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The Jubilee "StoVy cf some of ths principal - - 
Telugu converts in the Canadian Baptist 
Foreign Mission in India from 1874 to 1924 

Editorial Committee-. 


Published for 


By D. E. HATT 

Manager, Canadian Branch, 


223 Church Street, 
Toronto, Canada 


A ; 





3. BEERA MIRIAM ---------- 20 

4. REV. NICODEMUS ABRAHAM - - - - - - 25 


6. PASTOR TULURI CORNELIUS - - - - - - 35 


8. DR. DUNDI LUKE JOSHEE ------- 42 



11. MR. CHETTI BHANUMURTI ------- 66 

1. MR. BHAGAVAN BEHARA -------- 61) 




6. SAVARA GUMANNA ------.-- - 95 

7. MR. N. D. ABEL --------- 99 



10. DAVID AND LIZZIE - - - - - - - -111 

11. BOKKA SUBBARAIDU - - - - - - - - IKj 

12. PANGA APPANNA --------- 122 



2. ADDEPALLE MARIAMMA ------- 133 


4. KUCHIPUDI YAKOB - - - - - - - - 141 

6. Two PASTORS OP AKIDU ------- 149 



1. PASTOR DAS ANTHRAVADY - - - - - - - 165 


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The attention of the reader is called to the steps by 
which, in God's providence, Canadian Baptists were led 
to the Telugus. Mr. D. Anthravady, who was pastor 
of a church in a Telugu regiment, was at a station of 
the English Baptist Mission, when he came into the 
light, but he joined the London Mission at Vizagapatam. 
A few years later a Major-General showed him from 
the Bible that he ought to be immersed, so the church 
in the regiment soon became a Baptist church. Mr. 
Anthravady met Mr. Thomas Gabriel in Madras, and 
taught him about baptism. Later he met also Mr. 
Josiah Burder, and taught him. 

Moreover, largely through Mr. Anthravady's work, a 
beginning was made at Akulatampara near Parlakimedi, 
and some useful workers were raised up. Mr. Puru- 
shottam also had a share in this. The story of his life 
tells why he was baptized in the English Baptist Mis- 

At the other end of our Mission field near the Kistna 
river, we should notice that Kodali Samuel, one of the 
first baptized at Vuyyuru, was the means of bringing 
Kuchipudi Yakobu into the light, and the latter passed 
on the good news to Todeti Abraham. Read the stories 
of their lives. 



S the title implies, "Telugu Trophies" is com- 
posed of the brief histories of the conversion 
and careers of a number of Telugu men and 
women who, during the last fifty years, have found 
Christ in the Canadian Baptist Mission in India. They 
have been and are leaders among their own folk not 
merely because of natural gifts and training but also 
not infrequently on account of their pre-eminence in 
suffering for His sake. They have been chosen by the 
missionaries who know them best and who, in many 
instances, aided them to win the battle over tempta- 
tion and sin chosen from a multitude of saved who, 
including those who have fallen on sleep during the 
half century, can scarcely be less than twenty-five 
thousand. It is fitting that in the commemoration of 
the Jubilee of Canadian Baptist Missions in India their 
experiences should be recounted, for the glory of His 
Name and the encouragement of His followers. 

"Telugu Trophies" will assuredly quicken and 
strengthen faith in the power of the Gospel unto salva- 
tion and in the keeping power of that Christ out of 
Whose hand no one can pluck His sheep. Further, 
He who can win, against such fearful odds, the passion- 
ate and abiding loyalty that is again and again 
recorded in these pages cannot fail ultimately to draw 
the Telugu race unto Himself. 

H. E. STILLWELL, General Secretary, 
Canadian Baptist Foreign Mission Board. 

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The name of Thomas Gabriel should be known and 
honored by the Baptists of Canada. It was his appeal 
that led the Foreign Mission Society of Ontario and 
Quebec to send Rev. John McLaurin and Mrs. Mc- 
Laurin to Cocanada in 1874. 

Thomas Gabriel was born on December I5th, 1837, at 
Masulipatam, a seaport about twenty-four miles from 
Vuyyuru. Afterwards his parents lived for two years 
at Narsapur, twenty-four miles east of Akidu, and then 
removed to Rajahmundry on the Godavari river. 
Thomas was about ten years old at this time. He had 
attended a mission school while at Narsapur, and he 
went to a mission school at Rajahmundry, which he 
continued to attend till 1855, when he was eighteen 
years of age. Two years later he secured employment 
as a clerk in the Government Telegraph Office at 
Dowlaishwaram about four miles south of Rajahmun- 
dry. Having a great desire to learn telegraphy he paid 
a young man to teach him the alphabet, and then bought 
a dummy, on which he practised day and night till he 


mastered the art. His diligence was soon observed and 
rewarded. When Mr. Gabriel was about twenty-three 
years of age he became a Christian, and was received 
into the Lutheran Church. In 1865 ne was transferred 
to the Telegraph Office at Cocanada. , 

About this time his father and mother became Chris- 
tians, and took the name "Gabriel," which their son had 
taken when he became a Christian, his name having been 
Taleru Marayya. Mr. Thomas Gabriel's mother was a 
sister of the father of the Karre brothers of Gunnana- 
pudi so that he and they were first cousins. Then he 
married their sister and the eldest of the Karre brothers 
married his sister, who is still living near Gunnanapudi. 
While Mr. Gabriel was still employed in Dowlaishwaram 
he visited .his relatives at Gunnanapudi and Mr. Karre 
Samuel and his wife visited Mr. Gabriel at Dowlaish- 
waram, and decided to become Christians. 

Mr. Gabriel was in the Telegraph Office at Nilapalli 
near Yanam for a year, after which he was sent back to 
Cocanada. About 1867 he was ordered to go to Bom- 
bay, but while in Madras on his way there he fell ill 
and was sent to the hospital, where he was visited by 
an earnest Christian, Mr. Das Anthravady, who was a 
Baptist. Not unnaturally, the subject of baptism came 
up in their conversation, the result being that Mr. 
Gabriel was convinced that he should be immersed. 

Another man having been sent to Bombay, Mr. Gab- 
riel returned to Cocanada. He seems to have under- 
gone a complete spiritual change by his contact with 
Mr. Anthravady. He felt that he had been in bondage 
to the law before that. He began to speak to everyone 
about salvation through faith in Christ, and confession 
of faith in baptism. His superiors objected to his 


preaching so much ; hence he resigned his position in the 
Telegraph service in January, 1869, leaving a salary of 
seventy rupees a month with a prospect of a consider- 
able increase and a good pension on retirement. He 
worked in connection with the Godavari Delta Mission, 
making the Kolair Lake region the chief field of his 
labors. In 1870 his views changed in regard to some 
points of church order, and he separated from the above 
mission, and opened a tannery at Cocanada for the sup- 
port of his family and some preachers and teachers who 
were working with him. 

The tannery was not a success, so when Mr. Gabriel 
had used up all his private means, he found it neces- 
sary in 1871 to seek help, and went to Madras to offer 
his mission to the Strict Baptists of England through 
their agent Mr. Doll. He was not acquainted with any 
American or Canadian Baptist Missionaries when he 
set out for Madras, but on his way to that city he 
halted over Sunday at Ramapatnam and met Messrs. 
Timpany and McLaurin. The latter, writing on August 
24th about Mr. Gabriel's visit, said, "He preached on 
Sunday from Isaiah 55: i. It was peculiarly refresh- 
ing to hear him talk of the impossibility of earthly things 
satisfying a thirsty soul, and of the full satisfaction re- 
ceived through faith in Christ." Mr. Gabriel was not 
successful in his search for help, and hence on his return 
to Cocanada he reopened the tannery, which had been 
closed before he left for Madras. He continued to 
correspond with Messrs. Timpany and McLaurin, who 
helped him not only with advice, but also with gifts of 

Mr. Gabriel was ordained while in Madras; so in 
March, 1872, when he made a tour in the Kolair Lake 


region, he baptized some converts at Chinnamilli, four 
miles north of Akidu and others at Gunnanapudi, about 
twenty miles southwest of that station, and since 1875 
the headquarters of a church. Some converts at this 
place had requested a missionary of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society at Masulipatam to baptize them, al- 
though they were relatives of Mr. Gabriel and the fruits 
of his work, the very first converts having been Mr. 
Karre Samuel and his wife, who were Mr. Gabriel's 
cousin and sister. In July, 1873, Mr. Gabriel reported 
thirty-one recent converts baptized at Gunnanapudi and 
eight baptized at Chinnamilli. He reported also a 
schoolhouse built at Gunnanapudi. 

Mr. Gabriel's financial difficulties increased greatly in 
1873, and as no help came from the Strict Baptist Mis- 
sion he appealed to American Baptists who had already 
more than they could care for. Finally he appealed to 
the Baptists of Ontario and Quebec through Messrs. 
Timpany and McLaurin. At the annual meeting in 
October the Foreign Mission Board after long and care- 
ful deliberation decided to take up the mission. Mr. 
McLaurin was authorized by cable to go to Cocanada. 
This he did in March, 1874, arriving, on the I2th of the 
month. He found only a few not very well instructed 
Indian Christians in Cocanada, the majority of Mr. 
Gabriel's converts being in villages near Kolair Lake. 

On July i8th, Mr. Gabriel set out with Mr. McLaurin 
on a tour to the Kolair region. They spent a Sunday 
at Ganapavaram, twelve miles northeast of Akidu, and 
nine converts were examined and baptized. Passing 
through Kolair Lake they reached Gunnanapudi, where 
service was held in the forenoon on Sunday and several 
asked for baptism. In the afternoon a meeting was 


held at a neighboring village, and twelve persons were 
received and baptized. In his report for the year Mr. 
McLaurin stated that Mr. Gabriel had spent much time 
in hard work on tour. The church statistics for the 
year (1874) showed that 133 had been baptized, and 
that the total membership at the close was 219. The 
converts received may well be credited chiefly to the 
work of Mr. Gabriel. 

At the end of the year this brother came in from tour 
very ill with fever. Everything possible was done to 
save his valuable life; even the Government doctor 
stayed with him; but all to no purpose. On January 
ist, 1875, h e P asse d away, 'his latest word and smile 
testifying to the preciotisness of the Lord Jesus. Mr. 
McLaurin wrote of him that he was a great student of 
the Bible, and understood well God's way of saving men. 
He gloried in the Gospel; he loved and honored his 
Lord, and he loved and hungered for the souls of men. 
No matter how much he had set his heart on any plan, 
the moment it was shown to him that it would interfere 
in the least degree with the glory of God, he put it 
under his feet. His final illness lasted a week. When 
Mr. McLaurin went into his room he opened his eyes 
and said, "Oh, I am in Heaven." At another time when 
his wife sat by his bed weeping, he said, "Fear not, 
fear not, my Lord is with me, is with me." The day 
before he died Mr. McLaurin said, "Brother Gabriel, is 
Jesus precious to you?" His wandering thoughts came 
back, and eagerly, joyously he replied, "Most precious, 
most precious, most precious." 

By Rev. John Craig. 


Soon after the 
death of Pastor 
Thomas Gabriel on 
Jan. ist, 1875, Mr. 
McLaurin was cheer- 
ed by the coming of 
Mr. Josiah Burder, a 
Baptist brother who 
had been living at 
Ganjam, not far from 
Berhampore. On the 
suggestion o f Mr. 
Gabriel, Mr. McLaur- 
in had invited Mr. 
Burder to assist, in 
the work at Cocan- 

This brother was 
born a t Chicacole, 
about 1830. He was 
a Sudra, and belong- 
ed to the sub-caste 
known as S r u s t i 
Karnams. Rev. S. S. Day and his wife, the first Ameri- 
can Baptist missionaries to the Telugus, landed at Cal- 

Josiah Burder. 


cutta in 1836, and proceeded to Vizagapatam to visit the 
missionaries of the London Missionary Society. After 
a few months there they moved to Chicacole, and con- 
ducted mission work for nearly a year. Josiah Burder 
attended a school which was under Mrs. Day's supervi- 
sion, and received his first impressions of the truth. 

Some years later the London Mission Society occupied 
Chicacole, and Mr. Chowdhari Purushottam worked as 
an evangelist from 1844 till 1850. Mr. Burder became 
a Christian probably through the influence of this 
earnest evangelist, and for a time he served as a teacher 
and later as a preacher in the mission. Afterwards he 
went to Ganjam and became a clerk in the Department 
of Public Works. He used to preach in Oriya on Sun- 
days, and a pious English engineer induced him to de- 
vote all his time to preaching, and promised to pay him 
a salary. Like Pastor Thomas Gabriel; Mr. Burder 
became a Baptist through the influence of Rev. Das 
Anthravady, pastor of a Baptist Church in the 4ist 
Native Infantry Regiment, where he had charge of the 
Officers' Mess. 

In 1874 Mr. Burder lost his wife who was a daughter 
of Mr. Purushottam. When he came to Cocanada early 
in 1875, m ' s son Jonathan and a daughter and younger 
son were with him. In August of this year he accom- 
panied our missionaries, Messrs. McLaurin, Churchill 
and Boggs on their tour of exploration. Tuni, Yella- 
manchili, Vizagapatam, Bimlipatam, Vizianagram, Bob- 
bili and Palkonda were visited on this tour. They have 
all become stations of the Canadian Baptist Mission. 
Soon afterwards when Mr. Timpany visited Cocanada in 
October Mr. Burder was ordained as a minister of the 
Gospel. He was faithful in pastoral and evangelistic 


work during the six years that he was spared to the 
mission. Until the Akidu field was separated from Co- 
canada and committed to the care of its own missionary, 
Mr. Burder often made tours over that region also, going 
as far as Gunnanapudi. 

Mr. Craig's first visit to the Christians of those vil- 
lages was made under the guidance of this brother in 
March, 1879. It was a privilege for the new mission- 
ary to be intimately associated with such an experienced 
Indian worker even for two or three weeks. Mr. Bur- 
der was a quiet man, who weighed his words before 
speaking, and who, while having a good command of 
Telugu, was accustomed to speak very deliberately. To 
listen to sermons and addresses in Telugu by such a 
speaker was a boon to one who was learning the lan- 
guage. Mr. McLaurin wrote as follows about this bro- 
ther in 1880: "He is studious and thoughtful, thor- 
oughly versed in the religious customs and ceremonial 
of the Hindus; and has few peers in dealing with cavil- 
ling Brahmans. In dealing with the native Christians 
he is kind, yet firm; and in his contact with Hindus he 
is conciliating and convincing." Mr. McLaurin adds 
that one evening, while they were all sitting on the ver- 
anda chatting, Mr. Josiah began telling of his experi- 
ences during the day, preaching in the streets, convers- 
ing with the people and finding them eager to hear. 
Some one made the remark that it was pleasant to be so 
engaged. "Oh, yes," Mr. Josiah said, "my rice never 
tastes sweet to me in the evening, unless I have told 
some one about Jesus during the day." 

A special evangelistic effort was made by Mr. Burder 
in 1881 during the period from February to May. 
Every evening he took a party of girls from the Board- 


ing School to sing, and, if occasion offered, to speak to 
the women. All through Cocanacla and in more than 
a score of near-lying hamlets crowds of both sexes 
heard the Gospel sung and spoken. A few months later 
on Sept. 4th, Mr. Burder passed away after performing 
a marriage ceremony in the chapel. His death was a 
sad loss to the work. Mrs. J. C. Yule described the 
incident in a poem, part of which is as follows : 

Before the plighted pair, and once again 
He read God's Word in the mellifluous speech 
Of his own land, and lifted up once more 
His voice in prayer, and then passed on 
To the brief utt'rances that made them one. 
But here his words became confused. His mind 
Wandered as he who dreams; and when at last 
The rite was ended, they who saw him felt 
'Vague fears of coming change. They brought the pen 
And bade him write. "And are we then," he said, 
"To talk no more about the blessed word, 
To pray no more?" "All that is over now," 
The teacher gently said. "Only your name 
Is wanted to this record; pray you sign!" 
He took the pen and wrote, but his own name 
Seemed a forgotten thing. The faithful hand, 
True to the prompting of the fervent love 
Which burned within, essayed no more to trace 
His own poor name, but "Jesus, Jesus," that 
Which filled and overflowed his inmost soul, 
And washed it clean of every other name. 

"Why at the marriage, Sir, 
"Spake you so strangely?" his attendant said. 
"I'm going on a journey," he replied, 
And spake no more. A few short hours, and he 
Had passed beyond their vision; 
And, ent'ring the fair City, had sat down 
Beside the Lord he loved. 



Jonathan Burder was about eighteen years of age 
when he accompanied his father to Cocanada in 1875. 
He was employed as teacher for some years, but soon 
showed considerable ability as a preacher, and at God's 
call he devoted his life to the work of the Gospel min- 
istry. He was married on March 6th, 1880, to Amelia 
Keller, who had visited Canada with Mr. and Mrs. 
Timpany. The ceremony was performed by Dr. Jewett 
of the American Baptist Mission, who was in Cocanada 
at the time, working with Mr. Timpany on the revision 
of the Telugu Bible. After his father's death in 1881 
Mr. Jonathan became pastor of the Telugu Church. 
His ordination took place on January I2th, 1884, He. 
was a devoted evangelist, and did a great work espe- 
cially in Cocanada, not only by his public preaching, but 
also by his private conversations with many men of the 
Hindu community. He had learned a great deal about 
Hinduism from his father, and his mind was stored with 
pithy sayings and Sanskrit verses, which he used with 
great skill in answering men who tried to interrupt him 
when he was preaching in the streets. He had a power- 
ful voice and a great command of his mother tongue. 
While his father always spoke in a quiet and deliberate 
way, Mr. Jonathan's words poured out like a flood. At 
meetings of the Godavari Association it was a treat for 
the delegates to listen to an address by this eloquent 
brother. On one occasion he addressed the students in 
the Seminary on "Preaching in the Villages," and when 
a small book of model sermons was published one of 
his sermons was included. 

The Cocanada Church and the Mission lost the ser- 


Rev. Jonathan Burder and Family. 


vices of this worker in 1900. He died of cholera on 
August 3ist. Some months afterwards when Miss 
Simpson was making her first visit to a home in Cocan- 
ada, the man of the house told her of his faith in and 
love for Christ. He assured her that there were one 
hundred men in the town whom he knew, who were 
like Nicodemus, afraid of their friends, afraid of being 
put out of caste, but who were Christ's disciples at heart. 
He and the others had been wondering why Jonathan 
Burder's visits had ceased; they had not heard of his 

Mr. Jonathan's wife Amelia was the daughter of 
Ezra Keller, a Telugu Preacher in the American Baptist 
Mission. When Mr. and Mrs. Timpany went to Can- 
ada on furlough in 1876, they took Amelia with them, 
and put her in Woodstock College. When she returned 
to India in December, 1878, she showed her good sense 
by giving up the use of European clothing and going- 
back to that of her own people with some slight modifi- 
cations. Until her marriage in March, 1880, she as- 
sisted Mrs. Timpany in caring for the girls in the 
Boarding School at Cocanada. Her marriage when she 
was over twenty years of age was a good example for 
Christian girls and their parents, who think that sixteen 
or fifteen or even fourteen is the proper age for mar- 
riage. She was a help to her husband as long as he 
lived, and survived him only eight months. Their 
first-born was a son whom they named Josiah after his 
grandfather. Miss Simpson undertook the expenses of 
his education, and had the joy of seeing him become a 
good helper in the work as headmaster of her school 
for Caste girls. He was married to a daughter of Mr. 
Panga Appanna, of Parlakimedi, whose story is told in 


another chapter. Mr. Josiah died rather suddenly, Feb. 
3rd, 1904. Miss Simpson mourned for him as for a dear 
relative, and through her efforts a stone was erected in 
the cemetery at Cocanada in memory of Pastors Josiah 
and Jonathan Burder, the latter's wife, Amelia, their 
son Josiah, and also Jonathan's brother Charles. Nearby 
is the grave of Pastor Thomas Gabriel, and here the re- 
mains of several of our missionaries have been laid to 

Z?v Miss A. E. Baskerville. 

Long before the Canadian Baptists had thought of 
sending missionaries to India, away back in 1848, in 
Kommalamudi,, a village in Gudivada Taluk of the 
Kistna District, a little baby girl was born to Vanga 
Dliarmayya. She was the fifth child, there already 
being two boys and two girls in the family. To this 
little girl was given the name of Adamma. No doubt 
she had much the same experiences as the other little 
girls of her country and her time, but as Dharinayya and 
his family were not Christians, her childhood was short. 
When she was of "suitable age," we are told, she was 
married according to Hindu custom to Beera Venkayya, 
a man considerably older than herself, as his second 
wife. "Suitable age," in those days, was probably from 
twelve to fourteen possibly less. Venkayya's home 
was in Dowlaishvaram, a town a few miles from Rajah- 
mundry on the Godavari River. The young bride was 
very zealous in the worship of the idols, and received a 
good name among the neighbors on account of her piety. 

Her husband's elder sister was a Christian, and there 
were some Christians among the neighbors. Through 
them she heard the Gospel, was convinced of the Truth, 
and was baptized in Rajahmundry at the same time as 
Thomas Gabriel, becoming a member of the Lutheran 
Church there. It was through the influence of Rev. 
Thomas Gabriel that she and her husband later joined 
the Baptist Church. As is sometimes the case, the new 
converts changed their names, and thereafter Venkayya 


was known as Zaccheus, while Adamma adopted the 
name of Miriam. 

Zaccheus was earning his living by working as a ser- 
vant in gentlemen's houses, and this made it necessary 
for them to move about a good deal, but wherever 
Miriam lived, by her words and by her life, she made her 
dear Saviour known to those who were her neighbors 
and her friends, and was a good zealous church mem- 
ber. After Zaccheus had been in service in Rajahmun- 
dry, Secunderabad, and other places, he came with his 
wife and little daughter to Cocanada, where he remain- 
ed until too old to work. He took service as cook with 
Miss Folsom, Principal of the Timpany Memorial 
School in Jagannaikupuram, which is the name given to 
that part of the city south of the river. 

Miss Folsom says, "Away back in the eighties (1885, 
I think), Zaccheus became my cook, and I well remem- 
ber when he brought his wife, Miriam, and introduced 
her to me. How pretty she looked with her wavy, 
glossy hair, handsome cloth, and just enough jewels to 
set off the rich brown of her throat and arms. Zaccheus 
was proud of his wife and liked to dress her well. The 
question of Christians wearing jewels came up in those 
clays, and it cost Zaccheus and Miriam a hard struggle 
to decide that she should remove hers. I suppose that 
the one great objection was that it would make her ap- 
pear like a widow. They, with Lydia, their daughter, 
lived in a little house in the church compound until we 
moved to the big school, after which they occupied a 
room in the school compound until Zaccheus built a 
house for himself in the Christian petta." 

"As our school developed we engaged more servants, 
and had Telugu worship with them daily. Two of the 


servants and a number of our boarders could read the 
Bible in Telugu and sing Telugu hymns. Miriam and 
Lyclia led us with their sweet voices. Bibles and hymn 
books were furnished for all who could read. 'Miriam 
explained the passage read and led in prayer. In this 
way we had some precious seasons together. One, at 
least, was converted there, and has been a Christian 
worker ever since. At our annual New Year's dinner 
for our servants and their families Miriam was always 
ready to offer prayer and to give a little sermon to the 
assembly. She was instant 'in season and out of season', 
speaking a word whenever possible for her Lord and 

In her first work as Bible woman she was supported 
by Miss Folsom. She helped her husband about the 
kitchen in the forenoons, and accompanied Miss Priscilla 
Beggs in her visits among the women in the afternoons. 
Later, when Miss Hatch was in charge of the Bible work 
in Cocanada, she was appointed as a regular Bible 
woman on the staff, and continued when Misses Simp- 
son, Murray, Pratt and Baskerville were directing the 

Miriam was Miss Beggs' assistant until her death on 
Nov. 28, 1918, with the exception of the time when 
Zaccheus, too old for further service, insisted upon going 
to live with her people in Gunnanapudi. It was a sore 
trial to her to leave her old home and her much-loved 
work. Mr. Davis, who w T as Cocanada field missionary 
at that time, bought their little property, with the under- 
standing that if ever she returned, she should have a 
place there until called to her home above. A number of 
workers' houses were built on the lot, which has ever 
since been mission property. After the death of 


Zaccheus she gladly came back to her work among the 
women of Jagannaikpuram. For some years a room 
was given her with the other workers, but finally it be- 
came uninhabitable through lack of proper repairs, and 
it became necessary for her missionary to rent a com- 
fortable room for her elsewhere. 

Two or three times during her life she fell ill and was 
raised up again, as it were, from the very gates of death. 
Her only daughter was the cause of much sorrow to her, 
and in her old age the shiftless husband of her grand- 
daughter, instead of being a help to her, was with his 
family a burden upon her scanty resources. Many 
times after her husband's death she had to endure priva- 
tion, because her salary as a Bible woman, while amply 
sufficient for her own support, was not large enough to 
stand these unreasonable demands upon it. The death 
of her husband, her daughter, and other near relatives 
caused her great grief, but in all her tribulations, uncom- 
plainingly borne by the Lord's help, she achieved victory 
through grace. 

She never quarrelled with anyone, but lived on terms 
of harmony and friendship with all her fellow workers, 
who counted her fellowship dear and desirable. Her 
prayers, so faithful and earnest, were an inspiration and 
uplift to many. She was very careful to give instruc- 
tion in the Christian life to the members of her house- 
hold. She loved hospitality, and with great piety and 
love she helped and comforted the Lord's people. She 
was always a regular attendant at Divine worship, and 
let the preacher be old or young, she gave earnest heed, 
and counted the teaching precious. 

She kept on faithfully at her work in spite of increas- 
ing age and increasing weakness, and it was, her privilege 


to work until within two months of her death. Her 
zeal and love burned brightly until the very last. Though 
she lived to be seventy, and read her Bible daily, it was 
never necessary for her to use spectacles. In her last 
sickness, when her days were numbered, she seemed to 
see visions of her dear Lord and the angels of God, who 
had come to take her away, for she frequently ex- 
claimed: "Behold! My King! My God! I am ready! 
Receive me to Thy embrace." She lived a long, faith- 
ful life of piety and usefulness in the Master's service, 
and beautifully adorned the doctrine she professed. 

"Favour is deceitful and beauty is vain, but a woman 
that feareth the Lord, she shall be praised. Give her 
of the fruit of her hands, and let her own works praise 
her in the gates !" 

By Rev. J. R. Stillwell. 

In his Annual Report, 1919-1920, the Foreign Mission 
Secretary, the Rev. H. E. Stillwell, himself two terms a 
missionary in India, his second term with Mr. N. Abra- 
ham associated with him in the work of theological edu- 
cation, wrote concerning him as follows : 

"On February ist, 1920, there fell asleep in Jesus, at 
his humble home in Cocanada, Rev. N. Abraham, for 
thirty years Dean in Theology of the Mission Seminary, 
and undoubtedly the leading Indian Christian of our 
native flock. He had taken the full theological course in 
the Seminary founded by William Carey at Serampore, 
was a profound student of the Word of God, and deeply 
spiritual in his presentation of it. By far the great 
majority of all the Indian Christian preachers and 
teachers on our Mission Field today, have sat in his 
classes, and received the impression of his unique per- 
sonality. It is safe to say that the passing of no one 
else on our Mission Staff . . . could have caused a 
deeper or more widespread sense of inestimable loss. 
The prayer of the Foreign Mission Board is that God 
may raise up many from among our Telugu people of 
like noble character and loyal service." 

Nicodemus Abraham was born at Dowlaishwaram, a 
town at the head of the Goclavari Irrigation system, on 
the 24th of May, 1868. There is a tradition concerning 
his childhood, that in his first month a missionary visited 
the home, took the babe in his arms, blessed him, and 
assured the parents that the child would grow up and fill 
a large and useful place in life. 



He received his primary education in the mission school 
of his native town. On the completion of his studies as 
far as this unpretentious school would carry him, he 
entered the Government Board School of the same place, 

Rev. N. Abraham. 

and studied up to the High School entrance examination. 
Here he received much ill-treatment 'from his Hindu 
schoolmates, being the first and the only Christian boy 
in the school. He then proceeded through the High 


School curriculum, in a Rajalimundry school of Second- 
ary grade, which was four miles distant, and which dis- 
tance, long and dusty though it was to the young boy, 
he walked morning and evening. He is said to have 
received no mission help during his studies, but lived 
at home and from there, through persistence and youth- 
ful energy and eagerness, acquired the grounding which 
was so well to serve him in after years. 

During his school period he was a regular attendant 
at all mission services, took a deepening interest in the 
faith of his parents, both of whom were sincere Christ- 
ians, the father being a preacher of the gospel ; and when 
grown to maturity was baptized on an evidence of his 
faith by Mr. Heelis of the Godavari Delta Mission, but 
later joined the Samalkot Seminary Telugu Baptist 
Church, with the full consent of Mr. Heelis, when it 
became plain that he would be permanently associated 
in the work of the Seminary, whither he came as there 
was no work of the kind he wished to do elsewhere. 
When he joined the Seminary staff, he had passed the 
matriculation examination of the Madras University, 
which at the time, a generation ago, was a high educa- 
tional standard in the Canadian and American Baptist 
Telugu Missions the Canadian Mission having no Uni- 
versity Matriculates at all and the American Baptist only 
three ; whereas today there are over one hundred of this 
grade in the Canadian Baptist Mission alone. 

Mr. Abraham joined the Seminary staff in 1888. The 
Seminary at the time included three departments liter- 
ary, Biblical and theological. His application was for a 
post in the literary department, in which he was given 
an appointment as First Assistant ; and a little later pro- 
moted to the Headmastership of the literary department. 


This he filled with splendid efficiency. For he was a 
good disciplinarian as well as a successful teacher. But 
more noticeable than these very necessary qualities, was 
his thorough Christian character sincere, consistent, in- 
telligent, and grounded in the faith. He knew in Whom 
he believed, had a reasoned faith of his own, and was not 
moved from it an inch by any kind of influence. He 
kept in the "middle of the road", not indulging in 
extremes; but was always moderate, steady and a sin- 
cere adherent of the fundamentals of the faith. He was 
reliable and could always be counted on. You knew 
where to find him. He was a safe man, but not safe 
because he feared to launch out he was safe because 
his beliefs were founded on an unshakable experience. 
He possessed the spirit of Christ in a remarkable degree, 
which he manifested daily in word and deed. He was 
uniquely even-tempered, and lived superior to the gusts 
of various passions' which frequently sweep even the 
calm Hindu from his feet. He had that "self-control" 
which is the great desideratum, the summum bonum, of 
the religious Hindu. His life was exemplary, his influ- 
ence beneficial, and his presence in the school helpful. 

Up to 1887, the biblical and theological courses in the 
Seminary ran parallel with those in the literary depart- 
ment. This parallelism served all purposes in the early 
days of the Mission, while teachers were few and the 
teaching elementary; but as it did not give place for 
thorough work in any one department except at the ex- 
pense of another equally important in its way, it came 
about that the various courses were separated and con- 
verted into independent studies. Thus the theological 
course was converted into a department by itself, and 
likewise the literary course. 


The theological course alone concerns us here. In 
the early nineties of the last century and until quite 
recently, the students received into the theological de- 
partment were of two grades, designated Primary, and 
Lower Secondary. The theological course was framed 
into a four years' course the first two preparatory for 
the Primary students in order to prepare them to enter 
upon theological studies proper in the third and fourth 
years, in which the L.S. students joined them. When 
this adjustment was made, the necessity at once arose 
for an increased staff, for there was now more work 
than the missionary himself could get through in the 
theological section of the school. This increase in the 
theological staff could not have come from the mission- 
ary ranks, even if desirable, which it was not. As there 
were no Indian Christians with the necessary training 
and equipment, there was no other recourse than the 
training of such. 

Fortunately, there was Mr. N. Abraham at hand, who 
being eminently suitable, was sent on to the Serampore 
Theological Seminary with his own full and hearty 
assent. He took the full three years' course in English 
in the Seminary, during which he made his mark. For 
he was possessed of a maturity, sincerity, and intelli- 
gence, rare in the classes; and he received the highest 
commendation from his teachers, who were sufficiently 
interested to make inquiry as to whether there were 
others in the Canadian Baptist Mission like him. They 
themselves had few like him. 

On the completion of his theological studies, he was 
given work in the theological department of the Semin- 
ary, in which he gave faithful service, which service he 
continued under my successors, Messrs. Craig, H. E. 


Stillwell, A. S. Woodburne, H. B. Cross, and H. D. 
Smith, all of whom were impressed by his sterling char- 
acter, integrity, and splendid ability. He was to all in- 
tents and purposes an assistant missionary, and filled the 
missionary's place whenever the latter was absent at the 
hills, or on other service. 

Mr. Abraham passed from this life February 1st, 
1920, after 32 years of varied service, during which long 
period he came to be ever more deeply appreciated and 
ever more widely known, not only in our own mission, 
but in others as well, as he was always pressed into 
service at all conventions. Besides the performance of 
his duties in the Seminary, he gave eminent service in 
Home Mission work, being- an influencial member of the 
Home Mission Board. For a time, he wrote and edited 
a small periodical, but there was not sufficient support 
in the nineties of the last century to keep it alive. 

Mr. Abraham was given ordination, and served as 
pastor of the Seminary church, to which he ministered 
with great acceptance. He passed away on a Saturday 
night after preparing his notes for the Sunday morning 
preaching service. Though passed on before, he still 
lives in the lives of the men trained in his classes and 
influenced by his Christian spirit and character. We 
mourn his loss, but thank God for his life and service, 
so loyally rendered to the mission and to his divine 
Master. The workmen pass, but the work continues. 
For the work is of God, and the workmen his instru- 
ments, prepared and raised up by Him, for every emer- 
gency and time of need ; and as Mr. Abraham served his 
own day and generation, we firmly believe there will 
follow others fitted and qualified for the coming days 
and new generations, 

By Rev. John Craig. 

When Mr. and Mrs. McLaurin occupied Cocanada as 
our first mission station in March, 1874, M. Jagannaikulu 
was a boy of ten years. Hence he remembers Mr. 
Thomas Gabriel and his tannery and Mrs. Gabriel and 
her wood-yard. The lad's home was for a time near 
the rented house in which Mr. McLaurin and his family 
lived. Later his home was in a hamlet near the Mission 
compound which was bought early in 1876. The mother 
soon became a Christian and the son attended the Mis- 
sion School, and was baptized after Mr. Timpany had 
taken charge. B. Subbaraidu, who became Mrs. Archi- 
bald's helper, was baptized at the same time. Jagannai- 
kulu was among the first students to enter the Seminary 
at Samalkot when it was opened by Mr. McLaurin in 
Oct., 1882, and was a member of the first graduating 
class in April, 1886. It is interesting to note that T. 
Cornelius and P. David, whose histories are given in 
this book, were fellow-graduates, and that B. Subbaraidu 
also was a classmate. His history tells why he did not 
complete the course with them. When the Seminary 
reopened in July Mr. Jagannaikulu was appointed a 
teacher, and in the following November he was married 
to Morampucli Mary,, who had attended Mrs. McLaurin's 
Boarding School for girls. At the meeting of the As- 
sociation at Cocanada in January, 1887, he was ordained. 
Owing to the smallness of the missionary staff, the 
Seminary was closed from April, 1887, till July, 1888. 


During this time Mr. Jagannaikulu was engaged in 
evangelistic and pastoral work at Gokaram, twenty miles 
west of Samalkot, and at the end of 1887 the missionary 
reported that he had been doing efficient work there and 
in the surrounding villages. 

From July, 1888, Mr. Jagannaikulu was on the Semin- 
ary staff continuously for fourteen years. In 1891 the 
principal set him apart to the work of teaching the 
Bible; hence he has a good general knowledge of that 
Book. Before Mr. J. R. Stillwell went- on his first fur- 
lough in 1894, in reviewing the work of the Seminary he 
wrote: "Mr. Jagannaikulu has been with me from the 
beginning, and has proved himself a good teacher in the 
school, a spiritual preacher in the church, and a safe 
counsellor in difficulty." From the time that the Home 
Mission Society was organized in 1888, Mr. Jagannai- 
kulu took a deep interest in its work and often filled 
the office of secretary. In 1890 he spent his vacation in 
touring over the Akidu field, which included Vuyyuru 
then, seeking to stir up the members of the churches to 
fuller consecration of life and property, especially in 
connection with the Home Mission work. Since the 
organization of the Convention with its various Boards, 
Mr. Jagannaikulu has served at times as secretary of 
the Home Mission Board which continues the work of 
the former Home Mission Society, 

In 1902 Mr. Jagannaikulu took up the work of an 
evangelist in Cocanada. At the beginning of 1906 the 
field was divided into North and South Cocanada, and 
a new church was organized in Jagannaikpur with about 
fifty members. M'r. Jagannaikulu was pastor of this 
church for a few. months, but in May he was called to 


be pastor of the mother-church as a temporary arrange- 
ment. The report for 1907 says that he had rendered 
very efficient service during the year. He is still pastor 
at the present time. The Cocanada Church consists of 
the members who reside on the north side of the canal 
that divides the city, and also those who live in villages 
north and west of the city. In addition to pastoral work 
there is room for extensive evangelistic work also, in 
which Mr. Jagannaikulu has taken his share. AVhen 
preaching to an ordinary audience in the villages he 
speaks in an interesting and impressive Avay. As an 
illustration of this, in telling of the wretchedness of the 
Prodigal Son when a famine came after he had Avasted 
all his money, Mr. Jagannaikulu said it was like accident- 
ally hitting with a pestle one's finger that was already 
sore with a felon. 

Mr. Jagannaikulu's wife Mary has been a worker with 
the lady missionaries for many years. As is the case 
with all Bible women in the city, Mary has a number of 
houses allotted to her for regular visits, so that the 
work to be done calls for a steady effort from day to 
day and from week to week. In one of the annual 
reports it is said that she had had a longer holiday than 
usual during the hot season, but that during the rest of 
the year she had worked in her bright, enthusiastic way, 
and that her monthly reports had been very encouraging. 
Among her pupils there were at that time ten women 
who had given in their names as desiring to trust only 
in Christ, and asking prayer for themselves, their hus- 
bands and families. 

Before telling about two of her daughters it may be 
said that she herself is a daughter of Morampudi Sarah, 


whose stoi'y is told in another chapter. Mary's two 
younger daughters have both passed the Matriculation 
examination at the McLaurin High School. One of 
them has studied in the ist and 2nd years at the Women's 
Christian College in Madras. The other is now in her 
first year. 



By Miss E. Priest. 

Tuluri Cornelius 
was born in Mora- 
munda, a village in 
what is. now the Ra- 
machandrapuram field 
of our Mission. 
While still a baby he 
was adopted by his 
aunt, Balluri Martha, 
one of India's child- 
widows grown to 
young womanhood, 
with a true mother 
heart. She and her 
father were true 
Christians, and so 
Cornelius was 
brought up in the 
fear of the Lord. 
Dearly did Martha 
love him and his 
family, and until her death her word was law in their 
home, and it was the law of love. 

As a boy he went to the Lutheran School in Rajah- 
mundry, but when his grandfather and foster-mother 
went to Tuni to work in the Baptist Mission, trouble 
arose, which was settled by Cornelius going to Samalkot 
to our school. He was a good student and of quiet, 

Pastor Tuluri Cornelius. 


steady habits. On February 12, 1882, he was baptized 
in.Tuni, and continued a member of this church for 
over forty years. After graduating in Theology he 
brought his bride, Nancy, to Tuni in 1888, and she has 
been a true helpmeet to him. 

For eleven months they lived in an outstation, but 
when Mr. Garside came to take charge of the Tuni field 
in 1889 he moved them into Tuni and installed Cornelius 
as pastor of the 'church, which responsibility he carried 
until his call to higher service in June, 1922. All through 
these 33 years he served with conspicuous ability, 
devotion and success, and saw the church in Tuni grow 
from the small beginnings of those early days till it came 
to have a membership of 300, besides giving off members 
to form new churches in all parts of the field. In 1890 
a painful incident occurred. A teacher who had been 
dismissed evidently bore a grudge against Cornelius, for 
one night he called him out, and then shot him in the 
head with a borrowed gun. His life was preserved but 
he lost the sight of one eye. Some of the Tuni officials 
combined to suppress the evidence, but in spite of this 
the accused was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment. 
Before this time was up there came an occasion when 
the Government decided to release a number of prisoners 
as a part of the celebration, and this man was among 
them. Before releasing him they wrote to Cornelius to 
know if he was willing, and in a truly Christian spirit 
he gave his consent. 

Before Mr. Garside left on furlough it was decided 
that Cornelius should be ordained. This gave him 
authority, but never was this used to lord it over his 
brethren; his title was never paraded, rather brought 
with it a sense of responsibility. His musical talent was 


truly consecrated to Jesus and he set his face against 
anything that savored of irreverence in the singing of 
Bible stories. What a help he was to the girls in the 
Boarding School as he spent an hour with them each 
Saturday morning teaching them how to sing many of 
our good Telugu hymns. In those days his violin was 
great company to him, and how pleased he was to re- 
ceive a copy of the Sankey hymn book with music. With 
a little help he soon learned to pick out tunes. He 
enriched Telugu Christian literature by the composition 
of four beautiful hymns which are in our hymn 'book, a 
metrical life of Christ, and other writings. He was 
always ready to use his gift in writing hymns for our 
work among the children, and his hymn on the 23rd 
Psalm is sung by the children in many parts of our 
Mission. His library was limited, but what good use he 
made of it ! And his faithful study of God's Word kept 
his preaching fresh and helpful. He was very apprecia- 
tive of help along the line of Bible study. Although of 
a retiring, unassuming manner, there was a quite force- 
fulness and dignity that made one feel quite at ease if 
he was in charge of any occasion, whether it was a 
baptism, a wedding, a business meeting, a social gather- 
ing or any other function. 

Cornelius was a man of most prepossessing personal 
appearance, dignified and manly in his bearing, and 
altogether one of the best examples of strong Christian 
manhood which our Mission has known. He was pos- 
sessed of fine intellectual gifts, was remarkably sound in 
judgment, devoted and dependable, upright in character 
and steadfast in purpose. He commanded the confidence 
and esteem of the Christian community, and the respect 
of the Hindus as well, and took a leading part in the 


work of the Association and Convention, especially in 
the work of the Home Mission Board. To successive 
missionaries he was a wise and safe counsellor, a capable 
and devoted friend and brother, a steadfast helper in 
every good work. In the history of these years of the 
beginnings of God's Kingdom among the Telugus the 
life of Tuluri Cornelius will ever stand forth as one of 
God's best gifts to his Telugu people, and although Tuni 
field without Cornelius seems almost unthinkable, there 
will always be a deep sense of gratitude to God for 
sparing him to serve so many years. 

By Miss E. Priest. 

Balluri Martha was bora in a village on the Rama- 
chanclrapuram field as we call it now, before our mission- 
aries came to open up work among the Telugus. Her 
father heard the gospel through Mr. Bowden of the 
Godavari Delta Mission, and received it gladly, and was 
the first fruit of the gospel in their village. Her mother 
died while she was still a small girl, and she and her 
father became much to each other. Their home became 
a centre of influence for Christ, and the foundation of 
Martha's useful Christian life was laid in those days. 
How she loved to recall them and tell how her father 
taught the gospel to the coolies who worked in his fields, 
and how he gathered the women of the village and taught 
them about Jesus until some of them believed in Him. 
There was much petty persecution to bear, but it was 
borne in a truly Christian spirit. One instance will show 
this. There was so much trouble about the well that 
Mr. Bowden decided to lay a charge against the 
troublers. The decision given was that if they did not 
choose to draw water from the well used by the Christ- 
ians they might dig another. To secure them from the 
clanger of being poisoned, Mr. Bowden advised that a 
cover be put on the well and padlocked when not in 
use, but Martha's father said, "No, we must not do that, 
but as each one lets clown his or her bucket, do so with 
a prayer that our enemies may soon come and draw from 
this Avell" and the time came when they were glad 
to do so. 


There was always a welcome in this home for any 
missionaries who came that way, and when Mr. Timpany 
toured out from Cocanada it was a comfort to find this 
little company of Christians. When the time came for 
Mr. Currie to go to Tuni and open work there the 
question of helpers was a live one. Mr. Timpany was 
led to urge Martha's father to go to this "far country". 
Tuni at that time was a tiger jungle, very different from 
the irrigated south country, and it was a test of faith 
indeed, but he came, and Martha with him, and thus 
saw the beginning of the Lord's work on the Tuni field 
as well as on the south field. In later years, she joyed 
to go over the history of those early days, and her face 
would beam as she said, "I have seen all this of the 
Lord's working with my own eyes, and this is only the 
beginning of what He is going to do". Her older sister 
brought much pressure to bear on them to get them to 
return to their native village, but though at times the 
pull was strong God kept Martha on the Tuni field, to 
the comfort and joy of all who have worked there. She 
was truly a "mother in Israel", with a welcome in her 
heart for all who came, irrespective of caste. When our 
sweeper woman was baptized Martha encouraged her 
so much by her loving welcome. Her reading was 
limited to her New Testament, and how she loved it and 
memorized it! The portion assigned for the monthly 
meeting was always ready, and her bright, responsive 
face was such an inspiration to us as we sought to open 
the Word. It was to her we turned for counsel when the 
problems arose, sure of loving sympathy. 

When on tour, Atchamma was the one to hold the 
crowds, but Martha was the one to do individual work, 
finding out some hungry heart to minister to. Very 


literally her message was the Cross, to her that was the 
message she was to tell, and she never left folks without 
telling them the "how" of salvation. The love of her 
mother heart was lavished on Cornelius, whom she 
adopted, and he and his family owe much to her loving 
care. Many times we have thanked God for giving 
Martha and Pastor Cornelius to the Tuni field. She was 
spared to a good old age, and the call came after a brief 
period of helplessness. We miss her very much, but we 
do not grieve, for she was truly a shock of corn fully 
ripe and has left- a blessed witness of what God can do 
for and through our Telugu sisters. 



By Miss S. I. Hatch. 

Dundi Luke Joshee was born in Cocanada within a 
year of our first missionaries' arrival there. He attended 
the first mission school and was baptized into the first 
church formed there. 


His Consecration to Christian Work. In the year 
1902 there is a meeting in Ramachandrapuram. In those 
days how full of caste prejudice this town was ! Why, 
even the merchants would not allow Christians to touch 
their wares, but would throw their goods at them when 
they lay down their pice, and the washermen were refus- 
ing to work for the missionaries, thinking their touch 

The station was only recently opened by the Mission, 
so it is in a lowly chapel of mud walls and thatch roof 
that a young medical graduate from Agra, D. L. Joshee, 
fluent in the command of three languages, and just re- 
turned to his own Telugu country from that city of 
marble palaces and famous pinnacles and domes, is being 
consecrated as a church deacon. He is one who is to 
help change this enmity into friendliness, and to become 
finally the chief of the city-fathers, and an acknowledged 
leader in the whole community. 

The prayer of consecration is offered by the sainted 
Rev. J. E. Davis, with the laying on of hands. But even 
that man of faith can hardly have realized then how 



abundantly his prayer was to be answered. The Leper 
Asylum under the Telngu doctor's medical care was to 
have a reputation second to none; young boys and girls 
were to go from there rejoicing in a new lease of life 
and a new-found spiritual joy; the orphaned children 

of lepers were to%^tfed j f&^fos^f^$ftions in society; 
the Asylum was to be called, even by non-Christians, 
"a very Heaven upon earth", and thousands of patients 
were by the grace of God to receive healing at his 

Yes, that prayer unto God meant equipment from on 


high, before which all other equipment, however great, 
sinks into insignificance. 


In the Leper Home. Years have gone by. The 
lepers have assembled together in the beautiful capacious 
chapel, one of the many blessings provided for them 
through the "Mission to Lepers." There are no enclos- 
ing walls, but only a roof supported by arches and 
pillars, so the gentle breeze circulates freely. Visitors 
are in the part reserved for the unafflicted ones, 
separated by a low parapet wall from the lepers. They 
look down upon the happy faces of the lepers, and 
beyond and on either side, they see through the arches 
the beautiful thick foliage of the mango and other trees, 
the graceful waving palms, and the blossoms of the 
temple-tree, and beyond, the pretty shaded winding high- 

Our doctor, his face full of smiles and radiating 
happiness, calls on one and another of his loved patients 
to introduce them to the visitors, an eminent doctor from 
Madras and her sister. "Polshetty," he calls, and a fine 
clean young man arises from his seat on the teachers' 
platform. "See," he says, "this is a lad whose father, a 
caste convert, and his mother have passed away. One 
brother became a leper and disappeared, and an older 
brother, not a Christian, would have none of him, so 
when he showed signs of leprosy in his face and hands, 
his missionaries, who greatly loved him, were glad to be 
able to send him to a Christian Home. Now, you per- 
ceive that the patches, then so prominent, are so faint 
that only a practiced eye can discover a trace." "How 
have you treated him?" the visitor asks. "With the in- 


jections recommended by Sir Leonard Rogers and Dr. 
Muir." "Are you not discharging him?" "We are 
ready to do so, but he is not very robust as yet, and, as 
he desires, we are glad to retain him as an Assistant 
to the Pastor." 

"Come, Achamma," and a wee girl of thirteen comes 
to the railing. "See, her fingers are all gone, only stumps 
and thumbs remaining, but look at her smiles. When 
she came here two years ago," the doctor adds, "she was 
stunted in growth, was so morose and unhappy and pas- 
sionate (and one cannot wonder when one sees her 
fingers, which were then full of running sores) that our 
first thought was to make her smile. We had her bathed, 
her head closely shaved. New garments were given to 
her, the injection treatment began to relieve her week 
by week. Her physical wants being supplied, she saw 
others happy around her, and so began to listen to the 
Gospel message, and to her great joy and ours, she put 
on Christ by baptism. The pain gone, the sores healed, 
the mind at rest, can we wonder at her smiles? Each 
one has his or her appointed task in the Home, and hers 
is that of teaching others to smile." 

" 'A cheery word and a cheery smile 

Make home a Heaven, and life worth while.' " 

"I wish there were time to show you all the interesting- 
cases. Nookamma, with the gnawing ulcer in her foot 
healed; Appalaswamy, the lion-faced, now the smooth- 
faced; Pollyanna, playing the 'glad game'; Sankrudu, 
patching and sewing with his stumps of fingers ; Reuben, 
the faithful, ministering to the dying; those young lads 
from Berhampore in the far North and Coonoor in the 
far South, who come for help and healing." As Dr. 


Joshee finishes this eminent lady doctor is pleased to say 
that she has learned much since coming. 


At Home in the Brahmin Zemindary. It was a glori- 
out day, and the missionaries, Dr. Joshee and family, 
and also other Christian friends, had gladly accepted the 
kind invitation of the lady, V. Runganaikamma Garu, 
tendered to them through her grandson and heir, to 
attend a function at the palace. She was a Zemindar 
in her own right, and had authority over ten villages, of 
which Doddampeta is a centre. This town is about five 
miles from Ramachandrapuram, and on another canal. 

The lady missionary had paid many visits there before, 
but until the advent of the Doctor, she had at different 
times spent many weary moments in the back yard, 
waiting until the slow movements of those that were 
within could procure for her a chair on the porch only, 
while the Rani would sit on a carpet inside the door, 
with her little grandchildren playing about her. But now 
the contrast ! As soon as the company arrives, all are 
ushered into the palace with quite an acclaim, for honour 
is to be given to the Indian Christian doctor who has 
wrought a great cure. Through the imposing front 
entrance, and up the broad stair, all are conducted. 
Seats are given in the reception hall which from the 
balcony overlooks the large crowds in the court below. 
Having given Dr. Joshee the seat of honour, a Brahmin 
reads to him a long address extolling his good qualities, 
and praying for his continued favour, after which this 
very dignified Zemindar lady, one intelligent beyond 
her class, being learned in Sanscrit and Telugu, comes 
forward, and with great grace presents him with a gold 


medal. On this are engraved the words "For saving- 
life," and also the giver's and receiver's names. In this 
way she shows her gratitude to him who has ministered 
to her. 

This stamp of approval by the Brahmin Zemindary 
has led to the opening of many closed Zenana doors, and 
all castes are being ministered to by him. By the magic 
word "Annagaru" (elder brother), he is allowed this 
freedom. In his private hospital, quite apart from the 
Leper Homes, six or seven thousand patients men, 
women and children, of all castes and creeds are minis- 
tered to by him, year by year, without cost to the 

Space forbids giving glimpses of the doctor in so many 
honorary capacities for ten years Chairman of the 
Union Board (Mayor) ; at times, acting President of the 
Taluk Board; Health Propagandist; war recruiting 
officer, jury man of the High Court; President of the 
Telugu Baptist Convention; Treasurer of the Home 
Mission Board, and other offices. 

Three more glimpses must suffice. 


Rejoicing in the Joy of Harvest. The church was to 
be formed at Kotipalli. For long years the hopes, the 
burden, and the prayer of our hearts had been for the 
establishment of the work here. Yes, here, even in this 
citadel of Hinduism, with its countless ceremonies and 
bathings, its. many idols and many priests, its temple 
devotees, and its so-called sacred waters where sea and 
river meet. Even here there is to be a centre of light 
and life and love to the surrounding district. We had 
thought that with only fifteen a church could be formed, 


but forty-eight names were given as charter members, a 
representative council attended, and the church was re- 
cognized amid scenes of great rejoicing. A feast had 
been prepared by the wives of the two good doctors, 
gifts were brought by those present, and all were deeply 
thankful to God. 

Miss Jones warmed all our hearts as she sketched the 
history of the work that had culminated in this happy 
gathering. She told how in former years, there had not 
been living a single witness of the Gospel in this or in the 
surrounding villages; how, in this Brahmin stronghold, 
Christians were not even allowed to walk in the streets. 
Later, the Christian doctor was called in an urgent case, 
was rewarded for his success by the gift of a free lease 
for a building for a dispensary, and so the way was 
opened for the entrance of the glorious Gospel of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. This dispensary, 
situated on the same tank as one of their sacred temples, 
is now a centre of Christian influence with Dr. Massey 
Clement, a nephew, assisted" liberally in his medical edu- 
cation by Dr. and Mrs. Joshee, in charge. The church, 
newly formed with Dr. Massey as Honorary Pastor, 
and with two grants of land given by grateful patients 
to Dr. Joshee, contributing to the support of the work, is 
now fairly launched, and with great thankfulness the 
doctor rejoices as in the joy of harvest. 


The Doctor as a Suitor. Going back again to the 
early days, we see a young doctor, dressed in English 
clothes and all in white, standing at a church door, as 
possibly many others have done before him, casually 
observing the young ladies as they come and pass in. 


This is a church at a large Christian college centre, and 
the preacher must needs be of the foremost in order to 
dispense spiritual food to the many Telugu professors 
and Christian missionaries there. 

The doctor has heard that the minister's oldest 
daughter is one of the choice ones of India. There is 
scarcely need for the friend at his elbow to indicate her 
approach, for her noble carriage, her fair countenance, 
and her modest demeanour would lead to her recognition 
as one among a thousand. As the suitor followed her 
into church and saw her face lighten up with the spirit 
of true devotion, his heart was won, and to him she is 
henceforth the one and only. 

Many hindrances came in the way of their union, but 
after two years or more of waiting, this gifted one was 
brought a bride to the "Cosey Home" in Ramachandra- 
puram, to be the truest helpmate of her good husband 
in all the branches of his work. Nay, more, without 
her wise counsel, her unfailing assistance and her re- 
markable executive ability, these various activities of 
which glimpses have been given, would have been im- 
possible of accomplishment. She has never accepted 
salary for anything she has done for the Mission. When 
she first arrived the Brahmins wondered how man}' 
thousands the doctor's adopted mother, Miss Hatch, had 
given for her daughter-in-law. So fair, so gifted, so 
devoted, Mrs. Joshee is as a rare jewel in our midst. 

"Her children rise up, and call her blessed ! Her hus- 
band also and he praiseth her." 


Lastly, A Glimpse of the Doctor in the Midst of His 
Family The two older daughters are about to leave for 


Madras to attend the Free Church High School (there 
being no high school for girls in our Canadian Baptist 
Mission, though there are two for boys), and the writer 
hurried down to "Cosey Home" to say good-bye, for the 
cart must soon leave for the railway station, twelve miles 
away. Being one of the family, she enters unannounc- 
ed, to find all, father, mother, Nelly, Eva, Charlie, 
Rachel, Anne Josephine, and Lalita, with their heads 
bowed in prayer, and the father is earnestly commend- 
ing the travellers to the care of the Heavenly Father, 
and praying God's blessing on each one. 

Yes, this is the attitude of the Joshee family in all 
their goings-out and their comings-in. All their bless- 
ings, the blessings vouchsafed to them in their family, 
in the church, in the hospital, in the leper home, in the 
town, and in the hospital, are acknowledged as from the 
hand of God, and to Him they wish to ascribe all the 


By Miss S. I. Hatch. 

Morampudi Sarah was the first to go in and out among 
the women of the villages in this field, where now there 
are 23 Biblewomen, so she is the pioneer. 

So full of intense zeal and enthusiasm, so wonderfully 
apt in illustration, in quotations from their own books 
to the Hindu's own discomfiture, so quick at repartee 
and so full of Gospel truth was she that one might wish 
all the younger generation might have learned at her 
feet. He story, as given below, was told by her many 
a time to her hearers, when she wanted to emphasize 
the truth of what she was saying from her own ex- 

"I was born of unbelieving parents, and so was mar- 
ried when very young. My husband was in charge of 
coolies digging the canals for irrigation, which has 
brought the great Godavari with all its sustenance to our 
very doors." 

"I was only 14 when my first child came to me. I was 
soon after attacked with a severe sifge of boils, and no 
amount of cow-dung cake dressing or priestly spells 
seemed to cure me. But one day, carrying my child on 
my hip, I went into the bazaar and there was a great 
commotion. A foreigner, whom I afterwards learned 
was Rev. A. V. Timpany, had gathered a crowd around 


him, and was telling a most wonderful story of a woman 
who for twelve years had suffered agony, but by touch- 
ing the garment of the great Healer had been healed. 
And after the preacher told the story, those who were 
with him sang it over and over again in such a familiar 

From left to right: M. Manikyam, P. Mary, G. Shantamma. 

tune. I listened, rapt and overjoyed, and felt at once 
the Healer would meet my need. And He did. I re- 
covered from my boils, but I learned later more than 
this, tliat as my body had been healed, my soul also 
could be cured, if I would but believe, and I would need 


no more to offer bloody sacrifices to the gods and god- 

"Because I became a Christian, my husband was very 
angry and shut his door against me. Morning after 
morning, I used to come and beg him to let me cook his 
meal for him, but he was furious with me. Then one 
night I took my child and lay at his door, and as I lay, 
I dreamed Jesus, my Saviour, appeared to me, saying, 
'Fear not. You are pardoned.' With great joy I awoke 
and hastily knocked at the door, but, alas ! there was no 
response. Just then, however, the child awoke and 
cried, and the cry of the child melted the heart of the 
father, and I was received. And, oh, joy! not long after 
he too followed Christ in baptism. God gave us five 
daughters and we adopted one son, and all but one of 
these became mission workers. 

'"Oh, yes. I have told you my story over and over again 
and the story of sin and the story of salvation through 
Him who died for us and rose again, the story of this 
great Healer. For twenty years up and down these 
canals in the good boat 'Elizabeth,' tramping all through 
these many villages, sometimes to the ones and twos, 
sometimes to the scores, and sometimes to the hundreds, 
I have been telling the story. Yes, many of you have 
believed, and yet so many are still outside, but woe is 
unto me, if I preach not the Gospel." 

And so Sarah would keep her hearers interested hour 
after hour, and those who had heard the story over and 
over before would still hear it with fresh desire from 
her lips, so great was her unction and her power. Worn 
out at last, she passed away into the everlasting rest, 
and within a week her adopted son followed her. 



Manikyam, representing- our educated women, pos- 
sesses a higher elementary certificate in English. She is, 
in part, a product of our Boarding School. She showed 
real desire for study by returning to school after several 
years of teaching and Bible work, and was justified in 
her ambition by passing ahead of all the others whose 
studies had been pursued uninterruptedly. 

She is essentially a teacher, the Bible -being her 
specialty. For some six years, she was virtually in 
charge of a training class for Biblewomen, and those 
who have been trained by her are now working in Par- 
lakimedi, Tuni, and Ramachandrapuram, and are highly 
spoken of. This class is now closed, as the women are 
being sent to the new Biblewomen's Training School at 

Manikyam is still chaperon to the younger Biblewomen 
and teachers. Her work is that of visiting the Zenanas 
in the afternoons and teaching in the Rajah-Cockshutt 
school in the mornings. Her help in the la'ce industry 
is also invaluable. The former pupils of the Rajah- 
Cockshutt school, both Brahmins, Komatis, and Sudras, 
are her most willing listeners, and they in turn have 
interested others, and multitudes of shut-in women have 
heard the sweet story of the Gospel from her lips. Her 
charm of manner, her sweet musical voice, her sym- 
pathetic understanding of the attitude of her hearers 
acquired through long years of acquaintance, add to the 
value of her message, a message that comes from a 
heart full of rich experiences. 



Mary represents the self-educated; and her story is 
composed from what has already appeared in print. 

Come, reader, back some twenty years, to a little 
thatched-roof, mud house in Kaleru, where lived Palli 
Philip and his wife Mary. Mary was uneducated, just 
a village woman, but there was a desire to give her life 
in service for Christ. As she saw her children being- 
taught in the new Mission school that had been opened 
for the few Christians there, she decided that she too 
must learn to read. She studied with her children who 
were in the village school and learned to read the Bible. 
Not satisfied with that, Mary longed for more Bible 
training. Her dream was that she might go to the Bible 
training class in connection with the Boarding school in 
Cocanada, but how could she get away to school when 
she had a husband and five children to work for? That 
was a problem. Her husband and young widowed 
daughter came to the rescue and took up the burden of 
caring for the three older children, while Mary took her 
wee baby and went to Cocanada to study. 

After a year she returned to Kaleru full of zeal, and 
knowing well the Bible stories. Among the many who 
believed through her Gospel message was a young blind 
girl. Mary taught her many hymns and verses; and as 
the blind girl went in and out among the caste people, 
she taught them also what she had learned, and very 
often they gave her food or a cloth. If you were to go 
to that village, you would hear the people tell of the 
little blind girl who left her message for Jesus. She has 
gone home, but her testimony remains, and the one who 
taught her still gives her message. 
Miss Myers continues ; "One day, as I was leaving the 


Madigapetta, Mary came to me and said, 'Amma, please 
come and see the caste people over here'. 'But Mary/ 
I replied, 'Miss Hatch is waiting for me.' 'Never mind/ 
said she, 'just come and see this Kamsali woman. She 
wants to become a Christian.' I had to go. I could not 
resist her pleading. After I had talked with the woman 
and had prayer, I left, and started for the other side of 
the town. But again Mary called me, 'Oh, come and see 
this blind woman, she lives just across the street.' Off 
I went again, and it was not until I visited three others 
that I could get away at all. There were many, many 
more, but time would not permit." 

"On our way to the canal we heard someone calling, 
'Wait, wait, Amma, he's coming'. We looked in the 
direction of the voice, and there running along the bank 
of the tank was Mary, and a few yards behind a rather 
elderly caste man. We stopped our rickshaw and the 
man came and salaamed to us. He at once began re- 
peating the 5 ist Psalm and many verses which Mary 
had taught him. He knows the Way, he has come into 
the Light, and since then he has been baptized." 

And so many stories could be repeated of all the 
houses Mary visits and of all the people she knows and 
has taught, and by the help of her Master, has led into 
the Light. 


This uneducated woman tells her own story. "A 
visit to our village some twenty years ago," she says, 
"would have shown you men, women and children living 
together in wretchedness and misery, all ignorant and 
debased, worshipping the little gods that are daubed over 
with yellow and red, and kept under daubed earthen 
pots in a miserable mud-walled 'gudi' or temple. If the 


dread goddess, cholera, should come, wild orgies would 
be engaged in, and the men, all drunk with toddy, would 
wildly sacrifice hens, chickens and goats in order to 
appease the goddess and send her away. 

"A no-man's land has separated us very effectively 
from the caste part of the village, and no caste man or 
woman ever darkened our doorway. But the missionary 
came, and the Mission school was opened, and so much 
of what was dark, has become light. There are now 
over one hundred Christians in this petta, and of. the 
caste people seven have been baptized. Now when 
cholera comes, we meet in church for prayer, and send 
for medicines to Ramachandrapuram. Though I am still 
illiterate, I have learned hymns and verses by heart, and 
because I have found the true Light, the caste women 
and children receive me gladly, and to them I teach what 
I have learned, going even into their school, where the 
Hindu teacher helps the children memorize the verses. 

"I have been supported in this work by the prayers 
and contributions of the Women's Society of the 
Goclavari District. I have had many sorrows, many 
cares and many burdens, and desire above all many 
prayers in my behalf." 


By Rev. J. R. Stillwell 


Pastor Sadhu David was born in 1850 in a small 
country village of no other significance than that he was 
born there. When twenty years of age he moved to 
Dowlaishwaram, where he learned to read and write in 
a Mission school. A little later he moved to Muramanda, 
now a village church centre on the Ramachandrapuram 
field; and while here, Rev. A. V. Timpany discovered 
him, and it was a good discovery the missionary made on 
the day that he found Sadhu David, as other mission- 
aries still living can testify. The missionary baptized 
him, took him to Cocanada, where he had him taught the 
necessary subjects to qualify Mr. David to serve as a 
colporteur; and then let him loose over a wide range of 
virgin territory as far as the gospel message was con- 
cerned. After good service as a colporteur, which ser- 
vice fitted him for other work, he was made pastor of 
the Nalluru church. Here he did such faithful work, 
and was successful to such an extent in impressing his 
personality on the people of his village, that he won for 
himself the very worthy name of "Nalluru" David, 

Mr. David was called from his village, Nalluru, to 
serve under that mighty and doughty missionary, the 
Rev. A. A. McLeocl at Anakapalli, where he kept up his 
record for faithful service. Indeed Sadhu David and 


faithfulness are all but identical terms, for David could 
not well be other than faithful. 

But Pastor David's greatest service was that rendered 
to the lepers at the Ramachandrapuram Leper Asylum 
under the superintendence of Miss Hatch. All his pre- 
vious experience seemed to have fitted him for this 
service, as though he were born to it. His heart was in 
the work and his life was so bound up in the interests 
of the lepers, that he became a part of the institution, 
and just as much an interesting character as the lepers 

He loved singing, composed many hymns, and taught 
them to the lepers, who would sing these hymns by the 
hour and the day to visitors, if the visitors loved the 
hymns equally with the lepers. He was a father as well 
as pastor to the lepers, and cared for them as though 
they were his own children. He was general assistant 
and general factotum, being handy at anything and 
everything that came his way, whether in securing sup- 
plies for the lepers, supervising the gardening which 
they did, doing carpentry in the making of coffins for the 
many who came in too late to receive much help and 
who passed away soon; or in giving any other service 
that the time and place called for. He became so much 
a part of the place that it has been hard to think of the 
Institution without expecting to see Pastor David some- 
where around. 

He lived his motto: "Be wise as serpents and harm- 
less as doves," and 'in every deed manifested the true 
Christlike spirit. His hymns are many of them still sung, 
and his memory abides after he himself has gone. He 
was married twice, had several children, of whom one, 
Pastor S. D. Lemuel, serves the Nalluru church, the son 


thus succeeding the father after many years. His 
second son was being trained to take his father's place, 
but, through joining the Indian Defence Force, his 
health became so undermined that he became consump- 
tive and died of that disease. The workmen pass, and 
the work continues, but its pace is accelerated in virtue 
of the lives lived and the services rendered by those 
gone before; and this brief biography commemorates 
Pastor Sadhu David and lists his name among the 
worthies of the Mission. 



One of the most efficient, intelligent, and helpful as- 
sistants on the Ramachandrapuram field was Pastor Bel- 
lam Lazarus. His family were the first converts in his 
native village, Veclaramudi, and in consequence had to 
suffer many indignities and privations which the son 
never forgot. His father's faith and perseverance 
under trials and tribulations was the son's great comfort 
and encouragement and became the iron in his blood. 

Mr. Lazarus studied in the Samalkot Seminary. 
While there under the influence of an older student, he 
joined in a school strike, a rather foolish one and soon 
broken, all the strikers making confession that their 
action was wrong with the exception of Lazarus and 
the older student, who decamped for home early one 
morning before any were stirring. The older student 
did not return, but Lazarus did; and he too made com- 
plete and unreserved confession. He never wholly for- 
got this lapse, for later while serving on the Ramachand- 
rapuram field, he repeatedly referred to it with regret. 


He served as a teacher in several villages, before his 
promotion to the pastorate of the Kaleru church. Of 
the villages where he taught, one was Jonnada, where 
years after, on the missionary visiting this village in 
company with Mr. Lazarus, pupils taught by him could 
remember and recite his verses and still sing the hymns 
he had taught them. He had enterprise and push. He 
was teacher of the village school as well as pastor of 
the church. To increase the number of his pupils and 
at the same time to engage and hold their interest, he 
instituted prizes which he provided from his own 

He had a knowledge of medicine for the common ail- 
ments of his people, a knowledge which served him well 
as he used it to increase his influence in the village. He 
helped his people in their difficulties, made them small 
loans of money when in need, and in every way proved 
himself a friend in time of necessity. He had an energy 
of. speech that moved and inspired his hearers. He had 
a gift and swing of song that carried all with him. He 
had keen qualities of mind that enabled him to meet 
difficult questions and put would-be assailants to shame. 
A single instance will suffice. 

On one occasion while holding a rally of workers in a 
large and important town, during the big street-preach- 
ing effort, a disputant appeared whose purpose seemed 
plain interruption. But the preaching continued, and 
the disputant disappeared. "Too bad," said a mission- 
ary present; "the disputer should have been met and 
answered, and not thus disregarded, until he wearied in 
his opposition and went his way." But he had not gone 
ozvay. "Look yonder," said I, and, on looking in the 
direction indicated, the missionary saw a little distance 


away on a quiet corner, Mr. Lazarus and the disputer 
in close and friendly argument, the Christian preacher 
ready at every turn to meet and answer the disputant. 

Belief in demon-possession is common throughout 
India, and the study of this widespread belief was of 
the deepest interest to this Christian preacher. He 
tested the belief on various occasions, and never, as far 
as his own observation went, found any reality behind 
the professed possession. The demon-possessed-one 
will dance and whirl about until he falls prostrate, from 
which prostrate position he believes he cannot rise until 
a chicken is procured for him. This the fallen one 
seizes, snaps its head off with his teeth, hurls it from him 
and rises. On one such occasion Mr. Lazarus went 
down and whispered in the ear of the prostrate one that 
no chicken was available, and that in this instance he 
would have to rise without its efficacious aid which the 
demon-possessed-one did. At one of the annual meet- 
ings of the Association Mr. Lazarus gave an address on 
demon-possession as it had come under his observation 
and study, and advanced reasons for questioning the 
presence of any other personality than that of the pos- 

Of the workers on the Ramachandrapuram field, there 
has been no other like him in thinking things through, 
and during our excursions to and from the villages at 
night, Mr. Lazarus passed much of the time in telling 
what he had been reading, commenting on it, and ask- 
ing my views on what was really new to him. 

He was married twice and left one daughter. He 
died in the faith which he had preached and lived. For 
when the end nearecl and his friends were expressing 
deep concern for him, he replied: "Feel no concern for 


me. 1 am going to my Father's house. My only con- 
cern is for you whom I am leaving." And with this 
message and confession of faith, he passed on to join 
those gone before. 



Pastor Morta Prakasam was born in 1878 in a small 
village on the Ramachandrapuram field. His father was 
baptized by Rev. A. V. Timpany and then sent on for 
training to the Samalkot Seminary, whither his son 
Prakasam accompanied him. On his father leaving the 
Seminary, Mr. Prakasam continued his studies entering 
the boarding department, where he remained until he 
completed his Lower Secondary certificate, which is 
about the equivalent of high school entrance in Canada. 
While at the Seminary he studied and graduated in 
theology. Later he took Normal training at Masuli- 
patam, and studied two years in the High School at 
Ongole from which place he was called by Mr. Davis to 
take charge of the Ramachandrapuram Station church, 
which position he has held ever since. 

As early as ten years of age he asked for baptism, but 
his father considered him too young. He, however, re- 
ferred him to the Principal of the Seminary, who de- 
layed him for a time. In his early years he formed a 
habit of making confession to his elders, conditioning 
his confession on being forgiven ; but he later discovered 
that confession to be worth while had to be uncondi- 
tioned. As his parents were Christians, the child took 
on naturally the Christian atmosphere, and when ar- 
rived at maturity had his early inheritance behind him 
as a mainstay. 


He did unusually well in his studies. He obtained 
first prize in the Peter Cator Bible examination, as well 
as prizes in the Bible examinations held by the Mission. 
He became a good speaker, can marshal and illustrate 
his thought, and at the Telugu Missions conference at 
Bezwada won first mention as delivering the best fifteen 
minutes' Gospel address among the Telugu-speaking 
delegates. He composes hymns, and has here again 
obtained first prize for his composition, as well as first 
prize in singing. He thus is capable and has an all- 
round equipment. 

His preaching has the ring of experience, while in the 
villages he can win and hold the attention of his hearers. 
He has a kindly way with him, and associates with his 
members throughout the villages in his church area in 
such friendly fashion that he has their esteem and affec- 
tion. He can prepare candidates (in reference to what 
they have to learn) for baptism in an incredibly short 
time. The candidates must have a knowledge of the 
chief events in the life of Jesus, must be able to repeat 
the Ten Commandments, and the Lord's Prayer. This 
is certainly of the nature of a herculean task for the 
illiterate convert, but Pastor Prakasam can, in spite of 
illiteracy, carry his converts through this, to them, for- 
midable task. 

The Ramachandrapuram Church of which Mr. Praka- 
sam is the pastor, has eight other workers within its 
area, all of whom are teachers, but all of whom assume 
responsibility for the work in thei'- respective villages. 
With all of these Pastor Prakasam works in the com- 
pletest harmony and is able to organize his forces so as 
to make for the greatest efficiency. There have been 
as many as one hundred baptisms in the Ramachandra- 


puram Church alone in a single year. He is the chair- 
man of the pastors' committee, and lias frequently given 
great assistance in settling the differences in the other 
churches on the Ramachandrapuram field. The mis- 
sionary has had to see that each church retains its 
autonomy, for without a restraining influence, the Sta- 
tion church and its pastor would gradually dominate the 
field and the other churches. During Mr. Prakasam's 
pastorate, two churches have been formed from the 
membership of the Station church, and it is under con- 
templation to form other two churches. The member- 
ship of the church during this period has grown from 
one hundred to five hundred, while the contributions 
have increased from small beginnings to nine hundred 
rupees or three hundred dollars. Besides the other 
workers mentioned, the church has greatly benefited 
from the presence, assistance, and inspiration given by 
Dr. and Mrs. Joshee,' who are members of the church 
and of the church committee while Dr. Joshee has been 
and is the church's very efficient and trustworthy 

Mr. Prakasam is still in middle life and should have 
the most useful part of his career before him. He fills 
a big place in all the work within the church's area, and 
has been a large contributor to its advancement. The 
Mission is considering the question of devolution or 
transfer of responsibility, and whatever scheme goes 
through the Ramachandrapuram church will be the first 
on the field to try its powers and show what it can do 
under efficient pastoral and lay leadership. 

By Mrs. Mary Stillwell McLaurin. 

Mr. Bhanumurti was born in Cocanada, in February 
1888, and was the fifth child in a family of six. When 
he was four years old his father became a Christian 
through the influence of Mr. Timpany and Mr. Davis. 
His mother was unwilling to follow her husband, so 
ran away to Vizagapatam, taking her youngest daughter 
and her three sons with her. After about six months 
she returned to Cocanada, but still refused to live with 
her husband. Finally he insisted on her coming back 
to him, but the eldest son remained with an aunt and is 
still a Hindu. The mother, however, became a Christian 
a couple of years later. Mr. Bha'numurti was about six 
years old at the time, and as small boys were received in 
the Cocanada Girls' Boarding School, where his father 
was teaching, he studied there for a while. Later he 
went to the Samalkot Boys' School, and here he was 
converted in 1900. His High School course was taken 
in the Pithapur Rajah's College in Cocanada, followed 
later by a teacher training course, after which he taught 
in the Jagannaikpuram school, which is one of the 
schools in the South Cocanada field. 

Rev. Ralph Smith, who was in charge of the work at 
the time, tried to persuade him to enter evangelistic 
work, but school work held a greater attraction for him. 
It was after attending the World's Christian Endeavor 
Conference in Agra, in 1909, that his mind began to 
turn towards evangelistic work. On the death of the 


pastor of the Jagannaikpuram church he took the ser- 
vices while still carrying on the work of the school. 

Three years later he married a daughter of Mr. 
Somalingam, of Bimlipatam. His wife is a real help- 
meet and a beautiful homemaker. His father-in-law 
was also anxious that he enter the ministry. 

Through the kindness of Rev. Ralph Smith and his 
family, he was given an opportunity to attend Serampore 
Theological Seminary, where he made a good record for 
himself, and received his diploma as an L.Th. On his 
return he resumed his former pastorate for two years, 
then was appointed as the first Indian teacher from the 
Canadian Baptist Mission on the staff of the Union 
Theological Seminary at Ramapatam. 

He is a man who likes to read and to keep abreast of 
the times by not only perusing periodicals pertaining to 
India, but by taking a keen interest in the religious news 
of England and Canada, and especially in the news of 
our own denomination. There is little in the "Canadian 
Baptist" that misses his attention. He not only reads 
the papers but many books on various subjects of inter- 
est. He takes part in all the activities of the school, 
and enjoys a game of football or a dip in the sea as 
much as any of the students. The boys feel that they 
have a friend in him as he is always ready to help them 
in any way he can. He is doing his part in striving to 
send out men to become the religious leaders of his 



From the 


By Mrs. C. H. Archibald. 

When the Canadian missionaries went to the Ganjam 
District, and settled first in Parlakimedi, and thereafter 
in Chicacole, Bhagavan Behara was living in Akulatam- 
para, a village on the former field. He had heard the 
good news of the Gospel of Salvation from Das Anth- 
ravady, who was in charge of the officers' mess in an 
Indian regiment. Bhagavan belonged to the Srusti 
Karnam caste, and was a tall, dignified-looking man. He 
wore his well-kept, black hair quite long, and cut straight 
across the back of his neck, and would often tuck it 
behind his ears, as he conversed. He was grave and 
sedate, and always presented a good appearance. When 
he was 'baptized, his wife took their children and went 
to her people; she returned after a year, and finally 
became a Christian, and did Bible work for years, liv- 
ing a useful, quiet life. Bhagavan assisted Mr. Arm- 
strong in the work of the field, and after that, missionary 
returned to Canada with his family, Bhagavan was 
ordained in order that he might assist the new lady mis- 
sionary more fully. He was pastor in Akulatampara 


for some years, and was then transferred to Chicacole, 
where he also did pastoral work. While in Akulatam- 
para he baptized Basavanna, a young man from Pal- 
konda, the first fruits from the field. And when Balla 
Gurana, the father of Basavanna, was seeking the light, 
Bhagavan went to Palkonda especially to help this man, 
and did excellent service. Afterwards, when help 
was particularly needed in Bobbili, though Chicacole 
assistants were few in number, he was allowed to go 
there, where he spent some useful years, and where he 
finally ended his earthly career. 

In many respects, he was an exemplary, faithful, care- 
ful man and brought up his three children in a most 
creditable manner. The Bible was his one Book; and 
he knew it as few Telugus do; the ease with which he 
could refer to chapter and verse from memory was re- 
markable. While not a deep thinker, he was a good 
student, and three times daily the Bible was read, and 
prayer offered with his family. His salary was not 
large, but he never went into debt, an unusual thing with 
a Hindu, and he was not always making requests for 
more salary ; that did not comport with his dignity. His 
manhood was not discredited by bad habits; his worst 
one was the use of tobacco. He and Mr. Archibald 
sometimes talked about this, and not infrequently prayed 
about it; but he insisted, that he could not give up its 
use, as it kept the bad cough he had under control. But 
to our surprise, when he was about fifty-six years old, 
he reported that he had cut loose from the habit, and 
that he was entirely free from it. This proved to be a 
fact, and he never returned to it again. This action 
was a spiritual uplift ; thereafter his testimony in private 
and in public gatherings, and at the Associations was 


very powerful as to how God could and did help him, 
and he was a happier, cleaner man to the day of his 
death, and a greater comfort to his missionary friends. 
We always felt assured, that Bhagavan would do his 
best for the honor of his Heavenly Master, and for the 
advancement of His Kingdom in the earth; we never 
were afraid that something not quite right, as far as 
his knowledge went, might come out some day and cause 
us grief. And as long as evil doers wanted to continue 
in their wrong ways, they felt that they had better keep 
their secrets from Bhagavan. As the light-house stands 
steadily amid the waves that pound at its base, so 
Bhagavan stood among the temptations and all the 
forces for evil that gathered about us in those earlier 
days. He lived his life through to the end and passed on 
into the life eternal, respected and honoured by all who 
knew him. 



By Mrs. C. PI. Archibald. 

Our brother Seetaramiah was born at Bimlipatam 
nearly seventy years ago. He Avas a Brahman by caste; 
and his family was of good social position. He had the 
advantage of some early education, which he had 
acquired in the schools of the town, and later on he at- 
tended the school started by Rev. R. Sanford. He went 
for some time also to the London Mission High School 
in Vizagapatam. 

Although an old man now, he is still tall and straight 
and carries his years with dignity. He is a man of good 
mind, fond of reading, and reads English very well. He 
was always deeply interested in religious questions, and 
enjoyed religious conversations with his various teachers. 
When the Bible came into his hands, and he saw the 
position of the sinner before God, and the gracious pro- 
vision that had been made to save him, his heart was 
greatly moved. But neither in his own house, nor any- 
where in public, did he dare to be seen reading the Bible. 
While attending Mr. Sanford's school, he and a friend 
would conceal themselves among the sand-dunes on the 
sea-beach, and read and discuss the matters that were 
so interesting to them both. The friend seemed to come 
into the light, and was planning to make a public con- 
fession of his faith when he Avas taken suddenly ill and 
died in a few hours. The cause of his death was a 
subject of serious consideration by his missionary 
friends. It was feared that he was poisoned. This, 


naturally, proved a great hindrance to Mr. Seetaramiah, 
and for a long time he kept his religious yearnings care- 
fully hidden in his own heart. He did some Mimshi 
or language teaching work for the missionaries, and the 
acquaintance thus begun continues. For many years 
he has been our friend and brother in the 'Gospel. 

Many talks we had, but he found difficulty in accept- 
ing a free pardon for sin as this was in strong conflict 
with the Hindu teaching that salvation was procured by 
good works. Afterwards he was Mimshi and teacher 
at Chicacole; but his wife, who was still a child, re- 
mained in the home of her mother-in-law. Gradually 
his courage returned and his face began to glow as the 
assurance strengthened that he had been born again. 
In March, 1882, he was baptized in the river that flows 
past the Mission House by the new missionary who had 
recently arrived from Canada. He was the first 
Brahman who was ever baptized in our Mission. He 
seemed like a prisoner set free; his face shone, and his 
voice rang out clear and strong as he addressed the 
large crowd that had witnessed his baptism, and which 
was now gathered in the Mission compound. He told 
of his search for truth, and of his assurance, that he had 
found it in Jesus Christ, and earnestly besought all to 
consider this important matter. Some hours afterwards 
a man came from the house, where he was boarding with 
near relatives, and asked that he come as usual that 
evening for his evening meal. He did not share the 
fears entertained by some and could not be persuaded 
to decline the invitation. He went but did not return; 
and there is not space Jiere to record the events of those 
dreadful days. 
After some time he came to us assisted by two men, 


as he was unable to walk alone. They said he had been 
suddenly taken ill after partaking of his food; but, as 
he was continually crying for the missionaries, they had 
brought him as he was. He had been heavily drugged, 
which they well knew, and now his mind was completely 
unbalanced, and ten or more years passed away before 
he was able to resume responsible work. Even up to 
the present time we do not feel that he has recovered 
from the effects of that drugging. He is not the man 
he might have been could he have come into the Chris- 
tian religion without it. 

We pass over the long dark time when he struggled 
with his beclouded mind and his darkened soul; when 
converse with the missionaries was denied him, and all 
possible efforts were made to draw him again to his old 
faith. Twenty-two years after his baptism he reap- 
peared at Chicacole and asked to rejoin the church of 
his firgt love. Soon the word was all over the country- 
side, and his wife and other relatives came to renew the 
struggle. His wife came into the compound and into 
his house, and used every endearment and persuasion to 
induce him to go outside of the Mission premises; but 
he did not yield. Much prayer was offered for him, 
and all that Christian sympathy could do was done. 
Finally the day came when the Brahmans of the town 
said that she must leave, whether he came or not. All 
the morning she urged and coaxed ; and later on, step by 
step, she lovingly and persuasively led him by the hand 
to the gate. Our hearts nearly stood still ; he must once 
more make his choice. Scores of' people were beyond 
the walls watching intently. She went through the gate 
and endeavored to draw him after her. But he stop- 
ped, and forcibly loosened her hands from his own, 


turned back, and without once looking around walked 
straight into the study. Trembling and with streaming 
eyes, he exclaimed, "This is what it costs me to be a 
Christian." Outside the crowd was now jeering and 
shouting, but we were sobbing and praying and trying 
to comfort him all in one. 

They removed his wife to a village forty miles dis- 
tant, and five months passed away. Brahmans of this 
town tried to bribe him with money, and with promises 
of subsistence to recant, but he stood firm. One day he 
rushed into the house exclaiming, "Three of the men, 
who helped to take my wife from me have died this 
week; this is a miracle; God is working for me; and I 
am going for my wife." He went ; and the Lord went 
with him and before him, and stood by him, and he 
brought her back with him, his face beaming with joy. 
That was nineteen years ago. . Suramma was a smart 
Brahman woman, not a bit pretty, but he thought she 
was, so what matters? She could not read, and never 
will; but she has learned the way of eternal life, and is 
rich. One day before she learned, we were having 
some conversation, in which the good things she might 
have were set before her; she looked up calmly and 
said, not pleasantly, "I did not come here to be a Chris- 
tian; but to be with my husband. But if you want to 
talk with me about this religion, I will not be rude, but 
listen politely ; but if there is a hell, I will go to it, rather 
than become a Christian." 

In due time, the Spirit of the Lord laid hold upon her, 
and let her graciously out of darkness into light, and her 
mouth was opened and she has been talking about her 
Saviour ever since. Oh no, she cannot read; but she 
can learn hymns and texts, and tries to sing, and some 


Hindu women like to listen to her, when she does that; 
all might not enjoy it; but then it is Suramma, and she 
will sing better in the land where time will not be counted 
by days. They are living in Calingapatam, and have 
been there for years. She knows all the towns and 
near villages, and practically all the people in them, 
men, women or children; they all need to be talked to. 
Her purdah life seems forgotten. She visits the sick, 
and gives far too liberally of her substance to the poor; 
and she may be imposed on at times. She walks the 
streets alone, fearing no one ; and no one would think of 
molesting Suramma. 

Her husband has had hard battles to fight with his 
Brahman prejudices, and his old ideas about the un- 
touchables, or the outcaste population; and there are 
still regrettable things about them both. It is not easy 
for him to be brotherly towards one, who has come from 
some lower caste, yet who now occupies some position, 
which he feels is higher than his own. Possibly others, 
who have had more advantages, may have some difficulty 
in the same way. But he has gained so many victories ; 
and they are both looking unto Jesus. They are living- 
epistles known and read of all men, and we praise God 
for the wonders grace has wrought in them both. He, 
too, is kind to all men, high and low; tries to preach 
Christ and Him crucified to all; and often as- 1 look at 
them, and think of what they have endured, and of how 
the love of God in Christ Jesus has changed them I 
magnify the Divine wisdom and power, that can work 
such miracles in the hearts of sinful men. 

By Mrs. C. H. Archibald. 

Some seventy years ago, a small brown baby girl 
opened her black eyes for the first time in the Rajah's 
palace at Tekkali in the Ganjam District, the most north- 
ern section of the Madras Presidency. Her mother was 
a sister of the Rajah; her father died in her infancy, 
and she was the only child. This baby was named Har- 
riamma, and she was surrounded by all the comforts 
that could be provided by a wealthy Hindu home. Idol- 
atry reigned supreme there, and, while it robbed life of 
much of its joyful freedom, it enslaved the hearts of 
its devotees with fears of many kinds, and filled them 
with countless superstitions. 

Neither wealth nor fear protected this baby from the 
hot iron that seared her little abdomen to keep away the 
demons, that were about on every side. This was one 
way of showing the careful love of the mother; and just 
as lovingly the small nose and ears were bored with a 
suitable number of holes, and later on these were filled 
with shining jewels, and all felt that this little girl was 
well started in life. No one thought of school for her, 
for her future was planned quite superior to that. Why 
should she learn to read? And probably there were no 
real schools near her home. But she must be married; 
and before her babyhood was well passed, and before 
she could understand what was being done, this matter 
was arranged, and before she was old enough to realize 
her. loss, she was a widow, and her whole life was 


In the same house, and in the same family there was 
a boy named Gurahati who, though growing into young 
manhood, had never married. He was a leper; but 
that would not prevent parents from giving him a daugh- 
ter in marriage. He was studying and reading Hindu 
sacred books; and the child Harriamma, for whom all 
worldly ambition was dead, was allowed to learn to read 
with him. Between these two, who were scarcely more 
than children, a warm friendship grew up. Perhaps he 
felt his trouble as a leper, and gradually she was learn- 
ing what it meant to be a Hindu widow, so it is easy 
to see how they might grow into sympathy with one an- 
other. This attachment became the ruling passion of 
their lives, and he finally refused to marry any other girl. 
But Harriamma was a widow; therefore he could not 
marry her. However, with ceremonies which they 
knew how to arrange, she was given to him in a state of 
wifehood, and no one felt that it was wrong, and she 
never thought of dishonor. Some years later those in 
authority over these' young people insisted on making a 
real marriage for him, leper and all as he was; and 
though these two were living contentedly together. So 
a girl was chosen, and the ceremony was performed with 
all due pomp and parade. The new wife was a child, 
and played about happily, while the other two enjoyed 
mutual fellowship and companionship in each other and 
in their books. 

One day a travelling colporteur in the employ of the 
London Mission came that way, and dropped a two- 
paged leaflet in Oriya, which at last fell into Harriam- 
ma's hands. She read it, and induced Gurahati to read 
it also, and they had much conversation about the new 
ideas therein set forth. Up to that time, no gleam from 


the Light of the World had shone across their pathway; 
darkness enveloped them. The sun cast his warm radi- 
ance about them, and the only darkness they recognized 
was that which came on the dewy wings of night. But 
that leaflet had stirred strangely hitherto untouched 
depths in their souls, and induced much consideration. 
And one day another white-winged messenger was drop- 
ped in their path, which was also eagerly read and from 
this they learned that there was a Book, which would 
tell them more about these wonderful new things. In 
ways the Hindus know how to utilize, they sent to Chi- 
cacole for this Book, and all unknown to others, the Old 
Testament slipped into the Rajah's palace. How won- 
derfully God works! Light and life came with the 
Word of God, and long afterwards they were able to 
say, "Thy Word is a lamp unto my feet." They began 
to pray to the God about whom the Book told, and still 
later they secured a copy of the New Testament. Can 
we, in whose hands the Bible has always been, imagine 
what it must be to those, who read it for the first time ? 
God was turning their hearts towards Himself, and they 
were alternately filled with fear and delight, as they 
met Him face to face in His word. Such holiness, such 
righteousness appalled them; such love, such mercy 
melted them. They saw the horrible pit and the miry 
clay, and cried unto Him for help, and the time came 
when they could say, "The Lord is my Light and my 
Salvation." They learned from the Book that believers 
in Jesus were baptized ; that the candidates were dipped 
in water. And upon inquiry they learned that the few 
Christians at Chicacole used only a few drops of water; 
but that those at Berhampore were immersed, and this 
method seemed to them to accord with what they read 


in the Book; so to Berhampore Gurahati decided to go. 
And he knew that going meant never returning to the 
old familiar home so dear to him. They did not wish 
to be separated; but they knew that they could not get 
away together. So they made their plans quietly, as 
the utmost secrecy was necessary to prevent their being 
forcibly restrained. When the day came, they both took 
hold of the Bible and promised to be true to each other, 
and to faithfully follow this new religion as God should 
guide them, and then Gurahati went. 

There was an uproar in the home when he was missed ; 
and so rapidly did they get after him that they reached 
Berhampore before he was baptized and caught 
him in the street. After much talk, realizing 
that he was powerless before so many, he said he could 
not return with them without the money and jewels he 
had entrusted to the care of the missionary. As little 
as they wished to meet this gentleman, they would face 
him rather than run the risk of losing so much property. 
They reached the Mission premises, and as they ap- 
proached the house, Gurahati at the right moment 
rushed in and closed and fastened the door behind him. 
He knew that if they got him back to Tekkali, his life 
would not be worth much. To his dismay the mission- 
ary was out; but just as he thought all was lost, this 
friend returned and a war of words ensued. But Gura- 
hati could not be moved, and his. relatives went away 
without him. In due time he was baptized. 

Hard days followed for Hamamma. Gurahati' s fun- 
eral ceremonies were performed; with some rice flour 
they made a small image of him, and burned that on the 
funeral pile as if it were really his body, and his name 


dropped out of the home circle. Harriamma was 
blamed for the disgrace that had fallen on the family. 
None could be greater than for a member to become a 
Christian. Doubts and fears beset her; no one sym- 
pathized with her; on the contrary she was severely 
blamed, and was scolded and scorned; she was only a 
widow, and now she had helped to bring about this 
catastrophe. One day, chiefly as a test, she besought 
help from one of the household idols; for she must, in 
some way, set at rest the gnawing doubts that were eat- 
ing her heart out. Suppose all this loss, humiliation and 
separation were not necessary? She waited; and when 
the desired help did not come, she took the idol from 
its place, and threw it on the floor with hands that 
trembled, saying "Now help yourself, if you can." When 
no harm came to her, and the image could not get back 
to its place, her last fear of all idols disappeared, and 
her new faith was strengthened. She waited yearn- 
ingly for some word from the absent one. Letters were 
few in those days, and the days were long. At last a 
verbal message came; she was to be on the watch for a 
man who would come to her with some word that she 
would recognize as coming from Gurahati, and she was 
to obey him. Apart from her mother, no one in the 
home cared much for her now, so she was allowed un- 
usual freedom of action. One day while sitting near 
the door, a man came by and dropped a word that set 
her heart throbbing, and she knew that another crisis 
was at hand. Again he passed by, and this time he 
told her to be at a certain place, at a given hour the fol- 
lowing night; and with quivering pulses she began to 
make plans to leave the only spot in the world that she 
knew. How big the world was ! How desolate she wa v s ! 


Could this new God, whom she was trying to trust, help 
and keep her? U 0h," she said, years afterwards, as she 
related this, "my heart ached and my head ached, I loved 
my mother, and the whole place was dear." But though 
faltering and fearful she was resolved; for should her 
plans be discovered, her fate might be terrible. At the 
appointed time, she left the house, and eventually reached 
Berhampore in safety, and was duly baptized. No one 
followed or sought her ; she was not worth looking for or 
taking trouble about. It was well that she too had gone ; 
now the family would be at peace. 

But all difficulties were not at an end. In this new 
religion since Gurahati had a married wife, no one else 
could be recognized as such. They could not be together 
as they were at Tekkali. Other troubles arose also. The 
missionary, who knew their circumstances so thoroughly, 
went home. Gurahati was ill and she went to his 
assistance, and later on they went to Calcutta, and after 
some time returned to Tekkali. Here the Canadian mis- 
sionaries found them and she was brought to Chicacole 
and was the constant and intimate companion of the 
lady missionary, who was working there at that time. 
As no other missionaries were there, life without her 
would have been much more lonely. Later on a Hindu 
council gave Gurahati his freedom, and he and Harri- 
amma were married in the Mission House. After long 
years, after great troubles, when she was much more 
refined than formerly, when his disease had made much 
progress, they were married and Avent to Tekkali to live. 
From the time he first returned to Tekkali, he had 
endured severe persecutions from his former relatives, 
and these did not cease now; but there is not space to 
recount them here. They suffered together, and wit- 


nessed for Christ. Sometimes a tree sheltered him, 
sometimes a leaf roof, but that would soon be destroyed. 
They would not permit him to have water from the 
ordinary wells, which caused him much inconvenience. 
Out of his poverty he had a well dug, and nicely stoned 
up ; and on one large stone he caused an inscription to be 
cut, certifying that for all time the water of this well 
was to be free for all classes and conditions of men; 
that no man, however low his caste, should ever be hin- 
dered from drawing water from it. This clean, good 
water proved a great blessing to many people. 

To him belong the first-fruits from the Savara Hills; 
and a good number of other Christians were gathered in 
from his earnest work. Year by year his disease and 
bodily weakness increased; but his faith correspondingly 
strengthened and shone with renewed lustre. When the 
pearly gates unfolded for him, his little mud hut seemed 
filled with the angelic host, and glory from the Heavenly 
land appeared to flood the place. His brown face was 
glorified, and his last words were a testimony to the love 
and power of such a Saviour as he had found. The 
missionary who witnessed his departure, was awed and 
melted into tears. Hindus and Christians stood about 
weeping and solemnized. They laid him to rest in the 
little cemetery that he had given to the Mission, and 
Harriamma returned to Chicacole, where her last days 
were spent in doing Bible work. These are among those 
who have come up .out of great tribulation, and have 
washed their robes and made them white in the blood 
of the Lamb. 


By Mrs. C. H. Archibald. 

You never saw Gurana, 
did you? He was good to 
look at, with his bright 
cheerful face, and his ever- 
ready smile. Of medium 
height, rather stout, good 
natured, and somewhat 
humorous, it was easy for 
Gurana to see the best side 
of things. When we first 
knew him, he was the head- 
man in the Weaver caste at 
Palkonda, when that town 
was an out-station of the 
Chicacole field. He was re- 
spected and liked among his BaMa Gurana . 
own caste people, and, as a 

leader and teacher, was well acquainted with the Hindu 
sacred books. He had a strong musical voice and could 
read and sing most acceptably, a fact which increased 
his influence among the ordinary people. One day 
his son Basavanna brought home a copy of the Psalms, 
which he had purchased from a colporteur, and his 
father began to read this little book with interest. 

He wanted to know, who the One addressed as 
Jehovah was. Why should the one called David con- 


fess his sins to Him or to any one else? He felt that 
was a very extraordinary thing for a man to do. But 
there was no one at hand to supply this information, 
Afterwards, a colporteur came that way, who was able 
to instruct him as to the book, and to tell of the way 
of salvation, and why men should confess their sins. 
Gurana and his son Basavanna talked much about this 
new religion, and while the father seemed favourably 
impressed by it, the son argued strongly against it, 
though all the time the .Spirit of God was working in 
his heart. He would secretly read the books, while the 
other members of the family were in slumberland, and 
would converse with other men in an effort to discover 
how this teaching affected other minds. 

The wife and mother was bitterly opposed to the 
books being in the house at all, as she was sure that 
white men sold them only to try to destroy their caste. 
Basavanna says that one day, while he and a Hindu 
friend were discussing these questions a great light sud- 
denly shone into his soul, and he soon felt assured that 
this was the new heart of which he had heard and read. 
The opposition of his mother became more determined; 
and one clay she told him that, if he would not give up 
this matter, he had better leave the house. Tying his 
book in his cloth, he started for Chicacole to see the 
missionaries; but Avhen he reached the road turning off 
in the direction of Akulatampara, he felt led to go there 
and talk things over with Bhagavan Behara. This he 
did, and was eventually baptized there. Afterwards he 
came to Chicacole, and still later he was sent to Bobbili 
to assist in the work there. The fields were larger then 
than now; missionaries were fewer; and capable Indian 
assistants were needed everywhere. But at that time 


Bobbili was almost without capable workers, and there 
seemed to be good material in him; and as among the 
missionaries there was a disposition to share up, he was 
sent there, where he has now been some thirty-five years, 
and where he is regarded as a good and useful brother. 
He is at one of the out-stations, and it is hoped that he 
may have still more years to testify for his Saviour, and 
to witness among his own people. 

The baptism of Basavanna startled the family; but as 
he did not return home to live, there was no open 
trouble. The father, Gurana, was still undecided. The 
necessary sacrifice appeared very great. All that he 
held dear, save this son, was on the side that an open 
profession would compel him to leave. Bhagavan was 
sent from Akulatampara to reside at Palkonda, that he 
might strengthen and instruct Gurana, and in 1889, tne 
year following the baptism of his son, he felt the love 
of Christ constraining him; and was possessed of a 
desire to acknowledge the Saviour, who had saved him. 
He also wished to proclaim Him to others. He thought 
he would like to be baptized there among his own caste 
people, little realizing the attitude they would at once 
assume towards him. He could not see why they should 
object to his following the dictates of his own conscience 
in this matter. He had yet to learn that religious free- 
dom had not at that time been secured to India. Time 
and again Mr. Bhagavan sent for Mr. Archibald, as he 
did not like to attempt the baptism of such a prominent 
man without some one on whom he could in some 
measure depend. But whenever Mr. Archibald appeared 
in town, Gurana was forcibly locked up by his brothers 
and could not be seen. 


He began to see that there were difficulties in the way. 
Further, he had heard that there were other Christians 
who required only a little water for baptism, and that 
it need not be performed publicly. So he thought that, 
in his case, he might get around some of the difficulties 
by adopting these plans. Some interesting occurrences 
need not be recorded here; but one day, without any 
planning, the missionary who taught baptism by im- 
mersion, and the one who taught it by sprinkling arrived 
in town. Gurana requested that they should meet and 
discuss the question in his presence. Neither was 
anxious to do this ; but both were interested in the man, 
so with the utmost good nature and brotherliness his 
request was acceded to, and all sat down together. When 
Gurana felt that he had heard enough, the other gentle- 
man said, "Well, what do you think?" and he replied, 
"A full baptism is best." Then said the other mission- 
ary, "Go to Mr. Archibald and be baptized." Plans were 
made for his baptism, but his friends made some to 
prevent it. Theirs succeeded and he was captured and 
shut up. Thus once more the missionaries returned to 
Chicacole without having accomplished the principal 
object of their visit; and they did not get a glimpse of 
him again for months. 

Another message came, and this time the missionaries 
were advised not to appear in the town, but to wait 
outside in the travellers' rest-house till Gurana could 
come. He did not know when that would be, but it 
would be towards evening he thought. He came hurry- 
ing in just at dark, exclaiming, "Your son has come," 
and with but few preliminaries he was baptized into the 
Name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. In 
a short time he came in again, but now he fell at our 


feet, clasping his head, from which the sacred tuft of 
hair the juttu had disappeared and with strong crying- 
he said, "'Oh my juttu is gone; my caste is gone; I was 
once a weaver, but now I am nobody." Comfort, assur- 
ance and satisfaction came after a while, and he was 
filled with glowing happiness. While some sought sleep, 
yet ever on the watch for those who might come to 
steal him away, he sat in the next room and sang the 
whole night through. We asked him several times if 
he could not stop, as we feared his voice would be heard 
by others and his whereabouts be made known during 
the dark hours, when trouble could be easily made. But 
not much impression was made, till the dawn began to 
creep in, then he lay down and slept for a short time. 

Early in the morning his wife came, and soon a large, 
boisterous crowd was about us. The tears of his wife, 
the entreaties and angry threats of his friends all failed 
to move him. Religious frenzy is perhaps the worst 
kind ; certainly human nature looks very bad when deeply 
enraged over what should be sacred matters and what 
each man should be allowed to decide for himself. He 
urged his wife to come with him saying that, now he 
knew about the love of Jesus, he would be a better hus- 
band to her than ever before; but she utterly refused 
everything but his complete recantation. Hours passed, 
and finally one big Brahman shook his fist in Mr. Archi- 
bald's face and said, "Were it not for British law, we 
would soon attend to you" a statement which could not 
be doubted, but to which no reply was made. 

Gurana was removed from Palkoncla for a time, then 
returned to his home, but never really went into his 
house again. He prepared a room on the verandah, or 
attached one to the house, which he occupied till the day 


of his death. Another son became a Christian, and after 
years the wife said that she was a believer, but we do 
not know; otherwise, the family remained about as it 
was. He loved to go from one field to another, talking- 
first to his OAvn caste people, but having messages for all. 
Having been a teacher of the Hindu sacred books, he 
was a powerful enemy when engaged in the religious 
controversies which his own people so delight in. His 
voice was strong and vibrant, and he had a remarkable 
gift for memorizing Scripture, which seemed to roll from 
his tireless tongue. He would talk to individuals, 
families and to large crowds, and often they would stand 
hushed as he proclaimed to them the Gospel. The atone- 
ment and justification by faith were the themes in which 
he particularly rejoiced, and long into the night he would 
try to teach how God could be just and justify the 
sinner. He could not make sermons; but he could tell 
and sing the Gospel. He bore his trials cheerfully, and 
these were not a few. He communed with God in 
prayer; and often as we listened to him he took us into 
the Holy of Holies, where the glory of the Shekinah 
seemed to overshadow us. With bowed heads and tear- 
wet eyes we have often felt that Gurana reached a place 
that we could not attain. Unlike Bhagavan he loved 
money; and was probably more accustomed to a larger 
amount than he; and he may have had less of it, as a 
Christian, than he would have had had he remained a 
leader among his own people. He and his son were 
converted some thirty-five years ago, the first-fruits from 
what is now the Palkonda field. At present this is one 
of the most encouraging and fruitful fields in this part 
of the Mission. From there, he passed on to the better 
land some five years ago; and of him, as of others, it 


may be truly said, "And the head oft boAved and weary, 
Everlasting joy shall crown." 

Those of us who have passed through severe struggles 
with some of these dear brethren respect, honour and 
love them and their memories with an ever increasing 
gratitude to God in Christ Jesus for His boundless 
grace and mercy. 

By Miss M. H. Blackadar. 


G. Narasiah was born in a village near Nellore in 
1836. His father was a native physician. His uncle was 
a Vaishnavite Guru. As his father was a man of some 
position, Narasiah was sent to school and had many 
advantages. When a youth, he one day went to Nellore 
to pay the taxes on his father's lands into the Govern- 
ment Treasury. While in Nellore he met the Rev. L. 
Jewett, who gave him copies of the Gospels of Matthew 
and Mark. Unlike many who put the portions on a shelf 
to be covered with dust, Narasiah read the Gospels. 
The story of Jesus fascinated him. Compared with his 
uncle's teaching, the holiness of Jesus' character, the 
purity of His teaching flashed out as a rainbow on a 
cloud. Conviction of the truth gripped Narasiah's heart. 
When he went to Nellore a second time to the Treasury 
he sought out Mr. Jewett and was baptized. 

After his baptism he was sent to Ramapatam, where 
he took the Theological course. He worked with Mr. 
Drake for some time in Kurnool, and then he returned 
to Nellore to collect income from the lands. While there 
he was tempted to enter the Police force, where he rose 
to be a Head-Constable. But the Spirit spoke to him 
and he again entered Mission service. He was married 
to Sayamma, and they went back to Kurnool. 

About this time Mr. and Mrs. Churchill opened a mis- 
sion station at Bobbili. They called for workers, and in 
God's providence Narasiah and Sayamma were sent to 


Bobbili. In these days of motor cars and railway trains 
the journey could be accomplished in a day and a half, 
but, in those days of ox-carts and canal boats, it took a 
month. It was an unknown land, a far country, and with 
their intense love of their own people, it took as much 
courage to go to Bobbili as for our pioneers to leave 
Canada. They stayed for a week in Cocanada, where 
they were cheered by Mr. Timpany, and arrived in 
Bobbili August ist, iSSi. Mr. Narasiah was a tall, 
athletic figure, gentle by nature but bold in his testimony 
for Jesus Christ. Mr. Churchill toured constantly over 
his extensive field, and Mr. Narasiah was always with 
him. At first the people were hostile, and they had some 
narrow escapes from foul play, but their courage and 
gentleness at length disarmed hostility. Mr. Narasiah 
worked among rajah caste people for a time and won 
some converts. The joy of the Lord was his strength. 
He was a faithful servant of the Cross. 


Sayamma was born in Nellore more than sixty years 
ago. Her parents called her Savitri. Her grandfather 
was a Mahratta gentleman, a Subadar or Captain in the 
army who settled in Nellore and became a cultivator. 
Savitri attended Mrs. Jewett's Girls' School in Nellore, 
but when her grandfather knew she was learning the 
Bible he kept her home. Later Mrs. Jewett persuaded 
them to send her again. When Savitri was nine years 
old she stayed one night in the Boarding School with the 
Christian girls. Next morning her mother came to the 
mission house, and stood under a tamarind tree, stick in 
hand, to receive the culprit. She refused to take her 
back with her, although the little one pleaded to be taken 


home. With broken heart, for the child's caste was de- 
stroyed, this poor deluded mother went to the bank of 
the river, cursed her little daughter, and making an effigy 
of the little maid, she burned it in token that the girl was 
dead to her. 

The child became an inmate of the Boarding School. 
Later on the mother relented and sent money to her and 
built and furnished a house where for a time Sayamma 
carried on a school. In 1878, while she was teaching in 
a mission school, she was married to Mr. G. Narasiah, 
and went with him to live in Kurnool, where she taught 
in a Government school. Her mother became very ill, 
and impressed by the power of Jesus, she vowed that if 
He would cure her she would become a Christian. She 
got better and she openly confessed Christ. 

In 1881 Sayamma went with her husband to Bobbili. 
There she laboured with great zeal and ability for 36 
years. She was for a long time a teacher in Mrs. 
Churchill's Caste Girls' School. Hindustani and Tamil 
she had learned in her own home. In the Boarding 
School, Telugu became her daily language and she was 
well versed in English. She was a Bible Woman as 
well as a teacher. She often accompanied Mrs. Churchill 
on tour, and she could speak with great acceptance to 
the crowds of men and women who gathered to hear the 
message. In Bobbili she lived in the midst of caste 
people. In addition to the school children, she visited the 
wives and daughters of officials, and even after the girls 
left school she kept on teaching them in their homes. 
She was invited to their marriages and other festivals, 
and when they were ill they often sent for her. 

The daughter of a medical officer was very ill. When 
Sayamma was visiting her, the young woman prayed, 


"Oh, Lord Jesus, write Thy precious name upon my lips." 
Then some Vaishnavite Gurus came to strengthen her 
faith in Hinduism. But in spite of their teaching she 
died trusting in Jesus. A girl of the Telaga caste died 
suddenly of cholera. Her relatives told Sayamma that 
she had died believing in Jesus. When her husband was 
also smitten with the dread plague, Sayamma went and 
told him of the Saviour in whom his wife had trusted. 
He began to speak the name of the Lord. His relatives 
tried to get him to say "Narayana, Narayana." But he 
refused and entered into the unknown land calling upon 
Jesus. A lame girl is teaching in the Maharani Girls' 
School at Bobbili. She learned the Bible from Sayamma. 
Recently she wrote that she is still believing in Christ. 
Teaching, preaching, nursing the sick and comforting the 
sorrowing, Sayamma spent her life. She was not only 
a teacher of the way of life but a mother in Israel. 

Two sons and five daughters were born to her in 
Bobbili. Her husband died in 1905. Her sons and one 
daughter followed while she was still in the old town 
where she worked so long. But Sayamma' s faith in a 
loving Heavenly Father did not fail. Since 1912, when 
her eldest daughter, Amelia Chowdhari, died in 
Cocanada, she has lived with her children or grand- 
children in Calcutta or Cocanada. Though her physical 
strength is failing, her love for her Master grows 
stronger with the years. She loses no opportunity of 
speaking a word for Jesus. She still teaches a Bible 
Class for women, and takes active part in women's meet- 
ings. Faithfully and with lavish hand she has scattered 
seed in many fields. The Lord of the harvest will garner 
the wheat. 

To His faithful handmaid, may it be light at eventide. 

By Rev. J. A. Glendinning. 

Savara Gumanna, for many years the chief Indian 
preacher on the Savara field, and the missionary's right 
hand man, was one of a group of brothers who lived in 
Gopalpur, near Tekkali, and who came under the teach- 
ing and influence of Gurahati, the Rajah caste convert, 
who was outcasted for his new faith and set up a school 
under a tree in the vicinity of Tekkali. The Savara boys 
became pupils of Gurahati under his tree; and through 
the teaching received gave up their tribal worship of 
demons, and accepted the faith of the Lord Jesus. One 
brother still remains in the old village, which has now 
become practically a Christian community. 

When the present Savara missionary, Mr. Glendin- 
ning, came to Parlakimedi in July, 1904, to take up the 
study of the Savara language, after a preliminary year 
and a half at Telugu, Mr. Gumanna came along as his 
Savara teacher. The idea was to acquire the Savara 
through the Telugu as a medium, in which language 
Gumanna had been educated, first in various secular 
schools in the Mission, and later at the Theological 
Seminary at Samalkot. 

Previous to the appointment of the missionary, the 
Association of the Telugu Churches had been interested 
in the work of evangelizing the strange hill people of the 
Parlakimedi Agency; and Gumanna did some work 
under their auspices. But, from the time of the coming 
of the missionary in 1904 till the time of Gumanna's 
death in November, 1921, his whole time and the con- 


suming passion of his soul were directed to the evangeli- 
zation of his own people. During the first two or three 
years of study of the language there Avas little touring 
done, but seldom a market day passed without finding 
Gumanna hard at work preaching to the Savaras who 
came in from the surrounding country. 

Later, when touring work began he was instant in 
season and out of season even in the face of a heart- 
breaking apathy and indifference to his message. For 
years the hill Savaras seemed as impervious to the light 
of Christian truth as the stones and trees of their native 
jungles. But Gumanna, while facing the facts and re- 
cognizing the immensity of the task, uttered no word of 
pessimism, nor betrayed any inclination to throw up the 
whole enterprise, and seek more promising fields. 

Mr. Gumanna was humble enough with regard to his 
own spiritual attainments.. Some of us thought some- 
times that he was too apologetic when testifying in meet- 
ing. His missionary, with excellent opportunities for 
observing, found him all through a man of Christian in- 
tegrity, conscientious in his work, and fully to be de- 
pended upon. But his humility was not of the cringing, 
servile kind which accepted everything with an humble 
"Your will, Sir." There were times when he believed 
he was in the right and the missionary in the wrong 
either with regard to fact or policy; and on such occa- 
sions he stood up manfully for his position, thus earning 
added respect, though perhaps he did not know it. 

As touring companion Gumanna was invaluable in 
many ways, aside from the purely spiritual aspects of 
the work. He was a good hunter, and full of forest lore. 
He was always ready to do all he. could to help in any 
way. When coolie porters in insufficient numbers came 


to transport our luggage from one place to another, lie 
was always read)' to do his' share to overcome the diffi- 
culty. One remembers a particularly long, hot climb 
over a difficult hill path, where Gumanna carried one 
end of a pole and the cook the other, with the bicycle 
hung between, the two being relieved from time to time 
by the missionary. 

In times of sickness which occasionally overtook the 
missionary, there was no attention even in menial mat- 
ters that Gumanna was not ready to give, which was 
fortunate indeed for the missionary, as many of the 
Christians from Hinduism are reluctant to do anything 
outside their own particular duty. 

During the rainy season, when touring among the hills 
was impracticable, Gumanna was an invaluable assistant 
in the missionary's study and translation work. He had 
a very complete knowledge of the Savara language. 
Without his assistance the Savara hymns, which were 
composed and circulated among the people through the 
Oriya Christians, would have been impossible. And in 
January, 1923, when Government asked for a Savara 
man to be prepared and sent to speak some Savara 
selections into gramophone records for the linguistic 
Survey of India/ it was Gumanna' s translation of the 
Story of the Prodigal Son and one of the above-men- 
tioned hymns that were thus put on permanent records. 

When the movement toward Christianity began among 
the Panos, another small Agency tribe, Gumanna was 
of the utmost assistance in caring for this work. For in 
addition to Savara and Telugu, he had also a fair com- 
mand of the Oriya language. And many a journey he 
made to spend Sunday with a small struggling Christian 
community newly out of Hinduism, and to help by his 


teaching and words of encouragement. His name is 
held in the highest esteem and love in the whole Oriya 
Christian community. Even while helping thus, how- 
ever, his main attention was given to the Savaras, and 
when the time of the missionary came to be occupied 
largely with Oriya study, and the care of the growing 
Christian body, Gumanna would strike out alone to the 
Savara villages with the message of life. 

He was a valued member of the Telugu Church in 
Parlakimedi, and served one or more terms as a deacon 
of that church. His works do follow him. When the 
Savara missionary went on furlough in April, 1920, 
Gumanna seemed to be in fair health. But in 1921 the 
seeds of a fatal malady manifested themselves. He 
struggled against the disease and longed to be able to 
hold on till his missionary should return. But it was not 
to be. On the evening of November 6th, 1921, as the 
returning missionaries from the deck of their steamer 
sighted the verdant hills of South India across a sea of 
glass, faithful Gumanna was getting his first glimpses 
of the throne of his Heavenly Father across the sea of 
glass of Revelation 4: 6. 

MR. N. D. ABEL. 
By Rev. John Craig. 

Dowlaishwaram, on the Godavari river, was the home 
of Abel's people. His grandfather had four sons whom 
he took with him to Cuttack in Orissa, to work on the 
construction of a bridge. While there they heard the 
gospel, and the eldest son Thomas believed and became 
a Christian. After the completion of the bridge they 
all returned to Dowlaishwaram. Through the efforts 
of Mr. Thomas all the members of the family became 
Christians. He was the father of the one whom we 
know as Rev. N. Abraham, of our Seminary. Later, Mr. 
Thomas worked as an evangelist and pastor, and his 
brother, Mr. Daniel, as a teacher in the Godavari Delta 
Mission. Abel was a son of the latter, and was born in 
Sept., 1877. While he was still a little boy, his father 
became a teacher at Cocanada under Mr. Timpany's 
direction. Some years later Abel took the Lower Second- 
ary course at Samalkot, and while there he was baptized. 
After teaching a school in Cocanada under Mr. 
Laflamme's direction for two years, he was sent to the 
Rajah's College for High School work. When Pastor 
Jonathan Burder and others preached in the streets Abel 
used to help with his violin. 

At this time he fell into sin, but soon afterwards 
repented, and later 'was received again into the church. 
But he had to continue his studies without Mission help 
and passed the Matriculation examination, after which 
he attended a Training College for teachers. In 1903 he 
was appointed as a teacher in a Lower Secondary school 


of the London Mission in Maddilapalem, a hamlet of 
Vizagapatam, where he worked for seven years. Then 
he was appointed to teach the Bible in the High School. 
Later he was transferred to Gooty to assist the mission- 
ary who was in charge of the Theological School of the 
London Mission. Here he taught several subjects, 
among them being methods of evangelism by the use of 
lyrics. While engaged in this work he lost his wife, 
but continued to work at Gooty for another year. 

As his children were with his parents in the Vizaga- 
patam District, and as he desired to serve in the Canad- 
ian Baptist Mission, which had taken over from the 
London Mission the High School and other work at 
Vizagapatam, he applied to Mr. Higgins for work. He 
was appointed as a gospel preacher or evangelist, and 
published several tracts in Telugu. After a year he 
was appointed a teacher of the Bible in the higher classes 
of the High School, and continued in this work for 
seven years. During this period he wrote a few small 
books : the Life of Christ in lyrical form, and the story 
of the Prodigal Son and the story of the Good Samaritan 
in song, and some others. In 1917 he conducted a 
summer school in Madras to teach the singing of lyrics ; 
there were seven students. Last year there were five 
teachers and thirty-three students, Mr. Abel acting as 

While he was teaching the Bible in the High School, 
lie longed to preach the gospel to the multitudes of people 
in the villages, and meanwhile he was preparing for such 
work. In February, 1922, he was appointed as an evan- 
gelist on the Vizagapatam field, and since then he has 
proclaimed the story of Christ's life and teaching with 
musical accompaniment to thousands of people. The 


people of India are accustomed to listen to stories of 
their heroes and gods in song, and hence they will listen 
for hours to the story of Christ's life and to other Bible 
stories when these are given in song with musical accom- 
paniment. Mr. Abel can sing well and can also use the 
violin with skill. Of course the message is spoken as 
well as sung. Prayer is asked for a blessing on the work- 
in this needy field where there are few Christians, and 
few evangelists to make the gospel known. 



By Mr. and Mrs. Gullison. 

Many years ago, a colporteur whose name and place 
are unknown, passed through Polepilly and inadvertently 
left a New Testament at the house of a goldsmith. An 
attempt to return the book failed, so the Word of God 
was given a place in that rigidly orthodox Hindu home. 

At that time, the subject of this sketch, though a young 
man, was suffering the consequence of an evil life. The 
physicians consulted gave no hope of recovery. In some 
way he had come to understand that life is eternal and 
that a man must reap as he sows. Thus, while disease 
was destroying his body, fear possessed his soul, and he 
longed for healing and freedom from apprehension of 
the future. One day, in desperation, he turned to the 
despised New Testament, but finding nothing attractive 
in its opening genealogy, he tossed it aside. Later, dis- 
tress of body and mind drove him back to the book; 
opening by chance at one of the miracles of healing, he 
became intensely interested. Eagerly he read, if haply 
he might learn the residence of this wonderful Healer, 
resolved that whatever the cost, he would seek Him and 
receive healing at His hands. When, however, he read 
that cruel men killed the one in whom his hope centred, 
he closed the book, filled with disappointment and grief. 
Later he felt constrained to finish the story that had 
given him such great expectations and then plunged him 
into the depths of despair. When he read that death 
could not hold the Great Physician, light broke upon his 


soul and he realized he had been reading of Him who 
could take away sin; it was then he uttered his first 
prayer. From that time he set himself to finding out 
more of the Christ, but he must needs be very cautious, 
lest it come to the knowledge of his family. Finally an 
opportunity came to act as a munshi to Mrs. L. D. 
Morse, wife of the missionary at Bimlipatam. The 
pecuniary remuneration reconciled his brother to this 
plan, and Pulatikurti Somalingam had the chance he had 
long for. His spiritual insight into the things of God 
delighted Mr. Morse. It was not an easy thing for 
Somalingam to take the step that would sever, him from 
his caste and make them of his own household his 
enemies ; more than once after having set a time for his 
baptism, he drew back. At last, in January, 1894, he 
came, fully determined to acknowledge his faith in 
Jesus Christ. News of his intention reached the ears 
of his relatives and spread like wild-fire through the 
town. In a short time, an angry, shouting mob had 
gathered at the beach and demanded that he recant. 
Mr. Morse hurried Somalingam into the water but even 
there one man followed and laid violent hands on Soma- 
lingam, determined to take him by force. Without 
prayer or formula, this first convert from the Goldsmith 
caste was buried in baptism in the likeness of his Mas- 
ter, thenceforth to live a new life in Christ Jesus. He 
returned home that evening to find the door of his own 
house shut against him; he was not even given food. 
His wife and children were taken to the home of her 
parents. From the highest to the lowest, the villagers 
reviled him because he had brought such disgrace upon 
an honorable caste and two respectable families. All 
custom was withdrawn from him and his goldsmith's 


anvil became silent; the barber refused to shave one so 
vile as he; the dhobie would not wash for him; even 
the coolie women refused to prejudice their position in 
society by pounding his grain; his brothers declared he 
had forfeited his right to a share in his father's prop- 
erty; his wife's people avowed that his family should 
not return to him unless he first returned to caste. But 
none of these things moved him; in the joy that he had 
found Christ, he counted all else but trivial. Quietly 
and confidently he waited and worked, and when neces- 
sary, availed himself of good British law, so that in due 
time, he was in possession of his house and had his 
family with him. He next demanded and received his 
portion of his father's property; he pressed his claim 
for water from the village well, and the law supported 
him; the enraged villagers dug another well for them- 
selves from which they could draw water undenled by 
contact with the bucket of the despised Christian. 

Quietly, persistently, prayerfully, tactfully, he has 
gradually overcome opposition, winning to Christ, first 
the young man who was learning the goldsmith trade 
with him at the time of his baptism; then his own wife, 
his sister, mother, aunt, brothers, nephew and others. 
The leaven has begun to work in the hearts of his wife's 
relatives, and after a thrilling experience, a sister has 
been baptized while others seem almost persuaded. Not 
only so, but notwithstanding bitter opposition, there is 
now a neat chapel-school-house in the village, thanks to 
his tireless effort. 

Despite much active antagonism, the education of the 
village is in the hands of this brother, for he is manager 
of the only school there. By a consistent life he has 
won the respect of the villagers; by serving them in 


love, he has gained their trust and confidence, so that 
to-day, we have no hesitation in saying that the best 
loved and most highly respected man in Polepilly is our 
brother Somalingam. And the work continues. The 
entire village has been honeycombed with the Gospel. 
It seems to us the time is surely near at hand when a 
large number must turn from their idols to serve the 
living and true God. 

. As we think of this man of God, we feel it is partic- 
ularly true of him that his delight is in the law of the 
Lord, and in his law doth he meditate day and night, 
therefore is he like a tree planted by the rivers of water 
that bringeth forth its fruit in its season and whatsoever 
he doeth prospereth. 

This sketch would not be complete without fitting re- 
ference to Mr. Somalingam's youngest brother, Mr. Ver- 
racharyulu, who was baptized three years after his bro- 
ther. During these twenty-five years he has been a 
trusted and competent teacher and has adorned his pro- 
fession by a consistent, Christian life. In his metrical 
life of Christ which is extensively used throughout the 
entire Telugu area, he has made a splendid contribution 
to the work of evangelization. 

Closely linked with the history of Mr. Somalingam, is 
that of the first convert of the Srusti Karnam caste, 
Kantimahanti Appalanarasimhulu. While teaching Mrs. 
Morse Rev. 22, 17, he was forced to repeat the invitation 
many times and it gripped him; he became a secret be- 
liever. He moved away from the town for a time, and 
it was reported that he had died. One day Mr. Morse 
was startled by coming face to face with the supposedly 
dead munshi. "I thought you were dead and lost," he 

id; and at once proceeded to explain his strange saluta- 


tion. Once more did the Spirit strive with Mr. Ap- 
palanarasimhulu. Many nights during the succeeding 
months, he sought Mr. Somalingam and talked with him 
of the things that gave him no rest. He was baptized 
in 1899. His relatives rebelled against the step he had 
taken, but he stood firm and gradually regained the 
esteem of his estranged friends. 

This brother did not wait until after his baptism be- 
fore seeking to correct the things he regarded as un- 
becoming a Christian. 

Having concluded that the use of tobacco and opium 
were not consistent with the purity enjoined by Chris- 
tianity, he decided to abstain from their use. The reac- 
tion following the discontinuance of opium was great, 
and he suffered much the rest of his life, but notwith- 
standing the earnest entreaties of his friends, he re- 
solutely refused to resume its use. Like Mr. Soma- 
lingam, he loved his Bible and its study and prayer had 
first place in his life. No ordinary physical suffering 
was allowed to rob him of his time for devotion. 
Though not highly educated he possessed a culture which 
won the esteem of all. Well versed in Hindu litera- 
ture, with a splendid command of chaste and pleasing 
Telugu, filled and actuated by the love of Christ, always 
bearing a real burden for the salvation of souls, and 
having a definite and striking personal testimony con- 
cerning the saving grace of Christ, he was eminently 
qualified for the work of an evangelist to which he gave 
himself from the time of his conversion. 

On May u, 1923, he finished his earthly career. Since 
his conversion ten more families from his caste have 
embraced Christianity, and we believe this is but the 

By Miss M. H. Blackadar. 

About fifty years ago Kesavaraya Sarma Mandapaka, 
familiarly known as Kesavarao, was born in Bimlipatam. 
His parents were Brahmans, and he grew up amid the 
influences, good and evil, of that ancient and privileged 
class. At eight years of age he went through the im- 
pressive ceremony of the investiture of the sacred thread, 
the emblem of the "twice-born." Thenceforward he 
was entitled to all the privileges of his caste. Educa- 
tion was far less general then than it is to-day, but 
Kesavarao was sent to school in Bimlipatam and in 
Vizianagram where he was an eager student. 

In August, 1886, a Hindu friend who had studied in 
the Mission School in Vizagapatam asked Kesavarao to 
attend the Sunday School in Bimlipatam. He con- 
sented, and next morning they were at church. As 
they entered Mrs. Archibald was explaining to the whole 
school how a Christian should observe Sunday. As an 
orthodox Brahman boy, Kesavarao had been accustom- 
ed to observe the nth day of each fortnight. From 
Mrs. Archibald's address he was convinced that the ob- 
servance of Sunday was more difficult, and more spirit- 
ual than his ekadasi, and he concluded that Christianity 
must be a good, spiritual and holy religion. Next day 
he bought some tracts from Mr. Archibald, and these 
strengthened his conviction that Christianity was good. 

In January, 1887, he became Telugu teacher to Miss 
A. C. Gray. While with her he read much of the Bible, 
especially the New Testament. From this and his con- 


versations with Miss Gray he came to believe that 
Christianity is the only religion appointed by God, and 
Jesus is the only Saviour, but he thought he could 
remain a Hindu outwardly and believe in his heart. One 
day in conversation with Miss De Prazer, she told him 
that before conversion he would have a great burden 
for sin. This thought stayed with him. Not long after 
he had a vision of his sin and need of cleansing. In 
July, 1887, he attended the English prayer meeting. In 
the course of his address Mr. Sanford said "Christian 
means Christ's one, and we must be willing to be counted 
fools for Christ's name." That touched Kesavarao in 
the centre of his Brahman heart. He writes of that 
experience "Something like the breath of the Spirit 
came into me. All my doubts and questions vanished 
away and the burden was no more. I wanted to become 
'His' right out publicly. That was my conversion. I 
was baptized on the 19th of July, 1887." 

It was a great struggle, but in spite of the difficulties 
a great peace filled his heart as he came up out of the 
baptismal waters. He was given a little room in the 
mission house. Hundreds of his caste people came into 
the compound; they swarmed up the steps and crowded 
the verandah. All the influence of the Hindu philo- 
sophy, subtly handled by priest and holy man, was 
brought to bear on this babe in Christ, but he did not 
waver. Then his mother, dearest of all to him, came 
to plead with him to return to her and to the religion 
of his fathers. Still he wavered not. Then in her 
anguish, his mother beat her head on the stone steps! 
How could he bear to see her destroy herself on his 
account? He weakened and begged Mr. Sanford to let 
him go back just one day. The Missionary replied, 


"You are spent with the strain. To-morrow morning 
when your strength is renewed you can make your 
choice, and go if you wish." Next day he had no desire 
to go back, and in all the years since he has stood stead- 
fast and rejoiced, counting everything loss that he might 
serve Christ. For many years his people cut him off, 
but gradually fellowship was renewed. His nobility of 
character and upright conduct won their respect. He 
went back to the old home to visit his mother and had 
the joy of a visit from her before she passed on. 

For many years he was Headmaster of the Girls' 
Boarding School in Cocanada. Punctuality is very diffi- 
cult for Kesavarao. This sometimes tried the school- 
managers. His efficiency was a joy, and his interest in 
the children never flagged. His beautiful Telugu and 
his fine Christian influence were great blessings to the 
children. To Cocanada he brought his bride, and while 
there his son and daughter were born. Here, too, in 
1910 he lost the wife whom he so devotedly loved. Even 
this crushing sorrow could not dim his faith, or hide the 
face of the Master he so fullv trusted. He learned in 


that dark hour to sympathize with those who suffered. 
For many years he worked as an evangelist in Cocan- 
ada, Vizianagram, Vizagapatam. and Narsapatnam. He 
worked along his own lines. He would not follow a 
time-table. Often he went late to work but when once 
among the people he forgot heat or time, weariness or 
hunger, and stayed as long as anyone would listen. He 
loves to lift up a crucified and risen Saviour before lost 
men, and the people love to listen. He has written many 
popular tracts which have carried his message far be- 
yond the sound of his voice. For several years he was 
an evangelist in Noble College, Masulipatam. He won 


and held the respect of the boys and enjoyed his work 
there. But Kesavarao's conviction of Baptist doctrine 
is very strong, and he was happy when the way opened 
for him to take up work again in his own Mission. The 
Home Mission Board of the Northern Circars Telugu 
Baptist Convention appointed him in January, 1921, to 
their Chodavaram field. He has his little daughter with 
him. He is laying there deep foundations. His son is 
taking the course at Noble College, and his one purpose 
is to enter God's service. 

Recently when Dr. Stanley Jones, the Welsh mission- 
ary-evangelist, held his meetings in Vizagaptam, Mr. 
Kesavarao Mandapaka translated for him. No one 
could watch him catching the deep spiritual truth which 
Dr. Jones taught, and translating it rapidly into idio- 
matic Telugu, without perceiving his intellectual power 
and the depth of his spiritual insight. 

He is a loyal friend. Once and again he has under- 
taken heavy financial burdens to shield those whom he 
loves from suffering and disgrace. 'He has a deep, 
understanding love for missionaries, and a heart full of 
gratitude to the Canadian people who have sent the mes- 
sage. He is a faithful and fearless witness to the grace 
and power of the Lord Jesus Christ. 


By Rev. Gordon P. Barss 

"I am not anything 
without my good 
wife, Lizzie. She is 
my companion, ad- 
viser, sympathizer and 
everything for the 
last thirty-four 
years." Thus wrote 
the Rev. Paidi David 
of Tekkali. Some 
individuals make their 
mark apart from 
others. But one 
naturally thinks of 
Mr. David in connec- 
tion with a group of 
intimate contemporar- 
ies, and more particularly as associated with his 
faithful wife, Lizzie. In addition to her work 
as one of the best Bible women in the Mission, 
she has exercised a steadying influence, as wife and 
home maker, upon this forceful preacher. The knowl- 
edge of what his wife's faith and loving patience has 
been to this trusted leader has suggested the title, "David 
and Lizzie." 

They were cousins in a family which had been Chris- 
trians for two generations before them and which had 
been touched by the spiritual influences which went out 

P. David. 


from the friendship of the veteran Christians, Chowd- 
hari Purushottam and Anthravady. As children, David 
and Lizzie lived in the home of their grandfather, a 
money lender in Chicacole. "He was very particular 
that I should stay at home in the evenings after school 
to read Psalms and Vemana's poems, so that I might 
avoid bad company. When I was very young with my 
mother, many a time she prayed for me that I should 
become a God-fearing child. By her constant prayers 
and by my grandfather's care I am what I am at pre- 
sent." In David's early training were blended the tender 
influences of a Christian home, and the kindly discipline 
of the missionaries at a time when the Christians were 
few and the relations between them and the missionaries 
were very intimate. Early in life David gained much 
from the veteran missionaries, the Armstrongs, the Mc- 
Laurins and the Archibalds. 

He writes, "As a child I read the life of Mr. Muller 
of Bristol. By his life I was influenced to pray to God. 
As I was a little boy, I could not pray publicly in 
church, but I used to go to a ruined bungalow and pray 
every day for each member of my body to be kept back 
from evil. Then I had a great desire to preach, but, 
being a boy, I could not preach openly. So I used to go 
to these ruins and preach to the plants." He was bap- 
tized when only eleven years old. 

David studied four years under Mr. McLaurin in the 
Theological Seminary in Samalkot. Mrs. McLaurin 
taught him English. He has always regretted that the 
Mission did not give him higher education. The im- 
mediate need for workers prevented the best training of 
the available men. David was tempted by the prospects 
of a higher education held out by a neighboring mission, 


but he remained loyal. At one time it was proposed 
that he should have a college education in Canada, but 
the Board did not approve. 

When still only a lad, Mr. David began to preach and 
teach under the careful discipline of Mr. and Mrs. Archi- 
bald. In 1893, after a year or two of preaching in 
Parlakimedi, the Akulatampara church, rich in spiritual 
history, called him to its pastorate. During the ten years 
or so which he spent there and in Parlakimedi he was 
largely responsible for the conversion of two families of 
considerable importance and a number of individuals. 
There, too, began an intimate relationship with two in- 
fluential landlord families. And there developed a warm 
friendship with a young man, K. M. Appanna, whose 
deep piety and spirituality have touched many lives. 

Undoubtedly the greatest experience of Mr. David's 
life came to him on the waves of the revival which swept 
over India in 1905 and 1906 as the direct result of the 
Welsh revival. His experience was all the brighter be- 
cause it was a black background. News of the revival 
brought hope to Mr. David and his friends. Out on 
tour, they would sit around the camp fire in the evenings 
and tell each other of the longings of their hearts for a 
more consistent Christian life. The agonizing struggle 
between spiritual longing for peace and the pride which 
covered the shame of old sins was at last crowned with 
confession and victory, and there was added to Mr. 
David's Christian heritage and early training a rich per- 
sonal experience of the abounding grace of Christ. 

For the last twenty years, since 1903, Mr. David has 
labored on the Tekkali field, most of the time as pastor 
of the church. His work has carried him all over that 
county and far into neighboring fields, and even up 


among the feverish regions where the Savara mission is 
carried on. For Christ he has suffered great hardship, 
serious sickness and adventures with robbers, wild 
animals and floods. 

As a member and office holder in various capacities he 
has long exercised a strong influence in the Savara Mis- 
sion Board, the Home Mission Board, the Association 
and the Convention. Recently he declined two calls, 
one to a large pastorate and the other to be missionary 
under the Home Mission Board, feeling that he could 
do his best work in the District where his influence is so 
well established. He has taken a prominent part among 
those who believe that greater control of the religious 
work should be given to the Indian Christians. 

His work as an inspector of relief measures in the 
great famine of 1897 was so well received that he was 
offered a permanent Government position with a high 
salary. This was a great temptation to a poor preacher, 
but he decided that he should devote his whole life to 
Gospel work. In several censuses, during the war. 
when his efforts were constantly for the Government; 
in the War Loan campaigns, on the town council, and 
in the home rule excitement, when he publicly and fear- 
lessly opposed the fanatic violence of Mr. Gandhi's fol- 
lowers, Mr. David's services have frequently been recog- 

His advice is sought by all kinds of people in all sorts 
of predicaments at any hour of the day or night. Over 
a large territory the prescription for anyone in trouble 
is, "Go to Mr. David." His only son, Samuel, with a 
medical education, has difficulty in surpassing his father's 
reputation as a doctor. In a country where marriages 
are all "arranged," Mr. David has made countless 


matches for both Hindus and Christians. He is a man 
of gentle courtesy to women and is greatly loved by 
little children. When a missionary is in charge of the 
field, Mr. David is always the wise adviser, the active 
associate and the trusted friend. In the missionary's 
absence, he is the faithful superintendent. 

Mr. David is variously regarded as doctor and nurse, 
as adviser and pastor and teacher, as agitator and leader, 
but it is as evangelist that he excells. In the village he 
readily adjusts himself to a small group or to a noisy 
crowd. He quickly finds a favorable starting place of 
interest to his hearers; he persists in spite of diversions 
and interruptions; he instinctively touches some chord 
that awakens interest; he has a ready but kindly retort 
for anyone who interposes an objection; he is quick to 
discover a responsive listener ; and, however obscure may 
be his beginning, and however far afield he may be com- 
pelled to travel, he invariably and forcibly returns to 
"Christ and Him crucified." 

His life has been spent in a District where the opposi- 
tion to Christian teaching is most stubborn, but his con- 
verts are in many castes and villages. And wherever 
he goes he knows of some interested one whom he must 
visit. He is like an old time prospector, always hope- 
fully searching for a gleam in the unpromising sands. 
He will always be remembered as the faithful evangelist, 
as the Christian preacher, "rightly dividing the word of 


By Mrs. C. H. Archibald. 

On a September 
day, nearly forty-four 
years ago, when the 
warm sun was shin- 
ing brightly on the 
green palm trees and 
the leaf -thatched 
roofs of Bimlipatam, 
the weekly steamer 
from Cocanada to 
Rangoon steamed into 
port. To the in- 
mates of the bunga- 
low snuggled away 
under the high hill at 
ihe back of the town, 
this event was of no 
special significance. 

But later on, a rather small-sized boy appeared, some- 
what overshadowed by a conspicuously large white tur- 
ban. He inquired for Hammond Missamma Garu (af- 
terwards Mrs. Archibald) ; and when she appeared, he 
presented a letter from Rev. A. V. Timpany of Cocan- 
ada. This gentleman and his wife had chaperoned the 
lady to India the previous year, and took a warm inter- 
est in her welfare. In the letter Mr. Timpany stated 
that the bearer was a boy who was proving somewhat 
difficult to manage ; he was active, bright and smart, but 

Rev. B. Subbaraldu 


restless and uneasy; and that he wanted to go to Ran- 
goon, that El Dorado for aspiring Indian young men. He 
further wrote to that new lady missionary, "You need a 
boy to go about with you, as you should not go far afield 
alone, and reliable women are not easily found. Take 
this boy, and see what you can do with and for him." 
The boy was looked over as all Indians were more or 
less of a curiosity in those days. His small hands and 
bare feet, his bright eyes, quick movements, his gentle 
voice were all noted ; also his big, shapeless, white trous- 
ers, which made him feel very much dressed up, but 
which provoked a smile of amusement from some others. 
After some conversation, he decided that Bimlipatam was 
change enough for the present and that he would remain 
with this new lady. That was the last effort to copy 
English dress; from that clay to this, he has worn the 
ordinary dress of the. ordinary Hindu. He says that, in 
some respects, this has been a loss to him ; but that it has 
enabled him to keep in more intimate touch with his own 
people, something which he highly values. Sometimes 
when he sees others stepping about in full English, dress, 
apparently honored by the missionaries, there is some con- 
flict in his soul, as to which is the greater, the gain or the 
loss. Even little things like this do not fail of the 
Father's notice. But whether loss or gain, he followed 
the advice of the lady, to whom that letter was sent. 

He began to attend school and evinced a desire to learn 
all the good and useful things that came his way. Dust- 
ing, blacking shoes, pulling punkah, came in for a share 
of his attention, and he was rapidly taking in knowledge 
through his fingers as well as through his mind. His 
parents had been idol-worshippers and he remembers well 
the shame he experienced when they became Christians, 


but before he left Cocanada, he, also, was baptized. Six 
months later his Missamma was sent to Chicacole to do 
the best she could for the work there, and he accompanied 
her. One time when we were having blessed seasons in 
our Bible classes and prayer meetings, he came and said 
that he and David and some other boys were greatly 
troubled about their sins and, though they had all been 
baptized, they had never had such experiences and 
scarcely knew what the dealings of the Spirit of God 
with their souls meant. After a time, they all came out 
into the glorious light of God, and knew what was meant, 
when we talked about a new heart. 

When the Seminary was opened at Samalkot by Rev. 
John McLaurin he was sent there and acquitted himself 
most creditably. During his last year there he was mar- 
ried; and a few months later his young wife fell into a 
well and was drowned. This was a great shock and sor- 
row, and though his graduation was not far distant, Mr. 
McLaurin wrote advising that he be permitted to return 
home, as he could not recover from his trouble there. And 
he added, that he was more like a European in his sorrow, 
than any Indian he had seen. He was graduated in 
absentia, and later on was sent to the college at Ongole, 
where one year and part of another completed his school 
life. Eventually he married again, and in the course of 
years seven children were born into his family. 

He became a mission assistant, and his first pastorate 
was at Akulatampara, when Mr. Archibald was the only 
male missionary in the Ganjam District. He was very 
helpful in the initial development of the work in the 
Savara Hills ; and when the missionaries called for some 
one to undertake that rather dangerous task, he volun- 
teered and was ordained as a Home Missionary to the 


Savaras. He went and did some excellent service, but 
repeated attacks of fever in which he nearly lost his life, 
rendered that work prohibitive for him. He stands in 
the front rank and pretty close to the foremost position 
among our Indian brethren in the whole Mission as an 
all-round useful man, trusted and respected by the major- 
ity of them. He is a good singer, a good preacher, per- 
suasive and patient when dealing with disturbed elements 
of which there are apt to be many in our Christian com- 
munities. He has become more .and more trustworthy 
with the passing years, and more discriminating as to 
real values. At one time he was pastor of the Chicacole 
church for some years; and has been its trusted and 
efficient treasurer for a much longer period. The mem- 
bers and the missionaries feel that the money is safe, 
when it is in his keeping. He is to a large degree capable 
of looking after the general work of the field in its various 
departments; preaching himself to large companies of 
men and women, or sitting down quietly and familiarly 
with one or two. He has many personal heart to heart 
talks, and when he does that work he feels a deeper satis- 
faction than in any other. He loves the moonlight talks, 
which he so often has, when on tour, and he longs to see 
men and women yielding their hearts to the claims of 
Christ. He uses simple yet very euphonious and musical 
Telugu, which all can understand, and he is acceptable 
among all classes, high and low, rich and poor, literate 
and illiterate. He has not only been an assistant and 
friend, as it were, to those who brought him up, but at 
various times he has helped in other fields. Once he 
was loaned to the Seminary at Samalkot as teacher. He 
has assisted in building and preaching at Palkonda, Tek- 
kali, Pajlakimedi and Sompetta and has ever acquitted 


himself satisfactorily to those whom he went to assist. 
He is a careful, good builder, and can handle success- 
fully large bodies of workmen,- coolies, masons and car- 
penters. He is no time-server, which is so common 
among these people but will work any number of hours, 
till he is assured that matters can be safely left till an- 
other day. At times his carefulness as to details may 
weary some, who would like to get to the end more 
quickly, but one feels that he is thorough and painstak- 
ing. He is a good judge of all ordinary building material, 
and superintended and carried large responsibilities in the 
erection of King Memorial Hospital. He is a Zacchaeus in 
stature, but he likes big tasks, and does not falter when 
sudden demands are made upon him. His written trans- 
lations from English into Telugu are most acceptable ; he 
has associated so much with English-speaking people that 
he grasps shades and meanings of words and thoughts 
that many fail to comprehend. 

At present he is pastor of the Telugu church at Chi- 
cacole, and has been acting pastor for many years. He 
is an active member of the Municipal Council, and as he 
has no axes to grind and no personal ends to achieve, but 
just tries to do right every time and as the other members 
of that body have both these influences to push them on, 
he has a somewhat difficult, and at times a stormy, path 
to tread. At present, he is chairman of the Telugu 
Home Mission Board, and in that capacity is doing excel- 
lent service for the whole Baptist Telugu Christian com- 

He after all, like the rest of mankind, has made some 
crooked paths for his feet, and has had to reap harvests 
from his own sowing which at times he has found thorny ; 
and we have seen his face chastened with suffering, 


caused by the chastisement of his own conscience, and we 
have been glad, that the sanctifying Spirit of God, was 
doing His refining work in his soul. He is our boy, and 
we love him, and praise God for the grace, that has saved 
him, and which we see active in his life. 

Great changes are coming over India ; and a man, who 
has come up out of the darkness of forty-four years ago, 
and who is a light in the darkness of to-day, is a factor 
in the progress of human history, for which we cannot 
be too thankful. And herein we also find large room for 
hope regarding the future of our Telugu Christians. 

By Rev. S. C. Freeman. 

Panga Appanna, the subject of this sketch, was born 
at Kosamala, Ganjam District, in 1858. He was the 
second son in quite a large family ; his people were farm- 
ers. He has but a faint remembrance of his betrothal to 
his first wife, which took place when he was about ten 
years old. He and two of his brothers learned to read. 
When about fifteen years of age some of his relatives 
endured much suffering for Jesus' sake which made a 
deep impression on Appana's heart. He had a desire to 
become a Christian and tried to persuade his betrothed 
wife to accept Christ as her Saviour. He found, how- 
ever, that she had no mind for such things. 

Sometime after his marriage when he was about twen- 
ty-three years of age he fully decided to become a Chris- 
tian. He received no sympathy from those in his home, 
but, on the contrary, opposition, ridicule and persecution. 
Leaving parents, brothers, sisters, wife and child, he went 
forth alone and was baptized by the Rev. R. Sanford at 
Akulatampara in 1881. 

Immediately after his baptism some Brahman pundits 
asked him why he had taken this step. He replied, "I 
know that I am a sinner, I know that Christ is my Sav- 
iour, but I cannot explain it well to others." The 
Brahmans were much pleased with his reply, which deep- 
ened their respect for the Christian religion. 

For some time after his baptism Appanna continued 
his work as a farmer, bearing witness as he had oppor- 
tunitv. His wife, taking their child, in anger and dis- 


gust returned to her parents. Not long after another 
child was born. All Appanna's efforts to induce his wife 
to return to him ended in failure. There were long years 
of trouble before, through the courts of law and with the 
help of the Police, he secured a. divorce and the possession 
of his children. In fact he did not secure his children 
until after their mother's death, and the son Jagannaikulu, 
a lad of ten years, stoutly resisted being returned to his 
father. Court proceedings in India are wondrously slow, 
and in those days there were no railways. The long 
journeys on foot to Berhampore to the Court must have 
been very tedious and expensive. 

Appanna's second wife was the daughter of Rev. Bhag- 
avan Behara, a noted Christian preacher in the early days 
of work in pur mission. She presented him with two 
daughters, and afterwards died. Then Appanna married 
again and had two children to remind him of his third 
wife. His fourth wife was a Brahman widow convert. 
They have one daughter who recently married. 

Appanna has had the joy of seeing his mother a Chris- 
tian, and his father showing a deep interest in Christian 
things. Two of his brothers became Christians and two 
remain Hindus. 

About six years after baptism, during which he did 
more or less preaching, through the advice and help 
of Rev. I. C. Archibald, Appanna heeded the 
call of God to become a preacher of the Gospel. 
For thirty-six years he has preached the Gos- 
pel in many villages. His face is known and his 
voice is familiar in our Associations and Conven- 
tions where he always has something to say and makes 
sure that he says it. He has been a preacher on seven of 
our 'mission fields and deacon in four of our churches. 


He has known little of sickness and has been able to con- 
tinue his work through a long period. One could hardly 
call him a popular preacher, but he has a good message. 
He was never ordained, and has baptized only one per- 
son. His work has been preaching. Perhaps he would 
say with Paul, "Christ sent me not to baptize, but to 
preach the Gospel." 

Honest, upright, aggressive there have been no breaks 
in his life, no charges against him that the missionaries 
have had to spend long days investigating. He has a 
good name and prizes it. When one thinks of the opposi- 
tion he has encountered one is not surprised that in man- 
ner he is somewhat brusque and overbearing when op- 
posed. From the father of his second wife, he learned 
to attach much importance to family prayer which for 
many years he has conducted three times a day. He uses 
a Psalm in the morning, a portion of Daily Light at 
noon, and some other portion of the Bible at night. From 
the atmosphere of such a home his children have gone out 
to do their part in the world. 

His son, Jagannaikulu, has been evangelist, pastor and 
preacher on the Chicacole field, and, while in the midst of 
such service, was called to become the pastor of the Bap- 
tist Church at Vizagapatam which, with the exception of 
Cocanada, is the largest city within our Mission 

Kondanamma, the eldest daughter by his second wife, 
became a widow in early life and has given herself with 
whole-hearted devotion to the work of the Girls' School 
in Cocanada where hundreds of girls have come under 
her uplifting influence as teacher and later as Matron. 

Some of his children are still too young to have estab- 
lished their records. They have received a Christian 


education and have enjoyed advantages far beyond those 
within reach of their father. We have reason to believe 
they will give a good account of themselves. 

Now in the evening of life, for in India a man of 
sixty-five years is getting pretty well along, Appanna 
lives quietly near the church where he is one of the 
leaders. Day by day he goes forth into the market place, 
the streets, and the lanes of the town to preach or con- 
verse about the things that have been dear to his heart f or 
so long. He frequently conducts the church services. He 
has not the vigor of early days but he has a blessed hope 
of eternal life. He has not acquired worldly property, 
but he has treasure in Heaven. Those who know him 
must acknowledge that he has made good use of the 
meagre education he received and the opportunities that 
came his way. His children have reason to speak well 
of their grey-headed father who, like Jacob of old, will 
remain head of his house as long as he lives. 



From the 



By Rev. John Craig. 

About twenty miles 
southwest of Akidu lies 
the village of Gunnana- 
pudi. This has long 
been a well known name 
to those who love our 
Telugu Mission. For 
in the early days it was 
from this place that the 
word of the Lord sounded 
forth not only to the vil- 
lages round about it, but 
also to many in the region 
now known as the Vuy- 
yuru field. It was the 
home of Pastor Karre 
Peter and his younger bro- 
ther Andrew, while- their elder brother Samuel resided 
at a village less than a mile distant, of which he was 
the munsiff or headman. As a rule villages in the 
Telugu country have a Sudra population with a hamlet 
nearby, in which Malas and Madigas reside. But Gun- 

Rev. Karre Peter. 


nanapudi and several other small villages near it had a 
population of Malas only, many of whom owned small 
farms. Hence they were more independent and enter- 
prising than the Malas in other villages, who for the 
most part worked for Sudra farmers. 

Mr. Thomas Gabriel AV!IO began the Gospel work that 
led to the opening of our Mission, was a cousin of the 
Karre brothers, and his sister was the wife of the eld- 
est of the brothers. While he was still in the Tele- 
graph office at Dowlaishwaram, Mr. Karre Samuel and 
his wife visited him, and heard and believed the Gos- 
pel. This was in 1864. They were the first converts 
in connection with Mr. Gabriel's work, and hence may 
be considered the first in connection with the churches 
under the care of the Ontario and Quebec Board. 

From the time of his conversion Mr. Samuel was 
earnest in seeking to lead his brothers and other rela- 
tives and neighbors into the light. Having a little edu- 
cation himself he opened a small school in which many 
of the male converts learned enough to make them use- 
ful as teachers for the little groups of Christians in 
neighboring villages. Among those who attended Mr. 
Samuel's school there were two men who had been 
driven from their own village, some ten miles distant, 
by the Sudras, because they had become Christians. 
After two years, during which they had learned to read 
the Bible, they returned to their own village, and were 
the means of leading others to Christ. Mr. Samuel was 
also zealous in going to the surrounding villages to 
preach to the Malas, many of whom were his relatives. 
And when a few believed in any village he was faithful 
in conducting worship with them on Sunday; and after 
a time, when he was needed elsewhere he would see that 


some good man continued the service. Mr. Thomas 
Gabriel, through whom Mr. Samuel and his wife had 
been led to Christ, left the Telegraph service in January 
1869, an d worked chiefly in the region of Kolair Lake, 
including Gunnanapudi and neighboring villages. In 
August, 1871, he. was ordained in Madras, and in March, 
1872, he visited Gunnanapudi and baptized some con- 
verts there, Mr. Samuel and his wife and brothers being 
among them. 

The second brother, Mr. Peter, was several years 
younger than Mr. Samuel. He also was earnest in 
preaching the Gospel in the neighboring villages, and in 
October, 1874, at McLaurin's request he left his farm- 
ing and devoted himself to the ministry of the Gospel. 
It is usual for the people of India to have what is called 
a joint family. The Karre brothers were such a 
family, so when Mr. Peter agreed to give all his time to 
preaching it was done with the approval of his two bro- 
thers, the salary he received from the Mission going into 
their joint family purse. The youngest of the brothers, 
Mr. Andrew, had the farm work to look after, but he 
was always in hearty sympathy with the other two in all 
their work of evangelization. In 1878, when Nathan 
Gabriel claimed the position that his brother Thomas 
had occupied, and tried to induce the Christians in Gun- 
nanapudi and other villages to renounce their allegiance 
to the missionary and to follow him, most of his relatives 
approved, and even Mr. Karre Samuel was deceived by 
him, but Mr. Peter -opposed him. This was much to 
his credit, because in India it requires some courage to 
refuse to help a relative in such circumstances. 

In December, 1879, Mr. Timpany made his first visit 
to Gunnanapudi and other parts of what is now the 


Akiclu field, preparatory to handing over the care of that 
work to Mr. Craig. It was then decided that Mr. Karre 
Peter should be ordained, and Mr. Timpany stated that 
Mr. Peter's wife should learn to read before the ordina- 
tion took place. Accordingly, in 1880, she went to 
Cocanada and attended school there. Mr. Peter also 
was there in the hot season and attended some special 
Bible classes conducted by Mr. Timpany. In January, 
iSSi, he was ordained at Akidu, and from that time the 
church at Gunnanapudi enjoyed the regular observance 
of the ordinances. Mr. Peter was always a faithful 
evangelist, and from 1879 for six years he had as a com- 
panion and helper in this work a young man whose name 
was Jangam Isaac. These two men preached the Gos- 
pel in a great many villages near Gunnanapudi, and in 
other villages ten or twelve miles to the northeast and 
to the southeast. 

Early in 1883 forty-nine men and women were bap- 
tized at Moturu, about five miles southwest of Gunnana- 
pudi. These were the first in that village. There was 
a great ingathering also at a village to the southeast, 
where most of the Malas worked for the Sudra farmers, 
who were Kammas, one of the highest subdivisions of 
the Sudras. These men persecuted the new converts 
by putting all their cattle in the pound without cause. 
When the missionary helped the Christians to prosecute 
the persecutors, the latter secured their acquittal by the 
payment of a bribe. In this and similar cases Mr. 
Peter's advice was a great help to the missionary. The 
Sudra farmers were usually opposed to the opening of a 
school for the children of the Christians and others who 
were laborers on their farms, and hence they did ail 
they could to prevent the Christians or the preacher or 


the missionary from securing a small site for a school- 
house. It was a comfort to have a man like Mr. Peter 
as a fellow-worker when these troubles arose, not only 
because of his advice and sympathy, but also because 
he was a man of prayer. 

In 1884 a good school, in which English was taught, 
was opened at Gunnanapudi for the children of that 
region, and Mr. P. Devanandam, who belonged to the 
Church Mission at Ellore, was secured as headmaster of 
the school. Just as Mr. Karre Samuel's little school had 
helped to prepare some young men to be useful in the 
villages, so this more ambitious effort was of great value 
in giving many young men and boys a chance to secure 
a fairly good education, making them even more useful 
than those of the earlier years in teaching village schools. 

Mr. Peter's help was often of great service in regions 
distant from .Gunnanapudi. While Mr. Craig was on 
his first furlough Mr. Timpany made a tour on the 
Akiclu field in October, 1884, and visited the Vuyyuru 
region where he baptized nine from that village and 
eleven from another village. After his death in Feb- 
ruary, 1885, Mr. Peter and some others made a tour in 
April in that region, when eighty-two were baptized, 
chiefly in villages where none had come out previously. 
Until Vuyyuru was occupied as a station six years later 
Mr. Peter usually accompanied the Akidu missionary on 
his tours in the region along the Kistna river. By the 
end of 1886 the work had grown to such an extent in 
the villages around Gunnanapudi that it seemed wise to 
organize three new churches, one on the north near 
Kolair lake, one on the southwest and one on the south- 
east. Mr. Peter continued to care for these new 
churches for a few years as well as for the mother 


church. He was always helpful in encouraging bright 
young men to go to Samalkot for further study, and 
also in impressing on the churches the duty of self-sup- 
port. One other good point in Mr. Peter and his bro- 
thers must not be left unrecorded. They did not use 
tobacco, and this they owed to the good sense of their 
mother, who though only a Mala, punished them when 
as boys they began to smoke, and this in a country where 
tobacco grows, and where its use is almost universal 
among Malas and many other classes of the people. 

In the early years of the work a chapel was built with 
walls of clay and roof of bamboos and thatch. Pastor 
Peter became ambitious to build a chapel with brick 
walls and a roof of teakwood covered with tiles. This 
was a laudable enterprise, but it involved the brothers 
in debt, partly because it led them to build two substan- 
tial houses for themselves before they had the necessary 
funds in hand. Mr. Peter tried to make money by buy- 
ing grain in the villages for dealers in central places, but 
this resulted in fresh losses instead of gains, and in- 
volved the brothers in heavier debt, which they could 
not pay. These troubles clouded the latter years of 
our friends. At one of the annual meetings of the 
Association Mr. Karre Samuel arose and said he be- 
lieved that these troubles had come on them because 
his brother Peter, who had been called to the gospel 
ministry, had virtually became a merchant. 

Mr. Samuel, who was bora in 1838, died on Oct. 
i4th, 1909, after many years of infirmity through fail- 
ing sight. Pastor Peter, who was six years younger, 
passed away on Dec. iQth, 1916; and Mr. Andrew, 
who was born in 1848, died in January, 1919. Thus 
in spite of the troubles that befell. them they all lived 
out the allotted span of threescore years and ten. 


By Miss K. S. McLaurin. 

Out in the villages "How old are you, Miss Am- 
ma?" they ask. "Well, how old do you think?" I 
parry. "How can we tell? Wait, do you remember 
the Tidal Wave? which devastated our coast between 
fifty and fifty-five years ago, which being interpreted 
into every day English, means, Are you an Antedi- 
luvian?" "No, I can't; I wasn't bora then." "But 
I was/' breaks in old Addepalle Mariamma, sitting on a 
seat by my side, "I was a widow by that time." "What 
an old woman you must be, Auntie," say the younger 
caste women in our audience. "Oh, yes, I am an old 
woman my one son is dead now, and I've seen many 
troubles, but the Lord has been with me. Tidal waves, 
and sickness and death what are these to my Father? 
Let me tell you about Him !" and in her own inimitable, 
deft way she turns the conversation to her own beloved 
theme and soon has the women enthralled. 

"Mariamma," I ask afterwards when we are alone, 
"were you a Christian then?" And Mariamma says, 
"Oh, no, Amma, I didn't know my Father then." "How 
did you first hear about Him?" "I'll tell you all about 
it. Well, then, when I was a young girl in my father's 
house in our tiny village of M. my elder brother worked 
on the passenger boats that plied between Bezwada and 
Bunder on the big canal. He saw the world (on a canal 
43 miles long), and heard many strange things, and one 
time he came home and told me that he had heard out 


there that there were many who did not worship idols, 
but believed in and served one God. And he said to 
me, Tittle sister, there is only one God, I believe/ and 
when I said, 'How can I find Him?' he said, They say 
pray and He will hear and come to you.' "And Amma," 
went on Mariamma, "from that day I sought my Father. 
I knew nothing I was only an ignorant girl, but I went 
about saying, 'Father, Father, come to your child' just 
like a child holding out its skirt to have a gift dropped 
into it. So I held out my skirt for the gift the Father 
would give me. I grew up and was married. My 
brother whenever he came to see me told me more. Then 
Mr. Craig came touring from Akidtt and I got into touch 
with him, and through his workers I got fuller teaching 
and, Oh, Amma, I found my Father. He came to His 
child, He revealed Himself to me! I found Him, I 
found Him!" Over and over she used to say it, and 
how her black old face would light up with a splendid 
joy, as she told of her triumphant experience! 

From the very first Mariamma (who up till her bap- 
tism, and even after it, by her old friends was called 
Veeramma) was a strong, intelligent and joyful Chris- 
tian, devoted to her Father and His interests. She 
wanted a teacher in her village, and because there were 
no other Christians there to help her, she supported him 
all herself and had him teach the children all day and 
herself all night, I'll wager! She was enthusiastic, 
eager, and drank it in greedily. Others believed, led on 
by her ardent spirit and leadership. She followed the 
Lord and Him only. She feared none other. She 
served Him with all her might. So rapidly did she grow 
in grace and experience and influence that, although she 
was absolutely illiterate, she was taken on as a Bible- 


woman for the Vuyyuru field, working with Dr. Brown 
and Miss' Murray until the writer of these lines took 
charge of the women's work and after. She was an 
old woman when I first saw her slight frame, simply 
vibrating with energy and life, face black as ebony. One 
does not often see one quite so black, but her rugged 
features, often lit up by a smile, spelled, in her case, a 
rather remarkable intelligence and strength of character. 
Her want of learning was always a source of regret to 
her, but she had a wonderful memory, and could recite 
long passage after passage of Scripture, and these were 
the backbone and inspiration of her talks and who 
could talk like Mariamma? She was past-mistress of 
repartee, and would invariably turn the tables and the 
laugh upon the unscrupulous and unwary. "This old 
black auntie," said many and many a breathless Brahmin, 
worsted in a wordy fight with Mariamma, smit'ten hip 
and thigh from "Dan to Beersheba," with all his cohorts, 
of prestige, learning and heaven-born superiority, "this 
old black auntie, she just gallops all over us! Why, I 
never met her like! She can't read, but she speaks the 
whole truth !" The fight always ended in one way and 
with perfect good feeling, for Mariamma never left a 
sting behind her where she conquered. After chastis- 
ing the supercilious opponent with her sharpest weapons, 
she knew how to pour out the balm of Christ's love, and 
heal the hurt with the story of it, and send him away her 
devoted friend and champion. 

Her tact was remarkable. "Send Mariamma to our 
village fori a month, Amma. Some of the Christians are 
growing cold and we need her; or some of the unsaved 
are showing a desire to believe Mariamma can bring 
them." This was a frequent request from the Vuyyuru 


pastors. At first we could hardly spare her for these 
long visitations, lor we were so few. But as we got 
more helpers, we set her free for this kind of work- 
almost entirely and at this she was eminently successful. 
Her personality was magnetic, all acknowledged her 
power. No one could rebuke with such authority, no 
one could encourage like her. Night found her talking 
and singing until sometimes dawn would draw near. Her 
poor throat became permanently weak and she ruined 
her voice. But she went right on. God used her up in 
His glorious service and she never grudged one moment 
of time or atom of strength. All she had was His. 

For one or two years she was my only Biblewoman. 
Oh, those weary days ! We were trying to make friends 
in new villages and many's the rebuff we received in the 
process. How often we would come wearily home after 
a hot day of almost fruitless effort. I, an inert lump of 
tired-out and discouraged humanity on my pony, but 
Mariamma springing along on the path by my side. 
"Well, Mariamma, they didn't listen very well did they 
only in that one house that one woman seemed to under- 
stand." "Never mind, Amma. W"e must travel and 
toil. But God always has at least one soul in every 
place who heeds. Yes, there's always one, anyhow. 
Yes, there'll always be one, somewhere." So the cheery, 
bright, confident voice would encourage me all the Avay 
home. Her faith never flagged. 

Mariamma was great on tour. She wasn't always 
thinking about thieves and snakes and other unpleasant 
things. She was always ready for more work, or a 
fight, or a long journey. She was a splendid comrade. 

"Mariamma, will you come with me to live in Avani- 
gadda?" "Yes, Amma, I'll go wherever you go." By 


this time she was seventy, and her friends said : "What ! 
go 'way off to Avanigadda, where we may never see you 
again?" But she answered, "What does it matter 
where? God, and my Missamma are there." So she 
came, and was a mother to my two young Biblewomen 
for over a year ; and then last fall, when she was away 
visiting her grandson, the cholera came and took her 
away to her Father. 

The two fields, Avanigadda and Vuyyuru, are bereav- 
ed. "We shall never," they say, "see her like again." 
Mariamma was true as steel and loyal never for one 
day forgetting Rev. J. G. Brown (then our Foreign Mis- 
sionary Secretary) and his wife, her first "very own" 
missionaries in Vuyyuru, and their children. Many a 
message passed between the three, after the Browns left 
for Canada. 

She had unusual common-sense, too. In the first day 
or two of excitement during the revival of 1906, some 
were over-wrought and lay claim to extravagant mani- 
festations, but Mariamma said, "Let us try the Spirit 
and see if it be of God." And when she was sure it 
was, none rejoiced or profited more. She was very sane. 

A brave and cheerful companion, an inspiring leader, 
a staunch and loyal and devoted fellow-worker has gone 
to other scenes of service. And "Blessed are the dead 
who die in the Lord! Yea, saith the Spirit, for their 
works do follow them." "I am the resurrection and the 
life ; he that believeth on Me though he die, yet shall he 
live," said Jesus. . Mariamma must be just as alive to- 
day "over there" as ever she was here. For such life is 
everlasting in quality, and must exist and gloriously grow 
and serve wherever it is. "And they shall be Mine," 
saith the Lord, "in the day when I come to make up my 


By Miss M. R. B. Selman. 

Pantagani Anna was one of the early Christians. 
Kalakuru, a village some five miles from Akidu, was her 
birth-place. Anna was married but her young husband 
died when her only child Samuel was but one year old. 
From the time of her husband's death she lived in 
Artamuru, where his home had been. Mr. Thos. 
Gabriel was the first preacher to bring the Gospel mes- 
sage to these villages ; through his preaching Anna gave 
her heart and her life to the Lord Jesus Christ. After 
some had become Christians and many others had be- 
come eager to hear the Gospel, Rev. John McLaurin 
came with Mr. Gabriel from Cocanada, to meet with 
the new Christians, and to see how great and white the 
harvest fields were. Multitudes came from the sur- 
rounding villages to see and hear the missionary (the 
first white face). Crowds went in canoes, and the canoe 
that carried Anna got upset. Her little boy was one 
of the first to go under the water ; she bravely jumped 
in to rescue him. Groping around she caught hold of 
the arm of an old woman; eager as she was to find her 
boy she helped to pull out the woman, and to her joy 
found that the woman had the boy's hand clasped in 
hers, so both were saved. Anna was a woman of strik- 
ing character, brave and independent, a better leader 
than a follower. She never felt that she had to do a 
thing just because others did it, if her judgment did not 


Anna was encouraged by Mr. Timpany to go to Cocan- 
ada to get a little more education; while she was there 
learning in the Boarding school she also acted as matron. 
After a time she returned to her home in Artamuru. 
For some time she taught others to read; she was a 
teacher at a monthly salary of one rupee and a half (50 

Akidu, which is only four miles from Artamuru, was 
occupied by Mr. Craig as a mission-station in 1880, and 
in 1882 a house-boat was provided for touring. One of 
the first villages visited was Artamuru, and at a meeting 
held there ten persons were received for baptism, eight 
of them being young people who were attending Anna's 
school. Among these was her son Samuel, who had been 
at Cocanada with his mother. He was about eleven years 
old at that time. He made good progress in his studies 
under his mother's direction, and after a few years he 
was sent to Samalkot to study theology. 

Anna was the first Bible woman on the Akidu field, the 
companion of Miss Fanny Stovel, one of the first touring 
missionary ladies. There was a great field of work 
among the Telugu women of all castes. It was not until 
1894 that the "Glad Tidings" was built; until then Miss 
Stovel used a horse, and the women helpers walked 
many, many miles. Anna, with her good strong voice, 
preached and sang the gospel in hundreds of villages, 
and was a loyaj helper to Miss Stovel, trying to shield 
her from some of the hardships. She was never at a 
loss for an answer, could meet any argument, and if 
necessary compose and sing a song to meet a special 
need. One nightly visitor, while they were on tour, was 
the census-taker. Unwilling to ask Miss Stovel to get 
up and dress, Anna said that she could give all the 


needed information. She did answer every question, 
giving her own age as 30 years, and that of Miss Stovel 
as 50! 

After some years Anna came and said that she had 
decided to give up the mission work and support herself 
from her bit of land. She went to attend to her worldly 
affairs, but was soon stricken down with a serious illness. 
She came to realize that the Lord Himself was speaking 
to her ; she prayed Him to forgive her, heal, and use her 
once more in His service. She soon recovered and went 
about again preaching His glorious gospel. In 1906 God 
graciously sent a great revival on the Akidu field; Anna 
was one of the very first to realize that the hand of the 
Lord was upon her in convicting power ; with great sor- 
row she was bowed down before Him and wept for hours 
before she felt His peace fill her heart. About a year 
later God's call came to her; while in the agonies of 
cholera, she cried out, "Oh Lord! how thankful I am 
that you gave me that revival before you called me 
Home." Her son Samuel was far away and did not 
arrive in time to hear her last messages. I am sure that 
Anna would hear the Master's "Well done !" 

Samuel is still living; he married a boarding school 
girl. He has been pastor of several churches, has always 
been a true helper to the missionaries who have been on 
the field. He loves Bible study and is gifted in exposi- 
tion, in song, and also in composing hymns. Several of 
his hymns are widely used. His children are bright and 
well educated. 

Truly God knows in which out-of-the-way village His 
children are; He calls them out one by one, prepares, 
polishes, and uses them to adorn His crown. 

By Rev. H. B. Cross. 

Kuchipudi Yakob was born in Sreerangapuram, a vil- 
lage on the Vuyyttru Field, on January 15, 1860. He 
was the only son of his mother, who became a widow 
shortly after his birth. He grew up like other poor out- 
caste boys, played with the chickens and family goat till 
he was old enough to be a cattle herder, and then was 
hired out to a Brahman landowner, and became his serf. 

Yakob was one of those men whose souls seem to 
reach out naturally after God. Sreerangapuram is a 
very strong Brahman centre and the people are devout 
worshippers of Vishnu. Being a Madiga, Yakob could 
not share with them in the temple worship of Vishnu; 
but became a very zealous worshipper of Rama, who 
with Krishna shares the devotion of the common people. 
He it was who saw the light was lit nightly in honor of 
Rama, and led the others in the singing and dancing 
around it in praise of his god. 

He was very anxious to learn to read; so when a 
friendly Kapu who could read, came from Nellore to 
the village, and became a serf to one of the Brahmans, 
Yakob made friends with him ; and while they were dig- 
ging in the fields, or watching grain or cattle in the night, 
and at other odd times, by oral instruction and the use 
of palmyra leaves and a steel style, he mastered the 
intricacies of reading and writing. 

About this time Kodali Samuel, a preacher from 
Vuyyuru, visited the village, and preached "the old, old 
story of Jesus and His love". The story made a great 


impression on Yakob's soul, and after a second visit of 
the preacher, he believed in Jesus, but secretly. On 
March 18, 1885, Yakob, with two of his friends, was 
baptized by Pastor Karre Peter: the first fruits of a 
large area, where hitherto the seed of the Word had not 
taken root. Their juttus were cut off. before their 
baptism. This Avas a new thing to them. They felt very 
conscious of the loss of this adornment and symbol of 
their heathenism, a'nd covered up their heads as much as 
possible on their return to the village. But the loss could 
not be hid, and when discovered, drew the wrath of their 
people upon their shorn heads. This was a dreadful 
thing; surely the wrath of the gods would be upon them. 
They were distraught. They howled, threw dust upon 
their heads, abused the young men, and heaped unutter- 
able abuse on the preacher, Samuel. 

From the time of his conversion, like Paul, Yakob 
transferred all his devotion and zeal to his Saviour, 
Jesus of Nazareth, and preached openly continually. His 
eighteen years of service were given almost wholly to 
Sreerangapuram and the surrounding villages. His 
simple, straightforward messages, his zeal, and his sin- 
cerity won him hearing wherever he went ; and his minis- 
try was fruitful in the Lord. In Sreerangapuram, the 
proud Brahmans were much opposed to their pariah 
serfs becoming Christians, and for a number of years 
persecuted them severely. But "the Word of the Lord 
grew, and prevailed". When the congregation grew 
large enough to need a church, on account of the Brah- 
man opposition, the building had to be done quickly and 
unexpectedly to the Brahmans. Yakob, with character- 
istic determination, got the supports, beams and other 
parts of the roof all prepared before hand; and on an 


appointed day, in the protecting presence of Mr. Craig 
and Mr. Brown, the material was assembled, and the 
building erected. Later the opposition of the Brahmans 
ceased, and now the whole Panchama hamlet is practi- 
cally Christian, and is one of the strongest centres on 
the Vuyyuru field. 

In 1904, Kuchipudi Yakob became very sick, and after 
a most distressing illness, on December igth died in the 
Vuyyuru Hospital. He was very greatly mourned and 
greatly missed. But of the many he won for Christ, 
some are still carrying on the work he loved so much. 
Among these is his own son, K. David, the efficient and 
beloved pastor of the Meduru Church. "Blessed are the 
dead who die in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, saith 
the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and 
their works do follow them." 

By Rev. R. C. Bensen. 

Here is a man who never studied Hebrew or Greek, 
never saw Rome or Athens, who knows nothing about 
Critiques of Reason; but Pantagani Samuel has perhaps 
done more than all others to put Vuyyuru on the map of 
Missions, and the Jubilee history would be incomplete 
without mention of his name. 

The life-story of Mr. Samuel is a study in religious 
psychology. He knows the meaning of "Religious ex- 
perience," "the Call," "Strain and Stress," "Crisis/' 
"Faith," "Surrender," "Assurance," and other experi- 
ences through which human souls pass as they come face 
to face with God. Better than I can tell it on paper, 
that story may be read in the lives of hundreds of 
Christians in the villages of the Vuyyuru field and in 
the life and work of many Indian preachers, evangelists 
and teachers who have been influenced by the life of this 
Vuyyuru padre. 

The young boy Samuel started life in Gunnanapudi, 
about sixty years ago. That was something in his favor, 
for much in life depends upon the start. Gunnanapudi 
was a village in itself of Mala farmers who were indus- 
trious, prosperous and independent of caste people, who 
usually "lord it over" these Indian villagers. Samuel's 
people had lands under rice cultivation, and doubtless his 
youth was spent in doing odd jobs about the farm. One 
day he had a dream. I shall not relate it here. Western 
peoples lay little stress on dreams and their interpreta- 
tions. The young boy was nJU?h perturbed. a.n.4 went to 


a pastor to have the dream interpreted. It had real 
religious value for him, for when the pastor said it was 
God's call to consecrate his life to His service, Samuel 
responded, "Here am I, send me." When he went 
home he was singing about the sufferings of Christ. Mr. 
Karre Peter and his brother Samuel talked and prayed 
with him, examined him in Bible knowledge, and sent 
him as a teacher-evangelist to Bomminipad, a village in 
the Achavaram Church, where he worked for a period 
of ten months. When Mr. Craig visited that village he 
decided that Samuel should go to the Samalkot Semin- 
ary, to prepare for the work of the ministry, and so he 

It was during his early days in the Seminary that 
Samuel passed through the "Valley of Achor" which in 
truth became his "door of hope." "It was while I was 
studying the third chapter of Matthew's gospel that God 
took hold of me and showed me my sins. There was in 
my heart a sorrow I could not drown" so he writes. 
Thinking the boys would laugh if they saw him weep, 
he struggled to keep back the tears, and when all the 
students had left their classes and gone to their rooms 
he knelt in a corner and agonized with God. After four 
or five days of struggle, peace came to his soul, his 
studies were a joy and the Word of God was his supreme 

But life was to be not all smooth sailing for the young 
convert. For preferring a charge of sin against a pastor 
he was dismissed from the Seminary. His missionary 
refused to give him work, but undaunted he waited, and 
was later received into the Seminary when it was found 
that the charge he had preferred was true. 

Later, when cholera swept Gunnanapudi, Samuel's 


father, mother and two uncles died, and he was called 
home to attend to the affairs of the family. After some 
time his widowed aunts worried him Avith requests to 
transfer to their names the property left by their hus- 
bands. The Akidu missionary advised him to return to 
his studies, so he gave his aunts the property, which 
according to Indian law he was not obliged to give, and 
returned once more for Bible study. Of these experi- 
ences he says, "I believe that God Himself solved my 
problems and brought me back again to His service." 

It would take much space to enumerate the many vil- 
lages which Samuel shepherded in those early days when 
most of the present staff of missionaries were attending 
public schools in Canada, and to detail the work he 
accomplished over wide areas. The young worker (he 
was now probably twenty-two years old) was delighted 
when the missionary, Mr. Craig, placed him in Vuyyuru, 
to have the pastoral oversight of what now constitutes 
the Vuyyuru and Avanigadda fields. There were then 
only nine workers in that section, none of whom had 
read beyond the second or third class in school. 

Picture Samuel in the following years touring his par- 
ish, preaching in the streets and lanes of villages, market 
places, and in highways, by day and night, whenever and 
wherever men could be found to listen to his message of 
hope. Those were days when it cost something to fol- 
low Christ and when it cost more to be His evangel in 
hostile villages. "We slept in tumbled-down houses or 
cow-sheds or wherever people gave us shelter, and woke 
up singing songs of praise to God, to the astonishment 
of the villagers/' so reads Samuel's diary. Many of his 
associates in those early days have long since received 
the "Well done, good and faithful servant" of their 


Lord, but Samuel remains as a living link between that 
past and this present. 

The Vuyyuru field and Pantagani Samuel are indis- 
solubly connected. It is impossible to think of the one 
without thinking of the other. One of the happiest days 
of Samuers life Avas the day he first met Mr. J. G. 
Brown, the first Vuyyuru Field missionary, and he says : 
"From the first day I met Mr. Brown we 'were like real 
brothers, and we worked harmoniously together in the 
heavy task that God had given us." He has worked with 
four Vuyyuru general missionaries who may come and 
go, but Samuel seems like the running brook to go on 
forever. I think everyone who has worked intimately 
with him throughout the years will agree that he was a 
worker called of God and devoted to His service, a 
trustworthy adviser in the many intricate problems con- 
nected with the work in the villages, and a humble spirit 
who had been with Jesus Christ and learned of Him. 

I have said already that Samuel made a good choice of 
his birthplace. He was also advantaged in securing a 
good wife, and this sketch would be incomplete without 
a word about Lyclia. She has the instincts of a home- 
maker. Besides keeping house, she is the mother of six 
children, .and she has raised as many more, the children 
of relatives deceased. Lydia has been for years the 
Matron of the Boarding School, in which work she has 
always taken the keenest interest. The children have all 
been educated at great expense; some are married and 
have gone out into life, establishing homes of their own. 

He is no longer young. He may no longer tramp the 
Vuyyuru field as he did of yore, but until he passes, I 
predict that Pantagani Pedda Samuel will be found daily 
preaching with power the "good news" of the gospel, 


a loyal adviser of the missionary, a friend to the down- 
trodden and helpless, and the faithful shepherd of the 
ilock committed to his care. He holds the confidence of 
his brethren, as witnesseth the fact that. he is the elected 
President of the Jubilee Convention. 


By Rev. I. E. Chute. 

G. Satyanandam was born in the little village of Acha- 
varam, situated on a sandy ridge about ten miles west of 
Akidu. Here he played in the sand of the village street 
like all other boys of his village with no thread of cloth- 
ing till six or seven years of age; and even after that, 
as long as he remained a village lad, with only a string 
on his loins and a strip of rag as wide as one's hand. 

He herded the cattle day by day for the farmers to 
keep them from running riot in the rice fields. But with 
the coming of the missionary to his village, a vision of 
something higher than the life of an ordinary Indian 
cooly began to take shape and colour in his little head. 

He came to Akidu where he might learn how to make 
this vision a reality. As he was very poor he helped in 
off times out of school hours to pull the missionaries' 
punkah so as to earn a few cents to help pay the cost of 
his keep. Thus in one way and another he gained 
enough education to join the school of the prophets in 
Samalkot conducted at that time by Mr. McLaurin. 
Here he graduated in 1887, when he returned to Akidu 
and took charge of the Boarding School for a time. 

While in this work he used his spare time in preaching 
in the neighboring villages and had the joy of seeing a 
considerable number of converts. One of his experi- 
ences in this work is worthy of note. While he was ad- 
dressing a village crowd in the street of Kottacheruvu, 
the head Mala of the village, a bitter enemy of the 


Christians up to this time, arose in his place and to the 
surprise of all said, "I believe it, I believe every word 
of it." Then raising his eyes to the starlit sky he prayed, 
"God save me. Jesus save me. Jesus take away my 
sins," and then sat amid deep silence. No one spoke for 
some minutes, when he rose again and said, "Who will be 
saved with me ? Will you ?" calling upon one and another 
of his villagers by name. He went on to tell how happy 
he was. "Why," he said, "I am up to here in joy," 
measuring himself up to the throat. "It is like a deep 
river." He kept on till eleven wanted to be baptized with 

These experiences in evangelistic work proving Mr. 
Satyanandam's acceptability for such work, he was ad- 
vanced from the Boarding School to the Pastorate of the 
Ganapavaram church, where he was ordained in 1895. 
Here he was in such full sympathy with the propaganda 
for self support that he volunteered to depend upon the 
church for a large proportion of his salary.- Later the 
church falling into a season of bad crops and bad 
finances, he found himself in such difficult circumstances 
that he broke down in telling his missionary about it. 
When the present missionary took charge he was still 
in Ganapavaram. This was in 1896. But as it was 
thought well to have Karre Peter, the oldest and most 
experienced pastor near the new and inexperienced mis- 
sionary in Akidu, Peter was moved to Akidu and Sat- 
yanandam was sent to Gunnanapudi, the next most 
important church on the field. This arrangement lasted 
for one year, when Mr. Peter went back to Gunnanapudi 
and Mr. Satyanandam to Achavaram. 

Here he took hold with the zeal of an interested 
farmer in his own fields and wrought with energy un- 


tiring till Christmas Day, 1901, on which day we re- 
ceived the most heart-breaking shock we have had in our 
work in Akidu. Even to this day it seems scarcely un- 
derstandable. Though Mr. Satyanandam, his wife and 
his ten-year-old daughter were in comparatively good 
health in the morning of that Christmas Day, so far as 
we knew, they were all laid in their graves one after 
another before 9 o'clock at night. We doubted at the 
time whether there had not been some vicious wickedness 
in connection with so remarkable an affair. But as no 
enemy was known and the villagers had no suspicions 
of any one we made no attempt at an investigation. 
They thought the deaths were due to a pernicious and 
rapid fever. 

In the then state of the working force of the field 
this was a staggering blow from which it took us some 
time to recover. We felt we had lost a personal friend 
as well as a fellow-worker on whom we had always 
depended for much. He always had a keen appreciation 
of spiritual truth so that he was an inspiration in the 
workers' meetings. Less than a year before we had said 
in personal conversation, "We might have fifty people 
baptized in this church this year if we had sufficient 
faith and expectation." He seemed to take this to heart 
and had been blessed in baptizing over forty that year 
before he died- One learns to love such fellow-workers 
for their real worth of character. 


P. Moses was bora at Peyyeru, a village in which 
there was a fairly large but poorly developed congre- 
gation of Christians. His parents, however, were among 


the most devout and earnest learners. Being anxious 
for their lad's education, they gave him into the charge 
of the missionary. After some years of steady work, 
first in the village school and then in the Boarding school, 
Moses tried the Lower Secondary Teachers' Examina- 
tion, but failed in mathematics. This was not surprising 
for a village Telugu lad who had had to study Geo- 
metry in English. In 1895 he began work as assistant 
teacher in the Akidu Boarding School. He was a good 
teacher and so kind and patient that he won the love and 
respect of all. Later he wrote again on his examination 
but was unable to pass. This was a disappointment to 
Mr. Moses as well as to the missionary, for without a 
qualified teacher it was impossible to get Government 
recognition. The headmaster of Akidu became a pastor, 
and Mr. Moses, though not qualified, was made the 
headmaster as the most worthy man available. Here he 
served faithfully and acceptably for about four years. 

Early in 1896 Mr. Moses had married one of the 
assistant teachers, a girl who had been educated in the 
Boarding school. Towards the end of tlie year a little 
son came to gladden their home. This boy grew to be a 
teacher himself, and is now one of our representatives 
on the staff of our Union Theological Seminary at Rama- 
patnam, after having taken a course in the College 
which William Carey founded at Serampore. If a young 
child is attacked by certain forms of illness it is custom- 
ary among some classes to burn a round spot in the 
middle of its forehead. Before the baby was a week old, 
one day when his father was away from home, his 
grandmother decided to burn the child. This scar re- 
mains for life, so our Seminary teacher still shows the 
mark of this old custom, Mr, Moses was greatly grieved 


that the child had been burned and glad to have an order 
that no burning would be allowed in the Mission com- 
pound. But when their next child was born and had its 
first attack of baby colic, the grandmother promptly 
burned it too. (Indian women get more of their own 
way than the outside world imagines.) As a punishment 
this grandmother was not allowed to visit the compound 
for six months. The child died, however, and very 
shortly after the mother also died. 

It is an Eastern custom to loudly lament and wail for 
the dead. Moses and his wife had lived happily together 
and he truly mourned her, but he refused to wail and 
lament, that he might witness before the people that in 
God was his trust. As Christ was wrapped in a new 
cloth, many of our Christians think they cannot bury 
their dead without a new cloth, even if they have no 
money to pay for it. So it needed courage for Moses to 
lay away his wife in a nice white cloth that had been 
worn once. He had neither wailed nor provided a new 
cloth. How quick were the wife's relatives to taunt him ! 
There has grown up a custom among the Christians 
at Mission centres to use coffins for their dead, while in 
the villages they use only cloth and mats. Moses was 
anxious for a coffin, and there was no one to make it 
but the missionary's wife, who tried to do her best with 
hammer, saw and packing-boxes when she saw the brave 
stand that Moses was taking. As burial must take place 
so quickly in India, it is the custom for all the near 
relatives to gather eight days later for a feast of mourn- 
ing. Here again Moses strove to bear witness, that it 
might not be kept as a heathen feast. Again, the widower 
in India, instead of being criticized for marrying a 
second time too soon, is criticized severely if he remains 


long unmarried. Moses decided to pay his debts before 
marrying again. His second wife, who still survives him, 
was also a teacher and became the mother of two sons. 

After four years of faithful service as headmaster, 
Mr. Moses became pastor of the Peclakapavaram church. 
Here he did good service and the church was consider- 
ably strengthened in all departments during his pastorate 
of three years. At the end of this time the larger church 
at Moturu required a wise and steady pilot to guide it 
through some rough water. It was felt that Moses was 
the man to be trusted, so he was given the helm. Here 
he served until 1906, when he died of cholera. In those 
days to lose such a pastor in the midst of his usefulness 
was hard to understand in connection with the welfare 
of the work of the kingdom in India. We thought we 
could scarcely get on without him ; such men were then 
so few. 

We can find room for only one incident in the Moturu 
pastorate. There was a charge laid against a member 
for uncleanness. The case was heard by Moses and the 
church council and judgment was given against the 
offender. He gathered his influential relatives behind 
him and refused to accept the ruling of the church. The 
case was appealed to the missionary and the judgment 
confirmed. When the culprit saw judgment going against 
him, he and his friends arose in a body and stalked out 
of the chapel. A very severe sickness soon attacked two 
of the chief leaders of the opposition. Thinking the 
hand of God was upon them, their rebellious pride turned 
to cowering humility. 

During Moses' pastorate the church made progress 
chiefly in the consolidation of the work in hand. Teach- 
ing as well as discipline was carefully carried on, and the 


factious spirit of caste, which has always troubled this 
church, was much quieted. 

Mr. Moses was always a quiet and peace-loving soul, 
and honest in every department of his life and work. 
In his humility toward the pride of the caste people we 
sometimes thought him too considerate, giving them room 
to think he conceded their superiority. If it were an 
error it was to err on the right side. To this day we 
love to think of Moses as a friend and brother beloved. 

By Rev. J. B. McLaurin. 

Among the older men who have had a large and honor 
able place in building up our Telugu churches, and laying 
the solid foundations of our mision work of to-day, the 
Rev. T. Abraham is an outstanding character. Indeed, 
he might almost be regarded as the type of such men. 
Working entirely in the Telugu language, with no know- 
ledge of English, he made up for any lack that this 
may have caused by his intimate knowledge of the people 
amongst whom he worked, and of the conditions of the 
neighborhood where he was born, and in or near which 
he has spent his life. Earnest, devoted to the interests of 
the Kingdom, and tireless in the performance of his duty, 
in many respects he and pastors of his type are a model 
for those to whom they are handing on the torch. 

Mr. Abraham's whole life has been spent on the lower 
reaches of the Kistna River, one of the twelve great 
streams of India that are regarded as especially sacred 
by the people of the country. This river forms a 
prominent feature of the topography of our Vuyyuru 
and Avanigadda fields. On one of the river islands, 
at Chintalanka, now a church centre of the Vuyyuru 
field, he was born about 1868, of Madiga parents. As 
these were uneducated people, no record of the exact 
date of his birth was kept, but it happened at the time 
of the great tidal wave that submerged much of that 
country. The transformation of Chintalanka from a de- 
based and heathen village to a strong and aggressive 
Christian centre is closely bound up with the story of this 


man's gradual apprehension of Jesus Christ as his God 
and Saviour, and his submission to Him. 

From his earliest days he showed a desire to seize 
every opportunity to learn. A well disposed Brahman 
of the neighboring town of Srikakolam taught him the 
elements of reading, after which he went to a Lutheran 
night school at Vepuru, two miles across the river, in 
his search for more knowledge. Later, he himself per- 
suaded a Christian teacher from that Mission to come to 
Chintalanka; and when this man left he brought in an- 
other. While he was laboriously gaining the knowledge 
he sought from these men, he was also trying to satisfy 
his longing for spiritual food by studying the Ramayana, 
one of the great Indian religious epics, with a Madiga 

All this time the Christian influence of the various 
Mission teachers, if they exercised any at all, had no 
apparent result in his life. His very deep and strong 
religious longings were seeking expression in the ways 
most familiar to him, and he was a zealous devotee of 
Tirputenkanna, and later of Rama. These cults, at that 
time popular in his neighborhood, had captured his 
imagination, and he preached devotion to these deities 
among his friends and neighbors. The first word about 
Christ that made an impression on him was from a 
Lutheran pastor with whom he was acquainted, but his 
real awakening came with the advent of Kuchipudi 
Yakob from Sreerangapuram, on the Vuyyuru field. 
Yakob visited the village, preached 'Christ as the 
Saviour from sin and the goal of every man's desire, 
and distributed tracts, those mighty little hand-grenades 
of Christian propaganda. Our young Hindu zealot was 
amongst those who heard him speak. He noted the 


earnestness and conviction of the man, and the tone of 
assurance in the handbills. The Word had entered, and 
the fight was on in his heart. As in all deep, sincere 
and enthusiastic natures, it was a severe one. The old 
devotion and worship could not be easily let go. As in 
so many other cases it was the study of the Word itself 
that finally brought peace and light. A copy of the 
Gospel of John fell into his hands, and the reading of 
the first chapter convinced him that Jesus Christ was the 
Saviour and the God that he sought. Once he was 
convinced, the decision to repent and follow Christ was 
not delayed. Although the opportunity for baptism did 
not come at once, he immediately set out to tell his own 
people in Chintalanka and the near-by village of Chinna- 
murlanka of his new-found Saviour. His ministry was 
blessed from the very beginning, and a number in both 
places believed on the Word. 

In 1891 Mr. Brown came from Vuyyuru to the islands 
of the Kistna River, where his preachers had reported 
considerable interest among the people. He was ac- 
companied by the Rev. P. Samuel, who has seen and par- 
ticipated in so much of the growth of our work in the 
Kistna region. Chintalanka was visited and the work 
done there inspected. Several, including Todeti Abra- 
ham, were found ready for baptism, and the ordinance 
was administered by Pastor Samuel at that time. This 
event was followed by three or four years of voluntary 
work, during which Mr. Abraham continued his daily toil 
in his own village to support himself, and at the same 
time visited near-by villages, preaching salvation through 
Christ. His zeal and earnestness were not without their 
reward, and here and there, those who heard repented 
and believed. All this time Mr. Kuchipudi Yakob and 


others were urging him to give up his whole time to the 
work of the gospel, and enter the employ of the Mission. 
For a time he held back from this, as the voluntary work 
appealed to him, but he gradually came to feel the need 
of thorough and systematic training for the ministry 
which had come to mean everything to him. He heard 
about the Theological Seminaiy at Samalkot, and he was 
sent there by Mr. Brown for a course of study. 

Four years were spent at Samalkot under Rev. J. R. 
Stillwell and Rev. J. E. Davis. In 1897, having com- 
pleted this course, he returned to the Vuyyuru field, 
which was then under the care of Rev. H. E. Stillwell. 
He was sent to Kishkindapalem, a large village on an 
island in the Kistna River not far from his home. He 
went first as a teacher, but his work soon began to show 
fruitage, and a number were baptized. A church was 
organized and built up, and Mr. Abraham continued as 
their pastor. This village was transferred to the Avani- 
gadda field when the latter was separated from Vuyyuru 
in 1912, and the church there is now one of the largest 
and most important of the Avanigadda centres of work. 
Here he worked until 1908. 

In 1909 the work in the Divi Island, the name given 
by the inhabitants to the delta of the Kistna River, was 
opening up rapidly, and the Vuyyuru missionary was 
looking for a man to meet the many problems of expan- 
sion and consolidation that were arising. Most of the 
converts were from the Malas, a different sub-caste from 
that from which many of the Vuyyuru Christians had 
come, and there was much need of tact and solid charac- 
ter in the new leader, lest the old enmities and jealousies 
should be as thorns to choke the growing harvest. The 
choice fell on Todeti Abraham, and he went to Avani- 


gadda, the chief town of the new district, as pastor of 
the local church, and as the apostle of the Divi Island. 
Although from the Madiga sub-caste himself, he has 
carried on his work there ever since in such a spirit of 
humility, service and real Christlikeness that he has 
triumphed over all sectarianism and prejudice, and on 
more than one occasion the people themselves have 
shown that they have no intention of losing their leader 
for one of their own extraction. The uncomplaining, 
yet dignified, bearing with which he silently passed over 
many an insult and much boorishness in the earlier days 
has had its reward, and there is no name more honored 
than his in the Divi Island to-day. 

In 1912 the Avanigadda field was formed, and the 
part that Mr. Abraham has had in the formation and 
growth of that most interesting and progressive corner 
of the harvest field would be difficult to over-estimate. 
Every missionary who has been his fellow-worker in 
that place will gladly acknowledge his or her debt to 
the counsel and labor of this devoted servant of Jesus 
Christ. In 1920 when the Kistna Association met at 
Kaza, his labors were fittingly recognized by the repre- 
sentatives of the churches, when he was set aside to fur- 
ther ministry in a very impressive and beautiful ordina- 
tion service. 

It is good to know that his ministry is still continuing 
in the field that he knows so well. May it continue for 
many more years, and when the time comes for some 
younger hand to carry on the work so well begun, let 
him not forget the foundation work so well and faith- 
fully done by Mr. Todeti Abraham, and by others like 
him in all sections of our mission field ! 

By Miss S. A. Hinman. 


The subject of this sketch, P. Samuel, having been the 
first fully trained teacher on the Akidu field, his history 
is of interest. Born at Achavaram about 1880, the visits 
of Miss Stovel were events of his early youth. By her 
he was inspired to learn to read, to memorize Bible verses 
and Christian hymns. Of the latter, the first he remem- 
bers learning was, "Behold the love of God". About 
1890 he was baptized by Pastor Pallem Joseph, after 
which he was sent to Samalkot Seminary. As a reward 
for having memorized Matt. 5, Miss Stovel sent him off 
with a present of a new coat. 

In those days students received a dollar a month for 
their food and three outfits of clothing yearly. Samuel 
remembers how that, one year when funds were low, 
Mr. J. R. Stillwell, the principal, announced that clothes 
could not be given. Upon this the leaders among the 
boys gathered the others together and, by intimidating 
them, made them consent to a strike. Having packed 
their clothes in bundles they approached the Mission 
House late one evening where they found the mission- 
aries at prayer. When the devotions were over, the 
boys, out of the darkness, shouted their farewells. Mr. 
Stillwell dealt with them wisely. What loving appeals 
could not accomplish with some of the pupils, sharp 
warnings did, and the boys decided to remain. 

During the years at Samalkot, at different times, Miss 
Hatch and Mr. J. G. Brown taught the Bible. Of the 


latter the witness is given "He loved us very much". 
The same, too, is said of Mr. John Davis, who for a 
time was the principal. His stories of Canadian farm 
life are still remembered. 

After Samuel graduated and married his faithful 
help-mate, Shantama, he became a teacher in the Akidu 
school. He was Head Master in 1906 and 1907. Dur- 
ing the years 1908-09 Samuel was the Head Master at 
Gunnanapudi. When he went there he discovered to 
his disgust, that Sunday was a favorite day for pig- 
killing. From the Scriptures he was able to convince 
the butchers of the wrong of this. They therefore re- 
fused to do this work again on Sundays. Though the 
villagers were at first annoyed, they later submitted, and 
from thence a new era of Sabbath observance was 
ushered in. 

During this period a revival was going on at Akidu. 
Samuel resisted the impression that lie should go. Then 
came a sort of vision in which Mr. Stillwell seemed to 
be saying to him, "You must go to Akidu". Accordingly 
he went and was very greatly blessed. 

He later became filled with a great desire to preach 
the Gospel. This became known to Mr. Chute who sent 
him for training at the Seminary. Here he found a 
tendency among the younger school boys to be very mis- 
chievous on Saturdays and Sundays. To counteract 
this he founded "The Akidu Field Students' Union". 
This met with great success and much pleased the prin- 
cipal, Mr. H. E. Stillwell. This organization, with a 
membership of about forty, is at present a feature of 
the McLaurih High School. 

After leaving the Theological Seminary, Samuel went 
to Peyyeru for a year. Since then, 1911, he has been 


the Pastor of the Akidu church. He has been a loyal 
advocate of self-support, and has seen a great develop- 
ment along this line. He has had the joy of seeing the 
church grow to such an extent that groups of villages 
have twice been separated from it to form independent 
organizations. He has had leading ability which has 
made him a real helper to his missionaries. There 
doubt that many a child who has studied in Akidu school, 
and many a Christian in the locality trace their conver- 
sion to the teaching of Pulavarti Samuel. 


About forty years ago Pasala Ratnam was born in 
Gudlavalleru on the Akidu field. His father had become 
.a Christian not long before his birth. He attended the 
school in his village which was then taught by Karre 
John. Miss Stovel used to visit there, and from her he 
received Sunday School prizes. He learned many 
hymns by heart, the first being the Telugu, "Just As I 
Am." As a child he formed the habit of praying, and 
met his difficulties in this way. At the age of twelve 
Tie was baptized by Pastor Karre Peter. He then went 
as a student to Samalkot where Mr. J. R. Stillwell and 
Miss Hatch were in charge. After completing Third 
Form he took training and then came to teach in the 
Akidu Boarding School. About this time he was mar- 
ried to Tadepalli Esther. From 1901-1903 he was an 
.assistant, and from 1903-1915 Head Master of the 
school. Then the school was raised in grade, making 
it necessary to have one of higher academic qualifica- 
tions as Head Master. He remained on the staff till 
1918 when he was called to become the Pastor of the 
Achavaram church. 


The Revival of 1906 meant much to Ratnam. For a 
time he resisted the Spirit which was impelling him to 
confess his sins. He doubted the work which was going 
on in the lives of those about him. At last he yielded, 
confessed all, and received a great blessing. 

While teaching in Akidu he read an article by Dr. 
Torrey in the Montreal Witness. This was based on 
the text "He that winneth souls is wise." Such a deep 
impression did this make on him that he started a night 
school in a village about two miles away. As a result 
six people were converted and baptized. 

As a teacher in the school Ratnam exerted a great 
influence over the youth of the Akidu field. Firm 
almost to a fault the wrong-doer had no chance of 
escape. His diligence in Bible study, in preparation for 
Sunday School work and the Workers' examinations,, 
fitted him for the more exclusively Christian work of a 

The distinctive features of his service are his zeal for 
Temperance and Self-support. He feels the importance 
of prayer and tries to teach the people to pray. His 
experience as a teacher has made him capable of super- 
vising the village schools in his church. During his 
pastorate, work has been opened up in four new villages. 
Ratnam is one who can be relied upon to uphold right- 
eousness and to do faithful work. 



By Rev. John Craig. 

' D. Anthravady. 

Das Anthravady was bora in 1822 and spent his child- 
hood at Masulipatam. When he was ten years old his 


father was employed as clerk in charge of the Officers' 
Mess of- a Madras regiment that was then in Burma. 
Later it was sent to Bengal, and while there his father 
went to Masulipatam on leave and had Authravady's 
marriage celebrated. The young man saw many of the 
great cities of India while marching with the regiment 
from one station to another. They passed through 
Benares, Allahabad and Cawnpore. Although they were 
not caste Hindus he and his father bathed in the sacred 
rivers. After some years his father died, and Anthrav- 
ady returned to Masulipatam. Just here it may be men- 
tioned that some of his relatives lived at Dondapadu, a. 
few miles from Gunnanapudi. 

While with- his father Anthravady had learned how 
to look after the Officers' Mess in a regiment. In 1848 
he applied for and obtained this post in the 41 st Madras 
Native Infantry, which was stationed at Berhampore. 
One day he found a Telugu tract in a shop, and this 
reminded him of Mr. Purushottam's tract on Caste 
which he had read some years previously. Later he 
found in the same shop other tracts and a Telugu Bible, 
which he read constantly. Wishing to learn how to 
pray he applied to the Baptist missionary for a prayer- 
book and the missionary sent him a Bible. Reading the 
Bible without the help of any teacher led to his conver- 
sion. A Christian officer having heard of this change in 
Anthravady called to see him, and the new believer 
showed him his head from which the sacred tuft of hair 
had been removed. Anthravady had to go to Viza- 
gapatam on business, so this officer gave him a letter to 
Rev. J. Hay, who knew Telugu well, and he was received 
and baptized there. It seems strange that he did not 
apply to the Baptist missionary at Berhampore, where 


he was living, but it may have been because the Baptist 
missionaries worked in Oriya and not in Telugu. After 
this the regiment was stationed in various places, and 
Mr. Anthravady was glad to receive instruction from 
missionaries and others whom he met. 

In 1857 the regiment was transferred to Rangoon, and 
here he became acquainted with Major-General Bell, an 
earnest Christian, who helped him much by reading and 
explaining the Scriptures. Among other things he 
taught him about believers' baptism, but the most im- 
portant result of this officer's instruction was the stimu- 
lus Mr. Anthravady received to work and bear witness 
for Christ in the regiment. He commenced to hold a 
Bible class for young people every night from 9 till n. 
After a time three men were baptized and on other occa- 
sions twenty-two more. The Baptist missionaries 
examined and baptized them. Finally in March, i86o r 
Mr. Anthravady after much prayerful thought and study 
decided that he himself should be immersed according; 
to the Master's command. In writing in 1870 about the 
beginning of his work he said, "After resolving to seek 
the conversion of my own relatives, the thought occurred 
to me that I might lead others to Christ. Then I com- 
menced preaching to the drummers and sepoys in the 
regiment, and God has used me in the salvation of one 
hundred and twenty persons." The regiment was at 
Arcot from 1861 to '64, and at Madras from 1864 to '68. 
They used to have some missionary in sympathy with 
them come and baptize new converts and administer the 
Lord's Supper. " But they found this inconvenient arid 
decided to ordain Mr. Anthravady. 

In 1868 the regiment was removed to Cuttack, and 
the church of thirty-two members enjoyed fellowship 


with the English Baptist Mission. After Mr. Purushot- 
itam's arrival in December, 1870, he and Mr. Anthrav- 
;ady became warm friends. In 1872 Mr. Anthravady 
published a poetical work by Mr. Purushottam, called 
"'The Gospel Trumpet". One thousand copies were 
printed and distributed in the Telugu country. In 1871 
.Mr. Chowdhari Appalanarasiah was baptized and went 
tto Akulatampara, which was his native place, and 
preached the Gospel. As the result of his work Mr. 
Bhagavan Behara and Purushottam's brother's son be- 
lieved and wished to be baptized. However, their rela- 
tives prevented them, and in 1873 they went to Cuttack 
and were baptized there in July. 

On one occasion complaint was made to the Command- 
ing Officer by the mother of a man who had been bap- 
tized, and Mr. Anthravady was summoned and told that 
he must choose between preaching and managing the 
Officers' Mess. He was given three days to decide; he 
and Mr. Purushottam were much in prayer together. 
When asked by the officer what decision he had come to, 
he replied, "As I told you before, Sir." When the 
officer told him to go elsewhere, he said, "All right, Sir, 
I shall take leave, good-bye." After he had gone a 
short distance the officer called him back and said, 
'"Great is your faith as well as your zeal ; do your duties 
.as before". 

In March, 1876, the regiment was transferred to 
Vizianagram, where it remained about two years, during 
which time the interests of our Mission were largely 
identified with those of the church in the regiment. Nine 
believers were baptized. Parlakimedi was occupied as a 
station by Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong in June, 1876, and 
two months later Messrs. Appalanarasiah and Bhagavan 


Behara of Akulatampara were taken as mission helpers. 
In June, 1877, Messrs. Purushottam and Anthravady 
visited Parlakimedi and Akulatampara, and the church 
at this village was formally placed under the care of 
the Canadian Baptist Mission. Early in 1878 the regi- 
ment was transferred to Toungoo in Burma, and Mr. 
Anthravady suffered from poor health there, and went 
to Madras on sick leave, about the middle of 1880. 
However, by the next March his health was much better, 
so he agreed to join the regiment for a time, and went 
with it to Quilon in Travancore. In December he be- 
came ill and died on the Qth. He had served the officers 
for thirty-three years, so they buried him with full mili- 
tary honors, the service being conducted by the Com- 
manding Officer. 


By Rev. John Craig. 

This bro- 
ther's name is 
k n o w n to 
Chris tians 
throng h o u t 
the Telugu 
country b e - 
cause he was 
the author of 
many Telugu 
hymns and 
other poetical 
works. Can- 
adian B a p - 
tists should 
take special 
interest i n 
him because 
he was born 
on Sept. 5th, 
1803, at a vil- 
lage not very 

far from Parlakimedi, his father belonging to a sub- 
caste known as Srusti Karnams. Telugu and Oriya 
were both used in the family, the father being specially 
proficient in Telugu. The son, when a boy, was am- 
bitious to excel like the father. He read Hindu poetical 
and sacred books and committed portions to memory. 

Chowdhari Purushottam. 


He was always devout and became an orthodox Hindu 
and a worshipper of Vishnu. He was married when 
twenty, and soon afterwards lost his father. His mother 
and elder brother supported him because he was learned 
and devout. After his father's death he became still 
more devout, and composed many hymns and verses in 
praise of Vishnu and his incarnations, Krishna and 
Rama. About this time becoming interested in another 
form of Hinduism, he desired to become an ascetic and 
learned from others various forms of penances for the 
mortification of the body. 

In 1832 he remembered that his brother had given 
him seven years previously a Christian tract. When he 
had read it carefully he determined to give up his ascetic 
life and learn more about the Christian religion. He 
obtained three more tracts in neighboring villages. In 
his search for more light he went on one occasion to 
Vizagapatam and was directed to a Roman Catholic 
Church, but seeing images there he turned away. A 
missionary of the London Missionary Society was liv- 
ing there then, but he was very ill and died soon after- 
wards. Later, while in Parlakimedi as a tutor, Mr. 
Purushottam sent a letter by a messenger to Berhampore 
addressing it to the "Padre" of that place. This fell 
into the hands of the Roman Catholics; so he deter- 
mined to go to' Madras. Meanwhile an opportunity 
arose for a visit to Chicacole. On inquiring about 
Christianity he was directed to a lady, Mrs. Helen Knott, 
who became deeply interested in him, and gave him a 
copy of the Gospel according to Luke and two tracts. 
Through reading the Gospel and conversing with Mrs. 
Knott he determined to become a Christian. This lady 
introduced him to an officer, who on seeing his earnest- 


ness said, "I believe God has lighted. one lamp in this 
dark land." Purushottam's brother and other relatives 
made great efforts to turn him from his purpose, but he 
remained firm. In May, 1833, he went to Vizagapatam 
to reside there. The missionary having died, Major 
Brett of the East India Company was overseeing the 
mission work. Shortly after going to Vizagapatam. Mr. 
Purushottam threw away his sacred thread and openly 
abandoned caste. About this time he wrote a tract in 
Telugu on "Caste/' many editions of which have been 
published by the Tract Society of Madras. As he was 
anxious to be baptized, Major Brett thought of sending 
him to Madras, 400 miles by sea, but meanwhile Mrs. 
Knott heard from the Baptist Missionary at Cuttack, and 
Mr. Purushottam decided to go there, 300 miles by land. 
He was baptized on October 6th, 1833. The English 
judge granted the use of a large reservoir near the Gov- 
ernment offices, and fully one thousand people witnessed 
the baptism. Returning to Vizagapatam, he preached the 
gospel there and in the villages round about, often suffer- 
ing much abuse.- At this time he wrote his first lyric, 
"I Sought the Refuge of our Jesus Christ". 

In 1834 he worked for a few months in Madras and 
Bellary; and returned to the north by land, preaching in 
many places by the way. By the end of November he 
reached Vizagapatam, where he spent a few days with 
Capt. Richardson, a son-in-law of Mrs. Helen Knott. 
Then he went to his native place near Parlakimedi and 
preached the gospel there and in other villages. His 
relatives treated him as an outcaste. Early in 1835 he 
received word that a missionary who had just come to 
Vizagapatam needed his help, so he went there and 
worked for about a year. Then he made another effort 


to get his wife, and this time she accompanied him to 
Chicacole, and soon afterwards she went with her hus- 
band to Cuttack and was baptized in April, 1836, by Rev. 
A. Sutton. Here, a few weeks later, Mr. Purushottam 
was ordained as an evangelist, and was sent to Berham- 
pore to assist the missionary there. Later in the year 
he was invited by the judge at Chicacole to preach the 
gospel there. With the approval of the missionaries at 
Cuttack he went, and helped the Rev. S. S. Day, the 
first American Baptist Missionary to the Telugus, during 
the short time that he and Mrs. Day lived and worked at 
Chicacole. In 1838 he was invited to return to Berham- 
pore, and toured all over the Ganjam District during the 
seven years that he spent there. In 1843 his old friend, 
Mrs. Knott, returned from Burma to Chicacole, and sent 
her bullock-coach to Berhampore with a request that he 
and his family would come to see her. They gladly 
complied with this request. About this time Mr. Puru- 
shottam fell into sin and suffered bitter grief before 
peace returned to his heart. 

In 1845 he was invited to Chicacole, which the London 
Missionary Society had occupied as a station. . He 
preached the gospel there for six years. In 1851 he lost 
his wife, and was left with two sons and two daughters, 
for whose education he wished to be transferred to 
Vizagapatam. There he helped Dr. Hay in Bible trans- 
lation, but his chief work was preaching the gospel. On 
a tour which he made in January and February, 1861, 
he preached in Anakapalli, Yellamanchili, Tuni, Pithapur, 
Samalkot, Peddapuram, Cocanada and other places. ^ In 
1862 he was appointed to evangelistic work at Chitti- 
valasa, near Bimlipatam, and on Sunday evenings he 
used to visit Polepilli to preach the gospel. During this 


time his brother's son and some others were converted 
m another village where he preached. At the end of 1870 
Mr. Purushottam 
decided to retire 
from mission work 
and go to Cuttack 
where his children 
lived. On his way 
there he went to 
Akula t a nip a r a, 
where he spent a 
month. The 4ist 
Regiment of Nat- 
ive Infantry had 
been transferred to 
Cuttack in 1868. 
Connected with it 
there was a Telugu 

Baptist church un- Anthravady Purushottam Memorial Hall 
1,1 f at Parlakimedi. 

cler the care or 

Pastor Das Anthravady. After Mr. Purushottam's 
return to Cuttack in December, 1870, these brethren 
had much fellowship with each other. 

In 1872 they went together to Akulatampara, where 
two men wished to be baptized, one of them being 
Mr. Purushottam's brother's son and the other Bhagavan 
Behara, a sketch of whose life is given in this book. 
These men were not baptized till the next year. The 
preachers visited also Chicacole and Vizianagram and 
Chittivalasa. In December, 1875, Mr. Purushottam lost 
his eldest son who had supported him, and the Mission 
offered him his former post as pastor, and in 1877 he 
was given charge of the church at Berhamapore. In 


June of this year he visited Akulatampara again with 
Pastor D. Anthravady; Rev. W. F. Armstrong was also 
present. Bhagavan Behara's wife and two others were 

The next year he went back to Cuttack. After he 
lost the sight of both eyes he was pensioned by the 
church. He died on August 24th, 1890, aged 87. He 
was ordained as an evangelist in 1836, so that he had 
preached for 54 years, including the period after he was 
pensioned. About half of this time he had been in 
connection with the London Mission and the other half 
in connection with the English Baptist Mission. 


I I 

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