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Printed In the United States of America 



IT would perhaps seem more reasonable for a man in 
the pulpit to write this volume on the preacher and the 
missionary message. I heartily wish such a person had 
done it. My justification in undertaking the book is that 
I was first a pastor and have been a secretary of foreign 
missions for twenty-five years ; that I have had considera- 
ble opportunity to study the work on the fields face to 
face as well as helping to administer from the home base ; 
that I had the privilege of being a delegate to the Jeru- 
salem Conference in 1928, that no book on missions, dis- 
tinctly for the preacher, has been written since Dr. Mott's 
"Pastor and Modern Missions," twenty years ago; and 
the added urge in that a number of representative mis- 
sionary pastors have pressed me to do what I am now 
undertaking. I am far from claiming originality, and as 
Woodrow Wilson once said, "I have tried to borrow all 
the brains I could lay hold on." 

In this little book I am not dealing with that part of the 
missionary enterprise which is in the homeland. It is 
also a great work and, like foreign missions, is going 
through vital changes and adjustments. But anyone who 
sincerely accepts Christ as Saviour believes in the more 
local compass of the Christian enterprise, and that phase 
which has to do with our national life called Home Mis- 



sions is not seriously questioned. However, the larger 
field of Christian effort, with geographical and racial 
reaches which are globe-encircling and beyond the hori- 
zons of national spirit and race consciousness, has always 
been, and is especially at the present moment, under fire. 
As the term "missions" is used in this book, it is with 
this wider meaning in mind. 

Some may wonder why such repeated reference is made 
to the Jerusalem meeting of the International Missionary 
Council in 1928. This volume is quite largely based on 
the discussions and conclusions of that notable meeting. 
If the book helps to introduce ministers to the themes 
and deductions of that truly epoch-making gathering, 
which so frankly and in such a representative way fronted 
the world mission of Christianity, the writer will be con- 
tent. The book is written distinctly as a handbook for the 
preacher, with the thought that its circulation will largely 
be limited to his use. S. J. C. 

















Contemporary Aids 191 

Outline Sermons on World Missions .... 200 

The Jerusalem Appeal to Pastors 217 

Suggestions on Confronting the Church 
with Its World Mission 219 



THE missionary cause is under fire. It is not an un- 
mixed evil that this is so. When the Church of Jesus 
Christ has not been under fire through the centuries it has 
been negligible in its power. The missionary enterprise 
is a part of the Church. The fact that it is under fire 
will help us to be careful about the errors and to correct 
them. The patience of God has no doubt been greatly 
strained by the mistakes of the Church in the homeland. 
But it is not to be supposed that we at home have a 
complete monopoly of the mistakes. The missionaries at 
the front and the Boards that guide from the home base 
are a cross section of the Church. This is not only the 
hour to discuss the mistakes and correct them, but also 
to discover why there is a sag in missionary enthusiasm 
and to think through afresh all the implications of the 
missionary enterprise. It is likewise the time to plan how 
we can rejuvenate and increase missionary enthusiasm 
and put heart and passion into the Church for its greatest 
undertaking just when the needs and challenges are also 
the greatest. 

It is at the point of highest surrender and most unselfish 
service that the missionary enterprise makes its demand. 
It has to do with the most categorical and unchanging ele- 



ments in our faith. Is Christ the universal Saviour of 
men? Can society be redeemed ? Is the Holy Spirit pow- 
erful and effective to-day? Is the Bible the supreme book 
of religion? Is the Church God's instrumentality for the 
advancement of his kingdom? The missionary enterprise 
is so of a piece with these great factors in our faith that 
lack of assurance and cogency on any of them means 
dulling of missionary interest or opposition. As Dr. W. 
W. Pinson has recently said: "The missionary enterprise 
is the supreme adventure of history. It is the challenge 
of hope and courage in a world of paralyzing fears and 
demoralizing futilities. It is the sole claimant as a moral 
substitute for war. It is the only accredited messenger 
of good news to a bewildered world and a lone champion 
of love and good will in a world of hate and war. Any 
lowering of its standards or lessening of its power or 
cheapening of its motives is the betrayal of the race and a 
yielding of the only fortress that flies the flag of brother- 

There can be no doubt that the preacher to-day faces 
the most difficult task in the history of preaching. He is 
surrounded by an insidious and challenging secular civili- 
zation. There is more articulate opposition to the Church 
than ever before. Sinister tides are running throughout 
the whole world. An unsettling of moral standards is 
evident. Russia is building its nation upon a platform 
oppugnant to God. There is apparently a growing irre- 
ligion everywhere; crime is on the increase. More ques- 



tions are being raised in everyday reading and life than 
ever in the history of the Church. In the face of all this, 
the preacher must so state and translate into living reality 
the principles of Christ that he will make Jesus indispen- 
sable. It is not an easy task. However, history tells us 
that when the going has been the hardest, then the Church 
has been most spiritual. The issues that face Christianity 
are big issues. They are religion or secularism, Christ 
or materialism. Scientific thinkers are not disturbing 
Christianity very much to-day, but what they thought 
twenty-five years ago is, for it is now mass knowledge. 
Through the secular press, in the school classroom, and 
in other ways people are absorbing these arresting ques- 
tions without any background out of which to decide them. 
It is a difficult time, but a glorious time for the ministry. 
It is doubtful if the challenge was ever greater. The peo- 
ple are hungry for the preacher with a message related to 
the hour in which we live. 

In the midst of these things, the preacher and the 
Church must be sure of one great issue the validity of 
Jesus as a universal Saviour. The only final solution of 
these problems begins with this fact and declaration. And 
the fact and declaration has no intelligent meaning unless 
the world mission of Christianity is made the primary 
obligation of the Church. The spiritual poverty of man- 
kind puts on the Church a divine and certain imperative 
to share Christ with the whole race. Because of these 
things, it can readily be seen that the preacher is at the 



heart of the missionary problem of to-day. He has no 
greater responsibility than to front the Church toward 
its world responsibility. 

No one can possibly take the place of the preacher as 
a missionary leader. He is the main reliance of his people 
for spiritual things, and as such he must be informed on 
the world mission of the Church, or he fails at the very 
base line of ministerial preparation. This seems little 
to ask of an ambassador of Christ; yet busy days, near- 
by interests, sermon-making, and the tendency of an over- 
burdened man to follow the line of least resistance, will 
give him trends away from careful education on missions, 
if he is not careful. If the missionary passion is lacking 
in his soul, the greater his helplessness as he confronts 
the world with its unmeasured problems and challenge. 
In fact, every preacher, it is fair to say, sometime or other 
must face the question as to whether he himself should be 
serving in mission lands or at home. His grounds for 
staying here in his ministry, if based on thoughtful deci- 
sion and certainty, will bring him unfailing conviction on 
the great world task itself. 

Is it too much for the minister to require himself to 
be intimately acquainted with the great problems and 
issues of the mission fields? How can he be abreast of 
his claims and responsibilities as a spiritual leader unless 
he is? If he is ignorant of the great missionaries, fields, 
and administrative questions of the day, his training is 
defective at a critically vital point. He cannot stand 



square-shouldered in front of his calling as a minister if 
he speaks apologetically of missions, for there is a king- 
dom of God in the wide world, and he is preeminently its 
spokesman and advocate. His voice cannot have an un- 
certain note in setting forth why money out of generous 
hearts is needed for the vast work of Christ in other 
nations. He constantly has a new generation before him 
which must not for a moment be forgotten, or left undis- 
ciplined in a world faith. He leads not only in preaching, 
but in prayer. How shortened his petition from the pul- 
pit, as he corporately leads his people to the throne of 
grace, if the world mission of the Church is forgotten ! 

And a new day is on us. The preacher must be in- 
formed on the present-day apologetic for missions, or he 
is lost. There are attacks and misrepresentations on every 
hand. Recently a leading college president who is deeply 
interested in missions said to me : "You can't expect the 
preacher and teacher to be posted on these modern changes 
in the missionary enterprise ; you experts and the mission- 
aries must look after that. What we need is the message 
from the missionaries themselves." He emphasized a fine 
point about the need of the message from the missionary 
himself. But that very week editorials in daily papers 
attacking missions were appearing in many parts of the 
country. These editorials were read by thousands of 
people and could only be answered by informed pastors in 
the towns and cities where they appeared. A preacher 
with the volumes of the Jerusalem Conference at his 



elbow, and acquainted with the mission field problems of 
his own communion, could have answered those editorials 
with conviction and at the same time taken advantage of 
the occasion to present in a striking way the present-day 
missionary apologetic. Constructive criticisms of mis- 
sions are not dangerous, but those based on an attack di-. 
rected at the fundamental issues of Christianity, as most 
are in these days, are as dangerous to the very life of 
the Church and the message of Christianity at home as 
to the work on the fields. No preacher can side-step them. 
Recently a minister, on being asked why he was not 
preaching on missions, replied somewhat as follows: 
"Well, there have been many changes in the work in 
recent years, and I am not well enough informed to be 
certain. My old missionary sermon outlines are out of 
date, and frankly I haven't had time to make new ones." 
A frank confession, but at what cost of leadership ! Some 
of this manuscript has been written in the Mission Re- 
search Library, New York City. While toiling there one 
day a minister came in to get assistance. He told the 
librarian that he had two hours in which to prepare a 
paper for a large ministers' meeting on "The Message 
of Christianity in Its World Mission To-Day" ! He con- 
fessed that he was entirely at sea and in desperate need 
of the librarian's help. A large undertaking for two 
hours' research ! How can a minister know what his own 
message to his people should be if he is ignorant of the 
message of the Church in its world mission? How one 



wishes that, in his own training course for the ministry, 
about half the time had been spent on the message and 
mission of Christianity, instead of the Greek and Hebrew 
he struggled with and quickly forgot! Seminaries of 
to-day are rapidly facing such a need. And well they may 
if they are to escape the musty paths of the doctrinaire 
and plant soul-refreshing ways of life in young ministers' 

Perhaps there are three major difficulties which the 
preacher faces to-day in the presentation of his mission- 
ary message. In the first place, whereas practically all 
missionary information heretofore has reached his people 
through missionary journals and religious papers, to-day 
it often comes to them from secular sources tinged with 
pessimism, materialism, and criticism. Newspapers, mag- 
azines, and the public platform, while recognizing missions 
as never before, frequently bring to the Christian mind a 
decidedly negative outlook on the missionary enterprise. 
In the second place, these broadcast statements, together 
with revolutionary outbreaks such as those in China and 
India, and the difficult financial problems which the mis- 
sionary cause has recently faced, have set the minds of 
many people in the mold of "problem psychology." I am 
reminded of the little city boy who wanted a dog. His 
people lived high up in an apartment house a poor place 
for a canine. The boy insisted on having a pet until his 
father purchased him a little dog. The animal proved to 
be a perfect nuisance. It carried off the shoes, muddied 



the carpets, tore up valuable clothing, and then began to 
bite the neighbors' children. They could neither sell nor 
give the dog away. Finally in desperation the father said, 
"I am going to hire a man to shoot the dog." The little 
boy, broken-hearted, asked for two days of grace to see 
if he could get rid of his pet. His father reluctantly 
granted it. On the second day he came running into the 
kitchen and shouted to his mother. "I have got rid of 
the dog all right!" "How did you do it?" inquired the 
surprised mother. "O, I have traded him for five pup- 
pies," exultantly replied the boy! Because of the compli- 
cated age in which we live, the transitions throughout the 
world, and the new problems since the war, it seems that 
whereas there was one problem with regard to missions 
ten years ago, to-day there are five. In the third place, 
we are reluctant to accept "the way of the cross" and 
momentary defeat in any enterprise here in America. Our 
talk has been about forward movements, a going concern, 
great campaigns, crusades, etc. We are impatient for 
visible and measurable progress. The spirit of propa- 
ganda and whirlwind achievement, born out of the war 
and great material progress, dies hard. We have insisted 
too much upon results at the front that could be tabulated 
and graphed. Business men on church boards, and even 
pastors, are reluctant to accept the fact that kingdom- 
building is a slow and painful process. E. Stanley Jones 
tells of his vision of the thorn and the flower on the slope 
of the Mount of Olives during the Missionary Conference 



in 1928. Others of us had similar experiences at that 
wonderful meeting. A little group of the delegates were 
strolling over the Mount of Olives on Easter Sunday af- 
ternoon, picking flowers for notebooks as mementos of 
our wonderful experience in the source city of our faith. 
One of the number stumbled on a jagged thorn, and as he 
picked it up he remarked that the thorn was a more valid 
souvenir of the Mount of Olives than flowers. How true ! 
Jesus said, "If any man will come after me, let him take 
up his cross, and follow me." We are going through some 
Gethsemanes in the missionary enterprise; but did Jesus 
turn back because of Gethsemane? Perhaps the real re- 
vival in missions depends on our discovery in this fast- 
moving age of the glory of the thorn and the cross. Per- 
haps it is our greatest need this Pentecostal year. How 
empty and mocking our "celebration" of Pentecost is 
without the spirit and passion and vicarious agony that 
followed the first Pentecost! What mockery to dedicate 
splendid church buildings and accept a ten-year struggle 
with debt and then go up to great conventions to "cele- 
brate" a Pentecost anniversary, with missionary gifts de- 
clining, mission board debts increasing that the work may 
be saved from destruction, and broken-hearted mission- 
aries toiling with shackled hands at the front ! 

The burning zeal of early disciples, to make Christ 
known to all mankind, was not inhibited by disappoint- 
ments, or problems, or heartaches. Paul said of Ephesus : 
"A great and effectual door is opened unto me, and there 



are many adversaries." He did not speak of the adver- 
saries as an excuse for slowing down, rather as a chal- 
lenge to go on. It was not the "but" of defeat, rather the 
"and" of asset and victory. Perhaps we have been guilty 
of always trying to make a case and have kept back the 
heartache and the terrific odds against which we work at 
the field fronts. 

It is a matter of common knowledge that missionary 
preaching has waned in the last decade. Preachers have 
spoken of it themselves with regret and wistful anxiety. 
When the Eighteenth Amendment was passed, we largely 
gave up our education on the subject of the evil of in- 
toxicants. Prohibition was taken for granted. When 
the budget system and the every-member canvass were 
adopted for our local churches, our attitude became much 
the same. We forgot that a missionary budget gives the 
people neither "standard nor stimulus" and that its figures 
are minimums and not maximums. We overlooked igno- 
rance and indifferentism and took the fundamentals of 
missions for granted. No sphere of highest altruism can 
be reached and maintained without patience, heartache, and 
teaching. Souls are fired by the foolishness of preaching 
and not by the mechanics of missionary plans. We must 
constantly be reminded of the "hair shirt of our idealism." 
For fifteen years there has been too little effort to educate 
the Church as such in real missionary principles and prac- 
tice. We have followed the line of least resistance through 
.budgets, every-member canvasses, and a program of mis- 



sionary education largely limited to the women and in a 
less effective way to the Sunday schools. The result is 
that the women are the only ones as a rule who have not 
suffered loss in interest and gifts. We have had consid- 
erable publicity and promotion, but not enough downright 
teaching and preaching to keep conviction enforced and 
vital. It has not been felt necessary to follow the slow, 
patient process of preaching the world mission of Christi- 
anity and teaching the Church to think in terms of mis- 
sions and to deny itself in the stern but wholesome dis- 
cipline of missionary giving. 

Official boards in many congregations are the least 
missionary-minded of any group in the Church. Often 
the coal bill, a bit of repairing, a new building, or a carpet 
will loom infinitely greater than the mission of the Church 
to all humanity. In few church bfcard agendas has there 
been given any place for the discussion of the Church's 
world program. A pastor of a great city church recently 
stated before a group of fellow ministers : "My first task 
is to educate my church board on missions. The majority 
of them have no conviction whatever on this primary 
responsibility of the Church." This earnest pastor was 
right. How can the church boards have conviction unless 
the preacher heralds the message from the pulpit and then 
insists on its relevancy in the meetings of elders, deacons, 
and stewards? Although the innovation might be star- 
tling, could not these meetings be jarred loose from the 



commonplace and made enthusiastic and pointed if such 
were the case? 

Propaganda, promotion, and budget machinery have 
their place, but they are futile and mocking unless the 
preacher really educates his congregation to world think- 
ing in the realm of the spiritual. Dr. Albert Sweitzer, 
one of the greatest of Christian philosophers and inter- 
preters of to-day, says that our Western civilization is 
doomed without a dominantly unselfish world interest. 
How much more necessary that the Church have it! 
World-mindedness is pressed upon Church people in every 
other realm of thought. They are reading about Gandhi 
in India and about the revolution in China; about the 
modern movement in Turkey and atheistic communism in 
Russia; about developments in Africa and changes in all 
areas. How disastrous will be the outcome if the preacher 
gives the world mission of Christianity but the surface of 
his mind and does not keep the claims of the kingdom of 
God abreast of the racial, political, industrial, educational, 
and other factors constantly confronting his people as 
world issues! There is a "Christ of All Roads" to-day, 
and just as truly the preacher is of all roads. Dare we 
rationalize our disobedience to the heavenly vision and 
change the world road into a bypath? Is not the major 
missionary task of the preacher to-day to educate the men 
and young people of the Church in the universality of the 
gospel? The more spiritually minded women have accom- 
plished wonders in educating themselves on world needs, 



and their faithfulness has prevented a missionary debacle 
which would have been most disastrous. In recent grave 
financial problems (1930), which missionary boards have 
encountered, the Women's Missionary Organizations have 
held steady in their giving. They are well organized, in- 
formed, determined, and missionary-minded. Their mis- 
sionary motive is too abiding to be affected by temporary 
hard times. No preacher can any longer allow himself to 
be less a missionary leader and teacher than the spiritually 
and missionary-minded women of his congregation. To 
do so is to surrender his leadership in the highest idealism 
of Christ's kingdom. 

I was greatly impressed in India a few years ago with 
the surprise of Indian Christian men at our one-sided 
support of missions in America. I was conducting an 
open forum with some Indian leaders, mostly men, on the 
financial problems of our own missionary board, and the 
necessity of shortening our missionary line in India. We 
were talking about the missionary giving of our people 
in America. The question was asked : "Are your women 
and children interested in sending the gospel to India?" I 
replied that probably two-thirds of the money for foreign 
work in our own communion came from the women and 
the Sunday schools. Their astonishment was unbounded. 
"Why, sahib," one of them said, "we in India have always 
felt that Christianity was a man's religion, especially in 
the hard part of pioneering in distant and difficult lands. 
Why are the Christian men of America less interested in 



bringing Christ to us than are the women and children?" 
I must confess that I had a hard half hour in explaining 
the situation. Is not one of the reasons the fact that 
the pulpit has not been ringing forth the constant, con- 
sistent message of world responsibility and world chal- 
lenge that would convict men's minds and stir their souls ? 
Is it not true that the men require a vision of the com- 
pleteness of God's program for the world if they are to 
be largely challenged? And where will they get it if not 
from the pulpit? Men cannot genuinely follow a Christ 
resolutely and constantly set forth as humanity's Lord 
without going far afield in search of the lost sheep. 

An occasional sermon on missions is not sufficient. The 
very universality of Christianity necessitates making the 
missionary implication the very substance and heart of all 
the preacher's teaching. He cannot do less than put the 
New Testament emphasis upon this great theme. It is es- 
sentially and vitally a missionary book. There are some 
pulpits where the setting and background of every sermon 
is the world mission of the Church. These pulpits have 
a peculiar unction about them. In every service the world 
responsibility for Christ is made prominent. There are 
other pulpits in which these great matters are seldom 
referred to, and one would not glean from a six months' 
attendance on their services that the Church had any task 
which necessitated a world program. 

The missionary cause will not run itself. It is just as 
dependent upon a preaching program that will educate and 



quicken as is the local life of the Church. The world 
mission of Christianity should have as large a place in the 
pulpit planning as local evangelization or the building of 
the spiritual life of the congregation. It is vital to both 
of these phases of congregational development. Three- 
fourths of the people in almost any church do not read 
any missionary literature whatever. How helpless they 
are unless the preacher brings them the message ! Again 
and again I have heard earnest people say, "My pastor 
never preaches on missions." The hearts of the people 
are hungry for these messages if they are presented right- 
ly. There never was so much material available to aid 
the preacher as now. 

Whatever the reason for a slackened missionary inter- 
est, it must be remedied. It will not avail anything to lay 
the responsibility of slackened interest and funds on mis- 
sionary organization and ask, "What is the matter with 
the Board of Missions?" The missionary organization is 
but the church membership is action. The psychology 
of congregational discouragement is identical with that 
of a mission board. Cutting the budget of a missionary 
board has exactly the same effect as reducing the program 
of a local church. You do not increase local church giving 
by resorting to a shortened staff, less preaching, and an 
ingrowing church plan of work. Necessitating the reduc- 
tion of budget and work of a mission organization starts 
a vicious circle and inevitably leads to decreased giving 
and support. 



We have just begun the task with the nations. We have 
had a great era of missions, but the work is in its child- 
hood. Before us lies the greatest missionary period of 
history. What we need is the spiritual morale and devo- 
tion for the adventure. As necessary as money is in the 
building of the kingdom, perhaps the present inhibitions 
will teach us that finance is far and away secondary and 
that first things consist in conviction and yielding our- 
selves to God and his world plans. 

This is hardly a moment for hesitating or halting. If 
the great commission was binding in the earlier centuries, 
it is even more so now. We must re-impassion the Church 
for a missionary effort worthy of Christ and the begin- 
nings that we have made. Whatever our heartaches, the 
fields themselves are not lacking in great challenges. 
Kagawa, the most outstanding Christian saint in the 
Orient, is leading Japan's Christians in a movement for a 
million members in the Church. In spite of vast prob- 
lems connected with the revolution in China, the national 
leaders are pushing a movement for doubling the number 
of Christians in five years. E. Stanley Jones reports the 
most encouraging efforts of his career among the intellec- 
tuals of India, and this in the midst of the non-coopera- 
tive movement and all of the strong nationalistic tides 
which are moving in that land. In the Philippines a great 
student movement is in the shaping. There are stirrings 
in Latin America which herald a new day. The. national 
Christians in many areas are eager and full of expectant 



hope. How unfair to them to slow down now! How 
faithless to the work we have started through long, patient 

What would more quickly bring spiritual death to the 
Church at home than to lose its world vision? We have 
no real gospel of Christ without missionary zeal. As 
Dr. James I. Vance has well said, "The church that ceases 
to be missionary can no longer be evangelistic, the Church 
that ceases to be evangelistic can no longer be evangelical, 
and the Church that ceases to be evangelical may well 
doubt whether it is Christian." The minister who, after 
patient but determined effort, cannot front his church to 
the task of pouring out its gifts and life to make Christ 
universally known may well ponder in his own soul 
whether his church is Christian or his own calling to 
preach valid. Gustav Warneck, the great missionary phi- 
losopher, well says, "The preacher must feel that mis- 
sions is his domain, and not that he goes out of his way 
to preach on the subject." 

A Church cannot survive without its great imperatives. 
If this gospel which we have espoused, and the command 
of Christ that we take it to all mankind, and Jesus Christ 
himself who cannot be separated from his own world 
gospel, discontinue being supreme in the belief and the 
program of the Church, then we can say "Ichabod" for 
the Church itself, for its days are numbered. Every true 
minister realizes this, and he has many a heart struggle 
and hour of agony over it. It may be the way of the 



cross to do it, but can we possibly realize the great im- 
peratives of the Church unless we present by the square 
and incessantly, in the pulpit message, the Christian world 
program, which is implicit in the very message of the 
gospel itself and in the revelation which Christ has made 
of the Father? 





THE preachers and other missionary leaders have always 
been under the necessity of educating and challenging 
Christian people with a definite appeal concerning the 
fields and work of foreign missions. While this appeal 
has always had its timeless and unchanging elements, yet 
each era has had its distinctive approach and setting, owing 
to inevitable . change and the fuller understanding of a 
developing cause. Carey's day had its appeal, there was a 
definite message growing out of the famous haystack 
meeting at Williams College, Massachusetts, and the Stu- 
dent Volunteer Movement distinctly called Christian lead- 
ership to "the evangelization of the world in this genera- 
tion." Following the Edinburgh Conference in 1910, other 
factors entered into the appeal, and more recently the 
Jerusalem Conference faced the vast changes which have 
taken place both at home and abroad during and since the 
war and recognized that the full statement of the mission- 
ary appeal has become still more diversified and therefore 
more difficult. Confusing statements in the secular press 
and by public speakers have sometimes led people to feel 
that there is little need for either missionaries or mission- 
ary money in the future. Pastors and other missionary 



leaders recognize that there is confusion in regard to some 
changing aspects of the missionary appeal and a per- 
ceptible lessening of conviction. 

It is the purpose of the writer to state in this chapter 
some of the factors in the foreign missionary appeal which 
are emerging at the present time factors which the 
preacher needs to take into account in his pulpit message. 

It will be recognized by all that there are certain ele- 
ments in such an appeal which are unchangeable and 
which are always fundamental in the home message on 
foreign missions. These in the main might be set down 
as follows: the love and purpose of God through Christ, 
the imperative of Christ's last command and the inherent 
missionary obligation of the gospel, the need of the race 
for Christ, the power of the gospel to redeem, the ability 
of the Church to carry on the enterprise, the proved re- 
sults of missionary effort, the call of human suffering to 
which Christ himself gave his first attention, and the 
fundamental need of the Church itself to give its love and 
life to mankind. 

The present hour certainly calls for the strongest em- 
phasis on these permanent and basic elements. As one of 
the outstanding leaders in American missionary life writes, 
"I think there is danger at present that we may destroy a 
great deal that we have been carefully building up, through 
failure to discriminate between the values which are per- 
manent and the considerations which are merely contem- 
porary." It must also be stated that while the changes 



and conditions referred to here have to do with the older 
and especially the Oriental and Latin American fields, 
there are vast sections of the world where necessary pio- 
neering is as primitive a task as when Livingstone entered 
Africa. To these fields our deductions will only partly 
apply. This shows how unwise it is to be dogmatic about 
missionary conditions or outlook to-day. 

Since both our future missionaries and our strong advo- 
cates for foreign missions must come from the colleges, 
the appeal of to-day must challenge student life in no 
uncertain way. Every pastor has students in his congrega- 
tion. Although few of them may go as missionaries, his 
message must be such as will stir their hearts on the world 
mission of Christianity. Far more serious than a diminu- 
tion of missionary funds is the chilling of missionary 
ardor in our colleges, universities, and theological schools. 
The lack of adequate funds for the task has already great- 
ly slowed down the stream of strong, young life flowing 
toward the mission fields; and the present uncertainty in 
the missionary appeal, together with other disturbing 
phases of American religious life evident just now, still 
further threatens missionary enthusiasm. 

Since the days of the Haystack Meeting, more than a 
hundred years ago, foreign missions has been a student 
crusade. This has been peculiarly true of the Student 
Volunteer Movement for the last thirty years in America. 
At the present time our Christian students are re-thinking 
the whole missionary appeal. They are being helped to 



do this through contact with the more than seven thousand 
foreign students who are studying in many of our institu- 
tions of higher learning. These students from abroad are 
for the most part intensely nationalistic in their outlook 
and at the same time alert to perceive the frailties of our 
Western civilization. Many of them are the products of 
mission work in their own lands or have been in intimate 
contact with it. They are for the most part sympathetic, 
but at the same time sensitive in their racial consciousness. 
They are naturally strong advocates of leadership by 
nationals in their home lands. 

While there has been widespread discussion of theo- 
logical questions since the war, this has had little place 
among students in either church colleges or state and 
other universities. These Christian students have had 
their training in the free atmosphere of American aca- 
demic life and outside the bounds of that denominational 
feeling and theoretical controversy which, sad to say, has 
often appeared to lack consideration for younger minds. 
With them the "Jesus way of life" is foremost, and loyal- 
ties to a communion are often in the background. The 
missionary appeal which grips these fine young men and 
women cannot be .strongly denominational. It must be 
a call to take the example and power of the living Christ 
to those who know him not. The call thus to live in 
mission lands, or to lead and give for such a cause while 
at home, will strike fire in these young hearts for the 
future. This is a harder test than the militant call to 



evangelize the world in this generation; at the same time 
it is more powerful. 

The missionary appeal will simply have to take into 
account the fact that we are living in a changed world, 
and a changed world baffles as well as challenges. We 
have an open door if we have the Christ-given courage to 
cross its threshold. A vaster horizon calls to a deeper 

Along with the world changes have come other changes 
in mission fields just as significant and revolutionary. 
One of these is the new strong urge toward an indigenous 
Church, or as some put it, a "naturalized" Church. This 
is especially evident in Latin America and the Orient. 

At the Jerusalem Conference on World Missions in 
1928, where two hundred and forty Christian representa- 
tives came together from fifty different nations and where 
half of these were from mission lands, largely native 
leaders, the term "Younger Churches" was given to these 
rising Churches in comparison with the "Older Churches" 
of the West which had sent out the gospel to their lands. 
A definition of the indigenous Church was given by this 
Conference which is well worth remembering: 

"A Church, deeply rooted in God through Jesus Christ, 
an integral part of the Church Universal, may be said to 
be living and indigenous : 

"1. When its interpretation of Christ and its expression 
in worship and service, in customs and in art and architec- 
ture, incorporate the worthy characteristics of the people, 



while conserving at the same time the heritage of the 
Church in all lands and in all ages. 

"2. When through it the spirit of Jesus Christ influences 
all phases of life, bringing to his service all the potentiali- 
ties of both men and women. 

"3. When it actively shares its life with the nation in 
which it finds itself. 

"4. When it is alert to the problems of the times and 
as a spiritual force in the community courageously and 
sympathetically makes its contribution to their solution. 

"5. When it is kindled with the missionary ardor and 
the pioneering spirit. 

"The fostering of such an indigenous Church depends 
on the building up of its spiritual life through communion 
with God in prayer and in public and private worship; 
through knowledge of the Bible in the vernacular ; through 
a sense of Christian stewardship; through an indigenous 
leadership of men and women who will share their reli- 
gious experience with others; and through adventure in 
service and self-expression. 

"In such a Church the problems of discipline, polity, 
control, and financial support will naturally assume their 
proper places." 

Christian leaders of the Younger Churches in the mis- 
sion fields feel that the fulfilling of the longing for an 
indigenous Church means a more instinctive and real 
fellowship with God and the realization of a Christian 
culture of their own. 



One of the most challenging and encouraging things in 
all countries of the Orient to-day is this longing of the 
Native Church to become self-directing and national. 
This causes uneasiness on the part of some in the West ; 
in reality it is a blessing for which Christian leaders have 
been praying for a hundred years. These Eastern people 
begin to do their own thinking. They begin to want to 
have their own expression of theology, to make their own 
Christian literature, to sing their own hymns, to have 
their own church organization. They want their own 
leadership. They want to make the Christian Church a 
thing which is indigenous to their land, not something 
which looks to them like a foreign institution with foreign 
leadership and foreign ideas. After all, who has a better 
right to realize a real Oriental Church than the people of 
the East, for Christianity was originally an Oriental reli- 
gion, and who knows but that the Oriental type of Chris- 
tianity may not some day teach us in the West many 
things we ought to know? You cannot, of course, make 
an indigenous Church by fiat; it must grow. It cannot 
come into existence before the right kind of members and 
leaders. But it is a matter of great congratulation that 
this Church is coming. It has its problems, and mistakes 
will be made, but are we of the West to make all the 
mistakes? Why not allow these newer churches to make 
some of their own? We have made plenty. These new 
Christians are naturally timid and conservative. They 
will hardly go too fast. The very attempt at self-determi- 



nation will create its own checks and safeguards. It will 
prove that contacts with other peoples and cultures are 
needed and that the rich inheritance and experience of the 
West in interpreting Christian truth must be held dear 
and necessary. There is no desire to remove the mis- 
sionary, but only to shift the gear and change the emphasis 
on leadership for the Church. 

In many fields the degree of foreign control in mission- 
ary institutions and in administering funds is up for 
earnest discussion, and already much initiative and man- 
agement has passed from foreign hands. This is espe- 
cially true of educational institutions and in the plans of 
the mission itself, which were formerly entirely amenable 
to the home boards. In many fields this organization is 
now to a considerable extent under the joint direction of 
the missionary and the leaders of the indigenous Church. 
The appeal has hitherto been for foreign missionaries ; the 
home constituency has thought of them almost exclusively. 
Their support is only a part of the expenditure. Hence- 
forth far more emphasis must be placed on standing back 
of native leadership and churches on the mission field. 
We must match our loyalty to the missionary by loyalty 
and love of these. 

This is the time when freedom is needed for the mis- 
sionary at the front to work out with the national leaders 
the problem of the new day. The home constituency must 
be made to feel that while this is a hard day for the native 
church, it is also an hour when the missionary in the 



Orient meets more problems and discouragement than 
ever before. It is taking all the heart and faith and nerves 
the missionary can muster to stem the tide that assails 
him. People at home do not realize how close to the 
borderland of spiritual collapse the missionary in the East 
constantly stands to-day. It is not a lack of consecration, 
but an overtaxing strain on endurance and poise and hope. 
Many times the only consolation, aside from faith in God, 
is the Church and the friends at home, on whom mission- 
aries depend for understanding trust. 

An appeal for the kind of Christianity in America 
which will truly witness for Christ in non-Christian lands 
is a humbling aspect of our work to-day. The West has 
been revealed to the East. When the missionaries went 
out twenty-five or thirty years ago they were strange 
people in a strange land. A certain glamour surrounded 
their appearance among the non-Christian peoples. They 
looked upon them as representatives of a great Christian 
country across the sea. Now the veil has been drawn. 
The East knows the land from which the Westerner has 
come. Often the information which he has is bad instead 
of good. The missionary has still to face the strong 
opposition of static non-Christian religions and supersti- 
tion, but he has to face as well the moral turpitude of 
much of our own nation's life as it is revealed beyond 
the sea. Sometimes he fears the moving picture from 
home more than he does the temples and idolatry of the 
people among whom he works. There are 7,500 foreign 



students from non-Christian lands in our colleges and uni- 
versities in America. They watch us keenly. They are 
observing, though sometimes superficially, our churches 
and our way of living. They are studying our politics, our 
social life, and our religion too. Their reports are not 
always good to their own people across the sea. The East 
has been disillusioned as to the West by the war. They 
often look upon it as a war between Christian people and 
so-called Christian civilizations. Explain as the mission- 
ary may, this is a difficult background against which to 
preach the love of God and the sacrifice of Christ. We 
formerly thought we must take Christ and much of our 
Western civilization with him. Now we see that we must 
take Christ in spite of much of our civilization. One of 
our most baffling missionary tasks is to Christianize the 
racial relationships of our country with our friends across 
the sea. 

In former years our main appeal for expansion on the 
mission fields was for new missionaries and new stations. 
Careful survey of the work shows that in most of the 
Oriental fields this is not the next step at the present 
moment. We have scattered our forces pretty well. We 
have established a great many centers. Our missionaries 
have learned the language; groups have been baptized; 
schools have been built; training has been started. Our 
budgets have not increased in recent years, while expenses 
on the fields have. Boards have had to cut appropriations 
disastrously. This has set the missionaries' backs against 



the wall, and much work has been closed. The work in 
all lands needs undergirding. The next thing to do is 
to reestablish where necessary, to strengthen and make 
effective that which we have already established, and then 
to let the missionaries and national leaders spread out into 
new places. We readily think of expansion in those terms 
in America, but it is difficult so to think when we are con- 
sidering the foreign fields. We have thought too much 
in terms of spreading out instead of striking roots deep 
and patiently cultivating. As much of the leadership 
shifts from the missionaries to the nationals, they must be 
better trained and better paid. Christian literature must 
be created which they can use, for how can we build a 
Church if we do not have a reading people? Now of all 
times is vernacular literature needed and effective. The 
missionary force must be kept up, though just now in 
the Orient we cannot increase the number on the fields. 
We need to fill emergencies and send people for special 
tasks. Those sent out must be strong and well trained, 
spiritually minded, able in this new day to work with the 
people of the land when they are more self-reliant and 
critical and when a man from the West must be a saint 
and a servant. 

Just as soon as this strengthening and consolidation in 
the Far East is effected and the leadership is in a measure 
passed to the nationals, some of the missionaries can move 
out into untouched areas and start new centers of light 
and influence. The home constituency needs to know of 



these things, and, rightly presented, they will see and un- 
derstand. There are fields and, in fact, sections in nearly 
all fields, especially in Africa and mid-Asia and certain 
sections of Latin America, where such conditions do not 
prevail. Here we can expand in the way of new stations 
and new missionaries and a larger force in the near fu- 

The present situation is revealing to us in a fresh way 
just how difficult and unfinished the task of foreign mis- 
sions is. There is no royal road to missionary success. 
It is always and eternally the way of the cross, and that 
way means success out of seeming failure. We have 
learned that the kingdom is built up slowly in our own 
land how much more so in lands which have not had 
the background of hundreds of years of Christian teach- 
ing. We may as rapidly as possible call into leadership 
people who can preach to their own race in their common 
vernacular, but nowhere, either among nationals or mis- 
sionaries, is there thought of the task itself being dimin- 
ished. The long warfare is before us. God calls us to 
find better ways for the bigger task. Just as a token of 
the fact that the work is in its infancy, one needs but to 
recall that there are tens of millions of Mohammedans 
untouched as yet by Christianity. Among other ethnic 
faiths, we have barely begun to make Christ known to in- 
dividuals or felt in society. 

Many missionaries on all fields, as well as leaders at 
home, take the position that the Christianizing of the 



world is an impossible task without the close cooperation 
of every Christian force and eventually a solid front and 
essential union. In face of the mass of untouched mil- 
lions, the unsealed walls of non-Christian faiths, the ig- 
norance and superstition in the world, and withal the thin 
and poorly equipped line of missionary workers, they 
know that to attain Christ's will for the world is impossi- 
ble unless Christians stand together, work together, and 
love each other. Although there is urgent need of further 
advance, yet effort on the mission fields is far and away 
ahead of unity at home. 

What is more needed in our appeal at the home base 
than the setting forth of the great essential of unity in our 
work for the world ? To lift the challenging, Christlike 
call of unity and cooperation against the background of an 
overwhelming, unfinished task is to spiritualize the ap- 
peal, to help to dissipate intolerance, and to arouse the 
hope which comes in facing a common task from a com- 
mon front. 

Stirrings in the mission fields which bring anxiety to 
missionaries and national leaders and put them to the 
test, and bring increasing burdens to the missionary lead- 
ers at home, are but the growing pains of a progressing 
cause. Our appeal must deal frankly and discerningly 
with these things. 

While in India there is much opposition to Christianity 
so-called, there is no opposition to Christ. Perhaps as in 
no Oriental country He is in the thinking and challenges 



the admiration of the Indian people. The anti-Christian 
movements in China are not an opposition to Jesus of 
Nazareth, but to Christian civilization and Christian or- 
ganizations. The Chinese cannot find fault with the 
Faultless One, but they criticize severely our Western 
application of Christianity. In Japan the discussion of the 
character and claims of Christ has been widespread. The 
feeling against America because of the exclusion law has 
stung racial pride, but leaders have been surprisingly dis- 
criminating as to the distinction between real Christianity 
and this political act. 

After all, there is something encouraging in these at- 
tacks on Christianity. Twenty-five or thirty years ago 
the work of the Church in the Orient was not strong 
enough to arouse interest or opposition on the part of the 
educated national leaders. Now thousands of young peo- 
ple have been educated, churches have been planted in 
many parts of these countries, the name of Jesus is known, 
and Christianity is being studied and therefore attacked. 
There has always been opposition to Christian progress in 
all parts of the world. We have it in our own land. Is 
it strange that in non-Christian lands there should some- 
times be bitterness and opposition ? Not at all. It is proof 
that Christianity is growing and becoming vital. One of 
the effects of these movements, in India and China espe- 
cially, is to make the native church stand on its own feet 
and not be dependent upon foreign life and leadership. 

Perhaps opposition on the part of many leaders of 



thought in the Orient to the organized Christianity and the 
nominally Christian civilization of the West, will drive us 
to discern more clearly the difference between Jesus Christ 
himself and what we have built around him. Charles W. 
Gilkey, Barrows Lecturer to India in 1926, has some 
strong words on this: "There is a growing and marked 
differentiation in India between Jesus Christ, on the one 
hand, and our Western creeds, churches, and civilization 
on the other. They have discovered that Jesus was not 
an Occidental, but an Oriental and of a despised race, and 
could therefore understand them. By what right, they 
ask, has the West claimed him, taken his name, arid as- 
sumed to call itself Christian?" 

We may come to recognize the fact that the greatest 
obstacle before the missionary is that Christ is not re- 
vealed in our so-called Christian living in America. He is 
certainly not revealed in our Western civilization in these 
years under the shadow of the World War. We must 
face in the Far East a virile nationalism that sometimes 
opposes Christianity because it is convinced that it sees 
in it the handmaiden of unscrupulous Western nations. 
This feeling is augmented by the thought that Christianity 
is a foreign faith. Such convictions have doubtless had 
much to do with the anti-Christian movement of university 
men in China. Parallel with an increasing and widespread 
appreciation of Christ as a person in India runs a counter 
and ever-growing opposition to Christianity as a system 
and to the Church as an institution, apparently based on 



the assumption that they belong to a Western civilization 
which is selfish and materialistic. 

Our first and greatest need in the missionary appeal and 
task is the evangel which will call us here at home back 
to the search for the more abundant life in Christ. Christ- 
like living is our great vindication for carrying the mes- 
sage to other peoples. What have we to take to our 
friends across the sea which will stand in the fierce heat of 
to-day's refining, other than Jesus Christ, who embodies 
in himself the character of God? He is our dynamic and 
our apologetic for the missionary task. This sort of mis- 
sionary appeal is immeasurably harder than a call to a 
militant crusade, but who dares say it is not infinitely more 




AN unusual volume on education has just appeared 
from the press in America. It is Pinkevich's "Education 
in the Soviet Republic." It is a large volume revealing the 
plan and purpose of the new educational system. As one 
goes through it he is struck with the seriousness of the 
whole plan of communism in the new Russia. A sentence 
at the very beginning of the book is indeed arresting. It 
is: "The aim of education in the Soviet Republic is to 
develop creators and warriors in the interest of the prole- 
tariat of Russia and consequently in the interest of the 
whole of humanity." A very cursory examination of the 
volume will convince one that everything is planned with 
the aim expressed in the statement above in mind. 

The thing that strikes one most deeply in connection 
with communism in Russia is that it is filled with a 
peculiar passion and with a settled confidence is under- 
taking to launch a world program. If communism has 
a world passion, how about Christianity? We have an 
essential motive which is infinitely deeper than theirs and 
a contribution to make to the world which is unapproacha- 
ble by any other system. If we really expect to appeal to 
our people through the missionary call in this new day, 
we must set forth aims and motives which will fire the 
imagination and motivate the heart. 



There are some aims which have quite often been con- 
nected with our missionary efforts which have not been 
fully valid and others which have been but partial. It 
might be well to enumerate some of these before setting 
forth the more vital claims. 

In the past we have thought considerably of taking 
many things of our Western civilization along with our 
Christianity as we went with the gospel to the Far East. 
This has not usually been in the minds of the missionaries, 
but many times it has touched the thinking of the con- 
stituency at home. We do not think so much of this since 
we were hard bitten by the great war, which threatened 
almost to destroy our Western civilization and revealed to 
us the fact that there were many things pagan in it. But 
even yet we need to guard against some of the assump- 
tions of this view of missions. 

A statement from the Jerusalem Conference Report is 
timely : "We do not go to the nations called non-Christian 
because they are the worst in the world and they alone 
are in need ; we go because they are a part of the world 
and need to share with us in the same human needs the 
need of redemption from ourselves and from sin, the need 
to have life complete and abundant and to be remade after 
this pattern of Christlikeness. Our approach to our task 
must be made in humility and penitence and love in hu- 
mility because it is not our own message that we bring, 
but God's ; and if in our delivery of it self-assertion finds 
any place, we shall spoil that message and hinder its 



acceptance; in penitence because our fathers and we our- 
selves have been so blind to many of the implications of 
our faith; in love because our message is the gospel of 
the love of God and only by love in our own hearts for 
those to whom we seek can we make known its power 
or its true nature." 

Neither can it be our aim to exact from those across the 
seas rigid conformity to what we have accepted as the 
doctrines and practice of the Church. We must go per- 
suasively, give them the best we have, and allow them as 
churches the same freedom we have demanded for our- 
selves, to go to the New Testament and find the way of 
faith and the pattern of the Church. 

Again I quote from the Jerusalem Conference Report 
expressing the thought of the one hundred and forty dele- 
gates from fifty different nations : "Nor have we the de- 
sire to bind up our gospel with fixed ecclesiastical forms 
which derive their meaning from the Western Church. 
Rather the aim should be to place at the disposal of the 
younger churches of all lands our collective and historic 
experiences. We believe that much of that heritage has 
come out of reality and will be worth sharing, but we ar- 
dently desire that the younger churches should express the 
gospel through their own genius and forms suitable to 
their racial heritage. There must be no desire to lord it 
over the personal or collective faith of others." 

E. Stanley Jones puts it well in one of his books : "We 
are not there to give India a select, rigid, ecclesiastical or 



theological system, saying to them, Take it in its entirety 
or nothing.' We shall allow them to take the Bible in 
their own hands and learn for themselves." 

An incomplete aim also has heen the call to evangelize 
the world in this generation. This aim has deeply stirred 
the past generation; but from the standpoint of the usual 
acceptance of the slogan it is doubtful if it is either good 
missionary theory or practice. As phrasing the great re- 
sponsibility of the Church to take Christ to every man, it 
is valid ; but as an aim it is too hasty and mechanical and 
partakes too much of the swift, compulsory crusade idea. 
It would take a consecration of purpose and a singleness 
of effort, before which the Church of to-day is weak and 
unavailing. To approach such a task superficially and by 
the proxy of men and money would be folly. It depends 
on a new discovery of God and the missionary passion 
such as burned in the hearts of the early disciples. To 
evangelize the world in a generation the Church must be 
reevangelized by the Holy Spirit with power. We have 
learned that we must accept a long period for kingdom- 
building, establishing the Church, training leaders, and 
creating Christian literature. We must not stop our mis- 
sionary program until we have a fair degree of intelligent 
development on the part of the native Church. This call 
of the Student Volunteer Movement in the earlier days, 
while a great challenge to church and life, did not suffi- 
ciently take into account religious education and the slow 
processes of evangelism and reevangelism from year to 



year and decade to decade. The antagonism which some 
people have raised between evangelization and education 
on the field is absurd. One would have difficulty to dis- 
cover whether Jesus was more of an evangelist than a 
teacher. Religious education is sustained evangelism. If 
we have a Church that will abide, there must be Christian 
education, a literate Church membership, and the patient 
training of youth and leadership for this incomparable 

Again we cannot square off the world into black and 
white geographical sections and quickly make black spots 
white. It is impossible to measure this great task in 
which we are engaged by areas and generations. Then, 
too, we have learned that evangelization is not entirely of 
sections of population. It has to do as well with areas of 
human life. In our present-day aims for the missionary 
task we must substitute for the old and effective urge of 
geographical discovery in missions the discovery of areas 
of unredeemed life. We must awaken a sense of the dis- 
covery of mankind, wherever men are and under whatever 

Now, what is the supreme aim of the world missionary 
task which should stir the hearts of the people to re- 
sponse? It is undoubtedly to give to the world the Chris- 
tain faith. This is far-reaching and involves the Christian 
idea of God, the Saviourhood of Jesus Christ, and a 
personal experience of redemption in him. Such a tre- 
mendous aim works itself out in the conversion of the 



individual, the establishing of the Church, training in 
Christian education, translating and creating of Christian 
literature, the answering of the great call of human need 
and suffering, and the development of the Christian spirit so 
as to create a new society of the kingdom of God on earth. 

A representative group of experienced missionaries 
from one of the larger communions of America met just 
after the war and expressed the aim of their work as 
follows: "The supreme and- controlling aim of foreign 
missions is to make the Lord Jesus Christ known to all 
men as the Divine Saviour and to persuade them to become 
his disciples; to gather these disciples into Christian 
churches which will be self-propagating, self-supporting, 
and self-governing ; to cooperate so long as necessary with 
these Churches in the evangelizing of their countrymen 
and bringing to bear on all human life the spirit and 
principles of Christ." 

The Jerusalem Conference set it forth in even briefer 
words: "Since Christ is the motive, the end or aim of 
Christian missions fits in with that motive. Its end is 
nothing less than the production of Christlike character in 
individuals and societies and nations through faith in and 
fellowship with Christ, the living Saviour, and through 
corporate sharing of life in a divine society." In such an 
aim the Church of Christ assumes the largest contract ever 
conceived. This aim ramifies into all that combines to 
redeem the individual and society. It is one with the 
widest reaches of God's relationship with man. Let the 



supreme aim of the Churches that send the missionary 
forth and that of the missionary himself be to reach the 
souls of men with Christ. Where does this take the mis- 
sionary? Livingstone and Pattison, Mackay and Paton, 
Shelton and Grubb had first to be explorers in order to 
find the people. Then when they had made geography, 
they or others had to become translators in order to give 
the people the word of God in their own dialects. But 
with the Bible what use could they make of it until the 
people could read? Schools dropped into missionary work 
as naturally as musical meter falls on song and literature 
poured from mission presses. Then churches began, and 
could the missionary work cease until men and women had 
been trained to preach and teach? But people were sick, 
and what was the joy of converting people if they only 
sickened and died? Like the Master, the missionary made 
one of his first responsibilities the healing of the sick. 
The medical missionary, the nurse, and the hospital were 
equally with preaching a part of God's plan in missions. 
And even medicines and hospitals and doctors did not 
register greatly if there was abject poverty and famine 
and attendant pestilence. If a man's stomach was empty 
and his wife and child were starving, the gospel message 
only touched the top of his mind and did not sink into 
his heart. Do missionaries link husbandry and craft and 
economic instruction with their message? All of" this is 
what Harry Emerson Fosdick calls "humanizing religion." 
It is just as truly Christianizing religion, for Christ origi- 



nated the spirit which dominates it as he ministered and 
healed and went about doing good in Galilee. All this is 
bound up in the aim of missions to take Christ to the 
souls of men. 

Now, having spoken of aims, let us deal with some of 
the motives that are abiding and heart-stirring. Aims 
and motives are closely linked and sometimes identical. 

Our motive must be something more than pity for poor 
people in non-Christian lands who are in misery. This 
has good in it and is unselfish; but it is not wise to press 
it too strongly, for it is apt to breed condescension within 
us. Jesus's compassion for the multitudes was more like 
sympathy than pity. You can find pity outside of the 
Christian motive. A Brahman may pity the lepers of his 
own race, and he may help them at long range, but he 
never goes near them. He is the superior, and they are 
beneath him. I have seen high-strung, sensitive American 
women and devoted native Christians personally serving 
and aiding the lepers of India. It was with no sense of 
superiority or pity alone for their misery that they kept 
at the task. It was because they deeply loved these people 
and there was the sympathy of Christ within their hearts. 
This is a motive which no changing conditions can alter. 

Again our motive must be something more than saving 
souls from hell. This is little stressed to-day, but it used 
to be. Even in the old days, when this was a deep mo- 
tive, men were always better than their creed. Some one 
has said that it is comparatively easy, on the part of 



Western donors, to commit lost souls to punishment when 
far away and unknown and that it is much more difficult 
to do so with the native nurse of one's own children, or a 
native merchant or lawyer whom one knows in everyday 
life, or a brave coolie who risked his life for one on a 
dangerous journey. There was one advantage in this call 
and motive, and that was that it was to the point and 
both the preacher and the hearer knew exactly what was 
meant and what the appeal was as well as its urgency. 
Going further, we must go deeper than the motive to save 
the unreached for the future life. To the concern and 
heartache of our fathers that men should die without 
Christ we must add the greater anxiety lest they should 
live without Christ. 

Then the motive must be something more than the com- 
monly accepted fact that the Church is supposed to give to 
the missionary enterprise, or the appeal to Christian pride. 
There is no lasting urge in this. Such a motive can easily 
be covered up with "hard times," the coal bill, a new car- 
pet, a pipe organ, or a grand church building. Then, too, 
we have sometimes heard the motive appealed to that if 
we did not Christianize the Orient the Orient would 
paganize us. This is a selfish motive and has to do with 
self-protection. It does not have those qualities of reli- 
gious impulse in it which we find in deep and abiding 

Now, what are the great motives that are inherent in 
the missionary task? 



In recent years there has been less presentation of the 
appeal of the last command of our Lord, "Go ye into all 
the world, and preach the gospel to every creature." 
There should be a revival of preaching on the Great Com- 
mission, but the call should not simply be based upon the 
divine imperative. Christ gave this command because its 
substance was the dearest desire of his heart. We do not 
go simply because he commanded it, but because this com- 
mand was the expression of his own soul's love. If Jesus 
Christ is what we have accepted him to be, then the world 
mission of the Church is imperative because of our love 
for Christ himself. If we take Christ seriously, this en- 
terprise is unassailable. The Christian man who doubts, 
doubts Christ's spirit and program. The Christian man 
who opposes does not oppose some mission board, but his 
quarrel is with his Lord and Saviour. The man who 
thinks missions absurd and follows such thought to its 
logical conclusion would end in raising questions about 
Jesus himself, for did he not say, "Why call ye me Lord, 
Lord, and do not the things which I say?" He is bound 
up eternally with the missionary spirit. To destroy that 
spirit is to deny Christ's Lordship over one's soul and 
bring corrosion of spiritual insight and power as well as 
to eclipse the radiance of one's faith. How pitifully pre- 
sumptuous for a Christian man to veto the missionary 
command of Jesus ! It is Jesus who vetoes the denial of 
that call. 

Prof. William Newton Clark puts it well : "The religion 



of Jesus Christ is a missionary religion. The work of its 
founder intended it to be such. Its early spirit was such, 
and its history is a missionary history. Whenever it has 
lost its missionary quality, it has lost its character and 
ceases to be itself. Its characteristic temper has always 
been missionary. Its revival of life and powers has been 
attended with a quickening of missionary energy, and mis- 
sionary activity is one of the truest signs of loyalty to its 
characters and its Lord." 

The sense of world obligation was a deep motive in the 
life of the Apostle Paul. He cried out, "I am indebted 
to both Greek and Barbarian, both to the wise and to the 
foolish ; so as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the 
gospel." This was a strange statement for a man to make. 
He had borrowed nothing from the world. The nations 
had not written him into their charge accounts, and yet 
he was overwhelmed and constantly pressed upon by his 
debt to the world. What was at the heart of this motive? 
It was the fact that Paul felt that he had something which 
the rest of the world needed and must have for its re- 
demption. What a challenging motive this should be for 
all American churches ! America has received more than 
any other nation, and therefore America should give more, 
according to the Christian principle. We are a "creditor 
nation/' which makes us all the more a "debtor nation." 
What would we be without Christianity? We are com- 
pelled by world obligation to pass along even a new patent 
on a sewing machine, or the discovery of a serum that 



cures diseases. We are in debt to the world because 
we have something which the world needs. Christian 
people of America cannot stay their hands, holding the 
gospel as we do, with a vast world wandering without 
Christ and oblivious to what he gives to the human heart. 

There is primacy in the compelling love of Christ. 
What was it that drove Shelton repeatedly to Tibet until 
he lost his life at the hands of the bandits? What was 
it that urged Livingstone through Central Africa again 
and again? What was it that kept Paton in the South 
Seas? What was it that impelled Judson in his sacrifice 
for Burma? What was it that steadied Morrison during 
the long years when China resisted like a rock? It was 
no partial and inadequate motive which pressed these noble 
souls on. Adventure, geographical exploration, translation 
may have been in the periphery of their thinking, but their 
abiding motive was the love of Christ which constrained 
them. We must find the same enduring motive which they 

How the real motive eliminates the discrimination be- 
tween home and foreign missions in our appeal! To be 
sure the fields are different and need different plans and 
administration, but the evangelistic appeal and the mis- 
sionary appeal are one and the same thing. The constrain- 
ing love of Christ directs us toward the man across the 
street and the man across the seas simultaneously. Jesus 
did not put a time-lock on his Great Commission to be 
released for the man afar after the home base had been 



converted. He knew that such nearsightedness would 
have proved the end of the Christian religion. He was 
almost impatient with his disciples in their narrow and 
overzealous thought of the "kingdom of Israel." "Ye 
shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem and unto the 
uttermost parts of the earth," was a bifocal utterance. 
The both and and were not accidental, and they are an- 
tithesis of first and then, which is often the false reading. 
The matter of distance in geography does not count. 
There are a few long-visioned but impractical souls who 
are moved by the need of distant peoples and listless about 
conversions next door, and there are multitudes of others 
with a strong evangelistic fervency for those they can see, 
who are not interested in the winning of those obscured 
to them by the veil of distance. Both are wrong. Our 
commission is to go into all the world because Jesus is the 
real Lord of our lives. No man, woman, or child can be 
outside the Christian's interests whether he be near or 
far. The compulsion to evangelize those of India or 
America is identical if we have really caught Christ's 
spirit and can honestly say, "I cannot live without Christ, 
and I cannot bear to think of others living without him." 
Livingstone cried out: "My Jesus, my king, my life, my 
all. I dedicate my whole self to thee." The compelling 
love of Christ has back of it a heart which has had expe- 
rience with Jesus first-hand. 

E. Stanley Jones says, in a recent letter from India 
with regard to one of his great meetings, that a group 



of keen Mohammedan leaders came to the meeting to 
debate with him. They were restless and apparently keyed 
up to begin. When the time came Mr. Jones set forth 
his own proposition of religion on the basis of Christian 
experience: "What does the Christian religion mean to 
me personally as an experience?" The Mohammedan 
leaders had nothing to say. They were ready to debate on 
theory or dogma, but they had no personal experience in 
religious life to bring abreast of the reality which Mr. 
Jones set forth from his own life in Christ. 

Recently I was in Washington, D. C., and while there, 
as I usually do when at our national capital, I spent a 
few hours in the Library of Congress with that marvelous 
collection of books. When I had finished the reading that 
I wished to do, I sat down in the circle of that superb 
reading room, and leaning back in my chair I began to 
stMy the unusual mural paintings which are at the very 
top of the great dome. These symbolic figures represent 
the great civilizations of the world, such as Egypt, Greece, 
Rome, Europe, Russia, and America. I had not looked 
long when my gaze was arrested and my imagination 
quickened by the fact that in the commanding position of 
the circle, among the figures of the great nations of the 
world, was "Judea," symbolized by a beautiful maiden 
with a scroll of scriptures across her knees. There in the 
midst of the great civilizations which have dominated 
through philosophy, militarism, and commerce sat the 
symbolic figure representing that little speck of desert hill 



country which has dominated through religion. What a 
colossal and superhuman task early Christianity faced as 
it broke forth from the limestone fastnesses of Judea to 
face the great ancient world of Roman militarism and 
Greek culture! What a motive must have burned in the 
souls of those early Christians which enabled them to hurl 
themselves unafraid and conquering against a world rep- 
resenting the antithesis of their spiritual ideals ! 

The Church of Christ faces as great a challenge and a 
more colossal task in this incomparable period following 
the World War, and only the motive which burned in the 
hearts of the early Christians will give us enabling power 
to conquer. The early Church faced a world bowed be- 
neath the steel yoke of military conquest, dominated by a 
selfish and unsatisfying philosophy, spiritually empty be- 
cause of its gross idolatry, and sated with the extremes 
of sensuous pleasure. The Church to-day in its world 
outlook not only fronts age-long, deeply entrenched, and 
spiritually powerless ethnic religions in non-Christian 
lands, but also a godless and secular outlook on life which 
has come to be its greatest opponent and challenge, both 
in the West and increasingly in all the mission fields. This 
modern way of life, which became articulate to our think- 
ing in the phrase, "secular cilivization," given to it by the 
Jerusalem Conference, is the great force which is to-day 
corroding all religions and undermining spiritual life in 
all lands. Secularism expresses itself in various phases 
of life which do not take God into account in those ele- 



ments in our education which negative religion, in the 
godless side of industrialism, in the lust for pleasures 
where God is forgotten, in ruthless and pagan militarism, 
in the increasing breakdown in the moral sense typified in 
much of our moving pictures, in a materialistic expression 
of life, and in the mechanistic side of humanistic philoso- 
phy in which God is negligible. As stated in another chap- 
ter, Christianity is the only faith which can redeem secular 
life as well as Christianize the lands of non-Christian 

What an incomparable challenge comes to the preacher 
to-day as he fronts this new world with its vast problems 
and its daring affront to our faith ! How helpless we are 
without that unquenchable motive which stirred the hearts 
of the early disciples! What was it? Paul expressed it 
in those immortal words, "The love of Christ constrain- 
eth us." The Jerusalem Conference in the spring of 1928, 
where Christian leaders of many nations were gathered on 
the Mount of Olives, after days of prayer and conference 
together, days in which the Christian life and message 
were considered in the light of the good things in the 
non-Christian religions, with Oriental Christian leaders 
who were converts from the ethnic faiths leading in the 
study, put it in that remarkable modern phrasing, which is 
one of the most beautiful Christian expressions outside of 
the New Testament itself : 

"We cannot live without Christ, 
We cannot think of others living without him, 



We cannot be content to live in a world that is un-Christlike, 
We cannot be idle while the longing of his heart for his brethren 
is unsatisfied." 

Brethren of the ministry, that is the complete motive 
that can withstand the present-day opponents of our faith 
and the only motive that can carry us on to success in the 
face of the new world challenge which confronts the 
Church of Jesus Christ. We must have a ministry with 
a unique singleness of purpose, and with the burning mo- 
tive of Christ's compelling love, in order that the Church 
may move out into this modern world with the same divine 
spirit and God-fearing confidence that the Apostolic 
Church had when it "swept forth from the gaunt pastoral 
hillsides of Judea to conquer the Roman world ! 



IN one of the most interesting moments in the Jeru- 
salem Conference on Foreign Missions in 1928, Bishop 
Temple, of Manchester, England, made this rather ar- 
resting declaration, "Christianity is the most materialistic 
of all religions." However, he relieved our startled minds 
by going on with the following assertion, "Christianity 
is the only religion that has the power to deal with a 
civilization which is largely materialistic, and which can 
convert and consecrate those material things to the glory 
of God and the good of humanity." The discussion was 
on "Christianity and Industrialism Throughout the 
World." There is no doubt that the delegate was right. 
Other religions are helpless before the advance of our 
modern materialistic views and activities of life. 

The Jerusalem meeting calls the Church in a more 
powerful way than ever before to a new missionary 
undertaking; not simply the conquest of geographical 
areas, but what is even more important, the conquest 
of areas of life, world-wide in their scope. Motivated 
by the scientific outlook, made possible by scientific inquiry 
and development, with its goal the increase of physical 
comfort and wealth wealth as the handmaiden of pleas- 
ure a secular industrial civilization spreads throughout 



the world, and it is a civilization which in the large does 
not take God or spiritual realities into account. Before 
it, the age-long ethnic religions are helpless and baffled. 
They are dissolving, and even the parallel social systems 
are being overturned by rapid and inevitable change. 

The first to be affected by this far-reaching tide of 
change are the leaders. But back of them the great 
masses of the people, still bowed in ignorance and super- 
stition, are sure, sooner or later, to face the inevitable 
impact of this movement. In the non-Christian religions, 
a body of traditional beliefs, or superstitions, which are 
tenaciously clung to in formality, may have little connec- 
tion with daily life. But in secular civilization men face 
that which has to do with the forces that they meet daily 
in life and which are in process of constructing our mod- 
ern world. There are realities in this situation which no 
temporizing or shallow makeshifts can deal with, and 
the Church to-day faces a challenge and a call unequaled 
since the early Church squared itself against the "world, 
the flesh, and the devil" of the Roman Empire. Only a 
devoted and spiritualized ministry and membership, with 
high motive and aim, can cope with it. 

In America, heretofore, transitions in thinking and 
the resultant change in outlook because of the newer 
knowledge, often leading to skepticism, have been borne 
by a comparatively few of the more highly trained minds, 
while the great mass of us have gone on, not greatly dis- 
turbed. In the interim, the more scientifically minded 



have had time to make their adjustments, and relieve them- 
selves of their hasty scientific dogmatism, and find them- 
selves to-day quite largely accepting the verities of faith 
and Christian belief. But behold, the problems over which 
scholars struggled twenty-five years ago are now being 
hurled at all of us from all sides. Through university 
life, magazine articles, books, the platform, and even by 
the way of the secular press, these disturbing questions 
come. Books with generous attitudes toward life and 
an expressed desire to better human living, frankly take 
the position that belief in a personal God is not neces- 
sary. It is difficult to measure the harm to faith in the 
supernatural which such declarations, made in connec- 
tion with a humanistic philosophy of life, can bring. 
This more thoughtful non-God propaganda, together with 
the secular way of life in which God is not thought of 
as non-existent, but simply forgotten, forms the base 
line of Christianity's greatest opponent to-day. A few 
illustrations will illuminate the point. 

A recent issue of the little magazine, Friends of Jesus, 
published in Japan, in propagation of the Kagawa evan- 
gelistic movement, has in it an article comparing Walter 
Lippmann, of America, and Kagawa, of Japan. The 
writer is J. W. Nixon, contributing to the Rochester 
Daily Democrat. Kagawa is the outstanding Oriental 
Christian of to-day. Walter Lippmann, editor of the 
New York World, is perhaps the greatest humanistic 
exponent. His book, "A Preface to Morals," has had 



wide reading in America and throughout the world. 
Kagawa is a scholar, writer, and devout Christian, lead- 
ing a great social movement as well as a vital evangelistic 
campaign in Japan. The writer compares Lippmann and 
Kagawa as stoic and Christian. He thinks of the age in 
which we live as being dominated by scientific discovery, 
mechanical invention, closer international relations, a high 
standard of living as far as physical comfort and literacy 
are concerned, and yet an age more uncertain as to the 
meaning and purpose of life than any age since that 
of the Protestant Reformation. Then he goes on to 
compare the two men. He states that there are wide 
differences between Lippmann and Kagawa, but acknowl- 
edges that they have many agreements. He states that 
both see the uncertainty of our time and both are hurt 
by social horrors, industrial oppressions, international 
strife, and racial and religious intolerance. He likewise 
states that both are separated by a great moral gulf from 
the pagan spirit of the modern world, which measures all 
success by the crude standard of how much a man has 
and in which hate always preys upon appetite, whether 
of custom or of law. Both men, he says, live a life with 
a high seriousness and attempt to show how a man can 
live worthily even in an age as full of uncertainty as ours 
is. Their fundamental difference lies in the fact that 
Lippmann tries to find such a life without any faith in a 
power beyond man, any faith in God while Kagawa 
finds such a life only attainable on the Christian as- 



sumption that human love is the revelation of a love at 
the heart of the universe. One is reminded that the 
stoic of the Roman world disbelieved in the gladiatorial 
combat and infanticide, but was helpless before these 
pagan customs, while Christianity destroyed them, attain- 
ing one of the greatest moral victories of history. Each 
man has written a great book Lippmann's, "A Preface 
to Morals" ; Kagawa's, "Love, the Law of Life." These 
two books bring out the contrasts between the movements 
of secularism and Christianity to-day. Lippmann bases his 
philosophy of life on a pursuit of ideals and noble en- 
terprises which lift the soul above the chains of ambition, 
and Kagawa's philosophy of life is a passionate abandon- 
ment to a great cause. The former would attain by self- 
control, the latter by the transformation of the world. 
Lippmann holds that the belief in God is childish, the 
result of prolonging into adulthood the desires of the 
child age. With Kagawa, belief in God is supreme. 
The most striking contrast between Lippmann and Kaga- 
wa comes in the last pages of their books. Lippmann 
closes with the picture of a man struggling alone to save 
his own soul. Kagawa closes with a description of the 
revolution which love is working in the lives of human- 
ity and a faith in the supreme love that regenerates and 
saves. Kagawa applies Christianity's law of love to the 
daily life of man. Differing from Gandhi of India, in 
that while the former, seeing the evil of the machine 
and political organization, denounces and would destroy 



them, Kagawa accepts them and would regenerate them. 
His final answer to everything is that the world must 
be saved through love. He has learned it through an 
experience rare and complete, and its reality comes 
both from outside and from spiritual insight. He does 
hot deny the world; he faces it. 

Let us go on to an illustration dealing with the mis- 
sion field. Dr. Robert . Speer, in a discussion on the 
Christian Message at the Jerusalem Conference, read a 
letter from a Chinese Christian professor. The follow- 
ing is a quotation from it : "While Christianity is making 
inroads into these religions from one side, these religions 
are suffering a great deal more in the rear from a group 
of new enemies who have advanced so far into their 
territory that, for all practical purposes, Christianity 
must ignore the incapacitated ethnic religions and think 
of its frontier work in terms of what it will have to do 
with these same new forces : Scientific Agnosticism, Ma- 
terialistic Determinism, Political Fascism, and Moral 

While we all realize that for a long time to come the 
main forces which the missionary will have to face will 
be the ignorance and superstition of the masses con- 
nected with non-Christian religion, yet this Chinese Chris- 
tian scholar has set forth a challenge to the missionary 
enterprise which will constantly increase in its serious- 
ness. What an array of secular forces the Chinese lead- 
er described, and he might have added to his list Russian 



Atheistic Sovietism. We now begin to sense the sinister 
power of this new challenge to Christianity throughout 
the world, including in a rapidly growing way the mission 

Let us bring a simple illustration from the heart of 
Africa. It is typical of many places in that dark con- 
tinent. At Bolenge, in the heart of the Congo, a thou- 
sand miles from the coast, missionaries began work some 
thirty years ago among the primitive jungle savages. The 
work was hard because of the physical surroundings, gross 
superstition, and the fact that the people had no written 
language. However, as soon as the missionaries were 
able to break down the fear held by the black men for the 
wjtch doctor, converts began, and a great church has been 
built up at Bolenge with many churches in the surround- 
ing territory, some of them with many thousands of mem- 
bers. The people had no religion save their superstitions ; 
they were polygamous, cannibalistic, and had little civiliza- 
tion. The Western world had never touched them. They 
quite readily accepted Christianity, and their lives have 
been strikingly changed as have those of other similar 
groups all over that continent. This Church at Bolenge is 
inspired by deep evangelistic passion. Many of the mem- 
bers are tithers. A few years ago, when the Prince of 
Belgium visited the Congo, he stopped at Bolenge. He 
was struck by the remarkable change in faces and appear- 
ance of the people. He asked why it was so. The native 
pastor of the congregation replied, "These people 

6$ . 


have Christ in their hearts." But now a great change 
has come to that section of the Congo. About five miles 
away a modern city has been built, Coquilhatville, on the 
Congo River, the capital of the equator district. Here 
the airplanes stop with mail and passengers and a wire- 
less station communicates with the outside world. Along 
with that which is good, most of the evils of Western 
civilization have percolated into this new city. There are 
many white men there, officials and traders. The govern- 
ment officials as a rule have the interests of the people at 
heart, but with this tide from the West have come liquor 
and Occidental immorality and the tinsel and glitter of 
Western life. The jungle African has been disillu- 
sioned. He has not been able to stand the impact with 
these Western evils. To us, modern things have come 
gradually through many centuries. We have become 
accustomed and, if we will, our Christian background of 
centuries offers immunity to the evil. To the backward 
races modernity drops unexpectedly like a bolt from the 
blue. Missionaries are now toiling at Coquilhatville, but 
their task is many times harder than it was at Bolenge. 
They not only have to overcome the superstition of the 
jungle African, but they must try to spiritualize and 
conquer for Christ this Western secular idea and way of 
life. They are having problems that compare with those 
of the primitive missionaries in the Greco-Roman world. 
Even the Belgian government, sensing the great danger 
to the Africans in these rapid transitions, has passed a 



law that no more foreign concessions be granted in the 
Congo for five years, until the people catch up with these 
new phases of life with which they are so unfamiliar. 
The following report of a commission studying the effect 
of much of modern industrialism in Africa is strikingly 
revealing : 

"Wherever large bodies of workers are removed from 
their villages and their families and herded together for 
some large constructive work, a number of intensely im- 
portant problems arise. Away from the milieu to which 
they are accustomed, their morale rapidly degenerates. 
The absence of their wives tends to encourage abnormal 
sexual habits; the cessation of the tribal authority which 
provides the sanctions of their code of conduct leaves 
them unguided amid strange circumstances; they lose 
their own standards without gaining new ones; their 
religio fails them. They suffer severely from climatic 
change, possibly even more severely from changes of diet. 
Usually they are excessively liable to be attacked by dis- 
eases with which they have come into contact for the 
first time, more especially with tuberculosis and venereal 
disease. In close contact with each other, the onset of 
highly infectious diseases decimates them. In recent 
cases, where statistics have been made available, appalling 
rates of mortality, up to ten and even twelve per cent per 
annum, have been recorded." 

Recently, while in India, I spent some time at Benares, 
the Mecca of the Hindu faith. Here, along the sacred 




water front of the Ganges, my sensibilities were shocked 
again and again by what I saw in the cow temples, monkey 
temples, and at still other shrines apparently dedicated 
to the low and sensual. Many of the "holy" men, naked, 
with matted hair and filthy bodies, reclined on beds of 
spikes for the onlooker to observe, or went through the 
ceremonial exercises of their fakir orders. The temple 
of Nepal, standing proudly on the high bank of the river, 
is girdled with friezes carved in nakedness and depicting 
most loathsome scenes, the shrine apparently dedicated 
to the vices which it portrays. The place is so notorious 
that the guides state that no Western woman is allowed 


to climb the many steps and see the temple. The place 
is such an affront to decency that one wishes afterwards 
that he had never seen it, and the horror and heartache 
that comes with Benares lasts for days. A little later, 
in the same country, I received another shock concerning 
impressions that India receives from the Occident. I 
passed a popular "cinema" or moving picture theater, 
close to an Indian university. It was portraying the 
most evil things in our Western life, for the film was 
from America and uncensored! The nakedness of the 
Western women portrayed on the billboard was more 
shocking than that of the naked priests at Benares, and, 
to my amazement, I saw pouring into this, by the hun- 
dreds, students from the university. There they no 
doubt sat for hours, witnessing the vulgarities and sexual- 
suggestiveness of a debased presentation of our Western 



life. Their sensibilities must first have been greatly 
shocked and then corroded by these pictures, to them at 
least reeking with immoral insinuations. By these pic- 
tures they judged the West. I confess it took several 
days back at a mission station, in the midst of the Chris- 
tian atmosphere there, to entirely lift my depression. The 
emissary of the Cross not only has to present Chris- 
tianity in the face of the ignorance and superstition of the 
masses, but also in the cynical atmosphere of the edu- 
cated, influenced by the inflowing tide of the evils of 
our Western secular life. Especially in the port cities 
of the Oriental countries do we find this evil Occidental 
influence in many forms. My heart has ached most in 
these cities where the secular tides of our Western civili- 
zation have struck first. One turns in Shanghai with 
sadness from the temple with its superstition, but also 
with greater sadness from the modern factory introduced 
into China by Western industrialism, where they tell us 
that the average life of the little girls who work at the 
looms is from twelve to fourteen months. The native 
life, uninfluenced by the West, has, of course, its gross 
materialistic and industrial crimes, but modern, organ- 
ized industrialism sometimes even exceeds it in its ruth- 

In the realm of education, too, secular ideas of life are 
rapidly taking hold of the Orient. No greater challenge 
can come to our missionary enterprise than that in China, 
where government-controlled, secular education is ad- 



vancing rapidly, and where in the lower grades of mission 
schools no religion can be taught by government consent. 
Strong pressure is being brought for real religious liberty 
and the right to give religious instruction in private 
schools, but if it cannot be accomplished we must quick- 
ly adapt ourselves to this new situation and surround our 
schools more effectively than ever before with religious 
instruction, not required in the curriculum of the school 
itself. Here in America, although we cannot teach re- 
ligion in our public schools, we have the background of 
the Church and the Christian home to aid us. In China 
there is no such historic background, and secularization 
is complete. 

In Japan the danger of secularizing education is real- 
ized by educational leaders, and there is a very deep 
longing that ethics and morals may be more surely taught 
in the public schools. There is a widespread anxiety for 
the moral future of education and the nation. There is 
a realization, too, that ethical and moral standards can- 
not be given to the students save on a religious basis. 
Schools in Japan are shrinking from the secular idea and 
the former restriction of religious teaching in govern- 
ment-recognized mission and private schools and are com- 
ing to be more and more open to religious instruction. 
The opportunity of Christian educational leaders in Japan 
is remarkable at the present day. 

Look for a moment at Manila, the capital of the Philip- 
pine Islands. Here, as everywhere in the Orient, the 



students are under the spell of science in a unique way. 
Manila has a population of 270,000. It is said that 90,000 
of them are students. The schools in the Philippine Is- 
lands are like our own and conducted in English. Every 
young man and young woman of ambition is longing for 
an education. The city of Manila is filled to the brim 
with student life, eager and expectant, longing for truth, 
with mind wide open. The old superstitions are soon 
discarded. What have we done for this great mass of 
students if we do not give them religious foundations in 
their new applications of scientific learning? If they 
come out of these schools simply with a secular education 
and no undergirding of religion, how have we bettered 
the conditions of the Filipino? Perhaps the greatest 
youth movement in the world is progressing in the Philip- 
pines. Within ten years practically all places of leader- 
ship, political, educational, industrial, and religious, will 
be in the hands of this new generation of Filipinos which 
has been taught in the public schools patterned after those 
in America. Will this new movement be entirely domi- 
nated by secular ideas of life and will there be no place 
for God? The answer to this is one of the greatest 
challenges which comes to the evangelical forces at work 
in the Islands. It is an answer which America must give 
before God, for under the tutelage of the Stars and 
Stripes has the Filipino mind been turned from the old 
superstitions to the new knowledge. 
Turn, if you will, to South America. Here educated 



people, on every hand, have largely abandoned religious 
belief. They have known only one form of Christianity, 
and since they found no reality in it, they have given up 
all religion. Thus they have damned all gods. Secular- 
ism and atheistic humanism are the life tenets of vast 
numbers of the best people in South America. 

And we must not forget Russia, the nation which is 
attempting seriously to build a republic without God. The 
Soviet leaders believe that religion is an opiate of the 
people, and they are out to thoroughly secularize the 
hundred and forty million Russians. While we do not 
believe that they can drive God from Russia, or from the 
minds and hearts of the people, we must not underesti- 
mate the dissolving influence of this atheistic type of 
secularism backed by something bordering on a mission- 
ary passion in the hearts of the communists, who feel 
that they are out to convert the world to their principles. 
These vigorous young communists, all of whom are 
atheists, are presenting to the youth of their country an 
enthusiastic creed of man's dominance over nature. They 
preach that when man is armed with modern science and 
communistic collectivism there is nothing above him and 
he needs no God. This is the faith of a fighting, rising 
people. There are those among religious leaders who 
feel that communism will be the most dangerous rival 
of Christianity. 

In all that we have said, let us not forget that in secu- 
lar civilization, as a whole, there is much good. As 



Dr. Rufus Jones has said, "There are spiritual values 
of high order interpenetrating the secular ranks." And 
I might add that the religious leader's education is hardly 
complete to-day, facing the world in which we live, until 
he has read the masterful article by Dr. Jones in the 
first volume of the Jerusalem Conference Report, entitled 
"Secular Civilization and the Christian Task." No man 
can read it and be quite the same again. The article you 
must read for yourself, but let me quote from a para- 
graph in which Dr. Jones sets forth some of the realities 
which the Church faces to-day in connection with the 
world secular view of life : 

"One needs only to say that if the secular-minded man 
of to-day is to be convinced of the higher spiritual values 
of Christianity we who profess it as our faith must take 
into thought the ethical standards very seriously. The 
weakest spot in our Christian armor is our failure to 
live the life about which we talk and preach. Everybody 
admits without question or discussion that the Galilean 
way of life is the most beautiful ideal that has yet been 
proposed, but Christianity cannot win the world by a 
reference to the glory of a past epoch. It stands or 
falls, not by what it was in primitive vision, but by what 
it is in actual fact. We who profess it and who openly 
advocate it are its supreme evidence. It is not the mir- 
acles of two thousand years ago which prove it now to 
this scientifically-minded age. It is the present miracle 
of spiritual grace and power triumphant in a human life 



that has all the effect of a laboratory experiment. . . . 
The more dangerous situation, however, is to be found in 
the tendency of Christian ministers to conform to stand- 
ards of the world and to be satisfied with an average of 
conventional morality and spiritual boldness. Christian- 
ity is not a religion of averages, and it does not flourish 
by guarding the doctrine of a golden 'mean.' It lives 
and thrives only so long as its apostles and ministers are 
heroic adventurers, brave pioneers, and are ready to go 
with their leader the dangerous way of the Cross." 

The daily press recently states that an educated Chi- 
nese, Chen Tsai Ting, has just sailed for Shanghai to 
establish headquarters for atheistic propaganda. He is 
loaded with literature provided by the American Society 
for the Advancement of Atheism and expects to make 
Shanghai his headquarters to cover China with these 
atheistic deductions. This has been attempted before in 
different parts of the world. It is to be regretted, but 
it is not a matter of as great concern for China as is the 
insidious influence of secular thinking and the secular 
way of life. Here is where the great challenge to Chris- 
tianity lies. The basis of secularism is largely in our 
Western life, and here we must attack it as well as on the 
mission field. While our so-called Christian nations of 
the West have, according to many interpreters, laid a 
powder train for future suspicion and war at London, 
with little emphasis on the Kellogg Treaty and still less 
indictment of competitive navies and the criminality of 



war, Gandhi, the Hindu saint, becomes the world's greatest 
pacifist. America, greatly influenced by secular newspa- 
pers and a post-war materialistic philosophy of life so 
largely pagan, now measures herself to see whether she 
wants to be sober or drunken. Our newspapers vie with 
each other in headlines which shriek either of the wet and 
dry issue, social scandals, or crime. And why? Is it be- 
cause the secular way of life has pushed its way into the 
Church and corroded our own lives and message? Has 
it stifled and dulled our sensibility of sin and of human 
needs? Are many of our Church boards and officials, 
supposed to be guardians of the faith, more interested in 
the problems of coal and a new church building than social 
righteousness and the world mission of the Church? Our 
major task apparently lies in two directions : first the deep- 
ening of the spiritual life of our Churches, and then the 
lifting of our congregations to a world outlook which shall 
be great and challenging and which shall call to the Chris- 
tian forces of to-day, as in the small world of nineteen 
centuries ago the call and challenge came to the Church 
which had its beginning in Pentecost. 

I was startled while reading a great Chicago daily the 
other day. The two obsessions of this paper have been, 
in recent years, the overturn of prohibition and the need 
of preparation for possible war. As usual, these two 
propositions screamed from two headlines, one at the 
right and one at the left of the front page. But there 
was another headline of the same prominence in the 



middle of the page that arrested my attention. It was 
about a little brown thrush which had lost its way from 
the meadows and the fields and had dropped down into 
the hollow square of a great twenty-four-story building. 
It had become imprisoned there. All Chicago was think- 
ing and reading of the little brown thrush. The office 
building population of four or five hundred were leaning 
out the windows in the hollow square, sympathizing with 
the little bird and attempting in every possible way to 
help in its release from its imprisonment. The discour- 
aged little thrush was not able to make the proper spiral 
to climb up the necessary height and find its freedom in 
the little patch of sky at the top. It hopped distress- 
fully from window sill to window sill, helpless in its 
imprisonment. All the city seemed to have the poor little 
bird in mind. I felt more hopeful for Chicago than I 
ever had before. The real soul of the people was ex- 
pressed in their sympathy for the brown thrush. Their 
idealism was challenged by it, and not by the roar and 
commercial thunder and racketeering of the great city. 
Next morning, when I picked up the same paper, I was 
greatly relieved to find that the little bird had somehow 
broken its imprisonment and was away again into the 
freedom of God's out-of-doors. Can it be that our 
Churches and our own lives as leaders have become im- 
prisoned in the hollow square of a secular way of life? 
Is our manner of living inhibited and our message cor- 
roded by the mechanistic civilization which surrounds us 



with its rigid walls ? Are we losing our souls to material- 
ism? As ministers of the gospel, we need the sky, we 
need the freedom of the spirit, we need the challenge of 
the call of the great world. The age in which we live is 
at once our greatest danger and our greatest challenge. 




CHINA, being a nation on fire with revolution and hav- 
ing some 6,000 foreign missionaries at work among its 
vast populations missionaries who from the nature of 
the case find this work for the present seriously affected 
and more or less subjected to the storm and change 
there is much in the public press about the mis- 
sionary situation, some of it of a negative and discourag- 
ing nature. It is a time for sober thinking about the 
cause of Christ in China, but no time for snap judgment 
and hasty conclusions. There is no promise that China 
will be in a settled condition for some time to come. Some 
outstanding leaders among the Chinese themselves proph- 
esy that it may take from twenty-five to fifty years to 
bring about the ideals of the revolution. It has taken 
many hundreds of years in the West to attain what 
China is seeking to accomplish in a brief time. There 
are baffling problems hi China to-day. We must steady 
ourselves for the task and put our ship in order for sail- 
ing some rough seas for years to come. Although in 
actual army battles, only a very small part of China is a 
scene of warfare, the great majority of the people are 
going through terrible experiences because of conditions 



attendant upon the long period of strife and turmoil. 
There are bandits on every hand, some of them organized 
into veritable armies so that they loot and destroy cities, 
massacring the inhabitants. There are unsettled condi- 
tions everywhere. These conditions bring many hard 
problems to the missionaries and the native Churches and 
to the missionary boards at home. Christian work always 
has a backset anywhere in times of war. That the work 
has held together so well in China is marvelous. Out of 
the heartaches and longings of the Chinese has come a 
call for a commission from America to counsel and 
hearten. This is a good, constructive move on the part 
of the Chinese Christians. The American Missionary 
Boards have not been lax in this matter, as has beeri in- 
dicated by some critical reviews of the situation in the 
American press. It is only fair to say that such a com- 
mission was suggested first by a China commission of 
the North American Boards in the spring of 1928, but 
the matter was deferred on account of the patriotic sensi- 
tiveness of the Chinese and the natural nationalistic em- 
barrassment at any such "foreign" approach. The writer 
happens to be a member of the Commission on China, 
established by the Foreign Missions Conference of North 
America, which represents more than fifty of the lead- 
ing Foreign Missionary Boards a commission which has 
spent many days in prayerful study of the missionary situ- 
ation in China, always in intimate and sympathetic coun- 
sel with Chinese Christian Nationals, who were dose to 



the situation in China. This committee, representing the 
great majority of Mission Boards in the United States 
and Canada and which has constantly counseled with na- 
tional Chinese leaders who were in America, is in hearty 
sympathy with the national aspirations of the Chinese 
people, as are, by a large majority, the missionaries of 
these Boards in the fields. It is unfair to assume, as has 
been done by some, that one of the inhibitions of mis- 
sionary progress in China and India is the lack of sym- 
pathy on the part of Boards and missionaries with the 
democratic aspirations of these people. By the majority 
of such, these things are taken for granted as far as 
China is concerned. But the Christian cause cannot make 
itself a political movement in China, or in any other field. 

There are grave problems facing the Christian Church 
in China to-day, as there always are in lands torn by 
revolution. There are deep suffering, hardship, readjust- 
ment, mistakes, and strain of spiritual morale for both 
missionaries and native Christians. There is a halt in 
many ways and deep longing for aid from the stronger 
Churches of the West; there is a sifting of the chaff 
away. The following statement, made to the above- 
named Commission on China, by the Chinese leaders sit- 
ting with the Commission, is expressive of the real situa- 

"The Christian Church in China is seeking to conserve 
and fulfill all that is best and truest in the spiritual heri- 
tage of the nation and to lead it on to new spiritual 



achievement under the guidance of the Spirit of the 
living God. This Church, though numerically and finan- 
cially weak, is yet strong in moral courage and venture- 
some faith. It is exerting an influence on the national 
life far in excess of its numerical strength. The Christ 
whom the Church seeks to proclaim is the one hope of 
China. This Church, courageous, faithful, struggling 
against almost overwhelming difficulties, is worthy of the 
whole-hearted sympathy and unstinted support of all the 
Christian forces of North America. She is conscious of 
her weakness, as of her opportunities; of her perils, as 
of her possibilities. She is calling to all the older and 
stronger Churches of Christendom for assistance in her 
struggle. While truly desiring to be loyal to the high- 
est ideals of the Chinese national movement and to fulfill 
her destiny in the life of the nation, she is yet conscious 
of her debt and fellowship with the older Churches of the 
West, and she desires to share with them all the riches of 
spiritual life which belong to those who compose the 
body of Christ." 

The Jerusalem Conference on Foreign Missions, in the 
spring of 1928, had in attendance a very strong delega- 
tion of Chinese Christian Nationals. Indeed, it was con- 
ceded by all that the Chinese group was one of the 
strongest national delegations present. The group at 
Jerusalem representing the Nationals and also the Mis- 
sion Boards of the West was deeply sympathetic to the 
national aspirations of the Chinese, and the China Com- 



mission in America which has been in constant touch 
with China has reflected the spirit and forward look of 
the Jerusalem Conference itself. 

A group of the most experienced and forward-looking 
missionaries in China are in America this summer. They 
have come from the very heart of things. Recently they 
met with the Executive Committee of the World Sunday 
School Association and with other missionary leaders in 
New York. These men were Dr. Willard Lyon, for thir- 
ty years an outstanding Y. M. C. A. leader in China; Dr. 
Hodgkin, of the Friends, who for years served as Sec- 
retary of the National Christian Council of China; Dr. 
Lobenstine, present Foreign Secretary of the Council, 
and Dr. Wallace, until recently Secretary of the All- 
China Christian Educational Association, These men, 
although they realize keenly the problems in China to- 
day, are not discouraged, but spoke with enthusiasm of 
the Christian opportunity of the hour. They say that 
the anti-Christian movement, although persisting among 
many intellectuals of communistic tendencies, is apparent- 
ly receding, the Chinese Christians are pressing on in a 
five-year evangelistic movement, that there are 500,000 
children and young people in the Christian schools and 
Sunday schools in China, and that the six Christian uni- 
versities of China, most of them union institutions, have 
as their presidents six of the outstanding Christian Chi- 
nese leaders and scholars of China. They do say that in 
this critical hour, when government secular education 



without any religious teaching is being pushed ahead, and 
when Christian schools of the lower grades cannot put re- 
ligious teaching in their classrooms, the hour is impera- 
tive for religious education in Sunday schools, Christian 
homes, and outside the classes at Christian schools, so 
that China may not he submerged in non-religion, or even 
anti-religion, as is Russia. At the call of the Chinese 
Christians the World Sunday School Association is send- 
ing to China three expert leaders in religious education, 
two of whom will spend a year to aid in organizing re- 
ligious education for the Church of China. 

Alexander Paul, of my own Church, who was twenty- 
five years a missionary in China, has just returned from 
a visit to that country, where he spent some months in 
counsel with the missionaries and nationals. His visit 
has been to the war-torn part of China in the Central 
Yangste valley. He says with regard to conditions: 

"Fortunately while I was in China there was a lull in 
the civil war, and I was able to visit all our stations. In 
a land torn by civil wars, bandits, disease, and famines, 
we need not expect to find work being carried on in a 
normal way. Picture Belgium and parts of France dur- 
ing the World War, and you have an idea of what most 
of the territory where we are at work is like. The 
marvel is that we have been able to carry on at all. We 
have suffered very little by loss of property, due to the 
f aithf ulness of our Chinese Christians, who stood by and 
held the property at the risk of their own lives in 1927 



when the missionaries had to leave the stations. We are 
prone to forget these acts of Christian heroism. Most 
of our Christians have been under fire several times dur- 
ing the past three years. Many of them died from wounds 
and exposure, and but few, very few indeed, have left 
the Church. A person professing Christ in these days in 
China must be genuine, because of the persecution in- 

"Our hospitals in Luchowfu and Nantungchow con- 
tinue to be crowded. There are many more poverty- 
stricken patients than formerly. For this reason the 
finances of these hospitals are suffering, but we do not 
run hospitals to make money, but to serve humanity, and 
were it not for our hospitals thousands would suffer or 
die in misery. 

"Practically all our schools are running, some of them 
under great disadvantages. Most of the government 
schools have been turned into barracks and the property 
ruined, and thus the people appreciate what we are doing 
to help them in a very real way. Our Christian Girls' 
School in Nanking has kept running, owing very largely 
to the wonderful Christian heroism of Miss Anna Chen, 
the principal, who is now in this country for some post- 
graduate work. Time and again she risked her life in 
defending and holding the school property in face ol the 
threats of bandit troops and looting mobs. Ginling Col- 
lege for Women in Nanking has also kept running. It 
is easy to imagine what would happen should looting 



soldiers or bandits break away all restraints and enter 
these schools. But as friends, Chinese and missionaries, 
have said, 'Were we not to run risks, no Christian work 
could be done these days in China.' 

"The direct Church work is being carried on under 
most trying conditions. It is well-nigh impossible to do 
much country work, as practically all our districts are 
controlled by bandits. The fact that we can carry on at 
all is a demonstration that the Church is grounded in 
China and will not be exterminated. No greater testi- 
mony to the unselfish love and devotion to Christ and 
humanity can be furnished than that of our three young 
women missionaries who lived in Luchowfu for a year or 
more entirely cut off from outside sources and help, in 
the midst of war, banditry, famine, and pestilence, and 
who, when I pointed out the awful risks they were taking, 
replied, 'We dare not leave our Chinese women and girls 
in this day of despair!' Our Chinese Christians for the 
most part have been just as loyal." 

Here is an extract from a letter written in quaint Eng- 
lish by a Chinese Christian of the Presbyterian Mission, 
who is in charge of an orphanage in Hunan Province, one 
of the most war-torn in all China: 

"There were twenty people baptized while Mr. Jenkin's 
farewell. We asked them, 'Don't you afraid the anti- 
Christian movement?' They answered, 'Those who kills 
our body and not our souls we don't afraid at all.' These 
new Christians come to Church every week. 



"There are sixty boys in this orphanage. Now we have 
Mr. Chou Moh Wa, a graduate of Peking University 
leather department, is now starting a tanning trade here. 
We hope to send you some samples by and by. 

"Kindly pray for us and remember our work here. If 
possible please let have your kind advice that we need 
your help and your prayer." 

We must not be discouraged by the revolutionary ed- 
dies in the stream of progress in China. Other countries 
of the West have gone through such changes, but Chris- 
tianity has not stopped her progress. In fact, this is a 
testing time for our religion in China. Greater things 
will come for the cause there because of these experi- 
ences. We who live in a land of comfort and protection 
cannot be true to our Lord if we turn back after 
having put our hand to the plow for China. We can 
hardly sing with a clear conscience, 

"Faith of our fathers, living still 
In spite of dungeon, fire, and sword," " 

and not greatly increase our efforts for China just now. 
The native Churches as well as the missionaries call to us 
with peculiar appeal out of their Gethsemane of suffering. 

Items of Progress in China 

It might be well to set forth some items of progress in 

In 1814 there was one communicant in the Protestant 
Church of China. 



In 1820, when the Treaty of Nankin was signed, there 
were six. 

In 1858, when the Treaty of Tientsin was signed, 
there were 500. 

In 1877, when the first missionary conference in China 
was held, there were 13,515. 

In 1890, when the second conference was held, there 
were 37,287. 

In 1907, when the third conference was held, just 100 
years after Morrison arrived, there were 178,251. 

In 1920 there were 366,524. 

To-day the number is about 500,000. 

Achievements in China 

The following points may be put down : 

1. A Chinese Independent National Church. 

2. The Chinese Home Missionary Movement. 

3. Six Christian universities headed by Chinese Chris- 
tian men. 

4. The Bible in the native language. 

5. A Church suffering intensely, but not demoralized 
because of war and revolution, full of hope and courage 
and planning a five-year campaign to double member- 

6. The National Christian Council composed of strong 
Chinese leaders and missionaries. 

7. The gradual breakdown of the superstitious hold 
of the old religions on the people, especially the educated. 


8. The working out of a plan for the reduction of the 
language in simplified characters which will soon enable 
millions, heretofore illiterate, to read. 

9. A majority of Christian men in the President's 

What a contrast to what Robert Morrison faced in 
contempt, danger, and loneliness! He toiled seven years 
before he had his first convert. He stood alone, ridi- 
culed and hated, but unflinching, confident in his faith 
and in God. There are now more Christians in China 
than there were in the whole Roman Empire 100 years 
after Pentecost. 


Let us hear a few voices with regard to India, that 
great field so much in the eyes of the world to-day. 

A recent letter from E. Stanley Jones is worth careful 
pondering. Mr. Jones is the outstanding missionary of 
India to-day among the educated class. He refused the 
office of bishop from his own Church (Methodist) that he 
might continue to give himself to evangelistic work in 
India. He returned to India in the winter of 1928. This 
letter was received in the summer of 1930. He wrote as 
follows : 

"I went to the National Congress as a visitor to keep 
my ear close to the march of events. I have to speak to 
India, and I must know what India is thinking. Now, 
one would think that in this atmosphere of feverish na- 



tional excitement there would be no ear for the gospel. 
On the contrary, these three months have been very won- 
derful in the hearing and in the response. In the very 
Congress grounds I was asked to give an address on 'The 
Relation of Religion and the National Life.' It was a great 
opportunity to put our attitudes and message before the 
national leaders. For the first time I could feel that the 
impact of Soviet ideas had brought the question of the 
place of religion in the national life into one of vital 
urgency. We were at grips with a real problem. India 
was at the parting of the ways. Would she turn to athe- 
istic Russia for guidance or to vital religion? A youth 
of not more than fourteen stood up in one of my meet- 
ings and asked this question, 'Now that we are having 
an anti-imperialistic and anti-capitalistic campaign, don't 
you think the next step is an anti-God campaign?' After- 
wards I asked him where he got these ideas from, and 
he answered with a wave of his hand, *O, they are in 
the air.' I am afraid they are. I have found more skep- 
ticism concerning all religion in these last few months than 
I have in the previous twenty years in India. The foun- 
dations of religion are being challenged. And it will be 
Christ who will save God to India. The gods will go, but 
God will remain, and it will be a Christlike God who will 
remain, for a Christlike God stands the strain! 

"After this we went to Trivandrum, the capital of the 
native State of Travancore. Those in charge of the meet- 
ings at first considered holding the meetings within doors. 



But no hall was large enough. Two thousand, mostly 
non-Christians, stood and sat in every available place in 
the open courtyard of the Y.M.C.A. There was a cathe- 
dral-like silence on the great crowd. At question time 
they would go on for hours. One night a Brahman asked 
if I thought it fair for the British Government to spend 
money from the taxpayer to pay the chaplains in the Brit- 
ish India service. I told him that I thought it was un- 
fair, just as unfair as the spending of six hundred thou- 
sand rupees by the Travancore Government for the re- 
cent feeding and giving gifts to high-caste Brahmans. 
The crowd fairly went wild, for there was a good deal of 
feeling against this taking of the taxpayers' money and 
giving it to the Brahmans in this way. But Travancore 
has been a Brahman's paradise in days gone by. Here 
the ruler weighs himself against gold and distributes it to 
the Brahmans when he comes to the throne. But the 
Brahman's days are numbered. He must serve or go to 
the wall. 

"The last night, when I asked for those who wanted 
to find God through Christ to stay, there were no less 
than a thousand who stayed. Of course, a great many 
stayed through curiosity, and yet it was something new 
to have them stay for personal surrender in this public 
way. It was an unforgettable night." 

Now let us note the testimony to missionary work of 
some who are not connected with the work in any way. 
Dr. Robert E. Speer has collected these statements: 



Arthur Mahur, an Englishman, Director of Public In- 
struction for the Central Provinces in India : "The record 
of the life and personality of Jesus Christ has done far 
more educationally for India than the whole Western lit- 
erature. . . . India owes the Bible to the schools and 
colleges. . . . Moral progress in India depends on the 
gradual transformation of education by explicit recogni- 
tion of the spirit of Christ. All that I have seen of Chris- 
tian mission work in India has convinced me that work 
inspired by some such aim can alone supply the necessary 
basis. . . . Christianity is a vital force in India." 

In Allahabad, India, is a secular paper, The Pioneer, 
which in its earlier days said some bitter things about mis- 
sions. In recent years, however, the editor has given 
strong expression to his approval and high respect for 
missionary work. Allahabad is a great center for Hindu 
pilgrims, as mentioned in another place in this volume. 
They come by the millions at certain times, to bathe in 
the juncture of the two holy rivers, the Ganges and the 
Jamna. It is likewise the seat of the Hindu university 
of Allahabad. There are also located there Ewing Chris- 
tian College, one of India's best Christian schools, and 
the Christian Leper Asylum and the Christian Agricul- 
tural School conducted by Mr. and Mrs. Sam Higgin- 
bottom. In the issue of January 21, 1927, the editor of 
The Pioneer expressed himself as follows in connection 
with a strong statement of praise made by Lord Lytton, 
of England, concerning the missionary work in India: 



"Here in India, the medical and educational enterprises, 
which have been scattered all over the country for the 
benefit of the people by the enthusiasm and understand- 
ing of missionary societies, most surely deserve the great- 
est credit and gratitude. The spirit of sympathy to which 
Lord Lytton referred is by no means the least of the as- 
sets possessed by these devoted men and women. It is 
not too much to say that in a special sense, to which the 
official and lay non-official European communities can 
hardly make claim, they get in the closest possible touch 
with Indian sentiment and aspiration." 

Here is the testimony of Sir Andrew Fraser, for many 
years British Governor of Bengal, India: "I have been 
thirty years in India. I have served very many years in 
two provinces. I have been on two commissions, each of 
which took me for over a year over the whole of India. I 
have taken care to inquire about this work and to see what 
the missionaries were doing. I went out in the work of the 
Crown, to serve the Crown, and I have served the Crown 
of England for these thirty-seven years. But all the 
same, though you did not send me out, I come back to 
you now as a man might come back from a place to which 
he had been sent to prospect and tell of the possibilities 
of the work. I come back to tell you what I have seen 
and whether this work is worth your while or not. You 
say, Is it worth my while to give my prayers to this work? 
You say, Is it worth my while to give my sympathy to this 
work? You say, Is it worth my while to give my money 



to this work? You say, perhaps, Is it worth my while to 
give those that are dear to me to this work? You say, Is 
it worth my while to give myself to this work? And my 
answer is, It is emphatically worth while. The work is 
a great work. It is the work which God has blessed in 
the past, and I come back to speak of it with faithfulness 
and pride. It is the work which God will bless in the 

Such testimonies could be multiplied many times. Wil- 
liam Carey died in 1834 after forty years of service in 
India. He had only a handful of converts. Twenty years 
afterwards a missionary had the courage to say that he 
believed the time would come when a hundred converts 
would be baptized in a single year. India averages 3,000 
converts a month now, and 4,000,000 people put their 
names down as Christians in the last government census. 
Now when Gandhi's followers wish to describe and com- 
pliment him, they say he is "Christlike." Christ is prob- 
ably in the thinking of India as in no other non-Christian 


To-day there are 259,000 Christians in Japan. Chris- 
tianity is recognized as one of the religions of the country, 
and the gospel can be preached with freedom everywhere. 
Kagawa, of Osaka, Japan, the outstanding Oriental Chris- 
tian of to-day, is reaching many thousands for Christ. 
He is leading a movement called "The Kingdom of God 
Movement," for 1,000,000 Christians in Japan. He has 



had as many as 1,500 a week express their desire to be- 
come Christians in his meeting. The missions and Japa- 
nese Churches are cooperating with him. His three main 
objectives are: 

1. Reaching the unreached masses throughout the whole 

2. Training large numbers of lay evangelists through 
special forms of education. 

3. Economic Christianity through promoting of co- 
operative organizations by Mission Boards, missions and 
Japanese churches, in one nationally coordinated sys- 
tem, with international assistance to set it in operation. 

Kagawa states some of his ideals for this movement, 
as follows: 

"We must reach the villages systematically. There are 
many ways in which this can be done. One way is 
with itinerating visiting evangelists who should be or- 
ganized chiefly in rural villages. Another way is the 
Peasant Gospel School or Farmers' Gospel Institute. 
There should be five or six workers on the faculty, stay- 
ing one month here and one month there. They invite 
twelve or twenty young men from the villages, train 
them, and send them back to their homes. But the best 
plan is to organize a Self-Governing Club or Society for 
Christ for each village. In my experience it is very dif- 
ficult to get the villages interested in mere preaching. 
But we often have a meeting in some peasant's house, in- 
viting them to study Religious Education, and organize a 



Self-Governing Society for Christ, which is continued 
as an ethical-religious club. This is taken up and ex- 
tended by the village people. 

"I wish that many missions could be united in one 
province to share the work and attempt to reach the last 
village of Japan. If we could cover the unreached dis- 
tricts within three years, the Kingdom of God Movement 
would be a great success. 

"The second point I want to ask you is the education 
of lay preachers. From the beginning I lay emphasis 
upon the need for five thousand lay preachers. Unless 
we get these, this Kingdom of God Movement is a fail- 
ure. As I have been trained in the Proletarian Move- 
ment, I have noticed that older persons are not efficient. 
The young militant organizers are the ones who can reach 
the last man in the last town and village. We must train 
the men who are militant, who do not receive pay, but 
stand on the corner of the street, or go out to the villages 
to preach, returning to their homes in the evening. They 
can use their summer and other vacations preaching in 
the fishing villages or mountain districts. We must edu- 
cate and organize these lay preachers at once. So I wish 
that the Kingdom of God Movement Central Committee 
would awaken to this point and mobilize mission schools, 
to open their dormitories during the summer and invite 
lay preachers to come for ten days of training. Or night 
schools could be organized, with a three months' course, 
three nights a week. As the Sunday schools have their 



federation and educational systems, so lay preachers must 
have a standing federation and organization for educa- 

The following is a description of Kagawa as a preacher : 
"Kagawa's addresses are calculated to stir a general 
interest in Christianity. Nearly every address touches 
many sides of a very complicated social system. In every 
address I heard him give, he hit sledge-hammer blows at 
the system of government-regulated and licensed prosti- 
tution and at the drinking habits of the people. These, 
with gross social injustice, he considers the greatest hin- 
drances to the coming of the kingdom in Japan. He has 
a marvelous memory statistics, foreign and domestic, as 
to the use of alcohol, death rates, infant mortality, rent 
averages, and the like come to his tongue with the great- 
est readiness. He has developed the technique of the use 
of charts. Skillful with his brush, he will dash off a 
cartoon, a graph, or the analysis of some of Paul's epis- 
tles on great sheets of paper. He has the happy faculty 
of making people laugh heartily at their national foibles 
their love of the chief seats, the extravagances of the 
wedding customs, their lack of a pioneering spirit, the 
primitive facilities they provide for their wives, and a 
hundred other points. At one meeting in the country he 
drew a house oriented so as to get the minimum of direct 
sunlight in the rooms and, turning on his audience, flashed, 
'Guaranteed to produce 50 billion t. b. germs every day,' 
and got a good laugh, but also got over one much-needed 



idea. He spoke frequently and with appreciation of Eng- 
land and English ways and people and also of Denmark 
and her remarkable progress. He gave as a slogan for 
the farmers the motto of the Cooperatives in Denmark, 
'Labor, Study, Prayer.' He bases every appeal on love, 
the gospel of brotherly love and cooperation, and de- 
clares everywhere from the housetops that the solution 
to all of Japan's problems is a spiritual one, and to be 
found in Jesus Christ, the World's Redeemer." 

Christianity in Japan has a far wider influence than 
the simple Church membership and numbers of Churches 
would indicate. There are strong, outstanding Christian 
men in Japan in every walk of life. Christianity is rec- 
ognized as a force, and the social and moral reforms it 
stands for have brought it into great prominence. Re- 
cently a leading Buddhist wrote an article on the religions 
of Japan for a special issue of one of the leading Japa- 
nese magazines this issue being called The Present-Day 
Japan, and published in connection with the beginning of 
the reign of the new Emperor. In this magazine, Chris- 
tianity is dealt with on a par with Buddhism and Shinto- 
ism. The writer speaks of the strong attitude taken with 
regard to moral reforms on the part of the Christian 
Movement. He also speaks of the program of Buddhists 
for social betterment and then adds, "What seems strange 
about the way the Buddhists carry on the social uplift 
program is the absence of prohibition and the abolition 
of licensed prostitution from their objectives." 



Japan is more open to the spread of Christian teaching 
than ever before. There is little public prejudice against 
Christianity. The newspapers carry many articles on 
Christian truth, and there is a regularly organized bureau 
to provide Christian articles and questionnaires for the 
Sunday papers which reach practically every village in 
Japan. Nearly all Japan reads, and the Christian Move- 
ment is taking free advantage of this great opportunity. 
A remarkable new opportunity has apparently come for 
the advance of Christianity through the schools in Japan. 
As stated in another chapter, educators are alarmed at 
the lack of moral and ethical conviction resulting from 
their educational plans and are advocating strongly the 
insistent teaching of ethics and morals in their school 
system. They are saying on every hand that this can 
only be realized through religion and religious teaching, 
especially in the schools of lower grade. The National 
Primary and Kindergarten Association devoted its annual 
program in 1928 almost entirely to religious education. 
There will be a great opportunity for the Christian teach- 
ers of Japan, and there are many. It can be plainly seen 
that Christianity has a great advantage over Buddhism 
when it comes to teaching ethics and morals. 


One could devote much space to testimonies concerning 
missionary work in other fields of the world. Presi- 
dent Calles, of Mexico, before his untimely death, said 



to a group of Protestant missionaries, "I have plowed 
the field of Mexico, now you sow the seed." The soil is 
ready for the seed-sowing in all Latin America. Africa, 
especially the primitive and pagan parts, is one of the 
most fruitful mission fields in the world. Testimonies to 
this fact are at every preacher's elbow in the current 
missionary literature on Africa. One recalls the state- 
ment of Sir Harry Johnston, noted English traveler and 
geographer : 

"Wherever the missionaries went they collected notes 
on languages, on ethnography, and specimens to illus- 
trate the natural history of the countries they visited. 
If there was a mountain anywhere within reach, they as- 
cended it, boiled thermometers on top, and took the tem- 
perature of the air. They fixed the latitude and longi- 
tude of their stations, and collected a large amount of 
geographical information, which often found its way into 
circulation through other channels. 

"The scientific understanding of Africa was assisted 
by their compilation of treatises on dying languages; 
while the friendly relations of Europeans and Negroes 
were forwarded by the mission grammars and vocabu- 
laries of living languages destined to be means of inter- 
course between black and white or between black and 
yellow. I soon came to regard them as men deeply versed 
in the lore of Africa, and above all as the tribunes of the 

General Smuts, of South Africa, recently said : 



"I have ever been a strong supporter of the Christian 
mission, which I look upon as the greatest force for good 
in Africa. Criticism of incidental mistakes does not be- 
token indifference or hostility. It is difficult to conceive 
what Africa would have been without the civilizing ef- 
fects of Christian missions. Mistakes have been made, 
but the magnitude of the real service is out of all com- 
parison to those incidental mistakes. The missionary en- 
terprise, with its universal Christian message and its vast 
educative and civilizing effort, is and remains the great- 
est and most powerful influence for good in Africa." 

The Philippines are peculiarly promising as a mission 
field for several reasons. The minds of the people are 
open, and the Protestant movement has a strong place in 
the Islands. The introduction of universal education on 
the American plan has done for the islands what has not 
happened in any other Roman Catholic land. The people 
are awake and friendly, and the leaders are as susceptible 
as the common people. Education is a passion with the 
people, and the destiny of the Islands will soon be in the 
hands of educated youth. The Philippines are in the 
Orient at the very doors of China and Japan; and al- 
though a small nation, their influence is very great. Bet- 
ter than any other race the Filipinos understand the West 
as well as the East and can interpret the one to the other. 
Religious leaders in the Philippines make their presence 
and influence felt widely. Women have a great place in 
the Islands, and as Christian teachers, nurses, and home- 



makers they have much influence in the spread of Chris- 
tianity. There is a certain responsibility resting upon 
American Churches to evangelize the Philippines, because 
our government and institutions have gone there and in 
the Philippines we have, in a real sense, America in the 
Orient, where all can see one of the greatest educational 
and governmental experiments of modern times. While a 
large staff of missionaries in the Philippines is not needed, 
we should keep our quota full just now, so that the mis- 
sionaries will not be overworked and so that the plans for 
developing self-support and more adequate church build- 
ings can be carried through without a break. The pagan 
people in the mountains are as yet largely untouched. 
They are a sturdy stock, accessible and responsive. The 
next five or ten years will count for much in the Phil- 
ippines. Many of the leading men of the Islands are 
evangelical Christians and are devoted to the cause. 

It is well to consider the scope of the foreign mission- 
ary enterprise of to-day. Throughout the non-Christian 
world, 29,188 foreign missionaries and 151,735 native 
workers of the evangelical faith are conducting Christian 
work in 4,598 stations and 50,513 outstations; 10,000 of 
these are ordained; 36,246 churches and 3,614,154 com- 
municants represent Christianity in the darkness of the 
non-Christian world. Adherents swell the number of the 
Christian community to 8,342,378, and a great host stands 
upon the threshold of the Kingdom. Contributions to the 
work by native Christians have more than doubled in the 



last twenty years; 2,440,148 pupils are being educated in 
50,079 missionary schools ranging from kindergartens to 
great universities; more than 25,000 of these are of col- 
lege grade; 858 hospitals and 1,686 dispensaries treated 
in a recent year 4,788,258 patients in the name and spirit 
of the Great Physician. Millions of pages of tracts, 
books, and periodicals are annually published. The Bible, 
New Testaments, and scripture portions are being dis- 
tributed in 853 languages and dialects at the rate of over 
25,000,000 copies a year. The British and Foreign Bible 
Society prints five tons of Bibles every day, and the 
American Bible Society since its founding in 1816 has is- 
sued 70,082,448 volumes. The breadth of Christlike sym- 
pathy is movingly exemplified in hospitals for the insane, 
104 leper asylums, 32 schools for the blind and deaf, and 
361 orphanages. There is a great union and cooperative 
work in colleges, hospitals, comity in areas, printing, lit- 
erature, and in the training of native leaders and ministers. 
For this vast and varied work the churches of Europe and 
America in a recent year gave $69,555,148. These sta- 
tistics impress one with the magnitude of this great, pri- 
mary work of the Church. 

There are many Christian travelers visiting the Eastern 
and African world to-day, and those who have the time, 
or take the pains to leave the port cities and go into the 
interior where the missionaries for the most part are, see 
the work and come back with strong praise for it. How- 
ever, the ordinary traveler, especially if he or she goes 



with some traveling group, does not have opportunity to 
see much of this work. Even though such a person is a 
church member at home, if he does not see and study the 
actual work being done on the fields, his judgment is de- 
fective and apt to be biased by what he hears from others 
whose hearts are not deeply moved in service for Christ. 
Impressions that come from the ordinary globe-trotter, 
who is not vitally interested in Christian work at home, 
are about as reliable as his exposition of the things of the 
kingdom would be in the land where he lives. To prop- 
erly evaluate missions, the traveler must first be interested 
and then take the time and pains to see. Dr. Charles E. 
Jefferson, the great preacher of the Broadway Tabernacle 
Church, New York, is one of these. Concerning a recent 
world journey he says: "I came home with renewed faith 
in the ultimate victory of the missionary enterprise. I am 
more certain than ever before that the principles of Jesus 
Christ are to permeate and dominate the life of the world. 
The Christian spirit is abroad working miracles beyond 
the frontier of organized Christianity. Our missionaries 
are doing a work we cannot see or measure. They are 
putting in the leaven they are putting it in at 10,000 
different points. The leaven is at work. Some day the 
whole lump will be leavened." 

One of the assuring things at the Jerusalem Conference 
was the great strength of the Nationals from the areas 
of the rising Christian churches in Asia, Africa, and the 
islands of the sea. These men and women took their 



places with the leaders from the vastly older Christian 
constituencies of the West, unembarrassed and fully capa- 
ble. In fact the Western delegates found themselves giv- 
ing way to these men and women who came straight from 
China and her revolutionary anguish, from India where 
West meets East in social and political contest, from ag- 
gressive Japan saddened by the racial discrimination of 
America, from the Philippines stirred by her aspiring 
young educated generation, from Latin America and her 
lands of new destiny, from Africa in wistful childlikeness 
and forgiveness of the white race in her wrongs. It was 
good for the Christian representatives from the dominant 
civilizations of the West to sit in humble counsel with 
these brethren from the lands that have cradled all the 
religions and hear what Jesus meant to them and to their 
peoples. New hopes for the world Lordship of Christ 
took hold of our hearts as we listened to David Yui, the 
apostle from China; Jebavu, the black educator from 
Africa; Bishop Uzaki, of Japan; Dean Bocobo, Acting 
President of the University of the Philippines; Miss 
Tilak, the dark-eyed "Mary" from India's womanhood; 
Dr. Braga, who came from Brazil to lay before us the 
unprecedented claims for Latin America; and brilliant 
Miss Kiduk Kim, eager emissary from the churches of 
Korea! While the Edinburgh Conference in 1910 had 
but twenty Nationals from the younger churches of Asia 
and Africa out of 1,200 members, Jerusalem had fifty 
out of the 200 regular delegates. There is no doubt but 



that the emerging of the Christian churches in non- 
Christian lands in the last twenty-five years is the most 
heartening and significant fact in modern history. Chris- 
tian people should be made to see this. A world steeped 
in politics, business enterprises, and world pleasure is as 
oblivious of this great fact of the kingdom as was the 
Roman Empire to the advances of Christianity in its day. 
One recalls the words of Lecky, the historian: "Neither 
statesman nor philosopher of Rome understood the char- 
acter and issue of that greatest movement of all history, 
of which their literature takes so little note. That the 
greatest religious change in the history of mankind should 
have taken place under the eyes of a brilliant galaxy of 
philosophers and historians and that they should have 
treated as simply contemptible an influence which all men 
now admit to have been the most powerful lever that has 
ever been applied to the affairs of men, are facts well 
worthy of meditation in any period of religious transi- 




WHILE in India in 1927 I had the very great pleasure 
of visiting the Hindu University at Benares of which 
Pundit Malaviya is the renowned president. He very 
graciously granted me an interview. President Malaviya 
is, of course, a Hindu by religion and is building up at the 
very heart of orthodox Hinduism a modern university on 
a rather broad scientific basis. It was a strange and re- 
freshing contrast to escape from the depression of the 
sacred river front in old Benares, where naked "holy 
men," covered with cow-dung dust, reclined on beds of 
spikes to attain merit, while multitudes of devout pilgrims 
from all over India religiously drank of it, bathed in, and 
worshiped the sacred river ; and to sit with the president of 
the university in his cool, modern office, looking out over 
the broad expanse of a five-hundred-acre campus, dotted 
with some fifty buildings. Pundit Malaviya is a gifted 
man, filled with the burnings of reform for his people, 
and probably one of the three most influential men in 
India to-day, including Gandhi himself. His soul stirs 
with the deep things of world culture and thought. He 
speaks perfect English and is abreast of world move- 
ments. He talked of education. Three of his leading 
men in science and engineering have been trained in 



America; two at Illinois University, one at Cornell. 
Others are from Oxford, Cambridge, and London Uni- 
versity. As a Hindu he has gone very far, for a woman's 
college is part of the university, although its campus is 
separate because of Hindu tradition, and the buildings are 
a mile away. A theological school for Hindu priests of 
the higher class is a part of the university. I have talked 
with many college presidents, but I do not remember ever 
having conversed with anyone who mentioned Jesus 
oftener or quoted more from the Sermon on the Mount. 
His reverence for, and familiarity with, the teachings of 
Christ was the benediction of our hour together. At 
Poona I spent half a day in the Ashram (hostel, or dor- 
mitory) of the Society of the Servants of India. The 
head of this organization is a Hindu the members Hin- 
dus, Mohammedans, Jains, and Christians. This group 
of several hundred men have renounced all wealth, have 
left their homes and families, and are giving themselves 
without income save their modest necessities, for India's 
good politically, educationally, socially, religiously. As 
we sat, Indian fashion on the floor, at afternoon tea in a 
little summer house, the man next to me on one side was 
the Hindu head of the society and on the other a devout 
German Catholic priest. The conversation was largely of 
religion, and Jesus had a major place in the reverent 
atmosphere of our fellowship together. 

Mahatma Gandhi is on the lips of every one to-day. No 
personality in history has ever had such a following during 



his lifetime. It is significant that this man, on whom the 
eyes of the world are cast, is trying to carry through a 
daily program of life largely based on the Sermon on the 
Mount. Will Rogers, our unique American humorist, 
has spoken of him in a way that has an ironical sting in it 
for our Western civilization, in many ways so alien to the 
spirit of Christ. He said : "They've got Gandhi in jail in 
India. He preached 'liberty without violence.' He swore 
all his followers 'to truth and constant poverty.' He want- 
ed nothing for himself, not even the ordinary comforts. 
He believed in 'prayer and renunciation.' Well, naturally 
a man that's holy couldn't run at large these days. They 
figured that a crazy man like that was liable to get other 
people wanting those fanatical things. Civilization has 
got past 'truth and poverty and renunciation' and all that 
old junk. Throw those nuts in jail !" 

It was Gandhi who stood before 15,000 of his own 
countrymen only a few years ago and made one of the 
shortest speeches known to history. It was this, "I owe, 
and India owes, more to one who never set His foot in it 
than to anyone else; that is to Jesus Christ." That was 
the whole of his speech as he sat down before that great 
throng. He was in Ceylon in the fall of 1927 and spoke 
at the Y. M. C. A. in Colombo in these words, "If I had 
to face only the Sermon on the Mount and my own inter- 
pretation of it, I should not hesitate to say, 'O yes, I am 
a Christian.'" He then added: "You of the West take 
Jesus apologetically at this point, while I take him serious- 



ly and literally." Gandhi is trying sincerely to turn the 
other cheek to Britain and also trying, although with less 
success, to get his followers to do the same thing. He has 
chosen the way of hardship and self-renunciation. His 
favorite hymn is said to be "When I Survey the Wondrous 

A few years ago Gandhi introduced the teaching of the 
New Testament in his famous school at Ahmedabad, India. 
When his Hindu critics scored him about it and accused 
him of secretly being a Christian, he answered them very 
frankly. In the first place, he said that he gave his stu- 
dents the choice, when they wanted him to give them per- 
sonally a special hour each week, between reading their 
own sacred books, the Gita, the Upanishads, Ramayana, or 
having the New Testament and questions. By a majority 
vote they chose the latter. Then he answered their charge 
of being secretly a Christian as follows: "The charge of 
being a Christian is not new. It is both a libel and a 
compliment a libel because there are men who can be- 
lieve me capable of being secretly anything i. e., for fear 
of being that openly. There is nothing in the world that 
would keep me from professing Christianity or any other 
faith the moment I felt the truth of and the need for it. 
Where there is fear there is no religion. The charge is 
a compliment in that it is a reluctant acknowledgment of 
my capacity for appreciating the beauties of Christianity. 
Let me own this." About the same time a Mohammedan 
speaker in the national congress in opposing the leader- 



ship of Gandhi in India, and his advocacy of non-violent, 
passive resistance, cried out : "Where did Mr. Gandhi get 
this doctrine? Not from the Hindu Shastras and not 
from the Koran. He got it from Jesus Christ." 

Mr. Gandhi is very friendly to the missionary and the 
good he is doing for his people. I have a letter from 
Dr. Sam Higginbottom of Allahabad, the missionary who 
with his wife conducts a great Christian leper asylum 
there as well as a Christian agricultural school and demon- 
stration farm. Gandhi and Mrs. Gandhi both visited 
him recently and snowed the deepest interest and spoke 
highest praise for this Christian work. Gandhi always 
praises the spiritual and moral help coming from the 
teaching and the followers of Jesus. Apparently the only 
missionaries he opposes are those he feels to be the mis- 
sionaries of modern Western civilization, commerce, alco- 
holism, industrialism, imperialism, and the secular way 
of life. We know that Gandhi stops short of the realities 
of personal faith, the value of personality, and that rela- 
tionship with Christ as sons of God which is the essence 
of the Christian faith, but he has gone far in his recogni- 
tion of Christ and his teachings. 

While I am writing of India two illustrations of the 
standing of Jesus in the Indian mind come to me from the 
city of Madras. The first is an experience of my own. 
In 1927 a missionary friend and I rode for two days and 
two nights in the same small railroad compartment, from 
Colombo, Ceylon, to Madras, with a highly educated 



Hindu business man of that city. He had just returned 
from a visit to Europe and England. He had sat in as a 
visiting listener at the Geneva Peace Conference of that 
year and had visited a number of noted people in England. 
He was one of the most gracious personalities I have ever 
met. The first thing he said to us on entering the com- 
partment of the train was, "I am a Hindu in religion, as 
you will see." He wanted us to understand, at the begin- 
ning, the peculiar restrictions of his religion with regard 
to our eating together, offering him food, and certain 
ablutions and formalities which were his daily religious 
custom. We talked much of religion. He was a real 
seeker after truth. As we became acquainted he confessed 
to me that caste was irksome and empty and that India 
would be much better off without it. At the same time 
he admitted its viselike grip on him and his family. He 
even described to me somewhat in detail the curious and 
humiliating processes he would have to go through with, 
now that he had been abroad and broken caste, before he 
could be fully restored in it. But he was deeply interested 
in Jesus and his teaching and in the unselfish things the 
missionaries were doing for his countrymen. Again and 
again he marveled at and praised the work in the Christian 
schools, the hospitals, the orphanages, and especially that 
with the lepers. The latter he dwelt on at length. He 
said he supported leper work himself, but admitted that 
a high-caste man had to do it all at long distance, by 
proxy, and that to visit, or touch, or allow the shadow of 



a leper to fall on him would give him caste pollution which 
could hardly be effaced. He said to me repeatedly some- 
thing like the following : "It is the marvel of marvels that 
your highly educated, refined American women come to 
my country, leaving their homes and dear ones, to tenderly 
serve our afflicted and sick and even our horrible lepers! 
Our religion does not teach us anything like that, but 
rather the opposite. But it is just as your great Teacher, 
Jesus, did." And every time we spoke of Jesus a look of 
reverence and a wistfulness would come over the man's 
face which was beautiful to see. He left us in the morn- 
ing when we reached Madras, after having given kindly 
instructions about how we might spend the day and sev- 
eral letters of introduction that would help. He even 
introduced us to a laundryman, who did all our travel- 
stained clothes during the day. Marvel of marvels in 
slow-going India ! He said he would be very busy during 
the day meeting relatives, speaking at the business men's 
club, and looking after many things. But at night, after 
I had my baggage in the luggage van and was standing by 
my compartment waiting for the train to depart, he came 
to me and placed a great necklace of rose petals, held in a 
delicate silvered wire frame, about my neck, in true Indian 
fashion. I expressed my gratitude and also my embarrass- 
ment that he, so busy a man, should come to do me such 
high honor. His gracious reply was, "You have been my 
fellow companion as a seeker after truth, and you and your 
friends have brought kind service to my people in the 



name of your Great Teacher, and I bring this as a small 
token of my appreciation." And then, as he bade me 
good-by, with a look of deep seriousness on his fine face 
he said, "Will you grant my request as we separate?" 
On my reply that I would most happily do so, he asked, 
"Then will you pray for me that my quest after truth 
may be realized?" And, wringing my hand, he was gone. 
Who can gainsay that God is plowing deep the soil of 
India, through this appreciation of Jesus, for a harvest 
that will yield many fold some day? 

The other illustration, which has to do with the same 
city, is described by Dr. Robert E. Speer, of the Presbyte- 
rian Foreign Board. It is of a company of Madras bar- 
risters who were having a social gathering one night. 
They had secured a public jester to aid in their entertain- 
ment. In the course of his buffoonery he took occasion 
to speak jestingly of the immoral escapades of certain 
Indian deities and religious leaders, as recorded in their 
religious literature. The barristers were convulsed with 
laughter and uproariously showed their pleasure at the 
jester's salacious sallies. With such encouragement the 
man grew bolder and began to invent like stories with 
regard to Jesus. As he proceeded silence fell on the 
group, then he was hissed ; still attempting to go on, they 
expelled him roughly from the room. They would tol- 
erate filthy tales with regard to their own deities, for 
much of the background of their religious literature is 
unclean, and the temple worship of to-day is often linked 



with the grossest immorality; but Jesus was in a different 
class and, although they claimed no allegiance to him, they 
would not tolerate a slur at his spotless personality. 

Anywhere in the world to-day Jesus is the apex of 
what anyone has conceived for human character and in- 
finitely more. Out in these countries where the ethnic 
religions have so long prevailed, He is every day becoming 
more and more the moral and ethical standard by which 
religions and religionists are measured. Apologies are 
being made for the character of Mohammed and Hindu 
saints to-day, but the character of Jesus stands transcend- 
ent. It is indeed difficult to find among educated and 
religious men anywhere in the world one who will not 
instantly admit that Jesus is the world's premier ethical 
and religious personality. John R. Mott, recently return- 
ing from a world journey through the mission fields, fol- 
lowing the conference at Jerusalem, made the striking 
statement, "There are over ten million pairs of eyes to-day 
riveted on this central personality of the ages, the Lord 
Jesus Christ, where there were one million at the time of 
my first world journey thirty years ago." E. Stanley 
Jones in "The Christ of the Indian Road" and many 
other missionary writers of to-day also testify to these 

These things have come about through the efforts of the 
missionaries, native Christians, and the widespread dis- 
semination of the Bible and Christian literature. As a 
testimony of the missionary's great part in this, let me 



recite an incident which occurred recently while I was in 
India. I was engaged in the heartbreaking task of aiding 
the missionaries in shortening the line of mission stations 
because of lack of funds. A woman medical missionary 
was about to be withdrawn from a large Hindu area, ad- 
ministered by a Mohammedan magistrate. This official 
sat with me for over an hour on the porch of the aban- 
doned mission bungalow, pleading with me that the good 
doctor be left in the district. I was so moved by his plea 
that I made careful note of some of his words after he 
left. "Sahib," said he, for he spoke good English, "you 
must not take this lady doctor away, for we cannot get on 
without her. She is not only our necessary help in times 
of medical need, but she is the greatest moral force I have 
to aid me in controlling these people. I do not see how 
I can carry on without her. Her example is my constant 
strength and justification. By day and by night she goes 
among these people, poor or rich, far into the country in 
the dead of night, in her old Ford car, to help the sick 
and dying in the name of her Great Teacher, Jesus. I am 
a Mohammedan, and my religion does not teach such 
service to humanity. What can I do when she is gone and 
no longer influences my people with this wonderful un- 
selfishness and I can no longer point to her example? 
Sahib, I am afraid of these people when the idle times 
between harvests come and there is nothing for the people 
to do and little for them to eat. They will rob and kill 
each other, and the kind doctor who steadied their lives 



and strengthened my hands will be gone from among 

And this influence of Jesus outside of the Church is 
not confined to India. It is widespread in the Orient. 
Recently a missionary wrote of the moving picture, "The 
King of Kings," being shown in Nanking, China. He 
stated that the beautiful picture was displayed in many 
places in the city, even in temples of worship, and that 
everywhere there were capacity crowds. There are no 
seats in these public places in China, and the crowds of 
men stood for hours, in quietness and reverent respect, 
drinking in the story of the beautiful life of the Son of 
Man. Posters of the face of Jesus were evident every- 
where on the walls and the buildings. Formerly, posters 
that had any foreign aspect had been defaced and defiled 
by vandals. Even missionaries have narrowly escaped 
mobbing when they attempted to take photographs on the 
streets. However, the pictures and announcements about 
"The King of Kings" were unmolested ! Two years ago 
the National Secretary of Education in Japan, himself 
not a Christian man, spoke for an hour before the Na- 
tional Christian Council of Japan on his country's need 
of religious education in the schools to save Japan from 
secularism. He reminded the Christian leaders present of 
their great advantage over other religions in religious 
education because of the superior ethical and moral teach- 
ing of Jesus. Dean Bocobo, Acting President of the 
University of the Philippines, stated at Jerusalem that 



there was no difficulty in getting an audience of a thou- 
sand or more on the university campus when the speaker 
was one who could speak strongly of Jesus and portray 
vividly his character. 

One of the great literary men of South America, Presi- 
dent Ricardo Rojas of Buenos Aires University, Argen- 
tina, has recently written a book concerning Christ, en- 
titled "The Invisible Christ." He is not an evangelical 
Christian in any outward connection, but a spiritually 
minded man earnestly studying the religious needs of his 
people. His book is a striking presentation of the influ- 
ence of Jesus through the ages. More significant still is 
the fact that groups of intellectuals in various parts of 
Latin America are forming to study the life and message 
of Christ. These are voluntary groups of very earnest 
people, interested in religion, but not as yet connected. 
They have despaired of existing Romanism in their coun- 
tries. A committee in the United States is now set up 
to help them. This is entirely outside any Mission Board 
or Church organization. There are to be lectureships 
back and forth and also literature to aid constructive 

At the time of the Jerusalem Conference I visited in 
company with Dr. Samuel Zwemer, the Christian states- 
man of the Mohammedan world, a Moslem school on one 
side of the Mount of Olives. It was a school for "Seekers 
after God," presided over by an aged and blind Moham- 
medan mullah, or teacher. Dr. Zwemer and he discussed 



with equal reverence the spiritual beauties of the life and 
ministry of Christ. 

There is, to be sure, a sensitiveness on the part of non- 
Christian Indians and others to-day to acknowledge on 
the printed page, or in any public way, the influence of 
Christianity or even of Jesus, especially since his teaching 
has been largely allied with the Western countries. A 
narrow nationalism and a patriotic reserve, as well as 
religious pride, forbid them doing so. 

We all recognize that there must be something far deeper 
than simply an acknowledgment of Christ as a great teach- 
er. To stop there would be pathetic indeed. But there is 
without doubt a vast projection of the teaching and spirit 
of Christ into Oriental countries to-day, although this is 
only a beginning in the planting of Christ and his Church. 
That these miracles of influence have penetrated far be- 
yond the frontiers of the organized Church itself is a 
great encouragement and challenge to Christians at the 
home base of the missionary enterprise. 



FOLLOW the history of the Church down through the 
centuries, and you will find that those periods in which 
its missionary passion was strong have always been the 
pjeriods in which the Church itself was strong in the 
homeland. The power and welfare of the Church at its 
.home base are inseparably linked up with the passion of 
the Church for the ends of the earth. The Church of 
Jesus Christ needs imperatively a world field in order 
that it may have life and power for itself. 

In the first place, the Church needs a world field to 
make it godlike. The Church that does not believe in 
foreign missions hangs out its sign to the effect that its 
God is a local and not a universal Deity. A Hindu, Bud- 
dhist, Shinto, Confucianist, or Mohammedan group might 
do that, but the Church of Christ can only become true 
to its destiny as it partakes of God's characteristics. His 
most sweeping and wonderful attribute is embodied in 
the words, "God so loved the world." The Church must 
take the whole world into its census or stop claiming God 
as its supreme ruler and guide. Our Heavenly Father is 
world-wide in his plans and love; the Church must have 
a world field to be like him. 

In the second place, the Church needs a world field in 



order that it may be provided with an adequate challenge 
for heroic endeavor. How far do you suppose the gos- 
pel would have gone if Christ had circumscribed his com- 
mand to his disciples just before his ascension? It was 
his audacious imperative, "Go ye into all the world," that 
put heroism and conquest into apostolic Christianity. No 
war of any note was ever conducted in an alley or a back 
yard. It takes a field and a foe and a Wide reach of 
circumstances to make a war. The Church has a war 
for a vast humanity on hand, not a local scrimmage. A 
world-wide field is the only adequate battle ground for 
such a contest. This challenge of world redemption is a 
tremendous challenge. Its accomplishment staggers the 
imagination. There are probably a billion people in the 
world who never heard of Jesus Christ a billion people 
who are worshiping gods of their own making; a billion 
people in the darkness of spiritual wandering ! And they 
are to be won to Christianity and loving fellowship with 
Christ. Napoleon and the Kaiser dreamed wonderful 
dreams of conquest, but they never fancied anything like 
this an enterprise which includes the last poor, sinful 
man; an enterprise which must pierce every jungle and 
compass every fastness, batter down every door of super- 
stition and idolatry and take the redeeming Christ to the 
vast populations so pitifully limited by inadequate re- 
ligions. "The languages of all lands must be learned. 
Acquaintance must be had with the customs of all peo- 
ples. Great agencies must be built up in every land; 



agencies of evangelism, agencies of education, industrial 
agencies. The call is for a life-imparting movement that 
will touch the need of every soul from every angle." 
Millions of dollars must be disbursed. A great and in- 
creasing force of men and women must be enlisted, 

equipped, and sent to the distant stretches of the unoc- 
cupied fields. What a task ! What a chance ! > How the 
grandeur of this enterprise ought to fire our hearts and 
surge through our lives with its power! How it ought 
to drive us to our knees before God ! The Church needs 
the heroism of foreign mission endeavor to keep it from 
ease and stultification. 

Twenty years ago, my Mission Board sent a fine young 
medical missionary out to our station on the border of 
Tibet, in West China, the most remote mission station in 
the world. He had just graduated with high honors in 
medicine. His name was Zenas Loftis, a young, fun- 
loving, healthy school lad. He traveled with his Chinese 
guide four months and ten days across Central China to 
reach Batang, on the Tibetan border. He endured all 
sorts of hardships and perils. He traveled in a house 
boat, on a Chinese wheelbarrow, in a sedan chair, on the 
back of a yak, and on foot. He crossed a range of the 
Himalayas over passes sixteen thousand feet high. He 
was carried around precipices on the back of a Chinese 
coolie. On, on, he went, toward the borders of that dark 
hermit land. As he was scaling the last great mountain 
pass before reaching his destination, he passed a lone 



mail carrier coming east. He hastily scribbled a line to 
us and sent it back. That message is cherished in the 
archives of our mission rooms. These were his brave 
words, "I am so glad you did not stop me down in the 
interior of China, but sent me way up here on the roof 
of the world, where the people are so much more the 
bondservants of sin, that I might be used in the most 
needy and difficult spot in all the world." Those brave 
words of Dr. Loftis ought to ring from every pulpit in 
America. In the name of the self-forgetful and heroic 
Christ, let us stop teasing young men to enter the minis- 
try. Let us pause in our arguments that large returns 
in personal joy or even in souls won to Christ come to 
-the ministry and let us challenge men to preach. Let us 
speak of lonely fields and sin-steeped cities ; of stubborn 
idolatry and pagan populations. Shall we not recall 
Paul's heroic words, "A great and effectual door is open 
unto me, and there are many adversaries"? Shame on 
us for excusing young men for not deciding for the min- 
istry because of meager salaries or difficult fields ! Let 
us make it hard and heroic and Christlike ! 

And then the Church needs a world field that it may 
find an adequate expression for its powers. What is the 
Church to do with its young, trained lives, with its spir- 
itual assets, with its marvelous wealth, without a world 
field? The Church, in this great Protestant nation of 
120,000,000 people, with a third of them in its ranks and 
one-half the wealth held by its members, is imbecilic and 



untrue to its trust if it paddle in an eddy and only think 
of itself. As well try to navigate an ocean liner in a mill 
pond as to keep the great, organized agency of. God with- 
in provincial bounds. The business and engineering 
genius of America twenty years ago was not satisfied until 
it found expression in a Panama Canal. It has been the 
greatest single physical expression of industry in mod- 
ern times. Some day it will be surpassed. Its cost was 
over $200,000,000. And we have been tackling the big- 
gest task that God ever left for his Church to accomplish, 
with a little more than a vest-pocket contribution once a 
year, from the entire Protestant forces of America, of 
less than $30,000,000 annually. There were forty thou- 
sand men working on the Panama Canal during construc- 
tion. The eighty Mission Boards of the United States 
have 14,000 foreign missionaries at work. America put 
three times as many men into the digging of a canal 
across the Panama as all the Protestant Churches of 
America are putting into world evangelization! And we 
are not digging a little ditch arcoss the narrow waist-line of 
the American continent, to connect one sea with another, 
on which the commerce of the continents may float. We 
are ditching for Jehovah, we are linking a lost race to 
God. We are digging a system of spiritual canals through 
the stubborn hardpan of our own paganism as well as 
that far away which, please God, shall penetrate every 
remote land, ramify every needy field, and carry the heal- 
ing Water of Life to the famishing soul of all men. 



There is a task worthy of the expression of the fullest 
life of the Church of Christ. 

Again, the Church needs a world field to keep vitalized 
its pulpit in the homeland. One cannot lay too much 
emphasis on this. The world missionary passion will save 
the pulpit from the vagaries of extreme radicalism and 
from the legalism of extreme conservatism. The hope 
of preaching is in the passion of Jesus for a needy world. 
It tempers the raw scholasticism of the man who would 
ruthlessly take his microscope and yardstick into our 
religion and eliminate the supernatural; and it un- 
binds the steel corsets of the iron-clad conservatist and 
makes his heart beat warm with that of his brother. The 
whole make-up of a preacher changes when he takes the 
missionary viewpoint. His heart beats in unison with all 
other hearts engaged in the Master's cause. He is thrilled 
by companionship with a mighty host. His soul is dis- 
ciplined by the vastness of his work. His field is as un- 
limited in extent as the world itself. He changes from 
the microscopic preacher, magnifying the local and the 
limited, to a messenger with telescopic horizon, who swings 
his vision into the whole firmament of God's world work. 
The true perspective of doctrine only comes with the mis- 
sionary vision. Did you ever sit for a while under the 
preaching of a man who is burning with the missionary 
passion and then for a season under the man who was 
indifferent to the great cause? The latter may have been 
more eloquent or scholarly, but he could never speak 



with the same abandon or authority. The man who is 
burning for the whole world lays tribute to your whole 
being in his preaching. He makes you forget the trifling 
difficulties of life in the great sweeping things of the 
kingdom. Every preacher has millions of souls in his 
parish, and when his responsibility to them really dawns 
on him he will undergo a regeneration. He can never 
be the same man again. John R. Mott says : "Above all, 
the preacher is an ambassador. He represents Jesus 
Christ. A pastor who does not have a deep interest in 
the world program of Christ and earnestly promote it is 
untrue to his credentials and instructions, for an ambas- 
sador represents his sovereign. What a responsibility 
rests upon such a sovereign of such a kingdom! What 
man living accepts such grave responsibility as he who 
to-day holds or enters the pastor's office!" 

The Church needs a world field that it may realize the 
more quickly the unity for which Christ prayed. It was 
God's love that linked together world evangelization 
and unity in the mind of the Master. In His last prayer 
before the crucifixion He prayed the Father that his fol- 
lowers might "all be one, that the world might believe." 
Nineteen centuries have passed, and the compulsion of the 
mission fields is drawing the Church back to the apostolic 
position of unity. Christ's first Oriental Church was 
united ; is not Christ's Oriental Church of to-day to draw 
us back to that same primitive unity? The Chinese dele- 
gates came to the Jerusalem Conference with the arrest- 



ing challenge, "We agree to differ, we resolve to love, we 
unite to -serve." Occidental differences fade into insig- 
nificance before the baffling task of great mission fields. 
In that unequaled undertaking we strip ourselves of all 
but the simplest faith in Jesus, and in that simplest faith 
we find that we are one. 

Finally the Church needs a world field for its spiritual 
salvation. Some one asked Phillips Brooks what he 
would first do if he were called to be pastor of a broken- 
down church a church that had lost its building, was 
not able to support a pastor, and was torn by internal 
dissension. He hesitated only a moment and then re- 
plied, "I should get all the people together, preach the 
greatest sermon I could on world-wide missions, and take 
the best offering I could get for work in heathen lands." 
Many official boards would seriously discuss the sanity of 
a preacher who would do that sort of thing under those 
circumstances. Here is a church which cannot take care 
of itself, and a man comes along and tells it the first 
thing needed is to help take care of a work across the 
sea. From every worldly viewpoint it would be a great 
blunder, but God does not look at things from a worldly 
viewpoint. Phillips Brooks never spoke a greater truth. 
He knew that selfish, discouraged church, almost ready 
to give up the fight, had need of one thing above all else. 
That church needed the Spirit of Christ, and Phillips 
Brooks knew that the best way to get that Spirit was by 
way of the ends of the earth. He knew if he could get 



those people interested in the man across the sea, they 
would be interested in the man across the street. If 
that little church began to have fellowship with Christ 
in the salvation of the whole world, it would save itself. 
Its difficulties and selfishness at home would vanish as it 
entered into the supreme need of the Church in the home- 
land; to be possessed with the world-passion of Jesus. 
That would help it settle church difficulties of every 
nature. The Christian Century says, "Veiwing the mod- 
ern missionary enterprise dispassionately, it is probably 
well within the facts to say that, whatever blessing it may 
have brought to the objects of its concern, it has brought 
an even greater blessing to the Church which has launched 
and maintained it." 

The Church needs the world field to redeem it from 
selfishness. Some years ago I visited a little church 
with a meager missionary program. They were just plan- 
ning the building of a fifty-thousand-dollar church home, 
which for them was a great undertaking. The pastor as- 
tonished me by saying, "We must raise the money for 
the support of a missionary in the foreign field and add 
that to our missionary budget before we begin our build- 
ing campaign." The pastor was new in the field, and that 
church had only given a few hundred dollars for missions 
before. The people were nearly all poor people. I said to 
the pastor, "This is not what churches usually do when 
they begin a building campaign." He answered : "I would 
not dare begin this church enterprise without some great, 



unselfish ideal to hold before the people. The support of 
a missionary in the foreign field will save my folks from 
the selfishness and narrowness that might come from a 
simply local victory." I need not tell you that this sort 
of a spirit helped to build that church building and dedi- 
cate it without debt, and since it has become a great 
church with a larger building and program. A church 
may be quite selfish in its contribution for the erection of 
a building for itself, but when it contributes for the salva- 
tion of the man across the sea you have tapped its foun- 
tains of true benevolence. As a great bishop (Selwin) 
once said, "It seems to be an indisputable fact that, how- 
ever inadequate a church may be in its own internal 
wants, it must in no wise suspend its missionary duties; 
that this is, in fact, the circulation of its lif eblood, which 
would lose its vital power if it never flowed forth to the 
extremities, but curdled at the heart." This is quite in 
keeping with an illustration which is based on the human 
heart as a pumping station. I heard a doctor give it to 
a group of youngsters once. "The heart is the pumping 
station which drives the blood through two circulatory sys- 
tems, one a small system of tiny arteries in the heart it- 
self, the other the great system for the whole body. The 
same heartbeat which drives great quantities of blood 
through the aorta and out into the ramifications of the 
body, until the tips of the fingers and the roots of the 
hair are reached and replenished of waste tissue, like- 
wise sends sufficient blood through a small artery and 



its threadlike ramifications into the walls of the heart 
itself for its own life and sustenance. Tie off the great 
aorta and deny the heart its power to drive the blood 
through its great circulatory system into the whole body, 
and you would bar it from any diffusion of its life-giving 
fluid save for itself. The first heartbeat would either 
burst the walls of the heart or drown its life in its own 
unappropriated stream." So with the Church. Its cir- 
culatory system for divine blessing and energy is two- 
fold: that for its own edification and spiritual growth 
and that for the world's needs to which the Head of the 
Church called it. The church that endeavors to limit its 
spiritual tide to itself will as surely die Godwards as 
would the heart stifle its own functions with its aorta 
strangulated. The great world circulatory system is im- 
perative to its own spiritual arteries, for its very life as a 
Church is kept in flood by the far-reaching stream that 
touches humanity. Surely -our American Church needs 
just now a new missionary epoch to save us from our- 

The missionary principle and passion are purifying. 
Take, for an illustration, the filthy Chicago River of by- 
gone days. When that city wished to free its vast popu- 
lation of the vile contamination and health menace of its 
sluggish, sewage-choked stream, what did it do? Did it 
fill the putrid channel up? No. What did it do, then? 
The city got its engineers together and decided on some- 
thing heroic and unselfish. It dug the channel deeper 



and connected the headwaters of its vile river with the 
headwaters of the Illinois. The current was turned in 
the other direction. Then it was that old Lake Michigan 
with her unending resources of dear, fresh water, began 
elbowing her way into the mouth of the Chicago River. 
She pushed back its miasmic tide, purifying it in her flow, 
back into the Illinois, and on, into the Mississippi, and 
still on, into the Gulf of Mexico. Chicago River is now 
a clean, rapidly-flowing, redeemed stream. In the old 
days it was non-missionary; to-day it is a missionary 
river. Let us cleanse the slow tide of our Church life! 
Let us cut deep and wide the channels of world-wide 
benevolence. Let us go deep down and send out a 
worthy stream of men and money into the far fields. Let 
us make a channel for the riches of heaven. Then, and 
then only, can God unlock the floodgates that hold back 
the tides of his immeasurable love and flood our Churches 
with his purifying and satisfying streams of grace. 




IT is not to be wondered at that in this hour, when 
everything is being criticized, the missionary enterprise 
should come in for its share. It is said that Professor 
Einstein, the father of the relativity hypothesis, on being 
asked what the chief factor in his discovery was, replied, 
"I have learned to question the obvious." If the Church 
and Christianity itself are under constant fire to-day, 
certainly so difficult and idealistic a task as taking Christ 
to all nations, in so complex and difficult a period as the 
present, cannot escape. Human frailty is evident on the 
mission field as it is in the home church and should be 
admitted without hesitation. But after all the most severe 
critics of their own work are the missionaries and na- 
tionals themselves, and there are few missionary boards 
or missionary administrators who have not gone much 
deeper than the public criticisms of to-day go. All the 
primary presumptions and premises of the missionary 
enterprise are as defensible as is Christianity itself, and 
many of the attacks on missions are really questions of 
faith. The present criticisms follow two decades of the 
most unprecedented missionary successes in the history 
of the task. This is a good time to face these issues. 
The fact that they are so persistently raised is evidence 



that the greatness of the enterprise is more in the eyes 
of the world than ever before. 

There are some criticisms of the missionary task to-day 
that are quite puerile and childlike and come from very 
superficial and prejudiced observation, but there are others 
that are sincere and constructive and born of the condi- 
tions and spirit of the hour. One cannot deal with all, but 
an attempt is made to set down those which are most 
often raised and most needful of answer. Most of these 
questions have been suggested by pastors themselves out 
of their experience with their congregations. One of 
the reasons for the somewhat unusual number of criticisms 
to-day is the fact that the situation in China has put real 
problems in bold relief and has thrown the subject of mis- 
sions into the public and secular press as never before. 
However, as one recalls the fierce criticisms and prophesy 
of disaster to the missionary cause which followed the 
Boxer trouble twenty-five years ago, he is not so troubled 
even at that. 

The questions raised about missions to-day cannot be 
avoided, but will need to be honestly and fairly answered 
and in good strategy should even be anticipated. Preach- 
ing occasionally on these criticisms will be quite as whole- 
some and effective as meeting the objections of people to 
becoming Christians in one's evangelistic efforts. It is a 
legitimate part of the real apologetic for missions. The 
preacher is preeminently the one to handle these criticisms. 

"The non-Christian religions do not need the missionary 



enterprise" The old expression usually was, "Their reli- 
gions are good enough for them" That usually had a lot 
of race prejudice and superiority complex in it and was 
also born out of gross ignorance. To-day this question 
has taken a somewhat different turn and many are rais- 
ing it because the sympathetic attitude toward other faiths 
has been revealed to them through reading, contacts with 
Eastern people, or statements by missionaries. Certain 
points in the research of Christian scholars in compara- 
tive religions have become quite common property to-day 
and are often discussed without the discriminating deduc- 
tions that such men have arrived at. One of the most 
convincing things that ever happened in this regard was 
the declaration on the Christian message at the Jerusalem 
Conference in 1928, after the delegates from practically 
all nations had pondered the subject long, both on the 
ships while traveling to Jerusalem and in committees after 
getting there. The theme was "The Christian life and 
message in relation to the non-Christian systems of life 
and thought," and many outstanding converts to Christi- 
anity from non-Christian faiths were there to lead the 
discussion. The German and some other European dele- 
gates had felt that it was probably going too far to dis- 
cuss the question in this way and that the result might 
be a weakening of the Christian position with such a 
possible "syncretism" as would result in a mosaic of faith 
embodying points from other religions. But there was no 
need for anxiety. Jesus and the Christian faith emerged 



supreme from the discussions. The first sentence of the 
report was, "Our message is Jesus Christ." And from 
all came the recognition that the religion of Christ was 
the only faith that had in it the dynamic and regenerative 
power to lift men to God and to redeem society. 

Good and beautiful elements there are in the non- 
Christian religions, but these elements do not have the 
power of transforming life and lifting these religions 
above their spiritual and moral bankruptcy. God has not 
left himself without witness in any nation, and whatever 
truth men may have anywhere is from Him; yet the very 
highest in these religions is inadequate to save men in any 
real sense. The frank confessions of their best religious 
leader is sufficient testimony to this, and the results of 
these religions among the rank and file bring to any 
unbiased observer the overwhelming conviction of un- 
fathomable need. Aside from this power to redeem and 
change life, one has but to compare the personalities and 
the teachings of other religions with the personality and 
teachings of Christ to discover the absolute uniqueness of 
Christianity. The example, death, and influence of Jesus, 
with his revelation of the nature of God, the hope of im- 
mortality, the law of love, and his incentive for living and 
right character, stand out transcendent against the back- 
ground of Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Mo- 
hammedanism. The most outstanding fact in history and 
in the world to-day is the preeminence of Christ and the 
intimate personal knowledge of God which he brings to 



the human soul. Of course the answer to the criticism 
that the people of non-Christian lands do not need the 
missionary enterprise and the Christian religion is the 
same answer that must be given to any man anywhere who 
does not feel that he needs Christ. A present-day mis- 
sionary puts it like this : "You ask me why I am a mis- 
sionary? It is because I am a Christian. I know I cannot 
remain a Christian and not be a missionary, because this 
was given to me and I must give it too. It is not because 
something compels me to do it. Some One impels me to 
do it. I want everybody to know Him. I want everybody 
to see him. Somebody says, 'Aren't they getting along 
pretty well without him?' The fact is, I do not know 
anybody in the East or in the West who is getting along 
pretty well without him. We are made for Christ, as the 
eye is made for the light, as the conscience is made for 
truth, as the aesthetic nature is made for beauty, as the 
heart is made for love. We are made for Christ, and 
when we find him we have, not a way of life or the 
medicine of life merely, but life." 

For that other attitude that would express itself as 
feeling that the people of mission fields were inferior and 
are therefore getting on quite well with their own inferior 
religions, it should be said, in the first place, that to claim 
to be a Christian and to underrate other peoples with the 
assumption that they are not worthy to possess that which 
we claim, is as narrow a phariseeism as ever possessed the 
Jewish religionists in Jesus' time. The fitting parable of 



the Pharisee and the publican is as applicable to that spirit 
now as it was nineteen hundred years ago. It might be 
said, in the second place, that the conception that the 
non-Christian religions are meeting the needs of the Orien- 
tal races, although never valid, is now quite out of date. 
These religions are themselves unable to stand against the 
modern spirit of to-day. They are immersed in supersti- 
tion, and as education and the secular ways of modern 
civilization permeate these lands these religions are being 
gradually undermined, falling by their own weight, and 
leaving the people unsupported by any religion. Christi- 
anity is the only religion for a moving .world and bewil- 
dered and lost souls. In Christ dwells all the fullness of 
the Godhead bodily and his revelation of God and his 
introduction of the individual to the Father are the two 
incomparable needs of men in non-Christian faiths and in 
no faiths at all. 

The Japanese delegation came to the Jerusalem Confer- 
ence with a statement concerning the superiority of Chris- 
tianity over other religions which is arresting. It is sig- 
nificant because it comes from the land of Buddhism and 
the non-Christian land of highest education and culture. 
The six points of superiority are as follows : 

1. The conception of God as personal, making clear the 
ethical relation between God and man. 

2. Man not seeking to find God, but God taking the 
initiative in seeking for men. Progress not through hu- 
man effort but through God's condescension. 



3. The sense of personality. Respect for individuality 
and recognition of the absoluteness of the value of per- 

4. Its Scriptures, condensed into one volume, can be 
conveniently carried anywhere and understood by anyone. 

5. Its superlative ethical sense. Its emphasis on clean 
living and new advance for the life of every day. Espe- 
cially does it emphasize the purity of the home. 

6. Its stressing of social justice and social service. 

It was recognized in this representative Christian con- 
ference of the East and the West that Christianity has all 
the good of other religions in a purer and fuller form, 
besides its own unique contribution to the race. This was 
put in a very striking way : "Hinduism teaches that God 
is near, but it forgets that he is holy. Mohammedanism 
teaches that God is great, but forgets that he is loving. 
It knows that he is a king, but not that he is a Father. 
Buddhism teaches that this earthly life is fleeting, but 
forgets that God sent us to do work and that we must 
do it while it is day. Confucianism teaches that we live in 
the midst of a great framework of sacred relationships, 
but it forgets that in the midst of these we have a living 
help and a personal fellowship with the eternal God in 
whose lasting presence is our home. What the other reli- 
gions forget, or never knew, Christianity tells us in the 
fullness of its truth." 

Judaism was the finest revelation of God until Christi- 
anity came. No non-Christian religion approaches the best 



of the Hebrew idea of God. The sense of Deity is unique. 
But it was not enough. Christ not only fulfilled Judaism, 
but he did infinitely more. He introduced men to God and 
contributed to mankind the experiences of the human soul 
with God. 

Foreign missions are not up-to-date do not adjust 
themselves to changing conditions. This criticism is part- 
ly answered in the preceding discussion. A further word 
is in order. Of course, there are instances where this 
criticism is true. The missionaries are a cross-section of 
Western Christian leadership, and you. will find among 
them every variety of outlook that you will find in the 
Church leadership at home. This mission staff, on the 
average, is a bit better trained educationally than the 
ministry or Christian teaching staffs at home. Require- 
ments of missionary training have constantly increased in 
the last twenty years. 

The modern missionary enterprise, from its beginning, 
has been alert to the social needs of the depressed people 
among whom they have gone. This is witnessed to by 
the great medical work, the Christan education given to 
illiterate and superstitious people, the care for orphans, 
lepers, and other classes in distress. Nowhere in the world 
has Christianity been more alert to the social, intellectual, 
and physical needs of the people than on the mission fields. 

The Jerusalem Conference on Foreign Missions held 
in 1928 was without doubt the most courageous and frank 
facing of the world problems fronting Christianity that 



the Church has ever witnessed. Fifty nations were repre- 
sented and practically all races. Half of the 240 dele- 
gates were from the mission fields themselves, many of 
them nationals. Such questions as the following were 
primary in the considerations of that epoch-making meet- 
ing: The message of Christianity in the light of non- 
Christian systems of thought and life; religious education 
and world missions; the relation of the newer churches 
of the mission fields and the supporting churches of the 
West; missions and race problems; missions and rural 
life; missions and industrial movements; missions and 
militarism; missions and secular civilization; the financial 
support of missions; cooperation in missions. Not only 
did this conference call together the most aggressive and 
wide-awake leaders from all over the world in connection 
with missionary work itself, but also many outstanding 
experts in such areas of thought as labor, industry, reli- 
gious education, and medicine. 

The findings of the Jerusalem Conference have been 
handed down to the Mission Boards and are now in 
process of being carried through. No such thoroughgoing 
deductions and no such remarkable harmony of opinion 
with regard to problems and processes have ever been ap- 
proached by the churches in the homeland as by the forces 
on the mission fields. While there is much still to be de- 
sired, still the foreign mission forces lead the Christian 
forces at home by far in cooperation and the general 
facing of great issues with a common front of effort and 



understanding. The problems are complex and staggering, 
but at the same time missionaries, nationals, and adminis- 
trators are aware of these things and as a rule are coura- 
geously facing them and striving for their solution. The 
reading of the eight volumes of the Jerusalem Conference 
reports, or even the fifty-page pamphlet on "The World 
Mission of Christianity," being the messages and recom- 
mendations of the Jerusalem meeting, is a liberal educa- 
tion in regard to the Church and its world problems. No 
preacher is properly fortified in his leadership to-day with- 
out the Jerusalem volumes at his elbow. 

Has Christianity the right to proselyte from other reli- 
gions? This is an unfair statement of the question be- 
cause of the prejudiced meaning which surrounds the word 
"proselyte/* It has often been used to describe a process 
which may be entirely questionable. If it means using 
unfair methods, if it means tying people up to a hard and 
fast system of theology, if it means simply to Westernize 
people of Africa or the East, then it is very questionable. 
But if it means sharing Christ with people who have him 
not, or who have a grotesquely inadequate conception of 
him, if it means sincere desire and effort to transmit his 
spirit and his way of life to others, then it is not only 
permissible, it is ethically and religiously imperative. If 
we can really say, "We cannot live without Christ," we 
certainly will be forgiven if we fail to be content until 
we have done our best to share with others who have 
never known him the experience that means everything to 



us. If we can truthfully say with Peter, "Thou art the 
Christ, the Son of the living God," and with Thomas, "My 
Lord and my God," then what can keep us from pre- 
senting his claims to those who need him as we do and 
yet have not found him? 

The statement of the Jerusalem Conference with regard 
to the spirit in which we must take Christ to people of 
other races is worth remembering: "Our approach to our 
task must be made in humility and penitence and love: 
in humility, because it is not our own message which we 
bring, but God's, and if in our delivery of it self-assertion 
finds any place, we shall spoil that message and hinder its 
acceptance; in penitence, because our fathers and we our- 
selves have been so blind to many of the implications of 
our faith ; in love, because our message is the gospel of the 
love of God, and only by love in our own hearts for those 
to whom we speak can we make known its power or its 
true nature." 

The assertion that Christianity has no right to make 
converts from other religious systems is a strange and con- 
tradictory statement on the part of anyone who claims 
Christ himself. Let the man who makes it look in the 
mirror. He will see the face of a man whose ancestors 
changed from a pagan faith to the Christian, because 
Christ was pressed upon them by earnest missionaries and 
they deemed the Christian way better. Who can deny 
any man from pressing upon others that which is vastly 
better than what the other holds? Surely no one can 



deny others the right to change their ideas for what they 
deem to be better and especially when they feel that the 
new outlook is absolutely essential. 

Isn't it strange that people raise objection to propagat- 
ing religion and displacing other systems by it when they 
would not think of objecting to change of conviction with 
regard to education, sanitation, medical science, politics, 
and commerce? How far would American trade get in the 
Orient without commercial missionaries? The opposition 
to these factors in progress has been perhaps greater than 
with regard to Christianity. For example, the protest 
against Western government and commerce on the part of 
Gandhi in India, the bitter opposition of native witch doc- 
tors in Africa, the old-time feeling against Western edu- 
cation in China, the adverse attitude of Hindus toward 
sanitation and rat-killing in times of plague. If the 
Church believes that the truth it holds is spiritually indis- 
pensable to mankind, it is duty bound to preach that truth 
to all men. He who gives that up hardly votes his own 
faith valid and his own religion universally needed. I 
have often heard nominally Christian business men and 
travelers on steamships say: "O, it's all right to help 
these people with hospitals and orphanages and schools, 
but as for proselyting them to our faith, I draw the line 
at that. We have no right to force our religion down their 
throats." I always feel like asking such a person how 
much of a reality his religion is to him anyway, and how 
much effort he puts forth to share Christ with those 



around him, or in his factory, even here in America, where 
people hold to no Oriental faith and where the background 
of our civilization is Christian. The Christian man who 
has no urge to share his Christ with the Indian who hows 
down to Shiva, or Raum, the blood-smeared Kali, or the 
monkey god, needs to take an inventory and see how deep- 
ly his heart burns to share Christ with the man in his own 
land in whom the Saviour has no part, although he sees 
him every day and has converse with him and perhaps 
pays him his wage on Saturday afternoon. The mission- 
ary motive, if it be abiding, says, "I am debtor both to my 
fellow American and to my Chinese brother, because I 
have something of infinite value which I must share with 

The Soviet expects to push out its claims by proselyt- 
ing; Standard Oil substituted tin lamps for grease saucers 
in China to proselyte for kerosene; Singer sewing ma- 
chines proselytized their way into the heart of Africa ; in 
China medicine has pushed aside witchery and the pitiful 
snake and herb doctors by proselyting; orphanages in 
India and leper asylums have come because people have 
been won to the Christian way of dealing with suffering. 
Pray, where would we be to-day if the Christian mis- 
sionaries of Southern Europe had not taken the gospel to 
the shores of England and proselyted our wild ancestors 
whom they found at their Druid worship drinking blood 
out of each other's skulls? To convert others to Christ is 
the keystone of our faith. If it is justified in America 



and those churches lacking in the evangelistic spirit are 
dying, then more so is it justified among the ethnic faiths. 
"We should save America first" This is an old and 
rather captious criticism. There has heen added to it 
to-day the more modern statement, "Why should non- 
Christian America take Christianity to non-Christian 
lands?" The first statement embodies the earliest heresy 
of the Church. Saul's persecution and Stephen's martyr- 
dom, scattered the disciples abroad, and they went every- 
where preaching the word. The heresy persisted, and the 
first council at Jerusalem was called to break its strangle 
hold upon the mother Church. Peter had to have a vision 
from God to free him from his narrow religious national- 
ism and make him willing to preach to others beside those 
of his own race. Paul desired to preach in Asia Minor, 
and the Spirit pushed him across the Hellespont into 
Europe. Paul and Barnabas were not allowed to complete 
the saving of Antioch, but the Holy Spirit sent them forth 
into the untouched world. This argument to save America 
first was an argument before America was ever thought of 
and just as contrary to the spirit of Christianity as it is 
to-day. When the Congregational Board for Foreign 
Missions, the first society of such a nature to be organized 
in America, was seeking to get its charter in Massa- 
chusetts, there was a hot argument against it in the State 
legislature. One senator said cynically, "Here you pro- 
pose to export religion, whereas there is none to spare at 
home." The answer has become almost immortal. "Reli- 



gion is a commodity of which the more we export, the 
more we have remaining." According to the divine econo- 
my, we are debtors to the whole world, not because of 
something we have received from the world, but because 
of something we have-received of God which the world 
needs. For every dollar we spend religiously, about ninety 
cents of it is spent here at home. America has more re- 
sponsibility for the rest of the world than any other na- 
tion. Our wealth is estimated at $400,000,000,000, or 
one-third the wealth of the whole world. In the eyes of 
the world to-day the fact that we appear to be hiding be- 
hind national needs to escape international needs is hurt- 
ing us. We have become the "creditor" nation of the 
world, and others are looking upon us as a Shylock among 
the nations. It remains for Christianity in America to 
realize for us that we are a debtor nation debtor to the 
needs of mankind. A lover of America has put it thus : 

"America first," not merely in matters material,. 

But in things of the spirit 

Not merely in science, invention, motors, and skyscrapers, 

But also in ideals, principles, character. 

Not merely in the calm assertion of rights, 

But in the glad assumption of duties. 

Not fiuanting her strength as a giant, 

But bending in helpfulness over a sick and wounded world like a 

Good Samaritan. 
Not in splendid isolation, 
But in courageous cooperation. 

Not in pride, arrogance, and disdain of other races and peoples, 
But in sympathy, love, and understanding. 
Not in treading again the old, worn, bloody pathway which ends 

inevitably in chaos and disaster, 



But in blazing a new trail, along which, please God, other nations 

will follow, into the new Jerusalem, where wars shall be no more. 
Some day, some nation must take that path unless we are to 

lapse once again into utter barbarism and that honor I covet for 

my beloved America. 
And so, hi that spirit and with these hopes, I say with all my 

heart and soul, "America First." 

"Save America first," as a reason for not believing in 
foreign missions, sounds patriotic and gives to many the 
excuse for not giving anything. To be sure our own 
land comes first, but we cannot save America by itself. 
The world is a unity as never before,~and if the saving 
spirit of early Christianity was in the fact that it broke 
out of the hills of Judea and entered the arena of the 
nations, more so now, when every other tide that flows 
reaches the whole world. 

Dr. James I. Vance, of Nashville, Tenn., tells of a man 
who believed in saving America first : "In my church in 
Nashville there was a member who paid all his contribu- 
tions to the church in a check, and always across the 
check he wrote, 'Not a cent of this for foreign missions/ 
I never liked to take his little check. It seemed to me like 
an insult to Calvary. But we took it on the theory of 
Senator Dolliver, who was once asked if we thought the 
Church ought to take tainted money and use it in the 
work of the Lord. He said, 'Give me three days to think 
about it/ At the conclusion of the three days he said, 
'Yes, take it, for money, like water, purifies itself by cir- 
culation/ And on that theory the church took the check. 



It fell to my lot not long ago to conduct his funeral. 
They brought his body to the church, and as I read the 
service and looked across the casket it seemed to me that 
I could see his little check floating out there before me, 
and across the check was written, 'Not a cent for foreign 
missions.' He has gone to stand before the great Judge 
now. I wonder what He thinks of his little check." 

As to the other question, "Why should non-Christian 
America take Christianity to non-Christian lands?" We 
need to be humbled into the dust because we have not 
realized more fully in America the ideals and life of our 
religion. The greatest handicap Christ has in non- 
Christian lands is the level of Christian living in America. 
But this does not relieve us of the imperative obligation 
of taking Christ to other lands. We do not send non- 
Christian missionaries or a non-Christian message. In 
fact, it is not non-Christian America that has any interest 
whatever in foreign missions, but Christian America. 

As to the absolute need of giving a large place in the 
local church for the enterprise abroad, one of America's 
leading missionary pastors, A. W. Beaven, writes : 

"There are many trustees, and sometimes pastors, who 
have felt that the church must look after its own expenses, 
and by making the current expense appeal first and strong- 
est they were sure of securing at least that much. Our 
conviction, after watching it a good many years, is that 
this is the wrong policy. Emphasis upon giving for the 
most unselfish cause produces best results for both objects. 



"We have come to the conclusion that the person who 
catches a vision of a world enterprise and gives krgely 
toward that end has expanded the vision and spirit within 
him so that his gifts to current expense also will be more 
generous as a result of it. Therefore we have, in our 
presentation from year to year, placed about five times as 
much emphasis upon the benevolent side of our budget as 
we have upon the current expense side, and we find it 
easier to raise treble the amount of current expense now 
than we used to raise, though during the same time we 
have increased our benevolences five times. When our 
current expenses, need to be increased, we put the argu- 
ment to people that, if it costs more to do our work 
(here), it must naturally cost more elsewhere; ... there- 
fore if we give more for our local field, we should^alsb 
give more for the world field. 

"We disagree with the idea that if a church is to build 
buildings for itself we must penalize the missionary side 
of its work. In other words, it is a wiser policy to first 
play fair with the world enterprises, and in the light of 
our obligation (to them) plan our building enterprise and 
its finance. Better plan to take longer to pay the building 
fund and maintain the missionary finances on an adequate 
basis than proceed on the expectation that for a few 
years practically everything is to be put into the building 
fund and then the church will come back to a proper 
benevolence ratio. This last policy is dangerous because 
it gets the people out of contact with the larger appeals, 



with the deepest motives for giving, and with a primary 
interest in a world task." 

"It costs too much" Since mission work began in 
America the man has been bobbing up who says with 
pitiful and ignorant cocksureness, "It costs a dollar to 
get a dollar to the field." He never seems to realize that 
it would be a strange sort of Mission Board, or Society, 
composed of responsible and unpaid people, who would 
tolerate such a possibility. Then there is the thoughtful 
person who is really concerned about the cost of pro- 
moting and administrating the enterprise. Experienced 
business men acquainted with the overhead of the most 
economical commercial houses, as well as charitable and 
educational organizations, express gratification and sur- 
prise at the relatively small expense of missionary admin- 
istration. In fact it is a debatable question whether 
missionary education, literature for increasing interest, 
institutes, conventions, travel for missionary addresses on 
the part of secretaries and missionaries, should be charged 
as "overhead" any more than the work of pastor or church 
secretary should be counted as overhead in a local church. 
It is all a part of the development of the spirit of real 
Christianity. No one has ever been seriously disturbed 
about the overhead of an active local church, with money 
going into building, upkeep, pastor, janitor, church secre- 
tary, hymn books, heat, and light. It may all be overhead 
as some would rate it, but what of that? Are not the 
spiritual assets of this expense such as would justify it? 



Where is there a greater spiritual need than educating and 
arousing Christian people to share Christ with the world? 
A better word than "overhead" is "undergirding." Men 
like life insurance agents state that their expense is much 
greater and business men often raise the question of 
spending more so that more may he secured. From one- 
half to two-thirds of the expense would be unnecessary 
if the church were awake to its responsibility to the world. 
Persuading Christian people to do what they pledged 
themselves to do when they accepted Christ as Lord and 
Saviour is the larger part of the expense of missionary 
endeavor. Dr. Simon Flexner's recent report to the Rock- 
efeller Foundation on the expedition of research in the 
Far East says, "There is no organization in the world, 
either philanthropic or business, which is getting such large 
returns out of the money it spends as the various Boards 
of Foreign Missions." 

There are certain necessities in organization and expense 
that cannot be wisely avoided and should not be. There 
are other expenses that should not be necessary and will 
not be asrsoon as the Christian people take the world work 
of the Church seriously and support it without the con- 
stant education and cultivation which are as yet so neces- 
sary. Missions are still on the defensive, and it is a small 
minority that take the work to heart. 

For a long time the major planning for and administra- 
tion of the work must be carried on at the home base and 
that necessarily takes special leadership, hard work, and 



money. Then the money must be raised at home to carry 
on in distant lands. For this a missionary organization 
must necessarily have headquarters, staff, secretaries, 
treasurer, etc. Such headquarters and organization should 
be set up in a city where there are facilities and which 
will make a convenient and workable center for effort. 
Country people sometimes forget that their expenses from 
the nature of the case, are quite different from those of 
people at city centers, where salaries must be commen- 
surate with surroundings and absolute needs. 

The expenditures at the home base of missions are 
just as legitimate as those in the fields. Expenses for 
churches and colleges are no more valid than those of a 
well-organized missionary society. Management must be 
had, securities cared for, money invested, banking and 
borrowing looked after, and careful credit and business 
integrity maintained. It is doubtful if there are many 
better managed offices with more careful economy than 
mission rooms. Expenses need to be guarded, and there 
is always the temptation on the part of an overworked and 
anxious staff to substitute a little extra help and expendi- 
ture for extra strain and exertion. Missionary adminis- 
tration and expense should be constantly scrutinized and 
every corner possible clipped. 

As for an absolute rule as to what should be expended 
for so-called overhead, there is none and cannot be. Dif- 
ferent communions have different organizations and differ- 
ent ways of handling such matters. Conditions are never 



the same in two places and different boards have varying 
methods of computing and tabulating items. One of the 
large items of expense is the necessity of borrowing money 
and paying interest to carry on, because churches do not 
remit regularly and large sums of money are kept back 
until the end of the missionary year. In fact, the best 
way to bring expense down to the minimum would be for 
more money to be given. Living from hand to mouth is 
always more expensive for a missionary society. 

The time should speedily come when the larger part of 
education, promotion, and collection should be done by the 
local church. This will come when Christian people make 
the enterprise distinctly their own, keep it next to their 
hearts, and bountifully provide for its needs. 

Where is there an enterprise where money will go so far 
as on the mission fields? Check off the great numbers 
supported in direct Christian effort against the income of 
any missionary board and see what can be accomplished 
with a little. The salaries of native ministers are from 
$50 in Central Africa to from $500 to $1,000 in Japan. 
Many hospitals are entirely self-supporting. School tui- 
tions are low, Bible women work for a ridiculously mod- 
erate stipend, and the whole work of the natives is based 
on the financial levels of the country where it is carried 
on. Nanking University, with 1,200 students, has in total 
property, endowments, one year of school fees, and ap- 
propriations, about one-half what Yale University spends 
in one year in upkeep. One American Mission Board, 



Presbyterian, ranges its 89 hospitals and 122 dispensaries 
in foreign fields alongside one average American hospital 
as follows : 


Presbyterian Foreign 
One American Mission Hospitals 

Hospital and Dispensaries 

Earnings $490,160.00 $540,605.00 

Other income $621,238.00 $58,640.00 

Operating expense $1,015,134.00 $599,245.00 

Inpatients 4,402 59,093 

Outpatients 29,810 441,139 

Visits and treatments 113,113 1,155,657 

Cost per patient $34.00 $1.36 

Cost per visit $8.97 $0.52 

And if we consider only the money given and not the 
earnings, the difference becomes more amazing. The 
money received by this one American hospital from en- 
dowment and as donations was $621,238. The total given 
for the 89 mission hospitals was $58,640. Each dollar at 
home provided for less than one-twentieth of a patient. 
Or to put it otherwise it took $21 of benevolent gifts to 
care for one patient. Abroad each dollar given by the 
Church in the United States provided for 75 patients. 

It would have required nearly a fourth of the Board's 
total expenditure to provide for the medical work on the 
scale of cost of this one home hospital. What it required 
a million dollars to do, the Board did with less than sixty 
thousand. And yet foreign missions are called extrava- 
gant or inefficient ! The 22 mission hospitals of my own 
fellowship make fully as good a showing when compared 
with hospital work at home. 



Here is another point to be remembered. It is illus- 
trated by our own missionary society, which is both home 
and foreign and administers about a million dollars in 
foreign work. Of this sum going into effort abroad, the 
churches, schools, hospitals, institutions, and missionaries 
on the fields gave $318,000 last year. And whereas the 
receipts at home dropped off painfully because of hard 
times, the receipts from the fields gained $16,000 over the 
year before in spite of what is going on in China and 




"The Missionaries Are Agents of Western Imperial- 
ism" Recently a number of daily newspapers have taken 
it upon themselves to write editorials on this theme. 
Where they got their information is not known. Wher- 
ever it came from, it is untrue. If there is anything that 
the missionary has -endeavored to keep himself free from, 
it is this. To be sure, he has been accused of such al- 
liance by a few uninformed nationalists in lands like 
China, where resentment against foreign treatment has 
been strong and augmented by Russian propaganda. The 
missionary loves the people among whom he works and 
in times of crisis his sympathy has been for them, even 
to the point of arousing bitter criticism from resident 
merchants and military men from his own country, bent 
on keeping the status quo. A recent editorial in the Des 
Moines Register is typical, and because it represents a 
certain uninformed and unfair trend in secular press dis- 
cussion I quote it here. The title is "Missionaries to 
Spare," and the editor goes on to say : 

"The missionary is getting the little end of things on 
both sides of the globe. In this country nearly all of 
the Churches are finding it increasingly difficult to raise 
money for foreign work. In the Orient the missionary is 



meeting hostility instead of hospitality. Lately the situa- 
tion has become so critical that a group of workers in 
China have demanded that an American commission 
should investigate the whole missionary enterprise. 

"In the more enterprising countries of Asia, especially 
in China and India, antagonism to missionaries has been 
growing for several decades. Political leaders in these 
countries have been disgusted by the fact that as a rule 
the Christians failed to join the nationalist movements. 
The Christians have acted almost as if they were colonists 
of a foreign government. 

"For this situation the missionary is blamed, of course. 
To the nationalist, the missionary is the forerunner and 
the ally of the imperialist who has annexed or who wants 
to annex his country and to the trader who wants to ex- 
ploit his natural resources. Until recently the missionary 
has done little to correct or to invalidate this impression. 

"Moreover, the typical missionary has offended the 
Asiatic by an assumption of superiority. Without ever 
making an unbiased study of other religions, he has as- 
sumed that the Christian religion is the only one of any 
value and has expressed this view constantly and dog- 
matically. His attitude of racial and national superiority 
has been as strong, though expressed less often. 

"In recent years many of the younger missionaries have 
seen the necessity for a change of tactics and have adopted 
a more sympathetic viewpoint toward the institutions and 
the aspirations of the people with whom they lived. The 



change came too late to ward off a general anti-mission- 
ary movement in the Orient, but if made more thorough, 
this conversion of the missionary himself may yet con- 
serve a place for his work in countries where it is needed." 

This editorial is so false and shows such an ignorance 
of real conditions that one would hesitate to answer it, 
were it not for the fact that many Christian readers are 
misled and have their minds disturbed by these state- 

It is untrue to say that the missionary as such is meet- 
ing with hostility instead of hospitality. Following the 
Nanking incident, when the consuls ordered the missiona- 
ries to withdraw, the missionary was received back into 
Chinese communities with open arms. He is meeting the 
same reception to-day. His only disturbers are civil war 
and banditry, neither of which are respecters of persons. 
The opposition in both India and China is not against 
the missionary, but against "unequal treaties," "taxation 
without representation," and "Western imperialism and 
aggression/' as the Orientals express it. As mentioned in 
another chapter, the move for an American commission 
to- study the missionary situation came from America, 
sympathetically, more than two years ago, and the delay 
has been caused by Chinese sensitiveness to extreme na- 
tionalism and race pride. 

The editorial goes on to say, "Political leaders in these 
countries have been disgusted by the fact that as a rule 
the Christians failed to join the nationalist movements." 



No statement could be farther from the truth. From the 
time when Sun Yat Sen, himself reared as a Christian, 
began his great world-wide propaganda against the Man- 
churian rule in China forty years ago, until the present 
time, outstanding Christians have been among the ablest 
leaders in the revolutionary movement and many have 
given their lives for the cause. Seven of the eleven on 
the cabinet of China's President are outstanding Chris- 
tian men. All one has to do is to read the history^of the 
revolution to see the falsity of this editorial statement. 
On both sides of the present civil war in China Chris- 
tians are among the foremost. This is especially true on 
the Nationalist side on which Chiang Kai Shek is leader. 
Mr. C. T. Wang, who has become world known because 
of his able diplomacy in dealing with Western nations, 
was for years the General Secretary of the Y. M. C. A. 
for all China. Mr. Kung, the able "Minister of Communi- 
cations" until he aligned himself with General Chiang and 
the Nationalist Government, was head of one of the great- 
est Christian institutions in China known as "Oberlin in 
China" a college supported by thousands of graduates 
and students of Oberlin College in Ohio. Scores of other 
leaders in the Nationalist Government who are Christians 
could be cited. Every Christian school in China has 
backed up the great democratic movement during the past 
two decades. 

Outside government circles, would anyone dare to ac- 
cuse Dr. David Yui, General Secretary of the Y, M, C. A., 



or the Honorable T. Z. Koo, world traveler and lecturer, 
or Dr. Chang Bo Ling, head of the great Chinese Chris- 
tian college, not affiliated with any Western Mission 
Board, but a thoroughly Christian school, or Dr. Cheng 
Ching Yih, Moderator of the United Church in China, 
to use the words of the Des Moines Register editorial, 
as having "acted almost as if they were colonists of a 
foreign government"? 

One other statement in this editorial only needs to be 
pointed out to the intelligent reader in order for him to 
see the absurdity of its implications : "Moreover, the typ- 
ical missionary has offended the Asiatic by an assumption 
of superiority. Without having made an unbiased study 
of the religions, he has assumed that the Christian re- 
ligion is the only one of any value and has expressed this 
view constantly and dogmatically." One wonders if the 
one who wrote this editorial has ever been out of his own 
State or country. One cannot be feel that he is still liv- 
ing in bygone ages. Does he not know that the "typical" 
missionary to-day is a man of university and seminary 
training? Will he dare to say that such schools as the 
University of Chicago, Yale, Columbia, Oberlin, and the 
up-to-date Church schools do not teach the value and 
truths of the ethnic religions? It might pay the editor 


to take a year off and sit in some of the classes in our 

schools to learn a little of the present trends of thinking. 

One other glaring misstatement in this editorial needs 

to be pointed out. "The change came too late to ward 



off a general anti-missionary movement in the Orient." 
There is no general anti-missionary movement in the 
Orient. Will one take the word of this writer or that of 
such leaders as Gandhi and Mrs. Naidu, leaders of the 
present revolt in India and who are now in prison; such 
leaders in China as General Chiang Kai Shek, General 
Feng Yu Shang, Dr. C. T. Wang, or T. Z. Koo, and a 
host of others, or the opinion of such leaders in Japan 
as Baron Shibusawa, the late Viscount Goti, or Mr. Ka- 
gawa, the most outstanding leader in Japan to-day, or 
shall we take the word of the writer of this editorial as 
over against that of the late Presidents Roosevelt, Wil- 
son, and Taft, or the judgment of ex-President Coolidge 
and President Hoover and scores of other outstanding 
American, British, and European men who could be men- 
tioned? On the other hand, genuine Christian influence 
was never as great in the Orient as it is to-day, and never 
was there a more wide open door for missionaries to enter. 

In connection with the claim that uninformed people 
sometimes make with regard to missionaries and their at- 
titude toward so-called Western imperialism, it is hearten- 
ing to know the unanimous action of the Jerusalem Con- 
ference on the protection of missionaries in time of trou- 
ble. These resolutions were passed by representative mis- 
sionaries, nationals, and Mission Board representatives : 

"Inasmuch as Christian missions involve the largest 
possible identification of the missionary with the people 
of the country of his adoption ; and inasmuch as mission- 



aries have generally relied upon the good will of the 
people among whom they live and the protection of the 
government of the locality for the protection of their 
lives and property; and inasmuch as missionaries, both 
as individuals and in groups, and several missionary so- 
cieties have asked that steps be taken to make plain that 
they do not depend upon or desire the protection of for- 
eign military forces in the country of their residence; and 
inasmuch as the use or threat of the armed forces of the 
country from which they come for the protection of the 
missionary property not only 'creates widespread mis- 
understanding as to the underlying motive of missionary 
work, but also gravely hinders the acceptance of the 
Christian message; 

"The International Missionary Council places on rec- 
ord its conviction that the protection of missionaries 
should be only by such methods as will promote good will 
in pefsonal and official relations, and urges upon all mis- 
sionary societies that they should make no claim on their 
governments for the armed defense of their missionaries 
and their property. 

"Finally, the International Missionary Council desires 
to record its conviction that since the foreign missionary 
enterprise is a spiritual and moral and not a political en- 
terprise, its work should be carried on within two great 
human rights alone, the right of religious freedom for 
all men, and the maintenance by each nation of law and 
order for all within it bounds." 




The moment you have any wide cooperation in mis- 
sionary effort there must be some sort of organization. 
Cooperation means standing together for a common pur- 
pose and making some commitee or organization respon- 
sible for. aiding all in carrying through the common aim. 
The lowest forms of jungle civilization are the most non- 
cooperative, the highest the most cooperative. The mis- 
sionary task is so vast, so distant, so complex, so needful 
of constructive policy and continuity, that even individual- 
istic Christian people and groups who have started out to 
act independently have usually discovered before long the 
need of organization if they lift the work above a series 
of unrelated units, divorced from healthy counsel. 

Those who oppose large organization for missionary 
work usually base their opposition on some of the follow- 
ing grounds : 

1. Organisation is unscriptural. It is difficult to con- 
vince one who has this trend of mind. Suffice it to say 
that in missionary effort, as well as in any developing 
life and activity of the Church, the Holy Spirit apparent- 
ly left the matter to the common sense of the Christian 
people and the necessities of the situation. Far stronger 
than any limitation on missionary organization is the New 
Testament precedent and example with regard to mission- 
aries going forth alone. Jesus chose his twelve and sent 
out his servants two by two, while Paul rarely had the 
audacity to go out alone, but for his own safeguard 




before the people as well as his strength at home, took a 
tried companion or two along. Those who decry organi- 
zation as unscriptural are often the worst offenders of 
New Testament practice in that they help send mission- 
aries to distant fields without the check and counsel of 
companionship, and thus encourage them in individualis- 
tic and unguided effort. 

2. An organisation may become too autocratic or inde- 
pendent of its constituency. This is a real risk, but the 
check is in the fact that its reports are open to scrutiny 
on the part of those who support it, its work in the 
hands of a representative board or committee, and in many 
cases its general committee elected by a representative 
convention or communion assembly. If the officers of 
the organization assume too much wisdom, or too many 
prerogatives, the constituency will be heard from. 

3. It may become too narrow in its outlook, or too 
liberal and outdistance its constituency. Probably every 
missionary society has groups in its communion which take 
either side. Therein lies the missionary board's safety. It 
is kept from going too fast by the conservatives and 
from going too slow by the liberals. Its lot is not always 
happy between the two groups of friends, but it is usually 
trusted as sincerely trying to find the way. Happily the 
work of a missionary organization lies well outside theo- 
logical differences and in the realm of life and reality and 
its missionaries, officers, and constituency are a cross- 
section of Church life. 



4. The organisation may be unwise in its financial poli- 
cies. This is a risk which needs to be guarded against, 
for it is not simply a business organization, but also one 
of faith. It must have absolute administrative and finan- 
cial security. Missionary boards have on their executive 
committees business men and women of standing. They 
will need to give real time and effort to aid. In these 
days of difficult missionary financing, mission boards will 
need to sense the paralyzing effect on staff and constitu- 
ency of cutting down the appropriations and therefore 
the work, as well as the danger of large deficits. The 
surest way of getting out of the red in missions is not in 
cutting budgets, but for a great constituency to experience 
the red of sacrificial giving and the way of the cross. 

5. It is asserted that a missionary society is more ex- 
pensive than independent missionary effort. Concerning 
the economy of organized effort I will speak in another 
place. Suffice it to say here that it would be interesting 
to know how much time is taken from the task of real 
missionary effort, by an independent missionary, while 
he creates his literature of appeal and carries on his con- 
tact and correspondence with the people at home on whom 
he depends for money. My own observation on mission 
fields, as well as at the home base, is that he spends rela- 
tively much more in overhead than does the society which 
looks after the needs of hundreds of missionaries. His 
expense of this kind is not seriously scrutinized as is 
that of a mission board, responsible to a constituency and 



subject to review. He is not subject to the democracy 
and inspection of a society, a large group of individuals, 
or often even to a local Church. 

It might be well to set down here, in order, some of 
the advantages of Missionary Boards or Societies in car- 
rying on the work of foreign missions. At home the 
organization is necessary because: 

1. There is need of constantly stimulating missionary 
interest, keeping in touch with a large force of mission- 
aries, developing a missionary conscience among a Chris- 
tian group as a whole and in general building up of mis- 

2. Money must be collected to carry on the work, and 
the same properly expended in the fields. This responsi- 
bility must rest somewhere and this necessitates business 
organization and treasury responsibilities. There must 
be frank reports and a continuous confidence maintained. 

In relation to the mission field itself, the need of re- 
sponsible organization is even more necessary : 

1. There must be a proper selection and training of 
missionary candidates. In a great cause like missions this 
cannot be wisely left to hit-and-miss methods or the 
adoption of anyone who desires to go. If care needs to 
be exercised in the personnel of the ministry at home, 
more so on the mission field. A missionary organization 
through large experience can judge as to the qualifications 
of missionaries rather than yield to their self-appointment. 
The society can see that these new missionaries are sent 



to the fields, provide proper homes for them to live in, and 
secure property and equipment for their work. The 
society makes their work permanent and provides for 
them no matter what happens on the field, also looks after 
their needs when incapacitated or coming to old age. 

2. The missionary society, through long experience 
and through men trained in the missionary task, can be 
responsible for missionary policies and through counsel 
with missionaries and nationals see that they are carried 
through. Few individual Churches at home have the gift 
of administration in mission lands. No missionary society 
wishes to be a law unto itself, but endeavors to learn 
from all sources, and finds one of its richest inheritances 
in cooperation and experience-sharing with other mis- 
sionary boards. Missionary strategy is increasingly ap- 
propriated from the tested plans of many boards in 
common fellowship. A society can plan frequent visits 
to the fields for administrative counsel on the part of ex- 
perienced men and women. It is possible also to give 
the work proper balance as between different phases of 
effort and through cooperative effort and financing to 
establish schools for the higher training of leaders and 
ministers as well as hospitals and other necessities for 
full-rounded plans of work. A society, from the very 
width of its undertaking, can through missionaries and 
trained native leaders plan for a self-supporting Church 
and through its larger group of congregations organize 
for it and promote it. The delicacy and difficulties of 



the foreign missionary work are often not appreciated 
by the constituency. The problems take careful handling 
on the part of those who know the work intimately. 
Missionary secretaries are always more or less under 
fire ; and, speaking as one who has spent twenty-five years 
in the task and never without opposition, pretty well crys- 
tallized in certain quarters, I can affirm that it is a school- 
ing in patience par excellence. * 

It might be added that a missionary organization makes 
support of the missionaries more fair and balanced, pro- 
tecting good missionaries who would be poor promoters 
and preventing those who might have strong gifts in prop- 
aganda from receiving beyond their due. The society, 
too, by requiring missionaries to devote their whole time 
and strength to distinctly missionary effort, and support- 
ing them in it, prevents side enterprises for the support 
of the work which consume time, interest, and strength 
and decrease efficiency. Singleness of purpose is quite 
as necessary on the mission fields as in the pastorate at 
home. There are times of crisis in fields where nothing 
short of a responsible agency can carry on continuously 
and breast the current of opposition and change. A 
society can project its work for a hundred years and 
emancipate it from the tragedy of circumstance or the 
lack of permanence in individual plans. One cannot but 
admire the courage and faith of the missionary who goes 
out independent of any society, even though he believes 
that there is a better way. The missionary task is a 



very difficult and lonely one at the best. Even with the 
cooperation of many minds, both on the field and at 
home, there are mistakes and sometimes tragedies. A care- 
ful organization is far more apt to reduce these to a mini- 
mum. There are times, infrequent but vital, when a 
missionary needs to be corrected or even removed from 
the field. Grouping of missionaries for cooperative ac- 

^ x- 

tion, and a responsible organization at home, makes this 
a matter possible of solution. 

Are -missionaries needed any longer"* Haven't we gone 
far enough? These questions have largely arisen be- 
cause* of recent developments in China, the strong na- 
tionalistic spirit in many fields which emphasizes native 
direction for the work, the growth of self-support on 
the fields, and the feeling on the part of some that leader- 
ship has not been turned over to national leaders fast 
enough. Perhaps the best answer to this question is the 
appeal of the nationals themselves. Never in the history 
of missions has there come such an appeal as is coming 
from native leaders to-day to keep the missionary force 
strong and effective. It was strongly expressed by the 
outstanding nationals at Jerusalem. One Chinese leader 
has spoken of the Church in China now as "The Church 
in the Furnace." Following the Jerusalem Conference, 
a volume of native appeal came to the American Mission 
Boards. This has been true even in the case of China, 
though the strong nationalistic and patriotic movements 
there have made it difficult for Chinese Christians to seem 



to stand for leadership from the West. A Chinese Chris- 
tian leader has said that in order for a Christian who 
has been connected with a Westerner to appear 60 per 
cent patriotic, he must give a demonstration of 120 per 
cent of patriotism. In spite of this embarrassment on 
the part of Chinese Christians, their call for a stronger 
missionary staff in the hour of the Church's distress and 
need has been soul-stirring. "Keep sending us your 
best," they say. Recently there has come from Chinese 
Christians, as stated before, a strong appeal for a repre- 
sentative commission of Western leaders to counsel with 
with them and help them. The work has really only just 
begun and the few really self-supporting and self ^propa- 
gating Churches, together with the thin line of Chinese 
leaders, present very much the same wistful and needy 
factors that are present in the relationship, of child to 


parent in the adolescent period. What more critical hour 
could there be? What time more necessary for under- 
standing and unselfish cooperation,' between the Christian 
forces of the West and the new Churches of the East 
just coming to self-determination? As fatal as parental 
neglect of an adolescent child would be Western indif- 
ference now. 

' Perhaps the following paragraphs adapted from the 
message of a recent book, written and sent to America by 
Christian nationals of many lands, will help to visualize 
the need they feel of the help of the Western Churches 
in the critical hour they face. These statements are 



loving and wistful, some from pioneer areas voicing the 
more human and fundamental needs, and others setting 
forth the longings of those of more mature leadership. 

"We are not disappointed in Christ. The more we 
know of him, the surer we are that he is what we su- 
premely need. No one is successfully competing with him 
for the mind and heart of our nations. 'Thou, O Christ, 
art all we want.' While we have misgivings regarding 
so-called Christian civilization in the West and frequent- 
ly wonder why Western Christians are no further on in 
their attempt to bring the spirit and principles of Jesus 
into operation in everyday activities and relationships, we 
are not turning our backs on Christ because the goal of 
a Christlike world is still so far ahead. 

"We do not disown the fellowship of Western Chris- 
tians. In other words, we welcome the Christian mis- 
sionary who comes to us in the spirit of one who serves 
and offers us gifts in Jesus's name. We want the Chris- 
tian movement to go forward. Were you in the West to 
cease your missionary cooperation at this time you would 
seem to us ta be losing heart in the most glorious period 
of your missionary history. Western missionaries and 
Christian nationals have worked and prayed for these 
years of transition for over a century. It should there- 
fore be both a privilege and a challenge to you who have 
brought us to this stage to see us through. We cannot 
solve our problems without your help. We need your 
experience and counsel. Please stand by. 



"If you in the West would help us at the point of our 
greatest need, seek out more earnestly Jesus's type of life 
in this present complex world. Experiment more serious- 
ly as individuals and in groups of the sort of life which 
is necessary if we are to live together in this world as one 
family and if our Father's household law of love is to 
control all human activities and relationships. Up till now 
no prophet or dreamer has given a clear, compelling pic- 
ture of a Christlike world. We supremely need pioneers 
in Christlike living, showing in everyday terms how Jesus 
would live were he in the flesh now, and how much it 
would cost. 

"If you in the West ask when your missionary respon- 
sibility will be discharged, we would answer, Not until our 
strength as Christian groups hi our lands is commensurate 
with the demands of our task. When is the responsibil- 
ity of any big brother in the family fully discharged ? Are 
not all of us, younger brothers and older brothers, re- 
sponsible for sharing our best with each other as long 
as life lasts? 

"In a real sense we are of your own blood and flesh, 
partaking of your weaknesses and still powerfully in- 
fluenced by your counsels. When, therefore, you study 
or criticize us, you are studying and criticizing yourselves, 
for we are your offspring. Much in our body of Chris- 
tian belief and in our Church organization has been trans- 
ported to us unchanged. As our strength and freedom 
increase, we hope to develop great individuality. We are 



no longer babes in the household of faith, wholly de- 
pendent on your care; we are maturing children in the 
same household with you, created by God himself, as in 
times past you also were created by him. 

"Both the truth in Christ and the truth about Christ 
are stubbornly opposed in our lands. Non-Christian 
systems of thought and life, secularism, agnosticism, and 
moral cynicism combine to make the faithful witness of 
the Churches daily more imperative. In support of this 
witness we need from the older Churches of the West 
a reaffirmation of the unique and redemptive elements in 
the Christian faith. Shorn of these elements, the mis- 
sionary enterprise, as conceived from the beginning, has 
no mandate for life." 

And besides, the Churches in mission fields, even the 
most developed, have not reached a state of pioneering 
strength where they can undertake the ventures of faith 
so necessary for national advance. The missionaries, for 
many years to come, must be the pioneers, must enter the 
great untouched areas, must do the spade work and turn 
the new sod for expansion. In China there are areas of 
appalling extent and population, untouched by any Chris- 
tian effort. When we consider fields like India, Africa, 
and South America, the demand simply beggars expres- 

Perhaps since China is more under discussion to-day 
than any other field, it would be well to visualize its 
need as an illustration. If the present missionaries of 



all evangelical Churches were to withdraw from the es- 
tablished stations, not only would the Chinese Christian 
leaders have an overwhelming and baffling task to carry 
on and properly develop the Churches in these areas for 
the future, but the totally unoccupied fields in China and 
on her borders could absorb the whole of the missionary 
staff thus freed and still be greatly undermanned for 
pioneer effort. It must be remembered that these out- 
lying provinces and areas, with their lack of travel facili- 
ties provided for in the districts nearer the coasts, would 
necessitate a far larger force per million inhabitants than 
the already partially occupied fields. 

Besides all this, we have come to a period in missionary 
development when we do not consider unoccupied fields 
simply from the standpoint of geography or digits of 
population. We must apply Christianity to the whole of 
life as well as to numbers of people. Unoccupied areas 
are calling us in student life, rural life, industrial prob- 
lems, race relations, educational life, the realm of women 
and children, religious education, Christian literature, the 
area of religiously negative secular life, and in many 
other non-geographical but vital fields. The Jerusalem 
Conference grappled with this enlarged sphere of mis- 
sionary effort in a vital way. Never has there been such 
a demand for an increased, well-trained, and deeply de- 
voted missionary staff to enter these limitless fields of 
evangelism and Christian development. The task is just 
in its infancy. 



The statement made at Jerusalem in 1928 is most help- 
ful : "From the older Churches financial aid and mission- 
aries for almost every type of work are still urgently 
needed and will be required for many years to come. The 
call to occupy unoccupied areas in every country of the 
world, the urgent necessity for a great evangelistic ad- 
vance, the establishment and strengthening of schools, col- 
leges, training institutes, and other institutions of a spe- 
cialized type ; the provision of Christian literature of high 
quality and in great volume for the younger Churches; 
the development and extension of Christian hospitals 
and other philanthropic agencies; the demand for an en- 
larged program in the realm of Christian education and 
for new experiments in the rural areas these and other 
forward movements throughout the world call for a 
measure of sacrificial giving on the part of the older 
Churches beyond anything that has characterized their 
life up to the present time." 

While there are individual missionaries, and groups, 
too, who are slow to turn over leadership to the native 
people, and no doubt some mission boards that have a 
tendency to hold on too long, yet the vast majority of 
missionaries and organizations are eagerly pressing re- 
sponsibility on those who have been developed on the 
fields. Every true missionary is trying to work himself 
out of a job, or make his presence on the field unneces- 
sary, and is constantly on the lookout for those to whom 
leadership can be turned. Strange to say, the great op- 



position to rapid turning over of work and leadership 
comes from the native leaders themselves. We can trust 
most of the missionaries as to when their task is done 
and when the work should be entirely placed in newer 
hands. The Jerusalem Conference was very outspoken 
on putting the nationals to the front, with the missionaries 
standing back of them. It would be hard to find a mis- 
sionary in China to-day, under the leading boards, who 
is not resolutely taking that attitude. The transfer of 
many responsibilities to natives has been remarkably 
rapid. If that had not been the case, it is difficult to see 
how the work could have held together in China at all 
when missionaries were forced out for a time. As it 
was, the work went on with a remarkable lack of loss. 
But the development of a deeply spiritual indigenous 
Church that will not only support itself, build its churches, 
and besides be so filled with the missionary passion and 
so organize itself that it will pioneer and evangelize the 
vast millions about it, is a slow process. Missionaries in 
larger numbers will be needed for many decades in this 
process of kingdom-building, which has been slow even 
in the favored West. 

For those who do not sense the unutterable need of the 
vast, untouched multitudes in non-Christian lands, there 
are many illustrations. The preacher will find them in 
abundance in missionary literature and can get them first 
hand from the missionaries. Perhaps one from my own 
experience would help : 



While I was in India in 1928, I visited Allahabad at 
the time of the great seven-year mela, or gathering of 
the pilgrims. They were there from all over India and 
Burma to bathe religiously in the water where the Ganges 
and the Jumna Rivers join. Perhaps this is the most 
sacred place for Hindus in the world, especially once in 
seven years. It was estimated that from one to two mil- 
lion people came there during the days of that religious 
festival. As one stood on an eminence overlooking the 
Ganges valley and looked across that marvelous multitude 
camped below, as far as the eye could reach it was noth- 
ing but people. In the early morning, when the people 
had built their little breakfast fires of dried cow-dung 
to cook their food religiously, it seemed that one could 
see the smoke of a hundred thousand camp fires. Thou- 
sands had come on the trains, thousands in motor lorries, 
thousands in oxcarts, and still greater thousands on foot. 
Formerly many measured their length or rolled long dis- 
tances to reach the sacred spot to fulfill some vow. In 
these degenerate days, the trains and motor cars carry the 
larger number. They were there for one purpose to try 
to secure some merit for the future life or some thousands 
less of rebirths, by bathing at just the right time and in 
the right way in the sacred waters. As one stood there 
the thought came, "What would Christ think if He stood 
here with me and could see what I see?" Then the reali- 
zation came that He was there and He did see, and not 
only so, but that He sees all the people of all nations of 



the world in their need and He has told us how He feels 
about it. He sees them as sheep not having a shepherd. 
We all need that vision before we can have the true mis- 
sionary passion. We need also the vision of Christ an- 
swering those unmeasured needs. 




THE meeting of the International Missionary Council 
at Jerusalem in 1928 was of two weeks' duration. Be- 
cause of the limitation of time it was obviously impossible 
to deal with the full round of issues inherent in the Mis- 
sionary Enterprise of to-day. Seven great themes of most 
vital significance were therefore chosen and dealt with by 
commissions in the months preceding and by the 240 
representative delegates from fifty nations during the 
sessions on the Mount of Olives. The epoch-making 
character of the meeting is constantly growing in the con- 
sciousness of religious leaders throughout the world. No 
such meeting with the background, representative per- 
sonnel, and wealth of incentive has ever been held in the 
history of missions for that matter in the history of 
Christianity. It would be disappointing, indeed, if such 
a gathering at this particular time in the world's history 
should not give to the Christian world something vital and 
arresting to think about. Such has been the case, and 
the farther we get from Jerusalem the more significant 
seem its trends and considerations. The proceedings, dis- 
cussions, papers, and findings of that meeting are pub- 
lished in a set of eight handy volumes of succinct and 
.revealing content. 



It is riot too much to say that nowhere else is there 
such a wealth of suggestive preaching material on Chris- 
tianity and the present world. It is not easy preaching 
material, made ready to hand and projected along the lines 
of least resistance. But for the man who is in dead earnest 
to relate his pulpit message to the world and its need 
to-day, and who will pay the price which comes with open- 
minded facing of world realities, the volumes are a rich 
mine of sermon material and suggestion. As one young 
preacher expressed himself after facing the great world 
issues of the Jerusalem Conference, "I am an optimist, 
but a scared optimist." Another more mature minister, 
after saturating his mind with the Jerusalem material, 
said: "Our leaders at home are confused and hesitant, and 
the hour is striking for the challenge of a new crusade. 
I cannot but feel that we are on the eve of some mighty 
things for the kingdom. The swing of the pendulum has 
been far out, but it is coming back. If the Church can be 
aroused for a great advance through prophet voices of 
spiritual leaders, this is the most prophetic hour in the 
Christian era. These conferences on the values of the 
Jerusalem Conference reports are helping to clear the 

My own pastor, Rev. Bert Johnson, of the Downey 
Avenue Christian Church, Indianapolis, expresses him- 
self as follows: "The eight volumes containing the Jeru- 
salem report constitute a library of universal importance. 
When I desire information on issues current in modern 



life I turn to these volumes. The messages in this report 
more nearly represent the voice of the Church upon the 
great themes and problems of the day than any other lit- 
erature extant. The field of modern thought as affecting 
religion and life is thoroughly covered. A caller came to 
my study and asked, 'How do you know that the Christian 
religion is the true religion?' Quick reference to the 
volume on 'The Christian Message' produced the answer. 
A man came later asking about the inroads secularism, 
industry, and politics were making upon the Church. The 
answers to all these questions were found in the Jerusalem 

Bishop Francis J. McConnell, of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, has said: "The Jerusalem Conference was 
the most significant meeting I have ever attended. . . . 
The farther we get from the Jerusalem meeting the more 
significant it becomes to us." 

Dr. Halford E. Luccock, Professor of Homiletics in 
Yale Divinity School, in a recent striking address on 
"Sermon Values in the Jerusalem Statement on the Chris- 
tian Message," said: "I think there are perfectly tre- 
mendous implications in the Jerusalem Statement on the 
Christian Message that do not appear at first sight. One 
of the most engaging figures in early American history, a 
man who made a great success in the business of piracy, 
had it said of him that he was 'the mildest mannered gen- 
tleman that ever scuttled a ship.' I think it could be said 
of the company that worked out this statement of the 



Christian Message at Jerusalem, that they were the mildest 
company of Christian gentlemen who ever attempted to 
blow a civilization to atoms. As I look at this message 
and think of a few of the things involved in some of its 
sentences, I believe that its working out would make a 
revolutionary change in our social order. For there is 
enough dynamite packed away in the recesses of some of 
the glorious sentences in this Jerusalem statement to do 
just exactly what the first company of disciples went out 
to do from Jerusalem, to turn the world upside down/* 

Dr. A. W. Fortune, of the Central Christian Church, 
Lexington, Ky., says : "I am wearing my Jerusalem Con- 
ference reports out. I rarely prepare a sermon any more 
that I do not refer to this remarkable set of books." 

The seven outstanding themes dealt with at Jerusalem 
and the discussion of which is set forth in the reports are 
as follows : "The Christian Life and Message in Relation 
to Non-Christian Systems of Thought and Life," "Reli- 
gious Education," "The Relation between the Younger 
and the Older Churches," "The Christian Mission in the 
Light of Race Conflict," "The Christian Mission in Rela- 
tion to Industrial Problems," "The Christian Mission in 
Relation to Rural Problems," "International Missionary 
Cooperation." Each subject is dealt with in a handy vol- 
ume. Let a preacher expose himself to these great issues 
as they are broken open in these discussions, and he will 
experience a freshening and strengthening of his mission- 
ary convictions that will find expression in vital mission- 



ary preaching. Added to the elements in the missionary 
appeal which are unchanging, the minister will find in the 
Jerusalem volumes the newer factors in the missionary 
apologetic opening before him. The Jerusalem Confer- 
ence did not discover them, but that significant meeting did 
crystallize and make them articulate, some of them for 
the first time. These newer phases are somewhat as fol- 

1. Recognizing the supremacy of evangelism, while 
building the kingdom of God in the world by steady con- 
structive processes, rather than going on a crusade with 
the evangelization of the world in this generation as an 

2. Reaching areas of life as well as areas of population. 
Not only dealing with digits of people and blocks of 
geographical extent, but with factors in human life, such 
as the world's womanhood, childhood, the student class, 
industrial life, social needs, and the whole impact of Chris- 
tianity upon society. 

3. Bringing Christ to people for the life that now is 
as well as for the life to come. As the Conference State- 
ment puts it, "Our fathers were impressed with the horror 
that men should die without Christ we share that horror ; 
we are impressed also with the horror that men should live 
without Christ." 

4. Taking Christ to the world in the light of and in 
frank recognition of the good in other religions, instead of 
with the old conception that these religions are entirely 



evil. That is, Christianity giving credit to and taking ad- 
vantage of every gleam toward God in any non-Christian 
faith and fulfilling that hope in the completeness of Christ 

5. Recognizing that the missionary task is a cooperative 
task with the Christian Churches and nationals of Oriental 
and African countries as well as a task pressed and di- 
rected from the West, the indigenous, "naturalized" church 
of the fields ever coming more and more to the fore. 

6. Lovingly and confidently f ellowshiping with those of 
other faiths who are seeking after truth and by the way 
of companionship and understanding finding the way in 
Christ with and for them. 

7. Basing the fundamental motive for the task in the 
fact that we cannot live without Christ and must therefore 
share him with others, instead of with the motive of taking 
our Western civilization or even our Western religion to 
the lands beyond. Always going in humility, realizing that 
we and our civilization need Christ as well as they, rather 
than going to inferiors as superiors. 

8. The realization that Christian education is a para- 
mount factor in any mission that is abiding, and especially 
so in the light of rapid national educational development 
upon a purely secular basis in non-Christian countries. 

9. Recognition that perhaps the greatest danger and 
challenge to the missionary task to-day is the secular way 
of life and thought and the further realization that we 
must deal with secularism parallel with our dealings with 



non-Christian religions. Non-Christian faiths are being 
dissolved that is, at the top among the educated, and 
there is nothing left to take their place. Christianity is 
the only hope both for redemption from the secular way 
of life and for those people who have lost their way 
through inadequate faiths, in their seeking after God. 

10. The world has become reduced and made accessible, 
and the frontiers have shifted and widened so that prob- 
lems are common and world-wide, and we must face these 
problems simultaneously on the whole front, lifting our 
ideals at the home base in order to maintain them at the 
distant fields. There are no geographical limitations to 
paganism and no running of it down on the atlas and 
confining it to certain distant localities. It is a matter of 
spirit and life, and you can see it shouting at you from the 
front page of the daily newspaper or stalking the streets 
of a great city as surely as the missionary finds it hidden 
in the jungle or unashamed in a strange temple dedicated 
to lust. The lynch-law burning of a black man in America 
is quite as shocking to the sensibilities of a Hindu as his 
former burning of the widow on her husband's funeral 
pyre was to us, and it is fully as pagan. The only differ- 
ence lies in the fact that Indian religion and civilization 
sanctioned suttee, while lynching of negroes goes on over 
the protest of both our civilization and our religion. But 
both are pagan and not connected with geographical 
boundaries. The lynching here greatly discredits and hin- 
ders our Christian effort there. The frontiers of paganism 



are world-wide, and therefore our missionary problems 
are common to native land as well as the lands of the mis- 
sionary's adoption. 

11. The missionary must go as a servant and partner 
and not as a "leader" and "director." The nationalistic 
spirit and new racial consciousness throughout the world, 
together with the disillusionment concerning the West 
because of the Great War, make it more necessary than 
ever that the missionary who goes to the distant fields go 
in the most humble spirit. 

12. The necessity of attaining the finest of unity and 
an increasing solid front in this whole enterprise. As Dr. 
Mott put it at Jerusalem : "The world context of the un- 
dertaking to make Jesus Christ known, trusted, loved, and 
obeyed in all human relationship is the necessary setting 
in which to realize the true place and unachieved possi- 
bilities of united thinking, fellowship, and action on the 
part of his followers. Here we come to see clearly that 
our divine mission is so vast in its dimensions, so difficult 
and baffling in its demands, that only by sharing counsel, 
blending experience, and uniting in planning and action 
and in liberating and massing latent forces and influ- 
ences, can the world situation of to-day and to-morrow be 

The Jerusalem Conference itself was a token of the 
unity in the task for which Dr. Mott pleads. Perhaps 
never so diverse a group of Christian leaders ever came 
together. With practically all races represented, the back- 



ground of all non-Christian religions out of which many 
delegates or their immediate forefathers had come, the 
diverse philosophic and racial settings, the possible clash 
of free and subject races, the mixture of different na- 
tionalistic aims and ideals, and last, but not least, the 
mingling of Christians of every conceivable variation as to 
theological outlook all of these factors provided enough 
dynamite to blow the conference out of the water the first 
week. But, in spite of frank facing of great issues and 
honest difference of opinion, the harmony and unity were 
complete, climaxing in a union communion service be- 
tween all races and all Churches represented, on Easter 
Sunday on the Mount of Olives. The gathering had a 
Christian international mind, and the discussions were so 
serious in their common recognition of human need and 
on such a high level of the application of the living Christ 
to those needs that denominational differences were 
strangely irrelevant and ecclesiastical baggage entirely 

The above twelve points constitute only a partial re- 
view of the freshened apologetic for the world mission 
of the Church growing out of the Jerusalem Conference. 
Can any preacher say that there is not found therein rich 
preaching values as he relates his pulpit message to the 
present world and its needs? 

NOTE. The eight volumes of the Jerusalem Conference Report 
can be secured from the International Missionary Council rooms 
at 419 Fourth Avenue, New York, or from your own Mission 



Board ($7 prepaid). An excellent handbook on these volumes is 
"World Missions as Seen from Jerusalem," by Milton Stauffer, 
published by the Missionary Education Movement of the United 
States and Canada, New York, at 50 cents. There is also avial- 
able an exceptionally good index on "Preaching and Teaching 
Materials of the Jerusalem Meeting Report," 57 pages, at 25 cents, 
also published by the International Missionary Council, New York. 









As the urge came to me to write this volume, I thought it a 
good thing to write a group of representative preachers who had 
been exceptionally successful in their missionary leadership, as well 
as a few other missionary leaders, and secure their conception of 
what the missionary appeal of to-day should be. My thought was 
to glean from these expressions and write a chapter setting forth 
a composite view of such representative conviction. Many replies 
came, but as I reviewed them I found four statements which to- 
gether embody practically all of the viewpoints expressed. These 
expressions are so discerning and from men of such varied experi- 
ence and sound judgment that I feel the better plan is to give them 
to the readers just as they came. There is no necessity of making 
this book of the conventional type, and as the author has no par- 
ticular reputation as a writer to sustain, and therefore does not 
need to make the volume entirely his own, these letters are given 
first-hand in the belief that the principles they set forth will be 
better transmitted thus. 

The first is an outstanding and highly honored preacher and 
missionary leader, who has spent some forty years in rather direct 
foreign missionary service, both in his own great communion and in 
die cooperative effort of all American boards. His work has taken 
him to many of the mission fields. He is now retired, but with 
still alert mind and sympathetic interest he combines unusual 
knowledge of the past with peculiar grasp of the present outlook 
and transition in missions. He writes as follows : 

"My Dear Dr. Corey: Here are some of the stresses which I 
think are pertinent to the present situation both in the homeland 
and in the foreign fields: 

"1. The Scripture reference to fallow ground is pertinent to the 
present situation in what we call the pagan lands. God works, as 
we believe, through the Holy Spirit, moving in the hearts of men, 
affecting their desires, their so-called intuitions, their convictions, 
their moral ideals. He works also and contemporaneously in what 
we call 'providence' that is, in divine action breaking up tradition, 



political associations, methods of the use of elements in the mate- 
rial world. We speak of the 'hand' of providence. I have been 
long disposed to think of another hand, if you choose to use the 
figure, but without the figure the movement of God in the world 
of spirit, and the movement of God in the world of material, which 
in reality are two separate movements, but the activities of one 
eternal master mind. I find, in a word, the wonderful revelations 
of spiritual activity of many kinds in the pagan world, directed 
of the Spirit of God. I have associated with that, or a counterpart 
of it, or its companion facts, the activity of God in the breaking 
up of fallow ground in a marvelous way. It seems to me that it 
would belong to the present thinking of the Christian world to 
relate these two elements in a way which would be a demonstra- 
tion of the divine power in the construction of a new world and 
the inspiration thereof. 

"2. There is never a better opportunity, excepting the hint of 
item one, for relating the spiritual purpose in a revelation of God 
to human life than is shown in the extraordinary provision for 
intercommunication between the nations, and especially between 
those that are called Christian and those that are called non- 
Christian. It is simple to say that the doors are open, but it is a 
matter of extraordinary interest to show that they are open in 
such a way as to give entrance to the most significant principles 
and thoughts and programs of the Christian Church. I think stress 
might be laid upon this extraordinary situation in the present 

"3. There is enough product from Christian ministry in these 
pagan lands to warrant a recognition which it does not receive 
from those who approach the problems from the standpoint, let 
us say, of philosophy or the human cult. A very remarkable il- 
lustration of this occurs in an article by Professor Shotwell, of 
Columbia University, in a recent magazine issue of the New York 
Times, where he discusses very effectively the relation of the 
thought of the youth of modern Japan to the traditions and prohi- 
bitions of the old native religion Shintoism. In the course of that 
statement he gives with words of highest appreciation the names of 
two men, the one Nitobe, of whom he speaks as the treasure of the 
educational leaders of Japan. The other is Kagawa, of whom he 
speaks in the warmest terms as a great social leader. However, 



in the statement concerning them and their relationship to educa- 
tional and social movements in Japan, there is not the slightest hint 
in his paragraphs that both of these men are outstanding Chris- 
tians, and that if we are to seek the motives we should need to go 
beyond patriotism and social interests and come to that motive 
which we esteem the center of all, the purpose of giving to their 
nation the gospel and the power of Jesus Christ Now, Professor 
Shotwell is a recognized authority in history and in philosophy, a 
splendid man representing an institution which is at the heart of 
what we call our Christian civilization; yet when it comes to the 
statement of these great personal influences upon Japan there is not 
a hint that Christianity has anything to do with it. This, there- 
fore, leads me to the emphasis upon a third point namely, the study 
of die influence in personal life and personal character of men of 
Christian faith upon the contemporary life of these nations which 
are now the object of our thought and care. This might apply not 
alone to their own nationals, but to those men who, prompted by 
Christian motives, have in their personal character and ministry 
initiated, in actual measures and in commanding influence, move- 
ments in these nations which are flowering into actual blossom and 
fruit under the new conditions which we find now among the leaders 
and the masses of the people." 

The second letter is from a young preacher, pastor of a strong 
county-seat church in a small city. He taught young preachers 
for five years in a seminary and then went back to his first love, 
the pulpit. Four missionaries from his congregation are on the 
mission field. He recently told me that he preached once every 
month distinctly on some phase of the world mission of the Church^ 
He is a gifted preacher. 

"Dear Brother Corey: I have been thinking a great deal about 
your question as to how I would present the modern missionary 
challenge and appeal. I wish I had more time to compare and 
evaluate the different motives and reasons to be urged. This is 
about the way the whole problem lies in my own mind : 

"1. I think we can agree to pass by as relatively unimportant 
the question whether the heathen can be saved beyond death with- 
out Christ I do not suppose that this has any serious considera- 
tion in the minds of many preachers to-day. The danger in rais- 



ing such questions is that they befog the atmosphere, and people 
can't get beyond them. 

"2. I must confess that the appeal to the bare authority of Jesus 
does not stand much higher in my own mind than the above. Just 
to urge people to do tilings because Jesus commanded them, with- 
out showing further reasonable grounds therefor, does not go far 
with the modern man. Even the good Church member to-day does 
not do many things just because Jesus commanded them aside from 
consideration of the values received. I do not mean that Jesus had 
no authority. In fact, he has supreme authority because he is 
supreme in his ability to bring moral and spiritual salvation to man 
the world around. 

"3. Another point is more or less psychological. Missions offer 
the Christian Church, collectively and individually, the best chance 
to express and thereby strengthen a valid Christian experience. 
If the Spirit of Christ means anything, it means the willingness 
and passion to share with others that fullest life which he brings. 
I should think that a meager theoretical study of Christianity 
would reveal that as its essential spirit. So that if one does not 
have the desire to impart his benefit to others he ought to ques- 
tion himself whether he really has it. To me the desire is the 
surest validation of our own religion. Then come the returning by- 
products by which the spiritual impulse grows stronger in our- 
selves through expression. This is what I mean by calling it a 
psychological benefit, though I do not mean to eliminate God's 
Spirit from the process. 

"4. As a Christian I am interested in what kind of world this 
world becomes and especially in what kind of being man becomes. 
I believe that God's goal is to bring all men into his own likeness 
as revealed in Jesus Christ. That seems to have been Paul's idea 
of the purpose of it all. That being true, as children of God con- 
cerned about his will, we cannot feel detached and unconcerned, not 
even about what may happen millions of years hence on this earth, 
if it is still standing then. To do all we can to bring the larger 
life to men here and now that they may have a larger life both 
here and hereafter seems to me to be only a sensible cooperation 
with God in his all-wise and all-good purpose ; whereas indifference 
and negligence on the part of the least of us are just holding back 
his will that much from being realized, 



"5. Again, I have found that people can be stirred by the right 
sort of historical presentation showing what Christianity has al- 
ready done for the world. Christianity, of course, means Chris- 
tian missions. This is no argument why missions should con- 
tinue necessarily, but it creates a mighty strong presumption. 
Those who are attacking the whole enterprise have not so far 
come forward with anything better. Sooner or later they are 
driven to Lippmann's philosophy of indifferentism, and that can 
never be reconciled with the yearning Spirit of Christ. 

"6. I believe it was Mott who said that as more communica- 
tion between the peoples and nations makes the world smaller the 
friction points are bound to increase in number and irritation. 
Are those contacts to be Christianized or left to raw human 
nature to deal with? A few Sundays ago, when I mentioned this 
point, our city superintendent of schools said that he had never 
thought of it before. He said that he had been going on the 
optimistic assumption that more contacts and closer contacts al- 
ways make for closer sympathy and understanding. I asked him 
why they should not make for more irritation just as easily, if 
they are not Christianized. You know there is a saying that if 
you don't like a man it is because you do not know him. I do 
not believe that knowledge always produces love and understand- 
ing. All depends on the attitude of the heart as the contact is 

"7. I do not believe that preachers pay enough attention to the 
critics of missions. Once in a while it is profitable to turn aside 
to answer some of the old saws. This will not interest some of the 
people who have got beyond these points, but sometimes it will 
silence some of the loudest opponents. 

"8. We ought to do all we can to puncture the smug superiority 
complex which has accompanied some of our missionary work in 
the past. Much of the early apologetic for missions encouraged 
pity for the heathen, without appreciating his good qualities and 
the possibility of his making his unique contribution to the ulti- 
mate Christian civilization of the future. Fleming in his 'Marks 
of a World Christian' has a good chapter on the appreciation of 
other peoples and races. This is the way to the elimination of race 
prejudice, which a young Filipino writer recently called 'the blind 
alley of missions.' 



"9. The summary of conclusions of the Jerusalem Conference 
ought to be heard from the pulpits: 

"'a. That Christianity must face valiantly the great ethical 
issues of to-day; such questions as those of capital and labor; 
effective production and fair distribution; international justice 
and good-will; war and peace. These are moral and spiritual 
issues because they make or mar human lives. 

" 'b. That the Christian forces must settle down to a long, hard 
pull and shape their methods accordingly and not apply jerky or 
half-thorough expedients. 

"*c. That Christianity must be willing to sink denominational 
differences for the sake of greater cooperation within the Chris- 
tian body. Western difference should not be carried across an- 
other sea. Our message must become Christ-centered and cease 
to be denomination-centered. 

"'d. Christians must themselves gain a new and more glowing 
appreciation of their unique possession, Jesus Christ, and give him 
a chance to speak for himself. In comparison with Jesus Christ 
there is nothing to the plea sometimes heard that the offering of 
him to the pagan world is an impertinence.' 

"Well, Brother Corey, there are many more things that could 
be put down. But this is the way I present the missionary cause. 
I have just given you a line-up of some of my sermon outlines, 
point by point, as I came to them in my file. (I have a file, not 
a barrel.)" 

The third letter is from a pastor, in middle life, of a great city 
church in the Middle West He is a popular speaker on missions 
and other vital themes. He has gone around the world, not as a 
tourist simply, but primarily to see the mission work and visit the 
missionaries. He has served efficiently on a Missionary Board. 
While missionary receipts were falling along with the industrial 
decline in 1930, his Church increased its missionary contribution 
$1,000, in spite of the fact that a large part of the membership are 
from the industrial class. This is what he writes: 

"Dear Stephen: I am just in receipt of your note requesting 
suggestions on your proposed book. First of all, let me say that 
I am glad you are going to undertake it, believing it will fill a great 



"Without making an extended mental survey, may I suggest the 
following few points which I, myself, have been emphasizing with 
satisfaction to myself and with a hearty response on the part of 
the people. 

"(1) Missions are not something tacked on to the Church, but 
are as natural as motherhood to womankind. The full gospel 
cannot be preached without this note. 

"(2) Missions have abundantly vindicated themselves. To but- 
tress this you have an abundance of facts from your own observa- 

"(3) The old religions are breaking down, and Christianity alone 
can enter the breach. 

"(4) While the world has radically changed, human nature and 
human needs, spiritually speaking are the same. Christ has never 
changed, lie is the same yesterday, to-day, and forevermore.' 

"As to the local Church itself and the influence of missions 
upon it, I may say: 

"(1) Evangelism is the life of the Church, and a missionary 
Church is destined to be an evangelistic Church. 

"(2) No Church's local program ever suffers by a strong empha- 
sis on missions. To the contrary, a worthy missionary program 
has saved many a Church from going under. 

"I am wondering whether a chapter for the preacher person- 
ally would not be in order, with some such points of emphasis as : 

"(1) If the Church is to be missionary, the preacher must 
make it so. Therefore, as far as possible he must be master of 

"(2) He must be able to find a place for missions in spite of 
the philosophy of naturalism, the findings of a study in compara- 
tive religions, and the materialistic tendencies of the times. 

"(3) He must be conscious of a world fellowship between him- 
self and the missionaries on the field." 

The last letter is from a young, highly trained missionary in one 
of the Christian universities of China. He and his wife had to 
come out during the trouble of 1927. Their lives were endangered, 
and she suffered a special strain through threats and indignities 
on the part of the soldiers. Their health came near breaking for 
a while. He was one of the first to go back to his work, being 



urged by the Chinese to return. He has been at the center of tur- 
moil and uncertainty in China. The question asked of him was, 
"What about the missionary appeal in the face of the situation in 
China?" The answer is very significant with the background in 
mind. Rarely has a clearer statement of the missionary apolo- 
getic been made: 

"(1) It is a natural and necessary function of the Christian 
Church to give its message and life to every creature, without 
national or racial limitations. 

"(2) To save itself from selfishness and narrowness, the Church 
must be alert and diligent in Christian service well outside its 
immediate community. There is spiritual peril in using most of 
our 'gifts to the Lord' to provide comfortable and attractive serv- 
ices for our own folks. 

"(3) There is especial obligation upon the relatively strong 
and prosperous Christian groups in Western countries, rich in tra- 
dition, organization, trained leaders, and material resources, to 
foster Christian effort in those lands where it is barely beginning, 
amid poverty of life and money. 

"(4) The people of other countries are in themselves 'worth 
saving.' Many of them demonstrate character and possibilities 
which deserve every quickening and leading that may bring them 
to their best. 

"(5) The kingdom of God and the very human Church have 
need of the variety of life and view which may come from peoples 
as yet almost unrepresented. The Christian world needs new 
appreciations of Jesus and his message from Indian mysticism and 
humility, Chinese emphasis on human relations, Japanese simplicity 
and love of beauty. 

"(6) Much of the earth is in desperate privation of body and 
of spirit. Hunger and disease, ignorance and harmful supersti- 
tions, evil and deceit, selfishness and aimlessness ruin the lives of 
hundreds of millions. The great compulsion upon the life of Jesus 
was the overwhelming needs of men. Do we follow him to meet 
those needs with every resource we have? 

"(7) The peoples of the world are in contact What shall be 
the character of their relationship? It is too often determined by 
profit-seeking, by warships, by sensational and trouble-making 
journalism, by tourists who are thoughtless and overbearing 



spendthrifts. In the high service of missions is the opportunity 
of Christians to raise the level of world association by the power 
of helpfulness and mutual regard." 

To the preceding very complete analysis of the needed mis- 
sionary appeal in the pulpit I shall only add a brief word. It has 
to do with preaching on the lives of great missionaries. R. T. 
Stevenson says, in that remarkable little book, "The Missionary 
Interpretation of History" : "The world is not done with the mis- 
sionary. To the past he was a necessity, the present is an epitome 
of his idealism, and the good future is inconceivable with him as 
a minus quantity. The philosophy of history is now coming to 
take him by the hand for a cordial greeting on the level. For the 
homiletic class he is still an immortal supporting column. Roman- 
ticism in the pulpit welcomes his everlasting freshness." Could a 
preacher do better than to speak once a month, for a while, on 
some great missionary? He could begin or close with Paul. By 
dealing with a great missionary biography, he disarms prejudice 
against missionary preaching, makes possible instruction concern- 
ing the whole work and philosophy of the missionary undertaking, 
and at the same time guarantees sermons that are bound to be 
vitally interesting because dealing with vivid life. He interests 
the old and fascinates the young. What pulpit messages on the 
great realities of our religion can be drawn from such lives as 
Livingstone of Africa, Judson of Burma, Mary Slessor of Africa, 
Shelton of Tibet, Mackay of Uganda, Duff of India, Paton of the 
South Seas, Peter Parker of China, Verbeck of Japan, and Xavier 
of many lands! What a sweep of kingdom incident, selfless liv- 
ing, racial interest, geography, and adventure! How the preacher 
needs in this day of cynicism, disparagement of the ideal, and 
worship of the material, to shed forth the enthusiasm for God and 
humanity which the missionary embodies! For the enthusiasm of 
the missionary is boundless. On the enthronement of Christ in 
human hearts he stakes all. Obstacles become an asset and hope 
rises higher when tempest drives. As needed as preaching on 
the Acts of the Apostles is the presentation of the modern apos- 
tles and their missionary acts. 


CONVERSATIONS with a number of pastors and letters received 
from others indicate that suggestions would be appreciated with 
regard to the pulpit message on missions. With this in mind the 
following outlines have been gotten together. Some will not care 
for these, others will find them suggestive. For those who wish 
further suggestions, a very helpful pamphlet has been published 
by the Methodist Foreign Board, New York, and by the United 
Christianity Missionary Society, Indianapolis. The title of this 
pamphlet is, "The World Outlook for Religion." It contains five 
outline sermons dealing with Religion and Secularism, Religion 
and the Spread of Modern Science, Religion and Industrialism, 
Religion and the Unsettling of Moral Standards, and the World- 
Wide Opportunity and Task of the Christian Religion. The pam- 
phlet may be secured for five cents from the above boards. 

Robert E. Speer 


Recently in many fields. Native leaders everywhere pointed out 
that the work was in its infancy. 
Vast geographical areas untouched vast areas of life untouched. 

I. Vast Welter of Suffering and Distress. 

Unhealed, blind, leper, illiterate, orphaned, pestilence. (Only 
1,500 competent physicians in China!) Need 100,000 com- 
petent doctors immediately to deal with human suffering. 

Pitiful children, unemancipated women, child widowhood in 

II. Fast Mass of Intellectual Night. 

Jesus the "Light of the World," and where he has gone light 
has broken. 

South America, illiteracy ranging from 25 per cent in Ar- 
gentina to 80 per cent in Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay. 

China's greatest plight in present struggle, illiteracy. 

India 90 per cent illiterate, 95 per cent of women illiterate. 

III. Vast Realms of Life Unreached. 

We must put Christ at the heart of a machine age. 



Gandhi's dream cf primitive crafts and crude imple- 
ments impossible. 

Advertisement for investments in Shanghai factory. 

"The profits of the factory unsurpassed. Running 

night and day. Hands employed, 2,500, with following daily 

Men 15 to 25 cents. 

Women 10 to 15 cents. 

Boys 10 to 15 cents, above fifteen years of age. 

Girls 5 to 10 cents, above fifteen years of age. 

Small boys and girls under 10 years, 3J4 to 10 cents. 
Working hours, twelve no meals supplied!" 
What a picture Christ walks in that factory ! 

IV. Great Longings Unsatisfied. 

Non-Christian religions expression of longings for God. 
These religions dissolving at the top and secular atheistic 
life, with nothing to offer the soul, taking their place. 

V. Great Need of Deepened Christian Experience. 
The enthronement of Christ at home and abroad. 
Kagawa, the great Christian of Japan, said recently: "The 

Church is spoiled by wealth and comfort and lacks courage 
and sacrifice. And you in America must lead. Japanese 
religion and morals and social and political ideals are 
dominated by America." 

On Dr. Williams' memorial tablet, he who was killed by 
ruthless soldiers in Nankin, China, in 1927, are these 
words : "Servant of Christ and of China. It is enough for 
the disciple that he be as his Master." 

H. T. Hodgkin (at Student Volunteer Convention) 


We face great new situations to-day, and we must face facts. 
Missions do not need defense but interpretation and advocacy 
in the light of new facts. 
I. Notes on the Movement in the Early Days. 

These were tremendous notes to which we responded. 
1. Conviction. A great conviction that our religion was God- 



given. Sometimes it went too far Christianity the only 
good, other religions were all bad. 

2. Passion. A concentration on personal religion saving 
one's soul whatever happened to society. A certain ten- 
dency it had to separate personal religion from the wider 
aspects and responsibilities of life. 

3. Adventure. How the heroism challenged us. Living- 
stone, Martyn, Brainerd. Good, but a tendency for mis- 
sionary to become a hero in eyes of friends and in his 
own eyes. To-day we are facing reality and much of the 
romance is gone. 

4. Urgency. Multitudes dying without God the little white 
speck on the map or chart and the great black area. It 
does not represent complete reality in the higher sense 
to-day as God has revealed to us the love of Christ. 

II. Notes of the Movement To-Day. 

1.. World Service. It begins with the individual, but does not 
stop there. The missionary must take other things into 
his thinking, too race hatred, war, brotherhood, indus- 
try, Christian education. The missionary who is not -will- 
ing to go to China to-day, leaving out of mind any pro- 
tection save good will, should not go. He must win his 
way through love. The missionary must serve with 
natives pushed forward. 

2. Freedom. Giving the people to whom we go freedom for 
their own expression of religion go beyond our own 
theologies, rituals, prejudices. 

3. Patience. Patience with China in war patience with na- 
tionals in their narrow nationalism, patience with incon- 
veniences and sufferings, must take the long view and 
wait as the early missionaries did for five hundred years 
on our ancestors. 

4. Friendship. Must not love causes better than men. 
Careful, consistent, loving friendships with those of other 
races will stand the test make friends with foreign stu- 
dents here. 

Now let us find in these new notes the same conviction, urgency, 
passion, adventure, we found in the old. Yes, even greater, because 
these are realities that are unchanging. 



If Jesus is indispensable to us, conviction supreme. 

Radiant joy in your own soul gives greater passion than fear 
for yourself or some one else the world's condition and appeal 
rather than some burning high point. 

Seeking to give a free, united Church to the non-Christian 
world is a greater adventure than geographical discovery. 

Is there not urgency in the friendship that shares Christ with 

Robert E. Speer 



(Vol. I of Jerusalem Conference Reports will furnish 

an invaluable source for this theme.) 
Christianity's claims only tenable if rational. 
Comparisons with other religions unavoidable. 

I. Results of Comparison with Other Religions. 

1. Men are made for religion. 

2. Christianity has all the good of other religions. 

3. Christianity is free from the evils of other religions. 

4. Christianity contains indispensable elements of good which 

other religions lack. 

a. In conception of Fatherhood of God. 

b. Discovery of evil of sin and provision for its forgive- 

ness and defeat. 

c. Ideal of sacrificial service. 

d. Idea and principle of resurrection. 

5. The non-Christian religions are inadequate to meet the 

world's need. 

6. Christianity adequate because of superior conception of 

God, moral efficiency, and universality. 

II. Attitude of Christianity toward Non-Christian Religions. 

1. It should be consistent. 

2. Recognize joyfully all good in them and build upon it. 

3. Should not slur over or avoid points of difference. 

4. Make no compromise, but anticipate its own triumph. 

5. Should welcome all transformation of non-Christian re- 

ligions that bring them nearer to Christ. 



6. Must continue to seek to win men away from these re- 

ligions to Christianity. 

7. Should perceive and hold fast truth of its own uniqueness. 
The view of the non-Christian religions we hold and our atti- 
tude toward them is not the gospel which we preach. It is the 
ground of our mission, not the substance of our message. 

Thomas Philipps 


2 Timothy 2:9: "The word of God is not bound." 

The old missionary in prison there's where he spent his 
furloughs. Age and the end coming on apace Nero more 
bloodthirsty every day. Sits down to write his last letter 
chains make it difficult. His heart tender "Bring the 
cloak" he needed it in dungeon. "Bring parchments" 
little time for study left. "Bring yourself." Career near 
end, but faith stronger than ever. "I am bound, but the 
' word of God is not bound." 

I. The Faith of an Undefeated Missionary. 

The "word" meant more than Hebrew scriptures "Logos." 
No New Testament then. 

What had he been preaching? 

There was a "little gospel" which he had been preaching: 
"Faithful is the word and worthy of all acceptation, Christ 
Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am 

Ask missionaries to write down in a. sentence what accom- 
plished the results on fields, "Redeeming grace of our Lord 
Jesus Christ." 

No formula or dogma can express it. 

A creed, sermon, theology, baptism, Bible never saved any- 
body. It is only Jesus who saves. 

II. Word of God Not Bound by Our Imperfect Interpretations. 
By our exegesis: How many good but unexegetical textual 

By our theology : If so, a millstone. 



By any criticism : May criticize the envelope, but not God's 
love letter Christ. 

III. Word of God Not Bound by Adverse Circumstances. 
Might of Rome against Paul Rehearse his adversities. Cite 

missionaries from Carey and Judson down. 
World War enough to kill every mission and Christianity it- 
selfbut Word not bound. 

IV. Word Not Bound by Duration of Missionary's Life. 
Paul went, but word not bound. 

Recall many missionary martyrs and graves. 

Paul knew enough of man to be a pessimist, but enough of 

God to be an incorrigible optimist. 
Paul and every other missionary forever undefeated. 

James T. Vance 


Is it too much to call that cause greatest which sympathises 
with, fosters, and promotes every other cause that makes 
for human welfare and happiness, the greatest of all causes? 

I. Its Founder's Estimate. 

He stated his estimate in Matthew 28: 18-20. 

Think of the significant moment in his life when he says 

this and the audience to whom it is addressed. 
There is time but for one word it must be the greatest 


II. Christs Words Bear Out the Estimate. 

"All authority" The movement will never crack because of 
unavailable spiritual power. 

"All nations" The daring vision of a lonely leader. 

"All things" Takes in everything God wants done. It sweeps 
the whole gamut of life. 

"Always" -The movement timeless dynasties change, civili- 
zations flourish and fall, but Christ abides. 

He felt it was the last word that could be spoken. 

III. It Is Where Christ's Cross Places His Cause. 

He not only gave the commission he backed up with Cal- 
varyHe paid the great price. 



1. It is the cause which feeds other causes. The missionary 
must be interested in every good cause. 

2. It is the cause that pioneers the way. The teachings of 
Christ back of all great forward world movements of to- 

3. It is the cause that lifts us out of ourselves. There are 
no stale hours for him who has joined hands with Christ 
to bring in the kingdom. 

4. It is the cause which creates heroes and hallows sacrifice. 

5. It is the cause against which there is no argument. He 
who quarrels with missions as a kingdom movement quar- 
rels with Christ. 

6. It is the cause which captures the attention of Heaven. 

7. It is the cause we cannot push aside. 

Enoch Pond 


Romans 10: 18 

Remarkable heralding of gospel in primitive days. 

Paul several times refers to it 

Only brief time had elapsed. 

How can we account for this speed and our slowness? 

Did the early disciples really have superior advantages for 

spreading gospel? 
I. Apostolic Advantages. 

1. They had gift of tongues questionable advantage after 

Pentecost. Did not need it in Roman Empire. Greek. 
Doubtful if it followed acquiring languages as missionaries. 

2. The working of miracles Paul did not use as vital. 
Preaching outstanding. 

3. Under guidance and inspiration of Holy Spirit. Not al- 

ways often made mistakes. Many imperfections. 
Be it observed that in modern days there is no need of 
gift of tongues languages easily acquired and transla- 
tions everywhere. 



The miracles created wonder, but hardly renewed the heart. 

While not to-day under such divine inspiration as apostles 
had, yet we have through New Testament full benefit 
of their inspiration. 

4. The world united under Rome. Roads everywhere com- 
mon civilization and language. Then a missionary could 
go anywhere, now he must stop and get language. 

II. Present-Day Advantages. 

1. Improvements in travel. 

2. The art of printing. Earliest Church had no New Testa- 

ment. Millions of copies of Scriptures printed each year. 

3. Protection of governments. Apostles labored under con- 

stant hazard. 

4. The number of Christians and strength of leadership. 

Early Christians largely illiterate. 

5. Modern plan of workers at front supported by Church at 

home. Distribution of responsibility and combining ef- 
forts by means of organized support. 

6. Modern plan of schools for Christian training. 

III. Why Primitive Church More Evangelistic? 
More prayerful devoted more missionary in spirit. 
Took Jesus at his word. 



Acts 17: 26, 27: "And hath made of one blood." 

Bible only textbook embracing all humanity. 

What one man needs, all men need. 

"I am a Christian and can never be satisfied until every 

human being shares with me the blessings of Christ." 
"We cannot live without Christ." 

I. The Motive. "He hath made of one blood." 

Unity of the race an irresistible argument, "one blood." 
Science and Bible agree common origin of man. 
Alike in capacity to think and develop. 
Physically alike, no matter skin or language. 



Alike in spiritual faculty saints among all races. Con- 

A world brotherhood 
The same impulse that moves to help depressed here so 


Any man anywhere has like claims to brotherhood. 
". . . Thy neighbor as thyself." 
II. The Object. "That they should seek the Lordnot far 

from any of us." 
A brother trying to find the light. 
Appeals to idols blinded by sin and ignorance. 
To help men find God the great object 
The highest and happiest calling like mountain peak. 

A. McLean 



John 3 : 16 

No volume ever written is so continuously and imperatively 
missionary as the New Testament. 

No person can understand it who is not missionary-minded. 

The young woman who said she had no time to teach a mis- 
sion study class as she was teaching one in the Acts of the 
The Gospels reveal the missionary Christ and furnish the 

missionary with the message. 

The Acts of the Apostles are the acts of the early mission- 
aries. Apostolos the Greek for the Latin missionarius. 
I. Jesus Lived and Breathed Forth the Missionary Spirit. 

1. In his initial sermon in Nazareth. 

He risked his life to make the proud Jews see that God 
was interested in other races. 

2. In his appointment of the twelve. 

Not theologians, ecclesiastics, prelates, or philosophers, but 
messengers of the words and way of life. 
Witness their burning zeal after Pentecost "And every 
day ... they ceased not to preach Jesus as the Christ." 


3. In his climax of instruction, the great commission. 

All that precedes in New Testament leads up to this 

All that follows is to fulfill it Acts and Epistles. 

II. The Apostles Burned with the Missionary Passion. 

1. The Acts, inspired record missionary activities early 

Churchrecord ministry abroad of Paul, Christianity's 
premier missionary. 

2. The Epistles, letters written by missionaries to mission 

Churches. Problems were pressing members gathered 
from Judaism and paganism. 

Pastoral letters written to young missionaries like Tim- 
othy about their lives and teaching as missionaries. 

3. The book of Revelation, its symbols and imagery difficult 

to understand, but its purpose simple the final victory 
of Christ, "The kingdom of this world is become the 
kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he shall 
reign forever and ever." 

III. New Testament an Open Book on Missions. 

Cut missions out of the New Testament, and it would bleed 

to death. 
Missionary idea no novelty it originated in the heart of the 

loving God, and Jesus Christ was the greatest expression 

of that idea. 
Men in the Church who do not believe in missions need to 

mix some intelligence with their faith and read the New 

Testament with open eyes and honest hearts. 
No man can blame the Jews for not seeing Christ revealed in 

Old Testament prophecy who does not see world missions 

revealed in every page of the New Testament. 

(Adapted from Stevenson's "Missionary Interpretation of History") 

Acts 1: 8 

I. The Coming of the Man. 

Moral and spiritual forces due for a larger place in history. 
Missionary's part in the trend of history since Calvary. 



He opened the door to our pagan ancestors. 
He is die great advocate of Brotherhood in the seething 
world of to-day. 

II. His Wonderful Deeds. 

He changed the course of Roman and Greek philosophy. 

In his martyr's death he dissolved the power that slew him. 

The modern missionary repeats the miracles of early days. 
Darwin says, "The lesson of the missionary is the en- 
chanter's wand." 

III. His Enlistment of New Peoples. 

He captured European races by love after the fall of Rome. 

He moved in to the new world after its discovery. 

He was abreast of the approach of the nations to hermit 

He was a pioneer discoverer in Africa. 

He brought civilization to Australia. 

He braved the cannibals of the Pacific Islands when com- 
merce was helpless. 

He carried Christianity to India and China when the com- 
mercial West sought to conquer and exploit. 

IV. As an Ambassador of Brotherhood. 

He has an unyielding enthusiasm for humanity. 

He begins at the base line by uplifting marriage and the 


He struck at the curse of slavery. 
He preaches the gospel to the poor. 
He has sanctified labor and reinstated the man who toils. 
He has been the forerunner of real democracy and the rights 

of man. 
He has striven to build the kingdom of God on earth. 

V. He Provides a True Philosophy of History. 

That God should have his place in all life, "Thy kingdom 


That Christ in the lives of men and nations works (prag- 
That the religion of Jesus is a universal faith. 



VI. As an Incurable Enthusiast. 

Morrison on way to China, "The outlook is as bright as the 
promise of God." 

Carey arrayed against the East India Company to overturn 

Livingstone sick in the jungles dedicating himself to God 
and the task. 

Two hundred men at Oxford volunteer to take murdered 
Harrington's place in Africa. 

Eldred in the heart of Africa, wife dead, and sick, replies to 
the cable to come home and rest, "I cannot; these sheep 
have no other shepherd." 

The missionary "expects long toil, dreary wilderness, bat- 
tles with giants, and spasms of fear in the heart of the 
Church. But he looks as surely as he looks for the sun- 
rise after nights of tempest and of lingering dawn for the 
ultimate illumination of the world by faith." 

A. McLean 


1 Cor. 12: 28: "And God hath set some in the church, first apos- 
tles, secondly prophets, thirdly teachers, then miracles, then gifts 
of healing, helps, governments, divers kinds of tongues." 
"Apostle" is the Greek for "missionary" one sent 
The apostles were sent forth as heralds of the gospel. 
They were set aside for this life work. 
The prophet found his work in the home preaching ministry, 

the apostle went afar. 

I. God Places Primary Emphasis upon the Missionary and His 

Other ministries are necessary, but the missionary takes 

first rank to extend boundaries of kingdom of God. 
Early Church understood this primacy and ever witnessed 

in widening circles. 
Antioch sent forth its two greatest leaders, Barnabas and 

Paul, who were eminently successful at home. 

II. Does the Church To-Day Give Primacy to the Missionary? 
The order has been revised, the pastoral idea in ascendancy 



Know of no Church where missionary work in ascendancy. 
Missions incidental and not where Jesus and Paul placed 


Not first in ministerial training schools. 
Not first among elders, deacons, and Church officers. 
Not first in selection of a preacher. 
Not first in the giving plans of the Church. 
Many do not give at all. 

Many others give but a small proportion to missions. 
Not first in encouraging young people to go from its mem- 
bership to the fields. (There are exceptions to this.) 
There are 150,000 ministers in the United States to care 

for 120,000,000 people. 

There are 25,000 missionaries among 1,000,000,000 un- 

Rarely does a strong man filling a good pulpit offer him- 
self for field. 
Missionaries come home on furlough. Churches urge 

them to stay at home. / 

Not first in our prayers. 
III. The Home Church and Ministry Have First Claim, Is the 

Attitude of Christian People To-Day. 
The missionary cause is extra-optional. 
A building necessary not the missionary. 
How our expenditures appear to missionary home on fur- 
lough. . 
Church never have New Testament power until missions are 

put where New Testament places them. 
What would happen if missionaries were accorded first place? 

R. D. McQuary 



John 6: 68, 69: "Lord, to whom shall we go? Thou hast the 
words of eternal life; for we have believed and are sure that 
thou art the Holy One of God." 

1. Galilean ministry was at the turning. Great crowds were 
falling away. Jesus's pathetic question and Peter's reply. 



2. Many leaders in non-Christian lands to-day have caught 
vision of Jesus enough to recognize in him the supreme 
spiritual genius of the ages. 

I. The Supremacy of Jesus Rests upon His Supreme Ability to 
Meet the Spiritual Wants of Men. 

1. He had satisfied the spiritual -wants of these first disci- 

ciples: "Thou hast the words of eternal life." "We 
have believed and are sure." 

2. To-day Jesus still supremely meets the spiritual needs of 


a. His teaching and spirit gather up the noblest truths 

discovered by all men in their search for God. 

b. In Jesus all seekers after truth experience a sense of 

completion and discovery. In him they are satisfied 
and look no farther. 

II. Jesus Is Spiritually Supreme in Two Outstanding Ways. 

1. In the moral quality of his life. So supreme that men 

have been willing to call him the revelation of what 
God is. 

a. Christian faith possesses a tremendous advantage in 

that Jesus is a historic personality. 

b. Our better understanding of his life and ministry. 

c. His life of moral perfection and unselfish love. 

2. In his power to transform the lives of those who commit 

themselves to him. "He is the revelation of what man 
through him may become." (Jerusalem Conference Mes- 

a. A spiritual power and not mere moral teaching. 

b. Here again is demonstrated the uniqueness of Christ. 

III. The Task of Christians Is a Clear but Difficult One. 

1. Our task is to communicate not teaching, but a life. 

2. Our approach will be to let Jesus speak for himself. 

Through our attitudes as well as through ideas and 
principles he will make his impression on the non- 
Christian peoples. 

3. The supremacy of Jesus will be more rapidly acknowledged 

when he is mediated to the East by Western lives in 



which Jesus is supreme. Love the truest interpretation 
and method. After all, we of the West are thrown 
back upon the necessity of Christian living. 

Egbert W. Smith 



At the very beginning God gave his Church a world charter 
and goal its primary obligation. No changes in the 
world to-day invalidate that charter and goal. Aim of 
Church not expansion of commerce or projection of civili- 
zation these follow its mission; its aim to disciple. Com- 
plete aim to win people to Christ, organize in churches, 
train them to self-support and propagation and thus extend 

I. Missionary Obedience Essential to Church's Spiritual Vitality. 

The North African Churches lost missionary passion and 

succumbed to Mohammedanism. 
No institution can repudiate its fundamental purpose and not 


A comfortable faith, without anything to fight, dies. 
Carey went to India to save England as well as India. 

II. Missionary Obedience the Divine Antidote to Littleness of 
Church and Individual. 

Big-souled people not drawn to a Church which is simply 

a life-preserver. 
A world mission Church gives people a God big enough to 

The Church not a ship chained to the wharf, but driving 

through the sea to a certain goal. 

III. Missionary Obedience Quickens the Church with Fresh 
Proofs of a Living Christ. 

Cite the marvelous results in mission fields, Uganda, Korea, 
etc. Cite individual converts in difficult mission fields. 

IV. Missionary Obedience Lifts the Church to Her Spiritually 
Best in Faith, Love, Courage, Christlikeness. 

To transform hoary systems of belief and break the granite 



strength of age-long trends and superstitions is Church's 

supreme school of character. 

Cite men and women produced Judson, etc. 

V. Missionary Obedience Promotes Unity of All Believers in 

In a country where people pray to cows differences seem 

of small consequence. 
A great common purpose the greatest unifier. 

W. M. Norment 



1. Jesus saw and planned for the whole world. 

2. A given generation of Christians must give gospel to 

contemporary generation of the world, visualizing and 
undertaking its task in the light of conditions present in 
that generation. 

I. The Modern World. 

1. A world of classes, masses, and races. 

2. A world undergoing political, industrial, economic, edu- 

cational, psychological, and social revolutions. 

3. A world that deals with the .ascending of the secular, due 

to increased forms and mass of goods, a result of highly 
developed and applied science. 

4. A world of common objectives. 

5. The exploitation of backward peoples by forward peoples. 

6. The prophecy of a possible rivalry between East and 


7. Inadequacy of moral and spiritual motives, due to pagan 
morality of East and modern humanism in the West 

8. A world that affirms the essential power of Jesus, but 

halts in surrendering to him. 

9. Non-Christian world wants Christ in Message and Man. 

II. The Mission of the Modern Church to the World of To-Day. 
1. The presentation of Jesus Christ without sectarian in- 
terpretation as the source of power to save 

a. Son of God. 



b. Revealer of personality and will of God. 

c. Saviour in temporal and eternal sense. 

2. That West may be saved from 

a. Formalism. 

b. Secularism. 

c. The new humanism. 

3. That East, near and far, may be saved from ignorance, 

superstition, paganism, secularism, and an aping of and 
rivalry with West in the less moral and spiritual phases 
of its civilization. 

4. It rests upon God and the Church as to what trend or 

direction the world of the present and immediate future 
will take. 

5. If changes beginning in world are not influenced and 

motivated by Christ, destruction is inevitable. 

III. The Church about Its Mission. 

1. To accomplish its mission the Church must lose its sec- 

tarian aspects in a sacrificial fellowship. 

2. It must discover and apply the mind of Christ to this 

generation in relationship to interracial brotherhood, 
internationalism, industrialism, secularism, social wel- 
fare, the value of individual human personality. 

3. It must have faith in Christ to meet the need of the whole 

man, physical, mental, moral, spiritual, temporal, and 

4. Preceding its adequacy for the task it must be character- 

ized by penitence, unity, tolerance, and a dependence 
upon God that will issue in full surrender to his spiritual 

5. It must intensify its effort and do so now, before re- 

ligious assets of present situation become liabilities. 

Concerning Challenge to Christians of This Generation 
Underlying the task of witnessing adequately for Christ at home 
and abroad is that which is fundamentally essential to witnessing 
for him anywhere namely, the reality of Christ in our own 
lives. The kingdom of Christ cannot and will not come through 
us until it has come in us. 



THE Jerusalem Conference, realizing that the leadership in 
missionary advance lies largely with the ministry, issued the 
following appeal to pastors: 

1. To study afresh for themselves and to share with their con- 
gregations the enlarged conception of the nature and will of God 
in Christ which is available for our age and which is the 
supreme motive for all missionary enterprise. 

2. To give themselves to systematic study of the world situation 
and of those aspects of the moral, social, and economic order 
which challenge the gospel. 

3. By sermons and teaching courses to show that Christian mis- 
sions have proved of supreme value both to individuals and to 
the national life of the peoples of the world, the growth and 
vitality of the indigenous Churches being an outstanding example. 

4. To make clear the mind of Christ revealed in the Gospels 
as to the essential character and marks of his spiritual society, 
the Church. 

5. To show that the missionary enterprise is inseparably related 
to the great world movements of our time, and especially to those 
which find expression in national aspirations, and that in a world 
unified upon the prevalent nationalistic basis missionary responsi- 
bility, rightly understood, is inherent in Christian discipleship. 

6. Through the aid of Church or inter-church missionary edu- 
cational bodies to adapt a comprehensive scheme of missionary 
education for Church members from the Sunday school and on- 
wards and to encourage the circulation and use of literature 
which alone can provide the fuel both for missionary zeal and in- 
formed intercession. 

7. Finally, to lead their people out into new discoveries in the 
experience of prayer and intercession, by which means alone can 
be released the spiritual power which we need for the task and 
which God is waiting to give us. 

While this volume deals with the pastor and his missionary 
message and he will find abundant suggestions as to stewardship 



and the support of missions from other sources, yet the state- 
ment of the Jerusalem Conference with regard to cultivating the 
spirit of giving is so helpful that it is restated here : 

1. That giving should always be made an act of worship. 

2. That we should avoid allowing any plan for raising mis- 
sionary money to become mechanical and impersonal. 

3. That the presentation of missionary needs should, as far as 
possible, always include the specific requirements of definite fields 
and branches of work, in order that the personal knowledge, in- 
terest, and concern of the individual supporter may be increased. 

4. That the support of missions has its business side. Those 
who administer missionary work must know what financial sup- 
port they can count upon. Therefore, if the work is to go for- 
ward, giving must be regular and be loyally sustained. 

5. That more givers are more important than more money, 
and, in the long run, will mean more money. 

6. That the adoption of any method of stimulating giving will 
always need to be supplemented by most thorough education of the 
people in the nature and purposes of their giving. 

7. It is the duty of the Christian Church in all lands to educate 
its members in the principles of Christian stewardship. We be- 
lieve that a real revival in the missionary life of the Church de- 
pends on an awakened conscience in regard to the Christian stand- 
ard of living, the use of money, and the way money is acquired. 



1. DEVOTE one prayer service each month to intercession for 
Christian Movements in other lands. 

2. Stress the fact that when we gather around the communion 
table and rededicate ourselves to the spirit and teachings of 
Christ we at the same time commit ourselves to God's program 
of world redemption, no less. We say, "I will," to the great 
commission, "Go ye." 

3. Have a small table in the church where books bearing on the 
"World Mission of Christianity" can be on display. These might 
be the property of the minister, provided by a special fund, and a 
brief review of each book by the pastor might be attached to the 
inside cover page. 

4. Devote an occasional Sunday evening to a graphic descrip- 
tion of the progress of Christianity in some area of the world 
which may be specially in the public mind at the time. For exam- 
ple, "Christianity in Palestine," "The Church in the Furnace in 
China," "The Protestant Church in Latin America," "Christ and 
India's Revolution," and "The Ancient Churches of the Near 
East," for the Easter season. 

5. Organize a Church School of Missions during the winter 
or immediately after the Easter season, for different age groups in 
the Church, securing literature on the organization and suggested 
material of these schools from your own Mission Board head- 

6. Provide open forums on the "World Mission of Christianity" 
especially for the men of your Church or for your young people. 
In these forums current questions and misgivings on missions are 
pertinent, and answers should be given by the pastor or carefully 
chosen missionaries, or, if possible, by Christian nationals. 

7. Offer an occasional review from the pulpit or in the mid- 

* Adapted from "My Church and Its World Mission," pamphlet 
issued by Foreign Missions Conference, 419 Fourth Avenue, New 



week service of a book which bears on conditions abroad and on 
the relation of Christian movements to these conditions. 

8. Start a Missionary Reading Contest, using recent books. 
Ask your Mission Board for suggestions. 

9. Dramatize the work of missions your Mission Board will 
provide materials. 

10. Hold a "Poster Contest" in the Sunday school, having the 
classes prepare original posters on some missionary subject in 
competition with one another. Close with a popular exhibition of 
the posters. 

11. Express your interest in missions by your attitude and 
testimony both privately and from the pulpit. Such interest will 
manifest itself in the frequent use of missionary illustrations and 
specific mention of the world mission of Christianity hi public prayer 
and in your conversation as you engage in pastoral work. The main 
question is, "Does the pastor profoundly believe in missions? 
Does he regard active interest and participation therein as essen- 
tial to the spiritual health and growth of his people? Does he 
feel that an important part of his responsibility for leadership is to 
give the members of his Church a world vision and a passion 
for Christian world service?" 

12. Insert -missionary news items frequently in the Sunday 
Bulletin of your Church. 

13. Commit the Church to some definite foreign missionary 
project, around which a strong educational program can be built 
Most Mission Boards have project undertakings. 



"Jerusalem Conference Reports." In 8 volumes. Price, $7. In- 
ternational Missionary Council, 419 Fourth Avenue, New 

York, or your own Mission Board. 
"Roads to the City of God," by Basil Matthews. A graphic story. 

of the Jerusalem Conference. Cloth $1, paper 50 cents, se- 
cured as above. 
"Human Needs and World Christianity," by Bishop Francis J. 

McConnell. Methodist Book Concern, New York. Paper 

75 cents, cloth $1.50, or secured as above. 
"A Faith for the World," by William Patton. The case for 

World Missions. Missionary Education Movement, New 

York. Price $1, or secured as above. 
"Foreign Missions under Fire," by Cornelius Patton. Cloth $1, 

paper 60 cents. Pilgrim Press, 14 Beacon Street, Boston, 

"Changing Foreign Missions," by Cleland B. McAfee. Price $2. 

Fleming H. Revell Company, 158 Fifth Avenue, New York. 
"Christianity and the Nations," by Robert E. Speer. Price $2.50. 

Fleming H. Revell Company, 158 Fifth Avenue, New York. 
"The Desire of All Nations," by Egbert Smith, Price $1.50. 

Doubleday, Doran and Company, New York. 
"Report of Foreign Missions Conference North America," 1929, 

1930. Price $1. Foreign Missions Conference, 419 Fourth 

Avenue, New York. 
"Missions in a Changing World," by W. W. Pinson. Price $1. 

Cokesbury Press, Nashville, Tenn. 



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