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...Ml/NUTES... 



OF THE 



FIRST 



Bebrew^Cbrisiian Conference 



OF THE 



"Oniteb States. 



HELD AT 



Mountain Lake Park, Md. 

JULY 2S-3O, I0O3. 



EDITED BY 

THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

PRICE 15c EACH; 2 for 2Sc, $1.50 PER DOZEN POSTPAID. 



THE GLORY OF ISRAEL. 

(Illustrated.) 

Published by the New Covenant Mission. Pittsburgh, Pa., in 
the interest of Jewish evangelization. The magazine has a wide 
circle of readers, living in twenty-eight different countries. Rev. 
E. B. Samuels, of the Mildmay Mission to the Jews, Condon, 
England, writes: "The October copy of The Glory of Israel has 
just arrived, we all enjoy the magazine and think it one of the 
best Hebrew-Christian periodicals published." 

PRICE, 50 CENTS A YEAR. 

Address, 333 42d Street, Pittsburgh, Pa, 

THE JEWISH ERA. 

(Quarterly.) 

Published by the Chicago Hebrew Mission. Is in 
its twelfth year, ably edited, full of interest ..... 

PRICE, 25 CENTS A YEAR. 

Address, 22 Solon Place, Chicago,! Hi. 
THE PEOPLE, THE LAND, AND THE BOOK. 

(Illustrated Hebrew=Christian Quarterly.) 

This magazine has been highly commended by religious and 
secular periodicals. It treats of the old and historic people 
Israel, of their native land, Palestine, and of the book, the Bible, 
Jewish traditions and literature. 

PRICE, $1.00 PER YEAR. 

Address, B. A. M. SCHAPIRO, 

Station D, Box 18, New York, N. Y. 




0'* THE 



FIRST 





Conference 



OE THE 



IHnfteb States* 

.^v^v^v-v-w -^*-^-*rv 

HELD AT 

Mountain Lake Park, Md. 

JULY 28-3O, SQO3. 

Copyright by the Editing Committee. 
EDITED BY 

THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Copies of these Minutes can be obtained from the Secretary, 
Maurice Ruben, 333 42d Street, Pittsburgh, Pa, 



V 










Conference 



OF THE 



TUniteb States. 

^^^^^^^i^^XXX^^^rf^X^^*- 

HELD AT 

Mountain Lake Park, Md. 

JULY 2S-3O, I9O3. 

Copyright by the Editing Committee. 
EDITED BY 

THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Copies of these Minutes can be obtained from the Secretary, 
Maurice Ruben, 333 42d Street, Pittsburgh, Pa, 



Ill 




REV. A. R. KULDEIvI,, (Ev. Lutheran.) 
President of. Conference, 



IV 




REV. LOUIS MEYER, (Ref. Presbyterian.) 

Corresponding Secretary of Conference. ' 



V 




MAURICE RUBEN, (Methodist Episcopal.) 
Recording Secretary of Conference. 



VI 




REV. J. R. LEVECK, (Independent.) 
Treasurer of Conference. 



VII 




REV. H. ZECKHAUSEN, (Meth. Episcopal.) 




MARK LEVY, (Protestant Episcopal.) 



VIII 



c 1 r r j >%'t - *- A 




REV.'- LEOPOLD -COHN, (Baptist.) 



IX 




A. T. DUSHAW, (Congregational.) 




REV. B. B. SAMUEL, London, England.) 



XI 




REV. S. K. BRAUN, (Baptist.) 



XII 




REV. H. JACOBS, (Presbyterian.) 



XIII 




PHILIP SIDERSKY, (Presbyterian.) 




JACOB MORRIS, (U. Brethren.) 



MINUTES OF THE PROCEEDINGS. 



The Conference was called to order by Rev. A. R. Kuldell, 
chairman of the special committee appointed at the Boston Con- 
ference of the Messianic Council, May 22, 1901. 

The Chairman stated that the present Conference was the re- 
sult of the Conference held at Boston. The first item on the pro- 
gram was the election of officers, which resulted as follows: Rev. 
A. R. Kuldell, Chairman; Rev. Louis Meyer, corresponding sec- 
retary; Mr. Maurice Ruben, recording secretary. 

The Chairman thanked the Conference for the honor confer- 
red upon him, but wished to refer especially to the good work 
done by 'Bro. Louis Meyer in behalf of the Conference, bringing 
out the fact that he conducted an immense correspondence with 
hundreds of Hebrew-Christians, and spared neither time nor means 
to make this gathering possible. Bro. Philip Sidersky was also 
commended for his many labors. The courtesies of the platform 
were extended to the Mt. Lake officials, and to the ministers of 
the gospel present. 

The Chairman now led the Conference in prayer. The firs* 
address on the program was now given. "The Awakening of the 
Church to Due Sense of Her Responsibility to obey the order of 
Christ, to the Jew first." Dr. Harry Zeckhausen, New York. 
Bro. Louis Meyer was requested to add to the statistics given in 
the address, which he did. 

Bro. Mark Levy gave an address on "Methods of Presenting 
the gospel to the Jews First." A short discussion followed this 
address, the brethren taking issue with Bro. Levy as to the "ex- 
pediency" of the "methods" he, advocated. 

The Conference adjourned with singing and benediction by 
Chairman. 

WEDNESDAY, JULY 29, 1903. 

The Conference met at 9 A. M. Devotional exercises led by 
Bro. Ruben. The minutes of the first session were read and 
adopted. 

The following executive committee was appointed to act 
with the officers : Dr. H. Zeckhausen, J. R. Leveck, Leopold 
Cohen, Philip Sidersky. Invitations accepted to dine at the 
"Faith Home" on Wednesday noon. 



Address by Bro. B. Angel on "What can be done to elevate 
Hebrew Christianity in the estimation of the Jews?" 

A discussion followed, in which a number of the brethren 
took part. Bro. Louis Meyer read a letter bearing on the above 
subject from Rev. Arnold Frank of the Hamburg Mission. 

It was resolved that steps be taken to purifv the ranks of 
Hebrew-Christians of the imposters who prey on the Christian 
world, and that pastors should be instructed not to admit to their 
pulpits Jews who have not proper credentials from missions of 
recognized standing. 

Address by Bro. H. Jacobs on "What can be done to elevate 
Hebrew-Christianity in the estimation of Christians ?" 

Conference adjourned after prayer and benediction. 

2 o'clock P. M. The Conference met and was led in devo- 
tional exercises by Bro. Mark Levy. The minutes of the last 
session were read and approved. 

The following brethren were appointed a "Committee on 
Resolution :" Leopold Cohen, Bernard Angel and J. R. Leveck. 

Address by Bro. S. K. Braun on "The Hebbrew-Chriistians 
and National Movements of the Jews." 

The speaker traced these movements from apostolic times 
and dealt with the present national movement of Zionism. 

M. Ruben followed, taking up other movements amongst the 
Jews The Council of Jewish Women, Societies of Endeavor, 
Sabbath School Union, and the various fraternal societies. 

Address by Bro. Louis Meyer on "Hebrew-Christian Unions, 
Alliances, and Brotherhoods in the past and their lessons." 

M. Ruben and Philip Sidersky were appointed a "Press 
Committee." 

After prayer the Conference adjourned. 

7.30 o'clock. Devotional exercises led by Bro. Philip Si- 
dersky. Conference called to order by Chairman. 

A message in song was given by Mrs. Gondret. 

Address by Rev. Amos I. Dushaw on "What can be done to 
make Jewish Missions more successful?" 

Bro. Louis Meyer discussed the address, taking exceptions 
to some of the statements made by Mr. Dushaw. 

Address by Chairman Rev. A. R. Kuldell. After singing 
the doxology, Conference was dismissed with benediction by the 
chairman. 



THURSDAY, JULY 30, 1903. 9 O'clock A. M. . 

The Conference met and was led in devotional exercise by 
Bro. J. R. Leveck. 

The minutes of the last two sessions were read and approved. 

At the suggestion of Bro. Meyer the Conference resolved to 
raise a fund to carry forward the work of the Conference. The 
following subscriptions were made: L. Cohen, $5; H. Zeckhau- 
sen, $5; Philip Sidersky, $5; Mark Levy, $5; A. R. Kuldell, $5; 
M. Ruben, $5 ; J. R. Leveck, $5 ; Dr. D. Pagan, $5 ; A Friend, $5 ; 
B. Angel, $3 ; H. Jacobs, $3 ; A. I. Dttshaw, $2 ; S. K. Braun, $2.. 

Bro. J. R. Leveck was elected treasurer. 

Conference resolved to have the minutes printed, and to include 
the addresses and portraits of delegates. Report of committee on- 
Resolutions adopted. The report is as follows : That your Com- 
mittee are gratified with the progress of the Conference, with the- 
encouragement .thus far obtained in a renewed interest among 
Hebrew-Christians, and the deep interest shown on the part of 
Christian friends. That we recommend most earnestly the Con- 
ference to proceed to carry out the aim and object towards the 
formation of an Alliance in the near future. 

Motion carried to leave with the Executive Committee the 
selection of a place for the next Conference. The following 
places were presented: Chicago, Pittsburg, Mt. Lake Park, and 
Ocean Grove. Motion carried to send letter of greeting to the 
Friends of Israel at Stockholm, Denmark. Motion to proceed, 
with program of the day. Rev. E. B. Samuel, of the -Mildmay 
Mission to the Tews, London, England, was introduced and was 
given a cordial welcome. He addressed the Conference, extend- 
ing the greetings from the London friends, and gave a .helpful 
message. Address by Bro. Leopold Cohen on "What can we do 
to make Jewish Missions more successful ?" 

The delegates were directed to pass all papers and addresses 
to Bro. M. Ruben for future use. After prayer and benediction 
the Conference adjourned. 

2.00 P. M. Closing session of Conference. 

Devotional exercises led by Bro. B. Angel. Minutes of the 
last session read and approved. . Secretary directed to give names 
and addresses of the delegates in attendance and to state their 
denominational relation. -Reports of Committee on Resolution 



adopted to tender vote of thanks to the Mt. Lake Park Associa- 
tion, for their generous support towards the expenses of the Con- 
ference in addition to the privileges of the auditorium, to the B. 
& O. R. R. Co, for the transportation of speakers, to the friends 
who entertained them, and to the many friends who attended the 
Conference sessions and by their presence cheered the hearts of 
the Conferencs, 

Resolved to leave with the Executive Committee 'the selec- 
tion of a place for the next Conference. 

Motion carried to have photograph plates copyrighted. 

Report of Press Committee approved. The minutes of the 
session were read and approved. 

Closing remarks were made by some of the delegates and 
Christian friends in appreciation of the blessings the Conference 
has been to all. 

After prayer and the singing of the doxology, the Conference 
adjourned with the benediction by the chairman. 



REPORT OP i HE, CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 



REV. .LOUIS MEYIJR, HOPKINTON, IOWA. 



DEAR BRETHREN : 

When our little company met in Boston, Mass., May 22d, 
1901, and. talked about the forming of a 'Hebrew-Christian Alli- 
ance, a committee consisting of five members, of which Rev. A. 
R. Kuldell was chairman and the speaker corresponding secre- 
tary, was appointed to take the necessary steps and call, if neces- 
sary, a meeting. of Hebrew-Christians at some convenient place. 
It was at once decided by the committee to go very slow, since the 
task given to us seemed very difficult, and .nothing of any impor- 
tance Avas done, until in November, 1902, your committee, which 
by that, time had shrunk to two members, the chairman and the 
secretary, decided to send the following printed circular to all 
Hebrew-Christians known to us as of good standing in American 
Evangelical ' Churches : 



REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

REV. U)UIS MEYER, PASTOR. 

HOPKINTON, IOWA, November 25, 1902. 
Dear Brother: 

A little company of Hebrews who belie\e in Jesus the Mes- 
siah, met in Boston, Mass., May 22d, 1901, and contemplated the 
forming of a Union, or Alliance, among those who have been led 
out of Judaism into the full light of the Gospel. The committee,, 
to whom the task of formulating this alliance was entrusted, has 
been rather slow in doing even preliminary work, for its members 
were well aware of all the difficulties in the way, but it has now 
decided to address you, as well as all other Hebrew-Christians of 
standing in the Church of Jesus Christ, and to ask if you are will- 
ing to unite with us in a conference of Hebrew-Christian minis- 
ters and business men to take place next July at Mountain Lake 
Park, Md. 

You will be ready to admit that undoubtedly many benefits 
would come to ourselves, if we Hebrew-Christians thus get per- 
sonally acquainted one with another and could exchange our per- 
sonal experiences and ideas. But, we believe, that far greater 
benefits than those to ourselves would come unto the Church of 
Jesus Christ and to the cause of Jewish Missions, which is so dear 
unto the heart of every Hebrew-Christian. 

The Church, in seeing a representative gathering of Jewish 
followers of the Lord Jesus Christ, would rejoice, and her faith 
in the glorious promises of God would be increased. The cause 
of Jewish Missions would be considered an unsuccessful and a 
hopeless work no longer, and, with the help of God, a wave of en- 
thusiasm might be started which would would cause the carrying 
of the Gospel unto the long-neglected sons of Israel, 
and the eyes of our unbelieving Jews would be opened, if 
they could see a gathering of representative Hebrew-Christians, 
and would thus see disproved the false claim of their rabbis that 
none but the Jewish rabble is converted to Christianity ! 

But let us, lastly, call your attention to the fact a close alli- 
ance of Hebrew-Christians is the only way in which we can op- 
pose, and perhaps control, the numerous frauds and vagabonds 
who, posing as converts, martyrs, or missionaries, are undoubt- 
edly the greatest hindrance in the way of Jewish Missions. 

We hope that, after prayerful consideration of this appeal, 

5 , 



you will write to the corresponding secretary of our committee if 
you are willing to take part in such a conference of Hebrew- 
Christian ministers and business men, to take place in Mountain 
Lake Park, Maryland, between July I7th and 23d, 1903, where 
we might consider important biblical and practical topics con- 
cerning Israel, and also the proposed alliance of Hebrew-Chris- 
tians. 

Yours in the Master's service, 

A. R. KULDELL, President, 
Pastor St. Paul's Hi'. Lutheran Church, Allegheny, Pa. 

LOUIS MEYER, Secretary, 
Pastor Reformed Presbyterian Church, Hopkintvn, Iowa. 

A large number of these circulars were sent out to American 
Hebrew-Christians ; a few were sent to Hebrew-Christian breth- 
ren abroad, that we might have their prayers, and their counsel, 
and, if possible, their presence at the proposed meeting; and 
about one dozen were sent to Gentile Christians whom we knew 
as lovers of Israel and as prayerfully interested in the evangeliza- 
tion of our Jewish brethren. 

Four hundred and thirty-nine answers reached me from 
American Hebrew-Christians, of which large number only two 
were opposed to a Hebrew-Christian Alliance, although but very 
few declared themselves able to attend the proposed meeting at 
Mountain Lake Park, Marjdand. 

Prominent missionary papers on both sides of the ocean re- 
published our circular, and Saat auf Hoffnung, the excellent 
magazine founded by that grand lover of Israel, Franz Delitzsch, 
gave it a prominent place, while the Missionary Review of the 
World, Missions-Tiding for Israel, De Hope Israels, and other 
papers called the attention of their readers to the effort. Thus 
the proposed Hebrew-Christian Conference and Alliance were 
widely advertised, and numerous letters of approval came from 
all parts of the world. 

Encouraged by the general interest, assured of the approval 
of a large number of prominent Hebrew-Christians in America, 
the committee decided to call the Hebrew-Christian Conference 

'6 



to Mountain Lake Park, Md., to meet July 28-30 inclusive, and 
the following circular was published and sent by the secretary to 
all Hebrew-Christians who had shown their interest in the move- 
ment: 

REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 
REV. Louis MEYER, PASTOR. 

HOPKINTON, IOWA, July i, 1903. 
Dear Bro,: 

You have, we trust, not forgotten the circular touching a 
proposed Alliance of Hebrew-Christian Conference to be held in 
July, which we sent you in November, 1902, and to which you 
sent a kind reply to our undersigned secretary, so that we need 
only refer to its contents. 

The answers to our circular were numerous and mostly fav- 
orable to the proposed alliance of Hebrew-Christians, while a 
more limited number of our brethren expressed themselves in 
favor of the proposed cOnferenc of Hebrew-Christians, and a still 
more limited number of our brethren promised their presence and 
active help at the conference. 

In spite of this limited number, the committee was not in 
doubt whether it should go forward with the necessary arrange- 
ments for the proposed conference of Hebrew-Christians or not, 
since the Lord seemed to open the way for it, and after due delib- 
eration decided that aHebrew-Christian Conference should be held 
in Mountain Lake Park, Maryland, July 28-30 inclusive. We 
have the pleasure of submitting to you to-day the program for the 
conference, which, however, may yet be changed in some unessen- 
tial points, and we hope that you will be able to attend the confer- 
ence, and that you will thus help us to make it a success. But, 
whether you be able to meet personally with us or not, remember 
the meeting in your prayers, asking God for wisdom in behalf of 
those who shall meet, and for the presence of the Holy Spirit that 
the meeting be harmonious, and may redound to the glory of God, 
and to the temporal and eternal welfare of Hebrew-Christians. 
If you desire any information touching railroad and hotel rates, 
write to Philip Siderslcy, Rosenhayn, N. J., who, being near to the 
proposed place of meeting, has been entrusted by us with all that 



refers to rates and boarding. If you desire any further informa- 
tion touching the meeting and the program, write to one of the 
two who sign this letter. 

We are, dear Brother, yours in the Master's Service, 

A. R. KULDELL, President, 
Pastor St. Paul's Hv. Lutheran Church, Allegheny, Pa. 

LOUIS MEYER, 

Pastor Reformed Presbyterian Church, Hopkinton, Iowa; Secre- 
tary of the Committee appointed in Boston, 1901. 

In answer to this second circular a number of letters reached 
me from brethren whose heart is with us here to-day, but who 
are hindered by sickness or some other weighty reason, among 
them Miss Gertrude L. Goldstein, Prof. I. J. Peritz, Revs. N. 
Winegart and A. D. Cohen, whose names appear in the list of our 
speakers. It is impossible to read to you the more than eight 
hundred letters which reached me in regard to the Hebrew-Chris- 
tian Alliance, so that I shall be obliged to select the most interest- 
ing ones, giving in most cases only a part of the letter, and in the 
great majority of letters only the name of the writer. 

F. W. A. Koeff, Amsterdam, Holland, the editor of De Hope 
Israels, says : "As I am a Gentile Christian, I have no right to at- 
tend the Conference of Hebrew-Christians. But I take a great 
interest in the proposed meeting and pray that the Lord may bless 
you and all the brethren who are able to attend the conference, 
and that all your doings may redound to the glory of God and to 
prosperity of His beloved people Israel." 

Colin Young, Superintendent of the Wild Olive Graft Mis- 
sion, London: "I have read the invitation to a conference of He- 
brew-Christians with peculiar interest as it was a belief of mine 
thirty years ago that being a Scotch Highlander and never having 
any connection with a Jewish Society I could have some influence 
for good amongst them * * * * * * *. You, dear 
brethren, go on,. do not be discouraged with fewness of attenders, 
division of opinion, mockers outside. Hold fast to the clefted 
Rock, and be men of God. It is a trying work ! But the more I 
am tried, the deeper the love seems to settle in my heart. It is a 
work you cannot do in 'your own strength, or in your own way 
'Power from on High,' 'tarry,' 'Power to the faint.' My prayer 
is that you may get a rich blessing, but do not yield to the term 

8 



'Hebrew-Christian.' What difference is there between a Scotch 
Highlander washed in the blood, clothed in the ..righteousness, 
and indwelt. by the spirit of Christ and a Hebrew-Christian? 
Ye are all one in Christ Jesus! It is another kind of wall of sep- 
aration send the distinction back amongst the ruins of the old 
wall. Let all who love you gather with you, and an .the unity the 
Lord Jesus will be glorified! ***** *." 

Rev. R. P. Mackay, D.D., Toronto, Canada, Foreign Mission 
Committee of the Presbyterian Church in Canada: "I think it a 
wise move. . The formation of such an alliance. would give unity 
and visibility to the Hebrew work, which would give -it" strength. 
* * ~* * * My sympathy and interest is with -you." 

Rev. J. T. Graccy, D.D., Rochester, N. Y., President Inter- 
national Missionary Union : "It seems as if such union would be 
necessary to strengthen and guard." 

Pastor T. Lindhagen, Stockholm, Foereningeh foer Israel's 
Mission: "Although not of Jewish blood, I sympathize most 
deeply with your undertaking, and I pray that the spirit of wis- 
dom, power, and love, be poured out in richest abundance upon 
all who shall meet. As president of the Swedish Mission to the 
Jews, I, am glad to be able to tell you, that our Swedish Hebrew- 
Christians have founded a Hebrew-Christian Federation, which 
now has twenty members. . * * * * * * * As we hear 
from the different parts of the earth that the Hebrews who be- 
lieve in Jesus as the Messiah, are coming together in closer union, 
we greatly rejoice, and take this approachment as the earnest of 
better things to .come." 

Swedish Hebrew-Christian. Federation, Stockholm; L. Phil- 
ipson, president : "The Swedish Hebrew-Christian Federation, 
which was founded 1902 and was, by the grace. of God, enabled 
to celebrate its first anniversary in April, has heard with much 
pleasure of the Hebrew-Christian Conference to be held in Moun- 
tain Lake Park in July. 

The Federation sends hearty s'reetinsfs to the. conference and 
regrets that the long distance prohibits the sending of a delegate. 
Fully conscious that the barriers of earth are no 'hindrances in the 
spiritual world, the members of the Federation: will be present 
with heart and mind, and with earnest prayer for the blessing of 
God, our Saviour, upon the meeting, and with praise that He. who 
was faithful to His ancient people, even now causes movements 



like yours. Jer. 31 :io;,Rom. 11:15. What encouragement those, 
and many other passages of the Holy Scriptures contain for all 
who are laboring for the salvation of Israel, but especially for us 
Hebrew-Christians, whose conversion is but a pledge of the com- 
ing conversion of Israel as a nation. Let us labor with united 
strength, with the prayer of faith, and with deeds of love, that 
the coming- of that glorious day may be hastened ! 

It would be., a pleasure to us, if there should be established 
an intimate connection between our federation and the American 
Alliance, which, . we hope, will be founded . at your conference. 
Whenever an International Hebrew-Christian Alliance should be 
founded, oiur federation will gladly be a member of it. 

With repeated brotherly greetings to the Conference, we ex- 
press our hope that the report of your meetings be published and 
a copy of it be furnished for our instruction." 

The Executive Committee of the Jerusalem Hebrew-Chris- \ 
tian Association; Miss P. M. Cohen, Secretary: "We thank you 
for remembering us touching your proposed Hebrew-Christian. 
Alliance, and though we are unable to- meet personally with you, 
we will remember all your programme t and join with you in the 
prayer that, whatever is decided on, may be for God's Glory and 
the good of Hebrew-Christians everywhere. 

If you can let us know the result of your conference later on, 
we will be most happy to join you in anything that would be best 
for us all. 

With Christian sympathy and fellowship, we are, 

THE EXEC. COMMITTEE OF THE H. C. A., JERUSALEM. 

Prayer Union for Israel, Australasian Council, Melbourne, 
Australia: "I read the circular to the Council on Monday, and 
they directed me to express their very cordial sympathy with the 
conference and, to say that it will be remembered by ,us in prayer, 
and we trust will result in great blessing to all concerned." 

., Rev. M. M. Ben-Oliel, Superintendent of the Kilburn Mis- 
sion to the Jews, President of the Hebrew-Christian Alliance and 
Prayer Union: "Nothing "would give me greater pleasure than to 
be one of the brethren of the house of Israel who believe in Christ, 

. at your proposed conference. But I am prevented by old age and 
infirmity. * * * * * * * * The aims you have set be- 
fore you, are every one very desirable. I will pray most earnestly ' 

that God the Holy Ghost, may be with you and direct your delib-< 

10 



rations and decisions to the flory of God, and the good of Israel, 
the Church, and the whole world." 

Rev. Isaac Levinson, London, Secretary British Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel among the Jews : "I am verv much 
interested in your proposed conference of Hebrew-Christians, 
and I think it a very desirable thing. * * * * j ^{^ you 
success, and I pray that God's blessing may rest upon your un- 
dertaking." 

Prediger C. T. Lipshytz, London, Barbican Mission to the 
Jews : "I hope that your efforts will be crowned with succe'ss, for 
union gives strength in the kingdom of God, too." 

Pastor Arnold Pr&ik^ Hamburg, Missionary to the Jews, 
sent by the Irish Presbyterian Church : "I am deeply interested, 
for I believe it will be the means of great blessings." 

I received also letters and cards from a large number of 
British and German Hebrew-Christians, missionaries and pastors, 
-among them D. C. Joseph, long years in Palestine, now in Lon- 
don; Henry Barnett, London; S. B. Rohold, Glasgow; J. de le 
Roi, the historian of Jewish Missions, Schweidnitz, Germany, etc. 

AMERICAN HEBREW-CHRISTIANS. 

Bishop S. L /. Schereschezvsky, D.D., Tokyo, Japan: "I need 
hardly say how deeply I am interested in the matters you propose 
considering, and also in the Droposed alliance of "Hebrew-Chris- 
tians. Although it is not in my power to be present, I can still 
sympathize with you meeting together, and trust that it may bring 
the solution of many questions and the maturing of the best meth- 
ods of carrying on the cause of Jewish Missions. Trusting that 
your minds and hearts may be divinely illuminated, so that you 
may see clearly what it is best to do for the gathering-in of 
Israel * * * *." 

Rev. Solomon L. Ginsburg, Pernambuco, Brazil, Missionary 
of* the Southern Baptist Church : "I hasten to inform you that I 
shall be delighted to join the Hebrew-Christian Alliance. I can- 
not tell just now if it will be possible for me to be with you in 
July * * * *. Meanwhile I can only tell you that I am with 
you heart and soul, and if I can do anything, just let me know." 

Rev. A. B. de Roos, Managua, Nicaragua, Missionary of the 
Central American Mission : "It is needless to say that I feel sorry 
not to be able to attend the Hebrew-Christian Conference. How 
much I would tike to be among my brethren and enjoy their fel- 

ii 



lowship! But time is short, . and out here there is so much need 
that it will be impossible to leave the field this year, although I am 
much broken in health. God bless you ! Give my love toi the ' 
brethren 1" 

Dr. M. /. Franklin, Jerusalem, Palestine, prominent in Amer- 
ican Jewish Missions in New York, 1855-70; baptized i'n New- 
burgh, N. Y., 1847; graduate of Union Theological Seminary p 
surgeon in the army 1861-65, etc. "The task you have underta- 
ken and the object you aim at, has enlisted my lively interest; and 
I rejoice to know that the blessed Redeemer has put it into your 
heart to take up the work which, under less favorable circum- 
stances and almost insurmountable difficulties, I alone sought to 
keep alive during the last 30 years of my residence in the United 
States." 

The following names may be selected from the large- number 
of Hebrew-Christians living in the United States and Canada, 
who expressed their approval of the proposed alliance : 

Adolph Aron, Lincoln, Neb. ; business man. 

Rev. Moses Bercovitz, San Francisco, Cal, ; Pres. Missionary, 

Harry L. Brenner, Wilkesbarre, Pa. ; evangelist. 

Rev. N. Brun, Ashley, N. D. ; Lutheran pastor. 

Rev. E. P. Block, Stockton, Cal. ; Lutheran pastor. 

Rev. Amos I. Dushaw, New York, N. Y. ; Union Theological 
Seminary. 

Rev. F. G. Bingley, Sioux City, Iowa ; evangelist. 

Henry Chester, San Francisco, Cal. ; business man. 

Rev. Fred. Drexler, Chester, Pa. ; Baptist. 

Rev. L. J. Ehrlich, Morganton, N. C. ; Methodist evangelist.. 

Rev. Jacob Finger, Bakersfield, Vt. ;- Methodist pastor. 

Rev. Elias Edward Gruenstein, Monticello, Iowa; Reformed! 
pastor. 

Rev. C. E. Harris, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Methodist retired, pastor.. 

Rev. E. N. Heimann, Chicago, 111. ,* Lutheran pastor and 
missionary. 

Henry Hellyer, Toronto, Canada; evangelist. 

Jacob Harris, Chicago,, 111. ; evangelist. 

Rev. J. A. Jetmore, Neosho, Mo. ; Baptist pastor. 

Rev. John B. Kaloria, Lenzburg, 111. ; evang., pastor.. 

Gerhard T. Krohn, Chicago, 111. ; business man. 

Arthur Ben-Oliel, Chicago, 111. ; business man. 

12 



James Ledy, Minneapolis, Minn. ; business man. 

Mark Le^ , St. Louis, Mo. ; missionary. 

Rev. N. Winegart, Clearfield, Iowa ; U. P. pastor. 

Prof. I. J. Peritz, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. ; 
Methodist. 

Rev. 'S. Lefkovics, Ada, Wis. ; Lutheran pastor. 

Rev. A. Lichtenstein, St. Louis, Mo. ; Baptist, missionary. 

Rev. Julius Magath, Oxford, Ga. ; Methodist, missionary. 

Rev. John W. Marcusson; La Grange, 111. ; Presb., retired. 

Mrs. Thomas McCorkle, Mrs. Preston, and other Hebrew- 
Christian ladies. 

Rev. I. Neumann, Inglefield, Ind. ; evang., pastor. 

Rev. Jos. Karl Poch, Yorktown, Texas ; Lutheran, pastor. 

Rev. S. Ragowsky, Cincinnati, O. ; Baptist, missionary. 

Rev. J. Resnick, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Lutheran, pastor. 

Rev. I. T; Trebitsch, Montreal, Canada; Episc., missionary. 

Levi Rosenbaum, Washington, D, C. ; Meth., business man. 

Miss E. Y. Sams, Toronto, Can. ; teacher. 

Rev. J. F. N. Wolf, San Francisco, Cal. ; Luth., retired. 

Rev. A. D. Cohen, Baltimore, Md. ; Baptist, retired, etc., etc. 

And now, in closing this report of "the steps which led up to 
this conference, let me say that I feel greatly encour- 
aged. We. meet to-day, few in. nmmbers, and yet as the letters 
read to you in part prove, we are the representatives of a large 
number of American Hebrew-Christians, who are kept away by 
reason of far distance or adverse circumstances. And as we are 
meeting, we have the assurance that prayers in behalf of this con- 
ference have been, and are, offered in many parts of the inhabited 
world, and that in answer to these prayers the divine blessing 
shall be poured out upon us. 

Brethren, many fold are the signs that this movement is of 
God, and not of men. The Lord is working with us, and pros- 
perity shall attend our efforts ! 

Let us, therefore, so on, trusting in the Lord Jesus Christ for 
strength, humbly conscious of the fact that in ourselves we are 
weak, but that His strength -is all sufficient, and knowing well 
that the word of the Lord shall be fulfilled and "He that scat- 
tered Israel will gather him, and keep him as a sheoherd doth his 
flock." Respectfully submitted, 

July 29, 1903. Louis MEYER. 

13 



Why Should Hebrew-Christians Unite? 

BY THE CHAIRMAN, REV. A. R. KUIJDEUv. 

In Christ Beloved: 

It causes me great pleasure to address this large audience to- 
night on the subject, "Why Hebrew-Christians Should Unite." 
It is true that in comparison with the multitude of Gentile Chris- 
tians present the number of Hebrew-Christians in this Confer- 
ence seems quite small, but this little company grows in my mind 
into a great host, when I think of the longings and aspirations of 
the great body of Hebrew believers in this and other lands crys- 
talized in this little company here present. Brethren, a great 
multitude of Hebrew believers in this and other lands are praying 
during these days for God's guidance and Spirit upon our delib- 
erations. They know how much the usefulness of blessedness of 
a future Alliance is conditioned by the kind of a foundation we 
lay for it at this conference. They know the great difficulties in 
the way. They know the differences between the different evan- 
gelical churches through whose instrumentalities we have been 
brought to Christ, and they know the affection and loyalty with 
which most of us are clinging to the denominations among whom 
'we have found the Messiah. We all know the discouragements 
we shall have to meet with both from within and from without, 
"but the fact that so many of our brethren are praying and longing 
for a closer union between us, and that so many Gentile Chris- 
tians from different denominations are attending our sessions, and 
that many others are praying for our success, is an iridicatiorj 
that God's time has come and that we must go forward. Allow 
me therefore to point out a few thoughts on the subject, 

WHY HEBREW-CHRISTIANS SHOULD UNITE. * 

i. Because of our own need. We cannot afford to forgel 
the rock from which we are hewn. We have indeed given p oui 
people's unbelief, but we cannot give up our people. We havf 
joined the Church of the First Born, composed of individual; 
called out of all nations to be a people unto His name, but we hav< 
, not and dare not give " up our nationality. Our nation stand; 
unique in God's plan of the. ages. God has not dealt so with anj 

^ The writer has mislaid the original manuscript and can bnlj 
give a few main 'thoughts from memory. 



nation. Of all the nations ours is the only one that owes its birth 
to a miracle. To them pertaineth the adoption,, and the glory, 
and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of 
God, and the promises ; whose are the fathers and of whom as 
concerning the flesh Christ came, who is God over all blessed for- 
ever. Amen. Rom. 9. Israel is the everlasting nation. Isa. 
44.- It is prefigured by the burning bush which was never con- 
sumed. Israel's call and election are not of works or merit, but 
of grace, and God's calling and gifts , are without repentance. 
"Salvation is of the Jews." They were the seed sowers at the 
beginning and they shall be the sheaf-gatherers at the end of this 
dispensation. Zach. 8 '.13 ; Isa. 66 :ic>. We are Christians .indeed, 
followers of the Lamb, but we live not under the law, but under- 
grace. If Israel is ever to claim God's glorious promises it will 
have to do so by faith, but He has given us the faith, do you won- 
der then that Paul by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost calls the 
believing Jews "The Israel of God?'.' Gal. 6:16. We must 
stand together as the Israel of God. 

2. We ought to unite because our nation needs it. The 
national movements* among our people are inaugurated by men 
who are blind leaders of the blind. Whilst God is able to make 
even the wrath of men to praise him, yet we know that when the 
blind leads the blind, both fall into the ditch. As disunited indi- 
viduals our influence for good is like an atom lost in the breeze, 
but united into' one living, loving, shining mass, our impact will 
not fail to make the desired impression on our people. Our peo- 
ple needs this union. 

3. The Church needs it. Unbelieving Israels' sojourn 
among the Christian nations has ripened many grave problems 
whose solution has proved quite unpleasant to Jew and Gentile 
alike. There is a curse resting upon our people, because of their 
unbelief. Isa. 43:27, 28; Mai. 2. By God's grace Israel is a 
blessing, but despising this grace it becomes a curse to the na- 
tions. Zech. 8:13. Since they cried out at Calvary: "His blood 
be upon us and our children, they have become the tribes of the 
wandering foot and weary breast. They cause irritation where- 
ever they settle for any length of time. They seem to become 
distressing to the nations as an unassimilated foreign element in 
an organic body. Statesmen and politicians having tried all kinds 
of nostrums and the Church, alas, too frequently taking refuge to 

15 



quackery, have only aggravated the trouble. False love based 
upon the denial 'of the truth as it is in Jesus, will as little turn 
Israel's curse into a blessing as Christless hatred.. We, the men 
of Israel, who were once blind, but now see; we who were sick 
and are now healed ; yea, we who were dead and are now alive-, 
we must point the nation, and the Church to the fountain of heal- 
ing and life even for Israel and its troubles. We ourselves have 
drank from that Fountain. We have .tasted that power and that 
life. Move together, brethren, from the East and the West, from 
the North and the South. You need not give up your denomina- 
tional badges as long as your denominations stand for the living 
and saving Christ. We do not stand as members of denomina- 
tions here, but as members of one nation sick and foot sore, wan- 
dering and bleeding, Christless and dying. Let us cry with 
united agony of voice to Him : "Come, Lord Jesus, come and save 
thine inheritance," and to His blood-boltight Church : "Come to the 
rescue of our perishing brethren. They need your sympathy, 
your prayers, your love, your testimony. In blessing them ye 
shall be blessed.'' And to our brethren, the Jews, let us cry: 
"Israel, thou destroyest thyself, but in Jesus is thy salvation." 
Yes, this Alliance of redeemed and consecrated Israelites must 
come to pass ; we ourselves need it, the Jews need it, the Church 
needs it, and God will bless it. Amen. 



HEBREW-CHRISTIAN BROTHERHOODS, UNIONS, 
AND ALLIANCES OF THE PAST AND PRESENT.* 

An address delivered at the Hebrew-Christian Conference, Moun- 
tain Lake Park, Md., July 28-30, 190.5. 

BY REV. Louis MEYER, HQPKINTON, IOWA. 

Writers on Jewish missions, and individual Hebrew-Chris- 
tians, without exception speak of Hebrew-Christian unions, alli- 
ances, and brotherhoods, as something which started in England 
and ought to be imitated by us here in America. But a calm con- 

* The facts concerning American brotherhoods, unions, and al- 
liances were gathered partly from books, pamphlets, and reports, 
preserved in the libraries of Union Theological Seminary, Yale 
and Harvard, and in the public libraries of New York and 
Boston, partly from letters of the late J. >M. Goldberg, Rev. C.. 
E. Harris, Brooklyn, Dr. M. J. Franklin, Jerusalem, and others. 

16 



sideration of historical facts clearly proves that the necessity of 
such unions was recognized in the United States long before Eng- 
lish Hebrew-Christians took the first steps toward union, in 1830, 
which finally, in 1835, led to the founding of the Abrahamic So- 
ciety. It is therefore but just that in our historical review of He- 
brew-Christian alliances, unions, and brotherhoods, we commence 
with 

I. AMERICA. 

It was in August, 1813, when in a private apartment in the 
city of New York a venerable professor of Columbia College and 
a minister of New York talked and prayed about the conversion 
of the Jews. The young minister was Rev. Philip Milledoler, of 
the Reformed Dutch Church, who afterwars became the inde- 
fatigable president of American Society for Meliorating the. 
Condition of thejews and narratedtlie circumstances at annual 
meeting of that society in May, 1843. The outcome of that pri- 
vate talk was the firm resolve to appeal to the Consistory of the 
Collegiate Reformed Protestant Dutch Church at its next meet- 
ing, and to organize, if possible, a monthly prayer-meeting in 
behalf of Israel. The prayer-meeting, started soon after, was in 
fact flie first Hebrew-Christian Prayer Union of which we have 
knowledge. Its membership consisted of three Jewesses who be- 
lieved in Christ and had been baptized, two in Reformed Dutch 
churches and the other in a Presbyterian church, of the venerable 
professor of Columbia College, and of Rev. Philip Milledoler. 
The prayer-meetings were held regularly, and were, we are told, 
spiritually uplifting and aided in increasing the zeal of its mem- 
bers in behalf of God's chosen people. All its members not only 
prayed but also worked, and aside from trying to stir up minis- 
ters and members of the church, approached individual Jews with 
the offer of the gospel wherever opportunity came. The fruit of 
this consecration slowly became visible. The consistory of the 
Reformed Dutch Church, at its. meeting of December 2, 1813, had 
given its consent to the appeal in behalf of the Jews, and had de- 
cided to recommend it to the Classis of New York at its next 
meeting, which was held October 13, 1814. God made the min- 
isters and members of the Classis willing, and a committee was 
appointed to take the necessary steps for the founding of a gospel 
mission to the Jews, the first upon American soil. The commit- 
tee was very slow in its deliberations, but the prayer-meeting con- 
tinued to pray and labor in behalf of the cause of Israel. Its 

'17 



membership increased a little, but it remained a Hebrew-Christian 
prayer-meeting still, since it contained more Hebrew-Christian 
members (all Jewesses) than Gentile-Christian. Its most promi- 
nent worker, besides Rev. Milledoler, was Mrs. Emma Rosen- 
baum Kingate. 

After long delay the committee of the Classis of New York 
reported favorably to the founding of a gospel mission to the 
Jews 'on September i, 1816, but it recommended that such mis- 
sion be made undenominational. A meeting of the various re- 
ligious denominations was therefore called and held in Garden 
street, New York, November 6, 1816, and a lively discussion of 
the question, "Is a Mission to the Jews Necessary ?" ensued. 

While this discussion was going on Mrs. Kingate and two 
other Hebrew-Christian ladies were on their knees in the small 
room, behind the store of Mr. Kingate in Greene street, praying 
for the outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon the meeting. in Garden 
street. We cannot doubt that it was in ansAver to these fervent 
prayers that the heated discussion finally subsided and the unani- 
mous resolution was passed to appoint a committee to draft a 
constitution for an undenominational society for propagating the 
gospel among the Jews. This committee called another meeting 
within a few weeks, and the first missionary society for the evan- 
gelisation of the Jews was organised upon American soil the thir- 
tieth day of December, 1816, and the celebrated Rev. J. S.'C. F. 
Frey, who had landed in New York, September 15, 1816, was en- 
gaged as its first agent and missionary. We need not speak of 
the work and experiences of this society, except that we state the 
fact that it was merged into the American Society for Meliorating 
the Condition of the Jews in 1822. 

When Frey became the agent of this society he naturally took 
a leading part in the monthly meetings of the Hebrew-Christian 
Prayer Union, but he was bitterly 'opposed to women taking part 
in the speaking and even in the praying during the meetings, and 
since the Hebrew-Christian women were the mainstay of this first 
prayer union, it soon died when they had to be quiet. 

But soon another prayer-meeting in behalf of Israel was to 
be started, out of which not only the largest, and, we hesitate not 
to name it thus, the best of all American societies for 'preaching 1 
the gospel to the Jews grew, bu also a number of Hebrew-Chrjs- 
tian brotherhoods, unions, associations, and alliances. In the 
early spring of 1817 Rev. Frey received a letter from D. Marc, a 

18 



Hebrew-Christian missionary to the Jews at Frankf or t-on-the- 
Main, proposing the establishment of a "Christian Jewish Settle- 
ment." Frey was much impressed and had but little doubt of the 
success of this rather fantastic plan, yet did not take any steps to- 
ward establishing such a Christian Jewish settlement. But Marc 
wrote letter after letter, finally closing with the awful words, 
"Remember that the blood of our brethren will be found on the 
skirt of your garment." 

After this solemn exhortation, Frey could no longer rest, and 
he resolved to lay the proposition before the Society for Promot- 
ing Learning and Religion, in Morris county, N. J. 

On April 17, 1819, Frey left his home to attend the meeting 
of the society, but was overtaken on his way by a heavy thunder- 
storm, which caused him to seek shelter in the house of Rev. Dr. 
Edward 'Dorr Griffin, the celebrated preacher. Their conversa- 
tion naturally turned to the object which brought Frey to the 
meeting of the Morris county society. Dr. Griffin became inter- 
ested in the proposed settlement, and; after a season of 'prayer, 
both -went to the meeting, where Dr. Griffin used his great influ- 
ence in favor of the plan of D. Marc. Thus it was unanimously 
decided to invite Mr. Marc to come to America to act as agent of 
the Morris county society in executing'the plan suggested by him. 
However, D. Marc declined the '' invitation, and Revs. Frey and 
Grover (of Cauldwell) were appointed a committee to consult 
with ministers and godly men on the expediency of forming a 
society for the purpose of colonizing and evangelizing the Jews. 

Prominent men were speedily interested, and in November, 
1810, an informal Prayer Union for Israel was organized, each 
member of which prayed and labored for Israel and most cordially 
approved of the proposed Christian Hebrew settlement. Among 
the members of this prayer union we find Drs. Green, Alexander 
and Miller, of Princeton; Revs. Mason, Milledoler, McLeod, 
Spring, Knox, Matthews, 'and others; but Rev. Phillips was the 
only Hebrew-Christian beside Frey. December 15, 1819, Frey 
finally laid his plan of establishing in America a colony for perse- 
cuted Jews before a meeting of New York ministers. Since the 
majority of those present at this meeting were old friends of the 
cause, it was without great discussion decided to undertake the 
work, and a committee (consisting of Revs. Mason, Milledoler, 
McLeod, Spring, Phillips, and Frey) was appointed to draft a 
constitution. This was finished January 25, 1820, and the Amer- 

19 



ican Society for Colonizing- and Evangelizing the Jews was formed 
February 8, 1820. We will not speak of the difficulties caused by 
the Jews in the legislature, when an application for a charter was 
made, b'ut simply state that the members of the society finally 
agreed to erase the words "colonizing and evangelizing," against 
which the chief objections were directed, and the society was in- 
corporated April 14, 1820, as The American Society for Meliorat- 
ing the Condition of the Jews. 

It was no missionary society. The number of Jews in the 
United States was very small, and the missionary society founded 
1816, whose agent was Rev. Frey, seemed to be sufficient for the 
work. The object of the A. S. M. C. J, was "to invite and re- 
ceive, from any part of the world, such Jews as do already profess 
the Christian religion, or are desirous to receive Christian instruc- 
tion, to form them into a settlement, and to furnish them with the 
ordinances of the gospel, and with such employment in the settle- 
ment as shall be assigned them ; but no one shall be received, 
unless he comes well recommnded for morals and industry, 
and without charge to this society." 

In 1821, Adelbert, Count von der Recke, who had founded a 
colony of Christian Jews in Duesselthal, near the Rhine, heard of 
the existance of the American Society for Meliorating the condi- 
tion of the Jews, and immediately commissioned a converted 
rabbi, David Christian Bernhard Jadownicky (born in Poland, 
1799; Jewish Talmudical School in Berlin, 1813-18; rabbi at So- 
lingen, 1818-20; baptized April, 1821, in-Frankfort), to seek the 
co-operation of the American Society. Jadownicky, arriving 
November, 1821, laid the letters of the Count von der Recke before 
the A. ,S. M. C. J., and was^ greatly encouraged by the' reception 
he found, but decided not to return to Germany. Frey himself 
persuaded the young man to prepare himself for the ministry, and 
thus we find him in 1823 as a student in Princeton, where he tried 
to form a prayer union for the evangelization of the Jews, but met 
with little or no success among the students; 

In 1823 the A. S. M. C. J. rented a farm three miles from 
town, where Christian Jews and inquirers were to be trained in 
agricultural and mechanical operations, and where a school was 
to be started and talented men were to be trained theologically, 
and soon the influx of foreign Hebrew-Christians commenced. 
Erasmus H. Simon, with his wife, came from Scotland; Fred- 
erick Oustavus Primker followed soon from the eastern part of 

20 



Germany; while John Edward Zadig (born 1799, baptized by 
Rev. Kraft in Cologne, May 25, 1823), joined them in the fall of 
1823. 

It was only natural that the "Jewish Converts' Society" was 
formed in November, 1823. Frey and Jadownicky were also 
members of this society, whose purpose was mutual edification and 
the furtherance of gospel work among the Jews, but Mrs. Simon, 
the author of a book entitled "Evangelical Review of Modern 
Genius, or Truth and Error Contrasted," could not become a 
member, because she was a Gentile Christian of Scotch birth and 
a woman. 

Soon after the founding of the Jewish Converts' Society, 
Judah Isaac Abraham was baptized and became a member of the 
society (missionary of A. S. M. C. J., 1825-26, 29 to 30; graduate 
Andover Theological Seminary, 1829; ordained May 12, 1830; 
sent out by A. S. M. C. J. as missionary to the Jews around the 
'Mediterranean, July 21, 1831). 

Another member of the society was John Christian Jacoby 
(born in Poland, 1800; baptized 1822; missionary A. S. M. C. J. 
1825-26; employed in the postal service 1826-49; missionary A. 
S. M. C. J. 1850-55; ordained deacon, Episcopal Church, Hart- 
ford, Conn., December 14, 1856; missionary to the Jews in New 
York, 1856-62; chaplain in U. S. army 1862-64; missionary to the 
Jews in New York 1865-74; died February 9, 1874.) 

In 1824 the constitution of the Jewish Converts' Society was 
changed, and Gentile Christians were admitted to membership, 
although it seems as if the ladies still remained excluded, for Mrs. 
Simon never became a member. The new members, among whom 
we find Dr. McLeod, John Gray, the first editor of Israel's Advo- 
cate, and Stephen N. Rowan, later moderator of the General As- 
sembly of the Presbyterian Church, and second editor of Israel's 
Advocate, brought new strength to the Jewish Converts', Society, 
whose leader was Jadownicky, who, in 1825, became an agent of 
the A. S. M. C. J. The meetings for prayer were deeply spiritual, 
and all members were helpers in the active work of the A. S. M. 
C. J. But suddenly, in 1826, Jadownicky was accused of heresy 
and left the United States (settling in Jamaica, West Indies, 
whence he later removed to Poland, where he died 1853 ?)> an d the 
Jewish Converts' Society ceased to exist after a life of almost four 
years. , , 

Already in April, 1826, an effort had been made, chiefly by 

21 ' 



the Jewish Converts' Society, to 'cause the A. S. M. C. J. to preach 
the gospel to the Jews, but the charter was so clearly opposed to 
this that the effort had to be abandoned. Thus in January, 1827, 
500 acres of land were purchased, and the farm was fully stocked 
for the Jewish converts, who, however, failed to appear. Octo- 
ber, 1831, the farm had to be mortgaged. In 1833 it had to be 
sold for debt. Thus God forced the A. S. M. C. J. to abandon its 
fantastic scheme and preach the gospel to the Jews, upon which 
duty it entered with all its power when God in 1841 provided the 
necessary means and sent the needed missionary, Mr. M. A. Berk. 
The charter was finally amended in 1843, ail d a time of prosperity 
commenced for the society ; and as workers and converts began 
to increase in numbers the necessity of an alliance of workers and 
converts was speedily recognized. Thus the Brotherhood of Jew- 
ish Proselytes was formed in 1844. Its founder was Silian Bon- 
homme, a French Jew, for many years the faithful traveling mis- 
sionary of the A. S. M. C. J., and among its members we find the 
missionaries J. P. Labagh, later an Episcopal clergyman, and 
James Forrester (both Gentiles), and the following Hebrew- 
Christians : Felix Pigot, a Prussian Jew, especially recommended 
by Rev. Ridley Herschell, of London; Joseph Stern and Matthew 
A. Berk (baptized 1840, converts of A,. S. M. C. J.) ; P.-J. Schory, 
a Hungarian Jew, baptized in Constantinople ; Charles Reineman, 
a convert of A. S. M. C. J. and a student in Marshall College, 
Mercersburg, Pa. ; and others. 

AVe find no traces, of any work done by this Brotherhood of 
Jewish Proselytes except the holding of occasional prayer-meet- 
ings. Its life was short, shortened especially by' the antagonism 
of Rev. Frey, the founder of the A. S. M. C. J., who had un- 
doubtedly outlived his usefulness, and having become a most 
rabid Baptist, thought it his duty to counteract as much as possi- 
ble the work of all non-Baptists. Thus he not only organized the 
American Baptist Association for Evangelizing the Jews in De- 
cember, 1844, and opposed the A. S. M. C. J. in his publication, 
The Hebrew Messenger, but he also organized a Brotherhood of 
Jewish Converts, trying to influence the members of the Brother- 
hood of Jewish Proselytes. The outcome of this struggle was the 
speedy decline and death of .both brotherhoods. ' ' 

No effort was made to unite the Hebrew-Christians, who 
from year to year became more numerous, until in 1850 Rev. Ed- 
win R. McGregor, the secretary of the A. S. M. C. J. and editor 



22 



of the Jewish Chronicle from 1849 to 1855, founded the Prayer 
'Alliance for Jewish and Gentile Christians. Bonhomme, the 
founder of the Brotherhood of Jewish Proselytes, became its sec- 
retary, and among its members we find many Hebrew-Christians, 
whose names are very familiar to the student of American Jewish 
missions : Ephraim M. Epstein, Nahum Ignac Steiner, Sigismund 
Uhlfelder, Moses Frankel, Abraham Joseph Levy, Aaron Bloch, 
Charles T. Weisel, James Cohen, Julius Strauss, Abraham H. 
Dreyer, Johannes Wiplech, Louis Taussig, L. C. Newman, Alex- 
ander Block, Dr. Leon Gelbardt, and many others. 

The Prayer Alliance made no effort to do missionary work 
among the Jews, because almost all its members were active work- 
ers of the A. S. M. C. J., but its semi-monthly prayer-meetings, 
described as wonderfully uplifting, undoubtedly added much to 
the grand work done in those years by the A. S. M. C. J. in a 
' large number of cities in all parts of the United States. 

The exact date on which this Prayer Alliance ceased to exist 
cannot be discovered, but we have reason to believe that it began 
to decline in the late fall of 1853 an d had ceased to exist at the an- 
niversary of the A. S. M. C. J. in May, 1854. 

In 1855 scandalous reports affecting the character of Rev. 
Mr. McGregor, caused, not only his retirement from the office of 
secretary of the A. S. M. C. J., but the suspension of all activity 
of that society, until the Hebrew-Christians came to its help. Not 
since ap'ostolic times had there been gathered a nobler band of 
Hebrew-Christians in any town than there was in New York be- 
tween 1855 and 1869. We find among them 28 ministers (6 Prot- 
estant Episcopal, 14 Presbyterian, 2 Methodist, 4 Lutheran, and 
2 Baptists), and a number of physicians and prominent business 
men, and all were greatly interested in the evangelization of their 
Jewish brethren. 

When the storm gathered over the A. S. M. C. J. and it 
seemed as if the tried institution was to be swept away, a meeting 
of Hebrew-Christians was called by Morris J. Franklin (born in 
Prussia 1831 ; baptized by Rev. John Forsythe in Newburgh, N. 
Y., 1847 >' Union College graduate, 1855 ; Union Theological Sem- 
inary, 1855-57; M. D; 1858; surgeon U. S. Army, 1862-64; phy- 
sician and druggist in New York, 1865-84; Jerusalem, Palestine, 
1884, where he still lives), not for the purpose of founding a He- 
brew-Christian alliance, but to resuscitate, if possible, the society 
of which the majority were children in the Lord. The meeting 

23 



was largely attended, and the enthusiasm kindled there gave to the 
A. S. M. C. J. a new lease of life. However, since no Hebrew- 
Christian brotherhoods or alliances were in any way connected 
with the A. S. M. C. J. from 1855 until it finally ceased to exist in 
1867, we shall no more refer to it. 

In 1855 Gideon R. Lederer (born in Pesth, "1804; baptized 
July 15, 1844; lay-missionary of the Jewish Mission of the Free 
Church of Scotland in Pesth, 1844-53; London, 1854; missionary 
in New York, 1855-76; editor of The Israelite Indeed (later 
named Nathaniel, 1856-69; died 1879) came to New York and 
soon began to exert a great, influence toward uniting the scattered 
Hebrew-Christians for larger and better efforts to bring the gos- 
pel to their Jewish brethren. 

In 1857 Lederer and Ephraini Menachen Epstein, then as- 
sistant editor of Lederer s The Israelite Indeed (born in Prussia; 
baptized in New York; missionary of A. S. M. C. J. 1851-56 
during the summers Andover Theological Seminary graduate, 
1856; student of medicine in Kingston and New York, 1856-59; 
M. D. 1859; ordained by presbytery of Kingston, Can., October 6, 
1859; missionary of the Presbyterian Church in Canada (Old 
Kirk Synod) to the Jews in Monastir, Turkey, October 6, 1859- 
May i, 1862; practicing physician at Monastir 1862 until his 
death) , commenced work among the Jews, to which they invited 
all other Hebrew-Christians as helpers. These meetings were 
called later the Hebrew-Christian Association meetings, and M. 
J. Franklin and other prominent "Hebrew-Christians gave active 
help. A real organization, however, was not effected until in 
January, 1860, the celebrated Rev. John Neander (with Jewish 
name Marcus Hoch; born in Prussia, 1811; rabbi in Germany, 
1833-38; baptized in Lehe, near Bremen, December 9, 1838; mis- 
sionary to the Jews of the Society of Friends of Israel in Lehe, 
1839-43 ; missionary A. S. M. C. J., 1844-51 ; missionary of Pres- 
byterian Church to the Jews in New York, 1851-76; pastor of 
Presbyterian church in Brooklyn, 1854-85 ; died November 6, 
1885), the still living Rev. C. E. Harris (born in London, 1830; 
baptized in Montreal, 1851 ; graduate of the Concord Biblical In- 
stitute, N. H., now Boston University, 1858; M. E. minister, in 
New York, Brooklyn, etc., now retired), and J. C. Mayer, a He- 
brew-Christian business man of New York, who had been closely' 
connected with the A. S. M. C. J., joined Lederer. Thus the He- 
brew-Christian Brotherhood was organised, and a room was 

24 



rented for it at 116 St. Mark's Place. It was, as Rev. Mr. Har- 
ris writes me in his modesty, "an unpretentious association. We 
held weekly prayer-meetings, sustained mostly by Hebrew-Chris- 
tians., and consulted for the advancement of Christian work 
among the Jews. It had but an ephemeral existence, and when I 
left New York, it disbanded, not in any formal manner, but in- 
formally, as it had been originally started." 

Lederer, however, was not yet discouraged, but continued to 
write and labor in behalf of the founding of a Hebrew-Christian 
brotherhood, although the war 1861-65, scattered the formerly so 
numerous Hebrew-Christians of New York. Not until June, 
1864, did he succeed in starting a new Hebrew-Christian Brother- 
hood, chiefly through the help of John M. Goldberg (born in 
North Germany, September 15, 1825; nationalistic lecturer 1843- 
55; baptized in London, April, 1857; U. S. 1859; connected with 
N. Y. State Colonization Society and A. S. M. C. J. ; missionary 
to Jews in New York, Boston, and Providence, R. I. ; died April 
4, 1903). Again the organization was informal. The meetings 
were held at the residence of Mr. Lederer, and the members of the 
brotherhood engaged in active mission work among the Jews. 
But the interest soon ceased, and the Hebrew-Christian Brother- 
hood fell asleep in 1865 after an existence of little more than a 
year. 

Little discouraged by this failure, John M. Goldberg con- 
tinued to labor for a union of Hebrew-Christians, and in May, 
1867, God gave him the pleasure of seeing another Hebrew-Chris- 
tian Brotherhood organized, and the only case on record in Amer- 
ica, chartered by the legislature of New York. Rev. C. E. Har- 
ris became its president, J. M. Goldberg, its corresponding secre- 
tary, and among its vice presidents we find Dr. Howard Crosby 
and other well-known Gentile Christian ministers. The board of 
managers, composed of Jewish and Gentile Christians, contained 
Rev. John Neander, G. R. Lederer, Dr. Franklin, and other He- 
brew-Christians experienced in Jewish work. The missionaries 
of. the Hebrew-Christian Brotherhood were Rev. A. C. Tris, a 
Gentile Christian, still living in Kansas ; Rev. Sigfried Kristeller 
(born in Prussia ; baptized in New- York ; graduate of the Wes- 
leyan University, Middletown, Conn., 1866 ; missionary of the 
brotherhood, 1867-69; M. E. pastor on Long Island, 1869-76; 
died?). A hall was rented in Cooper Union building, and meet- 
ings for Jews were held, at which eight or ten Hebrew-Christians 

25 



regularly assisted. Mr. Goldberg wrote me a short time before 
his death, that a family consisting of six Jews (husband, wife and 
fo>ur children)', were the fruit of these meetings. 

The anniversary of the Hebrew-Christian Brotherhood was 
held in May, 1868, in the church of Dr. Howard Crosby, who was 
a great friend of the Jewish cause on account of the drop of Jew- 
ish blood in his veins (his great-grandmother, Mary Elizabeth, 
the wife of William Bed-low, postmaster of New York in 1784, 
may have been of Jewish descent!), and the report was very en- 
couraging. The old officers were re-elected, and all seemed to 
point to continued prosperity, when suddenly the interest of the 
Gentile Christian members of the board ceased (Bro. Goldberg 
blamed the secret influence of rich Jews for this!), and the He- 
brew-Christian Brotherhood disbanded in 1869 after a short but 
blessed existence. It had not only given an impetus to evangelis- 
tic 'work among the Jews in New York, but had stirred up the 
Hebrew-Christians scattered over the land and had directly caused 
the founding of the. Western Hebrew-Christian Brotherhood in 
Chicago in May, 1867. 

The Hebrew-Christians in that city requested the New York 
brethren to help them in their effort, and G. R. Lederer and Rev. 
S. Kristeller went to Chicago to be present at the organization the 
second Monday of May, 1867. Some unexpected difficulties 
arose after their arrival, but finally a meeting of about forty or 
fifty persons was held in the lecture room of the Second Presby- 
terian Ch'urch. Rev. Mr. Marquis, afterwards the well-known 
professor of McCormick Theological Seminary, was chairman, 
and Rev. Mr. Ryder, of Woodstock, 111., a Hebrew-Christian, 
acted as secretary. Some Jews, who were present in the audi- 
ence, made difficulties, but, after some discussion, the Western 
Hebrew-Christian Brotherhood was organized. Rev. Dr. ' Har- 
shaw, a Gentile Christian pastor of Chicago, was elected presi- 
dent; Rev. Jacob Lotka, now the London Jews' Society Mission- 
ary in Hull, England, was appointed missionary, with Rev. F. C 
Schwartz, a Presbyterian minister of Woodstock, 111., another 
Hebrew-Christian, as his assistant. The corresponding secretary 
was Emanuel Van Noorden, who, having been a Presbyterian 
missionary in Brazil, now lives in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a printer of 
religious literature. 

The Western Hebrew-Christian Brotherhood opened at once 
a mission to the Jews in Chicago, and the years 1867-69 showed 

26 



greatly increasing interest- of Jewish and Gentile Christian mem- 
bers. We are very glad that Dr. Felsenthal, the well-known Jew- 
ish rabbi of Chicago, was so troubled by the work of this broth- 
erhood that he delivered a lecture in German against it, January 
20, 1869, which afterwards appeared in print as "Criticism of 
Christian Missions; especially Missions to the Jews." It is an 
atrocious pamphlet, but it proves that the brotherhood was doing 
good work. According to Dr. Felsenthal's lecture, the brother- 
hood had a president, twelve vice presidents, a secretary, a treas- 
urer, two missionaries, and twelve managers, and it was stated 
that the purpose of the brotherhood was to start a mission among 
the Jews, to distribute tracts, books, and papers, and to organize 
Sabbath schools for Jewish children. The efforts, however, were 
not to be restricted to the Jewish population of Chicago, but a 
leaflet, issued by the brotherhood in 1869, proposed that mission- 
aries should be sent to the Jews in Pittsburg, St. Louis, Cincin- 
nati, Milwaukee, Dubuque, and San Francisco. No effort, we are 
sorry to say, was made to bring about a closer union among the 
members of the brotherhood ; no regular meetings for prayer and 
mutual upbuilding were held; and, thus the Western Hebrew- 
Christian Brotherhood decayed very quickly. The summer of 
1869 saw the death of an organization which, in its beginnings, 
had given great promise of lasting' Success. No other effort to 
organize a Hebrew-Christian Union has been made in Chicago, 
for the Jewish-Christian Endeavor Society, which a few years 
ago was started, died really almost as soon as it was born. 

After the Hebrew-Christian Brotherhood in New York 
ceased to exist in 1869, Lederer, Goldberg, Neander, and the 
many prominent Hebrew-Christians made no more efforts to or- 
ganize' a union until Meyer Lerman (born in Russian Poland, 
1837; baptized London, 1858; missionary to the Jews in New 
York since August, 1867, of the Church Society for Promoting 
Christianity amongst the Jews since 1878) founded the Hebrew- 
Christian Brotherhood and Prayer Union, October 10, 1884. It 
was affiliated with the similar organization in the Church of Eng- 
land and was composed mainly of the converts of Episcopalian 
missions. Its meetings were held in Mission House every week, 
and a visitor of a meeting in 1886 describes it as "a quiet, or- 
derly assembly /where Hebrew-Christians were evidently encour- 
aging each other in the faith of the true Messiah, and testifying 
earnestly, but lovingly, of that true Messiah to unconverted 

27 



brethren of their race who were present.- Bishop Schereschewsky 
was the patron of the brotherhood and encouraged the members- 
by occasional letters. 

The brotherhood is not mentioned in the reports of the- 
Church Society wfiich appeared since 1889, so that it probably 
disbanded in that year. It proved a great help to the work of the- 
mission even in its brief existence. 

During the past winter efforts have been made in New York 
and Brooklyn by Dr. Harry Zeckhatisen, Revs. Leopold Colin and'' 
Bernhard Angel, and Meyer Lerman, to bring about a closer- 
union of Hebrew-Christians, which finally resulted in the found- 
ing of a Hebrew-Christian Brotherhood and Sisterhood on June- 
n, 1903. Meyer Lerman is its president, and Dr. Zeckhausen is 
its secretary. The chief purpose of this brotherhood and sister- 
hood is the upbuilding of Christian character and the better ac- 
quaintance of its members with each other. Active missionary, 
work is not intended, as far as we know. 

II. ENGLAND. 

We could not find any traces of efforts to unite the numerous 
Hebrew-Christians in London prior to 1830, in which year the- 
Union of H ebre-w-Chnstians was formed. Its purpose was two- 
fold : To further the evangelization of the Jews and to assist those- 
of their Jewish brethren, who were needy on account of their pro- 
fessed faith in Christ. The (union published an address to the- 
Jews in England,, but achieved nothing, and ceased after a short 
existence. All its members were brought to Christ through the- 
instrumentality of missionaries of the London Jews' Society, and 
it was actually an auxiliary of this society. 

The same is true of the still existing "Episcopal Jezvs' Chapel 
Abrahainic Society corresponding with and relieving the temporal" 
wants of believing and inquiring Jews" which was founded in 
1835. The title describes the purpose of the society very clearly, 
although it is not restricted to Jews in London in its work of re- 
lief. All its members are Hebrew-Christians, and the society 
has- done much good in its sixty-eight years of existence. We-- 
would call especial attention to the help which the members of the 
Abrahamic Society gave to F. C. Ewald, when he opened the In- 
quirers' Home in 1853. This home, under the supervision of 
Ewald, then of Heinrich Aaron Stern, then of J. M. Eppstein, and! 
now of Canon Kelk, has proved a wonderful blessing to many- 
hundreds of inquiring Jews. 

28 



. In 1866 the celebrated Dr. Carl Schwartz founded the He- 
brew-Christian Alliance for the purpose of testifying to the Jews 
that Hebrew-Christians consider themselves still Jews, of remind- 
ing the Church of the promises to the Jews which are yet to be 
fulfilled, of assisting and upbuilding each other in brotherly help- 
fulness, and finally of undertaking direct gospel work among the 
Jews. The name of- the .founder of this alliance was so well 
known that Hebrew-Christians everywhere became interested, and 
the alliance soon had eightv members. Its meetings were held 
every two weeks and were well attended. The Scattered Nation 
and Jewish Christian Magazine, published monthly by Schwartz, 
was the excellent organ of the alliance and stirred not only the 
hearts of the Hebrew-Christians, but also the interest of Gentile 
Christians and even of unbelieving Jews. Evangelistic addresses 
were regularly given by members of the alliance in different parts 
of London, and the administration of the Hebrew-Christian model * 
farm in Palestine was undertaken by the alliance. Branches were 
founded in different parts of Europe, and the annual meetings 
and reports regularly increased the enthusiasm, although the great 
majority of Hebrew-Christians were opposed to the "ju- 
daizing" tendency of Schwartz and his alliance. 

The sudden death if Schwartz, September, 1870, caused the 
imniediate suspension of this Hebrew-Christian Alliance, and it 
was clearly proved that it was held together not so much by real 
interest in the cause, as by the magnetic influence of a great man ! 

The Rev. Maxwell M. Ben-Oliel made two attempts at unit- 
ing Hebrew-Christian, in 1865 and 1871, but both proved failures. 
In 1882 Rev. J. B. Barraclough, a Gentile Christian missionary of 
the London Jews' Society, urged the Hebrew-Christians to unite, 
and through his influence twelve Hebrew-Christians met in the 
Jews' Chapel and organized the Hebrew-Christian Prayer Union. 
In July, 1882, a constitution was adopted, and Dr. Heinrich Aaron 
Stern was elected president. It was decided to hold quarterly 
prayer-meetings and f req'uent social gatherings for the cultivation 
of personal acquaintance of the members. Every member was 
-obliged to pray on Saturday for the salvation of Israel and for the 
prosperity of the union. 

Most of the prominent Hebrew-Christians of England joined 
the union, and branches of it were founded in every part of the 
world, so that the number of members on the roll exceeded six 
hundred in 1892. But from that year on the numbers grew 

29 



smaller, until, in 1896, the union scarcely was alive. An'effort to 
revive it in 1897 was unsuccessful, and all signs of life in the He- 
brew-Christian Prayer Union ceased. 

In the spring of 1901 a fresh organization was started, and on 
July 3, 1901, the new organization and the remains of the union 
were amalgamated as the Hebrew-Christian Alliance and Prayer 
Union. Rev. Maxwell M. Ben-Oliel is its efficient president, who 
reports that the alliance is in a prosperous condition. Its aims 
are : United testimony of Christ'to the Jews ; an example of broth- 
erly love ; assistance to Hebrew-Christians in sickness, need, and 
persecution; and the promotion, of brotherly love, social inter- 
course, and mutual edification among its members.. 

The Hebrew-Christian Assembly was started in 1898. Its 
purposes are mutual edification, worship, and the carrying on of 
open-air meetings among the Jews. The oversight is in the 
"hands of an elective committee, and the assembly is informally 
connected with the Mildmay Mission to the Jews. 

There were some other ephemeral unions in England, like the 
Hebrew-Christian Patriotic Alliance of Mark Levy, which, how- 
ever, caused only a passing interest. 

III. JERUSALEM. 

Canon A. H. Kelk was the founder of the Jerusalem Hebrew- 
Christian Association, since he called a meeting of Hebrew-Chris- 
tians at his house, August 12, 1898. A constitution was drafted 
by order of this meeting, and the association was organized, Au- 
gust 19, 1898. Its object is to promote the moral, intellectual and 
social culture of its members, and to inculcate the exercise of mu- 
tual sympathy, assistance and protection. 

The secretary of this Jerusalem Hebrew-Christian Associa- 
tion was Rev. L. Zeckhausen until his removal to Cracow, who, in 

1901, sent out a circular calling the attention of Hebrew-Chris- 
tians everywhere to the necessity of union. 

Dr. Morris J. Franklin, whom we so frequently mentioned in 
connection with American Hebrew-Christian, alliances, is the ac- 
tive and wide-awake president of the Jerusalem Association. 

We know of no efforts at union in Germany, France and Hol- 
land, although in Amsterdam my uncle, Rev. Theodore J. Meyer, 
made a futile effort to organize a Hebrew-Christian brotherhood 
in 1869. 

In Sweden, a Hebrew-Christian Federation was started in 

1902, which sends us its greetings and its best wishes through its 

30 



president. (See the translation of the letter in "Secretary's Re- 
port" above). 

In having- thus surveyed the field, you undoubtedly will be 
no less surprised than I was, by the multitude of futile and suc- 
cessful efforts at uniting the Hebrew-Christians in different coun- 
tries. May God guide us and give us wisdom, as we are planning 
to form a Hebrew-Christian Alliance, that it may indeed be an al- 
liance to His glory ! 

HOPKINTON, IOWA. 



Awakening of the Church to its due Responsibility to the Jew, 
or an Historical Retrospect of Missions to the Jeivs. 

BY HENRY ZECKHAUSKN, M. D. 

There are signs that Missions to the Jews are in a fair way 
to become, not only the delight of enthusiasts and 'the scoff of un- 
believers, but also the earnest study of those whose duty it is to 
care for the furtherance of the Gospel. It is time indeed that this 
were so, for the sooner that they are removed from the region of 
the extravagant and the trifling the sooner will results be seen 
more commensurate with the expectations of Christendom. As 
a contribution to this change of attitude on the part of our near 
successors it will perhaps be useful to recall what has been at- 
tempted in past years. 

It is one of the many vulgar errors which are so hard to erad- 
icate that until the day when the iQth century first saw the light, 
nothing was done by the Church for the people from whom its 
LORD came according to the flesh. Bishops and dignitaries have 
said so ; what further testimony is required ? Happily, however, 
the statement is inaccurate. There was never a period in the his- 
tory of Christianity when some of its upholders did not endeavor 
to win over Jews to the true faith. Not always wisely perhaps, 
and certainly not always in the same spirit of love and self-denial 
that the great Exemplar showed, btut still earnestly and almost, 
continuously. 

We do not speak now of Apostles and other workers of New 
Testament times. The description of St. Paul in the Acts and 
the allusions in his own Epistles show clearly enough that in every 
city he made the Jews his first, though not his chief, aim. And 
the writer of that fascinating Epistle to the Hebrews, shows for 



his part the intensest interest in all questions concerning Hebrew 
Christians. Neither shall we trouble ourselves about vexing 
questions -concerning the Ebionites of various forms and names, 
nor even illustrate from the Talmud the encroachment 'of the 
Minim on the pious orthodoxy of the rabbis. We shall rather jn 
the short space of a Conference Paper give a brief account 1 of 
those workers whose efforts Jiave come down to us in their written 
works. 

Early in the 2d century Ariston, of Pella, a Jewish Christian, 
published what we wo'uld call a Missionary tract in the form of a 
discussion between a believing and an unbelieving Jew Jalson 
and Papicus. About the middle of the same century Justin Mar- 
tyr wrote his well-known Dialogiie with Tfypho the Jew. It is 
a treatise which deservedly, in spite of its' many shortcomings, 
takes a high place in the history of conscientious attempts to win 
Jews to Christ. 

About half a century later we come across Tertullian's vigor- 
ous defence of Christianity against Jewish attacks in his Adver- 
sus Judaeos. His arguments from prophecy, as fulfilled in Jesus 
and corroborated by the peaceful conquests of. His Church and its 
transforming influence, are essentially the same which a Christian 
Missionary employs to-day. 

It seems only natural that the greatest of the Fathers of the^ 
Church, the learned Origen,- who mingled with Jews of every 
kind, and had a very respectable knowledge of Hebrew, should 
have devoted his attention to meeting the difficulties, as well as 
> the objections, of the Jews. His book Contra Celmm, is a reply 
to the work of the pagan philosopher, Celsus, who introduces a 
Jew as. disputing with our LORD and His disciples, and ad- 
ducing arguments and insinuations against Christianity that have 
been the "stock-in-trade" of Jewish controversialists ever since. 
Origen's reply to the blasnhemous fables about the birth of Christ, 
fables improved upon in Jewish mediaeval literature, and still be- 
lieved by the mass of the Jews of Eastern Europe and other cdun- 
tries, is still valid. It is to the effect that such fables preserve the 
fact that there was something unusual about the birth of Jesus, 
and that an illegitimate body would not be suitable and probable 
for a soul that conferred such great benefits upon the world. The 
moral grandeur of Jesus here begins to receive its due weight in 
estimating the Gospel narrative of His birth. Just in the same 

32 



way does he urge, when the Jew says, "Jesus was a mere ma- 
gician," that it was utterly Unlikely that such a person would 
teach his followers to act as if GOD would judge every man for 
his deeds. When the Jew scornfully says, "that, after all, Jesus 
wrought nothing wonderful, even, though He was challenged in 
the temple to do so." Origen replies, "that the whole world con- 
tains evidence of His work, in the existence of churches, founded 
by men who were converts from sin." In this fashion Origen 
deals with one objection, or cavil, after another and provides ar- 
guments which Christians can use, and have very often been using 
in their controversies with Jews. This has indeed been so much 
the case that the tracts "adversus Judaeos" of even such learned 
Fathers as Cyprian, Augustine, or Chrysoston, do not in the least . 
improve upon Origen. 

In the distant East, in the fastnesses of the mountains of 
Kurdistan, the Syrian Bishop Aphraates also clearly saw his duty, 
not only to endeavor to preserve his flock from the attacks of the 
' Jews, 'but also to lose no opportunity of meeting them in fair dis- 
pute or to win them for Christ both by voice and pen. 

Would to God that all the mean's used during the succeeding 
centuries had been as peaceful. We Christians may, with more 
or less reason, lay at the door of the Jews the instigation of some 
of the earliest persecutions of the Church, but very few years 
passed after the acceptance of Christianity by the Emperors before 
Jews in their turn experienced the bitterness of persecution them- 
selves. Even the Church as such could not wait to use only 
Christian means for their conversion, but began to compel them 
herself to become Christians. It is one of the most evident marks 
of the greatness of Gregory the First, that he urged upon his 
bishops that only fair means should be used ; for it was quite un- 
Christlike to attempt to win men to God by force. But his is not 
the only case in which the Pope's subordinates have understood 
the true spirit of the Papacy better than the Pope himself. Be- 
sides, he himself did not always carry out his own principles, for 
he was not above offering pecuniary advantages to Jews on their 
conversion, satisfying his conscience with the remark that even if 
they did not themselves become good Christians, at all events their 
children would. 'We fear that this fatal delusion has perpetu- 
ated itself down to our own time, and has brought frequent dis- 
grace upon the Christian name. 

33 



2. With the period beginning- with the 7th century, and end- 
ing with the commencement of the Reformation, we enter on a 
time marked by a deep knowledge of Jewish writings on the part 
of a few, by the grossest ignorance on the part of many, and, gen- 
erally,, by shameful treatment of fellow-believers in the fundamen- 
tal truths of true religion. The mention of the mediaeval period 
makes Christian people feel deeply ashamed at the profanation of 
Christ's name in the treatment of His Kinsmen according to the 
flesh. It is very hard for us with our different ideas to judge the 
individual workers of the mediaeval- Church, and we find it almost 
impossible to understand the actions of, say, the Spanish nobles 
and ecclesiastics, when they used all possible means for the con- 
version of the Jews, and at the same time persecuted them. It 
seems to 'us to be so very self-evident that to persecute a man for 
his faith is the best way of hardening him in it, and of counter- 
acting all the good impressions which we might have produced 
upon him by our appeals to Scripture and the unique personality 
of Christ. 

There was exhibited much zeal during this period for the 
conversion of the Jews. The advent of the Franciscan and Do- 
minican Preaching Friars early in the I3th century caused a great 
stir and a revival in the Church. Numerous and learned contro- 
versial-treatises against the Jews were published and called forth 
refutations on the part of the rabbis. Christianity, though unfor- 
tunately in its Romanist garb, was being pressed upon the atten- 
tion of the Jews in the South and West of Europe ; public dispu- 
tations with the champions of the Synagogue were held before 
kings and bishops ; a spirit of inquiry was aroused and many con- 
verts joined the Church. Not a few of these converts were men 
well versed in Jewish lore, and it was mainly due to their chal- 
lenges that the public disputations were held. So Donin, after 
his baptism, called Nicholas of Paris, debated at the French capi- 
tal in 1239 with the celebrated Talmudist Rabbi Jechiel, and Pau- 
lus Christianus of Mompellier defended his views against the well- 
known commentator Nachmanides at Barcelona in 1263. Other 
learned converts, like Peter Alfonsi, Nicholas de Lyra, Petrus 
Galatinus, and especially Solomon ha-L,evi, afterwards /Bishop 
Paul of Burgos, guardian of the infant king of Spain, sought to 
win their unbelieving brethren by written expositions of the 
Christian faith, generally composed in the form of dialogues. 

34 



* * * The most important of all these controversial works, 
however, is that published in 1278 'by the Dominican Raymund 
Martini, who was not (as seems <pretty certain) of Jewish : descent. 
"Pugio Fidei" (The Dagger of Faith), as the bulky 'volume is 
styled, is a work of great erudition, and has ever been: a vast ar- 
mory from which later -writers have drawn their weapons; 

It is deeply to be regretted that the Spanish character, which 
contains such contradictions within itself, and the spirit of an age 
which regarded religious toleration as an insult to Go.d, should 
have communicated themselves so completely to the Jeiyish con- 
verts of that period. They were swayed by a zeal of God, that 
was not according to knowledge, and by the prevailing Church 
feeling that made them the keenest of persecutors and the bitter- 
est of controversialists. The implacable hatred which this atti- 
tude of the converts generated in the hearts of their Jewish breth- 
ren has not been materially diminished by the lapse of four cen- 
turies and the enormous changes that accompanied them.' It is 
one of the gifts to us of the dark Middle Ages ! 

3. With the name of Reuchlin, who in 1505, published a let- 
ter showing that the misery of the Jews is due to their sin against 
the LORD and their not having yet repented of it, we enter on a 
new period in the history of the Church's work for the Jews. He 
marks the stage when the learned men of the day began to refuse 
to reckon everything in the Talmud as bad, or to listen to the ig- 
norant abuse of a Pfefferkorn. Yet such radical changes took 
place within a few years that one would expect to find work 
among the Jews carried on in modern ways. But the proper time 
had not come. The Reformation indeed gave -rise to the princi- 
ples which urged men to be up and doing for all , outsiders,, but 
neither heathen nor Jew derived mluch advantage from it, the time 
being needed for he more pressing work within the Church. Two 
hundred and fifty years had to elapse before there was any radical 
change in the methods of missionary work among the Jews. 
During this time they exhibited the same sporadic, even though 
continuous character, that they had all through the history of the 
Church. At first indeed Luther thought it was going to be differ- 
ent. In 1521 he wrote on behalf of the Christian faith for the Jews 
in a style worthy of the burning love that runs through most, 
though not all, of his writings. He says, "If we lived Christianity, 
and brought them with kindness to Christ, it would be the best 

35 



way. Who would become a Christian if one sees Christians act 
so uh-Christianly towards men? Not so, beloved Christians. 
Tell them the truth kindly ; if they will not have it, let them go." 
He is also long before his time in the method he proposes to adopt. 
He says in 1524, "I would use my Christian freedom if a Jew came 
before me who was not poisoned, nor 'utterly envenomed, nor cal- 
lous, whom I wished to bring to Christ. Although no article is 
of greater necessity than that Christ is the Son of God, I would 
nevertheless keep silent about it at first, and so conduct myself to- 
wards him that he, first of all,, should .gain. love to the LORD 
Christ, and say that He was a man like any one else, sent from 
God, and know what God has .done through Him for the well- 
being of men. When I had brought him to accept this in his 
heart, I would then bring him .even further, until he believed that 
Christ was GOD. Thus would, I. act towards him, until I had in 
all kindness brought him to .believe on Christ." Yet the great 
Reformer did not carry out his. advice sufficiently long. His was 
too impulsive a nature to fit him; for Mission work among the 
Jews. When his advances were rejected, his arguments objected 
to, and he personally subjected to ill-treatment by one or two 
Jews (one had come with the express purpose of poisoning him), 
he began to regard them as utterly stiff-necked and hopeless sub- 
jects for the grace of God to work upon. Thus it is that we find 
the doughty opponent of Romanism imitating the bitterest pre- 
Reformation Spaniard, and advising the destruction of syna- 
gogues, Jewish houses and schools, the confiscation of their books, 
the forbidding the rabbis to teach and usurers to lend. This 
later position of Luther with regard to the Jews is most deeply 
disappointing and utterly unworthy' of him. It threw back the 
perception of the Church's duty towards them for a couple of cen- 
turies. That it was overruled for' good cannot, of course, be 
doubted. But this was not Luther's merit. The principles of 
the Reformation which he inaugurated fortunately proved too 
strong for the continuance of his bitter policy, but he himself 
failed to use them. 

Of all the centuries that have as, yet elapsed tfie I7th is the 
most remarkable for the study of Jewish books by Christian Di- 
vines. The Rabinic Commentaries to the Bible, the Talmud, the 
Midrashim, the Kabbala, as well as the controversial writings of 
the Jews against Christianity, became intelligible to every scholar, 



thanks to the labors of men like John Lightfoot, the two Buxtorfs, 
Surenhuis, Vitringa, Wagenseil, etc. The Jewish modes of 
thinking, peculiarities and difficulties got in this way to be more 
appreciated and understood, and so slowly paved the grdund.for 
practical, sympathetic and scientific Mission work among them. 

This was splendidly proved in the case of the pious and 
learned pastor, Edzard, who from 1658 to 1708, labored at Ham- 
burg with such success as to have baptized there several hundred 
Jews, -sometimes 30 or 40 in a year, and of these he tells that 
scarcely the fortieth part were untrue to their profession. At the 
same time Edzard was holding lectures on Rabbinic subjects, 
which many of the ablest theologians of the day attended. 

4. We are thus brought to the i8th century which saw the 
rise, and, alas, the decay and death, of perhaps the most perfect 
form of missionary work among the Jews that has arisen a form 
which at once cared for the intellectual and the practical part of 
mission work, and by its relation to 'a University was able to 
mould the minds of many who took no direct part in its oper- 
ations'. It was the Institution Judaicum at Halle, founded by 
Professor Callenberg, in 1727. Assisted by Dr. Frommann, a 
convert, Callenberg printed, portions of Scripture, Luther's Cate- 
chism and tracts in Jewish-German, and had them distributed 
among the Jews. By degrees he had educated and sent out a 
whole staff of young, enthusiastic missionaries, the best known of 
whom and most remarkable "for his enterprise and courage, was 
Stephen Schultz. The missionaries of the Institution visited the 
Jews in the greater part of Europe and penetrated into Asia as 
,far as the coast of Malabar. Judaism w,as then perhaps at its 
lowest in ignorance and superstitition, and Schultz and his col- 
leagiues did much to arouse them to a study of the Old Testament, 
besides showing them that the Christianity of the New Testament 
was not that of the Roman and Greek Churches. What a pity 
that chiefly through the spread of Rationalism the Institutmn lost 
its own energy and ceased to exist (1792). 

But the traces left behind of the Institution Judaicum were 
destined to bear good fruit. An organization came in England 
into existence in 1809 which, based professedly upon the lines laid 
down by Callemberg, soon overleaped these boundaries, and ex- 
hibited to. the world the spectacle of a body of men banded to- 
gether for the sole object of winning the Jews to Christ. We are 

'37 



.alluding, of course, to the London Society for Promoting Chris- 
tianity amongst the Jews. The century of Societies had set in, 
those open confessions that the Church as such had failed to re- 
member the greatness of the work committed to her. 

The London Jews' Society at first started upon the. basis of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society as an undenominational 
affair, appealing to the sympathies of all Evangelical Christians. 
And, as long as it was only a question of preaching the Gospel to 
the Jew, the arrangement worked smoothly enough, but when it 
came to be a matter of baptism, then the question of the place of 
the baptism came to the front. With the best intentions in the 
world there was no getting round this cliff. The Nonconform- 
ists accordingly retired, leaving the field to the Episcopal Church 
of England. After a short, but sharp, struggle, the Society, 
whose moving spirit at that time was the munificent and indefati- 
gable Lewis Way, developed a remarkable activity. The whole 
of the New Testament was translated and printed in Hebrew, a 
large number of tracts composed in almost every language and 
dialect spoken by Jews, and the work developed, spreading rap- 
idly from London to Holland, Germany, Austria, Poland, Swe- 
den, France, Italy, Turkey and Roumania, thence to Syria, Persia 
and Palestine, Egypt, Tunis and Morocco, to India in the far East 
tnd Canada in. the West. Owing entirely to its action, the plan 
was mooted and carried out of sending a Protestant bishop to 
Jerusalem. The first bishop, Solomon Michael Alexander, had 
himself been a Jewish Rabbi, and filled the see worthily during 
the short time that he was permitted to hold it (1842-1845). To- 
day the Society employs a staff of missionary agents numbering 
211, of whom 85 are Christian Israelites. 

In 1842, the Nonconformists founded the British Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel amongst the Jews, and since then 
Society after Society has appeared, the best known of which are 
Mr. Wilkinson's Mildmay Mission to the Jews and Mr. Baron's 
Hebrew Christian Testimony to Israel. According to Professor 
Dalman, there are 23 s'uch "Societies" in England and America 
alone, but this is far below the mark, and it is to be regretted that,- 
in England at least, their very number often tends to defeat the 
object that they have in view. 

As to the visible results of the Missions to the Jews during 

38 - ' 



the igth century, as expressed in baptisms, we submit the follow-, 
ing statistics : 



London Jews' Society 6,833 

Mildmay Mission 140 

Parochial Missions . .... 234 

Church of Scotland 165 

Free Church of Scotland. 480 

German Societies 1,000 

Baltic and Petersburg So- 
cieties 95 



British Society 1,018 

Rosenthal's Mission . . . 600 

English Presbyterians . . 75 

Irish Presbyterians .... '86 

American Societies. . . . 1,265 
Pastor Faltin, Kischi- 

new 283 



Swedish, Dutch, French 
Societies 120 

In all the sum of 12,400 baptisms.' 

The Mission baptisms per year now average 300 in Protes- 
tant Churches. . The totals of admissions, however, of Jews to the 
Evangelical Churches during the last century were 72,740, the 
children of mixed marriages not being counted. England has 
done, and is doing, her duty towards 'the Jew. Will the States 
soon recognize theirs to the million, and more, of the sons of Ja- 
cob, whom the LORD has placed in their midst? God is calling 
them aloud to do so. It is time that they heard His call ! 

(The writer wishes to. acknowledge his indebtedness to the 
Rev. A. Dukyn Williams' Missions to the Jews (London, 1897), 
and J. de le Roi's Judentwifen in vT Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1899). 
They form the basis of this paper. 

HARRY ZECKHAUSER, M. D. 



NoT. At the conclusion of the above address, Rev. Louis 
Meyer, who has given much time to statistical investigations, made 
the following remarks touching baptisms of Jews : "It is scarcely 
right to give 'Mission baptisms' as a measure of success of the 
work. Admirable as the figures collected by Rev. J. de le Roi are, 
they are necessarily very incomplete. For instance, the number 
of baptisms in American Societies during the igth century is given 
as 1,265, while the American Society for Meliorating the Condi- 
tion of the Jews was able to report almost 700 baptisms in less 
than fifty years of existence, so that it would be nearer the right 
figure of American Societies' baptisms of Jews in the i 9th cen- 
tury, if we doubled Mr. de le Roi's figures 1,265 to 2 >5- How- 
ever, Mission baptisms are absolutely misleading except in the 

39 



cases of certain societies, whose missionaries count in their reports 
of baptisms even those who joined other churches or were bap- 
tized outside the Mission proper. Very few of the Jews who find 
Christ through the instrumentality of the Missions, are baptized 
in the Missions, and the following figures are very instructive. 
The number of Jewish baptisms in American Evangelical churches 
from 1895 to 1901, has 'been 1,072 (as far as we know), and of 
these Jews 643 were baptized by pastors whose churches were in 
no manner connected with missions and not even near them, 212 
were baptized by pastors who were in some way connected with 
missions, and only 217 were so-called Mission baptisms. A dili- 
gent inquiry, however, showed that of the 1,072 Jews baptized in 
American evangelical churches from 1895 to 1901, 891, or 
more than 83 per cent., had received their first ideas of Christian- 
ity, their first New Testament, tracts, or teachings, from mission- 
aries, so that these 891 ought to be considered the fruit of Ameri- 
can Missions to the Jews between 1895 and 1901, and not only the 
217 Mission baptisms. 

It is, therefore, more just. to the missionaries not to speak of 
300 Mission baptisms per year, but to say that out of a total of 
more than 1,200 Jews baptized in Protestant churches from May, 
1901, to May, 1902, more than 900 were undoubtedly the direct 
or indirect fruit of the efforts of missionaries. 

But, after all, let us be most cautious in the use of .these fig- 
ures, of Jewish baptisms. Only in Germany, Austria, and a few 
other countries., it is possible to get complete returns of all bap- 
tisms of Jews, and, beside that, baptism does not always mean 



conversion." 



The Scripture Method of Preaching the Gospel "to the Jew first." 

An address delivered at -the Hebrew-Christian Conference, 
Mountain Lake Park, Maryland, U. S. A., July 28, 1903, by MARK 
LEVY, of London, Eng.* (Remarks of Editing Com. on p. 51.) 

"Unto the Jews I became as a Jew, to gain the Jews ; as under the law 
to them that are under the law to gain them that are under the law." I 
Cor. 9:20. 

"They are informed of thee that thou teachest all the Jews which are 
amo'ng the Gentiles to forsake Moses, saying that they ought not to circum- 
cise their children, neither to walk after their customs." Acts 21 :2i. 

My earliest recollection of names and things divine was the 
lullaby the Christian nurses sang in our Jewish home, 

40 



"Gentle Jesijs,.'.meek and mild 
L,ook upon a little child." 

So far as memory serves, my 'childish mind regarded the One 
of whom they sang as a good man,: whose special object was the 
care and protection of little children, and instinctively my heart 
went out to Him in love. But at an early age, on being sent to 
school in one of our provincial English towns, and : having to un- 
dergo as a Jew the ordeal of taunt and scorn, principally at the 
hands of strange boys, whom I was 'taught to regard as followers 
of Jeslts, my love for Him quickly 'turned to dislike, which -deep- 
ened into positive hatred of His; name when the terrible persecu- 
tions of the Jews, at the hands of professing Christendom, was 
subsequently brought to my knowledge. 

In early manhood, having failed, to find spiritual consolation 
in the synagogue, I commenced reading the New. Testament, and 
quickly realizing the glorious beauty of the character of Jesus, I 
came to the mental conclusion that He was the Messiah. 

At that time there were living in Great Britain scores of cler- 
gymen of Hebrew birth. But,, personally, I did not know there 
was a single minister of the Gospel, of our own race living to 
whom I could go in my spiritual distress ; for these sons of Judah 
had practically become Gentilized, and withdrawn their, light from 
the congregations of Israel. Trie well-known names, in Christian 
circles, of Edersheim, Saphir, 'and other celebrated Jewish con- 
verts, I had never heard, although. born in London, as were my 
parents. 

In my despair I called upon .one of the missionaries of the 
London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews, 
but was discouraged in my investigations. Thus ali the national 
sources of aid were hidden from, or denied to, a despairing brother 
in Israel, because the Jews who had found Christ were lost to their 
race among the Gentiles and did of "become as Jews to the Jews, 
to gain ihe Jews." ' ..' 

After several years of sorrowful wandering in England, Ausr 
tralia and America, my convertion --.was accomplished, in God's 
good time, through the gracious operation of the Holy Spirit, and 
I was baptized into Christ in the year eighteen hundred and eighty- 
seven, and confirmed within a few months by the late Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Whipple, of Minnesota. 



Immediately after my baptism I commenced writing home, 
and received in reply several letters from one of my sisters. The 
following, extracts are given to illustrate the absolute need of pre- 
senting .the Gospel in a full scriptural light to the deluded, mis- 
tauHit and perplexed children of Israel, and in the good hope of 
preventing the light of the future generations of Jewish Chris- 
tians being lost to their race : 

"If I wrote forever. I could not express the deep grief and sorrow 
your letter has caused our dear mother and myself, and I almost think I 
would sooner have heard that God had taken you than you should have 
lived to ; become what you are; almcst sooner know you are not responsible 
for your .actions than that you should be held accountable to your Maker 
for what you have done. I think "-ou have killed the best half of my life. 
Why did you do it? I am sure if you had come back to us we could have 
made you. happy ; we would have done anything for you, we all love you 
so. Now. .all's over forever. I feel as if I am going to a funeral. I dare 
say yo.u have received mine of February i6th. You see I need not have 
been afraid' o'f putting my fear into words. When God has taken us all, 
and in -heaven we' are all re-united, one face will be missing the face that 
has always been so; dear to me. As I am writing this I am shedding the 
bitterest tears of my life. I can't finish as usual by sayin?, God bless you. 
Your welfare will always be dear to me, but when you write please omit 
any reference to your religious matters. As to your advice to us to read 
the New .Testament, I pass it over with the contempt it deserves. I shall 
strive to think of you as you were in years gone by, not as you are. I still 
love you, b'iit iny faith and hope in you are dead killed by your cruel 
letter. If you will come back to us in the old faith, as a repentant Jew, 
there is nothing I will not do for you to prove my. love. I wonder if you 
really loved us," 

"Our New Year commences on Monday, and the Fast is next Wed- 
nesday week. God grant us all happiness and prosperity and keep us from 
fresh sorrow during the coming year. I shall never cease all my life to 
regret the step you have taken. Many a time I am seized with a feeling 
of deep sorrow and regret for your ruined and wasted life. Only our 
Heave'nly Father knows what deep faith I put in you; but our idols are 
generally shattered." 

These' letters from a loyal hearted Jewish girl, sorrowing be- 
cause she thought a well-beloved brother had cut himself off for- 
ever from ths congregation of Israel, when he had simply found 
the Messiah,; of whom Moses and the prophets wrote, I would ask 
you earnestly to bear in mind while considering the following ar- 
guments for the scriptural method of presenting the Gospel to trie 
Jews. Remember, also, Jerome says, that well into the fifth cen- 
tury there were in all the synagogues Jews who believed in and 
loyally followed the Lord Jesus Christ. 

42 



It is often stated that neglect and hatred are the great wrongs 
committed against the Jewish race by the so-called Christian na- 
tions. But there is a point whereat a far deeper spiritual wrong 
is done to the children of Israel than in either of these evils. The 
Hebrew leaders of the primitive church in their misunderstanding 
of God's plan for the Gentiles, endeavored to place upon them the 
yoke of the Law. After much contention the Court of Apostles 
at the Council of Jerusalem, as a result of the vehement plea of 
Barnabas and Paul, removed every unnecessary burden. To-day 
the Gentile leaders of the Church, with the positions reversed, are 
making an identical mistake in compelling Jews who have accept- 
ed the Messiahship of Jesus to forsake entirely their ancient cere- 
monies. 

This unscriptural. attitude has caused the light of the Gospel 
to be almost entirely withdrawn from Jewish circles, and has 
brought much sorrow to the convert as to his kinsmen, who re- 
gard him as a traitor. And when a Hebrew-Christian deliber- 
ately turns his back upon the God-given rites and ceremonies re- 
vered for centuries by our forefathers, can we wonder at the pro^ 
found indignation of his brethren, especially when we recall the 
national persecution of centuries at the hands of the so-called fol- 
lowers of Christ? Does it not truly seem as if he has gone over, 
body, soul and spirit to those whom his kinsmen have good reason 
to regard as irreconcilable enemies of his race ? 

The Hebrew leaders of the primitive Church were not in the 
will of God when they strove to Judaize the Gentile followers of 
our Lord. The Gentile leaders of the Church work against the 
clear light of truth when they strive to Gentilize the Jewish fol- 
lowers of Christ in this our day. 

When studying the scriptures for guidance in, our national, 
social and spiritual environments, we must carefully distinguish 
between references to the different conditions of life, otherwise 
many commands will appear contradictory, which, taken in con- 
nection with our varied activities, are perfectly reconcilable. In 
Saint Paul we find an unique example of apparent contradictions 
as he fulfills his ministry as a Jew, a Roman, and a Christian. The 
failure to take into account his distinguished consistency to these 
several conditions accounts for much of the misunderstanding 
concerning his action on varied occasions. Many years after be- 

43 . 



coming a follower of Jesus, he deliberately said, "I am a Jew" 
(Acts 22:3). In the same chapter he asserts his Roman citizen- 
ship, and in other scriptures declares he has set his affections on 
things above, and that his citizenship is in heaven. In his loyalty 
to Christ he did not despise his Jewish birthright nor undervalue 
his position as a free-born Roman, but used them to the glory of 
God and in the interests of his fellowmen. In obedience to a com- 
mand which Christ himself had given, and which works both 
ways, "Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and unto 
God the things that are God's" (Mark xii:i7), in a time of dan- 
ger and difficulty, although perfectly conscious that God was and 
is supreme Protector, he invoked the aid of the Roman power, and 
his very difficulty redounded to the glory of Christ, as he was led 
a prisoner to testify before kings for His name's sake. 

That Paul had not played the hypocrite' at Jerusalem, as some 
assert, is perfectly evident when we read concerning the whole 
matter, "And the night following the Lord stood by him and said, 
"Be of good cheer, for, as thou hast testified concerning Me at 
Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome. (Acts xxiii : 
1 1 ) . And on his arrival at the heathen city he distinctly declares 
when addressing his Hebrew brethren, "I have done nothing 
against the people or customs of our fathers." Acts xxviii:!/.) 

Loyalty to home and country is commanded and sanctified by 
God, and rejoices and blesses the heart .of man.- We know that 
our life upon earth is but as a breath compared with eternity, and 
that our earthly joys cannot be compared with the glories that 
await us in the eternal Kingdom. Yet God has told us to redeem 
the time and given us all things richly to enjoy if they be of good 
report and indulged in innocently and unselfishly. Therefore we 
should carefully refrain from undervaluing the national and so- 
cial joys of those bound bv racial and kindred ties, when we pre- 
sent to them the glories of the Gospel. We drink of the water 
and feed on the Bread of Life to satisfy spiritual cravings; but 
we do not refuse the sparkling mountain streams nor the ripened 
fruits of the earth to sustain physical life the higher spiritual 
blessings do not exclude or destroy the lower physical sources of 
rejoicing. Then, why should Jews be compelled, when they con- 
fess love for the Lord'Jes'us Christ, to unnecessarily and unscrip- 
turally present an attitude the reverse of love toward national and 
social institutions commanded by God and revered for centuries 
by our Israelitish forefathers ! 

44 



Great misunderstanding has arisen in the Church because the 
Abrahamic and Mosaic . covenants are so often confounded one 
with another. Abraham "received the sign of circumcision, a seal 
of the righteousness of faith which he had in uncircumcision ; that 
he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not 
circumcized ; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also 
(Rom. ivrii). This covenant of the righteousness of faith, of 
which circumcision is the seal, "the law, which came 430 after, 
doth not disannul" (Gal. iii:!/). Paul, , with equal distinctness, 
declares, "Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law that upon 
the Gentiles might come the blessing of Abraham in Jesus Christ 
(Gal. iii:i3, 14). Paul says in the same Epistle, "He has holpen 
Israel, His servant," says the mother of our Lord, "that He might 
remember mercy, as He spake unto our 'fathers, toward Abraham 
and his seed forever" (Luke i 154, 55). "Blessed be the Lord, the 
God of Israel, for He has visited and wrought redemption for His 
people, and hath raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house 
of His servant David, to show mercy toward our fathers, and to 
remember His holy covenant; the oath which He swore unto 
Abraham our father," declares the aged Zacharias. 

One of the first acts of St. Paul after -leaving the Council of 
Jerusalem, where he had pleaded so nobly for social freedom for 
the Gentiles, was to circumcise Timothy (Acts xvi:3). Martin 
Luther, commenting on this circumstance, says, "It is just as if I 
should go among the Jews in order to preach the Gospel and 
should find that they were weak. I might in that case be willing 
to submit to circumcision and to eat or even abstain as they do, 
but I would do all this in no other case, and no longer, than while 
I could be with them to -labor for the Gospel. (International Il- 
lustrated Commentary, Vol. 2, page 246.) 

Here we find the great Reformer declaring that he himself 
was willing to be circumcised and observe the ceremonial law, 
with the object of winning the Jews for Christ. Why then do the 
Gentile leaders of missionary work among the Hebrews forbid the 
seed of Abraham, according to the flesh, maintaining this most 
reasonable position? May not Luther's subsequent disappoint- 
ment in Gospel work among the Jews have been the natural out- 
come of his failure to put into operation the practical, scriptural 
methods ? 

"So ordain I in all churches," says Paul in his first Epistle to 

45 



the Corinthians, "was any man called being circumcised ? let him 
not become uncircumcised. Hath any been called in uncircumcis- 
ion? let him not be circumcised. Circumcision is nothing and 
uncircumcision is nothing, but the keeping of the commandments 
of God. Let each man abide in the calling wherein he was called 
(i Cor. vii:i7-2o). 

Peter's comment on the Epistles of Pa'ul, "wherein are some 
things hard to be understood" (2 Peter iii :i6), is applicable to his 
references to circumcision in Galations, which are perplexing. 
But the fact stands out prominently that he was writing against 
teachers who were striving to compel the Gentiles to live as Jews. 
J^ie warns the Galatian Christians that if they receive circumcis- 
ion as an aid to salvation they were debtors to do the whole law, 
and were fallen from grace. This reference to the position of 
Gentile Christians does not lessen the overwhelming proof thai: 
Hebrew-Christians in the early Church did circumcise their chil- 
dren, not -as a meritorious act as related to justification, but as a 
testimony of national love, as sons of Abraham, to gain their 
brethren for Christ. They did not despise the "schoolmaster" 
which had brought them to him. 

With equal truth we can say the Passover was instituted pre- 
vious to the giving of the law : "This day shall be unto you for a 
memorial, and ye shall keep it a feast unto the Lord throughout 
your generations ; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance forever" 
(Ex. 12:14), are words which the Lord spake unto Moses and 
Aaron in the land of Egypt, and not on Mount Sinai. Does not 
the remembrance of our redemption from Egyptian bondage 
deepen our understanding and love for our eternal redemption 
from the bondage of sin in the blood of Christ ? As I have taken 
my seat at the tables of my unconverted brethren at the annual 
feast of unleavened bread my heart has rejoiced in the knowledge 
that "Christ our Passover is sacrificed fpr us" (i Cor. 57), and 
I have been enabled to testify that no Paschal blood is" now shed 
in Israel, and to remind them that "the stone which the builders 
rejected is become the head of the corner" (Psalm cxviii:22), as 
they repeat this prophetical scripture during the recital of the an- 
cient ceremony. Had I refused to appear at the national feast 
my paschal testimony could riot have been given, with the possi- 
ble res'ult of having the soul's blood of my kinsfold laid to rny 
charge in the eternal day. 

46 



As a legitimate argument, may I not also mention that our 
American brethren observe Independence Day, 'our Canadian 
brethren Dominion Day, and our British brethren the King's 
birthday in the homelands and elsewhere, without dishonoring 
their Christian faith? Why then forbid Hebrew-Christians ob- 
serving their day of national redemption, even though they be far 
from the Promised Land, as our fathers were in the days when 
the feast was instituted? 

Then, again, is not the Feast of Tabernacles a memorial of 
our wanderings in the wilderness and a thanksgiving for the in- 
gathered harvest, which will be anti-tipically fulfilled when Christ 
comes a' second time to gather the children of Israel as a spiritual 
harvest after their rebellious wanderings of centuries ? "I would 
not, brethren," says the Apostle, "have you ignorant of this mys- 
tery lest ye be wise in your own conceits, that a hardening in part 
has befallen Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles be come in, 
and so all Israel shall be saved : even as it is written, there shall 
come out of Zion the Deliverer : He shall turn away ungodliness 
from Jacob : and this is my covenant unto them when I shall take 
awa)' their sins. As touching the Gospel there are enemies for 
your sake; but as touching the election they are beloved for their 
father's sake" (Rom. xi 125-28) I 

Reverting to a national argument in this connection, I would 
remind you that our American brethren observe Thanksgiving 
Day and our British brethren their harvest festivals in the sacred 
fanes dedicated to the worship of Almighty God, without dishon- 
oring their Christian testimony. Why then forbid Hebrew breth- 
ren in Christ observing the Feast of Tabernacles, which in the 
bright millenial age, many nations will be compelled to observe, 
according to the prophecy of Zechariah, "And it shall come to pass' 
that every one that is left of all the nations which came against 
Jerusalem shall go up from year to year to worship the King, the" 
Lord of Hosts, and to keep the Feast of Tabernacles (Zech. 
xiv:i6). 

It is a fact of deepest interest to note that whereas the first two 
of the great feasts of Israel, Passover and Pentecost, have their 
anti-typical fulfillment recorded in the New Testament, its pages 
contain no record of the anti-typical fulfillment of the third. Tab- 
ernacles is the most joyful of the three festivals, and the Jews ex- 
pect Messiah will come during its celebration, which hope is seem- 

47 



ingly justified by our Lord's cry uttered during the feast, "If any 
man thirst let him come unto Me and drink" (John 7:37.) 

Again, when missionaries of the Cross go to the Orient and 
elsewhere, do they not become in social and national customs as 
heathen to the heathen, to gain the heathen ; even going so far in 
China as to shave their heads, wear the queue, eat with. chopsticks, 
and wear the national costume ? . Why then this unscriptural lack 
of wisdom concerning the customs of the Hebrews when you seek 
to win them for Christ ? 

Very much is made of Paul's reproof of Peter at Antioch. 
Here he was taking the extreme right of the position while argu- 
mentatively fighting for freedom for the Gentiles, as he took the 
extreme left in his proclamation for the Jews, "I became as under 
the law to them that are under the law, to gain them that are 
under the law ( i Cor. ix :2o) . The burden of his argument is to 
prevent either Jew or Gentile depending on works of the law for 
salvation. But his actions would have given a constant lie to his 
teachings had he forbidden either Jew or Gentile being circum- 
cised or observing the ceremonial law, with the laudable desire of 
gaining the Jew for Christ. Peter and Barnabas had been car- 
ried away by Hebrew Zealots who were seeking to Judaize the 
Gentiles. Paul's reproof was just and necessary. But in this 
very connection he declares that "the gospel of the circumcision 
was committed unto Peter, as the gospel of the uncircumcision 
was unto him" (Gal. ii:i7). These are not idle and meaningless 
titles ! When the Hebrew Apostles at the Council of Jerusalem 
declared for liberty to the Gentiles, they did not sacrifice their own 
liberty. Were not the Gentile Christians free to eat or refuse 
meat offered unto idols, which superstitious act did not in itself 
defile the food? Who, then, will dare say that Hebrew-Christans 
are not free to observe the law, which is described as holy, just 
and good, if used lawfully? The Apostle refrained from idol 
meat for the sake of weak brethren among the Gentiles. He con- 
formed to ancient ceremonies for the sake of weak brethren among 
the Hebrews. Years after the report spread that Paul was teach- 
ing Jews (Among the Gentiles to forsake Moses. On his last visit 
to Jerusalem, "James and all the elders were present ; and whn he 
had saluted them, he rehearsed one by one the things that God had 
wrought among the Gentiles by his ministry. 'And when they 
heard they glorified God, and they said unto him, "Thou seest, 
brother, how many myriads (margin) there are among the Jews 

48 



of them that believed ; and they are all zealous of the law ; and 
they are informed concerning thee, that thou teachest all the Jews 
that are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to 
circumcise their children, neither to walk after the customs" 
(Acts xxi:i8-2i). 

It is to be noted that the tens of thousands of Jews herein re- 
ferred to were not residents of the Holy City, but pilgrims from 
all lands, who had come to Jerusalem to keep the feast of Pente- 
cost. They were Jews, resident among many Gentile nations, be- 
lievers in the Lord Jesus, and yet 'zealous of the law for their 
brethren's sake. Did Paul reprove them for their national loy- 
alty, as he had reproved Peter at Antioch for his racial bigotry ? 
Nay, verily, he gladly responded to their invitation to prove that 
he himself was walking orderly and keeping the law, as he had at 
Cenchrea and elsewhere, not in bondage, but in perfect liberty. 

It is folly to argiie that this course of action was the occasion 
of his tribulation at Jerusalem, Everywhere tribulation was his 
appointed lot, as among the Gentiles at Ephesus. The disturb- 
ance in the Temple did not take place until seven days later, when 
he was accused of "teaching all men everywhere against the peo- 
ple, the law, and the place" (Acts xxi:?8), and of defiling the 
Temple by introducing Greeks therein. Had the charges been 
true they would have been justified in condemning him, as seem- 
ingly, he admits by implication when addressing the angry multi- 
tude in the Hebrew tongue, he commences thus : "Men, brethren, 
and fathers, hear ye the defense which I make now unto you?" 
(Acts xxiiii). . 

When the Apostle declares that in Christ there can be neither 
Jew nor Greek, there can be neither bond nor free, there can be 
no male nor female" (Gal. Hi .-28), it is perfectly obvious that he 
no more intended to unsex the Jew than he did to unsex the Gen- 
tile. Did he not declare himself years after his conversion "a He- 
brew of the Hebrews?" (Phil. iii:S), "a Jew?" (Acts xxii:3), 
"an Israelite?" (Rom. xi:i). He writes to the Roman Chris- 
tians, "I speak to you that are Gentiles" (Rom. xr:i3), and sa- 
lutes and thanks "all the churches of the Gentiles" (Rom. xvi:S). 
Can the distinction be clearer? 

The Epistle to the Hebrews was partly written against the 
.unscriptural position of the Judaizer, who were depending on. 
works of the law for salvation, as books are written to-day against 

49 



the teaching of brethren who declare that certain forms of bap- 
tism, or belief in certain creeds, are necessary, if we would rest 
secure in our hope of eternal life. Consciously or unconsciously 
they belittle the finished work of Christ, and will themselves suf- 
fer eternal loss .if they depend on outward work for salvation. 
But because these extremeists are wrong, the Church at large 
does not forbid baptism nor the formulation of creeds. We ask 
yoli to be equally wise and just in respect to the legitimate cere- 
monies of the Hebrews ; for Jews who have truly entered into the 
joys of faith are not likely to be again entangled in the yoke of the 
law. "Christ being come an high priest of good things to come 
* # # * * by HIS OWN BLOOD entered in once into the holy 
place, having obtained eternal redemption for us" (Heb. ix: 
II, 12). Good works, repentance, prayer and fasting, even on 
the Day of Atonement, are only acceptable in God's sight as re- 
lated to the sacrifice of Christ. The Lord spake unto Moses, say- 
ing, "The life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to 
you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls,; for it 'is 
the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul" (Lev. 17:11). 

It is sometimes said that Hebrew-Christians escape "the of- 
fence of the Cross" by becoming as Jews to the Jews, to gain the 
Jews, which is like saying that a soldier escapes danger who/ boldly 
enters the enemy's country. There are to-day scores of men of 
Jewish birth occupying Christian pulpits, who, taking the oppo- 
site course, enjoy happy, social and spiritual relationship with 
their congregations. Some have become Gentilized, changed 
their names, and deliberately turned their backs upon their un- 
converted brethren to escape the universal reproach of the Jew. 
But what is the position of a Hebrew-Christian who is loyal to his 
brethren as to Christ? Scorn in the home and national circle; 
suspicion and misunderstanding in the Christian circle! Which 
position is nearest to that of the great Apostle to the Gentiles 
when he declared, "I colild wish that I myself were accursed from 
Christ for my brethren's sake, my kinsmen according to the flesh 
(Rom. 1x13). 

The position for which we contend was conceded to be scr.ip- 
tural by leading Hebrew-Christian missionaries from many lands, 
who met in London about five years ago, after calm and long- 
continued discussion. Unfortunately, they were restrained from 
giving public expression to this most wise judgment through fea/r 

' 50 



'of tlie Gentile Christian leaders of missionary societies upon 
whom they depended for support. May God forgive their cow- 
ardice. 

We argue for absolute freedom and not for compulsion, 
freedom to exercise our liberty in Christ in -favor 6f our uncon- 
verted brethren, and not against them and urgently appeal to 
all Christians to proclaim the Apostolic fact .that "HebrewXhris- 
tians are entitled, under the liberty wherewith Christ has made us 
free, if they so desire, to admit their male children into the cove- 
nant of Abraham, and to observe any other of the rites and cere- 
monies of their fathers, not done away with by Christ and His 
Apostles or the primitive Church; provided only,' it is clearly un- 
derstood, that neither Jew nor Gentile can be saved by works of 
the law, but only through the merits and mediation of Jesus Christ 
our Lord and Saviour. "For there is none other name under 
heaven given among men whereby we must be saved." Acts iv :i2, 

*REMARKS OF THE EDITING COMMITTEE, 



At the close, of Bro. Levy's address it became apparent that he stood 
alone in his teaching, and only after the most serious consideration the 
editing committee agreed to insert the paper, deciding, however, to append 
the following remarks : 

1. The brother is in perfect agreement with all the' rest of the breth- 
ren when he claims that we are justified before God through faith in Christ 
without the deeds of the law. 

2. When the brother reproves the Church because she prohibits her 
Hebrew-Christian members to observe the ceremonial law for national rea- 
sons, he evidently means some other church than that of the United States ; 
for the Evangelical Church of this land never made such prohibitions to 
our knowledge, nor did she have occasion to do so. 

3. We are not convinced that our faithfulness to the ceremonial law 
would take away the offence of the Cross. It is not the giving up of the 
law, but our faith and trust in the Lord Jesus that stamps us as apostates 
before our people. . 

4. We are therefore convinced that as long as . our Jewish brethren 
persist in their opposition, a'nd we in our faithfulness to Christ, we shall in 
the future, as in the past, be compelled to go to Him without the camp and 
bear His reproach, and our relation to the ceremonial law will'not alter the 
case. 

5. We to whom Christ is the e'nd of the law ' for righteousness we 
who are made free from the law by Christ, 'are just as much national Jews 
as Drs. Herzel and Nordau, and myriads of others who emancipated them- 
selves from the bondage of the law. Our nationality is not conditioned by 
observance or non-observance of ceremonial law, but by our a'ncestry. As 

51 



to God's glorious promises to our nation, they too are based on grace and 
not on merit acquired by faithfulness to the ceremonial law. Deut. 7:6-8; 
9 :s ; Hez. 36 122. Yea, when Paul in the Epistle to the Galatians, had cast 
idpwn all the walls of partition between Jewish and Gentile believers, con- 
cluding that in Christ neither circumcision 'nor uncircumcision amounted 
to anything, but a new creature, he still made a difference between Gentile 
believers and Jewish believers, wishing both of them peace and mercy ; and 
when in his mind the latter stand out as "the Israel of God" (Gal. 6:16), 
it is 'not because of ceremonies that they observed, but because they walked 
according to this rule (kanon) which he just established, viz., in Christ 
nothing .counts, but a new creature, v. 15. . 

A. . R. 
L/ouis 
M.- RUBEN. 



What Can We Do to Make Jewish Missions More Successful? 

BY REV. LEOPOLD COHN. 

* "- - 

First The chhirch as well as. individuals can do very much 
toward the success of Jewish missions by observing the order of 
the Lord Jesus Christ with implicit obedience. "Whatsoever He 
saith unto you do it," said Mary. Not whatsoever you think best, 
or what your rulers think best, but what He saith. "And as soon 
as they had filled the stone water pots, as the Lord Jesus com- 
manded, the water was turned into wine." That was the first 
success attending 1 the obedience to the Lord's definite command. 
We, too, can fill the stony hearts of the Jews with the living water, 
confident that he will turn that water into wine, converting their, 
souls and making glad their hearts. 

"Ye shall be witnesses unto me, both in Jerusalem and in Ju- 
dea, and in Samaria, and unto the utmost parts of the earth." He 
wants his .witnesses to face Judea first, and then the 'Utmost parts 
of the earth. But the leaders of the Church became "wise in 
their own eyes" (Isa. 5:21), and in their judgment the Jewish 
field was too hopeless for strong efforts. But see what child-like 
faith can do. "Nevertheless, at thy word, I will let down the 
net." Luke 5 15. In that very hopeless spot of the sea where 
they had toiled all the night and had taken nothing, they had a 
draught of fishes which filled both the ships so that they began to 
sink. They succeeded and others partook in the blessing, for 
they had to beckon unto their partners. That was an indication 
.that when the church will cast her Gospel net into this hopeless 
sea of the Jews, there will be the greatest success that the world 

52 



ever witnessed. For, not only will there be a large draught of 
converts from among the Jews, but also nations 'and kings will be 
partakers of their blessings. "And the Gentiles shall see thy 
righteousness, and all the kings thy glory." Isa. 62:2. And 
again, "And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the 
brightness of thy rising." Isa. 60:3. Then shall we see those 
that will "fly as a cloud and as the doves to their windows." Isa. 
60:8. These and many other passages of scripture show plainly 
that by strictly observing the divine order of preaching the gospel 
to the Jew first, the Jews will not only be converted themselves, 
but the heathen, too, shall turn to the God of Israel. The gospel 
is a mysterious power. Everv word and every sound- of it is -a 
magnet charged with a potent elixir of strength, but we must sub- 
mit to the rules laid down by the master of these power currents. 
The operations of an electric battery are made possible by a care- 
ful submission to the accurate demands of its definite laws. In 
order to derive the full benefit of the voltaic pile, you must send 
its power through both its wires, the positive and negative. Neg- 
lect one of them and there will be no flow of power. The Gospel 
is the "power of God unto salvation." But how is that power to 
be realized ? "To the Jew first, and also to the Greek" is the di- 
vine direction. Neglect this direction, and the sacred battery will 
not work. 

Second We can do very much to make Jewish missions 
more successful by observing the scriptural rules concerning the 
men we send out as missionaries. In the selection and installing 
of a pastor to labor in one of our churches, what nervous anxiety 
every member feels. What extreme caution is exercised and with 
what persistent and penetrating investigation the committee goes 
about its work. The man must be thoroughly equipped for his 
office. He must be upright, talented, of reputation, must have 
passed the curriculum of the college and seminary and the exam- 
ination of ecclesiastical judicatory ; must have exhibited power as 
a licentiate, and must have some Christian experience. He must 
be sincere, discreet, must have originality, eloquence, a good pul- 
pit figure, and imposing personality, a good voice and articulation, 
some knowledge of music, be up in the history of the past, the pol- 
itics of the present, and the prognostication of the future, etc., ad 
infinitwn. 

This is for the Church. For mission work, "any old thing 

53 



will do," so that it comes under the general description of "sort 
for sort," a reformed drunkard for drunkards, an ex-convict for 
the jails, a native teacher at $50 a year for the Congoes, a former 
cotton hand for colored men, and a Jew for Jews. Let a man 
have the racial qualifications, let him be a Jew, and though he lack 
every other requisite, the church is ready to commission him to 
preach the gospel to his own people. They take up a Jew pro- 
fessing Christianity. He may be a fugitive from some European 
persecution, utterly unlettered, even in his own sacred literature. 
His formative education may have been fancier the three balls in 
Chatham street, yet they freely indorse his. preaching to the Jews. 
Then presently, some evil thing crops up, mistaken doctrine, finan- 
cial complication or even a perverted moral sense, and with what 
inevitable result? First, the Jews are repelled rather than at- 
tracted. Their infidelity is confirmed, and Christ is dishonored. 
Second. Christians are discouraged. They say "what is the use 
in trying to bring the Jews to Christ? It cannot be done." And 
so the old falsehood of the devil is resurrected : "Israel is cast off 
from God." This, notwithstanding Paul's constant asseveration, 
"God forbid." 

The remedy is in the setting up of a new standard of selec- 
tion. Paul enumerates the conditions in the pth chapter of 1st 
Corinthians. These paraphrased into 'the language of the pres- 
ent might berhaps be thus expressed : First, the surrender and 
consecration of the man wholly, absolutely to his crucified, risen 
and living Lord. Second, his thorough acquaintance with Christ 
as lie is portrayed in God's written word, both in Old and New 
Testaments. Third, the manifestation of God's presence with 
him and of God's power thrdugh him in his life and ministry. I 
apprehend that in this matter, we should adopt the counsel of 
Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, who advised him, saying, "Thou 
shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, 
men of truth, hating covetousness." The Hebrew word for able 
men here is men of virtue and strength "chail," which literally 
means, an army. This conveys to us the idea 01 a soldier. The 
man must face death, and yet stand in the field of battle. There 
have been a number of Jewish missionaries both of Jewish and 
Gentile descent, who at some time had conceived a notion to 
preach the gospel to the Jews, but soon gave it up under various 
pretences. One said -that the Lord wanted him to go about and 

54 



.teach Christians different doctrines. Another imagined that the 
Lord wanted him to go about lecturing* on Jewish fables and tra- 
ditions. Still another thought he co'ulcl do greater service by ap- 
.plying the time to writing books, as if his book was the only one 
missing in the world of literature, etc., etc. Their mission fields 
have been entered in Jewish mission statistics, which, when the in- 
different Christians read, they flatter themselves and say, "Well, 
there are plenty of missionaries to the Jews nowadays," but, alas ! 
if they only knew how untrue those ( statistics are, and how the 
Jews triumphantly point their finger of scorn at such Jewish mis- 
sionaries, whom they call "Bluffers." They say, "These bluffers 
have seen themselves that we Jews have a better religion than 
they have, therefore they retreated. I had a number of letters 
from Jews some years ago, in which they wrote something like 
this : "You bluffer, you will very soon stop your nonsense about 
your Jesus, like all the others who came for a time and soon went 
their ways." The advice of Jethro is. to have a soldierly man 
who will stand at his post, notwithstanding hardships and difficul- 
ties, proclaiming the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ to the Jews, 
keeping on, pegging away at it even '-unto death. 

The second point in Jethro's advice is, "such as fear God." 
There are missionaries to the Jews who would irritate the Jewish 
people by showing disregard to the law of God. "Unto the Jews, 
I became a Jew," said Paul. Otherwise, he will prove himself in 
the eyes of the Jews to be a man who does not fear God. I have 
known missionaries who, in order to torment a Jew, lighted a 
cigar on the Sabbath, and ironically asked the Jew, "Is it Sabbath 
to-day?" puffing the smoke of the cigar in the Jew's face at the 
same time. We can imagine what an attraction such a Christian 
missionary can be to the Jews. 

Third description given by Jethro is, "Men of truth." The 
missionary must speak nothing else but the truth. I have known 
missionaries to tell untruths and so-called kind Christians have 
excused them because, they say, it is a fashion in America to look 
for big things, to make large advertisements, to attach large titles 
to business, and so the Christian workers and clergymen, too, may 
exaggerate a little. But God will not bless things which are not 
absolutely true. In the scriptures we find along this line only two 
definitions, the truth and a lie there is no middle ground. You 
cannot change a lie by calling it an exaggeration. 

55 



The fourth point, "hating covetousness," or as the Hebrew 
has it, hating money. Most of the Jewish missionaries would go 
around to individuals and churches, begging for money. They 
would appoint themselves a committee of a number of men who 
apparently are glad to have their names connected with such an 
office. They do not know the life, character and ability of the 
missionary. They simply give encouragement to the missionary 
by their endorsement to go out and gather money, consequently, 
the spirit of soliciting contributions grows stronger and stronger 
in the mind and heart of the missionary and the work is sadly 
neglected. "Ye cannot serve two masters," saith the Lord. Hav- 
ing set his mind on the money matter, he cannot have his mind to 
teach, preach and pray. He has no time to study the scriptures, 
and does not really know what to preach. His sermon consists 
of foolish harangues and denunciations against the Jewish re- 
ligion. He tells the audience if he has any that Christianity 
is a license for the Jew to eat pork, to break the Sabbath, etc., etc. 
The Jewish hatred toward Christianity is thereby increased, they 
hate, persecute and fight the missionary, who goes about telling 
the Christians that because he believes in and preaches the Lord 
Jesus Christ, therefore he is persecuted. A committee, consisting 
of experienced Hebrew-Christians, should be appointed to inves- 
ti^ate all such missionaries, their work, their character and their 
ability. They should visit the meetings for a long time, and 
thereby learn of the nature of the work, and those whom they find 
unfit should be discountenanced. It is ridiculous to send to the 
Jewish people men who are not worthy of the high calling of the 
Lord Jesus Christ.' The Jews are not heathen. They had a 
Moses, they had a Samuel and a David, men of God according to 
his heart. Such they will listen to and will be led by them. There 
is a Talmudic comment on Malachi 2 #, which reads : "If one is 
like an angel of the God of hosts, then shall they seek the law at 
his mouth." 

This is inborn with the Jew. He watches the preacher crit- 
ically, and if he finds in him any appearance of evil, he will not 
receive his teaching. But the Jew will always respect a godly 
man, and will soon follow his example and believe in the Lord 
Jesus Christ. 



What Can Be Done to Make Jewish Missions More Successful? 

BY A. T. DUSHAWj STUD. THKOIy. ' <; 

Any one who has candidly watched the progress of Jewish 
missions in New York City, must certainly be astonished at the 
rapid decline in interest, both on the part of Jews and Christians. 
Missions, where at one time the Jews flocked by the thousand,- are 
either attended by a few boys, or .the places are sold out to the 
Jews -to be turned into synagogues. ^ The workers who shined 
like the stars in all their glory, have gradually become so eclipsed 
that we don't know of their existence. " 

I believe that there is nothing like looking the situation right 
in the face, and see what can be done to remedy it. I further- 
more believe that the missionaries of New York would be far more 
successful if they reported to their supporters the whole truth, 
viz., that the' work amongst the Jews is not what it should be, and 
that this is due to lack of workers and proper places for doing the- 
work. 

In what follows I will discuss as briefly as possible the causes- 
of the decline, and also offer some remedies. 

SYSTEMATIC WORK. 

i. Preaching is not the only means of proclaiming Christ. 
I do not entirely discountenance preaching, but in Jewish work 
the testimony of helpfulness is needed as well. Furthermore, the 
preaching takes place in churches ; and churches are not the very 
best places to preach to the Jew, because the average church mem- 
ber is not an exceptional lover of Israel, especially is this true in 
Jewish neighborhoods. The reasons are rather economic and not- 
religious. 

Nice, clean, ventilated halls should be built and the work car- 
ried on institutional methods. Then instruction could be given 
to the young. In these buildings rooms should be had to let to 
converted Jews. As it is to-day, the moment one accepts Christ, 
the Jews in free America persecute and turn him out of doors, and 
his Hebrew-Christian friends cannot in any way assist him. 
These institutions should also have an employment bureau. We 
must not forget that the Jews, although persecuted, are the great- 
est persecutors and the most intolerant people we have under 
God's blessed Sun, and had' they power, tragedies similar to that 
of St. Stephen would be enacted in the city of New York. It is 

57 



therefore our duty to make provisions of some kind for our per- 
secuted brethren. 

HARMONY. _ 

2. Perhaps, the 'present conditions of Jewish missions in 
New York City are largely due to the fact that in the past there 
has not been the proper harmony between the workers. Thus, 
instead of uniting their forces and presenting one solid front to 
the enemy, each worker worked independently of the others. 
This, of course, gave the enemy a good chance to hit hard, and 
they did. Had there been harmony, one or more men acting un- 
worthy of the calling could not in any way lower the character of 
Hebrew-Christians in the estimation of other Christians. The 
Gentile Christian workers are not all perfect. I have met st/u- 
dents who were assisted in college for the sole purpose of pre- 
paring for work in the missionary field, and after receiving the 
education, they took up some other profession. But because 
there is harmony, if only in a measure, the Gentile Christians 
were not hurt by it, but, alas ! how different among Hebrew-Chris- 
tians. Of course, harmony will mean some sacrifice on the part 
of every worker, but if the prayer of each will be 

"Oh, to be nothing, nothing, only to lie at His feet, 

A broken and contrite vessel for the Master's use made meet," 
how easy it. will be to sacrifice our mites. Brethren, let us from 
this moment. bow before the presence of Christ, and vow that in 
the future, God helping, we will forget self and be ready to minis- 
ter to one another in the spirit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ, who made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the 
form of a servant. My heart is too full to say any more on this 
point. If Christ is all to us, then we can surely lay aside all petty 
differences for. the cause of Him we love, and work together in 
spirit and in truth, standing by each other in times of trial and in 
times of victory, remembering that unity is strength. 

' 'fHE KIND OF MEN NEEDED EOR THE WORK. 

3. It is a very difficult matter with us poor mortals to really 
know who should be a worker and who should not. None of us 
is truly worthy to be a laborer in the Master's vineyard. It is a 
privilege conferred upon us. Furthermore, the world is every 
now and then astonished to see one become a power for righteous- 
ness, though not graduated from some great university. 

58 



Yet I would not have you. forget tl^at the great lawgiver was 
raised in Pharoah's palace ; that that great prophet who was. next 
to the King in the government was trained in the court of Baby- 
lon; that the greatest interpreter of Christ was a student of the 
Talmudic schools in Jerusalem ; that he was versed in Philosophy, 
and wrote his beautiful letters in Greek ; that the one who rescued 
the pure gospel from the clutches' of a superstitidus Catholic 
church was one of the great scholars of his day ; and the great 
men of, the nineteenth century, who helped to build up the king- 
dom of Christ were not all fishermen. I believe that the spiritual 
love of missionary work would be elevated if the intellectual was 
higher than what it is to-day. We need sanctified scholarship. 

Shall we see the Christian Church be so strict in sending out 
the right kind of men, and we be indifferent in this respect? Be- 
fore a man can go out to preach the gospel to the heathen, he is 
required to have the best intellectual equipment this country can 
give, whilst to preach the gospel to the keenest and the rudest an- 
tagonist, the Church sends any one. The only qualification is, 
that he is a Hebrew-Christian, and was possibly a Rabbi in some 
hamlet in Europe where he discoursed upon the great life impor- 
tant theme, whether an EGG laid on the Sabbath day may be eaten 
by a pious Jew. Let us require the same qualification of the He- 
brew missionary as the Gentile Christians do 'of their ministers. 
We ought to send men to our theological seminaries to try to get 
some of those students to enter the Jewish field. Why should all 
the best be sent to the heathn world? Let some be sent to the 
scattered and tattered sheep of Israel. 0, that God would open 
the eyes of the church to the great spiritual need of Israel. If the 
church had taken the same interest in Jewish work as she does in 
heathen work, Israel, I believe, would to-day be a nation acknowl- 
edging Christ as the Messiah and King of all hearts. 

THE KIND 01? MESSAGE TO BE PREACHED. 

4. First of all, let me tell you what kind of message is not 
needed to be preached, it is the return to ceremonialism. What 
would we think of a man who on being dragged out of a pit, 
should immediately go back' in again ? Now, after having drag- 
ged out so many Jews from tradition, superstition, and from forms 
which possess no life, would any candid Christian have such re- 
turn to those dead things? Who wants to sacrifice, or even to 
compromise the great principles of freedom- laid down in the gos- 

59 



pels and epistles, in order to satisfy a few men who are afraid to 
enjoy the glorious liberty Christ has given them. The Christian 
lives under the law of Christ, and if he desires to return to the old 
law, he is a fool, and the expression, "O foolish Galatians," might 
be applied to such. Let the Hebrew-Christian "stand fast in the 
liberty wherewith Christ has made him free, and not be' entangled 
again with the yoke of bondage." "Behold, I Paul, say unto you, 
that if any man be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing," 
and to the Colossiaiis he says, "Let no man therefore judge you in 
meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holy day or of the new moon, 
or of the Sabbath (days)." 

The Christian is a free man, he can eat what he pleases (if it 
only agrees with him) , neither is he bound to any particular day. 
But if any man wishes to observe the dead law, he is no more un- 
der Christ. But if such a one desires to keep circumcision and 
Saturday for the Sabbath out of respect to his forefathers, let him 
do so for himself, and not take the stand that it is absolutely es- 
sential for every Hebrew-Christian to do likewise. 

Had this conception of Christianity triumphed, Christianity 
would not be to-day the world-wide religion that it is, it would 
still be confined to Palestine, and its character would be a sort of 
Pharisaism. Christianity does not concern itself with certain 
theories, but with great principles, such as man's fall, the redemp- 
tion by blood, symbolized in the old, accomplished by Christ in the 
new covenant, the application of redemption through the spirit in 
the means of grace, &c., &c. Christ is the completion of all that 
came before, everything led up to him, he is the commencement 
of a new type of life, yea, he is the new life himself. t 

Our chief business as missionaries then is, to preach Christ 
and him crucified, to endeavor to build up the Kingdom of Christ 
in the hearts of men. Christ is not alone the highest ideal in the 
world, but also the power to realize this ideal. For he is the way, 
the truth, and the life. 



60 



BY MISSIONARY E. B. SAMUEL, OF THE LONDON 
MILDMAY MISSION TO THE JEWS. 



Mr. Chairman and Dear Brethren: 

It gives me great pleasure indeed to be here this morning and 
to meet so many of you, to whom I feel myself 'united with both 
natural and spiritual ties. 

And first permit me to convey to you the affectionate greet- 
ings of our Jewish Christian brethren from the other side of the 
Atlantic. As most of you know, we have a Hebrew-Christian 
Alliance and Prayer Union in London ; and we were- all exceed- 
ingly glad to learn that you were also going to form a similar as- 
sociation here; and when, moreover, our president and committee 
(of whom I have the honor of being a member) became aware 
that I anticipated visiting the United States, they desired me to 
be present at your Conference, if possible, to represent them, and 
to convey to you all their sincere wishes for your temporal and 
spiritual success, especially in forming your Alliance. This I do 
very heartily, for I am convinced that such a union is both desira- 
ble and necessary. 

There is a verse in the twenty-first chapter of Ezekiel that 
comes to my mind in the Hebrew which, literally translated, would 
read, "Unite thyself, turn to the right, make ready (or put thyself 
in position), turn to the left, whither thy face is set" (or straight 
on). Each of these phrases is but one word in the Hebrew and 
seems to have been uttered by the Prophet as a battle cry. 

He describes the awful effect of the terrible sword that was 
furbished and sharpened for slaughter, and then gives the order 
for battle. Hithachadi: Make thyself one! or fall in. This, 
brethren, is the first step to be taken, and a necessary one; in our 
Christian warfare we shall accomplish but little if we are not 
united. We have many enemies within and without, natural and 
spiritual: The Gentiles despise us because of our race, the Jews 
hate ! us because of our faith, and it is necessary for us to show a 
united front ; for as scattered units we must remain weak in the 
world, but banded together our strength shall be multiplied and 
we shall become a power for good. What we cannot do singly 
we shall accomplish unitedly, for unity is strength. 

And why should we not unite ? We are of the same race, we 

61 



worship the same Lord, we have one faith, one hope, one desire, 
and one object. Truly, brethren, let us take Ezekiel's battle cry 
as our motto, and let us unite ! 

We should,- however, not only be in concord among ourselves, 
but we should especially be joined to our Divine Master, Who, 
having already conquered for us will lead us from victory to vic- 
tory. The evil forces of the world are real and great, and mere 
carnal weapons prove insufficient for them ; but if we "put on the 
whole armour of God," and fight under the banner of our Spirit- 
ual Captain, we are sure to win. 

And being united to Christ and to one another, we shall then 
be willing to obey the remainder of the verse, to turn to the right 
when necessary, to put ourselves in a position of readiness, or 
turn to the left when needed. The enemy comes sometimes and 
attacks us from very unexpected quarters, so we must be mobile, 
ready to turn in. all directions, and whenever emergency requires; 
we must never permit him to outflank us. Then, as the Prophet 
continues, we shall be able to make progress and go straight, on 
whither our faces are set. We can turn on every side except 
backwards, but the object should be to make progress. Onward, 
ever onward, should be our aim. 

The Christian's life ought never to be at a standstill ; to re- 
main stationary would mean retrogression, and such a word ought 
not to be found in the Christian's vocabulary. You will remem- 
ber, when Isaiah the Prophet enumerates the movements of the 
godly, he makes no provision for retrogressive movements; he 
says at the end of chapter xl, "They shall mount up with wings as 
eagles, they shall run and not be weary, they shall walk and not 
faint." So, though we mav have to turn to the right, or turn to 
the left, let us never turn back. That should be the object of the 
Alliance. My earnest prayer to God is that together, you here 
and we on the other side of the Atlantic, may make good progress 
in our spiritual undertaking for our Divine Lord. Progress, 
continual progress ! 



62 



Hebrew-Christians and National Movements Aniong the Jews. 

BY REV. S. K. BRAUN., EASTON, PA. 

Among other things the speaker mentioned the Zionist move- 
ment and traced it to two causes. I. The hatred against -Israel 
and 2d, the hatred of Israel's own heart. 

1. The hatred against Israel in the heart of the nations, the 
speaker thought was not justifiable. But God overrules this sad , 
experience to Israel's ultimate good. The national feeling is 
stronger to-day than at any time of their' dispersion , and the He- 
brew-Christians partakes in Israel's , hopes as well as in its na- 
tional fears. 

2. The hatred of Israel is another movement which affects 
the Hebrew Christian. The interest in Israel's salvation is in- 
creasing. Hebrew-Christians particularly are carrying the Gos- 
pel of Christ to their own brethren. The Gospel has never been 
preached in vain among this people. Yea, in proportion to the 
efforts put forth it is bringing more fruit among the Jews than 
among the Gentiles. But this very fact causes consternation 
among the Jews ; tfyey fear that their sons and daughters, brothers 
and sisters would soon fall into the snare of the Hebrew-Christian 
missionary. Therefore they inaugurate all kinds of movements 
and enterprises so as to counteract the influence of the Gospel 
brought by the Hebrew-Christians. The battle is on. The heart 
often sickens at the sight of our brethren opposing us whilst we 
know that we only seek their eternal good. But our final victory 
is assured. The molith of the Lord has spoken and He will also 
perform. Amen. 



What Can be Done to Elevate Hebrew Christianity in the Esti- 
mation of Christians? 

BY REV. H. JACOBS. 

The term "Hebrew Christianity," reminds us of the primitive 
Church at Jerusalem, When a great persecution arose against, 
the Hebrew- Christians in Jerusalem, they scattered abroad and 
went about preaching the Gospel to the heathen. The Lord 
blessed their testimony. The churches founded were mostly Gen- 
tile, and while these grew and multiplied, the congregations, dis- 
tinctively Hebrew-Christians, disappeared more and more. After 
the destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70 A. D., we find hardly 

. 63 



any distinct Hebrew-Christian congregations of any great impor- 
tance. . 

There were living across the Jordan a sect of believing Jews, 
who called themselves "Abionites" (derived from the Hebrew 
word ebyon (poor, needy). They believed in Christ as the 
Messiah of Israel, but adhered also to all the laws and rites of the 
Old Testament. They discarded riches and looked upon it as a 
sin ; hence their name Abionites. We do not hear of them after 
the middle of the second century; they could not compete with 
the Catholicity of Paul and Peter, and they died the natural death 
of narrowness. 

From, that time on we do not know of any distinct Hebrew- 
Christian church or synagogue. From time to time the converts 
from Judaism joined the Christian Church, regardless of its na- 
tionality, at the place and time of their conversion. Thus, Nenan- 
der, the great Church Historian, joined the Lutheran church in 
Germany. Bishop Shereshewsky, a Russian Jew, joined the 
Episcopalian church, and so hundreds and thousands have joined 
the different churches where they found the Christ. 

The last fifty years have seen an unusual awakening among 
the Jewish race, and the converts to Christianity can be counted 
by the tens of thousands. It is simply a fulfillment of prophecy 
that Israel shall blossom again, and that they shall seek Jehovah 
and David, their king. B'ut the Church in general has not caught 
yet the spirit of Paul, who wished himself "accursed from Christ 
for his brethren. The majority of Christians are not only indif- 
ferent but even suspicious. 

On my way to the convention I met a Professor of a Theo- 
logical Seminary, who, in the course of our conversation, said to 
me: "Seventeen years ago a f&w was converted and baptized in a 
neighboring town not very far from where I live, and for ten 
years I had my suspicions about his sincerity. But now it is 
seventeen years (the exact number of years Jacob lived in Egypt. 
Gen. 47:28), and I regret very much my misjudgmnt, for he is 
an earnest, strong and ardent Christian." This is only one case 
of many. 

I would suggest 

i. An organization of Hebrew-Christians all over the land, 
yes, of all lands, with a chapel at some center, say in Jerusalem. 
We could not all meet every year, but delegates from different 

64 



lands representing different Hebrew-Christian organizations 
could meet annually or biennially for conference and prayer. This 
chapel could be used during the year by Hebrew-Christians as 
headquarters for preaching Christ to our unbelieving brethren. 

2. Another suggestion how to elevate Hebrew Christianity 
is in baptising converts. I know that we are all anxious to see 
some professing the Lord. It is the same anxiety and eagerness 
which exists among the pastors of the Christian churches as well, 
but i is a fact that many are received into the church who ought 
not to be there, Gentiles as well as Jews. Of course we cannot 
look into the heart, but it will pay in the end to receive only those 
who have shown real proof of their conversion. In my short 
ministry I have had an experience in that line, and I am only giv- 
ing you the benefit of it. St. Augustine said : "Whatever he ex- 
perienced, he was sure that somebody else, somewhere, some time, 
experienced likewise. 

3. Thirdly, I suggest that if we expect Hebrew-Christianity 
to be elevated in the eyes of the Christians, we should begin at 
home. Let us elevate Hebrew-Christianity among ourselves, let us 
love one another, let us rejoice in the success, estimate the good 
qualities, and overlook the infirmities of each other. 

Our convention affords an opportunity to exercise such 
graces, and I am so glad to know that such a spirit is being man- 
ifested. As one of the Gentile Christians told me, she wondered 
how we Hebrew-Christians got along so nicely together, coming 
from SO N many different countries, with their various customs, and 
now belonging to so many different denominations. 

Thank God for this spirit of love. But let us keep in mind, 
.brethren, that just as we love and pray for Hebrew-Christians, 
just so rriuch will Hebrew-Christianity be elevated in the estima- 
tion of the Church. 

Conclusion All our suggestions would be writing on the 
sand if we forgot one thing, it. is after all the only thing, tlje high- 
est and best thing, it is this : To elevate Hebrew-Christianity in the 
estimation of Christ; the Lord of all. This must be our first con- 
cern. If we appropriated all His treasures, if the whole Christ 
is ours and we are wholly His, then we. need not trouble ourselves 
about elevating our Christianitv in the estimation of others. The 
Lord will take care of it and of us. Amen. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



I. Names and Photographs of Delegates. 
II. Minutes of Proceedings. 
III. Papers and Addresses. 

1. Report of Corresponding Secretary, Rev. Louis Meyer, 

Hopkinton, Iowa 4 

2. Address by the Chairman, Rev. A. R. Kuldeli, Al- 

legheny, Pa 14 

3. Paper on Alliances, etc., by Rev. Louis Meyer 16 

4. Address by Dr. H. Zeckhauseu, New York 3! 

5. Paper on Scriptural Methods of Preaching the Gospel to 

Jew first, by Mark Levy, of London, England 40 

6. Address by Rev. Leopold Colin, Brooklyn, N. Y, Sub- 

ject: "What can we do to make Jewish Missions 
more successful?' ' 52 

7. Address on the same subject by A. T. Dushaw, Stud. 

Theol. New York 57 

8. Address by Rev. E. B. Samuel, of the Mildmay Mission to 

Jews, London, England 61 

9. Address by Rev. S. K. Braun. Subject: "Hebrew- Chris- , 

tians and National Movements Among the Jews." 63 

10. Address by Rev. H. Jacobs. Subject: "What can be 
done to elevate Hebrew Christianity in the Esti- 
mation of Christians. " 63 



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THE JEWISH VIEW OF JESUS REVIEWED. 

By Rev. A. R. Kuldell, (Hebrew-Christian Pastor, of Allegheny, Pa.) 

A reply to Rabbi J. Leonard Levy's lecture. Written in a firm, yet tender 
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