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HISTORY 

OF 

Theological 



BY HENRY K. ROWE 

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NEWTON, MASSACHUSETTS 
1933 




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LIBRARIES 




Thomas Todd Company 
'Printers 'Boston 




1077050 



TO 

VAUGHAN DABNEY 



PREFACE 

THE various interests of mankind are served by social 
institutions which have arisen and have been sanc- 
tioned by society because they are valuable for the 
preservation and better ordering of the achievements of civ- 
ilization. Among these are churches and schools. Ministers 
of colonial churches in America had been educated overseas 
or went to Harvard, Yale, and other colonial colleges. Late in 
the eighteenth century the time came when a distinctively 
theological school seemed preferable, and the Seminary was 
the answer to the need. Andover was the first such institu- 
tion among the Congregationalists, the first in New England 
of any Christian denomination. 

The eminence of Andover among American theological 
schools, the new departure which it is making in its affilia- 
tion with Newton, and the arrival of the one hundred and 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the Seminary, seem sufficient 
reason for this historical sketch. Andover alumni have been 
distinguished in the parish ministry, in home and foreign 
missions, in education and literature. Andover professors 
Stuart, Phelps, Park, Smyth, Tucker, Harris, Thayer, Moore 
and Evans have given the school an enviable reputation for 
scholarship. 

In spite of hindrance, misfortune, even near tragedy, the 
old institution still lives, and by the faith that has sustained 
it faces the future with courage. The history of Andover 
Theological Seminary is a story worth the telling ; may it be 
an inspiration to those who read it. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

I. THE FOUNDING OF THE SEMINARY ... i 

II. SEMINARY LIFE IN THE EARLY YEARS ... 23 

III. STUDENTS AND FACULTY 40 

IV. THE MIDDLE DECADES 62 

V. ANDOVER MEN IN THE PARISH MINISTRY . . 86 

VI. ANDOVER MEN IN FOREIGN MISSIONS . . . in 

VII. ANDOVER MEN IN EDUCATION AND LITERATURE . 136 

VIII. THE NEW THEOLOGY 159 

IX. LIBERTY AND UNION 185 



Vll 



CHAPTER I 

THE FOUNDING OF THE SEMINARY 

HIGH up from a beetling cliff in the White Mountains 
of New Hampshire the Old Man of the Mountain 
thrusts his rugged profile, keeping ward over the 
Franconia valley. From a tarn at his foot a tiny stream be- 
gins to flow its fretted way through the forest until, grown 
larger, it emerges into the ampler reaches of the valley below. 
Increased in volume by tributary streams, it becomes the 
Merrimac. Even well down stream its way is hindered by 
rocks and ledges, and at length it is forced to leave its south- 
ward course and find an uncharted route in another direction. 
Yet uriconquered it moves steadily towards its goal until it 
merges with the open sea. 

Herein is a parable of Andover Seminary. 

Old Andover stood on an ancient hill whose northern slope 
blends with the valley of the Merrimac. Its undergirding 
rock is older than the strata of the mountains where the river 
had its birth. On that rock New England Congregationalism 
fitly built its ecclesiastical foundation. As the Merrimac was 
born under the majesty of the Great Stone Face, the school 
at Andover was cradled under the stern sovereignty of Cal- 
vinism. As the stream is hindered on its way by rocks, so 
Andover has been buffeted by theological controversy. As 
the Merrimac found a new direction to the sea, so Andover 
Seminary after the career of a century changed its course, 
but not its goal. 

Andover Seminary was built sturdily to breast the gales 
that beat against Puritan orthodoxy, as Brick Row on An- 
dover Hill fronted the northern blasts that in winter sweep 
unchecked from the far Laurentian highlands of Canada. 
The halls of the Seminary were permeated by a theology as 



cold and as irresistible. The sunset sky at times was reddened 
with a glow that was lurid enough to remind a student of the 
destiny of the damned. Coffins fashioned in the workshop 
by student hands were grim reminders of the brevity of life. 
The chapel bell rang its compelling summons to classes and 
funerals, with that "sweet, solemn solemnity" which was so 
tuneful to the ears of the elect, but boded only ill to those 
who were unregenerate. And hard by the winter snows drifted 
over the graves of students who had died before their time 
and lay in the winding sheet of God's Acre. 

Andover was different in summer. Then her fields lay lush 
and green, and her elms drooped gracefully over the shaded 
campus. Students attended classes even in July, but there 
were walks and talks on the campus and about town, and the 
men rambled at times over the surrounding country. Classes 
were not dull to those who enjoyed logic and argument, and 
in summer bird song mingled with theological phrases and 
the scent of new-mown hay drifted through the open windows. 
On occasion classes were dismissed because a professor 
wanted the help of the students in getting in his crop of hay. 
Professors' families in time even went on picnics. Eventually 
Puritan rigor relaxed until the church sociable was invented, 
a pastime neither grave nor gay, but enjoyable to those who 
might not venture to break the taboos against lighter amuse- 
ment. When the eminent Dr. Tholuck of Germany was call- 
ing upon Professor Park he remarked: "How do you get 
along without the opera and theatre?" And the reply was 
prompt : "You forget that we have the church and the sewing 
society." And there was always Commencement Day to an- 
ticipate and recall. 

And the theology of Andover mellowed with the years. 

In the lower valley the first settlers of Andover made their 
homes within fifteen years of the colonization of Boston. 
By 1644 l an d had been purchased from the Indians, scattered 
farms had been occupied, and a village had been started at 
the northern end of the town. There in the North Parish 
the first Congregational church was organized in 1645. By 
mid-century Andover people were making highways to 



Ipswich, Rowley, and Newbury. At times the town suffered 
materially from Indian raids down the Merrimac valley, but 
it was disturbed in mind even more by the witchcraft delusion, 
which resulted in the judicial murder of three persons. In 
the mental sanity of the eighteenth century they laid the 
foundations of Andover's educational reputation. 

Among the best people of the community the Phillips family 
took first rank. Its ancestor was Reverend George Phillips, 
who went from Salem to Watertown in the earliest days of 
Massachusetts settlement. His son Samuel was minister of 
the Congregational church in Rowley for nearly half a cen- 
tury. Samuel's grandson and namesake settled over the South 
Parish in Andover in 1710. His son Samuel was prominent 
in Andover, and before he died he could write Honorable 
before his name. A second son, John, settled in Exeter, and 
became as respected as his brother. These two brothers 
founded and endowed Phillips Academy on Andover Hill 
in the year 1778. But it was the influence of Samuel's son, 
Samuel, Junior, which led them to establish the foundation. 
The young man was the only heir of his father and his uncle, 
but he was eager to sacrifice a part of his inheritance for the 
sake of a school, and it was he who had most to do with 
the establishment of the Academy. Later, as Judge Phillips, 
he was admired by his fellow-townsmen, and was honored by 
the Commonwealth with the office of Lieutenant Governor. 
He died at the age of fifty, but his widow and his son John 
continued to take an interest in education. It was they who 
became sponsors of Andover Theological Seminary. 

The south village of Andover rises in a southerly direction 
to the crown of a hill. It was there that the Academy was 
located and there that the Seminary was to rise. Not a few of 
the hilltops of New England have been set apart as shrines 
of education or religion. Whether it seemed as if an aureole 
of divinity rested peculiarly upon the hills, or as if the expand- 
ing mind might reach out to distant horizons, the fathers chose 
the hills for their institutions. As altars smoked on the high 
places of ancient Palestine, so the shrine of Andover smoked 
at times with the fires of theological controversy, for the early 



nineteenth century was an open season for polemics. But sac- 
rifice and devotion sent up their invisible breath of the spirit 
to an unseen God, and the main purpose of the Seminary was 
constructive. 

The Phillips family was loyal to religion as well as to edu- 
cation. The blood of the Puritan ran in their veins. They 
would preserve the best .traditions of the fathers at a time 
when liberalism was threatening to weaken, or at least to 
change, those traditions. In their original deed of gift, com- 
monly called the Constitution of Phillips Academy, they there- 
fore provided that "whereas many of the students in this 
Seminary may be devoted to the sacred work of the gospel 
ministry," the school should teach the fundamentals of Chris- 
tian theology, "as the age and capacities of the scholars will 
admit, not only to instruct and establish them in the truths of 
Christianity, but also early and diligently to inculcate in them 
the great and important Scripture doctrines of the existence 
of the one true God, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost ; of the 
fall of man, the depravity of human nature ; the necessity of 
an atonement, and our being renewed in the spirit of our 
minds; the doctrines of repentance towards God, and faith 
towards our Lord Jesus Christ ; of sanctification by the Holy 
Spirit, and of justification by the free grace of God, through 
the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; together with the 
other important doctrines and duties of our Holy Christian 
Religion." 

It was in the minds of the founders of the Academy to 
establish a chair of divinity in the school, and Dr. John Phillips 
of Exeter provided a scholarship fund of twenty thousand 
dollars "for the education of youth of genius and serious dis- 
position in the Academy." In 1795 he left a legacy, giving 
one-third of his estate to Andover Academy to furnish aid 
to students who should study with a Calvinistic minister, 
until an instructor should be appointed in Andover or Exeter 
academies as a professor of divinity. It is easy to understand 
how such a man could be the grandfather of Phillips Brooks. 
To this fund William Phillips of Boston added four thousand 
dollars. On that foundation twelve students of divinity were 



aided before the establishment of the Seminary, while they 
studied theology with Reverend Jonathan French, the min- 
ister of the South Parish. 

At the opening of the nineteenth century the people of New 
England were taking a new interest in religion. The devo- 
tion to their Puritan faith, which was characteristic of the 
first generation of colonists, had yielded long since to the 
claims of everyday living. There had been extensive lands 
to develop, and many a pioneer in Maine and New Hampshire 
had helped to push back the New England frontier. Others 
had turned their energies to the promotion of industry and 
commerce, which promised more profit than the cultivation 
of a grudging soil. Religion held an honored place in the lives 
of the people, but it tended to be formal. They had had diffi- 
culty in satisfying the early requirements of church member- 
ship, and had lowered the standards of admission. The result 
was a lukewarmness regarding the claims of religion that 
boded ill for the continuing strength of Congregationalism. 
There was need of a revival of religious interest. 

The Great Awakening came marching up the Connecticut 
valley a century after the beginnings of colonization. The 
beacon fires of a renewed faith blazed along the coast and 
from many an interior hilltop. At Northampton in Massa- 
chusetts, where Jonathan Edwards preached in the second 
most prominent pulpit in New England, a revival swept the 
community. Edwards lashed the consciences of his hearers 
with his fiery discourses, and George Whitefield staged a 
triumphal progress up the coast, and preached irresistibly to 
thousands of persons on Boston Common. But again dis- 
tractions of various kinds intensified the natural reaction 
against religious excitement. The political excitement of the 
Revolutionary period, absorption in the repairing of damages 
of war, the interest in the experiment of making a federal 
government, and the economic problems that vexed the people, 
chilled religious enthusiasm. The blight of indifference was 
made worse by the skepticism of many persons. French in- 
fidelity was popular. Atheism was flaunted in the colleges. 
President Dwight of Yale found it expedient to go thoroughly 



into the basic questions of theology in his lecture room. Then 
as the reaction against the Edwardean revival had led to in- 
difference and even hostility, a reawakening of religious 
interest came as- a reaction against the indifference and 
unbelief. 

The Evangelical Reawakening, as it is called, began about 
the close of the eighteenth century. It produced no conspicu- 
ous evangelist. Local preachers kindled the feelings of their 
people. Revivals flamed out like beacon lights of the gospel 
from hill town to hill town in Massachusetts and Connecticut. 
The beginnings of the movement had come even earlier in the 
Middle States, and it penetrated to the newer settlements of 
the Southwest. On that frontier the camp meetings produced 
emotional excitement similar to that of the Great Awakening, 
but in New England the movement was saner and more per- 
manent. It continued intermittently for several decades, swell- 
ing from time to time to increasing volume and then subsiding 
only to rise again. 

The effects of the religious revival appeared in evangelism, 
missionary activity at home and abroad, and increased interest 
in Christian education. Pastors of churches preached with 
new fervor and visited neighboring communities with evan- 
gelistic intent. Societies were formed for the purpose of send- 
ing out preachers to the expanding frontiers. It was a time for 
the planting of academies and colleges. They soon dotted the 
landscape of New England, and accompanied the new churches 
along the expanding frontier. 

It was in this stirring period that Andover Seminary had 
its birth. 

Among the Congregationalists three schools of religious 
thought disputed the field. The first was known as the Old 
or Moderate Calvinists. Inheriting the theological convictions 
of their Puritan ancestors, they adhered to the Westminster 
Confession of the Presbyterians as their standard of doctrine. 
Except with regard to the right wing of Strict Calvinists, time 
had softened somewhat the ancient rigor. They believed in 
the untrammeled will of God, the inherited depravity of man 
and his helplessness because of the imputation of Adam's sin, 



and the grace of God as the sole means of salvation. But 
they thought it advisable to use such means of grace as the 
church provided in its worship and ordinances, even though 
they would not avail if the persons themselves were not among 
the number of God's elect. Baptism or the Lord's Supper 
might make them more easily salvable if the Spirit of God 
should come their way. A man hoped that thus the mercy of 
God would make his calling and election sure. 

A second group was called Hopkinsians from their doctrinal 
spokesman, Samuel Hopkins, a pupil of Jonathan Edwards 
in theology. Edwards, besides being an evangelistic preacher, 
was a profound thinker on the problems of the divine will and 
human salvation. If his sermon on "Sinners in the Hands of 
an Angry God" stirred the consciences of his hearers, his 
theological arguments appealed to the reason of his readers 
and made him the exponent of New England theology. Him- 
self a graduate of Yale, he put his stamp on a whole genera- 
tion of Yale divinity students. Samuel Hopkins was his 
understudy, and others took his interpretations of Calvinism 
as superior to the theories of the Old Calvinists. To a layman 
of these days the distinctions of that time seem of small 
account, but the ministers regarded them as supremely im- 
portant. 

Both parties accepted the Westminster standards for sub- 
stance of doctrine, but the Hopkinsians stressed certain prin- 
ciples to an extreme. Their pulpits reverberated sonorously 
with the echoes of divine sovereignty and predestination, of 
foreknowledge and election, of total depravity and reproba- 
tion and eternal retribution, but they had improved explana- 
tions of their own as to how the divine and human minds 
worked. Particularly did they explain the difference between 
a natural will which man possesses and which makes him 
capable of exposing himself to divine influences, and a moral 
will which must be energized by the Spirit of God before the 
soul can make its way into His presence. The Hopkinsians 
condemned specific means of grace as sinful, because such 
means were used for selfish spiritual gain, whereas the true 
attitude was one of disinterested benevolence, like that of God 

i?}- 



Himself, and unconditional surrender to the sovereign will 
of God. As sweet a saint as Mrs. Jonathan Edwards had 
brought herself to the state of mind where she was able to 
say that she was willing to be damned if God could be glorified 
thereby. Because the Hopkinsians emphasized the eternal de- 
crees of a sovereign God, they were dubbed hyper-Calvinists ; 
but because they made so much of the divine benevolence, 
they were suspected of being Arminian, which was another 
way of saying that they were heretics in the eyes of the ortho- 
dox Puritans. They liked to speak of themselves as 'Con- 
sistent Calvinists. 

The Old Calvinists included many of the people of high 
social position, and their clergy were highly respected men. 
They were most numerous in the eastern part of New Eng- 
land. They were not in sympathy with revivals as among the 
means of grace. The Hopkinsians on the contrary were sym- 
pathetic with the revival, or New Light, Movement. They 
were vigorous in their convictions and unyielding in their 
debates. Their strength centered at Yale College, and they 
numbered a majority of the Congregational ministers in 
Connecticut and western Massachusetts. Hopkinsianism was 
proud of its designation as the New England theology. 

A third party in Congregational circles was more liberal in 
its theological interpretations. It had found its inspiration 
in Charles Chauncy and Jonathan Mayhew of Boston, who 
had protested against the extravagances of eighteenth century 
revivalism. It cherished a belief that God was not so unap- 
proachable as the Calvinists maintained, nor so implacable in 
His attitude towards the human creatures whom He has made. 
The thoughtful men who represented the Liberals put less 
stress on the necessity of an atonement for men through 
Christ and more on human righteousness as a recommenda- 
tion of the soul to God. They were few in number at first and 
with few exceptions lived under the shadow of Beacon Hill 
or nearby, but as the nineteenth century advanced, they were 
conscious of an access of strength, and their representatives 
became more outspoken in the village pulpits of Greater 
Boston. A few of them were avowed Unitarians. When 



Reverend Henry Ware of Hingham was elected to the Hollis 
professorship of divinity at Harvard College in 1805, New 
England Congregationalism felt the shock, for it was well 
understood that Ware was really a Unitarian, and that at Cam- 
bridge his influence would be radical. It was altogether likely 
that such an event occurring at the heart of Puritan tradition 
would set in motion a desire for a more orthodox training 
center for the ministry in Massachusetts. 

The main purpose of New England Congregationalists in 
founding Harvard and Yale had been to educate colonial min- 
isters. There they were wont to absorb divinity as a part of 
their college education. If students could not have the ad- 
vantages of Oxford and Cambridge in Old England, they could 
at least imitate the discipline. Harvard had felt liberalizing 
influences, but as staunch a Christian as Thomas Hollis, the 
London Baptist, had chosen Harvard for his munificence in 
endowing a chair of divinity. His generosity showed his con- 
fidence in the essential orthodoxy of the college, though the 
Hollis professor was required to take a specific pledge scarcely 
less stringent than the one adopted for Andover. But the 
tendency of the period was to introduce other studies in place 
of the older discipline, as science and modern literature became 
more popular in learned circles than Hebrew and Greek. 
Theology lost its position as queen of the sciences. The Hollis 
professor continued to give two courses for those who planned 
a ministerial career, but French might be substituted for 
Hebrew, an ill omen, when one recalls the skeptical and revo- 
lutionary character of the literature of contemporary France. 
Specific study in divinity became advisable after graduation 
from college, and it became customary for students to ask a 
prominent minister for the privilege of living in his home, 
reading under his direction, and enjoying the practical advan- 
tages that his parish supplied. Reverend Joseph Bellamy in 
his parish at Bethlem, Connecticut, indoctrinated many a 
youth in the New Divinity of Hopkinsianism, and Reverend 
Nathaniel Emmons in Franklin, Massachusetts, taught nearly 
one hundred such students. The method had the advantage 
of personal contact and parish experience, and, not least valu- 



able, it gave opportunity for intensive cultivation of the ac- 
quaintance of ministers' daughters, which partly explains why 
so many of them married ministers. But the doctrinal stamp 
of a single man tended to narrow the outlook of the student, 
and the method was criticised as lacking systematic instruction 
in biblical exegesis and ecclesiastical history. 

These were among the circumstances that favored the 
thought of a theological seminary. The idea fermented in 
several minds about the same time. Reverend Jonathan 
French, who was the instructor of certain students in divinity 
in the Academy, made a suggestion for a seminary as early as 
the foundation of the Academy. In a letter to Nathaniel Niles 
of Vermont, expressing the wish for a theological seminary, 
he said : "The students should be such only as have been grad- 
uated at some college, or are otherwise qualified to enter upon 
the study of divinity ; should tarry three years at trie Academy 
and be boarded in common. None should be allowed to enter 
but persons of sobriety and good morals. The president should 
be the first in the land for good principles, learning, and piety, 
if to be had ; the best of libraries for the purpose be procured, 
and a whole course of divinity be studied, and everything 
practicable that may assist to qualify young gentlemen for the 
work of the ministry be taught." 

Dr. Eliphalet Pearson was disturbed gravely by the liberal 
trend at Harvard. Pearson was one of the outstanding men 
of the time in educational circles. He had been the first prin- 
cipal of Phillips Academy and had established its reputation, 
and after eight years he had been elected to a professorship 
at Harvard. There he served with such acceptance that 
Leonard Woods could say of him: "No other officer in the 
college had equal influence in promoting improvement in lit- 
erature, and the higher interest of morality and piety." When 
President Willard died in 1804 Pearson was acting president 
for over a year, and presumably he hoped to be elected Wil- 
lard's successor. He was one of the five members of the Board 
of Fellows, and, with Jet'ediah Morse of Charlestown, he op- 
posed the appointment of a Unitarian to the Hollis professor- 
ship of divinity. When he failed to stem the tide of liberalism 



in 1805, and then when Professor Webber was chosen presi- 
dent the next year, Pearson resigned his office and went back 
to Andover, convinced that something needed to be done to 
defend orthodoxy. The Academy, of which he was a trustee, 
cordially welcomed his return and gave him a year's rental of 
a new house nearby. Then he began to plan for the establish- 
ment of a theological institution "which should maintain the 
doctrines of the fathers of New England against the threat- 
ening apostasies of the times." 

Dr. Pearson interested Andover residents in his plans. 
Among these residents was Samuel Abbot. He was an An- 
dover citizen who had made money in a mercantile business 
in Boston. He shared his wealth with Harvard students and 
with ministers, and planned to make a generous bequest to 
Harvard. But his concern over orthodoxy made him transfer 
his interest to Andover and a possible theological center there. 
He was a trustee of the Academy, and so active did he become 
in the counsels of the time that Pearson, French, and Samuel 
Farrar were spoken of as his privy council. It was these men 
who wrote the constitution of the original Foundation, and 
so wisely did they outline the functions of each department 
that little change was necessary in subsequent decades. The 
Phillips family kept its interest in theological education, and 
Madam Phillips, the widow of Judge Phillips, and her son 
John readily agreed to make the plan concrete by providing 
accommodations for sixty theological students in a new build- 
ing, which should include also a lecture hall and a library. 

While these initial steps were being taken at Andover, the 
Hopkinsians were cherishing a similar purpose. Their leader 
was Dr. Samuel Spring, minister at Newburyport. He had 
been a pupil of both Hopkins and Bellamy, and had been a 
recognized leader in eastern Massachusetts for forty years. 
Leonard Woods, a young minister at West Newbury, was his 
close friend. Through Spring and Woods three laymen were 
aroused to an interest in theological education. These were 
William Bartlet, a successful merchant of Newburyport, 
Moses Brown of the same town, and John Norris of Salem. 
They were all men of wealth, and though not all church mem- 

UU 



bers they were willing to use their money for religious pur- 
poses, and they soon agreed to support the plans for a 
theological school at West Newbury. Reverend Nathaniel 
Emmons at Franklin, one of the most eminent of the Hop- 
kinsian theologians, was an active supporter. 

Here then were two groups of Calvinists, equally deter- 
mined to establish a stronghold of orthodoxy for the Congre- 
gational churches of New England, preparing to found two 
schools of theology within twenty miles of each other, and to 
appeal to the same denominational constituency. At Andover 
the foundation was already laid and the Hopkinsians were 
making progress, when Woods and Morse, who were associ- 
ated in the publication of the Panoplist, an organ of the Ortho- 
dox Calvinists against the Unitarian Anthology, discovered 
each other's enterprise. Immediately it was apparent to both 
that the two groups ought to combine forces. Both were Cal- 
vinists and equally hostile to the Liberal movement in Massa- 
chusetts, and they were agreed in their purpose to provide or- 
thodox training for the Congregational ministry. It was to 
require patience, long discussion, sweet reasonableness, and 
perseverance, before the two parties could be brought to ar- 
range a merger. The Old Calvinists were especially desirous to 
have the school at Andover. The Hopkinsians were insistent 
upon their own interpretation of Calvinism as the doctrinal 
foundation of the school. Eventually they compromised recip- 
rocally, but progress toward union was discouragingly slow. 

Pearson and Woods labored indef atigably. Pearson's chaise 
became a familiar object as it traveled back and forth more than 
thirty times over the highway between Andover and Newbury- 
port in an endeavor to unsnarl the theological tangle. Woods 
had an inexhaustible gift of diplomacy which he used to good 
effect. But there was mutual suspicion. Dr. Spring was doubt- 
ful about joining with a theological enterprise which would be 
controlled by the Trustees of the Academy at Andover, who 
were content with the Westminster standards of doctrine. 
Some of them, living in Boston, were dangerously liberal. 
Spring expressed the Hopkinsian suspicion when he wrote: 
"Our Constitution we must have at Andover independent of 



them; or, a separate trust collected from Andover, making 
half the united trust provided by our Constitution, must be the 
condition of our connection, or we cannot safely remove to 
Andover, nor even then ; for we can't before the Millennium 
govern them any more than we can the Emperor. And they 
must not govern." 

Since the Trustees were not allowed by their charter to hold 
an estate sufficient to carry out the design of the donors, the 
Legislature of Massachusetts on June 19, 1807, authorized 
the Trustees to receive and hold additional property " for the 
purpose of a theological institution and in furtherance of the 
designs of the pious founders and benefactors of said Acad- 
emy." Madam Phillips, John Phillips, Jr., and Samuel Abbot 
then joined in executing a Deed of Gift, dated August 31, 1807, 
and embodying sundry rules and regulations which were to 
be the Constitution of "a public theological institution in 
Phillips Academy." Madam Phillips and John Phillips, Jr., 
thus undertook to erect two buildings for the purpose of the 
proposed Seminary, while Samuel Abbot gave twenty thousand 
dollars "as a fund for the purpose of maintaining a professor 
of Christian Theology" in the Seminary. His gift to Andover 
was the first American foundation for a chair in theology out- 
side a university, for in 1807 a foundation for purely theologi- 
cal education was almost unknown in America. In the Middle 
States the Dutch Reformed and Presbyterian churches had 
made small beginnings, but in New England the Congrega- 
tionalists had depended on Harvard and Yale. In a legal sense 
the new Seminary at Andover was the theological institution 
in Phillips Academy, but it was so distinct in faculty, buildings, 
and funds as to be actually a separate school. 

The deed of August 31, 1807, was signed in the belief that 
union with the Hopkinsians was likely to prove impossible. 
The Trustees immediately voted to "accept the sacred and very 
important trust devolved upon them by the preceding instru- 
ment." Among the regulations which the Trustees thus ac- 
cepted was one to the effect that every professor in the Semi- 
nary must "be a man of sound and orthodox principles in 
divinity according to that form of sound words or system of 



evangelical doctrines, drawn from the Scriptures, and denomi- 
nated the Westminster Assembly's Shorter Catechism, and 
more concisely delineated in the Constitution of Phillips 
Academy." In further regulations it was provided that every 
professor must at the time of his inauguration solemnly prom- 
ise to maintain and inculcate the Christian faith as summarily 
expressed in the Shorter Catechism " in opposition not only to 
Atheists and Infidels, but to Jews, Mahommetans, Arians, 
Pelagians, Antinomians, Arminians, Socinians, Unitarians, 
and Universalists, and to all other heresies and errors, ancient 
or modern, which may be opposed to the Gospel of Christ, or 
hazardous to the souls of men," and that every professor must 
repeat this declaration in the presence of the Trustees once in 
five years. 

The purpose of the Founders, according to their constitu- 
tion, was to increase "the number of learned and able de- 
fenders of the Gospel of Christ, as well as of orthodox, pious, 
and zealous ministers of the New Testament; being moved, 
as we hope, by a principle of gratitude to God and benevolence 
to man." A similar purpose motivated the Associate Founders, 
the Hopkinsians, who in the Associate Statutes which they 
drew up said more rhetorically: "To the Spirit of Truth, to 
the divine Author of our faith, to the only wise God, we desire 
in sincerity to present this our humble offering, devoutly im- 
ploring the Father of Lights, richly to endue with wisdom 
from above all His servants, the Visitors of this Foundation, 
and the Trustees of the Seminary, and with spiritual under- 
standing the professors therein, that, being illuminated by the 
Holy Spirit their doctrine may drop as the rain ; and that their 
pupils may become trees of renown in the courts of our God, 
whereby He may be glorified." 

For some months it seemed likely that two schools would 
arise on account of their differences in theological interpreta- 
tion, unfortunate though such duplication of effort would be. 
But the idea of affiliation was still at work. In the spring of 
1808 the Hopkinsian promoters met and on the twenty-first 
of March adopted their series of associate statutes, and as 
Associate Founders submitted their constitution to the Trus- 



tees of Phillips Academy. Their project carried with it an offer 
of ten thousand dollars each from Brown, Bartlet, and Norris, 
and a promise of an additional ten thousand from Bartlet. 
These sums were intended to provide for the support of two 
professors and for student aid. These were tempting offers, 
but the statutes drawn up by the Associate Founders contained 
three provisions which caused hesitation among the Founders. 

The Hopkinsians had drawn up a creed for their school 
which contained articles interpreting their theology, and they 
would not compromise with the Founders at Andover upon 
this point. In order to safeguard their tenets they prescribed 
that every professor should be a Hopkinsian and at his inaugu- 
ration should subscribe to the creed. Then, to make doubly 
sure, it was stipulated that a board of visitors should be ap- 
pointed, after the example of the Overseers at Harvard, to 
examine, when necessary, the orthodoxy of the members of 
the Faculty, to see that the funds were not misused, and to 
control the Trustees in their administration of the property. 
The Founders had agreed that the Associate Founders might 
prescribe additional statutes and appoint visitors to enforce 
such statutes, but it was not anticipated that the visitors would 
be their masters. The third provision of the Associate Stat- 
utes was that the alliance should be subject to revision at any 
time during the first seven years, even to the withdrawal of 
the Associate funds. 

The patience and pertinacity of Pearson and Woods had 
brought about a tentative agreement in the preceding Decem- 
ber. They kept steadily at work and were rewarded at length 
on the tenth of May when seven out of eight of the Trustees 
present agreed to accept the terms of the Associate Founders 
and the affiliation was completed. It was prophetic of the habit 
of affiliation which Andover was to acquire later. 

The compromise which was reached provided that the Semi- 
nary should be located at Andover, and the Trustees of the 
Academy should hold and administer the endowments under 
their charter. The original Constitution of the Founders was 
to stand, and the Associate Statutes of the Hopkinsians to be 
of equal authority. Every occupant of a chair endowed by 



the Associate Founders should be a Hopkinsian. Madam 
Phillips and her son were to erect the building for the Semi- 
nary, Phillips Hall, and the donations offered were accepted, 
twenty thousand each from Abbot and Bartlet and ten thou- 
sand each from Brown and Norris, the last three gifts con- 
stituting the Associate Foundation and the donors constituting 
the Associate Founders. A self -perpetuating Board of Visi- 
tors was given power to review the acts of the Trustees, to 
interpret the Creed and the Associate Statutes, as occasion 
might arise, and to preserve the orthodoxy of the Seminary. 
Appeal might be made from the Visitors to the Supreme 
Judicial Court of Massachusetts, if they "should exceed the 
limits of their jurisdiction and constitutional power," or "act 
contrary to" the statutes of the Seminary. The Visitors were 
intended to be censors of the school as long as the sun and 
moon endure, visiting it at least once a year, and to see, as it 
was phrased, that the true intentions of the Founders of the 
Seminary were carried out. The charter of Phillips Academy, 
enacted by the Legislature of Massachusetts in 1780, provided 
that the Trustees should not be more than thirteen or less than 
seven, and that the majority should be "laymen and respec- 
table freeholders" ; and provided further that the Board should 
be a self-perpetuating body. The Visitors were three in num- 
ber, two of them clergymen, likewise self-perpetuating. They 
must subscribe to the Associate Creed. The records of the 
Trustees were to be open to the public ; those of the Visitors 
were a closed book. 

It was a moot question whether the acceptance by the 
Trustees of the donations of the Hopkinsians and of the Hop- 
kinsian Board of Visitors was not in violation of the charter 
of Phillips Academy. That forbade the Trustees ever to re- 
ceive any grant or donation, "the condition whereof should 
require them or any other concerned, to act in any respect 
counter to the design of the first grantors or of any prior 
donation." It also provided that the Trustees then in office 
and their successors should be "true and sole Visitors, Trus- 
tees, and Governors of the said Phillips Academy in perpetual 
succession forever." 



The Hopkinsian Creed differed somewhat from the West- 
minster Confession, omitting a few sections and modifying 
others. It was in substance an affirmation of belief in the 
authority of the Bible as superior to reason, in the sovereignty 
of the divine will, in the election of some to be saved from the 
consequences of the fall of Adam, in the atonement of Christ 
intended for all, but really limited to the elect, and in the 
assured salvation of these few, but the hopeless condemnation 
of the rest. It was intended to include, as has been said, "just 
as much of the peculiarities of each party as would not ex- 
clude the participation in the resultant symbol of the other." 
It was phrased in an irenic spirit, but it was an effort to com- 
bine two schools of theological thought which could not be 
harmonized, and theologically the compromise was destined 
to prove a tragic failure. 

The two orthodox parties agreed against the Liberals that 
the Scripture was a fixed deposit of truth rather than a pro- 
gressive revelation, and that reason had no right to contradict ; 
that man is handicapped from the start and is saved only by 
the grace of God, mediated through the Cross; that Christ 
died to satisfy divine justice, and that He was very God Him- 
self. But the two Calvinistic parties differed at many points 
themselves. The Hopkinsians maintained the doctrine of 
divine sovereignty, but they modified the plight of man. They 
rejected the Old Calvinist doctrine of the imputation of 
Adam's sin, as if Adam were the representative of the human 
race, and maintained that every man's sin is his own personal 
responsibility. They made less of human depravity and more 
of actual sinning. They did not believe that God had closed 
absolutely the door of hope, because there is in man a certain 
natural ability to obey God's law. And Christ had died for all 
men, not as a penal satisfaction to an outraged deity, but as an 
expression of his universal benevolence. And man should rely 
on the atoning Christ and not on any outward means of grace. 

The Associate Statutes provided that every professor on the 
Associate Foundation should on the day of his inauguration 
publicly make and subscribe a solemn declaration of his faith 
"in divine revelation and in the fundamental and distinguish- 

117Y 



ing doctrines of the Gospel" as expressed in the Creed, and 
that every five years he should repeat the declaration, includ- 
ing the following : " I do solemnly promise that I will open and 
explain the Scriptures to my pupils with integrity and faith- 
fulness ; that I will maintain and inculcate the Christian faith 
as expressed in the Creed by me now repeated, together with 
all other doctrines and duties of our holy religion, so far as 
may appertain to my office, according to the best light that 
God shall give me, and in opposition not only to atheists and 
infidels, but to Jews, Papists, Mahommetans, Arians, Pela- 
gians, Antinomians, Arminians, Socinians, Sabellians, Uni- 
tarians, and Universalists, and to all other heresies and errors, 
ancient and modern, which may be opposed to the gospel of 
Christ or hazardous to the souls of men ; that by my instruc- 
tion, counsel, and example I will endeavor to promote true 
piety and godliness ; that I will consult the good of this insti- 
tution and the peace of the churches of our Lord Jesus Christ 
on all occasions ; and that I will religiously conform to the con- 
stitution and laws of this Seminary, and to the statutes of this 
foundation." 

The Hopkinsians lived in continual dread lest the school 
might be captured at any time by their rivals. Nathaniel 
Emmons wrote in 1819 : "I have feared and do still more and 
more fear that that richly endowed Seminary will erelong 
become the fountain of theological errors, and disseminate 
them through all New England, if not this America. I have 
for some time been convinced that neither the teachers nor 
the taught strictly adhere to that excellent Creed upon which 
the institution was professedly founded. They are fast verg- 
ing towards the absurdities of the Old Calvinism." So difficult 
was it to put the mind of man in a strait-jacket. Yet the pro- 
fessor of theology throughout that period was Leonard 
Woods, who was so active as a Hopkinsian in the foundation 
of the Seminary. 

The Creed was duly insured and as it seemed placed in safe 
deposit by the language of the Associate Statutes, which read : 
" It is strictly and solemnly enjoined, and left in sacred charge, 
that every article of the abovesaid Creed shall forever remain 



entirely and identically the same, without the least alteration, 
or any addition or diminution." 

In 1842 the Trustees decided that it was unnecessary for 
the associate professors to subscribe to more than the Creed. 
Professor William J. Tucker, before signing the Creed in 
1880, declared explicitly: "The creed which I am about to 
read and to which I subscribe, I fully accept as setting forth 
the truth against the errors which it was designed to meet. 
No confession so elaborate and with such intent may assume 
to be the final expression of the truth or an expression equally 
fitted in language or tone to all times." 

There was a single saving clause for the liberal interpreter, 
"according to the best light God shall give me." Perhaps the 
attitude of the early Faculty is best expressed by Moses 
Stuart, whose orthodoxy was undoubted. In a sermon 
preached at the dedication of Bartlet Chapel in 1818, he said : 
"We profess to adopt for substance the sentiments of the 
Westminster Catechism, but it is not our standard of ortho- 
doxy, nor any other human production. In principle, I be- 
lieve in practice, we are genuine Protestants. The Bible we 
regard as the sufficient and only rule of faith and practice. 
We believe in the doctrines of our Creed, merely because we 
suppose the Bible teaches them. We profess to shrink not from 
the most strenuous investigation. I am bold to say, there is not 
a school of theology on earth, where more free and unlimited 
investigation is indulged, nay inculcated and practiced. The 
shelves of our library are loaded with books of Latitudinarians 
and Skeptics, which are read and studied. We have no appre- 
hension that the truths which we believe are to suffer by such 
an investigation." 

The Creed was apparently the law within which the prophet 
was free to range, as the aviator performs his evolutions, al- 
ways mindful of the law of mechanics. The fathers did not 
think of theology as a thing of life, and so subject to change ; 
therefore they made their creed a test of orthodoxy rather 
than a simple confession of faith. It was a confession of fear 
of heterodoxy in an age when heresy was one of the cardinal 
sins of Protestantism, as in the Catholic Church. That they 



could come together at all with their rivals inside the same 
fold is more remarkable than it is today that schools of differ- 
ent denominations should affiliate. Their common faith in the 
true fundamentals of the Christian gospel made that possible. 
If the Hopkinsian Creed was a wall to keep others out of 
the Hopkinsian preserves, it was not a wall to shut them in. 
And when the students of the Seminary greeted one an- 
other as brethren regardless of their party stamp, the old 
competition was forgotten. Students never were required to 
subscribe to the Creed, and several different denominations 
were represented among them. 

One of the first tasks of the Board of Trustees was to choose 
a faculty. Two men were logical candidates, the two men who 
had done the most to perfect the union, Pearson and Woods. 
Pearson had been a prominent teacher, and Woods was the 
intended professor of theology for the proposed school at 
West Newbury. Pearson represented the Old Calvinist tra- 
dition, Woods the Hopkinsian interpretation. In the interests 
of harmony Samuel Abbot of the Founders selected Woods as 
the incumbent of the professorship of Christian theology, 
which he had endowed, and William Bartlet of the Associate 
Founders accepted Pearson for his professorship of natural 
theology, with the expectation that he would expound sacred 
literature. But curiously enough Woods, the Hopkinsian, who 
should have subscribed to the Associate Creed, signed the 
Catechism only, and Pearson, whose party stood for the West- 
minster Catechism, signed only the Creed. At the opening of 
the Seminary prayer was offered for the two professors that 
they might be "a lovely, happy pair." 

Not only was the control of the Seminary provided for very 
carefully, but control of Faculty 'and students was buttressed 
by numerous regulations. The Associate Statutes contained in 
all twenty-eight articles. The original Constitution contained 
thirty- four articles, and to these thirteen articles were added 
by the original Founders. The Associate Statutes were ac- 
cepted by the Trustees on May 10, 1808. The rules of the 
Seminary were published the next year in seven chapters of 
sixty-five articles; again in 1837 in thirteen chapters of one 



hundred and two articles. Each professor's instruction was 
regulated carefully for his department. By the professor of 
natural theology, for example, "the existence, attributes, and 
providence of God must be demonstrated ; the soul's immor- 
tality and a future state, as deducible from the light of nature, 
discussed ; the obligations of man to his Maker, resulting from 
the divine perfections and his own rational nature, enforced ; 
the great duties of social life, flowing from the mutual rela- 
tions of man to man, inculcated; and the several personal 
victues deduced and delineated ; the whole being interspersed 
with remarks on the coincidence between the dictates of reason 
and the doctrines of revelation, in these primary points ; and, 
notwithstanding such coincidence, the necessity and utility 
of a divine revelation stated." 

The munificence of the friends of the school established it 
on equally firm financial foundations. The most liberal donors 
were the members of the Phillips family. They provided for 
buildings with gifts of forty thousand dollars, and sixty thou- 
sand more went for land and endowment. William Bartlet 
was the most generous single donor. He contributed one-half 
of the Associate Fund of forty thousand, added fifteen thou- 
sand later for the Bartlet professorship, and built Bartlet 
Hall (the Chapel), and three houses for professors. Samuel 
Abbot brought his total contribution to over a hundred thou- 
sand dollars. John Norris and his wife gave forty thousand, 
Moses Brown thirty-five thousand, and there were other gifts 
amounting to about seventy-five thousand dollars, including 
scholarships. Altogether about four hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars were available for buildings and endowments 
within the first half century. 

The establishment of the Seminary was a significant event 
in American church history. The union of the two theological 
groups of conservatives in the Seminary proved an effective 
counterpoise to the Unitarian trend in Congregational circles. 
Naturally the Liberals were not pleased. The Harvard atti- 
tude was not friendly. Woods reported to Farrar in 1807 that 
there was "loud murmuring and reproach and imprecation." 
On his own part Woods did not feel cordial. He wrote to 



Jedediah Morse: "I hate to fight with such creatures as the 
'Anthologists.' They can make the loudest noise. They never 
will feel conquered. They will use instruments and methods 
of battle which we disapprove and despise. Let not our pages 
be soiled with their matters." All of which is evidence of the 
hostilities of the period. The Congregational churches ex- 
pressed their good will for the school and confidence in it. 
Most of the ministers were in sympathy with the course that 
had been followed, and they believed in the principle of theo- 
logical education. The General Association of Massachusetts 
in 1808 recorded its satisfaction that an important theological 
institution had been established in the county of Essex. Two 
years later its committee on the state of the churches reported 
that the smiles of God rested on the Theological Seminary. 
As far away as New York City a lively interest was felt and 
surprise was expressed at the financial resources and the num- 
ber of students. The Seminary marked a distinct stage of 
advance in theological training, and spurred the Congrega- 
tionalists to establish other institutions for theological educa- 
tion. Bangor Theological Seminary was opened at Hampden, 
Maine, in 1816, for students without college training, and was 
removed to Bangor three years later. Yale Divinity School 
was founded as a distinct department of the University in 
1822, as Harvard Divinity School had been at Cambridge in 
1815. Other denominations were soon establishing their own 
schools on the Andover model. 

The foundations at Andover were laid firmly. The super- 
structure was to be built into the lives and characters of gener- 
ations of theological students, and the influence of the Semi- 
nary on the Hill was to be felt around the world. For the first 
half century it was to train most of the pastors of the Congre- 
gational churches of Massachusetts and nearly all the foreign 
missionaries of the American Board, and many Presbyterians 
who found their fields of labor in the Middle and Western 
States. Because of its high standards, competent instruction, 
and thorough discipline, Andover became a recognized leader 
in theology, in biblical research, and in general contribution 
to the study of religion. 



CHAPTER II 

SEMINARY LIFE IN THE EARLY YEARS 

ON a delightful day in early autumn, the twenty-eighth 
of September, 1808, the friends of the new Seminary 
gathered from far and near to celebrate the opening 
of the school. Some of them had been present at the founding 
of the Academy thirty years earlier. Andover was still a small 
village, but it was to become famous for its educational insti- 
tutions. Already the Academy was in good repute. Now it 
was to become a shrine of religion, and from it were to radiate 
influences that would be unbounded in their scope. No one in 
the audience which gathered to share in the exercises of the 
day could have imagined how soon alumni of the Seminary 
would go far afield on foreign mission bent, to India and 
Burma, to Africa and the Near East, or how many would 
find almost as difficult a field of labor with Indians on the 
southwestern frontier of America. But already the mission 
purpose had crystallized under a haystack in Williamstown 
at the other end of Massachusetts, presently it would focalize 
at a point nearby for missionary organization, and then its 
sponsors would make the name of Andover known at the ends 
of the earth. 

The people filed into the pews of the parish meetinghouse, 
and gave their attention to the order of exercises. It would 
have been unseemly if so grave an event as the institution of 
a theological seminary should not be observed with the most 
solemn dignity and with a profound sense of the significance 
of the occasion. It was fitting that the people should take time 
to dedicate the institution and to invest its faculty with the 
authority of their office. 

Reverend Jonathan French, pastor of the church, made the 
introductory prayer. This was especially appropriate because 



of his primary interest in organizing a seminary, his part in 
its organization, and his office as pastor of the church. After 
the prayer had been offered, Dr. Eliphalet Pearson recounted 
the history of the Academy from the time of its founding. 
Then he read the Constitution for the new foundation. Dr. 
Jedediah Morse read the statutes of the Associate Founders. 
These were supplemented by the Additional Statutes which 
Squire Farrar had penned for the original Founders, read now 
by Dr. Daniel Dana, the most uncompromisingly conserva- 
tive of the Board of Trustees. These events were carried out 
in the prolix fashion of that day, and the forenoon exercises 
ended with music. The music of the day was furnished by the 
musical associations of Middlesex, Essex, and Suffolk coun- 
ties, aided by "other respectable gentlemen, both of the clergy 
and the laity, who politely gave their assistance in the solem- 
nities of the day." 

After the visitors had enjoyed the hospitality of the towns- 
folk, they wended their way again to the meetinghouse for 
the service of the afternoon. This was an occasion of special 
interest because it was to include the ordination of Dr. Pear- 
] I son, professor-elect. No unordained man could be a professor 
I \ in Andover Seminary. The village had long known and hon- 
ored Dr. Pearson. The people knew him in Revolutionary 
days, when he dabbled in chemistry to obtain the saltpetre 
needed for the army. They had sat under his instruction in one 
of those singing schools that relieved the tedium of village life 
and combined education and enjoyment. They had known 
him as a schoolmaster, and had been gratified over the honors 
that he had received at Harvard. They had welcomed him 
back to citizenship in the old town. They were aware of the 
part that he had taken in the creation of the new theological 
foundation. They were ready to give him his full meed of 
local honors. 

Prayer was offered by Dr. Dana ; the sermon was preached 
by Dr. Timothy Dwight, President of Yale College ; and the 
consecrating prayer was made by Dr. Spring ; then followed 
the charge to the candidate by Mr. French, and the hand of 
fellowship by Dr. Morse. After the ordination service was 



over Dr. Spring read the Creed, which to the Hopkinsians was 
so important a part of the machinery of the establishment. 
Dr. Dwight declared Dr. Pearson a professor in the Seminary 
and invested him with the rights of office, and Dr. Pearson in 
turn rendered the same service to Dr. Woods. Professor 
Woods then delivered his inaugural address, On the Glory and 
Excellency of the Gospel. Leonard Woods had been valedic- 
torian of his class at Harvard, he appreciated the importance 
of the occasion, and he did full justice to it. The day proved 
too wearisome to Dr. Pearson, who was not in the best of 
health, and his oration was omitted. After a closing prayer 
by Dr. Dwight, the service concluded with an anthem by the 
choir, which was pronounced highly gratifying to the audience. 

Phillips Hall was not yet ready for classes, so that Dr. 
Woods held his first class in his own house. In due time the 
new building was ready for occupancy, and the proceedings 
became more regular. It had been hoped that perhaps as many 
as twelve young men might desire to avail themselves of the 
opportunity to study at Andover in preference to residing 
with a Congregational minister, or living in the dangerous 
environment of Harvard College. No one was optimistic 
enough to expect a larger number. It was not easy to gain 
admittance. The candidate must show a certificate of good 
character from those who knew him. The Constitution pre- 
scribed that students must be young men, "of good natural 
and acquired talents" who have honorably completed "a course 
of liberal education" and who sustain "a fair moral char- 
acter." Each man must submit to an examination before two 
professors and Dr. Spring, and show his ability to use Latin 
and Greek, and if he had not graduated from college he was 
required to show some knowledge of science. 

The influx of students surprised everybody, and taxed thej; 
accommodations of the school. Before the first year was overs; 
thirty-six students had enrolled. Classes averaged approxi- 
mately fifty men during the first eight years, then the numbers i 
increased until in 1819 more than one hundred were enrolled. 
Students came mainly from the Congregational colleges of 
New England, but Hamilton, Union, and Princeton, each had; 



its quota. The class of 1810, with fifty-six students, repre- 
sented Williams with sixteen men, Yale nine, Middlebury 
seven, Brown, a Baptist college, seven, Princeton five, Har- 
vard three, Union, Dartmouth, and Bowdoin two each, and 
the University of Vermont one. In the first ten years only 
four men were graduated who had not received the Bachelor 
of Arts degree. During the first twenty-five years only forty- 
two out of six hundred and seven Andover graduates were 
not college graduates. By that time Dartmouth rivaled Yale 
in furnishing the largest number of students, the one sending 
one hundred and sixteen, the other one hundred and nine. 
Middlebury had prepared and sent eighty-six. These three 
thus supplied more than half of the total number. The record 
continued with Williams sixty-two, Amherst forty-six, Brown 
thirty-eight, Bowdoin thirty-two, Hamilton twenty-two, and 
Union sixteen. In the first thirty-eight years of the school's 
existence twenty different colleges were represented. Andover 
thus brought together into a close fraternity men for the min- 
istry who otherwise might have remained provincially minded. 
And in the first quarter century of the Seminary's history 
sixty-seven men were commissioned as foreign missionaries. 
Altogether fifteen hundred students sat in Andover class- 
rooms in less than forty years. 

It was some time before those who came were persuaded 
that the theological discipline required three full years in prep- 
aration for pastoral responsibilities. Less than two-thirds of 
the whole number of students completed the three years' 
course. Some came to receive instruction in a single subject 
or from a particular professor. The curriculum rather en- 
couraged such a method, for it was organized on the principle 
of concentration on a single field of discipline, biblical studies 
during the first year, theology for the second year, and homi- 
letics with a little church history for the third year. The junior 
class usually declined in numbers as the year wore on. Certain 
students were impatient to get settled in a parish. To one such 
youth who claimed that he must be sowing the gospel seed a 
professor suggested that it might be advisable to get some 
seed to sow. Sometimes the real reason for a theologue's 

426Y 



haste was his desire to marry. The health of not a few stu- 
dents broke down and a number died. Too sedentary an occu- 
pation following upon farm work sapped the health, and 
insufficient or improper nourishment took its toll. Pecuniary 
difficulties hampered some and prevented a continuance of 
study, in spite of the low cost of living in the school, and the 
student aid that was provided. Certain men improved an 
opportunity to teach. A few shifted to another seminary for 
denominational reasons, as when the Baptists founded Newton 
Theological Institution in 1825. As an offset other men entered 
to advanced standing. 

The founders realized the need of substantial buildings, 
and when the need arrived they were ready to make generous 
provision. The ground available for construction needed to 
be landscaped. It was a field of rocks and bushes. A stone 
wall surrounded the present campus. There was need of super- 
intendence in putting the grounds in order, and it became a 
frequent spectacle to see the dignified form of Professor Pear- 
son perched aloft among the branches of a neighboring tree. 
From this vantage point he planned and directed the improve- 
ment of the grounds. Before everything was in order students 
had made gravel walks across the campus; maple, chestnut, 
birch, and especially elms, were shading the area; and the 
place began to resemble the classic environment of college 
students. 

The first three of the oldest structures which constituted 
Brick Row was Phillips Hall. This was the gift of the Phillips 
family, and was completed during the first year of the Semi- 
nary. It was constructed of brick with a slate roof, was four 
stories in height, and was divided in the middle, with a front 
and a rear entry on each side. The building contained thirty 
rooms for students, and one room in the building was used 
successively as chapel, reading room, and a memorial to one 
of the later professors. 

An unpublished letter which was written on Thanksgiving 
Day, 1825, gives a glimpse of the building. Addison Kingsbury 
had entered the Seminary as a junior, and he relates his ex- 
periences to his brother. Leaving Boston by stagecoach on a 



Saturday afternoon with eleven passengers inside and four 
outside, he spent three hours on the road, reaching Andover 
about seven o'clock in the evening. Then he continued: "I 
have had some trouble in getting located, as the rooms were 
principally taken up. I have at last succeeded in obtaining a 
room in the fourth story, though with few or no accommoda- 
tions. I expected the rooms were furnished. I accordingly 
brought no furniture with me and I find none here of conse- 
quence except a poor bed without any clothing. I have how- 
ever succeeded in obtaining some from a society that fur- 
nishes students in certain cases. My tables are not fit to stand 
in your old kitchen, and as for chairs I am now sitting upon one 
without any back writing to you. . . . However I am not dis- 
posed to complain, though I have complained, but I would 
have students come on here with their eyes open and with the 
expectation of finding very inferior accommodations the first 
year." He says that the older classes of students have every- 
thing comfortable and pleasant in Bartlet Hall. 

The second building to be erected in Brick Row was Bartlet 
Chapel. This was the gift of the generous benefactor, William 
Bartlet, to whom Trustees and Faculty turned as needs de- 
manded. Already he had provided houses for the professors, 
as well as contributing liberally to the endowment. Now in 
1818 he was ready to pay for a chapel building in Bulfinch 
design, which would include classrooms as well as a place for 
devotions. As bricks made in Newburyport were better than 
those made in Andover, it was arranged that four powerful 
oxen should haul them over the hills, and so again Newbury- 
port came to Andover. The new building originally was three 
stories high, with a small, round cupola. The room for the 
chapel occupied one side of the building on the main floor, and 
the library was housed above it. On the other side of the chapel 
were three classrooms. Some confusion was caused by the 
fact that the building at first was called Bartlet Hall, but 
when the second dormitory was built in 1821 the name Bartlet 
Hall was transferred to that, and the chapel building was 
called Bartlet Chapel. 

The increasing number of students was making more dor- 



mitory space imperative. Many of the students had to find 
lodgings at a distance. William Bartlet again was equal to the 
occasion. One morning the professors found his men at work 
excavating the cellar. The newest addition was a three-story 
brick structure, one hundred by forty feet, and flanked the 
Chapel on the right, completing Brick Row. It was the most 
pretentious of the three buildings, for its thirty-two rooms 
were arranged in suites of a sitting-room and two bedrooms. 
Each sitting-room had a fireplace with a broad hearth, and an 
opening above for a stovepipe in case stoves were preferred. 
For convenience the back of the fireplace had an iron door 
through which ashes might be started towards the cellar. The 
building was ornamented with Venetian blinds. The rooms 
were furnished by Mrs. Bartlet. 

John Todd, a student in 1823, described his own room in 
Bartlet Hall as square and the floor painted yellow. "Here 
you will find," he wrote, "my chum and myself each bending 
over a comfortable writing-desk laid upon two marble-colored 
tables. You see our room ornamented with four pretty chairs, 
a beautiful mahogany bureau, large mirror all furnished by 
the munificent Mr. Bartlet. All the rooms in this building are 
furnished alike. Nothing could add to our convenience if we 
had a carpet. But this is of little consequence." 

The completion of Brick Row fixed the outward form of 
the Seminary for the next forty-five years. The three build- 
ings were dignified in their architecture and formed a unit of 
equipment sufficient for the needs of the school. Andover 
Hill was not a lofty height, but from the windows of the build- 
ings it was possible to get a view over the valley through which 
the Shawsheen River flows, and to glimpse the higher reaches 
to the north. Popularly the hill was called Pisgah or Zion. 

The expenses of student life were small. There was no 
tuition to pay, rent was only a nominal sum of two to four 
dollars a year, and board in Commons was cheap. This was 
fortunate because the students had little money, but they were 
generous with one another. On one occasion, when an impe- 
cunious man appeared with a family of four children and no 
visible means of support, the students were ready to share 



with the family what little they had. The Faculty reported 
to the Trustees at the end of the first ten years that the indigent 
state' of most of the students made it advisable not to impose 
any fines for damage done to library books. Addison Kings- 
bury spent in making himself reasonably comfortable the sum 
that he had intended for the purchase of books, and he had to 
get his first books on credit, with interest payable after three 
months. 

Students were responsible in general for heating their own 
rooms. Once a year they appointed a committee on wood 
whose duty it was to arrange for the necessary fuel. They 
aided in the expense of heating the lecture rooms, but at a 
time when most meetinghouses were unheated it is not sur- 
prising that the dining-room in which they sat thrice a day 
was unwarmed for a considerable time. In the winter of 1832 
the students voted "to request Squire Farrar to mend the old, 
or procure a new stove for the lower lecture room, lest our 
mental energies go off in fermo" 

' Many common conventions which now are regarded as 
necessities were as lacking as they were in the homes from 
which the students came. There was no water supply in town 
except wells, and students drew water in their own pitchers 
out-of-doors, and carried fuel for their wood-stoves upstairs 
from the Seminary woodpile. They took care of their own 
rooms when attention seemed to be required, made their beds 
and trimmed their lamps, as they had done in college. Three 
times a day they visited the Commons, which was provided by 
the Trustees, and which stood in the rear of the Chapel. The 
Trustees had a committee of exigencies, which promptly in 
1808 licensed Mrs. Silence Smith "to keep boarders agree- 
ably to the rules of the Trustees." About ten years later the 
same committee voted that Daniel Cummings "be licensed to 
keep boarders provided upon examination it be found that 
he prays in his family." 

The refectory was a low, brown, two-story house. The fare 
was simple, and hardly made more appetizing by the discus- 
sions of dour, theological questions. At times it became neces- 
sary to economize in the kitchen, and the students were inclined 



to rebel at such a substitution as molasses for meat. Indeed, 
it is among the legends of Andover that a certain student fell 
sick and after the medical practice of the day the physician 
resorted to blood-letting. But to the amazement of the prac- 
titioner the veins of the theologue oozed nothing but syrup. 

The Founders seem to have believed in plain living along 
with high thinking, even for the Trustees. Article 33 of the 
Constitution ruled that "decent not extravagant entertainment 
shall be made for the Trustees while attending the annual 
meeting of the Board." Much less was the living of the stu- 
dents extravagant. The poverty of the table was aggravated 
by the fact that the students ate in a cold dining-room. The 
Faculty brought this matter to the attention of the Trustees 
after an experience of ten years had shown this infelicity. 
Cautiously they said : "You will permit us to mention that . . . 
some improvement in regard to diet and convenience at meals 
. . . are deserving of consideration. We refer particularly 
to the fact that during the whole winter season the students 
are accustomed to take their meals in a room without fire- 
place or stove. This custom occasions some difficulties which 
it is desirable to avoid." The students shivered through hur- 
ried meals and preserved few of the amenities. To render 
the occasion more endurable warm bread was provided every 
morning, which the professors regarded as "very prejudicial 
to the health of the students." The students did not complain 
directly, but "we have abundant evidence," said the Faculty 
report, "that the provision of a warm room would be very 
grateful to all, peculiarly so to those who are in feeble health." 

The students themselves had doubts about the wholesome- 
ness of warm bread, and the records of the Brethren relate 
that a committee of three was appointed to interview the stew- 
ard regarding the desirability of substituting cold bread for 
breakfast. The asceticism of the New England Calvinist 
appears again during the same period when the students voted 
"that the steward be requested not to place sugar on the table." 
After a few months the Brethren appointed a committee of 
one "to inquire into the expediency of introducing sugar into 
the hall and report thereon." A year later it was voted to re- 



quest Squire Farrar to provide sugar for the Commons. Per- 
haps it was penury rather than asceticism which made the 
students sensitive to the subject of sugar. Two years later 
still, about the time when the matter of hot bread was in de- 
bate, the sugar discussion seems to have been settled by a vote 
of the students, to wit: "At a meeting after the Professors' 
Conference in which the importance of retrenchment in things 
not necessary to comfort and health was exhibited, Voted, 
that [three persons] be a committee to see who were willing 
to dispense with the use of sugar in Commons." 

On the first of November the students voted a definite bill 
of fare : " Resolved, that for breakfast we have milk, prepared 
in any method most agreeable to each brother, bread and baked 
apples, or a substitute. For dinner one kind of meat, bread, 
and a sufficient quantity and variety of vegetables. For supper 
milk, bread, and butter." Six weeks later it was resolved "that 
those brethren who cannot eat milk in the morning be fur- 
nished with butter and water instead of it." 

The next year gustatory controversy arose in the Seminary, 
as if the air was not blue enough with the smoke of theological 
polemics. Two parties developed, one favoring the ascetic 
principle that always had its highest exemplification once a 
year on Fast Day, the other leaning towards a fair degree of 
self-indulgence. Some of the students proposed that the 
board be simplified beyond the bill of fare aforementioned. 
Others argued that the body was sufficiently subdued in the 
interests of the spirit. The tide of feeling rose so high that the 
Faculty was constrained to report in the following language 
to the Trustees: "The system of retrenchment in Commons, 
which was a voluntary arrangement of the students last year, 
originating in a laudable spirit of Christian self-denial and 
promising important results as to the health of the Seminary 
and the economy of its funds, was attended with some diffi- 
culties among themselves from the beginning. These difficulties 
increased during the last winter, so as to produce feelings of 
jealousy and strife to an unhappy extent. . . . We lament the 
unfavorable influence which the causes of excitement . . . have 
exerted on the piety of the Seminary." The matter was not 



ended until one of the students was dismissed from the school. 

Before the next Thanksgiving Day a majority of the stu- 
dents petitioned the Faculty that they might have tea and 
coffee added to the bill of fare. Professor Woods held a con- 
ference with seventy-five of them and by inquiries elicited 
the information that twenty-five were opposed to the indul- 
gence, but except in three cases they would acquiesce if the 
Faculty thought it best to make the change. The three opposed 
the change on account of the added cost of meals, but when it 
was proposed that other students meet the extra expense for 
them, they declared that they were able to pay their own board. 
The professor then announced that the petition was granted, 
and tea and coffee would be served henceforth. Commons was 
abolished in 1845. 

It is easy to understand that students suffered from indi- 
gestion. Summer epidemics were common; on one occasion 
so many were ill that classes had to be suspended. A severe 
epidemic occurred in the winter of 1826. Frequently students 
nursed one another through diseases that in these days would 
receive hospital treatment. The Constitution anticipated a 
day when the school would have its own private hospital. In 
1824 an infirmary actually was built and named Samaritan 
House, but it was not erected by the Trustees. The women 
of the community in the kindness of their hearts had formed 
the Samaritan Female Society of Andover and Vicinity for the 
purpose of aiding the poor students of the Academy and the 
Seminary who were ill and preparing for them free "rooms, 
bedding, furniture, fuel, diet, medicine, nurses, physicians, 
necessaries, and comforts, as may be requisite and proper for 
their respective cases." 

The preamble to the constitution of the Society read 
quaintly : " Several females in the vicinity of Phillips Academy 
and of the Theological Institution in Andover, having been 
frequently called to witness among the students, and especially 
the indigent (of which last description there are in both semi- 
naries more than a hundred individuals) various and affect- 
ing cases of sickness and distress, which with their best exer- 
tions it has not been in their power to relieve according to their 



wishes, either by receiving the sufferers into their families, 
providing them nurses, or supplying them with comforts and 
necessaries, as their situation required ; and as it is not in the 
power of the guardians of these seminaries, without violation 
of their sacred trust, to apply the funds to any other purpose 
than those to which they are so wisely appropriated; ... in 
view of these and other reasons, too numerous to be named, 
after mutual and deliberate consultation, agreed on the fourth 
day of April, 1817, to form a society for the purpose, and upon 
the principles, contained in the following constitution." Two 
officers were charged with specific ministries. The almoner 
should "have the charge of keeping in a proper state the rooms, 
beds, furniture, clothes, and all other articles, provided and 
given for the accommodation and comfort of the sick; of 
superintending the use and distribution of the same, and also 
the principal care of giving due notice of the particular cases, 
wants and necessities of the sick, agreeably to the general or 
special order of the directors. The collector will be expected 
to use her diligence as well in procuring necessaries and com- 
forts for immediate use of the indigent sick, as in collect- 
ing subscriptions for the support of this establishment." 

"These exertions are made with the pleasing expectation, 
that the Honorable and Reverend Trustees of Phillips Acad- 
emy will extend the wing of their protection over an institu- 
tion, devoted to the relief of their indigent, sick, and helpless 
pupils." 

The health of the students was a matter of frequent concern. 
As early as 1812 the Faculty recommended to the Trustees 
the building of a wood-house, for the storing of the students' 
supply and as a means of exercise for the students, who could 
not swing an axe in the cellar of the hall, because the ceiling 
was so low. Before long the professors thought it possible 
that some exercise might be devised which would be beneficial 
to the student and advantageous to the Seminary at the same 
time, and they proposed the erection of a workshop and the 
enlargement of the garden of the Commons, and the employ- 
ment of a gardener to teach the students agriculture. They 
advised that "a garden, abounding in all the succulent roots 



and plants which are healthful, would diminish rather than 
increase the expenses of living." 

Whether the Trustees thought that the Faculty should not 
be encouraged to make suggestions, or that the students ought 
to understand gardening without special instruction, they con- 
tented themselves with suggesting to the Faculty that they 
require manual labor from the students for one or two hours 
a day on the land of the Seminary. After twelve years had 
passed the committee of exigencies was authorized to provide 
a workshop. This was a rude, stone structure, equipped with 
tools and benches built at the north end of the Commons, and 
there the students fashioned coffins, wheelbarrows, and other 
useful articles. 

The Mechanical Association was organized, which rented 
the building from the Trustees, but the students were not per- 
mitted to have a fire because it would be "unsafe and inex- 
pedient." Making coffins in an unheated room did not prove 
popular, though the children of the professors created an 
occasional diversion when they played among the shavings. 
"Hammered in," says the annalist, "were the Greek and He- 
brew, homiletics and ecclesiastical history, election, free grace, 
natural depravity, and justification by faith hammered 
down tight and the nail clinched on the other side." 

The business experiment of the students was not successful 
financially. The Association became bankrupt with a debt of 
nearly one thousand dollars, and the students who were re- 
sponsible for it were scattered. The Trustees refused to 
assume any responsibility in the matter, though the Faculty 
suggested that the credit of the school was involved. The work- 
shop stood vacant until it was remodeled for the home of Pro- 
fessor Calvin E. Stowe. There his wife, Harriet Beecher 
Stowe, wrote "Dred" and "The Minister's Wooing." The 
building was used later as a boarding house, and after the 
Mansion House was burned in 1887 it became the Phillips 
Inn. The Mansion House had an interesting history. It had 
been built on Main Street in 1782 when Judge Phillips wished 
to leave his earlier residence on the Abbot estate, where the 
Academy had been born and where later Professor Woods 



lived, to the principal of the Academy. The new house was 
the most pretentious dwelling in town, and, like numerous 
other New England houses, was visited at one time by George 
Washington. After enjoying its elegance for twenty years 
Judge Phillips died, and the Trustees purchased the property, 
which from that time was called the Mansion House, and dur- 
ing a large part of the century was the hotel of the village. It 
was proud of such visitors as Webster, Jackson, and Lafayette. 

For exercise the students blasted and cleared away rocks 
from the Missionary Field back of the buildings, worked on 
the campus grounds, and rambled about the vicinity. Two 
students, one of whom became a well-known college professor, 
used to race each other around a three-mile triangle on winter 
mornings before sunrise to give tone to breakfast and the day's 
work. Professor Park, when a student at Andover, arose at 
4.30 and walked with another student over Indian Ridge or 
through Carlton's Woods, practising elocutionary exercises 
in order to develop his oratorical powers. The professors were 
so concerned with the health of the students that in 1830 they 
proposed that triennially a course of lectures on "Hygeia," or 
"the art of preserving health," should be given by a "sober- 
minded and eminent physician." 

The students do not seem to have been miserable, perhaps 
because they were seldom idle. It was the duty of the Faculty 
to keep them busy, and they did their duty, for they were con- 
scientious men and themselves busy withal. A student at An- 
dover in 1819, writing to a lady friend, describes his daily 
routine. "We are at present in very small business, that is, 
reviewing the Greek grammar. Besides this we have the He- 
brew alphabet to learn. But I have quartos around me enough 
to frighten a very timid man out of his senses. Our living is 
quite as good as I expected. . . . That you may know how 
much a slave a man may be at Andover, if he will follow the 
rules adopted by the majority, I will give the order of the day. 
By rising at the six o'clock bell he will hardly find time to set 
his room in order, and attend to his private devotions, before 
the bell at seven calls him to prayer in the chapel. From the 
chapel he must go immediately to the hall and by the time 



breakfast is ended, it is eight o'clock, when study hours com- 
mence and continue till twelve. Study hours again from half 
past one to three. Then recitation, prayer, and supper, makes 
it six in the afternoon. Study hours again from seven to nine 
leave just time enough for evening devotion before sleep. 
Now, my dear Seraph, if you can tell me if this is consistent 
with those means to preserve health, which have been said to 
be so abundantly used here, I will confess that your discern- 
ment far exceeds mine. For my own part I expect to become an 
outlaw ; for I will not be so much confined. Few means are 
wanting to enable us to become great men; but the oppor- 
tunity to kill oneself with study is rather too good." 

Yet life went on then in far more leisurely fashion than it 
does now, and there was time for voluntary association among 
the students for various purposes. In the absence of organized 
athletics they formed their associations along the lines of their 
professional or religious interests. They recognized that their 
relation was that of brothers in a common cause. It was nat- 
ural, therefore, that they should give the name Brethren to 
their association, a name which had belonged to the secret 
association of missionary students at Williams, originating in 
1808 and should resolve to call one another "brethren" in 
all public remarks in chapel and the dining hall. About the 
same time they resolved that it was improper and unbecoming 
for any brother, a member of the institution, to sell pamphlets 
or books of any kind for the purpose of making money. Yet 
they gave an agent of the student body a commission on the 
purchase of books, and charged the students assessments for 
the running expenses of the association. 

The Brethren in that same year asked the authorities for 
fire-fenders in their rooms; when none were forthcoming 
they provided their own at the suggestion of Squire Farrar. 
They voted to procure pails for carrying ashes to the cellars, 
and a week later they showed their versatility and good will 
by voting to print ninety catalogues "at the expense of the 
College," for distribution to the professors and other gentle- 
men, and for use at the next Anniversary. The students voted 
to adopt certain study hours when order and silence should 



be observed. These were to be from eight to twelve in the fore- 
noon, from two to four in the afternoon, and from seven to 
nine in the evening. Detailed rules were made regarding con- 
duct, forbidding noise, laughter, and loud talking and such 
indoor sports as walking about for exercise or amusement, 
battledore, and jumping a rope. They insisted that students 
who injured property should pay the costs, and if the persons 
were unknown that the costs should be met from the treasury 
of the association. 

On one occasion three members were appointed a committee 
of furniture, whether to repair damages or appraise values or 
replace with new furniture is not recorded. Presumably axes 
were for chopping wood, but one would like to know what 
prompted the vote to auction all the axes belonging to the 
school and deposit the proceeds in the treasury. Was it be- 
cause they were worn out, dull, or rusted? Was it because 
some other means of splitting wood had been invented, or 
were the axes dangerous to furniture or to life? Unfortu- 
nately it was not one of the duties of the recorder to explain 
motives. An annual committee was appointed "to regulate the 
wood." Apparently there was danger that an absent-minded 
individual might act contrary to the common good. That the 
Brethren were publicly minded is clear from a vote to spend 
money for warming the chapel, and another to clear away 
stones from a place intended for a garden. 

It seemed good to the members to appoint a recorder to pre- 
serve a proper record of the actions taken by the association ; 
some of the records are unconsciously humorous. Among the 
first items recorded was a vote to establish a post office in the 
institution, to provide a letter-box "of convenient dimensions" 
for letters and packages destined for the mails, and to keep 
the key in one after another of the students' rooms, as an indi- 
vidual was responsible for carrying the mail. A little later it 
was voted to open a correspondence with theological students 
at Yale, and two years afterward with similar students at 
Union College. 

An early vote of the association was that "no brother carry 
a light into the cellar in the evening." Again, one is curious as 



to the motive. Was it wood or cider that he might be after, or 
was he fond of ways that were dark ? Was it simply a pre- 
caution against fire ? An early misfortune was the burning of 
one of the buildings on the Hill, and after that the Faculty made 
stringent fire laws, forbidding students to carry fire from one 
stove or hearth to another ; to leave the room where there was 
an open fire for more than five minutes without "taking the 
fire down from the andirons and putting it in such a state that 
it cannot fall or roll out upon the hearth" ; to carry out ashes 
at any time except in the morning and then to the proper re- 
ceptacle; to read by the light of a candle in bed, or "set his 
candle when he retires to rest where the snuff can come in 
contact with any clothing or inflammable matter" ; to "go into 
any part of the chapel or lecture rooms with a lighted cigar or 
smoke any tobacco in the same, nor shall he on any occasion 
smoke any tobacco abroad or near any of the buildings con- 
nected with the Seminary." A pail of water was to be kept in 
each room through the night. And a committee of safety was 
appointed to inspect the rooms at least three times a week. The 
students voted to make the Mechanical Association the fire 
department of the school. 



4391- 



CHAPTER III 

STUDENTS AND FACULTY 

STUDENT activities in any school are divided between 
tasks prescribed by the Faculty and enterprises which 
they undertake for themselves. Certain common interests 
produce group organizations. In the absence at Andover of 
baseball and football, tennis and golf and track athletics, physi- 
cal exercise was taken individually, but musical, literary, and 
missionary societies were soon among the extra-curricula 
activities. Practice in music was not far removed from the cur- 
riculum, and after a few years the Faculty ruled that "every 
student, whose voice and health will permit, shall devote so 
much time to study and practice of sacred music, as will enable 
him with understanding and spirit to take an active part in 
sounding the high praises of God in seasons of public de- 
votion." 

A voluntary musical association was organized in 1812, and 
reorganized five years later, to continue for decades as the 
Lockhart Society for Improvement in Sacred Music. "It is 
proper for those who are to preside in the assemblies of God's 
people," said the organizers of the Society, "to possess them- 
selves of so much skill and taste in this sublime art as at least 
to distinguish between those solemn movements which are 
congenial to pious minds, and those unhallowed, trifling med- 
ley pieces which chill devotion; it is expected that serious 
attention will be paid to the culture of a true taste for genuine 
church music in this Seminary." 

The musical association stated that all students in the Semi- 
nary who had "tolerable voices" would be instructed in the 
theory and practice of "this celestial art," and it was expected 
that one of the professors, if it should be within the range of 
his abilities, would give the necessary instruction, or that a 



special instructor would be provided for that purpose. The 
Seminary actually paid the expenses of musical instruction 
at times, usually appointing the man who had been elected the 
president of the association. It seems rather unreasonable to 
have expected any of the professors of those years to have 
been sufficiently proficient to become a musical coach, but the 
drill of the singing school, so common at that period, lent a 
fair presumption to the expectation. 

The association at first provided for open membership, but 
it was that provision which seems to have brought about reor- 
ganization, for then the principle of selective membership was 
substituted. Either too many voices were intolerable, or not 
all the members took the organization seriously enough. Even 
after the reorganization it was necessary occasionally to use 
discipline. It is recorded with all seriousness that a certain 
brother by the name of Smith was derelict in attendance on 
the meetings of the Society, for it was a rule that unless the 
student were ill or out of town he must attend, and when the 
brother absented himself without permission, and without 
giving any reason therefor and failed to mend his ways, he 
was summarily "dismembered" by vote of the Society. 

The records of the treasurer are sprinkled plentifully with 
fines of six and a quarter and twelve and a half cents imposed 
for tardiness, and this at a time when pennies were so scarce 
among the students that the Faculty was recommending to 
the Trustees not to lay any library fines upon them. An assess- 
ment of seventy-five cents per member provided the necessary 
funds for the purchase of musical collections. In the winter 
of 1832 an attempt was made to get Dr. Lowell Mason of 
Boston to deliver an address before the Society at the end of 
the year, but he declined on the ground that his whole time was 
taken up with numerous engagements. Subsequently he 
showed his good will by submitting a copy of his Choir for 
review by the Society, modestly suggesting that a testimonial 
as to its excellence would be appreciated. The book was there- 
fore referred to the censors for their judgment, and after 
critical examination a resolution was sent to the composer with 
the cheerful recommendation of the Society to all lovers of 



music and those who esteem it a privilege to aid in so interest- 
ing a part of the worship of the sanctuary. "We are enabled 
to do this," they said, "not only from a confidence in ye 
author's good taste and his complete knowledge of ye science 
and art of music, but from our own acquaintance with ye work. 
Although its music does not partake of ye grandeur of many 
other of ye author's productions, its melody, a quality in music 
much overlooked and too often sacrificed to harmony, is of a 
high order and we think unequalled in any collection adapted 
to ye use of choirs in general." In due time Mason became 
an official instructor of music in the Seminary. 

The question of musical instruments received prolonged 
attention. Instead of the saxophone, the flute was in vogue, 
and seems to have been in steady demand. One performer was 
excused from attending the meetings of the Society "in con- 
sequence of his inability to play the flute so much as a con- 
stant attendance would require." The time came when the 
students wished to own a double bass viol. They voted to 
circulate a subscription through the Seminary in order to raise 
money; failing in this they asked for contributions from "the 
gentlemen on the hill," and with faith that they would have 
one they delegated a committee of two to get a box to keep 
the viol in ; but at last they were compelled to resort to the 
treasurer of the institution, Samuel Farrar. The committee 
that was delegated for the purpose called upon the squire, but 
without much success, for it was recorded in the minutes that 
the committee "have for some time weekly reported progress 
as follows in a beautiful classical hemstitch 
'We called upon Samuel Farrar, Esquire, 
We went where he was and he wasn't there ! ' " 
Whereupon the said committee as often had leave granted 
them to sit again. 

Not at all daunted by this frustration of their hopes, the 
musical brethren ambitiously resolved two years later to have 
an organ. They appointed an organ committee. This com- 
mittee interviewed the Faculty and obtained its permission. 
The next thing was to find the organ and the committee was 
instructed to "sit farther on this business," that the "organic 

442Y 



affection" might be gratified. Squire Farrar of the Founders 
had failed them in the matter of a bass viol ; for the organ they 
went to William Bartlet of the Associate Founders. One of 
the organ committee presently reported that a conversation 
with Mr. Bartlet had encouraged them to hope for results. 
The Society then voted that the committee be instructed to 
bring the matter before Mr. Bartlet as often and in such man- 
ner as their sense of propriety should suggest. Whether or 
not the suggestion was made once too often is not clear, but the 
conclusion of the matter was that "the venerable donor in the 
plenitude of his liberality" stated that he should be pleased 
to see an organ in the chapel if we could procure one ("what a 
kind, generous wish!"), but he could not do everything. De- 
mands had recently been made upon him and he felt poor. 

Though the musical ambitions of the students were thus 
balked, they were free to cultivate their literary talents with- 
out wind instruments. This they did through the Porter Rhe- 
torical Society. It was a time when oratory was esteemed 
highly in the pulpit as on the hustings and in the halls of 
Congress. A well-modulated voice, a classical diction, well- 
rounded periods, and an irresistible peroration, brought the 
preacher to his conclusion as grandly as a skilful sailor handles 
his yacht throughout its course and brings it to the dock at 
exactly the end of a graceful, sweeping arc. 

In the earliest years of the school the students therefore 
felt the desirability of organizing a society for the cultivation 
of the literary and oratorical art. It was fitting that they should 
call it a rhetorical society, since the name of the homiletical 
department was that of sacred rhetoric, and it was equally 
appropriate that they should style it the Porter Rhetorical 
Society in honor of the occupant of that chair. The purpose 
of the Society as stated in the preamble to the Constitution 
was "to improve themselves in sacred eloquence for the pur- 
pose of being useful to mankind." The members believed that 
they could gain fluency and effectiveness in speech by engag- 
ing in debates and discussions of matters of Seminary interest, 
and they wrote and declaimed original orations for practice 
in expression and delivery. The Society was large enough to 



organize in three divisions, each with its own officers. Under- 
graduates were admitted to membership only by vote of the 
Society. Literary men of distinction could be elected honorary 
members by a three-fourths vote, and all undergraduate mem- 
bers became honorary members upon graduation. Each divi- 
sion of the Society met once a week on a mid-week evening, 
except on the monthly Thursday when a joint session of the 
divisions was held. The usual program of exercises included 
a fifteen-minute oration, two compositions not more than 
eight minutes each in length, with dialogues or debates when 
preferred, and extemporaneous discussion by four persons. 
The participants were designated by ballot and due notice was 
given of their appointments. 

Some of the topics that were discussed reveal the subjects 
of interest that appealed to the student mind of 1823. "Ought 
there to be a new translation of the Scriptures ?" If Professor 
Porter could have decided the question he might have agreed 
with Professor Stuart that the original Hebrew of the Old 
Testament, if not spoken in Paradise, was worthy of that 
honor. Why then have any translation? But if one were 
deemed necessary, let Professor Stuart supply the orthography 
and syntax and Professor Porter the rhetoric. One would 
like to know what conclusion was reached. 

A question of perennial interest was : " Is the practice of 
preaching written sermons better calculated to do good than 
extemporaneous?" It required native gifts of oratory for the 
average student to do justice to this subject, but he knew that 
the unwritten discourse, other things being equal, was more 
acceptable. A more academic question was whether a profes- 
sor was justifiable in joining in a dance. Since theological pro- 
fessors were not accustomed to indulgence, the question might 
sound startling, but the phrase was clarified to read a "pro- 
fessor of religion," which removed the Faculty from the lime- 
light. It was more than an academic question, for in spite of 
their soberness of demeanor the students were human. 

The members of the Society were treading on rather deli- 
cate ground when they asked : " Ought we to direct our efforts 
to increase the number of ministers in our country, or to raise 

{44V 



the standard of ministerial qualifications?" But it was under- 
stood that Andover stood for high standards. Two questions 
which went somewhat outside the field of Seminary concern, 
but were not unpractical, were : "Ought ministers to endeavor 
to exert a political influence?" and "Is it the duty of ministers 
to become Free Masons ?" Perhaps it was because of the pre- 
vailing interest in missions that they discussed: "Has the 
influence of the British government in India been beneficial 
to the latter?" That they were not oblivious to American 
affairs is plain, for they debated : " Whether on the supposi- 
tion that the allied powers interfere in relation to South 
America, it would be the best policy for this country to unite 
with England in opposition?" If they could have known how 
prominent a place the Monroe Doctrine would come to have 
in the foreign policy of the United States, they would have 
thrown the discussion open to the public. 

Ten years later the temperance agitation had begun, and the 
Porter Rhetorical Society discussed practical methods of pro- 
moting sobriety under the topic : "Ought the use of fermented 
liquors as a drink to be prohibited by the temperance pledge ? " 
Not all promoters of temperance believed in the pledge method, 
or even in total abstinence, and a prohibitory amendment to 
the Constitution of the United States had not been thought of. 
The last meeting in 1832 brought out lively interest in the 
question whether the Union should coerce a state that was 
determined to secede from it, a subject of keen interest when 
South Carolina was threatening nullification of federal law. 
But the students must have entered with even more zest into 
the question whether it is expedient to settle ministers for life, 
and especially: "Is it expedient for a theological student to 
enter into matrimonial engagements previously to the com- 
mencement of his second year at a seminary, supposing him 
to spend three years getting his profession?" 

The usefulness of the Society was not limited to the presen- 
tation of solutions for these knotty problems. It maintained 
a library of hundreds of volumes for the use of its members, 
and it became an important adjunct of the Commencement 
exercises. An annual celebration of the Society occurred on 



the day preceding the Anniversaries, with an oration from 
an honorary member, a humbler declamation, and a poem 
not less than fifteen minutes in length by members of the 
Society. The participants were selected by ballot, and it was 
understood that all topics were to be of a religious nature. 
It came to be a regular feature of Anniversary week that the 
Porter and Lockhart Societies should give a joint exhibition, 
and the occasions brought out large audiences. 

For the encouragement of literary appreciation the students 
organized the Review Association in 1818. Subsequently this 
was renamed the Bartlet Athenaeum. It was considered at 
first to be an experiment, but it soon showed enough value 
to warrant its being made permanent. It was the hope of the 
members to cultivate literary taste and enjoyment, as well 
as to extend their information by subscribing for a few of the 
best periodicals of the time. The literature was kept as a 
nucleus of a library. According to the original constitution 
the number of members was limited to twelve, six to be from 
the junior class and three each from the middle and senior 
classes. A certain ratio of membership must be preserved 
from different colleges; there must be no academic cliques. 
The annual fee was set at two dollars and a half. As soon as 
it was possible to find a suitable reading-room it was desirable 
that more literature should be obtained, so that the number 
of members was enlarged and the annual fee was dropped to 
one dollar. Every member of the Association was expected 
to solicit donations of books or money, and the donor's name 
was placed in the books. After a few years the Association 
voted that if any person should be so generous as to give a 
present of fifty dollars to the Association it would change its 
name to the donor's Athenaeum. When it found permanent 
quarters in Bartlet Chapel, it changed its name to the Bartlet 
Athenaeum, another reminder of the Newburyport philan- 
thropist, even though there was no organ to sound his praises. 

In the early days one of the members was chosen librarian, 
and it was his duty to be curator of the literature, to keep 
open house in his room for two hours at noon to the mem- 
bers, and to make loans of periodicals to members in their 

-{46}- 



alphabetical order for a term not exceeding three days. At 
the first annual meeting it was voted to subscribe the next 
year for the Edinburgh Review, the London Quarterly Re- 
view, and the North American Review. With the new reading- 
room available it was decided to keep quarters open whenever 
attendance was not required at a Seminary appointment. 

The activity of the Association was not limited to main- 
taining a library and reading-room. The constitution was 
revised in 1819, and a by-law was adopted that senior mem- 
bers in the course of the year should each review a single 
publication at a meeting of the society. The approval of the 
Faculty was asked for the revised constitution, the preamble 
of which read grandiloquently: "Desirous of knowing the 
present state of the civil, literary, and moral world ; and be- 
lieving this knowledge to be acquired with the greatest facility 
by the perusal of the best periodical publications; we, the 
subscribers, form ourselves into a society." One wonders 
if the style of language improved or if the Faculty pruned 
the sentence, for when another revision of the constitution 
was made ten years later the preamble had shrunk to : " For 
the purpose of having access to the current intelligence of 
the day, we, the subscribers, form ourselves into a society." 

It does not appear that time improved the morals and man- 
ners of the students, or else it was unfortunate that the society 
had admitted too many honorary members, for it became 
advisable to add to the list of officers a sheriff and four con- 
stables. Fines had been imposed for taking literature from 
the room of the society; now the penalty of expulsion was 
affixed to the rules, and the law was evidently to be put into 
force. The last of several resolutions adopted in 1829 was that 
whenever the president of the Athenaeum should learn that 
publications were missing from the reading-room, he should 
immediately lock the door and give information to the high 
sheriff, who should forthwith make diligent search for them. 

These by-products of education were not permitted to ob- 
scure the regular obligations of students to their academic 
tasks. Much of the reading of the students was under Faculty 
direction, and at least once a year the student must report 



his reading and pass an examination on the opinions and argu- 
ments of the principal writers whom he studied. He was 
examined also on his biblical readings in the original languages 
of the Old and New Testaments, including the Septuagint. 

The main business of the students was transacted with 
theological books and teachers. Early Andover had a Faculty 
whose prescribed duty it was "to unlock the treasures of di- 
vine knowledge, to direct pupils in their inquiries after sacred 
truth, to guard them against religious error, and to accelerate 
their acquisition of heavenly wisdom." Men who had the self- 
confidence to accept places on the Andover Faculty needed to 
be endowed generously with the heavenly graces. They were 
required to have faith in divine revelation, and hold to "one 
living and true God and the Word of God, the only perfect 
rule of faith and practice," and they were reminded expressly 
"that God is a Spirit, infinite, eternal, unchanging, in being, 
wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness and truth, and 
that the Godhead exists in three persons." And then they 
were confronted with the Andover Creed. 

The selection of the first Faculty was a serious undertaking, 
because the quality of the teaching would set a standard of 
scholarship for the institution. It was fortunate that Pearson 
and Woods were well-qualified teachers. Eliphalet Pearson 
was a learned man, with an extensive knowledge of educa- 
tional matters acquired from his connection with Harvard. 
It was he who largely determined the range of studies in the 
Andover curriculum, and established the high intellectual 
standards for which Andover became noted. He had a wide 
acquaintance with men and a practical ability to make a project 
successful. He was active in founding education, mission, and 
temperance societies. He was the first president of the Board 
of Trustees after the Seminary was started, and he retained 
the position for nineteen years, even during the year when 
he was a professor. But the qualities that had made him a 
successful principal of the Academy and an acceptable pro- 
fessor at Harvard did not fit so well the temper of a theologi- 
cal school and he resigned the year after the Seminary opened, 
though he lived fifteen years longer. 



Leonard Woods was a much younger man than Pearson, 
born the year after Pearson graduated from Harvard. After 
his graduation from college he studied divinity with Dr. 
Charles Backus of Somers, Connecticut. He was attracted to a 
teaching position in the new school because of its possibility of 
wide influence, though the number of students was quite un- 
certain, and his initial salary was only one thousand dollars, 
for which he was expected to give some instruction in church 
history as well as in theology. Once in the Faculty he recon- 
ciled the two schools of thought represented in the Seminary 
as far as possible. In the classroom he had the reputation of 
being lucid in exposition, thorough in his study, and careful 
in the presentation of his thought. He charged his pupils to 
keep close to the Bible as the test of doctrine, for he believed 
that it was the immediate gift of the Holy Spirit, and so in- 
fallible and of divine authority. He was equally sure that 
Calvinism was essential to the prosperity of church and nation, 
and that a theological school with any other system of doc- 
trine would be a curse rather than a blessing. It is symbolic 
of Andover's staunch theology that the first book to be drawn 
from the Seminary library was a volume of the works of 
Jonathan Edwards. That Professor Woods was loyal to the 
Hopkinsian principle that one should be willing to be damned 
for the glory of God, appears when on the occasion of the 
birth of his fifth child he was in doubt whether he ought to 
ask God to save all his children. 

That the Calvinistic theology did not breed hardness of 
heart is plain from the kindness and affection which Woods 
showed in his domestic life, and in his patience and sympathy 
with his friends and students. But Calvinism was a militant 
faith and it bred theological warriors. Andover professors 
were expected to train their guns of orthodoxy against error, 
whether within or outside the walls of embattled Zion, and 
the Andover professor was not strange to theological warfare. 
In his Commencement oration at Harvard Woods had eulo- 
gized "the brave soldiers who fought against the tyranny of 
the schools, conquered the powerful forces of that despot, 
prejudice, and established the liberty of reason." But that did 



not make him tolerant. In the very same oration he denounced 
the Catholic system and the injury that it had done to the 
Italians, saying: "The popes, those holy thieves, those pen- 
sioners of Satan, have exhausted your wealth and vigor, and 
now on their dying beds, bequeath you nothing but sensuality, 
superstition and ignorance." Once in the saddle at Andover 
he engaged in jousts with the Edwardeans at Yale and the 
Unitarians in the old Puritan citadel of Harvard. 

He was enjoined by the Andover Constitution to lecture on 
divine revelation, on biblical inspiration as proved by miracle 
and prophecy, and by internal evidence and historical facts ; 
on the great doctrines and duties of religion, and the refuta- 
tion of objections, "more particularly on the revered char- 
acter of God" ; on the fall of man and human depravity, the 
nature of grace and the atonement of Christ ; the Holy Spirit ; 
the Scriptural doctrines of regeneration, justification, sancti- 
fication, repentance, faith, and obedience ; on the future state ; 
on the positive institutions of Christianity ; and on the nature 
and interpretation of prophecy. 

With the emphasis on dogma and polemics it might seem 
unlikely that these doughty theologians would be spiritual 
guides as well as warriors, but both Woods and Stuart felt 
that it was an important part of their obligation to converse 
with individual students on their state of religion. Against 
the judgment of Pearson, Woods originated a Wednesday 
evening conference for the fostering of personal piety. All 
the students were expected to attend, and either Woods or 
Stuart met them, and prayed and conversed for an hour in 
a practical way on the whole range of Christian doctrine. 
Professor Stuart late in life expressed the belief that the 
Wednesday evening conferences were the most valuable con- 
tribution that he had made to the Seminary. Group prayer 
meetings were frequent, and a general prayer meeting of the 
whole school was held once a month, at which the students 
prayed for the colleges from which they had come. The Semi- 
nary conference was transformed later into the prayer meeting 
of the Seminary church. 

Professor Woods lived until 1854, dying in the full maturity 





LEONARD WOODS 



MOSES STUART 





AUSTIN PHELPS 



EDWARDS A. PARK 



of his fourscore years. He was mourned universally, as he 
was laid to rest in the Chapel Cemetery. That plot of ground 
had been set aside by the Trustees in 1810 as a burying ground 
for those who were connected with the two schools. It was 
east of the campus, and as the years passed the funeral pro- 
cessions were many. Students who died before the comple- 
tion of their studies, professors and members of their families, 
trustees, and members of the Academy, there found their 
earthly rest. It has been remarked that there are more brains 
to the square foot in Chapel Cemetery at Andover than in any 
similar plot of ground in America. In 1872 a Cemetery Asso- 
ciation was organized to care for the grounds, and this was 
incorporated thirty-five years later. 

The third professor to be inducted into office was Edward 
Dorr Griffin. Griffin was the leader of his class of 1790 at 
Yale, and then studied theology with Jonathan Edwards, Jr. 
William Bartlet had made provision for a professorship of 
sacred rhetoric as well as of sacred literature, and when the 
time came for the choice of an incumbent attention turned to 
the man who for eight years had been pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church in Newark, New Jersey. Bartlet again 
exercised his power of appointment to the chair, which then 
bore the title of Public Eloquence. Griffin was appointed in 
1808, but did not come to Andover to begin his duties until 
the next year. For a time it was uncertain whether he would 
accept. The salary offered was not attractive, and he enjoyed 
his ministry in Newark. He liked the inspiration of large 
audiences, and Andover did not give much scope for show- 
ing his possession of the eloquence which he was expected 
to teach. He wrote to Woods that, while the quiet atmosphere 
of the New England village might suit the other professors, 
for him "it would want those excitements which would be 
essential to the professor of pulpit eloquence." 

At the same time that Griffin was being sought for the 
Seminary, Park Street Church in Boston looked in his direc- 
tion. The church on Brimstone Corner was just being launched 
as a defence of orthodoxy in a town where all but one among 
the old Congregational churches had become Unitarian, and 



it needed a brilliant preacher to give it standing in the com- 
munity. The Newark minister believed that he could com- 
bine his teaching at Andover with his preaching in Boston, 
and so overcame his reluctance for the professorship alone. 
He was worth having for Andover on any terms, and Bartlet 
recognized that fact by building him the best professor's house 
in the village. His people "wept a week," so Griffin wrote to 
Woods when he left Newark, but he admitted that there were 
some sons of Belial among them whose malice was "scarcely 
exceeded by that of the lower world." 

The new professor was inaugurated with much ceremony 
on the twenty-first of June, 1809. Dr. Spring preached a ser- 
mon, and Dr. Griffin delivered his inaugural address. After 
the services were concluded, "the Trustees, Visitors, pro- 
fessors, clergy, musicians, and gentlemen in public office, pre- 
ceded by the students of the Theological Institution, walked 
in procession from the church to the hall of the Academy, 
where with social and cheerful feelings, they partook of the 
bounties of Providence." 

It was the duty of the Department of Public Eloquence to 
see that the students were instructed adequately on the im- 
portance of oratory ; on elegance, composition, and dignity of 
style ; on pronunciation, voice, and gesture, but withal a preser- 
vation of a natural manner. Yet it was regarded as highly 
important that a speaker should be a finished pulpit orator. 
Methods of putting together a sermon, of the style and char- 
acter of the discourses of the most eminent divines which were 
used as models, and of strengthening the memory, were taught 
faithfully. Above all, the student must be impressed with " the 
transcendent simplicity and beauty of the Sacred Writings." 

Griffin's reputation as an orator seems not to have been 
exaggerated. Dr. Spring felt his competition and the spell of 
his superb presence, for Dr. Griffin stood six feet three inches 
tall. Spring wrote to Dr. Morse of Charlestown : "Alas ! Alas ! 
what a mammoth of an orator we had along. . . . I have had 
thoughts of holding my own in the pulpit, but if we do not 
confine the monster within the four walls of the institution, 
all will be up with poor me. ... I can bear tolerably well to 



be equalled when I feel good ; but to be so astonishingly out- 
done it is too much for flesh and blood and my common 
share of humility. What say you, sir, must we not slip our 
cables and get out of the harbor as soon as we can?" Daniel 
Webster, who went to hear the distinguished preacher, said : 
"If you are going the same way with the lightning, it won't 
hurt you ; but if not, you had better keep out of its way." 

William Bartlet was not in sympathy with the Park Street 
arrangement, and tried to make Dr. Griffin contented at An- 
dover. Griffin tried to fulfil the obligations of both of his 
positions, and he showed unusual adaptability as a professor. 
In his class, as he was about to criticise a student sermon, he 
would remark in kindly fashion : "Young gentlemen, we have 
met to criticise a sermon, and all feelings are to be laid aside 
at the seeming severity of remarks which may follow." Then, 
says the chronicler, "the poor sermon shrivelled up ... until 
its parched remains rustled away upon the adverse gale, and 
men saw them no more." The commuting distance to Boston 
proved too great in the days of stagecoaches and horse-drawn 
chaises, and Griffin reached the conclusion that Boston had 
the more attractive claim. In 1811, therefore, he ended his 
brief professional career at Andover, and it was necessary to 
look for another instructor. 

Dr. Griffin did not continue to find full satisfaction in 
Boston. His theological outlook as a conservative Presby- 
terian did not fully harmonize with Boston orthodoxy, and 
the Second Presbyterian Church in Newark was wooing him 
back to that city. In 1815 he preached his last sermon at Park 
Street from the text: "The return of the dove to the ark, 
having no rest elsewhere." Even then he did not remain fixed, 
for Williams College called him to its presidency after six 
years, and there he remained until a few months before his 
death in 1837. 

Before Dr. Griffin had severed his connections with the 
Seminary, a fourth professor was in the offing. A successor 
to Dr. Pearson was needed. For that purpose Dr. Spring 
visited New Haven and listened to the preaching of Moses 
Stuart, pastor since 1806 of the First Church in that city. At 



the age of thirty he was esteemed highly in Connecticut. He 
had been born in 1780, had been educated at Yale, and after 
three years in the study of law had been admitted to the bar. 
But his purpose changed, and after a period of theological 
study with President D wight he was ordained in 1806 and be- 
came pastor of the First Church in New Haven. When Dr. 
Spring inquired tentatively as to Stuart's abilities, Dwight 
replied that he was a very able man, but he could not be spared. 
Spring replied at once that that was the kind of a man that 
Andover wanted. 

Stuart came to Andover to lecture on the form, the preser- 
vation and the transmission of the Bible ; on the original lan- 
guages, including the Septuagint version; on the history, 
character, and authority of other versions and manuscripts; 
on the authenticity of Scripture ; on the Apocrypha on mod- 
ern translations ; on the canons of biblical criticism ; and on 
the various readings and difficult passages in the Bible. 

It seems odd that a man should have been selected for the 
chair of sacred literature who knew neither Hebrew nor Ger- 
man. Yet Stuart soon showed ability to make good his de- 
ficiencies and to prove himself a fortunate addition to the 
Faculty. At the fiftieth anniversary of the Seminary, Leonard 
Bacon said of Stuart : " It was his teaching and his influence 
that gave celebrity to Andover as a seat of sacred learning." 
It was because of this that he became recognized as the prince 
of biblical learning in America. It was he who set the stan- 
dards and fixed the methods of biblical study for the next 
generation, for he remained at his post in Andover for thirty- 
eight years until 1848. Men who sat at his feet went to imitate 
him in their teaching at other seminaries, not only in the Bible, 
but in the classics as well, for his sound philological methods 
gained general approval. Elijah Kellogg was professor of 
Greek at Williams for nearly thirty years, Nathan W. Fiske 
filled a similar chair at Amherst, as did James Torrey at the 
University of Vermont, and Samuel P. Newman at Bowdoin. 
Irah Chase graduated from Andover in 1817, and went to 
Columbian College at Washington, D. C., to be professor of 
biblical literature for seven years, and then helped to found 

454Y 



the Newton Theological Institution and was its first profes- 
sor of biblical literature. Newton went to Andover again for 
her second professor, Henry J. Ripley, of the class of 1819. 
The imprint of Stuart's mind was felt still farther afield, for 
Miron Winslow, class of 1818, translated the Bible into the 
Tamil tongue of India and compiled a Tamil-English lexicon, 
and Samuel A. Worcester, class of 1823, translated parts of 
the Bible into the language of the Cherokees in America, set- 
ting an example to other missionaries. 

Dr. Stuart had the diligence and patience to become a 
master of Hebrew, and a commentator who was regarded by 
a large circle of ministers as an authoritative interpreter. He 
was exact and thorough as a scholar, patient and enthusiastic 
as a teacher, believing uncompromisingly in the Scripture 
as the divine Word. He was eager to meet the controver- 
sialist, vigorously defending his own positions, but he was 
open-minded. He improved every opportunity to gain famil- 
iarity with German thought and language, even on his jour- 
neys, and he became acquainted with German scholarship as 
few men of his time could boast. He introduced his students 
to modern critical literature in German, to the alarm of cer- 
tain conservative brethren, but he was admired and trusted 
by his pupils, and he was popular because of his earnestness 
and his pleasantries in the classroom. He was a doughty op- 
ponent in debate with the Unitarians. He wrote letters to 
William Ellery Channing, which, when published, made plain 
his orthodox position, and relieved the concern of those who 
feared his liking for German literature. He issued an exhaus- 
tive statement on the Trinity which seemed to his friends to 
answer satisfactorily the criticisms of Channing. 

Allen W. Dodge, a pupil of Stuart, testified to his teaching 
power. Stuart would say to his students: "Don't be dis- 
couraged, young men, don't get mired in the Slough of De- 
spond." He made interesting the monotonous task of teaching 
the Hebrew grammar, and "the Bible, under his keen and in- 
spiring investigations, seemed to glow with new light and 
beauty." 

Stuart's diligence and intrepidity were the more remarkable 



because he suffered much from ill health. Indigestion and 
sleeplessness bothered him, but he studied his own deficiencies, 
and he did not hesitate to pass on his conclusions to the stu- 
dents. He lectured to them at the beginning of the school year, 
telling them to go to bed at ten o'clock and rise at five, and 
prescribing their diet, exercise, and study, advising them to 
make notes of their food and its effects, and so by experiment 
to learn what to eat. When he was ill with typhoid fever and 
a student was watching with him at night, the professor had 
him read aloud a monograph on the disease, and he was espe- 
cially interested in the novel idea that the patient might have 
all the cold drinks he desired. He had his own notions of 
hygiene. He would come into a stuffy classroom warmed by 
a stove, and throw cold water on the stove until the room was 
filled with steam, on the theory that the moisture would carry 
off the superfluous heat through the walls. 

Andover was a rural town, and in those days it was not 
above a professor's dignity to hoe his garden, milk his cow, 
and cut his own hay. More than one of the professors was 
glad to use student assistance at haying time. Francis Way- 
land, later the well-known president of Brown University, 
related how one day Stuart closed his class early with an in- 
vitation to the students to join him in the hayfield. They 
turned out generously to his aid. The crop was poor, and as 
Wayland was raking beside the professor, Stuart berated the 
soil, which in spite of his best efforts yielded only mediocre 
crops. "Bah!" said he, "was there ever climate and soil like 
this ? ... If you plant early, everything is liable to be cut off 
by the late frosts of spring. If you plant late, your crop is 
destroyed by the early frosts of autumn. If you escape these, 
the burning sun of summer scorches your crop, and it perishes 
by heat and drought. If none of these evils overtake you, 
clouds of insects eat up your crop, and what the caterpillar 
leaves the canker-worm destroys." Said Wayland : " Spoken 
in his deliberate and solemn utterance, I could compare it to 
nothing but the maledictions of one of the old prophets." 

Moses Stuart never relaxed in his earnest search for truth. 
He was honored for his scholarship abroad as well as at home, 



yet he took time for the students. For years he divided the 
responsibilities of the Wednesday evening conference with 
Dr. Woods. He was the inspiration of nearly forty classes 
of students. Year after year he walked back and forth between 
his home on Main Street and the buildings of the Seminary, 
alone with his thoughts, yet, so writes his daughter in "Old 
Andover Days," "in the silence and solitude through which he 
walked hearing and recognizing the song of every bird that 
carolled on the trees, noting the changes in the elms which he 
had loved ever since he had seen the tiny twig planted in the 
rough, new ground ; watching through the brief summer days 
for the flowers that sometimes dotted his path; overlooking 
no slightest thing in earth or sky that God has given." He 
lived until 1852. 

One other name belongs in the roster of the early professors. 
This was Ebenezer Porter. A graduate of Dartmouth in 1792, 
he studied divinity with Dr. John Smalley of Berlin, Connecti- 
cut. He had been minister of the Congregational church in 
Washington, Connecticut, for five years, when he was selected 
by the Board of Trustees to succeed Dr. Griffin as professor 
of sacred rhetoric. He was inaugurated in 1812. He had a 
charming personality attractive to students. He was kindly, 
even in his class criticisms, of their crude homiletical achieve- 
ments. Slight in frame, he lacked the physique and vigor of 
Griffin, and his health was never robust. For that reason the 
students cheerfully shoveled snow paths for him in winter, 
and mowed his hay in summer. In his study he was method- 
ical, and so diligent as to injure his health. He wrote with 
careful choice of language, and in his lectures he guarded 
against emphasizing doctrine or even biblical lore above the 
value of a living faith. He was punctilious in his observance 
of the rules of gentlemanly conduct, and he insisted on such 
observance from his students when they met in official rela- 
tions. He even gave instructions to the members of each junior 
class how they should enter his study. Dr. Porter declined 
an invitation to the presidency of the University of Vermont 
three years after he had come to Andover, and the next year 
he refused a similar offer from the University of Georgia. The 



following year he was elected professor of divinity at Yale, 
and later Hamilton, Middlebury, and Dartmouth all sought 
him for the presidency. Perhaps these successive calls decided 
the Trustees to create the office of president of the Seminary, 
and to elect Dr. Porter to fill the position in 1827. Four years 
later he resigned his professorship, but retained the presi- 
dency until his death in 1834. The inscription on his monu- 
ment in Chapel Cemetery concludes a description of his vir- 
tues with the words : " Living he was peculiarly loved and 
revered ; Dying, he was universally lamented." 

The duties of the professors started early in the day. Morn- 
ing chapel service was fixed by the Trustees at seven o'clock for 
the beginning of the winter term, with a change of fifteen min- 
utes every two weeks as the sun rose earlier, until by the first of 
March the hour was to be at six o'clock. The members of the 
Faculty found compulsory attendance as early in the day as 
that to be irksome, especially those who did not enjoy good 
health. Dr. Spring must have known the failings of the 
original professors, because when he tried to raise five hun- 
dred dollars for a chapel bell, and negotiated with Paul Revere 
for it, he remarked humorously that the bell would wake up 
"sleepy, lazy professors, who love a morning bed." As early 
as 1811 they claimed the right of infrequent attendance upon 
morning prayers, saying: "We have habitually attended the 
evening devotions of our Seminary in the chapel, but have 
not found it practicable, connected as we are with families, to 
attend in the morning without neglecting our own households." 

One lecture was delivered daily to each class. The morning 
lectures came at ten o'clock, the afternoon lectures at half- 
past three. There were no lectures Monday forenoon or Sat- 
urday afternoon. By 1825 the Faculty asked the Trustees to 
be relieved from the responsibility of constant attendance, and 
a special committee of the Trustees was appointed on the 
matter. The committee presently reported that the statutes 
and laws of the school required the professors to attend both 
morning and evening chapel, and in their opinion no other duty 
in the Seminary ought to have precedence over the chapel serv- 
ices. If a professor on account of bodily indisposition should 

158Y 



find it ordinarily impossible to attend, he should ask the Trus- 
tees to be excused by special vote during the indisposition. An- 
other committee's report on the same subject was accepted, to 
the effect that it was not the imperative duty of all the pro- 
fessors to attend morning and evening prayers simultaneously, 
but "to increase the reverence due to religious institutions 
as well as to give weight to public instruction it is expected 
that all the professors frequent the chapel at morning and 
evening prayers." Professors Woods, Stuart, and Porter filed 
requests to be excused in spite of these injunctions, but while 
the Trustees did not refuse they emphasized again the impor- 
tance of attending morning as well as evening prayers, and 
"expected that the professors will attend morning and evening 
prayers whenever the providence of God shall permit," as if 
this did not put a good deal of responsibility on divine provi- 
dence. 

The professors were scrupulous in meeting their class 
obligations, which were not heavy. The methods of class in- 
struction were conservative. The professor depended on his 
lecture to inform the student and to stimulate his thought. 
There was freedom of discussion and opportunity for the 
student to read various opinions in the library, but the pro- 
fessor's own system of thought or teaching was supposed to 
be superior to others. It remained an accepted principle of the 
Seminary instruction that the main consideration of the first 
year should be the study of biblical languages and literature, 
that the second year should be devoted almost entirely to 
theology, and that the third year should provide training in 
homiletics. This arrangement gave to each professor an op- 
portunity to monopolize the attention of the student during 
his allotted time. During the reign of the triumvirate, Woods, 
Stuart, and Porter, this general scheme was modified slightly, 
but as late as 1839 the curriculum of the Junior class was : 
Stuart's Hebrew Grammar ; Chrestomathy ; written exercises, 
including translations from English into Hebrew; study of 
the Hebrew Bible; the principles of Hermeneutics ; New 
Testament Greek and exegesis of the Four Gospels ; lectures 
preparatory to the study of theology ; natural theology ; evi- 



dences of Revelation ; inspiration of the Scriptures ; Hebrew 
exegesis ; Greek ; Pauline epistles twice a week ; criticism and 
exegetical compositions. 

The Middle class met five days a week for instruction in 
Christian theology. Compositions on the principal topics of 
theology were examined in private. Exegesis of the New 
Testament was continued once a week, to keep the student in 
training, and there was instruction on special topics in sacred 
literature. It was natural enough that so much attention should 
be given to theology. The Congregational and Presbyterian 
churches were indoctrinated in Calvinism to such a degree 
that a minister needed to be a master. He was expected to 
preach doctrinal sermons, and he must be ready to defend 
the faith against all comers. Always there was danger that 
the emphasis upon sound doctrine in the Seminary should 
divert chief attention from religion itself to the science of 
religion. This was counteracted by the religious influence of 
the professors and particularly by the Wednesday evening 
conferences, by Sunday worship, and by the mutual fellow- 
ship of the students. 

The Senior class had as the major part of the curriculum 
lectures on the philosophy of rhetoric, sermons, and the prepa- 
ration of their own, with criticism from the professor of 
sacred rhetoric both in public and in private. But lectures on 
the history of Christian doctrine kept up the study of theology, 
and critical and exegetical lectures on the Hebrew and Greek 
Testaments still had a place. For all classes there was public 
declamation once a week, and private lessons in elocution. 
Lectures on the Apocalypse were given every three years, that 
each generation of Seminary students might know how to 
interpret that puzzling Scripture. 

The climax of the scholastic year came at the Anniversaries, 
when every class was examined publicly before the assembled 
Trustees, Visitors, and the public, both lay and clerical, who 
packed the available space in Bartlet Chapel. Many persons 
stood throughout the exercises ; some could not get into the 
chapel at all. The crowds were so large that the sheriff and 
the constable were requested to aid in preserving order. The 

460Y 



Junior class was examined in Hebrew and Old Testament 
and New Testament Criticism, the Middle class exhibited 
essays on theological subjects, the Seniors exhibited similar 
essays and were examined in sacred rhetoric. The examina- 
tions were thorough. Professor Park's examination in the- 
ology is known to have lasted all day. But they did not include 
all the subjects that had been discussed during the year. A 
student had a chance to distinguish himself before an appre- 
ciative audience, or he might get a reputation that injured 
him for years to come. The exercises closed with an address 
from a member of the Senior class. The written papers that 
were submitted were considered worth preserving in the 
Library. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE MIDDLE DECADES 

ATER 1830 New England was feeling the ground- 
swell of a movement that was making inroads into the 
conservative traditions of Puritan days. Changes were 
coming politically, socially, economically, and religiously. 

With the election of Andrew Jackson as President the com- 
mon folk came to a realization of their power. Theoretical 
democracy became actual democracy. Federalist traditions 
had lingered longest in New England. Until 1833 Congre- 
gationalism maintained a place of privilege, but though 
social prestige remained, equality of all denominations before 
the law was realized in that year. The industrial revolution 
had gripped the rising cities of the lower Merrimac valley. 
Though the south village of Andover remained unchanged, 
the industries of North Andover and the mills of Lawrence 
were so near that her citizens could not remain oblivious to 
the changes that were taking place. With a rapidly increasing 
population, New England was sending her sons to the West 
to be pioneers like their colonial ancestors, and home mission 
societies were organizing to take care of their religious needs. 
The application of steam to railway and river travel facili- 
tated the movement of the population, and people became less 
provincial as their contacts widened. 

New England retained the intellectual leadership of the 
country, and deemed it a privilege to teach manners and 
morals, politics and religion, to the less favored. This attitude 
of superiority was resented at times, but the general accep- 
tance of New England's intellectual precedence gave her 
schools a prestige that was greatly to their advantage. Har- 
vard attracted students from everywhere ; Phillips Academy 
had achieved a reputation as a preparatory school; Andover 



Seminary enjoyed a growing popularity and received an in- 
creasing number of students from the South and the Middle 
West. Before 1840 the school reached its maximum of at- 
tendance, one hundred and sixty-four. 

Imagine Bartlet Chapel in Andover on a Sunday morning 
about 1830. Over the community brooded the quiet that was 
characteristic of the Puritan Sabbath, but a specially solemn 
hush rested upon the Hill. In the homes of the faithful the 
preparation began the evening before, even the morning be- 
fore, when the school lessons of the professors' children were 
taken from the Bible and the Westminster Catechism, and 
hymns were taught and sung. The teacher then prayed until 
the stroke of twelve. Respite until sunset and to bed by nine 
o'clock. Nine o'clock on Sunday morning saw the children 
on their way across the Common to Sunday School in the 
schoolhouse, where students served an apprenticeship as 
teachers. At the tolling of the bell for morning worship the 
children were marched back of the Seminary to the chapel, 
following the superintendent and accompanied by the teachers, 
while their elders were making their way to the same goal. 

All moved reverently as they entered the building and took 
their places. In the summer soft breezes were wafted through 
the open windows, but in the winter the room was chilly. It 
was heated by a single wood stove, which the sexton stoked 
frequently from the woodbox which was on the other side 
of the pulpit. The heat radiated from the long pipes which 
ran around the chapel. The bare blue walls and yellowish gal- 
leries did not give one the impression of the beauty of holiness. 
The stovepipes and the wood crackling in the stove were sug- 
gestive of unpleasant thoughts to sensitive souls which were 
conscious of faults that deserved eternal punishment, unless 
the divine mercy assured one a place among the elect. Bare 
floors matched the bare walls. Yellow pews added nothing 
attractive to the ensemble. 

One can picture to himself the appearance of some of the 
professors' pews. The front pew in Professors' Row was occu- 
pied by Dr. Porter. He is described as a tall, slight man it 
used to be said that no man less than six feet tall could expect 



appointment to the Andover Faculty dignified, yet kindly, 
with a large head covered with stiff gray hair, and with a pale 
face. He was distinguished by a yellow bandana handkerchief 
which he wore around his neck. He was not physically strong 
and had to husband his strength, but when possible he and his 
fragile wife were in their places on Sunday. Next was the 
pew of Professor Woods. He had the reputation of being the 
best-looking man on the Faculty. Tall and inclining to stout- 
ness, with high forehead and rather delicate features and 
blue eyes, his whole presence breathed distinction whether he 
stood or sat. The children rather feared him because he was 
called "Old School," though they did not understand what it 
meant. In his relations to the students he was kind and gen- 
erous, in his family a model husband to an invalid wife ; he 
was considerate even towards the Unitarians, with whom 
he was brought into controversy. Because of these qualities 
he was respected and admired through the long years of his 
active service in the Seminary. 

Professor Stuart occupied the third pew. His daughter, 
writing of him as he appeared in the chapel, says : "Four-fifths 
of the year he carried his long blue cloak on his arm to church. 
Spreading it carefully over the back of the pew, and sitting 
on it, he was a most attentive but at the same time a most 
restless listener. To keep still seemed to be a physical impos- 
sibility for him. If the sermon was poor his impatience showed 
itself in shrugs, in opening and shutting his large white hands, 
in moving in his seat, and in a lengthened face pitiable to see. 
If it was good, no one doubted his appreciation, or the social 
feeling which made him wish to share his enjoyment. At the 
utterance of any especially pertinent remark, he would often 
rise in his seat, and turning round upon the young men, his 
students, draw his red silk handkerchief across his mouth 
several times, expressing in every feature the keenness of 
his pleasure. If he differed theologically from the sentiments 
uttered, no words could have expressed his dissent more 
strongly than did his looks and gestures." 

One can imagine the preacher flanked by such appreciative 
or critical hearers on one side, and on the other by John Adams, 



principal of the Academy, and such substantial citizens as 
Samuel Farrar, and wonder if he did not feel trepidation as 
he faced his audience, even though his discourse had been 
carefully prepared and written. It is unnecessary to remark 
that students and Faculty children were respectful in their 
attitude, and dutifully and silently wended their way out of 
the sacred precincts at the close of worship. It was the custom 
for the occupants of each pew to wait their turn, as the con- 
gregation retired, beginning with the students nearest the door. 

During vacation at the Seminary the families of the Faculty 
attended the village church. The children found the change 
a welcome novelty. Sitting in the gallery, they could nod 
recognition or send a voiceless message to a friend across the 
meetinghouse. One service was not deemed respectful enough 
to the Almighty or sufficient for the needs of the soul. After 
a two-hour intermission, "with a cold dinner and a pious 
book" at the noon-house, they gathered again for afternoon 
worship. 

Although the Seminary and Academy were a part of the 
South Parish, and the meetinghouse was used by them on 
special occasions, the educational institutions were a unit in 
themselves, and it seemed wise to the Trustees as early as 1815 
to form a separate church organization with Sunday worship 
in Bartlet Chapel on the Hill. The church was to be under the 
direction of the Trustees, and the professors of the Seminary 
were "colleague pastors" of the church without salary. The 
faculties of both schools and their families, together with the 
student bodies, made up the regular constituency of the church. 
Students might transfer membership to the Seminary church 
from their home churches. A number of the residents in the 
vicinity liked to attend the services of worship and were ad- 
mitted to "occasional communion," as "under the watch of 
the church." All persons who became members of the church 
subscribed to the confession of faith and covenant which had 
been adopted. The confession was not so rigid a document 
as the Creed of the Seminary. The first to sign the confession 
and the covenant were the three members of the Faculty, 
Professors Porter, Woods, and Stuart. Samuel Farrar was 
one of the first deacons. 4 65 V 



At the outset the church was grounded on the Cambridge 
Platform, "in matter, form and discipline," and elders as well 
as deacons were chosen to perform the duties as described 
in that Platform. The Congregational churches of Massa- 
chusetts, however, had moved away from that semi-presby- 
terian arrangement, and it was not likely to survive at An- 
dover. A disturbance arose in 1832 when a student with a 
sensitive conscience expressed dissatisfaction with the exist- 
ing order. He affirmed that the polity of the church was not 
strictly congregational, and insisted on withdrawing from 
membership. The church resented his attitude, but as he 
severed his connection there was nothing to do. Twenty-seven 
years later the church was reorganized on a more congrega- 
tional basis. Since the original church never had been consti- 
tuted by act of a council of neighboring Congregational 
churches, it was free to dissolve and reconstitute itself by 
transferring its members to the new organization. The 
Faculty of the Seminary was authorized to give letters of 
dismissal. It is rather surprising that a training school for the 
Congregational ministry should have been so irregular in its 
organization, but it is to be remembered that Presbyterian 
students as well as Congregational were in attendance, and 
that when Congregationalists went outside New England 
they usually joined Presbyterian churches. 

When the Seminary church was organized it found accom- 
modations for worship in the original chapel in Phillips Hall. 
After the erection of Bartlet Chapel the Sunday exercises 
naturally were transferred to the new quarters. There they 
remained until the new chapel was built in 1875. That build- 
ing, erected by general subscription, and costing fifty thou- 
sand dollars, was dedicated "for the Sunday worship of the 
chapel, church, and congregation." 

The great occasion of the Seminary year was Commence- 
ment. Coming later in the summer than now, it was no less 
the culmination of the school year. With fewer occasions to 
command popular interest than at the present time, and with 
full appreciation of the splendor and dignity of Commence- 
ment Week at Harvard, the people of Andover and the con- 

{66Y 



stituency of the school made elaborate plans and looked 
forward with eager anticipation to the Day of days. As if 
Thanksgiving were approaching for the farmer's wife, a bustle 
of preparation permeated the homes of those who expected 
to keep open house. The country was scoured for provisions, 
and additional help was arranged for with those convenient 
persons who were willing to accommodate. Gardens were 
groomed and lawns were trimmed. Pantries groaned with 
good things. All available space was set aside for visitors, 
and the boys of the family found a bed in a hay-loft of the 
barn. Meantime hopes that had been cherished for months 
in rural manses approached fruition. Ministers' families put by 
small sums, as one might save for a European voyage, that the 
alumnus might visit again his fostering mother, and catch 
inspiration enough to carry him through another year of a 
long pastorate. Then when the time arrived, watchers along 
the road saw the four-horse stagecoaches loaded with human 
freight, and looked with eager interest at the one-horse chaises 
and the dominie with his saddle-bags urging his horse towards 
the goal. Services a-plenty kept the visitors busy. On Monday 
evening came the public meeting of the Society of Inquiry. 
Tuesday brought the public examinations of the classes, which 
served the double purpose of testing the intelligence * of the 
students and the skill and orthodoxy of the Faculty. On the 
evening of the same day occurred the public speaking of 
the members of the Porter Rhetorical Society. All the year 
they had given utterance to eloquent orations, engaged in de- 
bates, and occasionally invited the muse of poetry. This night 
brought the coveted opportunity to display talents which might 
command an invitation to an enviable position in a prominent 
pulpit. Wednesday the throng crowded into Bartlet Chapel, 
shared in the dignified program, and witnessed the conferring 
of final honors. A large tea party afterwards gave opportunity 
for goodbyes, and then the vehicles, public and private, car- 
ried the visitors away in a cloud of dust. 

Punctuated by these exercises at seasonable intervals, Semi- 
nary life went on from year to year with little excitement. 
Carlyle's remark that records are not expansive in time of 

167Y 



peace seems to have been true at Andover. Classes came and 
went. Some of the professors outlasted many student gener- 
ations ; for others the terms of office were short. 

The annual catalogues serve as an index to the official rela- 
tions of the school. The increase in the number of students 
was rapid until by 1822 there were one hundred and thirty-two 
in attendance, classified as thirty-one seniors, thirty-five mid- 
dlers, and sixty-one juniors. In that year the broadside lists 
that had served for catalogues were abandoned for an eight- 
page catalogue, in which dormitory rooms were listed for the 
first time. Slowly the number of pages in the catalogue in- 
creased as it became desirable to publish the expenses and 
terms of admission. It was announced that the Seminary was 
open to all Protestants who were qualified by character, col- 
lege education, church membership, and recommendations 
from two reliable persons. The catalogue in 1838 contained 
a reprint of the annual examinations in sacred literature, 
Christian theology, and sacred rhetoric as they had been given 
in each of the preceding ten years. 

In the catalogue for 1823 appear the names of Professors 
Porter, Woods, Murdock, and Stuart, as the Faculty, and a 
group of five men as resident licentiates, including Edward 
Robinson, assistant instructor in the department of sacred 
literature, Leonard Bacon, the later historian, and George 
Dana Boardman, prominent as a missionary. 

James Murdock was the first incumbent of the chair of 
ecclesiastical history, which had been established by Moses 
Brown of Newburyport in 1819. His duty, as imposed upon 
him by the Trustees, was to inform the students about Jewish 
antiquities, the origin and extension of the Church, the various 
sects and heresies in the early period, the character and writ- 
ings of the Fathers, the rise of popery and Mohammedanism, 
the corruptions of the Church of Rome, the Reformation, the 
various constitutions, disciplines, and rites of worship of the 
Protestant denominations, the state and prevalence of pagan- 
ism, and its influence on individual and national character as 
compared with that of Mohammedanism and Christianity. 
Lacking a regular professorship hitherto, the subject of his- 

{68K 



tory had been neglected, an omission which had been called 
to the attention of the Trustees more than once by the Faculty. 
They protested that a fourth professor was needed, because 
"God has set the mark of frailty on man," and they were 
sensible that they had "a very precarious hold on health and 
on life." Even after his appointment he taught sacred rhetoric 
for five years before he could give his full attention to church 
history. 

Murdock was a graduate of Yale and received the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity from Harvard in the year of his An- 
dover appointment. He was characterized as "a little dry man 
with a large elastic brain and nerves like catgut." His fund 
of learning was prodigious, and he was an exact scholar. He 
commenced the study of Syriac at the age of seventy, and 
three years later completed a translation of the Syriac New 
Testament. Then he started Arabic. His appointment was 
not approved by certain of the watch-dogs of Zion, including 
Emmons and Spring, and before he had been at Andover 
ten years the machinery was put into operation to remove him, 
first the Trustees, then the Visitors, and finally the Supreme 
Court of Massachusetts. He had expressed sentiments not 
in accordance with the Creed as the Trustees understood it, 
and it did not seem to them that he should remain. It was 
Murdock's young son who cheered Oliver Wendell Holmes, 
when he was a homesick boy in the Academy, and whom he 
embalmed in the verses : 

"Imp of all mischief, heaven alone knows how 
You learned it all are you an angel now? 

In those old days the very, very good 

Took up more room, a little, than they should ; 

The solemn elders saw life's mournful half, 
Heaven sent this boy, whose mission was to laugh." 

It appears as if the Murdock family had an unconventional 
strain. 



Reverend Ralph Emerson succeeded Dr. Murdock. He had 
graduated from Yale and Andover, and had served a Congre- 
gational church in Connecticut for thirteen years. At Andover 
he remained for almost a quarter of a century, and for half 
that time was chairman of the Faculty. From year to year 
the Trustees followed the custom of appointing one of the 
professors to be president of the Faculty ; in only two cases, 
those of Porter and Edwards, was a man made official presi- 
dent of the Seminary during the first hundred years. Stu- 
dents are proverbially quick to catch at idioms or mannerisms 
of their teachers. Professor Emerson habitually used the 
word "touching" when making a special reference. With 
this in mind a wag in Commons arose one day from his place 
at table and gravely announced : " Touching Professor Emer- 
son's lecture today there will be none." The records of the 
Seminary do not reveal the punishment meted out for such 
lese inajeste. 

The catalogue of 1831 printed the name of Edward 
Robinson as professor extraordinary of sacred literature. 
Robinson had studied and taught at Andover a few years 
before and then spent a long term of study abroad. He be- 
came renowned as the author of biblical researches in Pales- 
tine and as founder of the Bibliotheca Sacra. Reverend Thomas 
H. Skinner came to Andover shortly afterward as professor 
of sacred rhetoric, but within two years he was followed by 
Edwards A. Park, who thus commenced a service of forty- 
five years to the Seminary. 

In 1839 the catalogue included for the first time the names 
of the Trustees and the Visitors, preceded by those of the 
Faculty. The course of study was outlined on a single page, 
and for a year appeared a statement of an Advanced Class. 
Three years later the size of the catalogue had increased to 
sixteen pages. Within two years brief notices were given of 
the Library, which then contained more than thirteen thou- 
sand volumes; to the Porter Rhetorical Society, with its li- 
brary of 2,600 books ; and to the Society of Inquiry, which 
had accumulated 1,400 publications. Names of instructors 
appear and disappear : Beckwith, Talcott and Henry B. Smith, 

-{70Y 



Russell, Robbins, Dickinson, and Robie. Professors Woods 
and Stuart were retired as emeritus. In 1844 the number of 
students fell below one hundred and continued in the nineties 
most of the time for a number of years. 

Both Justin and Bela B. Edwards joined the Faculty during 
this period. Justin Edwards was a farmer's son and was 
compelled to struggle for an education, but he graduated with 
honors from Williams College in 1810. During the second 
year of his theological course at Andover he was asked to 
become pastor of the South Parish Church, which then in- 
cluded members from the Seminary and Academy, and he 
remained in that position fifteen years. He was one of the 
founders of the American Tract Society, and acted as corre- 
sponding secretary and manager. For seven years he was 
pastor of the Salem Street Church in Boston, and then for 
the same length of time he was secretary of the American 
Temperance Society. In 1836 he was elected president of 
the Seminary, but after six years he resumed secretarial 
duties, this time of the American and Foreign Sabbath Union. 
He was devoted to these various causes and wrote Sabbath 
and Temperance manuals, besides a commentary on the New 
Testament which was published at Andover by the American 
Tract Society. He held an unusual relation to the Seminary. 
A student within three years of its founding and pastor in 
the South Parish for fifteen years, he became president of 
the school, was thirty-three years a Trustee, and finally chair- 
man of the Board. Thus he saw Seminary life from all its 
angles. 

Bela B. Edwards had a literary as well as an educational 
career. Trained at both Amherst and Williams and a grad- 
uate of Andover in 1830, he served as assistant secretary of 
the American Education Society for five years and then became 
editor of the American Quarterly Register. He held that po- 
sition for fourteen years, and part of the time was editor of 
the American Quarterly Observer and of the Biblical Reposi- 
tory. Later he was on the board of the Bibliotheca Sacra. He 
was not ordained until 1837, when he became professor of 
the Hebrew language and literature at Andover Seminary, 



where he remained until his death fifteen years later. His 
spirituality and friendliness earned for him the encomium 
"that tender heart, that seraphic spirit." His monument bore 
the inscription: "An humble student of the Bible; an admirer 
of nature, an enthusiast in the classics and the fine arts ; deli- 
cate and practical in his tastes; careful and patient in his 
researches ; of multifarious learning, of comprehensive judg- 
ment; earnest and sensitive, but gentle and serene; severe 
towards himself, charitable to others ; he was a discreet coun- 
sellor, a revered friend, a disciple whom Jesus loved." 

With the middle of the nineteenth century came changes 
which marked the approach of the semi-centennial of the 
Seminary. The founders were gone or lingered, like Squire 
Farrar, to help celebrate the fifty years. The familiar figures 
of many years were seen no more in the classrooms. Pro- 
fessors Woods and Stuart had seemed as firmly planted as 
the elms on the campus. Yet the time had come when the eye 
was dimmed and the natural force abated, and they exchanged 
the lectures of the classrooms for the mellowing thoughts of 
the fireside. Long had they been neighbors on Main Street, 
one in a house that had been built two years after the opening 
of the Seminary, the other six years later. But as new occu- 
pants took the chairs of instruction, so they replaced the older 
men in the professors' houses. Professor Barrows gave a 
new oriental atmosphere to the study that for so long had 
breathed the flavor of theology. Professor Thayer before long 
restored the biblical atmosphere in the Stuart house. 

Edwards A. Park was transferred from the chair of sacred 
rhetoric, which he had held for eleven years, to the chair of 
Christian theology as successor of Woods. Some thought that 
his theological coins did not ring true, but he lived to be recog- 
nized as the champion of Calvinistic orthodoxy and to fasten 
his system of theology upon the thought of a generation of 
Congregational ministers. Austin Phelps became Bartlet pro- 
fessor of sacred rhetoric, and came to exert an influence over 
the preaching of his pupils comparable to that of Park in the- 
ology. Calvin E. Stowe was a professor of high standing for 
twelve years in his own right, while he enjoyed the reflected 



glow of his wife's fame. W. G. T. Shedd, as professor of 
church history, brought added reputation to Andover through 
his books as well as his classroom instruction. Lowell Mason 
and George F. Root at times were instructors in music. 

Elijah P. Barrows became professor of the Hebrew lan- 
guage and literature in 1853. A graduate of Yale, he had been 
at Western Reserve University for fifteen years as professor 
of sacred rhetoric. At Andover he taught Hebrew at first, 
and was then promoted to a full professorship. He was to 
remain at Andover for thirteen years and then to round out 
his teaching career at Oberlin. It was usual for Andover 
to look with preference to her own alumni as prospective 
teachers, but this did not prevent a wider look abroad if there 
was a professor of note rising above the horizon somewhere 
else. The successor of Barrows was Charles M. Mead, who 
had graduated from Middlebury, had been a teacher at 
Phillips Academy at Andover, and then had gone to study 
at Halle and Berlin. By that time he was prepared for a pro- 
fessional career, and the Trustees elected him to the chair of 
Hebrew language and literature at Andover, which he occu- 
pied for fourteen years until 1882. Later on he put ten years 
into literary work in England and Germany and many more 
in America, taught at Princeton and Hartford seminaries, 
and was one of the American revisers of the Bible. He was 
author and editor. He was bespangled with degrees, doctor of 
philosophy from Tubingen, doctor of divinity from Middle- 
bury and Princeton, and doctor of laws from Middlebury, but 
he was human just the same. 

The number of students was in the nineties for several 
years. There were exactly one hundred in 1854. Three years 
later the number had risen to one hundred and twenty-three, 
representing the five states of the Old Northwest, Canada, 
and England, as well as New England, and fourteen of them 
were from institutions other than the Congregational colleges 
of New England. 

At the middle of the century the earlier alumni were bearing 
the burden and heat of the active ministry. They must have 
looked back in thought now and then to the old Brick Row 

173Y 



and the classrooms where they had struggled with Hebrew 
roots and Greek stems, waged wordy battle over 'ologies and 
'isms, and practised the art of swaying the minds and emo- 
tions of congregations. They recalled the friendships that 
were cemented as they walked under the green canopy of 
Elm Arch or looked out on the "old orthodox green, so very 
orthodox that all the paths are at right angles, and no cuts 
across." There they had opened their hearts to one another ; 
there they had pondered long in the Society of Inquiry whether 
their duty lay near at home or farther afield ; there they had 
sung lustily on the chorus of the Lockhart Society, or had 
declaimed on the platform of the Porter Rhetorical Society. 
Or their thought wandered to the staid frolics of the town 
church or the professors' homes, or to the long walks across 
country to woods and ponds and around the bald hills. They 
remembered how they strolled along Indian Ridge and traced 
the windings of the Shawsheen River, or loafed on the slope 
above Pomp's Pond, or climbed Sunset Rock to get a view of 
the sunset. 

Sunsets from Andover Hill were frequently eulogized by 
those who loved the old town. One speaker at the fiftieth 
anniversary declared: "I have looked upon the far-famed 
sunsets of Italy, and my sober conviction is that never was 
there a display of the beauties and glories of the firmament 
more magnificent than that which is often furnished, from 
this very spot, to those who here are in training for the Chris- 
tian ministry ; as if to them, like the apostle at Patmos, a door 
was opened into heaven. Even now after years of absence I 
cannot rid myself of the impression, deepened by so many 
hours of twilight musings, that the transition from this fav- 
ored place to the mansions of the blessed is specially easy and 
natural, that the gates of pearl and the stones of sapphire lie 
just beyond those gorgeous clouds in the western sky, which 
forever are taking and giving glory in the light of the setting 



sun." 



A student writing from Andover Hill in 1856 thus de- 
scribed the school and its environs : " To the north the eye can 
travel up to the blue hills of New Hampshire, and only three 



miles distant stand and smoke the mammoth factories of the 
city of Lawrence. The whole scenery about is dotted with se- 
questered villages and snow-white farmhouses. Lowell, Salem, 
Haverhill, and Boston, are next-door neighbors. On the south 
is a hedge of railroad; on the east we can almost hear the 
roaring of the ocean ; on the north flows the devious but busy 
Merrimac ; while the west, to say nothing of its home associa- 
tions, gives us a never-to-be-forgotten sunset. Thus environed, 
overarched by a deep blue sky, and standing upon ground 
whose beauty pen and paper cannot paint, Andover is the spot 
for a seminary. . . . Nearly every house looks like a country- 
seat, and even the old edifices, which were raised, I suppose, 
in the last century, have an air of neatness about them, being 
clothed in the purest white. It is a very wealthy place ; but the 
wealth of the Seminary astonishes me. Nearly every house 
within a quarter of a mile is owned by the Trustees." 

The Seminary approached its semi-centennial with pride and 
confidence. It was no longer an experiment. It had settled 
down to steady usefulness decade by decade. Its graduates 
had gone hither and yon on various errands bent. They were 
pastors in country and city. They were missionaries in the East 
and the West. They were in demand for chairs of instruc- 
tion and administration in the colleges, in editors' sanctums, 
and in secretarial offices. Times were changing. The anti- 
slavery agitation was in the air. Anti-masonry and anti-popery 
were clamorous for support. The Mormons had been creat- 
ing excitement in Missouri, and the Kansas Crusade was on. 
But staid old New England was not revolutionary, either with 
quack religion or social creed. The Congregational churches 
were still orthodox, and the old gospel was the theme of the 
pulpit. Those were halcyon days for theological professors, 
leisurely days for village ministers. They were not hazed by 
committees and disturbed by telephone calls. They were not 
vexed, as their brethren were later, by labor unions or the 
Ku Klux Klan. They could still take time to drive leisurely 
around among their parishioners and listen to the recital of 
ills real or imaginary. There were no campaigns of religious 
education or social service. Sermons, to be sure, must be 



wrought out on the anvil, not tossed together with an assort- 
ment of stories; because the people had ideas of their own 
about doctrine, and they liked to hear orthodoxy expounded. 
And the deacons held their positions for life, while the min- 
ister's was more precarious and subject to behavior accordant 
with the will of elect laymen. But the minister was held in 
honor in his own church and community, and to be an alumnus 
of Andover gave prestige. 

The year 1858 brought the fiftieth anniversary, and the 
semi-centennial was celebrated on Wednesday and Thursday, 
August fifth and sixth. Old graduates forgot for the time 
their worries over the financial depression that had come the 
year before, and their forebodings over the shadow that was 
spreading over the nation with its threat of civil war. Not in 
a rumbling stagecoach and a cloud of dust over the turnpike 
did they return to Andover, as in the olden days, but with 
greater comfort, if not cleanliness, over the rails. They came 
back to find the old carpenter shop made over into a residence 
for Professor Stowe and his family. Very likely they stopped 
to pay their respects to the militant wife who had kindled a 
conflagration of emotional excitement across the country by 
her descriptions of the suffering of the Negro. Uncle Tom's 
cabin was away down south in the land of cotton, but his 
wrongs were vivid to the conscience of America, because the 
wife of a professor gave voice to the heart of a race while 
she rocked the cradle of her youngest child. 

Seminary customs had not changed much. If the visitors 
had grown soft out in the pastorate, they must get up to a 
6.15 o'clock chapel service before breakfast. Even in Anni- 
versary Week Seminary prayers must not be delayed, and 
breakfast must wait. Seminary Commons had been moved 
ten years before to the corner of Main and Morton Streets. 
Alumni greeted one another and exchanged reminiscences, 
and met again in class reunions. They caught" step with the 
academic procession, and absorbed the spirit of the anniver- 
sary which was so important a landmark in Andover history. 
Dr. Leonard Bacon recited the story of progress in an his- 
torical address. Memorial addresses were delivered on the 



illustrious members of the Faculty who had passed on. The 
Library and its collections were thrown open for inspection. 
A spirit of decorous gaiety pervaded the campus, and a rosy 
future was anticipated for the Seminary. 

Scarcely was the celebration over when war broke upon the 
country. The community hummed with excitement, and pres- 
ently volunteers were drilling in expectation of marching 
southward. The students could not escape feeling the emo- 
tions of the time. They joined in the exercises that attended 
the raising of a flag, which was flung to the breeze at the 
Seminary, listened to the prayer of Professor Park, the pres- 
entation speech of Professor Phelps, and the address of Pro- 
fessor Stowe, and thrilled as they sang Mrs. Stowe's original 
hymn written for the occasion. The men of the Seminary 
fraternized with the Phillips Guard, the Havelock Grays, and 
the Andover Light Infantry, and realized that real war was 
at hand. Mrs. Stowe gave a collation to the Havelock Grays. 

Interest in the anti-slavery movement had been current in 
the years before the war. A small abolition society was or- 
ganized in Andover at least fifteen years earlier. The society on 
one occasion appointed a student delegate to a convention in 
New York. It was necessary to obtain the permission of Pro- 
fessor Woods, and this was refused. The student went in 
spite of the refusal, expecting to be disciplined on his return, 
but he escaped. It was only a few years since the Trustees 
had reprimanded the Faculty because its members spent too 
much time out of town, and perhaps the Faculty thought it 
as well not to press their authority against a student. 

A number of students enlisted in the army; others who 
would have entered delayed or abandoned their purpose. The 
number of students declined from one hundred and thirty- 
three in 1860 to sixty-eight in 1864. Andover alumni joined 
the army either as chaplains or soldiers until the Seminary was 
represented on the roster by sixty-five men. One man was 
brevetted a brigadier general. Four were killed or died of 
wounds. A chaplain was killed as he was going to the relief 
of a wounded comrade. 

The Lockhart Society broadened its repertory to include 



patriotic songs. They sang the "Star-Spangled Banner" at 
the flag raising. At a town celebration on Washington's 
Birthday they rendered the same song and added "Hail 
Columbia," "America," and the "Russian Hymn." They did 
not disdain to assist in a festival of the Female Missionary 
Society in the town hall. After the war had progressed, con- 
scientious men faced the problem whether country or Semi- 
nary had the more immediate claim. It was then that the 
Lockhart Society lost both its president and secretary by 
enlistment. 

Other evidences of the widening scope of the Society ap- 
peared even before the war. Its members accepted an invita- 
tion to spend the evening at Abbot Academy. The secretary 
recorded a minute in the archives that "the Society passed 
several hours very pleasantly in the company of the teachers 
and their pupils, chatting, partaking of a handsome collation, 
singing and listening to music by some of the young ladies," 
after which they took their leave, and like real college boys 
sang a couple of pieces as a serenade. 

Even more venturesome was an excursion to the neighboring 
town of Middleton to give a concert. They went in three con- 
veyances over the road, performed their parts creditably, and 
then accepted an invitation to a hospitable home for refresh- 
ments. In due time they commenced the return journey, be- 
guiling the way with various adventures of the road in mid- 
Victorian fashion, making merry with "all manner of music, 
stories, jokes, and other theological amusements," and arriv- 
ing at the Seminary about "2% o'clock A.M., well pleased, in 
good order, and sleepy." One wonders whether Dr. Pearson 
would have disciplined the boys for such revelry fifty years 
before, and whether the student who thought it frivolous to 
meet in society at a professor's house would not have been 
scandalized. That this was not the only fling engaged in by 
the singing society is clear from the record of a visit of nine of 
them to the North Andover Church. They rendered " Lovely 
Night," the "Miller's Song," and a march "in a proper and 
artistic manner," but these were plainly unacceptable to the 
audience of young children, so one of the students read to 



them "Darius Green and His Flying Machine" amid tre- 
mendous applause, and the Society sang "Three Black Crows" 
and "Upidee," and adjourned. 

Amid these occasional diversions the Society did not forget 
its main purpose. It resolved as a result of experience and 
observation that theological students should cultivate their 
musical capacities sufficiently so that they might start a tune 
in social worship, and might exert an influence in guiding the 
music of the sanctuary. They resolved also that church wor- 
ship should be conducted wholly as a devotional service, and 
not as an artistic or operatic performance. And finally they 
resolved that it was highly important that churches should 
have congregational singing, and that Sunday School children 
should be trained to sing such music as they would come to 
use in the service of worship in the meetinghouse. 

They continued occasionally to go out into the country to 
give a concert, and once they sang at an entertainment given 
by the Boston School of Oratory in the Old South Church, 
the proceeds being turned over to the cause of home missions. 
They furnished the music for public meetings of the Porter 
Rhetorical Society and the Society of Inquiry. They profited 
from the instruction of Lowell Mason. But they were not 
without annoyances. On one occasion they attempted an effort 
beyond their powers which "but for ye accuracy and efficiency 
of President Seymour would have involved ye Lockharts in 
un-get-out-able disgrace." The week before that unfortunate 
occurrence the members of the Society lost patience with the 
second bass, and it was voted to instruct the president to labor 
with him and bring him up to a higher standard of attendance 
and practice or to ask his resignation. 

Years before the Society had asked the Trustees to pro- 
vide an instructor in music, and at times such instruction was 
given. Not long after the last incidents occurred a musical 
director was receiving seventy-five dollars a year, including 
the organist, for leading the Glee Club, which the Society 
sometimes called itself, providing a choir for the Sunday 
evening services and an organist and leader for morning 
prayers and the Wednesday evening conference, and giving 



a course of twelve lessons in elementary music to the students 
through the winter. 

Inter- Seminary relations took on a new phase. Back in the 
early days of the century, when a few students were cher- 
ishing the flame of missionary interest, they were concerned 
with the state of mind of different seminaries on that subject, 
and branches of the Brethren were organized. But denomi- 
national interests divided attention and increased organiza- 
tions, and inter-seminary relations lapsed. After 1870 the 
idea of closer friendliness led to the organization of a social 
union of the theological students at Boston University School 
of Theology, the Cambridge Episcopal School, the Newton 
Theological Institution and Andover. In the early winter of 
1875 the Andover students played host to the Union, receiving 
the delegates in the forenoon, holding a public meeting in the 
South Parish Church, where Phillips Brooks and other well- 
known ministers addressed them, with music by the musical 
societies of Andover and Boston University, with class prayer 
meetings and a visit to the library, and in the afternoon a 
dinner followed by toasts and a God-speed as the visitors left 
for Boston on a special train. Similar rallies were held inter- 
mittently in subsequent years. Once the students assembled 
at Boston University, another time at Cambridge, when Har- 
vard and Tufts were represented. Several of the conferences 
at Andover were devoted to the subject of missions. The ebb 
and flow of interest depended on the leadership of a few men 
who from time to time had a larger vision than the ordinary. 

Andover felt the competition of other schools as the num- 
ber of seminaries increased, and a tendency appeared to 
decline in numbers. Once the Civil War was over, the enroll- 
ment increased. Young men who had been delayed by the 
war entered the school. In 1866 the mark of one hundred was 
passed once more, though attendance was to drop off seri- 
ously in the next decade. The fluctuation in attendance was 
occasioned by a number of factors. A partial cause of the oc- 
casional dearth of students was the decrease in the number of 
college students entering the ministry. The rise of Hartford 
and Yale stiffened competition. Andover was one of the first 

4SQY 



of the seminaries to experiment with an English course for 
men who had not had the advantage of college preparation. A 
special professor was appointed for their instruction with 
power to decide the courses that the students should take, be- 
sides a prescribed course in Historical Studies in the English 
Version of the Scriptures. In twelve years eighty students 
were enrolled in the department, but the experiment came to 
an end with the resignation of Professor Taylor, who had been 
in charge. The Advanced Course, which had been tried early 
in the history of the Seminary, was tried again, and reached 
the number of more than one hundred. Yale had made a suc- 
cess of the plan, and its inception at Andover drew Trinitarian 
students from Harvard. They liked freedom from lectures, 
the opportunity of having special distinguished instructors 
from outside to lecture to them, even from Europe, and 
they enjoyed doing creative work under the direction of the 
Faculty. 

Attendance at the Seminary depended many times on 
whether a student could obtain pecuniary aid. The founders 
of the institution realized that such would be the case and 
made provision for scholarships. The Constitution provided 
that no student in the school should ever be charged tuition. 
Soon there was more demand than could be met, since many 
of the men depended solely on their own exertions. Scholar- 
ship funds were therefore sought for, and the time came when 
a student received two hundred dollars a year from the Semi- 
nary and the American Education Society, and additional 
assistance for special need. 

Eventually it became necessary to raise funds for increased 
endowment and new buildings. The Seminary was fortunate 
at the beginning in its benefactors. The necessary buildings 
were provided and sufficient money was available for the 
modest needs of the school. With a professor's salary fixed 
at one thousand dollars, or even fifteen hundred, as it was 
after 1819, with a residence rent free, the demands upon the 
treasury were not heavy. Yet one-third of the benefactions 
were unproductive of income, so that the vested funds were 
not so large as was popularly supposed. When the large num- 

-(8U 



her of students required an enlarged faculty, more money 
must be forthcoming. The friends of the school were not 
grudging, and no serious need went uncared for. For more 
than fifty years the three buildings of Brick Row had received 
no additions, but the Trustees held a large amount of land, and 
professors' houses were added on occasion. 

Two years before the semi-centennial there was a school 
property valued at four hundred thousand dollars, exclusive 
of the library, which numbered about twenty thousand vol- 
umes. $117,000 of this amount was in buildings, $228,000 in 
investments, drawing an income of six per cent. This pro- 
vided an income of $17,000, which the Trustees divided into 
six parts. $1,560 was added annually to permanent fund; 
$1,020 was assigned to meet the growing needs of the library ; 
$3,000 was appropriated for the upkeep of the property; 
$2,000 went for all other annual expenses except instruction ; 
$7,900 was set aside for the salaries of five professors and 
two temporary instructors, and $1,800 went for student aid. 

It was felt that the increasing cost of living required larger 
salaries for the Faculty, for no change had been made for 
thirty-five years. This would require $40,000 in additional 
funds, and friends in Boston and vicinity were asked at a 
meeting in the Old South Church to supply that need. The 
library needed a new building. That would cost $30,000. 
The same amount was needed for student aid. Once the war 
was over the Trustees undertook a campaign to meet the 
accumulating needs. Believing in the returning prosperity of 
the Seminary and an increasing number of students, they 
planned on a larger scale than ever before. They asked for 
endowment for three new professorships. They saw the de- 
sirability of bringing distinguished leaders before the students, 
and for that purpose proposed five lectureships. If three fel- 
lowships should be endowed, it would be possible for excep- 
tional scholars among the graduates to enjoy the privilege of 
a year or two in European study. They asked for funds to 
provide fifty scholarships to aid the undergraduates. The 
library needed a separate fund for books and administration 
as well as for better housing of its store of literature. They 



undertook to increase recent benefactions until the total should 
amount to $300,000. 

Among the particular needs that were felt was a lectureship 
in missions, for Andover had a reputation as a missionary 
school. Already it had sent out one hundred and fifty mission- 
aries, and a lectureship in missions was the logical consequence. 
The Trustees were impressed by the early death of many 
missionaries and of pastors in the churches with the urgent 
need of scientific lectures on health. A still larger sum than 
for these needs should be available for instruction in elocution. 
New principles and methods were coming into practice, and 
sacred rhetoric needed supplementing. To meet the attacks of 
science upon the citadels of orthodox theology, there was need 
of lectures on logic and mental philosophy to show the best 
methods of defence of the gospel against pantheism and ma- 
terialism. And besides these was the new biblical criticism 
coming from Europe, and no less than thirty thousand dollars 
was needed for a new professorship in that field. One hun- 
dred and fifty college presidents and professors had been 
trained at Andover. The best students ought not to have to 
go elsewhere for the best instruction. 

When the needs were published there was a generous re- 
sponse. New chairs were endowed, lectureships were pro- 
vided, the needs of the library were not forgotten. It is 
impressive to read the list of the funds reported in 1867 as 
having been added within little more than a decade. The 
largest gift was Brechin Hall, given for a library building by 
two brothers, John and Peter Smith, and John Dove, natives 
of Brechin, Scotland. This was completed in 1866 at an ex- 
pense of more than forty thousand dollars. It was constructed 
of stone, with a tower ninety-three feet high, giving a wide 
prospect over the surrounding country. The main part of the 
building was seventy by forty-three feet. Though forty years 
more were to crowd its space with books, the new structure 
furnished welcome relief from the pressure upon the limited 
quarters in Bartlet Chapel. 

The recent benefactions included Miss Sophia Smith's 
endowment of a new professorship in theology, amounting 



to $30,000 ; two Hitchcock donations of $30,000 ; the Boston 
Fund for salary increases, raised by subscription, to the amount 
of $28,000 ; $27,000 for scholarships ; $20,500 pledged for a 
new chapel ; a fund for library maintenance given by the 
donors of the building, amounting to $19,000; the Jones en- 
dowment of a chair in elocution to the amount of $15,000 ; the 
Hyde and Southworth lectureships of $5,000 each ; the Reed 
legacy of $5,000 for the library; the same amount for the 
Newton Cabinet, and miscellaneous sums to the total of 
nearly $40,000. 

The next few years brought more benefactions, for the 
needs increased as fast as the means could be provided. A 
bequest from Frederick H. Taylor of Andover, supplemented 
by other Taylor donations, made possible the Taylor profes- 
sorship of biblical theology and history. Into this chair John 
Phelps Taylor was inducted in 1883. Mr. Daniel P. Stone, a 
Boston merchant, left about two million dollars at his death 
in 1878, to be distributed by his wife. She contributed a single 
gift of fifty thousand dollars to the Seminary, which endowed 
the Stone professorship of the relations of Christianity and 
science. Subsequently by making provisional gifts she was the 
means of bringing into the treasury of the Seminary large addi- 
tional funds. Within the eight years from 1873 to 1881 two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars were added to the resources. 

The result of all these benefactions was greater breadth of 
instruction and increased facilities in the buildings. Lectures 
began to be given regularly in missions on the Hyde foundation, 
including Ruf us Anderson, Julius H. Seelye, Edward A. Law- 
rence, John P. Jones, Charles Cuthbert Hall, James L. Barton, 
Edward C. Moore, Otis Cary, and John R. Mott. Some of the 
lectures on the Southworth foundation, dealing with Congre- 
gationalism, revivals, and home evangelization, were by 
Henry M. Dexter, Amory H. Bradford, Williston Walker, 
Francis G. Peabody, and Arthur C. McGiffert. Soon the new 
Taylor, Stone, and Smith professorships were available. It 
became possible to secure the services of a skilled librarian, 
and Reverend William L. Ropes commenced a service of al- 
most forty years to the Seminary. The library was enriched by 



large purchases in Germany, and was able to add a thousand 
books a year. Professor Churchill came to teach elocution. 

The new stone chapel of Gothic architecture with its stained 
glass windows and symbolic signs on the front of the building 
greatly improved the appearance of the campus and provided 
needed accommodations for the Seminary church. The low 
walls and high roof gave it dignity, the three aisles and absence 
of pillars made an impression of spaciousness, the ash fur- 
nishings relieved pulpit and pews and screen from gloominess ; 
and the tastefully tinted walls with their soft shades and bands 
of deeper color contributed to an atmosphere of restful wor- 
ship. The old chapel had had bare white walls, high-backed 
pews with doors, and an old-fashioned box pulpit. The old 
recitation rooms were dingy and ill-ventilated, and their desks 
were defaced by pencils and jackknives in the hands of rest- 
less students. Now Bartlet Chapel was renovated to provide 
larger and airier rooms, and steam fixtures were installed for 
heating. Dormitory rooms were furnished in modern fashion. 
A laundry and a bath-house were erected. New professors' 
houses were added. 

By 1877 eight professors were on the roll; lectures on 
Egyptology and on the relations of physiology to religious 
experience showed a recognition of the value of many sub- 
jects to a theological student; the Faculty was learning to 
adjust its instruction to the new demands, yet the old cur- 
riculum was changed little. Exegesis was still the normal 
grist of the first year, dogmatic theology of the second, and 
homiletics or history of the third. And the number of stu- 
dents continued to decline in spite of all the improvements. 
In 1867 there had been one hundred and fifteen; ten years, 
later the number had fallen to seventy-three. 

Andover Seminary had reached threescore years and ten. 
Was it sufficient to dress itself in new habiliments and to re- 
furbish the instruments of its craft? The world of thought 
had been changing, but Andover still kept its Hopkinsian the- 
ology. Was it time for a new interpretation of religion ? Were 
the tides of modernism to undermine the ancient bulwarks ? 
Time alone could tell. And time did not wait. 



CHAPTER V 

ANDOVER MEN IN THE PARISH MINISTRY 

A [DOVER was founded for the distinct purpose of pre- 
paring men for the parish ministry. At that time the 
prestige of the Trinitarian Congregationalists was at 
stake. The Unitarians had the advantage of Harvard instruc- 
tion and the Harvard reputation. Unless the Trinitarians 
could establish a theological school that would attract young 
men of ability, and year after year could supply the Congre- 
gational churches with orthodox leaders, who were able to 
measure swords successfully in doctrinal controversy when 
need arose, they would be worsted in the competition of the 
two theological parties. 

There were in Massachusetts alone nearly three hundred 
and fifty Congregational churches about the year 1800. Of 
these nearly one hundred withdrew from the evangelical 
ranks, depriving orthodoxy of church property valued at more 
than $600,000. In Boston the only Trinitarian Congregational 
churches were the Old South and the new Park Street. Yet 
in spite of these serious losses there were scores of important 
churches which were looking to the Seminary for pastors. 
It was these men who, often through long pastorates, built 
patiently to restore the vigor and strength of earlier days. 
Hardly had the Congregational churches begun to recover be- 
fore all denominations were placed on an equality before the 
law. This threw the material support completely upon the 
members of the churches at a time when they were losing so 
heavily. But it was in line with the tendency of the period 
to destroy privilege and to compel every group and organiza- 
tion to stand on its own feet. Baptists were increasing rapidly 
with the growth of religious interest which attended the inter- 
mittent revivals, attracting many of the townspeople, though 



the principle of voluntary support for churches and ministers 
required pecuniary sacrifices. Episcopalians were luring away 
some who felt the appeal of order and beauty in church wor- 
ship. Methodists were planting their chapels on the village 
borders or out in the open country. And the Unitarians now 
were on the side of those who wanted equal rights in religion. 

It was with these handicaps that the youthful graduates of 
Andover undertook the task of carrying New England Con- 
gregationalism to the old position of leadership once more. 
Some of them had meagre resources. Josiah Peet, who grad- 
uated in the second class at Andover, found a place of ministry 
at Norridgewock, Maine. Because the church was poor he 
spent half his time preaching as a home missionary in the out- 
lying .communities. But when the people of Norridgewock 
found that Unitarianism was making inroads locally, the 
church saw that it must exert itself and increased the minis- 
ter's salary enough so that it could claim three-quarters of 
his time. This new effort resulted in a revival which brought 
forty new members into the church, and Peet remained with 
the Norridgewock church for a pastorate of thirty-eight years. 
Out of the church went four young men to enter the ranks 
of the ministry. 

It was from such country churches that the Seminary ob- 
tained most of its recruits, and to them that most of the 
students went upon graduation. Jacob Ide of the third class 
went to a pastorate at West Medway in 1814, was made a 
trustee of Amherst and was honored with the degree of doctor 
of divinity by Brown, but he held only the one rural pastorate 
throughout a long life. 

Men like these made little noise in the world. They were 
content to minister faithfully where farmers toiled in the fields 
and artisans in their little backyard shops. They were the first 
citizens in the community, respected by the children whom 
they had baptized and perhaps married twenty years later. 
They grew 'gray among the people to whom they ministered, 
the only pastor that many of their parishioners ever knew. 
Such men did not need the spur of new scenes, the stimulus 
of a better folk. Like Charles Kingsley at Eversley, they 



built themselves into the community where they had found 
a home, and made the place richer because of their presence. 

Now and then a graduate of Andover attained to a place 
of large influence because of his personal ability or the dis- 
tinction of the church or community. Richard Salter Storrs 
was in Andover's first class, going the next year to the church 
in Braintree, far enough from Boston then to remain a coun- 
try village. Himself the son of a father who was minister in 
Longmeadow for a generation, he became the father in his 
turn of a still more noteworthy son, Dr. Richard Salter Storrs 
of Brooklyn, New York. The church at Braintree kept its 
pastor for a lifelong service of sixty-two years, except for 
an interim of five years when his chief attention was given to 
his duties as secretary of the Home Mission Society in Massa- 
chusetts. Men were born, grew up, turned gray, and died 
while he was there. Shy maidens stood before him for a 
marriage blessing, brought their babies to him for baptism, 
and saw those children grow to maturity and become mothers 
before his task was done. The name of Storrs is revered still 
in the old church in Braintree, with a feeling of pride that the 
great Brooklyn preacher was a boy in the Old Colony of 
Massachusetts. 

When the Seminary at Andover was looking for a professor 
to succeed Eliphalet Pearson, it chose Moses Stuart, minister 
of the First Church in New Haven. When sixteen years later 
that pulpit was vacant again, the church called Leonard Bacon 
to its pastorate on recommendation of Professor Stuart. 
Under the shadow of Yale College the First Church pulpit 
was a platform of power. Bacon had graduated from Andover 
a scant two years before, but he proved equal to the exacting 
demands of the position. One-fourth of the members voted 
against him when the question of the call was before them. 
Only twenty-three years old, he was expected to fill the shoes 
of Moses Stuart and Nathaniel W. Taylor, the eminent theo- 
logian who went from that pulpit into the Yale faculty. Sev- 
eral of the prominent members of the church, including a 
United States senator, later called upon the youthful pastor 
to suggest that his sermons were not up to their level. " Gentle- 



men," was his reply, "they shall be made worthy." Within 
three years he was preaching with complete acceptance. Be- 
fore long he was marked as a man upon whose shoulders 
might safely be placed heavy denominational responsibilities, 
and he found time to write and to speak on public platforms. 
The pulpit was his for fifty-seven years. During that period 
he found time to write history, to compose hymns as well as 
sermons, to aid in founding and to edit the Independent, 
and to fill the position of editor of the New Englander. He 
debated on public questions in his own city and elsewhere. 
When the Congregationalists experimented with more unified 
denominational organization, he was an active leader at the 
Albany Convention in 1852, at Boston in 1865, and at Oberlin 
when the National Council was organized in 1871. He was 
president of the Church Building Society. At the fiftieth 
anniversary of the Seminary at Andover he was the one to 
recount the history of the half century. With all the rest he 
helped to rear a son worthy to rank with himself as a Congre- 
gational leader, Leonard Woolsey Bacon, class of 1854 at 
Andover, pastor in Brooklyn, Baltimore, and Philadelphia, 
compiler of a popular hymn-book, and author of the "History 
of American Christianity." 

The reputation of Andover drew certain students from a 
long distance. Congregationalists had found their home in 
New England, and it was not to be expected that their school 
would reach many in the West or the South. The settlement 
of New Englanders in New York and Ohio resulted in a small 
contingent of students from those states, and Presbyterians 
from New York and New Jersey found their way eastward. 
An interesting case of a southerner is that of George Wash- 
ington Kelly, who from Lewisburg, Virginia, caught a vision 
of what Andover might do for him, and on the fourteenth of 
October, 1830, started from the land of his nativity on the 
arduous journey north. Because he kept a diary and an ac- 
count of his expenses it is possible to follow him on his way. 
Country roads at best were not smooth highways, and in the 
South the usual manner of travel was by horseback. Many a 
road and a bridge was built by subscription, and tolls were 



charged for maintenance. A day's journey was limited to the 
condition of the roads and the endurance of the horse, and the 
traveler must allow considerable sums for overnight lodging. 
Fortunately Kelly found accommodations at country inns for 
thirty-seven and a half cents, but frequent tolls cost him 
twelve and a half cents each. He delayed his progress at 
Baltimore, where he stayed three days and four nights. Balti- 
more was a considerable town and his total expenditure of 
$5.75 was probably not excessive. It would be interesting to 
know what detained him so long when Andover classes had 
commenced their fall sessions already, but he did not record 
the reasons. Perhaps it took time to sell his horse, for from 
that point he traveled by boat to New York. Passage to Phila- 
delphia took four dollars from his purse, and it cost him fifty 
cents to lodge there. From Philadelphia to New York five 
dollars more disappeared. A day in New York cost him one 
dollar. The trip from New York to Boston was the most 
expensive of all, and the stage fare from Boston to Andover 
was $2.25. His total outlay amounted to $35.86, a consider- 
able sum at a time when a dollar had far greater purchasing 
power than at present. 

Kelly's account book throws a sidelight on a student's re- 
quirements at the Seminary. Faithfully he records the items. 
Books were necessary and expensive. He paid two dollars 
for a Hebrew grammar and $5.25 for a Greek and English 
lexicon. Thirty cents went for a bucket, twenty-two for a 
quart of oil. A razor and hone cost him eighty-two cents, a 
box of blacking and soap 18^4 cents, half an ounce of wafers 
six cents. To send a letter deprived him of twenty-five cents. 
A troublesome flue required an outlay of six cents ; one yard 
of green baize cost thirty cents. A cord of wood cost four dol- 
lars, but he got along with an apron that took only 12^2 cents 
of his rapidly dwindling hoard. Apples at 12^2 cents a peck 
and molasses at thirteen cents for three pints made pan dowdy 
possible. It cost him twenty cents to get a flannel shirt made, 
and 12^ cents for charity to a room sweeper. Literary ma- 
terial was as necessary as food for the body. Sixteen cents 
went to pay for two sermons, and 37^ cents for a copy of 

H90J- 



Doddridge's "Rise and Progress." He paid two dollars for 
instruction in Hebrew, doubtless to make up for his late 
arrival, and twenty-five cents was his contribution for mis- 
sionaries to the Sandwich Islands. 

Andover paid its debts for men like Kelly by sending certain 
of her graduates to the South. George Howe, a Massachusetts 
boy and a graduate of Andover in 1825, commenced a teaching 
career of fifty years in a Presbyterian seminary in Columbia, 
South Carolina. Writing in 1845, ne speaks of his attachment 
to the region in spite of numerous trials and discouragements, 
and a different state of society from that in which he had been 
brought up. In the farther perspective he sees faults even in 
his own New England. He is fully conscious of the needs of 
the South, and he does his best to induce young men of promise 
to study for the ministry, because of the serious lack of those 
who would take the time to prepare properly. He published 
two appeals, conscious of the many difficulties which those 
who were educated at the North could not understand rela- 
tive to seminary attendance, and he had the satisfaction of 
teaching one hundred and eighteen students in fourteen years, 
most of whom became active pastors and a few missionaries. 

The old custom of students studying with pastors did not 
pass with the advent of seminaries, and Andover alumni had 
their part in that practice. John Todd of the class of 182.5 
had five such apprentices at different times, and it gave him 
satisfaction to know that they were all doing well. The report 
which he sent to his class at the end of twenty years from 
graduation is typical of a large number of Andover alumni. 
He wrote freely to his classmates, not boastfully, but with 
gratitude to God that he had been able to help in building up 
the Kingdom. He had had a part in the erection of three 
meetinghouses. His direct influence had brought a thousand 
dollars annually from his churches into the treasury of the 
American Board. He had attended denominational asso- 
ciations and had spoken on their platforms. Habitually he 
preached three times on Sunday and led not less than two 
meetings during the week. He had failed to accumulate much 
money since he had married, but he was about even with the 



world. Incidentally he had paid the support of a demented 
mother for sixteen years. He thanked Providence for habit- 
ual health and for "mercies from heaven far more than I 
deserve," and he appreciated a doctor's degree and an election 
to the board of trustees of Williams College. His pastorates 
included the Edwards Church at Northampton, the First Con- 
gregational Church in Philadelphia, and thirty years of active 
service at Pittsfield, Massachusetts. 

Many an Andover man knew hardship both during and after 
his years of study. Under the impulse of a sturdy conscience, 
stimulated perhaps by the pastor of a rural church, a country 
boy dreamed of college and a theological seminary, and was 
willing to endure hardness if he might reach his goal. He 
might get little but hard knocks, yet the limitless opportunity 
for service appealed to him. 

Such was John Spaulding of the class of 1828. Growing 
up in a country hamlet, he was able in time to get to Phillips 
Academy in Andover, "having only thirty dollars, one suit of 
clothes, no books, and none but God to look to for aid." He 
made his way through ten years of study at the Academy, at 
Middlebury College, and at Andover Seminary, and in that 
time he spent only $1,427.14. For four months in five succes- 
sive winters he taught school, and he received some aid from 
the American Education Society, which he repaid, and some 
from friends. But it was mainly by keeping his expenses down 
to the lowest point that he was able to continue his long years 
of preparation. "These hands," he declared, "ministered to 
my necessities" with the woodsaw, the sickle, the scythe, the 
axe and the hoe. "These legs ministered to my locomotion to 
and from college; and seldom through the whole course of 
my studies did I feel justified for spending a single hard- 
earned shilling for a ride. My arrival at college was amidst 
a cold rain storm in September. My room was furnished with, 
nothing save an unwoven carpet of mother earth on its floor ; 
which a few buckets of water and a broom greatly improved. 
A few shillings furnished a bedstead and cord ; and the bundle 
containing my whole wardrobe, which had been my traveling 
companion all the way from Massachusetts, though wet by 

492Y 



the storm, furnished a pillow. On that cord, in that wet room, 
the almost moneyless, supperless, and cover-less student 
stretched himself for his first night in college. But it was en- 
tering College ! and that was an acquisition worth more to him 
than the conquest of Mexico with all of Texas would be now." 

Many a country minister found it necessary to work harder 
at manual labor than in his study. Joseph Bennett, of the class 
of 1821, could say a quarter of a century later that in the 
twenty-four years since he had left Andover he had been able 
to preach every Sunday but one, and on an average five times 
a week, had made pastoral calls on four hundred families once 
a year, had attended one hundred church councils, and had 
always attended Commencement at Andover, and the anni- 
versaries in Boston ; besides these duties that belonged to his 
profession he had exercised three hours a day in the open air, 
for twenty years had felled trees in the woods and had cut up 
the timber in the yard with the help of his son, enough for 
three fires, had mowed, raked, and pitched five tons of hay 
every year for his horse and cow, and had taken care of the 
animals and of his garden. In that time he had admitted to 
the church by profession seven hundred and eighty-two per- 
sons, had brought up two children, "both pious," and the son 
preparing for the ministry, and had raised twenty thousand 
dollars to found an academy and to build meetinghouses. 

The country churches depended on revivals for most of their 
accessions to membership. Again and again men wrote for 
their class report a record of scores and hundreds received 
into their churches by these special efforts. They shared in 
the special revival seasons of 1837 and 1857, and they had 
their own special awakenings locally. 

Classes adopted the custom, even in comparatively early 
years, of collecting information from each member at the end 
of a certain period of years and printing the reports in a 
pamphlet for the benefit of all. Certain of the classes were 
distinguished by members who had gained eminence. Such 
was the class of 1819. Bingham and Thurston were mission- 
aries to Hawaii, King to Greece, Byington to the Choctaws. 
Smith, Wheeler, and Wayland became college presidents; 



Ripley, Torrey, Warner, and Haddock were professors. 
Orville Dewey became a prominent Unitarian minister. The 
class of 1857 at graduation met in "Uncle Sam's" recitation 
room in Phillips Academy for its class supper. After supper 
they took one another into their confidence. "Every man be- 
trayed himself," runs the record, "told all he knew; whether 
he was engaged or not, and to whom ; whether he had a call, 
and where, etc., etc. It was a merry time. School days were 
over. No more bells to prayers and recitations. Work, waiting, 
reward, these were before us. We went out to the first, to wait 
for the last, with a vote to meet in ten years." 

The class of 1855 numbered thirty-nine. Abbe, Anthony, 
Colby, Fay, Foster, Loomis, Patten, Smith, and Webber, were 
pastors in Massachusetts. Moore and Ray settled in Vermont, 
Pratt in Connecticut, Bates in New York, and Grassie in 
Pennsylvania. Two were in the United States army during 
the Civil War. One was made consul to Newcastle-on-Tyne 
in England by President Lincoln. One became an Episco- 
palian. Hurlbut and Shaw had honorable careers as home 
missionary pastors, one in Nebraska and the other in Michigan. 
Two members of the class became college presidents, Bascom 
of the University of Wisconsin, after nearly twenty years as 
professor of rhetoric at Williams ; the other, Boardman, who 
after a similar professorship at Middlebury and two pastor- 
ates, became president of Maryville College, Tennessee. Two 
other members occupied professorial chairs, Marsh at the 
University of Vermont, and Mooar at the Pacific Theological 
Seminary. Aiken, Allen, Barnum, Bliss, Knapp, and Leonard, 
were all missionaries of the American Board, the last four for 
long terms of service in the Turkish Empire. Strong, after 
nineteen years of pastoral service near Boston, served for 
more than thirty years as editorial secretary of the American 
Board. 

It is alumni records like these that gave Andover Seminary 
its eminence. The class of 1855 was not especially distin- 
guished. It can be duplicated more than once. The class of 
1858 presents a wide variety of service. Baldwin was a pastor 
of Congregational and Presbyterian churches, chiefly in the 



Middle West. Batt was long time chaplain of the Massa- 
chusetts Reformatory at Concord. Bliss was secretary of the 
New West Education Commission, as Hamilton was of the 
American College and Education Society. Chamberlain was in 
the Christian Commission of Sherman's Army, and later in 
life an editor and chaplain of the Legislature in Iowa. Charles 
W. Clark spent thirty years of parish ministry in the Vermont 
town where he was born. James F. Clarke was for fifty years 
a missionary to Bulgaria, where he became principal of an 
institute, translator of textbooks, and an active agent in relief 
work for Bulgarian refugees. Anketell, Brown, Cruikshanks, 
Dickinson, Emerson, Fellows, were parish ministers. Fenn 
was minister of the High Street Church, Portland, Maine, for 
thirty-eight years. Goodell, as pastor of the Pilgrim Church 
in St. Louis for thirteen years, had a powerful influence in 
the Mississippi Valley. Howard was an army chaplain; 
McGinley, a member of the Christian Commission at Antietam 
and Gettysburg. Meriam was murdered by brigands in Tur- 
key. Jameson became supervisor of Emerson College of 
Oratory in Boston ; Norton, superintendent of a ladies' college 
at Evanston, Illinois ; and Orton, professor of natural history 
at Vassar. Parker and Pike were country ministers, and 
Plumb had a long pastorate of thirty-five years at the Walnut 
Avenue Church in Roxbury, where he saw an attractive sub- 
urb become a ward of Boston, in which the people of foreign 
ancestry displaced most of the American stock. Perkins tried 
being a secretary for the American Tract Society and the 
Home Missionary Society for Colorado; Upham was for 
eleven years the secretary of the Presbyterian Ministers' Fund 
in Philadelphia. Thwing was a professor, Torrey a pastor in 
Maine, Twombly went to Honolulu, where he published books. 
Todd had an eleven years' pastorate in Boston and then one 
of twenty-one years in New Haven. Washburn was president 
of the Pasumalai Theological Seminary in India for twenty- 
two years, and then was president of the college there for 
nineteen years more. Willard was in home mission service. 
Young, after an apprenticeship of ten years of college teach- 
ing in the Western Reserve University, and a term of army 

49SY 



service as captain of an Ohio company of volunteers, became a 
noted professor of astronomy at Dartmouth and Princeton 
for a combined term of nearly forty years. 

Some of the ministers specialized in particular departments 
of Christian service. A century ago when Sunday schools were 
in their infancy, Jacob Little, who graduated from Andover 
about the time that the American Sunday School Union was 
organized, made Bible classes his chief concern in Granville, 
Ohio, where he was minister of the Congregational church 
for thirty-seven years. He studied his own lessons by using 
a round table on which he laid his Bible, with commentaries 
lying on the outer edge. It was a revolving table built for 
his convenience, and with its assistance he went through the 
New Testament and a part of the Old, taking about a day for 
the study of a single chapter. He held sessions of two classes 
on alternate Sunday evenings, one in the village and another 
on the outskirts. His scholars were over fourteen years old 
and were admitted to the classes only as they agreed to attend 
for a term of from three to six months. It was no vacation 
Bible school, or the experiment of a year. The number of 
scholars increased from sixty to two hundred and twelve in 
the course of seven years. Two-thirds of them were men and 
boys. The educational process resulted in many conversions. 
Parents saw to it that their children learned the selections from 
Scripture that they were expected to commit to memory, and 
in eighteen years "all but a sixth of them became pious." 

Alumni of later years have had more opportunities in city 
parishes than did the men of an earlier day. Over a long period 
of time in a prominent pulpit individual ministers made a mark 
for themselves, either because they were able to build up a 
strong church or because they identified themselves with a 
civic cause. Some of them found special methods useful as 
means of advance. Such a man was Frederick A. Noble. Born 
in Maine, educated at Phillips Academy and Yale College, im- 
bibing theology at Andover and Lane Seminaries, he divided 
his ministry between the Presbyterians and the Congregation- 
alists. After thirteen years in St. Paul and Pittsburgh and then 
four years at New Haven, he reached the climax of his min- 



istry in a twenty-two year pastorate of Union Park Church, 
Chicago. It was his health that sent him West, but he did the 
work of a strong man in all his churches. He was a leader 
in the van of such modern movements as the recognition of 
young people in the church, the use of the catechetical method 
with children as a part of his annual program, the more 
efficient organization of the church and the denomination. He 
was elected a delegate from Connecticut to a National Council 
meeting in Detroit when no one else in his Association was 
enthusiastic enough about the Council to go. He believed in 
church representation on the foreign field, in the value of dea- 
conesses in the local church. He was chaplain of the Minnesota 
senate, and he recognized the civic obligation of the church. 
He found time to study and write upon Puritan history. 

Alexander Mackenzie settled nearer his alma mater and kept 
an affectionate interest in it. His personal worth was tested 
by his long pastorate of forty-three years in the Shepard 
Memorial Church in Cambridge. He could not have remained 
there so long under the very shadow of Harvard College had 
he not been able to defend a staunch theology of his own or 
to harmonize his teaching with the best thought of his day. 
In reality he was liberal in his point of view, but he had inner 
qualities of spirit that kept him from becoming unevangelical. 
He had the mystical temperament, a poetic imagination, a culti- 
vated and fluent speech in the pulpit, and he had the reputation 
of being one of the great preachers among the Congrega- 
tionalists. His good judgment made his services sought as 
trustee of several educational institutions, including Andover 
Seminary. 

Another minister who gained a reputation far beyond his 
own parish was Amory H. Bradford. Like Mackenzie, he 
had a great church back of him in a community that held high 
rank in wealth and culture. Like Noble, he was given prefer- 
ment among his ministerial brethren by being elected moder- 
ator of the National Council, but these advantages could not 
have been his had he not shown a consummate ability which 
warranted the confidence of those who knew him. He was a 
product of two seminaries, Auburn and Andover, where he 

197Y 



was at one time Southworth lecturer. He had the advantage 
of a period of study at Oxford, which he enjoyed when on 
furlough from his church. For seven years he was able to 
give part of his time to editorial writing on the Outlook, and 
he ventured now and then into authorship, but his main task 
was a pastoral one, and his people at Montclair, New Jersey, 
kept him as their minister for the major part of half a century. 
Long pastorates are no mystery when the man fits the job. 
Bradford at Montclair fitted like a glove to the hand. 

One minister found Finns in his parish territory, and was 
so interested in doing them good that he learned enough of 
their language to conduct their baptisms, marriages, and 
funerals in their tongue, greatly to their satisfaction. That 
made it possible to organize a Sunday School for them, with 
occasional preaching services and a night school. A number 
of ministers, with the new social consciousness in their hearts 
and minds, interested themselves in problems of industry as 
others were devoted to temperance or organized charity. 
Charles A. Dickinson in Boston made Berkeley Temple one 
of the earliest and best known. institutional churches in the 
United States. A country minister in New Hampshire found 
that the local grange was not a helpful influence, but instead 
of denouncing it he organized a guild, which came to number 
two hundred and twenty-five members and to prove a real 
asset to the community, and in particular it paid the rent of 
a house for the minister for several years. A Long Island 
minister was among the first to try the method of answering 
questions sent in during the week at a Sunday afternoon ves- 
per service. Charles M. Sheldon in Topeka, Kansas, wrote 
"In His Steps," and read it to his congregation; it sprang 
forthwith into fame, and went around the world in sixteen 
different languages. Francis E. Clark brought into existence 
the Christian Endeavor Society as a local young people's 
organization in Williston Church in Portland, Maine. It was 
too good an idea to localize, too useful to be limited to a single 
denomination or a single country. It too went around the world 
to become domesticated everywhere. 

Over against this worldwide fame stands this testimonial 



after a pastorate of thirteen years in the rural section of west- 
ern Massachusetts. "Few families in this scattered country 
parish fail to attend church. Seventy-five teams sometimes 
jam the horse-sheds of a pleasant summer Sunday. A class of 
men in the Sunday School has at times numbered seventy to 
eighty, and nearly the entire congregation remains for study. 
The pastor has given much help to the library, has done val- 
uable work for the literary club, conducts a young people's 
society that has been studying China recently, preaches 
thoughtful sermons, and has found time to serve as pastor" of 
a neighboring church since the death of its minister. This 
again is not a unique record, but merely one of many that have 
given honor to Andover and confidence in the alumni who 
went out from the Hill. 

Long pastorates were more often possible in the country 
than in the town, though in either case the length of service 
depended partly on the man and partly on the people. Some 
churches grow restive under the guidance of the best of men, 
until like Dives they would not repent if an angel were sent 
unto them. Some ministers get restless in the best churches, 
and wander from place to place seeking satisfaction and find- 
ing none. Occasionally mere lethargy on the part of pastor 
and people accounts for a record of pastoral longevity, but 
usually a ministry of two or three decades in one church means 
real worth in a minister. Andover alumni did not soon exhaust 
their sermonic resources or have recourse to the bottom of 
the barrel. They knew how to study Scripture and problems 
in theology. They became seasoned veterans in the pulpit, 
trusted leaders in the churches, respected citizens in the com- 
munity. It is not strange that they were sought as chaplains 
in legislatures and reformatories, secretaries for philanthropic 
and educational organizations, trustees of educational institu- 
tions, speakers on public forums. To be an Andover man was 
strong recommendation for a candidate at any New England 
church, at least before 1880. 

It would be possible to make a long list of single pastorates 
of unusual length, like Storrs, Bradford, and Robie. Edward 
Robie, for example, completed his course at Andover in 1843. 



Making his way to Europe at a time when few enjoyed the 
privileges of foreign study, he spent three years at the uni- 
versities of Halle and Berlin. Returning to his native town 
at Gorham, Maine, he taught in the seminary there for two 
years, and then was appointed instructor in sacred literature 
at Andover, where he remained four years, filling the place 
of librarian part of that time. In the year 1852 he went to 
Greenland, New Hampshire, to become pastor of the Congre- 
gational church. He had found his niche, and there he was 
content to remain. It is said of him that he was a reader of 
the Youth's Companion for eighty-five years. Though a coun- 
try pastor he was given the degree of doctor of divinity by 
Dartmouth and Bowdoin. William Salter at Burlington, Iowa, 
for more than sixty years, had one of the longest pastorates 
in the history of American Congregationalism. At the unveil- 
ing of his portrait in the state capitol of Iowa, the Governor 
said : " Men of his character and of his class are the men who 
have made Iowa what she is a great, noble, peerless, Chris- 
tian commonwealth." 

Taken at random the annalist notes Darius A. Newton, class 
of '82, more than twenty years at Winchester, Massachusetts ; 
Stephen M. Newman, class of '71, pastor of the First Congre- 
gational Church, Washington, D. C., for twenty-one years; 
Charles H. Cutler, class of '86, minister at Bangor for a quar- 
ter of a century; Omar W. Folsom, class of '72, serving 
twenty-five years at Bath, Maine, and active in the state in 
missions and in the Interdenominational Comity Commission ; 
George B. Spalding, class of '61, after succeeding Horace 
Bushnell at Hartford, went to Syracuse where he built a new 
church edifice, remaining twenty-five years ; Cyrus H. Rich- 
ardson, class of '69, at Nashua longer still; Charles E. Cool- 
edge, class of '70, at Collinsville, Connecticut, for an equal 
length of time ; James B. Gregg, class of '74, holding an out- 
post of Congregationalism at Colorado Springs, Colorado, 
for twenty-seven years, and honored with the degree of doctor 
of divinity by Harvard University ; John R. Crane of the first 
Andover class of 1810, setting an example of long pastorates 
at Middletown, Connecticut, with one of his own which lasted 



thirty-five years; Lucius R. Eastman, class of '61, pastor of 
Plymouth Church, Framingham, for about forty years, "cul- 
tured, devoted, learned" ; Charles L. Hall, class of '74, out on 
the northwestern Indian frontier at Fort Berthold, North 
Dakota, for approximately forty years ; Joel Haines, class of 
1817, minister at Hartford for forty-six years, writing "Lec- 
tures to Young Men" and other books ; William R. Campbell, 
pastor for fifty changing years at West Roxbury, Massa- 
chusetts, and a Visitor of Andover Seminary. 

Among city pastors whose influence was deep and abiding 
were a number of other alumni who graduated from Andover 
in the quarter century between 1868 and 1892. DeWitt C. 
Clarke had a distinguished ministry in the Tabernacle Church, 
Salem. Charles L. Noyes was pastor in Somerville forty 
years, and was actively engaged in civic interests. He edited 
the "Pilgrim Hymnal," was a trustee of the Seminary, and 
was an active participant in the plans of removal to Cambridge. 
Charles F. Carter is remembered at Burlington, Vermont, and 
Hartford, Connecticut. He was president of the Andover 
Trustees at the time of removal. Nehemiah Boynton of 
the same class was the eminent leader of Congregationalism 
in Detroit and Brooklyn, and was elected moderator of the 
National Council. Carl S. Patton had pastoral service to his 
credit before he went to the church in Columbus, Ohio, so long 
served by Dr. Washington Gladden. Two subsequent pastor- 
ates at Los Angeles were bisected by a professorship in 
Chicago Theological Seminary. He, too, has been honored 
with an election as moderator of the General Council. Fred- 
erick H. Page, after a journalistic career and a ministerial 
apprenticeship in Boston, spent many years with churches in 
Lawrence and Waltham, and then was promoted to be presi- 
dent of the Massachusetts Home Missionary Society. As 
president of the Trustees of the Seminary he had a large part 
in the planning and achieving of the affiliation of Andover 
and Newton. 

To name these men is not to make invidious distinctions 
in a large body of alumni. They are but samples, a few more 
distinguished than the average. They could be duplicated more 

11Q1Y 



than once from living alumni other than those mentioned. It 
is enough to say of an unnumbered multitude : They wrought 
well and their works do follow them. 

Alumni interest was stimulated by the organization of an 
alumni society in 1827, "for the purpose of holding such 
meetings and performing such exercises as shall be promotive 
of their mutual edification and the prosperity of the Re- 
deemer's kingdom." The Society drew up a constitution which 
provided for an annual meeting on Anniversary Week at the 
Seminary, with an address or a sermon. Dr. Storrs was chosen 
the first moderator. Vexations dogged the infant organization. 
The moderator was absent when the Society met the next 
year, the preacher failed to appear on account of ill health, 
and the alternate because he was not given "sufficient season- 
able notice." With but a single meeting a year it required some 
effort to keep interest in the Society warm. In 1834 a com- 
mittee of three was appointed to report a year hence on the 
best methods for producing more interest. At another meet- 
ing a standing committee was charged with the duty of pre- 
paring a necrology of alumni who had died within the year 
at the next annual meeting, but it failed to function. Another 
committee was named to secure portraits of Professors Woods 
and Porter to hang beside that of Stuart in the library, which 
students and friends had provided. 

Necrologies were prepared after 1880, but the same diffi- 
culty of lack of interest prevailed among the alumni. The 
Association was reorganized in 1895 on a more definite basis, 
with an annual fee of one dollar. All officers of the Seminary, 
Trustees and Visitors, were eligible as members besides the 
alumni. The presidents of the two boards set the example by 
joining. All members were to receive the annual catalogue 
of the Seminary, the printed necrology, and the anniversary 
program. Two hundred and seventy persons were listed as 
members in 1897, an d three hundred and twenty-eight the next 
year. Professor Park held the honor of being the oldest living 
graduate. The experiment of a social union of the alumni was 
held for a second time in Boston. The next year an alumni 
fund was proposed, which should be devoted first to a new 



issue of the General Catalogue, which had not been revised 
for twenty years. The Alumni Association was reorganized 
in that same year of 1903. 

To the people of the Atlantic seaboard the West spelled 
wider opportunity. America had meant that to their fathers 
who came from Europe, but the fertile valleys of New England 
were few and the Southern plantations were the property 
of a privileged aristocracy. With an expanding population 
America had to push out to the West. It was not only this 
centrifugal compulsion that drove, but an attraction that 
pulled. The West called to profit and adventure. Its broad 
plains, its lofty mountains, its majestic rivers, its sunset trail, 
were a magnet that drew from South and North alike. No 
young man could be oblivious to the attraction. Even theo- 
logical students at Andover saw opportunity in the West for 
both service and adventure. 

Attempts had been made by the General Association of 
Connecticut to send out local pastors as itinerant evangelists 
for a few months. The Connecticut Missionary Society was 
the result, followed by the Massachusetts Missionary Society. 
Both came into existence before the year 1800. The other New 
England states organized similar societies within the next ten 
years. In 1801 the Plan of Union was arranged between the 
Congregationalists and the Presbyterians by which the two 
denominations were to combine forces for missionary effort. 

The beginnings of settlement had been made in southern 
Ohio, and the Western Reserve along Lake Erie was develop- 
ing along with the fertile western part of New York. President 
Dwight of Yale regarded the westward movement as highly 
significant for the future of the nation, and he felt the Chris- 
tian responsibility "to lay out the streets and plant the founda- 
tions of literature and religion and to give shape to the insti- 
tutions of society." It was this sense of responsibility that led 
three Andover students to discuss the plan of a national home 
missionary society, as they were riding in a stagecoach to a 
funeral at Newburyport, and that evening to talk it over at 
the house of Professor Porter. Nathaniel Bouton, who origi- 
nated the idea, Aaron Foster, and Hiram Chamberlain were 



the students. Not long afterward Foster discussed the matter 
before the Porter Rhetorical Society, advocating the settle- 
ment of local pastors as well as the itineracy of evangelists. 
His appeals were seconded by John Maltby at a special meet- 
ing of the Society. He urged "planting in every little com- 
munity that is rising up men of learning and influence, to 
impress their characters upon those communities a system 
that shall gather the resources of philanthropy, patriotism, and 
Christian sympathy throughout our country into one vast 
reservoir from which a stream shall flow to Georgia and to 
Louisiana, to Missouri and to Maine." The result was the 
application of six seniors for ordination as home missionaries. 
This resulted in the organization of the American Home Mis- 
sionary Society in 1826, as the appeal of the earlier Brethren 
had brought the American Board into existence. 

Foster, Maltby, and Chamberlain were among the first to 
be commissioned. Jeremiah Porter, graduating in 1828, 
founded the First Presbyterian Church in Chicago in 1838. 
Artemas Bullard of the next class eventually became pastor 
of the First Church in St. Louis, outpost of civilization in 
the Mississippi Valley. Back in 1812-15, Samuel J. Mills, 
John F. Schermerhorn, and Daniel Smith, all Andover men, 
had made journeys of exploration under the auspices of the 
Connecticut and Massachusetts societies from Lake Erie to 
New Orleans. They reported only one Congregational or 
Presbyterian minister in Indiana and none in Illinois. As a 
result Samuel Giddings, Andover, 1814, had been sent as mis- 
sionary to Missouri. He made far journeys among the Indians 
and founded churches in western Illinois. Howe and Ellis of 
Andover settled promptly in Illinois after graduation. Ellis 
started a seminary at Jacksonville, and with the help of en- 
thusiastic Yale men it became Illinois College. Truman M. 
Post, Andover, 1835, became one of its professors. Elihu W. 
Baldwin, class of 1817, dedicated Wabash College to Christ 
as he knelt in the snow of the primeval forest on a winter day. 
It was the temper of such men as these which made such a 
brave beginning. 

The activity of these home missionary pastors appears in a 

-{104}* 



letter from Henry Little, Andover, 1829. Writing from his 
station in Madison, Indiana, he said : " I hardly know whether 
I may be most properly called a pastor (on a large scale), 
evangelist, missionary, or agent. In the Presbyterian church 
the Lord's Supper is administered once in two or three months, 
and at those seasons they have preaching two, three, four or 
more days. A large part of my Sabbaths have been spent at 
these meetings, and during the season the collection is made 
for the Home Missionary Society, and very often there has 
been something to be done in building a meetinghouse, remov- 
ing an old debt, raising a salary for a pastor, or assistance in 
a revival of religion. At other times I have been in the woods 
a week introducing a missionary to his field, preaching every 
day. Or in gathering a congregation where a church is to be 
formed or a missionary sent." 

Writing from Bedford, Indiana, about the same time, 
Solomon Kittredge, class of 1832, said: "For twelve years 
I have occupied a missionary field embracing one entire county 
and part of the time two ... a field containing from thirty to 
forty thousand inhabitants. . . . When I came here it was a 
moral desolation. There were no churches, no Sabbath, nor 
Sabbath-keeping people. The Sabbath was known or observed 
only as a holiday a day for visiting, hunting, horse-racing, 
and the like. Business houses were kept open, and business 
transacted as on other days." But when he wrote there were 
three churches and a quiet village on Sunday. 

Real hardship attended the life of the home missionary. 
He left behind him most of the comforts of the East. He took 
risks in his journeying. He felt the responsibility of a heavy 
task. "I commenced my labors in the ministry in 1830," wrote 
Lucian Farnham, who graduated from Andover that summer. 
"Late in the autumn of that year I arrived in this state [Illinois] 
where I have labored to this time, in season and out of season 
in ceiled houses and log cabins, in school houses, in private 
dwellings, and in the open air without a house. I have trav- 
eled many thousands of miles through heat and cold, storm 
and calm, by night and day, in perils in the wilderness, in perils 
in the prairie, in perils of waters in hunger and thirst, in 



weariness and painfulness, in watchings and fastings I have 
made my lodging in the lone prairie without food or fire 
with no shelter but heaven's canopy no bed but the open 
wagon-box, and no music but the howling of the wolf. . . . By 
the grace of God I am what I am. It is wonderful conde- 
scension that God should give me a place in his vineyard." 

One ever-present handicap was the need of becoming accli- 
mated. Malaria haunted the prairies. Farnham's classmate, 
Ferris Fitch, found his settlement at Lower Sandusky, Ohio, 
forty miles by river from Lake Erie. Fitch described his ex- 
periences in vivid language. "During the summer the water 
is stagnant, and the land through which the river passes in 
its passage to the lake is prairie. When the vegetation begins 
to decay and the north wind to blow in the fall of the year, it 
rolls up the very quintessence of swamp miasma. In a village 
of one thousand people I have counted rising of five hundred 
sick at once. I have spent three months in visiting the sick 
without asking till Sabbath morning what I should preach. 
My hearers of course at such a time few. I have had eighty 
die within the bounds of my parish in one year. I have lived 
one month without taking off my clothes save for washing, 
or without lying down on a bed but once, then only for a few 
hours. I would get a little rest at night on a sofa in a sick 
room. I was often abroad at midnight, out at all hours. My 
family were sick, but amidst it all I enjoyed good health, and 
hardly knew what it was to be weary." 

These dangers and difficulties did not daunt the men on 
Andover Hill. One class after another sent its quota west- 
ward. Except once no class failed to be represented until 1858. 
The classes of 1825 and 1829 sent twenty-three each. The 
classes of 1832 and 1843 eacn had twenty in the field. Nine- 
teen men went among the Indians, ten among the Negroes, 
ten to work with sailors. Twenty-six different classes sent 
no less than ten each into home missionary service. They 
went into thirty-three states from Maine to Texas. Nor was 
it only in the first part of the century that the interest con- 
tinued. Sixty-five representatives went from the Hill between 
1873 and 1900. 

4W6Y 



An interesting experiment was the cooperative work of the 
bands of students who graduated at the same time from the 
Seminary. In the class of 1843 at Andover twelve men fell 
into the custom of meeting in the Library by moonlight for 
prayer. The need of the frontier people for spiritual help 
weighed upon their hearts. One of the number, Horace 
Hutchinson, had spoken a suggestion that was bearing fruit. 
"If we and some others," he said to two of his classmates, 
"could only go out together, and take possession of some field, 
where we could have the ground and work together, what a 
grand thing it would be ! " The prayer group in the darkness 
was seeking for light on the future. After considering the 
possibilities of different sections, they decided to plan for a 
cooperative enterprise in Iowa. A farewell service was held 
in the South Church in Andover for the eleven young men 
who had elected to go. Dr. Leonard Bacon preached the ser- 
mon and the Home Missionary Society gave its blessing 
through Secretary Badger. Thus graduated into the home 
missionary ranks Ephraim and Harvey Adams, Ebenezer 
Alden, James F. Hill, Horace Hutchinson, Daniel Lane, 
Erastus Ripley, Alden B. Robbins, William Salter, Benjamin 
A. Spaulding, and Edwin B. Turner. 

The Iowa Band marked the beginning of a new growth of 
Congregationalism in the West. Most of the Congregation- 
alists who had gone to the prairies, including the ministers, 
had adopted Presbyterian church relations. Only fifteen Con- 
gregational churches existed in Iowa when the Band arrived, 
but its members retained their Congregational polity and 
changed the course of denominational history. A Congrega- 
tional historian enthusiastically testifies of them : " The West 
would be vastly poorer in its religious and educational life 
but for that timely renaissance, and chief among the agencies 
to which that recovery was due, is this band of Andover pil- 
grims, who were directed to the western bank of the Missis- 
sippi in 1843 w ^h the Pilgrim polity as well as the Pilgrim 
faith glowing in their hearts." 

Twenty-three years after the members of the Iowa Band 
said goodbye to their friends at the Seminary and the place 



where they had knelt in prayer, other men felt the stirring of 
events in Kansas and were eager to cast in their lot with those 
who were settling there. Two of them, Sylvester D. Storrs 
and Grosvenor C. Morse, were New England born. Richard 
Cordley and Roswell D. Parker were from the newer State of 
Michigan. For a year they met for prayer with others of the 
students in one of the dormitory rooms, with the same earnest 
purpose which had animated the Iowa Band. They reached 
Kansas in time to participate in the struggle to keep the Ter- 
ritory free from slavery. They became religious leaders in 
the growing centers of population. Storrs in the capacity of 
State superintendent of missions organized more than one 
hundred Congregational churches in twelve years. Morse 
was the means of establishing a State normal college. They 
had to contend with barbarities of human conduct in the in- 
tense days of the Civil War. For some time the hardships of 
a new country were a handicap. Strenuous endeavor was 
necessary to keep the wolf from the church door. But they 
hung on and grew up with the country, recognized leaders in 
church and community. 

It seems a bit strange to speak of Maine as home mission 
territory, yet the development of some parts of it and the 
decline of once thriving communities presented a field of op- 
portunity comparable with the Far West when the frontier 
was on the point of disappearing. It was a realization of this 
fact that prompted the organization in 1892 of the Andover 
League for Work in Neglected Places, though it lasted only 
two years. Those who joined it agreed to give the early part 
of their ministry to the people of such communities. Relation 
was established with the secretaries of Maine and New Hamp- 
shire, and out of it came the Maine Band, composed of five 
men of the class of 1892. The five were ordained together at 
Farmington and settled near one another in two rural coun- 
ties, Edwin R. Smith at Temple, Oliver D. Sewall at Strong, 
William W. Ranney at Phillips, Edward R. Stearns at New 
Vineyard, and James C. Gregory at Bingham. They frequently 
exchanged pulpits and held joint services with two or more 
of their number. 

4W8Y 



The veterans who had gone West in the early days were in- 
clined to be rather scornful of the later alumni. Chauncy 
Eddy, who completed his Seminary course at Andover in 
1821, was a man who had knocked about the country East 
and South, and later in life had settled down in Jackson, Illi- 
nois. He had evangelized on an island off the South Carolina 
coast until forty-five colored people had organized into a Bap- 
tist church, and three "females" had experienced religion. 
He had traveled in the frontier country of New York as an 
agent of the American Board and of the Western Education 
Society. He had raised money and had turned one hundred 
young men towards the ministry. For a short time he was 
secretary of the New York Colonization Society. Later in 
life he found settlement in the pastorate at Jacksonville, 
Illinois. He rejoiced in the freedom of the West, where a man 
had room to stretch himself, and he closed his letter with a 
sly dig at the young fellows. "Now I am not occupying any 
place which the young men coming out of the Seminary want, 
and so am not in their way. And I have a field of labor here 
where I can swing my arms as much as I please without 
hitting anybody, which, after abating all that is reasonable 
for mud, fleas, etc., etc., is far better than any New England 
parish. I have concluded if the Lord will to hold on a while 
longer. There is much to be done out in this central part of 
creation, which requires something more than such courage 
and enterprise as that is which of late comes out of seminaries 
to perform. I hope there are other gray heads at the East 
who will take their families on their backs and come out to 
clear up the country and prepare good parishes for the young 
men." These criticisms of the younger men may have been 
half in jest, but they were obviously unfair at a time when the 
Iowa Band had just entered the Mississippi Valley. Eddy 
himself was back in the Berkshire country of New England 
a few years later. 

It took all kinds of men to make the West. Pioneers there 
were among them who liked the rough and tumble life, faith- 
ful trail blazers who pushed on regardless of obstacles, and 
refined and cultured graduates of the seminaries who became 

{109}- 



pastors of leading churches and founders of schools and col- 
leges. Andover had samples of them all. About two hundred 
and fifty men belong on her roll of honor as home missionaries, 
and many more who in part belong in that category. They 
helped to build that interior empire which has become the 
heart of America, saved to Christianity and a cultured civiliza- 
tion by the churches and schools that they established. Men 
of the Middle Border, men of the plains beyond, a few men 
of the Golden West beside the sea, they labored well and 
others have entered into their labors. 



-mo}- 



CHAPTER VI 

ANDOVER MEN IN FOREIGN MISSIONS 

IT is Andover's pride that her sons were pioneers in the 
foreign mission enterprise of the American churches. It 
was they who challenged the Congregational ministers of 
Massachusetts to find a way to send them as their representa- 
tives to the pagan peoples on the other side of the world. Out 
of Andover Theological Seminary went some of her firstborn 
to plant Christianity in Burma and peninsular India. A few 
years later others were making Palestine and Syria their goal, 
planting the banner of the Cross where the Crescent held the 
right of way. Soon still others were sailing to the heart of 
the Pacific and wresting Hawaii from grossness and idolatry. 
So splendid was Andover's contribution that the history of 
the missions of the American Board for the first quarter of 
a century is the story of Andover men and their sacrificial 
service. Repeatedly that service was the surrender of life 
itself, but as soon as one in the front line fell another was 
ready to step into his place. No more compelling is the call 
of the South to the waterfowl when the summer wanes, than 
was the Macedonian call from heathendom to the dormitories 
and classrooms on Andover Hill. They became preachers and 
teachers, writers and translators, advisors and administrators. 
They entered Asia from the west and from the east and dared 
the hostility of Turks and Chinese in the hinterland. They 
risked fevers on the tropical west coast of Africa and cholera 
in India and Persia. They created civilization in the Sand- 
wich Islands, and they saw paganism crumble slowly in Ceylon. 
They planted schools for Greeks and Bulgarians, and healed 
the wounds of Armenian refugees. They threaded ways that 
are dark in China, and tried to penetrate behind the polite 
exterior of Japan. They were all things to all men if by any 
means they might gain some. 



The missionary motive is as old as Christianity. It was 
aroused in America by the spiritual awakenings at the turn of 
the century. It had come in England through the initiative 
of William Carey, but he had been inspired by the revivals 
of the middle of the eighteenth century in England and 
America. The passion for missionary service for Americans 
abroad was in the heart of Samuel J. Mills as a result of the 
Evangelical Awakening, and when he went to Williams Col- 
lege, he kindled the flame among a few of his college friends. 
It is a familiar story how they talked over the needs of the 
heathen world, and how they drew up a constitution for their 
secret society and adopted it under a haystack, where they 
sought shelter from a sudden shower. To look upon those 
few paragraphs and the names of the organizers in cipher; 
to decode them and to read: "Constitution of a Society of 
Brethren, Williams College, September 7, 1808" ; in imagina- 
tion to see those humble dreamers storm the walls of con- 
servatism until they gained the sanction of their older brethren 
in the ministry ; and then to see them sailing the seven seas 
on an errand that was to the Greeks a stumbling-block and 
to the barbarians foolishness, but that was to prove the power 
of God to the breaking down of the strongholds of darkness 
this is to thrill with the courage and faith of those resolute 
few who in the optimism of youth shrank from no danger 
and shirked no task. 

The organizers of the Brethren scattered upon graduation 
from college, but the Society of the Brethren was transferred 
to Andover, where it continued for sixty years until it admitted 
to its membership Joseph Neesima and Robert A. Hume, one 
to go back presently to Japan and establish Doshisha Univer- 
sity, the other to make missionary history in India. At An- 
dover the Society was joined by Adoniram Judson from 
Brown, Newell from Harvard, and Nott from Union College. 
The first record of the Society at Andover is dated Septem- 
ber 14, 1810, when the Brethren chose their officers for the 
year. Andover became the seed bed of missionary propaganda. 
Branches of the organization were formed at other seminaries, 
which reported to the parent society at Andover, but only a 



very few students were interested. Andover students en- 
couraged the others and sent out the largest number of mis- 
sionaries. The original records continued to be kept in cipher 
until Pliny Fisk decoded them in 1818, with the constitution 
and a historical sketch of the Society. These were entered 
in a small black book, which served the Society throughout 
its existence. 

The spirit of the members was deeply devotional. Every 
student who joined was required by the constitution to read 
and pray in order to determine his duty, whether he should 
spend his life among the heathen. Special devotions were 
observed on Sunday mornings and Tuesday evenings, and 
the second Tuesday in January was kept as a day of fasting 
and prayer for the missionary cause. 

Samuel J. Mills continued to be the inspirer of the move- 
ment. Between his graduation and his going to Andover he 
was for a time in New Haven. Under date of December 20, 
1809, he wrote to Gordon Hall at Andover, telling him about 
Henry Obookiah, the Hawaiian, who had been brought to 
America, and when the captain of the ship would no longer 
give him aid had been taken in by the big heart of Mills and 
made his protege. "Here I intend he shall stay until next 
spring," wrote Mills, "if he is contented, and I trust he will 
be. Thus you see he is likely to be fairly fixed by my side. 
What does this mean, Brother Hall ? Do you understand it ? 
Shall he be sent back unsupported to attempt to reclaim his 
countrymen? Shall we not rather consider these South Sea 
Islands a proper place for the establishment of a mission? 
Not that I would give up the heathen tribes to the westward. 
I trust that we shall be able to establish more than one mis- 
sion in a short time, at least in a few years. I mean that God 
will enable us to extend our views and labor further than we 
have before contemplated. We ought not to look only to the 
heathen on our own continent. We ought to direct our atten- 
tion to that place where we may to human appearances do the 
most good, and where the difficulties are the least. We are to 
look to the climate, established prejudices, the acquirement of 
languages, means of subsistence, etc., etc. All these things I 



apprehend are to be considered. The field is almost boundless, 
for every part of which there ought to be missionaries." 

Farther on in the same letter Mills continues : "With regard 
to Andover two of the Brethren are there. I think it not likely 
I shall go there myself soon, or within four or five weeks. I 
had previously heard of Mr. Judson. You say he thinks of 
offering himself as a missionary to the London Society for the 
East Indies ? What ! is England to support her own mission- 
aries and ours likewise? O for shame! If he is prepared I 
would fain press him forward with the arm of a Hercules if 
I had the strength. But I do not like this dependence upon 
another nation, especially when they have done so much, and 
we nothing. As far as I am acquainted with his circumstances 
(indeed I scarcely know anything about him), I should think 
it would be better for him to remain where he is, or preach in 
our present field of missions for a time." 

For the purpose of getting missionary information so that 
they might decide intelligently about their life work, the stu- 
dents at Andover organized the "Society of Inquiry on the 
Subject of Missions," January 8, 1811. Its expressed pur- 
pose was "to inquire into the state of the heathen; the duty 
and importance of missionary labors ; the best manner of 
conducting missions and the most eligible place for their 
establishment ; also to disseminate information relative to these 
subjects ; and to incite the attention of Christians to the im- 
portance and duty of missions." One of the Brethren who had 
entered the Seminary the year before, speaking of the deep 
interest in missions, said: "I found that this subject lay with 
great weight upon the minds of a number. They were anxious 
to know what was their personal duty. The spirit of missions 
was there. I thought at the time, and have often thought since, 
that God then sent his spirit into the Seminary to convert the 
student to the subject of missions." The question of a man's 
duty was insistent. Said Dr. DeWitt S. Clark in his Centen- 
nial address: "It fronted him on every side in the conver- 
sation of his companions, in his study of the Scriptures, in 
papers and discussions, in letters of travelers, in addresses, 
sermons and ordinations of those who had responded to the 



call. . . . That famous haystack at Williamstown was no more 
the seat of missionary consecration and outlook than the 
round hillock in the thick wood just below this spot, where 
Mills and his little band gathered from time to time to renew 
their pledges of loyalty and talk together of the great world 
beyond, into which they longed to go as soldiers of the Cross." 

The missionary enthusiasts were well aware that they must 
depend upon the good will of the Congregational churches. 
They appealed to the churches for contributions of money to 
enable them to buy books, and from various sources they ob- 
tained both money and books to the value of three hundred 
dollars. Most important was it to interest the ministers in 
their enterprise. The General Association of Massachusetts 
met in annual session at Bradford, six miles away, in June, 
1810. Six of the Andover students were ready to offer them- 
selves for missionary service if they could obtain the approval 
and support of the Association. At a small conference at the 
house of Professor Stuart, Samuel Newell told the professors 
and a few others what was in their hearts. The next morning 
Dr. Spring of Newburyport and Dr. Worcester of Salem 
drove across country musing and talking about what they 
had heard, and when four of the six students more might 
have been too much of a shock to the Association told their 
story, the plan was ready in their minds. By unanimous 
action the Association forthwith organized the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. This was 
composed of nine men, originally all from Massachusetts, but 
the next year Connecticut was given four of the representa- 
tives and within two years the Presbyterians were welcomed 
to a part in the enterprise. 

The Board was cautious and hopeful of ways and means, 
but it advised the students to continue their studies and wait 
for the proper time to come when they might go to the lands 
of their hearts' desire. Meanwhile it appointed a prudential 
committee and issued an appeal to the public. Judson carried 
the appeal of the students to England, hoping to get assistance 
there, but the London Missionary Society preferred that the 
Americans should respond to the appeal, though the Society 



did not refuse assistance for a time. The result was that 
Judson, Newell, Hall, and Nott were soon under the appoint- 
ment of the American Board to go to Asia, and money for 
their support was forthcoming. One may picture to himself 
that historic scene when Judson and Newell were ordained 
in the Tabernacle Church in Salem, of which Dr. Worcester 
was pastor, and their wintry departure with their youthful 
wives on the ship Caravan from Salem harbor, and one may 
follow in fancy their slow voyage to India. Theirs was the 
flagship of a mighty fleet. Five days after the Caravan cleared 
from Salem, the Harmony carried out of Philadelphia Nott 
and his wife with Hall and Rice. 

After long voyages both ships arrived at Calcutta only to 
find the way blocked against the missionaries. The East India 
Company, which controlled the region, was hostile to mis- 
sionaries, and the War of 1812 between Britain and America, 
declared the day after the Caravan arrived, made all Ameri- 
cans unwelcome. The only opening seemed to be in the island 
of Mauritius. Another long voyage sapped the strength of Mrs. 
Newell, and she died soon after arrival there. Hall and Nott 
escaped deportation to England only by a hurried departure 
to Bombay, which became the point of departure for the later 
Marathi mission. The indomitable Hall wore himself out 
within a few years. Newell, who soon joined them, died still 
earlier, and Nott returned to America. Judson, the enthusi- 
astic, intrepid leader of the missionary group, found himself 
convinced of Baptist principles, and going to Burma became 
the representative of the American Baptists. Rice, with the 
same change of denominational affiliation, returned to America 
to become like Mills a promoter of missions among the 
churches of America. Strange must have seemed the fortunes 
of this forlorn hope, when the five pioneers were scattered so 
soon. Yet the permanent results were incalculable. The Mara- 
thi mission meant a foothold for the larger work that was to 
follow in the Indian Empire. Judson's transfer of denomi- 
national allegiance resulted in the organization of the Ameri- 
can Baptists for foreign missions, and in Burma Judson with 
heroic struggle prepared the way for the brilliant missionary 

4116Y 



success among the Karens, first evangelized by George Dana 
Boardman, a resident licentiate at Andover in 1824. 

The year after the War of 1812 ended saw the first Andover 
men enter Ceylon. Newell had stopped there on his way to 
join Hall at Bombay and found a favorable situation, so that 
the next delegation from America was turned in that direc- 
tion. Five more missionaries, Richards and Warren, class 
of 1812, Meigs, class of '13, and Bardwell and Poor, class 
of '14, all married except Warren, took possession of the 
peninsula of Jaffna for Christ. Bardwell soon was sent on 
to Bombay to push the work of publication. At Jaffna the 
missionaries found quarters in an abandoned Dutch mission, 
and following the educational methods adopted at Bombay, 
commenced the work of Christian education among 350,000 
Tamil-speaking people, whose ancestors had emigrated across 
from South India. Preaching added effectiveness to the in- 
struction of the schools. Spaulding and Winslow, both of 
the class of 1818 at Andover, arrived to reinforce them in 
1820, barely in time to be admitted before the Government 
shut the door against any more American missionaries in 
Ceylon. 

The missions were limited in resources and crippled in 
personnel, for the climate took fearful toll of missionary lives, 
and the attitude of the Government was reluctant if not un- 
friendly. More missionaries died than there were natives 
baptized. But nothing daunted the students who met under 
the auspices of the Society of Inquiry on Andover Hill. 
Graves represented the class of 1815 on his departure for 
Bombay, where he worked for twenty-six years. Nichols of 
the next class also went to Bombay, but he lived only six years. 
With all the odds against them the youthful missionaries kept 
at work. The care of boarding schools, the preaching and 
touring, the patient study of language, the time-consuming 
conversations with individuals whom they were trying to 
reach, filled their days. The need of trained natives as teachers 
warranted the establishment of a theological seminary in 
Ceylon, of which Daniel Poor was in charge for twelve years, 
an Andover man transplanted to the tropics of the Indian 



Ocean. To provide suitable wives for the native men a semi- 
nary for girls was started also. Revivals cheered the hearts 
of the workers ; defections from the ranks of the native Chris- 
tians discouraged them, but there were a few who proved 
capable and true. The workers at Bombay explored the in- 
terior and selected Ahmednagar one hundred and fifty miles 
away as a center there. Persecution added to the troubles of 
the missionary, but perseverance always won in time, if the 
missionary did not die first. It was pioneering with all the 
perils and discouragements that check and seem to baffle, but 
with the missionary urge in their hearts the Americans could 
not stop. 

A third mission of Andover men was to the Sandwich Is- 
lands. Obookiah had been at Andover intermittently, and 
when he died before he was ready to carry the gospel back 
to his own Hawaiian people, it seemed that men from the Hill 
must take his place. Asa Thurston, a graduate of Yale and 
of the class of 1819 at Andover, and his classmate, Hiram 
Bingham from Middlebury, agreed to go together. Ordained 
in Connecticut, and in Park Street Church in Boston organized 
into a church with others who were going with them, they 
sailed in the fall of 1819 on a five months' voyage to the heart 
of the Pacific. Bingham labored twenty-five years at Hono- 
lulu before he returned to America. Thurston, blessed with a 
strong physique, was able to remain forty-eight years in the 
islands without visiting America. Doubtfully received at first, 
though idolatry had been abolished, the missionaries soon made 
themselves welcome. Bingham's good nature and firmness 
won over Hawaiian royalty, and he became the friend and ad- 
visor of the sovereign. The natives loved him. Like Thurs- 
ton he preached and translated the Bible into the language of 
the people as soon as he gained command of their tongue. He 
itinerated; he superintended native schools; he interpreted 
English for kings and chiefs, remaining until pioneer methods 
were no longer possible. Then back in America he carried on 
missionary propaganda, publishing a history of the mission 
as well as preaching and lecturing, until he passed on at the 
age of eighty. William Richards was a third Andover alum- 



mis, going to Hawaii in 1822. He, too, was a teacher and an 
advisor of the chiefs, especially with the new constitution, 
which included a bill of rights based on the Bible. Richards 
was more than a missionary. For three years he was ambas- 
sador of the islands to Great Britain. He was minister of 
instruction, counsellor and chaplain to the king. He lectured 
on political science, and in his mission at Lahaina he was a 
father to the natives. John S. Emerson followed in the foot- 
steps of the pioneers, centering his work at Waialua, toiling 
faithfully for thirty-five years. 

The American Board depended on Andover graduates to 
man its fourth mission, that to the Near East. For years it 
had been a fond hope that Palestine might be won for Chris- 
tianity. In the same year that Thurston and Bingham turned 
their faces westward, Pliny Fisk and Levi Parsons, who had 
graduated recently from the Seminary, set sail for the Holy 
Land. That country was part of a vast Turkish empire where 
the Koran determined the norm of religion. But there were 
Jews in Palestine who had not forgotten the God of their 
fathers, and the youthful optimists from America hoped to 
persuade them of the worth of Christianity. They did not go 
at once to Jerusalem. From Smyrna as a base they toured 
Asia Minor, and after a year Parsons attempted to settle in 
Jerusalem, but political agitation delayed him, and the next 
year he was dead. His place was taken promptly by Jonas 
King, of the class of 1819 at Andover, who surrendered the 
prospect of an Andover professorship to fill temporarily the 
gap in the Near East. From Malta King and Fisk toured 
Egypt on the way to Palestine, studying languages mean- 
while; explored Palestine and Syria to acquaint themselves 
with the land and the people ; but before the work could be 
established King's time was up, and Fisk followed Parsons 
to a better country. 

Before Fisk died Goodell and Bird had said goodbye to 
the brick halls of the Seminary, and on their arrival in the 
eastern Mediterranean had settled at Beirut for a Syrian mis- 
sion. Because of its location Beirut proved the best missionary 
center for that region, and preparations were made for a varied 

-{119V 



ministry in many tongues. Arabic and Syriac, Turkish and 
Armenian, Italian and English, were in use, and Bible trans- 
lations were needed. The usual methods of publication and 
education were employed. Within five years six hundred 
pupils were in attendance. Persecution visited them, but con- 
verts came, and a church was established in Beirut; yet in- 
creasing peril drove the missionaries to Malta for a time. 

Twenty alumni of Andover Seminary had thus ventured in 
ten years' time to carry the seed of the Christian faith and 
sow it in pagan lands. They found a stony soil and inhospit- 
able people. Alike in India and Syria they met persecution 
and fell on death. Followers of the Apostle to the Gentiles 
whom they studied in Bartlet Chapel, disciples of the Master 
who had the courage to die on a cross, they did not flinch at 
hardship or even death. In the roll of honor of Andover men 
their names are gold. They fell at the listening post, but the 
summons of heathendom found its silent way behind the lines 
at home, and when training time was over reinforcements 
followed the pioneers. 

The story of the missionary fortunes of Andover men is 
too long to follow in detail. It is a moving picture, bringing 
into view one country after another, introducing the observer 
to one and another of those who gave their strength to build 
the structure of the missionary enterprise. The panorama 
still moves on, and the Society of Inquiry still ponders upon 
the need and the message. 

The missionary impulse, which had sent so many pioneers 
to distant lands, was propagating faith in the enterprise in 
America itself. It was the little group of devoted students 
who kept it alive at Andover. It was Mills among the Con- 
gregationalists and Rice among the Baptists, whose broad 
vision embraced home as well as foreign missions. Mills 
realized his own limitations as a toiler on the mission field, 
but he knew he could promote the cause at home. Touring 
the American Southwest, he explored the country as a possible 
mission field, and made himself useful organizing Bible soci- 
eties and distributing the Scripture. While residing for a time 
among Presbyterians in the Middle States, he promoted mis- 



sionary and Bible societies there. He took so great an interest 
in the negro that he crossed the Atlantic to explore West 
Africa for the African Colonization Society, and there his 
vigor burned itself out and he died at sea. Rice visited Bap- 
tist churches through the Eastern States, stimulated the raising 
of money and men, and broadened the scope of the Baptist 
missionary organization to include home missions and Chris- 
tian education. 

The spirit that wooed Samuel J. Mills did not cease to echo 
through Andover halls. At the fortieth Commencement of the 
Seminary, after addresses from twenty-eight graduates, they 
sang these words as a parting hymn : 

" I cannot rest ; there comes a sweet and secret whisper to my spirit 

Like a dream of night, 
That tells me I am on enchanted ground. 

The voice of my departed Lord, 

Go, teach all nations, 
Comes on the night air 

And awakes my ear. 

Why live I here ? The vows of God are on me, 

And I may not stop to play with shadows or pluck earthly 

flowers 
Till I my weary pilgrimage have done. 

And I will go ! 

I may no longer doubt to give up friends and idle hopes, 
And every tie that binds my heart to worldly joys. 

Henceforth then it matters not if storm or sunshine be my earthly 

lot; 

Bitter or sweet my cup, 
I only pray God make me holy and my spirit nerve for the stern 

hour of strife. 

And if one for whom Satan hath struggled as he hath for me 

Shall ever reach that blessed shore; 
O how this heart will flame with gratitude and love ! 

Through ages of eternal years, 

I'll ne'er regret 
That toil and suffering 

Once were mine below." 

4 121 F 



A new era opened for missions in India when the renewed 
charter of the East India Company gave them legal standing. 
Reinforcements in Ceylon made it possible for Spaulding and 
Poor to enter the city of Madura on the mainland, where they 
might work in the home country of the Tamils. The city was 
the center of a broad agricultural area. Definite progress was 
made. Nearly two thousand pupils were gathered into schools, 
new stations were opened, and the good will of government 
and people was won through the wisdom and moderation of 
the men of Andover who founded the mission. Miron Wins- 
low, a classmate of Spaulding in the Seminary, was sent out 
to Ceylon after his graduation, and in 1836 was transferred 
to Madras. That city became the center of a publishing enter- 
prise in which other denominations cooperated. Winslow 
mastered the language and then gave much of his time to a 
revision of the Tamil Bible. When time permitted he toured 
through the interior, sometimes ranging far. Such journeys 
were both exploratory and evangelistic. In the formative 
period of missions it was necessary to make surveys of the 
territory to be occupied and to plan carefully for future de- 
velopment. To reach the people it was necessary to speak in 
their tongue. Yet the educational approach seemed the best 
policy because it was gradual and would lead people to ac- 
cept the gospel intelligently. The press was of similar value 
with the school. The Bombay printing-house grew in size. 
A Marathi edition of the Bible was issued there, while 
the Tamil edition came from the Madras press. Textbooks 
and hymn books were printed for school and church use. 
Tracts in large numbers poured from the presses, and even- 
tually books for the increasing public who could read. And 
when difference of opinion arose among British missionaries 
whether it was better to teach the people of India through the 
vernacular or the English language, the Andover men were 
combining the two in their missions in Madura and Ceylon. 
Edward Webb, Andover, 1845, made a contribution that en- 
titled him to be called the father of Christian Tamil music, 
when in the Madura mission he took the native pagan music 
cultivated through the Sanskrit, discovered a native Christian 



poet who wrote Christian songs, and married the music and 
the poetry. From that time the native Christians enjoyed the 
musical part of worship. Out of the experience came the 
Madura hymn book with its hundred Christian songs, edited 
by Webb. 

By the middle of the nineteenth century the missionary work 
in India was flourishing and new methods were being tried 
out. Central boarding-schools branched out into village 
schools, more preaching was undertaken, new churches were 
organized, the beginnings of self-support were made, and 
more dependence was placed on native leadership. Caste was 
a troublesome question, and attempts to check it were liable 
to wreck a mission. It required the wisest kind of leadership 
to know when and how to attempt radical changes in popular 
customs and ideas. 

The missionaries who had gone to India early in the century 
were feeling the effects of long years of activity in a foreign 
country with a trying climate, but they kept steadily at their 
task. Winslow was prolific in his literary work for the Tamils, 
especially his Tamil-English dictionary. Spaulding passed the 
half-century mark in Ceylon, and lived until he saw the mis- 
sion the most thoroughly cultivated of any of the Congrega- 
tional missions. The greatest gain of the middle decades was 
the increasing self-reliance and participation of the Indian 
people in the development of Christianity in their country. 

By 1880 the Marathi mission was ready to celebrate its 
semi-centennial. Eight stations, seventy-six out-stations, and 
twenty-four organized churches, with schools and an influ- 
ential press, were powerful factors in keeping the Christian 
religion before the people. The relief given by the missionaries 
during the years of famine created a wave of friendly feeling 
from which all the missions benefited. It was a time for con- 
structive work, especially through more and better schools. 
Andover alumni played no small part in the progress of all 
three of the India missions. Three men in particular were 
notable leaders of the period Hume, Jones, and Washburn. 

George T. Washburn was the oldest of the three. A 
Williams man and a graduate of Andover in the class of 1858, 



he went out to India in 1860 and became one of the strong 
pillars of the Madura mission, remaining to the end of the 
century. A novel contribution was the True News. He 
founded it in 1870, edited it, and issued it as a semi-monthly 
newspaper through the Pasumalai Press. He carried this on 
as a part of his duties for twenty-six years. His major work 
was educational, as president of the Pasumalai Seminary and 
then of the College. 

Robert A. Hume was born at Bombay, the son of a mis- 
sionary father. After a college course at Yale and two years 
in the Divinity School, he completed his theological prepara- 
tion at Andover with the class of 1873, and then set sail for 
the land of his birth. Locating at Ahmednagar, he made that 
city his future home and there he established and built up a 
theological seminary. His constructive labors in that school 
and the variety of his active leadership made Hume the out- 
standing missionary in India. Besides his care of the Semi- 
nary he had the superintendence of the Parner district west 
of the city for forty years. He sent out more than two hundred 
personally trained evangelists and teachers, and many churches 
and schools and one thousand conversions were the result. 
He was at one time or another principal of boys' and girls' 
schools, and editor of an Anglo-Marathi periodical. In 
addition to the service of his own denominational mission he 
sustained the common cause of Christianity, serving on com- 
mittees of various organizations, and frequently as an officer. 
He was district secretary of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, president of the All-India Christian Endeavor Union, 
and the first moderator of the United Church of Northern 
India, of which the Congregationalists were a constituent 
member. For his service in his administration of funds for 
famine relief in the closing years of the century he received 
the Kaiser-i-Hind medal from the British Government. On a 
furlough to the United States in 1904-1905 he was invited to 
give the Hyde lectures at Andover. These were collected and 
published under the title "Missions from the Modern Point 
of View," a book that took its place at once in the front rank 
of missionary publications. Altogether Hume saw fifty-two 



years of service. At the end as at the beginning he was the 
same simple, efficient, kindly man, fond of work with his 
brother men, and interested in the welfare of India even when 
his active ministry was over. He was one of the far-sighted 
leaders who helped the missionaries make the transition from 
the nineteenth to the twentieth century. 

John P. Jones was Welsh-born, only six months younger 
than Hume. His college was Western Reserve and he gradu- 
ated from Andover in the class of 1878. He found his field 
of labor in the Madura mission, remaining there almost forty 
years. Soon after he had become acclimated and acquired a 
knowledge of the people and their language he was put in 
charge of the Madura mission, and from that time he was 
fully occupied with the direction of the evangelistic and edu- 
cational operations. He kept preaching in the forefront of 
activity, and saw that schools were planted when there was 
need. He founded the first Christian high school, and for 
twenty-two years was principal in Pasumalai. He managed 
the mission press. Like Hume he received the Kaiser -i-Hind 
medal for his efficiency in relief. He traveled all over India 
and Burma as president of the South India Christian Endeavor 
Union. He was the author of "India's Problem: Krishna or 
Christ," a book widely read. 

It was the yeoman service of men like these which built 
solidly the Congregational missions of India. Nor was it in 
their leadership alone. Other men wrought effectively in less 
conspicuous positions, doing their part of the day's work. 
Among Andover missionaries during this period or not long 
before were James Herrick, who spent nearly forty years in 
the Madura district; George H. Gutterson of the same mis- 
sion; William A. Ballantine, a medical missionary; Henry 
J. Bruce, who served decade after decade in western India, 
printing religious books and millions of leaflets ; and Edward 
Fairbank and Edward P. Holton, classmates at Andover, who 
each found a place for himself on the field. 

The pioneer of the American Board in China was Elijah C. 
Bridgrnan, Andover 1829. When he arrived in the country 
Robert Morrison was his only predecessor. Studying with 

-{125V 



him when he was not permitted to preach, he prepared himself 
for education and translation, and he edited the Chinese Re- 
pository, a monthly established to inform English-speaking 
people about the Chinese. His later life was spent in Bible 
translation at Shanghai. Lyman B. Peet, after seven years on 
the threshold in Siam, settled in Foochow after the Opium 
War had opened the ports, and remained for a quarter of a 
century. Henry Blodget served in Peking and other cities 
for forty years, was one of the translators of the New Testa- 
ment into Mandarin, and translated books and hymns into 
Chinese. Chauncy Goodrich followed after he was through 
at Andover, and was in North China from that time. Isaac 
Pierson was twenty-one years at Pao-ting-fu. Henry D. 
Porter and Arthur H. Smith were both in the class of 1870 
at Andover, and both spent long terms of service in the North 
China mission. Porter was trained in medicine, and was able 
to be of particular service in the famine of 1878. Smith por- 
trayed village life in China in his books, and was a leader in 
his mission. He lived until 1932. William S. Ament was a 
missionary at Peking when the Boxer Uprising occurred. He 
knew the need of military defence against those who hated 
foreigners and he was well aware that without money it was 
difficult to work very efficiently, yet he showed the devoted 
spirit of all the missionaries in that trying time when he wrote : 
"I would rather ride a little donkey from village to village 
and sleep on bricks at night, with the privilege of testifying 
of the grace of God and communicating a little hope to the 
dull lives of this people than anything else." William P. 
Sprague and James H. Roberts at Kalgan, Harlan P. Beach 
at Tung-cho, and Charles A. Nelson at Canton, also belong 
on the roll of Andover names in China. 

The first Andover name in Japan is Daniel C. Greene, An- 
dover 1869. He commenced a mission in Kyoto, which be- 
came one of the centers of the work of the American Board in 
Japan. His is one of the prominent names in the missionary 
history of the denomination. The Missionary Herald, sum- 
ming up his career, testified: "Founder of the American 
Board's mission in Japan, one of the translators of the Scrip- 



tures into Japanese, educator, author, advisor to diplomats 
and legislators, father in the work to later missionaries, presi- 
dent of the Asiatic Society of Japan, and recipient from the 
emperor of Japan of the Third Order of the Rising Sun, the 
highest honor ever conferred on civilians living in the coun- 
try." He was a member of the committee on the translation 
of the New Testament, and for several years was professor 
of New Testament exegesis in Doshisha College. The Do- 
shisha itself is one of the trophies of American education. 
Because Joseph Neesima learned what American seminaries, 
including Andover, could do for him, he in his turn founded 
the college as a Christian university in Japan; and though 
for a time it lost its Christian character, it was a powerful in- 
fluence in interpreting Western culture to Japan. It was in 
1874 that Neesima was at Andover engaged in special studies. 
In that decade Marquis L. Gordon commenced a thirty-year 
ministry at Osaka and Kyoto, two-thirds of the time a pro- 
fessor in Doshisha College; James H. Pettee was stationed 
at Okayama; and his classmate, Otis Cary, another of the 
makers of the Japanese mission, professor in the Doshisha, 
and interpreter of the Japanese Christians to America and 
England through his monumental history of Christianity in 
Japan. Later names of Andover men include Samuel C. 
Bartlet, Sidney L. Gulick, champion of the Japanese in their 
differences with the United States over immigration, Henry 
J. Bennett, and Enoch F. Bell. 

Out in the islands of the Pacific David B. Lyman toiled 
faithfully for more than fifty years, and Benjamin W. Parker 
for forty-five years, part of the time in the Marquesas Islands 
and for the last five years of his life the head of the Hawaiian 
Theological Seminary. Mark Ives was in Hawaii fifteen years, 
and George B. Rowell exceeded that record by seven years. 
Elsewhere than in Hawaii it was dangerous business to explore 
and attempt to deal with cannibals. Lyman and Munson were 
killed in the Batak country in 1834. George Pearson was 
able to devote five years to Micronesia, where the American 
Board cooperated with the Hawaiian Evangelical Association 
in the farther islands. The savagery of the islanders was 

\\2-J \ 



appalling, the distances were great from island to island. It 
was months between mails. But there never was a lack of 
those who were willing to make the sacrifice for the sake of 
the gospel of Jesus. The construction of the first missionary 
ship was a venture, but the contributions of the children of 
American churches and Sunday schools amounted to twelve 
thousand dollars, sufficient to meet the cost of the Morning 
Star; a farewell meeting was held in Park Street Church, 
Boston, for Hiram Bingham, Jr., Andover 1857, and his wife, 
and the new ship turned its prow to the South Sea. Twenty- 
one weeks later the ship arrived at Honolulu, where his father 
had wrought mightily for God. Then on to the Gilbert Islands, 
where the son took up his own task. Later he cruised among 
the islands as captain of Morning Star, No. 2, returned to 
Honolulu on account of ill health, but improved the oppor- 
tunity to prepare literature for the Gilbert Islanders, trans- 
lated the Bible, hymn books and his own commentaries into 
Gilbertese, and prepared a Bible dictionary. 

Another Hawaiian missionary's son was Oliver P. Emerson, 
Andover 1871, who, after pastorates in the United States, 
performed secretarial service in Hawaii. Joel F. Whitney 
was his classmate, and he spent ten of the early years of his 
life in Micronesia. 

The South Sea islands and the Far East had the lure of the 
far distance and the wide spaces; the Near East provided 
a better civilization, but with difficulties almost as great. The 
minds of the people were encrusted with the barnacles of their 
static formal religions. Ancient speculative dogmas and mean- 
ingless rituals had choked the life of the inner spirit. Syrian 
and Armenian, Greek and Bulgarian, each believed his own 
form of religion superior to the others, and the Turk scoffed 
at them all as inferior to his own Mohammedanism. It was 
sterile soil for the missionary's seed, but he kept sowing it 
even if little sprouted. Andover men had a distinguished part 
in the patient cultivation of the nineteenth century. Seventy- 
nine names belong to the roll of honor of the Near East in 
Andover's one hundred years ; merely to list them is impossible. 

Elias Riggs was one of those sturdy pioneers who never can 



be overlooked. Leaving the Seminary in 1832, he served an 
apprenticeship in Greece and then for fifteen years made his 
headquarters at Smyrna, preaching and preparing textbooks 
for the Greeks. A visit from two of the American Board at 
home awakened an interest among the Armenians, and 
changed the direction of missionary activity from the Greeks 
to them. In harmony with the new plan Riggs was transferred 
to Constantinople. Already he had learned Bulgarian, and 
subsequently he translated the whole Bible into that language. 
At Constantinople his workshop turned out biblical material, 
translations and dictionaries, grammars and commentaries, in 
Turkish, Bulgarian, Armenian, and Chaldee. Busy as he was, 
he hardly counted the years as sixty-seven of them rolled by 
until at last the toll of them was over and he was laid to rest 
in 1901. In all that long time he visited America but once, 
when his health compelled, and then he superintended the 
electrotyping of the Armenian Bible in New York City and 
taught Hebrew at Union Theological Seminary. Though ab- 
sent he was not forgotten, and American colleges fitly hon- 
ored him with academic degrees. 

Harrison G. O. Dwight lived for thirty years among the 
Armenians before his life was cut short by a railroad accident 
in America when he was on furlough. He saw the Armenian 
mission grow from one station at Constantinople to twenty- 
three stations and eighty-one out-stations scattered through- 
out the Armenian country. Forty-two churches had recruited 
sixteen hundred members, and almost two hundred pastors 
and teachers were at work. So rapid were the gains of thirty 
years. Dwight was spiritually minded, kindly, tactful but 
resolute, and statesmanlike in his policies. He encouraged 
self-support of native institutions. His death left vacant a 
place that was hard to fill. It was among the Armenians that 
William Goodell spent thirty-four years of his missionary life, 
translating the Bible into the Armeno-Turkish language. Dis- 
turbances of various kinds compelled him to pack up and move 
thirty-three times in twenty-nine years, but he gloried in his 
service. Benjamin Schneider left Andover in 1833 an d until 
1877 he was busy trying to keep pace with the rapid develop- 

-{129V 



ment of the Armenian mission, and with all his other activities 
he translated books and tracts. 

A few references like these to the Armenian mission convey 
little impression of the extent or intensity of the missionary 
enterprise among the Armenians. Particularly effective was 
the educational endeavor carried on at Aintab, Marsovan, 
and other centers. Over in Persia where the pioneers had 
sought out the Nestorians, Justin Perkins ended his labors of 
thirty-six years, which included the whole time from the be- 
ginning of the mission until it was transferred to the Presby- 
terians. Like so many other of the missionaries he was eminent 
in Bible translation. But he had a part also in establishing the 
eighty-five Christian centers and twenty-four hundred con- 
gregations, and in helping the hundreds of students in Chris- 
tian schools. Nor was he the only Andover man to labor in 
Persia. The class of 1859 gave Ambrose for a short term and 
Labaree and Shedd for long service. 

The Syrian mission was in time transferred to the Presby- 
terians, but not until Eli Smith had made his translation of 
the Bible into Arabic, had used his knowledge of Hebrew, 
Turkish, Italian, French, and German to widen the usefulness 
of the missionary press, had explored as far as the Nestorian 
country, and had helped Robinson in his Palestinian re- 
searches. He was Hopkinsian in his theology, and he preached 
in Arabic the truths of the gospel as he understood them. 
William Bird was in Syria for a half century. Daniel Bliss 
went from Andover about the time that Smith died, founded 
the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut, and saw it grow in 
thirty-six years from sixteen to six hundred students. He 
wrote philosophical textbooks in Arabic. Edwin E. Bliss 
spent an equal length of time in publication work in Constan- 
tinople, including a newspaper issued in three languages, 
which circulated among ten thousand readers. In the same 
city of Constantinople William G. Schauffler labored among 
the Spanish Jews living there, and prepared the Bible, a gram- 
mar, and a lexicon in their language. Later he gave his time 
to the Mohammedans. C. F. Morse opened the Bulgarian 
mission at Adrianople, William W. Meriam worked at 



Philippopolis until he was murdered by brigands, and William 
Arms was located near by. In Bulgaria James F. Clarke had 
one of the records of almost fifty years, which would seem 
wonderful if not repeated so many times. In 1872 George D. 
Marsh went from Andover to Bulgaria for a long lifetime of 
service. Soon after he arrived a more rapid development be- 
gan, which brought more participation of native workers, and 
an increased number of converts. Henry C. Haskell, Andover 
1862, who spent twenty-five years in Bulgaria, wrote to the 
Society of Inquiry at the Seminary that in spite of all the tra- 
ditions of Christianity that the people had had for a thousand 
years their moral and spiritual condition showed the utter 
inability of their form of religion to bring the people into fel- 
lowship with God. This justified all the efforts of American 
Congregationalists in a nominally Christian land. 

George F. Herrick had an almost unparalleled record in 
Turkey. He graduated from Andover in the class of 1859, 
sailed for Constantinople that autumn and was there at inter- 
vals until 1893, when he made it his permanent residence. At 
one time he was teaching in the theological seminary at Mar- 
sovan, at another time was president of Anatolia College. 
For five years he served on a committee of three in the revis- 
ion of the Bible into the Turkish and Armenian languages, 
and he translated theological textbooks and commentaries into 
Greek as well as Turkish and Armenian. The disasters that 
overcame the Armenian mission after the World War, and 
the growing tide of religious skepticism in the lands of the 
Near East, cannot dim the glory of these men and women 
whose blessed influence brightened and ennobled the life of 
their generations for a century. 

In Africa the small beginnings that Grout and Champion 
made in the Zulu country were reinforced at the middle of the 
century. Lewis Grout remained there for sixteen years ; half 
of that time the progress was very slow, but before he returned 
to America he felt himself rewarded. Thereafter missionaries 
found more time to engage in education. William Ireland 
went from Andover to spend forty years in the mission. 
George R. Ferguson of the class of 1859 became a missionary 

4131 Y 



of the Dutch Reformed Church and principal of the Mission- 
ary Training School at Wellington. Erwin H. Richards was 
commissioned by the American Board, and later was under the 
direction of the Methodists. The Zulu mission had a self- 
propagating power through native evangelists. Herbert D. 
Goodenough, arriving in 1881, ministered in education and 
administration. The outstanding Andover figure in West 
Africa is William Walker, who in the tropical Gaboon terri- 
tory remained in service for thirty years, returned to America 
in the service of the American Board for five years, and then 
went back to Africa under the Presbyterian Board for six 
years longer. 

A few men from Andover Hill found their posts in Latin 
American countries. In an environment of ignorant, super- 
stitious Catholics and under governments that were unfriendly 
to Protestants, it was exceedingly slow and discouraging work, 
but Nathaniel P. Gilbert was in Peru and Chile for a number 
of years, and Theodore S. Pond after twenty years in the 
Near East commenced an extended period of service in the 
northern part of South America, first in Colombia and then 
in Venezuela. Mexico claimed more of Andover's sons. James 
D. Eaton, Andover 1872, opened the Northern Mexican mis- 
sion at Chihuahua in 1882. His experience was typical of other 
missionaries in the same country. The Roman Catholic Church 
was losing its grip, but was fighting to retain it. The local 
Catholic authorities nailed to the church door a notice that 
any one who did not boycott the missionary would be excom- 
municated, yet in twenty years the local Protestant church 
took into membership two hundred and fifty persons, and 
fourteen other churches had been organized in the State of 
Chihuahua. One of the churches was so inaccessible that it 
took thirty days to make the journey there on muleback. 

Congregational missionaries to the American Indians in 
the early part of the nineteenth century operated under the 
American Board, and among them were several Andover men. 
Cyrus Kingsbury of the Andover class of 1815 went to the 
South and served as Congregational missionary to the Chero- 
kees and Choctaws for forty-two years. He went with them 



when they removed west to the Indian Territory, and after 
1859 was commissioned for eleven years by the Southern 
Presbyterian Board, thus completing fifty-three years of mis- 
sionary service. Alfred Wright of the next class was with the 
Indians for thirty-four years, Cyrus Byington was missionary 
to the Choctaws for nearly fifty years. Samuel A. Worcester, 
graduating from Andover seven years after Wright, gave 
the same length of service to the Cherokees. These men felt 
keenly the injustice that Georgia forced upon the United 
States Government in its dealings with the Indians, and they 
were glad to accompany them when possible on their arduous 
journey west. It was the policy of the missionaries to train 
the Indians to be useful in the manual arts, and to give them 
an education as well as to teach them the truth about religion. 
Encouraging progress was made in the South, but the whites 
wanted the Indian lands and tried to get rid of the mission- 
aries. When Worcester stood by his mission he was thrown 
into prison and kept there for fifteen months. 

With the scattering of the southern Indians the American 
Board pushed out its stations among the northern Indians 
also, even as far as the Pacific coast, but small results were 
gained. Cutting Marsh, Andover 1829, was sent by the Amer- 
ican Board to work among the Stockbridge Indians, who at 
that time were in the region of the Great Lakes. Seventy of 
these Indians were gathered into church membership. From 
Andover Boutwell, Hall, and Wheeler went to the Ojibwas 
and settled in Minnesota; Wright, Bliss, Wight, and Ford 
sought out the Senecas in New York; Edmund McKinney 
found his way to the Choctaws and the Omaha Indians, Willey 
to the Cherokees, and Ranney to the Pawnees and Cherokees. 
All these were in service before 1850. It was of course impos- 
sible to do more than ease the transition to civilization for a 
vanishing race, but the missionaries were as earnest in their 
work in America as were the workers on foreign fields. 

Perhaps in no way did Andover men render more distin- 
guished service than in their literary labors. The missionaries 
who had known the serviceableness of the Andover Press 
valued printing as one of the best means for the propagation 

-{133}- 



of Christianity, and they emulated Professor Stuart in their 
diligence in preparing literary material for the printer. Pa- 
tiently studying native tongues, sometimes creating a written 
language, and then translating the Bible by laborious process 
extending over years, the missionaries made the Scriptures 
available in the vernacular for Tamil and Marathi, for Turk 
and Armenian, for Greek and barbarian, for Kanaka and 
Cherokee, and even for the natives of Africa. The necessary 
helps of dictionary and grammar and commentary accom- 
panied Bible translation. Textbooks for school use and tracts 
to carry the gospel message came from the missionary presses, 
and now and then especially useful books in English were 
translated for the benefit of the native Christians. 

As the nineteenth century drew toward its close the Society 
of Inquiry wrote letters to prominent missionaries in the Near 
and Far East, asking for first-hand information about their 
activities. The replies of the missionaries, busy men as they 
were, showed an appreciation of the interest of the students 
in writing them. Hume of India, Smith of China and Her- 
rick of Turkey, expressed cordial interest in the Seminary 
that had mothered them, and hoped that students would not 
fail to follow on to the mission field. Every one of them after 
long years of experience rejoiced in his task and thought of 
nothing more desirable than to carry on as long as God should 
give life and strength. William A. Farnsworth, Andover 
1852, after forty-six years of service, writing from Cassarea, 
told of his care of a territory six times as large as Massa- 
chusetts with thirty-four communities that must be visited 
at least once a year. He explained to the students at Andover 
that the missionary must know how to deal with men, to read 
character, to sympathize with every need, and to aid the dis- 
tressed; in short, hardly any good quality of head or heart 
would fail to be summoned to his help. A missionary in Cey- 
lon suggested that, since several of the early members of the 
Society of Inquiry had been founders of the Ceylon mission, 
it would be fitting for present and future members of the 
Society to build several inexpensive schools in the island to 
celebrate the centennial of the mission. 



of Christianity, and they emulated Professor Stuart in their 
diligence in preparing literary material for the printer. Pa- 
tiently studying native tongues, sometimes creating a written 
language, and then translating the Bible by laborious process 
extending over years, the missionaries made the Scriptures 
available in the vernacular for Tamil and Marathi, for Turk 
and Armenian, for Greek and barbarian, for Kanaka and 
Cherokee, and even for the natives of Africa. The necessary 
helps of dictionary and grammar and commentary accom- 
panied Bible translation. Textbooks for school use and tracts 
to carry the gospel message came from the missionary presses, 
and now and then especially useful books in English were 
translated for the benefit of the native Christians. 

As the nineteenth century drew toward its close the Society 
of Inquiry wrote letters to prominent missionaries in the Near 
and Far East, asking for first-hand information about their 
activities. The replies of the missionaries, busy men as they 
were, showed an appreciation of the interest of the students 
in writing them. Hume of India, Smith of China and Her- 
rick of Turkey, expressed cordial interest in the Seminary 
that had mothered them, and hoped that students would not 
fail to follow on to the mission field. Every one of them after 
long years of experience rejoiced in his task and thought of 
nothing more desirable than to carry on as long as God should 
give life and strength. William A. Farnsworth, Andover 
1852. after forty-six years of service, writing from Caesarea, 
told of his care of a territory six times as large as Massa- 
chusetts with thirty-four communities that must be visited 
at least once a year. He explained to the students at Andover 
that the missionary must know how to deal with men, to read 
character, to sympathize with every need, and to aid the dis- 
tressed ; in short, hardly any good quality of head or heart 
would fail to be summoned to his help. A missionary in Cey- 
lon suggested that, since several of the early members of the 
Society of Inquiry had been founders of the Ceylon mission, 
it would be fitting for present and future members of the 
Society to build several inexpensive schools in the island to 
celebrate the centennial of the mission. 



The celebration of the hundredth anniversary of the Amer- 
ican Board in Boston included a visit to Andover and the 
placing of a tablet to the memory of that little company of 
Brethren which made the nucleus of the mighty enterprise 
which had gone around the world. After a century the Board 
was spending a million dollars a year, and was sponsoring six 
hundred missionaries. Andover had a brilliant record in mis- 
sionary service. In the first ten years every missionary but 
one was trained on the Hill. One hundred and twenty went 
abroad in the first fifty years. During the century two hun- 
dred and forty-eight alumni had answered the Macedonian 
call. The five hundred visitors who went to Andover by special 
train and wended their way to the Missionary Woods near 
the Seminary felt the thrill of it all. The exercises of the hour 
of dedication were impressive. The tablet was unveiled and 
prayer was offered by relatives of the pioneers, Richards 
and Hall. The large company sang the missionary hymn, "The 
Morning Light Is Breaking," which was written by Samuel 
Francis Smith while a student in Brick Row. The tablet was 
affixed to a granite boulder erected by the citizens of Andover, 
and bore the impressive inscription : 

"In the 'Missionary Woods' once extending to this spot the first 
missionary students of Andover Seminary walked and talked one 
hundred years ago, and on this secluded knoll met to pray. In 
memory of these men 

Adoniram Judson Samuel Nott Samuel J. Mills 

Samuel Newell Gordon Hall James Richards 

Luther Rice 

whose consecrated purpose to carry the gospel to the heathen world 
led to the formation of the first American society for foreign mis- 
sions. In recognition of the 248 missionaries trained in Andover 
Seminary and in gratitude to Almighty God, this stone is set up 
in the Centennial year of the American Board, 1910." 



4135}- 



CHAPTER VII 

ANDOVER MEN IN EDUCATION AND 
LITERATURE 

TO study on Andover Hill was to expand the horizons 
of thought as well as of sympathy. To pass in review 
the centuries of history and think other men's thoughts 
after them was like breathing the invigorating atmosphere of 
the hills. To muse upon the problems of philosophy and the- 
ology was like climbing a mountain range to view a region in 
perspective. As was said at the Centennial in 1908: Old 
Andover had the spirit of "creative imagination able to dis- 
cover the universal in the particular and to make of the 
familiar experiences of a New England village a stage broad 
enough on which to pass in review the procession of the 
eternities." 

It was this characteristic which qualified Andover men to 
become educators. They did not have the special knowledge 
of a modern doctor of philosophy or the pedagogical methods 
of the best normal schools of the present day, but at least they 
knew how to think and to prod other minds to think. Not 
many schools of that time were so well qualified as Andover 
to give the intellectual training that was needed for the teach- 
ing profession. In the first decade the colleges were seldom 
above junior grade and their graduates were not mature. The 
three years in the professional school added much to the in- 
tellectual equipment. Another reason why theological grad- 
uates should be chosen as college presidents was the custom 
of selecting a minister and expecting him to teach philosophy, 
if not theology. The increasing number of new schools on the 
frontier as well as the older New England institutions made 
a heavy demand for teachers in college and academy. It is 

4136Y 



these considerations that make it easier to understand why 
so remarkable a succession of educators should be found 
among Andover alumni. 

It is impressive to call the roll of colleges that invited An- 
dover men to be their presidents. In New England they 
include Bowdoin and Dartmouth, Middlebury and the Uni- 
versity of Vermont in the northern tier of states ; Amherst, 
Smith and Brown in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. In 
New York were Hamilton, Union, and Vassar. Five were in 
Ohio : Antioch, Marietta, Oberlin, Western Reserve, and Ohio 
Female College. Moving steadily westward one finds Andover 
alumni at Wabash, Indiana, Illinois and Knox in Illinois, 
Drury in Missouri, Washburn in Kansas, Colorado among 
the Rockies, and Pomona in California. In a more northerly 
latitude are Adrian and Olivet in Michigan, Beloit in Wis- 
consin, Iowa College in Iowa, and Fargo in North Dakota. 
Howard University in Washington, D. C., Atlanta in Georgia, 
Rollins in Florida, Fisk in Tennessee, and state colleges in 
Alabama and Tennessee, gave wide representation to Andover 
in the South. For good measure the universities of Wiscon- 
sin and Kansas should be added. And overseas were Robert 
College in Constantinople and the Syrian Protestant College 
at Beirut. Among the personal names are some of the greatest 
presidents in the history of these institutions. It is enough 
to name Hyde of Bowdoin, Tucker of Dartmouth, Marsh of 
Vermont, Stearns and Harris of Amherst, Seelye of Amherst, 
and Wayland of Brown, men illustrious in the ecclesiastical 
as well as the educational history of New England. 

Names like these connected with the best colleges and uni- 
versities of the East give distinction to any school that has 
helped to train them, but less known colleges on the frontier 
have their heroic leaders whose achievements add lustre to 
the schools where they found themselves. Out in the North- 
west where the wheat fields reach to the horizon in summer 
and blizzards blot out that same horizon in the dead of winter 
is a college which does not forget to honor the man who made 
it. Joseph Ward graduated from Andover in the class of 1868. 
He had been in the army and the Christian Commission during 

4137Y 



the Civil War and then had completed his course at Brown. 
He went to Andover Seminary in the fall of that year and 
graduated at the age of thirty, a man ready for the challenge 
of a big task. It came to him from South Dakota. For four- 
teen years he grew into power in the community and the state 
while he served as a home missionary pastor in Yankton. He 
had the joy of welcoming the Dakota Band from Yale College, 
and helping to place the men in strategic locations. The people 
of Yankton made Ward superintendent of the local schools, 
then he became a member of the State Board of Education. 
In 1883 he was elected a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of the Territory which was becoming a State. People 
trusted his leadership, for they knew his character and ability. 
He matched swords with politicians and beat them. Then, 
as if he had not spent his life in public service already, he gave 
the rest of the time that was his to the creation of a college. 
Yankton College is his monument. He rallied the youth of 
the region for an education, and went East for the money to 
build the college. He assumed the presidency and taught 
mental and moral philosophy from the beginning. He selected 
the Faculty. Before he was fairly engaged in the enterprise 
he lectured at Andover on "The Building of Society in the 
New States." He had only a few years left for service but 
he filled them full. He belongs among the builders of the West. 

With these administrators belong Cecil F. P. Bancroft, who 
was the able principal of Phillips Academy at Andover for 
twenty-eight years, and his successor, Alfred E. Stearns, who 
between 1900 and 1933 reconstructed the Academy into a 
modern institution in the front rank of its kind. Samuel H. 
Taylor was over an equal period of time an outstanding fig- 
ure as a teacher of the classics. At Phillips Academy, Exeter, 
Gideon L. Soule spent half a century, including thirty-five 
years of administration as principal. 

One hundred and fifty professors of colleges were Andover 
alumni. The first class contributed a professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy to the University of Vermont, 
the second another to a similar chair at Yale. The four classes 
from 1817 to 1820 sent presidents to Wabash and Western 

I138K 



Reserve, and professors to institutions as far apart as Bow- 
doin, West Point, University of North Carolina, and the 
Episcopal Theological Seminary in Virginia. Among the illus- 
trious names of later years are George P. Fisher of Yale, 
Charles A. Young of Princeton, Jeremiah L. Diman of Brown, 
Edward P. Crowell of Amherst, Joseph H. Thayer and George 
H. Palmer of Harvard, Moses C. Tyler of Cornell, and Samuel 
V. Cole, who made Wheaton Seminary into a woman's college. 

Andover's position as a pioneer among seminaries fitted her 
to train men to teach in other divinity schools. Yale and Har- 
vard profited thereby, as did the Episcopal schools at Cam- 
bridge and Alexandria, and Lane Seminary, the Presbyterian 
school in Ohio. The first two professors at Newton Theo- 
logical Institution, Irah Chase and Henry B. Ripley, were 
Andover alumni, and they modeled the Baptist seminary after 
Andover. Horatio B. Hackett, renowned as a Greek scholar 
in his time, trained theological students at Newton and 
Rochester. No less than eleven men went from Andover to 
chairs in the seminary at Bangor. George W. Andrews of the 
class of 1867 trained ministers among the Negroes for forty 
years at Talladega College in Alabama. John W. Buckham 
of the class of 1888 went to the Pacific coast. And on the 
foreign mission field it was Andover men who taught native 
preachers in many of the mission schools. 

These men are representatives of scores of others. To list 
a catalogue of them is far less impressive than to sit down 
and study the record of their lives. Most of them were 
teachers of subjects akin to the theological discipline, some 
of them famous men in the theological departments. Not 
least among their contributions was the number of men who 
were chosen to fill places on the Faculty of the institution 
itself, Andover alumni for Andover Seminary. Among them 
are Park and Phelps, Tucker, Harris, and Hincks, Smyth 
and Churchill, and thirteen less known to Andover men of 
recent years. 

There are other alumni of the Seminary who rendered 
unique service in administrative positions, sometimes akin 
to an educator but in other cases far removed. 



Thomas H. Gallaudet graduated from Andover in 1814 with 
bright prospects for success in the ministry, but his interest 
in the deaf and dumb turned him aside. Presently he accepted 
an appointment to become the head of the Connecticut asylum 
for such defectives at Hartford and he established it on firm 
foundations. Later in life he was chaplain of a county prison 
and then of the Connecticut Retreat for the Insane. He was 
prominent in philanthropical societies, a writer, and an ac- 
ceptable preacher. Louis Dwight, Andover 1819, gave most 
of his life to work for prisoners. He was the wheel-horse of 
the Boston Prison Discipline Society for thirty years, and the 
inspiration of the daily morning prayer meetings in the Old 
South Chapel of Boston. A younger alumnus by forty years, 
William J. Batt, was chaplain of the Massachusetts Reform- 
atory at Concord, where in twenty-five years sixteen thou- 
sand prisoners came under his influence. George Dustan was 
chaplain at the Insane Retreat and Superintendent of the 
Orphan Asylum at Hartford. 

Moses Smith, Alvah L. Frisbie, Asa S. Fisk, and John E. 
Goodrich, were among the army chaplains of the Civil War, 
and filled places of large usefulness afterwards in church and 
college and secretarial chair. Walter Cotton was chaplain 
in a military academy, then in the United States Navy. While 
stationed on the Pacific coast he was made alcalde, or chief 
magistrate, of Monterey, California, during an emergency. 

Andover men turned their energies and abilities in many 
different directions. One man wrote the Conversation Corner 
for the Congregationalist; another, the son of the inventor 
of the Fairbanks Scales, became himself an inventor and took 
out more than thirty patents; one man became an eminent 
microscopist, and another a college lecturer on ornithology. 
Henry A. SchaufHer fathered the Slavic department at Ober- 
lin and the Cleveland Training School ; Judah Isaac Abraham 
was a missionary of the American Society for Ameliorating 
the Condition of the Jews ; Samuel W. Dike occupied a unique 
place as organizer and for twenty-eight years secretary of 
the National Divorce Reform League, working at the same 
time to introduce social subjects into educational institutions. 

-1140)- 



Daniel W. Waldron for forty years was connected with the 
City Missionary Society of Boston, and sixteen years its 
secretary. Full of energy and devotion, he had oversight of 
an agency which visited thirty thousand families in a year, 
aided four thousand sick, distributed sixty thousand papers 
and tracts, held hundreds of meetings and brought children 
into Sunday schools and adults into church membership in 
surprising numbers. With the rest of his obligations he was 
chaplain of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. 

It would be idle to attempt to enumerate the men who 
served as secretaries of denominational and undenominational 
organizations. They commenced their activities very early in 
the history of the institution, when new organizations were 
coming into existence rapidly, and they continued to direct 
such enterprises through the first Andover century, until 
more than two hundred and fifty men had occupied such 
positions in seventy-two different societies. The American 
Tract Society used thirty-two, the American Home Mis- 
sionary Society twenty-four, and the American Bible Society 
almost as many, while the American Board, the American Mis- 
sionary Association, the Congregational Education Society, 
and the American Sunday School Union turned again and 
again to Andover men for such service. 

Andover's influence in the Congregational denomination is 
apparent in the records of its organizations. When the Na- 
tional Council of the Congregationalists was organized, the 
committees on polity and creed, composed of six men, included 
five Andover alumni. Alonzo H. Quint, Andover 1852, wrote 
the Burial Hill Declaration of 1865. Eleven alumni were on 
the commission of twenty-five which drew up the Creed of 
1883. Dr. Quint was the first secretary of the Council, con- 
tinuing for twelve years. Andover men were the prominent 
preachers at the meetings of the Council. Among them were 
Storrs, Bacon, Mackenzie, Fisher, and Tucker. 

There are times when the pen is mightier than the pulpit, 
and Andover editors sometimes have wielded a trenchant pen. 
There have been more than seventy of them. Henry M. 
Dexter moulded the thought of readers of the Congregation- 

{14U 



alist. William H. Ward was one of the great editors of the 
country from the time he became editor-in-chief of the Inde- 
pendent in 1870. He was versatile in his interests and abil- 
ities, a poet, an Assyriologist of note, a worker for church 
unity, and active in numerous societies and boards with the 
single desire to be useful. R. S. Storrs was one of the editors 
of the Independent. Joseph P. Thompson, Andover 1841, was 
one of the founders of the New Englander and of the Inde- 
pendent. Rufus Anderson and Elnathan E. Strong published 
many volumes of the Missionary Herald. Charles Parkhurst 
found his desk in the office of Zion's Herald of the Methodists. 
Amory H. Bradford could take time from his church at 
Montclair, New Jersey, to act as associate editor of the Out- 
look. The founder of the Boston Recorder, said to be the first 
religious newspaper of the world, was an alumnus of Andover, 
for Andover antedated even that event. Albert E. Winship 
made the Journal of Education a power in the field of secular 
education. More than one man found a field of influence in a 
country newspaper. 

Professors Park and Edwards called a conference at An- 
dover in 1850 and planned the organization of the Congrega- 
tional Library Association. The Association started the 
Congregational Quarterly, with Dexter, Quint, and Joseph S. 
Clark as editors. Clark had been secretary of the Massa- 
chusetts Home Mission Society and author of "A Histor- 
ical Sketch of the Congregational Churches of Massachusetts 
from 1620 to 1858." 

The name of Joseph Cook, Andover 1868, was a household 
word in New England while he was delivering his two hun- 
dred and fifty-two Monday noon lectures at Tremont Temple 
in Boston. 

The authors of books among Andover alumni are legion. 
To choose among them would be invidious. They range 
through all the fields of literature and learning. They seemed 
to agree heartily that of the making of books there is no end. 
If you would find their monument, go into the Library and 
look around you. 

At the very outset the Seminary had the advantage of a 



library in the Academy. By vote of the Trustees the theological 
students were permitted to use it and to take books as loans. 
It was realized that this was only a makeshift, and that the 
Seminary must have a library of its own, and gifts came in 
promptly for that purpose. Brown and Norris each gave a 
thousand dollars. The source materials for theological and 
biblical study were in Europe, and Professor Stuart eagerly 
purchased there as his acquaintance with Hebrew and Ger- 
man literature grew. Dr. Spring and other Hopkinsian leaders 
were apprehensive of foreign literature, preferring to make 
sure that the books were safe theologically first of all. There 
is no evidence that they ever went so far as to suggest an index 
expurgatorius, but they had a hearty fear of heresy and criti- 
cism. Professor Woods did not share that fear any more 
than Professor Stuart, and was willing to accept books from 
any source. He spent much of the summer before the open- 
ing of the Seminary in trying to get together a respectable 
number of books for the beginning of the school, and he hoped 
for a fund or a gift of ten thousand dollars for that purpose. 
For nearly sixty years the Library was in the care of one 
of the Trustees or professors, with one of the students as 
acting librarian. The salary in 1810 was fixed at one hundred 
and fifty dollars. A large proportion of the books were exe- 
getical, a great many of them were in the German language. 
In the year 1815 the sum of sixteen hundred dollars was avail- 
able for the purchase of books, and the authorities went so 
far as to petition Congress for exemption from the payment 
of duties on books imported for Seminary use. Edward 
Everett, who was professor of Greek at Harvard, generously 
gave his services abroad to the selection and shipping of books 
for the Seminary. Professor Stuart kept a list of prospective 
purchases to be checked off as funds increased. In such a list 
biblical titles were the most numerous, and early in its history 
the Library became the possessor of a variety of old lexicons ; 
its collection of Bibles formed a nucleus for a valuable li- 
brary in that department. As early as 1819 there were seven- 
teen editions of the Hebrew Bible, omitting duplicates, three 
English editions, three Latin, and three polyglot. At one 



time or another the Library has obtained such precious vol- 
umes as a large folio of Luther's German translation, pub- 
lished in Nuremberg in 1736; Genevan Bibles, one a black 
letter edition of 1578 and another an edition of 1607; and a 
black letter copy of the Authorized King James Version, 
dated 1617. Many rare old volumes are in the Library that 
have come from French, Dutch, German, and Italian presses, 
some in black letter with illuminated initials. 

A specially interesting Hebrew Bible bears the autograph 
of Increase Mather. It was issued from an Antwerp press 
in 1613. There are many Greek texts of the New Testament, 
including a copy of the Complutensian Polyglot of Ximenes, 
the Spanish scholar. The collection includes old Bibles which 
once belonged to Mills and Newell, and letters of the early 
missionaries. Most interesting of all the Bibles are two copies 
of the Indian Bible, translated so laboriously by John Eliot, 
the Indian missionary, and now unintelligible, since all for 
whom he prepared the edition have vanished to happier hunt- 
ing grounds. The copy of the first edition came into the pos- 
session of the Library through the Society of Inquiry, to which 
it was given by James Chater, a Baptist missionary at Colombo, 
Ceylon, in April, 1818; the second edition was a present to 
Dr. Pearson as early as 1800. The title page reads : 

Mamusse 

Wunneetupanatamwe 
Up-Biblum God 

Naneeswe 
Nukkone Testament 

Kah wonk 
Wusku Testament 



Ne quoshkinnumuk nashpe Wuttinneumoh Christ 

noh asoowesit 

John Eliot 



Cambridge 

Printenoop nashpe Samuel Green kah Marmaduke Johnson 

1663 

-1144}- 



On the back are the verses : 

By what means may a young man best 

His life learn to amend? 
If that he make and keep God's word, 

And therein his time spend. 

Psalm cxix 

Ye Indians who receive the word, 

Come read it, one and all ! 
You'll find it in ye Library 

In Master Gore his Hall. 

Wowaus 
alias John Printer 

The book bears the inscription : " Printed by the Commis- 
sioners of the United Colonies in New England at the charge 
and with the consent of the Corporation in England for the 
Propagation of the Gospel amongst the Indians in New 
England." 

Among other treasures are early New England prints, in- 
cluding an Old Farmer's Almanac of 1808, the first year of 
the Seminary; three pamphlets from the press of Benjamin 
Franklin in Philadelphia; and the United States flag made 
by Mrs. Stowe and flown from the flagstaff on the Hill during 
the Civil War. 

After the erection of Bartlet Chapel the Library was in- 
stalled on the second floor of that building, which gave it fair 
quarters for those days. Then the Faculty requested the Trus- 
tees to have the books classified and catalogued, and the Library 
opened for student consultation one day in the week. Up 
to that time the doors were not open at regular hours, and a 
student had to get access as best he could. It was suggested 
to the Trustees that in other institutions, better facilities were 
enjoyed, but as late as 1830 the Library was kept open only 
one hour a day, between one and two o'clock in the afternoon, 
so as to save wear and tear. The professors took occasion 
to express a protest for themselves that they were allowed 
only twelve books at one time, when formerly twice that num- 
ber had been allowed. 



The request for a catalogue of the books proved effective. 
The first catalogue was issued in 1819. The work was done 
carefully, and included details of the contents of certain vol- 
umes of collections. Students waited nineteen years for a 
new edition, which contained certain facts about the authors 
as well as their names and the titles of their books. Later the 
Trustees sanctioned a scientific catalogue, as proposed by 
Edward Robinson when he was librarian. The Trustees al- 
lowed him a dollar and a quarter a day for the time employed 
at that particular task. A number of gifts came to the Semi- 
nary because of Robinson, and his expert knowledge made 
it possible for him to buy profitably when he was in Europe. 
The Porter Rhetorical Society and the Society of Inquiry 
printed catalogues of their libraries in 1830. They knew by 
experience the value of a catalogue from the lack of a suitable 
one for the Seminary Library. One can imagine the look of 
amazement on the face of an Andover Rip Van Winkle if he 
should walk into the catalogue room of Andover Hall in 
Cambridge today, or the reading room of the Hills Library 
at Newton Centre. 

In 1820 every student was required to pay a library tax of 
three dollars annually. Since there were one hundred stu- 
dents in the Seminary at that time the income was consider- 
able. The librarian had to give bonds, and it would not have 
been surprising if the members of the Faculty had been re- 
quired to do the same. Dr. Woods was criticised for per- 
mitting some one to carry books out of town without consent 
of the librarian. It appears that men who were blameless in 
the creed now and then lapsed in library etiquette or were 
absent-minded. The Trustees asked the professor to explain, 
and he did so in a written communication. 

Student faults seem to have existed then as one hundred 
years later, for in 1833 three books were taken from the 
Library without any record ; the Trustees expressed surprise 
that a theological student should have been guilty of such 
infraction of the rules, and they ordered the guilty person 
to return the books at once. The regular fine for keeping 
books overtime was 6% cents for half a week. The borrow- 

H46Y 



ing privilege was restricted to the Faculty and students of 
the Seminary, Trustees, Visitors, Founders, and teachers 
in the Academy. The thriftiness of the authorities is evident in 
the rule that all books should be covered with paper, and 
that the shabbiest copy should be loaned first when there were 
duplicates of a book. It is one of the curious rules that only 
four students could be in the Library at one time, and that they 
could draw books only on Saturday afternoon from two to 
four o'clock. While professors enj oyed the privilege of twelve 
books a student was limited to three, except for class use ; he 
might keep them for three weeks. 

A very sensible regulation in harmony with the rules of 
hygiene that were taught in class prescribed a thorough airing 
of the room once a week, if the weather permitted, and sweep- 
ing and dusting once a month. Before the annual inspection 
the books on each shelf were to be taken down and carefully 
dusted and the shelf well brushed. The maker of the Library 
rules must have had a wholesome respect for the ritual of 
housecleaning. Two other rules couched in classical diction 
were that "a print of some emblematical engraving shall be 
pasted in the beginning of every volume belonging to the Li- 
brary," and a bookplate was adopted as early as 1825. In 
volumes presented to the Library the name of the donor was 
to be inserted : "Whereas certain books may be of such value 
and nature that they ought not to be taken from the Library, 
but always kept for occasional consultation, such as Biblia 
Polyglotta, etc., the particular books of this description shall 
be determined and marked by the librarian, with the consent 
of the committee of the Library." 

The Seminary was the recipient from time to time of gifts 
of money, books, or pamphlets for the Library. A valuable 
collection of books belonging to the Phillips family was pre- 
sented to commemorate Lieutenant-Governor Phillips, who 
died in 1827. William Phillips of Boston gave $5,000, and 
William Reed of Marblehead gave the same amount. James 
Dunlop of Scotland made a present to the Library of sixty 
volumes on the ecclesiastical history of his country. Reverend 
John Codman of the Second Church in Dorchester marked 



certain books in his library with the letter A in red ink, and 
bequeathed them to the Library. The bequest amounted to 
twelve hundred and fifty books. 

Dr. Codman was a gentleman of the old school. In "Old 
Andover Days," Professor Stuart's daughter describes a 
triumphal progress to Commencement : "Up the Boston turn- 
pike at about the same hour came John Codman, D.D., with 
his stout English horses, his stout English coach, his stout 
English coachman, his ruddy, cordial English self, and his 
noble little wife. He was one of the cloth, this nature's noble- 
man ; yet the white cravat and the clerical air did not sit quite 
naturally on his round, portly form. An old English manor- 
house . . . would seemingly have formed his natural environ- 
ment ; but here he was a meek, working, country minister, rich 
in every good word, work, and deed, richer far in these than 
in the gold that turned the glebe lands into richest pastures, 
and the simple parsonage into a tasteful, old-world home. If 
he had been absent, the Anniversary would have lost one of 
its brightest ornaments, and Andover one of its warmest 
friends." 

Among other gifts was a present of 8,376 pamphlets from 
Dr. William B. Sprague of Albany, author of "Annals of the 
American Pulpit." Eventually the collections of the Porter 
Rhetorical Society and the Society of Inquiry were turned 
over to the Seminary Library, but not until the Porter Society 
had sold a part of its books at auction, an act which the Faculty 
promptly declared illegal and countermanded the sale. The 
largest purchase made at one time was the library of Dr. 
Christian W. Niedner, successor of Professor Neander at the 
University of Berlin. This comprised forty-three hundred 
volumes, mostly in German and Latin, including rare and 
curious books, many of them of great value in the history of 
doctrine and philosophy and for source materials in history. 

An edition of the Fathers, very superior in paper and print 
and issued at Basle, has a remarkable history. It was a 
small part of a cartload of books owned by a citizen of Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. At his death the books were found piled 
in a garret, and were appraised at three dollars and bought 



by a bookseller who did not know their value. One day a New 
Haven man who had some knowledge of the value of old books 
offered twenty dollars for the collection and it was accepted. 
The latest owner sold a considerable part of them, gave many 
of them to Yale College, kept certain of them for himself, and 
sold the remainder for two hundred dollars. In the last lot 
was the edition of the Fathers, which dated from 1523. That 
single set was priced at five hundred dollars, when it came into 
possession of Andover. 

In 1834 there were about thirteen thousand volumes in the 
Andover Library, rich in "ancient and rabbinic lore." A half 
century later they had become forty thousand, with eighteen 
thousand pamphlets and a small collection of manuscripts. A 
supplement to the catalogue was printed in 1849, and in 1866 
Reverend William Ladd Ropes, who had been appointed on 
full time, commenced an accession catalogue. At that time 
the collections were removed to Brechin Hall, which had been 
built expressly for their housing. The three donors of Scotch 
ancestry, besides erecting the building, provided also for main- 
tenance, with a fund of twenty-five thousand dollars. From 
that time the Library was open every weekday in term time. 
Brechin Hall provided space for the Museum, which con- 
tained three collections. One was the Taylor Palestine Col- 
lection, which owed its origin in the main to Dr. Selah Merrill, 
from whom it was purchased. A particularly interesting curio 
was a model of Jerusalem, which had been obtained by Mrs. 
Harriet Beecher Stowe. A second collection was the Fiske 
Missionary Collection. For this the Seminary was indebted 
to the thoughtful interest of missionaries and alumni who 
sent to America those objects which would illustrate the cus- 
toms and religions of the Indian peoples in Asia, the Chinese 
and Japanese, the races of the Near East, and the natives of 
America. The third collection was the Newton Cabinet, 
named for Dr. E. H. Newton of the class of 1813, who pre- 
sented most of the contents. Mineralogical specimens, Indian 
relics, shells, and coins enriched it. 

The list of librarians is not a long one, and for a long time 
their duties were not arduous. It is not easy to imagine Squire 

4149Y 



Farrar dusting the books, but he could have the oversight, as 
he did for the first twenty-two years, of a library that was 
closed most of the time, and could delegate his authority to a 
student. Edward Robinson was in charge for three years on 
his return from overseas. He had come to Andover in 1821 
to publish his edition of the "Iliad," had remained as an in- 
structor in sacred literature for three years, and then had gone 
abroad. He resumed his teaching during the three years, and 
was eminently qualified to guide in the use of books, though 
he had not in those days the technical training of a library 
school. Rensselaer David Chancerf ord Robbins became libra- 
rian in 1844 at the end of three years at Andover as a resident 
licentiate. He published a revised edition of Stuart's Com- 
mentaries. Edward Robie, well-known for his long pastor- 
ate at Greenland, New Hampshire, was his successor for three 
years, and then the mantle fell on Samuel H. Taylor, of the 
class of 1837. He was principal of the Academy for many 
years, and as the pupils of the Academy had the privilege of 
using the Seminary Library his oversight was easily explained. 
He was the editor of classical textbooks, and one of the men 
responsible for the Bibliotheca Sacra. 

It is with William Ladd Ropes that the modern history of 
the Library really begins. He went to Andover from the 
pastorate, but he was a graduate of both Harvard College and 
Andover Seminary, and he knew books. It was he who had 
the satisfaction of seeing the Library housed in Brechin Hall, 
and proceeded at once to modernize the catalogue with author 
and title indexes and an accession book. He made reports to the 
Trustees, purchased and catalogued new books, and assisted 
the students in their search for bibliographical material. He 
put in nearly forty years of faithful service before he was re- 
tired in 1905. He was followed by Reverend Owen H. Gates, 
who had been teaching in the Old Testament department for 
three years. It was under his direction that the removal of the 
Library was made to Cambridge, and the thousands of books 
installed in the ample quarters of Andover Hall. There he 
has administered the joint libraries of Andover and the Har- 
vard Divinity School. And through the Phillips Fund, which 



made possible the circulation of books among the Congrega- 
tional ministers free of charge, service was rendered outside 
the walls of the institution. 

The arrangement that was made with Harvard for the 
joining of the two libraries provided for full equality in the 
use of books. And the Library was to remain in the full 
possession of the Seminary with all the property belonging 
to it, its books were to bear the Andover bookplate and be cata- 
logued distinctively, but in the same card catalogue. When 
the new Andover Hall was completed the two libraries would 
be merged. Shelf room was planned for two hundred thou- 
sand volumes in a fireproof stack, and a reading room large 
enough for fifty readers. The two institutions shared in ex- 
penses. For administrative purposes a library council was 
to be organized, with two professors from each faculty ap- 
pointed by each school to serve as an administrative com- 
mittee. The agreement was open to revision by mutual consent 
or could be terminated on two years' notice by either institu- 
tion. Since the affiliation with Newton the Andover Library 
remains in Andover Hall in Cambridge, where the collections 
are available for consultation by Andover Newton students 
and are of special value for purposes of research. 

It is a far cry from the cramped quarters of Phillips Hall 
a hundred years ago to the luxurious surroundings of a 
modern building equipped with all the devices of library effi- 
ciency. Dust still gathers on old tomes that are seldom opened, 
for Hebrew and Syriac are not so popular as in Stuart's day. 
Strange new titles in social ethics and economics, in rural and 
city church methods, and in missionary literature, are called 
for more frequently. Periodical literature in abundance 
catches the eye of the student in the reading-room. An exten- 
sive card catalogue occupying a room by itself invites the 
curious investigator. Seminar rooms are set apart for special 
consultation, other special rooms for particularly valuable 
collections, and a safety vault for the preservation of the 
archives. The librarian is no longer fearful of the wear and 
tear of books, the student is invited to read or browse. If he 
is in doubt, assistance will be given him ; if he is engaged in 



research, he may have all the facilities that the Library affords. 

Among the riches of the Library are the books written by 
the professors. Of old, printing was relatively inexpensive 
as compared with the present time, and the members of the 
Faculty were glad to avail themselves of the local press to 
put their lecture outlines into the hands of the students, and 
to write more pretentiously for the general public. The Works 
of Dr. Woods were collected into five volumes, the first three 
containing his theological lectures, the fourth letters and 
essays, and the fifth sermons. Besides these he wrote a volu- 
minous account of the founding of the Seminary. Professor 
Stuart's writing was naturally in the field of biblical litera- 
ture. He published a Hebrew Grammar and another for the 
New Testament Greek, and he wrote commentaries and trans- 
lated works that he considered of special value. Professor 
Porter issued books relating to his own department, includ- 
ing lectures on homiletics and elocution, and a rhetorical 
reader. His "Analysis of the Principles of Rhetorical De- 
livery" passed through several editions. 

No books from Andover pens were better known by church 
people than Robinson's "Physical Geography of the Holy 
Land," and his "Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount 
Sinai, and Arabia Petrsea." His harmonies of the gospels in 
Greek and English, his "Greek-English Lexicon of the New 
Testament," and his translation of Gesenius, were consulted 
frequently as they lay on ministers' desks, because they were 
useful for sermon making as well as for reference in studies 
and classrooms of the Seminary. Murdock's translation of 
Mosheim's "Ecclesiastical History" was another useful piece 
of work, and he edited Milman's "History of Christianity." 

The preparation of student helps was one of the frequent 
undertakings of the Andover professors. B. B. Edwards 
issued an "Eclectic Reader" and a "Missionary Gazetteer," 
and he wrote "Classical Essays" and a "Biography of Self- 
Taught Men." Justin Edwards edited a family Bible and 
wrote several temperance essays. Contributions were made 
to biblical lore by Professors Skinner, Barrows, and Stowe. 
The "Companion to the Bible," written by Barrows, went 



through two editions, and he wrote "Sacred Geography and 
Antiquities." Skinner was the author of "Religion of the 
Bible," and Stowe published an "Introduction to the Criti- 
cism and Interpretation of the Bible," and "Origin and His- 
tory of the Books of the Bible." If the story of Mrs. Stowe 
rocking the cradle while she wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin" is 
true, one wonders how the children fared while she was re- 
porting "The Minister's Wooing," and the minister was in 
his study wooing the critical muse. Again one may speculate 
as to what she might have accomplished if she had had a 
garden studio as Elizabeth Stuart Phelps had in Andover 
and later on Oak Hill in Newton. 

Austin Phelps was a master in the department of homiletics, 
and his "Theory of Preaching" was a familiar handbook in 
the studies of the Congregational ministers. The structure 
and the rhetoric of pulpit discourses were moulded by his 
hand for a generation as effectively as if the preachers were 
under his instruction in the classroom. His "Still Hour" be- 
came a classic ; his hymn book, prepared in consultation with 
others and published in 1858, was adopted widely for church 
worship; one hundred and twenty thousand were sold in 
eight years. Edwards A. Park published less than one would 
suppose, considering the widespread acceptance of his theo- 
logical leadership. A memoir of Nathaniel Emmons came 
from his pen, and essays and translations. He wrote numer- 
ous articles for cyclopedias and reviews, but his chief con- 
tributions were to the Bibliotheca Sacra. 

Professor Shedd's "History of Christian Doctrine" became 
a standard work in that field. Since theology played so large 
a part in the Seminary discipline and ministers continued to 
preach sermons on doctrine, the history of Christian opinion 
on the great articles of the Christian faith was in frequent use. 
No library in a seminary was complete without a set of 
Shedd's "History," and few ministers' libraries lacked it, if 
the parson was at all studious. Shedd was also the author of 
a three-volume work on dogmatic theology. The word "dog- 
matic" is symptomatic of the attitude towards doctrine. The 
professor was of course an exponent of Congregational or- 



thodoxy, but he ventured to edit Coleridge's Works, which 
reflected the German theological thinking of the day. Not 
content with these contributions he wrote a commentary on 
Romans, published a volume of sermons, and wrote a text- 
book on homiletics and pastoral theology, which was reissued 
in several editions. 

Professor J. H. Thayer's scholarly works of reference in 
the biblical field gave him a far-reaching reputation. The later 
professors wrote fewer books, but they revealed their the- 
ology in the Andover Review and in the little volume entitled 
"Progressive Orthodoxy." William Jewett Tucker's Lyman 
Beecher Lectures at Yale were among the specially acceptable 
discussions on that foundation, and his reminiscences of his 
generation brought back to his readers the Andover of his 
student and faculty days. George Harris described "A Cen- 
tury's Changes in Religion" after he had left Andover, but his 
book too was a reminder of the changes that he helped to 
make in the Seminary. George Foot Moore's widening circle 
of readers came after his transfer to Harvard, and his vol- 
umes on the history of religion gave him a reputation second 
to none in that field of investigation. Harris and Tucker 
fathered "Hymns of the Faith," published in 1887. 

Three theological reviews are associated with the history 
of Andover. The earliest of them was the Biblical Repository, 
originated by Edward Robinson in 1831. The second, with 
which the first was merged after a separate career of twenty 
years, was the BiUiotheca Sacra. This better known period- 
ical was preceded by a volume of essays, edited by Robinson 
and written mostly by Stuart and himself, which was given 
the title of "Bibliotheca Sacra," and which bore the date of 
1843. This was followed the next year by the first number 
of the magazine to which the same name was given. Its full 
title was the Bibliotheca Sacra and Theological Review. Pro- 
fessors B. B. Edwards and Park edited the journal, with 
Robinson and Stuart cooperating. Robinson by that time had 
gone to Union Seminary. The Review was published at An- 
dover for forty years, with Park taking the burden of edi- 
torial responsibility. With the prestige of his name Bibliotheca 



Sacra held a commanding position in the field of scholarly 
journalism. It stood for conservative thought, but it con- 
tained articles that kept it abreast of the times in which it 
was published. With the retirement of Park from the active 
duties of his chair of theology and the onset of the controversy 
over more liberal tenets, the magazine was carried to Oberlin, 
where, chiefly under the guidance of George Frederick 
Wright, it continued to defend the ancient landmarks. 

When the Bibliotheca Sacra went to Oberlin in 1884, the 
Andover Faculty decided to put another review in the field 
as the organ of the newer thought which was under discussion 
at Andover. The first number bore the legend : "The Andover 
Review: a religious and theological monthly." This was a 
recognition of a difference between religion and theology. 
Five members of the Faculty, Smyth, Tucker, Churchill, 
Harris, and Hincks, assumed the editorial responsibility, with 
the others assisting. While the Faculty members were not 
unanimous in their attitude towards the questions that were 
at issue, they were harmonious among themselves and were 
tolerant of minor differences. The reason given for issuing 
the new review was the disturbed state of theological opinion 
on certain vital questions. It stated frankly that it would 
"advocate the principles and represent the method and spirit 
of Progressive Orthodoxy." From the beginning it was able 
to attract to its columns some of the most prominent religious 
writers on both sides of the Atlantic. Principal Fairbairn, 
Lyman Abbott, George A. Gordon, George H. Palmer, 
William H. Ward, and G. Stanley Hall, were among them. 
Professor Egbert C. Smyth wrote the first article, and frankly 
declared that the Review aimed at theological development. 
The editors did not hesitate to accept the name "New The- 
ology" for the more liberal thought that was gaining ground 
in the Congregational churches in harmony with a freer and 
more scientific age. That the Review would stir up rather 
than alleviate controversial discussion did not disturb its 
sponsors. The Andover Review performed its function as the 
exponent of the liberal movement of the decade, and as soon 
as the stress of the conflict was over it was discontinued. 



The Andover Press was a decided asset to the Theological 
Seminary, though it had little organic connection with it. It 
was a small local enterprise which had been established in 
1798, when Dr. Pearson enlarged it, and after Professor 
Stuart's press work in various languages began to issue from 
the Press it became the regular and well-known medium of 
publication for the writings of the Faculty. It was intended 
to be an educational and religious force as well as a legitimate 
line of business, and it served the needs of both Academy and 
Seminary and grew prosperous along with their growth. As a 
book shop it supplied the boys of the Academy with the books 
that they needed for their studies, and the men of the Semi- 
nary browsed among its shelves. Flagg and Gould, the 
proprietors, were members of the South Church, and were 
sympathetic with Christian education, and they felt that they 
were doing a Christian service in printing and circulating the 
books that flowed from the pens of the professors. One of 
the earliest publications was Professor Stuart's "Hebrew 
Grammar," for which the professor himself set some of the 
type. The facilities for printing in both Greek and Hebrew 
were greatest at Andover, and by the gifts of William Bartlet, 
Dr. John Codman of Dorchester, and others the Press was 
equipped by 1829 with fonts for twelve Oriental languages. 
This wealth of equipment gave the Andover Press a distinc- 
tion which it did not lose for many years. In those days 
country publishing houses were by no means so rare as now, 
and though Andover was near Boston it did not suffer from 
city competition in the publishing business. 

It was especially convenient for the Andover professors to 
stroll downtown to the Old Hill Store where the printers 
worked on the second floor. It was an inspiration to see their 
thoughts put on the printed page when they had no type- 
writer to manipulate, and they were at hand to correct proof 
that reflected the uncertainties of poor handwriting. In the 
course of the years the Faculty of the Seminary wrote over 
one hundred volumes which, it is estimated, had a sale of four 
hundred thousand copies. There was a market for them wher- 
ever religious books were read, and the reputation of the 

O56J- 



school made them popular as textbooks. Such a book as 
Phelps' "Still Hour" was read very widely. Booksellers in 
all the cities furnished a medium for public distribution. 

In 1832 the Press found new quarters in a two story and a 
half brick building on the Hill, where Warren F. Draper, the 
proprietor after 1854, put out his sign over the door reading 
"Warren F. Draper, Publisher and Bookseller," with a long 
signboard over the windows upstairs which read "Printing 
House." There the business remained for more than thirty 
years, when it was moved to the Draper Block on Main Street. 
The Seminary was fortunate to have such a man as Draper 
to carry on the business, for like Flagg and Gould he was in- 
terested in the business of publishing religious books, and he 
was generous with the money which the business brought 
him. There the American Tract Society issued its first tracts, 
and there was issued the Journal of Humanity, the first tem- 
perance newspaper in the United States. The Biblical Reposi- 
tory and the Bibliotheca Sacra were printed by the Press as 
long as they were edited by the professors of the Seminary. 
"Of the forces that made Andover in the last century a world- 
renowned center of religious and spiritual life," says Scott 
H. Paradise in his historical sketch of the publishing house, 
"the Andover Press was no small part. Working in close 
cooperation with the theological professors, whom they re- 
sembled in their religious enthusiasm, the Andover printers 
did their share to spread Christianity to the far corners of the 
earth, and to inspire those who were working at home and in 
the mission field with fresh vigor." 

Among the most interesting and popular books on the cata- 
logue of the Press were the writings of several talented mem- 
bers of the families of the professors. Mrs. Stowe and the wife 
and the daughter of Professor Phelps, and three daughters 
of the Stuart and Woods families, found their publishers near 
at home. Hundreds of thousands of copies of their books 
circulated abroad as well as in America. The public knows of 
Harriet Beecher Stowe and Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, but it is 
not commonly known that Mrs. Phelps was the author of 
"Sunnyside," a juvenile book, which had a sale of one hun- 

-{157Y 



dred thousand copies at home and was translated abroad. 
"Old Andover Days" by Elizabeth Stuart Robbins is unas- 
suming but charming in its descriptions and reminiscences. 

The literary atmosphere at Andover inspired even the stu- 
dents to cultivate the muses. It was in Bartlet Hall that Elijah 
Kellogg wrote his well-known " Spartacus to the Gladiators," 
and Samuel Francis Smith wrote "America" while an An- 
dover student. "Long after the name of Bartlet Hall," says 
a newspaper writer, "and even the more famous name of 
Andover Seminary are forgotten, these two masterpieces of 
oratorical writing will preserve in the Valhalla of literature 
a sacred place for the shades of Samuel F. Smith and Elijah 
Kellogg." 



CHAPTER 

THE NEW THEOLOGY 

IF a student who graduated from Andover in 1850 had 
returned for a class reunion on the thirtieth anniversary, 
he would have found the same system of theology taught 
at Andover by Professor Park. Science and criticism were 
attacking the foundations of authority. Rapidly changing 
social conditions were demanding a translation of religion into 
social terms. Theology itself was being reinterpreted with a 
human rather than a divine emphasis. None of them mattered 
at Andover. The New England theology was constructed on 
the principle that there are certain truths which abide in the 
very nature of things and condition any system of doctrine. 
Since these truths do not change, an orthodox system of doc- 
trine must not change. The fathers of New England lived 
under the stern conviction that life is a battlefield between 
divine right and justice on the one hand and human weakness 
and sin on the other. The transcendent purity and dignity of 
God is offended daily by the sin of man. Benevolent though 
he is, he cannot overlook human fault. Powerful as he is he 
cannot forgive without satisfaction to his moral nature and 
his justice. The death of Christ was the most stupendous 
fact in history because it made possible the forgiveness of 
sin and the reconciliation of God to man. Original sin, atone- 
ment, reconciliation this was the way from darkness to 
light, from the power of Satan to fellowship with God. Built 
thus on the twin facts of sin and salvation, the New England 
theology was the summation of the answer to the problem of 
human destiny, an answer which was in the making from 
Augustine to Calvin and from Calvin to Park. 

The man who embodied this system of theology at Andover 
was Edwards A. Park. A graduate of Brown University and 

4159]- 



of Andover Theological Seminary, with experience as a 
teacher and as an associate pastor with Richard S. Storrs, 
Park came to Andover to teach sacred rhetoric in 1836. When 
Woods completed his long term at the Seminary as professor 
of theology, it was appropriate that his understudy should 
succeed him. 

Park was the "last of the old guard" of the New England 
theology. He was essentially an apologist, an advocate for 
a great cause. Biblical criticism, German rational philosophy, 
and the hypotheses of science passed him by. He challenged 
them, but they were not his chief concern. He would main- 
tain undimmed the glory of the ancient faith, unbroken the 
solid wall of his well-wrought system. The halo that had 
gathered around the tenets of Hopkinsianism must not be dis- 
sipated. To bring truth into the white light of unrestrained 
reason and speculation was to tear away the veil of mystery 
that shrouded it. Or, to change the figure, he felt that the 
foundations of God stand sure, but it is not well to play with 
dynamite. Such figures of speech were not articulate with 
him, but they accord with his principles. While others were 
modifying their opinions Park held the fort at Andover, and 
taught his generation of students to wage war valiantly for 
the faith once delivered to the saints. 

His classroom did not provide a genial atmosphere for the 
growth of revolutionary ideas. It was a place for the recep- 
tion of truth, not a laboratory for experimentation. As pa- 
tiently as a sculptor Park had perfected the system that he 
endorsed. His classroom method was to dictate the substance 
of his well-ordered lectures, and then to illustrate and expand 
extemporaneously. He was exact in definition, clear in analy- 
sis, logical in argument. He stressed the importance of 
coherence in a doctrinal system. "Beginning with strictly 
self-evident truths," says Joseph Cook, an appreciative and 
loyal pupil of Park, "the architecture of his system rises 
through anthropology, theism, soteriology and eschatology, 
along such a strenuous curve that it is not possible to appre- 
ciate it except from some point of view where the student 
sees it as a whole and endeavors to transmute it into life." 



It was not a system of philosophy, but it was philosophical. 
It was not a system of ethics, but it was ethical. It was the- 
ology, not religion, yet it was centered in the gospel of the Son 
of God. God Himself was revealed through Jesus Christ. 

It was this system that he set forth, now with cogent argu- 
ment, again with the glowing language of a conviction that 
gripped his own soul. With masterly logic he bore down 
hostile arguments, and there were not a few of these as the 
forces that were moulding modern thought began to affect 
the minds of the students. Park had insight into the student 
mind, and he was able to impress upon that mind the profound 
importance of the subject in hand and to arouse the deep 
interest of his pupils. He opened up the vast area to be ex- 
plored; pointed out the places where the rich ore of truth 
was to be found and the more barren fields of thought ; and 
made the men feel that they could not be engaged in any enter- 
prise so vital to them as the search for truth and wisdom. 
He made them see that they must think hard, as his own mind 
unfolded before them. He brought both eloquence and wit 
to his assistance. At times his mind scintillated like a brilliant 
display of fireworks. 

Impressed by his analysis, the clarity of his thought, and 
the wealth of proof and illustration, Andover students ac- 
cepted his teaching and made it the substance of their thought 
and preaching. Men came for the middle year in theology, 
convinced that there was no teacher of the subject greater 
than he was. It has been charged that, though he was a mas- 
terly teacher, he did not edify, and "no set of men need edify- 
ing more than theological students." But such a charge means 
merely that a logical presentation of a doctrinal system is 
not religion. It is the coat of armor that religion wears for 
defence but the heart that beats within is religion. 

Professor Park had taught the art of preaching before 
Phelps came, and he was himself no less outstanding as a 
preacher than as a teacher of theology. He crowded the meet- 
inghouses where he went to preach, as Phillips Brooks com- 
manded great audiences in his day. The same personality 
that dominated his classroom was evident in the pulpit. He 



towered above his congregation like a prophet. He spoke as 
one who had authority, and men listened, "so still that the 
buzzing of a fly would have boomed like a cannon." "When 
it was all over, and that wonderful man sat down," said one 
who heard him, "the people stared at each other, and looked 
as wan and wild as if they had seen a spirit, and wondered 
they had not died." 

Dr. George A. Gordon bore witness that he was a preacher 
unequaled in his order, one whose great sermons became tra- 
ditions of power in all the denominations, and among people 
of all types of belief. Gordon called his sermon, on the The- 
ology of Intellect and the Theology of Feeling, preached in 
1850 at the Massachusetts Convention of Congregational 
ministers, which included the Unitarians, the greatest ser- 
mon ever preached in Boston. And he said that if Park "had 
allowed his thought in that great discourse to control and 
shape his entire teaching, instead of being the last of the 
old order of theologians, he would have become the first 
of the new." And it is Gordon again who said truly: "If he 
had utilized his insight that the content of genuine Christian 
feeling is an eternal content, while the theories of the intellect 
chase each other, in their discovered inadequacy as philosophy, 
like shadows over the summer grass; if he had turned the 
intellect upon the deposit of Christian faith laid up in the 
Christian heart, stored in the Christian consciousness, treas- 
ured in the soul of Christ ; if he had allowed the enlightened 
conscience to cleanse the Augean stable of the mediaeval un- 
derstanding, Edwards A. Park would have stood for the dawn 
of a new day in American theology." 

It is difficult for a man to be at the same time a priest and 
a prophet. Park mediated the divine to his pupils as a priest 
mediates between God and man through his consecration of 
the sacraments. He was an interpreter of the past, not a 
prophet of the future. In the changing panorama of the years 
there were some who felt that it would be better if he faced 
the sunrise of a new day in Christian thought, a herald of a 
new theology, than that he should look regretfully to the 
fading colors of a day that was dying. He realized that the 



world of thought was moving away from him, but he could 
not accompany it. Whatever may have been his vision, he 
continued to represent the conservative position in theological 
thought, with the Hopkinsian Creed as its foundation and 
his particular system as the superstructure. There was danger 
that the New England theology might perish from too much 
scholasticism. 

The theology which Park hammered out on the anvil was 
prepared for homiletical use by Austin Phelps. Coming from 
a Boston pastorate to Andover in 1848 to succeed Park when 
he was transferred to the Abbot chair of theology, Phelps 
remained at Andover thirty-one years, instructing students 
how to preach, and through his publications indoctrinating 
a whole generation of preachers in their art. His "Theory of 
Preaching" became a classic in homiletics. His "English 
Style in Public Discourse" was an education in itself in the 
use of the mother tongue. Possessed of a purity of style and 
with a freshness of thought that intrigued the student mind, 
he was able by example as well as precept to show a man 
how to preach, and how to preach well enough so that his 
parishioners would not tire of him. He brought in the vogue 
of the carefully prepared written sermon, wrought out ac- 
cording to the rules of rhetoric and with an elegance of dic- 
tion that gave it distinction and bearing the marks of the 
minister's own experience. His own character was refined 
in the furnace of domestic affliction, and his preaching was 
mellowed by his experiences. His own physical infirmities 
of increasing age and threatening blindness saddened still 
more his later years, and he died at his summer home in Bar 
Harbor in 1890. Fortunate was it for his peace of mind that 
he retired from active service before the storm of theological 
controversy broke over the Seminary. 

In 1879 when Phelps retired Park had been teaching forty- 
three years at Andover. He had reason to feel himself a bul- 
wark of the faith for which Andover had stood. A junior in 
the Seminary when he was thirty years old, a professor in 
the school in two departments for forty-five years, acquainted 
with a large majority of its Trustees and Visitors from the 



earliest years and all but two of its professors for the seventy 
years of Andover history, and related personally to fifty of 
its classes, he was entitled to be regarded as a spokesman for 
Andover. Recognizing his high position and his personal 
ability, the Trustees expressed a wish that he would publish 
his system of theology. They would relieve him of active 
teaching, give him twenty-five hundred dollars a year and his 
residence as long as he lived, if he felt that he could not teach 
and write, too. It was with this arrangement that he closed 
his long term of teaching in 1881. 

The Trustees realized that it would be no easy task to fill 
his place. With the master gone differences of theological 
opinion would strive for the mastery, but the Trustees knew 
that recognition must be given to the modern trends. There 
was difference of opinion in Congregational circles as to the 
content of true orthodoxy. On the one side of the question 
was the ironclad Creed of the Seminary and the New Eng- 
land theology of Andover tradition, which had been absorbed 
by the students for seventy-five years. And the last of the 
old guard was vigorous, though in retirement, and he never 
surrendered. On the other hand it was becoming plain that 
the theological thought of the past was being affected by 
science and philosophy. Hostility to the Unitarian movement 
had delayed any other liberal trend inside orthodox circles, 
but HoraceJBushnell's novel ideas on certain doctrines were 
fermenting in the body ecclesiastical. There were lively dis- 
cussions of Bushnell's thesis that a child is not an imp of 
Satan and his nature twisted by an imputation of Adam's sin, 
but that he should grow up to think of himself as a child of 
God. And Bushnell had a fresh interpretation of the atone- 
ment. Almost contemporary with Bushnell's modernism was 
Darwin's "Origin of Species." It had no such immediate 
effect as Bushnell's doctrinal discussions, but the tough sod 
of Calvinism already had been undermined by philosophical 
and critical scholars in Germany and by scientists in Great 
Britain, and seeds of revolutionary ideas planted in the dis- 
turbed soil could find lodgment and grow. By 1880 they were 
sprouting vigorously. 



Differences of opinion could easily develop into controversy 
over the choice of a new professor. It seemed as if Andover 
had been dogged by the spirit of controversy from the be- 
ginning. The circumstances of the founding of the Seminary 
stirred up controversy. It could hardly be expected that the 
Unitarians would be friendly, for it was well understood that 
the existence of Andover was due to the hostility of the or- 
thodox Congregationalists to the liberal movement. The An- 
thologist referred scornfully to the bigotry of the school, and 
after a few years Harvard and Andover professors began 
to pummel each other with wordy blows. Channing's Balti- 
more sermon of 1819 stirred the Seminary. Stuart contested 
forcefully the Unitarian denial of the Trinity and interpre- 
tation of the person of Christ, arguing for his deity on 
biblical grounds. He wrote in the form of "Letters," which 
were published at Andover in the year of the Baltimore dis- 
course. Unable to continue with a discussion of other doc- 
trines, Stuart urged Woods to dispute Channing's other 
positions. Woods had a more irenic disposition and was less 
inclined to engage in controversy, but he felt that the attack 
upon the orthodox position should be answered ; he therefore 
entered the lists with his own "Letters to Unitarians," treat- 
ing such subjects as the nature of man and the sovereignty 
of God. Professor Ware of Harvard replied promptly with 
"Letters to Trinitarians and Calvinists." Then came the 
"Answer," "Remarks," and "Postscript." It was a period of 
polemics and of minute differences of theological opinion 
vigorously debated. As professor of theology in a prominent 
seminary Woods could not escape contentions, however peace- 
fully inclined. 

A second controversy into which he was drawn was with 
the Yale professor of theology, Nathaniel W. Taylor. Taylor 
represented a position farther removed from Edwards than 
was the case with the Hopkinsians. It was by no means liberal 
from the Unitarian standpoint, but it was not conservative 
enough for the Hopkinsians. Woods therefore entered the 
lists in defence of the older point of view. The principal 
point of attack was Taylor's doctrine that in a moral system 



like that under which man lived with a reasonable freedom 
of choice on man's part God could not prevent all sin. In his 
"Letters to Taylor" Woods condemned the principles of the 
system taught at Yale and drew unjustifiable inferences which 
Taylor promptly denied. The extended controversy between 
the Hopkinsians and the Taylorites, in which Woods had 
only a small part, brought little good, and it resulted in the 
withdrawal of the Hopkinsians from any relation with Yale 
Divinity School, and the establishment of another Congrega- 
tional seminary, which presently found its permanent home 
at Hartford. Woods had still another tilt over the doctrine 
of perfectionism held by Asa Mahan, a former pupil at An- 
dover and in the period of controversy president of Oberlin. 

The New Haven theology affected the Seminary, for Woods 
and Stuart were not agreed about it. "Professor Stuart," 
says the narrator, "would flash out one set of views on the 
lower story ; Dr. Woods would reply with rumbling thunders 
in his lecture room in the second story ; and good Professor 
Emerson would draw off both lightning and thunder in the 
third story, and tell the seniors that there was no real cause 
for alarm the brethren evidently did not quite understand 
each other." 

Dr. Stuart after retiring from the field of Unitarian con- 
troversy ventured into the arena of discussion with the Uni- 
versalists, writing as a biblical exegete in 1830. Woods no 
sooner demolished the ramparts of the Perfectionists than 
he criticised the Episcopalians, and he retired from his pro- 
fessorship with a parting shot at the Swedenborgians. This 
atmosphere of criticism and hostility did not augur peace for 
Woods' successor. 

The strong emphasis upon the Creed made it inevitable that 
the question of subscription to it should arise, and of further 
subscription to the Westminster Catechism. Within five years 
of the organization of the Seminary it became necessary to 
apply to the Legislature for power to hold additional funds. 
In granting this request the Legislature added the proviso 
that no student should be deprived of any privileges in the 
Seminary or subjected to forfeiture of any scholarship aid 

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"on the ground that his interpretations of the Scriptures differ 
from those which are contained in the articles of faith adopted 
by said institution." To compel students to agree with the 
Creed was considered an invasion of religious liberty and the 
right of free inquiry. 

There was no question about the Faculty. In 1826 the 
Trustees had voted that both the Creed and Catechism 
must be accepted by all the professors, but sixteen years 
later that vote was rescinded so far as concerned the pro- 
fessors on the Associate Foundation, so that these professors 
should only be required to subscribe and repeat the Creed. 
The Visitors gave their approval, but the slighting of the 
Westminster Catechism and the denial of the Old Calvinist 
doctrine of the imputation of sin in the theology of Woods 
aroused the antagonism of Dr. Daniel Dana, who originally 
had stood out alone in the Board of Trustees against the 
compromise with the Hopkinsians. Militant for the Old 
Calvinists, Dana stirred up the "Andover Fuss" in 1849 by 
addressing a remonstrance to the Board on the state of the 
Seminary under its care. Though he had been a Trustee for 
forty years, earlier remonstrances had not been heeded. Can- 
didates for ordination were not measuring up to the standards 
in the matter of total depravity. Worst of all, the new pro- 
fessor of theology, Edwards A. Park, was not sound in the 
faith. His inaugural left much to be desired, and now it was 
clear that there was error in Zion. The professors were 
deviating from the Catechism. The release from subscription 
to that document was "a wound in the vitals of the Consti- 
tution." "Would it not be lamentable if a seminary, reared 
at an immense expense, for the express purpose of defending 
and diffusing pure gospel truth, should become the instru- 
ment of corrupting that truth, and of spreading destructive 
error through the churches and the community ? " Four years 
later Dana returned to the charge against Park. In a con- 
vention sermon and in argument with Professor Hodge of 
Princeton, Park had defended his own Hopkinsian position 
on sin and human ability, and had even attacked important 
articles of the Catechism. The Andover professor main- 

H67Y 



tained that all sin consists in action. "That position," said 
Dana, "would sweep away almost every doctrine of the Bible," 
and "nullifies the cardinal and fundamental doctrine of nat- 
ural depravity." An anonymous writer, discussing the case, 
concluded that Dr. Dana was losing his memory. 

It might be anticipated that the situation in 1881 would 
precipitate more trouble. The defenders of the old theology 
were aggressive because they felt that important truths would 
be lost to the Congregational churches of New England with 
the passing of the old traditions. The Faculty suggested to 
the Trustees the name of Newman Smyth for the vacant 
chair of theology, and the Trustees voted in his favor twice. 
The Visitors approved his election from the point of view 
of fidelity to the Creed, but by a vote of two to one they 
refused to give the necessary sanction to his election on the 
ground that Smyth lacked the mental characteristics that were 
needed for clear, lucid teaching. It was an unhappy choice of 
ground for the opposition, for Smyth possessed conspicu- 
ously the quality of clear explication of his opinions. The 
real reason for the opposition of two of the Visitors seemed 
to be that they did not agree with the theological opinions 
that he had recently expressed in print. Newman Smyth had 
criticised the New England theology as essentially rationalistic 
and mechanical, and preferred a philosophy which should 
find room for "the relation of the whole man through the per- 
son of Christ to the whole God." Theology should be christo- 
centric, and its spirit less static. Experience rather than 
reason, a theology resting on biblical criticism rather than on 
anybody's logical interpretation, an ethical rather than a 
dogmatic emphasis these were the dynamic principles 
of his art. Others had been saying the same thing. A writer 
in the Boston Advertiser wrote in commendation of the ideas 
that Smyth had expressed : "He has taken up the new line of 
march in theological constructions with a strength of thought, 
with a moral confidence in his convictions, with a breadth 
and range of vision, and with an insight into existing needs, 
that places him at one bound in the front rank of the men 
who are to lead the next generation of religious teachers. His 

-[168}* 



essay is the new Protestant landmark in religious thought." 
It was impossible to change the minds of the two men who 
had alone the power to prevent Smyth's election. Apparently 
the machinery of the Board of Visitors was a stumbling-block 
to any progressive development of the Seminary, particu- 
larly since it was their function to maintain the test of the 
Creed. The Trustees thought they saw a way around the 
obstacle by appointing Smyth a lecturer. That would not 
require creedal avowals, but he declined such a subterfuge. 
Then money was raised to establish a new and independent 
chair of instruction, but before the way was opened Smyth 
was called to a commanding position as minister in New 
Haven, and the case was closed. 

It seemed to the progressive friends of the_Seminary that 
a great opportunity had been missed to make Andover a leader 
in the way that theology should go. The conservatives 
breathed more easily when the line of defence held. The Con- 
gregationalist assumed the championship of the old theology, 
and particularly deprecated the attitude of Newman Smyth 
on the subject of retribution after death. He had suggested 
that those who in this world have no opportunity to know 
the appeal of Christ might have an opportunity in the life of 
the future. This doctrine of second probation, as it was called, 
became the center of discussion in the period of controversy 
which followed. The discussion of second probation did not 
come unheralded. The thought of it was suggested by the 
idea of a general atonement which had been maintained by 
the Younger Edwards. The Calvinistic dogma of eternal 
punishment was being relaxed. At several installation coun- 
cils, including that of Smyth at New Haven, the question of 
a larger hope was raised, and the weight of opinion was getting 
more liberal. Such a discussion easily affected the missionary 
organization of the denomination, and the cry was raised 
that the acceptance of such a theory would cut the nerve 
of missions. The Andover Creed did not deal directly 
with the question, but it was plain enough that any relaxa- 
tion of the idea of future punishment was contrary to the 
spirit of the Creed. 



The attitude of the Faculty was vital to the success of either 
party to the controversy. At the time there was an almost 
entirely new Faculty at Andover. Egbert C. Smyth, the 
brother of Newman Smyth, was its senior member, for he 
had come to the Seminary in 1863 as the successor of Pro- 
fessor Shedd in the department of history. He was president 
of the Faculty from 1877 to 1896. He was equipped with 
foreign university study, and his scholarship was broad and 
accurate. His historical information was supplemented by 
his knowledge of philosophy and he was a master in theology. 
In his study and teaching of history his chief interest was 
the interpretation of the Christian thought of the centuries. 
Professor Harris, his colleague for sixteen years, spoke of 
him as a teacher who quietly opened the way of a more spir- 
itual and ethical theology, and as a lover of nature and art 
and literature, as far as he discovered in them an avenue to 
the spiritual. Harris called him "a man beloved, a sympa- 
thetic friend, a mediator, a hopeful optimist, who taught 
men to express themselves, knowing it is better to speak five 
words that can be understood than ten thousand words in an 
unknown, indistinct tongue." 

John Wesley Churchill came five years later than Smyth, 
to serve the Seminary as teacher of elocution for thirty-two 
years. Sympathetic with a liberal attitude in theology, he had 
no hesitation in joining his colleagues in their plans for 
broadening the Seminary. Though much of his thought was 
conservative, he became one of the leaders of the forward 
movement at Andover. Ten years after Churchill came John 
P. Gulliver to be the first professor on the recently established 
foundation of the relations of Christianity and Science. He 
was a man of experience when he came to Andover, includ- 
ing twenty-nine years of pastoral service and four as presi- 
dent of Knox College. He was a prophet of reform, and 
fought many a battle against evil. 

The next year brought William Jewett Tucker to the Bartlet 
chair of sacred rhetoric. After eight successful years in 
Manchester, New Hampshire, he had been pastor of the 
Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church in New York City 



for four years. He brought with him a deep human sym- 
pathy which made him popular with students and Faculty 
alike. He was among the first to see the social implications 
of the .Christian religion, and his pastoral experience had 
made him understand and sympathize with the aspirations of 
the working folk. He faced the new period that was dawning 
with a realization that theological concepts and formulas 
must be changed. He was an interpreter of a dynamic Chris- 
tian thought, as Park was of a static theology. But it was his 
moral leadership which made him a power in pulpit and class- 
room. He was much in demand in Congregational pulpits. 
In his department of homiletics he taught what he exempli- 
fied, that it is the consecrated personality of the preacher which 
makes his sermons effective. He joined heartily in the mod- 
ernizing process through which the Seminary was passing, 
and his courage and strength, .with his ability to make the 
Congregational constituency see the reasonableness of the 
Faculty, were a bulwark to his colleagues in a time of stress. 
In later years at Dartmouth he was to become known more 
widely as a great college president, a lecturer on various 
foundations in Boston, Cambridge, New Haven, and New 
York City, and a frequent contributor to the Atlantic Monthly. 

The year 1883 added five new professors. One of these 
was Dr. John Phelps Taylor, a minister in New London, son 
of a former professor, Dr. John Lord Taylor. The senior 
Taylor had been president of the Faculty, and had taught 
biblical theology on the Smith foundation to men of the 
special course. He saw the importance of a chair devoted to 
that special subject, and made provision for it. Reverend 
Edward Young Hincks came from Portland, Maine, to teach 
the biblical doctrines while Taylor took care of the history 
and customs. 

A flurry of excitement was caused by the resignation of Pro- 
fessors Mead and Thayer because they objected to repeating 
the Creed every five years. This repetition of the Creed, it may 
be noted, ceased in 1900, by virtue of a ruling of the Visitors 
that the provision on this subject in the Statutes was 
"directory and not essential." Mead had come four years 



after his graduation from the Seminary to teach the He- 
brew language and literature. Soon after ward _Thayer had 
arrived fresh from Germany and enthusiastic for new thought 
and science. His attitude, which was very different from the 
dogmatism of Park, lecturing across the hall, is expressed in 
his statement to his class: "Gentlemen, it is not for me to 
defend the Faith. A true faith will defend itself. It is my duty 
to guide you with open mind, humble spirit, and a pure heart 
to the Truth, the Truth alone, wherever it may lead you, and be 
ye sure that it will always lead you to a fuller knowledge of 
Christ, who is the Truth. Hold as for your life to that 
attitude of mind. Seek the Truth and the Truth will make 
you free." Both Mead and Thayer were too jealous of their 
personal liberty to remain under suspicion because they dis- 
liked to sign the Creed so often, and their resignation came 
soon after nearly twenty years of distinguished service on 
their part. They differed from the professors who remained 
in that they demanded that the boards of control should 
guarantee their freedom, while the others were content with 
their right to defend their freedom. The Trustees elected 
George Foot Moore to follow Mead. He came from a Pres- 
byterian pastorate in Ohio, and remained for nearly twenty 
years at Andover. During that time he won a world-wide 
reputation as an Old Testament scholar. Then he went to 
Harvard as professor of the history of religions, where he 
gained renown second to none in that field. Mr. Frank E. 
Woodruff was called from a fellowship at Union Seminary 
to occupy the New Testament chair, but he retired after four 
years to go to Bowdoin. 

George Harris was the fifth new professor of the year. The 
Trustees were desirous that the discussion of theological 
questions in the Seminary should be on a broader platform 
than a single issue about the future life, and if Newman Smyth 
could not be obtained for the Abbot chair of theology, they 
wished to secure a competent, fearless, progressive teacher, 
who would treat every question on its merits. The Faculty 
was in full sympathy with that purpose. The choice fell upon 
Dr. Harris, who at that time was minister to the Central Con- 

4172Y 



gregational Church in Providence. Harris had graduated 
from Andover in the class of 1869, he was known to possess 
the desired qualifications, and his coming was not opposed by 
the Visitors. 

Of the Faculty as a group Harris said at the anniversary 
of one hundred years : " It was a company unbroken for years, 
knit together in personal love, united in a common interest, in 
the service of an institution, in the cause of truth and right- 
eousness. In those years a victory was gained for the freedom 
of a Christian man." 

Since the controversy over Newman Smyth was a theo- 
logical issue, interest centered around the inaugurations of the 
two men who were to teach theology. The address of Pro- 
fessor Harris was very long, but it was printed in full in the 
Christian Union, with editorial comment on the theological 
disturbances. Dr. Park, now in retirement, but mentally 
active and deeply concerned with the new theology, carefully 
prepared a brochure of ninety-six pages, and it was published 
by a committee of six sympathizers. The pamphlet was con- 
troversial, intended to spike the guns of the Faculty, and to 
prove their disloyalty to the old Creed. Park had wielded the 
instruments of offence for so long that he had absorbed the 
atmosphere of conflict. Some years before, while in the midst 
of his professional career, he had disagreed with his colleagues 
over matters of Faculty administration so far that he had re- 
fused to fraternize with them or bear his part in the adminis- 
tration. The attack upon the new Faculty could be justified 
only on the ground of theological militarism. Newspaper com- 
ments criticised the pamphlet as technical, adroitly attempting 
to prove from the Creed that the professors were guilty of 
holding a doctrine which the Creed did not mention. But Park 
was sustained by many of the denominational leaders who felt 
that the members of the Faculty were teaching a new and 
false theology, and who found in the implications of the Creed, 
if not in its text, belief in the present life as the only period 
of probation for man. 

The Andover Faculty was indeed introducing a new the- 
ology, but it was not so radical as the conservatives seemed to 



think. The Faculty was handicapped always by the necessity 
of adjusting a fixed creed to a dynamic movement. It was 
unfortunate that the center of interest should be a doctrine 
which was only a corollary of the main principles, because 
the main issue was much larger than the doctrine of second 
probation. The New England theology had stood foursquare 
on the doctrines of the trustworthiness of Scripture, the sin- 
fulness of man, the governmental theory of the atonement, 
and the certainty of future punishment. The new theology 
granted recognition to the modern criticism of the Bible, and 
to the doctrine of an immanent God and an evolutionary 
principle in nature ; reflected the ideas of Bushnell regarding 
the nature of man ; and shifted the emphasis from the atone- 
ment to the incarnation. The new emphasis on the incarnation 
was a return to the Greek theology, which after the fifth cen- 
tury had been overshadowed by the emphasis on sin and the 
need of salvation which was characteristic of Latin theology. 
It seemed as if the Andover theologians were tearing away 
a precious garment of the Christian faith. 

The Andover Faculty felt the need of an organ for the ex- 
pression of their opinions, and so founded the Andover 
Review, which for nine years furnished the medium for the 
explanation of the new theology. Five members of the Faculty 
constituted the editorial board, and the Andover Review Com- 
pany was formed to take care of the business end. A contract 
was made with H ought on Mifflin & Company to publish the 
Review monthly. There was the more room for it now that the 
Bibliotheca Sacra had taken wings to Oberlin. The prospectus 
of the new review stated that it would "advocate the principles 
and represent the spirit and method of progressive orthodoxy." 
The editors hoped to make it representative of the best modern 
thought, and particularly to "show the obligations of theology 
to the social and religious life of the time." They were less 
interested in speculation than in guiding opinion construc- 
tively to build a vital faith. The Review rallied the forces 
of the liberals, and brought them out into the open to contend 
for intellectual freedom and the idea of progress in theology. 
The thesis of the new theologians was made the title of a book 

1174Y 



which appeared shortly as "Progressive Orthodoxy." Its 
chapters were an expansion of editorials which had appeared 
in the Review, and were an attempt to show the true meaning 
of the New Theology. They dealt with the incarnation and 
the atonement, with the work of the Holy Spirit, with Chris- 
tian missions and eschatology, with the Scriptures and the 
universality of Christianity. Later a second series of editorials 
was published under the title of "The Divinity of Christ." 
The term "Progressive Orthodoxy" was peculiarly expres- 
sive of the position held by the Andover Faculty. Instead of 
the static system of the past they would have an intellectual 
faith that throbbed with life and power. They would put 
life into the dry bones of orthodoxy, not destroy it. They 
found inspiration in a Bible that was a progressive revelation 
of God's dealing with men, in a Spirit patiently wooing hu- 
mankind to allegiance to the highest ideals, in a hope that 
God's purpose for the world would not be defeated by pagan- 
ism, but that in His good way and time He would get His 
appeal to them and win their response. They were not skeptics 
or Unitarians, but it was difficult for those who held the old 
point of view to see anything but heresy in the new. The dis- 
cussion was enlivened by Joseph Cook, who in his preludes 
before his Monday lectures to thousands in Tremont Temple, 
unlimbered his guns against Professor Smyth, and by Profes- 
sor Park, who issued anonymously the so-called Worcester 
Creed for the orthodox. 

It is quite correct to speak of the new theology as more 
humane than the old. It was based on the love of God rather 
than on the rigors of the law. It envisaged human relations 
as well as divine, and saw that Christianity must be applied 
to these social relations and their economic and social prob- 
lems. It is significant that the social settlement movement 
found a sponsor in Professor Tucker, one of the editors of 
the Andover Review. It was a long way from a creed that 
required the professors to denounce Roman Catholics to a 
practice of friendly neighborliness with Irish Americans in 
the South End of Boston. And it was certainly a new depart- 
ure to think of the heathen as subjects of divine and human 

H75Y 



compassion both now and hereafter rather than as brands to 
be plucked from the burning, trophies of a selective grace. 

The doctrine of second probation sponsored by the Andover 
Faculty as a part of their broader creed brought them directly 
into conflict with the American Board in Boston and with 
the Congregationalist, which represented editorially the older 
theological position. Personal animosities were inescapable. 
Unfriendliness appeared in the meetings of the Board and 
at the Anniversaries of the denomination. It was especially 
apparent when Andover graduates appeared as candidates 
for missionary appointments, and it acted to hinder the return 
to the field of so brilliant a missionary as Robert A. Hume. 

The Faculty went on with the regular work of the school, 
though the controversy was a disturbing element. The wide 
interest in theological changes, the new social conditions con- 
sequent upon the growth of urban centers, and the new depart- 
ments of study at Andover, attracted students to the advanced 
courses, which were established about 1880. More than one 
hundred students were enrolled in these courses during the 
period of controversy. The record of their work was pre- 
served in the Seminary Bulletin, which was published monthly. 

Eventually the controversy came to a head with charges of 
heresy brought against the five members of the editorial board 
of the Andover Review. This was in the summer of 1886. 
The Visitors had received complaints against the professors 
which called upon the Faculty to disprove the charges that 
they were disloyal to the Hopkinsian Creed and the West- 
minster Catechism, and that they taught doctrines that were 
subversive of orthodoxy. The professors replied promptly. 
Legal counsel was secured on both sides, and a trial of the 
professors under indictment was held in Boston before the 
Visitors. In their decision the Visitors singled out Professor 
Egbert C. Smyth 'for judgment, condemning him on three 
counts: first, "that the Bible is not the only rule of faith and 
practice, but is fallible and untrustworthy, even in some of its 
religious teaching" ; second, "that no man has power or capac- 
ity to repent without knowledge of God in Christ"; third, 
"that there is and will be probation after death for all men 

1176Y 



who do not decisively reject Christ during the earthly life." 
With respect to the complaints against the remaining four 
professors, the Visitors announced that Reverend William T. 
Eustis, the secretary of the Board, had declined to act with 
his associates upon the ground that he was not present on 
the day when these professors appeared and made their state- 
ments in their defence, and that none of the charges against 
these professors were sustained by the other members of the 
Board. As afterwards developed, the president of the Board, 
President Julius Seelye of Amherst College, voted to dis- 
miss the, charges against all the professors, whereas Mr. 
Joshua Newell Marshall voted to condemn all. Since Dr. 
Eustis declined to vote except in the case of Professor Smyth, 
the charges against the other professors were not sustained, 
although the complainants against them were the same as that 
against Professor Smyth, and all were equally responsible for 
the utterances complained of. 

Professor Smyth appealed from the decision to the Supreme 
Judicial Court of Massachusetts, maintaining both that the 
action of the Visitors was unwarranted as a matter of law, 
and that the decision was tainted with partiality because Dr. 
Eustis had so prejudged the case as to disqualify him from 
acting judicially. The Trustees made their own investigation 
and found the charges ill-founded. They therefore supported 
Smyth by legal counsel. They were interested in the question 
that was involved, whether the Visitors were exceeding their 
powers. The case was argued before the Court in the fall of 
"1890, and a year later the Court rendered its decision. The 
Court unanimously affirmed the constitutionality and the 
original jurisdiction of the Board of Visitors, which had been 
questioned by Smyth, but a majority of the Court Chief 
Justice Field dissenting set aside the verdict of the Visitors 
that Smyth should be removed from his professorship, on the 
ground that the Trustees had not been allowed on their appli- 
cation to be heard in the case. This did not end the matter, 
for a new hearing was held by the Visitors in 1892, at which 
the Trustees were represented by a committee. Smyth was 
charged by his opponents with pantheism, Universalism, and 

4177Y 



disreputable morality, because he kept his chair of instruc- 
tion. The Board of Visitors, whose composition had mean- 
while changed, disposed of the matter by a resolution to the 
effect that in view of the lapse of time, the inconsistency in 
the former decision, and other special circumstances, the 
Visitors could better fulfil their responsibilities by other 
methods, and "that without thereby expressing any opinion 
upon the merits of the case, the complaint against Professor 
Smyth should be dismissed." 

The conclusion of the case brought relief to the members 
of the Faculty, who with a continual handicap had carried 
on their teaching without a break. It was especially a relief 
to Professor Smyth, who had borne the brunt of the attack. 
He had shown a patience and courage that endeared him to 
his friends and won the respect of his enemies. The members 
of the Faculty had stood by one another during the storm. 
Professor Harris was stalwart in his defence of the new 
theology and quick to appreciate its social implications. Pro- 
fessor Tucker was equally at home in systematic and practical 
theology, and on the platform as well as in the pages of the 
Andover Review he won friends for the modern point of view 
in religion. Professor Hincks mingled biblical criticism with 
a deep spirituality which was a part of his religious nature 
and which was reinforced by his vacation communings in his 
cabin high up on the northern slope of the White Mountains. 
Professor Churchill, the fifth member of the editorial board 
of the Review, while not an aggressive disputant, was a be- 
liever in Christian freedom, and on that ground he supported 
his colleagues. 

The net consequence of the controversy was to strengthen 
the hands of liberals who were struggling for theological 
freedom, as men of previous generations had fought for lib- 
erty of conscience. Union Seminary in New York during the 
same period strove for the principle of biblical interpretation 
according to the canons of criticism. Together Andover and 
Union stood in the forefront of the battle that was to divide 
denominations from within and to threaten to break them 
wide open, the battle between the two principles of a fixed 



body of doctrine once delivered to the saints and a growing 
understanding of the mind of God on the basis of reason and 
experience. Of the Andover Review Frederic Palmer said : 
"It has stimulated thought, deepened piety, enlarged the 
visible horizon of the kingdom of heaven, set a wonderful 
example of Christian courtesy in polemics, and saved the Con- 
gregational body from destruction at the hands of the intel- 
lectual deadness and narrow ecclesiasticism of its own High 
Church party. Its influence is now established. The new 
theology ... is preached from many a pulpit and editorial 
chair where it is not at all recognized as Andover theology, 
but is unconsciously supposed to be Theology itself, the only 
normal and proper thing. What greater success can any 
scheme of thought desire than to lose its distinctive name and 
supersede itself ? " 

The Seminary itself did not emerge from the conflict un- 
scathed. The wounds of theological wars are slow to heal. 
The spirit of the school had been generous in its freedom to 
the professors in spite of the ancient standards. In 1868 a 
student wrote that the Faculty would let a man have liberty 
to think, and there was no objection to the progress of scien- 
tific investigation. "Andover does not watch with quaking 
the approach of modern science ; for its faith is not grounded 
in the letter, but in the spirit of revelation, and it holds no 
theory which it is not willing to be submitted to the test of 
enlightened reason." And the Trustees did not hamper the 
freedom of the classroom. But the Seminary continued to 
bear the scars of the acute controversy of the decade. At- 
tendance declined, for students did not wish to be involved 
in the issues, and to be a graduate of Andover during those 
years was to incur the suspicion of heterodoxy. But the 
Faculty faced the future with resolution and courage. 

An indication of the new outlook of the Seminary was the 
attention given to social questions. Professor Tucker supplied 
the impetus, arranging a plan for the Andover House in 
Boston, so that several residents could have practical experi- 
ence there for a period of at least six months in connection 
with the work of Berkeley Temple. Because of his interest 

4179Y 



in the subject Robert A. Woods, who had been a member of 
the Advanced Class in 1890 and afterward had resided for a 
time at Toynbee Hall in London, became head of Andover 
House, and lectured on social questions at the Seminary. The 
Porter Rhetorical Society discussed social problems at its 
meetings. The alumni gave a day at the Anniversaries in 1896 
to the discussion of labor and other social issues, with special 
reference to the duty of ministers and churches, led by distin- 
guished speakers. 

It was a period when conferences were popular. Faculty 
and students met for a fortnightly conference under the 
direction of a joint committee of professors and students 
to discuss freely matters of practical importance connected 
with the institutions and problems of modern life. One 
of the professors presided and summed up the discussion. 
Among the topics discussed were the observance of Sun- 
day, religious education in the public schools, the attitude 
of the ministers to temperance reform, the reorganization of 
Congregational churches, and methods of teaching churches 
and Sunday schools the results of the higher criticism. Once 
a month the Faculty and graduate students met for a paper 
by a student and the discussion of it. 

A pastoral conference on Catechetics by those who were 
especially interested in the subject brought together repre- 
sentative men from everywhere in 1900. They attempted to 
evaluate the catechetical method of instruction in religion, 
and during the day discussed the church and the home, the 
church in the city, parochialization as a substitute for evan- 
gelization, Roman Catholic methods of child care, and the 
practical use of the catechism. 

Back in 1877 the members of the Faculty had enjoyed a 
local club, which included their wives and persons of culture 
in the community. They called themselves "The Owls." 
Meetings were held fortnightly at the houses of the profes- 
sors or of the principal of the Academy, when papers on 
learned subjects were read and discussed, and individual 
readings were reported. The meetings were of a confidential 
nature; the members were to be "at once, condignly, igno- 



miniously, unanimously, and irrecoverably expelled without 
further accusation, arraignment, trial, or conviction, and 
without benefit of clergy" if they divulged remarks that were 
made in the inner circle. It was optional with the ladies 
whether or not they should participate actively in the exer- 
cises. Most of the subjects discussed were classical, theologi- 
cal, historical, or descriptive ; now and then an original poem 
was read or a prominent book reviewed. The club served as 
mild recreation and an intellectual stimulus to the professional 
people of Andover, and its list of members reads like an in- 
tellectual register. But it lasted for only a short time. 

The Faculty swung into line with other divinity schools by 
suggesting to the Trustees in 1896 the desirability of granting 
the degree of Bachelor of Divinity to students who had had 
the college training and who completed the full course at 
Andover. The Trustees agreed and applied for authority to 
the Massachusetts Legislature, which granted the privilege. 
The degree was conferred on several graduates of former 
years, including Dr. Cole of Wheaton and Professor Ropes 
of Harvard. 

There were special occasions when Faculty and students 
assembled to do special honor to a man or an organization, 
and invited speakers from outside the Seminary. In 1897 
came the four hundredth anniversary of the birth of Me- 
lanchthon, the German reformer and theologian. The stu- 
dents sang German and Latin hymns, and listened to an 
address on the man and his character. Six years later a more 
elaborate celebration marked the two hundredth anniversary 
of the birth of Jonathan Edwards. Dr. William R. Richards 
of the Brick Church in New York City preached a commemo- 
rative sermon. Alumni and other ministers and professors 
from Harvard and Boston University gathered with the 
students to listen to addresses from Professors Smyth and 
Platner of Andover and Professor Woodbridge of Columbia, 
and a poem from Dr. Samuel V. Cole of Wheaton Seminary. 
Dr. James Orr of the University of Glasgow came with a con- 
gratulatory message from the United Free Church College, 
and addressed the gathering on the Influence of Edwards. 



A reception and collation in Bartlet Chapel added spice to 
the exercises. 

Another special occasion was a memorial service for Pro- 
fessor Smyth, who died in 1904 and was buried in the Chapel 
Cemetery. Seminary exercises were omitted on the day when 
the town of Andover celebrated its two hundred and fiftieth 
anniversary ; on the day when Admiral Dewey came to Boston 
after his victory at Manila; and again when the American 
Missionary Association held its jubilee meeting in Boston. 

Among the improvements of the period were the installa- 
tion of electric lights in Bartlet Chapel and the Library, made 
possible by the generosity of a friend, and the introduction 
of the practice of wearing academic costume at Commence- 
ment time. 

The Faculty and the Trustees cooperated to enrich the 
mental and spiritual life of the students. Among the preachers 
who addressed the students were Gordon, Cuthbert Hall, 
Harris, Cadman, Speer, Eaton of Beloit, Harry P. Dewey, 
and Joseph Neesima. Special lecturers included George Adam 
Smith and Cheyne from Great Britain, Bowne and Cuthbert 
Hall from America. For periods of a year or two Alexander 
Mackenzie, W. H. Hocking, and W. W. Rockwell were ap- 
pointed to lecture on pastoral theology, the history of religions, 
and the history of the Christian Church. 

In the natural course of events changes occurred in the 
Faculty. Professor Park, so long emeritus, and Professor 
Churchill died. Friends of Churchill fitted up a memorial 
room in his honor, which was designed as a center of student 
life. Reverend William H. Ryder succeeded Woodruff in 
1888, remaining thirty years in the New Testament chair. 
He had been soldier, teacher and pastor, and he brought to 
Andover not only experience but scholarly qualities coupled 
with an inspiring personality. He was modest and considerate 
of those who differed from him, open-minded in his attitude 
and frank in his speech. The Smyth trial was hardly over 
before Ryder was accused of heresy on the doctrines of the 
Trinity and the Person of Christ. The Trustees investigated 
and exonerated him. The Visitors were not so easily satisfied, 



but at length peace was made. The Trustees took the ground 
that the Creed was to be interpreted liberally for substance of 
doctrine, and the Visitors did not make official objection. 
Ryder had such a strong Christian faith and was so charming 
a gentleman that it was difficult to hold an unfriendly opinion 
against him. 

Reverend Theodore C. Pease, a graduate of Harvard and 
thirteen years a pastor, was elected to succeed Professor 
Tucker in the chair of sacred rhetoric, when Tucker went to 
the presidency of Dartmouth in 1893. Sadness and disappoint- 
ment came with his death when he had but commenced his 
service, but his memory was preserved in his sermons, poems, 
and printed inaugural. In 1896 thirty-three students asked 
for a special course of instruction in foreign missions, pref- 
erably from Dr. C. C. Torrey, a request which the Trustees 
granted. Torrey had been an Andover Fellow, had studied 
abroad, and at the time was an instructor in Semitic languages 
in the Seminary. Later he was the Taylor professor of biblical 
history for a year and then went to Yale, as Moore went to 
Harvard. The two men were close friends and during their 
summer vacations enjoyed roughing it together in and about 
their log cabin on the slope of Mount Adams in northern 
New Hampshire. 

Dr. Owen A. Gates came to the Old Testament department 
of instruction, served for years as secretary of the Faculty, 
and succeeded Ropes as librarian. William R. Arnold was 
inducted into the professorship of the Hebrew language and 
literature in 1903, and remained until Seminary exercises 
were suspended in 1926. Dr. Charles O. Day became pro- 
fessor of practical theology in 1901, and was made president 
of the Faculty. He had the difficult task of holding the school 
together in a period of decline, and gallantly stayed at his 
post when he might have gone to college presidencies else- 
where. He was active in denominational affairs, trying to 
keep the Seminary in contact with the churches. He was 
cherished by his colleagues and was popular among the boys 
of the Academy, so that they gave him the rare honor of 
stopping at his house for a speech after they had won an 



athletic victory. It was Professor Day who in 1902 announced 
the beginnings of the conferences with Harvard over the 
project of removal to Cambridge. Professor John W. Platner 
came from the Harvard Divinity School to teach history in 
1901. He made his largest contribution to the Seminary after 
the transfer to Cambridge. 

Thus the Seminary prepared itself to enter upon the twen- 
tieth century, proud of its long past and hoping for an assured 
future. 



CHAPTER IX 

LIBERTY AND UNION 

ArAIN it is Commencement Week on Andover Hill. No 
longer do the Anniversaries come in late midsummer, 
when harvest is ripening to its fruitage, but in June 
when the year feels the strength of its youth and faces the 
demands of its maturity confident in its virile powers. At 
such a time it is well that young men should leave the shelter 
of the training school and venture forth to try their strength 
and skill. And what more beautiful setting for Commence- 
ment than an elm-shaded campus in a New England village, 
redolent with historic memories and steeped in an atmosphere 
that has been laden with the breath of culture for more than 
one hundred years. 

The Commencement program in 1905 brought the bacca- 
laureate sermon, the public examinations, and the annual 
meeting of the Society of Inquiry, with an ordination service 
as an extra on Monday evening. The alumni held their busi- 
ness session on Wednesday. The alumni of a school have the 
advantage over either Faculty or Trustees of viewing a situ- 
ation against the background of their undergraduate experi- 
ences and in the perspective of years of active ministry. They 
are inclined to indulge in criticism, though they mean it to be 
constructive. At Andover they were no exception. At their 
meeting they discussed the attitude of educated men towards 
the ministry, and resolved that the executive committee of 
the Alumni Association should send a communication to all the 
members, urging them and the churches to see that young 
men through the influence of pulpit and prayer meeting 
may become sensitive to a spiritual call. The men sat down 
together at supper in Bartlet Chapel, and afterward came the 
formal exhibition of two collections recently installed in the 

<[ 185 Y 



Museum. One was the Palestine Collection, obtained through 
the activity of Professor John Phelps Taylor and bearing his 
name, the other the missionary collection, which was a me- 
morial to Dr. Daniel T. Fiske, a president of the Trustees 
for a term of years. Appropriate addresses were made and 
the rooms were opened for inspection. Thursday brought 
the exercises of the graduating class, followed by the alumni 
dinner, with nearly one hundred persons sharing in the fel- 
lowship and enjoying the postprandial toasts. 

The year had brought changes in the Faculty. Professor 
Smyth had passed on, and Professor Platner had become 
Brown professor of ecclesiastical history, specializing for the 
year on the history of doctrine; Reverend William W. Rock- 
well was teaching in the same department. Professor Arnold 
had fitted into the Old Testament department, and had the 
assistance of Dr. Gates. President Day, Professor Hincks, 
now senior professor, and Professor Ryder continued their 
several responsibilities. New names were among the lecturers 
of the year. Dr. William H. Hocking of Harvard presented 
the religious aspects of modern philosophy and a second 
course on the history of religions. Dr. Robert A. Hume of 
India in the Hyde lectures discussed missions from the mod- 
ern point of view, and showed their relation to psychology 
and sociology. Professor John B. Clark of Columbia delivered 
the Southworth lectures on the modern economic problems 
of agriculture, industry, and government monopoly. Nor was 
the old concern for musical instruction permitted to lapse. 
Courses in the theory and practice of church music and prac- 
tical instruction in singing stimulated an appreciation in the 
students of the part that music properly plays in worship. 

Those who had the best interests of the Seminary at heart 
were disturbed over the small number of students, and it was 
felt that a larger use should be made of the facilities of the 
Seminary. It was this in part that had prompted the Easter 
Theological School, which had been held in the spring of 
1903 and again the next year. Forty-two home missionary 
pastors in Massachusetts and other parts of New England 
listened to lectures from the Faculty and joined in discussing 



the subjects presented, and enjoyed the fellowship of the ten 
days' session. For recreation they walked about the town 
and country and took trolley rides in the vicinity. They en- 
joyed the baseball games of the Academy students on the 
new athletic field and admired the new gymnasium, used by 
both Academy and Seminary students. They strolled through 
the Museum and looked over the most recent displays. In the 
evenings they listened to addresses on social and practical 
matters, sang with Mr. Burdett and prayed with Dr. Emrich. 
Then they went home to put into practice the new ideas which 
had been given to them. 

The question that was uppermost in the minds of the alumni 
and friends of the Seminary as the Commencement of 1906 
approached was the future of the school. Since the new cen- 
tury opened the conviction had been growing that something 
more was necessary than to hope for the rejuvenation of the 
old school. The controversy of twenty years earlier had weak- 
ened the Seminary seriously. The new temper of the age 
which was finding in life rather than in theology the best ex- 
pression of religion, was impatient with outworn "creeds and 
doubtful of the value of institutions that were based on such 
creeds. Particularly were college men shy about connecting 
themselves with a school that had a reputation for theological 
difficulties and still required its Faculty to give lip service to 
ancient symbols. Recovery from the theological depression 
had been di scour agingly slow. It began to seem as if the 
school might not live much longer unless something radical 
was attempted. 

The alumni were divided in their opinions as to what should 
be done. The more conservatively minded thought that new 
life might be injected into the old school with new men on the 
Faculty, that more students might be secured now that the 
buildings had been modernized, and that more money would 
make possible greater expansion. They saw the value of the 
quiet surroundings of the Seminary for the studious, and 
believed that with improving means of communication the 
school was near enough to the urban centers. It was sug- 
gested that perhaps the Seminary might widen the scope of 

4187}- 



its helpfulness by doing more for foreigners in Massachusetts. 
Four years before a meeting of alumni in Boston had voted 
unanimously that the Seminary should be kept in Andover, 
had expressed confidence in the Faculty, had pledged their 
efforts to secure money and good will for the institution, and 
had appointed a committee to present their resolutions to 
the Trustees. 

The Trustees were alive to the situation. They saw that 
Andover had suffered in competition with seminaries that had 
their location in a city or had university connections. They 
knew the pull of urban life for modern youth. In spite of 
the unfriendly relations of long ago between Andover and 
Harvard, the authorities had been in consultation with the 
University looking towards a possible affiliation. They 
recognized the changes that had taken place in Congregational 
thought, and they had no fear that the liberal atmosphere of 
the Harvard Divinity School would weaken the confidence 
of Andover men in their evangelical faith. President Eliot 
and the Harvard Corporation met the Andover Trustees 
halfway, and prepared a plan of agreement with which the 
Trustees as a whole were in accord. The Trustees passed a 
vote to the effect that "the period has arrived when the pros- 
perity of the Theological Seminary will be promoted by its 
removal from Andover if satisfactory arrangements can be 
made for its establishment elsewhere." A special committee 
appointed to present a plan for removal reported, however, 
that no feasible plan appeared. The attitude of the Alumni 
was known to be unfriendly. 

Now in 1906 the matter of the removal came to the front 
again. In April the Trustees had voted unanimously that the 
time had come when it was best to make the affiliation with 
Harvard, as soon as the legality of the action could be deter- 
mined and the necessary arrangements could be made. It was 
important that the Andover professors should be related 
officially to the Faculty of the Harvard Divinity School, and 
that a new building should be erected. The Alumni Associa- 
tion of Andover appointed a committee of conference to obtain 
the opinions of the graduates of the school. Commencement 



2 

O 
O 



a 



X 

O 



O 

n 

H 




passed before any adjustment was made, but the negotiations 
continued. It had been felt for some time in the Seminary 
that a board of trustees which should be separate and different 
from the governing body of the Academy was very desirable, 
especially if the Seminary was to be removed from the vicinity 
of the Academy. The permission of the Massachusetts Legis- 
lature was necessary, and pending such permission the nego- 
tiators marked time. 

In 1907 the Trustees petitioned the Legislature for an act 
constituting the persons who were then members of the cor- 
poration of the Trustees of Phillips Academy a separate cor- 
poration under the name of the Trustees of Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary, with authority to receive the property 
theretofore held by the Trustees of Phillips Academy for the 
benefit of the Theological Institution. In April, 1907, the 
Legislature accordingly incorporated the persons then consti- 
tuting the Trustees of Phillips Academy as the Trustees of 
Andover Theological Seminary, to be governed by all the 
provisions and regulations as to organization, membership, 
etc., by which the Trustees of Phillips Academy were gov- 
erned, and to hold all the property then held by the Academy 
Trustees for the benefit of the Seminary "subject to all trusts 
and conditions upon which the property had been held by the 
Trustees of Phillips Academy." Upon the establishment of 
the new corporation the Trustees of Phillips Academy trans- 
ferred to it the land and buildings occupied by the Seminary, 
together with all invested funds held for the benefit of the 
Seminary. Most of those who were trustees of Phillips 
Academy when the act of 1907 was passed and who under 
the act became the first trustees of Andover Theological 
Seminary resigned and their places were taken by men who 
were primarily interested in the Seminary, thus recognizing 
the fact that the Academy and the Seminary had grown apart 
and that one governing body was no longer suitable. 

Meantime the conference committee reported its findings 
regarding the sentiments and opinions of the Andover Alumni. 
It was clear that there was a general agreement that some- 
thing should be done about the Seminary. The decline in 

-{189 Y 



attendance had been continuous since the Spanish-American 
War. There was now about an equal number of professors 
and students. Loyal as the alumni were and grateful for what 
the school had done for them, they felt that something was 
wrong, and they expressed it in various vigorous phrases. But 
they did not want the Seminary to die, and they were fertile 
in suggestions. 

The general sentiment was against removal. Nearly half of 
the three hundred and fifty or more who had voted their 
preference believed it best that the Seminary should remain 
on Andover Hill. They felt that old associations and the 
traditions of a hundred years were too precious to be sacri- 
ficed. They believed that the institution was obliged to con- 
sider the wishes of the Congregational churches, and that 
the funds ought not to be used in a way that would be contrary 
to the wishes of the founders. About one-third of the alumni 
favored the removal to Cambridge, but the majority while 
recognizing the catholic spirit in which the affairs of the 
University were administered and the gains to both Andover 
and the Harvard Divinity School by a union of forces, felt 
that it would be a mistake. It seemed doubtful if the critical, 
philosophical spirit would contribute to the making of pastors 
and missionaries, yet that had been the ruling purpose of the 
Seminary. They feared the possibility of litigation over the re- 
moval. They felt that the small number of students at the 
Harvard Divinity School over a period of twenty-five years 
did not give much encouragement for an increase in attend- 
ance near the University. The decline of interest of students 
in the colleges regarding the ministry as a profession was 
by no means limited to the Andover constituency. One man 
said: "An empty seminary is as well off at Andover as at 
Cambridge." There were not a few who remembered that until 
about 1880 the old suspicion of Harvard was so strong that 
few Congregational students for the ministry were enrolled 
there. After the Advanced Class was abolished at Andover 
in 1894 it seemed more likely that the opportunities for ad- 
vanced study at Harvard would make their appeal, but even 
then the response was small. Andover alumni doubted, there- 

1190Y 



fore, whether any particular advantage would come from the 
Harvard connection. 

Minority proposals favored removal to Boston, where the 
school might become a training center for ministers to the 
foreign population ; to Worcester, Springfield, or Northfield, 
in Massachusetts ; to a union with Amherst or Williams or 
Boston University, or with Hartford or Chicago Seminaries. 
Some thought it would be best if the Seminary would devote 
its attention to training missionaries for foreign service. 
Altogether there was a striking lack of unity. The "confer- 
ence committee" itself divided three to two, the majority 
favoring the Andover location, the minority sympathetic with 
the Harvard affiliation. All agreed that the school must 
broaden its ministry, and if possible do more for the training 
of leaders for New Americans ; the plan for removal sug- 
gested such work for the city of Cambridge. 

It was thought that the adverse report of the body of the 
alumni might check the proceedings of the Trustees, but they 
saw advantages in the plan which offset the objections that 
were made. It was expected that the Seminary would have 
increased facilities, that the Faculty would be given equal 
standing with the Faculty of the Harvard Divinity School, 
and that Andover would retain its full independence. It 
would be possible to have a plant that would house the library 
adequately and that would be modern in every way. Most 
important of all was the opportunity to acquaint the students 
with the values in psychology, sociology, and ethics, and other 
sciences of recent development, which could not be provided 
at Andover with the limited resources of the Seminary. The 
social passion, which had been felt at Andover and had led to 
the foundation of Andover House as a social settlement in 
Boston, could be fostered and guided in the new environment. 
The Trustees recognized in Cambridge the historic shrine 
of education in America. The University enjoyed freedom of 
thought and discussion. It could furnish the highest type of 
intellectual culture along with the theological discipline. And 
that was a Congregational tradition. 

There were of course difficulties to be surmounted. It would 

i 191 Y 



cost more to buy land near the University and to construct 
such a building as would house all the equipment of the 
Seminary. The sale of the old buildings at Andover to the 
Academy would not pay the expense. The salaries of pro- 
fessors must be raised to the minimum paid to Harvard 
professors, if their standing were not to suffer. Harvard 
students paid tuition and Andover students must be adjusted 
to that situation without transgressing the injunction against 
the charging of tuition laid upon the Trustees by some of 
the donors. Finally there was the question arising from the 
provision in the Constitution of Phillips Academy to the 
effect that the Academy and so the Seminary as originally 
a department of the Academy should never be removed 
from the South Parish in the Town of Andover "unless the 
good of mankind shall manifestly require it." It was a de- 
batable question whether the good of mankind required an 
affiliation with the divinity school of a University which had 
alienated the Congregationalists of Massachusetts a hundred 
years before. It was a delicate situation. 

Before the hundredth anniversary arrived in 1908 the 
Trustees adopted definitely the act of affiliation. The Presi- 
dent and Fellows of Harvard officially approved and the 
Overseers ratified the action. The Trustees of Andover then 
voted finally for the removal on the twelfth of March, 1908. 
The reasons which they gave for their action were the falling 
off in attendance, amounting to practical desertion, the con- 
sequent unproductive use of the funds, the narrow field of use- 
fulness offered to the professors, the rural location at a time 
when students needed city connections, and the lack of re- 
sources for the expansion of the curriculum. Under the Act 
of Incorporation the Trustees had no power to remove the 
Seminary to a place outside of Massachusetts, so that various 
proposals for removal to places in other states were imprac- 
ticable. Cambridge had the advantage of being near Boston 
and the center of Congregationalism, and it was in the same 
geographical area as Andover. The affiliation with Harvard 
would not require change in charter, constitution, or organiza- 
tion of the Seminary. More courses of study would be avail- 

H92Y 



able. Andover courses were to be accepted for Harvard 
degrees, so that the Seminary would have equal standing. It 
was believed that the presence of Andover Seminary would 
be of religious benefit to Harvard, and that the relation with 
Harvard would dignify the calling of the ministry in the eyes 
Df educated young men. The Harvard arrangement could be 
terminated within two years if desired. 

Andover people, as was natural, deeply regretted the deci- 
sion. The secular press was generally favorable, but certain of 
the religious papers condemned it as a betrayal of the ancient 
trust to -make an alliance with the University. The Toledo 
Blade in announcing the affiliation said: "Andover will be- 
:ome 'afflicted' with the Harvard Divinity School." 

The Centennial anniversary was saddened by the threat- 
ened change. On Sunday morning the Seminary Church 
observed its last communion service in connection with the 
regular forenoon worship. At four o'clock in the afternoon 
:he baccalaureate sermon was preached to the senior class. 
Monday evening brought the ninety-seventh anniversary of 
:he Society of Inquiry, the only one of the old student organ- 
izations that remained. Mr. Edward C. Carter, Y. M. C. A. 
secretary from India, spoke to the assembled company on the 
work of the Association in the Far East. The alumni as- 
sembled for class reunions at noon, conscious that this was the 
ast time that they would return to Andover Hill to walk 
igain the old paths and exchange memories of Seminary 
experiences. At three o'clock Centennial addresses were given 
in honor of the alumni of the hundred years. Dr. Franklin 
barter, formerly president of Williams College, recounted 
^.ndover's service to education. Reverend George H. Gutter- 
son called to mind Andover's contributions to home missions 
in America, and Dr. DeWitt S. Clark summarized the mem- 
orable work of Andover's sons in the foreign mission field. 
Ihe alumni and friends enjoyed a reception and supper in 
Bartlet Chapel, and in the evening Professor Platner gave 
:he South worth lecture on the "History of Andover Semi- 
lary, a Centennial Retrospect." If the Seminary had closed 
its doors at the end of its centenary, its future would stand 



secure in the achievements of a century. For a hundred years 
the Trustees had guided the fortunes of the school according 
to the best wisdom that they possessed. The Faculty had in- 
terpreted religious truth, as they had vowed to do, according 
to the best light that God should give. Class after class of 
students had come to drink of the living water of the Gospel, 
and had gone out to carry that Gospel to thirsty souls in all 
parts of the world. Andover's influence as a religious force 
would not cease as long as Christianity survived. But the 
Seminary was neither dead nor dying. 

President Day presided at the Wednesday celebration of 
the whole Seminary. The principal address of the week was 
the oration by President George Harris of Amherst. He 
recalled the salient features in the history of the Seminary 
during the century, spoke appreciatively of the men who had 
given the wealth of their learning and Christian sympathy 
from the chairs of instruction, and interpreted the changing 
thought of changing times. Greetings were brought with 
congratulations from representatives of many educational 
institutions. Particularly appropriate was it that Professor 
Benjamin W. Bacon should speak for Yale, for his grand- 
father had made the historical address fifty years before, and 
that Professor William Adams Brown should represent Union 
Seminary, because three generations of his ancestors had 
studied at Andover. Professor Merriam of Hartford de- 
clared: "Old Andover challenges New Andover to loftiest 
achievement if it would match the past." The venerable Dr. 
Alexander Mackenzie commended the ancient institution to 
God in prayer. Music was provided by a chorus composed of 
Seminary, Phillips Academy, and Abbot Academy students. 
It seemed as if the thoughts and interests of the Congre- 
gationalists of New England converged on this mother of 
seminaries. 

Good cheer came with the dinner in the Borden Gymnasium, 
to which ladies were invited for the first time in the history 
of the school. Andover alumni could not get together in the 
Centennial year without making the occasion one of good 
cheer. "If there is a profession given to extreme sociability 

{194}- 



in its interviews it is the ministry," wrote Sarah Stuart 
Robbins. "After the saying of grace, always solemn with the 
sudden hush of voices and the cessation of the click of china, 
a more hearty and cordial abandon could not be found any- 
where among any class of people than used for an hour to 
fill the various rooms." Dr. Harris, presiding at the Centen- 
nial dinner, spoke in humorous vein, saying: "I hope there 
will be a chapter written on the one hundred dinners which 
have been enjoyed at the anniversaries of the Seminary." 

With Thursday came the exercises of the graduating class 
in the-Seminary Chapel with an address by Professor Arnold 
and the conferring of degrees. Once more a class went forth 
to minister by the highways and the byways, perhaps to add 
to the honor list of twenty-three college presidents, thirty 
college professors, and eighteen seminary professors, who 
had graduated since the Semi-centennial. The Centennial 
Class that would be its distinction. Would there be a bi- 
centennial to celebrate a hundred years hence? 

Andover Seminary opened its second century at Cambridge 
in the autumn of 1908. The Faculty was short-handed because 
President Day had retired after futile efforts to stem the 
decline of the school. One or two of the Faculty had moved 
from Andover, but others continued to reside there and com- 
mute. Professor Platner acted temporarily as chairman of 
the Faculty with the title of "dean." Lecturers were ap- 
pointed for the year until new professors should be elected. 
Temporarily the students shared the lecture rooms and dor- 
mitories of the Harvard Divinity School. The Harvard wel- 
come was cordial, and the affiliation was marked appropri- 
ately by public recognition. Not as strangers or even as guests 
were they treated, but as one body working together for a 
single end. Andover professors were given the freedom of 
the University, and at the opening service of the Divinity 
year an Andover professor was invited to make the address. 
Andover reciprocated the Harvard courtesies. In the Andover 
catalogue Harvard courses were listed as well as those of the 
Andover Faculty. The two schools together had only twenty- 
four students. Andover was making the new start with two 



graduate students, one middler, one junior, and one special, 
but she was planning in hope of better days. 

In the course of the year the vacancies in the Faculty were 
filled. Reverend Albert Parker Fitch, the pastor of the Mount 
Vernon Congregational Church in Boston, was chosen as 
Bartlet Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and President of the 
Faculty. Reverend Daniel Evans, who was pastor at North 
Cambridge, was elected Abbot Professor of Christian The- 
ology, to succeed Professor Hincks, who had filled that posi- 
tion as well as the chair of biblical theology since the resig- 
nation of Professor Harris. Professor Fitch had graduated 
with high honors from Harvard and Union Theological 
Seminary; he was full of energy as well as ability; and he 
tried hard to strengthen the Seminary. He believed that there 
was a great opportunity to build up in Cambridge a school 
which should serve the cause of spiritual freedom and the 
development of the free churches. He declared that his pri- 
mary interest was that the students should become deeply 
religious men. Professor Evans in his inaugural referred to 
a new idealism in the field of science and believed that the 
currents of thought, converging on Cambridge, promised a 
new day for religion. In commenting on the appointments 
the Boston Transcript remarked that the new professors were 
"not broken down old men in search of a comfortable haven 
where they can beach their dismantled ministerial crafts and 
rest in peace for the remainder of their days." Both were men 
of high standing in their profession and well-known in Greater 
Boston. President Fitch was sent to Geneva to represent the 
Seminary at the observance of the four hundredth anni- 
versary of Calvin's birth. A general catalogue containing 
complete alumni records for the century was published, edited 
by Reverend C. C. Carpenter. 

The eight years of President Fitch's administration were 
marked by a growth in student attendance and by plans of 
expansion. The Seminary entered upon its second year in 
Cambridge with twelve students; in two years the number 
doubled, and the next year thirty-four were enrolled. There 
was a considerable sprinkling of men from the Near and the 

-U96J* 



Far East. The seminaries were considering the question of 
making Hebrew an elective study and the Andover Faculty 
discussed it, finally reaching the conclusion that the newer 
tendency was inevitable with the enlarged scope of the theo- 
logical curriculum. It was ruled that to qualify for graduation 
a student must have studied the History of Israel, Introduc- 
tion to the Old and New Testaments, the Theology of the 
New Testament, Outlines of Church History, Systematic 
Theology, the Office of the Ministry, and the Art of Preaching. 

The completion of Andover Hall and its dedication in 1911 
provided the physical equipment needed for the school. Archi- 
tecturally beautiful and dignified in appearance, with ample 
quarters for the joint Andover Harvard library, and with 
commodious classrooms, chapel, and dormitory accommoda- 
tions, the building seemed well worth the $300,000 that 
it cost. It was hoped that funds might be secured to 
endow two new chairs of instruction, one in the history 
of religion and missions, the other in practical theology, 
including religious education. Affiliation was established 
with the Episcopal Theological School of Cambridge, which 
added the facilities of that school by a reciprocal arrange- 
ment similar to that with Harvard. As a gesture of good 
will this was matched by a telegram of congratulations to 
the new Andover from a group of thirty alumni meeting 
with the National Council in Kansas City. 

The Society of Inquiry reached its one hundredth anniver- 
sary, maintaining its organization in the new environment. 
John R. Mott was Hyde lecturer, speaking on "Forces To Be 
Used in the World's Evangelization." Professor Platner was 
commissioned to visit the mission stations on a projected 
vacation tour, carrying the greetings of the Seminary. The 
Society of Inquiry, realizing that missionary effort in all parts 
of the world was one enterprise, interested itself in the home 
missionary problem of New England, and in connection with 
a meeting of the Easter Theological School sent out a com- 
munication to all its former members calling to prayer for 
the mission to immigrants in the cities and for the humble 
rural parishes of the hill country. 



President Fitch resigned his position in 1917. His coming 
had infused new life into the school, had attracted students, 
and through his college preaching had enlarged the scope of 
Andover's influence. As a Harvard alumnus he was interested 
in the affiliation of the two schools. But the future of theo- 
logical education at Cambridge was problematical. The World 
War was a disturbing element, and applications from new 
students diminished. With all the advantages of the new 
building, ample library facilities, and the prestige of Harvard, 
Andover did not seem to move forward as had been antici- 
pated. Only one student graduated in 1918, and the total 
enrollment was reduced to thirteen. The decade since the 
Centennial had left the number of students at about the same 
point as before. Financial stringency was a further handicap. 

Professor Plainer became acting president, and Dr. 
Raymond Calkins of Cambridge was appointed in Fitch's 
place as lecturer on preaching for the year. In 1919 Professor 
Platner was elected the permanent head of the Faculty, being 
given at his request the title of "dean" rather than that of 
"president." Professor Hincks completed thirty-four years on 
the Faculty, and retired from active service, and Professor 
Ryder died suddenly, so that again the number of the Faculty 
was depleted seriously. The Faculty discussed the possibility 
of a combination of theological schools of Greater Boston 
during the next year for the sake of economy and on account 
of the general depletion of numbers, and they gave general 
approval to such a plan, recommending it to the Trustees. 

The retirement of Professor Hincks and the death of Pro- 
fessor Ryder added to the difficulties of the Seminary. Hincks 
was the link with the old order of things at Andover. He had 
been through the controversy over the New Theology, had 
taken part in the publication of the Andover Review, and 
had been on trial for his opinions. Through thirty-four years 
of service he had helped to carry the administrative burdens 
as well as his share of the teaching. His colleagues esteemed 
him as "exhibiting in happy combination the free spirit of the 
scholar and humanist, and the unobtrusive religious devotion 
of the Christian minister." He did not lament the removal 

4 my 



to Cambridge, though his affection for the old was strong, and 
he retained his Andover residence for some time. 

Professor Ryder died at Andover after a brief illness in 
the seventy-sixth year of his age. Not so conspicuous because 
he came to Andover too late to be involved in the conflict of 
ideas of the period of greatest disturbance and because of his 
native modesty, he enjoyed the confidence of his colleagues 
and the affection of the students for almost thirty years. As 
a teacher of the New Testament he had to face the problems 
of biblical criticism, and he did it frankly and fearlessly, but 
with such deep religious appreciation of Scripture and with 
such ample scholarship that he was freed from the charge of 
heresy which for a time had rested upon him. 

To fill the vacancies that had come Reverend Willard L. 
Sperry, minister of the Central Congregational Church, 
Boston, was invited to become Bartlet Professor of Sacred 
Rhetoric, and Professor Henry J. Cadbury of Haverford 
College, a graduate of Andover in 1909, was secured as lec- 
turer on the New Testament. Since Dr. Sperry retained his 
parish duties in Boston for a time, he could give only a limited 
amount of service to Andover, but his association with the 
school was an element of strength from the beginning. In the 
fall of 1920 sixteen students were in attendance. Letters were 
received from Australia, asking that arrangements might be 
made for granting Andover degrees to students from that part 
of the world, an evidence that the fame of Andover was wide 
and lasting. The question of admitting women to study in 
the school was a subject of discussion, but no action followed. 

Death again took its toll of the Faculty in 1921. After pro- 
longed ill health Professor Platner passed to his reward. He 
was still on the sunny side of sixty, but as Brown professor of 
ecclesiastical history, and later as dean, he had rendered worthy 
service to the Seminary. Trained thoroughly at home and 
abroad, he was equipped in scholarship; he was a preacher 
much sought by the churches, and more than once was invited 
to assume the pastorate of a church. The Faculty testified of 
him that he was as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land 
during twenty years of vicissitudes. " The service of his life 

-{199}- 



was greater than his teaching or administration; his daily 
contact with his students and his colleagues revealed the fine 
qualities of his character. He was gentle in his manner, un- 
selfish in his relation to others, sympathetic with them in their 
difficulties, interested in their pursuits, and always at their 
service. He lived amongst us as a scholar, a gentleman, and 
a Christian." 

It was then that Dr. Sperry was brought into full relation 
with the educational work in Cambridge. He was made presi- 
dent of the Faculty of Andover Theological Seminary, and 
the Harvard Corporation announced his election as "Professor 
of Homiletics and Dean of the Theological School in Harvard 
University." The affiliation between the two institutions had 
worked sufficiently well to justify a closer relationship. The 
demands of the Government for the use of Divinity Hall dur- 
ing the World War had hastened this development. Under a 
"Plan of Closer Affiliation" adopted by the Trustees and by 
the President and Fellows of Harvard College respectively, 
in May, 1922, it was provided that the two corporations should 
join to form a non-denominational theological school with 
single faculty, roll of students, administration and catalogue, 
the name of the school to be "The Theological School in Har- 
vard University." Degrees were to be conferred by Harvard 
upon students of the school on recommendation of the Faculty, 
but the Trustees reserved the right in their discretion to grant 
Andover degrees to Andover students, this term including 
the holders of Andover scholarships and fellowships and any 
other persons qualified and desiring to be such. The Andover 
professors Evans, Arnold, and Cadbury were adopted 
by the University. But scarcely had the arrangement been 
made before it was disrupted by legal proceedings. 

The removal to Cambridge had not escaped legal compli- 
cations in 1908. Certain alumni unfriendly to the change 
preferred objections before the Visitors, but the Visitors de- 
clined to hold that the removal was contrary to the intention 
of the Founders. Immediately after the Plan of Closer Affilia- 
tion was adopted, however, the Visitors, whose personnel 
had meanwhile changed, passed a resolution declaring the 



plan void. This action raised many legal questions which 
were the subject of protracted proceedings in the Supreme 
Judicial Court of Massachusetts. Hearings were held be- 
fore Fred T. Field, Esquire, (now a Justice of that Court) 
as master. His report was to the effect that in view of 
the limited income and other circumstances it was imprac- 
ticable for Andover to be maintained as an unaffiliated insti- 
tution. He further found that for many years prior to the be- 
ginning of the proceedings the Visitors, in passing upon the 
suitability of men elected by the Trustees to professorships, 
had treated the various creedal requirements as satisfied if the 
professor-elect was found to stand with respect to his doctrinal 
views in the historical succession of New England Trinitarian 
Congregationalism and had deemed immaterial an inability 
to accept particular propositions in the Creed or in the Cate- 
chism. With respect to the Plan of Closer Affiliation the 
master's finding was as follows : 

"I find that, apart from doctrinal or creedal requirements, the 
Plan of Closer Affiliation fulfills, as nearly as is possible under 
the existing conditions, the purposes for which Andover Seminary 
was founded. I further find that if the purposes for which the 
Seminary was founded, so far as such purposes involve doctrinal 
or creedal requirements, are fulfilled if instruction in the field of 
theological studies in which doctrinal questions are involved is in 
the historical succession of New England Trinitarian Congrega- 
tionalism, the Plan of Closer Affiliation fulfills with respect to 
Andover students as nearly as possible under existing conditions 
the purposes for which Andover Seminary was founded." 

The Court, however, held that the language of the original 
Constitution, Associate Statutes, and other fundamental doc- 
uments was so unequivocal that no relaxed interpretation 
was permissible, even though, as the master found, it had be- 
come impossible for any theological scholar of standing to 
subscribe to the Creed if literally interpreted. While the actual 
decision (which was rendered in September, 1925) did not go 
further than to set aside the Plan of Closer Affiliation, it was 
apparent that it was useless, either with or without any affilia- 
tion, to attempt to keep the Seminary open, so long as it should 



be subject to the creedal requirements as construed by the 
Court. 

Apparently nothing remained for Andover Seminary but 
to close its doors. For the remainder of the academic year 
1925-1926 the Seminary was conducted under the original 
Plan of Affiliation adopted in 1908, which was not directly 
affected by the decision. By concurrent action of the Trustees 
and of the Harvard Corporation this plan was then abrogated. 
The Faculty resigned, and the Trustees voted that instruction 
be suspended. 

It was in a chastened frame of mind that friends and alumni 
contemplated the future. Must the school that had served so 
well the denomination and the Christian world die of strangu- 
lation? Was the noble purpose of the founders to educate a 
Congregational ministry to be defeated by the dead hand of 
outgrown dogma? The Court had suggested a possible 
method of liberation. By a decree in accordance with the 
liberal principle of cy pres the Court might remove the ancient 
restriction and make it possible for the old school to breathe 
again. The Trustees immediately entered upon a serious con- 
sideration of the feasibility of obtaining relief by this means. 
Many important questions, both of law and of policy, had to 
be taken into account before the Trustees felt justified in 
instituting further proceedings. In November, 1930, however, 
the Trustees filed in the Supreme Judicial Court a bill in equity, 
representing that it was impossible under existing conditions 
to execute in all respects the designs of the founders as in- 
terpreted in the previous decision, and that attempted con- 
formity to the creedal requirements of the Constitution 
and Statutes as so interpreted would altogether defeat the 
primary object of the founders and subsequent donors, i.e., 
the providing of learned, able and devout ministers for the 
Trinitarian Congregational churches, and would necessitate 
the permanent discontinuance of the Seminary. The bill 
therefore asked the Court to adjudge that persons whose theo- 
logical views were in conformity with those obtaining among 
Trinitarian Congregationalists generally should thereafter be 
deemed qualified so far as concerned their doctrinal position 

{ 202 }- 



for professorships in the Seminary and that instruction given 
in the Seminary should not thereafter be called in question 
because of inconsistency with the creedal requirements of the 
Constitution and Statutes. The Board of Visitors (whose 
composition had undergone still another change) filed an 
answer in substance joining in the request of the Trustees. On 
April 10, 1931, the Court entered a decree reciting that it had 
become impossible to carry out the purposes of the founders 
and subsequent benefactors of the Seminary so long as the 
creedal requirements of the Constitution and Statutes were 
strictly enforced, and relieving the Trustees and the Visitors 
from the necessity of complying with these requirements 
except to the extent of seeing to it that the theological views 
held by the professors and by the members of the Board of 
Visitors are in conformity with those obtaining among Trini- 
tarian Congregationalists generally. 

While the legal matters were under advisement, the future 
course of Andover Theological Seminary was under consider- 
ation. The terms of the charter required that the Seminary 
should remain in Massachusetts, a provision which eliminated 
the possibility of going West or South. The continual objec- 
tion to the Harvard affiliation made resumption of the ar- 
rangement at Cambridge impracticable. Yet Andover lacked 
an endowment sufficient to continue instruction alone, and 
since the old buildings at Andover had been disposed of to the 
Academy in 1908, and Andover Hall in Cambridge was not 
available, the Seminary was in a dilemma. 

There was one way out. A cordial invitation from Newton 
Theological Institution to join forces in a new affiliation was 
extended to the homeless school. It was a novel proposition 
to unite seminaries of different denominations. Newton was 
Baptist and Andover was Congregational. But interdenomi- 
national differences had grown less acute since the first pro- 
fessors were obligated to denounce "heresies and errors, 
ancient and modern," and there were many likenesses between 
the two seminaries. Both were evangelical in temper, having 
come into existence in the same period and under the same 
impulse. Andover dated from 1807, Newton from 1825. 

4203Y 



The first Newton professors, Chase and Ripley, were An- 
dover men, and they transplanted the ideas and methods of the 
older school. Each had a rich missionary heritage. Each had 
been represented on the home mission field and in the halls 
of educational institutions. Both had the same high standards 
of scholarship, the same theological outlook, the same interest 
in interpreting religion in terms of present as well as future 
life. Both rested on faith in the ultimate spiritual reality as 
against the secular spirit of the age. Together they might 
hope to become a strong force in the life of the time, and to 
show the way towards the closer cooperation of two great and 
friendly denominations. In January, 1930, the Trustees of 
Newton extended a formal invitation to Andover to enter 
into an affiliation. The Andover Trustees thereupon adopted 
a resolution declaring their desire to accept the invitation as 
soon as practicable. Upon the entry of the decree relaxing 
the creedal requirements, the Visitors voted to approve the 
Plan of Affiliation with Newton. The Trustees thereupon 
voted to remove the Seminary from Cambridge to Newton 
to the extent contemplated by the Plan of Affiliation and to 
accept the invitation of Newton to enter into that plan. It 
was further voted that undergraduate instruction in the Semi- 
nary be resumed in Newton at the beginning of the academic 
year 1931-32. 

The mutual agreement provided resources sufficient for a 
strengthened Faculty. Professor Evans, whose resignation 
from the Andover Faculty had been held in abeyance by the 
Trustees, now withdrew the resignation at their request and 
resumed his duties as Abbot Professor of Christian Theology 
in coordination with the Newton department. Reverend 
Dwight Bradley became lecturer in pastoral problems and 
church worship, and Reverend A. Philip Guiles was added to 
the Faculty as the director of clinical training. In 1933 Pro- 
fessor Amos Niven Wilder of Union College was appointed 
to the chair of New Testament Interpretation. 

Andover students found their way to another hill than the 
old, but no less consecrated by ancient traditions and precious 
memories. In the Newton buildings at Newton Centre, An- 

1204}- 




HILLS LIBRARY AND FARWELL HALL IN NEWTON 



dover men studied side by side with Newton men, and in the 
classrooms the professors made no distinction between them. 
The old Society of Inquiry of Andover was revived and the 
long history of the organization was recalled. Andover alumni 
fraternized with Newton alumni at Commencement, and 
trustees of both schools sat together at the Commencement 
dinner. Friendship with Harvard was by no means broken. 
Newton had relations of affiliation with Harvard which 
facilitated the special studies of advanced students at Cam- 
bridge, and Andover arranged with Harvard to continue for 
the present the maintenance of the joint library in Andover 
Hall. The short distance of seven miles from Newton to Cam- 
bridge made it easily accessible in motor days, and the same 
distance from Newton to Boston made convenient the cultural 
advantages of that city and opportunities for service. 

The affiliation of the two schools was not a merger. Mind- 
ful of Andover's past experiences and of the possibility of 
readjustments, the seminaries adopted the principle of fed- 
eration with freedom for either school to abrogate the joint 
arrangement, if it should be desired. All the procedure was 
carried out in the most cordial spirit and in anticipation of 
permanence. The instructors of the two schools under the 
Plan of Affiliation hold regular meetings as one body under 
the name of the " Faculty of the Andover Newton Theological 
School," separate meetings of the faculties of the two schools 
being held as occasion may require. The presiding officer 
at the joint meetings is the President of Newton, who has 
the title of "President of the Andover Newton Theological 
School." President Everett Carleton Herrick, D.D., LL.D., 
who had been president of Newton since 1926, thus became 
the first holder of the new title. He had added notably to the 
endowment of the Institution by tireless efforts, and had 
enriched the school with new friends. The attendance was 
increasing materially, and the students were loyal to president 
and seminary in spirit and conduct. Dr. Herrick made the 
affiliation possible by his cordial spirit and patient wisdom. 
There was the friendliest feeling for the affiliation among 
the Trustees and Faculty of the Institution. To facilitate the 



working of the joint arrangement an administrative com- 
mittee of five from each board of trustees was appointed. 

The Trustees of Andover elected Reverend Vaughan 
Dabney, D.D., the minister of the Second Church in Dor- 
chester, as Bartlet Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Presi- 
dent of the Andover Faculty. The Plan of Affiliation provides 
that "The President of the Andover Faculty shall have the title 
'Dean of the Andover Newton Theological School,'" so Dr. 
Dabney became the first holder of this title. Dr. Dabney was 
Kentucky bred and received his theological education at Chi- 
cago Theological Seminary and as graduate fellow at Andover 
in 1912-14. He had had pastoral experience both East and 
West, and his election was hailed as a most suitable one. He 
was inaugurated on the seventh of January, 1932, in the First 
Church of Newton amid the congratulations of friends of 
both institutions and representatives from other schools of 
learning. He was inducted into office by Dr. Arthur S. Pease, 
President of Amherst College, a trustee of the Seminary and 
son of a former Bartlet professor at Andover, and the pro- 
gram included addresses by Justice Fred T. Field, president 
of the Newton Trustees, President Ernest N. Hopkins of 
Dartmouth, and Dr. Albert W. Beaven, president of the 
Colgate-Rochester Divinity School. Music was furnished by 
the chapel choir of the Seminary, led by an Andover student. 
In his inaugural address Dr. Dabney interpreted the alliance 
of Andover and Newton as meaning : first, the continuity of 
ancient traditions of scholarship, missionary zeal, and spir- 
itual fervor ; second, cooperation as the hope of a richer 
future ; and third, creative accomplishment in the field of reli- 
gion, so as to feed hungry souls and better to interpret the 
Master to human society. 

Andover students who came to Institution Hill at Newton 
Centre in the fall of 1932 found a busy student body of one 
hundred and fifty undergraduates, representing thirty differ- 
ent states of the Union and twelve foreign countries. Eighty 
Baptist and Congregational churches were being served by 
students as pastors' assistants. Deputation teams went to the 
churches for evangelistic purposes, and city missions were 



visited regularly in Boston. The Seminary enjoyed radio 
broadcasting privileges for religious messages at a neighboring 
station. Herrick House, a new dormitory erected during the 
summer, provided modern accommodations for married stu- 
dents, and Chase House supplied living quarters for women 
who were studying in the department of religious education. 
Lectures on the Hyde Foundation were on the point of resump- 
tion, and Professor Hocking of Harvard soon set a new pace 
with his contribution to re-thinking missions. The Southworth 
lectures of Andover supplemented the Greene, Duncan, and 
English foundations of Newton. And there on the hilltop of 
forty acres men and women took time for spiritual retreat 
as well as for intellectual and social activities. 

With the approach of Andover's one hundred and twenty- 
fifth anniversary faith is strong that the school of the prophets 
formed long ago by the alliance of two groups of Congrega- 
tionalists will find more abundant life in federation with a 
school of similar tradition, though of another denomination. 
They are loyal to the same God and His Son, Jesus Christ. 
Theirs is the same evangelical faith, the same congregational 
polity. Theirs are the same educational ideals, theirs the same 
goal of a social order transformed into the Kingdom of God. 
The vision of the world's need is glimpsed from Institution 
Hill in Newton as it was from Andover Hill. And what 
matters it, said Dr. Dabney in his inaugural, "if the ark of 
Andover has finally landed on the Ararat of Newton Hill? 
Progressive theological schools no longer wear sectarian 
labels. What a challenge is ours at Andover Newton to add 
a thrilling chapter to the history of the Christian Church, 
a history too full of wasteful competition and schism." 

On the back of the President's chair in the Convention hall 
at Philadelphia in 1787 was painted the picture of a half- 
submerged sun. When the Constitution of the new nation 
had been adopted, Benjamin Franklin, turning to several per- 
sons who stood near him, remarked: "I have often in the 
course of this session looked at the sun behind the President 
without being able to tell whether it was rising or setting. 
But now I have the happiness to know that it is a rising and 



not a setting sun." During the vicissitudes of the last quarter 
of a century the sons of Andover may have felt a similar 
uncertainty, but on this one hundred and twenty-fifth anni- 
versary they may feel confident that Andover's glory did not 
vanish with the fading glow of a sunset over the Shawsheen 
valley, but that the pioneer seminary of New England, with 
its windows open toward the east, greets a new and greater 
day from Newton Hill. 



BV Howe 

4070 : Eis ry o f the 
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THE UNIVERSITY 01' C-H -A';'