporis Christi 245 
necesse est, ut etiain in passione ejus eadem obcaecatione 
desipiat. Nam si crucem Domini non putat falsam, et 
susceptum pro mundi salute supplicium verum fuisse non 
dubitat; cujus credit mortem, agnoscat et carnem; nee 
diffiteatur nostri corporis hominem, quern cognoscit fuisse 250 
passibilem, quoniam negatio verae carnis negatio est etiam 
corporeae passionis. Si ergo christianam suscipit fidem et 
a praedicatione evangelii suum non avertit auditum, videat, 
quae natura trans fixa clavis pependerit in crucis ligno, et 
aperto per militis lanceam latere crucifixi intelligat, 255 
loan. xix. 34. unde sanguis et aqua fluxerit, ut ecclesia Dei 
et lavacro rigaretur et poculo. Audiat et beatum Petrum 



TOME OF LEO 203 

apostolum praedicantem, quod sanctificatio Spiritus per 
aspersionem fiat sanguinis. Christi. Nee transitorie legat 

260 ejusdem apostoli verba dicentis : Scientes, quod i Pet. i. is. 
non corruptibilibus argento et auro redempti estis de vana 
vestra conversatione paternae traditionis, sed pretioso san- 
guine quasi agni incontaminati et immaculati Jesu Christi. 
Beati quoque Joannis apostoli testimonio non resistat 

265 dicentis : M sanguis Jesu Filii Dei emundat i loan. i. 7. 
nos db omni peccato. Et iterum: Haee est iioan. v. i 
victoria, quae vincit mundum, fides nostra. Et: Quis est, 
qui vincit mundum, nisi qui credit, quoniam ib.ss. 
Jesus est Filius Dei ? Sic est, qui venit per aquam et san- 

27oguinem, Jesus Ohristus; non in aqua solum, sed in aqua et 
sanguine. Et Spiritus est, qui testificatur, quoniam Spiritus 
est veritas. Quia tres sunt, qui testimonium dant, Spiritus, 
aqua et sanguis, et tres unum sunt. Spiritus utique sancti- 
ficationis et sanguis redemptionis etaquabaptismatis; quae 

275 tria unum sunt et individua manent nihilque eorum a sui 

connexione sejungitur: quia catholica ecclesia hac fide 

vivit, hac proficit, ut in Christo Jesu nee sine vera 

divinitate humanitas nee sine vera humanitate divinitas. 

VI. Cum autem ad interlocutionem examinis vestri 

28oEutyches respondent dicens: Gonfiteor ex duafois naturis 
fuisse Dominum nostrum ante adunationem; post aduna- 
tionem vero unam naturam confiteor ; miror tarn absurdam 
tanaque perversam ejus professionem, nulla judicantium 
increpatione reprehensam, et sermonem nimis insipientem 

285nimisque blasphemum ita omissum, quasi nihil quod 
offenderet esset auditum ; cum tarn iinpie duaruni natura- 
rum ante incarnationem unigenitus Dei Filius fuisse 
dicatur, quani nefarie, postquam Verbum, caro loan. i. 14. 
factum est, natura in eo singularis asseritur. Quod ne 

290 Eutyches ideo vel recte vel tolerabiliter aestimet dictum, 



204 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

quia nulla vestra est sententia confutation, sollicitudinis 
tuae diligentiam commonemus, frater carissime, ut si per 
inspirationein misericordiae Dei ad satisfactionem caussa 
perducitur, imprudentia hominis imperiti etiam ab hac 
sensus sui peste purgetur. Qui quidem, sicut gestorum295 
ordo patefecit, bene coeperat a sua persuasione discedere, 
cum vestra sententia coarctatus profiteretur se dicere, 
quod ante non dixerat, et ei fidei acquiescere, cujus prius 
fuisset alienus. Sed cum anathematizando impio dogmati 
noluisset praebere consensum, intellexit eum fraternitassoo 
vestra in sua manere perfidia, dignumque esse, qui judi- 
cium condemnationis exciperet. De quo si fideliter atque 
utiliter dolet, et quam recte mota sit episcopalis auctoritas 
vel sero cognoscit, vel si ad satisfactionis plenitudmem 
omnia, quae ab eo male sunt sensa, viva voce et praesenti 305 
subscriptione damnaverit: non erit reprehensibilis erga 
correcturn quantacunique miseratio, quia Dominus noster 
loan. x. is. verus et bonus pastor, qui animam suam posuit 
LUC. ix. se. pro ovibus suis, et qui venit animus Jiominum 
salvare, non perdere, imitatores, nos suae vult esse pietatisjsio 
ut peccantes quidem justitia coerceat, conversos autem 
misericordia non repellat. Tune enim demum fructuosis- 
sime fides vera defenditur, quando etiam a sectatoribus 
suis opinio falsa damnatur. Ad omnem vero eaussam pie 
ac fideliter exsequendam fratres nostros Julium episcopum 315 
et Eenatum presbyterum sed et filium meuni Hilaruni 
diaconum vice nostra direximus. Quibus Dulcitium 
notarium nostrum, cujus fides nobis est probata, sociavi- 
mus; confidentes adfuturum divinitatis auxilium, ut is, 
qui erraverat, damnata sensus sui pravitate salvetur. 320 

Deus te incolumem custodiat, frater carissime. 

Data Idibus Junii, Asturio et Protogene viris clarissi- 
mis consulibus. 



TOME OF LEO 205 



NOTES ON THE TOME 

1 tttteris. Flavian's first letter. 

2 gestorum episcopalium ordine. The acts of the Home 
Synod of November, 448. 

2 ordine. The "record" or "minutes": so ordo is used 
again 6, line 296, and Epist. 29. 

11 impia sa/pere. Sapere is used to translate (fipoveiv in 
the Vulg. of Matt. xvi. 23, Mark viii. 33 ; and that is its 
sense here: "to be impiously (or undutifully) minded." 
Comp. "recta sapere," "to be rightly minded" in the 
Collect for Pentecost in the Gregorian Sacramentary. 

19 Symboli initia. Symbolum (<TVfj.fio\ov) was the 
name given to the Creed as the " watchword " of the 
Christian soldier, the " token " whereby he recognized his 
fellow-soldier : Augustin. Serm. 212. 14; comp. Tertullian's 
use of " contesseratio " of unity of doctrine, de praescr. 
haer. 20, 36. Symbolum is therefore strictly applicable 
to a Baptismal Creed only. Comp. Euffinus in symb. 
Ap. 2, " Symbolum enim Graece et indicium dici potest 
et collatio hoc est quod plures in unum conferunt [Ruffinus 
is here wrongly confusing crv/u,/3o\ov with ovm/SoXy. In 
what follows he seems to be correct]. Indicium autem 
vel Signum idcirco dicitur, quia in illo tempore, sicut 
et Paulus Apostolus dicit, et in Actibus Apostolorum 



206 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

refertur, multi ex circumeuntibus Judaeis simulabant 
se esse Apostolos Christi, et lueri alicujus vel ventris 
gratia ad praedicandum proficiscebant, nominantes quidem 
Christum, sed non integris traditionum lineis nimciantes, 
Idcirco istud indicium posuere, per quod agnosceretur is 
qui Christum vere secundum Apostolicas regulas prae- 
dicaret. Denique et in bellis civilibus hoc obsprvari 
ferunt : quoniam et armorum habitus par, et sonus vocis 
idem, et mos unus est, atque eadem instituta bellandi, ne 
qua doli subreptio fiat, symbola distincta unusquisque 
dux suis militibus tradit, quae Latine ' signa' vel ' indicia ' 
nuncupantur ; ut si forte occurrerit quis de quo dubitetur, 
interrogatus symbolum, prodat si sit hostis vel socius. 
Idcirco denique haec non scribi chartulis aut membranis 
sed retineri credentium cordibus tradiderunt, ut certum 
esset haec neminem ex lectione quae interdum pervenire 
etiam ad infideles solet, sed ex Apostolorum traditione 
didicisse." 

The most frequent designation of the Creed is TnVn? 
or eifcflecns T?S TrtWeo)?. The Nicene Creed is termed TO 
Socrates, i. 8, iii. 25. 



20 regenerandorum wee depromitur. Leo refers to the 
"Eedditio symboli" or recitation of the Creed by the 
candidates or their sponsors immediately before the 
administration of Baptism. 

25 indiscretam. Either "uniform," "confessed by all 
in common," or else " indivisible," with reference to the 
close connexion between the three clauses of the Creed 
which are cited. 

27 credere se in D&wm> etc. Leo here quotes the Eoman 
Creed with the reading "de Spiritu Sancto et Maria 
Yirgine." See note above (p. 40) on evavOpiair^aravra. 



TOME OF LEO 207 

30 Quibus tribus sententiis, etc. Comp. Epist. 31 ad 
Pulcher. " Ipsa Catholica symbol! brevis et perfecta 
confessio . . . tarn instructa sit munitione caelesti ut 
omnes haereticorum opiniones solo ipsius possint gladio 
detruncari." 

33 de Deo Deus. This is a reminiscence of the Nicene 
Qeov K Qeov, which was sometimes rendered "Deum ex 
Deo," as by Hilary, de synod. 84 ; and sometimes " Deum 
de Deo," as by Dionysius Exiguus, Mansi, iii. 567. 

47 salva mrginitate. Comp. Tertullian de carne Chr. 23, 
and see below on " semper virginem." 

53 Liber generationis. This argument from the gene- 
alogy in the Gospel for the reality of Christ's Humanity 
had been used by Tertullian de carne Chr. 20 a treatise 
which formed a storehouse of material for subsequent 
writers. 

58 M. The Vulg. reading in Rom. i. 3. 

73 Magni Consilii Angelus. So the old Latin versions 
following the LXX., which condenses the whole of the 
titles of the Messiah into MeyaAi;? (3ov\fjs ayyeXo?. Leo 
supplements this with the Vulg. reading "Admira- 
bilis," etc. 

75 fnistratorie. " Evasively," " deceptively," i.e. empty- 
ing the statement " The Word was made Flesh " of its 
real and proper meaning. 

77 materni eorporis veritatem. Eutyches himself was 
scarcely committed to this view, since he had under 
pressure admitted that Christ was co-essential with His 
mother and with us as to His Manhood (see above, 
p. 190 f.). But Leo was right in noting that the trend 
of the Eutychian position was to deny the reality of the 



208 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Manhood, and therefore of Christ's Human Body. Some 
of the extreme Eutychians did actually reproduce the 
tenet of some Apollinarians (and of the Valentinians) 
that Christ's Body was not derived from the substance 
of the Virgin. Tertullian had argued the point very 
fully de carne Chr. 15, 20, 21. Comp. Leo. Epist. 35 
ad Julian, " Qui enim negat verum hominem Jesum 
Christum necesse est in multis impietatibus impleatur, 
eumque aut Apollinaris sibi vindicat, aut Yalentinus 
usurpet, aut Manichaeus obtineat : quorum nullus in 
Christo humanae carnis credidit veritatem." 

The same views were revived at the time of the Refor- 
mation by some of the Anabaptist sects : see the recan- 
tation of Michael Tombe in 1549 (Strype, Cranmer, ii. 8) ; 
and how widely and persistently they were disseminated 
may be gathered from their reiterated condemnation (see 
the Reform. Leg. Eccles. 5 ; 32 Henry VIII. cap. 49, 11, 
cited by Hardwick Articles, p. 87), and from the emphasis 
laid upon the true doctrine in the Interpretation of the 
Creed, Art. III., in the Institution of a Christian Man, 
1537 ; and again in the Necessary Doctrine and Erudition, 
1543; the XLII. Articles of 1552, Art. II.; and the Proper 
Preface for Christmas, 1549. 

80 Mariam semper virginem. Athanasius is apparently 
the first writer to give this title (aeiTrapOevo?) to the 
Virgin, Orat. c. Ar. ii. 70. Augustine held the same view 
(Tract, x. in Joan. ii. 12-21, "Unde fratres Domino ? JSTum 
enim Maria iterum peperit ? Absit. Inde coepit dignitas 
virginum." Serm. 51 ; de fid. et symb. 11, "in illo utero 
nee ante nee postea quidquam mortale conceptum est"; 
de cat. rud. 40, "virgo concipiens, virgo pariens, virgo 
moriens"); and such has been the general sentiment of 



TOME OF LEO 209 

the majority of Church writers upon the subject. The 
question has been exhaustively treated by Lightfoot 
(Essay in his Gfalatians), who upholds the perpetual vir- 
ginity, and still later by Professor J. B. Mayor (Epistle 
of St. James, chap, i.), who rejects it. It must, however, 
be noticed that the term " brethren," used by the evan- 
gelists and by St. Paul (comp. Luke ii. 33, 48), cannot in 
view of the miraculous conception be taken in its simple 
natural meaning, and it therefore demands some explana- 
tion. Tertullian's language (adv. Marc. iv. 19, de carne 
Chr. 7) merely cites the N.T. phrases, and cannot be 
appealed to on either side. See further, an able paper 
in The Guardian (June 7, 1899), No. 2792, page 700. 

84 non . , . ut per novitatem creationis proprietas remota 
sit generis, i.e. the novel mode of the cause of the Birth 
did not remove it from the category of real births. 

89 aedificante siU sapientia domum. Comp. Athan. 
Or. c. Arian. iv. 34. 

91 ex homine. "From a human being." Homo, like 
avOpwjrog, is used in three senses in ecclesiastical writings: 
(1) of an individual man, (2) of human nature, (3) of 
a human being of either sex. Instances of the second 
meaning will be found Tertullian Apol. 21 ; Augustin. 
Encheir, 36 ; de civ. Dei, xi. 2 ; Leo. Serm. 28. 6 ; comp. 
Te Deum, "Tu suscepisti hominem." For av&pwros- 
" manhood," see Athanas. Or. c. Ar. i. 41, 45 ; ii. 45 ; 
iv. 14; c. Apollin. ii. 15, 19; Expos. Fid. 1; and for = 
" a human being," the words of Anastasius (quoted above, 
p. 99) given by Socrates, vii. 32. 

93 Salva igitur, etc. See note above on Cyril. 
Epist. 2 ad Nest, (page 111). 



210 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

95 ab aeternitate mortalitas. The orthodoxy of this 
phrase was scrutinized at Chalcedon (Mansi, vi. 972) and 
defended as agreeahle with Cyril's teaching, ubi supra. 

102 "Nostra" autem dicimus, etc. Sin is no part of 
human nature, but its corruption. The idea is Athanasian, 
de Incarn. V. Dei, 5. 

108 divina non minuens. This passage is paraphrased 
by Pearson on Art. iv. (Oxf. ed. 1877, p. 336); comp. 
Hooker, v. 54. 4 ; Athan. de Inc. V. D. 17. 

119 praevaricatoris. In ecclesiastical Latin this word 
(with its cognates) loses its technical forensic sense, and 
is simply equivalent to "peccator." See Bom., ii. 25; 
Gal. ii. 18 (Vulg.); Tertullian adv. Marc. iv. 43. 

125 pietatis. Of God's affection and lovingkindness 
towards us, as in the Gregorian Collects, which stand in 
our Prayer Book (mistranslated) for v. Epiphany and 
xxii. Trinity. 

125 sacramento occultiore, " A more hidden mystery." 
Sacramentum frequently represents the N.T. /uva-Tr/ptov. 
So again below, 5. 

128 mundi infima. There is probably an allusion to 
Ephes. iv, 9. The Greek translator had this reading 
before him (et? TO raTreivov rovro TOV /coo^ou), but some 
Latin MSS. read infirma. 

131 incomprehensibilis. Literally, of physical, not in- 
tellectual, apprehension, "that which cannot be held in 
the grasp or enclosed in space." 

143 mendadnm. i.e. " unreality," " falsity." The God- 
head and the Manhood were both equally real. Eutyches 
would make the latter phantastic. 



TOME OF LEO 211 

146 Agit enim utraque forma . . . injuriis. This was 
the second passage questioned at Chalcedon as tending to 
divide the Two Natures. It was defended by Aetius from 
Cyril's second letter to Succensus, in which he showed 
that the Gospel expressions, whether OeoTr/jevre?? or av- 
O/owTroTr/oeTra?, belonged to the same Person, not to two 
Personalities. 

171 Esurire, etc. Gomp. Athan. Or. c. Ar. iii. 32, 34 ; 
Cyr. Jer. Catech. iv. 9. 

183 non ejusdem naturae est dic&re, etc. Leo is here 
following the later and, for the most part, Western ex- 
planation of John xiv. 28. Gomp. Epist. 59, "Nee 
dicimus ejus humanitatem, qua major est Pater, ininuere 
aliquid ejus naturae, quae aequalis est Patri. Hoc aut 
utrumque tinus est Christus qui verissime dixit et 
secundum Deum ' Ego et Pater unum sumus,' et secundum 
hominem ' Pater major Me est.' " 

Earlier writers, Origen, Tertullian, Alexander, Athana- 
sius, Hilary, understood the. "principatus Patris" as 
inherent in His Personality as the irriyr] Oeorrjrog. He 
alone is " of none," while the Son is " begotten of the 
Father." Thus the Son was regarded as equal in essence 
but inferior in personality. This was termed the " sub- 
ordination " of the Persons in the Trinity, springing from 
their eternal and absolute relations to each other, whereby 
we speak of them in the "order" of Father, Son, and 
Spirit. After the Arian controversy the Son's inferiority 
was more generally referred to His Incarnation. Chry- 
sostom, Cyril of Alexandria, and Augustine admit both 
interpretations; Amphilochius, Ambrose, and the author 
of the "Quieumque" adopt the latter. See Westcott's 
additional note on John xiv. 28. 



2i2 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

185 Quamvis mm, etc. This passage was also objected 
to at Chalcedon and defended by Theodoret from Cyril's 
Scholia on the Incarnation, 27. 

191 Procter hanc ergo unitatem, etc. Leo here clearly 
illustrates the Hypostatic Union and Communicatio 
Idiomatum. See note on Cyril. Epist. 2 ad Nest., 
p. 112 f. 

211 a principal! petra. i.e, Christ. Peter as the rock 
derived his character and name from the Divine arche- 
typal Eoek, Christ. So Augustine (Serm, 76 in Matt, xiv., 
Bened. ed. v. 415), whose words Leo apparently had in 
mind, " Ohristus est Petra . . . Petra enim principale 
nomen est." There is an important passage on this text, 
which discloses Leo's views, in his Serm. 4 (de Nat. ips. 4), 
" Tu es Petrus : id est, cum Ego sim inviolabilis petra, 
Ego lapis angularis qui facio utraque unam, Ego funda- 
mentum praeterquid nemo potest aliud ponere, tamen tu 
quoque petra es quia Mea virtute solidaris, ut quae Mihi 
potestate sunt propria, smt tibi Mecurn participatione 
communia." [He had said a. little before, speaking of 
Christian pastors, " Omnes proprie regat Petrus quos 
principaliter regit et Christus."] But he goes on to 
explain " super hanc petram " of Peter's confession, 
"Super hanc fortitudinem aeternum exstruam templum, 
et ecclesiae Meae caelo inferenda sublimitas in hujus fidei 
firmitate consurget. Hanc confessionem portae inferi non 
tenebunt." The point of view, as often in the Fathers, 
keeps changing. Sometimes Christ is the Eock, some- 
times Peter, sometimes Peter's confession; but the general 
idea is clear enough. Peter was the spokesman of the 
Apostles' faith, and afterwards the leader in "historical 
inauguration," As such, either he or his confession may 



TOME OF LEO 213 

be termed the rock. Comp. the present writer's note on 
Tertullian de praescr. haer. 22. Lightfoot, Clement of 
Kome, ii. 482 foil. 

214 aequalis erit penculi, etc. Leo expresses the double 
truth which avoids Docetism on the one side and Psilan- 
thropism on the other. The Saviour of mankind must be 
God to recreate, redeem, and atone ; and Man to discharge 
the law of obedience and death. 

233 ita sciremus. i.e. holding the indivisible union of 
the Two Natures unconfused. Comp. the 
of the Chalc. Definition. 



241 qui solvit Jesum. This is the Vulgate reading in 
1 John iv. 3, and represents a Greek text such as is given 
in Socrates, vii. 32, o Xvei TOV 'lyarovv. It was probably 
an early gloss upon 6 w o^oXoyei TOV 'lyvovv, which 
recorded another Johannine phrase, \vetv 'lytrovv X/otcrroV, 
and which from, the Greek crept into the African Latin 
version, and thence into the Yulgate. Tertullian used it 
quite naturally (de jejun. 1 ; adv. Marc. v. 16), and so also 
the Latin translator of Irenaeus (iii. 17. 8 ; Harvey, ii. 90) 
and the Latin Fathers, who were familiar with the Vul- 
gate. Socrates cited it against the Nestorian separation 
of the Godhead from the Virgin-born. Leo uses it here 
against the Eutychian annihilation of the Human Nature 
in Christ. 

245 naturam corporis . . . desipiat. As Nestorianism 
issued in Psilanthropism, so Eutychianism involved 
Docetic views of the Lord's Body and of His Passion, 
and cut directly at the root of our salvation. 

256 sanguis et aqua. John xix. 34. That the issue of 
the Blood showed the reality of Christ's Flesh, and that 



2i 4 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

of the Water its spotless purity as being the Body of 
God, was urged by Athanasius, c. Apollin. i. 18. That 
the double stream symbolized the Atonement and the 
Cleansing, and was therein connected with the two Sacra- 
ments, was a general patristic belief. Comp. Leo again 
Epist. 16, " Tune regenerationis potentiam sanxit quando 
de latere Ipsius profluxerunt sanguis redemptionis et 
aqua baptismatis." Comp. the Prayer for the Sanctifi- 
cation of the "Water in the English Baptismal Service. 

260 Scientes, etc. 1 Peter i. 18, 19. This and the fol- 
lowing citations are not in verbal agreement with the 
Vulgate. The variations are Vulg., "auro vel argento 
. . . iimnaculati Christi et incontaininati," and in 1 John 
v. 8, " Quoniam tres sunt qui test. d. in terra . . . et hi 
tres unum sunt." Late MSS. of the Vulgate also admit 
the text of the "Three Heavenly Witnesses," on which 
see Westcott and Hort. 

265 sanguis Jesu Filii Dei. The Vulgate gives " san- 
guis Jesu Christi Filii Ejus " ; and the Greek, aipa 'Itja-ov 



rov Yioy avrov. 



2.70 non in aqua solum. St. John had in mind the 
Cerinthian separation of the Divine Christ of the Baptism 
from the human Jesus of the Passion. Leo's application 
of the text involves the interpretation of the " Spirit " as 
the Divinity of Christ, and " the water and the blood " 
as His Humanity. 

280 Confiteor, etc. See above, p. 190 ; and comp. Theo- 
doret, Dial. ii. (Lat. Treat, of Athan. Libr. Fath., p. 197). 

291 quia nulla vestra est sententia confutatum. Eutyches' 
condemnation in the Home Synod had turned rather on 
his denial of Two Natures after the Union than on his 



TOME OF LEO 215 

affirmation of Two Natures before it. Probably he did 
not mean actually to assert that Christ's Manhood existed 
before the Incarnation, and so the phrase was passed over. 
But Leo, in his letter to Julian of Cos (Epist. 35) of the 
same date as the Tome, dwells upon it further, and under- 
stands Eutyches to have expressed his belief that the 
Saviour's soul had had a previous existence in caelis 
before its birth of the Virgin, and that Eutyches conse- 
quently held a belief which had already been condemned 
in the case of Origen. 

296 a sua persuasione discedere. i.e. Eutyches had con- 
sented, in deference to the synod, to say what he had 
never said before, that Christ was co- essential with us as 
to His Manhood. 

315 Julium. Of the three legates, Julius shrinks into 
the background at Ephesus before the resolute and 
tenacious Hilarus ; nor do we hear of him again after 
the close of that disastrous meeting from which Hilarus 
made a plucky escape without compromising himself or 
the see of Eome. Eenatus died at Delos on his way to 
Ephesus. 

316 Eenatum presbyterum. A marginal gloss which 
has crept into some MSS. tells us that Eenatus was in 
charge of the "titular" Church of St. Clement (tituli 
sancti Clementis). On titulus see Bingham, Ant. viii. 
1. 10, and comp. Batiffol, Hist, du Bfema/re Horn, on the 
four kinds of churches in Eome : patriarchal, titular 
( = parochial), diaconal, and martyral (p. 37; edit. 1894). 

316 Hilarum. Hilarus was Archdeacon of Eome. 



.THE CHALCEDONIAN 
DEFINITION OF THE FAITH 



ATTH H HISTIS TflN IIATEPflN. 
ATTH H 1IISTIS TON AIIOSTOAflN. 
TATTH HANTBS STOIXOTMEN. 
HANTES OTTfl $PONOTMEN. 



THE CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 
OF THE FAITH 

INTRODUCTION 

THE Council summoned for August the first, 449, met in 
the church of Saint Mary at Ephesus on the eighth, under 
the presidency of Dioscorus of Alexandria. About one 
hundred and thirty bishops were present. After the 
Emperor's letter convening the Council had been read, 
Hilarus, the Papal legate, requested that Leo's Letters to 
the Council should be received.* Dioscorus agreed, but 
some other letters from the Emperor were put in, and in 
accordance with the wish therein expressed the Council 
proceeded at once to the question of the faith. Eutyches 
was introduced. He produced a written confession of faith, 
to which, when it was read, he added some indignant 
words concerning the manner of his condemnation by 
Flavian. Flavian then asked that Eusebius, Eutyches' 
accuser, should be admitted. This was most inequitably 
refused, and the Acts of the Home Synod were proceeded 
with, notwithstanding another attempt on the part of 
Julius and Hilarus to get Leo's Letters read first. 

It was soon obvious that the majority of the members 
of the Council was dominated by Dioscorus, and when, 
during the reading of the minutes which recorded 

* These were Epist. 28 (The Tome) to Flavian, and Epist. 33, of the 
same date, to the Synod. 

219 



220 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Eusebius' anxiety that Eutyches should confess " Two 
Natures after the Union," Dioscorus asked if such 
language was to be endured, his followers anathematized 
the Eusebian teaching, and acclaimed that of Eutyches as 
orthodox. Eutyches was then by vote of the Council 
restored to his position, and the ban of excommunication 
taken off his community. 

The Council proceeded to read and approve the decrees 
of Ephesus in 431, and to condemn those who should add 
to the Nicene Faith. Once again Hilarus tried, but un- 
successfully, to bring forward Leo's Letters as agreeable 
to the truth. Dioscorus now proposed that, in accordance 
with the Ephesine decrees which laid penalties upon those 
persons who disturbed them, Flavian and Eusebius should 
be deposed ; and this was actually done, notwithstanding 
the disclaimer of Flavian and the opposition of the Koman 
legates. At the actual pronouncement of the sentence, 
however, some of the bishops, ashamed and alarmed, 
piteously entreated Dioscorus to desist. He instantly 
called in the soldiery, and amid a scene of incredible 
uproar and violence the majority of the bishops were 
compelled to sign a blank paper, and agree to Flavian's 
deposition. Those who refused were banished, while 
Flavian and Eusebius were imprisoned. Such was the 
tragedy of the " Latrociniuni." * With the greatest diffi- 
culty Hilarus escaped unhurt, and by taking unusual 
roads eventually got to Eome.t Three days after the 

* Leo's description of the iniquitous assembly. "Nee opus est 
epistulari pagina comprehend! quidquid in illo Ephesino non judicio sed 
latroeinio potuit perpetrari" (Epist. 95 ad PuloL). Comp. Epist. 85, 
" Ilia synodus quae nomen synodi nee habere poterit nee meretur." 

t Leo wrote of him (Epist. 44), " Qui vix, ne subscribere per vim 
coneretur, effugit." Comp. Epist. 45 ad Pulch., and Hilarus' own letter 
to the Empress (Epist. 46), which describes the Council. 



CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 221 

Council closed Flavian expired, of the brutal injuries he 
had sustained in the synod, at Hypepe in Lydia, whither 
he had been banished, and Anatolius, Dioscorus' apocri- 
siarius at Constantinople, was consecrated to succeed 
him. 

Dioscorus' next step was to excommunicate Leo,* who 
hitherto had received no news of the Council. Hilarus 
arrived at Eome at the end of September, and the annual 
autumn synod promptly condemned the Acts of Ephesus, 
and begged Theodosius to summon a General Council in 
Italy (Epist. 43 and 44 ad Theodos.). But Theodosius 
had meanwhile given his authoritative approval to the 
proceedings at Ephesus, and was not to be moved from 
this position (apud Leonis Epist. 62, 63, 64). His reply 
to Leo required him to approve of Anatolius' consecration, 
which Leo refused to do unless Anatolius would heartily 
assent to Cyril's Second Letter to Nestorius, the Ephesine 
Acts of 431, and his own Tome (Epist. 69). 

Matters were thus at a deadlock when the death of 
Theodosius on July 29, 450, and the retirement of Eudocia 
left Pulcheria sole Empress of the East. On August 25 
she married Marcian, a distinguished Thracian soldier, 
who was elected Emperor, and both she and her husband 
were devoted to the Catholic cause. Leo had sent four 
legates to Constantinople to enquire into Anatolius' faith, 
who were received by the archbishop on their arrival, 
and Leo's Tome was accepted in a synod and subscribed 
(Mansi, vii. 92). When Leo was informed of the restora- 
tion of union he wished the proposed General Council to 
be deferred on account of the difficulties which the 
Western bishops would experience in leaving their sees, 

* So Fleury, xxvii. 41, and Neale ; Bright would place it later in the 
spring of 450, when at Nicaea (Roman See, etc., p. 276). 



222 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

owing to the ravages of the Huns. But Marcian thought 
it best to proceed, and accordingly on May 17, 451, issued 
the summons convening a General Council at Mcaea 
for September 1st. Leo appointed five legates to repre- 
sent him,* Paschasinus, Lucentius, Boniface, and Basil, 
who were to act with Julian, bishop of Cos, who was Leo's 
resident agent at Constantinople.! 

The Council met at Mcaea, but was transferred to 
Clmlcedon, as more convenient for the Emperor, and 
opened in the Martyry of Euphemia on October 8th. 
Five hundred and twenty bishops were present, the 
Eoman legates presiding, and nineteen imperial com- 
missioners attended from the Emperor. Dioscorus and 
Eusebius occupied places in the middle as parties con- 
cerned. 

In the first session the records of the Latrocinium 
were read, and Dioscorus with some others was con- 

* This seems to be the correct number ; for in Epist. 90, dated June 
26, 451, Leo wrote to Marcian naming Paschasinus, bishop of Lilybaeum 
in Sicily ; Lucentius, a bishop ; Boniface and Basil, priests ; and Julian of 
Cos as his representatives. In Epist. 92 he specially asks Julian to act 
with the four legates already named. In Epist. 93 to the Synod he 
names Paschasinus, Lucentius, Boniface, and Basil (omitting Julian,' who 
was, as it were, his permanent legate at Constantinople) as the deputies 
of the Apostolic see. Lucentius and Basil had already been sent to 
Constantinople to labour with Anatolius for the reconciliation of those 
who had temporarily lapsed into Eutychianism. Evagrius (ii. 4) 
recognizes only Paschasinus, Lucentius, and Boniface. The Acts of 
Chalcedon (Sess. v. : Mansi, vii. 107) name amongst the members of the 
Definition revision committee Paschasinus, Lucentius, Boniface, and 
Julian. 

f Cos is a small island in the Aegean (modern Kos or Istankoi). 
Julian discharged the same function at Constantinople for Leo as their 
apocrisiarii did for the bishops of Alexandria and Antioch. At a later 
time we find Baeda (ii. 1) giving the name "apocrisiarius" to Deacon 
Gregory, who was the confidential agent of Benedict I. and Pelagius II. 
at Constantinople, 578-585. 



CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 223 

demned. In the second session (Oct. 10) the question of 
the faith was debated. The Mcene Creed,* the "Creed 
of the Second General Council," Cyril's Second Letter to 
Nestorius, and Letter to John of Aritioch, and Leo's Tome 
(in a Greek translation) were read and approved. Some 
difficulty was at first felt by the Palestinian and Illyrian 
bishops about three passages in the Tome which insisted 
upon the distinction of the Two Natures, but they were 
shown by Aetius of Constantinople and Theodoret to 
agree with Cyrilline teaching.f The Council was ad- 
journed, and five days granted for the examination of 
patristic teaching on the question of the faith. J 

The third session (Oct. 13) was wholly occupied with 
the trial of Dioscorus. He disregarded three citations 
to attend, and was finally deposed on the ground of his 
uncanonical actions ; viz. communion with the condemned 
Eutyches, tyranny at the Latrocinium, excommunication 
of Leo, and disobedience to synodical citation. 

In the fourth session (Oct. 17) the doctrinal question 
was resumed. The Tome of Leo was subscribed as agree- 
able to Mcaea, Constantinople, and Cyril's exposition at 
Ephesus. Some other mattersIT were disposed of, and 
the Council adjourned to the following day. 

* In a recension which differs only verbally from the original text : 
e.g. Kal ird\u> is inserted before Ipx^eiw : TO "Arywv Ili/eC/m becomes ri 



Ili/eO/ta T& "Ayiov : % KTKTTOV is omitted from the anathemas (Mansi, 
vi, 956). 

t See above, pp. 210, 211, 212. 

t Attious of Nicopolis wished particularly to scrutinize the Tome in 
the light of Cyril's Third Letter and Anathemas. 

So the Acts ; but Evagrius reverses the order of the business of the 
second and third sessions (ii. 18). 

f The case of the Aegyptian bishops who refused to sign without the 
consent of their patriarch (see canon 30), and the case of Eustathius of 
Berytus versus Photius of Tyre (canons 12, 29). 



224 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

In the fifth session (Oct. 22) a Definition of the Faith 
was presented, to which the Eoman legates and some 
Easterns took exception on the ground that it did not 
speak of Christ as existing in Two Natures, as Leo's 
Tome had implied, but only as from Two Natures, which 
had been accepted in a Eutychian sense. Dioscorus, for 
instance, had assented to the phrase "from two," but 
rejected "two."* Others, imagining the opposition to be 
due to Nestorian sympathies, urged the insertion of Theo- 
tokos. Eventually a committee, consisting of Anatolius, 
four Eoman legates, and eighteen bishops, was appointed 
to revise it, and it was finally accepted in its present 
form.-j- 

Three days later the Emperor and Empress visited the 
Council to confirm the faith, and the Definitio was ratified 
anew. 

* Mansi, vi. 692. Op. Eranistes in Theodor. Dial. 2, " I say that 
Christ was K Wo ^a-euv, but Mo 0t/(ry I do not say." 

t The last portion of the "Definitio" was based upon Flavian's 
doctrinal statement which he had drawn up early in 449 at the 
Emperor's request (Mansi, vi. 541). See Bright's St. Leo, p. 241 ; and 
the notes below, p. 237. 



CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 225 



ANALYSIS OF THE CHALCEDONIAN 
DEFINITION OF THE FAITH 

1. Introductory. 

2. For the preservation of peace, and the removal of 
error by the grace of Christ we assemble. Hold- 
ing the Creeds of Nicaea and of Constantinople, 
and preserving the traditions of Ephesus, we 
solemnly ratify the 

Creed of Mcaea, and the 
Creed of Constantinople. 

3. Although the Mcene Creed is really sufficient on the 
doctrines of the Holy Trinity and the Incarna- 
tion, yet since heresies have arisen 

1. Corrupting the mystery of the Incarnation, 

and denying to the Virgin Mary the title 
" Theotokos " (Nestorians) ; 

2. Introducing a mixture or fusion of the Two 

Natures, making the Divine Nature of the 
Son passible (Eutychians) ; 

therefore we confirm 

1. The Nicene Creed ; 

2. The Constantinopolitan Creed ; 

3. The Two Synodical Epistles of Cyril ; 

4. The Tome of Leo. 
Q 



226 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

4. The Holy Synod condemns 

1. A Duad of Sons ; 

2. A passible Divinity in the Son ; 

3. A mixture or fusion of the Two Natures ; 

4. A non-human origin of Christ's Body; 

5. Two Natures before, but only one after, the 

Union; 

and confesses One and the Self -same Son our Lord 
Jesus Christ 

/Perfect in Godhead ; 

I Perfect in Manhood : ' 

/Truly God; 

1 Truly Man: 

/Co-essential with the Father as to Godhead ; 
I Co-essential with us as to Manhood : 

'Begotten of the Father eternally as to Divinity; 
- Born of the Virgin, Theotokos, temporally as 

. to Humanity : 

One Christ IN Two NATUEES, unconfusedly, 
unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably, according 
to Holy Scripture, the teaching of Christ, and 
tradition. 

5. No other Creed than the Symbol of the Fathers to 
be composed or imposed upon intending converts, 



DEFINITIO FIDEI APUD CONCILIUM 
CHALCEDONENSE 



DEFINITIO FIDEI APUD 
CONCILIUM CHALCEDONENSE 

H 'APIA KOI /neydXr) KOL oiKOVfteviKr] arvvoSos, % Kara 

Qeov yaP lv K( * 1 0"noY*a TWV eva-e^ecrrdrwv KOI <f)i\o- 

5 XpiWeoi/ fifjMtv (3acri\eu)v MapKiavov /ecu Qva\evrtavov 

A.vyov(TT(av, crvvaxOeiva ev ry KaXx^oyeW, /A>?T/oo7roXei 



eVap^ta?, et/ T<W /Aaprvpiw rrjs ay/a? KOI 
Ka\\iviKOV [Aaprvpos Eu^)j/x,ta?, wpicre ra 



'0 Kypio? ^/awv /cal SWT^/O 'I^croo? Xpto-ro? 

yvuxriv rotg /xaO^rar? {3e{3aiu>v, efyt)' l&iptfvriv ryv e/uitjv 
a<j>it]iuit vfji.lv, eipqvriv rtjv e/u.rjv Si8(a/ni VJULIV' Johnxiv. 27. 
wcrre fj.?iSeva TT/OO? TOI/ TrX^crioi/ StcHpwveiv ev roi$ Soy/uavi 
V<r(3elas, aXX' ITT/CTJ/P aVacrt TO TJ/S a\t]9eia$ GTTI- 
Kijpvyfia. eireiS)? Se ov iravefai Sia TWV eaurov 
6 Trovrjpos roi<s Ttj9 V(re(3eia$ eVt^uo/Ai/09 a"7re/o- 
/cat Ti KCLIVOV kara rfjs aXtjQeia? eQevpia-KiDV ael, Sia 
TOVTO (rvvqOws 6 Aeo-TroTJj? Trpovoovfievo? TOV av9p<t)7rlvov 
yeVoi/9, TOV evarefifj TOVTOV KOI TriarroTarov TT/OO? 



KCU TOV$ cnravTCtx*} T W iep<a<rvvi]<} 



AecTTTorou XpiarTOv evepyovorr]^, traarav ju.ev TOV 
\jsevSovs TWV TOV Xptcrrou 7T/oo/3aTft)j/ a.7ro(ri<ra(rO<u 



TO?? ^e T^? aXtjdelas avTqv /farcmcuWii/ jSXatrT/yjaacrtj/. b 



(5^ Kat TreTTouy/ca/xei/, /cofj/>/ ^^<pu) TO, r^? TrXavj?? aTreXa- 
25 ra^T6? ^oy^ara, TJ/I/ ^e avrXai/^ TWJ/ TraTepwv 






TO TU>V 



Tracri KVpvavT$, KCU u>s oiKeiov? TOV$ TOVTO TO <rw6efj.o: 

229 



2 3 o OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



T/9 evcre j3eias eaju,vovg ware pas e 
eiVii/ ot (Wera raura > T# [j,eya\y 
<rvve\Q6vTGs l/caroi/ irevrrfKovra, KOU avrol ryv avrqv em- 30 
(r<j>payicrdfji,evot Triamv. opl^o/nev rolvvv, ryv raiv /ecu TOU? 
irepi rys TTiWeft)? diravTas TVTTOVS ^vXarrovres KCU ^e?9 Ttjs 
KO.T "l&fpecrov TraXai yeyej/^eV)?? ay/a? <rvv63ov, 579 jjye//ioj/e? 
ot aytwrarof r^v fJ.VYHJ.riv KeAe<rni/09 o T^? 'Pw/xatW, /cat 
Kiyj/AAo? 6 r^? 'AXe^avSpetdv, ervy^avov, TrpoTidfATreiv fj.ev 35 






7T(TTeft)9 TJ/ eK.e(TlV TMV TplCL- 

ayluov KOI fjLaKapioov Trarepwv ru>v ev 
Nf/ca/a eTTf TOI) ev(re/3ov$ /mv^t]? KWVO-TCLVTIVOV rov yevo- 
/j-evov ^acriAeco? arvva^OevTODV' Kparetv jSe KO.I ra 7ra/oa TWJ/ 
etcarov TrevrriKOvra ay low Trarepwv eV Ka)i/<rrai/Tii'Oi'7roXet40 
opiarBevra, ?rpo9 avaipetnv fj.lv rSiv rore <j>veia->v alpearewv, 
Se 



KCU 



7T/CTTeft)9. 



Tb TWV rpiaKoviwv Se/cao/cTW ev Ntxai^ cru/*/3oAov. 

ets eva 0ebv IIaTe/)a, iravroKpaTopa, TTCIVTWV opar&v 
re /cat aojoarwv Trotrjr^v. Kat eis eva KijjOiov 'Irjcrow X/owrrbv, TOV45 
Yibv TOU 0eov, yevv^^evra IK rov Ilar/obs, fiovoyevvj, TOVT<J~TIV IK 
T^S ovcrias TOV TLarpos ' Qebv IK 0eov, $ws IK ^Pwros, Qebv dXrjdwbv 
IK 0^ov aXyOwov, yevviiBkvra ov Trot^^evra, ojuoowiov T< Jlar/oi' 
8t' oS ra Travra lyevero rbv Si' ^j,as TOVS av^/awTrovs, Kac 8ia T>)V 
fjHerepav crwrij/ojav KareA^ovTa IK TWV ov/aovtov, Kai crapKW^evra 50 
IK Etvev/xaTOs ' Aytov KOI Manias T^S irapOevov, Kat I 
(ravra 1 crravptaOevTa re iiTrep ^jttwv lirt Ilovrtov IIiAaTou, 
Tra^ovra, Kat Ta^evra' Kal dvacrravTa rjy T/OITJ/ ^epa Kara ras 
y papas' Kat aveAflovra ets TOVS ovpavovs, Kat Ka0o/*evov Ij' 
Se^t^ TOV Ilarpos ' Kai iraXiv Ip^ojaevov /wra 8o^s Kjotvai ^wvras 55 
Kat vK/3oiis' o? TIJS j8a(7tAetas OVK ecrrat reAos. Kat ets rb 
Ilvevjua TO ay tov TO Kvpiov TO ^WOTTOIOV. Tous 8e AlyovTas' yv 

7TOT6 OT OVK 7]V, Kat TTptV yVV>J^Vai OVK ^V, Kat OTl 1^ OVK 

OVTOJV lyevcTO, v) 1^ erepas wooraorews ^ owtas ^aaKovras etvai, 



CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 231 



60 v) TpeTrrbv, ^ dAAoioyrbv TOV Yibv TOV 0eov, TOVTOVS av 
fj KaOoXiKi) Kai dTrooToAiKi) eKKAijo-ia. 

Tb T<3v eKaTbv Trevr^KOVTa Iv KcovoravTivovTroAet cri/*/3oAov. 

ILcrrevo^ev eis eva 0eov, ILarepa Trai/TOK/adropa, TTOIIJTJJV 

ovpavov Kai y^s, Ojoarwv re jravrcov Kai dopdYwv. Kat eis eva 

Kvpiov 'Iija-ow XpicTTciv, TOV Ytov TOV Qeov rSv jwovoyev^, 

65roTj IIoTpbs jfvvrjOfVTa. irpo iravrtav TWV atwvwv' $5s IK 



IK 0eov i(tvov* evvevra ou 



Tip Harpi' 8t' o? ra Travra lyevero, TOV St' ijjwas TOVS 
O6 Sta ri)v fjptTepav (T<aTr]piav ) KaTfXdovra l/c TWV 
ovpavwv, Kat crapKwOevTa IK IIviJ/*aTos dytov Kai Mapias T^S 

fOTrap^evov, Kat !vav$/3C07n]<ravTa > crTavpodevra re inrep vj/jifov rt 
IIovTtov IIiA,dTov, KOI Tra^ovra, Kat ra^evra, Kai dvaorravra TI^ 
Tptri; ypepy Kara ras ypa^as* Kai dveA#ovTa ct? TOVS 
Kai Ka#edju,evov IK Se^twv TOU IIaT/)6s' Kai TrdAtv ep^ofitvov 
86r)S Kpwai ^SvTa? Kai veKpovs' oS T^? ySacrtAeias OVK 

75TeAos' Kai eis rb IlveujUia Tb dytov, TO Kvpiov, Kai Tb <oo7roiov, 
Tb IK TOU HaT/)bs eKiropevopevov, rb crvv Harpl Kai 
Kwouju,vov Kai o-w8o^afdju,evov, TO AaA^o-av Sia TWV 
Ets jUiav dytav Ka^oAtK^v Kai aTroo-ToAtK^v iKKAi^criav 6/*oAo- 
yovjuev ev jSaTTTiVjuia eis afaariv d/xapTiwv, TrpoorSoKw^ev dvdo'Tao'iv 

80 vexpiov, Kai a>7)v TOV /xeAAovTos aiwvos. 'A/x^v. 



"Hp/cei /tAei' o^j/ eiV e^reX^ T?? eucrejSe/a? eTriyvuxrlv re KOI 
j8e/3ai'a)Gr/ TO <700ov /cat (rcarripiov rovro T% 0e/a? \dpiTO? 
crviJ.(3o\ov ' irepi re ya/o TOV IlaTpo? /cat TOU Ytou /cat TOU 
'Ay/ou IIveuVaTO? eKiSd<rKei TO reXeiov, /cat TOU Kvpiov 
85 T?I/ evavOpwirriviv Tot? Trto-TW? o'exo/xevoi? TrapiWi/crtv. aXX' 
eTrei^Trep ot T% aXijOeia.? aOereiv eTnx^ipovvTe? TO Kripvyfj.cn., 
<5ta Ttoi^ oiKeicw aipevewv Ta? /cevo^aw/a? airereKov, ot /xev 
TO TJ?9 o't' ^a? TOU Kuptou otYoz/o/xta? jit.vcmjptov irapa- 
eipeiv ToX/xwvTe?, /cat T^V OCOTO/COV e?rt T^? TrapOevov 



airapvovfievoi' ot e cruyxutrtv /cat /cpacrtv etVayovre?, 
/cat /Atav etVat ^uo"iv T^9 <ra/o/co9 /cat 



232 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



avairXdrrovre?, KOI TraOrjT^v TOV povoyevovs rrjv Oeiav 
(j)v<Tiv rrj crvyxucm Teparevojmevoi ' Sia TOVTO iraerav avTois 
aTro/cXeFcrat Kara T>?? aXyOeias ^ri^avrfv /3ovXo/*ei/>7 f) 
TrapoOo-a vvv afar) ay/a /xeyaX?? Kal oiKOVfteviKr] a-vvoSo?, TO 95 
TOV /cjypvy/jiaTO? aixaOev a<ra\evTOV eKStSd(ncov(ra, 
Trpoqyovju.evuis, TU>V TpiaKocrlwv SCKUOKTM ayiav 
Tf\v irivTiv /j-eveiv aTrapey^eipijTov. ical Sia fj.ev TOV? TW 
TLvevftaTc TW 'Ay /ft) /otaxo^ei/ou?, T^V xP VOi S vcrTepov irapa 
TftV eVl r^9 ^a(Ti\evov(rrj5 TroXecas arvve\66vT(av e/carwlOO 
irevTrJKOVTa ayicov TraTepwv Trepl T% rou IIi/ey/>taTO? ov(ria$ 
TrapaSoBeicrav iSa<TKa\iav Kvpol' yv eiceivoi TO?? 
eyixapivav, OVK w? Tt \eiirov TO?? Trpo\a{3ov(TLv eT 
aXXa T^V Trept TOU ' Ay/ou II^eJyaaTO? a^Twv evvoiav 
TU>V T*]V avTOV SetnroTeiav aOeTeiv Treipu>/ji,eva)v ypafaicais 105 
/xapTUptai? TpavwcravTe?. &a 5e TOU? TO T^ 
7rapa(J)Oe{peiv eiri-^eipovvTag /xvcrTjfptoi/, rat ^i\ov 
TTOV eivai TOV e/c T^? ay/a? T)(6evTa Map/a? ayato'ft)? 
oovvTas, T? TO? /maKapiov Ki/p/XXoy, TOU T^? 'A.\eavSpecov 
e:/cX^cr/a? yevo^evov TTOt/xew?, o-ui/o^tfca? eTTtcrToXa? 7rpo?no 
Ne<7To'p(oi/ /cat Trpo? TOU? T^? ai/aToX^?, ap^oSiovs oycra? 
eSeaTO, ei? eXey^ov /xej/ T^? Neo-Top/oy $>pevo/3Xa/3e/a?, 
oe TU>V ev eva-efiei ^Xw TOU crcoT^p/ou <rv/ui.j36\ov 

TY\V GVVOlav' O.I? Kal TtjV TTl(TTO\r}V TOV Tt]<} 

/cat TrpecrfivTepav 'Pco/x?;? Trpoeopov TOV /xa/ca-115 
KOI ayiwTaTOv ap^ieTricrKOTrov A.eoi>T09, Tqv 
ypafyeicrav '/rpo? TOV ev ayioig ap^ieTTiCTKOTrov <&\aviavov 
eir avaipeirei Ttjs EVTUXO^? /ca/covo/a?, dVe 6^ Tji TOV 
/meyaXov ILerpov o/xoXoy/a <rv]u.{3aivov(rav } Kal Koivr\v Tiva 
crT^Xrjv inrap^ovcrav Kara T>V KaicoSo^ovvTwv, aVoVco? o~w- 120 
ryp/xocre Trpo? T'/I' TOOJ^ op9oS6a)v ^oyyuaTwv ^ejSaiWti/. 
To?? Te yap et? v/wv oWo'a TO T^? oi/covo/A/a? oia<T7rav 



[AVcrTipiov, TrapaTaTTeTat ' Kal TOV? 
TOV /novoyevovs \eyeiv ToA/uwi/Ta? T^ OeoTyTa, TOV T<av 



CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 233 



125iepeop cnrcoOeirai <rv\\6yov' Kal TO?? eirl ruw Svo 

rov XpicrToy KpcKTiv, rj <rvyxv<nv eTrivooviriv avOurrarai' 
rou? ovpaviov, rj ere pay TWOS virap^eiv oucr/a? rrjv e 
\rj(j)Qelcrav avru> rov Sov\ov /mop^v irapaTraiovras 
ee\avvei' KOI rov$ Svo fj.lv Trpo rfo evaxrew <j>v(reis rov 

130 Ky^o/oy juvBevovrae, /ulav Se /utera ryv evuxriv avaTrXarrovras 
avaOe/u.ar[ei. 'E-Trojueyoi roivvv TO?? ay/ot? Trarpaviv, era 
KOI rov avrov ofJt-oXoyoufji.ev 'Ylov rov ILvpiov f/ju.u>v 'I^crow 
Xpio"roj>, Kal o-y/x^wj/a)? dVai're? eKSiSd<TKO/ui.v, re\eiov rov 
avrov ev Oeoryri, re\eiov rov avrov ev avQpwirorrjTi, Qeov 

135 a\r)9(a$, KOI avOpdoirov aX?/0w?, rov avrov e/c ^vxy 
KOI a-cbju.aro?, o/j.oov<nov ru> Harpl Kara r>]v Qeorqra, 
OJU.OOVITIOV rov avrov r//u.iv Kara ryv avOpunror^ra, Kara 
Trdvra ojmoiov fjfuv x^P^ a/wapr/a?' irpo Heb. iv. 15. 



alcovwv fAV eK rov Uar/oos yevvyOevra Kara ryv Oeorqra, 
140 eT ecr^cm*)!/ ^e rcov fnj.epwv rov avrov oc %{*.&$ Kai oia ryv 
flfj.erepav (rwrypiav e/c Map/a? rfj$ irapOevov rfj? OeoroKOv 
Kara ryv avOpunrdrrira, eva Kal rov avrov Xpicrroj', Ytov, 
^, /Jiovoyevt], ev Svo <j)v<re(riv acruyx^Tft)?, arpeTrraj?, 
w, a^wp/iTTft)? yj/copt^o/xei/oi/' ovSa/mov r%$ r<av 
145 <j)V(re(*)v Siafapas avyprifj,evri<3 Sia ryv evaxriv, <r(ioo[ji.evw Se 
fAa\\ov T^? iSioryros e/carepa? ^ucrew?, Kal et? eV 'Trppc 
/cai fj-iav VTrda-racnv (rvvrpe^ovcrri^ OVK els Svo 

vov rj Siaipov/mevov, d\\' eva Kal rov avrov YIOJ/ 
i /movoyevrj Qeov, Aoyov Kvpiov I>;crow Xpicrrov' KaOa- 
1507rep avwOev ol irpo^rjrai Trepi avrov, Kal aJrcV ^/xa? o 
Kupto? 'Ij/o"ov? Xpicrro? e^eTraiSevore, KOI TO TCW Trarepwv 
y/niv TrapaSeSuiKe crv/nlSoXov. Tovrwv rolwv [tera Trdcrijs 
Travra^pOev a/cpt/^e/a? TG /cat e/x/xeXeta? Trap' J^/AW SiarvTrco- 
Oevrwv, (bpurev r\ dyia KOI oiKOv^eviKf] crvvoSos, erepav iriamv 
155lu-rjSevl eeivai Trpo(j)epeiv, rjyovv (rvyypafaiv, rj crvvriOevai, 
rj (j)poveiv, rj SiSd(TKeiv erepovs. row Se ToX/xcoi/Ta? rj <rvv- 
nOevai Trier iv erepav, yyovv TrpOKOju.ieiv, rj SiSacrKeiv, y 



234 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



TrapaSiSovai erepov crv^o\ov TOL? eOeXovviv 

els eTriyvoxnv ccXj/Oe/a? e 'EXXjjvt(r/xou, ^ ef ' 

yyovv e^ atpeVeco? oiafrSijTrorovv, TOVTOVS, el /u.ev elev 6T/-160 

CTKOTTOt 1J fcXj/ptfCOt, ttXXoTptOUS eflXH TOUP e'TTlffKOTTOVS Ti]$ 

e7T6cr/co7r^9, /ecu TOW? K\rjpiKov$ rov fcX^pou* ei 6e 
'^ Xai'/coJ eleV) avaQe/naTifca-Qai 



CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 235 



NOTES ON THE CHALCEDONIAN 
DEFINITION OF THE FAITH 

7 fj.apTvpl(a. A martyry was a memorial church 
erected over a martyr's tomb, or which contained a 
martyr's relics. Euphemia was a virgin martyred under 
Galerius in the Great Persecution in 307. She was 
regarded with great veneration, and was the patroness of 
the city of Ohalcedon. Arcadius and G-ainas had met 
here in 400 to take a solemn oath of peace (Socr. vi. 6). 
The church was a stately and magnificent edifice; its 
beautiful situation is described in picturesque terms by 
Evagrius, ii. 3. 



19 /ecu TOU? aTra.vTa.yri' ^ ou th> following two Latin 
versions which read " qui undique," suggested os KOI, but 
unnecessarily. 

23 a\>TYiv. Either a mistake for aura, or=-7ro//xj/)?i/, 
implied in the mention of 



26 TO ru>v rpiaKocriaov SeKctoKru) <Tv/ji/36\ov. This was 
the generally reckoned number of the Mcene Fathers : 
so Athan. ad Afr. 2, ad Jovian, ap. Theod. H.E. iii. 3, 
Socr. i. 8, Profess, of Eustathius to Liberius ap. Socr. 
iv. 12, Evagr. iii. 31, Syn. Epist. of Eom. Counc. in 371 ap. 
Theod. ii. 22, Canon 1 of Constantinople. 

The number was suggestive of the 318 servants of 



236 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Abram who rescued Lot, Gen. xiv. 4 (Liberius ap. Socr. 
Lc.), and, as TIH, had been already allegorized as pro- 
spective of the Cross and Jesus by the writer of the 
Epistle of Barnabas, ch. 9; by Clement of Alexandria, 
Strom, vi. 11 ; and by Ambrose, de fide, prol. 



44 Triorrevo/uiev, K.r.A. In the second session the Mcene 
Creed had been read nearly in its original form (see note 
above, p. 223) ; but it appears here in a peculiar recension, 
expanded by the addition of several phrases taken from 
the revised Jerusalem Creed, which may be taken to be 
the popular form in which the Mcene Creed was current 
at Constantinople and its neighbourhood. The additions 
to the original are these : 

1. eK ru)v ovpavwv. 

2. e/c Tivevju,a.TOs 'Ay/ov KOI Map/a? T^S TrapOevov. 

3. (TTavpwOevTa TS VTrep rjfAwv eiri Tiovrlov ILAaTOv. 

4. Kat Tafyevra. 

5. Kara ra? ypa0a?. 

6. KOI KaOe^ojU-evov ev Seia rov Tiarpw. 

7. KOI iraXiv . . . /xera dor)$. 

8. ov T^f.jSacrfAe/a? QVK eirrai reXo?. 

Besides these additions TO "A.yiov ILvev/na of Nicaea 
becomes TO TivevjUia, TO ayiov TO Kvpiov TO faoTroiov, while 
TO, re ev TU> ovpavu> KOI ra ev ry y^ is omitted after oV 
oS TO. Trdvra eyevero, and Kriarrov disappears from the 
anathemas. 

-Nestorius was evidently familiar with this form of the 
Creed, for he quoted (1) and (2), a/pud Cyril, contr. Nest. 
i. 7, 8, as Mcene, and was corrected by Cyril ; while 
Diogenes of Cyzicus actually accused Eutyches (in session 
i.) of Apollinarianism because he omitted (3), and was 
himself set right by the Aegyptian bishops (Mansi, vi. 632). 



CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 237 

For dogmatic notes on the additional clauses in the 
"creed of the 150," see above, pp, 76 foil. 

88 oiKovofjiias. See note on OIKOVO^IK^V, p. 174. 

98 Sia fj.lv TOVS TW II. T. a. /uaxo/ueVov?. The Mace- 
donians, who were known as the " Pneumatomachi." See 
Constant. Canon 1 and Socr. ii. 45, '0 Ma/cecfo'vto? TO 
' Ayiov TO HvevjULct crvvavaXafielv ei$ ryv OeoXoylav TW 
Tpia<$09 eeK\ive .... Sia ravrriv Se ryv alriav KCU 
IIi/ei//icarojaa}(oi/? airoKa\ov<rcv auTOvg ot TO 6[AOOv<riov 



105 ypa<i>iKai<} /xapryp/at?. The context seems to show 
that by this term the Chalcedoniaa Fathers meant "Scrip- 
tural," not merely "written," testimonies: ypafaKcus will., 
thus refer to the Scriptural epithets added to TO livevjaa. 
See the notes above, pp. 76 foil. 

110 arvvoSiKCLs eTacrroAa?. The Second Letter to Nesto- 
rius, and the Letter to John of Antioch. The Third 
Letter to Nestorius with the schedule of anathemas had 
been read at Ephesus, but, doubtless in consequence of 
the anathemas, had not been so thoroughly accepted as 
the Second Letter (see above, p. 160). It was passed over 
at Chalcedon, but accepted as authoritative along with 
the Second Letter at the Fifth General Council in 553, 
apparently on the mistaken ground that it had been 
similarly received at Chalcedon (Mansi, ix. 341). 

127 % eTepas TWOS ova-las, i.e. "any other non-human 
essence"; comp. Cyril ad loan., above, pp. 168, 169. 

131 'EvroVei/of rotW, /c.T,A. Here the language of the 
Definitio is an amplification of a portion of Flavian's 



238 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

"Confession of Faith" which he sent to Theodosius in 
449. It may be interesting to give Flavian's words 
(Mansi, vi. 539 ; Hahn, p. 320), so that they may be 
compared with those of the Council. After a brief 
preamble he proceeds : HdvTOTe rat? Oelais ypa^at? eiro- 
pevoi /cat TCU? e/c0rrt TU>V ay lew Trarepwv, TU>V ev Nt/cata 
/eat ev K.<av<rTavTtvoviro\ei <rvve\66vT<av KOI rwv ev 'E^eo-w 
CTTI TOV T%S oVta? /MJ>?7/A79 Kvpt XAov TOV yevofievov eTrtavco'- 
irov rfjs 'AXeavpewv' /cat /C^PUTTO/ACI/ TOV eva Ku/otoi/ 
Xptcrrov Trpo ai(oj/(ov joiei/ CK 0eoG IlaTpos 

yevvrjdevTO. Kara Ttjv Oeortfra, eir rxTW 8e 
TWV fyepuiv TOV avTOV Si ^/xa? ical Sia Tqv ^/j.Tepav 
<r<OTt]piav K Mapia? T^S TrapOevov Kara TVJV a 
Qebv TeXeiov /cat avdpwrrov TeXeiov TOV OVTOV ev 

Xoyucys /cat <rw/>iaTO?, 6/u.oovcriov TU> Ilar/of KOTO, 

/cat 6/u.oovinov Tfl /a^rpt rw avrw /cara 



Kat yap e/c* Svo (frvarewv o/xoAoyovvre? 
TOV Xptcrrov ju,Ta T*]V crdpKwcriv Ttjv e/c TJ?? dyta? vrapdevov 
/cat evavOpwTry&iv ev /xta vTrocrrdVet /cat ev evt TrpocrwTrw, eva 
XptcrroV, eva Yto'v, eva Kvptov 6/mo\oyovfjiev' /cat /xtav /xev 
TOU 0eov Aoyov <pv(riv, crecrap/cco/xej/j;!/ /xeWoi /cat evavOpo)- 
ir^a-atrav, \eyeiv OVK dpvovimeBa Sia TO e a^oiv eva /cat 
TOV avToi/ etvat TOV Kvptov ^/xwv 'I/<70W TOV XptcrroV. 
Tov? 5e ^vo vt'ov? 17 Svo vTrocrTatret? ^f <5uo TrpoVwTra /caTay- 
yeAXovTa?, aXX ov^t eva /cat TOV avTov Kvptov If/crow 

XpfCTTOV, TOV YtOV TOV 060V TOV ti>VTOS, KrjpVTTOVTa? 

ava6eju.aTifafJi.ev /cat aAAoTptov? etvat T% e/c/cAj/o-ta? /cpt- 
v.o/u.ev. 

* This is the form in which the words were afterwards cited (see 
Bright, Leo, p. 241), and is probably what Flavian wrote. If so, it 
would account for & 5i5o Qfoetiw appearing in the first draft of the 
Definition The ordinary Greek Text, both here (&) and in the revised 
Definitio (K), is thus the result of two mistaken attempts at emendation, 
the true text of both passages having been interchanged. 



CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 239 

137 ofAoovcriov wiv. We have already noticed Eutyches' 
hesitation on this point '(see pp. 190 1), It was prob- 
ably due to a misunderstanding of two passages in 
Athanasius, (a) ad Serap. ii. 3, where, in reference to the 
Nature of the Son, he asserts his co-essentiality with the 
Father but not with creatures; (&) de sent. Dion. 10, where 
he distinguishes the Divine nature co-essential with the 
Father, and the Human nature diverse in essence from 
the Father. 

The more usual phrase was " co-essential |with Mary " 
or "with His mother"; so Flavian, as cited in the last 
note, and Leo Epist. 31 ad Pulch. Eutyches in the Home 
Synod confessed Christ to be "from the flesh of the 
Virgin, and that He was Perfect Man"; and again, "I 
confess that the holy Virgin is co-essential with us, and 
that our God was incarnate of her"; upon which Basil of 
Seleucia remarked, " If the mother is co-essential with us, 
He is also, for He was called the Son of Man" (Mansi, 
vii. 747). 

ofAoovanov VIIMV was no doubt at first an anti-Apollinarian 
watchword adopted by some Catholics as a useful guard 
against the notion of any conversion of the Godhead into 
flesh, or non-human origin of Christ's Body. It was not 
brought into general use until its employment by the 
Chalcedonian Council in this passage (see Newman's note, 
Athan. Orations ; Lib. Fath. p. 168). 



138 Kara irdvra oftoiov fifuv x w P'? afnaprlas. This 
phrase is equivalent to Eom. viii. 3, ev o/Aotc6/*<m crapKos 
a/m/ma?. Our Lord took perfect Manhood, not fatten 
manhood. His was not "flesh of sin," but like it in 
every respect, except its sinfulness. Comp. the similar 
language of the longer Epiphanian Creed: 



2 4 o OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

Tovream reXeiov avOpwirov \afi6vra, fyvyyv KCU crw^a KOL 
vovv KOI Trdvra, el ri earrlv avOpwjros 



143 & Svo (pvareo-iv. So Evagr. ii. 4, Euthymius ap. 
Mansi, vii. 776, and the Latin versions ("in duabus 
naturis"); and it is undoubtedly the right reading, 
although the Greek text of the Acts gives etc Svo fyvo-ecov. 
The very point of the Koman legates' objection to the. 
first draft of the Deftnitio was that its <k Svo (frvvecw was 
ambiguous and must be altered (Mansi, vii. 105). Eouth 
conjectured that both phrases were admitted into the 
text e/c Svo <j)V(re(i)v KOL ev Svo (frvcreariv (Opusc. ii. 119), 
but this is not probable : e'/c Svo (frvcrewv, strictly under- 
stood, is heretical. 

The phrase "In Two Natures" was misunderstood by 
the Armenians as favouring Nestorianism, for the trans- 
lator unfortunately used an Armenian word, in rendering 
"the one" and "the other" Nature of Christ, which 
could in that language only be applied to persons, not to 
things. Political disturbances had prevented the Armenian 
bishops from being present at the Council, just as for the 
same reasons they had been absent from Ephesus in 431, 
though they loyally accepted the Ephesine decrees. Con- 
sequently the Armenian Church never received the 
Council of Chalcedon as an orthodox synod, and even 
took the extreme step in 491 of anathematizing its 
decrees. To this day the Armenian Church remains 
separated from the Orthodox Churches of the East, 
although the difference between them is one rather of 
expression than of doctrine. The Armenians hold that 
the Divine and Human Natures are united in Christ; 
and this doctrine is formulated in the phrase "One 
United Nature," and is publicly professed by every 



CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 241 

Armenian cleric at his ordination. The doctrine is that 
of an Unconfused Union, not the confused union of Mono- 
physitism. They profess the Perfection of the Two 
Natures, and do not admit either a Eutychian absorption 
or a Monophysite mixture or fusion. Comp. a valuable 
note in Bright's Waymarks in Church History, p. 399. 

One may conveniently at this point add that while 
Eutychianism proper asserted the entire absorption of the 
Human Nature by the Divine, it was modified after 
Chaleedon so as to assert one compound nature, neither 
wholly Divine nor wholly human. This was Monophy- 
sitism. Still later, in the seventh century, the controversy 
assumed another guise, the Monophysites proceeding to 
the logical consequence of their belief, and denying Two 
Wills in Christ corresponding to His Two Natures. To 
exclude this Monothelite heresy the Sixth General Council 
at Constantinople in 681 found it necessary to insert in 
its Definitio Fidei the affirmation of Suo ^VO-IKO. BeXr/para 
and Svo (frva-iKoi evepyeicu in Christ. See below in 
Appendix, p. 248. Comp. Hooker, v. 48. 9. On the 
history of this subject and its later developments see 
Ottley, The Doctrine of the Incarnation, ii. 113 foil. 

143 acnryxuTwsv This teaching was practically that of 
Tertullian adv. Prax. 27. See also Athan. c. Apoll. i. 10, 
where he urges a real but unconfused union between the 
Word and the flesh that He made His own. 

aoruyxin-wp and cn-peVrco? are directed against the 
Apollinarian and Eutychian heresies, and exclude the 
notion of any intermingling of the Natures or alteration 
of their distinct properties: aSiaipercos and axwplo-rws 
against the Nestorian, and exclude any division of Person 
or separation of the once-for-all united Natures. Com- 
R 



242 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

pare the words put into the mouth of the celebrant, as he 
holds the Sacred Elements in his hands, in the Liturgy of 
the Coptic Jacobites (Brightman, i. 185), " I believe that 
this is the quickening flesh which Thine Only begotten 
Son our Lord and our God and our Saviour Jesus Christ 
took of the lady of us all, the holy Theotokos Saint 
Mary: He made it one with His Godhead without con- 
fusion and .without mixture and without alteration . . . 
I verily believe that His Godhead was not severed from 
His Manhood for one moment, nor for the twinkling of an 
eye." And the emphatic statement of our Second Article 
(taken from Art. III. of the Augsburg Confession), " ita 
ut duae naturae divina et humana integre atque perfecte 
in mutate personae fuerint inseparabiliter conjunctae." 
And the well-known passage in Hooker (v. 54. 10), who 
sums up the Christological work of the first four Councils 
in the words a\*iOu>$ ("truly God"), reXeco? ("perfectly 
Man"), a&atperw? (" indivisibly of Both One"), 
(" distinctly in that One Both "). 



144 ovSa/Aov rfjs r. ^ixr. diaQopas, /c.r.A. See the note 
on Epist. 2 ad Nest. p. 111. 

i!52 Toimov roiwv, /c.r.X. This section merely re-enacts 
the decision of the Council of Ephesus in 431, canon 7 : 
ere/m Trt'crn? meaning here, as there, any other Creed 
than the Nicene, which there, as here, is transformed from 
a Conciliar Creed and test of orthodoxy into a Baptismal 
Symbol for use at the reception of converts. No doubt 
the decisions of Ephesus and Chalcedon on this point 
were regarded as disciplinary rather than as doctrinal, 
and as therefore liable to alteration. Certain it is that 
in the "Western Church the Nicene Symbol has never dis- 



CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 243 

placed the baptismal formularies which more or less 
approximated to the form known as the Apostles' Creed 
(Swainson, p. 22 f.). Further, the original text of the 
Mcene Creed, when used in Western liturgies, has been 
supplanted by the longer recension "of the 150," and 
even that has been supplemented by the unauthorized 
"Filioque." 



APPENDIX 
TO THE CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 



APPENDIX TO CHALC, DEF. 247 



THE DEFINITIO FIDEI OF THE SIXTH 
GENERAL COUNCIL AT CONSTANTINOPLE 

A.D. 68 1 
Mansi, xi. 636 ; Hahn, p. 172. 

'EIIOMENH (ay ia KOI oiKovfjieviKr] crvvoSos) rats re 
ay tat? /cat ot/cov/aevt/cati? vrevre <rvv6Soi$ KOI TOIS ay lots KO.I 
eKtcpiTOis Trarpdcri KOI crv^^wi/a)? 6ptov<ra 6/AoXoyeti/ TOV 
Kvptov rj/JLUtv Iri<rovv Xptcrro'v, TOV aXyOivov Qeov q/Awv, TOV 
eva T>JS ay/a? 6/m,oov(riov KCU faapxucys TpiaSos, Te\eiov ev 
OeoTrjTi KOL reXetov TOV CLVTOV ev avOpwiroTtjTt, Qeov 
aXr)QS)$ KOI avOpwirov dX^^w? CLVTOV, e'/c ^"ux^ff Xoyi/c^s KCU 
crco/Aaro?, 6/noova-iov TU> TLaTpl /cara TJJV OeoT^Ta /cat 
6|Uooy<noi/ qfuv TOV avTOV /cara Tqv avOpunroTijTa, /cara 
irdvTa QJJ.QIQV fyiv x^P^ ctju-apTias' TOV TT/OO alcovcov fjiev e/c 
TOV IlaT/oos yevvyOevTa /cara Ttjv OeoTJjra, CTT' e<rxa.TU>v Se 
TU>V ^fjiepuiv TOV avTOV di ^/*a? KOI SLO, Trjv jy/xere/oai' <r<a- 
SK IIj/euywaTO? 'Ay/ou KOI Ma/o/a? T>?9 irapQevov, T% 
KOI Kara aXjj^et av QeoTOKov, /cara TJ;V ai/0/oo)7TOT^Ta, 
/cat TOV aivTOi/ XpicrTov, YtoV, Ki/ptov, [tovoyevt], ev Svo 
aTpeVTC09, dxwptWa)?, a&atpero? 
ovSa/u.ov TW TWV (frvcrewv Sia(j>opa<t a 
e ju,a\\ov 



e/caW/oa? ^vuew? /cat et? ev Tr/ooVwTrov /cat /a/av inroa-Taoriv 



, ou/c et? 6"uo TrpoVwrra f^epi^o^evov rj Siaipov- 
fj.evov, aXX' eva /cat TOV avVov Ytov /uovoyev?, Geov Ao'yov, 
Kvptov T^crow XptuTov, /caOavrep avco^ev ot Trpo^Tai Trept 



248 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 

avrov Kal auro? j?//ia? 'Irja-ovg 6 Xpto-To? e^eTraiSeva-e KCU TO 
ru>v ayicw irarepwv jj/xtv TrapaSeSunce crv^oXov. Kat.dvo 
(fiva-iKa? 6e\ri<rei$ yroi OeXyjuara ev avrw KOI Svo <j>v<riKas 
evepyela? aSiaiperco?, arpeTrrw, a/^e/oiWft)?, acryy^^Tft)? 
/caret TJyv raw ay/coj/ irarepow SiSacrKaXiav cotraurft)? Ktjpvr- 
TO/nev' KCU Svo [*.ev (fiva-iKa OeXvy/xara ot^x virevavria, y.r) 
yevoiro, /ca^cb? 01 avefleis e<j>r](rav aiperiKoi, aXX' eiro/Aevov 
TO avOpcoTTivov avrov Oe\t]ju.a t Kal fjw) avrnrLTrrov y avrnra- 
\aiov, /j.a\\ov IJ.GV ovv KOI. viroracrcro^evov ru> 6eiu> avrov 
KCU TravcrOevei QeXrifj-an' eSei yap TO T^? crap/co? OeXj;/xa 
Kivt]9ijvai, VTTOTaynvai Se ria 0eX)//jiaTt Tft> OeiKUi Kara rov 
7ravcro(pov 'A.6avd<nov. "Qcnrep yap t) avrov <rap crap 
rov Qeov Ao'yoz/ \eyerai Kal eimv, ovrw Kal TO <J>V<TIKOV 
rfjs cra/o/co? auTov 0e'X?/xa 'iSiov rov Qeov A.6yov \eyerai 
Kal ecrn, KaOa ^tjcriv aim)?. OTi KarafiejSrjKa e/c TOV 
ovpavov, ovx "wa TTOIW TO Oe\tj/j.a TO e/ao'i/, aXXa TO 
OeX^/za Toy ire/j.^avro^ /me IiaTp6s,'l8iov\eyu)v de\t)/u.a 
avrov TO rfjs orap/co'?, eirel Kal r\ <rap iSla avrov yeyovev' 
ov yap rpOTrov r\ iravayia KOI a/xw/Aos ei/ri/xw/Aej/i/ avrov 



(rap OewOela-a OVK avypeOr], aXX' ev TW iSla* auT^? opw re 
Kal Xo'yw Sie/jieivev, avrw Kal TO avOpwinvov avrov OeX^/xa 
OewOev OVK avflpeQrj, (recrwo-rai e /u,a\\ov Kara rov Oeo\6yov 
Tpyydpiov \eyovra' TO yap eKeivov 9e\eiv, TO Kara rov 
crcortjpa voov/u.evov, ovSe inrevavrtov Oew, OecaOev o\ov. Svo 
Se (frvcriKas evepyeias aSiaiperws, arpeirroos, a/AeptcrTco?, 
ev avrw TOO Kup/w rj^v 'I^crou Xpiara), TOO 
Oeu> fnj.S>v dodoju.ev, rovrecrri Oeiav evepyeiav Kal 
ivrjv evepyeiav, Kara rov Oeqyopov A.eoyra rpa- 
vecrrara (pa&KOvra' evepyei yap eKarepa fj-op^n ftera rfjs 
Qarepov /co/(oi/m? oVep 'ISiov eirx^/ce, TOV /JLCV A.6yov Karep 
ya^o/nevov rovro, oVep e&rl rov Ao'yov, TOV ^e 
eWeXouj/TO? axep efrrl rov (TWywaTO?. ov yap SJJTTOV 
Suxro^ev (j)V(nK^v ryv evepyeiav Qeov Kal TOfj/yOtaTO?, "iva 



APPENDIX TO CHALC. DEF. 249 



TO 'jroirfQev el? rrjv Qeiav avaydywfjiev over lav 
T>J$ 6ela$ (pvcrecos TO e^aiperov els TOV TO?? yevvyrois 
TrpeirovTa Karaydywjjiev TOTTOV' evb$ yap KOI TOV CLVTOV TO. 
Te 6av/u.aTa KOI TO, iraQy yivuxTKOfiev KO.T aXXo /cat aXXo 
TCOV, e 8>v ecm, <j>v<Teu>V) Kal ev cfis TO elvcti ex) w? o 
Oecnrecrio? e(prj<re Ku/otXXo?. TLavToOev yovv TO acrv 
KOL aSialpeTOV 0uXctTTOVTe? awTO/AO) 0w^ TO irav e^i 
eva T% ayiag TpidSos KOI /ACTCC crapKaxnv TOV 
'Irj&ovv X/otcTToV, TOV aXyOivov Qeov r)fj.wv, eivai 
? 0a/xej/ Svo avTov Ta? <pv(rei$ ev Ty /uua O.VTOV 
i/Trocrracrei, ev y TO, Te Bav^aTa KOI TO. 
Si oX?/? avTov riy? olKovo/u.iKrj$ avacrTpotyw ov 
a QavTCKTiav, aXXa aXqQw eireSei^aTO, Ttjs ^ucri/c^? ev 



OVTYJ Tfl />ua vTrocTTacret Sia^opas yvwpi^o/nevrjs TW /ACTCI 



OaTepov Koivtavla? eKaTepav (j)v<7iv 9e\eiv Te KOI evepyeiv 
TO, lia' Ko.0' ov Sr] \6yov KOI Svo (frvcriKa Qe\r]fj.aTa Te /cat 
ei/epye/a? Soao/ji.ev irpbs <7ft)TJ7/>/ai/ TOU avOpcoirivov yevovs 



TOIVVV 



a/cpt/Se/a? re /cat e'/x/weXe/a? 7ra/o' J/ 
6pio/j.ev eTepav iriwriv ftriSevl e^eivac 
riyovv arvyypafaiv y <rvvTiOevai q <ppovetv *} 

de ToXyttw^Ta? q vvvTiQevai irio'Tiv eTepav rj TT/OO/CO- 
y SiSdffKeiv, y TrapaSiSovai eTepov arv^oXov TOI$ 
cTTpe(j)eiv et? eTriyvuxnv T^9 aXyOetas e ,EX- 

X ~ fl JJ1 )T O .. n 1\ ^ JS / f/ f * 

\r}vt(r/i*.ov rj eq loi/oaur/uof ^ yow ec; aipearews oia$ ovv, ^ 
Kaivo(JHaviav %TOI \ee<as efavpeviv Trpo? avaTpoirriv el<rdyeiv 
TU>V wv\ Trap' ^/xw^ iopi<r6evTtov, TOVTOVS, el /mev eir 
elev q K\ripiKoi, aXXoT/o/ov? eivai TOU? eVicr/coVou? 
eVio-/co7r^9 /cat TOU9 K\ypiKOvs TOV K\ripov, el Se 
elev TI Xai'/coi, dvaOe^,aTi^e(rOai 



TRANSLATIONS 



THE EPISTLES OF CYKIL 

THE TOME OF LEO 

THE CHALOEDONIA.N DEFINITION OF THE FAITH 



THE SECOND EPISTLE OF CYRIL 
TO NESTORIUS 

Cyril to the Most Eeverend and God-beloved Fellow- 
Minister Nestorius, greeting in the Lord. 

Certain persons, as I am informed, are, to the detriment 
of my character, gossiping to thy Piety, and this in- 
cessantly, making a special point of attending the gather- 
ings of officials; and, thinking perhaps to bring not 
altogether unwelcome news to thy ears, they make 
groundless statements, for they have by no means suffered 
any injustice, but were quite rightly convicted one, for 
having treated the blind and the poor with injustice; 
another, for having drawn sword against his mother ; and 
the third, for having been associated along with a maid- 
servant in a theft of money, besides bearing generally a 
permanent character of a kind that one would not like 
to attach even to one's bitterest enemy. But what such 
people say is not a matter of much moment to me, who 
may not exaggerate my littleness above my Master and 
Teacher, nor yet above the Fathers. For it is not possible 
to escape the mischievous attacks of the wicked however 
one may order one's life. But those men, " whose mouth 
is full of cursing and bitterness," will render their account 
to the Judge of all. I will turn on the other hand to 
what more especially becomes my position, and will put 
thee in mind even now, as a brother in Christ, to make 
thy method of teaching and thy mental attitude towards 

253 



254 CYRIL'S SECOND 

the faith free from all danger to the people, and to bear 
in mind that "to offend" even only "one of the little 
ones that believe " in Christ is a ground for the intoler- 
able displeasure (of God). But when the number of 
those aggrieved is very great we surely stand in need of 
all possible skill, both to prudently remove the offence 
and to extend the wholesome doctrine of the faith to 
those who seek the truth; and this we shall do most 
properly by being zealous to hold in high esteem the 
words of the holy Fathers when we light upon them, and, 
"proving ourselves (as it is written) to see whether we 
are in the faith," by fashioning right well our own con- 
ceptions according to their safe and impregnable opinions. 
Now the holy and great Synod (of Nicaea) said that 
the Only-begotten Son Himself, by nature begotten from 
God even the Father, Very God from Very God, Light 
from Light, through whom the Father made all things, 
came down, was incarnate, lived as Man, suffered, rose the 
third day, and ascended into heaven. These words and 
doctrines it behoves us to follow, recognizing what is 
meant by the Word who is from God being incarnate, 
and living as Man. For we do not say that the Nature 
of the Word was changed and became flesh, nor that He 
was transformed into a complete human being, I mean 
one of soul and body; but this rather, that the Word, 
having united to Himself personally, in an ineffable and 
inconceivable manner, flesh animated with a rational soul, 
became Man, and was called Son of Man ; not merely by 
His own will and pleasure, nor yet by His simple assump- 
tion of a (human) person; and that while the Natures 
which were brought together into this genuine unity 
were different, yet of them both is the One Christ and 
Son, not as though the difference of the Natures was 



EPISTLE TO NESTORIUS 255 

abolished by the union, but rather the Godhead and the 
Manhood, by their ineffable and unspeakable consilience 
into unity, perfected for us the One Lord and Christ and 
Son. And thus, although He had His existence and was 
begotten from the Father before the ages, He is spoken of 
as begotten also after the flesh from a woman; not as 
though His Divine Nature received its beginning of 
existence in the holy Virgin, nor yet as though a second 
generation were necessarily wanting for its own sake after 
that from the Father, for it is altogether ridiculous and 
stupid to say that He, who existed before every aeon and 
is co-eternal with the Father, had need of a second 
beginning of existence. But when for our sakes and for 
our salvation the Word, having united humanity to Him- 
self personally, came forth from a woman, He is for this 
reason said to have been born after the flesh. For it was 
not an ordinary man, who was first born of the holy 
Virgin, and upon whom afterwards the Word descended, 
but Himself, united to humanity from the womb itself, is 
said to have undergone fleshly birth, as making His own 
the birth of His own flesh. Thus we say that He both 
suffered and rose again ; not meaning that the Word of 
God, in His own proper (Divine) Nature, suffered either 
stripes or the piercing of the nails or any other wounds 
at all ; for the Divinity is impassible because it is also in- 
corporeal. But when that which was made His own body 
suffered, He Himself is said to suffer these things for us : 
for the Impassible was in the suffering body. 

After the same manner too we conceive of His dying. 
For the Word of God is by nature immortal and incor- 
ruptible and life and life-giving ; but when His own body 
" by the grace of God tasted death for every man " (as 
Paul saith), He Himself is said to have suffered death for 



256 CYRIL'S SECOND 

us ; not meaning that He experienced death at all in so 
far as touches His (Divine) Nature for it were sheer 
madness to say or think that but that His flesh tasted 
death, as I have just said. 

Thus again, too, when His flesh was raised, the resurrec- 
tion is spoken of as His ; not meaning that He fell into 
corruption, certainly not, but that it was His body that 
was again raised. 

Thus we acknowledge One Christ and Lord ; not wor- 
shipping a man along with the Word, lest a semblance of 
division might secretly creep in through the use of the 
words " along with," but worshipping One and the Same 
(Lord), because the Word's body wherein He shares the 
Father's throne is not alien to Himself ; in this case again 
not meaning that there are two Sons in co-session, but One 
(Son), by reason of His union with His flesh. But if we 
reject this Personal Union as impossible or as unseemly, 
we fall into saying " two Sons," and then there will be 
every necessity for drawing a distinction, and for speaking 
of the one as properly a man honoured with the title of 
" Son," and again of the other as properly the Word of 
God, having naturally the name and possession of Son- 
ship. 

Accordingly we must not divide into two Sons the One 
Lord Jesus Christ ; for it will in no way assist the right 
expression of the faith so to do, even though some promise 
to admit a Unity of Persons. For the Scripture hath 
. not declared that the Word united to Himself a man's 
person, but that He hath become Flesh. Now the Word 
becoming Flesh is nothing else but that " He partook of 
blood and flesh like us," and made His own a body which 
was taken (from us), and came forth a man from a 
woman ; not laying aside His being God and His genera- 



EPISTLE TO NESTORIUS 257 

tion from God the Father, but even in His assumption 
of flesh remaining what He was. 

This (teaching) the statement of the correct faith 
everywhere sets forth. Thus we shall find the holy 
Fathers have been minded. Accordingly they confidently 
called the holy Virgin Theotokos ; not meaning that the 
Nature of the "Word or His Godhead received its begin- 
ning from the holy Virgin, but that, inasmuch as His 
rationally animated body to which the Word was 
personally united was born of her, He is said to have 
been born after the flesh. 

I have thus written to thee out of the love which I 
have in Christ, and I beseech thee as a brother and 
" charge thee before Christ and the elect angels " thus to 
think and teach with us, that the peace of the Churches 
may be preserved, and the bond of unanimity and love 
between the priests of God may remain unbroken. 



258 CYRIL'S THIRD 



THE THIRD (SYNODICAL) EPISTLE 
OF CYRIL TO NESTORIUS 

Cyril and the Synod assembled in Alexandria from 
the Aegyptian diocese, to the Most Eeverend 
and Pious Fellow-Minister Nestorius, greeting 
in the Lord. 

Whereas our Saviour plainly said, "He that loveth 
father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me, and 
he that loveth son or daughter more than Me is not 
worthy of Me," what must we feel who are expected by 
thy Eeverence to love thee more than Christ our common 
Saviour ? Who will be able to aid us in the day of 
judgment? Or what defence shall we invent for thus 
preserving silence for so long in the face of the blas- 
phemies uttered against Him by thee ? And if thou wast 
injuring thyself only by holding and teaching such things 
the matter would be of less consequence, but when the 
whole Church is scandalized and thou hast cast the leaven 
of thy unwonted and strange heresy amongst the laity 
and not only amongst the laity in thy own city, but also 
in all other places, for the books containing thy exposi- 
tions are widely circulated what reason can any longer 
be given for our silence, or for our forgetfulness of 
Christ's words, "Think not that I came to send peace 
upon the earth : I came not to send peace, but a sword. 
For I came to set a man against his father, and a daughter 



EPISTLE TO NESTORIUS 259 

against her mother"? For when the faith is wronged, 
away with filial reverence as inexpedient and precarious ; 
the law of parental and fraternal affection must be 
abjured ; nay, death must be counted as better than life 
to the godly, " that they may obtain a better resurrec- 
tion," as it is written. 

Now therefore, in harmony with the holy Synod which 
was assembled in great Eome under the presidency of our 
most holy and pious brother and fellow-minister Bishop 
Caelestine, we earnestly conjure thee in this our Third 
Letter, and counsel thee to desist from those doctrines so 
mischievous and perverse which thou both boldest and 
teachest, and to choose instead the right faith which was 
delivered to the Churches from the beginning through 
the holy apostles and evangelists who were " eye-witnesses 
and ministers of the Word"; else, if thy Eeverence will 
not do this within the time appointed in the letters of 
the said most holy and pious bishop, our fellow-minister 
of the Church of the Komans, Caelestine, know that 
thou thyself hast no lot with us, nor place or rank 
amongst the priests and bishops of God. For it is not 
possible for us to overlook Churches thus disturbed and 
laity scandalized and the right faith set at naught and the 
flock scattered by thee who ought to preserve it, even 
though thou wert like ourselves a lover of right doctrine 
following the pious steps of the holy Fathers. Moreover 
we are all in communion with every one of those who 
have been excommunicated by thy Eeverence on account 
of the faith, or deposed, both laics and clerics. For it is 
not just that those who have known how to think aright 
should be treated unjustly by thy decrees, because they 
have done well and have spoken in opposition to thee. 
For this very point hast thou notified in the letter 



260 CYRIL'S THIRD 

written by thee to Caelestine our most holy fellow-bishop 
of great Eome. 

Now it will not be sufficient for thy Eeverence to 
simply agree to the symbol of the faith which was put 
forth in its time by the Holy Spirit by the hand of the 
great and holy Synod duly assembled in the city of the 
Mcaeans ; for thou hast not rightly understood and inter- 
preted it, but perversely rather, although thou confessest 
its words with thy mouth. It is more fitting that thou 
confess in writing and on oath that thou anathematizest 
thy foul and profane doctrines, and that thou wilt hold 
and teach what we all do, bishops and teachers and 
leaders of the laity throughout the West and East. 
Moreover both the holy Synod at Eome and all of us have 
assented, as being orthodox and irreproachable, to the 
letters written to thy Eeverence by the Church of the 
Alexandrians. And we have appended to this our Letter 
the things which it is necessary to hold and teach and 
what it is beseeming to reject. 

For this is the Faith of the Catholic and Apostolic 
Church, in the approval of which all the orthodox bishops 
throughout the West and East unite : 

We believe in One God the Father All 
Sovereign, Maker of all things visible and 
invisible ; 

And in One Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of 
God, begotten from the Father, Only-begotten, 
that is From the Essence of the Father, God 
from God, Light from Light, Very God from 
Very God, Begotten not made, co-essential 
with the Father; through Whom all things 
were made both in heaven and in earth ; Who 
for us men and for our salvation came down 



EPISTLE TO NESTORIUS 261 

and was incarnate and lived as Man; suffered, 
and rose the third day; ascended into heaven; 
cometh to judge quick and dead : And in the 
Holy Spirit. 

But those who say "Once He was not," 
and "Before He was begotten He was not," 
and that " He was made out of nothing," or 
who affirm that "the Son of God is of a 
different Hypostasis or Essence," or "mut- 
able," or "changeable" these the Catholic 
and Apostolic Church anathematizes. 
Following in every respect the confessions of the holy 
Fathers which they made by the Holy Spirit speaking in 
them, and pursuing their line of thought and taking as it 
were the royal highway, we say that the Only-begotten 
Word of God Himself, who is begotten from the Father's 
very Essence, who is Very God from Very God, Light 
from Light, through whom all things were made both in 
heaven and in earth, came down for the sake of our 
salvation and abased Himself unto emptiness, and was 
incarnate and lived as Man ; that is, He took flesh of the 
holy Virgin and made it His own from the womb, and 
underwent a birth like ourselves and came forth Man 
from a woman, not indeed casting off what He was, but 
even though He became Man by the assumption of flesh 
and blood He still remained God in Nature and in truth. 
And we do not say either that the flesh was changed into 
the Nature of Godhead, or indeed that the ineffable 
Nature of God the Word was perverted into that of flesh, 
for He is immutable and unalterable, ever abiding the 
Same, according to the Scriptures ; but while visible as a 
babe in swaddling clothes, and yet in the bosom of the 
Virgin who bare Him, He was filling all creation as God, 



262 CYRIL'S THIRD 

and was enthroned with Him who begat Him. For the 
Divinity is immeasurable and without magnitude, nor 
does it admit of circumscription. 

Confessing then that the Word was united personally 
to flesh, we worship One Son and Lord Jesus Christ, 
neither putting apart and dividing Man and God as 
though they were joined to one another in a union of 
dignity or authority, for this would be empty words and 
nothing else; nor again calling the Word from God 
"Christ" separately, and in like manner the one (born) 
from a woman another " christ " separately ; but knowing 
One only Christ, the Word from God the Father, with 
His own flesh ; for then (when He became flesh) He was 
anointed as Man with us, while yet it is He Himself that 
giveth the Spirit to those who are worthy to receive it, 
and that "not by measure," as saith the blessed evangelist 
John. For again do we say that the Word from God 
dwelt in one who was born of the holy Virgin as in an 
ordinary man, lest Christ should be thought of as a man 
carrying God (within him). For though " the Word did 
tabernacle amongst us," and it is also said that in Christ 
there dwelt " all the fulness of the Godhead bodily," yet 
we understand that when He became Flesh the indwelling 
is not to be defined as existing in Him after the same 
mode that there is said to be an indwelling in the saints, 
but being united as to Nature and not turned into flesh 
He effected such an indwelling as the. soul of man may be 
said to have in its own body. 

There is therefore One Christ and Son and Lord, not as 
though a man were joined with God in a unity of dignity 
or authority, for equality of honour does not unite 
natures, as for instance in the case of Peter and John, 
who are equal in honour with one another, inasmuch as 



EPISTLE TO NESTORIUS 263 

they are apostles and holy disciples, yet the two are not 
one; nor again do we understand the mode of the con- 
junction to be that of juxtaposition, for this is inade- 
quate to express a union of natures; nor again of acquired 
participation, such as that whereby we, " being joined to 
the Lord," are (as it is written) "one spirit" with Him. 
Indeed, we reject the term "conjunction" as not suffi- 
ciently expressive of the " union." Nor again do we call 
the Word from God the Father the God or Lord of Christ, 
lest we should again manifestly sever into two the One 
Christ and Son and Lord, and fall under the charge of 
blasphemy by making Him God and Lord of Himself. 
For the Word of God, personally united to flesh, as we 
have already said, is God of the universe and Lord of all. 
He is neither His own servant nor His own Lord ; for it 
were folly or rather positive impiety so to think or say. 
He did indeed say that God was His own Father, while 
yet being God by Nature and from the Essence of the 
Father, but we are not ignorant that along with His 
being God He also became Man and was under God, 
according at least to the law which is becoming to the 
nature of humanity. But how could He become the God 
or Lord of Himself? Therefore, as Man and as far as 
pertains to what befits the bounds of His emptying, He, 
says that He is under God along with us. So He became 
also " under law," while yet as God He Himself, spake the 
Law and is originally the Law-giver. 

We refuse to say of Christ, " I reverence him that was 
borne on account of the Bearer: for the sake of Hun 
who is invisible I worship him who is seen." It is, more- 
over, horrible to say, " He that is assumed is styled God 
along with Him who assumed him." For he who thus 
speaks makes again two separate Christs, and sets a man 



264 CYRIL'S THIRD 

on one side apart by himself, and God similarly. For 
such a one confessedly denies the union, according to 
which He is not worshipped as one person with another, 
nor does He share the style of God, but One Christ Jesus 
is conceived of, the Only-begotten Son, honoured with one 
worship along with His own flesh. 

Now we confess that He Himself, the Son begotten 
from God the Father, and God Only-begotten, while yet 
in His own Nature impassible, suffered in the flesh for us 
according to the Scriptures, and was in His crucified body 
impassibly making His own the sufferings of His own 
flesh ; for " by the grace of God He tasted death for every 
man," yielding His own body to it, while yet by Nature 
He was "Life" and Himself "the Eesurrection." For 
having trampled upon death in His ineffable might, it 
was in order that He might in His own flesh become "the 
first-begotten from the dead " and " the firstfruits of them 
that slept," and open a way for the nature of man to 
return to incorruption, that "by the grace of God He 
tasted death for every man," as we just said, and returned 
to life again on the third day, having spoiled Hades. So 
that even if it be said, " By man came the resurrection of 
the dead," yet we understand that " man " to be the Word 
begotten from God, and that through Him has the might 
of death been destroyed. And He will come in due 
season as One Son and Lord in the glory of the Father 
" to judge the world in righteousness," as it is written. 

. And we must add this also. Proclaiming the death in 
the flesh of the Only-begotten Son of God, that is, of 
Jesus Christ, and confessing His return to life from the 
dead and His ascension into heaven, we celebrate the 
bloodless service in the Churches, and we thus approach 
the sacramental gifts and are sanctified, being partakers 



EPISTLE TO NESTORIUS 265 

both of the holy flesh and of the precious blood of Christ 
the Saviour of us all ; not receiving ifc as common flesh 
surely not! nor as the flesh of a man sanctified and 
associated with the Word in a unity of dignity, or at 
least as having a Divine indwelling, but as truly life- 
giving as the Word's very own. For being naturally Life 
as God, when He became One with His own flesh He 
rendered* it life-giving. So that although He says to us, 
" Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of 
the Son of Man and drink His blood"; yet we shall not 
reckon it to be the flesh of a man like one of ourselves 
for how could the flesh of a man be life-giving in its own 
nature? but as having become truly the own flesh of 
Him who for our sakes both became and was called Son 
of Man. 

Again, we do not assign the sayings of our Saviour in 
the Gospels to two several hypostases or two several 
persons. For the One and Only Christ is not twofold, 
although He is understood as constituted out of two 
different substances into an inseparable unity; just as 
man also is understood to consist of soul and body, and 
yet is not twofold, but one out of both. But if we 
think aright we shall hold that both the human sayings 
and the Divine were spoken by One Person. For when He 
says, appropriately to His Divine Nature, " He that hath 
seen Me hath seen the Father," and "I and the Father 
are One," we recognize His Divine and ineffable Nature, 
according to which He is One with His own Father 
because of the identity of Essence, being His "Image" 
and "Expression" and "the Effulgence of His Glory." 

* For this sense of airo<f>alt>eiv see Epist. ad Joan, ad init.; Lit. of 
Apost. Const. , SITUS airo^vfi rbv &prov TOVTOV trw^a rou XpioToC (Bright- 
man, i. 21). 



266 CYRIL'S THIRD 

But when, not despising the limitation involved in His 
Humanity, He says to the Jews, "JSFow ye seek Me, a man 
who hath spoken to you the truth," again we no less fully 
know Him, even from the limitations of His Humanity, 
as God the Word in equality and likeness of His Father. 
For if it is necessary to believe that, being God by 
Nature, He became Flesh, that is, Man endowed with a 
rational soul, what reason could one have for feeling 
ashamed of certain sayings of His being such as befit His 
Humanity ? For if He were to decline to use the words 
which befit Him as Man, who compelled Him to become 
Man like ourselves ? Why should He, who for our sakes 
humbled Himself unto a voluntary Self-emptying, decline 
to use words befitting that Self-emptying? To One 
Person then undoubtedly must be attributed all the say- 
ings in the Gospels, namely, to the One Hypostasis 
Incarnate of the Word. For " there is One Lord Jesus 
Christ," according to the Scriptures. 

And if He is called also " the Apostle and High-priest 
of our confession," as being the priestly minister to God 
the Father of the confession of faith which is offered on 
our part to Him, and through Him to God the Father, 
and moreover also to the Holy Spirit, again we say that 
He is by Nature the Only-begotten Son of God, and we 
do not attribute to a man other than He either the name 
or the actuality of the priesthood. For He has become a 
" Mediator between God and men " and a Eeconciler for 
peace, having offered Himself " for an odour of a sweet 
savour" to God even the Father. Wherefore also He 
affirmed, " Sacrifice and offering Thou wouldest not : in 
whole burnt offerings and sin offerings Thou hast no 
pleasure, but a body didst Thou prepare for Me. Then 
said I, Lo, I am come (in the roll of the book it is written 



EPISTLE TO NESTORIUS 267 

concerning Me) to do, God, Thy will." Tor He hath 
offered His own body " as an odour of a sweet savour " 
for us, and not surely for Himself. For what offering or 
sacrifice did He need for Himself, who as God was 
superior to all sin? For if "all sinned and came short 
of the glory of God," inasmuch as we have become in- 
clined to turn aside, and the nature of man is diseased with 
sin though He is not so and we have therefore failed 
of His glory, how can there be any doubt left that the 
True Lamb has been slain for us men and on our behalf ? 
And to say that He offered Himself both for Himself and 
for us will by no means escape the charge of blasphemy. 
For He hath not offended in any way nor committed sin. 
What offering then was needed, when there was no sin 
for which it could be made with any show of reason ? 

And when He says concerning the Spirit "He shall 
glorify Me," we shall not say, if we understand it aright, 
that the One Christ and Son received glory from the 
Holy Spirit as though He needed a glory which was from 
Another ; for His Spirit is not superior to Him and above 
Him. But since for the manifestation of His Godhead 
He used His own Spirit for majestic works, He says that 
He was glorified by Him ; just as if one of us were to say 
concerning his strength, for instance, or his skill in any- 
thing, " They shall glorify me." For although the Spirit 
exists in His own proper Personality and accordingly is 
conceived of by Himself, inasmuch as He is Spirit and not 
Son, yet He is not therefore alien from Him; for He is 
named "Spirit of Truth," and Christ is " the Truth"; and 
He is poured forth from Him just as He is also of course 
from God the Father. Accordingly the Spirit, even by 
working wonders through the hand of the holy Apostles 
after the Ascension of our Lord Jesus Christ into heaven, 



268 CYRIL'S THIRD 

glorified Him. For it was believed that He must be God 
by Nature when He Himself was working through His 
own Spirit. Wherefore also He affirmed "He shall 
receive of Mine and shall announce it to you." And we 
are not- at all intending to say by this that the Spirit is 
wise and powerful by participation ; for He is all-Perfect, 
and not lacking in all (possible) good. And since He is 
Spirit of the Father's Power and Wisdom, that is, of the 
Son, He is Wisdom and Power in very deed. , 

But since the holy Virgin brought forth after the flesh 
God personally united to flesh, for this reason we say that 
she is Theotokos ; not as though the nature of the Word 
had its beginning of existence from flesh ; for He " was 
in the beginning," and "the Word was God," and "the 
Word was with God," and He is Himself the Maker of 
the ages, co-eternal with the Father, and the Creator of 
the whole; but, as we have already said, since He per- 
sonally united to Himself Manhood, He a] so underwent a 
fleshly birth from her womb ; not that He needed either 
necessarily or on account of His own Nature the birth in 
time and in the last ages of the world; but that He 
might bless the very beginning of our existence ; and that 
the curse on all the race which sends to death our bodies, 
which are from the earth, might be made to cease thence- 
forth by a woman bearing Him united to flesh ; and that 
when the sentence "In sorrow shalt thou bring forth 
children" was annulled by Him, the prophet's words 
should be shown to be true, "Death in its might swallowed 
[us] up, and on the other hand God wiped away every tear 
from every face." For, for this cause we say that He 
Himself in virtue of His Incarnation blessed marriage, 
and went when He was invited in Cana of Galilee with 
His holy apostles. 



EPISTLE TO NESTORIUS 269 

These doctrines we have been taught to hold by the 
holy apostles and evangelists and all the God-breathed 
Scriptures, and from the true confession of the blessed 
Fathers. And all these it behoves thy Keverence to agree 
to and maintain without any guile. 

Now the points which it is necessary for thy Eeverence 
to anathematize are appended to this our Letter. 

I. If anyone confesseth not Immanuel to be God in 
truth and the holy Yirgin on this ground to be Theotokos, 
since she brought forth after the flesh the Vv r ord of God 
who became flesh, be he anathema. 

II. If anyone confesseth not that the Word who is from 
God the Father hath been personally united to flesh, and 
is One Christ with His own flesh the Same, that is to 
say, God and Man alike be he anathema. 

III. If anyone divideth the hypostases after the union 
in respect of the One Christ, connecting them by a mere 
association in dignity or authority or rule, and not rather 
by a conjunction of real union, be he anathema. 

IV. If anyone assigns to two persons or hypostases the 
words of the evangelic or apostolic writings, which are 
spoken either of Christ by the saints or of Himself by 
Himself, and applies some to a man considered apart 
from the Word who is from God, and others, as God- 
befitting, solely to the Word from God the Father, be he 
anathema. 

V. If anyone dares to call Christ a God-bearing man, 
and not rather truly God, as being One Son, and that by 
Nature, inasmuch as the Word has become Flesh and 
partaken of blood and flesh like unto us, be he anathema. 

VI. If anyone says that the Word who is from God 
the Father is God or Lord of Christ, and does not rather 
confess the Self-same to be alike God and Man, the Word 



270 CYRIL'S THIRD 

having become Flesh, according to the Scriptures, be he 
anathema. 

VII. If anyone says that Jesus, as a man, was energized 
by God the Word and clothed with the glory of the Only- 
begotten, as being different from Him, be he anathema. 

VIII. If anyone dares to assert that the man assumed 
ought to be co-worshipped with God the Word and co- 
glorified (with Him) and with Him styled God as if one 
person with another ; for the continual addition of the 
word " with " compels one to understand this ; and does 
not rather honour Immanuel with one worship and render 
to Him one doxology, inasmuch as the Word has become 
Flesh, be he anathema. 

IX. If anyone says that the One Lord Jesus Christ 
was glorified by the Spirit, using the power which came 
through Him as if it were foreign to Himself, and that 
He received from Him the power of working against 
unclean spirits and of fulfilling divine signs and tokens, 
and does not rather say that the Spirit was His own, 
through whom also He wrought the divine signs, be he 
anathema. 

X. The divine Scripture asserts that Christ was made 
"the High Priest and Apostle of our confession"; more- 
over He offered Himself for us "as an odour of sweet 
savour" to God even the Father. If anyone therefore 
says that it was not the Word Himself who is from God 
who was made High Priest and our Apostle when He was 
made flesh and man like us, but as it were another one 
born of a woman, considered separately from Him : or if 
anyone says that He offered the sacrifice for Himself also, 
and not rather solely for our sakes, for He " who knew 
no sin" would have no need of a sacrifice, be he 
anathema. 



EPISTLE TO NESTORIUS 271 

XI. If anyone does not confess the flesh of our Lord 
to be life-giving and the own flesh of the Word Himself 
who is from God, but (regards it) as the flesh of some 
other than Himself conjoined to Him in dignity, or 
having a mere divine indwelling, and not rather life- 
giving, as we affirm, because it became the own flesh of 
the Word who hath strength to quicken all things, be he 
anathema. 

XII. If anyone does not confess that the Word of God 
suffered in flesh and was crucified in flesh and " tasted of 
death" in flesh and became "Firstborn from the dead," 
inasmuch as He is Life and Life-giving, as God, be he 
anathema. 



272 CYRIL'S EPISTLE 



THE EPISTLE OF CYRIL TO JOHN 
OF ANTIOCH 

To my lord, beloved brother, and fellow-minister 
John, Cyril, greeting in the Lord. 

" Let the heavens rejoice and let the earth be glad," for 
"the middle-wall of the hedge" has been broken down 
and the distress has been made to cease and the cause of 
all dissension has been removed, Christ our common 
Saviour rewarding His Churches with peace, the most 
orthodox and God-beloved emperors, moreover, inviting 
us thereto, who, having become most excellent imitators 
of ancestral orthodoxy, preserve the right faith sure and 
unshaken in their own souls: moreover they make a 
special care of His holy Churches, that they themselves 
may have renowned glory for ever and render -their 
empire most illustrious : to whom also the Lord of Hosts 
assigns blessings with a rich hand, and permits them to 
prevail over their antagonists and graces them with 
victory. For He might not speak falsely who said, " As 
I live, saith the Lord, them that honour Me I will 
honour." 

When, then, my lord Paul, the brother and fellow- 
minister most dear to God, arrived at Alexandria, we 
were filled with joy, and very reasonably, seeing that 
such a man was acting as mediator, and had elected to 
encounter excessive toils in order to vanquish the envy 



TO JOHN OF ANTIOCH 273 

of the devil and fco heal divisions and, by the removal of 
the stumbling-blocks cast between us, to crown both our 
Churches and yours with unanimity and peace. It is 
needless to recount the ground of their division: better 
is it, I take it, to think and speak rather of matters 
which befit a time of peace. 

Delighted were we at our intercourse* with that most 
pious man, who probably thought that he would have no 
little difficulty in persuading us that it was a duty to 
unite the Churches in peace and to stop the laughter of 
the heterodox and to blunt the sting of the devil's con- 
tumacy. But he found us so readily disposed for this 
that he had absolutely no trouble at all; for we re- 
membered the words of the Saviour, " My peace I^give to 
you, My peace I leave with you"; moreover we have 
been taught to pray, " Lord our God, give us peace, for 
Thou gavest us all things." So that if one becomes a 
participator in the peace which is abundantly supplied by 
God, he will not lack any good thing. 

But that the dissension which arose between the 
Churches was quite needless and inexcusable we have 
now been fully convinced, since my lord the most God- 
beloved bishop Paul has preferred a paper which contained 
an unimpeachable confession of the faith, which he 
affirmed had been drawn up by thy Holiness and the 
most pious bishops in that place. The document is as 
follows, and it is inserted in this our letter word for 
word : 

Now in the matter of how we think and speak 
concerning the Virgin Theotokos and the manner 



lo. often bears the sense of "conference," "interview," in 
ecclesiastic- Greek, being almost synonymous with 6/u\ta. E. A. 
Sophocles' Lexicon gives several examples. 

T 



274 CYRIL'S EPISTLE 

of the Incarnation of the Only-begotten Son of 
God, we must briefly state, not by way of supple- 
ment (to the Nicene Creed), but in the nature of 
full belief, a we have held from the first, having 
received it both from the divine Scriptures and 
from the tradition of the holy fathers, making no 
addition at all to the Creed of the holy fathers 
put forth at Nicaea. For, as we have just said, it 
suffices both for all knowledge of orthodoxy and 
for the exclusion of all heretical blasphemy. And 
we will state it, not daring impossibilities, but in 
the acknowledgment of our own infirmity, to ex- 
clude those who attack us on the ground that 
we are looking into things beyond the power of 
man. 

We confess, then, our Lord Jesus Christ, the 
Only-begotten Son of God, Perfect God and Per- 
fect Man of a rational soul and body ; before the 
ages begotten from the Father as to His Godhead, 
and in the last days the Self-same for us and for 
our salvation, (born) of Mary the Virgin as to His 
Manhood; the Same co-essential with the Father 
as to Godhead and co-essential with us as to Man- 
hood, for there was a Union of Two Natures, 
whereby we confess One Christ, One Son, One 
Lord. And according to this idea of the uncon- 
fused Union we confess the holy Virgin to be 
Theotokos, because that God the Word was in- 
carnate, and lived as Man; and from the very 
conception united to Himself the temple which 
He took of her. 

And with regard to the evangelic and apostolic 
sayings concerning the Lord, we know that theo- 
logians make some common, as relating to One 
Person, and distinguish others, as relating to Two 



TO JOHN OF ANTIOCH 275 

Natures, interpretating the God-befitting ones of 
the Godhead of Christ, and the lowly ones of His , 
Humanity. 

On reading these your holy words and finding that we 
ourselves also thus think for "there is One Lord, One 
Faith, One Baptism " we gave glory to God the Saviour 
of the world, and congratulated each other that both our 
Churches and yours hold a faith agreeing with the God- 
breathed Scriptures and with the tradition of the holy 
Fathers. But when I learnt that certain of those who 
are wont to be censorious were buzzing around like fierce 
wasps, and were spitting out villainous words against 
me as though I said that the holy body of Christ was 
brought down from heaven and was not (taken) from the 
holy Virgin, I thought it necessary to add a few words on 
this topic in answer to them. foolish ones, knowing 
only how to falsely accuse ! How were ye thus mentally 
perverted so as to have fallen sick of such monstrous 
folly ? For it is your absolute duty to clearly understand 
that well-nigh the whole of our contest for the faith has 
been waged round our affirmation that the holy Virgin is 
Theotokos. But if we say that the holy body of Christ 
our common Saviour is from heaven and was not made 
from her, how could she be any longer understood to be 
Theotokos ? For whom has she at all brought forth, if it 
is not .true that she begat after the flesh Immanuel ? Let 
those then who have prated these things about me be 
ridiculed ; for the blessed prophet Isaiah did not lie when 
he said, " Behold, the Virgin shall be with Child and shall 
bear a Son, and they shall call His Name Immanuel"; 
and altogether truly did the holy Gabriel speak to the 
blessed Virgin, "Fear not, Mary; for thou didst find 
favour with God; and behold, thou shalt conceive and 



276 CYRIL'S EPISTLE 

bear a Son, and thou shalt call His Name Jesus." " For 
He shall save His people from their sins." But when we 
speak of our Lord Jesus Christ being "from heaven" 
and from above, we do not use these expressions as mean- 
ing that His holy flesh was brought from above and from 
heaven, but we follow rather the divinely-speaking Paul 
who plainly cried, "The first man is from earth, of 
mould: the Second Man is [the Lord] from heaven." 
Moreover we remember too the Saviour saying, " No one 
hath ascended into heaven but He that came down from 
heaven, the Son of Man"; although He was born accord- 
ing to the flesh, as I have just said, of the holy Virgin, 
But since God the Word who came down from above and 
from heaven "emptied Himself, taking servant's form," 
and was called "Son of Man," still remaining what He 
was, that is, God for He is immutable and unalterable 
by Nature He is therefore now conceived of as One 
with His own flesh, and is said to have come down from 
heaven, and is moreover named "Man from heaven," 
being perfect in Godhead and perfect in Manhood, and 
conceived of as in One Person; for "there is One Lord 
Jesus Christ," although the difference of the Natures is 
not ignored, from both of which we say that the ineffable 
Union hath been wrought. 

As for those who say there was a mixture or confusion 
or blending of God the Word with the flesh, let thy 
Holiness deem it well to stop their mouths; for it is 
likely that some are commonly reporting this also about 
me, as though I had either thought or said so. But I am 
so far from thinking such a thing that I deem those to 
be actually out of their mind who can for a moment 
suppose it possible for a shadow of turning" to take 
place in respect of the Divine Nature of the Word ; for 



TO JOHN OF ANTIOCH 277 

He ever abides what He is and has not been changed, 
neither indeed could He ever be changed or be capable 
of variation. Besides, we all confess the "Word of God 
to be naturally impassible, although in His all -wise 
administration of the mystery (of the Incarnation) He is 
seen to attribute to Himself the suffering which befell 
His own flesh. Thus likewise, saith the all-wise Peter, 
"Christ then suffered for us in flesh," and not in the 
nature of the ineffable Godhead. For in order that He 
Himself may be believed to be the Saviour of the world 
He takes upon Himself, as I said, the sufferings of His 
own flesh in accordance with the appropriation inherent 
in the Incarnation; much as He was foreannounced by 
the prophet's voice as of Him, " I gave My back to the 
scourges, My cheeks to blows, and My face I turned not 
away from the shame of spitting." 

Now that we follow in all respects the opinions of the 
holy fathers, but especially those of our blessed and all- 
renowned father Athanasius, refusing to be carried in the 
very least beyond them, let thy Holiness be persuaded 
and let no one else feel any doubt. I would also have 
set down many passages of theirs, guaranteeing my own 
words from theirs, had not I feared the length of the 
letter lest it should thereby become tedious. 

And we do not suffer the faith to be in any way shaken 
by anyone, which was defined I mean the Symbol of the 
faith by our holy fathers who assembled in their time 
at Nicaea; nor do we permit either ourselves or others 
either to alter a word of what is there laid up, or to 
transgress a single syllable ; remembering Him who said, 
"Remove not the eternal bounds which thy fathers set." 
For they themselves were not the speakers, but the Spirit 
of God even the Father, who proceedeth indeed from 



278 CYRIL'S EPISTLE 

Him, yet is not alien from the Son, at least in respect of 
essence. Indeed, the words of the holy teachers guarantee 
this to us. For in the Acts of the Apostles it is written, 
" When they came opposite Mysia they attempted to go 
into Bithynia, and the Spirit of Jesus suffered them not." 
The divinely-uttering Paul also writes, " They that are in 
the flesh cannot please God, but ye are not in the flesh, 
but in the Spirit, if so*be that the Spirit of God dwell in 
you. Now if anyone have not the Spirit of Christ he is 
not His." But when any of those who are wont to per- 
vert the right turn aside my words to what they please, 
let not thy Holiness marvel, being aware that those also 
of every heresy find the starting-points for their own 
error out of the God-breathed Scriptures, corrupting by 
their own evil notions what has been rightly written by 
the Holy Spirit, and pouring over their own heads the 
unquenchable flame. 

But since we have learnt that certain persons have cor- 
rupted the epistle of our all-renowned father Athanasius 
to the blessed Epictetus, which is orthodox, and have 
published it so that thereby .many are injured, we 
have therefore, in our thought of something useful and 
necessary for the brethren, sent duplicates to thy Holi- 
ness made from ancient copies which are here with us, 
and which are free from error. 

The Lord shall keep thee in good health and praying 
for us, most honoured brother. 



TOME OF LEO 279 



THE TOME OF LEO 

Leo, bishop, to his dearest brother Flavian, Bishop of 
Constantinople. 

On reading the letter of your Affectionateness, at the 
late arrival of which we wonder, and on reviewing the 
minutes of the acts of the bishops, we at length dis- 
covered the scandal which had arisen in your midst in 
opposition to the integrity of the faith, and what formerly 
appeared obscure, now that it has been explained to us, 
has become perfectly clear. In this matter Eutyches, 
who might reasonably have been thought worthy of 
esteem as a presbyter, shows himself to have been very 
short-sighted and far too inexperienced, so that the 
prophet's words are true too of him : " He was unwilling 
to learn that he might do good; he meditated wicked- 
ness upon his bed." For what is more wicked than to be 
undutifully minded, and to refuse to yield to those who 
are wiser and more learned than ourselves? But into 
this folly do those persons fall who, when they are 
hindered from arriving at the truth by some obscurity, 
have recourse not to the voices of the prophets or the 
letters of the apostles or the gospel authorities, but to 
themselves, and on this account they become teachers of 
error because they were not disciples of the truth. For 
what learning has such a one acquired from the sacred 
pages of the New and the Old Testament, seeing that he 



280 TOME OF LEO 

does not understand even the opening words of the 
creed? And that which is proclaimed throughout the 
whole world by the voices of all candidates for baptismal 
regeneration has not yet been understood by the heart of 
your aged presbyter. 

2. And so, being ignorant of what he ought to think 
about the Incarnation of the Word of God, and unwilling, 
with a view to acquiring the light of intelligence, to make 
research in the wide extent of the Holy Scriptures, he 
yet might at least have received with careful attention 
the general and common confession with which all the 
faithful profess that they 

" believe in God the Father Omnipotent, 
and in Jesus Christ His Only Son Our Lord, 
who was born of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary," 
by which three sentences the machinations of almost all 
heretics are destroyed. For when God is believed to be 
both Omnipotent and Father, and the Son is shown to 
be co-eternal with Him, in nothing differing from the 
Father because He is " God of God," Omnipotent of Om- 
nipotent, begotten Co-eternal of the Eternal ; not later in 
time/not unlike in glory, not divided in essence; but the 
Self-same, who was the Only-begotten and Everlasting 
One of the Everlasting Parent, was born of the Holy 
Spirit and the Virgin Mary. And this birth in time 
takes away nothing from that divine and eternal birth, 
nor does it add anything to it, but it is entirely concerned 
with the reparation of man who had been deceived, so 
that it might both conquer death and by its own power 
destroy the devil, who held the sovereignty of death. 
For we should not have been able to overcome the author 
of sin and death had He not taken our nature and made 
it His own, whom neither could sin pollute nor death 



TOME OF LEO . 281 

detain. For He was conceived of the Holy Spirit within 
the womb of the Virgin Mary, who brought Him forth 
just as she had conceived Him, preserving her virginity. 
But if he was not able to imbibe a right knowledge from 
this purest fount of Christian faith, because he had 
obscured the brightness of the clear truth by' a darkness 
peculiar to himself, Eutyches might have submitted to the 
Gospel teaching, and on reading Matthew's words : " The 
book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the Son of David, 
the Son of Abraham," he should have sought further in- 
struction from the apostle's preaching; and when he read 
in the Epistle to the Eomans : " Paul, a servant of Jesus 
Christ, a called apostle, separated for the gospel of God 
which He had promised before by His prophets in the 
Holy Scriptures about His Son who became to Him of the 
seed of David according to the flesh," he should have 
studied the pages of the prophets with dutiful attention. 
And when he found the promise of God to Abraham, 
which says, " In thy seed shall all nations be blessed," to 
prevent all doubt as to the peculiar privilege of this seed, 
he should have given heed to the apostle when he says, 
" To Abraham were the promises made, and to his seed, 
He saith not ' and to seeds,' as if it applied to many, but 
as to one' and to thy seed,' which is Christ." Isaiah's 
prophecy also he should have listened to with the inward 
ear when he says, " Behold a virgin shall be with child, 
and shall bring forth a Son, and they shall call His name 
'Immanuel/ which is, being interpreted, 'God is with 
us.' " And he should have read with faith the words of 
the same prophet, " Unto us a Child is born, unto us a 
Son is given, whose power is on His shoulder, and they 
shall call His name the Angel of Great Counsel, Wonder- 
ful, Counsellor, the Mighty God, the Prince of Peace, the 



282 TOME OF LEO 

Father of the Coming Age." And he should not, using 
deceptive words, say that the Word was made Flesh in 
such wise as to imply that Christ, having been conceived 
in the Virgin's womb, possessed the form of a man with- 
out a real body taken from His mother, Perhaps he 
thought that our Lord Jesus Christ was not of our nature 
because the angel sent to the blessed Mary ever-virgin 
said, "The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee and the 
power of the Highest shall overshadow thee, therefore 
also that Holy Thing that shall be born of thee shall be 
called the Son of God," as if, because the conception by 
the Virgin was of Divine operation, the flesh of Him con- 
ceived was not of the nature of her who conceived it. 
But that birth, uniquely wonderful and wonderfully 
unique, is not to be understood as losing its true character 
because of the novelty of its origin. For the Holy Spirit 
made the Virgin bring forth, but it was a real body taken 
from her body; and "when Wisdom was building for 
Herself a house " " the Word was made Flesh and dwelt 
amongst us," that is, in that flesh which He took from a 
human being, and which He animated with the spirit of 
a rational life. 

3. Since then the properties of both natures and sub- 
stances were preserved and co-existed in One Person, 
humility was embraced by majesty, weakness by strength, 
mortality by eternity ; and to pay the debt of our condi- 
tion the inviolable nature was united to a passible nature; 
so that, as was necessary for our healing, there was one 
and the same "Mediator between God and men, the man 
Jesus Christ," who was capable of death in one nature 
and incapable of it in the other. In the complete and 
perfect nature, therefore, of very man, very God was born 
complete in what belonged to Him, complete in what 



TOME OF LEO 283 

belonged to us. And by " what belonged to us " we mean 
what the Creator put in us from the beginning, and what 
He undertook to repair. For that which the Deceiver 
brought upon us and that which deceived man admitted 
found no trace in the Saviour. And it does not follow 
that because He shared in human weakness He therefore 
shared in our sins. He assumed the "form of a servant" 
without the stain of sin, enhancing what was human, not 
detracting from what was Divine; because that "Self- 
emptying," by which He who is invisible rendered Him- 
self visible and He who alone is the Creator and "Lord 
of all " willed to be mortal, was a condescension of pity, 
not a loss of power. Hence He who, remaining in the 
" form of God," made man was the Same who was made 
man in the " form of a servant." For each nature retains 
without loss its own properties; and as the "form of 
God " does not take away the " form of a servant," so the 
" form of a servant " does not detract from the " form of 
God." For because the devil was boasting that man, 
deceived by his fraud, had lost the Divine gifts, and, 
being stript of the dowry of immortality, was undergoing 
the hard sentence of death, and that he himself derived 
a certain solace in his woes from his having a partner in 
guilt, and that God too had changed His intention to- 
wards man (as justice demanded), whom He had fashioned 
and endowed with so much honour; there was need of 
the dispensation of a secret counsel so that the unchange- 
able God, whose will cannot be deprived of its own 
benignity, might perfect His first dispensation of kind- 
ness towards us by a more hidden mystery, and that 
man, who had been lured into guilt by the craftiness of 
diabolical wickedness, might not perish contrary to the 
purpose of God. 



284 TOME OF LEO 

4. So then the Son of God enters upon this lower 
world, descending from His heavenly seat without retiring 
from the Father's glory, generated in a new order by a 
novel kind of birth. In a new order, because He who 
is invisible in what belongs to Himself was made visible 
in what belongs to us, the Incomprehensible willed to be 
comprehended, He who continued to exist before time 
began to exist in time, the Lord of the universe took 
upon Him a servant's form shrouding the immensity of 
His majesty, the impassible God did not disdain to be 
passible man, nor the Immortal to be subject to the laws 
of death; and by a novel kind of birth, because in- 
violate virginity, without knowing desire, furnished the 
material of the flesh. Nature 'it was that was taken by 
the Lord from His mother, not defect, and it does not 
follow in the case of our Lord Jesus Christ, born from 
the Virgin's womb, that because His nativity was wonder- 
ful His nature is therefore unlike ours. For the Self- 
same who is very God is also very Man; and there is 
nothing false in this union, whilst the lowliness of the 
Manhood and the loftiness of the Divinity have their 
separate spheres. For as the Godhead is not changed by 
the compassion, so the Manhood is not absorbed by the 
dignity. For each nature performs what is proper to 
itself in communion with the other ; the Word, that is, 
performing what is proper to the Word, and the flesh 
carrying out what is proper to the flesh. The one of 
these is brilliant with miracles, the other succumbs to 
injuries. And just as the Word does not retire from the 
Father's glory, so neither does the flesh abandon the 
nature of our race. For He' is One and the Same a 
fact which we must often insist upon truly the Son of 
God, and truly the Son of Man. God, inasmuch as " In 



TOME OF LEO 285 

the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with 
God, and the Word was God": Man, inasmuch as "The 
Word was made Flesh and dwelt amongst us "; God, in- 
asmuch as " All things were made by Him, and without 
Him was nothing made": Man, inasmuch as "He was 
made of a woman, made under law." The birth of the 
flesh is a manifestation of the human nature, the Virgin's 
bringing-forth is a proof of the Divine Power. The 
infancy of the little Child is shown by His lowly cradle, 
the greatness of the Most High is declared by the voices 
of Angels. He whom Herod impiously tries to slay is 
like a human infant, but He whom the Magi are glad to 
humbly adore is the Lord of all. And even as early as 
the time when He came to the baptism of his forerunner 
John, lest He should escape notice because the Divinity 
was hidden by the veil of the flesh, the Father's voice 
spake in thunder from heaven, " This is My Beloved Son, 
in whom I am well pleased." And so He who as Man 
is tempted by the devil's craft is the Same that is 
ministered unto by -angels as God. To feel hunger, 
thirst, and weariness, and to sleep, is evidently human ; 
but to satisfy thousands of men with five loaves, and to 
bestow living water on the Samaritan woman, the drink- 
ing of which would cause her who drank it to thirst no 
more ; to walk on the surface of the sea with feet which 
did not sink, and to allay the "rising billows" by re- 
buking the tempest, is without doubt Divine. As then, 
to omit many. other examples, it does not belong to the 
same nature to weep in an emotion of pity for a dead 
friend, and to raise that same friend from the dead with 
a word of power, after the stone over the tomb where he 
had been for four days buried had been removed ; or, to 
hang on the wood and, changing the light into darkness, 



286 TOME OF LEO 

to make all the elements tremble ; or, to be pierced with 
nails and to open the gates of Paradise to the faith of the 
robber ; so it does not belong to the same nature to say, 
" I and the Father are One," and " the Father is greater 
than I." For although in the Lord Jesus Christ there is 
One Person of God and man, yet that whence the suffer- 
ing is common to both is one thing, and that whence the 
glory is common to both is another ; for from us He has 
the Humanity inferior to the Father, and from the Father 
He has the Divinity equal to the Father. 

5. It is on account of this Unity of Person which is to 
be understood as existing in both the Natures that, on 
the one hand, the Son of Man is read of as descending 
from heaven when the Son of God took flesh from the 
Virgin from whom He was born, and on the other hand 
that the Son of God is said to have been crucified and 
buried, although He suffered these things not in His God- 
head itself, in virtue of which the Onlybegotten is both 
Co-eternal and Co-essential with the Father, but in the 
weakness of the Human Nature. And this is the reason 
why we all confess too in the Creed that "the Only- 
begotten Son of God was crucified and buried " in accord- 
ance with that saying of the Apostle, "For had they 
known they would not have crucified the Lord of 
Majesty." Now when our Lord and Saviour Himself was 
bringing out the faith of His disciples by His questions, 
He asked, "Who do men say that I the Son of Man am ? " 
And when they had declared the different opinions of 
others, He said, " But ye, who say ye that I am ? I, that 
is, who am Son of Man, and whom in the form of a 
servant and in true flesh ye behold who do ye say that 
I am ? " Whereupon blessed Peter, being divinely in- 
spired, and about to benefit all nations by his confession, 



TOME OF LEO 287 

said, " Thou art the Christ, the Son of the Living God." 
And it was not without good reason that he was pro- 
nounced blessed by the Lord, and derived the firmness of 
his power and of his name from the original Rock, who 
confessed through the revelation of the Father that the 
Self-same Person was both the Son of God and the 
Christ. For one of these truths without the other would 
not profit unto salvation ; and there was equal danger in 
believing the Lord Jesus Christ to be only God and not 
Man, or only Man and not God. But after the Lord's 
Resurrection (which surely was a resurrection of a true 
body, because there was no other body raised than that 
which had been crucified and died), for what other pur- 
pose did He stay on earth for forty days than to clear the 
integrity of our faith from all obscurity ? For conversing 
with His disciples, and dwelling and eating with them, 
and allowing Himself to be handled with a loving and 
heedful touch by those whom doubt oppressed, it was on 
this account also that He entered in to His disciples when 
the doors were shut, and by His breath gave them the 
Holy Spirit, and, when He had given them, the light of 
understanding, opened the hidden mysteries of the Holy 
Scriptures, and again, showed them the wound in His 
side, the marks of the nails, and the most recent signs of 
the passion, saying, " Behold My hands and My feet, that 
it is I Myself. Handle Me and see, for a spirit hath not 
flesh and bones as ye see Me have"; it was on this 
account, I say, that the properties of the Divine and the 
Human Nature might be recognized as remaining in Him 
undivided, and that we might so know the Word to be 
not the same as the flesh as to confess the One Son of 
God to be both Word and Flesh. Which mystery of the 
.faith this Eutyches must be deemed to have utterly failed 



288 TOME OF LEO 

to grasp, for he hath not recognized our nature in the 
Onlybegotten of God, either in the humility of the 
mortality or in the glory of the resurrection. Nor hath 
he feared the sentence of the blessed apostle and evan- 
gelist John : " Every spirit which conf esseth Jesus Christ 
come in flesh is of God, and every spirit that dissolveth 
Jesus is not of God, and this is Antichrist." Now what 
is it to dissolve Jesus but to separate the human nature 
from Him, and to make void by the most shameless fictions 
the mystery whereby alone we have all been saved ? 
Moreover, being in darkness as to the Body of Christ, he 
must necessarily show the same blindness and folly in 
relation to His Passion also. For if he does not think 
the cross of the Lord an unreality, and does not doubt 
that He underwent true punishment for the salvation of 
the world, let him acknowledge also the flesh of Him 
whose death he believes ; and let him not deny that He 
whom he admits to have been passible was a man with a 
body like ours : for to deny the reality of His flesh is 
to deny also His sufferings in a body. If, then, he em- 
braces the Christian faith and does not refuse to listen to 
the preaching of the Gospel, let him consider which 
nature it was that was pierced by the nails and hung 
upon the wood of the cross, and let him understand from 
which nature it was, when the side of the Crucified had 
been pierced by the soldier's spear, that the blood and 
the water flowed out, to invigorate the Church of God 
with the laver and with the cup. Let him also listen to 
the blessed apostle Peter declaring that "the sanctifica- 
tion of the Spirit" is wrought out through "the sprinkling 
of the blood of Christ"; and let him read attentively the 
words of the same apostle, " Knowing that ye were 
redeemed from your vain manner of life which ye in- 



TOME OF LEO 289 

herited from your fathers, not with corruptible things as 
silver and gold, but with the precious blood of Jesus 
Christ, as of a Lamb without blemish and without spot." 
Let him also not resist the testimony of the blessed 
apostle John, "And the blood of Jesus the Son of God 
cleanseth us from all sin." And again, " This is the 
victory which overcometh the world, even our faith." 
And, " Who is he that overcometh the world but he that 
believeth that Jesus is the Son of God ? This is lie that 
came by water and blood, even Jesus Christ ; not in water 
only, but in water and blood. And it is the Spirit 
that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth. For 
there are three that bear witness, the Spirit, the water, 
and the blood; and the three are one." The Spirit of 
sanctitication, namely ; and the blood of redemption ; and 
the water of baptism: which three are one and remain 
undivided, and not one of them is separated from its 
union with the others : because the Catholic Church lives 
and makes progress by this faith, that in Christ Jesus 
neither Humanity without true Divinity, nor Divinity 
without true Humanity, may be believed to exist. 

6. When, however, Eutyches, in response to your cross- 
examination, said, " I confess that our Lord was from two 
Natures before the Union, but after the Union I admit 
but One Nature," I am amazed that so absurd and per- 
verse a profession as this of his was not severely censured 
by the judges, and that an exceedingly foolish and 
blasphemous phrase was passed over, just as though 
nothing which could be matter of offence had been 
heard : since it is just as impious to say that the Only- 
begotten Son of Qod was from two Natures before the 
Incarnation, as to assert that after the Word was made 
Flesh but a single Nature remained- in Him. But lest 
U 



290 TOME OF LEO 

Eutyches should think that his words were correct or 
tolerable because they were not silenced by any expression 
of opinion on your part, we exhort you to be carefully 
solicitous, dearly-beloved brother, that if by God's merci- 
ful inspiration the case is brought to a satisfactory 
conclusion, this short-sighted and inexperienced man may 
be purged also from this pestilent notion of his. For 
he, as the minutes of the Acts have made plain, had well 
begun to retreat from his opinion when, pressed by your 
judgment, he agreed to say what he had not said before, 
and to acquiesce in that faith to which he had formerly 
been a stranger. But when he refused to anathematize 
the impious doctrine, your Fraternity understood that he 
adhered to his false doctrine, and deserved to be con- 
demned. For which if he is genuinely and efficaciously 
sorry, and recognizes, though late, how rightly the epis- 
copal authority has been set in motion against him ; or if 
for the fulfilment of expiation he shall condemn all his 
errors viva voce and by actual subscription, you cannot be 
blamed for showing him pity to any extent when he has 
been convinced of his error; for our Lord, the true and 
good Shepherd^ who laid down His life for His sheep, and 
who came to save men's souls, not to destroy them, wishes 
us to imitate His loving affection ; so that justice should 
indeed restrain sinners, but compassion should not repel 
those who have renounced their errors. For then indeed 
is the true faith defended most profitably when a false 
opinion is condemned by its actual former adherents. 

But with .a view to concluding the whole case re- 
ligiously and faithfully, we have directed our brothers 
Julius the bishop and Eenatus the presbyter and also my 
son Hilarus the deacon to act for us : and with them we 
have sent as companion Dulcitius our notary, of whose 



TOME OF LEO 291 

fidelity we are assured ; being confident that the help of 
God will be with you, so that he who has erred may be 
saved by condemning his depraved opinion. 

May God keep you safe, dearest brother. 

Given on the Ides of June, in the distinguished consul- 
ship of Asturius and Protogenes. 

NOTE. This translation, originally made for this work by my colleague 
and former pupil, the Rev. H. L. Bovell, B.A., has been compared with 
and revised by the published translations of Dr. Heurtley and Dr. Bright. 



292 CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 



THE CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 
OF THE FAITH 

* 

1. THE Holy, Great, and Oecumenical Synod, by the 
grace of God and the command of our most orthodox 
and Christ-loving Emperors, Marcian and Valentinian 
August!, assembled in the metropolis of Chalcedon, in 
the Bithynian province, in the martyry of the holy and 
nobly triumphant martyr Euphemia, hath decreed as 
follows : 

2. Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, confirming the 
knowledge of the Faith to His disciples, said, " My peace 
I leave with you, My peace I give to you," to the end 
that no one should differ from his neighbour in the 
doctrines of orthodoxy, but that the proclamation of the 
truth should be shown forth equally by all. 

But since the evil one ceaseth not, by means of his 
own tares, to supplant the seeds of orthodoxy, and ever 
inventeth something new against, the truth, therefore the 
Lord, in His wonted care for the human race, excited to 
zeal this orthodox and most faithful Emperor, and called 
together to Himself the chiefs of the priesthood from all 
parts, in order that, by the action of the grace of Christ 
the Lord of us all, we might remove every noxious 
element from the sheep of Christ, and enrich them with 
the fresh herbage of the truth. 

And this, in fact, we have accomplished, having by a 



OF THE FAITH 293 

unanimous vote driven away the dogmas of error, and 
having renewed the undeviating Creed of the Fathers, 
proclaiming to all the Symbol of the Three Hundred and 
Eighteen ; and, in addition, accepting as our own fathers 
those who received that statement of orthodoxy we 
mean the One Hundred and Fifty who subsequently met 
together in Great Constantinople, and themselves set 
their seal to the same Creed. 

Therefore (preserving the order and all the decrees 
concerning the Faith passed by the Holy Synod held 
formerly at Ephesus, the leaders of which were Caelestine 
of Eome and Cyril of Alexandria of most holy memory) 
we decree that the exposition of the right and blameless 
Faith of the Three Hundred and Eighteen holy and 
blessed Fathers, assembled in Mcaea, in the time of 
the Emperor Constantine of orthodox memory, be pre- 
eminent ; and moreover, that the definitions made by the 
One Hundred and Fifty holy Fathers in Constantinople, 
for the removal of the heresies then rife, and for the con- 
firmation of the same Catholic and Apostolic Faith, 
remain valid. 

The Symbol of the Three Hundred and Eighteen :* 

"We believe in One God the Father All- 
sovereign, Maker of all things visible and 
invisible : 

"And in One Lord Jesus Christ, the Son 
of God, Begotten from the Father, Only- 
begotten, that is, from the essence of the 
Father; God from God, Light from Light, 
Very God from Very God; Begotten, not 

* On the peculiarities of this recension see the notes on page 236. 
The additions are here printed in italics. 



294 CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 

made ; Co-essential with the Father ; through 
Whom all things were made [both in heaven 
and in earth]; Who for us men. and for our 
salvation came down from, the heavens, and 
was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the 
Virgin Mary, and lived as Man ; was crucified 
also for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, 
and was buried, and rose the third day accord- 
ing to the Scriptures, and ascended into the 
heavens ; and sitteth on the right hand of the 
Father, and again cometh with glory to judge 
the quick and the dead, of Whose kingdom 
there shall be no end : 

"And in the Spirit, Holy, Sovereign, and 
Life-giving, 

" But those who say, ' Once He was not,' 
and 'Before He was begotten He was not/ 
and that 'He was made out of nothing,' or 
who say that ' the Son of God is of a different 
Hypostasis or Essence,' or 'mutable' or 
'changeable'; these the Catholic and Apos- 
tolic Church anathematizes." 
The Symbol of the One Hundred and Fifty : 

" We believe in One God the Father All- 
sovereign, Maker of heaven and earth, and of 
all things visible and invisible : 

" And in One Lord Jesus Christ, the Only- 
begotten Son of God, Begotten of the Father 
before all worlds ; Light from Light, Very 
God from Very God ; Begotten, not made ; 
Co-essential with the Father ; through Whom 
all things were made; Who for us men and 
for our salvation came down from the 



OF THE FAITH 295 

heavens, and was incarnate of the Holy 
Spirit and the Virgin Mary, and lived as 
Man ; was crucified also for us under Pontius 
Pilate, and suffered, and was buried and rose 
the third day according to the Scriptures; 
and ascended into the heavens, and sitteth on 
the right hand of the Father; and cometh 
again with glory to judge both the quick and 
the dead, of Whose kingdom there shall be 
no end: 

"And in the Spirit, Holy, Sovereign, and 
Life-giving, Who proceedeth from the Father; 
Who with the Father and the Son is together 
worshipped and glorified ; Who spake by the 
prophets : 

"In One Holy Catholic and Apostolic 
Church : 

"We acknowledge One Baptism for the 
remission of sins: 

"We look for a Eesurrection of the dead, 
and a Life of the world to come. Amen." 
3. Although this wise and saving Symbol of the 
Divine Grace would have been sufficient for complete 
knowledge and confirmation of orthodoxy, for it both 
teaches the perfect doctrine concerning the Father and 
the Son and the Holy Spirit, and sets forth the Incar- 
nation of the Lord to those who receive it faithfully ; yet, 
forasmuch as those who attempt to set aside the preach- 
ing of the truth have produced foolish utterances through 
their own heresies, some daring to corrupt the mystery 
of the Lord's Incarnation for us, and denying the title 
" Theotokos " to the Yirgin ; others introducing a confu- 
sion and mixture, shamelessly imagining too the Nature 



296 CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 

of the flesh and of the Godhead to be one, and absurdly 
maintaining that the Divine Nature of t the Only-begotten 
is by this confusion passible; therefore the present 
Holy, Great, and Oecumenical Synod, being minded to 
exclude all their machinations against the truth, and 
affirming the doctrine as unchangeable from the first, hath 
decreed primarily that the Creed of the Three Hundred 
and Eighteen holy Fathers should remain inviolate ; and, 
on account of those who contend against the Holy Spirit, 
it ratifies the teaching subsequently set forth by the One 
Hundred and Fifty, holy Fathers assembled in the 
imperial city concerning the essence of the Spirit, which 
they made known to all; not as adducing anything left 
lacking by their predecessors, .but making distinct by 
scriptural testimonies their conception concerning the 
Holy Spirit against those who were trying to set aside 
His Sovereignty; and, on account of those who attempt 
to corrupt the mystery of the Incarnation, and who 
shamelessly pretend that He who was born of the holy 
Mary was a mere man, it hath received the 'Synodical 
Epistles of the blessed Cyril, Pastor of the Church of 
Alexandria, to Nestorius and to the Easterns, as being 
agreeable thereto, for the refutation of the wild notions 
of Nestorius and for the instruction of those who in pious 
zeal desire to understand the saving Symbol. To these 
also it hath suitably united, for the confirmation of the 
right doctrines, the Epistle of the Prelate of the great 
and older Eome, the most blessed and most holy Arch- 
bishop Leo, which was written to the saintly Archbishop 
Flavian for the exclusion of the wrong opinion of 
Eutyches, inasmuch as it agrees with the confession of 
the great Peter, and is a common pillar against the 
heterodox. 



OF THE FAITH 297 

4. For the Synod opposes those who presume to rend 
the mystery of the Incarnation into a Duality of Sons ; 
and it expels from the company of the priests those who 
dare to say that the Godhead of the Only-begotten is 
passible, and it withstands those who imagine a mixture 
or confusion of the Two Natures of Christ, and it drives 
away those who fancy that the form of a servant, taken 
by Him of us, is of a heavenly or any other essence ; and 
it anathematizes those who imagine Two Natures of the 
Lord before the Union, but fashion anew One Nature 
after the Union. Following, then, the holy Fathers, we 
all unanimously teach that our Lord Jesus Christ is to us 
One and the same Son, the Self-same Perfect in Godhead, 
the Self -same Perfect in Manhood ; truly God and truly 
Man; the Self-same of a rational soul and body; co- 
essential with the Father according to the Godhead, the 
Self -same co-essential with us according to the Manhood ; 
like us in all things, sin apart ; before the ages begotten 
of the Father as to the Godhead, but in the last days, 
the Self-same, for us and for our salvation (born) of Mary 
the Virgin Theotokos as to the Manhood; One and the 
Same Christ, Son, Lord, Only -begotten ; acknowledged in 
Two Natures unconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, in- 
separably ; the difference of the Natures being in no way 
removed because of the Union, but rather the properties 
of each Nature being preserved, and (both) concurring 
into One Person and One Hypostasis ; not as though He 
were parted or divided into Two Persons, but One and 
the Self -same Son and Only-begotten God, Word, Lord, 
Jesus Christ; even as from the beginning the prophets 
have taught concerning Him, and as the Lord Jesus 
Christ Himself hath taught us, and as the Symbol of 
the Fathers hath handed down to us. 



298 CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION 

5. These things having been defined by us with all 
possible accuracy and care, the Holy and Oecumenical 
Synod hath decreed that it is unlawful for any one to 
present, write, compose, devise, or teach to others any 
other Creed ; but that those who dare either to compose 
another Creed, or to bring forward or teach or deliver 
another Symbol to those wishing to turn to the full 
knowledge of the truth from Paganism or from Judaism, 
or from heresy of any kind whatsoever, that such 
persons, if bishops or clerics, shall be deposed, the 
bishops from the episcopate and clerics from the clerical 
office, and, if monks or laics, they shall be anathematized. 



INDICES 



GENERAL INDEX 



Aachen, council of (809), 90. 
Acacius, Homoion creed of, 3, 28. 
"Accidental" Union, no. 
Adoptionism, in. 
Advent, the Second, 44 f. 
Aetius of Constantinople, 74, 211, 

213. 

African baptismal creed, 4. 
Alexander of Alexandria, 13, 50, 

135, 211. 
Alexandria, council of (321), 13. 

i, (324), 14. 

(362), 52, 

109. 

, i, (430), n6. 

,, creed of, 59. 
"Almighty," 23. 
Ambrose, 134, 211. 
Amphilochius, 211. 
Anabaptists, 8, 208. 
Anastasius, 99. 

Anathematisms of Nicaea, 18, 47 ff. 
of Cyril, 143. 

of Fifth General 

Council, 1 54, 179ff. 
Anatolius, 221. 

Andrew of Samosata, 143, 160. 
anima animans, 109. 
,, rationalis, 109, 
Anomaeans, 51. 
Antidosis, 112. 
Antioch, creeds of, 17, 63 ff. 
,, council of (269), 27, 63. 
,, anti-Cyrilline council and 

articles, 162. 
apocrisiarius, 222. 
Apollinarianism, 40, 108. 

condemned at Alex- 

andria, 109. 
Cyril accused of, 
157, 159. 



It 



it 



I) 
I) 



Apollinarianism, Valentinian, 208. 
Apollinarius, 2, 5 f. 

,, Docetic, 8. 
,, his heresy, io8f. 
Apostolic Constitutions, creed of, 

6if. 

Apostolical tradition, 5. 
Aquileian creed, 41 f., 86. 
Aretaeus, 38. 
Arianism, 2, 5 f. 

rise of, 13 f. 
Docetic, 8. 
rationalistic, 49 f. 
illogical, 53. 
pagan, 53. 

Cyril accused of, 158. 
Arius, 2, I3f.,49f. 
Armenian creed, 39, 48. 
,, Church, 240 f. 
Articles, Cyril's Twelve, 143 ff. 

XLIL (1552), 208. 
Ascension, the, 43 f. 
Athanasius of Anazarbus, 54, 
Athanasius, anticipated heresies, 9, 

ill. 

,, at Nicaea, 15. 
, , on the 3 days' burial, 43. 
,, letter to Epictetus, 109, 

162, 172, 175. 

on the perpetual vir- 
ginity, 208. 
, , on the " subordination," 

211. 

Atonement, the, 36, 158 f. 
Atticus of Nicopolis, 223. 
Augustine of Canterbury, 90. 
Augustine on the perpetual vir- 
ginity, 208. 
,, on the "subordination," 



"A.yior, r6, 76. 



211, 212. 



301 



302 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



S, 241. 
'OS, 208. 

ra/>/c6s, 85 f. 
uvOpwiroirpeirGis, 128, 21 1. 
209. 

s, 114, 160. 
s, 112. 
diroaroXiKT?, 84. 
diro^afrai', 265. 
aavyxtirtas, 241. 
aTpeirT6v, 31 f., 174- 
TUS, 241. 
s, 85. 

241. 



Baeda, 222. 
Baptism, one, 84 f. 
Baptismal formula, 2. 

, , interrogations, 3 f. 

,, creed of Jerusalem, 4. 

Cyprian, 4. 

Basil wrongly quoted by Theodoret, 

ISO. . 
,, on inviolability of Nicene 

creed, 175. 

Basil of Seleucia, 191. 
Basil, Roman legate, 222. 
Benedict VIII., 90. 
Bigg, Dr., 34. 

"Blasphemies" of Arius, 28, 54. 
Body, Apollinarian views of Christ's, 

1 08. 

Body, identity of resurrection, 86. 
Boniface, Roman legate, 222. 
Bornemann, Prof., 60. 
Braga, first council of, 88. 
"Brethren" of our Lord, 208 f. 
Bright, Dr., 8, 44, 140, 153. 
Bruce, Michael, 44. 
Burial, the, 41. 
Byrom, J., 135. 

Caelestine, Pope, 100, 116, 134. 
Caesarea, creed of, 3, 15, 30, 34, 57. 
Canon of Truth, 5. 
Cassian, 67 f., loof. 
Catechetical instruction, 5. 
Cerinthian separation, 214. 
Chalcedon, council of, 48, 73, 222 ff. 
, , Definition of Faith, 224. 
Christ our High Priest, 156. 
Christ's Person Divine, 1 12. 



Christological heresies, 6 f. 
Christmas Sequence, 135. 

,, Preface, 208. 
Chrysippus, 136. 
Chrysostom, 211. 
Church, the, in early creeds, 80. 

,, ,, notes of, 8iff. 
Church Quarterly Review, 8, 83, 

92. 
Communicatio idiomatum, 112, 135, 

193, 201, 212. 
Communion of Saints, 82. 
Constantine, 18. 
Constantinople, local creed of, 17, 

236. 
,, council of (381), 

70, 74 ff. 
, , home synod (448), 

189 f. 
.,, council of (553), 

154, 179 ff-. 
(68i),2 4 i,247f. 

contesseratio, 205. 

Coptic Jacobites, liturgy of, 242. 

Cos, 222. 

Creation, doctrine of, 25, 35. 

Creed, names of the, 206. 

Creeds, local, 4, 16. 

,, conciliar, 20. 

,, liturgical, 20, 90, 137. 
Cyprian,baptismal interrogatories, 4. 
Cyril of Jerusalem, baptismal creed 

of, 4- 

,, catechetical lec- 

tures of, 5. 

,, ,, revised creed of, 

70 ff. 

Cyril of Alexandria, anticipates 
heresies, 9. 

,, ,, on the reality of 

the Incarna- 
tion, 42. 

,, ,, on the Double 

Procession, 

9i, 141, 155- 
,, ,, argument from 

the Eucharist, 

138. 
,, ,, Twelve Articles, 

H3 

,, ,, accused of Ari- 

anism, 158, 



GENERAL INDEX 



303 



Cyril of Alexandria accused of 
Apollinarian- 
ism, 157, 174. 

,, ,, Epistles at Ephe- 

sus, 1 60. 

,, Epistles at Chal- 

cedon, 160, 

237. 
,, his reading of 

John iii. 13, 

174. 
,, ,, his reading of 

I Cor. xv. 

47, 174- 

,, ,, on inviolability 

of Nicene 
creed, 171, 

175- 
,, ,, on the "subor- 

dination,"2ir, 

Damasus, 134. 
Dated creed, 28, 41. 
Death, Christ's real, 42. 
Dedication creed, 28, 63 ff. 
Dei genetrix, 114. 
Deipara, 113. 
Denke, John, 8. 
Diogenes of Cyzicus, 236. 
Dionysius of Alexandria, 31, 33. 
Dionysius of Rome, 31, 49. 
Dioscorus, 192, 2198. 
Dorylaeum, see Eusebius of. 
Docetism, 6, 8, 10, 213. 
Duad of Sons, no. 

Ecclesia, 81. 

Ephesus, council of (431), 48, 160, 

192, 242. 

,, synodal letter, 161. 
,, Latrocinium, 219 ff. 
Epictetus, Athanasius' Epistle to, 

109, 162, 172, 175. 
Epiphanius, on the Trinity, 3. 

,, creeds of, 17, 71, 93 f. 
,, "Ancoratus," 71 f. 
essentia, 52. 
Eternal life, 86 f. 

Eucharist, the Holy, Trinitarian ar- 
gument from, 27. 
,, ,, Christological argu- 

ment from, 138 f. 



Eucharist, the Holy, Creed recited 

at, 137. 

Euphemia, St., 222, 235. 
Eusebius of Caesarea, creed of, 3, 1 5. 
,, ,, on Nicene an- 

athema, 5 if. 

Eusebius of Nicomedia, creed of, 15. 

,, ,, rejected &c T?}S 

of/fflas, 30, 51. 

Eusebius of Dorylaeum, 67, 99, 

189. 

Eustathius, 28. 
Eutyches, 2, 5 f. 

,, revived Apollinarianism, 

108, 173, 208. 

charged with heresy, 189. 
rebuked in the Tome, 

195, 203. 

Eutychianism, 241. 
Evagrius, 223, 235, 240. 
Evangelistic sayings, twofold refer- 
ence of, 139. 
ex duabus naturis, 203. 
Exouchontians, 51. 
<?K 5i5o (j>6ffewv, 190, 194, 203, 224, 

238. 

iKKX-rftrla., 8 1. 
ev 8tio (fifoecnv, 224, 238, 240. 

Kad' {nrbtrraffiv, HO, 147. 
, II 0. 
242. 

Fatherhood of God, 23, 49. 

Fifth General Council, 154, i79ff., 

237- 

Filioque, 88 ff. 
Flavian of Constantinople, 190 ff., 

220 f., 224, 237 f. 
" Flesh "= man, 158. 
Fleury, Hist. Eccl., 153, 190, 221. 
Florentius, 191. 

" Form of God," see pop^^l Qeov. 
Formulary of Reunion, 150, i62ff., 

167 f., 173- 
frustratorie, 207. 

Galen, 38. 

Gelasius, 19. 

Genealogy of Christ, argument 

from, 207. 
Generation, Eternal, of the Son, 

26 f., 30, 49 f. 



3 o 4 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



Gnosticism, dualistic, 24. 

,, rejected Incarnation 
and Sacraments, 9, 
,, rejected unity of God, 

22. 

Gospel sayings respecting Christ, 

139. 
Gregory, deacon, 222. 

,, pope, 90. 
Gregory of Nyssa, 75. 
Guardian, The, 209. 
Gwatkin, Prof., 63. 

Hades, descent into, 41. 
Haethfelth, council of, 90. 
Hardwick, on Articles, 8, 208. 
Heresy, character of, 7 f. 
High priesthood of Christ, 128, 

156. 

Hilarus, 192, 204, 215, 219 f. 
Hilary of Poitiers, 27, 33, 89, 134, 

139, 2li. 
Holy Spirit, One, 47. 

bfj.ooijffiov, 77 
,, Procession of, 78. 
,, temporal mission of, 

79- 
,, Double Procession of, 

88 ff., 141. 

,, Christ's Own, 91, 155. 
"Home Synod," 189 f., 192, 214, 

219. 

homo, 209. 
Homoiousians, 28. 
Hooker, Eccles. Pol., 113, 241 f. 
Hort, Dr. , 29, 70 ff. , 80 f. 
Hosius, 14, 

Hymnody, dogmatic, 79 f. 
Hypostatic Union, no, 139, 147, 
158 f., 212. 

Identity of the Body, 86. 

,, Person, 86. 
Ignatius, anticipated heresies, 9. 
Immortality of the Soul, 86. 
Incarnation, rejected by Gnostics, 9. 

mode of, 39. 

,, mysteriousness of, 112. 
incomprehensibilis, 210. 
indicium, 205. 
indiscretam, 206. 
Institution of a Christian Man, 208. 



Integrity of Christ's Two Natures, 

in. 

ISioiroieiv, 137- 
'Iijcrous, 26. 

Jerusalem, baptismal creed, 4. 
,, early creed, 58. 
,, revised creed, 17, 26, 

69 ff. 
John of Antioch, 160, 162 f. 

,, Cyril's Epistle to, 

:66ff. 

John, Count, 162. 
Julian of Cos, 215, 222. 
Julius of Puteoli, 192, 204, 215. 
Justin Martyr, 6, 34. 

,, creed of, 60. 

Karl the Great, 89. 
"Kenosis," the, 37, 135, 140. 
Kingdom, eternity of Christ's, 45 f. 
KafloAc/oj, 83 f. 
/car' etiSoKlav, III. 
/?j/u<rts, 37, 135, 140. 
/cpacns, 136, 174. 
, r6, 77- 
25. 

"Laetentur caeli," 163. 
Laodicaea, council of, 48. 
Latrocinium, the, 220 ff. 
Leo the Great, 138. 

,, Tome of, 189 ff. 

,, on the "Rock," 212. 

Leo III., 89. 

lex adorandi lex credendi, 79. 
Lightfoot, Dr., 84, 175, 209. 
Liturgical use of creed, 20, 90, 137. 
Logos, Arian view of the, 8, 31. 

,, Apollinarian view of the, 8. 

,, Marcellian ,, 45 f. 

,, Theodore's in. 
Lucentius, 222. 
Lucian, creed of, 63 ff. 

Macedonianism, 5f., 16, 237. 

Manes, 191. 

Manichaeism, to. 

Marcellus, 16, 45 f. 

Marcian, 221 f. 

Marcion, 80. 

Marius Mercator, 99 f., 144 ff., 153. 



GENERAL INDEX 



305 



Martha, 26. 

Martial, 14. 

martyry, 235. 

Mary, perpetual virginity of, 208 f. 

,, see Theotokos. 
Mason, Prof., 35, 77. 
Mater Dei, 113. 
Mayor, J. B., Dr., 209. 
Meletian schism in Aegypt, 14. 
mendacium, 210. 
Monarchia, 7, 9. 
Monophysitism, 159, 241. 
Monothelitism, 241. 
Mozarabic liturgy, 86. 

AldffyyUtt, 206. 

/j,la 0tf<ns irecrapKtafi.tvi/), 140 f. , 192. 

, 136- 
la, 7. 

s, 2j f, 

9eoO, nop(pr) SotfXov, 115, 145, 
151 f., 158. 
210. 



Nathanael, 26, 

natura, 52 f., 148. 

Neale, Dr., 891"., 221. 

Necessary Doctrine and Erudition, 

208. 

Nestorian controversy, 99 f. 
Nestorius, 2, $, 99, 236. 

,, Pelagian, 8. 

,, Sabellian, 8. 

,, misconception of 0eo- 
r6/cos, 112. 

,, dicta of, 1 10, 137. 

,, counter-anathemas, 160. 
Nicaea, council of (325), 14 ff. 

>, (450, 222. 
,, creed of, 17. 
' anathemas of, 47 f. 
,, fathers of, 235 f. 
Nicene Creed, expansion of baptis- 
mal formula, 3. 
,, not originally a 

"symbol," 48, 
242. 

, , supplanted by " Con- 
stantinopolitan," 
76, 138, 243. 

,, inviolable, 171, 175. 
,, at Chalcedon, 223, 

236. 

X 



Nicene Creed, made a baptismal 

"symbol," 242. 
Nice, Fraud of, 28, 41. 
Nicetas of Remesiana, 86. 
Nicholas I., 90. 
Nicomedia, see Eusebius of. 
Novatian controversy, 4. 
vovs, 1 08. 

Omnipotens, 23. 
Origen, his use of b/j,ooti<rtoi>, 34. 
, , on the Eternal Generation. 

49- 

,, on 9eor<kos, 114. 
, , on the " subordination," 2 1 1 . 
ordo, 205. 
Osiander, 36. 
Ottley, Mr., 30, 241. 

137. 
174. 

S, 142, 

discussed at Alexandria, 

14. 

adopted at Nicaea, 32. 
rejected by Eusebius and 

Arius, 32. 

at Antioch (269), 33. 
in formulary of reunion, 

168, 173. 

i]/uv, 168, 173, 190 f., 
207, 239. 
t, 14, 34, 51. 

Pamphilus, 34. 

Paschal Question, 14. 

Paschasinus, 222. 

Passion, mode of the, 40. 

Patripassianism, 158 f. 

Paul of Emisa, 162, 166. 

Paul of Samosata, 27, 33, 112. 

Pelagianism, 8, 10, 

persona, 52, 148. 

Person of Christ Divine, 112. 

Personal Union, no, 139, 147, 

158 f. 

Personal Identity, 86. 
Peter the Fuller, 138. 
Peter, St., 201, 212. 
petra, 212. 
pietas, 210. 
Pneumatomachi, 237. 
Pontius Pilate, 40 f. 



3 o6 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



praevaricator, 210. 

Pre-existence of Christ's Manhood, 

8, 214 f. 
Primasius, 43. 
principatns Patris, 211. 
Priscillianists, 8, 10. 
Procession, the Double, 78, 88 ff., 

141. 

Proclus of Cyzicus, 135. 
Proper Preface for Christmas, 208. 
Psilanthropism, 6, 213. 
Ptolemaeus, 30. 
Pulcheria, 221. 
Puller, F. W., 82. 
Pusey, Dr., 91 f. 
Pusey, P. E., 153. 

, 23. 
is, 136. 

T] 0e6r>jTOs, 211. 
v , 20. 
eh, 21. 

S, 21, 206. 

i, 173- 
v, 52, 141. 

=u7r6aTa<nSj 149. 
i, 148. 

191. 

<jf>i5o-ts, 52, 140 f. 
s, 30 f. 



Quicumq^le, The, 211. 

Reccared, King, 88. 
redditio symboli, 206. 
Regula fidei, 5- 
Renatus, 192, 204, 215. 
resurrectio carnis, 85 f. 
Resurrection of the Body, 42, 85 f. 
,, rejected by 

Priscillianists, 10. 
Reunion, Formulary of, 150, 162 ff., 

167 f., 173- 
Reverence, false, 9. 
Robertson, Principal, 140. 
Rock, Christ or Peter, the, 212. 
Rome, council of (430), 116, 134. 
Routh, Dr., 235, 240. 
Ruffinus, 22, 205. 
Rule of Faith, 5, 16. 
pevarbv, 72. 

Sabellianism, 2, 6f., 13, 150, 159. 



Sacramental union, 139. 
sacramentum, 210. 
Sacraments rejected by Gnostics, 9. 
sanctorum communio, 82. 
sanguis et aqua, 213. 
sapere, 205. 
Sardica, council of, 73. 
Scotist view of Incarnation, 36. 
Session at Right Hand, the, 43 f. 
Seleucia, 3, 28, 38. 
signum, 205. 

Sirmium, first creed of, no. 
,, second creed of, 3. 
Sisinnius, 99. 

Sixth General Council, 241, 247 f. 
solvere Jesum, 202, 213. 
Sonship, Divine, 26. 
Sotades, 14. 

Spirit, Holy, see Holy Spirit. 
Stoic philosophical terms, 34, 136. 
' ' Subordination, "the, 211. 
substantia, 34, 52. 
Swainson, Dr., 73, 137. 
Swete, Dr., 89, 91 f. 
symbolum, 4, 205 f. 
syncellus, 99. 

= Kara <rdpKa, 146. 
, 109, 158. 
i, 38. 
<rv/J,fio\'/i, 205 f. 
<njHJ3o\ov, 205 f. 
(n/Txuo-is, 136, 174. 
<rwc0eta, no, 136. 
, 147. 

ifj.odo'a, 190. 
la, 273. 
y, 136. 

J, 1 10, 136, 148. 
34. 



Tacitus, 41. 

Tarasius of Constantinople, 90. 
Tertullian,on baptismal profession^. 
on the Trinity, 78. 
,, on the Double Proces- 
sion, 89. 
,, on distinction of Natures 

in Christ, III. 
,, on the "subordination," 

211. 

,, anticipated heresies, 9, 
34- 



GENERAL INDEX 



307 



Tertullian, use of OeoXo7/a, 1 75. 

,, ,, contesseratio, 205. 

Thalia, 14, 32, 37, 51, 54. 
Theodore of Mopsuestia, 99, III. 
Theodoret, 139, 143, 160. 
Theodosius II., 116, 161, 173, 192, 
Theognostus, 30, 
Theopaschite language, 159. 
Theotokos, 8, 99 f., 160. 
Timothy of Constantinople, 138. 
titulus, 215. 
Toledo, council of (447), 89. 

(589), 88, 138. 
Tombe, Michael, 208. 
Tome. of Leo, 192, 193 f., 195 ff. 
Trinitarian heresies, 6 f. 
Trinity, doctrine of the Holy, 2, 5, 

78 f. 
,, " common " actions of the, 

155- 
,, "subordination" in the, 

211. 

6eol>xos, 114. 
6eo\oyta t 175. 
Qeoirpeireis, 211. 
0eoT6Kos, 99, Il2f. 
deotjj&pos tLvdpuiros, 1 50. 
TIH, 236. 
TpeiTT6v, 54) 108. 
3- 



Unicus, 28. 
Unigenitus, 28. 

Union of body and soul, analogy 
of, 136. 



Union of the Logos with Jesus, 

"accidental," no, 136. 
Union of the Logos with Jesus, 

"moral," III. 
Unity of God, 22. 

34- 

14. 

,, =oi)<rfa at Nicaea, 51 f. 
=irpoawirov with Cyril, 

149. 

inN.T., 52, 141. 
s, 2. 



Valentinianism, 40, 208. 
Valentinian III. , 173. 
Valentinus, 191. 
Vigilins of Thapsus, 4. 
Virginity, perpetual, of Mary, 

208 f. 

vita aeterna, 87. 
Vulgate readings, 207, 213, 214. 

Water and blood, symbolism of, 

213 f. 

Wesley, Charles, 135. 
Westcott, Dr., 36, 211. 



, 26. 

X/JIOTOTOKOS, 114, 160. 
Xw/>is afMprlas, 95, 239. 

Zahn, Dr., 82, 86. 
$, 87. 

, 77- 



308 OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



INDEX OF TEXTS QUOTED OR 
REFERRED TO 



Genesis, 
iii. 16 
xii. 3 
xiv. 4 
xxii. 1 8 

Exodus, 
iii. 14 

Leviticus, 
xi. 44 f. 
xxv, to 

Deuteronomy. 

iv. 35 
vi. 4 
xv. I 

1 Samuel, 
ii. 30 

2 Samuel, 
v. 10 
vii. 8, 26 

I Kings. 

ii. 19 

Job. 

v. 17 

viii. 5 

Psalms, 
xvi. 10 
ii 
xxxiv. 9 



PAGE 


Psalms contd. 


PAGE 


. I3O 
197 


xxxv. 4 
xl. 6ff. 


195 
. 129 


. 236 
197 


xcii. 3 

XCV. II 


. 200 

. 166 




ex. i 


43 




Proverbs. 




2J 








viii. 22 


15 




ix. i 


.197 


. 76 


xxii. 28 


. 171 


85 


Isaiah. 






vi. 2 


. 79 


w 


vii. 14 


IS', 169, 197 


it 


ix. 6 


. 197 


22 






. 85 


xxvi. 12 


. 130, 142 
. . 167 




xliv. 6, 8 


22 




xlix. 3 ff. 


. 151 


. 166 


1.6 


. I7O 




Hosea. 




23 


vi. 2 . 


. 42 


23 








Joel. 






ii. 32 


25 


43 








Malachi. 






iii. 6 


124, 135. 170 


23 






23 


Matthew. 






i. i 


. 196 




20 


26, 40 


. 42 


21 


26, 169 


43 


,,23 


145, 169, 197 


25 


iii. ii . 


. . 84 



INDEX OF TEXTS 



309 



Matthew contd. 
Hi. 17 
v. 48 
vi. 12 
x. 20 
28 
34 f. 
37 
xii. 28 

>, 32 
xvi. I3ff. 

,, 23 

,,.27 
xviii. 6 
xix. 17 
xx. i8f. 

. 23 
xxiv. 30 

36 . 

xxv. 31 

xxvi. 39 

u 64 
xxvii. 48 
xxviii. 19 

20 , 

Mark. 

i. 4 
viii. 33 
38 

x.33 
xiii. ii 

22 

26 

,, 32 

Luke, 
i. 2 

"33 
35 
,,43 
u. II 

l> 21 

, 32 

33 
J 

,i 48 
,i 52 

ix. 26 

56 
xviii. 30 

x2 



PAGE 


Luke contd. 


PAGE 


. 200 


xix. 10 


37 


. 76 


xx. 34 f. 


. . 87 


85 


xxi. 27 


45 




xxiv. 39 


86, 202 


.' 86 


46 


. 42 


. 121 


51 


43 


. 121 






.' ^ 


John. 




. 201 


i. i 


30, 130, 199 


2O5 


3 


34, '99 


45 


14107, 


125, 131, 145, 158, 


. 104 




197, 199, 203 


*5 


18 


. 29 


149 


41 


. 26 


15 


,,49 


. 26 


45 


ii. 2 


. 131 


. 149 


,, 19 


42, 153 


45 


iii. 4 


. . 85 


149 


*3 


112, 169, 174 


43 


i6f. 


37 


. 149 


i> 34 


125, 135 


2f., 79 


iv. 25 


. 26 


. 91 


v. 17 


35 




,, 19 


15 




,,20 


. 31 


. 84 


26 

vi. 29 f. 


. 30 

. 22 


205 

A T* 


,, 53 


. 127 


45 


,, 63 


77 


. 42 
80 


viii. 26 


. 149 


fj\J 

149 

A f* 


35 
40 


124, 135 
. 128 


45 

V ft 


42 


. 30 


15 


,, 58 


. . 25 




x. 15 


. 204 


30 


15, 124, 128, 135, 200 


. 122 ; xi. 27 


. 26 


. 26, 169 35 


. 126 


45 


xii. 27 


149 


26, 40, 197 


47 


37 


. H3 


xiv. i 


25 


. 25 


,. 6 


. 130 


. 26 


9 


91, 128 


. 26 


,, i6f. 


. 91 


. 209 


26 


. . 76 


. 209 


27 


. 167, 229 


IS 


28 


15, 200, 211 


45 


xv. 15 


Ijl 


. 204 


26 


78, 91, 130, 155, 171 


87 xvi. 14 


. 9i> 129 f. 



3io OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS 



John contd. 


PAGE i Corinthians contd. 


PAGE 


xvi. 1=5 


*49 


viii. 4ff. 


. 22 f. 


28 


. 30 


6 23, 25, 34, 


128, 170, 174 


xvii. 3 


. . 87 


xi. 8 


. 112 


,, 5. 24 . 


. . 26 


,i 26 


127, 137 


xix, 34 


. 202, 213 


xii. 13 


47 


xx. 17 


23, 126 


xiii. 9 


. . 87 


M 21 


... 84 


xv. 3 


. 41 


1, 23 


. . 91 


,, 4 


. 42 




. 26 


20 


. 126 






i, 21 


. 85, 127 


Acts. 




ii 2 4 


. . 46 


i. 9 


43 


,, 25 


43 


ii. 36 




28 


15 


38 


'. ! 85 


., 36 


. 86 


41 f. 


. 82 


i, 47 


112, 169 f. 


iii. 13 


. 40 


u 54 


. 142 


iv. 27 
vii. 38 


. 40 

. 81 


2 Corinthians. 




,, S^ 


43 


iii. 6 


77 


ix. 32 


83 


iff. 


77 


x. 36 


. 25 


iv. 4 


. 128 


w 43 


22 


V. 21 


i33i 145 


xvi. 7 


. 171 


vi. 18 


. 23 


17 


. 91 


ix. 4 


. 52 




22 


xi. 17 


. 52 


xvii. 31 


45, 127 


xiii. 4 


. 79 


xix. 4 


. . 84 


>, 5 


. 105 


xx. 28 

xxvi. 27 


. 112 
22 


Galatians. 




xxvii. 25 


22 


ii. 16 


22 






18 


. 2IO 


Romans. 




iii. 13 


145 


i. i f. 


. 196 


.u J 6 

iv. 4 . 


. 197 


3 


. 207 


* T^ " 

> 5 


. 126 


u. 16 


45 


' t *J 


91 


. 25 


. 210 


,\ 7 


S 


iii. 14 


. 104 




. 


23 


. 129 


Ephesians. 




viii. 3 
8f. 

ii 9f- 


36, 239 
. 171 
. 91 


i. 7 
i, 19 f. 

20 


. . 85 
. 152 

' 43 


15 


. . 23 


ii. 14 


. 166 


,, 34 
x. 9 ff. 

xv. 8 ff. 


43 
. 25 
. 26 


20 

iii. 15 
iv. 4 ff. 


. . 84 
. 23 
. 47,82,84 


i Corinthians. 




i) 5 
6 


. 168 
. 22 f., 35 


ii. 8 


. . 201 


3 9 


. 210 


12 


78, 91 


i! 10 


43 


vi. 17 


. . 125 


V. 2 


. 129, 131 



INDEX OF TEXTS 



Philippians. 


PAGE 


H ebrews contd. 


PAGE 


i. 19 


. 91 


xi. 27 


. 21 


29 


22 


i- 35 


. 122 


ii. 6 ff 


. US. 145 


xii. 2 


43 


7 


IS. 37. 169 


James. 




Colossians. 




i. 17 


. 170 


i, 14 


. . 85 

.. IS, 128 


i Peter. 




16 


. 34 


i. 8 


22 


18 


. 126, 133 


>) H 


. 91 


ii. 9 


125, 150 


IS 


. . 76 


iii. i 


43 


i. 18 


. 203, 214 






ii. 3 


. 25 


i Thessalonians. 




iii. 22 


43 


ii. 19 


- 45 


iv. I 


. 126, 170 


v. 4 


45 


5 


44 


i Timothy. 




2 Peter. 




i. 17 


. 24 


i, 21 


. 80 

f\ . 


ii. 5 


. 128 


iii. 12 


. 85 


V. 21 

vi. 13 


. 107 
. 40 


i John. 








i. 7 


. 203 


2 Timothy. 




ii. i 


. 44 


iv. i 


45 


iii. I 


1 ' | 3 






2 


. 87 


Hebrews. 




iv. 2f. 


. 202 


i. i 


. 80 


3 


. 213 


., 3 


IS. 30, 43. 52 
26 


v, 4 ff, . 
8 


. 203 
. 214 


ii. 9 


106, 126, 133 


i, 10 

20 


22 


,. 14 


. 107. 131 






iii. i 
iv. 15 

V. I ff. 


. 128, 132 
233, 239 
. 44 


Jude. 
3 


83 


vi. I 
2 


. . 76 
. . 8 S 


Revelation. 




vii. 25 


. 44 


iii. 14 


35 


26 


43 


21 


. 44 


viii. i 


43 


iv. I ff. 


. 79 


x. 5 ff. 


. 129 


,, II 


35 


12 


43 


vii. 17 


. 130 


xi. I 


21, 52 


XX. 12 


- 45 


3 


. . 25 


xxii. 13 


35 



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DE PRAESCRIPTIONE HAERETICORUM : AD MARTYRAS: 

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Translated, with Introduction, Analysis, and an Appendix containing 
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two volumes. Royal 8vo. 20.?. net. 

Extracts from reviews of this great book, which The Times has called ' one of the 
best books of the century,' will be found on p. 15. The present form of issue places 
it within the reach of buyers of moderate mean s. 

THE CAROLINE ISLANDS By F. W. CHRISTIAN. With 

many Illustrations and Maps. Demy Svo. izs. 6d. net. 
This book contains a history and complete description of these islands their physical 
features, fauna, flora; the habits, and religious beliefs of ^the inhabitants. It is 
the result of many years' residence among the natives, and is the only worthy work 
on the subject. 

THREE YEARS IN SAVAGE AFRICA. By LIONEL DECLE. 
With 100 Illustrations and 5 Maps. Cheaper Edition. Demy 8vo. 
IQS. 6d. net. 

A NEW RIDE TO KHIVA. By R. L. JEFFERSON. With 
51 Illustrations. Crown %vo. 6s. 

The account of an adventurous ride on a bicycle through Russia and the deserts of 
Asia to Khiva. 



Poetry 



PRESENTATION EDITIONS 

BARRACK-ROOM BALLADS. By RUDYARD KIPLING. 
6ot& Thousand. Crown 8vo. Leather, gilt top, 6s. net. 

THE SEVEN SEAS. By RUDYARD KIPLING. $oth Thousand. 
Crown 8vo. Leather, gilt top, 6s. net. 



MESSRS, METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS .3 

ENGLISH LYRICS. Selected and arranged by W. E. 
HENLEY. Second and cheaper Edition. Crown 8vo. y.6d. 

LYRA FRIVOLA. By A. D. GODLEY, M.A,, Fellow of Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford. Fott Svo. 2s. 6d. 

A little volume of occasional verse, chiefly academic. 



Worfcs of Sbaftegpeare 

General Editor,: EDWARD DOWDEN, Litt. D. 
MESSRS. METHUEN have in preparation an Edition of Shakespeare in 
single Plays. Each play will be edited with a full Introduction, Textual 
Notes, and a Commentary at the foot of the page. 
The first volume will be : 

HAMLET. Edited by EDWARD DOWDEN. DemyZvo. $s. 6ct. 



History and Biography 

THE LETTERS OF ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON. 
Arranged and Edited with Notes by SIDNEY COLVIN. Demy 8w. 
2 vols, 25^. net. 

These highly important and interesting volumes contain the correspondence of 
Robert Louis Stevenson from his eighteenth year to almost the last day of his life, 
selected and edited, with notes and introductions^ by Mr. Sidney Colvm, his most 
intimate friend. The letters are very various in subject and character, being 
addressed partly to his family and private friends, and partly to such well known 
living or lately deceased men of letters as Mr. Hamerton, Mr. J. A. Symonds, 
Mr. Henry James, Mr. James Payn, Dr. Conan Doyle, Mr. J. M.~ Barrie, Mr. 
Kdmund Gosse, Mr. F. Locker-Lampson, Mr. Cosmo Monkhouse, Mr. Andrew 
Lang, Mr. W. E. Henley, and the Editor himself. They present a vivid and 
brilliant autobiographical picture of the mind and character of the distinguished 

.. author. It was originally intended that a separate volume containing a full 
narrative and critical Life by the Editor should appear simultaneously with the 
letters, and form part of the work : but the publication of this has for various 
reasons been postponed. 

THE LIFE AND LETTERS OF SIR JOHN EVERETT 
MILLAIS, President of the Royal Academy. By his Son, J. G. 
MILLAIS. With over 300 Illustrations, of \vhich 9 are in photo- 
gravure. Two volumes. Royal &vo. 32^. net. 

An edition limited to 350 copies will also be printed. This will 
contain 22 of Millais' great paintings reproduced in photogravure, 
with a case containing an extra set of these Photogravures pulled on 
India paper. The price of this edition will be 4, 45. net. 

In these two magnificent volumes is contained the authoritative biography of the 
most distinguished and popular painter of the last half of the century. They 
contain the story of his extraordinary boyhood, of his early struggles and 
triumphs, of the founding of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, now first given to 
the world in authentic detail, of the painting of most of his famous pictures, of his 
friendships with many of the most distinguished men of the day in art, letters, 
and politics, of his come life, and of bis sporting tastes. There are a large 



4 MESSRS. METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS 

.number of letters to his wife describing the circumstances under which his 
pictures were painted, letters from Her Majesty the Queen, Lord Beaconsfield, 
Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Watts, Sir William Harcourt, Lord Rosebery, Lord 
Leighton, etc., etc. Among them are several illustrated letters from Landseer, 
Leech, Du Maurier, and Mike Halliday. The last letter that Lord Beacons- 
field wrote before his death is > reproduced in fac-simile. Mr. Val Prinsep con- 
tributes his reminiscences of Millais in a long and most interesting chapter. 
Not the least attractive and remarkable feature of this book will be the magnificence 
of its illustrations. No more complete representation of the art of any paintej has 
ever been produced on the same scale. The owners of Sir John Millais 1 
most famous pictures and their copyrights have generously given their consent 
to their reproduction in his biography, and, _in addition to those pictures with which 
the public is familiar, over two hundred pictures and sketches which have never 
been reproduced before, and which, in all probability, will never be seen . 
again by the general public, will appear in these pages. The early chapters 
contain sketches made by Millais at the age of seven. There follow some 
exquisite drawings made by him during his Pre-Raphaelite period, a large 
number of sketches and studies made for his great pictures, water colour 
sketches, pen-and-ink sketches, and drawings, humorous and serious. ^There are 
ten portraits of Millais himself, including two by Mr. Watts and Sir Edward 
Burne Jones. There is a portrait of Dickens, taken after death, and a sketch of 
D. G. Rossetti. Thus the book will be not only a biography of high interest and 
an important contribution to the history of English art, but in the best sense of 
the word, a beautiful picture book. 

THE EXPANSION OF EGYPT. A Political and Historical 
Survey. By A. SILVA WHITE. With four Special Maps. Demy 
$vo. l$s. net. 

This is an account of the political situation in Egypt, and an elaborate description of 
the Anglo-Egyptian Administration. It is a comprehensive treatment of the whole 
Egyptian problem by one who has studied every detail on the spot. 

THE VICAR OF MORWENSTOW. A Biography. By 
S. BARING GOULD, M. A. A new and revised Edition. With Portrait. 
Crown 8vo. y. 6d. 
This is a completely new edition of the well known biography of R. S. Hawker. 

A CONSTITUTIONAL AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF 
ROME. By T. M. TAYLOR, M.A., Fellow of Gonville and Caius 
College, Cambridge, Senior Chancellor's Medallist for Classics, 
Person University Scholar, etc., etc. Crown $vo. Js. 6d. 

An account of the origin and growth of the Roman Institutions, and a discussion of 
the various political movements in Rome from the earliest times to the death of 
Augustus. 

A HISTORY OF THE CHURCH OF CYPRUS. By JOHN 
HACKETT, M.A. With Maps and Illustrations. Demy Svo. 12s. 
6ct. net, 

A work which brings together all that is known on the subject from the introduction 
of Christianity to the commencement of the British occupation. A separate 
division deals with the local Latin Church during the period of the Western 
Supremacy. 

BISHOP LATIMER. By A. J. CARLYLE, M.A. Crown %<vo. 
3*. 6d. [Leaders of Religion Series. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Theology 



CHRISTIAN MYSTICISM. . The Bampton Lectures for 1899. 
By W. R. INGE, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Hertford College, 
Oxford. Demy 8vo. izs. 6d. net. 

A complete survey of the subject from St. John and St. Paul to modern times, cover- 
ing the Christian Platonists, Augustine, the Devotional Mystics, the Mediaeval 
Mystics, and the Nature Mystics and Symbolists, including Bohme and Words- 
worth. 

A BIBLICAL INTRODUCTION. By W. H. BENNETT, M.A., 
and W. F. ADENEY, M.A. Crown 8vo. 7-r. 6d. 

This volume furnishes students with the latest results in biblical criticism, arranged 
methodically. Each book is treated separately as to date, authorship, etc. 

ST. PAUL, THE MASTER-BUILDER. By WALTER LOCK, 

D.D., Warden of Keble College. Crown 8vo. 3*. 6d. 
An attempt to popularise the recent additions to our knowledge of St. Paul as a 
missionary, a statesman and an ethical teacher. 

THE OECUMENICAL DOCUMENTS OF THE FAITH. 
Edited with Introductions and Notes by T. HERBERT BINDLEY, 
B.D., Merton College, Oxford, Principal of Codrington College and 
Canon of Barbados, and sometime Examining Chaplain to the Lord 
Bishop. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

THE CREED OF NICAEA. THE TOME OF LEO. 

THREE EPISTLES OF CYRIL. THE CHALCEDONIAN DEFINITION. 

Gbe Gburcbman'0 JSible 

General Editor, J. H. BURN, B.D., Examining Chaplain to the Bishop 

of Aberdeen. 

Messrs. METHUEN propose to issue a series of expositions upon most 
of the books of the Bible. The volumes will be practical and devotional 
rather than critical in their purpose, and the text of the authorised version 
will be explained in sections or paragraphs, which will correspond as far 
as possible with the divisions of the Church Lectionary. 

THE EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO THE GALATIANS. 
Explained by A. W. ROBINSON, B.D., Vicar of All Hallows, Bark- 
ing. Fcap. 8vo. is. 6d. net. Leather, 2s, 6d. net. 

ECCLESIASTES. Explained by W. A. STREANE, M.A. 
Fcp. Svo. is. 6d. net. Leather, -2s. 6d. net. 



Cburcbman's Xtbrarg 

Edited by J. H. BURN, B.D. 

THE WORKMANSHIP OF THE PRAYER BOOK: Its 
Literary and Liturgical Aspects. By J, DOWDEN, D.D., Lord 



Bishop of Edinburgh. Crown 8vo. 3*. 6d. 

lis volume, avoiding questions of controversy, exh" 

literary methods of the authors of the Prayer Book. 



This volume, avoiding questions of controversy, exhibits the liturgical aims and 
... f kji .....__. 



6 MESSRS. METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS 
Gbe 3Ltbtatg ot Devotion 

Pott 8vo. Cloth 2s. ; leather 2t. 6d. net, 
NEW VOLUMES. 

A SERIOUS CALL Tp A DEVOUT AND HOLY LIFE. 
By WILLIAM LAW. Edited, with an Introduction by C. BIGG, D.D., 
late Student of Christ Church. 

This is a reprint, word for word and line for line, of the Editio Princefs. 

THE TEMPLE. By GEORGE HERBERT. Edited, with an 
Introduction and Notes, by E. C. S. GIBSON, D.D., Vicar of Leeds. 

This edition contains Walton's Life of Herbert, and the text is that of the first 
edition. 

Science 

THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF SCENERY. By J. E. MARR, 
Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 
6s. 

An elementary treatise on geomorphology the study of the earth's outward forms. 
It is for the use of students of physical geography and geology, and will also be 
highly interesting to the general reader. 

A HANDBOOK OF NURSING. By M. N. OXFORD, of 
Guy's Hospital. Crown &vo. $s, 6d. 

This is a complete guide to the science and art of nursing, containing copious 
instruction both general and particular. 



Classical 



THE NICOMACHEAN ETHICS OF ARISTOTLE. Edited, 
with an Introduction and Notes by JOHN BURNET, M.A., Professor 
of Greek at St. Andrews. DemySvo. 15^. net. 

This edition contains parallel passages from the Eudemian Ethics^ printed under the 
text, and there is_a full commentary, the main object of which is to interpret 
difficulties in the light of Aristotle's own rules. 

THE CAPTIVI OF PLAUTUS. Edited, with an Introduction, 
Textual Notes, and a Commentary, by W. M. LINDSAY, Fellow of 
Jesus College, Oxford. Demy Svo. los. 6d. net. 

For this edition all the important MSS. have been re-collated. An appendix deals 
with the accentual element in early Latin verse. The Commentary is very full. 

ZACHARIAH OF MITYLENE. Translated into English by 
F. J. HAMILTON, D.D., and E. W. BROOKS. Demy %vo. izs. 6J. 
net. [Byzantine Texts. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Sport. 



Gbe Ef&rarg of Sport 

THE ART AND PRACTICE OF HAWKING. By E. B. 
MITCHELL. Illustrated by G. E. LODGE and others. Demy 8vo. 
los. 6d. 

A complete description of the Hawks, Falcons, and Eagles used in ancient and 
modern times, with directions for their^ training and treatment. It is not only a 
historical account, but a complete practical guide. 

THOUGHTS. ON HUNTING. By PETER BECKFORD. Edited 
by J. OTHO PAGET, and Illustrated by G. H. JALLAND. , Demy 8z>a. 
lew. 6d. 

This edition of one of the most famous classics of sport contains an introduction and 
many footnotes by Mr. Paget, and is thus brought up to the standard of modern 
knowledge, 



General Literature 



THE BOOK OF THE WEST. By S. BARING GOULD. With 
numerous Illustrations. Two volumes. Vol. I. Devon. Vol. II. 
Cornwall. Crown 8vo. 6s. each. 

PONS ASINORUM; OR, A GUIDE TO BRIDGE. By 

A. HULME BEAMAN. Fcap. $vo. zs. 

A practical guide, with many specimen games, to the new game of Bridge. 

TENNYSON AS A RELIGIOUS TEACHER. By CHAHLES 
F. G. MASTERMAN. Crown 8vo. 6s. 



Mtte (Suites 

Pott 8vo, cloth 35. ; leather, 3.?. fid. net. 
NEW VOLUME. 

SHAKESPEARE'S COUNTRY. By B. C. WINDLE, F.R.S., 

M.A. Illustrated by E. H. NEW. 
Uniform with Mr. Wells' ' Oxford ' and Mr. Thomson's ' Cambridge. 

Methuen's Standard Library 

THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. 
By EDWARD GIBBON. Edited by J. B. BURY, LL.D., Fellow of 
Trinity College, Dublin. In Seven Volumes. Demy 8vo, gilt top, 
$s. 6d. each. Crown %vo. 6s. each. Vol. VII. 
The concluding Volume of this Edition. 

THE DIARY OF THOMAS ELLWOOD. Edited by G. C. 
CRUMP, M.A. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

This edition is the only one which contains the complete book as originally pub- 
Hshed. It contains a long introduction and many footnotes. 



8 MESSRS. METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS 

LA COMMEDIA DI DANTE ALIGHIERI. Edited by 
PAGKT TOYNBEE, M.A. Crown 8w. 6s. 

This edition of the Italian, text of the Divine Comedy, founded on Witte's minor 
edition, carefully revised, is issued in commemoration of the sixth century of 
Dante's journey through the three kingdoms of the other world. 



Illustrated and Gift Books 

THE "LIVELY CITY OF LIGG. By GELLETT BURGESS. 
With many Illustrations by the Author. Small ^to. 3$. 6d. 

THE PHIL MAY ALBUM. 4/0. 7*. 6A net. 

This highly interesting volume contains 100 drawings by Mr. Phil May, and is 
representative of his earliest and finest work. 

ULYSSES ; OR, DE ROUGEMONT OF TROY. Described 

and depicted by A. H. MILNE. Small quarto. 3J. 6d. 
The adventures of Ulysses, told in humorous verse and pictures. 

THE CROCK OF GOLD. Fairy Stones told by S. BARING 
GOULD, and Illustrated by F. D. BEDFORD. Crown %vo. 6s. 

TOMMY SMITH'S ANIMALS. By EDMUND SELOUS. 

Illustrated by G. W. ORD. Fcf. 8vo. zs. 6d. 
A little book designed to teach children respect and reverence for animals. 

A BIRTHDAY BOOK. With a Photogravure Frontispiece. 
Demy Svo. los. 6d. 

This is a birthday-book of exceptional dignity, and the extracts have been chosen 

with particular care. 
The three passages for each day bear a certain relation to each other, and form a 

repertory of sententious wisdom from the best authors living or dead. 



Educational 

PRACTICAL PHYSICS. By H. STROUD, D. Sc., M.A., Pro- 
fessor of Physics in the Durham College of Science, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. Fully illustrated. Crown 8vo. 35. 6d. 

[Textbooks of Technology. 

GENERAL ELEMENTARY SCIENCE. By ]. T. DUNN, 
D. Sc., and V. A. MUNDELLA. With many Illustrations. Crown %vo. 
3J. 6d. [Methueri's Science Primers, 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS .9 

THE METRIC SYSTEM. By LEON DELBOS. Crown*. 2s. 

A theoretical and practical guide, for use in elementary schools and by the general 
reader. 

A SOUTH AFRICAN ARITHMETIC. By HENRY HILL, 
B.A,j Assistant Master at Worcester School, Cape Colony. Crown 
8vo. 3.?. 6d. 
This hook has been specially written for use in South African schools. 

A KEY TO STEDMAN'S EASY LATIN EXERCISES. By 
C. G. BOTTING, M.A. Crown 8vo. 35. net. 

NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. A Course for Beginners. By 
G. RODWELL, B.A. With a Preface by WALTER LOCK, D.D., 
Warden of Keble College. Fcap. %vo. 3^. 6</. 

EXAMINATION PAPERS IN ENGLISH HISTORY. By 
J. TAIT WARDLAW, B.A., King's College, Cambridge. Crown 
8m zs. 6d. [School Examination Series. 

A GREEK ANTHOLOGY. Selected by E. C. MARCHANT, 
M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge, and Assistant Master at 
St. Paul's School. Crown 8z>0. 3*. 6< 

CICERO DE OFFICIIS. Translated by G. B. GARDINER, 
M.A. Crown Bvo. 2s. 6d. [Classical Translations. 



Iftovels of Cbarles Bicfcetts 

Crown %vo. Each Volume, cloth 3^., leather ^s.6cf. net. 

Messrs. METHUEN have in preparation an edition of those novels of Charles 
Dickens which have now passed out of copyright. Mr. George Gissing, 
whose critical study of Dickens is both sympathetic and acute, has written 
an Introduction to each of the books, and a very attractive feature of this 
edition will be the illustrations of the old houses, inns, and buildings, which 
Dickens described, and which have now in many instances disappeared 
under the touch of modern civilisation. .Another valuable feature will be 
a series of topographical and general notes to each book by Mir. F. G. Kitton. 
The books will be produced with the greatest care as to printing, paper 
and binding. . 

The first volumes will be : 

THE PICKWICK PAPERS. With Illustrations by E. H. NEW. 
Two Volumes. . 

NICHOLAS NICKLEBY. With Illustrations by R. J. WILLIAMS. 
Two Volumes. 

BLEAK HOUSE. With Illustrations by BEATRICE ALCOCK. Two 
Volumes. 

OLIVER TWIST. With Illustrations by E. H. NEW. Two Volumes. 

A 2 



io MESSRS. METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS 



little 

Pott 8v0. Each Volume^ cloth is. 6d. net. ; leather 23. 6d. net. 

Messrs. METHUEN intend to produce a series of small books under the 
above title, containing some of the famous books in English and other 
literatures, in the domains of fiction, poetry, and belles lettres. The series 
will also contain several volumes of selections in prose and verse. 

The books will be edited with the most sympathetic and scholarly care. 
Each one will contain an Introduction which will give (i) a short biography 
of the author, (2) a critical estimate of the book. Where they are neces- 
sary, short notes will be added at the foot of the page. 

The Little Library will ultimately contain complete sets of the novels 
of W. M. Thackeray, Jane Austen, the sisters Bronte, Mrs. Gaskell and 
others. It will also contain the best work of many other novelists whose 
names are household words. 

Each book will have a portrait or frontispiece in photogravure, and the 
volumes will be produced with great care in a style uniform with that of 
' The Library of Devotion.' 

The first volumes will be : 
A LITTLE BOOK OF ENGLISH LYRICS. With Notes. 

PRIDE AND PREJUDICE. By JANE AUSTEN. With an 
Introduction and Notes by E. V. LUCAS. Two Volumes. 

VANITY FAIR. By W. M. THACKERAY. With an Introduction 
by S. GWYNN. Thret Volumes. - 

PENDENNIS. By W. M. THACKERAY. With an Introduction 
by S. GWYNN. Thret volumes, 

EOTHEN. By A. W. KINGLAKE. With an Introduction and 

Notes. 

CRANFORD. By Mrs. GASKELL. With an Introduction and 
Notes by E. V. LUCAS. 

THE INFERNO OF DANTE, Translated by H. F. CARY. 
With an Introduction and Notes by PAGBT TOYNBEB. 

JOHN HALIFAX, GENTLEMAN. By MRS. CRAIK. With 
an Introduction by ANNIE MATHBSON. Two volumes, 

THE EARLY POEMS OF ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON. 
Edited by J. C. COLLINS, M.A. 

THE PRINCESS. By ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON. Edited by 
ELIZABETH WORDSWORTH. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS n 

MAUD, AND OTHER POEMS. By ALFRED, LORD TENNY- 
SON. Edited by ELIZABETH WORDSWORTH. 

IN MEMORIAM. By ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON. Edited by 
H. C. SEECHING, M.A. 

A LITTLE BOOK OF SCOTTISH LYRICS. Arranged and 
Edited by T. F. HENDERSON. 



Fiction 

THE KING'S MIRROR. By ANTHONY HOPE. CrownZvo. 6s. 

THE CROWN OF LIFE. By GEORGE GISSING, Author of 
' Demos,' ' The Town Traveller,' etc. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

A NEW VOLUME OF WAR STORIES. By STEPHEN 
CRANE, Author of ' The Red Badge of Courage. ' Crown 8vo. 6s. 

THE STRONG ARM. By ROBERT BARR. Crown %vo. 6s. 

TO LONDON TOWN. By ARTHUR MORRISON, Author of 
' Tales of Mean Streets,' ' A Child of the Jago,' etc. Crown Svo. 6s. 

ONE HOUR AND THE NEXT. By THE DUCHESS OF 
SUTHERLAND. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

SIREN CITY. By BENJAMIN SWIFT, Author of ' Nancy Noon.' 
Crown 8vo. $s. 

VENGEANCE IS MINE. By ANDREW BALFOUR, Author of 
'By Stroke of Sword.' Illustrated. Crown Sva. 6s. 

PRINCE RUPERT THE BUCCANEER. By C. J. CUTCLIFFE 
HYNE, Author of ' Captain Kettle,' etc. Crown %vo. f>s, 

PABO THE PRIEST. By S. BARING GOULD, Author of 
.' Mehalah,' etc. Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 6s, 

GILES INGILBY. ByW.E. NORRIS. Illustrated. Crmtm&vo. 
6s. 

THE PATH OF A STAR. By SARA JEANETTE DUNCAN, 
Author of 'A Voyage of Consolation.' Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

THE HUMAN BOY. By EDEN PHILPOTTS, Author of 'Chil- 
dren of the Mist.' With a Frontispiece. Crown 8v0. 6s. 

A series of English schoolboy stories, the result of keen observation, and of a most 
engaging wit. 

THE HUMAN INTEREST. By VIOLET HUNT, Author of 
' A Hard Woman,' etc. Crown 8vo. 6s. 



12 MESSRS. METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS 

AN ENGLISHMAN. By MARY L. TENDERED. Crown 
6s. . 

A GENTLEMAN PLAYER. By R. N. STEPHENS, Author of 
'An Enemy to the King.' Crown 8vo. . 6s. 

DANIEL WHYTE. By A. J. DAWSON, Author of ' Bismillah.' 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

n Wew Boftion of tbe Novels of dfcarie Corellf 

This New Edition is in a more convenient form than the Library Edition, and 
is issued in a new and specially designed cover. 

In Crown &vo, Cloth, 6s. Leather, 6s, net. 



A ROMANCE OF TWO WORLDS. 
VENDETTA. 
THELMA. 

ARDATH: THE STORY OF A 
DEAD SELF. 



THE SOUL OF LILITH. 

WORMWOOD. 

BARABBAS : A DREAM OF THE 

WORLD'S TRAGEDY. 
THE SORROWS OF SATAN. 



IRoveUst 

MESSRS. METHUEN are making an interesting experiment which con- 
stitutes a fresh departure in publishing. They are issuing under the above 
general title a Monthly Series of New Fiction by popular authors at. 
the price of Sixpence. Each Number is as long as the average 
Six Shilling Novel. The first numbers of 'THE NOVELIST' are as 
follows : 

I. DEAD MEN TELL NO TALES. E. W. HORNUNG. 

[Ready. 

II. JENNIE BAXTER, JOURNALIST. ROBERT BARR. 

[Ready. 

III. THE INCA'S ^TREASURE. ERNEST GLANVILLE. 

[Ready. 

IV. A SON OF THE STATE. W. PETT RIDGE. . 

[Ready. 

V. FURZE BLOOM. S. BARING GOULD. 

[Ready, 

VI. BUNTER'S CRUISE. C. GLEIG. 

[Ready. 
VII. THE GAY DECEIVERS. ARTHUR MOOKE. 

[November. 

VIII. A NEW NOVEL. MRS. MEADE. 

[December. 



A CATALOGUE OF 

MESSRS. METHUEN'S 

PUBLICATIONS 



Poetry 



Rudyard Kipling. BARRACK-ROOM 
BALLADS. By RUDYARD KIPLING. 
6otk Thousand. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' Mr. Kipling's verse is strong, vivid, full 
of character. . . . Unmistakeable genius 
rings in every line." Times. 
' The ballads teem with imagination, they 
palpitate with emotion. We read them 
with laughter and tears ; the metres throb 
in our pulses; the cunningly ordered 
words tingle with life ; and if this be not 
poetry, what is ? 'Pall Mall Gazette. 

Rudyard Kipling. THE SEVEN 
SEAS. By RUDYARD KIPLING. 
SotA Thousand. Cr. 8vo. Buckram, 
gilt top. 6s. 

' The new poems of Mr. Rudyard Kipling 
have all the spirit and swing of their pre- 
decessors. Patriotism is thesolid concrete 
foundation on which Mr. Kipling has 
built the whole of his work.' Times. 

1 The Empire has found a singer ; it is no 
depreciation of the songs to say that 
statesmen may have, one way or other, 
to take account of them.' Manchester 
Guardian. 

'Animated through and through with in- 
dubitable genius.' Daily Telegraph, 

"Q." POEMS AND BALLADS. By 
"Q." Crown 8w. 35. 6d. 
' This workhas just the faint, ineffable touch 
and glow that make poetry. 'Speaker. 

"Q." GREEN BAYS: Verses and 
Parodies. By"Q." Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo. y. bd. 



E. Mackay. A SONG OF THE SEA. 
By ERIC MACKAY. Second Edition. 
Fcap. 8vo. 5^. 

' Everywhere Mr. Mackay displays himself 
the master of a style marked by all the 
characteristics of the best rhetoric." 
Globe. 

H, Ibsen. BRAND. A Drama by 
HENRIK IBSEN. Translated by 
WILLIAM WILSON. Third Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 35. 6d. 

' The greatest world-poem of the nineteenth 
century next to "Faust." It is in the 
same -set with "Agamemnon," with 
" Lear," with the literature that we now 
instinctively regard as high and holy. 1 
Daily Chronicle. 

"A. G." VERSES TO ORDER. By 
"A. G." Crown 8vo. zs. 6d. net. 

'A capital specimen of light academic 
poetry.' St. James's Gazette. 

James Williams. VENTURES IN 
VERSE. By JAMES WILLIAMS, 
Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, 
Crown 8vo. %s. 6d. 

1 In matter and manner the book is admir- 
able.' Glasgow Herald. 

3. G. Cordery. THE ODYSSEY OF 
HOMER. A Translation by J. G. 
CORDERY. Crown 8vo. ?s. 6d. 

. ' A spirited, accurate, and scholarly piece 
of work.' Glasgow Herald. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



Belles Lettres, Anthologies, etc. 



R. L. Stevenson. VAILIMA LET- 
TERS. By ROBERT Louis STEVEN- 
SON. With an Etched Portrait by 
WILLIAM STRANG. Second Edition. 
Crown Bvo. Buckram. 6s. 

'A fascinating book. 1 Standard. 

' Full of charm and brightness. 1 Spectator, 

' A gift almost priceless.' Speaker. 

1 Unique in Literature.' Daily Chronicle. 

G. Wyndham. THE POEMS OF WIL- 
LIAM SHAKESPEARE. Edited 
with an Introduction and Notes by 
GEORGE WYNDHAM, M.P. Demy 
8vo. Buckram, gilt top. IDS. 6d. 

This edition contains the ' Venus,' ' Lucrece, 1 
and Sonnets, and is prefaced with an 
elaborate introduction of over 140 pp. 

' One of the most serious contributions to 
Shakespearian criticism that have been 
published for some time.' Times. 

1 We have no hesitation in describing Mr. 
George Wyndham's introduction as a 
masterly piece of criticism, and all who 
love our Elizabethan literature will find a 
very garden of delight in it. 'Spectator. 

1 Mr. Wyndham's notes are admirable, even 
indispensable.' Westminster Gazette. 

W. E. Henley. ENGLISH LYRICS. 
Selected and Edited by W. E. 
HENLEY. Crown Bvo. Buckram, 
gilt top. 6s. 

' It is a body of choice and lovely poetry. 
Birmingham Gazette, 

Henley and Wnitoley. A BOOK OF 
ENGLISH PROSE. Collected by 
W. E. HENLEY and CHARLES 
WHIBLEY. Crown 8vo. Buckram, 
gilt top. 6s. 

'Quite delightful. A greater treat for those 
not well acquainted with pre-Restora- 
tion prose could not be imagined.' 
Athenceum. 

H. C. Seeching 1 . LYRA SACRA : An 
Anthology of Sacred Verse. Edited 
by H, C. BEECHING, M.A. Crown 
Bvo. Buckram, 6s. 

'A charming selection, which maintains a 
lofty standard of excellence.' Times. 



"Q." THE GOLDEN POMP. A Pro- 
cession of English Lyrics. Arranged 
by A. T. QuiLLER COUCH. Crown 
8vo. Buckram. 6s. 
'A delightful volume: a really golden 
"Pomp."' Spectator. 

W. B. Yeats. AN ANTHOLOGY OF 
IRISH VERSE. Edited by W. B. 
YEATS. Crown 8vo. %s. 6d. 
' An attractive and catholic selection. 
Times. 

G. W. Steevens. MONOLOGUES OF 
THE DEAD. By G. W. STEEVENS. 
Foolscap 8vo. 3^. 6d. 
'The effect is sometimes splendid, some- 
times bizarre, but always amazingly 
clever.' Pall Mall Gazette. 

W. M. Dixon. A PRIMER OF 
TENNYSON. By W. M. DIXON, 
M.A. Cr. Bvo. 2S. 6d. 
' Much sound and well-expressed criticism. 
The bibliography is a boon.' Speaker. 

W. A. Craigie. A PRIMER OF 
BURNS. By W. A. CRAIGIE. 
Crown Bvo. ss. 6d. 
'A valuable addition to the literature of the 
poet.' Times. 

L. Magnus. A PRIMER OF WORDS- 
WORTH. By LAURIE MAGNUS. 
Crown Bvo. zs. 6d. 

' A valuable contribution to Wordsworthian 
literature,' Literature. 

Sterne. THE LIFE AND OPINIONS 
OF TRISTRAM SHANDY. By 
LAWRENCE STERNE. With an In- 
troduction by CHARLES WHIBLEY, 
and a Portrait, zvols. -js. 
' Very dainty volumes are these : the paper, 
type, and light-green binding are all very 
agreeable to the eye.' Globe. 

Congreve. THE COMEDIES OF 
WILLIAM CONGREVE. With an 
Introduction by G. S. STREET, and 
a Portrait. 2 vols. ys. 

Morier. THE ADVENTURES OF 
HAJJI BABA OF ISPAHAN. By 
JAMES MORIER. With an Introduc- 
tion by E. G. BROWNE, M.A., and a 
Portrait. 2 vols. js. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



Walton. THE LIVES OF DONNE, 
WOTTON, HOOKER, HERBERT 
AND SANDERSON. By IZAAK 
WALTON. With an Introduction by 
VERNON BLACKBURN, and a Por- 
trait. 3.?. 6d. 

Johnson. THE LIVES OF THE 
ENGLISH POETS. By SAMUEL 
JOHNSON, LL.D. ' With an Intro- 
duction by J. H. MILLAR, and a Por- 
trait. 3 vols. ioj. 6d, 

Burns. THE POEMS OF ROBERT 
BU RNS. Edited by ANDREW LANG 
and W. A. CRAIGIE. With Portrait. 
Second Edition. Demy 8vo, gilt top. 
6s. 
This edition contains a carefully collated 



Text, numerous Notes, critical and text- 
ual, a critical and biographical Introduc- 
tion, and a Glossary. 

'Among editions in one volume, this will 
take.the place of authority.' Times. 

F. Langbridge. BALLADS OF THE 
BRAVE ; Poems of Chivalry, Enter- 
prise, Courage, and Constancy. 
Edited by Rev. F. LANGBRIDGE. 
Second. Edition. Cr. 8vo. 35. 6d. 
School Edition, ss. 6d. 
'A very happy conception happily carried 
out. These "Ballads of the Brave" 
are intended to suit the real tastes of 
boys, and will suit the taste of the great 
majority.' Spectator. 
'The book is full of splendid things.' 
World. 



Illustrated Books 



John Bunyan. THE PILGRIM'S 
PROGRESS. By JOHN BUNYAN. 
Edited, with an Introduction, by C. H. 
FIRTH, M.A. With 39 Illustrations 
by R. ANNING BELL. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

This book contains a long Introduction by 
Mr. Firth, whose knowledge of the period 
is unrivalled; and it is lavishly illustrated. 
' The best " Pilgrim's Progress." 1 - 

Educational Times. 

F.D.Bedford. NURSERY RHYMES. 
With many Coloured Pictures by F. 
D. BEDFORD. Super Royal 8vo. $s. 
'An excellent selection of the best known 
rhymes, with beautifully coloured pic- 
tures exquisitely printed.' Pall Mall 
Gazette. 

S. Baring Gould. A BOOK OF 
FAIRY TALES retold by S. BARING 
GOULD. With numerous Illustra- 
tions and Initial Letters by ARTHUR 
J. GASKIN. Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 
Buckram. 6s. 

' Mr. Baring Gould is deserving of grati- 
tude, in re-writing in simple style the 



old stories that delighted our fathers and 
grandfathers.' Saturday Review. 

S. Baring Gould. OLD ENGLISH 
FAIRY TALES. Collected and 
edited by S. BARING GOULD. With 
Numerous Illustrations by F. D. 
BEDFORD. Second Edition. Cr, 8vo. 
Buckram. 6s. 
'A charming .volume. 'Guardian. 

S. Baring Gould, A BOOK OF 
NURSERY SONGS AND 
RHYMES. Edited by S. BARING 
GOULD, and Illustrated by the Bir- 
mingham Art School. Buckram, gilt 
top. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

H. C. Beeching. A BOOK OF 
CHRISTMAS VERSE. Edited by 
H. C. BEECHING, M.A., and Illus- 
trated by WALTER CRANE. Cr, 8vo, 
gilt top. y. 6d. 

An anthology which, from its unity of aim 
and high poetic excellence, has a better 
right to exist than most of its fellows.' 
Guardian. 



History- 



THE DECLINE AND 
FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. 
By EDWARD GIBBON. A New Edi- 
tion, Edited with Notes, Appendices, . 



and Maps, by J. B. BURY, LL.D., 
Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 
In Seven Volumes. Demy 8vo. Gilt 
top. 8s. 6d. each. Also Cr. 8vo. 6s. 



16 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



each. Voh. /., //., ///., IV. t V., and 
VI. 

' The time has certainly arrived for a new 
edition of Gibbon's great work. . . . Pro- 
fessor Bury is the right man to under- 
take this task. His learning is amazing, 
both in extent and accuracy. The book 
is issued in a handy form, and at a 
moderate price, and it is admirably 
printed.' Times. 

' .The standard edition of our great historical 
classic.' Glasgow Herald. 

'At last there is an adequate modern edition 
of Gibbon. . . . The best edition the 
nineteenth century could produce.' 
Manchester Guardian. 

Flinders Petrie. A HISTORY OF 

EGYPT.FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES 

TO THE PRESENT DAY. Edited by 

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE, D.C.L., 

LL.D., Professor of Egyptology at 

University College. Fully Illustrated. 

In Six Volumes. Cr. 8vo. 6s. each. 

VOL. I. PREHISTORIC TIMES TO 

XVlTH DYNASTY. W. M. F. 

Petrie. Fourth Edition. 

VOL. II. THE XVIlTH AND 

XVIIlTH DYNASTIES. W. M. 

F. Petrie. Third Edition. 

VOL. IV. THE EGYPT OF THE 

PTOLEMIES. J. P. Mahaffy. 
VOL. V. ROMAN EGYPT. J. G. 

Milne. 

1 A history written in the spirit of scientific 
precision so worthily represented by Dr. 
Petrie and his school cannot but pro- 
mote sound and accurate study, and 
supply a vacant place in the English 
literature of Egyptology.' Times. 

Flinders Petrie. RELIGION AND 
CONSCIENCE IN ANCIENT 
EGYPT. By W. M. FLINDERS 
PETRIE, D. C. L. , LL. D. Fully Illus- 
trated. Crown 8vo. zs. 6d. 
' The lectures will afford a fund of valuable 
information for students of ancient 
ethics.' Manchester Guardian. 

Flinders Petrie. SYRIA AND 

EGYPT, FROM THE TELL EL 

AMARNA TABLETS. By W. M. 

FLINDERS PETRIE, D.C.L., LL.D. 

Crown 8vo. zs.dd. 

'A marvellous record. _ The addition made 

to our knowledge is nothing short of 

amazing. 1 Times. 



Flinders Petrie. EGYPTIAN TALES. 

Edited by W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE. 

Illustrated by TRISTRAM ELLIS. In 

Two Volumes. Cr. Bvo. y. 6d. each. 

1 Invaluable as a picture of life in Palestine 

and Egypt.' Daily News. 

Flinders Petrie. EGYPTIAN DECO- 
RATIVE ART. By W.M. FLIN- 
DERS PETRIE. With 120 Illustrations. 
Cr, 8vo. %s. 6d. 

' In these lectures he displays rare skill in 
elucidating the development of decora- 
tive art in Egypt.' Times. 

C. W. Oman. A HISTORY OF THE 

ART OF WAR. Vol. II. : The 

Middle Ages, from the Fourth to the 

Fourteenth Century. By C. W. 

OMAN, M.A., Fellow of All Souls', 

Oxford. Illustrated. Demy 8vo, 2is. 

' The book is based throughout upon a 

thorough study of the original sources, 

and will be an indispensable aid to all 

students of medieval history.' A the- 

neeitm. 

' The whole art of war in its historic evolu- 
tion has never been treated on such an 
ample and comprehensive scale, and we 
question if any recent contribution to 
the exact history of the world has pos- 
sessed more enduring value.' Daily 
Chronicle. 

S. Baring Gould. THE TRAGEDY 
OF THE CAESARS. With nume- 
rous Illustrations from Busts, Gems, 
Cameos, etc. By S. BARING GOULD. 
Fourth Edition, Royal Svo. i$s. 
'A most splendid and fascinating book on a 
subject of undying interest. The great 
feature of the book is the use the author 
has made of the existing portraits of 
the Caesars and the admirable critical 
subtlety he has exhibited in dealing with 
this line of research. It_is brilliantly 
written, and the illustrations are sup- 
plied on a scale of profuse magnificence.' 
Daily Chronicle. 

F. W. Maitland. CANON LAW IN 
ENGLAND. By F. W. MAITLAND, 
LL.D., Downing Professor of the 
Laws of England in the University 
of Cambridge. Royal 81/0, 75. 6d. 
'Professor Maitland has put students of 
English law under a fresh debt. These 
essays are landmarks in the study of the 
history of Canon Law.' Times. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



racy in detail, clear arrangement of facts, 
and a broad grasp of principles.' 



H. de B. Gibbins. INDUSTRY IN 
ENGLAND : HISTORICAL OUT- 
LINES. By H. DE B. GIBBINS, 
Litt.D.,M.A. With 5 Maps. Se- 
cond Edition, Demy 8vo. IQS, 6d. 

H. E. Egerton. A HISTORY OF 
BRITISH COLONIAL POLICY. 
By H. E. EGERTON, M,A. Demy 
8vo. 121. 6d. 

' It is a good book, distinguished by accu> 

icy 

nd 

Manchester Guardian. 
4 Able, impartial, clear. ... A most valu- 
able volume.' Athenieum. 

Albert Sorel. THE EASTERN 
QUESTION IN THE EIGH- 
TEENTH CENTURY. By ALBERT 
SOREL, of the French Academy. 
Translated by F. C. BRAMWELL, 
M. A. With a Map. Cr. Zvo. 35. 6d. 

0. H. Grinling. A HISTORY OF 
THE GREAT NORTHERN RAIL- 
WAY, 1845-95. By CHARLES H. 
GRINLING. With Maps and Illus- 
trations. Demy 8vo. IQS. 6d. 

' Mr. Grinling has done for a Railway what 
Macaulay did for English History.' 
The Engineer. 

W. Sterry. ANNALS OF ETON 
COLLEGE. By W. STERRY, M.A. 
With numerous Illustrations. Demy 
8vo, js. 6d. 

' A treasury of quaint and interesting read- 
ing. Mr. Sterry has by his skill and 
vivacity given these records new life.' 
Academy. 

Fisher. ANNALS OF SHREWS- 
BURY SCHOOL. By G. W. 
FISHER, M.A. , late Assistant Master. 
With numerous Illustrations. Demy 
8vo. IDS. 6d. 

'This careful, erudite book.' Daily 
Chronicle. 



'A book of which Old Salopians are sure 
to be proud.' Globe. 

J. Sargeaunt. ANNALS OF WEST- 
MINSTER SCHOOL. By J. SAR- 
GEAUNT, M.A., Assistant Master. 
With numerous Illustrations. Demy 
8vo, ys. 6d. 

A. Clark. THE COLLEGES OF 
OXFORD : Their History and their 
Traditions. By Members of the 
University. Edited by A. CLARK, 
M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Lincoln 
College. 8vo. iss. 6d. 

'A work which will be appealed to for 
many years as the standard book.' 
Athenaum. 

J. Wells. A SHORT HISTORY OF 
ROME. By J. WELLS, M.A., 
Fellow and Tutor of Wadham Coll., 
Oxford. Second and Revised Edition. 
With 3 Maps. Crown 8vo. y. 6d. 
This book is intended for the Middle and 
Upper Forms of Public Schools and for 
Pass Students at the Universities. It 
contains copious Tables, etc. 
'An original work written on an original 
plan, and with uncommon freshness and 
vigour.' Speaker, 

0. Browning. A SHORT HISTORY 
OF MEDIAEVAL ITALY, A.D. 
1250-1530. By OSCAR BROWNING, 
Fellow and Tutor of King's College, 
Cambridge. In Two Volumes, Cr. 
8vo. 5^. each. 
VOL. i. 1250-1409. Guelphs and 

Ghibellines. 

VOL. n. 1409-1530. The Age of 
the Condottieri. 

O'Grady. THE STORY OF IRE- 
LAND. By STANDISH O'GRADY, 
Author of ' Finn and his Companions. 
Crown &vo. 25. 6d, 



Byzantine Texts 

Edited by J. B. BURY, M.A. 



EVAGRIUS. Edited by Professor 
LON PARMENTIER of Li6ge and M. 
BiDEZ of Gand. Demy 8vo. los. 6d. 

A3 



THE HISTORY 
By C. SATHAS. 
net. 



OF PSELLUS. 
Demy 8vf. 15^. 



18 



MESSRS. 'METHUEN!s CATALOGUE! 



Biography 



S. Baring Gould. THE LIFE OF 
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. By 
S. BARING GOULD. With over 450 
Illustrations in the Text and 12 
Photogravure Plates. Large quarto. 
Gilt top. 36*. 

'The best biography of Napoleon in our 
tongue, nor' have the French as good a 
biographer of their hero. A book very 
nearly as good as Southey's "Life of 
Nelson." 'Manchester Guardian. 
'The main feature of this gorgeous volume 
is its great wealth of beautiful photo- 
gravures and finely -executed wood 
engravings, constituting a complete 
pictorial chronicle of Napoleon I.'s 
personal history from the days of his 
earty childhood at Ajaccio to the date 
of his second interment.' Daily Tele- 
graph. 

P. H. Colomb. MEMOIRS OF AD- 
MIRAL SIR A. COOPER KEY. 
By Admiral P. H. COLOMB. With 
a Portrait. Demy 8vo. 165. 

'An interesting and adequate biography. 
The whole book is one of the greatest 
interest. ' Times. 

Morris Fuller. THE LIFE AND 
WRITINGS OF JOHN DAVEN- 
ANT, D.D. (1571-1641), Bishop of 
Salisbury. By MORRIS FULLER, 
B.D. DemyBvo. ios.f>d. 

3. M. Rigg. ST. ANSELM OF 
CANTERBURY: A CHAPTER IN 
THE HISTORY- OF RELIGION. By 
J. M. RlGG. Demy 8vo. js. 6d. 

F. W. Joyce. THE LIFE OF 

SIR FREDERICK GORE OUSE- 

LEY. By F. W. JOYCE, M. A. ^s.6d. 

'This book has been undertaken in quite 



the right spirit, and written with sym- 
pathy, insight, and considerable literary 
skill.' Times. 

W. G. Collingwood. THE LIFE OF 
JOHN RUSK1N. By W. G. 
COLLINGWOOD, M.A. With Por- 
traits, and 13 Drawings by Mr. 
Ruskin. Second Edition. 2 vols. 
8vo. 32J. 
' No more magnificent volumes have been 

published for a long time." Times. 
' It is long since we had a biography with 
such delights of substance and of form. 
Such a book is a pleasure for the day, 
and a joy for ever.' Daily Chronicle. 

C. Waldstein. JOHN RUSKIN, By 
CHARLES WALDSTEIN, M.A. With 
a Photogravure Portrait, Post 8vo. 

S*- 

' A thoughtful and well-written criticism of 
Ruskin's teaching. 1 Daily Chronicle. 

A. M. F. Darmesteter, THE LIFE 
OF ERNEST RENAN. By 
MADAME DARMESTETER. With 
Portrait. Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 
6s. 

' A polished gem of biography, superior in 
its kind to any attempt that has been 
made of recent years in England, 
Madame Darmesteter has indeed written 
for English readers " The Life of Ernest 
Renan. " ' A thenteum. 

W. H. Button. THE LIFE OF SIR 
THOMAS MORE. By W. H. 
HUTTON, M.A. With Portraits. 
Cr. 8vo. 5^. 

' The book lays good claim to high rank 
among our biographies. 1 1 is excellently 
even lovingly, written." Scotsman. 



Travel, Adventure and Topography 



SvenHedin. THROUGH ASIA. By 
SVEN HEDIN, Gold Medallist of the 
Royal Geographical Society. With 
300 Illustrations from Sketches 
and Photographs by the Author, 



and Maps. 2 vols. Royal 8vo. zos. net. 

'One of the greatest books of the kind 
issued during the century. It is im- 
possible to give an adequate idea of the 
richness of the contents of this book, 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



nor of its abounding attractions as a story 
of travel unsurpassed in geographical 
and human interest. Much of it is a 
revelation. Altogether the work is one 
which in solidity, novelty, and interest 
must take a first rank among publica- 
tions of its class. ' Times. 
' In these magnificent volumes we have the 
most important contribution to Central 
Asian geography made for many years. 
Intensely interesting as a tale of travel.' 
Spectator. 

F. H. Sfcrine and E. D. Ross. THE 
HEART OF ASIA. By F. H. 
SKRINE and E. D. Ross. With 
Maps and many Illustrations by 
VERESTCHAGIN. Large Crown 8vo. 
los. 6d. net. 

' This volume will form a landmark in o_ur 
knowledge of Central Asia. . . . Illumin- 
ating and convincing. For the first 
time we are enabled clearly to under- 
stand not only how Russia has estab- 
lished her rule in Central Asia, but 
what that rule actually means to the 
Central Asian peoples. This book is 
not only felix oppprtunitate, but of 
enduring value." Times. 

R. E. Peary. NORTHWARD OVER 
THEGREATICE. By R.E.PEARY, 
Gold Medallist of the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society. With over 800 Illus- 
trations, zvols. RoyalSvo. 32 s. net. 
'The book is full of interesting matter a 
tale of brave deeds simp_ly told ; abun- 
dantly illustrated with prints and maps.' 
Standard. 

' His book will take its place among the per- 
manent literature of Arctic exploration.' 
Times. 

G. S. Robertson. CHITRAL: The 
Story of a Minor Siege. By Sir 
G. S. ROBERTSON, K. C.S.I. With 
numerousIllustrations.MapandPlans. 
Second Edition. Demy 8vo. IQS. 6d. 

' It is difficult to imagine the kind of person 
whocould read this brilliant bookwithout 
emotion. The story remains immortal 
a testimony imperishable. We are face 
to face with a great book.' Illustrated 
London News. 

' A book which the Elizabethans would have 
thought wonderful. More thrilling, more 
piquant, and more human than any 
novel.' Newcastle Chronicle. 

' One of the most stirring military narra- 
tives written in our time.' Times. 

'As fascinating as Sir Walter Scott's best 
fiction." Daily Telegraph. 

' A noble story, nobly told.' Punch. 



H. H. Johnston. BRITISH CEN- 
TRAL AFRICA. By Sir H. H.' 
JOHNSTON, K.C.B. With nearly 
Two Hundred Illustrations, and Six 
Maps. Second Edition. Crown ^to. 
z8s. net.' 

' A fascinating book, written with equal 
skill and charm the work at once of a 
literary artist and of a man of action 
who is singularly wise, brave, and ex- 
perienced. It abounds in admirable 
sketches from pencil.' Westminster 
Gazette. 

L. Decle. THREE YEARS IN 
SAVAGE AFRICA. By LIONEL 
DECLE. With 100 Illustrations and 
5 Maps. Second Edition. Demy 8vo. 
los. 6d. net. 

' A fine, full book.' Pall Mall Gazette. 

' Its bright pages give a better general 
survey of Africa from the Cape to the 
Equator than any single volume that 
has yet been published." Times. 

A. Hulme Seaman. TWENTY 

YEARS IN THE NEAR EAST. 

By A. HULME BEAMAN. Demy 

8vo. With Portrait. IQJ. 6d. 

' One of the most entertaining books that we 

have had in our hands for a long tune. 

It is unconventional in a high degree ; it 

is written with sagacious humour ; it is 

fullofadventuresandanecdotes.' Daily 

Chronicle. 

Henri of Orleans. FROM TONKIN 
TO INDIA. By PRINCE HENRI OF 
ORLEANS. Translated by HAMLEY 
BENT, M.A. With 100 Illustrations 
and a Map. Cr. qto, gilt top. 253. 

R. S. S. Baden-Powell. THE DOWN- 
FALL OF PREMPEH. A Diary 
of Life in Ashanti, 1895. By Colonel 
BADEN-POWELL. With 21 Illustra- 
tions and a Map. Cheaper Edition. 
Large Crown 8vo. 6s. 

R. S. S. Baden-Powell. THE MATA- 
BELE CAMPAIGN, 1896. By Col. 
BADEN-POWELL. With nearly 100 
Illustrations. Cheaper Edition. Large 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

S. L. Hinde. THE FALL OF THE 
CONGO ARABS. By S. L. HINDE. 
With Plans, etc. Demy 8vo. 12*. 6d. 

A. St. H. Gibbons. EXPLORATION 
AND HUNTING IN CENTRAL 



20 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



AFRICA. By Major A. ST. H. 
GIBBONS. With full-page Illustra- 
tions by C. WHYMPER, and Maps. 
Demy 8vo. 15 J. 

' His book is a grand record of quiet, un- 
assuming, tactful resolution. His ad- 
ventures were as various as his sporting 
exploits were exciting.' Times. 

E. H. Alderson. WITH THE 
MASHONALAND FIELD 
FORCE, 1896. By Lieut. -Colonel 
ALDERSON. With numerous Illus- 
trations and Plans. Demy 8vo. 
IO.T. 6d. 

1 A clear, vigorous, and soldier-like narra- 
tive. 'Scotsman. 

Fraaer. ROUND THE WORLD 
ON A WHEEL. By JOHN FOSTER 
FRASER. With 100 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

'A very entertaining book of travel.' 

Spectator. 
'The story is told with delightful gaiety, 

humour, and crispness. There has rarely 

appeared a more interesting ' tale of 

modern travel.' Scotsman. 
' A classic of cycling, graphic and witty.' 

Yorkshire Post. 

Seymour Vandeleur. CAMPAIGN- 
ING ON THE UPPER NILE 
AND NIGER. By Lieut. SEYMOUR 
VANDELEUR. With an Introduction 
by Sir G. GOLDIE, K.C.M.G. With 
4 Maps, Illustrations, and Plans. 
Large Crown 8vo. IQS. 6d. 

'Upon the African question there. is no 
book procurable which contains so 
much of value as this one.' Guardian. 

Lord Fincastle. A FRONTIER 
CAMPAIGN. By Viscount FIN- 
CASTLE, V.C., and Lieut. P. C. 
ELLIOTT-LOCKHART. With a Map 
and 16 Illustrations. Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

'An admirable book, and a really valuable 
treatise on frontier wax.'Athenautn, 

E. N. Bennett. THE DOWNFALL 
OF THE DERVISHES : A Sketch 
of the Sudan Campaign of 1898. By 



E. N. BENNETT, Fellow of Hertford 
College. With Four Maps and a 
Photogravure Portrait of the Sirdar. 
Third Edition. Crown 8vo. y6d. 

3. K. Trotter. THE NIGER 
SOURCES. By Colonel J. K. 
TROTTER, R.A. With a Map and 
Illustrations. Crown 8vo. y. 

Michael Davitt. LIFE AND PRO- 
GRESS IN AUSTRALASIA. By 
MICHAEL DAVITT, M.P. 500 pp. 
With 2 Maps. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

W. Crooke. THE NORTH- 
WESTERN PROVINCES OF 
INDIA: THEIR ETHNOLOGY AND 
ADMINISTRATION. By W. CROOKE. 
With Maps and Illustrations. Demy 
8vo. ioj. 6d. 

' A carefully and well-written account of one 
of the most important provinces of the 
Empire. Mr. Crooke deals with the land 
in its physical aspect, the province under 
Hindoo and Mussulman rule, under 
British rule, its ethnology and sociology, 
its religious and social life, the land and 
its settlement, and the native peasant.' 
Manchester Guardian. 

A. Boisragon. THE BENIN MAS- 
SACRE. By CAPTAIN BOISRAGON. 
Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. $s. 6d. 

1 If the story had been written four hundred 
years ago it would be read to-day as an 
English classic.' Scotsman. 

E. S. Cowper. THE HILL OF THE 
GRACES : OR, THE GREAT STONE 
TEMPLES OF TRIPOLI. By H. S. 
COWPER, F. S. A. With Maps, Plans, 
and 75 Illustrations. DemySvo. ios.6d. 

W. Kinnaird Rose. WITH THE 
GREEKS IN THESSALY. By 
W. KINNAIRD ROSE, Reuter's Cor- 
respondent. With Plans and 23 
Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

W. B. Worsfold. SOUTH AFRICA. 
By W. B. WORSFOLD, M.A. With 
a Map. Second Edition. Cr.Svo. 6s. 

1 A monumental work compressed into a 
very moderate compass.' World, 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



21 



Naval and Military 



0. W. Steevens. NAVAL POLICY : 
By G. W. STEEVENS. Demy 8vo. 6s. 

This book is a description of the British and 
other more important navies of the world, 
with a sketch of the lines on which our 
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'An extremely able and interesting work." 
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D. Hannay. A SHORT HISTORY 
OF THE ROYAL NAVY, FROM 
EARLY TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAY. 
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2 Vols. Demy 8vo. ^s. 6d. each. 
Vol. I., 1200-1688. 

' We read it from cover to cover at a sitting, 
and those who go to it for a lively and 
brisk picture of the past, with all its faults 
and its grandeur, will not be disappointed. 
The historian is endowed with literary 
skill and style.' Standard. 

'We can warmly recommend Mr. Hannay's 
volume to any intelligent student of 
naval history. Great as is the merit of 
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merit of his strategic exposition is even 
greater.' Times. 

C. Cooper King. THE STORY OF 
THE BRITISH ARMY. By Colonel 
COOPER KING. Illustrated. Demy 
8vo. 7-r. 6d, 

'An authoritative and accurate story of 
England's military progress.' Daily 
Mail. 



E. Southey. ENGLISH SEAMEN 
(Howard, Clifford, Hawkins, Drake, 
Cavendish). By ROBERT SOUTHEY. 
Edited, with an Introduction, by 
DAVID HANNAY. Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

'A. brave, inspiriting book.' Black and 
White. 

W. Clark Russell. THE LIFE OF 
ADMIRAL LORD COLLING- 
WOOD. By W. CLARK RUSSELL. 
With Illustrations by F. BRANGWYN. 

Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' A book which we should like to see in the 
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St. James's Gazette. 
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E. L. S. Horsburgn. THE CAM- 
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E. L. S. HORSBURGH, B.A. With 
Plans. Crown 8vo. &. 

'A brilliant essay simple, sound, and 
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GEORGE, M.A., Fellow of New 
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' Mr. George has undertaken a very useful 
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General Literature 



S. Baring Gould. OLD COUNTRY 
LIFE. ByS. BARING GOULD. With 
Sixty-seven Illustrations. Large Cr. 
8vo. Fifth Edition. 6s. 
1 " Old Country Life,"ashealthy wholesome 
reading, full of breezy life and move- 
ment, full of quaint stories vigorously 
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be published throughout the year. 
Sound, hearty, and English to the core.' 
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S. Baring Gould. AN OLD ENGLISH 
HOME. By S. BARING GOULD. 
With numerous Plans and Illustra- 
tions. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

' The chapters are delightfully fresh, very 
informing, and lightened by many a good 
story. A delightful fireside companion.' 
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B. Baring Gould. HISTORIC 

ODDITIES AND STRANGE 



22 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



EVENTS. By S. BARING GOULD. 
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S. Baring Gould. FREAKS OF 
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S. Baring Gould. A GARLAND OF 
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Demy 4/0. 65. 

S. Baring Gould. SONGS OF THE 

WEST: Traditional Ballads and 

Songs of the West of England, with 

their Melodies. Collected by S. 

BARING GOULD, M.A., and H. F. 

SHEPPARD, M.A. In 4 Parts. Parts 

I. , II. , III. , 3 s. each. Part I V. , 55. 

In one Vol., French morocco, 155. 

' A rich collection of humour, pathos, grace, 

and poetic fancy.' Saturday Review. 

S. Baring Gould. YORKSHIRE 
ODDITIES AND STRANGE 
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Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo. . 6s. 

S. Baring Gould. STRANGE SUR- 
VIVALS AND SUPERSTITIONS. 
By S. BARING GOULD. Cr. 8vo. 
Second Edition. 6s. 

S. Baring Gould. THE DESERTS 
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S. BARING GOULD. 2 vols. Demy 
8uo. 325. 

Cotton Mincbin. OLD HARROW 
DAYS. By J. G. COTTON MINCHIN. 
Cr. 8z>o. Second Edition. 55. 
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W. E. Gladstone. THE SPEECHES 
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Vols. IX. andX., jar. 6d. each. 

E. V. Zenker. ANARCHISM. By 
E. V. ZENKER. Demy 8vo. js. 6d. 
1 Herr Zenker has succeeded in producing a 
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H. G. Hutchinson. THE GOLFING 
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' Full of useful information with plenty of 

good stories.' Truth. 
' Without this hook the golfer's library will 

be incomplete.' Pall Mall Gazette. 
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J. Wells. OXFORD AND OXFORD 
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Third Edition. Cr. 8vo. y. 6d. . 
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J. Wells. OXFORD AND ITS 
COLLEGES. By J. WELLS, M.A. , 
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Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 35. 
Leather, y 6d. net. 
' An admirable and accurate little treatise, 

attractively illustrated.' World. 
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This book is uniform with Mr. Wells' very 
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' It is brightly written and learned, and is 
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C. G. Robertson. VOCES ACADE- 
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Rosemary Cotes. DANTE'S GAR- 
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' A charming collection of legends of the 
flowersmentionedby Dante.' Academy. 



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Clifford Harrison. READING AND 
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chester Guardian. 

L. WMbley. GREEK OLIGARCH- 
IES : THEIR ORGANISATION 
AND CHARACTER. By L. 
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broke College, Cambridge. Crown 
8vo. 6s. 

' An exceedingly useful handbook : a careful 
and well-arranged study. 1 Times. 

L. L. Price. ECONOMIC SCIENCE 
AND PRACTICE. By L. L. PRICE, 



M.A., Fellow of Oriel College, Ox- 
ford. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

J. S. Shedlock. THE PIANOFORTE 
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8vo. 5$. 

' This work should be in the possession of 
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E. M. Bowden. THE EXAMPLE OF 
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the Year. Compiled _ by E. M. 
BOWDEN. Third Edition. i6mo. 
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Science and Technology 



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Cbalmers Mitcbell. OUTLINES OF 
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A text-book designed to cover the new 
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G. Massee. A MONOGRAPH OF 
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'A work much in advance of any book in 
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Stephenson and Suddards. ORNA- 
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TEXTBOOKS OF TECHNOLOGY. 

Edited by PROFESSORS GARNETT 

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HOW TO MAKE A DRESS. By J. 
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is. 6d. 

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Philosophy 



L. T. Hobbouse. THE THEORY OF 
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Demy 8vo. zis. 

' The most important contribution to 
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W. H. Fail-brother. THE PHILO- 
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'In every way an admirable book.' 
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F. W. BusseU. THE SCHOOL OF 
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Demv 80. 101. 6d. 
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ckester Guardian. 

F. S. Granger. THE WORSHIP 
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GRANGER, M.A., Litt.D. Crown 
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' A scholarly analysis of the religious cere- 
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S. E. Driver. SERMONS ON SUB- 
JECTS CONNECTED WITH 
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Church, Regius Professor of Hebrew 
in the University of Oxford. Cr, 8vo. 
6s. 

'A welcome companion to the author's 
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T. K. Cheyne. FOUNDERS OF OLD 
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fessor at Oxford. Large Crown 8w. 
7-f. 6d. 

A historical sketch of O. T. Criticism. 
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H. Eashdall. DOCTRINE AND 
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'A very interesting attempt to restate some 
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H. H. Henson. APOSTOLIC CHRIS- 
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H. H. Henson. DISCIPLINE AND 
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Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

H. H. Henson. LIGHT AND 
LEAVEN : HISTORICAL AND 
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W. H. Bennett. A PRIMER OF 
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Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. as. 6d. 
1 The work of an honest, fearless, and sound 
critic, and an excellent guide in a small 
compass to the books of the Bible.' 
Manchester Guardian. 

William Harrison. CLOVELLY 
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SON, M.A., late Rector of Clovelly. 
With a Preface by 'LUCAS MALET. 1 
Cr. 8vo. 3$. 6d. 

Cecilia Robinson. THE MINISTRY 
OF DEACONESSES. By Deacon- 



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A Eempis. THE IMITATION OF 
CHRIST. By THOMAS A KEMPIS. 
With an Introduction by DEAN 
FARRAR. Illustrated by C. M. 
GERE. ' Second Edition. Fcaf. Zvo. 

' y. 6d, Padded morocco, $s. 

'Amongst all the innumerable English 
editions of the "Imitation," there can 
have been few which were prettier than 
this one, printed in strong and handsome 
type, with all the glory of red initials.' 
Glasgow Herald. 

3. Keble. THE CHRISTIAN YEAR. 
By JOHN KEBLE. With an Intro- 
duction and Notes by W. LOCK, 
D.D., Warden of Keble College. 
Illustrated by R. ANNING BELL. 
Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. %s. 6d. 
Padded morocco. S. 

1 The present edition is annotated with all 
the care and insight to be expected from 
Mr. Lock.' Guardian. 

Commentaries 

General Editor, WALTER LOCK, D.D., Warden of Keble College, Dean 

Ireland's Professor of Exegesis in the University of Oxford. 
THE BOOK OF JOB. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by E. C. S. 
GIBSON, D.D., Vicar of Leeds. Demy 8vo. 6s. 

TbanD&oofcs of GbeoIogB 

General Editor, A. ROBERTSON, D.D., Principal of King's College, London. 



ness CECILIA ROBINSON. With an 
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man. 

E. B. Layard. RELIGION IN BOY- 
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W. Yorke Fausset. THE DE 
CA TECHIZANDIS R UD1B US 
OF ST. AUGUSTINE. Edited, 
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3*. 6d. 

F. Weston. THE HOLY SACRI- 
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ster, Pott Svo. 6d. net. 

A small volume of devotions at the Holy 
Communion, especially adapted to the 
needs of _ servers and those who do not 
communicate. 



THE XXXIX. ARTICLES OF THE 
CHURCH OF ENGLAND. Edited 
with an Introduction by E. C. S. 
GIBSON, D.D., Vicar of Leeds, late 
Principal of Wells Theological Col- 
lege. Second and Cheaper Edition 
in One Volume. Demy 8vo. izs. 6d. 
'We welcome with the utmost satisfaction 
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and we should like to think that it was 
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orders. 'Guardian. 

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE 
HISTORY OF RELIGION. By 
F. B. JEVONS, M.A., Litt.D., Prin- 
cipal of Bishop Hatfield's Hall. 
Demy 8vo. los. 6d. 
"The merit of this book lies in the penetra- 
tion, the singular acuteness and force of 
the author's judgment. He is at once 
critical and luminous, at once just and 



suggestive. A comprehensive and 
thorough book.' Birmingham Post. 

THE DOCTRINE OF THE INCAR- 
NATION. By R. L. OTTLEY, M.A., 
late fellow of Magdalen College, 
Oxon. , and Principal of Pusey House. 
In Two Volumes. Demy 8vo. i$s. 
'A. clear and remarkably full account of the 
main currents of speculation. Scholarly 
precision . . . genuine tolerance . . . 
intense interest in his subject are Mr. 
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A. E. BURNS, Examining Chaplain 
to the Bishop of Lichfield. Demy 
8vo. los. 6d. 

' This book may be expected to hold its 
place as an authority on its subject.' 
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' It is an able and learned treatise, and con- 
tains a mass of information which will 
be most useful to scholars.' Glasgow 
Herald. 



26 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



THE BEGINNINGS OF ENGLISH 
CHRISTIANITY. By W. E. COL- 
LINS, M.A. With Map. Cr. &vo. 
y. 6d. 

An investigation in detail, based upon 
original authorities, of the beginnings 
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account of earlier Celtic Christianity. 
1 An excellent example of thorough and fresh 
historical walk.' Guardian. 

SOME NEW TESTAMENT PRO- 



Gburcbman'5 3tfbrarg 

Edited by J. H. BURN, B.D. 



BLEMS. By ARTHUR WRIGHT, 
Fellow of Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge. Crown Zvo. 6s. 

THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN 
HERE AND HEREAFTER. By 
CANON WINTERBOTHAM, M.A., 
B.Sc., LL.B. Cr. 8vo. y. 6d. 

'A most able book, at once exceedingly 
thoughtful and richly suggestive. 1 Glas- 
gow Herald. 



Gbe Hibrarg of devotion 

Pott 8vo, clotk, 2s.; leather, 2s. 6ct. net. 
' This series is excellent.' THE BISHOP OF LONDON. 
' A very delightful edition.' THE BISHOP OF BATH AND WELLS. 
' Well worth the attention of the Clergy. 1 THE BISHOP OF LICHF 

* TKa nail* (( T.ihrnrv f\f Tlpvnfrinn " 1C pvrMlAnf ' Tui? "Ricunn r\i? 1 



' The new " Library of Devotion 

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THE CONFESSIONS OF ST. AU- 
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Church. Second Edition. 

'The translation is an excellent piece of 
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terly exposition. We augur well of a 
series which begins so satisfactorily. 1 
Times. 

THE CHRISTIAN YEAR. By JOHN 
KEBLE. With Introduction and 
Notes by WALTER LOCK, D.D., 
Warden of Keble College, Ireland 
Professor at Oxford. 
''The volume is very prettily_ bound and 
printed, and may fairty claim to be an 
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LICHFIKLD. 
' THE BISHOP OF PETERBOROUGH. 



editions.' 



THE IMITATION OF CHRIST. A 
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late 



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A practically new translation of this book, 
which the reader has, almost for the first 
time, exactly in the shape in which it 
left the hands of the author. 

' A beautiful and scholarly production.' 
Speaker. 

'A nearer approach to the original than 
has yet existed in English.' Academy. 

A BOOK OF DEVOTIONS. By J. 
W. STANBRIDGE, M.A., Rector of 
Bainton, Canon of York, and some- 
time Fellow of St. John's College, 
Oxford. 

It is probably the best book of its kind. It 
deserves high commendation.' Church 
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LYRA INNOCENTIUM. By JOHN 
KEBLE. Edited, with Introduction 
and Notes, by WALTER LOCK, D.D., 
Warden of Keble College, Oxford. 

of IReligfon 

Edited by H. C. BEECHING.M.A. With Portraits , Crown too. -.3*. 6d. 

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' BISHOP WILBERFORCE. 

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MASON. 
announced in due course. 



Fiction 



SIX SHILLING NOVELS 

Marie Corelli's Novels 

Large crown Svo. 6s, each. 



A ROMANCE OF TWO WORLDS. 

Nineteenth Edition. 
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THELMA. Twenty-first Edition. 
ARDATH: THE STORY OF A 

DEAD SELF. Eleventh Edition. 
THE SOUL OF LILITH, Ninth 

Edition. 

WORMWOOD. Ninth Edition. 
BARABBAS : A DREAM OF THE 
WORLD'S TRAGEDY. Thirty- 
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Crown Bvo. 6s. each. 



of the Scripture narrative are often con- 
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THE SORROWS OF SATAN. 
Forty-first Edition. 

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THE GOD IN THE CAR. Eighth 

Edition. 

'A very remarkable book, deserving of 
critical analysis impossible within our 
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constructed with the proverbial art that 
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A CHANGE OF AIR. Fifth Edition. 

'A graceful, vivacious comedy, true to 

human nature. The characters are 

traced with a masterly hand.' Times. 

A MAN OF MARK. Fifth Edition. 

'Of all Mr. Hope's books, "A Man of 

Mark" is the one which best compares 



with "The Prisoner 
National Observer. 



of Zenda.'" 



THE CHRONICLES OF COUNT 
ANTONIO. Fourth Edition. 
' It is a perfectly enchanting story of love 
and chivalry, and pure romance. The 
Count is the most constant, desperate, 
and modest and tender of lovers, a peer- 
less gentleman, an intrepid _ fighter, a 
faithful friend, and a magnanimous foe.' 
Guardian. 

PHROSO. Illustrated by H. R. 
MILLAR. Fourth Edition. 

' The tale is thoroughly fresh, quick with 
vitality, stirring the blood.' St. James's 

Gazette. 



28 



MESSRS, METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



' A story of adventure, every page of which 
is palpitating with action.' Speaker. 

'From cover to cover "Phroso" not only 
engages the attention, but carries the 
reader in little whirls of delight from 
adventure to adventure. 1 Academy. 

SIMON DALE. Illustrated. . Third 
Edition. 
' " Simon Dale" is one of the best historical 



romances that have been written for a 
long while.' St. James's Gazette. 

' A brilliant novel. The story is rapid and 
most excellently told. As for the hero, 
he is a perfect hero of romance ' 
Athencewn. 

1 There is searching analysis _ of human 
nature, with a most ingeniously con- 
structed plot. Mr. Hope has drawn the 
contrasts of his women with marvellous 
subtlety and delicacy.' Times. 



Gilbert Parker's Novels 



Crown %vo. 

PIERRE AND HIS PEOPLE. 
Fifth Edition. 

1 Stories happily conceived and finely ex- 
ecuted. There is strength and genius in 
Mr. Parker's style.' Daily Telegrafk. 

MRS. FALCHION. Fourth Edition. 
' A splendid study of character.' 

Athenxum, 

'A very striking and admirable novel. 1 
St. James's Gazette. 

THE TRANSLATION OF A 
SAVAGE. 

'The plot is original and one difficult to 
work out ; but Mr. Parker has done it 
with great skill and delicacy. The 
reader who is not interested in this 
original, fresh, and well-told tale must 
be a dull person indeed.' 

Daily Chronicle. 

THE TRAIL OF THE SWORD. 
Illustrated. Sixth Edition. 
' A rousing and dramatic tale. A book like 
this, in which swords flash, great sur- 
prises are undertaken, and daring deeds 
done, in which men and women live and 
love in the old passionate way, is a joy 
inexpressible.' Daily Chronicle. 

WHEN VALMOND CAME TO 
PONTIAC: The Story of a Lost 
Napoleon. Fourth Edition. 
' Here we find romance real, breathing, 
living romance. The character of Val- 
mond is drawn unerringly. The book 
must be read, we may -say re-read, for 
any one thoroughly to appreciate Mr. 
Parker's delicate touch and innate sym- 
pathy with humanity.' Pall Mall 
Gazette. 

AN ADVENTURER OF THE 
NORTH: The Last Adventures of 
' Pretty Pierre.' Second Edition. 
'The present book is full of fine and mov- 
ing stories of the great North, and it 



6s. each. 

will add to Mr. Parker's already high 
reputation.' Glasgow Herald. 

THE SEATS OF THE MIGHTY. 
Illustrated. Tenth Edition. 

1 The best thing he has done ; one of the 
best things that any one has done lately.' 
St. James's Gazette. 

' Mr. Parker seems to become stronger and. 
easier with every serious novel that he 
attempts. He shows the matured power 
which his former novels have led us to 
expect, and has produced a really fine 
historical novel.' A tkcnaum. 

' A great book.' -Black and White. 
THE POMP OF THE LAVILET- 
TES. Second Edition, y. 6d. 

'Living, breathing romance, genuine and 
unforced pathos, and a deeper and more 
subtle knowledge of human nature than 
Mr. Parker has ever displayed before. 
It is, in a word, the work of a true artist.' 
Pall Mall Gazette. 

THE BATTLE OF THE STRONG: 
a Romance of Two Kingdoms. 
Illustrated. Fourth Edition. 

' Such a splendid story, so splendidly told, 
will be read with avidity, and will add 
new honour even to Mr. Parker's reputa- 
tion.'-^SV. James's Gazette. 

' No one who takes a pleasure in literature 
but will read Mr. Gilbert Parker's latest 
romance with keen enjoyment. The mere 
writing is so good as to be a delight in 
itself, apart altogether from the interest 
of the tale.' Pall Mall Gazette. 

1 Nothing more vigorous or more human has 
come from Mr. Gilbert Parker than this 
novel. It has all the graphic power of 
his last book, with truer feeling for the 
romance, both of human life and wild 
nature. There is no character without its 
unique and picturesque interest. Mr. 
Parker's style, especially his descriptive, 
style, has in this book, perhaps even more 
than elsewhere, aptness and vitality.' 
Literature. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



29 



S. Baring Gould's Novels 

Crown 8vo. 6s. each. 

'To say that a book is by the author of "Mehalah" is^tp imply that it contains a 
story cast on strong lines, containing dramatic possibilities, vivid and sympathetic descrip- 
tions of Nature, and a wealth of ingenious imagery.' Speaker. 

1 That whatever Mr. Baring Gould writes is well worth reading, is a conclusion that may 
be very generally accepted. His views of life are fresh and vigorous, his language 
pointed and characteristic, the incidents of which he makes use are striking and original, 
his characters are life-like, and though somewhat exceptional people, are drawn and 
coloured with artistic force. Add to this that his descriptions of scenes and scenery are 
painted with the loving eyes and skilled hands of a master of his art, that he is always 
fresh and never dull, and it is no wonder that readers have gained confidence in his 
power of amusing and satisfying them, and that year by year his popularity widens. 1 
Court Circular. 



ARMINELL. Fourth Edition. 

URITH. Fifth Edition. 

IN THE ROAR OF THE SEA. 

Sixth Edition. 
MRS. CURGENVEN OF CURGEN- 

VEN. Fourth Edition. 
CHEAP JACK ZITA. Fourth Edition. 
THE; QUEEN OF LOVE. Fourth 

Edition. . ' 

MARGERY OF QUETHER. Third 

Edition. 
JACQUETTA. Third Edition. 



KITTY ALONE. Fifth Edition. 

NOEMI. Illustrated. Fourth Edition. 

THE BROOM-SQUIRE. Illustrated. 
Fourth Edition. 

THE PENNYCOMEQUICKS. 
Third Edition. 

DARTMOOR IDYLLS. 

GUAVAS THE TINNER. Illus- 
trated. Second Edition. 

BLADYS. Illustrated. Second Edition. 

DOMITIA. Illustrated. Second Edi- 
tion. 



Conan Doyle. ROUND THE RED 
LAMP. By A. CONAN DOYLE. 
Sixth Edition. Crown. 8vo. 6s. 
' The book is far and away the best view 
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trated London News. 

Stanley Weyman. UNDER THE 
RED ROBE. By STANLEY WEY- 
MAN, Author of 'A Gentleman of 
France.' With Illustrations by R. C. 
.. WOODVILLE. Fifteenth Edition. 

Crown Zt/o. 6s. 

'Every one who reads books at all must 
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first .page of which to the last the breath- 
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Lucas Malet. THE WAGES OF 
SIN. By LUCAS MALET. Thir- 
teenth Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Lucas Malet. THE CARISSIMA. 
' By LUCAS MALET, Author of ' The 

Wages of Sin',' etc.' Third Edition. 

Crown 8vo. 6s. 



George Gissing. THE TOWN TRA- 
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'It is a bright and witty book above all 
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S. E. Crockett. THE STANDARD 
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Crown 8vo. 6s. 
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Speaker, 
1 Mr. Crockett at his best.' Literature. 

Arthur Morrison. TALES OF 
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MORRISON. Fifth Edition. Cr. 
8vo, 6s. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



'Told with consummate art and extra- 
ordinary detail. In the true humanity 
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'A great book. The author's method is 
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' Told with great vigour and powerful sim- 
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Emily Lawless. MAELCHO : a Six- 

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Honble. EMILY LAWLESS. Second 

' Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

; ' A really great book-'Sjectator. _ 

'There is no keener pleasure in life. than 

the recognition of genius. A piece of 

work of the first order, which we do not 

hesitate to describe as one of the most 

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generation. 1 Manchester Guardian. 

Emily Lawless. TRAITS AND 
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EMILY LAWLESS. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

E. W. Hornung., THE AMATEUR 
CRACKSMAN. By E. W. HOR- 
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Spectator. 
' Fascinating and entertaining in a supreme 

degree.' Daily Mail. 

'We are fascinated by the individuality, 

the daring, and the wonderful coolness 

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Jane Barlow. A CREEL OF IRISH 

STORIES. By JANE BARLOW, 



Author of ' Irish Idylls.' Second 

Edition. Crown %vo. 6s. 
' Vivid and singularly real.' Scotsman. 
Jane Barlow. FROM THE EAST 

UNTO THE WEST. By JANE 

BARLOW. Crown 8vo. 6s. _ 
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Mrs. Caflyn. ANNE MAULEVERER. 

By Mrs. CAFFYN (Iota), Author of 

' The Yellow Aster.' Second Edition. 

Crown 8vo. 6s. 

' The author leaves with us _a most delect- 
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1 A fine conception and absorbingly interest- 
ing.' A tkenxum. 

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. ' All the stories are delightful.' Scotsman. 
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' A powerful and vivid story.' Standard. 
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itself.' Vanity Fair. 
' A very charming and pathetic tale.' Pall 

Matt Gazette. 
' A singularly original, clever, and beautiful 

story. 1 Guardian. 
' Reveals to us a new writer of undoubted 

faculty and reserve force.' -Spectator. 
'An exquisite idyll, delicate, affecting, and 

beautiful.' Black and White. 
J. H. Findlater. A DAUGHTER 
OF STRIFE. By JANE HELEN 
FINDLATER. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' A story of strong human interest.' -Scots- 
man, 

J. H. Findlater. RACHEL. By 
JANE H. FINDLATER. Second 
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'Powerful and sympathetic. ' Glasgow 

Herald. 

' A not unworthy successor to " The Green 
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Mary Findlater, OVER THE 
HILLS. By MARY FINDLATER. 
Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
' A strong and fascinating piece of work.' 
Scotsman. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



' A charming romance, and full of incident. 

The book is fresh and strong.' Speaker. 
' A strong and wise book of deep insight and 

unflinching truth.' Birmingham Post. 

Mary Findlater. BETTY MUS- 
GRAVE. By MARY FINDLATER. 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' Handled with dignity and delicacy. . . . 

A most touching story. 1 Spectator. 
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Glasgow Herald. 

Alfred OlHvant. OWD BOB, THE 

GREY DOG OF KENMUIR. By 

ALFRED OLLIVANT. Second Edition. 

Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

' Weird, thrilling, strikingly graphic. ' 

Punch. 

'We admire this book. . . . It is one to read 
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' It is a fine, open-air, blood-stirring book, 
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B. M. Croker. PEGGY OF THE 
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Author of 'Diana Barrington.' 
Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Mrs. Croker excels in the admirably simple, 
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' All the characters, indeed, are drawn with 
clearness and certainty ; and it would be 
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book.' Saturday Review. 

H. G. Wells. THE STOLEN BA- 
CILLUS, and other Stories. By 
H. G. WELLS. Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

'They are the impressions of a very striking 
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a great deal within its reach. 1 Saturday 
Review. 

H. G. Wells. THE PLATTNER 
STORY AND OTHERS. By H. G. 
WELLS. Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 
6s. 

' Weird and mysterious,' they seem to hold 
the reader as by a magic spell." Scots- 
matt. 

Sara Jeanette Duncan. A VOYAGE 
OF CONSOLATION. By SARA 
JEANETTE DUNCAN, Author of ' An 
American Girl in London.' Illus- 
trated. Third Edition. Cr. Bvo. 6s. 



'A most delightfully bright book.' Daily 
Telegraph. 

' The dialogue is full of wit.' Glebe. 

'Laughter lurks in every page." Daily 

News. 

C. F. Keary. THE JOURNALIST. 
By C. F. KEARY. Cr. 8vo. _ 6*. . 

* It is rare indeed to find such poetical sym- 
pathy with Nature joined to close study 
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logue: but then " The Journalist " is 
altogether a rare book.'-r Athentsum. 

E. F. Benson. DODO : A DETAIL 
OF THE DAY. By E. F. BENSON. 
Sixteenth Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
1 A perpetual feast of epigram and paradox.' 

Speaker. 

E. F.Benson. THE VINTAGE. By 
E. F. BENSON. Author of ' Dodo.' 
Illustrated by G. P. JACOMB-HOOD. 
Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
1 Full of fire, earnestness, and beauty. 1 
The World. 

E. F. Benson. THE CAPSINA. By 

E. F. BENSON, Author of 'Dodo.' 

With Illustrations by G. P. JACOMB- 

HOOD. Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

' The story moves through an atmosphere 

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Guardian. 

Mrs. Oliphant. SIR ROBERT'S 
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Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Mrs. Oliphant. THE TWO MARYS. 

By Mrs. OLIPHANT. Second Edition. 

Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Mrs. Oliphant. THE LADY'S 

WALK. By Mrs. OLIPHANT. 

Second Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

W. E. Norris. MATTHEW AUSTIN. 
By W. E. NORRIS, Author of ' Made- 
moiselle de Mersac,' etc. Fourth 
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'An intellectually satisfactory and morally 

bracing novel.' Daily Telegraph. 
W. E. Norris. HIS GRACE. By W. 
E. NORRIS. Third Edition. Crown 
8vo. 6s. 
' Mr. Norris has drawn a really fine char- 

acter in the Dukt.'AtJutueum. 
W. E. Norris. THE DESPOTIC 
LADY AND OTHERS. By W. E. 
NORRIS. Crown &vo. 6s. 
1 A budget of good fiction of which no one 
will tire.' Scotsman. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



W. E.Norris. CLARISSA FURIOSA. 

By W. E. NORRIS. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
' As a_ story it is admirable, as &jeu d 'esprit 
it is capital, as a lay sermon studded 
with gems of wit and wisdom it is a 
model.' The World. 

W. Clark Russell. MY DANISH 
SWEETHEART. By W. CLARK 
RUSSELL. Illustrated. Fourth 
Edition. Crown Bvo. 6s. 
Robert Barr. IN THE MIDST OF 
ALARMS. By ROBERT BARR. 
Third Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
1 A book which has abundantly satisfied us 
byits capital humour." Daily Chronicle. 
Mr. Barr has achieved a triumph.' Pall 
Mall Gazette. 

Robert Barr. THE MUTABLE 
MANY. By ROBERT BARR. Second 
Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 
' Very much the best novel that Mr. Barr 
has yet given us. There is much insight 
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Daily Chronicle. 

Robert Barr. THE COUNTESS 
TEKLA. By ROBERT BARR. Second 
Edition, Crown- Svo. 6s. 
' Thrilling and brilliant. 'Critic. 
' Such a tale as Mr. Barr's would ever 
receive a hearty welcome. Of these 
mediaeval romances, which are now 
gaining ground, "The Countess Tekla" 
is the very best we have seen. The 
story is written in clear English, and a 
picturesque, moving style.' Pall Mall 
Gazette. 

Andrew Balfour. BY STROKE OF 
.SWORD. By ANDREW BALFOUR. 
Illustrated. Fourth Edition. Cr. 
Svo. 6s. 

A banquet of good things. 1 Acetdemy. 
' A recital of thrilling interest, told with 

unflagging vigour.' Globe. 
An unusually excellent example of a semi- 
historic romance.' World. 

Andrew Balfour. TO ARMS ! By 
ANDREW BALFOUR. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 
' The marvellous perils through which Allan 
passes are told in powerful and lively 
fashion. 'Pall Matt Gazette. 
R. B. Townshend. LONE PINE: A 
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B.. TOWNSHEND. Crown Svo. 6s. 
' It is full of incident and adventure. The 
great fight is' as thrilling a bit of fight- 
ing as we have read for many a day. 1 
Speaker. 



' The volume is evidently the work of a 
clever writer and of an educated and 
experienced traveller. ' A thenceum. 

J. Maclaren Cobban. THE KING 
OF ANDAMAN: A Saviour of 
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Crown Svo. 6s. 

'An unquestionably interesting book. It 
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J. Maclaren Cobban. WILT THOU 
HAVE THIS WOMAN? By J. 
MACLAREN COBBAN. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
J. Maclaren Cobban. THE ANGEL 
OF THE COVENANT. By J. 
MACLAREN COBBAN. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
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gether in a fine realisation of the spirit of 
the times.' Pall Mall Gazette. 
Marshall Saunders. ROSE A CHAR- 
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Acadie. By MARSHALL SAUNDERS. 
Crown Svo. 6s. 
'Graceful and well written.' Saturday 

Review. 

'Charmingly told. 'Manchester Guardian. 

R. N. Stephens. AN ENEMY TO 

THE KING. By R. N. STEPHENS. 

Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

' It_is full of movement, and the movement 

is always buoyant.' Scotsman. 
'A stirring story with plenty of movement." 
Black and White. 

Robert Hichens. BYEWAYS. By 
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'Flames, etc.' Second Edition. Cr. 
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' The work is undeniably that of a man of 
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Percy White. A PASSIONATE PIL- 
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W. Pett Ridge. SECRETARY TO 
BAYNE, M.P. By W. PETT RIDGE. 
Crown Svo. 6s. 

E. Dawson and A. Moore. ADRIAN 
ROME. By E. DAWSON and A. 
MOORE, Authors of 'A Comedy of 
Masks.' Crown Svo. 6s. 
'A clever novel dealing with youth and 
genius.' A cademy. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



33 



J. S. Fletcher. THE BUILDERS. 
By J. S. FLETCHER. Author of 
'When Charles i. was King.' 
Second Edition, . Cr. Bvo. 6s. 

J. S. Fletcher. THE PATHS OF 
THE PRUDENT. By J. S. FLET- 
CHER: Crown Bvo. 6s. 
1 The story has a curious fascination for the 
reader, and the theme and character are 
handled with rare ability.' Scotsman. 
' Dorinthia is charming. The story is told 
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J. B. Burton. IN THE DAY OF 

ADVERSITY. By J. BLOUNDELLE- 
BURTON. Second Edition. Cr. Bvo. 6s. 
' Unusually interesting and full of highly 
dramatic situations. Guardian. 

J. B. Burton. DENOUNCED. By 
J. BLOUNDELLE- BURTON. Second 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
1 A fine, manly, spirited piece of work.' 

World. 

J. B. Burton. THE CLASH OF 

ARMS. By J. BLOUNDELLE-BUR- 

TON. Second Edition. Cr. Bvo. 6s. 

'A brave story brave in deed, brave in 

word, brave in thought.' St. James's 

Gazette. 

J. B. Burton. ACROSS THE SALT 
SEAS. ByJ. BLOUNDELLE-BURTON. 
Second Edition. Crown Bvo. 6s. 
'The very essence of the true romantic 
spirit.' Truth. 



R. Murray Gilchrist. WILLOW- 
BRAKE. By R. MURRAY GIL- 
CHRIST. Crown Bvo. . 6s. 
1 It is a singularly-pleasing and eminently 
wholesome volume, with a decidedly 
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of ' Kafir Stories.' Cr. Bvo. 6s. 
Reveals a marvellously intimate under- 
standing of the Kaffir mind.' African 
Critic. 

W. C. Scully. BETWEEN SUN 
AND SAND. By W. C. SCULLY, 
Author of 'The White Hecatomb.' 
Cr. Bvo. 6s. 

'The reader passes at once into the very 
atmosphere of the African desert : the 
inexpressible space and stillness swallow 
him up, and there is no world for him but 
that immeasurable waste.' Athenaum. 

M. M. Dowie. GALLIA. By MENIE 
MURIEL DOWIE, Author of A Girl 
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Cr. Bvo. 6s. 

M. M. Dowie. THE CROOK OF 
THE BOUGH. By MENIE MURIEL 
DOWIE. Cr. Bvo. 6s. 

Julian Corbett. A BUSINESS IN 
GREAT WATERS. By JULIAN 
CORBETT. Second Edition. Cr. Bvo. 
6s. 



OTHER SIX-SHILLING NOVELS 

Crown. Bvo. 



MISS ERIN. By M. E. FRANCIS. - 
ANANIAS.' By the Hon. Mrs. ALAN 
BRODRICK. 

CORRAGEEN IN '98. By Mrs. 
ORPEN. 

THE PLUNDER PIT. ByJ. KEIGH- 
LEY SNOWDEN. 

CROSS TRAILS. By VICTOR WAITE. 

SUCCESSORS TO THE TITLE. 
By Mrs. WALFORD. 

KIRKHAM'S FIND. By MARY 
GAUNT. 

DEADMAN'S. By MARY GAUNT. . 

CAPTAIN JACOBUS: A ROMANCE 
OF THE ROAD. By L. COPE CORN- 
FORD. 



By 



SONS OF ADVERSITY. By L. COPE 

CORNFORD. 

THE KING OF ALBERIA. 

LAURA DAINTREY. 
THE DAUGHTER OF ALOUETTE. 

By MARY A. OWEN. 
CHILDREN OF THIS WORLD. 

By ELLEN F. PINSENT. 

AN ELECTRIC SPARK. By G. 
MANVILLE FENN. 

UNDER SHADOW OF THE 
'MISSION. By L. S. McCHESNEY. 

THE SPECULATORS. By J. F. 
BREWER. 

THE SPIRIT OF STORM. By 
RONALD Ross. 



34 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



THE QUEENSBERRY CUP. By 

CLIVE P. WOLLEY. 
A HOME IN INVERESK. By T. 

L. PATON. 
MISS ARMSTRONG'S AND 

OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES. By 

JOHN DAVIDSON. 

DR. CONGALTQN'S LEGACY. By 

HENRY JOHNSTON. 
TIME AND THE WOMAN. By 

RICHARD PRYCE. 
THIS MAN'S DOMINION. By the 

Author of ' A High Little World.' 
DIOGENES OF LONDON. By H. 

B. MARRIOTT WATSON. 
THE STONE DRAGON. By 

MURRAY GILCHRIST. 
A VICAR'S WIFE. By EVELYN 

DICKINSON. 



ELSA. By E. M'QUEEN GRAY. 

THE SINGER OF MARLY. By I. 
HOOPER. 

THE FALL OF THE SPARROW. 
By M. C. BALFOUR. 

A SERIOUS COMEDY. By HERBERT . 

MORRAH. 

THE FAITHFUL CITY, By 
HERBERT MORRAH. 

IN THE GREAT DEEP. By J. A. 
BARRY. 

BIJLI, THE DANCER. By JAMES 
BLYTHE PATTON. 

JOSIAH'S WIFE. By NORMA 

LORIMER. 

THE PHILANTHROPIST, By 

LUCY MAYNARD. 
VAUSSORE. By FRANCIS BRUNE. 



THREE-AND-SIXPENNY NOVELS 

Crown 8vo. 



DERRICK VAUGHAN, NOVEL- 
IST. 42nd thousand. By EDNA 
LYALL. 

THE KLOOF BRIDE. By ERNEST 
GLANVILLE, 

A VENDETTA OF THE. DESERT. 
By W. C. SCULLY. 

SUBJECT TO VANITY. By MAR- 
GARET BENSON. 

THE SIGN OF THE SPIDER. By 
BERTRAM MITFORD. 

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