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Full text of "3 Enoch [microform] ; or, The Hebrew book of Enoch"

niversity of Cbicago 
liiibraricjs 




3 ENOCH 

or 
The Hebrew Book oj Enoch 



Cambridge University Press 
Fetter Lane, London 

New York 

Bombay, Calcutta, Madras 
Toronto 

Macmillan 

Tokyo 
Maruzen-Kabushiki-Kaisha 



All rights reserved 



3 ENOCH 



or 



Hebrew Book of Knock 



EDITED 

AND TRANSLATED FOR 

THE FIRST TIME WITH INTRODUCTION 
COMMENTARY Sf CRITICAL NOTES 

by 

HUGO ODEBERG 

PH.D. (LoND.) 



CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
MCMXXVIII 




PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 



1413180 



To 

THE REV. CANON G. H. BOX, M.A., D.D. 

Davidson Professor of Old Testament Studies 

in the University of London 



PREFACE 

The writer owes profound gratitude to his teacher, Professor 
G. H. Box, of the University of London, without whose 
guidance, encouragement, generous interest and helpful 
criticism the present work would never have been brought 
into shape. 

The Venerable the Archdeacon of Westminster, Dr R. H. 
Charles, has authorized the writer to give the present book 
the title "3 Enoch". 

The second and third parts of the book (Translation with 
Notes and Hebrew text with critical apparatus) are in the 
main identical with those of the writer's thesis for the Ph.D. 
degree. The Introduction, however, has been wholly revised 
and partly shortened. The revision has been approved by 
Professor Box, who has been kind enough to read through 
the Introduction in its final form. 

The writer wishes to express his thanks to the readers of 
the Cambridge University Press for the care and trouble 
which they have taken with the correction of the proofs and 
for the valuable suggestions given by them. 

To the Senate of the University of London the writer is 
indebted for a grant of 100 out of the University of London 
Publication Fund, and to the Trustees of the Olaus Petri 
Stiftelse of the University of Upsala for a grant of the same 
amount towards the publication costs. 



HUGO ODEBERG 



Bjdrklinge, Sweden 
15 February 1 928 



CONTENTS 
PART I 

+ 

INTRODUCTION 

pages 1-192 

1 Abbreviations employed ....... page 3 

2 Sources and Literature ........ 4 

A. Hebrew and Aramaic . 4 

B. Other Literature . . . . . . . . n 

3 MSS. and printed books containing the Hebrew Book of Enoch 

or parts of it 17 

4 The mutual relations and affinities of the MSS. and other sources 19 

5 Short Survey of the Contents of the Hebrew Book of Enoch . 19 

6 Quotations of and references to 3 Enoch . . . . . 20 

7 Origin and date of composition of the Hebrew Book of Enoch 

and its relation to cognate mystical writings .... 23 

(a) Ideas and expressions of i Enoch recurring in 3 Enoch . 43 

(b) Parallels between and cognate conceptions in 2 Enoch and 

3 Enoch 52 

(c) Similarities between Mandaitic Literature and 3 Enoch . 64 

8 The conceptions of Metatron in 3 Enoch ..... 79 

9 The references to Metatron found in Talmud, Midras and 

Targum .......... 90 

10 The conceptions of Metatron in related mystical and apoca- 

lyptic literature 96 

A. In i Ap. Ism., the HeMlop works and i and. 2 Leg. Martyrs 96 

B. In the Hekalop Zof e rapi and Si'ur Qomd . . -. .102 

C. In the writings associating Metatron particularly with Moses 106 

D. In A. R. 'Aq., Rev. Sim. b. Yohai, 2 Ap. Ism., etc. . . 108 

11 Survey of the conceptions of Metatron in later mystical 

literature . . in 

12 Origin of the word 'METATRON' 125 



x CONTENTS 

13 Origin of the conception of Metatron .... page 142 

14 The Angelology of 3 Enoch 147 

A. The Angelology of A i (chh. 19-22, 25~28 6 ) . . . 147 

B. The Angelology of A 2 (ch. 17) 154 

C. The Angelology of A 3 (ch. 1 8) 158 

D. The Angelology of chh. 28 7 ~48 A 163 

E. The Angelology of the Enoch-Metatron pieces (chh. 3- 

1 6, 48 B-D 1 ' 2 ), and of chh. 23, 24 .... 166 

F. The Angelology of the additional pieces chh. 22 B, 220 

and 153 ......... 169 

15 The quasi-physical aspects of the lA ra&o> Raqi a ', the MeerkSba 

and the Kisse ha-kKSboct\ the 'Divine Letters and Names' . 170 

1 6 The conceptions of Spirit and Soul. Fate of the spirits and 

souls ............ 174 

17 The Divine Judgement 180 

18 The performance of the celestial songs, esp. the O e ctussa . 183 
Appendices ..... . . ... 188 

PART II 
TRANSLATION & NOTES 

pages 1-179 

PART III 
HEBREW TEXT WITH CRITICAL NOTES 

pages ty-'K (i-74) 

PART IV 
INDEXES 

pages 1-36 

I Index to the Hebrew Text 3 

II Index and Vocabulary to the English Translation . . . 19 

III Index of Numbers occurring in the Text . . . . 35 

IV Index of Scriptural Passages quoted 36 



PART I 
INTRODUCTION 



OHBI 



HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH 

i. ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED 
i. GENERAL: 

A. and P. = R. H. Charles, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT. 

A. and P. (Ka) = Kautzsch, Die Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des AT. 

Add. denotes a British Museum MS. 

BH. = A. Jellinek, Beth ha Midrasch, 6 voll. (The different tractates, 
midras'im and other writings as appearing in Beth ha Midrasch 
are referred to as follows : Hek. R. ii, BH. iii. 69 = Hekalop 
Rabbapi, ch. xii in Beth ha Midrasch, vol. iii. p. 69, Alph. R. 
' A qiba, BH. iii. 5 = Alph. R. <A qiba in Beth ha Midrasch, 
vol. iii. p. 5, etc.) 

BMi. = S. A. Wertheimer, JiiBmo 'tftt. 

Bodl. = MS. in the Bodleian Library. 

Br.G. = Brandt, Mandaische Schriften (Ginza). 

GR., GL. Petermann, Thesaurus, and M. Lidzbarski, Ginza. GR. 
x (y) = Ginza Right \ p. x in Lidzbarski, p. y in Petermann. 

JE. = Jewish Encyclopedia, 12 voll., New York, 1901-1906. 

JM. M. Lidzbarski, Das Johannesbuch der Mandder. 

JQR. Jewish Quarterly Review, 20 voll., London, 1889-1908; JQR. 
n.s. = id. new series, Philadelphia, 1910- (in progress). 

J.Th.S. = Journal of Theological Studies. 

M. = Mi$na. 

MGWJ. = Monatsschrift fur Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums 
(begriindet von Z. Frankel), Breslau, 1852- (in progress). 

MICH, denotes a Bodleian MS. 

ML. = M. Lidzbarski, Mandaische Liturgien. 

OM. I. D. Eisenstein, D^tsmo "IX1K, 2 voll. 

OPP. denotes a Bodleian MS. 

Or. denotes a British Museum MS. 

RAS. = Royal Asiatic Society. 

REJ. = Revue des etudes juives, Paris. 

RJ. Bousset, Religion des Judentums 2 ; RJ 3 . = id. 3rd ed. 

T. = Babylonian Talmud. 

TED. = Box and Oesterley, Translations of early Documents. 

TJ. = Palestinian Talmud. 

VA. M. Schwab, Vocabulaire de I'Angelologie. 

2. PSEUDEPIGRAPHA: 

1 En. or i Enoch = The Book of Enoch (ed. R. H. Charles). 

2 En. or 2 Enoch = The Book of the Secrets of Enoch (Slavonic Enoch) 

(ed. R. H. Charles in A. and P.). 

1-2 



4 INTRODUCTION 

Jub. = The Book of Jubilees (ed. Charles). 

Ap. Bar. = The Apocalypse of Baruch (ed. Gharles). 

Asc. Isa. The Ascension of Isaiah (ed. Charles). 

Test. XII Pair. = The Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs (ed. Charles). 

4 Ez(ra) = The Ezra-Apocalypse (ed. G. H. Box). 

Ap. Abr. = The Apocalypse of Abraham (ed. G. H. Box). 

Test. Abr. = The Testament of Abraham (ed. G. H. Box). 

Ap. Mos. = The Apocalypse of Moses (in A. and P.). 

Ass. Mos. = The Assumption of Moses (ed. R. H. Charles). 

3. TALMUD: 

M. = Misna, Tos. = Tosafta, TB., TJ. = The G e mara of the Babylonian 
or Palestinian Talmud respectively. The abbreviations of the names of 
the tractates are those commonly used. Thus : Ber. = B e rafco]>, Shab. = 
Sabbap, Pes. = P e sahim, Ta an. = Ta' a nip, Meg. = M e gilla, Hag.= 
H a gigd, Yeb. = Y e bamop, Sanh. = Sanhcedrin, ' A b. Zar. = (A boda Zara> 
etc., Ab. R. Nat(hari) = 'Afro}? de Rabbi Na}>an. 

4. MIDRASIM: 

Mek. = M 6 Mpa; Gen. R., Ex(od.) R., Lev. R., Num. R., Deut. R. = 
B e resip Rabba, e mop Rabba, Udyyiora Rabba, B e midbar Rabba, D e barim 
Rabba ; Cant . R. = Midras Sir-ha-sSirim ; Ruth R. = Midras Rup ; Lam. R. 
= Midras 'EM', Eccl. R. = Midras Qohcelcep; Pesiqtha = P e siqpa d 6 Rab 
Kah a na\ Pesiqtha R. = P e siqpd Rabbapi; Tanh. = Tanhuma; Prooem. = 
Procemium, snn^B; Y. Sh. Yalquf Sim f oni. 



5. For titles of reference and abbreviations referring to other Hebrew 
and Aramaic books and writings vide below, section 2, A, 5. ("List of 
abbreviations, etc.") 

2. SOURCES & LITERATURE 
A. HEBREW AND ARAMAIC SOURCES & LITERATURE. 

i. RABBINICA PROPER: 

Babylonian and Palestinian Talmud ^Mi^na, Toscefta (ed. Zuckermandel) 
and G 3 mara. 

'En Ya' a qoft, vide below, 3 B. 
The Tar gums. 
Midrasim : 

(a) M e fiilpa, ed. Venice, I545, 1 Friedmann, Wien, 1870. 
Sifre, ed. Vencie, 1545, * Friedmann, Wien, 1867. 
Sifra, ed. Venice, I545. 1 
P e siqpa d 6 Rob Kah a nd, ed. Buber, Lyck, 1868. 

1 Reprinted Berlin, 1925-26. 



LITERATURE 5 

P e siqpa Rabbapi, ed. Friedmann, Wien, 1880. 

B B resip Rabba, S e mop Rabba, Uayyiqra Rabba, B e midbar Rabba, 
D e barim Rabba and (Midras Ester) Midras s'ir-ha-s'Sirim, Midras 
Rup, Midras' 'EM, Midras' Qohcelcep (so-called Midrag Rabbop), 
ed. Warshava, 1877. Cf. J. Theodor, Bereschit Rabba mit krit. 
Apparate und Kommentare, Bojanowo, 1903- 

Tanhuma, ed. Venice, 1545, ed. Buber, Wilna, 1885. 

Midras T e hillim, ed. Buber, Wilna, 1892. 

Midras Misle, ed. Buber, Wilna, 1893. 

Midras Tanna'im to Deuteronomy, ed. D. Hoffmann, Berlin, 

1908, 1909. 
(b) Yalquf Sim'oni, 2 voll., ed. Warshava, 1876-77. 

2. COLLECTIONS OF MIDRASIM: 

A. Jellinek, Beth ha Midrasch (referred to as BH.), voll. 1-6 (voll. 1-4, 
Leipzig, 1853-57; voll. 5, 6, Wien, 1873-77). 

S. A. Wertheimer, mania ifis 1-4, Jerusalem. 

S. A. Wertheimer, D^lia 11MK 1-2, Jerusalem, 1913-14. 

L. Grunhut, t^taipSl 1BD Sammlung dlterer Midraschim und wissen- 
schaftlicher Abhandlungen, 1-6, Jerusalem, 1898-1903. 

J. D. Eisenstein, Ozar Midrashim (referred to as OM.), voll. 1-2. 

G. M. Horowitz, musn IpV f\*2, Frankf. 1881; New York, 1915. 



. EARLIER MYSTICAL AND RELATED WRITINGS (Till 
about A.D. 1038): 

A. MSS. 

BodL MSS.: OPP. 556, MS. HEB. e 56, MICH. 175, OPP. 649, MICH. 256, 

MS. HEB. f 56, MS. HEB. f 59, OPP. 757, MICH. ADD. 28, MICH. 9, 
OPP. 467, OPP. 563, OPP. 658, MICH. 473, MICH. ADD. 6l. 

British Museum MSS.: Or. 6577, Add. 27142, Add. 15299, Add. 
26922, Harl. 5515, Add. 27120, Harl. OR. 5510, Add. 17807. 

B. Printed edd. 

MTIK BH. iii. 141. 
nbiy max BH. v. 57. 
p j^win 11 'i ma OM. i. 212. 

'l man 5o^/. MICH. 175, fol. 25 b; Ch. Horowitz, ipy 
i. 59. 



'i wmw (Alphabet of R. ' A qiba), Ven. 1546, Amst. 1708, etc. 

(3 recc.), Petrokov, 1884. 
11 Jin n^S Epstein, Eldad ha Dani, Pressburg, 1891, BH. ii, iii, v 

(8 recc.). 
/TOTS nbs tnia 4 recc.; jB/Z". ii, vi 3N JT'a, Livorno, 1777 (late but 

cont. earlier fragm.). 



INTRODUCTION 

1BD BH. iii; OM. i. 26 a; Buttenwieser, Die hebrdische Elias- 
Apokalypse. 

0fe nry^N 'YJ ""pID. 
KTD pT NnM NBbK Saloniki, 1514; OM. i. 35. 
niiias (Sa'adya), ed. Krakau, 1880. 

Samuel Schonblum, n^n^iBJ D^IBD na^tr 1885. 
n^ia OM. ii. 542. 
Salonica 1727 (Rev. of Moses). 
OM. i. 91 b, 92 b; ##. i, v. 48. 
p rODD 577. ii; OM. i. 83 b. 
p no BH. iii, v, vi ; OM. i. 85 a, 89 a. 
ntra to own nan Const. 1516. 
opn p ^^T. v. 49; OM. i. 94. 

nun 5JT. v. 165 (Rev. of Moses, i rec.). 

. iii; OM. i. in; Wertheimer, m^Nl ipns 'D 1889 
(referred to as Hek. R.). 

ott ^r-s'e L e Mnon, BH. ii; OM. i. 109 (referred to as Mass. 
Hek.). 

' Const. 1519. 

'D 5T. ii. 54-57; OM. i. 159; Const. 1519. 
aun n^oa 5H. i. 151 ; OM. i. 93. 
pan ^n 5.fir. iv. 129; OM. i. 182 a; 5. ha-yYasar, Par. B e resi)>. 
Kiln (T 1 ^ Sword of Moses), ed. Caster, 1896. 
D^tD (Hai Ga'on), ed. Frankf. a. M. 1854. 
no 11 nnns 'n trno J5,??. v; OM. i. 104 (cf. Midras Konen). 

'D Mantua, 1562, etc., etc., Warsaw, 1884 (with commentaries 
of R. Sa'adya Ga'on, Sabbathai Donnolo, Nachmanides, Eleazar 
of Worms, Moses Botarel, and others). 
nYy no 5J7. i. 153. 

tnno '^fr^e L 6 1)anon (cf. ps no 11 nosna 'n 'a). 
man^a 5F. vi. 117; OM. ii. 394 b. 

(referred to as Mass. As.) in Jellinek, 'spn 7 ann ^JJ and 
mas Lublin, 1891. 

IDD (the 2nd rec. of Rev. of Moses) 'Arze L e banon, 46 b; 
Siyyuni, Parasa fya'tephannan, Zohar, ii. 58 a (Aramaic version). 
D/TOK ntr^a 5JY. i, ii, v; OM. i. 2 b, 6 b, 7 b, 8 a. 
n 1 ? p ^win 11 'n ntrya 5T. vi; OM. i. 211 a. 

ntrya A^. Raziel, 29 a (ed. Warsaw, 1913), Batte Midrahp, i. 
ntryan sn i i ' b ia, in n^i'jai n^ipn, a^ys an p. 47. 
mnis 5T. ii; OM. ii. 390 a, ten npsK 'D fol. 2 b. 
-"piB 577. iii. 70 (cf. ##. iii. 141, vi. 117). 

1BD *S. Raziel, 3 b, c (ed. Warsaw, 1913) (together with T e fillap 
Adam ha-Rison the 5e/<y 7Vo a A forms part of 'Aggadaj) Sefcer 
ha-Razim). Another recension: OM. ii. 402 a. 



LITERATURE 



TIP p pyatp 'n JTHJIDJ BH. iii. 80. 
pfrO may 31 11D Warsaw, 1865. 

p miyD in Siddur R. ' Amram Ga'on, fol. 13 ; BH. v. 45. 
i 1 ? miyo BH. vi. 

filthy tma (Midra$ of the Ten Commandments); BH. i. 62. 
'ilin nittfy (containing fragments from the Hefcalofi Literature) : 

(a) BH. v. 167-169 (referred to as i Leg(end) of Martyrs); 

(b) BH. vi. 19-36 (referred to as 2 Leg. Martyrs). 
pins m^BB 'a Const. 1516; BH. i. 91-95. 

rrpDB tma Const. 1516; BH. i. 115-129, ii, vi; OM. ii. 361 b. 
p 'ISPS ed. Zunz, 1884. 

I 'i 

pIB Const. 1514; Warsaw, 1852 (with a commentary by 
Luria). 

yattf 'i pis BH. iii. 78; OM. ii. 555 (Revelation of 
R. Sim 'on ben Yohai). 

'i m'pNty BH. vi. 148; OM. ii. 579. 

in S. Raziel (ed. Amsterdam, 1701, fol. 37 b, ed. Warsaw, 
1913, foil. 30 b, d). Two versions, one shorter, usually attributed 
to R. Isma'el, but in some MSS. to R. <A qiba, the other, and more 
comprehensive one, attributed, sometimes to R. Isma'ei, and 
sometimes to R. <A qit>a). MSS. containing i l ur Qomd or Sefcer 
ha-qQomd: Bodl. MICH. 175, fol. i8b; OPP. 467, fol. 583; OPP. 
563, fol. 91 ; OPP. 658, fol. 100 b (with a commentary) ; MICH. 473, 
fol. 23 b; MICH. Add. 61, fol. 2. 

p rPJirU 'ia "?xyaty 'i rbKtp (referred to as Hek. Zot.) in Bodl. 
MS. MICH. 9, fol. 66 a seqq. 
stain soi stnaty BH. vi. 109. 

y BH. iv. 127. 
1BD ed. Machzor Vitri, Paris, 1874 (OM. ii. 564 a). 

f. i. 106; at the end of Azulai, n^nin DIP Livorno, 1786 
(ace. to Jellinek thirteenth century). 

pttfXin Q1K M^BM S. Raziel, fol. 3 a (ed. Warsaw, 1913); cf. ru 13D. 
S3D KJIian 11 n"?DJi British Museum MSS. Add. 27199, fol. 299 a, OR. 

6577, fol. 13 a. 
'Km 1 ' p pyaty 'i rt?tr\ BH. iii. 78, iv. 117; OM. ii. 551. 

4. LATER MYSTICAL LITERATURE (Post-Ga'onic) : 

1X1K 'D (Todros Abulafia, 1234-1304), Nowydwor, 1808. 
^IX 'D ed. Venice, 1601. 
TTDn 'D ed. Wilna, 1883. 

JTHi 'D (Abraham ben Isaac of Granada), Amsterd. 1648. 

''TJJ (A. Jellinek, Auswahlkabbalistischer Mystik), Leipzig, 
1853 seqq. 

'D (Joseph Gikatilla), Hanau, 1615. 
(Meir b. Ezekiel ibn Gabbai), Padua, 1563. 



8 INTRODUCTION 



T^n (Eleazar of Worms, d. 1237), in S. Raziel, 18 a (ed. 1913). 
.h'D'jn, miian msS-i, sonn rnsbn, B'ONban m^n, a^Bisn msbn 
(Eleazar of Worms), Brit. Mus. Add. 27199. 
MB' 1 ilTI Brit. Mus. Add. 15299, fol. 133 b. 

1BD ed. Amsterdam, 1715; Jiio6jnmi (Lublin), 1903. 
Ifif ed. 1663 with B^lp^n; ed. Warsaw, with Zohar Hadas 'at 
M e gillap Raft and Bi'urim on Zohar Hadas. 

mvT> fima. 

IT p TUn 1 ? 'D (magical formulas), Brit. Mus. Add. 15299, fol. 45 b. 
non (Abraham ben Mordecai Azulai), Amsterd. 1685. 
'D (Judah ben Samuel the Pious), Bologna, 1538. 
ion 'D ed. S. A. Wertheimer, Jerusalem, 1899; OM. i. 194 a. 

'D (on the Divine Names), Brit. Mus. Add. 27120. 
psn mta (Nat. b. Reuben Spira), Venice, 1655. 
(Ashkenazi), Frankf. a. M. 1854. 

'D (Reqanati), Const. 1544. 
'D (Zacuto), Const. 1566. 

p CJDT 1 mas* (on the MeerkaM, basing on Ezek. i), Brit. Mus. 
Harl. OR. 5510. 

Din 11 'D (Gershon ben 'Asher), Mantua, 1561. 
taip 1 ? 11 (Eliezer Sofer Sussmann), Pressburg, 1864-74. 
t&nn taipb 11 'D (Israel Belczicz?), Lublin, 1648; Warsaw, 1879. 
""iilSI laip^ (Reuben Hoshqe ; cabbalistic quotations under headings 
arranged in alphabetical order), Prague, 1660. 

xi taip^ (Reuben Hoshqe; 7%e Greater Yalqut R e 'ufieni, 
referred to as YR.', cabbalistic quotations arranged as a inTS 
on the Pentateuch), WilhelmsdorfF, 1681 ; Warsaw, 1901. 
taip^ Venice, 1566; Warsaw, 1876. 
'D (Isaiah b. Eliezer Chayyim), Venice, 1637. 
7 D (Judah ha-lLevi), Kitab al Khazari, ed. H. Hirschfeld, 
London, 1905. 

(Menahem Azaraya di Fano), Korez, 1786. 
IIS Wi& 'D (Mordeqai b. Abraham Yafae), Lublin, 1594. 

ty ano^a . . . a^ana a^ta^p 111 ? Brit. Mus. A/. 17807, 
fol. 24 b. 

inaa (Ibn Gebirol), ed. H. Filipowsky, London, 1851. 
ntoa 'D (Nat. ben Solomon Spira), Lublin, 1884. 
ribJB in BTiBH in^a ed. H. Filipowsky, vide above. 
'Q (Eleazar of Worms), S. Raziel^ 33 c (ed. 1913). 
*?B> Jniaty (explanations by means of gematria and siruf of 
the names of Metatron (77 names) ; the names here given recur in 
the ptzrn 1BD), Bodl. MICH. 256, foil. 29 3-44 a. 

'D (Eleazar of Worms), Brit. Mus. OR. 6577, foil. 1-12, also in 
S. Raziel, beg. 

(J. Hayyat, comm. on mn"?sn Ji^l^a), Ferrara, 1557. 



LITERATURE 9 

'D (Isaac Luria), Amsterdam, 1562. (Not to be confused 
with the earlier, anonymous, writing nann ^JJB, being the second 
recension of 77ze Revelation of Moses ; cf . also the following.) 
'D OM. ii. 307 b and Berlin, 1726 (on the "letters"). 

Ferrara, 1557 (with commentaries). 
pans (Moses de Leon), BH. ii. p. xxxi. 
'ViflDJ (Naft. Treves), Ferrara, 1555. 
"?nJ (Dav. Azulai), Livorno, 1800. 
inT'an atrn mo (Eleazar of Worms), 5. Raziel, fol. 28 a (ed. 1913). 
VfmbiyBl maty mo (Eleazar of Worms), 5". Raziel, 21 a (ed. 1913). 
XVI "HID (Eleazar of Worms, d. 1237), Brit. Mus. Add. 27199; parts 
of the work are contained in the S. Raziel and in Brit. Mus. OR. 6577. 
'D (Jacob ibn Habib) with nxia ns 11 (Samuel Japhe) and 
commentaries, Wilna, 1922 (edd. prince. Salon. 1516, Const. 1587). 
*IBD (Isaac ben Moses Aramah), Salon. 1522. 

(Menahem Reqan(a)ti), Venice, 1523. 
ty tinTB (Bachya ben Asher), Pesara, 1507. 
DUB 'D (Moses ben Jacob Cordovero), Cracow, 1591. 
Tian im 'D (Abraham Sabba), Const. 1514. 
"nan Til^ 'D (Isaac ben Abraham Latif ), in Kcercem Hcemced, ix. 

'D (Menachem Siyyon ben Meir), Cremona, 1560 (referred 
to as Siyyuni). 

'D (Eleazar of Worms), S. Raziel, 33 d (ed. 1913). 
'D (Elqana ben Yeruham), Korez, 1784. 
nip (Elqana ben Yeruham), Wilmersdorff, 1730. 
mi \^y (Eleazar of Worms), S. Raziel, 9 a (ed. 1913). 

(Jonathan ben Nathan Nata, Eybeschiitz), Vienna, 1891. 

'D (Isaiah ben Abraham Horwitz), 1649. 
njw 'D (Joseph Gikatilla), Mantua, 1561. 

'D (Joseph Gikatilla), Riva di Trento, 1561. 
'D (Shabthai b. Aqiba Horwitz), Hanau, 1612. 

(Mordecai, the Priest, of Safed), Cracow, 1690. 
tzma -B.H". iii ; A. Epstein, Beitrdge zur judischen Alterthums- 
kunde, Vienna, 1887. 

trina 'D (Elijah ben Solomon Abraham), Lublin, 1884. 
nJia.fi 1BD, printed together with Zohar Hadas, ed. Korez, 1774. 
inrn "'Jpn IBD Livorno, 1854. 



5. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND TITLES under which some 
of the preceding books and writings are referred to : 

Ap. Elijah: n^'Q [3 (B)]. 

1 Ap. Ishm. ( The ist Apocalypse of R. Isma'el): in fitt^a iJiin 
and Siddur 'Amram Ga'on, 3 b [3 (B)]. 

2 Ap. Ishm. (= The 2nd Apocalypse of R. Isma'el): ^Kya^ 11 'l 
[3 (B)]. 



10 INTRODUCTION 

A. R. 'Aq. (Alphabet of R. l ^qiba): twpy 'n ji^K [3 (B)]. 
Ascension of Moses: ntP fbna; "?JW yattf man Cf. 3 EM. xv B. 
Bahya (comm. on the Pentateuch): rniMn by ttfifB [4]. 
B e rip M e nuha: nmaa Jinn 'D [4]. 
BH.: Jellinek, Beth ha Midrasch [2]. 
Hayyaf: mm 11 Jinao [4]. 

. (Heftalop Rabbapi): van MlteVi [3 (B)]. 
. (Hefialop Zofrapi): ,Taina '"i "?Kyty> 'n fito [3 (B)]. 
a-mMeerkaba, Hilkop ha-kKisse, etc. : 'SIKH Jmn 1 ?/ 1 ! ; natio 
KDin ms^n; D^sbon JTi^n (Eleazar of Worms) [4]. 
Jerachmeel = Gaster, The Chronicles of Jerahmeel. 
La: Brit. Mus. MS. ^4^. 27199. 

i or 2 .Le. Martyrs (the ist or 2nd recension of the Legend of the Ten 
Martyrs): Jns'jfi ^nn rwy [3 (B)]. 
Life of Enoch: ^un ^n [3 (B)]. 
Ma a se Beresip: n^Kna n^a [3 (B)]. 
Mass. 'As. (Massesneep >A silup): ni^SK rinoa [3 (B)]. 
Mass. Hek. (Masseeftcep Heftalop): m'pSM M5DB [3 (B)]. 
Midras Konen : JJJ-D ty*n [3 (B)]. 
OM.: Eisenstein, O-S'^r Midrashim [2]. 
Pardes (Cordovero, Pardes Rimmonim): D^iian D"HD 'D [4]. 
Prayer of Rab Hamnuna Saba: KSD S3Un il Jibsri [3 (B)]. 
Prayer of R. Sim'on ben Yohai: ism 11 p JljttitP 'l ribsn [3 (B)]. 
P.R.EL (Pirqede Rabbi Eliezer}: n^ 'm ipis [3 (B)]. 
Reqan(a)ti's Comm. on the Pentateuch (Reqanati): nilMH 
Otaapn nnj) [4]. 

Revelations of R. Sim 1 on ben Yohai: 'Nm 1 ' p p^a^ /y i pis [3 (B)]. 
Rev. of Moses, ist rec.: YR. 66 b 1 ?S1B'' 1 ^ttty man [3 (B)]. 
Rev. of Moses, 2nd rec.: nDDn ^yo 'D [3 (B)]. 
*5/z. g. (&*r Qoma): noip l^ 11 ^ [3 (B)]. 
Siddur Rab 'Amram: psa ma^ SI 1HD [3 (B)]. 
Siyyuni, Siuni: lai^X 1BD [4]. 

of Moses (Hdrba d 6 Mosce): r\wsn SSln [3 (B)]. 
Y'sira): nT'X 1 ' 'D [3 (B)]. 
Z e rubbabcel): ^STiJ 1BD [3 (B)]. 
Tiqqune ha-zZohar: 'ai^ra tt^nn imT ed. Warsaw [4]. 
Tractate of Gan 'Eden: pj? p "no; ]1^ p riDDtt [3 (B)]. 
Tractate of Gehinnom: ma/fa fi3DB [3 (B)]. 
Uidduy Yafe: n& ^Tl [4]. 

of King Messiah: rptyo ^0 manba [3 (B)]. 
Hadas: t^in fisip^ 'D [4]. 
iJnn ^ s asiK1 aipb 1 ' ed. Warsaw, 1901 [4]. 
YRL.: liiisi Dip 1 ? 1 ' ed. Prague, 1660 [4]. 



LITERATURE 1 1 

B. OTHER LITERATURE. 

Abelson, J. The immanence of God in Rabbinical Literature. London, 1912. 

- Jewish Mysticism (in The Quest Series). London, 1913. 
Abrahams, T. Chapters on Jewish Literature. 1899. 

- Bibliography of Hebraica andjudaica. 1905. 

Bacher, W. Die dlteste Terminologie derjudischen Schriftauslegung. Leipzig, 
1899. 

- Die Agada der babylonischen Amorder. Strassburg i. E. 1878. 

- Die Agada der Tannaiten. 2 voll. Strassburg, 1884 and 1890. 

- Die Agada der paldstinensischen Amorder. Strassburg, 1892. 

- Die exegetische Terminologie der jiidischen Traditionsliteratur . 1899- 
1905. 

Bartoloccius de Celleno, T. Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica. 4 voll. Roma, 



Bischoff, E. Die Elemente der Kabbalah. 2 pts (in Geheime Wissenschaften, 

ed. A. v. d. Linden, 2, 3). Berlin, 1913, 1914." 
Blau, L. Das altjiidische Zauberwesen (Jahresbericht der Landes-Rabbiner- 

schule in Budapest). Budapest, 1898. 
Bloch, Ph. Die Kabbala auf dem Hohepunkte ihrer Entwicklung und ihre 

Meister. 1905. 
Boeklen, E. Die Verwandtschaft der judisch-christlichen mit der parsischen 

Eschatologie. 1902. 
Bonwetsch, G. N. Die Apokalypsen Abrahams, Das Testament der vierzig 

Martyrer (in Studien zur Gesch. d. Theol. u. d. Kirche, ed. by G. N. 

Bonwetsch and R. Seeberg, Leipzig, 1897). 
Bousset, W. Hauptprobleme der Gnosis (Forschungen zwr Religion und 

Liter atur des Alien und Neuen Testaments, ed. by W. Bousset and 

H. Gunkel, Heft 10). Gottingen, 1907. 

- Die Religion des Judentums*. 1903. 

Bousset, W. and Gressmann, H. Die Religion des Judentums im spdthel- 

lenistischen Zeitalter. (3rd ed. of preceding.) 
Box, G. H. The Ezra- Apocalypse. London, 1912. 

- The Apocalypse of Abraham (in Translations of Early Documents). 
London, 1919. 

- The Testament of Abraham (in TED.). 1927. 

Box, G. H. and Oesterley, W. O. E. The Religion and Worship of the 
Synagogue 2 . 1911. 

- A Short Survey of the Literature of Rabbinical and Mediceval 
Judaism. London, 1920. 

- Translations of Early Documents (TED.). 3 series: Palestinian- 
Jewish Pre-Rabbinic, Hellenistic-Jewish, Palestinian-Jewish Rabbinic. 

Brandt, A. J. H. Die Manddische Religion. Leipzig, 1889. 

- Manddische Schrif ten. Gottingen, 1893. 



12 INTRODUCTION 

Budge, E. A. W. Lady Meux MSS. The Miracles of the Blessed Virgin 

Mary, etc. London, 1900. 

Coptic Apocrypha, etc. London, 1913. 

Miscellaneous Coptic Texts, etc. London, 1915. 

Buonaiuti, E. Gnostic Fragments (Engl. tr. E. Cowell). London, 1924. 
Burkitt, F. Chr. Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. London, 1914. 
Buttenwieser, M. Die hebrdische Elias-Apokalypse. Leipzig, 1897. 
Cassel. Juden (art. in Ersch und Gruber, Allgemeine Encyklopd'die der 

Wissenschaften, sect. ii. vol. xxvii). 
Castelli, D. // Messia secondo gli Ebrei. Firenze, 1874. 
II Commento di Sabbatai Donnolo sul Libro della Creazione. Firenze, 

1880. 
Charles, R. H. The Apocalypse of Baruch. 1896. 

The Ascension of Isaiah. 1900. 

The Assumption of Moses. 1897. 

The Book of Enoch 2 . Oxford, 1912. 

The Book of the' Secrets of Enoch. 1896. 

The Book of Jubilees. 1902. 

The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. 1908. 

The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (A. and P.). 

2 voll.; vol. ii (Pseudepigrapha). Oxford, 1913. 
The Book of Enoch (Ethiopic Text). Oxford, 1893. 



Cohen, H. Judaica. 1912. 
Conybeare, F. C. The Testament of Solomon (JQR. vol. xi. pp. 1-45). 1898. 
Cramer, J. J. C. "?JW ^Kii sive iheologia Israelis etc. Frankf. 1705. 
Cumont, F. Die Mysterien des Mithra, autorisierte deutsche Ausgabe von 

G. Gehrich. 3rd ed. Leipzig, 1923. 

Dalman, G.H. DerleidendeundsterbendeMessiasderSynagoge. Berlin, 1888. 
Danz, J. A. Shekina cum Pits cohabitans (1723) (in J. G. Meuschen, Novum 

Testamentum ex Talmude et Antiquitatibusillustratum). Leipzig, 1736. 
Dieterich, A. Abraxas. Studien zur Religionsgeschichte des Spdtern Alter- 

tums (Festschrift Hermann Usener, etc.). Leipzig, 1891. 

Eine Mithrasliturgie, ed. and enlarged by O. Weinreich. Leipzig, 1923. 

Dillmann, A. Das Buck Henoch, iibersetzt und erkldrt. Leipzig, 1853. 
Dornseiff, F. Das Alphabet in Mystik und Magie z (Srotxeia, vii). Leipzig, 

Berlin, 1925. 
Ehrenpreis, M. Die Entwickelung der Emanationslehre in der Kabbala des 

Xllljahrhunderts. 1895. 
Elbogen, I. Der jiidische Gottesdienst in seiner geschichtlichen Entzvicklung*. 

Frankf. a. M. 1924. 

Fabricius, J. A. Co dex Pseu depigraphus Veteris Testamenti, i. 1713, ii. 1723. 
Flemming, J. Das Buch Henoch, Athiopischer Text. Leipzig, 1902. 
Flemming, J. und Radermacher, L. Das Buch Henoch. Leipzig, 1901. 

(In D. Griech. Christl. Schriftst. Bd. 5.) 



LITERATURE 13 

Franck, Ad. La Kabbah* y 1889. 

- Die Kabbala, iibers. u. verm, von A. Gelinek. Leipzig, 1844. 
Friedlander, J. Pirqe fie Rabbi Eliezer. London, 1916. 

Friedlander, M. Der vorchristliche judische Gnostizismus. Gottingen, 1898. 
Fiirst, J. Bibliotheca Judaica. 3 voll. Leipzig, 1849-53. 

- Glossariwn Grceco-Hebrteum. Strassburg, 1890. 

Caster, M. The Chronicles of Jerahmeel (Oriental Translation Fund, 
New Series, 10). London, 1899. 

- The Hebrew Version of the " Secretum Secretorum". 1907-08. 

- The Sword of Moses. London, 1896. 

- The Samaritans, their History, Doctrines and Literature (Schweich 
Lectures). London, 1925. 

Gebhard, B. H. Programma . . . a cap. xii Apocalypseos. Greifswald, 1710. 

- Programma . . . verb. Joelis cap. it. 1711. 

Ginsburg, Chr. D. The Essenes; their history and doctrine. 1864. 

The Kabbalah. London, 1920. (Reprint of latter part of preceding.) 



Gollancz, H. rxhv nriDD ISO (Book of the Key of Solomon). Oxford, 1914. 
Graetz, H. H. Geschichte der Juden. Leipzig, 1855. Transl. History of the 

Jews. 1891-98. 

- Gnosticismus undjudenthum. Krotoschin, 1846. 
Greenup, R. Sefer scheqel ha-qodesch. 1911. 
Gressmann, H. Der Ursprung der israelitisch-jiidischen Eschatologie. 1905. 

(In Bousset-Gunkel, Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des 

Alien und Neuen Testaments, Heft 6.) 

Griinbaum, M. Gesammelte Aufsatze zur Sprach- und Sagenkunde. 1901. 
Griinwald, L. Ein alter Symbol in neuer Beleuchtung (Jahrbuch fur judische 

Geschichte und Literatur, iv). 
Halevy, J. Prieres des Falashas oujuifs d'Abyssinie. Paris, 1877. 

- Te'ezdza Sanbat, etc. Paris, 1902. (Contains seven pseudepigraphic 
writings of the Falashas in Ethiopic text and French translation.) 

Halper, B. Descriptive Catalogue of Geniza Fragments in Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia, 1924. 

Hamburger. Real-Ency clop ddie filr Bibel und Talmud II. Strelitz, 1883. 
Hengstenberg, E. W. Christologie des Alten Testaments. 1829-35. 
Hilgenfeld, Ad. Die Ketzergeschichte des Urchristentums. Leipzig, 1884. 
Horner, G. Pistis Sophia Literally Translated, etc. London, 1924. 
James, M. R. Apocrypha Anecdota. 1893. (In Texts and Studies, vol. ii. 

No. 3, Cambridge.) 

- Lost Apocrypha of the Old Testament (in TED.). 
Jellinek, Ad. Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Kabbala. Leipzig, 1852. 

- Philosophic und Kabbala. 1854. 

Joel, D. H. Die Religionsphilosophie des Sohar. Leipzig, 1849. 
Joel, M. Blicke in die Religionsgeschichte, etc. Breslau, 1880. 
Jost, I. M. Geschichte des Judenthums und seiner Secten. 1857-59. 



14 INTRODUCTION 

Jung, Leo. Fatten Angels in Jewish, Christian and Mahommedan Literature , 
etc. (JQR. n.s. vol. xv. pp. 467-502; vol. xvi. pp. 45-205). 1924-25. 
Karppe, S. fitudes sur Vorigine et la nature du Zohar. Paris, 1901. 
Kautzsch, E. Die Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments. 
Keferstein, F. Philos Lehre von den gottlichen Mittelwesen. 1846. 
King, C. W. The Gnostics and their Remains, Ancient and Mediceval. 

London, 1864. 
Kircher, Ath. CEdipus Mgyptiacus, 1652-53. (Tom. n. pars I. classis iv 

Cabala Hebrceorum.} 
Klauser, Th. Die Cathedra im Totenkult (Liturg.-gesch. Forsch. ix). 

Miinster i. W. 1927. 
Klausner, J. Die messianischen Vorstellungen desjiidischen Volkes im Zeitalter 

der Tannaiten. Krakau, 1903. 
Kohler, K. Studies in Jewish Literature. 1913. 

Jewish Theology. 1918. 

Kohut, A. Jiidische Angelologie und Ddmonologie (in Abhandlungen fur die 
KundedesMorgenlandes, herausg. vonder DeutschenMorgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft. Bd. iv. No. 3). Leipzig, 1886. 
Krauss, S. Griechische und Lateinische Lehmoorter im Talmud, Midrasch 

und Targum. 1898 seqq. 

Lambert, M. Sa' adya, Commentaire sur le Sefer Yesira. 1891. 
Landauer, M. M. Jhvh und Elohim. Stuttgart, 1836. 
Leisegang, H. Die Gnosis. Leipzig, 1927. 
Leszynsky, R. Pharisaer und Sadduzaer. 1912. 

Die Sadduzaer. 1912. 

Levertoff. Sifre to Numbers (in Translations of Early Documents, ed. by 

Box and Oesterley). 

Levi, T. Le Peche Originel dans les anciennes sources Juives. Paris, 1907. 
Lidzbarski, M. Das Johannesbuch der Mandder. Giessen, 1915. 

Manddische Liturgien. Berlin, 1920. 

Ginza Der Schatz oder Das Grosse Buck der Mandder. Gottingen, 

Leipzig, 1925. 

Lightfoot, Jo. Horee Hebraicce et Talmudicce. Lipsiae, 1675. 
McCown, Ch. Ch. The Testament of Solomon (in Untersuchungen zum 

Neuen Testament, ed. by H. Windisch, Heft 9). Leipzig, 1922. 
Mahler, E. Handbuch der jiidischen Chronologic. Leipzig, 1916. 
Maius, J. H. Synopsis Theologice Judaicce. 1698. 
Martini, R. Pugeo Fidei, vide sub Pugeo. 
Marx, A. Untersuchungen zum Siddur des Gaon R. Amram. Poppelauer, 

1908. 

Meyer, Ed. Ursprung und Anfdnge des Christentums, 3 voll. 1921-23. 
Meyer, J. Fr. Blatter fur hohere Wahrheit. Frankf. a. M. 1819-23. 
Misses, T. Safenath Paaneach, Darstellung der jiidischen Geheimlehre. 1862. 
Molitor, J. E. Philosophic der Geschichte oder uber die Tradition. 1827. 



LITERATURE IS 

Montgomery, J. A. Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur (Univ. of 

Pennsylvania. The Museum Publications of the Babylonian Section). 

Philadelphia, 1913. 
Moore, G. F. Intermediaries in Jewish Theology (Harvard Theological 

Review, vol. xv). 
Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era, The Age of the 

Tannaim. Cambridge, U.S.A., 1927. 
Munster, S. Kalendarium Hebraicum. Basel, 1707. 
Neubauer, A. Chronicle of Ahimaaz. (J).ft. 1891-92.) 
Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, etc., 

vol. i. Oxford, 1886. Cowley, A. E., vol. ii. Oxford, 1906. 
Nicholson, R. A. An Early Arabic Version of the Mi'rdj of Abu Yazid 

al-Bisfdmi (Braunlich, Islamica, ii. pp. 402-415). Leipzig, 1926. 
Nork, F. (F. A. Korn). Brahminen und Rabbinen. 1836. 
Nyberg, H. S. (Review of and critical remarks on) Reitzenstein, Das 

iranische Erlosungsmysterium (in Le Monde Oriental, xvii. pp. 80-96). 
Oesterley, W. O. E. The Books of the Apocrypha. London, 1914. 
Oesterley, W. O. E. and Box, G. H., vide above, Box. 
Petermann, H. Thesaurus s. liber magnus vulgo "Liber Adami" appellatus y 

etc. (Mandaitic text of Ginza Right and Left.) Leipzig, 1867. 
Philo. De Cherubinis ad Exod. 25, ed. C. A. O. Grossmannus. Leipzig, 

1856. 
Opera quee supersunt, edd. L. Cohn, Wendland, S. Reiter, I.Leisegang. 

Voll. 1-6, 1896-1915; vol. 7 in progress. 
Preuschen, E. Zwei gnostische Hymnen. Giessen, 1904. 
Pugeo Fidei, by Rairmmdus Martini, ed. Joseph de Voisin, 1661; ed. 

Carpzov, Leipzig, 1687. 
Rabinsohn, M. Le Messianisme dans le Talmud et les Midraschim. Paris, 

1907. 

Radermacher, L., vide Fleming, Joh. 
Reitzenstein, R. Poimandres, Studien zur griechisch-dgyptischen und 

friihchristlichen Literatur. Leipzig, 1904. 

Das manddische Buck des Herrn der Grosse. Heidelberg, 1919. 

Das iranische Erlosungsmysterium. Bonn, 1921. (Vide H. S. Nyberg.) 

Reuchlin, J. De verbo mirifico. Colonie, 1532. 

De arte Cabalistica. Hagenau, 1517. 

Rosenroth, Knorr von. Kabbala Denudata. 1677. 
Roskoff, M. Geschichte des Teufels. Leipzig, 1869. 
Rubin, S. Heidenthum und Kabbala. 1893. 

Kabbala und Haggada. 1895. 

Sachs, M. Beitrdge zur Sprach- und Alter turns/ 'or schung, voll. i, ii. 1852-54. 
Schaeder, H. H. Der Urmensch in der avestischen und mittelpersischen 

Ueberlieferung, and Zur manichdischen Urmenschlehre (in Reitzenstein 

and Schaeder, Studien zum antiken Synkretismus, etc. Leipzig, 1926). 



1 6 INTRODUCTION 

Schechter, S. Some Aspects of Rabbinic Theology. 1909. 

Documents of Jewish Sectaries, vol. i, Fragments of a Zadokite Work. 

Camb. Univ. Press, 1910. 
Scheftelowitz, I. Die altpersische Religion und dasjudentum. Koln, 1921. 

Die Entstehung der manichdischen Religion und des Erlosungsmysterium. 

Giessen, 1922. 

Schmidt, C. Koptisch-Gnostische Schriften, I. Band. (Die Pistis Sophia 
Die beiden Bilcher der Jeu Unbekanntes altgnostisches Werk.) Leipzig, 
1905. (In Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei 
Jahrhunderte.') 

Schmieder, H. E. Nova interpretatio . . . Gal. Hi. 19-20. 1826. 
Schoettgen, Chr. Horee hebraicce et talmudicce. Dresden and Leipzig, 

1733-42. 
Schiirer, E. Geschichte des judischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi^. 

3 voll. Leipzig, 1901-09. 

Schwab, M. Vocabulaire de VAngelologie. Paris, 1897. 
Scott, W. Hermetica. 3 voll. Oxford, 1924-26. 
Shahrastani. J.siJt.3 J-XJ) ^U^s. Book of Religious and Philosophical 

Sects, ed. W. Cureton. Vol. i. London, 1842. 
Soderblom, N. La vie future d'apres le Mazdeisme. 1901. 
Spira, S. Die Eschatologie der Juden nach Talmud und Midrasch. Halle, 1889. 
Stave, E. Vber den Einfluss des Parsismus auf das Judentum. Haarlem, 

1898. 

Steinschneider, M. Jewish Literature (transl. of article Jiidische Liter atur 
in Ersch und Gruber). 1893. 

Zur pseudepigraphischen Literatur, etc. Berlin, 1862. 

Stenring, K. Akiba b. Joseph, The Book of Formation (S. Y e sira). 

London, 1923. 
Stern, T. Versuch einer umstandlichen Analyse des Sohar (in Ben Chananja, 

vol. iv). 1858-61. 

Strack, H. L. Einleitung in Talmud und Midras 5 . 1921. 
Strack, H. L. and Billerbeck, P. Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus 

Talmud und Midrasch'. I (1922); n (1924); in (1926). 
Streane, A. W. ru^n. Cambridge, 1891. 
Taylor, Ch. Sayings of the Jewish Fathers. Cambridge, 1877. 
Templer, B. Die Unsterblichkeitslehre der judischen Philosophen des Mittel- 
alters bis auf Maimonides in ihrem Verhdltnis %u Bibel und Talmud. 
Wien and Leipzig, 1895. 

Tischendorff. Apocalypses Apocrypha. Leipzig, 1866. 
Troje, L. Die Dreizehn und die Zwolf im Traktat Pelliot. Leipzig, 1925. 
Ugolini, B. Thesaurus antiquitatum sacrarum. 1752-54. 
Volz, P. Jiidische Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba. Tubingen, 1903. 

Der Geist Gottes und die verwandten Erscheinungen, etc. 1910. 

Weber, E. W. Jiidische Theologie 2 . 1897. (With reserve.) 



MSS. 17 

Weill, M. Le Talmud et VEvangile. 1864. 

Weinstein, N. I. Zur Genesis der Agada. Gottingen, 1901. (Cf. L. Cohn 
in MGWJ. vol. 74 [u], 1903, pp. 89-96.) 

Wessely, C. Griechische Zauberpapyri von Paris und London. Wien, 1888. 
Neue Griechische Zauberpapyri. Wien, 1893. (In Denkschriften der 
kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-Hist. KL voll. 36. 

and 42.) 

Windischmann, F. H. H. Zoroastrische Studien. 1863. 
Winter, J. und Wunsche, A. Die jiidische Literatur sett Abschluss des 
Kanons, vol. iii. 1891-95. 

Mechiltha, Ein tannaitischer Midrasch, etc. Leipzig, 1909. 

Wohlberg, R. Grundlinien einer talmudischen Psychologic. Berlin, 1902. 
Wolf, J. Chr. Bibliotheca Hebrcea. 4 voll. Hamburg, 1715-33. 
Wiinsche, A. Die Leiden des Messias. 1870. 

Bibliotheca Rabbinica. 1880-85. 

Midrasch Tehillim. 1892-93. 

Aus Israels Lehrhallen. 5 voll. Leipzig, 1907-10. 

Zunz, L. Etwas uber die rabbinische Literatur. Berlin, 1818. 

Die gottesdienstlichen Vortrdge der Juden z . Frankf. a. M. 1892. 

Literaturgeschichte der synagogalen Poesie. 1865-67. 



3. MSS. & PRINTED BOOKS CONTAINING THE 
HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH OR PARTS OF IT 

HHHE complete, Hebrew Book of Enoch has never been printed 
1 before. Most of the MSS. preserved also present 3 Enoch in a 
fragmentary form. 
The MS. which is made the basis of the present edition is the 

(ti>A) Bodleian MS. OFF. 556, foil. 3i4seqq. (Neubauer, 1656: "Written in 
German Hebrew cursive characters by Yishaq ^psu, about A.D. 
1511?"), containing chh. 1-48 A B c D and entitled " Book of Enoch 
by R. Ishmael ben Elisha, High Priest ". This MS. seems to be based 
on an earlier MS. in a very good textual condition, but it has suffered 
through the carelessness of the present copyist, though the corrup- 
tions caused by him are as a rule easily emended. Apart from these 
corruptions N without contradiction presents the very best readings 
of all the MSS. and printed fragments. 

The text of A has throughout been collated with the following 
MSS. and printed fragments, and the different readings are given in 
the textual apparatus. The Hebrew text reproduces X exactly, but 
emendations are suggested in the Crit. App. and also, by the use of 
brackets, in the text. 

OHBI 2 



1 8 INTRODUCTION 

The MSS. and printed fragments made use of are 

(a, B) Bodleian MS. MICH. 175, foil. 18 b seqq. (Neubauer 2257, written 
in German Hebrew cursive characters), containing chh. 3-22, 23, 
24 and after chh. 15 and 22 respectively, the additional fragments 
chh. 15 B and 22 B c. The said fragments are included with the 
Si'ur Qoma, 2 Ap. Ishm. and a few other fragments under the 
common title : Pirqe de R. Ishmael. 

(}, C) Bodleian MS. MICH. 256, foil. 25 a seqq. (written in Old German 
Hebrew cursive characters), containing chh. 3-12 and 15, entitled 
" The Elevation of Metatron". (Neubauer, 1748.) Valuable. 

(l, D) The fragments preserved in the printed editions of " Sefar 
HeMlop by the Tanna R. Isma'el, High Priest", viz. Lemberg, 1859 
referred to as D i, and Warsaw, 1864, referred to as D 2 (cf. Jellinek, 
Qontras ha-mMaggid, ii). Here are contained chh. 1-28, vs. 5 a and 
beg. of ch. 48 c. The readings are not very good, but sometimes 
valuable for critical purposes. 

(y, E) The printed fragm. in Jellinek, Beth ha Midrasch, vol. v, pp. 170- 
190, containing chh. 1-15, 23-48 A. The text in a bad condition. 

(r, F) The Enoch-Metatron fragments inserted at the end of letter Aleph 
in the printed ed. of Alphabet of R. ' A qifia, Cracow, 1579, foil. 9 c- 
ii d, corresponding to ch. 48 B c D. 

(n, G) The same fragments in the reprinted edition of Alphabet of R. 
' A qiba, Amsterdam, 1708, foil, n a-12 b. 

(a, H) The same fragments in A. R. 'Aq. BH. vol. ii. 

(s, K) Bodleian MS. MICH. Add. 61 (Neubauer, 1915 : Spanish Rabbinic 
characters), fol. 13 a, containing a short recension of chh. 48 B and 
48 c. 

("?, L) British Museum Add. 27199 (writings of R. '^El'azar of Worms, 
copied by Elias Levita), containing chh. 3-12, 15,16 (foil. 1 1 b-i 14 b) ; 
13, 14, 156 (fol. n6ab: Lm); 48 c 3 " 10 ' 12 , 480 (fol. ii5ab: Lm); 
22 B, 22 c (fol. 126 a: Lmr}\ 22 c, i9 2 ~ 7 (foil. 78 a, 81 a: Lo). 

( YR, S (x)) Quotations in YR. and Siyyuni. 

In the Dropsie College Library in Philadelphia there is a MS. containing, 
ace. to B. Halper (Descriptive Catalogue of Genizah Fragments in Phila- 
delphia, 1927, pp. 210 and 436), "the greater part of the Sefcer Hekalot". 
It is possible that this MS. contains some parts of our book. 



SHORT SURVEY OF CONTENTS 19 



4. THE MUTUAL RELATIONS AND AFFINITIES 
OF THE MSS. AND OTHER SOURCES 

AN examination of the textual status of the various sources reveals 
JL\. a closer relation between 1 and ^ on the one hand and between 
-L, J and 7 on the other, whereas tf represents a comparatively inde- 
pendent textual tradition. T, ft and 7 are more closely attached to 
each other than to Si. The relation of the various sources to an 
assumed archetype may be illustrated by the following diagram. 



t, n 




common o archetype 



5. SHORT SURVEY OF THE CONTENTS OF THE 
HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH 



Hebrew Book of Enoch may be divided into the following 
JL sections, viz. : 

(i) Introduction, chh. i, 2. 

- ..... (2) Enoch-Metatron piece, chh. 3-16 (together with an additional 
fragment on the Ascension of Moses, ch. 15 B). 

(3) A section on Angelology, chh. 17-22, 25~28 6 . The section 

presents three different angelological systems, viz. A 2 
(ch. 17), A3 (ch. 18) and A i (chh. 19-22, 25~28 6 ). Cf. 
below on the Angelology of 3 Enoch. 

(4) A section on the Judgment, chh. 28 7 -33 2 . 

(5) The Celestial Q e dussa, chh. 35, 36, 38-40. 

2-2 



20 INTRODUCTION 

(6) The 'by-work' of the Mcerkafia ('Divine Chariot') and the 

quasi-physical aspects of the heavenly regions, chh. 23, 24,. 
33 3 ~ 5 , 34, 37 and the additional chh. 22 B, 22 c. 

(7) Metatron shows R. Ishmael various wonders of the heavens,. 

such as 

(a) the cosmic or mystical 'letters', ch. 41 ; 

(b) polar opposites kept in balance by the Divine 

Names, ch. 42 ; 

(c) the Pargod of the Throne, on which all past, present 

and future events are portrayed, ch. 45 ; 

(d) the constellations and planets, ch. 46 ; 

(e) the spirits of the unborn, of the dead and the spirits 

and souls of the punished angels, chh. 43, 44, 47 ; 
(/) matters of Apocalyptic character, chh. 44 7 ~ 10 , 
45 5 , 48 A. 

(8) The Divine Names, ch. 48 B. 
(9) A shorter Enoch-Metatron piece, ch. 48 c. 

(10) The names of Metatron, the transmission of the secrets to 

Moses, the protest of the angels, the chain of tradition. 



6. QUOTATIONS OF AND REFERENCES 
TO 3 ENOCH 



are numerous instances in the later mystical literature of 
J. dependence upon or acquaintance with 3 Enoch. This is particularly 
marked in the case of the conceptions of Metatron. The influence of 
3 Enoch in this respect is dealt with below on "the conceptions of 
Metatron in related mystical literature" and "the conceptions of 
Metatron in later mystical literature" (sections 9 and 10). 

Apart from this, fragments of 3 Enoch are quoted in YR. in 
Siyyuni, Reqanati, Moscato's Qol Y e huda> YRL. Ma a r<z%ce]> 
ha-' M lohup, Midras Rup, Zohar, Barai]>a de Ma a se B e resi]>, etc. 

(1) The question whether the Babylonian Talmud may be said to show 
acquaintance with the traditions embodied in 3 Enoch is discussed below, 
pp. 32-36, cf. also on "the conceptions of Metatron in Talmud, etc." 

(2) HayyeH a nok(BHAv. i29seqq.,OM. i. i82a.-i83b,Sefcerha-y 
Par. B e resij>) shows dependence upon 3 Enoch, esp. chh. 6, io 3 , 48 c 1 ' 4 > 



TESTIMONIES 21 

although that fragment in other parts moves in a quite different trend of 
traditions from our book. The Sefesr No a h (or T e fillap 'Adam ha Rison, 
BH. iii. 155; OM. ii. 401 a) also betrays some knowledge of the Enoch 
Literature, including 3 En. 

(3) The Hefcalop Rabbapi, ch. 22*, shows dependence upon 3 En. i8 18 ; 
ib. ch. 26 it reflects the expressions of 3 En. I2 1 , I3 1 . 

(4) The Hefcalop Zof e rapi, fol. 70 a, likewise betrays acquaintance with 
3 En. I2 1 , I3 1 , etc. 

(5) Harba d e Mosee, end (ed. Gaster, London, 1896), reflects 3 En. 13 
and 41. 

(6) Baraipa de Ma' a se B e resip (in Rab Pe'alim, Tiqqunim, etc., pp. 46 
seqq.), towards the end, quotes 3 En. zy 4 * 5 6b . 

The Midras onSemhazaiand'Azza'el is, perhaps, dependent on %En.$. 

(7) Simmusa Rabba (BH. vi. 109 seqq.) resumes the contents of 3 En. 
6-io and 48 c. 

(8) Yalquf R e 'uteni, foil. i. 54 a seqq., contains a great many quotations 
from 3 Enoch. These quotations are sometimes cited from the writings of 
R. 'El'azar ben Y e huda (of Worms), such as Sode Raza (54 b, 56 a) and 
H a kam ha-Razim (55 a), sometimes from Pirqe Hefcalop (55 b). The 
quotations are: 3 En. 22 (fol. 54 a); 4 and 8 (fol. 54 b); 6, 15, 3 (fol. 55 b); 
12, 48 c 12 , 5 1 - 6 , 13-142 (foil. 56 a, 57 b, 59 a b). 

(9) The Lesser Yalqut R e 'ufieni, on Metatron no. 6, quotes 3 En. 6, 15 
and 3 from Pirqe HeMlof (cf. YR. i. 55 b). 

(10) MSS. containing writings of R. '^El'azar of Worms quote 3 En. 3-12, 
15 from "Baraipas belonging to the Ma' a se Meerkaba" (Brit. Mus. MS. 
Add. 27199), and 3 En. 3-22, 23, 24, from Pirqe de R. Isma'el or Baraipas 
(Bodl. MICH. 175). 

(n) Siyyuni, foil. 13 d, 14 a, quotes 3 En. 6, 15, 3 from Sefeer Hekalop, 
cf. ib. foil. 9 c d. 

(12) S. ha-kKuzari, beg. and (13) Reqanati, comm. on the Pentateuch, 
ed. Venice, foil. 30 and 35 a, cf. 133 a, likewise (14) Moscato, Qol Y e huda, 
189, quote fragments of the Enoch-Metatron pieces of 3 Enoch. 

The quotations in the writings of R. 'El'azar of Worms, in YR., YRL., 
Siyyuni, Reqanati, etc., show that at one time 3 Enoch had become in- 
corporated into a larger collection of writings concerned with the Hefcalop, 
and, further, that this collection must have formed part of a compilation 
referred to as Ma <a se McerkSba. From other quotations in the said works 
we know that the Ma <a se Mcerk&ba contained, besides 3 Enoch and the 
HeMlo]), also the Si'ur Qoma, Revelations of Moses, etc. 

(15) Ma ia rcefccep ha'-lohuj>, ed. Ferrara, 1557, foil. 116 a seqq., quotes 
3 En. 48 c from 'The Haggada on Enoch'. 



22 INTRODUCTION 

(16) The Zohar refers to the Enoch-Metatron-Na'ar traditions as con- 
tained in 'the well-known Baraipas' (i. 223 b). 1 

The Zohar quite frequently quotes from ' The Book of Enoch '. These 
quotations show that ' The Book of Enoch ' referred to in the Zohar was a 
large collection of Enoch traditions some of which are contained in i and 

2 Enoch, others in writings now lost, whereas others again clearly emanate 
from 3 Enoch. 

Zohar, i. 37 b, 3 iii. 240 a, 348 b, 10 b, quote from ' The Book of Enoch > 
matters contained in 3 Enoch. 

Zohar, i. 37 b (after quotations clearly dependent upon 3 Enoch), 
ii. 55 a refer to details of 'The Book of Enoch', which are not found in 

3 Enoch. They correspond well, however, with certain passages in i and 

2 Enoch (vide i Enoch 24*' 5 , 2 Enoch 8). 

Zohar, i. 55 b, 58 b, ii. 100 a, 105 b, 192 b, 217 a, ii. 180 b, also cite 
'The Book of Enoch' or 'The Book of the Secrets of Enoch' (ii. i8ob), 
but give no parallel whatever with i, 2 or 3 Enoch. 

It is evident that the Zohar regarded 3 Enoch as belonging to the 
Enoch Literature, and also, that it associated 3 Enoch with what is known 
to us as i and 2 Enoch. Lastly it should be noticed that 'The Book of 
Enoch' of the Zohar contains material from a time much later than 

3 Enoch. 

(17) Midras Rup, 85 b, resumes the traditions of 3 En. 48 c 1 - 9 ' 10 12 , 
10, 6, 12. 

(18) Miskan ha'Edupi (by Moses de Leon) quotes from 'The Book of 
Enoch' passages reminding of 3 En. 39 and 48 B 2 . 

Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 15299, foil. 45 b seq., contains a ' Book of Enoch' 
which treats of the preparations necessary to obtain communion with the 

i Zohar, i. 223 b : 

intei saw KitaDa -psty jnnsa w n'pni ns*a wv Tni ipa I/TK KI 
iv p -pan n^ pip *a Kinn p^n rwns Turn wim Kaacn 
ton pM^fia KB^ ""Ki i^iT "fc ^ i^J 1 ? "jun (a's 
Kin KMte xtei IBJIK Km 



2 Zohar, i. 37 b: 

Kin KTI mn mx rmbim KIDDT nnK IDD sn ^un 1 ? n^ mn nso 

imx np 1 ? ^ IJ^KI a^nsn sin nn ^BJJIK K^IKO xm sna^m 
poans '-N?^ n^ tei [cf. above] ism B ^ lyj 1 ? ^an a^nms nj^an in 
tea ^oa ^K^ni nB,.. (cf. 3 En. u 1 , 480*) smn 111 ?^ T^JM i\Ti TDB K 
ns'p n^ ^aa B^B (ctr. 3 E. 48 c 4 ) nnxa'? ^T^p T^ (cf. 3 . 9 1 ) 
KIDD ncans* KT pi avrtx ims np 1 ? ^ a'tfin Kin Kin (cf. 3 J?w. is 1 ) 
'"K^v ''ta^a te n^ 'BHK Kin im Kt^ip n^ T<nKi Kftyvz "pam KIDD 

(cf. 2 ^w. 8 5 B, i En. 24*) ''IBijtt 'IBniDl KJlia lYiyXB 1^ ^m KJ^K rT 11 ? 'BHK 

n^BDi p^an Ktei 

3 Given in Jellinek, BH. ii. p. xxxi. 



ORIGIN AND DATE OF COMPOSITION 23 

high angel-princes, in particular with YEHOEL (another name for Metatron). 
It is immediately followed by Sefcer ha-y Yasar. At the beginning of the 
latter the frequent tradition is put forth, according to which the S. ha- 
y Yasar together with another book was given to Adam by the angel 
GALLISUR, by Adam committed to Seth and after him to Enoch. This is also 
set forth at the beginning of S. Razi'el ha-mMal'ak. Ace. to Zohar, i. 55 b, 
58 b, one of these "two books " was ' The Book of Enoch '. On this cf . note 
on 3 En. 48 D 10 . 

The 'S. ha-y Yasar' or, as it is also called, 'The Book of the First 
Adam ' or ' The Book of Noah ', really forms part of a vast literature con- 
sisting of various magical formulas, etc. The compilers of this magical 
literature were anxious to obtain authority for their 'books', and hence 
they tried to append them to the Enoch Literature by maintaining that 
'two books were committed to Enoch'. The one was of course the older 
Enoch Literature, the other was intended to be understood as identical 
with the writings issued by them. 



7. ORIGIN AND DATE OF COMPOSITION OF THE 
HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH AND ITS RELATION 
TO COGNATE MYSTICAL WRITINGS 

HHHE present book has not been made the subject of critical in- 
-I vestigation as to origin and date of composition apart from the 
short discussion of it by M. Buttenwieser 1 (see below). On the rare 
occasions when it has been referred to a it has almost without excep- 
tion been grouped with the bulk of Jewish mystical writings which are 
termed * Gaonic Mystical Literature ', and within this group it has 
usually been counted as one of the so-called Hefealop works (mainly 
because one of the titles under which it is quoted is ' Sefaer Hefcaloj? ', 
cf. EH. v. 170). 

The history of the grouping together of the mystical works in 
question under the term ' Gaonic Mystical Literature ' may be con- 
sidered to begin with the chapter entitled " Geheimlehre " (Secret 
Doctrine) in Zunz's Die gottesdiemtlichen Vortrdge derjuden, historisch 
entwickelt y and ed., pp. 165-179. After dealing with the traces of 
mystical doctrines and speculations in the Talmud and accepting the 
possibility of the existence of early Baraipas on mystical subjects, 
Zunz says : 
"Erst mit der zweiten Halfte des Geonaischen Zeitalters, etwa um 

1 Jewish Encyclopaedia, i. 678, article 'Apocalyptic Literature; Neo-Hebraic'. 

2 Usually the references to the 'Hebrew Book of Enoch' have in view only the 
fragments contained in ch. 48 B c D of our book, the actual 3 En. being unknown. 



24 INTRODUCTION 

A.D. 780, also mit der Epoche der allmahlich auflebenden Wissenschaft- 
lichkeit und nachdem die Beschaftigung mit den Materien der Geheimlehre 
haufiger geworden, traten eigene (sic) Schriften auf, die sich an die Erlaute- 
rung der Schopfung, an die Schilderung der gottlichen Majestat wagen." 
As mystical writings of this kind Zunz enumerates the following, viz.: 
(i) S. Y e sira; (2) chh. iii and iv ofPirqed* R. '^li'cezcer', (3) Hefcalop which 
he regards as older than P. R. 'EL iii, iv ; (4) S. Razie '/ (ace. to Zunz younger 
than the Hekalop, though not to be confused with the Sefeer Razie'l ha- 
gGadol by 'JEl%zSx of Worms); (5) Alphabet of R. iA qtia\ (6) Midras 
Konen\ (7) S. ha-yYdsar\ (8) Yuhasin. 

As may be seen from this list the present book was unknown to Zunz. 
Through the Alphabet of R. (A qiba in its printed edd. he might, 
however, have gained knowledge of the snorter Enoch-Metatron 
piece, corresponding to ch. 48 c of the present book, in Alph. 
R. <A qtba (ed. Cracow et seqq.) inserted at the end of letter Aleph. 

M. Steinschneider does not, in his treatment of the mystical 
literature, 1 lay down the results of his own investigations, but, as 
he expressly declares, follows the exposition of Zunz in the afore- 
mentioned chapter in GV. 

A much fuller treatment than that of Zunz(-Steinschneider) is 
given to these writings by H. Gratz.* Gra'tz does not know of the 
present book, but he attaches great importance to the Enoch-Metatron 
fragment contained in the Alph. R. lA qiba at the end of letter Aleph 
(identical with ch. 48 B c of 3 Enoch). He uses this fragment to- 
gether with a MS. containing polemical strictures by Salmon ben 
Y e ruham against Sa'adya, as starting-point for his theory as to the 
original literary connection between the various writings under con- 
sideration. Ben Y e ruham quotes various passages, occurring in 
different mystical writings, from the Alphabet of R. iA qiba. From 
a comparison with the passages quoted by Ben Y e ruham Gratz 
maintains : 

(1) that the Enoch-Metatron fragment was an original constituent 
part of the Alph. R. lA qiba] 

(2) that the Hekalop belonged to the Enoch-Metatron fragments ; 3 

1 In Ersch und Gruber, Allqemeine Encyklopadie der Wissenschaften und Kiinsten, 
ii. xxvii (1850), 400-404, article 'Jiidische Literatur\ 13. (Fuerst, in Bibliotheca 
Judaica, ii. 15, confuses Hek. Rab. t Hek. Zot., Pirqe Hek. and Sefeer Chanok.) 

2 In B. Frankel's Monatsschrift fur Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums, 
viii (1859), 67-78, 103-118, 140-153. 

3 Gratz's demonstration on this point is not convincing ; his arguments are : 

(a) Ben Y e ruham, after quoting from A. R. ( Aq. a passage (which is in reality 
part ofSi'ur Qoma) attributed to R. Isma'el, continues by mentioning thatR. Isma'el 
was one of the martyrs, which is maintained also in Hek. R., esp. chh. 3-5. Cf. i 
and 2 Leg. Mart. 

(6) A MS. in the Oppenheimer Library (1061 a, after Steinschneider, cf. Neu- 



ORIGIN AND DATE OF COMPOSITION 25 

(3) that there was originally a connection between the Hefcalo]), the 
Sar Tom (being chh. xxvii-xxx of the BH. edition of the Hek. R.) 
and the Sfur Qoma. 

Gratz's argument for an original connection between the Sar Tora 
and the Si'ur Qoma is in fact based on a misreading of Salmon ben 
Y e ruham, the passage from which he gives in full on p. 76 op. cit. 
Gratz says that Salmon ben Y e ruham in this passage quotes a 
chapter belonging to the Sar Tora from Si'ur Qoma. The passage 
does not contain any reference at all to the Siur Qoma, though the 
author in a preceding passage makes mention of the Si'ur Qoma 
mysteries. 

On the connection between the Sar Tora and the Hek. R., Gratz 
says: The Sar Tora really belongs to the Hefcalop "mit dem es nicht 
bloss zufallig zusammen copiert und zusammengedruckt ist, denn es 
beruft sich zum Schluss auf die in den echten Hekaloth ausgegebenen 
Gebet- und Lobformeln " (i.e. the ' Tiphaddar, Tipromem u e Tipnasse 
Mceleek M e fo'ar, etc.' which in ch. 30 is cited by the beginning 
words but given in full in ch. y 2 ). " Folglich hing das Sar Torah mit 
Hekaloth zusammen. . .als ein Zusammenhangendes scheint es auch 
R. Hai zu fassen" (when referring to Hek. R., Hek. Zot. and Sar 
Tora). 

(4) The Rev. of Moses as it appears in Yalqut R e 'ufieni, 101 c d 
(ed. Warsaw, 1901, vol. ii. fol. 67 a b, cf. below on Metatron), belongs 
to the same "single opus of mystical writings ". 

Gratz here, p. 103 op. cit., bases upon a quotation from the same 
polemical writing of Salmon ben Y e ruham, but the parallel between 
this quotation and the Rev. of Moses is far-fetched. 

What Gratz's arguments show is merely the fact, that the mystical 
writings in question were known to Salmon ben Y c ruham and 
possibly, as mystical writings on cognate subjects, were grouped 
together at that time, but it is not demonstrated by this that they 
originally formed a unity. 

This is also, by the way, and almost inadvertently, admitted by 

bauer) gives the H/fcaloJ) under the title 'Book of Enoch'. This MS. is no other than 
the Bodl. OPP. 556, the S of the text edition of the present book but Gratz quite 
naturally was led to believe that the MS. represented the Heftalop as known at that 
time, i.e. the Hek. R., containing the references to the traditions connected with the 
'Ten Martyrs'. In the MS. in question, being the Hebrew Book of Enoch, there is 
no mention of the martyrs, nor is R. Isma el, who figures so prominently in it, 
referred to as one of the martyrs. 

(c) Two quotations, one from Yalkut R e 'ut>eni (100 d), the other from Siyyuni t 
containing material of an Enoch-Metatron character, cite Pirqe Hekalop. On this 
point cf. further below. 



26 INTRODUCTION 

Gratz when he says : " Wenigstens lag es (the 'mystical opus ') als ein 
Ganzes Salmon ben Y e ruham vor, woraus er seine Waffen zur 
Bekampfung des Rabbinismus gegen Sa'adya nahm." But from this 
sound critical position the author immediately departs to treat of the 
writings as an original unity. 

Having laid down his theory as to the unity of the mystical writings 
in question, Gratz proceeds to demonstrate that these writings belong 
to a post-Talmudic period, viz. the Ga'onic time, mainly, as he de- 
clares, on the grounds "dass die darin herrschenden Vorstellungen 
theils dem Talmudischen Zeitalter unbekannt waren, theils von 
Talmudischen Autoritaten perhorresciert wurden". His arguments 
are: 

(i) Metatron is in the Talmud not identified with Enoch. In 
Talmud Metatron is an angel existing already at the creation (Gratz 
cites Tos. Yeb. 16 b, Hullin 60 a, i.e. the passages on the Prince of 
the World). Enoch, on the other hand, is in Talmudic times so little 
glorified as to be put on the list of the wicked or regarded as a 
'Schwankender', sometimes righteous, at other times wicked. 
(Gen. R. xxv). 1 

"Auch Metatron selbst stand den Talmudisten nicht so hoch, dass sie 
ihn gewissermassen zum Sevrepo? 0eos stempeln sollten. Sie lassen ihn 
bestraft werden . . . (alluding to TB. Hag. 15 a). Erst in folge der christlichen 
Dogmatik erhielt Henoch ein hohes Interesse: Die Interpretation des 
Verses (Gen. v. 24) wurde von der Patristik scharf betont, und Henoch 
gait als Protochristos und als Beweis fur die Himmelfahrt, etc." 

Because of his conviction of the entirely un-Jewish character of 
any glorification of Enoch, Gratz, on p. 106, polemizes violently 
against the view that the Ethiopic Enoch (i En.) is of a pre-Christian 
origin. He says for instance: "Fur jeden Unbefangenen aber ist es 
unzweifelhaft dass das Machwerk 'Buch Henoch' nicht in der 
politisch bewegten Hasmonaerzeit, sondern in der mystisch ddm- 
mernden nach-apostolischen Epoche entstehen konnte". The glorifica- 
tion of Enoch, Gratz maintains, must therefore have originated with 
Christians. 

Gratz hence contends that the infiltration of the Enoch legend into 
Jewish circles must be relegated to the post-Talmudic age, and the 
medium through which it was brought into the circle of Jewish ideas 
was Islam, by whose adherents Enoch (^Idrls) was held in high esteem 
(referring to Sura iQ 57 * 58 ). 2 



ipnstn \rw iy n"3pn IOK pan troys p^x troye nvi nan 

2 Acc. to Gratz Mohammed derived his view of Enoch from Christian sects and 
"in folge der Bedeutung, welche Henoch in der arabischen Sagenwelt erhielt, 



ORIGIN AND DATE OF COMPOSITION 27 

(2) Further, ace. to Gratz, the ' rude anthropomorphism ' of this 
literature (Gratz has the Si'ur Qoma in view) points to a post- 
Talmudic origin. 

(3) In the Sar Tor a he finds references to Ga'onic institutions, 
viz. in ch. xxviii. 2. The passage runs as follows: 

a'ote ^ ftttte fwajn aaw tna a'nrD nwp 1 ? . , . aw pna DJIX na 
aiDisn ns'O tea nnatr ypB/ft DS^D"? ntsntrn 1 ? awn ppt^ on 1 ? 

irw 35131 D^^y pi DIM Jimtt BSMB Txn 1 ? DM 
referring to the aspirations of the mystic who desires to partake of the 
magical power of the 'Seal' (Hopam), the 'Magical Formula', i.e. 
the Letters and Names of the Kcefcer Nora or the Sar Tora. In 
the preceding passage (ch. xxviii. i) reference is made to Yeshiboth, 
to Tora, Talmud, H a ldkd, Secrets, Pilpul, which do not particularly 
point to a Ga'onic origin: cf. especially the parallel in TB. Hag. 
14 a: "Masters of Scripture, Misna, Talmud, Agada and S e muop". 
The Sar Tora is, however, probably later than the Hek. R., and, in 
any case, it is later than 3 Enoch. 

(4) His final argument for the post-Talmudic origin of the writings, 
Gratz finds in Sa'adya's doubts as to R. Isma'el's authorship of 
Siur Qoma (in H a liKop Qcedtem, ed. Pollak, p. 69). 

Within the Ga'onic period Gratz fixes the date of the whole group 
of mystical writings to the first half of the ninth century. His reasons 
are (apart from the fact that the quotations by Sa'actya and ben 
Y e ruham necessitate the existence of the writings before the tenth 
century) : 

(i) The Rev. of Moses (i.e. one recension) is contained in P e siqpa 
(Rabbdpi), which collection was finished in the year 777 after the 
Destruction of the Temple (hence about A.D. 845). The P e siqf>a as it 

wurden auch jiidischen Agadisten auf ihn aufmerksam und verwandeln ihn zu 
mystischen Zwecken indem sie ihn mit Metatoron identificierten". 
Sura 1". 58 : 



"And commemorate 'Idrls (i.e. Enoch) in the Book; For he was righteous and 
a Prophet, and we lifted him up to a high place." Vide also Sura 2i 85 . 

Ox? * * * & 



Gratz might with as much reason have derived the whole pseudepigraphical 
literature of the OT. from, say, the Mi'rdj of Abu 'Yazid al-Bistaml (vide 
Nicholson, An Early Arabic Version of the Mi'rdj, etc.). Gratz's impossible 
deductions are reproduced here at length, since they form, directly or indirectly, 
the only basis for the usual anti-mystically biassed representations of the time and 
provenience of the so-called Ga'onic mystical literature. 



28 INTRODUCTION 

lay before R. Tam contained a reference to the various names of 
Metatron (ace. to Tos. on TB. Yeb. 16 b 1 ). 

(2) Bishop Agobard of Lyons, in a polemical epistle to Louis the 
Pious against the Jews (Dejudaicis superstitionibus), about 829, betrays 
knowledge of the Si'ur Qoma representations. The following may 
be cited : 

"quod nobis non minime no turn est qui quotidie pene cum eis (the Jews) 
loquentes mysteria erroris ipsorum audivimus. Dicunt denique Deum 
suum esse corporeum et corporis lineamentis per membra distinctum et 
alia quadam parte ilium audire, alia videre, alia vero loqui, vel aliud quid 
agere, ac per hoc humanum corpus ad imaginem Dei factum, excepto 
quod ille digitos habeat inflexibiles ac rigentes, utpote qui nil manibus 
operetur", which save for the 'inflexible fingers' seems to reflect the 
Si'ur Qoma. Another quotation from Agobard's letter given by Gratz 
presents the current picture of the Most High seated in the Raqi at ' a rabd]J, 
in 'magno quamvis palatio', and surrounded or carried by the Hayyop 
(bestiis). A third passage runs: "(The Jews say) Deum habere septem 
tubas, quorum una mille ei cubitis metiatur " (cf. letter is in A. R. Aq.), and 
a fourth shows that these works were extant in writing at that time: "et 
conscripta mendacia, etc." 

The origin of the mystical writings does not go back farther than 
about A.D. 820, says Gratz. This is, ace. to his opinion, not irrecon- 
cilable with the fact that already nine years later they were known in 
France to Bishop Agobard, for Gratz can point to a tradition pre- 
served by Zaccuto 2 ace. to which 

"der Kaiser Karl sich von dem Chalifen einen jiidischen Gelehrten fur 
seine Staaten erbeten habe, und dieser hatte ihm einen R. Machir zuge- 
schickt, der sich in Narbonne niedergelassen und. . .in Siidfrankreich 
Schulen gegriindet habe". And hence " literarische Erzeugnisse konnten 
in kurzer Zeit ihren Weg vom Orient nach Frankreich finden" (!). 

The absence in Pirqe d e R. '-^licezcer (between 809 and 813) of any 
reference to Enoch-Metatron and the Si'ur Qoma is to Gratz a 
further evidence that the mystical writings were not in existence at 
that time. 

(If this 'argumentum e silentio' were valid, it would seem that it 
would prove that also the Talmud, e.g. tractate H a giga, came into 
existence between the years 820 and 829 A.D. (!). Gratz concludes: 
"Die Mystik mag sich also erst um 820 Bahn gebrochen haben, und 
so konnte sie um 829 bereits in Frankreich bekannt sein".) 

Gratz's interest in fixing the date to the beginning of the ninth 
century is due to his desire to maintain the Islamitic origin of the 

1 The parallel, Tos. on Hullin 60 a, cites from Yuhasin, ace. to the reading 
preserved in En Ya' a qob. The printed Talmud editions have Sefeer Yosifon. 

2 In S. Yuhasin, ed. Filipowsky, p. 84. 



ORIGIN AND DATE OF COMPOSITION 29 

mystical writings in question. His contention is firstly, that the 
Si'ur Qoma is the real kernel of the mysticism under consideration, 
secondly, that the 'gross anthropomorphism' of this writing cannot 
possibly have originated in Judaism, and must hence be derived from 
Islam, where especially the sect 'Mughassima' and men such as 
' Mughira ibn Said Alighi ' held anthropomorphic views of the Deity. 1 

The notice preserved by Maqrizi, ace. to which the Jews were 
divided into Karaites, wholly repudiating anthropomorphism (by 
Maqrizi called Ananites after Anan), Rabbanites, accepting a milder 
form of picturing God after the manner of man, and Galutiya who 
went farther than the Rabbanites, is therefore ace. to Gratz to be 
interpreted to the effect that one sect, the mystics (i.e. the Galutiya), 
had accepted the anthropomorphism of the Arabic Mughassima 
school and the related Mushabbihites and Hishamites. 

The anthropomorphisms of the Islamitic sects in question were, 
ace. to Gratz, derived from no other source than the Qoran, from a 
literal explanation of relevant passages. 

It should be pointed out here that when Gratz emphasizes the gross 
anthropomorphism of the mystical writings in contrast to the ' Tal- 
mudic ' representations, he can only refer to the short passage in the 
Si'ur Qoma which on the face of it looks like a description of the 
measures and sizes of the various Divine members but in reality 
merely concerns the Throne-of-Glory manifestation and is on a level 
with the similar representation in the Babylonian Talmud , Flag. 13 a 
(see below). The rest of the mystical works in question in no way go 
beyond the Haggada passages of the Talmud as regards 'anthropo- 
morphic views'. 

The mystical works, belonging to the same group (or forming parts 
of the same large work) which Gratz thus finally assigns to the ninth 
century, are enumerated at the end of his article as follows: (a) 
'Opiyyop d e R. <A qiba, and the following belonging to it; (b) Sefcer 
H a nok (i.e. the small Enoch fragment at the end of letter Aleph in 
Alph. R. tA qioa); (c) Siur Qoma; (d) Heftalop Rabbapi; (e) Hekdlop 
Ze'erpa (i.e. Hekdlop Zot e rdpi) ; (/) Sar Tora ; (g) Ma'yan Hokrna (i.e. 
a recension of the Revelation of Moses. See above under ' Sources 
and Literature'). 

To these he adds (after Hai Ga'on's statement) the writings devoted 
to 'practical mysticism', i.e. mainly magical in character: (a) Sefcer 

i "Gott habe Gestalt und Korper mit Gliedern gleich den Buchstaben des 
Alphabets. Sein Gestalt sei die eines Mannes von Licht auf dessen Haupt sich eine 
Krone von Licht befinde." 



30 INTRODUCTION 

ha-yYasar; (b) Harba d e Mosce\ (c) Raza Rabba or Sefcer ha Razim\ 
(d) Sefcer Sent been No a h. 

The arguments and conclusions by Gratz have since been often 
repeated) whereas no further arguments in support of his theory have been 
adduced by subsequent writers. Thus S. Karppe bases exclusively, it 
seems, on Gratz. 1 He gives the same list of writings, only with the 
omission of the Sar Tor a and the Revelation of Moses. Concerning 
the connection between the writings, he says : 

"Nous nous trouvons, en effet, en presence d'un certain nombre de 
fragments d'ceuvres sans que nous puissions dire a coup sur ou ils com- 
mencent et ou ils finissent, s'ils sont les chapitres d'un grand ouvrage 
synthetique, ou des parcelles d'oeuvres independantes que le hasard ou la 
confusion des citations ulterieures a enchevetrees. Ces fragments sont 
communement denommes ainsi " (follows an enumeration of the writings). 

Phillipp Bloch 2 also follows (and cites) Gratz. The Arabic influence 
in these writings is to him obvious. He follows Gratz also in assigning 
the writings to the ninth century. He gives exactly the same list of 
mystical works as Gratz, while adding, quite ad rem: "Hechaloth 
Zutrathi und Sefer Chanoch lassen sich vorldufig nicht feststellen" . 

Bloch translates a few passages from Hekalop. and Alpk. R. <A qfi>a, 
among which are the Enoch-Metatron fragment at the end of letter 
Aleph in the printed edd. of Alph. R. tA qiba and the introductory 
chapters of Sefcer HeMlop (corresponding to^ chh. i and 2 of the 
present book). Furthermore he gives Ga'on S e rira's responsum on 
the Siur Qoma (in translation): "Gott behiite dass R. Ischmael 
derartige Dinge aus eigenem Kopf gesagt hatte. Wie sollte auch ein 
Mensch auf solche Einf alle aus eigenem Antrieb kommen ! Ferner 
ist unser Schdpfer zu hoch und erhaben, als dass er Glieder und 

Maasse haben konnte, wie der einfache Wortlaut besagt Das ist 

aber nur die Ausdrucksweise einer Wissenschaft, hinter der grosse, 
bergeshohe und wundersame Mysterien stecken. . . ". 

A. Jellinek in editing chh. from a MS. that correspond to chh. 
1-15, 23-48 A of the present book 3 does not give any opinion as to 
the time of origin. 

Louis Ginzberg, in enumerating the mystic works "of Ga'onic 

1 Etudes sur les origines et la nature du Zohar, Paris, 1901, ch. iv: 'La Mercabah 
au temps des Gaonim,' pp. 37 seqq. Karppe knows no more than Gratz of the 
Hebrew Book of Enoch. The ' Sefaer H a noic ' stands for the fragment inserted after 
letter Aleph in A. R. 'Aq. 

2 In Diejudische Mystik und Kabbala in Winter und Wiinsche, jfudische Literatur, 
iii. 217 seqq., Trier, 1896. 

3 Beth ha Midrasch, v, Vienna, 1873, complementing from the Lemberg edition 
of Sefcer Hekalo]> in his Kontras ha-mMaggid, ii. 



ORIGIN AND DATE OF COMPOSITION 31 

times" (evidently depending on Gratz), mentions the present book 
as "a version of the Hekaloth'V 

M. Buttenwieser treats at some length of the Hebrew Book of 
Enoch. 2 With regard to time of composition, he says : 

"Apart from the fact that R. Ishmael, of the period of the Hadrianic 
persecution, figures as the author, and from the allusion in the last chapter 
to the Destruction of the Temple (through which data the earliest date 
possible is fixed), there are no definite references to historical events and 
conditions from which the date of the composition of the Book of Enoch 
could be more exactly determined. There is, however, a passage in Talmud 
Berakot about R. Ishmael which naturally suggests itself in this connection, 
and which admits of the adoption of at least a latest possible date." (Butten- 
wieser here translates the well-known passage Ber. 7 a on R. Isma'el be- 
holding 'ufcapri'el Yah YHWH S e ba'o]> sitting upon the high and exalted 
throne, etc.) "The parallel is obvious. The passages quoted compel the 
conclusion that the Hebrew Book of Enoch cannot have been written later 
than the time of the completion of the Babylonian Talmud." 

R. H. Charles 3 accepts the general view of M. Buttenwieser. 

G. F. Moore 4 refers to our book in the following manner: "Much 
later (soil, than the time of the Talmuds) Enoch re-emerges in a 
similar role (soil, as conductor to Paradise and Gehenna and heavens 
in general) with descriptions of the Heavenly Courts and the like, 
showing that some reminiscence of his journeys through the universe 
had survived or been revived. Several pieces of this sort are to be 

found in Jellinek, Bet ha Midrasch Among these particular mention 

may be made of that in Part v. pp. 170-190 (i.e. the fragment of 3 En. 
referred to in the present edition as E) ". 

It seems that M. Buttenwieser has opened the right way towards 
a determining of the time of composition and origin of the present 
book, in treating it primarily on its own merits, and only in the second 
instance in its connection with the other writings that have come to 
be associated with it. Further, the date suggested by Buttenwieser 
as a terminus ante quern is probably correct. The 'parallel' from 
TB. Ber. 7 a, adduced by him, is, however, of less value in this con- 
nection. The passage is not generally accepted as genuine, and bears 
the marks of a later time than our book. But there are closer parallels. 
It may be suggested, to begin with, that the main body of the book 
belongs to a time not later than e.g. TB. Hag. n b-i6 a (the largest 
continuous exposition of mystical matters in the Babylonian Talmud). 

1 J.E. iii. 463 a, article 'Cabala'. 

2 J.E. i. 678, article 'Apocalyptic Literature; Neo-Hebraic'. 

3 R. H. Charles, The Book of Enoch or i Enoch, and ed. 1912, Introduction, 17, 
pp. Ixxix Ixxxi. 

4 Judaism, i. 128 and note 3. 



32 INTRODUCTION 

The style, the matters dealt with in Hag. ii and chh. 3-48 A of our 
book respectively, as well as the general ideas met with in both, do 
not suggest a later time for our book, but, possibly, a different circle 
from which the conceptions have derived their peculiar shape. To 
show this, some parallels in ideas and manner of expression may be 
pointed out: 

TB.Hag.: 3 Enoch: 

Fol. 12 a: "The first Adam ex- Ch. 9 2 : "I was raised and en- 
tended from one end of the world to larged to the size and the length of 
the other" (as a symbol of his per- the world", 
fection), rel. by R. Y e hudab. '^El'ay. 

Ib. "When he sinned, the Holy Cf. 3 En. i6 5 ; 5 10 . 
One diminished him." 

Ib. " The first Adam saw by the first Cf . 3 En. ^ 3 - 5 > 13 > u . 
light from one end of the world to 
the other, but when God beheld the 
generation of the Flood and the gene- 
ration of the confusion of tongues he 
removed it, etc." (cf. Gen. R. xi. 2, 
xii. 4, 5 including the generation of 
J ^nos); attr. to R. '^El'azar. 

Ib. " God created heaven by mixing Ch. 42. 
water and fire" (Baraipa). 

Ib. " By ten things the world was Ch. 4i 3 : " the whole world is sus- 
created, 'Wisdom, Understanding, tained by Wisdom, Understanding, 
Knowledge, Might, etc.'" ('Abba Knowledge, Prudence, Meekness 
>a rifea, Rab.). and Righteousness". The same 

idea is put forth in ch. 8. On this 
point Hag. seems to represent a 
more developed stage than our 
book. See notes ad loca. 

Hag. 12 b (Baraipa of R. Yose): Cf. chh. 34, 37, 38 1 , 48 5 seqq. 
" The earth is standing upon pillars, This is traditionally connected with 
the pillars upon the water, the water the Ma ( a se B e resip, and is found 
upon the mountains, the mountains in the earlier parts of the Midras 
upon the wind, the wind upon the Konen. 
tempest and the tempest is suspended 
on the arm of the Holy One". 

Ib. The seven heavens and their contents. The names of the heavens 
agree with those of 3 En. i7 3 and 33 s . In other respects the H a giga passage 
here contains elements belonging to a later stage than our book. Thus 
3 Enoch agrees, against H a gtga, with the earlier Apocalyptic and Pseudepi- 
graphic writings in assigning angelic inhabitants to all the heavens: cf. 
Test. Levi iii, Ap. Bar., Asc. Isa., 2 En. 3-20. The conception of Mrkael 
at the Celestial Altar does not occur in our book: only in the additional 
ch. 156 the Celestial Tabernacle of Metatron is mentioned. The song- 
uttering angels (in Ma on, the fifth heaven) are in H a giga pictured in a 



RELATION TO TB. H.AG. 2 33 

manner more resembling that of Hek. R. than of 3 Enoch which here 
follows more closely the earlier traditions embodied e.g. in i Enoch and the 
Apocalypse of Abraham. 

The expressions used to describe the contents of Makon, the sixth 
heaven recall those of 3 En. 34 and 37 as well as of 2 En. : " the treasuries of 
snow, of hail . . . chamber of the Stormwind " (Sufa), etc. 

The representation of the contents of iA rabop Raqi ai y the seventh heaven 

the treasuries of Righteousness, Right, Mercy, Life, Peace, Blessings 

corresponds to 3 En. 8, io 6 , 48 c 3 ; that of the souls of the righteous and the 
souls and spirits of those who are not yet created in A rSbof> exactly 
corresponds to 3 En. 43 ; for the pre-existence of spirits and souls the same 
scriptural passage, viz. Is. 57", is quoted in both contexts; on the other 
hand, the conception of the resurrection-dew does not appear in our book. 
The short summary of the Mterkaoa-pictnre in Hag. ib. " 'Ofannim, 
S e rafim, Hayyoj? ha-qQodaes, the ministering angels, the Throne of Glory, 
the King, the Living God, high and lifted up" is not substantially 
different from similar summaries in our book, cf. e.g. ch. 6 2 . (Upon the 
present writer this passage TB. Hag. makes the impression of being 
dependent upon 3 Enoch. In this way a traditionist familiar with 3 Enoch 
could easily have summarized 3 Enoch in respect of the contents of the 
^rabof Raqi a '; especially the little incident of an additional, meaningless, 
' and souls ' in TB. Hag. compared with 3 En. 43 and 47 is highly suggestive 
here.) 

That the material used in H a giga contained a developed system 
of Mcerkaba-angelology is apparent from the elaborate descriptions 
in the following context, e.g. on the Hayyop on fol. 13 a. 

The specific picture of the 'seven Halls' does not occur in H a giga, 
but the idea itself is not unknown to judge from the expression in 
Hag. fol. 13 a : distinguishing between the 1$}% TO and the *&O2 TO 
which corresponds to the division between the six outer and the 
seventh inmost Hall in 3 Enoch. 

Fol. 133. The speculations on the "Raqi a * above the heads of the 
Hayyop " (after Ezek. i 22 ) are more after the manner of the later Mcerkaba- 
literature than of our book. (R. Aha b. Ya* a qo D, 4 B. A.) Cf. the additional 
chapters 15 B, 22 B c. 

Ib. The measures or distances of the heavens and the sizes of the Hayyop 
present a stage somewhat between the representations of 3 En. chh. 21 and 
22 c (additional). Thus the description of the immense sizes of the Hayyop 
is more extravagant in Hag. than in 3 En. 21. 

It may be surmised, in fact, that the present passage, introduced as a 
Baraipa of R. Yoh a nan been Zakkai, is more related to the Si'ur Qomd 
picture. The reference to the measures of the " feet of the Throne of Glory", 
of the "Throne of Glory itself", and the implied distance between the 
"feet of the Throne of Glory " and the seat of the Divine Manifestation, 
the "King y El Hay u e QayySm Ram u e A/ma" (cf. 22 C 2 3 ), reads like an 
introduction or allusion to the Si'ur Qoma, a 1 . The Si'ur Qoma (2) begins 
by stating the distances between the seat of the Throne downwards (the 



OHBI 



34 INTRODUCTION 

feet of the Throne) and between the seat and upwards. 'El Hay u e Qayyam. 
is the expression used also in the St'ur Qoma when referring to the Divine 
Manifestation on the Throne. 

Ib. The term Sipre Tora, i.e. the ' Secrets of Torah', the ' Secrets of the 
Law', is here used in the same sense as in 3 Enoch, i.e. as a technical term 
by preference for a certain aspect of the mystical doctrines. It designates 
the essence of the Tora and what is considered equivalent the first 
elements of the whole manifested world. Cf. 3 En. u 1 , 48 C 4 7 , D 3 7 and 
notes ad loca. (Attr. to R. 'Ammi, 3 P. A.) 

Ib. The specific mystical importance attached to the Hasmal is paralleled 
in 3 En. 34, 36, 37, but more particularly in the additional ch. 15 B 2 . 

Hag. 13 b. The Hasmal used also with reference to a certain class of 
angels as in 3 Enoch where the Hasmallim are enumerated together with the 
Mterkaba-creatures : chh. 7, 48 c 4 . 

Ib. The speculations on and interpretations of the words nttfl SIX") of 
Ezek. i 14 , on which H a giga expatiates, are not found in 3 Enoch except in 
the additional ch. 22 c 5 . They are very frequent in later works. The Bazaq 
(E2ek. i 14 ) is in 3 Enoch not yet the object of speculations as in H a giga here, 
and in Hek. R. (I^D et a ^)- 

Ib. "The pKS ins )B1K (Ezek. i 15 ) refers to the angel Sandal/on" 
The conception of Sandalfon is nowhere met with in the present book. 
Neither is the picture of an angel-prince wreathing crowns for His Master 
represented in 3 Enoch. Both ideas seem to belong to a later stage than 
3 Enoch. They recur frequently in later literature. Sandalfon is met with 
e.g. in Rev. of Moses (Hebrew) and in Hek. Zof. (Cf. below on the con- 
ception of Metatron,pp. 106 f.) Here a Barai]?a connected with R. } JE1 'azar. 

Ib. The various panim (faces) of the Mcerkaba-angels, in particular the 
Hayyop (after Ezek. i 10 , io 14 ). On this subject H a giga is more elaborate 
than 3 Enoch, cf. 3 En. 2 1 ("eagles of the Mcerkaba"), 2I 1 ' 3 and the add. 
ch. 15 B 2 ('the Lion'). H a giga here approaches the Hek. R., ch. 26 4 . 

The changing of the w into the jjns is an idea not met with in 3 Enoch. 

Ib. The numbers of the angels and the 'troops' or 'g e dudim t discussed 
on the basis of Dan. 7 10 . This is paralleled in 3 En. 17, 35 4 ~ 6 , etc. 

Ib. Speculations on the N e har di-Nur or 'fiery river' (on the same 
scriptural basis). These are well in line with those of 3 Enoch; cf. chh. 
i8 19 > 21 , i9 4 , 33 5 , 36 1 ' 2 , 47 1 ' 2 . The fiery river goes forth from the perspira- 
tion of the Hayyop; cf. 3 En. i8 25 , in our book usually "from under the 
Throne of Glory" as in i En. i/j. 19 . 

Hag. 14 a. The traditions concerning the creation of the angels from 
the fiery river or through the Divine word and their immersion (and 
extinction) in the N e har di-Nur are presented in similar, although some- 
what varying, manner in Hag. and in our book, chh. 27 3 , 4o 4 , 47* > 2 . The 
same scriptural support is used by both ; cf . notes ad loca. 

Ib. The two Thrones of the Holy One. The dictum (attributed to R. Yose 
the Galilean), ace. to which one Throne is for Judgement, the other for 
Mercy, reminds us of chh. 31 and 33 (the two Divine aspects, the Attributes 
of Justice and Mercy). 

The second dictum (attributed to ^1'azar ba;n * A zarya), ace. to 
which one Throne is placed beneath the other, as a sort of foot-stool 



RELATION TO TB. &AG. 2 35 

(or [attributed to R. <A qit>a as his original opinion] the one being the 
Throne of Glory, the other the Throne of David, i.e. the Messiah, cf. 
TB. Sank. 38 a, 67 b), raises the question, whether behind this there is not 
a covert allusion to the traditions of the throne of Metatron being placed 
below the Throne of Glory. In any case, the different explanations here 
given of the 'thrones ' of Dan. y 9 show an intimate familiarity with the view 
of a second Throne by the side of the Throne of Glory. 1 

Hag. 14 b. The well-known passage about the four who entered Paradise 
(repeated in iheHek. Zof.,Bodl. MICH. 9) emphasizes the dangers of entering 
to behold the various heavenly mysteries, and may hence be said to be 
paralleled by the notions expressed urch. i 3 of 3 Enoch. Closer parallels 
are, however, found in the later cognate works, e.g. in Hek. R. y ch. 17 
et al. It is to be noted, that R. Isma'el in 3 Enoch is not represented as 
being shown Paradise. The ' entering Paradise ' refers to a certain part of 
the vision of the Mcerkaba-mysteries. Thus Moses, ace. to the G e duttaf> 
Mosce, is shown Paradise after he has been shown the heavens and the 
Throne in the highest. 

Hag. 15 a. The passage on Metatron, of which ch. 16 of the present 
book is simply another version, will be often referred to in the following. 

Ib. " I have heard from behind the Pargod" and 

Hag. 16 a " the angels hearing from behind the Pargod". Cf. on chh. 45* 
and i8 16 of our book. 

Important for the question of the relation between the Talmud 
and 3 Enoch is also TB. Yoma, 67 b: ^NJflDB^ 'm *3"T JOn 

StfTJfl KDJ? WSfib ty "iSaOG? ^TNTy compared with chh. 4 and 
5 of our book. This presupposes at least the traditions embodied 
in 3 En. 5 ('Uzza and 'Azzael as fallen angels or evil agencies). 

With regard to the special reasons adduced by Gratz for a post- 
Talmudic origin of the mystical group of writings in question in 
which also our book, although unknown to that scholar, would be 

i The present writer has not ventured to accept definitely as authentical the 
linking up of these dicta with the names of such Tannaitic teachers as R. <A qiba, 
R. '/El'azar bsen ' A zarya,R.Yose the Galilean. The authenticity might perhaps, how- 
ever, be taken for granted, since so great an anti-mystical authority as G. F. Moore, 
in his Judaism, vol. ii, p. 337, speaking of this passage says :"it remains that Akiba saw 
for himself no objection to assigning the second throne to the Messiah ". Cf. also Bacher's 
Agada der Tanaaiten, vol. i, pp. 224, 225, 324, 361. The fact of the occurrence of 
speculations on ' two thrones ' in the time of and among the saidTannaim, would be oif 
immense importance for determining the time of origin of the conception of Meta- 
tron as the second, lower throne. It is evident that the controversy related in TB.Ilag. 
14 a, Sanh. 38 a, 67 b, touches a subject that was, from some cause or other, rather 
delicate, i.e. closely connected with views abhorred as heretical. Suggestive of the 
consciousness of the dangerous background of these speculations is R. Yose's 
rebuff of R. <A qi~a's view with the words: 71/1 nJ'Ottf n&\$ HflK VlB 1J> WpJ?; 
the profanation, or heresy, would consist in establishing a similarity either with the 
Christian enthronement of the Christ-Messiah or with other views accepting an 
enthroned Messiah (e.g. after the manner of i En.). But the new element that has 
here entered is precisely the idea of a second, lower throne, i.e. the distinctive, 
constitutive feature of the Metatron-conception : the basis for the formation of the 
Metatron-conception has been already given. 

3-2 



36 INTRODUCTION 

involved, and has been thus involved by later followers of Gratz 
the following observations may be made : 

With regard to point (i) Metatron in the Talmud not identified 
with Enoch this does not necessarily prove that the identification 
of Enoch and Metatron belongs to the post-Talmudic period. The 
aversion of the Rabbis, 1 especially those ultimately responsible for 
the fixing of the text of the Talmud, constitutes a sufficient reason why 
they should have eliminated, as much as possible, any trace of a 
glorification of Enoch, which might have obtained in the mystic 
sources from which they drew, with reserve, some scattered details 
of the Metatron-conception. 

If, in fact, the sources from which the Talmudic fragments were 
derived already contained the tradition of the identity between 
Enoch and Metatron and if this was suppressed by the Talmudic 
authorities there should be some trace of the functions acquired 
by Metatron in fusion with Enoch. Such a trace can, indeed, be 
pointed to, viz. in TB. Hag. 15 a, where it is said of Metatron, that 
he had been given permission to be seated in order to write down the 
merits of Israel. Metatron's function of Scribe here is most naturally 
explained from the assumption that he has already been identified 
with Enoch, "the scribe of righteousness" (vide i En. I5 1 ). In 3 
Enoch Metatron's function of Scribe- Witness is connected exclusively 
with the Enoch-aspect of him, chh. 4 2 , 48 c 2 . It seems never to have 
been attached to the specific Metatron-aspect. 

(2) The 'gross anthropomorphism', which is the main basis on 
which Gratz contends for the Islamitic origin of the group of mystical 
writings, is not specially characteristic of our book in contrast to the 
Talmudic literature. 

The points (3) and (4) (vide above, p. 27) do not concern 3 Enoch 
and are, therefore, irrelevant here. 

A difference between the three representations of Metatron in the 
Talmud (in TB. Hag. 15 a, Sank. 38 b, 'Ab. Zar. 3 b) and those of 
3 Enoch is to be seen, further, in the fact, that Metatron is in the 
latter commonly called "the Prince of the Presence ", but in the former 
not referred to by this epithet. In TB. Ber. 51 a, however, we find 
the tradition of Suriel (or Surya) as the Prince of the Presence, in 
special communion or relation with R. Isma'el, imparting to him 
teachings or revelations. Suriel (or Surya), in related mystical writings, 
is most often only another name for Metatron, used specially when 
denoting him as Knower of Secrets (as befits the Prince of the 

i Cf. the well-known passage in Gen. R. 2S X , referred to above, p. 26, n. i. 



RELATION TO TB. PAG. 2 37 

Presence to be). In Hek. R., Surya, as the Prince of the Presence, 
sometimes seems to be contemplated as different from Metatron 
on the ground that Metatron in Hek. R. is sublimated almost into a 
part of the Divinity, whereas Surya, as the Prince of the Presence, 
retains Metatron's less exalted functions (cf. below, pp. 99-101). 
The parallel TB. Ber. 513 is important also because it shows that 
R. Isma'el already at the time of origin of that Haggada must have 
been represented as enjoying a special personal communion with the 
Prince of the Presence as he does in 3 Enoch. 

For Surya as a name of Metatron, cf. ch. 48 D 1 , no. 84. 

The language of the main, that is the oldest, part of 3 Enoch is 
most akin to that of the earlier Haggadic dicta of the Babylonian 
Talmud, or, in general, that of the dicta attributed to the Tannaitic 
teachers and the earlier Amoras. 

An indication of time and place of the final composition of the 
present book is also to be seen in the representation of ch. a6 12 , 
ace. to which the special accusers of Israel, next to Satan, are 
"Sammael, the Prince of Rome, and Dubbiel, the Prince of Persia". 
This, of course, suggests a Babylonian environment. Now the 
authorities cited in the mystical literature are the early Palestinian 
Tannas, R. Isma'el, R. <A qifca, R. N e honya baen haqQana, also 
R. Yoh a nan baen Zakkai and R. '^li'aezaer hagGadol, and others. The 
first origins of the mystical teachings of course go back to Palestine 
(e.g. i Enoch). And Palestine must have continued to be the home of 
the mystical speculations even under the earlier Tannas, until the 
reaction set in, which tried to oust the specific mystical teachings 
from orthodox Judaism. Thus, the development and elaboration of 
the traditions embodied in the Hebrew Book of Enoch would seem 
to have taken place in Babylonian circles. The above-mentioned 
explicit reference to Dubbiel, the Prince of Persia, in juxtaposition to 
Sammael, the Prince of Rome, by which the former is indicated as 
sharing the dominance of the earth as it were equally with the latter 
{cf. 3 En. i4 2 ), points to a period when the Sassanides were in full 
power, and probably to a time of warfare with the Roman Empire 
(such as was carried on in Mesopotamia in the last quarter of the 
third century A.D.). 

The fact, that the book, with the exception of the allusions in chh. 
26 12 , 44 7 seqq. and 48 A in a mild form to oppressions by the 
"Nations of the World", presents a pronouncedly irenical, almost 
universalistic attitude towards the nations in general (cf. esp. chh. 
3 1 , 30, etc.), indicates that the book has taken shape at a time when 



38 INTRODUCTION 

the Jewish circles in question were living in peace and comfort. The 
animosity against the "nations of the world" which has found ex- 
pression in the apocalyptic fragment, ch. 48 A, seems to be due more 
to the traditional phraseology adopted from the apocalyptic patterns 
used, than to actual experience of a real persecution. Furthermore, 
there is a tendency noticeable in chh. 44 7 " 10 , 48 A towards assigning 
the real cause of the downfall of Israel to the wicked within the 
nation and to the dearth of righteous and 'pious' men, and towards 
focussing the reader's mind on this aspect. 

This points to a place and time of composition (i.e. redaction) such as 
the Jewish colonies in Babylonia during the third and fourth centuries, 
when the Jews enjoyed a perfect tolerance from the Sassanian rulers. 

In contrast to the general attitude of our book, we find in the later 
apocalyptic or mystical works from the time of the rising Moslem 
power a different outlook : ' Rome and Persia ' are no longer regarded 
as the established world powers, but 'Isma'el' (= Islam) is looked 
upon as the power destined to prepare the way for the deliverance of 
Israel by engaging in prolonged and destructive warfare with the 
older empires, a warfare which will cause the ruin of all the Gentile 
nations (cf. 2 Ap. Ism., Revel. R. Sim'on baen Yohai). 

There are, however, further indications for an early date of origin. 
Thus the Q e dussa met with in 3 Enoch takes us back to the time when 
this had not yet received any of the amplifications attested in the 
G e mdra of the Babylonian Talmud. It is, moreover, not yet connected 
with the *1^y njJb&P. It is presented in its most simple and primitive 
form, a form which in fact seems to have been established already at 
the time of i En. 39 12 13 , i.e. before the Christian era (cf. below, 
18 A. pp. 184 seq.). 

A means of determining the terminus post quern of the composition 
of our book is thepictureof theMessianic expectations given in ch.45 6 , 
postulating a post-Hadrianic time. On this vide note ad loc. (p. 147), 
where the present writer urges that the passage belongs to a time of 
peace not too far removed, however, from the time of origin of the 
Messiah ben Joseph conception, probably some time in the third 
century A.D. 

The conception of the pre-existence of the spirit (n e sama) and its 
' creation ' in the Gufas met with in sect. 7 (chh. 41-48 A) of our book 
may perhaps be taken as evidence for a time of origin of that section 
not much earlier than the beginning of the third century A.D. Vide 
below on "The conceptions of Spirit and Soul, etc." pp. 179 seq. 

Of great importance for determining the time and position of 



ORIGIN AND DATE OF COMPOSITION 39 

3 Enoch are, lastly, the affinities between our book and the earlier 
Enoch literature. These affinities which are discussed at length 
below, sect. 7 A and B show that 3 Enoch represents a direct continua- 
tion in development from the earlier Enoch literature with influences 
on the one hand from extraneous ideas (Gnosticism, etc.), on the 
other from Rabbinic traditions developed during theTannaitic period. 

The conceptions which form the central interest of the book seem 
to have been elaborated in a certain distinct circle x which had a greater 
propensity for mystical matters than their contemporaries, the scholars 
whose views determined the attitude of the Talmud (and among those 
scholars both Tannaim and Amor aim are represented). The men of 
this circle or tendency of thought apparently cherished with venera- 
tion the traditions of the earlier apocalyptic and angelological litera- 
ture, especially the Enoch literature ; naturally they concentrated upon 
the mystical experiences connected with the vision of the Throne and 
the Divine Chariot, and may have accepted the various extraneous 
conceptions or forms of expression (or of visualizing), with which they 
were brought in contact and which seemed to them in keeping with 
their own experiences and speculations. Thus they accepted, already 
at an early time, the idea of a celestial representative of the Godhead, 
a vice-regent, a second, lower 0p6vo<s, in the form of Metatron. They 
were also particularly interested in the elaboration of systems of 
angelology, picturing the vast angelic hierarchy from the lowest of 
common angels up to the highest angelic figure, the ruler by God's 
authority over all the hosts under him. 

These mystics behind 3 Enoch were not in opposition to the 
Rabbinic teachers. Apart from their special interest in mystical 
matters, the Ma ta se B e resip and the Ma (a se Markabd, and their 
occupation with the earlier mystical literature, they held the general 
views of the 'orthodox' Rabbis, and evidently themselves had the 
learning of the schools. They held the Tannaitic teachers (R. Ima'el) 
in high esteem and referred to them as authorities in the mystical 
doctrine. It is also evident that a great number of the Tannas and 
Amoras, at least during periods of their life, devoted themselves to 
penetrating the Meer&a&a-mysteries : Yoh a nan ben Zakkai, Y e hosu a ' 
ben H a nanya, R. <A qiba, '^El'azar ben 'Arafe, H a nanya ben H a Mnai 
(TB. Hag. 14 b, 15 a, TJ. Hag. 77 b, Tos. Hag. 2 l ~ 5 , Gen. R. 5"), also 
Sim* on bsen Zoma and Sim' on baen 'Azzai, not to mention the 

i On the existence of several Jewish circles devoted to mysticism vide Abelson, 
Jewish Mysticism, pp. 22-25 an d below (on the origin of the conception of 
Metatron). 



40 INTRODUCTION 

ultimate apostate )JE lisa' baen >A buya. This is admitted by G. F. 
Moore in his Judaism, vol. i, p. 411, nor can it possibly be denied. 

No doubt the 3 Enoch circle regarded themselves as orthodox (if 
that word may be used) and in no way considered themselves as 
sectarian. There is no definite sign in the main part of the book that 
they even looked upon themselves as separated from others by a 
deeper insight into mystical matters or by the possession of a higher 
yi>&jo-ts. One may probably best describe their attitude by stating 
simply that they were interested in and inclined towards mystical 
matters and experiences. From the point of view of the Rabbinic 
teachers, determining the attitude of the Talmud, the position of these 
circles and of their writings was, however, to be judged differently. 
The mystical interests of the recognized Rabbinical authorities could 
not be ignored nor could the Haggadic dicta revealing those interests 
be obliterated. But the 3 Enoch circle and its like would naturally be 
ignored, if not classed among the minim (or heretics), and the Enoch 
literature would be included among the ' extraneous writings ' just as 
were the earlier apocalyptic writings, which were passed in silence. 

That writings of this kind could exist and that there is no need of 
assuming the mere oral tradition of the mystical matters is quite clear. 
Now that Strack in his Einleitung in Talmud und Midras 5 (pp. 9-16) 
has demonstrated the existence of early writings even on H a lata, and, 
the more naturally, on Haggadic matters, there is not the slightest 
reason for keeping up the unfounded fiction that "there was nothing 
written on mystical subjects between the time of the so-called Pseud- 
epigrapha and the Gaonic times". No one at all familiar with the 
Talmudic and Midrasic writings could deduce the non-existence of 
such writings from the well-known injunction in M. Hag. 2 1 against 
the promulgation of mystical matters to more than 'three', 'two' or 
' one '. One need only point to the fact that not only the G e mara but 
even the Toscefta to the same passage speak quite freely on such 
subjects that are treated in 3 Enoch. If still deeper mystical matters 
are meant in that injunction (cf, G. F. Moore, Judaism, vol. I, p. 384, 
Tos. Hag. 2), then again the passage evidently cannot be used as a 
demonstration for the non-committing to writing of matters that ' are 
not so deep ' (such as those of 3 Enoch and TB. Hag. 1 1 b seqq.). The 

i Tos. flag. z z : 

<ior p \mv \z-\ vsb nsvn yaw 'i 'aiK mw "o w "i 
nsnvi wan p K^an ytn/T "i MS"? /nnvi twpy 'n 



Tos. flag, a 3 : Wpy '11 1HK KBIT pi W tt DIIS 1 ? 1DJ5J1 Jtt 



ORIGIN AND DATE OF COMPOSITION 41 

truth is of course that M. Hag. 2 does not describe how the mystical 
matters were actually treated by all Jewish speculators upon them, but 
lays down a rule how they should henceforth be treated. 1 

The additional chapter 48 D 10 of our book contains the notice that the 
Palestinian Amoras R. 'Abbahu and R. Zero. who had received the secrets 
handed down from the time of Moses committed the mystical teachings 
or traditions to a larger body, "the men of faith". "The men of faith" 
apparently is a term denoting the circle of mystics to which the writer 
belonged. If there were any historical reality behind this statement, it 
would seem to indicate the time of RR. 'Abbahu and Zero, (second generation 
Amoras, end of third century A.D.) as the period when the tradition of 
literature in question gained special adherence among Babylonian Jews. 
The fragment in which this statement is found is however of a much 
later date than the main part of the book, and represents a development 
of the mystical teachings on somewhat different lines from those of the 
rest of the book (cf . note ad loc.). 

The time of composition or redaction which would best fit in 
with the various data considered above seems to be the latter 
half of the third century. 

We have, so far, been concerned with the main body of the 
book, comprising chh. 3-48 A, and its redaction. 

To this main body have been joined, in different stages, the 
following : 

(a) Ch. 48 B c : the Names of the Godhead, and the interpretation 
of one of these names, the 'Alcef, with regard to Metatron. The oldest 
part of this mystical treatise is contained in the 'Alsef -Enoch-Metatron 
piece, 48 c 1 " 9 . This version of the Enoch-Metatron tradition which 
in substance (vide infra on Metatron, pp. 8off .) agrees with the Enoch- 
Metatron piece, chh. 3-15, seems to have been regarded as specially 
connected with R. <A qiba (the rest of the book is presented in the 
name of R. 'Isma'el). It was included in theAlph. R. iA qiba at the end 
of letter 'Alasf . Furthermore, in the Z)-editions of Sefcer Hefcalop (D i , 
foil. 13 b, 14 a, D 2, fol. 10 b) a fragment of ch. 48 c, corresponding 
approximately to the version K, is introduced as a Toseefta, begin- 
ning: "R. ' A qiba said: I heard a voice going forth from under the 
Throne of Glory, speaking. And what did it say? Answer: I sold 
(corr. for 'made him strong', "Oft for ""OK) him, I took him, I 
appointed him, namely Enoch, the son of Jared, whose name is 

i Cf. Leo Baeck, Ursprung und Anfdnge der jiidiscken Mystikvn. Entwicklungsstufen 
der judischen Religion, pp. QQseq.: "Zwischen dem Worte hochsten Preises, das 
Jochanan ben Sakkai gesprochen, und diesem Worte der Verurteilung in der 
Mischna liegt die Abkehr von dieser theosophischen Mystik. Sie war bewirkt durch 
die Erkenntnis der Gefahr welche von daher der Reinheit der Lehre, der Eigenart 
des Judentums, drohen konnte ". 



42 INTRODUCTION 

Metatron, etc." 1 The fragment is, however, quite independent of 
the Alph. R. ' A qiba. 

(b) The introductory chh. I and 2, supplying the frame of the book, 
in so far as they describe the occasion when R. Isma'el ascended to 
behold the Mcerkaba and was brought into contact with Metatron who 
imparted to him the revelations contained in the book. These chapters, 
probably, belong approximately to the same time and circle as the 
Hek. R. and the earlier (lost) versions of the Leg. Martyrs. The occasion 
of R. Isma'el's ascension to heaven is here, however, not intended 
to be understood as that of his last Mcerkafoa- vision, described in 
Hek. R. chh. 3-5 and in i and 2 Leg. Martyrs, i.e. immediately be- 
fore his purported death as a martyr (in the Hadrianic persecution, 
A.D. 135). The object of his ascension is in ch. i defined by the 
expression "in order to behold the vision of the Mcerkaba" . These 
two introductory chapters are responsible for the title Sefcer He^alop 
given to the present book, or for its occasional inclusion in collections 
of Hekalop works (quoted e.g. in YR. i, 55 b as Pirqe Hekalo])}. 

(c) The chh. 156, 22 B c represent the third stage, when the 
3 Enoch is used, together with the Sfur Qoma, as the central part of 
a larger collection called Ma a se Mcerkaba. The mysteries of the 
Mcerkaba are here treated in a more elaborated form. Further 
Metatron is conceived, primarily, as the revealer of secrets to Moses. 
To the same stage is, on this account, to be assigned the insertion or 
addition of ch. 48 D. Characteristic in the case of ch. 15 B is the im- 
portance given to the S e ma l ; this reflects the later period when the 
e ma' was introduced as an essential part of the (celestial) Q e dussa ; 
but even that period in all probability is pre-Islamitic. z 

It will not be necessary to point out that the main part of 3 Enoch 
(chh. 3-48 A) is no homogeneous unity, or a work by a definite author 
in the modern sense of the words. It is even possible to discern earlier 
and later strata in the part in question. Thus to the earliest stratum 
must be assigned chh. 3-15 (the Enoch-Metatron piece 3), whereas 

1 The original part of this fragment strikes an early note ; it is, at least, not later 
than the Enoch-Metatron fragment of 3 En. 3-15. Unfortunately the text of all MS. 
sources of the fragment is in a bad state. This fragment has traces of the Primordial 
Man conception of Metatron as the Ruler of the World and does not contain the 
Enos-episode of 3 En. 5. 

2 Cf. Louis Ginzberg, Geonica II, Geniza Studies, New York, 1909, pp. 48, 49, 

on the insertion of the S e ma into the Q e ctussa caused by a persecution of the Jews 
by the Christians, which ceased when the Christians were defeated by the Moham- 
medans. Resp. by a pupil of Y e hua*ai Ga'on, ib. pp. 50 seqq., and resp. by Sar 

Salom Ga'on in the Siddur of 'Amram Ga'on, n, cited ib. 

3 This probably goes back to the second century, and in some parts even to the 
end of the first. Cf. below, pp. 79 and 188. 



RELATION TO I EN. 43 

section 7, or chh. 41-48 A, possibly was composed at or not much 
before the time when the collection of chh. 3-48 A was made. 

There is no difficulty with regard to the collection of the various 
fragments (forming the different sections of our book) into a book 
called ' Book of Enoch '. It must be assumed, on the contrary, that the 
different topics treated of in these fragments were from the very 
beginning considered as rightly belonging to the Enoch literature. 
They were the topics (or similar to the topics) dealt with in the 
archetype, viz. i Enoch. If any incongruity was felt, this was overcome 
by representing all the fragments as revelations given by Enoch- 
Metatron. 



7 A. IDEAS AND EXPRESSIONS OF i ENOCH 
RECURRING IN 3 ENOCH 

(References and quotations from i Enoch are ace. to the edition by 
R. H. Charles, Oxford, 1912. 'Notes' (n.) refer to Charles's notes ib.) 

i Enoch 3 Enoch 

i 5 , io 9 > 1S , i2 4 , i3 10 , I4 1 ' 3 , is 2 , 16 1 ' 2 , 9i 15 . The 'Watchers', 'IRIN, 

The 'Watchers' as fallen angels. are high angel-princes, 28. 

i2 2 > 3 , 20 1 , 39 12 ; 13 , 4o 2 , 6i 12 , 7i 7 . The 
'WATCHERS' as high angels, 'archangels' 
(n. on i 5 ). 1 

6 1 " 8 . The Fall of the Angels. Their number The tradition of Fallen 

given as two hundred. The number of the Angels is preserved in ch. 

leaders is twenty ('chiefs of tens'), _6 6 > 7 8 . 5 9 , in the representation of 

The chief of the leaders is SEMJAZA, 6 3 > 7 , the evil agencies 'UZZA, 

cf. 69 2 (twenty-one leaders). 'AZZA and 'AZZI'EL. These 

Among the names of the leaders are to are most probably contem- 

be noticed : ASAEL, 6 7 ; AZAZEL who ace. to one plated as the leaders of the 

tradition seems to have been regarded as the Fallen Angels. They are 

chief leader (instead of SEMJAZA), io 4 8 , 54 s , three as in 2 En. 18 A. 

55 4 > 8 1 ' 2 > 3 , etc., 13!. 2 . Cf. note on 3 En. if 

Further: KOKABIEL, EZEQEEL (i.e. SHA- end. These names recur 

CHAQIEL, 6 7 .), BARAQIJAL, SAMSAPEEL (= among the names of the 

SHAMSHIEL), BATARJAL (= BADARIEL), 69 2 , 8 3 . Rulers, 14*, and archangels, 

I? i, 3. 

7 1 , 8 1 ' 3 , io 8 , 64 2 , 65 6 10 ('sorceries'), "taught them sorceries", 

69* 4 ~ 12 . The fallen angels lead men astray 5. 
by teaching them ' secrets ', magic and sor- 
ceries, 'worthless mysteries' (i6 3 ). 

9 1 , jo 1 . 4 > 9 > u , 40 29 , 7i 8 9 , 872. The Four The four great princes 

Presences: MIKAEL, URIEL (or PHANUEL), set over the camps of 

RAPHAEL, GABRIEL (n. on 49 2 ). S*%ina, i8 4 5 , 35 3 ; cf. 17. 

i Watchers: 



44 INTRODUCTION 

i Enoch 3 Enoch 

10. "The Dooms pronounced by God on Not in 3 En. Cf. how- 

the (Fallen) Angels " (Charles). ever the punishment of the 

angels, 40", 47. 

n 1 . " . . .1 will open the store chambers of Cf. ch. 8 1 and note i b 

blessing which are in the heaven, so as to send and Index, 'treasury' and 

them down upon the earth." ' store '. 

2 . "And truth and peace shall be asso- 3 1 1 compared with 3 3 1 . 
ciated together." 

i2 2 . Watchers and Holy Ones, 1 'IRIN and QADDIIN, ch. 

28. 

i4 8 . " . . .the winds in the vision caused me Ch. 7. " He lifted me on 

to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me the wings of the wind of 

into heaven." & e kina." 

9 ~ 23 . Picture of the Throne and the Cf. Introduction, 15. 
Mcerkafia. Cf. lEn.ji. 

14. 9 "a wall built of crystals and sur- 33 3 > 34 1 * 47 3 ' 4 - 
rounded by tongues of fire." 

10 "a large house built of crystals"; The chambers. Halls 

15 " a second house greater than the former called Hefcalo]), 2 esp. i 1 ' 2 > 6 , 

. . . built of flames of fire." i8 3 > 4 18 , 37 1 , 382. 

11 "like the path of the stars and the 338, 7, 22 11 - 15 , 39 2 (K e - 

lightnings, and between them were fiery rufiim of S e fcina), 22 B 8 . 
KERUBIM " ; " the vision of the KERUBIM " . 

15 "the portal of the second house." "Door or Gate of the 

Seventh Hall", io 2 , i 2 . 

18 "a lofty throne. . .the wheels! thereof iQ^iS^Ind.'Throne'. 
as the shining sun." 

20 "the Great Glory sat thereon." 22 B 5 , esp. 15 B 3 > 6 . 

19 "from underneath the throne came 33*, 26 4 , 19* frequ. 
streams of flaming fire." 

22 "ten thousand times ten thousand 22 B 3 , C 4 7 , 36 1 . 
stood before Him." 

23 "the most Holy Ones who were nigh I.e. the Holy Ones as 

to Him did not leave by night nor depart Watchers: 'IRIN and QAD- 

from Him." DISIN, ch. 28 and note. 

I5 1 . " fear not, Enoch . . . approach hither." 15 B 5 , i 5 . 

3 . "Wherefore have ye left the high, holy 5 11 . " Why hast thou left 
and eternal heaven." the highest of the high 

heavens, etc." 

i5 8 -i6 1 . The giants produced from the Not in 3 En. Demons 
Fallen Angels ; the demons, being the spirits only in 5*. 
which went forth from the souls of the giants. 

1 Holy Ones: '"M-I'V. 

2 The two houses, one within the other, the innermost containing the throne, 
really correspond to the Hekalop of 3 En. The houses are, ace. to i En.ji 5 , situated 
in the heaven of heavens : (\*l f,st\'l ffr = D' 1 t2'n 1| Bttf = ;? t 'p1 JTDiy. 

3 1(1 fl'fl (rpo^os, Flemming-Radermacher : ' Umkreis ' ; Dillmann, Lexicon : circulus , 
orbis). 



RELATION TO I EN. 



45 



i Enoch 

i6 3 . "All the mysteries had not been re- 
vealed to you and you knew worthless ones, 

etc." 

ly 1 . "those (i.e. angels) who were there 
were like flaming fire, and when they wished 
they appeared as men." 

j8i3-i5, } 2 1 3 " 6 . "seven stars like great 
burning mountains . . . have transgressed the 
commandment of the Lord . . . because they 
did not come forth at their appointed time." 

19*. "their spirits assuming many dif- 
ferent forms." 

20. The "Holy Angels who watch" 
identical with the seven archangels: URIEL, 

RAPHAEL, RAGUEL, MIKAEL, SARAQAEL, GA- 
BRIEL, REMIEL. 

22. (Acc. to Charles's critical text ; cf. note 
on ch. 22 beg.) Three chambers in Sheol 
corresponding to three divisions of men, viz. 

(1) the righteous; 

(2) the wicked who have not met with 
retribution in this life ; 

(3) the wicked who have. 



22 3 . "the spirits of .the souls 1 of the dead 
... all the souls of the children of men." 

24*, 25 1 ' 4 > 5 , 29 2 . The fragrance of the 
Tree of Life. 2Q 2 , "Aromatic trees' 1 exhaling 
the fragrance of frankincense and myrrh". 

25 4 > 5 . The fragrant tree to be given to the 
righteous and holy in the time to come. " Its 
fruit shall be for food to the elect." 

3 . The Throne of Judgement. 

5 . The "temple of the Lord, the Eternal 



(< 

33 3 . " I saw how the stars of heaven come 
forth, and I counted the portals out of which 
they proceed, and wrote down all their out- 
lets, of each individual star by itself, according 
to their number and their names, etc." 



3 Enoch 

The angels as possessors 
of parts of the secrets only : 
i8 23 n.; Introd. An- 



n 1 n. 



35 6 and n. 

47 2 . The punishment of 
the angels who have not 
chanted the Song at their 
appointed time : " are made 
into numerous mountains 
of fire". 

3S 6 - 

The Holy Ones and 

Watchers are four, 28 5 
(seventy-two, 3O 2 ); Arch- 
angels, ch. ly 1 ' 3 . 

Three different abodes 
for the spirits of men cor- 
responding to three di- 
visions (43,44): 

(1) the righteous (near 
the Throne of Glory) ; 

(2) the intermediate 
(Sheol); 

(3) the wicked (Ge- 
henna). 

47 1 . "the souls of the 
angels and the spirits of the 
servants, etc." 

The fragrance of the 
Garden of Eden and the 
Tree of Life, 23 18 . 

Bring the fragrance to 
"the righteous and godly 
who . . . shall inherit the 
Eden and the Tree of Life". 

2 4 21 , 26^, 28 7 , 3 1 1 , 33 1 . 

48 c 8 . "My HeUal 
(Temple, Palace, Hall)." 

46 2 3 . "he pointed out 
all (the stars) to me. . . 
told me the names of every 
single one. . .they enter in 
counted order under. . . 
RAH A TI'EL." 



1 ' Spirits of souls ': 

2 Acc. to emendation byPratorius Beer Charles. Ethiopic: 
of judgement. 



trees 



INTRODUCTION 



I Enoch 

39 2 . "And in those days Enoch received 
books of zeal and wrath." 

6 > 7 . "I saw the Elect One. . .and I saw 
his dwelling-place under the wings of the 
Lord of Spirits." 

io-i3_ TI^ Qefiugfa. Notice the forms of 
the 'Blessed'. 

10 . "Blessed is He, and may He be 
blessed from the beginning and for ever- 
more." * 

13 . "Blessed be Thou, and blessed be 
the name of the Lord for ever and ever." 2 

6 1 11 . " Blessed is He, and may the name of 
the Lord of Spirits be blessed for ever and 
ever." 3 

40*. "thousands of thousands and ten 
thousand times ten thousand . . . who stood 
before the Lord. . ." (Dan.). 

2 . ' ' four presences 4 different from those that 
sleep not." 

3 . "And I heard the voices of those four 
presences as they uttered praises before the 
Lord of glory." 

7 . "fending off the Satans and forbidding 
them to come before the Lord of Spirits to 
accuse them who dwell on the earth." 

4 1 1 . "I saw all the secrets of the heavens, 
and how the actions of men are weighed in 
the balance." 

3 . "the secrets of lightning and of the 
thunder, and the secrets of the winds." 

4 . Chambers containing the elemental 
forces. 

43 1 . "And I saw. . .the stars of heaven 
and I saw how He called them all by their 
names and they hearkened unto Him." 

2 . "their revolution ace. to the number of 
the angels." 

4i 5 ~ 7 , 43 1>2 . The conscious existence of 
the sun, moon and stars (vide Charles's note 
on 4i 5 ). 



3 Enoch 

Cf. below on 2 En. B, 
VII (a), VIII. 

Enoch-Metatron placed 
near the Throne "under 
the wings of Shekina", 
Introd. 

The forms of the Q e - 
dussa ; vide Introduction, 
pp. 184 f. The ' Blessed ' has 
two forms, but each form is 
chanted singly. 



22 B 2 , c 4 . 7 , 35 6 , 36 1 , 40 2 . 



The four princes " of the 
army" set over the four 
camps of angels " who utter 
praises before the Holy 
One", i8 4 > 5 , 35 3 , 40 2 . 

The Seraphim take the 
documents of accusation 
written by Satan and de- 
stroy them by fire, 26 12 . 

i8 20 . SOQED HOZI weighs 
all the merits of man in 
a balance. 

Chh. 23, 42. 

37 2 , 22 B 3 4 . 
4 6 2 . 



i 7 4 



r-l 



3 esp. 3 



'they (the 

stars) go out ... to praise 
the Holy One." Cf. note 
ib. 



3 

4 >i':nft-|:s? = D^D films (four faces: Ezek. i 4 -". 10 ). Originally no doubt 
derived from the "four faces of the four Hayyop" in Ezekiel. 



RELATION TO I EN. 



47 



i Enoch 

4"5 3 5S 4 > 6z 3 ' 5 - "The Elect One will sit 
on the throne of his glory" (note by Charles 

on 45 3 ). 

46 1 . "His head was white like wool" 

(Dan.). 

3 . "who hath righteousness, with whom 
dwelleth righteousness." 

"who revealeth all the treasures of 
that which is hidden." 

"the Lord of Spirits hath chosen 

him." 

4 ' 5 "this Son of Man. . .shall raise up the 
kings and the mighty from their seats . . . 
and shall loosen the reins of the strong. . . 
shall put down kings from their thrones and 
kingdoms." 

6 . "and he shall put down the countenance 
of the strong." 

47 2 . " the Holy ones . . . shall unite with one 
voice . . . and give thanks and bless the name 
of the Lord of Spirits." 



3 Enoch 

Many of the features of 
the Elect One and the Son 
of Man in i En. are trans- 
ferred to Metatron in 3 En. 
The differences are, how- 
ever, greater than the re- 
semblances. 

Throne of Metatron, 

C 5 ' 6 . 

i En. 46 1 ;3#. 28'. 

i En. 46 3 ; 3 En. 22 1 , 
4 8c. 

Enoch - Metatron " an 
Elect One ",6 3 . 

3 En. 48 c 9 : " to abase by 
his (Metatron's) word the 
proud to the ground. . . 
to put kings away from 
their kingdoms, etc." Cf. 



I0 1 , 



The Q'dussa chanted by 
the Mcerkaba-angels and 
the Great Princes, vide In- 
troduction, 18, JB(z). 

28 s , 30 1 ' 2 . "standing 
before Him, etc."; 72, 
counsellors. 

The pre-existence of Me- 
tatron perhaps alluded to 
in 48 c 1 . 

Cf. 3 i 2 . 



3 . "and His counsellors stood before 
Him." 

48 2 - 6 , 46 1 - 2 , 48 3 . 6 , 49 2 (note by Charles 
on 48). The pre-existence of the Son of 
Man. 

4 . " a staff to the righteous whereon to stay 
themselves and not fall." 

49 2 . "The Elect One is mighty in all the 
secrets of righteousness, etc." 

3 . "in him dwells the spirit of wisdom." 

4 . "he shall judge the secret things . . . . " 
5i 3 . "the Elect One shall in those days sit 

on My throne, and his mouth shall pour forth 

all the secrets of wisdom For the Lord of 

Spirits hath given them to him and hath 
glorified him." J 

i It is important that in 3 Enoch Metatron, although obviously otherwise pictured 
in the manner of the Elect One, the Chosen One of i En., is altogether lacking 
Messianic character, as well as never identified with the " one that looked like a man " 
of Dan. 7 13 . This is most certainly not accidental, but intentional. It is the result 
of a strong negation of central ideas of the sects to which the circle behind 3 Enoch 
felt itself in opposition : those sects may have been Christian or Gnostic or something 
else ; the fact remains that 3 Enoch rejects the idea of an enthroned Messiah as God's 
vice-regent and appointed ruler. Cf. below on the origin of the conception of 
Metatron, p. 146. 



48 c 7 . " Knower of Se- 
crets." Cf. 8, io 5 . 6 , ii. 

8, io 5 > 6 . 

n,48c 8 > 9 . 

Metatron is never re- 
presented as seated on the 
Divine Throne. 

48 c 7 , iz 1 . 2 . 



INTRODUCTION 



9o 21 - 24 , 



I Enoch 

53 3 . "the angels of punishment", 1 56 1 , 

62 11 , 63 1 . 

5 4 5 , 5 5 4 , 

Punishment of the angels (vide Charles's 
Index II, 'Angels', page 316). 

54 8 . "and all the waters shall be joined 
with the waters: that which is above the 
heavens is the masculine, and the water which 
is beneath the earth is the feminine." 

57 2 . "the pillars of the earth were moved 
from their place, and the sound thereof was 
heard from one end of heaven to the other, 
in one day." 

58 6 . "and there shall be a light that never 
endeth." 

6O 1 . "a mighty quaking made the heaven 
of heavens to quake, and the host of the Most 
High, and the angels, a thousand thousands 
and ten thousand times ten thousand, were 
disquieted with a great disquiet." 

3 ' 4 : 

Earthly and heavenly physics. 
The "spirits" of the elemental 



11-12 ^ 

15-21 ^ 

forces. 
6i 5 . 
earth." 



"the secrets of the depths of the 



8 . "the Lord of Spirits placed the Elect 
One on the throne of glory. And he shall 
judge all the works of the holy above in the 
heaven" 

9 . "then shall they all with one voice 
speak and bless and glorify and sanctify 
(Q e dussa) the name of the Lord of Spirits"; 
11 " and shall all say ' Blessed is He, etc.' " 

10 12 . Enumeration of orders of angels: 
"all the holy ones above, and the host of 
God, the Cherubin, Seraphin and Ophannin, 2 
and all the angels of power ,3 and all the angels 
of principalities, and the Elect One, and the 
other powers on the earth and over the 
water. . .all who sleep not above in heaven 
(i.e. 'iRiN^.-ali the Holy Ones (i.e. QAD- 
DISIN) ". 



3 Enoch 

"angels of destruction," 

3 1 2 , 33 1 , 44 2 - 
Punishment of the 

angels, 4o 3 , 47. 

The Upper Waters and 
the Lower Waters as polar 
opposites, 42 2 (vide note). 



5 4 and note. 



19 



34 37> 22 B c, 42. 

Angels of elemental 
forces, i4 3 . 

ii 1 ' 2 ' 3 . "nothing on 
high nor in the depths of 
the earth " ; " the secrets of 
the depth." 

48 c 8 . "I set up his 
(Metatron's) throne . . . that 
he may judge the heavenly 
household." 

22 B 8 , 38 2 . Cf. Intro- 
duction, 18, B (i), (2) and 
E. See above, parallels to 
i En. 39 10 - 13 . 

In 3 En. similar enu- 
merations, including the 
M*#rA$a-angels,are found 
e.g. in chh. 19", 6 2 , 7, 39 2 , 
48 c 4 . The similarity in 
this case is striking. (Cf. 
Introd. Angelology, E (a), 
(2)0 



3 Angels of power: 



2 Ophannin: 
, cf. D^TI 7 1 , 19, 36 



RELATION TO I EN. 



49 



i Enoch 

62 16 . "(the righteous and elect) shall have 
been clothed with garments of glory, and 
these shall be the garments of life from the 
Lord of Spirits." 

69 11 . No evil could get power over men 
until they had learnt the secrets and sorceries 
from the Fallen Angels and through the 
practice of these had been led astray, into 
idolatry, etc. 

6i 13 . Kasbiel (*in-llh.A). 

13 . The "oath" 1 and the "hidden 
(Divine) name ", 2 through which "the heaven 
was suspended, and the earth was founded 
upon the water ", through which the sea was 
created and the depths made fast and through 
which the sun, moon and stars complete 
their course. 

70. "The final translation of Enoch." 
"His (Enoch's) name during his lifetime was 
raised aloft to that Son of Man and to the 
Lord of Spirits from among those who dwell 
on the earth. And he was raised aloft on the 
chariots of the spirit." 



71. A Picture of the Mcerkafoa (cf. ch. 14). 
2 . "streams of fire" (MSWkW). 
6 . "on the four sides of the house (Hekal) 
were streams full of living fire." 



3 . "Mikael led me forth into all the se- 
crets " 

4 . " and he showed me all the secrets of the 
ends of the heaven and all the chambers of 
all the stars, etc." 

5 . "he translated my spirit into the heaven 
of heavens, and I saw there as it were a struc- 
ture built of crystals "3 

6 . "and my spirit saw the girdle which 
girt that house of fire " 

7 . "and round about were SERAPHIN, 
CHERUBIN and OPHANNIN; and these are they 
who sleep not (' IRIN) and guard the Throne 
of His Glory." 



3 Enoch 

i8 22 . 



c-4 6-9 

5 > 



Kaspi'el, Kafsi'el, i 3 . 

I3 1 , 4I 1 - 3 . The letters 
(of the Divine Names) 
through which heaven and 
earth, seas and rivers, etc. 
were created. 



4 s . "The Holy One 
raised me (Enoch) aloft in 
their lifetime", 48 c 2 ; "I 
took him (Enoch) from 
among them", 6 1 ; "he 
took me from their midst 
in their sight and raised me 
aloft upon a fiery chariot 
. . .together with the She- 
kina". 

i9 4 . "under them four 
fiery rivers are continually 
running, one fiery river on 
each side." 

n, 46. 

The expression "heaven 
of heavens" corresponds 
to the innermost part of 
the seventh heaven in 3 En. 
The 'house' containing the 
Throne of Glory corre- 
sponds to the Seventh 
Hebal (Hall, Palace) of 
3 En. 

TheMcerkafia-angels and 
the 'IRIN: Introd. Angelo- 



ch. 7. 



3 

OHBI 



50 INTRODUCTION 

i Enoch 3 Enoch 

8 . ."and I saw angels who could not be "the innumerable corn- 
counted, a thousand thousands and 10,000 panics of the hosts round 
times 10,000 encircling that house, about him", 15 -B 2 ; "thou- 

9 . "and MIKAEL, RAPHAEL, GABRIEL, and sand thousands, etc.", 22 
PHANUEL, and the holy angels (Qaddisiri) B 2, 3, C/j., 7, 35 6 , 36 1 . 
who are above the heavens go in and out of Cf . above at i En. 4O 2 . 
that house." 

7i 10 . 28 7 . 

72 1 . URIEL as the guide of the luminaries Cf. RAH A TI'EL, i4 4 , ly 6 , 

(also in 74 2 , 75 3 , 79", 82'). 46 3 ; KOKBI'EL, GALGAL- 

75, 82 10 ~ 20 . "the leaders of the heads of LI 'EL, etc. 17. 

the thousands who are placed over the whole the "rulers over the 

creation and over all the stars " (these leaders world ", ch. 14. The leaders 

are ' luminaries ', not angels, ace. to Charles, and angels of the heavenly 

note ad loc.}. bodies, i7 4 ~ 7 . 

80 6 . "and many chiefs of the stars shall 38 2 . 
transgress the order (prescribed), and these 
shall alter their orbits and tasks, etc." 

Si 1 ' 2 . The heavenly tablets* and the book 3O 2 , 27 1 ' 2 , 44 9 (books of 

of all the deeds of mankind.' 2 ' (Vide Charles's records). In ch. 45 the 

note on 47 3 : "the heavenly tables record all Porgod corresponds to the 

the deeds of men to the remotest genera- 'heavenly tablets' of i 

tions".) Enoch. 

87 2 , 20. The reconciliation of the two Ch. ij l > 3 and notes. In 

ideas of seven archangels and four presences, the various enumerations 

the seven archangels being represented as of the seven archangels the 

consisting of the four Presences and three names of the four Pre- 

companion angels: "there came forth from sences are almost invari- 

heaven beings who were like white men ; and ably included. 
four went forth from that place and three 
with them " . In the enumeration of the seven 
archangels in ch. 20 the names of the four 
Presences are included. 

89 59 seqq. The Seventy Shepherds, the The Seventy Princes of 

angelic rulers and representatives of the Kingdoms, the represen- 

' nations ' (vide Charles's note ad loc. pp. 199- tatives in heaven of the 

201) here regarded as the oppressors of nations on earth, io 3 , 14 1 ' 2 , 

Israel. I6 1 ' 2 , if (note), i8 2 > 3 , 3O a 

(note), 48 c 9 , D 5 . 

93 2 . "According to that which appeared Three sources of know- 
to me in the heavenly vision (i) and which ledge of celestial things 
I have known through the word of the holy and secrets : 
angels (2) and have learnt from the heavenly (i) visions, i 1 , i6 2 , etc. 
tablets (3)." (the main part of the book) ; 

(2) words of an angel, 
4 seqq.; 

(3) Par god and the 
books, 45 1 , 44 9 . 



RELATION TO I EN. 51 

i Enoch 3 Enoch 

oi 12 . " and a sword shall be given to it that The Sword of execution 

a righteous judgement may be executed on of punishment, 32 1 ' 2 . 
the oppressors." 

98'. "every sin is every day recorded in ay 1 ' 2 , 3o 2 , 44. 
heaven in the presence of the Most High." 

IDA 1 . " in heaven the angels remember you 3o 2 , 3i 2 , 33 1 (angels of 
for good before the glory of the Great Mercy); 15 B 2 (angelic ad- 
One." vocates). 
(Cf. Charles's note on ch. i5 2 .) 

The above parallels quite sufficiently show (i) the close dependence 
of the ideas of the later Enoch Literature, represented by 3 Enoch, 
upon those of the earlier, esp. of i Enoch* but also (2) the considerable 
development of those earlier ideas, which has taken place in the time 
between i and 3 Enoch. Both dependence and development are per- 
haps nowhere so clearly discernible as in the case of the conceptions 
of Enocjj . I n i Enoch he is the saint-man of old who was worthy of X" 
receiving disclosures on future things and on celestial wonders, and 
this mostly in visions. He is the authority behind the Books of Secrets 
carrying his name: here is the central interest of the earlier Enoch 
Literature. There are, however, indications of an initial focussing 
of the interest on the final translation of Enoch, his elevation into a 
high celestial being, viz. in ch. 70 (Enoch "raised aloft on the chariots 
of the spirit to the Son of Man and to the Lord of Spirits from amongst 
those who dwell on the earth"). And, possibly, the following chapter 
71 , treating of Enoch's translation ' in spirit ' into the heaven of heavens 
near the ' house ' containing the Throne of Glory, was interpreted as 
referring to a definite elevation of Enoch. This is supported by the 
fact that the Enoch-Metatron pieces of our book show particular 
dependence upon these chapters in manner of expression and general 
terms of describing the elevation of Enoch. Vide above. The trans- 
formation of Enoch into a high celestial being is clearly enunciated 
in 2 Enoch. 

i Cf. George Foot Moore (in Judaism, etc. ii. 281) : " At a much later time Enoch 
and what he saw in the heavens appear in Hebrew writings whose resemblance to 
features of our Book of Enoch suggests subterranean channels of communication, 
if not literary acquaintance". It would be interesting to know what those possible 
'subterranean channels' exactly were. It is evident that i Enoch must have lain 
before the 3 Enoch circle much in the same form with regard to composition as 
it is preserved to us, i.e. there is no trace of separate existence of the different parts 
of i Enoch at the time of 3 Enoch. 



4-2 



52 INTRODUCTION 

73. PARALLELS BETWEEN AND COGNATE 
CONCEPTIONS IN 2 ENOCH AND 3 ENOCH 

(References to 2 En. ace. to Charles, Apocrypha 
and Pseudepigrapha, II.) 

A. ANGELOLOGY. 

2 Enoch 3 Enoch 

I. Angels near the Divine Throne and in 
the highest heaven. 

(a) Individual, named, high angel-princes : 3 En. contains 57 names 
MIKAEL and GABRIEL to the right and left of high angel -princes. See 

of the Throne respectively: z^AB; MIKAEL the Index, 'Angels', 

called 'archangel, general, archistratege ' MIKAEL, 'archangel', 

22 6 , 'great captain' 33 10 . 'great prince', ly 1 ' 3 ; Ga- 
briel, ib. and 14*. 

ENOCH, 'one of His Glorious Ones' to ENOCH-METATRON, the 

the left of the Throne, Scribe, 24 1 BA. highest angel, 3-15, 48. 

VRETIL, archangel, Keeper of the Books, RADUERI EL, ch. 2.7, cf. 

Registrar, Knower of Secrets, 22 11 -23. note and Introd., Angelol. 

SHEMUEL and RAZIEL (B) or RAGUEL (A), PRINCE OF WISDOM and 

33 6 , the guides and instructors of Enoch, PRINCE OF UNDERSTANDING, 

virtually "Princes of Understanding and instruct, of Enoch-Meta- 

Wisdom". tron, io 5 . 

(ORIOCH and MARIOCH, guardians of the Not in 3 En. 
Enoch writings, 33 U jB. 

SATAN-SATANAIL, l8 3 , 2Q 4 > 5 , 3 1 4 " 6 .) SATAN, CSp. 26 12 (23 16 ). 

(b) Classes of angels functioning by the Cf. esp.theangelological 
Throne : system of A i (Introd.). 

(1) The highest order of archangels, 20, Cf. ch. 17: archangels 
also called GLORIOUS ONES, 21 B, 22 7 > W A, and include MIKAEL and GA- 
SERVANTS, 22 BA. To this class the individual BRIEL, etc. In A i and A 2 
angel-princes are reckoned: 21 BA, 22 10 > u , more developed than in 
29 4 > 5 . 2 En. 

(2) The highest order of Mcerkaba- A i : six classes of Meer- 
angels, viz. KERUBIM, SERAPHIM, SIX-WINGED kaba-angels : GALGALLIM, 
ONES (i.e. HAYYOJ?), explicitly defined as HAYYOJ?, K E RUBIM, 'OFAN- 
ministers of the Throne zo 1 A, zi^BA; NIM and S E RAFIM. Cf. 
OFANNIM (miswritten 'Ostamm') 2O 1 J B. Index. 

(3) Ace. to A : " INCORPOREAL POWERS", Perhaps to be compared 

LORDSHIPS, PRINCIPALITIES, POWERS, THRONES, with the *ER ELLIM, TAF- 
THE WATCHFULNESS OF MANY EYES: 2O 1 . SARIM, I4 1 ; HOLY PRINCES, 

3 92 , etc. 

The last-named may be an allusion to The IRIN and QADDISIN 
the 'IRIN (Watchers), ace. to 18 BA origin- above the Mcerkafia-angels 
ally belonging to the highest heaven. Cf. in the highest heaven, 28. 
below II (b). 

Notice especially the THRONES. Metatron possibly the 

highest THRONE (Introd.). 



RELATION TO 2 EN. 



53 



2 Enoch 3 

II. The remaining angelic orders, in chh. 
3-19, represented as distributed among the 
six lower heavens. 
(a) Angels of the sixth heaven. 

(i) The lower order of archangels who 
are 'Rulers of the World', appointed over the 
stars and the government of the earth, and 
"Rulers over the lower orders of angels", 
having control especially over the chanting 
of the Celestial Songs by the angels, ig 1 " 3 BA. 



(2) The angels of elemental forces, the 
angels ruling over seasons and years, etc., 
19* BA. 

(3) SCRIBES, angels registering the deeds 
of all men, ig 5 BA. 

(4) The lower orders of Meerk&ba- 
angels, seven of each class : seven PHOENIXES, 
seven KERUBIM, seven SIX-WINGED ONES 
(HAYYO}>). Chief function: celestial chant, 
iQ 6 BA, cf. 29 3 B (all the troops of. . .). 

(b) Angels of the fifth heaven : 

The 'IRIN (Egoroi, B; Grigori, A), 
originally belonging to the seventh heaven, 
but after the fall of their brethren they have 
descended into the fifth heaven, or because 
of their silent and mournful attitude they are 
not accounted worthy of having their abode 
in the highest heaven. Their proper functions 
are: Service at the Divine Throne and 
chanting of the Celestial Songs, iS 1 " 9 ^, 
iS 1 ^. 

(c) Angels of the fourth heaven : 

(1) Angels attending the sun and the 
moon, numbered: 15,000 myriads, 1000, 400, 
100, etc. Chh. n 4 > 12 , la 1 , 142. 3 , 15, i6 7 . 

(2) Angels specially appointed for the 
chanting of the Celestial Songs, 'song- 
uttering angels', 17 BA. 

(d) Angels of the third heaven : 

(1) The angelic guardians of Paradise, 
ch. 8 8 BA, cf. 30! A, 42* B. 

(2) The angelic guardians of the place 
of torment: the angels of punishment, ch. 
io 3 BA. 

Cf. guardians of hell, 42 1 BA. 



Enoch 

A 2 and A 3 both speak of 
hosts of angels distributed 
among the diff. heavens, 
but the functions of these 
are not defined with the 
exception of those of the 
second heaven. Most of 
the following are located 
in the seventh heaven. 

RULERS OF THE WORLD, 

i4 4 ; PRINCES of the SONG- 
UTTERING ANGELS, i8 4 6 ,35 3 . 

ELEMENTAL ANGELS, I4 3 , 

included among the RULERS 

OF THE WORLD. 

33 2 - 

In 3 Enoch no lower 
order of Mterkaba-angels. 



The 'IRIN have their 
place in the seventh heaven. 
Functions, see A i concern- 
ing the Fallen Watchers, 
cf. chh. 4 6 , 5 9 and notes, ib., 
also Introd., section 13 E 
(a) 3, 4: l Azza, 'Uzza and 
Azzael both for fallen and 
not fallen angels. 



Angels attending the sun 
and moon in the second hea- 
ven, A 2, ch. i7 4 > 5 , 96 and 
88 (angels). 

Angels specially ap- 
pointed for the Q e dussa, 
chh. 35, 40; cf. Intro- 
duction, 1 8 D. 

Not in 3 ., cf. ch. i8 ffl , 
'AZBUGA. 

Angels of destruction, 
3 1 2 , 33 1 , 44 2 ; appointed 
over the punishment of the 
wicked in hell. 



54 



INTRODUCTION 



2 Enoch 

(e) Angels of the second heaven : 

The fallen *IRIN, kept as prisoners and 

awaiting the final judgement. SATANAIL- 

SATAN, ace. to A, their chief, 7 BA, 7 3 A, 

i8A,3i*~ 6 A. 

Notice. Ch. 18 A, the fallen 'IRIN or, 

more probably, their leaders, are given as 

three in number. 

(/) Angels of the first heaven: 

(1) The "elder, the ruler of the stellar 
orders" (A plural: elders, rulers), the 
Prince(s) appointed over the stars and planets, 
with 200 assistant angels, 4 BA. 

(2) The angelic guardians of the trea- 
suries of elemental forces, chh. 5, 6 BA, 
40 BA. 

Outside the above hierarchical system 
there are references to various classes of 
angels, to individual angels or angels in 
general without indication as to their place 
in the hierarchy. 

A. General terms: ARMED HOSTS, 23^; 

HEAVENLY TROOPS, 2Q BA, 39 A ; INCORPO- 
REAL TROOPS, 29 ; SPIRITUAL HOSTS, 2Q A ; 
FIERY ANGELS, 30 A, etc. 

B. Definite classes of angels with definite 
functions: the GUIDES OF ENOCH, i, 3 seqq., 

21 > 33 > 67; SONG-UTTERING ANGELS, 31^4, 
42 B; THE GUARDIANS OF THE GATES OF HELL, 

42 BA; THE GIANTS, 18 A, etc., etc. 



3 Enoch 

The 'IRIN are not said to 
be fallen (28), 

But 'UZZA, 'AZZA and 
'AZZI'EL of 5 9 , the three 
evil agencies, are clearly 
allusions to the Fallen 
Watchers. 

RAH A TI'EL and KOKBI'EL 
with 72 and 365,000 
myriads of assistant angels, 



Cf. I 4 3 . 



Also in 3 En. general 
terms: SERVANTS, TROOPS, 
ARMIES, etc. See Introd. 
Angelol. E (a) i. 



Definite classes of angels 
outside the hierarchical 
systems: SIN' A NIM, HAS- 

MALLIM, TROOPS of ANGER, 
ARMIES of VEHEMENCE, 

'ELIM, ACCUSERS, etc. See 
Index, 'Angels'. 



B. THE CONCEPTIONS OF ENOCH. 



2 Enoch 

I. Enoch is taken up from earth to the 
heavens by two angels sent by the Holy 
One. 

(a) Ace. to the former half of 2 En. this 
ascension of Enoch seems to be merely 
temporary: he is to return to earth again, 

I 3 , 2 4 . 1 

(b) Ace. to the latter half of the book 
Enoch's ascension implies a final departure 



3 Enoch 

6 1 . Enoch fetched from 
on earth by * ANAFI 'EL sent 
by the Holy One. Enoch's 
elevation is final , and when 
he descends into terrestrial 
regions he does so as a 
Celestial Being, i 4 . 



i It should be noted, however, that Enoch's ascension takes place at the end of his 
life ("when 365 years were fulfilled to me"), i 1 . 



RELATION TO 2 EN. 



55 



2 Enoch 

from earthly life. His return is for a short 
time only and then he has no longer ter- 
restrial nature; chh. 21 onwards, esp. 33 5 " 11 
BA, 3 6 2 BA, 3B 1 A, ss^zBA, 56* B A, 
6fBA. 

II. Enoch is conducted through the six 
lower heavens by the two angels. During 
his journey through these lower heavens 
Enoch is still only a 'mortal man' (y 5 BA). 
This is ace. to the former half of the book, 
chh. 1-2 1. 

III. When arrived in the outer regions of 
the seventh heaven Enoch is brought by 
GABRIEL before the Presence of the Holy One, 
2i 3 > 5 BA. There he is given in charge to 
MIKAEL, the chief of the archangels, 22 6 seqq. 
BA. 

IV. Enoch is transformed into a CELESTIAL 
BEING, in rank on a level with the ARCHANGELS 
and is made into an angel of the Presence : 

(a) his earthly ' robe ' (= nature) is 
changed into 'garments of God's Glory 
(Kafiocty and he is anointed with the Lord's 
"holy oil", 22 s ' g BA-, 

(b) thereby he is made like "one of His 
Glorious Ones (= the highest order of arch- 
angels) ", 22 10 BA ; 

(c) he is to stand before the Lord's face 
for ever, i.e. as an angel of the Presence, 
2i 3 BA,22*> 6 BA. 

The elevation of Enoch is a ' trial ' of the 
highest angels ; these, however, acquiesce in 
the will of the Lord, 22 6 7 BA. 

V. As high archangel and prince of the 
Presence Enoch is in rank equal with 
GABRIEL and next under MIKAEL; he has his 
place at the left side of the Throne, 24* 
BA. 

VI. Enoch is initiated in the Secrets: 

(a) first by the archangel VRETIL, and 

(b) after that, in the secrets not known 
even to the angels, by God Himself, 22 11 - 
23 BA, 24 2 > 3 BA. The latter secrets are in 
the first instance the Ma' a se B e resib, 24 seqq. 

T\ /IX-tvl J. ' I J. J. 

BA, 64 5 A. 

Thus Enoch is specifically a ' Knower of 
Secrets' (Yode a< Razim). 



3 Enoch 



Enoch's ascension thro, 
the six lower heavens is not 
dwelt upon in 3 En. 4 3 , 6 1 , 7. 



Enoch is brought into 
the highest heaven and in 
the Presence of the Throne 
by 'ANAFI'EL and by God 
Himself, 6 1 , 7. 

Enoch transformed into 
a Celestial Being: his flesh 
is changed into fire, he is 
clad in garments of Glory, 
etc. 



He is made into a ruler 
over the highest angels 
(Introd.). 

Enoch as Metatron, the 
Prince of the Presence 
(io 3 > 4 , 48 c). 

The highest angels pro- 
test against Enoch's ele- 
vation, ch. 6 2 3 . 

Enoch in rank above all 
angels, 48 C 8 9 (cf. Introd. 
Met.). 



Enoch initiated first by 
the Princes of Wisdom and 
Understanding (io 5 ), then 
by the Holy One Himself, 
n, 48 c 4 , esp. Secrets of 
Creation, ch. n. 

Enoch 'Knower of Se- 
crets ', 48 c 8 . 



56 INTRODUCTION 

2 Enoch 

VII. With Enoch's initiation in the 
Secrets his function as Scribe is closely con- 
nected. This function is much emphasized in 
the latter half of the book. 

(a) Enoch writes down the secrets re- 
vealed to him in Books of his own, and the 
contents he reveals to men. (The books, 
2^BA, ifBA, 3?>*-*BA, 35 2 , 36*, 
40*. 431, 472, 64*.) 

Obeying a Divine command, Enoch re- 
veals the books to his sons and to the men of 
his generation, in order that they may hand 
them over to the next generation and so on, 

33 5 -u ,4,352,366, 40-54^4. 

(b) As Scribe he knows and records all 
deeds of men, and Divine Judgements, de- 
cisions and decrees, 4o 13 ^, 5O 1 BA, 53 2 > 3 
BA, 6 4 5 A. 

Notice esp. 50 A ("no one born on the 
earth can hide himself, nor can his deeds be 
concealed: /, i.e. Enoch, see all"}. 

VIII. The works written down by Enoch 
in heaven and subsequently revealed to men 
are, ace. to the latter half of 2 En., identical 
with the Enoch Literature, of which the 
current Books of Enoch, hence also 2 En., 
formed part. This Enoch Literature was 
considered to be very rich: the 'Books of 
Enoch' are not less than 360 (ace. to B) or 
366 (ace. to A) in number, 23, 68 2 A. 

(The latter half of 2 En. is probably in- 
tended to be interpreted as a conclusion of 
an imaginary collection of Enoch books.) 

It is particularly incumbent upon each 
generation or each group of men to whom 
the books of Enoch have been handed down, 
that they in turn communicate them ; this is 
to continue till "the end of time" : 33' 9 BA, 
4f A, tf A, u BA. 

The exclusive importance of the Enoch 
books is expressed in 47 2 A as follows : 

"There have been many books from the 
beginning of Creation and shall be to the end 
of the world, but none shall make things known 
to you like my writings." 



3 Enoch 

Enoch Scribe-Witness- 
Testifier. This is not much 
emphasized, 4 5 , 48 c 2 . 

The 'Books' of Enoch 
not mentioned in 3 Enoch. 



The only parallel to this 
is the add. ch. 48 D 10 ; the 
chain of tradition. 



3 En. ch. ii 1 , 2 : "all 
living beings' thoughts of 
heart were revealed to me ". 
"Before a man did think 
in secret, I saw it." 



There is no direct parallel 
to this in 3 Enoch. Cognate 
ideas are : Enoch-Metatron 
possesses all the secrets of 
the universe and reveals 
some of them to men 
worthy to receive them, as 
e.g. Moses (480) and R. 
Isma'el (3 seqq.); further, 
it is implied by 48 D 10 that 
it is the duty of the "men 
of faith", who have re- 
ceived the secrets from 
earlier generations, in their 
turn to communicate them 
to those worthy of them. 



RELATION TO 2 EN. 



57 



C. THE CELESTIAL SONGS. 



2 Enoch 

I. The character of the songs. 

There are various kinds of songs, 
"various singing", 17 A. 

Terms denoting different kinds of 

'songs': THE SONG OF TRIUMPH, 3 1 2 A', 
TRIUMPHANT SONGS, 42* B. 

Verbally cited are : 

(1) "THE GIVER OF LIGHT COMES TO GIVE 

HIS BRIGHTNESS TO THE WHOLE WORLD": 

iS 2 ^- 1 

(2) "HOLY, HOLY, HOLY, LORD GOD OF 
SABAOTH. THE HEAVEN AND EARTH ARE FULL 
OF THY GLORY", i.e. the Q e dussa, zi 1 A. 

There is no reference to an interdependence 
or interrelation between the Celestial Chant 
and the Service performed by the congre- 
gation on earth. 

II . The performers of the Celestial Songs . 

(1) Angels specially appointed for the 
sole purpose of chanting the songs, "song- 
uttering angels ", are perhaps referred to in 
17 BA: "armed troops serving the Lord on 
cymbals and organs with incessant voice". 
Cf. also 2? A. , 

(2) The glorification of the Holy One is 
a duty incumbent upon the angels in general : 

(a) The angels of the seventh heaven, 
20* A ; the highest order of Marka$a-a.nge\s 
utter the Q e dussa before the Throne, 2I 1 . 

(b) The lower order of McsrkaM-angels 
sing and voice to each other as one, iQ 6 BA. 

(c) The 'IRIN (Grigori) sing with one 
voice, i8 9 ^4. 

(d) The angels appointed over the sun 
"sing a song at the command of the Lord", 

i 1 ' 2 ^- 

(e) The angelic guardians of Paradise, 



III. The time appointed for the chanting 
of the Celestial Songs. 

(i) The performance of Celestial Songs 
is represented as continual and uninter- 
rupted : " with incessant voice ", 8 8 BA, 17 BA ; 
"never cease rejoicing", 42* B. 



3 Enoch 

Cf. here the Introduction, 
18. 

Terms, see ib. A. 

The songs consist of 
Scripture verses exclu- 
sively. Cf. however 46*. 



The Q e dus$a important 
in 3 Enoch. Cf. below, the 
performance of the Celes- 
tial Songs, etc. 

3 Enoch dwells on the 
Celestial hymns only. 
Hence = 2 En. 

See Introd. ib. B. 
See Introd. ib. B (i), 
"song-uttering angels". 



See Introd. ib. B (2). 
See Introd. ib. B (2). 



3 Enoch, ch. 46*. 



Introd. ib. C. 

Contrast in 3 En. a fixed 
time every day for the 
Q'dussa, i8 7 , i 9 6 , 23 3 , 35*, 
36 1 , 38 1 , 39 1 - 



i Cf. the "ha-mrrieir laarces" in the Jewish Liturgy. 



$8 



INTRODUCTION 



2 Enoch 

(2) A definite time in the day perhaps 
implied by 2O 3 > 4 B. 

IV. Manner and arrangement : 
"with one voice", i8 8 , ig 6 ; 

"with the accompaniment of cymbals 
and organs, etc.", 17; 

introduced by the sounding of four 
trumpets, i8 9 A. 

The performers of the Celestial Songs are 
arranged in four orders, i8 9 A. 

V. The import of the Chanting of the 
Celestial Songs 

Is an acknowledgment of God's sove- 
reignty, a realization of and conforming to 
the Kingdom of Heaven. This is implied by 
I5 1 A, 21, 8 8 , 42* and also 3T 2 and symbolized 
by the expression "with one voice", i8 8 , IQ 6 . 
Apparent in ch. 18 1 . 



3 Enoch 



Introd. ib. D and B (i). 

Cf. note on 3 En. 4o 3 , 
end. 



The camps of song- 
uttering angels arranged in 
four surop, 358, etc. 

Introd. ib. E. 



Introd. ib. E. 
= in 3 En. 



D. THE DIVINE JUDGEMENT. 



3 Enoch 

See Introd. : " The Divine 

to, of which one is preliminary, the other Judgement", 
final. 



2 Enoch 

I. Two different Judgements are referred 



(a) Preliminary Judgement : 

(i) of the rebelling angels (Watchers), 



(2) of man, by which he is assigned to 
Paradise or to the place of punishment, ace. 
to his deeds, 40 B A, 13 A, 41-42* ^4, 42"' 4 
B, 9 BA, 10 BA. 

The preliminary judgement of man is a 
daily judgement (decisions as to man's fate 
given after his death), 4o 13 A. 



(b) Final Judgement, concerned with 

(1) the whole world, 10 B, i8 7 A, 
656. 7 BA-, 

(2) the individual, 4O 12 A, $8*> 5 A, 6 B, 
6 6 A 7 -B; 

(3) with the fallen Watchers, 7 1 A, 



II. The Court Proceedings are not de- 
scribed in detail, but only alluded to, ^.z^A, 



Only one judgement is 
referred to, viz. the daily 
judgement. This is con- 
cerned 

(1) with the whole 
world ; 

(2) with the nations 
of the earth ; 

(3) with the indi- 
vidual ; 

(4) with the angelic 
world. 



The Court Proceedings 
are described. See Introd 
ib. 



RELATION TO 2 EN. 



59 



2 Enoch 

III. It is implied that the judgement is 
based partly upon records of man's deeds : 
the Divine decisions and decrees are also 
recorded. 



Angelic Scribes and Recorders are : 

(1) VRETIL, recording "all the doings of 
the Lord", zz u BA. 

(2) ENOCH, 4o 2 , 12 A, 64? A, so 



(3) Angels "over all souls of men, who 
write down all their works and their lives 
before the face of the Lord", ig s BA. 

IV. As ' accusers ' of men are mentioned 
only the "souls of the beasts", $8 6 BA. 

V. In Judgement men are divided into 
two main classes, viz. : 

(i) The RIGHTEOUS or JUST who are kept in 
Paradise in the third heaven until the final 
judgement, after which they are to be gathered 
together for the life in the new age, this world 
having perished; their dwelling-place will 
then be a new Paradise, "the Great Para- 
dise", 42 4 B, 65 8 ~ 10 BA. 

Cf. however 9 BA, 42 3 ~ 5 B. 

(z) The WICKED. As regards the place of 
punishment assigned for the wicked, the 
former and latter halves of the book are at 
variance. Ace. to the former the place of 
torture situated in the third heaven is "an 
eternal inheritance" for the wicked from the 
first judgement, the final judgement making 
no change in the fate of the wicked. Ch. 
10 BA. 

Ace. to the latter the wicked are punished 
in "hell" situated below the heavens, 
probably under the earth. Their punishment 
begins immediately after death, but they 
await the final decisions as to their punish- 
ment to be given at the final judgement, 



3 Enoch 

The judgement is based 
on records of man's deeds 
and of all events in the 
whole universe. The Di- 
vine decrees are recorded. 
See ib. 

Scribes and Keeper of 
the "Books": 

RADUERI'EL, ch. 27 2 ; 

ENOCH, 4 5 , 48 c 2 . 

The " Scribes ",27 2 ,33 2 , 

j 23-25 

S E RAFI'EL, ch. 26* . 
Angelic accusers, i4 2 . 

3 Enoch speaks of three 
classes of men, viz. : 

(1) the Righteous. 
Their spirits have their 
abode in the Presence of 
the Throne of Glory, 43 2 . 
In the time to come the 
righteous shall inherit the 
Garden of Eden, 23 18 ; 

(2) the perfectly wicked 
who are punished in Ge- 
henna, 44 3 , 33 5 ; 

(3) the intermediate, 
the benon(iyy)im, who have 
to go through a sort of 
Purgatory until they are 
cleansed from their sins. 
After being purified they 
are probably accounted as 
righteous, 44 3 5 . 



The non-righteous Israelites, however, The benon(iyy)im, ace. 

were assigned a special position : they will be to 3 Enoch, are the large 

conducted to Paradise in the time to come, majority of men, not per- 

i.e. after the final judgement. Until that time fectly righteous but neither 

they undergo punishment in hell, 42 5 B, wholly wicked. 
41 A. 



60 INTRODUCTION 

2 Enoch 3 Enoch 

VI. The executors of the judgement are The executors of Divine 

angels specially appointed for this purpose, decisions are the 'IRIN and 

' ' Cruel, relentless . , . angels tormenting with- QADDIS'IN, a8 9 . 

out pity" execute the punishment of the The executors of punish- 

wicked, 10 BA. ment are the angels of de- 

Cf. "guardians of the keys of hell" in struction, 3i 2 , 33 1 , 44 2 . 



Similarly there are guardians of Para- 
dise, 9 8 BA, 42* B (cf. 30 1 A). 

VII. The instruments of punishment are : Instruments of punish - 

the " weapons of the angels " of punishment, ment are: the Sword of 

io 3 BA; the fiery river, io 2 A; "fire and God, ch. 32; "staves of 

flame and cold and ice and dungeons", fire", 44 3 ; the fiery river, 

io 2 5. 33 5 ,47. 

The parallels adduced above clearly show that 3 Enoch bases on 
the same traditions as 2 Enoch, at least to a considerable extent; 
secondly, that, on the whole, the development of these traditions is 
further advanced in 3 Enoch than in 2 Enoch', thirdly, that, apparently, 
the conceptions of 3 Enoch in most cases are direct continuations on 
the lines of development begun by 2 Enoch. 

(1) Thus, in Angelology, the tendency towards systematization 
evident in 2 Enoch, as compared with i Enoch, has resulted, in 
3 Enoch, in the very elaborate angelological systems, in this Intro- 
duction referred to as A i , A 2 and A 3 (vide the section on Angelo- 
logy, Introduction, 14). 

In these angelological systems the interest has been focussed in an 
ever-increasing degree on the angelic inhabitants of the highest 
heaven, the angels of the McerkaM and the Throne, and hence 3 Enoch 
here presents elaborate accounts of this angelic world, which in 
comprehensiveness by far transcend those of 2 Enoch. The treatment 
of the angelic orders of the lower heavens is, on the other hand, 
poorer in 3 Enoch than in 2 Enoch ; but this is explained by the fact 
that most of the particular orders of angels, in 2 Enoch assigned to 
various of the lower heavens, are, in our book, located in the seventh 
heaven, with the exception of the angels of the planetary and stellar 
orders of angels, who, in accordance with Rabbinic traditions, are all 
located in the second heaven. 

(2) With regard to the conceptions of Enoch, 2 Enoch shows itself 
very clearly as belonging to a stage of development later than i Enoch, 
but earlier than our book; moreover, in this respect 2 Enoch may be 



RELATION TO 2 EN. 6 1 

said, speaking metaphorically, to be on the straight line connecting 
i Enoch with 3 Enoch. 

Whereas in i Enoch the visions of Enoch are the essential feature in 
the Enoch-conception (vide above), in 2 Enoch, on the contrary, the 
idea of Enoch's transformation into a high Celestial Being plays an 
important part (see the above parallels, under B IV, V). This idea 
has, however, not yet advanced as far as in 3 Enoch. Thus, Enoch, as 
a high archangel, still is in rank below MIKAEL, and has his place on 
the left hand of the Most High. It is evident that at the time of writing 
of 2 Enoch, the idea of Enoch as the ruler over all the angels and the 
vice-gerent of the Holy One, had never as yet been put forth. With 
this coheres that there is in 2 Enoch no trace of the identification of 
Enoch with Metatron, one of the central features of 3 Enoch, nor of 
Enoch as enthroned, although 2 Enoch knows of an angelic order 
called THRONES (ch. 2O 1 ). 

(3) Respecting the conceptions of Judgement and Fate of Souls and 
Spirits 2 Enoch is more in keeping with i Enoch and the earlier 
Apocalyptic Literature, whereas 3 Enoch on this point rather reflects 
the earlier Rabbinic teachings (especially those of Be)> Sammai). 

As is evident from the parallels between i and 3 Enoch given above, 
3 Enoch reveals familiarity with the ideas and expressions of i Enoch, 
i.e. i Enoch must have been well known to the circle from which 
3 Enoch emanated. That this was the case also with at least parts of the 
writings embodied in the present 2 Enoch is postulated by the close 
parallels between 2 and 3 Enoch, some of which are as striking as to 
suggest a direct dependence of the latter upon the former. Special 
importance should perhaps be attached to the following features 
which appear in 2 and 3 Enoch exclusively : 

(1) The leaders of the Fallen Angels or Seducers of mankind as 
three in number, 2 En. 18 A, 3 En. 5 9 . 

(2) RADUERIEL-VRETIL, the Keeper of the Books, the Heavenly 
Registrar, 2 En. 22 n -23, 3 En. 27 (vide note on 3 En. 27). 

(3) Enoch instructed in the secrets, first by angels, and then, in the 
highest mysteries, by the Holy One Himself, 2 En. 22 n -24 3 , 3 En. 

I0 5 , II. 

There are, however, a few conceptions and passages of 2 Enoch 
which reflect a later development than our book. Still these are in 
most cases easily recognized as late additions. Such are : 

(i) The conception of higher and lower orders of Mcerkafia-angels, 
a conception which, by the way, is frequently met with in the Zohar, 



62 INTRODUCTION 

2 En. 196, 2O 1 , 2I 1 (a/We above on the Parallels between 2 EWOC/J and 

3 Enoch, A I (V) 2 and A II (a) 4) ; cf. Zohar, i. 22 a, i. 41 b seqq., et 
frequ. 

(2) The ten ranks of angels, 2 En. 2O 3 A. 

(3) The eighth, ninth and tenth heaven, strangely enough carrying 
the Hebrew names of Kofcabim (planets), Mazzalop (constellations), 
and tA rabop (in reality the name of the seventh heaven). This is 
however only found in a corrupt passage quite out of keeping with the 
context. It is easily observed that 2 Enoch knows only of seven 
heavens. Vide Charles's note on the passage in his edition of 2 Enoch, 
1896, 2 En. 2i 6 -22 3 A. 

(4) The advanced calendary computations, 13-16 A, cf. 31, 32 A. 
Also on this point the addition-character of the passages showing 

later developments is unmistakable, and is, moreover, proved by a 
comparison of the two versions extant, A and B (as they are marked in 
Charles's edition in his Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, ii. 431-469). 
B here presents the more original text, whereas in A the passages in 
question are inserted which reflect late calendary computations. 

Thus, ch. I4 1 , where B reads simply, "according to the number of 
the days", A has "according to the number of the days 365 and the 
quarter of a day". That the latter half of the passage in A is a late gloss 
is obvious. Even more apparent is the addition-character of the 
largest part of ch. 16 of the version A. Whereas ch. 16 B simply speaks 
of the 12 gates of entrance and the 12 gates of exit of the moon, 16 A 
makes these gates to represent the 12 months of the solar year, further 
alludes to the leap-year, speaks of the " great circle of 532 years," etc. 
Nothing of this is found in B. 

(5) Parts of the account of Creation contained in 30-332 ace. to A 
reveal influences from ranges of ideas outside the traditions reflected 
in 3 Enoch, vide in particular vss. 3, 8, 9, 13-18 of ch. 30, further 31* 
(Satan-Satanail), 33 1 ' 2 . It is highly significant that these passages 
also are only found in A. What is found in B is altogether compatible 
with the conceptions of the earlier Enoch Literature. 

It is interesting to note that it is mainly on the grounds of the 
conceptions found in the additional sections or passages referred to 
under (4) and (5) above, that Mrs Maunder in The Observatory, 
August 1918, argues for a late origin of 2 Enoch, maintaining that it 
reflects the traditions of the Bogomils. The arguments brought forward 
by Mrs Maunder obviously carry weight only for the passages on which 
they are based, and cannot be applied to 2 Enoch in its original form, 



RELATION TO 2 EN. 63 

not even to the present form of version B. The observations of 
Mrs Maunder may be valuable for the textual history of 2 Enoch. 

Mrs Maunder's suppositions as to the late origin of 2 Enoch as a 
whole are obviously refuted simply by the fact of the relations ob- 
taining between 2 Enoch and 3 Enoch; for neither can 3 Enoch be 
dependent upon a writing of Slavonic origin, nor can such a writing be 
conceived of as dependent upon the Hebrew 3 Enoch. 

Before arriving at a final conclusion as to the relation between 
2 and 3 Enoch the following considerations may be made, viz. : 

(1) The entirely Jewish character of a considerable part of the 
present 2 Enoch ; 

(2) the strikingly close parallels, not only in general and detailed 
conceptions, but also in terms and expressions, between this Jewish 
stratum and 3 Enoch, as shown above ; 

(3) the impossibility of conceiving any direct dependence of 3 Enoch 
upon a non- Jewish writing, to the extent obtaining here; 

(4) the unmistakably earlier stage of development in 2 Enoch as 
compared with 3 Enoch of otherwise identical conceptions and ideas 
common to 2 and 3 Enoch (as has been shown above). 

On these considerations it may be urged that there was originally 
a Jewish writing, belonging to the Enoch Literature and embodied in 
the present 2 Enoch, and that this Jewish Book of Enoch was well 
known to the circle from which 3 Enoch has emanated. 

Further, from this assumption follows, as a corollary, that the 
Jewish writing in question must have originated at a fairly early date. 
In fact, the general types of ideas met with in this oldest and essential 
stratum of the present 2 Enoch, fit in perfectly with the date assigned 
to it by Charles, i.e. some time in the first century A.D. 1 This would 
also fit in very well with assigning some date in the third century for 
the redaction of 3 Enoch ; the interval would allow for the develop- 
ments reflected in 3 Enoch and for the assimilation which has taken 
place in 3 Enoch, on the one hand with the conceptions of Metatron 
and on the other with certain Rabbinic ideas (cf. above). 

i Since the edition by Charles, 1896, has now gone out of print, a new separate 
edition of 2 Enoch by the same outstanding authority is greatly to be desired. 

That 2 Enoch has been extant in Greek is evident. The traces of a Greek text 
underlying the present 2 Enoch are numerous : Phoenixes, Chalkadri, Arkhas, the 
Greek names of the planets, etc. Vide Charles's Introduction to the edition of 
1896. 



64 



INTRODUCTION 



70. PARALLELS AND SIMILARITIES OF EXPRESSION 
IN MANDAITIC LITERATURE 

(Quotations from Petermann's Thesaurus, Lidzbarski's Mand. Lit., 
Joh. J5. d. Mand and Ginza. Mandaitic script transcribed in 
Rashi characters.) 

i. Similarities to the Enoch-Metatron pieces (3 En. 3-16, 48 c). 
(a) In general. 
GR. m. 6S 26 - 33 (72 16 - 19 ) (cf. GR. 7 8 29 seqq.) : 

fn)Pi) f>)'f pioto frn )P 3 En. 9 5 , 48 c 8 . 

ripj;? ij? pi'pijfa 8 2 . CUT ty noan ^ epin); 

p5jvi> fof>Pl f.)f>D7 f>3") f>Du5 p53fPP u . ..the Holy One added 

f>'P3f>") fo:n'33 roV3 in me wisdom unto wisdom, 

etc " 



f>'7f>11 7M^tP) "...He made me a gar- 

He, the Great One, gave him 1 splendour ment f g lor y> etc -" . 

and light and added for him to that which he 9 1 .(" blessed me with . . . 

had, he gave him a great garment, exquisite blessings"). 

and imperishable, he blessed him with great p or Mutton a s the 

blessing with which are blessed the mighty possessor and distributor 

ones; they made him the father of the of Panim vide note on 

UJ?ras, and he gives maintenance to his . 
friends. 

GR. in. 7 o 3 - 9 (73 2 seaq.): 



pT7f>D1 



133 SlD 



iu 



-)f>pf>7 
f>'pfo f"")Dli? 5i? ]n:if>D 



3 En. 48C 1 ("I made 
him strong, I_ took him, 
I appointed him, namely 

Metatron")- 

3 . 20 6 , 48 c 3 . Meta- 

tron appointed over all the 
Treasuries and stores of 
every heaven. 

3 En. 48 c 4 . Metatron 
put over the Hall of 
<A rab~o}? and its gates. 
3 En. io 3 , 48 c 4 . 8 9 . 
The Great (Life) has created and ap- 

pointed thee, has prepared thee, appointed 

thee and sent thee, has made thee a ruler over 

every thing, has appointed thee over the 

e klnas and over the mighty gates of the 

Secret Place, has made thee a ruler over the 

Hidden ( Uf>ras that are standing and praising 

the Mighty (Life). 

i Vide Brandt, Mand. Schr. pp. 125-129, Lidzbarski, Ginza, pp. 63 seq., 
referring to Manda dHayye. 



SIMILARITIES ETC . BETWEEN 3 EN. AND MAND^AN LITERATURE 65 

GR. in. 74 7 8 (76"): "Since I am one 3 En. n 1 (vide note ib.) 
among the Great Ones, the Life Himself and 48 c 7 . 
revealed to me. . . ". 

GR. m. 94 7 - 12 ( 9 i 4 - 6 ): 



f>3f>3 



f"3f>3 



PPi>71p JViVm 

"I made a path for the good and put up a 
gate for the world, a gate for the world I put 
up and erected in it a throne, a Throne for the 
good I erected and fixed on it a lamp. . .a 
Throne I erected for the Prince of the 
Glorious Ones; 

and erected before it a lamp." 



GR. xvn. i. 40 1 3 . 4 (3738. 9 ): 

fl"P P'37 f>3f>3 



"At the door of the Chamber of Life a 
Throne was erected for the Prince of the 
Glorious Ones." 

ML. i88 8 - 10 (Oxf. i. xviii): 



" For the Prince of the Glorious Ones a 
Throne is erected . . . and the Prince of the 
Glorious Ones is seated upon it." 

Cf. with reference to 'Aoapur, the "Third 
Life": 

ML. i6 12 -i7 a (Qolasta i. ix): "I extol, 
honour and glorify 'Aba^ur, the ancient, 



3 n Io i, 2^ "AH these 
things the *Holy One, 
blessed be He made for 
me: He made me a Throne, 
similar to the Throne of 
Glory. And He spread for 
me a carpet o f sp l e ndour 

and brilliant appearance, of 
beauty, grace and mercy,. 
similar to the carpet of the 
Throne of Glory; and on 
it were fixed all kinds of 
lights in the universe. And 
He placed it at the Door of 
the (Seventh) Hall and 
seated me on it." 

3 En. 48 c 8 . " I set up his 
throne at the door of my 
Hall, that he may sit and 
judge the heavenly house- 
hold. And I placed every 
prince before him, to re- 
ceive authority from him." 

3 En. io 3 . "I have made 
him into a prince and a 
ruler over all the princes of 
my kingdom and over all 
the children of heaven." 



OHBI 



66 



INTRODUCTION 



high, secret and guarded one, ... at the door 

of the Chamber of Life a Throne is founded 

for him, and he is seated on it, the balance 3 En. 48 c 8 (cf . preceding 

is erected before him; he weighs works and page). 

rewards; he sees and knows the worlds and 

the aeons, what they are doing." 

f'P P'37 fofo biJ 



3 En. ii 1 . 2 . "All living 
beings' thoughts of heart 
and all the secrets of the 
Universe and all the Secrets 
of Creation were revealed 
to me. . . . Before a man 
does think, I know what is 
in his thoughts. And there 
is nothing above on high 
nor below in the deep 
hidden from me." 



f"73f>7 )pfip 

Cf. further on 'Abajmr, GJ?. 174*, ig$ 3 ; 
ML. 9i 14 ; G. 2 85 40 - 42 , 286 1 (2S8 22 - 24 ): 

" 'Abajmr, the ancient, high, secret and 
guarded one, who is high and seated in the 
deep, and sees what is hidden and searches 
the worlds and generations, sees what they 
are doing and is appointed over the spirits 
to weigh all works that they have done, 
[him] we call as witness". 



JM. 222*-: 



)P 



'"> )P 



DO3 DH ]P 

"I hid J At>aJ?ur away from the planets 
and preserved his treasure exceedingly well. 
I made him shining and glorious by the 
fragrance of ether resting on him. We made 
his works and words exceeding glorious." 



3 En. I5 1 ' 2 , 48 c e > 9 . 



ML.233,234(Oxf.n.ii): 

bo PIT P'D)335 f"'P7 f>7^f>P f"D3'f>7 f>PV3 3 En. f j 1 . "When the 

f07 fniPJ7 fi'vbf* Holy One etc." 

"On the day when Manda dHayye clad 
himself in his garment of light, 1 his splen- 3 En. la 1 ' 2 . 
dour rose over the worlds of light ... all 
gathered together before him. . .opened their 
mouth and blessed Manda dHayye , . .." 

ML. 234, 235 (Oxf. n. iii): "On the day 
when they bound the girdle on Manda 

i On the significance of ML. 233 seqq. in that connection vide Lidzbarski's note 2 
on p. 233 op. cit. " ImFolgendenwerden die einzelnen Stiicke der sakralen Kleidung 
der Mandaer...durchgegangen...wiesonstwird das Geschehnis in die Urzeit verlegt 
und mit einem hoheren Wesen in Verbindung gebracht." 



SIMILARITIES ETC. BETWEEN 3 EN. AND MANOffiAN LITERATURE 67 



dHayye, his splendour rose over the ' 
and S e fcinas. When the 'Ityras and S e fcinas 
saw the splendour of Manda dHayye, they 
all were affrighted before his splendour". 



Pl'l ]P 



ML. 236, 237 (Oxf. n. vi): 

? PVI f>"P7 



"On the day when they put the crown on 3 En. i2 3 4 . "He made 
Manda dHayye, its splendour rose over all me a royal crown... its 
the eggs. . .all the worlds shine through it(s splendour went forth in 
splendour)." the four quarters of the 

' A rabop Raqi a \ and 
through the seven heavens, 
and in the four quarters of 
the world." 



ML. 232 (Oxf. n. i): 



Piifafl 



foifo 



qfo:> 



3 En. 14*. "When the 
Holy One put this crown 
on my head...." 



fJ7 



il? PI'I 



f>M'f'D7 



' ' The 'U]?ras and S e fcmas gathered together, 
they erected a throne for Yayar, the King 
of the 'Ujras,. . .they put shining crowns 
(garlands) upon his head. His splendour went 
out over the U]?ras and S e fcinas. When the 
'Ujras and S e liinas saw the splendour of 
Yauar, the King of the *Uj>ras, they all 
gathered together by him... and laid their 
Right Hand upon him. They blessed him 
with the Great Blessing." 

ML. 241 (Oxf. n. xi): 



"Our Father! They gave Thee the true 
(pure) dominion and the command which the 
Great (Life) has committed to Thee." 



3 En. I4 1 " 5 . "When the 
Holy One, blessed be He, 
put this crown on my head, 
(then) trembled before me 
all the Princes of Kingdoms 
who are in the height of 
<A rafiop Raqi ai and all the 
hosts of every heaven. . . 
and they all fell prostrate 
when they saw me." 



3 En. 48 c 9 . 



5-2 



68 



INTRODUCTION 



(6) The 'Youth'. 
ML. 244 (Oxf . ii. xix) : 



DIP 



" Small am I among the 'U)>ras, a suckling 
am I among the Shining Ones, yet I am 
great, and my soul is great in me for I have 
drunk water from the mouth of Euphrates." 



/ ..ov 

A* T I- 9 - f } : A 

addressed by Johana from i the Jordan: 

Come, come little youth of three years and 
one day, smallest among his brothers and 
oldest among his fathers, who himself is 
small, but his words distinguished". 



410. "Because I am 
small and a youth among 
them (soil, the Angels) in 
days, months and years, 
therefore they call me 
' Youth' (N a 1 or)" A 9 : "he 
(the youth Metatron) shall 

te a prince and a ruler over 
^ ^ h heavens>5> 

J 



ton f>75f 



131T 



f>pri 

13 H 



The Youthful Child, Rafoya falya^ occurs 
in ML. 2292 (Oxf. I. lix), 264* (Oxf. iv. i) 
with the name Arspan and the epithet "son 
of the Splendours " (= the Glorious Ones) : 
f'Vl 13. In GR. 243 23 - 27 (also ML. 24) 
HiUl bar Adam (the Abel of OT.) is called 
thus. A particular role is played by the 
Rafrya Talya in the latter part of the ninth 
book of GR. pp. 23 5-23 8. On this vide Lidz- 
barski's introduction, ib. pp. 234, 235. The 
First Life (or its ' sons ') creates through his 
word "the only (unique; /xovoyev^s: Lidz- 
barski) son, the great, righteous Unique One, 
who went forth from the great, righteous 
Unique One". The First Life clothes him in 
" garments of splendour ", puts " diadems of 
light" upon him. He is questioned by the 
messenger 'Adafias-Malalaor 'Adafcas-Ziua: 
" What is Thy Name?" and answers: "/ am 
the Youthful Child, the righteous, great 
Unique One". Then he is brought by that 
messenger to the " S e kina within the S e %ina " 
and he beholds the "Splendour which is 
above all splendour, the Light above all 
Light, on the right of whom there are 1000 
times 1000 shining ones and on his left 
10,000 times 10,000 shining ones". When he 



3 En. 48 c 1 . " I made him 
strong (TIJTH^K, perhaps 
VJiNlS, 'I created him', 
was originally meant to be 
conveyed), I took him, I 
appointed him, namely Me- 
tatron, my servant who is 
one (unique) among all the 
children of heaven." 

Cf. and contrast 3 En. 
3 1 ' 2 . R. Ishmael asks Me- 
tatron :" What is thy name?" 
He answers him: "... 
my King calls me Youth". 

3 En. i 1 : " chamber with- 
in chamber". 

3.Z?.6 3 . "this one whom 
I have taken from among 
them (i.e. men) is an Elect 
One among (the inhabi- 



fnpi 0"6p 



SIMILARITIES ETC. BETWEEN 3 EN. AND MAND^AN LITERATURE 69 

goes down he finds the First Life in its S e kina, tants of) the world and he 
tells of his vision, and thereupon proceeds to is equal to all of them in 
the other worlds of light which are com- faith, righteousness, and per- 
mitted to him that he may put them in order ; fection of deeds." 
at last he is sent by the 'Great, Mighty 
Mana' with a message to the devotees on 
earth (the Nasoreans, i.e. Mandsans). Vide 
also beg. of eleventh book, p. 251 (249), 
which book ace. to Lidzbarski "in einem 
anderen Kreise als die sonstigen mandaischen 
Schriften entstanden ist". 

GR. xi. Peterm. 249 16 - 20 : 

. * M M M Mk M 

48 c 9 . " I (God) appointed 
Metatron over the angelic 
rulers of the "world to re- 
veal to them the secrets of 
my words and to teach the 
, , decree of my righteous 

OP71p 0"Pp'J judgement" 
"The Unique, Great, Righteous One... J s 
created a beloved l Uj>ra that he should be a 
discerner (teacher: fonf 1 ?) for himself and 
his father, the Righteous One, . . . that he 
should teach concerning all works that shall be 
(done) and arrange teaching before his father " 

(c) 'Enos. 

In the Mandaic literature l Enos ('Anos) is 
given a prominent place. The name itself is 
derived from the OT. '^-nos; mostly he is 
mentioned in juxtaposition with Hibil (= 
Abel) and SiJ?il (= Seth), all three being 
'Ujras with special functions, differently 
represented in different contexts. On the 
significance of l Enos one may in the first 
place refer to Reitzenstein, D. Mand. B. d. 
Herrn d. Grosse and Das iron. Erlos. Myst. 
pp. 1 15-1 34. 1 'Enos is the last Messenger 
and Revealer of Truth to the world, the 
Guide, and Saviour of those who follow him. 
It will be unnecessary here to repeat the 
whole of the " 'Enos-episode " in the Apo- 
calypse of GR. analyzed by Reitzenstein and 
Schajder (GR. 3o 48 ): a " 'Enos- Uj?ra comes 
into the world ... heals the sick, opens the 
eyes of the blind, makes the lepers clean. . . 
vivifies the dead; he wins adherents among 

1 Vide also the valuable expositions by Schaeder 
Stud. z. Ant. Synkret. aus Iran v. Griechenl. pp. 306 

2 Schasder, op. cit. pp. 332-336. 



To illustrate the manner 
and import of the rejection 
of '-EnoH in 3 Enoch, it may 
be allowed to repeat here 
therelevantfragment, ch. 5 : 

" From the day when the 
Holy One expelled the First 
Adam from the Garden of 
Eden S^ina was dwelling 
upon a K e rub under the 
Tree of Life . . . and the 
first man and his genera- 
tion were sitting outside 
the gate of the Garden to 
behold the image of the ap- 
pearance of the splendour 
of S e kina And every- 
one who made use of the 
splendour of S e tina,... 
he neither became ill nor 

in Reitzenstein und Schaeder 
, 326-341. 



70 INTRODUCTION 



for>) the Jews",..." 'Enos- 'Ityraas- suffered he any pain; ho 

cends (oh high) and sits with (joins) the demons got power over 

M*sunne-Ku$}a" (= Die zur Seligkeit ent- hlm nor were able to m- 

ruckten Mandaer: Lidzbarski). Cf. later Jure him. . .until the time 

MJ. 242 (also GR. 3 3 8 30 , 339 seqq.). In the of , the generation of &nos 

present connection attention must be called wh as the head of all idol 

to GR. 47 35 sea. ( 52 i9 sea .)_ an insertion ace. worshippers of the world. 

to Lidzbarski : And ^UH * , ge l ra " 

, , , , , , , tion of ^nos do? They 

fl'P fofoio Of>7)p )P fi'flfr fnmu DUi> went from one end of the 

?pf>3")lD) m r>pfni> world to the other, and 

"'Enos-'ttyra comes before the Water each one brought silver, 

Floods to Noah and his tribe" (cf. GR. gld, precious stones and 

2 ^i8-w\ pearls in heaps like unto 

This should be put by the side of the mountains and hills making 

traditions inTGR., eleventh book (vide Lidz- idols out of them through- 

barski, GR. pp. 250, 251). The Unique One out all the world.. . .And 

sends the three 'ttyras, Hibil, Sipil and 'Anos th ey brought down the sun, 

into the world to give assistance to the spirits tne moon, planets and con- 

of the faithful. The Planets (being the stellations, and placed them 

Enemies of the Spiritual World) try to over- b . efor e the idols on their 

power them, and plan the destruction of the n ght hand and on their 

whole generation, first through the sword le ft to attend them even as 

(against HiUl), then through Fire (against they attend the Holy One, 

Sipil} 1 and lastly through a Deluge (against blessed be He.. . .What 

( Anos). (Cf. how in 3 En. the removal of P owe r was in them that 

Enoch is connected as well with the idolatry they were able to bring 

of VEnoS as with the Deluge.) 'Enos is re- them_ down:. . .(answer:) 

presented as fearing the attempts by the Uzza, Azza and Azzi el 

Planets but is addressed by Manda dHayye - "taught them sorceries 

as follows (GR. xi. a66 13 se Pet.) : whereby they brought them 



)'f6p f'l3 f3fPll3 )J) ministering angels brought 
6lt lf'5'n'6'i;...6'3pf>JP'P charges (against them) be- 

lf-pfii oip'Jl lW'100 fore the Hol Y One -;- 
< T - i c^ v -r. r -1 r 1 T- M saying ... Master of the 

Little Enos Be not afraid .of the Evil ^ orl |, what hast thou to 

Ones of this world (and) of the Water Floods. do with the children of 
They will be taken away above thy head. men? , As it is written 
I will bring thee splendour and light which /p g g5\ . m ^ *<z no $ ki 
will be thy helpers and stand by thee." pizk'rcennu' (what is man, 

'Enos, that thou art mind- 
ful of him?). Ma 'Adam is 
not written here, but ma 
tfe nos, for he (i.e. '^nos) is 
the head of the idol wor- 
shippers." 

(Cf. Lam. R. Proem 24, 
dependent on 3 En., Gen* 

R. 58, I0, I2 5 , 2 3 9 .) 
i Thus originally, ace. to Lidzbarski, GR. p. 250, II. 29-31. 



SIMILARITIES ETC. BETWEEN 3 EN. AND MANDJEAN LITERATURE 71 



GJR. xi. 264 31 (266 23 -26 f Pet.): 

f>'D3 



f>V! 



f>Pi>f>3 



f>pif>3 

fPi>f>3 f>71p!>3 



0"f>7 



rinf>pfn 
]'tf>P f>Pi>f>7 fj'f>P 

The Evil Ones of the world shall say: 
"These Three Men are in the world, and 
(but) they are not men but splendour and 
light: it shows its image in this world by 
(with) the little ( Enos who stands alone in 
this world. And Manda dHayye said to 
him : Come, I will reveal to thee concerning 
the hideous secrets of this world." 

GR. xi. Pet. 27o 6 - 16 : 

jfa'jvSa f>un DOJ? P'fP fip 

PMP7 ]'ffP f>p5f>7 fi'D'37 
PPf>17 Vf>J'P 



pij? fi'D'37 
3 f 

fvr 



|P7 



"Lo, thou hast seen, little 'Enos, (that) I 
revealed to thee concerning the secret of the 
Evil Ones of this world whom thou didst see 
and feared them, before whom thou didst 
tremble and shake. I revealed to thee con- 
cerning the secret of heavens and earth, I 
revealed to thee concerning the secret of 
every doing and work (that [are]) in the 
world, I instructed thee concerning them. 
I gave thee splendour and light, that it should 
be with thee on that first garment that they 
gave thee (you) from the House of Life, now 
kept with thee (treasured in thy possession), 
on (for) which the Evil Ones are fighting that 



In 3 En. '-^-nos is on the 
side of the ' planets ' , against 
the right faith. 

At the same time the 
features in Mand. belong- 
ing to 'Enos in his char- 
acter of " Urmensch-Er- 
loser-Licht- Gesandte " , to 
speak with Reitzenstein, 
are in 3 Enoch found in 
Enoch-Metatron : 

(1) Just as the little 
'Enos stands alone in this 
world against the domi- 
nance of the Evil Ones 
(Planets) so Enoch-Meta- 
tron the youth is the one 
and only righteous as a- 
gainst the rest of mankind 
who pay obeisance to the 
idols (i.e. the powers of the 
lower world) and have 
ousted the Divine Light, 
the (Ziuha) S e luna, from 
the worfd. 

(2) When GR. 30" 
(29") makes 'Enos-'Uthra 
ascend on high after his 
appearance in this world, 
3 En. again lets Enoch be 
taken up on high away 
from, the idol-worshippers, 
the followers of 'Enos. 

(3) Enoch is the only 
righteous one in his gene- 
ration. 

(4) The revelation of 
secrets of the world is ac- 
cording to 3 En. made by 
the Holy One to Enoch- 
Metatron. 



(5) 3 En. I2 1 . 2 . The 
garment of Light from the 
House of Life (the HeKal 
of the Holy One) is given 
to Metatron. 



72 INTRODUCTION 

they may take it and they will not succeed in (6) 3 En. 8 Z . " In that 

taking it. Lo, I added for thee light unto hour the Holy One added 

light that it may be with thee in the image of in me . . . splendour unto 

these two men, thy brethren, who went away splendour (speaking of Me- 

from thee and entered the House of Life." tatron)." 

The eleventh book of GR. is introduced 
thus : 

i'fl'D -)3 fa") DUfa 6T7'Di frfn IP 6p 



:fnfpin 

" This is the secret and the book of the Great One may here recall the 

'Ana!, the son of the Great Sipil, the son of the Jewish tradition of a book 

Great' Adam, the son of the Mighty l Upras of of Adam, transmitted to 

Glory" (GR. 251 [249"]). ( or recovered by) Enoch 

rr,, c . f , ,n i i p an d after him to Noah 

The first section of the twelfth book of ( starting from the p seu de- 

GR. calls Enos, inter alia : P$)37 pflP3r>D ")3 pigraphical writings, esp. 

f>fl[p]'7f>P the son of the leaves (scil. of writings) ela.bora.ted'mT e fillap'Aelam 

of all knowledge (or: ywScris). (GR. 268 11 , hd-Rison [OM. ii. 401, S. 

ayo 10 [2J2 S > 24 , 273 1 ].) Raziel, beg.]) as a possible 

_,-,... . , .,,,. parallel to the book given 

Cf. the beginning of the ninth book of to HiM> g^ and Ano g 

Cf. also Metatron as "the 

hT'Di 6tf>~) )P )ffP Knower and Revealer of 

pi'iU7 f"30)3 f>3lD7 Secrets ", 3 En. 48 C 7 9 . 



i'P'DI i'3'P1 D)3f1 i'P'DI 



" This is the secret and the book of the overthrow Cf. above and 3 

o/ the seven planets which (secret and book] 48 D 10 with note. 
Manda dHayye revealed and taught on the 
earth Tefiel; and he gave them to Hifiil, Sipil 
and 'Anos and Htbil, Sipil and 'Anosgave them 
to those who love their name" (GR. 223 
[222 10 ]). The book contains polemics against 

the false religions which are said to have 3 Enoch looks upon the 

emanated from the seven planets. For Enos functions of 'Enos quite 

(together with Hifoil and SiJ?il) as (i) the differently. So far from 

prototype for the Faithful ; (2) the leader, seeing in him the leader of 

guide of the Spirits of the Faithful ; (3) the the Faithful he is really the 

Messenger, the Word, sent by the Life to instigator of the false re- 

wake up, teach and guide the believers, it ligions. The party of 

is not necessary to give references. Vide, 'Enos is denounced as that 

however, first and eleventh sections of of idol-worshippers, who 

fifteenth book of GR., further GR. 286 19 , make use of the sun, moon, 

52 3 , 3O 2 , 48 6 . The spirits have to give account planets and constellations 

for their life before 'Anos- 'tfyra: GR. 405^ (i.e. the 'Seven' and 

(377 6 ). 'Enos, as messenger, wins followers, 'Twelve'). 



GR. xv. i , 296* (299 12 ) the Great Life says 
to 'Enos: 



SIMILARITIES ETC. BETWEEN 3 EN. AND MANDJEAN LITERATURE 73 

adherents, appears as it were as the head of 
the 'ligfa' (party, circle of believers): 

Ace. to 3 En. the ' party' 
that '^nos 'collects' is 
that of idol-worshippers. 
In Life of Enoch Enoch is 
_,.,,., represented as collecting 

Go, collect a party from Tebel, like the a ty of believers in God, 
party that we have collected." amongthethen inhabitants 

Cf. in this connection also GR. n. i. 44 3 of the world - 
( 4 6 2 - 2 *Pet.): 



3 En. 5 7 ~ 9 : the idol-wor- 
shippers bring silver, gold, 
precious stones and pearls, 
and make of them images 
(idols) in the whole world. 



fnf>73 



]1PD'P 



" I, the First Messenger, (I) speak and teach 
all the children of 'Adam who were, who are 
and who shall be born in that generation: 
Do not listen to the words (!>upa: speech) 
of the angels of defection who deviate and 
cause (some, many) of the children of men to 
err and cause them to covet gold and silver, 
money, possession and property and images 
of fraud and simulacres." 

GR. xiv. 294 14 (2988 f . Pet.) : 



"The spirits that have worshipped (or So the generation of 
sworn fealty to) idols (images), none of them ^noS of 3 En. 5 are no 
shall ascend to our presence, they are not worthy to dwell with the 
worthy (to be) with us and they will not 
behold the world of the Second One." 



(d) Some further illustrations of the similarity of expressions and 
ideas in Mand. and 3 En. may be given. Space will not allow giving 
both text and translation in full; for the translation of the passages 
references must be made to Lidzbarski's ML., GR. and MJ., which 
in any case must be consulted for a more thorough testing of the 
present pages. 



74 



INTRODUCTION 



GR. n. i. 3 1 24 (3 1 4 - 9 Pet): 

f>T3fO 
]P 



f>i'f>P3 



JP1 f>' 



)'3f>DP1 



"The Lord of all Kings spoke with great 
force and mighty word . . . and (= then) came 
forth (were born) angels of light;. . .and. . . 
angels of praise. . .without end, or reckoning, 
imperishable; all full of praise, and (they are) 
standing praising the lofty King of Light (cf . 
GR. 34 25 )-" 

167 worlds of light: GR. I99 34 . 

360 worlds of light: GR. 289. 

ML. 

GR. v.i. I5i 8 (i 34 19 - 22 ): 



PP1P71 
|P 6 



fof>P7 



"Come I will show thee the image of 
Mana, and Mana and his great hidden image 
that is hidden from all 'Uj?ras in 365 hidden, 
mighty worlds and eggs of light." 

"10,000 times 1000 worlds of light": 
GR. i52 23 (136"). 



GR.v.i. 

"(He) created for me a world. . .in that 
world he created for me 10,000 times 1000 
worlds of light and created for me 360 mighty, 
intrinsic Jordans. In each world alone he 
created for me 360,000 'Uj?ras, in each e k"ina 
alone he created for me 360,000 S e ftinas." 

GR. v.5. i99 34 (i99 18 ): 

" The great, beloved, original Sam-Ziua, the 
man, whose e Mna is resting (dwelling) above 
the 167 mighty, superior worlds of light. 
Each single world is 1000 times 1000 para- 



3 En. 40 4 . "After that 
the Holy One opens his 
mouth and speaks one 
word and creates others 
(soil, angels) in their stead 
. . . and each one stands be- 
fore His throne uttering 
the 'Holy'"; 37 3 : "out of 
every word that goes forth 
from his mouth an angel is 
created: and he stands in 
the singing company of the 
ministering angels". 



Cf. 3 En. 24" (18,000 
worlds) ; 48 A 1 (955 heavens 
=the hidden abodes of the 
Godhead). 



Cf. 3 En. 22 B c, 35 1 . 



SIMILARITIES ETC. BETWEEN 3 EN. AND MAND^IAN LITERATURE 75 

sangs, and 10,000 times 10,000 S e "kinas are 
dwelling in it; in each single S e luna 1000 
times 1000 'U]?ras are dwelling, and each 
single 'Uj?ra inhabits a S e lina." 

Cf. MJ. pp. 8, 9 and Lidzbarski's note 5 In 3 En. 22 c, 12,000 and 
ib . on the number 1 2 ,000 . its multipl es are prominent . 

The number 360 is most frequent es- For the large part played 
pecially in ML.: besides 360 worlds of light by numbers in 3 En., vide 
already referred to we meet with 360,000 Index on numbers and 
'Ujras (ML. 237 5 ), 360 myriads of thousands notes on passages in ques- 
Glorious Ones (Ziue: GR. i62 20 ), 360 foun- tion. 
tains of splendour, light and glory (ML. In 3 En. the number 365 
236 s , 265*), 360 or 360,000 Jordans (GR. is conspicuous; together 
i52 14 24 , i47 3 , ML. 265 7 ), 360 Watchers with 1000 times 10,000 
(Nafre: ML. 273 8 ), 360 secrets in the world et sim. (from Dan.), 
(ML. 22 2 3 ), 360 balances erected before the 360,000 occurs in 3 En. 
Aged 'Afcajmr (ML. 92^ 2 ). 22 B 1 . 

The Lord of Greatness created on his 
right 444 S e feinas and on his left 366 e "kinas, 
GR. i44 16 . 

144,000 myriads of 'Ityras, ML. i8 2 , 71*; 
of years, ML. 70*. 

180,000 myriads of 'Uj>ras, GR. I44 18 . 18,000: 3 En. 24 12 . 

550,000, 444,000 and 660,000 'U]?ras went 66,000: 3 En. 33 3 . 
from different parts to Manda dHayye, GR. 
36i u (cf. Lidzbarski's note 2 on ML. 18). 

60,000 myriads of years, GR. i$6 S9 . 

800,000 myriads of 'Ltyras, GR. 289 31 > 33 . 800,000: 3 En. 33 3 . 

880,000 myriads of 'Ltyras, ML. 7o 5 . 

900,000 myriads of 'U]?ras, GR. 290. 

GR. vi.2i2 4 (2i2 21 Pet.): 



f"P'Df>31 f'OP'f'C'P 



76 INTRODUCTION 

" (Dinanukt went out to this world, voiced 
the call of Life, taught disciples 60 years, 
60 months and 60 days.) When the measure 
of Dinanufct was completed for him and he 
left his body, they brought him to the door 
of the House of Life. And Dinanukt spake : 
Open for me the door of the House of Life. 
Then they opened for him the door of Life 
and lifted up for him the Bar Goda (= Pargod, 
Veil) of Security. They rose, clad him in a 
garment of splendour, brought him a garland 
of the vine Ruaz and put it on his head. And 
Dinanukt stood in the abode of Life, in the 
abode that is all splendour and in the abode 
that is all light. And he stood in great 
strength, praised the Mighty Life and (him 
whose} epithet (title) is honoured and exalted 
like himself. And Dinanukt spake : With this 
ascension (masseqtd) with which I have 
ascended, all truthful, faithful and goodly 
Nasoreans shall ascend and attain." 

GR. i. 25 7 (23 13 ): 



Cf 

El-Siddai, 

Hidden Names, GR. 152", 1592. 

Azazel, Azaziel, Taqfel and Margazel the 
Great, GR. I73 21 . 

GR. v.3. i85 18 (i8 9 23 ): 

fpf>7 f>j7f>PD'J y^p 

3'pfo 



3 En. i 2 , io 2 , I6 1 , 48 c 4 ' 8 
(door of the Seventh Hall). 



3 En. 25 1 , 45 6 (Pargod), 
io 1 : cf . notes ad loc. 

3 En. I2 1 , i8 22 . 

3 En. i8 18 , 22B 6 7 , 28 2 , 
48 c 7 . 



"Those spirits resemble earthen vessels 
that (take on blackness) become black.. . ." 



3 En. 42 and 48s 1 note 
and the reading: "The 
Holy One has seventy 
names that are explicit and 
the rest that are not ex- 
plicit are innumerable and 
unsearchable." 

3 En. 48D 1 no. 6: Mar- 
geziel, as one of the names 
of Metatron. For Azazel 
and Azaziel. cf. below 
p. 168, n. i. 

3 En. 47 6 . The colour of 
the wicked was like the 
bottom of a pot on account 
of the wickedness of their 
doings. 



A most striking parallel to i En. may be included here, as relevant 
also to the subject of 3 En. 5 treated at some length above. 

GR. m. 121" (no 2 Pet.): i *. 6": " And it came 

to pass when the children 
of men had multiplied that 
in those days were born 
unto them beautiful and 
comely daughters. 2. And 
f"3Pfo fip)T7 f>tfn JP1 the angels, the children of 



f>OPfM 



SIMILARITIES ETC. BETWEEN 3 EN. AND MAND^AN LITERATURE 77 

GR. in. I22 1 (no 14 Pet.): the heaven, saw, and lusted 

f>ff>f>-J3 f>7!0f>i> after th em, and said to 

5-ifcoWi T another: <( ? ome *f us 
* .M j Ji ^i choose us wives from 

p3Df>P7 5)3 5p f>ui jfaf>pfPU?5 among the children of men 

)6p5f>3 and beget us children. . . '. 

"Ruha and the seven (planets) went (and) 4; And they all... said, 

ascended to the mount of Karmel, they ' L f us ail swear an oath, 

ascended and meditated on secrets of love. and al j bmd ourselves by 

The hideous ones are sitting and planning mutual imprecations not 

and they take (forth) of the secrets of all of to - 6. And they were in 

them, and of the secret of Ruha they take a11 two hundred, who de- 

(forth)... and they say... nobody shall know fended m the days of 

the secret of our oath and we will not reveal J ared 9? the summit of 

our word and we will not reveal our oath or mount Hermon . i hn. 8" : 

anything of all that we have planned in our ...revealed the eternal 

world." Cf. GR. 132* (n8 8 ). secrets 

The conclusions that may be drawn from the adduced parallels 
between Mandaitic literature (shortened: Mand.) and 3 En. may be 
summed up as follows : 

(1) Mand. and 3 En. are rooted in a specific world of ideas and 
expressions common to them both. That common world is one of 
characteristic mystical ideas arid aspirations. 

(2) Although both Mand. and 3 En. move in and are influenced by 
the larger world of syncretistic thoughts, 3 En. in its mystical 
elements (and these are, after all, the constitutive elements of 3 En.) 
is more closely bound up with Mand. than with any other mystical 
religious formation outside Judaism. 

(3) The question whether there is anywhere a direct dependence ^ 
of 3 En. upon Mand. or vice versa must be answered in the negative. 

(4) An immediate relation between the circles behind Mand. and 
3 En. respectively can, however, be traced, viz. in the rejection by 
the latter of one of the fundamental tenets of the former. This re- 
jection must have occurred some time between i En. and 3 En., since 
it entailed the dropping by the 3 En. circle of certain terms and con- 
ceptions playing a prominent part in i En. (on this vide above, p. 47 
and below, p. 146) as a consequence of their having been associated 
with the rejected doctrine. 

(5) The doctrine thus rejected is the >/E nos-mysticism (vide above). -= 
This is done very strongly; not merely in the form of a contradiction, 
but in the form of a contrast : '^nos is the very instigator of fraud and 
idolatry in this world, the cause of the destruction of mankind. 

(6) The general mystical thought-world as well as the central idea 
of that mysticism was, however, already deeply ingrained in the 



78 INTRODUCTION 

3 En. circle. Hence some of the fundamental features of J ^nos are in 
3 En. attaching to Enoch-Metatron. It may seem as if there had then 
been only an opposition between names, or perhaps, that there were 
here two opposing mystical systems : the ^nos-mysticism versus the 
Enoch-mysticism. 

This would, however, not correspond to the actual position of 
Mand. and 3 En. What is rejected by 3 En. is, after all, not merely 
the name '^nos. but even the Primordial-Man ideas. It may be 

' " * * ' ' / 

urged that, in 3 En., the real centre of the mysticism from which it 
has sprung, has been obscured, or at least been left to be tacitly 
understood or felt. It can be said, that one does not grasp what the 
whole description of the elevation of Enoch-Metatron or that of the 
angelical spheres is about, until he has read them against the back- 
ground of Mand. Then the whole mystery will reveal itself: Man 
as the bearer of the Divine Spark within himself, his being here in 
this world of lowly state, a mere ' youth ' and ' child ' by the side of the 
Great Powers and Principalities of the Celestial World, and yet, in his 
highest aspirations, by force of his being such a bearer of the Divine, 
reaching above all powers to the Presence of the Divine Glory. With 
this the soteriological mystery: the Man, the One, who as the Essence 
of all Human Spirits, and the First, the Beginning of all human life, 
in Himself brings about Man's attainment of his Spiritual Home; 
the connection of this with the Wisdom-mystery, the man-celestial 
being possessing the Secrets and Mysteries and revealing them. In 
a very simple way one of the Mand. counterparts to the elevation of 
Enoch-Metatron gives, none the less, the very interpretation of the 
meaning of that elevation, viz. the finishing passage of the book of 
Dinanukt given above (p. 76), with its ending words: "With this 
ascension with which I have ascended, all truthful, faithful and 
goodly Nasoreans shall ascend and attain." 

(7) In the later cabbalistic literature, as is shown below (pp. 121- 
125), the central idea of the Enoch-Metatron conception in its mystical 
signification is brought out quite distinctly. It may be surmised that 
it cannot have suddenly emerged then from nothing and nowhere, 
but must have been known all the time. 

(8) The vantage-point from which the rejection of the 'Enos- 
mysticism, which must have been quite as much, if not more, a 
rejection of the specific circles by which it was most emphasized 

. (i.e. probably the earlier Mandaeans), was, no doubt, the consciousness 
within the 3 En. circle of standing firmly rooted in the Jewish faith, 
I on the Tora and breathing the air of the Rabbinic teachings. 



CONCEPTIONS OF METATRON IN 3 EN. 79 

(9) The said rejection, lastly, presupposes a time of origin for the 
Enoch-Metatron fragments of 3 En., when the opposition between 
the Enoch-mysticism and the '^nos-mysticism could have been actual, 
since the rejection was made in Palestinian circles (witness Lam. R. 
and Gen. R. referred to above, p. 70, presupposing 3 En. 4, 5 as 
Palestinian) and the 'Enos-mysticism had finished playing any more 
important role there already at the beginning of the 2nd century A.D. 
This is the terminus ante quern of the origin of the Enoch-Metatron 
ideas of 3 En. Hence it follows, further, that the Metatron ideas 
(and fragments) belonging to the time before the inclusion of 
these ideas (and fragments) in the Enoch-literature, should in all 
probability be assigned to some time in the ist century A.D. Such 
early fragments are contained in 3 En. 9-13. 

8. THE CONCEPTIONS OF METATRON 

IN 3 ENOCH 

WITH regard to the conceptions of Metatron, his position and 
functions as presented by 3 Enoch, it is first to be remembered 
that this book in its present shape with the exception of chh . 48 B c D 
purports to be a revelation orcojnmjAuicalion of secrets by Metatron. 
"the Prince ofthe Presence", toJ&e-Xannaitic teacher, R. ISma'el 
baenT^lisa c . This is in chh. 5-40 conveyed merely through the regular 
inceptive sentence of each chapter: "R. Isma'el said: Metatron, the 
angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me". In chh. 41-48 A the 
relation between R. Isma'el and Metatron takes the form of explorer 
of the celestial regions and their splendours and guide and informer 
concerning their secrets. Similarly chh. 3 and 4 represent R. Isma'el 
as asking and Metatron as answering. 

The framework of the book thus represents Metatron as the angel 
who has access to the Divine Presence, the ' Face ' of the Godhead 
(and in this sense the appellation " Sar ha-pPanim " or " Prince of the 
Presence" is understood here), hence possesses knowledge of the 
Divine secrets and decrees. In this capacity he is used by God as the 
guide (41-48 A) and instructor of R. Isma'el. This general view is 
corroborated by the introductory chh. i and 2. According to these 
Metatron, defined as the Prince of the Presence and the "Servant 
^JEbced] of the Holy One", is sent by the Most High to conduct R. 
Isma'el into the Seventh HeMl (Hall or Palace), to the Mcerkafiah 
and the camps of & e fcina, and to protect him from the fury of the 
other angels of this the highest region of the heavens. He is conse- 
quently contemplated as essentially an angel-prince of the Seventh 



8o INTRODUCTION 

Hall, the inmost and holiest part of the Celestial World, the centre 
and true abode of the Divine Manifestation (the "Holy of Holies" 
as it is later, appropriately, called). 

Apart from the framework and introduction the book, relatively 
to Metatron, falls naturally into two divisions, one having the char- 
acter or 'history' of Metatron for its central theme, the other having 
scarcely any connection with the conceptions of Metatron at all. The 
former division comprises chh. 3-16 and 48 (B) c (D), the latter 
the rest of the book, chh. 17-48 A. 

(i) Chh. 3-16 and (2) ch. 48 c (BD) contain two expositions of the 
same theme, the latter in a shorter, the former in a fuller form, other- 
wise in the main exhibiting identical traits. 

Metatron is the translated Enoch. The characteristic feature of 
both of these two expositions is, that they identify the high angel- 
prince Metatron with Enoch, the son of Yared, who was translated to 
the heavens in accordance with the ancient tradition basing upon 
Gen. 5 24 . This identification being the aim, the chapters in question 
are worked out as a history of Enoch's transformation into an angel 
and of his further promotion into a superior angel-prince, called by 
the name Metatron, and not only by this name but by others of a 
distinguishing character. 

Metatron, being Enoch, is called Na'ar, i.e. Youth. Metatron is 
Enoch (Targum P. to Gen. 5 24 ). Proof of this is, that Metatron is 
still called the 'Youth', "1^3, in the high heavens (4 10 ): for he is 
young in comparison with the other angel-princes, existing from the 
'Beginning'. 

Enoch removed from earth qua Perfect Righteous or qua Witness. 
The occasion of Enoch's translation to heaven was the removal of the 
e nina from on earth on account of the sins of contemporary 
humanity, Enoch being removed together with the S e fcind in his 
character of only perfect saint of his time: so chh. 5, 6 3 , 48 c 1 . In 
another vein it is stated, that the reason or object of Enoch's trans- 
lation was the function prescribed for him of being a witness in the 
world to come to the sinfulness of his generation and the justice 
of the Holy One in eventually destroying the men of that generation 
through the Deluge: so chh. 4, 48 c 2 . Thus Enoch is defined as 
Scribe-Witness in agreement with Book of Jubilees 4 21 seqq. and 
Targ. P. to Gen. 5 24 . 

But the characterization of the translated Enoch is not restricted 
to describing him as a celestial Scribe-Witness. The various honours 
and offices conferred upon him are in chh. 7 seqq. set forth in 



CONCEPTIONS OF METATRON IN 3 EN. 8 1 

successive stages, progressing towards a climax (in chh. 12 and 
48 C 7 > 8 ). Thus he is made: 

The attendant of God's Throne, the Throne of Glory, 7, 48 c 4 . 

The Prince and steward set over the treasuries of heaven containing 
the celestial and cosmic forces or agencies and the Divine Secrets 
hence endowed with knowledge of all the mysteries of Creation, of Past, 
Present and Future, chh. 8, io 5 > 6 , n, 48 C 3 > 4 7 . 

The angelic ruler over and Judge of all the hosts of angels and angel- 
princes. Before being appointed to this high office he had to be 
transformed from earthly-human into celestial-angelic nature: his 
body was changed from flesh into fire (n, 48 c 6 ), was given wings 
(9 3 ), numerous eyes (9*), cosmic size (g 2 , 48 c 5 ) and was clothed 
with light and splendour (g 5 ), 'garments of Glory' (iz 1 ' 2 , 
48 c 7 ). 

In particular he was assigned rulership over the 70 (sometimes 72) 
Princes of Kingdoms, the representatives in heaven of the nations on 
earth and the rulers of the destinies of their respective nations, 
chh. io 3 , 14!. 2 , I6 1 . 2 . 

As ruler and judge over the angelic hosts and the princes of king- 
doms, he is also the representative and vice-regent of the Holy One, the 
intermediary between the Most High and the angelic world, io 4 5 , 
48 C 8 > 9 . To fill this position he is given the authority as well as the 
insignia of his dignity by the Holy One Himself. The Holy One makes 
him sit on a Throne similar to His own, gives him a Curtain similar 
to the Curtain spread over the Throne of Glory, io 1 , 48 c 5 . The 
Throne of the man-angel is placed at the door of the Seventh Hall 
(the innermost of the Divine Hekalop or Palaces), io 2 , 48 c 8 . After 
this the heavenly herald is sent out into the heavens to announce him 
as "Metatron, the l b<ed (Servant) of the Holy One", His represen- 
tative and vice-regent, io 3 . 

The rulership over the angels and princes (4 8 , io 3 , 14, i6 12 , 48 C 4 > 8 ) 
has a wider import ace. to 48 c than ace. to chh. 3 seqq. According to 
the latter it implies a celestial rule only, a dominion over the heavenly 
kingdoms of angels. According to the former, on the other hand, 
Metatron as ruler over the princes of kingdoms also wields governing 
power through them over the nations, kingdoms and rulers on 
earth; in this respect Metatron occupies the office and fulfils the 
functions of the 'Prince of the World', ch. 48 c 9 . 

A peculiarity of ch. 48 c is also the tradition closely connected 
with the last-named Prince of the World conception which re- 
presents Metatron as executor of the Divine decrees on earth, especially 

OHBI 6 



82 INTRODUCTION 

with regard to the different nations and their rulers, ch. 48 c 10 . Cf. 
Hebrew Rev. Moses, referred to in note ad loc. 

Further in ch. 48 c in contrast to chh. 3 seqq. to Metatron is 
assigned the function of supervising and attending the angels and 

D'S? of the Markaba: the Hayyop, 'Ofannim, K e ruUm, S e rafim, 

Hasmallim, etc., vs. 4, contrast ch. 7. Thus Metatron here combines 
the functions in chh. 19-22, 25-26 distributed among the different 
princes of the respective classes of Mcerkafia-angels. 

After having been installed as ruler over the angels, Metatron was 
given a new distinctive name: "the Lesser YHUH" (or "the little 
YHUH", |Dpn Tl), " after the name of his Master", chh. i2 5 , 48 c 7 , 
D 1 no. 102, cf. no. 14. Ex. 23 21 is referred to: "for my name is in 
him"; Metatron is hereby indirectly identified with the angel of 
YHUH of Ex. 23 20 " 23 . Cf . the passage in Sank. 38 b, referred to below. 
Ace. to 48 (7 in the K- version) Metatron corresponds to the Divine 
Name "OHX (with 1), the numerical value of which is 71. 

The name, "the Lesser YHUH", is in chh. 12 and 48 c 7 used as 
indicative of Metatron's character of representative, vicarius, of the 
Godhead ; it expresses a sublimation of his vice-regency into a second 
manifestation of the Deity in the name YHUH. The special features 
that accompany and symbolize Metatron's elevation into a lesser 
manifestation of the " Divine Name " are, besides his being enthroned, 
the conferment upon him of (part of) the Divine Glory, \>l, Tin, Tin , 
TDD, "honour, majesty and splendour" (ch. 48 c 7 ), "a garment of 
glory, robe of honour", but especially a "crown of kingship" (ic 1 " 4 ) 
on which the mystical 'letters', representing cosmic and celestial 
agencies, are engraved after the pattern of the Crown of the Holy 
One, the NTQ IfG and lastly knowledge of all the secrets of Creation 
and of ' Tor a', otherwise in possession of the Most High alone, chh. 13, 



c 7 , D 5 . 



Note. The expression "Lesser Yahwe", "Little Yahwe" evidently 
reflects Gnostic ideas. It is highly significant that the very term 
" The Little YAO" occurs in Pistis Sophia (ed. Horner, pp. 6seq., 
ed. Mead, p. 10, ed. Schmidt, pp. 7 seq.). Cf. below, pp. 189 seqq. 

Being named like his Master, Metatron is also said to have seventy 
names "corresponding to the seventy nations of the world", ch. 3. 
This expression on one side connotates his rulership over the 70 
princes of kingdoms, but it is evidently also intended as symbolical 
of Metatron's character of representative or manifestation of the 
Deity: the 70 names of Metatron are "taken from the names of the 
Holy One" (ch. 48 c 9 , D 1 ' 5 ), they are a reflection of the Divine 70 



CONCEPTIONS OF METATRON IN 3 EN. 83 

(or 72) Names, the fWlBbn mfc&?, 48 B, D 5 . (Cf. ch. 29: the 70 
princes of kingdoms also have 70 names each.) 

Ch. 48 D 1 , although asserting, in accordance with chh. 3, 48 c 9 , that 
Metatron has 70 names, gives an enumeration of his names, which in 
fact contains not less than 105. See note ad locum. 

The special characteristic names or appellations of Metatron, 
recorded in chh. 3-16, 48 c are: (i) the Lesser YHUH, already men- 
tioned ; (2) Naar, i.e. Youth or Child, already referred to ; (3) Elect 
One, ch. 6 3 ; (4) One, Unique, 48 c 1 , cf. D 9 interpreted from Enoch 
being the one and only righteous in his generation, selected as the 
Holy One's tribute for all his labour with the antediluvian world; 
(5) 'JEbced, Servant, chh. io 3 , 48 D 1 no. 17, cf. i 4 ; (6) The Prince of 
the Presence, D^SH *1&^ or "the angel and prince of the Presence" 
(48 c 1 , cf. D 6 and throughout the framework of the book: ch. i 4 and 
the inceptive sentences of each of chh. 3, 5-48 A, etc.); (7) The 
Knower of Secrets, Yode at Razlm, ch. 48 c 8 . Cf. further ch. 48 D 6 . 

Lastly mention must be made of a possible vestige of the con- 
ception of Metatron as a primordial being occurring in ch. 48 c 1 : 
" I made him (Metatron) strong (or Mighty) in the time of the first 
Adam ". One might read in this statement an allusion to Metatron as 
connected with or being the Primordial Man, the 'Adam Qadmon. 
In favour of this interpretation is the peculiarity that although 
the identity of Metatron with Enoch is maintained throughout the 
rest of the chapter, this first statement is referred to Metatron only, 
Enoch being brought into view only with vs. 2. It is possible, and 
probable, that this was the earlier sense in which the ibbartiu or 
iddartiu was referred to Metatron. 

The reason why an earlier Primordial Man function of Metatron 
has been obliterated was probably, as has already been discussed above 
(pp. 77, 78), the opposition from the 3 En. circle against the '^nos- 
mysticism. 

The additional pieces, ch. 48 c u 12 , D, give some further details 
of the conception of Metatron which are not contained in the rest of 
the book. 

(1) Ch. 48 c 12 . Metatron is the teacher of the souls of those who died 
in their childhood, a tradition preserved also in TB. tA boda Zara, 3 b. 
For the differences between the two versions see note ad locum. In 
both passages Is. 28 9 is used as scriptural support. 

(2) Ch. 48 D, besides the treatise on Metatron's names and an 
enumeration of them which might be regarded as a mere develop- 
ment or elaboration of the features contained already in the main 

6-2 



84 INTRODUCTION 

Enoch-Metatron pieces represents Metatron as having in his 
capacity of Prince of Wisdom and steward of the treasuries (of 
Wisdom, etc.) committed the 'secret' to Moses against the protests 
of the angels. From Moses onwards 'the secrets' (i.e. the secret lore, 
the mysteries of Tora, in the first instance the mystical letters and 
the Names) were transmitted orally from man to man down to 
R. Abbahu and R. Zeera (two noted Palestinian Amoras, flourishing 
end of second century), who in turn committed them to the 'men of 
faith', an expression which not improbably signifies the circle of 
mystics or initiates to which the writer belonged. 

Thus Metatron is represented as the intermediary through whom the 
secret doctrine was brought down to man. And as such he defends the 
rights of men to obtain these secrets against the angels in general 
who do not desire that the terrestrials should know the 'mysteries'. 

All the features of the Metatron-conception thus far mentioned 
tend towards assigning to Metatron a unique position in the heavenly 
hierarchy. And such is, indeed, the exclusive import of the shorter 
Enoch-Metatron piece, ch. 48 c 1 " 10 . In the larger section, however r 
we meet with some passages of a distinctly opposite tendency : they 
emphasize Metatron's character of an angel-prince among other 
angel-princes, occupying though he does a high position in the 
angelic hierarchy yet not the highest one ; and above all do they deny 
that Metatron was in any way to be regarded as a part of the Deity, a 
second manifestation of the Godhead. 

This tendency is definitely expressed first in io 3 ; in the pro- 
clamation of Metatron's rulership over all the princes of kingdoms and 
all other ' children of heaven ' a qualification is added, excluding from 
his jurisdiction "the eight great princes, the honoured and revered 
ones who are called YHUH by the name of their King". 

From a comparison with Hefcalop Rabbdpi, ch. 22, it may be 
shown that there was a distinct tradition as to the existence of a 
certain group of angel-princes who were higher even than the ' Prince 
of the Presence ' (here not identical with Metatron) ; the ' eight great 
princes' are mentioned also in Mass. Hefcdlop, iv. They were 
apparently conceived of as angels of the Throne ("standing before 
the Throne of Glory"). Ace. to Hekdlop Rabbdpi they were also the 
guardians of the Seventh Hall, hence evidently regarded as the sole 
angelic inhabitants of this innermost recess of the manifested Deity.. 
Linking with the early representation of Metatron as "seated at the 
door of the Seventh Hall" (chh. 48 c 8 , io 2 , cf. I6 1 ) the interpolators 
here at work were able to picture Metatron as the judge and ruler over 



CONCEPTIONS OF METATRON IN 3 EN. 85 

all the angelic hosts outside the Seventh Hall, but with no authority 
over the angels of the Seventh Hall or of the Throne, which latter 
angels could easily on that basis be regarded as higher than 
Metatron. By this means the possibility of Metatron being claimed 
as a lesser Deity was, in the interpolator's intention, guarded against. 

It should be noticed, that the tradition used by the interpolator for 
the purpose of lessening Metatron's importance, originally in no wise 
had this import. On the contrary, as . appears from the Hefcdlop 
Rabbapi, it was bound up with the assigning of a position to Metatron 
that was even higher than in 3 Enoch : the leader of the said ' eight 
great princes', <A NAFIEL, here occupies the position and fills the office 
which in 3 Enoch as a whole are accorded to Metatron, the name 
Metatron being reserved for the second Divine manifestation. 

Although this reference to a group of angel-princes in rank above 
Metatron, which is found in ch. io 3 , clearly excludes the unique and 
supreme position of Metatron and the universality of his rulership 
over the heavenly household, as emphasized especially in chh. 7-15 
(Metatron an angel-prince of the Throne, ch. 7; called the Lesser 
YHUH, i2 5 , etc.), it does not formally contradict the rest of the 
chapter. The locating of Metatron's throne to the door of the Seventh 
Hall makes it possible to conceive of angel-princes who, having their 
abode within the Seventh Hall, nearer the Throne, would naturally 
be regarded as above Metatron's jurisdiction. The idea of " eight great 
Princes in the Seventh Hall " may be of Gnostic origin. The Seventh 
Hall really seems to play the part (in such connections as the present) 
of the 'OySoas of Gnostic systems. Metatron, seated in the Seventh 
Hall, facing all the lower angelic world, somewhat recalls the picture 
given by Epiphanius in Adv. Hares. 31, 4 of the Demiurg in the 
'OySoas: ...HavTOKpaTopa /cat A^/uovpyoi' /caA.ov<rt avTov 
oWos ev ry 'OySoaSt, KCLL en-ret ovpavovs /xer' avTOv TreTro floras 
(Bousset, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis, p. 17, note 2). The 'OySoctg, as 
the ' region of the eighth ', was by the speculations easily changed into 
the 'region of the eight'. This is, however, a mere conjecture. 

The second instance of a tradition bent on lessening Metatron's 
importance is ch. 16. This chapter, which indeed purports to be a 
continuation of the ' history of Enoch-Metatron ' in so far as it gives 
account of a supposed celestial incident in the court of Metatron at 
the time of the apostate '^lisa' b. ' A buya, is preserved in another 
version in TB. Hag. 15 a. 

The aim of this chapter is apparently to convey, that although 
Metatron may for a certain period have occupied the unique 



86 INTRODUCTION 

position in the Divine Presence which the traditions embodied in 
chh. 3-15 and 48 c ascribe to him, yet this position is now no longer 
his. He has at a certain, definite point of time been deprived of his 
privilege of being seated on a throne and is now 'standing on his 
feet', i.e. on an equal footing with the other angel-princes. The 
tendency is here clearly to counteract the influence or consequences 
of the Metatron-traditions which went towards recognizing in Meta- 
tron a vice-regent in heaven, an intermediary ruler over the angelic 
hosts, an idea which to the writer's mind came dangerously near the 
recognizing of two Supreme Powers. In endeavouring to neutralize 
the 'extravagance' of the Metatron-traditions, he does not attack 
them as it were from without, but while seemingly accepting the fact 
of Metatron's vice-kingship in heaven as asserted by them, he main- 
tains that Metatron's elevation was only temporary. He is also 
anxious to make clear that Metatron's kingship is merely a derived 
one, conferred upon him 'by His King'; he twice repeats the phrase: 
"by authority of the Holy One, blessed be He". Hence, when this 
Kingship of Metatron gives occasion to misapprehension on the part 
of mortals ('Aher) as to the Unity of the Godhead, it can be and is at 
once taken from him, and he is moreover punished, the punishment 
being executed on God's command by an angel who is above Metatron, 
viz. none other than the famous <A NAFIEL, the leader ace. to Hek. R* 
conferred with Mass. Hek. of the 'eight great Princes'. 

This attack on Metatron as an enthroned vice-regent of the Most 
High has, it would seem, emanated from early opponents to the Meta- 
tron-speculations of the mystics, probably at a time when the name and 
function of Metatron had entered to a certain degree even into 
popular belief and could no longer be flatly negated. The original 
content of this attack was evidently the dethronization of Metatron ; 
this has then been amplified, and hence it is that there are at least two 
versions preserved: one contained in Hag. 15 a, the other in the 
chapter now under discussion. For the differences between the two 
versions see note on ch. 16 beg. In this chapter it is remoulded to 
harmonize as far as possible with the ideas which prevail in the 
Enoch-Metatron pieces. Thus, apart from what has been pointed out 
above, the reference to ^nafiel as the executor of the punishment on 
Metatron seems to have been made with conscious allusion to ch. 6 1 . 

The angel who ace. to ch. 6 1 was first sent to fetch Enoch from on 
earth, in order that he might be translated into Metatron, was well 
suited to be the superior angel who carried out Metatron's degrada- 
tion. And it was thereby emphasized that just as CA nafiel had been 



CONCEPTIONS OF METATRON IN 3 EN. 87 

superior to Enoch at the time of his elevation he was also superior to 
Metatron at least from his degradation onwards. Hence Metatron, 
not being even the highest of the angels, could not be contemplated 
as occupying a position of a higher than angelic character. 

In view of the subtle way in which the writer of ch. 16 veils his 
opposition against the excessive and dangerous developments (as he 
regards them) of the Metatron-conception by the use of terms and 
notions recognized by or congenial to the Metatron- tradition, it is not 
impossible to assume that the qualifying expression ch. io 3b , referred 
to above, is an insertion made by the same hand who is responsible 
for ch. 1 6. There seems in fact to be a natural connection between 
io 3b and 1 6, in so far as the former contains the logical presupposition 
for the statements of the latter, esp. in vs. 5. When it is said, ch. i6 5 , 
that <A nafiel YHUH was commissioned by the Most High to punish 
Metatron, it implies that this angel at least was higher than Metatron 
and had his abode nearer the Divine Presence, i.e. not all the angel- 
princes were subject to Metatron ; this is exactly what is maintained 
by io 3b . Moreover, it is probable, as was shown above, that io 3b is 
linked with an early tradition of seven or eight high angel-princes of 
the Throne, of the Presence or of the Seventh Hall, the chief of which 
was just <A nafiel. Thus ch. io 3b is in absolute agreement with ch. 16, 
contains identical ideas, reveals the same tendency as and forms the 
necessary preparation for ch. 16. 

The tradition as to the high position of <A nafiel was, as has already 
been pointed out, known to and accepted by the Metatron-tradition, 
ch. 6 1 . But the idea of this tradition was evidently that Metatron at 
his elevation was exalted above all the high angel-princes, or even, as 
stated above, that the conception of <A nafiel as the highest of the 
Princes of the Seventh Hall belongs to a stage when Metatron was 
already sublimated into a Second Divine Manifestation. Contrast 
also ch. i8 18 of our book and Hek. R. xv. 5 (' A nafiel not always re- 
garded as the highest of the angel-princes). 

The strongest evidence in favour of regarding chh. io 3b and 16 as 
later additions made with the definite object of neutralizing the 
extravagances of the speculations on Metatron (as has been through- 
out assumed in the foregoing) is the fact, that none of the qualifica- 
tions set to Metatron's absolute supremacy (as compared with that of 
the Most High) in the Celestial Court by chh. io 3b and 16 appears in 
the parallel Enoch-Metatron piece, ch. 48 c 1 " 10 , although this represents, 
on the whole, the same tradition as chh. 3-16. 

(3) Chh. 17-48 A in relation to the conceptions of Metatron. Turning 



88 INTRODUCTION 

from the sections devoted to the Enoch-Metatron conceptions as 
subject-matter, to the remaining parts of the present book, it is to be 
noticed that in chh. 17-40, apart from the stereotyped inceptive 
sentences of each chapter the so-called framework to which refer- 
ence has already been made there is not a single mention of the 
name 'Metatron'. None of the three angelological systems (chh. 17; 
18; 19-22, 25-28) accords any place to Metatron. Likewise in the 
sections treating of the Judgement and the Q e dussa respectively as 
well as in the chapters dealing with Celestial Topography apart 
from chh. 41-48 A no role or function is assigned to Metatron. 

On the other hand some of the various functions which in the 
Enoch-Metatron sections are associated with Metatron are actuallv 

/ 

found in the angelological sections and the other parts, but they are 
there connected with different angelic bearers or Divine or angelic 
agencies. 

Thus, for instance, the duties commonly associated with the 
heavenly Scribe (Witness, Knower of Secrets) are according to ch. 18 
discharged by the two angel-princes Sof e riel M e hayyce and Sof e riel 
Memlp, who are the highest angelic figures in this hierarchical system. 
A similar office is in the greater angelological system, chh. 19, etc., that 
occupied by Radueriel (ch. 27) on the one hand and by the ( Irin and 
Qaddisin on the other (ch. 28). Radueriel, the 'Irin and Qaddisin 
together form the top of the angelological hierarchy of A 3 . The smaller 
function of the so-called * scribes ' in ch. 27 2 does not come into account 
here. Cf. further the 'scribes' referred to in ch. 332. 

The function of Defender or Advocate is assigned to various angelic 
agencies. Ch. 18: Zakzakiel, Soqed: Hozi, Sof e riel M e hayyae. 
Chh. i9seqq.: S e rafim (26 12 ). Chh. 3oseqq.: the Prince of the 
world (30), the Divine Attribute of Mercy (31), the angels of Mercy 

(33). etc - 

The office of Celestial Judge, whether in general or over the angels 

only, is in all the rest of the book occupied by the Holy One Himself 
although He may be represented as assisted by or taking counsel with 
certain of the highest angels, e.g. the 'Irin and Qaddisin (28), the 
angelic Bep Din, etc. 

The 'Prince of the World' is explicitly mentioned once in the 
section on the Judgement, and again in the Q e dussa section. Being 
the leader of the princes of kingdoms as Metatron in the Enoch- 
Metatron pieces he pleads the cause of the world before the heavenly 
tribunal (ch. 30). He has authority over the heavenly bodies, bidding 
them to be silent and quiet at the time of the Q e dussa (ch. 38). In 



CONCEPTIONS OF METATRON IN 3 EN. 89 

neither of these cases is he identified with Metatron, although the 
similarity with Metatron as he is represented in ch. 48 c 9 is apparent: 
he is there the leader of the princes of kingdoms through whom he 
wields governing power over the nations and acts as ruler of the 
affairs of the world. 

Whereas Metatron in the Enoch-Metatron pieces is represented as 
the attendant of the Throne of Glory and the Prince Supervisor of the 
Mcerkaba-angels, these functions are in the other parts of 3 Enoch 
distributed among different angelic beings. According to the larger 
angelological system (A3) each of the classes of Meerkaba-angels has 
its own prince : Hayyliel, Rikbiel, K e rufoiel, S e rafiel, etc. 

In chh. 41-48 A Metatron is, as has already been mentioned, the 
guide of R. Isma'el through the celestial regions. The fact that 
Metatron is in these chapters pictured as being able to point out and 
instruct R. Isma'el about the Cosmic Letters on the Throne of Glory 
and the recordings of past and future events on the Curtain (Pargod) 
of the Divine Presence, indicates that he is here thought of as possess- 
ing knowledge of the highest Divine Secrets and as having access to 
the Divine Presence. A possible indication that he was understood 
also to have immediate authority over the planets and constellations 
is perhaps to be seen in the incident narrated in ch. 46 2b . (There is, 
however, in the same chapter mentioned a special leader of the ' stars ' : 
Rahatiel, vs. 3 ; cf. chh. 14*, 17.) Lastly when Metatron, in ch. 44, 
is represented as bidding R. Isma'el take and read the 'books' (i.e. 
the records of the doings of the wicked), this is perhaps a hint of 
Metatron 's function of Scribe or ' Keeper of the Books '. 

As a whole the section comprising chh. 41-48 A is, from the point 
of view of the conceptions of Metatron, more closely connected with 
the Enoch-Metatron pieces and the framework than are the other 
parts of the book. 

It is important to note, that the only function of Metatron that is 
not in chh. 17-48 A transferred to other angelic bearers is that of 
enthroned representative of the Holy One, which points to this function 
as constitutive for Metatron. 

In order to obtain an understanding of the mystical speculations 
connected with Metatron and of the origin and stages of develop- 
ment of these speculations it will be necessary to examine the con- 
ceptions of Metatron and Enoch-Metatron met with in other writings 
both earlier and later. Of the greatest importance here is, as a 
matter of course, the specifically mystical literature. But it will 
be well also to sketch briefly the fragments of Metatron-traditions 



90 INTRODUCTION 

preserved in the earlier ' Rabbinic ' literature : Talmud, Midras and 
Targum. 

Whereas the representations of Metatron in the mystical writings 
have received very little attention from scholars in spite of the fact 
that these writings are the real home of the Metatron ideas the com- 
paratively few Talmud, Midras or Targum passages referring to this 
angelic figure are well known, yet differently interpreted. 



9. THE REFERENCE^TO METATRON FOUND IN 
TALMUD, MIDRAS AND TARGUM 

(a) In the Talmud. 

TB. Sank. 38 b (in a controversy between Rab 'Idi and a heretic, 
'min'). Metatron is identified with the angel of YHUH mentioned in 
Ex. 232 seqq. and is said to bear the Divine Name, YHUH. 1 Bearing 
the Divine Name, Metatron is meant by the ' YHUH ' in God's com- 
mand to Moses ace. to Ex. 24 1 : " Come up unto YHUH ". The passage 
in the following, however, reveals the tendency of lessening as far as 
possible the importance of these 'facts' concerning Metatron. The 
idea that Metatron should be worshipped is refuted. 2 Even the view 
assigning to Metatron the function of intermediary between the Holy 
One and Israel is rejected: although ace. to Ex. 23 21 the angel of 
YHUH (here = Metatron) was invested with the power of refusing 
forgiveness of sins "he will not pardon your transgressions" yet 
this power assigned to him by the Holy One never became actual, for, 
says R. 'Idi, "we did not accepthim as intermediary leader, Kp^TPJS " . 3 
On the contrary, Moses prayed to the Most High that He Himself 
would lead them (basing upon Ex. 33 15 : " If Thy Presence go not with 
us, carry us not up hence"). 

TB. Hag. 15 a. Metatron is the heavenly Scribe "who was permitted 
to be seated while writing down the merits of Israel ". This dictum in 
itself shows the same tendency as TB. Sank. 38 b of trying to lessen 
Metatron's importance. It seeks to explain Metatron's character of 
enthroned angel-prince as occasioned merely by his duties as Celestial 

1 Basing on Ex. 23 21 "for my name is in him" as in 3 En. ia 5 , 48 c 7 , D 1 no. 102. 

2 The argument is : When it is said, Ex. 23 21 12 ^DJ~I ?X, this is to be understood 
as if it were written 12 ""iTBfl 'jS, i.e. "do not exchange me for him". 

3 The [Persian] word pari^anqa is the equivalent of s 6 lihd. In Mandaitic it is 
used in the sense of 'SAVIOUR, liberator, DELIVERER'. Cf. Noldeke, Mand. Gram. 
p. 418, n. i. Occurs frequently, especially in Qolasta and Ginza Left (in the latter 
mostly as the guide of the spirit leaving earthly life). 



CONCEPTIONS OF METATRON IN TALMUD, MIDRAS, TARGUM 91 

Scribe. 1 Starting from this assumption the G e mara goes further and 
tries to divest Metatron altogether of the distinction of being 
enthroned, making use of an earlier attack on Metatron's authority: 
'^lisa* b. ' A t>uya, having ascended to heaven, when beholding 
Metatron, was led to the belief, that this angel-prince was a second 

Divine Power (|H HWl '3 Y'Pl NDG?). For bein g the cause of this 
misconception on the side of >jE lisa', Metatron was subsequently 
punished with 60 lashes of fire (for he ought to ' have stood up ' to 
prevent the false appearance). Cf. ch. 16 of our book. 

TB. l Ab. Zdr. 3 b. Metatron shares with the Holy One the function 
of instructing the (school-) children, |1"1 JTO 7&? JTlp'DTl, i.e. those 
prematurely dead. As scriptural support is used Is. 28 9 : "Whom 
will he teach knowledge? and whom will he make to understand 
tradition? them that are weaned from the milk and drawn from the 
breasts". Cf. ch. 48 c 12 of the present book. 

The Holy One, blessed be He, occupies Himself with this work in 
the fourth quarter of the day; during the rest of the day, when the 
Holy One is sitting in judgement, etc., Metatron takes His place as 
instructor, scil. in Tora, written and oral. 

The mystical traditions presupposed by the aforenamed Talmud 
passages, especially TB. Sank. 38 b and l Afi. Zdr. 3 b, suggest a 
somewhat later stage of development than that of 3 Enoch. What 
shows a later time for the material used by the Talmud passages or 
for the traditions indirectly referred to is the trait assigned to Meta- 
tron of intermediary between the Holy One and Moses or between 
the Holy One and Israel, and connected with this, of Celestial Advo- 
cate of Israel. Metatron is here beginning to take over the specific 
functions of Mikael, the Prince of Israel. On the whole the traditions 
at the back of the Talmud passages are most akin to those of the 
Ma a se Mcerkdbd collections. They are also actually paralleled in 
the additional chh. 156 and 48 D of our book, which belong to the 
stage of Ma a se M&rkaba collections. 
(Cf. Pisqon, etc. in TB. Sank., 'Enjaqob, 39 b.) 

(b) Midrasic references. 

As the more important among the Micfrasic references the following 
may be noted : 

Ace. to Sifre it was Metatron who showed Moses the Holy Land. 

i That this is a secondary explanation is evident from the fact that the function 
of Scribe was never as such associated with the distinction of being enthroned. 
Cf. 3 En. 33 2 . The version preserved in 3 En. 16 retains for Metatron the 
original trait of enthroned vice-regent. 



92 INTRODUCTION 

With the exception of the reference to Moses the ideas and mode of 
expression of the Sifre-passage (on Deut. 32 49 , par. Ha a zinu> 59 c) are 
paralleled in the section 41-48 A of 3 Enoch. In both cases Metatron 
is represented as pointing out the wonders of heaven or future events 
or (as in the Sifre) the Holy Land, 'with his fingers '. The expression 
used in Sifre 1 is almost literally the same as in 3 En. chh. 41-48 A, 
esp. 4 4 4 , 452, 46*. 

Lamentations R., Intr. 24: When the Holy One, after having re- 
moved His e fcina from the temple on account of Israel's sins (cf. 
chh. 48 c 1 , 5 10 ~ 13 ) thereby making way for the destruction of the 
temple was weeping for the sake of S e feina having no longer any 
abode on earth, and over the calamity that had befallen its former 
abode the temple then Metatron came, "fell on his face and said 
before Him: 'Lord of the Universe! I will weep, but Thou shalt not 
weep '. He answered him : ' If thou dost not let me weep, I will at 
once enter the place which thou hast not permission (DISH) to 
enter, and will weep (there) ' ". The place that Metatron has not per- 
mission to enter is, ace. to the same passage, indicated by the words 
of Jer. i3 17 : "But if ye will not hear it, my soul shall weep in secret 
places (D^TlD/b^)", i-e the word Mistdrim in this scripture passage 
is taken to refer to a definite celestial region. 

Metatron is here firstly presented as the angel of the Divine 
Presence who does not, however, partake of the Divine existence 
beyond the manifestation of the Deity (on the Throne). 2 

1 The dictum occurring in Sifre is attributed to R. >A! ii' aezagr (ben Hyrkanos) beg. 
of second century A.D., as usual followed by a controversial dictum attributed to 
R. J e hosu a ' . The right reading of the passage is evidently as follows : 

?*w px te ns (intom) ntz^ ntoo jnataB nvi lysxss 

Cf. the British Museum MS. Add. 16406, fol. 375 d, occurring in exactly identical 
form in the parallel, Yalqut, Pentateuch no. 949 (ad locum) : b e 'eesb e 'd Seel MoSce 
hayd Metatron mar'ee l e -Mosee, etc. The usual reading of the printed edd. of Sifre 
has a somewhat strained construction, which leads Friedmann in his edition to omit 
the word mar'ce, regarding it as an explanatory gloss of 'metatron'. Friedmann 
hence takes 'metatron' as an appellative: "With his finger He was a metatron to 
Moses", and points to the parallel passage in P e siqpa Zut. iii: "The finger of the 
Holy One was the metatron of Moses ", etc. A similar reading of the Sif re-passage, 
using 'metatron' as a sort of appellative, is recorded in Nachmanides' comm. on 
3 Exod. x. i2 12 and in Kaftor ua-Fcerah, ch. 10 (Metatron = one who shows the 
way). This variant which is attested only in late sources is probably evolved out of a 
substitution of the unusual 'metator' for the well-known 'metatron', in Gen. R. 5* 
(see below). Bacher, Die Agada der Tannaiten, i. p. 154, also interprets the Sifre- 
passage thus: " Nach J(osua"?) war Gottes Finger der Metator, Grenzabstecker, der 
Moses das ganze Land zeigte und ihm angab, wie weit das Gebiet der einzelnen Sta'mme 
geht". (In the text Bacher reads 'metatron', hence takes this to be = metator.) 

2 This conception of a special place of the Godhead called, after Jer. i3 17 , 
Mistdrim, is mentioned in the well-known passage TB. Hag. 5 b: "maqom yceS lo 
l e HQB'H uMistartm s e mo". Cf. Gen. R. 8a 13 . The secret place to which no ange 



CONCEPTIONS OF METATRON IN TALMUD, MIDRAS, TARGUM 93 

Further, the words uttered to the Most High by Metatron : " I will 
weep, but Thou shalt not weep" "depict Metatron, not alone as 
pleader for Israel, but as taking upon himself the sorrow for Israel's 
sins". 1 He is the S e negor (crv^^yoyoo?), Advocate, but also iytDD 
, as in later cabbalistic writings, cf. YR. i. 54 A (from 
Ma >a marop). 

Tanhuma, fya'esphannan 6. When Moses is informed that the time 
has come that he must die, he asks successively the mountains, the 
rivers, the sea, etc. and various powers of heaven and earth to inter- 
cede for him with the Holy One that he may be allowed to live. But 
they all refuse. He also entreats Metatron a to intercede for him. 
Metatron answers : " It were of no avail. For I have heard the words 
behind the Curtain (Pargod): 'Thy prayer will not be answered'". 

In the same parasa we find Metatron again referred to in con- 
nection with Moses' death. When the Most High is sorrowing after 
the decease of Moses and asks: "Who will henceforth intercede for 
Israel when they sin? " Metatron falls on his face before Him, saying : 
"Lord of the Universe! In his life Moses was thine; after his death 
he is also thine". 

A parallel to the latter passage is found in a MS. of Midras Misle 
on Proverbs I4 34 . Cf . JE. x. 23 1 , Harv. Th. R. xv. p. 83 , n. 65 . In the 
printed editions Mikael takes the place of Metatron. 

In Num. R. xii. 15 Metatron is represented as officiating in the 
Celestial Sanctuary, and this Sanctuary as being especially connected 
with his name, as 'the Tabernacle of Metatron'. 

"At the time when the Holy One, blessed be He, commanded 
Israel to erect the Tabernacle His words implied a command also 
to the ministering angels that they should erect a Tabernacle on high 
(Ramaz l e -maf a ^e ha-ssarep sceyya a su y af hem miskari). This is the 
Tabernacle of the Youth (miskan ha-nNaar) whose name is Metatron, 
and in it he offers the spirits of the righteous to atone for Israel in the 
days of their exile." 

It is here to be noticed, that Metatron is explicitly called Naar, 

nor any being, not even Metatron, is admitted, is in the mystical literature usually 
identified with the ' 955 heavens ' (cf . ch. 48 A 1 ) and then signifies the inscrutable 
abode of the Godhead, which is beyond or above every manifestation of Him, even as 
seated on the Throne of Glory or Throne of Judgement. (This is later developed 
into the conception of the 'olam ha-' a silub, cf. Mass. As., ch. v.) Metatron, 
as the Prince of the Presence, or the vice-regent of the Holy One, or even as the 
second Manifestation of the Deity, is naturally represented as excluded from the 
'Mistarim'. When regarded as an aspect of the Divinity Metatron is represented 
as being able to ascend through 900 of the 955 heavens, but not higher. 

1 Abelson, Jewish Mysticism, p. 69. 

2 Metatron is here called "the Prince of the Presence". 



94 INTRODUCTION 

Youth (3 En. chh. 3, 4, etc.), that the Tabernacle of the Naar is re- 
ferred to as something well known, and that Metatron is represented 
as having in his charge, under his authority and care, the spirits of 
the righteous. As a whole this passage represents a later phase in the 
development of the Metatron-conception. The Tabernacle of Meta- 
tron is referred to in the additional ch. 15 B 1 of 3 Enoch. 

Gen. R. v. 2. According to one reading Metatron is here used as 
an appellative. With reference to the Divine Word (or Voice) saying, 
Gen. i 9 : "let the waters under the heavens be gathered together unto 
one place!" it is said: "There are some who interpret (explain) in 
accordance with (the view of) Baen * Azzai and Baen Zoma : the Voice of 
the Holy One was made into a Metatron over the waters, in accord- 
ance with Ps. 29: 'The voice of the Lord is upon the waters'". The 
passage is by the commentators ad locum interpreted as meaning: 
"The Voice of the Lord went before the waters, conducting or 
directing them to the Okeanos (the place of the lower waters) ". 

There are many variant readings of the ' metatron ' in this passage, 
as may be seen from the critical apparatus of Theodor's edition of 
Genesis Rabba. Besides mitatron there are the "HDD/ft and "Y|DD'> 
of old being recognized as the Latin ' metator ' and the basis for the 
interpretation of ' metatron ' as ' forerunner ', ' leader ', ' one who shows 
the way ' (evidently also the basis for the interpretation by the com- 
mentators ad loc.). Other readings are pTEDD/D (Brit. Mus. MS. 
Add. 16506, fol. 6 d) or [HlESDD (Vatican MS. ace. to Theodor), 
i.e. 'a secret', 'a mystery' (cf. Gen. R. i, Ex. R. xviii, Lev. R. xxxii, 
Num. R. xx) ; |1*lLDD> a form sometimes met with as an equivalent 
for or 'name' of Metatron; J'DID/D, etc. 

The existence of so many variants shows that the original word 
must have been unknown to the copyists, i.e. its meaning not under- 
stood by them. Thus they tried to substitute, each of them, another 
similar-looking word. Now the most unusual word among the various 
readings here is evidently "T)DD/D, which also gives the best sense. 
Hence it may safely be assumed that 'METATOR' was the original 
word. 

The substitution of Metatron for Metator is easily accounted for 
by the similarity of the characters of both words on one hand, and 
the speculations of the cabbalists on Metatron's functions at the 
Creation on the other. But this substitution has since, from the time 
of Nachmanides and Eleazar of Worms onwards, been used as the 
starting-point for various interpretations of Metatron from Metator 
(i.e. when the meaning of the Latin word had again been brought 



CONCEPTIONS OF METATRON IN TALMUD, MIDRAS, TARGUM 95 

into light). See Nachmanides, Commentary on the Pentateuch, 
Ex. i2 12 . 

(c) References in the Palestinian Targum. 

To Deut. 34 6 . Four angels, called 'Masters of Wisdom', took care 
of Moses' soul at his death: Mitatron, 'Uriel, Yofiel and Y e fippyah. x 
This idea is met with in the legends on Moses' death and also in the 
traditions of his angelic teachers at the time when he received the 
Tora and its secrets. The Targum passage in all probability is 
dependent on this literature which, as has already been shown, 
belongs to the period of Ma n se McerkdM collections. 'Masters of 
Wisdom', 'Princes of Wisdom' and 'Princes of the Tora' are inter- 
changeable terms. Metatron at this stage has taken over the functions 
of 'Prince of Wisdom, Prince of Tora' originally attributed to 
Y e fifyah, Gallisur and Zagn e zagiel and the latter are represented as 
companions or servants of Metatron or as names of Metatron. Cf. 
Hek. R. xxx, Mayan Hctkma, Midras P e tirap Mosce, Deut. R. xi 
and 3 Enoch, the additional ch. 48 D 1 " 2 . 

To Gen. 5 24 . Metatron is the translated Enoch who was taken up 
to heaven on account of his having led a perfect life, serving the Holy 
One 'in truth'. He is called the Great Scribe. 

This is evidently dependent upon the Enoch-Metatron traditions, 
possibly directly upon 3 Enoch, since it combines, as does the Enoch- 
Metatron piece, chh. 3-15, the functions of Scribe- Witness and only 
perfect Saint with reference to the translated Enoch. (3 En. chh. 4, 
6, 48 c 2 .) 

Summary of the features of the Metatron-conception as presented 
by Talmud, Micfras and the Palestinian Targum: 

Metatron is called by the name of his Master (YHyn), his name is that of 

his Master, TB. Sanh. 38 b. 

is the angel of YHTJH ace. to Ex. 23 21 , TB. Sanh. 38 b. 
,, is (or has been) 'seated' in heaven, i.e. on a Throne, in contrast 

to the other angels who are all standing but in striking similarity 

(the utterance of 'Aher!) with the Most High seated on the 

Throne of Glory, TB. Hag. 15 a. 
,, is the Great Scribe in heaven: Targum Y to Gen. 5 24 , the 

Recorder of the merits of Israel, TB. Hag. 15 a. 
is the heavenly Advocate, Defender, the Pleader for Israel, TB. 

Hag. 15 a, Lam. R. Intr. 24; atones for Israel, Num. R. xii. 15. 

i 5N3o NTVW 3tDi pun n'oin nnD'oa (n^o to>=) ibv (rrapn) 
n"?D 'pinoaa wpno t^-nai na^naoi rani^a Ninpn Kami Ktw-n 
Knoipn \?|n ajfB'i 'pNn-ix'i ^ato fnptDp piin I 



96 INTRODUCTION 

Metatron is Master of Wisdom, has knowledge of the Divine decrees 
(symbolized by the ' hearing behind the Pargod ') : Midr. Tanhuma, 
par. Ua'cephannan 6; is initiated in the Divine Secrets, the 
. Mysteries of the Tora, Targum Y to Deut. 34 6 . 

is the heavenly High Priest officiating in the Celestial Sanctuary 
which is referred to as "the Tabernacle of the Na'ar, Metatron", 
Num. R. xii. 15. 

,, has in his charge the spirits of the righteous, Num. R. ib. 

is the translated Enoch, taken up to heaven on account of his 

perfection of deeds, his serving the Holy One 'in truth', 

Targum Y to Gen. 5 24 . 

was associated with Moses during his lifetime, at and after his 
death, as the representative of the Most High or as His messenger : 

(1) as the angel who in God's stead was to lead Israel in the 
desert, ace. to one tradition, however, not accepted by 
Moses, TB. Sank. & b; 

(2) asked by Moses just before his death to intercede for him 
with the Holy One, Tanhuma, par. Ua'eephannan 6; 

(3) shows Moses the land of Israel, Sifre, par. Ha' a zinu; 

(4) takes care of Moses' soul, Targum F to Deut. 34 6 , Tan- 
huma, par. Ua'cephannan 6. 

is the angel of the Divine Presence, yet not admitted into the ex- 
clusive abode of the Deity, the Mistarim, i.e. does not partake of 
the ^manifested Deity, Lam. R. Intr. 24. 

the instructor in heaven of the children who died before having 
the opportunity of being instructed in the Tora or having 
their instruction completed, TB. 'Aft. Zar. 3 b. (This implies 
that he takes charge of the spirits, cf . above.) 



10. THE CONCEPTIONS OF METATRON IN 
RELATED MYSTICAL AND APOCALYPTIC 

LITERATURE 

A. IN i AP. ISM., THE HEKALOp WORKS 
AND i AND 2 LEG. MARTYRS. 

THE earliest among related mystical writings coming under con- 
sideration here is the apocalyptic fragment preserved in Siddur 
'Amram Ga'on, 3 b, izb-i3 a; BH. vi. 19-30, v. 167-169, Yihus 
ha-sSaddiqim by Gaerson bsen 'Aser Scarmela, Mantua I56I. 1 This 
fragment may for the sake of convenience be referred to as i Ap. Ism. 
(i.e. the first Apocalpyse of R. Isma'el). 

At the end of i Ap. Ism. Metatron is represented as the head of 
all the heavenly household who are engaged in the incantation of the 

i Cf. M. Buttenwieser on 'Apocalyptic Literature, Neo-Hebraic', in JE. and 
Gaster in RAS.'s Journal, 1893, pp. 609 seqq. 



METATRON IN EARLIER MYSTICAL LITERATURE 97 

Q e dussa. He is possibly also thought of as in some way or other being 
connected with the coming salvation and the Messianic Kingdom. 

R. Isma'el, it is narrated, after having beheld all the sufferings 
stored up for Israel, is shown also the coming salvation and con- 
solation which are symbolized by David with a crown on his head, 
taking his seat on a throne prepared for him ' ' in the Great Temple in 
Raqi a< " with all the kings of the house of David in front of him and 
all the kings of Israel behind him. Being seated on his throne David 
begins uttering songs and hymns of praise. At the moment when 
David utters the JVU"Qfe?J"l1 nTW then also Metatron "and all his 
heavenly household " open their mouths and say, "Holy, Holy, Holy ", 
and the HayyoJ? respond, "Blessed be the Glory of YHUH from His 
place", i.e. the simple form of the Q e dussa attested also in 3 Enoch. 

The name ' Metatron ' does not occur elsewhere in i Ap. Ism. The 
angelic being from whom R. Isma'el receives the disclosures as to 
future events is called the "Prince of the Presence ". He is addressed 
by R. Isma'el as "the Glory of Splendours" (cf. the epithet given to 
Metatron in chh. 13,15, 16 et al., "the Glory of all heavens "). In the 
second part of i Ap. Ism. the angel is named Hadarniel and carries 
the same names and functions. It is possible, but by no means certain, 
that this angel is understood as identical with the 'Metatron' men- 
tioned at the end of the fragment. 

i Ap. Ism. is very closely related to 3 En. chh. 41-48 and evidently 
belongs to the same stage as our book. The only difference is that 
Metatron here seems to be in the process of being dissociated from 
the "Prince of the Presence" as he is in the Hek. R. 

There is also a hint of his being regarded as the celestial fT^fe? 
^TD^ as in later writings. (Cf . SodeRassa in YR. i. 58 b below, p. 120.) 

In Hekalop Rabbapi, ch. 26 8 , towards the end of a doxology to the 
Holy One, we find the following, somewhat obscure, passage : 



n\nns'i 

to 1 * psty nos prntfcBJi to 
tnpat? IIIBBP nn it n nn -n M M s 



.IBB? bsnaia mot? 
iff bKNTr 
nans na .IBB? 
p i\m 
nay PBBB n^n nunoa 



OHBI 



9 INTRODUCTION 

As ' Metatron ' here stands in the context, it would most naturally 
be taken as a Divine Name, on analogy with the Zoh a riel YHUH 
'^lohe Israel of aforegoing chapters in the Hefcalo]) Rabbapi, and this 
so much the more easily, as the letters preceding the ' Metatron ' in 
the first instance are the letters of the Divine Name. But against 
assuming ' Metatron ' here to be intended as a Divine Name there is 
the epithet given to him in the second place: ' ' JEbad YHUH, the 
Servant of YHUH. This, which moreover is a traditional and well- 
established epithet of Metatron as a separate angelic being, cannot 
very well be considered part of a Divine Name. 

Two possible solutions of the problem presented by the text of this 
passage in its present form may be suggested : 

(a) The word &OK (except) may have been dropped by a copyist 
before the ft^tf, the characters of both words being similar. This 
emendation would give the meaning : "No one ... is able to know Thy 
works or to search Thy wonderful doings. . .except. . .Metatron who 
is called by eight names, etc." 

(b) Another possibility is that the l ^Eb<zd YHUH after ' ' Metatron " 
in the second instance is a later insertion, especially in view of the 
immediately following Divine Attributes, " Longsuffering and 
Abundant in Goodness " (Ex. 34 6 ), which, it would seem, could hardly 
have been attached to a " Servant of YHUH ", not even to Metatron as 
a separate angelic being. 

One may venture to assume that the solution (a) is the more 
plausible one. In favour of interpreting Metatron here as the name 
of a high angelic being, not as a Divine Name, is the parallel in wording 
of the second part of the passage with ch. 12 of our book : " By reason 
of the love with which the Holy One loved me more than all the 
children of heaven, etc. ", cf . here : " By reason of the love with which 
they love him on high they call him in the camps of the holy ones : 
Metatron, the Servant of YHUH, the Longsuffering and Abundant 
in Goodness". 1 

It is noticeable that the conception of Metatron in Hek. R. is 
markedly sublimated as compared with 3 Enoch. He possesses the 
Divine Names, J Alcefa.ndBef>, and the Divine Letters, XX, HD>etc. The 



i The words "Longsuffering and Abundant in Goodness" possibly refer merely 
to the 'YHUH', not to 'Metatron'. Cf. however how in i En. 40", MIKAEL is 
called "the merciful and long-suffering". Also the Coptic Apocalypse of Paul (ed. 
Budge, Misc. Copt. T. pp. 547, 1067): "When all those who were suffering punish- 
ments [in hell] saw [Michael and all the hosts of the angels] they wept and they said 
unto him, ' Have mercy upon us, O Archangel of the Covenant, thou compassionate 
one, who dost pray for mankind at all times.'" 



METATRON IN EARLIER MYSTICAL LITERATURE 99 

is here already regarded as the central part of the name ' Metatron ' 
pltDtD/b and as one of the symbols of the fact that he has 'the 
Divine Name' within him. (in accordance with Ex. 23 21 ). 1 

Metatron is further, in this passage, represented as alone of all 
celestials possessing knowledge of all God's works and His wonders, 
especially the 'Secrets of Creation' in perfect agreement with 
3 En. ii and 48 c 7 . 

He is said to have several names. Of these are important, firstly 
Sagn e sagiel, the occurrence of which here shows clearly how firmly 
this name was associated with that of Metatron in different sources, 
and secondly Y e hoeL The mention of Y e hoel (which is the equivalent 
to the variant forms 'YaoeP, 'YaoF, 'YoeP, 'Yahoel' occurring in 
other writings) as an essential name of Metatron corroborates the 
identity between ' Metatron ' and Yaoel of The Apocalypse of Abraham 
emphasized by G. H. Box in his edition of this work. 2 The peculiar 
endowment shared by both Yaoel and Metatron is the possession of the 
Divine Ineffable Name, and, bound up with this, the function or 
position of God's "vice-regent, second only to God himself ".3 

Metatron in relation to ' ' the Prince of the Presence " ace. to theHefcalop 
Rabbapi. Metatron and "the Prince of the Presence" are viewed as 
two essentially distinct angelic figures. Moreover, whereas Metatron 
is contemplated as a being of extraordinarily high position, the Prince 
of the Presence, having been severed from Metatron, is in process of 
degradation. 

The Prince of the Presence, named as Surya or Suriel, is the angel- 
prince who gives R. Isma'el disclosures as to the reasons for the 
Divine decree concerning the ten martyrs-to-be and informs him of 
the retribution reserved for the future (Hek. R. 6). This part of the 
Hekalop Rabbapi is very closely related to i Leg. Martyrs. 

The name "Surya, the Prince of the Presence" further occurs in 
a context describing the various constituent parts of the Mcerkaba. 
As a sort of highest figure of the Meerkaba apart from the Throne of 
Glory is mentioned: " Surya, the- Prince of the Presence, the Servant 

1 Metatron as being inherent in the Divine Name ' Alcef is the notion that forms 
the starting-point for the whole exposition of the Enoch-Metatron piece, ch. 48 c 1 
seqq. When pronouncing the Divine Name 'Alcef (see the enumeration of the 
Divine Names in 48 B) the mystic was to concentrate his mind on ' Metatron ' or 
rather on the inter-relations between the Holy One and Metatron, which inter-relations 
were summed up in the words " 'ibbartiu, l e qahtiu, p e qaatiy." . The same is suggested 
by the presentation of 'Alcef as a name of Metatron here. 

2 G. H. Box, The Apocalypse of Abraham (TED.), p. xxv. 

3 G. H. Box, op. cit., ib. If Metatron were to be regarded here as itself a Divine 
Name, this would have to be considered as an anticipation of the later explicit 

identification of Metatron with the e kina. 

7-2 



100 INTRODUCTION 

of Tutr e fciel YHUH". When compared with ch. 22 on ' A nafiel and 
ch. 26 on Metatron, this passage (ch. I3 1 ) confirms the general im- 
pression given by Hek. R. that ' the Prince of the Presence ' is only a 
secondary angel-prince, surpassed not only by Metatron, but by 
iA nafiel and the seven (or fifteen) angel-princes under him. The 
"Servant of Tutr e kiel YHUH" is equivalent to the "Servant of 
Metatron as a representative of the Godhead". Metatron, on the 
other hand, is the "Servant of YHUH", /car' e^o^v. Between 
Metatron and the Prince of the Presence is ' <A nafiel', who is called 
simply ' Servant'. 

Also in ch. 14* the subservience of the Prince of the Presence to 
Tutrusiel is emphasized. Ace. to this passage, the man who wishes 
to immerse himself in the mystical Mcerkaba-state is to call upon 
(conjure) the Prince of the Presence, by the power of the names of 
Tutrusii YHUH, according to the usual form of the magical invoca- 
tions : a subordinate angel can be conjured by reciting the name or 
names of an angel in authority above him. 

In ch. 17 again there are preserved some features of the earlier 
conception of the Prince of the Presence as being associated with 
Metatron (here suggested by the name Tutrusii YHUH) and having 
several names. 

In ch. 22, the Prince of the Presence is expressly declared to be 
subordinate to ' ' A nafiel '. To the Prince of the Presence, it is said here,, 
only the angels outside the "presence of the Throne " prostrate them- 
selves, but before ' A nafiel "all on high and below fall upon their faces,, 
paying him homage". Cf. above, p. 86 f. <A nafiel here fills the 
function of a delegate. 

Ace. to Hek. R. 6^ 'the Angel of the Presence' is represented as 
the attendant of the Throne, the Mcerkaba-angels and the by-work 
of the McerkaM. This is the function assigned to Metatron in 3 En. 
48 c 4 , but whereas in 3 En. 48 c 4 Metatron is the Attendant-Super- 
visor of the Mcerkaba-angels, the 'Angel of the Presence' ace. to 
Hek. R. 6 X is the Attendant-Servant, (Cf. however Hek. R. 2 3 .) 

Thus, in Hekalop Rabbafii, there are mentioned THREE celestial 
beings who fulfil the functions and occupy the positions that in 3 Enoch 
are combined and attached to Metatron. The three celestial beings are : 

(1) The Angel or Prince of the Presence who is the guide, protector 
and informant of the Mcerkaba-seer, the attendant of the Throne and 
the Meerkaba, etc. 

(2) iA nafiel who is the Prince of the Princes and also to some 
extent the Prince of the World, primarily from the cosmic aspect. 



METATRON IN EARLIER MYSTICAL LITERATURE IOI 

(3) Metatron who is the bearer of the Divine Name(s), the sole 
angelic being in possession of the last secrets of the Godhead, the 
representative of the Godhead whose manifestation on the Throne 
is referred to by names that allude to the name ' Metatron ' : Tutrusiel, 
Tutrekiel, 'Anturos. This third celestial figure of the Hekdlop Rabbdpi 
is on a higher stage of sublimation, it would seem, than is Metatron 
in 3 Enoch. He is perhaps here at the beginning of the process in 
which he will eventually be identified with the S e kind. 

Masscekcep Hekdlop. In Mass. Hek. there is no mention of Metatron, 
nor indeed of any individual named angel-prince with the exception 
of the four princes appointed over the four camps of song-uttering 
angels: Mikael, Gabriel, 'Uriel and Rafael, ch. vi. i. Cf . 3 En. i8 4 , 
37 1 , i En. 4O 1 " 3 . As the Masseektep Hekdlop presents a developed 
Meerkdbd-pictme on the basis of that of Hekdlop Rabbdpi this 
absence of any reference to individual angel-princes with the said 
exception is simply an accident, due to the character of the subject- 
matter of this writing. 

The Legend of the Ten Martyrs. There seem to have been several 
works describing the mystical experiences of R. Isma'el, and hence 
closely related to 3 Enoch. One of these is the aforenamed i Ap. Ism. 
Another work of the same kind seems to have treated of R. Isma'el's 
last experiences during his earthly life. This work is now lost, but it has 
been used and embodied in the various quite late collections of popular 
legends of the Ten Martyrs who were put to death in the Hadrianic 
persecution, R. Isma'el being one of the supposed ten martyrs 

(rTD/JD \Tnri)' The two versions coming into consideration here may, 
for our present purpose, be referred to as i Leg. Martyrs (found in 
BH. v. 167-169) and 2 Leg. Martyrs (BH. vi. 19-36). J 

1 Leg. Martyrs, cf. Hek. R. 4 and 5. The Prince of the Presence, 
named as Suriel and Sagn e sdgiel, is here also the guide and informer of 
R. Isma'el. 'Suriel' is regarded as the characteristic name of the 
* Prince of the Presence ' in agreement with Hek. R. and TB. B e rdkop, 
51 a, which latter probably also belongs to one of the above-named 
works on R. Isma'el. The Prince of the Presence is essentially the 
guide of the Mterkdfid-seer. 

2 Leg. Martyrs. This version seems to be dependent upon the 
conceptions of 3 Enoch, especially in its later additional parts. Meta- 
tron is here expressly identified with 'the Prince of the Presence'. 
The following features may be recorded : 

i The 2 Leg. Martyrs as preserved in MSS. hitherto known also includes the 
i Ap. Ism. 



102 INTRODUCTION 



Metatron is the ' '^Ebced, the Servant of the Holy One (3 En. io 3 , 
48 c 1 , D 1 no. 17). 

Metatron hears the Divine decree "from behind the PargoS " in the 
form of a loud utterance by the Bap Qol. 

The conception of Metatron as having a sanctuary and altar of his 
own on high is here beginning to emerge. R. Isma'el beholds the 
Celestial Altar and asks Metatron about it. " The spirits of the righteous 
we offer upon it before the Holy One", is the answer, at which R.Isma' el 
exclaims: "Now I have learnt a thing the like of which I never heard 
before". Since the Celestial Altar was an old idea, the exclamation 
can only refer to the relation of Metatron and his subservient angels 
to the celestial altar and sanctuary. Cf. 3 En. 15 B 1 . 

Metatron is made the exponent of the central thesis of the mystical 
doctrine: everything below has its corresponding counterpart above, 

as it is formulated herernSy/^ W Tlbtih 2W J"!Jb hS- 

Metatron is associated with Gabriel, Gabriel being his assistant 
and representative. 

Metatron seems here to be connected with R. Isma'el in a more 
intimate manner than in 3 Enoch or in related works purporting to be 
the revelations committed to R. Isma'el by Metatron. Metatron, ace. 
to 2 Leg. Martyrs, was present at the birth of R. Isma'el, and the 
Holy One is said to praise R. Isma'el before Metatron every day 
with the words: " I have a Servant (' JEbceOT) on earth as thou art my 
'JEbced on high. His splendour corresponds to thy splendour and 
his appearance corresponds to thy appearance". This may be an 
expression of the cabbalistic speculations which make R. Isma'el one 
among the human carriers, embodiments, of the celestial essence (the 
Divine Spark) represented by Metatron, which human carriers are 
usually enumerated as (the spirit of) the first 'Adam, Enoch, the 
three Patriarchs, Joseph and R. Isma'el (cf. below, pp. 122, 123). 

B. THE CONCEPTIONS OF METATRON IN THE HEKALOp 
ZOTERApI AND IN THE SI'UR QOMA. 

The conceptions of Metatron met with in the works discussed in 
the preceding section show a development from the standpoint of 
3 Enoch towards a sublimation of Metatron and a concentration of 
the highest functions around this name with a consequent tendency 
of dissociating the less important ones from him and transferring them 
to angelic figures such as ' the Prince of the Presence ' and ' <A nafiel ', 
etc. This stage might perhaps, after the main sources, be called the 
Hefcalop-stage. 



METATRON IN EARLIER MYSTICAL LITERATURE 103 

Between this stage and the subsequent more subtle speculations 
on the Metatron ideas are to be placed the representations of the 
Si'ur Qoma and the HeMlop Zot e rdpi. 

(a) Siur Qoma, or Sefter ha-qQoma. 

The Si'ur Qoma as preserved in MSS. and in S. Raziel consists of 
several fragments which for critical purposes must be indicated here. 
As preserved in S. Raziel (ed. Warsaw, 1913) they are: 

(i) Fol. 30 b: a doxology, beginning "Baruk 'attd YHUH 
'^lohenu uElohe '"/bofienu, etc. " 

(ii) Ib. : the shortest and, probably, earliest of the Si' Mr-expositions, 
represented as a 'testimony* by Metatron to R. Isma'el as to the 
measures (sturim) of the manifestation of the Throne. 

(iii) Ib.: the piece "*dm e ru: kol ha-yyode at raz zee. mribtdh Id, 
etc." 

(iv) Fol. 30 b c : a new doxology to the Most High as King. 

(v) Fol. 30 c: a glorification to the Holy One beginning "Idk 
YHUH ha-gG e dulld ue-ha-gG e fiurd" . This fragment is missing in 
some of the MSS., e.g. Bodl. OPP. 467. 

(vi) Fol. 30 d, 31 a: a longer version of the &''r-exposition, 
probably, as (ii), belonging to the earliest strata of the Siur Qoma. 
R. Isma'el is here represented as beholding with his own eyes the 
manifestation of "the King of Kings" and, while beholding the 
Divine manifestation on the Throne, being told by Metatron the 
measures and names of the various parts of the Throne-manifestation. 

(vii) Fol. 31 a: a supplement to the preceding, purporting to be 
given by a disciple of R. Isma'el, R. Na]?an, on the authority of 
R. Isma'el. 

(viii) and (ix) Ib.: pronouncements by R. ' A qi~ba to R. Isma'el 
and by RR. ' A qiba and Isma'el in unison of the great value and 
importance of the secret embodied in the Si'ur Qoma. 

(x) Supplementary, additional expositions of the Throne-M<#r- 
&z-picture, fol. 31 a b. 

(xi) Fol. 31 b middle to 31 c: continuation of the preceding, but 
grouped round the conceptions of Metatron. 

(xii) Hymns and doxologies of various kinds. 

Summary of the conceptions of Metatron in the Si'ur Qoma. 
a. In (ii) and (vi). 

i. Metatron is the Prince who reveals the secrets to R. Isma'el and 
R. <A qit5a (ii) and (vi). 



104 INTRODUCTION 

2. The Angel, The Prince of the Presence (vi) and the Great Prince, 

Km K1B> (ii). 

3. The Witness ('Ed), the Great Prince of Testimony. Sara Rabba 
di-Sah a du])a, the Testifier of the Divine Majesty and Kingship. 

4. He has several other names beside Metatron ; some of these are 
formations by analogy from 'Metatron', quasi on nominal stems 
of the type 'ft Ion* or l f e 'afdn\ among them the Ru a h Pisqonip, 
Pisqon, 'itmon, Sigron of TB. Sanh. 44 b. 

J3. In (x) and (xi). 

5 . Metatron is the ' Prince of the Likeness of 'Adam ', i.e. the 'Adam 
Qadmon, the Archetypal man in the Divine Image (the Godhead being 

named D*Ttf). 

6. The Celestial Choirmaster (cf. Jaoel in Ap. Abr. chh. 10, 12), at 
the head of all the heavenly beings who chant the Q 6 dussa. 

7. Is seated on a throne beneath the Throne of Glory. 

8. Is called the Great Prince over all the Princes and over all the 
ministering angels (xi). 

9. Is the Celestial High Priest of the Heavenly Tabernacle, called 
after him Miskan ha-Na"ar (the Tabernacle of the Youth = Metatron). 

10. Recites the Divine Name in its universal aspect (in 70 tongues), 
hence is 

. 1 1 . The Prince of the World and the Representative of ' the King 
of the World'. 

12. As (a) heavenly Choirmaster, (b) celestial High Priest and also 
as (c) Prince of the World Metatron is called Youth, "lyj, which here 
equals Servant-Representative of the King of Kings of Kings (mcelezfc 
malke hamm e lakim). 

13. He is connected with Moses in accordance with the later tradi- 
tional identification of the Angel in Ex. 23 20 ~ 22 with Metatron. 

14. Metatron represents the 'first letter, 'Alcef through which 
heaven and earth were created, i.e. the fundamental creative essence 



(b) Hefcalop Zot e rdpi. 

The Hefealo]) Zot e rapi seems never to have been printed. The 
earliest MS. source the present writer has been able to find is the 
Bodleian MS. MICH. 9, foil. 66 a-jo b (copied A.D. 1042), following 
immediately on the HeMloj) Rabbapi and preceding fragments of the 
Siur Qomd (xi) and (xii). 

The Hekalo]) Zot e rapi (abbreviated Hek. Zot.) contains several 



METATRON IN EARLIER MYSTICAL LITERATURE 105 

fragments, mostly attributed to R. Ismail. Metatron here figures 
quite prominently. 

Foil. 68 b, 69 a. R. Isma'el narrates how his teacher R. N e honya 
basn ha-qQana for the first time brought him into touch with the 
"secret of the Tora" and with the experience of the Meerkafia-state. 
R. N e honya used the power of the ' Great Seal ' which contains the 
name of "Metatron YHUH the God of Israel, and which is the same, 

f\ j * 

Metatron YHUH, the God of heaven and earth, the God of the sea and 
the dry land". This expression seemingly implies that Metatron here 
is a Divine Name, but probably this is not the case; the right inter- 
pretation will rather be, that Metatron who of old is said to carry the 
Divine name YHUH has with this name also acquired that of ' '^lohim ' 
and the epithets mostly associated with it: ^ M lohe) Israel, * M lohe 
sdmayim ud- 'drees, etc. The use of the specific epithets here may 
furthermore indicate that Metatron is the representative of the Holy 
One both in relation to Israel and in relation to the cosmos : Prince of 
the World. 

Fol. 69 b. Metatron is clearly conceived of as an angelic or celestial 
being. The Talmide Hakam (i.e. the initiated among them) when 
watching and praying on nights are to recite the name of and invoke 
S e qad Hozi (cf . ch. i8 20 of our book) ; at the same time it is said that 
& e qad Hozi in reality is merely one of the various names of Metatron 
who besides S e qad: Hozi is called Margaziel, * Uzzydh, Gannunydh, 
Sasn e garydh, Surydh, Zarzariel, Pisqon, 'itmon, Sigron, Sangadydh, 
Z e haftarydh, Z e hcfod e ydh, Z e bodiel. Some of these names are those 
always associated with Metatron, others are in other contexts given 
as Divine Names and some are names of ' the Prince of the Presence ' 
(Surya, Margaziel, Z e haftaryah, ace. to Hekdlop Rabbdpi, xvii. i, 4, 5). 
The passage shows close affinity with the conceptions prevalent in 
the Hekalop Rabbdj)i. 

Fol. 70 a. With the Divine manifestation, indicated by the name 
Z e bodiel, is associated "Margaziel, that is Metatron in whom are the 
letters of the Divine Name ; and because of the love with which they love 
him on high the Princes of the Host on high (cf. ch. 17 of our book: the 
Princes of the Host = the seven archangels) call him Ziu-y e hi-el 
(= the Divine Glory; cf. Hek. R. xxvi. 8), the Servant ' ' JEbced of 
YHUH, the God of Israel blessed be He, YHUH the Lord God, 

rt ' ' /% " 

merciful and gracious, longsuffering and abundant in goodness" 
(Ex. 34 6 ). The latter part of the passage is an almost literal parallel to 
Hek. R. xxvi. 8 b, vide above. 
Fol. 70 b. The Holy One joins fellowship with man, even with a 



106 INTRODUCTION 

proselyte, provided he be clean from idolatry, bloodshed and y"}. 
"And sometimes I make Metatron, My Servant (' JEbeed), join fellow- 
ship with him, and with the disciple in the Tora (I cause him to join 
fellowship) frequently." This passage is important. It shows Meta- 
tron as the vicarius of the Deity even as regards the Divine Presence 
with man, the Divine Immanence. The Divine Immanence is a pro- 
nounced idea in Hek. R., where it is said, e.g. ch. xxvi. 4: "Thou, O 
God, dwellest in the heart of man". 

Fol. 67 b. Metatron is specially connected with the Divine Name 
iTnX *!&?&* iTHX. He occupies a Throne of Glory. The 'thrones' 
of Dan. 7 9 are explained as referring to the Divine Throne and the 
throne of Metatron. 

Whereas in Hek. R. some of the Metatron functions, i.e. the less 
important ones, are transferred to the Prince of the Presence and to 
CA nafiel, in Hek. Zot. the angel-prince who is said to share the lesser 
functions of Metatron is Sandalfon. 1 In particular the cosmic aspect 
of Metatron is here carried by Sandalfon (crwaSeA<os) : he is the 
'Alfa, or simplest creative agency; cf. above on Siur Qoma, point 14. 

C. THE CONCEPTIONS OF METATRON IN THE WRITINGS 
ASSOCIATING METATRON PARTICULARLY WITH MOSES. 

The next stage in the development of the Metatron speculations is 
indicated by the appearance of a strong emphasis on the relation 
between Metatron and Moses. This relation between Metatron and 
Moses, which apart from TB. Sank. 38 b and Midras passages is 
merely hinted at in the later additional part of Si'ur Qoma (point 13 
above), is nowhere found in the literature hitherto under consideration. 
Likewise, in 3 Enoch, it does not occur in the main part of the book, 
but only in the later, additional, pieces, e.g. 48 D, 15 B. With the 
appearance of the speculations on Metatron's particular relation to 
Moses, this idea or nexus of ideas has never subsided, but can be 
attested all through the history of mystical and cabbalistic literature 
up to the present-day H a sid writings. 

The works dealing with the subject in question are firstly the various 
versions of what may be called Ascensions of Moses and Revelations 
of Moses. 

i. Ascension of Moses: G e dullap Mosee or Midras K e pappu a h 
ba-' a se ha-yya ( ar, ed. Salonica, 1727; see also Wertheimer, Bate 
Midrasoj>, iv; Gaster, RAS.'s Journal, 1893, pp. 572 seqq. Here 

i Perhaps to be connected with the current conception of two Divine Sons. On 
this vide H. Leisegang, Der Bruder des Erlosers (in AITEAO2, i. pp. 24-33). 



METATRON IN EARLIER MYSTICAL LITERATURE 107 

Metatron announces himself to Moses as " Enoch, the son of Jared ". 
He is the guide of Moses during his ascent through the heavens, and 
instructs Moses about the* wonders of the various r e qi ( im. When 
proceeding from the seventh heaven to visit Paradise and Gehenna, 
Moses is given over into the charge of Gabriel who here, as in 2 Leg. 
Martyrs, is represented as the assistant of Metatron : he can be en- 
trusted with works or duties of Metatron which are, as it were, of a 
less exacting or responsible nature. 

2. Revelation of Moses. There are two recensions: one where 
Moses himself is introduced as the speaker, the other where he is 
spoken of in the third person. 1 

Of the former recensions only fragments are preserved, and these 
in a very corrupt textual condition. Metatron is the judge of all the 
troops of angels on high. Further he is the executor of the Divine 
decrees. He is associated with Mikael, Gabriel and Y e fifyah, the 
Prince of the Tora. 

The latter recension, in a context giving the narrative preserved 
also in the additional chapter, 3 En. 48 D 4 , states that the Tora was 
given to Moses after his having forgotten it, by the two princes, 
Y e fifyah and Metatron. Y e fifyah is the instructor of Moses in the 
'exoteric* Tora, Metatron again is the revealer of the esoteric 
doctrines embodied in it: "the Secrets of the Tora", "the Names 
hidden in it" as the expression runs (the 'Names' are the Divine 
Names which constitute the essential secret of the Tora). 

3. A fragment of another Ascension of Moses is found in the addi- 
tional ch. 15 B of our book. Here Metatron is the Intermediary 
between the Holy One and Moses and the Supreme Advocate of 
Moses and Israel. Metatron commits to Moses "the letters of the oath 
through which a breaking of the covenant is made impossible". The 
letters in question are the mystical, cosmic, 'essential' letters which 
constitute the elements of the Divine Names, of the Tora, of the 
Abstract Qualities sustaining the world, and of the whole visible and 
invisible universe. (The ' oath ' here seems to denote a sort of magical 
formula, almost an amulet, which would safeguard Moses against any 
transgression of the Tora, against " bringing guiltiness upon himself".) 

Secondly, to this stage should be assigned the so-called Sword of 
Moses, Harba d e Mosce* 
In the Sword of Moses we meet with most of the angelic and 

1 The former recension is found in Siyyuni, Parasa Ua'as]?hannan, in YR. ii. 66 b, 
and in the so-called 'Haggattap S e ma 'Israel'. The latter in YR. ii. 67 b, Siyyuni, 
same parasa, 'Arze Lftianon, 46 b, and in an Aramaic version in Zohar, ii. 58 a. 

2 Ed. by M. Gaster, London, 1896. 



10 8 INTRODUCTION 

Divine names found in the Hekalop Rabbapt and Zot e rapi. Page ii : 
" Yofiel Mitatron who is called. . .the Glory on high". (Yofiel is the 
third name of Metatron, 3 En. 48 D 1 .) Page iv: Metatron is one of the 
high angelic or celestial beings who help man in his quest for the 
highest. In the same context are found the names: Miqtatron, 
Yehoel, ' A nafiel. 

As the other writings belonging to this stage, the Sword of Moses 
reflects the traditions of 3 Enoch, and is probably partly dependent on 
this book. Thus Metatron is the Prince of the Presence, the Youth, 
Mar, Servant ('JEbced), before the King of the World. He is the 
mightiest of all the heavenly household; He is ever standing ministering 
before the King of the World and THE S S KINA is WITH HIM IN EVERY 
PLACE. 

Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, it is further stated, comes 
down to earth and reveals the secrets of above and below to the 
initiate who invokes him. The attempt to meet the Prince of the 
Presence is preceded by ascetic practices, fasts, ablutions, etc. 

Metatron has fourteen names and a number of Kinnuyim for each 
of these fourteen names. The fourteen names in question are first of 
all the much-repeated (i) Ru a h Pisqonlp, (2) 'Itmon, (3) Pisqon, 
(4) Sigron, which are found in TB. Sank. 44 a; further (5) M&Y, 
(6) MIQON, (7) 'Astam, (8) Saqtam, (9) Y e hoiel, (10) Yofiel, (n) Sas- 
niel Yah, (12) Qangiel Yah, (13) Z e bodiel and (14) S e negron. 

In terms reminding of 3 En. 13 and 41 it is asserted: "By these 
fourteen all secrets and mysteries and all signs and seals were made, 
and also the foundations of heaven and earth ; four of them are written 
on the heads of the Hayyop, four of them on each of the four sides of 
the Throne, four of them on the four crowns upon the heads of the 
'Ofannim, and two of them are graven on the Crown of the Supreme 
King, the High and Lifted up". 

Thus Metatron is, in the Sword of Moses, emphasized as the 
Knower, Guardian and Revealer of the Secrets, as the Prince of the 
World with cosmic power, as the Prince of the Presence, the Prince 
of the Throne and of the Mcerkabd-smgels and, lastly, as the bearer 
of the S e kina. 



D. METATRON IN ALPHABET OF R. '^QIBA, REVELATIONS 

OF R. SIMEON BEN YOHAI, 2 AP. ISM., ETC. 
In the Alphabet of R. ' A qifia, rec. A, there is no consistent or 
uniform representation of Metatron, as would be expected also, 
seeing that this work is merely a collection of scattered fragments 
from different sources and times. 



METATRON IN EARLIER MYSTICAL LITERATURE 109 

Letter 'Alsef . Metatron is the elevated Enoch, the son of Yared. He 
is the Prince or head of the Mterkafia-angels, and, by implication, of 
all the angelic beings ; his function of principal Witness and Testifier 
is alluded to. 

Letter Kaf. Metatron is the Prince of the Presence, the '^Ebted, and 
brings the congregation of Israel before the Holy One. 

Letter Sade. "Because Moses humbled himself and said: 'I am 
of uncircumcised lips ' (Ex. 6 12 ) he was worthy of becoming a messenger 
between the Divine Majesty (G e buro) and Israel, as it is written 
(Deut. 5 5 ) : ' I (Moses) stood between the Lord and you ', whereas not 
even Metatron is able to stand between the Divine Majesty and men of 
flesh and blood." Metatron, although evidently known as an angel 
of exceptional position, is here explicitly declared not to be a mediator 
between man and God, not even a messenger. This is of course in 
glaring contrast to the representations of the preceding writings. 

The impression given by Alphabet of R. (A qifia, so far as the 
conceptions of Metatron are concerned, is that this compilation as a 
whole is not interested in the specifically mystical implications or 
import of the Metatron figure, but is familiar with the general 
expressions and terms of the mystical literature, and uses the con- 
ceptions current there for its own purpose, which is of a more homi- 
letical and haggadic character. Already from a comparison of the 
passages just quoted the impossibility is apparent of regarding the 
Enoch-Metatron piece, 3 En. 48 c, as originating from Alphabet of 
R. lA qiba or even as having from the beginning formed part of it. 
Cf. note on 3 En. 48 B beg., c beg. 

Revelations of R. Simeon ben Yohai (Pcerceq R. Sirnon been Yohai, 
vide "Sources and Literature", 3 B). Metatron is the Prince of the 
Presence, has knowledge of the Divine decrees and the reasons 
behind them and reveals them to the seer. This is further elaborated 
in T e filla]> R. Sun on been Yohai. 

Similarly in 2 Ap. Ism. ('Aggadaj) R. Isma'el, see "Sources and 
Literature", 36) Metatron, as the Prince of the Presence, is the 
informer of R. Isma'el as to future events: the coming Messianic 
salvation will be prepared by the wars between the Islamitic and 
Roman powers. These two apocalypses, which must date from the 
end of the seventh or the beginning of the eighth century, are re- 
modellings upon the pattern of the earlier apocalypses, especially 
i Ap. Ism. 

Angelological fragment. In Bodl. MS. OPP. 649, fol. 102 a, col. b, 
there appear a few quotations from ' Massaskae]? Hekalo]? ' which how- 



HO INTRODUCTION 

ever have nothing to do with the Masscekcep Hefcalop known to us. The 
fragment enumerates various high angel-princes as performers of 
different parts of the heavenly liturgy, or as singing the various songs 
with different intents. The quotations are interesting in so far as 
they show the angelic names in the earlier literature regarded as 
names of Metatron here being conferred on separate angel-princes 
forming the companions or associates of Metatron. 

Metatron is here the chief of the angel-princes who utter the e mcf . 
With him are " 'Immiel, Yofiel, J Af 'appiel, Socfyah, Surtaq, <A nael, 
Pisqon, 'Itmon, Sigron, Pastam and Paspassim". 

The fragment reflects the conceptions of 3 En. 15 B as regards the 
chanting of the Celestial fyma* and Metatron 's function as Super- 
visor of the performance of the Celestial Songs. This is also closely 
connected with the Moses-Metatron traditions. 

In the various versions of Midras P e tira]> Mosce Metatron, called 
Zagn e zagiel (cf. 3 En. 48 D 1 no. 105, 2 and note, i8 n note) and the 
' Prince of the World ', is the teacher of Moses during his lifetime and, 
accompanied by Mikael and Gabriel, takes care of Moses' spirit 
(n e sama) at his death. Cf. P. Targum to Deut. 346 , Deut. R. xi. 
These writings of course build upon the earlier Moses-Metatron 
literature referred to under C above. 

Ace. to The Chronicles of Jerahmeel (ed. Gaster), 54 8 , Metatron is 
able, on God's commission, to throw down the Egyptian wizards 
Johanai and Mamre from heaven whither they had been able to 
ascend through their knowledge of witchcraft, whereas Mikael and 
Gabriel were unable to do anything against them. Here Metatron is 
clearly conceived of as mightier than the old archangels and princes, 
Mikael and Gabriel. 

In the Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur, ed. by J. A. Mont- 
gomery, no. 25 (CBS. 16,009, p. 207), the following passage occurs: 
"Blessed art thou, YHUH, on account of the name of. . . Yofi'el thy 
name, Y e hi y el they call thee, Sasangi'el YHUH and so. . .names. . . 

[Arjmasa Mitatron Yah" [. . .DIBO D!E> miH btf HIIT /"H1K 

iV pi nin bx^D^ *\h np Saw y*& 

nD/b[~)X] Apart from the comparison that prompts 
itself between the names here associated with Metatron and ch. 
48 D 1>2 of our book (Targ. Y to Deut. 37 2 ) the importance of the 
inscription cited consists in its apparent identification of Metatron 
with Hermes (Armasa) ; vide the interesting and convincing interpre- 
tation by Professor Montgomery, op. cit. pp. 99 and 208. 



METATRON IN EARLIER MYSTICAL LITERATURE III 



It may be noted, by the way, that the name 7N^JD^ here is only 
another of the many different forms (and corruptions) of Sagn e sagiel 
(i En. iS 11 , 48 D 1 ' 2 , and notes ad loc.). 

As will have been seen there are , after the Hekalo]?-stage, very few new 
developments of the Metatron ideas (at least so far as can be seen from 
the writings preserved) : in fact only the speculations on Metatron's 
connection with Moses, the revelations given to him, and with the 
Celestial 8 e ma are actual additions. This barrenness in new ideas con- 
tinues for a considerable time. The mystical writings contain reiterated 
references to Metatron, but these simply reflect the earlier traditions. 

The speculations on Metatron however received a new impetus 
with the rise of the cabbala (in its narrower sense). Now the earlier 
conceptions (esp. of 3 Enoch) were taken up and given a deep signi- 
ficance. In many cases it would seem that representations in the 
cabbalistic literature go back to very early (Gnostic) ideas, perhaps 
preserved in earlier writings now lost; in other cases again the late 
(mediaeval) origin is apparent. To illustrate the cabbalistic use of 
the Metatron figure it may be apposite here to give a short methodical 
survey of characteristic references found in this kind of literature. 

11. SURVEY OF THE CONCEPTIONS OF META- 
TRON IN LATER MYSTICAL LITERATURE 

A. Metatron the enthroned vice-regent of the Holy One. 

The technical term is 'misnce la-mMceltefr -. Tiqqune Zohar, 77 b. 

He is enthroned. " Because of the great love of His Master Metatron 
has authority to be seated on a Throne like the Throne of Glory " : 
Semop seel Metatron, MICH. 256, fol. 29 a; Midras Rup, 85 b. 

Liqqutim Ncehmadim, 26 a, declares expressly: 

Kim iKM'nnn DH^IS? mrrnsi vhdn rw IKM 

*]hftn T nnn 

"The Holy One made him the ruler over his celestial and terrestrial 
household " : ' Qabbala ' in Add. 27142, fol. 149. He is endowed with 
all the 'Middop ' of the Holy One : ib. 

"Little less than God" (i.e., probably, Ps. 8 5 refers to him: "Thou 
hast made him a little lower than '^lohim ") : Yalqut Hadas, Mai ^akim, 
51 (no. 29). 

He represents the Godhead to the 'outside' celestial and ter- 
restrial world: Pardes Rimmonim (ed. Cracow, 1591), fol. 93 d. 

The epithets 'Na'ar' and ' Z e qdn Bepo' are especially used to 



112 INTRODUCTION 

denote Metatron as the vice-regent: Zohar, i. 149 b, i. 181 b, iii. 
190 b. Cf. below, pp. 117 seq. 

As Sevrepos 6povo<$ Metatron is surrounded by the 70 (72) 
Princes; cf. below (Ma* a reekcep ha-'-lohup, n8b). In the same 
capacity he is the Attendant of the Throne of Glory: " In the end of 
time Metatron will make the Throne of Glory complete as a Throne 
of Judgement. Now it is carried only by three Hay y op, but then it 
will rest on all thefourffayyop, the Divine Kingdom will be complete ", 
says Semop seel Metatron, MICH. 256, 30 a. 

B. Metatron God's representative and ruler in the celestial world. 

(a) Over all the angels, and through all the celestial regions. 
"He is the chieftain of all angels and princes" is a commonplace 

expression: Zohar, i. 149 ab, 223 b; Yalq. Had., Mal'akim, 59, 72; 
Midras Rup, 85 b. 

An important idea is here: " Metatron gives maintenance to all the 
angels": Zohar, i. 229 a b, YR. i. 56 a, 60 a, ii. 40 b. This spiritual 
maintenance is allegorically expressed by the terms IDft (rain) and 
fj (manna). "All the angels receive their spiritual maintenance, 

yea, their very existence, from Metatron (*Q D^Nl^ D^ID). He is 
to the angelic world what the heart is to the body." Pardes Rim- 
monim, Gate xvi, ed. Cracow, 1591, fol. 92 b. 

"Metatron admonishes the angels to bathe and purify themselves 
in the N e har di-Nur every third day" : Semof seel Metatron, 40 b. 

Metatron has access to the 955 heavens, the inscrutable abode of 
the Godhead: YRL. Met. no. 33. Ace. to other traditions, however, 
only 900 of these are accessible to Metatron, the remaining being 
reserved for the Deity alone. 

(b) Special classes of angels under Metatron's authority. 

(i) In particular the 70 (72) princes of kingdoms. These are called 
the D >ta )5?J (Youths, Servants). They stand in the same relation to 
the Na'ar (Youth, Metatron) as the Na'ar to the Holy One: Tiq- 
qunim, 112 a. They are the angelic rulers over the world, hence figure 
prominently especially in contexts stressing Metatron's function of 
Prince of the World: Zohar, i. 149 a b. Cf. below. But they also 
represent the different aspects of the Divine Manifestation and its 
activities, and in this connection they are identified with the 70 (72) 
Divine Names: Ma^rc&kcep ha-' M lohup, 118 b (comm.). These 
aspects are united in Metatron, the ruler of the 70 (72) angels and 
possessor of the 70 (72) names, which are called Divine Powers 
: $ 119 a b. Cf. M e gall<2 iA muqop, i. 46 b. 



METATRON IN LATER MYSTICAL LITERATURE 113 

Metatron is appointed : 

(2) Over the " 12 angels of God" : Zohar, i. 149 a b. 

(3) Over the Mcerkaba-zn%e\s : Zohar, i. 21 a, 22 a, 223 b, iii. 
227 a. 

(4) Over Mikael and Gabriel: Yalq. Had., Mai. no. 27. 

(5) Over the "four Presences " : Zohar, iii. 227 a, and over the four 
camps of e "kina: YR. i. 21 a. 

(6) Over the angels of judgement: YR. i. 52 a (Tub ha-Aras). 

(7) Over the angels of the world of Y e sird: Mass. 'As. viii. 

(c) Metatron is the guardian of the inmost region of the e idna, the 
Holy of Holies, against the Q e Kfop: ' A sara Ma^mdrop, 122 b. 

(d) Metatron is the guardian of the celestial treasuries and the 
Halls. He is especially appointed over the 'secrets'. 

"Metatron is set over the Halls and all their splendours": Zohar, 
iii. 171 b. 

"All the keys are committed to him": Zohar, i. 37 b, 55 b, 181 b, 
223 b, iii. 171 b. The possession of the keys is symbolical of Meta- 
tron's possession of all the Divine secrets. 

Metatron commits the secrets to man (Zohar, i. 37 b) and to the 
spirits in heaven (Zohar, iii. 171 b). 

The 'Secrets' include the 'Mysteries of the Tora' and hence 
Metatron is called the 'Prince of the Tora '. He gave the (terrestrial) 
Tora to Moses, was Moses' teacher: Siyyuni on Ex. 3 2 ; YR. ii. 
10 b; S. Y e sira, RABAD'S Introduction (ed. Warsaw, fol. 9 a). 

Metatron teaches the Tora and its mysteries in heaven, and is the 
president of the heavenly Academy, &WO*fiJb ^: Zohar, iii. 
197 b ; YR. i. 31 b ; Sefeer ha-qQoma, OPP. 658, fol. 102 b. He "pro- 
pounds H a lakoJ> in the heavenly Academy": Tiqqune ha-zZohar, 
tiqqun no. 56. 

He is the Prince not only of the Tora but also of the whole classical 
Talmudic, Midrasic and Cabbalistic Literature: Add. 15299, fol. 
49 b, i.e. from him emanates, in the last instance, all knowledge of 
the mysteries of the Universe. 

(e) Metatron is the guardian of the spirits and souls in heaven, both 
before and after their earthly life. 

He is "appointed to give life to those who are to dwell in the dust 
(i.e. the spirits who are about to enter the life on earth) " : Zohar, i. 
181 b. He "assigns a 'star' for the newborn to enlighten his n e samd 
(spirit) during his life on earth": Tuft hd-'Arces, yr. i. 46 a. 

After death he " conducts the spirits and souls back to their places " : 

OHBI 8 



114 INTRODUCTION 

Zohar, i. 181 b. He introduces the n e sama (spirit) on high, saying to 
it : ' Enter, Enter ! ' : Zohar Hadds, 26 a. 

Metatron is the chieftain of the angels GABRIEL (for the righteous, 
or for Israel) and SAMMAEL (for the wicked or those outside Israel), 
who fetch the spirits from on earth by authority of Metatron, their 
leader: Tufi ha-'Arces, yr. i. 54 a. He is actually called "the Angel of 
Death": YR. i. 573. 

(Metatron has here taken over functions of old associated with the 
name of MIKAEL.) 

C. Metatron God's representative ruler over the world (Prince of 
the World); celestial judge of the world; executor of the Divine 
decrees; the representative of the Holy One to the individual; the 
protector, intercessor, intermediary and advocate. 

1 . In his capacity of ruler of the world Metatron is usually associ- 
ated with the 70 (72) princes of kingdoms, representing the different 
nations of the world. 

"Metatron, the Prince of the World, is the ruler over the princes 
of the nations. Metatron, not the Holy One, is the ruler of the 
nations, but Israel has the Holy One himself for its ruler": Yalq. 
Hadas, Mal'afcim, 57. 

"Metatron is the m e munnce over all the nations, and he understands 
their language" : Hcesced I 6 - Abraham, 'Ayin Mispdt, Nahar, no. 25. 

He gives maintenance to the world through the 70 (72) princes: 
Zohar, i. 229 a b. 

He is the K7?D of the World (the comprehensive unity) : Zohar, 
i. 45 a b. 

"All the ten S e firop clothe themselves in Metatron in order to 
work through him in the world. The Malkup (the tenth S e fira, 
representing the Unity of the Universe) rests in Metatron": Pardes 
Rimmonim, Gate xvi. ch. 4. 

2. "Metatron is the judge of the world": S. Talpiyyop, H3d; 
Raya M e heemna, par. Pinhas (Zohar, iii. 219 b seqq.). 

As judge he is the "head of the Celestial Be]? Din", "for he gives 
judgements and decisions in respect of all": Zohar, iii. 186 a (judge- 
ment is taken in the wide sense of general government as well as 
forensic judgement). 

He unites in himself the two attributes of Justice and Mercy : he is 
the head of the two groups of angels, the angels of Justice under 
'AZZA and the angels of Mercy under 'UZZIEL: MCL a r <%%<%]> ha-'^lohu]> 
fol. 117 b (comm.). 



METATRON IN LATER MYSTICAL LITERATURE 115 

"Metatron is called 'sar ha-pPanim' for he has two pdnim (faces): 
Justice and Mercy": YR. i. 57 a. 

He is of course the judge also of man after his death and functions 
at the Last Judgement: Semop seel Metatron, MICH. 256, fol. 30 a. 

He is the guardian of the strict fulfilment of the statutes of the 
Tora, "he has been entrusted with the 613 keys" (613 the number of 
the statutes of the Law) : Zohar, i. 223 b. 

Note. Outside the * Celestial BeJ> Din', i.e. when not contemplated 
in his function of judge, Metatron is always associated with the 
attribute of Mercy, cf. below. 

3. Metatron is the representative of the Holy One to individual 
men. 

" It was Metatron who showed himself to Moses and to the prophets, 

for filTypl rp*y did not show Himself to any man": Ma' a reekeep 
ha-^lohup, YR. i. 21 a. 

"When the Holy One chose a prophet and destined him to partake 
of the S e kina, it was Metatron who bestowed upon the prophet of 
the light of e kina": Semop seel Metatron, fol. 29 a. "When the 
Dibbur (the Divine Word) came to the prophet it was Metatron who 
spoke to him through the Bap Qol": ib. 

Metatron receives man's prayers, see below. 

4. Metatron protects man against evil: against $H VJS3 and the 
Q'K/op: YR. i. 60 b. 

Metatron is the ' Shield of man ' ; if only he remembers Metatron, 
when in danger, one will be delivered and rescued : Semop seel Meta- 
tron, foil. 29 a, 30 a. 

5. Metatron is the Intercessor, Intermediary and Advocate. 

He is called S E NEGRON (from crvvrfyopos) to denote him as an 
Advocate: YR. i. 60 b. 

He is the S e negor for Israel ; and when Satan tries to accuse Israel 
on high, Metatron makes him confused so that he is unable to bring 
forth his accusation: Semop seel Metatron, fol. 33 b. He records the 
merits of Israel and seals the records: ib. fol. 29 a. 

"When the wrath of the Holy One is kindled against His children, 
then Metatron prays for them and transforms the Middap ha-dDin into 
Middap ha-Rah a mim (causes the Divine decrees to be determined 
by the attribute of Mercy instead of by the attribute of Justice) " : ib. 
fol. 40 b. 

Metatron is appointed to receive man's prayers: Yalq. Hadas, 
MaVakim, 9; Semop seel Metatron, foil. 33 b, 34 a. 

8-2 



Il6 INTRODUCTION 

"The way of the prayer is from man's heart to the Hasmal, from 
the Hasmal to Metatron, by Metatron it is brought behind the 
Pargod before the Throne of Glory" : M e gallce lA muqo]), 'Ofan 196. 

In this aspect Metatron is frequently associated with SANDALFON 
and ' A KA]?RIEL: YR. i. 59 b, 60 a, M e g. (A m. ii. 66 b. 

" ' A KA]?RIEL receives the Morning Prayer (the rVIPlBO, Metatron 
the Afternoon Prayer (the rtHJ/b) and SANDALFON the Evening 
Prayer (the fV3"iy)": M e gallce ' A muqop, i. 28 b. 

"Metatron is called SIGRON when shutting the doors through which 
the prayers are admitted into the celestial abodes, PIHON when 
opening them": Tiqqune ha-zZohar, tiqqun no. 56. 

Like SANDALFON, Metatron binds crowns for His Master of man's 
prayers: Zohar, i. 37 b; M e g. ' A m. ii. 66 b (cf. TB. H a giga, 13 b). 

Ace. to some, men should pray not to JTITyn fi Ttf (the un- 
manifested Deity) but to Metatron, for Metatron is appointed over 
this world: Add. 27142, fol. 109 a b. 1 

" Israel prays to the Holy One and to Metatron ", states S. Heseeq, 
MICH. 256, fol. 33 b (comm.). 

D. Metatron receives special names and appellations indicating 
his high position. He is called by the Divine Names, YHUH, '^LOHIM, 
s ADD AY, etc.; is called Na'ar and 'Ullema (Youth, Child), Zdqen y 
Z e qdn Bepo or Saba d e -Be]>a (Steward, the Eldest Servant of His 
house); the Prince of the World; the Prince of the Presence; is 
identified with the 'Angel of YHUH', with Y E HOEL, etc., and has 
' numerous names '. 

i. The expression "whose name is like the name of His Master" 
with reference to Metatron seems to have been associated with 
the conception of Metatron from its very origin. Metatron was called 
the ' Lesser YHUH ' to denote him as vice-regent and 'second Throne '. 
When Metatron was identified with the angel of YHUH and with 
Y E HOEL, or as a cause of this, the appellation in question found its 
scriptural support in Ex. 23 21 : "for my name is in him". 

And, very much later, even a series of gematrical supports were 
invented, of which the most well known is that which points to the 
equal numerical value of pntOtO/D and Hfe?. (The theory pro- 
pounded lately by Moore in Harv. Theol. Rev. loc. cit. infra, viz. 
that the expression was derived from the original identity of Mikael 

i They are reported as arguing: 

ntmo iff ff'w insi 



METATRON IN LATER MYSTICAL LITERATURE 117 

and Metatron, Metatron being merely an appellative used of Mikael, 
is inadmissible, since the expression is not used with regard to 
Mikael, whereas it is inseparably bound up with the name of Metatron. 
The connection between Y E HOEL of Ap. Abr. and Metatron on this 
point, contended by Box cf. below is, on the other hand, confirmed 
by earlier as well as later mystical literature.) 

(a) Metatron is very frequently called jftp HIPP, the Lesser 
YHUH: Ma a rtefc<%p ha- tj lohup, 119 b ("for he possesses the Divine 

Letters, which are Divine Powers, JlVrPtf DIIID by which he 
performs everything"). This is said to be Metatron's real name. 
Uidduy Yafce, 134 a, 'Qabbala* in Add. 27142, fol. 109 a b. 

(ft) He is also called simply YHUH and also '^lohim, Sadday, etc. 

" In his rulership over the world he bears the Divine Name Sadday, 
but when ascending on high, he bears the name of his Master, 
YHUH": Zohar, i. 149 a b. 

"He is called Yah and Sadday": S. Hesceq, Add. 27120, foil. 



"Metatron is called YHUH and '^LOHIM, 'JEHYIE >A JER ' 
SA DONAY and has many other names": Ma a refcce]> ha-' M lohuj>, foil. 
118 b, 119 b. 

"The 72 Divine Names are also names of Metatron": ib. n8b. 

2. The appellation Na'ar occurs almost as frequently as the name 
Metatron itself. Cf. Zohar, i. 37 b, 223 b, ii. 66 b, 94 b, iii. 171 b; 
Zohar Hadas, 69 b. In later cabbalistical literature it is exactly 
synonymous with Metatron ; hence it does not, as a rule, denote any 
special function or office of Metatron. Various functions of Metatron 
are, in various contexts, linked with the epithet of Naar. 

"He is called Naar because he performs the service of a 'na'ar' 
tg) before the e kina": Pardes Rimmonim, 161 b. 
He is called Na'ar, for he is the Prince of the World who said 
TGDT DJ1 TlTl "flft (' I k ave been a na'ar youth and now I am 
old', Ps. 37 25 )": Zohar, i. 181 b (contested by the Tosaphists; cf. 
note on 3 En. 3). 

The Aramaic equivalent is 'ullema: Zohar, i. 223 b (used especially 
to denote Metatron as the manifestation of the S e kina). 

The quotation from Ps. 37^ is made the basis for the connection of 
the appellation Na'ar with that of Zaqen. The Zaqen is most often 
used in the sense of Steward, the Eldest Servant of his house, alluding 
to Gen. 24 2 : "Metatron rules over all that the Holy One has". 

Metatron. . .is the % e qan bepo (the eldest of his house) ace. to the 



" 



" 



Il8 INTRODUCTION 

word 'I have been a naar and now I am a zaqen\ viz. the one 'who 
rules over all that He has', for all colours are seen in him": Zohar, 
i. 181 b. Cf. Yalq. Hddds, MaVakim, 98; YR. i. 60 a. 

The appellation 'AZbced also occurs frequently. This is connected 
with the z e qdn bepo. As Eliezer, the z e qdn bepo of Abraham, was the 
servant ('cebced), so Metatron, the z e qdn bepo of the Holy One, is called 
'cebced. He is also identified with the 'cebced YHUHof Isaiah. YRL. 

^ 

Met. 2; Yalq. Hddds, Mai dfcim, 39 = 59; YR. i. 59 b, 60 a b. 

3. Metatron is frequently termed 'the Prince of the World' which 
naturally denotes his rulership over the terrestrial world (see above 
under C), but sometimes is interpreted differently. Hcescedl 6 - 'Abraham, 
Mispat 25; 'Emteq ha-mMcelcefc, yr. i. 57 b; Ma a rcencep hd-'^lohup, 
89 b. 

"Metatron is the Prince of the world of Y e sird": M e g. ' A m. 'Ofan 
118; ' A sdrd Ma? a mdrop, yr. i. 54 a; YR. i. 60 a ( >A kaJ>riel the Prince 
of B e ri'a, Metatron the Prince of Y e sird, and Sandalfon the Prince 
of lA siyya). 

"Metatron is the Prince over the rulers of Y e sird": Meg. lA m. 
i. 66 a. 

"Metatron is the Prince of the World, for he is appointed over the 
performance of the Songs on earth to collect them and bring them 

before the Holy One": Hcesced l e - J Abraham, 'Ayin 73. 

Prince of the World, "for he functioned at the Creation" (Ma a r. 
hd-'EL 89 b and frequ.; cf. TB. Hullin, 60 a), or was the cosmical 
protogonon or the 'Adam Qddmon (Hcesced l e - y Abraham, Mispat 25). 

4. As in earlier literature Metatron is called the 'Prince of the 
Presence', DUfin ^l^. This is usually taken in the sense of "the 
Prince who has access to the Divine Presence or who represents the 
Divine Presence to man". Playing upon the word pdnim (face) a 
cabbalistic passage explains the epithet as follows: "He is called the 
Prince of the Pdnim for he has two Pdnim, Judgement and Mercy " 
(YR. i. 57 a, cf. above p. 115). 

The Aramaic equivalent is j^tfl tfj/b/b which shows that the 
D 1 ^ was understood as 'face(s)': Midras Rup, 85 b. But even in 
Aramaic contexts the form D*Jn 12^ is the usual: Zohar Hadds, 
26 a et al. 

"My presence shall go with them (Ex. 33 14 ) refers to Metatron": 
Bahya, Comm. on the Pentateuch, Ex. 23 21 . The Prince of the Presence 
represents the Divine Presence. 

There is no ' class of angels of the presence ' mentioned in cabba- 
listic literature (cf. Book of Jubilees, 2 2> 18 , 15 27 , 3i 14 ). But the function 



METATRON IN LATER MYSTICAL LITERATURE 1 19 

of ' Prince of the Presence ' is sometimes distributed among the three 
angels >A KA]?RIEL, Metatron and SANDALFON: M e g. tA m. i. 10 c. 

"Metatron is the Prince of the Presence on the side of ^ItD (Good) 
and SAMMAEL the Prince of the Presence on the side of.JH (Evil)": 
YR. i. 58 a. 

5. Metatron is identified with the "angel of YHUH". It was 
Metatron who showed himself to Moses in the burning bush : M e g. 
lA m. 'Ofan 277 ; cf . Siyyuni on Ex. 3 2 . 

The "angel of YHUH" of Num. 22 22 seqq. (who appeared unto 
Balaam) refers to Metatron: Zohar, iii. 186 a. 

The " Redeeming Angel " of Gen. 48 16 is Metatron : Zohar, i. 232 a. 
Tiqqune ha-zZohar, 112 a. 

Naturally Metatron is identified with the angel of the Lord in 
Ex. 23 20 ~ 22 . In this connection he is also usually identified with 
Y E HOEL. "Metatron is called Y E HOEL, and he was meant by the YHUH 
in Ex. 24 1 , 'Come up unto YHUH' HVT ^tf M^tf, for the letters 
of nilT Stf are those of ^KIJT (Y E HOEL)": Add. 15299, fol. 45 b. 
Cf. B e rip M e nuha, 4 c d and YR. ii. 64 b. 

6. Metatron has numerous names. He has 70 names: Siyyuni on 
Gen. n 5 , YR. i. 60 b. He is bearer of the 70 (72) Divine Names: 
Ma'vrtefteep ha-'^lohup, 118 b. 

He has 60 myriads of names, each name signifying a specific 
function of his : Tiqqune ha-zZohar, tiqqun 56. 

Semop seel Metatron, MICH. 256, foil. 29 a~44 a, enumerates and 
comments upon 77 names of Metatron. These are found also in 
S. Hesceq. 

E. Metatron is the translated Enoch. The influence of the Hebrew 
Book of Enoch on this point is very marked. From Zohar onwards 
the conceptions of the elevation of Enoch into Metatron are made the 
basis for highly mystical speculations on the pilgrimage of the. souls, 
the descent of the spirit to the terrestrial world and its ascent again to 
its celestial home. Cf. below under H. 

The Enoch-Metatron ideas are connected with Gen. 5^, "he was 
not for God took him", and Enoch's elevation into Metatron- Naar 
is based on Proverbs 22 6 "tyy? TDM, which is interpreted "Enoch 
was made into the Naar, i.e. Metatron": Zohar, i. 37 b, 223 b; 
Midras Rup, 85 b. In Zohar, i. 223 b, the dependence upon 3 Enoch 
is indicated by a reference to " those (well-known) Baraipas ". 

The sequence 'Enoch Metatron' or, sometimes, 'Metatron Enoch' 
is very frequent. Cf. e.g. Zohar iii. 189 a b; M e g. iA m. i. 46 d, 47 b. 



120 INTRODUCTION 

Metatron retains the functions of Scribe, Witness, Testifier 
associated with him on the ground of his identity with' Enoch. 
Scribe: Tiqqune ha-zZohar, tiqqun 56. Witness, Testifier (of men's 
deeds) : YR. i. 57 a, 58 a. 

F. Metatron is connected with the Divine Service in heaven. He 
has a Tabernacle of his own. MikaePs function of Celestial High 
Priest is sometimes transferred to Metatron. He is further represented 
as the S e li a h Sibbur, the Celestial Choirmaster and the supervisor of 
the performance of the celestial ' Songs '. 

"There are two celestial Tabernacles. One is concealed in the 
highest and is to be revealed only in connection with the manifestation 
of the world to come. The other is the Tabernacle that was existent 
ideally before the Creation, but was not established until the moment 
when the Tabernacle on earth was completed. This tabernacle is the 
'tabernacle of Metatron Naar\ In the Tabernacle of Metatron 
Mikael is the High Priest": Zohar, ii. 143 a, 159 a. 

Zohar, ii. 159 a, explicitly denies that Metatron performs the 
service of High Priest in the Tabernacle of Metatron. The passage 
instead intimates that Metatron represents the Deity in the second 
Tabernacle. It quotes, however, a tradition ace. to which the Holy 
One showed Moses the celestial Tabernacle and Metatron performing 
the service in it. 

Metatron has two immediately subordinate angels, viz. 'UZZIEL 
and 'AZZA. Of these 'UZZIEL is the celestial High Priest: YH., Mai. 

"Metatron JTntfMtf is tne High Priest in heaven": Semop seel 
Metatron^ MICH. 256, fol. 29 a. 

"Metatron is the priest officiating at the Celestial Altar": Zohar 
Hadas, Midras ha-nNce ics lam, 25 d. 
' "Metatron is the &li a h Sibbur on high": YR. i. 58 b. 

"Metatron is the Hazzan on high": YR. ib. 

"Metatron is appointed over all the ' Songs ' that are sung on earth 
to collect them and bring them before the Divine Presence " : Hcesced 
l e -' Abraham, l Ayin Kol. 

"Metatron utters the ' Blessed ' f^fc^S " : YR. i. 60 b. 



G. Metatron has cosmical significance. He is the Cosmical 
Protogonon, the first of God's Creation. He is the creative power in 
the Divine Word, the first emanation, etc. He is the 'Adam Qddmon. 

"Metatron was the beginning of God's Creation": Yalq. Hadas, 
MaVakim, 59. 

means JW fc^O, 'He created six', viz. the six letters 



METATRON IN LATER MYSTICAL LITERATURE 121 

of the word Metatron"; "Metatron is the first of God's creation": 
Tiqqunim, 116 b. 

This is also expressed thus: "Metatron is the first letter, the 
'AL^F " : S. Raziel, 27 b. 

Metatron carries the whole world: Sent, seel Met. foil. 33 b, 40 b. 

Metatron is the creative power in the Divine Word (y e hi 'or, etc.) : 
Liqqutim Ncehmadim, 25 b. 

He is the Y e sod I 0ldm (the pillar of the world) : cf . below. 

The beginning of God's creation was Metatron who was the pro- 
totype of Man made by the Holy One in His image: Ma ta r<zkce]> 
ha-' M lohu]> (Hayyat), 169 b. 

The same is said in YR. i. 23 a, but is here connected with the idea 
of Metatron as the Spiritual Essence in the Righteous (cf. below). 
"God created man in his own image" (Gen. i 27 ) means: "God 
created man in the image of Metatron ". So long as he is worthy he 
carries the image of Metatron (within himself), but when not worthy 
the image of Metatron is exchanged by the image of Sammael: "In 
the image of '^lohim (read : in the image of Sammael) created he him ". 

H. Metatron is the S e kina or the Presence of S e kina in the world 
and in man. He is the First Spirit-Man, who at the same time is the 
vehicle of the Deity, and is present in the Righteous, and, in the last 
instance, in all men. He is the eternal, Spiritual-Divine Essence in 
man. In his identity with Enoch he symbolizes the pilgrimage of the 
spirit from its home in the Presence of the Deity through the different 
spheres of the Universe down to the terrestrial world and back again 
to its source. Here lies the real centre of gravity of the cabbalistic 
speculations on Metatron. 

i. We often find the expression " e kina, that is Metatron", when 
an examination of the contexts shows that what is really meant is that 
the S e kina is contained in Metatron, or manifested by Metatron. 
Metatron is the Xdyos of e kina, to speak in Neo-Platonic terms. 
He is the connecting link between the S e kina and the individual 
angels and spirits, and hence is represented as having his higher and 
lower spheres of existence or activity. This is expressed by the state- 
ment, that there are ' two Metatrons '. The one is ' Metatron the Great ', 
the other 'Metatron the Created'. The former is the S e kina or 'the 
body of e kina ', the other the angel-prince and celestial ruler. The 
former is distinguished from the latter by the insertion of the letter 
Yod: p^btO^ (Pardes Rimmonim, 93 d), to signify him as the bearer 
of the e kina (represented by the letter Yod, the N e qudda P e suta) 
this distinction is however not observed. 



122 INTRODUCTION 

"To the Great Metatron refers the Siur Qomd for he is the 
'Adam 'JElyon, i.e. the self-expression of the Deity in the First Spirit- 
Man": YR. i. 21 a. Another tradition has: "The Siur Qomd refers 
to the Created Metatron = 'Adam ha^Elyon " : YR. i. 59 b (H a Mm hd 
Rdzini). 

It was this Metatron who showed himself to Moses and the 

prophets for the HlT^H DTJ? did not show Himself to any man: 
M e g. ' A m. 'Ofan 277, YR. i. 21 a, 57 b. 

" He is the Glory of the Holy One " : YR. i. 58 b. 

" Man was created in the image of Metatron " : Yalq. Had., Mal' a ftim y 

47 '* . . '. . 

" S e kina is hidden in Metatron": Pardes Rimmonim, xvi. 4. 

"Sekina is clothed in Metatron": YR. i. 59 a. 

"The ten descents of the S e kina were in Metatron": YR. i. 58 a. 

"S e kina rests in Metatron" or "on the hands of Metatron": 
Semop seel Metatron, SAHSAHYAH, fol. 29 a. 

"Metatron is the body of S e kina." At the same time he is the 

manifestation of the First or Highest Spirit, the First Spirit-Man. 

-This Spirit is the "celestial bap zug of the Righteous", i.e. is present 

in all the righteous, as the vehicle of the Deity in them : Zohar, ii. 94 b. 

"Metatron was the first emanation of the Holy Spirit, he was the 
first Spirit (N e sdmd). From Metatron emanated all the individual 
Spirits and all the angels " : Liqqutim Ncehmddim, Add. 17807, fol. 25 b. 

In another metaphor: "Metatron is the Naar or 'Ullemd (son of) 
the 'Immd (here = S e kina)": Zohar, i. 223 b. 

2. (a) Metatron as the First Spirit from which all individual spirits 
have emanated is present in all the individual spirits and in all men 
as long as they keep in vital contact with their Divine- Spiritual source. 
The technical term for Man in vital connection with his Divine- 
Spiritual source is Saddiq, Righteous. 

Metatron hence is represented as present in all the righteous: in 
Enoch, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Elijah, Isma'el b. J ^lisV. He 
was the Spirit (N e sdmd) of the first Adam, but left him when he sinned : 
YR. i. 52 a (' A sdrd Ma^mdrop}, Hessced l e - 'Abraham, Mispat 25 ; YR. 
i. 57 a ^Emceq ha-mMcelcefy. Metatron was in Joseph: M e g. * A m. 
i. 66 b, 45 a; ' A sdrd Ma' a mdrop, 122 b. He was in Noah: M e g. JA m. 
i. 5 b. The outstanding saints, 'prophets', 'righteous' were the 
Avataras of Metatron. 

(b) Metatron as the Spiritual essence in man is expressed by the 
terms of "the madrega of Metatron", "H^Sj? KTTT" (the Celestial 
Light, the Divine Spark), "the middle column = 'Ammuda d e ' M msd- 



METATRON IN LATER MYSTICAL LITERATURE 123 

'ipa ", the " Spirit of the First Adam," etc. 1 (Cf . how in Pistis Sophia 
both the Great Yao and the Little Yao carry the epithets "he of the 
middle", "the good, he of the middle", "the great captain (fjyov- 
/-tepos) of the middle" (ed. Horner, pp. 6, 97, 187, ed. Schmidt, 
pp. 7, 8, 126, 241,* ed. Mead, pp. 10, 163, 300 f.).) 

Metatron represents the pilgrimage of the spirit, its descent and 
ascent. Metatron's identity with Enoch symbolizes the descent of 
the spirit into earthly life, into the existence as a terrestrial man, and 
the ascent of the terrestrial man into a celestial being. It will not be 
out of the way to compare here Pistis Sophia (ed. Horner, p. 180, 
ed. Schmidt, p. 232): " taw, t'cuu, t'aou: This is its interpretation: iota, 
the Universe came out, alpha, they will turn them, 6, will become the 
completion of all the completions ." 3 Cf . also below (c) and the equation 
the Divine in /cdoy-tos = the spiritual in man (vide Reitzenstein, 
Mand. B. des Herrn der Grosse, p. 5, and Iran. Erlos. Myst. passim.). 

The 'Ammuda d e - >M msaif>d represents both good and evil; the 
direction downwards (the descent of the spirit) represents evil, the 
direction upwards represents good: M e g. tA m. ii. 59 b. 

Metatron is the ladder in Jacob's vision, on which ladder the 
angels were descending and ascending: M e g. tA m. i. 45 a; ib. 'Ofan 
196. He is the Saddiq, the Righteous, as the Pillar of the world, the 
Foundation of the Universe, ace. to Proverbs zo 25 : Add. 27142, 
fol. 109, S. Talpiyyop, n d. In this Saddiq the 'Ammuda d e -* M msa- 
'ipd is connected with the e kina: Tiqqunim, H9b, i.e. he repre- 
sents the ascent of the spirit to its home, the Presence of the S e kina. 

"The expression ' Enoch-Metatron ' symbolizes the unification of 
Terrestrial and Celestial Man": Zohar, iii. 189 a b. 

Proverbs 22 6 , "h a noik Id-nNadr 'dl pi ddrko" is interpreted: 
"Enoch was made into the Naar Metatron by the Holy One who 
took him from on earth and made him a ruler on high for ever". He 
is the exponent in heaven of man's pilgrimage. He is both 'old and 



1 Thus Metatron as the Primal Man (irpatros avdpairos, ptt"lp DTK) is eo ipso 
the spiritual being, revealed in different righteous men through the ages. For 
this idea, cf. Clem. Horn. 3 ao , Recogn. i. 52, ii. 22 (the prophet who goes through 
the world in various forms). The carriers of the prophet are : Adam, Enoch, Noah, 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses (Horn. 17*, cf. i8 13 , 2 B2 ) and are called the seven 
columns or pillars (Bousset, HG. pp. 172 ff.). Cf. Epiphanius, Heer. 36 3 , 532 on 
the Ebionites and Elxaites (pointed out by Bousset), and the Mandaitic con- 
ception of the 'one-born', 'unique' or 'beloved Son' as present in all the 
Messengers (vide esp. GR. iv). Cf. also the following note. 

2 Pistis Sophia (ed. Mead, p. 10): "So the power of the little YaS, who is in 
the midst, and the soul of the prophet Elias, they were bound into the body of 
John the Baptist"; cf. ib. preceding and sequel and The Second Book of Jeu" 
(ed. Schmidt) p. 320. 

3 F. C. Burkitt renders : " / Everything has gone forth. A They will return 
therewith. O There will be the End of all ends." (JThS. xxvi (1925), p. 391.) 



124 INTRODUCTION 

young' (ace. to Ps. sy 25 ): he is a living record of the spirit's journey 
from its earliest beginnings to its last phases: Midras Rup, '85 b. 

(c) The spirit's descent and ascent are also brought into connection 
with the mystical language of Ezek. i 14 . The descent is the 'running' 
(NIV)), the ascent is the 'returning' (H'lfe?). The very turning-point 
(from the descent into the ascent) is assigned to the life on this earth, 
symbolized by the earthly life of Enoch. Metatron as descending is 
called NURIEL. The turning-point from the descent into the ascent is 
an occurrence in the will (tfiyi) f the earthly man, the turning of 
man's will from the evil inclination to the good inclination (from the 
y escer ha-ra to the y ester ha-ttob). This is metaphorically expressed by 
the statement, that there is one Enoch ' from the side of evil ' (the son 
of Cain, Gen. 4 17 ) and one Enoch 'from the side of good' (the de- 
scendant of '^nos, Gen. s 6 " 24 ). The turning from evil into good starts 
the process through which man regains his N e sama, his spiritual 
nature, and ascends from one celestial grade (darga) to the other, 
until he reaches the highest spiritual grade, that of the 'Adam ha- 
1 JElyon, the First Man of Pure Spirit, Metatron, who is next to the 
Deity. This process is considered to be symbolized by the translation 
of Enoch "whose flesh (terrestrial nature) was transformed into fire 
(spiritual nature) " : Tiqqunim, i i6b. Cf . Joh. 3 13 : ovSels avafiefiyKev 
ets TOV ovpavbv el ^ 6 e/c TOV ovpavov /caret/Sets, 6 vib? TOV 
avdpcoTrov. The triad Nuriel-Enoch-Metatron thus brought in con- 
nection with the time-process (pre-existence, present life, future), 
and with the HpuTaivQptoTros ideas may be considered in the 
light of the Parsistic and Gnostic (Mandaitic) ideas of the threefold 
original man, who is also pure man, the original righteous man (in 
Mandaitic taken over as Hibil, Sij?il and 'Enos) ace. to Reitzenstein, 
Das iranische Erlosungsmysterium, pp. 242-244 (cf. Bousset, Haupt- 
probleme der Gnosis, pp. 205, 206). The cabbalistic representations 
are, in fact, much clearer in their conception of the First Spirit-Man 
and his parabolical journey than the various Gnostic representations 
dwelt upon by Bousset and Reitzenstein. 

Metatron is the " Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil " (Gen. 2 9 ) : 
Kanfe Yona, yr. i. 59 b. 

Metatron is called 'Good and Evil'; "from the appearance of his 
loins even upward" (Ezek. i 27 ) he is good, and "downward" (ib.) 
he is evil: M e g. <A m. ii. 59 b. 

Metatron represents the side of Good and Pure: YR. i. 58 a. 

Such seemingly contradictory statements are intelligible when they 
are understood as allusions to Metatron as symbolical of the spirit's 



ORIGIN OF THE WORD METATRON 125 

parabolical course: the direction downwards being termed evil, the 
direction upwards good. 

(d) As in other connections (see above), Metatron also as symbolical 
of the spirit's pilgrimage or of the Spiritual Essence of the Righteous, 
is associated with Sandalfon, a sort of copy of Metatron. Thus it is 
sometimes stated that SANDALFON is the translated Elijah: YR. i. 57 a. 
"Two earthly men were made into angels: Enoch who became 
Metatron and Elijah who became SANDALFON " : M e g. lA m. i. 27 d, 
66 a b, ii. 3 d; l Emceq ha-mMcelcek, 176 d (cf. above, p. 106, note i). 

It is sometimes hinted that the highest goal of the spirit or its 
greatest victory can only be attained or won through the realization 
of the 'turning' during earthly life. The angels proper do not attain 
the height of the Righteous, they are lower than Metatron, because 
they have not penetrated into "the darkest recesses of the Universe, 
those which are furthest from the Divine Abode", viz. this earthly 
life. "When Moses was shown Metatron-Enoch, he desired to go 
down on earth, i.e. to enter earthly life, in order to be able to rise to 
the height of Metatron-Enoch": S. Talpiyyop, 166 a. 

12. ORIGIN OF THE WORD 'METATRON' 

Hp H E actual significance or derivation of the word Metatron seems to 
J. have been forgotten quite soon after Metatron as a distinct celestial 
figure had clearly emerged. Hence we find, from the middle of the 
ninth century onwards and up to the present time a great many 
different attempts made at the explanation of the word. The various 
explanations or derivations may be classified as follows : 

(1) Metatron derived from 1J (or JODfc). 

(2) Metatron derived from the Latin metator. 

(3) Metatron derived from MiJ?ra. 

(4) Metatron derived from iLtTarvpavvos', metatorion; 
mediator; mater; KnWCOb; HJ>. 

(5) Metatron derived from /x,erct and 6p6vo<s. 

(i) Metatron derived from "itDJ. 

Metatron already at an early time was explained from *"|ftj in the 
sense of 'guard', 'protect', etc., either directly from this root or by 
the medium of mtDtt, mtDD. 

The earliest instance of this derivation is found in the so-called 
Simmusa Rabba. This instance seems never to have been pointed out 
before. 



126 INTRODUCTION 

"In the sixth Hall is Enoch who was clothed with splendour of 
light. . .and made into Metatron who. . .represents the guardianship 

of all the souls that ascend from on earth : [p^DI tf Jl6?fiJ hj? J"HEab 
Ql"/? &QDKD." The Simmusd Rabba thus uses the word 
to explain the form Metatron. (The Simmusd Rabba, in its 
present form, dates from about the middle of the ninth century. 1 ) 

Bahya, Commentary on the Pentateuch (Pesaro, 1507, fol. 98 b c), 
commenting on Ex. 33 20 also gives ItOJ as a possible derivation of 
Metatron. He explicitly connects Metatron, as derived from 1DJ, with 
the Targumic rendering rnD for the Hebrew mD&y/b of Gen. a6 5 . 

Isa. Horowitz, S e ne Luhop ha-bB e rip, Amsterdam, 1649, fol. 230 c: 
Metatron is the same as "iDlfe? (guardian), pointing to the Targumic 
rendering of JVWD by NmtpJb. 

Musaj ha-'Arufc ('^n^-edition, Amsterdam, 1655, fol. 102 d) 
gives the same explanation. 

Similarly, in the Cracow edition of the Alphabet of R. ' A qiba 
(1579) in the Enoch-Metatron fragment inserted at the end of letter 
'AL^F, there is an explanatory gloss (bracketed) after the word Meta- 

tron, which reads as follows: >( ?& DU1M IfilG? 



p yi mcoD 

This gloss also translates Metatron by Somer (guardian) with 
reference to the Targum rendering of mismcercep as matrap (from 



A. Jellinek, Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Kabbala, ii (1852), pp. 4 
seqq. considers the derivation from IftJ as a possible etymology of 
Metatron. 

The original feature in Jellinek's explanation is his linking up of 
Metatron as a ndter (guardian) with the passage on the 'Angel' in 

Ex. 3 2 2 - 22 ("pwS into "ptDfcS), which already in TB. Sank. 38 b 

is used with reference to Metatron. (Alternative explanation: 
fjierpov, see below.) 

M. Jastrow, A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and 
Yerushalmi, sub voce gives Metatron as j'nDtSft ('tS^ft) from "ItDJ. 

'Mattatron' (which would be related to mattdrd: service, post, 
watch, guard) means 'Chief of the Service' (chief of the angels who 
are called Servants). The etymological progenitor of J11IDC3D was, 
ace. to Jastrow, a form 



i BH. vi. 109 seqq. 



ORIGIN OF THE WORD METATRON 127 

(2) Metatron derived from or connected etymologically 
with the Latin metator. 

In mediaeval cabbalistic writings the interpretation of Metatron 
from ' metator ' is first met with. It should be noted, however, that in 
the writings in question this is never the exclusive interpretation of 
the name : it is put by the side of various other more or less abstruse 
'etymologies'. 

Eleazar of Worms (died 1237), Hilkop Mitatron (in the British 
Museum MS. Add. 27199, fol. 114 a): 

"Know that he is called Metatron because he is a T)D*t3J&, 
which is interpreted 'leader', as it is said: The Holy One, blessed be 
He, was made a metator for the waters (Gen. R. v. 4),. . .for He is the 
Guide of the World (the Prince of the World). And he says pi (i.e. 
'utter praise' to the Holy One) every day." 

Metatron thus is explained from TltDtD/S + fn. This passage is 
important, since it shows the starting-point for the association of 
Metatron with metator: it was evidently the Midras dictum of the 
Holy One as the 'metator' for the primaeval waters (of the Story of 
Creation). It also shows that this association was made on the basis 
of the conception of Metatron as the ' Prince of the World ' who in 
this capacity was concerned with the works of Creation (cf. TB. 
Yeb. i6b). 

In the cabbalistic speculations the dictum "the Holy One was 
a metator" is changed into "the Holy One was Metatron", i.e. 
the Most High in his cosmical activity was represented by Meta- 
tron. 

From these cabbalistic speculations the later reading Metatron for 
metator in Gen. R. v. 4 has, most probably, originated. 

(In other contexts R. Eleazar of Worms connects Metatron with 
-'meter', 'metron', 'mitra', etc. Bodl. MS. MICH. 175, foil. 20 b, 
21 a.) 

Yalqut R eJ ubeni (ed. Warsaw, 1901, ii. fol. 56 b) quotes from 
Tiqqunim: Metator is one of several names given to Metatron as 
indicative of his various functions. The metator is here connected 
with 5OCD/b ('rain', in the cabbalistic symbolical language = the 
bestowal of spiritual gifts, emanating from the celestial regions, upon 
the terrestrials) and made to signify: he who conveys spiritual 
parnasa (maintenance). 

Nachmanides, Commentary on the Tor ah, on Ex. i2 12 , first quoted 
in Siyyuni (ed. Cremona, 1560, fol. 39 a), says that Metatron = 



128 INTRODUCTION 

' one who shows the way ' and is equivalent to metator. He substitutes 
'Metatron' for 'metator' in quoting Y e lamm e denu to Num. 22 36 and 
Deut. 2 31 . 
Nachmanides shows dependence upon cabbalistic speculations in 

representing Metatron-Twetafor as the JT7&? from the Holy One 

p&O D'feJ^n D'BPy/bPl h?h> Metatron as metator hence means, 
to Nachmanides, the representative of the Most High in his works on 
earth. 

Substituting ' The Holy One ' for * Metatron ' and using ' Metatron ' 
as a sort of appellative, Nachmanides evolves the strange reading of 
Sifre on Deut. 32 49 , referred to above (p. 92, note i). 

Elias Levita, Tisbi, connects Metatron (sub voce) with Metator, the 
meaning of which he had "learnt from his pupil (Cardinal Egidius de 
Viterbo) to be 'messenger'". 

David de Pomis (fl. ab. 1550), Scemah Dauid (ed. Venice, 1587, 
fol. u6b), derives Metatron from metator, "a Greek (Latin) word 
signifying custos". 

Buxtorf in his Dictionary places Metatron and Metator sub eadem 
voce. The same does Dalman in his Handwdrterbuch? 1 p. 232. 

Danz, Shechina cum piis cohabitans (1723), after giving a compre- 
hensive summary of the different derivations of the word Metatron, 
decides in favour of the etymology from metator, in Greek /urarfc^. 1 
Danz, from quotations of numerous sources, proves conclusively 
that the Hebrew ^fltDJD^ is identical with the Latin metator in the 
sense of 'praecursor, praeparator, antegestor'. The Greek Mtraraj^o 
is found in the Gloss. Basilic. Ivii. 12 (Du Cange, Glossarium, s.v. 
p. 919: 6 a-TrocrreXXo/xe^os ayyeXo? TT/JOS rous ap^ai/ras), and 
also in Suidas' dictionary, vol. ii, interpreted as 6 TT/O 00,77-0 o-reA.A.0- 
/u,ez>os ayyeXo? 77/30(9) TOV cip^ovros. 

The main contention of Danz on the basis of his identification of 
the words metator and Metatron is that this celestial entity was by 
the name Metatron indicated as none other than the S e kina. This 
accords with the cabbalistic basis for the association of Metatron and 
the Holy One as metator. 

Danz also refers to the cabbalistic distinction between the two 
quasi manifestations of Metatron, one lesser, regarded as a created 
angel, the other, higher one, identical with the e kina or called the 
body of S e kina, and maintains: "hie ipse Angelus Metator primus et 
supremus idem prorsus sit cum Shechina, ab officio quod sustinet, 
cognomen hoc accipiente". 

i In Meuschen, Novum Testamentum ex Talmude et Antiquitatibus Illustratum. 



ORIGIN OF THE WORD METATRON 129 

Whereas in the earlier instances of the association of Metatron with 
metator hitherto referred to, this association was made to convey the 
exclusive position of Metatron as the representative of the Most High 
or even as identical with the S e kina, later followers of this interpreta- 
tion seize upon it as a means of maintaining the comparative unim- 
portance of Metatron, at least in the earlier phases of the conception. 
Hence we find that those who adhere to the 'metator- interpretation', 
in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, mostly do this for dogmatic 
reasons. 

This new development sets in with Cassel. 1 

Cassel contends that the form ' Metatron ' was substituted for the 
original 'metator' simply to make up the numerical value 314 re- 
quired to make the angelic name in question ' by gematria ' equal to 
the Divine Name SADDAY (this rests on the late interpretation of 
the words "My Name is in him" with reference to Metatron. The 
sequence of ideas is exactly the reverse : the angelic figure Metatron 
was called YHUH or the Lesser YHUH, and the cited words were 

f\ / / 

applied to him: 3 En. i2 5 , 48 c 7 , D 1 no. 102. Then later the accidental 
numerical quality of fntDtDft and 'H&Jf was played upon. So by 

Rasi and in cabbalistic writings; cf. above, pp. 116, 117, 119). 

"Es soil", says Cassel, "durch seinen Inhalt allem selbstschop- 
ferischen, selbstandigen ausweichen, eben weil es (metatron-metator) 
Diener bedeutet der Gott nur vorangeht und dessen Befehle erfiillt". 

The same derivation (in the same general sense) is maintained by 
M. Sachs in Beitrdge zur Sprach- und Altertumsforschung, 1852, i. 
1 08 n. and 194; Lewi Herzfeld, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, n. ii. 
298, 345 (1847-57); Hamburger, Realencyclopddie des Judenthums, 
ii. 781; ]. Fiirst, Glossarium Grceco-Hebrceum, 1890, p. 1383; 
and S. Krauss, Griechische und Lateinische Lehnworter im Talmud, 
Midrasch und Targum, Berlin, 1898-9, ii, sub voce, also Bacher, 
Die Agada der Tannaiten, i. 154. 

S. Krauss, op. cit. i. 92, derives Metatron from metatorium 
(lnyraTtopLov). In a note, pp. 250-252, he combines the two inter- 
pretations, regarding metatorium as a formation from metator: 
"Metatorium, der von Metatron abgesteckte Platz". 

Friedlander, Der vorchristliche jildische Gnosticismus , 1898, accepts 
the derivation from metator, but propounds an original theory as to 
the origin of the name and the angelic conception. Metator is also 
to Friedlander a ' Grenzabstecker ' ; the origin of the conception is to 



i Article 'Juden' in Ersch and Gruber, Allgemeine Encyklopcidie der Wissen- 
schaften, 1818 seqq. ii. xxvii. pp. 40, 41, note 82. 



OHBI 



130 INTRODUCTION 

be found in Gnosticism from where it was brought into the circle of 
the Rabbinic scholars who occupied themselves with the study of 
the Maerkatia (pp. 102 seqq.). 

The Talmudic teachers under the mighty influence of the Gnosis 
were forced into accepting a second, from the highest one distin- 
guished Deity. Thus, says Friedlander, the Gnostic Metatron came 
into the Talmudic literature, and to him were assigned besides a 
world-creative function also the office of guiding the Israelitish people 
and mediating between them and God. (Cf. below, p. 144.) 

The Gnostic figure which in Jewish circles emerged into Metatron 
was, ace. to Friedlander, the Divine Dynamis Horos, which again 
emanated from the A.oyo? of the Jewish Alexandrinian School. 

The parallels adduced by Friedlander to show Metatron's origin 
from Horos are, however, insufficient for the purpose. 

J. D. Eisenstein (OM. ii. 285 a) also accepts the derivation from 

Metator: fW pB^B NIH jr|TD D'JSn W ^tihti : 

run piosn TDTO *pn mi iruow Metator 
Nim ...... CD rn nw) -pra -pap 1 ? 7^ 

iro ai in^s? ina* ww im ^a? rrapn na*w nWn 



L. Blau, article 'Metatron', in J!. viii. 519, says "the derivation 
from the Latin metator (= guide) is doubtless correct" and adduces 
as further evidence a passage from "the Hebrew Book of Enoch" 
which, however, will be seen to be a mistranslation of a misprint in 
the text of Alphabet of R. iA qiba, from which it is taken. 

"The Hebrew Book of Enoch, in which, however, reference to 
Metatron is constantly implied, says: 'He is the most excellent of all 
the heavenly host and the guide (metatron) to all the treasuries of my 
(God)'." Thus Blau. 

The misprint (BH. ii. 117) originating in the Cracow printed 
edition of A. R. Aq. (1579), leaving out the words DD1K N'^I/D after 
'Metatron', is caused by the insertion in that edition of a bracketed 
gloss, explaining Metatron from ItDJ (vide above). But even in this 
corrupted state the text cannot be translated as Blau translates. 

The passage is in reality vss. 9 and 10 of ch. 48 D of our book, which 
does not in any way use Metatron as an appellative, in the sense of 
'guide'. 

G. F. Moore, "Intermediaries in Jewish Theology," Harvard 
Theological Review, vol. xv, after examining the occurrences of Meta- 



ORIGIN OF THE WORD METATRON 131 

tron in Rabbinic and giving a survey of different interpretations of 
the name Metatron (in which the writer acknowledges his indebted- 
ness to Danz, op. cit.), decides with emphasis in favour of metator. 

The sense in which the author takes Metatron to be identical with 
or originating from metator will be best seen from a quotation of 
summarizing points in the article : 

"(i) Metator (Metatron) is originally an appellative borrowed and 
first used in its proper, almost technical sense, an officer who goes in 
advance of an army, etc ---- Israel's metator in the desert was God 
himself or an angel assigned ... by him to this task. This office was 
most naturally filled by Michael, the champion of the Jews. 

"(2) In two passages in the Babylonian Talmud Metatron is the 
proper name of an angel whose office in heaven indicates a peculiar 
relation to Israel; the same office. . .(is) assigned in different sources, 
now to Michael, now to Metatron. 

"(3) In the revived apocalyptic and cabbalistic literature of the 
Gaonic period and after, the translated Enoch becomes Metatron. . . . 
Theosophic speculation seizes upon this angelic mythology, and 
elevates Metatron to a still higher eminence. ..." 

The author is especially opposed to Metatron being held as an 
Intermediary or Mediator. The derivation from metator to him 
indicates the extremely modest beginnings of Metatron (or of the 
'Metatron mythology'). In this he is in line with Cassel and Ham- 
burger. The author does not adduce any further evidence beside that 
of earlier vindicators of this derivation. 

Eduard Meyer, Ur sprung und Anfdnge des Christentums^i^i^ iii. 
649 ,f ollows Moore in identifying Metatron with Metator against his own 
earlier acceptance of the probability of derivation from 



(3) Metatron derived from or connected with Mi]?ra. 

The earliest writer known to have attempted identifying Metatron 
with MiJ?ra is H. E. Schmieder in his Programma, Nova Inter - 
pretatio. . .Gal. 3 19 ' 20 , pp. 41-8, Excursus de Mitatrone (1826). x 

Pointing out parallel features in the conceptions of Metatron and 
Mi]?ra Schmieder puts forward the hypothesis that the Persian ideas, 
esp. with regard to Mi)?ra, were first introduced into Jewish circles 
among the Essenes who then cultivated and developed them further. 
The central function in which Schmieder holds Mi]?ra and Metatron 
to be congruent is that of mediator. 

i Pointed out by Hengstenberg, in Christologie, iii, and Max Griinbaum, Gesam- 
melte Aufsdtse, etc. pp. 74, 124, 194. See also Movers, Phon. i. 390. 



9-2 



132 INTRODUCTION 

Nork (Felix Adolph Korn), Brahminen und Rdbbinen, 1836, pp. 99, 
100, trying to connect the Jewish archangels and angels over elemental 
forces with the Persian ' Amshaspands ' (i.e. Amesa Spentas) and ' Izeds * 
(i.e. Yazatas), also identifies Metatron with Mijra. 

The total picture that Nork evolves of Metatron corresponds to 
the representation of this angelic or celestial figure as given by the 
Yalqut R e 'ufieni, or, generally speaking, to the conceptions prevalent 
in cabbalistic works from the fourteenth century onwards. Nork- 
Korn does not really attempt to account for the origin of Metatron 
from the Persian Mij?ra. His knowledge of Metatron seems to have 
been based on Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum. 

Wiesner, in Ben Chananja, 1862, p. 384; 1866, pp. 600-625. This 
is the most important and most elaborate among the endeavours 
to derive Metatron from MiJ?ra. Wiesner, not as is usual Kohut, 
should indeed be mentioned as the pioneer champion of the Metatron- 
MiJ?ra theory. 

For the conceptions of MiJ>ra Wiesner bases upon Rhode, Sage der 
Perser, Spiegel, Avesta, Windischmann, Mithra and on the Zend 
Avesta, in particular Mihir Yast. For the conceptions of Metatron 
he goes back to the earliest references known at that time, viz. those 
contained in the Babylonian Talmud. These references he considers 
critically. Wiesner lays stress on the following parallels : 

(1) Mipra: Guardian of the World, the Mediator for the earth 
(Mittler der Erde), the Prince of the World (Mihir Vast, 103). 

Metatron: Prince of the World, Mediator. Wiesner here rightly 
points out that TB. Sank. 38 b, clearly involves the existence at that 
time of a view maintaining Metatron 's mediatorship. 

(2) Mipra: Mi]?ra's glory is compared with that of Ahura Mazda, 
e.g. in Mihir Yast, i : "Ahura Mazda spake. . . 'Verily, when I created 
Mifra, ... I created him as worthy of sacrifice, as worthy of prayer as 
myself, Ahura Mazda ' " (Darmesteter's translation in Sacred Books of 
the East). 

Metatron: bearer of the Divine Name ( TB. Sank. 38 b). 

(3) Mipra: Mi)?ra is the careful witness of all thoughts, words and 
deeds and hence representative of Truth, Justice and Faith, "der 
Hort des Gesetzes und sein Racher" (Windischmann, Mithra, p. 53). 

Metatron: Scribe-Witness and representative of the Godhead 
towards the world, implied by TB. Hag. 15 a. 

(4) and (5) Mipra connected with death and immortality; in- 
creases the water and is the instigator of the dry land. 

Metatron has to do with the fate of men in and after death; is 



ORIGIN OF THE WORD METATRON 133 

connected with the primaeval waters ace. to the variant reading of 
Gen. R. 5. 

(6) and (7) Mifira was identified with the Demiurg which latter 
is represented as a ' Youth ' ; Metatron also called the ' Youth ' (Naar). 

Mifira is, according to some sources, "born of woman", and "em 
Konig gottlichen Geschlechtes ". Metatron, being Enoch, is also 
"born of woman". 

(8) Mifira a celestial priest (Mikir Vast, 89). Wiesner remarks upon 
the curious fact that ace. to him the Talmudists ascribed this 
office not to Metatron, but to Mikael. We now know that Metatron 
in mystical sources was represented as having a Tabernacle of his own 
(2 Leg. Martyrs', 3 En. 15 B). 

The parallels adduced by Wiesner are striking. They are, of course, 
not sufficient to show that the conceptions of Metatron have actually 
evolved or developed out of those of MiJ?ra. Wiesner's theories were 
supported by Zipser in several articles in the contemporary 
periodical. 

M. Joel, Blicke in die Religionsgeschichte zu Anfang des zweiten 
christlichen Jahrhunderts , 1880, i. 127, regards Metatron as identical 
with the Mi]?ra of Mi]?raism, the ideas of which may have influenced 
the Rabbinic teachers of the time of >jE lisa* baen >A fcuya (TB. Hag. 
15 a; cf. 3 En. 16). 

A. Kohut, Ueber die judische Angelologie und Ddmonologie in ihrer 
Anhangigkeit vom Parsismus. 1 All the features in the Mij?ra and Meta- 
tron conceptions, which are of real import for the study of a possible 
Mipraic origin of the mysticism which finds its centre in the figure of 
Metatron, and which are found in the article by Kohut, are already 
pointed out by Wiesner. The points on which Kohut goes beyond 
Wiesner are, on the other hand, rather uncertain and vague as well as 
insufficiently founded. 

A refutation of the article of Kohut, hence, is by no means eo ipso a 
refutation of the hypothesis of Metatron as being derived from Mi]?ra 
or influenced by the conceptions of the latter. A further investigation 
of the possible connections between Mifra and Metatron might with 
more reason be connected with the name of Wiesner (and his con- 
temporary Zipser) than with that of Kohut. 

K. Kohler, JE. viii.-5oo, and Jewish Theology, ed. New York, 1918, 
p. 185. K. Kohler is also an adherent of the Metatron-Mtyra theory 

i In Abhandlungen fiir die Kunde des Morgenlandes herausgegeben von der Deut- 
schen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, Band iv. no. 3, Leipzig, 1886, pp. 36-42. Kohut 
does not acknowledge his indebtedness to Wiesner. 



134 INTRODUCTION 

especially from the point of view of Metatron's connection with the 



" 



There can scarcely be any doubt as to the MiJ?raic origin" of the 
Mcerkalba-rites in general. Metatron, like Mi]?ra, ace. to Kohler, is 
the Divine charioteer. The Mi]?ra speculations entered Jewish circles 
through MiJ?raism. 

It must be remarked here that Metatron does not figure as the 
charioteer of the Mterkaba. The only trait pointing in this direction 
would be Metatron's function of guide of the Mterkabd-seeT . But 
this is not constitutive for Metatron. Other high angels have the same 
function (MIKAEL, GABRIEL, 'URIEL, etc.). 

(4) Metatron derived from /xerarv/aaz/z/os, perpov, pTJrrjp, etc. 

1. The derivation from the Greek ^erarvpawo?, in the sense 
of "next to the ruler, i.e. God", is advocated by Frankel, Levy and 
Weber. 1 It is held probable also by Max Griinbaum. 2 

2. S. Krauss, Griechische und Lateinische Lehnworter, etc. i. 92, 
identifies Metatron, without any qualifications, with 
metatorium, i.e. palace. 

In vol. ii Krauss interprets Metatron as metator. In the appendix 
of notes in vol. i. pp. 250-252, he represents Metatron as metator, but 
metatorium as developed from metator and meaning, in the first 
instance, "der von Metatron abgesteckte Platz", but then used as a 
name for this angel analogously with the use of QlpD (Place) as a 
metaphor for the Godhead. 

Griinwald says, mjahrbuchfurjiidische Geschichte undLiteratur, iv. 
127-8, that Metatron signifies 'palace, place, abode' and is parallel 
with the Divine Name DIpD. It is an intended symbol of the 
relation between Makrokosmos and Mikrokosmos. 

3. Jellinek, Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Kabbala, ii (1852), 4 seqq. 
gives perpov (measure, rule) as an alternative explanation of 
Metatron, on the assumption that Metatron was identical with Horos. 

One of the secondary names given to Metatron, viz. the fnt^jft, 
might perhaps be regarded as supporting this derivation. But that 
this 'name' is merely a formation on the basis of fnbbiD is more 
probable : the nt^/S is in the enumerations of the names of Metatron 



1 Frankel, Zeitschrift, 1846, p. 113. Levy, Neuhebraisches und Chalddisches 
Worterbuch, etc. iii. p. 87. F. Weber, Jiidische Theologie, and ed. Leipzig, 1897. 
Cf. below. 

2 Max Griinbaum, Gesammelte Aufsatze %ur Sprach- und Sagenkunde> etc., ed. 
Perles, Berlin, 1901, p. 74. 



ORIGIN OF THE WORD METATRON 135 

accompanied by other variants of & similar appearance, such as 
jm/b, }WD, pp'fc, etc. 

4. The connection of the word Metatron with fcOtOft (rain) is 
a comparatively late cabbalistic device and was perhaps never in- 
tended as an actual derivation: YR. i. 56 b, Bodl. MS. MICH. 175, 
foil. 20 b, 21 a. (Cf. above, p. 127.) 

Possibly the above-mentioned passage in YR. was known to 
Danz, since he declares (op. cit.) that Ruben Hoschke contended 
that Metatron is called metator because he is appointed over the rain. 
Danz comments upon this interpretation : on this assumption Meta- 
tron would equal Imbrifer, Imbricitor, ojji,/3po(f)6po<s. 

5 . Metatron was explained as derived from ' mediator ' by Heinrich 
Gebhard, in Programma. 1 

Hengstenberg, in Christologie, iv. 324, regards this derivation as the 
most probable next to that from metator. Against it speaks, in Heng- 
stenberg's view, only the fact that the word mediator does not occur 
in Jewish literature. 

6. The derivation from mater /jLiJTrjp matrona fcttV^'ntOto is 
of late origin and dependent upon the cabbalistic speculations on 
Metatron 's connection with or identity with the S e kina as matronipa. 
It is given by Bahya (as applying to Metatron in his higher aspect, 
i.e. as the counterpart of e kina). 2 

Levi ben Gerson, on Prov. i 8 , defining Metatron as 'active in- 

telligence' 7yi /3W, states that the word Metatron is derived 
from the Latin word for 'mother' (i.e. mater). This passage was 
pointed out already in Pugeo Fidei, 1651, p. 392 b. 

7. Max Griinbaum, op. cit. pp. 74 and 124, points out the Arabic 
equivalents of 'Metatron': jj^JaJa^ (as the name of an angel in 
the theology of the Druses) and jj^JaJa*.* (from Mas'udi, ii. 391). 
He cites Eichhorn, Repertorium, xii. 100, 128, 189. 

It is a strange coincidence, that the two Arabic forms evidently 
correspond to the two variants of Metatron, viz. p~lfcDtD and 
pICDCD^/b . The dependence on these is obvious. 

8. Metatron > H?- (Cf. Rasi on Exod. 23 21 , note on ch. i2 5 and 
48 D 1 , p. 174 bottom.) On the basis of the equal numerical value 
(314) of pntDtDD and i^W Bartoloccius^ explains the origin of 



1 Pointed out by Schoettgen in Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae, p. 739, 

2 Comm. on the Pentateuch, on Ex. 23 21 . 

3 In Bibliotheca Magnet Rabbinica, i. 234. 235. 



136 INTRODUCTION 

the word Metatron as follows: the angel mentioned in Ex. 23 20 is 
Mikael) the custodian of Israel (cf. George Foot Moore above, 
p. 131); the Divine Name inherent in Mikdel is' H^ (God 
Almighty), since God, operating all the miracles of the guidance of 
Israel through the desert "per ministrum suum principem Michae- 
lem", must needs communicate His omnipotence to Mikael "quan- 
tum necesse fuerat ad populi Israelitici commodum". "Unde 
Michael quasi 'Hfcy hoc est Omnipotens, erat dicendus. Sed 
Cabalistae ne Dei nomina Angelis proprie attribuere viderentur, pro 
Hfc? substituerunt p")tOD/D Mattatron quod per KHtO/DJ numerum 
conficit 314 ac HG? Mattatron igitur volunt esse Angelum 
ductorem populi, et directorem Mosis.. . .Ex his igitur patet quod 
Mattatron est nomen fictitium Cabalisticum ad hoc tantum excogi- 
tatum, ut ex eo numerus 314 elici possit." Metatron is thus, ace. 
to Bartoloccius, simply a cabbalistic gematrical device, having no 
lexicographic derivation. No wonder that he exclaims: "In hoc 
apparet, quam sublimis sit ista Cabalistica scientia. . .ex qua quidlibet 
ex quolibet fieri potest". 

(5) Metatron derived from ftera and 6p6vo<$. 

J. H. Maius, in Synopsis Theologiae Judaicae (1698), p. 72, is the 
first writer known to have suggested the two Greek words juerct and 
Opovos as conjointly furnishing a possible derivation of Metatron. 

Maius suggests that Metatron indicates the crvv0povo<s of the 
Most High, the co-occupant of God's throne. 

J. Fr. von Meyer, Blatter fur hohere Wahrheit, vol. iv (1823), also 
interprets Metatron as "der Mitthroner Gottes" (6 /xero^o? rov 
dpovov) who is seated at the right hand of God. 

Meyer thinks that the Jewish conception of Metatron forms an 
exact counterpart of the Christian conception of the Son of God, 
hence points to Rev. 3 21 as a parallel. 

Ad. Franck, La Kabbale, supports the same derivation. He points 
to the cabbalistic representation of Metatron as the president in the 
world of Y e sira (Franck is probably thinking of the passage in the 
Masseefccej) >A silup containing this representation), and next under the 
world B e ri'a with the Throne (Metatron = next to the Throne?) 
(ed. Jellinek, p. 43, n. 2). 

The same view is supported by Gratz, 1 Luzzato, 2 Steinschneider* 
and Bischoff. 4 

i Gnosticismus und Judenthum, p. 44. 2 Kerem Chemed, iv. p. 179. 

3 Die fremdsprachlichen Elemente im Neuhebraischen, Prague, 1845. 

4 Die Kabbalah 2 , Leipzig, 1917, p. 37 ("Nach-Throner, Gottes Stellvertreter"). 



ORIGIN OF THE WORD METATRON 137 

Salomon Munk 1 and Moise Schwab 2 interpret Metatron as 
Opovov, "placed at the side of the Throne". 

F. Weber, Judische Theologie,^ considers the derivations 
Bpovo<; and percnvpavvos equally admissible. The sense would, 
ace. to him, in both cases be "der nachste nach dem Herrscher". 

Cf. also Eduard Meyer, Ursprung u. Anf. d. Christentums, vol. ii. 
p. 341 and vol. iii. p. 649. (Vide above, p. 131.) 

W. O. E. Oesterley and G. H. Box, The Religion and Worship of 
the Synagogue (and ed. 1911), pp. 196-204, on the irrefutable claim 
that "the name (Metatron) must originally have given some indica- 
tion regarding the functions of this personality" maintain that the 
derivation from Metathronos, or perhaps Metatyrannos, is the correct 
one, a derivation which accords with the functions of Metatron. 
(These are set forth at length.) 

It is to be noticed, that the derivations from the Greek words under 
consideration are represented somewhat differently by the different 
vindicators of the etymology, viz. 

as /xera Opovov: J. H. Maius, S. Munk, M. Schwab; 
as pera Opovov or /x,era#/odVios: Luzzatto; 
as /Aera#/ooi>os : J. F. von Meyer, Franck, Weber, Bischoff, 
Box and Oesterley. 

The derivation is applied in two different senses, viz. 

(1) as equivalent to crvvOpovos, co-occupant of the Divine 
Throne: J. H. Maius, J. F. v. Meyer, Ed. Meyer. 

(2) as signifying the celestial being next to the Divine Throne, 
occupying the next rank to the Divine Ruler, the representative of 
the Most High: Franck (?), Schwab, Weber, Bischoff, Box and 
Oesterley. 

Of these different modes of interpretation that regarding Metatron 
as equivalent to crvvOpovos can be easily dismissed. There is not 
a single instance in any known Jewish source of Metatron being repre- 
sented as the co-occupant of the Divine Throne. 

On the other hand, the interpretation of Metatron as denoting a 
celestial being who was next after the King of the World, the representa- 
tive of the Most High, is that which of all interpretations proffered 
best accords with the essential character assigned to Metatron in the 
earliest representations of him, above all in our book. 

1 Palestine, in I'Univers (1835 seqq.). 

2 Vocabulaire de I'Angelologie, etc., Paris, 1897, p. 170 sub voce. 

3 Ed. by Delitzsch and Schnedermann under this title, Leipsic, 1897 (as the 
2nd ed. of Weber's work previously edited with a different title). 



138 INTRODUCTION 

Of the two derivations conveying the sense "next in rank to the 
Divine Ruler" (Box-Oesterley), viz. perarvpavvos and /x,era + 
9p6vos, the present writer gives preference to the latter, on the 
ground that the idea of the ' throne' plays a central part in the conception 
of Metatron. 

Hence it may be suggested that the exact interpretation of the word 
Metatron is : 

The celestial being who occupies the throne next to the Throne of 
Glory (the Divine Throne), or 

the Throne next to the Throne of Glory (using the early terminology 
ace. to which 'throne' = 'occupant of a throne'; see below, p. 142), 
or lesser Throne (= lesser YHUH; cf. ch. 12). 

As regards the derivation of 'Metatron from per a -\-6povos 
this need not be contemplated as a new formation in the strict sense 
of the word. It would simply, from the beginning, have been a 
shortened form of an expression defining the character or position of 
the celestial being in question. This expression might have been: 
"he whose throne is (the most glorious) next to the Throne (i.e. the 
Throne of Glory)" or "the throne greatest next to the Throne", in 
Greek: ov (6) Bpovos jaeytcrros ^tera [rov] Opovov, 6 Opovos 6 
//.eyioTOs /xera [rbv] Opovov, or similarly. In all such expressions 
the words /xera Bpovov would form the last and essential part of 
the definition, and might, when the conception had become established 
in this form, be shortened into (6) juera 6p6vov. The last would, 
in a hebraized form, most naturally be jY")tDtD/&- 

This explanation of the name accords perfectly with the character 
that seems to be essential and original in the earliest representations 
of Metatron, as far as they can be traced : 

(i) The representations of Metatron in 3 Enoch decidedly picture 
Metatron as the angel who, as God's representative, is seated upon a 
throne of his own. This throne is, moreover, explicitly stated to be 
"a reflection of the Throne of Glory", a lesser copy of the Throne of 
Glory (ch. lo 1 ). 

On this throne Metatron is seated as the Holy One is seated on His 
Throne, only that Metatron 's throne is placed, to denote its secondary 
rank, "at the door of the seventh Hall " (chh. io 2 , 48 c 5 ' 8 ). Metatron's 
enthronement and his investment with all the splendours forming 
part of the enthronement, or being corollaries to it, constitute the 
central picture in the Enoch-Metatron fragments (chh. 10-15, 



ORIGIN OF THE WORD METATRON 139 

(2) 3 Enoch further actually associates the name Metatron with the 
enthronement of this celestial being, hence implicitly connects the 
word Metatron with the word 'throne'. 

It is highly significant that, ace. to the large Enoch-Metatron piece 
(chh. 3-15), Enoch, in the course of his elevation and transformation 
into a high angel-prince, is not officially pronounced in the heavens 
as Metatron until immediately on his having been enthroned by the 
Most High :ch. io 3 . 

The expressions in the smaller Enoch-Metatron piece, ch. 48 c 5 , 
are, in fact, more or less equivalents of the Greek expressions suggested 
above. 

(3) Also in the Talmud the significance of ' Metatron ' as the angel 
seated on a throne as his Master is easily attested. 

It is evident that in the passage in TB. Hag. 15 a the essential 
distinction of Metatron, which caused such a disturbance to 'Aher' 
and which the Talmudists are anxious to explain in a 'rational' 
manner, is his being 'seated' (= as the Holy One himself), whereas 
the other angelic beings are standing. This distinction is, moreover, 
such a well-established feature in the Metatron-conception that the 
Talmudists are unable flatly to deny it. Metatron, they say, was 
seated (one might add : as his name suggests) by permission from the 
Holy One, but the reason why he was allowed to be seated was 
simply his function of ' scribe of righteousness ' (cf . above, on ' the 
conceptions of Metatron in Talmud, Midras and Targum',pp.9Ose<?.). 

(4) This interpretation of the name of Metatron gives the key to 
an understanding of the other features of the Metatron-conception. 
Thus, as the angel enthroned on a throne next to that of His Master, 
Metatron will naturally be identified with any angel-prince that before 
had been regarded as the angel nearest to the Godhead or as the 
representative of the Most High or will take over the functions 
assigned to that angel. On this basis the following functions or 
identifications of Metatron are easily explained, viz.: 

(a) the identifications with the Angel of YHUH, who bears the 
Ineffable Name (after Ex. 23 2 - 22 ), with YAOEL or YEHOEL (Apoca- 
lypse of Abraham, chh. io, 12, etc.; cf. Jael (name of God) and 
Joel (archangel) in Vita Ad. <S? Ev. 29*, 33 2 , Ap. Moses, 43 5 , and 
' ' the Lesser YHUH " . 

(b) with the angel of the Presence (Book of Jubilees, I 27 > 29 , 
<AhYi?;v, the Angel of the Face, cf. 2 2 > 18 , i5 27 , 3i 14 ; i En. 40), 
in fact only another designation of the bearer of the Ineffable 
Name. 



INTRODUCTION 

(c) many functions of MIKAEL, the highest of the angels in the 
earlier angelology, are transferred to Metatron (cf. above). 

(d) Metatron identified with the Prince of the World, God's vice- 
regent over the world, etc. 

(e) with the Naar, the l dEbced, the Principal Servant of the Most 
High, the Chief of the Service, etc. 

(/) with Enoch who in the "Enoch Literature" tended to 

occupy the most exalted position in the Presence of the Godhead. 

(In fact, this derivation seems to give the only reasonable explanation 

why the figure of Metatron was at all introduced into the Enoch 

Literature.} See 2 En. 2i 3 , 22 4> 6> 10 , cf. i En. 70. 

(5) The objections raised against the derivation from ^u,era and 
dpovos will be seen to be invalid as applied to the derivation 
suggested here. 

The two foremost objections : (a) that the Rabbis or mystics who 
introduced the celestial figure in question would not have invented 
a new word, *^era^/3oz/o?', but would, if the word was at all of 
Greek origin, have chosen the crvvOpovos, and (6) the impossibility 
of conceiving the formation of a new Greek word by the 'Rabbis', 
do not apply here : (a) Metatron is not crvvOpovos, and (b) Metatron 
is ace. to the present assumption not derived from a new formation 
of the type of nerdOpovos. 

The only objection applying here is this: the Greek 9 of 6p6vov 
would not have been transcribed ft, but j"l (the word would have been 
pnft& not ptOftfc). 

The answer to this objection is: 

(a) since yuerct must be transcribed ft with ft the law of assimilation 
would naturally tend to transform a ft immediately following into a ft. 

(b) it is a false supposition that the Greek d is always transcribed, 
in Hebrew and Aramaic, J"l. On the contrary there are numerous 
instances of Hebrew-Aramaic words borrowed from the Greek, in 
which 9 has been transcribed ft. Krauss in Griechische und Lateinische 
Lehnworter gives several such words. To the instances adduced by 
him the following may be added : 

0wvo?(m Hull. 25 a, 66 b). 

S = aj/0u/a (TJ. Kil. ix. 32 a ; TJ. Mo' ed Qaf. iii. 82 a). 
= av6vTro.ro-s(TJ.Meg. iii. 74 a ; Ber. v. 9 a ; Eccl.R. to Eccl. 3 6 

Lev. R. 12). 

DM13DK = ao-Oevrjs (M. Yomd iii. 5,. 
= arvv6i)fJi.a (Lev. R. 12). 
= a-Tradiov (Tos. Kelim B. Mes. v. 6). 



ORIGIN OF THE WORD METATRON 141 

= Kwdv0po>7ro < (TJ. Gift. vii. 48 c). 

= 6r)<ravp6s (Targ. Qoh. 2 8 ). 

= ftJAeueos (TB. Gift. 28 a; TB. B. Mes. 20 b). 

= Oearpov (Cant. R. beg.). 

(Pes. R. Friedm., 201). 
= 0/nWa (TB. Meg. 6 a; Sifre Deut. 354; Num. R. 13; 

M.'At. Zar. ii. 6). 
= 7ri'0os (M. Ros ha sSana, in. 7). 
(JVw. 'EVM&. viii). 

. ,R. 48). 
WEDK = Evtfvvoos (M. Yoma, iii. n; Midd. i. 5). 

(77. 5r. vi. 10 d). 

ty0a (M. aft. ii. 2). (Cf. K. Albrecht, Neuhebr. Gramm. 
pp. 10, 81-83.) 

Several others could be given. If in one case or other the derivation 
from a Greek word may seem uncertain, the cumulative effect of the 
instances is quite sufficient to prove beyond doubt that the Greek 9 
was easily transcribed ft especially in words containing to, p, , *| etc. 

(6) Lastly the theory must be refuted that the formation 'Meta- 
tron ' has in any way been due to a design to make its gematrical value 
equal to the Divine NameSaddai (Rashi and others), and as would be 
the consequence of this theory that Metatron as ' bearing the Divine 
Name ' was called the little YHUH. It is quite the reverse. The specu- 
lations on the angel bearing the Divine Name are quite early (Jaoel etc., 
vide note on iz 5 ). The expression 'the little lao' occurs in Pistis 
Sophia (ed.Horner, p. 6, cf. below, pp. 188 seq.). Metatron, 'the little 
Throne', was from the beginning evidently called 'the little YHUH 
(Ydho) ', or, perhaps better, the little YHUH was called Metatron. To a 
Jewish ear ' the little Throne ' sounded better than ' the little YHUH '. 
(Cf. below, p. 145.) Later it was discovered that the numerical value 
of Metatron was equal with that of the Divine Name Saddai. 

Next to that from pera-rOpovov the derivation from Mifra 
would seem to be the most plausible. The derivation from metator, 
on the other hand, is probably caused merely by a confusion at later 
times between ' Metatron ' and the word ' metator ', the exact meaning 
of which might easily have been forgotten. Thus ' metator ' was no 
doubt the original reading in Gen. R. 5 4 . Perhaps first in cabbalistic 
circles (cf . above on the derivation from metator) speculating upon 
Metatron's function at the Creation the 'metator' was interpreted 
to mean Metatron (as the representative of the Holy One) and on the 
basis of this interpretation of the passage the variant reading of the 
Sifre passage (and the Y e lamm e denu readings adduced by Nachmanides) 



142 INTRODUCTION 

was evolved. Subsequently, when the meaning of ' metator ' was again 
known (cf. Elias Levita, Tisbi), this was also used to interpret the 
supposed equivalent ' Metatron '. It will be unnecessary to state that 
the other derivations, i.e. from mater, peTpov, etc., need not be 
considered. 

13. ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPTION 'METATRON' 

TN the preceding we have been mainly concerned with the origin of 
A the word Metatron, and have come to the conclusion that it signifies 
'the Throne next to the (Divine) Throne' or, which would be the 
same, 'the second Throne'. In dealing with this we have only in 
passing touched upon the origin of the conception underlying that 
word. 

The rise of the conception of Metatron cannot be explained from 
any single idea, but must be considered as a resultant phenomenon 
of the meeting and coalescence of different ideas. The various elements 
co-operating towards the formation of the conception are the following : 

(1) The conception of angelic beings called Opovoi, evidenced 
especially (a) in Test. Levi 3 8 : eV Se TOJ (ovpavto r<w) />ter' avrov 
eicri 6 povoL, e^iovcruu, (&) in NT. Col. i 16 :. . .etre 6 povou, eire 
KvpiorrjTes, ei/re ap^ai, etre eoucrica,(c)in zEn.zd*-:. . .theseventh 
Heaven, and I saw there a very great light, and fiery troops of great 
archangels, incorporeal forces, and dominions, orders and govern- 
ments, cherubim and seraphim, thrones and many one-eyed ones.. . . 
The Opovoi are, no doubt, angels possessing thrones, whence meto- 
nymically called 'thrones'. 1 

(2) The idea of 70 (or 72) celestial rulers, representing the 70 
(or 72) earthly dominions, kingdoms, or nations ; these were naturally 
also considered as enthroned. Ace. to one (the earlier?) view these, as 
representing Gentile Kingdoms, were evil agencies (trace of this even 
in 3 En. i 4 ). 3 Under the influence of the Jewish fundamental doctrine 

1 In the sense of celestial beings 'possessing thrones' the tipovoi of Col. i 16 are 
interpreted byE. Haupt, in A. W. Meyer's Kr.-Ex. Komm. ub. d.N.T., ad locum, 
and by M. Dibelius, in H. Lietzmann's Handb. z. N.T. 3. 2, ad loc. a.o. 

It may not be out of the way to point to the representations of Rev. 4 2 > 4 " I8ov, 
Qpovos exeiTO ev TO> oiipavco. . . KOL KVK\6dev rov Opovov tfpovoi ei'icocri KOI recrcrapes KOI 
7rt TOVS 6povovs eidov rovs fluoarL nai recrcrapas Trpe&ftvTepovs Kadrj/jievavs, ib. II 1G 
Koi ol e'lKOcri Kal re era-apes irpecrflvrepoi, ol eva>irt.ov rov 0eov Ka6r]jj.evoi eirl TOVS 
6p6vovs avrEov (cf. Mt. IQ 28 , Lk. 22 30 ). 

The dpoi'oi as a class of angels -remain in Christian angelological systems: 
Origen, Opp. 1733, pp. 66, 70, Ephrem Syrus, Opp. Syr. i. p. 270, Pseudo-Dionysios, 
on the celestial Hierarchy, Thomas ab Aquino, Summa Tlieol. i. 108. 

2 On the various representations of the 70 (or 72) princes of kingdoms, vide 
notes on 17", i8 2 3 , 30 2 . 



ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPTION OF METATRON 143 

of God's Absolute Sovereignly over Heavens and Earth, the celestial 
rulers of necessity became the satraps, viceroys under ' the King of the 
Kings of Kings ', appointed as rulers by Him ; in this capacity they may 
fail, or be faithless (a remnant of their character of independent evil 
agencies) and subsequently be punished. 1 In connection with the 
early idea of the Divine Council they were as the representatives of 
the terrestrial kingdoms also thought of as forming the Divine Bep 
Din. The ideas of Opovoi, ' thrones ', and of 70 enthroned vice-regents 
of the Most High must have been assimilated at quite an early time. 
They can be traced, even after the development referred to below (3) 

has taken place, in Mass. Hek. ii: lS fcM niD^fc h& HINDS 



tfhtt p*K D^l "the Holy One, blessed be He, has 70 thrones 
of kingship in analogy with the thrones of kingships in the world cor- 
responding to the 70 nations in the world. . .and they are all derived 
from Him (lit. are all from that which is his) ". The idea of 70 thrones 
here is evidently a remnant of the conception of 70 enthroned rulers, 
called 'thrones'. 2 

(3) Whatever may have been the first origin of the conception of 
70 (72) angelic rulers of the nations and 70 (72) councillors of the 
Most High this conception was, in various modifications, widely 
spread in the different syncretistic systems and circles, as Bousset 
has pointed out. 3 Hence the speculations on this theme were inspired 
not only by the ideas which had been introduced into Jewish religious 
thought several centuries before, but also by current syncretistic 
ideas. Probably under the weight of the Gnostic representations of 
world-creating and world-dominating ap^ovres, and in opposi- 
tion to what was felt as dualistic notions, the 70 (72) enthroned vice- 
regents were still more emphatically put under the absolute rulership 
of the One God ; in order to mark their complete subservience under 
the Most High, they were deprived of their 'thrones'. The under- 
lying idea being: "there is only one real ruler in heaven", the con- 
sequence was: "there is only One Throne, or only One possessor of 
thrones in heaven, viz. the Throne of Glory and He who is seated on 

1 Cf. the 70 shepherds, i En. 8Q 11 seqq. 

2 Zohar,L 173 b, says: pjntn xrU'OE' "Hm Tlfl TDfittfB p^SI Tin pjnttf Sm 
SJlJ'Otsn /TJIHD ^NYinp In that late work there is, thus, also a remnant of the 
idea of ' thrones ' as independent beings and of their identification with the 70 rulers 
forming the Council of the Holy One. The writer of Mass. Hek. ii, and probably 
also the writer of the Zohar passage referred to, did evidently not think of the 
'thrones' or 'seats' as angelic beings, but took them literally. 

3 Hauptprobleme der Gnosis, pp. 358-361. 



144 INTRODUCTION 

it". But at this point of development, the conception of a second 
throne was already so firmly established as not to be obliterated; 
this second throne was Metatron. To understand how Metatron 
could survive the extinction of the (other) 6p6voi, it is necessary 
to recall the existence of other deeply ingrained ideas, viz. 

(4) The one ap^cav, the leader of the world-ruling ap^ovres, in 
relation to the Highest God viewed as the second or small ap^cjv ; 
in general all those Gnostic representations picturing a second, lower, 
lesser Divinity, or Divine emanation differently expressed in different 
systems. 1 It should be understood that the idea in question is not 
to be derived from any particular system, nor figure in that particular 
system. Thus M.Friedlander, 2 who had a correct intuition in bringing 
the figure of Metatron under the light of Gnostic ideas, was wrong in 
deriving him from Horos. Metatron is by no means a Gnostic figure ; 
the most that can be said is that Gnostic ideas have influenced the 
conception. 

(5) The most important element or complex of elements which 
gave life and endurance to the conception in question was the 
notion of the 'angel of YHUH, who bears the Divine Name' and the 
'angel of the Face, the Divine Presence', called Yaoel, Yehoel, Yoel, 
the highest of the angels, the Divine Name representing the Godhead. 
Extensive speculations must have centred round this possessor of 
the Divine Name. For this it may suffice to point to the Pseudepi- 
grapha, to the Apocalypse of Abraham, etc. (cf. above, p. 139 and 
note on iz 5 ) and also to Philo, who calls the angel bearing the Divine 
Name: ' d/>^ctyyeAos /cat TTyjecr/Suraros Xdyos', 'Xoyos #eibs', 3 
also dpxrf) oVo/xa, 0eov (the 'Divine Name') /car' ei/coVa avBpco- 
TTO?, 6 op&v, 6eov eiKtov^ etc. From this conception of an angel, 
partaking of the Divine Glory (being the Angel of the Presence) and 
called by the Divine Name HIPP there arose the appellation "the 
Little YHUH". It is highly improbable that this appellation was at 
any time accepted .by the Rabbis. To Rabbinism the whole idea 
must have presented itself as the worst of all possible heresies, 
that accepting "two powers". Even the combination itself: "Little 
+ YHUH", whatever interpretations were applied to it, must have 

1 In Mandaitic the expressions and ideas connected with the relation between 
the [f>"fn2O] f"T> and the fi'^fi'J'P fi'T' [Second Life], and also, by the 
way, between fi'jfi'J'P fP and f>f>P'i>P f>"P [Third Life] proffer many 
close similarities with the representations of Metatron (cf. above, pp. 64seqq.). 

2 Der vorchristliche jiidische Gnosticismus , pp. 102-105. (Cf. above, p. 130.) 

3 Friedlander, op. cit. p. 107, notes 150, 151, quoting Philo's Quis rerum divin. 
haeres. i. 501, De Migrat. Abrah. i. 463. 

4 Philo, De confusione linguarum, 146, 147 (ii. 257). 



ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPTION OF METATRON 145 

been an abomination to a Rabbinic mind. The origin of this ap- 
pellation must be sought with some sect or mystic circle outside the 
Rabbinic fold, probably one open to and willing to assimilate current 
Gnostic-syncretistic ideas. Sects and circles of many different 
shades have certainly existed within Judaism, 1 and many of these have 
borrowed freely from each other and from every other source con- 
genial to them ; and have also been under the influence of current 
religious ideas. It is further to be supposed that some of the circles 
devoted to mystical subjects (and experiences) were not inimical to 
the Rabbinic teachings, just as it is impossible to deny that some of 
the recognized Tannaitic teachers found it worth their while to devote 
themselves to the mysteries of the Mcerkaba and Creation. In the 
circles, where the conception of the High Celestial being, called "the 
Little YHUH" was at home, this name, or at least the frequent use 
of it, under the strong influence of the Rabbinic teachings, may have 
been felt as a profanation, and, instead, Metatron, as implying the 
same, was used. Just as the Throne of Glory referred to the Holy 
One, so the "Little Throne", "the Second Throne", "the reflex of 
the Throne of Glory", i.e. Metatron, referred to ; became a metonym 
for the Little YHUH. Through this assimilation Metatron became 
the centre of powerful mystical speculations, perhaps even a popular 
figure, and was able to penetrate into the Rabbinic literature. 

(6) An element that must be taken into consideration is lastly the 
figure of the Elect One and the Son of man, of the ' Parables ' of i Enoch, 

i On this vide esp. Friedlander, op. cit. pp. 64, 65 seqq.; Abelson, Jewish Mysti- 
cism, pp. 18-26; Schechter, Doc. Jew. Sect. i. xxv, xxvi, xxviii; Gaster, The 
Samaritans, pp. 83-86, 100 et al., and cf. Reitzenstein, Mand. B. d. Herrn d. Grosse, 
PP- 37> 38,* Lidzbarski, JM . xxii, xxiii. This does not imply that Judaism itself at 
any time became a ' syncretistic phenomenon'. Even the Jewish mystical circles of 
which that behind 3 Enoch was one, are not to be designated as syncretistic: for 
this their fidelity towards and strong emphasizing of the Jewish faith, the OT. and 
even the general teachings of the schools are too marked. But on the other hand, 
it is impossible to deny that these circles, as well as the leading Rabbinic teachers, 
were influenced by syncretistic ideas, even if this influence was felt largely in a 
negative way (as incitamenta for repudiating or refuting certain ideas). At the same , 
time it must be kept in mind that there were several syncretistic formations more 
or less closely connected with Judaism. (Cf. G. Kittel, Die Probl. d. paldst. Jud. 
p. 72, n. i.) Cf. Leo Baeck, Ursprung und Anfdnge der jildischen Mystik in 
Entwicklungsstufen der jildischen Religion, p. 98: "Alles das (scil. the ecstatic and 
speculative mysticism) erscheint auf dem Boden des Judentums zunachst als ein 
Fremdes, und es ist in der Tat nur auf die, mannigfach bezeugte, Beriihrung und 
Auseinandersetzung mit dem Gnostizismus, mit dieser Mischung griechischer und 
orientalischer Religionen und Mythologien, wie sie damals die Umwelt Palastinas 
beherrschte, zuriickzufiihren. Die kosmischen Gedanken und Vorstellungen, 
die von daher an das jiidische Denken herantraten, verlangten ihre Antwort, die 
Widerlegung oder die Zustimmung, und aus diesem Erfordernis ist diese 
mystische Richtung im Judentum, so sehr die Voraussetzungen zu ihr in ihm 
selbst gegeben waren, hervorgekommen." 

OHBI 10 



146 INTRODUCTION 

who at least to the circle behind 3 Enoch was, apparently, conceived 
of as one being. To understand the connection between that figure 
and Metatron two different facts must be kept in view: viz. (i) that 
Metatron is invested with most of the attributes that in i Enoch 
characterize the Elect One and the Son of man ; to perceive this it is 
sufficient to read side by side i En. 46 and 3 En. 48 c 9 , i En. 6i 8 > 9 
(45 3 ) and 3 En. io 4 > 5 , 48 c 8 ; (2) that Metatron, however, lacks all 
Messianic character; further, is never represented as seated on the 
Throne of Glory, God's Throne; lastly, although identified with a 
human being, Enoch is not connected with the "one that looked like 
a man" of Dan. 7 13 (i En. 46 1 ). In view of the close dependence of 
3 En. upon i En., and, moreover, of the traits given to Metatron in 
3 En. upon those given to the Elect One, Son of man, in i "., the 
avoidance of any reference to the features mentioned under (2) above 
must be considered intentional and interpreted as originating from 
a refutation of the views implied therein, and, more especially, of the 
similar views, beliefs and manners of expression current among con- 
temporary religious sects or communities. (Christian: Messiah and 
his throneship, the use of the term 'Son of man'; Mandaean: the 
speculations on 'Enos, the man and the Celestial Being, the 'U]?ra, 
et sim.} In contrast to such views the Metatron-conception em- 
phasizes that the angel or celestial figure in question is seated on ' a 
second Throne', a throne of his own 1 which is a lower throne, a 
reflection of the Throne of Glory. At the same time the only counter- 
part to the designation ' Son of man ' in 3 En. is the derogatory " Born 
of woman, a putrefying drop " laid in the mouth of the angels (ch. 6 2 ). 
(Cf. the use of 'Enos' as the "head of the idol-worshippers", ib. 5.) 
It is characteristic that Enoch-Metatron in the same context is called 
"an elect one among the (inhabitants of the) world", ch. 6 3 , and that 
he is implicitly, and in later sources explicitly, the 'Adam Qadmon. 
(7) The Wisdom naturally would be connected with the Metatron- 
figure; all that the Wisdom speculation implies is so well known as 
not to need any demonstration here. It will suffice to point out that 
in 3 Enoch Wisdom and Tora are identical. The personified 
Wisdom, the hypostasis, created in the beginning (Prov. 8 22 ) has 
been identified with Metatron; the Wisdom as the 'secrets of the 
Tora' (vide below, pp. 171, 172) possessed in the beginning (Prov. 
ib.) was then made a 'possession' of Metatron. 

i A correction in the MS. T (Abbadianus 35) and in the so-called 'second group' 
of MSS. of i Enoch read 'his throne' instead of 'my throne' in i En. si 3 . What 
deductions bearing on the present question may be rightly made from this is difficult 
to decide. 



ANGELOLOGY (A l) 147 



14. THE ANGELOLOGY OF 3 ENOCH 

r y i HE various traditions concerning names, classes, order of ranks, 
1 number, functions and nature of the angels, that are embodied 
in 3 Enoch, may be arranged under the following divisions : 

(1) Those contained in the part of the book, which is entirely 
devoted to the exposition of the hierarchy of angels and to the 
descriptions of the different angel-princes and classes of angels, i.e. 
the ' angelological section', chh. 17-22, 25-28. Within this angelo- 
logical section again are to be distinguished at least three independent 
systems of angelology : 

(a) ch. 17, in the following referred to as A 2; 

(b) ch. 1 8, in the following referred to as A 3 ; 

(c) chh. 19-22, 25, 26, supplemented by chh. 27, 28 1 " 6 , referred 
to as A i . 

(2) Those contained in the remaining parts of the book : 

(a) in the chapters dealing with the Judgement, the performance 
of the Q e dussa, the fate of souls and spirits, etc., chh. 28^47 ; 

(b) in the Metatron-pieces, chh. 3-16, 483-0 i, 2; further in 
23 and 24; 

(c) in the fragments, chh. 15 B, 22 B and c. 

A. The angelology of A i (chh. 17-22, 25-28) . 

A i , the largest and most elaborate of the angelological systems of 
3 Enoch, does not contain a systematic treatment of all the hosts of 
angels. It deals only with the highest classes and angel-princes, 
namely those functioning .by the Divine Chariot (the Mterkafia) with 
the Throne of the Godhead. It is evident, however, that the said 
chapters are only the latter part of a more comprehensive angelo- 
logical treatise (cf. beg. of ch. 19 and note). As to the contents of the 
former (lost) part of this treatise it is useless to proffer conjectures. 
Cf. notes on chh. i7 8 and I9 1 . That the section knew of other angelic 
orders besides the Mcerkaba-angels and angels of the Throne is 
apparent from e.g. ch. 19. 

The order of classification is one proceeding from the lower to the 
higher classes, treating first of the five angel-princes appointed over 
the five angelic classes by the McerkaM (i.e. the Divine Chariot, 
derived from Ezek. i and 10), and then of the five angels in the im- 
mediate proximity of and functioning by the Throne, the supreme 



IO-2 



148 INTRODUCTION 

part of the Mcerkaba, being the seat of the manifested Godhead. Thus 
the order is the following : 

(i) The Wheels (Hebrew : Galgallim) of the Mcerk&ba under the 
prince Rikbiel (from rcefceb = chariots). The name Galgallim is derived 
from Ezek. io 2 > 6 > 13 . The Galgallim play the part of the 'Wheels' of 
Ezek. i and 10, i.e. they carry the Mcerktiba. They are at the bottom 
of the Mcerkada-structurQ : "the feet of the Hayyofi are resting upon 
them" (iQ 5 ). The word Galgallim is used instead of the originally 
equivalent 'Ofannim (in Ezek. i and 10 more commonly employed 
than Galgallim), apparently because the 'Ofannim are already definitely 
associated with another, higher order of M^er&aSa-angels (the 'Ofan- 
nim of ch. 25). The Galgallim of ch. 19 are only just emerging as a 
specific class of angels; in vss. 2 and 3 they are depicted more in the 
form of 'wheels' in the strict sense of the word than as angels. See 
further note on ch. 19. 

The Galgallim are eight in number, "two in each direction" (i9 3 ). 
The expression "two in each direction" is no doubt deduced from 
Ezek. i 16 ("as it were a wheel in the middle of a wheel") and io 10 , 
thus making one pair of 'wheels' for each of the four Hayyop. 

The function of the prince of the Galgallim, Rikbiel, is not defined 
in contrast to the case of the princes of the four subsequent classes 
of Meerkaba-angels. 

The Galgallim, besides carrying the MterkaJba, share with the higher 
Mcerkafia-angels in the performance of the Celestial Song (vs. 7). 

(2) The prince Hayyliel and the four Hayyop, chh. 20, 21 . The four 
Hayyop (derived from Ezek. i 5 seqq.) are next above the Galgallim. 
They have four faces, four wings (cf. Ezek. i 6 > 23 ), and crowns on their 
heads. The only function of these angels mentioned in the chapters 
in question is the utterance of the responses of the Q e dussa, in the 
right and timely performance of which they are prompted by Hayyliel, 
the prince appointed over them. 

(3) Above the Hayyop are the K e ruUm with their prince K e ruUel, 
ch. 22. The high position assigned to K e rufoiel is marked by an ex- 
travagant description of his glorious and awe-inspiring appearance. 
The conception of the K e rui>im, as it appears here, is mainly derived 
from Ezek. io. They are four in number (vs. 15), in accordance with 
Ezek. io 15 ' 21 ' 22 . They utter song and praise (vss. 12, 13, 15). But 
they also appear as God's messengers ("do the will of their Creator", 
vs. 1 6). The description in ch. 22 preserves traces of the old idea of 
the K e ruMm as the vehicles of the S e kina: this is implied by the 



ANGELOLOGY (A l) 149 

expression "the chariots of the K e rufeim" (vs. u). Similarly "the 
S e kina is resting upon them", "the splendour of S e kina is on their 
face" (vss. 7, 13). To them is applied the OT. expression "who 
dwelleth on the K e rufcim", referring to the Most High (vss. 12, 16, 
cf. i Sam. 4 4 , 2 Sam. 6 2 , 2 Kings IQ 15 , Is. 37 16 , Ps. 8o 2 , 99 1 , i Chron. 
i3 6 , Ezek. 9 3 ); "above their lofty heads abides continually the glory 
of the high King" (vs. 12). Cf. Ezek. n 22 , io 19 . 

The conception of the K e rut>im drawing (or being) the chariots 
on which the Most High rides through the heavens in accordance 
with 2 Sam. 22 11 , Ps. i8 10 viz. when leaving the Throne and the 
Mterkaba, is not attested in ch. 22, but it is perhaps to be discovered 
in ch. 23 17 . 

The "K e rubim of the flaming sword" (Gen. 3 s4 ) are perhaps 
remembered in the explicit reference to the sword of K e rubiel in 
vs. 6. 

K E RUBIEL, the prince of the K e rub"im, ace. to vss. n, 12 and 16, 
has charge of the chariots of the K e ru1?im and exercises the function 
of supervision and attendance on the K e rut>im. 

(4) The prince 'OFFANNIEL, appointed over the 'Ofannim, is next 
above the K e ruMm and K E RUBIEL, ch. 25. Of the 'Ofannim (derived 
from the theophany of Ezek. i 15 > 16 > 19 ~ 21 , 3 13 , io 6 et passim) the details 
given are scanty (vss. 5-7). Not even the number of these angels is 
defined, although it is probably to be understood as four: the exposi- 
tion of the section supports the picture of a Markaba m e rubbaaj> 
to use the technical term frequent in later cabbalistic works. The only 
function explicitly assigned to them is the "praising their Creator" 



. . , 

To the chieftain of the Ofannim, OFFANNIEL, more space is given. 

Besides ascribing to him the inherent function of attending and 
supervising the 'O/flwmwz, the description shows traces of a conception 
of 'OFFANNIEL as especially connected with the course of or sphere of 
the moon (vs. 2, cf. note ad loc.). Elsewhere in the book (chh. I4 10 , 
i7 5 ) 'OFFANNIEL is explicitly stated to be the prince set over "the globe 
(wheel, 'ofan) of the moon", and this might have been the earlier 
character in which this angel-prince was conceived. 

(5) Above the 'Ofannim and 'OFFANNIEL are the S e rdfim under the 
prince S e rafiel. They may here be called the highest class of Mcerkaba- 
angels proper. They, in common with the four other classes, share in 
the performance of the Celestial Songs, especially the Q e dussa. But 
they seem further to have had the special function of transmitting 
documents or petitions to the Most High. To them Satan as chief 



150 INTRODUCTION 

of the Accusers together with the two "princes of kingdoms" re- 
presenting respectively the two chief Gentile Empires, Persia and 
Rome, hand over the documents of accusation against Israel, "that 
they may present them before the Holy One, blessed be He" (vs. 12, 
cf. note ad loc. on the quoted sentence). At the same time it is 
stated, that the S e rafim take sides with Israel, in so far as "they 
burn the writing tablets of Satan in the fiery river " they are counted 
among the angels pleading the cause of Israel (cf. the "angels of 
Mercy", ch. 33 1 ). 

The number of the S e rafim is given as four (vs. 9) in correspon- 
dence with that of the Hayyop, the K e ruHm and the pairs of Galgallim. 
The description of the prince of the S e rafim, S E RAFIEL, is extrava- 
gant, but the details do not materially differ from those of most 
descriptions of high angel-princes : the radiance and splendour of his 
appearance Kabod the innumerable eyes, etc. One statement, 
however, is somewhat surprising, in giving a ' name ' to the " crown on 
his head": it is called "the Prince of Peace" (vs. 8, Is, 9 5 ). This is 
only paralleled by the passage in the R. Isma'el version of the Si'ur 
Qoma, according to which the crown on the head of the manifested 
Godhead bears the name of ' Israel' (Bodl. OPP. 467, fol. 60 b). It is 
possible that the interceding or pleading function of the S e rafim at 
the Judgement may have been thought of in the application of this 
name which naturally is meant to refer to the character of S E RAFIEL as 
the prince of the S e rafim. The function assigned to S E RAFIEL is 
conform to that of the princes of the other classes of Mterkaba-angels ; 
he has charge of the S e rafim and teaches them song, praise and the 
right performance of the Q e dussa. 

With the S e rafim-s E RAFiEL, as has been pointed out above, the 
highest order of the ' M<zrkaba-ange\s ' proper is reached, and the 
remaining part of the section turns to describing the angel-princes 
above them, who, by way of distinction, may be called the ' Throne- 
angels ' or ' Throne-princes '. Together with the transition from the 
Mcerkafia-angels to the Throne-princes there occurs a change in the 
representation of the Throne itself, a change already marked in the 
closing verse of ch. 26: the Throne which in the aforegoing part is 
always referred to as the 'Throne of Glory* is henceforth seen in the 
two aspects of 'Throne of Glory' and 'Throne of Judgement', the 
latter of these aspects being apparently represented as the higher. 
The expression ' Throne of Glory ' probably refers to the presidency 
of the Most High over the angels and angel-princes, the ' Throne of 
Judgement' is associated with His rulership or government of the 



ANGELOLOGY (A l) 151 

Universe and His judicature over the inhabitants of the world. Here, 
as elsewhere, the 'Judgement' (Din) is to be understood in a wide 
sense, including forensic and executive judgement as well as govern- 
ment in general. 

Consequently, the angel-princes of the Throne are represented as 
functioning primarily at the Judgement, or in the 'Council of the 
Holy One'. 

(6) RADUERIEL, ch. 2j. RAfiuERiEL is above the S e rafim and is 
appointed "over the treasuries of the books" and especially over the 
'Case (d e ltisqom) y containing the "Book of Records". The "Book of 
Records" is opened and read at the sitting of the Celestial Court 
(Bep Din scel-ma 1 a la) , presided over by the Most High. The 'Book' 
is essentially a ' book of Judgement ', and is supplemented by other 
'books' of similar character (vs. 2), all conceived of as containing the 
'records' of men's deeds. 

(For the general ideas of "Books of Records," etc., vide Charles's 
exhaustive note on i En. \*f and Box's note on 4 Ez. 6 20 . 1 ) 

The seals of the d e lusqom are broken by RADUERIEL and the books 
taken out and delivered by him to the Most High. 

In passing, reference is at this point of the description made to the 
angels called ' Scribes' (vs. 2) who read the books before the Celestial 
Bep Din. It is noteworthy that the Scribes who elsewhere (chh. 
jgas-as^ 22 2 , /^g Hag. 15 a Metatron as scribe etfreq.) are assigned 
a very high position in the heavenly hierarchy, in the present angelo- 
logical system play quite an unimportant part; they are not even 
given a definite place in the scheme. They are, in fact, represented 
less as Scribes proper than as Readers. The essential function of the 
Scribe(s), the recording merits, demerits and Divine decrees, is here 
in all probability understood as adhering to RADUERIEL, as he, not the 
so-called Scribes, has control of the 'Books'. 

RADUERIEL, as is pointed out in the note on vs. i, is probably 
identical with VRETIL of 2 En. 22 n> 12 , "one of the archangels who was 
more wise than the other archangels and wrote down all the doings of 
the Lord", to whom the Lord said, "Bring forth the books from my 
store-places, etc." 

VRETIL, besides being the keeper of the books, is explicitly stated to 
be the Scribe ("wrote down. . . "). 

Although primarily functioning at the Judgement, RADUERIEL is 
also concerned with the Q e dussa (vs. 3). But, in common with the 

i R. H. Charles, The Book of Enoch or i Enoch, 2nd ed. Oxford, 1912, pp. 91, 
92 n. G. H. Box, The Ezra-Apocalypse, p. 74. 



152 INTRODUCTION 

'Irin and Qaddisin of ch. 28, he does not himself take part in chanting 
the Q B dussa. In this connection a remarkable statement is made 
(vs. 3) : " out of every word that goeth forth from his mouth an angel 
is created and he stands . . . and utters a song ", at the time of the per- 
formance of the Q e dussa. (Cf. ch. 40*, TB. Hag. 13 a, Gen. R. 
781, Lam. R. 3 21 .) Thus the essentially Divine power of creating 
song-uttering angels by a word of speech (a dibbur) is here trans- 
ferred to RADUERIEL. Vide further note on vs. T.. 

^ +j 

If the representation is original, it shows that this angel was 
assigned an exceptionally high position in relation to on one side the 
Godhead, on the other side the other angels. 

It is possible that the central feature of the conception of RADUERIEL 
was that of Scribe and Recording Angel (cf. Ezek. 9 21 , Dan. I2 1 , Pirqe 
y Abop, iii. 16, Tanhuma, ed. Buber, p. 17, Y. Targum on Ex. 24*, 
Asc. Isaiae, ix. 21). The conception shows affinities with non- 
Israelitish conceptions, e.g. of Nabii 1 and That. 

(7) Above RADUERIEL are the highest princes mentioned in the 
present angelological section, the Watchers and Holy Ones, named 
with the Aramaic terms of Dan. 4 10 > u 'Irin and Qaddisin, in singular 
( Ir and Qaddis (ch. 28). They are four in number, two 'Irin and two 
Qaddisin (vs. 5), and each of them is equal to all the rest of the angels 
and princes together (vs. i). 

These angels form the Council of the Almighty. "He doeth 
nothing in His world without first taking counsel with the 'Irin and 
Qaddisin "(vs. 4). 

Their activity is, however, not limited to that of giving counsel to 
the Most High, but they also exercise definite power over the inhabi- 
tants of the world and the empires and kingdoms on earth. It is they 
who give effect to the decrees of the Most High "over the kingdoms 
of men": "they abase to the ground those that are proud and they 
exalt to the height those that are humble" (vs. 6), an evident allusion 
to Dan. 4 14 (17) . Note that the same power is ascribed to the 70 princes 
under Metatron in ch. 48 c 9 . 

According to vs. 8 the 'Irin and Qaddisin are the 'court-officers' 
who "raise, argue and close every case that comes before the Holy 
One. . .when He is seated on the Throne of Judgement". This verse, 
however, is not to be included in A i (see note on vss. 7-10). It forms 
part of a representation of the 'Irin and Qaddisin as a larger number 
of high angel-princes (vs. 9), identifying them in chh. 29 and 30 with 

i Cf. the representation of Nabu in Gunkel, Archiv Wiss. i. 294-300 



ANGELOLOGY (A l) 153 



The angelological system of chh. 19-22, 25~28 6 . 



'Ir 
Qaddis 


HQB"H (S e Mna) 


'Ir 

Qaddis 


Throne of 
Judgement and 




Throne of 
Glory 






RADUERIEL (Scribes) 




Treasuries of the books (etc.) 



M 

3 


Treasuries of the books (etc.) 


M 
ss 


r 





r 


k .00 


S e rafiel four S e rafim 


o o . k 


a 


(Satan, Sammael and Dubbiel accusers) 


a 


-b . 





. 15 


a .00 


'Offanniel (four) 'Ofannim 


o o . a 





o 


. 


. O 


K e rut3iel four K e rubim 


. 





o 


, 


O O 


Hayyliel four Hayyo)> 


. 





o 






o o Galgalliel eight Galgallim o o 

encompassed by the four winds, and Ra <a m y e -Ra' a s. 

Four rivers beneath them. 

Clouds. 

Hosts of angels: sallisim, parasim, gibborim, s e fea'im, 
, m e munnim, sarim, haylim, m e sar e j?im, 

mal'afeim d e galim. 
Song-uttering companies. 



154 INTRODUCTION 

the 72 princes of kingdoms. A i is probably to be regarded as ending 
with vs. 6. 

The conception of the four 'irin and Qaddisin no doubt belongs 
to the same range of ideas as that of the "Four Presences" of i En. 
40-4I 2 , although the four Presences are, ib.ch.qo 2 , said to be " different 
from those that sleep not" (i.e. the Watchers, 'Irin). 1 The Four 
Presences are, like the 'Irin and Qaddisin, set over the activities and 
affairs of the terrestrials (i En. 40' 7 ) and they are connected with the 
Judgement (i En. 40, 4I 1 * 2 ). 3 

It is noteworthy that the 'irin and Qaddisin are the only angel- 
princes of the present section who are explicitly stated to wield 
executive power over men, and only the three highest grades of angels, 
the S e rafim (ch. 26 12 ), RADUERIEL (as Keeper of the Book of Records) 
and the t lrin and Qaddisin are stated to be in any way connected with 
the affairs of men. That is to say, that the highest aspect of the angelic 
(and Divine) activities is that of the rulership, and judgement of man. 
The same idea is revealed in the tendency to represent the Throne 
in its highest aspect as the Throne of Judgement (vide above). 

B. The angelology of A3 (ch. 17). 

Note. The systems of angelic hierarchy of A 2 and A 3 are altogether 
different from that of A i. Not one single specified angel, order of 
angels nor angel-prince is, as regards function and name, common to 
A 2 and A 3 on one side and A i on the other. 

One angelic name, 'OFFANNIEL, occurs both in A 3 and A i, but the 
very fact that this name in the two systems is used to denote two 
different angelic figures is conclusive proof of the disparity between 
these systems. To A 2 and A 3 are common the conception of angel- 
princes set over the different heavens (I7 1 " 3 , iS 1 * 2 ). 

That A i is not a sequel to A 3 is evident from a comparison of the 
end of ch. 18 with the opening sentence of ch. 19 (cf. note on ch. 
I9 1 ). But stronger evidence is to be seen in the fact that ch. 18 (A3) 
represents a complete system in relation to A i : the highest angel- 
princes, those of the Throne, the Judgement, and further the Re- 
cording Angels, are all contained in the final part of the exposition of 
ch. 18, just as they are the subject of the last chapters of A i (chh. 27, 
28) though in a different form and with different names. 

i No doubt the 'Watchers' of the Pseudepigrapha were in the original Hebrew 
(-Aramaic) texts termed "pT^. Cf. in Schechter's Fragm. Zadok. p. 2, 1. 18: 



z Cf. Charles, The Book of Enoch or i Enoch, and ed. Oxford, 1912, p. 77, 
notes on i En. 4O 2 4 . 



ANGELOLOGY (A 2) 155 

That A 2 cannot be regarded as an introduction to A i is scarcely 
less evident. Apart from the occurrence in both of the angelic name 
'OFFANNIEL in different connotations, the order in which the ranks of 
the angelic hierarchy are presented is in A 2 regressive, in A i again 
progressive. 

The last verse of ch. 17, however, describing the 72 princes of 
kingdoms in Raqi at (the second heaven) might possibly be a fragment 
of the missing former part of A i , the latter part of which is preserved 
in chh. 19 seqq. . 

It begins with the phrase DHD PP^D? ("above them"), the 
characteristic opening expression of the different chapters of A i in 
introducing a new, i.e. higher, order of angels or angel-princes. This 
verse also seems to be more akin, in phraseology, to A i than to A 2, 
e.g. in dwelling on the splendours and adornments of the angel- 
princes. 

If i7 8 be regarded as a fragment of the missing part of A i it would 
also indicate the general structure of this missing part, viz. as a de- 
scription of the various angelic inhabitants of the six lower heavens, 
i7 8 belonging to the section treating of the second heaven, the Raqi a ' . 
The part preserved in chh. 19 seqq. of course treats of the angelic 
residents of the tA rabop (the Mcerkaba-angels and the Throne- 
angels). 

The framework in which the angelological system of A 2 is put is 
that of the seven heavens only. It begins by referring to "the seven 
princes, great, glorious, revered, etc." These seven princes are the 
seven archangels, and are mentioned as something already well 
known. They are in the chapter enumerated by name; they are 
further allocated each to one of the seven heavens, as the m e munnce (i.e. 
appointed one, president) over that heaven and as "the prince of the 
host" of angels who occupy it. 

In this representation two different elements are to be distinguished, 
viz.: 

(1) The notion of the seven archangels (as to how far this was 
originally connected with the conception of seven heavens, see note 
on ch. I7 3 ). 1 

(2) The conception of angelic hosts distributed among the seven 
heavens and of princes appointed over them. 

i Cf. A. Dieterich-O. Weinreich, Eine Mithrasliturgte 3 , pp. 10, 1. isf., 12, 1. 27. 
K. Dieterich, Hettenistische Volksreligion und byzantinisch-neu-griechischer Volks- 
glaube (in AITE AO2, 1925, pp. 3,4): "In der gnostischen Lehre . . . blieben nur die 
sieben Archonten und die sieben Planetenspharen iibrig, die dann unter jiidischem 
Einfluss sich in die sieben Erzengel und die sieben Himmel verwandelten". 



156 INTRODUCTION 

There is in A 2 yet a third element, viz. : 

(3) The idea of angelic moving forces of the four classes of heavenly 
bodies : sun, moon, planets and constellations ; and of (four) chieftain 
princes controlling or directing these angelic forces. 

This third element is brought into harmony with the heptouranic 
plan of the system on the basis of the Rabbinic tradition assigning all 
the heavenly bodies to one heaven, in this case the second, the 
Raqi ai . On the other hand the sidereal significance, which may 
originally have attached to the conception of the seven archangels or 
the princes of the seven heavens, is hereby concentrated to the rulers 
of the heavenly bodies located in the second heaven exclusively. 

In the conception of seven archangels A 2 shows continuity with 
the ideas prevalent in the Pseudepigrapha ; but also for the notions of 
different angelic hosts distributed in the seven different heavens, of 
angelic rulers of the heavenly bodies, and for the locating of these 
angelic rulers and the heavenly bodies in their charge in a specific 
heaven, there are precedents in the apocalyptic or pseudepigraphic 
literature. 1 

As regards the names of the seven archangels, of the seven heavens 
and of the four princes appointed over the angelic forces of the 
heavenly bodies, it is to be noticed : 

The names of the seven princes of the seven heavens are pre- 
sented in different order and readings both in the two enumerations 
in the chapter (vss. i and 3) and in the two extant sources (tf and "]). 
In this very variance as to names A 2 agrees with the other represen- 
tations as far as they are preserved of these seven archangels. Yet, 
in spite of the incongruity between the various enumerations of the 
names of the seven archangels there is sufficient similarity in the form 
of the names to show affinity, interdependence or common origin. 

There are first the two outstanding names of venerable ages: 
MIKAEL and GABRIEL (Dan. 10, 12, 8, 9). They are here represented 
as the two highest of the archangels, and occur in most of the enumera- 
tions, from the early one of i En. 2O 5 7 (in a portion belonging ace. 
to Charles to a pre-Maccabaean period) down to that of Socte Raza 
(thirteenth century) quoted in YR. i. 6 a. The other names also seem 
to date back to the time of the earlier portions of i Enoch. 

The other names are found in the portions of i Enoch dealing with 
the superior angels referred to collectively as the "Watchers" or 

i Cf. i En. 20, Test. Levi, 3, 2 En. 3-20, 3 Bar. n, Test. Solomon Fuller re- 
ferences are given in the notes on the chapter. 



ANGELOLOGY (A 2) 157 

' ' The Watchers and Holy Ones " and, in i Enoch, usually contemplated 
as Fallen High Angels. These superior angels (whether they were 
originally conceived of as angels of the "Throne", or as Princes of 
the nations of the world or as "AjO^o^res) were evidently given indi- 
vidual names at a time when one of their main activities was thought 
to have to do with sidereal and elemental forces. Thus BARADIEL 
= the angel of Hail, BARAQIEL = angel of the Lightning, SAHAQIEL 
= the angel of the sky, SAHAQIEL = angel of the Stillness, the 
Appeasing of the thunder and storm, etc. The names were kept even 
though as here the character of the angel-princes to which they 
were applied had changed. 

The absence of the names 'URIEL and RAFAEL here is remarkable. 
On this peculiarity see note on the chapter. 

As regards the names of the heavens and their order A 2 in the 
main agrees with the traditions on which TB. Hag. 12 b (the most 
important Rabbinic reference) is based. For the first (i.e. lowest) 
heaven A 2 gives, besides Uilon, the Hebrew variant Samayim (cf. 
Deut. R. 2 23 ). 

As regards the angelic occupants of the different heavens A 2 
differs from TB. Hag. 12 b but agrees with the earlier Pseudepi- 
grapha. (Vide note ad loc.) The angels subservient to the princes of 
the heavens are represented as numerous. Each "Prince of the Host " 
has a suite of ministering angels consisting of 496,000 myriads. 

This number, besides giving an impression of the vast number of 
angels who do the bidding of the seven archangels, is symbolical of 
the conception assigning to the large multitude of angels the duty of 
proclaiming, expressing, the Kingship of the Most High throughout 
all the heavens. "They take upon themselves the yoke of the King- 
dom of heaven." The numerical value of the Hebrew word for 

'Kingdom,' JTP7/D, is 496. The number 496 is therefore usually 
mentioned in connection with the ministering angels as uttering the 
Q'dussa. Cf. chh. 35 1 , 4o 3 . 

The names of the angel-princes appointed over the four classes of 
heavenly bodies stand in direct relation to the functions ascribed to 
them and are in the chapter interpreted accordingly. GALGALLIEL is 
the prince of the globe (galgal) of the sun, 'OFANNIEL the prince of the 

globe ('ofan) of the moon (cf. 4I 1 , rOT^H [SIN*, against pli&nn W?J), 

RAHATIEL is the prince who makes the constellations ' to run ' (rahaf) 
and KOKABIEL or KOKBIEL is the prince appointed over the planets 
(kofcabim). 



158 INTRODUCTION 

These four are mentioned with the same names and functions in 
ch. i4 4 , among the 'rulers' of the world. RAHATIEL recurs also in ch. 
46. KOKBIEL is met with in such early writings as i En. chh. 6 7 , 69 2 , 
8 3 (Fragments of the Book of Noah, Charles). The term Rah a ton occurs 
in TB. Ber. 32 in connection with angelic rulers over the stars and 
planets. 

The angels who accompany GALGALLIEL, 'OFANNIEL and RAHATIEL 
and who move the sun, moon and constellations are in number 96, 
88 and 72 respectively, whereas KOKBIEL has a suite of 365,000 
myriads of ministering angels. 

The discrepancy between the large number of angels assigned to 
the last-named prince and the limited number of "great and honoured 
angels" represented as assisting the three higher princes of heavenly 
bodies was probably the cause of the addition to this chapter (17) of 
the fragment contained in vs. 8, dealing with the 72 princes of king- 
doms. The redactor who joined together the different pieces of the 
angelological section (chh. 17-28, 29) was led to believe that the 
72 princes of kingdoms mentioned in this fragment formed the real 
counterpart of the 72 angels who ace. to vs. 6 accompany the con- 
stellations and that these princes were hence rulers over the 365,000 
myriads of angels referred to in vs. 7. To this effect he interpreted the 
opening words of the fragment: "over them", "above them". He 
was further moved to this conclusion by his familiarity with certain 
traditions which connected the 72 princes of kingdoms very closely 
with the rulership over the planets and constellations or over the 
heavenly bodies in general. For the improbability of this fragment 
having originally formed part of A 2 cf. note on ch. i7 8 . It belonged, 
presumably, to A i . 

C. The angelology of A3 (ch. 18). 

A 3 is like A 2 a complete scheme of angelic hierarchy. It has, how- 
ever, a much wider scope than A 2. Whereas the framework in which 
the different angelic hosts and their chieftain angel-princes are 
ordered is in A 2 merely that of the seven heavens, A 3 stretches its 
vision of the celestial structure up to the Throne of Glory, the seat 
of the $ e feina. To the angels and princes of the seven heavens A 3 
attaches least importance. Instead it centres its interest and focusses 
its attention to an increasing extent as the exposition goes on upon 
the angel-princes occupying the positions near the Throne. 

The system under consideration may thus be conveniently divided 



ANGELOLOGY (A 3) 159 

up into the following parts, proceeding from the lowest to the highest 
ranks or angel-princes. 

(1) The angels of each of the seven heavens; over the angels of 
each heaven is appointed an angel-prince, sar. (This accords with 

A 2.) 

The angels of the heavens are not defined as to functions or di- 
visions. Neither are the princes of the heavens named by individual 
names as in A 2. The Princes are * crowned ', i.e. the crown is the symbol 
constituting the degree of sar, prince, ruler over angels appointed to 
his charge. 

(2) The 72 princes of kingdoms, the celestial representatives of the 
earthly kingdoms, empires or nations. 

The seventh heaven is pictured as divided in two parts, one lower 
or external, and a higher, central. The outer common part is the 
abode of the angels of the seventh heaven and their prince ; the 72 
princes of kingdoms are located on the confines between the outer 
and the inner regions, evidently in order to indicate their character 
of intermediaries between the earthly kingdoms and the "King of 
Kings of Kings." They have crowns of kingship (to denote their 
rulership over the earthly empires) in distinction from the other 
angel-princes who have "crowns of glory". 

(3) The guardians of the seven Hefialo]), Halls, located one within 
the other in the seventh heaven, forming its Holy part. The inner 
regions are pictured as arranged in seven He^alop, the one within 
and higher, holier than the other. The idea of guardians, door- 
watchers, of the Halls is here just emerging. Contrast the developed 
form of this idea met with in Hekalofi Rabbapi, esp. chh. 15-23, also 
in Masscektep Hekalop, chh. 4 and 5. 

(4) The high angel-princes of the seventh Hall, the place of the 
Throne of Glory and the S e kina. These angel-princes are ordered 
according as they are conceived of as representing different aspects 
of the Divine manifestation in the seventh Hall in relation to the 
angelic and terrestrial worlds. 

The seventh Hall represents a similar division as the seventh 
heaven. The centre of the seventh Hall is also the centre of the Divine 
manifestation, the &nina, the Throne of Glory. We have here, so to 
speak, the Holy of Holies (as the seventh Hall is indeed named when 
in later literature the Hekalo]? are designated each by its special 
name, as e.g. in Pardes Rimmonim, Sa'ar Hekalop). Here begins the 
essential theme of the exposition. 



1 60 INTRODUCTION 

(a) The angel-princes of the celestial performance of the Q e dussa, 
viz.: 

the four great princes set over the four camps of e kina, 

Tag'as, 

Barattiel, and 

Hamon. 

The four camps of S e kina represent the multitudes of song- 
uttering angels ordered in four great divisions, rows or 'armies', 
one on each side of the S e kina. The princes appointed over the 
camps of e kina are usually named as the four princes on the "four 
sides of the Lord of Spirits", i.e. MIKAEL, GABRIEL, 'URIEL (NURIEL or 
FANUEL) and RAFAEL. The conception in its germ goes back at 
least as far as i En. 4O 1 " 3 ' 9 . (" On the four sides of the Lord of Spirits 
I saw four presences . . . and I heard the voices of those four presences 
as they uttered praises before the Lord of glory.") 

TAG'AS who stands at the head of all the song-uttering angels is 
symbolical of the Unity. The significance of this name is in later 
mystical literature essentially that of 'head', 'origin', ' fountain'. 1 

WJfi is in cabbalistic writings considered as a combined t e mura, 
viz. ny^N combined with '3"DX and usually connected with another 
similar combination, viz. &J>"y& = t e muras flgflK and DH"ytf. 
These combinations are regularly applied to the letters of the Divine 
Names. (References in note on ch. i8 5 .) 

BARATTIEL and HAMON both express the momentous significance 
of the heavenly Q e dussa, the commotion pervading all the angelic 
hosts at the time when the Thrice Holy is about to be sung. (Cf. 
ch. 38.) 

(b) The angel-princes of the heavenly treasuries (probably), 
representing the corresponding functions traditionally ascribed to 
Metatron Naar, "the eldest Servant of His house", viz.: 

TUTR E SIEL, 'ATRUGIEL, NA'ARIRIEL and SASNIGIEL. 

Tutr e siel is one of the names of Metatron in 48 D i, no. 83. It 
is almost certain that this name is an allusion to that of Metatron. 
The same is probably the case with 'ATRUGIEL. NA'ARIRIEL at once 
suggests the name or epithet 'Na'ar' or 'Youth' given to Metatron; 

i Cf. B e rip M e nuJ}d, ed. Amsterdam, 1648, e.g. foil. 3 a and 5 a. The name 
Tag'as, in contrast with the other angelic names of the section, is followed by 
epithets in Aramaic (NT l p t| l JO1 Slttf) instead of in Hebrew. Cf. in irP^K "ISO 
(ed. Buttenwieser) beginning in Aramaic: ^Nlt^n XS1 N1B> "?W '^ K^. 
The Aramaic here suggests that the name Tag'as emanates from some Aramaic 
source. In Mandaitic SiSfi is the term for 'crown'. Cf. the Jewish 



ANGELOLOGY (A 3) l6l 

SASNIGIEL or S E GANS E GAEL or ZAGN E ZAGIEL is one of the main synonyms 
for METATRON. It would thus seem that these four angels represent 
certain functions connected with the name of Metatron, namely the 
functions indicated by the names Zagn e zagiel (from fJJl) and Na'ar, 
i.e. the stewardship over the celestial treasuries, 'gnazim'. Cf. the 
cabbalistic play on the word Naar: as Naar (young) Metatron is 
also Zaqen (old) for he is the ' Z e qdn Ee^o\ the eldest of His house, 
i.e. steward, alluding to Gen. 24 2 . 

(c) The angel-princes representing the Divine Strength, Might 
and Power, viz.: 

ZAZRIEL, G E BURAJ?IEL and ' A RAFIEL. 

On these names cf. notes on ch. 18, vss. 12-14 respectively. 

(d) The angel-princes of the Tora, viz.: 
'ASRUYLU (the general instruction in the Tora) and 

GALLISUR (the revelation of the esoteric doctrine embodied in the 
Tora). 

In conformity with the principle 
(everything below has its counterpart above) there is in the celestial or 
angelic world a teaching of, instruction in the Tora in a heavenly 
college. The president of this heavenly college is 'Asruylu. Gallisur 
on the other hand reveals the "secrets of the Tora", the later term 
used in the technical sense (cf. TB. Hag. 13 a) of esoteric doctrine, 
the essence of the Tora. To a knowledge of "the secrets of Tora " only 
a privileged few would be admitted. And as possessor of these 
'secrets' GALLISUR ranks above 'ASRUYLU. This gradation in the 
knowledge of the Tora and the ' secrets ' among the angels is in fact 
always assumed. Cf. this chapter, vs. 22. 

(e) ZAKZAKIEL, representative of God's care for Israel, and 'ANAFIEL, 
representing the Divine Majesty pervading the <A raboJ> (but per- 
haps originally conceived of as the representative of the world at 
large, "the Prince of the World"). 

ZAKZAKIEL, in accordance with his name an allusion to /"ID?, JTD7 
"is appointed to write down the merits of Israel on the Throne of 
Glory" (cf. TB. Hag. 15 a on Metatron). This function connotes a 
sort of championship for Israel. The emphasis is here not so much on 
the Scribe-function (which really belongs to the two Sof e riel, 
vss. 23, 24) nor on the function of Advocate in general (this office 
rests with Z E HANPURYU, vs. 21), but the central aspect of the present 
conception of Zakzakiel is most probably that of Israel's represen- 
tative. 

OHBI . II 



1 62 INTRODUCTION 

The function and character of <A NAFIEL are described thus: 
" . . .(he) keeps the keys of the heavenly Halls. . .and the bough of 
his honour and his majesty and his crown and his splendour and his 
brilliance covers (overshadows, stretches over) all the chambers of 
iA rabop Rdqi ai on high even as ... the Glory of the Maker of the World 
covers the heavens and the earth is full of his praise." 

<A nafiel is thus conceived of as a supervisor of all the splendours 
of the seventh heaven, and especially over the seven Halls. His being 
compared with the Most High in this relation probably signifies that 
he is a representative of the Godhead to the whole angelic world 
under him, and perhaps also, as in Hefcalo]) Rabbapi, implicitly re- 
garded as the Prince of the World. The explanation of the name of 
<A NAFIEL as given in vs. 18 of the present chapter recurs in practi- 
cally identical form in Hek. R. 22 4 . 

(/) The highest angel-princes in A 3 as in A i are those of the 
Judgement, those serving by the "throne of Judgement". They are 
here : 

SO]?ER 'AIEL SOQED HOZI Z E HANPURYU, 

'AZBUGA, 

SOF E RIEL YHUH MEMIl? SOF E RIEL YHUH MEHAYYJE. 

r\ J - 

The first-named triad represent respectively the Accusing- 
Executing, the Impartially Deciding and the Def ending-Mitigating 
aspects of the Judgement. Or, in the language of ch. 3 1 , the Attributes 
of Justice, Truth and Mercy. 

SO]?ER 'ASIEL represents the rigid claims of the Attribute of Justice 
as well in the actual judgement (trial and verdict) as in the execution 
of the judgement. He enters before the e kina as prosecutor, 
basing upon the records of men's deeds preserved in the ' books ' kept 
by the two Sof e riel. As the executor of the judgement, i.e. of 
punishment, he is appointed over the Fiery River which is the symbol 
of the execution of punishment. In his zeal "he stirs up the fire of 
the river". The Fiery River is also the means of purification and 
punishment of the angels. The angel-princes who wish to enter 
before the S e ftina must pass through the Fiery River (i.e. be 
purified in it). SO]?ER 'ASIEL, keeping the "seals of the fiery river", 
also controls the admission of angel-princes into the Presence of the 



SOQED HOZI keeps the balance. He weighs the deeds of men in a 
balance in the Presence of the Holy One., He is in the middle between 
the Prosecution and the Defence, the counterpart of the Attribute of 



ANGELOLOGY OF CHH. 28 7 -48 A 163 

Truth in ch. 31. His function corresponds to that referred to in 
i En. 4I 1 , 6I 8 . 1 

Cf . the Mandaitic 'Afiapur, who keeps the balance and weighs the 

deeds of men: K^tfl KHKSiy ^ptfn (Lidzbarski, Hand. Lit. 
p. 278). ' 

Z E HANPURYU (Z E HAFTARYI) is the Advocate in Judgement and the 
Mitigator of the Punishment, functions symbolized by the expression 
"he rebukes the fiery river and pushes it back to its place" (vs. 21). 

'AZBUGA is the prince appointed for those who in the Judgement have 
been passed as 'Righteous': Saddiqim and H a side 'Oldm. He will 
clothe them "with the garments of life" in which they are to live 
eternally. 

These "garments of life" are in our book to be considered as 
symbolizing both "the spiritual bodies which are awaiting them" 
and as "reflections of the glory of $ e kina", the outward visibility 
of the new bodies, constituted of light-substance, ziu ha-kKabod 
(celestial nature). Cf. i En. 62 16 ; 2 Esd. 2 45 ; 2 En. 22 8 ~ 10 ; Asc. Isa. 

y22. 814,25. ^9, 17 etc JJ40/5 

ny"O"Ttf is probably originally only the name of a method of t e murd. 

SOF E RIEL H' M E MiJ? and SOF E RIEL H' M E HAYY^ are the highest 
angel-princes in the present angelological system. They fill the 
functions assigned to the Scribe or Scribes and the Recording Angel. 
They keep the books of life and the books of death. 

On the ideas connected with the terms ' books of life ' and ' books 
of death' cf. notes on chh. iS 24 , 2f, 28 7 , 30 (32 1 , 44 9 p 

D. The angelology of chh. 28 7 ~48 A. 

(a) The section on the Judgement naturally refers to the angels 
connected with the Divine Bep Din ; as in A i and A 3 the angels of 
the "Throne of Judgement" occupy the highest position. In the 
different fragments contained in chh. 28 7 ~33 we thus meet with the 
following representations, viz. : 

i . The 72 princes of kingdoms, headed by the Prince of the World, 
represent the world and its various nations before the Most High, 
when seated in Judgement (ch. 30). They are identical, according to 
the Redactor, with the 'Irin and Qaddisin, the court officers of the 
Divine Judge (28 8 ). They also actually form the Celestial Bep Din 

(29. 3)- 

1 Charles, i Enoch, p. 79 n. Box, The Ezra- Apocalypse, p. 19. 

2 Box, Intr. to Ascension of Isaiah (TED.), p. xxiv. 

3 See also Charles, i Enoch, p. 91 (note on ch. 47 3 ). 



11-2 



164 INTRODUCTION 

2. At the judgement of the individual the Holy One is surrounded 
by three classes of angels : the angels of Mercy, the angels of Peace and 
the angels of Destruction* representing the Counsels for the Defence, 
the Impartial Decision and the Execution of Punishment respectively : 
33 lj 2 . Cf. ch. 31 : Attributes of Mercy, Truth and Justice. 

3. The Mterkaba-angels are mentioned: surrounding the Throne 
are the S e rdfim and the 'Ofannim, whereas the Holy Hayyop carry 
the Throne from below. The K e rubim and the Galgallim are not 
mentioned. The reference to the Hayyop contains a feature not met 
with in A i : 33 3 . 

4. There are two Scribes functioning at the Judgement: ch. 33 2 . 

(6) The section centring round the conception of the celestial 
Q e dussa, comprising approximately chh. 34-40, is primarily concerned 
with the idea of the innumerable hosts of ministering angels as uttering 
the Q e dussa. 

i . The ministering angels are divided as regards their duties into 
three classes : some of them run as messengers, others are standing 
in attendance, but their main duty is the chanting of the Q 6 dussd. 

This multitude of ministering angels, especially in their character 
of performers of the Q e dussd, are as viewed from their centre, the 
Throne, the seat of the S 6 kina, called the "camp of S e kina" 
(mah a ne S e fiina). From this centre they are also pictured as facing 
the Throne in four immense ever-widening surop, armies, rows, at 
the head of each of which there is an angel-prince, called sar ha-Hayil 
(prince of the army, 35 3 ). 

These four armies are also called "the four camps of S 6 kind" 
('arba' mah a ne S 6 Mna). Cf. in A 3 (ch. i8 4 ). 

They are also conceived of as further divided, there being in all 
506 thousand myriads of ' camps ', each camp containing 496 thousand 
angels. These numbers are to symbolize that the ministering angels, 
proclaiming the Sovereignty of the Most High in chanting the 
Q s dussd, realize the "Kingdom of Heaven" on high. 496 is the 

numerical value of JTG7/b Kingdom, 506 that of the plural JIV-D^O, 
Kingdoms: all the celestial kingdoms are in reality one whole, the 

Kingdom of Heaven, whose sovereign is the i 3~>Dn i^hfo T?/D, the 
King of Kings of Kings. (Ch. 35; cf. in A 2, ch. ly 2 .) 

The nature and appearance of the angels are described in ch. 35 2 , 



i In 3 Enoch for " angels of destruction" the term is as in Rabbinic: 
Cf. in Schechter, Fragm. of a Zadokite work, p, 2: ^3n "OS'PB; in Hale"vy, Te'ezdza 
Sanbat, p. 58: 



ANGELOLOGY OF CHH. 28 7 ~48 A 165 

after the pattern of Dan. io 6 (bodily form, immense size, numerous eyes, 
etc.). They are changeable, however, into different forms, even into 
"flames, sparks, firebrands, males and females " (35 ; cf . Gen. R. 2i 13 ). 
According to the view of the present section these various forms 
represent a sort of chaos, preceding the daily repeated establishment 
of the Kingdom of Heaven : with the establishment of the Kingdom 
among them, their "taking upon themselves the yoke of the Kingdom 
of Heaven", they eo ipso emerge in their "former shape" which is 
their real existence. 

Before chanting the Q e dussa the angels go down into and purify 
themselves in the fire of the ' N e har di-Nur'. From the 'N e har 
di-Nur ' they receive the fiery substance constituting their bodies ; from 
the fiery river they are formed through the ' Word' of the Holy One. 1 

When the angels utter the Q e dussa in the right order and manner, 
they are rewarded by crowns. The uttering of the Q e dussa in its right 
order of course symbolizes and realizes their conforming themselves 
to the Law of the Kingdom, their establishing themselves into one, 
harmonious whole. On the other hand, when they do not utter the 
Q e dussa in "the right order" they are consumed by a fire "from the 
little finger of the Holy One ", i.e. they are deprived of their individual 
existence in bodily form (ch. 4o 3 ). From ch. 47 it appears that the 
fire from the Most High was conceived of as the counterpart on the 
side of destruction to the Dibbur that once created them. The bodily 
substance itself, that was used as their materia, returns to the non- 
differentiation of the N e har di-Nur; but "their spirit and their soul 
return to their Creator, and they are all standing behind the e kina" 
(ch. 47"). 

In the place of the punished and destroyed angels there are created 
"new ones " by "one word " of the Holy One (ch. 40*). 

2. Other angelic classes and angel-princes mentioned in the 
Q e dussa section are : 

(a) "Servants of His Throne, the attendants of His Glory": 
(m e sar e pe kis'o, m e samm e s[unn\e k e 1)ddo) ch. 4O 1 . 

(b) "The Prince of the World", represented as having authority 
and command over the heavenly bodies: ch. 38 3 . 

(c) The Mcerkafia-angels are included in an enumeration of 
angelic classes: ch. 392. 

(c] In the chh. 41-48 A there is no important reference to angelic 

i Cf. TB. Hag. 14 a, Gen. R. 78^ Lam. R. 3 21 . In these passages the idea is 
represented (incorrectly) as two different views contradicting each other : the angels 
created from the fire of the N e har di-Nur versus the angels created from the Dibbur 
(Word) of the Holy One. 



1 66 INTRODUCTION 

conceptions (apart from ch. 47 already referred to) except perhaps 
the mention of MIKAEL as the Prince of Israel, as weeping together 
with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob over the downfall of Israel, and saying 
to the Holy One: "Why standest thou afar off, O Lord?" (Cf. 
Metatron in Lam. R. Intr. 24.) 

E . The angelology of the Enoch-Metatron pieces , chh .3-16, 
48 B c D 1 ' 2 , and in chh. 23 and 24. 

(a) In the two Enoch-Metatron pieces there are also vestiges of a 
rich angelology, although not so systematic as in the sections A i , 
A 2 and A 3 . 

1. The large multitude of 'common' angels are referred to 
mostly as "the Ministering angels" (mal^ke ha-ssarep), divided into 
' camps ' or ' companies ' or ' parties ' (ch. 5 2 ). The expression ' mal' a ke 
ha-ssarep' seems further, as in the Michras and Talmud, to be 
used as a general term, comprising even high, individual angel- 
princes: the three 'Watchers,' 'AZZA, 'UZZA and 'AZZAEL are in ch. 4 6 
introduced as "three of the ministering angels". 

Terms such as 'angels', 'servants' (m e sar e pim), 'mighty ones' 
(gibborim), 'troops of hosts' (kittop s e ba'op), 'armies of lA rabop\ 
'the children of heaven' (b e ne m e ronlm), 'the heavenly household' 
(pamilya seel ma ca la) are hence to be regarded more or less as mere 
synonyms for 'ministering angels', not necessarily signifying distinct 
angelic classes. 

2. There occur, however, references to definite angelic classes, of 
a higher order than the angels in general. These angelic classes are 
usually enumerated together, seldom mentioned singly, and among 
them are usually included the 'Mterkaba-angels'. These angels are 
contemplated as occupants of the highest heaven. 

Ch. 6 2 : in the s e me marom are located the Holy Hayyop, the 
'Ofannim, the S e rafim, the K e rubim, the Galgallim of the Mterkafia 
(i.e. all the five angelic classes of the Mterkaba ace. to A i) and the 
"ministers of the consuming fire" (m e sar e pe 'es 'ofcela). 

Ch. 7 1 enumerates: the troops of anger, the armies of vehemence, 
the Sin'anim, the K e rufiim, the 'Ofannim, the ministers of fire and 
the Hasmallim. Similarly in ch. 48 c 4 . 

To these names of angelic classes must be added the " 'Elim, 
^^r^cellim and Tafsarim" of ch. I4 1 , who there seem to be accorded a 
kind of top-position in the angelic hierarchy. The 'dEr'cellim and 
Tafsarim occur in the similar enumeration, ch. 39 2 , together with 
four classes of Mterkafia-angels. 



ANGELOLOGY OF ENOCH-METATRON PIECES AND CHH . 23 , 24 1 67 

Such enumerations as the last-named must have been the material 
from which the names of the "ten classes of angels" were evolved. 
These ten classes played an important role later. The enumerations 
in Maimonides' Yact H a zaqa (Y e sode Tor a) and Masst^kcep ' A silup 
are often referred to. 

The 'jZEr'csllim are of course derived from Isa. 33 7 and the Tafsdrim 
from Nah. 3" (cf. Jer. 5I 27 ). 1 

3. Angel-princes of a more individual character than the preceding 
are firstly : 

" The 72 princes of kingdoms." These are represented as before the 
elevation of Metatron surrounding the Throne of Glory, but with the 
assigning of Metatron as the representative ruler over all the angels, 
they were made the special attendants of the Throne of Metatron, the 
highest of his subjects: chh. 10, i/j. 1 , I6 1 ' 2 , 48 c 9 . Ch. 14 names 
SAMMAEL as greatest among the princes of kingdoms, but subject to 
Metatron's authority. 

Ch. io 3 refers to " eight great princes called YHUH by the name of 
their King" who are exempt from the jurisdiction of Metatron: a 
sort of highest princes of the Throne. The passage is, however, 
probably additional. See above on "The conceptions of Metatron in 
3 Enoch" (pp. 84 seqq.). 

'ANAFIEL was, ace. to ch. 6 1 , sent to fetch Enoch from earth before 
his elevation into Metatron. Cf. also ch. i6 5 . On 'ANAFIEL see 
above on the conceptions of Metatron in 3 Enoch and in Hekalop 
Rabbapi (pp. 86 seqq., 100). 

Ch. 4 6 seqq. names 'UZZA, 'AZZA, 'AZZAEL as high angel-princes 
opposing the elevation of Enoch-Metatron. They are here not re- 
garded as Fallen Angels as in ch. 5, but probably as princes having 
access to the Divine Presence, perhaps functioning as guardians of 
the Secrets. 

Ch. 14 mentions angels of the seven heavens (A 2 and A 3) and 
further : 

The Manhige f Olam (the leaders, rulers of the world). These are 
divided into two main classes : the angels of the elementary forces 
and the angels appointed over the four classes of heavenly bodies. 
The Manhige 'Olam carry individual names. 

i On the use of Tafsarim to denote a class of angels cf. Zunz, Lit. Gesch. d. 
Synag. Poesie, pp. 633, 634. '"^Er'asllim " occur in TB. e.g. Kep. 1043: D^XIK 

tsnpn jns miwi D^pixon n a^sis in^n anpn jnsa irnx b^pisoi "The 

./Er'aellim and the Righteous tried to take possession of the Holy Ark. The 
YEr'aellim won and the Ark disappeared from the earth." 



1 68 INTRODUCTION 

4. Fallen Angels and Demons are mentioned in ch. 5. 

(a) The Fallen Angels are 'UZZA, 'AZZA and 'AZZIEL who correspond 
to the Fallen Watchers of i Enoch. As in i En. (chh. 8, 9, io 7 ) they 
are represented as "teaching men sorceries", i.e. giving them access 
to the hidden powers and forces of the physical universe, also called 
"the planetary world". Cf. note on ch. 5 9 ; also in Mid. Pet. 'Ah a ron 
(Gaster, Chronicles of Yerahmeel, p. I7O). 1 

i The figures of ' Azza, 'Uzza and 'Azzi'el or 'Uzzi'el are no innovations of 
3 Enoch. Their origin is probably to be seen in the adoption of certain names of 
Aramaic and other divinities that were objects of popular cults, such as ' Uzza and 
'Aziz (cf. ML. p. 278), as names of Fallen Angels or Demoniacal Powers, leading 
men astray into idolatry and sorceries (ace. to the known rule : names of gods of an 
adversary or lower religion changed into names of demons). These were then 
brought in connection with (i) the Fallen Watchers, the conception of which 
centred around Gen. 6: (2) the name t(l zazel of Lev. 16. 

Already in i En. 6 7 Asaelis mentioned as one of the leaders of the Fallen Watchers, 
and also confused with Azazel who in i En. 8 1 , 9, io 4 > 8 , I3 1 , 54 5 , 55* is represented 
as one of or the chief leader of the Fallen Watchers. In i En. 6g z there is an evidence 
of the use of several names of a similar character : Azazel by the side of Azazeel 
(the Greek version has 'Ao-eciA, 6 7 , 'AffiTjA, 8 1 , 9, io 4 > 8 , I3 1 ). 

The references in our book, chh. 4 and 5, bear out the fact, that at this time there 
was an uncertainty whether 'Azza, 'Uzza and 'Azzi'el ('Azza' el) were to be con- 
sidered as high celestial beings or as demoniacal powers. This is to be explained 
from their subsequent connection with the Watchers in general, instead of with the 
Fallen Watchers (and perhaps also from the Rabbinic influence adverse to any 
ideas bearing the semblance of dualism? 1 ). 

On the representations of the Fallen Watchers, vide Charles, Jub. note on ch. 4 1S , 
Charles, i En. 2 , Introd. pp. cv and 14, and Leo Jung, Fallen Angels, etc. Cf. also 
note on chh. 4, 5 <J . (The present writer cannot, from an examination of the various 
references of the speculations in question, agree with Leo Jung, op. cit. p. 183 n. 145, 
" that there must have been a story of two angels (i.e. that fell), the number of which 
was increased in later lore". It turns out to be the reverse: only the latest sources 
have the " two angels " (vide note on ch. 5' 10 ), these probably due to the " right and 
left side" systematization.) 

It is noteworthy that these names have found their way into : 

(i) The Testament of Solomon (ed. McCown), ch. 7 7 : 'AfaiyA (variants: 'Afo^A, 
'AfafjjijA) as the name of an apxdyyeAos; sec. C, ch. io 38 : 'AateA who eWpyet els TO 
(pavepcadrjvai TCI KXe-rrTo^eva KOI TOVS K\eirTa$ KOL Qrjiravpovs Tivas. Notice also the 
incantation referred to by McCown, op. cit. note on ch. 7, mentioning the 



(2) Sib. Or. ii. 217, 18. 

(3) Mandaitic Literature, in the following forms: 'Az rabba, 'Aziz rabba (ML. 
22 5 ) 'Azazel, 'Azaziel (GR. I44 26 , I73 21 , the occurrence of the last two forms is an 
evidence of their transmission from Jewish speculations). According to GR. iv, I44 20 
(I29 1 ' z ) Azazel is the head of the 444 skinas on the right of the Lord of Greatness : 

PPID 5'ujf>f/> ir>7 PPID fopu; jfcnfo frfooD frnfa pifn f>p'3")f> on 

(Cf. here the cabbalistic representation 'Azza and Uzziel as the heads of the 
angels of justice, on the right side, and mercy on the left side, respectively: 
Ma a rcefccep ha' (e lohup U7b. comm.) GR. I73 21 (167) enumerates among the 16 
guardians or keepers of the fettered ''Ur': 'Azazel, 'Azaziel, Tag j 'el and Margazel : 



(4) The Gnostic Books of jfeil, where the elements <<>, oa, etc. of the mystical 
names of the 'Watchers ((pi/Aa/ccs)' are probably derived from 'azza, 'uzza 



ANGELOLOGY OF CHH. 22 B, C AND l$B l6g 

(b) The demons desire to get power over and injure man who 
was, however, as long as the S e kina resided among the terrestrials, 
or "in the Garden of Eden", protected from the influence of the 
demons (mazziqin) by the light-substance radiating from the S e kina 
(ziu ha-s $ e nina). Cf. TB. Ber. 17 a; Num. R. i2 3 . 

(c) Chh. 23 and 24, though not concerned with the angelology, 
contain some references to angelic beings or classes of angels. Firstly, 
both chapters speak of the K e ruHm as the special vehicles of the 
$ e fcina (the winds of the K e rubim, ch. 23 1 ; the chariots of the K e ru- 
fcim, ch. 24 1 ). 

Secondly, in ch. 24, vss. 15-23, are as vehicles of the Divine 
Manifestation in turn enumerated four classes of Mesrkaba-angels, 
concluding with the highest and essential vehicle, the Throne: 

vs. 15, the Chariots of the Hayyop. 

vs. 1 6, the Chariots of the Galgallim. 

vs. 17, the Chariots of the Swift K c rufi. 

vs. 18, the Chariots of the 'Ofannim. 

vss. 19-23, the Chariots of the Throne. 

Ch. 23 16 identifies SATAN with the Ru a h S e 'ara. 



F. The angelology of the additional pieces, chh. 22 BC and 
ch. 156. 

Chh. 22 B and c in giving a picture of the Throne and the Mcerkaba 
present a rich angelology. 

i. The larger multitude of common angels consists of two main 
species : 

(a) The "angels of the Glory", mal^Ue ha-kKabod, who are 
"standing over against the Throne of Glory" and are 660,000 
myriads in number. 

et sim. Especially may be noticed i Book of Jeti, ch. 16 (Jeu, n): "The Three 
Watchers: ouftxafet- ueaVa- me" (ed. Schmidt, Kopt. Gnost. Schr. p. 273). Cf. 
also Pistis Sophia (ed. Schmidt, op. cit. p. io 21 , ed. Horner, p. 8): " fa/za, fa/za, 
ft" pa^rtjua, w fat." 

(5) In the Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur edited by J. A. Montgomery 
where the following forms occur: bS^S (no. 19, p. 195), htooy, "pJODy (no. 7, 
p. 146), Dr Myhrman's text has: "in the name of Ga&ri'el and Mtka'el and 
R e fiel and in the name of l Asa el 'Asiel the angel and 'Ermes (DEBT'S) the great 
Lord". The names in question had become the property of the syncretistic magic 
and angelology. 

(6) Attention may also be called to the afofaeto-^atXt^' connected with the 
constellation of the Capricorn (written atyoyep) in Wessely, Neue Griechisch 
Zauberpapyri, line 886 (p. 49). 



I? INTRODUCTION 

(b) The 'Servants', m e sar e pim, "performing His will", 12,000 
myriads in number (ch. 22 B 4 > 6 > 7 ). 

2. The angels of dread and fear, called PlDK Tit ar 
i.e. guardian angels who inspire dread and fear, ch. 22 B 2 . 

3. D'O^D and D'HS^, Kings and Princes. These terms evidently 
allude to the ' princes of kingdoms', the Rulers in heaven. These seem 
to be placed in rank under 

4. the classes of angels which include the Mcerkaba-angels, here 
enumerated as follows: the K e rtibim, 'Ofannim, Hayyofi, ( Irin, 
Qaddisin, G' : dudim, S e rafim. As in A i the S e rafim are regarded as 
the highest of the Mcerkaba-angels, and they even, as in the HeMlo]) 
Rabbapi, are removed to a lofty position by the Throne at some dis- 
tance from the other classes of Mesrkaba-angels. 

Ch. 15 B refers to the Hayyop, the K e rubim, and the '^lohim as 
superior angelic orders; further the 'Princes' under Metatron's 
authority and the "innumerable companies of the hosts". But the 
special feature of this chapter is the conception of the angelic Ad- 
vocates (S e negoriri) 1800 in number who form the suite of the 
Chief Advocate, Metatron (ch. 15 B 2 ). 

15. THE QUASI-PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF THE 

' A RABOp, THE MJERKABAH AND THE 

KISSE HA-KKABOD 

r T~'HE Mterkaba-picture, thus far contemplated in one of its con- 
1 stituent parts, viz. the angels of the Throne and the Mcerkaba, is 
supplemented, in various. chapters of our book, by expositions of the 
different quasi-physical elements and surroundings of the Mcerkaba. 
This part of the picture could perhaps be called the ' by-work of the 
Mterkabah'. 1 

The Throne itself, the Kisse ha-kKabod, is not made the subject of 
detailed descriptions in the main part of the book. The only part which 
is dealt with at some length is 

i. The 'Letters' ('Opiyyop), "graven with a flaming style on the 
Throne of Glory " (ch. 41*) or written on the Kcepeer (Crown) or on the 
'Heart'. The Kcepar represents the highest part of the Divine 
Manifestation on the Throne, the Heart its centre. 

i The word Hiilfi is used in two senses, viz. (a) the wider sense when it 
comprises Throne, Chariot, respective angels and the by-work, and (b) the narrower 
sense, implying the Divine Chariot and the angels forming it. (a) is here referred 
to as Mcerkatdh, (b) as Mcerka&a. 



M^RKABAH I? 1 

These 'letters' are the first essences, elements, from or by which 
the whole of the manifested world was created, not only earth, planets, 
constellations, the seven heavens and their contents, but the Throne 
of Glory itself and the Mcerkaba (ch. 4i 2 ), i.e. God's own manifesta- 
tion of Himself (chh. 13, 41). 

The 'letters' have the 'numbers' inherent in them. The X thus 
stands both for ' 'ALJEF' and for ' i', 1 for 'BE/>' and '2'. They are, 
from one point of view, actually a sort of spiritual atoms. 

The 'Opiyyop combined make up the so-called Divine Names or 
nifeSHIS/bn niDB?. These are contemplated as the second step in the 
creative emanation, or as secondary creative agencies. (Whereas the 
word 'create' or 'creation' is always used, what is really intended is 
'emanation'.) Chh. 39*, 48 D 5 > 8 , B 1 (K); 42, 48 c 9 , 15 B 4 > 5 . 

The Names, Semop, may be divided into three groups, viz.: 

(a) Combinations of the same spiritual atoms, as XX, tt, Jinn, 
1V)1, etc. (48 B 1 , cf. Sfier Qoma). 

(b) Combinations of different 'Opiyyop into pre-rational elements, 
as DND, Di:n, p&p, SDT, etc. (48 B 1 ). 1 

(c) Combinations of different 'Opiyyop into rational elements, 
corresponding to Hebrew words. To this stage belong in the first 
instance the 'attributes' or 'abstract qualities' such as Wisdom 
(consisting of the spiritual atoms represented by the letters of the 
Hebrew word for Wisdom : P!EO!l), Understanding, Knowledge, Love, 
Mercy, Prudence, Righteousness, etc., "by which the whole world is 
sustained" (chh. 4i 3 , 8) and in the second instance all the various 
forms of the Universe. The whole world was created in Hebrew. 

The number of principal Semop is 70 and the number of 'Opiyyop 
is 22, making in all 92 first elements or cosmical principles, ch. 48 D 5 . 

Among these the 'AL^SF, or no. i, is accorded a special significance 
as the starting-point for the whole process of emanation. On the 
connection between the 'AUEF and Metatron, vide above on the con- 
ceptions of Metatron in 3 Enoch (ch. 48 c 1 ). 

It should be added that in the various Semop the first letter is 
thought to represent the dominant atom. Hence in H^i (Under- 
standing) the BEj5 is regarded as the dominant element, which is 

i Naturally these combinations were also derived from the principal Divine 
Letters by means of different systems of t e mfira. The printer (editor) of the ed. 
princ. of A. R. 'Aq in the passage corresponding to 3 En. 48 B 1 , says, when omitting 
the names in print: "here are written 22 names ace. to the alphabet Dl^S, and 22 
names ace. to the alphabet B^JlX, and 22 names ace. to the alphabet plttffl". He 
is no doubt simplifying and systematizing the actual text of the MS. Still some of 
the names may easily be read ace. to the said method. 



INTRODUCTION 

often expressed as follows: "Understanding (Bind) was created by 
BE/>". In consequence, a combination of Semof may be expressed 

by the first letters of each, after the Notariqon system: V'SftDSJ^ is a 
Sent M e fords in which the power of the .Sarw^-response of the 
Q e dussd is concentrated (ch. 48 B 1 ). 

All possible 'Opiyyop and Semop are represented as contained in 
the Tora. "The letters of the Tora" is the technical term for the 
cosmical letters (ch. 44**, 48 D 7 , 13 1 . 2 , 15 B 5 , i8 25 , 4I 1 " 4 ). 

2 . The Throne is veiled off from the outer parts of the Mcerkaba by 
the Pargodo* Curtain (also: ParcfkceJ) and Peeress, orig. = carpet). The 
Pargod (in Mandaitic bar gocta', Gnostic /caraTrerctcr/^a,) on which 
are continually to be seen, as a living picture, the drama of "all 
generations, their doings and their thoughts" in past, present and 
future times, and behind which are the last secrets of the Godhead, is 
symbolical especially of the " reasons of the Divine decrees ". It forms 
the division between the angels in possession of the innermost secrets 
of the Godhead and the angels who do not possess the highest secrets 
(chh. lo 1 , 45 1 ' 6 and i8 16 22 notes). Cf. how ace. to Sifrd on Lev. i 1 
"even the Holy Hayyo]?, who carry the Throne of Glory, do not see 
the Glory" ('/" hdyyop hd-qqodces hd-nnds e 'dp *<%p kisse hd-kkabod* 
'endn ro 'op '<#/> hd-kkdfiod). 

3. Under the Throne are the treasuries and store-houses, con- 
taining the Abstract Qualities or the Sustaining Forces of the Universe 
(chh. 8 1 , io 6 ) as well as the treasuries of spiritual Maintenance 
(Parndsa) of the World; further, the treasuries of elemental forces 
("fire, hail, snow, lightning, clouds, winds," ch. 37). In these are 
also contained the Chariots, the vehicles for the Sana's appearance 
at different parts of the Universe, or its "traversing the 18,000 
worlds" (chh. 24, 37 1 ). To the treasuries are also reckoned the Guf, 
i.e. the "chamber of creation of the "righteous" and the receptacles 
of the Books of Records, the Books of Life and Death (chh. 43 3 , ay 2 ). 

The most important of the contents of the treasuries are the 
'secrets', the 'Celestial Tora': Ginze S e pdrim. Ace. to the Enoch- 
Metatron pieces, Metatron is appointed over all the treasuries and 
store-houses on high, but especially the treasuries of the secrets 
(chh. io 5 . 6 , 48 c 3 , 48 D 10 ). 

4. The Mcsrkafid-angels (ch. 34), the camps of S e kind and the 
treasuries (ch. 37) are surrounded by concentric walls of clouds, fire, 
etc., between which are "pillars of brimstone, flaming wheels, winds, 
voices, thunders, sparks, ice and hail". 



M^IRKABAH 173 

5. A special place in the Mterkaba-pictme is accorded the fiery 
river (N e har di-Nur), which fulfils the various functions: creation of 
angels, purification and punishment of angels and spirits of men 
(chh. 33 5 , aS 10 , 36, 47). The conception of the N e har di-Nur is 
amplified into those of " the four heads of the fiery river ", "four fiery 
rivers" and "seven fiery rivers" (chh. i8 19 , 33 4 5 , i9 4 ). 

In connection with the ideas of the counterbalance of contraries, 
which plays an important role in our book, the river or rivers of fire 
are supplemented by rivers of hail, ice and water (chh. 22 B 3 > 4 , c 2 ; 
cf. ch. 42 1 ' 7 ). 

6. The Garden of Eden is mentioned in chh. 5 1 * 5 , 23 18 , 48 D 8 , but 
does not fit in very well with the use of the Mterkabah-picture. 

Interesting is the reference, ch. 23 18 , to the spices or fragrancies of 
the Garden of Eden prepared for the righteous. On the idea of the 
fragrancies of the celestial regions, supportable only for those of 
celestial nature but a deterrent for demons and the unworthy, vide 
Boeklen, Die Verwandtschaft, etc., p. 65, and Bousset, Hauptprobleme, 
etc., pp. 301, 302. Notice the Gnostic parallels given by the latter, 
op. cit. ib. 

In the additional fragments, chh. 15 B, 22 B, 22 c, there are to be 
noticed some further developments in the picture of the by-work of 
the M&rkabah and of the <A rabop Raqi a<l . 

7. The Hasmal which in the angelology of the book is used to 
denote a specific class of angels, the Hasmallim, and otherwise is 
taken as a sort of celestial matter (ch. 36 2 , cf. chh. 26*, 35 6 , 48 B 1 , D 8 ) 
au niveauwith 'fire', 'hail', ''celgabis', etc., is here, in the expres- 
sion " the habitations of the Hasmal", beginning to receive a definite 
mystical significance as connoting the inner part of the Mcerkaba* 
(ch. 15 B 2 ). 

Another feature is the Tabernacle and Altar on high (ch. 15 B 1 ), 
referred to above on the conceptions of Metatron. 

Thirdly we are told of "windows above the heads of the 
K e rubim", symbolical of the admission or granting ('letting 
through') of the prayers: ch. 15 B 2 . 

A fourth detail is that of a Court (Haser) before the Throne, 
representing the part inside which no angel, not even the S e rafim, 
can enter: ch. 22 B 1 . 

i Cf. TB. Hag. ^13 a, b; Hek. R. is 1 ; Soft ha-Hasmal, in ' Arze Lebanon, foil. 
40 a, 41 a: the Hasmal denotes the Hayyop and also designates a special place in 
the 'Holy of Holies' (i.e. the seventh Hekal). It also represents the rhythmical 
effulgence of spiritual Light (Hasa and Mallei), it is the Deity as 'Ur-Sonne': 
S. Miaras Talpiyyop, 167 d (cf. Bo Yin Ra). 



174 INTRODUCTION 

This Haser is surrounded by rivers of fire, and rivers of hail and 
over these rivers are placed ' bridges ' on which the angels and princes 
approach the Entrance (Maboy) to the Divine Court, as in the 
Hekalo]) Rabbapi, ch. 13!. 

The highest heaven, tA rafiop, contains the seven HeMlop (Halls, 
Palaces), arranged concentrically "one within the other" (ch. i 1 ). 
In the innermost of these, the seventh Hall, are the Throne of Glory 
and the Highest parts of the Mcerkdba (chh. i 1 ' 2 ' 6 , I6 1 , i8 3 > 4 ' 18 , 
22 B 4 , 37 1 , 38 1 , 48 C 4 8 , io 2 ). The entrance to each of the seven Halls 
is guarded by angels (cf. above on the Angelology of A3, p. 159, and 
ch. i 2 ' 3 (QAFSIEL)). The Halls and the guardian angels are here not yet 
subject to abstruse speculations as in the Hekalop Rabbdpi and later. 

Ch. 24 17 in a Midras-like passage speaks of the 18,000 worlds. 
Vide note ad loc. and confer above, p. 74; similarly ch. 48 A 1 
mentions 955 heavens. The import is somewhat different. Vide note 
ad loc., and cf. the Gnostic Habrasax and the 365 heavens, Hippol. 
v BXey^o?, vii. 26. (955 is the numerical value of D^JbBSM 'the 
heavens'; Q = 600; 'A.(3pa(rdg is by gematria 365.) 

16. THE CONCEPTIONS OF SPIRIT AND SOUL. 
FATE OF THE SPIRIT AFTER DEATH 

Hp HE trichotomy of the non-physical part of man in n e sama, ru a h and 
L ncefces, as met with in developed mystical literature, seems at the 
time of our book not yet to be conceived of. The surviving part of 
man is, throughout the book, referred to by the term n e sama ex- 
clusively, chh. 28 10 , 43 2 3 , 44 1 * 2 6 > 7 , 48 3 . This term n e sama will best 
be rendered 'spirit'. 1 An examination of the various passages treating 
of the human n e sama reveals the following ideas, viz. : 

(i) The n e sdma or spirit is indestructible and eternal, ch. 43. 

i Where n e sama and ru a h occur together, the former denotes something higher 
than the latter, just as, where a distinction between 'spirit' and 'soul' is made, 
'spirit' most often denotes the higher of the two. In cabbala n e sama often recalls 
the Neo-Platonic Now, which Dean Inge translates 'Spirit' (vide W. R. Inge, The 
Philosophy of Plotinus, ii. 37 seqq.). 

Wohlberg, Grundlinien, etc., p. 32, says of the three terms for ' soul' used in Bible 
and Talmud: 'nil bezeichnet den Geist ausserhalb seiner Verbindung mit dem 
Leibe, HCEM den in diesem wirkenden und durch Thatigkeit sich offenbarenden 
Geist, 1^33 Seele, Seelenwesen, Seelenperson den Geist in seiner Verbindung mit 
dem Leibe, wie er in ihm zum Vorschein tritt, an ihn gebunden ist und mit ihm ein 
Ganzes bildet." The present writer is not convinced that this distinction is justified 
in respect to the Talmudic dicta. The term most often used in the earlier Haggadic 
dicta is n e sama, and this quite as well of the ' spirit ' after its separation from the 
terrestrial body as when 'in diesem wirkend'. More correct is the remark by 
Abelson, Immanence, pp. 43, 44: "In Talmudic literature there is. . .no clear-cut 
distinction between these terms ; but noteworthy is the preferential use of Neshamah 
to signify the soul in its truly spiritual sense". 



CONCEPTIONS OF SPIRIT AND SOUL 175 

(2) The spirit, even when not united to a body, has a bodily form. 
This bodily form is evidently pictured as similar to the form of the 
manifested (or physical) body save in so far as it is winged. 

This bodily form must not be confused with the " pre-existent 
form or type of body" preserved in the Chamber of Creation (ch. 
43 3 ), with which the spirit is invested when about to go down into 
life earthly. Cf. below. 

(3) The n e sama is, in all probability, conceived of as pre-existent. 
This seems to be presupposed by the expression used in ch. 43 1 ~ 3 , 
speaking of "the spirits that have been created and have returned" 
and "the spirits that have not yet been created" as two distinct 
classes. Cf. notes on ch. 43. 

It must, however, be admitted, that the representations of ch. 43 
do not absolutely compel the interpretation, that actual (so-called 
'real') pre-existence is meant here. The possibility always remains, 
that the expressions cited above refer only to an 'ideal' pre-existence. 
When Metatron according to ch. 43 promises R. Isma'el to show him 
' ' the spirits of the righteous that have not yet been created " this need 
not necessarily imply the real pre-existence of these spirits ; one might 
compare how ace. to ch. 45 Metatron is able to show R. Isma'el all 
future events and all coming generations, "their works and their 
doings". The greatest probability is, however, that an actual pre- 
existence is meant to be conveyed. The strongest evidence for this is 
the use of the Scripture expression "the souls I have made " to denote 
"the spirits of the righteous not yet created". 

(4) On the supposition that the pre-existence of the spirit is taught 
in our book, it also follows that the spirit's "being created " means its 
entering its manifested existence, i.e. its being invested with a body 
(or perhaps rather with the image or model of the manifested body 
which determines the growth and appearance of the actual physical 
body 1 ). This Creation takes place in the Chamber of Creation, called 
'Body' (Guf}. (Cf. note on ch. 43 3 : for the term Guf, cf. TB. Yeb. 
62 a, l Ab. Zar. 5 a; Nidda, 13 b.) 

(5) Further, on the same supposition, it follows that the character 
of the spirit is determined by the way in which it fulfils the tasks set 
for it in its manifested existence. The n e sama in its pre-existent state 
is pure or 'righteous'. 2 Through life earthly the spirit may become 
defiled or wholly corrupted (ch. 44 5 6 ). 

1 Cf. Abelson, Jewish Mysticism, p. 165; Wohlberg, Grundlinien, etc., p. 16. 

2 Cf. 4 Mace. i8 33 ; TB. Sab. 32 b; Bafta Bapra, i6a; Ber. 60 b (prayer), 
Nidda, 30 b; Eccl. R. i2 7 . Vide note on ch. 43 2 ; Box, Ezra- Apocalypse, note on 7 33 
(p. 130); and R. Wohlberg, Grundlinien, etc., pp. 12, 13. 



176 INTRODUCTION 

(6) The pre-existent spirits have their abode in the presence of 
the Throne of Glory. 1 

Fate of the spirit after death : 

(1) Immediately after death the spirit of man is judged and, 
according to its life on earth, it is registered among one of the three 
classes of (a) righteous, (b) intermediate, and (c) wicked. 2 

(2) The righteous forthwith return to their original abode in the 
presence of ('above') the Throne of Glory, ch. 43. In other contexts 
it is stated, that the righteous in the time to come (= after the second 
judgement?) will inherit the Garden of Eden and the Tree of Life, 
ch. 23 18 . 3 

(3) The intermediate, D'JIU or D^"D3, are brought to S e 'ol in 
order to go through a process of purification. When purified and 
wholly cleansed from the defilement caused by their sin they are, 
most probably, regarded as sharing the lot of the righteous, ch. 44 3 > 5 . 

(4) The wicked are conducted to Gehinnom to be punished in fire. 

(5) The intermediate, no doubt, form the large majority. 

The term ru a h does not occur in 3 Enoch with reference to human 
beings. The term nafas again occurs only once, viz. in ch. i6 2 . It 
probably refers to the psychical processes, the 'mind', comprising the 
emotional affects. Ncefas generally denotes the vital force of the body. 
Possibly, however, the writer of ch. 16 is not conscious of any dis- 
tinction between nceftes and n e sama or ru a h. 

Ch. 47. 

A position by itself is taken up by ch. 47. This chapter pictures the 
nature of the angels somewhat in analogy with that of human beings. 
The underlying idea seems to be that angels and men are essentially 

1 By implication, since here is the abode of the spirits who have returned, soil. 
to their original abode. This agrees with TB. J3ag. 12 b (and Gen. R. i. 26), but 
disagrees with TB. ' ^fiotfa Zara> 5 a (et al., vide above) in so far as the latter gives the 
abode of the unborn souls as the Giif. 

2 Righteous =undefiled, ' white ' ; intermediate =contaminated, ' grey ' ; wicked = 

v ^ 

wholly corrupt, 'black'. Cf. TB. Ros ha-sSana, 16 b, 17 a, Sab. 33 b, 1523; 
'At. R. Nap. xli; Tos. Sank. xiii. 3. On the conceptions of pre-existent spirits and 
their abodeinPseudepigraphaand Rabbinic, vide Charles, Eschatology, pp. 231 seqq., 
Box, Ezra- Apocalypse, pp. 26, 33, 37, 120; Billerbeck, in Strack-Billerbeck, Komm. 
z. N. Test. ii. 133 seqq. For Mandaitic parallels, cf. above, p. 76. 

3 Similarly in TB. ab. I52ab: 'nismojan sa;l saddlqlm g e nuzoj> tahaj> kissg 
ha-kKat>od ' (under the Throne of Glory) but in TB. Bab. Mes. 1 14 b, Bab. Bap. 
843, Ber. i2b, the abode of the righteous is the Garden of Eden. Vide also 
Templer, Die Unsterblichkeitslehre, etc., pp. 18 seqq.; Wohlberg, op. dt. pp. 30, 31. 
There is not sufficient evidence in 3 En. for the view that the life of the righteous 
in the ' ^'raSop is a passing, preparatory, life in waiting for the time of the resur- 
rection. 



CONCEPTIONS OF SPIRIT AND SOUL 177 

the same kind, only with different spheres of existence and duties. 
In contrast to the sections treating of the human spirit chapter 47 
uses both n e sama and ru a h, although evidently quite synonymously. 1 

i The synonymity of n e sdma and ru a h is clearly brought out by the phrase 
(ch. 47 3 ): "the souls of the angels and the spirits of the ministering servants". 
Notice the similar juxtaposition in TB. flag. 12 b: nismopan seel saddiqim u e ruhop 
un e samop ste'apid l e hibbar e ' op . Cf. i En. 22" : " the spirits of the souls of the "dead ". 
In i Enoch the terms 'spirit' and 'soul' (nafes andmanfas) interchange. In Man- 
daitic literature the most frequent term is 'spirit' (f>PP'DO), regularly when 
only one term is used. Quite often, however, the expression 'spirit and soul' or 
rather 'soul and spirit' (f>PP'DOl fTM")) is met with. Cf. Lidzbarski, Manddische 
Liturgien* p. 12, n. i : " KHll ist die Lebenskraft des Korpers, SJ"liS' l t&"0 die beim 
Tode sich abtrennende dem Jenseits zustrebende Seele. Beim Tode werden SHll 
und NjID^t^J vom Korper getrennt, vgl. Qol. 28, 29. Nach 31, 17 wird die NHII 
der SflD''ti' 1 'J gleich gemacht und findet einen Platz im Haus des Lebens. . . ". Cf. 
also Reitzenstein, Mand. B. d. H. d. Grosse, p. 94, note 2. 

As instances of the expression ' spirit and soul ' in Mandaitic literature the follow- 
ing passages may be referred to: ML. i2 2 (Qolasta 4), 8o 2 > 8 (Qol. 29), 26 3 (Qol. 9), 
i? 5 (Qol. 6), preceded by a reference to fipf>PD'3 (= spirits) alone, 38 5 6 
(]f>pf>PD'J1 ]f>r>n=i33 x ' 4 ), 8z w (Qol. 30 f>PPD'J )P f>vM")=the soul with the 
spirit), 142' (Qol. 59), GL. i iv 442 2 (26". 12 fipp'DOl fan). 

Interesting passages on the relation between spirit and soul are : 

G^. in I34 19 - 24 (ii9 2 -iao 1 ): fHP'P'P ]1pfnf>i;f>P3 f>'pf"3'D7 frpfiPD'J 
]1v>f>i>7 M3 f'3'f>71 f'JvfaM....fi)^fD ]1'fPn7 fipif) ..... .... "The Spirits 

of the planets shall be bound in their watch-houses, . . . until their soul shall have 
ceased to be. . . and they shall have died and been extinguished, as if they had never 
existed." 

GL. i ii 43o 28 - 31 (9 21 ~ 22 ) : fb3fP) f>PH fOPff f>TlfPl f>fn JP 

]P f>PD'j if'pf'i D"p7 S^ pi3fP f5i fja 

^Mlf'D 6'Jpf 1 . " The spirit spoke with the soul and the stinking body but the 

soul and the stinking body gave it no answer. While it (the spirit) stood and spake 
with the soul and the stinking body, the liberator arrived, and stepped forth." 

GL. m xxxviii s66 18 - 29 (H7 7 ~ 12 ): ....fl'fl'D f"Sf>p pf>7 f>5 

fi7f7P 



pf'jf' f'Plf'pf'D* "I heard a voice, the voice of a voice of two voices . . .who were 
sitting together informing each other : the voice of the soul and the voice of the spirit 
sitting together telling (things to) each other. The soul said to the spirit: ' By thy life, 
my sister, bring me with thee when thou leavest (this life) ! ' (The spirit answered :) 
' How can I bring thee with me, since thou art a deceitful soul? ' " This evidently shows 
that in this context the spirit is conceived of as the higher, and further that the spirit 
is thought of as undented by the earthly life, whereas it is the soul that is ' deceitful ' 
and whose fate will be determined after death according to the character acquired by 
it in its previous existence, whose 'deeds will be weighed in a balance'. (GL.45i 20 > 27 , 
566 30 ' 37 ; cf. below.) This may be compared and contrasted with our book (chh. 43, 
44), ace. to which on the one hand the spirit is from the beginning holy and pure, 
and, on the other hand, there being no distinction between spirit and soul, the spirit 
can be defiled through earthly life. 

GL. iiv45i 28 ' 27 , 566 36 > 37 ( 3 7 8 -, ny* 5 ): |P flpn Mfw i'pf>P ..... 

OHBI 12 



178 INTRODUCTION 

Strange is the way in which the analogy between angels and men 
is worked out with regard to the manifested existence. The angels 
are said to have a destructible part (47 2 ), evidently corresponding to 
the physical body of human beings; and just as the manifested 
(physical) life of man is that in which his specific duties are to be dis- 
charged and during which he can fail and become corrupted, so also 
the angels carry out their duties (symbolized by the performance of 
the Q e dussa) while in manifested existence, and may likewise fail in 
that state. Just as the spirits of the righteous return to their Creator 
after earthly life, so the spirits and souls of the angels are said to 
return to their Creator after the destruction of their perishable part 
in the N e har di Nur (fiery river) ; moreover, the parallelism implies that 



'J JP f>Pn f")f>Dfl. . .f>DP'D'J. "'Abaf>ur. . .weighs and unites the soul 

with the spirit". . ."tut den Geist mit der Seele zusammen" (Lidzbarski). 

As an example of passages, where there seems to be no idea of a dichotomy of 
the non-physical part of man, one may refer to GL, in xvii 536/537 (97/98) ; being a 
dialogue between the spirit and .the body, in similar terms, mutatis mutandis, as the 
dialogue between the spirit and the soul in GL. in xxxviii 566 (117). There are also 
frequent passages pointing to the idea of the spirit's possible corruption through its 
own doings during its life in 'the world of illusion': e.g. GL. in xxi 544 (102/103): 
" The Judge (after death) examines the Spirit on its sins and aberrations : ' what works 
have you done, O Spirit, in the world of illusion, where you have had your abode?' 
' You are my witness , O Judge , that I have done no evil deed upon my own account. . . " ' . 

To illustrate the workings of this idea of ' soul and spirit ' in different circles, it may 
be allowable to point to the Coptic Apocalypse of Paul (edited, translated and com- 
mented upon by E. A. W. Budge in his Miscellaneous Coptic Texts, pp. clxii-clxxiii, 
534574, 1043-1084). In his summary of that book (op. cit. pp. clxiiseqq.) Budge 
says: "The portions of [the 'Apocalypse of Paul'] that remain to us prove that it 
was full of ancient Egyptian beliefs and views about the spirit, and soul, and ' angel ', 
of a man. . . . The first section begins with the description of the fate of a sinful soul 
on leaving the body. This soul was attended on earth by its angel and admonished 
by its spirit, which reported daily to God the sins which it committed. When its 
body died, its spirit reviled it for its wickedness, and its angel afflicted it, and then 
its spirit summoned it into the presence of the Judge of Truth, who is here Christ. . . . 
Then the soul was taken before God, and its angel and its spirit addressed God." 
The passages run: "Its spirit came forth from it, saying, 'O thou wretched soul, 
thou didst not give me rest during my little time which I passed in sojourning with 
thee. Or, O thou wretched soul, didst thou endure. . .or did thy heart turn? The 
breath of the breath of life of God was in thee. Let us [go] to the presence of the 
Judge of Truth. I will never forgive thee; and I have made myself a stranger unto 
thee this day, and do thou do likewise [to me] '. Thus the spirit of the soul abuseth 
it (i.e. the soul), and its angel afflicteth it" (pp. 556, 1043). "And they took away 
the soul to enable it to pay worship unto the God who created it in His own image 
and likeness.. . .And the spirit of the soul said, ' I am the spirit, the breath of life 
which sojourned with it (-s.e d.stOK ne nenu'eiL nmqe n cong CT S's.Aiooir e poc'), 
judge it according to its judgements ' " (pp. 558, 1045). Also here, as in the Mandaitic 
passages cited above, the soul is the subject of sin, whereas the Spirit is incorruptible, 
a Divine spark living within the soul and separating from it when it is corrupt. The 
terms used for 'spirit' and 'soul' are the Greek Trvfvfia [nnS (imevMis.)] and 
^VXT; [\^/" > $H] respectively. In other passages of the Apocalypse the soul alone 
[or the soul and its angel (a-yyeXos)] is spoken of, without any reference to the 
spirit. Cf. also W. Scott, Hermetica, ii. p. 265 (Corp.Herm. x. 16). 



CONCEPTIONS OF SPIRIT AND SOUL 179 

the spirits and souls of the angels are pre-existent (cf. note on ch. 4y 2 ). 
The spirits of the angels have bodily form as the spirits of men (ch . 47*) . 

Ch. 47 is evidently later than the rest of the section within which 
it appears. It quite clearly builds upon ch. 40, which latter speaks of 
the punishment of the angels by way of destruction, but knows 
nothing of any continued life for the punished angels. It also pre- 
supposes chh. 43 and 44 on which it is modelled, although inadver- 
tently introducing the expression ' spirits and souls ' instead of ' spirits '. 

The underlying idea, already referred to, of ch. 47, viz. the identi- 
fication in essence of the nature of men and angels, is, of course, old. 
This idea has been traced to Jewish- Alexandrinian speculation : after 
taking over from Hellenistic thought the Platonic-Pythagorean con- 
ception of the pre-existence of the soul, the Jewish- Alexandrinian 
philosophers arrived at the identification : ayyeXos = Baifjiwv = ^v^T}* 

The identity in kind of human spirit and angelic nature is the 
necessary presupposition for the identity of Enoch and Metatron in 
the Enoch-Metatron pieces of our book. Also other representations 
of the transformation of a human being into an angel or celestial 
being imply the same notion (Elijah = Sandalfon, etc.). In the 
symbolical language of the earlier mystical literature the ' garment of 
glory' or 'garment of light' represents the higher celestial, angelic- 
spiritual nature. The garment of glory in these writings is attributed 
as well to angels as to the righteous spirits ascending into heaven. 
The difference between men and angels in such connections is only 
one of degree of perfection. 

The originality of ch. 47 consists in its maintaining a manifested 
existence, in a perishable body, for the angels, similar to the earthly 
life of men. 

In this connection it must be pointed out, that the conception of 
the pre-existence of the human spirit as met with in ch. 43 does not 
seem to be characteristic of the whole of 3 Enoch. Thus in the longer 
Enoch-Metatron piece Enoch-Metatron is called a Youth because he 
is a child in years compared with the angel-princes. It really would 
seem as if the conception of pre-existence belongs only to chh. 43 
and 47 or, probably, to the section 41-48 A. 

Ace. to Billerbeck 3 the doctrine of pre-existence was first intro- 

1 Vide Billerbeck in Strack-Billerbeck, Kamm. z. N. Test. ii. 340, who quotes 
Schlatter, Das neiiaufgefundene hebrdische Stuck des Sirach, pp. 180-186, and points 
to the 'Alexandrinian-Gnostic (?) Apocryphon Prayer of Joseph', ace. to which the 
Patriarch Jacob is an archangel (angelic name: Israel) who has entered earthly 
life from his pre-existent state. 

2 Op. cit. pp. 341 seqq. 



12-2 



i8o 



INTRODUCTION 



duced in Rabbinical literature in the middle of the third century A.D. 
and its first representatives in Palestine were R. e mu'el bar Nahman 
(about A.D. 260), R. 'Assi (about A.D. 300), R. Leui (about A.D. 300) 
and R. Yishaq (about A.D. 300). I 

On the assumption that Billerbeck has rightly fixed the time of 
entrance of the ideas of pre-existence into Rabbinical circles, the 
presence in our book of the conception of pre-existent spirits would 
seem to indicate the terminus post quern of the collection of chh. 
3-48 A as the middle of the third century A.D. It is, of course, possible, 
that the idea of pre-existence was known to Jewish mystical circles 
earlier than this. That Josephus 2 gives it as one of the tenets of the 
Essenes is well known. It is maintained by prominent scholars 3 that 
it can be traced even in the Pseudepigrapha. Nevertheless it is signi- 
ficant that ch. 43 seems to introduce the idea as something new, and 
that it is not present in the rest of the book (chh. 3-40). From this 
might be concluded at least that the collection (redaction) of the main 
part of 3 Enoch (chh. 3-48 A) was made at about the time when the 
idea of pre-existence was just being introduced into the mystical 
circles in question. (Cf. above, p. 38.) 

17. THE DIVINE JUDGEMENT 

npHE Divine Judgement dealt with in chh. 28 7 -33 2 is a Judgement 
JL enacted daily, at an appointed time of the day. The Judgement is 
concerned 

(1) with the whole world ; 

(2) with all the nations of the earth ; 

(3) with the individual ; 

(4) with the angelic world. 

The Judgement, Din, involves regular Court proceedings in the 

1 On account of dicta attributed to those teachers in Miitras Tanhuma, 26 a, 
89 a, TB. Ye~5. 62 a, Lev. R. 4, etc. " In Babylonia one identified at least in later 
times the pre-existent human souls with the Iranian Fravasis." So in TB. Sab. 
145 b, speaking of the mazzal (Aramaic st. d. mazzala) of the proselytes as present 
at the law-giving at the mount of Sinai. Ace. to Billerbeck ' mazzal ' ( =constellation, 
fate) here equals 'genius fravashi'. 

Cf . R. Wohlberg, Grundlinien, etc. " ein weiterer wichtiger, und unumstosslich 
feststehender Satz der Talmudischen Lehre (ist) ersichtlich. Die Seele ist pra- 
existierend, ihre Praexistenz ist eine reale, individuelle, nicht etwa cine nur ideale als 
blosser Gedanke der Gottheit". Wohlberg, of course, bases on the completed 
Talmud (as it lies before us), and, on that basis with reserve for the expression 'die 
Talmudische Lehre ', his thesis may be considered as well-founded. He quite rightly 
acknowledges the incongruity of the Talmudic dicta of different origin (pp. cit. p. 9). 

2 Bellum Judaicum, ii. 8. u. 

3 E.g. Box, in Ezra- Apocalypse, p. 26, note on 4 Ez. 4 12 . 



THE DIVINE JUDGEMENT 181 

Celestial Assize for each case, Divine decision, decrees with regard to 
the world, the nations and the individual, and, lastly, the execution 
of these decrees, as punishments or otherwise. 

When acting as Judge the Holy One is presiding in the Great Bep 
Din on high: he is assisted by the 'Irin and Qaddisin (ch. 28 s 9 ) who 
stand before him "as court officers before the judge". Ace. to ch. 
28 9 these 'irin and Qaddisin "argue, pass the sentence, make the 
requests, close the cases, establish the sentences below on earth ". In 
the judgement of the nations of the world the 'Irin and Qaddisin (chh. 
29, 30) are viewed as Princes of Kingdoms ', and are headed by the 
Prince of the World ' ( who pleads in favour of the totality of the nations ' ' . 

Ace. to another picture, now with reference to the Judgement of 
the individual, the Holy One has by him the three hypostasized 
Attributes, JUSTICE, MERCY, and TRUTH. The MERCY supports man by 
sending him a staff of its own splendour, on which to support himself 
when standing before the Divine Judge (ch. 3I 1 ' 2 ). x The same idea 
is expressed in the form of "Angels of JUSTICE, MERCY, and PEACE" 
surrounding the Most High, when seated on the Judgement Throne 
(ch. 33). 

The proceedings in the Divine Court and the final decrees are 
based upon the recordings contained in the Books of Judgement, 
chh. i8 24 , 27*. 2 , 28 7 , 3o 2 , 32 1 , 44 9 . 

These books are called "the Books of the Living and the Books of 
the Dead " (chh. i8 24 , 28'), the " Book of Records " and the " Books of 
Judgement" (ch. 27 1 ' 2 ), the "Book in which are recorded all the 
doings of the world " (ch. 3O 2 ), the " Book of fire and flame " (ch. 32 1 ), 
and the " Books of Records " (44 9 ). 

The Books of Judgement contain (a) the records of men's deeds, 
good and evil, and also of various events in the whole Universe; 
(b) the Divine decisions and decrees. The books are in the keeping 
of the Scribes (chh. 27, 33 2 ). 

The executors of the Divine decisions are in general matters the 
( Irin and Qaddisin (ch. 28 9 ), who represent the Divine rulership over 
or government of the world, as do the 'Princes of Kingdoms' (ch. 
48 c 9 ) with which they are identified (chh. 29, 30). They also sanctify 

i Cf. the Vision of Abu Yazid (d. 874, R. A. Nicholson, An Early Arabic 
Version, etc., p. 707, 11. 4 seqq., 413). The angel of the Footstool gives Abu Yazid, 
ascended to the seventh heaven, a pillar of light: 



"until I was met by the angel of the Footstool (Kursi) who had with him a pillar 
of light. He saluted me; then he said, 'take the pillar'. So I took it. . .". 



I 82 INTRODUCTION 

the body and spirit of the man who has undergone judgement. But 
the execution of the special decrees which involve 'punishment' 
either on the world at large (ch. 32) or on the individual (chh. 3i 2 , 
33 1 ) is reserved for a special class of angels existing for this purpose, 
viz. the 'ANGELS OF DESTRUCTION ' (mdl' a %e hdbbala). When executing 
the punishments on the world the angels of destruction are given the 
' Sword of God ' to be used by them as an instrument of punishment 
and vengeance (ch. 32 1 ' 2 ). 

The 'Angels of Destruction' correspond to the 'Angels of Punish- 
ment' of i En. 53 3 , 56 1 , 62 11 , 63!; 2 En. io 3 (42 1 ); Ap. Petri, 6, 8; 
Test. Abrah. 12, 13 (ed. G. H. Box, pp. 19 seqq.). See note on ch. 3i 2 . 

On the details in the representation of the daily Judgement see the 
notes on chh. 28 7 -33 2 . 

The execution of the judgement on the intermediate (the large 
majority, called benon\iyy\im) and the perfectly wicked, having been 
judged immediately after death, is described in ch. 44 (in dealing 
with the fate of souls and spirits). Also here the angelic executors are 
the angels of destruction, of which only two are mentioned, viz. the 
chiefs appointed over the benon[iyy\im and the wicked respectively; 
it is noteworthy that the chief 'angel of destruction' set over the 
benon[iyy\im has the function of supporting, helping, purifying them, 
hence also called by the significant name SIMKIEL (from *TJbD)- The 
Divine attitude towards the benon\iyy]im is that of Support, Help, 
Mercy, Encouragement. 1 In contrast hereto, the angel of destruction 
appointed to deal with the wicked is called ZA'AFIEL (the Wrath of 
God, 5]yi). The wicked are to be cast out from the Divine Presence 
without Mercy, to be punished in Gehenna. 

Also upon the angels punishment is executed, chh. 4O 3 , 47. 

When the song-uttering angels fail to perform the Q e dussd in the 
right time and order they are consumed by fire. Ace. to ch. 47 this 
destruction by fire refers to their 'bodies', i.e. to their existence as 
individual members in the song-uttering companies. The bodies of 
the song-uttering angels who have failed in the discharge of their 
duties are sent back into the fiery river from which they were once 
created and in the fiery river the multitudes of angels thus punished 
form a congeries of fiery substances: "mountains of burning coal" 
as the expression is in ch. 47 2 , using the simile traditional since i En. 
2 1 3 ("like great mountains and burning with fire"). 

i Similarly in Se&cer Gan l Edcen an angel is introduced whose duty it is to save 
those of ' middle merit' or ' the unstable' from the angels of destruction ; that angel is 
called bsnTy, from If? (help): (n^n "OKte "?>) DTB afilS ^Jfai Dm tniKl K3 S1H. 
Among the unstable are reckoned the proselytes who 'H JIKTS 



THE QZDUSSA 183 



18. THE PERFORMANCE OF THE _CELESTIAL 
SONGS, ESPECIALLY THE Q E DUSSA 

AN entire section of the present book is devoted to the description 
zY of the performance of the celestial songs and hymns of praise. 
The section, comprising chh. 35-40, enlarges on the hosts of angels 
engaged in the chanting of the Song, their number, arrangement, 
preparation, purification before intoning, the attitude or roles played 
by the other parts of the Celestial community, etc. 

Apart from this section the performance of the celestial songs is 
mentioned in various connections, especially in the sections dealing 
with angelology. 

A. The character of the songs. 

Different terms occur partly denoting various kinds of songs, 
partly being merely synonyms. Thus, in ch i 11 , there are mentioned: 
Song (Sira) Trisagion (Q e dussa), Chant (N ei ima); ib. vs. 12: Psalm 
(T e hilla), Song of Praise (Scebah), Song of Rejoicing (Rinna), Thanks- 
giving (Toda), Exultation (Zimra), Glorification (Pa'er), Hymn 
(Na a ua) and Eulogy ('O#). This is, however, in the introductory 
chapters which are later than the main part of the book. In the 
angelological section A i we find, e.g. ch. 2O 2 , reference made to Praise, 
Glory and Rejoicing (T e hilla, Scefiah, R e nana). Nowhere is there any 
parallel to the extravagant indulgence in enumerations of synonyms 
for 'song' and 'praise' met with in the Hekalop Rabbapi, ch. 24. 

The, songs consist of Scripture verses, chh. 19', 46*, 2 4 , 45. 

Ch. ig 7 . The Galgallim, K e rufeim, Hayyo>, S e rafim are re- 
presented as singing, in the form of a mutual exhortation, the fifth 
verse of Ps. 68 : "Extol Him that rideth in <A rafeoJ?, by His name Yah, 
and rejoice before Him". 

Ch. 46*. The song uttered by the planets (or heavenly bodies in 
general) is Ps. 8 4 : "When I consider Thy heavens, etc." 

Ch. 2 4 . On the occasion of R. Isma'el's admission to enter and 
behold the M^srkdba, the angels exclaim: "Happy is the people that 
is in such a case!" (Ps. I44 15 ). 

Ch. 45 6 . "O YHUH, how manifold are thy works! The King's 
word hath power and who may say unto him, What doest thou? 
Whoso keepeth the commandments shall know no evil thing" (Ps. 
io 4 2 *;Eccl. 8 4 ). 



184 INTRODUCTION 

3 Enoch dwells exclusively upon the celestial hymns, songs and 
praises, omitting all references to the terrestrial Q e dussa or other 
songs, chanted by men on earth, e.g. by the congregation of Israel. 

The whole conception of celestial songs is of course framed by 
analogy to the songs on earth, but there is no hint of an interdependence 
between terrestrial and celestial songs. This is in marked contrast to 
the ideas of e.g. TB. Hag. 12 b ("the ministering angels say the song 
by night but are silent during the day for the sake of the glory of 
Israel": the preference is accorded the chanting performed by the 
congregation of Israel) or of the HeMlop Rabbapi, where ace. to 
ch. 9 2 3 superimportance is assigned to the Trisagion performed by 
Israel ("When Israel says the Holy, Holy, Holy, the Most High has 
no pleasure in all the glories of the heavens with their song-uttering 
companies, but his attention and his joy are fixed upon the congre- 
gation of Israel alone"). In 3 Enoch, on the contrary, as the central 
event in the heavens and in the whole universe is contemplated the 
performance of the Song by the companies of angels (chh. 35 5 6 , 
36, 38). In this respect 3 Enoch accords perfectly with the earlier 
Enoch literature, especially 2 Enoch. 

The song /car' e^oxrfv is, however, the Q e dussa. The Q e dussa as re- 
corded in 3 Enoch is of the simplest form known, viz. the Thrice Holy 
(Isa. 6 3 ), "Holy, Holy, Holy, is YHUH S E BA'O]?: the whole earth is full 
of his glory" and the response "Blessed". 

The response "Blessed" is referred to in two different forms, viz. 

(a) "Blessed be the Glory of YHUH from His place" and 

(V) "Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and 



ever". 



(a) is attested in chh. i 12 , ao 2 ; (b) in chh. 39 2 and 48 B 1 (J), B 2 . 

The yimloik ("YHUH shall reign for ever, etc.") is not mentioned 
in the present book. 

In exhibiting this simple form of the Q e dussd 3 Enoch accords with 
i En. ch. 39 12 13 which also gives the Q e dussa in the form of the 
Thrice Holy and the response "Blessed": 

" Holy, Holy, Holy, is the Lord of Spirits : He filleth the earth with 
spirits". The "Blessed" is two-fold: "Blessed be Thou, and blessed 
be the name of the Lord for ever and ever". On the change in the 
Trisagion here see Charles, i Enoch, note on ch. 39 12 (p. 76), and 
Dillmann, Das Buch Henoch, p, 145, note on 39 12 . 

In 2 Enoch only the Thrice Holy is preserved, ch. 2i 1 (A) ; cf. Rev. 4 8 . 

This simple form of the Q e dussa is strong evidence of the early 



THE QEDUSSA 185 

time of the Q e dussa-section of 3 Enoch. It is to be noted, by the way, 
that the term ' Q e dussa\ in the main part of the whole book, is as yet 
unknown as denoting the Trisagion and the response. It appears only 

in the later introductory ch. i 11 . Uncertain is 26 8 , FOB? ^/ 



B . The performers of the Q e dussd. 

(1) Angels specially appointed for the sole purpose of chanting the 
Q e dussa. These may be called "the song-uttering angels". 

The song-uttering angels are called simply 'ministering angels' 
or ' camps of angels ', ' camp(s) of S e kina.' Vide above on Angelology, 
D. There are 506 thousand myriads of camps, each camp counting 
496,000 angels (chh. 35 1 , 4o 3 ; cf. ly 2 ). The numbers 496 and 506 are 
symbolical of the Kingdom of Heaven. Vide above on Angelology, ib. 

The camps are arranged in four surop (chh. 35 3 , 36 2 ), at the head of 
each there being a "Prince of the Army". These four surop are also 
called "the four camps of S e kina" (chh. i8 4 , 37 1 ). Ace. to ch. i8 5 
TAG' AS is the leader of all the song-uttering angels, in rank above the 
four princes. 

(2) Besides these hosts of angels whose special duty is the per- 
formance of the Q e dussa, the Song is chanted also by the Mcerkaba- 
angels, the great Princes, the heavenly bodies and by the Mcerkaba- 
seer (chh. ao 2 , 22 12 , 22 B 8 , 25 5 , 26 8 , 27 3 , 46*, 45 6 )> 

C. The time appointed for .the celestial Q e dussd. 

There is a time fixed every day for the performance of the Q e dussd. 
The relation of this appointed time to the quarters of the day or night 
on earth is not defined in 3 Enoch. (Cf. TB. Hullin, 91 b : "The angels 
recite the Song only once a day, some say 'only once a week', etc.") 

Contrast Apocalypse of Abraham, ch. 10: "I (Yaoel). . .teach those 
who carry Him (i.e. the Hay y op) the song of the seventh hour of the 
night of man". 2 

1 For the Jewish Liturgy and the forms of the Q 6 ttussa therein contained, see 
Oesterley and Box, Survey of the Literature of Rabbinical and Mediaeval Judaism, 
p. 177 ; The Religion and Worship of the Synagogue, 1911; jfE. article ' Kedusha ' ; The 
Authorised Daily Prayer Book of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British 
Empire, 1921, pp. 43, 49 ; I. Elbogen, DerjudischeGottesdienst z , pp. 61-67. I n 3 Enoch 
the recital of the QOjMs'a is never referred to as rwnp "IfilJ? but always as limp 11317. 
In Ga'onic literature the expression mostly is WHp "IBS 1 ? or- WHp DnaiSttf jam. 

2 Ed. by Box, 1919 (TED.), p. 47. Prof. Box, in note 7 ib., points to the 
parallel in TB. '-''froofa Zara, 3 b: " God sits (at night) and listens to the song of the 
Hayyob" and TB. ffag. 12 b, referred to above, p. 184. Cf. also Test, of Abr., ed. 
Box, p. 37. 



1 86 INTRODUCTION 

The time of the performance of the Q e dussa is, ace. to our book, 
the central event of the heavenly 'day'. For the 'Time appointed' 
see chh. i8 7 , iQ 6 , zf, 35 5 , 36 1 , 38 1 , 39 1 . 

D. The arrangement of the Q e clussa and its performance. 

The "Blessed " is considered a response to the Thrice Holy. Hence 
there are some of the song-uttering angels who have for exclusive 
object the chanting of the "Holy, Holy, Holy, etc." whereas others 
are entirely devoted to responding with the "Blessed" : chh. 24 2 , 35*. 
The Thrice Holy is performed in three parts, viz. (i) "Holy"; 
(2) "Holy, Holy"; and (3) "Holy, Holy, Holy, is YHUH SEBA'OJ?, the 
whole earth is full of His Glory", ch. 40*. (Cf . TB. Hullin, 91 b : "three 
different companies of angels say the Song every day ; one says ' Holy ', 
one 'Holy, Holy' and one 'Holy, Holy, Holy is H'S eJ ba'oJ>'" i.e. in 
the manner of the chanting in Jewish congregations, vide note 
on 4<D 2 .) 

E. The import of the Q e ctussd. 

The significance of the celestial O e dussd is indicated by the stress 
laid on its performance at the right time and in the right order, in 
perfect unity and consonance, and its explicit and implicit connection 
with the idea of the Kingdom of Heaven. It is the symbol of, and, at 
the same time, the actual realization of the Kingdom of Heaven in the 
celestial spheres. 

The angels and the four princes at the head of them are rewarded 
with crowns when they chant the Q e dussa at the right time but 
punished by extinction if they do not, chh. 4O 1 " 3 , 47. The chanting 
of the Q e dussa "DlpTO brings about the unity and harmony which in 
itself actualizes the existence of the song-uttering companies, ch. 35 5 6 . 
The Q e dussa is the means of the realization of God's sovereignty 
among the angelic hosts, their conforming to the law of the Kingdom ; 
hence the singing of the Q e dussd by the angels is termed "taking upon 
themselves the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven", ch. 35 6 . 

The realization in the Q e dussd of the Kingdom of Heaven among 
the angelic orders is implicitly indicated by the numbers 496 and 
506, used in ch. 35 1 with reference to the companies of song-uttering 
angels ; 496 and 506 are the numerical equivalents of Malkup (King- 
dom) and Malkuyyop (Kingdoms) respectively. All the celestial 
kingdoms are made one whole, the Kingdom of Heaven, whose 
sovereign is the King of Kings of Kings. 



THE QZDUSSA 187 

The realization of the Kingdom of Heaven among the angels 
extends its effects to the physical aspects of the heavens and to the 
outer realms of the Universe. 

"At the time when the ministering angels utter the 'Holy' all the 
pillars of the heavens and their sockets tremble, the gates of the Halls 
are shaken, the foundations of the Universe are moved, all the orders 
of Raqi a \ the constellations and the planets, are dismayed, and the 
globe of the sun and the moon haste away, etc.", ch. 38 1 . 

This trembling of the planetary regions of the heavens is their 
expression of acquiescence in the Divine sovereignty, and hence 
considered as their 'Song' (a sort of spherical harmony), to judge 
from the quotation in this connection (ch. 38 3 ) of the Scripture 
passage Job 38': "When the morning stars sang together and all the 
children of heaven shouted for joy ". 

The Q e dussd is naturally addressed to "the Holy One, blessed 
be He". Ch. 48 B 2 presents a picture of the angels singing the 
Trisagion and the " Blessed" before the self-existent Divine Names, 
when these go forth from the Throne of Glory. In ch. 39, on the 
other hand, the Names are said to go forth from the Throne of Glory 
at the time of the angelic performance of the Q e dussd as a sort of 
response from the side of the Divine manifestation to the angels' 
acknowledgement of His sovereignty. A quotation from "the Book 
of Enoch" by Moses de Leon represents the Names as themselves 
chanting the "Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever 
and ever". 1 

The notariqons of the Trisagion and the "Blessed" (i.e. p"pp and 

V /JMK^) are in ch. 48s 1 given as Divine Names. This is quite 
natural from the conception of the Divine Letters and Names 
obtaining there. See above on "The quasi-physical aspects of the 
Maerkaba, etc." 

In later literature there are frequent speculations on the Divine 
Names p"pp and V'^to^B^- See e.g. Siyyuni, Par. Ha' a zinu, S. 

Midras Talpiyyop, 78 a. 

In the additional ch. 15 B 3 the $ e ma (Hear, O Israel, the Lord 
our God is one Lord) is introduced as a Celestial Song. This reflects 
a later time than the rest of the book, where the S e ma is never re- 
ferrred or alluded to. See above on "the origin and date of composi- 
tion of 3 Enoch ", end. And cf . TB. Hullin, 91 b, where the fcj>np and 
the yfcW are co-ordinated. (Vide Elbogen, Jud. Gottesd. 2 p. 63 seq. ; 
L. Ginzberg, Geonica, ii. pp. 78 seqq., 129.) 

i The quotation is reproduced by Jellinek in Beth ha Midrasch, ii. p. xxxi. 



APPENDIX I 

Attempt at a reconstruction of the earliest fragments of the 
Enoch-Metatron pieces 

IT has been hinted above (pp. 42, 79 and 83) that some fragments of a 
writing or writings on Metatron, representing a stage before the in- 
clusion of the Metatron ideas in the Enoch Literature and the identification 
of Metatron with Enoch, may be traced in the Enoch-Metatron pieces. 
Some conjectures concerning the actual passages where such fragments 
occur may be proffered here. 

Almost certain is it that these fragments contained a representation of 
Metatron as a primordial being. It is suggestive that this idea has been 
obscured by Metatron's identification with Enoch (cf. p. 78). Hence the 
functions which in the original traditions were represented as belonging to 
Metatron (or conferred upon him) from the beginning, are, by the 
Enoch-Metatron traditions, represented as being conferred upon Enoch, 
successively, on the occasion of his elevation into a high, celestial being. 

Now it may be noticed that chh. 9 2 -i3, if taken out of their context, 
and relieved of obvious additions, could easily be interpreted as referring 
to Metatron alone (not to Enoch) as a Celestial being, existing at or before 
the Creation. Considered by themselves, these chapters contain remarkably 
prominent references to the cosmical functions and attributes of Metatron. 
He is coextensive with the whole world (an established feature of the 
Primordial Man idea), ch. 9; he carries the cosmical letters, ch. 13. It is 
noticeable, further, that ch. 1 1 dates the revealing of all secrets to Metatron 
by the use of the word me'az, which, considered by itself, is most naturally 
translated 'from the beginning' (not 'henceforth', as the redactor of the 
Enoch-Metatron piece evidently understands it). It need not be said that 
chh. 10 (the definition of Metatron) and 12 (the promulgation of the little 
YHUH) fall in naturally with the same representation. From the mutual 
relation of chh. 10 and 12 it would appear that the word Metatron is a 
metonym for the real name of the Being in question, viz. the little YHUH. 
It may hence be surmised that the main part of chh. 9-13 represents a 
fragment of an original writing on Metatron the little YHyn. 

In 48 c the foisting on to an original tradition on Metatron of the idea 
of the elevation of Enoch is apparent (cf. above, p. 83). Original Metatron- 
fragnients may perhaps be detected also in 48 C 3 > 5 7 ~ 9 . 

These fragments would thus represent the earliest and most important 
parts of i Enoch, from a time not later than the first century A.D. (cf. above, 

P- 79)- 

APPENDIX II 

The Gnostic references to the 'little- Yao', the possessor of the 
Divine Name, I and the ( Youth ' 

ON pp. 82, 123 and 141 reference has been made to the occurrence of 
the expression 'the little Yao' in Pistis Sophia. It will be apposite 
to reproduce here in full the passage where this expression occurs. We 

i ' The little Yao ' corresponds exactly to ' the little fllrT '. For the probability of 
YHUH having been pronounced YAHO(H), vide A. Lukyn Williams, YAHQh (J.Th.S. 
xxviii, 1927, pp. 276-283), F. C. Burkitt, Yahweh or Yahoh etc. (id. pp. 407-409). 



APPENDIX II 189 

follow Horner's literal translation 1 (Jesus speaks of his first descent from 
the highest, inmost, celestial realm, the 'first mystery', to the earth): 

"... It happened therefore, having come unto the midst of the Rulers of 
the ./Eons, I looked down unto the World of the mankind by the command 
of the First Mystery, I found Elisabet the mother of lohannes, the baptist, 
before that that (woman) yet conceived him, I sowed a power into her, this 
which I received from the little lao, the good, he who (is) in the middle, 
that he should prevail to preach in front of us, and prepare my road and 
baptise in water for forgiving sin. That power therefore, that (is) that which 
becometh in the body of lohannes, and also in the Place of the soul of the 
Rulers, destined to receive it, I found the sound of Helias [i.e. Elijah] the 
prophet in the ./Eons of the Sphere, and I took him in, and I took his soul 
also, I brought it to the Virgin of the Light and she gave it to her Receivers, 
they brought it unto the Sphere of the Rulers and they cast it into the womb 
of Elisabet. But the power of the little lao, he of the middle, and the soul 
of Helias the prophet, they (are) those which are bound in the body of 
lohannes the baptist." 

Behind this obscure passage one may easily recognize the idea of the 
little Yao as a spiritual essence present in the prophet of his age, or in the 
outstanding saint. The same idea is attested of Metatron in Jewish 
mystical writings (cf. above, pp. 102 and 123) ; of the original Man-Saviour- 
Messenger, also called the 'one-born', the 'unique', the 'beloved Son', in 
Mandaitic Literature, and of the Primal Man the Spirit of Adam in the 
Pseudo-Clementine writings and in the systems of the Ebionites and 
Elxaites (cf. above, p. 123, note i). 

Although the received text of the cited passage seems to speak of ' the 
power of the little Yao ' and ' the soul of Helias ' as two different spiritual 
entities incarnated in John the Baptist, there should scarcely be any doubt that 
the passage in reality bases upon a tradition, according to which the celestial 
being possessing the Divine Name and called the ' little ' to denote him as 
an emanation from the inscrutable Deity, is present in, and is the power of, 
the prophets of the different ages, last present in the prophet Elijah, and 
then maintained to have again appeared in John the Baptist. The epithet 
' little ' evidently is meant to denote this being as the lesser manifestation 
of, the second to, the Deity (the First Mystery). 

There are some other instances of the speculations of this figure which 
show the existence of ideas closely related to the conceptions of the little 
YHUH-Metatron, the possessor of the Divine Name. These are found in 
the representations of 'Yao' and 'Yeu'. 

i. Yao-Yeu is the Primal Man, the First or ' Great' Man. 

Thus says the Second Book of Yeu according to the German translation 
by Schmidt (Pistis Sophia etc. p. 318): 

"Wiederum (TraAu/) werdet ihr in ihr Inneres (referring to the Inmost 
Recesses or Mysteries) bis zu der Ordnung (rats) der Vorhange (K.O.TO.- 
Treracr/xaTa), die vor den grossen Konig des Lichtschatzes (-fl^crcujpos) gezogen 
sind, hineinwandern. Sie werden euch ihr grosses Mysterium (/ruoT^/aioj/), 
ihr Siegel (cr^/aayi's) und den grossen Namen des Lichtschatzes (-dtjcravpo's) 
geben und sich zuriickziehen, bis ihr hineinsetzt und sie durchwandert, und 
i Pp. 6, 7, ed. Schmidt, pp. 7, 8; ed. Mead, pp. 9, 10. 



19 APPENDIX II 

bis ihr zu dent grossen Menschen gelangt, d.h. zu dem Konig dieses ganzen 
Lichtschatzes 1 (-Oya-avpos') , dessen Name 'Jeu ' ist . . . (p . 3 1 9) . . . Dann wird sich 
Jeu, der Vater des Lichtschatzes (-6r)<ravp6<s), iiber euch freuen etc." 

2. Yao-Yeu, the First Man, has authority over those who execute judge- 
ment and punishment on the spirit of man. 

Pistis Sophia, m, ch. in (ed. Schmidt, pp. 184, 185; ed. Mead, p. 238; 
ed. Horner, p. 143): 

"... Whenever therefore it should happen, whenever should be completed 
the time of the punishment of that soul in the judgments of the Rulers of 
the Middle, is wont the counterfeit spirit (avri^i^ov 7rj/eG//,a), it is wont to 
bring the soul up from all the Places of the Rulers of the Middle, it is wont 
to take her up before the light of the sun according to the commandment of 
the first man leou: and it is wont to take her (close) to the judge. . . ." 

3. Besides supreme judge Yeu, the first man, is called Messenger, 
Legate, of the First Commandment, and the overseer of the Light. 

In Pistis Sophia, in, chh. 126 and 130, in contexts treating of the fate 
of souls and the places of punishment, the following passages occur : 
in, ch. 126 (ed. Schmidt, p, 208; ed. Horner, p. 161): 

"These Rulers (a/o^oi/res) therefore of these twelve chambers being within 
the Dragon of the Darkness. . .there being a door to every chamber.. . .And 
there is an Angel of the Height being vigilant unto each of the doors of the 
chambers. These who leou the first man, the overseer (e7rrK07ros) of the Light, 
the Legate (Trpeo-ySevrT/s) of the First precept, he is he who put them being 
vigilant unto the dragon that he should not be disorderly with all the Rulers 
of his chambers which are in him." 

in, ch. 130 (ed. Schmidt, pp. 215, 216; ed. Mead, pp. 275, 276; ed. 
Horner, p. 167): 

"And whenever the Ruler should cast out the souls, are wont the Angels 
of leou, the first man, these who are vigilant unto the chambers of that Place, 
he is wont to hasten immediately and to carry off that soul until he bringeth 
her (close) to leou, the first man, the Legate of the First precept. And is 
wont leou, the first man, he is wont to see the souls and to prove them.. . . 
But if should prove them leou, and find them having completed their cycle . . . 
and is wont to have mercy on them leou." 

In this connection one may recall that, according to 3 Enoch 15 B 2 , 
Metatron is the head of the defending angels, and, that in Hek. R. 26 8 , 
Metatron is called ' Long-suffering and abundant in Goodness '. Further 
leou, as the Overseer of Light and the Ruler of the Rulers, corresponds 
to Metatron as the Ruler over all the celestial treasuries and over the 
70 princes (= dp-^ovre^). 

4. The references to Yeu-Yao as the leader or ruler over ap^ovres are 
frequent. Just as Metatron in some Jewish mystical contexts is called 'The 
Great (one)', so the ap^ovre^, in this connection, speak of Yao, their leader, 
as the ' great Yao '. The ' great Yao ', hence, is not the unmanifested Deity, 
but identical, in fact, with the 'little Yao'. 

i This does not refer to the Ineffable Deity, who, whoever in other contexts is 
represented as the Makranthropos, cf. Leisegang, Die Gnosis, p. 360. 



APPENDIX II 191 

Pistis Sophia, n, ch. 86 (ed. Schmidt, p. 126; ed. Mead, p. 163; ed. 
Horner, p. 97): "And the Virgin of the Light with the great Captain of 
the Middle, this who were wont the Rulers of the /Eons to call, The great 
lao, according to the name of a great Ruler who (is) in their Place". 

5. A somewhat different nomenclature is used in some passages, 
speaking of the ' little Sabaoth ', put in relation either to the ' great Sabaoth ', 
or to the 'great Yao'. Also here we have to do with the conception of a 
second Divine manifestation, a possessor of the Divine Essence. This 
conception is clearly to be distinguished from the ideas connected with 
the names Sabaoth, Sabaoth Adamas etc. The term ' the little Sabaoth ' is 
evidently evolved on analogy with the 'little Yao'. Vide especially Pistis 
Sophia, n, ch. 63 (ed. Schmidt, p. 82; ed. Mead, pp. 103, 104; ed. Horner, 
p. 63) and Pistis Sophia, iv (v), ch. 140 (ed. Schmidt, p. 241 ; ed. Mead, 
pp. 302, 303; ed. Horner, p. 187). r 

It has been recounted above that the (little) Yao-Yeu was represented 
as the Second Manifestation, also as the Primal or Great Man and the 
Overseer. It now remains to point out some further epithets of the Second 
Manifestation. 

The Unknown Early Gnostic Work (Unbekanntes altgnostisches Werk], 
edited by Schmidt (Pistis Sophia etc. pp. 335 seqq.) runs, according to 
Schmidt's translation : 

Ch. 2. "Der zweite Ort (TOTTO?) ist entstanden, welcher Demiurg 
(Srj/jbLovpryos) und Vater und Logos (Xoyo?) and Quelle (irTj^rf) und Verstand 
(vovs) und Mensch und Ewiger (atSio?) und Unendlicher (cnrepavros) 
genannt werden wird. Dieser ist die Saule (cf. Metatron as ' ammuda 
d e -cemsa i ipa, above, pp. 122, 123), dieser ist der Aufseher ". Ibidem, p. 338, 
this 'Overseer' is also called 'the Youth'. Thus we have here a similar use 
of the epithet ' Youth ' as in the Jewish mystical works (the Youth Metatron) 
and in Mandsean sources (Rafiya Talya etc., above, pp. 68, 69). 

6. Lastly attention must be called to the fact that in Pistis Sophia we 
meet with the same salvation-mystery that we have traced as underlying 
the representations of Enoch-Metatron, although here not expressed in 
terms quite as closely resembling 3 Enoch as are those met with in the 
Mandasan Literature. It may be allowed to quote an elucidating passage, 
viz. Pistis Sophia, n, ch. 96 (ed. Schmidt, pp. 146 seq.; ed. Horner, pp. 
114 seqq.): 

i The original import of these celestial figures cannot be obscured by the 
systematisations, by which they have been accorded definite positions in various 
regions of the Universe. Such a system is the following, proceeding from the 
Inmost or Highest to the lowest regions: (i) the ineffable Deity Makranthropos, 
(2) the First Mystery Logos with the Apatores, Hypertripneumatoi, Protri- 
pneumatoi, Tripneumatoi etc., (3) Celestial Beings called ' the 24 mysteries ', (4) the 
Treasury of the Light or the Land of the Light with 12 Saviours and 9 Watchers, 
(5) the Place of those of the Right under Yeu, Melchisedek, Sabaoth the Great and 
Good, (6) the Place of the Middle under the Great Yao, the Little Yao, the little 
Sabaoth and the Virgin of the Light, (7) the Place of the Left, (8) the 12 JEons, 
(9) the Sphere of Heimarmene, (10) the Terrestrial world ; cf. Leisegang, Die Gnosis, 
pp. 360-363. 



APPENDIX II 

"Now therefore also, Amen I (Jesus) say to you, Every man who will 
receive that mystery of the Ineffable and is complete or fulfilleth (it) in all 
its types with all its figures, is a man being in the World, but he excelleth 
all Angels and he will excel more than they all, he is a man being upon the 
World, but he excelleth all the Archangels, and he will excel more than they 
all. He is a man being upon the world, but he excelleth all the Tyrants, 
and he will be exalted over them all. He is a man being upon the World, 
but he excelleth all the Lords, and he will be exalted over them all. He is 
a man being upon the World, but he excelleth all the Gods. . . all the lumi- 
naries. . . all the pure (lights) ... all the Triple powers. . . all the Forefathers. . . 
all the Invisibles . . .the great Forefather Invisible. . .all those of the Middle. . . 
the emanations of the Treasury of the Light. . .the Confusion. . .the whole 
Place of the Treasury and he will be exalted over them all. He is a man being 
upon the World, but he will become King with me in my kingdom. He is a 
man being upon the World, but he becometh King in the Light. He is a 
man being upon the world, but not one (out) of the World is he, and Amen 
I say to you, That man is I and I am that man. . ," 1 . 

7. The above is enough to show that the central ideas and figures of 
the mysticism represented in 3 Enoch and known to the circle behind it 
has penetrated into the Pistis Sophia and related writings. 2 This confirms 
the general conclusions arrived at in the Introduction as to the age and 
dispersion of the ideas in question. It is noticeable, however, that the 
name 'Metatron' never occurs in non- Jewish sources, although the con- 
ception is clearly attested. This fact renders more weight to the hypothesis 
put forward above, that the name Metatron actually originated in Jewish 
circles and should be regarded as a pure Jewish invention, viz. a metonym 
for the term the 'little 



8. An explicit allusion to an Enoch Literature, containing speculations 
on the Divine Name Yao-Yeu (or the possessor of the name (little) Yao- 
Yeu) is actually found in Pistis Sophia. Thus we read in Pistis Sophia, iv 
ch. 134 (ed. Horner, p. 178, ed. Schmidt, p. 228, ed. Mead, p. 292; cf. n, 
ch. 99, ed. Schmidt, p. 158, ed. Horner, p. 123): 

"Now, therefore, for the sake of sinners have I rent myself asunder and 
am come into the world, that I may save them. For even for the righteous, 
who have never done any evil and have not sinned at all, it is necessary that 
they should find the mysteries which are in the Books of Yeu, which I have 
made Enoch write in Paradise, discoursing with him out of the tree of the 
Gnosis and out of the tree of the Life. And I made him deposit them in 
the rock Ararad, and set the ruler Kalapatauroth, who is over Skemmut, on 
whose head is the foot of Yeu, and who surroundeth all asons and Fates 
I set up that ruler as watcher over the Books of Yeu on account of the flood? 
and in order that none of the rulers may be envious of them and destroy them. . . . " 4 

I Cf. 3 En. 4 7 > 8 , 6 3 , io 3 ~. 2 Cf. Irenzeus, Adv. Hcer. i, 4-8, 30. 5 seqq. 

3 Cf. 2 En. rec. B, ch. 33 8 ~ 12 "And give them the books of thy (Enoch) hand- 
writing ... as mediator, Enoch, of my general Michael, because thy handwriting 
and the handwriting of thy fathers . . . shall not be destroyed till the end of time, 
and have commanded my angels Orioch and Marioch. . .and ordered that it perish 
not in the deluge". 

4 Cf. 3 En. 6 2 , 48 D 7 ~ 9 . 



PART II 
TRANSLATION WITH NOTES 



OHB 



BOOK OF ENOCH 

BY R. ISHMAEL BEN ELISHA 

THE HIGH PRIEST 

CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTION : R. Ishmael ascends 

to heaven to behold the vision of the Merkaba and 

is given in charge to Metatron 

AND ENOCH WALKED WITH GOD : AND HE WAS NOT ; FOR GOD TOOK HIM 

(Gen. v. 24) 

Rabbi Ishmael said : 

(i) When I ascended on high to behold x the vision of the Merkaba^ 
and had entered the six Halls, one within the other: (2) as soon as 
I reached the door of the seventh Hall I stood still in prayer before 
the Holy One, blessed be He, and, lifting up my eyes on high (i.e. 
towards the Divine Majesty), I said : (3) " Lord of the Universe, I pray 

i-i so DE. A: 'in my vision the Merkaba' 

Chh. i and ii. (Additional, see Introduction, section 7.) Chh. i and ii; which 
are not extant in BCL, form an introduction to the book, supplying the explanation 
of the frame of chh. iii-xlviii A, purporting to be revelations and communications 
given to R. Ishmael by Metatron-Enoch. By the present introductory chapters 
is indicated that the occasion of these revelations was Rabbi IshmaePs ascent to 
behold the vision of the Merkaba (the Divine Chariot). R. Ishmael's ascension to 
heaven and intercourse with Metatron, or the Prince of the Presence, forms an 
intrinsic part of the Legend of the Ten Martyrs, including the so-called Apocalyptic 
Fragment (BH. v. 167-169, vi. 19-35; Siddur R. 'Amram Gaon, 3 b, 13 b-i3 a; 
Gaster, RAS's Journal, 1893, pp. 609 seqq.). The R. Ishmael version of Shi'ur 
Qoma is also framed as a revelation to R. Ishmael from Metatron. See further 
Introduction, sections 7 c and 10. The ' R. Ishmael ' introduced in these writings is, 
ace. to them, one of the ten martyrs, contemporary with R. 'Aqiba, also one of 
these martyrs with whom he exchanged opinions and contended teachings on 
mystical subjects, was a High Priest and the son of a High Priest, hence in possession 
of the Great Divine Name, by force of which he was able to ascend to heaven. The 
time of the martyrdom was the beginning of the second century. 

Behold the vision of the Merkaba. Identical expression: Hek. R. BH. iii. 83. 
entered the six Halls etc. For the conception of the seven Halls cf . note on ch. xviii. 3 
and chh. x. 2, xvi. i, xxxvii. i, xxxviii. i, xlviii c 8 and esp. Hek. R. The Halls 
are situated in the highest of the seven heavens. The Merkaba and the Throne of 
Glory are, ace. to the earlier conceptions represented here, located to the seventh 
Hall. For later developed conceptions cf. Zohar, i. 38 3-45 b, ii. 245 3-269 a; 
Pardes Rimmonim, Gate xxiv, and Intr. R. 'Aqiba also narrates his ascent to the 
seven Halls, in Pirqe R. Ishmael, ch. xviii (Bodl. MICH. 175, foil. 20 a seq.). one 
within the other, lit, 'chamber within chamber', the Halls being arranged in 
concentric circles. Cf. Mass. Hek. iv ("the seven Halls, one within the other"). 



1-2 



4 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. I 

thee, that the merit of Aaron, the son of Amram, the lover of peace 
and pursuer of peace, who received the crown of priesthood from 
Thy Glory on the mount of Sinai, be valid for me in this hour, so 
that Qafsiel*, the prince, and the angels with him may not get power 
over me nor throw me down from the heavens ". 

(4) Forthwith the Holy One, blessed be He, sent to me Metatron, 
his Servant ('Ebed) the angel, the Prince of the Presence, and he, 
spreading his wings, with great joy came to meet me so as to save 
me from their hand. 

(5) And he took me by his hand in their sight, saying to me: 
"Enter in peace before the high and exalted King 3 and behold the 
picture of the Merkaba". 

(6) Then I entered the seventh 4 Hall, and he led me to the camp(s) 5 
of Shekina and placed me before 6 the Holy One, blessed be He 6 , to 
behold the Merkaba. 

(7) As soon as the princes of the Merkaba and the flaming Seraphim 
perceived me, they fixed their eyes upon me. Instantly trembling 
and shuddering seized me and I fell down 7 and was benumbed by 
the radiant image of their eyes and the splendid appearance of their 
faces; until the Holy One, blessed be He, rebuked them, saying: 
(8) "My servants, my Seraphim, my Kerubim and rny 'Ophanniml 
Cover ye your eyes before Ishmael, 8 my son, 8 my friend, my beloved 
one and my glory, that he tremble not nor shudder ! " (9) Forthwith 
Metatron the Prince of the Presence, came and restored my spirit 



2 DE: 'Qapiel' 3 so with DE. A om. 4 E: 'fourth' 5 DE: 'sight' 
'appearance' 6-6 DE: 'the Throne of Glory' 7 A ins. 'from standing' 

DE ins. 'from my standing place' 8-8 DE om. 

(3) that the merit of Aaron. . .be valid for me, 'be valid', lit. 'complete, 
complement my measure', so that Qafsiel. . .and the angels with him may not 
get power over me. Qafsiel is here evidently the guardian of the seventh Hall. 
The forms Qafsiel and Qaspiel interchange. Qaspiel is one of the guardians of the 
seventh Hall ace. to Hek. R. xx. Cf. ib. xv and xix. Zohar, ii. 248 b. The form 
Qafsiel is attested in Zohar, iii. 3 b and S. Rasiel, 4 b. For the guardians of the Halls, 
see ch. xviii. 3 . (4) sent to me Metatron etc. also ace. to Legend of the Ten Martyrs, 
BH. vi. 19 seqq. Metatron is sent to take care of R. Ishmael. Cf. Rev. of Moses 
Yalqut Re'ubeni, ii. 67 a b. 

(6) camp(s) of Shekina. Cf. note on ch. xviii. 4 and chh. xxxii. 4, xxxv. 3. 
(7) princes of the Merkaba. Cf. ch. xxii. 10. Seraphim. Cf. ch. xxvi. 

(8) The Seraphim, Kerubim and 'Ophannim. Cf. chh. xxvi, xxii and xxv. 
They are here indicated as angels of the seventh Hall by the Merkaba : Merkaba- 
angels. The highest class of the Merkaba-angels is possibly, ace. to the present 
representation, the Chayyoth ' beneath and above the Throne ' of vs. 12. Cover ye 
your eyes. Cf. ch. xxii B 5 seq. 

(9) Cf. Ap. Abrah. x (ed. BOX) : " Go, Jaoel, and by means of my ineffable Name 
raise me yonder man and strengthen him from his trembling". 



CHH. I, ll] INTRODUCTION 5 

and put me upon my feet. (10) After that (moment) there was not 
in me strength enough to say a song before the Throne of Glory of 
the glorious King, the mightiest of all kings, the most excellent of all 
princes, until after the hour had passed. 

(n) After one hour (had passed) the Holy One, blessed be He, 
opened to me the gates of Shekina, the gates of Peace, the gates of 
Wisdom, the gates of Strength, the gates of Power, the gates of Speech 
(Dibbur), the gates of Song, the gates of Qedushsha, the gates of Chant. 
(12) And he enlightened my eyes and my heart by words of psalm, 
song, praise, exaltation, thanksgiving, extolment, glorification, hymn 
and eulogy 9 . And as I opened my mouth, uttering a song before 
10 the Holy One, blessed be He 10 , the Holy Chayyoth beneath and 
above the Throne of Glory answered and said : "HOLY " and "BLESSED 
BE THE GLORY OF YHWH FROM HIS PLACE ! " (i.e. chanted the Qedushsha). 



CHAPTER II 

The highest classes of angels make inquiries about R. Ishmael > 
which are answered by Metatron 

R. Ishmael said: 

(i) In that hour the eagles 1 of the Merkaba, the flaming 'Ophannim 
and the Seraphim of consuming fire 2 asked 2a Metatron, saying to him: 



9 lit. 'power' i.e. proclamation of God's power. 10-10 DE: 'the Throne of 

Glory' 

Ch. ii. i E: 'children' 'servants' corr. 2 DE ins. 'came (and)' 2a-2a E om. 

(10) to say a song. R. 'Aqiba, when arriving in the seventh Hall, utters a song 
of praise ace. to P. R. Ishmael, ch. xviii (referred to above). (n) opened to me 
the gates etc. The gates are the gates of treasuries on high ' under the Throne 
of G]ory', cf. ch. viii. gates of Shekina is difficult. Jellinek in E suggests the 
emendation: 'gates of Understanding' (cf. ch. viii and the expression 'the 50 
gates of understanding'). (12) psalm, song ... eulogy (nD 1 ^). Cf. Zohar, iii. 
50 a, xniD^ (= chanting). the Holy Chayyoth. . .answered. The Holy 
Chayyoth utter the Qedushsha responses ; cf . ch. xx. 2. Vide Introduction, section 
17 a. 

Ch. ii. The present chapter setting forth the inquiries of the angels concerning 
the admittance of R. Ishmael to the high heavens is a travesty of the similar 
passages, chh. iv. 7, vi. 2, xlviii D 7. 

(i) the eagles of the Merkaba. One of the four Chayyoth is described as 
'Eagle' in accordance with Ezek. i. 10, x. 14. The plural 'eagles 1 can be accounted 
for on the assumption that the tradition here represented holds the view that there 
existed two (or several) classes of Chayyoth. This may perhaps be hinted at in the 
preceding chapter, vs. 12: 'the Chayyoth beneath and above the Throne'. "The 
higher and the lower Chayyoth": Zohar frequ. "Two eagles": Zohar, iii. 170 b. 



6 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CHH. II, III 

(2) "Youth ! Why sufferest thou one born of woman to enter and 
behold the Merkaba? 2a From which nation, from which tribe is this 
one? What is his character? " 

(3) Metatron answered and said to them : 

"From the nation of Israel whom the Holy One, blessed be He, 
chose for his people 3 from among seventy tongues (nations) 3 , from 
the tribe of Levi, 4 whom he set aside as a contribution 4 to his name 
and from the seed of Aaron whom the Holy One, blessed be He, did 
choose for his servant and put upon him the crown of priesthood on 
Sinai". 

(4) Forthwith they spake and said : 

"Indeed, this one is worthy to behold the Merkaba ". 5 And they 
said 5 : "Happy is the people that is in such a case!" (Ps. cxliv. 15). 



CHAPTER III 
Metatron has 70 names, but God calls him ' Youth ' 

R. Ishmael said: 

(1) 21 In that hour 1 I asked Metatron, the angel, the Prince of the 
Presence 2 : "What is thy name?" (2) He answered me: "I have 
seventy names, corresponding to the seventy tongues 3 of the world 

2a-2a E om. 3-3 so with D. A corr. 4-4 D: 'who offered heave offerings' 
5-5 DE : ' as it is written ' 

Ch. iii. BCL begin with this chapter. i-i B om. 2-2 C: 'When I had 

ascended to the Merkaba, I asked Metatron to write down for me all that 
has been written concerning the angel, the Prince of the Presence, and thus 
said I to him ' 3 BCL : ' nations ' 

Chh. iii-xvi. The ' Enoch-Metatron piece'. See Introduction, sections 5 and 8. 

Ch. iii, while stating that Metatron has seventy names 'corresponding to (the 
number of) nations of the world' gives the distinction to the name 'Youth' (Na'ar) 
as being that by which he is called by his 'King', the Holy One. Hereby it forms 
the introduction to the following chapter which is framed as an explanation of this 
name as applied to Metatron the explanation being ace. to that chapter, vs. 10, 
that Metatron, as identical with Enoch, the son of Jared (Gen. v. 18, 21-24) who was 
taken up to the heavens and made an angel-prince, is as ' a youngster and a youth 
among the other angels and princes (existent from the days of Creation) in days 
months and years '. 

(2) I have seventy names corresponding to the seventy tongues (BCL: 
nations) of the world. The statement ascribing seventy names to Metatron, occurs 
also ch. xlviii. D i, 9 et frequ. (cf. ch. xxix). The seventy names of Metatron are 
here connected with the seventy tongues (nations) of the world which represent 
the world in its entirety, i.e. their reason of existence is conceived of as founded 
on Metatron's functions as concerned with the nations of the world or with the 
affairs of the world as a whole. Hence the passage reflects the tradition of Metatron 
being the Prince of the World. Since the seventy nations are represented in heaven 



CH. Ill] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 7 

and all of them 4 are based upon 4 the name 5 Metatron, angel of the 
Presence 5 ; but 6 my King 6 calls me 'Youth' 



4-4 BCL: 'are similar to' 'are a reflection of 5-5 B: 'of my King and my 

Creator' C: 'my King, the Holy One, blessed be He' DE: 'the King of the 
Kings of kings' L: 'kings' (corr. for 'my king'?) 6-6 L: 'kings' (corr. for 

'my king') 

by the seventy (or seventy- two) ' princes of kingdoms ' (cf . on chh. xvii. 8 and xxx. 2) , 
the Prince of the World is depicted as the prince and ruler of these (see ch. xxx) 
and this function is also assigned to Metatron: chh. x. 3, xvi. 2, xlviii c 9 (cf. notes 
ad loco). In the last-mentioned passage, ch. xlviii c g, Metatron's rulership over 
the seventy princes is expressly connected with his character of bearer of seventy 
names and he is there also pictured as wielding executive and governing power over 
the world and the nations through the seventy princes as agencies. Cf. YR. L 57 b 
(quotation from 'Emeq ha-mMelek) : " Metatron is the Prince of the World, for he 
distributes maintenance to the princes of the nations of the world ". In the rest of the 
present book Metatron's rulership is mainly presented in its celestial aspect; he 
is the prince, ruler and judge of the children of heaven, only implicitly brought 
into connection with the things terrestrial. Nowhere in this book is he definitely 
stated to be ' the Prince of the World '. This term is not used by the present Enoch- 
Metatron section and in the latter part of the book the 'Prince of the World' 
appears as different from Metatron (see chh. xxx. 2 and xxxviii. 3 and notes). 

all of them are based upon the name of my King, the Holy One (ace. to 
the readings of BCDE[L] and the reading implied by the opening words of ch. iv : 
'Why art thou called by the name of thy Creator, by seventy names?'). This is 
another aspect of the origin and import of Metatron's seventy names : they are a 
reflection of the seventy names of the Most High (cf. the reading of BCL). The 
same is stated in chh. xlviii C 9, xlviii 01,5, appearing also in the form of the dictum 
'called by the name of His Master, for "my name is in him" (Ex. xxiii. 21)' and 
in the ascribing to Metatron of the name 'the lesser YHWH': chh. xii. 5, xlviii D i. 
There are two lines of ideas to be distinguished here: (i) Metatron's names are 
conceived of as 'based upon' the Divine Name KO.T' l^ox^v, the Tetragrammaton, 
which simply means that the different names contain the YHWH or YaH as 
component part. This is not a trait exclusive to the Metatron-conception, but 
applied to various other high princes and angels, cf. ch. x. 3 and esp. ch. xxix. i. 
(2) Ace. to the other line of thought the seventy names of Metatron are actually 
one by one the counterparts, images, reflections of the seventy names of the Godhead 
(cf . ch. xlviii 05:' seventy names of His by which they call the King of Kings of 
kings in the high heavens'). This is an exclusive feature of the Metatron-picture, 
as is also the name 'the Lesser YHWH'. 

based upon the name Metatron. This strange expression which is attested only 
in A occurs also Hek. Zot. Bodl. MICH. 9, fol. 69 b, where it signifies that the divers 
names are to be understood as referring to the angel-prince known as 'Metatron' 
(the names given there are such as nos. 6, 46, 84 of ch. xlviii D i and ' Pisqon, 
Sigron, Zebodiel etc.'). The expression might, however, also refer to variants of 
the name 'Metatron', e.g. Mitatron, Mittron, Mitton, Mitmon, 'Atmon, 'Otron, etc.; 
cf. ch. xlviii D i and Yalqut Re'ubeni, 56 b. The reading of BCDE is presumably 
correct here. Cf. above. 

my King calls me Youth (Na'ar). The name Na'ar'is regularly ascribed to 
Metatron; cf. on ch. xlviii D i. It is also applied to the Prince of the World, 
TB. Yeb. 16 b. The derivations and explanations of the name differ. The present 
section (cf. iv. i, 10), as has already been pointed out, explains it from Metatron's 
identity with Enoch. In TB. Yeb. ib. the name 'Na'ar, Youth' is deduced from Ps. 
xxxvii. 25 : "I have been a youth and now am old", which is made to refer to the 
Prince of the World (who was young in the days of Creation). The Tosaphoth on 



8 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. IV 

CHAPTER IV 

Metatron is identical with Enoch who was translated to 
heaven at the time of the Deluge 

R. Ishmael said : 

(1) I asked Metatron and said to him: ul Why art thou called 1 by 
the name of thy Creator, by seventy names? Thou art greater than 
all the princes, higher than all the angels, beloved more than all the 
servants, honoured above all the mighty ones in kingship, greatness 
and glory : why do they call thee ' Youth ' in the high heavens ? " 

(2) He answered and said to me: " 2 Because I am 2 Enoch, the son 
of Jared. (3) For when the generation of the flood sinned and were 

i-i so CD. A : ' callest thou ' (corr.) B : ' is thy name (like the name of thy Creator) ' 
2-2 so BCDEL. A: 'for the reason that he (the Na'ar) is also (Enoch etc.)' 

this passage state that Enoch-Metatron and the Prince of the World are both called 
Na'ar, yet they must not, ace. to the Tosaphists, be identified: Ps. xxxvii. 25 refers 
to the Prince of the World only, not to Enoch-Metatron. This of course implies 
that the verse in question was ace. to one tradition referred to Metatron (in fact 
Metatron is, apparently with reference to Ps. xxxvii. 25, described both as ' Na'ar, 
Youth' and ' Zaqen, Old, Eldest'; cf. Yalqut Re'ubeni, i. 60 a). See further the 
Introduction. 

In Zohar, i. fol. 223 b et al. the appellation Na'ar as given to Enoch-Metatron 
is derived from Prov. xxii. 6, ' Chdnok la-nNa'ar', which is interpreted: 'Enoch 
was made (the) Na'ar'. The present verse is quoted in Zohar, i. 37 b, from 'Book 
of Enoch '. 

Ch. iv. This chapter is framed as an explanation of the name 'Na'ar, Youth' 
as applied to Metatron. It relates how Metatron is Enoch of Gen. v who was 
removed to heaven and there made into an angel-prince. The reason of his transla- 
tion was the sinfulness of the generation of the Flood to which he was to bear 
witness to future generations and in the world to come. His testimony was to 
justify the destruction of all living beings in that generation through the Flood. 
The high angels 'Azza, ' Uzsa and ' Azzael enter protest against Enoch's translation, 
but God rebukes them and elevates Enoch into a ruler and prince over them. 

(1) Why art thou called by the name of thy Creator etc. This part of the 
question is not answered in the chapter. It is to be considered merely as a repetition 
of the statement of the aforegoing chapter. The real question is : Why do they call 
thee ' Youth ' in the high heavens ? 

(2) Because I am Enoch the son of Jared. The identity of Enoch and Meta- 
tron is proclaimed in Targ. Yer. in the well-known passage to Gen. v. 24. There 
the ground for identification seems to have been the function of Scribe assigned 
both to Enoch and Metatron. For Enoch as Scribe cf. e.g. Jub. iv. 23, 2 En. liii. 2 ; 
for Metatron, TB. Chag. 153. This function of Enoch-Metatron is not emphasized 
in the present book, although the office of ' witness ' of the sins of the generation 
in its original conception is probably connected with that of ' scribe ' ; see the next 
verse. 

(3) when the generation of the flood sinned and were confounded in their 
deeds, saying unto God: Depart from us ... (Job xxi. 14). The sins of the genera- 
tion of the Deluge are not defined as to their nature, except as a rebellion. Ace. 



CH. IV] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 9 

confounded in their deeds, saying unto God: 'Depart from us, for 
we desire not the knowledge of thy ways (Job xxi. 14) ', then the Holy 
One, blessed be He, removed me from their midst to be a witness 
against them in the high heavens to all the inhabitants of the world, 
that 3 they may not say: 'The Merciful One is cruel 3 '. 

(4) ADEL: BC: 

What sinned all those multitudes, What sins had they com- 
their wives, their sons and their mitted, all those multitudes? 
daughters, their horses, their mules Or, let it be they sinned, what 
and their cattle and their property, had their sons and their 
and all the birds of the world, all of daughters, their mules and 
which the Holy One, blessed be He, their cattle sinned? And like- 
destroyed from the world together wise, all the animals, domestic 
with them in the waters of the flood? and wild, and the birds in the 



3-3 so BCDEL. A: 'the Merciful One is not cruel' 

to chh. v, vi the sin of the generation that caused the removal of the Shekina and with 
the Shekina, of Enoch, was idolatry; cf. on ch. v. 6. The expression ' Depart from us 
etc. (Job xxi. 14)' is used already injtib.xi. 6 in connection with the idolatry of the early 
times (the name ' Seroh = Sum : depart* or sani). Cf. Gen. R. xxxi. 6: the ' chamas 
(violence) ' of which the earth was filled in the time of the Flood ace. to Gen. vi. 13, 
comprised the three cardinal sins, adultery, idolatry and bloodshed. to be a 
witness against them. The idea of Enoch's removal to heaven in order to be a 
witness against the sins of mankind is attested in Jub.iv. 21 seqq. His function of 
witness is there made the essential part of his office as Scribe: "(22) And he 
(Enoch) testified to the Watchers who had sinned with the daughters of men. . . . 
And Enoch testified against them all. (23) And he was taken from amongst the 
children of men, . . . into the Garden of Eden . . . and behold there he writes down 
the condemnation and the judgement of the world, and all the wickedness of the 
children of men. (24) And on account of it God brought the waters of the flood 
upon all the land". (Enoch's testimony brings about the decree of destruction, 
contrast the present chapter.) The same idea of Enoch as witness in heaven against 
man's sin persists in later traditions ; cf . YR, i. 57 a (perhaps dependent upon the 
present fragment): "'When the generation of the flood sinned God took him 
(Enoch) to be a witness against them': (so that if anyone might say:) if man 
sinned that was because he was created from the four elements or because his 
generation were wicked men, God would answer: Behold, Enoch was also in a 
generation of wicked men, and he also was created of the four elements (scil. yet 
he did not sin)". 

that they may not say: 'The Merciful One is cruel. (4) What sinned all 
those multitudes etc.' Enoch-Metatron is to bear witness to the justice of God's 
decree of destroying not only mankind, but all living beings, including the cattle 
and the wild beasts, in the waters of the Flood. How Enoch's testimony was to 
refute the charge of cruelty that might otherwise be raised against God is not 
further explained. No answer is given to the question: 'What did the cattle, 
beasts and birds sin?' The answer is probably to be understood thus: even the 
animals were implicated in the wickedness of the generation. The question is noted 
in Rabbinic. Cf. Gen. R. xxviii. 8, where it is stated that in the generation of 
the Flood even the animals sinned: "as it is written (Gen. vi. 12): 'all flesh had 
corrupted its way upon the earth'. 'All men' is not written here, but 'all flesh' 



10 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. IV 

ADL: E: EC: 

Nor may say : What though what had they world 4 that God 
the generation of the flood sinned that they did destroy from 
did sin; the beasts and the should perish the world?' 
birds, what had they sinned, with them ? ' 
that they should perish with 
them?' 

(5) Hence the Holy One, blessed be He, lifted me up 5 in their life- 
time 5 before their eyes to be a witness against them to the future 
world. And the Holy One, blessed be He, 6 assigned me for 6 a prince 
and a ruler among the ministering angels. 

(6) In that hour 7 8 three of the ministering angels, 'UZZA, 'AZZA 
and 'AZZAEL 8 came forth and brought charges against me in the high 



4 C ins. 'what did they sin, and those that were taken away with them' 
5-5 BC om. L: 'in their lifetime from the world' 6-6 (B) CL: 'made me 

into'. Above ace. to DE, lit. 'joined me to the ministering angels as a prince and 
a ruler'. A corr. (Ziggewdni: me signavit?) 7 BCL ins. 'when the Holy One, 

blessed be He, took me up to the high heavens' 8-8 D: 'three angels, 'Azza, 
'Uzza and 'Azzael' B: 'three angels: Mal'aki, 'Azza and 'Azzael' CE: 'three 
of the angels (of) 'Azza and 'Azzael ' L: ' three angels, Mamlaketi, 'Azza and 
'Azzael' YR. i. 35 a: 'three angels from among the angels of 'Azza and 'Azzael.' 

(i.e. including the animals). Yea, even the earth fell to whoredom". Similarly TB. 
Sank. 1 08 a (attr. to R. Yochanan): "'all flesh had corrupted its way upon the 
earth'; this means to say, that the cattle defiled themselves with the beasts and 
the beasts with the cattle and all of them with men and men with all of them". 
Parallel is Pirqe de R. 'Eli'ezer, ch. xiv : " (with reference to the curse put upon the 
earth on account of Adam's sin) If Adam sinned, what was the sin of the earth? 
Only this, that the earth did not denounce the evil doings of man". In other 
connections we find the very question repudiated as an undue criticism of God's 
ways ; so with reference to the narrative of i Sam. xv. 3 and Deut. xxi. 4 in TB. Yoma, 
22 b and EccL R. vii. 33 : "(in the former case) If the men had sinned, what were 
the sins of the women, what the sins of the infants, the cattle, oxen and asses? (and 
in the latter case) If man sinned, what was the sin of the cattle?" No answer is 
given but a quotation by Bath Qol of Eccl. vii. 16, "Be not righteous over much", 
explained thus : " Do not think that thou canst judge about what is just and unjust 
better than thy Creator!" Cf. also TB. Shabb. 54 b, 55 a. 

(6) three of the ministering angels, 'Uzza, 'Azza and 'Azzael. The three 
angels, 'Azza, ' Uzza and 'Azzael are in the present chapter represented as belonging 
to the order of ministering angels, inhabitants of the high heavens, whereas ace. 
to ch. v they are evil agencies, inspirers of idolatry. They are usually mentioned as 
two only ('Azza and 'Azzael, 'Uzza and 'Azziel, etc.), not as three. (The readings 
of CE and YR, in fact, have 'Azza and 'Azzael only.) Cf. however 2 En. xviii. 4 
and note on v. 9 (important parallel). 

The names are in all probability of an early origin: they can be traced to i En., 
to gnostic works (see Introduction) and in Talmud. The meaning of the words is 
pellucid: Strength, Might-God, Divine Power. Most of the preserved traditions 
represent them as fallen angels. They are attached to the speculations centring 
round the mystical piece Gen. vi. 1-4. In i En. vi. 7 'Asael' is one of the leaders 
of the angels who fell and led mankind astray into fornication and idolatry. The 



CH. IV] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE II 

heavens, saying before the Holy One, blessed be He : " 9 Said not the 
Ancient Ones (First Ones) rightly before Thee: 10< Do not create 
man! ' 10 " 11 The Holy One, blessed be He, answered and said unto 



9 BCDEL ins. 'Lord of the Universe!' 10-10 C: 'Let not man be created!' 
ii C ins. 'for he will sin' A ins. 'again' 



conception of 'Azza and 'Azzael as fallen angels evidently underlies the dictum, 
attributed to the school of R. Ishmael, recorded in TB. Yoma, 67 a, ace. to which 
'Azazel of Lev. xvi. is to be considered as a composition of 'Azza and 'Azzael, 
'for Azazel atoned for the sins of these'. Rashi, ad locum, connects ''Azza and 
'Azzael with 'the sons of God' in Gen. vi. 2 (cf. i En, vi and Charles' note on 
i En. vi. 6). 

In Zohar the same view is repeatedly set forth. See vol. i. 19 b, 23 a, 25 a b, 
37 a with Tosefta, 55 a, 58 a, 126 a, vol. iii. 194 a, 208 a and 'Idra Rabba. 'Azza 
and 'Azzael (in this form they are always referred to in Zohar) are the angels who 
had been thrown down from heaven 'from their state of holiness ', and after that 
went astray with the daughters of men (Nd'amah, Gen.-iy. 22) and also taught 
mankind sorceries (cf. ch. v. 9) being now definitely unable to leave the lower 
regions (ctr. the present verse). A slightly modified version of the idea is found 
in 'Idra Rabba: '"Azza and 'Azzael are the 'giants' (Gen. vi. 6), not the sons of 
God (ib. 2)" this is perhaps a reminiscence of the distinction emphasized in the 
Book of Jubilees between the sons of Elohim and the demons, the sons of the sons 
of the Elohim "for the sons of God were not on earth but Azza and Azzael were 
on earth". The same is quoted from Midrash Ruth by Siuni, in YR, i. 61 b. 

BH. iv. 127-8, instead of ' 'Azza and 'Azzael', has ' Shamchazai and 'Azzael'. 
Shamchazai is of course identical with the Semiazaz or Semjaza of i En. vi. 7, 
viii. 3 (cf. Charles, ad loco). 

In the present chapter 'Azza, 'Uzza and 'Azzael are represented as high angels, 
accusing man before God on account of his sin : ' Said not the first ones rightly 
before Thee, Create thou not man?' One of the traditional statements about 
'Azza and 'Azzael in the adduced references, in fact, reveals the view that the fall 
of these angels was caused by their accusing man before God. Thus e.g. in a citation 
in Yalqut Re'ubeni, i. 61 a, with reference to Gen. vi. 2: "the 'sons of God' are 
'Azza and ' Azza 'el who laid accusations (against man) before their Master and he 
threw them down from the holy place on high . . . and they defiled themselves with 
the daughters of men", and ib. (from Kanfe Yona), also with reference to Gen. 
vi. 2: '"Azza and 'Azzael are the angels that laid accusations against man and said: 
'Why didst Thou create him? For he is going to sin and to provoke Thee'. The 
Holy One, blessed be He, said to them : ' Behold ! If ye go down to the lower world, 
ye will sin as he', and He cast them down. And they are the 'sons of God' who 
took themselves wives from among the daughters of men . . . and after they had 
fallen into sin. . .they were no longer angels" and when they desired to return to 
their former place, they were unable to do so. Essentially the same is found in 
Zohar, i. 23 a, 37 a Tosefta. In Zohar they are even identified with ' the first ones ' 
who opposed man's creation in the beginning. 

This tradition harmonizes the two views represented in chh. iv and v respectively : 
the one regarding these angels as belonging to the celestial household, the other 
as evil agencies, demons inspiring idolatry. In their present setting the two views 
cannot, however, be harmonized: ace. to ch. v 'Azza, 'Uzza and 'Azzael are evil 
agencies (that is, ace. to the harmonizing view, fallen angels) before -Enoch's transla- 
tion to the heavens, ace. to ch. iv, on the other hand, they are still high angels in 
the presence of the Holy One, at the time when Enoch is taken up to heaven. 
Furthermore, the writer of ch. iv evidently does not think of the angels in question 
as fallen angels at all, to judge from the following expression : " he (Enoch-Metatron) 



12 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. IV 

them: "I have made and I will bear, yea, I will carry and will 
deliver". (Is. xlvi. 4.) 

(7) As soon as they saw me, they said before Him: "Lord of the 
Universe ! What is this one that he should ascend to the height of 
heights? Is not he one from among the sons of [the sons of] those 
who perished in the days 12 of the Flood? 13 "What doeth he in the 
Raqia'?" 13 

(8) Again, the Holy One, blessed be He, answered and said to 
them: "What are ye, that ye enter and speak in my presence? I de- 
light in this one more than in all of you, and hence he shall be a 



12 so AL. BCD: 'waters' 13-13 DLE om. 

shall be a prince and a ruler over you in the high heavens", and from the representa- 
tion in vs. 9: the angels yield and pay Enoch-Metatron due homage. 

There are instances of traditions according with the view of the present chapter, 
representing 'Azza, 'Uzza or 'Azzael ('Azziel) as high angels and princes, with 
permanent membership in the Celestial Court. They are then often connected with 
the proceedings of Judgement. Thus ace. to Sib. Or. ii. 217, 'Azziel is one of five 
angels who lead the souls of men to judgement. Ace. to S. ha-Chesheq (Add. 27120), 
fol. 12 b, 'Azzael is one of the "10 heads of the Great Sanhedrin in heaven". 
Ace. to a quotation from "a commentary on Ma'areketh ha-'Elohuth" in Yalqut 
Re'ubeni, i. 55 a, 'Azza is the head of the angels of Justice, 'Uzziel the head of the 
angels of Mercy (cf. ch. xxxiii), but both under the authority of Metatron. S. Raziel, 
40 a represents 'Azzael as one of the seven angels near God's Throne, cf. ib. 40 b, 
and Hek. R. BH. iii. 96, 99, introduces 'Uzziel as one of the guardians of the fifth 
Hall. Cf. S. Raziel, 27 b. 

Said not the First Ones rightly before Thee: Do not create man! For the 
angels as opposing man's creation cf. e.g. Gen. R. viii. 5. Striking is here the 
parallel TB. Sanhedrin, 38 a: when God was about to create man, he first created 
a company of angels whom he asked whether they consented to man's creation or 
not. Upon being told of man's future deeds, they said " Let not man be created " - 
and were consequently consumed by the Divine Fire. The same happened with 
another company that God called into being immediately after. But the third 
acquiesced and remained in life. However, as soon as they "came to the men of 
the generation of the flood and of the generation of the dispersion whose deeds were 
confounded (cf. vs. 3) they said before him: 'Master of the World! Said not the 
first ones rightly before Thee: Create thou not man?' whereupon God answered 
with the first part of the scriptural verse laid in God's mouth also here: Is. xlvi. 4". 
The same narrative is echoed in Ma'yan Chokma, BH. i. 60 seq. in God's rebuke 
of Hadarniel. In the quoted Talmud-passage the expression ' first ones ' naturally 
refers to the first created company of angels, here it simply means the angels present 
at man's Creation and opposing it. For the expression ' first ones ' used of certain 
angels cf. also TB. Ber. 5 a (of Mikael). 

(7) Is not he one from among the sons of those who perished in the days 
of the Flood? This seems to imply, not only that Enoch was counted as one of 
the men of the generation of the Flood, but even as living after the Flood or in 
the days of the Flood, a view which of course entirely disagrees with the chrono- 
logical system of Gen. v, vii. n, ace. to which Enoch disappeared from earth more 
than 600 years (669) before the Flood. 

(8) What are ye etc. God's answer in the same expressions as those of the 
angels, that ye enter and speak. Even the highest angels are not allowed to 
enter before God's presence, with some distinguished exceptions (cf. the conception 



CHH.IV,V] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 13 

prince and a ruler over you in the high heavens." (9) Forthwith all 
stood up and went out to meet me, prostrated themselves before me 
and said: "Happy art thou and happy is thy father 14 for thy Creator 
doth favour thee". 

(10) And because I am small and a youth among them 15 in days, 
months and years 15 , therefore they call me "Youth" (Na'ar). 



CHAPTER V 

The idolatry of the generation of Enosh causes God to remove 
the Shekinafrom earth. The idolatry inspired by 'Azza, 

' Uzza and 'Azziel 

\R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, said to me: 
(i) x From the day 1 when the Holy One, blessed be He, expelled 



14 C ins. 'and thy mother' 15-15 BCL: 'in years' 

Ch. v. i-i BCL, YR. i. 59 a: 'on the day' 

of the Curtain of MAQOM: on ch. xlv. i , x. i). he shall be a prince and a ruler 
over you in the high heavens for I delight in this one more than in all of you. 
This probably is meant to refer not only to 'Azza, ' Uzza and ' Azzael, but to the 
ministering angels with them or else their suite of angels. Notice how CE in vs. 6 
represents 'Azza and 'Azzael not as individual angels but as an order of angels, 
just as in the old tradition of i En. vi seqq. Asael was only one of the leaders of 
a multitude of angels. Metatron a ruler over 'Azza and 'Azzael: cf. quotation 
Yalqut Re'ubeni, i. 55 a, referred to above, a ruler over the princes and angels in 
general: cf. ch. x. 3, 4. 

(9) Happy art thou and happy is thy father. This beatitude echoes the 
conception of "the Zakut of a Pious Posterity" (Schechter's expression, Aspects, 
pp. 195 seqq.). The merits of the sons retroact upon and determine the fate of the 
fathers. 

(10) because I am small and a youth among them. This is the answer to 
the opening question of the present chapter. Cf. note ib. The angels are existent 
from the days of Creation. Cf. above. 

Ch. v. This chapter treats of the removal of Shekina from earth on account of 
the idolatry of Enosh and his generation. It contains no definite reference to the 
subject proper of the present section: Enoch(-Metatron) and his translation to 
heaven. Furthermore, it represents a different tradition from that of ch. iv as to 
the nature of the angels 'Azza, ' Uzza and 'Azzael. The connection with the context 
is, however, established by ch. vi. i, 3, which associate the translation of Enoch 
to-boavon with^the removal of^bheKJmT from earth. The chapter may therefore 
in its present position be considered as an introduction to ch. vi, offering a pre- 
paratory explanation of the reason and circumstances of the removal of Shekina, 
there alluded to. As regards the relationship between ch. iv on one hand and 
chh. v and vi on the other, it might be safe to assume that they represent respectively 
two different lines of tradition as to the translation of Enoch : one (ch. iv) connecting 
it with the sins of the generation of the flood of which he was to bear testimony to 
coming generations, the other (chh. v, vi) holding the view that Enoch as the 



1 4 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. V 

the first Adam from the Garden of Eden (and onwards), Shekina was 
dwelling upon a Kerub under the Tree of Life. 

(2) And the ministering angels 2 were gathering together 2 and 
going down from heaven in parties, 3 from the Raqtd in -companies 
and from the heavens in camps 3 4 to do His will in 4 the whole 
world. 

(3) And the first man and 5 his generation 5 were sitting outside the 
gate of the Garden to behold the radiant appearance of the Shekina. 

2-2 B: 'were entering' CL: 'were assembling' DE: 'were leaping' 3-3 BCL: 
'and in companies and camps from Raqia" E om. 4-4 DE: 'to roam, to fly 

over' 5-5 EL: 'and Eve' 

only righteous man of his generation was taken up on the occasion of Shekina' s 
return to the heavens. The object of Enoch's translation, ace. to the latter view, was 
apparently not his function of witness, but is expressed by the last words of ch. vi : 
' I have taken him as a tribute from my world ' or ' as my only reward for all my 
labour with the first generations of the world'. 

(1) From the day ... Shekina was dwelling etc. This represents the fre- ; 
quently attested idea that the original abode of the Shekina was among the ' terres- 
trials, ha-tTachtonim' (Cant. R. vi, Num. R. xii. 5; cf. Abelson, Immanence of God 
in Rabbinical Literature, pp. 117-139). The specific view of the present passage is, 
that Shekina remained on earth after the first Adam's fall until the rise of idolatry 
in the generation of Enosh. Ace. to Cant. R. vi (see Abelson, op. cit. p. 136) Shekina 
was removed from earth already with Adam's sin : to the first heaven, and then in 
six subsequent stages corresponding to the six following epochs of men's degrada- 
tion from heaven to heaven (the epochs are ace. to that passage : the sins of Cain, 
of the generation of Enoch, of the generation of the Flood, of the Dispersion, of 
the Sodomites and of the Egyptians in the days of Abraham). Ace. to Num. R. 
xii. 5 (in a dictum attributed to R. Simeon ben Yochai) the Shekina was dwelling 
on earth in the beginning, was removed with the sin of Adam, and returned with 
the erection of the Tabernacle. Ib. (ace. to Rab) the Shekina is also said never to 
have taken up its abode on earth until the erection of the Tabernacle. Cf. on vs. 13. 
The Shekina here stands for the manifestation of God, to all intents and purposes 
identical with the manifestation on ' the Throne of Glory ' : when on earth Shekina 
is no longer in heaven, see vs. n. 

upon a Kerub. Cf. chh. xxii. 12, 16, xxiv. i, 17. upon a Kerub under the 
Tree of Life. Cf. Apoc. Mosis, xxii. 3,4: "When God appeared in Paradise 
mounted on the chariot of His Cherubim with the angels proceeding before 
him.. . .And the Throne of God was fixed where the Tree of Life was". Here 
the Kerub takes the place of the Throne of Glory which is left in the highest of 
the heavens, ace. to vs. n. 

(2) And the ministering angels were. . .going down from heaven in companies 
etc. Cf. Apoc. Mosis, xvii. i, xxii. 3 seq. Alph. R. 'Aqiba, letter 'Aleph: "when the 
first Adam beheld the Sabbath, he opened his mouth in praise of the Holy One : 
then the ministering angels went down from heaven in companies. . ."; ib.: (in 
the world to come) "the angels will come down in companies from heaven to the 
Garden of Eden". And ib. EH. iii. 60: "(when God had created Eve and brought 
her to Adam) all the heavenly household went down. . .to the Garden of Eden". 
Cf. Yer. Chag. 77 a, 4 Ez. vi. 3. 

(3) the first man and his generation were sitting outside the gate of the Garden 
to behold the radiant appearance of the Shekina. Although expelled from the 
Garden of Eden Adam and his generation still partake of the splendour of Shekina. 
Cf. TB. Ber. 173:" (in the world to come) the righteous will be sitting with crowns 



CH.V] J ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 15 

\X(4) For the silendour of the Shekina traversed the world from one 
end to the otiier 6 (with a splendour) 365,000 times (that) of the globe 
of the sun 6 . And everyone who 7 made use of 7 the splendour of the 
Shekina, on him no flies and no gnats did rest, neither was he ill 
nor suffered he any pain. No demons got power over him, neither 
were they able to injure him. 

(5) When the Holy One, blessed be He, went out and went in: 
8 from the Garden to Eden, from Eden to the Garden, from the 
Garden to Raqia 1 and from Raqia 1 to the Garden of Eden 8 then 
all and everyone beheld the splendour 9 of His Shekina and they 



6-6 DE: 'in one moment, 365,000 and to the globe of the sun' A reads '65,000' 
instead of '365,000' (BCDEL). 7-7 DE: 'beheld' 8-8 BCDEL: 'from 
Eden to the Garden, from the Garden to Raqia' and from Raqia' to the Garden of 
Eden ' 9 so BCDL. A : ' splendour of the image ' 

on their heads and enjoy the splendour of the Shekina ". The idea of the radiance 
of Shekina is closely related to that of the heavenly light, of which the light created 
on the first day was an emanation and which is reserved for the righteous in the 
world to come. Cf. next vs. 

(4) The splendour of the Shekina traversed the world from one end to the 
other . . . And everyone who made use of the splendour of the Shekina . . . 
No demons got power over him. For a discussion of the conception of the 
'splendour (ziw) of the Shekina' see Abelson, op. cit. pp. 85-89. The splendour 
of the Shekina is here apparently conceived of as a light-substance protecting from 
illnesses, from the power of demons and from everything evil and unclea'nj For 
the idea of the splendour of Shekina as protecting from demons cf. Num. R. 
xii. 3. It is also conceived of as a sustaining substance, a spiritual food, both 
for the angels and the saints. TB. Ber. 17 a (see Abelson, op. cit. p. 87; Kohler, 
Jewish Theology, p. 198). Yalqut on Ps. viii (TB. Shabbat, 88 a): "when God 
spread the splendour of Shekina over Moses the angels could not burn him". 
Yalqut on Ps. xlv: "the righteous will feed on the splendour of Shekina and. . . 
they will receive no injury". 'The splendour of Shekina' is further used as an 
attribute of honour and glorification for the highest angels; cf. ch. xxii. 7, 13. Cf. 
4 Ez. vii. 42, 122, Rev. xxi. 23 (notes in BOX, Ezra-Apocalypse, pp. 85, 127, 161). 

IjThe conception of the splendour of the Shekina is sometimes seen under the aspect 
of the ' first light of Creation ' or as ' the uncreated light of the Divine Presence ' of 
which the first light is an emanation: this light is referred to in similar terms as 
those used of ' the splendour of the Shekina ^ Cf . in the present connection Gen. R. 
xi. 2, xii. 5: "in the light which God created on the first day (so Gen. R. xi. 2; 
ib. xii. 5 : the light by which the world was created) the first Adam saw from one 
end of the world to the other. . . but as soon as the Holy One, blessed be He, beheld 
the deeds of the generation of Enosh, of the Deluge and of the Dispersion he took 
it away and treasured it. . . for the righteous in the world to come ". Sim. TB. Chag. 
12 a. 

(5) went out and went in: from the Garden to Eden. The Garden of Eden is 
the greater whole of which Eden is a part: Gen. R. xv, the Garden and Eden are 
two distinct things: TB. Ber. 34 b. For the expression 'went out and went in etc.' 
cf. the account of Shekina 's ten different journeys in the Temple in Lam. R. 
Proem. 25. The idea is probably deduced from Gen. iii. 8 ("and they heard the 
voice of the Lord God walking in the Garden"): the passage is interpreted in this 
sense in Num. R. xiii. 4 (although there God's Shekina is said to have had its per- 
manent abode in heaven, from where it went down and went up again). 



1 6 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. V 

10 were not injured 10 ; (6) until u the time of 11 the generation of Enosh 
12 who was the head of all idol worshippers of the world 12 . (7) And 
13 what did the generation of Enosh do? 13 They went from one end 
of the world to the other, and each one brought silver, gold, precious 
stones and pearls in 14 heaps like unto mountains and hills 14 making 
idols out of them throughout all the world. And they erected the 
idols in every quarter of the world: the size of each idol was 1000 
parasangs. (8) And they brought down the sun, the moon, planets 
and constellations, and placed them before the idols on their right 
hand and on their left, to attend them even as they attend 15 the Holy 
One, blessed be He, as it is written (i Kings xxii. 19): "And all the 
host of heaven was standing by him on his right hand and on his 
left". 

(9) What power was in them that they were able to bring them 
down? They would not have been able to bring them down but for 
16 'uzzA, 'AZZA and 'AZZIEL IS who taught them "sorceries whereby 
they brought them down and made use of them 17 . 



10-10 L: 'did not consume away' n-n lit. 'came' 12-12 E om. 

13-13 E om. 14-14 lit. 'in mountains and hills' 15 with BCDEL, 

reading pi"el. A has hithpa"el: 'make use of 16-16 CL: ' 'Azza and ' Azza'el' 
D: ' 'Azza and 'Azzi'el' E: "Uzza and 'Azza'el' cf. ch. iv. 7. J7~i7 C om. 
L : ' the art of sorceries ' 

(6) until the time of the generation of Enosh who was the head of all 
idol worshippers of the world. The generation of Enosh is here specifically 
connected with idolatry. In Rabbinic the cardinal sins of idolatry, adultery and 
bloodshed (and the calling of God's name in vain and sorceries) are often pro- 
miscuously referred to the generations of Enosh, of the Deluge and of the Dis- 
persion. But cf. Lam. R. Proem. 24 : " the generation of Enosh who were the heads 
of idol-worshippers ". 

(7) And they erected the idols in every quarter of the world: the size of 
each idol was IOOO parasangs. This-as well as the following vs. seems to pre- 
suppose the view of the men of this generation as being of immeasurably higher 
stature than those of later generations, an idea occasionally met with in Rabbinic. 

(8) And they brought down the sun, the moon, planets and constellations. 
There is perhaps here a covert trace of an original representation of the generation 
of Enosh as worshippers of the sun and the planets. In the present form the 
heavenly bodies are made the attendants of the idols : they placed them before 
the idols to attend them like as they attend the Holy One, blessed be He. The 
idea is to illustrate how man put the idols in all respects in the same place as that 
which rightly belonged to God alone. Yalqut to Gen. iv. 26 quotes an account of the 
deeds of the generation of Enosh of a similar character as vss. 7 and 8 here (idols 
of copper, brass, iron, wood, stone). 

(9) What power was in them . . . 'Uzza, 'Azza and 'Azziel who taught them 
sorceries, whereby they brought them down. The quotation Siuni, Yalqut Re'u- 
beni, i. 53 a, has ' Shemchazai and Azzael' (so also BH. iv. 127-128, Yalq. Shim. 
Gen. xliv; cf. on the following vs.). On 'Azza, ' Uzza and 'Azzael see on ch. iv. 6. 
Here they are represented as evil agencies, teaching men sorceries and thereby 
supporting or rather inspiring the idolatry. The tradition here set forth is of course 



CH. V] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 17 

(10) In that time the ministering angels brought charges (against 
them) before the Holy One, blessed be He, saying before him: 
"Master of the World! What hast thou to do with the children of 
men? As it is written (Ps. viii. 4) 'What is man (Enosh) that thou 
art mindful of him?' 'Mah Adam' is not written here, but 'Mah 
Enosh', for he (Enosh) is the head of the idol worshippers, (n) Why 
hast thou left 



a direct descendant of that which has found expression in the pseudepigraphal 
writings, esp. i En. vi, vii, viii: Semiazaz and Asael among other leaders of the 
fallen angels who corrupted mankind, vii. i: "they began to. . .defile themselves 
with them, and they taught them charms and enchantments", viii. i: "Azazel 
taught men. . .and made known to them the metals (cf. 'gold, silver etc.' here). . . 
and all kinds of costly stones (cf. here).. . . (3) Semjaza taught enchantments. . . 
Baraqijal astrology. Kokabel the constellations, . . . Shamsiel the signs of the sun, 
Sariel the course of the moon ", vide Charles, ad loca. Addjfub. iv. 22, v. i , xi. 4 seqq. : 
"they made for themselves molten images, and they worshipped each their idol. . . 
and malignant spirits assisted and seduced them into committing transgression and 
uncleanness". 2 En. vii, xviii. 2 En. xviii. 4 is of special interest in the present 
connection, since it shows that already at an early time a tradition obtained that 
had fixed the number of these angels as three as against the tradition of the 
passages quoted in i En. representing them as a large number: "and of them 
(Grigori = Watchers) there went three to the earth from the Throne of God to 
the place Ermon. And they entered into dealings etc." Later the number is further 
reduced to two, so always in Zohar; cf. on vs. 6 of ch, iv. Cf. Midrash Petirath 
Moshe, BH. i. 129: "the angels 'Azsa and 'Azza'el went down from the heavens 
and became corrupt in their ways". 

(10) At that time the ministering angels brought charges against man 
before God etc. ' What is man etc.' This verse, Ps. viii. 4, is traditionally made to 
express the animosity of the angels against man, and rather suitably. See Tanchuma, 
Par. Bechnqqothai (Lev. xxvi) ; Gen. R. viii. 5 (in connection with the creations of 
man); P. R. 'El. xiii uses the similar passage Ps. cxliv. 3, 4 ("The ministering 
angels said before the Holy One, blessed be He : ' Lord of all the World, what is 
man that thou takest knowledge of him or the son of man that thou takest account 
of him'"). Cf. Jerachmeel, xxii. i, and Ma'yan Chokma, BH. i. 58. But the form 
of accusation here recorded is also, in particular, attributed to the angels 'Azza 
and 'Azzael. Thus in Zohar several times, 'Azza and 'Azzael are said to have 
used this argument when opposing man's Creation, Zohar, i. 23 a, and another 
quotation in YR, i. 60 a. A strange similarity with the present chapter is ex- 
hibited by the fragment quoted in Yalqut on Gen. vi. 2 (from Midrash Abkir) : 
" the disciples of R. Yoseph asked him : what is 'Azzael'} he answered them : as soon 
as the generation of the flood (cf. ch. iv) stood up and worshipped idols (cf. the 
present chapter) the Holy One was sorely grieved. Then forthwith came the two 
angels Shemchazai and ' Azza' el and said before him : Master of the World ! Did 
we not say before thee when thou didst create thy world: what is man that thou 
art mindful of him. He answered them : if ye were to go down to earth, the evil 
impulse would get power over you more than over man.. . .Let us go down.. . . 
He said: Go down and dwell with them. As soon as they were on earth, they 
corrupted their ways with the daughters of men. . .". In that passage almost all 
the different statements about 'Azza and 'Azzael are woven together. Cf. on 
ch. iv. 6. 

(n) Why hast thou left the highest of the high heavens etc. This presup- 
poses that when Shekina was dwelling on earth it was absent from the Araboth 
Raqia'. 



OHB 



1 8 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. V 

ADE: B: CL: 

the highest of the the 'Araboth Raqia' the highest of the high 
high heavens, the which are full of thy heavens which are filled 
abode of thy glo- glory, mighty and with the majesty of thy 
rious Name, and the high alike, and the glory and are high, up- 
high and exalted high and exalted lifted and exalted, and 
Throne in 'Araboth Throne in the 'Ara- the high and exalted 
on high both Raqia' in the Throne in the Raqia' 

highest 'Araboth on high 

and art gone and dwellest with the children of men who worship idols 
and equal thee to the idols. (12) 18 Now thou art on earth and the 
idols likewise. What hast thou to do with 19 the inhabitants of the 
earth 19 who worship idols? " 18 (13) Forthwith the Holy One, blessed 
be He, lifted up His Shekina from the earth, from their midst 20 . 

(14) In that moment came the ministering angels, the troops of 
hosts and the armies of 'Araboth in thousand camps and ten thousand 
hosts : they fetched trumpets and took the horns in their hands and 
surrounded the Shekina with all kinds of songs. 21 And He ascended 21 
to the high heavens, as it is written (Ps. xlvii. 5): "God is gone up 
with a shout, the Lord with the sound of a trumpet ". 



18-18 B om. C: 'now that thou art on earth, thou art become in condition like as 
the inhabitants of the earth who worship idols' 19-19 L: 'those who go down 

to earth and are idol- worshippers ' 20 C adds': ' and the Shekina ascended to 

heaven' 21-21 BCDEL om. 

(13) Forthwith the Holy One. . .lifted up His Shekina from the earth. . .and 
he ascended to the high heavens. ' The Holy One ' and ' Shekina ' are here prac- 
tically synonymous. The idolatry is one of the main causes of the disappearance of 
the Shekina from on earth. Cf. Sifre (ed. Friedmann), 104 a, Mekilta, 72 a, Tan- 
chuma Lev., Par. behar (Schechter, Aspects, p. 223, Abelson, op. at. p. 101). The 
idol erected in the Holy of Holies by Manasse, by its presence, its "face" drives 
out the Shekina from the Temple. The Shekina and the idols cannot remain in 
the same place: this is the burden of the remonstrances of the angels ace. to vs. 12. 
Cf. Cant. R. vi, Num. R. xii. 5, already referred to, note on vs. j. Cf. also Lam. R. 
Prooem. 24 (in connection with the destruction of the Temple) : " I have no abode 
on earth. I will remove my Shekina from earth and take it up to my former place ". 

(14) And he ascended to the high heavens etc. Already ace. to ch. xlviii c 
the narrative about Shekina' s removal from on earth is connected with the taking 
up of Enoch as can be seen from the parallel to the present chapter found ib. (i.e. 
ch. xlviii c) vs. i : "When I beheld the men of the generation of the flood (ctr. 
here and cf. ch. iv) that they were corrupt, -then I went and removed my Shekina 
from among them. And I lifted it up on high with the sound of a trumpet and with 
a shout as it is written (Ps. xlvii. 5) ' God is gone up with a shout etc.' " 



CH.Vl] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 19 



CHAPTER VI 

Enoch lifted up to heaven together with the Shekina. 
Angels' protests answered by God 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(i) When the Holy One, blessed be He, desired 1 to lift me up on 
high, He first sent '-Anaphiel H (H = Tetrqpqmmaixn^^ the Prince, 

d he took me from their midst in their sight and carried 2 me 
3 in great glory 3 upon 3a a fiery chariot with fiery horsesTfeervants 4 of 
glory ^ And he lifted me up to the high heavens together with the 
Shekina. 



i C: 'sought me* 2 so BCDL. A: 'led me' 3-3 BCL: 'on a great 

kerub' 33 BCL: 'in' 4 BDEL: 'and a servant' C: 'and with songs' 

Chh. vi seqq. The translation of Enoch. On the affinities of the representations 
of Enoch's translation in i En., 2 En., and 3 En. vide Introduction, 7 (a) and (&). 

Ch. vi. According to this chapter Enoch was translated together with t 
Shekina :0he Shekina was removed from earth on account of the idolatry of 
The chapter is a sequel to the antecedent chapter; cf. note ib. intr. As was pointed 
out above, note on v. 14, the connection of the removal of Shekina with the transla- 
tion of Enoch is also attested in the 2nd Enoch-Metatron piece, ch. xlviii c i. There, 
as in ch. vii, it is referred to the sins of the generation of the Flood (ch. iv). Besides, 
the present chapter contains a new specimen of angelic accusation against man 
before God or of protest against privileges awarded to man : in this case Enoch's 
ascension to the high heavens. 

(i) When the Holy One . . . desired to lift me up ... He first sent 'Anaphiel H. 
For 'Anaphiel cf. ch. xviiii. 18 and note. Ace. to Hek. R. xxii Anaphiel is the 
highest of the angels, "higher than the Prince of. theJPresence and greater thanjhe""? 
Ch. xviliere (ace. to reading of BDL) he is the angel sent to 'punish' Metatron 
with strokes of lashes of fire.,Thejmganing of the name : ' Branch of God/ is explained 
ch. xviii ib. He represents the overarching majesty and soverpifj",ty P f Gr K\ 1 '"_*hf 
heavens, rarmiyingThrougii all the firmaments. Hence he is also conceived of as 
protectinffguide. The TutrTZgrammaton (H) is contained in his name, cf. on chh. x. 3, 
xxx. i ; cf. Hek. R. xxi. YR. i. 5 a (from Sode Rasa): "the ring with the seal of 
heaven and earth (cf. on ch. xlviii D 5) are entrusted to him and all in heaven and 
earth kneel down and prostrate themselves before him". . 

uponafiery chariot with fiery horses. The biblical narrative of Elijah's ascension 
to heaven has been suggestive here. In mystical literati 1 * ^ p bihlir al * rq< ' tg - gef n'hfifj 



to Elijah are referred to Enoch and vice versa : they are regarded as belonging to 
'the samecategory ot saintly men, since they Wfere both removed from earth in their 
lifetime. " i En. 70 describes Enoch's final translation in terms of that of Elijah" 
(CHARLES, i En. xlix). (Cf. i En. Ixxxix. 52, xciii. 8, 4 Ez. vi. 26, note (m) in Box, 
Ezra-Ap. pp. 77 seq.) In later mysticism Elijah is often identified with the 'twin- 
brother of Metatron', Sandalfon, in explicit analogy with the identification of 
Enoch with Metatron (YR. i. 54 b, 57 b, 58 a; cf. Introduction). 

2-2 



20 



THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH 



[CH. VI 



(2) As soon as I reached the high heavens, the Holy Chayyoth, the 
'Ophannim, the Seraphim, the Kerubim, the Wheels of the Merkaba 
(the Galgallim), and the ministers of 5 the consuming fire 5 , perceiving 
my smell 6 from a distance 7 of 365,ooo 7a myriads of parasangs, said: 



A; 

"What smell of one 
born of woman and 
what taste of a 8 white 
drop 8 (is this) that 
ascends on high, and 
(lo, he is merely) 
a gnat among those 
who ' divide flames 
(of fire)'?" 



B: 

"What is one born 
of woman between 
(among) us? The 
taste of a 8 white drop 8 
which ascends to the 
high heavens to min- 
ister 9 among those 
who 'divide flames 
of fire'". 



CDEL: 

"What smell 10 of u 
a woman-born is this 
and what taste of a 
8 white drop 8 that as- 
cends to the high 
heavens to minister 
12 among dividers 12 of 
flames. 



5-5 C: 'the fire which consumeth fire' L: 'the heavenly fire' 'the fire above' 
6 BE: 'spirit' ('rutti' for 'rehi') 7 So BCDEL. A: 'among smells' 

73 L: '5360' YR. i. 55 b: '5380' and om. 'myriads' 8-8 lit. 'drop of 

semen' 9 read pi' 'el instead of Mthpa"el. 10 E: 'spirit' u L ins. 'a drop 
of 1 2-1 2 C : ' here and in (those) cut of flames ' L : ' between hedges of flames ' 

(2) the Holy Chayyoth, the 'Ophannim, the Seraphim, the Kerubim, the 
Wheels of the Merkaba and the ministers of the consuming fire. This is 
evidently intended as an enumeration of the highest classes of angels. The classes 
here mentioned are the five classes of Merkaba-angels of the angelological section, 
chh. xxi, xxv, xxvi, xxii and xix resp. The 'ministers of the consuming fire' may 
refer to the ministering angels in general whose substance is fire or to the angels 
in charge of the fire issuing forth from under the Throne (cf. on ch. xxxiii. 4). For 
the present enumeration cf. the parallel in the following chapter. All these highest 
classes of angels are here represented as protesting against the privilege awarded 
to the man Enoch of ascending to the high heavens. Cf. P. R. 'El. passim. Cf. also 
Dent. R. xi. 4 (the Galgallim of the Merkaba and the flaming Seraphim praise God 
for not regarding persons with reference to Moses). 

perceiving my smell etc. For the expression cf. Gen. R. xxxiv. 10: "God per- 
ceived the smell of Abraham, the Patriarch, ascending from the furnace... of 
Ghananya, Misael and Azaria. . .the smell of the generation of the religious per- 
secution". There it equals 'foresaw'. Here it perhaps denotes the idea that any 
intrusion of a lower, unclean element or being into the higher heavens is imme- 
diately sensed and guarded against. 

What smell of a woman-born. . . (ACDEL), what is a woman-born between 

(among) us (B) Cf. TB. Shabbat, 88 b : " R. Yehoshua ben Lewi said : in the hour 

when Moses ascended on high, the ministering angels said before the Holy One, 
blessed be He : Master of the World, what is a woman-born among us ", i.e. ' what 
has he to do here?' The expressions 'one born of woman' and 'taste of a drop 
of semen ' are of course used in a contemptuous sense, denoting the extreme in- 
significance of man in the eyes of the high angels, what taste of a white drop (A) 
etc. There is a play here on the two-fold meaning of the word to 1 am, viz. 'taste' 
and ' reason, ground ' (' what is the reason that one conceived of a white drop should 
ascend . . . ') those who ' divide flames of fire.' The expression is deduced from 
Ps. xxix. 7 and denotes the angel-princes. In Alph. R. 'Aqiba BH. iii. 45, it is 
used of the ' Voice '. 



CH.Vl] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 21 

(3) The Holy One, blessed be He, answered and spake unto 
them: "My servants, 13 my hosts 13 , my Kerubim, my 'Ophannim, my 
Seraphim! Be ye not displeased on account of this! Since all the 
children of men have denied me 14 and my great Kingdom and are 
gone worshipping 14 idols, I have removed my Shekina from among 
them and have lifted it up on high. 15 But this one whom I have taken 
from among them is an ELECT ONE among (the inhabitants of) the 
world 16 and he is equal to all of them in faith 16 , righteousness and 
perfection of deed 17 and 18 I have taken him for (as) a tribute from 19 
my world 18 under all the heavens 15 ". 



13-13 so BCDELZ. A: 'host of (my Kerubim)' i4~*4 L: 'and worship' 

15-15 L: 'but this one (only) have I taken from my whole world under all the 
heavens' 16-16 BC om. 17 so DE. A: 'beauty, form (tabnith)' 

1 8-1 8 S, YR. i. 55 b (Pirqe Hehaloth) : 'he is the (only) reward that I have received 
for all my labour under all the heavens ' 

(3) My servants, my hosts, my Kerubim etc. Cf. ch. i. 8. A close parallel 
is the answer attributed to God ace. to Plek. R. xxix. 2 (on the protest of the angels 
against the revelation of the 'secret' to the Yorede Merkaba): "My ministering 
angels, my servants, be ye not displeased on account of this etc." 

he is equal to all of them in faith, righteousness and perfection of deed 
states the justification for the translation of Enoch: his merits, his perfection. 
This is not explicit in ch. iv, but might have been understood. Enoch is worth as 
much as the whole generation. 

I have taken him for a tribute (or: he is my reward, remuneration; YR.). 
There is a covert allusion here to the destruction of the rest of the generation, hence 
to the Flood: Enoch is the only one preserved from the ruin of the first generation, 
God's only remuneration for all his labour. Also in the tradition represented by 
chh. v, vi, Enoch was connected with the Flood (as is explicitly stated in the parallel 
ch. xlviii c i, several times referred to). The original tradition seems to have been 
somewhat like this : Owing to the general downfall of the first generation, caused 
by the idolatry arising among men with Enosh and his followers an idolatry 
inspired by the demons or fallen angels Shekina was removed from earth, and 
on the removal of the Shekina followed the destruction of the entire race in the 
waters of the Flood. One righteous man, Enoch, was exempted from the general 
fate of his contemporaries : he was taken up to the heavens together with the Shekina. 

The aspect in which Enoch's translation is seen here is his being the tribute from 
the first generation, God's remuneration the Creation of the first generation had 
not been in vain. In ch. iv it is seen from the aspect of the function assigned to 
Enoch of being a witness before coming generations, in the world to come, to the 
sinfulness and corruption of the generation that was ultimately destroyed in the 
waters of the Flood. 



22 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. VII 

CHAPTER VII 1 

Enoch raised upon the wings of the Shekina to the place 
of the Throne, the Merkaba and the angelic hosts 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me: 

When the Holy One, blessed be He, took me away from the genera- 
tion of the Flood, he lifted me on the wings of the wind of Shekina 
to the highest heaven and brought me into the great palaces of 
the 'Araboth Raqia' on high, where are 2 the glorious Throne of 
Shekina 2 , the Merkaba 3 , the troops of anger, the armies of vehemence, 
the fiery Shin'anim 4 ', the 5 flaming Kerubim, and the burning 'Ophan- 
nim, the flaming servants, the flashing Chashmattim and the light- 
ening Seraphim 5 . And he placed me (there) to attend the Throne of 
Glory day after day. 



i B places this chapter at the end of ch. xiv. 2-2 BCL : ' the glory of Shekina ' 

38:' the chariots of the mighty ones of anger ' L : ' the chariots of the mighty ones ' 
C: 'the great chariots of anger' 4 C: 'Accusers' 'Satans' 5-5 lit. 'the 

Kerubim of firebrands ' and the 'Ophannim of (burning) coal and the servants of 
flame and the Chashmallim of spark and the Seraphim of lightning ' 

Ch. vii. Another short version of the translation of Enoch, connecting it with 
the generation of the Flood but also containing traces of its relation to the 
removal or lifting up of Shekina ('on the wings of the wind of the Shekina'). 
lifted me on the wings of the wind of Shekina. The wings of Shekina, a 
common metaphorical expression, often used as denoting proselytism ; cf. Abel- 
son, op. cit. p. 90. Here it rather expresses the protection given to Enoch from 
the Godhead (against the fury of the angels?), TB. Shabbat, 88 b: "when Moses 
was to ascend on high. . .God spread over him of the splendour of His Shekina, 
that the angels might not be able to burn him". For 'wings of the wind' cf. 
chh. xxxiv. i, xxxvii. z. Cf. 2 En. iii. i (Enoch raised upon the wings of the 
angels, upon the clouds etc.). Ace. to Mysteries of St John and the Holy 
Virgin, 6 b, St John is, raised " on the wing of the light of the Cherub ". Cf . ch. vi. i 
(BCL). where are the. . .Throne. . .the Merkaba, the troops of anger etc., 
the most prominent of the glories contained in the highest of the heavens, the 
'Araboth Raqia'. Cf. Mass. Hek. v ("in the seventh Hall of 'Araboth Raqia' are the 
Throne... the Chariots of the Kerubim. . .Seraphim, 'Ophannim, Chayyoth, the 
Chashmallim of splendour and majesty, etc."). A parallel is ch. xlviii C 4, but notice 
the difference: there Enoch-Metatron is represented as appointed over and a 
minister of all the different classes of high angels, as well as of the Throne. Here he 
is represented as attendant of the Throne only (cf. however, x. 3). See ch. xv. i. 

the fiery Shin'anim. The name Shin'anim is deduced from vs. 18 of the 
mystical Ps. Ixviii. The Shin'anim as a class of angels occurs frequently in enu- 
merations of angelic orders. 

the flaming servants. Cf. on ch. vi. 2. 

the flashing Chashmallim. One of the ten classes of angels, in common with 
the Shin'anim. Cf. also ch. xlviii c and Mass. Hek. v, referred to above. The name 
is derived from the Chasmal of Ezek. i. 4. Cf. on ch. xxxiv. i. The Chashmallim 
are in Chag. 13 b explained as " the angels (Chayyoth) who are sometimes silent 



CH. VIIl] ENOCH-MET ATRON PIECE 23 

CHAPTER VIII 

The gates (of the treasuries of heaven) 
opened to Metatron 

R. Ishmael said : Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, said to me : 
(i) Before He appointed me to attend the Throne of Glory, the 

Holy One, blessed be He, opened to me 
1 three hundred thousand gates of Understanding 
three hundred thousand gates of Subtlety 
three hundred thousand gates of Life 



i-i Following is the order of the attributes in the other readings : 

B (10): wisdom. . .understanding. . .life. . .subtlety. . .grace and loving-kindness 

. . .love. . .Tora. . .maintenance. . .meekness. . .fear of sin 

C(i2): loving-kindness. . .understanding. . .life. . .subtlety. . .Shekina. . .power 

(chash) and sometimes speak (mallei): they are silent when the Word emanates 
from the Holy One, blessed be He, they speak when He has ceased speaking." 

to attend the Throne of Glory day after day. This is a traditional function of 
Metatron, the Prince of the Presence. Cf . ch. xlviii C 4. Hek. R. xi : " when the angel 
of the Presence enters to exalt and magnify the Throne of Glory and to prepare 
the seat for the Mighty One in Jacob ". Hek. Zot. (Bodl. MICH. 9 fol. 67 b) : " Meta- 
tron is the president of the Divine Thrones of Glory (of Dan. vii. 9) ". But Metatron 
has also a Throne of his own : chh. x. 1-3, xvi. 1,2, xlviii C 8. 

Ch. viii. (i) The Holy One, blessed be He, opened to me three hundred 
thousand gates of Understanding etc. The gates are the gates of the treasuries 
of the heavens ('Araboth). Metatron is appointed over the stores of 'Araboth ace. 
to ch. x. 6, xlviii c 3. The treasuries are the treasuries of wisdom, understanding etc. 
i.e. the attributes by which the world is sustained. The abstract qualities here 
enumerated are to a large extent identical with those named as the agencies by 
which God created the world in, e.g. TB. Chag. 12 a ("wisdom, understanding, 
knowledge, strength, might etc."), Ab. R. Nathan, xxvii, xliii. Cf.ch.xli.3 : "wisdom, 
understanding, knowledge etc. by which the world is sustained"; and Alph. R. 
' Aqiba, BH. iii. 20 : " God supplies the world day by day with gifts, without which 
the world could not subsist for a single day : spirit and soul, knowledge and wisdom 
and subtlety, counsel and might, and the different senses". The idea is, that the 
abstract qualities on which the world is founded and by which it is sustained 
emanate from God. Yet we are here in no way nearer the conception of the ' Ten 
Sefirot ' than in the passages cited from TB. Chag. 12 a etc. For wisdom and under- 
standing treasured in heaven cf. 4 Es. v. 9, "then shall intelligence hide itself and 
wisdom withdraw to its chamber", where the essential idea of the present repre- 
sentation is already extant: wisdom and intelligence as at work in the world have 
their home in 'chambers' (i.e. in heaven) from where they have emanated and 
whither they return. Cf. also ch. xlviii D 2, and for the 'opening of the gates of the 
treasures' Alph. R. 'Aqiba, letter Aleph: "5000 gates of wisdom were opened to 
Moses on Sinai corresponding to the five books of the Law, and 8000 gates of 
understanding, corresponding to the eight prophets and 11,000 gates of KNOWLEDGE 
corresponding to the eleven writings". three hundred thousand gates of Life. 
The 'treasuries of life' in heaven are frequently referred to. Cf. e.g. Chag. 12 b: 
"in 'Araboth Raqia' are. . .the treasuries of life. . ."; ch. x. 6 here. 



24 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. VIII 

three hundred thousand gates of ' grace and loving-kindness ' 

three hundred thousand gates of love 

three hundred thousand gates of Tora 

three hundred thousand gates of meekness 

three hundred thousand gates of maintenance 

three hundred thousand gates' of mercy 

three hundred thousand gates of fear of heaven 1 . 

(2) In that hour the Holy One, blessed be He, added in me wisdom 
unto wisdom, understanding unto understanding, subtlety unto 
subtlety, knowledge unto knowledge, mercy unto mercy, instruction 
unto instruction, love unto love, loving-kindness unto loving-kindness, 



and might. . .grace and loving-kindness. . .love. . .instruction (Tora). . ^main- 
tenance . . . fear of sin . . . meekness 

.(12): wisdom. . .understanding. . .subtlety. . .life. . .peace. . .Shekina. . .power 
and might . . . strength . . . grace and loving-kindness . . . love . . . meekness . . . fear 
of sin 

YR. i. 54 b (12): wisdom. . .understanding. . .life. . .subtlety. . .Shekina. . .power 
and might. . .grace and loving-kindness. . .love. . .Tora. . .maintenance. . .meek- 
ness . . . fear of sin 

L (12) : wisdom . . . understanding . . . life . . . subtlety . . . Shekina . . . might. . . grace 
and loving-kindness . . . love . . . Tora . . . maintenance . . . meekness . . . fear of sin 
D (15) : wisdom. . .understanding. . .life. . .subtlety. . .peace. . . Shekina. . . power 
and might. . .strength. . .grace and loving-kindness ... love ... Tora ... mainten- 
ance . . . mercy . . . meekness . . . fear of heaven . 

three hundred thousand gates of Tora. Cf. Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 43, 44: 
"The Holy One, blessed be He, appointed Moses over all Israel, and over all the 
treasuries of Tora, and over all treasuries of wisdom, and over all treasuries of 
understanding". It is interesting to note, that ace. to this conception there is a 
special treasury of Tora (= the Celestial Tora?) besides the treasuries of wisdom 
and of understanding. Ace. to another conception the Tora is itself formed of the 
elements of wisdom and understanding, the 'secrets of the treasuries'; cf. on 
ch. xlviii D 2, 3. 

gates of maintenance (Parnasd). Even the maintenance and sustenance of the 
needs of the world has its source in heaven. Cf. Alph. R. 'Aqiba, letter Zain: 
" Zain, that is the Name of the Holy One, blessed be He, for he feeds and maintains 
(mepharnes) all his creatures, day after day, as it is said (Ps. civ. 28): 'thou openest 
thine hand, they are filled with good'". From the 'maintenance' Parnasa, stored 
in heaven, the seventy princes of kingdoms take and "throw down to the nations of 
the world their maintenance" ace. to the Lesser YR., sub voce Nedibim et freq. 
"Metatron distributes Parnasa among all the companies of angels" (YR. i. 56, 
quoting Pardes). 

The opening the treasuries or gates to Metatron presumably connotates not only 
the bestowal upon him of their contents (as in vs. 2) but also that they are put in his 
charge and to his distribution. As Prince over the Princes he has to distribute their 
contents among the angels, and perhaps also as functional Prince of the World to 
the earth and nations. 

added in me wisdom unto wisdom etc. The attributes here enumerated are on 
the whole identical with those of vs. i . Hence the idea probably is that the contents 
of the opened treasuries were conferred upon Metatron. more than all the 
children of heaven. The unique position of Metatron is here emphasized. 



CHH. VIII, IX] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 25 

goodness unto goodness, meekness unto meekness, power unto power, 
strength unto strength, might unto might, brilliance unto brilliance, 
beauty unto beauty, splendour unto splendour, 2 and I was honoured 
and adorned with all these good and praiseworthy things more than 
all the children of heaven. 



CHAPTER IX 

Enoch receives blessings from the Most High and 
is adorned with angelic attributes 

R. Ishmael said : Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, said to me : 

(i) After all these things the Holy One, blessed be He, put His 
hand upon me and blessed me with 536O 1 blessings. (2) And I was 
raised 2 and enlarged to the size of the length and width of the world. 
(3) And He caused 72 wings to grow on me, 36 on each side. And 



2 C adds : ' and honour unto all honour, majesty unto all majesty, glory unto all 
glory and greatness unto all greatness ' 

Ch. ix. i so BCL. A: 'one thousand, 305 thousands' DE: 'one thousand, 365 
thousand' 2, BC: 'elated' 

Ch. ix. The subject of the present chapter is the metamorphosis through which 
Enoch was made into a high angel. This metamorphosis is viewed from another 
aspect in ch. xv. Here the different angelic attributes conferred on Metatron are : 
immense height of stature, wings, eyes covering the whole of his body, and light. 

(1) blessed me with 5360 blessings. This connects the present chapter with 
its antecedent: the blessings are presumably conceived of as contained in the 
heavenly treasuries, opened to Enoch and the contents of which are bestowed upon 
him. The treasures of blessing(s) are mentioned as contained in the 'Araboth, 
e.g. TB. Chag. 12 b. The number 5360 is intended to reflect the number 365. 

(2) I was raised to the size of the length ... of the world. The immense 
size of the high angels is a constantly reiterated theme. Cf. ch. xxi. i : "each of the 
Chayyoth is as the space of the world" (cf. Chag. 13 a), chh. xxii. 3, xxv. 4, xxvi. 4. 
The idea prevails: the greater an angel is (in rank) the larger his size. Cf. the 
versions of the Rev. of Moses (Ma'yan Chokma, BH. i. 58, etc., YR. ii. 66 b-6y b, 
Zohar, ii. 58 a): " Hadarniel is greater than Qemnel by 60 myriads of parasangs, 
Sandalfon is higher of stature than Hadarniel by 500 years' journeying distance". 
Thus, in the other Enoch-Metatron piece of the present book, ch. xlviii C 5, 
the size of Metatron is seen from this comparative aspect: "I made him higher of 
stature than all. The height of his stature surpasses all others by ten thousand 
parasangs". The similar tradition preserved in Zohar, e.g. i. 21 a: "Metatron is 
glorified more than the highest angels (the Chayyoth) and higher than these by 
500 parasangs". 

(3) 72 wings. The number seventy-two is frequently used in the present book. 
It generally seems to imply reference to the rule of the world : the seventy-two 
princes of kingdoms, cf. note on ch. xvii. 8. Metatron is in the present section 
the ruler of the seventy-two princes of kingdoms: chh. x. 3, xiv. i, xvi. i and 2. 
It is possible that the seventy-two wings here extending over the whole world 



26 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. IX 

each wing 3 was as the whole world 3 . (4) And He fixed on me 365 eyes : 
each eye was as the great luminary. (5) And He left no kind of 
splendour, brilliance, radiance, beauty 4 in (of) all the lights of the 
universe 4 that He did not fix on me. 



3-3 so BCDEL. A: 'filled the world' 4-4 so BCL. A: 'praise, lights of 

the universe ' 

symbolize Metatron's rulership over these. 36 on each side may be compared 
with ch. xvi. i : 'the princes of kingdoms were standing. . .on my right hand and 
on my left'. 

(4) 3^5 eyes. For the number 365 (= the number of days of the solar year) 
as mystical number cf. chh. v. 4, xxi. 3 (' the size of each wing of the Chayyoth as 
365 wings'), xxxiii. 4 ('the breadth of each of the fiery rivers is 365 thousand para- 
sangs'). The body of an angel-prince covered with eyes (round about) is a regular 
feature of the descriptions of angels: cf. chh. xxii. 8 ('his body is full of eyes', of 
Kerubiel), xxv. 2, where the number of eyes assigned to the angel-prince in 
question {'Ophanniel) is devised on the basis of calendary calculations (' 8466 eyes 
corresponding to the number of hours of a year'), xxvi. 6. Cf. notes ad loca. 
each eye was as the great luminary. An identical statement about the eyes of 
Seraphiel, ch. xxvi. 6. 

(5) fixed on me all kinds of splendour, brilliance etc. of the lights (lumina- 
ries) of the world. Cf. in the angelological descriptions: chh. xxii. 4, xxv. 6, 
xxvi. 2, 4. Cf. also Mass. Hek. iv: " On every door in the Hall(s) of 'Araboth there 
are fixed 365 thousand myriads of different kinds of lights like unto the great 
luminary". 

The repeated references by comparisons to the 'world' in the present chapter, 
vss. 2, 3, s, and the possible allusion to the seventy-two princes of kingdoms or to 
the rule of the world in vs. 3 (cf. above) might conceivably be traces, if not inten- 
tional symbolical expressions, of Metatron's function as the Prince of the World. 
Vs. 2, ' I was raised to the size of the world ', might also be a remnant of Metatron's 
connection with the speculations on the Primordial Man, the 'Adam Oadmon. 
Ace. to Chag. 12 a the first Adam reached from one end of the world to the other. 
This connection, which like the identification of Metatron with the Prince of the 
World (existing from the Days of Creation), was perhaps suspended in consequence 
of Metatron's identification with Enoch, reappears in later cabbalistic literature: 
the statement that Enoch-Metatron is the Neshama of the first Adam, who left 
him before the sin of Adam (just as the universal size of the first Adam is repre- 
sented as diminished through Adam's sin : TB. Chag. 1 2 a) is frequent. The difficulties 
arising from Metatron's identification with Enoch were now overcome through 
the new conceptions brought in with the doctrine of metempsychosis and related 
speculations. 



CH. x] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 27 

CHAPTER X 

God places Metatron on a throne at the door of the seventh 
Hall and announces through the Herald, that Metatron 
henceforth is God's representative and ruler over all the 
princes of kingdoms and all the children of heaven, save 
the eight high princes called YHWH by the name of their 

King 

R. Ishmael said : Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, said to me : 

(i) All these things the Holy One, blessed be He, made for me: 
x He made me 1 a Throne, similar to the 2 Throne of Glory. And He 
spread over me 3 a curtain of splendour and brilliant appearance, of 



i-i so ins. DE. 2 C ins. 'make of the' 3-3 BCL om. 

Ch. x. This chapter presents Metatron as adorned with special attributes, dis- 
tinguishing him from the other angels : a throne and a curtain, both reflections of 
the Throne and Curtain of the Godhead. He is furthermore explicitly pronounced 
a ruler over the princes of kingdoms and the children of heaven, a rulership denned 
as a vice-regency for the Holy One. The chapter really forms an explanation of the 
names 'Metatron' and 'Prince of the Presence'. 

(i) He made me a Throne. This is in itself no feature confined to the descrip- 
tions of Metatron. Instances are frequent of thrones assigned to angels or meri- 
torious dead, i En. cviii. 12 ("I will bring forth in shining light [cf. here] those 
who have loved My holy name, and I will seat each one on the throne of his 
honour"). Cf. CHARLES, ad locum, Rev. iv. 4. In the 'Apocalyptic Fragment' 
preserved e.g. in BH. v. 167-169 David has a "Throne of fire" erected for him 
over against the Throne of His Creator. Ace. to Gedullah Moshe Moses sees in 
the seventh heaven " 70 thrones fixed, of precious stones, pearls, gold etc. . . . 
there are thrones for the scholars of the Law, for the chassids, the just etc. of different 
splendour ace. to merit of the occupants ". And ace. to Alph, R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 34, 
the righteous in the world to come will each be seated before the Glory of the Holy 
One, on a throne of gold "like a king". For thrones assigned to angels cf. Mass. 
Hek. vii, ace. to which seven angels as court-officers are sitting upon seven thrones 
before the Curtain. Cf. Rev. xx. 4 ("I saw thrones, and they sat upon them", 
ace. to Bousset, Comm. ad loc. probably Christ and the angels as ' Gerichtsbei- 
sassen ') . The view predominant in Rabbinic seems to be that ' there is no sitting 
in heaven': TB. Chag. 15 a. Assigning a seat or a throne to any angel-prince or to 
any one beside the Holy One, might endanger the recognition of the absolute 
sovereignty and unity of the Godhead. Cf. ch. xvi. Ace. to the passage Chag. 15 a, 
just referred to, the privilege of 'sitting' was accorded to Metatron in his character 
as 'scribe': he was allowed "to sit and write down the merits of Israel". Here, no 
doubt, the assigning a Throne to Metatron is meant to denote his unique position: 
his character of God's representative or vice-regent. This is borne out by vss. 3 
and 4 and also by what immediately follows: the Throne is similar to, me' en, 
that is 'the counterpart of, the Throne of Glory. The character of Metatron 's 
throne as an image of or counterpart of God's Throne is particularly emphasized 
by the additional feature: Metatron receives a curtain similar to the Curtain 
of the Throne of Glory. For the conception of the Curtain cf. note on ch. xiv. i. 



28 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. X 

beauty, grace 4 and mercy, similar to 3 the curtain of the Throne of 
Glory; and on it were fixed all 5 kinds of lights in the universe 5 . 

(2) And He placed it at the door of the Seventh Hall and seated 
me on it. 

(3) And the herald went forth 6 into every heaven, saying: 7 This 
is 7 Metatron, 8 my servant 8 . I have made him into a prince and a 
ruler over all the princes of my kingdoms 9 and over all the children 



4 DE om. 5-5 C: 'splendour and brilliance from all lights' cf. ch. ix. 4. 

6 ABD ins. 'concerning me' 7-7 so C. 8-8 C om. g L ins. the 

gloss : ' the angels ' 

The Curtain regularly represents the recording of the Divine decrees with regard 
to the world, the secrets of the world's creation and sustenance, etc., in short the 
innermost Divine Secrets; cf. note referred to. 

(2) He placed it at the door of the Seventh Hall and seated me on it. This 
is an often-repeated statement. It is in ch. xlviii C 8 made to denote his function 
as judge and ruler over the princes and the children of heaven, as even here, ace. 
to verses following. In Rev. Moses (YR. ii. 66 b, Sinni, 93 c d, Gaster, RAS's 
Journal, 1893) it is said: "Metatron, Prince of the Presence, stands before the door 
of the Hall of the Holy One, blessed be He, and he sits and judges all the hosts on 
high like a judge standing before the King". The contradiction between the two 
statements 'sits' and 'stands' in this passage is probably due to the influence of 
the tradition mentioned above, that there is no sitting in heaven, responsible also 
for the account of Metatron being divested of his privilege of yeshiba in Chag. 153 
and ch. xvi here. On his throne at the door of the seventh Hall Metatron faces all 
the hosts of the heavens, over which he has jurisdiction. 

(3) the herald went forth into every heaven. The conception of the heavenly 
herald announcing important decrees of the Most High in the heavens is attested 
also in Hek. R. vi (BH. iii. 88, as ch. iv) : " the herald went forth from the 'Araboth 
Raqia 1 etc." and in Rev. Mos., Yalqut Re'ubeni, ii. 66 b: " Gallisur stands behind 
the Curtain and gets knowledge of the decrees of the Holy One and heralds it ... 
and the herald commits it to Elijah and Elijah stands as herald on the mount Horeb ". 
This is Metatron, my servant. HERE THEN IS THE POINT in the course of the 
exposition of the present chapter WHERE ENOCH IS PROCLAIMED AS METATRON. 
It is significant that THIS PROCLAMATION IS MADE TO COINCIDE WITH HIS BEING 
SET UP ON A THRONE as a ruler over the princes and angels. See Introduction, 
section 12 (5). my servant, i.e. 'Ebed. 'Ebed or God's Servant is an old-established 
name of Metatron. Cf. chh. xlviii c i, xlviii D i (no. 17) and note. It seems to have 
been especially associated with the Prince of the Presence conception. Cf. Hek. R. 
xiii, BH. iii. 93: " Surya, 'Ebed, the Prince of the Presence" (Surya is a common 
equivalent of Metatron as the Prince of the Presence, cf . no. 84, ch. xlviii. i). In Hek. 
Zot.(Bodl. MICH. fo\. 700) the attribute ' my servant ' is applied to Metatron as God's 
representative or vice-regent : " when I (the Holy One) leave the Throne of Glory 
to go down among the children of men". In Hek. R. BH. iii. 104, Metatron is 
called '"Ebed-YHWH, long-suffering and of great mercy". It is probable that 
the "Ebed' is derived from the picture of God's servant in Is. xlix. i, etc. 

I have made him into a prince and a ruler over all the princes of my 
kingdoms (= my princes of kingdoms). Here, as in ch. xvi. i, 2, Metatron is 
explicitly stated to have special authority over the princes of kingdoms. This is 
a feature in the Prince of the World tradition: ch. xxx. 2. In the shorter Enoch- 
Metatron piece, ch. xlviii c, vs. 9, Metatron's character of ruler over the princes 
of kingdoms and thereby as functional Prince of the World is better preserved than 
here : he is there depicted as ruler over the nations of the world ' who smites kings 



CH. X] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 2Q 

of heaven, except the eight great princes, the honoured and revered 
ones who are called 10 YHWH, by the name of their King. (4) And 
every angel u and every prince 11 who has a word to speak 12 in my 
presence (before me) 12 shall go into his presence (before him) and 
shall speak to him (instead). (5) 13 And every command that he utters 
to you 13 in my name do ye observe and fulfil. For the Prince of 
Wisdom and the Prince of Understanding 14 have I committed to 
him 14 to instruct him in the wisdom of heavenly things and of earthly 



10-10 so with BCDL(E). A: 'by the name of H their King' E: 'H by the name of 
the World ' (corrupt for : ' H, by the name of the King of the World ' ?) i i-i i D om. 
12-12 BCL om. 13-13 lit. 'every word that he shall speak to you' 14-14 so 

ace. to BCL. EL lit. ' I have committed him (sing. = the Prince of Wisdom and 
of Understanding) ' C: ' I have committed them (plur.) ' A : ' are ministers to him ' 

and sets up kings'. Here his rulership is viewed mainly or exclusively from its 
celestial aspect, he is the ruler over the princes of kingdoms as inhabitants of the 
heavens, in common with all the children of heaven. Except the eight great 
princes. . .who are called YHWH by the name of their king. 'Called by the 
name YHWH' (cf. on chh. iii. 2, xxix. i) probably means that these angels have 
the Tetragrammaton as part of their names, as 'Anaphiel H of ch. vi. i, the higher 
ones of the angels enumerated ch. xviii, and the Merkaba princes chh. xix, xx, 
xxii, xxv, xxvi, xxvii. Which these angels are who are exempt from the juris- 
diction of Metatron is not stated here. One might from ch. vi. i conjecture that 
'Anaphiel was regarded as one of them. A parallel can be brought from Hek. R. 
xxii, BH. iii. 99. This parallel is indeed so close that it can with some degree of 
certainty be assumed to represent the same tradition as the present passage. The 
guardians of the seventh Hall are enumerated "and each of them, his name is 
called by the name of the King of the World" (in the enumeration this state- 
ment is shown to signify the form of names of which the Tetragrammaton forms 
the latter part: SSTIEL YHWH, N(ZURIEL YHWH, etc.). The greatest of them is 
'Anaphiel H (in whose charge the ring with the seal of heaven and earth is com- 
mitted, cf. on vi. i): "before him all on high kneel down, fall on their faces and 
pay homage to him when they see him. And those angels, standing before the 
Throne of Glory, who do not prostrate themselves before the Prince of the Presence, 
they prostrate themselves before 'A naphiel YHWH". 'Those angels' are evidently 
the angels in Hek. R. made into ' the guardians of the Seventh Hall '. The names 
of these angels are only seven in the enumeration, but ace. to the general scheme 
of Hek. R. (see chh. xv, xvii, etc.) the number of the guardians of each Hall is 
'eight': likewise in Mass. Hek. iv ("there are eight guardians of the door of each 
of the seven Halls"). Hence also Hek. R. xxii might originally have had: "eight 
great princes, called H". This clause is most probably additional here, cf. Intro- 
duction, section 8(u). 

(4) Every angel. . .who has a word to speak in my presence, shall go 
...to him. HERE THE EPITHET 'PRINCE OF THE PRESENCE' is EXPLAINED. 
(5) And every command that he utters to you in my name do ye observe and 

fulfil. THIS IS CLEARLY A PROCLAMATION OF METATRON AS GOD'S VICE- 
REGENT. Ex. xxiii. 21 may have been suggestive (Ex. xxiii. 20-22 are tradition- 
ally referred to the Prince of the Presence): "Beware of him and provoke him 
not : obey his voice ". Here Metatron's jurisdiction extends only over the angels, 
ctr. ch. xlviii C 9. But his connection with the affairs of the 'world' is implied 
by the following, for the Prince of Wisdom and the Prince of Understanding 
have I committed to him to instruct him in the wisdom of heavenly things 
and of earthly things. ' The Prince of Wisdom and Prince of Understanding ' : 



30 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CHH. X, XI 

things, in the wisdom of this world and of the world to come. (6) More- 
over, I have set him over all the treasuries of the palapes of Araboih 
and over all the stores 15 of life 15 that 16 I have 16 17 in the high heavens. 



CHAPTER XI 
God reveals all mysteries and secrets to Metatron 

R. Ishmael said : Metatron, the angel, the Prince of the Presence, said 
to me: 

(i) 1 Henceforth the Holy One, blessed be He, revealed to me 1 all 

15-15 L om. 16-16 E: 'are' 17 B ins. 'in my world' 

Ch. xi. i-i BCL : ' the Holy One, blessed be He, revealed to me, the spring (well) of 

cf. ch. xlviii D i (no. 105) and 2 ('all the treasuries of wisdom are committed in 
his hand '). The functions of the Prince of Wisdom are then naturally merged into 
the conception of Metatron: Metatron is the Prince of Wisdom. Cf. on ch. xviii. 
ii, 16. Metatron instructed in the ' secrets ' is the subject of the following chapter. 
There it is God himself who instructs him. Cf. in 2 En. xxxiii. n, 12 : " two angels 
Ariukh and Pariukh appointed by God as guardians of the Enoch-literature". 

(6) I have set him over all the treasuries of . . . 'Araboth. Cf. ch. viii. Ace. 
to the present chapter Metatron's initiation in the wisdoms of heaven and earth 
and his disposal over the treasuries is a necessary condition for (and corollary of) 
his office as God's representative. Stores of Life: ch. viii. i, 4 Ez. viii. 54, Alph. 
R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 26, 44. 

Ch. xi. That METATRON is IN POSSESSION OF ALL SECRETS AND MYSTERIES is an 
essential feature of the traditions concerning him. Cf. the other Enoch-Metatron 
piece of the present book : ch. xlviii c 7 (and 4). He is called the ' Knower of Secrets ' 
ib. and Hek. R. ("wise in the secrets and Master of the mysteries"). The same is 
implied in chh. viii, x. 5 . As a ' knower of secrets ' he is also the ' revealer of secrets '. 
This is the eighty-eighth of the names in ch. xlviii D i and the sixty-seventh in the 
treatise Names of Metatron, Bodl. MICH. 256, foil. 29 3-44 a. He is the Prince of 
Wisdom and the Prince of Understanding: ch. xlviii D i (105), 2, 6. He reveals 
the 'secret' to Moses: ib. 7. He is the guide and revealer of secrets to R. Ishmael 
ace. to the frame of the present book, to R. Ishmael and R. 'Aqiba (e. a.) ace. to 
Hek. R. (in the form of ' Surya '), Hek. Zot., Shi'ur Qoma, the Apocalyptic Fragment, 
BH. v. 167-169, and in various scattered fragments (see Introduction). Also called 
' guide of all treasuries ', e.g. BH. ii. 117. Besides it needs hardly to be pointed out 
that the revelation of secrets to Enoch and Enoch as possessor of and revealer of 
heavenly secrets is a prominent trait of the i and 2 En. Cf. also CHARLES, i En. 
xlix. 3, 4. 

(i) Henceforth the Holy One . . . revealed to me. Ace. to vs. 5 of the preceding 
chapter the angel(s) called the Prince of Wisdom and Prince of Understanding 
are the instructors of Enoch-Metatron. Here it is the Holy One himself who 
reveals the secrets to him. An important parallel to this is found in 2 En. xxiii, 
xxiv. In ch. xxiii the angel Vretil tells Enoch of ' all the works of heaven and earth, 
etc. etc.', in ch. xxiv again it is God himself who reveals to Enoch 'the secrets of 
Creation '. The reason of the change is there to be seen in the explicit statement 
that these latter secrets are not even revealed to the angels and could therefore be 
handed over to Enoch only by God himself. It is probable that a similar idea has 
been at work here. It is at least certain that Metatron was thought to receive more 



CHH.X,Xl] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 31 

the mysteries of Tora and all the secrets of wisdom 2 and all the 
depths of the Perfect Law 2 ; 3 and all living beings' thoughts of heart 
and all the secrets of the universe 3 and all the secrets 4 of Creation 
were revealed unto me even as they are revealed unto 5 the Maker 
of Creation 5 . 

(2) And I watched intently 6 to behold 7 the secrets of the depth 
and the wonderful mystery 7 . 

ABL: C: 

Before a man did think 8 in secret, Before a man did think, I knew 

I saw 8a (it) and before a man what was in his thought. (3) And 

made a thing I beheld it. (3) And there was no thing above on high 

there was no thing on high nor in nor below in the deep hidden 

the depth of the world hidden from me. 

from me. 10 9 



2-2 so BEL (L om. ' Perfect ') A : lacuna. C reads : ' all the secrets of understanding 
and all the depths of the ^ysteries of the Tora' 3-3 BCL om. 4 BC: 
'orders' 5-5 C: 'the Creator of the work(s) of the Beginning' 6 lit. 

'much* BCL om. DE: 'from that time onward' 7-7 perhaps to be emended 

with C: 'the deep secrets and the wonderful mysteries' 8 B ins. ' I knew, and 

before he did think' 8a L: 'I knew' and om. 'in secret' 9-9 DE corr. 

from 'before a man did think etc.' to the end of the chapter. 10 B adds: 

' from the Creator of the World alone ' 

of the ' secrets ' than the angels in general ; cf. ch. viii. 2 end : ' I was honoured and 
adorned with all these. . .things more than all the children of heaven', referring 
inter alia to ' wisdom, understanding, knowledge '. 

all the mysteries of Tora and all the secrets of wisdom and all the depths 
of the Perfect Law. The mysteries of the Tora is a technical term, denoting THE 

INNER ESSENCE OF WHICH THE TORA ITSELF IS AN EXPRESSION, FORM, PHENOMENON. 

They are not to be defined as the sum of mystical interpretations of the Tora : the 
mystical interpretation aims at finding these secrets by the study of the Tora, in 
which they are embodied (cf. e.g. Baraita of R. Meir, Pirqe Ab. vi: "Whosoever 
is busy in the Tora for its own sake. . .to him the mysteries of Tora are revealed"). 
They are in fact the ' mysteries of mysteries ', the fundament not ' only ' of the Tora 
but of the universe, of heaven and earth : cf . ch. xlviii D 8 and note ad locum. In 
the term are thus comprised also the following : the secrets of Wisdom and the 
depths of the Perfect Law and also the Secrets of Creation. See Introduction, 
section 14 (i). Cf. Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 43, 44, ace. to which God revealed to 
Moses (since Moses received the Tora on Sinai he was also thought to have 
received the 'Secrets' either directly from God or through Metatron; cf. ch. 
xlviii D 3, 7 seq.) 'the Tora. . .and opened to him the treasuries of Wisdom, which 
the Holy One. . .revealed to him, that he might see by His Wisdom all the orders 

of Creation ' Perfect Law. The expression is derived from Ps. xix. 8. Cf. 

Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 14: "But for the Perfect Law (Tora Temima) the whole 
world would not subsist" and vice versa. 

all living beings' thoughts of heart. ... (2) Before a man did think, 
I knew, etc. (3) . . .no thing. . .on high nor. . .in the deep hidden from me. 
Metatron seems here to be invested with the attribute of omniscience proper only to 
'the Maker of the World'. All past, present and future events are recorded with 
God (on the Curtain cf. on ch. xlv. i). These were also shown to Moses ace. to the 
passage Alph. R. ' Aqiba, BH. iii. 44, referred to above. 



32 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH.XII 



CHAPTER XII 

i God clothes Metatron in a garment of glory, puts a royal 
crown on his head and calls him " the Lesser YHWH" 

\ R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, said to me: 
! (i) By reason of the love with which the Holy One, blessed be He, 
loved me more than all the children of heaven, He made me a garment 
of glory 1 on which were fixed 2 all kinds of 3 lights, and He clad me 
4 in it 4 . (2) 5 And He made me a robe of honour on which were fixed 
all kinds of beauty, splendour, brilliance and majesty 6 5 . (3) And he 
made me a royal crown in which were fixed forty-nine costly stones 

isoBCL. lit. ' highness ' A corr. 2 so C. ABDELom. 3 B ins. 'beauty, 

splendour and majesty and' 44 supplied from C. ' 5-5 DE om. 6 CL 

add : ' and wrapped me (in it) ' 

Ch. xii. Continued description of Enoch's exaltation, ending with the climax: 
ENOCH-METATRON CALLED THE LESSER YHWH. A very close parallel to this chapter 
is found in 2 En. xxi. 5-11, xxii. 5. Vide Introduction, section 7 (b). (i) The 
Holy One. . .made me a garment of glory. Cf. ZfJ&i. xxii. 8 (Ivi. 2): 
God bids Michael clothe Enoch with 'the raiment of glory '.jln early traditions the 
'garment of glory' ('raiment of honour', etc.) represents me light-substance in 
which the inhabitants of the high heavens appear ; the ' glory ' is light, splendour, 
probably conceived of as a reflection, outflow of the Divine Glory, the Splendour 
of Shekina. The putting on 'the raiment of glory' is a necessary condition of 
entering the highest heavens, God's abode of light. Hence it is also a mark of the 
holy, celestial nature of its bearer? Cf. how ace. to Asc. Is. ix. 2-11 (vii. 25) Isaiah 
can only ascend to the highest heaven after having received the garment of glory. 
'Garments of glory' are designed for the righteous and elect: i En. Ixii. 15, 16. 
Similarly Esdras ii. 39 ("those which are departed from the shadow of the world 
and have received glorious garments of the Lord"), explained ib. iv. 45 ("they that 
have put off the mortal clothing and put on the immortal"), i En. cviii. 12 (vide 
CHARLES' notes ad loca cit.), 2 Cor. v. 3 seq., Rev. iii. 5, iv. 4, vi. n, vii. 9, 13, 14, 
Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 28 and 34 (the righteous will be sitting on thrones before 
thejGlory in royal garments and royal crowns). 

[The garment of glory and robe of honour is here assigned to Metatron as dis- 
tinguished from the other angels : ' by reason of the love with which [He] loved me 
more than all the children of heaven'. The writer has Metatron's rulership, his 
vice-regency in view. THE GARMENT AND ROBE ASSIGNED TO HIM ARE TO BE UNDER- 
STOOD AS SYMBOLS OF HIS DERIVED KINGSHIP. This is apparent from the following 
context: Metatron crowned with a crown of kingship and especially by his pro- 
nouncement as the Lesser YHWfQ Ace. to Alpha Beta de Metatron (Add. 15299, 
fol. 8 1 b) Metatron " is clad in eight garments, made out of the splendour of Shekina 
(ib. 8 1 a: when the righteous parts from this world the Prince of the Presence con- 
ducts him to the Garden of Eden and there he clothes him in eight garments from 
the splendour of Shekina) ". THE GARMENT(S) OF GLORY ARE A DISTINCTION ASSIGNED 
ALSO TO MESSIAH ace. to Pirqe Mashiach, BH. iii. 73 ("God will clothe Messiah in 
splendour and majesty. . .and garments of glory"). 

(3) And he made me a royal crown. 'Crowns' often termed 'Crowns of 
Glory' are frequently, one might say regularly, ascribed to angel-princes. Cf. in 



CH. XII] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE . 33 

7 like unto 7 the light of the globe of the sun. (4) For its splendour 
went forth 8 in the four quarters of the 'Araboth Raqia', and in 
(through) the seven heavens, and in the four quarters of the world 8 . 
And 9 he put it 9 on my head. 

(5) And 10 He called me 10 THE LESSER YHWH in the presence of all 
His 11 heavenly household; as it is written (Ex. xxiii. 21): "For my 
name is in him". 



7-7 B : ' shining as ' 8-8 B : ' from one end of the world to the other, and in 

the seven heavens and in the four quarters of the world ' 9-9 lit. ' he wreathed 
it' C: 'they put that crown' 10-10 BC: 'they called me (by the name of)' 

ii BCL:'the' 

the present book chh. xvi. i, 2 (princes of kingdoms), xvii. 8 (item), xviii. 1-22 
(all the angels and princes); in the angelological section, the Merkaba-angels and 
the princes set over them: chh. xxi. 4, xxii. 5,11, xxv. 6, xxvi. 7, 8, further xxxix. 2, 
xl. 2, xlviii c 4. The Divine Names, ch. xlviii B i. Cf. Rev. iv. 4. The righteous are 
to receive crowns in the world to come or in the after-life, e.g. 2 Esdras ii. 45. 
Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 34, and ib. 36, God is represented as crowning the letters 
on the Merkaba with a crown of kingship and a crown of glory. In the present 
book ' the crown of kingship ' is the special emblem of Metatron and of the seventy- 
two princes of kingdoms (whose ruler he is): ch. xvii. 8 (cf. xvi. i, 2); in ch. xviii 
all the angel-princes are depicted with ' crowns of glory ' except the ' seventy-two 
princes of kingdoms' who have 'crowns of kingship'. They are the celestial rulers 
over the nations of the world. The royal crown here is apparently meant to dis- 
tinguish Metatron as representative ruler. The following chapter makes it clear 
that METATJRON'S CROWN WAS CONCEIVED OF AS A COUNTERPART OF 'KETHER NORA' 

OF THE HOLY ONE AS KING OF THE WORLD (cf. ch. XXIX. i). its Splendour Went 

forth etc. Cf. ch. xxv. 6. 

(5) And He called me the Lesser YHWH. . . "For my name is in him." 
The tradition that Metatron bears the name of his Master is attested in TB. Sank. 
38 b, with the same scriptural support as here, viz. Ex. xxiii. 21. The passage is 
frequently referred to Metatron. The reference has been interpreted from the equal 
numerical value of Metatron and Shaddai (the name of God Almighty). The 
original meaning was, however, as here, that METATRON ACTUALLY WAS CALLED BY 
THE DIVINE NAME OR NAMES. Such seems to be the import even of TB. Sank. 38 b, 
since there Ex. xxiv. i is referred to Metatron: "And He said unto Moses, Come 
up unto YHWH"; 'Come up unto YHWH' is to be understood: 'Come up unto 
Metatron'. A very important parallel is found in Apocalypse of Abraham (ed. BOX), 
ch. 10 : "I am called Jaoel by Him who moveth that which existeth with me on 
the seventh expanse upon the firmament, a power in virtue of the ineffable Name 
thai is dwelling in me". Jaoel is made up of the Divine Names, and therefore 
'God's Name is in Him'. For Metatron called 'the Lesser YHWH' cf. BH. ii. 61, 
114, 117, and also 3 En. xlviii c 7, xlviii D i (no. 102: 'the Lesser YHWH, after the 
name of his Master, "for my name is in him (Ex. xxiii. 21)'"; ib. no. 14, YHWH 
is included as one of the names of Metatron). Sepher ha-Qoma ('Inydne Merkaba) , 
Bodl. OPP. 467, fol. 61 b (where the variant reading, however, differs): "The 
Explicit Name, which is Metatron, the Youth" (var. "the explicit name which 

Metatron announces"). J^JJTPj-nmjmpptary cm ftgftftpr hn-Ormm JJlnfJl QPP. 658, 

fol. ioi a): " forMetatron's narneis YHWH the Lesser". Add. 27142 quotes from 
Hekaloth (et fl^fK^And he (Metatron) is the crown of the attributes of the Holy 
One, and his nanTels as the name of His Master: THE LESSER YHWH '^%gdd. 15299, 



fol. 1343 (Widdiiy Yaphe): "alLthe princes that are standing beneath the Lesser 
YHWH". Cf. Zohar, i. 21 a.JThe ascribing to Metatron of the name VHWN 

OHB 3 



34 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XIII 

CHAPTER XIII 

God writes with a flaming style on Metatron's crown the 
cosmic letters by which heaven and earth were created 

R. Ishmael said : Metatron, the angel, the Prince of the Presence, the 
Glory of all heavens, said to me : 

(i) Because of the 1 great love and 1 mercy with which the Holy 
One, blessed be He, loved 2 and cherished 2 me more than all the 
children of heaven, He wrote with his ringer with a flaming style 
upon the crown on my head the letters by which were created 
3 heaven and earth, the seas and rivers 3 , 4 the mountains and hills, 4 
the planets and constellations 5 , the lightnings, winds, earthquakes 
6 and voices (thunders) 6 , the snow and hail, the storm-wind and the 



C OM. CHH. xiii AND xiv. i-i so with BDEL. A: 'love of the Holy One, 

blessed be He, and the' 2-2 L oni. 3-3 ins. with BDEL. A om. 

44 BL om. 5 B ins. ' the sun and the moon' 6-6 L om. 



ha-QA TAN^is very near to ascribing to hirrj s\n intermediary Function of Deity. 
But it here denotes his function of being God's representative. As His representa- 
tive the Most High has conferred upon him part of His essence which i^ in His 
name. Cflhow ace, to later traditions Metatron is regarded as part pf the Shekina, 
'the body oT Shekina, "the Shekina is called by his name Metatron^ V YR. i. 57 a). 
Further on the significance of the name 'the Lesser YHWH' see Introduction, 

section 8. (Add. 27199, fol. 114 a: U"lp3 WO Vnan ti& 11^2 j^pn speaking of 
Metatron.) The expression 'the little lao' is found in Pistis Sophia (ed. Homer), 
page 6 (i2.b) (ed. Schmidt, pp. 7, 8). Cf. Introduction, 8 (p) and n Ha (a). 

Ch. xiii. (Cf. the parallel chapter xli.) ON THE CROWN WITH WHICH THE HOLY 

ONE CROWNED METATRON ACC. TO THE PRECEDING CHAPTER VS. 3, HE WRITES THE 
MYSTICAL LETTERS "BY WHICH HEAVEN AND EARTH ETC. WERE CREATED". This is 

indicated as a distinction assigned to Metatron over 'all the children of heaven' 
(cf. ch. xii. i). The idea is presumably to denote that Metatron's crown is the 
counterpart of the Crown of the Most High, just as Metatron's throne and curtain 
(ch. x. i) are the counterparts of the Divine Throne and Curtain resp. Ace. to 
Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 13 and iii. 50, the "22 letters by which the whole Torah 
was given to the Tribes of Israel . . . are engraved with a naming style on the Fearful 
Crown (cf. ch. xxix. i)". And the latter passage continues: "and when the Holy 
One, blessed be He, desired to create the world, they all went down and stood 
before Him". Mass. Hek. vii: "the crown with the Explicit Name is on His 
(fore)head". 

(i) the letters by which were created heaven and earth. Which are these 
letters ? In three different ways the conception of ' Creation by letters ' is expressed : 
(i) the world was created by the letter Beth, being the first one of the letters of 
the Tora (Bereshlth) : Gen. R. i. 14, TJ. Chag. 77 c, Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 5 : 
for on the Tora the Creation was based ; (z) the letters of the Divine Name are the 
constituents of the world (Zohar, ii. 76 a b), especially the letters of the YHWH 
and 'EH YE, viz. i, 1, n, N- But also in particular the letters Yod and He (common 
to both these names and found in the name YAH). The biblical passage Is. xxvi. 4 



CH. XIIl] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 35 

tempest ; the letters by which were created all 7 the needs of the world 
8 and all 87 the orders of Creation. 

(2) And every single letter 9 sent forth 9 10 time after time as it were 10 
"lightnings, 12 time after time as it were 12 torches, 12 time after time 
as it were 12 flames of fire, 12 time after time 1211 (rays) like [as] the 
rising of the sun and the moon and the planets. 



7-7 L om. 8-8 so with BDE. A: 'upon all' 9-9 L: 'flew off' 

10-10 BDE: 'figures like unto' or 'figures of aspects as' n-n DE om. 

12-12, B as in 10-10. 

(cf.. ch. xlii. 4) is used as support, interpreted thus: "By Yod He He created the 
worlds". The 'worlds': "the world to come with Yod, this world by He" or vice 
versa ( YR. i. 8 b). From the word behibbare'am, read be He bera'am (by He did He 
create them), in Gen. ii. 4, support is brought for the statement: 'by He heaven 
and earth were created '. The first word of the Tora (Bereshith, read Bard Sheth 
(He created (by) six) together with the passage Is. xxvi. 4 already mentioned 
(interpreted : By YH YHWH he created the worlds) are used as support for the 
creation of heaven and earth and the world by the six letters: n, 1, H, *, H, ' 
(Ma'ase Bereshith, S. Raziel, Or. 6577 foil. (19 b, 20 a b). Cf. for further refer- 
ences: TB. Men. 29 b, TJ. Chag. 77, Gen. R. xii. 2, 9, Mass. Hek. vii, Alph. R. 
'Aqiba, BH. iii. 23, 24, 53, 55, 56, YR. i. 4 b, 8 b. (3) The world was created by 
the twenty-two letters (which of course are also regarded as constituting the Divine 
Name). Pirqe R. Ishm. (Bodl. MICH. 175, foil. 20 3-26 a, ch. xxi cont.) the statement 
to this effect is based likewise upon Is. xxvi. 4. The creation of everything in heaven 
and on earth by means of the twenty-two letters is notedly the fundamental doctrine 
of the S. Yesira : " By means of the 22 letters, by giving them a form .and., a shape",* 
by mixing thern and combining them in different ways, God made the^soul of all 
that which hag been created and of all that which will be" (ii. 2, cited by Abelson 
in Jewish Mysticism, p. 104). Cf. ib. p. 100 from Ber. 55 a: "Bezalel knew how to 
join together the letters by means of which the heavens and earth were created"). 
Cf. also the "Sa'adya" commentary on S. Yesira, ii. 2. As no special letters are 
named here and no reference is made to the 'name', also because the wording 
suggests a plurality, THE 'LETTERS' ARE PRESUMABLY IN THE PRESENT CHAPTER TO 
BE UNDERSTOOD AS THE 22 LETTERS. In ch. xlviii D 5 the conferment upon Metatron 
of the twenty-two letters is explicitly stated. 

(2) And every single letter sent forth etc. Cf . ch. xxxix. i and ch. xlviii B i , 
from which it appears as if the reading of L might probably be original: 'flew off'. 
Cf. notes ad loca. On 'the mystical letters' vide Introduction, section 14 (i). 

The idea of creation by letters (of the Name) is to be traced back in the Enoch 
literature to i En. Ixix. 14-25: "the hidden Name (enunciated) in the oath. . .and 
these are the secrets of this oath:. . .through it the earth was founded. . .the sea 
was created. . .the depths made fast. . .the sun and moon complete their course" 
(Charles' ed.). 



3-2 



36 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH.XIV 

CHAPTER XIV 

All the highest princes, the elementary angels and the 
planetary and sideric angels fear and tremble at the sight 

of Metatron crowned 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(i) When the Holy One, blessed be He, put this crown on my head, 
(then) trembled before me all the Princes of Kingdoms who are in 
the height x of 'Araboth Raqiaf and all the hosts of every heaven 1 ; 
and even 2 the princes (of) the 'Elim, the princes (of) the 'Er'ellim 
and the princes (of) the Tafsarim 2 , who are greater than all the 

i-i L om. 2-2 so with BL. A : ' the princes of the 'Er'elim and the princes of 

the 'Elim Tafsarim and the princes of the 'Er'ellim ' DE: 'the princes 'Elim and the 
princes 'Tafsarim' 

Ch. xiv. In the form of a narrative of how different princes and angels trembled 
before Metatron, when they saw him crowned by the Most High, the PRESENT 

CHAPTER GIVES AN EXPOSITION OF THE VARIOUS ANGELIC POWERS UNDER METATRON'S 

AUTHORITY. These comprise mainly: (i) the princes of kingdoms, including Sam- 
mael (' who is greater than all of them ') ; (2) the princes (of) the 'Elim, 'Er'ellim and 
Tafsarim ; (3) the so-called ' rulers of the world ', i.e. (a) the angels appointed over 
the elementary powers of the world, fire, ice, wind, lightning, thunder, snow, rain, 
(b) the angels appointed over the heavenly bodies, including the angels of 'the day' 
and 'the night'. It will be noticed that these angels and angelic functions fall 
within the traditional dominion of the ' Prince of the World ' : METATRON is HERE 
(cf. on chh. ix. 5, x. 3) DENOTED AS VIRTUAL PRINCE OF THE WORLD, HAVING AUTHORITY 

OVER THE 72 PRINCES OF KINGDOMS (cf. ch. XXx) AND OVER THE 'RULERS OF THE 
WORLD '. 

(i) all the Princes of Kingdoms. Metatron is particularly depicted as the ruler 
over the princes of kingdoms; cf. chh. x. 3, xvi. i, 2, xlviii c 9, and on iii. 2. For 
the conception of the princes of kingdoms the representatives of the nations of 
the world see on ch. xvii. 8 and cf. chh. xviii. 2, xxx. 2. who are in the height 
of 'Araboth Raqia', the highest of the heavens. The princes of kingdoms are 
usually represented as having their place in the highest of the heavens, near the 
Throne of God. They form the Celestial Beth Din, the Divine Council (ch. xxx). 
See on ch. xvii. 8 (in Raqia') and xviii. 2 (in the 'Araboth Raqia', but in rank 
under the guardians of the Halls of Araboth). 

'Elim, the princes of the 'Elim. A class of angels mentioned also chh. xv B i 
and xix. 6 (in the reading of B). The name is derived from Ex. xv. n and Ezek. 
xxxii. 21. Mekilta on the former passage explains "Elim' as "those who minister 
before the Holy One in the high heavens", thus denoting them as angels. The 
'Er'ellim and 'Tafsarim, also in ch. xxxiii. 7. The 'Er'etlim, denoting angels (in 
general?) in Ket. 104 a and Yer. Kil. 32 a, are derived from Is. xxxiii. 7. They are 
one of the 'ten classes of angels' (under the rulership of Mikael, Mass. 'Asiluth, 
Zohar, Ex. xliii; Maimon, Y. Ch. Y. T.), also mentioned as one of the first classes 
of angels in YR. i. 13 a (from Midrash Konen) and i. 31 a (from 'Or ha-Chayyini) . 
The Tafsarim (Jer. li. 27, Nah. iii. 17) occur here and in ch. xxxix. 2 only. For 
the hosts of every heaven (om. by L) cf. xvii. 2. 



CH. XIV] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 37 

ministering angels who minister before the Throne of Glory, 4 shook, 
feared and trembled before me 3 when they beheld me 34 . 

(2) Even Sammael 5 , the Prince of the Accusers, who is greater 
than all the princes of kingdoms on high; feared and trembled before 
me. 

(3) And even the angel 6 of fire, and the angel 6 of hail, and the 
angel 6 of the wind, 7 and the angel of the lightning, 7 and the angel of 
anger, 8 and the angel of the thunder 8 , and the angel of the snow, 
and the angel of 9 the rain ; and the angel of the day, and the angel 
of the night, 10 and the angel of the sun and the angel of the moon 10 
and the angel of the planets and the angel of the constellations u who 
rule the world under their hands, feared 12 and trembled and were 
affrighted before me, when they beheld me 12 . 

13 (4) These are the names of the rulers of the world: Gabriel, the 



3-3 E om. 4-4 L om. 5 DE ins. 'the Evil One' 6 BL: 'angels' 

7-7 B om. 8-8 D: 'the angel of the storm-wind, the angel of the earthquake' 

B : ' the angel of the earthquake and the angel of commotion and the angel of hail ' 
L: 'and the angels of the earthquake and the thunder' 9 L ins. 'the lightning 

and' (cf. 7-7) 10-10 L om. u-n L om. from 'who rule. . . ' vs. 3 to vs. 5. 
12-13 B om. 13-13 B om. vs. 4. 

(2) Sammael, the Prince of the Accusers, who is greater than all the princes 
of kingdoms. For Sammael cf. on ch. xxvi. 21. He is here put in relation to the 
princes of kingdoms, probably regarded as the chief of these princes. As 'the 
prince of Rome' ch. xxvi. 12 he is naturally included in this category, and as a 
representative of Rome, Israel's greatest oppressor, he also becomes the repre- 
sentative of all the Gentile nations and the leader of the princes who accuse Israel 
(represented by Mikael) on high. From this point of view one trend of traditions 
regards the princes of kingdoms, under Sammael, as evil, demoniacal powers. 
In the present book the tendency is contrary: in ch. xxx the princes of kingdoms, 
under the Prince of the world, together plead the cause of the world before God in 
a universal sense, and here they are all subjected under the rulership of Metatron 
whose authority supersedes that of Sammael. 

(3) The angels of the elementary forces of fire, hail, wind, lightnings, etc., are 
comprised with those of the heavenly bodies under the category of ' rulers of the 
world' ('who rule the world under their hands'). Cf. 2 En. iv-vi where the first 
heaven is said to contain "the rulers of the orders of the stars" together with the 
angels guarding ".the treasuries of snow, ice, clouds and dew". The names and 
characteristics of the angels of i En. vi. 7 and viii show a combination of elementary 
and sideric-planetary powers: Kokabiel, evidently = Kokbiel of vs. 4 (planets or 
stars), Shamsiel (= Shimshiel of vs. 4: the sun), Sariel (the moon) and Ezeqeel 
(= Ziqiel of vs. 4: the sparks or lightnings); cf. Zaqiel, Baraqijal (= Baraqiel: 
lightnings), Jomjael (= Yomiel?, prince of the day, here Shimshiel). For the close 
connection of the gods, angels or rulers of elementary and planetary phenomena 
attested in Persian religion, Mithraism and Gnosticism cf . Bousset, Hauptprobleme 
der Gnosis, pp. 223-237. Cf. Diels, Elementum, pp. 41 seqq., pointing out that the 
o-rot^em, 'elements', of N.T.-time comprise elementary powers and planets 
(Gal. iv. 3, 9, Col. ii. 8, 20 etc.) For planetary angels, spirits or demons cf. i En. Ix 
15-22, 2 En. xv, xvi. 7,Jub. ii. 2, 4 Ez. vi. 41, 2 Bar. vi. i, item i En. Ixi. 10 ("prin- 
cipalities. . .and the powers of earth and water"), ib. Ixvi. 2 ("angels. . .over the 



3 8 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XIV 

angel of the fire, Baradiel, the angel of the hail, Ruchiel who is ap- 
pointed over the wind, Baraqiel who is appointed over the lightnings, 
Za'amiel who is appointed over the vehemence, Ziqiel who is ap- 
pointed over the sparks, Zi'iel who is appointed over the commotion, 
Zdaphiel who is appointed over the storm-wind, Ra'amiel who is 
appointed over the thunders, Rctashiel who is appointed over the 
earthquake, Shalgiel who is appointed over the snow, Matariel who 
is appointed over the rain, Shimshiel who is appointed over the day, 
Lailiel who is appointed over the night, Galgalliel who is appointed 
over the globe of the sun, 'Ophanniel who is appointed over the globe 
of the moon, Kokbielwho is appointed over the planets, Rahatiel who 
is appointed over the constellations 1311 . 

(5) And they all fell prostrate, when they saw me. And they were 
not able to behold me because of the majestic glory and beauty of 
14 the appearance of the shining 14 light of the crown of glory upon my 
head. 15 



14-14 L om. 15 here follows in B a recension of ch. vii, in L a version of 

ch. xv B. 

powers of the waters"), ib. Ixix. 2 (Kokabel, Baraqel, cf. vi, viii referred to above), 
ib. vs. 22 (" the spirits of the water and of the winds "). (4) Gabriel the angel of 
the fire. This seems to be a remnant of a tradition, connecting the archangels or 
the four 'Presences' with the elements and planets. Such a tradition is preserved 
in Tiqqune Zohar, no. 70 (" Mikael is appointed over the water or seas, Gabriel over 
the fire, Uriel over the wind, Raphael over the 'dust of the ground', the earth"). 
For Uriel as the angel of the fire, see BOX, Ezra-Ap. pp. 20, 21. Shimshiel, the 
angel over the day. The name is derived from Shemesh (sun) . Shemesh and Yom are 
often equivalent (cf. TB. Ab. Zar. 4 b, 5 a, Rashi). The name Yomiel which would 
have been more strictly in accordance with the scheme of the preceding angelic 
names (each derived from the name of their function or of the element over which 
they are appointed) occurs already in i En. vi. 7 (' Jornjael' cf. above). In Hek. Zot. 
Bodl. MICH. 9, fol. 68 a, ' Yomael' is one of seven angels connected with the seven 
heavens. Cf. note on ch. xvii. 3. Cf. also Shamsiel, i En. viii. 3 (who taught men 
"the signs of the sun"). For Galgalliel, 'Ophanniel, Kokbiel, Rahatiel, as 
angels over sun, moon, planets and constellations, see the identical representation 
in a fuller form in ch. xvii. 4-7. Cf. ch. xlvi. 3 (Rahatiel). 'Ophanni'el as the 
prince of the Ophannim, see ch. xxv (which preserves traces of the connection of 
this angel with "the globe of the moon"). Vide the consummate exposition of the 
angelic names in the parallel passage of i En. vi (with variant readings) given by 
CHARLES, in The Book of Enoch, Oxford, 1912, pp. 16, 17 ! 

(5) crown of glory.. . . Metatron's crown is here called 'crown of glory', in 
contrast to the preceding where it is always referred to as ' crown of kingship '. 



CH. XV] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 39 

CHAPTER XV 
Metatron transformed into fire 

R. Ishmael said : Metatron, the angel, the Prince of the Presence, the 
Glory of all heavens, said to me : 

(1) As soon as the Holy One, blessed be He, took me 1 in (His) 
service 1 to attend the Throne of Glory and 2 the Wheels (Galgallim) 
of the Merkaba and the needs 3 of Shekina, forthwith my flesh was 
changed into flames, my sinews into flaming fire, my bones into coals 
of burning juniper, 4 the light of 4 my eye-lids into 5 splendour of 5 
lightnings, my eye-balls into fire-brands, the hair of my head into 
dot flames, all my limbs into wings of burning fire and the whole of 
my body into glowing fire. 

(2) And on my right were divisions 6 of fiery flames, on my left 
fire-brands were burning 7 , round about me 8 stormwind and tempest 
were blowing 8 and in front of me and behind me was roaring of j 
1 thunder with earthquake 9 . 10 



i-i so A. D: 'in joy' BCL om. 2, C ins. 'by consequence' 3 CSYR: 
'arrangements' 4-4 BCL om. 5-5 B: 'sparks of CL om. 6 so B. 
A: 'dividers' (cf. on ch. vi. z). 7-7 so with (B)CDbEL. A corr. 8-8 so 
with BDE. A corr. L: 'were blown, roused' instead of 'were blowing' C om. 
'were blowing' 9-9 BCDEL: 'thunder upon thunder' 10 CL end here. 
Cf. 16 on ch. xiv and i on ch. xvi. 

Ch. xv. This chapter in common with ch. ix treats of the metamorphosis through 
which Metatron- Enoch was made into an angel. His body and substance are wholly 
changed into fire. For fire as the regular substance of the angels, see Introduction 
(Angelol., Nature, etc., of the angels). The Tos. (Yeb. 16 b) record the piyyutic 
statement: "Metatron, the Prince, who was made from flesh into fire", meaning 
"Enoch is Metatron". See YR. i. 54 . b. 

(1) my limbs into wings of burning fire. Cf. ch. ix. 2. 

(2) on my right were divisions of fiery flames etc. High angel-princes 
surrounded by fire, thunder, tempest and storm- wind is a frequent representation 
of the angelological section, chh. xviii-xxvi. Cf. e.g. chh. xviii. 25, xxii. 9, 13, etc., 
xxxiv, xxxvii. 



4 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XVB 

CHAPTER XVB 

Addition occurring in B and L 
B: L: 

(1) R. Iskmael said: Said to me (i) Metatron, he is prince over 
Metatron, the Prince of the Pre- all the princes and he stands 
sence and the prince over all the before 

princes and he stands before 

Him who is greater than all the Elohini. And he goes in under the 
Throne of Glory. And he has a great tabernacle of 1 light on high. And 
he brings forth the fire of deafness and puts (it) into the ears of the 
Holy Chayyoth, that they may not hear the voice of the Word (Dibbur) 
^that goes forth from the mouth of the Divine Majesty*. 

(2) And when Moses ascended on high, he fasted 121 fasts, till *the 
Fragment of an habitations of the chashmal were opened to him z ; and he 



Ascension of 
Moses" 



saw the heart within the saw, that it was white as the 
heart of the Lion heart of the Lion 



i L : ' above ' 2-2 L om. 3-3 L : ' they opened to him the habitations of 

the chashmal ' 

Ch. xv B. THIS ADDITIONAL PIECE which is embodied in B and L in a discon- 

nected Style PRESERVES A FRAGMENT OF AN 'ASCENSION OF MOSES ' (vSS. 2 Seqq.). 
This 'Ascension of Moses' was connected with the Metatron-tradition, in so far 
as Metatron plays the role of an intermediary between the Deity and Moses (cf. 
ch. xlviii D 7): vss. 4 and 5. Cf. also the Gedullath Moshe and the quotation from 
Pirqe Hekalot by .R. Ishmael in YR. ii. 66 a (" Said to me Metatron, the Prince of 
the Presence: When Moses ascended on high, the Holy One, blessed be He, gave 
me command and conferred on me from his Shi'ur Qoma (stature) seventy thousand 
myriads by seventy thousand myriads of parasangs ..."). (i) Metatron is standing 
before the Most High : ' Prince of the Presence '. 

(1) he goes in under the Throne of Glory, the place of the treasuries and also 
of the 'Tabernacle of the Youth'. he has a great tabernacle on high. The 
Tabernacle (Sanctuary) of Metatron under the Throne: Sepher Qoma (Bodl. OPP. 
467, fol. 61 a), "Metatron goes in under the Throne to say the 'Blessed'", ace. to 
Hilkoth Metatron, Add. 27199, fol. 114 a, item " to prostrate himself before the Holy 
One " (commentary on Sepher ha-qQoma, Bodl. OPP. 658, fol. 101 a). " The Tabernacle 
of the Youth whose name is Metatron " was completed by the ministering angels 
simultaneously with the completion of the Tabernacle on earth ace. to Num. R. 
xii. 15 (with reference to Nu. vii. i). Cf. Zohar, ii. 1593 and Introduction. Metatron 
is the High Priest on high (Shemoth sJiel Metatron, Bodl. MICH. 256, fol. 29 a), thus 
occupying the position elsewhere assigned to Mikael. Cf. Zohar, iii. 50 a: two 

Altars on high. The priest of the inner Altar is K^E) i1&6y NJilD and of the 
outer Mikael, NT") &OK>. and he brings forth the fire of deafness etc. Literally 
the same is said in S. ha-'qQoma (Bodl. OPP. 467, foil. 61 a b) with the addition 
" (from the mouth of the Holy One) and the Explicit Name that the Youth Metatron 
recites (i.e. in the Tabernacle)". 

(2) he fasted 121 fasts, i.e., probably, 121 days. The sudden introduction of 



CH. XVB] FRAGMENT OF ' ASCENSION OF MOSES ' 41 

and he saw the innumerable* companies of the hosts Around about him. 
And they desired* to burn him. But Moses prayed for mercy, first 6 
for Israel and after that 7 for himself: and He who sitteth on the Merkaba 
opened the windows that are above the heads of the Kerubim. And a 
host of 1800 advocates 8 and the Prince of the Presence, Metatron, 
with them went forth to meet Moses. And they took the prayers of 
Israel 9 and put them 10 1J -as a crown 11 on the head of the Holy One, 
blessed be He. 

(3) And they said (Deut. vi. 4): "Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God 
is one Lord" 



4 lit. ' companies of 5-5 L om. corr. 6 L om. 7 L ins. ' he asked mercy ' 
8 L ins. 'of Israel' 9-9 L: 'his prayer' 10 L: 'it' n-u L om. 

the theme of the revelations to Moses is perhaps to be accounted for by the tradi- 
tional association of the Tabernacle on high with the Tabernacle completed by 
Moses and by Metatron 's function as revealer of the 'secrets' to Moses. Cf. ch. 
xlviii 03,7. the habitations of the chashmal. chashmal, derived from Ezek. i. 4, 
is interpreted either as an angelic name (chashmal, chashmallim, cf. note on ch. vii) 
or as a celestial Matter. In any case the 'abodes of the chashmal' here mean the 
highest or central place in heaven. Ace. to Gikatillas, Sod ha-Chashmal, the 
prophet (or the seer) after having entered the successive Halls at last arrives at the 
' Hall of the Chashmal ', the Chashmal being the equivalent of the ' Chayyoth of fire ' 
(Arze Lebanon, 40 a b. Cf. 41 a: "the inner chashmal and the outer chashmal 
etc."). the heart of the Lion, the Lion = one of the four Chayyoth, Ezek. i. 10. 
they desired to burn him. Cf. the Rev. of Moses, e.g. YR. ii. 66 b ("I 
Moses saw the company of the angels of dread who surround the Throne of 
Glory. . .and they all desired to burn me"): it is a symbol of guard. Cf. i. 3, 4. 
opened the windows that are above the heads of the Kerubim. These are the 
windows through which the prayers of men are let into the Presence of the Godhead. 
In the Widduy Yaphe the supplicant prays that the Kerubim who are by the side 
of the Chayyoth and the Throne of Glory may open " the windows that are in the 
'Throne of Glory... in the habitations" and let in his prayer before Him who 
sitteth on the Kerub, etc. 1800 advocates, i.e. angels who plead in favour of 
Israel. The kerub is advocate already in TB. Chag. 13 b. the prayers of Israel 
. . .as a crown. This represents the frequent idea of the prayers wreathed into 
diadems on the head of the Most High. Usually the angel-prince Sandalfon is 
assigned the function of receiving the prayers of the righteous and making them 
into crowns for 'his Creator'. Here this function is ascribed to the advocating 
angels under Metatron. (Sandalfon is nowhere mentioned in the present book.) 
(Cf. Chag. 13 b, Rev. Moses YR. ii. 66 b, Zohar, ii. 58 a, i. 167 b.) Ace. to 
Yalqut Chadash, mal'akim, no. 25, "Metatron brings the prayers of Israel before 
the Holy One, blessed be He". Ib. ib. no. 9, "There are three who receive the 
prayers: 'Akatriel (cf. vs. 4), Metatron and Sandalfon", of these three, ace. to 
ib. ib. no. 38, 'Akatriel receives the prayers of the 'nSshamd' (the spirit, the highest 
part of man), Metatron those of the rudch (the soul, as it is perhaps best translated), 
Sandalfon those of the nefesh (the mental or vital part of man). And ib. ib. no. 95, 
Metatron receives the prayers and ascends through 900 of the 955 heavens (cf. 
ch. xlviii A i), handing them over to Akatriel. A class of angels receiving the prayers, 
as here, is also represented in Masseket Asilut, ch. v (Jellinek, Ginze Chokmath 
ha-qQabbala), "in the world of 'Asiyya are the 'Ophannim and (the angels who) 
receive the prayers and requests.. . ." 

(3) And they said "Hear, O Israel etc." This seems to indicate that the 
fragment was connected with a midrashic exposition of the ShSma'. It is difficult 



42 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XV B 

B: L: 

and their face shone and rejoiced and the face of Shekina shone and 
over Shekina rejoiced 

and they said to Metatron: "What are these? And to whom do they 
give all this honour and glory?" And they answered: "To the Glorious 
Lord of Israel". And they spake: 

B: L: 

"Hear, O Israel: the Lord, our God, is one "YHWH the Living 

Lord. To whom shall be given abundance of and Eternal". 

honour and majesty but to Thee YHWH, the 

Divine Majesty, the King, living and eternal". 

(4) In that moment spake Akatriel Yah Yehod Sebaoth and said to 
Metatron, the Prince of the Presence: "Let no prayer that he prayeth 
before me return (to him) void. Hear thou his prayer and fulfil his desire 
whether (it be) great or small 12 ". 

(5) Forthwith Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, said to Moses: 
"Son of Amram! Fear not, 13 for now God delights in thee 13 . And ask 
thou u thy desire u of the Glory and Majesty. For thy face shines from 
one end of the world to the other". But Moses answered him: "(I fear) 

12 ins. with L. B om. 13-13 L om. 14-14 L: 'thy need' 

to determine the different subjects of the sentences of the present verse. ' They ' 
and 'their' probably refer to the advocating angels mentioned in the preceding 
verse, except in they give all this honour etc. which is equivalent to ' is given all 
this honour . . . ' and in they answered which should be emended ' he (Metatron) 
answered '. 

(4) In that moment spake Akatriel Yah Yehod Sebaoth. Akatriel Yah 
Yehod Sebaoth is here in all probability a name of the Most High, not of an angel : 
cf. ' prayer that he prayeth before me ' and vs. 5 : ' (Metatron says, probably with 
reference to the words attributed to Akatriel in this verse,) now God delights in 
thee'. Akatriel as a name of God occurs in the well-known passage Ber. 73. 
Akatriel ("the crown of God", "God crowned") is cabbalistically the name of the 
Godhead as manifested on the Throne of Glory. He is identical with the Kerub 
ha-mMeyuchad (Or. 5510, fol. 127 b) and represents the sefira Keter. Akatriel 
is, however, also a frequent name of an angel, in this case usually without the 
appendix Yah Yehod Sebaoth; cf. quotations in note on vs. 2 above. It may 
be apposite here to give the view of Cordovero (Pardes, quoted YR. i. 90 a) : 
he maintains that Akatriel even in Ber. 7 a refers to an angel, not to God : " said 
R. Ishmael, I saw Akatriel Yah YHWH Sebaoth etc. This means the angel who 
receives the prayers, and not the King of the Glory, for if so, he (R. Ishmael) would 
not have said ' I saw ' God forbid ! As is known, Akatriel is a prince on high and 
not God. And the ' Yah Yah Sebaoth' means nothing more than that he is like 
other angels who are called by the name of their Master (cf. on xxix. i, x. 3, iii. 2) ". 

Hear thou his prayer and fulfil his desire. HENCE METATRON is CONCEIVED OF 

AS GOD'S REPRESENTATIVE NOT ONLY TO THE ANGELS BUT ALSO TO MAN. The underlying 
idea is here probably Metatron's identification with the ' angel ' of Ex. xxiii. 20 seqq. 

(5) For thy face shines from one end of the world to the other. Cf. Ex. 
xxxiv. 29. Moses has obtained from the ethereal light or splendour of the Divine 



CHH.XVB,XVl] ENOCH-METATRON PIECE 43 

lest I bring guiltiness upon myself". Metatron said to him: ''Receive 
the letters of the oath, in (by) which there is no breaking the covenant" 15 
(which precludes any breach of the covenant). 



CHAPTER XVI 1 
Probably additional 

Metatron divested of his privilege of presiding on a 
Throne of his own on account of Acker's misapprehen- 
sion in taking him for a second Divine Power 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
the Glory of all heaven, said to me: 

(i) At first I was sitting upon a 2 great Throne at the door of the 
Seventh Hall ; and I was judging 3 the children of heaven, 4 the house- 
hold on high 4 by authority of the Holy One, blessed be He. And I 
divided Greatness, Kingship, Dignity, Rulership, Honour and Praise, 
and Diadem and Crown of Glory unto all the princes of kingdoms, 

15 the additions following upon this are in B definitely stated not to belong to 
' the Baraita ' 

Ch. xvi. i Chh. xvi-xxii om. by E. Ch. xvi is not included in the Part of Baraitas 
from the Ma'ase Merkaba in L, but a recension of it follows immediately after 
the version of ch. xii, without reference to source. 2 so BDL. A: 'the' 

3 L ins. 'all' 4-4 BDL om. 

Glory. For 'the oath' cf. i En. Ixix. 14-25. The oath contains Divine letters, i.e. 
letters of the Divine names. Cf. Introduction, section 14 (i). 

Ch. xvi. The present chapter is a different version of the well-known narrative 
in Chag. 15 a (cf. Tos. Chag. 2, 3, Yer. Chag. ii. i, fol. 77 b). The main DIFFERENCES 
between the two versions are: (i) in Chag. 15 a Metatron 's privilege of 'sitting' 
in the heavens is explained from his being the scribe, recording the merits of Israel, 
here the view of the preceding chapters is accepted (ch. x. 2 seqq.) ace. to which 
Metatron was seated on a Throne of his own as judge and ruler over the angels, in 
particular the princes of kingdoms, (2) in Chag. the reason for or justification of 
the punishment administered on Metatron is that he did not rise when he saw 
Acher beholding him (so as to prevent the misapprehension as to the Unity of the 
Godhead; this is omitted here, (3) the execution of punishment is in Chag. attributed 
to a plurality of angels, not further defined, here the angel 'Anaphiel, known from 
ch. vi. i and allied traditions (see on ch. x. 3) as having occupied a position above 
Metatron, is used for this purpose. (A : ' 'Aniyyel '.) 

(i) At first I was sitting upon a great Throne at the door of the Seventh Hall. 

Cf. ch. X. 1-3. THE OPENING GIVES THE IMPRESSION THAT THE CH. IS AN INDEPENDENT 
FRAGMENT. INDEED VS. I REPEATS THE DETAILS OF CHH. X, XLVIII C 8, 9, WITH THE 
EXPLICIT ADDITION THAT THE DISTINCTIONS IN QUESTION, CONFERRED UPON META- 
TRON, WERE ONLY TEMPORARY ('AT FIRST', ' IN THE BEGINNING'). The role here 

assigned to Metatron is markedly primarily the rulership over the princes of king- 
doms. Over these he presides in the Celestial Court, passing judgement upon 
the heavenly household but also as conferring upon them their authority and 



44 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XVI 

while I was presiding (lit. sitting) in the Celestial Court (Yeshiba), 
and the princes of kingdoms were standing before me, on my right 
and on my left by authority of the Holy One, blessed be He. 

(2) But when Acher 5 came to behold the vision of the Merkaba 
and fixed his eyes on me, he feared and trembled before me and his 
soul was affrighted even unto departing from him, because of fear, 
horror and dread of me, when he beheld me sitting upon a throne 
like a king with all the ministering angels standing by me as my 
servants and all the princes of kingdoms 6 adorned with crowns 6 
surrounding me: (3) in that moment he opened his mouth and said: 
"Indeed, there are two Divine Powers in heaven!" (4) Forthwith 
Bath Qol (the Divine Voice) went forth 7 from heaven 7 from before 
the Shekina and said: "Return, ye backsliding children (Jer. iii. 22), 
except Acher!" 



5 DL : ' Elisha ben Abuya who is (also called) Acher ' B : (instead of ' Acher came ') 
'came Elisha ben Abuya and he was standing behind (corr. reading for 'Acher') 
YHWH' 6-6 so DL (cf. on vs. 3 of ch. xii, chh. xvii. 8, xviii. 3 beg.). 

AB: 'wreathing crowns' (cf. also vs. i here: ' divided ... crown ... until etc.') 
7-7 BDL om. 

emblems of rulership : again a trait of the Prince of the World conception, presiding 
in the Celestial Court or council. Metatron is depicted in a position similar 
to that of God presiding in the Celestial Beth Din in chh. xxviii c 7-9, xxx. The 
conception is implied in ch. x and ch. xlviii C 8, 9. Metatron's presidency in his 
yeshiba is apparently pictured after the pattern of God's presidency in the highest 
Beth Din, and naturally so, Metatron being God's representative and vice-regent, 
by authority of the Holy One, blessed be He. It is emphasized that Metatron's 
presidency in the yeshiba and his rulership are derived from 'his King'. 

(2) when Acher came to behold the vision of the Merkaba. Acher, as Elisha 
ben Abuya was called after his ' fall ', is a well-known figure of Rabbinic (in modern 
time characterized as 'the Faust of the Talmud'): see, besides Chag. 15 a and Yer. 
Chag. 77 b, Rut. R. vi, Eccl. R. to vii. 8, 26 (P. Aboth, iv. 25), further Graetz, 
Gnostizismus u. jfudentum, pp. 62-71, Chains, v. 66-72, Smolenskin in Hash- 
Shachar, v. 66-72, Steinschneider, Elisha ben Abuya, Bacher in Agada der Tannaiten 
(R. Meir, etc.) came to behold the vision of Merkaba : ace. to the Talmud-passages 
he was one of the four who 'entered Paradise' in their lifetime, an expression 
evidently denoting mystical experiences and speculations on the ' Ma' ase Merkaba', 
here he is simply denoted as one of those who beheld the vision of the Merkaba 
(as R. Ishmael, ch. i. i seq.). 

(3) Indeed, there are two Divine Powers in heaven (cf. Chag. 15 a: "are 
there, God forbid, two Divine Powers?"). Acher is described as giving vent to 
the most abominable heretic view, that denying the absolute Unity of the Godhead. 
The Talmudic tradition emphasizes Acher 's aberration into heresy, and also, as it 
seems, that his heresy was caused by his mystical speculations. Acher, after having 
entered Paradise 'cut the plantations', i.e., probably, seduced scholars from the 
right faith. (Cf. also the Tosaphists ad locum, Chag. 15 a). 

(4) Bath Qol went forth. . .and said: "Return, ye backsliding children, 
except Acher!' (identical with Chag. 15 a). Acher was to be excluded from the 
opportunity of forgiveness through repentance, offered to all other children of 
God. 



CHH. XVI, XVIl] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (A2) 45 

(5) Then came 'Aniyel 9 , the Prince, the honoured, glorified, be- 
loved, wonderful, revered and fearful one, in commission from 
10 the Holy One, blessed be He 10 and 11 gave me sixty strokes with 
lashes of fire 11 and made me stand on my feet. 



CHAPTER XVII x 

The princes of the seven heavens, of the sun, moon, 
planets and constellations and their suites of angels 

R. Ishmael said : Metatron, the angel, the Prince of the Presence, the 
glory of all heavens, said to me: 

(i) Seven (are the) princes, the great, beautiful 2 , revered, wonderful 

9 BDL: "Anaphiel YHWH' 10-10 DL: 'MAQOM' (the Divine Majesty) 

i i-i i lit. ' struck me with sixty lashes of fire ' B : ' (and) brought with him sixty 
lashes and hosts of fire ' 

Ch. xvii. i Chh. xvii-xxi om. by B. Extant in D and A only. Cf. ch. xv. 10, 
ch. xvi. i. 2 D om. 

(5) Then came 'Anaphiel (BDL) H etc. Cf. ch. vi. i and on ch. x. 3. The 
chapter accepts the tradition ace. to which 'Anaphiel is assigned a position higher 
than that of Metatron. HeJs given six epithets, exactly as in Hek. R. xxii. i. 
In Chag. 153 the executors of the punishment are not defined (" they brought out 
Metatron and struck him. . ."). Cf. introd. of notes on the present chapter. For 
the punishment of angels with lashes of fire cf. Yoma, 77 a (Gabriel), made me 
stand on my feet, i.e. Metatron was deprived of his privilege of sitting on a throne. 

Tosaf. Chag, 15 a, explains: DnjIND nJV n'P'D' 1 b rPH K 1 ?^ *h VHin!? 

Note. The position of ch. xvi within the present ' Enoch-Metatron piece ' of the 
Hebrew Book of Enoch is discussed in the Introduction, section 8 (v). 

THE ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION: chh. xvii-xxii, xxv-xxviii. 6. 

Ch. xvii. With the present chapter begins a section treating exclusively of the 
different angels, princes and orders of angels which may conveniently be called 
'the angelological section'. It comprises chh. xvii-xxii, xxv-xxviii. 6, containing 
at least THREE DIFFERENT EXPOSITIONS : ch. xvii (A 2), ch. xviii (A 3) and chh. xix-xxii, 
xxv-xxviii. 6 (A i). On the angelology of this section, see Introduction, section 13 
(i A, B, c). 

Ch. xvii presents an angelological system from the highest to the lower orders. 
The highest are the seven princes over the seven heavens, i.e. the seven archangels. 
Next to these come the princes appointed over the heavenly bodies, four in number. 
Each of these princes have under them myriads of angels. 

(i) seven are the princes. . .who are appointed over the seven heavens. . . 
Mikael etc. It is noticeable that order and forms of the names of the princes of 
the seven heavens, the archangels, are not identical with those of vs. 3. Besides, 
the readings of A and D differ. In fact, great uncertainty seems to have prevailed 
from the very earliest as to the names of the seven archangels. No two sources 
extant, from i En. xx to mediaeval Qabbala, present exactly the same order and 
names of these angels. Cf. further on vs. 3. 



46 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XVII 

and honoured ones who are appointed over the seven heavens. And 
these are they : 

A: D: 

MIKAEL, GABRIEL, SHATQIEL, MIKAEL and GABRIEL, SHATQIEL and 
SHACHAQIEL, BAKARIEL, BA- BARADIEL and SHACHAQIEL and BA- 
DARIEL, PACHRIEL. RAQIEL and SIDRIEL. 

(2) And every one of them is the prince of the host of (one) heaven. 
And each one of them is accompanied by 496,000 myriads of minis- 
tering angels. 

(3) MIKAEL, the great prince, is appointed over the seventh heaven, 
the highest one, which is in the 'Araboth. 



(2) each one of them is accompanied by 496,000 myriads of ministering 
angels. The number 496,000 (myriads) generally refers to the ministering angels 
as performers of the Qedushsha (cf. chh. xxxv. i, xl. 3). 496 is the numerical value 
of Malkut (Kingdom) : the song-uttering angels proclaim God's sovereignty, ' take 
upon themselves the yoke of the Kingdom of heaven' (ch. xxxv. 6). The hosts of 
song-uttering angels are usually depicted as under the authority, not of the seven 
archangels ' princes of the host ' but of the four ' princes of the army ' (ch. xxxv. 3), 
' the four presences ' (i En. xxxix f., see on xviii. 4) : MIKAEL, GABRIEL, 'URIEL (Nuriel) 
and RAPHAEL. The conception of the four presences is closely connected with that 
of the seven archangels. 

Each one of them is the prince of the host of one heaven. (3) Mikael . . . 
is appointed over the seventh heaven, Gabriel, the prince of the host, is 
appointed over the sixth heaven etc. The expression 'princes of the hosts' is 
used of Mikael and Gabriel in Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 48. Metatron is called 'one 
of the princes of the host' in Shi'ur Qoma (Bodl. MICH. 175, fol. 18 b). The term is 
probably derived from Josh. v. 14 ("the captain of the host of the Lord", "the 
prince of the host of YHWH") which is referred either to Metatron or to Mikael 
or to Gabriel (cf. Siuni, 53 b-d). The idea of the multitudes of angels as divided in 
hosts, distributed through the seven heavens underlies ch. xviii. i (cf. also ch. 
xiv. i). The tendency of arranging the orders of the angels according to the system 
of the seven heavens appears already in the Pseudepigrapha, although the traditions 
are somewhat confused. Test. Levi, iii. assigns different classes of angels to each 
of the seven heavens (ist heaven : " the spirits of the retributions for the vengeance " ; 
and heaven : " the hosts of the armies which are ordained for the day of judgement " ; 

3rd heaven: ace. to rec. 3 OA^S) = 2nd heaven (a); 4th heaven: "thrones and 
dominions in which always they offer praise to God"; sth: "angels who bear 
answers (prayers) to the angels of the presence " ; 6th : " the archangels who minister 
and make propitiation to the Lord"; 7th: "the Glory of God and the angels of 

the Presence" (/3A^S).) See CHARLES, A and P, ad loc. Ace. to 2 En. iii-ix, to the 
first heaven are located the rulers of the stars and the angels set over the treasuries 
of ice, snow, clouds, etc., to the 4th the sun and moon and the angels over them 
together with "an armed host of angels praising God", to the 5th the Grigori 
(Watchers), to the 6th "seven bands of angels. . .who make the orders and learn 
the goings of the stars and the alteration of the moon and the revolution of the sun . . . 
(who are) appointed over seasons and years etc.", to the 7th "fiery troops of great 
archangels etc." In 3 Bar. the angels attending the sun, moon (and the stars 
ch. ix. i) are assigned to the 3rd heaven, in the 5th heaven (ib. xi. i seqq.) is Mikael 
"who holds the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven". In Ascension of Isaiah similarly 
the seven heavens are depicted as containing different hosts of angels, each sur- 
passing the lower one in glory. (Vide CHARLES, Asc. Is. in T.E.D.) 



CH.XVIl] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (A2) 47 

GABRIEL, the prince of the host, is appointed over the sixth heaven 
which is in Makon. 

3 SHATAQIEL, prince of the host, is appointed over the fifth heaven 
which is in Ma'on. s 

SHAHAQi'EL 4 , prince of the host, is appointed over the fourth heaven 
which is in Zebul. 

BADARIEL 5 , prince of the host, is appointed over the third heaven 
which is in Shehaqim. 



3-3 Db om. 4 Db : ' Shataqiel ' 5 D : ' Baradiel ' 

The seven archangels (holy angels who watch) are enumerated in the well-known 
passage, ch. xx of i En., together with the dominions of their rulership: Uriel, 
Raphael, Ragnel, Mikael, Saraqael, Gabriel, Remiel. In none of the adduced passages 
the present conception of the archangels as rulers each over one of the seven heavens, 
is developed: the archangels are generally assigned to a specified heaven (the 6th 
or yth, cf. the references to Test. Levi and 2 En. above). Parallels to the present 
picture are, however, found in Pirqe R. Ishmael (Bodl. MICH. 175, foil. 20 seqq.), 
ch. xxi cont. and Hek. Zot. (Bodl. MICH. 9, foil. 67 b, 68 a), although with different 
names and order. In the former passage, which is closely dependent upon the 
representation of Chag. 12 b, the names of the princes of the respective heavens are : 
PFz/ow-QEMUEL (and the angels of destruction, cf. Test. Levi above and Gedullat 
Moshe), Raqia'-GXLLlsVR, Shechaqim-SHAPHiEL, Zebul-MiKAEL (in accordance with 
Chag. 12 b), .Ma'ow-GABRiEL, Ma&ora-SANDALFON, 'Araboth-no name given. In 
Hek. Zot. the seven angels "praising the Holy One, blessed be He, in each heaven" 
are: ist heaven, MIKAEL; 2nd, GABRIEL; 3rd, SODIEL; 4th, 'AKATRIEL; 5th, RAPHAEL; 
6th, BODIEL; 7th, YOMAEL. A trace of the tradition locating the archangels, each to 
one of the seven heavens, is perhaps recognizable also in Test, of Solomon, vss. 59 
seqq. (ed. Conybeare, JQR. vol. xi. 1-45), " RAPHAEL ... BAZAZATH who has his 
seat in the second heaven . . . RATHANAEL who sits in the third heaven . . . IAMETH . . . ". 

The close connection with the rulers of the heavenly bodies in which the arch- 
angels as princes of the seven heavens are represented in the present chapter is 
perhaps indicative of the range of ideas from which the conception has emerged : 
the planetary or sideric speculations. The important role played by these specula- 
tions is discernible also in the pseudepigraphal passages referred to above. It is 
possible, that the idea of the seven archangels as rulers over the seven heavens 
was brought about through the conception of the heavens as planetary spheres, 
the archangels being originally the princes of the seven planets. The conception 
of the seven heavens as planetary spheres is attested in 2 En. xxviii. 3 : " the 
seven stars, each one of them in its heaven". Cf. YR. i. 15 b, 16 b. This 
idea was probably obscured by the parallel tendency of assigning the heavenly 
bodies to a definite heaven, a tendency at work in the pseudepigraphal works in 
question and in its final form represented in the tradition locating the sun, moon, 
planets and constellations to Raqia', the 2nd heaven (in Rabbinic, Chag. 12 b et al. 
and throughout the present book). The tradition of the seven archangels with their 
suites as rulers over the planets (including dominion over constellations and ele- 
ments) might be traced in the representation of 2 En. xix, ace. to which seven bands 
of angels "make the orders and learn the goings of the stars"; cf. above. This 
conception obtains in later sources: YR. i. 6 a: "MIKAEL is appointed over 
Saturn, BARAQIEL over Jupiter, GABRIEL over Mars, RAPHAEL over the sun, CHASDIEL 
over Mercury, SIDQIEL over Venus, 'ANA 'EL over the moon", ib. i. 16 a: "Mikael: 
the Sun, Gabriel: the Moon, Qaphsiel: Saturn, Sammael: Mars, Raphael: Jupiter, 
'Ana'el: Venus". A trace of the same idea is possibly to be seen in vss. 35-41 of 
Testament of Solomon; seven archangels rule over and frustrate the seven demons 



48 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XVII 

BARAKIEL 6 , prince of the host, is appointed over the second heaven 
which is in 7 the height of (Merom) 1 Raqia 1 . 

PAZRIEL 8 , prince of the host, is appointed over the first 9 heaven 
which is in Wilon, which is in Shamayim. 

(4) Under them is GALGALLIEL 10 , the prince who is appointed over 
the globe (galgal) of the sun, and with him are 96 great and honoured 
angels who move 11 the sun in Raqia'. 12 

(5) 13 Under them 13 is 'OPHANNIEL, the prince who is set over the 
globe ('ophari) of the moon. And with him are 88 14 angels who move 11 
the globe of the moon 354 thousand parasangs every night at the 
time when the moon stands in the East at its turning point. 15 And 
when is the moon sitting in the East at its turning point? Answer: 
in the fifteenth day of every month. 15 

(6) Under them is RAHATIEL, the prince who is appointed over the 
constellations. And he is accompanied by 72 great and honoured 
angels. And why is he called RAHATIEL? Because he makes the stars 
run (marhit) in their orbits and courses 339 thousand parasangs every 
night from the East to the West, and from the West to the East. For 



6 D: 'Baraqiel' 7-7 D om. 8 D: 'SidrieP 9 ins. with D. A om. 

10 D: 'Galgiel' n so D. A', 'bring down' 12 D adds: '365,000 para- 

sangs every day ' 13-13 so with Z). A corr. i^.D:'68' i^-i^ 



connected with ' the seven stars ' (the seven planets or the Pleiades, cf . Conybeare's 
note in locum). Of these seven high angels six are named: LAMECHALAL, BARUCH- 
IACHEL, MARMARATH (Marmaraoth, vs. 94), BALTHIEL, ASTERAOTH, URIEL. Uriel is 
the angel set over the stars ace. to i En. Ixxii-lxxxii. In i En. xx Raguel is "one 
of the holy angels who takes vengeance on the world of luminaries ". 

As regards the names of the seven archangels it has already been pointed out 
that all the different sources vary on this point. To the passages given above may 
be added Test. Salomon, vss. 73-81 : the names are there: MIKAEL, GABRIEL, URIEL, 
SABRAEL, ARAEL, IAOTH, ADONAEL. From the different enumerations can be seen 
that the names most frequently recurring are those of the 'four presences', "Mikael, 
Gabriel, Raphael and Uriel", and of these Mikael and Gabriel are common to 
most of the sources. (Cf. how i En. Ixxxvii. 2, 3 clearly represents the seven arch- 
angels as consisting of four, i.e. Presences and three with them.) Of the rest some 
are evidently derived from the old lists of superior angels, of which parts are pre- 
served e.g. in i En. vi, viii, Ixix (as Watchers, Fallen Angels), Ixxxii. 10-20 (leaders 
of the stars, rulers of seasons and months). Baraqiel (D) here is the Baraqijal of 
i En. vi, Baraqel, ib. Ixix. 2. Cf. Barakiel (A) with Berkael i En. Ixxxii. 17, Badariel 
(A) with Batael i En. vi. 7, Batarjal ib. Ixix. 2. The names are older than the con- 
ception of the seven archangels. But it is significant that such names are chosen as 
originally represent the angels ruling over the heavenly bodies and over the elementary 
powers, in Wilon which is in Shamayim, 'which is in Shamayim' is a gloss. 
' Shamayim ' is the Hebrew synonym of Wilon (velum) as name of the first heaven. 

(4-7) Under them are Galgalliel. . . 'Ophanniel. . . Rahatiel. . .Kokbiel, with 
subservient angels. The heavenly bodies are divided in the four categories of sun, 
moon, planets and constellations as in Chag. 12 b, and, as there, are assigned to the 
second heaven, the Raqia'. Each of these four categories is assigned a special prince, 
who is accompanied by a number of assistant angels. In the present system these 



CH. XVII] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (A2) 49 

the Holy One, blessed be He, has made a tent for all of them, for the 
sun, the moon, the planets and the stars in which they travel at night 
from the West to the East. 

(7) Under them is KOKBIEL, the prince who is appointed over all 
the planets. And with him are 365,000 myriads of ministering angels, 
great and honoured ones who move 16 the planets from city to city 
and from province to province in the Raqia' of heavens. 

1 6 so D. A:' bring down ' 

princes and angels are made to rank under the seven archangels as princes of the seven 
heavens. As has already been pointed out, it is highly probable, that the original 
representation was one of the seven archangels as princes each over one of the 
seven spheres as containing the planets with constellations. The present systematiza- 
tion can be regarded as a modification of this original view to the established notion 
of the Raqia', the second heaven, as the place of the heavenly bodies. 

The names of the princes, GALGALLIEL, 'OPHANNIEL, RAHATIEL, KOKBIEL are uni- 
form with those of ch. xiv. 4. Rahatiel also occurs in ch. xlvi. 3 in a similar function. 
'Ophanniel is the prince of the 'Ophannim, ch. xxv. The names Galgalliel, 'Ophanniel 
and Kokbiel are derived from Galgal (globe, i.e. of the sun), Ophan (globe, i.e. of 
the moon) and Kokab (planet) respectively. Rahatiel is, ace. to the intimation of 
vs. 6, derived from rahat (to run). In TB. Ber. 32 b, Rahaton is the technical term for 
divisions of angels who have immediate rule over the stars and planets. Rahatiel 
is the prince over planets and constellations or luminaries in general ace. to 5. Raziel, 
19 b, 21 b (cf. also Qeneh Binah, 34 b, and S. ha-Chesheq, Add. 27120, fol. 14 b). 
Galgalliel and 'Ophanniel seem to be comparatively late devices. Kokbiel is of early 
origin, cf. Kokabiel, i En. vi. 7, Kokabel, ib. viii. 3 (who "taught constellations")) 
Ixix. 2. 

For the conception of angels who 'move the heavenly bodies' cf. i En. Ixxii- 
Ixxxii ("the Book of the Heavenly Luminaries": CHARLES), URIEL being there the 
prince over the heavenly bodies; Ixxii. 3 ("the leaders of the stars"), Ixxv. i ("the 
leaders of the heads of the thousands who are placed over the whole creation and 
over all the stars"), Ixxix, Ixxx. I ("the leaders of the stars of the heaven and all 
those who turn them "), 6 (" chiefs of the stars "), Ixxxii. 4 and esp. 10-20 (the names 
of the leaders of the stars), 4 Ez. vi. 3, 2 En. xi. 3-5 (15 myriads of angels attend the 
sun during the day, and 1000 by night), Midrash 'Asereth Ma'amaroth, BH. i. 64 
(" S^S angels are set over the sun, moving it from window to window in Raqia' "), 
3 Bar. vi. I seqq. (the chariot of the sun drawn by forty angels), vss. 13,16 ("for 
the sun is made ready by the angels"), ib. vii. 4 ("I saw the shining sun and the 
angels which draw it"), ix. i seqq. (the moon sitting on a wheeled chariot: "and 
there were before it oxen and lambs and a multitude of angels . . . the oxen and 
lambs... they also are angels"). The derivation of the numbers ninety-six and 
eighty-eight in vss. 4 and 5 resp. is not clear. The number seventy-two of the 
angels assisting RAHATIEL, the prince of the constellations, corresponds to the seventy- 
two divisions of the zodiac (cf. the seventy-two princes of kingdoms, vs. 8, etc.). 
KOKBIEL again, vs. 7, is assisted by 365,000 myriads of ministering angels. Literally 
the same statement is made about KOKBIEL in S. Raziel, 19 b. These angels "move 
the planets (kokabim) ". It is noteworthy, that ace. to TB.Ber. 32 b, referred to above, 
the different camps (of angels), in the last instance sorting under the constellations, 
have each under them " 365,000 myriads of planets (kokabim) corresponding to the 
days of the sun (i.e. the solar year) ". The latter parts of vss. 5 and 6 are somewhat 
obscure. They might be remnants of expositions of the courses of the heavenly 
bodies, such as are given at length in i En. Ixxii-lxxxii (the ' portals of the sun ') ; 
ch. Ixxii, the moon; ch. Ixxiv, the portals of sun, moon, stars and all the works of 



OHB 



50 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XVII 

(8) And over them are SEVENTY-TWO PRINCES OF KINGDOMS on high 
corresponding to the 72 tongues of the world. And all of them are 
crowned with royal crowns and clad in royal garments and wrapped 
in royal cloaks. And all of them are riding on royal horses and they 
are holding royal sceptres in their hands. And before each one of 



heaven; ch. Ixxv. 6 seqq., cf. ch. Ixxviii. 7 seq., "and fifteen parts of light are 
transferred to the moon till the fifteenth day (when) her light is accomplished 
(vs. 5 here)". The conception of the 'tent' for the sun, etc., is usually referred 
to Ps. xix. 5 (and 7). 

(8) over them are seventy -two princes of kingdoms . . . lit. ' above them 
etc.' It is difficult to reconcile this vs. with the preceding. To whom does 
'above them' refer? To the 365,000 myriads of angels of vs. 7 or to the princes 
and angels of the heavenly bodies in general? No doubt, as the context now stands, 
the seventy-two princes of kingdoms are intended as princes over the angels who 
'move the planets', by analogy with the seventy-two assistant angels of vs. 6. This 
would seem to be additional, since the real counterpart of the assistant angels of 
vss. 4, 5, 6 are in vs. 7, the 365,000 myriads of angels. The expression 'above thetn' 
is not appropriate in the sense which it is here made to denote, the right phrase 

would have been e.g. 'over them are appointed' (D'OIDD DnvJ/l). The inception 
'above them' rather presupposes an exposition of the order of angelic classes, 
proceeding from the lower to the higher ones, hence quite contrary to that of the 
present chapter. The fragment is more akin to the angelological section, chh. xix 
seqq., to which it may even originally have belonged, since the beginning of that 
section is missing in the present book. See note on ch. xix. i. 

By the compiler of the present chapter the seventy-two princes of kingdoms are made 
the riders over the planets. The conception of the princes of kingdoms as rulers of 
planets and constellations is frequently represented in later sources. Their appellation 
properly refers to their function as angelic leaders of the destinies of the nations, as 
representatives in heaven of the kingdoms on earth. As such their number is usually 
given as seventy (corresponding to the number of nations (tongues) of the world, 
enumerated Gen. x). The idea of heavenly guardians of the nations occurs in Dan. x. 
20, 21, and is fully developed in Sir. xvii. 17, I En. Ixxxix. 59 seqq. (in the metaphor 
of the seventy shepherds), Targ. Yer. to Gen. xi. 7, 8, TB. Yoma, 77 a, Sukka, 29 a, 
Gen. R. Ixviii, Ixxvii, Ex. R. xxi, Lev. R. xxix, P. R. 'El. xxiv. They plead the cause 
of their resp. nations before God, each suffers punishment with the nation under 
his protection, they form the celestial Beth Din etc. For this range of ideas see 
chh. xxx. 1,2, xlviii c 9 and note on xxx. 2. 

The leader of the princes of kingdoms is ace. to Midr. Abkir, Yalq. on Gen. no. 
132, Targ. Ps. xxxvii. 7, 8, MIKAEL, prince of Israel; ace. to ch. xxx here, the Prince 
of the World; and ace. to the Enoch-Metatron sections of the present book, Meta- 
tron (chh. x. 3, xiv. i, xvi. i, 2, xlviii c 9, cf. also xlviii D 5). In their aspect of 
leaders of the Gentile nations they were sometimes regarded as evil agencies (so 
already i En. Ixxxix. 65, 69, xc. 17, 22, 23, 25), and as their chief was then named 
SAMMAEL, the prince of Rome (cf. chh. xiv. 2, xxvi. 12). 

When associated with the idea of the planets and constellations as determining or 
ruling the destinies of the nations, it zvas only natural that the conception should develop 
into that of the princes of kingdoms as riders over the heavenly bodies just as the 
Prince of the World was made the ruler of planets and constellations (cf. ch. 
xxxviii. 3). This development may have begun at an early time. The seventy shep- 
herds are already in i En. connected with the rulers of the world, the Watchers or 
Fallen Angels who, symbolized by stars, are judged together with the seventy 
shepherds ace. to I En. xc. 24. (On the identification of the princes of kingdoms 
with the Watchers see note on ch. xxix intr.) For the Watchers as rulers of elements, 
constellations, planets, etc., see i En. vi-viii, Ixix, note on vs. 3 above and on 



CH. XVIl] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (A 2) 51 

them when he is travelling in Raqia' , royal servants are running with 
great glory and majesty 

A: D: 

even as on earth they and before every one of them, when 

(princes) are travelling in travelling in Raqia', there are running 

chariot(s) with horsemen great armies, even as (the custom is) 

and great armies and in on earth, with chariot(s), in glory and 

glory and greatness with greatness, praise, song and honour, 
praise, song and honour. 



ch. xiv. 3, 4. The connection of the ' gods of the nations ' with the planets is perhaps 
to be seen also in TB. Sukka, 29 a. Ace. to Ma'areket ha-'Elohuth, 128 b, " the nations 
are allotted to the Princes and Constellations". YR., i. 15 a, gives the following 
quotation from Tub-ha-'Ares: "In the seven firmaments (heavens), under them, 
are the seven planets . . . (Shesem Chanokol: Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, 
Mercury and Moon) and in these seven heavens are the Spirits of the seventy 
nations, ten nations under each planet, and the twelve constellations give abund- 
ance unto them". 

Probably under the influence of their sideric significance the number of the princes 
of kingdoms was changed from seventy to seventy-two (the number of the divisions 
of the zodiac). In the present book they are mentioned as seventy- two in chh. xviii. 
3, xxx. 2 and here. Ch. xlviii c 9, on the other hand, has ' seventy princes '. Cf. note 
on ch. xxx. 2 and also on ch. xlviii B i . The two princes added were later under- 
stood as MIKAEL and GABRIEL or as MIKAEL and SAMMAEL. Ace. to YR., i. 18 a, 
MIKAEL is the Prince of Israel and GABRIEL the Prince of all the nations of the world. 
A curious effect of the alteration of seventy into seventy-two is the gloss in the 
present verse : corresponding to the 72 tongues of the world, which is of course 
a mis-emendation of the regular expression "corresponding to the 70 tongues of 
the world". 

all of them are crowned with royal crowns etc., to designate them as 
rulers. Cf. notes on chh. xii. 3, xviii. i. 

when he is travelling in Raqia'. This seems to indicate that the princes of 
kingdoms were assigned to the second heaven, the region of the heavenly bodies 
and thus would tend to show, that the fragment itself, apart from the context, 
designates the princes of kingdoms as sideric rulers. Usually the princes of kingdoms 
are represented as being in the highest of the heavens, by the Throne of Glory : 
chh. xvi. i, 2, xxx. i, 2. Ace. to ch. xviii. 3, being in rank above the princes of 
the heavens, but below the guardians of the Halls, they are probably conceived of 
as having their abode in the highest of the heavens, but outside the Halls. Ace. to 
the passage quoted YR., i. 15 a, referred to above, each of the seven heavens 
would contain a number of these princes. This is stated also in Alph. R. 'Aqiba, 
BH. iii. 36 ("then come all the princes of kingdoms in every heaven"). 

Passages in the present book mentioning the 'princes of kingdoms' are chh.: 
x. 3, xiv. i, 2, xvi. i, 2, xvii. 8, xviii. 2, 3, xxx. 2, xlviii c 9, D 5 ; cf. also ch. xxvi. 12. 



4-2 



52 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XVIII 

% 

CHAPTER XVIII 

The order of ranks of the angels and the homage 
received by the higher ranks from the lower ones 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
the glory of all heaven, said to me: 

(i) THE ANGELS OF THE FIRST HEAVEN, when(ever) they see their 
prince, they dismount from their horses and fall on their faces. 

And THE PRINCE OF THE FIRST HEAVEN, when he sees the prince of 
the second heaven, he dismounts, removes the crown of glory from 
his head and falls on his face. 



Ch. xviii. Angelological system A3 (see Introduction, section 13 (i c)). 

This chapter (extant in D and A only) introduces an independent exposition of 
the angelic hierarchy. The point of connection with the preceding chapter is the 
mention of the princes of the seven heavens. In ch. xvii, however, these 'princes 
of the seven heavens' are regarded as constituting the highest rank of angels. That 
this is so is clear from the facts that the princes of the seventh and sixth heavens 
are identified with Mikael and Gabriel resp. and that they occur at the head of a 
classification which is arranged in an order beginning from the highest. In the 
present chapter, on the contrary, the princes of the heavens form the lowest class 
of angels in an enumeration from the lowest to the highest. 

A peculiarity of this chapter which separates it in character from both ch. xvii 
and the rest of the angelological section is the monotonous repetition of the words 
' when X see(s) X he (they) remove(s) the crown . . . from his (their) head and fall(s) 
etc.' the technical means by which the inferiority of one rank of angels or one angel- 
prince to the subsequently mentioned is indicated. 

Another characteristic feature of this chapter are the abstruse forms of the names 
of most of the angels as compared with those of the other parts of the book, where 
the names are formed from the functions assigned to the angels. Here the deriva- 
tions are obscure. It is noteworthy that most of the names are found in Hek. R., 
to which this chapter even otherwise seems to be related e.g. by the conception 
of 'the watchers of the doors of the Halls' (vs. 3), the common derivation of 
'ANAPHIEL (vs. 19) etc. Though several of these angel-names are not registered by 
Schwab, VA, and a couple of them are nTra^Xeyoneva as far as printed books are 
concerned, they are preserved in many prayers, magical formulas, etc., extant in 
MSS. References are given below at each name. 

(i) The angels of the first heaven . . . the prince of the first heaven . . . second 
heaven etc. On the seven heavens see note on ch. xvii. 3. The princes, sarim, 
of the several heavens are pictured as having each one his suite of angels. They 
are mounted on horses (cf. Mass. Hek. iv and Hek. R. xvii seqq.) and pay homage 
one to the other when meeting. Unlike ch. xvii the present chapter mentions no 
names of these princes. That is to say, that the tradition embodied here probably 
knows no names of the ' princes of the heavens '. Consequently, in the view of this 
tradition, the heavens and their rulers form a comparatively low and unimportant 
part of the heavenly splendours, whereas the author of ch. xvii presumably sees all 
the glory of the Divine Court contained within the seven heavens. 

Crown of glory is the mark of distinction common to all the angels and princes 
in this chapter with the exception of the seventy-two princes of kingdoms (vs. 3) 
and the two highest princes ace. to vs. 25 , to whom is assigned the ' crown of royalty '. 
Crowns are in the Talmudic-Midrashic literature as well as in the Apocalyptic 



CH. XVIIl] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (A3) 53 

And THE PRINCE OF THE SECOND HEAVEN, when he sees the prince 
of the third heaven, he removes the crown of glory from his head 
and falls on his face. 

And THE PRINCE OF THE THIRD HEAVEN, when he sees the prince 
of the fourth heaven, he removes the crown of glory from his head 
and falls on his face. 

And THE PRINCE OF THE FOURTH HEAVEN, when he sees the prince 
of the fifth heaven, he removes the crown of glory from his head and 
falls on his face. 

x And THE PRINCE OF THE FIFTH HEAVEN, when he sees the prince of 
the sixth heaven, he removes the crown of glory from his head and 
falls on his face. 

And THE PRINCE OF THE SIXTH HEAVEN, when he sees the prince of 
the seventh heaven, he removes the crown of glory from his head 
and falls on his face. 1 

(2) And THE PRINCE OF THE SEVENTH HEAVEN, when he sees THE 
SEVENTY-TWO PRINCES OF KINGDOMS, he removes the crown of glory 
from his head and falls on his face. 

2 (3) And the seventy-two princes of kingdoms, when they see THE 

DOOR KEEPERS OF THE FIRST HALL IN THE 'ARABOTH RAQIA* in the 

i-i D : ' And the prince of the fifth heaven from before the prince of the sixth and 
the prince of the sixth heaven before the prince of the seventh heaven ' 2 D 

inserts as title : ' The Order of the Halls ' 

attributed to (a) God himself : TB. Chag. 1 3 b, Ber. 7 a, Ex.R. xxi ; (b) the righteous in 
the world to come: TB. Ber. 17 a, b, Lev. R. xx, Test. Benj. iv. 2, Asc. Is. vii. 22, 
viii. 26, ix. 10; (c) angels: chh. xvi. 2, xl. Cf. ch. xii. 3. For the removing of the 
crown(s) as token of homage cf. Rev. iv. 4, 10. An exact parallel of expression is 
found in Alph. R. 'Aqiba, rec. B, BH, iii. p. 61. 

(2) The seventy-two princes of kingdoms. They are the representatives in 
heaven of the different kingdoms on earth, but are also connected with the planets 
and constellations. Concerning them cf. notes on chh. xvii. 8 and xxx. i, 2. In 
ch. xxx they are supplemented by a leader, 'the Prince of the World' (cf. TB. Yeb. 
16 b, Chull. 60 a, Sank. 94 a). Their number varies between seventy and seventy-two : 
i En. Ixxxix. 59, P. R. 'El. xxiv, TB. Sukka, 29 a. It is possible that the number 
seventy-two originated from the addition to the seventy princes of Mikael and 
Sammael (or Mikael and Gabriel) as their rulers. Mikael is the representative of 
Israel and Sammael of Rome and thereby the chief of all the Gentile nations. More 
probable is, however, that the number seventy-two is arrived at from astrological 
considerations. See note on ch. xvii. 8. Peculiar to this chapter is their position 
between the prince of the seventh heaven and the door-keepers of the Halls, their 
abode being usually near the Throne of Glory (ch. xxx, Pesiqtha, xxvii, TB. Sukka, 
29 a). In ch. xvii, again, they have their place in the second heaven (Raqia') and 
are in rank under not only the princes of the heavens but also the princes of 
the sun, moon and constellations. (Cf. however note on ch. xvii. 8.) 

(3) The door keepers of the first Hall in the 'Araboth Raqia'. The seven 
Halls or Palaces are situated in the highest of the seven heavens, the 'Araboth 
Raqia', and are pictured as arranged in concentric circles, 'one within the other' 
(ch. i. i). The conception of the seven Halls which plays so conspicuous a role in 



54 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XVIII 

highest, they remove the royal crown from their head and fall on 
their faces. 

3 And THE DOOR KEEPERS OF THE FIRST HALL, when they see the door 
keepers of the second Hall, they remove the crown of glory from their 
head and fall on their faces. 

And THE DOOR KEEPERS OF THE SECOND HALL, when they see the 
door keepers of the third Hall, they remove the crown of glory from 
their head and fall on their faces. 

And THE DOOR KEEPERS OF THE THIRD HALL, when they see the door 
keepers of the fourth Hall, they remove the crown of glory from their 
head and fall on their faces. 

And THE DOOR KEEPERS OF THE FOURTH HALL, when they see the 
door keepers of the fifth Hall, they remove the crown of glory from 
their head and fall on their faces. 

And THE DOOR KEEPERS OF THE FIFTH HALL, when they see the door 
keepers of the sixth Hall, they remove the crown of glory from their 
head and fall on their faces. 

And THE DOOR KEEPERS OF THE SIXTH HALL, when they see the DOOR 
KEEPERS OF THE SEVENTH HALL, they remove the crown of glory from 
their head and fall on their faces. 3 

(4) And the door keepers of the seventh Hall, when they see THE 
FOUR GREAT PRINCES, the honoured ones, WHO ARE APPOINTED OVER 



3-3 ) simplifies : ' And the door keepers of the first Hall before the door keepers 
of the second Hall, and the door keepers of the second Hall before (those of) the 
third, and the door keepers of the third Hall before those of the fourth etc.' 

Hek. R. is in the present book quite outside the centre of interest. Cf. chh. i. i, 
x. 2, xvi. i, xxxvii. i, xxxviii. i, xlviii c 8. The door keepers of the Halls are in this 
chapter without names and definite number. In these respects it differs from 
Hek. R. xv, where each Hall is said to be guarded by eight angels, of which the 
names are given (chh. xv, xvii et seq.). Of these names which comprise the door 
keepers of the first six Halls two, viz. GCBURaTiEL and 'ANaPHiEL, recur later in 
the present chapter (vss. 14 and 19) as names of higher angels. 

Mass. Hek. iv, agreeing with Hek. R., gives the number of the door keepers of 
each Hall as eight. 

Names of the chiefs of the door keepers of the Halls are found in Pirqe R. 'Ishm. 
xx (Bodl. MICH. 175, foil. 20 3-26 a), although different from those of Hek. R. 
As chief of the guardians of the fourth Hall occurs saGNesaciEL of vs. n here. 
Cf. Zohar, i. 41 a and ii. 245 a-268 b. 

The functions of the door keepers of the Halls are the guarding of the entrance 
to the Halls generally and especially the control of the admittance of the aspirants 
to the vision of the Merhaba, so that nobody may enter who is not ' worthy ' (' rd'uy ') 
ace. to Hek. R. (cf. ch. xvii e.a.}. This is probably implied also in ch. i. 3, where 
R. Ishmael begs God to protect him against the zeal of Qaspiel (or Qafsiel), an 
angel-prince who in this connection, no doubt, is to be considered as (one of) the 
guardian(s) of the door of the seventh Hall (cf. ib. vs. 2; Zohar, ii. 248 b). 

(6) The four great princes. . .who are appointed over the four camps of 



CH. XVIIl] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (A3) 55 

THE FOUR CAMPS OF SHEKINA, they remove the crown(s) of glory from 
their head and fall on their faces. 

(5) And the four great princes, when they see TAG' AS, 5 the prince, 
great and honoured 5 with song (and) praise, at the head of all the 



5-5 in aramaic. 

Shekina. In ch. xxxvii the four camps of Shekina are mentioned together with 
'the four chariots of Shekina'. In ch. xxxvall the myriads of camps of angels are 
said to be arranged in four rows, at the head of each row there being 'a prince of 
the army'. Probably 'the four great princes ' here are to be understood as identical 
with the princes of the army in ch. xxxv. 3. In this case the camps of Shekina are 
the four companies of ministering angels arranged by the Throne of Glory, especially 
in their aspect as performers of Qedushsha. 

In other writings ' the four camps of Shekina ' is not an infrequent term and in 
later cabbalistic traditions a considerable amount of speculation centres round this 
conception. (Cf. here esp. Zohar, iii. 50 a: p"itJ>D "l) 

Now one generally finds that the ' princes of the camps of Shekina ' are named as 
Mikael, Gabriel, Uriel (more seldom: Nuriel) and Raphael. Cf. Mass. Hek. vi: 
"four companies of ministering angels praise before the Lord; the first camp under 
Mikael to the right, the second camp under Gabriel to the left, the third under 
Uriel before Him and the fourth under Raphael from behind", and it is added 
"the Shekina is in the middle". 

Ace. to Ma'ase Merkaba (Add. 26922) 'the princes of the four camps of Shekina ' 
are: Mikael, Gabriel, Uriel and Raphael, standing to the right, to the left, in front 
of and behind the Throne of Glory resp. 

In P. R. 'EL iv the four angels Mikael, Uriel, Gabriel and Raphael stand by the 
Throne of Glory as leaders of four camps of angels glorifying the Most High. 
A similar picture is drawn by the Widduy Yaphe (Add. 15299, fol. 113 b). 

The 'three men' visiting Abraham, Gen. xviii. 2 seqq. are in Sinni ad loc. once 
identified with the angels Mikael, Gabriel and Raphael, and again with Raphael, 
Uriel and Gabriel, "who are the camp of Shekina" . 

The conception of the four princes in charge of the ' uttering of the Song ' before 
the Holy One, is traceable as far back as i En. chh. xxxix. 12, 13 and xl, Ixxi, ix. i, 
where there are mentioned "FOUR PRESENCES ON THE FOUR SIDES OF THE LORD OF 
SPIRITS ... uttering praises before the Lord of Glory". Their names are here: 
Mikael, Raphael, Gabriel and Phanuel. See also 2 En. xviii. 9, and CHARLES, i En. 
note on xl. 2. 

Towards the formation of the idea of ' four princes of the four camps of Shekina ', 
speculations on the " four living creatures " of Ezek. i. 5, 10, and the traditions of the 
four princes Mikael, Gabriel, Raphael and Uriel have, presumably, combined. 
In later cabbalistic sources one actually finds that the ' four camps of Shekina ' 
are referred to the 'Eagle-Ox-Lion-Man' vision, e.g. YR. i. 80 a (Meg. 'Amuq.). 

Instances of other developments of the conception of ' the camps of Shekina ' : the 
four camps of Shekina are imaged by the arrangement of the "armies of Israel", 
Nu. i. 3, ace. to Bachya (ad loc.); they surround the Shekina or "the body of 
Shekina" which is the same as the "Greater Metatron", but are above the Lesser 
Metatron who stands on the heads of the living creatures, the Chayyoth (YR. i. 
57 a) ; " in the camp of Shekina are Metatron, Sandalphon, Uriel, Raphael, Mikael, 
Gabriel" (Shene Luchoth ha-Berith, cited by Derek 'Emeth on Zohar, i. 149 b). 

(5)Tag'as. (fy^). Not included in Schwab, VA. The name occurs in the 
prayer attributed to R. Hammma ben Sabha (Or. 6577, fol. 13 a, Add. 27187, 
fol. 67 b, Add. 27199, fol. 299 e.a.), and also in another, anonymous, prayer in Add. 
15299, fol. 104 b. In these cases it is a Divine name (really a double temura) 
always followed by C/'VyP and letters of the Tetragrammaton. The epithet 'great 



56 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XVIII 

children of heaven, they remove the crown of glory from their head 
and fall on their faces. 

(6) And Tag' as, 5 the great and honoured prince 5 , when he sees 
BARATTIEL 6 , the great prince of three fingers in the height of 'Araboth, 
the highest heaven, he removes the crown of glory from his head 
and falls on his face. 

(7) And Bara^tiel 6 , the great prince, when he sees HAMON, the great 
prince, the fearful and honoured, pleasant and terrible one who 
maketh all the children of heaven to tremble, when the time draweth 
nigh (that is set) for the saying of the '(Thrice) Holy', as it is written 
(Isa. xxxiii. 3): "At the noise of the tumult (hamon) the peoples are 
fled; at the lifting up of thyself the nations are scattered" he re- 
moves the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face. 

(8) And Hamon, the great prince, when he sees TUTRESIEL 7 , the 
great prince, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls 
on his face. 



5-5 in aramaic. 6 D : ' 'Ataphiel ' 7 so ace. to the full reading of D. A: 

- D adds ' 111 ' after the name. 



and honoured prince ' (NTp*l K3"l XIEJO is the same as that given to Metatron 
in the beginning of Shi'ur Qoma (Bodl. OPP. 467, fol. 58 a, opp. 563, fol. 52 b, 

S. Raziel). Cf. also in 5. Elijahu, beg.:... X3"l Kit? btf^D iT^> x'pj- 

This angel is said to be 'honoured with song and praise' and to stand 'at the 
head of all the children of heaven'. In view of the functions commonly assigned to 
the ' princes of the camps of the Shekina ' of the preceding verse (see note above) 
these expressions are probably to be understood as referring to the performance 
of the ' Thrice Holy' and to the angels uttering the Qedushsha. The function of the 
angel may be that of a conductor of the song- uttering angels. 

(6) Barattiel ( ! ?X' l lDt3"1l). Neither this nor the 'Ataphiel of D is included in 
Schwab, VA. Ataphiel is found in Hilk. Mal'akimLa, fol. 117 b. of three fingers. 
Cf. Hilk. Mal'akim, ib.: "'Ataphiel lifteth up the 'Araboth Raqia' on his fingers". 
Also ch. xxxiii. 3 of the present book ('the Holy Chayyoth bear the Throne of 
Glory. . .each one with three fingers'). Does the attribute 'of three fingers' here 
possibly stand in any connection with the recital of the Thrice Holy? 

(7) Hamon, pon ('tumult'). The expression 'makes the children of heaven 
to tremble etc.' probably means ' announces the arrival of the time appointed for 
the Qedushsha '. The trembling and fear with which all the heavenly household is 
seized at the moment before the recital of the Thrice Holy is pictured e.g. in ch. 
xxxviii. For the attributes 'fearful, honoured, pleasant and terrible' cf. the parallels 
of chh. xx. i, xxii. i, xxv. i, xxvi. i. This method of heaping epithets after the name 
of a high angel-prince is frequently employed in Hek. R. The attributes were prob- 
ably from the beginning intended as marks of distinction, applied according to a 
certain system to denote the resp. rank assigned to each prince. (Cf.also in Mandaitic.) 

(8) Tutresiel. See Schwab, VA, pp. 134, 136. The name is of frequent occurrence, 
although in variant forms. Schwab explains it as 'didropos El', 'piercing God'. 
Here and in Midrash Sar Tora it is the name of an angel. Often it appears as one 
of the names of the Godhead (Hek. R. xi. 2, xii, xiii, xv) or of Metatron (Sefer ha 
Chesheq, foil. 4 b, 8 a). 

There are many variants of the name, which are enumerated in Hek. R. xii. 



CH. XVIII] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (A3) 57 

(9) And Tutresiel 7 H', the great 9 prince, when he sees ATRUGIEL 8 , 
the great 9 prince, he removes the crown of glory from his head and 
falls on his face. 

(10) And Atrugiel 8 the great 9 prince, when he sees NA'ARIRIEL H', 
the great 9 prince, he removes the crown of glory from his head and 
falls on his face. 

(n) And Na'aririel H', the great 9 prince, when he sees SASNIGIEL 10 , 
the great 9 prince, he removes the crown of glory from his head and 
falls on his face. 

(12) And Sasnigiel H', when he sees ZAZRIEL H', the great 9 prince, 
he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face. 

(13) And Zazriel H', the prince, when he sees GEBURATIEL H', the 
prince, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his 
face. 



7 so ace. to the full reading of D. A: N^DILDtO- D adds '' after the name. 

8 D: 'ATRUGNIEL 111' 9 D om. 10 D adds '^i' after the name. 

See also S. Raziel, 40 a, 43 b. The STUTRevaH of Zohar, ii. 245 b, 246 a, is perhaps 
also a variant (through transposition of the letters) of the same name. 

(9 and 10) Atrugiel or Atrugniel (D) not in Schwab, VA. It is to be considered 
identical with the ' Atrigiel' of Hek. R. xxii. i and 3, the name of one of the 
door keepers of the seventh Hall. The form Tagriel, ib. xv and xvii, is apparently 
also a variant. Cf. the names l Atrigi(a)sh ' (cited from Hek. R. xxx) and Atarniel 
in Schwab, VA, p. 51. Schwab derives the former from rpoyos, he-goat^ goat- 
buck, the traditional symbol of a demon (cf. sa'ir). 

Na'aririel: i.e. Na'ar 'El (Na'ar = Child, Youth, the name of Metatron, ch. iii). 
Occurs in Hek. R. in the form of Na'aruriel as the name of one of the door keepers 
of the seventh Hall (ch. xxii, together with Atrugiel). The ' H' forming the second 
part of the name of this and the following princes stands for the Tetragrammaton 
(like 'i' in D). Cf. the expression 'called by the name of YHWH', ch. ix. 3 
and note, ad locum. 

11 i ) Sasnigiel is one of the variants of ' Sagnesagiel' or ' Segansagel' ', in ch. 
xlviii. i, 2 appearing as the last of the names of Metatron, with the epithet 'the 
Prince of Wisdom'. Probably derived from fjj (treasure), cf. HDDn *tJj. 

In the Apocalyptic Fragment (e.g. BH. v. 167-169) likewise, it is the name of 
"the prince of the Presence" who shows R. Ishmael the future. 

Other forms are : 

SASNIEL: S. Raziel, 24 a, 41 a; ZEGANZEGAEL: ib. 2 b, called "the Prince of the 
Tora"; SANSAGGIEL: Schwab, VA, cf. the explanation given there; ZANGEZIEL: 
Midrash Petirath Moshe; here he is introduced as Moses' teacher and, together with 
Mikael and Gabriel, fetching Moses' soul at the time of his death. He is also called 
"Prince of the world" (probably identical with Metatron). 

In Pirqe R. Ishmael, xx, he is the chieftain of the door keepers of the fourth Hall. 

Ace. to Berith Menucha, 37 a, he is one of the Seraphim and is appointed over 
"the peace". 

(12) Zazriel, probably = 'the Strength of God,' 'the strong God.' Cf. the following 
names. 

(13) Geburatiel = ' the strength of God '. Cf. the preceding verse. Ace. to Hek. R. 
xv and xvii, he is one of the door keepers of the fourth Hall. See Schwab, VA, 
p. 91. 



58 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XVIII 

(14) And Geburatiel H', the prince, when he sees 'ARAPHIEL 11 H', 
the prince, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on 
his face. 

(15) And 'Araphiel 11 H', the prince, when he sees 'ASHRUYLU 12 , 
the prince, 13 who presides in all the sessions of the children of 
heaven 13 , he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls 
on his face. 

(16) And Ashruylu H /12 , the prince, when he sees GALLISUR H', THE 

PRINCE, WHO REVEALS 14 ALL THE SECRETS OF THE LAW (Tora) u , he 

removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face. 



ii D: 'Ta'raphiel' 12 D: 'Ashruyli tit' 13-13 D: 'who is the head 

[over] all the students on high' 14-14 D: 'the secret of the crown of the Law, 
the crown of Holiness, the crown of Kingship ' 

(14) 'Araphiel = 'the neck of God' (the neck is the symbol of strength). Ace. 
to Hek. R. xxi, he is one of the guardians of the second Hall. See Schwab, ib. 
p. 217. 

(15) 'Ashruylu = 'who causes to dwell', 'who causes to rest', soil, the disciples 
of Tora in the heavenly colleges, hence the function here assigned to him : ' presideth 
in all the sessions of the children of heaven '. That the colleges on earth have their 
counterparts in heaven is a common Rabbinic idea. Cf. the somewhat different 
picture of Metatron's function in ch. xlviii c 12. 

In accordance with the present view is the epithet ' prince of Tora ' given to this 
angel in S. Raziel, 45 a. In Hek. R. xii, ' Ashruylii ' is one of the twenty names of 
the Godhead ; ib. xxx (Sar Tora) it is the name of an angel-prince. Cf. the inter- 
pretation, Schwab, VA, p. 77. 

(10; Gallisur. . .who reveals all the secrets of the Law. The name is of com- 
paratively frequent occurrence. Pesiqta R. par. xx, explains it as "he who reveals 
the reasons of the Creator" (Sur, Is. xxvi. 4). 

The same explanation of the name 'Gallisur' is repeated, with the addition of 
some other details, in Ma'yan Chokma, BH. i. 60, in 'Aggadath Shema' Israel, 
BH. v. 165, also in . Raziel, 41 b, 42 a, 42 b, and P. R. 'El. iv, further in citations 
in Siuni, 93 d, and YR. ii. 67 a. Ace. to these sources he is identical with the angel, 
called 'Raster (= 'the secret(s) of God'); he hears the Divine decrees from behind 
the 'Curtain' (cf. ch. xlv. i) and reveals them to the world; he stands next to the 
Chayyoth and spreads his wings, so that the ministering angels shall not be consumed 
by the fire that goes forth from the breath of the Chayyoth. Ace. to !?. Raziel, 
42 b, he is one of the Princes of the Law. 

In Sefer ha-Yashar ("the book of the righteous", Add. 15299, fol. 91 a b) it is 
related, that the book in question "was given to Adam by the hand of Gallisur". 
(Note the similar narrative in S. Raziel, 3 a, which is probably another version of 
S. ha-Yashar, where the name of angel is Raziel.) 

In a prayer in the same MS., fol. 144 a, he is invoked with the ' kinnuyim* (or 
supplementary names) of ' Yephiphyah' (cf. ch. xlviii D 4) and Yophiel to give 
assistance in the study of the Tora. 

From these sources it appears that the traditions assigned to him mainly two 
functions : revealer of the Divine Secrets and Prince of the Law. These two functions 
are here, rightly, comprised in the one "revealer of all the secrets of the Law". 
The Divine secrets are embodied in the Tora, constituting its inner meaning, the 
technical term for which is "the secrets of the Law". (Cf. on chh. ix. i and xlviii D 
7 et seqq.) 

As the Prince of the Law he is here probably connected with the Divine Judgement 



CH. XVIIl] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (A3) 59 

(17) And Gallisur H', the prince, when he sees ZAKZAKIEL H', the 
prince who is appointed to write down the merits of Israel on the 
Throne of Glory, he removes the crown of glory from his head and 
falls on his face. 

(18) And Zakzakiel H', the great 15 prince, when he sees 'ANAPH(I)EL 
H', the prince 16 who keeps the keys of the heavenly Halls, he removes 
the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face 16 . Why is he 
called by the name of 'Anaphiel ? Because the bough of his honour 
and majesty and his crown and his splendour and his brilliance covers 
(overshadows) 17 all the chambers of 'Araboth Raqia 1 on high even 
as the Maker of the World (doth overshadow them). Just as it is 
written with regard to the Maker of the World (Hab. iii. 3): "His 
glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise", 
even so do the honour and majesty of ' Anaphiel cover all the glories 
of ' Araboth the highest. 



15 D om. 1 6-1 6 D: 'he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on 

his face. And 'Anaphiel, the prince, he is appointed to keep the keys of the Halls 
of 'Araboth Raqia" 17 so D. A om., probably taking Spy as a verb, thus 

giving the meaning : ' Because his honour etc. (overbranch) overshadow all the 
chambers etc.' 



which in its different aspects is represented in nearly all the following angel- 
names; through the said epithet he is also connected with the aforegoing 
' Ashruylu'. 

(17) Zakzakiel, ' Merit-God ', is the same both with regard to name and function 
as 'ZekukieP of S. Rasiel, 21 b: "the Prince of the merits of Israel". 

(18) 'Anaphiel, 'the branch of God'. In ch. vi of the Enoch-Metatron piece 
of the present book he is the angel who removes Enoch to the heavens; ib. ch. xvi 
(ace. to the reading of BD) he is the angel who gave Metatron sixty strokes with 
lashes of fire. (Vide Introd. section 8 u, x, y). 

Ace. to Hek. R. xv, xvii, he is one of the door keepers of the fourth Hall. Ib. 
ch. xxii. 4, he is one of the guardians of the seventh Hall. A similar, partly literally 
identical, explanation of his name as in the second part of the present verse is given 
there. 

The expression ' who keeps the keys of the Halls of 'Araboth Raqia' ' is the only 
trace in this chapter of the connection of the high angel-princes enumerated here 
with the guardianship of the heavenly Halls, whereas all of them that recur in 
Hek. R. are there guardians of one or the other of the Halls, mostly the seventh 
or the fourth. He has here the control of all the Halls. 

The said statement "keeps the keys of the Halls of 'Araboth Raqia'" together 
with the following part of the verse attribute a remarkably high position to 'Anaphiel : 
he is compared with " the Creator of the world ". In Hek. R. xxii, he is called " the 
most beloved of all the guardians of the heavenly Halls, the Prince, 'Ebed (the 
Servant, Metatron's name), who is called thus by the name of his Master". A 
similarly high position is also implied by the passages in the Enoch-Metatron piece, 
just referred to. Another instance is the quotation from ' Sode Raza' in YR. i. 5 a : 
" the angel ' Anaphiel, to him are given in charge the ' ring ' and the seal of heaven 
and earth, and all on high kneel down and prostrate themselves before him". 



60 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XVIII 

(19) And when he sees SOTHER 'ASHIEL H', the prince, the great, 
fearful and honoured one, he removes the crown of glory from his 
head and falls on his face. Why is he called 18 Sother Ashiel 18 ? Be- 
cause he is appointed 19 over the four heads of the fiery river over 
against the Throne of Glory; and every single prince who goes out 
or enters before the Shekina, goes out or enters only by his per- 
mission. For the seals of 20 the fiery river 20 are entrusted to him. And 
furthermore, his height is 7000 myriads of parasangs. And he stirs 
up the fire of the river ; and he goes out and enters before the Shekina 
to expound 21 what is written (recorded) 21 concerning the inhabitants 
of the world. According as it is written (Dan. vii. 10) : " the judgement 
was set, and the books were opened". 



18-18 so D. A: 'Sother and Ashiel' 19 A ins.: 'from the beginning' 

20-20 so D. A: ' the four fiery rivers ' (corrupt for ' the four heads of the fiery 
river'?) 21-21 so D. A om. 

(19) Sother 'Ashiel H' = 'who stirs up the fire of God'. The explanations of 
the name as they appear in the present verse are quoted in Hilkot ha Kisse La, 

fol. 138 a. A points: /WB'N 1(11 D (no other names in this ch. pointed). 

He is here the angel appointed over the fiery river Nehar di-Nur, the specula- 
tions on which evolved from the beginning of Dan. vii. 10, the passage quoted in 
this verse. For the conceptions of the fiery river, see note on ch. xxxiii. 5. 

The four heads of the fiery river. It is difficult to discern from A, whether 
' four ' or ' seven ' are meant, the characters for ' daleth ' (= 4) and ' sain ' (= 7) being, 
in the current script employed there, almost indistinguishable. In Hil. ha Merkaba 
(Add. 27199, fol. 126 a) however, the "heads of the fiery river of the Throne of 
Glory" are definitely stated as four. If 'seven' is the correct reading here, the 
number '7000 myriads' would be explained as derived from 'the seven heads of 
the fiery river'. Ch. xxxiii. 4 mentions 'seven fiery rivers', an amplification fre- 
quently met with in the ' Sode Razd' by Eleazar of Worms (cf. e.g. the quotation 
from this writing, YR. i. 4 b). The fiery river, usually described as issuing forth 
" from under the Throne of Glory " or " from the perspiration of the holy Chayyoth " 
is here simply described as being situated over against the Throne of Glory and is 
in the present connection probably conceived of as dividing the Throne of Glory 
with the Skekina from the world of the common angels and angel-princes, through 
which ' fiery stream ' they must pass when they wish to enter before the Shekina . 
On this assumption the expression ' every prince . . . does not go out nor enter but 
by his permission ' would be intelligible : Sother 'Ashiel, who is the guardian of the 
fiery river, also controls who shall pass through it to the Shekina. The fiery river 
as a bath of purification and preparation for the angels is a common idea in this 
and related writings. Cf. note on ch. xxxiii. 5. 

he goes out and enters before the Shekina to expound what is written con- 
cerning the inhabitants of the world (lit. ' to expound in the writings of. A per- 
haps reads : ' enters to the Curtain of the inhabitants of the world ', i.e. the Curtain, 
on which everything is recorded ace. to ch. xlv. i seqq.). This strange expression 
obtains its elucidation by the quotation of Dan. vii. 10 with its reference to 'the 
Judgement'. The fiery river is also, and foremost, the symbol of the execution of 
the judgement on man. Hence Sother 'Ashiel is connected with the Divine Judge- 
ment, as far as he ' stirs up the fire of the Nehar di-Nur '. He, as it were, regulates 
the heat of the fire according to the requirements of judgement. 



CH. XVIIl] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (A3) 6 1 

(20) And Sother 'Ashiel 22 the prince 22 , when he sees 23 SHOQED 
CHOZI 23 , the great prince, the mighty, terrible and honoured one, he 
removes the crown 24 of glory 24 from his head and falls upon his face. 
And why is he called 25 Shoqed Chozi 25 ? Because he weighs 26 all the 
merits (of man) 26 in a balance in the presence of the Holy One, blessed 
be He. 

(21) And when he sees ZEHANPURYU 27 H',the great prince, the mighty 
and terrible one, honoured, glorified and feared in all the heavenly 
household, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls 
on his face. Why is he called Zehanpuryu 28 ? Because he rebukes the 
fiery river and pushes it back to its place. 

(22) And when he sees ' AZBUGA H', the great prince, glorified, revered, 
honoured, adorned, wonderful, exalted, beloved and feared among all 



22-22 so D. A om. 23-23 D: ' Shaqadhozii vis' 24-24 A om. 

25-25 D :' thus ' 26-26 D om. 27 D: ' Zehaphfaryi ' 28 D: 'thus' 

(20) Shoqed Chozi, also in the forms ' Shaqad Hozii' , 'Sheqar Chozii' (the former 
in the readings of D and Midrash Sar Tora, the latter in Hek. R. and S. Raziel, 
45 a). Derivations uncertain ('Waking' or 'Watching and Seeing'; Schwab, VA, 
p. 259: 'False Seer' [based upon the form 'Sheqar Chozii']). Cf. the name 
' Sheqadyahiel' , Hek. R. xxii and Schwab, ib. 

The explanation given in the present verse rather presupposes a form 'SHEQAL 
ZAKI' (' weighing merits ') or similar. (Cf. Mandaitic: Abathur, Introd. sect. 13 Ce.) 

In S. Raziel, 45 a (where other names of this ch. recur), he is mentioned after 
'Ashruylu as one of "the Princes of Tora". In Hek. Zot. (Bodl. MICH. 8, foil. 
68 b, 69 a) the name recurs twice, in the form of Sheqad Chozyah (a) in a hymn to 
God, (b) as the name in which Metatron is invoked by the scholar who is watching 
and praying during the night. 

For the idea of 'weighing merits' cf. BOX, Ezra Apocalypse, p. 19, note p; i En. 
xli. i. 

(21) Zehanpuryu. Explained by Schwab, VA, thus: "this is the face of fear" 
(p. 121). More probable, at least in the connection in which the name appears here, 
is the explanation or reading of S. Raziel, 45 a: ' Zeh Patar' = 'this one exempts', 
' this one sets free'. In this chapter he represents the attribute of mercy, a con- 
stituent part of the Judgement, ace. to chh. xxxi and xxxiii et. freq. Such is at 
least the apparent significance of the words : ' pushes the fiery river back '. Contrast 
the function given to Sother 'Ashiel ace. to vs. 19 of stirring up the Nehar di-Nur, 
an expression which is there explicitly referred to the Judgement. The fiery river 
is the means of or symbol of punishment and execution of judgement. 

In Hek. R. xvii. 5, he is called " Prince of the Presence ". Ib. xxi, he is one of the 
guardians of the seventh Hall. There might be some connection between this name 
and the ' PURIEL ' of Test. Abraham, ch. xii, the name of one of the two high angels 
who function at the Judgement. 

(22) 'Azbuga. Schwab, VA, p. 49, explains it as 'messenger'. Zunz, GV, 
p. 148, contains the notice that Hek. Zot. explains the name as denoting 'strength' 
(ib.). It recurs in Midrash Sar Tora and several times in Berith Menncha. 

In a prayer in S. ha Chesheq (Add. 27120, fol. n b) he is invoked to deliver the 
suppliant from "every evil, disease and affliction". In this writing 'Azbuga is 
mostly one of the names of the Godhead. It is also the name of a ' temurd.' 

In S. Raziel, 42 b, it is inscribed on an amulet which also contains the names of 



62 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XVIII 

the great princes who know the mystery of the Throne of Glory, he 
removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face. Why 
is he called 'Azbuga? Because in the future he will gird (clothe) 29 
the righteous and pious of the world with the garments of life and 
wrap them in the cloak of life, that they may live in them an eternal 
life. 

(23) And when he sees the two great princes, the strong and glori- 
fied ones who are standing above him, he removes the crown of glory 
from his head and falls on his face. And these are the names of the 
two princes 30 : 

SOPHERIEL H' (WHO) KiLLETH, (Sopheriel H' the Killer), the great 
prince, the honoured, glorified, blameless, venerable, ancient and 
mighty one; (and) 31 SOPHERIEL H' (WHO) MAKETH ALIVE (Sopheriel H' 
the Lifegiver), the great prince, the honoured, glorified, blameless, 
ancient and mighty one 31 . 



29 so Da. A : ' because he is girded etc.' 30 so D. A:' the angels, the princes ' 

31-31 in D this is transferred after 'he writes him in the books of the dead' vs. 24. 

KERUBIEL (ch. xxii), SOPHERIEL (vss. 23 and 24 of the present chapter), YEPHIPHYA 
(ch. xlviii D 4) and GALLISUR (vs. 16 of this chapter). 

the princes who know the mystery (or ' secrets ' D) of the Throne of Glory. 
This probably refers to angels, who enjoy the privilege of constant access to the 
Throne of Glory, and hence know the inner reasons of the Divine decrees. The 
expression, then, has the same import as the phrase 'stand inside the Curtain' 
applied to some high angels. Cf. further, ch. xlv. i and references there. 

Garments of life. Cf. i En. Ixii. 15, 16: "and the righteous and elect shall have 
risen from the earth. . .and they shall have been clothed with garments of glory, 
and they shall be the garments of life from the Lord of Spirits ". 2 Esdras ii. 45 : 
"These be they that have put off the mortal clothing and put on the immortal". 
Cf. also 2 En. xxii. 8. For the conceptions expressed by the terms 'garments of 
glory' or 'garments of life' cf. note on ch. xii. i. The garments of life are here the 
means by which eternal life is conferred upon the righteous, possibly according to the 
literary principle of ' pars pro to to '. They are the outer appearance of the essentially 
changed or new body (of the righteous in the future life), constituted of light- 
substance. Vide CHARLES, i En., notes on chh. Ixii. 16 and cviii. 12. 'Azbuga' is 
in the present chapter explained from "UN (= 'gird') and "Un (= 'garment'). 

(23) Sopheriel. . . . The name Sopheriel is not found in Schwab, VA. It occurs 
in S. Raziel, 21 b, as the name of "the Prince, appointed over the books of life", 
thus with the same function as is here assigned to the one of the two princes with 
that name. 

It is obvious that the name here is understood as ' Sopheriel', i.e. ' the Scribe (of) 
God '. But the writing or spelling of the name (Sin-Shin instead of Samek) suggests 
that the name earlier or originally was referred to the word ' Shophar ' (= ' trumpet '), 
meaning the angel who blows the trumpet, soil, at the judgement, perhaps at the 
time for the opening of the books (for this idea cf. BOX, Ezra Apocalypse, ch. vi. 23 
and note d, p. 75). Since the angel, if this be correct, already was connected with 
the judgement, the change to the present interpretation was comparatively easy. 
In S. Raziel, 42, is found the similar name Shaphriel from ' Shefer' (= 'beauty'). 

The angels function as scribes. They are differentiated into two, one for 'life' 
and one for ' death ' in accordance with the noticeable tendency of the book to place 



CH. XVIIl] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (A3) 63 

(24) Why is he called Sopheriel H' who killeth (Sopheriel H' the 
Killer) ? Because he is appointed over the books of the dead : [so that] 
everyone, when the day of his death draws nigh, he writes him in the 
books of the dead. 

Why is he called Sopheriel H' who maketh alive (Sopheriel H' the 
Lifegiver) ? Because he is appointed over the books of the living (of 
life), so that every one whom the Holy One, blessed be He, will 
bring into life, he writes him in the book of the living (of life), by 
authority of MAQOM. Thou might perhaps say: "Since the Holy 
One, blessed be He, is sitting on a throne, they also are sitting when 
writing". (Answer): The Scripture teaches us (i Kings xxii. 19, 
2 Chron. xviii. 18) : "And all the host of heaven are standing by him ". 



two polar opposites side by side. Cf. also ch. xxxiii. 2 and note (two scribes) and 
note on ch. xliv. 2. 

The attributes ' H who killeth ' and ' H who maketh alive ' are in all probability 
derived from i Sam. ii. 6: "the Lord (H = YHWH) killeth and maketh alive". 
This passage is also used TB. Rosh ha Shana, 16 a, as point of support for the views 
concerning the Judgement which are expressed there. 

(24) Books of the dead . . . books of the living. The ' books of the dead and 
the books of the living ' are here merely the books recording the moments designed 
for each individual's birth and death. The books of the living contain the names 
of the living, the books of the dead those of the dead. Otherwise 'the book(s) of 
life ' regularly refer to the righteous, which are recorded in this book for eternal 
life, for God's remembrance, and hence, when mentioned, 'the book(s) of death 
or the dead' are conceived of as containing the names of the wicked, for perdition. 
Parallel with this conception goes that, according to which ' the books ' record the 
deeds of ' the world ' or of the righteous and the wicked separately. The former idea 
is represented in the O.T. (Is. iv. 3, Ex. xxxii. 32 seq., Ps. Ixix. 29, cxxxix. 16, 
Mai. iii. 16, Dan. xii. i), in i En. xlvii. 3, civ. i, cviii. 3,Jub. xxx. 20, 22, xxxvi. 10, 
Ap. Elijah, iv. 2, xiv. 5 ; Rev. iii. 5, xiii. 8, xvii. 8, xx. 12, 15, xxi. 27 ; the latter in 
chh. xxx. 2 and xxvii. 2 of the present book, Is. Ixv. 6, Neh. xiii. 14, Dan. vii. 10, 
i En. Ixxxi. 4, Ixxxix. 61 et seqq., xc. 17, 20, xcvii. 6, xcviii. 7 seqq., civ. 7, cviii. 
7 seqq., 2 En. 1. i, Hi. 15, liii. 2 seqq., Ap. Bar. xxiv. i, Copt. Apoc. El. Iii. 13 seqq., 
xi. i seqq., Asc. Is. ix. 26, 4 Ez. vi. 20, Rev. xx. 12. For references and discourses 
see BOX, Ezra Apocalypse, p. 74, note y on ch. vi. 20; Dalman, Wortejesu, i. 171 ; 
Zimmern in Keilinschriften des Alien Testaments, 3rd ed., ii. 505 ; Bousset, Rel. d. 
Judentums, p. 247 ; Weber, Jild. Theol. 2nd ed., pp . 242, 282 et seqq. : further Rosh 
ha Shana, 15 b e.a., and the discourse on New Year's Day as day of Judgement in 
Fiebig, Mischna Traktat Rosch ha-Schana, pp. 41-45. (Note. The '3 books' ib. 
p. 43, and note on ch. xliv. i of the present book.) 

Maqom = ' place ', one of the technical terms of the Divine Majesty. Cf . the 
expression 'the Curtain of Maqom', e.g. ch. xlv. i. 

Thou might perhaps say etc. The suggestion that the scribes must be sitting 
when writing is refuted. "There is no sitting in heaven" cf. Chag. 15 a. The 
scriptural passage from which this is deduced, i Kings xxii. 19, is the one regularly 
used for the purpose. Ace. to TB. Chag. 15 a, however, Metatron, in his function as 
scribe, was at first allowed to 'sit and write', and in the Enoch- Metatron piece 
(chh. iii-xv) Metatron is placed on a Throne. Apart from this there seems to have 
been a set of traditions which felt no objection against ascribing 'yeshiba' ('sitting') 
to angel-princes or righteous dead. (For references see note on ch. x. i.) To the 
other prevailing view which was rigorous in this respect, it was probably the case 



64 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XVIII 

"The host of heaven " 32 (it is said) in order to show us, that even the 
Great Princes, none like whom there is in the high heavens, do not 
fulfil the requests of the Shekina otherwise than standing. But how 
is it (possible that) they (are able to) write, when they are standing? 
It is like this : 

(2$) One is standing on the wheels of the tempest and the other 
is standing on the wheels of the storm-wind. 

The one is clad in kingly garments, the other is clad in kingly 
garments. 

The one is wrapped in a mantle of majesty and the other is wrapped 
in a mantle of majesty. 

The one is crowned with a royal crown, and the other is crowned 
with a royal crown. 



32 -D ins. 'is not written here, but "and all the host of heaven'" 

of the ' scribes ' that suggested a deviation from the strict rule ; the question was 
raised as here: 'how can they write, if they must be standing?' Cf. further ch. xvi 
and notes. 

The unwillingness to admit any 'sitting in heaven', apart from the Throne of 
God, has arisen from the interest of guarding the Unity of the Godhead : there must 
not be even the appearance of two Divine Powers (Chag. 15 a, ch. xvi). 

With the two princes Sopheriel H', 'none like whom there is in the high heavens ', 
the angelological system of the present chapter is concluded. They are the highest 
of the angels of the hierarchy, the different ranks of which are here enumerated 
from the lowest to the highest. From this it is clear that ch. xviii is independent of 
the following chapters xix seqq., which from their present context appear as a 
continuation of the angelological system here set forth. At the beginning of this 
chapter it zvas shown in the notes that this chapter is also independent of its antecedent 
chapter. In fact, it stands out by itself from all the rest of the book. 

The reason why it was embodied in the angelological section is apparently its 
seeming connection with ch. xvii owing to the mention in both chapters of the 
angels and the princes of the different heavens. Besides, the beginning of ch. xix, 
' above these three angels ', indicates a preceding exposition of high angel-princes, and 
when the original beginning of the fragment, of which chh. xix seqq. are a con- 
tinuation was lost, ch. xviii was put in as a substitute, although not a very happy 
one. 

(25) This verse, with its lengthy and extravagant descriptions of the 'two angels' 
constitutes a striking contrast to the concise, summarizing character of the aforegoing 
part of the chapter. The beginning of the verse is not very lucidly connected with 
vs. 24. The question 'how are they writing when standing?' is not intelligibly 
answered. It is difficult to understand how it could facilitate the writing to be 
standing 'on the wheels of the tempest'. Hence it is probable that vs. 25 is a later 
addition to the chapter. The end of the verse shows that the angels referred to are 
scribes like the princes Sopheriel. The addition was probably composed for the 
preceding verses, not adduced from another context. 

The features used in the following description of the two angels are mainly those 
constantly recurring in descriptions of high angel-princes, Cf. the descriptions of 

KERUBIEL (ch. Xxii. 1-9), OFFANNIEL (ch. XXV. 1-4), SERAPHl'EL (ch. XXvi. I~7). 

standing on wheels Cf. ch. xxii. 7. 

clad in kingly garments etc. Cf. chh. xii. i, xvii. 8. 

crowned with a royal crown Cf. ib. and frequently. 



CH. XVIII] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (Al) 65 

The one's body is full of eyes, and the other's body is full of 
eyes. 

The appearance of one is like unto the appearance of lightnings, 
and the appearance of the other is like unto the appearance of light- 
nings. 

The eyes of the one are like the sun in its might, and the eyes of 
the other are like the sun in its might. 

33 The one's height is like the height of the seven heavens, and the 
other's height is like the height of the seven heavens. 

The wings of the one are as (many as) the days of the year, and 
the wings of the other are as (many as) the days of the year. 

The wings of the one extend over the breadth of Raqia', and the 
wings of the other extend over the breadth of Raqia^ . 

The lips of the one, are as the gates of the East, and the lips of 
the other are as the gates of the East. 

The tongue of the one is as high as the waves of the sea, and the 
tongue of the other is as high as the waves of the sea. 

From the mouth of the one a flame goes forth, and from the 
mouth of the other a flame goes forth. 

From the mouth of the one there go forth lightnings and from the 
mouth of the other there go forth lightnings. 

From the sweat of the one fire is kindled, and from the perspiration 
of the other fire is kindled. 

From the one's tongue a torch is burning, and from the tongue of 
the other a torch is burning. 

On the head of the one there is a sapphire stone, and upon the 
head of the other there is a sapphire stone. 



33 D ins. 'the one's splendour is like the splendour of the Throne of Glory and 
the other's splendour is like that of the Throne of Glory ' 

body full of eyes Cf. ch. xxii. 8. 

the eyes are like the sun in its might Cf. ch. xxvi. 6. 

their height like the height of the seven heavens Cf. ch. xxv. 4 etc., and esp. 
ch. xxii. 3. 

wings as many as the days of the year, i.e. 365 ; cf. ch. xxv. 2, also 
ch. xxi. 3. 

from the mouth of the one a flame goes forth Cf. e.g. ch. xxii. 4. 

from the perspiration of them fire is kindled Cf. the current saying "from 
the perspiration of the Chayyoth a fiery river goes forth". Gen. R, Ixxviii beg., 
Lam. R. on ch. iii. 23. Cf. the note on ch. xxxiii. 4. 

From the one's tongue a torch is burning Cf. ch. xxii. 4: 'his tongue is a 
consuming fire'. 

On the head of the one there is a sapphire stone Cf. ch. xxvi. 5 : ' the sapphire 
stone upon his head'; also ch. xxii. 13. 

o 1 1 B 5 



66 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CHH. XVIII, XIX 

On the shoulders of the one there is a wheel of a swift cherub, and 
on the shoulders of the other there is a wheel of a swift cherub. 

One has in his hand a burning scroll, the other has in his hand 
a burning scroll. 

The one has in his hand a flaming style, the other has in his hand 
a flaming style. 

The length of the scroll is 3000 myriads of parasangs ; the size of 
the style is 34 3OOO myriads of parasangs 34 ; the size of every single 
letter that they write is 365 parasangs. 



CHAPTER XIX 1 

Rikbiel, the prince of the wheels of the Merkaba. The 

surroundings of the Merkaba. The commotion among 

the angelic hosts at the time of the Qedushsha 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(i) Above 2 these three angels, these great princes 2 there is one 



34-34 D: '3000 parasangs'. This is perhaps a better reading. It is more natural, 
that the style should not have the same length as the whole scroll. 

i D includes this chapter in the aforegoing. 3-2 D : ' them, the two angels, these 
high princes' 



awheel of a swift cherub. Cf. the expression 'chariots of a swift cherub', 
ch. xxiv. 17. 

The scroll and style are of fire, the heavenly matter. ' Graven with a flaming 
style' is an uncommonly frequent expression, referring e.g. to the letters engraved 
on the ' Fearful Crown ', the Names on the Throne of Glory, etc. Cf . e.g. ch. xxxix. i 
and references in note, ad loc. Item, ch. xiii. 

The scribes are represented as writing with a style of fire on a scroll of flames. 
Cf. Midrash 'Asereth Ma'dmaroth : " Tora was written down by the arm of the Holy 
One, blessed be He, with dark fire on white fire". 

The numbers used in describing the sizes of the scroll, the style and the letters 
are based on 3000 and 365. The number 365 is used very often in this book, see 
esp. ch. ix. 3. It was conceived of as a cosmic and celestial number, being the 
number of the days of the solar year. The 3000 is probably made up of 1000 times 3, 
the number 3 being, of old, a mystical number. Cf. the 300 thousand 'gates' of 
ch. viii. 

Chh. xix-xxii, xxv, xxvi. (Angelological system A i, see Introduction, 
section 13 (i A).) 

Chh. xix-xxii, xxv, xxvi, form an angelological description of a systematic 
structure. The centre, from which the system is evolved, is the conception of the 
Merkaba with the Throne of Glory. The objects of the exposition are the angel- 
princes, appointed over the ' wheels of the Merkaba ' and over the four classes of 
superior angels who minister at the Merkaba and by the Throne, as well as these 
angels themselves. 



CH. XIX] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (Al) 67 

Prince, distinguished, honoured, noble, glorified, adorned, fearful, 
valiant, strong, great, magnified, glorious, crowned, wonderful, 
exalted, blameless, beloved, lordly, high and lofty, ancient and 
mighty, like unto whom there is none among the princes. His name 



For the Merkaba speculations derived from Ezek. i and x and the different 
arrangements of the details of the Merkaba-picture, see the Introduction, sections 
13 and 14. 

The importance of these chapters consists primarily in the fact that they reveal 
a clear attempt at systematization. Beginning with ' the wheels of the Merkaba ', 
the description proceeds from the lowest to the highest of the four classes of superior 
angels which, wanting a more adequate comprehensive appellation, may be called 
the Merkaba-angels . They are arranged in an order, placing the Chayyoth as the 
lowest and the Seraphim as the highest, thus: Chayyoth, Kerubim, 'Ophannim, 
Seraphim. This order is by no means the one generally accepted. In most cases 
in the earlier cabbalistic literature it seems that the writers had no clear view of 
the mutual order of the Merkaba-angels, and the cases that suggest an intended 
classification, represent, when compared, nearly all possible permutations of the 
four classes in question. Furthermore, all of them are not mentioned, in such 
classifications, some omitting the Chayyoth, others the Kerubim and so on. It 
may suffice as an illustration, to refer to the arrangement presented in ch. xxii C 2, 
where the order is as follows: 'the Galgallim, the Kerubim, the 'Ophannim... 
the Holy Chayyoth, the Throne of Glory'. Cf. further the Introduction, section 
13 (i A). 

On the other hand, in P. R. 'El. iv, we meet with an order of the four classes of 
superior angels which is identical with the order represented in this section. In 
contrast with the present system, however, P. R. 'El. puts the ' wheels of the Merkaba ' 
together with the 'Ophannim and the 'princes' assigned as chieftains over the resp. 
classes of angels here, do not appear there. 

(i) Above these three angels, these great princes. The beginning of the 
chapter points to a preceding description of angels. In the present context the 
opening words refer to ch. xviii. That it is highly improbable, however, that ch. xviii 
was the original antecedent of ch. xix, has been pointed out above, note on ch. 
xviii. 24. Who are then, originally, the angels and princes referred to? No answer 
can be given to this question apart from mere conjectures. First of all, the words 
'these three angels' or, as the reading of D runs, "them, the two angels" sound 
like a gloss. They might, in fact, easily have been an emendation made by the 
redactor who combined ch. xix with ch. xviii. By this gloss if our assumption is 
correct ch. xix is made to refer to the last named princes of ch. xviii. This is 
particularly so, if the reading of D be adopted (the two princes are then, of course, 
the two Sopheriel H, ch. xviii. 23-25). Assuming that the original beginning of 
the chapter had the form ' above these great princes ', the subject of the preceding 
angelological fragment to which this expression refers, might have been, say, the 
'princes of kingdoms'. Now the princes of kingdoms are the subject of the last 
verse of ch. xvii. The style of ch. xvii. 8 is also similar to that of the present section. 
It opens with the phrase 'above these', which is the regular inceptive expression 
of all the chapters in this section. IT is POSSIBLE THAT CH. xvii. 8 BELONGED TO THE 

SAME ANGELOLOGICAL EXPOSITION, POSSIBLE ALSO THAT IT IMMEDIATELY PRECEDED 

WHAT is NOW CH. xix. Further, on the connection of ch. xvii. 8 with the rest of 
that chapter, see note, ad loc. 

distinguished, honoured, noble etc. On the epithets added to the name of an 
angel-prince cf. note on ch. xviii. 7 and chh. xx. i, xxii. i, xxv. i and xxvi. i. The 
attributes are in the present case over twenty in number. This manner of excelling 
in variations of terms resembles the fashion of Hek. R. The words used here are 
mostly adduced from the O.T. 

5-2 



68 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XIX 

is RIKBIEL H', the great and revered prince 3 who is standing by the 
Merkaba. 

(2) And why is he called RIKBIEL? Because he is appointed over 
the wheels of the Merkaba, and they are given in his charge. (3) And 
how many are the wheels? Eight; two in each direction. And there 
are four winds compassing them round about. And these are their 
names: "the Storm-Wind", "the Tempest", "the Strong Wind", 
and "the Wind of Earthquake". (4) And under them four fiery 



3 so D. A:' name ' 

Rikbiel. The names of the present section (with the exception of RADWERIEL, 
ch. xxvii) have a very simple derivation. RIKBIEL is derived from ' Rekeb ' (= ' chariot ' 
= ' Merkaba'), CHAYYLIEL is made to correspond to 'Chayyoth', KERUBIEL to 
'Kerubim', 'OPHANNIEL to 'Ophannim', SERAPHIEL to 'Seraphim', 

The name RIKBIEL is not given by Schwab, VA. It recurs, however, twice in 
Add. 27199. The first time it is in the quotation of vss. 2-7 of the present chapter, 
see below. The second time in Hilkoth ha Kisse, fol. 138 a b, in a passage from an 
anonymous source, immediately following the quotation of ch. xxiii. 20 (cf. note, 
ib.) and (SOTHER ASHIEL), ch. xviii. 19 (cf. note, ad loc.), preceding the quotation 
of ch. xxii (KERUBIEL). The passage runs: "RIKBIEL H, the great and fearful prince 
by name, is standing by the Merkaba (cf. the last words of vs. i here) and he is 
appointed over the eight wheels of the Merkaba, two in each direction" Since 
this passage occurs in between quotations from this book it is probably directly 
dependent upon this chapter and might be regarded as a quotation. Notice, that 
the epithet "great and fearful prince" are regarded as part of the name. 

(2) In a midrashic commentary on Ezek. i. 16 in Add. 27199, fol. 81 a, there is a 
passage on RIKBIEL which appears as a literal, though unacknowledged quotation, 
of vss. 2-7 of the present chapter. 

the wheels of the Merkaba. (Hebrew: galgille ham-merkaba), wheels: 
'galgallim'. The GALGALLIM are here, at least ace. to vss. 2 and 3, understood in 
their literal sense, although they, in vs. 7, are represented as speaking and apparently 
on a level with the four classes of Merkaba angels. Cf. for the present conception 
Mass. Hek. vii, e.g. "the wheels of the Merkaba upon which is the Throne of 
Glory". In Alph. R. 'Aqiba the four Chayyoth appear "from under the wheels 
of the chariot of His Throne (i.e. the Merkaba carrying the Throne of Glory)". 
(Contrast vs. 5 here.) In other connections they are clearly represented as one of 
the angelic classes, e.g. Mass. Hek. v : " In the seventh Hall are the Throne of Glory, 
the chariots of the Kerubim, the camps of the Seraphim, the 'Ophannim, the Chay- 
yoth and the Galgallim of consuming fire". In this passage it is noteworthy that 
the 'Ophannim and the Galgallim appear as two distinct angelic classes. Originally 
the words 'Ophannim and Galgallim were, on the whole, identical notions, both 
meaning 'wheels'. See note on ch. xxv. 5. A third significance of the Galgallim 
is 'heavenly bodies', mainly occurring in the later cabbalistic literature. And 
through further developments of the speculations on the Galgallim, they are again 
identified with the 'Ophannim, or, according to another trend of thoughts, the 
' 'Ophannim are made the rulers of the Galgallim or celestial spheres. Cf. note on 
ch. xxv. 5. 

(3) The number of the wheels is presumably derived from Ezek. i. (not x) : a wheel 
in the middle of a wheel by the side of each of the four living creatures. 

four winds etc. 'Storm-wind' and 'tempest' are well-established parts of any 
descriptions of the celestial wonders. Cf. chh. xxxiv and xviii. 25. 'Storm-wind, 
East- Wind, Strong Wind and Wind of Earthquake' are represented in ch. xxiii. 
15, 3, 2 and 6. 



CH. XIX] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (Al) 69 

rivers are continually running, one fiery river on each side. And 
round about them, between the rivers, four clouds are planted 
(placed), and these they are: "clouds of fire", "clouds of lamps", 
"clouds of coal", "clouds of brimstone" and they are standing over 
against [their] wheels. 

(5) 4 And the feet of the Chayyoth are resting upon the wheels. 
And between one wheel and the other earthquake is roaring and 
thunder is thundering. 

(6) And when the time draws nigh for the recital of the Song, 
(then) the multitudes of wheels are moved, the multitude of clouds 
tremble, all the chieftains (shallishim) are made afraid, all the horse- 
men (parashim) do rage, all the mighty ones (gibborim) are excited, 
all the hosts (seba'im) are afrighted, all the troops (gedudim) 5 are in 
fear 5 , all the appointed ones (memunnim) haste away, all the princes 
(sarim) and armies (chayyelim) 6 are dismayed, all the servants 
(mesharetim) do faint and all 7 the angels (mal'akim) and divisions 
(degalim) travail with pain. 

4 A ins. 'and these' 5-5 ins. in accordance with D. A om. 6 D ins. 

'and 'Elim ' 7 so D. A om 'all.' 

(4) four fiery rivers. The number ' four ' is to correspond with the four directions, 
the four Chayyoth etc. The four fiery rivers here should be compared with the 
mention in ch. xviii. 19 of ' the four heads of the fiery river". Cf. note, ib. The fiery 
rivers here run under the feet of the Chayyoth. Cf. the usual expression: 'the 
fiery river goes forth from the perspiration of the Chayyoth', The present con- 
ception of four fiery rivers is related to that of the rivers flowing between the four 
camps of Shekina as presented in ch. xxxvii. i . Cf . ib. Clouds between the rivers, 
surrounding them. Cf. ch. xxxvii. 2. The object of the 'clouds' is ace. to ch. 
xxiv. 2 to protect from the heat of the fire. See also ch. xxxiii. 3. 

(5) the feet of the Chayyoth are resting upon the wheels. In accordance 
with the system of the present section the Chayyoth have their place next above the 
wheels of the Merkaba. Angels standing on wheels, cf. ch. xviii. 25 and ch. xxii. 7. 

The different names of angelic classes and positions enumerated in vs. 6 are most 
of them deduced from the O.T. where they represent various divisions and orders 
within an army. This is natural from the point of view of these writers who picture 
the ' hosts of angels ' as armies, camps and troops. The words ' appointed ', ' princes ', 
' servants ', ' angels ', are familiar from the other chapters of the book. Cf. chh. xiv ; iv, 
xxxix ; xxx, vi ; see Index ; the other terms are all found in the enumeration in 
Mass. Hek. v of the contents of the seventh Hall and the different angelic classes 
there ("armies, hosts, troops, ranks (ma c arakoth) , divisions and armies of chieftains, 
the men of war, mighty ones, powers ('azuzoth) ta'asumoth (Ps. Ixviii. 36) horsemen, 
the officers of armies, princes etc."). The presentation of all the different 'hosts' 
and 'princes' has the object of enhancing the impression of the SOLEMNITY OF THE 
MOMENT, WHEN ' THE SONG ' is TO BE SUNG. The commotion of all heavens and all 
angels at the sound of the Trisagion is described in ch. xxxviii. Cf. also ch. xviii. 7. 
For passages recalling the present vs. see i En. Ixi. 10, n, 2 En. xx. i seqq., 
Ma'yan Chokma, BH. i. 59, Zohar, ii. 136 a b. For degalim applied to angelic 
troops cf. Num. R. par. ii with reference to Ps. Ixviii. 18, Shir. R. on ii. 4. In the 
quotation La, fol. 81 a, only eight classes are mentioned, viz. shallishim, parashim, 
sebaim, gibborim, memunnim, sarim, mal'akim, degalim. 



70 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CHH. XIX,. XX 

(7) And one wheel makes a sound to be heard to the other and one 
Kerub to another, one Chayya. to another, one Seraph to another 
(saying) (Ps. Ixviii. 5) "Extol to him that rideth in 'Araboth, by his 
name Jah and rejoice before him ! " 



CHAPTER XX 
CHAYYLIEL, the prince of the Chayyoth 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(1) Above these there is one great and mighty prince. His name is 
CHAYYLIEL H' , a noble and revered prince, a glorious and 1 mighty 
prince, a great and revered prince, a prince before whom all the 
children of heaven do tremble, a prince who is able to swallow up 
the whole earth in one moment (at a mouthful). 

(2) And why is he called CHAYYLIEL H'? Because he is appointed 
over the Holy Chayyoth 2 and smites the Chayyoth 2 with lashes of 



i -i ins. with D (for the sake of symmetry). 2-2 ins. from D. A om. 

(7) one wheel makes a sound to be heard to the other. After the pattern of 
Is. vi. 3: "and one cried unto another, and said etc." A parallel to the present 
verse occurs Mass. Hek. vii: "and one Bath Qol by the side of one wheel (referring 
to the ' wheels of the Merkaba ') and another Bath Qol by the side of another wheel ; 
in that moment one wheel causes (its voice) to be heard to another wheel with 
thunder and earthquake. . .(saying) 'Extol to him that rideth in 'Araboth, by his 
name Jah, and rejoice before him'". The psalm here cited is the one specifically 
used in mystical interpretations. There are several cabbalistic commentaries on 
this psalm. The special attention of the mystics was drawn to this psalm already in 
the tannaitic period if not earlier. From the vs. referred to here, the name of the 
highest of the heavens, 'Araboth, was deduced (cf. Chag. 12 b). Other passages 
of this psalm to which special interest was devoted are vss. 17 and 18. 

Elsewhere the Galgallim of the Merkaba are stated to partake in the celestial 
QSdushsha, e.g. in the quotation, YR. v. 5 b: "the wheels of the Merkaba say: 
' Blessed be the Glory of H' from his place etc.' " 

Ch. xx. (i) Above these sdl. RIKBIEL and the Galgallim of the Merkaba, described 
in the aforegoing chapter. 

Chayyliel. The name of the Prince is chosen to correspond to the word ' Chay- 
yoth'. It is, however, derived from Chayil ( ='army') rather than from Chayya. 
In accordance with this derivation 'CHAYYLIEL' was probably originally the name 
of the prince over the Chaylim (= ' the armies of angels ', cf. ch. xix. 6). A remnant 
of a tradition to this intent is perhaps the passage, occurring in Hilkoth ha MaVakim 
La, fol. 123 a, according to which he has the function of punishing the ministering 
angels, when they do not say the Song in the right time. The 'armies' sometimes 
are equivalent with the 'ministering angels'. In the same passage CHAYYLIEL is 
also the prince, appointed over the Chayyoth. 

(2) smites the Chayyoth with lashes of fire. Here, where the expression ' smites 
the Chayyoth ' stands in juxtaposition to ' glorifies them, when they give praise ', 



CHH. XX, XXI] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (Al) 71 

fire: and glorifies them, when they give praise and glory and re- 
joicing and he causes them to make haste to say 3 " Holy " and " Blessed 
be the Glory of H' from his place ! " (i.e. the Qedushshd). 



CHAPTER XXI 
The Chayyoth 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(i) Four (are) the Chayyoth corresponding to the four winds. Each 
Chayya is as the space of the whole world. And each one has four 
faces ; and each face is as the face of the East. (2) Each one has four 
wings and each wing is like the cover (roof) of the universe. (3) And 
each one has faces in the middle of faces and wings in the middle of 
wings. The size of the faces is (as the size of) 248 faces, and the size 
of the wings is (as the size of) 365 wings. 

(4) And every one is crowned with 2000 crowns on his head. And 
each crown is like unto the bow in the cloud. And its splendour is 
like unto the splendour of the globe 1 of the sun 1 . And the sparks 
that go forth from every one are like the splendour of the morning 
star (planet Venus) in the East. 

3 D ins. ' after me (Metatron) ' 
i-i Inserted from D. A om. 

it seems that the ' smiting ' would best be explained as referring to the punishment 
executed upon the Chayyoth, if they do not say the 'Holy' in the proper manner. 
Such an idea would better harmonize with a context, where 'ministering angels' 
had been substituted for 'Chayyoth'. Cf. how ace. to YR. i. 15 a, "God smites 
the Chayyoth". 

Ch. xxi. The Chayyoth (singular form: Chayya) are the "four living creatures " 
of Ezek. i. They are, ace. to the present section, placed next above the wheels of the 
Merkaba. Ace. to ch. xxii c and Hek. R. xiii, they have their place immediately 
under the Throne of Glory, above the 'Ophannim and the Kerubim. For other 
representations see the introductory section. 

(i) The number of the Chayyoth and the faces and wings of each one is in accord- 
ance with Ezek. i. 5 seq. Like the space of the zohole world, cf. ch.ix. i, and the immense 
measures ascribed to the Chayyoth in TB. Chag. 13 a ("the feet of the Chayyoth 
are of a size like that of the seven heavens, the ankles of corresponding measure, 
the knees of corresponding measure, and so forth"). (3) Faces in the middle of 
faces etc. Cf. 'the heart in the middle of the heart of the lion (i.e. one of the 
four Chayyoth)' in ch. xv B. The conceptions have probably been developed by 
force of analogy from Ezek. i. 16 (" a wheel in the middle of a wheel "). The numbers 
' 248 ' and ' 365 ' correspond to the number of positive and negative laws resp. Cf. 
ch. xxxiii. 4. (4) crowned with 2000 crowns. Crowns are regular attributes of 
high angels, cf. note on chh. xii. 3, xviii. i. 



72 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXII 

CHAPTER XXII 1 

KERUBIEL, the Prince of the Kerubim. 
Description of the Kerubim 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(1) Above these la there is one prince, noble, wonderful, strong, and 
praised with all kinds of praise. His name is KERUBIEL H', a mighty 
prince, full of power and strength 

AD: B: 

a prince of highness, and High- a prince of highness, and with 

ness (is) with him, a righteous him (there is) a righteous prince, 

prince, and righteousness (is) of righteousness, and with him a 

with him, a holy prince, and holi- holy prince, of holiness, and with 

ness (is) with him, a prince him (there is) a prince 

glorified in (by) thousand hosts, exalted by ten thousand armies. 

(2) At his wrath the earth trembles, at his anger the camps are 
moved, from fear of him the foundations are shaken, at his rebuke 
the 'Araboth do tremble. 



i Here B continues. i a D: ' the Chayyoth' 

Ch. xxii. (i) Kerubiel. In this form the name is not found in Schwab, VA. Cf. 
however, KRBIEL, p. 157, ib., and Kerubyah, ib. 

In Hilkoth ha Kisse, Add. 27199, fol. 138 b, after mention being made of SOTHER 
'ASHI'EL (cf. xviii. 19) and RIKBIEL (ch. xix), there occurs a summary of the functions 
ascribed to KERUBIEL, a passage which is apparently drawn from vss. i, 3-5, 7-9, 
of the present chapter. 

A similar abridged quotation (ba'arikut mizzeh ham mal'ak) occurs in YR. i. 54 a, 
from Sode Rasa, a quotation which is important, because it begins with Gen. 
v. 24, also forming the beginning of the present book, a fact which shows that the 
compiler of the Sode Rasa used as one of his sources an Enoch-fragment or a book of 
Enoch which contained descriptions of Kerubiel, and, by consequence, probably also the 
essential parts of the angelological section of the present book. 

In Widdiiy Yaphe (Add. 15299, fol. 133 b) he appears at the head of the Kerubim 
as here, but ib. fol. 134 b he is in common with SERAPHIEL (ch. xxvi. 8), represented 
as one of the twenty-six angels ' who carry the Merkaba '. 

In the enumeration of different classes of angels which is given in Mass. 'Asilut 
(frequently referred to in notes and Introduction), the 'prince of the Kerubim' 
is called 'KERUBIEL'. 

Even so in S. ha Chesheq (Add. 27120, fol. 14 b) KERUBIEL is introduced as the 
angel appointed over the Kerubim. 

Ace. to i En. xx. 7, the prince of the Kerubim is GABRIEL, and ace. to Zohar, 
Ex. 43 (jfE), this function is assigned to 'KERUB'. 

The variant reading of B is most likely due to a false punctuation and subsequent 
transposition of the word "immo' (= 'with him'). 



CH. XXII] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (Al) 73 

(3) His stature is full of (burning) coals. The height of his stature 
is as the height of the seven heavens the breadth of his stature is as 
the wideness of the seven heavens and the thickness of his stature 
is as the seven heavens. 

(4) 2 The opening of his mouth is like a lamp of fire 2 . His tongue 
3 is a consuming fire 3 . His eyebrows are like unto the splendour of 
the lightning. His eyes are like sparks 4 of brilliance 4 . His coun- 
tenance is like a burning fire. 

(5) And there is a crown of holiness upon his head on which 
(crown) the Explicit Name is graven, and lightnings go forth from it. 
And the bow of Shekina is between his shoulders. 

(6) AD: B: 

And his sword is upon And his sword is like unto a lightning; 
his loins and his arrows 5 and upon his loins there are arrows like 



2-2 B : ' from his mouth there burns as it were a lamp of fire ' D : ' the opening 
of his mouth burns like a lamp of fire' 3-3 so B. AD: 'consumes fire' 

4-4 B omits. 5 D: 'arrow' 

(3) His stature etc. The simpler reading of Hilkoth Kisse (see above) might 
with advantage be adopted: "his stature is as high as the seven heavens and the 
thickness of his stature is as the width of the sea ". On the measures of high angels 
cf. ch. ix. i, xxi. i and notes. Also ch. xlviii 05. 

(4) The opening of his mouth is like a lamp of fire etc. The description of 
the body of this angel-prince is in the usual terms conveying that he is wholly made 
up of fire. The substance of the angels' body is regularly fire. So it is said in 2 En. 
xxix. 1,3, with regard to God's creation of the angels: "for all the heavenly hosts 
I (God) fashioned a nature like that of fire: their weapons are fiery, their garment 
is a burning flame. . . ". Descriptions of this kind are frequent. Cf. 2 En. i. 5 
("their faces shone like the sun, their eyes like burning lamps, fire came forth from 
their lips. . .their wings were brighter than gold"). Cf. also Chibbut ha Qeber, i, 
Mass. Hek. iv, Rev. xix. 11-15. 

Occasionally one finds the statement that some angels are made of water in 
contrast with others who are made of fire or that the angels in general are composed 
of fire and water. E.g. Midrash 'Asereth haDebdroth, pp. 64 seqq., BH. (on the 
contents of 'Araboth): "the angels are made of fire and water, and there is peace 
between them etc.", based on Job xxv. 2. Cf. ch. xlii. 

(5) And there is a crown of holiness upon his head. The term ' crown of 
holiness' instead of the more usual 'crown of glory', probably with reference 
to the attribute of 'holiness' conferred upon this prince in vs. i. 

on which the Explicit Name is graven. Cf . ch. xii. i and note, also ch. xxxix. i . 
Ace. to Shir Rabba, i, the explicit name was engraved on the crowns given to the 
Israelites at mount Sinai. 

the bow of Shekina. The (heavenly counterpart of) the ' bow in the cloud ' 
is probably meant. This has become a regular part of the speculations on the 
heavenly splendours, cf. ch. xxii c 4, 7. Then also it is understood as referring to 
the angel's weapon. 

(6) his sword is upon his loins. Sword is a frequent concomitant attribute of 
the angel of death or of the angels of destruction. Cf. Rev. R. Joshua ben Levi, 
BH. ii. 48. 



74 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXII 

are like lightnings in his unto a flame, and upon his armour and 

girdle. And a shield of shield there is a consuming fire, and upon 

consuming fire (is) on his his neck there are coals of burning juniper 

neck and coals of juniper and (also) round about him (there are 

are round about him. coals of burning juniper). 

(7) And the splendour of Shekina is on his face ; and the horns of 
majesty on his wheels; and a royal diadem upon his skull. 

(8) And his body is full of eyes. And wings are covering the whole 
of his high stature (lit. the height of his stature is all wings). 

(9) On his right hand a flame is burning, and on his left a fire is 
glowing; and coals are burning from it 6 . And firebrands go forth 
from 7 his body 7 . And lightnings are cast forth from his face. With 
him there is alway thunder upon (in) thunder, by his side there is 
ever earthquake upon (in) earthquake*. 

(10) And the two princes of the Merkaba are together 8 with him 8 . 



6 so B. A: 'from his body' D: 'from him' 7-7 so BD. A: ' him' 8-8 lit. 
'the two princes of the Merkaba are in his place' B reads: 'are of his size 
(like his stature) ' 

(7) the splendour of Shekina is on his face. On the conception of the splen- 
dour of Shekina see Abelson, Immanence, pp. 85-89, and cf. note on ch. v. 4. 
When it is said to be on the face of KERUBIEL here, it is to be understood as a 
reflection of God's glory, in analogy with the 'glory' that the first Adam possessed 
before his fall (Ber. R. xii) and which is to be restored to the righteous in the 
world to come (cf. Alph. R. 'Aqiba, letter Kaph, beg.). 

horns of majesty on his wheels. The angels are often depicted as horned, cf. 
vs. 13 (horns of glory) and ch. xxix. 2 (horns of splendour). Horned angels are 
referred to in Mass. Hek. v (angels of horns of majesty: ba'ale qarne hod). Instead 
of 'on his wheels' one would have expected 'on his head'. Cf. vs. 13. No doubt 
the angel was imagined as having 'wheels', but it is possible that the reading here 
is corrupt (' 'ofa?i y as a synonym of galgal 'having been put in the place of the latter?). 
But cf. Ezek. x. 12. For Messiah ben Joseph as 'horned ' cf. note on xlv. 5. 

(8) his body is full of eyes. The angels have eyes all round to be able to see 
without turning: "there is no back in heaven" (Chag. 15 a). The passage forming 
the point of support is such a one as Ezek. x. 12. Cf. further chh. ix. 3, xxv. 2, 6, 
xxvi. 6, Hek. R. xxii. wings are covering the whole of his high stature. Cf. ch. 
ix. 2, Hek. R. ib. For vss. 8 and 9 in general cf. Chibbut ha Qeber, i. 

(10) the two princes of the Merkaba. Cf. ch. i. 7. The princes of the Merkaba 
are carrying the Merkaba ace. to Widduy Yaphe, fol. 133 b. 'The princes of the 
Merkaba ' are on the level with MIKAEL, GABRIEL, METATRON and SANDALPHON in 
so far as they, in contrast to other angels, are exempt from being burnt in the 
fiery river and ' created anew ' ace. to Stunt, quoted by the Smaller Yalqut Re'ubeni 
under ' Mal'ak'. In Alph. R. 'Aqiba, letter Mem, BH. in, they are one of the highest 
classes of angels ; together with the Chayyoth they minister by the Merkaba. In 
Midrash Sar Tora, BH. Hi, Hek. R. xxx, an angel, called SIRBIEL, is defined as "one 
of the princes of the Merkaba ". 

* The literal translation 'thunder in thunder' etc. is presumably that which 
best corresponds to the idea in the mind of the writer : that thunder was thundering 
from the midst of thunder, earthquake roaring from the midst of earthquake. 



CH. XXII] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (Al) 75 

(u) Why is he called KERUBIEL *H', the Prince 9 . Because he is 
appointed over 10 the chariot of the Kerubim. And the mighty Kerubim 
are given in his charge. And he adorns 10 the crowns on their heads 
and polishes the diadem upon their skull. 

(12) lx He magnifies the glory of their appearance. 11 And he glori- 
fies 12 the beauty of their majesty. 13 And he increases the greatness of 
their honour. He causes the song of their praise to be sung. He 
intensifies their beautiful strength. He causes the brilliance of their 
glory to shine forth. He beautifies their goodly mercy and loving- 
kindness. He frames the fairness of their radiance. He makes their 
merciful beauty even more beautiful. He glorifies their 14 upright 
majesty 14 . He extols the order of their praise, to stablish the dwelling- 
place of him "who dwelleth on the Kerubim". 

(13) And the Kerubim are standing by the Holy Chayyoth, 

and their wings are raised up to their heads (lit. are as the height 

of their heads) 

and Shekina is (resting) upon them 
and the brilliance of the Glory is upon their faces 
and 15 song and praise 15 in their mouth 
and their hands are under their wings 
16 and their feet are covered by their wings 16 
and horns of glory 17 are upon their heads 
and the splendour of Shekina on their face 
and Shekina is (resting) upon them 



9-9 D om. 10-10 B: 'the chariots of the Chayyoth. And he adorns the 

majesty and' n-n B om. 12 so D. AB: 'hastens' 13 BD ins. 'he 

increases their beauty' 14-14 S: 'majestic strength' 15-15 Z): 'song 

of praise' 16-16 B om. 17 B: 'majesty' 

In the two latter of these instances the 'princes of the Merkaba' are clearly 
indicated as more than two in number. Confer further on ch. i. 7 ('the princes of 
the Merkaba and the flaming Seraphim'). 

The expression 'are on his place' or 'are together with him' is perhaps a sign 
that the princes of the Merkaba had a function or occupied a position here ascribed 
to KERUBIEL or the Kerubim, a view which the writer tried to harmonize with his 
own in this way. 

(n) KERUBIEL is the prince of the Kerubim. The Kerubim described here are 
"the four Kerubim" (Ezek. x). In the Pseudepigrapha they are mentioned, esp. in 
Apoc. Moses and i En. and 2 En. Further see the introductory section, mighty 
Kerubim is the expression used also in Mass. Hek. iv. chariot(s) of the 
Kerubim, also ch. xxiv. i. Cf. Apoc. Mosis, xxii. 3 ("when God appeared in 
paradise, mounted on the chariots of his Kerubim"), and ib. xxxviii. 3. 

(13) and Shekina is resting upon them and the. . . Glory is upon their faces. 
Cf. Ezek. x. 18. 'The brilliance of the Glory' is the resplendence of the ' Glory' of 
Shekina. their hands are under their wings, perhaps deduced from Ezek. 
x. 7. their feet are covered etc. obviously from Is. vi. 2. horns of glory 



76 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CHH. XXII, XXII B 

and sapphire stones are round about them 
and columns of fire on their four sides 
and columns of firebrands beside them. 

(14) There is one sapphire on one side 18 and another sapphire on 
another side 18 and under 19 the sapphires 18 there are coals of burning 
juniper. 

(15) And one Kerub is standing in each direction but the wings of 
the Kerubim compass each other above their skulls in glory; and they 
spread them to sing with them a song to him that inhabiteth the 
clouds and to praise with them the fearful majesty of the king of 
kings. 

(16) And KERUBIEL H', the prince who is appointed over them, he 
arrays them in comely, beautiful and pleasant orders and he exalts 
them in all manner of exaltation, dignity and glory. And he hastens 
them in glory and might to do the will of their Creator every 
moment. For above their lofty heads abides continually 20 the glory 
of the high king 20 "who dwelleth on the Kerubim". 



CHAPTER XXII B 

L(mr), following after the B: 

rec. of ch. xxii c. vss. 1-3 R. Ishmael said to me: Metatron, the 
(middle): angel, the Prince of the Presence, said 

to me: 

(i) And there is a court (i) How are the angels standing on 
before the Throne of Glory, high? Pie said: Like a bridge that is 



18-18 ins. with DB. A om. 19-19 so D. B: 'the sapphire' A: 'their 

sapphires' 20-20 so DB. A: 'a great glory of the king' 

Cf. vs. 7. sapphire stones. Cf. Ezek. i, etc. (vs. 26). columns of fire on their 
f o ur si des . Cf . Ezek . x . 7 . 

(15) spread them, to sing with them. The Kerubim are represented as singing 
with their wings. The 'sound' or 'voice of the cherubims' wings' of Ezek. x. 5 is 
interpreted as the sound of a.song. Ace. to Hek. R. xi. 4 : " the wings of the Chayyoth 
are full of rejoicing." The Kerubim themselves are singing ace. to vs. 13. Cf. 2 En. 
xix. 6 e.a. ("the indescribable singing of the host of the Cherubim"). 

(16) Cf. chh. xxv. 5, xxvi. 8. 

The additional fragments, here marked chh. xxii B and xxii C, follow in B 
immediately after ch. xxii. Another recension of ch. xxii c occurs in Add. 27199, 
fol. 783, referred to here as ' L(o)' or 'Lo'. In the same MS. fol. 126 a (Helak 
Merkaba) there is a third recension, containing a version of ch. xxii c 1-3 (middle), 
followed by a piece parallel to but differing markedly from ch. xxii 31,3,4: ' Lmr'. 

(i) there is a court before the Throne of Glory (Lmr). The place of God's 
manifestation in the highest heavens is depicted in the simile of the innermost part 



CH. XXII B] 



MERKABAH (ADDITIONAL) 



77 



(2) which no seraph nor angel 
can enter, and it is 36,000 
myriads of parasangs, as it is 
written (Is. vi. 2): "and the 
Seraphim are standing above 
him" (the last word of the 
scriptural passage being ' 'p ' 
[numerical value: 36]). 



(3) As the numerical value 

f*h (36) ^ ihe number of the 
bridges there. 



(4) And there are 24 my- 
riads of wheels of fire. And 
the ministering angels are 
12,000 myriads. And there 
are 12,000 rivers of hail, and 
12,000 treasuries of snow. 

And in the seven Halls are 
chariots of fire and flames, 
without reckoning, or end 
or searching. (Lmr. ends 
here.) 



placed over a river so that every one can 
pass over it, likewise a bridge is placed 
from the beginning of the entry to the 
end. (2) And three ministering angels 
surround it and utter a song before 
YHWH, the God of Israel. And there 
are standing before it lords of dread 
and captains of fear, thousand times 
thousand and ten thousand times ten 
thousand in number and they sing praise 
and hymns before YHWH, the God of 
Israel. 

(3) Numerous bridges are there: 
bridges of fire and numerous bridges of 
hail. Also numerous rivers of hail, 
numerous treasuries of snow and nume- 
rous wheels of fire. 

(4) And how many are the ministering 
angels? 12,000 myriads: six (thousand 
myriads) above and six (thousand 
myriads] below. And 12,000 are the 
treasuries of snow, six above and six 
below. And 24 myriads of wheels of 
fire, 12 (myriads] above and 12 (myriads] 
below. And they surround the bridges 
and the rivers of fire and the rivers of 
hail. And there are numerous minis- 
tering angels, forming entries, for all 



of a Sanctuary. The seventh Hall is called 'the Holy of Holies'. The entry (B), 
then, is the entry of the innermost part of the sanctuary. The conception of ' bridges ' 
in heaven is attested in Hek. R. BH. iii. 93. They are the bridges that are placed 
over the fiery rivers (cf. ib.). (2) three ministering angels. Probably the leaders 
of the song-uttering angels, who sometimes are represented as three, usually as four 
(cf. note on ch. xxxv. 3). lords of dread and captains of fear. Guardian 
angels who inspire dread and fear, cf. Rev. Moses, YR. ii. 66 b ("I saw the 
angels of dread who surround the Throne")- thousand times thousand etc. 
Derived from Dan. vii. 10. Cf. chh. xxxv. 6, xxxvi. i, Zohar, ii. 252 b. 

(3, 4) rivers of fire, rivers of hail. Cf. ch. xlii. 1,7. wheels (galgallim) of fire. 
The wheels of fire are possibly conceived of as angelic beings. Cf. Zohar, ii. 252 b 
(in the fourth Hall) : "under the Chayyoth are four Seraphim (cf. vs. i ace. to Lmr) 
. . .from these four Seraphim. . .there go forth flames of fire and from these flames 
are made 72 galgallim burning in the fire and from that fire is made the Nehar 
di-Nur". the treasuries of snow are usually said to be 'under the throne', 
six above and six below etc. 'Above' and 'below' probably in relation to the 



78 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXII B 

the creatures that are standing in the midst thereof, corresponding to 
(over against) the paths of Raqia 1 Shamayim. 

(5) What doeth YHWH, the God of Israel, the King of Glory? The 
Great and Fearful God, mighty in strength, doth cover his face. 

(6) In l Araboth are 660,000 myriads of angels of glory standing 
over against the Throne of Glory and the divisions of flaming fire. And 
the King of Glory doth cover His face; for else the ( Araboth Raqia 1 
would be rent asunder in its midst because of the majesty, splendour, 
beauty, radiance, loveliness, brilliancy, brightness and excellency of the 
appearance of (the Holy One,) blessed be He. 

(7) There are numerous ministering angels performing his will, numerous 
kings, numerous princes in the 'Araboth of his delight, angels who are 
revered among the rulers in heaven, distinguished, adorned with song 
and bringing love to remembrance: (who) are affrighted by the splendour 
of the Shekina, and their eyes are dazzled by the shining beauty of their 
King, their faces grow black and their strength doth fail. 

(8) There go forth rivers of joy, streams of gladness, rivers of rejoicing, 
streams of triumph, rivers of love, streams of friendship (another 
reading:) of commotion and they flow over and go forth before the 
Throne of Glory and wax great and go through the gates of the paths 
of 'Araboth Raqia 1 at the voice of the shouting and musick of the 
CHAYYOTH, at the voice of the rejoicing of the timbrels of his 'OPHANNIM 
and at the melody of the cymbals of His Kerubim. And they wax great 
and go forth with commotion with the sound of the hymn: "HOLY, HOLY, 
HOLY, IS THE LORD OF HOSTS; THE WHOLE EARTH IS FULL OF HIS 
GLORY!" 



bridges. for all the creatures that are standing in the midst thereof. . . . 
The ' creatures ' probably refer to human beings, perhaps the souls or spirits who 
are ascending towards their abode near the Throne of Glory, i.e. after death. It is 
improbable that the Yorede Merkaba are meant here. The angels are placed so as 
to form an entry, through the midst of which the souls proceed. 

(6) the king of Glory doth cover His face. . . . This part of the verse recurs 
literally identical in Hek. R. xi, BH. iii. 92, and Or. 6666, fol. 4 b. the veil with 
which the Most High covers his face is often identified with the Pargod, cf. on 
ch. xlv. i. Cf. also Mass. Hek. iii and Chag. 12 b. 

(8) There go forth rivers of joy etc. The whole of this verse recurs in Hek. R. 
viii. 4, BH. iii. 90, Or. 6666, fol. 3 a. Only the very last sentence is somewhat 
different in Hek. R.:" (go forth with commotion) with Qedushsha, at the hour when 
Israel say before Him: 'HOLY, HOLY, HOLY etc.' as it is written (Is. vi. 3) HOLY, 
HOLY, HOLY ". In common with the rest of the book this chapter makes no reference 
to the Qednshsha chanted by the congregation on earth. 



CH. XXII C] MERKABAH (ADDITIONAL) 79 

CHAPTER XXII c 
(in J5, Lo and Lmr) 

t-k- 
R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Prince of the Presence said to me: 

(1) What is the distance between one bridge and another? 12 myriads 
ofparasangs. 1 Their ascent is 12 myriads ofparasangs, and their descent 
12 myriads ofparasangs 1 . 2 

(2) (The distance) between the rivers of dread and the rivers of fear is 
22 myriads of parasangs; between the rivers of hail and the rivers of 
darkness 3 36 myriads of parasangs; between the chambers* of lightnings 
and the clouds of compassion^ 42 myriads of parasangs; 6 7 between the 
clouds of compassion* and the Merkaba 84 myriads ofparasangs; between 
the Merkaba and the Kerubim i48 8a myriads of parasangs 1 ; between 
the Kerubim and the 'Ophannim 24 myriads of parasangs; between the 
Ophannim and the chambers of chambers 24 myriads of parasangs; 9 
between the chambers of chambers and the Holy Chayyoth 10 4O,ooo 
myriads of 10 parasangs; between one wing (of the Chayyoth) and another 

o-o Lo : ' R. Ishmael said ' Lmr om (follows upon a par. to ch. xxxvii). i-i L(o) : 
'(12 myriads of parasangs) in their ascent and 12 myriads of parasangs in their 
descent. 12 myriads of parasangs' corr. L(mr) om. 2 Lmr adds: 'and there 

are the rivers of dread ' 3 Lmr : ' snow ' 4 Lmr : ' orders ' 5 Lo : 

'heat' Lmr: 'consolation' 6 Lmr ins. the gloss: '(why) clouds of con- 

solation? Because they console the Glory (the Most High)' 7-7 Lo om. 

8 Lmr: 'consolation' 8a Lmr: '185' 9 Lmr ins. the explanatory gloss: 

'and in these chambers are honour and majesty. This is the mystical meaning (of 
the passage Ezek. i. 16), and the appearance of the 'Ophannim and their work' 
10-10 so with Lmr and Lo. B: ' 1000' 

Ch. xxii C. (i) What is the distance between one bridge and another? 
12 myriads of parasangs. The present chapter is mainly concerned with measures 
and distances. This was an early theme of the mystical traditions. A striking 
parallel is the well-known passage in Chag. 133 (the distances between the heavens 
and the measures of the different parts of the body of the Holy Chayyoth). It was 
probably referred to as Seder Shi'urin. Cf. the Shi'ur Qoma. The latter part of 
vs. i is a variant of the former part. (2) Vss. 2 and 3, by way of an exposition of 
the distances and measures gives a definite Merkaba-picture. The order is from 
the lower to the highest parts : rivers of dread rivers of fear rivers of hail rivers 
of darkness chambers of lightnings clouds of compassion the beginning of the 
Merkaba proper the Kerubim the 'Ophannim the chambers of chambers the 
Holy Chayyoth the Throne. It will be seen that this order is entirely different 
from that implied in the angelological section, chh. xix-xxii, xxv seqq., and also 
from that of ch. xxxiii. 2 seqq. In placing the Chayyoth next to the Throne as the 
highest of the Merkaba-angels, this fragment agrees with Hek. R. xiii and the 
regular representation of Zohar, and also with the passage Chag. 13 a, referred to 
above. When it is said: "the Holy Chayyoth carry the Throne of Glory", this does 
not necessarily imply the Chayyoth being designed as the highest of the Merkaba- 
angels; the other classes may be conceived of as surrounding .the Throne (cf. ch. 
xxxiii. 2, 3). The chambers of chambers are here the treasuries and storehouses 
of the Most High. 



8o THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXII C 

12 myriads of parasangs; u and the breadth of each one wing is of that 
same measure 1 *; and the distance between the Holy Chayyoth and the 
Throne of Glory is 12 3 0,000 myriads of parasangs . 

(3) And from the foot of the Throne to I3 the seat there are 40,000 
myriads of parasangs 1 *. And the name of Him that sitteth on it: let the 
name be sanctified! 

[(4) And the arches of the Bozv are set above the 'Araboth, and they 
are 1000 thousands and 10,000 times ten thousands (of parasangs) high. 
Their measure is after the measure of the 'Irin and Qaddishin (Watchers 
and Holy Ones) 15 . As it is written (Gen. ix. 13) "My bow I have set 
in the cloud". It is not written here "I will set" but "I have set", 
(i.e.) already; clouds that surround the Throne of Glory. As His clouds 
pass by, the angels of hail (turn into) burning coal. 

(5) And a fire of the voice goes down from 10 by the Holy Chayyoth. 
And because of the breath of that voice they "run " (Ezek. i. 14) to another 
place, fearing lest it command them to go; and they "return" lest it 
injure them from the other side. Therefore "they run and return" 
(Ezek. i. 14). 

(6) And these arches of the Bow are more 17 beautiful and radiant 
than 18 the radiance of the sun during the summer solstice. And they are 
whiter than a flaming fire and they are great and beautiful. 

(7) Above the arches of the Bow are the wheels of the 'Ophannim. 



n-ii Lmr: 'and the same (measure) is its length and its breadth' 12-12 so 

with Lmr. Lo: '30 myriads of parasangs' B: 'of that same measure' 
13-13 Lmr: 'where He is seated' 14 Lmr continues here with a parallel to 

ch. xxii C, see text ib. 15 Lo ins. the gloss: 'and this is what the poet lays 

down: the arches of the Bow with the wing(s) of the dragon' 16 Lo om. 

17 Lo om. i8Lo:'as' 19-1 9 Loom. 

(3) from the foot of the Throne etc. The R. Aqiba version of Shi'ur Qoma 
has: "from the seat of His Glory (Yaqar, not Kabod) downwards is (a distance of) 
118,000 parasangs" (half the numerical value of TO 3TT, "and of great power": 
Ps. cxlvii. 5). Cf. Hek. R, x, BH. iii. 91 ("from His Throne of Glory upwards is 
a distance of 180,000 myriads of parasangs"). 

Vss. 4-7 cannot be harmonized with the Merkaba-picture of the preceding verse. 
They are in reality a mystical commentary on Ezek. i. 14 seqq., starting from the 
conception of the Celestial Bow, brought about by the combination of Gen. ix. 13 
with Ezek. i. 28. Also in Zofiar, i. 71 b, the passage Gen. ix. 13 is used to elucidate 
the mystical meaning of passages in the first chapter of Ezekiel. These vss. may 
have been added here on account of the reference to 'measures' in vss. 4 and 7. 
after the measure of the 'Irin and Qaddishin. Cf. Rev. xxi. 17. The measures 
laid down in ' Shi'ur Qoma ' are said ib. to be ace. to the measures of the Most High, 
to whom a span (zret) means the distance from one end of the world to the other. 
For the 'Irin and Qaddishin see ch. xxviii. Vs. 4 recurs in S. Raziel, 30 a, preceding 
Shi'ur Qoma. (5) a fire of the voice etc. is an allusion to the Qol H a mulla 
of Ezek. i. 24. It is here conceived of as a Divine Voice. The Voice goes forth in fire. 
The Chayyoth fearing the fire: cf. Hek. R. BH. iii. 104. (7) vs. 7 recurs in 
S. Raziel, 4 a. 



CHH.XXIIC,XXIll] MERKABAH ETC. 8 1 

Their height is 1000 thousand and 10,000 times 10,000 units of measure 
after the measure of the Seraphim and the Troops (Gedudim).] 

CHAPTER XXIII 
The winds blowing ' under the wings of the Kerubim ' 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(1) There are numerous winds blowing under the wings of the 
Kerubim. 

There blows "the Brooding Wind", as it is written (Gen. i. 2): 
" and the wind of God was brooding upon the face of the waters ". 

(2) There blows "the Strong Wind 1 ", as it is said (Ex. xiv. 21): 
"and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that 
night". 

i Ins. with BDE. A om. E continues here. DE put at the beginning of this chapter 
as heading, 'Order of the winds'. 

CI-IH. XXIII, XXIV. 

Merkabah. The ninn and TTGDID. 

Chh. xxiii and xxiv stand out by themselves from the rest of the book. 
They are nearest akin to the chapters describing the heavens from their quasi- 
physical aspects, and can therefore conveniently be reckoned as belonging to 
section 6. (See the survey of the contents of the present book.) The different 
'winds' and 'chariots' are enumerated. Their names are deduced from passages 
of the O.T. where the words 'rudch' resp. ' merkaba' ', 'rekcb' or similar occur in 
different connections or with different attributes. 

An almost literal parallel to ch. xxiii, although in a shorter form (the winds 
are reduced to eight), is found, YR. i. 9 a, quoted from Socle Rasa: "There 
are eight winds. The first is 'the wind of Jealousy', as it is written (Gen. vi. 3), 
' My wind shall not always strive with man ', the second is ' the Wind blowing in 
the world ', as it is written (Gen. i. 2) : ' the wind of God was brooding upon the 
face of the waters'; the third is 'the angel-wind' as it is written (i Kings xix. n): 
'but the Lord was not in the wind', etc." As the word for 'wind' is also that for 
'spirit', in all passages referred to here, where the English version has 'spirit', 
this word has been replaced by ' wind ' in accordance with the significance ' ruach ' 
has assumed throughout the chapter. 

Parallels for the present method of deriving ' names ' of different heavenly objects 
from O.T. passages and enumerating them are found in Mass. Pick, i and in Alph. 
R. 'Aqiba, letter Zain. 

In Mass. Heh. i it is the Thrones of the Holy One, blessed be He, which are 
dealt with according to this principle. The wording is almost literally the same as 
that of the present chapters. "Numerous thrones has the Holy One, blessed be He. 
He has 'the Established Throne' as it is written.. . .He has 'the Throne of Justice 
and Righteous-ness'.. . .He has the Throne of Loving-kindness.. . .He has the 
Throne of Yah, as it is written (Ex. xvii. 16) : ' Because a hand is lifted up upon the 
throne of Yah'. (Cf. ch. xxiv. 20 here), etc." 

In Alph. R. 'Aqiba, ib. the 'keys of the Holy one' are the objects. The 'winds', 
'chariots', 'thrones' and 'keys' of the said passages are to be understood in their 
literal sense. 

Ch. xxiii. (i) blowing under the wings of the Kerubim. This trait forms 

o H B 6 



82 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXIII 

(3) There blows "the East Wind 1 " as it is written (Ex. x. 13): 
"the east wind brought the locusts". 

(4) There blows "the Wind of Quails 2 " as it is written (Num. 
xi. 31): "And there went forth a wind from the Lord and brought 
quails ". 

(5) There blows "the Wind of Jealousy" as it is written (Num. 
v. 14): "And the wind of jealousy came upon him". 

(6) There blows the "Wind of Earthquake " as it is written (i Kings . 
xix. 1 1) : "and after that the wind of the earthquake ; but the Lord was 
not in the earthquake". 

(7) There blows the "Wind of H' " 3 as it is written (Ex. xxxvii. i) : 
"and he carried me out by the wind of H' and set me down ". 

(8) There blows the "Evil Wind " 3 as it is written (i Sam. xvi. 23) : 
"and the evil wind departed from him" 4 . 

(9) There blow the "Wind of Wisdom" 5 and the "Wind of 
Understanding" and the "Wind of Knowledge" and the "Wind of 
the Fear of H'" 5 as it is written (Is. xi. 2): "And 6 the wind of 6 H' 
shall rest upon him; 7 the wind of wisdom and understanding, the 
wind of counsel and might, the wind of knowledge and of the fear 



(10) There blows the "Wind of Rain", as it is written (Prov. xxv. 
23): "the north wind bringeth forth rain". 

(n) There blows the "Wind of Lightnings ", as it is written (Jer. x. 
13, li. 1 6): "he maketh lightnings for the rain and bringeth forth 
the wind out of his treasuries ". 

(12) 8 There blows the "Wind, Breaking the Rocks", as it is 
written (i Kings xix. n): "the Lord passed by and 9 a great and 
strong wind (rent the mountains and brake in pieces the rocks before 
the Lord)". 8 ' 7 

(13) There blows the "Wind of Assuagement of the Sea", as it 
is written (Gen. viii. i): "and God made a wind to pass over the 
earth, and the waters assuaged". 



i Ins. with BDE. A om. 2 E: ' Day' corr. 3-3 E om. 4 B quotes 

i Sam. xvi. 14: 'and an evil wind from the Lord troubled him' 5-5 B: '"and 
the wind of counsel and might" and "the wind of knowledge and fear of H"" 
E: '"and Understanding," "the wind of counsel and might", "the wind of know- 
ledge and fear " ' 6-6 so BDE. A om. 7-7 B om. from ' the wind of 
wisdom etc.' vs. 9 to the end of vs. 12. 8-8 E om. 9 so D. AB: 'in' 

the point of connection with ch. xxii, treating of the Kerubim. (6) and after 
that the wind. . . . The scriptural verse in question is interpreted in a sense different 
from the natural (' but the Lord was not in the wind : and after the wind an earth- 
quake, etc.), in order to furnish the notion 'wind of earthquake'. 



CH.XXIIl] MERKABAH ETC. 83 

(14) 10 There blows the "Wind of Wrath 11 ", as it is written (Job 
i. 19) : "and behold there came a great wind from the wilderness and 
smote the four corners of the house and it fell". 10 

(15) There blows the " Storm- Wind ", as it is written (Ps. cxlviii. 8) : 
"Storm-wind, fulfilling his word". 

(16) And Satan is standing among these winds, 12 for "storm- wind " 
is nothing else but "Satan" 12 , and all these winds do not blow but 
under the wings of the Kerubim, as it is written (Ps. xviii. n) : "and 
he rode upon a cherub and did fly, yea, and he flew swiftly upon the 
wings of the wind". 

(17) And whither go all these winds 13 ? The Scripture teaches us, 
that they go out from under the wings of the Kerubim and descend 
on the globe of the sun, as it is written (Eccl. i. 6) : " 14 The wind goeth 
toward the south and turneth about unto the north ; it turneth about 
continually in its course and the wind 14 returneth again to its circuits ". 
And from the globe of the sun they return and descend upon [ 16 the 
rivers and 15 the seas, upon] the mountains and upon the hills, as it 
is written (Am. iv. 13): "For lo, he that formeth the mountains and 
createth the wind". 

(18) And from the mountains and the hills they return and descend 
to the seas and the rivers ; and from the seas and the rivers they return 
and descend upon 17 16 (the) cities and provinces ; and from the cities 
and provinces they return and descend into the Garden, and from 
the Garden they return and descend to Eden, as it is written (Gen. 
iii. 8): "walking in the Garden in the wind of day". And in the 
midst of the Garden they join together and blow from one side to 



10-10 B om. ii DE add: 'and Sorrow' 12-12 so D. BE om. A: 'for 

Satan has no wind (spirit?)' 13 BDE add: '(when) descending' 14-14 so 

DE(B). A om. 15 A ins. 'in the Garden and from the Garden and into' 

1 6-1 6 B om. 17 DE ins. 'the country and from the country they return and 

descend upon ' 

(16) Satan is standing among these winds etc. Satan, ace. to the reading adopted 
above, is represented by ' the Storm-wind '. The winds are thus divided into good and 
evil ones. Cf. i En. xxxiv. 3 : "and out of one portal they (the winds) blow for 
good : but when they blow through the other two portals it is with violence and afflic- 
tion on the earth. The 'storm- wind' represents the destructive agency among the 
winds. 

(17) The winds are represented as going out from under the wings of the Kerubim. 
The idea common to older and later Apocalyptic and Rabbinic is that the winds 
are kept in treasures in heaven, from where there are sent out and whereto they 
return. 

(18) into the Garden, and from the Garden. . .to Eden. On the relation be- 
tween the ' Garden ' and ' Eden ' cf. note on ch. v. 5. 

And in the midst of the Garden they join together. Cf. Cant. R. Par. iv. 31 : 
"in the world to come God will make the north wind and the south wind to blow 

6-2 



84 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CHH. XXIII, XXIV 

the other and are perfumed with the spices of the Garden even from 
\ts remotest parts, until 18 they separate from each other, and, filled 
ivith the scent of the pure spices, they bring the odour from the re- 
motest parts of Eden and the spices of the Garden to the righteous 
and godly who in the time to come shall inherit the Garden of Eden 
and the Tree of Life, as it is written (Cant. iv. 16) : "Awake, O north 
wind; and come thou south; blow upon my garden, that the spices 
thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden and eat 
his precious fruits". 

CHAPTER XXIV 
The different chariots of the Holy One, blessed be He 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, the 
glory of all heaven, said to me : 

(i) Numerous chariots has the Holy One, blessed be He: 

He has the "Chariots of (the) Kerubim 1 ", as it is written (Ps. 



18 so with DE. A om. corr. i DE: ' (a) kerub ' 

together as one". are perfumed with the spices of the Garden. For the 
fragrance and sweet odour of the trees of Gan 'Eden, esp. of the Tree of Life, cf. 
2 En. viii. 2,3. In Apoc. Pauli the ' perfuming winds ' are replaced by ' evwfie (TTO.TOV 
{JScop ', which " flows from the root of the tree of life ". Cf. also Rev. R. Joshua ben 
Levi, Paradise, 5th Compartment: "a perfume breathes through it, more exquisite 
than the perfume of Lebanon" (Caster's translation). 

they bring. . .the spices of the Garden to the righteous. . .in the time to 
come. Here we are at once translated into a picture of the future world. It would 
have been more natural if the relative sentence ('who etc. ') had not appeared here, 
for then ' the righteous and godly ' could have been referred to the common con- 
ception, according to which they are already living in Paradise, having been brought 
there immediately after death. The author's glide from present to future time is, 
however, comprehensible and excused by the poetical form of expression of the 
chapter. 

Also ace. to 2 En. ix, "the fragrancies of the Garden of Eden are prepared for 
the righteous ". Cf. especially Num. R. xiii. 3 (there, as here, with reference to 
Cant. iv. 16) : " In the world to come God will make a feast for the righteous in the 
Garden of Eden. Neither balsam nor spices will then be needed, for the North 
Wind and the South Wind will come down and bring with them all the spices of 
the Garden of Eden and they will spread their perfume". See In trod. sect. 16, 6. 

Ch. xxiv. The same method that is used in regard to the ' winds ' in the aforegoing 
chapter is here applied to the 'chariots'. The key to the understanding of the 
often far-fetched deductions from scriptural passages can be expressed by the 
principle: "WHENEVER IT is STATED IN THE HOLY WRIT THAT GOD APPEARS, IT MUST 
BE ASSUMED THAT HE APPEARS ON A VEHICLE". Thus, e.g. when it is said (vs. 5), 
' I saw the Lord standing upon the altar ', this is interpreted as referring to ' the 
Chariot of the altar ' ; ' appeared in the Tent ' is interpreted as ' appeared in the 
Chariot of the Tent ', etc. 

(i) the Chariots of the Kerubim. This forms the connecting link with ch. xxii, 



CH. XXIV] MERKABAH ETC. 85 

xviii. n, 2 Sam. xxii. n): "And he rode upon a cherub and did 
fly". 

(2) He has the "Chariots of Wind", as it is written (ib.) : "and he 
flew swiftly upon the wings of the wind ". 

(3) He has the "Chariots of (the) Swift Cloud", as it is written 
(Is. xix. i): "Behold, the Lord rideth upon a swift cloud". 

(4) He has "the Chariots of Clouds", as it is written (Ex. xix. 9): 
"Lo, I come unto thee in a cloud". 

2 (5) He has the " Chariots of the Altar", as it is written (Am. ix. i) : 
" I saw the Lord standing upon the Altar". 

(6) He has the "Chariots of Ribbotaim", as it is written (Ps. 
Ixviii. 18) : "The chariots of God are Ribbotaim ; thousands of angels ". 

(7) He has the "Chariots of the Tent", as it is written (Deut. 
xxxi. 15) : "And the Lord appeared in the Tent in a pillar of cloud ". 2 

(8) He has the "Chariots of the Tabernacle", as it is written 
(Lev. i. i): "And the Lord spake unto him out of the tabernacle". 

(9) He has the "Chariots of the Mercy-Seat", as it is written 
(Num. vii. 89): "then he heard 3 the Voice 3 speaking unto him from 
upon the mercy-seat". 

(10) He has the "Chariots of Sapphire Stone", as it is written 
(Ex. xxiv. 10) : "and there was under his feet as it were a paved work 
of sapphire stone". 

(n) He has the " Chariots of Eagles ", as it is written (Ex. xix. 4) : 
"I bare you on eagles' wings". 4 Eagles literally are not meant here 
but "they that fly swiftly as eagles". 4 

(12) 5 He has the "chariots of Shout", as it is written (Ps. xlvii. 6) : 
"God is gone up with a shout". 5 

(13) He has the "Chariots of 'Araboth", as it is written (Ps. 
Ixviii. 5): "Extol Him that rideth upon the 'Araboth". 

(14) He has the "Chariots of Thick Clouds", as it is written 
(Ps. civ. 3): "who maketh the thick clouds His chariot". 

(15) He has the "Chariots of the Chayyoth 6 ", as it is written 
(Ezek. i. 14) : "and the Chayyoth 6 ran and returned". 7 They run by 
permission and return by permission, for Shekina is above their 
heads. 7 



2-2 B om. vss. 5-7. 3-3 B: ' YYY' (i.e. YHWH) MT as above. 4-4 BDE 
om. (perhaps gloss). 5-5 B om. 6 so BDE. A: 'the Living Ones' (Chayyim). 
7-7 B om 

treating of the Kerubim in general and mentioning the 'chariots of the Kerubim', 
vs. ii. Cf. ib. note. 

(15) They run by permission soil, of the Shekina. Shekina is above 
their heads. Cf. the expression 'Shekina is resting upon them', with reference 



86 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH.XXIV 

(16) He has the "Chariots of Wheels (Galgallim)", as it is written 
(Ezek. x. 2): "And he said: Go in between the whirling wheels". 

(17) lie has the "Chariots of a Swift Kerub", as it is written (? 8 ): 
"riding on a swift cherub 9 ". 

And at the time when He rides on a swift kerub, as he sets one of 
His feet upon him, before he sets the other foot upon his back, he 
looks through 10 eighteen thousand 10 worlds at one glance. And he 
discerns and sees into them all and knows what is in all of them 
and then he sets down the other foot upon him, according as it is 
written (Ezek. xlviii. 35): "Round about eighteen thousand". 

Whence do we know that He looks through every one of them 
every day? It is written (Ps. xiv. 2) : "He looked down from heaven 
upon the children of men 11 to see if there were any that did under- 
stand, that did seek after God 11 ". 

8 The reference is a confusion of Ps. xviii. 10 with Is. xix. i. B om. vs. 
17. 9 D: 'cloud' cf. vs. 3. lo-iosoBDE. A: '18,000 thousands (of worlds)' 
ii-n B om. 

to the Kerubim, in ch. xxii. 13. The Chayyoth carry the Throne of Glory, the seat 
of Shekina. 

Note the systematic order of the ' chariots ' in vss. 15 seqq. The Chariots are those 
of 'the Chayyoth (vs. 15), the Galgallim (vs. 16), the Kerub (vs. 17), the 'Ophannim 
(vs. 1 8) and the Divine Thrones (vss. 19 seqq.)'. This order recalls the system 
of the Merkaba-tepresentation in the angelological section, chh. xix-xxii, xxiv seqq. : 
four classes of Merkaba-angels arranged according to rank under and next to the 
Divine Throne. If the order here presented is intentional, it appears that the 
Merkaba-picture of this chapter is different from that of the angelological section 
referred to : the arrangement (and names) of the superior classes of angels here is 
not congruent with that of the latter. Cf. further note on ch. xix and Introduction. 

(16) Chariots of Wheels (Galgallim). On the Galgallim cf. note on ch. xix. 2. 

(17) Chariots of a Swift Kerub. Cf. P. R. 'EL iv: "When God looks out on 
the earth his Chariots are on the wheels (Galgallim, cf. the preceding vs.), when 
riding in heaven, on a swift Kerub". 

before he sets the other foot etc. The expression occurs also Hek. R. iii. 2 et al. 

he looks through 18,000 worlds at one glance. "It was presumed that our 
present earth was preceded by many others which were not good in the eyes of the 
Creator (Gen. R. iii. 9, ix. 2) who traverses in all 18,000 worlds ". The 18,000 worlds 
are co-existent with the present world. 

The number 18,000 is here deduced from Ezek. xlviii. 35. So also in S. Raziel, 36 
(Ma' ase Bereshith) . 

Ace. to 'Aboda Zara, 3 b, the number is derived from Ps. Ixviii. 18, interpreted 
somewhat in the following sense: 'God rides (through) twenty thousands (i.e. 
20,000 worlds) less two thousand (worlds)'. This interpretation is repeated in 
later cabbalistic works, e.g. ' Peli'a' (cited YR. i. 7 b). 

In the Talmud-passage just mentioned the Holy One is represented as traversing 
all the 18,000 worlds "on his SWIFT KERUB". 

The number 18,000 is lastly deduced even in a third way, viz. from the first 
word of the Tora : Bereshith. The number of the letters of this word when written 
in full (beth, resh, shin, etc.) is 18. Hence the interpretation: "18 (scil. thousand 
worlds) created God". 

With the conception of 18,000 worlds may be compared that of 955 heavens: 
ch. xlviii A i (cf. note, ib.). 



CHH. XXIV, XXV] MERKABAH ETC. 87 

12 (i8) He has the "Chariots of the 'Ophannim", as it is written 
(Ezek. x. 12): "and the 'Ophannim were full of eyes round about". 12 

(19) He has the " Chariots of 13 His Holy Throne 13 ", as it is written 
(Ps. xlvii. 8) : " God sitteth upon his holy throne ". 

(20) He has the "chariots of the Throne of Yah", as it is written 
(Ex. xvii. 16) : "Because a hand is lifted up upon the Throne of Jah ". 

14 (2i) He has the "Chariots of the Throne of Judgement", as it 
is written (Is. v. 16): "but the Lord of hosts shall be exalted in 
judgment". 14 

(22) He has the " Chariots of the Throne of Glory ", as it is written 
(Jer. xvii. 12) : "The Throne of Glory, set on high from the beginning, 
15 is the place of our sanctuary 15 ". 

(23) He has the "Chariots of the High and Exalted Throne", as 
it is written (Is. vi. i): "I saw the Lord sitting upon the high and 
exalted throne". 16 

CHAPTER XXV 

'Ophphanniel, the prince of the 'Ophannim. 
Description of the 'Ophannim 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(i) Above these there is one great prince, revered, high 1 , lordly, 
fearful, ancient and strong. 'OPHPHANNIEL H r is his name. 

12-12 B om. 13-13 B: 'the Holy Throne' E: 'the Throne of His Glory' 

cf. vs. 22. 14-14 ED om. 15-15 B om. 16 B ends with this chapter. 

i DE: 'honoured' 

(19-23) The Chariots of his Holy Throne. . .of the Throne of Yah. . .of the 
Throne of Judgement. . .of the Throne of Glory. . .of the High and Exalted 
Throne. The word 'chariots' seems here to be merely a metaphorical ex- 
pression (= the vehicle of God's manifestation?). For the different 'Thrones' 
of God see Mass. Hek. i, ii. All the names of ' Thrones ' of the present verses recur 
there, partly with the same scriptural references. 

Ch. xxv. The continuation of ch. xxii. 

(i) Above these.. . .The opening words of the chapter make it evident that it 
cannot possibly be a continuation of the preceding chapter, as it appears to be 
from its present place. With ch. xxii, however, it fits in well, both with regard to 
style, phraseology and general arrangement. It treats of the third class of Merkaba- 
angels, the 'Ophannim, and their prince, 'OPHPHANNIEL, in a manner very similar to 
that of chh. xix-xxii, with regard to Chayyoth and KeruUm. 'Ophphanniel. The 
name occurs, chh. xiv. 10 and xvii. 5, as the name of the angel set over the course 
of the moon. Cf. 5. Raziel, 19 b. No instance attributing to 'OPHPHANNIEL the 
function assigned to him in the present chapter is found among the references in 
Schwab, VA. 

There seem to have been two different traditions concerning the name of the 



88 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXV 

(2) He has sixteen faces, four faces on each side, 2 (also) hundred 
wings on each side 2 . And he has 8466 eyes, corresponding to the 
days of the year. 

A: DE: 

2190 and some say 2116 on 2191 (E: 2196) and sixteen on 

each side 3 . each side. 

(3) And those two eyes of his face, in each one of them lightnings 
are flashing, and from each one of them firebrands are burning ; and 
no creature is able 4 to behold them : for anyone who looks at them is 
burnt instantly. 

(4) His height is (as) the distance of 2500 years' journey. No eye 5 
can behold and no mouth can tell the mighty power of his strength 6 
save the King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He, alone. 

(5) Why is he called 'OPHPHANNIEL ? 

Because he is appointed over the 'Ophannim and the 'Ophannim 



2-2 -D om. 3 A repeats the last sentence. 4 so DE. A ins. 'to stand 

(and)' 5 so D. A: 'house' 6 so DE. A: 'eyes' 

leader of the 'Ophannim. According to one it was . 'OPHANNIEL, according to the 
other RAPHAEL. The former tradition is represented by this chapter, the latter by 
Zohar, Ex. xliii. In Masseket 'Asilut the two are foisted together, so that there 
RAPHAEL and 'OPHANNIEL are given as the chieftains of the 'Ophannim. 

(2) he has 8466 eyes etc. The number of the eyes is a calendary one. The text 
is, however, corrupt, the reading of DE worse than that of A. If, instead of ' days 
of the year ', we read (as Jellinek suggests in note, ad locum, in E) ' hours of the 
days of the year', the number 8466 would correspond to a lunar year of 352$ days; 
the fourth part of 8466 is 21 16 (plus )> the number of eyes on each of the four sides, 
according to one of the variants of A. The other variant, 2190, is the exact fourth 
part of the number of hours of the solar year, if counted as 365 days of 24 hours 
each. The variants of A thus point to two different readings, one of which used 
'solar' numbers, the other 'lunar' ones. This fact does not imply any contention 
between solar and lunar calculations as in the earlier Apocrypha. In the present 
book the solar and lunar numbers are merely cosmic numbers, used side by side, 
apparently of equal value, although the solar ones are more frequent. The only 
reason to consider the variant, giving the lunar numbers, as the original in this case, 
is the fact that 'OPHANNIEL elsewhere chh. xiv. 10 and xvii. 5 of the present book 
and S. Raziel, ig b is connected with the course of the moon (notice the use of 
the number 354 in connection with 'OPHANNIEL, ch. xvii. 5). Besides, the numbers 
8466 and 2116 may be corrupt for 8496 and 2124 resp., corresponding to a lunar 
year of 354 days. 

A parallel passage in Mass. Hek. iv runs (using solar numbers) : " In each Hall 
there are 8766 gates of lightnings, corresponding to the number of hours of the days 
of a year". This parallel is pointed out by Jellinek in his note (referred to above) 
and is the point of support for the emendations suggested by him. 

(3) two eyes that are in his face. His face, being pictured as that of a man, 
has two eyes only, whereas the rest of his body is wholly covered with eyes : see the 
preceding verse. 

(4) appointed over the 'Ophannim. On the 'Ophannim cf. Introduction. The 
'Ophannim have here, as well as in i En. Ixi. 10, Ixxi. 7, 2 En. xxix. 3, Yer. Ber. iv. 5, 



CH.XXV] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (Al) 89 

are given in his charge. 7 He stands 8 every day and attends and 
beautifies 9 them. And he exalts and orders their apartment (DE: 
runnings) and 10 polishes their standing-place 10 and makes bright their 
dwellings, makes their corners even 11 and cleanses their seats. And 
he waits upon them early and late, by day and by night, to increase 
their beauty, to make great their dignity and to make them "diligent 
in praise of their Creator. 

(6) And all the 'Ophannim are full of eyes, 12 and they are all full 
of brightness 12 ; 1314 seventy two sapphire stones are fixed on their 
garments on their right side 14 and seventy two sapphire stones are 
fixed on their garments on their left side 13 . 

(7) And four 15 carbuncle 16 stones are fixed on the crown of every 
single one, the splendour of which proceeds in the four directions of 
'Araboth even as the splendour of the globe of the sun proceeds in 
all the directions of the universe. 17 And why is it called Carbuncle 
(Bareqet)t Yl Because its splendour is like the appearance of a light- 

7 A ins. 'And he is appointed to attend the 'Ophannim' 8 A ins. 'over them ' 

9 E: 'makes them to fear and refreshes them' 10-10 E: 'assembles their 

meeting (congregation) ' 1 1 DE instead of ' makes even ' read : ' refreshes ' 

12-12 DE: 'and all of them are full of wings, eyes over against wings, wings cor- 
responding to eyes, and in between them splendour and radiance are shining as 
the light of the planet Venus' 13-13 E om. 14-14 D om. 15 E: 

'seventy two' 16 so D. EA: 'sapphire' 17-1? so D. A: (Why is it 

called Beraqot (lightnings) (carbuncles)' E: 'Why is he called by the name of 
SIDQIEL?' 

lost all traces of their original character of wheels (galgallim) . Cf. the similar 
development of the traditions concerning the Galgallim (see note on ch. xix. 2). 

Here the 'Ophannim are depicted as one of the classes of Merkaba-angels, with 
the regular appearance of angels (with eyes, garments, crowns etc. cf. vs. 6). 

Later the 'Ophannim are identified with the Galgallim, e.g. in the cabbalistic 
treatise on the Throne, the Merkaba and the Shekina, contained in Harley Or. 
5510, fol. 127 a: "the 'Ophannim, they are (the same as) the Galgallim". 

When the Galgallim are identified with the spheres or heavenly bodies, the 
conception of the 'Ophannim as those who 'move the spheres' arises. Such is the 
representation of the 'Ophannim in Shefa ir fal (by R. Sheftel Horwitz, ed. 1612), 
fol. 41 c : "... the 'Ophannim, who act in the 'Asiyyatic world (' the world of creative 
matter') and move the spheres, as it is written (Ezek. i. 15) ' . . . behold one 'Ophan 
upon the earth' etc." 

It was, no doubt, through the connection of the 'Ophannim with the 'globes' 
that 'OPHANNIEL was made the prince appointed over the ' globe of the moon '. 

(6) 72 sapphire stones are fixed on their garments. Cf. ch. xii. i, and for 
the use of the number 72, vs. i of ch. ix. 

(7) four carbuncle stones on the crown. . . . Carbuncle stone is mentioned 
as one of the different kinds of precious stones fixed on " the floor of the 'Araboth " 
in Mass. Hek. iv, where a similar statement is made to its splendour as here: 
"its splendour proceeds through the whole universe and through all the seven 
heavens". 

why is it called Carbuncle? There is a certain confusion in the readings of 
the latter part of the verse. The reading of D is adopted in the translation, as being 



90 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CHH. XXV, XXVI 

ning 18 (Baraq). And tents of splendour, tents of brilliance, tents of 
brightness as of sapphire and carbuncle inclose them because of 
19 the shining appearance of their eyes 19 . 



CHAPTER XXVI 

SERAPHIEL, the Prince of the Seraphim. 
Description of the Seraphim 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(1) Above these there is one prince, wonderful, noble, great, 
honourable, mighty, terrible, a chief and leader 1 and a swift scribe 1 , 
glorified, honoured and beloved. 

(2) He is altogether filled with splendour, full of praise and shining ; 
and he is wholly full of brilliance, of light and of beauty; and the 
whole of him is filled with goodliness 2 and greatness. 



1 8 E: '(the planet) Jupiter' 19-19 A: 'the shining appearance of them (the 

'Ophannim), and of their eyes and before them (=and of their faces?)'. The 
adopted reading is that of DE. 

i-i DE om. 2. A omitting 'goodliness' has here a lacuna. 

the most plausible: the unfamiliar word ' Bareqet' is explained as derived from 
'Baraq' ('lightning'). The reading of E is based on the assumption that the word 
to be explained is that of an angel : the expression ' weldmma niqrd shSmd . . . = why 
is he called by the name . . . ' is the regular phrase introducing the explanation of 
an angel's name. Hence E presents the reading: "Why is he called by the name 
of SIDQIEL? Because his splendour is like the splendour of the planet Jupiter (Sedeq) ". 
The reading of E is probably due to an emendation of a copyist. It is, however, 
difficult to understand why he should have substituted 'SIDQIEL' and ' Sedeq' for 
'Bareqet' and 'Baraq' resp. (it would have been more natural to choose, say, the 
name 'BARAQIEL', cf. ch. xiv. 10), unless one may assume, that he was dependent 
upon some tradition, according to which SIDQIEL was the Prince of the 'Ophannim. 
Ace. to Zohar and Mass. Asilut, SIDQIEL is the leader of the class of angels, which is 
called Shin'anim. tents of splendour etc. The tents, like the clouds of ch. 
xxxiv. 2, serve the purpose of protecting the other angels from the splendour of 
the 'Ophannim. 

(i) a swift scribe. As this attribute is omitted by D and E, and no second 
statement occurs in the chapter to the effect that SERAPHIEL had the function of a 
scribe, scarcely any importance can be ascribed to this single expression. It is 
possible that a copyist, missing a clear reference to the identity of the ' scribes ' or 
' scribe ' in the present angelological section, there being only an occasional mention 
of ' scribes ' in ch. xxvii. 2, concluded that SERAPHIEL, the highest of the princes of 
the Merkaba-angels held this function. To the ' scribes ' was assigned a high position 
near the Throne of God. The conception is mainly connected with that of the 
Judgement. 



CH.XXVl] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (Al) 91 

(3) His countenance is altogether like (that of) angels, but his body 
is like an eagle's body. 

(4) His splendour is like unto lightnings, his appearance like fire 
brands, his beauty like unto sparks, his honour like 3 fiery coals 3 , his 
majesty like chashmals, his radiance like the light of the planet Venus. 
The image of him is like unto the Greater Light. His height is as 
the seven heavens. The light from his eyebrows is like the sevenfold 
light. 

(5) The sapphire stone upon his head is as great as the whole 
universe and like unto the splendour of the very heavens in radiance. 

(6) His body is full of eyes like the stars of the sky, innumerable 
and unsearchable. Every eye is like the planet Venus. Yet, there 
are some of them like the Lesser Light and some of them like unto 
the Greater Light. From his ankles to his knees (they are) like unto 
stars of lightning, from his knees to his thighs like unto the planet 
Venus 4 , from his thighs to his loins like unto the moon, from his 
loins to his neck like the sun, from his neck to his skull like unto the 
Light Imperishable. (Cf. Zeph. iii. 5.) 

(7) The crown on his head is like unto the splendour of the Throne 
of Glory. The measure of the crown is the distance of 502 years' 
journey. There is no kind of splendour, no kind of brilliance, no kind 
of radiance, no kind of light in the universe but is fixed on that crown. 

(8) The name of that prince is SERAPHIEL H' '. 5 And the crown on 



3-3 so D. A: 'streams' 4 E instead of 'the planet Venus' reads 'the shining 

stars ' 5-5 DE om. 

(6) The description of the appearance of the body of SERAPHIEL in this verse 
seems to indicate that his body was conceived of as having human form, in con- 
tradiction to the statement made in vs. 3. 

(7) The crown on his head. On the crown as regular accompaniment-feature 
of descriptions of high angels, cf. ch. xii. 3 note (also ch. xviii. i). The measure 
of the crown is. ... Cf. SM'ur Qoma, Bodl. OPP. 467 : the measure of the crown 
on the head of the manifested GoHhead is 500,000 by 500,000 (measures). 

(8) Seraphiel H'. See Schwab, VA. p. 260. Among the different passages 
treating of 'SERAPHIEL' that which is nearest akin to the present representation is 
Zohar, ii. 252 b (Hekaloth), where SERAPHIEL is given as the name of one of the 
four Seraphim, viz. the first one. 

Ace. to S. Raziel, 36 b, he is appointed over one of the gates of the heavenly 
apartments. 

Ace. to Widduy Yaphe (Add. 15299, fol. 133 b) SERAPHIEL is one of the twenty-six 
angels who carry the Merkaba. 

In S. ha Chesheq he is invoked together with other angels by the suppliant, 
praying for "knowledge in purity". 

In Berith Menucha, fol. 47 c, SERAPHIEL is mentioned as one of the company of 
'consuming' or 'burning' angels. The words 'SERAPHIEL' and 'Seraphim' are 
deduced from the verb ' saraph' ('burn', 'to burn'). Cf. the explanation of the 



92 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXVI 

his head, its name is "the Prince of Peace". 5 And why is he called 
by the name of SERAPHIEL #'? Because he is appointed over the 
Seraphim. And 6 the flaming Seraphim are given in his charge. And 
he presides over them by day and by night and teaches them song, 
praise, proclamation of beauty, might and majesty; that they may 
proclaim the beauty of their King in all manner of Praise and 
Sanctification (Qedushsha). 

(9) How many are the Seraphim"? Four, corresponding to the four 
winds of the world. And how many wings have they 7 each one of 
them 7 ? Six, corresponding to the six days of Creation. And how 
many faces have they? 7 Each one of them 7 four faces. 8 

(10) 9 The measure of the Seraphim and the height of each one of 
them correspond to the height of the seven heavens. 9 The size of 
each wing is like the measure of all Raqia' . The size of each face is 
like that of the face of the East. 



5-5 DE om. 6 A ins. ' the Holy Seraphim and ' 7-7 DE om. 8 DE 

add: 'in each direction' 9-9 E om. 

name 'Seraphim' in vs. 12 of the present chapter. Hence SERAPHIEL, ace. to 
'Amtachat Binyanim, fol. 38 b (cited Schwab, ib.), is invoked in case of fire. 

And the crown on his head, its name is "the Prince of Peace." This state- 
ment is peculiar to A : it is not found in D and E. It is somewhat out of keeping with 
the style of this section, as well as of the whole book, in so far as it is the only instance 
where a special, artificial, name is given to any part of an angel's body or adornment. 
The attribution of special names to the different parts of the body of the Godhead 
is a marked feature of Shiur Qoma, and even of Hek. Zot. The sentence is no doubt 
a gloss. 

in all manner of Praise and Sanctification. The Seraphim are singing praises 
to their Creator and especially the Qedushsha or Trisagion. That the Seraphim 
perform the QSdushsha is definitely stated also in the Testament of Adam (Patrologia 
Syriaca), in Ma'yan Chokma, BH. i. 58-64, and in the Q&dushsha of the Additional 
service for Sabbath and Festivals (the Qedushsha le-MnsapK) . The last mentioned 
runs : " We will revere and sanctify thee as in the secret whisper of the Holy Seraphim 
who sanctify Thy name in Holiness, as it is written by the hand of the prophet 
(Is. vi. 3), 'And one cried unto another and said, Holy, Holy, Holy, etc."' The 
entire conception of the Qedushsha-sing'mg Seraphim is of course deduced from 
Is. vi. It is uncertain whether Qedushsha here is really = Trisagion. 

The Seraphim are identical with the Chalkadri of 2 En. xii and xv. i (according 
to CHARLES) and, probably, also with the 'serpents' of i En. xx. 7 ("Gabriel, one 
of the holy angels, who is over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim"). 
Cf. 2 En. xix. 6. 

In Apoc. Mosis, xxxiii. 3, the Seraphim are connected with the Merkaba as here. 

They appear as one of the classes of superior angels in i En. Ixi. 10: "And He 
will summon all the host of the heavens, and all the holy ones above, and the 
host of God, the Kerubin, Seraphin and 'Ophannin"; and ib. Ixxi. 7: "And round 
about were Seraphin, Cherubin and Ophannin. . . ". Cf. further 2 En. xix. 6, xxix. 3, 
TB. Chag. 12 b. 

As the first (and highest) rank of angels they are represented (as here) in the 
Coptic Mysteries of St John and the Holy Virgin, fol. 6 b (Budge's ed.) : " I saw all 
the ranks of the angels. The first rank contained the Seraphim". 



CH.XXVl] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (Al) 93 

(i i) And each one of them gives forth light like unto the splendour 
of the Throne of Glory: so that not even the Holy Chayyoth, the 
honoured 'Ophannim, nor the majestic KeruUm are able to behold it. 
For everyone who beholds it, his eyes are darkened because of its 
great splendour. 

(12) Why are they called Seraphim? Because they burn (saraph) 
the writing tables of Satan : Every day Satan is sitting, together with 
SAMMAEL, the Prince of Rome, and with DUBBIEL, the Prince of 
Persia, and 10 they write 10 the iniquities of Israel on writing tables 
which they hand over to the Seraphim, in order that they may present 
them before the Holy One, blessed be He, so that He may destroy 
Israel from the world. But the Seraphim know 11 from the secrets u 
of the Holy One, blessed be He, 12 that he desires not, 12 that this 



10-10 DE: 'he writes* ii-n E: 'in a vision from' 12-12 ins. from 

D. A om. 

Berith Menucha, 38 b, also puts the Seraphim in the highest rank, under the 
leadership of YBHOEL. 

Further on the Seraphim, see the Introduction. 

(12) Every day Satan is sitting, together with Sammael etc. Satan is here the 
Prince of the Accusers, SAMMAEL and DUBBIEL being merely his assistants. This 
function tends more and more to be transferred to SAMMAEL, who as the repre- 
sentative of Rome, the head of the Gentile Nations, naturally becomes the chief 
supraterrestrial enemy of Israel. So, ch. xiv. 2, SAMMAEL is explicitly named 'the 
Prince of the Accusers'. Likewise, in the Pirqe Mashidch, BH. iii. 68, SAMMAEL 
appears as the official accuser of Israel. In the earlier Apocrypha he is the angel of 
death, e.g. Sir. xxv. 24; 3 Bar. iv. 8, ix. 7. He is also identified with the serpent 
of the Genesis narrative of the primordial sin, or at least considered as the angel 
who led Adam astray ace. to 3 Bar. iv. 8, ix. 7. Traces of his character as angel of 
death are found even in later writings, e.g. Midrash Petirath Moshe, BH. i. 125, 
ace. to which 'SAMMAEL, the head of the Accusers' aspires to fetch Moses' soul at 
the time of his death. In the same line fall his functions of prince of the Nehar 
di-Nur, the fiery river (Zohar, i. 40 a, ii. 243 b), and angel of Gehenna (Midrash 
Konen, 'Arze Lebanon, 3 b, P. R. 'EL xxxi, xiii). As Prince of Rome Sammael is 
mentioned in Gen. R. Ixxvii, in Pirqe Mashi'ch, ib., in Hek. R. iv, v and freq. As 
such he obtains a prominent place among 'the Princes of Kingdoms ', even at times 
represented as their leader. Cf. notes on chh. xiv. 2 and xvii. 8. 

For DUBBIEL as the Prince of Persia cf. TB. Yoma, 77 a. Vide Introd. sect. 7. 

For 'Satan' and 'Satans' as having access to heaven, vide CHARLES, The Book of 
Enoch, p. 66, on the relation of 'The Parables' of i En. to the rest of the book. 
Ace. to i En. xl. 7, the Satans have access to heaven. 

that they may present them before the Holy One. This conception of the 
Seraphim as having the function of handing over documents or petitions to the 
Holy One, is represented in a somewhat different form in the statement occurring 
in Lev. R. xxii and Eccl. R. x, that the record of man's deeds during the past day 
is during his sleep transmitted by the 'neshdma' to a Kerub and by the Kerub to 
a Seraph, who in his turn presents it before the Holy One, blessed be He. The 
conception is based on the assumption that the Seraphim are the class of Merkaba- 
angels who stand next to the Throne. 

know from the secrets of the Holy One. It was thought that some of the 
highest angels enjoyed the privilege of partaking in the knowledge of God's secrets ; 



94 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CHH. XXVI, XXVII 

people Israel should perish. What do the Seraphim} Every day do 
they receive (accept) them from the hand of Satan and burn them 
in the burning fire over against the high and exalted Throne 13 in 
order that 14 they may not come 14 before the Holy One, blessed be 
He, at the time when he is sitting upon the Throne of Judgement, 
judging the whole world in truth. 



CHAPTER XXVII 
RADWERIEL, the keeper of the Book of Records 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel 1 of H' 1 , the Prince of the 
Presence, said to me : 

(i) Above the Seraphim there is one prince, exalted above all the 



13 E adds: 'of Glory' 14-14 so DE. A: 'he may not present them.' 

Ch. xxvii. i-i .Bom. 

they knew beforehand the decrees and the reasons of the decrees. Cf. chh. xxviii. 4, 
x. i, xlv. i, 2 and notes resp., xviii. 16 and note. A technical term for this knowledge 
of the Divine secrets was the expression "know from inside the Curtain" or "hear 
from behind the Curtain". Cf. Chag. 16 a (concerning the ministering angels), 
Chibbut ha Qeber, iv (of the angel of death), Ma'yan Chokma, etfreq. (of the angel 
Gallisur). 

receive them from the hand of Satan and burn them . . . that they may not 
come before the Holy One etc. Cf . how ace. to i En. xl, " the four presences on 
the four sides of the Lord of Spirits " "fend off the Satans and forbid them to come 
before the Lord of Spirits to accuse them who dwell on the earth" (vs. 7). The 
accusations have no power to alter the Divine decrees concerning Israel, so far as 
they are sufficiently counterpoised by high merits on the part of Israel (for instance 
their acceptance of the Tora on mount Sinai, without which acceptance the whole 
world could not have subsisted). Of this impotence of the accusations the burning 
'of the writing tables of Satan' is a metaphor. 

The Seraphim are here represented as frustrating the plottings of the accusing 
angels. In P. R. 'El. on the contrary, SAMMAEL, the Chayyoth and the Seraphim 
in unity desire man's fall and plan to bring it about. 

sitting upon the Throne of Judgement, judging the whole world in truth. 
The interest begins to turn to the Judgement. Similarly, in the independent 
angelological exposition contained in ch. xviii, the functions of the last enumerated 
angels centre round the different aspects of the Divine Judgement. The Throne of 
Glory seems to the visionary as he directs his gaze higher, to reveal itself as the 
Throne of Judgement. For the expression 'judging in truth' cf. ch. xxxi. i. 

Ch. xxvii. Ch. xxvii, although belonging to the same angelological section as 
the preceding chapters, leaves the subject of the angels of the Merkaba and the 
princes appointed over them and approaches the subject of the Judgement, already 
alluded to by the last verse of the aforegoing chapter. It treats of RADWERIEL, the 
heavenly registrar, the keeper of the Case of Writings, of which the most important 
is ' the Book of Records '. On ' the Book of Records ' the Judgement is to be based. 

(i) Radweriel H'. The name is, so far as is known to the present writer, an aira%- 
\ry6/j,evov. So is also the reading of E: ' DaryoeV . But it seems very probable that 



CH.XXVIl] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (Al) 95 

princes, wondrous more than all the servants. His name is RAD- 
WERIEL 2 H' who is appointed over the treasuries of the books. 

(2) He fetches forth the Case 3 of Writings (with) the Book of 
Records in it, and brings it before the Holy One, blessed be He. 
4 And he breaks the seals of the case 43 , 6 opens it, 5 takes out 5 the books 
and delivers them before the Holy One, blessed be He 6 . And the 
Holy One, blessed be He, receives them of his hand and gives them 
in his sight to the Scribes, that they may read them 7 in the Great 
Beth Din 3 in the height of 'Araboth Raqia', before the heavenly 
household. 



2 E: 'Daryo'el' D marks, through vowel points, the pronunciation 'Radweriel', 
which is adopted above. 3-3 E om. 4-4 D om. 5-5 so E. A corr. : 

'gives' 6-6 D om. 7-7 so DE. A (seemingly) :' before the Holy One, 

blessed be He, the Great One' 

there exists a connection as well with regard to name as function between RADWERIEL 
here and the ' VRETIL' of 2 En. xxii. n, 12 (and xxiii) : "And the Lord called one of 
his archangels, by name Vretil, who was more wise than the other archangels and wrote 
down all the doings of the Lord. And the Lord said to Vretil, ' Bring forth the books 
from my store-places, and give a reed to Enoch and interpret to him the books' etc." 
The affinities between this and the features represented in the present chapter are 
obvious. 2 En.: VRETIL, an archangel, more wise than the other archangels here: 
RADWERIEL, above the Seraphim, the highest of the Merkaba-angels, exalted above 
all the Princes etc.; 2 En. : VRETIL brings forth the books from God's store-places 
here: RADWERIEL is appointed over the treasuries of the books and fetches forth 
the ' Case of Writings with the Book of Records '. 

The derivation of the words 'RADWERIEL' or 'VRETIL' is uncertain: from the 
Greek fvppeirrjs (thus signifying 'fluent speech, fluent reading'?). Cf. vs. 3. He 
may originally have had the function, here assigned to the scribes, of ' reading the 
books before the Great Beth Din in heaven'. 

(2) Case of Writings. The Hebrew word, here translated ' Case', is used in this 
sense in TB. Sofa, 22 d, Meg. 26 b et al., also Alph. R. 'Aqiba, letter Qoph. 

Book of Records (or ' of remembrance '). On the three main lines of conceptions 
of the 'books' at the Judgement cf. note on ch. xviii. 24. The 'book of records' 
evidently is conceived of as recording all the deeds of the inhabitants of the world 
relevant to the issues at the Judgement. The Book of Records is the basis of the 
Judgement also ace. to the liturgical prayer 'p]pn njJIJI ' ("and thou wilt remember 
all that is forgotten, and wilt open the Book of Records"). 

takes out the books. The plural might either refer to other books besides 
and inclusive of the Book of Records or be due to a confusion between two traditions, 
one knowing one 'Book' only, the other speaking of 'the books'. The second 
tradition is represented, e.g. in 4 Ez. vi. 20, Ap. Bar. xxiv. i, Rev. xx. 12, not to 
mention Dan. vii. 10. 

gives them. . .to the scribes, that they may read them. A similar situation, 
with the same expressions, is pictured in the Alph. R. 'Aqiba, letter Qoph, only with 
the difference that it there takes place at the court of the Pharaoh. The illustrative 
features are borrowed from the writer's ideas of the proceedings at a royal court. 

The Great Beth Din or Sanhedrin or Court of Justice. Cf. chh. xxviii. 9 and 
xxx. i . The Sanhedrin on earth had its counterpart in heaven, the Beth Din Shel- 
ma'ala under the presidency of the Most High himself. The members of the Beth 
Din on high were the highest angels, according to ch. xxx evidently the seventy-two 
princes of kingdoms together with the Prince of the World, ace. to ch. xxviii. 9, 



96 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXVII 

(3) And why is he called RADWERIEL S ? Because out of every word 
that goes forth from his mouth an angel is created : and he stands in 
the songs (in the singing company) of the ministering angels and 
utters 9 a song before 10 the Holy One, blessed be He 10 when the time 
draws nigh for the recitation of the (Thrice) Holy. 



8 E: 'Daryo'el' 9 E: 'they utter' 10-10 E: 'him' 

presumably, the 'Irin and Qaddishin (cf. notes, ad loco). See also Hek. R. v. 3, 
BH. iii. 87. 

Concerning the conception of ' Scribes ' cf . on ch. xxxiii. 2. Ace. to some passages, 
there is only one ' Scribe ' as such : e.g. ch. xxxiii. 2 (in the reading of E) and Hek. R. 
v. i. Ace. to chh. xviii. 23-25 and xxxiii. 2 (in the adopted reading) the Scribes 
are two in number. They record the deeds of the inhabitants of the world in the 
'books', and also write down the divine decrees (Hek. R. v. i). Here they are even 
more represented as reading what is written in the books before the Beth Din 
(cf. Alph. R. 'Aqiba, letter Qoph, referred to above). The last function was perhaps, 
as already suggested, originally assigned to VRETIL-RADWERIEL : in 2 En. xxii. 12, 
VRETIL is asked to "interpret to him (Enoch) the books". 

(2) Why is he called Radweriel? Because out of every word that goes 
forth from his mouth an angel is created. This explanation of the name pre- 
supposes the form 'DIBBURIEL' or 'DABARIEL'. The form 'DABAR YAH' is found in 
a MS. ace. to Schwab, VA. The derivation is perhaps a mere construction on the 
part of the writer. Exchanging ' W ' for ' B ' he reads ' Ra-Dabariel ' or ' Radibbnriel ', 
regarding the ' Ra ' as an epenthesis. 

The ascribing to an angel-prince of the faculty of creating an angel by the ' word 
of his mouth' is rather singular. Such a statement is otherwise made of God, e.g. 
ch. xl. 4, Chag. 14 a, Gen. R. Par. Ixxviii, Lam. R. on iii. 23. It would seen that the 
present passage could be made to refer to 'RADWERIEL' only on the assumption 
that it is one of the different names of the Godhead, and not the name of an angel. 
The whole of vs. 3 might have been adduced from a treatise on the Divine Names. 
The instances where the same name at one time or in one writing is represented as 
the name of an angel, and in another as one of the names of the Godhead, are 
frequent in the cabbalistic literature. Cf. the case of 'TAG' AS', note on ch. xviii. 5 ; 
the ' Pardes' (quoted YR. i. 90 a) discusses the "Akatriel' of Ber. 7 a, rejecting the 
view that it is the name of the Most High, and maintains that "Akatriel' is "a 
Prince on high". 

he stands etc. The 'he' probably refers to the created angel. in the songs. 
The Hebrew here might be translated 'in the service' instead of 'in the songs, 
i.e. in the singing company' of the ministering angels. But the latter is presumably 
the correct interpretation. The exact meaning is: 'he stands and sings the songs 
(shiroth as a technical term) which the ministering angels sing '. Cf . Gen. R. Ixxviii : 
" God creates every day a new order of angels who utter a song, etc." See note on 
ch. xl. 4. On RADWERIEL vide Introd. sect. 13 A (6). 



CH.XXVIIl] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (Al) 97 

CHAPTER XXVIII 
The 'Irin and Qaddishin 

R. Ishmael said : Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(1) Above all these there are four great princes, l lrin and Qaddishin 
by name: high, honoured, revered, beloved, wonderful and glorious 
ones, greater than all the children of heaven. There is none like unto 
them among all the celestial princes and none their equal among all 
the Servants. For each one of them is equal to all the rest together. 

(2) And their dwelling is over against the Throne of Glory, x and 
their standing place 2 over against the Holy One, blessed be He 2 , 



i i E om. 2-2 so D, A uncertain, corr. ; perhaps : ' is the place of the Throne 

(Beth ha-kKisse) ' 

Ch. xxviii. (i) 'Irin and Qaddishin, i.e. the Watchers and the Holy Ones. 

The 'Irin and the Qaddishin are ace. to the present angelological system at the 
summit of the hierarchy of angels. They form the council of the Most High (vs. 4), 
have executive power over the terrestrials (vs. 6) and, ace. to the latter part of the 
chapter, they assist at the forensic as well as retributive judgement, being both 
' court-officers ' and executors of the Divine decrees. 

The 'Irin are mentioned in i En. (as 'Watchers'), alone or together with the 
Qaddishin (= 'Holy Ones') in chh. vi-xvi, xix, Ixxxvi et al. In 2 En. they appear 
as the ' Grigori', ib. xviii. 

The expression 'Holy Ones' occurs frequently in i En. (chh. ix. 3, xii. 2, xiv. 23, 
xxxix. 5, xlvii. 2, Ivii. 2, Ix. 4, Ixi. 8, 10, 12, Ixv. 12, Ixix. 13, Ixxi. 8, Ixxxi. 5, cvi. 19. 
Vide CHARLES, i En. Index n, "Angels, the holy ones"). In ch. ix. 3 it refers to the 
four archangels or 'Presences', in ch. Ixxxi. 5 to the seven archangels, in ch. xlvii. 2 
possibly to the Chayyoth, in chh. xxxix. 5, Ix. 4, Ixi. 8, Ixv. 12 to the angels or 
' children of heaven ' in general, the distinction from other classes of angels or as 
a definite class being uncertain, as is the case also with chh. Ivii. 2 and Ixxi. 8. 
Of special interest here are ch. xii. 2 ("watchers and the holy ones"), ch. xiv. 23 
(" the most holy ones who were nigh to him did not leave by night [= watchers] 
nor depart from him"). These passages indicate a conception of the 'Irin and 
Qaddishin as a special class of angels, intimately connected with each other, and 
hence show affinity with the presentations of our chapter. Cf. also ch. Ixix. 13. 

As regards the 'Watchers' we meet with two different traditions in i En. One, 
the more prominent, is embodied in chh. vi-xvi, xix, Ixxxvi, represents the watchers 
as fallen angels, identifying them with "the sons of God" (Gen. vi). The other 
view agrees with that of the present chapter in placing the Watchers near the 
Divine Presence and is represented in chh. xii. 2, xiv. 23, Ixi. 12 ("those who sleep 
not above in heaven" = 'the Watchers') and, possibly, ch. cvi. 19. (Cf. however, 
CHARLES'S distinction in Pseudepigrapha (A and P. 11), p. 188, note 5.) 

Notice the expression, i En. xx. i : " the holy angels who watch", with reference 
to the seven archangels. 

The names and conception are, of course, deduced from Dan. iv. 14 (10). See 
vss. 4, 8 and 9 here. The present interpretation of the said passage in Daniel is, 
however, by no means the general one. Cf. the commentaries. 

(2) their dwelling is over against the Throne of Glory . . . over against the 

OHB 7 



9 8 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXVIII 

so that the brilliance of their dwelling is a reflection of the brilliance 
of the Throne of Glory 1 . And the splendour of their countenance is 
3 a reflection of 3 the splendour of Shekina. 

(3) And they are glorified by the glory of 4 the Divine Majesty 
(GeburdY and praised by (through) the praise of Shekina. 

(4) And not only that, but the Holy One, blessed be He, does 
nothing in his world without first consulting them, but after that he 
doeth it. As it is written (Dan. iv. 17) : "The sentence is by the decree 
of the 'Irin and the demand by the word of the Qaddishin." 

(5) The l lrin are two and the Qaddishin are two. And how are 
they standing before the Holy One, blessed be He? 5 It is to be 
understood, that one l lr is standing on one side and the other f lr 
on the other side, and one Qaddish is standing on one side and the 
other on the other side. 



i-i E om. 3-3 so DE. A: 'like unto, similar to' 4-4 E: 'Shekina' 

5 here the parallel of D breaks off. 



Holy One. . .the brilliance of their dwelling is a reflection of. . .the Throne etc. 
This is best paralleled by what is said with regard to Metatron, chh. vii, x. i seq., 
xlviii 04, 5,7. These expressions will presumably convey the exclusive position of 
the 'Irin and Qaddishin. They are depicted as having their abode at the very top 
of the hierarchical structure : face to face with the Throne of Glory and the Shekina. 
For ' the splendour of Shekina ' see note on ch. v. 4. Ch. xxii. 7 and 13, the splendour 
of Shekina is said to be on the face of KERUBI'EL, resp. the Kerubim. But there the 
splendour of Shekina is received from above ; ' the Shekina is resting upon them ', 
ib. 13. 

(3) they are glorified by the glory of the Divine Majesty and praised by 
the praise of Shekina. The glorification and praise directed towards the Shekina 
are reflected also on the 'Irin and the Qaddishin, owing to their near association 
with the Godhead. 

(4) the Holy One, blessed be He, does nothing. . .without first consulting 
them. Cf. TB. Sanh. 38 b: "the Holy One, blessed be He, doeth nothing without 
consulting the heavenly household, as it is written (Dan. iv. 17) : 'The sentence is 
by the decree of the watchers etc.'" What in Talmud is applied to the angels in 
general (' the heavenly household ') is here referred to the definite class of angels 
called 'Irin and Qaddishin. The idea of God consulting the angels is common in 
Rabbinic: "when God wished to create the first Adam, he took counsel with the 
ministering angels" (e.g. Gen. R. viii. 4). The important feature here is that the 
function of Divine counsellors is limited to a specified class of angels ; and this is 
evidently due to the attempt to systematize, characteristic to the present section. 
Of necessity the advising function could be ascribed to none but the highest class 
of angelic beings. 

(5) The 'Irin are two and the Qaddishin are two. The 'Irin and Qaddishin 
are ace. to this verse only four in number. In vs. 9 they must be conceived of as 
being a larger number. The 'Holy Ones', i En. ix. 3, are four, being identified with 
' the four Presences, MIKAEL, URIEL, RAPHAEL and GABRIEL '. Otherwise the " Watchers 
(and Holy Ones)" of i En. are numerous: ace. to ch. vi. 6 they are 200. There 
might possibly be some connection between the passage i En. ix. 3 and the present 
vs. (traces of the same tradition?). Cf. note on ch. xxviii. 9. 



CH.XXVIIl] ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION (Al) 99 

(6) And ever do they exalt 6 the humble 6 , and they abase to the 
ground those that are proud, and they exalt to the height those that 
are humble. 

(7) And every day, as the Holy One, blessed be He, is sitting upon 
the Throne of Judgement and judges the whole world, and the Books 
of the Living and the Books of the Dead are opened before Him, 



6-6 A om. 

(6) And ever do they exalt the humble. A seems to read : ' And they make 
high the world', abase. . .those that are proud and. . .exalt. . .those that are 
humble. This idea is deduced from Dan. iv. 17: "the most High ruleth in the 
kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the 
basest of men", which follows after the words cited in support of the conception 
of the 'Inn and Qaddishin. What there is said with reference to God has been 
transferred to the 'Irin and Qaddishin, the counsellors and executors of the Divine 
decrees. Cf. ch. xlviii c 9. 

CHH. XXVIII. 7-XXXIII. 2. 

The Divine Judgement and the Heavenly Tribunal. 

With vss. 7-10 of the present chapter (xxviii) a certain change in character is 
noticeable. The main difference is that the systematic exposition of the aforegoing 
part, with its specific manner of expression seems to be ended. The theme which 
already from ch. xxvi. 12 has begun to verge into the conceptions of the Judgement 
is henceforth (till ch. xxxiii. 3) altogether absorbed in the different aspects of the 
Divine Judgement, the heavenly assize and the execution of the Divine decrees. 
But, in contrast to the preceding angelological section, this section reveals no clear- 
progressive structure in the treatment of its subject, but leaves rather the impression 
of a complex of culled fragments from the different traditions of the proceedings 
at the Divine Court of Justice. 

A divergence in the present vss. of ch. xxviii from the preceding has already 
been referred to : the 'Irin and Qaddishin are in vs. 5 said to be four in number, 
vs. 9 presupposes a considerably larger number. Chh. xxix and xxx furthermore 
maintain the identity of the 'Irin and Qaddishin with the seventy-two princes of 
kingdoms. (Ace. to the angelological section the 72 princes of kingdoms 
probably occupy a comparatively low place in the angelic hierarchy, see note on 
ch. xvii. 8.) 

For divergences within the section notice e.g. (i) ch. xxviii. 7, the books on which 
the judgement is to be based are ' the Books of the Living and the Books of the 
Dead ' ; ch. xxx. 2 speaks only of ' the book in which all the doings of the world are 
recorded ' ; and ch. xxxii. i of ' the book ' : (2) chh. xxxi. i and xxxiii. i , two different 
representations of the same idea : the relation between the agencies of Justice and 
Mercy at the Judgement (esp. from the point of view of mediation between them). 
For the different conceptions of the Judgement cf. also the Introduction, sect. 16. 

(7) every day as the Holy one ... is sitting upon the Throne of Judgement, 
i.e. every day, at the time when. The judgement here is daily. Cf. the dictum of 
R. Yose, Tosephta Rosh ha Shana, i, "man is judged every day". It is both forensic 
and retributive. The cases (vss. 8, 9) refer to the continual happenings in the daily 
life of man (and the world in general), and the decrees are executed immediately. 

the Books of the Living and the Books of the Dead. Cf. ch. xviii. 23 seq. 
In view of the character of the Judgement as daily, the Books of the Dead are here 
probably of the same significance as in ch. xviii. 24; they record the time destined 
for every man's death. The Books of the Living may be the records of the time 
destined for a man's entering life on earth, but are perhaps also conceived of as 

7-2 



100 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXVIII 

then all the children of heaven are standing before him in fear, dread, 
awe and trembling. At that time, (when) the Holy One, blessed be 
He, is sitting 7 upon the Throne of Judgement 8 9 to execute judge- 
ment 9 , his garment is white as snow, the hair on his head as pure 
wool 10 and the whole of his cloak 10 is like the shining light. And he 
is covered with righteousness all over as with a coat of mail. 

(8) And those 'Irm and Qaddishin are standing before him like 
court officers before the judge. And they raise and argue every case 
and close the case tkat comes before the Holy One, blessed be He, 
in judgement, according as it is written (Dan. iv. 17) : "The sentence 
is by the decree of the 'Irm and the demand by the word of the 
Qaddishin" 

(9) Some of them argue and others pass the sentence in the Great 
Beth Din in 'Araboth. Some of them make the requests from before 
u the Divine Majesty 11 and some close the cases before the Most 
High. Others 12 finish by going down 12 and (confirming =) executing 
the sentences on earth below. 13 According as it is written 13 (Dan. 



7 E ins. 'as judge' 8 E: 'Presence' 9-9 E om. 10-10 so E. 

A corr. : 'and he is wholly lifted up' n n so with E> A has a lacuna. 

12-12 E om., thus reading 'others execute the sentences etc.' 13-13 A lacuna. 

recording the deeds (merits and transgressions) of the living (= the Book of Records, 
chh. xxx. 2, xxvii. 2). 

Throne of Judgement . . . garment is white as snow etc. This is deduced from 
Dan. vii. 9. The Throne of Judgement as a conception plays a prominent part in 
i En. xc. 20, xlv. 3, Iv. 4, Ixi. 8, Ixix. 27 (only in the first of these instances, however, 
called "the Throne of Judgement", in the others "the Throne of Glory"), also 
4 Ez. vii. 33 ("And the Most High shall be revealed upon the throne of judgement"). 
See BOX, Ezra- Apocalypse, p. 118. 

(8) And those 'Irin and Qaddishin are standing before him like court 
officers before the judge. Ace. to Mass. Hek. "seven court-officers are sitting 
on seven thrones " before the Holy One. A quotation, YR. L 7 a, from the writings 
of Eleazar of Worms treats of the " seven court officers (shoterim) in heaven by whose 
demand every decree is executed, whether for good or for evil, abundance or 
privation, war or peace". 

they raise and argue . . . and close the case. The cases include all different 
issues arising from the course of the daily life of the inhabitants on earth. Ace. to 
Ex. R. xxxi, angels act as defensors and accusers of man at the judgement : "when 
a man has committed a transgression and stands before God to receive judgement, 
then some angels plead in his defence, others accuse him guilty". 

(9) Some of them argue and others pass the sentence . . . some of them 
make the requests. . .some close the cases. . .others finish by. . .executing 
the sentences. Cf. Sa'adya's commentary on Dan. iv. 17: "The 'Irin are the Holy 
Angels of anger and fury who pass the sentence ". (Notice, by the way, how Sa'adya 
represents the angels in question as one class only, called 'Irin, regarding the 
' Qaddishin = Holy Ones ' as an attribute further, how he identifies them with " the 
angels of anger and fury" usually but another name for the 'angels of destruction', 
cf. note on ch. xxxi. 2.) Cf. also Hilkoth Mal'akim, Add. 27199, fol. 124 a: "the angel 
who passes the sentence and who issues the demands is called 'Ir and Qaddish" . 

It is evident from the way in which the various functions are depicted as divided 



CH. XXVIIl] DIVINE JUDGEMENT IOI 

iv. 13 , 14) : " Behold an 'Ir and a Qaddishcame down from heaven and 
cried aloud and said thus, Hew down the tree, and cut off his branches, 
shake off 14 his leaves 14 , and scatter his fruit: 15 let the beasts get away 
from under it, and the fowls from his branches 15 ". 

(10) Why are they called 'Irin and Qaddishint By reason that they 
sanctify the body and the spirit with lashes of fire on the third day 
of the judgement, as it is written (Hos. vi. 2): "After two days will 
he revive us : on the third he will raise us up, and we shall live before 
him." 



14-14 A lacuna. 15-15 .Eom. 

between the 'Irin and Qaddishin, that they are in this verse regarded as comprising 
a comparatively large number. One might, with some certainty, venture the con- 
jecture that the underlying idea here is the representation of the 'Irin and the 
Qaddishin as the Heavenly Beth Din. The 'Irin and Qaddishin would then be 
conceived of as 70 or 72. This is confirmed by the confusion in the two 
chapters following next, between these angels and the 72 princes of king- 
doms who ace. to ch. xxx constitute the heavenly Beth Din. Also, in Zohar, 
e.g. ii. 6 a, the 'Irin and Qaddishin of Dan. iv. 14 are explicitly interpreted as "the 
72 members of Sanhedrin who consider the judgements of the world". 

That the 'Irin (and Qaddishin) in i En., according to the prevalent representation 
there, are counted as a large number (e.g. ch. vi. 6: 200) is already recalled 
above. On the other hand, in later cabbalistic writings, they are likewise often 
pictured as a numerous class of angels, e.g. YR. i. 162 b .(quotation from Sode 
Razd), they are referred to with the formula "the troops of 'Irin and Qaddishin". 

(10) they sanctify the body and the spirit with lashes of fire. The ex- 
pression 'the body and the spirit' may be taken in two different senses, viz. as 
referring either to the angels in question (the 'Irin and Qaddishin) or to the body 
and spirit of a man who has undergone judgement ; the judgement of man, referred 
to here, would in this case be the so-called Din ha-qQeber, the judgement on man 
immediately after his death. The interpretation of the present sentence in the sense 
of ' sanctify the body and spirit of the judged man ' is probably the correct one, 
esp. in view of the difficulty, that otherwise arises, of explaining the meaning of 
the words immediately following: 'on the third day of judgement '. 'The third 
day' cannot very well be meant 'absolute', since the judgement here is daily and 
continual. But with the assumed interpretation it will naturally take on the meaning 
'the third of the three days that man is judged', the third day being also the final 
one, on which the sentence passed on man is consummated through his purification 
in fire ('by lashes of fire'). Cf. ch. xliv. 

The result thus arrived at accords with Masseket Chibbut ha-qQeber, BH. i. 151 : 
"The ministering angels (corresponding to the 'Irin and Qaddishin of the present 
verse) receive man, after his death, from the hands of the angel of death; they judge 
him on the first two days on account of his character as developed during his life, 
through his observance or neglect of the statutes of Tora; on the third day they 
judge him, spirit, soul and body, by strokes with lashes of fire ". This is a description 
of the Din ha-qQeber, referred to above. 

The bath of sanctification or purification in fire is depicted as forming the 
conclusion of judgement also with regard to the ministering angels, in Revelation 
of Moses (tr. Gaster, rec. B, in Royal Asiatic Society's Journal, 1893) : "the Almighty 
sits and judges the ministering angels, and after the judgement they bathe in that 
river of fire and are renewed". Cf. ch. xxxvi. 

It is true that in other connections the Qaddishin are represented as ' sanctifying 



102 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH.XXIX 



CHAPTER XXIX 
Description of a class of angels 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
\ said to me : vA 

\L u+ri \ 
(i) Each one of them has seventy names corresponding to the 

seventy tongues 1 of the world 1 . And all of them are (based) upon 

i-i E om. 

themselves in fire '. Thus in Shemoth shel Metatron, Bodl. MICH. 356, fol. 40 b, 
we read: "Metatron admonishes the angels every third day to bathe and purify 
themselves in the fiery river (Nehar di-Nur) ". 

Ch. xxix. Ch. xxix contains a short description of angels, the names or class of 
which are not defined in the chapter. As the context now stands, the description 
is, by the opening words ' each one of them ', made to refer to the 'Inn and Qaddishin 
of the aforegoing chapter. On the other hand, the following chapter, xxx, in de- 
fining ' the great princes who are called H' by the name of the Holy One ' as the 
72 Princes of Kingdoms, seems to have in view no others than the angels of 
the present chapter, of which it is stated here that their names are ' based upon 
the Name of the Holy One '. 

Thus, in the present arrangement of the context, the 'Irin and Qaddishin are, 
by inference, identical with the Princes of Kingdoms. The identification is justi- 
fiable, since the functions of both categories, as represented in chh. xxviii. y-xxx, 
are practically congruent : they are both depicted as constituting the Celestial Beth 
Din, the Divine Council or Court of Justice. 

It is scarcely probable, however, that ch. xxix is the original continuation of 
ch. xxviii. 7-10. It gives the impression of being a fragment from an angelological 
description from some other source. When considered by itself, it can best be 
understood as treating of the Princes of Kingdoms, for the reason that the expression 
' seventy names corresponding to the seventy tongues of the world ' naturally 
and usually connects the angels or angel of which it is used, with the conception 
of the seventy nations and their representative body in the heavens. 

Still it seems to be a necessary conclusion that to the Redactor, responsible for 
the present arrangement of chh. xxviii-xxx seqq., the identity of the 'Irin and 
Qaddishin with the Princes of Kingdoms, did not, at least, present any difficulty. 
Some tradition to this effect might have obtained. As a trace of such & tradition, 
although from a late source, may perhaps be regarded the passage on the Princes 
of Kingdoms in Menahem Reqanati's Commentary on the Pentateuch, Gen. x. 5 (EJ) : 
"70 princes are set over the 70 nations. . .they are the 70 princes who surround the 
Throne of Glory and they are the same that are called in the Song of Solomon 
(Cant. iii. 3) 'the Watchmen (Shomerim) that go about the city', for by their hands 
the decrees from on high are issued (cf. ch. xxviii. 8 seq.) ". 

Convergences between the conceptions of the Watchers and of the Representa- 
tives of the Nations (the Princes of Kingdoms) may have occurred at an early 
period, although then perchance in another aspect. The Watchers (i En.) as well 
as the Princes of Kingdoms, ace. to a different trend of traditions, were regarded 
as evil agencies in the world (cf. i En. Ixxxix. 59-65 and note on ch. xxviii. i). 
The Watchers become the leaders of corrupt mankind on earth and the Princes of 
Kingdoms are the rulers of the Gentile nations: occasionally the leader of the 
Watchers is mentioned as SATANIEL or SAMMAEL, and the Princes of Kingdoms, as 
evil agencies, are later regularly represented as headed by SAMMAEL. Cf. on this 
TB. Sota, 9 a, Sha'are 'Ord, 65 a, 'Emeq ha-mMelek, 121 b et al. 



CH.XXIX] DIVINE JUDGEMENT 103 

the name of the Holy One, blessed be He. And every several name 
is written with a flaming style 2 upon the Fearful Crown (Keiher 
Nora) which is on the head of the high and exalted King. 

(2) And from each one of them there go forth sparks and lightnings. 
And each one of them is beset with horns of splendour round about. 
From each one lights are shining forth, and each one is surrounded 
by tents of brilliance 3 so that not even the Seraphim and the Chayyoth 
who are greater than all the children of heaven are able to behold 
them. 



2 A adds: 'of iron' 3 E: 'Understanding (Bind)' 

(1) seventy names corresponding to the seventy tongues . . . (based) upon the 
name of the Holy One. Exactly the same, is said with regard to Metatron, chh. 
iii. i and xlviii c 9. [The expression 'seventy names corresponding to the seventy 
tongues ' is a formula, conveying the connection of the angels in question with the 
seventy nations^ So ch. xlviii c 9 the ascribing to Metatron of seventy names is 
clearly connected with his character of chief of the seventy princes of the seventy 
nations. The phrase 'based upon the Name of the Most High' with regard to a 
name, means that it contains the elements of the Tetragrammaton. Cf. note on 
ch. x. 3 and the angelic names ch. xviii. 9-24. written with a flaming style. Cf. 
chh. xiii. i, xxxix. i, xli. 4. upon the Fearful Crown. . .on the head of the. . . 
King. The Fearful Crown 'Keiher Nora' is the technical term for the crown on 
the head of the Most High as seated on the Throne of Glory. In magical writings 
the 'Fearful Crown' plays a prominent role, being, together with 'the Great Seal', 
the most effectual of magical formulas. Cf. Hek. Zot. (Bodl. MICH. 9, fol. 66 a) : 
"the Fearful Crown ... (follow some mystical letters) ... this is the crown with 
which one conjures all the Princes of Wisdom". Cf. also Mass. Hek. vii: "the 
crown on the forehead of the Holy One, blessed be He, on which the Explicit Name 
is graven". 

(2) And from each one of them there go forth sparks and lightnings etc. 
This verse repeats the phraseology of the angelological section. For 'horns of 
splendour' cf. ch. xxii. 6. For 'tents of brilliance', ch. xxv. 6. "not even the 
Seraphim and the Chayyoth etc.' cf. ch. xxvi. n. Does the present fragment 
know only the Seraphim and the Chayyoth as Merkaba-angels ? Or does it regard 
the Seraphim and the Chayyoth as the two highest classes of superior angels by 
the Merkaba? (Cf. Zohar, ii. 252 b. JD1K J^NO , , , , fSn&J' njmtf WllTl 'Nil 



pm pjnt? iTaynK \>y>y& JNEI NSMH pa*3B> 'pea 



104 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXX 

CHAPTER XXX 

The 72 princes of Kingdoms and the Prince of the World 
officiating at the Great Sanhedrin in heaven 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me: 

(i) Whenever the Great Beth Din is seated in the 'Araboth Raqia' 
on high 1 there is no opening of the mouth for anyone in the world 
save 1 those great princes who are called H' by the name of the Holy 
One, blessed be He. 



i-i E om. corr. 

Ch. xxx. Another representation of the daily judgement in the Celestial Beth 
Din. The function of court-officers (ch. xxviii. 8) is here attributed to the Princes 
of Kingdoms with their leader, the Prince of the World. In contrast with ch. 
xxviii. 8, 9, this function is here seen exclusively from the aspect of defence or plea 
in favour of the world (vs. 2). The accusing part is hereby implicitly reserved for 
the Most High himself. 

(i) Whenever (lit. every fixed time that) the Great Beth Din is seated. Every 
day, at a fixed time, the Great Sanhedrin assembles in the highest of the heavens, 
the 'ArabSth, under the presidency of the Holy One. This is explicit from vs. 2 : 
'every day at the hour that', and 'pleads. . .before the Holy One, blessed be He'. 
The sittings of the Beth Din are here for judgement, although the judgement may 
include all the various decisions with regard to the affairs of the world. But the 
Celestial Beth Din has even a wider scope. So, e.g. in Gen. R. xlix. 6, it is said that 
God introduces new Halakas daily in His Celestial Beth Din. For the Beth Din 
Shelma'ala as giving daily decisions with regard to the happenings of the world 
cf. Hek. R. i-iii seqq. 

there is no opening of the mouth for anyone in the world etc. For the 
expression in this sense cf. Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 57. Cf. also the phrase 'opening 
of the mouth for the Minim (heretics, Christians) ' = scriptural points of support 
for heretical beliefs. Here it apparently means that no one is allowed to speak either 
as accuser or defender except the Great Princes called H'. 

great princes . . . called H' by the name of the Holy One. Ch. x. 3 speaks 
of '8 great princes called H' by the name of their King', to whom also is assigned 
an exceptional status. Cf. note, ib., and Hek. R. xxi. -called H' etc. In most 
cases simply means that the Tetragrammaton forms the latter part of the name. 
It seems to have been a general assumption, that the highest circle of angels were 
marked out from the other angels by the common distinction of the Tetragrammaton 
as part of their name, whereby their names were 'based upon the Name of the 
Holy One '. But the traditions are at variance as to the further character, number 
and function of these highest angels. Thus, in the present book, ch. x. 3 (already 
referred to), 'the 8 Great Princes, called H' etc.' occupy so high a position as to 
be above the jurisdiction of Metatron (the Lesser YHWH), which includes all the 
other angels and princes; in the angelological classification of ch. xviii each one of 
the sixteen highest princes have the ' H' at the end of their names; in the angelo- 
logical section, chh. xix-xxii, xxv-xxvii (xxviii), the six princes there named have 
likewise all the Tetragrammaton as part of their names. (It is in fact altogether in 
harmony with that angelological section, when ch. xxix, the 'Irin and Qaddishm, 
the highest of the princes ace. to ch. xxvii. 1-6, are in ch. xxix represented, or made 



CH.XXX] DIVINE JUDGEMENT 105 

(2) How many are those princes? Seventy- two princes of the 
kingdoms of the world besides the Prince of the World who speaks 
(pleads) in favour of the world before the Holy One, blessed be He, 



to be represented, as having their names 'based upon the name of the Holy One'.) 
Ace. to Hek. R. xxii. i, the highest angels who are there the door-keepers of the 
Seventh Hall and seven in number, have all names of the form X-H' ; in the pre- 
ceding chapter of Hek. R. one meets with the statement that the awe-inspiring 
power of these guardians of the seventh Hall and of their names lies just in the 
fact that "each one of them, his name is called (based) upon the name of the King 
of the Universe". 

In the present chapter again, the Princes H' are denned as the 

(2) Seventy-two princes of the kingdoms, and this evidently because, ace. to the 
view contended here, the seventy-two princes of kingdoms, inclusive of the Prince 
of the world, form the highest angelic order in their capacity of constituting the 
Celestial Beth Din. 

For the different conceptions of the Princes of Kingdoms, cf. note on ch. xvii. 8. 
Here they are decidedly conceived of as the REPRESENTATIVES OF THE NATIONS OF 
THE WORLD. The conception of representatives in heaven of the various kingdoms 
on earth is a well-known, early idea attested in the O.T., Dan. x. 20, 21 ; it occurs 
in Sir. xvii. 17 ("for every nation He appointed a ruler. But Israel is the Lord's 
part"). Since the nations were counted as seventy, the number of these representa- 
tives was at first usually given as seventy (cf. ch. xlviii c 9) ; so in i En. Ixxxix. 59 
(seventy shepherds). Apposite for the resemblance to vs. 2 of the present chapter 
is Targ. Yer. to Gen. xi. 7, 8 ("every nation has its own guardian angel -who pleads 
the cause of the nation under his protection"). In Talmud the conception occurs, 
e.g. TB. Yoma, 77 a (MIKAEL, the prince of Israel, DUBBIEL, the prince of Persia etc.), 
Sukka, 29 a (the Gods of the nations suffer punishment with them). Cf. further Gen. 
R. Ixviii, Ixxvii, Ex. R. xxi, Lev. R. xxix, Pesikta R. xxiii, xxvii, P. R. 'El. xxiv. Notice, 
how in Mass. Hek. the conception of seventy princes is replaced by that of " 70 thrones 
of the Holy One, blessed be He, corresponding to the nations of the world". 

For discussion of the origin of the number 72 as ascribed to these princes, see 
note on ch. xvii. 8. In the present connection the seventy-two princes of kingdoms 
constituting the Great Sanhedrin of heaven one is reminded of the fact that the 
Great Sanhedrin proper, of which the Beth Din shelma'ala is a counterpart, is in a 
few Mishna passages represented as consisting of seventy-two members : M. Zebachim, 
i. 3, Yad. iii. 5, iv. 2. 

For the princes of kingdoms as the Celestial Beth Din cf. also Bachya's Commen- 
tary on the Pentateuch, Par. Beha'aloteka (162 b): "The Holy One, blessed be He, 
said to the 70 angels who surround the Throne of Glory . . . and they are the Beth 
Din of the Holy One". Cf. Zohar, i. 173 b, and Mass. Hek. v. 70, thrones always 
surrounding the Shekina. The 'thrones' in Zohar are angelic beings when termed 
IIID^IS, and similarly their 'thrones' are termed 'NIT Dp. 

the Prince of the World who speaks in favour of the world. The Prince of 
the World is here, then, the leader of the princes of kingdoms. He combines the 
functions of the rulers of the nations : they plead each one the cause of his nation, 
the Prince of the World pleads the cause of all the nations together, of the world 
in its entirety. There is no reference here to any contrast between the Gentile 
Nations, the idolaters, and Israel. On the contrary, the representation is strikingly 
universal in its character. The Accuser is God himself, whereas ace. to other views, 
the Prince of Israel and the princes of the nations, especially the prince of Rome 
(or of Persia) are represented as accusing each other before the Most High. Cf. 
the Introduction. 

For the conception of the nations (or their representatives) appearing before God in 
judgement or pleading before God, cf. inter alia 4 Ezra vii. 37, and the reference in 
BOX, Ezra- Apocalypse, p. 124, note ad loc., to the passage in TB. 'Aboda Zara, 2 a b = 



106 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CHH. XXX, XXXI 

every day, at the hour when the book is opened in which are recorded 
all the doings of the world, according as it is written (Dan. vii. 10) : 
"The judgement was set and the books were opened." 



CHAPTER XXXI 

(The attributes of) Justice, Mercy and Truth 
by the Throne of Judgement 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(i) At the time when the Holy One, blessed be He, is sitting on 
the Throne, of Judgement, (then) Justice is standing on His right 
and Mercy on His left and Truth 1 before His face. 



i so E. A: 'in Truth' (cf. Is. xvi. 5, quoted vs. 2). 

"the nations appear before God in the future age to receive their reward. They are 
summoned up singly, are asked what they have done in the world, and each is 
condemned (Rome, Persia and other nations)". 

On the Prince of the World see note on ch. xxxviii. 2, and cf. notes on chh. iii. 2, 
ix. 2-3, x. 3, xlviii 09. In the Enoch-Metatron pieces, chh. iii-xv and xlviii c, 
Metatron occupies the same position as the Prince of the World here, i.e. leader of 
the princes of kingdoms and, notably, Metatron and the Prince of the World are. 
ace. to one trend of traditions, identical. Here, in so far as Metatron is represented 
as the speaker, this is not the case. 

at the hour when the book is opened etc. This is the same view of the 
book, forming the base of the judgement, that we meet with in ch. xxvii. 2, ' the Book 
of Records'. Cf. note, ib. The 'records' are here perhaps conceived of more from 
the point of view of the nations or the world at large than of the individual. 

Ch. xxxi. Another short, independent, piece on the Judgement, characterized 
by the representation of the hypostasized attributes of Justice, Mercy and Truth 
as agencies at the Divine Judgement. 

Justice and Mercy as attributes of God is a subject of speculation from the earlier 
periods: "Palestinian as well as Alexandrian theology recognized the two attributes 
of God, 'middath ha din' and 'middath ha rahamim' (Sifre Deut. 27, Philo, De 
Opific. Mundi, 60) and the contrast between justice and mercy is a fundamental 
doctrine of the Cabala" (JE, article 'Justice'). Among the Tannaites the doctrine 
of Justice and Mercy as the two main attributes of God was connected particularly 
with the name of R. Meir. Cf. Bacher, Agada der Tannaiten, vol. ii. p. 60, and TB. 
Ber. 48 b, Gen. R. xxvi, Ab. R. Natan, xxxii, R. 'Aqiba, TB. Sank. 67 b. 

(i) At the time (or: in the hour) when the Holy One. . .is sitting on the 
Throne of Judgement. Although not clearly indicated, the judgement is probably 
here, as in the preceding chapters, the daily judgement, for which is appointed 
a fixed time, cf. ch. xxx. 2 and note. 

Justice is standing on His right hand, Mercy on His left and Truth before 
His face. Since Mercy in vs. 2 is represented as supporting man, Justice probably 
stands for the accusing function at the judgement. Justice and Mercy as agencies 
at the judgement or of attributes of God as Judge are perhaps indicated in the 
Talmudic dictum as to the two Thrones, one of Justice, the other of Mercy (Sedaqa}, 
TB. Chag. 14 a, Sanh. 38 b (attributed to R. 'Aqiba from R. Jose the Galilean). 



CH.XXXl] DIVINE JUDGEMENT 107 

(2) And when man 2 enters before Him to judgement, 3 (then) there 
comes forth from the splendour of the Mercy towards him as (it 
were) a staff 3 and stands in front of him. Forthwith man falls upon 
his face, (and) all the angels of destruction fear and tremble 4 before 
him 4 , according as it is written (Is. xvi. 5): "And with mercy shall 
the throne be established, and he shall sit upon it in truth." 



2 E: 'a wicked man' 3-3 E prob. corr. : 'the Mercy goes out from judgement 
towards him' 4-4 E: 'on his right' 

For the hypostasized attribute of Justice as accusing cf. Alph. R. 'Aqiba, znd rec., 
BH. iii. 50 : " In that hour the attribute of Justice said before the Holy One, blessed 
be He, 'Lord of the Universe, even the righteous are designated for death (i.e. 
have sinned according to Law no man shall be justified)'". 

For a later representation of the roles of Justice and Mercy cf. Sha'are 'Ora, 
quoted YR. 7 b, vol iii: "The attribute of Justice gives to the supplicant... 
riches and all good things, but the attribute of Justice prevents (interrupts, annuls) 
the decision and says, Let us consider whether this supplicant is worthy that his 
supplication be granted him, and if not, let him be judged in the Great Sanhedrin 
etc." Notice the combination here of the two conceptions of Justice-Mercy and of 
the Great Sanhedrin. 

The distinctive feature of the present chapter, vs. i, is the introduction of the 
third attribute, the Truth, as mediating between Justice and Mercy. The combina- 
tion of truth with judgement is deduced from or, rather, occurs already in the O.T. 
Reference is in vs. 2 explicitly made to Is. xvi. 5. Then in 4 Ezra, vii. 34 ("But 
judgement alone shall remain and truth shall stand"). For references to parallels 
in Rabbinic see BOX, Ez. Apoc. p. 122, note ad loc. Cf. further Alph. R. 'Aqiba, beg. 
("The Holy One. . .is called Truth, and He sits on His Throne. . .in Truth. . .all' 
his judgements are judgements of truth, and all his ways are Mercy and Truth"), 
and ch. xxvi. 12. The mediating character of the attribute of Truth is here symbolic- 
ally indicated by the place assigned to it ' before the face of the Most High ' between 
'Justice' to the right and 'Mercy' to the left. Another expression of the mediation 
at the judgement is found, ch. xxxiii. i ('Angels of mercy, of peace, and of de- 
struction'). 

The distinction involved in the expressions 'to the right', 'to the left', does not 
carry the extreme symbolical significance of certain gnostic systems and esp. the 
later Qabbala : there the accusing role is always assigned to the left side, the favour- 
pleading to the right. In the system of Ten Sefiroth Justice is on the left, Mercy on 
the right (contrast here). 

(2) when man enters before Him to (receive) judgement, i.e. immediately 
after death, cf. note on ch. xxviii. 10. there comes forth from the splendour of 
the Mercy towards him as (it were) a staff and stands in front of him. This evi- 
dently means that the attribute of Mercy wields a protecting, supporting influence 
over man against forces working for the strict application of the principles of justice. 
And this influence is represented as prevailing over the latter, at least such seems to 
be the import of the words following: all the angels of destruction fear and 
tremble before him. The angels of destruction represent the execution of the 
decrees of justice (cf. ch. xxxii. i), i.e. the punishment of man's sin. Here it appears 
that 'the staff' from the 'splendour of the Mercy' protects man from the rage of 
the angels of destruction. 

For the conception of the angels of destruction cf. i En. liii. 3 (" I saw all the 
angels of punishment abiding and preparing all the instruments of Satan [for the 
sinners] "), Ivi. i, Ixiii. i (" In those days shall the mighty and the kings. . .implore 
God to grant them a little respite from His angels of punishment"). 2 En. x. 3 ; 
Ap. Petri, 6, 8. TB. Shab. 55 a, presents an instance of the connection between the 



108 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXXII 

CHAPTER XXXII 
The execution of judgement on the wicked. God's sword 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(i) 1 When the Holy One, blessed be He, opens 1 the Book half of 



i -i E: 'when they open before the Holy One, blessed be He' 

angels of destruction and the attribute of Justice (as accusing and desiring the strict 
enforcement of the Law) : " God said to Gabriel (with reference to the situation, 
Ezek. ix. 4 seqq.), ' Go and write on the forehead of the righteous a mark of ink, that 
the angels of destruction may not get power over them, but on the forehead of the 
wicked a mark of blood, that the angels of destruction may have power over them '. 
Then said the attribute of Justice before the Holy One ... ' ... In what respect are 
those better than these?'" Cf. ib. 152 b, 89 a; Yer. Shebu'oth, vi. 37 a; Rev. vii. 2, 
xii. 7; Test. Abr. xii, xiii; Gedullath Moshe, section Gehinnom; Masseketh Gehinnom, 
BH. i. 142; Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 62. See also ch. xliv. 2 and note. In these 
instances they appear mainly in two aspects : one is that of executors of punishment 
and of the divine decrees in general in the world, the other that of officials of 
Gehenna appointed over the wicked (and intermediate). 

On their number and names the different sources are at variance, from those 
speaking of two angels of destruction, usually called 'APH and CHEMA (i.e. anger and 
fury), cf. SIMKIEL and ZA'APHIEL, ch. xliv. 2, to those counting them in thousands 
and myriads. Rev. of Moses (tr. Gaster, RAS's Journal, 1893, p. 589) represents 
the angel-prince QEMU'EL as the chieftain of 12,000 angels of destruction. 

The 'man' who ace. to the present chapter, obtains the support of the attribute 
of Mercy is apparently man in general, the vast majority, perhaps those who else- 
where (e.g. ch. xliv) are referred to as the class of intermediate, ' benoniyyim '. 

Instances of the attribute of Mercy pleading for man in opposition to the 
prosecuting activity of the attribute of Justice are numerous in later Qabbala. 
YR. i. 94 a, quotes from 'Asara Ma'amaroth the following passage: "The 
attribute of Mercy occupies itself with the merit of every creature. . .if a man 
commits a transgression, then the attribute of Justice comes to punish the man on 
account of the transgression but the attribute of Mercy says: 'Even if the man's 
hand has sinned, lo, yet his eye has not sinned. . .if thou wilt punish his body on 
account of the sin of the hand, lo, even the eye will suffer, and so it will be punished 
unjustly'", and continues the passage : " in this way the Mercy prevents tribulations 
and plagues from visiting the world (as punishments for the sins of mankind)". 

Ch. xxxii. This chapter treats of the aspect of the judgement consisting in the 
execution of judgement on the wicked. The execution of the Divine decrees is 
referred to in ch. xxviii. 9, the executors there being the 'Irin and Qaddishin. The 
identity of the executors of judgement is in the present chapter not revealed. 
Regarded as immediate continuation of ch. xxxi. i of this chapter would imply 
that they are 'the angels of destruction'. That is, however, the natural conclusion 
presenting itself at a slight examination of the chapter, since the execution of 
judgement is here that on the wicked only, not of the Divine decrees in general. 
The plurality of angelic beings indicated by the words 'they go out from before 
Him in every moment ' can in this connection scarcely be interpreted as any others 
than the angels of destruction, whose essential function is the punishment of the 
wicked. 

(i) When the Holy One. . .opens the Book etc. One book as the basis of 
judgement here as chh. xxx and xxvii. 2 (i.e. the Book of Records). Cf. notes, ib. 



CH.XXXIl] DIVINE JUDGEMENT 109 

which is fire and half flame, (then) they go out from before Him in 
every moment to execute the judgement on the wicked 2 by His sword 
(that is) 2 drawn forth out of its sheath and the splendour of which 
shines like a lightning and pervades the world from one end to the 
other, 3 as it is written (Is. Ixvi. 16): "For by fire will the Lord plead 
(and by his sword with all flesh)." 

(2) And all the inhabitants of the world (lit. those who come into 
the world) fear and tremble before Him, when they behold His 
sharpened sword like unto a lightning from one end of the world to 
the other 3 , and sparks 4 and flashes 4 of the size of the stars of Raqia' 
going out from it; according as it is written (Deut. xxxii. 41): " 5 If 
I whet 5 the lightning of my sword". 



2-2 E: 'and His sword is' 3-3 E omits from 'as it is written etc.' vs. i till 

'and sparks etc.' vs. 2. 4-4 E om. 5-5 E om. 

they go out from before Him in every moment. ' They ' is best understood as 
'the angels of destruction'; cf. above and note on ch. xxxi. 2. For the angels of 
destruction as executing punishment on the wicked in the world, cf. Hek. R. v: 
"R. Ishmael said: 'What did the Beth Din on high do? In that hour they com- 
manded the angels of destruction and they went down (to earth) and made a 
" consumption even determined " upon Caesar Lupinus ' ". Further Alph. R. 'Aqiba, 
BH. iii. 50, 51 (with reference to the destruction of Jerusalem) : " In that hour six 
angels of destruction were sent down on Jerusalem, and they destroyed the people 
in it. . .and these they were: 'Aph, Chema (cf. note, ch. xxxi. 2}, Qeseph (= 'wrath'),, 
Mashchith (= 'destroyer', Ex. xii. 23), Mashmid (also = 'destroyer'), Mekalle 
(= 'consumer').. . .And each one of them had a two-edged sword in his hand"; 
ib. BH. iii. 62 (in a context, treating of the idolaters of the world), " Forthwith 'Aph 
and Chema, two angels of destruction,. . .drew their sword. . .in order to destroy 
the world". Cf. further the references adduced in the note on ch. xxxi. 2. The 
expression every moment prompts the conclusion that the execution of the 
punishment is one that takes place in this world continually (as well as through 
periods of great crises) ; this is confirmed by pointing to the parallel passages just 
referred to. We are even in this chapter concerned with the daily judgement. Against 
this conclusion does not speak what follows : 

by His sword (that is) drawn forth out of its sheath. In the two passages from 
R. 'Aqiba cited above, the angels of destruction are represented as armed with 
swords. Here the sword by means of which the punishment is executed is 'the 
sword of God', a conception, ace. to the statements in the present chapter itself, 
deduced from Is. Ixvi. 16 and Deut. xxxii. 41. The sword of God is a well-known, 
eschatological, symbol of the O.T. Cf. Is. xxvii. i, xxxiv. 5, xlvi. 10, xlvii. 6, Ixvi. 16, 
Ezek. xxi. 3 seqq. Later we meet with the same symbol of punishment and vengeance 
in i En. e.g. xc. 17, 19 (connected with the opening of the 'book'), "opened the 
book. . .and a sword was given to the sheep"; ib. xci. 12, "and a sword shall be 
given to it, that a righteous judgement may be executed ". Add ib. xc. 34, Ixxxviii. 2. 
Other instances of the same symbolic use of 'the sword' are Rev. i. 16, ii. 12, 16, 
vi. 3, 4, xix. 15. It may be noted that 'the sword' in this chapter again, as in the 
O.T., is God's sword, although wielded by the angels of destruction. 

(3) And all the inhabitants of the world fear and tremble. . .when they 
behold His . . . sword . . . from one end of the world to the other. This is more in 
the style of a description of the Last Judgement. Perhaps the writer unconsciously 
falls in with the eschatological phraseology. Or, more probably, the situation in 



HO THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXXIII 

CHAPTER XXXIII 

The angels of Mercy, of Peace and of Destruction by 

the Throne of Judgement. The scribes, (vss. i, 2) 

The angels by the Throne of Glory and the 

fiery rivers under it. (vss. 3-5) 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(i) At the time that the Holy One, blessed be He, is sitting on the 
Throne of Judgement, 1 (then) the angels of Mercy are standing on 
His right, the angels of Peace are standing on His left and the angels 
of Destruction are standing in front of Him. 



i E adds: 'of truth' 

the writer's mind may be that of a great general Divine visitation, such as a war. 
Passages representing the Divine sword as visible to an assembly or large number 
of people simultaneously, occur in Rabbinic: e.g. Sifre on Deut. xi. 12 (cf. Lev. R. 
xxxv, Deut. R. iv): "(At Sinai) A book and a sword came down from heaven. . . 
and the Voice was heard, saying : ' If you practise the doctrine of this book, you shall 
be saved from the sword, but if not, you shall be punished by it'". It should be 
noted that the 'sword' in this passage is said to be identical with the sword of 
Gen. iii. 24, which is another of the fundamental references on which the con- 
ception of the 'sword' is based. See Gen. R. xxi. 14 (the sword personified). 

Ch. xxxiii. 12. Vss. i and 2 of the present chapter constitute the last fragment 
of the context treating of the Judgement. The representation of vs. i is but another 
version of the conception of the principal agencies at the Judgement, already met 
with in ch. xxxi. The hypostasized attributes of Justice, Mercy and Truth of 
ch. xxxi. i are here replaced by the angels of mercy, peace and destruction. It is 
safe to assume that the angels of mercy here more or less exactly correspond with 
the attribute of Mercy there as to significance and function, i.e. represent the 
activity of plea in favour of man. As regards the angels of peace their character of 
mediating forces is confirmed by the frequent usage of the term 'peace' for the 
mediation between two opposites, see ch. xlii. 7. The correspondence between the 
angels of destruction and the attribute of Justice was attested, note on ch. xxxi. 2, 
esp. in the passage quoted from TB. Shab. 55 a. The attribute of Justice perhaps more 
emphasizes the accusing part, the angels of destruction, again, the punishment, 
the strict carrying out of the principles of justice. 

(i) the angels of Mercy are standing on His right. In contrast with ch. 
xxxi. i, the defending agencies, the ' melammedim zakuth' are assigned the place to 
the right side, cf. note, ib. The strict system of the later Qabbala is however not 
applied even here, since the opposing agency of the 'melammedim choba' on the 
left is missing. 

For the angels of mercy pleading in favour, cf. Hilkot ha-kKisse (Add. 
27199, fol. 139 a): "211 myriads of angels of mercy are standing there (by the 
Throne) and they plead in favour of Israel". Ib. fol. 125 a (Hilkot Mal'akim): the 
'angels of mercy' are the performers of the Thrice-Holy part of the QSdushsha, 
perhaps a symbolic expression of the meritorious properties of the performance of 
the Qedushsha (ch. xl. i). The angels of mercy have their attentions and efforts 
fixed on the 'merits ' : cf. end of note on ch. xxxi. 2. 



CH.XXXIIl] MERKABAH, ETC. Ill 

(2) And one scribe is standing beneath 2 Him, and 3 another scribe 3 
above Him. 

(3) And the glorious Seraphim 

A: E: 

surround them like fire- surround the Throne on its four sides with 
brands round about the walls of lightnings, and the 'Ophannim 
Throne of Glory. surround them with fire-brands round 

about the Throne of Glory. 



2 so E. A: above Him' 3-3 so E. A: 'a Kerub' 

The expression 'angels of peace' is perhaps derived from Is. xxxiii. 7. The 
' angel of peace ' is Enoch's guide ace. to i En. xl. 8, lii. 5, liii. 4, Ivi. 2 et al. Cf . also 
Test. Dan. vi. 5, Asher, vi. 6. 

On the angels of destruction see notes on chh. xxx. 2 and xxxii. i (xliv. 2). 

(2) one scribe is standing beneath Him, and another scribe above Him 
(ace. to the reading of E adopted above). The scribes record all the facts that have 
regard to the Divine Judgement, the fixed times appointed for man's entering and 
leaving this world (ch. xviii. 23, 24), his observance or non-observance of the Divine 
statutes, all ' the doings of the world ', not only as to individuals but with reference 
to nations and the world at large (chh. xxvii. 2, xxviii. 7, xxx. 2). Besides such 
'facts' the scribes also write down the decisions of judgement, the Divine decrees 
with regard to man after death as well as to the living. 

For instances related to the ideas here presented cf. Chibbut ha-qQeber, BH. i. 

150: "a scribe and one appointed with him (function at man's death). . .counting 
the number of his days and years"; Sefer Chasidim (EJ. ii. 333): "two scribes 
record the place assigned for every man, whether in Paradise or Hell"; Hek. R. ' 
v. i (in the Legend of the Ten Martyrs): "in that hour, the Holy One, blessed be 
He, ordered the Scribe incessantly to write down dire decrees and terrible plagues 

. . .for the wicked Rome". Note also Hek. R. xx, where GABRIEL, the scribe, is 
represented as writing down the merits and deeds of a man, desiring to behold the 
vision of the Merkaba, and also his application for the grant of this privilege. 

Ch. xxxiii. 3-5. With vss. 3 seqq. of the present chapter the theme of the Divine 
Judgement is abandoned. What follows in this chapter is a short representation of 
the Throne of Glory, the Merkaba-angels surrounding it and the seven fiery rivers 
flowing through all the seven heavens down to Gehenna, thus forming a concise 
summary of the Merkabah-picture : the heavenly glories with the Throne at their 
centre. Since the emphasis here is neither on the Judgement-Throne as in the 
section on the Judgement, just concluded nor on the angelic classes of the heavenly 
hierarchy as in the angelological section it may be convenient to include these 
verses in the section comprising chh. xxiii, xxiv, xxxiv, xxxvii, which deals with 
various wonders of the heavens (the Throne of Glory, the 'Araboth and the seven 
heavens in general), esp. from the quasi-physical aspect. This section is of the same 
fragmentary, unsystematical character as the section on the Judgement. 

As regards the relation between vss. i, 2 on one hand and vss. 3-5 on the other, 
it is quite probable that they belong together even originally, the compiler having 
put this chapter in its present place merely because the two opening verses referred 
to the subject of the preceding chapters, the Judgement. 

Considered as a unity the present chapter forms another instance of the Merkabah 
picture revealing the Throne in its highest aspect as a Judgement-Throne. This 
tendency is noticeable in both the angelological expositions : ch. xviii and chh. xix- 
xxviii. Cf. note on ch. xxvi. 12. 

(3) This verse presents three classes of Merkaba-angels: ace. to A, Kerub , 



112 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXXIII 

And clouds of fire and clouds of flames compass them to the right 
and to the left; and the Holy Chayyoth carry the Throne of Glory 
from below: each one 4 with three fingers. 5 The measure of the 
fingers of each one 4 is 800,000 and 700 times hundred, (and) 66,ooo 6 
parasangs. 

(4) And underneath the feet of the Chayyoth seven fiery rivers 
are running and flowing. And the breadth 7 of each river is 365 
thousand parasangs 8 and ifs depth is 248 thousand myriads of para- 
sangs 8 . Its length is unsearchable and immeasureable. 

(5) And each river turns round in a bow in the four directions of 
'Araboth Raqict , and (from there) it falls down to Ma' on and is 

4-4 E om. 5 A repeats: 'each one with three fingers' 6 E: '6000' 

7 E: 'length' 8-8 E om. 

Seraphim and Chayyoth', ace. to E (probably the correct reading), Seraphim, 
'Ophannim and Chayyoth ; thus in both readings omitting one of the classes of the 
angelological section (besides the wheels of Merkaba). Apart from this, the adopted 
reading presents the same order as that of the angelological section: Seraphim, 
'Ophannim, (Kerubim), Chayyoth. 

For the 'clouds of fire and clouds of flames' cf. the 'four clouds', ch. xix. 4 
and chh. xxxix and xxxvii. 

the Holy Chayyoth carry the Throne of Glory. -This is a frequent statement. 
Cf. Gen. R. Ixxviii, Lam. R. to iii. 23. 

each one with three fingers. Cf. ch. xvii. 6. The measures of the fingers present 
some difficulty. Originally the passage might have contained some reference to 
the different measures ascribed to each of the three fingers, e.g. the first one 80,000, 
the second 70,000, the third 66,000, in a gradation intended to convey a corre- 
spondence in proportions to the second, third and fourth fingers of a human hand, 
respectively. For measures of the Chayyoth cf. ch. xxi. 1-3 and note, Chag. 13 a. 

(4) seven fiery rivers running and flowing underneath the feet of the Chayyoth. 
Cf. ch. xix. 4 (under the wheels of the Merkaba, upon which the feet of the Chayyoth 
are resting, four fiery rivers are continually running) and note, ib., ch. xviii. 19 
and note (the four heads of the fiery river), the fiery river of ch. xxxvi, the fiery 
rivers between the camps of Shekina in ch. xxxvii. Note also 'the rivers of fire', 
flowing in the midst of rivers of water', ch. xlii. 7. In i En. cf. ch. xiv. 19: "from 
underneath the throne came streams of naming fire so that I could not look thereon " 
(seven rivers, ib. Ixxvii. 5-7). 365 number of positive, 248 of negative statutes. 

The conception of ' rivers of fire ' from underneath the Throne of Glory or the 
Chayyoth is an amplification of that of the fiery river, derived from Dan. vii. 10, 
"a fiery stream issued and came forth from before him", and after this passage 
frequently called Nehar di-Nur and sometimes Rigyon (e.g. Rev. of Moses, BH. 
i. 59). Ace. to Gen. R. Ixxviii, Lam. R. iii. 21 (with reference to Lam. iii. 23); the 
Nehar di-Nur goes forth from the perspiration of the Chayyoth who are perspiring 
under the burden of the Throne(s). Ace, to Mass. Geh. simply "from under the 
Throne of Glory". 

The amplification of the conception of one fiery river into that of several rivers 
of fire, beginning with the assumption of four heads of the Nehar di-Nur (ch. xviii) 
is at variance as to the number of these rivers, one tendency being to make them 
into four (corresponding to the number of the Chayyoth and the 'winds'), another 
to count them as seven (so here). 

(5) And each river turns round in a bow in the four directions of 
'Araboth Raqia'. Cf. ch. xxiii. 17, 18. and (from there). . .to Ma'on and is 



CH.XXXIIl] MERKABAH, ETC. 113 

stayed (?), and from Ma 1 on to Zebul, from Zebul to Shechaqim, from 
Shechaqim to Raqia' , from Raqia' to Shamayim and from Shamayim 
upon the heads of the wicked who are in Gehenna, as it is written 
(Jer. xxiii. 19): "Behold a whirlwind of the Lord, even his fury, is 
gone, yea, a whirling tempest; it shall burst upon the head of the 
wicked". 



stayed (?), etc. The heavens are enumerated with the omission of Makon and the 
substitution of the Hebrew name Shamayim for the Latin Wilon (velum or Greek 
/3)jAoi>). In ch. xvii. 3 both these names are given for the first heaven. In Seder 
Rabba di Ber. Rabba the Wilon and Shamayim appear as two different heavens, viz. 
the first and second respectively. 

A parallel to the present conception of the fiery river(s) going through all the 
heavens and eventually falling down upon the heads of the wicked in Gehenna 
is found in Mass. Geh. iv (BH. i. 149) : "the fiery river goes down upon them (the 
wicked in Gehenna) and it runs from one end of the universe to the other". Simi- 
larly in the fragment, translated by Gaster, RAS's Journal, 1893, pp. 599-605, 
called Description of Hell: "the river Di-nur floweth from beneath the Throne of 
Glory and falleth over the heads of the sinners". Cf. 2 En. x. 2: "in Gehenna 
there is a fiery river coming forth and it floweth from one end of the world to the 
other". In TB. Chag. 13 b, the fiery river from the perspiration of the Chayyoth is 
said to "fall down upon the heads of the wicked in Gehenna" with reference to 
Jer. xxiii. 19, the scriptural passage adduced also by our verse. Cf. further Apoc. 
Petri, 8, Apoc. Fault, 57. Hek. R. xiii (Rigyon surrounds His Throne. . .and covers 
all the chambers of the Hall of 'Araboth Raqia' with fire-smoke). 

In the vss. 4 and 5 of the present chapter we meet with a conception of fiery 
rivers that is brought about through an amalgamation of various views concerning 
the Nehar di-Nur. 

(1) Founding upon Dan. vii. 10 the Nehar di-Nur became a constituent part of 
the picture of the splendours by the Throne. Flowing from underneath the Throne 
its origin was explained from the perspiration of the Chayyoth, heavily burdened 
by the weight of the Throne. In this aspect it serves no definite purpose other than 
to add to the glory of ' the Holy One, blessed be He, who sitteth on the Throne of 
Glory'. 

(2) Brought into connection with the 'thousand thousands and ten thousand 
times ten thousand ' angels ministering before the Throne ace. to the same passage, 
Dan. vii. io,from which the conception of the Nehar di-Nur was deduced especially 
in their function of performers of the Qedushsha or ' the Song ' the fiery river became 
the bath of purification, by which the song-uttering angels were thought to prepare 
themselves for the saying of the Thrice Holy : see ch. xxxvi. 

(3) Once connected with the ministering angels even other functions than the 
last named were assigned to the Nehar di-Nur. In the fiery river the angels were 
" renewed every morning " (in accordance with Lam. iii. 23). To the tradition holding 
the view that the song-uttering angels live only so long as to perform the QSdushsha 
and then perish, the fiery river was the substance from which they were formed and 
whither they were sent back again: TB. Chag. 143, Gen. R. Ixxviii, Lam. R. iii. 21. 
From this conception there is only a short step to that of the fiery river as the 
place of punishment for those of the ministering angels who uttered the Song 
untimely or improperly: ch. xlvii. 2. 

(4) Lastly the Nehar di-Nur, as derived from Dan. vii. 10, is brought to bear 
upon the "judgement and the books" mentioned ib. Already serving the purpose 
of sanctification, purification and punishment of the ministering angels, it was 
easily made an integral part of the Divine Judgement. On one hand it served to 
purify man in general from sin after death (on the third day of judgement : cf . the 
purification with lashes of fire, ch. xxviii. 10, Chibbut ha-qQeber, BH. i. 151), 

OHB 8 



114 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXXIV 

CHAPTER XXXIV 

The different concentric circles round the Chayyoth, con- 
sisting of fire, water, hailstones etc. and of the angels uttering 
the Qedushsha responsorium 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron; the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(i) The hoofs of the Chayyoth are surrounded by seven clouds of 



the means of purification and preparation of the Intermediate (the ' benoniyyim ', 
cf. ch. xliv. 5), on the other hand it became the means of punishment of the wicked 
(in Gehenna), a conception which is attestedly old and related to that of the punish- 
ment of the wicked in a sea of fire etc. Cf. Rev. xix. 20, compared with 2 En. x. 2, 
CHARLES'S notes on both passages, and Boeklen, Die Verwandtschaft der jiid.- 
christlichen mil der persischen Eschatologie, pp. 119 seqq. 

In the present vss. it is primarily the conceptions indicated in the points (i) and 
(4) that have been foisted together. As the place of the wicked was conceived of as 
Gehenna, Gehenna being situated below the heavens, it was necessary, in order 
to reconcile the different views (Nehar di-Nur in 'Araboth and as means of punish- 
ment) to present the Nehar di-Nur or the fiery rivers as flowing from the Throne 
of Glory in the 'Araboth through the heavens down to Gehenna. In Ma'yan Chokma 
(Rev. Mosis), BH. i. 58-64, the points (3) and (4) are combined: "after having 
undergone the judgement the ministering angels bathe in the fiery river and are 
renewed. And then the fiery river. . .falls down upon the heads of the wicked in 
Gehenna, as it is written (Jer. xxiii. 19): 'Behold a whirlwind of the Lord. . .it 
shall burst upon the head of the wicked ' ". Cf. vs. 5 above. 

Ch. xxxiv. This chapter, in common with the latter part of the aforegoing chapter, 
treats of the glories of heaven with emphasis laid on the celestio-physical parts of 
these. The centre is the Throne of Glory, the feet of the Chayyoth carrying the 
Throne, and out from this centre the heavenly splendours are represented as 
evolving in concentric circles. This tendency towards a view arranging the heavenly 
objects concentrically round the Throne of Glory is noticeable in a number of 
earlier and later cabbalistic writings, and is, moreover, extended to the cosmological 
theories of the structure of heavens and earths and their foundations. Cf . especially 
Midrash Konen. 

A parallel to the present chapter is ch. xxxvii. For parallels in other writings 
reference can be made to Midrash Konen, BH. ii. 33, Seder Rabba di Bereshit Rabba 
(in Werthheimer's Batte Midrashot) and Helak Merkaba, Add. 27199, fol. 126 a. 

In Midrash Konen, ib., where the ' concentricism ' is already extended so as to 
include the whole cosmos the lowest of the seven earths, the ' Eres ha-tTachtona', 
and the highest of the heavens, the 'Araboth with the Throne of Glory, being on 
the same circle the passage runs: "the outside of the 'Eres ha-tTachtona is sur- 
rounded by fire and water, the water by earthquake and trembling, these by light- 
ning and thunder, the lightning and thunder bysparks and commotion, the sparks and 
commotion by the likeness of the Chayyoth (Ezek. i. 5), the likeness of the Chayyoth 
by ' Raso zva-Shob' (Ezek. i. 14), the Raso zvd-Shob by (those who utter) the Voice of 
Speech (Ezek. i. 24). . .(these by) the still small Voice (i Kings xix. 12). . .(this by) 
those who utter the 'Holy',. . .(these by) those tvho utter the 'Blessed be the Glory of 
H from His place ' . . . (these by) those who say ' Blessed be the Glory of H for ever 
and ever ' . . . " Seder R. di Bcreshith R., repeating this, adds (after " those who utter 
the Holy"): "and behind all these are the Holy Chayyoth, and the 'Ophannim and 



CH.XXXIV] MERKABAH, ETC. 115 

burning coals. The clouds of burning coals are surrounded on the 
outside by seven walls of flame(s). The seven walls of flame(s) are 
surrounded on the outside by seven walls of hailstones (stones of 
'Et-gabish, Ezek. xiii. 11,13, xxviii. 22). The hailstones are surrounded 
on the outside by x stones of hail (stone of Bar ad). The stones of hail 
are surrounded on the outside by stones of " the wings of the tempest ". 
The stones of "the wings of the tempest" are surrounded on the 
outside by 1 flames of fire. The flames of fire are surrounded by the 
chambers of the whirlwind. The chambers of the whirlwind are 
surrounded on the outside by 2 the fire and the water 2 . 

(2) Round about 2 the fire and the water 2 are those who utter the 



i-i E om. 2-2 E: 'walls of fire and water' 

the Throne of Glory (cf. here ch. xxxiii. 3 and beginning of this chapter) and the 
feet of Shekina are resting upon their heads. . .and thousand thousands and ten 
thousand times ten thousand ministering angels are standing round the feet of 
Shekina (cf. 'thousand camps of fire etc.', vs. 2. here) ". 

Helak Merkaba, referred to above, has the following representation: "Behind 
the Throne is the Wind, that surrounds the Throne, and Light surrounds the Wind, 
and splendour surrounds the light, fire surrounds the splendour etc. . . . and the 
colour of chashmal (Ezek. i. 4) surrounds the flames, and clouds surround the chash- 
mal etc." 

are surrounded on the outside by, lit. 'in front of or 'before. . .are placed 
in a circle, are surrounded'. hailstones stones of hail stones of the 
wings of the tempest. These are used as mystical terms, and it is difficult to 
determine to what extent the writer when using them has a definite or clearly 
conceived idea in his mind as to what they represent. The ' 'el-gabish' seems, like 
' chashmal' ', to have been a difficult and hence mysterious word which, especially as 
it occurs only in Ezekiel, was thought to have a deeper mystical connotation. It is 
then natural that it came to be regarded as denoting a celestial substance or object. 
'Wings of the tempest' as a technical term occurs also e.g. in ch. xviii. 25. In 
Midrash Konen, beginning of the Ma'ase Bereshith, the "wings of the tempest" 
appears as a definite part of the cosmological structure (after ' the mountains ' and 
'the wind' and next to "Eres ha-tTachtona'). As an illustration of the use of ex- 
pressions like those of the present chapter in a mystical-technical sense, attention 
may be drawn to the passage preceding the one just referred to, Midrash Konen 
(BH. ii. 32 seqq.) : in a long enumeration of the foundations of the universe (the 
one resting upon or in the other) we meet with the statement: "the 'Eres ha- 
tTachtona is stretched out upon (over) the waters, the waters upon pillars of chashmal, 
the pillars of chasmal rest upon mountains of hailstones, the mountains of hailstones 
upon the mountains of hail, the mountain of hail upon the treasuries of snow etc." 
See also ch. xix. 3, 4. 

For the walls of flames, walls of fire, flames of fire etc. (fire being the celestial 
substance, /car' e'^o^?/), cf. Mass. Hek. iv, according to which four walls surround 
the splendours in ' Araboth Raqia', "one of lappid (firebrands), another of flames, 
the third of burning fire, the fourth of lightnings". And ib. "the seven Halls (of 
'Araboth) are all of them full of coal, firebrands, sparks, lightnings, pillars of coal, 
pillars of burning fire, pillars of lightnings, pillars of fires, pillars of flames ". 

fire and water. Cf. ch. xlii. 7. The counterbalance of the two polar opposites 
of fire and water is a well-established part of the cosmological speculations as well 
as of those of the mysteries of the heavens. 

(2) Round about. . .are those who utter the "Holy". . .those who utter the 

8-2 



1 1 6 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CHH. XXXIV, XXXV 

"Holy". Round about those who utter the "Holy" are those who 
utter the "Blessed" '. Round about those who utter the "Blessed" 
are the bright clouds. The bright clouds are surrounded on the 
outside by coals of burning jumper ; and on the outside surrounding 
the coals of burning juniper there are thousand camps of fire and 
ten thousand hosts of flame(s). And between every several camp and 
every several host there is a cloud, so that they may not be burnt 
by the fire. 

CHAPTER XXXV 

The camps of angels in ' Araboth Raqia 1 : 
angels, performing the Qedushsha 

1 R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(i) 506 2 thousand myriads of camps has the Holy One, blessed be 
He, in the height of 'Araboth Raqia 1 . And each camp is (composed 
of) 496 thousand angels. 



i E puts as heading : ' the Order of the Camps ' 2 E: 496 

"Blessed," i.e. the angels whose function is the performance of the responses of 
the Qedushsha. This in the present context forms the transition to the section, 
beginning with the following chapter, a section which has the performance of the 
Qedushsha in the heavens as main theme. Cf. Introduction, section 17. 

thousand camps of fire and ten thousand hosts of flame(s). Referring to 
the angels arranged in camps (ch. xxxv. i), hosts and armies. Cf. ch. xix. 6. The 
angels are made of fire, cf. note on ch. xxii. 4. 

between every several camp. . .there is a cloud lest they be burnt by fire. 
For 'clouds' as protecting the angels cf. Mass. Hek. iii: "and clouds (are set) to 
protect the ministering angels from the splendour of the Throne of Glory". 

Section 5. The Celestial Qedushsha. 
(Chh. xxxv, xxxvi, xxxviii, xl.) 

Ch. xxxv. With this chapter begins a new section centering round the conception 
of the heavenly Qedushsha, the counterpart of the Qedushsha on earth. Vss. 1-4 
form an introduction, treating of the numerous camps in which the song-uttering 
angels are arranged. The different fragments all begin with an explicit reference to 
the performance of the ' (Thrice) Holy ' (" When the time for the saying of the ' Holy ' 
draws nigh" or "when the ministering angels utter the Song") and are contained 
in chh. xxxv. 5, 6, xxxvi, xxxviii, xxxix, xl. 

On the conception of the celestial Qedushsha see Introduction, section 17. 

(i) The number of camps: 506 thousand myriads of camps has the Holy 
One . . . each camp . . . 496 thousand angels. For parallels cf . Alph. R. 'Aqiba, 
BH. iii. 21, and Hilkoth ha-mMal'akim {Add. 27199), fol. 125 a. 

The passage of Alph. R. 'Aqiba, placing the camps in Shechaqim (the third heaven) 
instead of, as here, in the 'Araboth (the highest of the heavens) by reason of the 



CH.XXXV] CELESTIAL QEDUSHSHA 117 

(2) And every single angel, the height of his stature is as the great 
sea; and the appearance of their countenance as the appearance of 
the lightning, and their eyes as lamps of fire, and their arms and 
their feet like in colour to polished brass 3 and the roaring voice of 
their words like the voice of a multitude. 

(3) And they are all standing before the Throne of Glory in four 
rows 3 . And the princes of the army are standing at the head of each 
row. 



3-3 E om. 

assigning of the celestial Sanctuary to the Shechaqim runs: "In Shechaqim 1018 
camps are standing before the Shekina in the Sanctuary which is the Shechaqim, 
saying before Him the 'Holy' every day, and each camp is (composed of) 1008 
myriads of ministering angels. For 'Shechaqim' is by Gematria 1018. . . .From the 
morning until the evening they say before Him: 'Holy, Holy, Holy', and from the 
evening until the morning they say ' Blessed be the glory of H from His place ' ". 

Hilkoth Mal'akim, ib., presents both conceptions, that of the present chapter and 
that of Alph. R. 'Aqiba, in a developed form : " (Of) the angels 906,000 myriads 
(the number 906 is developed from '506' of vs. i here through the addition 
of a 'n' to the numerical letters: 'Ipnn' instead of *1pn') are standing to the 
right of the Throne and as many are standing to the left of the Throne, together 
with a troop without number and a host without reckoning. They teach song(s) 
and hymn(s). And in Shechaqim there are 1018 camps of angels (cf. the passage 
in Alph. R. 'Aqiba above) who say ' Holy' and ' Blessed ' from morning until evening. 
Before Him there are 496,000 angels who utter the 'Holy' by day and the 'Blessed' 
by night. And all the angels and all the camps bathe in fiery rivers seven times and 
restore themselves by fire 365 times (cf. ch. xxxvi. 2)." 

Vss. i and 4 seem to indicate that the 'camps' here represent all the ministering 
angels. But the emphasis is clearly on the song-uttering angels and in the two 
parallel passages just referred to as well as in ch. xl. 3 the ' camps' refer only to the 
angels as performing the Qedushsha. There was, moreover, a definite tradition 
current, to the effect that the number of ministering angels in general was countless, 
infinite (basing upon Job xxv. 3 : " Is there any number of his armies ? ") . Cf . Hilkoth 
Mal'akim above (" a troop without number etc.") and esp. TB. Chag. 13 b, where it 
is said expressly, that the passage Dan. vii. 10, which vs. 4 here uses as scriptural 
support, is to be interpreted as referring to the number of one troop only, "for the 
troops are without reckoning". The 'camps', then, are understood as the armies 
of angels which have the performance of the Qedushsha for their special object. 
Apart from this, of course, the view obtains that all the higher (and lower) classes 
of angels utter the 'Thrice Holy' or the 'Blessed'. Cf. chh. xx. 2, xxv. 5, xxvi. 8. 

The numbers ' 506 ' and ' 496 ' are arrived at by means ofgematncal calculations, as 
it is expressly stated to be the case with the number '1018' of the camps of 
Shechaqim in Alph. R. 'Aqiba, referred to above. (506 = kingdoms, 496 = kingdom. 
See Introduction, section 17 E.) 

(2) From ' the appearance of their countenance ' the description of the angels 
in this verse is in the literal terms of Dan. x. 6. The speculations concerning the 
song-uttering angels and the judgement are to a large extent drawn from inter- 
pretations of different passages of Daniel. Cf. vs. 4. 

(3) they are all standing before the Throne of Glory in four rows. Cf. ch. 
xxxvi. 2. The four rows here represent the same idea as ' the four camps of Shekina ', 
chh. xviii. 4, xxxvii. i (see note on ch. xviii. 4) and as "the four camps of angels" 
glorifying the Most High, P. R. 'El. iv. the princes of the army at the head 
of the rows (the meaning is probably "one prince at the head of each row'') are, 



Il8 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXXV 

(4) And some of them utter the "Holy" and others utter the 
"Blessed", some of them run as messengers, others are standing in 
attendance, according as it is written (Dan. vii. 10): "Thousand 
thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand 
stood before him : the judgment was set and the books were opened ". 

(5) And in the hour, when the time draws nigh for to say the 
"Holy", (then) first there goes forth a whirlwind from before the 
Holy One, blessed be He, and bursts upon the camp of Shekina and 
there arises a great commotion among them, as it is written (Jer. 
xxx. 23): "Behold, the whirlwind of the Lord goeth forth with fury, 
a continuing commotion". 

(6) At that moment 4 thousand thousands of them are changed into 
sparks, thousand thousands of them into firebrands, thousand thou- 
sands into flashes, thousand thousands into flames, thousand thousands 
into males, thousand thousands into females, thousand thousands into 



4-4 E corr. from 'at that moment, etc.' to 'until they take upon themselves, etc.' 

consequently, a parallel representation to that of ' the four great princes . . . over 
the four camps of Shekina', ch. xviii. 4, and identical with the "four angels at 
the head of the four camps of angels etc.", P. R. 'El., ib., whose names are MIKAEL, 
URIEL, GABRIEL and RAPHAEL. On these grounds it is possible to point to a con- 
nection between the tradition preserved in the present chapter and i En. The four 
' Presences ' of i En. xl, uttering praises before ' the Lord of Glory', MIKAEL, RAPHAEL, 
GABRIEL and PHANUEL, are there introduced in the close company of "the thousands 
of thousands and ten thousand times ten thousand etc.", xl. i, and of "those who 
stand before Thy glory and bless, praise and extol, saying, 'Holy, Holy, Holy', 
and, 'Blessed be Thou and blessed be the name of the Lord for ever and ever'", 
ch. xxxix. 12 f. Cf. ib. ch. ix. i and Ixxi and 2 En. xviii. 9 (" the Grigori are standing 
in four orders, while singing [the Praise of the Holy One] with one voice"). Cf. 
Zohar, iii. 50 a: "four pn^O". (Vide Introduction, section 17 A.) 

(4) Some of them utter the "Holy" etc. some of them run as messengers 
etc. Cf. note above on vs. i. Thousand thousands ministered unto him etc. 
Dan. vii. 10. This verse seems to have been used as an epitome of mystical gnoseis: 
it was the starting-point for the computation of the number of the angels, was used 
as support for the conception of the Nehar di-Nur, the fiery river(s), the ministration 
of the Qedushsha by hosts of angels, the Celestial Beth Din, the Judgement and the 
Book(s) of judgement. 

Some say the 'Holy', some the 'Blessed', i.e. the Qedushsha, consisting of the 
Thrice Holy and the response 'Blessed', of which latter there are at least two forms 
within the present book: (i) 'Blessed be the glory of H' from His place (ch. i. 13), 
and (2) 'Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever' (ch. xxxix. 2). 
The Qedushsha responsorium, as performed by the angels, is attested in i En. 
xxxix. 12 f., referred to above note on vs. 3. (Notice the form of the 'Blessed' 
there.) 

(5) when the time draws nigh for the recital of the Holy. . .there goes 
forth a whirlwind. The moment before the Qedushsha was one of commotion 
and shudder through all the heavens, of a 'momentous' significance. Cf. chh. 
xviii. 7, xix. 6, xxxviii. i. 

(6) thousand thousands of them are changed into sparks. . .flames. . . 
males. . .females. . .light etc. The angels are thus represented as changeable 



CH.XXXV] CELESTIAL QEDUSHSHA 119 

winds, thousand thousands into burning fires, thousand thousands 
into flames, thousand thousands into sparks, thousand thousands into 
chashmals of light 4 ; until they take upon themselves the yoke of the 
kingdom of heaven, the high and lifted up, of the Creator 5 of them 
all 5 with fear, dread, awe and trembling, with commotion, anguish, 
terror and trepidation. Then they are changed again into their former 
shape to have the fear of their King before them alway, as they have 
set their hearts on saying 6 the Song 5 continually, as it is written 
(Is. vi. 3): "And one cried unto another and said (Holy, Holy, Holy, 
etc.)". 



4-4 E corr. (mistaking the abbreviation 'y'DKN* thousand thousands o them 
are made into for: saying Amen) 5 5 ins. with E. A', lacuna 

into various forms from their original state of angels with bodily form. This is 
stated Gen. R. xxi. 13, with reference to Ps. civ. 4 : " ' (who maketh his angels spirits), 
his ministers a flaming fire', which changes, for they change, appearing at one time 
as males, at another as females, now as winds (or, spirits), now as angels". This 
dictum (attributed to Rab?) is quoted and commented upon by Maimonides in 
his More Nebukim, vol. I, ch. xlix. The expression 'are made into males. . .made 
into females' is somewhat suspect in its present connection, where the changing 
of the angels into all sorts of fiery, lifeless substances, is apparently conceived of 
as a punishment ad premonitum, till they acquiesce in performing their duty, the 
performance of the Qedushsha. 

until they take upon themselves the yoke of the kingdom of heaven, the 
high and lifted up, of the Creator. By the recitation of the Qedushsha, the 
angels take upon themselves the yoke of heaven. In the Qedushsha they recognize 
the Holy One, blessed be He, as the king of the heavens cf. the response in 
the Qedushsha of the Liturgy: "H' shall reign for ever etc." Ps. cxlvi. 10. So the 
Israelites every day, when they recite the ' Shema' ' take upon themselves the yoke 
of the kingdom of heaven, M. Ber. ii. 2, and when praying in general, TB. Ber. 
10 b. The Qedushsha is in itself the religious duty of the song-uttering angels. In 
the performance of the Qedushsha they put themselves as a harmonious unity in 
the heavenly kingdom, hence they are changed again into their former shape, 
described in vs. 2 as individual, manifested angelic beings, in which existence they 
remain only as long as they continue in the performance of the duty that is their 
only raison d'etre. Cf. chh. xl. 3, xlvii. I f. 

On the meaning of the expression ' take upon oneself the yoke of the kingdom of 
heaven' see article "Kingdom of heaven" in JE and Abelson, Jewish Mysticism, 
p. 84. 



120 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXXVI 



CHAPTER XXXVI 

The angels bathe in the fiery river 
before reciting the 'Song' 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(1) At the time when the ministering angels desire to say (the) 
Song, (then) Nehar di-Nur (the fiery stream) * rises with many 
"thousand thousands and myriads of myriads" (of angels) of power 
and strength of fire 1 and it runs and passes under the Throne of 
Glory, between the camps 2 of the ministering angels and the troops 
of 'Araboth. 

(2) And all the ministering angels first go down into Nehar di-Nur, 
and they dip themselves in the fire 3 and dip their tongue and their 
mouth seven times ; and after that they go up and put on the garment 
of ' Machaqe SamaV and cover themselves with cloaks of chashmal 
and stand in four rows over against the Throne of Glory, in all the 
heavens. 



i-i in ace. with the reading of E. ' bekamma' A ; ' bamma 2 so E. A : ' camp : 
3 E ins.: 'in Nehar di-Nur' 

Ch. xxxvi. The ministering angels, before singing the 'Song', i.e. in this con- 
nection presumably the Qedushsha, purify their bodies, in particular their tongue 
and mouth, in the Nehar di-Nur, the fiery river, see note on ch. xxxiii. 5. 

(1) Nehar di-Nur rises etc. The beginning of the verse is a covert inter- 
pretation of Dan. vii. 10. The fiery river is represented as bringing with it the 
"thousand thousands etc." of Dan. vii. 10, all of which are fire "in strength and 
might". of power and strength of fire. The present writer is unable to 
translate this into intelligible English : it means that the fiery substance of the angels 
is on this occasion intensely radiant and sparkling. 

The camps probably stand for the song-uttering angels, the troops for the rest: 
'the host without reckoning'. Cf. i En. xl. i and note, ch. xxxv. i. 

(2) the angels ... go down into Nehar di-Nur. Cf. May'an Chokma, BH. i. 
58-64: " in the fiery river the ministering angels bathe themselves and are renewed 
every morning ". their tongue . . . seven times, the special organ for the recital of 
the Thrice Holy needs special purification. Cf. the passage from Hilkoth Mal'akim, 
quoted above, note on ch. xxxv. i. Machaqe Samal. No reasonable translation 
of this term seems possible. See Jellinek, E, ad loc. chashmal. Derived from 
Ezek. i. 4. four rows. Cf. ch. xxxv. 3. 



CH.XXXVIl] MERKABAH ETC. 121 

CHAPTER XXXVII 
The four camps of Shekina and their surroundings 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(1) In the seven Halls there are standing four chariots of Shekina, 
and before each one are standing the four camps of Shekina. Between 
each camp a river of fire is continually flowing. 

(2) Between each river there are bright clouds [surrounding them], 
and between each cloud there are put up pillars of brimstone. Between 
one pillar and another there are standing flaming wheels, surrounding 
them. And between one wheel and another there are flames of fire 
1 round about 1 . Between one flame and another there are treasuries 
of lightnings; behind the treasuries of lightnings are the wings of 
2 the stormwind 2 . 3 Behind the wings of the storm-wind are 3 the 
chambers of the tempest ; 4 behind the chambers of the tempest there 
are 4 winds, voices, thunders, sparks 5 [upon] sparks and earthquakes 
[upon] earthquakes 5 . 



i-i E: 'riding' 2-2, 3-3 E om. 4-4 E om. 5-5 E: 'and behind the 
sparks there are earthquakes' 

Ch. xxxvii. This chapter belongs to the same category as ch. xxxiv. Cf. notes, ib, 
The reason why it was placed in its present context is probably the mention in vs. i 
of 'the four camps of Shekina' since the 'camps' are understood of the song- 
uttering angels. 

(1) seven Halls, in 'Araboth, the highest of the heavens. Cf. note on ch. xviii. 3. 
The camps are conceived of as filling all the Halls, radiating from the centre of the 
Throne of Glory. The chariots of Shekina are here four, corresponding to the 
four Chayyoth of the Divine Chariot, an amplification of the One Chariot similar 
to that of one fiery river into four or seven. four camps of Shekina. See note 
on chh. xviii. 4, xxxv. 3. E misreads 'seven', probably by false analogy to the 
seven Halls. 

(2) The text has probably suffered a confusion. Instead of ' between ... and ' 
read throughout ' behind ' as in the latter part of the verse and as in the parallels 
of Midrash Konen and Seder Rabba di Bereshith Rabba referred to note on ch. 
xxxiv, Introduction. The reading 'between. . .and' was presumably caused by the 
use of this expression with reference to the rivers as flowing between the camps of 
ministering angels. Cf. how in ch. xxxiii it is said about the fiery rivers: "each 
river turns round in a bow in. . .'Araboth Raqia'". The original intent of the 
chapter was to picture the concentric circles of flames, treasuries of lightnings, 
chambers of the tempest etc. surrounding the Throne of Glory and the camps. 
The confusion is, even after the suggested emendation, too great as to allow any 
clear reconstruction of the intended picture. 



122 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXXVIII 

CHAPTER XXXVIII 

The fear that befalls all the heavens at the sound of the 
'Holy? esp. the heavenly bodies. These appeased by the 

Prince of the World 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(i) At the time, when the ministering angels utter (the Thrice) 
Holy, then all the pillars of the heavens and their sockets do tremble, 
and x the gates of the Halls of l Araboth Raqia' 1 are shaken and the 
foundations of Shechaqim and the Universe (Tebel) are moved, and 
the orders 2 of Ma'on and the chambers 3 of Makon quiver, and all 
the orders 4 of Raqia 1 and the constellations and the planets are dis- 
mayed, and the globes of the sun and the moon haste away and flee 
out of their courses 5 and run 6 12,000 parasangs and seek to throw 
themselves down from heaven, (2) by reason of the roaring voice of 
their chant, and the noise of their praise and the sparks and lightnings 
that go forth from their faces; as it is written (Ps. Ixxvii. 18): "The 
voice of thy thunder was in the heaven (the lightnings lightened the 
world, the earth trembled and shook) ". 



i-i E: 'the gates of the Halls and 'Araboth Raqia" 2 E: 'chambers' 3 E: 
'Halls' 4 E:' secrets' 5 so E. A corr. 6 E ins.: ' back(ward) ' 

Ch. xxxviii. The importance of the Celestial Qedushsha is illustrated by a de- 
scription of the commotion that seizes the whole Universe at the time appointed 
for its recital by the ministering angels. 

(i) all the pillars of the heavens. . .tremble etc. This description is supple- 
mented by the description of the fear of all the angelic hosts and different classes 
of angels at the time of the ' Song' in ch. xix. 6. A parallel in similar terms as those 
of the present verse and of ch. xix. 6 and of the same import is found in Ma'yan 
Chokma, BH. i. 59 seqq.: "all the heavenly hosts shake and tremble, and the 
Holy Chayyoth are struck dumb, the Holy Seraphim roar like lions. . .the Galgallim 
of the Throne . . . are moved, the thresholds of brilliancy quake and all the heavens 
are seized with terror". A similar expression in Assumption of Moses, x. 5: "and 
the circuit of the stars shall be disordered". Of the various heavens are here 
named: 'Araboth, the 7th, Shechaqim, the 3rd, Ma'on, Makon, Raqia', the 5th, 
6th, 2nd resp. foundations of Shechaqim and. . . (Tebel), may be a hint of the 
connection of each of the seven earths with the corresponding heaven (elaborated 
in Midrash Konen and often repeated in cosmological Oabbala), only that usually 
Shechaqim is represented as connected with the earth called 'Arqa, whereas the earth 
called Tebel is combined with the Raqia' -heaven. 

the orders of Raqia' and the constellations and planets. . .and. . .the sun 
and the moon. The heavenly bodies are situated in the Raqia', the second heaven 
(cf. Chag. 12 b). 



CHH. XXXVIII, XXXIX] CELESTIAL QEDUSHSHA ' 123 

(3) Until the prince of the world calls them, saying: "Be ye quiet 
in your place ! Fear not because of the ministering angels who sing 
the Song before the Holy One, blessed be He". As it is written 
(Job xxxviii. 7): "When the morning stars sang together and all the 
children of heaven shouted for joy". 



CHAPTER XXXIX 

The explicit names fly off from the Throne and all the 

various angelic hosts prostrate themselves before it at 

the time of the Qedushsha 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(i) When the ministering angels utter the "Holy" then all the 
explicit names that are graven with a flaming style on the Throne of 



(3) until the Prince of the World calls them. The Prince of the World is here 
the ruler or prince of the heavenly bodies, the constellations, planets, sun and moon. 
Ch. xxx. 2, he is the leader of the 72 princes of kingdoms and pleads the cause of 
the world (i.e. all the inhabitants of the world) before the Most High when seated 
on the judgement- throne. These two functions, leader of the planets-constellations 
and of the princes of kingdoms are naturally combined, when, according to the 
development of the conception of the princes of kingdoms, they are represented 
as the rulers of the planets and constellations (so even in this book, ch. xvii. 8, in 
its present redaction). 

The Prince of the World has been identified with Metatron by one party of 
cabbalistic traditionists. Within the present book functions are attributed to Metatron 
that are essential to the Prince of the World. Metatron is indicated as the ruler 
over the princes of kingdoms, chh. x. 3, xlviii C 9 et al., and he has authority over 
the planets (and constellations) ace. to ch. xlvi. 2, and over the princes of kingdoms 
and the rulers of the world, ch. xiv. 1,3. 

The Prince of the World was present at the Creation and in the days of Creation 
he uttered the words of Ps. civ. 31 ("The glory of the Lord shall endure for ever: 
the Lord shall rejoice in his works"). TB. Chullin, 60 a, hence to him refers the 
passage, Ps. xxxvii. 25, "I have been young and now am old": TB. Yebam. 13 a. 
Cf. further, note on ch. iii. 2. 

Ch. xxxix. This chapter continues the picture of the preceding chapter (the com- 
motion of all the heavens with the inclusion of the constellations and the planets 
at the sound of the Thrice Holy) : the Explicit Names on the very Throne of Glory 
and the highest classes of angels are all moved into expressions of glorification of 
the Most High at the time of the Qedushsha. 

(i) all the explicit names that are graven with a flaming style on the 
Throne of Glory. The explicit names are represented as a plurality; hence we 
are here on the ground of mystical speculations concerning the different Divine 
Names consisting of various permutations of the Tetragrammaton and of the other 
names of God and expressions representing the Godhead occurring in the O.T. 
For the various meanings attached to the term ' Shem Mephorash' see JE (e.g. 
vol. i. 622); Gaster, The Sword of Moses, intr. ; Bousset, RJ. pp. 344 et al. The 



124 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XXXIX 

Glory fly off like eagles, with sixteen wings. And they surround and 
compass the Holy One, blessed be He, on the four sides of the place 
of His Shekina 1 . 

(2) And the angels of the host, and the flaming Servants, and the 
mighty 'Ophannim, and the Kerubim of the Shekina, and the Holy 
Chayyoth, and the Seraphim, and the 'Er'ellim, and the Taphsarim 2 

i so E. A: '(the place of the) Glory of His Shekina' 2 A ins.: 'the troops of 
flame' 

meaning that suggests itself in the present connection is that of "names that are 
explicit, have an individual, fixed form or appearance". Cf. ch. xlviii B i, ace. 
to the reading of FGH: "The Holy One, blessed be He, has 70 names that are 
explicit, the rest that are not explicit are innumerable and unsearchable". The 
Explicit Names are here distinguished as being graven on the Throne of Glory 
(with a flaming style; cf. chh. xiii. i, xxix. i, xli. 4). Cf. the enumeration of the 
different categories of Names in Alph. R. 'Aqiba, EH. iii. 26. The Explicit Names 
are there in a separate class from those on the Throne, if the reading is correct: 
" The Holy One, blessed be He, revealed to Moses all the Names : both the Explicit 
Names, the Names that are graven on the royal crown on his head, the names that 
are graven on the Throne of Glory, the names that are graven on the ring of his hand, 
the names that are standing as pillars of fire round his chariots, the names that 
surround the Shekina like eagles of the Merkaba, and the names by which heaven 
and earth are sealed. . . ". The intent of the passage is probably to denote all these 
names as Explicit Names. 

fly off like eagles. Cf. above, ' the names that surround the Shekina like eagles '. 
For the names flying off, cf. TB. 'Ab. Zar. 18 a (the letters fly off from a scroll of 
the Tora, when burning), Pesachim, 87 b (when the tables of the testimony were 
broken by Moses, ace. to Ex. xxxii. 19, the letters graven on them, flew off). Alph. 
R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 53 ' "The letter Kaph went down from its place on the Fearful 
Crown and stood before the Throne of Glory". Similarly, ch. xlviii B i, the Names 
of the Holy One are represented as going forth 'from before the Throne of Glory'. 
The names are thus represented as self-existent and capable of taking on the form 
of living beings. The object of the names flying off as eagles (angels of the form of 
eagles) is their participation in the responses of the Qedushsha. This is explicitly 
stated with regard to the letters (the letters and the Names being vastly inter- 
changeable terms) in the quotation from "the book of Enoch" in Mishkan ha-'Edut 
by Moses de Leon (BH. ii. p. xxxi): "the letters in the four different quarters 
round the Throne (cf . here : on the four sides of the place of His Shekina (fly 
off. . .and when flying off say: 'Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for 
ever and ever'". 

(2) And the angels of the host, and the flaming Servants etc. The Explicit 
Names surrounding the Holy One are accompanied by great armies of princes of 
fire and mighty regiments of troops (gedudim) of fire, says Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 
25. For the present enumeration of various angelic classes cf. chh. vi. 2, vii, xiv. i. 
xix. 6. No doubt the present verse is to be regarded as presenting a tradition of the 
orders of the highest angel- classes. This is indicated by the mention of the four 
classes of ' Merkaba-angels ' ('Ophannim, Kerubim, Chayyoth and Seraphim). 

angels of the host. Cf . the expression ' prince of the host ' applied to the princes 
of the seven heavens, ch. xvii. 2 f. In each heaven there is one 'host'. The term 
'host' need not necessarily refer to the whole multitude of angels, it might also 
mean one special class of angels. 'The angels of the host' would then, here, mean . 
' the angels of the host of the highest of the heavens '. Cf. ch. xiv. i . 

the flaming Servants. This expression occurs also ch. vii. Cf. note, ib. 

the mighty 'Ophannim and the Kerubim of the Shekina, the holy Chayyoth 
and the Seraphim. The mighty 'Ophannim or 'the 'Ophannim of Gebura': Gebura 



CHH. XXXIX, XL] CELESTIAL QEDUSHSHA 125 

and the troops 3 of consuming fire 3 , and the fiery armies, and the 
flaming hosts, and the holy princes, adorned with crowns, clad in 
kingly majesty, wrapped in glory, girt with loftiness, 4 fall upon their 
faces three times 4 , saying: "Blessed be the name of His glorious 
kingdom for ever and ever". 



CHAPTER XL 

The ministering angels rewarded with crowns, when uttering 
the ' ' Holy ' ' in its right order, and punished by consuming fire 
if not. New ones created in the stead of the consumed angels 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(i) When the ministering angels say "Holy" before the Holy One, 



3-3 emendated. AE both omit 'fire' 4-4 emendated. A: 'fall upon three 

times ' E : ' fall upon their faces ' 

also means the Divine Majesty. The 'Ophannim, Kerubim, Chayyoth and Seraphim 
are the four classes of Merkaba-angels, described in the angelological section, 
chh. xx-xxii, xxv, xxvi. Cf. also ch. vi. 2. The ' Galgallim ' or 'Wheels of the 
Merkaba' are missing here. 

'Er'ellim and Taphsarim occur also ch. xiv. i ; cf. note, ib. 

the troops of consuming fire. The term used is '('Esh) 'Okela', used ch. xlii. 3 
as a Divine Name. the fiery armies and the flaming hosts. The attributes prob- 
ably only convey the fiery substance of the angels. Cf. Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 25. 

the holy princes. This might refer to the 'princes of Kingdoms', ch. xiv. 2 
(mentioned after the 'Erellim and Taphsarim), ch. xvii. 8 ('crowned with royal 
crowns, clad in royal garments etc.', cf. here: 'adorned with crowns, clad in kingly 
majesty', in the present connection of course referring to all the enumerated angels 
and princes), chh. xxix and xxx (identical with the Watchers and Holy Ones, cf. 
note on ch. xxix, intr.). 

Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever. This 
is then the form of the response to the 'Holy, Holy, Holy. . . ' according to the 
present chapter. Ch. i. 13 has the regular response: 'Blessed be the glory of H' 
from His place'. The present response is a glorification of God as King, of the 
Kingdom of Heaven, a form implied by ch. xxxv. 6. 

Ch. xl. The ministering angels receive crowns as reward when uttering the 
'Thrice Holy' in the proper manner. Hereby the performance of the Qedushsha 
is indicated as a meritorious act, an observance of a religious duty. As such it is 
already characterized, ch. xxxv. 6 (the angels when singing the 'Holy' take upon 
themselves the yoke of the Kingdom of heaven). It signifies the sustainment of 
the whole order of the heavens by the recognition of God's sovereignty (the whole 
earth is sustained by the Qedushsha, TB. Sofa, 49 a). The reward of the ministering 
angels performing the Qedushsha is hence exactly paralleled by the rewarding of 
the Israelites with crowns at the time when they said, "We will do and hear (Ex. 
xxiv. 7)", related in TB. Shabb. 88 a ("60 myriads of ministering angels put 
crowns on every single one of the Israelites etc.") but for the acceptance of the 



126 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XL 

blessed be He, in the proper way, then the servants of His Throne, 
1 the attendants of His Glory, 1 go forth with great mirth from under 
the Throne of Glory. (2) And 2 they all carry in their hands, each 
one of them 2 thousand thousand and ten thousand times ten thousand 
crowns of stars, similar in appearance to the planet Venus, and put 
them on the ministering angels and the great princes who utter the 
"Holy". Three crowns they put on each one of them: one crown 
because they say "Holy", another crown, because they say "Holy, 
Holy", and a third crown because they say "Holy, Holy, Holy, is 
the Lord of Hosts" . 

(3) And in the moment that they do not utter the "Holy" in the 
right order, a consuming fire goes forth from the little finger of the 
Holy One, blessed be He, and falls down in the midst of their ranks 



i-i E om. 2-2 so E. A:' every two of them carry between them ' 

Tora implied in those words the whole world could not have subsisted. The im- 
portance of the Qedushsha in the present section always refers to the Celestial 
QSdushsha, at any rate in the first place. The importance of the earthly Qedushsha 
is the subject of Sota, 49 a, and Hek. R. ix et al. ; to the latter at times the greater 
importance is assigned (the angels must be silent while the Israelites say the ' Holy ' 
on earth). 

(1) the servants. of His Throne. . .go forth. . .from under the Throne. The 
servants of His Throne are the angels entrusted with the care of the treasuries of 
the crowns which are under the Throne of Glory and hence also over the other 
treasuries that are conceived of as having their place under the Throne. From under 
the Throne was brought forth the fire of deafness for the Chayyoth ace. to ch. xv B, 
and go forth the 'horns' ace. to Hek. R. xii. In the secret chamber under the 
Throne God hid Moses away from the fury of the ministering angels ace. to Ex. R. 
xxii. 

(2) they all carry in their hands . . . crowns . . . and put them on the ministering 
angels. The crowns are made of stars, in appearance like unto the splendour of 
the planet Venus. The 'planet Venus', 'the shining star', is a frequent term of 
comparison, cf. ch. xxvi. 6 et al. one crown, because they say ' Holy ' etc. One 
would have expected 'one crown for each "Holy"' or similar. The same division 
of the Thrice Holy is found in the Siddur of R. 'Amram Ga'on, Morning Prayer, 
p. 4 (ed. Warsch), closely connected with the present chapter by reason of its being 
attributed to R. Ishmael: " R. Ishmael said: There are three companies of ministering 
angels who say the 'Holy' every day. One company says 'Holy', the other says 
'Holy, Holy', and the third company says 'Holy, Holy, Holy, is the Lord of Hosts. 
The whole earth is full of His glory'". The same is repeated in a different version, 
ib., Evening Prayer, fol. 18, and also, with slightly corrupt readings, in Seder Rabba 
di Bereshith Rabba (ed. Werthheimer, Batte Midrashot). Vide Introduction, 
section 17 D. 

(2) And in the moment that they do not utter the Holy in the right order 
or in the right time a consuming fire . . . consumes them in one moment. The 
same punishment of the ministering angels that utter the song out of order is set 
forth in ch. xlvii. 2. The fire is here not the fiery river, the regular means of punish- 
ment, but a fire sent out for the purpose from the little finger of the Holy One. 
In ch. xlvii. 2 the two ideas of the fire from the Most High and the fiery river are 
combined : the immediate extinction of the angels is effected by the fire ' from their 
Creator', but their continued punishment takes place in the fiery river. 



CH.XL] CELESTIAL QEDUSHSHA 127 

and is divided into 496 3 thousand parts corresponding to the four 
camps of the ministering angels, and consumes them in one moment, 
as it is written (Ps. xcvii. 3): "A fire goeth before him and burneth 
up his adversaries round about". 

(4) After that the Holy One, blessed be He, opens His mouth and 
speaks one word and creates others in their stead, new ones like 
them. And each one stands before His Throne of Glory, uttering 
the "Ploly", as it is written (Lam. iii. 23): "They are new every 
morning; great is thy faithfulness". 



3E:< 796' 

The idea of the punishment by extinction in fire of the angels who utter the ' Holy ' 
in the wrong way is echoed in Hilkoth Mal'akim, Add. 27199, fol. 123 a: "Every 
angel who begins earlier or later than his fellow-angels when singing the Song, is 
immediately burnt by lashes of fire through CHAYYLIEL, the Prince who attends 
the Chayyoth" (cf. ch. xx. 2). 

Rekanati quotes from Sepher Hekaloth (one of the names of the present book), 
cited BH, ii. p. xvii : "All the ministering angels . . . who are standing before Him . . . 
none of them begins (the Song) too early or too late : anyone who tarries with his 
voice after his neighbour as much as a hair's breadth is instantly pushed into fire 
and flames". The singing the 'Song' in the wrong order is ace. to both these 
passages understood of the time. Cf. ch. xlvii. 2. 

is divided into 496 thousand parts corresponding to the four camps of the 
ministering angels etc. This is apparently a confusion of the two conceptions of 
the four camps of Shekina (consisting of song-uttering angels) and the 496 (or 
506) thousand myriads of camps each composed of 496 thousand angels. It seems 
to imply that the whole multitude of camps of song-uttering angels are destroyed . 
They are treated as a whole, a unity. (Contrast the quoted passages, Hilkoth 
Mal'akim and Recanati.) 

a fire goeth before Him and burneth up his adversaries. The angels who do 
not utter the Song in the right way are identified with the 'adversaries of God' 
of Ps. xcvii. 3 ; this is altogether in accordance with the view of the performance 
of the Qedushsha as an all-important religious duty attested in the present chapter. 
The neglect of or unwillingness to perform the Qedushsha is an act of enmity against 
the Kingdom of the Most High. The punishment in fire here should be compared 
with the changing of the angels into all kinds of lifeless fiery substances until their 
acquiescence in the performance of their duty, depicted ch. xxxv. 5, 6. 

(4) After that the Holy One, blessed be He, opens His mouth and speaks 
one word and creates . . . new ones. Hence, according to the view of the present 
chapter (and section) the angels who continue their existence as individual, corporeal 
beings as long as they rightly perform their duty: the uttering of the Trisagion, 
are consumed by fire only as punishment for their non-observance of this duty 
after which new ones are created by a word of God. This view is a harmonization 
of the different views concerning the origin and fate of the song-uttering angels 
recorded TB. Chag. 14 a, Gen. R. Ixxviii, Lam. R. iii. 21 : (i) the angels are created out 
of the fiery river and thither they are sent back again after they have uttered a 
Song; (2) the angels are created from the ' dibbur (word) ' of God. 

Cf. ch. xxvii. 3 and note on ch. xlvii. 2 (the angels after being consumed in the 
fire, viz. as corporeal beings, subsist in soul and spirit). 

They are new every morning; great is thy faithfulness: Lam. iii. 23. This 
was the fundamental starting point and basis of the speculations on the creation 
and duration of the angels. It is used, TB. Chag. 14 a, as support of view (i) above, 
and the review of the various traditions in Lam. R., ib., is attached to this passage. 



128 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XLI 

CHAPTER XLI 

Metatron shows R. Ishmael the letters engraved on 

the Throne of Glory by which letters everything in 

heaven and earth has been created 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 
said to me : 

(1) Come and behold 1 the letters by which the heaven and the 
earth were created, 

2 the letters by which were created the mountains and hills, 

the letters by which were created the seas and rivers, 

the letters by which were created the trees and herbs 2 , 

the letters by which were created the planets and the constellations, 

2 the letters by which were created 2 the globe of the moon and the 

globe of the sun, Orion, the Pleiades and all the different luminaries 

of Raqia' . 

(2) 3 the letters by which were created the Throne of Glory and 
the Wheels of the Merkaba, 



i E: ' I will show thee ' Cf. the opening words of the following chapters. 2-2 E 
om. 3 E ins.: 'the letters by which were created the ministering angels; the 
letters by which were created the Seraphim and the Chayyoth ' 

In ch. xlvi. 4 this passage is used with reference to the renewal of the planets (stars) 
in the time to come. 

Ch. xli. This chapter marks the beginning of a new section distinguished from 
the rest of the book by the setting in which the revelations of the heavenly mysteries 
are here framed. Whereas according to the preceding chapters the various celestial 
facts are represented as orally transmitted to R. Ishmael by Metatron, the various 
wonders of heaven are ace. to this section actually shown to R. Ishmael. 

The contents of the revelations thus presented in this section are greatly varied 
and can scarcely be comprised under one heading. Three main themes are, however, 
discernible. One is the physical-cosmological aspect of the heavenly mysteries; 
to this may be reckoned the letters engraved on the Throne of Glory (in the present 
chapter), the various polar opposites (ch. xlii) in which the cosmological interest 
is apparent the Curtain spread before the Holy One (ch. xlv), and the stars and 
planets (ch. xlvi). 

The second theme is that of the conditions of the souls and spirits, comprising 
not only the spirits and souls of the departed (righteous, wicked and intermediate 
chh. xliii, xliv), but also those of the unborn, and, even more, those of the punished 
angels (chh. xliii, xlvii). 

The third theme, connected with and partly interwoven in the others is of escha- 
tological character: chh. xliv. 7-10, xlv. 5, xlviii A. Ch. xlviii A forms the conclusion 
of the section. 

(1) This verse is an almost literal copy of ch. xiii. i, on which see note, ib. 

(2) by which were created the Throne of Glory and the Wheels of the 
Merkaba. The letters are thus prior even to the Throne of Glory, the vehicle of 



CHH. XLI, XLIl] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 1 29 

the letters by which were created the necessities of the worlds 4 , 

(3) the letters by which were created wisdom, understanding, know- 
ledge, prudence, meekness and righteousness by which the whole 
world is sustained. 

(4) And I walked by his side and he took me by his hand and raised 
me upon his wings and showed me 5 those letters, all of them 5 , that 
are graven with a flaming style on the Throne of Glory : and sparks 
go forth from them and cover all the chambers of 'Araboth. 



CHAPTER XLII 

Instances of polar opposites kept in balance by several 
Divine Names and other similar wonders 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, Hhe Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 1 
said to me : 

(i) Come and I will show thee, where the waters are suspended 
in the highest, where fire is burning in the midst of hail, 2 where 
lightnings lighten out of the midst of snowy mountains, 2 where 
thunders are roaring in the celestial heights, where a flame is burning 



4 E: 'World' 5-5 so E. A corr. 'the 'Ophan of the letters, all of them' 

Ch. xlii. i-i so E. A om. 2-2 E om. 

God's manifestation in the heavens. The Throne of Glory (pre-existent before the 
creation of the world) created, cf. Gen. R. i. 5. 

(3) the letters by which were created wisdom etc. by which the whole 
world is sustained. By ten things the world was created (wisdom, knowledge, etc.), 
TB. Chag. 12 a, 'Aboth R. Natan, xxvii; upon three things the world is based, Pirqe 
Ab. i; by "knowledge, wisdom, understanding and faculty of speech the whole 
world, is sustained", Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 43.- The conceptions of creative 
agencies and of sustaining ideal forces are here recognizable together with an initial 
tendency towards the speculations emerging in the ideas of the Sephiroth. 

(4) graven with a flaming style etc. Said of the Divine Names, ch. xxxix. i. 
The mystical letters are the constituents of the Divine Names. A reads : " showed 
me the Ophan (i.e. circle, circuit) of the letters". The expression "Ophan of the 
letters" occurs in Berith Menucha, 3 b (ed. Amsterdam, 1648). 

Ch. xlii. (For this chapter cf. notes on ch. xiii and i En. Ixix. 14-25.) 
The central idea of the present chapter is the COUNTERBALANCE OF POLAR OPPO- 
SITES, effected by one of the Divine Names in each case. The instances refer to the 
physical aspect of the highest of the heavens, where R. Ishmael is represented as 
shown the various wonders by Metatron. They are, however, certainly of cosmo- 
logical significance, since the heavens, esp. the 'Araboth, are the realm of causes and 
the correspondence between the ' upper world ' and the ' lower world ' is a funda- 
mental presumption of the present book in general. Hence what R. Ishmael beholds 
in the 'Araboth is the fountain of cosmical realities, which although they are the 
basis of the terrestrial world, are hidden from the eyes of man on earth. 

OHB o 



13 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XLII 

in the midst of the burning fire and where 3 voices make themselves 
heard 3 in the midst of thunder and earthquake. 

(2) Then I went 4 by his side 4 and he took me by his hand and 
lifted me up on his wings and showed me all those things. I beheld 
the waters suspended on high in 'Araboth Raqia' by (force of) the 
name YAH 'EHYE 'ASHER 'EHYE (Jah, I am that I am), 5 and 
their fruits going down from heaven and 5 watering the face of the 
world, as it is written (Ps. civ. 13): "(He watereth the mountains 
from his chambers :) the earth is satisfied with the fruit of thy work". 

(3) And I saw fire and snow and hailstone that were mingled to- 
gether within each other and yet were undamaged, by (force of) the 
name 'ESH 'OKELA (consuming fire), as it is written (Deut. iv. 24) : 
"For the Lord, thy God, is a consuming fire". 



3-3 E: '(the) voice makes itself heard' 4-4 E om. 5-5 E om. 

(2) I beheld the waters suspended on high in 'Araboth Raqia'. The waters 
suspended on high are in all probability the 'Upper Waters', divided from the 
'Lower Waters' by the Divine command, Gen. i. 6, 7. The cosmological specula- 
tions concerning these form a prominent part of Midrash Konen and the tractate 
called Ma'ase Bereshith (e.g. in S.Rasiel and Seder Rabba di Bereshith, 9 a). The polar 
opposition is here not apparent, but is implied in the relation of the 'suspended 
waters' to the lower waters. The upper waters are referred to in a similar form in 
Test. Levi, ii. (6), 7 : " I saw there (in the first heaven) a great sea hanging". 

The upper waters are also conceived of as male, the lower as female (an ancient 
idea of cosmology), a clear polar opposition. This is attested in i En. liv. 8: "(And 
all the waters shall be joined with the waters) : that which is above the heavens is 
the masculine, and the water which is beneath the earth is the feminine " ; and in 
Gen. R. xiii. 14, where the fructifying, engendering function of the upper waters 
is connected with their nature of ' zekarim, males' (with reference to Isa. xlv. 8). 
Of this idea the expression in the present verse, 'their fruits going down from 
heaven', is a trace. 

by the name YAH 'EHYE 'ASHER 'EHYE. The expression 'beshem, in 
the name . . . ' is in this chapter to be understood literally, as referring to a Divine 
Name. The names are here all such as are derived from the O.T. YAH: Ex. xv. 2, 
xvii. 16, Isa. xxvi. 4, Ps. Ixviii. 5. 'EHYE 'ASHER 'EHYE: Ex. iii. 14. The names 
here in general represent the mediating, sustaining force, and this is probably 
conceived of as depending upon their character as expressing the creative and 
ever-sustaining activity of the Most High himself. Their function is hence to be 
understood in a similar way as that conveyed by the frequent expression "the 
Holy One created . . . and sealed with the Name . . . ". 

What significance is to be assigned to the YAH 'EHYE 'ASHER 'EHYE here 
is not evident. Perhaps simply the permanence, inalterability of the suspension 
of the waters. The important role played by the name 'EHYE 'asher 'EHYE in 
cabbalistic speculations is well known. It is invariably repeated in the different 
enumerations of the Divine Names set forth in Shi'ur Qoma and Hek. Zot. Seder 
R. di-Bereshith speaks of 'rpn&s* 1GJ'K iTTIN njOta'. In Zohar this name ('EHYE 
'asher 'EHYE as distinguished from the 'EHYE alone) represents the Godhead 
as -containing and contained in the first pair of Sephiroth, the Wisdom and 
Intelligence, which are of course polar opposites, distinguished as masculine and 
feminine respectively (Zohar, iii. 65 b). 

(3) Fire and snow and hailstone. . .mingled together. . .by (force of) the name 



CH.XLIl] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 131 

(4) And I saw lightnings that were lightening out of 6 mountains 
of snow 6 and yet were not damaged (quenched), by (force of) the 
name YAH 7 SUR 'OLAMIM (Jah, the everlasting rock), as it is 
written (Is. xxvi. 4): "For in Jah, YHWH, the everlasting rock". 

(5) And I saw thunders and voices that were roaring in the midst 
of fiety flames and were not damaged (silenced), by (force of) the 
name S 'EL-SHADDAI RABBA (the Great God Almighty) as it is 
written (Gen. xvii. i): "I am God Almighty". 

(6) And I beheld a flame (and) a glow (glowing flames) that were 
flaming and glowing in the midst of burning fire, and yet were not 
damaged (devoured), by (force of) the name 8 YAD 'AL KES YAH 
(the hand upon the Throne of the Lord) as it is written (Ex. xvii. 16) : 
" 9 And he said 9 : for the hand is upon the Throne of the Lord ". 

(7) And I beheld rivers of fire in the midst of rivers of water 10 
and they were not damaged (quenched) by (force of) the name 'OSE 



6-6 E: 'flames of fire' 7 E ins. : ' YHWH' 8-8 E om. from ' 'EL-SHADDAI 

RABBA' vs. 5. to 'YAD 'AL KES YAH' vs. 6. Q-gEom. 10 E adds: 'and rivers 

of water running in the midst of rivers of fire ' 

'ESH 'OKELA (consuming fire). Here the name seems to be chosen simply with 
regard to the fire, which is represented as unquenched in spite of its surroundings 
of snow and ice. For the idea of fire and its opposites kept in balance see vs. 7. 
'Esh 'Okela as attribute of God, see Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 37. In fact 'ESH 
'OKELA, in later Oabbala, very often follows immediately on 'EHYE 'asher 
'EH YE in enumerations of the Divine Names, a fact that drew the special attention 
of Reuchlin who comments upon it in his De Verbo Mirifico, chh. xvii, xviii. 

(4) lightnings . . . out of mountains of snow ... by (force of) the name YAH 
SUR 'OLAMIM. This is only another instance of the contraries of fire ice (snow, 
water). The connection between instance and name seems to be, that the word 
'SUR: Rock' suggests a relation to the 'mountains (of snow)'. Else this verse, 
Is. xxvi. 4, is the regular point of support for the statement : God created the worlds 
by the letters Yod He (of YaH). In that case the ' Sur' is interpreted from the 
root 'SUR': to form, to create. Cf. note on ch. xiii. i. 

(5) thunders and voices. . .roaring in the midst of flames of fire. . .by 
force of the name 'EL SHADDAI RABBA. The voice of God was thought to 
go forth in the midst of fire. The connection of the Voice with the name 'EL 
SHADDAI is established by Ezek. x. 5 : " as the voice of the Almighty God when 
he speaketh". Cf. 2 En. x. 2. 

(7) And I beheld rivers of fire in the midst of rivers of water. ... Cf. 2 En. 
xxix. 2 : " And fire is in the water and water in the fire and neither is the one quenched 
nor the other dried up". The juxtaposition of fire and water is a frequent cosmo- 
logical simile. TB. Pes. 3 a, Yer. Rosh. ha-shShana, 583, Cant. R. to iii. n : "the 
sky is made of water, the stars of fire and yet they do not damage each other". 
Gen. R. iv. 9: "The Holy One, blessed be He, took fire and water, mixed them 
together and out of them the heavens were created". Gen. R. x. 3: "The Holy 
One, blessed be He, took fire and snow, mixed them and so out of them the universe 
was created". In the last two passages the cosmology is apparent. 

Emphasis is laid on the mediating function of the Divine Name, in this verse 
most significantly 'OSE SHALOM, i.e. 'maker of peace'. 'Peace' is the technical 
term for the mediation, the synthetical agency or Divine activity. Cf. the ' angels 

9-2 



132 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CHH. XLII, XLIII 

SHALOM (Maker of Peace) n 12 as it is written (Job xxv. 2): "He 
maketh peace in his high places 12 ". For he makes peace between 
the fire and the water, 13 between the hail and the fire, 13 between the 
wind and the cloud, between the earthquake and the sparks. 



CHAPTER XLIII 

Metatron shows R. Ishmael the abode of the unborn spirits 
and of the spirits of the righteous dead 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron said to me: 

(i) Come and I will show thee 1 where are 1 the spirits of the righteous 
that have been created and have returned, and the spirits of the 
righteous that have not yet been created. 



1 1 E adds : ' BJMEROMA W (in his high places) ' 1 2-1 2 E om . 1 3-1 3 E 

om. 

Ch. xliii. i-i E om. 

of peace', ch. xxxiii. i. Midrash 'Aseret Ma'amaroth, BH. i. 66: "the angels are 
made of fire and water, and there is peace between : neither does the water extinguish 
the fire nor the fire lick up the water". As denoting mediation and synthesis the 
'OSE SHALOM, 'maker of peace', was understood and used in Qabbala. Cf. 
e.g. the quotation from the 'Pelt' a', YR. i. 7 b : "Why is it called heaven (Shamayirri) ? 
Because water (shemmayim) is to the right and fire to the left and it is in the middle 
and receives from both, and to this is to be referred the 'OSE SHALOM and the 
(saying) 'he mixed fire and water and made out of them the heavens', and it is 
called 'truth' (the mediating agency, ch. xxxi. i) and 'mercy' and receives from 
(i.e. stands in the middle between) the Mercy and the Fear (= the second pair of 
opposites in the Sephirotic system, also called ' Mercy and Justice', cf. ch. xxxi. i) ". 
for he makes peace between the fire and the water, between the ice and the 
fire, between the wind and the cloud. This, referring to God, denotes that the 
names set forth in the present chapter represent God himself in his different aspects 
as sustainer and mediator between the dual forces, the syzygies. The Names are 
part of God's being and essence. 

Ch. xliii. This chapter enters upon the subject of the condition of the 'spirits', 
one of the traditional subjects of mystical literature in general and of the Enoch- 
literature in particular ace. to 2 En. xxiii: among the secret instructions given to 
Enoch were those of "the souls of men, those of them which are not yet born and 
the places prepared for them for ever", further represented in Apocalyptic (Ap. 
Bar., i En.). 

(i) Come and I will show thee the spirits of the righteous that have been 
created . . . the spirits of the righteous that have not yet been created. . . . 
(2) lifted me near by the Throne . . . revealed the Throne of Glory . . . showed me 
the spirits that have been created and had returned. The spirits of the righteous 
dead are here represented as having their abode by the Throne of Glory. Cf. TB. 
Chag. 12 a: "the 'Araboth Raqia', the highest of the heavens, contains the Throne 
of Glory and the spirits and souls of the righteous"; ib. 12 b: "the spirits of the 
righteous dead under the Throne of Glory"; TB. Shab. 152 b: "the spirits of the 
righteous are hidden under the Throne of Glory"; contrast here 'flying above' 



CH. XLIIl] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 133 

(2) And he lifted me up to his side, took me by his hand and lifted 2 
me up near the Throne of Glory 3 by the place of the Shekina ; and he 
revealed the Throne of Glory to me 3 , and he showed me the spirits 



2 E: 'conducted' 3-3 E om. 

the Throne. The idea of the spirits of the righteous dead being hidden or stored 
(genuzoth) under the Throne is clearly connected with the conception of" the chambers 
of the righteous ", 4 Ezra iv. 35, 41, vii. 32, 80, 95 etc., 2 Bar. xxi. 23. xxx. 2, i En. 
xxii. 3 ff. On this conception see BOX, Ezra- Apocalypse, pp. 33, 34 (note on ch. iv. 
35), 37 (note on ch. iv. 41), 119-21 (note on ch. vii. 32). Cf. also CHARLES, Comm. 
Revel, note on Rev. xx. 13. Vs. i here refers to the spirits of those not yet born as 
well as to those of the righteous dead. Besides, the expression 'that have returned' 
of the righteous dead presupposes the pre-existence of the spirits. Ace. to vs. 2, 
however, R. Ishmael is only shown the spirits of the righteous dead that have 
returned and have their place by or above the Throne of Glory, but to the unborn 
spirits there is no reference. There is thus no explicit statement as to the place of 
the pre-existent souls. As the intent of vs. i is to reveal the abode of both the 
'returned' and the 'unborn' spirits and ace. to vs. 2 R. Ishmael for that purpose 
is taken to the Throne of Glory, it is possible that the unborn souls were conceived 
of as having their place by the Throne in common with those of the righteous dead. 
How far one can press the expression 'have returned' (whether as referring to a 
fixed place in heaven in such a case the Throne or to the heavens in general) 
is uncertain. The other possibility is that the unborn spirits are conceived of as 
having a different abode from that of the righteous dead, e.g. in special chambers 
under the Throne of Glory. On this assumption it would be necessary to conclude 
that a piece describing the place of the ' spirits of the righteous that have not yet 
been created' has fallen out. For the possibility of this place having been the 
traditional ' GUPH' see below, note on vs. 3. 

The place of the spirits yet unborn is ace. to 2 Bar. xxiii. 5 et al. 'the chambers ' 
referred to above (which ace. to 4 Ez. iv. 35, are the abode of the righteous dead). 
Ace. to TB. Chag. 12 b, " the souls and spirits that are to be created together with the 
spirits of the righteous (soil, dead) are in 'Araboth, the highest of the heavens". 
Ace. to Ber. R. viii. 6, the souls of the righteous " dwell with their King (in accord- 
ance with i Chron. iv. 23)" already before the Creation of the world: with them 
God took counsel before creating man. Ace. to a dictum of R. Assi (repeated TB. 
Nidda, 133, 'Aboda Zara, 5 a, Yebamoth, 62 a) the unborn spirits await creation in 
the GUPH, the storehouse of souls. Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 26 (apparently 
dependent upon the same tradition as that of Chag. .12 b) mentions in the 'Araboth: 
"the Throne of Glory, the stores of life, the treasuries of blessings, of dew. . .and 
the treasuries (contrast Chag., ib.) of the spirits of the living and of the dead", 
the "treasuries of the spirits of the living" being a rather singular expression, 
probably meaning the treasuries of the unborn spirits (cf. Sifre, 143 b). Ace. to 
Tub ha-' Ares, i. 50 a, the spirits "go out to the world from the Libnat ha-sSappir 
(one of the seven Halls of 'Araboth)." 

Hence one might conclude that the unborn spirits here referred to have their 
place in the proximity of the Throne of Glory, whether in special chambers or not. 

The expression 'the spirits of the righteous, that have not yet been created' 
compels the question whether this implies a distinction between the righteous, 
wicked (and intermediate) even before this life. Such a distinction is met with in 
Wisdom of Solomon, viii. 19, 20 ("For I was a witty child, and had a good spirit. 
Yea, rather, being good, I came into a body undefiled. . . "). This idea in its strictest 
connotation implies that the moral character of the spirits is already determined 
before their embodiment the different courses of the living on this earth being 
merely a consequence of their qualities as developed in their pre-terrestrial exist- 
ence; it reappears in Zohar in contexts treating of the problems of metempsychosis. 



134 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH.XLIH 

that have been created and had returned : and they were flying above 
the Throne of Glory before the Holy One, blessed be He. 

(3) After that I went to interpret the following verse of Scripture 
and I found in what is written (Isa. Ivii. 16): "for the spirit clothed 
itself before me, and the souls I have made" that ("for the spirit 
was clothed before me") means the spirits 4 that have been created 
in the chamber of creation of the righteous and that have returned 



4-4 E om. 

The fully righteous spirits are there termed " the spirits from the side of Shekina " ; 
cf. Zohar, ii. 94 a b. But another interpretation of the expression 'spirits of the 
righteous not yet born' is "the spirits that when once having entered earthly life 
will turn out righteous. They are foreseen to be righteous". Their future per- 
fection reacts upon their pre-existent state. This seems to be the underlying idea 
of the passage Ber. R. viii. 6 referred to above, and is represented in Zohar, ii. 96 b. 
(Cf . ib. iii. 168 a and ii. 94 a b, referred to above, et al.) 

If chh. xliii and xliv be treated as a whole, it is evident that here the life on earth 
is regarded as determining the character of man, and indeed so that it is the ter- 
restrial life that taints the previously pure souls. Treated as a whole then, these 
chapters convey an interpretation of the words 'spirits of the righteous not yet 
created' more in line with the latter of the two connotations just referred to, but 
rather to the effect that there are no unrighteous spirits in the pre-existent state. 
No other unborn spirits are referred to in these chapters. Although only available 
as a demonstratio e silentio, this fact tends to show that at least the compiler of the 
present section moves on the basis of the orthodox conception expressed in the 
prayer 'Elohe Neshdma (given in TB. Ber. 60 b) : " O God, the spirit which thou hast 
set within me is pure etc." (BOX, Ezra-Apocalypse, p. 120). Cf. Eccl. R. xii. 7: 
" the spirit I have given thee is pure ; if thou give it back to me in the same state 
it is good for thee ; if not, I will burn it before thee ". (Cf . ch. xliv. and TB. Nidda, 
30 a, Shab. 32 b, Baba Batra, 16 a.) Also 4 Mace, xviii. 23 ("having received pure 
and immortal souls from God"). 

Still it is evident that the expression by itself presupposes a distinction between 
righteous and not righteous already in the pre-existent state, in one form or the 
other. Hence the impression is left, that this tradition is suppressed in the present 
context and the possibility remains, that a fragment describing the conditions and 
abodes of the unborn spirits is missing, which originally would have had its place 
after vs. 2. 

(3) After that I went to interpret etc., lit. 'after that I went and studied this 
scriptural passage and I found according as it is written etc.' 'This scriptural 
passage' means the well-known scriptural passage traditionally used as support 
for the doctrines concerning the subject in question. The passage, Isa. Ivii. 6, 
adduced here, is the starting point for the speculations as to the conditions of the 
unborn spirits both in TB. Chag. 12 b and Yeb. 62 a, 'Aboda Zara, 5 a, Nidda, 13 a 
(see above). Ace. to the J. Targum, ad locum, it is also used with reference to the 
doctrine of resurrection. Here the way in which the passage is used for its present 
purpose is set forth thus : the former part of the verse, 'the spirit was clothed before 
me', is made to refer to the spirits that have been created, that is to say, apparently, 
clothed with a body, the latter part, 'the souls I have made', is interpreted as 
referring to the spirits that are formed by God but not yet created, invested with 
a body. 

that have been created in the GUPH of creation of the righteous, the 
chamber of creative forms designed for the righteous. The GUPH (= body) is 
then here not the chambers where the spirits dwell until the time appointed for 



CHH. XLIII, XLIV] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 135 

before the Holy One, blessed be He; (and the words:) "and the 
souls I have made" refer to the spirits 4 of the righteous that have not 
yet been created in the chamber (GUPH). 



CHAPTER XLIV 

Metatron shows R. Ishmael the abode of the wicked 

and the intermediate in Sheol. (vss. 1-6) 
The Patriarchs pray for the deliverance of Israel 

(vss. 7-10) 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, x the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, 1 
said to me : 

(i) Come and I will show thee the spirits of the wicked 2 and the 
spirits of the intermediate 2 where they are standing, and the spirits 



4-4 E om . 

Ch. xliv. i-i so E. A om. 2-2 E om. 

their life on earth arrives, but evidently the chamber where they are conducted 
just at the time when they are to enter terrestrial bodies. In this chamber they are 
then first 'created', i.e. invested with a body, a creative form, which presumably 
determines the individual, animal or terrestrial body they are to join. The passage, 
Zohar, iii. 107, referred to by Abelson, Jewish Mysticism, p. 166, could be used as 
a commentary on the present verse, and one can safely assume that it belongs to 
the same line of traditions or development of traditions : " when the souls are about 
to quit their heavenly abode each soul appears before the Holy One, blessed be He, 
clothed with an exalted pattern (or image or form) on which are engraven the features 
which it will bear here below". The GUPH is here rather the chamber containing 
"the pre-existent forms or types of bodies" (Abelson's expression, ib. p. 165) than 
the abode of the spirits. The unborn spirits " have not yet been created in the Guph " 
of creation. 

It should be added that there is a certain indication here of a beginning differen- 
tiation of the 'world of Creation' (Beri'a) as a form of existence different from the 
higher world of ' the Throne '. 

Lastly the qualifying addition 'of the righteous' (the GUPH of creation of the 
righteous) raises again the question of the distinction between righteous and non- 
righteous in the pre-existent state. Is there also a division in the GUPH between 
the compartment for the righteous and that or those for the others? Or did the 
original tradition maintain the existence of several GUPHs ? In its strict connotation 
the distinction between righteous and non-righteous spirits has as a necessary 
corollary the distinction between different bodily forms for these two classes. 

Ch. xliv. The preceding chapter, in so far as it dealt with the abode of the righteous 
dead, is in this chapter continued by a description of the two remaining classes of 
spirits who have left earthly life, i.e. the intermediate and the wicked. The inter- 
mediate undergo a purgatorial process in fire in She'ol, assisted and supported in 
their purification by an angel, SIMKIEL, whereas the wholly wicked are delivered to 
the wrath of the angel ZA'APHIEL who punishes them in Gehenna with staves of fire. 

(i ) the spirits of the wicked and the . . . intermediate where they are standing, 



136 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH.XLIV 

of the intermediate, whither they go down, 3 and the spirits of the 
wicked, where they go down 3 . 

(2) And he said to me : The spirits of the wicked go down to She'ol 
by the hands of two angels of destruction: ZA'APHIEL and SIMKIEL 
are their names. (3) SIMKIEL is appointed over the intermediate to 
support them and purify them because of the great mercy of the 
Prince of the Place (Maqom). ZA'APHIEL is appointed over the spirits 



3-3 E om. 

i.e. probably at or immediately after the judgement which is daily ace. to the section 
on the judgement, chh. xxviii. y-xxxiii. 2. the spirits of the intermediate 
whither they go down and the spirits of the wicked whither they go down, 
i.e. ace. to the following verses, Sheol. 

(2) The spirits of the wicked (supply here, in accordance with the following 
verse: 'and the spirits of the intermediate) go down to She'ol through two 
angels of destruction. They are sent down from the Throne of Glory, before which 
they have undergone judgement. For the angels of destruction see notes on 
chh. xxxi. 2 and xxxii. i. The angels of destruction carry out the judgement on 
the wicked, and are appointed over the different compartments of Gehenna according 
to numerous descriptions of the punishments assigned for the wicked in Gehenna. 
(Cf. 'Descriptions of Hell' and other translations by Gaster, RAS's Journal (1893), 
further Masseket Chibbut ha-qQeber, BH. i. 150, Masseket Gehinnom, ib., i. 147-149, 
Gan 'Eden we-Gehinnom, ib.,v. 49 seqq., Test. R.Eliezer, Seder Yesirat ha-wWalad, 
ib., i. 151158.) They are then usually represented as numerous and as being 
assigned to a leader, 'the Prince of Gehenna' (Gedullat Moshe, Gehenna) (cf. 
QEMU'EL, note on ch. xxxi, 2). Here only two angels of destruction are mentioned. 
The older traditions speak of two angels of destruction as executioners of the divine 
decrees, 'APH and CHEMA. The angels of destruction function at the judgement, ace. 
to chh. xxxi-xxxiii, but represent there altogether the severe execution of judgement. 
Here one represents the attribute of Mercy, SIMKIEL (support of God), who is 
appointed over the intermediate to 'support and purify them' (cf. the staff of 
Mercy, ch. xxxi. 2). 

The idea of the ' benoniyyim' , the intermediate class, the large majority of those who 
are neither wholly righteous nor wholly wicked, belongs to "the orthodox Rabbinic 
theology" of Palestine. See BOX, Ezra- Apocalypse, p. 155. The classical passages 
are TB. Rash ha-shSHana, 16 b, 17 a, Tos. Sanhedrin, xiii. 3, Aboth R. Natan, xli, 
TB. Shab. 33 b. In Rosh ha-shSHana, ib., it is the second dictum introduced there 
that is particularly apposite in this connection (" there are three divisions [companies] 
for the day of judgement: one that of the fully righteous, another that of the fully 
wicked, the third that of the intermediate. The fully righteous are immediately 
written down and sealed for eternal life, the fully wicked. . .for Gehenna, the 
intermediate go down into Gehenna, but when they scream in prayer [transl. of 
BOX] they are permitted to come up again " (ace. to Zech. xiii. 9 : "And I will bring the 
third part through the fire.. . . they shall call on my name and I will hear them . . . ") 
"and of them said Hanna (i Sam. ii. 6): the Lord Idlleth and maketh alive (cf. 
ch. xviii. 24)". 

because of the great mercy of the Prince of the Place. The Place, the Maqom, 
is the Divine Majesty. The Prince of the Place is an unusual expression. It may 
be a synonym for 'Prince of the Presence'. A better reading would perhaps be 
obtained by substituting ' shel' (of) for ' sar' (Prince) and transl. simply: 'because 
of the great mercy of the Place, i.e. the Divine Majesty'. 

ZA'APHIEL, 'the wrath of God'. In contrast to the supporting and helping 
attitude shown the intermediate from the Divine Mercy, expressed by the name 



CH.XLIV] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 137 

of the wicked 4 in order to cast them down from the presence of the 
Holy One, blessed be He, and from the splendour of the Shekina 
5 to She'ol, to be punished in the fire of Gehenna 5 with staves of 
burning coal. 

(4) And I went by his side, and he took me by his hand and showed 
me all of them with his fingers. 

(5) And I beheld the appearance of their faces (and, lo, it was) 
as the appearance of children of men, and their bodies like eagles. 
And not only that but (furthermore) the colour of the countenance 
of the intermediate was like pale grey on account of their deeds, for 
there are stains upon them until they have become cleaned from their 
iniquity in the fire. 

(6) And the colour of the wicked was like the bottom of a pot on 
account of 6 the wickedness of their doings 6 . 



4 E: 'intermediate' 5-5 so E. A corr. : 'to heat them for judgement in fire 

to Gehenna' (confusion of two variant readings?). 6-6 E: 'the multitude of 

their wicked deeds ' 

SIMKIEL, "support of God", stands the attitude of merciless wrath with regard to 
the wicked, symbolically expressed by the name ZA'APHIEL. 

to be punished in the fire of Gehenna with staves of burning coal, prob- 
ably pictured similarly to the passage BH. ii. 51 (of the angels punishing the wicked 
in Gehenna): " angels. stand close by and with their staves drive them back into 
the fire and burn them". Cf. the punishment with lashes of fire, chh. xvi. 5, xx. 2 
(the word translated 'lashes' Rashi interprets 'staves'). 

(5) the appearance of their faces as the appearance of children of men etc. 
The spirits have bodily form and actual bodies like eagles, i.e. winged. These 
bodies are of course different from those they were invested with in the GUPH. 
The spirits of the righteous, that are ' flying above the Throne ' are probably pictured 
in bodies of similar form. For the souls or spirits as having bodily form cf. i En. 
xxii. 9-14 ("these hollow places have been made that the spirits of the dead might 
be separated. . .their spirits shall be set apart in this great pain. . .scourgings and 
torments of the accursed for ever"), 4 Ez. vii. 78 seqq. (see BOX, Ezra- Apocalypse, 
note p. 121 : "it seems clear that they (the souls qf the unrighteous) are already 
endowed with bodies suitable to their altered condition.. . .This conception appa- 
rently characterizes also 2 Enoch"). Cf. also how ace. to ch. xlvii. 4 the spirits and 
souls of the punished angels whose ' manifested ' bodies have been consumed with 
fire, are represented as having bodily form, ' their countenance like that of angels 
and their wings like those of birds'. 

the colour of the countenance of the intermediate was like pale grey. . . . 
(6) And the colour of the wicked was like the bottom of a pot. The sins are 
depicted as having tainted the spirits originally white and pure the intermediate 
being merely stained so that their original nature is still recognizable, but the wicked 
black 'like the bottom of a pot' : their original character is totally blotted out. This 
simile presupposes the conception of the absolute purity of the pre-existent spirits, 
cf. note on ch. xliii. 1-2 (end). 

like the bottom of a pot is used of the wicked also in Masseket Gehinnom, 
BH. i. 149, and Pirqe Mashiach, BH. iii. 75 ("their faces were black like the bottom 
of a pot"). As to the special sins that caused such an entire corruption there is 
no explicit reference here. The traditions were different on this point. TB. Baba 
Mesia', 58 b, mentions three sins that consign for ever to Gehenna (cf. the fate of 



138 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH.XLIV 

(7) And I saw the spirits of the Patriarchs Abraham Isaac and 
Jacob and the rest of the righteous whom they have brought up out 
of their graves and who have ascended to the Heaven (Raqirf). And 
they were praying before the Holy One, blessed be He, saying in 

the wicked as compared with that of the intermediate), and the same is repeated 
in the 'Treatise on Hell' which appeared in translation by Gaster, RAS's Journal, 
1893, p. 602: "(three sins cause those who commit them to go down to Gehenna 
and never return :) blaming one's neighbour in public, slandering him and adultery ". 
Masseket Gehinnom, i. BH. i. 147, apparently follows another tradition as to the 
distinction between wicked and intermediate: there the full punishment in the 
class of the wicked is designed for those who cannot point to one single act of 
fulfilment of the Tora, "who have not one single statute in their hands". This 
corresponds with the statement, TB. 'Aboda Zara, 5 a : " the fully righteous are those 
who have fulfilled the Tora from the beginning to the end, from 'Aleph to Taw". 
The benoniyyim ace. to this view are those who have endeavoured to fulfil the Law 
but have failed to keep all the statutes. A third view identifies the benoniyyim with 
those who have kept the negative statutes only, the fully righteous with those who 
have kept all the positive statutes as well as the negative ones. 

As to the length of the period of purification assigned for the intermediate it is 
probably here conceived of as proportionate to the degree in which the sins have 
tainted them : they are kept in the purgatory until ' they have become cleaned from 
their iniquity'. Cf. the passage Rosh ha-shSHana etc. above note on vs. 2 and the 
transl. in BOX, Ezra Apocalypse, p. 155, where it is pointed out that the benoniyyim 
were thought to go up after screaming in prayer for one hour, ace. to Yalqut on 
Zech. xiii. 9. Rashi likewise (ad loc. Rosh ha-shSHand) puts as an explanatory 
remark on the difficult word ' mesafsefim ' : "it means: they cry and weep in their 
agony for one hour and then (are permitted to) come up again". Cf. Se'uddath 
Gan 'Eden, BH. v. 45, OM. i. 89 b: "the wicked of Israel tormented in Gehenna 
are brought up from Gehenna to partake in the Feast of the Righteous ". 

CH. XLIV. 7-10. 

Vss. 7-10 contain an apocalyptic-eschatological fragment with the motto : "Israel's 
deliverance is prevented by the sins of the wicked". 

The fragment does not fit in here. The theme of the chapter, ace. to vs. i, is the 
conditions of the spirits of the intermediate and the wicked after death. If it had 
originally belonged to the exposition of the conditions of the spirits it would have 
had its place in ch. xliii which treats of the spirits of the righteous. But the interest 
of the present fragment is not focussed on the various conditions of the spirits of 
the dead but on the deliverance of Israel from the oppression under the 'nations 
of the world', the establishment of God's Kingdom on earth and the 'wicked' to 
which it refers are not the spirits of the wicked but the living evil-doers within 
Israel who through their transgressions prevent the establishment of the heavenly 
kingdom. It is, moreover, probable, that this fragment represents a different outlook 
upon the fate of man after death from that of the preceding context (vide below). 

The frame is that of the rest of the section: R. Ishmael beholds various wonders 
in heaven under the guidance of Metatron. It is in this respect closely related to 
the Apocalyptic Fragment (e.g. BH. v. 167-169): "R. Ishmael said: the Prince of 
the Presence said to me : sit here in my bosom and I will tell thee what shall befall 
Israel etc.. . .". An apocalyptic fragment of similar character with Metatron, the 
Prince of the Presence, as informant of R. Ishmael is contained inBodl. MICH. 175, 
foil. 25 b, 26 a (part of the Pirqe R. Ishm.). 

(7) And I saw the spirits of the Patriarchs . . . and the rest of the righteous 
who they have brought up out of their graves etc. This evidently marks the 
beginning of a new fragment. R. Ishmael is already shown the spirits of the 
righteous, ace. to ch. xliii. The expression 'have been brought out of their 



CH.XLIV] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 139 

their prayer: "Lord of the Universe! How long wilt thou sit upon 
(thy) Throne like a mourner in the days of his mourning with thy 
right hand behind thee 7 and not 7 deliver thy children and reveal 
thy Kingdom in the world? 8 And for how long wilt thou have no 8 
pity upon thy children who are made slaves among the nations of 
the world? Nor 9 upon thy right hand that is behind thee wherewith 
thou didst stretch out 10 the heavens and the earth and the heavens 
of heavens? When wilt thou have compassion?" 

(8) Then the Holy One, blessed be He, answered every one of 
them, saying: "Since these wicked do sin so and so, and transgress 
with such and such transgressions against me, how could I deliver my 
great Right Hand in the downfall by their hands (caused by them) 11 . 

(9) In that moment Metatron called me and spake to me: "My 
servant! Take the books, and read their evil doings!" Forthwith 
I took the books and read their doings and there were to be found 

7-7 E:' when wilt thou' 8-8 E: 'When wilt thou have' gE:'And' loE 
ins. : ' and didst span ' 1 1 E reads : ' (my great Right Hand) that has fallen down 
in the downfall at their hands ' 

graves and have ascended to Raqia' ' is also suspect in this connection : it sounds 
as if we were here confronted with a different conception as to the fate of men after 
death, according to which the Patriarchs and (some of) the righteous enjoy the 
privilege of bodily resurrection before the final consummation. 

How long wilt thou sit. . . . thy right hand behind thee. The Right Hand or 
the Right Arm of the Lord represent the actualization of the kingdom of God on 
earth, the deliverance of Israel. That the Right Hand is laid behind the Lord is 
a symbol of cessation in His activity for this purpose. The deliverance of the Right 
Hand, hence, becomes synonymous with the deliverance of Israel. Cf. ch. xlviii A. 
It was God's Right Hand that stretched out the heavens and the earth, and so it 
must be His Right Hand that shall bring about the final establishment of the 
Kingdom on earth. 

(8) Since these wicked do sin . . . how could I deliver my great Right Hand 
etc. The delay in the deliverance of Israel is caused by the wicked in their own ranks. 
That the downfall of Israel was caused by the wicked among them is a dictum 
attributed to R. Gamaliel II. In particular the idolatry was made responsible for 
the delay in the establishment of God's Kingdom. The coming of Messiah is 
suspended for a period which exactly corresponds to the number of years 
that Israel has been worshipping idols, ace. to 'Echo. R. Proem. 21. Similarly, in 
the Apocalyptic Fragment, Bodl. MICH. 175, referred to above, R. Ishmael is repre- 
sented as asking for the reason of the present sufferings of Israel, whereon he is 
informed that the deliverance is to be suspended for a time corresponding to that 
of their idolatry (700 years). Here evidently see vs. 9 the 'sins' of the wicked 
comprise all 'transgressions of the Tora'. 

'These sinners' was perhaps by the compiler thought to refer to the wicked of 
vss. 1-6, this being then one of the reasons why this fragment was given its present 
place. 

(9) Take the books, and read their evil doings ! On the conception of books 
recording the deeds of righteous or unrighteous etc. see note on ch. xviii. 24. The 
books here seem to be the records of the deeds of the wicked, cf. i En. Ixxxi. 4 
(book of unrighteousness), ib. xcviii. 7-8 ("every sin is every day recorded in 
heaven all your oppression ... is written down every day till the day of your 



140 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XLIV 

36 transgressions (written down) with regard to each wicked one 
12 and besides, that they have transgressed 12 all the letters in the 
Tora, as it is written (Dan. ix. u) : "Yea, all Israel have transgressed 
thy Law". It is not written 'at torateka but 'et (JIN) torateka, for 
they have transgressed from 'Aleph (tf) to Taw (fi), 4O 13 statutes 
have they transgressed for each letter. 

(10) Forthwith Abraham, Isaac and Jacob wept. 14 Then said to 
them the Holy One, blessed be He: "Abraham, my beloved, Isaac, 
my Elect one, Jacob, my firstborn! 15 How can I now 15 deliver them 
from among the nations of the world?" And forthwith MIKAEL, the 
Prince of Israel, cried and wept with a loud voice and said (Ps. x. i) : 
"Why standest thou afar off, O Lord? " 



12-12 so acc. to E. A corr. -13 E: '36' 14 E adds: 'to themselves' 

15-15 E: ' I cannot now' 

judgement"). Since Metatron here seems to have the 'books' in his charge, there 
must be a trace here of Metatron 's function of scribe (Chag. 15 a). 

36 transgressions (written down) with regard to each wicked one. . . . 
Both readings (A and E) seem to be corrupt. The meaning seems to be : for each 
wicked one were recorded 36 transgressions of the Tora and in addition thereto a 
great many transgressions of each single letter of the Tora. from 'Aleph to Taw. 
Cf. Lam. R. Proem. 24: "the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Abraham: 'thy 
children have sinned and have transgressed the whole Tora and the 22 letters of 
Tora, as it is written (Dan. ix. n), all Israel have transgressed thy Law' (thus here 
also the passage, Dan. ib., is used as point of support)". The transgressing a letter 
of the Tora is in Lam. R. ib., understood as equivalent to the transgressing a com- 
mandment beginning with that letter, or vice versa. But the expression 'from 
'Aleph to Taw' represents the entirety of a thing, in this case the Tora, any part of 
which is based upon one or the other of the letters. In an absolute sense it repre- 
sents the entirety of things in general, and is to be compared with the expression 
'Alpha and Omega', Rev. i. 8. (See CHARLES, Comm. on Rev. i. 20, and Riedel in 
Theologische Studien und Kritiken, 1901, pp. 297 seqq., both regarding the 'Alpha 
and Omega' as an imitation of the ' 'Aleph to Taw'.) 

(10) Mikael, the Prince of Israel, cried and wept with a loud voice. This 
is the only passage in the present book where Mikael is explicitly referred to as the 
Prince of Israel. Ch. xvii. 3, Mikael is the prince of the seventh (highest) heaven. 
The scarce occurrence of 'Mikael' (only twice) is remarkable. His position seems 
to have been taken over by Metatron. Ctr. the frequent reference to Mikael as 
the prince of Israel in i En. (ix. i, x. n, xx. 5, xxiv. 6, xl. 9, liv. 6, Ix. 4, 5, Ixvii. 12, 
Ixviii. 2-4, Ixix. 14 f., Ixxi. 3, 8, 9, 13). 

For Mikael bewailing calamities that have befallen Israel, cf. Pesik. R. xliv and 
the parallel trait there : God answers that the deliverance is dependent upon Israel : 
".(the apostates of) Israel must first turn to me, even if it were only as much as 
the point of a needle". Cf. also Midrash Petirath Moshe: when Sammael is about 
to take away Moses' soul, Mikael " cried and wept with a loud voice". 



CH. XLV] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 141 

CHAPTER XLV 



Metatron shows R. Ishmael past and future events 
recorded on the Curtain of the Throne 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron said to me: 

(1) Come, and I will show thee the Curtain of MAQOM (the 
Divine Majesty) which is spread before the Holy One, blessed be 
He, (and) whereon are graven all the generations of the world and 
all their doings, both what they have done and what they will do 
until the end of all generations. 

(2) And I went, and he showed it to me pointing it out with his 
fingers Mike a father who teaches his children the letters of Tora. 
And I saw each generation, 

the rulers of each generation 1 , 



i-i so E. A: ' and like a father who teaches his children (he showed me) each 
generation ' 

Ch. xlv. R. Ishmael is shown the Curtain (Pargod) of MAQOM (the Place, i.e. 
the Divine Majesty as manifested on the Throne of Glory). This Curtain is spread 
before the Holy One. The Curtain of the Throne of Glory is referred to also, ch. x. i . 
The Curtain separates the Throne of Glory and its innermost mysteries from the 
other parts of the highest heaven and from the world of angels in general, just as the 
curtain veiled off the Holy of Holies in the sanctuary. (Cf. TB. Yoma, 77 a.) The 
Curtain hence becomes the symbol of the last secrets of heaven and earth which 
are kept with the Godhead, hidden even from the angels. Occasional revelations 
of these secrets 'the reasons of the Creator' are described either as obtained 
by 'hearing from behind the Curtain' or expressed by the phrase 'to know from 
behind the Curtain': this is one line of ideas. Or, according to another line, the 
secrets are represented as 'written down on the (inside of) Curtain'. As instances 
of the former line of conception reference may be made to the tradition concerning 
GALLISUR-RAZIEL (see note on ch. xviii. 16), further to Mekilta on Ex. xix. 9 (voices 
from behind the Curtain announce the answers of prayers), and TB. Ber. 18 b (there 
is heard 'from behind the Curtain, what tribulations are in store for the world'). 
It seems, that this tradition also contained the idea of special high angels being 
allowed inside or having their place inside the Curtain, in the immediate Presence 
of the Holy One, thus partaking of the Divine secrets: so ace. to ch. x. i in the 
reading of BC (cf. note, ib.) the case of GALLISUR, and in Mass. Hek. vii ("A curtain 
is spread before the Holy One . . . and the seven angels who were created first, 
minister before Him [i.e. inside the Curtain]"). The second conception is repre- 
sented here and also Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 44 where it is as here called the 
Pargod of MAQOM. As a parallel in earlier Enoch-literature is to be noted 
especially I En. xciii. 2 and cvi. 19: "I Enoch will declare them unto you. . .ace. 
to that which appeared to me in the heavenly vision, and which I have known 
through the word of the holy angels and have learnt from the heavenly tablets" 
(the heavenly tablets correspond to the Pargod here). 

(1-3) R. Ishmael is shown all generations and their doings, both past and coming. 
This implies the idea of pre-determination. In TB. Sank. 38 b, one finds : " The Holy 
One, blessed be He, showed Adam every generation and its learned men (inter- 



142 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XLV 

and the heads of each generation, 

the shepherds of each generation, 

the oppressors (drivers) of each generation, 

the keepers of each generation, 

2 the scourgers of each generation, 2 

the overseers of each generation, 

the judges of each generation, 

the court officers of each generation , 

the teachers of each generation, 
3 the supporters of each generation, 

the chiefs of each generation, 3 

the presidents of academies of each generation, 

the magistrates of each generation, 

the princes of each generation, 
4 the counsellors of each generation, 4 

the nobles of each generation, 
4 and the men of might of each generation, 4 

the elders of each generation, 

and the guides of each generation. 

(3) And I saw Adam, his generation, their doings and their 
thoughts, 6 

Noah 6 and his generation, their doings and their thoughts 6 , 
and the generation of the flood, their doings and their thoughts, 
Shem and his generation, their doings and their thoughts, 
Nimrod and the generation of the confusion of tongues, and his 
generation, their doings and their thoughts, 

Abraham and his generation, their doings and their thoughts, 
Isaac and his generation, their doings and their thoughts, 
7 Ishmael and his generation, their doings and their thoughts, 7 



2-2 so E. CrpjniD) lit. 'flayers, hatchellers ' ; cf. Zohar i. 177 a: '"HDDIpl N 
A: 'eunuchs, officers ' (?) 3~3 E: 'the helpers of each generation, and their 

pious men (Chasidim), their leaders, teachers, sages and heads of the schools' 
4-4 E om. 5 E ins.: 'Methuselah, his generation, etc.' 6-6 E om. 

7-7 E om. 

preters of Scripture), every generation and its wise men, and when he came to 
the generation of R. 'Aqiba he (Adam) rejoiced at his (great understanding of) Tora 
but was grieved at his death (as a martyr)". In Alph. R. 'Aqiba this has the fol- 
lowing form (BH. iii. 44) : " Moses saw on the Curtain of MAQOM numerous hosts 
of scribes and hosts of (members of) Sanhedrin studying the Tora, the Prophets 
and the writings . . . and in the same hour Moses saw the fate (life) of R. Aqiba 
on the Curtain of Maqom how he was lecturing on the letters of Tora, expounding 
on each of the ornaments of each single letter 365 different significations of the 
Tora etc." The Curtain is here the repository of all past, present and future 
events, and it seems, as if the idea were rather, that the events, the 'generations, 



CH. XLV] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 143 

Jacob and his generation, their doings and their thoughts, 

Joseph and his generation, their doings and their thoughts, 

the tribes and their generation, their doings and their thoughts, 

Amram and his generation, their doings and their thoughts, 

Moses and his generation, their doings and their thoughts, 

(4) Aaron 8 and Mirjam 9 their works and their doings, 

10 the princes and the elders, their works and doings, 

Joshua and his generation, their works and doings, 

the judges and their generation, their works and doings, 10 

Eli and his generation, their works and doings, 

"Phinehas, their (?) works and doings, 11 

Elkanah and his generation, their works and their doings, 

Samuel and his generation, their works and doings, 

12 the kings of Judah with their generations, their works and their 
doings, 

the kings of Israel and their generations, their works and their 
doings, 

13 the princes of Israel, their works and their doings; the princes 
of the nations of the world, their works and their doings, 

the heads of the councils of Israel, their works and their doings ; 
the heads of (the councils in) the nations of the world, their genera- 
tions, their works and their doings; 

14 the rulers of Israel and their generation, their works and their 
doings ; 

the nobles of Israel and their generation, their works and their 
doings ; the nobles of the nations of the world and their generation(s), 
their works and their doings; 14 

the men of reputation in Israel, their generation, their works and 
their doings ; 15 

the judges of Israel, their generation, their works and their doings ; 
the judges of the nations of the world and their generation, their 
works and their doings ; 

the teachers of children in Israel, their generations, their works 



8 E ins.: 'and his generation, their thoughts and their doings' 9 E adds: 

' and her generation ' xo-ioEom. n-n E om. perhaps rightly izEins.: 
'Saul etc., David, etc., Salomo, etc.' 13 E ins.: 'the rulers of Israel, etc., the 

nobles of Israel, etc., the nobles of the gentiles, etc., the wealthy men of Israel, 
etc., the wealthy men of the nations of the world, etc., the wise men of Israel, 
etc.' 14-14 E om. 15 E ins.: 'the men of reputation in the nations of 

the world, etc.' 

their thoughts and their doings', are pourtrayed on the curtain the images are 
imprinted on it than that the various facts are merely recorded. 



144 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XLV 

and their doings ; the teachers of children in the nations of the world, 
their generations, their works and their doings; 

the counsellors (interpreters) of Israel, their generation, their works 
and their doings ; the counsellors (interpreters) of the nations of the 
world, their generation, their works and their doings ; 

all the prophets of Israel, their generation, their works and their 
doings ; all the prophets of the nations of the world, their generation, 
their works and their doings ; 

(5) and all the fights and wars that the nations 16 of the world 
wrought against the people of Israel in the time of their kingdom. 

And I saw Messiah, son of Joseph, and his generation "and their 

" works and their doings that they will do against the nations of the 

world 17 . And I saw Messiah, son of David, and his generation, and 



1 6 so E. A corr. from here to 'the people of Israel': '(that the nations) of Israel 
wrought against the people of Israel' 17-1? E: 'and all the deeds of the 

nations of the world at that time ' 

(5) And I saw Messiah son of Joseph etc. From here to the end of the verse 
there follows a short eschatological piece. R. Ishmael, through the medium of the 
Curtain of the Throne, sees the events of the last times. The end of the course of 
the present world is marked by the appearance of Messiah ben Joseph and Messiah 
ben David in whose times there will be wars between Israel and ' Gog and Magog ' ; 
the final consummation will then, so it seems, be brought about by the Holy One 
Himself. 

For the conception of the two Messiahs, reference may be made to the scholarly 
expositions by Dalman (Der leidende und sterbende Messias, pp. 1-26), Buttenwieser 
(in JE. viii. 511 b, 5123), Klausner (Die messianischen Vorstellungen des jiidischen 
Volkes, etc., pp. 86-103), Rabinsohn (Le Messianisme dans le Talmud et les 
Midrachitn). Vide also Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenihwn, ii. 729, Schoettgen, 
Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae, i. 139, 267, 360-5, Wuensche, Die Leiden des 
Messias, pp. 65 seqq., Castelli, II Messia secondo gli Ebrei, pp. 224-9. 

It will perhaps be best to follow Klausner (and Dalman) in assuming that the 
origin of a double Messiah was the realization of the duplicity inherent in the 
traditional Messianic picture, e.g. the political and military traits as against the 
spiritual and ethical (esp. of Isa. xi and Zech. ix. 9). " Die Doppelnatur des Messias 
muss in einen Doppelmessias umgesetzt werden" (Klausner). (Cf. Dalman in a 
somewhat different vein: "es muss als moglich gelten, dass uberhaupt ein etwa 
durch die hadrianischen Verfolgungen neu hervorgerufenes Interesse an dem Trost 
der Messiashoffnung zu erneutem Schriftstudium trieb.. . .Alles was in der heiligen 
Schrift darauf zu deuten schien, dass Edom-Rom gestiirtzt und Jerusalem, wenn 
auch nur vorlaufig, an Israel zuriickgegeben wird, musste dad en Forscher an- 
ziehen, und das Unbestimmteste gewann fur das nach Erlosung diirstende 
Gemut deutliche Umrisse und konkrete Gestalt. So erstand Messias ben Joseph, 
der sterbende Messias des Judentums".) 

As to the designation 'ben Joseph' (son of Joseph), Klausner (op. cit. p. 97) 
holds that "when once a second Messiah has become necessary, he cannot be 
taken from any other tribe but that of Joseph " (" Der erste Messias ist ein Davidide, 
also ein Judaer. Was sollte nun der zweite Messias anders sein, als Josephite, bezie- 
hungsweise Ephraimite " [Messiah ben Ephraim is sometimes a variant of Messiah 
ben Joseph, vide below]). Also should be noted Klausner's remark that it "is highly 



CH. XLV] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 145 

all the fights and wars, and their works and their doings that they 



.probable that Bar Kochba's death as hero in the war with the enemies of Israel, 
after having for a time been victorious and even reigned as a king, became the 
starting-point (Vorbild) for the conception of a Messiah who at first is victorious 
but in the end is overcome by the enemies of Israel ". This is, most probably, the 
right explanation of the conception of a Messianic forerunner of the real Messiah : 
One had long been conscious of the duplicity in the Messianic picture ; the Hadrianic 
persecutions and the Bar Kochba incident forced the attention on the Messianic 
ideas and hopes ; the circumstances made one conscious of Israel's fate of having 
to go through many tribulations, temporal victories followed by severe debacles: 
from this consciousness grew the picture of a forerunner- Messiah whose essential 
characteristic was described by the words of the Baraitha (TB. Sukka, 52 a): "he 
will be killed". 

Dalman explains the designation 'ben Joseph' from Deut. xxxiii. 17 ("His glory 
is like the firstling of his bullock and his horns are like the horns of unicorns : with 
them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth : and they are the 
ten thousands of Ephraim, and they are the thousands of Manasseh"). "The 
' firstling of his (Joseph's) bullock ' is nearly as much the emblem of Messiah ben 
Joseph: Ren. R. Ixxv. 6, Ex. R. to xlix. 14 ace. to Pugeo Fidel, Num., R. xiv. 2, 
Midrash Tanchuma, ed. Buber, 82 b, as the 'foal of an ass' of Zech. ix. 9 is the 
emblem of Messiah ben David". "Was dort (Deut. xxxiii. 17) von Joseph gesagt 
ist, fiihrt den Gedanken an das spatere Kdnigtum Ephraims, oder, wenn man 
das Wort zu der messianisch verstandenen Weissagung auf Juda in Gen. xlix in 
Parallele setzt, an einen in der Endzeit auftretenden machtigen Kdnig Israels aus 
Josephs Stamm, einen Messiah ben Joseph. Die Rabbinen, welche in Deut. 
xxxiii. 17 wirklich einen Messias geweissagt glaubten, wurden dann in diesem 
Glauben durch ein Wort Jeremias bestarkt (viz. Jer. xlix. 20)". 

[Schoettgen (op. cit.), adducing, apart from earlier sources, Zohar and Zohar 
Chadash, arrives at the conclusion that Messiah ben Joseph and Messiah ben David 
are identical, and that the former represents the human nature of Messiah, destined 
to suffer death. The designation 'son of Joseph' Schoettgen believes to be derived 
from the Christian designation of Christ, the Messiah, as ' the son of Joseph ' and 
points out how, in the genealogy of St Matthew (i. i), Christ is called 'the son of 
David', in that of St Luke, on the other hand, 'the son of Joseph'. 

Wuensche, in his first discourse on the present problem (op. cit.), also maintained 
that Messiah ben Joseph and Messiah ben David really were identical. The identity 
he found established already in TB. Sukka, 52 a (where he, however, mis- 
translates; vide below and Klausner, op. cit. p. 91, note 2); in common with 
Schoettgen he further pointed to the fact that scriptural passages which receive 
Messianic interpretation are promiscuously referred now to Messiah ben Joseph, 
now to Messiah ben David although passages interpreted as referring to the 
suffering Messiah are, according to Wuensche, more often applied to the former 
than to the latter ; from the last-named fact he concluded that the figure of Messiah 
ben Joseph really symbolized the atoning function of Messiah. 

Ace. to Friedmann (Seder Eliyah, Introduction, 20) the conception of Messiah 
ben Joseph goes back to the expectations among remnants of the tribes belonging 
once to the Northern Kingdom in Palestine for a Messiah from D'HDN J"l 13^)0. 

Bertholdt (in Christologia Judaeorum, 157) conjectures that the origin was from 
certain Messianic speculations among the Samaritans. 

Castelli (op. cit. pp. 234-6) thinks that Messiah ben Joseph- was the Messiah 
contrived for the ten tribes exiled in Media who was to lead them back to Palestine 
from their distant abode beyond the river Sambatyon (on the river Sambatyon, 
a definite detail of the eschatological scheme, vide BOX, Ezra- Apocalypse, pp. 296, 
298, 300 seq.). 

Hamburger (Messianische Bibelstellen, in) and Levy (Worterb.) think that the 
Messiah ben Joseph originated from the Bar Kochba incident. Bar Kochba, who 

OHB to 



146 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XLV 

will do with Israel both for good and evil. And I saw all the fights 



had been proclaimed as Messiah even by the great R. 'Aqiba (so Yer. Ta'an, 
iv. 68 d) was made to retain his Messianity by the formation of the doctrine of 
Messiah ben Joseph as the forerunner of the victorious Messiah ben David. 

Jellinek (BH. iii. xlvi seqq.) expresses the view that the victory of Joseph Flavius 
in Galilee (thought as the region of the ten tribes or as part of the Northern King- 
dom) followed by his defeat through Vespasianus influenced the 'saga' of the 
Messiah ben Joseph. 

Buttenwieser (in JE. loc. at.) says: "it is possible that the idea of Messiah ben 
Joseph is connected in some way with the Alexander- Saga". He points out how 
Messiah ben Joseph and Alexander (in the Koran) both are represented as horned. 

Rabinsohn (op. cit.)~ finds the explanation of the 'son of Joseph' in Deut. xxxiii. 17. 
Cf. above on Dalman's theory.] 

The conception of a Messiah ben Joseph goes back to Tannaitic times. The 
most important passages speaking of Messiah ben Joseph are found in TB> Sukka 
52 a, dated by Levy, Hamburger, Friedmann, Dalman and Klausner as post- 
Hadrianic. One of the said passages is a Baraitha (p3~) IJn) running as follows: 
"Messiah, the son of David, who will shortly be revealed in our days, to him 
says the Holy One, blessed be He : ' Beg of Me anything and I will give thee ' 
as it is written (Ps. ii. 8): 'Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for 
thine inheritance and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession'. As soon 
as he (i.e. Messiah ben David) saw Messiah, the son of Joseph, that he was (or: 
would be) killed, he says before Him: 'Lord of the Universe! I do not ask of 
Thee anything but Life'. He says to him: 'Life! Before thou didst say it, David, 
thy father, has already prophesied (this, i.e. life) concerning thee, as it is written 
(Ps. xxi. 4) : He asked life of thee and thou gavest it him, even length of days for 
ever and ever"'. 

The other passage (according to Klausner, "eine amoraische Oberlieferung 
einer tannaitischen Deutung") runs: "(Zech. xii. 12): 'And the land shall mourn, 
every family apart ; the family of the house of David apart, and their wives apart ; 
the family of the house of Nathan apart, and their wives apart'; They say: 'Must 
not the rule qal wachomer (a minori ad majtis) be applied here : if with reference to 
the time to come when they are occupied with wailing and the evil inclination does 
not have power over them, the Scripture says "men apart and women apart" 
hovf much the more (ought this to be the law) now when they are occupied with 
pleasure and the evil inclination does have power over them?' This wailing, what 
does it really signify? Rabbi Dosa and our teachers are divided on this point. The 
one says : ' It (refers) to Messiah the son of Joseph who is (will be) killed ', and the 
other says: 'It (refers) to the evil inclination which will be exterminated'. Surely 
(the right lies) with the one who says (that it refers) to Messiah the son of Joseph 
who will be killed, according as it is written (Zech. xii. 10): 'And they shall look 
upon the one whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him as one mourneth 
for his only son'". 

'En Ya'aqob preserves the following version of TB. Sukka, 12 b: "(Zech. i. 20, 
Hebrew Bible, ii. 3): 'And YHWH showed me four charashim'. What are they (i.e. 
the charashim)'} R. Chunna bar Bizna says: R. Sim' on the Chasid says: this means 
Messiah ben David, Messiah ben Joseph, Elijah and the Priest of Righteousness." 

Targ. Yer. I to Ex. xl. n speaks of Messiah the son of Ephraim through whom 
Israel will in the end of time overcome Gog (" utherabbe yath kiyyura weyath besiseh 
utheqaddesh yatheh meiul Yehosu ' meshiimshanakh rabba de-Sanhedrin de 'ammeh 
de'alyedoy 'dthida 'ar'a de-Israel le-'ithpelaga umeshicha bar Ephraim denafiq minneh 
de'alyedoy 'dthidin beth Israel limenasha le-Gog ulesi'atheh besof yomayya"). 

Targ. Yer. to Canticles iv. 5 and vii. 4 speak of Messiah ben David and Messiah 
ben Joseph as deliverers of Israel like Moses and Aaron. 

The earlier passages represent Messiah ben Joseph merely as the forerunner of 
Messiah ben David and as the Messiah "who is killed". The passage in our book 



CH. XLV] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 147 

and wars that Gog and Magog will fight 18 in the days of Messiah, 
and all that the Holy One, blessed be He, will do with them in the 
time to come. 



1 8 A ins.: 'with Israel' 

goes no further : he is to appear before Messiah ben David and will be engaged in 
warfare. Though it is not expressly stated here that Messiah ben Joseph will be 
killed, this is probably presupposed. 

Later passages in Num. R. xiv. 2, in Pesiqtha Zut. to Num. xxiv. 13, Midrash 
'Asereth Melakhim, Pirqe Mashiach, BH. iii. 70, Pereq R. Yoshiyyahu, BH. vi. 115 
(Messiah ben Joseph called Nehemyah ben IJushiel) appears after the victory 
over Rome, is killed in the struggle with the Arabs and resuscitated by Elijah in 
the time of Messiah ben David. Midrash Wayyosha', Nistaroth de R. Shim' on 
ben Yochai (BH. iii. 80), Tefillath R. Shim' on ben Yochai (BH. iv. 124), Othoth 
ha-mMashiach (BH. ii. 58), Sefer Zerubbabel (BH. ii. 55) (vide Introduction, 
Sources and Literature, A 3 (B)) give the tradition that Messiah ben Joseph will 
be killed in the war with Armilos. In the Nistaroth de R. Shim'on ben Yochai there 
are three names of Messiah(s): Messiah ben Joseph, Messiah ben Ephraim and 
Messiah ben David. Num. R. xiv. 2, evidently dependent upon the tradition 
preserved in TB. Sukka, 12 b (ace. to 'En Ya'aqob, vide above), interprets the 
four charashim of Zech. ii. 3 as : " Elijah, the Messiah who shall rise from the children 
of Manasse, the Anointed for War (meshu a ch milchamd) who will come from Ephraim 
and the Great Redeemer who is one of the sons of the sons of David ". 

Attempts at systematization of the various traditions in respect of the two 
Messiahs were made by Sa'adya in 'Emunoth we De'oth, viii, and Hai Gaon in 
Ta'am Zeqenim (ed. Frankf. am Main, 1854, pp. 59 seq.). For these vide Dalman, 
op. cit. and Buttenwieser (in jfE. loc. cit.). A display of still later, especially cab- 
balistic, traditions on Messiah ben Joseph is given in Eisenmenger's Entdecktes 
jfudenthum, ii. 729 seqq. (from Menorath ha-Ma'or, Shene Luchoth ha-bBerith, 
Yalqut Chadash, 'Emeq ha-mMelek, etc.). Passages in the Zohar treating of Mes- 
sianic times are: Zohar, i. 118 a, 119 a, 134 a b, 139 a b; ii. 7 a b, 32 a, 105 b, 109 b; 
iii. 67 b, 124 b, 125 a b, 153 a b, 212 b; in the Tiqqunim, 78 a, 95 a. 

Gog and Magog play the role of "a collective anti-Messiah" (M. Friedlander, 
Der Antichrist, pp. 171-3). The war with Gog and Magog was speculated upon 
already in pre-Hadrianic Tannaitic times. Klausner says (op. cit. pp. 90, 100), basing 
upon Siphra, Par. Bechuqqothai, 2, Siphre Deut. Pisqa. 343 : ".We can with some 
certainty maintain that the belief current in pre-Hadrianic times was that the 
Messias ben David, supported by the presence of" the Divine Glory (the Shekind), 
would wage war against and overcome the enemies of Israel (i.e. Gog and Magog), 
but in the post-Hadrianic times the warfare was assigned to Messiah ben Joseph 
destined after a temporal victory to be conquered, and the final victory, brought 
about by God Himself without shedding of blood, crowns Messiah ben David". 
This distinction is evidently correct. It will easily be seen that our passage reflects 
the post-Hadrianic belief in respect of the Messianic times ; but it may also be noticed 
that the vivid impression of the fate of the Messiah ben Joseph characteristic of 
the Tannaitic dicta has been somewhat blurred out ; there is not the same nearness 
of the picture of war and the conquering and death of Messiah ben Joseph; on 
the other hand there are no traces of new developments .and elaborations of 
the original conceptions found in later sources. This suggests that the present 
passage belongs to a time of peace not too far removed however from the time 
of origin of the Messiah ben Joseph conception, probably some time during the third 
century A.D. 

and all that the Holy One. . .will do with them: the final consummation will 
be brought about by the Holy One Himself. 

IO-2 



148 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CHH. XLV, XLVI 

(6) 19 And all the rest of all 19 the leaders of the generations and all 
the works of the generations both in Israel and in the nations of the 
world, 20 both what is done and what will be done hereafter 20 to all 
generations until the end of time, (all) were graven on the Curtain 
of MAQOM. And I saw all these things with my eyes; and after 
I had seen it, I opened my mouth in praise of MAQOM (the Divine 
Majesty) (saying thus, Eccl. viii. 4, 5): "For the King's word hath 
power (and who may say unto him: What doest thou?) Whoso 
keepeth the commandments shall know no evil thing". And I said: 
(Ps. civ. 24) "O Lord, how manifold are thy works!" 



CHAPTER XLVI 
The place of the stars shown to R. Ishmael 

R. Ishmael said : Metatron said to me : 

(1) (Come and I will show thee) the space 1 of the stars a that are 
standing 3 in Raqia' 3 night by night in fear 42 of the Almighty 
(MAQOM) and (I will show thee) where they go and where they 
stand. 

(2) I walked by his side, and he took me by his hand and pointed 
out all to me with his fingers. And they were standing 5 on sparks 
of flames round 5 the Merkaba of the Almighty (MAQOM). What did 



19-19 E: 'And there were' 20-20 E: 'both what they have done and what they 
will do in time to come ' 

Ch. xlvi. i E perhaps reads 'spirit' 2-2 emendated. E corr. : 'that are deep 

(or "high") in Raqia' and every night in fear (1?DN^ obviously miswritten for 
IflE&O)' 3-3 emendated ace. to E. A: D^TH, an easy corr. of yip")^, 

'lightnings' perhaps under influence of vs. 2: 'they are standing on sparks' 
4 emendated with regard taken to E; see 2-2. 5-5 E: 'in sparks of flames of 

(from)' 

Ch. xlvi. In this chapter R. Ishmael is shown the place of the stars who are 
standing by the ' Throne of the Merkaba ' praising the Holy One during the time 
that they are not occupied by 'doing service to the world' in Raqia', the second 
heaven. For the stars, ace. to vs. 3, have two functions: one (during the night) 
of lighting the world, the other of singing hymns to their Creator. 

(1) The text of the chapter is in a bad state, both ace. to the reading of A and ace. 
to that of E. Especially is this the case with vs. i. Emendations have been made 
in the translation with the help of a comparison of the two readings. (Come and I 
will show thee) is omitted in both readings but is obviously to be inserted by 
analogy with the opening words of the surrounding chapters, since the rest of the 
present chapter follows the scheme and phraseology of the other chapters of the 
section. 

(2) standing onsparks of flames round the Merkaba of the Almighty (MAQOM) 
. . . flew off on flaming wings. The stars are depicted as standing by the Merkaba 



CH. XLVIJ METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 149 

Metatron do? At that moment he clapped his hands and 6 chased 
them 6 off from their place. Forthwith they flew off 7 on flaming wings, 
rose and fled from the four sides of the Throne of the Merkaba, and 
(as they flew) he told me the names 8 of every single one. As it is 
written (Ps. cxlvii. 4) : " He telleth the number of the stars ; he giveth 
them all their names", teaching, that the Holy One, blessed be He, 
has given a name to each one of them. 

(3) And they all enter in counted order under the guidance of 
(lit. through, by the hands of) RAHATIEL to Raqia' ha-shSHamayim 
to serve the world. And they go out in counted order to praise the 



6-6 E: 'made them to fly' 7 E adds: 'from their place' 8 E adds: 'and 

the additional names (kinnuyim) ' 

and evidently conceived of as living beings, presumably as angels, cf. vss. 3 and 4. 
' Wings' are the regular attribute of angels arid angelicized beings, cf. ch. ix. 2 and 
' the Names flying off like eagles ', ch. xxxix. i . The stars are hence probably pictured 
as having bodies and wings after the scheme of the description of angels. Cf. the 
representation of the fallen stars as having bodily form, in i En. Ixxxvi. i seqq., 
Ixxxviii. i, xc. 21. 

Metatron . . . clapped his hands and chased them off. Metatron here is re- 
presented as having authority over the stars although their special 'memunne' 
(appointed one) is RAHATIEL. The authority over the heavenly bodies is a special 
distinctive mark of the Prince of the World, ace. to ch. xxxviii. 3 hence this may 
be regarded as a trace of the identity between Metatron and the Prince of the 
World, maintained by one trend of traditions : cf. note on ch. iii and intr. told 
me the names. . .has given a name to each one. Cf. i En. Ixix. 21 : "through 
that oath (i.e. Akae) the stars complete their course. And He calls them by their 
names. And they answer Him from eternity to eternity". (Charles, i En. p. 140.) 

(3) they all enter in counted order under the guidance of Rahatiel. For RAHA- 
TIEL as the ruler of the constellations, planets or heavenly bodies in general, see 
ch. xvii. 6 and note, ad loc. to Raqia' ha-shSHamayim, i.e. the second of the 
seven heavens, which is the region of the heavenly bodies (Chag. 12 b, chh. xvii. 4, 7, 
xxxviii. i). Here the stars are represented as entering the Raqia' in order to serve 
the world, i.e. to give light, etc. to serve the world. For the expression and 
idea cf. 4 Ezra vi. 46: "and didst command them (the sun. . .moon and order of 
the stars) that they should do service unto man " ; and see BOX, Ezra- Apocalypse, 
p. 88, note ad locum, where attention is called to parallels in Clemens, Recogn. 
v. 29 and Horn. x. 25 ("the sun daily waits upon the world", etc.), and where also 
is pointed out that the underlying idea of the expression is to "emphasize the 
thought that the stars are man's servants because by all the rest of the world they 
were regarded as gods". 

And they go out in counted order. ' go out ' is here obviously meant as the 
opposite of 'enter (the Raqia'Y '. Hence the stars are here thought to leave the 
second heaven after having fulfilled their function of 'serving the world'. From 
the Raqia 1 they are presumably pictured as proceeding to the 'Araboth, the seventh 
heaven, since they are said (vs. 2) to be standing round the Merkaba or ' the Throne 
of the Merkaba'. 

to praise the Holy One, blessed be He, with songs and hymns. In their 
function of praising the Most High ' with songs and hymns ' the stars are clearly 
conceived of as angelic beings, and this is especially marked by the manner in 
which their fate is associated with that of the song- uttering angels (see next verse). 
For the conception of the stars as angels, cf. Bousset, Rel. des Judentums, p. 315. 



THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XLVI 

Holy One, blessed be He, with songs and hymns, according as it is 
written (Ps. xix. i): "The heavens declare the glory of God". 

(4) But in the time to come the Holy One, blessed be He, 9 will 
create them anew 9 , as it is written (Lam. iii. 23): "They are new 
every morning". And they open their mouth and utter a song. 
Which is the song that they utter? (Ps. viii. 3): "When I consider 
thv heavens". 



9-9 E corr. : 'and will help them anew' 

Maimonides, More Nebukim, vol. ii, ch. v, uses the same scriptural reference as 
the present verse (Ps. xix. 2) in support of his view, that "the globes are living and 
rational beings . . . and they serve their Master and praise and glorify him with 
great praise and mighty glorification, as it is written (Ps. xix. 2) : ' the heavens declare 
the glory of God ' ". The idea of the planets and stars as living, acting and domina- 
ting gods is, of course, fundamental in Babylonian and, by influence therefrom, in 
Persian religion accompanied by the conception of special rulers of the stars. 
In the Pehlevi literature the planets and stars are represented as demons or else 
as animated or ruled by demons. See Bundahish, iii. 25, xxviii. 43, 44, Zad sparam, 
ii. 10, iv. 3, 7, 10, etc. In Jewish remodelling the planet-gods naturally become 
planet-angels, whereas the conception of special angels as rulers of the stars, con- 
stellations etc. or of the whole of the heavenly bodies is uncommonly frequent. 
The 70 princes of kingdoms are sometimes identified with the planets and con- 
stellations, although more often they are represented as the rulers of them. 'The 
angels are the souls of the heavenly spheres' is a comparatively frequent dictum. 
The 'Ophannim are the angels who move the spheres, cf. note on ch. xxv. 5. The 
identification of the heavenly bodies with angel-princes or demons was also prompted 
by the astrological speculations. The archangels are identified with the seven planets 
or represented as rulers of the seven planets, thus preserving the old conception of 
the seven sideric rulers from which the conception of the seven archangels is 
supposed to have originated. (See YR. i. 16 a.) 

(6) But in the time to come the Holy One, blessed be He, will create them 
anew . . . and they open their mouth and utter a song. The creating the stars 
and planets anew is here explicitly connected with their character of song-uttering 
angelic beings. It is, moreover, supported by the scriptural reference which tradi- 
tionally was used as basis for the speculations concerning the song-uttering angels, 
who also are said to ' be created anew ' : ' They are new every morning, great is thy 
faithfulness', Lam. iii. 23. See ch. xl. 4, Chag. 143, Lam. R. iii. 21, Gen. R. 
Ixxviii. i. The creation anew in the case of the angels is depicted as going on con- 
tinually every day, whereas that of the stars is designed for the 'time to come'. 
The future world is sometimes represented as referred to in the said passage 
(Lam. iii. 23), cf. Gen. R. ib. and Alph. R. 'Aqiba. 

NOTE. It is significant that there seems to be no remnant in 3 En. of the Gnostic 
idea of the planets and constellations as evil agencies, as enemies of the spirit and 
the spiritual world. Contrast e.g. the 'Seven Great Princes' and the 'Seventy-two 
Princes of Kingdoms' of 3 En. xvii. with the ' Seven' in Mandaitic. Vide also i En. 
xix. 13-16, xxi. 3-6. There are, however, indications that this idea was known at 
the time of our book. Thus the inimical r61e of the planets is in our book replaced 
by that of 'Uzza, 'Azza and 'Azzael (chh. iv, v), and the opposing angels in 
general. Possibly the present chapter is intentionally directed against the Gnostic 
(Parsic-Iranian) idea in question. (Cf. also Zimmern in Schrader, Die Keilin- 
schriften und das Alte Testament, 8th ed., p. 459, and Reitzenstein, -Das iranische 
Erlosungsmysterium, pp. 59 seq.) 



CH.XLVII] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 151 



CHAPTER XLVII 

Metatron shows R. Ishmael the spirits 
of the punished angels 

R. Ishmael said: Metatron said to me: 

(i) Come and I will show thee the souls 1 of the angels 1 and the 
spirits of 2 the ministering servants 2 whose bodies 3 have been burnt 
in the fire of MAQOM (the Almighty) that goes forth from his little 
finger. And they have been made into fiery coals in the midst of the 
fiery river (Nehar di-Nur). But their spirits and their souls are 
standing behind the Shekina. 

(z) Whenever the ministering angels utter a song at a wrong time 



i-i E om. 22 so E. A om., but 3 A has a lacuna which represents 2-2 and is 
wrongly put there instead of before its antecedent word. 

Ch. xlvii. As a sequel to the exposition in chh. xliii, xliv the spirits of the 
righteous, the wicked and those not yet born the spirits and souls of the song- 
uttering angels who have been burnt by the fire from their Creator (cf. ch. xl. 3) 
are here made the subject of treatment in the general scheme of the section : they 
are shown to R. Ishmael by Metatron who superadds divers explanations and 
informations. 

The angels in question are those who have uttered a song in a wrong time or 
improper way, and therefore, as stated in ch. xl. 3, have been consumed by fire. 
The object of this chapter is apparently to show that this destruction by fire refers 
only to the bodies of the angels, whereas their spirits and souls 'return to their 
Creator and stand behind the Shekina'. (On the real object, vide Introd. sect. 15.) 

Thus the nature and fate of the song-uttering angels who have failed in their duty 
are pictured in analogy with those of failing men. Yet there are a few differences 
between the representations of chh. xliii, xliv and the present chapter. Whereas 
in chh. xliii, xliv only the term 'spirit' (neshama). is used, the present chapter uses 
both 'soul' (neshama) and 'spirit' (rudch) although practically synonymously. 
And whereas ace. to ch. xliv the punishment by fire is for the ' spirits ', it is here the 
bodies only that are represented as destroyed in fire, the spirits (and souls) on the 
other hand are said to return to 'their Creator', i.e. to their abode behind the 
Shekina, thus rather reflecting the picture of the spirits of the righteous above the 
Throne in ch. xliii. 

(1) the souls of the angels and the spirits of the ministering servants. 
The terms 'soul' and 'spirit' are here evidently synonymous. whose bodies 
have been burnt in the fire of MAQOM . . . made into fiery coals in the midst 
of the fiery river. The two traditions of the fire from God's little finger (ch. xl. 3) 
and the Nehar di-Nur (see note on ch. xxxiii. 5) as means 'of punishment of the 
angels, are here harmonized, see further, vs. 2. but their spirits and their 
souls are standing behind the Shekina. Even here the two terms 'spirit' and 
'soul' are best understood as being synonymous. The juxtaposition of 'spirit' and 
'soul' is a mere repetition of that in the beginning of the verse. 

(2) Whenever the ministering angels utter a song at a wrong time . . . they 



152 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH.XLVII 

or as not appointed 4 to be sung 4 5 they are burnt 6 and consumed 6 
by the fire of their Creator and by a flame from their Maker, 

A: E: 

in the places (chambers) of the in their place (= on the spot) ; and 

whirlwind, for it blows upon a whirlwind blows upon them and 

them and drives them throws them down 

into the Nehar di-Nur \ and there they are made into numerous 
mountains 7 of burning coal. But their spirit and their soul return 8 
to their Creator, and all are standing behind their Master. 



4-4 E: 'and as soon as it has been sung' 5 A ins.: 'jrmn' (representing a 

corr. reading '{fill', 'their spirit(s)'?) 6-6 E om. 7 E: 'mountains of 

mountains' A has a lacuna: DHi"l. D'""in> a sign of uncertainty in the text. 
8 E: 'returns' 

are burnt. . .by the fire of their Creator. Cf. on ch. xl. 3. and drives them 
into the Nehar di-Nur. This is to be understood as an harmonization between 
the view, ace. to which the song-uttering angels, when uttering the Song untimely 
or improperly, are consumed by a fiery stream from the little finger of the Holy 
One, and that, ace. to which the Nehar di-Nur is the place and medium of extinction 
of the angels. The latter view includes that represented in Lam. R. iii. 21, Gen. R. 
Ixxviii. i, which maintains that new angels are created continually to sing the song 
and then disappear whither? answer: into the Nehar di-Nur from which they 
were created. there they are made into numerous mountains of burning 
coal. This should be compared with the statement of ch. xxxv. 5 seq. : the angels, 
until they acquiesce in performing the Qedushsha, are changed into all sorts of 
lifeless, fiery substances, by a 'whirlwind from before the Holy One' (cf. here). 
Cf. also i En. xxi. 3 : " I saw seven stars of the heaven bound together in it (the 
place of punishment), like great mountains and burning with fire". 

their spirit and their soul return to their Creator . . . standing behind their 
Master. This recalls ch. xliii, where the spirits of the righteous who have 
been created are said to 'return'. It implies that the spirits of the song- uttering 
angels like those of men are pre-existent before being manifested with bodies for 
the purpose of performing the Qedushsha or singing hymns and songs. But in 
contrast with the case of men the punishment of the failing angels is assigned not 
to their spirits but to their bodies alone. That the permanent abode of the spirits 
of the angels, not only after the severance from their bodies but even in their 
pre-existent state, is the place 'behind the Shekina' may be hinted at in vs. 3: 
R. Ishmael sees ' all the souls of the angels and the spirits of the ministering servants ' 
standing behind the Shekina. Such a view may have developed from a wish to 
harmonize the different traditions concerning the creation or origin of the angels, 
one maintaining their pre-existence or creation on the second or fifth day of Creation, 
the other their continual or successive creation daily. The first view would then be 
made to apply to the creation of the spirits and souls, the second to their bodily 
manifestation. In fact the wish to harmonization in this case is sometimes attested 
in cabbalistic commentaries, cf. the statement: 'the angels who are created daily, 
sing a song, and then perish, are those who were created on the fifth day ; those who 
were created on the second day do not perish'. On the other hand the view that 
the angels continue to exist in spirit after their destruction in fire is explicitly refuted 
in Hilkoth Mal'akim (Add. 27199, fol. 123 a) : " for the angels who have been burnt, 
there is no kind of continued life (or resurrection). It is not as with men, whose 
bodies die, their souls however are living on high and their spirits return to God 



CH.XLVIl] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 153 

(3) And I went 9 by his side 9 and he took me by his hand ; and he 
showed me all the souls of the angels and the spirits of the ministering 
servants who were standing behind the Shekina ]0 upon wings 11 of 
the whirlwind 10 and walls of fire surrounding them. 

(4) At that moment Metatron opened to me the gates of the walls 
within which they were standing behind the Shekina, And I lifted 
up my eyes and saw them, and behold, the likeness of every one was 
as (that of) angels and their wings like birds' (wings), made out of 
flames, the work of burning fire. In that moment I opened my 
mouth in praise of MAQOM and said (Ps. xcii. 5): "How great are 
thy works, O Lord 12 ". 



9-9 ins. with E. 10-10 E: 'forthwith a whirlwind passed by' n emendated 
(cf. chs. xxxiv. i, xxxvii. 2): I| D33 instead of *~J3. 12 Emend. E quotes Ps. 

cxi. 2: 'the works of the Lord (are great)' A confuses Ps. xcii. 5 with cxi. 2. 

for them there is continued life. Not so with the angels : they return to the Nehar 
di-Nur". 

(3) who were standing behind the Shekina upon wings of the whirlwind and 
walls of fire surrounding them. This is of course not indicative of any idea of 
punishment being assigned to the spirits of the song-uttering angels. Cf. how ace. 
to ch. xviii. 25 the two high angels SOPHERIEL H' MECHAYYE and SOPHERIEL H' MEMITH 
are said to be standing on the wheels of the stormwind. The Kerubim ace. to ch. 
xxii. 13 are surrounded by 'columns of fire on their four sides and columns of 
firebrands beside them'. Ace. to ch. xxxiii. 3 'clouds of fire and clouds of flame 
compass the angels to the right and to the left'. Cf. also the Enoch-Metatron piece, 
ch. xv. 2. 

the likeness of every one was as angels and their wings like birds' (wings). 
Although separated from their bodies of manifested existence, the spirits and souls 
of the angels have bodily form; cf. chh. xliii. 2 and xliv. 5 and note on the latter. 



NOTE. The juxtaposition ni?D^31 mim occurs in TB. Chag. 12 b, 

ms'inn 1 ? Tnyjy n IIDSWI, but immediately preceding: D'-pHV h& JHD^J. Is this 
passage dependent upon our book, chh. xliii and xlvii? Also in Mandaitic the 
juxtaposition of 'spirit' and 'soul' in a similar vein is quite frequent. On the 
spirit (or perhaps better ' soul ') as the non-physical body of the soul (spirit) in 
Mandaitic vide Reitzenstein, Das iranische Erldsiingsmysterium, p. 35. Cf. Introd. 
section on 'the conception of spirit and soul'. 



154 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XLVIIl(A) 

CHAPTER XLVIII (A) 

Metatron shows R. Ishmael the Right Hand of the 

Most High, now inactive behind Him, but in the 

future destined to work the deliverance of Israel 

R. Ishmael said : Metatron said to me : 

(i) Come, and I will show thee the Right Hand of MAQOM, laid 
behind (Him) because of the destruction of the Holy Temple ; from 
which all kinds of splendour and light * shine forth 1 and by which 
the 955 heavens were created ; and whom not even the Seraphim and 



i-i ins. with E. A has a lacuna. 

Ch. xlviii (A). Ch. xlviii (A) is an apocalyptic eschatological fragment, closely 
connected with that contained in ch. xliv. 7-10. Like the latter it uses the symbolical 
expression of the Right Hand of MAQOM as representing Israel and the Kingdom 
of Heaven on earth. The inactivity of God's Right Hand its being laid behind him 
is the symbol of Israel's oppression and sufferings among the nations of the 
world and the temporary suspension of the realization of the Kingdom of Heaven 
on earth. The deliverance of God's Right Hand is the deliverance of Israel and the 
establishment of the Heavenly Kingdom. Besides, God's Right Hand also repre- 
sents God's activity for bringing about the deliverance, and is the instrument of 
the realization of the Kingdom. 

Vss. 1-4 are in the frame of the present section: R. Ishmael is represented as 
shown the Right Hand of Maqom and sees the five streams of tears that go forth 
from its five fingers: it is bewailing the downfall of Israel. Vss. 5-10 on the con- 
trary cannot in a strict sense be joined into that frame : without any transition we 
are there presented with a picture entirely eschatological and treating of the end 
of times that will see the final redemption : God himself will deliver His right Hand 
and by it work salvation for Israel and set up His Kingdom, the establishment of 
which will be marked by the appearance of Messiah and the banquet for the righteous 
in the restored earthly Jerusalem. 

The fragment is distinguished by a more frequent use of scriptural quotations 
than the other chapters of the section and of the present book in general (with the 
exception of chh. xxiii and xxiv). 

(i) the Right Hand of MAQOM, laid behind (Him) because of the destruction 
of the Holy Temple. The inactivity of God's Right Hand is here connected with 
the destruction of the Holy Temple. The cause of its continued inactivity is ace. 
to ch. xliv. 7-10 the sins of the wicked, here it is hinted that the dearth of saints 
and righteous in Israel accounts for its present downfall. 

The destruction of the Holy Temple, the sign of the downfall of Israel, also 
implied the total suspension or cessation of the activity for the realization of the 
Kingdom on earth (the cessation of the activity of the Divine Right Hand), and 
this again was caused by the sins of Israel. The real catastrophe in the destruction 
of the Temple was the removal of the Shekina from earth, the presence of the 
Shekina in the Temple having made it the representative of God's Kingdom on 
earth. See Lam. R. Proem. 24 (God removes his Shekina from the Temple on 
account of Israel's sin, and this is the cause of the destruction of the Temple. 
' I have no longer an abode on earth ') . 

by which the 955 heavens were created. Cf. ch. xliv. 7: 'thy right hand that 
is behind thee, wherewith thou didst stretch out the heavens and the earth and the 



CH.XLVHI(A)] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 155 

the 'Ophannim are permitted (to behold), until the day of salvation 
shall arrive. 

(2) And I went by his side and he took me by his hand and showed 
me (the Right Hand of MAQOM), with 2 all manner of praise, re- 
joicing and song: and no mouth can tell its praise, and no eye can 
behold it, because of its greatness 3 , dignity, majesty, glory and beauty. 

(3) 4 And not only that 4 , but all the souls of the righteous who are 
counted worthy to 4a behold the joy of Jerusalem, they are standing 
by it, praising and praying before it three times every day, saying 



2 E: 'and' 3 A: 'great greatness' 4-4 E om. 43 lit. 'and' 

heavens of heavens'. The 955 heavens are, ace. to Masseket Hek. iii, above the 
seven heavens, constituting the Divine World from which the Holy One goes down 
when manifesting himself in the 'Araboth on the Throne of Glory : "in the hour 
when the Holy One, blessed be He, descends from the 955 heavens and seats 
himself in the 'Araboth upon the Throne of Glory. . . ". Y. Ch, s.v. Mal' a ^im, no. 98, 
derives the number 955 by gematria from the letters of hassdmaim (='the heavens ', 
the final mem counted as 600). Metatron alone of all the heavenly household can 
ascend into 900 of these heavens, but the remaining 55 heavens are the exclusive abode 
of the Holy One. Cf. Lam. R. Proem. 24. In Seder Gan 'Eden, BH. iii. 139, the 
many heavens above the seven heavens are also connected with the 18,000 worlds, 
and both are conceived of as the impenetrable ' Jenseits ' into which no one from 
the manifested universe, whether from heavens or earth can enter. "A multitude 
of heavens above heavens did the Holy One, blessed be He, create and the(se) 
highest heavens have no measure and no place (but they are the place of the worlds, 
cf . the similar saying about God) . . . and no eye has seen these higher heavens except 
. . .God alone. . .and the 18,000 worlds (above the many thousands of worlds that 
are attached to and comprised in the seven heavens) have not been entered by any 
one save the Holy One, blessed be He, alone, as it is written (quoting Ps. Ixviii. 18, 
cf. note ch. xxiv. 17). . .for there is none who knows them save H' . . .alone". 

whom not even the Seraphim and the 'Ophannim are permitted to behold. 
The Seraphim and the 'Ophannim are apparently represented as the two highest 
classes of Merkaba-angels, in agreement with the angelological section (chh. xxv, 
xxvi). 

(3) all the spirits of the righteous who are worthy and (i.e. to) behold the joy 
of Jerusalem, are standing by it. The spirits of the righteous have their abode in 
the Presence of the Holy One, as ace. to ch. xliii. The 'joy of Jerusalem' may refer 
either to the earthly or to the heavenly Jerusalem. The centre of the Messianic 
Kingdom in the end of times is ace. to vs. 10 the earthly Jerusalem. But the wording 
rather supports the interpretation of the expression 'the joy of Jerusalem' as re- 
ferring to the heavenly Jerusalem : the spirits of the righteous are counted worthy 
and (are now) beholding the joy of Jerusalem. For the conception of the heavenly 
City, and its different shades (the pre-existent Jerusalem, preserved with God in 
heaven; the heavenly city which is to descend on earth in the future age; "the 
heavenly counterpart of the earthly city, the eternal reality of which the literal city 
is but a shadow") in Apocalyptic, cf. 2 En. Iv. 2, 4 Ez. viii. 52 (x. 26 seq., 54, vii. 26, 
xiii. 36), 2 Bar. iv. 2-6, Rev. xxi. 2, g-xxii. 8 (Hebr. xi. 10-16, xii. 22, xiii. 14, 
I En. xc. 28, 29) and for a full discussion see BOX, Ezra- Apocalypse, pp. 198 seq. 
(further references given there). CHARLES, Commentary on Rev., ch. xxi. 2, 10, 
BOUSSET, Die Offenbarung Johannis, 5 Aufl., 1906, pp. 453 seqq. The heavenly 
Jerusalem is, ace. to TB. Chag. 12 b, contained in Zebul (the fourth heaven), ace. to 
Alph. R. 'Aqiba, BH. iii. 21, in Shechaqim (the third heaven). Here it is perhaps 



156 THE HEBREW BOOK OF ENOCH [CH. XLVIIl(A) 

(Is. li. 9): "Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the Lord" 
according as it is written (Is. Ixiii. 12): "He caused his glorious 
arm to go at the right hand of Moses". 

(4) In that moment the Right Hand of MAQOM was weeping. 
And there went forth from its five fingers five rivers of tears and fell 
down into the great sea and shook the whole world, according as it 
is written (Is. xxiv. 19, 20): "The earth is utterly broken (i), the 
earth is clean dissolved (2), the earth is moved exceedingly (3), the 
earth shall stagger like a drunken man (4) and shall be moved to and 
fro like a hut (5)", 5 five times corresponding to the fingers of his 
Great Right Hand. 

(5) But when the Holy One, blessed be He, sees, that there is no 
righteous man in the generation, and no pious man (Chasid] on earth, 
and no justice in the hands of men ; and (that there is) no man like 
unto Moses, and no intercessor as Samuel who could pray before 
MAQOM for the salvation 6 and for the deliverance, and for His 
Kingdom, that it be revealed in the whole world; and for His great 
Right Hand 6 that He put it before Himself again to work great 7 
salvation by it for Israel, 



5 E ins.: 'behold' 6-6 E om. 7 E om. 



regarded as having its place in the highest heaven by the Throne, since there is 
probably the permanent abode of the spirits of the righteous. 

(4) the Right Hand of MAQOM was weeping. Cf. Ber. 33: the Voice 
goes forth three times every day (night) in the ruins of the Temple, bewailing 
its destruction and the dispersion of Israel among the idolatrous nations, and Lam. 
R. Proem. 24: God weeping on account of the destruction of the Sanctuary. 

five rivers of tears. . .shook the earth. . .five times. The number 'five' is 
deduced from the passage Isa. xxiv. 19 seq. from the five repetitions in that passage 
of expressions conveying the same thing: the earth being shaken. 

(5) This and the following verses contain an eschatological piece treating of the 
final consummation by God himself in the end of times. No effort is made by 
the writer to reconcile it with the frame of the preceding ace. to which R. Ishmael 
is standing by Metatron's side beholding the Right Hand of God. 

when the Holy One, blessed be He, sees, that there is no righteous man in 
the generation, etc. The deliverance of Israel and the establishment of the King- 
dom on earth was to have been brought about as a consequence of the intercessions 
and prayers of the righteous and pious among the Israelites, see vs. 8. As the ideal 
examples of intercessors in the past the writer points to Moses and Samuel, cf. 
vs. 6. The identity as final goals of the deliverance of Israel, the revelation of the 
Heavenly Kingdom on earth and the reinstating of God's Right Hand in its right 
position and activity is here expressed: who could pray. . .for the deliverance, 
for His Kingdom, that it be revealed in the whole world; and for His great 
Right Hand, that He put it before Himself again. 'Again', i.e. 'as in the 
ancient days, in the generations of old' (Is. li. 9) when it wrought salvation for 
Israel by the Red Sea (Is. li. 10) or when it stretched forth the heavens and laid the 
foundations of the earth (ch. xliv. 7 and Is. li. 13). 



CH.XLVIIl(A)] METATRON SHOWS R. ISHMAEL SECRETS 157 

(6) then forthwith will the Holy One, blessed be He, remember 
His own justice, 8 favour, mercy 8 and grace : and He will deliver His 
great Arm by himself, and His righteousness will support Him. 
According as it is written (Is. lix. 16): "And he saw, that there was 
no man" (that is:) like unto Moses who prayed countless times for 
Israel in the desert and averted the (Divine) decrees from them 
" and he wondered, that there was no intercessor" like unto Samuel 
who intreated the Holy One, blessed be He, and called 8a unto Him 8 % 
and he answered him and fulfilled his desire, even if it was not fit 
(in accordance with the Divine plan), according as it is written 
(i Sam. xii. 17) : " Is it not wheat-harvest to-day? I will call unto the 
Lord". 

(7) And not only that, but He joined fellowship with Moses 9 in 
every place 9 , as it is written (Ps. xcix. 6): "Moses and Aaron among 
His priests." 10 . n And again it is written 11 (Jer. xv. i): "Though 



8-8 E om. 8a-8a E om. 9-9 E om. 10 E adds : 'and Samuel among 

them that call upon His name' ii-n E: 'and He says' 

(6) then forthwith will the Holy One, blessed be He, remember His own 
justice, favour, mercy and grace: and He will deliver.... The final con- 
summation brought about by God Himself is the burden of the whole fragment. 
The thought here is, that when the expectations for prayers and intercessions from 
the righteous in Israel are shown to be in vain, then God will support His work 
for the deliverance of Israel, i.e. the establishment of His Kingdom, by His own 
righteousness, merits and mercies : on their ground the establishment of the King- 
dom by God Himself and alone will be justified in spite of the lack of merits on 
the part of Israel. 

Moses and Samuel. The interceding power of Moses with the Most High is a 
frequent theme in Rabbinic ; it is especially attached to the narrative of the golden 
calf of Ex. xxxii (TB. Her. 32 a, Meg. 243, Ex. R. xlvii. 14, Num. R. ii. 14, Dent. R. 
i. 2). Cf. also- Midrash Petirath Moshe, BH. i. 121 (Moses says: Rather sooner let 
Moses and a thousand like him perish than that one of the people of Israel should 
perish!" ib. BH. i. 129: "Numerous times did Israel provoke me to anger, but he 
(Moses) prayed for them and placated me"). Cf. further TB. Ber. 7 a, Yoma, 
36 b, Baba Bathra, 8 a. 

The verse, Is. lix. 6, 'And he saw that there was no man' etc. is also in 'Othioth 
ha-mMashiach, BH. ii. 60, used of the end of times, preceding the appearance of 
Messiah ben Joseph. and His righteousness will support Him. This re-echoes 
the latter part of the quoted passage (Is. lix. 6) : ' his righteousness, it sustained him '. 

Samuel . . . fulfilled his desire, even if it was not fit. The scriptural reference, 
i Sam. xii. 17, is to support the statement that God granted Samuel his requests, 
even when their fulfilment might not be in accordance with His own plan. To 
understand this the following part of the passage must be supplemented :"...! will 
call unto the Lord and he shall send thunder and rain, that ye may perceive and 
see that your wickedness is great. . .so Samuel called unto the Lord, and the Lord 
sent thunder and rain". The underlying idea is that God on this occasion inter- 
rupted the pre-determined course of events (implying a weather not destructive 
for the wheat-harvest) in favour of Samuel (sending thunder