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(ibe Clnivcrsil:^ of CbicaQO 




A Typical Christian Center 











t . ., . .**.,. 
* * * 


Copyright, 1923, by 

Published August, 1923 



Hold, ye faint-hearted! Ye are not alone! 

Into your worn-out ranks of weary men 

Come mighty reinforcements, even now! 

Look where the dawn is kindling in the east, 

Brave with the glory of the better day, 

A countless host, an endless host, all fresh, 

With unstained banners and unsullied shields, 

With shining swords that point to victory, 

And great young hearts that know not how to fear- 

The children come to save the weary world! 



THE home-mission theme for 1923-24, "Saving 
America Through Her Boys and Girls," should have 
a stimulating influence upon all Christians of what- . 
ever name as we face the challenging task ahead of 
us. Baptists are sharing the responsibility for safe- 
guarding and training the child life of the nation, 
and this book seeks to set forth some of the mission- 
ary agencies at work, some types of service, and 
some significant results. 

The purpose behind this book is to place at the 
disposal of Baptists for use in mission-study classes, 
church schools of missions, program meetings, lec- 
ture courses, and institute programs, a body of dis- 
tinctly Baptist material to be used in the study of 
the interdenominational home-mission theme, " Sav- 
ing America Through Her Boys and Girls." 

The material has been prepared from the mission- 
ary point of view, to disclose the particular contri- 
bution which Baptist home-mission enterprises are 
making, and does not, therefore, attempt to discuss 
additional valuable and indispensable Baptist agen- 
cies at work under other than distinctly missionary 


We are greatly indebted to the authors of these 
various statements for the generous services which 
they have rendered in making this book possible. 


Secretary of Missionary Education, 
Baptist Board of Education. 







1. The Training of a Race for a Nation's 

Life 15 

2. The Autobiography of a Negro 30 

3. The First Americans and the Newer 

America 33 





1. What Kodiak Means to the Children 

of Alaska 107 

2. " Murrow," a Home for Orphaned In- 

dian Children 113 

3. An Institution With a Heart ........ 118 









1. World Wide Guild 191 

2. The Children's World Crusade. ...' 195 

3. The Bible School as a Missionary 

Agency 200 

4. The Young People's Society as a Mis- 

sionary Agency 203 



A Typical Christian Center Frontispiece 

Domestic Science Class at Spelman Seminary, 
Atlanta, Ga. . . . 22 

Group of Bacone Students 34 

Joanna P. Moore 46 

Training Class Starting Home 52 

Sunshine Band Girls 60 

Tenement in New York City 68 

Clinic in Christian Center. 70 

Nap Time in the Nursery 72 

Grace before Meat 76 

Child Life in the Lonely Areas 94 

Future Snake Chief 96 

_ , , 

Rev. John M. P. Martin Points Out a Neglected 
Field 100 

Orphanage Girls on a Hike. ; 112 

Dr. J. S. Murrow 114 

Group of Children from Murrow Orphanage ... 116 

Little Sisters, (Hear Me) 118 



George Ernest Barrow Blackman 120 

The Lost Sheep 122 

Roof Garden, Chinese Day School. 126 

Chinese Woman Going to English Lesson ...... 134 

Scene in Japanese Woman's Home, Seattle 138 

Rapid Transit in Cuba 150 

Central American Boys Who Lack a Chance .... 152 

Central American Boys and Girls Who Have a 
Chance , 155 

The Products of Christian Education 159 




If America is to be won to Christ, it will be 
through the boys and girls of today who are to be 
the men and women of tomorrow. The ringing 
words of Theodore Roosevelt still echo a great con- 
clusion, " Unless this country is made a good place 
for all of us to live in, it won't be a good place for 
any of us to live in." 

" Saving America Through Her Boys and Girls " 
has become already a phrase of unusual signifi- 
cance. It indicates a fine Christian strategy in the 
mapping out of a new campaign for a better Amer- 
ica, and it has in it a note of courage and optimism. 
What hopes for the future may we not cherish if we 
erect adequate moral and spiritual safeguards about 
the child life of the nation ! No true measurements 
of such a task may be made which do not include 
the home, the school, and the church. Even as no 
history of America's progress can be written with- 
out recognizing their importance, so no new national 
ideals may be realized without the larger use of 
these honored and sacred institutions. 

Ours is the superb opportunity to direct the 
energies of this host of boys and girls entrusted to 
our supervision. Just in proportion as they catch 
the vision of the needs of their country and the 



world, and dedicate themselves to the establishment 
of Christ's kingdom, so far will the people of our 
land be influenced by Christian ideals and motives. 
It devolves upon our generation to afford for our 
children a background of inter-racial sympathy and 
friendliness from which they may view without em- 
barrassment the goal of universal Christian brother- 

The home-mission enterprise " is an adventure in 
friendship," in that it seeks to bring together, for 
the saving of America, those groups that are widely 
separated by racial, social, provincial, and indus- 
trial differences. There is no task more difficult 
than this in the whole range of our organized Chris- 
tian activities, and no test of our Christian profes- 
sion that is more searching ; and yet if we really be- 
lieve that Jesus meant what he said, "All ye are 
brethren," we must try to create an atmosphere that 
will make it less difficult for our boys and girls to 
advance toward this goal than it has been for those 
who are older. 

The home is not only the door of entrance into 
this coveted future, but it commands all other ap- 
proaches. Here in the home are laid the first founda- 
tions, here are made the impressions which are most 
enduring, and here is the authority which is not yet 
challenged. Here the child finds his first social 
contacts, learns the sacredness of other lives, feels 
the pressure of social customs, and becomes familiar 
with the interests of others. If the atmosphere of 
this home is Christian, then Christian attitudes to- 
ward others will become a normal thing which 


affects behavior and leads to generous service. The 
home is the first home-mission field, and hence here 
is the first contact which our young people have in 
the task of saving America. If the child is not 
taught here to respect the rights of others and to 
reverence the relations that enable them to live to- 
gether in harmony, there is small chance of absorb- 
ing it elsewhere or of stumbling upon it by chance 
later. The degree to which the home recognizes its 
responsibility, and the place it gives to Christian 
values and ideals, will determine more than any 
other factor how far America will be Christian in 
the next generation. The use of national nicknames, 
already recognized as unchristian, must be banished 
from all family conversations, as not only coarse, 
but inimical to those mutual understandings which 
it is essential that those of different ideas shall 
possess. To cleanse the speech of the home from 
words that are divisive is the first step toward 
living and working together to save America. 

With a population as diverse and complex as that 
in our land, the saving of America will demand a 
good understanding of many peoples and many inter- 
ests. The public schools furnish the best training for 
an appreciation of the good qualities of others, the 
proper valuation of their peculiarities, and a knowl- 
edge of those motives that influence and of those 
ideals that differ. All these are necessary if we are 
to present the gospel in a way that will win the com- 
ing generation to Christ. The public school is a 
real home-mission contact because the scholars are 
less homogeneous than those of the private school, and 


widely varying classes and races and creeds and in- 
terests mingle. The scholars enter into competitions 
of scholarship that are incentives and that command 
respect. They play together enough to make ad- 
justments to widely varying angles of life, and when 
people play together they have learned the first 
lesson in working together. School activities, 
athletic teams, debating societies, and other in- 
terests are unmindful of the social barriers that 
exist outside because it is all for the honor of " our 
school." This healthy team-work brings into 
mutual understanding those who naturally would be 
strangers, and while it is true that socially these 
elements may not mingle, it is equally true that 
within the limits of any single race there are social 
distinctions quite as severe. 

The public school is the greatest agency of Amer- 
icanization that we have because it acquaints those 
whose traditions of race and culture and govern- 
ment are European with our own splendid heritage. 
The birthdays of great Americans have an almost 
inconceivable grip on the children of the foreign- 
born. The commemorations of birthdays of our 
national heroes, the anniversaries of great events, 
find them ready to enter into the spirit. It is re- 
freshing to hear a boy of Italian parentage wax 
eloquent on " What Abraham Lincoln means to me," 
while Fourth of July, a day dear to every American 
heart, cannot be celebrated without mention of 
Lafayette, the Frenchman, Stueben, the German, 
Pulaski, the Pole. Our schools might do well to go 
further and provide opportunities for sharing their 


heritage. If the European backgrounds of the great 
racial groups that compose our population were 
better understood, we would appreciate the con- 
tribution which these races might make to our 
national life. All the world is debtor to France for 
her art, and for her science to Pasteur and Curie. 
The music of Italy and of Poland, the literature of 
Germany, and the gifts of other nations ought to 
kindle good-will. Our boys and girls will think back 
from these races they have touched into the need 
and conscience of races and regions more remote, 
so that the saving of America will appear as a 
normal and necessary part of their life-work. Even 
in localities where racial differences are almost un- 
known, there exist religious and economic and in- 
dustrial strains that when discussed by the older 
people become subjects for heated argument among 
the boys and girls of our schools. 

There are human factors as well as divine powers 
in the task of saving America. The young people 
who are educated in our schools and the high-school 
pupils who are members of Christian churches, have 
an unparalleled home-mission opportunity. In their 
every-day life they are the interpreters of American 
Protestant Christianity to those with whom they 
come in contact who, through remoteness or home 
prejudice, fail to comprehend the finest elements of 
our faith. 

Here is a lad in a remote village who in his de- 
sire for an education travels thirty-six miles every 
day to the nearest high school, home conditions com- 
pelling his return each evening. The village where 


he lives can support preaching only three months 
of the year and is a real home-mission field. The 
women of a little colony of summer cottages in 
the mountains became interested in the girls of the 
small near-by farms. The vacant schoolhouse was 
opened one day in the week with classes in millinery, 
dressmaking, and embroidery, and especially friend- 
ship; the young people of these cottages became 
interested, a Sunday school was started, and, a sum- 
mer later, a student pastor preached in the school- 
house till the life of the whole region was trans- 
formed. Here was a personal knowledge of the 
rural problem of the Home Mission Society and of 
the colporter work and the Sunday-school work of 
the Publication Society. Missions had emerged 
from books and become a living thing. 

The church affords the widest possible contact 
for our young people in saving America. It pro- 
claims Jesus as " the living way." It tells men they 
are brothers to each other, and men who are far 
apart in their interest and needs, find a common 
fellowship in the life of the church. The prevalent 
impression that men of diverse interest or race can 
be welded together only by the " popular " or " in- 
stitutional " church, overlooks the fact that churches 
of a different type are doing just that thing. One of 
our fairly strong churches which is essentially a 
family church, includes nine different nationalities 
in its membership. Points of contact with home 
missions are normal in such a church. 

Missionary education is now a well-recognized 
part of every church program. Mission-study books 


for all ages, missionary reading courses, mission- 
study classes, summer assemblies, and winter insti- 
tutes, all afford information, stimulate interest, and 
lead to the consecration of many young lives to 
Christian service. 

A splendid amount of missionary literature has 
been provided, and our magazine Missions is so 
broad and comprehensive that it is vital to any well- 
considered missionary program in any church. 

In the church there are also special opportunities 
for missionary service. Americanization has many 
forms and affords many opportunities; classes to 
teach English are open doors to friendly interest, 
and this will lead on to the Saviour of men. The 
need is so great and the work so appalling in its 
magnitude, that a large amount of a part-time volun- 
tary service will be demanded of our young people 
in the near future, if America is to be saved. The 
church by her fellowship, by her missionary edu- 
cation, by the visualization of the work, by oppor- 
tunities for service, can prepare the boys and girls 
for their share in making America Christian and 
lead them to dedicate their lives to definite forms of 
Christian work. 

" That is my home," remarked an intelligent 
Negro physician in a Southern city to a Northern 
visitor, who was looking over some photographs of 
different homes in the community. It was a fine 
brick structure, better in appearance than many of 
the white residences there. The porch with its 
broad approach spoke a welcome, and the flowers 
in the yard told of the home-makers' interest. Com- 


fort and good taste were manifest in the appear- 
ance and style of architecture. "And that is the 
sort of home I came from," continued the doctor 
pointing to another photograph that of the familiar 
rural Negro home. It was a rickety, one-room af- 
fair with no windows. It spoke of the lack of thrift 
and poor living conditions common in certain Negro 
communities in the South. 

Even when a boy working at odd jobs and picking 
up a rather precarious living, Baker had the desire 
for an education. With but little money in his 
pocket, he walked to the Baptist mission school 
in a neighboring town and began his education. It 
was a hard struggle ; his previous schooling had been 
very meager; his funds were always low, and the 
work hard. Between his classes he worked around 
the school and during the summer on neighboring 
farms. But he completed the course and finished 
with a creditable sum of money ahead. Then came 
the purpose to study medicine, and there were sev- 
eral years more of hard work and constant plodding. 
But the day came when he began his work as a 
blessing among his own people. He went in and 
out among them as the Christian physician, his in- 
dustry and skill attracted the attention of the white 
people of the city, and his success brought confidence 
in a way not common for colored men in the 
South. And when the railroad found it necessary 
to enlarge its great hospital which was located in 
the city where he lived, they took one of the larger 
wings, and designating it for the colored people put 
Doctor Baker in charge. This was the transforma- 


tion of Baker. It is one of thousands of such in- 
stances in our home-mission work. 

A ringing challenge to American Christianity is 
voiced in the following reverential appeal of W. E. 
Doughty : 

O America, America, stretching between the two great 
seas, in whose heart flows the rich blood of many nations, 
into whose mountain safes God has put riches of fabulous 
amount, in whose plains the Almighty has planted the magic 
genius that blossoms into harvests with which to feed the 
hungry multitudes of earth, nursed by Puritan and Pilgrim, 
defended by patriot and missionary, guided by the pillar of 
cloud by day and of fire by night, sanctified by a faith as 
pure as looks up to heaven from any land, O America, let thy 
Master make thee a saviour of the nations ; let thy God flood 
thee with a resistless passion for conquest; let thy Father 
lead thee over mountains and seas, through fire and flood, 
through sickness and pain, out to that great hour when all 
men shall hear the call of Christ, and the last lonely soul 
shall see the uplifted cross, and the whole round world be 
bound back to the heart of God. 






Where the Path Began 

Let us in our survey walk down the six decades 
that begin February 27, 1862, when Rev. Howard 
Osgood returned from Fortress Monroe and re- 
ported the result of his investigations of the condi- 
tions among Negroes to the Executive Committee 
of The American Baptist Home Mission Society. 
Our fathers, assembled in the historic meeting-house 
in Providence, listened to the following report : 

Resolved, That we .recommend the Society to take 
immediate steps to supply with Christian instruction, by 
means of missionaries and teachers, the emancipated slaves 
whether in the District of Columbia or in other places held 
by our forces and also to inaugurate a system of operations 
for carrying the Gospel alike to free and bond throughout 
the whole Southern section of our country, so fast and so 
far as the progress of our arms and the restoration of law 
and order shall open the way. 

On the same day Rev. Isaac W. Brinkerhoff and 
Rev. Jonathan W. Horton were commissioned to 
labor among the Negroes on the Island of St. Helena, 
S. C., and on September the sixteenth Doctor Peck, 
for many years the Corresponding Secretary of the 
Missionary Union, volunteered his services and was 
commissioned to Beaufort. The work prospered, 



and the colored church in Beaufort in 1867 reported 
4,000 members, divided into four parishes, each 
having a preacher who cooperated with a pastor. 

Early in 1863 Rev. H. C. Fish, of New Jersey, on 
behalf of the Board, examined the condition of the 
freedmen in Washington and Alexandria. His re- 
port stirred the hearts of Northern Baptists, for he 
declared : 

I found them helpless, hopeless, friendless; these poor 
creatures appeal to us most loudly for assistance! Not a 
man in the whole camp to care for their souls! Not a 
teacher to instruct them even in the lowest branch of 
learning! Few, if any, missionary fields, as we believe, make 
a stronger demand upon our denomination today than that 
here indicated. Difficult indeed is the problem. What are 
we to do for the freedmen who are being thrown in increas- 
ing numbers upon our hands? One thing is certain, they 
must not be neglected. And upon whom else so clearly 
rests this obligation as upon Northern Baptists? 

Another Step Forward 

In 1864, at the Annual Meeting, another step in 
the policy of the Society was taken, and one which 
under the constant blessing of God has endured to 
the present time. This policy is reflected in these 
words : 

We must give assistance to our missionaries in the South, 
to engage in such instruction of the colored people as will 
enable them to read the Bible and to become self-supporting 
and self-directing churches. The Board will gladly receive 
all moneys contributed and designated for this purpose, and 
appropriate the same agreeably to the wishes of the donors; 
the moneys thus designated to be termed the Freedmen's 


This action of the board thrilled the Baptists of 
New England, and in the First Baptist Church in 
Boston, October 26 of the same year, the New En- 
gland State Convention appointed a Freedmen's 
Committee, to be called the New England Freed- 
men's Aid Commission, to advise and cooperate with 
the Home Mission Board in raising funds and in 
sending out and recommending suitable persons for 
assistants in the South. 

Everywhere interest deepened. Up to April, 1864, 
several additional missionaries and fourteen assis- 
tants had been appointed for the Southern field. In 
1864, mission work was conducted at Norfolk, Va. ; 
Alexandria ; Washington, D. C. ; Beaufort ; Memphis ; 
Nashville ; Island No. 10, Tenn. ; and in New Orleans. 

In May, 1865, the Society held its annual meeting 
in St. Louis. The war was over. At that time 
President Martin B. Anderson, of New York, said : 

It has been asked, " What will you do with the Negroes? " 
God does not require of us an answer to this. Our question 
is, " What will we do FOR the Negro? " God will tell us, 
when it pleaseth him, what to do with the Negro. Let us 
do our work, and leave the rest to God. Let us organize 
them into churches and Sunday schools; teach them to labor, 
and to make of themselves men in every sense. God will do 
the rest. 

The Annual Report of the Board showed that 
$4,978.69 had been received for the Freedmen's Fund 
and the presence of 68 missionaries in twelve States. 

That year the designated funds for the Freedmen 
amounted to $21,386.26, and the total expenditure 
was $40,000. 


" That year it was decided that the most direct, 
accessible, and effective way of teaching the mass of 
colored people is by teaching the colored ministry." 
It was further declared that the irregular instruc- 
tion imparted by missionaries, while important, was 
entirely inadequate, and that established institu- 
tions were demanded. In this year, therefore, the 
Society addressed itself to the Christian education 
of the colored people and the creation of leadership 
without which the Negro race would never have 
reached the improved condition which it now enjoys. 

Laying Foundations 

In April, 1867, we began in earnest the purchase 
of land, the erection of buildings, and the securing 
of suitable equipment. Schools were established 
in Washington, Nashville, New Orleans, Raleigh, 
Richmond, Alexandria, Culpepper, Fredericksburg, 
Williamsburg, Petersburg, Murfreesboro, Albany, 
and Ashland, some of them with a view to per- 
manency. In that year alone more than 300 
preachers received instruction, ministers' and dea- 
cons* institutes were held, 59 teachers were em- 
ployed in day-schools for the education of the youth, 
and 6,136 pupils were instructed. As the result of 
the year's work many were converted, and a large 
amount of missionary labor was performed by the 
teachers in the communities in which the schools 
were located. The fruitage of that year is seen also 
in the commissioning of 30 colored teachers in im- 
portant cities and districts in the Southern States, 
and in the aiding of 97 colored Baptist churches 


toward the support of their pastors or toward secur- 
ing meeting-houses. 

The American Baptist Home Mission Society and 
the Woman's American Baptist Home Mission So- 
ciety now own or assist 14 major and 5 secondary 
institutions. The fourteen major schools l are dis- 
tributed through the Southern States as follows: 
Storer College, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia; 
Virginia Union University and Hartshorn Me- 
morial College, Richmond, Virginia; Shaw Univer- 
sity, Raleigh, North Carolina ; Benedict College, Co- 
lumbia, South Carolina ; Morehouse College and Spel- 
man Seminary, Atlanta, Georgia; Jackson College, 
Jackson, Mississippi; Leland College, Baker, Loui- 
siana; Bishop College, Marshall, Texas; Selma 
University, Selma, Alabama; William J. Simmons 
University, Louisville, Kentucky; Roger Williams 
University, Nashville, Tennessee; Arkansas Baptist 
College, Little Rock, Arkansas. The secondary 
schools are: Mather School, Beaufort, South Caro- 
lina; Coleman Academy, Gibsland, Louisiana; 
Waters Normal Institute, Winton, North Carolina; 
Americus Institute, Americus, Georgia; Florida 
Normal and Industrial Institute, St. Augustine, 

The two Home Mission Societies have steadily 
adhered to the training of the colored people as min- 
isters and teachers, and for many years have been 
preparing students for medicine, law, pharmacy, 
business trades, home-making, and industry. We 

1 A description of each one of these schools, by Dr. G. R. Hovey, will 
be found in the appendix of " Race Grit " by Coe Hayne. 


have combined the Christian culture of the heart 
with the development of the mind and the training 
of the*hand so that these schools may give an educa- 
tion for efficiency that shall make the students re- 
ceiving instruction sufficient unto every good work. 

The Open Doors 

We have not been able to close the doors to any 
pupils who wish to receive an education in a Chris- 
tian atmosphere, and in several of these institutions, 
in order that teachers may qualify for the State 
examinations, we have established training-schools, 
where the future instructors of colored children may 
have practise in teaching in the various grades. 
This has been especially true in the schools located 
in the large centers. All who visit these schools 
are impressed with the facilities which we have been 
able to furnish, with the thorough instruction that 
is given, and with the immense contributions which 
these have made to the education of the Negro 
race. Thousands of well-qualified teachers have 
gone forth from our schools into the country dis- 
tricts, where each has been the center of an influence 
that cannot be destroyed. In many of the communi- 
ties where these teachers have gone, neighborhood 
life has been transformed and almost transfigured 
by the new ideals which our Christian pupils have 
brought to parents and their children. 

Wise Guides 

President Maxson of Bishop College, out of his 
experiences, reminds us that when the Negro is edu- 


cated, as in the case of a member of any race, he is 
removed from the liability side of the book and 
placed on the asset side. Dr. George Rice Hovey has 
compiled statistics showing that from our schools 
have gone out approximately 5,000 ministers who 
have become not only defenders of the faith but 
defenders of the people, 10,000 teachers for all 
grades of schools from college presidents to country- 
school grade teachers, 700 physicians, 800 pharma- 
cists and dentists, 150 lawyers, and all kinds of 
welfare workers. Can we see this great army of 
enlightened people at work in all parts of the land? 
What dark corners they brighten! What minis- 
tries to a hungering people! What guidance for 
youthful feet! And what results the imagination 
may picture! 

Our graduates are taught to be good neighbors 
as the first fruits of their companionship with the 
Good Shepherd. Take the matter of teachers for 
rural schools for whom there is an insistent and 
ever-increasing demand. "The day of the Negro 
public school in the South is at hand," declares 
Doctor Hovey, 

and the watchword of our schools in the South now is: 
"Put your strength into the private schools already estab- 
lished and into the public schools. Go into the smaller com- 
munities and improve and build up the county and rural 
schools." The time has come when every Negro child should 
have a chance for grade work within reach of his own home, 
and the united efforts of the Negro people can greatly 
hasten the day when this will be true. Our Baptist con- 
stituency will be glad to learn that our graduates are re- 
sponding to this call. 


Our schools are contributing immeasurably to the 
national wealth and stability. Students trained by 
our teachers go to their own communities and as 
volunteers or as teachers organize clubs for farm 
boys and girls in cooperation with the United States 
Department of Agriculture and County Farm 
Bureaus. The projects undertaken by the members 
of the clubs are supervised by our specially trained 
students. The work must measure up to national 
standards whether the project is raising a pig, 
setting a hen, growing potatoes or corn, or canning 
fruit. The courses in cookery offered in our schools 
have a direct bearing upon the health of this race. 
The courses in sewing, dressmaking, millinery, bas- 
ketry, bench-work, printing, laundering, and agri- 
culture, as well as in the usual academic studies, 
Christianized and directed sanely, contribute to the 
development of a stable national life. 

What better can we do for the men of the colored 
race than to train them for Christian civic and in- 
dustrial leadership, teaching them not only law, 
medicine, theology, and literature, but how to make 
their furniture, their houses, and their gardens? 

What better education can be given a Negro girl 
than how to study and teach the Bible, how to cook, 
to make her hats and clothes, and keep her house 
in order? 

When a youth who lives in the " shadow of one 
blue hill " climbs the hill, sees from its top the dis- 
tant schoolhouse and goes forth to its gifts, he 
returns to make life broad and deep and high on the 
acres which he owns. 


The aspiration of colored youths for leadership 
among their people was deeply impressed upon me 
in a conversation I once had with a Negro student. 

When I asked what he intended to do after he left 
school, he said, " Be an engineer." 

" A civil engineer? " I inquired. 

" No, sir," he answered. 

" A mechanical engineer? " 

" No, sir." 

" An electrical engineer? " 

" No, sir." 

With the other departments of engineering I knew 
he was not familiar, and so I ventured as a last 
question : 

" What kind of an engineer do you intend to be- 
come? " 

And he replied, with a flash in his eye, " A chief 

I learned later that he was working hard as a fire- 
man and hoped soon to secure a license as a sta- 
tionary engineer. 

Christian leadership in Christian service has been 
our goal. Indeed, the world has long since climbed 
above the mesa on which Doctor Johnson stood when 
he cried with the plaudits of his generation, " Edu- 
cation is needed solely for the embellishment of 

As in foreign missions, so in home missions, our 
effort is to create leadership through Christian 
schools. We cannot handicap the Negro race and 
then ask it to equal us who are not handicapped. 

Twenty years ago a colored boy walked a long dis- 


tance to one of our schools, and four months later, 
when he returned home for the Christmas holidays, 
hardly able to read and write, the deacons of the 
church insisted on calling him " Professor." His 
head, however, was not turned, and after years of 
diligent study he has become one of the leaders of 
his race, long occupied a prominent pulpit, and has 
been chosen as the head of an institution which has 
six hundred students. 

The organization of the Negro Baptists in Asso- 
ciation, State and National Conventions, under 
leadership of great ability, displays talents that we 
should not minimize. Indeed in all the communities 
in the South, where Negroes live, and they live 
everywhere, and in all the Negro colonies in our 
Northern cities, if you search out the men and women 
of prominence who are in the van of educational, 
social, and religious activities, you will find that 
they with few exceptions have been students in the 
mission schools of the South. 

Culture and Service 

It must be remembered that a large proportion 
of the pupils in our schools are studying the elemen- 
tary branches and do not pursue their studies to the 
period of graduation, yet in this brief period they 
become disciples of progress and are evangelists to 
bring to the relatives and friends the proper con- 
ceptions of religion and education which their 
teachers have given to them. The pupil goes home 
and realizes that life leads somewhere and that his 
education makes him a trustee to his race. 


These schools for the most part have high-school 
departments, and this signifies much in terms of 
nation building through the boys and girls. The 
high-school age is the time when children are most 
susceptible to the religious appeal. It is the critical 
age too, when ideals of human relationships are 
determined. During this wonderful age, this dan- 
gerous age, when the altruistic element is strongest, 
our devoted teachers, whose own strength is drawn 
from the everlasting hills, are in daily contact with 
the boys and girls who tomorrow will have their 
part in shaping the destiny of the Negro race in 
America. In our schools thousands of the colored 
youth of the South form a life comradeship with the 
divine Master. Rarely does a student graduate from 
any one of our schools who is not a professing Chris- 
tian. At all of the schools revival meetings are held 
during the academic year. They are evangelistic 
agencies as well as educational institutions. The 
one is not incidental to the other but a real part, 
vitalizing and spiritualizing the work of the class- 

The Negro finds opponents among his people, but 
they are those who are entrenched in superstition, 
immorality, and prejudice, and these disintegrating 
forces become decadent among all belated races 
under the influence of religion and education. 

The Negro by hundreds of thousands during the 
past ten years, has been leaving his old cabin home 
and the plantation in the South in answer to the 
call of the North. No event in our national life 
is quite parallel to the growth of the Negro popula- 


tion in our Northern cities. Among these migrants 
are the representatives of our colleges, secondary 
and country schools taught by young men and 
women trained in our institutions. Among them 
are many who have grown up in churches in the 
South served by pastors trained in our schools. It 
does not require an exercise of the imagination to 
picture the vast contribution these Christian agen- 
cies in the South have made to the stable life of 
Northern communities. 

From an inspiring evening recently spent in Car- 
negie Hall, in New York City, where Hampton 
Institute gave a good account of its stewardship, 
I returned home with my mind filled with fresh 
proofs of a training that combines both culture and 
efficiency. I realized that evening that the higher 
education is one that lifts men higher, and the 
highest education raises men to heights from which 
they go down as Jesus did, to work for a world that 
can be spiritually conquered only by the industry 
and patience of those whose hearts are pure and 
whose hands are clean. I saw that night, as I had 
never seen before, that the higher education is that 
which gives its possessor a higher lifting power, 
and that a liberal education is an education that 
makes a man's life a generous contribution to his 
day and race. In terms of character it makes him 
efficient in the conquests of sin in his own life; in 
terms of efficiency it makes him sufficient for every 
good work in uplifting others. In terms of service 
it qualifies him for the larger leadership of his 


The Gifts of Love 

We should all do honor to the teachers who have 
gone from the North, and especially from New En- 
gland, to teach the Negroes. The service at first was 
glorified in the North, and minimized in the South, 
but it is now appreciated more and more among the 
white neighbors of our virile institutions. The 
Negroes have long since risen up to call them 
blessed, and Doctor Du Bois has said, " These Chris- 
tian teachers have gone forth in the ninth crusade." 
One has a strange feeling in his heart when he hears 
an enemy of these schools say that the Negroes are 
incapable of education and in the same conversa- 
tion, a few minutes later, hears him assert that 
educated Negroes are dangerous to society and the 
jails are filled with them. Such opinions do not 
weigh an ounce in the balance against those noble 
expressions to the contrary which are constantly 
and freely being given by the intelligent people of 
the South. 

Today these institutions are administered by men 
of exceptional ability and taught by teachers of fine 
mind and heart. 

These teachers have labored with rare devotion 
in the yielding clay which has often broken on the 
potter's wheel till they have patiently made it whole 
again. Their names are in the books that the angels 
write, and will appear in letters of gold when the 
history of Negro education is finally written. The 
South has treated these Christian educators kindly 
in later years, and many of our mission schools have 


long had trustees and friends among the Southern 
people, who have always ministered to these angels 
in their midst and given to them the cup of en- 
couragement in the Master's name. 

A Wider Field 

What our Societies have expended in Negro edu- 
cation, however, does not represent the total con- 
tributions of Northern Baptists for this object. Our 
States are the happy hunting-grounds through 
which have wandered Negro pastors and teachers, 
and the amount of money which has been collected 
from individuals, Sunday schools, young people's 
societies, and churches, represents not only generos- 
ity, but constitutes a vast sum. 

The Negroes themselves during these sixty years 
have appreciated our efforts on their behalf, and 
have paid into the school treasuries of our various 
institutions hundreds of thousands of dollars for 
board and tuition charges. This makes two points 
clear: That their parents and friends are coming 
to financial strength, which makes possible the edu- 
cation of the younger generation, and also that a 
multitude of young men and women are eager to 
possess ample preparation for the work of life. 

Our Task 

We need to remember that the task in which we 
are engaged may be a very long one, for it may take 
as many decades to solve this problem as it took to 
make it. How long, therefore, shall we patiently 
pour our missionary treasures of money and of life 


into this stream ? We answer, Till our work is done 
and others come to supplement our labors. 

It is a joy to know that the best sentiment in the 
South today, where the tide is rising fast, demands 
not only an education for the masses of the colored 
people, but that higher educational institutions shall 
be developed to supplement the denominational 
work, both in order to provide teachers for the rural 
schools and to train the exceptional man and woman. 

Important changes are imminent in the South. 
The growing efforts on behalf of the Negroes in 
the organizing of Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tions led by the Southern white students ; the estab- 
lishing of fellowships in Southern universities for 
the study of the race problem; the Christian work 
which Southern church boards are doing with in- 
creasing liberality these are significant tendencies 
of Southern life today. Their work at first will sup- 
plement our Christian endeavors and in the end will 
probably lessen our commitments to this form of 
Christian service, which will naturally be transferred 
to the hearts and hands of white men and black who 
live as neighbors. 

The Breadth of the Problem 

Who can travel in the South and not observe 
the kindly feeling which prevails between the better 
classes of both races? It is not in the ability of any 
one reared in the North to instruct intelligently the 
Southern Baptists as to what they ought to do. 

Every word of exhortation given in the South 
may well be repeated in the North, where prer 


judice against the Negro we fear is not growing 
less. Indeed, the Baptists of the Northern States 
may well read the burning utterances of our South- 
ern leaders and labor more zealously in our cities 
for the evangelization of the Negro people, many of 
whom absorb the vices and not the virtues of their 
environment. As we read the calls to service ut- 
tered to their brethren by these Southern neighbors, 
and meditate on their words in praise of our Chris- 
tian schools, let us not for an instant imagine that 
the Baptists who have always dwelt closest to the 
great population of Negro people have not gen- 
erously assisted the Negro Baptists in their Christian 
enterprises. Their gifts doubtless have long since 
passed the mark of two million dollars. Indeed, 
almost every Negro church has appealed, and not in 
vain, to their Southern friends to help build its 

The Negro problem is a national problem and will 
never be solved by the North alone nor by the South 
alone, but by the North and the South together, 
working on a larger plane than has ever yet been 
devised and in constructive ways that will utilize 
the financial ability, the intellectual leadership, and 
the moral power of the Negro race. 



My parents were poor but honest and industrious. 
The school advantages of my boyhood days were 
poor beyond the power of many today to imagine. 


I attended school in a one-room schoolhouse, and 
was taught by poorly paid teachers. The school year 
was always less than three months. Most of the 
pupils would forget in nine months nearly all they 
had learned in three. I tried not to lose everything. 
I succeeded somehow in carrying from year to 
year the little I learned during the one term of 
school held annually. From time to time I added to 
my little store of knowledge as opportunity afforded. 
By the time I was seventeen years of age I knew 
about as much as my teacher. Accordingly, I left 
the country school and went to work at a saw-mill 
where I received wages to the amount of sixty 
cents per day. Half of my income I was obliged to 
give to my father. I was under twenty-one years 
of age and was supposed to "belong" to him; it 
was my duty to compensate him for " raising " me. 
Such, indeed, was the community conception of 

Of course, I did not mind giving the money to 
father, for he was doing the best he knew for me 
and probably did do all that he could under the cir- 
cumstances. As a matter of fact it was my duty 
to help him and mother along with the children 
younger than myself. I saved thirty dollars and 
entered A. and M. College, Greensboro, N. C., where 
I was able to remain three months. 

I taught school the next year. 

Again I entered school, this time at Slater School, 
Winston-Salem, N. C., where I received what was 
then called a normal diploma. 

While at Slater I professed faith in Christ. Upon 


returning home, those of my family and the com- 
munity generally did not believe that I had had any 
religious experience whatever. They did not hesi- 
tate to tell me so. My faith was too simple, they 
thought. Salvation is not so free, they argued. 
This cold reception given to me, a new convert, may 
be understood when it is recalled that my parents 
and the members of the community generally, at 
that time, held the faith of the Primitive Baptists 
an extreme type of predestinarianism. 

In 1905 I entered Shaw University and was a 
student in that institution until 1910, when I was 
graduated from the college and theological depart- 
ments. I earned the money to get through Shaw by 
working during the summer months first in a steel- 
mill and later in an ice factory in Braddock, Pa. 
The work was hard. I worked twelve hours a day 
and seven days each week. 

After graduation from Shaw I did Y. M. C. A. 
work for one year. 

My thirst for knowledge was by no means satis- 
fied. In 1911, I made my way to the University of 
Chicago. In 1913, Chicago conferred upon me the 
degree of Master of Arts. The same year I was 
asked to return to Shaw as a member of the faculty. 
I came and have been at Shaw ever since. 

Life has been for me for the most part a severe 
struggle, but I have enjoyed it immensely and enjoy 
it still. 

Hath hope been smitten in its early dawn? 
Have clouds o'ercast thy purpose, truth, or plan? 
Have faith, and struggle on. 





(The record of the work of the Home Mission forces in the 
training of America's youth, would be incomplete without 
the story of Bacone College, our notable Indian School.) 

At an Indian Association my heart was stirred 
to see an Indian father and son in the fellowship of 
the ministry, and in the name of our Baptist denomi- 
nation I thanked the father for giving his son to the 
ministry of the church of our common love. Where- 
upon he rose and in his courtesy of manner said: 
" Mr. Weeks, this boy is the son of my first love, 
long gone from me; and I sent him to Bacone. I 
worked to get the money. I paid his way. I asked 
no help. It was my joy. When I am dead I will 
leave him to the Baptist denomination of my love." 
And the Association sobbed and then broke into 
song and I with it. Can you think that a race which 
can produce such poetry of fatherhood will not 
come in due season to bless the world? 

The Indians of the Five Civilized Tribes are a 
Baptist heritage there being more Baptists among 
them than members of any other denomination. Bap- 
tist mission work among them began long before 
they removed from their old homes to the Indian 
territory. Today the names of Isaac McCoy, Hum- 
phrey Posey, H. F. Buckner, J. S. Murrow, and A. C. 
Bacone, are household words among the Five Civi- 
lized Tribes. Then too, there were strong native 


preachers among them, such as Charles Journeycake, 
John Mclntosh, Wesley Smith, Chief John Jumper, 
Black Beaver, Chief Keokuk, and others who gave 
themselves and all they possessed for the cause of 
Christ and Christian education during pioneer days 
in the Territory, when Bacone Indian University 
was first founded. 

Race Leaders Win Success 

There are many leading Indians of the Five Civ- 
ilized Tribes able to cope with their white brethren 
in the point of leadership. Rev. Henry M. Harjo, a 
Bacone man, full-blood Creek, has acquired con- 
siderable wealth through oil production, gives him- 
self unselfishly to the evangelization of the Seminole 
Indians in Florida, and has given liberally of his 
means recently to the Murrow Indian Orphanage at 
Bacone. There is no way of knowing how much 
time and money Mr. Harjo has invested in the Semi- 
nole work. 

Rev. James McCombs, another native preacher 
among the Creeks, a farmer preacher, working in- 
dustriously with his hands to support his family, 
and preaching every Sunday, a man of unblemished 
character, moderator of the Creek Association, is 
also a Bacone graduate. 

Mr. F. C. Alec, an active layman among the Creeks, 
clerk of the Creek Association, generous with his 
means, a good business man, is also a Bacone grad- 
uate. Rev. John Smith, a Bacone man, Sunday 
school leader, and missionary to the Florida Sem- 
inoles, whose purse is freely open to every good 


cause, and a man of unblemished character, has 
given his time and influence freely for a new and 
greater Bacone. Rev. P. R. Ewing, one of the most 
active and influential ministers among the Creeks, 
is a Bacone man. Mrs. Ewing, a graduate of Bacone, 
and a daughter of Rev. William McCombs, is a 
regularly appointed missionary of the Creek Asso- 
ciation to the Wichita Indians. Mr. and Mrs. Ewing 
have given their time and influence without reserva- 
tion to the building of the new Bacone, Mr. Ewing 
having served as my faithful interpreter for the 
past eighteen months most efficiently. Rev. William 
McCombs, pioneer minister among the Creeks, has 
given his influence for forty years for the upbuild- 
ing of Bacone, and rejoices that he lives to see the 
fruit of his labors. 

For a New and Greater Bacone 

Bacone College is situated at Muskogee, the capital 
of the Five Civilized Tribes, and almost in the heart 
of the Creek nation. It ministers to an Indian pop- 
ulation of more than 100,000 within a radius of 100 
miles. Then there are the Blanket tribes numbering 
19,000 in the western part of the State. This year the 
following tribes are represented among the student 
body: Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Sem- 
inole, Euchee, Shawnee, Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, 
Wichita, Apache, Pottawatomie, Cheyenne, Otoe, 
Pawnee, Osage, Mono, Hopi, Crow. These students 
come from Oklahoma, Mississippi, Arizona, Montana, 
and California. If only we had the means Bacone 
could easily become a great national school for In- 


dians, with every tribe in the nation represented. 
It must be. The Indians depend upon their mission- 
aries and native preachers for advice and leader- 
ship, but only a small fraction of these have had 
any adequate preparation, and the great majority 
of them have had no theological training whatever. 
Bacone College with its pitifully inadequate equip- 
ment, is nevertheless the best opportunity open to 
the ambitious Indian youth. We have crowded two 
hundred students into dormitories that should not 
hold much more than half that number. Our 
teachers are shamefully overworked. We should 
have facilities at once for not less than five hundred 
students. Almost half that number have been denied 
admission this year for lack of room. It is true 
we have now a building program which includes a 
new administration building and two dormitories, 
the money being provided by individual Indians, the 
Home Mission Society, and the General Education 
Board, but these buildings will not relieve the 
present demand. There must be at least two more 
dormitories, a dining-room and kitchen. Perhaps 
the greatest need of all is a well-equipped gymna- 
sium. Many Indian youth are tubercularly inclined, 
and we have been praying that some one might be 
led to provide this need. 

The Baptists should develop Bacone College to 
provide for at least five hundred students, though we 
could easily have twice that number if we had the 
equipment. It will be several decades before the 
Indian children as a whole will be ready to enter 
white schools. Hundreds of them from fifteen to 


eighteen years of age have never been to school, and 
must enter the primary, where in white schools they 
would be laughed at, whereas in Indian schools they 
are understood, and meet with the interest and 
sympathy so much needed in their development. We 
should have an up-to-date normal department; a 
greatly enlarged theological department, so that the 
Indian churches may have intelligent Christian 
leadership, and where missionaries can be trained 
for the thousands of neglected Indians in Central 
and South America; the grammar grades must by 
all means be maintained; a first-class musical de- 
partment, to develop the musical genius of the race ; 
an art department, for the Indians are natural 
artists; a practical business course, to meet the de- 
mands for clerks, stenographers, etc., and so keep 
our young people out of undesirable business col- 
leges in the cities; a strong industrial department, 
including practical farming, trades for the young 
men, and instruction in cooking, sewing, dressmak- 
ing, millinery, nursing, and home-making for the 
young women. 





























" fii 



a* S 


m Q. 

Negro Schools supported chiefly by the 
A. B. H. M. 8. 
Virginia Union University, Richmond, Va. 
Shaw University Raleigh, N C 















Benedict College Columbia, S C 

Morehouse College, Atlanta, Ga 

Jackson College .Tackson, Miss 

Bishop College Marshall, Tex 



Storer College, Harpers Ferry, W. Va. . . 









Nearo Sclwols helped by the 
A. B. H. M. S. 
1 Hartshorn Memorial College, Richmond, 














Florida Normal and Industrial Institute, 
St Augustine, Fla 




Selma University, Selma, Ala 




Roger Williams University, Nashville, 

Simmons University, Louisville, Ky. . . . 
Arkansas Baptist College, Little Rock, 



1 Spelman Seminary, Atlanta, Ga 


Coleman Academv, Gibsland, La 











Indian School Supported by the 
A. B. H. M. S. 
Bacone College Bacoue, Okla 





Forciyii-ftpcukinf/ Schools 
- Mexican Baptist Theological Seminary, 
Saltillo Mexico 













2 Mexican Boys' High School, Saltillo, 

Colegios Internacionales, Cristo, Cuba. . . 
3 Evangelical Seminary, Rio Pied r as. 
Porto Rico 







International Baptist Seminary, East 
Orange N .T .... 



Spanish-American Seminary, Los Angeles, 











Grand Total 







1 Supported largely by the W. A. B. H. M. S., which Society helps in support 
of the other Negro Schools except Virginia Union, Morehouse, and Bishop. 

-Supported jointly with Soul horn Baptist Convention. 

''Supported in cooperation with six denominations; statistics refer to Bap- 
tists only. 



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123| 87 
































































































































































.... 45| 


249J 242 










1691 146 




f This sign denotes " more or less," 







Given a great objective the missionaries of the 
Woman's American Baptist Home Mission Society 
go out to work among women and children. The 
objective is expressed by the motto of the Society, 
" Christ in Every Home." A good, broad motto 
this, not confined by oceans nor constricted by 
national boundaries. No wonder that every effort 
toward accomplishing this ideal, for the motto is 
an ideal, has a by-product in foreign missionary 

The methods of reaching this ideal must be as 
various as the types of homes visited. Women mis- 
sionaries are carrying the Christ into igloos of 
Alaska, dugouts of the prairie, shacks in the moun- 
tains, teepees on the plains, adobe huts in the South- 
west, factory houses in industrial centers, tenements 
in the great cities, and cabins in the Southland. 
Wherever they go they confine their direct ministry 
to women and children, yet as the family life is en- 
nobled when a place in the home is given to Christ, 
the man of the house is helped. 

Of all the means employed by the Woman's So- 
ciety none is surer in its method nor sounder in its 
principle than the Fireside School. A presentation 
of its method and principle is essential in a study 
of Baptist work for boys and girls in America, since 
it aims to help mothers to rear properly their chil- 



dren, and it works directly with children through 
a system of clubs called Sunshine Bands. 

There is something a little misleading at first in 
the term " Fireside School," not in the " Fireside " 
part of it but as to the " School." Traveling through 
the country district of the South even after sixty 
years of progress, one is depressed by the thousands 
of one-room cabins, sometimes windowless, often 
with but one small window besides the yawning 
opening of the doorway. The only indication of 
comfort in this primitive dwelling is the clay chim- 
ney which promises an open fireplace around which 
the family gathers in rainy weather and in winter, 
its warmth and glow the luxury of their lives. The 
original organization established by Miss Moore is 
not a school in the usual sense, though its activities 
have developed into educational agencies. Miss Moore 
expresses in just what sense it is a school when in her 
sweet and naive story of her life she says, " If I 
cannot have both heart and head educated, then I 
shall choose the educated heart." The Fireside 
School primarily is for the education of the heart, 
and its means is the family altar. 

Do you remember the child story of the poor 
neglected woman of the tenement who was given 
a blooming geranium, arid how she placed the plant 
on the window-sill only to find that the window- 
pane was so dirty that the sun could not shine 
through? She washed the window, then the win- 
dow-sill. She hunted up old white cloth, washed it 
and made a curtain. So the story goes, one im- 
provement led to another until her poor room and 


herself were as clean and neat as her circumstances 
made possible. It all came about as you remember, 
in her gradual effort to make the environment fit 
the one thing of beauty that had been given her. 
In just this way, in thousands of humble homes that 
precious thing, the family altar of the Fireside 
School, has been established, and in efforts to har- 
monize to it a sordid environment, the life of the 
whole family has been lifted. The Fireside School , 
idea was not an emergency effort born of sudden 
necessity. It was the result of over twenty years 
of faithful toil among the scattered cabins of coun- 
try people and among the struggling Negro churches. 
Miss Moore found that the place where these people 
most needed help was in their homes, and the thing 
that would help them most there was the study 
of God's Word. With her canny knowledge of their 
nature and their limitations she planned an organi- 
zation. Its one rule was that membership required 
the daily reading of the Scripture lessons published 
in Hope, and in connection with the reading the 
family was urged to pray together and to sing a 
hymn when the day's lesson was read. 

Since the account of the Fireside School is il- 
luminated at every point by the history of Joanna 
P. Moore, it seems expedient at this point to tell the 
story of her life. The sources of information are 
the autobiography quoted above, "In Christ's 
Stead," a treasured friendship during her later 
years, and the testimony of those she served as 
"Mamma Sunshine," who loved and obeyed her 
when she lived and revere her memory. 


The Power of the Word 

A nine-year-old girl living on a lonely farm in 
Clarion County, Pennsylvania, was just a little un- 
happy because the young minister "who spent the 
winter with her family never noticed her much. 
But sunshine came when on leaving he gave her a 
little book, the first book that was her very own. 
It proved to be a collection of talks to children, each 
one based on an evangelistic text and followed by 
a simple prayer. On the title-page were the puzzling 
words, " To be read alone in your closet." 

The little farmhouse had but one closet, used for 
a store-room and packed to the door. It had no 
window. There obediently she went, pushed boxes 
and bags about until she could perch her little self 
inside, and with the door open just wide enough to 
let a ray of light fall on the book, she read the ser- 
mons and kneeled to pray. In the dusk of that 
crowded closet the Christ who never left her came 
into the heart of Joanna Moore. No wonder that 
always she was sure that when the right portions 
of God's Word were put into the hands of the un- 
converted, they would, if faithfully read, prove the 
means of salvation. 

Giving and Receiving 

In 1844 no schoolhouse was near enough the 
Clarion County farmhouse for Joanna to attend. 
No time was there for Joanna to study at home. 
Every task that a willing, capable, healthy twelve- 
year-old girl could do, was her lot, and she loved to 

Joanna P. Moore 


serve. The sister, a year or so older, who would 
have shared her tasks, was blind, and the mother 
in pity and love never required any service from 
her. Sometimes when she could get a moment, 
Joanna would read to her sister. One day when the 
mother reproachfully called Joanna back from the 
enchanted place into which the two girls had wan- 
dered through the door of a book, the blind one cried 
passionately, " Oh, Joanna, teach me to do the work, 
and while I work you can read to me." 

The waiting task was in the garden among the 
currant bushes. Can you picture the scene? The 
two sisters are close together, the groping hands of 
one finding the clusters of ripe red fruit and drop- 
ping them into the pail, the other with her head bent 
over her book reading aloud. The mother coming 
in search of currants, watched unobserved for a 
moment and then went back to the house. The pail 
was not full at noontime, and leaves and twigs were 
mixed with the currants, but as she remembered 
the happy face of her afflicted darling, the mother 
made no comment. 

Soon Joanna had put to work her partner in the 
pursuit of literature. The blind girl learned to wash 
dishes, to make beds, to shell peas, and to pick over 
beans. She undressed the baby and put him to 
sleep. But her greatest achievement was knitting. 
Hour after hour she sat and knit stockings and mit- 
tens for an always large family. In time she be- 
came so proficient that not only her whole family 
but also her friends and acquaintances were proud of 
her skill. While she did housework or tended babies 


or knit, Joanna (aloud) read and reread every 
printed scrap that came to them. 

From this cooperation the little girl had empha- 
sized before her again and again as she watched 
her sister, the happiness that comes from work to 
do and ability to do it. Also she found from her 
own increasing mental power the chance there is 
to acquire an education through reading. 

This later was tested out for her when in her four- 
teenth year she had the opportunity to go to board- 
ing-school for the winter. There, though her heart 
was made heavy by the treatment she received from 
the fashionable pupils who looked down upon her 
because of her quaint clothes and because she worked 
for her board and tuition, they could never look 
down upon her scholarship, for she led her classes. 

The following summer Joanna taught her first 
school, and from then on she alternated teaching 
and studying until she was called to definite service. 
She says of these years, " If ever a poor girl had 
a hard time getting an education it was Joanna 

Her Call 

In the fifties foreign missionaries were rare. But 
to a place where Joanna was teaching came Sewall 
M. Osgood, a returned missionary from Burma, and 
she heard him speak. Instantly the young girl re- 
sponded to the summons in her heart to go. After 
the service she went to the missionary and offered 
her life to the cause of carrying the gospel across 
the seas. He was not encouraging. She was very 


young and very poorly equipped. He persuaded 
her to go back to school. 

For four years she kept at alternated study and 
teaching, each season of teaching growing longer as 
family responsibilty increased. Then came the re- 
alization that her duty to an aging invalid mother 
precluded foreign service. Again Doctor Osgood 
came to the town where she was at work. Again 
she went to him, the call and home responsibility 
confusing her as to her duty. " Have you heard," 
the foreign missionary asked her, " the call of the 

Gradually the purport of the call changed. In the 
following words she described this change: 

Foreign missions with all their sweet attractions receded 
and kept receding till they were in the background, and 
there in the front stood the black woman with her baby, 
both half naked, stretching out empty hands to me. Finally I 
began to ask myself, " What can I, a poor child, do? 
Will they listen to me? I suppose God will show me how to 
love them. Every heart needs love. But they need some- 
body older and wiser than I. Let them go and do the work." 
I asked myself and asked God a thousand questions and 
only got one answer, " Go and see and God will go with you." 
I did go. I did see. God did go with me, and cleared the 
way. I surely made a good bargain when I invested in the 
Negro race. 

Her First Missionary Journey 

Her own chronicle reads, "November, 1863, I 
landed on the desolate shore of Island No. 10." On 
this island was a camp where a multitude of desti- 
tute Negro families, " contrabands of war," were 
guarded by a regiment of white soldiers. They were 


idle, lawless, and demoralized. The first duty given 
to the new missionary, jokingly, by the captain of 
the regiment, was to settle a quarrel between two 
Negro women. The vituperation and violence of the 
women and their families frightened the little slip 
of a girl. But her earnestness and tact won the 
day, and her investigation opened her eyes to the 
fearful need. 

The contrabands were huddled several families in 
one small cabin with but one cooking utensil among 
them. They were almost without clothes. Her work 
was to distribute clothing sent from friends in the 
North. As she went about among them, she found 
her pity turn to love and her love develop into a 
yearning to bring spiritual comfort to this people 
impoverished even more in soul than in body. 

She could think of but one way. She gathered 
them together at evening, and after they had sung 
their plantation hymns and prayed the impassioned 
prayers of their race, she taught them texts of 
Scripture. Just as in her own experience in her 
closet, she saw the power of the Word of God as 
out of disorder and hopelessness came children, then 
women and men converted from their sins and 
changed in their lives. 

When in the spring she saw her colony loaded in 
boats to go to another camp, she went with them. 
At the new camp she persuaded the soldiers to make 
her an arbor in which she gathered four different 
schools during the day. She nailed her blackboard 
to a tree and taught these groups to read, using for 
her lesson Bible texts printed on the board. 


From this camp, Helena, Arkansas, she went to 
Little Rock, later to New Orleans, out from there 
into smaller places, sometimes working under an 
individual Northern church, sometimes in Quaker 
orphanages. Sometimes one wonders just how she 
was supported, until in March, 1877, she received 
her commission from the Woman's American Bap- 
tist Home Mission Society. " That meant " she says, 
" help, prayer, courage, perseverance, and supplies." 
She kept her connection with this Society until her 
death in April, 1916. 

The Evolution of the Fireside School and Sunshine 

For over twenty years Miss Moore went from 
place to place visiting Negro churches and homes, 
spending most of her time in Louisiana. She found 
among the many hindrances to her work the condi- 
tion of the church houses. Often they were the 
merest shacks without floors or sufficient windows. 
But worst of all, there was seldom any means of 
heating them. The custom was to build a fire 
outside, the people going out to get warm and com- 
ing back to freeze. They were in isolated places, 
and the church-goers had to come miles over ap- 
parently bottomless roads. These conditions drove 
her more and more to concentrate her work upon 
the homes. 

But if the condition of the churches seemed al- 
most impossible, the condition of the neglected 
homes was worse. Miss Moore learned to carry a 
sewing-bag, patches, soap, and clean rags with her 


when she set out on a day's work. In a dirty, dis- 
ordered one-room cabin she would find a group of 
tiny, dirty, hungry, squabbling children left alone 
from sunrise to sunset while the adult members of 
the family were in the fields at work. Quietly she 
would win the confidence of the children and with 
their unskilful help clean them up, mend their 
clothes if it could be done, teaching them a Bible 
verse as they worked. If it was late afternoon she 
would make corn bread and have supper ready when 
the tired workers came home. She would sit down 
at the table with them and share their meals ; after 
supper, by the light from the fireplace, she would 
open her Bible, read to the family, always sharing 
the reading with any member who could read. 

When the reading was over and prayer offered 
she would urge them to daily reading, and give them 
a Bible if they had none. But her heart was heavy 
as she went, away because though promises had 
been made willingly and sincerely, the obstacles of 
ignorance and weariness would soon obliterate the 
influence of her visit. 

To help the women in these families that she vis- 
ited she planned a Mothers' Training School, a place 
where needy mothers could spend a month and have 
demonstrated to them how civilized people live and 
bring up children under Christian influences. With 
Miss Moore to plan was to execute, and soon she had 
a small school in operation. This was successful 
enough to warrant a larger one. The second school 
was such a success that at Baton Rouge a really 
ambitious enterprise was begun and was in existence 






over two years, when the prejudice of a certain 
group of white people frightened the pupils away 
permanently, and the school had to be given up. 

Nobody will ever know the tragedy this was to 
Miss Moore, for she was not one to complain or nurse 
a sorrow, yet Providence plainly ruled here, for if 
her Mothers' Training School had been a success, a 
few local institutions, no doubt most valuable, would 
have taken the place of the wide-spread functioning 
of the Fireside School. 

When the Mothers' Training School plan was 
abandoned, Miss Moore went back to her house to 
house fireside gatherings and worked out her plan 
to make every such gathering a permanent institu- 

Sunshine Bands grew out of the hopelessness of 
cheerless, fireless churches, as a plan to gather chil- 
dren. Such churches were a menace to health and 
to enthusiasm. Inadequate Sunday wardrobes kept 
many plantation little ones away from Sunday 
school. Miss Moore would gather a small company 
of children in one warm house, picking them up as 
she went, from cabin doors and roadside. Because 
every child loves to belong to something, she or- 
ganized clubs. In these she taught or encouraged 
her Fireside School Mothers to teach Scripture pas- 
sages, tell Bible stories, and prayerfully present the 
way of salvation, always along with this giving 
homely advice and pioneer temperance instruction. 

Things that evolve slowly adapt themselves to 
conditions and needs. The Fireside School and Sun- 
shine Band are such evolutions. Not until more 


than twenty years after she went to Island No. 10 
did Miss Moore launch the Fireside School enter- 
prise, and not until seven years later was the first 
Sunshine Band organized. But they were the per- 
fected results of methods used day after day success- 

In Persecution Often 

The method of Miss Moore's work left her open 
to misunderstanding. She went, the only white 
woman, to associations of Negro churches, and she 
visited in Negro homes. At a time when the problem 
of what is known as " the black belt " was most 
acute, the resentment against her and the suspicion 
of her intentions were extreme. As she tells of her 
lonely experiences, one is struck by the lack of bitter- 
ness in either her behavior or her story of events. 

At one time she went to a church in the country 
where an Association meeting was being held. 
Around the church were refreshments and merchan- 
dise booths presided over by white men at which 
the country people were encouraged to spend their 
money. When Miss Moore entered the church and 
quietly took her place on one of the benches ready 
to whisper counsel to the leaders or seek an oppor- 
tunity for conference with the women, the white 
merchants became very much excited. At length 
they sent a spokesman who called her to the door 
and told her that she would not be allowed to stay 
over night with a Negro family nor would any white 
people in the town take her in. 

Back to her bench she went, keeping her own coun- 


sel and praying with the faith that brings things to 
pass. It was after midnight before a place was 
found for her to sleep in the home of the country 
doctor, whose wife refused to speak to her. But 
such was her winning charm that when she returned 
to the meeting next day, the doctor's wife went in 
with her and sat through the service. 

In Death They Were Not Divided 

It is hard to find the exact annals of the last years. 
When the magazine Hope was issued, headquarters 
for the Fireside School were established in Plaque- 
mine, La. These headquarters were moved several 
times until in 1895 they came to Nashville where 
they now flourish. The. first humble building was 
furnished with some of the equipment that had been 
in the Mothers' Training School, though most of this 
had been sent to needy institutions. It was never 
Miss Moore's way to store anything that was needed 
by other people. 

In 1906, Miss Moore finally relinquished the super- 
intendency of the Fireside School, and in 1911 the 
editorship of Hope, although she continued to write 
the Bible lessons as long as she lived. Frail and 
worn, she came to Chicago to live. Everywhere she 
was in demand as a speaker, and everywhere she 
would go while her strength held out. Her last win- 
ter she spent in the South and in the springtime, 
April, 1916, died in the home of the Negro president 
of Selma University in Alabama. 

She was buried at her request in the Negro ceme- 
tery in Nashville, a place where her friends are free 


to go and come. At the first conference of the Fire- 
side School in Nashville in 1920, the last afternoon 
was given over to a pilgrimage to the grave of 
" Mamma Sunshine." It was rose time, and every one 
of the hundred delegates and their many Nashville 
friends had their hands full of fragrant blossoms. 
There were tears and prayers and testimonies at the 
short quiet services around the grave. Then as they 
piled the little green mound high with roses they 
sang softly and reverently the noble funeral spiri- 
tual, " Swing Low, Sweet Chariot, Comin' For To 
Carry Me Home." Silently they dispersed, the love 
and gratitude of their " educated " hearts a precious 
monument to Joanna P. Moore. 

To fully understand the power of the Fireside 
School in the conservation of childhood one must 
study the agencies through which it works, the mag- 
azine Hope, Reading Courses and Clubs. 

" Hope " 

It is not enough to leave a Bible in an uneducated 
home with directions to read it daily. There must 
be some guide to the readings, a choice of passages, 
and a few words of explanation and application. 
Help is needed by the beginner on how to pray, 
and what to pray for, if the family altar is to be 
a strength in family life. The little magazine pub- 
lished monthly in Nashville, devotes one-third of its 
space to Bible lessons. These selections follow gen- 
erally the International Lessons. The commentary 
is simple and clear but intensely spiritual. The 
Negro has a religious temperament and demands 


high thought, but he needs with it good sound advice 
as to its translation into daily living. These lessons 
are prepared by Miss Ada F. Morgan, the Superin- 
tendent of the Fireside School. 

Miss Morgan's personality is adapted to her work. 
She has the dignity of demeanor demanded by the 
Negro idea of the fitness of things, and the under- 
standing of them and love for them that has won 
their loyalty. Under her administration the organi- 
zation has made steady progress. 

The editor of Hope is Miss Grace M. Eaton, a 
typical New England lady. Steadily the circulation 
of the magazine increases until it now is 31,500. 
This circulation is by no means confined to the 
South. Some of the largest Fireside clubs are in our 
large Northern cities. In a December number is 
found the following announcement for the next year : 

During the coming year HOPE will continue to publish 
" Subjects for Meetings," " The Prayer First," the " Bible 
Quiz," the monthly suggestions for work for the Bands, and 
the monthly missionary article. 

Seasonable material, temperance information, in- 
spirational poetry and a well-conducted children's 
department added to these announced contributions 
go to make up a publication that Baptists may be 
proud to own. It goes where often it is the only 
magazine taken and is read by every member of the 
family. Add to this the guided reading of the Read- 
ing Course, and one wonders if Negro Fireside School 
families are not in the way of acquiring a better 
culture than the ordinary white American family. 


The publication is self-supporting, the only present 
regular expense of the Fireside School to the 
Woman's Society being the salaries of the workers. 
A fine old Negro woman, in speaking in praise 
of the magazine, said recently that when she was a 
child she had not had the opportunity to learn to 
read, but when a friend subscribed for Hope in her 
name, even though she was an old woman she deter- 
mined to learn to read it. She carried it with her 
to the different places where she worked by the day 
and sought help whenever she could find or make 
an opportunity. " Now," she said, " I can read Hope 
and my Bible too, praise the Lord. I do not know 
just how I learned, but I did." 

Reading Courses 

When baby chicks are hatched, the mother hen 
and her brood are placed in a coop where the little 
ones can run in and out, but the hen is imprisoned. 
As soon as the chickens are old enough or indepen- 
dent enough to stray and not heed motherly admoni- 
tions, the mother is released in order that she may 
watch her family better and lead them in the right 

There is many a human mother who never gets 
out of the coop. She is kept there often by the baby, 
often by hard work and generally by both. But the 
children travel farther and farther, and the mother 
may cluck and cluck, but unless she can go with 
them intellectually they will wander far away from 
her protection. Here lies the beauty of the Reading 
Course of the Fireside School. It makes it possible 


for a mother to see beyond the smoke-blackened 
walls of her kitchen into the great world without, 
through the medium of the printed page. 
The appended list speaks for itself : 


How John and I Brought Up the Child 


For Mother, by J. P. Moore 
In Christ's Stead (Miss Moore's Life) 
According to Promise 


Up From Slavery (Booker T. Washington) 
Kind and True, by J. P. Moore 


Ann of Ava 

How to Pray, by R. A. Torrey 
Serving the Neighborhood 


The Secret of Guidance, by F. B. Meyer 
Health Lessons 

Love Stories of Great Missionaries 
Famous Men of Modern Times 


Light on Life's Duties, by F. B. Meyer 

Women of Achievement (Sketches of six 
prominent Negro women), by Benja- 
min Brawley 

Uganda's White Man of Work 

Home and Family 


Certificates are given for the first year's course 
completed, and appropriate seals are added until 
the four years' work is covered. There is another 
course provided for children, but Reading Course 
members say that all the books of both courses are 
consumed by all the family, reading often aloud 
around the hearth. 


Of the various group organizations under the 
Fireside School only two will be considered here, 
Bible Bands and Sunshine Bands, and the first of 
these only to give the three pledges which show the 
scope of the work attempted for children in their 


1. I promise, that by the help of God, I will 
pray with and for my children, and daily 
teach them God's Word and expect their 
early conversion. 

2. I will be a good pattern for my children 
in my daily life, especially in temper, 
conversation, and dress. 

3. I will recognize the fact that God expects 
me to care for and train my children for 
him in soul and mind as well as in body. 


1. I promise in God's strength lovingly to 
obey my parents, and join with them in 
prayer and study of the Bible and other 
good books. If I have a better education 


than my parents, I will take great plea- 
sure in reading to them and teaching 
them in a respectful manner; also in a 
patient spirit to help the younger chil- 

2. I will try to be a pattern in neatness, in- 
dustry, and cheerfulness, and thus help 
to make home the happiest spot on 
earth; and to stay at home as much as 
other duties will allow. 


I promise in God's strength not to buy, 
drink, sell, or give intoxicating liquors ; 
also to abstain from the use of tobacco in 
every form, from gambling of all kinds, 
and from impure words and actions. 

Sunshine Bands, the organized Children's Club 
of the Fireside School, is named in honor of 
" Mamma Sunshine." Their watchword is " Shine," 
their colors yellow and white, and their motto Mat- 
thew 5 : 16. A little yellow-covered pamphlet, " A 
Guide for Sunshine Bands," contains the four ob- 
jects of the Bands: (1) To give instructions in 
Scriptures; (2) To give missionary information; 
(3) To teach God's method of giving; (4) To train 
in Christian service. 

The editor of Hope they call " Sister Sunshine," 
and bands in good standing keep up a regular corre- 
spondence with her. 

It is impossible to get many statistics about Sun- 


shine Bands. From the very first they have proved 
effective in conversion of children and instruction 
of young converts. The instruction in giving has 
borne remarkable fruits. As a fundamental teach- 
ing Miss Moore's observation is taught : " The Bible 
has not instructed us how to raise money but to 
GIVE." Stewardship texts are learned. Money- 
making schemes are discountenanced, but methods 
whereby individual children can earn money are en- 
couraged. Self-denial is urged. How effective this 
last means has become is a story in itself and worth 

Sunshine and Have Faith in God 

" We have been told that the prayer-meeting is 
the thermometer of the church, but it seems to me 
the more money we give, the real amount of self- 
sacrifice we make is a better proof of our piety than 
even our prayers." So said Miss Moore, whose faith 
in prayer was the strength of her life. She saw in 
all her work undignified, selfish, and wasteful ways 
of getting the money needed to support Negro 
churches. She saw also that the results were so 
meager that there was never enough even for local 
expenses. She determined to teach children a 
different way. 

In the fall of 1897 she sent out a special letter 
to Sunshine Bands. 

You give birthday presents to those you love, don't you? 
Won't you give Christ a birthday present this year? Will 
you ask your parents to give you the money that your own 
Christmas present would cost, and let you give it as a 


birthday gift to Christ on Christmas Day? Send it to me 
with the story of what you gave up. 

There were not many Sunshine Bands in those 
days, but over $300, accompanied by touchingly 

happy letters, came to Miss Moore, and was invested 
for foreign missions. 

The next year Rev. J. L. Buchanan, a missionary 
from Middledrift, South Africa, visited Fireside 
School headquarters and told the workers of the need 
of schools among the native Africans. Miss Moore 
for the Sunshine Bands of America decided to open 
a Sunshine School in Africa supported by self-denial 

It happened that not only the children's money 
came in to support the school. Parents were quick- 
ened to give by seeing the unselfishness of their 
children. The money came in so steadily that in 
1906 a second school was opened and called " Have 
Faith in God." These two schools are still flourish- 
ing. So flourishing they are indeed that the need of 
new buildings urges these shining young Christians 
to greater efforts even in self-denial. 

The Fireside School Headquarters has a program 
of activities that practically makes it a Christian 
center. It is accepted as one of the institutions of 
Nashville. One of the leading white women of the 
city teaches a large week-day Bible class of women. 
There the Fireside School conferences are held. Its 
doors are open to the meetings of the Negro women's 
civic organization. Evening classes and clubs are 
held in its hospitable rooms. Every summer a 
Vacation Bible School crowds into every corner of 


it. In this school every week a Sunshine Band meet- 
ing is held, and each year as a result of the Vacation 
Bible School another Sunshine Band is organized. 

Given a Breakfast 

From last summer's school this story comes, a fit 
ending to an account of the Fireside School. 

A little girl who had listened to the missionary 
story of the morning and had seen the children 
bringing up their offering went home with a heavy 
heart. She had nothing to give and no way to earn 
money. But next morning she was back with a five- 
cent piece clasped in her hot, thin, little brown fist. 
"It ain't too late to gib, am it?" she asked, 
"Mammy's sick an she done g'me dis jitney for 

" But aren't you hungry? " Miss Morgan inquired. 

"Yeth'm, but I ain't done gib nuffin yet." And 
the five cents went into the missionary bank. 

Later Miss Morgan took the child out to a little 
table on the back porch. For a moment she drew 
back, though she never took her wistful eyes off the 
unusual dainties spread before them. 

" You all ain't reckoning to chawg m' nuffin, is 
ya?" And not until she was sure that her self- 
denial offering was safe could she be persuaded to 
satisfy her hunger. 





Every forty seconds an immigrant enters New 
York. Every forty seconds! Think of it! Not 
all of them stay there of course, but it is in their 
problems that we are interested, whether they settle 
down to tenement life in old Bagdad-by-the-Subway 
or migrate still farther inland to mining or factory 
towns. Can you see them all? Can you visualize 
this steady stream of men, women, and little chil- 
dren who have come to a new land wrapped in 
dreams and clouded with hope? The outcome we 
know all too well. Crowded into dark cheerless 
tenements, they miss the sun and flowers of their 
native lands. Landlord and storekeepers alike take 
advantage of their ignorance and consequently 
they are hounded on all sides. 

But what about the children, for it is they whom 
we are considering first? Did they too have dreams 
of a fair and happy America? They do not find it, 
poor things, in sweat-shop or factory where many 
of them work the long day through. No sunshine, 
no play, no childhood for them in this land of the 
free and home of the brave. Not only in New York 
is this so, but in the mines of Pennsylvania, the 
cotton-mills of the South, and the stock-yards of 
Chicago. The compulsory education law in large 
cities sees that the children attend school, it is true, 
but that does not prevent them from being exploited 



out of school hours. Even if they are not forced 
to work, they are usually needed at home to look 
after the babies while mother and father or older 
brothers and sisters toil at the factory in an effort 
to meet the exorbitant charges for rent and food 
in this free, Christian America. With their thin 
little bodies under all too scanty garments and their 
pinched, worn faces, already they look like little 
old men and women. 

Is this a cheerless picture? Is it unfair? Is it 
untrue? Walk through the tenement district of any 
of our big cities and see for yourself. Those who are 
playing about the streets are not much better off 
than those toil-trapped brothers. Hundreds of them, 
dirty, bedraggled, picking up the worst words and 
habits of our country. Foul language falls inno- 
cently from young mouths which are frequently all 
unaware of the meaning of these strange American 
words. Lines of drab laundry, scarcely more clean 
than when it entered the tub for a half-hearted 
scrubbing, are suspended on pulley ropes stretched 
from tenement to tenement, while strings of maca- 
roni and spaghetti dry in the air. Delapidated 
houses look, if anything, more delapidated in the 
pitiless glare of the sunlight ; and there is a general 
lack of soap and scrubbing-brushes. Yet these are 
the surroundings in which future Americans are 
growing up. Here are tomorrow's voters. What is 
being done to make them healthy, happy Christian 
American citizens? 

In their midst stands a wide-portaled, well-propor- 
tioned dwelling of red brick with white trimmings, 

Tenement in New York City 


truly " a house by the side of the road ! " Nobody 
rings the bell. Just turn the knob and walk in. The 
door is always open from early morning until late 
at night, for this is a Christian Center a commu- 
nity house which belongs not to one but to all. All 
the dirt and despair are without, for inside is clean- 
liness, order, and inspiration. Walk in and take 
time to look around you carefully. You will be im- 
pressed with the changes wrought. 

In the hallway, directly opposite the stairway 
mounting to the next floor, is a generous-sized brick 
fireplace, piled hospitably high with logs. Perhaps 
a picture of the Madonna, or a da Vinci head of 
Christ hangs over the mantel. A group of Camp- 
fire Girls or Boy Scouts have decorated the wall with 
deserted birds' nests and an empty beehive, found 
on some hike and brought back as great treasures. 
Walk back to the door on your left, behind the stairs, 
and you will find a spotless dispensary, painted 
white and equipped with all the paraphernalia of a 
modern clinic. A doctor has just come in, and as 
he slips into his white coat we are told that he is 
the best eye, ear, nose, and throat specialist of the 
city. A white-capped nurse is laying out the instru- 
ments for a tonsilectomy, while several small chil- 
dren and their mothers are waiting in the next 
room. The children look a little pale and under- 
weight. In a few weeks the loss of the diseased 
tonsils will make them sturdy and full of high 
spirits. We are told that tomorrow a long proces- 
sion of mothers and babies will be waiting for the 
baby clinic to open. The babies are weighed, health 


charts plotted, diet lists given out, and medical 
treatment administered where necessary. 

We glance across the hall where a mothers' sewing 
club is in progress. Sewing-machines and tongues 
run busily in friendly competition as Mrs. Navarro 
learns how to refit John's coat to small Mary's 
shoulders, and Mrs. Santos cuts nightgowns for 
her little girls, who have always slept in old dresses 

We are attracted by the sound of a kindergarten 
song chanted in shrill childish voices up-stairs. Curi- 
osity bids us follow our inclination and walk up 
the broad, low steps, so evidently framed for the 
convenience of small feet. But there is no sign of 
any person in charge, and we hesitate. A small 
boy bolts suddenly into view and seeing our con- 
fusion stops to explain politely in rather broken 
English that we are perfectly welcome to go up. 
Here is the " open door," in truth. 

The head worker, a pleasant, bright young woman, 
steps to her door as we reach the head of the stairs 
and shakes hands cordially with us. We are invited 
into the pleasant living-room where the workers 
meet of an evening or entertain friends. An over- 
flow Woman's Bible Class is held here on Sunday, 
so great is the demand on the other rooms. More 
than one foreign woman who has been brought here 
for a cup of tea and a bit of advice as to her prob- 
lems, has gone out with a sparkle in her eye and a 
determination in her heart to keep her own rooms 
cleaner, " lika de teach ! " Wisps of curtains and a 
bit of green plant often find their way into tenement 


houses as a result of the silent message of this home- 
like room. 

Here we are told a little about the work and its 
history. This house is only one of twenty-five which 
Northern Baptists are maintaining in different parts 
of the country. They have been built as a direct 
answer to the problem of the foreigner in the 
crowded slum, and they are ministering also to the 
Negro who has migrated North, and the Mexican 
who has crossed the border into the United States. 
Generally the buildings are erected through the 
cooperation of The American Baptist Home Mission 
Society and the Woman's American Baptist Home 
Mission Society with State Convention Board or 
City Mission Society. Workers are supplied by the 
two Home Mission Societies and usually include at 
least a head worker, boys' worker, kindergartner, 
and nurse. 

But we must not let our thirst for information 
interfere with our sight-seeing tour. " Come to 
the nursery and see our babies before they are all 
awake from their naps," says the head worker. We 
find ourselves in a large cool room where twenty 
little white cribs hold as many sleeping occupants. 
A soft breeze stirs the curtains at the windows and 
blows pink roses into pale cheeks. Now they are 
beginning to wake and a kindly-faced nurse car- 
ries them off, one by one, for a bath and shampoo, 
since this is head-washing day. Most of the children 
come from homes where naps are unheard of, and 
at first they hotly resent such an infringement on 
their personal liberty. In a short time, however, 


they become so accustomed to the daily naps that 
heads nod as regularly as clock-work after lunch, 
and the babies fall asleep at the table unless they 
are put to bed. 

Sunshine streams through six large windows into 
the nursery adjoining the dormitory. A border 
of ducks and geese circles the walls, window-boxes 
hold toys well within the exploring reach of little 
hands, there are small red chairs and tables, bright 
pictures on the tinted walls, and gay chintzes at 
the windows. At the small charge of ten cents a 
day the children of widows and deserted mothers 
who find it necessary to work all day are cared for 
here with loving devotion. They begin to arrive 
about seven in the morning when the mothers leave 
them on the way to button-factory or steel-mill. 
Breakfast is given where necessary; a dinner of 
soup, milk, vegetables, and custard at noon ; and a 
supper of cocoa, apple-sauce, and bread and butter 
before they are called for at night. Week-ends are 
the bane of the nursery, however, for, in spite of 
precautions and advice to the young mothers, much 
of the improvement due to regular hours, sleep, and 
nourishing food is undone. The babies are taken 
on long subway or trolley-car visits to relatives and 
kept up long past sensible bed-hours ; naps are like- 
wise neglected, and candy is apt to take the place 
of the regulated diet of the nursery. It is a long 
process of education to remove years of ignorance 
and lack of training. They mean well, but they do 
not know that what the baby wants most is not 
always best for it. 








A few older brothers and sisters come at noon for 
the hot lunch and return after school to play or read 
until mother calls for them on her way home from 
work. They are welcome to use the shower-baths at 
certain hours, as are the mothers, and we note that 
appointments are assigned on a card attached to the 
bathroom door. It is not unusual to find children 
sewed into their clothes for the winter with bodies 
quite untouched by soap and water for long weeks. 
It sometimes takes quite a little persuasion on the 
part of the nurse to remove the dirty garments and 
subject the little body, covered with sores and 
grime, to the healing touch of warm water. Fright- 
ened tears are soon replaced by smiles, however, and 
it is not long before the children and mothers alike 
look forward happily to the routine bath. 

"Please mam, ma says could my little cousin 
soak a lon-n-n-g time cause she's just outen the 
steerage? " was the greeting of one small girl, lead- 
ing a still smaller one by the hand. This is fairly 
typical of the freedom and confidence with which 
the people of the community utilize the facilities 
of the Christian Center. Recently the head worker 
discovered when the foreign families in the vicinity 
wanted to describe where they live they always say, 
" So many blocks from the Christian Center." Surely 
this is strikingly illustrative of the place which the 
community house holds in the hearts of the people. 

But now we are hurried down-stairs to visit the 
teen-age girls' club while it is in full swing. Fifty 
strong, they are satisfying their feminine construc- 
tive instincts by sewing on pretty chintz table- 


covers, pink and white striped aprons, and dainty 
colored handkerchiefs. When they are finished the 
little girls are privileged to pay a few cents for the 
cost of the material and take the article home. Con- 
versation is carried on happily in a low tone, but 
there is no confusion or disorder. Later the girls 
will hear a Bible story, recite some Scripture verses, 
and finish up the afternoon with a rousing good 
game of volley-ball in the gymnasium. 

Suppose we investigate on our own account while 
the girls are still busy with their work. A schedule 
in the hall tells us that a woman's cooking class is 
in progress at this moment in the basement. Here 
we find them eight young brides who are learning 
how to make bran muffins. How intent they look, 
and how interested in the fate of the plump, tender 
muffins they have just placed in the oven. Some of 
them will be left as an offering for the children's 
supper in the nursery, but there will be enough left 
over for a tea-party of their own before they leave. 
The teacher is showing them how to place the dishes 
and silver on the round table in the window spread 
with the snowiest of white table-cloths. How much 
they are learning about American life and Amer- 
ican ways ! At first it was hard to make them see 
the value of cooking anything but the fried rice 
cakes and greasy stew to which they were accus- 
tomed. Once they had tried carrot salad and fresh 
vegetable soup, bran muffins and custard, however, 
they were enthusiastic. One woman said: "My 
man, he lika much. He say maka again." We go 
out quietly just as the group about the table are 


bowing their heads reverently while teacher says 
" grace." 

A pretty bright-eyed child of eleven or there- 
abouts has been trailing us about for some time in 
the self-appointed position of guide. Seeing our 
enthusiasm over the cooking class she tells us proudly 
of the little girls' class which meets each Saturday 
afternoon. This is a nutrition class, every member 
of which has been found to be mal-nourished by 
the doctor in charge of the clinic. Weight charts 
are plotted for them, and the children are taught 
recipes for simple, nourishing food. Concetta 
laughed when she told us about last week's menu. 
" We learned how to make cocoa," she said, " and the 
teacher gave us some funny things to eat we'd never 
seen before. She called it ' shredded wheat/ and 
she had to show us how to fix it with milk and sugar. 
But it was awful good and now my mother buys it 
for breakfast and I make the cocoa. It's better for 
us, teacher says, than the fried potatoes and fish 
we used to have." Concetta lives in three tiny base- 
ment rooms with her parents and nine brothers and 
sisters. The table had never known a white cloth 
until Concetta went to the cooking class. Table- 
knives and teaspoons were unheard of. Concetta 
sleeps on the floor, for " How can four of us stay all 
night on one cot bed? I always fall off ! " 

Think what the training in cleanliness and order 
at the Christian Center means in homes like these. 
The children, at first so shy and awkward that they 
cannot even manage their spoons, gradually gain 
self-confidence and take delight in eating "Amer- 


ican fashion." These little suppers afford a wonder- 
ful opportunity for intimate talks with the children 
about the real things of life, about their troubles 
and problems which they cannot understand or mas- 
ter alone, about the heavenly Father and the help 
he can give them. The dishes are usually washed to 
the tune of " Sunshine In My Soul " or some other 
favorite hymn. And how the red lines indicating 
weight have traveled steadily upward on the health 
charts! Some are now up to the black line at the 
top which means " normal," and the children are 
interested in driving it into the area above, for they 
know that a few pounds of extra weight is excellent 
health insurance, like money in the bank. 

As we walk along the hall we peep into one door 
where an English lesson is in session. A young 
Hungarian woman has hurried through her morn- 
ing work at home, given her children their lunch, 
and come flying across the street for her weekly 
lesson, tying a clean apron over her dress. She and 
the missionary teacher are bending over the same 
book intently, so absorbed that they do not even 
notice us as we stand in the doorway. We do not 
mean it to happen, but somehow our eyes fill with 
tears, and we find ourselves making a little song of 
the words " Thy people shall be my people." 

The kindergarten meets in the morning in a large 
sunny room with curtains the color of blue birds. 
Here the older children from the Day Nursery are 
well supplemented by a rollicking group from out- 
side. Such a gay time as they have with their motion 
songs, marches and games ! And what lovely stories 


teacher tells ! Angelina still asks for the one about 
the baby Jesus in the manger though Christmas is 
many months past. Many a home is gladdened and 
helped as the little ones repeat for father and mother 
"the story that teacher told us today." Health 
lessons in the kindergarten are brought home effec- 
tively by means of jingles and songs. Who would 
not develop an acute distaste for coffee if he sang 
this song every day? 

Little drinks of coffee, 
Little sips of tea, 
Make our children nervous 
And pale as pale can be! 

No wonder they walk so proudly erect with this 
verse sticking in the backs of their heads : 

There was a crooked man, 
Who walked a crooked mile, 
But I, when I go walking, 
Don't walk in crooked style. 

I keep my chin and stomach in, 
And hold my chest up higher, 
And step along so straight and strong, 
But never, never tire. 

Try brushing your teeth to this verse and see if 
it doesn't lighten the task: 

Sing a song of tooth-paste 
At morning and at night, 
Twenty healthy little teeth 
Strong and shining white. 


Every day I brush them, 
To keep them nice and clean. 
Aren't they a set of pearls 
Fit for any queen? 

But the dusk is falling and the gathering shadows 
warn us of impending night. This time between 
daylight and dark is truly the Children's Hour at 
the Christian Center, for as we drop down on a 
wicker settee in the hall we hear a chorus of little 
voices floating down the stairs in a last good-night 
song. They are allowed to make their own choice 
and tonight the favorite Christmas hymn has won 
the day : 

Away in a manger 

No crib for His bed 

The little Lord Jesus 

Lay down His sweet head. 

It is the voice of a little Jewish girl which rings 
out above all the rest in the psean of praise to Christ 
the Saviour of the world. Now they come trooping 
down the stairs, Antonia and Pedro and Maria, but- 
toned snugly into their overcoats, each clutched 
firmly by the hand of a smiling mother. One widow 
who earned only thirteen dollars a week had paid 
four of it to a woman to care for her two little girls 
until she discovered the Christian Center. " I was 
about ready to give up," she told the nurse. " Then 
I found you, and now my children pray for you 
every night." 

And then there is Joey, a tiny waif of five who had 
forgotten how to smile in the long hours when he 
cared for a whining baby sister with mother and 


father both at work in the factory. The visiting 
nurse from the Center found them one day, and Joey 
lost his " hate on " the baby when he found that 
warm baths and plenty of milk made her a rosy 
happy little girl instead of the wailing troublesome 
mite he had vainly tried to keep quiet. Joey is 
learning to play again and no longer looks like a 
little old man. 

" What you do to my Mamie? " asked one mother 
curiously. " She no more say bad words, no more 
' sass ' me back. She always wash her hand before 
she eat now, and want her pa say ' grace ' like you do 
here. I like my Mamie come by your house." 

But perhaps the most beautiful tribute came from 
one little girl whose prayers at night always end 
with these words : " Dear God, make me like Jesus 
and the 'missionary lady" 

And so the curtain falls until tomorrow on " the 
house by the side of the road " for the nursery babies. 
-"But there are several hours of strenuous activity 
ahead before the hospitable doors are bolted for the 
night. There is an English class where the foreign- 
born man learns more than the necessary rudiments 
of a new language. Unconsciously he absorbs in 
the process those principles of life which make for 
Christian American citizenship. 

Then there is a Scouts' drill scheduled, while a 
group of young working girls will make the gym 
echo as enthusiasm over the basket-ball game waxes 
intense. The Italian girl who teaches them is a 
product of the Christian Center herself. Today 
she is studying physical culture at the best teacher's 


training-school in the city, but she returns to her 
foster home twice a week to pay her debt of grati- 

All the pianos are in vigorous use as hearts 
starved for music find peace and harmony in practis- 
ing some favorite melody. The strains of a violin 
steal through a closed door behind which Frank is 
having his music lesson. Frank used to go with the 
" gang " and was fast developing radical tendencies. 
Now he has found a new world in music, and all his 
energies are bent on organizing an orchestra among 
the boys. " In my heart I knew there was good in 
the world somewhere," he says. " Now I have found 
it." The pool-room no longer has any fascination 
for Frank. 

Other activities have their place on different eve- 
nings. Perhaps it is a Bible class seventy-five are 
enrolled to study the life of Christ, we are told. Or 
perhaps it is a community sing when old and young 
crowd the auditorium to make the rafters ring with 
the melody of hymn and chorus. Then there is the 
famous Family Night on Saturdays. Every one 
from father to four-year-old Michael gathers for an 
early supper served by the cooking class and fol- 
lowed by an educational or religious film. The eve- 
ning ends with prayer and a hymn, and all go home 
refreshed, newly fortified to meet the trying prob- 
lems of their life in America. 

Sunday is the crown of the week. Of course all 
the activities of the Center, since they minister to 
needy people are, in a sense, religious. But these 
buildings are not social settlements their chief pur- 


pose is to lead men and women to that Friend of 
friends, Jesus Christ. Hence the joy which greets 
the Sabbath when workers may forget all else and 
concentrate on the dynamic force which lies in 
Christianity. There are church services night arid 
morning, Sunday school for children "and adults, 
a vesper service, and a men's Bible class. Personali- 
ties are developed in an amazing way and characters 
transformed by bringing people into fellowship with 

But the day has really come to an end now, and 
the big family are leaving reluctantly, with many 
a backward look. Over and over the question comes : 
" Can't I stay a little longer? I don't want to go! " 
A young man carrying a pile of books away from 
the library says apologetically, " We would stay all 
night, all time, if we could." Stragglers have been 
known to hide behind the hat-rack or under the 
table in the hope of staying all night. But the last 
loiterer has been ejected, and the great doors swing 
shut to allow tired but happy workers a well- 
deserved night's rest. Morning comes soon enough, 
and the missionary will be greeted by Katie or Annie 
or Sophie already in line for work. " Got a job this 
morning, maybe yes? My man's sick, and the kids 
ain't got nothing to eat." 

A Christian Center means many things, you see, 
but more and more religious leaders are coming to 
agree that it is the key to the heart of the commu- 
nity. One of the roughest men of the neighborhood 
was found in the hall of the building one day in- 
specting the pictures of " Christ in the Temple " and 


the " Triumphal Entry." He studied them intently 
for a time and suddenly burst forth : " I want to say 
something. When I saw this house being built I 
thought, ' What kind of a devil house is this going 
to be, and what good is a Baptist church around 
here? ' I want to tell you I've changed my mind. I 
like those pictures, and I want that my children 
come by your house." 

And little Lucy said shyly in the kindergarten one 
day, " My mamma wants some one to come and tell 
her more about the Jesus we sing of in our songs." 

Does it pay? That is the harsh question which a 
materialistic age demands of every venture. In 
this case we can answer affirmatively in very definite 
accents, " Yes." It pays economically and physi- 
cally, socially and morally. It pays to take a mother, 
and father, a little child by the hand and lead them 
to the Light Eternal. For then they will have truly 
found the celestial palaces and the golden opportuni- 
ties with which their dreams beckoned them across 
the seas. "And I saw a new heaven and a new 
earth, for the first heaven and the first earth were 
passed away. And I heard a great voice out of 
heaven saying, * Behold the tabernacle of God is with 
men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall 
be his people, and God himself shall be their God.' " 



A ministry to the boys and girls who live far from 
the centers of civilization has been a part of the 
home-mission enterprise from the beginning. When 
that far-seeing pioneer and Baptist missionary, John 
Mason Peck, bade farewell to his Connecticut home 
to begin the long journey by wagon and keel-boat 
westward, it was his concern for the boys and girls 
in " the regions beyond " that urged him onward. 
And today it is one of the chief concerns of the 
church to discover the most effective means of bring- 
ing the children of the neglected areas within 
Christian influences and under the watch-care of 
organized Christian agencies. That the boys and 
girls reared in remote, inaccessible places have con- 
tributed in a large way to the educational, economic, 
and religious life of the nation is a statement which 
requires no argument in its defense. It is one of 
the truisms familiar to schoolboys and girls. 

The inhabitants of the lonely places are not a 
people to be pitied or patronized, for their very re- 
moteness has its compensations. The wilderness has 
a charm of its own. In referring to those who adore 
it and would not willingly exchange it for life in 
long-established and thickly populated communities, 
William E. Smythe in " The Conquest of Arid Amer- 
ica," says: 



As I write, I hear of a young lady who has enjoyed the 
advantages of Boston and New York, of San Francisco and 
Los Angeles, but who resists the appeals of her parents to 
come out of the desert wild where she went for a brief vaca- 
tion, already lengthened to months, and where she has pre- 
viously spent weeks which she enthusiastically describes as 
" the only time I ever really lived." She writes : 

"When I am in the city, my happiness depends on people 
and society, but out here in the deserts and mountains the 
country itself is satisfying. Perhaps you don't understand 
what I mean, but I do." 

I understand precisely what she means, and so do all men 
and women who turn their faces toward *the clean, beauti- 
ful, unpeopled wilderness with the thrill of a lover's heart. 

The pioneer who entered the barren desert of 
withered grass and sage-brush or mountain fastness 
was equal to the gigantic task of subduing the wilder- 
ness and developing its immeasurable natural re- 
sources, but often would have lost in a battle against 
religious destitution had it not been for timely help 
from Christian agencies far from his community. 
The waste of desert and mountain has not been " the 
land that God forgot." Very early the church boards 
of the different denominations became God's instru- 
ments in the work of developing the spiritual re- 
sources of the remote places. In the pageantry of 
our national movement westward the home-mission 
enterprise has had, and is still having, its prominent 
part. The gospel has not always followed the pio- 
neer ; it has gone with him, often preceding him. 

Not infrequently it is declared that the frontier 
has disappeared. In terms of free land and unre- 
stricted grazing privileges this statement is true. 
But in terms of gospel destitution the frontier will 


exist as long as there are communities composed 
of people who cannot hear the gospel preached or 
attend Sunday school without traveling from 
twenty-five to fifty miles, because no service is 
held nearer. Regarding the religious destitution of 
countless remote localities, Dr. L. C. Barnes, in 1922, 
said : 

It is a common mistake to suppose that the days of pioneer- 
ing are done. On the contrary, the tide of pioneers is reach- 
ing new heights. This is not only in the way of new and 
more intense types of pioneering, but also in the number 
of actual settlers on new land who are carving homes out 
of the wilderness. According to official records when com- 
pared by five-year periods more homestead entries, "final 
entries " for actual settlement, were made in the last five 
years than in any other five years since Abraham Lincoln 
signed the Homestead Act of Congress. The next largest 
number was in the preceding five years. In the last ten 
years more new farms have been opened than in any previous 
fifteen years. Our Far Western Conventions have today 
problems as strenuous as those of the midland West a gen- 
eration ago. In fact, our current problems are more stren- 
uous because everything moves so rapidly under modern 
conditions. What is a Sahara one year may be a Garden 
of Eden the next. Swiftly it will be a paradise lost unless 
we constantly establish the redemptive forces. 

The home-mission enterprise cannot be disasso- 
ciated from child life in the lonely places. It may 
be said to exist for the boys and girls, even as the 
family, the school, and all social institutions are built 
to meet their needs enabling them to become builders 
of the nation's life. The value of organized Christian 
activity in the terms of character building may be 
felt more acutely when there is a total lack of it. 


Out of the experience of one of the empire builders 
of the West comes an illustration of what the writer 
has in mind. 

In an isolated section of Idaho some three-score 
years ago George Ferris, a prosperous ranchman and 
tradesman, awoke to the painful realization that 
while his business had prospered and he was in 
peaceful possession of many acres of rich irrigated 
land, he saw no ray of hope as he looked into the 
future of the four children who brightened his 
home. There were social, educational, and religious 
advantages which his valley did not possess. After 
conquering a part of the wilderness and winning 
a material success, he resolved to quit his home. 
Accordingly he advertised his property for sale. 
For one year his land was advertised for sale at a 
ridiculously low price. In the meantime a mission- 
ary pastor entered the valley and began prospecting 
for treasures far more precious than gold. Before 
six weeks had expired he had visited all the widely 
scattered homes. He preached in the schoolhouses 
and before he left organized a church and dedicated 
a church building. The community became a part 
of his widely extended frontier parish. George 
Ferris became a prominent worker in that church; 
his children attended the Sunday school. When a 
would-be purchaser of his ranch arrived one day, 
he refused to sell an acre of land. With the coming 
of the missionary there had come hope and a pro- 
gram and a transformed community. 

Home-mission agencies, both State and national, 
have served the child life of the nation when they 


have extended aid to weak, struggling churches at 
critical periods or made possible the establishment 
of churches when special opportunities were pre- 
sented in new and growing communities. 

A new town on the frontier scarcely may be 
opened before a home missionary has visited the 
ground to select a site and lay the plans for aggres- 
sive church and Sunday-school work. This mission- 
ary may be a State secretary, a pastor-at-large, a 
worker in charge of a chapel car, a colporter-mis- 
sionary, or a Bible worker. Religious services may 
be held by him in the first frame building erected. 

The Spirit and Genius of Home Missions 

. Two incidents in the life of Dr. D. D. Proper, the 
veteran home missionary lately summoned to greater 
service, reflect the very spirit of home missions. 

When the Great Northern Railway Company 
started to build its transcontinental line to the Pa- 
cific Coast, the objective point for striking tide-water 
was Everett, Washington, and a new town site was 
surveyed in 1891-93. It was a piece of cut-off timber- 
land, covered with stumps and logs, with here and 
there a dim trail, for roads were not yet provided. 
While the place was being laid out for a town, Doctor 
Proper traveled over it several times, to select the 
best possible location of lots for a Baptist *church. 
One of the surveyors was a Baptist young man, 
the son of Dr. Edwin Brown. After a time the 
selection was made, and the lots were reserved by 
the land company for the church which the mission- 
ary hoped to organize. 


In 1894, Doctor Proper organized the church with 
five members and a proxy who was the husband of a 
sick wife and not able to come and yet who desired 
to be one of the charter members. After a short 
time a pastor was secured to preach for this and 
the Snohomish church, about ten miles east of 
Everett. It was not long until the lots were cleared 
of stumps and a plain frame meeting-house was 
erected by the help received from the Home Mission 
Society. The people also responded liberally accord- 
ing to their means. 

From nothing, the town has grown to more than 
fifty thousand people. The church has grown from 
six to nearly seven hundred members. The old 
meeting-house served its day and generation well,- 
and has now given place to a fine new structure 
worth over . forty thousand dollars. The church 
gives annually thousands of dollars for missions and 
is an aggressive force in every constructive com- 
munity movement. 

At another time Doctor Proper visited a new town 
called Sumas, on the line between Washington and 
British Columbia. Because of adverses and removals 
the church had become nearly extinct. But it is 
related by Doctor Proper how one woman stood by 
the Sunday school faithfully. " Her loyal efforts 
were born of a heroic consecration to her Lord and 
a desperate determination to provide religious in- 
struction for the boys and girls in her home as well 
as those of her neighbors." At this point the vet- 
eran missionary hit upon the central aim of home 
missions. Today the seed is planted in the hearts 


of boys and girls in a growing community which to- 
morrow becomes the rich harvest for the nation's 
strength and the glory of God. This is the divine 
law in the building of the kingdom. 

Doctor Proper looked around and found an old 
store building in a very bad condition which he se- 
cured with the help of the Home Mission Society. 
Repairs were made and plain board benches pro- 
vided for seating the people. This served as a 
meeting-place for the Sunday school and church 
services and a rallying-place for the people. Space 
does not permit a record of the struggles and sacri- 
fices of this little band of Baptists on the farthest 
frontier. In time a pastor was settled and the 
church won through, the old structure giving way 
to a good house of worship. 

In Behalf of All Neglected Fields 

The interdenominational comity plan whereby the 
neglected fields may be blessed by the gospel message 
without the overlapping of denominational effort 
is meeting with universal acceptance wherever it 
has been tried systematically. Dr. L. C. Barnes, of 
The American Baptist Home Mission Society, was 
the pioneer in this movement and. with others suc- 
ceeded in having it first put in effect in Montana. 
How it has been received and adapted to the needs 
in that State is intimated in Doctor Barnes* report 
for 1923: 

In spite of the prolonged and terrible industrial experi- 
ences of Montana our work in that State forges ahead. Ex- 
perience in the careful coordination of the work of all the 


Protestant denominations there, through the Montana Home 
Mission Council, proves that this is the way to achieve two 
supremely desirable ends at the same time. One is the ad- 
vancement of the kingdom of God without the waste and 
scandal of denominational friction. The other is the ad- 
vancement of our distinctive Baptist work, testimony, and 
influence much more effectively than it could be done other- 
wise. Nearly four-years' demonstration has been made of 
the value of this new principle, which is in sharp contrast 
on one hand with all attempts at organic church union or 
fusion, and on the other hand with all haphazard sectarian 
plunging. It is simply intelligent, patient, fraternal plan- 
ning the spirit of Christ in systematic action. Secretary 
Cress of the Montana Baptist Convention is recognized by 
all as the central human factor in the demonstration. Other 
States now are explicitly asking that " The Montana Plan " 
be inaugurated in their fields. This plan, with its distinctive 
ideal, was worked out and printed before the Interchurch 
World Movement was thought of by any one, and has had 
the vitality to survive the severe backwash of that decidedly 
different undertaking. This plan of jEWr^-community Ser- 
vice is going today much more strongly than ever before. Its 
aim is not to shut anybody out of any place, but to get some- 
body for Christ into every place. It is not ecclesiastical but 

" The evils so freely predicted of our efforts have 
not appeared," reports Mr. Cress, in the Missionary 
Review of the World. 

We are pledged to absolute fairness in dealing with the 
smallest group in the State. The right of the least denomina- 
tion to expansion and unhindered self-determination is un- 
challenged. No one is estopped in programs of aggressive 
service. The Council has never made a decision involving a 
withdrawal of any denomination from any field. The State 
is large, and the needs greater than all combined can meet. 
New work is launched with the knowledge and approval of 
all the cooperating bodies. 


We do not feel that we have solved all our problems, but 
that a new and hitherto untried principle of "working to- 
gether " has been discovered by Doctor Barnes, and Montana 
is giving it an unprejudiced try-out. It gives us harmony 
without negative action or compromise of principle. It has 
shown the way for unity of action while developing new 
intensities of denominational loyalty. It achieves results, 
not by mandatory methods enforced by authority, but by 
purely spiritual forces. Its cohesive energy lies in the sim- 
plicity of its ideals, its spiritual quality, and its approved 
soundness from social and business view-points. It is built 
on the basis of a larger service and a fuller recognition of 
the higher unity of believers than that conceived of in plans 
involving organic union. It is purely a missionary program 
without legal elements and is genuinely fraternal. 1 

Community Service for Boys and Girls in Remote Dis- 

The frontier missionary pastor, keenly alive to 
his opportunities, fills a large place in the life of any 
community he touches. His preaching engagements 
form only a part of his ministry. He works hand 
in hand with all local, constructive agencies, whether 
religious, educational, or social. His acquaintance 
may include the best teachers available for the local 
schools; the boys and girls find him a sympathetic 
confidant, and through contacts with him are en- 
couraged to seek the largest possible preparation 
for useful service for the community and the nation. 
Such a pastor does not hesitate to utilize the equip- 
ment of the church, no matter how incomplete it 
may be, for the betterment of community life. 

1 A reprint of " Denominational Cooperation in Montana," by G. Clif- 
ford Cress, may be obtained by addressing 1 Home Missions Council, 156 
Fifth Avenue, New York City. 



For the sake of the boys and girls in the open 
country as well as in urban communities, the ideals 
of the Department of Architecture of The American 
Baptist Home Mission Society have been determined. 
Our churches should be intelligently planned, hon- 
estly built, and beautiful, not only because they 
stand as a symbol of Christian faith and love, but 

Child Life in the Lonely Areas 

because they occupy so large a place in the child 
life of the nation. 

Edmund de S. Brunner, author of " The New 
Country Church Building," whose duties as a pastor 
have enabled him to make intensive studies of rural 
life problems, reflects a growing opinion that the 
day has passed when there is need for apology when- 
ever the church reaches out into the community 
life to concern itself with some of the manifestations 
of the abundant life. He asserts that 


the church is the proper place for everything that should 
legitimately enter into the lives of the people . . . Social and 
community activities are far from detracting from the 
sanctity of the edifice; rather, the place gives sanctity to 
the other activities . . . How much more free and joyous 
is worship when the worshiping parent, teacher, or friend 
realizes that in that veiy building, that very week, whole- 
some recreation and inspiring instruction have brought the 
boys and girls of the community a step farther from life 
failure, a step nearer to the ideal of Christian manhood and 
womanhood. How fitting that the Corn Club should meet 
to learn about the good of their souls in the same room that 
has also held their discussions of good soil and good seed, 
and whose walls are hung with pictures of fine stalks or 
ears. There is no need for apology when a rural community 
house is attached to a place of worship and the Bible school 
compelled to use the rooms and equipment of such a build- 
ing as best it can for religious education. The two concep- 
tions are not contradictory, and a little care will safeguard 

In this connection may be mentioned the Daily 
Vacation Bible Schools which have made possible 
character-building activities for the children of iso- 
lated communities as well as. of densely populated 
tenement districts of great cities. The services of 
the volunteer Daily Vacation Bible School workers 
who assist the pastors of churches. and the trained 
young women workers of the Woman's American 
Baptist Home Mission Society are of inestimable, 
kingdom-building value. 

There are inspiring stories that can be told by the 
directors of summer work in behalf of the boys and 
girls in rural, industrial, and urban communities. 
It was a revolutional suggestion that came from Miss 
Meme Brockway of the Publication Society that 


State Boards, concerned as they have been for years 
with the pioneer problems of a denomination's 
existence, should provide for a specialist who shall 
devote full time to the boys and girls who constitute 
more than one-half of the Sunday-school enrolment. 

Among Indian Boys and Girls 

The work which the missionaries of the two Home 
Mission Societies have done for Indian boys and 
girls, spiritually, morally, and physically, thereby 
making a contribution to the advancement of a 
Christian social order in America, would make a 
long story in itself. In other sections of this volume 
are accounts of the work at Bacone College and of 
the work in behalf of Indian orphans. In addition to 
the educational advantages offered Indian boys and 
girls at Bacone, may be mentioned the many Sunday 
schools and classes in English conducted by our mis- 
sionaries on Indian fields. There are public schools 
in existence today on Indian reservations which be- 
gan as mission schools, the government taking them 
over. There are at least two mission day-schools now 
maintained by the Home Mission Societies. A school 
for Indians is held in the building which Mission- 
ary J. Winfield Scott has erected on land next to 
the Indian colony near Gardnerville, Nev. Mrs. 
Scott is teaching 35 pupils, only five of whom 
have been in school before. Indians in this vicinity 
had not been allowed in the regular public schools. 
Some pupils in Mrs. Scott's classes are in their teen 
age, having entered the school as beginners. 

Miss Beatrice Sliter conducts a mission school on 

Future Snake Chief 


the Crow Indian reservation. At a recent father 
and son banquet which was held in connection with 
the school, there was reflected the spirit of the newer 
and better day for Indians. A reverent stillness 
pervaded the room while Good Horse returned 
thanks. Bull Over the Hill gave a toast on " Boys 
of Yesterday." He told how the boys in his day 
spent the time hunting, camping, and riding. All 
they thought of was a big time, he said, and urged 
the boys to learn the ways of Jesus. Feliz Bear 
Cloud talked of the " Boys of Today." There was a 
splendid feeling of friendship and good fellowship 
displayed on this occasion, also at the banquet held 
for the women and girls. 

From the beginning the Indians have been loyal to 
the mission schools. Regarding the first school 
opened for the Crow, Dr. Bruce Kinney has told 
us that Little Owl offered to give free of rent three 
rooms for two women missionaries until such time 
as other suitable quarters could be provided. 

Sharp Nose offered a good, unused house for a school 
building on the same generous conditions. The Indians 
further agreed to give us a tract of land. We bought it to 
comply with government regulations and the Indians further 
agreed to cut and haul the logs for the school and chapel 
free and erect this building completely at their own expense. 

Cooperative Contacts With Frontier Fields 

The American Baptist Publication Society and 
The American Baptist Home Mission Society, in so 
far as their resources will allow, cooperate in the 
maintenance of the special work of the colporter- 


missionaries and the chapel car workers whose min- 
istries include the saving of the adolescent life of the 
neglected areas. 1 

The colporter-missionaries visit families in dis- 
tricts remote from settlements and churches to bring 
the gospel message by spoken word and to distribute 
Bibles and religious literature. Over and over again 
the Bible is given without money where the people 
are too poor to buy. It is gratifying to know that 
the Publication Society as our Bible Society is en- 
larging the Bible work which the denomination com- 
mitted to its care years ago. 

The colporter-missionaries hold personal religious 
conversations for the purpose of strengthening 
those who already are walking with Christ and of 
winning others into personal fellowship with him. 
It is also their purpose to bring scattered and newly 
converted Baptists, wherever possible, into active 
touch and fellowship with near-by existing Baptist 
churches ; to report to the State superintendent any 
situation which would seem to warrant the estab- 
lishment of a Baptist church ; to institute, wherever 
possible, the home study of the Sunday-school lesson 
and to urge those who agree to enrol with the Home 
Department, to purchase quarterlies and supplies. 
Whenever possible, the colporter-missionary preaches 
to groups of people who may be collected at any time 
and at any place, where he may be passing. Often 
in these meetings men and women living in isolated 
districts hear the gospel for the first time. 

1 For an extended description of the work of the chapel car workers 
see " Old Trails and New," page 84. 


Taking the Message to Bear River 

Rev. J. M. P. Martin, of Colorado, has to his credit 
a long term of service as a colporter-missionary. For 
many years his territory comprised eleven counties 
on the Western Slope of the Rockies. In former 
days he traveled from one community to another 011 
his vast field by horse and wagon, but during the 
last months of his service he drove an automobile. 
He has the veteran missionary's intimate knowledge 
of conditions industrially and morally in his part 
of the State and desires every Baptist who has the 
larger vision to feel as he does concerning the great 
country which he covered. 

Several months ago Mr. Martin made an interest- 
ing trip by automobile from his headquarters at 
Grand Junction to points in Garfield, Rio Blanco, 
Moffat, and Routt Counties. 

From Grand Junction, Mesa County, to Rifle, 
Garfield, was a ride of seventy miles. At Rifle Mr. 
Martin was joined by Mr. John Hickman, a lay 
preacher and a man who has a high standing in the 
business life of his community. His conversion 
years ago was one of the results of the colporter- 
missionary's work when Rifle was little more than 
a shipping-point for stockmen. It will be recalled 
that Rifle was the outfitting-point for Theodore 
Roosevelt when he made one of his famous hunting- 
trips into the big game country. 

Leading into Rifle from the north there is a fine 
auto road which is almost completely shaled. It is 
the main artery from a great ranching and stock 


country to the railway line at Rifle. The best busi- 
ness of the county centers at Rifle. At the time of 
Mr. Martin's visit there was no Baptist church at 
Rifle nor at any other point in the county. 

Forty-four miles north of Rifle on this fine high- 
way lies Meeker, the seat of Rio Blanco County and 
the business center. In this county there was one 
little Baptist church which worshiped in a school- 
house. The pastor, Rev. W. C. Lindsey, a man of 
good spirit, was leading a united people. 

The next run was from Meeker to Craig, Moffatt 
County, fifty-five miles by way of Mt. Streeter. At 
Mt. Streeter, in the Axial Basin, Mr. Martin found 
that a new coal-mine had just been opened. The 
vein has a thickness of twenty-five feet drifting into 
the cliff almost horizontally. 

In all probability two railroads, one across the 
Unitah Basin from Salt Lake City and the other a 
continuation of the Denver and Salt Lake Railroad 
from Steamboat Springs, eventually will tap the 
Axial Basin. There is no Baptist church in Moffatt 
County. Only as the colporter-missionary, with his 
supply of Christian papers and books and his verbal 
presentation of a Saviour's love, passes through, do 
many of these remote communities receive the gospel 
message at all. 

Following the Bear River from Craig eastward 
the missionary passed through Hayden, the center 
of a farming and stock-raising section and then 
through a little coal-mining town called Harris and 
on to Steamboat Springs, the metropolis of Routt 
County, a good business town with a promising 

Rev. John M. P. Martin Points Out a Neglected Field 


future. There is no Baptist church in Routt County, 
but there are abundant opportunities for service. 

Our veteran missionary has an unshaken belief 
that the Western Slope is the coming " big country " 
of the West and hopes to see a Baptist church 
planted in every strategic point in the four big 
counties comprising the northern half of his terri- 

To make such a trip as the one just described is to 
obtain a vision of religious. destitution that is well- 
nigh appalling. Superintendent Palmer, in his 
report for 1923, calls attention to the distressing fact 
that by reason of shortage of funds, Colorado has 
suffered the loss of two colporter-missionaries. 

There are whole counties in Colorado that do not have 
a single religious worker of any denomination, and we 
would be able to place men in these districts, were funds 
available, who could do a great and permanent work in king- 
dom building. A number of recent revivals grew out of the 
house-to-house visits of our colporter-missionaries, and 
several of the meetings were held in dugouts, school-houses, 
and private homes. 

Along By-Paths in Nevada 

There are neglected districts in nearly every State 
in the Union where a colporter-missionary profitably 
may be engaged in service to carry out God's great 
purpose for boys and girls as well as men and 

Across the vast stretches of Nevada desert our 
colporter-missionary, Rev. L. Rowe Williams, makes 
his monthly rounds. He is bringing real hope and 
spiritual refreshment to many families who would 


not hear a minister's voice from one year's end to 
another unless these visits were made possible by 
the cooperation of the Publication and Home Mission 
Societies. His territory is so large and the need is 
so great that he calls himself a " bird-man, circling 
'round and 'round trying to find out what to do 
first." Here is only a partial list of places where 
there is gospel destitution : 

Deeth: 35 miles from Elko; population, 100; no 
Sunday school ; no religious service. 

Palisade: 30 miles from Elko; population, 150; 
no religious work. 

Eureka: 110 miles from Elko; population, 600; 
no Sunday services. 

Ruby Hill : 117 miles from Elko ; population, 50 ; 
no religious service for ten years. (Mr. Williams 
organized a Sunday school there last November with 
a Baptist for a superintendent.) 

Hamilton : 150 miles from Elko ; a mining-camp ; 
no religious work. 

Ruth: 190 miles from Elko; population, 300; no 
religious work. 

Cherry Creek: 180 miles from Elko; population, 
200 ; no religious work. 

From Carlin, 21 miles from Elko, where no 
preaching services are held, Mr. Williams received 
the following letter from a group of people grateful 
because to them has come a " voice in the wilder- 

ness " : 

I feel we owe it to you to write to thank you for the 
work you have done for us in Carlin. In the past, we have 
had very little to encourage us in regard to the work the 


mere handful of Christians here were able to do. Sometimes 
it seemed that our best efforts accomplished nothing at all, 
and that our time was simply wasted. 

Since you were here, last week, we do feel that the right 
man has come. Never before have we been able to get so 
many to Sunday school or church as there were there last 
Sunday morning. 

We sincerely hope that you may be able to continue coming 
to Carlin, for the harvest is ready " but the laborers are 
few." Like the man of Macedonia, we hope you may be 
able to " Come over and help us." 

The Prayer of a Blind Boy 

The colporter-missionary's tasks call for men able 
and willing to meet a variety of situations un- 
dreamed of in the seminary classroom. 

One afternoon a colporter-missionary came to a 
ranch where a man lived who had the reputation 
of being a hater of preachers. The oldest daughter 
answered the visitor's knock and when she told him 
her name the other recalled the death of a woman of 
that name having occurred in the community a 
short time before. He questioned the girl and 
learned that the deceased had been the mother in 
this home. After speaking a few words of comfort 
the missionary expressed a wish to see the father. 
He was told that he would find him at the barn. As 
he was not there the missionary drove on and pres- 
ently saw a man near the road mending fence. He 
proved to be the father of the girl. Again words of 
consolation were spoken, whereupon the missionary 
was urged to return and put up at this man's place 
for the night. 

The farmer called up his son-in-law by telephone 


and asked him to bring his family over for the eve- 
ning. The two families visited for a time, and then 
the visitor was requested to read the Bible. When 
one passage had been finished a blind son asked for 
another. The missionary complied with the request 
and then urged all to surrender their lives to Jesus. 
The blind boy responded willingly. That night after 
the lights were out he came to the bedside of the 
missionary and knelt to ask God to pardon his sins. 

The next day the missionary departed with the 
prayer that God would use the afflicted boy to bring 
the other members of the family to Christ. 

It is hard to tabulate the results of the work of a 
colporter-missionary, but a single visit from this 
man of God has often changed the outlook of a whole 
family. He spends his time in the open. There are 
few hardships he does not experience and few situa- 
tions which he cannot compass. But he has rewards 
and compensations such as are known only to those 
who count it all joy to endure hardship as good 
soldiers of Jesus Christ. 







The great territory of Alaska has been known to 
white men less than two hundred years. The story 
of Alaska begins with the day of Peter the Great of 
Russia. There was great excitment throughout 
Europe at that time, because a new map had just 
been given to the world by a French geographer 
showing a great undiscovered country between Asia 
and America. France and Spain at once sent out 
ships to find and claim the new country, and, Peter, 
Czar of Russia, also sent out an expedition in charge 
of Victor Bering who returned saying, " Though 
there is such a country on the map there is none in 
the sea." But the wise Peter persisted in sending 
Bering back for another trial. Just as he was about 
to give up for the second time, heavy fogs which had 
prevailed for days, lifted, and Bering saw before 
him the land he sought and took possession of it in 
the name of Russia. For a long time little was 
thought of Russia's new possession, but when, be- 
cause of need of funds, Russia sold Alaska in 1876 
to the United States there was great excitement, and 
the whole world laughed at the idea of " paying 
$7,000,000 for a country of icebergs, and polar 
bears." When twenty years later gold was discov- 
ered, Alaska did not seem worthless any longer. 



Soon it was understood that gold and other rich 
ores are not Alaska's only source of wealth. Her 
thousands of miles of sea-coast with her salmon and 
seal fisheries are also great sources of wealth which 
make Alaska " a land of promise " economically to 
the United States. Acquaintance with the natives 
however proved them to be of a very low degree of 
morality. Lying, stealing, gambling, and intem- 
perance are found everywhere. The marriage union 
is seldom held sacred, and polygamy is a common 
custom. Because of these low standards of morality 
there is a great deal of physical unfitness, suffering, 
and misery, and diseases of various kinds are wide- 
spread. Sanitation and hygiene in any form are 
absolutely unknown, and little medical relief can be 
obtained. Crippled children are numerous and 
death stalks everywhere. Many children of four 
and five years of age have never learned to walk. 
They are only a few of a greater number who are 
victims of disease and neglect, of hunger, dirt, and 

To the Christians of the United States a knowl- 
edge of these conditions in their new possession was 
a great challenge, and religious bodies began to make 
plans to educate and Christianize their neighbors 
who were now also their fellow countrymen. That 
part of Alaska known as Baptist territory comprises 
some four islands about six hundred and twenty-two 
miles from Sitka. On Wood Island, which is one of 
the choicest, well-wooded islands of the group, where 
farming is practical, a mission plant was built for 
the purpose of saving Alaska through her boys and 


girls. The opposition of the Greek Catholic priests, 
the immoral condition of the environment, and the 
dreadful diseased condition of the children made this 
a difficult missionary enterprise. The plant con- 
sists of a church, two dormitories, one for girls, and 
one for boys, and necessary farm buildings, and is 
known as the Kodiak Baptist Orphanage. 

Imagine that you see before you a young Alaskan 
girl Tashekah by namje, paddling her canoe, hunting 
salmon-berries, and carrying her baby brother on 
her back. When night comes, see her return to her 
home, and crawl into her corner for a good night's 
rest. No comb tortures her tired head, no horrid 
soap and water gets into her sleepy eyes, no strings 
or buttons make work for her weary fingers, for 
just as she is, dirt, blanket and all, she lies down, on 
the same platform, with her father, mother, sisters, 
cousins, aunts, grandfather, grandmother, and many 

One day when she was twelve years old, she 
saw her father begin building a cell into which she 
knew she must go, for she was now of marriageable 
age, and in this cell, built under the platform, with- 
out a ray of light, she must stay, without seeing or 
speaking even to the one who thrust in her food 
each day, until her parents found' her a suitable 

Shut away as she was, her sense of hearing be- 
came abnormally keen, and one day she heard her 
grandfather had returned from a fishing trip with 
the corpse of her grandmother dragged through the 
water in the wake of his boat. Her heart burned 


with indignation when she heard eight-year-old 
Kunz explain to his little brother, " She was his 
wife, he had a right to do as he pleased with her." 

One day soon after she was brought out from her 
cell to the glorious light to hear the name of her 
future husband, they told her it was Shans-ga-gate, 
her cruel grandfather. Dazed and sick at heart she 
dared not utter a protest. Four days later Shans-ga- 
gate was killed by a fall over the precipice, and then 
the nude and bony form of the medicine man ap- 
peared. After awful contortions and blood-curdling 
yells, he revealed the name of the mortal who had 
been the agent of evil spirits in the death of her 
grandfather. With a gurgle the medicine man ut- 
tered the name of " Tashekah." 

Quickly she was thrown violently on a bed of 
nettle thorns and tortured until her tongue was black 
and swollen, and her body covered with smarting 
bleeding wounds, until her brain whirled and all 
became a blank. While she lay thus, the missionary 
found this little twelve-year-old girl, procured her 
release, took her home, and told her of a God who 
loved even an Alaskan girl so much that he sent 
his only Son to die, that he might make her good. 1 

From such hopeless surroundings and dreary im- 
moral homes, Alaskan children have been rescued 
and in the shelter of the Orphanage have been 
nursed to physical health, and taught to know Jesus 
as " the way to strong, splendid, useful living." 

{The catastrophe of 1912 when the eruption of Mt. 
Katmai covered Wood Island with eighteen inches of 

1 Condensed from story of Tashekan by G. E. Lathrop. 


ashes, supplied some elements to the soil that were 
lacking before, so that good crops of cabbages and 
cauliflower are grown now in addition to the peas, 
potatoes, turnips, etc., grown before. These vege- 
tables, as well as meat and fish, are canned for winter 
use. Pans of milk on the clean airy shelves of the 
milkroom have their share in producing the rosy 
cheeks and strong healthy bodies of the family. One 
of the herd that supplied this milk was a small cow 
called Sonia. She caused the boys endless trouble 
by getting through fences into the potato and oat 
fields. Each time, after a long hard chase to get her 
out, the boys consoled themselves by reminding one 
another that Sonia had been selected as one of the 
victims to fill the empty jars on the pantry shelves. 

There are few days of sunshine in Alaska. The 
summer lasts only through May, June, and part of 
July. The days begin at three a. m. and continue 
until ten p. m. The vegetation responds vigorously 
to this lavish light, but even in summer, salt sea-air, 
dampness from much rain, and cold winds from 
snow-capped mountains make the days cool. In the 
winter the days are very short, cold, and dark, with 
heavy snowfalls and dense fogs. During all these 
long hours of darkness the poor, feeble rays of 
dangerous, gasoline lamps were the only way of light- 
ing the Orphanage buildings. But when in 1919 a 
radio station was built on Wood Island, two of its 
men were permitted to show four of the Orphanage 
boys how to wire and instal electric lights in the mis- 
sion house. They learned enough about it to be able 
to wire the girls' dormitory. The bright glow of these 


lights is a welcome change from the old gasoline 
lamps, and gives comfort and cheer through the long 
hours of winter darkness. 

Since 1908 the orphanage has been under the 
supervision of Rev. George Learn, commissioned by 
The American Baptist Home Mission Society. He 
is ably assisted by Mrs. Learn and also by two effi- 
cient matrons, Miss Mattson and Miss Hines, who 
are under the appointment of the Woman's Society. 

The family consists of nineteen boys and twenty- 
four girls. Many of them have real musical ability 
manifested in their skilful use of musical instru-. 
ments and in their singing. . The violin, guitar, and 
mandolin have been mastered by some of the chil- 
dren without the aid of any instructor. That they 
are also able intellectually is proved by the fact that 
several of the prizes given for good work at the 
local government school, which the orphanage chil- 
dren attend, were won by mission boys and girls. 
The children speak of themselves as " mission chil- 
dren " and call the other inhabitants of the island 
" natives," seeming to feel it a mark of distinction 
and respect to be a member of the mission family. 

The faithful matrons of the orphanage respond 
to every call from the outside. Whether it be day 
or night, none is turned away. Sometimes people 
come for food for a sick child, or for something to 
cover the coffin of a little one who has just died. 
Whatever the request they receive the needed aid. 

To give a home and Christian training to orphan 
and destitute Alaskan children is the object of the 
Orphanage. From the day the first child was re- 

Orphanage Girls on a Hike 


ceived until this present hour this object has been 
accomplished. Sometimes there are hours of sad- 
ness and disappointment for the workers, but there 
are many occasions for rejoicing, as these children 
give evidence of development of Christian character. 
On ,the last Sunday of September, 1921, the family 
and the neighbors gathered at Unas Lake for a 
baptismal service. The morning was clear and 
bright and the scenery beautiful with surrounding 
hills and snow-capped mountains in the distance. 
Nine young people of the family followed Christ in 
baptism. Again the next June five girls and five 
boys received baptism. One of these boys is an 
earnest boy-preacher, whom the boys* matron, Miss 
Lucy Mattson, expects to send to the States, that he 
may receive training necessary to do efficient work 
among his own people. Several of the boys of the 
Orphanage have become of age and are making their 
own way in the world, equipped for it mentally and 
spiritually by their training in the Orphanage. Does 
it pay? 




Many Indian boys and girls have a very large 
place in their hearts for " Father Murrow," as the 
Rev. Joseph Samuel Murrow has been affectionately 
known for many years. This name is universally 
given him, not on account of his unusually venerable 


appearance (having been born in 1835) but because 

of his fatherly heart and the fact that he is the 
founder of the orphanage for Indian children lov- 
ingly known as the Murrow Orphans' Home. 

There are many other Christian accomplishments 
to the credit of this pioneer of religious work in 
Oklahoma, among them the organization of more 
than seventy-five Baptist churches and his assistance 
in building and raising money for many meeting- 
houses. He has himself baptized almost two thou- 
sand Indians and helped to ordain some sixty Indian 
preachers. But this missionary of The American 
Baptist Home Mission Society, who has proved him- 
self the ever-faithful fatherly friend of the Indians, 
has endeared himself to orphaned Indian children 
and given them reason for eternal gratitude by his 
founding of the Murrow Orphans* Home. 

The Orphanage stands on the college grounds of 
the Indian University at Bacone, and a primary 
school, kept for the accommodation of the orphans, 
offers instruction for other pupils under the seventh 
grade. The Indians themselves donated a large farm 
for this purpose in the hope that some day the 
orphanage would be self-supporting. 

The orphanage cares for about sixty children with 
ages ranging from two and a half years up. When 
one goes, there are others waiting to fill his place. 
That it is not long before all, except the very smallest 
ones, become Christians, speaks well for the Chris- 
tian instruction and influences of the home. 

A beautiful story has recently come to us of an 
Indian mother's magnificent gift to the Murrow 

Dr. J. S. Murrow 


Orphanage. This young mother had lost three chil- 
dren. After the death of her third child she adopted 
a little Indian girl to whom she gave motherly care. 
Then a son was born to her. The little boy lived, 
and with a heart overflowing with gratitude to God 
this mother sought for some expression of it. She 
found this expression in a large gift of $100,000 as 
an endowment fund for the Orphanage, for great 
wealth had come to her through the discovery of oil 
upon her land allotment. Her reason for selecting 
Murrow as the recipient of her great gift reads like 
a novel. 

Long before wealth came to her she met at Bacone 
a young student who at fourteen years of age had 
been given a home in the Murrow Orphanage. In 
their student days an attachment began between 
these two which later developed into marriage while 
both were poor. When she became rich, grateful 
appreciation of the place that had sheltered and fur- 
nished a home for the poor orphaned boy, who was 
now her beloved husband, made her decide to put 
Murrow upon such a financial standing that it could 
shelter other lonely Indian children and develop in 
them sturdy Christian character. It is obvious that 
this romance also had its influence on another gift 
of $50,000 which she designated for a boys' dormi- 
tory at Bacone College. 

Because of the generous gifts of two other well- 
to-do Indian women, a mother and a daughter, who 
gave $50,000 for a girls' dormitory at Murrow, 
countless little Indian orphan girls will be housed 
and trained to useful Christian womanhood. 


Indians are very devoted to the orphans of their 
race, and give generously and gladly to provide for 
them and often adopt one of them into their own 

Another instance of Indian generosity and of in- 
terest in the orphans of their race, is the purchase 
of eighty acres of fine farming land, adjoining the 
one hundred acres of Bacone College, by a man and 
his wife, that the Murrow Orphanage might have 
a campus of its own. These large gifts must not 
give the impression that the Indians generally are 
amassing fortunes. True it is that a few have 
profited by the discovery of oil under their allot- 
ments, but the great majority of these first Amer- 
icans are very poor. In their poverty many are 
giving generously that the orphans of their race 
may have a home where they can be trained for 
Christian leadership. 

Since the time of its founding the Woman's 
American Baptist Home Mission Society has sup- 
ported teachers and matrons both at the Bacone 
University and Murrow Orphanage, so that they 
have a large interest in the success of mothering and 
giving Christian education to motherless Indian 

That the Indian children are very bright is shown 
by the fact that four of the Orphanage boys did a 
year and a half of work in one year, while a fifth 
boy not only did all of two years' work in one, but 
had the highest average in the first five grades. 

At the table the older boys and girls take turns 
in saying grace. They do it reverently and well, 


thus learning by practise to add this worthy habit 
to the other Christian customs they are acquiring. 

Various tribes are represented among the chil- 
dren of the Orphanage, and even though they be- 
come members of the family at a very early age, 
they have had instilled in them pride of tribe. A 
little girl who recently arrived, was asked by one 
of the matrons if she was a Christian. "No," an- 
swered the little girl proudly, " I am a Choctaw." 
A little boy, who was also a Choctaw, came all alone 
from Mississippi. He soon forgot his homesick- 
ness and is developing under the care and influence 
of the Orphanage into a fine Christian lad. At the 
close of revival meetings last fall ten boys were 
received into the church by baptism, and ten have 
read the Bible through. 

What will the Indian of tomorrow be? Every 
effort made to give to Indian boys and girls educa- 
tion, and the religion of Jesus Christ helps to solve 
this problem. The hope of the race lies in the 
Christian development of its youth, for " the youth 
of today is the man of tomorrow." The greatest 
gift we Baptists can give to the children of the 
Orphanage is the religion of the Book. " When you 
read out of that book," said an old chief of the 
Mohaves, " I know it is God's book, for it swells my 
heart." The opportunity to raise up a strong Chris- 
tian leadership from the children of the Orphanage 
ought to inspire in every Christian pale-face the 
determination to do his bit toward the maintenance 
of this splendid institution for the orphaned chil- 
dren of his red brothers. 





That is what Julian Street called " The Leonard 
St. Orphan's Home," of Atlanta, Ga. Among his 
" American Adventures " he counted his visit to this 
home one of the most interesting. " The Home," he 

Little Sisters, (Hear Me) 

said, " is a humble frame building which was used 
as barracks for Northern troops stationed in Atlanta 
after the Civil War. In it reside Miss Amy Chad- 
wick, her helpers, and about seventy little Negro 
girls, and it is a fact worth noting that several of the 
helpers are young colored women who, themselves 


brought up in the Home and taught to be self-sup- 
porting, have been drawn back to the place by home- 
sickness. Was ever before an orphan homesick for 
an orphan's home? " 

The Home was founded by Miss L. M. Lawson in 
1890. Her endowment was " My God shall supply 
all your need." This endowment never failed her, 
even when loss of health in 1903 compelled her to 
give up this loved work. The " need " of a new 
leader " God supplied " in this providential way : 
Miss Amy A. Chadwick, an English woman, who 
came to America some years ago, and graduated 
from the Northfield Bible Training School, went 
South to visit our Spelman Seminary and heard that 
the Home was about to be closed because there was 
no one to take up the work. After careful and 
prayerful consideration, Miss Chadwick, without 
any missionary board or organization behind her 
took hold of this orphanage which was both literally 
and figuratively falling to pieces. How successful 
she has been it is hard to convey in words. Not 
that she has succeeded in building up a great nour- 
ishing plant with all improvements. Far from it. 
The Home is not nearly large enough for its pur- 
pose, and there are anxious hours over the forth- 
coming of money necessary to keep it going. Its 
success is not in its material possessions, but in the 
fact that it is in a real sense a Home, giving not only 
a shelter, but love and mothering to those who piti- 
fully need it. " How Miss Chadwick does this," 
said Julian Street, " is something which only she 
and heaven understand. But if you ever visit the 


Home and meet Miss Chadwick and see her with her 
children, you will know that heaven and Miss Chad- 
wick understand a lot of things the rest of us don't 
know about at all." 

Not only Atlanta but all that portion of the South 
is safer and more Christian today because hundreds 
of little Negro girls have been rescued from environ- 
ments of ignorance and vice and in this Home have 
developed into simple, genuine Christian characters. 
In the admission of children, preference is given to 
those without parents. Sometimes they are deserted 
by either father or mother, or both, but there are 
also children taken from homes where parents are 
not fit to rear them. The Home has a number of 
families of two, three, or four children, sometimes 
more. Every opportunity of the daily home life is 
used to help each girl individually. Of course they 
are just like other children the world over, and 
while they always need love and happiness, they 
sometimes need wise discipline. Daily devotions 
have an honored place in the program of the Home 
life, when hymns are sung, Bible stories told, 
memory verses recited, and " mother talks " given. 
They also have their own Sunday school at the Home, 
but the larger girls go to church services at Spelman 

One great advantage of the Orphanage location 
is that it is very near Spelman Seminary. Miss 
Chadwick greatly appreciates the privilege of send- 
ing her girls to this Christian school. All the chil- 
dren of school age go as day pupils to Spelman 
Seminary. They are registered in every grade in- 

George Ernest Barrow Blackman 


eluding high school. A few enter as boarders, earn- 
ing part of their schooling, and graduate. Spelman 
admits to its classes free of charge the girls who are 
entirely supported by the Home. So while the Home 
itself is under no board and is strictly undenomi- 
national, the Baptists, through Spelman, furnish all 
the educational facilities for the children and are 
thus in a very vital way linked up both in interest 
and responsibility with the development of the chil- 
dren of the Home. 

During the time that the children of the Home 
are taught daily in Spelman, the playroom of the 
Home is given to the Free Kindergarten Association, 
a band of Negro women who hold themselves re- 
sponsible for the maintenance of several mission 
kindergartens. This Association pays the salary of 
the teacher who was one of the Home's own girls 
and also a graduate of the Kindergarten Normal 
Department of Atlanta University. Daily the 
" Home " kindergarten gathers twenty-five to thirty 
children who would otherwise be locked in the house 
or left on the street to play while their mothers are 
out at work. Thus the Home helps to meet some of 
the needs of the children in the neighborhood, be- 
sides ministering to its own family. 

" What becomes of the girls nurtured and trained 
in the Home, and educated by Spelman ? " is the 
question often asked. Some return to relatives and, 
by putting into practise the training they have re- 
ceived, make clean, attractive, comfortable homes 
out of the places that were dirty and degrading be- 
fore. Some enter the domestic service, others 


marry. There are many who become teachers, 
nurses, dressmakers, stenographers, typists, etc. 
Each little Negro girl brought to the Home to be 
housed and loved, and to receive manual, mental, 
moral, and religious training means not only a girl 
saved from ignorance and vice to a life of blessed 
useful service, but the establishment later of a home 
in which she will be the mother or homemaker, and 
which she will make a sweet center of Christian in- 
fluence out of which shall go boys and girls trained 
to Christian living, an ever-widening circle of Chris- 
tian manhood and womanhood that will save Amer- 
ica and make it the land of the noble ideals of which 
our pioneer Pilgrim Fathers dreamed. 

The cry of the children goes up from all over the 
world today as never before. Many Christians have 
heard and given to the relief of the suffering chil- 
dren of Europe. Truly a blessed service. " This 
ought ye to have done " but not to let go unheeded 
the call of the little colored girls of our own land. 
This call Miss Chadwick, a giant in faith and hope, 
but frail in body, has tried to answer with love and 
self-sacrifice at the Leonard St. Orphanage. " Her 
inspiration " which every Christian ought to 
" catch " is the spirit of the great loving heart of the 
Good Shepherd who seeks and seeks until he shall 
find and save every last little child in all the world. 

The Lost Sheep 






There has been a decrease of about twenty per 
cent, in the Chinese population of the United States 
during the past twenty years. There are compara- 
tively few homes, as the men far outnumber the 
women. This means few Chinese children. Because 
of their extreme conservatism the Chinese are slow 
to adopt American ways and American dress. They 
are honest and reliable in business. Many of the 
children, especially boys, are here without parents, 
having been sent to be educated in America. The 
zeal for learning is very marked. Baptist work has 
been carried on for fifty years among these people. 

San Francisco 

The largest Chinese community in the United 
States is to be found in San Francisco. 

Work was begun in this city in 1870 by The 
American Baptist Home Mission Society. In 1883 a 
day-school was opened by the Woman's American 
Baptist Home Mission Society. Today the work is 
supported by these two Societies and the San Fran- 
cisco Bay Cities Baptist Union. The present building 
was dedicated in 1908. The first floor is used for 
chapel and social rooms. The second story is given 
over to the school. The public-school curriculum is 
followed, and the sessions coincide with those of 



the Oriental School. There are three groups of 
children : Kindergarten, under Miss Josephine Lar- 
zelere; the primary, taught by Miss Faith Long- 
fellow, and the boys from ten to thirteen, taught by 
Miss Hetty Evans. Most of Miss Evans' boys are 
nominal orphans who have come to America for an 
education. They sleep in back rooms of stores or 
gambling-dens. Miss Evans deals with a procession. 
Often as soon as a boy learns some English he goes 
to the public school, and his place is filled by a lad 
just over from China. It is a wonderful thing to 
have the first impression that of Christianity. Miss 
Grace Chan, a graduate of one of our mission schools 
in China, and teacher of our Chinese Language 
School, gives a Bible lesson to these boys every day, 
and three times a week they attend the chapel 
exercises of the school. 

Miss Longfellow has her little people divided into 
classes which bear the interesting names of " Sun- 
beam," "Knights/' "Moon Class," "Star Class," 
" Blue Birds," and " Soldiers." The work is so ar- 
ranged that these groups can be taken in turn to 
the kindergarten where Miss Chan gives them their 
daily Bible story in Chinese. The children are 
taught Scripture verses, even whole chapters. They 
love to sing about Jesus. One day they had just 
finished singing about how Jesus loves the birds 
and flowers and children, and Miss Longfellow said, 
" Does Jesus love all children ? " The answer came 
in chorus, "Yes." "Little American children?" 
"Yes." "Little Chinese children?" "Yes"; still 
louder, "Little Japanese?" Out from the chorus 


of yeses came a loud, determined " No " from the 
biggest boy in the room. 

Ah Lai, a Knight of eight years, loves to hear 
the Jesus stories. He comes from a family that ob- 
serves the heathen rites of worship. On day he told 
the following incident : " My mother tell us all to 
worship idol. We all kneel down in a row before 
the altar as usual, mother and all of us children. 
Then when she tell us bow and bow herself, I slip 
away and crawl under bed. I not want to worship 
idol, I want to pray Jesus. After while when she 
get up, she cannot see me. She call me, and I come 
out from under bed. So I not worship." And the 
little rascal went off chuckling as he remembered 
how he had outwitted his mother. 

Ah Lai's chum, another Knight of about the same 
age, also loves Jesus. George said one day, " I al- 
ways pray to Jesus before I eat, but sometimes 
everybody is talking and it is so noisy, and so I go 
away into the bedroom and pray there, and then 
come back and eat." 

The kindergarten, as usual, is the most interesting 
place in the building. Sessions are held only in the 
afternoon. Miss Larzelere is assisted by Miss 
Chan in caring for forty bright little boys and girls. 
Especially quaint are the girls in their foos and 
shams, with black hair decorated in American fash- 
ion with a big bow of bright ribbon. Miss Larzelere 
was astonished one day to have a mother bring in a 
little girl in a much beruffled American dress. She 
exclaimed that she thought the child a boy, as she 
had often seen her in boy's clothes. She learned 


later that the mother had dressed her thus in order 
to fool the evil spirits and make them think she was 
a boy. 

Miss Larzelere was calling one day. Seeing a 
four-year-old sitting on a doorstep she addressed 
her in Chinese. The little girl laughed and an- 
swered her in excellent English, which she had 
learned from an older brother. 

One day one of the kindergarten children was 
being taken through Golden Gate Park by a mission- 
ary. They came abruptly upon a statue of Buddha 
in the Japanese Tea Garden. Instantly the little 
lad was on his knees before the image, touching the 
ground with his forehead. The rankest heathenism 
sometimes exists among these little Americans who 
are the citizens of tomorrow, but contrast this little 
beginner in our school with Ah Lai and George. 

There is a well-attended Bible school held every 
Sunday at twelve o'clock. The officers and some 
of the teachers are Chinese. 

A new home for Chinese boys has been opened in 
West Berkeley, The American Baptist Home Mission 
Society and the San Francisco Bay Cities Baptist 
Union cooperate in this work. The building is a 
commodious residence, with a yard for playground. 
It accommodates thirty boys and the staff. There are 
three classes of boys for which the home provides 
care, namely, orphans, half-orphans, and unfortu- 
nates. By half-orphans are meant boys who have 
only one parent living, or whose mothers are in 
China. The unfortunates are those whose parents 
have been deemed by the Juvenile Court unfit to rear 


children. The boys are under a semi-military 
regime. They have household duties assigned them 
and are given instruction in housework, cooking, 
waiting tables, and gardening. They attend a public 
school where there are twenty different nationalities 
and the teachers show a sympathetic interest in the 
foreigner. The boys worship in a near-by American 
church and attend that Sunday school. Sunday 
evenings there is held in the home a religious service 
that will stand out as a blessed memory in the lives 
of these boys. The Chinese people are so apprecia- 
tive of this effort that they raised among themselves 
$4,000 for the furnishing of the building. 


There are many well-to-do Chinese in Fresno who 
live in nice homes, but the majority are crowded 
into the Chinese center. However, the younger gen- 
eration is quite Americanized. It was on this field 
that an unusually bright high-school girl of four- 
teen years (she has had several stories accepted by 
magazines) came to the Mission one day and said : 
" Mother forced me to offer rice before the altar this 
morning, but I really didn't worship. I talked En- 
glish, and mother couldn't understand. I said, 'I 
should worry, Old Top, I don't believe in you any- 
way.' " 

The work in Fresno was opened in 1883 by the 
First Baptist Church, and the Woman's American 
Baptist Home Mission Society soon commissioned a 
worker for the field. Miss Amy Purcell is now their 
missionary. The Northern California State Con- 


vention and The American Baptist Home Mission 
Society own the building, carry the running ex- 
penses, and support Mr. Ye, the native pastor, who 
comes once a month from Sacramento. 

The Sunday school is the principal missionary 
activity for the children. However, Miss Purcell 
is in daily contact with them. The Cradle Roll bears 
the name of sixty babies, fifteen of whom come to 
Sunday school occasionally. In this way Miss Pur- 
cell obtains a special touch with the mothers. Some 
of the young mothers and fathers have given their 
hearts to Christ. The Bible work of the school is 
unusually strong. The children love to memorize 
Scripture. The little ones will learn the assignments 
which are made to the older ones. Eunice and Ruth, 
two little girls in the Sunday school, were given New 
Testaments by their teacher because of proficiency 
in memory work. A few days later Eunice came to 
the Mission and said : " I can't find the Ten Com- 
mandments in my Bible at all. May I take one of 
these home with me? " Her teacher had not asked 
for the memorizing of the Commandments as yet. 

When Miss Purcell meets the children on the street 
the greeting is : "I know ' The Lord is my Shep- 
herd,' " or " I am learning the Lord's Prayer," or 
" See what I bought," holding up a Bible. " Please 
show me where the ' Blessed Verses ' are." 

One day visitors came to the Daily Vacation Bible 
School with a treat. After the children had finished 
their ice-cream Miss Purcell said, " Now we will 
have to thank our visitors, won't we? " Poon Gim 
piped up quickly, " We don't have to, we'd rather." 



The work on the field at Sacramento is primarily 
with young men and is supported by the Northern 
California State Convention and The American 
Baptist Home Mission Society. There are few chil- 
dren on the field. A Bible school is held every 
Sunday afternoon, and the regular lesson work is 


The work on this field is only a little over four 
years old, and is supported by the Woman's Amer- 
ican Baptist Home Mission Society, The American 
Baptist Home Mission Society, and the Northern 
California State Convention. Locke is a typical 
Chinese village on the banks of the Sacramento, 
about forty miles from the city of Sacramento. 
Gambling-dens and red-light houses abound. The 
latter are run by Americans. The population 
changes according to the season. The people work 
on the fruit ranches of the valley. There are very 
few women and children in the community. An at- 
tractive new building was dedicated in October, 1922. 

The Chinese are all very much in sympathy with 
the work of the Mission. Even the proprietors of 
the gambling-houses will bring their children to 
the kindergarten. All the little ones of kindergarten 
age are now enrolled. The children are eager to 
come, and the only trouble is in keeping away those 
who are too young. It is interesting to see them on 
a cold day. The poor little dears are so padded with 


clothes (sometimes wearing three sweaters under a 
coat) that their little arms stick out from their 
bodies, and they can stoop with great difficulty to 
pick up a doll or toy from the floor. They are little 
Americans, but practically none of them spoke En- 
glish until Miss Maxwell came to the field. 

Between twenty-five and forty children are daily 
in the Mission building, as Miss Maxwell conducts 
the kindergarten, gives music lessons, supervises 
practise, and directs their play. The Mission yard 
is the children's playground, although no equipment 
has as yet been provided. 

The Sunday school is not organized because of a 
lack of sufficient teaching force, but is largely at- 
tended. A number of the older children have pro- 
fessed Christ. A Junior B. Y. P. U. meets Sunday 

An Industrial School is held on Saturdays. The 
regular handwork and sloid are taught. The exer- 
cises are in English, but the children read out of 
their Chinese Bibles, and some of the older ones 
lead in prayer. A Boy Scout Troop has been organ- 
ized. The Methodist Japanese missionary at Walnut 
Grove, a mile away, speaks most appreciatively of 
how the Mission at Locke has changed the atti- 
tude of the Chinese children toward the Japanese, 
saying that they now play together in the best of 

In September another young woman will be sent 
to the field to be associated with Miss Maxwell, and 
work will be opened in the near-by towns of Court- 
land, Walnut Grove, and Isleton. This is Baptist 


territory, and these little black-haired, black-eyed 
Americans wait for us to teach them of Jesus and 
his love. 


Both national Boards withdrew from the Chinese 
work in Portland in the spring of 1922. It is now 
carried on by the Chinese themselves and the Bap- 
tist Young People's Unions of the city. ' The Chinese 
of Portland are merchants and restaurateurs. Many 
of them live in good homes and hold to none of their 
old customs. There are second and third generation 
Americans among the children. These rarely speak 
Chinese and much prefer to attend the American 
churches. The children are dainty and attractive, 
and all who come to the Mission wear American 
clothes. The room which is rented for the services 
is so small that the Sunday school must be held in 
two sessions. Over a hundred children are taught 
God's word and Christian songs every week. 


Work in Seattle was opened some fifteen years 
ago. The two national Boards and the Western 
Washington State Convention cooperate on this field. 
There are some twelve hundred Chinese, living for 
the most part in rather restricted quarters. A beau- 
tiful and well-adapted building was dedicated in 
October, 1922. Here are centered the missionary 
activities, though the home of the missionaries on 
Fifteenth Avenue is open house for Chinese children 
and mothers. A well-organized Sunday school is 


conducted every Sunday morning. The Cradle Roll 
numbers ninety-five babies. The beginners are 
taught by a Chinese young woman, a student at the 
Washington State University. Miss Skiff has 
charge of the Primary Department. Miss Snape 
directs the juniors. The latter department is very 
much alive and has grown by leaps and bounds the 
past year. The Junior Boosters, a class of boys, won 
the aeroplane contest in the Sunday school for 1923. 
The Chinese Baptist Young People's Union won the 
attendance banner three successive times at the Dis- 
trict Rally, competing with the Unions of all the 
American churches, as well as the Japanese. This 
gave them the efficiency banner. 

A kindergarten is conducted four mornings a 
week under Miss Skiff's supervision. A playground 
back of the church is the acme of bliss for these little 
tots who have nowhere to play except the streets. 
Three swings, two teeter-boards, and a wonderful 
slide cause teacher anxious moments during play 
hours, but fill the children's hearts with joy. 

An industrial school is held once a week by Miss 
Snape. The Tuckabatchee Club, whose member- 
ship is open to girls from eleven to sixteen years, is 
modeled along the lines of the Campfire Groups. The 
girls have their own officers and follow parliamen- 
tary law in conducting their meetings. They have 
composed the words of their Club song. The Club 
name means, "Add to and stick together," and the 
girls are trying to live up to this idea. A Sunday- 
school class in Newcastle, Pennsylvania, has become 
very much interested in the Club and has named 

Chinese Woman Going to English Lesson 


its class " The Tuckabatchee." The girls correspond 
regularly with the members of the Club and have 
sent each Chinese girl a Bible. 

There are many American churches that are con- 
ducting Sunday schools for Chinese, and the Mon- 
tana State Convention and The American Baptist 
Home Mission Society have a work in Butte, Mon- 
tana, where a few children are cared for. 

Fifteen Minutes on the Chinese Kindergarten Play- 
ground, Seattle 

The kindergartner's enthusiasm is boundless, and 
the missionary teacher with no helper and twenty- 
five little would-be acrobats, is kept busy enough. 

" Peter/' she calls to a five-year-old, " you must 
sit down and slide when you reach the top of the 
steps ; if you don't, you keep all the rest of the line 
waiting for you." 

" Paul," she commands, " use your handkerchief 
right away! I have told you that, one, two, three, 
four, five, six times this morning. Why don't you 
remember it yourself as the other children do?" 

"Teacher, Ah Yit not lemember! See? Him 
not lemember." Teacher turns to Ah Yit and sighs ; 
it is too true. Ah Yit has not " lemembered." 

But Ah Yit, first son of the house of Wong, 
clutches Teacher's dress with small grimy fingers: 
" Teacher, him," pointing to a little girl, " him won't 
give me swing ; him all time swing himself ! " Teacher 
calls to usurper : " Precious Jade, don't you know 
that the swing is for all of you children ? It is for 
Ah Yit just as much as for you," Precious Jade 


smiles sweetly and calls back, "All light, I give him 

" Teacher," calls a four-year-old, " my coat too 
hot, I take him off." 

" Teacher," echoes a three-year-old who is not 
wearing a coat, " my hat too hot, me take him off." 
Immediately a dozen children rush to Teacher with 
their wraps. 

Just here Teacher sees the two-and-a-half -year-old 
twins sitting peacefully upon the ground directly 
under one of the teeter-boards, and four older chil- 
dren about to mount the board. Teacher jumps to 
the rescue of her beloved twins, and not a second too 
soon. " Ruth and Esther," she admonishes their 
uncomprehending ears, " don't you know that if 
the teeter-board came down on your heads, you 
wouldn't be little twin girls any more, but just .little 
twin pan-cakes?" 

A commotion starts in the locality of the swings. 
Mamie, aged five, had swung Little Sister, aged 
three, till she thought it was her own turn for a 
swing, and told Little Sister so. But Little Sister 
did not see the matter in that light and refused to 
leave the swing, whereupon Mamie gently but firmly 
removed her. Little Sister promptly threw herself 
flat upon the ground and kicked and screamed with 
all her might. Teacher thought perhaps the exercise 
would do her good and ordered that the play should 
go on and that everybody should leave Little Sister 
alone till she got ready to get up and be "a nice little 

"Teacher," calls Golden Flower, "me drink of 


water, please," remembering her lessons on man- 
ners. " Me drink of water too, please," calls Ah 
Lin. Teacher helps ten children get drinks of 
water. Unless she helps them, small Ah Sing will 
hold a finger under the running water in such a 
way as to direct the water toward the laughing 
and screaming children till they are drenched. When 
this happens Teacher does not share their rejoicing. 
It is now time for the children to go home to 
lunch, and Teacher calls them to come in and get 
ready. Only two respond, so she calls again. This 
time Ah King answers : " I not like dinner. I like 
swing." Then Little Steven calls : " Me no likee 
dinner too. Me likee swing." And the Kindergarten 
Mascotte, Baby Foy, seated in a swing, calls in 
Chinese for somebody to come and push her, and 
adds in her own English, " Me fing some more." 

Ah Sen 

Ah Sen was born fourteen years ago in one of our 
big cities on the Western Coast. She has never been 
on a train and only recently on a boat when she went 
with other Chinese to a B. Y. P. U. rally. She is very 
bright and has taken advantage of every oppor- 
tunity that came to her for an education. She has 
always gone to Sunday school. Three years ago 
a Crusaders' Band was organized, and she became 
very much interested in the study of Africa. She 
decided to become a missionary. Though she was a 
Christian at heart, her parents would not consent 
to her being baptized at first because they felt she 
did not fully understand. However, she was one 


of the first to be baptized on the dedication day of 
the new church. She is still interested in Africa 
but feels now that since she knows the Chinese lan- 
guage, she can do more good in China among her 
own people. She is now Sunday-school librarian, 
an officer in the B. Y. P. U., and active in all the 
girls' work of the church. 


The Japanese population of the United States has 
quadrupled in the last twenty years. As a people 
they are keen, adaptable, gracious and energetic; 
ninety per cent, of their children in our country are 
Americans, having been born here. In caring for 
them we are training future citizens. They are most 
attractive with their black hair and eyes and pink- 
cheeked round faces. Unlike the Chinese children, 
they practically all come from their own homes, 
where the Japanese language is spoken. However, 
they are educated in our public schools, and prefer 
to speak and read English. 

As a denomination we do little work among them. 


Baptists were the first to open work among the 
Japanese in Seattle. The American Baptist Home 
Mission Society appointed Mr. T. Okazaki in 1892. 
In March, 1904, Mrs. Okazaki was appointed by the 
Woman's American Baptist Home Mission Society. 
Mr. and Mrs. Okazaki are still on the field. In 1915, 
the Woman's American Baptist Home Mission So- 
ciety built the Japanese Woman's Home. In Octo- 


ber, 1922, a beautiful new church was dedicated, 
which is well adapted to institutional activities and 
is a busy work-house every day and evening in the 
week. The field is now supported by the two 
national Boards, The Western Washington State 
Convention, and the local Japanese, who are for the 
most part merchants and live in modern, comfortable 

A nursery department has been added to the work 
of the Japanese Woman's Home. Babies who have 
been deprived of a mother's care either through 
death or illness or the necessity of having to sup- 
port the family, are provided for temporarily. 
Their expenses are paid by relatives, and they are 
given wholesome food and proper care. 

A thirteen-months-old child whose mother had 
died a month before, was brought from Bainbridge 
Island last summer. He was a cunning bit of hu- 
manity, but it was quite evident that he had rickets 
and would need special care. The father was afraid 
his baby would die of grief at being separated from 
him and told the missionaries to charge any price 
they pleased, but to provide for the constant cuddling 
of his son and to feed him all the cake and candy he 
wanted. Father, having taken lodgings at a near-by 
hotel, came frequently to see how " sonny " was 
getting along; thus several times a day father and 
baby had to go through the agony of separation; 
father sobbed, and baby screamed. Finally Miss 
Rumsey told the man that it was quite evident he 
could not harvest his strawberry crop without the 
baby, so he would better take him back to the 


Island. The father then consented to return to busi- 
ness, but long-distanced every night to know how 
baby was and came to see him once a week. At the 
end of the season when he came to take his plump, 
well-nourished child back to Japan, he was not only 
convinced that scientific feeding and care was what 
baby needed, but that he needed Christ both for 
his own and baby's sake. 

The Lovelight Kindergarten is conducted daily 
in the new church building. The large southeast 
room with its pretty pictures is not so attractive 
nor half so interesting as the fifty little lads and 
lassies who play and sing or listen eagerly to stories 
told by Miss Harriett Dithridge, who is in charge. 

An afternoon Play Garden is conducted on South 
Seventh Avenue, where twenty-five children from 
the poorer quarters of the Japanese district are 
taught games, handwork, and Bible stories. The 
non-Christian parents of these little ones so appre- 
ciated the work being done that when -it was neces- 
sary to cut down expenses, which meant the dis- 
continuance of this Play Garden, they themselves 
undertook the payment of the rent of the room. 

Mr. Paul E. Gates has charge of the boys' work. 
He has organized a Boy Scout Troop and conducts 
organized Sunday-school class work among them. 

Miss May Herd has charge of the girls' work. Be- 
side her Sunday school class of charming teen-age 
girls, she conducts week-day club work. 

The gymnasium in the basement of the new 
church is very popular, being used on alternate 
nights by groups of girls and of boys. A social 


game- and reading-room is open every night, where 
boys and girls can spend their evenings in whole- 
some surroundings. 

The Sunday school is large and thoroughly organ- 
ized. The officers and most of the teachers are 
Japanese, but with the single exception of the be- 
ginners all the teaching is done in English. The 
children are taught to give regularly. One-tenth of 
the Bible-school offering goes to the New World 
Movement, one-tenth to the work of the church, and 
the rest for supplies. The Bible drill that sometimes 
marks the close of the intermediate department of 
the school is most interesting. The girls vie with 
the boys as to which group can win in the locating 
of Bible references. The rapidity with which some 
of these young people can find Scripture passages is 

Rural Work About Seattle 

Because of lack of workers no week-day activities 
can be conducted for the children of the rural com- 
munities, but Bible schools are held in several places. 
Miss Florence Rumsey visits in these rural homes. 
One little two-year-old calls her the " Jesus grand- 
mother." The same little one sings to the accompani- 
ment of her toy piano "Jesus Loves Me, This I 
Know." The Firwood Sunday School is also located 
in a farming group and is conducted by a bride who 
is a graduate of the Bible Training School, in Yoko- 
hama. The Green Lake Sunday School is cared for 
by a member of the local board of the Japanese 
Woman's Home. 


Port the only genuine Japanese village 
in the United States. It is built in terraces on the 
hillside in a saw-mill community. The Bible school, 
which is held in the. chapel built by the Japanese 
themselves, is taught by high-school girls who have 
grown up in the village. Miss Herd is in touch 
with these girls. They receive their supplies from her 
and report to her. For five months during the win- 
ter and spring Miss Rumsey gives the primary and 
junior children supplementary Bible instruction 
similar to that given in the Daily Vacation Bible 
Schools. At Winslow, Everett, and Medina, local 
American churches are conducting Sunday schools 
for Japanese children. 

A unique work is being done by the Japanese 
Baptist young people of Seattle under the direction 
of the missionaries. Socials and parties are being 
held, first in the rural communities young people 
from Seattle going out to conduct them then in 
the Seattle church. The boys and girls from the 
rural communities are brought into the city and kept 
over Sunday so that they can attend the regular 
church services. 


Work was begun on this field in 1914 by Rev. H. 
Y. Shibata under the auspices of the Los Angeles 
City Mission Society, the Southern California Bap- 
tist State Convention, and The American Baptist 
Home Mission Society. The present attractive and 
well-equipped building was erected in 1918 and oc- 
cupies a prominent corner in the town of Moneta. 


The parish covers a district with a radius of seven 
miles from the chapel. The two thousand Japanese 
are truck-gardeners and obtain something of the 
community spirit by building their houses on the 
corners of their land, thus making at least four 
families near neighbors. 

Mr. K. Egami is the present native worker. Miss 
Olive Warren, of San Pedro, gives part time to this 
field. The children are American born. In the sum- 
mer of 1922 the Japanese of the community, greatly 
appreciating the work of the Mission, purchased an 
auto-bus for Mr. Egami 's use in carrying the chil- 
dren to and from Sunday school. It is an interesting 
sight to see Mr. Egami on Sunday afternoon bring- 
ing the crowds of children to the chapel. The exer- 
cises are conducted for the most part in the Japanese 
language, as Mr. Egami superintends. The Sun- 
shine Class of older girls is organized and meets 
every Saturday under the supervision of their 
teacher, Mrs. Swanson, who gives much time to this 

Beside the work at Moneta, Mr. Egami conducts 
a school on Sunday morning at Compton, the center 
of another farmer group. Fifty children attend 
this school. Saturday morning a Bible school is held 
at Dominguez, where a group of forty children are 
taught Jesus' love. 

San Pedro 

In 1917 work was begun at East San Pedro among 
the Japanese fishermen by the Los Angeles City 
Mission Society, the Southern California State Con- 


vention, and The American Baptist Home Mission 
Society. Mr. Shibata was the first missionary. 
Meetings were held in the homes of the Japanese. 
In 1918 the present building was erected. Later 
Miss Olive Warren was appointed by the Woman's 
American Baptist Home Mission Society to work on 
this field. 

The chapel is an attractive roomy place of the 
bungalow type, built on the shore of the Island, 
overlooking the harbor. Its capacity is taxed every 
Sunday morning by the little Americans of Japa- 
nese parentage, who swarm under its roof. 

Miss Warren is in almost daily touch with the 
children in their homes, and Mr. and Mrs. M. Ito, the 
present native workers on the field, keep open house 
for the lively junior members of their parish. 

On Sunday mornings the children gather in front 
of the chapel, looking like a colorful garden of many- 
hued flowers in their bright dresses. At 9.30 sharp, 
one of the older boys appears at the front door with 
a drum. The children form in line and march in. 
There are nearly two hundred of them, the Sunday 
school having increased thirty per cent, in a few 
months. The superintendent and four of the 
teachers are Japanese. The songs are both Japanese 
and English, but most of the teaching is done in 
the foreign language. The children are very lively 
and sing with great gusto. 

Chizuko learned a little prayer in the Sunday 
school and taught it to her two-and-a-half -year-old 
sister. Now every night in a Buddhist home these 
tiny tots say their prayer to Jesus. 


Chizuko Saiko, a three-year-old, learned the Japa- 
nese song " The One True God." She sang it over 
and over at home. When a child the mother had 
attended Sunday school in Japan. As she listened to 
her little girl's singing she thought of what she had 
heard years before in her own country. The child 
was taken ill and sang this song in her delirium. The 
mother was deeply impressed and began to study the 
Bible. Just one month after her little daughter's 
death she was buried with Christ in baptism. Then 
she began bringing a neighbor woman daily to the 
home of Mr. Ito that she too might study God's word. 
So the leaven of this little life, only three years on 
earth but brought into touch with Christ through 
one of our missionaries, has just begun its work. 

Miss Warren tried many times to start an indus- 
trial school among the children but could not interest 
them. At last she decided to try a Crusader's Band. 
She now has an enthusiastic group of children reg- 
ularly organized. Recently one little Crusader said, 
" I don't believe in Buddha, I believe in Jesus." 

Miss Warren is also spending one day a week in 
the colony of Japanese at the Van Camp Sea Food 
Company's cannery. The company has given her 
a room in one of their houses. Here she has a play 
garden for children who are too young to go to 
school. Besides games and handwork the little 
ones are taught Bible stories and Christian songs. 

Mr. Fred Meyer, who is the Boys' Worker for the 
Los Angeles City Mission Society, has on this field 
a club of thirty-five Japanese boys between the ages 
of twelve and seventeen. All but ten of these boys 


were born in Japan. They are very bright and 
absorb parliamentary law as though it were their 
native element. They are keen and logical in debate 
and good sports in athletics. Mr. Meyer is develop- 
ing international friendship through the social 
and athletic contests between this group and his 
clubs at the Italian, Mexican, and Russian missions. 
The Japanese boys show a more cosmopolitan spirit 
and good-will than any other group. 


In 1921, a group of Japanese asked our denomina- 
tion to begin work in Sacramento. Mr. Shibata was 
released from his work in Moneta and went to this 
field in January, 1922. There is now an organized 
church with a new building. The field is supported 
by the Northern California State Convention, The 
American Baptist Home Mission Society, and the 
local Japanese. 

Eighty children are attending the Sunday school. 
Mr. Shibata is anxious to open a kindergarten and 
week-day activities for the older children. Only 
lack of funds and workers has prevented it thus 
far. This is a field of unusual promise. The chil- 
dren come from good homes and are exceedingly 
bright and attractive, all of them Americans, hav- 
ing been born under the Stars and Stripes. 






In 1921 upon the occasion of the first centennial 
of Mexican independence all the different foreign 
colonies in the capital erected memorials of different 
kinds as their share in the celebration. Due to the 
influence of the Y. M. C. A. the American colony 
made a wide departure from the general custom. 
Instead of erecting some piece of statuary in one 
of the parks or boulevards, they presented the city of 
Mexico with a well-equipped playground for its chil- 
dren. This unusual gift represents the enlightened 
attitude of North America toward the social prob- 
lems of Latin America. It speaks of the growing 
claim of childhood, of the importance of play in the 
development of character, and of the readiest means 
of approach to an alien people, namely, through an 
interest in their children. The wise missionary in 
any country will encourage the spread of athletic 
games among the youth. It is not his primary busi- 
ness to promote sport, but he will rejoice to see base- 
ball or football supplant the cock-fight and gambling- 

The republics of Latin America are burdened with 
a top-heavy civilization. A few, comprising the 
privileged landowning class, enjoy all the opportuni- 
ties of culture, while the great majority suffer for 
the lack of common necessities of life. There is in 
many a city a beautiful national or municipal theater 




built by public funds, but no public water-supply. 
There is an electric light and an ice-plant, but no 
public sewerage ; and strangest of all there is a uni- 
versity where doctors and lawyers may be trained, 
and no elementary schools worthy of the name for 
the instruction of the masses. Any ci\ 7 ilization that 
neglects its children is top-heavy. 

Rapid Transit in Cuba 

Description of Child Life 

It is of course dangerous as well as difficult to at- 
tempt a general description in any department of life. 
At the outset it is necessary to state that what fol- 
lows has to do with the common people, the great 
illiterate, bare-footed majority who comprise as 
many as seventy per cent, of the population of most 


of our neighboring- Latin republics. The children 
in the homes of well-to-do families have the privi- 
leges of good private schools, are often sent to the 
United States for their preparatory and college 
training, and generally are as well protected as 
American children. But the case is different with 
the poor. The average child in the Latin American 
cities has no playground but the street, where he 
may be seen dodging in and out of the corners .of 
the building or playing around the fountains and 
monuments in the very center of the town. Fre- 
quently the streets are noisiest with the cries of 
children at play in the evening hours from seven 
to nine when the heat of the day is past. Most of 
these children have no school facilities. An author- 
ity in Mexico City has stated that not half of the 
children in that large center are able to attend 
school. Many of them are practically homeless. 
Not every country has had the attention given to it 
that Porto Rico has received. From a study of social 
problems published in 1917 the statement is taken 
that there are in Porto Rico ten thousand homeless 
children under twelve .years of age who live by what- 
ever means they are able, many of them begging or 
stealing, and most of them having no permanent 
lodging-place, sleeping at night in boxes or on door- 
steps. These children are for the most part deserted 
children of illegitimate parentage, or orphans whose 
parents have left no provision for their care, and 
they constitute a fertile soil for the implanting of 
criminal tendencies. It is sad indeed to hear the 
language used by the average child of ten and twelve 



years of age anywhere in Latin America. They are 
wise beyond their years in that which is evil. Little 
can be expected of those who have been denied the 
discipline of a father or perhaps of both father and 

At the root of every social problem in Latin Amer- 

Central American Boys Who Lack a Chance 

fca is childhood unprotected by sound marriage cu~~ 
toms and proper home training. It is difficult to 
conceive of proper family life where there is lack 
of physical equipment necessary for a home. The 
living accommodations of the average poor family 
are very unsatisfactory, consisting as they do of a 
dwelling-house of one room or at the most two. This 
reduced house space makes it necessary to live, eat, 


and sleep in the same room, rendering impossible 
any degree of privacy on the part of any. In the 
case of growing boys and girls such a condition is 
very undesirable. Very rare indeed is it to see a 
family where all members sit down together around 
the table to eat their meals; generally they eat as 
they can most conveniently get the food, without 
order or waiting upon one another. 

While all of these countries are nominally Roman 
Catholic, there has been no provision made for 
giving religious instruction except in the day- 
schools. As more than half the school population is 
not in school, it means that there is no religious in- 
struction for most children. Frequently, when 
pushed by the competition of Protestant mission- 
aries, the priests will have a class in Christian doc- 
trine on Sunday afternoon for the children, but as a 
rule the poor and the rural populations of Latin 
America have been neglected in the ministries of 
the Catholic Church. 

Missionary Agencies 

First in importance and first in order of time in 
reaching children of any country is the Sunday 
school. The more attention that is given to teacher- 
training and Sunday-school organization, the more 
permanent will the missionary work be. In the 
large cities in Latin America, where the work is 
well established, the evangelical churches have a fair 
equipment for their Sunday schools. There is to be 
found the division into departments and in many 
cases independent classrooms, but for the most part 


in the smaller towns and in all new places the Sun- 
day school must be held in one room where the 
children recite their Bible texts and listen to the 
explanation of the teacher amid a hubbub of voices. 
So important is the work of the Sunday school on 
the mission field that in most of our stations in Latin 
America no attempt is made to hold a morning 
preaching service, but the whole period of worship 
is given up to the classes in Bible. In some places 
such as Ponce and Caguas, Porto Rico, we have 
Sunday schools ranging from two hundred to four 
hundred in attendance. 

Side by side with the development of the Sunday 
school there is often felt the necessity of a day- 
school. There are several reasons why it devolves 
upon evangelical missions to open day-schools. In 
the first place, poor people are largely deprived of 
school facilities, and it is among the poor that the 
evangelical work first takes root. In the second 
place, there is in most countries instruction in 
Roman Catholic doctrine in these public schools, and 
the children of Protestant parents ought not to have 
to be submitted to this kind of teaching. In the 
third place the discipline and instruction of the 
average public school in Latin America is very low 
grade. We visited a public school in one of the 
towns in Nicaragua. There were two rooms, two 
teachers, and about a dozen pupils in each room. 
The teacher had a little girl recite a lesson in geog- 
raphy for us. It was a wonderful exhibition of 
memory training to hear this child glibly recite the 
names of countries, states, and capitals. At the 


close of her recitation we learned that she was 
only six years old. When examined in reading it 
was found that she was only beginning to make 
out the syllables. Her learning of the lesson in 
geography was a pure feat of memory. In the re- 

Central American Boys and Girls Who Have a Chance 

port of an American educational advisor sent to 
Nicaragua we find the following: 

Many of the subjects comprising the course of study from 
the first to the fifth grade are not suitable for children of 
tender age. For example, grammar, composition, geometry, 
history, and civics are undoubtedly out of place in the first 
years of a child's schooling. 

If we are to have evangelical churches whose mem- 
bers shall be lovers of the Bible, studying it for 


themselves, we must provide schools for the chil- 
dren of our members where they may obtain at least 
the rudiments of an education. 

Of late years a Daily Vacation Bible school has 
been introduced in Porto Rico. As many as three 
have been held in one summer with most excellent re- 
sults, and it is hoped that this work will spread. If 
we help the parents in the caring for their children 
during the long days of vacation when they have 
nothing to interest them except what they may find 
in the streets, we shall not only meet a deep need 
but shall also win the lasting gratitude of the 

More efficient yet is the boarding-school of which 
there are all too few in our Baptist fields. The 
most notable one is at Cristo, Cuba, where there are 
three hundred children in attendance for a year. 
Where there is a boarding-school, it is possible to 
secure children from the very best homes of the 
country, many of them coming from a distance and 
from the country where there are no school oppor- 
tunities. A second school that gives promise of 
equaling the college at Cristo, is the one conducted 
by the Woman's Society at Managua, Nicaragua. 
Here there is also a capacity attendance reaching 
close up to two hundred in the short space of four 
years. The school has been developed until it al- 
ready gives two years of high-school training. 
Property has been purchased near-by for the open- 
ing of a boys' department. 

In organized systematic effort to save children 
of Latin America we have made but a beginning. 


A great majority of children are from rural homes 
where the only occupation is agriculture. We shall 
not have discharged our duty until we give an 
example to each of these countries of industrial edu- 
cation. It will not be easy to have an agricultural 
school. Due to the centuries of feudalism in the 
social and political life of these Latin countries the 
tradition has grown up that the cultivation of the 
soil is the work of only the lowest class. It is 
thought to be unworthy of a man who knows how 
to read and write to work with the hoe or the spade. 
Every boy coming from the country to go to school 
wants to raise himself in the social rank; conse- 
quently it is not easy to find pupils who want to re- 
main on the farm. When the government of Porto 
Rico opened a well-equipped agricultural college, of 
the few students who came at first, all wanted to 
take an engineering course. Although many free 
scholarships, including board and room, were of- 
fered, it was difficult to secure boys who were willing 
to take the agricultural course. To overcome this 
prejudice requires persistent effort and patience. 
It is especially necessary, if the self-respect of the 
young people is to be preserved, that those who 
receive aid in their education should make some re- 
turn in the way of manual labor. 

Fruits of Christian Education 

Out in the little town of Jibacoa, Cuba, is a young 
man who is the mainstay of a Baptist church. Thir- 
teen years ago he was a ten-year-old boy in our 
school at Cristo, Cuba. He was then a little rascal 


in the eyes of his teachers, and though he remained 
two years in school, they saw little promise in him of 
a serious-minded youth. Seven years later, at the age 
of nineteen, he returned to Cristo for further educa- 
tion. The seed sown in this school had borne fruit. 
He had now grown up to be a robust young man of 
strict habits. When later on, his elder brother had 
gambled away a large part of the family fortune, he 
returned home to take hold of the farm. Now he is 
the principal member of the church in that com- 
munity, leading it in its efforts to improve its 
meeting-house. At a recent convention in Cristo he 
was the delegate of his church. In another one of 
those country towns is a young lady from a family 
of moderate circumstances. Seven years ago she 
graduated from the grammar department of our 
Cristo school. Now for some time she has been 
teacher of the public school of her native town and 
at the same time superintendent of the Baptist 
Sunday school. If it were not for her there would 
be no Sunday school and church, as there is no resi- 
dent pastor. Whenever a missionary or neighbor- 
ing pastor visits that village, she can be depended 
upon to gather the people together for a preaching 

From the small town of Jobabo comes the news of 
another Cristo girl now five years out of school, 
happily married to an employee of a large sugar- 
factory. She sought to do what lay next to her hand 
in her new environment. So she conducts a day- 
school of fifty pupils and on Sunday converts it into 
a Sunday school, and has sent out an appeal for a 


Baptist preacher to come and start religious work 
in that center. 

Who would have thought twenty years ago that in 
that little Baptist Sunday school of Ciego de Avila 
there would be found in a shy, bare-footed boy the 
future leader of our strongest church? Missionary 

The Products of Christian Education 

Wilson took especial interest in this little fellow 
and in time led him to Christian profession. Through 
the missionary a scholarship was found for him 
in our school at Cristo. In time he took up the 
study of the Bible and theology and was graduated 
from our seminary. He was the first Cuban pastor 
to lead his church out into self-support. 

All over eastern Cuba may be found in active ser- 


vice those who were once boys and girls in the Baptist 
school at Cristo. In San Luis is a physician who after 
leaving Cristo went to the United States for his 
medical education. Now he is a leader in the com- 
munity and in the Baptist church. Others of those 
boys and girls are pastors and pastors' wives. Some 
are holding good positions in banks, one of them is 
president of the Board of Education in the city of 
Banes. The secret of a self-supporting church is 
an educated ministry and laity. The strongest 
church in Mexico now self-supporting for five years 
is the one at Monterey where for many years the 
Woman's Society has maintained a strong day- 
school and where most of the older members have 
been educated. 

Recently revival meetings were held in a church 
at Santiago where one of the little eight-year-old 
pupils in that school wrote the following letter to his 
father : 

FEBRUARY 18, 1923. 

What I promise you is that I will never smoke nor drink 
wine nor rum of any kind. 

Respectfully your son, 

The father showed me with great pride and pleasure 
this spontaneous expression of his son's decision, 
and expressed his gratitude that the boy was in a 
Christian school where character would be formed 
according to the mind of Christ. 


Other Forms of Service to Children 

About ten years ago in Ponce, Porto Rico, the 
heart of Miss Mary 0. Lake of the Woman's Amer- 
ican Baptist Home Mission Society was burdened 
by the needs of the babies and little children whose 
mothers had to leave them at home while they went 
out to work by the day. Some of these mothers 
worked in factories, sorting coffee or stripping to- 
bacco leaves; others worked in private homes as 
cooks, all of them earning but a pittance, from forty 
to fifty cents per day. The babies were entrusted 
to neighbors, and the little children were left to 
shift for themselves. The result of her exercise of 
heart was the renting of a small house, and the 
employment of one of the Porto Rican Baptist 
women to care for these neglected children. A nom- 
inal charge of five cents per day was made for each 
child. In a short time the attention of a Porto-Rican 
lady, not a Protestant, was called to this work, and 
she asked the privilege of helping, with the result 
that some of the business men of the city were in- 
terested and became regular contributors. The 
institution grew; a larger house was secured, the 
Rotary Club of Ponce got behind it, and has now 
been giving it regular support for a long time. The 
ministry to little children appeals to all classes and 
breaks down religious prejudice. 

There was a time when an epidemic of measles 
was sweeping through a crowded district of San 
Juan, inhabited by the laboring classes and the very 
poor. Milk was scarce and high, and because the 


children were not getting proper food in their ill- 
ness, they were dying rapidly. Miss Bischoff, the 
Baptist missionary in San Juan, felt that something 
should be done to save the children ; she noticed that 
there were as many as eight and ten little coffins 
carried by her house every day. An appeal to the 
government was of no avail ; there were said to be 
no funds. Then Miss Bischoff found a few women, 
most of them from the foreign colony, who were 
likewise exercised, and were discussing the organi- 
zation of a committee to provide free milk for the' 
poor. She threw herself into this work along with 
missionaries of other churches, and the result was 
that sufficient money was raised by popular appeal 
through the newspapers, for free distribution of 
milk tickets through the missionaries. One of the 
wealthy women of the city, a leader in society and 
a faithful member of the Roman Catholic Church, 
threw herself heartily behind the Protestant mis- 
sionaries in this effort to save the lives of children, 
and later on she made public recognition of what 
they had done, announcing to her friends that hence- 
forth she was going to support what they were doing 
for the poor, even though she did not belong to their 
church. It was a thrilling testimony to the gospel 
from such a prominent woman. 

In 1917, Charles W. Tarleton, a Baptist layman 
seventy-three years old presented himself with letters 
of introduction to the General Missionary for Porto 
Rico at Rio Piedras, asking for an assignment with- 
out salary to some kind of missionary service. It 
was a strange request, and at first seemed an impos- 


sible one. How to place a man at that age, without a 
knowledge of Spanish in any position was our prob- 
lem. But such was the earnestness of the man, and 
so versatile and experienced was he, that it was soon 
seen the mission had received a gift from God of a 
rich .personality. His first task was to undertake the 
supervision of the building and grounds of the Theo- 
logical Seminary ; soon he was conducting the board- 
ing department; then he was training the boys in 
gardening and poultry-raising; and finally he added 
to all of these duties a class in the Greek New Testa- 
ment. A graduate of Colby Academy and Brown 
University, he had cherished the desire in early life 
to go to the mission field, but financial reverses suf- 
fered by his father compelled him to assume the bur- 
dens of others. For the greater part of his life he 
was a farmer and gardener. Finally, when he found 
himself alone in the world, with none dependent upon 
him, there revived the old longing to see service on 
the foreign field. At the age of seventy-three, still 
hearty and vigorous, he went to Porto Rico and made 
a big place for himself in the life of the boys who 
were preparing for the ministry. Those boys, now 
in active service in the church, will never forget the 
example of that life of devotion and unselfish ser- 
vice for others. What they most needed was a living 
illustration of the dignity of toil. " Otium cum 
digging tatie " was the happy reply of Erskine to a 
friend who discovered the great jurist digging in a 
garden. There should be no discrepancy between 
the Latin cum dignitate and the plain Irish " taters." 
Two years of happy service, and one day Mr, 


Tarleton was found prostrate and wounded, as a 
result of a felonious attack, while he was engaged 
alone in carpenter work on a mission building. He 
lingered a few weeks and then quietly passed away, 
having given his life to help train boys. 

The Greatest Contribution of Protestant Missions to the 
Life of the Nations 

A few years ago a Baptist missionary superinten- 
dent found himself on the same boat in Central 
American waters with a Jesuit missionary superin- 
tendent. They soon became engaged in friendly 
conversation, discussing the conditions of their re- 
spective work in Latin American countries. " There 
is one thing in which your missionaries have the 
advantage over ours, and one thing in which ours 
have the advantage over yours," said the Baptist. 

"What is that?" asked the Jesuit, all alert and 

" Your missionaries are unmarried,'.' was the 
reply. " They can be easily moved from one place 
to another, and it does not require so much money 
to support them as it does to support ours with their 

" Oh, yes," said the Jesuit priest, and he related 
with great animation the story of some of his mis- 
sionaries among the Indians of Mexico, living in 
places where a delicate white woman could not make 
a home, and subsisting upon the scantiest fare. 

" Now tell me," he went on, " What is the advan- 
tage you have over us ? " 

" The advantage we have over you," said the Bap- 


tist superintendent, " is that our missionaries are 
married. And being married they can teach the 
people and show them what a Christian homelife is." 

" Oh, but we teach them about a Christian home- 

" Yes, you may teach them what is right, but you 
cannot give them an example. And the facts show 
that your teachings are not heeded." 

This ended the discussion on that point. There 
was nothing more to say. The greatest gift we can 
give the people of Latin America, after the gift 
of Christ through the word, is a Christian home. 
In order to have Christian homes, there must be 
Christian young people, prepared for marriage. 
Therefore there must be Christian education for the 
boys and girls. 







Education is the contribution of the Christian 
Church to the progress of civilization. Before the 
Christian era education had been provided in a 
limited way for the favored classes, but the idea that 
education should be made available for all the people 
had not dawned upon the world. Had the idea been 
suggested it would have been vetoed by the ruling 
powers, for they well understood that all educated 
people could not be held in subjection. 

The idea of an educated citizenship came directly 
from the Christian church. This idea was inherent 
in the very spirit of Christianity itself. The ideal of 
Christianity has been to create a citizenship which 
should be not merely right in its desires and aspira- 
tions but intelligently right in its decisions. It was 
He who insisted on the necessity of regeneration who 
devoted his life to the ministry of teaching and of 
education. Christianity is a system in which men 
make their own independent decisions as to their 
courses of action, therefore it is fundamentally im- 
portant that they shall make these decisions aright, 
not merely in the light of their own interests but in 
the light of the interests of all their fellow men. 

For this reason the Christian church early began 
to found educational institutions. These were first 
of all schools of the lower grade for the children of 



the church. But the system grew rapidly. The 
church could not be satisfied to give merely an ele- 
mentary education. It perceived that if Christianity 
was to become an influential factor in the world's 
life, many of its people must have the highest edu- 
cation possible. As early as A. D. 200 the church 
had established a great Christian university at 
Alexandria. This was followed by other institutions 
of higher learning at various points, until the system 
had covered the whole Christian world. 

For many centuries, education remained almost 
exclusively in the hands of the Christian church. 
Not until very recent times have the States of Eu- 
rope begun to share the responsibilty with the 
Church. In America it was the Church which in- 
spired the State with the ideals of education. Up 
until the close of the Civil War a large part of the 
secondary (high-school) education was conducted 
by the Christian church and practically all the 
higher (college and university) education was given 
in institutions founded and controlled by it. It is 
only since the close of that war that the State in 
America has concerned itself with the higher edu- 
cation of its citizens. 

In the contribution to the building of a better 
America the Baptists have had a distinct and valu- 
able part. Their first venture in education, about 
1760, was short-lived. An academy was opened in 
New Jersey, but lack of support soon compelled 
it to close its doors. The first successful effort was 
launched by the famous Philadelphia Association 
in 1762. This was the strongest association of Bap- 


tists in this country at that time. Rhode Island was 
selected as the only feasible place for a Baptist school 
because this was the only colony in which the Bap- 
tists had freedom of action. Brown University was 
therefore founded at Warren, R. I., in 1765, and in 
1770 was moved to Providence where it has since 
developed into one of the great colleges of America. 

It was 'not an easy task which that little band of 
Baptists undertook in 1765. They were not a rich 
people. They were divided among themselves, some 
of them fearing that it was dangerous for Baptists 
to provide an educated ministry. Moreover they 
were everywhere spoken against, and there were 
few colonies in which they were permitted to exer- 
cise their religion unmolested. Nevertheless with a 
spirit of self-sacrifice and devotion they gave them- 
selves heroically to the task of providing an ade- 
quate education for their children. 

The second Baptist school was the Maine Literary 
and Theological Institution, now Colby College, 
founded in 1819, by a group of far-looking and ad- 
venturous men who sailed up the Kennebec River 
and laid the foundation of their school in the wilder- 
ness of Maine. This was followed by the college at 
Hamilton, New York, now Colgate University. A 
group of men anxious about the education of the 
Baptist ministry, gathered frequently in the home of 
one of the deacons of the church, and after much dis- 
cussion and prayer, they placed thirteen dollars on 
the dining-room table as the foundation of a new 
Baptist college. 

The star of empire was rapidly moving westward, 


and the Baptists closely followed its leading, and as 
they went they planted their schools in Ohio, Illinois, 
Michigan, Iowa, until the line extended clear to the 
Pacific Coast. It is a long trail, and some of the 
adventures were lost by the way, but there has sur- 
vived a group of institutions, some of which have 
already attained the strength of maturity, and 
others are steadily moving into a strong position. 

I. Our Baptist Schools for "America Tomorrow " 

These institutions are divided into five classes : 
1. The first are the academies. These schools 
were established when there were few if any public 
high schools. The high school has become such a 
universal institution that it is difficult for us in this 
generation to realize that up to the time of the Civil 
War there were no public high schools except in the 
larger cities. At many other points private acade- 
mies were established and maintained by benevolent 
citizens to give the more ambitious students a higher 
education than the towns and cities were willing to 
provide. There were large numbers of such schools 
especially in the older Eastern States. 

The Christian churches entered this field in a 
large way and established many of these academies. 
The Baptists were alive to their responsibility and 
opportunity, and they dotted the land with these 
Christian schools, wherever they had the means to 
open them. The list of these schools would be a long 
one if it could be reproduced, but this is an impossi- 
bility for the complete roster was never made, and 
many of the institutions were short-lived. But it 


was a great contribution which the Baptists of an 
earlier day made to the education of American 

The situation has greatly changed now. The 
public high schools have sprung up everywhere and 
in a large measure have displaced these private in- 
stitutions. It has been difficult for the latter to sur- 
vive when education has been furnished free by the 
state. But there is still a considerable group of 
these Christian schools that have survived the rapid 
changes, and that are coming now into a stronger 
position of usefulness than they ever enjoyed in 
" the good old days." 

It will be interesting to note the list of these 
schools and their locations. It will be noticed that 
nearly all of them are in the Eastern States where 
the schools were more firmly established when the 
tide turned. 

Name of Academy Location 

Alderson Alderson, West Va. 

Bethel St. Paul, Minn. 

Coburn .Waterville, Me. 

Colby New London, N. H. 

Cook Montour Falls, N. Y. 

Doane Granville, Ohio 

Hebron Hebron, Me. 

Higgins Charleston, Me. 

Keystone Factoryville, Pa. 

Maine Central Pittsfield, Me. 

New Hampton New Hampton, N. H. 

Parsonsfield Parsonsfield, Me. 


Name of Academy Location 

Peddie Hightstown, N. J. 

Pillsbury Owatonna, Minn. 

Ricker Houlton, Me. 

Suffield Suffield, Conn. 

Vermont Saxtons River, Vt. 

Wayland Beaver Dam, Wis. 

Western Pennsylvania . .Mount Pleasant, Pa. 
Worcester Worcester, Mass. 

Academic departments are also still maintained 
by a few of our Western colleges for the purpose of 
preparing students for the college classes. These 
Christian schools of academic grade are maintained 
for several different reasons. There are still some 
sections of the country where the high-school facili- 
ties are limited and where children must go away 
from home if they are to secure an education. This 
is true in the older parts of the country as well as 
in the new. These children are much better off in 
these Christian schools where they may live in the 
dormitories and be under constant supervision, than 
in the high schools of the county-seats and larger 
towns where they must secure lodgings and are 
not under supervision except during school hours. 

Then again our high schools are becoming so 
crowded that they are unable in many cases to give 
adequate attention to the individual student, and 
many parents prefer to send their children to the 
academies where the classes are smaller and more 
personal attention can be given. It is generally re- 
cognized that the problem of providing adequate 


housing facilities and sufficiently large staffs of 
teachers for the rapidly increasing number of stu- 
dents is one of the most serious that faces our towns 
and cities today. Many of them are not able to cope 
with the situation and give such an education as 
the children deserve. Parents are recognizing this 
in increasing numbers and are turning to these 
Christian academies and other private schools for 
the education which they desire their children to 

There is still a third reason which gives these 
Christian schools an increasing place in our system 
of American education. In these schools children 
are under the watch-care of Christian teachers ; they 
are surrounded by the best influences; their social 
life and activities are directed ; their religious life is 
trained. Many parents are becoming serious about 
the problems which face their children during high- 
school days, and they are looking to these Christian 
academies for the solution. 

In these and in other ways these Christian schools 
of the high-school grade are making a distinct con- 
tribution to making America a safer and a better 
place for our boys and girls. 

2. The second list of schools comprises the junior 
colleges. This is a comparatively new name in edu- 
cational nomenclature, and schools of this type have 
a unique character. They combine portions and 
characteristics of both the academy and the college. 
Most of them give the last two years of the high- 
school course and the first two years of the college. 
Educators have long contended that the real break 


in the educational process comes not at the end of the 
present high-school course but at the end of the 
second year in college, and that therefore these 
two years ought to be added to the high-school 
course. Further than this, it is recognized that 
many young people are too young to be plunged into 
the midst of college at the age of seventeen or 
eighteen, and it is better for them to await its new 
experiences until they are a bit older. The junior 
college solves both these problems. 

These junior colleges are just beginning to come 
to their place in American education, but they are 
coming very rapidly now. Many of the larger cities 
are adding the first two years of college work to 
their high schools and are finding their new classes 
crowded full. Our Christian schools have shown the 
way to this new type of American school. 

Our list of such schools is not long but it includes 
several fine institutions: 

Name of Junior College Location 

Broaddus Philippi, W. Va. 

Colorado Denver, Colo. 

Frances Shinier Mt. Carroll, 111. 

Hardin Mexico, Mo. 

Rio Grande Rio Grande, Ohio 

Stephens Columbia, Mo. 

3. The third division includes our colleges and 
universities. Of these there are twenty-two dating 
from 1765 to the late nineties and located from 
Maine to California. They are our great contribu- 


tion to making our youth better American citizens. 
In them we have invested more than one hundred 
million dollars and we are giving ah education to 
more than twenty-five thousand students. 

These institutions range all the way from small 
colleges which are just getting on their feet, but 
which nevertheless are earnestly striving to give 
a good education and have loyal bodies and enthu- 
siastic students, to our great universities, Brown and 
Chicago. The University of Chicago, only about 
thirty years old, is one of the largest and strongest 
in the country. It has a wonderful location in the 
heart of the city of Chicago, with a large campus 
and many magnificent buildings. 

The question again recurs, Why maintain these 
expensive colleges when the state has so many great 
universities? The reasons are the same as those 
which justify the conduct of the Christian acade- 
mies, only they are more urgent. The process of 
education is exceedingly delicate. At the most im- 
pressionable period of life our boys and girls are 
introduced to a world of new facts which have 
played no part in their lives before. Many of these 
facts compel them to think the problems of life out 
all anew. Not infrequently the process is almost 
revolutionary, and yet in their progress from child- 
hood to manhood and womanhood the change is in- 

Since this is so, it is exceedingly important that 
these new experiences should take place in a Chris- 
tian atmosphere, m a Christian environment, under 
the watch-care of interested Christian teachers. 


This contribution our Christian colleges, founded 
and maintained by Baptists, are rendering to the 
youth of America. We would cast no possible re- 
flections upon our great state colleges and universi- 
ties. They are rendering a service to America which 
the church schools can never hope to render, because 
of their wonderful equipment and their immense 
funds. On the other hand these smaller Christian 
colleges, hampered often with inadequate funds, are 
able to offer to their students advantages which the 
larger schools can not hope to give. With their 
smaller and therefore more compact student bodies, 
with their more carefully chosen staff of teachers 
selected primarily because of their Christian charac- 
ter, with traditions which are distinctly Christian, 
they are able to bring influences to bear which tend 
to steady their students in the period of storm and 
stress and to hold high ideals steadily before the 
students' minds, and they also seek to find the solu- 
tion for the problems of life from the spirit and 
teaching of Christ himself. When they are true 
to their aim, they are seeking to bring the minds 
of their students into harmony with the mind of 

There are no tests by which the influence of our 
Baptist colleges can be measured, but as one studies 
them in action he is impressed that they are render- 
ing a vast service in making boys and girls true 
to our great American and Christian ideals. These 
institutions are rapidly exerting a broadening in- 
fluence upon the religious, moral, intellectual, and 
patriotic standards of our youth. 


The list of our Baptist Colleges is as follows : 

Name of College Location 

Bates . . . . Lewiston, Me. 

Brown Providence, R. I. 

Bucknell Lewisburg, Pa. 

Carleton Northfield, Minn. 

Chicago Chicago, 111. 

Colby Waterville, Me. 

Colgate . . Hamilton, N. Y. 

Denison Granville, Ohio 

Des Moines Des Moines, Iowa 

Franklin Franklin, Ind. 

Grand Island Grand Island, Neb. 

Hillsdale Hillsdale, Mich. 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Keuka Keuka Park, N. Y. 

Linfield McMinnville, Ore. 

Ottawa Ottawa, Kans. 

Redlands Redlands, Calif. 

Rochester Rochester, N. Y. 

Shepardson Granville, Ohio 

Shurtleff Alton, 111. 

Sioux Falls .Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

Vassar . : Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

William Jewell Liberty, Mo. 

4. The fourth class of our institutions includes 
our training-schools of which there are seven as 
follows ; 


Name of School Location 

Chicago Chicago, 111. 

Danish Des Moines, Iowa 

International East Orange, N. J. 

Kansas City Kansas City, Kans. 

Philadelphia Philadelphia, Pa. 

Norwegian Chicago, 111. 

Spanish- American . . . .Los Angeles, Calif. 

As will be readily understood these schools are 
organized to train workers for the Christian church. 
Three of them, Chicago, Kansas City, and Philadel- 
phia, are conducted to train young women who speak 
the English language, for positions as assistants in 
the churches and as missionaries on the home field. 
The school in Chicago is conducted by the Woman's 
American Baptist Home Mission Society for the par- 
ticular purpose of training their workers in the home 
field. The other four schools train young men of 
various nationalities to be pastors and missionaries 
among their own people. These schools serve 
directly to make better American boys and girls 
of those who come from other lands with ideals and 
standards different than our own. There are nearly 
two hundred and fifty pupils enrolled in these seven 

5. Our last list of schools is composed of our theo- 
logical seminaries. Of these there are nine scattered 
from Boston to Berkeley. These schools exist for 
the definite purpose of training young men for the 
ministry of the church, our pastors and our mission- 
aries. These institutions have a definite relation to 


"America Tomorrow." They are educating the re- 
ligious leaders who are to present the ideals and to 
train the boys and girls for better citizenship in the 
America of tomorrow. 

Name of School Location 

Berkeley Berkeley, Calif. 

Chicago Chicagb, 111. 

Colgate Hamilton, N. Y. 

Crozer Chester, Pa. 

Kansas City Kansas City, Kans. 

Newton Newton Center, Mass. 

Northern Chicago, 111. 

Rochester Rochester, N. Y. 

Swedish St. Paul, Minn. 

II. The Care of Baptist Students 

In addition to these educational facilities which 
we are furnishing to our Baptist young people, there 
is another service which we are rendering which is 
most significant. Not all our Baptist students by 
any means attend our Baptist schools. There are 
more Baptist students in our state universities than 
there are in our Baptist colleges. They are drawn 
there by many considerations. 

These great institutions conducted by the state 
are unable, by reason of our American laws, to make 
any adequate provision for the religious care and 
training of their students. By reason of our Amer- 
ican principle of the separation of Church and State, 
this obligation rests upon the Church and cannot 
be assumed by the State. This means that until 


recently there have been thousands of our young 
people in these schools for whose religious care and 
instruction no adequate provision had been made. 
We should not longer disregard this fact. 

About ten years ago the churches began to realize 
something of their responsibility for the care of their 
young people who had gone to the state schools, 
and they cast about for some plan whereby they 
might provide for them. As a result of their study 
and experience, the various denominations are now 
placing* at these universities their official representa- 
tives whose task it is to care for the spiritual in- 
terests of their young people. The Baptists have 
entered into this work in a large way. 

This work assumes various forms in accordance 
with the local conditions. Sometimes an advanced 
student is employed as an assistant to the pastor 
of the local church and is charged with the respon- 
sibility of looking up Baptist students and interest- 
ing them in the Baptist church of the college town. 
He invites them to church, brings them to the stu- 
dent class in the Bible school, secures their at- 
tendance at the social gatherings of the church, 
and seeks to maintain their church affiliations. This 
work demands the services of the most competent 
men available. 

In other cases where the local church is not finan- 
cially able to maintain a strong pastor who can win 
the attention of the students, the Board of Education 
cooperates with the church in securing and support- 
ing a capable minister who is charged with the re- 
sponsibility of caring for the Baptist students, 


The most common and most satisfactory method 
of dealing with these student problems is the em- 
ployment of a minister who devotes his whole time 
to the interests of the students. He must be a man 
who is intensely interested in young people and who 
knows how to win their confidence and affection. 
He keeps open house to the students. They are 
welcome to " walk in " unbidden at any time. He 
entertains them frequently in his home. He con- 
ducts Bible classes for them, visits them in their 
rooms, advises them with their problems, and is 
their confidential friend and helper. He literally 
lives in a house by the side of the road and is a 
friend to every man. He is the " Big Brother " to 
the students. 

The value of the service which these men render 
to our Baptist students is beyond all estimate. Testi- 
mony constantly comes in from students and grad- 
uates as to their gratitude for what the University 
Pastors have meant to them. They have helped many 
a student over a hard place, have led them out of 
their periods of doubt and distress, have cheered 
them in their days of homesickness, have kept warm 
their interest in the Christian church, and have 
helped them in their life decisions. Such a ser- 
vice as this is not only praiseworthy but indispen- 

Not the least service which the university pastors 
are rendering the denomination is in training young 
people for leadership in the churches and in direct- 
ing others into the Christian ministry and into the 
missionary service of the church. It used to be said 


that we could not expect recruits for the ministry 
from the state universities, but the university 
pastors have disproved that claim. There are sev- 
eral men in the seminaries today who have gone 
into the ministry as a direct result of the work of 
the university pastors, and a considerable number 
are already on the mission field. It is a great invest- 
ment which the denomination is making in its young 
people through the university pastors. 

We give the list of the institutions in which Bap- 
tists have a definitely organized work, classified in 
accord with the differentiation which we have just 
outlined : 


Cornell University 
University of Pennsylvania 
University of Michigan 
University of Wisconsin 
University of Illinois 
University of Chicago 
University of Nebraska 
University of Kansas 
University of Colorado 
University of California 
City of Boston (many institutions) 


Denison University 

University of Indiana 

Purdue University 

Kansas State Agricultural College 



Bucknell University 
University of Ohio 
University of Minnesota 
University of Iowa 
Iowa Agricultural College 
Iowa Teachers College 
University of Washington 
Rio Grande College 
Des Moines University 
University of Idaho 

(One or more denominations cooperating) 

Vermont University 
New Hampshire State College 
Ohio State University 
Michigan Agricultural College 
Colorado School of Mines 
University of Oregon 
California Agricultural School 
University of Maine 
Massachusetts Agricultural College 

One other important service to our Baptist stu- 
dents remains to be mentioned that rendered by 
our Baptist Student Secretaries. The Board of Edu- 
cation maintains in the field two secretaries, one 
man and one woman, who devote their time to the 
visitation of the colleges. They address the student 
bodies and hold personal conferences with the stu- 
dents regarding their intellectual problems and 


other problems of a personal character. In this 
way they are rendering a service of inestimable 
value to thousands of students. 

We can in no way better reflect what these people 
are doing than by quoting from some of the letters 
that follow their visits. One president writes : 

No speaker has ever come here who has gotten into the 
consciousness of our students more effectively and speedily 
than your Student Secretary. He takes the university point 
of view without losing for a moment the evangelical and even 
evangelistic point of view. He is in sympathy with the 
modern scientific temper and yet finds in that temper new 
reasons for devotion to the kingdom of God. 

A college professor writes : " His timely information 
and stimulating application of the truths of business 
and wealth are helping to shape and mold the 
thoughts and life of the students to whom he 
speaks." A college dean writes : " He rendered a 
superb service in the meetings which he conducted 
here. I do not think that we have ever had a man 
who gripped the students as he did." A student 
news bureau issued the following statement to the 
press : 

From the opening address he gained the interest of the 
students and throughout the week religion was the most 
discussed subject on the campus. Day after day the care- 
fully arranged messages followed each other, working out 
with exact precision the harmony of God's truth in religion 
and science, and with compelling logic the Bible as the Word 
of God had clear presentation. Seldom has a speaker to 
college men won so completely the confidence and following 
of his hearers. 


The pastor of a college church writes : 

We had a great time with your Student Secretary. The 
students were captivated from the first address. Many of 
them spoke of their appreciation of his talks. I have never 
heard more warmth and beauty put into the appeal to follow 
Jesus, and that appeal, coming out of his fine, scientific 
treatment of truth, made it irresistible. He can come back 
any time you can send him to us. 

These letters indicate something of the service 
which is being rendered to our students in an eif ort 
to help them find themselves in their new relations 
and to adjust themselves in their attitude to Christ 
and his truth. 

It is most essential that the young men and women 
who are now students in our great institutions and 
who are soon to be the leaders of our American life, 
should have a thorough education, should be well 
trained, should cultivate high ideals, and should 
emerge from their student days loyal to Christ and 
his church. With the purpose of insuring these re- 
sults the Baptists are maintaining their schools and 
colleges, providing their university pastors, and 
sending forth their student evangelists. This large 
ministry will help to make possible a better "Amer- 
ica Tomorrow." 








The World Wide Guild is the answer to the future 
of our Woman's Missionary Societies, both as to 
leadership and intelligent constituency in the local 
church. " Where there is no vision, the people per- 
ish," and because some forward-looking women had 
visions of latent possibilities in the girls and young 
women of our Baptist denomination eight years ago, 
the World Wide Guild came into being. 

It was first organized under the Woman's Amer- 
ican Baptist Foreign Mission Society, but after a 
few weeks was affiliated also with the Woman's 
American Baptist Home Mission Society. In 1920, 
however, it was transferred to the Department of 
Missionary Education but still preserves its contact 
with the Woman's Societies through the World Wide 
Guild Commission which is composed of represen- 
tatives from each Society, the Secretary of the De- 
partment of Missionary Education, and the World 
Wide Guild and Children's World Crusade National 

At that time there were less than six hundred 
missionary organizations for our Baptist girls ; now 
there are 4,223 Chapters of the World Wide Guild, 
with an approximate membership of 50,000. It is 



not only world-wide in name and aim, but in per- 
sonnel. Its constituency includes Chapters among 
almost every European nationality in the United 
States Italians, Hungarians, Poles, Roumanians, 
Russians, Czechoslovaks, Germans, Swedes, Syr- 
ians, Chinese and Japanese on the Pacific Coast, 
Indians, and Negroes. In the Orient, India, Burma, 
Japan, China, and the Philippine Islands all have 
Chapters, while the Canadian Branch of the World 
Wide Guild now numbers forty-four in the Mari- 
time Provinces. It thus becomes a realized adven- 
ture in international friendship and good-will. 

There are two national officers, the Executive 
Secretary, Miss Alma J. Noble, and the Field Secre- 
tary, Miss Helen E. Hobart, who is the happy suc- 
cessor of our much-loved Helen Crissman. One 
recognized secret of the unparalleled success of the 
World Wide Guild is its large corps of volunteer Sec- 
retaries. There are fifty District and State Secre- 
taries, besides one for every Association in each 
State. This not only provides a valued force of pro- 
motional officers, but by placing responsibility on 
these willing Secretaries, some really great leaders 
have been and are constantly being developed. Two 
District Secretaries are now members of our national 
Home and Foreign Boards, others are filling execu- 
tive offices, and best of all, some are missionaries. 
These all with one accord acknowledge their in- 
debtedness to the World Wide Guild for their start in 
assuming responsibility. It is gratifying to note the 
growing response of the college girl to the appeal of 
Guild work. 


Another secret of its successful growth is that it 
is being built on an educational foundation which is 
bound to endure. These features include special 
programs prepared on the current year's home and 
foreign study-books, with five programs outlined for 
each book. These programs are used by the ma- 
jority of Guild Chapters. It is a gratifying fact, 
however, that in addition to the above programs, in- 
tensive mission-study classes are growing in pop- 
ularity. The Reading Contest is the most outstand- 
ing of these educational activities. The conditions 
are rigid. Every member of a Chapter must read 
five books individually one inspirational, two home, 
two foreign and group reading is not allowed. In 
spite of strict adherence to these conditions, more 
and more Chapters qualify each year, two having 
just completed the sixth year. One Chapter with an 
active membership of sixty-seven has a two-year 
record. The award for successful contestants goes 
to the Chapter and is as follows: First year, Hof- 
mann's " Head of Christ " ; second, Plockhorst's 
"Good Shepherd"; third, " Sistine Madonna"; 
fourth, " Madonna of the Chair " ; fifth, " The Light 
of the World." These are artotypes in sepia, 13 by 
17 inches, and many Sunday schools, primary and 
junior departments, not to mention missionaries, 
have had these presented by the Guild Chapter. The 
best of it all is that the reading is not limited to the 
required five books, but interest has been so aroused 
that many girls have not stopped with five but have 
doubled the number. Thus a taste for the enjoyment 
of missionary reading is being cultivated. 


Essay and Theme Contests on an assigned topic, 
relating to the home and foreign study topic for 
the year, is another valuable feature, the award for 
that being attendance at a summer school of mis- 
sions as guest of the Department of Missionary Edu- 
cation. Debates, story-telling, missionary dramat- 
ics, and intelligence tests, have transformed the 
proverbially dull missionary meeting into one so full 
of live interest that the most indifferent and critical 
have fallen victims to its charms. 

A practical expression of enthusiasm based on 
knowledge of needs is found in the White Cross 
work for home and foreign missionaries; and the 
practise of stewardship as a reasonable obligation of 
any Christian girl has resulted in large numbers of 
tithers,,a tangible expression of which was the as- 
tonishing gift of $37,695 toward the Continuation 
Campaign in 1921-22, all of which was in addition 
to regular pledges to the New World Movement. The 
quota for the year was $16,666, and the gift of the 
World Wide Guild therefore exceeded the quota by 
$21,029. While figures are not yet available, it is 
apparent that their gifts will again exceed the quota 
for 1922-23. When the Jubilee of the Woman's 
Foreign Mission Society was celebrated in 1921, the 
World Wide Guild contributed a special gift of 
$12,085 for a dormitory for high and normal stu- 
dents at Swatow, China. 

State Guild rallies and house-parties have stimu- 
lated the work greatly through mission-study classes 
and methods. Many choice friendships have been 
made. Often there are from three hundred to six 


hundred girls present at these rallies, all eager to 
participate in the kingdom enterprise, and to equip 
themselves for real service. 

The last thing to be mentioned is best of all. The 
response of these girls to the spiritual aspects of 
the World Wide Guild is spontaneous and earnest. 
It is impossible to give statistics, but it is safe to 
say that hundreds of Guild girls are volunteers for 
definite missionary service either in the homeland or 
in the Orient. Several are already in the field. This 
attitude is largely due to the spiritual emphasis, 
ideals of world service, devotional character of their 
meetings, and the deepening of the prayer life of 
the individual girl in her home and in the Chapter 

The World Wide Guild is recognized by other de- 
nominations as well as our own as a most construc- 
tive missionary organization for girls, which has 
succeeded in popularizing Mission Study and in 
developing an efficient leadership. 

World-wide our vision and our aim, 
In Thy great service glad and free; 
Our aim, all other aims above 
Dear Lord, to be worth-while to Thee. 




The thinking people of this day are turning with 
noticeable unanimity to the hitherto undeveloped 
resources of the world in its children. Dr. Susan 


Kingsbury, of Bryn Mawr, a thoughtful student of 
social problems, in speaking of the so-called " Youth 
Movement " of Central Europe, says, 

The task of the builders must chiefly be that of the young 
with " their souls in the work of their hands," their dreams 
and ideals with which they are bound to keep the faith, their 
sense of duty, and a responsibility to those who shall come 
after them. 

With this same appreciation of the strategy of en- 
listing the children of our churches in the missionary 
enterprise of the denomination, the Children's World 
Crusade was inaugurated in 1917 under the 
Woman's American Baptist Foreign Mission Society 
and the Woman's American Baptist Home Mission 
Society, and in 1920 was transferred to the Depart- 
ment of Missionary Education of the Board of Edu- 
cation. The two Woman's Boards still retain an 
advisory relationship to the work. 

In order to secure the support and cooperation of 
children in any enterprise they must be informed of 
the needs they are asked to relieve, the partners with 
whom they are to work, and the result that they have 
a right to expect will follow. The information con- 
cerning world conditions, especially and always 
with reference to the gospel of Jesus Christ, is pre- 
sented in programs arranged from the Junior mis- 
sion-study books each year. The Children's World 
Crusade is responsible for the missionary education 
of children under twelve years of age, and for peda- 
gogical reasons divides them into three groups, with 
plans and material suited to each group. The chil- 


dren under six compose the Jewel Band, having one 
meeting a year; from six to nine the children are 
gathered in the Herald Band, having four meetings 
yearly ; and from nine to twelve they form the Cru- 
sader Company, with monthly meetings. Often 
these Bands and Companies are correlated with the 
departments of the Sunday school or other existing 

Besides the study and the programs, dramatiza- 
tions and projects have been suggested for the local 
leaders to develop. 

Traveling libraries of over three hundred mission- 
ary books are in circulation among the States and 
are loaned to the local organizations for one month 
at a time. This reading has been of untold value 
and has resulted in offering to each State an award 
picture to be given to the Company reading the most 
books. Such pictures as Plockhorst's " Suffer Little 
Children to Come Unto Me " are used as awards. 

A stereopticon lecture on the Special Interests of 
the Children's World Crusade was arranged and has 
* been very largely used in local and general meetings. 
The special interests are selected with the thought 
of providing work in the home and foreign fields 
which makes a special appeal to the children, to 
which they may designate their gifts, and about 
which story leaflets have been written. 

Credit is given by a system of Honor Points for 
the memorizing of the missionary passages of the 
Bible, missionary hymns, loyalty to the Company, 
and service. 

Quoting Doctor Kingsbury again : 


It will not do to try to coordinate the efforts and align 
the sympathies of young people on a platform purely nega- 
tive. They must be given something to do, not merely told 
what not to do. 

In recognition of the truth of this principle, sugges- 
tions from the missionaries on the field were re- 
quested as to what kind of handwork, lying within 
the possibilities of children, would be valuable to 
them. Thus the aim has been to provide the children 
an opportunity for expressing their interest and 
willingness to help with their hands, and the things 
which they make with their own hands become gifts 
of practical value in missionary service. White 
Cross work has been introduced in each District and 
is now well organized. 

Not the least are the gifts of money which be- 
speak sacrifice and self-denial. These had never 
been stressed until the Continuation Campaign was 
inaugurated. Attractive gift envelopes were fur- 
nished, and the children were taught to respond to 
the needs with their money as a natural expression 
of their interest. When the entire denomination was ' 
facing a crisis in 1922, the children were enlisted 
through the Children's World Crusade, and with the 
slogan "A Foot of Dimes from Every Crusader," 
they brought in at the end of a three months' cam- 
paign the sum of $11,000. 

The visible results of the campaign for larger 
missionary education among children are seen in the 
tremendous increase in the number of missionary 
organizations for children. There were less than 
five hundred Children's Bands, and most of them 


were Baby Bands, when the Children's World Cru- 
sade was launched. There are now 2630 Children's 
World Crusade organizations. The number of 
junior missionary study-books used within Crusader 
Companies has been greatly increased. A decidedly 
active interest in the local churches has been aroused 
in the children, and by the presentation of their 
plays, pageants, programs, and rallies, parents and 
adults of the church have been interested in a new 

The headquarters of the organization are at 218 
Lancaster Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y., and 276 Fifth 
Avenue, New York City. The Executive Secretary 
is Miss Mary L. Noble, and the Field Secretary, Miss 
Helen E. Hobart. The work is carried on with these 
two exceptions by volunteer secretaries in the Dis- 
tricts, States, and Associations. With these aims, 
plans, helps, and helpers, the denomination is con- 
fident that the world builders of the next generation 
will face their task with more of the practical ideal- 
ism of Jesus Christ and a larger spirit of Christian 

Just children on their way to school again? 

Nay, it is ours to watch a greater thing 

These are the World's Rebuilders, these must bring 

Order to chaos, comforting to pain, 

And light in blasted fields new fires of spring. 

Dear Lord, Thy childish hands were weak and small, 
Yet had they power to clasp the world withal; 
Grant these, Thy little kindred, strength as true 
They have so much to learn, so much to do! 




" Give to our girls and boys a friendly acquain- 
tance with the peoples of the world whom they 
will recognize as God's great family, and it will 
prove in later years a foundation for the great 
superstructure of world peace and Christian mis- 


Such words as these go right to the heart of our 
question. The truest education consists not in the 
imparting of information, but rather in the develop- 
ing of mental attitudes and habits, which in turn 
lead to the acquiring of information. At the meet- 
ings of the Edinburgh Missionary Conference, Rev. 
W. H. Campbell, in speaking of the need of a science 
of missionary education, said, " One of the most 
pathetic facts in Christendom is the enormous wast- 
age of endeavor lost as regards results, simply for 
want of knowing how to set to work." 

The Sunday school has the greatest possibilities 
as a missionary nursery. Here the missionary ideas 
should be so fostered that the child shall never think 
of missions except as a perfectly natural and normal 
thing. The slow growth of the importance of mis- 
sions as a function of the Christian church, has had 
its parallel in the development of Bible-school curri- 
cula. The lack of attention to missionary education 
in the Sunday-school lesson materials of the past, 
led to the starting of many missionary organiza- 
tions for various age groups within the church itself, 


to supply that need. Many adult missionary socie- 
ties grew up on account of this recognized omission. 
It is therefore gratifying to know that the Inter- 
national Sunday-school lesson material builders for 
1923, devote the entire last quarter, October, Novem- 
ber, and December, to the study of " The Missionary 
Message of the Bible." This affords excellent 
opportunity for the correlation of current denomina- 
tional missionary material into the regular Sunday- 
school lessons. The Department of Missionary 
Education, in the preparation of its Graded Home 
Missionary Stories for Baptist Bible schools for this 
same quarter, has accordingly correlated its primary 
and junior series of graded stories with the lessons 
for this quarter. 

For many years now these graded missionary 
stories have been prepared for Bible schools. Pic- 
ture poster charts, which exhibit the missionary 
work of our Societies, are also prepared to accom- 
pany the stories. These are usually provided in a 
series of four charts and are intended for display 
in the various departments of graded Sunday 
schools. The increase in demand for these materials 
justifies the place which they seem to have filled in 
the educational scheme. 

We dislike the classification which recognizes 
Sunday schools as either antimissionary, non-mis- 
sionary, nominally missionary, and moderately mis- 
sionary, as though the program of Jesus could be so 
differentiated. But missions is no longer a secon- 
dary matter, it is primary. We have learned that 
without missions, Christianity is not itself. This 


means the dawn of a new day in our denomi- 
national life. 

If we are to build into our Sunday schools a 
missionary program appropriate to the needs of the 
hour, four things are necessary : 

1. Pastors, Sunday-school superintendents, and 
assistants should recognize its primacy. 

2. Teachers' meetings should consider the matter 
of missionary education as a vital, worthy, and 
necessary Sunday-school objective. 

3. Committees on religious education should aim 
to curriculate missionary education into the 
lessons in a more effective and concrete manner. 

4. Reports of the character and content of mis- 
sionary instruction are secured, and thus the 
entire matter is properly emphasized and dig- 

An older conception of missions classes it as 
charity and benevolence. The newer conception re- 
gards a knowledge of missions as a prerequisite of 
Christian training. The older conception inclined 
to deal largely with its own generation and suited its 
methods to that attitude. The newer conception 
takes into account the oncoming generations and the 
painstaking cultivation among our children and 
youth of a sympathetic, natural, and normal attitude 
toward missions as inherent within the New Testa- 
ment and necessary to the saving of the world. 

It is most unfortunate that there are so many 
persons in our churches who have to have a double 
conversion, once to make them Christian and again 


to make them missionary. We must somehow so 
build our missionary education into the Sunday 
school, that when a person is converted to Christ, 
it will not be necessary later on to use dangerous 
spiritual explosives to awaken in him an interest in 

By the increased use of missionary materials al- 
ready available and through the larger amount of 
missionary story and illustrative matter distributed 
throughout our lesson quarterlies and periodicals, 
we anticipate larger results as we enter these human 
harvest fields. A better America waits on our in- 
creased interest and our more careful guardianship 
of these infinite resources. 




No one can possibly overestimate the importance 
of the Young People's Society as a missionary force 
in the life of the church. Here in the making is the 
church of tomorrow, and within this group are 
future pastors, missionaries, and Christian leaders 
who must bear great responsibilities. Here will be 
found the Livingstones, Wilberf orces, Morrisons, and 
Grenfells. Here also are the potential teachers in 
our schools, and here are our captains of industry. 

Every age is one of transition, hence important, 
but upon all of us just now is being pressed the signi- 
ficance of international events. The careless train- 
ing of our young people in such an hour as this 


would be critical. Last year witnessed the largest 
enrolment of students in the history of American 
institutions of learning. More than ten thousand 
students of foreign nationalities and residence are 
enrolled in American colleges, and a new sympathy 
and respect for other races is being developed. The 
American press, less provincial since the close of the 
World War, is furnishing a daily chronicle of world 
happenings, and our stronger secular magazines are 
now vying with our religious journals in the por- 
trayal of missionary achievement. Colleges and 
universities are assuming special support of mission- 
ary work in foreign lands, thus adding a new dignity 
to missionary service. The idea of a world of na- 
tions living together in Christian friendliness is 
rapidly gaining momentum. The hour seems to be 
one of unusual importance for our young people, 
and our educational program should be commen- 
surate with the opportunity. We must not forget 
that the supply of ministers and missionaries does 
not come from the colleges and seminaries unless 
that supply first comes from the preparatory schools, 
and first of all from churches. This responsibility 
for a better America and for a better world i must 
rest finally upon our young people, and the societies 
and churches in which they meet and where- they 
receive their training should offer them a program 
of world service built on the idea that "being a 
Christian is identical with having Christ's breadth 
of sympathy, intellectual outlook, and social values." 
The special interest of the church in its young 
people should be assured for three important rea- 


sons : First, the church needs to pay more attention 
to its young people if it would save its own life. 
Secondly, the young people in answering the call of 
a needy world, must have a sympathetic knowledge 
of the peoples of all lands or they will not be loyal 
to their generation. Thirdly, our America of To- 
morrow, and the making of a better world, will 
depend upon the missionary ideals and Christian 
devotion with which our young people enlist their 
interests and affections. 

In planning our missionary education for the 
young people, we must avoid the assumption that 
missions must be administered to them in homeo- 
pathic doses or in disguised capsules, in order to 
produce benevolent results. This, we believe, is 
entirely the wrong approach both to their intelli- 
gence and to their interests. They will welcome 
any expression of Christianity that is militant and 
worthy, and missions have always possessed the 
qualities of courage, adventure, heroism, and sacrifice 
which appeal to their natures. Schemes of mission- 
ary entertainment, catchy methods, and mechanical 
devnes introduced among young people to awaken 
interest in a program so vital as the program of 
Christian missions, must ever fail. These can nevor 
successfully be offered as a substitute for a strong 
program of missionary reading and study. Devices 
as such, however clever, may interest for the mo- 
ment while they fail to make impressions worth- 
the cause at stake. 

Many of the societies of the B. Y. P. U. of A. and 
Baptist societies of C. E. have already entered upon 


consistent programs of missionary education, and 
excellent results are being achieved. Special mis- 
sionary libraries have been prepared by the Depart- 
ment of Missionary Education, also reading courses. 
Mission-study books of a very high character have 
been provided, ^specially for the young people's 
groups. During 1922-23 many societies enrolled 
in mission-study classes, and in numerous churches 
the young people have taken a large share in the 
responsibilities for successful church schools of mis- 
sions. Special missionary programs for use at the 
monthly missionary meetings, and based on the 
regular authorized topics, have been prepared by 
the Department of Missionary Education in order 
to introduce into the educational scheme specific 
Baptist materials in connection with the current 
interdenominational themes. Young people's so- 
cieties which are producing the best results include 
within their plan of cultivation mission study, mis- 
sionary reading courses, stewardship training, de- 
nominational education, life service meetings, and 
summer conference participation. 

Whatever the program is, and however it may be 
made to function, it seems clear that we should 
initiate a new campaign for the reading and study 
of our splendid missionary literature. We have 
turned over to the magazine and short-story writer 
the responsibility for directing the reading of our 
boys and girls, and they are discharging this obli- 
gation well. Unless we are alert, the life stories, 
and their heroic appeal, will cease to appear in our 
juvenile libraries. A new urging of the importance 


of reading missionary literature may help to raise 
up that new army which is to take the world, in the 
name of the King. 

Our fathers in a wondrous age, 

Ere yet the earth was small, 

Insured to us an heritage, 

And doubted not at all 

That we, the children of their heart, 

Which then did beat so high, 

In later time should play like part 

For our posterity . . . 

Dear-bought and clear, a thousand year 

Our father's title runs, 

Make we likewise their sacrifice, 

Defrauding not our sons! 

JMt? 7 



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