Skip to main content

Full text of "Shelton of Tibet [microform]"

See other formats

Clbe nvcrs^ o 








The Afterglow 





. , 

. " t 
* . * 

* * - 


*r. *lt 

v. ^AJ 

Copyright, 1923, 
By George H. Doran Company 

Shelton of Tibet. I 

Printed in the United States of America 






Dr. Albert Leroy Shelton. I loved him as my own 
life. He was chief, pal, brother, friend, big boy ; Bert, 
Shelly, Doc. We argued, debated, and threshed out 
every point. We disagreed, agreed, quarreled, helped, 
and loved each other. For sixteen years we traveled 
and worked, together or separately as the circumstances 
demanded, but always together in spirit and purpose. 

He was like any human being in his likes and dis- 
likes, and like any big boy in his shortcomings and 
good qualities. He had no unnatural pretensions, but 
was open, frank, and free-hearted. He was a sinner 
like you and me, and made mistakes, and realized his 
failures and weaknesses. He was very human. His 
motives were sincere and genuine. 

Tibetans, Chinese, Europeans, Americans, fellow- 
missionaries, and all children, dogs, and cats loved him. 
His faithful mule, Abe, loved him, too. His wife and 
daughters adored him. Why all this love for such an 
ordinary, everyday piece of human flesh? 

The answer is that he had uppermost in his mind 
and deepest down in his heart the Christ as his ideal, 
and for Christ he lived and died. We all know this 
to be true. It was his daily life and hope to bring 
Christ to Tibet, fulfilling the desire of the Rijnharts, 



Loftis, and the martyrs and workers of other missions 
around Tibet ; and in this purpose God manifestly used 
him. He must have been raised up of God for a defi- 
nite purpose in Eastern Tibet. He prayed, "Lord, lead 
us up to the foot of the cross, and make us go there 
whether we want to or not ; and see that we ourselves 
do not hide the cross from the view of others." 

He showed, us in his dealings and experience with 
Tibetan and Chinese robbers how to "love our ene- 
mies" and make of them friends. In his ministry of 
love he went about doing good, preaching, teaching, 
and healing, after his ideal, the Christ. One of his 
favorite hymns was, "Jesus, Keep Me Near the Cross." 

His sense of humor served him in all dangerous 
and impossible situations. He was "scared to death 
most of the time," but one of the bravest of men. He 
traveled over the main roads of a hundred thousand 
square miles in Eastern Tibet, and worked among the 
most savage tribes, making friends and opening the 
way. Making a name for himself did not seem to be 
in his mind. The idea of his being better than any- 
body else did not occur to him. His "Go to it, Ogden, 
you're doing fine," has helped turn my failure into 
success many times. I miss him, and have suffered an 
irreparable loss in his untimely and accidental death 
at the hands of irresponsible savage robbers looking 
for loot by the roadside. 

"Over the top to the City of the Gods" was his aim. 
Backed by his fellow-missionaries, and holding a con- 
ditional permit from the secretary of the Dalai Lama, 
he was still careful and cautious, and intended to pro- 
ceed only as full permission and passports were 


granted. He tried, and did his best. His "Come on" 
and "Carry on" and his death as a martyr, have in- 
spired us to reconsecrate our lives to this unfinished 
task, and to press on with undying zeal to fulfill our 
pledge to him and to Christ, for the sake of the coming 
of the Kingdom of God in this roof garden of the world 
known as Tibet. "Om mani padme hum" must come 
to mean "Our Father, which art in heaven." In the 
long-aged purpose of God through Jesus Christ our 
Lord, we proclaim in burning words that Tibet must 
be evangelized. A great price has been paid in time, 
money, service, and life. We must not fail; we can- 
not but go forward. We can and we will, no matter 
what the cost. 

As a mission, working in Eastern Tibet, we owe 
a great debt of gratitude to all those who in any way 
have contributed toward unraveling the mysteries of 
this sealed land to governments, statesmen, consuls, 
officials, soldiers, travelers, geographers, linguists, sci- 
entists, explorers; to missionaries Nestorian, Catho- 
lic, or Protestant ; to all who have given time, thought, 
money, tears, sorrow, suffering, blood, or life, in their 
striving to overcome the difficulties of prejudice, igno- 
rance, hatred, travel, distance, altitude, temperature, 
language, religion, and superstition; to all those who 
have contributed to the relief of suffering, to the en- 
lightenment and to the salvation of the Tibetan people, 
to the care and uplift of the sick, poor, orphan, or aged, 
through chapel, church, hospital, school, orphanage, or 
home ; overcoming evil with good, loving enemies, and 
turning murderers into friends. For these all are the 
forerunners of the Christ to whom the doors of iron 


and brass must open. All these have helped to usher in 
this day of the Lord for this closed land now bought 
with a price. In this day of preparedness, let us enter 
and possess the land for truth and righteousness! 
Then shall we turn this sad loss of our beloved Shel- 
ton into great spiritual gain for ourselves, for the 
Tibetans, and for the Kingdom of Heaven on the roof 
of the world in the name of Christ! 

J. C. O. 


To the many letters and telegrams that reached us 
and were waiting upon my return from India, where I 
had been busy putting three Tibetan translations on 
the press in Calcutta, I tried to answer by a line. From 
every corner of the globe they came kindly, loving 
messages. If they only could just have cured the 
heartache ! To you all in this little note I wish to send 
heartfelt thanks ; to those in India especially who kept 
and loved me when the news came. It was then I 
understood well what the suttee meant to an Indian 
wife, and the pain of the burning would have felt 
comfortable compared with the pain within. Unto 
you all may the blessing of those who comfort come. 

To the many who have helped with encouragement 
when courage was gone, who said, Write, when every 
nerve was numb, and the brain refused to obey, when 
the world was all awry and I felt shelterless and alone, 
wondering how I could keep the girls sweet and true 
to their father's ideal for them, in spite of the light- 
ness and frolic and rush around them, I express deep 
gratitude. How hard it is to teach children to hold 
fast to prayer and forgiveness of sins and love to 
their fellows, when so many lose the best of life and 
see only self magnified, forgetting that only in losing 
self can be found the fullest usefulness. They said, 
Write the world needs the book. I could not: the 



heartache was too big. I could not see the lines, and my 
heart was bitter that he in his unselfishness had been 
taken out of the world when we needed him so. 

On many of the things that Dr. Shelton has spoken 
and written of in his own book, "Pioneering in Tibet," 
I have not touched. He makes his life so very simple, 
and what anyone might do, did he but love enough. He 
loved and gave himself, "losing himself that he might 
be found." He marked in his books always the line, 
"Not to be ministered unto, but to minister," and 
verily he lived it, giving of himself in strength and 
love and service to those who demanded or needed it. 

To write this book at this time seems utterly im- 
possible. I am so near what appears to be the great 
thing, that the perspective is wrong, and I am entirely 
out of focus. That one thing, big and overwhelming, 
overshadows all else, so that I am unable to see any 
resulting good. So many lives are broken, so much 
of misery falls on the heads of the innocent, that men 
may prosper, and nations be powerful. The world 
seems a great machine, grinding out life for daily gain. 

What blinds men of power, and those who hold 
governments in leash, that makes it easier to kill than 
to save, to torture than to soothe, to make of crushed 
bodies and destroyed homes a pawn in a diplomatic 
move? They have forgotten the Nazarene, and the 
fact that the nation which calls itself Christian, and 
acts pagan, casts the lie in the teeth of all Christendom. 
A nation can reap what it sows as well as a man. The 
eternal WHY stands prominently, arrogantly. 

F. B. S. 























































































Someone has said, if you would have your work 
live, dip your pen in your heart's blood and write. 
This have I done, and though this work may not live 
may it help keep his life forever in the hearts of men. 





"Of doctors there are three classes: 
first, second, and third. A first-class 
doctor can absolutely cure; a second- 
class doctor can cure in a day or a 
month; if you take one dose of medicine 
from a third-class doctor, a- hundred 
other diseases appear." 


Who can say from what remote ancestry or line of 
ancestors comes the call for heroism, or the bent toward 
cowardice? Once in a hundred years comes a great, 
outstanding figure: great for his eloquence, great for 
his poetry, great for his service to his nation, or for 
his sacrifice for all men. Who can say what makes 
one man great, or another less great? It only is so. 
Who can say from whence comes the urge to go on 
and on, until victory is won, or life is forfeited? Who 
can say from what old line of heroes or pirates comes 
the brain cell of adventure or service in this mixture 

we call American? That the combination makes men 



of heroic mold is true; men who are yet children in 
the world's development of nations, but upon whose 
shoulders in time to come will fall an adequate task. 
Upon one such man sometimes fall the sins of the 
world; on another, the making of a nation; on an- 
other, the salvation of a race; and on another the 
travail for souls. 

A lad was born in the city of Indianapolis on June 9, 
i%75> whose father was a carpenter. The young mother 
of twenty, married some four years before, was busy 
all day about her tasks of housekeeping, caring for 
the new baby, perhaps dreaming dreams of his future, 
and of what he might do some day. When the boy 
grew a little bigger, always at his mother's heels he 
tagged, bringing a book, and saying, "Please read me a 
story." The mother read often, and told often, and 
soon he began to learn his letters wherever he saw 
them. The printing on the sacks of flour, headlines 
of newspapers, advertisements all were grist as they 
came to the eyes of the boy, and the alphabet was 
learned by the time he was three. 

Now the urge of the ancestors from the Old World 
in the blood of the father, whose progenitors were 
among the early settlers of Delaware, began to call 
for the West, and a wider range and adventure that 
must be undertaken. So into the West, that land of 
dreams and possibilities, goes the small lad, to the 
plains of Kansas. 

Always and everywhere Nature builds into her peo- 
ple, to those who look and listen, strength, or love, 
or beauty; and always and everywhere do men learn 
from their native soil the lesson God meant them to 


have. Dwellers near the sea know the call and com- 
fort of its strength, feel the fear and love, realize the 
majesty of cruelty and the mercilessness of it, as well 
as the soothing peace which is ground into the lives 
of those who dwell near it or upon it. 

To the forest dwellers come the love of the trees, 
and of wild life, the listening for bird calls, the soft 
rustling of leaves at night, the tender call of mating 
creatures; upon these people is the imprint of caution 
and boldness made, which is needed to cope with tame 
life and the wild creatures as well. 

And the mountains aye, "from the mountains 
cometh help." Those who dwell there are great in 
soul, and love and hate to the highest degree, giving 
life itself for love, but knowing not the feeling of 
forgiveness toward an enemy. These men are strong, 
vigorous the survival of the fittest. 

As the sands of the desert breed into its children 
romanticism and cruelty, wonderful dreams or the 
despair of utter desolation when they are alone in the 
endless, depthless sand, so the vastness of the western 
prairie gives to its children a strength, a vision, and a 
struggle that makes them or mars them always. 

For out of the necessary everyday hardships of liv- 
ing comes either a character that fails, or one of iron 
and steel, ready to wrest from the placid land food or 
raiment whether it will or not, and as it calmly waits, 
unruffled, in the hottest sun or fiercest storm, with 
it battles the soul for what it must have for daily 
use, learning the lessons that are taught for future 

Into this great, unknown West came the little dark- 


eyed lad, and began his fight. There was no water, 
and water must be had. So the wagon was loaded 
with barrels, hauled by the slow oxen, and water was 
brought eight miles to the other starving animals and 
the no less thirsty household. Sometimes the boy must 
wait his turn, and would spend the night near the well, 
when he had brought no food with him. Perhaps he 
would catch a rabbit, roast it over a tiny fire, and eat 
it without salt. Under the wagon often slept the lad, 
and the coyotes sniffing around seemed like immense 
wolves to the small boy. The sleepy oxen snuffed 
and grunted and chewed their cuds the whole night 

Sometimes the boy made snares of string, and caught 
the hungry little gophers as they stuck their noses out 
of the ground, hunting for food in their struggle to 
live. Sometimes a rattler shook his warning, and was 
killed by a crack of the long ox whip ; then the rattles 
were cut off to make a hat band for the boy brave 
enough to kill him. A little later, as the lad's legs 
grew longer, he wanted to learn to shoot; the father 
taught him how to aim with an old squirrel rifle that 
he could not lift. Some time later a small "22" rifle 
was his. Then the coyotes suffered, as a bounty was 
given by the State for their scalps. Many snakes 
were killed, until a cigar box was full of rattles of all 
sizes, from the tiny button of a baby snake to the six- 
teen or eighteen rattles of a big one. 

The gophers got killed, and were taken home to his 
pet cat that always came to meet him, sure of a big 
supper when he should come. When there was more 
than the cat wanted, they were dissected carefully by 


this young embryo doctor, and when Tommy ate too 
much, and had the stomachache, he heated hot blocks 
and put them on him to ease his pain. 

To any life friends count; but here and there one 
or two stand out who help us over the hard places, and 
cut the track for the next mile. Into the boy's life 
went camp meeting, ball games, country school, country 
church life, and stories of blood and thunder read by a 
camp fire, near a dug-out cave of "adventure" where 
the boys had their meeting place. Then one day came 
the story of "Ben Hur," and the boy awoke and 
dreamed of being a missionary to India; but that was 
a long road to go, as he was but fifteen. 

Teaching was the next step with clerking in the sum- 
mer time, and at twenty he went to the Kansas State 
Normal College this wild-looking Western collarless 
lad. To wear a collar was to be "stuck-up" in Western 
Kansas. Men didn't do it, only-preachers and "dudes." 
Many smiled as the rough-looking boy entered the 
Normal classes, striving in every way to remain and 
to get what he desired. Some silken skirts drew aside, 
and the stylish men refused to notice the janitor boy 
and newspaper carrier. Only the teacher of mathe- 
matics and those who saw America in the making 
waited for the raw material to shape itself and make 
a man worth while. Soon the clear-eyed lad was lead- 
ing the classes in mathematics, and the silken skirts 
and high collars were failing to make good. And this 
same mathematics teacher, flinging erasers and chalk 
at them, and tearing his hair at their stupidity, sent 
them to the collarless lad to be tutored. Thus the way 
grew easier. 


Now the Spanish-Cuban war came along, and the 
spirit of patriotism grew to fever heat in the schools- 
of Kansas. A college company was formed, with one 
of the Normal instructors as captain, and the lad was 
one of the first volunteers. You know, all soldiers 
must have a sweetheart, or they couldn't fight. And he 
had one, but he found it out only a few days before he 
left only six days, and all the courting was done by 
letters. About a year the company was in Camp Alger, 
in Virginia, and, much to the young man's disgust, 
saw no real fighting. They were mustered out in the 
fall, and he married the sweetheart in apple-blossom 
time in Kansas. The next year both were back in 
school again ; but about New Year's time a scholarship 
from the Louisville Medical College came and it was 
given to the boy by the President of the Normal 

Then followed four years of medical work, and at 
its close, the appointment to Nankin, China, by the 
Foreign Christian Missionary Society of Cincinnati, A. 
McLean, President. At this time Dr. Rijnhart was pre- 
paring to return to Tibet, where she had lost her hus- 
band and baby some time before, and was asking for 
a doctor and his wife to go with her to the Tibetan 
border. The young doctor was asked if he would 
go. He said "Yes," and went. Often he said, "I 
hoped to go to India, was appointed to China, and 
wound up in Tibet perhaps the only field in which I 
would have been able to work, as I felt absolutely un- 
fitted for the other fields as time went on and I knew 
more about them." 




"It is better to be a subject in your 
own country than a king in any other." 


From the port of San Francisco out through the 
Golden Gate harbor on to the wide Pacific, went the 
small steamer China one fall day in 1903, bearing Dr. 
Shelton and his wife. The island of Hawaii was the 
first stopping place, and many new impressions came 
thick and fast to the country-bred folk from Kansas. 
Tropical sea birds and vegetation were seen. New and 
queer things were found to eat. The magic mountain 
with the wisps of smoke around the crater spoke of the 
Goddess Pelee, whom the natives used to worship each 
year by throwing the most beautiful maiden and her 
handsome lover into the burning top, to appease her 
wrath for another year, and keep the island safe. But 
on again the good ship sailed. Japan came next, 
looking like a perfect jewel in its setting of sea and sky 
that is seen in no other place in the world. Its military 
fortifications are of the finest, and the busy people live 
and serve their country with a devotion and patriotism 
that are unsurpassed. Out from the coast of Japan 



into the Yellow Sea steamed the vessel toward the 
coast of China. It was very soon discovered why it 
was called "Yellow," for the great Yangtse through 
its length of travel from beyond the little Batang sta- 
tion brings down its loads of yellow dirt and pours them 
into the sea, making the blue a murky yellow; and 
on this muddy sea the boat sailed to the port of 

The missionaries were expecting Dr. Shelton to 
stay in Nankin, and were filled with consternation when 
they found he was going on with Dr. Rijnhart to the 
Tibetan border. Nankin seemed very far from any- 
where ; what would farther on seem like ? As to just 
where Tibet was, and how we were to get there was an- 
other question, but we were to find out all about it. 
Old China, the river, Tibet, and the people what 
had the future in store? 

Up as far as Ichang the trip was a simple matter. 
Around the city of Ichang were graves innumerable. 
Every place you looked you saw these little green 
mounds, thousands and thousands of them. One day 
as we passed the city wall we saw an old beggar sitting, 
blind and patient, and utterly silent, and as we dropped 
cash into his basket, the people said, "Don't do that. 
He owns half the city now!" 

The small steamers were clean and pleasant, with 
good service and good food and no seasickness; and 
China is always fascinating. Its river banks look 
like green velvet, with here and there feathery bamboo 
like bunches of ostrich tips. Villages are tucked away 
amid century-old trees and flat-nosed junks go up and 
down, man-pushed and pulled as they have been since 


time began or the Chinese race existed. Everything 
seems always to have been in China. All things are 
old, or should be. A new thing jars. You always ex- 
pect the trees to be big and old and the cottages to be 
old and gray. Arches of crumbling stone commemorate 
some great deed or great man, and worn pagodas are 
here and there, where gods might dwell. Grain or 
rice is planted on every place where a seed could stick 
and multiply. Junks carry their old and weather- 
stained sails, patched until you cannot find a sign of 
the original one. A new sail makes a startling white 
blaze on the landscape. A new house stands out, and 
does not seem to belong to China. 

Legends of the river were many. Here was the place 
where a steamer went down; all were saved except 
the captain, but he refused to leave his boat, and no 
trace was ever seen of either of them again. Two 
big rocks, called "The Two Orphans," stood out in 
the middle of the stream; a small temple built upon 
one made you wonder how they ever got the stones 
and material at that height to build it. But it was a 
grand place for meditation for Buddhist priests. 

Nineteen years ago there were not so many small 
steamers on the upper Yangtse and going up the 
great river was rather a tedious affair. At Ichang, a 
thousand miles inland, we had to take a house boat 
and be pulled the rest of the way up the river. Square- 
nosed it was, like the rest of them, high in the back, 
somewhat resembling a duck, and in a little room at the 
rear the captain and his wife dwelt. The middle part 
was partitioned off into three or four rooms for the 
rest of the party, while the long deck in front was 


where the coolies stretched at night. Some boards 
were laid for a bed, as there were no cots. The floor 
was bare and the flimsy walls felt as though a breath 
would blow them down. All the cargo was under the 
floor of the boat. Home food was not to be had no 
coffee, no cheese, milk only out of a tin. The food 
was plenty, as pork and chickens and eggs could be 
bought, but it didn't taste like America. 

The day of starting came, and the rooster who had 
been sitting on the prow, tied by a string, was killed. 
The blood and a few feathers which were stuck on the 
front of the boat were made an offering to the river 
gods, and the boat started up river, its big, clumsy oars 
pulled by its crew of thirty or forty men. But that did 
not last long, for when the swift water comes the 
men must be put on shore, the long bamboo ropes un- 
rolled, and they must pull. With a short strap over the 
shoulder, and a "cash" at the end of it to give it weight, 
each man threw it around the long rope and pulled 
with his hand almost touching the ground, a task- 
master at his back to drive, and, if necessary, to whip 
if a man was found to be shirking. So, with a lot of 
noise and rhythmic song, they pulled slowly ahead. The 
boat passed a rock in a dangerous curve, and each man 
tried to toss a pebble in a water-worn cup upon it, to 
insure him the arrival of a son upon his return. 

Some days were calm, with no wind. Sometimes 
there were places where the men could not pull, as the 
great cliffs of the gorges were perpendicular, and there 
was no foothold to be had. Then they sat on the 
prow and whistled for the wind devils to come and fill 
the sails and help the boat onward. These gorges form 


some of the most magnificent scenery of the world, 
tmequaled anywhere. The "wind-box" gorge is one 
where the wind seems to be bottled sure enough. 
Here they put up a sail, the men have a rest, and the 
boat goes with the wind. There the wind devils are 
usually kind. 

It is well that travelers do not know the danger of 
the treacherous rocks and whirlpools. Sometimes as 
the coolies drag the ropes through great gashes in the 
rocks, made by ages of the same kind of travel, they 
clamber over paths that seem impossible, crossing first 
to one side of the river and then to the other, where 
even a goat would find it hard to get a foothold. Some- 
times the ropes break, and back the boat crashes, turn- 
ing round and round until a current of water hauls 
it in a lucky inlet or the "devils" lead it on a rock and 
it is smashed. Many wrecks can be seen along the river. 
From the banks one can see sugar dripping from tin 
cans, oil spilled, cargoes of cotton drying in the sun, 
and lamp-wicks, made of the weed-pith used by the 
Chinese, spread out to dry. Sometimes a man is 
knocked off the cliffs by the ropes, and falls into the 
river, but the boat never stops; they do not even at- 
tempt to save him it is impossible. Sometimes the 
men are badly hurt, and there the Doctor had his first 
opportunity to help the people. Always and every day 
he was out among the men, some with crushed arms 
and broken bones and sore feet, following the boat all 
day for the pittance of cash that would be theirs at 
night. When he came back to the boat, he would say, 
"Oh, if I just had nine lives, that I might spend one 
going up and down among these thousands of river 


coolies to help them and heal them and preach to 
them, for they have no chance at all !" 

One month of this kind of travel brought us to the 
port of Chungking, a great, crowded, dirty city. Some 
very fine hospital and church work is located in this 
place. We saw the small boats plying the river in their 
traffic for slave girls, to be sold in Shanghai and other 
cities. Here we had the story of a girl who cut out a 
piece of her liver in a fit of filial piety, to feed her sick 
father. The Chinese doctor told her that was all that 
could save him, but she lived under a German doctor's 
care. Skin diseases were everywhere ; blind and leprous 
beggars were at every turn, it seemed. The destitu- 
tion and filth and sin were beyond belief. What the 
old river carries and knows about this city and could 
tell if it could talk, would be much. Up the steps and 
through the old city wall many feet thick, which has 
stood for centuries, are the water coolies, splashing 
water as they go, carrying the city's supply from the 
old river. Very necessary is that dirty water. 

Here another house boat was taken, a little smaller 
than the first, as above this point the cliffs are not so 
steep, nor the rapids so fierce, and travel is easier. 
Along the banks men are using cormorants for fishing. 
On the small boat sits the forlorn black bird, with a 
band around his throat so that he cannot swallow the 
fish. He must always be hungry, or he will not fish. 
Another time one sees otters that are throttled and 
forced to go after the fish. Mercy seems to have gone 
from the earth ; all things seem pitiless and men most of 
all. Always and always, wherever we went there were 
misery and pain and suffering, especially among the 






women and children, and there was just one thing to 
aid. That was opium, and it was everywhere. Perhaps 
it is a feast day and the Doctor has promised some pork 
if the men pull well, and so they joyfully and cheer- 
fully sing away as they row, thinking of the meat to 
go with the rice and vegetables at night. Slowly the 
journey is made, and almost two months are gone 
before the end of the river journey is in sight. The 
muddy Yangtse has been left, and the boat enters the 
little river near Kiating, where the water is clear, and 
the stones can plainly be seen on the bottom of the 

It was with a great deal of rejoicing that we finished 
the water journey and could get upon earth again. We 
were glad indeed that the land looked and felt as it 
did in dear old Kansas, though most of it did not smell 
the same. A new order of travel must be arranged 
now. We were to be carried in sedan chairs, but as 
Dr. Shelton could not stand it to be carried by men, 
he put his coat and medicine bags in the chair and 
walked along the road. 

Such a beautiful land it is! The little houses, the 
trim, neat little dooryards, a water buffalo nipping 
the grass along the banks of the rice fields, tended by 
a child sitting on his back. The tiny yard is as smooth 
and clean as it can be swept. The mud-beaten rice- 
threshing floor, flowering fields of mustard and beans 
something on every inch of ground that can be used. 
There is only one thing to mar, and that is your sense 
of smell, or the horrible "cess-pools of iniquity," 
which are at the end of each house, or in a field, or in 
the backyard, filled with dissolved human filth and 


all the animal filth they can pick up and swarming 
with maggots, and perhaps a man or woman is carrying 
a couple of bushels of this mixture in buckets, with a 
dipper decorating each tiny plant with a perfumed 
bath of the liquid. 

Some of the Chinese women have never seen a for- 
eigner before, and come near to investigate the queer 
shoes and clothes of the foreign women. Some of them 
think the white faces very strange, and the eyes and 
hair rather queer, especially if they were not black. 
But the plains are soon crossed, and the mountains come 
next. Leaving the tropical ferns and bamboos, we go 
on up the mountain road of stone steps, climbing slowly, 
the chair-men swinging the chair with a kind of rhythm. 
The bamboos grow smaller and smaller, the ferns dis- 
appear ; it is cold, and snow is on the ground. It is the 
last big climb just before we reach the top. The 
Doctor has gone ahead of the chairs, and has some hot 
soup ready for us, and the men eat or smoke opium to 
prepare for the last hard pull. 

Up and up we go, and to the Kansas bred the moun- 
tains seem very high. On the top the men grow very 
quiet, and fail to call to each other or to sing the wind 
is roaring, the tops of the chairs blow loose, and we 
wonder if we will go over the side of the mountain and 
land on the tree-tops, or on the cloud banks, which 
look very soft out there. What is the matter with the 
men ? They never do anything without noise, and now 
they are so still. Oh, they are afraid they will rouse 
the wind devils who live on the top of each pass if 
they speak it is a good thing they did not rouse any 


more than were already awake, or the chairs would 
surely have blown away. 

Two of these high mountain passes were on the road 
between Yachow and Tachienlu, and several smaller 
passes were traversed during the eight days' journey. 
The lesser passes were not so cold, as they were not so 
high, but were about as dangerous. There were often 
landslides ahead or behind the chairs, and as we passed 
along and jarred the loose shale, the stones often rolled 
down the steep slopes of the mountain. It seemed often 
that we would never get anywhere, as the path ahead 
seemed to run into the mountain, and one would be sure 
there was an end of the trail; but somehow the sure- 
footed, patient men found the way through, or over, 
or around ; and the chairs still went on and on. 

It is over this trail in snow and cold, rain and sleet 
and burning sun, that coolies carry their tea for use in 
Tibet. Old men, young men, boys, and a few women, 
carry these loads of coarse tea of a very inferior qual- 
ity. In preparing the tea, it is swept up with the sticks 
and trash and coarse tea leaves of all kinds, and then 
steamed and pressed into what is called "brick tea" for 
the Tibetans. The Chinese say it is good enough for 
the Tibetans and, strange to say, the latter prefer it to 
a better quality. It is put into splint bundles, weigh- 
ing from twenty to forty pounds each, and carried on 
the back. Little boys, carrying three or four small 
bundles, trudge along by their father or adopted father, 
who carries from two hundred to two hundred fifty 
pounds on his back. A small stick, with a crosspiece 
at one end and an iron-shod point at the other, is used 
to place under the load, shifting it for a rest to get 


the weight from the back for a few minutes. If one 
of these carriers gets a shove, or loses his balance in 
any way and falls over, he cannot lift the load or regain 
it, but must have help to get it on his back again. 
Their food often is only a slab of corn-bread. The 
meal for this is mixed with water and a little salt, and 
heated through, but the bread is solid enough to be 
stuck behind some of the bamboo splints of a load. 
Sometimes they use only opium to give the required 
strength, and require little food. One can sometimes 
see little brown opium lamps swinging from the load. 
There is a long chain bridge just before reaching 
Tachienlu, with no support underneath, held only at 
the ends. Three or four chains make the floor of the 
bridge, with a few boards sprinkled oh them. Over 
this the men go like sheep, one following the other. If 
one stops to rest, the others in line do the same thing. 
A story is told that one time a great line of coolies 
came to this bridge and started across. A chain gave 
way and into the water went the men and their loads. 
There was no opportunity to save them, as the loads 
would drag them under at once, and it is almost impos- 
sible to get the arms from the straps. For a chair this 
journey is eight days ; for the tea carriers from fifteen 
to twenty days. Another story is told of a great land- 
slide which came tumbling down the mountain and 
completely covered up alive some tea carriers who were 
resting. Often the chair-men step over a dead comrade 
as he lies in the road his cross stick, his wooden sad- 
dle, and the ropes tied to his back. His load has been 
delivered, but he had died "in harness." 


Legend, story, and tragedy are on every inch of the 
Chinese narrow-pathed highway. Across the chain 
bridge the travelers go, and Tachienlu is only two days 
away. We pass some queer round stone walls, which 
are like stone circles on the flat bed of the river valley, 
and look somewhat like the remains of old fortifications. 
Asking about them, we were told that Tibet reached 
down as far as Yachow at one time and as the Tibetans 
retreated against the aggressiveness of the Chinese, 
these were the remains of the old forts where fighting 
had been done. 

One more day's journey and the stopping place is 
reached. The stop for the last night is at a small 
village nestling between huge mountains the lowest 
place in altitude we were to see for some years, as the 
road goes higher and higher this last day. Here the 
Tachienlu River roars by, throwing its white spray into 
the air as it strikes bowlders weighing several tons 
which have fallen into the river bed. Another river is. 
near, but more quiet, and here the fishing huts are, and 
the fishermen. This little village is one day from 
Tachienlu, and some years later was a refuge when 
the high altitude got too hard for us. Here we once 
tried to raise tomatoes, but the people pulled them 
green, and then said they were not fit to eat, and de- 
stroyed them. Here we heard the story of a man who,, 
during the day, had begged some two hundred cash. 
He left the town in the evening, but was found dead 
the next morning on the hill path. Leopards had killed 
him, they said, but leopards do not kill for cash. A 
wedding was to take place in this little village, and the 


poor bride had cried all day because she didn't want 
to leave her home her father and mother and brothers 
and sisters. She couldn't be blamed, could she, when 
she had never seen the man who was to come for her ? 
Here a funeral was held, and a pig was killed and the 
whole of it offered to the spirit of the dead man, while 
over the eyes of the hideous paper gods, mounted on 
the doors, they pasted paper, so that the man's soul 
would be allowed to go out and not remain in the 
house to haunt them. 

One day there was an eclipse of the sun, and the 
noise outside was dreadful. Just what was happening 
we did not know, but looking out we saw a long line 
of Chinese marching up the street, each with a bell, a 
gong, a drum, or a pan, making all the racket possible, 
expecting the clamor to scare the heavenly dog so he 
would not swallow the sun. Soon he began to spit 
it out, and the noise ceased. 

Tachienlu at last. Hearts beat fast as we near the 
city, the chair-men marching rapidly in the light snow. 
Here we got the first home mail and some rooms in a 
Tibetan inn, and we were in our first home in a foreign 
land. The Doctor was so tall that he bumped his head 
on all the door tops, and most of the roof, and stubbed 
his toes on all the big four-inch boards in the doorways. 
The floors must not be scrubbed because they never 
had been, but we were landed safely, and ready to begin 
work. This was March 15, 1904. 

Language study and medical work began at once, 
and there was plenty to be done. Dr. Rijnhart opened 
a dispensary and left Dr. Shelton free to study the 


language, except on the surgical cases, which she did 
not want to attempt. Study was his main work, how- 
ever, and he put in five hours a day at it ; but there was 
a bit of difference between the colloquial and the clas- 
sical. The colloquial language was the language used 
on the street altogether, and the classical language was 
known mainly by the priests, so that when the Doctor 
studied the classical language and attempted to ask a 
man if he was ill, he could not make him understand. 
He had to learn the colloquial language in order to 
make himself understood. The language was not diffi- 
cult to read, but he did not talk as fast as he wished, 
nor understand as clearly. He found he must go out 
among the people and talk to all of them, trying to un- 
derstand what they said to him and to make them un- 
derstand him. 

In the meantime a native house had been rented, and 
Dr. Shelton had men working at it. They were very 
deliberate, so he decided to help them. He secured a 
knife, water, and soap, and proceeded to wash the sev- 
eral hundred layers of Chinese paper off the walls, 
meanwhile scrubbing and scraping the dirt of ages off 
the floor until the house began to smell sweet and clean. 
We could step out the back door on to the mountain, 
one wall of the lower story being the side of the hill. 
There was a court-yard so tiny that a cat would have 
been killed if you had tried to swing it by the tail 
but it was home! Some furniture had to be made, as 
we had none. We were also without a stove. Strange 
chairs and strange beds and dressers were made by 
the Chinese carpenters, but with matting on the floor 
and curtains at the tiny windows, we felt clean and 


ready for the new guest. On August 25, 1904, there 
came to us a dark-eyed baby girl, with her father for 
her doctor and Mrs. Rijnhart for her nurse. The 
first evening, as she smiled at her. father, we named 
her Dorris Evangeline. 



"A man's lawsuit is like a rock, it 
never grows old; a woman's quarrel like 
a prayer-flagstaff, it never wears out." 


The city of Tachienlu is situated at the head of a 
valley something over eight thousand feet in altitude, 
and is crowded in between mountains with a roaring 
river, which winds around and through it. The snow 
falls early, and stays late, and it rains almost every 
day in the summer time. A dreadful shut-in place it 
seemed to those who had seen only plains and broad 
fields. It is located on the extreme western border of 
the province of Szechuen, and separates Tibetan terri- 
tory and Tibetan life from that of the Chinese. Be- 
yond this city is Tibet, with its mountains and rivers 
and valleys almost unknown and unexplored, a different 
land and different customs entirely. 

The first winter in the city was a severe one. Dr, 
Shelton had bought a little heating stove from a mis- 
sionary family residing in Tachienlu, who kindly let 
us have it, but it would not warm the room which had 
cracks in the walls and floors. Many nights the Doctor 



sat -with his overcoat on, reading and keeping up the 
fire with wood, while Dorris and I were shivering in 
bed, for with all the covers we had, and then the rugs 
over us, we were still cold. 

One day, in the midst of work, a blare of trumpets 
was heard, and the Chinese official came to pay a call 
of respect to Dr. Shelton, because he was an American, 
for the return of the indemnity money from America 
for the trouble during the Boxer Rebellion. He took 
Dorris in his arms, and she proceeded to pull his beard. 
He looked at her and said that for a lesser offense she 
might have lost her head in the olden times, for it was 
considered a great disgrace for a Chinaman to have his 
beard pulled. 

Every day was filled with study and work and med- 
ical cases of all kinds. Sometimes an epidemic of 
suicide would strike the town and there would be from 
two to six cases in a single night, their friends coming 
post haste for the "water gun" (hypodermic) to save 
them. No man wants his enemy to sit on his doorstep 
and die. He would be haunted forever and have to 
pay the funeral expenses as well, which is no light 
matter in China. 

Strange characters, these Chinese. They will be 
frightened at nothing, until they are of a ghostly green 
pallor, or take opium and jump into the river over the 
loss of a few "cash." We often wondered why they did 
not do more for the destitute or the sick that were 
near them, but when we learned that they might be 
blamed for the death of such a one and made to pay 
for a feast and burial should anyone care to accuse 
them, it did not seem so strange. 


In the fall of 1904 we were looking for a couple of 
Tibetan boys to adopt and train as evangelists and 
doctors for future time. The little school was very 
good, and many were interested in coming to church, 
but they were mostly Chinese. The children every- 
where were wild as partridges. If Dr. Shelton pointed 
his camera at them, they flew indeed to cover, and no 
pictures were to be had. Our old Tibetan teacher ob- 
jected a long time before he would consent to have his 
photograph taken. We finally found out why. He said 
he thought the soul was taken out of the body and put 
upon the card. A long time afterward, when we saw 
Tibetans worship the many pictures of their gods and 
goddesses, believing them to be the real spirits, we 
understood his reason. 

One day a lad, dirty, ragged, and forlorn, walked 
into the compound with a note from another mission- 
ary, a two days' journey away, who had sent him to us, 
knowing we were looking for a boy. We asked him of 
his home and life and family, and if he wanted to stay 
with us. His story was this: His father had been a 
small Chinese official, and his mother a Tibetan woman. 
They were both dead, and he and his little brother were 
starving. He had been given to the priesthood, but 
had run away to get work, in order to feed himself and 
his little brother. He had an older brother who was a 
gambler, but he did nothing for them. The lad was 
about thirteen years old. We took him in, had him 
shaved and washed, put clean clothes on him, and kept 
him. Then he brought his little brother, who was 
very small, about six years old, and covered with vermin 


and filth. Him we also took into our house, and they 
were both placed in school. 

One day a tea coolie came into the dispensary with 
his leg broken, the bone sticking out through the flesh. 
It took Dr. Shelton three hours to fix it, but it was 
done, and the man recovered. Another day they came 
for him to go and see a Tibetan woman who had a 
baby three days old. The afterbirth had failed to 
come, and she had not urinated for three days. An 
old shoe was tied to the cord, asking it to walk out of 
itself, as the Chinese custom is. She was in a filthy, 
dark house on some dirty rags on the ground, and 
the Doctor had to use a lamp to see at all. The little 
baby had not been washed, and was tied up in a dirty, 
half -rotten sheep-skin. Marvelous to relate, after his 
care they both lived. 

Another day they came for him, and told him that a 
little girl had fallen into the river. The house was 
built jutting over the Tachienlu River, and the little 
girl of five had slipped, and fallen in beneath the house, 
the swift water carrying her away at once. The mother 
jumped in after her to save her, and was immediately 
washed away. The body of the child lodged on a small 
island in the middle of the river, and Dr. Shelton waded 
out to get the body, hoping there might be some chance 
to save the little life. The water was only waist deep, 
but the current was so swift and powerful that, strong 
man as he was, he came near being swept away be- 
fore he reached the bank. The little child was dead. 
Its life had been beaten out on the stones by the swift 
water. The mother's body was found miles below. 

About this time, the gold fields in Tylin were opened 


by the Chinese, and they were mining the gold and 
taking it all. The Tibetans objected to this, as they 
said some should be left "for seed," so they fought. 
The Tibetans were victorious for the time being, and 
the Tachienlu official sent soldiers to quell the disturb- 
ance. Dr. Shelton asked to go to the scene of the 
trouble, as he was sure he would be needed; but the 
official refused to allow it. 

The Tibetans sent this threat to the town: "We are 
coming to take the city, coming in sheepskin gowns, but 
will leave in silk and satin." Soon many of the 
wounded came in, and Dr. Shelton was busy. Wounded 
as they were in neck and back and arms, you would 
wonder how they had ever been able to walk the long 
distance and come to the dispensary for help. Many 
rumors were rife, and the Chinese were sending their 
wives and daughters out of the city, and hiding their 
valuables in safe places. But it was only a tempest in a 
teapot, and it was soon over. 

Later, when the fighting was ended in Tylin, an 
official was sent there to take charge. One Sunday 
morning, while Dr. Shelton was still in bed, one of the 
schoolboys came in, sat down on the bed, and asked him 
to go to Tylin, as the official there had been shot ac- 
cidentally through the neck. It was about a hundred 
miles to the northeast of Tachienlu, and considered 
a five days' journey. Dr. Shelton said that he would 
go at once, if they would make arrangements to carry 
his bed and provisions. He put his raincoat and in- 
struments and medicines in his saddle bags and on the 
mule, and started about nine o'clock. In an hour or 
two the man carrying the bed, rifle, and ammunition 


started, but the Doctor never saw them again until 
four days later. About ten o'clock Dr. Shelton and 
the guide stopped to eat and feed the horses. The man 
who had done the shooting had sent the big mule for 
the Doctor to ride, as it was his business to save the 
man he had shot if he could. About four o'clock it 
began to rain, and the Doctor put on his raincoat, but 
it poured and poured, with a strong wind blowing. 
Before dark he was soaked through and through. 

They traveled until about half past eight at night, 
and came to the only habitation they had seen on the 
road after the first few miles from Tachienlu. It was 
a low, squat Tibetan house of one story. A man came 
out with a pitch-pine light to show them the way inside. 
As they stepped inside the door, their feet sank ankle 
deep in manure, for the horses and cattle were in the 
house as well as the people. In the same room were 
three big open fires of wood, and on the dirt floor about 
twelve Tibetans around each fire. The house was filled 
with smoke. The Doctor was supposed to stay there 
for the night. He unsaddled the mules and fed them, 
took off his wet clothes while the Tibetans helped him 
to dry them, had some supper, and tried to sleep on two 
or three boards on the ground. Sleep was out of the 
question, as fleas were there in quantities. After try- 
ing it for an hour, he arose, looked out, and seeing 
that it was not raining, told the guide they would go on. 

They started some time after ten o'clock, but the 
road led through big trees dripping with water, and 
they were soon wet to the skin again. The moon shone 
brightly, but it was very cold. As they came to the 
foot of the pass, it began to rain once more. After 


two hours' climb up a steep mountain, dismounting 
many times for fear of the holes and ruts full of water, 
they came to the top of the pass, which was fairly level. 
They saw the first of two lakes on the top of this pass 
about sixteen thousand feet high. The Doctor's mule 
here lay down, as he was pretty tired. After passing 
the second lake, the Doctor saw that they were fed by a 
glacier about two thousand feet above them, which 
could be dimly seen in the moonlight. The guide's mule 
was tired out, too, and refused to go farther. But they 
were going down now, and there was not so much 
danger of getting lost as on the top of the pass, so Dr. 
Shelton went on alone until about three o'clock in the 
morning, then stopped and waited fifteen or twenty 
minutes for the guide to come up. But he did not 
come, so he went on without him, and did not see him 
again until the next day at sundown. 

About five o'clock daylight began to come. Both he 
and the mule were tired, and wet, and sore, and cold, 
and he was ready to sleep now, in any place fleas or 
no fleas, or whatnot; but no more houses were to be 
found. Now two big Tibetan dogs came running 
from a camp, and as these dogs are about the size of 
bears, he rode with his pistol in his hand, so that they 
would not jump up at him and "eat him alive." 

The sun was an hour high when the rain stopped 
and the Doctor began to get dry, and about eight o'clock 
he came to the village of Tylin, where the wounded 
man was, and where the gold camp was located. A 
lamasery was here, where three hundred lamas (priests), 
stayed, who were exceedingly hostile, because they had 
never seen a foreigner before, and they didn't know the 


Doctor nor what he was doing there. He inquired 
where the camp could be found. Finally one lama 
pointed toward the north. The Doctor, followed the 
road for a few miles, but could find no settlement or 
village. He finally came to a boy gathering brush for 
a fire, and offered him a rupee if he would guide him to 
the road. As he had no money with him, he gave the 
boy his pocket knife for security. The mule refused 
to carry him any longer, so he led him, and following 
the boy in half an hour came to camp. A number of 
soldiers were sent to meet him, and he was led at once 
to the man who was wounded. He had made the trip 
in twenty-three hours instead of five days, had twice 
gotten soaked with the rain and dry again, and was so 
tired he could hardly stand. 

The Doctor's first care was to look 'after the wound. 
It was some four or five days old : an ugly hole in the 
neck where the bullet had gone in, laying bare the 
carotid artery, and coming out at the back of the neck. 
Both openings were sealed up tightly with plasters of 
pitch, as is the Chinese custom, and both were full of 
pus. He syringed the wound and drew gauze through 
it, then packed it with iodiform gauze and gave the 
man some medicine so he could sleep. The man who 
had done the shooting now took the Doctor and gave 
him a change of clothes and got him some breakfast. 
He rolled him into his own bed about noon, and he slept 
until after dark. Then he got up for some supper, saw 
the sick man, and went to bed again, sleeping until the 
next morning about nine o'clock. 

The guide arrived that evening, though they did not 
expect him until the next morning. By that time the 






wound was doing well draining properly and the 
man felt better. The Doctor rested that night, and the 
next day gave medicine to a few sick people. He ran 
out of gauze and some necessary medicines, and the 
big man sent a soldier to Tachienlu for more supplies. 
The fourth day after starting, the man arrived with 
the Doctor's bed and the Winchester rifle. All but four 
of the cartridges were used up. 

The Doctor explored the village and the gold camp, 
and gave medicine to many of the people. He also 
hunted for marmots and a few grouse, and kept the 
official in fresh meat, which was a scarce article there. 
He stayed for eleven days, and the people made his stay 
most pleasant, and gave him the best they had. The 
place was so high that no vegetables would grow, so all 
that were had must be carried from Tachienlu. The 
Doctor taught the man's secretary how to dress the 
wound, and got ready to return home. The wound 
was from a 44-caliber Winchester, which a man in 
another room had been handling carelessly when it 
went off accidentally. The owner had heard a man 
scream, and rushed in to find the victim on the floor, 
badly wounded. 

As the Doctor left, the patient asked what the charge 
was. The Doctor explained that there were no charges, 
but that he could donate what he liked to the little dis- 
pensary. He gave two hundred rupees, and asked, "Do 
you get any of this?" Dr. Shelton told him No, that 
it was only to help pay for the medicines which he 
used for poor people who could not pay for themselves. 
But the man said, "I want you to have something for 
yourself." Just at this point a soldier came along 


leading a mule, fine, black, and stout. "I am giving 
this to you," the official said, "to show my gratitude 
and thankfulness." So the Doctor rode home on his 
own mule, escorted by a guard of soldiers. 

While at the gold mines, he studied the method of 
mining. The mines were only holes along the bank of 
the stream. The workmen took the dirt up in baskets, 
carried it to the water and washed it out in small pans. 
After the fighting, this official had been sent in to 
take charge of all the gold mined. All the gold had to 
be given to him. The miner was credited with sixty 
per cent, and a tax of four per cent went to the govern- 
ment, but in spite of all the watching and all the guards, 
a lot of the gold was never turned in. The best nug- 
gets were stolen and hidden, so that about only half 
reached the official. 

They occasionally found a thief, as was the case 
while the Doctor was there. One of the miners had 
been turning in nearly an ounce each day, but this day, 
when he came to have it weighed, he had only one 
fifth of an ounce. The big man at once ordered him 
taken into custody, called the inspectors, asked if he 
had found no gold that day, and ordered him to be 
beaten a thousand blows. The man was thrown down 
on his face and held by one man sitting on his shoulders 
and a man holding each leg. His trousers were turned 
down over his thighs ready for the beating. The bam- 
boo used was light and very limber, and the blows were 
not heavy. It seemed at first that the beating would 
not amount to much. However, at the end of three 
hundred blows, the skin was slightly abraded; and 
the man was screaming and howling ; at the end of five 


hundred, the limbs were beginning to swell. At seven 
hundred blows they were black, and at the end of a 
thousand they were beaten into a mass of bruised flesh 
that shivered like jelly when struck. After the beating, 
the man was turned loose and helped to his tent. In 
a few minutes he returned, bringing the rest of the 
day's washing, something over an ounce of gold. He 
was then expelled from camp. 

The Doctor, on his return from the mines, was 
tanned as brown as wind and sun could make him. He 
had had no fresh vegetables, but had eaten salted and 
dried turnip parings. Even the supply of these was 
scant, but he had had plenty of mutton, yak meat 
(which is like beef), and pork. He was glad to get 
home, and we were glad to have him. 

During that spring, my arms were paralyzed, and I 
was rather helpless, so with the work inside and out- 
side, and with the care of the baby, Dr. Shelton was 
pretty busy. As I got no better, Dr. Rijnhart, baby, 
and I were ordered out of the high altitude to the 
little village away where it was much lower and warmer. 
We lived in a Mohammedan inn, with dirt floors and 
a "pool of iniquity" at the back, and where the goats 
slept at night. We were lonely, but sometimes the 
Doctor came down for a day or two to see us, and 
we had a happy time. He and Dorris built forts out of 
stones, and shot them down with rocks. They watched 


the men fish in the Utong River, putting the worms in 
their mouths and blowing them up for bait, and then 
holding them in their mouths until they were ready 
to use them. Dorris ate all the dirt she could find, and 
had great romps with her father, but these play-times 


seemed very short, as the Doctor soon must return to 
work. When this time came, he would mount his 
horse, give the baby a ride, and then go on. As we 
came back, the sun still shone, but I think not so 

The time came to return home to Tachienlu and go 
on once more. One morning the postmaster came run- 
ning into the house with a face as gray as could be, tell- 
ing us that the French priest who had lived among 
the Tibetans at Batang for thirty years had been killed. 
He also said that another one was missing, and the 
man sent by the Emperor to Batang had been cut into 
little pieces. 

Just how much was true could not then be known, 
but it meant again another Chinese army to quell the 
Tibetans and conquer them, and they were still send- 
ing to the Doctor for medicines for those who were 
wounded in the last fighting, afraid to come themselves 
into the city for fear of the Chinese. It meant a new 
commander for the province and its border, and we 
soon heard of his coming. From the top of the moun- 
tain back of the house we could see them in their red 
coats come marching in, in single file, along the moun- 
tain road, about two hundred of them this time. People 
were waiting to see the commander, and after a three 
hours' wait, during which they said he had stopped to 
smoke his opium, he came in riding in a green-topped 
chair with elegant chair-bearers, who did not allow his 
chair to tip a bit, as it might cost them their heads. 

This time the Tibetans were to be taught to yield 
to Chinese control. War was always around the edges, 
cases of all kinds coming every day to the dispensary. 


Here were old wounds of many days' standing and 
amputations of frozen limbs, fingers, and toes to be 
looked after. The Doctor cut off in one day thirty-one 
of these from a group of Chinese soldiers who had 
come out of Tibet through the snow and the cold. 
Then there were soldiers who had deserted and been 
caught. These would come into the dispensary literally 
soaked with blood, as one punishment was to cut off 
both ears close to the head. Another form of punish- 
ment was pinning the top and the lobe of the ear to- 
gether with an arrow, and making the men march 
through the streets, bearing a placard telling that they 
were deserters. Many soldiers came out of Tibet 
desolate and starving, begging a few cash to get them 
back home again. If, for any reason, they couldn't 
keep up with the army, through legs and arms being 
frozen, making them unfit to do their work, or if they 
became ill, they were shortly dismissed with no cash 
and no place to go. 

One man came to the dispensary with both hands 
frozen. Doctor asked him how it had happened, and 
he told him that he had been forced to hold the officer's 
horse for hours in the cold, on a fifteen-thousand foot 
pass, while the officer went inside the rest house to 
smoke his opium. 

Dr. Shelton helped many of these unfortunates to get 
back home into warm China, and they seemed very 
grateful indeed. Soon came rumors of more fighting, 
and the report was that the Chinese had been defeated. 
The officials would not admit it, for fear that if it was 
true a general exodus would take place, but the truth 
came out a little at a time as the wounded stragglers 


reached Tachienlu. The telegraph line had been built 
to Batang, but it was very difficult to keep it repaired. 
The Chinese said that the Tibetans cut it, and they 
would capture a Tibetan, whether he was guilty or not, 
and hang his head up in a basket on a telegraph pole, 
as a warning to others. However, we heard that the 
Chinese cut the line about as often as the Tibetans did, 
so that the deserters could not be so easily caught. 
This hate between the Chinese and the Tibetans breaks 
out periodically in battles and rebellion. 



"At a great height, the sun, moon, and 
stars meet. At a great depth, the fish 
and hook meet. At a great speed, the 
horse's mouth and the bridle meet. At 
a great slowness, the stick and the back 
of the ox meet." TIBETAN PROVERB. 

Dorris was beginning to crawl by this time, and went 
sidewise like a little crab. We wanted a pet for her 
now, and we got an ugly, funny little beast, about the 
size of a big peanut, that had to be washed every day, 
but we fed him plenty, so he did not look quite like a 
starved Chinese dog. 

The first baptisms occurred about this time three 
people, two women and one man. Later in the sum- 
mer, seven of the school boys were baptized. It was 
good to see them come so young, as they had a great 
chance for much usefulness in the future. Our big 
boy, Li Guay Guang, was one of them. He had been 
with us for two years now. 

There are mountain sheep on the hills around, and 
one day Dr. Shelton went with a Catholic boy who was 



a great hunter, to see if they could shoot some. They 
climbed and climbed, but could not get near enough 
for a shot. The climb down was rather strenuous, and 
they were tired. From the summit of the mountain 
down to the river were long, smooth places, where 
formerly there had been a landslide, but where now the 
wood cutters sent their wood down, to save carrying 
it, when they cut it on the tops of the mountains. The 
Doctor and his companion each tied a few sticks of 
wood together, sat down on them, and came down that 
slide of two or three thousand feet at a somewhat 
swifter pace than if they had walked, with dirt and 
stones flying about their ears and hitting them in the 

What wouldn't Dorris do next? Down the steep 
Chinese stairs she rolled, and we thought she must be 
killed, but her father felt the little body in every place, 
and no bones were broken, nor were there any bruises 
that we could see ; and in a few minutes she was ready 
for more worlds to conquer. 

Mr. Moyes, who was a missionary of the China 
Inland Mission, took ill, and Doctor pronounced it 
typhus. Mrs. Rijnhart was now engaged to him, and 
they both worked hard to keep him. Finally the crisis 
was passed, and he lived. Doctor came home after 
the long night, and went to bed very tired after his 
long vigil, but he had realized his ideal of the doctor in 
"Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush," and Baby and I were 
glad to have him back again. 

In Tachienlu lived a king, a real Tibetan king. That 
is, he had been a king, and still had the name and the 


retinue and the semblance of authority but in reality 
none at all. When the Chinese had conquered Ta- 
chienlu, he had been deposed by them, but had kept his 
palace and was allowed to do about as he liked, though 
he had to see that the surrounding Tibetans paid their 
taxes when the Chinese asked it, that they furnished 
horses and cattle to all Chinese who wished to go to 
the interior, and in numerous other ways served his 
conquerors. He had several wives, many servants, and 
a little girl whom he dressed as a boy because he 
wished very much that she were a son. She had a sheep 
to ride, and would go very fast upon it when she went 
out for a ride. Many years later this little girl was 
married in the city of Tachienlu, but just how happy 
or how miserable her life has been, we have not heard. 

This king had been on a holy pilgrimage to Omei 
San, a sacred mountain of the Buddhas, near Kiating, 
when Dr. Shelton was on his way to Tachienlu for the 
first time. He came for some medicine, and thought he 
got much better. A friendship started then between 
the two men, and it was never broken. He showed 
kindness to us in many ways during the time we lived 
in Tachienlu, and even afterwards, when we left the 
city. His life was not an enviable one. He was spied 
upon, not allowed to go out of the city, forced to do 
as the Chinese commanded, and always had to make 
the Tibetans yield to every request of the Chinese, well 
knowing the hate on both sides. 

Every year in Tachienlu worship was conducted on 
top of the "Run Horse Mountain." It is a legend of 
long ago that the god of this mountain got very angry 


with the city of Tachienlu, which was located just at 
its base, and hurled stones and dirt and torrents of 
water upon it until the city was entirely destroyed, 
scarcely a piece of wall having been left standing. Of 
course it could not be built again in that place, but was 
rebuilt a few hundred yards below. So every year, 
in order that this god may not be angry again and de- 
stroy the city, a pony race takes place on the top of 
the mountain at sunrise, to pay homage to the god. 

One morning about nine o'clock, we went to the 
courtyard of the king's palace to see the ponies that 
were to race that year. There were a hundred and 
thirty of them, and they came with their riders in single 
file past the king as he sat in his place on an upper 
balcony, each man dismounting from his steed as he 
came into the presence. The king's own were the pret- 
tiest and fattest, and his riders stayed on as his ponies 
went by. We wanted to see the race, so we took a 
small tent, Baby Dorris, and the orphan boys, and went 
up the mountain the evening before, so as not to be 
too late to see the ponies run, for the race was to take 
place as the sun came over the tops of the eastern peaks. 
Lovely it was: mountain and sky and stillness. The 
little boys sat in the tent door before we slept and 
sang "J esus Loves Me." It is a wonder the god was 
not shocked to hear such a song as that instead of the 
Tibetan prayer. It was enough to make him want to 
roll some rocks on us! Prizes were given at the end 
of the race, and everybody went back down the moun- 
tain again. 

The sequel to the life of this Tibetan king has just 


come. The extract from the North China Herald is 
here given: 

"Tachienlu, Szechuen, June 24, 1922. 

"The King of Chala was found drowned in the 
Tachienlu River on the morning of June 2nd. It is re- 
ported that rinding escape from the city impossible, he 
ended his miserable and hopeless existence by drown- 
ing himself in the river. There was a plot to effect his 
escape, and, had it proved successful, a very serious 
border situation would have been the result. That the 
scheme failed and failed stupidly and disastrously 
was largely due to the age and decrepitude of the poor, 
unfortunate king. This final effort to escape was the 
last kick of a man who has pined for his seal of office 
since Chao Er Feng took it from him in 1911. 

"The King of Chala was kept a prisoner by the 
Chinese simply because he abused his freedom. The 
Commissioner would have released him long ago had 
he been sure that the king would have behaved himself. 
He was carefully caged up for the same reason that 
keepers at the zoo cage tigers and lions. On the night 
of May 3 ist, a well-laid scheme was planned to free 
the king. This night was especially chosen because it 
was the Dragon Festival. People generally would be 
enjoying Chinese festivities, and on such a night state 
prisoners would not be in the minds of happy, feasting 
Chinese officials. A more propitious evening certainly 
could not have been chosen : the Dragon Festival, the 
many feasts, the pleasant entertainments, the abundance 
of wine, the miserable prisoners would be forgotten. 
It was now or never. 

"The plan of escape was simply this: at a given 
hour those inside were to commence digging toward 
the outside, and those outside were to begin digging 
toward the inside. The prison wall presented no very 
serious difficulty. The mistake, however, lay in for- 


getting that the floor of the prison is several feet higher 
than the level of the ground outside. Those digging 
on the outside might have gone on digging till they 
reached the Tower of London, and found themselves in 
rather an awkward position. The King of Chala, find- 
ing no one coming to his rescue, gave up his boring; 
his friends on the outside, finding the wall much thicker 
than they anticipated, gave up in despair. The scheme 
failed entirely, and simply through miscalculation. It 
is indeed fortunate for Tachienlu and all in Eastern 
Tibet that the king did not escape. 

"The following evening, June ist, the king and his 
servant completed the boring, and finally crawled out 
of prison. Finding no horses and friends ready to 
hasten his escape, and knowing that Tachienlu was well 
guarded night and day, the king, after sending his 
servant round the hill, made for the riverside, burrowed 
a shallow hole, and there drowned himself. His body 
was found there on the morning of June 2nd, with his 
breast loaded up with idols, amulets, and Tibetan pray- 
ers. Thus died the King of Chala, who lost his seal 
in 1911, his palace in 1912, and his life in 1922. Since 
his death, the border situation has been quite uncertain, 
and the feeling in the city is that trouble may break 
out at any moment. Will the King of Chala's death 
make Tachienlu more secure, or will it be the cause for 
deeper hatred between the Chinese and Tibetans?" 

Poor old King ! It was a sad end for a man who had 
always hoped that some day he might find his kingdom 
in part restored, and escape for a little while from 
Chinese bondage. Because of the unsettled condi- 
tions in China and the freedom that the greater part of 
Tibet had won for herself by expelling all the Chinese 
from the country, the Tibetans hoped to govern them- 
selves. Their plan was to release from captivity all 


those rulers who had once been in authority over them, 
and who by them are worshiped as holy, place them in 
power once more, and be subject to no nation. The 
idea of freedom was going to all corners of the earth, 
and to these people also it had come. 



"From the works of a former life and 
from heaven's law, there is no escape, 
they follow forever." 


Word now reached us that new folks were coming 
that Mr. and Mrs. Ogden had been appointed by the 
Foreign Christian Missionary Society to come to 
Tachienlu, that the Doctor must go to Shanghai to 
meet them, and that Dorris and I were to go to Chentu 
to wait for them. So bag and baggage, chairs and all, 
we started over the wild mountain road that leads 
along by the roaring Tachienlu River. As we went 
along, the Doctor saw a mountain goat across the river 
on the mountain side, and shot it, his first big game; 
it rolled to the water's edge, and the men went across 
after it. They would have fresh meat for supper, and 
plenty of it. 

The days were about all the same as we wound slowly 
around the mountains and through the valleys, getting 
gradually lower every day. The only marked difference 

was in the inns at which we stopped, which were of 



varying degrees of dirtiness, and the pits of filth some- 
times not so near. The fields of corn looked very 
strange, after not seeing any for so long. As we 
reached the plains, the roads grew narrow between 
the rice fields, and when it rained, were slippery as lard. 
The men dropped the chair twice. It was well it was 
not a narrow mountain road, or we might have tumbled 
to nowhere. Dorris slept much, and wiggled the rest 
of the time. In the green, flat, rice fields the men were 
plowing in the mud. Fields and fields of water soaking 
the earth for the rice planting looked very strange and 
quite a contrast to the mountain fields that were so 
steep that nothing could stick to them but a coolie or 
a goat. Such a paradise for ducks are these valleys, 
with millions and millions of them for the use of the 
Chinese table. Dried duck is a great article of diet 
among the Chinese. They split the birds open in the 
back, salt them, and hang them up to dry. They can 
then carry them thousands of miles and have an excel- 
lent meal at any time. 

Nothing but a water buffalo with no hair, and a 
Chinaman, could plow fields under water and knee- 
deep in mud. And such threshing machines ! A wooden 
sled, with a piece of matting stood up in one end of it 
to keep the grain from flying out. The farmer takes 
the little shock of rice and beats it on the side of the 
sled until all the kernels fly out, saving every one in 
the bed of the sled. Then the straw is twisted into small 
bundles for winter feed for the animals, and to make 
sandals for the people. 

As Dr. Shelton's road branched off from ours, he 
left us before we reached the city of Chentu, and went 


on to Shanghai, while we proceeded to the capital of 
the province. It was very lonely, only Baby and I, 
without him, in this strange land where there were so 
many millions of people, but we hoped he would go 
safely and bring the new friends back all well and 

In the capital city we saw the people weaving beau- 
tiful silks in all colors green and blue, cream and 
white, but in such filthy houses. It is a wonder we 
do not all catch some disease when we wear this silk. 
The world is such a lonesome place without the people 
near you that you love best. We just waited and 
counted the days until we should hear that the new 
folks had come. They surprised us and came back, 
to our astonishment, much sooner than we expected 
them; and we were glad they had returned safe and 
sound from the old river. 

Packing and going home were the next things to 
do ; so through the valleys and over the two big moun- 
tains again we all went. There were cold and snow, 
dirty inns, and rooms with paper windows, through 
which the Chinese poked their fingers and peeked, so 
that we had to undress in the dark. The new friends 
didn't sleep much, as they were not yet used to the bark- 
ing of the dogs and the noises of an inn. But we were 
home again at last, with a heating stove and a cook 
stove, and we felt very grand indeed. 

But a louse had gotten on my arm and chewed it to 
the shoulder, and in two weeks after getting home, a 
hard chill came on followed by typhus fever. Husband 
and Baby were forgotten, and the tiny tot ran wild, 
while the Doctor sat day and night by the bed for many 


days and nights, finally, when the crisis came, putting 
a few drops of water at a time on my tongue through 
one night, thinking each time was the last. Through 
his care and devotion, life came back again, though 
just what for I do not quite see yet. After my re- 
covery, work began again, for through these days of 
illness all things stopped. 

When I was well again, the Doctor went out with 
the schoolboys to hunt and to bathe in the hot springs, 
to study among the people, and to see if there was a 
place to open a new station. We always missed him, 
Baby and I, but he always came back to us out of the 
fresh air with ducks or pigeons or pheasants he had 
shot, feeling that he had made great strides in the 
language, and gotten nearer the boys as they lay and 
talked at night around the camp fire, and nearer to the 
people in the country as he went to them with medicine. 
They were afraid to come to the crowded town, and 
afraid of the Chinese people in the streets, who con- 
sider the Tibetans something like dogs, since they are 
the ruling class. 

Then Dorris had to be vaccinated again. I was hold- 
ing her, and when the Doctor scratched her leg it hurt. 
She thought I had done the hurting, and looked most 
reprovingly at me, while loving the Doctor with her 
arms about his neck. This delighted him exceedingly. 
Typhus seemed to be rampant in the city during these 
two years ; first Mr. Moyes took it, then I, then Johnny, 
Doctor's medical assistant, and last, Mr. Sorensen, a 
member of the China Inland Mission. The Doctor and 
Mi*. Ogden stayed with him and nursed him, one stay- 
ing from noon to midnight, and the other from mid- 


night till noon. While he lay unconscious, his baby 
boy took the smallpox, and his mother cared for him. 
It seemed marvelous that we all lived. God's hand was 
surely in what the Doctor did, and his life was wonder- 
fully guarded. I hoped he would never be ill, as there 
was no physician within a seven days' journey. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ogden were both busy with the lan- 
guage study. Mrs. Ogden was soon ready to talk and 
work with the women, and the work began to grow. 
Mr. Ogden was ready in a few months to preach his 
first sermon in Tibetan. Until then, Dr. Shelton had 
had to preach, take care of the day school and the 
medical work in the city, and itinerate whenever he 
could. The days were filled full, and we were glad 
when night came and we could rest. Our old Tibetan 
teacher had been coming for two years, and said he 
would like to put his name down and learn the doctrine 
but that he was bookkeeper at the monastery and was 
afraid of the lamas, who he said would be greatly dis- 
pleased with him should he accept the foreign religion. 
Reading and studying the Bible in Tibetan with the 
Doctor, he would get very angry with the people who 
treated Christ so cruelly, and would say, "What do they 
mean, why should they kill him? He has done rioth- 


I have many memory pictures of those days. Dorris 
takes another tumble down the stairs. She falls on her 
chin this time, making it black and blue. Now she is 
on the couch with her father, looking at some photo- 
graphs, and they are chatting away like two children. 
She says, "Now then, play horse." Then, "Papa, go 
to sleep. Now then, Papa, wake up," and the big man 


enjoys it, this bossing by the baby girl. She orders him 
to play bear sometimes, and growl like the baby bear 
she saw; then he must be a horse, down on all fours 
while she rides ; next with a tsamba bowl she is a whin- 
ing beggar, and her father is putting cash in the bowl. 

Opium was plentiful in China then, and could be 
gotten very cheaply. Everybody used it; it was the 
universal panacea for all pain; the smoke blown in 
a baby's face could quiet a severe case of colic, and 
there was nothing else to be had. 

The Doctor had patients of many sorts. Suicides 
were common. A second wife swallowed a lot of 
opium with wine, and they came for the Doctor too 
late. A baby whose mother gave too much milk for 
him vomited, and the mother wanted it stopped. The 
baby wasn't ill, it was only Nature's way of getting rid 
of the over-supply. The older sister said, "I'll stop it,'* 
and went to a Chinese doctor for a draft of scorpions, 
which she got and gave to the baby, who soon died. 

The Chinese teacher had a small bag of musk tied 
to his gown, and when we asked him what it was for, 
he said, "Oh, so I won't smell the dirty streets." To 
clean the streets would be almost impossible. They 
are narrow and covered with rough cobble stones, 
plastered over with the filth of ages. When it rained, 
they were sticky, the water and the smear making some- 
thing akin to plaster, and the sun making it warm raised 
a stench that cannot be described, but must be experi- 
enced to be appreciated. A toilet was an unheard of 
convenience; filth of all kinds abounded; pigs, yak, 
chickens, and children wandered at their own sweet will 


anywhere and everywhere, using the streets for their 

A woman who died was one of the first who had 
been baptized, and was the first to have Christian burial 
services. She said she did not want either lamas or 
Chinese priests. We attended the little service, and 
wore white, the Chinese mourning color, upon our 
heads in her honor. 

A Catholic father had died of typhus during the 
winter. Many of the natives went to see his face as 
he lay asleep, and as they looked at it, they said, "If 
to be a Christian means to look like that when you 
die, I want to be a Christian." This French father had 
served thirty years, and had never been away from 
Tachienlu very many days' journey. 

When Dorris was three, the schoolboys bought 
firecrackers and shot them off, and her cake had three 

There was a big lamasery at Tachienlu where the 
people held their yearly festivities, milking the cow to 
see whether the barley crop would be good or not, 
baptizing the god's image in a mirror, as well as some 
rather comic buffoonery that was amusing to the crowd. 
Many of the lamas came for medicine, and one who 
had broken off a needle in his hand, and whom the 
Doctor had relieved, was always a friend of the mis- 
sion, as nearly as they dared to be friends. 

Once every month the devils were coaxed out of the 
lamasery by quite an elaborate ceremony. The priests 
blew long trumpets and rang bells, chanted prayers, 
and persuaded the devils all to collect in a great piece of 
tsamba (parched barley flour), molded in the shape 


of a man, a chorten, or some animal. Then this was 
taken out and set down, straw was piled around it, and 
it was shot at with a gun or with arrows, eggs were 
thrown toward it, and lastly the straw was set on fire. 
But beggars always followed the procession, and when 
the lamas had about finished, they rushed through the 
fire and captured the tsamba and any egg that survived. 
It did not seem to matter to them how many devils they 
ate. This custom of taking the devils out every month 
was followed by most of the big Tibetan inns, or 
gogewans. Though they were coaxed out once a month, 
there was always a "batch" of new ones that got in 
somehow, and gave the lamas plenty of work. 

Wonderful stories we heard about the priests in the 
lamaseries. There were tales of those who were killed 
in the dead of night because they had displeased the 
high priests, and thrown into the river in order to 
leave no trace. Some were killed by beating, some by 
strangling, and the treasurer stabbed himself because 
his money account was not what was expected of him. 

There is not much to be seen in the faces of these 
men who are lamas. The children are much to be 
pitied, for they are taken at six or seven years of age 
one from each family is the rule and placed in the 
lamasery, with no care or love from the big coarse 
men residing there. They are taught to chant prayers 
from memory, or to read Tibetan meaninglessly, taught 
superstition to the highest degree, and given charms 
to keep away disease and evil. It is not much wonder 
their lives are foul, for pure thought has no soil in 
which to be born. A lama's power is limitless over 
the people, who come on every occasion asking how 


they shall do things, and when and how, worshiping 
through fear, as they dread a curse from a lama, be- 
lieving that he can bring to pass all he says. Even 
though they should go to hell, if they pay the priest 
enough cash, he will be enabled to get them out. 



"1 took a horse clear to Lassa without 
making his back sore; while the cow 
downstairs lost the skin off her tail" 


Letters from the Board at home made it almost 
necessary for the Doctor and Mr. Ogden to go to 
the interior and see if a station could be established 
farther inland among the Tibetans. 

The situation at Tachienlu was very difficult. The 
Chinese were the rulers, and monopolized the services,, 
and the Tibetans refused to come and mix with therm 
at all, for several reasons. One was the position in 
which they were held by the Chinese, and the other, 
their hatred of them. Mrs. Ogden and I would be 
alone, and it was hard to see our husbands go. The 
days were busy ones, as the men were to start Septem- 
ber 3, 1906. Boxes of food must be fixed, changes 
of clothing gotten ready, bedding and medicines pre- 
pared. The ula (pack animals), with Tibetan escort, 
were slow in coming, and on the day of departure they 
did not get started until about two o'clock. Dorris 


clung to her father and cried and cried when he had 
to go ; and the next morning she hunted for him every- 

Now we were alone, and worked just as hard as we 
could to keep from missing our husbands and feeling 
how lonely we were. We felt as if they had been 
gone months instead of a day. Always when the Doc- 
tor was away, and the first day was ended, I felt 
like saying, "It is the morning and evening of the first 
day"; and the next day, "It is the morning and eve- 
ning of the second day"; and so on until his return. 
Ten days later the first letter got back to us ; they were 
doing nicely, and we were glad. We expected a tele- 
gram from Li Tang, as the line had been extended 
that far, but it didn't come. We sent over to see 
what was the matter, and the lines were cut. It is a 
hard matter to keep them repaired; the Tibetans cut 
them because the Chinese put them in, and also be- 
cause they have a superstitious fear of them. A tele- 
gram later said, "Friday, late, hungry." That meant 
they would be home on Friday, would probably make 
a two days' journey in one, and that all their food had 
given out on the way. But they hurried, and got in 
on Thursday, October nth, instead of Friday. The 
Doctor had used one towel and two handkerchiefs on 
the whole trip, and never changed his pillow-case at 
all! It is no wonder he had to be "boiled" and every- 
thing with him, when he got back from one of his 

They were gone thirty-nine days, and surveyed the 
country all through, looking for a place to put the new 
station. They decided upon Batang as the best place 


and the best valley they had seen in all their journeys, 
and looking over the land these two felt so powerless 
and so weak in that great expanse of country that, as 
they talked, they went on their knees under the big tree 
where they sat, and gave to that land their talents and 
their lives ; and God took them and used them. Upon 
their report depended whether the mission was to go 
to Batang or remain in Tachienlu. 

About this time, the report came out that the Chi- 
nese soldiers had rebelled and killed their major at 
Litang, and captured all the guns and ammunition. 
The Tibetans joined them, and they held the country 
now from Hokoe to Litang. 

It is not much to be wondered at that Chinese sol- 
diers rebel, when one knows how they must live in the 
interior. Their pay is very little. The officials keep 
most of their money, and let them live upon the coun- 
try as best they can. Many are stationed on high 
mountain passes, which are cold and barren. The 
soldiers have little to eat, very few clothes, and abso- 
lutely nothing to do but carry a few messages and 
watch the telegraph lines to keep them from being cut. 
The rumor was that the king at Tachienlu had moved 
all his treasurers to Nim Ya; he must have thought 
that something was in the wind, or else was afraid 
there was. The big monastery at Litang, which con- 
tained about three thousand lamas, was helping the 
Chinese rebels. It meant safety for them and their 
gods, for here they printed one of the Tibetan Bibles 
in the lamasery, and much of the wealth of the coun- 
try, consisting of butter, tsamba, gold, and silver, was 
stored in these great houses. Should they refuse to 


aid the Chinese, they would loot and burn the lamasery, 
so it was to fheir advantage to feed the Chinese, to- 
buy their red coats and their guns and ammunition, 
giving them enough money to get out home and leave 
them in peace once more. So, a few at a time, the 
soldiers straggled out through Tachienlu, with no uni- 
forms and no guns; always saying, if captured 
and questioned, that they "had been robbed by the 

At this time Mrs. Ogden went into the valley and a 
little girl was born, who only opened her eyes to close 
them again forever. Mr. Ogden kept the tiny coffin 
a few days, as he feared the mother would sleep beside 
her baby, but she grew better, and the little one was 
placed on the mountain side in the C. I. M. compound, 
but the father and mother could not be comforted. 

Very, very slowly the natives came for help in cases 
of childbirth, for they were very much afraid of a 
foreign doctor. In one case the woman died with a 
child unborn, but it was taken from her, for she would 
be cursed forever if she should be left in that way. So 
many times the people would wait from three to five 
days when the mother was near death from exhaus- 
tion. Sometimes the Doctor could save both mother 
and child, sometimes only one, and sometimes neither. 

On May 27, 1907, a new baby girl decided to open 
her eyes in this strange land. Dorothy Madelon came, 
with Mrs. Ogden for her nurse and her father for 
her physician. She was such a tiny thing, but hardly 
any trouble at all, for she would lie and coo and smile, 
just like the babies one reads about. Next to being 
sick in China, is being alone with no one else of kin 


near you. If I could only just have taken my babies 
in my arms and run home for a few minutes to let 
my father see them! But I should want to run back 
again, of course. 

Dorris's nose was stopped up one morning, and she 
said her papa had squeezed her so tight, he squeezed 
her nose all shut. One night I started to say her 
prayer, "Now I lay me down to sleep," and she said in 
a very tired way, "Oh, pshaw, you say that too many 
times," and it never got said that night. But she 
always liked to say, "God bless papa, mamma, and 
baby. Amen," perhaps because she knew that was 
the end. 

Mr. Amundsen was one who came through Ta- 
chienlu carrying Tibetan tracts and Bibles to sell in the 
interior. He had been on the Indian border for some 
years, and one of the so-called twelve apostles who 
went out with Annie Taylor. 

A German, also, Herr Tafel, came through, making 
the city his headquarters, going into the surrounding 
mountains and valleys, making maps of the country 
and taking the altitude, etc., for governmental pur- 
poses. He said he had had ten battles with the Tibet- 
ans, but come off safely each time. On returning to 
Germany he took with him the son of our old teacher, 
to help him on the translation of the Tibetan books 
he had collected. His son had been bought by the 
teacher, "milk money" being paid to his family, con- 
sisting of an old gun, some butter, a sheep, and a few 
rupees, as he wanted him for a husband for his daugh- 
ter. They lived next to our house, and often we could 
hear him beating the wife with a strap, and hear 


through the wall the smack as it hit her shoulders. He 
went to Germany and married a German girl, and did 
not send any more money back to his wife, so the 
old teacher was very angry, and came to have the 
Doctor send him a letter telling him that he was going 
to pray to his gods every day to kill him, but the Doc- 
tor refused to write that kind of a letter. We have 
not heard of him since the big war, so do not know 
whether he is alive or not. 

Another guest was the American Consul Mitchell, 
who came to Tachienlu to hunt the "wild cow" or 
budorcas, whose habitat is the mountains around 
Tachienlu. Dr. Shelton went with him, but stayed 
only one day. He came over that wild mountain road 
at night, where one misstep would have pitched both 
him and his mule into the roaring river, but the sure- 
footed animal carried him safely through the dark- 
ness. He reached home as quickly as possible, for Mr. 
Ogden had been taken ill. 

The consul found his "wild cow," and when he went 
back home, the king gave him many gifts, including 
a pair of the big black and yellow Tibetan dogs. These 
are magnificent brutes. A good while afterwards, 
when they were grown, Mr. Mitchell said they never 
seemed to show any affection whatever, and neither 
do they in Tibet, but are fierce, and are kept as watch 
dogs, tied to guard. One of these dogs died in the 
heat of the plains. The other one lived longer, and in 
a most dignified way would walk up to the table for 
a piece of bread, and stand with his nose on the level 
of the table. But later the consul feared madness, and 
shot him. 


There was so much misery in this land from opium 
smoking. There had to be an outlet for the quantities 
of opium raised in Burma and in India, so a great 
deal of it was shipped to the English port of Hong- 
kong, and the international port of Shanghai. Travel- 
ing through China along the paths through the opium 
fields, the blossoms are very beautiful. Great fields 
of white and pink and red make the landscape one 
blaze of color. Such a great curse is opium, and yet 
a necessary panacea for pain. China was awake to 
her danger and the havoc the use of opium made among 
her best men. Some could use it moderately for years, 
and others went very quickly from wealth to beggar- 
dom. So a treaty was made, stipulating that if China 
would quit raising opium in ten years, part of the fields 
to be put out of cultivation each year, no more would 
be shipped in, and China went to work in dead earnest. 
Great bonfires were made of opium pipes and opium; 
men were arrested in dens, and imprisoned ; inspectors 
went all over the land, ordering the plants rooted up, 
and beheading men in the fields when they offended 
the second time. Opium became more and more diffi- 
cult to get, and higher and higher in price, until it was 
beyond the reach of the poor, and the young could 
not form the habit. 

At the close of ten years, China said: "We have 
done our part. You have forced us to pay high prices 
for all you shipped to us. Now we will raise it every- 
where, and make it cheap and easy to get, and not pay 
the exorbitant prices you have been asking us," and 
it was done. Opium has another start from Batang 
to the sea, and everybody smokes today, even the poor- 


est, and the habit is more universal than it has ever 
been. Also great amounts are shipped in from Japan, 
in the shape of morphine tablets, which are used hypo- 

About this time, the Da Kagi and the Ir Kagi passed 
through Tachienlu from Nepal, bearing tribute to the 
emperor of China. The story goes (and most of it 
is true) that long ago China conquered Nepal, and 
every twelve years this long caravan of perhaps two 
hundred men and many horses must travel from that 
little country across Tibet and through China to Pekin, 
carrying ivory, sugar, raisins, coral, silks, and all man- 
ner of wealth from India, to lay at the feet of the Most 
High. It would have been easier and saved much time 
to go around by sea, but that would not do. Time is 
of no value, and besides, the people must see this sub- 
ject nation under the emperor's commands, bringing 
to him the best they have. 

Now school and dispensary and itinerating trips into 
the country take the Doctor away most of the time. 
School takes all the morning, and dispensary and calls 
all the afternoon, so we see little of him until evening ; 
but there are no entertainments nor picture shows, so 
we have our home life together then. He began to 
teach Dorris the Bible lessons and to have evening 
worship that she could understand. He told her the 
story of Adam and Eve, and that they had no clothes, 
and she asked, "Who stole them and ran away?" For 
if they had been in China and had no clothes, they 
would have been stolen. When the story of Cain and 
Abel came she said, "I want to cry about that, but who 
spanked him for killing his brother ?" She knew what 


happened to her when she did naughty things. She 
wanted to know if Jesus wouldn't fall down if his 
house was in the sky and what the angels had to play 

Doctor Shelton and Mr. Ogden received a letter 
from the Mission Board at home, asking us to come 
down into China to the coast stations, as they couldn't 
get men to come as far as Tachienlu, and it was so 
difficult to get money and supplies; but the two men 
held a mission meeting and sent the request that we 
be allowed to go on to Batang, saying, "We will go 
in, but not out; forward, but not back." They also 
wrote asking for another doctor, and some three 
months later the answer came that one was coming. 

I suppose the Lord is looking out for His people 
in this dark land, and the men and the money will 
come when they are needed. So the years come and 
go. Not much that you would call a big thing was 
accomplished in everyday work, but daily love and 
patience and sympathy, more felt than spoken, were 
slowly working, and the people felt the need of us, 
and missed us when we were gone. It was not so 
much the religion we represented, for China is full 
of religions: it was the mercy and helpfulness and 
love that belonged to ours and that did not go with 

Such a wonderful land is China! Great and vast, 
with a marvelous people; a civilization so old that it 
seems perfect to them, and a change in any way is 
difficult to understand. So many beautiful things they 
say in their classics and believe in theory, and if they 
would live up to them their lives would be close to the 


ideal; but in practice so many of their lives are vile, 
scheming, merciless. 

At last permission came from the Board for us to 
go to Batang. That meant some preparation. The 
two men went to Chungking to purchase a two years' 
supply of soap, sugar, and candles, and the necessary 
saws and tools for the cutting of timber and building 
of houses, for they would liave to become "hewers of 
wood and drawers of water," brickmakers, lumber cut- 
ters, tile makers, furniture builders, teaching the Chi- 
nese carpenters how to build even a wash-tub before 
a good bath could be taken. Boxes holding from 
seventy-five to eighty pounds must be made, in which 
to pack the household goods, medicine, instruments, 
books, bedding, pictures, and dishes. The boxes were 
covered with a wet skin which soon dries, and becomes 
very hard, keeping all dampness from the contents. 
This covering, being very strong, prevents the boxes 
from bursting to pieces if a yak gets on a stampede. 

The Doctor, the two babies, and I left Tachienlu 
July 7, 1908, and reached Batang July 24th. Mr. and 
Mrs. Ogden prepared to go with us, but decided to 
wait for the new physician, Dr. Loftis, who was com- 
ing. Their plans were changed, however, and they 
arrived in Batang October 3ist. The city was Oriental 
in everything that goes with that word. Dirt, heat, 
flies, mangy dogs, naked babies, half-clothed men and 
women, no rain for months, the chaff from the wheat- 
threshing flying everywhere. The first great event 
that happened at Batang was the birth of little Ruth 
Ogden, the first foreign baby born in that city. There 
are three babies now, Dorris, Dorothy, and Ruth. They 






don't at all mind 'the dirt or the heat, but are always 
happy, and keep us from being lonesome. 

The houses in Batang are nearly all of two stories, 
and a third story a kind of shed over about half the 
roof. The four walls are built of the yellow mud, 
very much like the Mexican adobe houses. Glad, in- 
deed, were we all when a mud palace for each family 
was procured, and it could be scraped clean of manure, 
whitewashed, cleaned, and scrubbed, and we could 
put glass in the windows and screen them. There was 
a diminishing of dirt and smells, and we could sit under 
our own walnut trees and have a clean place for the 
babies to play. 

The school and Sunday school and medical work 
were opened at once. We worked away for two years, 
quite happy with the people, making friends wherever 
we could, and then our Dr. Loftis left us. Perhaps 
by his death he brought the mission work fifty years 
nearer completion in that raw land than otherwise 
it would have been. 

Our furlough time was due, and after two years 
and four months in Batang we must say good-by to 
the little station, the Tibetan friends, the boys and the 
teacher, and leave for America. It is strange how 
sometimes a greater love than you know grasps you 
and holds you, and you love more abundantly ; and w^ 
loved them even more than they loved us, though I 
think they felt such love as little children feel. 

It isn't easy to live in that land, but you feel that 
you want to return, and the Master seems nearer over 
there. As we were preparing to return, news came 
that Chma had decided to be a republic, and all the 


missionaries were leaving the stations in China. Those 
at Tachienlu fled to Batang, and the little party, con- 
sisting of Mr. and Mrs. Ogden, Ruth, Dr. Hardy, Mr. 
and Mrs. Edgar and their children, started on the un- 
known road out through Yunnan. Whippings, execu- 
tions, and punishments of all kinds were happening 
every day in the city. Little Ruth was carried on a 
faithful Tibetan's back in a basket. At Dalifu they 
received messages urging them to hurry. At last they 
reached Yunnanfu, and took the railway for Hong 
Kong, thence by steamer to Shanghai, and then home, 
exhausted and worn; and fifteen days later Walter 
Harold was born in the hospital at Los Angeles. 



"Talk is like bubbles, work is like gold 

It seemed strange to be home once more, home in 
America after more than seven years in that foreign 
land. The swiftness of the people, and the rate at 
which everything moved, the roar of the cars and 
trains, and the impatience of a man who had to wait 
two minutes for his street car were a revelation of a 
new order of things. We were not used to moving 
faster than a man could walk, and we had traveled 
through country where absolute stillness reigned, unless 
it was the roar of a river or the slide of an avalanche. 
Waiting one and two hours for things to get done, or 
to get started for some place had been our daily por- 
tion. To see a newspaper the same day it was printed 
was another strange experience, as most of those we 
had seen on the field were three months old before they 
reached us. To buy stockings and shoes and a dress 
that did not have to be selected from a catalogue by 
guesswork was a luxury. Sometimes when in China 
we ordered goods from the English firms in Shanghai 



and said "calico," we got muslin, and an order for 
chewing gum brought a bottle of mucilage ! 

The styles in America were wonderful. Hair was 
dressed high and piled upon something, and most of 
the something had come from China's lepers, dead 
beggars, and criminals. When we went back to China, 
we saw great quantities of this hair piled on the ground 
in a dirty pen, and when we asked what was to be 
done with it, the reply was, "Send it to America ; they 
use lots of it over there." When we made a dress in 
Tibet, we made it in the most convenient way, and 
wore it until it was worn out, then made it over for the 
children or the orphans. 

There did not seem to be a quiet place anywhere in 
America. Everybody was rushing somewhere, and 
then rushing back again, for no particular reason that 
could be discerned. Moving picture shows had come 
in since we had gone away, and everybody went to see 
them. Home seemed a place to sleep, and to eat some- 
times, but -nothing more. To stay in one for any 
length of time seemed impossible. Everywhere homes 
were being mortgaged, and many of them lost, for an 
automobile. Where was everyone going? What did 
they want, and if they got it, were they happy? We 
often wondered. 

Dr. Shelton was away most of the time, traveling 
and speaking all over the United States, and the quiet 
times together that we had had in Tibet could never 
be found here. In a little book which he carried in his 
pocket during some of the trips, I found this prayer : 
"Oh, God, keep me close to Thee this year." I wonder 
if he, too, found it much more difficult to live near the 


Master in this land than on the other side of the 

Our furlough time was just about over, and our 
boxes were packed and sent to be shipped. So many 
friends had been kind. We had sheets and bedding 
and gifts for the orphans; towels, playthings, and 
books, which they had given us to take with us. Then 
the news came that China had turned into a republic 
almost overnight, and our return must be postponed. 
Sun Yat Sen, the dreamer, had at last seen his ideal 
realized; but the coming of democracy meant revolu- 
tion, and that meant war. For many years he had 
planned and worked to make China a republic, but 
being a dreamer, he knew he would not make a good 
executive, so Yuan Shih Kai, a man of remarkable 
ability, was chosen to control the new Republic. 

But how about the others, our fellow-workers, out 
there in that far corner of the world? Two months 
passed, and we got a telegram from Mr. Ogden, say- 
ing they were safe in Hong Kong, and Dr. Hardy 
with them. Through difficult roads they had come, 
but were safe at last. The Ogdens were coming home 
to America, but Dr. Hardy was staying in East China, 
to help with the Red Cross work during the war. 

We had to wait almost a year before we could start 
back. By that time the first President was established 
in power, and travel through the country was safe. It 
seemed very strange when we landed in China to see no 
queues. The "pig tail" had originally been a badge of 
servitude, put on the Chinese by their Manchu con- 
querors, but its original purpose had been forgotten, 
and it had grown to be a very necessary part of the 


Chinese equipment. To pull a man's queue was a dire 
insult, and to be without one on entering the next life 
would have been shame unpardonable. But it seemed 
to us that under the new regime the Chinese coolies 
and laboring people, in trying to express their freedom, 
succeeded only in being impudent, and we much pre- 
ferred the old-time courtesy that all the Chinese people 

Again we must go up that old river, and though we 
realized its dangers more this time than before, it 
never lost its charm and attractiveness. We went on 
a small steamer to Chungking very quickly leaving 
only about one month for the house-boat journey. As 
we waited in the port of Ichang, a steamer go-down 
(warehouse) caught fire, and we greatly feared that 
the house in which we were staying with all our goo.ds 
would be burned, so we carried out our trunks and 
sat on them to keep them from being stolen. That is, 
the babies and I sat on them, while the men fought the 
iire. The queer, long lines of the Chinese making a 
bucket brigade from the river to the house, as they 
passed the water from hand to hand to put out the 
iire, were very interesting to see. One of Dr. and Mrs. 
Hardy's precious trunks was burned in the go-down. 
We were cold and frightened, but safe, and the in- 
valuable flannel underwear for ourselves and the 
babies, which could not be bought for love nor money 
in the interior, was still with us. 

Another long wait in Chungking for the freight was 
necessary, as the Doctor was taking back materials 
for the hospital and two dwelling houses, and the cargo 
boats were very slow. They finally came, and we 


started for the west once more. We had a happy time 
together on the house boat. We had a bird dog, Jack, 
who kept things lively, and we threw him into the river 
every day to give him a bath. The Doctor had his 
camera to photograph the beautiful bits of scenery 
along the way, and with his shotgun he occasionally 
killed some wild ducks for us to eat. He treated all 
the sick who came. 

The end of the water journey was finally reached, 
and now we must go over land again for twelve days 
to the border city of Tachienlu. It was like going 
back home. In every place all along the way we met 
people who knew us, and their welcome back was a 
joyous thing to hear. It was not like coming the 
first time, when all were strangers. Here, for the first 
time, the four families, Mr. and Mrs. Baker, Dr. and 
Mrs. Hardy, the Ogdens, and ourselves, were to meet 
and go together to establish the new station at distant 
Batang. It seemed a great many people to be going 
to a station, when before there had been only two 
families. Eight grown folks and five babies! It was. 
decided that one family at a time should go over the 
road, because of the number of men and the size of 
the caravan, and the smallness of the rest houses. So 
we were the ones to start first. We went by the north- 
ern route, which was a much longer way than the route 
by Litang, but we were not allowed to go by the direct 
and shorter road because of the unsettled condition of 
the country. The freight caravan, containing the cor- 
rugated iron for the roofs of the buildings, the door 
knobs, hinges, nails, glass, paint, many tools, and the 
heavy household materials, were sent the shorter way> 


The only thing lost was my new cookstove, which rob- 
bers captured. I presume they thought it was ammuni- 
tion, and strewed it over the mountains. All that 
reached Batang were the lids, legs, and lifter. 

With the babies and food for thirty days, bedding, 
cots, and the more precious baggage, we started. In 
Dorothy's chair went "Annie," a big black hen, which, 
decorated with red ribbons, had been given to her on 
her sixth birthday, and had decided to set just before 
we started. Her father asked her what she was going 
to do with "Annie." "Why," she answered, "I am 
going to take her." "But you can't do that ; she is set- 
ting on eggs, and the eggs will spoil." But that made 
no difference to Dorothy. So "Annie," eggs and all, 
was slipped into the chair the morning we started. She 
didn't seem to mind, and traveled easily with the rest 
of us, sitting in the corners of the rest rooms at night, 
keeping the eggs warm. 

Some of the places on the road were as lonely as could 
be, but we never got away from the grandeur of the 
scenery. On the tops of the passes we would find a 
marvelous lake, clear and still, where in safety hid the 
duck with the golden breast, sacred to the Tibetans. 
Once when the Doctor was going to shoot one, they 
pleaded with him not to do it, as they said it was the 
reincarnation of some of their holy men. This was 
because of the yellow breast the golden yellow being 
the color of the sacred gowns of the priests. 

Sometimes we found flowers, magnificently beauti- 
ful, of all colors, and of many varieties. The edelweiss 
grew everywhere. This, when dried, the Tibetans use 
in their little leather boxes of flint and steel for start- 


ing a fire, in lieu of paper, which is very scarce in 
Tibet. On the passes we found snow and cold and 
lonesomeness everywhere, but withal, grandeur inde- 

As we came along the road and met caravans coming 
out of Tibet, we asked for reports of affairs. Did we 
have anything left in our homes, or in the dispensary? 
Were the boys alive? What could they tell us? But 
we could get nothing definite, and could only go on 
and find out the truth when we arrived. We had heard 
this prophecy that China would become a republic, 
and that Batang was to be noted for the great men 
she would furnish for the ruling of China. There 
were to be governors and presidents born there. 

On the top of Jedo Pass we camped, and saw skele- 
tons of yak and horses. We were told that men 
had fallen over the Pass, and had been frozen to death, 
and their skeletons were below. There was nothing 
for fires but small green trees, which grew to about a 
foot in height. Snow fell which looked like tapioca. 
The girls found fairy graves and dolly graves. The 
big mountain in the distance covered with snow, Dor- 
ris called the "Snow Princess," sleeping, to be wakened 
by the kisses of the sun in the morning. 

One night we came to a queer old Tibetan house of 
mud and logs where "Annie's" eggs began to hatch. 
We saw gold mining along the streams, and entered a 
great forest, which was quite a relief from the four 
days' travel over treeless windswept mountains. 

At one village we saw a French Catholic priest who 
had been caught by the Tibetans and tied up for eight- 
een days at the gate of the monastery. As the lamas 


had passed by him, in and out of the gate, they had 
pulled out one hair at a time from- his head and face 
as a punishment and a simple form of torture. 

The distances were very deceptive. We chased a 
village around a mountain all the afternoon, before we 
were able to catch it and stop for rest. We came to 
another village where every door was shut and barred. 
The villagers were afraid of the soldiers, but we finally 
found one man who let us in for the night. We stayed 
one night in a lamasery, filled with beautiful Tibetan 
books. We saw a man with the end of his nose cut off. 
If it had been a woman, we would not have been sur- 
prised, as that is the Tibetan punishment for adultery, 
a custom perhaps taken over from India. 

The next day we traveled over the worst roads that 
could be imagined, and as there were no houses, we 
stopped in the black tents of the nomads for the night. 
There is a queer little fireplace in the middle of the 
tent with a hole in the top to let out the smoke, and 
the sides banked with dirt. With sheep-skins for beds 
it was cosy and warm. 

By this time "Annie" and her family were doing 
finely. She had eight chickens, and they had meals 
whenever we stopped. When they got out of the chair 
to scratch for a little fresh food, it took the united 
forces of the family and the caravan to get them back 

One evening we came to a big lamasery, where there 
seemed to be hundreds and hundreds of lamas. The 
Doctor usually rode in front of the chairs, but this time 
he had stopped behind them in order to shoot marmots, 
and I was truly frightened, for hundreds of lamas 


came around the doors and gateways, staring at the 
queer white people. 

The next day we spent thirteen and one half hours 
in the chair, a long, hard day, down, down, down into 
a village to remain for the night. Just a few days 
now until we should reach home. Every place was hot, 
dry, and dusty, with the locusts singing all the while, 
until one's ears seemed to split with the noise. There 
had been no rain for over a year on this part of the 
road. The crops on the mountain sides were drying 
up, and the cattle were so thin and weak they could 
hardly stand. Everywhere people came for medicine, 
saying how glad they were to see the Doctor back 

Toward the last, we stopped one night in a small 
lamasery which had paintings on the walls, some good 
and some obscene. We were now almost at the end 
of the journey, after almost a year's travel. The boys 
and friends met us two or three miles out, among them 
Li Guay Guang, who had grown to be a man since we 
took him long ago, in Tachienlu. With tears running 
down his cheeks he told us that his wife, Candro, was 
dead, because, he said, the Doctor was away, and there 
was no one to care for her. Poor little child wife, 
she left one wee baby. 

We were home once more, but there was dust and 
dirt everywhere. There had been fighting around the 
city, and thieves had entered the house and taken every- 
thing but the books and pictures. All the rugs, dishes, 
bedding, silverware, tablecloths, towels, and clothing 
had been stolen. The dispensary had been robbed of 
the microscope, a good many instruments, and all the 


bottles of medicine the thieves wanted, and our work 
was to begin all over again with this difference, that 
now we were wanted and not feared. 

One evening as "Annie" and her family were hav- 
ing supper along with us, a big cat grabbed two of 
the chickens. As the rest of us cried out, the Doctor 
got his gun, and soon there was no more cat. "Annie" 
arrived safely at Batang with six chickens, and, well 
knowing her aristocratic ancestry, was always the boss 
of the henyard, and lorded it over the small Tibetan 
chickens in a great way. Her descendants populate the 
Batang valley and beyond. 

There were only very small potatoes in the Batang 
valley when we came. Larger ones were brought in 
over the mountains from China, and now the valley is 
full of potatoes big ones. There were wild straw- 
berries, but no cultivated ones. Mr. Ogden and Mr. 
Baker brought in nine plants, and now we have plenty 
for all. The English walnuts are native, and we find 
in the mountains wild gooseberries, red raspberries, 
and wild rhubarb. Apricots, grapes, and peaches are 
there also, but no apples. It is rather a mystery how 
the peaches and apricots got started, and we wondered 
if the seeds had not been scattered through the valleys 
by the early Jesuit fathers, who had traveled over this 
road on missionary journeys seventy-five or a hun- 
dred years ago. 




"The hard place to climb is at the top 
of the ladder; a poor place to sit down 
at its foot" TIBETAN PROVERB. 

The four families reached Batang in due time, and 
the work was divided among them all, Dr. Shelton's 
share being to build the hospital and two dwelling 
houses, to itinerate, and. to look after the dispensary. 
Early in the year 1915, he went to Atuntze on a trip, 
about nine days from Batang, returning in about three 
weeks. He had to go to see about money for the mis- 
sion, but between times he also doctored and preached 
as he went, although he always said he was no preacher. 
He brought back some sour oranges, some Chinese 
pears, and some rice all very acceptable, as fruit was 
not plentiful in the valley, and the altitude was too 
high for rice to grow. 

While he was away, we awakened one night, and 
looking out of the window, saw that the sky was one 
brilliant glare of light from a fire. It was the Catho- 
lic headquarters. It had been the old palace of the 
Iryinguan, or the second in command in the city of 



Batang, and when he had been deposed by the Chinese, 
the old palace had been handed over to the Catholics 
as part of indemnity money claimed by the French 
fathers for the death of several of their priests during 
different rebellions by the Tibetans. It was the most 
quiet fire I have ever witnessed. The city seemed to 
be absolutely still. Dr. Hardy and Mr. Ogden went 
over. The poor distracted old priest was being held 
by the Chinese soldiers so that he could not throw him- 
self in the flames and be destroyed. He declared wildly 
that it had been set on fire in order to kill him, and 
that the water in the irrigation ditch which ran by 
the door had been cut off purposely ; but I think in the 
end it was decided that it was due to the carelessness 
of some of the school children who seemed to be the 
only caretakers in the place. The water had not been 
cut off, but the river is very low in December, and it 
was covered with ice as well. The military commander 
at Batang, knowing the Doctor was away, sent eight 
men down to see if I was afraid while the fire was 
going on. They could not get into the compound, as 
the gate was barred, so they broke the gate down and 
asked if I was afraid. With my teeth chattering, I 
assured them that I was not, but the truth of the mat- 
ter was that I was a good deal more afraid of them 
than of the Tibetans or of the fire either. However, 
I appreciated the courtesy and thanked them, even if 
they did break the gate down to protect us. 

Every day we heard reports of the trouble in Shang- 
chen, and any stranger who seemed a bit suspicious, 
or was reported to be from Shangchen, was shot at 
once. About ten were shot in one day, and two 


left lying in the streets, as a lesson to any stranger who 
might go by. 

A story is connected with Shangchen which runs 
something like this : When General Chao was taking 
the country and himself occupying the larger town, he 
decided to send one of his majors to take Shangchen, 
as it was only a village. The major came within sight 
of the town, and not a soul was to be seen. The sol- 
diers marched over the place, quartering themselves in 
the homes, killing what cattle they could find which 
the people had not driven away, and having a good 
time generally. They soon discovered that all the in- 
habitants and the priests had barred themselves inside 
the monastery, where they had plenty of grain and 
butter and dried meat. The Chinese commander aimed 
his guns against the doors and walls, but he might as 
well have thrown so many marbles, for he could make 
no impression on the solidly built mud walls, as hard 
as iron. 

So he said, "All right, we will just wait a little ; they 
will soon be starved out." But they did not starve out. 
He waited and waited, and the siege grew to six weeks. 
The soldiers' food was running low, and there was 
nothing to be had. He offered a reward arid promo- 
tion to tEe man who would find the source of the 
stream of living water which flowed into the monastery 
through an underground passage. After a few days, 
a man found it, and cut off the water supply. Then 
the Tibetans knew they would have to surrender. They 
took their flag of truce to the top of the wall, and asked 
if the women and children might go out in safety. The 
general said, "Yes, open the gates." When the gates 


were opened, every man, woman, and child that could 
be caught was killed. Some six hundred were put to 
the sword, while the lamasery was looted and de- 
stroyed, and to this day every Shangchen Tibetan hates . 
a Chinaman. 

About this time, the news came to us of the war in 
Europe, and the vast proportions it was assuming. We 
could hardly realize that such a war could occur in the 
world again. Then we heard that America was taking 
part, and Dr. Shelton offered his services through our 
consul at Chungking. He told him that if he ever was 
needed, he would send for him. It seemed to me that 
the only difference between war in China and war in 
Europe was that China was a bit more humane, and 
that there were fewer widows and orphans left. The 
spirit of anarchy was reaching us, and our mails were 
robbed. The Chinese attacked the Tibetans three times 
in one year, leaving them with scarcely anything to 
eat but dried turnip tops, roots, and various seeds. The 
Tibetans then argued that they would turn robber, as 
the Chinese had caught only one robber that year, and 
hung his head by the Yamen. The Tibetans thought 
that if they could get away with the goods, their fami- 
lies could live and perhaps only one out of twenty 
would be caught. 

Almost every day there were two or three beggars 
at the door, and you felt ashamed that you had bread 
to eat, even if it was not white, when you saw these 
miserable beings, and especially their children. Almost 
every day, also, we heard more of the Shangchen rebel, 
a Chinese in command who rebelled against the gov- 
ernment, and played havoc, indeed. A fine bridge over 









the Hokoe River had been built at General Chao's 
order by a German mining engineer, and we heard that 
this was entirely destroyed. The Doctor asked to be 
allowed to take another trip out in the country, but the 
official would not allow him to go, as there were too 
many robbers on every side, and nearly every day 
brought a report of someone being either killed or 
robbed. The spirit of unrest struck the women as well, 
and a Tibetan woman decided to run off with a Chi- 
nese. Her husband chased her, caught her, and bit off 
her nose. 

During these days, Dr. Shelton got ready for a trip 
to Derge. Bags and baggage and medicine boxes all 
had to be gotten ready, and an official escort asked for. 
Derge is a province north of Batang valley, some five 
or six days' journey distant. It is noted for its beau- 
tiful inlaid work in gold and silver and steel and for 
its exquisite teapots of copper, brass, and white metal, 
all hand hammered. In it is the city of Beyii, where 
there is a large lamasery containing many hundreds of 

On reaching this city, the Doctor and his compan- 
ions stopped to preach. The Doctor was always wel- 
come, and always gladly received. One day, near this 
city, he shot a marmot. Now the Tibetans believe that 
these are lamas who for some reason or other have to 
be reborn as animals. When the marmots go into win- 
ter quarters, the Tibetans say they are meditating, and 
they never eat them. But the Doctor had his marmot 
made into a stew, and as one of the head men was 
making him a visit, he invited him to eat with him. He 
gave him some bread with the marmot meat on it, 


which he ate with a great deal of relish, and then 
asked for more. Finally he said, "What is this?" The 
Tibetan teacher made all kinds of signs to Dr. Shelton, 
trying to tell him that he should not reveal what kind 
of meat it was, as he knew the superstition concerning 
it. But the Doctor frankly said, "It is marmot." The 
man looked a little queer, and then said, "Well, I have 
eaten some ; I think I will have some more ; it is pretty 
good," and held out his bowl, which was promptly 

While the Doctor was gone, our finest cow went 
mad, or at least seemed to. She nearly tore our house 
down, being in the lower, or stable part of the Tibetan 
house in which we lived. I had her taken and put in 
a barn somewhere else, but she plunged and fell, and 
no one could get near her. Finally I asked Mr. Ogden 
to shoot her. She was so nice and fat, and gave such 
good milk, it seemed a very great loss. But the Tibet- 
ans had no fear of what was the matter with her, and 
carried her home joyfully to eat. The Tibetan has 
no fear of ptomaine poisoning, for even when cattle 
die of the rinder-pest, they eat them. Sometimes the 
people suffer with great sores on their bodies from eat- 
ing bad meat, but it never seems to keep them from 
doing it. 

A few days later, the wife of one of our men came 
in and brought me a long darning needle which she 
said had been found in the stomach of the cow. She 
said it was the custom that when people wanted meat 
badly and could not afford to buy it, to take one of 
these long Chinese darning needles, put it in a ball of 
tsamba, and feed it to the cow. The cow does not 


always die, as we found needles later in other cows 
that had not seemed to be in pain. But this poor old 
cow suffered intensely, and there was nothing else to 
do, even had I known what was the matter with her. 

When the Doctor returned, he told at prayer meet- 
ing of his trip among the people, and how much he 
loved them. He also told how eager they were to come 
to him, and have him come to them, and how much he 
wished to do for them. 

The city of Derge was famous because it was the 
chief city in the province, and had been the residence 
of the Prince of Derge and his wife. They had been 
deposed when General Chao conquered the land, and 
had been brought to Batang as prisoners of war, re- 
siding there for some years. They were great friends 
to us all, and we liked to see the wife of the Prince 
dressed in her Lassa head-dress of corals and strings 
of pearls, with gold and silver and jade bracelets on 
her arms. She wore charm boxes set with sapphires, 
turquoises, emeralds, and topaz, and her great earrings, 
held up in the head-dress, were almost too heavy to be 
worn in the ears. The Prince had no children, so his 
wife sent for a relative of hers to be the second wife, 
and raise him sons. 

The Derge prince and his wife were given a home 
by the Chinese in the city of Batang, and were allowed 
a certain amount of freedom. He was often invited to 
Chinese feasts, and the mission men went along, too. 
He hated the wine, which was always served in tiny 
cups, as much as the mission men did, so he usually 
carried a large handkerchief into which he emptied the 
wine, to keep from getting drunk. Later they went 


back to Derge the prince, his two wives, and their 
two babies. But after the Tibetans took the country 
again from the Chinese, they were sent to Lassa for 
fear they would play again into the hands of the 
Chinese and surrender Derge. 

About this time, the first three full-blooded Tibetans 
were baptized. Two of them were Mr. Ogden's 
Tibetan teacher and his wife. The poor old man had 
made a hard fight over wine, his great temptation, but 
came off victor, and it was good to see his face. When 
he attended divine service, he always wore his hat, 
according to Tibetan custom, but when he prayed he 
removed it, a great token of courtesy. 

In August of this year, Dr. Weigold, a German, 
came through Batang in search of insects, snakes, 
birds, and the like. He seemed to be much interested 
in all kinds of insects, worms, and skins, though he did 
not seem to know how to cure them very well. The 
Doctor had been up on the mountain and shot a deer, 
which we divided with the other missionary families. 
He and Dr. Weigold had seen many deer, and some 
bears, but up to this time had shot none. The builders 
were busy at the house, and the Doctor invited them 
all to a meal : the head carpenters, the head wall builder, 
and the head lumber man. 

After a few years' residence in the high altitude of 
something over nine thousand feet, one is affected with 
sleeplessness. All the mission at times have suffered 
in this way. Dr. Shelton had also been troubled with 
sleeplessness at different times, so he took a trip to the 
mountains to get worn out physically as well as men- 


tally and see if he could find rest. He shot two blue 
sheep on this trip. 

Next we heard that four hundred of the Shangchen 
Tibetans were out as robbers, taking cattle and grain 
from the villagers, who were poor enough already, 
killing any Chinese they could find for their clothes 
or their guns, and robbing all the mail carriers and 
caravans. It has long been a custom with the Chinese 
merchants to pay the head robbers so much a year to 
let their caravans travel in safety. For some two hun- 
dred years the Chinese caravans have been going into 
Tibet, taking the brick tea, the blue cotton cloth, iron 
pans, silks and brocades, thread, matches, needles, and 
other commodities desired by the Tibetans and taking 
in exchange musk, wool, deer horns, and gold, which 
they took down into China. Here and there a Chinese 
married into a Tibetan home, and the Doctor found 
two or three who had even forgotten the Chinese lan- 
guage. Some had gone so far as to become priests, 
and had adopted Tibet as their very own, strange to 

In spite of the superiority of the Chinese race so far 
as learning and touch with the world is concerned, 
they fail to impress any Chinese idea that is worth 
while on the Tibetan race. If they remain long in 
Tibet, they are absolutely swallowed up by Tibetan 
customs. They soon learn to eat the native food, even 
to their butter-tea, and become like the Tibetans. The 
Tibetan race Tibetanizes the Chinaman who makes 
. Tibet his home. He learns to think, and feel, and act, 
and live as a Tibetan. This is a tribute to the persist- 
ence and individuality of the Tibetan. It is not so 


with the transient Chinese visitors or officials. They 
refuse to learn the language, they scorn the Tibetans as 
something like dogs, drive them, beat them, oppress 
them, and when they can leave, they are glad to get 
away. All this adds to the Tibetan hatred of the Chi- 
nese. However, if China would send to Tibet good 
men, who were just, and who would help the people, 
the Tibetans would welcome the Chinese rule. But it 
took over one thousand years to bring the race of buc- 
caneers who were our ancestors to something like the 
semblance of Christianity which today rules in Eng- 
land. With only one hundred years of teaching to her 
credit, China is making rapid strides, and in one thou- 
sand years from now may dominate the universe. 



// there is hard work, he is there; if 
there is worship, he must be there. Happy 
is the place when* resides the man who is 
not afraid of his share. 


Perhaps there is no people on the globe who know 
so much about the construction of the human body as 
the Tibetans, and yet who have so little medical knowl- 
edge or so few remedies. The facts about anatomy 
are learned from one of their modes of burial, the 
body being dissected and fed to the birds. In Tibet 
illness of all kinds is believed to be the work of devils, 
or demons, and to exorcise them it is necessary to have 
a holy man, so at the first symptom of approaching 
sickness those who can afford it send for a lama to 
read prayers over them. 

A firm belief in the fact that his enemy can pray 
him to death is inherent in every Tibetan, and often 
all a man has to do who has a grudge against another 
is to send his enemy word that he is praying daily for 
his special guardian idol to kill him; and this fact, 
coupled with the fear of the idol, usually accomplishes 

his purpose. 



Butter is a universal remedy and is used for every- 
thing. Another favorite medicine is pills made of the 
prayer, "Om mani padme hum," written on tiny pieces 
of paper and rolled up to be swallowed. They also use 
pills made from a holy man's urine mixed with clay. 
Of course, when a man is ill he sends for the lamas, 
and with chanting, with the holy books, the ringing of 
bells, and the blowing of horns, with plenty to eat, 
and a rupee a day for the lama, the devils are supposed 
to be driven out. It is not supposed to be good for a 
sick man to sleep, so someone sits by the bedside and 
with cold water, or pinching, or blows, he is kept 
awake. A cross made of charcoal on the outside of 
the throat was supposed to be a cure for being sick at 
the stomach. Hair combings were tied around the 
ankle to cure a blistered heel. A holy book was placed 
on the head to cure a headache or on the stomach to 
relieve pain there. 

Many of the cases that came to the Doctor lived, be- 
cause he worked with a knife in his hand and a prayer 
in his heart, and among ourselves, when he had done 
all he could, we knew that prayer had done the rest. 

The Chinese medicine, too, is very wonderful in 
many things. The following is a prescription given to 
the Doctor by a Chinese doctor. Just what it is sup- 
posed to do, I do not know. These are the ingredients 
which went to make up the prescription, in varying 
proportions: (i) Deer's horns. (2) Ginseng. (3) 
Armadillo. (4) Red mushroom. (5) Digitalis boiled 
in human urine. (6) Digitalis leaves, raw. (7) Sweet 
root. (8) A long root of grass. (9) Bleeding heart. 
,(io) Mushroom, (n) Slippery elm bark. (12) 


Keel. (13) Cloves. (14) Aconite. (15) Black 
rocks, a pair, one male, one female. (16) Sea horses, 
one pair. (17) Pepper grains. (18) Red dragon 
flies. (19) Sparrow brains. (20) Silkworm flies. 
(21) Yellow poppy seeds. (22) Mustard seed. (23) 
Copperas. (24) Persimmon bark. (25) Asafcetida. 
(26) Licorice. 

Perhaps the sacredness in which the Chinese hold 
the human body has limited their power in medicine to 
a great degree. A story is told that one day a general 
who was shot in the stomach with an arrow, the barb 
being inside of the skin; he called a physician, and told 
him to take it away. The man proceeded carefully to 
saw off the shaft next the skin on the outside, to tie 
up the wound, and say he was finished. The general 
protested, saying, "I want the arrow taken out." The 
doctor politely answered, "I work only on the outside, 
and not on the inside of a man." 

Another case we knew about was a woman with 
indigestion. She said her rice wouldn't go down, that 
it stuck in her throat. The Chinese doctor said, "I 
will fix that." He got a short piece of bamboo, and 
proceeded to jam the rice down, but in so doing the 
bamboo broke, and a sharp splinter went through the 
neck of the woman and killed her. 

Another case was one of worms. All the natives in 
China are troubled with these pests, and in a little vil- 
lage where we were, a child was so full, he threw them 
up, so the mother proceeded to catch one, and fry it 
and feed it to him, as a warning to the rest of them 
to hurry and get out, or the same thing would happen 
to them ! 


A Tibetan girl of thirteen was on the mountain 
watching the cows. The robbers came, and she refused 
to run away, so they gave her leg a gash with a sword. 
Her people found her and, to stop the bleeding, plas- 
tered the cut full of cowdung. She was brought to 
the dispensary. If she had been brought in the first 
place the healing would have been a simple matter, with 
clean washing and bandages; but it was quite another 
question to cleanse the wound then and heal it without 

On one of the little mountain trips the Doctor was 
called in to see an old woman of seventy. He found 
her in a barn, sitting in the filth of ages which just 
cannot be described. She had been upon the moun- 
tain after wood, and had fallen and broken her thigh. 
The leg lay at an angle of thirty degrees, the bone 
sticking entirely out through the flesh. As the leg 
had been like this for several days, it was horribly 
swollen, and the smell frightful. It was impossible 
to effect a cure ; the Doctor could only wash and cleanse 
it, leave a bit of salve for alleviating pain, and go on. 

One morning about ten o'clock a man came to the 
dispensary saying his two-year-old baby had fallen 
into the fire the evening before and his limbs were 
burned badly, and would the Doctor go ; the child was 
hurt so they could not carry him on their backs down 
the mountain. Medicine and bandages and necessary 
instruments were thrown into saddle-bags, some food 
gotten together quickly, a bed strapped behind the far 
saddle, and the men were off up the steep mountain to 
remain the night and relieve that tiny baby's suffering. 
It had been burned now almost twenty-four hours, with 


no help at all, and nothing whatever to help ease the 
pain ; and even a little burn hurts so badly. They found 
the baby burned down the front of both little legs and 
a bit across the abdomen. He was soon well enough 
to be carried down the mountain to the dispensary to 
have the burns dressed. 

One morning a lama, called a living Buddha, came 
and asked the foreign doctor to ride to a village a 
day's journey away, over a near-by mountain, where a 
mud house had fallen and some people were hurt. No 
white man or Chinese had been in that wild place be- 
fore, and going seemed hazardous. They asked that 
only one foreigner come, and perforce the Doctor was 
the one to go. A native evangelist, two soldiers, and 
the lama made the rest of the crowd; and when they 
came to the first village they stopped for breakfast. At 
first the people were frightened nearly out of their 
wits, but when they found nothing was going to harm 
them they brought the best they had for the travelers, 
setting butter, tea, tsamba, and a kind of sour milk- 
cheese before them. Poor as these people were, they 
gave the big lama a catta (a scarf of loosely-woven 
silk) and three rupees for his blessing. Soon they were 
in the saddle and traveling onward again, and arrived 
about five o'clock at the village. They found six had 
been killed and three hurt by the falling of the heavy 
mud walls. When Dr. Shelton started to see the man 
who was hurt so badly, they wouldn't allow him to be 
seen, but made excuses of all kinds and were afraid, 
even after sending a day's journey for help. The for- 
eign doctor turned away and said, all right; he didn't 


want to visit anybody unless he was wanted. Then 
they begged him to wait until the next day. 

He agreed and went to the shed on top of the house 
to sleep, and was awakened by mud and water falling 
on the bed, as it was raining. The big lama was 
awakened, too, and the two began talking. He asked 
Dr. Shelton why he did such things for people and got 
no money for it, and wliy he left America, and what 
he wanted to come to their country for, anyway. That 
was the opportunity, and he was told why and for 
what reason and for whose sake, and how it was made 
possible by the followers of the Nazarene at home, who 
for His dear sake gave that the Tibetans might know. 
The lama listened and said, "That is just like our re- 
ligion, only we don't do it." 

The next morning in a thick fog the people came 
for the foreigner to see the man. He found him lying 
on a pile of filthy sheep-skins, both legs and arms 
broken. They had been broken for eight days before 
his coming. An effort had been made to set the bones 
by putting on very small splints and wrapping them as 
tightly as could be, pulled around and around with 
a narrow rawhide string of yak hide, with some of the 
hair still clinging to it. Some of the bones had been 
replaced fairly well, and one arm was tied to the ceil- 
ing., All were compound fractures. Chloroform was 
given and the wrappings removed. The swelling was 
fearful, and the pus flew in every direction. The stench 
was dreadful. After the man had recovered from the 
effects of the chloroform, he said he felt better. Then 
Dr. Shelton asked why he would not see him as soon 
as he arrived. "Oh," he said, "I had heard that for- 


eigners slit the flesh with knives and rub the medicine 
into the cut." They also believe that a stranger com- 
ing off the road is covered with devils, and if he came 
at once into the presence of a sick person the devils 
would all pounce upon him and kin him. 

The next morning the hands and feet were better 
and the swelling had gone down some, but the poor fel- 
low was covered with lice and had rheumatism, and 
there was little hope that he could recover. They asked 
the foreign man to come again, and he replied he would 
return whenever he was wanted; but in three or four 
days a messenger came, saying the man was dead and 
returning the medicine that had not been used. 

Perhaps for pure, concentrated suffering the follow- 
ing incident will suffice : 

There was a Tibetan woman who brought milk to 
the mission every day. True, it had a layer of dirt in 
the bottom and was never guilty of any cream on top, 
and had always to be boiled. Perhaps it was diluted 
with water and bean curd, and was a mixture of goat 
and yak milk. It was rather white; but it was called 
cream and used as such. For two mornings the woman 
failed to come. About noon of the second day her 
sister came and said her house had fallen down and 
they had all been burned. The place was two or three 
miles distant, so we took a sedan-chair for the baby 
and me, while Mr. Ogden and Dr. Shelton walked, 
carrying their guns, thinking they might shoot a 
pheasant for supper.. It was a beautiful day and quite 
a rest to get away from the filth and stench of the city. 
When we came near the house the chair was put down, 
and we all walked up the mountain a little way to 


where the people lived. It is impossible to find words 
to picture the awful misery and suffering that we saw. 

The house was built on the hillside, of stone with 
mud mortar. The floor was made of round poles about 
the size of a man's arm, laid on some kind of cross- 
pieces. On these poles a few skins were laid, and this 
was the bed of the family, for they slept on that cordu- 
roy floor. In one corner was a pile of dirt and three 
or four stones, and on these had been placed a big, flat, 
iron pan of boiling water. In some way the floor had 
fallen in, taking all of them with it, as well as the hot 
water. The goats and yak were kept in the basement 
of the building. Filth had accumulated for years, for 
the idea of cleaning a barn had not yet occurred to these 
Tibetans. For forty-eight hours those burned people 
had been sitting on the ground in agony which cannot 
be told. They had no relief whatever no vaseline, no 
oil, not even a clean rag with which to bind the burns. 
Beside the woman on the ground was the iron pan with 
water and cornmeal, and some kind of a green vege- 
table stirred in it. This was all the food they had. 
Mr. Ogden had brought some bread and meat, which 
we laid down by them, and Dr. Shelton begali to look 
at their burns. 

A boy of ten was burned from the knee halfway to 
the thigh, the great blisters standing out on his legs. 
A little boy of seven or eight had escaped entirely ; the 
baby, a little girl of four, had been burned to death. 
The poor mother cried and said how pretty she was. 
The man was able to walk, but his leg was badly 
burned, and he had a great gash in his head. The 
woman was burned from below her knee to her thigh. 


There were great blisters as big as the palm of her 
hand on her leg, and the flesh seemed almost ready to 
drop off. She sat on the ground moaning and almost 
helpless. The men forgot their guns and began to 

The little boy was frightened when the Doctor took 
his instruments to open the blisters, being very much 
afraid of the glistening lances. As the Doctor had 
taken only a small box of vaseline, he could do nothing 
for the boy or the woman there. So she was sent on 
in the chair to the dispensary, while Baby and I 
walked home. Mr. Ogden with a few dried leaves and 
stems had made a fire and got some hot water. There 
was just enough vaseline and bandages to dress the 
man's leg and head, and he and the little unburned boy 
were left. But how to get the other boy to town was 
a question. He could not be carried on anyone's back, 
so Mr. Ogden and Dr. Shelton made a stretcher of 
sheepskins and two poles, set him upon that and, one 
in front and one behind, they carried him in. These 
poor people were taken care of, fed, and treated until 
they were able to take care of themselves. 

One day a woman came to the dispensary saying her 
stomach was full of pus, and that a Tibetan had made 
a hole in it with an iron rod to let it out. She had the 
hole over the stomach, and the odor was frightful. It 
had been done about one month before, but when she 
was told a knife or probe must be used to see where 
the opening went, and how deep it was, she refused to 
have it done, left the dispensary, and invited a lot of 
lamas to read prayers for her. 

A little child ten or eleven years old who had been 


begging on the streets for some days was found lying 
on the stones and in a dying condition. Dozens of 
men and women passing and repassing never seemed 
even to pity, let alone aid. The child was taken to the 
dispensary, cleaned, and fed, but died that night. Next 
day it was buried by the mission. "Unto one of these 
little ones." How people can be born, live, suffer, and 
die with no medical help to ease pain is a difficult thing 
for one to understand in such a country as this, where 
the ground is kept clean, the water is looked after, the 
food is carefully examined, teeth are cared for, and all 
pain is stopped as soon as may be by the latest scien- 
tific methods and the keenest brains to use them. Try 
to imagine a land and people where these things are 
all lacking. The Chinese have many drugs which they 
use in a somewhat skillful way, and many physicians 
with a sort of medical skill, who demand high prices 
for their services, very few doing charity work among 
the poor. And heretofore the Chinese have always 
had the solace of opium in severe pain. The Tibetans 
have no medical science at all, and only a blind trust 
in their holy men to help them in and through all ills. 
There is no nation perhaps so full of religion as 
Tibet. It is everywhere : strung on prayer flags, across 
and across the mountains from tree to tree, on top of 
the passes, on long poles, in great skin cylinders turned 
by water-power, in metal prayer-wheels whirled in 
the hand, or carved on miles and miles of stones along 
the roads. Religion is everywhere, on everything, in 
everything. It is in the people as they make their pil- 
grimage to Lassa and home again; as they wall them- 
selves in stone huts, away from the sunlight, for years 


and years to meditate and pray ; going over snow moun- 
tains, through valleys, in cold and in heat on their 
stomachs to the holy city, taking years to accomplish 
their pilgrimage, to be holy men in the end. The land 
is full of lamas, hundreds, thousands of them ; praying 
always, but leading obscene lives religion-surfeited. 

It is a religion of self, for self, enduring pain and 
hardship, solitary confinement, muttering millions of 
prayers for the exaltation of self, while those who 
must serve these holy ones live in hopeless poverty. 
These priests pitilessly demand money and food when 
they must have help. It is a religion of husks. Ours 
is, too, sometimes isn't it ? when we forget the com- 
passionate heart of the great Master and dream of self 
and rest, self-satisfied in our own goodness as we com- 
pare ourselves to our fellows. But look once, just 
once, at Him when He was tired, weary, dust-stained, 
and with a heart aching over a world that would not 
see, and stand one moment before the bar of self and 
with bowed head and humbled heart ask if we are many 
times less selfish or more compassionate than these 
"holy" priests of Tibet. 

Religion cannot be thrust upon a Tibetan. If he 
thought that was what was happening when he comes 
for medicine and sympathy, he would certainly turn 
and have some very important affairs to see to at once. 
The Chinese are reached more easily, perhaps, than the 
Tibetans; at least they usually come first for medicine. 

Someone is pounding on the mission gate, is in a 
desperate hurry and wants help at once. Two men 
have had a quarrel and the one worsted has rushed 
home, taken a drink of opium mixed with wine and 


come back to die on his enemy's doorstep. In despair, 
as he believes if the man dies on his step the soul will 
return to haunt him, besides his having to pay the 
funeral expenses, he runs to the foreign doctor for 
help. The missionary goes, but has used only a small 
hypodermic syringe, or "water-gun," while the patient 
is being held, and the man desperately cries, "Is that all 
you are going to do ?" "Wait and see," is the answer, 
and soon that isn't all that is being done by any means. 
The man quickly recovers and the foreigner has gained 
a victory and his reputation is started. 

Perhaps the first thing of any importance that 
brought a knowledge of the use of foreign medicine to 
the Tibetans was the slight operation on the hand of 
a big lama belonging to one of the lamaseries in Ta- 
chienlu. The big fellow and two or three of his fol- 
lowers came one morning to the house, saying he had 
thrust a needle into his hand and broken, it off in the 
fleshy part just below the thumb and couldn't get it out. 
He was told that the flesh would have to be cut and 
small tweezers used to draw the broken piece out. "Yes, 
but it will hurt," the big fat lama objected. "No," the 
doctor said, "it will not. Ill put some medicine on 
with this needle and that will hurt a little, but you can 
stand that, can't you?" He thought he could, so the 
hand was deadened with cocaine, the knife thrust in 
and the needle quickly extracted. While the lama's 
eyes grew bigger and bigger and those standing around 
groaned and asked if it didn't hurt, he said, "No, it 
didn't, but just look at the blood." This simple opera- 
tion drove another small missionary wedge into this 
land in the shape of a needle. 


One morning a man came into the little courtyard in 
Tachienlu asking for medicine or the use of a knife for 
his master, who was with him and who was ill. He 
was invited to bring his master and come to the house. 
Upon examination it was found that there were some 
scrofulous glands that needed the surgeon's knife. But 
the instruments were gone ; Johnny had taken the boxes 
of drugs and instruments and gone on ahead of the 
missionaries to Batang. The operation was impossi- 
ble, and the man had come one month's journey from 
the south for help. What was to be done ? The man 
decided for himself to follow the missionary for eight- 
een days more on to Batang to have those glands re- 

A few days after reaching Batang the man was there, 
too, and wanted his work done. The chloroform and 
necessary instruments and medicines were unpacked; 
a door taken down and used as a table was placed in 
the upstairs courtyard. The man was placed upon it 
where everyone could see, so they would know that the 
foreigner had no secret magical power, no dreadful 
medicine to conjure with or devils to aid him, and the 
operation was done. Then twenty-five days to his home 
the man had still to go, but he returned happy. This 
was the first operation in Batang and the entering 
wedge had grown a bit larger. 

Not so many days after getting to Batang and open- 
ing the little mud dispensary and putting the beds up 
in the inn, a big red card came from the Chinese offi- 
cial asking Dr. Shelton to come to the yamen, as he 
wished to see him about a small affair. Seizing his 
hat, with some uneasiness he went to the house of the 


official. The official received him most graciously, gave 
him the chair of honor, and insisted on filling his teacup 
several times. Then he asked after the health of both 
families for several generations back, until finally, 
squirming around, Dr. Shelton said, "You sent for me ; 
what was it you wanted me to do?" "Oh," said the 
official, "there's a Tibetan down here that's hurt a lit- 
tle. A rock fell and struck his head. I'd like to have 
you go down and fix him up." "All right," replied 
the Doctor ; and after another siege of Oriental bowing 
and scraping he went to find the injured man. Going 
by the dispensary, he got a washpan, hot water, band- 
ages, and instruments for fixing a scalp wound. He 
went to the Tibetan house and found the poor fellow 
on a pile of straw and manure, where he had been car- 
ried and laid about two hours before. 

The Doctor found that, instead of it being a scalp 
wound, the skull was crushed and the brains were 
oozing from the wound. He dropped the instrument 
on the ground and went back to the official faster than 
he went the first time. After gaining admittance he 
marched up to him and said : "I can't operate on that 
man. I dare not. He will die if I do, and I'm not 
going to touch him." "Well, but you must do some- 
thing. Can't you do anything for him?" objected the 
official. "Yes, I can ; but I don't want to, for if he 
died under the foreigner's knife it might mean the 
lives of us all." "Well," replied the mandarin, "you 
go on, and I'll stand back of you, whatever the result 
may be." So back went the Doctor in great fear, to do 
what he knew he ought to do to save the life of this 


It seemed that so much depended on the success of 
the first surgical work, perhaps the lives of the for- 
eigners there, the stability and possibility of a Tibetan 
mission. It seemed a pity to destroy all the work and 
hope of years that had gone before with a stroke or two 
of the surgeon's knife; but it must be done, and with 
shut teeth and a passionate prayer for help he went to 
work. The poor fellow was lifted and placed on a door 
and carried into a Tibetan house. A sheet was taken 
and stretched up to keep the dirt from falling on him 
as the doctor worked. He began washing and shaving 
dirty, lousy, tangled, buttered hair. Then twelve pieces 
of bone were taken out, and the wound was closed over 
and bandaged. The poor fellow was just about used 
up when he came out from under the anaesthetic. 

Dr. Shelton came home with a set face and said, 
"The man will be dead in the morning. I did the 
best I could, but I don't see how he can possibly live." 
We felt pretty downhearted that night and fearful of 
what the morrow would bring. After breakfast he 
went to see his patient, and the chap tried to raise up 
off his straw bed to thank him ! With a face perfectly 
blank with surprise, and yet in which awe and thank- 
fulness were mingled, he returned and said: "Well, 
I did the best I could; but by all the knowledge of 
medicine I possess, that man should have been dead 
this morning. The Lord has healed him." There was 
no other explanation for it. In a month the fellow 
was ready to walk home, one hundred miles, and he 
left the city. 

One day some three or four months later, as Dr. 
Shelton was coming to dinner from the dispensary, 


he saw two old people about fifty or sixty years of 
age, perhaps coming towards him; and as they ap- 
proached, down both went on their knees, bumping 
their heads on the ground. He asked: "What is the 
matter ? What do you want ? Get up ; we don't allow 
that." They arose and took a few steps, and down 
they went once more, kotowing and pounding the 
ground with their foreheads. Again he told them to 
get up, and asked again what it was they wanted. 
Then they said: "Do you remember that man whose 
head was caved in?. Well, he is our son, and we have 
come to thank you for saving his life." They did not 
know that the foreign doctor had had little to do with 
that; but as they had never heard the name of Jesus, 
they could only think it was the foreigner. 

Being too poor to hire a horse, those two old people 
had come about one hundred miles on foot, about five 
or six days' journey, to thank this man for saving their 
son. Out of his dirty sheepskin gown the man pulled 
a chicken, a wad of butter, and some eggs as pay for 
this medical service. The money value wasn't much, 
but the heartfelt gratitude couldn't be measured in 
silver and gold. Lives wasted among these people? 
Ah, no; for in the Master's service there is always 
compensation that is infinitely more of value than gold 
or precious stones. 



"Happiness is like rabbits' hornst, 
scarce and hard to find. Sorrow, like the 
rings of an antelope's horns, can be 
found without hunting." 


Building is rather a difficult proposition in the land 
of Tibet. There is no finished material, and one must 
get the raw material and patiently prepare it. The 
first decision of the mission was to build brick houses 
and hospitals. During our first stay in Batang, Chinese 
brickmakers were employed, several thousand brick 
burned, and a little lumber bought and laid aside to 
season for the inside work. 

Then Dr. Shelton went home on furlough, and in 
the meantime, China decided to become a republic, 
war came on, and all the missionaries had to leave 
the station. On their return, they found some of the 
brick had been stolen, and after further study, decided 
that it would be best to use mud for the walls, as the 
Tibetans did, because the houses were to be examples 
and models for better homes. If they were put up 

with some impossible and expensive material which the 



natives knew nothing about, or could not buy, they 
would furnish no incentive for better native building. 
Besides, the use of mud was a more economical prop- 

The Doctor had never built anything before, but it 
had to be done. The brick he had burned was on hand 
and would do for walks, chimneys, porch posts, and 
other purposes whenever needed. The first task was to 
get the lumber. The mountains around Batang were at 
one time covered with beautiful timber, but in order to 
get the wood for fuel, without the labor of cutting it, 
the wood choppers set the mountains on fire, and they 
burned for days. Then they picked up the charred and 
broken timber without having to chop it down, and 
carried it home. So no timber fit for building pur- 
poses could be had nearer than about fifteen miles from 
home. Men had to be hired, their food purchased, 
wages settled, and then these workmen taken to a camp 
in the forest. They cut the upright trees, then peeled 
them, and after enough were cut, slid them into the 
river to be carried to Batang. There the men, bare- 
footed in the ice-cold water, watched for the logs, fished 
them out on shore, and carried them over on the hill 
to the carpenters. 

One funny old Chinese was the head carpenter, and 
had with him his two half-caste sons. He had learned 
his trade as a youth in China, but had dwelt many 
years in Batang, and had taught the Tibetans how to 
build. Sometimes he did more harm than good, for he 
was very slow and deliberate, and the sons could not 
do- anything unless they asked him, although they 
&new as much about the work as he did. But he was 


old, and after the Chinese custom, they gave the old 
man the preference every time, in every way. He 
was always forgiven for his scoldings and his sons 
never lost patience with him. They took such good 
care of him that every day he had a bowl of melted 
butter and honey to drink. 

Many times Doctor took his bed on his mule, his 
food in his saddle bags, and his medicine boxes, and 
went to spend the night in camp, to see how the work 
was progressing. It would have been slow enough at 
best, for these people always have plenty of time. 
There is always a to-morrow, and hurry seems to have 
been left out of the Oriental when he was created. 

We were much excited over the prospect of new 
houses, for when it rained, the yellow mud from the 
roofs of the native houses melted and ran down the 
walls and through the ceilings on to the beds and tables 
and floors. We disliked the rats that ran around at 
night and bit the babies' toes and nibbled the Doctor's 
hair. One night we borrowed a cat, though it is very 
difficult to get a tame one in that country, and next 
morning we found the tail of the chief rat under the 
bed, so he was finished, if his entire family wasn't. 

One night Doctor was among the lumbermen, and as 
he sat talking with them, they said: "To-morrow we 
will show you the tree for your 'God's house.' It is 
the tallest, and biggest, and most perfect in all the 
forest." Strange they thought of giving the best tree 
to the temple; and, sure enough, the next day they 
showed it to him. It was tall, straight, and majestic, 
a fitting part of a house of God. It was full fifty 
feet without a flaw, and almost of uniform size to 


that height. For two long years the men cut and meas- 
ured and hammered and sawed, building the inside 
frame and the doors and window frames, while the 
wall builders built their scaffold of boards and ropes 
and poles, carrying the dirt and water on the women's 
backs. This they poured between the boards, while 
the beaters pounded it, singing always to the rhythm 
of "Om mani," the universal prayer of Tibet. Lime 
had to be burned and cement made, as the lower story 
of each building was floored with cement. All the 
roofing, glass, paint, door-knobs, hinges, putty, screws, 
and whatever else goes to make a house which could 
not been found in China, had been taken out from 

There are just a very few signs of civilization which 
have preceded the missionaries to Batang. One is the 
Standard Oil tin ; another is the cigarette ; and once in a 
while there is brought over the mountains a sardine tin, 
or a can of pork and beans. 

The houses were all finished at last, and we moved 
in. How clean and sweet they did smell, the first 
houses to be occupied by us in which hundreds of people . 
had not lived before us ! Then into the hospital went 
the new beds, with covers and pillows and springs. 
This was the first hospital in all Tibet! We felt that 
the sick would all be delighted to lie on springs instead 
of a hard board, but often the Doctor would find the 
patient on the floor instead of on the bed. He had 
always slept on a board with a stone for a pillow, 
and he felt that because the bed wiggled it was not 
solid ! 

But what a relief to have a place to take sick folks 


and care for them properly! Now that the building 
was done, the Doctor was not tied so tightly at home, 
and went traveling more. He was always looking for 
a place where a new station might be started when we 
had men to place there. Cases sometimes came in 
"showers," as they used to do in Tachienlu, only here 
there were more often knife cases. At one time there 
were three thus injured at the same time. One was 
wounded in the back, and the knife thrust clear into 
the lungs. This man, as he got better, took walks 
among the Chinese graves, and looked like the man in 
the New Testament, who "wandered among the tombs." 
One, wounded in the knee, was the most serious case 
a direct thrust just above the knee cap. The third was 
wounded in the abdomen. This man was brought in in 
the evening, and had to be attended to at once, so our 
teacher went to hold the lamp. He came back in about 
an hour with the sweat rolling off his face, and said, 
"The Doctor has unraveled that man and put him all 
back together again." He got well, in spite of the 

The teacher's baby girl died, and we wished to have 
a funeral and put her body in a little coffin. He was 
willing, but his wife and mother were not. "No," 
they said, "she must be thrown into the river, that she 
may be quickly and utterly destroyed, and quickly re- 
born"; and it was done. 

A few years later, this man's grandson died, and 
when he came back to work again, he said, "We put 
him in a coffin and all his best clothes were on him, and 
he looked very nice, as if he was asleep, just as you 
foreigners do." So the leaven worketh. 


Every year at Christmas time, it has been the custom 
of the mission and the native church to give a meal to 
the poor and to the beggars, after preaching and sing- 
ing in a short service, and something over two hundred 
hear a sermon and get filled up. Many days before 
they would come, asking, "Isn't it about the birthday of 
your Jesus, when you feed the poor and hungry in 
His name ?" 

There was one old beggar woman in Batang who 
didn't have a tooth. Her hair was in gray, twisted 
mats, she wore a few wisps of clothing, and carried 
her beggar staff. She always met the Doctor with a 
broad smile. He asked her one day how old she was, 
and she said, "A hundred and twenty." After that 
he always called her "Jada Nehu," which is a hundred 
and twenty in Tibetan. This greatly amused her, and 
after she received her coin, she folded her hands in 
thanks, and called him her "precious jewel." There 
is love even in a beggar's greeting, if you have love 
with which to awaken it. 

Another interesting character was a queer old man 
whose face looked like a moon. He lived at one of 
the mills, and always came to the Christmas dinner. He 
had a rim of whiskers around his chin, reaching from 
ear to ear. He had a smile for everybody, and we 
were all grieved when we heard that the old man was 
dead. A strange thing happened in connection with 
his death. A superstition often repeated becomes a 
custom which dare not be broken. There is one that 
during the buckwheat harvest no corpse shall be thrown 
into the river, because the gods will be angry and 
open the heavens and throw out the hail. They would 


have to open the heavens to let the spirit in, so of 
course the hail would fall out, and the buckwheat 
would all be shattered and lost. Because of this strange 
superstition, the old man's body was buried under the 
dirt floor of his little hut until the harvest should be 
completed. What had been done was discovered by 
one of the missionaries who made a call in the house 
and asked what the stench could be. However, no 
one dared do anything with the corpse until every grain 
of the buckwheat was harvested. 

A leper came to church many Sundays. He had 
heard that Jesus healed such as he. After a time he 
could come no longer, but the little church tenderly 
cared for him until he died and then I wonder if he 
found why men could not heal him, and if all was made 

"No-legged Joe" was another Christian belonging to 
the Church militant both legs had been frozen, and 
were amputated by the Doctor halfway between the 
knee and the ankle. He walked on his knees, and 
was one of the trusted rug makers. Everywhere he 
preached, and did not understand why everyone 
shouldn't believe so good a thing as the story of Christ. 

A blind man and his Tibetan wife came into the 
church. One night he dreamed that their old rock 
stove-place fell down, and was built up new. He in- 
terpreted it to mean that the old religion would be 
destroyed and a new one put in its place. 

The Tibetans have many pretty songs, and to the 
tunes they improvise many of their own words. The 
gamut of the scale is usually about five notes, but the 


music sounds very well indeed. One of their songs has 
this meaning : 

"Over the mountains from the east 
Has the foreigner come. 
Whether for good or ill, 
We must wait and see." 



"Man's ability either great or small 
comes not by worry; his life, whether 
long or short, is not measured by a rule." 


The Batang valley is probably the best valley and the 
most fertile between Tachienlu and Lassa. Every 
year two crops are raised in the fields. There is very 
little rain, and nine months are usually absolutely dry. 
Everything is grown by irrigation. All through the 
year manure and tramped straw are piled in the lower 
part of the two-story Tibetan houses, ready for the 
planting of the wheat. The fields are plowed and 
sowed with wheat or barley about in January. Long 
ago, the sowing of the wheat could not be done until 
the master of the ruling house had first planted his 
field. Before the seed is put in, this manure and filth 
are dug from the houses, carried in baskets on the 
women's backs, and dumped on the fields. This seems 
to be a great "cleaning up" time. At least a great 
deal of filth is carried from the homes. 

The wheat and barley are usually harvested in July. 

They are cut with a hand sickle, and carried in on the 



women's backs or by donkeys. The grain is put on 
the tops of the houses, and the flat mud roof is used 
for the threshing floor. It sounds very pretty in the 
afternoons as all over the city the people are beating 
with the flails, and singing, "O, Mani, Padme Ore." 

The buckwheat harvest comes in October, and the 
valley is very attractive with the flowers of pink or 
green, as the lamas happened to have cast lots and 
told the people which kind to plant, whether the sweet 
or the bitter. The sweet were all pink fields, and the 
bitter were yellowish green. A certain amount must 
be paid to the Chinese official for taxes; another share 
is due the priests, and some must go for debt before 
the people have their store for the winter. They often 
have little left, but manage to live through. 

At New Year's time the Tibetans keep the celebra^ 
tion much after the Chinese order, with feasting and 
drinking and gambling, while the children play with 
the paper dragon. The people bring a catta, and wish 
you many happy returns of the day. This is a long, 
white scarf. The short ones are about a foot long, 
of thin silk, stiffened with starch. The longer ones, 
five or six feet long, come 'from the higher officials. 
They bring the catta to you and place it around your 
neck as they wish you a happy New Year. The Chi- 
nese children, or the half-castes, come in to "worship 
the year" with you, and to get a copper coin. 

As time went on, conditions grew worse and worse. 
The poor mail carriers between Batang and Litang 
had to travel at night, and it took the caravans months 
to get through. At this time we had rather an exciting 
experience, though the excitement did not last long, 




and we knew nothing about it until it was all over, for 
we had slept peacefully through it all! The soldiers 
had had no pay for over a year, and the General being 
absent in Tachienlu for some months, they planned 
to kill the city official, have the military man in charge 
take possession of the yamen (Chinese city official 
residence), loot and burn as they pleased, take the 
town, rob the shops of the merchants, and also rob 
the foreigners if they felt so disposed. As we were 
so far from the center of authority, no help could 
have come that would have been of any avail. It had 
all been planned to happen at three o'clock in the 
morning, but the official found it out at nine o'clock 
the evening before and got busy. Six of the plotters 
were arrested, two shot, four flogged, and some held 
as prisoners. From all the country round came the 
news that in every station where there was a garrison 
of soldiers, they were rebelling against the Govern- 
ment because they had had no pay for so long a time. 

It is harder to keep the Chinese soldiers under con- 
trol than it is to govern the Tibetans. A few days 
later, two more Chinese soldiers were killed at Batang, 
and fourteen beheaded at Litang. The city official 
finally went out and collected all the money he could 
from the merchants and from the Tibetans, and paid 
it to the soldiers. He told them that the General was 
coming, bringing loads of rice, clothing, and money. 

General Lu came in from Tachienlu bringing a Chi- 
nese wife whom he had bought. His Tibetan wife, 
who had been the wife of another official, and whom 
he had forced to marry him, had heard he was coming 
with a Chinese wife, and in great anger had moved 


out of the yamen. She declared she would never live 
with him again, but, poor thing, she found herself 
helpless. As the General came, bringing his Chinese 
wife, a little girl of about fourteen, everybody went 
to meet them except the Tibetan wife. This General 
Lu of course had a wife in his ancestral home, beside 
this Tibetan wife, and now had bought him another 
Chinese wife. He and Dr. Shelton were great friends. 
He often came to our house for meals, and I would 
chide him for having three wives. The Doctor would 
tell him that one was all he could stand, but the General 
declared he was a perfectly good American that he 
was a Mormon ! 

The political unrest was not all on the Tibetan bor- 
der. The unrest was all over China, and it still con- 
tinues. The North wants one thing, the South another, 
and the province of Yunnan has just made herself into 
a state, coining her own money and stamps. A legend 
is told of an old temple in China in whose courtyard 
grows an old tree, perhaps two thousand years old. 
In the olden times, when a new emperor was to rule, 
a branch sprang from the tree and proceeded to grow, 
beginning to wither as his power decreased and the end 
of his reign grew near. When the Empress Dowager 
and her son (so-called) ruled, two branches sprang 
from this tree, withering when they died. When the 
Little Emperor was dethroned, and could not rule, the 
little branch on the tree, representing him, ceased to 
grow. Now the priests say there are two great limbs 
beginning to grow, meaning that China is to be divided 
into two parts, with a great ruler over each. 

The Doctor soon prepared for another trip. He and 


the teacher decided to travel up in the mountains 
among the robber tribes. The teacher's wife came 
from one of the robber tribes, for it was the custom 
that when one member of a Tibetan family was a 
merchant and his wife could be taken from the robber 
tribes, they would not rob his caravan as he went about 
Tibet, since they were kin. The two men went over 
roads so narrow that the mule could hardly keep her 
footing. In one place, the loads all had to be removed 
and carried by men and women, while they assisted 
the mule by one holding the bridle and another the 
tail to keep her from rolling over the precipice. 

They returned from their fine journey as brown as 
could be. Usually when the Doctor came back from 
a journey, his face would be burned with the sun, and 
his lips cracked with the cold, so on one journey, a 
little fiercer than the others, his men told him to stop 
washing that they never washed, but just used butter, 
which keeps the skin smooth. On this journey among 
the robbers, the people had seen no foreign man be- 
fore, and were afraid of him and the pictures and the 
tracts, but were soon reassured when they found he 
had medicine, and could speak their language. He 
found one woman living with five husbands, and an- 
other with eight. As these robbers had been making 
trouble for the Chinese, they asked Dr. Shelton to act 
as middleman between the Chinese official and the rob- 
bers of Sa-gnen. It is rather difficult for the Chinese 
to deal with the people, as they know nothing of the 
language, and an interpreter must always be employed, 
who translates as he likes. 

Through one of these interpreters our teacher came 


near losing his life. They called him up to the yamen 
and the official asked him to pay his taxes in advance. 
Through an interpreter of course he said he would do 
so, but asked for a few days to get the money, as they 
have little ready cash. For some reason the interpreter 
told the official that he refused to pay. The official 
grabbed a gun, pointed it at him, and pulled the trigger. 
Some of his men threw up the barrel and the bullet 
went through the roof, but the teacher was beaten and 
thrown into prison for some days. 

The Doctor was home only a few days when he was 
off on another journey. He took Li Guay Guang with 
him this time. This was the little boy we had taken 
in Tachienlu. He had developed into a fine evangelist, 
and did some splendid preaching on this journey to 
Jangka. The Doctor found that his middleman affair 
between the Batang official and Sa-gnen robbers was 
about to be settled, and the official told him he might 
go into the district again. 

There is a strange thing about the Tibetans' thought 
of religion. They do not want a religion that is mild 
and gentle and loving; they want a gospel so big with 
power that they can demand justice from the Chinese 
and control them in every way. This time of the year 
was the Chinese Moon Cake Festival, and the children 
said it was safe to go out of doors to play at night, 
for there were no ghosts on earth, Heaven was opened 
wide, and they had all gone up to drink tea! 

We wondered how the men were getting along in the 
robber land. The soldiers did not come back and 
bring us a letter, and we had had no word, but in a 
day or two they arrived. The Doctor had had a won- 


derful trip, for it was on this journey that he had shot 
the superstitious lama's charm box all to pieces, and 
with it the poor little goat which was supposed to be 
protected by its wonderful power, but that story read- 
ers of "Pioneering in Tibet" already know. It must 
be a difficult thing to have all your faith knocked out 
of you by a bullet, and no new faith to which you can 

Missionary work is the doing of little things all the 
time. There is no one big thing in everyday service 
among needy people. All anyone can do is to leave a 
"thumb print," which stands for his work among his 
people. The time it endures depends upon the amount 
of love used in the making. 

In early October the mountains all around had al- 
ready become white with snow, and the first frost of 
the season was at hand. The Tibetans "smudge" as do 
the orange growers of Southern California, for they 
build fires all around the fields of buckwheat which is 
yet too green for harvest, trying to keep it warm. 

The backbone of the lamas' power is broken here in 
the city. The people still follow them, still ask for 
charms, and still worship the priests, but only because 
they are afraid not to. In former days, no priest 
dared marry. Should they find one guilty, they caught 
him, stripped him, painted one half of him red and 
the other half white, set him astride a yak, and drove 
him into the wilderness. To-day the priest who is 
supposed to be the reincarnation of Buddha is married 
and lives with his wife openly. Several more are 
married and live with their wives secretly. It came 
to the ears of the chief priest that another priest had 


a wife. He called him up, and said, "You must put 
this woman away; you are ruining our religion and our 
authority." "All right," replied the priest, "if you 
will make this lama and this lama and this lama put 
their wives away, I am quite willing to obey." So we 
know that though the people obey outwardly, inwardly 
they are beginning to see that the priests are only as 
other men. 

Again Christmas time came, and the poor were fed. 
All the school children, all the servants and their fam- 
ilies had a bit of Christmas. Then came our own 
Christmas, with as near turkey as we could get, which 
was chicken, and a Christmas tree and Santa Claus for 
the little folks. In the midst of it all, men came for 
Dr. Shelton, for the Chinese General had sent for him. 
He stayed from noon until one o'clock, and went back 
at half -past one and stayed until six, for General Lu 
was expecting his first son, and he was born of his 
Chinese concubine that evening. 

Truly the customs of this barren land are much the 
same as in the days of Abraham. Men may marry 
their father's relations, and often do so, but it is not 
allowable on the mother's side, and the lineage is traced 
through the woman of the house. 



"It is as difficult for two men to agree 
as it is to shoot two does with one shot!' 


Knowing the language as the Doctor did, there was 
much which he might have discovered and given to the 
world about Tibet and its people, its customs, laws, 
and places of interest. Tibet is a virgin soil for any 
field of science or scientific investigation, all practically 
untouched. Explorers and travelers have only touched 
the edges, and leaders, such as Roy Chapman An- 
drews, could give to the world a marvelous amount of 
new knowledge about Tibet. In fact, one might find 
the Garden of Eden or the "Missing Link," as the 
Tibetan story of their own origin is that a monkey 
mated with a demon, and from them sprang the 
Tibetan race! 

To one who knows the language, it is far easier to 
gain knowledge of the people and from the people than 
it is for one who does not know it. With this knowl- 
edge of the language, with love in his heart and healing 
in his hands, Dr. Shelton was wanted and needed 
everywhere. When General Chao took over Tibet, he 



decided to establish schools throughout the country, 
abolishing the Tibetan customs, and establishing Chi- 
nese everywhere. He believed in killing off the 
Tibetan men and marrying the women to Chinese, so 
that the next generation would be of the race of Han. 
He imported cotton, started shoe and leather manu- 
facturing, and made great strides toward making the 
land of Tibet a province of China. 

But he decided gold should be found. He had im- 
ported some gardeners and farmers, the Chinese walk- 
ing the long way over the mountains from the plains 
of China. A few women, too, with small bound feet, 
had made that long journey. Gold was needed in 
order to bring an influx of Chinese, so a young Chi- 
nese mining engineer, educated in America, came in 
at the invitation of General Chao to discover gold. It 
was not to be found in the Batang valley, a little lead 
being all he could discover. The great General was 
very angry, and threatened to take off the engineer's 
head. He started for America post haste, and was 
hidden by missionaries at every stop, so the "big man" 
could not find him. He escaped with his life, and was 
glad to get back again to his wife and baby in America. 

The flora of Tibet has been barely touched by the 
botanist, Wilson, near and around Tachienlu. He 
gathered the seeds, and many of the plants were sent 
to Kew Gardens in England. I think later he gathered 
some for America, among them being rhododendrons 
and primroses of the most exquisite variety. On the 
mountains between Tachienlu and Batang grows what 
the Chinese call "the grass-worm." This is a queer 
anomaly, that looks like half worm and half grass. It 


is gathered, tied into bundles, dried, and eaten by the 
people. Dr. Shelton happened to mention this in his 
.article in the National Geographic Society Magazine 
for September, 1921, and later the following letter 
from Mr. Blackborn of the Royal Asiatic Society came 
to me: 

"Dear Dr. Shelton: 

"One of our local members was very much interested 
in reading your article on 'Life Among the People in 
Eastern Tibet' in the September number of the Na- 
tional Geographic Magazine, and see that you spoke of 
the 'grass worm,' a seeming combination of animal 
and vegetable life. 

"He says in his letter to me : 'To me this is a matter 
of great interest, and calls for something more than a 
passing note in a magazine. Early in 1889 I was 
traveling through New Zealand, and found myself at 
a small hotel in the Thermol District. After dinner a 
dish of caterpillars was put on the table, and we were 
invited to eat; many were broken, but I picked out a 
dozen sound ones for further investigation, and after 
cautiously tasting some of the others, asked the land- 
lord where they came from. He said the natives 
brought them in from Mount Tarawere close by. The 
next day I went and had the pleasure of digging up a 
few; they we're from two to four inches long, were 
soft, but quickly hardened to the consistency of a hazel 
nut. In every case, growing from some part of the 
caterpillar's body was a stem, from three to six inches 
long, ending in a tuft like a bulrush. On reaching 
Auckland, I commenced to search and found that it 
was the Aweto caterpillar, and it was believed not to 
exist in any other part of the world. The theory is 
that the caterpillar, pursuing its course under ground, 
comes in contact with the seed of the Rata, which 
works into the caterpillar's body, thrives by its mois- 


ture, and then dies, leaving the caterpillar a decided 
member of the vegetable kingdom, although defunct. 
I took my specimens to England, and distributed them 
to various museums. Unfortunately, I have only one 
specimen left, and that has the stem broken, but I shall 
be pleased to show it to any one interested, and to 
know if the note in the magazine is the only informa- 
tion we possess as to this wonderful occurrence in 

"I thought it might be interesting to try and ascer- 
tain if the worm referred to by you is identical with 
that referred to by my correspondent. Have you any 
information on the subject in addition to that given in 
your article? Perhaps it might be possible for you to 
send us a specimen for our museum with any available 

"With many apologies for troubling you, and abus- 
ing your kindness, 

"Yours sincerely, 

"Honorable Secretary." 

These worms seem to be rather smooth, with rings 
or corrugations around them, this part being in the 
ground. It seems that the grass sprouts from the head 
of the insect and the roots seem to fill the body of the 
worm. However, I am not a scientist, and this slight 
information may be of little value except to a man 
who, knowing these worms are found in Tibet, can go 
there and give the information correctly to the world. 

The Tibetans are classed by all wise scholars as 
belonging to the yellow race, but they are not at all 
like that race either in disposition, customs, or man- 
ners. They somewhat resemble Mr. Pollard's descrip- 
tion of the people in Nosu Land, who perhaps belong 


to the aboriginal race of China. It seems a probable 
theory that, as nationalities spread from one continent 
to another, they usually follow the lines of latitude in 
their migrations. That is, people from the North of 
Europe, as a rule, settle in the North of America, and 
those from the southern part of Europe seek a milder 
latitude in the same country. It seems to me possible 
that the Aryan Race, perhaps from Persia, or the 
Kurds with their black tents, might have gone toward 
the east and settled on the mountains and plains of 
Tibet. In their tents of black yak hair, their nomadic 
life, and their personal characteristics they resemble 
the Arabs much more than they do the Mongolians. 
A full-blooded Tibetan looks like an Arab with his tall, 
lithe "body, coarse black hair, small beard, light brown 
skin (lighter when not exposed to wind and weather), 
and dajk brown eyes that are almond shaped and not 
slant. He rides a horse as if he were part of one, and 
the customs of revenge and daily life are much like 
those of the Arab. Hospitality is one of their char- 
acteristics. They give the best they have to the 
stranger within their gates, sometimes even to the loan 
of a wife. A sheep or a goat is often killed upon the 
arrival of a guest. 

Rancid butter is one of the delicacies. This they 
lay away in a prepared sheep's stomach, and keep as 
long as possible. The older it is the better. I read 
the other day of a tribe in India, along the Peshawar 
River, which also kept butter stored and preferred it 
to be nearly one hundred years old before using! 

Polyandry is practiced, the daughter in a home 
having from one to six husbands, who are usually 


brothers. They usually seem very happy together, the 
children calling the elder brother "father," and the 
others "uncle." Although the Chinese custom of 
having more than one wife has come in with them, we 
rarely find a Tibetan with two wives. One of the 
friends in Batang took a son-in-law for his two daugh- 
ters, to keep the home intact. Another friend took a 
bride for her two sons, but the elder son was very un- 
happy, and went outside and got him a wife of his 
own. By his so doing his connection with his ancestral 
home was in a measure severed, and the other son 
became the head of the house. 

Throughout Oriental countries, custom is stronger 
than law. Feuds are no small part of a Tibetan's life. 
All the boys of one family and many of the other 
boys who came to school said they had to revenge 
someone of their line of family who had been killed 
many years before. Remonstrating against such a 
custom did no good, and reasoning was worse. It had 
to be done ; it was the custom. They would say, "We 
would be considered cowards, and scorned by every- 
body, if we did not kill those who have at some time 
or other killed some of our people." Their quarrels 
were very bitter, and they usually handled a knife 
quickly, and to the best advantage. Dr. Shelton was 
often middleman in many of their quarrels. He would 
say, "Why do you not speak the truth at once and 
settle it, instead of talking for days and days and never 
getting anywhere?" They would reply, "Oh, that is 
the foreigners' way, but it is not our way; we have to 
talk and talk and talk many days before our quarrels 
can be settled." 


The customs of the ages oppose all progress, new 
thinking, a new religion, cleanliness, or hygiene. They 
have a saying that when a new religion comes in, their 
own is doomed. It is the custom to be dirty ; therefore 
why should they take a bath? They have always been 
dirty, and therefore must continue to be dirty. Cus- 
tom is law in the Orient, unwritten, but powerful just 
the same. 

A prophecy waiting to be fulfilled is that Tibet shall 
be governed by thirteen Dalai Lamas, and the present 
one is the thirteenth. The Governor of Kham often 
fasted for the health of the Dalai Lama. It was for- 
. bidden to fish and kill all animals while the fast lasted. 
He could give his wife away and get a new one when 
he liked, but he fasted just the same. 

NOTE: Dr. Shelton was a member of the Royal Geographic 
Society, of the Royal Asiatic Society, Doctor of Laws from 
Gotner University, and an M.D. from the Louisville Medical 



"If he eats too much, a tiger vtill 
choke even on man's meat. If he Hies 
too far, even the vulture will fall." 


Dr. Shelton would not keep a diary. He always 
said, "There is nothing to put in it." I have found 
just two small ones, the one of the trip he took to 
Shangchen, and the other while he was a captive among 
the robbers. A great number of interesting expe- 
riences, sad, laughable, or tragic, came to him as he 
went in and out among the people. For the Tibetan 
people he lived, and he was always ready, day or night, 
to go and stay with them, doctor them, or help to 
settle their quarrels. In one of his letters after he 
got back, he wrote, "I would start for home in the 
morning if it were not for these people we love so 

His understanding sympathy with the people, which 
they felt, made him very near them. Through cen- 
turies of judging a man by instinct, the Tibetans have 
developed a sort of sixth sense, and judge a man by 
that. Their trust and faith is dog-like in its complete 

and simple devotion to those to whom they choose to 



give it. It takes years of love and service to awaken 
a Tibetan's trust, and then he is not a transient friend, 
but ready to serve to the uttermost. A Tibetan hates 
to be laughed at as an object of sport, but a laugh in 
the right place at the right time may sometimes work 

The Doctor's teacher lost his six mules, and the 
Chinese official who was in power at the time ordered 
the lamasery to return them, as many of these lama- 
series among the mountains are simply robber fast- 
nesses. They returned four, but the official insisted 
that they return the rest. So they were returned with 
this message, "I sent four mules ; you should have been 
satisfied. Now I shall pray to my god to kill you for 
demanding the other two," and he very nearly suc- 
ceeded. The teacher sat down to die. The Doctor 
went to see him, and on examination could find noth- 
ing the matter. He finally found out that the teacher 
was expecting to die, that the family was expecting it 
and waiting on him, seeing no way out of this diffi- 
culty. The Doctor scolded, but it did no good. He 
would say, "I must die; he is praying his god to kill 
me ; there is no escape." Finally the Doctor made fun 
of him, telling him he was no baby, and he knew that 
his god had no power, and for him to get up and be- 
have himself and he would soon be all right. Strange 
to say, this had the desired effect. He arose, took a 
bath in a hot spring, and came back to work. 


5 July. Leaving Batang at nine o'clock we came 
steadily till twelve o'clock, when we stopped for dinner 


in the place Ogden and I had picked for a summer 
camp. Then after an hour's rest, from twelve o'clock 
on to night we came steadily up all the way through 
forests and many flowers. It started to rain, but only 
a few drops fell. But as we came on higher, we found 
that there had been snow and rather small hail, and 
the ground was covered to the depth of an inch in 

We put on all our clothes when we finally stopped, 
at about 13,000 feet, for the night, pitching our tents 
just at the last edge of the timber line. I slept under 
two blankets and an eiderdown, and they did feel fine. 
You would hardly believe that in so short a time you 
could go from hot summer to winter temperature, but 
we were so well pleased with our tents that we decided 
to use them all the way. 

6 July. This morning we were on the road by six 
o'clock, still coming up a very gradual ascent, and 
finally crossing the pass at nine-thirty. The scenery 
surpasses anything I have ever seen in desolation, the 
mountains rising for 5,000 feet of bare stone. But 
a little down from the pass, the flowers again began to 
appear, and during the whole afternoon the scenery 
surpassed anything I ever saw in flowers, all colors. 
I sat down and picked ten varieties without getting up. 

Near the top of the pass, we killed a big duck. 
Ogden is having the time of his life trying to preserve 
the skin. 

We stopped to-night at Dongbudo, and our ula goes 
back to-morrow. Bought a particolored bear skin, and 
had one patient. Passed cattle and sheep ranch early 
in morning. 




7 July. They told us this morning that it was only 
a little way, so we did not stop for dinner, but found 
that the Tibetans' "little ways" were about sixty or 
seventy li. - [A li is about a third of a mile.] 

Arrived at Yaragong. Th;e first thing Jamsen 
bought was a dog's leg. Got dinner and put Gwa 
Guang to cooking beans, and then went to see an old 
woman seventy years old. She had fallen, on the 
mountain and broken her thigh, running the bone clear 
through, ten days ago, and when we found her such a 
sight ! She was in a stable, setting up her thigh at an 
angle of about thirty degrees. The bone was sticking 
out, and was all swollen. And the smell! 

All the misery these people suffer ! Then we went to 
the lamasery, which will be described separately. 
Suffice it to say, we find it of sufficient interest to stop 
to-morrow for full inspection. Coming back had five 
or six patients, and a lot of fun out of a rubber tube 1 a 
thing the Tibetans had never seen before. Catholics 
own much land and have seven families. 

8 July. The Lamasery: (i) Idol room Buddha 
gone. Bon Pictures. (2) Library 120 cases. Ce- 
ment floors, 145 volumes. (3) Printing room hun- 
dreds of printing blocks for books and wheel of life. 

(4) Tanka room Idols and Tankas. (5) Dressing 
room false faces, etc. (6) Lama's private room 
beautiful. (7) Outer hall 150 paintings, half vile. 
(8) Buddha hall 200 paintings, set in work most 

After staying at the lamasery till one o'clock, came 
back to camp and had a lot more patients. Then start 
for Ditsagong, twenty li away. Then change ula after 


supplying a woman with medicine. Then to Dotsa ten 
li away. Arrived, and it took three hours. Got lost 
on way. Arrived at nearly dark. Had no patients, but 
people supplied grass and wood in plenty, for which 
we paid them well. Ogden found his coolie had been 
running needles in his horse's back. 

9 July. Started about eight A. M., and changed ula 
at Tsongtsa at ten-thirty. Had a climb for about an 
hour. Had fifteen or twenty patients. They come 
very freely. Fine country and has about one hundred 

Coming on to Ringbu up branch of Donglando 
River. Arrived at quarter past twelve, and stopped 
for the night. Met by most of the population. Ringbu 
has lamasery of three hundred lamas, which we are 
going to see at about three o'clock. Waiting for 

Went to lamasery and found Ho Tongsi and a few 
other Batang people playing cards. We could not get 
inside the big hall, because they said the lamas had 
killed one of their own men, and some of them had 
put all the things in the big hall, locked it, and left only 
about three hundred idols. 

The pusas we saw there were the thousand-handed 
Chenezik. We found no obscene pictures here. Yel- 
low sect. Coming back to tents they brought some 
eggs, and the people brought enough grass for ten 
horses. Also eggs. Doctored a few sick, among them 
a deaf mute boy of ten. (Caused from fever when a 
baby.) Had to give him a rupee, to let us syringe his 

Rain and wind. 


Saturday, 10 July. Came up mountain for two 
hours, then for an hour across a big plain till we got 
to some black tents. Ate dinner in one. People fine. 
I gave them all cards. Bought pound of butter. Then 
for two hours went across wonderful big plateau. 
Then down valley :o Dongdo. Fine valley, with nine 
villages. Took bath and helped Ogden wash clothes. 
Finest week I ever had travelling and making friends 
with many, many people. Met Dayinguan's daugh- 
ter, Omo, husband's name Atring. Mother in 
Tachienlu. Niece of Lao Po Po at dispensary. Very 
nice. Doctored several people, but they did not bring 
much grass. Got twenty-three eggs. Two peoplie 
blind from smallpox. 

Ji July. Went to see patient before we started 
from Dongdo. Got one rupee. Crossed two mountain 
passes. Ate dinner at Daso River at Yaragong. Came 
on to Rata. Send letter from here. Want us to stop 
one day for ula. Will arrive Shangchen to-morrow. 
Went swimming. First [Chinese] school no good. 

12 July. Few more patients. Left at ten minutes 
past eight. Killed five pigeons. Nothing of note. Ate 
on top of mountain. Very little water. Fine valley 
running into Shangchen. Several villages just below 
road. Long hard day. Gwan [official] sent ten sol- 
diers to guard tent after we declined to go to lamasery. 
Rained hard at night. 

75 July. Day in Shangchen. Call and return calls 
of official. Ate supper with Fu [official]. He gave 
me holy water vase. School. Can talk little Chinese. 
Everything in lamasery. Ditch ten feet deep. Holes 


dug by Chinese to blow up lamasery. Forts all around, 
with fine chorten in each. 

14 July. Started from Shangchen at nine o'clock, 
and had gone but about a mile when they suddenly 
came to a halt and said we must change ula. Took 
about half an hour, but after that it took only ten or 
fifteen minutes, as they sent word on ahead. Had to 
change eight times during the day. Fun with Gwa 
Guang because a girl had to lead his horses. Doctored 
people, who are friendly. 

At two stopped along road. Also doctored a girl 
and a man before starting. Finding some difficulty 
with talk here, as pronunciation is different. Only 
on this road have we seen arches with paintings of 
Buddha on ceiling. About twelve or fifteen of them to- 
day. Saw big chorten with hundreds of idols in one 
place. When we stopped for the night, one woman 
was awfully scared, and nearly cried. They all know 
"La way ni" [thank you] on this road. After a 
while I gave her baby a rupee and talked to her a little. 
She said, "My, but I was scared when you came in." 
The husband came about dark, and came in to talk 
a while. I showed him my watch. He did not know 
what it was, and was afraid to listen to it for a while. 
Ogden and I ate about four catties [Chinese pound] 
fish for supper. Fifteen villages in this one day's 
journey, aggregating about three hundred families. Go 
back to Shangchen to-morrow. 

75 July. Came back over road went up yesterday. 
Had lots of patients about twenty-five. If I should 
come through here again, patients would be doubled. 
Many came to-day who would not come yesterday. 


Three cataract patients who ought to come to Batang 
to be operated on. Whether they will come or not 
I do not know. They seem to have recovered from 
the war very quickly here, for all along they are build- 
ing new houses where old ones were burned. Sore 
eyes and rheumatism prevailing trouble. Got invita- 
tion to breakfast to-morrow morning with Lu DaRen 
[Chinese official]. Tibetans will not come around 
where Chinese are. Have had only three or four pa- 
tients right here in Shangchen, but in the road where 
we are alone, they come quite freely. Start for lower 
Shangchen to-morrow. 

16 July. Went to eat with Lu Da Ren at eight 
A. M. Left at nine forty-five. Fine valley. Changed 
ula at one o'clock. Then doctored eight patients. 
Then had bad horses and got only about a mile farther 
and came back to dinner place. People awfully scared 
when we came back, and brought horses and begged 
us to go on. May go on to-morrow. Found out 
how hair is fixed. Plaited fifty-seven braids on one 
side. Found use of hair ornaments. Boys and girls 
ten years old perfectly naked. Sleeping to-night sur- 
rounded by Buddhist hell and lords of the east, west, 
north, and south heavens in lamasery. All kinds of 
punishment in Buddhist hell for adultery and bad 
carpenters. Woman in childbirth, blind snakebird and 
cow swallowing each other in center. Thousand 
handed and eyed pusa. One obscene, first since Yara- 

17 July. Started out at a quarter past six, aiming 
to go till noon and come back to Jara for the night. 
Went about a mile and had to change ula. Went about 


three or four miles farther and had to change again. 
Decided to come back to Shangchen. Had great time 
with ula at Jara. Couldn't get horses, and started to 
walk. Finally had to ride a little way on rack of bones 
to satisfy the Tibetans. Bought a bracelet and bowl. 
F:ve of the Chinese ran off last night, and the men 
hunting them came into the lamasery about two o'clock. 
We did not know what was up to see so many men 
coming into the lamasery. Got back to Shangchen 
about night. Ting Da Ren [Chinese official] came and 
stayed till bedtime. Quite an entertaining talker. Will 
stay here to-morrow, Sunday, and start back Monday 
by way of Romi. All headmen came. Gave us grass, 
wood, and waer tang [brown sugar cakes]. Saw sev- 
eral sick. 

18 July, Went to take bath and found pond empty. 
Came back by brass-smiths' to buy a go [iron pan], 
and Ting Da Ren found us there. Just before going 
to take bath, had dispensary and saw fifty-five patients. 
Cut off two moles, opened abscesses, etc. Had dinner 
with Ting Da Ren. Came back, saw thirteen more 
sick. Opened big abscess on man's jaw. Biggest day's 
dispensary work I ever did outside of operations. All 
in all, a fine day, ending up by a fight between Jamsen 
and Nossulun, cutting latter's head open and spraining 
Jamsen's leg. Ula is coming and we will start on re- 
turn trip, with all of most important medicines gone. 

jp July. Left Shangchen at eight A. M. Dinner at 
top of Madala at twelve. Rain nearly all day. Pooki 
[bed] wet. Will sleep cold to-night, but full of potatoes 
and pigeon, bread and butter, so does not matter. Old 
Jamsen cries, and does not want to go to Batang. 


20 July. Left Rata about eight A. M. Came over 
very bad, wet road. Raining all day. Population 
scarce. Live in huts like Indians. Ran naked into 
grass and trees when they saw us. Nothing of note 
till we reached Rah Zhi in heavy rain. Didn't put 
up our tents, but slept in small lamasery with Chen- 
rizig looking down on us. Also pictures of obscene 
idols. People scared for a while, but soon came for 
medicine. I have my man announce as soon as we ar- 
rive at a place that I will treat the sick if they will v 
bring them. They are a little chary at first, but when 
one or two have come, they go out, and it isn't long 
before there are plenty. Treated about fifteen or twenty 
at the feet of Chenrizig. 

21 July. Left early this morning. Down Rata 
River for two hours. Several small villages. Had 
dinner at beginning of pass at ten o'clock. Not many 
houses till we reach Guo Dup at two forty-five, which 
is end of stage. People all locked doors and hid for 
an hour or so till they found we did not do anything, 
then gradually began to come. Five idiots here. Also 
old lama I had treated in Batang brought some eggs. 
Treated about ten persons. Say it will be windy in 
morning. Two surgical cases for Batang. People 
very kind and friendly just as soon as they find how 
we treat them. We will have a royal reception if 
we ever travel this road again. People not nearly so 
well fixed as in Shangchen. This is first place in Rom'i. 
Bought two chickens. Had a fine mess for supper, 
chicken, dumplings, gravy and fried potatoes, with hot 
biscuits and butter and cocoa. 

22 July. I am getting awfully tired of keeping a 


diary. Got up at eight o'clock, as it had rained all 
night, and was still raining. Finally got off at nine 
in the rain, and had to change ula six times during the 
day. Very fine valley. Nearly all day in Daso River 
valley. Met a lot of people I knew. Had to drink 
a lot of "butter tea." Most of the people never saw 
foreigners. Some ran and hid in a ditch. Stopping 
in lamasery again to-night, as our ula did not get in 
till after dark. Still twelve days to Batang. (Found 
the old Pusa again to-night.) Zioo is a fine valley 
full of villages and extra rank crops. Saw first rice 
to-day at Drong. Bought charm box from lama to- 
day for twelve rupees. Pooki [bed] soaked again by 
the rain. 

23 July. Raining again. Finally left Zioo lama- 
sery at half past eight. Ula had not all come. They 
were rushing great preparations, for the fast begins 
to-morrow, and for two days they eat nothing. One 
hundred people were to come to-day, and they were 
making about fifty gallons of tea and cooking one hun- 
dred goqua [Chinese bread] of one catty each. Each 
man was to eat one to-day in preparation for fast to- 
morrow. Arrived at Anyuda at twelve, and did not 
want to stay, but had to for ula. One man came with 
bad tooth. Finally got him to let me pull it. Then 
three more came. First tooth cases I have had, and 
to-night came a mother with double cataract. Blind 
for three years. Says she will come to Batang. Asked 
if she could bring her baby of ten months. Hope she 
will come. Just now, as ready to go to bed, another 
woman came, sick for three years. Gave her a note 
to Batang. 


24. July. Started early. Ate dinner at head of val- 
ley. No population. See mountains over by Adensi. 
Came to Yangtse valley. Hard road down. People 
very nice. Sleeping in hla kong [idol room] again. 
Long, long day. Tired to death. Saturday night, but 
too tired to bathe. Few sick, doctored. Bees every- 
where. Eighteen swarms in one cliff. 

25 July. Sunday. Lot more patients before break- 
fast. Came right up Yangtse River all day. About 
half a mile away and two thousand feet up. Zioo 
at ten o'clock. No one in sight for about half an hour, 
then a few came. At end of an hour was having 
patients as fast as I could attend to them. About 
thirty came. Very hot all day. Candles would bend 
like wax to-night. Arrived at Bong Chin at two thirty. 
Aki Putso met us. He is head man here. Says forty- 
eight families have to give fifteen hundred ka of barley 
tax this year. How they do it I do not know. Yangtse 
valley awfully broken. Took bath and shaved to-night. 
Goto Tsongtsa to-morrow. 

26 July. Very eventful day here. Aki Putso stayed 
all night at the place so as to see us off. Held a clinic 
for about twenty-five people before starting. Got to 
the top of the mountain at eleven. Could see all over 
the country. Stopped at black tents for dinner. Old 
man wanted tooth pulled. Although we waited till 
two o'clock our loads had not come, so could not pull 
it. Very steep descent. Rained hard and on arriving 
at Tsongtsa at four o'clock everybody was drunk. A 
sort of feast-day. Finally put us in temple. Purely 
Buddhist. Our loads did not come till half past seven. 
Got supper and am going to bed. Rained hard. 


27 July. Twenty patients this morning. One with 
syphilis in sixth month with child. Finally got off 
at half past eight. Ula hard to get. Our loads could 
not keep up. Terrible bridges and bad road. Right 
down Mo Chii till three o'clock when we arrived at 
Yitti Gong. Found remains of Dayinguan's and Iryin- 
guan's mules. Only twenty left of fifty. An old man 
is taking care of them for Chao Er Feng. Says Li- 
tang's have all died. Three patients there. Rested two 
hours. Changed ula and came on to stopping place. 
Ula did not get in till after dark, but we had our food. 
Ate two cans oysters, one can pork and beans, one 
half gallon of milk, and we are ready to go to bed. 
Bought old Dick to-day. 

28 July. Rode old Dick to-day. Hard climb to be- 
gin with, then an awful steep come down. Ogden for- 
got his pistol at first place. Change ula. Up Yangtse 
all day after first hour over the mountain. Arrived 
at Andano at eleven thirty. Ogden sent man back after 
pistol, but has not got in yet to-night. Ate dinner and 
then had clinic. About thirty people. Three more 
cataracts. Fine clinic. Bought three sheep-skins. Came 
on to Tsongtsa. Staying in temple again. First idol 
not sitting cross-legged. Had peaches for the first 
time. Old Jamsen says he is going to thrash Nossulun 
when his leg gets well again. Five more days to 

29 July. Treated few patients this morning at 
Tsongtsa. Came on to Namgo after changing ula 
twice. Gezong Hlashi's home. They treated us 
royally, giving us two chickens, about thirty eggs, lot 
of pepper, and five squashes. We took only pepper 


and squashes, but they also brought the eggs to the 
next place, so we had to take them. The men had a 
fine mess to-night. We are living off the country 
now, as all our stores are gone. Bought rupee's worth 
of peaches on starting from Tsongtsa. This morning 
acetanilid all gone. Salol soap, cathartic, vaseline, 
boric acid, eye salve, dusting power in fact, all things 
I need most are all gone, but cannot keep them. Never 
expected one tenth of the patients I "have had all this 
trip. The horses are tired and footsore, and we are 
tired, too. Thirty days' trip is a little too long. Two 
weeks to three weeks is about right. 

jo July. Watched people have night meal last 
night, and stayed till bedtime. Left this morning, go- 
ing over bad roads till ten. Stopped one hour to let 
horses eat. Changed ula at two o'clock, and had din- 
ner. Had pigeon for supper. Man with cancer of 
stomach. Bought short Tibetan gun for fifteen rupees. 
Jamsen and soldiers rode Yak to-day. I rode a litter. 
Giving quinine for everything. All other medicine 
about gone. Just a little cough medicine and calomel 
left. Threshing here. Twenty-six ka of unhulled 
barley for one rupee. 

51 July. Down very steep road this morning to 
Yangtse. Awfully hot. Three or four patients this 
morning before leaving. Soldier lost his bowl. Awful 
road up river. Dangerous. Hoped to stop at Tze to- 
night, but it is away up in the mountain, so camped at 
riverside and ula came down. All our eatables gone. 
Stop at Leh to-morrow night. Bathed in Yangtse this 

j August. Very poor country all day. Few fam- 


ilies at Drubalong and below at Tubulong. Two men 
carried skin boots up to Leh. Stopped two hours for 
dinner. Awfully hot. Met Guzong Ong Dti about 
three o'clock going to Jii to buy rice. Told Jamsen 
he was not coming on account of trouble at home. 
Stopped at Leh. (Kam Dro's wife sent mother and 
brother. Said Li Si was dead. Atsi and girl and 
Drashi's wife were dead. ) Home to-morrow. 



"If you haven't eaten the sour, you 
do not appreciate the sweet; if you 
haven't suffered, you do not appreciate 
freedom from pain." 


The following little sketches, like some of the stories 
in Chapter IX, tell of incidents that happened daily ; not 
all like these, but all just as pitiful and just as needy. 

Life in Tibet is precarious at best, and for the babies 
it is a survival of the fittest, and only the strongest, 
huskiest little ones have any chance at all. The Doctor 
had been used to seeing given to babies all the love and 
care that kind hearts could give, and it broke his heart 
to see the little ones filthy, covered with vermin, and 
sick unto death from many preventable causes. They 
were born in filth, and given no more attention than 
to be greased with butter and laid out in the sun. 

One day the Doctor was busy in the dispensary when 
a woman came in with her baby in her arms and said : 
"Will you please give me some medicine for my baby's 
hand? I have put hot butter on it, I have wrapped 
it in cow dung, and I have done everything I know 



how to do, but it will not get well no matter what I 
do for it." "Let me see the baby's hand," he said. 

The mother unwrapped a filthy rag from around 
the baby's arm, and showed the hand gone at the wrist 
and the two bones of the forearm sticking out about 
an inch past the retracted flesh. After doing the nec- 
essary slight operation of cutting the bones off below 
the level of the flesh, he asked, "How in the world 
did a baby no older than this it cannot be more than 
six months old get its hand off?" 

"Well," replied the woman, "I was digging in my 
garden one day, and had left the baby lying by the 
door on the ground. I heard her crying, but thought 
nothing of it, but when I went to the house I found 
the pig had eaten her hand off." 

We used our old clothes and the clothes of our two 
little girls to make garments for the naked little ones, 
who suffered keenly when winter came on. The Doc- 
tor used to take some of these made-over clothes on 
his daily afternoon trips to the villages, where he doc- 
tored the people free of charge. He had several of 
these villages to which he went, usually going to each 
one afternoon a week. 

One morning when he was to go down the river, he 
said, "I want some baby clothes to-day." 

"For how big a baby?" we asked. 

"About three years old," he replied. 

He tied them on his saddle and after his morn- 
ing's work was done for his forty or fifty patients at 
the dispensary, he started off on his mule for his work 
in the village. Now, he always stayed with a certain 
family in that village, and the other villagers who 


needed medicine always came there to find him every 
Tuesday afternoon. This family consisted of a grand- 
father and grandmother, their daughter, her husband 
and a little grandchild, a bright little fellow of about 
three years, for whom he was taking the clothes. He 
tied his mule, went in, climbed the stairs, and was 
greeted by the grandfather, who made him welcome, 
gave him a seat on a goat-skin on the floor in front 
of the fire, and got him some tea. 

The Doctor looked around for the little boy, who 
usually came up to feel in his pockets, and not seeing 
him, looked up at the grandfather, who appeared rather 
melancholy, and asked, "Where is little Tseden?" 

"Oh, we threw him into the river just before you 


"What in the world do you mean?" cried the Doctor, 
jumping up, for he loved the little fellow. 

"Oh," he sobbed, "he fell downstairs this morning 
and killed himself." 

"Where is his mother?" 

"She went up on the mountain for a load of wood." 

These people do not have time to nurse their sor- 
rows, but must keep going if they would have anything 
to eat. 

Doctor sat there, realizing the hard lot of these 
primitive people. The mother came in, with a heavy 
load of wood on her back. She dropped it on the floor, 
and tried to smile, for the Tibetans hate to show emo- 
tion. He knew what was in her heart, and rising 
from the floor, put his hand on her shoulder, and 
said, "Do not worry about little Tseden." 

At the first touch of kindness, the first word of 


sympathy, she broke down and cried as if her heart 
would break. They love their babies as well as we 
do, in spite of the cruel customs which sometimes make 
us think differently of them. 

We made over all the clothes for the little folks 
during the summer, and put them in a large box at 
the head of the stairs, against the time of cold weather, 
and our own little girl about five years old delegated 
to herself and little sister, aged three, the task of giv- 
ing these clothes to the little naked babies when the 
cold came. Late one November day, the wind was 
cold and cutting when a woman came into the yard 
downstairs, where the older of the two little girls 
was pla3 r ing, sheltered behind the high stone wall, and 
opening her large sheepskin gown, drew out a little 
fellow about a year old without a stitch of clothes on 

The five-year-old looked him over and asked her" 
mother, "Haven't you got any clothes for him at all?" 

"None at all, and he is awfully cold. I have to keep 
him in here to keep him warm." 

The five-year-old went upstairs and straight to the 
box in which the clothes to be given away were kept, 
and raising the lid, found it empty. She stood looking 
at it for a while, not seeming to comprehend, for this 
was the first time she had found this condition. Then 
she went into the kitchen to her mother. 

"Mamma, there is a little baby downstairs, and he 
hasn't a thing on, and there aren't any clothes in the 

"Well, Baby," replied the mother, "you and little 
sister haven't a thing but what you must have for this 


winter. We have given away everything we can this 

She went back downstairs and looked the baby all 
over again, and asked the mother a second time, 

"Haven't you anything at all ? Haven't you a goat- 
skin you could make him a coat of?" 

When the mother said she had not, the five-year-old 
studied a little while, then came inside the door, pulled 
up her own clothes, and began taking an invoice. She 
finally got hold of a little shirt, and, coming upstairs 
with her clothes held high and with a tight Hold on 
the little shirt, she went to her mother and, looking 
up pleadingly, said, "Mamma, this is pert near worn 
out." The mother took it off and let her give it to the 
little fellow. 

As the days came and went, and the people got to 
know the Doctor better, and came to know that he 
would not, as the grown-ups had at first told their 
children, "cut their livers out and make medicine of 
them," they brought their sick to him more and more. 

The winter had been long, and the snow had been 
deep in the passes, and the consequent suffering from 
frost-bite had been great. Many minor operations of 
cutting off fingers and toes had been done. As the 
snow went out of the passes, and people could travel, 
the cases that had been neglected began to come in. 
It was thus that one afternoon four men came into 
the dispensary, and sticking out their tongues in their 
politest salutation, and bowing profoundly, asked the 

"Is this the great man?" 


"I am the doctor," he replied, also bowing graciously. 
"What can I do for you?" 

"We have a friend outside. Won't you fix him ?" 

"Bring him in and we will see." 

They went out and came in, bringing a man with 
sunken eyes and emaciated form. His legs had been 
frozen up to the knees. The flesh had all dropped off, 
leaving the bare bones. The feet had dried, and looked 
like a pair of old rubbers, and at the knees were great 
festering masses. They set him down on the floor 
and, bowing again, said, "We would like to have you 
make the meat grow back on these bones." 

"I can't do that. The only thing I can do is to cut 
them off." 

"But he could not walk with his legs off." 

They talked long, and the Doctor finally persuaded 
them that that was the only thing he could do. He 
fed the man up for a few days. He was starving, too, 
and then one day the Doctor cut one leg off and the 
next day the other, for the man was too weak to stand 
both operations in one day. 

Now, when the Doctor operated here, he could not 
take his patient into a private room and do what was 
necessary, for the people on the outside would be- 
come suspicious right away, and would say to each 
other, "You see! I expect he is doing something to 
that fellow now. Maybe he is cutting his liver out 
to make medicine out of it." 

So when the Doctor did his operations, he did them 
in public and let everyone see them who wanted to 
come. When he went to operate on this man, he had 
perhaps fifty people crowding around, watching his 


every move, bound to see what he was going to do. 

Of course they had never seen chloroform, and when 
the Doctor started giving it, he pinched the man every 
few minutes to see whether or not he was getting un- 
der the influence of it. Every time he did this, the 
man would flinch until finally, when he was entirely 
under and ready for the operation to begin, no matter 
how hard he would pinch, the man would not budge. 

One fellow looking on and almost breathless from 
interest, exclaimed, "I guess he is dead now all right." 

"Oh, no, he is not dead," said another, who was 
watching more closely. "He is still breathing." 

The Doctor went on with his work. A good many 
of the women ran when he began to saw, but most 
of them stayed to see it through. Just as soon as 
possible, the chloroform was stopped, because the man 
was terribly weak, and came very near dying on the 
table. Then the Doctor did the bandaging and dress- 
ing afterward, so that by the time he was through, 
the fumes had gone out of the man's brain, and he was 
ready to wake up. He just tickled him a little, the 
man opened his eyes and looked around, and asked 
one of his friends, "Why don't you hurry up and cut 
it off?" 

"Why," said his friend, "it is already off." 

But he would not believe till the stump was raised 
so that he could see the bandaged end. 

A little later the Doctor heard one of the men who 
had looked on telling another about it. He said: 

"Yes, sir, I was right there. I saw the whole thing 
from beginning to end. When he started in, he just 
poured a little medicine on a rag, then he let the fel- 


low smell, and as soon as he was asleep, the doctor 
took a saw and sawed his leg right off. Then he just 
tickled him a little bit in the ribs, and that is all there 
was to it." 

These things made a great reputation for the Doc- 
tor, and people came from far and near. Now, it is 
a good thing to have a good reputation if you can 
do people good and be a blessing to them, but the Doc- 
tor's reputation got altogether too big. It outgrew 
his ability by a great deal, and the very next serious 
thing that came along almost ruined him, for the man 
was a leper. Of course he could do nothing for him, 
and told them so. 

"Why, of course you can/' said his friends. "You 
cut that man's legs off, and you have done many other 
hard things, but there is nothing much the matter 
with this man. He has just got a few sores on him. 
He's easy. Of course you can cure him." 

"There never has been anyone on earth who could 
cure a leper but Jesus," he told them. 

"Who was he?" 

And he did his best to explain to them who and 
what Jesus was, and what he could do for them now, 
but they did not believe a word of it. They went 
away and reasoned among themselves thus: 

"Yes, we see now! This fellow has his reputation 
up and knows very well that we know he can do it. 
Heretofore he has not charged for curing these poor 
people, but he has his reputation up now, and is going 
to stick it to us. We will have to pay now all right." 

They brought the man back, and it made the Doctor 
sick as he saw them coming, for he knew he could do 


nothing for the poor fellow. The leper came up and 
got down on his knees before him. "Get up from 
there," the Doctor said sharply, to hide his emotion, 
and taking hold of the man's arm said, "We do not 
allow anyone to get down on their knees to us. Be- 
fore God, one man is no more and no less than another, 
whether he is a beggar or leper or no matter who he is." 

But the man would not get up, and looking up at 
the Doctor with the most pitiful face he had ever 
seen, and with tears running down his cheeks, begged 
the Doctor to cure him. He said, "I am a poor man. 
I make about seven cents a day, but by being strictly 
economical I believe I can live on three cents, and I 
will give you the other four as long as I live if you 
will only cure me." The Doctor cried, too, and per- 
haps the hardest thing he ever had to do was to tell 
the poor fellow he could do nothing for him. But the 
hardest part of it for him was to have the man believe 
it was because he could not give him a big fee. 

When he could be a blessing to the people and do 
them good, he was happy. He had a good time, and 
his work was a joy, but when human power was 
limited, when a mother would come to him with a 
baby in her arms that was dying, and get down on 
her knees and plead, believing that he had the power of 
life and death right in his hand and would not use 
it because she did not have a big fee, it made his heart 
ache. These were the things that hurt. And yet, these 
failures were absolutely necessary to make these people 
know that he was simply their brother man, that he 
had no supernatural power, and that what he could ^ do 


lie would do because he loved them, and not because 
he expected any large fee. 

"What in the world did this?" asked the Doctor one 
day as a man came groaning into the dispensary, helped 
along by two other men. They laid the man face down- 
ward on the floor, showing his mutilated thighs. 

"Why, he got spanked yesterday," replied his com- 

The Doctor attended to the man, and the following 
afternoon had the opportunity of seeing his first spank- 
ing in a yamen. 

The official or mayor of the place had some trifling 
ailment, and had sent for him to come and see him. 
He went, and as they sat talking, some of the official's 
-underlings or soldiers came in with a man they had 

The "Big Man," as the official is called, turned to 
the Doctor, and asked, "Will you please excuse me 
for a few minutes till I try this case?" 

"Surely," said the Doctor, "go ahead. Glad of the 
opportunity to see a trial." 

Now the "Big Man" is mayor not only of the town, 
but of the whole county as well, and is grand jury, 
jury, prosecuting attorney, judge, sheriff, and other 
arms of the law in one, and justice is meted out 
at short notice when the offender is caught. 

After excusing himself to the Doctor, the mayor 
climbed up on the raised platform where he sat to 
transact business, the accused man, with the witness 
kneeling in front on the floor, while the soldiers ar- 
ranged themselves on either side. 


"Now, what is the trouble here?" asked the mayor 
now judge. 

"This fellow broke my donkey's leg," replied one 
of the witnesses. 

"Yes, but his old donkey was in my wheat and 
tramping it all down," retorted the defendant. 

"Here, here ! One at a time now," commanded the 
judge. "You go on. Let's hear your side," indicat- 
ing the complaining owner of the donkey. 

"Well, my donkey got out this morning and I could 
not find him. I went hunting for him and finally I 
found him coming home on three legs, the other one 
broken. Then Lozong came over and we fought. I 
pounded him up with a rock as he had hit my donkey 
with a rock." 

The sentence pronounced was that the man should 
pay for the donkey, and the other for the damage done 
to the fields and the doctor bill. In case the hurt man 
died, his life should pay the price. Happily, he did 
not die, and the affair was peaceably settled. 

It is truly in the time of Abraham in those moun- 
tains, and who knows but among them, as they are the 
"dwellers who live in tents," are not those of the line 
of Jacob ! 



"A first-class man dies on the top of 
the pass, his armor all on, he is eaten 
by vultures and received by gods and 
goddesses. His own heart leads the 
way. The second-class man dies m his 
bed, surrounded by friends and relatives, 
his body is burned and he is received by 
lamas and his spirit led to happiness. 
The third-class man dies at home in the 
street, his mouth -filled with dust, and he 
is eaten by dogs, led into the other life 
by a crow, and lives m endless misery." 


Tibet the unknown, fascinating because unknown; 
Tibet the unexplored, the goal of travelers and mis- 
sionaries for a hundred years; Tibet in isolation be- 
cause kept so. Tibet, of the "barbarous shepherds," 
conquered China at one time, forcing a most humiliat- 
ing peace upon that country, and the king demanded a 
Chinese princess for his wife, and got her. The 
Tibetans give this in their historical plays, setting forth 
the choosing of the bride from among the court women, 

and how they tried to fool the king's messengers by 



the painted women of the court ; but he was not to be 
hoaxed. He chose the pretty, modest, little princess 
to be the wife of the king, but she was loath to go 
to a strange land and be a wife to so wild a thing 
as the King of Tibet. She took more than two years 
for the journey, but finally arrived, and from that time 
forth the king wore silks and brocades instead of felt 
and sheepskin. 

Under this same king came the scholars and priests 
from India. The alphabet was made from the San- 
skrit, and no Japanese or Chinese scholar, however 
proficient in those languages, will be able to read any 
word of Tibetan scriptures, for all books are written in 
the Tibetan language, which is a modification of the 

Tibet, as naturally located, is difficult of approach: 
surrounded on the south by great mountain chains 
of the highest mountains in the world, and border- 
ing for a thousand miles on English possessions on 
the south, while at the north are the great northern 
plains, high and cold and barren, and very difficult 
for travelers to traverse. By her position she is a 
good buffer state. She is not wealthy at present, be- 
cause absolutely undeveloped. Nobody wants to bother 
with her, consequently China, with her caravans going 
back and forth for some two hundred years, and by 
right of conquest, held the suzerainty, with the chief 
Amban at Lassa. Nominally, she has had the con- 
trol of Tibet as far as other nations are concerned, 
but really has governed only when the Tibetans chose 
to be governed. Tibet has not been allowed to develop 
or grow because of the cupidity of the nations sur- 


rounding her. She lies, a convenient football, between 
Russia, China, and India. 

Tibet is fourteen hundred miles from east to west 
and 'nine hundred and fifty miles from north to south, 
a great part of the country averaging fifteen thousand 
feet in altitude. Access into Tibet can be gained only 
by travel over mountain passes which, were they well 
guarded, would hold the land. The Moravian mission- 
aries, who have done some of the finest Tibetan trans- 
lation work, have camped on the western border for 
more than sixty years, awaiting permission to go into 
the interior. During the World War, they were all 
deported. On the southern side of Tibet, around and 
in Darjeeling, are the Scotch missions; on the north- 
east the Christian and Missionary Alliance, while on 
the east are the China Inland Mission, and the Disci- 
ples, all working around the edges hoping and praying 
that some day permission will be given to enter. 

Tibet is kept sealed for diplomatic reasons. True 
education and religion are kept from these people and 
the customs of interest and the natural resources that 
might be of great benefit to the world are kept hidden. 
China opened the door on the eastern side and gave the 
opportunity. Doctor Shelton saw it and took it. Is 
the door closed again? May the door be opened, 
and the Christian people of the world demand that to 
the people of Tibet be given their birthright of truth 
and education and Christianity? 

In the diplomatic juggling of nations, a Russian 
went to Lassa and persuaded the Dalai Lama that he 
should make friends with the ruler of Russia. But 
the government on the south awakened to the fact that 


something was not just right and that Russia must be 
scared away. Hence, Colonel Younghusband's expedi- 
tion to Lassa. The Tibetans were poorly armed and 
were protected mainly by the charms which the priests 
had given them, telling them that they would be a de- 
fense against the English bullets. The Tibetans were 
no match for the well-trained army and so were badly 
defeated. When the priests were asked what was the 
matter that so many were killed, they said their charms 
protected only against leaden bullets, and that there 
was nickel in the English bullets. Nevertheless, the 
military commanders paid a fair price for what they 
got, doctored the wounded, and sent the prisoners away, 
which was a new way of teaching by showing mercy 
in a military campaign. Before that, any prisoners 
captured by the Chinese were tortured ; and to be cap- 
tured by the Tibetans meant the same fate. 

In the last rebellion, all Chinese captured by the 
Tibetans were sent out through Lassa and none were 
tortured. The Galbn Lama was thus keeping his 
promise made to Dr. Shelton after he had seen him 
operating on the wounded. As he left, the Doctor took 
his hand, and said, "We can work together for the 
good of our fellow men, can we not?" and he replied, 
"I can promise that." 

Just who governs Tibet has been rather a doubt- 
ful question for sbme years. Just before the Chinese 
Government allowed us to go in, General Chao Er 
Feng, with a victorious army, had brought the country 
as far as Chiamdo under Chinese control. His plans 
were very fine, and he was very efficient. He expected 
to make that section a part of China, in fact. To-day 


the Tibetans say that if Chao Er Feng were here, 
this late trouble would not have happened. He built 
roads, he established schools, and controlled the coun- 
try so that travel on any road was comparatively safe. 
He was just as severe with his own men as with the 
Tibetans, and when he said, "Don't loot," and looting 
was done, he lined the guilty ones up, and off came 
their heads. Sometimes his badly needed soldiers were 
slain wholesale for disobedience. Thirteen were killed 
at one time for one offense, but he governed. 

During the fighting with the Chinese, the Tibetans 
were trapped in all sorts of ways sometimes by their 
own countrymen who, to curry favor with the Chinese, 
brought them in to be beheaded. Heads fell every 
day, and so many bodies lay in the streets of Batang 
that at times the dogs feasted. No one dared touch 
or bury them, for fear they would be considered friends 
of the dead and in turn suffer the death penalty. 

Shortly after we had arrived at Batang, the Doctor 
had twenty patients at one time who were trying to 
break off the opium habit. Every day he took them 
out for a walk, and as he sat and talked with them 
on the bluff overlooking the city, they told him of those 
fights and sieges, and how they ate the hearts and 
livers of their enemies that they, too, might be brave. 
General Chao took away all the big swords and the 
guns from the Tibetans, allowing them to carry only 
a small knife. His policy was to keep them unarmed 
and to tax them so heavily that they would have barely 
enough to keep them alive, so that they would have no 
strength to rebel again. 

When the Chinese took the city, the Dayinguan 


was killed at once, and his widow taken prisoner. The 
Iryinguan 1 and his whole family were taken to 
Chentu as prisoners of war, where they all died but 
one young prince, who returned to Batang an opium 
sot and a wine drinker. More of his story will come 

As we were on the road coming into Batang, we 
met a man carried in a wooden cage like a tiger. We 
never discovered who he was, but he was being taken 
as a prisoner to the capital. 

Cruelty was matched with cruelty. The Chinese 
would capture a prisoner, put him in cold water in an 
immense tea caldron, and boil him. Another they 
would pull into four quarters by hitching yak to the 
arms and the legs. To others they would bring slow 
death by slicing off a small part of the body at a time 
until the heart was reached and life ended. 

The Tibetans, riding along beside the Doctor, would 
tell him what they likewise did to the Chinese. Mutila- 
tions of every kind and description were practiced. 
There was much of this, as their punishments even 
in times of peace are rather severe. For stealing a 
man may have one arm or one hand and one foot cut 
off. For some crime the eyelids will be cut off, and 
perhaps for another, both tendons of the heels may 
be cut. But they rather prefer to sew a Chinaman in 
a new yak skin, and lay him out on the mountain to dry. 

However, after the strong hand of Chao was re- 
moved and the republic was in force, the officials sent 
in could not govern, and more and still more the 

l Dayinguan was the chief ruler at Batang, and Iryinguan was 
second in command. 


Tibetans gained the upper hand. During the war, 
when China was changed to a republic, General Chao 
was in Chentu. He was called "Chao the butcher," 
because he killed so many men. Even his own mother 
condemned him, and his followers hated .him, so that 
he was captured and beheaded by his own men during 
the revolution. 

A queer tale came to us at the time the President- 
Emperor or the Emperor-President died. We were 
never able to find out if it were true. It was said that 
Yuan Shih Kai did not die a natural death, but was 
forced because of his usurpation of power to kill him- 
self by breathing gold. Had he been a poor man or a 
lesser official, he could have taken opium. This re- 
calls the story of the Shape of Tibet, one of the offi- 
cials directly under the high priest's commands. When 
the last rebellion occurred, the Tibetans were better 
armed than the Chinese, and so won out, sending every 
Chinese and all prisoners out through Lassa, although, 
as has been said, they tortured none. When complaint 
came from the Chinese that the Tibetans were armed 
with modern guns, the Dalai Lama asked the Shape 
where the arms came from, and blamed him for the 
affair. China had asked England how the modern 
rifles got into Tibet, and where they came from, when 
the Tibetans were not supposed to have any. China 
in turn blamed the Dalai Lama, who shifted the re- 
sponsibility by laying it on the shoulders of the Shape. 
The latter then committed suicide, too, by taking gold, 
though he knew the guns could not have come into 
Tibet except by an order from the Dalai Lama, as no 


law is made without his seal, and nothing done with- 
out his sanction. 

When the republic of China hung in the balance, 
all the young men in Batang who had cut their hair 
short now decided to let it grow, and it grew down 
about their ears in bobbed style. When asked why, 
they would say, "Well, if China is still a republic, we 
can say we haven't cut our hair for some time, and 
if it turns into a monarchy, we will say we are letting 
it grow." 

As the Tibetan power grew little by little in Batang, 
those who had been wearing Chinese clothes put on 
the Tibetan garments and called themselves Tibetans. 
Most were half-caste, and one language was as easy 
as the other, and the garments also. Of course there 
were full-blooded Chinese who would not don a Tibetan 
gown, and full-blooded Tibetans who would scorn to 
put on a Chinese garment. They say that a half-caste 
has the tongue of a Tibetan and the heart of a China- 
man, and that is something of a character, as a Tibetan 
is descended, according to their legends, from an ape 
and a demon, and a Chinese is not to be equaled in 

As they felt their power increase, the Tibetans be- 
gan to bring out their good gowns and their silver 
and gold ornaments, which they had kept hidden from 
the Chinese soldiers, who had been in the habit of 
taking what they pleased. The lamas dug up their 
silver vessels, that they had had buried somewhere on 
the mountains, and sold them to buy back the land 
that had been taken away from them by the Chinese 
and sold to whoever would buy. The lamas owned 


nearly all the land, the people borrowing money and 
grain and keeping always in debt to them, so that they 
are practically poor tenants of the priests. The Chinese 
had destroyed the big lamasery at Batang before wa 
came in, taking all that was worth while that the priests 
had left and could not carry away with them. Their 
books were scattered everywhere. They were loaded 
on donkeys and sent here and there. Some of the 
things were sold in the city. Dr. Shelton bought some 
of these books, which, along with many other Tibetan 
things, are in the Museum in Newark, New Jersey. 

In the early days, the lamas exercised much power. 
Below the lamasery was a steep cliff, and over this 
into the river was thrown any Chinese who did not 
behave according to Tibetan orders. The Catholics, 
too, had their share of martyrs. The Catholic fathers 
were killed, and their followers tied hand and foot, 
pitched into the roaring river, and shot at by the 
Tibetans from the banks, as the bodies tumbled down 
the mountain stream, striking the rocks and bowlders. 

It was the fall festival time, and for the first time 
in many years the Tibetans were going to keep it as 
they used to, without fear from the Chinese soldiers. 
Dresses in all colors of the rainbow, silver chains and 
bangles, gold ear-rings and bracelets were donned, and 
tents and food for ten days were in preparation. The 
whole town moved out on the banks of the little 
stream to have a good time, leaving an old servant 
to guard the door at home in the city. The central 
tent was for their plays, usually historical. Some of 
their stories would be of a priest and his wonderful 
powers, or of a ruler in former times, or the story of 


the stealing of the Chinese princess to be the wife of 
their king. 

On the last day was the festival dance of the Deer's 
daughter, and there were wives or husbands or sons 
or daughters to represent each of the leading homes 
in the city in a stately dance around the center pole. 
No woman of light character was allowed in that 
dance, and when one attempted to enter she was taken 
by the shoulders, shaken well, and forced from the 
ring. None but the best dared to give that dance. The 
songs were of thanksgiving for their homes and the 
big* harvest, and a plea to the gods to send an abundance 
for the next year. 

A little later came the New Year celebration, which 
is altogether religious, the priests and acolytes per- 
forming, and no woman daring to intrude. No woman 
is allowed in the Tibetans' holy of holies. On the com- 
pound of the lamasery no female is allowed. Even the 
chickens are all roosters ! I do not know just how they 
manage to have their butter for their tea on that kind 
of a proposition. 

The men of the mission were invited in, and saw 
the worship and heard the music, which is very weird, 
the drums and the horns and thigh-bone trumpets mak- 
ing music eminently fitting the country, the people, 
and the religion, such as is heard no place else in the 
world. The sound rolls and rolls, and among the 
mountains it seems as if all their gods had united to 
make that peculiar continuous sound. 

The dances which are given at New Year's time are 
as weird as the music. It does not seem quite right 
to call them devil dances, as most eminent writers do* 


The great papier mache heads, which the lamas don, 
are made to resemble deer and pigs and many other ani- 
mals, as well as the hideous demons, pictured with a man 
whom they are eating held between their great teeth. 
They dance and whirl to the music, and act the stories 
of the marvelous things these demons and gods might 
do. They believe that some of these demons and 
gods are always found on the passes or on the lonely 
forest roads, and that there is a great spirit on each of 
the seven hills which surround Batang which rule the 
land and must be placated for the benefit of the crops. 

At one time, when the Doctor was traveling with 
the teacher, it got dark before they reached the vil- 
lage, and the Tibetans were leading the horses. The 
teacher was very much frightened as a woman stepped 
to his horse and took hold of the bridle. He said, 
"Stop, stop right there until I see what you are," and 
when, by the light of a pitch-pine torch, he saw it 
was only a woman, he told the Doctor he thought it 
was the pig-headed goddess, and he meant to kill her if 
he could before she took him away. 

The Tibetans' gods do not seem to be so many, but 
in their states of anger or revenge they take the form 
of these great blue and green and black demons, 
whereas in a state of peace they are more beautiful. 
The people say it is not worth while to worship a 
good god, because he would not hurt you anyway, 
but an evil one must be placated. Their dancing is a 
worship and a means of showing honor to their gods, 
in order to induce them to bless and be kind to them 
during the ensuing year, and as one hears the solemn 
notes of the big horns and the monotonous beat of the 


drums, one can well imagine the gods are listening on 
the mountain tops. 

They have some dancing, or rather whirling, by the 
young priests in training, and it is a great honor to 
the home from which the young priest comes to be 
allowed to take part in these yearly dances. The crowds 
of people chant sometimes, and from the lamasery door 
will come groups of priests in their queer dresses and 
bone aprons to take their part in the entertainment. 
Perhaps it will be boys painted to represent a skeleton, 
with long finger nails. They circle and whirl and 
crack these nails on the ground, while the children 
whisper, "Handre," which means "ghost," as nearly as 
can be discovered. 

The priests forecast all events, if you so desire, and 
cast lots as to what shall be done in every case. They 
tell of lucky and unlucky days for travel or marriage. 
When a man dies, they say into what form of life he 
is to be reborn, or cast a horoscope for a life. The 
highest priests have the chronology of their reincarna- 
tion as far back as two thousand years. When one of 
our friends died, they said he would be reborn a cow. 
His mother donned a nun's cap, cut off her hair, and 
foreswore all beef. 

At one time, a plague of rats came to Batang. They 
seemed to be everywhere. They ate the pumpkins, 
the turnips, the potatoes, and crawled to the top of the 
stalks of corn and ate the ears of grain perfectly clean. 
The Tibetans said they were the Chinese soldiers who 
had been killed in the recent fighting, and had come 
back to get filled up, since they had been hungry so 


All Tibetans are Buddhists, but it is a kind of lama- 
istic Buddhism which would not be recognized by 
Buddha himself. It came over from India, perhaps 
under the reign of Asoka, but later the books and trans- 
lations came with the scholars and priests for whom 
the first king of Tibet sent. In the early days the books 
were completely memorized, and not written, and the 
people told us that mistakes always occurred in the 
written books, and they were not true, but when they 
committed them to memory, there were no blunders. 

As to just how the charms, and the idea of power in 
a piece of a lama's gown, or the strap of his boot, or 
the print of his tooth came into general acceptance, it 
is hard to say. But at any rate, their superstitions 
became so vile that a reformer was born in the north. 
When he was a small baby, so the story goes, his 
mother shaved his head and threw his hair from the 
window. A wonderful tree sprang from it, over which 
hangs a silver shield presented by the Chinese Em- 
peror, and on the leaves are Tibetan characters. It is 
said that men have tried over and over again to make 
this tree grow in other parts of Tibet, but have always 

Here and there, as the Doctor traveled over hills and 
mountains, in the valleys and out-of-the-way places, he 
found little temples and monasteries, and sometimes a 
nunnery nestling among the hills. They were always 
ready for medicine, and always entertained him. If 
they were afraid at first, he would set up his tents 
and go about his business, and gradually one or two 
would come, and when they met with no harm, the rest 
would follow. They were much interested i the idea 


of a God of love and mercy, but when the application 
of it was turned around to be fitted to them, they said 
it was not possible, that no man could love his enemies. 
Sometimes the temples were covered with obscene 
pictures and carvings, but as all their literature, re- 
ligion, and customs came from India, it seems possible 
that this, too, might be an offshoot of the worship of 
the phallic symbol, or genitals, that is found yet in 
some places of India. It seemed to be so old that the 
fact that this was worshiped did not seem to be known 
by those in charge, and by some scholars it is classified 
as belonging to the old Bon religion. 



"A white Tibetan snow cock does not 
hatch blackbirds!' TIBETAN PROVERB. 

The local power of the Tibetans against the Chinese 
official authority was swaying in the balance. A man 
supposed to be a Tibetan robber was brought in by the 
Chinese. The tendons of his heels were cut, he was 
flogged, and made to wear the wooden collar or kang. 
Stories of bribery were numerous. The stealing of 
guns and the punishing of men here and there seemed 
to be the business of the year. A rumor came that the 
soldiers inside Tibet were thinking of rebelling again, 
as their money for some years back had not been paid. 

An English consul came out from Chiamdo. It was 
on Washington's birthday that he arrived. Dr. Shelton 
invited the Chinese general to have supper with the 
consul, and the general congratulated the consul on its 
being Washington's birthday ! 

More rumors came that the war was coming to 
Batang. With a great trustfulness both Tibetans and 
Chinese brought their goods for safety to the mission 
compounds, and sometimes asked to be allowed to sleep 

there. The Tibetan robber who had had his heel ten- 



dons cut, and who had been kept in prison all this 
time, was finally beheaded. 

The Doctor made a journey to Yen Jin, a place 
where the salt wells are located. The Chinese general 
there entertained him. In the course of the evening, 
he told him that he had a nice Tibetan woman he 
would like to present to him for a wife. The general 
knew better, but he thought it was a great joke on Dr. 
Shelton. The Doctor told him that one wife was all 
he could manage ; he did not see how the general man- 
aged three. But it was a difficult proposition not to 
offend the Tibetan lady, as she had no objection to 
being given away, and fully expected to be. But the 
Doctor told her very kindly that it was not a foreign 
custom : that our men had only one wife, and he already 
had one. 

Doctor was very fond of cats, and coming home one 
time, he brought a little striped kitten to the girls, "a 
calico cat," he called her. One day she presented us 
with four kittens, and Dorothy said the cat angel 
brought them. As soon as they had their eyes open, 
pussy would carry one at a time and bring them from 
the woodshed around to the front door, and mew until 
Dr. Shelton would get up and let her in. Then she would 
jump up on his bed and deposit the kitten, and back 
she would go to get the rest. When the four were 
in, she would get in, too, and be quite happy. How- 
ever, it took until about the fourth generation of cats 
before we got one that was really like a home cat. 

In the meantime, Jack, the Doctor's dog, did not ap- 
preciate cats, and he was very much disgusted when 
they came in, as he considered it his privilege to stick 


his nose in the bed and wake the Doctor in the morn- 
ing. One day the Doctor and Mr. McLeod went hunt- 
ing. They went over a mountain which was very dry, 
upon which there were no springs or rivulets of any 
kind, and Jack followed. He ran and ran, until he 
got very hot, and the Doctor saw he was not able to 
follow, so he poured from his canteen into the dog's 
mouth the few last drops of water that it held. The 
men came on home, but Jack did not come. About 
dark, the Doctor started a Tibetan man to find out 
what was the matter. He traveled as long as he could 
see, and did not find the dog, then lay down on the 
path and slept until morning. When he awakened 
he saw the dead body of the dog a few feet away from 
him. He carried him down the mountain, and he was 
buried by a little stream under the trees. 

The Doctor went with Jii Lama for a short trip to see 
his mother, who was ill. In the black tents these peo- 
ple lived, with their flocks and herds around them. 
They make a kind of cheese by drying the curded milk 
in the hot sun. It gets very hard, but softens up when 
you put it in the butter tea. They make a sour cheese, 
also, which is something like our cottage cheese, only 
more sour. The yak gives very rich milk. As soon 
as they found out that Dr. Shelton was fond of milk, 
they got fresh milk for him, cooled it in the little 
mountain stream, and gave it to him to drink. They 
were as delighted as he was when he was greatly pleased 
with it. 

The devil or some of his agents seemed to have 
broken loose in the town. The chief priest prophesied 
that there would be seven deaths before the trouble 


was ended. A crazy man almost killed a woman, sev- 
eral Chinese jumped into the river, a child was 
drowned, and the quota had reached six. Whether the 
seventh fatality occurred or not, I have no record, but 
presume that it did, for, strange to say, they have a 
way of telling the truth in their prophecies which is 
rather difficult to understand. 

Dr. Shelton took our little girls for a trip on the 
mountain. It was Dorothy's birthday, and she rode a 
mule, and Dorris a horse. They went so high they 
could hardly move for the altitude, and the snow came 
down on the tents, which fell in on them. They came 
home next day, their faces burned red, and were rather 
glad to get down from that height as they couldn't run 
and play at all. 

The political situation got more difficult all the time, 
and there was news everywhere that the Tibetans were 
going to rebel. They said they wanted to make peace, 
but the Chinese thought it only a ruse to gain time. 
They asked Dr. Shelton to go and take care of the 
wounded where they had been fighting, but the gen- 
eral would not let him go until he was sure that it 
was safe. One afternoon he got word that he might 
go, so everything had to be gotten ready: bedding, 
clothes, towels, soaps, and medicines. When he started 
the general sent twenty-five soldiers to protect him. 
It was useless to look for a letter, as it took so many 
men to protect the carrying of the mail to the general 
that it was not sent back very often. 

The opening of the hospital occurred at this time. 
All the doors were thrown open, free for everybody to 
go through and see everything that was in it: the 


women's ward, the men's ward, the chapel and dis- 
pensary, the laboratory, the isolation ward, the emer- 
gency ward, the kitchen, and the operating room. The 
first day was men's day, and about three hundred came ; 
the next was women's day, and there were five hun- 
dred, not counting the babies they carried. The priests 
were especially invited, but the abbot took a sudden 
headache, and could not come, and would not let the 
little boys come who were in training, so there were 
only about thirty in all. I presume the abbot cast lots, 
and wasn't to visit the foreigners that day. An old 
man fell two stories and broke his legs, and he was 
carried into the hospital. 

It is a difficult matter to purchase things from the 
Tibetans, as they keep them hidden away, and seldom 
bring them out for anyone to see. If they have any- 
thing to sell, they usually bring it hidden in their 
gowns, or after night. They brought one day to Dr. 
Shelton a beautiful yellow satin scroll, bearing an order 
from the Dalai Lama to the authorities in Batang, 
and signed with his seal. It had been written some two 
hundred years ago, and was very interesting. An- 
other time, the young prince brought a beautiful book. 
The letters were in raised gold, set with turquoise and 
pearls. It had been part of his mother's dowry when 
she came from Lassa to be the bride of his father. He 
said he wanted the Doctor to have it because it had 
belonged to his mother. Some of the sacred books 
were brought and sold in the same secretive way. The 
silver temple service, incense burners, butter lamps, and 
other things of solid silver were brought after night 


by the priests to be sold, in order to raise money to 
buy back their land from the Chinese. 

On one Saturday morning, Li Quay Guang's boy 
was born, and the Doctor was with him all night. The 
day following, a Tibetan was beaten with a rock, al- 
most killed, and brought into the hospital. There was 
also an operation on one of the Chinese majors for 

The young prince came one evening, bringing a gold- 
plated bridle to sell the Doctor, in order to get a little 
money with which to buy wine or opium. He was a 
lad of twenty, fine-looking, and with much natural 
ability, but he had been a prisoner with his family in 
Chentu, where they had all died but himself. He came 
back to Batang alone, an opium sot. He could drink 
a kettle of wine, and never lose his balance. He could 
smoke opium all day and all night, and never seem the 
worse for it. The Doctor did not purchase the bridle, 
but after the boy left he said, "It is a pity someone 
cannot save that young fellow, and make him of some 
use in the world." I said, "I do not think anyone 
cares enough for him to attempt the job. I rather think 
it is up to you." In a few days he came in and said, 
"Will you take the boy in the home for a while?" and 
we did so. 

It was the beginning of a long, hard, losing fight. 
The Doctor took him into the dispensary, to teach him 
medicine, but washing a beggar's sores was not the 
work for an eastern prince. We taught him English, 
taught him how to be clean, and Guay Guang preached 
often to him. Yet he would slip away and get the 
wine or opium, and come back and confess it, and we 


would try over again. His heart was full of hate 
toward the enemies of his household, and one day 
he told us he said his prayers. We asked him what 
he said. He replied, "I believe that your God is 
stronger than ours, and I have prayed to Him to de- 
stroy my enemies." Forgiveness of an enemy is not 
in a Tibetan's conception of religion. 

He stayed with us about a year, and then we went 
home, but we heard that he was smoking opium once 
more. It was this prince who went on several trips 
with the Doctor, and who pleaded that he would take 
him with him to his mother's people in Lassa when he 
went. He was with the Doctor on his last trip, he was 
the man who rode as hard as he could into Batang for 
Dr. Hardy when the Doctor was wounded, and he and 
the teacher wore the white flower of Tibetan mourn- 
ing when their master left them. 

The hospital was full, every bed filled, and some 
patients on the floor. Some were wounded and some 
were trying to break off opium, among them two 
women. But it is a very difficult habit to break, and 
the percentage of those who actually quit could be 
placed at about one in fifteen. 

As the Tibetan power increased, a certain class in 
Batang, knowing that the Iryinguan's son, the young 
prince, was not capable of ruling, formed a plan to 
bring the Dayinguan's widow back to Batang and make 
her head of the country. The whole city went out to 
meet her. She had a fierce and wonderful reputation.. 
She came to call on us, and we returned the call. She 
gave us a feast, but did not eat at the table with us. 
She was one of the few Tibetan women who could 


read and write Tibetan well. Something happened, 
we never discovered quite what, but the plan fell 
through, and after a few months' residence, she re- 
turned to Litang. 

Three men were caught and taken out in the fields 
and shot by the general for stealing guns; one was a 
Tibetan and two were Chinese. 

Some disease broke out among the cows I presume 
the rinder-pest and most of the mission cows died. 
Our teacher brought over one for us to use, but we 
were very uncomfortable, because every morning we 
expected to find her dead. 

It was Christmas time again, and the mission fed 
about two hundred and fifty beggars and poor. Mr. 
and Mrs. McLeod came from America, two days after 
Christmas. The journey had been very uneventful, 
except that Mrs. McLeod, not being familiar with the 
square opening in Tibetan roofs, accidentally stepped 
through one, and fell head first on the pile of manure 
in the lower story. It was lucky it was a barn that 
time. As it was, her glasses were broken, as well as 
two of her ribs, which caused her to suffer for some 
time after she arrived. 

Life seemed made up of small things. There was 
nothing great or wonderful: hard work every day, 
discouragements often; but through it all the Doctor, 
worn and tired, would say, "It is bound to come out 
all right. God doesn't make mistakes, and His plans 
are sure to come true. He has a hard time getting 
things done, because He has to use such poor instru- 
ments. It is always an astonishing thing to realize 
that He can use me." 


In 1918, events were playing rapidly into the hands 
of the Tibetans. Word came that all the Chinese from 
the inside had been driven out through Lassa into 
India, the Tibetans holding all the cities. Shangchen 
was all Tibetan, and sent word to the governor of 
Kham that if he wanted Batang they would take it 
for him. They wanted to kill every Chinese they could 
find. Shangchen' s toll of hate was not yet full. The 
governor said, "When I want Batang I will take it." 

The only two cities held by the Chinese were Yen- 
jin and Batang. On the hills around the city the 
Tibetans were meeting every day, swearing oaths of 
fealty, to stand by each other and to kill every Chinese 
in sight. They were drinking chicken blood to clinch 
the oath, and should any of their number turn traitor, 
he must die. 

There was an interpreter called Ho, a half-caste, 
keen and cunning, who had long served the officials in 
Batang. No Chinese official will take the trouble to 
learn so barbarous a language as Tibetan: he must 
always have an interpreter. This man would bring a 
case before the official if he were bribed sufficiently; 
if not, he might bring the case anyway, but it would 
be bad for the offender. For years the Tibetans had 
suffered at his hands, but now he was drinking chicken 
blood, along with the rest. 

Just what happened we do not know, but the time 
came when he went to the yamen and told of the plot 
to take the city and kill all the Chinese, and the Tibetans 
found it out. How could they bring this man's death 
about, when they dared not inflict the death penalty? 
But he must die. With consummate skill the committee 


of Tibetan men in whose hands lay the real, but not 
the nominal, power forced the Chinese officials to pro- 
nounce the death penalty, that he should be killed by 
shooting. So quickly was it all done that the inter- 
preter was being led to the mountain to be shot before 
the mission knew. His son, a boy of sixteen, was in 
school one of the best students, and a fine lad. Some 
of his friends knew about it, but did not tell him. 
They coaxed him to go out for a walk away from the 
town while it was being done, as they were afraid he, 
through filial piety, would jump between the guns and 
his father, and lose his own life in order to save him. 
We heard the gun and the people screaming, and 
realized shortly what had been done. 

So many times had this man by his wit gotten out 
of things, that I believe he thought he could do it 
this time as well. It seems to be a law that the man 
who loads the gun does not do the shooting, and that 
the man who shoots is to shoot but once. As Ho was 
led out by the soldiers through the town, he turned 
and cursed the head man of the Tibetans and all his 
household, because he believed he had brought this 
about. The man who was to do the shooting stood 
near with his gun, and as Ho passed him, he spurned 
him with his foot, saying, "Shoot, why don't you?" 
He did shoot, and the gun snapped on a blank cartridge. 
It had been tampered with, someone who had been 
bribed had loaded it with a useless cartridge, and the 
interpreter thought he was safe, as he expected him to 
shoot but once. But the man got scared, as he was 
afraid for his life if he failed to kill the interpreter, 
so he fumbled his gun and shot again, wildly, in that 


crowd of people. A man stood on each side of Ho, 
holding his arms until he should be shot, but the big 
bullet went wild, killing one man instantly, and shatter- 
ing the thigh bone of another man, who died in a hos- 
pital in a day or two, and passing through Ho's lung. 

He didn't seem to be badly hurt, and they took him 
home. But in a little while the son came running, 
asking for a bed at the hospital, for there he thought 
he might have a chance to live, as he said, "They will 
kill him anyway if he does not die now." The bed 
was fixed and the sick man carried in, but he died at 
one o'clock that night. His son stayed in school, but 
with the Tibetan's idea of a feud it has been in his 
heart that, when he is a man grown, he must kill the 
foe of his family. 

After the death of these two men, we took their 
sons into the orphanage. It had been started some 
little time before, as so many people had come, saying, 
"Take my baby. It will starve if you do not>" when 
the father had gone away or died, or the mother was 
dead, and there was no one to care for it. The fear 
of us was entirely gone. In the early days, the peo- 
ple would have hidden their babies' faces, and expected 
us to do them some harm, but now they brought more 
than we could care for. There are thirty now, kept 
in the school building in Batang, as there is no orphan- 
age built, and if one out of ten is as great as Li Guay 
Guang has proved, it pays. 



"You needn't speak, your reputation is 


You needn't write, your deeds na man 
can hide." TIBETAN PROVERB. 

The teacher's mother was very ill, and he did not 
have much heart for work and study. She soon grew 
better, and speaking of their customs one day, he 
said, "If my mother had died, I should have had to 
spend several hundred rupees to pay the priests to 
say prayers for her." "But," I said, "you don't be- 
lieve in that, do you?" He said, "No, but I would 
have no 'face/ and everybody would laugh at me if I 
did not follow the regular custom." 

The mail started one morning, and the mail man 
was robbed just at the edge of town. Eighteen letters 
which we had written were in the mail, with what the 
rest of the people had sent, but they were never found. 

Men from inside Tibet came, asking for medicine 
for the wounded. Dr. Shelton was willing to go to 
them if they would allow him. The general's baby 
became ill with bronchitis, and he called the Doc- 
tor to look after him, but he got no better. The 



Doctor told the general that he did not think they 
were doing what he told them to ; and when the gen- 
eral began to inquire, he found that his Tibetan wife 
had borrowed money secretly, and had sent out to 
a lama to see if the baby should take foreign medi- 
cine. He cast lots and said "No," so she left the money 
to hire lamas to say prayers. When this was dis- 
covered, it was too late to do any good, and the gen- 
eral's only son died. The Doctor went over and stayed 
with him, as he was almost frantic with grief. Some 
months later, a second son was born, and in some mys- 
terious way, he also passed away. The Chinese said 
that it was the Tibetan wife, that she would see to it 
that the general should never have a son, since she 
had never given him one. She was wildly jealous of 
the little Chinese wife. 

There was fighting around on all sides at Yenjin, 
Gartok, and Derge. Control was slowly but surely 
passing into the hands of the Tibetans. They had 
already taken Chiamdo, fifteen days to the northwest, 
and it was rumored that they were coming to take 
Batang. A man came out from Lassa, one of their 
great priests, and we invited him over to look at the 
teacher's work. He did not seem to know any more 
than the teacher did, but the Doctor was much pleased 
to know that Gezongongdii's work was approved by 
the Lassa man, who said that any of the teacher's 
translation work could be understood anywhere in the 
whole of Tibet. 

A legend is told of the large lamasery at Chiamdo. 
The Doctor had visited there before its destruction, 
being invited and entertained by the priests because 


of his medical skill. In this lamasery sat an idol, and 
down its cheeks and over its gown and the floor were 
streaks resembling blood. The Tibetans said the idol 
had wept great tears of blood because of_the frightful 
sufferings they had to undergo at the hands of the 

One evening the Chinese general in Batang sent for 
the Doctor and asked him what we were going to do 
in case of attack by the Tibetans, as he was not able 
to protect us. He came back to the mission and dis- 
cussed the question with all of us. It was unanimously 
decided to stay. There did not seem to be any place 
to run to, or we might have attempted it. 

Since we were not leaving, he asked Dr. Shelton and 
the teacher to go to Janka (Chinese name for Gartok) 
and see if he could make a truce with the Tibetans. 
He got ready at once, and they started. We were 
not very comfortable to see him go, for we could not 
tell what might happen next. The Tibetans might at- 
tack from any side. The Chinese might do anything. 
Letters from the Doctor said they would grant a truce 
of a month. On hearing ..this, the general sent word 
for them to return. The Doctor came alone, arriving 
about dark, and went to the general for his last instruc- 
tions. He was home for two meals and a bath, and 
started again at three o'clock the next morning for 

When he reached the Governor, he asked if there 
was any chance for Batang. The Tibetan general said 
that if the Chinese would surrender, there was a chance 
to save the city, but if not, there was nothing more 
to be said. The Doctor said he had no more instruc- 


tions, so he would return. He asked in case they at- 
tacked the city if they would respect three things : first, 
the mission property; second, the lamasery, and third, 
the homes of the common people. To this the Tibetan 
governor readily agreed. As to whether there would 
be fighting, he stated that he could not say, as he took 
his orders through the Galon Lama, and he from the 
Dalai Lama. 

For one reason and then another the general at 
Batang put off going into Janka. The Doctor was 
there as surety for him, and was gone a month, and 
still there was no sign of settlement. Rumors of all 
kinds were in the air but we were sure of only two 
things : first, that the general had no authority from 
Pekin to settle with the Tibetans, and second, that we 
were shut off from the world and that there were no 
men and no money coming in during this time. 

The Doctor was in the Governor's house and was 
treated most courteously, as a guest. Beside his teacher, 
the two chief lamas had gone with him, and while there 
he preached , and doctored. One day they were talk- 
ing, and one of the priests told him that he could not 
hit a catta (a silken scarf) at so many yards with his 
foreign rifle. Doctor said, "We will have a try." The 
high priest took the catta, blew upon it, tied sacred 
knots in it, charmed it, and said prayers over it. A 
special lama was asked to say prayers for it while they 
were out shooting. It was laid, a thin strip of cloth, 
on a sloping bank. The Doctor shot at it and tore it 
into strings. 

While the Doctor was there, the Tibetans were tak- 
ing those of their number who had aided the Chinese 


and every day lopped off some hands and feet as their 
punishment for being traitors. Several hands hung in 
front of the Governor's yamen as a warning to the 

The soldiers in Batang had threatened to riot, as 
they had had nothing to eat for three days. So all 
the grain and money that could be gotten together 
at the mission were given to them to keep them quiet, 
for a time at least. 

Time went on, and the Doctor wrote down and said 
he would wait a little while longer for the general, 
and if he did not come he would have to come home 
anyway, as he felt he could not stay away from the 
station longer. He had been gone almost two months. 
The general finally decided to go, and everything 
seemed very quiet after he left. The official ordered 
that the Tibetans make no more wine, as barley was 
so scarce. Two women were caught making it, and 
were forced to wear the kang (wooden collar) for a 
few days. 

As soon as the general arrived in Janka, the Doctor 
started for home, and we were surely glad to have him 
back again. A letter soon came out, stating that the 
Chinese at Chiamdo, with seven hundred men and a 
thousand guns, had surrendered to the Tibetans, and 
that at Janka a certain truce had been arranged for. 
The general, without authority, was unable to do any- 
thing definite, but had arranged for a short peace, and 
put off being captured as long as possible. However, 
the people in Batang were expecting to be attacked. 
Some were leaving town. Some were sending their 
things up on the mountains, having holes dug in the 


ground and burying them. Little holes were dug in 
the mud walls of the houses, money and valuables put 
in them, and the holes sealed up again. 

An English consul, Teichman, came in at this time 
and went into Chiamdo to see if he could arrange a 
longer truce. A letter came from him asking Dr. Shel- 
ton to come in and look after the wounded who had 
been hurt in the last fighting, which had occurred some 
months before. Again everything was in a great rush 
to get ready the Doctor and the young prince, who was 
going with him to help him in his operations. When 
the Doctor reached Chiamdo, he found the worst cases 
of old wounds and sores he had ever seen at one time. 
He and his three helpers operated for three days, per- 
forming forty major operations, washing and dressing 
filthy wounds and terrible mutilations, besides many 
smaller ones. 

There were two men who begged pitifully for opera- 
tions. The Doctor knew they were not able to stand 
it, so he asked the Galon Lama if he should operate. 
He told him not to operate upon them. The Doctor 
had lost no case yet, and the Galon Lama felt that to 
lose one would do more harm than all the Doctor had 
healed would do good. But it was very difficult to 
tell the poor fellows he could do nothing for them. The 
military commander was much pleased with his service, 
and said he would be glad if they could have a hospital 
in Chiamdo. 

The Chinese were demanding more money from the 
Tibetans at Batang. They called it tax, but they de- 
manded it again and again. In the meanwhile, the 
teacher, the consul who had come to Batang, and Mr. 


Ogden, of the mission, were drafting some kind of a 
treaty for use between the Tibetans and the Chinese. 

The general returned from Janka, and he and the 
consul set off for Chiamdo. Their mission looked 
doubtful, for the Tibetans had gone too far and had 
too much power in their hands by that time. One of 
the Chinese majors had gone out in the country with 
his soldiers to fight the Tibetans, who surrounded him. 
They took delight in keeping him penned up, shooting 
any of his men who came outside the stone house in 
in which they found refuge. 

One of the boys with him, who afterward came in, 
had been shot through the big bone of the leg. He 
was in the hospital many months. He was the lad 
who drew the pictures for the first Tibetan story book 
we produced for the mission. Gu Da Ren was held 
prisoner by the Tibetans for some weeks, but finally 
got out all right and came safely home to Batang, 
though we never expected to see him again. 

We attempted to make a song in Tibetan to the 
tune of "My Country 'Tis of Thee." When we asked 
Li Guay Guang, our evangelist, to look at it he said,, 
"Well, Tibet doesn't belong to the Tibetans, why should 
you make that kind of a song?" and the teacher was 
much disgusted because he said he didn't have any 
country to love, and certainly would not be willing to 
die for what he didn't have. 


A good many times the Doctor had attempted to get 
a letter to Lassa, asking permission to come in, but 
no man would carry it. They were afraid to be caught 
with the foreign writing upon them. When he made 
his visit to the Governor, the Doctor said he had tried 


many times to send a letter to the Dalai Lama, but had 
never succeeded in getting one sent, whereupon the 
Governor said he would be quite willing to send it for 
him. He very kindly did so, and a letter came from 
the Dalai Lama, granting him permission to come, pro- 
viding there was no treaty between the nations for- 
bidding him to do so, and as there was no such treaty, 
the plans for the trip to Lassa were made. 

Two of the inlaid wine flasks were sent out to him 
by the Galon Lama in recognition of his service in 
Chiamdo. A letter came out from the English consul, 
sending the temporary treaty he had made, arranging 
a truce for a year between the Chinese and Tibetans. 

During this year, smallpox seemed to be everywhere. 
The Doctor was busy making vaccine. He would 
inoculate two calves at a time in preparing the vaccine. 
He went into the country and vaccinated great num- 
bers, and sent his assistants everywhere, but many 
refused, as they were still afraid. One day a man rode 
in and asked the Doctor if he would go out on the 
mountain and vaccinate his two boys. He was afraid 
to bring them into the city, as smallpox was so preva- 

It seemed very strange that the people in the city 
would go to the lamas and have them cast lots to see 
whether they should be vaccinated or not. Many of 
the people who took this course did not come, and 
many of the priests reaped a rich harvest saying prayers 
-for those who died. One of the lamas remarked one 
day, "Business is very poor. There have not been 
many deaths out in the country." As a rule, when a 
wealthy man dies, his personal belongings, consisting 


of silver, rings, good gowns, sword, gun, etc., are 
divided and sent here and there to the lamas, in order 
that they may pray for his soul. 

The teacher's mule driver and one of the followers 
of the Chinese general were foolishly trying one day 
to swim across the river with the mules, and both men 
were drowned. The Tibetans say that the demons 
under the water, who are called lu and have men's 
heads with snakes' bodies, catch people and pull them 
under the water and drown them. 

One day a man was carried into the hospital on two 
boards. He had been shot in the thigh some months 
before. There was little that could be done. On every 
hand the people were still dying of smallpox. Five 
died in one day and two the next, until the teacher re- 
marked, "All who have cast lots are dead." 

The Chinese caught a Tibetan who was supposed to 
be a robber, and beheaded him, but he was brave to the 
last, and seemed to have no fear at all. A man in 
the valley had been shot by robbers, and his thigh bone 
was broken into hundreds of little pieces. He had 
bled for thirty-six hours before they brought him in. 
The Doctor took off his leg, but could not save him. 

One of the teachers in the school became very ill. 
Mr. Ogden took him into his home for some time, but 
it was a hopeless case. He was moved to the hospital 
and finally, when his father saw that he was not going 
to get well under foreign care, he took him home. We 
had kept him clean and comfortable, and seen that he 
had proper food, but now he was not to be washed any 
more and was to take what he was told to. The priests 
came every day with their horns and bells and mo- 


notorious reading, until he was frantic with the noise. 
They would not allow him to sleep, but someone must 
always be near him to slap him or pinch him or throw 
cold water on him. It must have been a relief to him 
when his life passed out and he could rest 

Another trip was made out through the country to 
vaccinate people. The Doctor vaccinated one hundred 
and seven, his helper, Johnny, thirty-three, and Mr. Bu 
forty-four. Another day Doctor Shelton and the 
teacher went up on the mountain and vaccinated about 

The soldiers on the street were again demanding 
more grain and more money. The people were very 
much afraid, and the officials were on their knees beg- 
ging the soldiers not to loot and kill. They asked the 
Tibetans for grain to keep them for five months, but 
the people would certainly starve if they should give it. 
The teacher ran away, as he was afraid that if he could 
not give all the grain and money the soldiers wanted, 
they would kill him. The general came in, bringing 
with him a hundred wounded soldiers, expecting to 
send them home. The plan now was to send out most 
of the useless people, so that it would not take so much 
to keep them. The scare of the interior Tibetans com- 
ing to take the city of Batang seemed to be about set- 
tled. The general finally asked to be allowed to go 
back into China, but the soldiers did not want him 
to go for fear they would never get their pay. How- 
ever, in some way or other he managed it, and got 
out of the city, and with his two wives escaped into 

Soon after this, our furlough home was about due, 


and it was time for us to leave for America. We 
learned of the following events in letters from those 
on the field while we were away. 

The Tibetans held the upper hand, and planned two 
or three times to attack and capture Batang, but never 
succeeded. They sent word to the missionaries not to 
be frightened, as they did not come to harm them. An 
attack occurred about three o'clock one morning, and 
the fearful, blood-curdling yell of the Tibetans rolled 
through the valley, causing fear and panic. The Chi- 
nese garrison was very small. Bullets flew everywhere, 
striking the mission house walls. Some of the people 
ran to the mission houses for refuge. The Chinese 
commander very coolly finished his breakfast, mustered 
his men, got out his cannon, and proceeded to chase the 
Tibetans off and shoot down most of the mud houses 
in the city. The second attack was much the same. 

It was very difficult for the Chinese to hold and 
maintain authority in that raw land without soldiers, 
without food, and without money. The present con- 
dition of China is so unsettled that just what is to 
become of Tibet is a question hard to determine. With 
justice she would like the Chinese rule. During the 
last war between China and Tibet, China was so en- 
gaged with her own internal troubles that she had no 
time to give to Tibet, and was easily vanquished. Tibet 
wanted to try her own wings, and rule her own people, 
but it is very doubtful whether she will be permitted 
to do that. 

About the time the World War broke out, a treaty 
was made called "The Simla Treaty," because made in 
the city of Simla, India. Four countries convened over 


the disposal of Tibet. They wished to make the treaty 
so that the dividing line would extend from east to 
west, leaving the southern part, including Lassa, under 
English suzerainty. This left the northern part, which 
is cold and barren and of not much value, to China's 
control, or to be let alone, as she wished. China re- 
fused to sign this treaty. Just at present the English 
hold a lease on the Chumbi Valley as surety for the 
payment of the indemnity and cost of Colonel Young- 
husband's expedition to Lassa. There are many mil- 
lions of rupees of trade between Tibet and India every 
year. Indian and English commodities come over the 
border into Tibet, brought by native traders. An 
English representative resides at Gyantze, a short dis- 
tance from Lassa, to protect the British interests. Out 
of Tibet go gold, musk, borax, and wool. Formerly, 
most of this was sent out through China, but since the 
republican form of government has been established, 
and China as a whole has no government and no laws, 
all roads are unsafe ; no caravans, therefore, come out 
from Lassa, and have not done so for some time but 
all the trade that is worth while goes out through India. 



"As you go forth to -fight, be in the 
front; as you return, be the laist to 

It was 1919, almost time for another furlough, but 
we didn't want to leave. This last term of service, in 
spite of the unsettled state of the country, had been such 
a happy one ; we loved the people, and they loved us ; 
they had ceased to fear and come to trust us. It was 
very doubtful whether I could return to Tibet, as 
Dorris, who was fifteen, and Dorothy, who was twelve, 
must not be cheated of their birthright of an educa- 
tion among their own kind. They must know what 
it meant to live in America and be an American, and 
help with the opportunities that lie at her door. So 
with sad hearts we began to pack and to plan to sell 
what we wouldn't need again, breaking up our home 
and getting ready for the future. But the girls have 
said since, over and over, "We have known no happy 
days since we left Batang," and surely it seems true. 

It is always a difficult matter to say good-by, so it 



was planned to leave so early in the day that the school- 
boys and orphans would not be up, but they went the 
night before and slept on the way in order to say good- 
by to us. It wasn't an easy parting and had we known 
what lay before I fear none of us would have had the 
courage to go. It is well that the future is unknown. 

The journey out was over a new road, new to us at 
least, down through the province of Yunnan. We had 
always before gone in and out through Tachienlu and 
the Yangtse River. We had no tents for the first few 
days. Traveling over this road the scenery was mar- 
velous. There was snow on the passes, and when on 
top of the mountains it looked as though you could 
travel forever in any direction and never get anywhere. 
We could see the great white mountain to which many 
of the Tibetans make a holy pilgrimage each year. It 
is snow-capped always, they say, and the god who 
dwells there is a very powerful one. We came to one 
small village where the people watched us narrowly, 
not just knowing what we expected to do. 

When we left this place it was impossible to get the 
chairs along the road. Trees were felled in a criss- 
cross way, one from one side and one from the other. 
We got out and walked, as the chair had to be turned 
on its side to get through. Then came the big moun- 
tain with steps of stone leading to the top, just covered 
with a light sift of snow slippery and melting. As 
the poor mules went up bearing the loads they slipped 
and fell, bumping their noses on the stones, and leaving 
a trail marked with blood when they attempted to get 
under the trees. The loads had to be removed and 
carried forward by the men and again strapped on. I 


had to walk, too, and slipped like the mules. Only a 
big Tibetan holding each arm kept my own nose in 
safety. Going down it was impossible to use the chairs 
again, and the rest of the caravan on horses had gotten 
far ahead of me. For an hour I walked down and 
down and all at once met Dr. Shelton coming back with 
a horse for me. I protested that I couldn't ride, 
"Well," he said, "you'll have to ride the horse or let 
a Tibetan carry you." I had mercy on the Tibetan. 

On asking why the trees were cut in that peculiar 
way, we were told "To keep robbers from attacking 
suddenly and getting away quickly." Such is the cus- 
tom of robbers in this land when they make an attack. 
They come down the valley with a swoop, get all they 
can, and ride swiftly out again. This plan kept them 
from getting either in or out very speedily. 

Some nights the four cots would be placed under 
the edge of a cliff which towered hundreds of feet over 
us, looking as if it might fall and cover us up sud- 
denly. As we went to bed we could lie and see the 
stars and the magnificent mountains in the distance, 
and a little way from us the campfire of the men, 
around which they sat drinking their hot butter tea be- 
fore they, too, turned in. Some nights we spent in 
forests, forests primeval, pines so tall and straight that 
all the masts for all the ships in the world could be 
made from them could they but be gotten to the sea. 
Some times whole forests would be festooned with 
"old man's beard," which seemed to smother and kill 
the trees. Here we could have a glorious bonfire with 
which to cook supper. Another night it was snowing 
and after the evening meal the Doctor put us all to 


bed each in his own cot, and covered us over with an 
oil sheet, and there we slept snugly with the snow 
falling softly over us. 

When we got farther down, we went into the homes 
of the tribesmen and stayed over night. Sometimes 
they gave us the main room in which to sleep, and we 
could see them putting the holy water in front of the 
idols, lighting the butter lamps, and making obeisance 
to the idol in the "God Room." In all big homes this 
idol room is found, where is placed the special god of 
the family, the holy relics and charm boxes, and where 
the family worship every day. In our teacher's home 
the wife and mother lit the little butter lamps every 
morning, made the offerings of grain, filled the bowls 
in front of the god with holy water and worshiped. 
A smooth place on the floor showed where their but- 
tery hands touched every day when they bowed before 
the idol. 

Often these tribesfolk asked if we had any tea or 
salt and some of our men usually did have the kind 
they wanted. This was the regular "brick tea" which 
comes from China and the black salt, which is only 
dirty salt, but which they say has no strength if it is 
white. They would rather have the tea and salt than 
money, and we often paid for our night's lodging with 
these things. These tribes seem to partake of some of 
the characteristics of the Tibetans. They have a lan- 
guage of their own and yet seem to be mixed in some 
way with the Chinese. Perhaps they are some of the 
aboriginal races of China. I think perhaps they some- 
what resemble the Nosuland people judging from Mr.. 
Pollard's description in his book on that country. 


Sometimes we came to lakes, and the Doctor would get 
some ducks. There were little rivers winding here 
and there, temples stuck up on the mountain sides, 
lamaseries of Tibetan monks hidden away, always 
wildly beautiful, very quiet, and intensely interesting. 

Later, we came down to real Chinese territory where 
the dirt and filth of ages reposed in the corners and 
under the beds as well as on the beds; but here we 
could get hot rice and vegetables and sometimes pork 
and chicken. We passed through the city of Dali, 
through which great caravans of opium come from 
Burma. Here at one time a general rebelled and being 
caught with one hundred or so of his men, he was 
killed. The men were tied up to trees in a row and 
machine-gun fire turned upon them. The firing began 
at their heads, the scattering shot gradually lowering 
to the breasts and through the bodies until most o 
them were dead. One day going along the men said, 
"You'll see a tiger man pretty soon," but what was a 
tiger man ? We soon saw him sitting by the wayside 
begging. When he was hunting one day a tiger had 
clawed his face tearing out the eyes, tearing off the 
ncse and lip and he still lived. 

On again we went, an escort being sent from one 
station to another as is the Chinese custom, until the 
tragic day when the Doctor was captured. Afterwards 
we learned that the soldiers had been warned to stay 
where they were, as Yang Tien Fu controlled the whole 
country and with our men spies had traveled for two 
days. At the last station only two unarmed men were 
sent with us and when the attack came they ran away. 
The story of his capture by the bandits, I shall not re- 


peat but give to you the unpublished diary as Dr. Shel- 
ton kept it when among these bandits. 

The Doctor always carried in his saddle bags on all 
of his journeys, a copy of Ian McLaren's "Beside the 
Bonnie Brier Bush," a small Testament from Mr. Mc- 
Lean, who was president of the Foreign Christian Mis- 
sionary Society for so many years, and a volume of 
poems by Robert Service, given him by Mr. Burnham, 
the president of the United Christian Missionary So- 
ciety, successor to the old Board. The poems of Serv- 
ice especially appealed in this land, for here all things 
are crude, as in the tales of the Northland, and the 
truth is brutally told when it is told. In nature, raw, 
rock riven, and wind torn, you do not stop to repeat 
softly padded lines or tickle the ear with gently spoken 
phrases. When among the bandits, he read these three 
books over and over, regretting only that he did not 
have a copy of the whole Bible, and especially of the 
Psalms. The robbers did not trust his writing, as they 
were afraid he would tell where they were, so on the 
margins of the pages of "Beside the Bonnie Brier 
Bush," he kept the words of his diary. 


On Saturday, 3 January, about noon or a little after, 
while riding peacefully along about fifty to one hun- 
dred yards behind the chairs of Mrs. Shelton and the 
two girls one of the soldiers who was with me suddenly 
cried out, "Robbers! Robbers!" ran in front of my 
mule, fired his gun in the air, and then started running 
with the others back along the road we had come. I 


looked for the robbers in the direction they were run- 
ning, but could see no one. The shots began to come 
from in front, and I saw them coming down around 
the chairs which had been put down. I grabbed my 
gun from its scabbard on my saddle and Andru, my 
Tibetan servant, and I began running toward the chairs. 
Seeing we were left alone, and the bandits were many, 
I decided that non-resistance was best, so handed the 
gun back to Andru, who put it back in the scabbard. 
I walked on up to the chairs. Mrs. Shelton and the 
children were crouching down behind them, calling to 
me to get down, as the shots were flying all about. The 
robbers then surrounded us and began taking our things 
and one drew a large pistol, another a large sword, 
threatening me. 

The fellow with the pistol looked so grotesque 
he had a long black streak on his face that I laughed. 
Anyway we were not harmed. One man grabbed 
Andru's knife and chopsticks, which were tied to him. 
He looked appealingly to me. 

I said, "Don't resist. Give it to him. It is all you 
can do." 

They took Mrs. Shelton's things from her chair, 
among them a thermos bottle through which a shot had 
gone. After we had been stripped of what they wanted, 
a sort of headman came and said for me to go with 
him to their headman back up the road we had come. 
I started off with him and Mrs. Shelton called for me 
not to leave them alone, but I could do nothing but 
comply with what they wanted. This headman had my 
camera and field glasses and wanted me to explain the 
camera as we went along, which I did. Then he wanted 


me to take his picture and show it to him on the spot. 

Many people were along the road, all with their 
packs open and the robbers taking whatever they 
wanted, and making them strip and give them any gar- 
ment that struck their fancy. We finally arrived at 
the top of the pass over which we had just come, and 
there grouped around their headman were about twenty 
men. He had my gun, a Winchester shotgun, and 
wanted me to show him how it worked, which I did. 

A shot just then came whizzing from the valley be- 
low the soldiers were coming in, as the four who 
had been with us had raised the alarm. He commanded 
his men to take me and go on up the mountain, and in- 
formed me that I would be held for ransom. My mule 
and two of the animals of servants having been brought 
up, I mounted and we started. It was with a heavy 
heart. I could see the chairs on the road in the valley 
below. One of the men called for the chairs and 
women to be brought up, but as they had to travel fast 
they decided to let them go, for which I thanked God. 
The battle was now in full swing behind us as I was 
hurried on ahead, but the shots kept coming overhead. 
After going some miles the shots became fewer and 
fewer, and finally died out altogether. When we 
stopped to rest a long, lean man asked me for my 
watch, which had been overlooked at first. 

It was getting dark now and we waited for the rest 
of the band. They came straggling in a few at a time. 
I counted seventy-one there at the resting place. The 
headman came in and fires were built and supper cooked 
and eaten, and then for two hours they smoked opium. 
I was to learn in the days to come that they depended 


when under strain far more on opium than on food. 
About ten o'clock at night we started on. We traveled 
along the crest of a ridge for some miles, then down 
through brush into a valley to a small village where 
they were expected, arriving about three in the morn- 
ing. They all rolled at once in their blankets and be- 
gan another round of opium. I was bedded down with 
the long, slim man who had taken my watch. They 
came in ones and twos and threes to see if anything 
had been overlooked about me. Nothing remained but 
my medicine case. They took the bottles and poured 
the medicine out, to get the bottles for opium. 

At daylight they were up again, but it was raining 
and wind blowing so they decided to stay for a while 
and get breakfast. I tried to care for my mule. They 
wouldn't let the saddle be taken off. Neither was I to 
be allowed to take my clothes off for some .days. I 
could do nothing, so sat in an old straw shed and did 
what Mrs. Shelton had often said I should do started 
a diary. 

I had in my saddlebags three little books which were 
a blessing a little red letter New Testament, given me 
by Brother McLean in 1911, the "Rhymes of a Red 
Cross Man," sent me by F. W. Burnham in January, 
1917, but which had just arrived in Batang shortly be- 
fore we left, and which I had not finished reading, and 
McLaren's "Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush." "A Doc- 
tor of the Old School" is my ideal, after Jesus and 
Livingstone. In this latter little volume I started my 
diary Sunday, 4 January, and I've kept it up to date, 14 
February, as it is the only way I have of keeping a 


record of time. Seven weeks to-day and I'm still a 
prisoner and likely to remain one indefinitely. 

The first morning they came to me and asked me to 
write a letter saying that if soldiers were sent after 
them I would pay the penalty. I did not write it. 

Only one man had been wounded shot through the 
ankle. I attended to him and he is long since well. He 
was very grateful. 

They also have come to me with all kinds of offers 
if I will join their band. 

I spent the morning estimating what they had got 
the previous day. Including the animals and all my 
things, it amounts to about $1800. 

The headman (Li Loapau I learned later he is 
Yang Tien Fu himself) says that the Governor has 
his family in jail in the capitol and that he doesn't wish 
to harm me but to see if he can injure the Governor in 
any way. 

I suppose I can do no better from here on than to 
copy my diary, though some of it seems out of place 
now, but it will serve to show the state of things from 
day to day. 

4 January. Have no idea how things will turn out 
and it does not matter much just about me. Glad loads 
were not taken and Flo and girls. allowed to go. Head- 
man just been here scheming to get help. Wants me 
to help him get ammunition which, of course, I cannot 
do. Says headman is at Jong Tien and he has come 
back to recruit for him. These villages here are very 
friendly to him. Wish I could help to get them settled 
for good. Beginning of all trouble was refusal of offi- 
cers to pay men for five months. 


Monday 5. Started on at noon Sunday. Traveled 
till near night, heard bugle call and stopped on moun- 
tain till dark. Man had been to see what Flo and chil- 
dren were doing. Said they were waiting at Lao Ya 
Guan. Said they would take me down next day. At 
dark went to village and stopped with confederate. 
They were much afraid of meeting soldiers, as this con- 
federate told them they were very near. Rested till 
midnight. Crossed big road and telegraph lines about 
midnight. On till three A. M. over mountains. Stopped 
till daylight with some Catholic converts. Said Cath- 
olic church was only three miles away and they were 
taking me there, for which I was very thankful. Started 
on this morning at daylight but back into mountains 
again. After an hour I saw they were certainly not 
going to the Catholic place. I sat down and told them 
they could do as they pleased, I couldn't go farther. 
The roads were so steep you couldn't ride. They took 
one of my cards and sent a man to the Catholic priest 
about two P. M. A card Claude Bailly with writing 
in French which I couldn't read came back. They said 
the priest had gone to take my family to Yunnan and 
there would be a man back in five days. 

Tuesday 6. About dark went down mountain to a 
large temple and stayed all night and I got first sleep 
since my capture Saturday. It is now Thursday after- 
noon and we are still here in the temple, with forty 
guards out in every direction. They have done noth- 
ing all day but gamble and worship. I was very sick 
and vomited all this morning. They want as condition 
of my release one hundred and twenty guns and charge 
of the road from Yunnan to Talifu. I suppose they 


are negotiating through the priest with whom they 
seem to be on very friendly terms. They all smoke all 
the opium they want. Have all kinds of guns but are 
short on cartridges. I have counted nineteen kinds of 
guns and eight kinds of pistols and revolvers from old 
firelocks down to the most modern rifles and Colt Auto- 
matic forty-five pistols. There are eight priests in this 
temple, which is very fine and seems to be about half 
Tibetan. No bed. Clothes not off since Friday. They 
never go to bed. Never without guns. If a man lays 
his gun down a minute the captain gets after him. 
Cartridge belts never off. They have plenty of money. 
They have worked since first to get me to go with them. 
They keep it up. At first I thought it was just talk 
but am convinced they are in earnest. Want me to 
take command of all money they can't trust each 
other. They offer anything. Band now numbers one 
hundred and four, others having come in. It is near 
night now, and still no sign of moving. Catholic con- 
vert told me yesterday he was afraid and would not 
have come except to bring the priest's card. When he 
went away he said he would come back, but did not. 
One man wanted to go home had to have another man 
agree to be killed if he gave away any information. 
When a man joins the band he joins for keeps. Gam- 
bling all day. Fifteen to twenty dollars changed hands 
at every roll of the dice. I could get word out by de- 
ceiving them and pretending to write for wife and chil- 
dren to come and join me. They have been at me all 
day to do this. They call me foreign officer. Been 
trying to get shaved, but have not succeeded. My re- 
fusal to do all things they ask, from smoking opium, 


gambling they offer me money to gamble with etc., 
to being their leader I base on Christianity, which 
gives me a chance to tell them of Him and I am backed 
up by two in the band who have been Christians one 
at Yachow, one at Ning Uen Fu. They know of Well- 
wood's death in France and seem to regret it. 

Wednesday, ? January. Thought was to have night's 
rest but man sent out to see said soldiers were coming, 
so at ten o'clock started and traveled till three A. M. 
Froze trying to sleep till six. On again till seven. 
Stopped for day in saddle of mountains with guards 
out. Starting again at four going till six and are to 
sleep till moon comes up. Had awful round with them 
last night. Must get two hours' sleep, if possible, so 
must quit. 

Thursday, 4 January. Rested till midnight. On till 
four A. M. Stopped in rain till seven, then on till ten 
and stopping in rain on mountain now. Had awful 
spell of blues this morning. Wrote Flo to go on home 
to America, but doubt if they will mail the card. They 
want everything in Chinese. I think they wrote some- 
thing in Chinese this morning, and signed my name, 
but am not sure. 

Friday, p January. Yesterday afternoon prayed for 
grace to try to do these people good and preached to 
them. There are several whom I am beginning to 
like. Six have come to me privately and want me to 
take them with me when I am let go. Came down 
mountain at dark and stopped at temple for two hours, 
then on for another hour to a village and stopped till 
daylight. Came on for an hour and have stopped here 
on the mountain till now noon. 


Tne captain says that whether or not things are ar- 
ranged he is going to give orders that me and mine are 
always to be protected by his men. They have a great 
deal of which to complain. They said they are going 
to give me a mule and two guns when I go (if ever). 

Saturday, 10 January. Yesterday afternoon at three 
o'clock one of their men came in and said that seven 
companies of soldiers were coming, so we went very 
fast till dark along road on top of ridge. Could see 
where Lu Long was. They robbed many people on 
their way to market. I felt so sorry for them. At 
dark descending into valley came to large village. Peo- 
ple very scared and made to do bidding of the men at 
muzzle of guns. Rested till ten p. M. then on till three 
A. M. over the worst roads yet. Wish I could die with- 
out committing suicide. Perhaps they will solve it for 
me soon. It is now nine A. M. Came to village. All 
the people ran away. I am nearly finished. They live 
almost entirely on opium when under strain. Slept two 
hours in field. Nearly froze. One mule went over a 

I dared not think. This was word that came into 
my mind, "Fear not, I am with thee." I don't know 
what the Lord wants to accomplish through me, but not 
my will but Thine be done, O God. 

Noon. They have just had the headman of the vil- 
lage tied up to kill, but finally let him off on his promise 
of help in the future. When they tried to lead him 
out he held back and they stuck a knife in his leg. I 
am getting cooties, but the captain won't let me stop 
and wash my clothes as they never know what minute 


they may have to go. They think they see soldiers 
coming now. I attended a very sick woman here. 

Sunday, n January. A week yesterday since I was 
captured and still no word, though the Catholic priest, 
so they say, promised word by last night. Perhaps it 
is because we have gone back toward Talifu so far. 

Left the village at four p. M. Came up the moun- 
tain for two hours and stayed all night among the trees 
with guards about. On this morning to this cove in 
the mountains, where we've been resting for an hour 
now at noon. We've turned almost due south. Don't 
know how long it will last. 

Monday, 12 January, Daylight. Came on yesterday 
till afternoon to this village, which is theirs. Gambled 
and talked all night and getting ready to start on road. 

Letter came at dark from colonel of soldiers, telling 
them that they would be allowed to submit to Govern- 
ment. They want six things granted over the govern- 
ment seal before releasing me. ( I ) Pardon for all past 
offenses. (2) Restoration to citizenship. (3) Rein- 
statement of soldiers. (4) Release of head man's fam- 
ily- (5) Two hundred rifles. (6) Twenty thousand 
cartridges. Killed twenty-five chickens yesterday after- 
noon and small pig. 

At least twenty have come and want to be my ser- 
vants now. I've had a great increase in popularity 
since the letter came. Many of them when they come 
around near me want to show off and sing, "Do re mi," 
"Jesus loves me," and many other hymns. 

All ready to go at daylight but for some reason 
changed mind at last minute, so stayed here. Killed 
pig, and for want of something to do the Captain asked 


me to teach him the "a b c's." Best boy in company 
won twenty dollars yesterday and it was stolen during 
the night. They are just a big bunch of thieves even 
among themselves. The captain came to me and wanted 
to know if I would take him for my son. 

Tuesday, 13 January. Dark. Nothing written since 
yesterday noon. Ready to go on yesterday afternoon, 
when another letter came. It was dark by the time it 
was answered, so stayed another night. Traveled all 
day to-day in southwest direction. People run from 
every village. Stopped here just now at dark. They 
are making for some place to get $5,000. They had 
word from Tali of our coming. The secretary for the 
bunch, Gu, must have one and one half ounces of opium 
every day. It was pitiful to see the women of the vil- 
lage with their little bound feet carrying their babies 
and trying to run away. I had hoped for a letter yes- 
terday, but none came. 

Wednesday, 14 January. Last night one of the men 
insulted a woman. The captain called him up and was 
ready to spank him, but finally let him off with five 
dollars fine, with the ruling that in the future for like 
offenses not only the man but his sergeant would be 
spanked. The men caroused all night. No sleep. Up 
at three A. M. for breakfast, then slept till six, then on 
to this town, Fa Paio Gai. Everyone had run away. 
Men are forbidden to go on street. This is gun mar- 
ket firelocks they bought twelve. I'm awfully itchy. 
Washed my clothes night before last, but the men never 
wash and are covered with them, and it is impossible 
to keep them off. Captain gave me seven dollars to 


use. Bought fifty cents worth of rock candy and fifty 
cents worth of crude sugar. 

Fed mule all he'd eat. Captain can say a b c's and 
count to ten and ask what things are. Thought I'd get 
a letter, but none yet. I think the captain is perhaps a 
little stricter because I am along. I have nothing the 
last few days of which to complain in treatment. They 
live the best they can living like hunted animals. They 
have great hope of getting pardon as part of price for 
me. I told them I hoped the Government would not 
buy my release, as it would set a bad precedent and they 
would be catching other foreigners. 

A letter just came at dark from Flo and French 
consul. Seven days on the road. The men are jubilant. 
Think they have things in their own hands now, but 
will be reasonable I think. They have lived like wild 
beasts long enough. And they have a competence in 
opium. Two hundred loads worth $5,000 per load, 
so they say. I am very thankful to Father Bailly and 
the French consul for their help. They have been ex- 
ceedingly kind. 

Thursday, 15 January. Dark. Can't see. Traveled 
all day in northeast direction. We crossed river at 
dinner time. Robbed man of three mules when we 
stopped for dinner. Camping out on mountain to- 
night. They say we are going back. Some of the 
men don't want to fix things up, but most of them do. 
If things are fixed up, officers will get all money for 
opium and men very little. I'm glad Flo and the chil- 
dren are safe. They promised last night to let me go 
as soon as Yang's family is turned over to them. Man 
left with letters for capital this morning. 


Friday, 16 January. Two weeks to-morrow. Cap- 
tain bought bracelet last night for fifty dollars, and 
gave me for Flo as a present. Stopping near village 
for dinner. All people have run away. Could see 
them going far up the mountain-side. The men would 
call out to hurry up or they would get away. Then 
they would run the faster. They took from gardens 
vegetables for one hundred men, and this morning, 
they took an average of five stalks of sugar cane each. 
The most I've counted lately in the band is one hundred 
and four. Counted ninety-six last night. 

Saturday, if January. Two weeks to-day! Oh, 

well We are at the copper mines. The people 

here are in with this bunch. Yesterday a man came 
along whom they took for a spy. They tied him up 
and brought him along. Also tied up one of their own 
men for robbing an old woman and scaring her badly. 
My poor old mule is all in. He may pay for my being 
caught, but I can do nothing more. I care for him as 
well as I can, but yesterday was sixty days without 
rest carrying not less than two hundred pounds all the 
time. I don't know what to do. They say that in two 

more days he can rest, but 

Noon. The advance guard ran all the people out of 
one place and robbed an old man. The captain cannot 
govern his men at all and they do about as they please. 
They told the people here they were guards of a big 
foreign official and the headman of the place came and 
kotowed to me. This greatly amused the men. The 
old man would not believe me when I told him I was a 


We don't seem to be getting anywhere, as the old 
man says we are still two days from Lao Ya Gwan. 

Sunday, 18 January. Stopped on mountain all night. 
Very cold. Sick and vomiting all night. Man with 
letter in this morning. Said Government offered $20,- 
ooo in my stead and it was refused. Captain said it 
was a good thing I was not a Chinaman, or I'd have 
been let go and the money taken. 

The man tied up yesterday is a spy, sure enough, 
but the captain says they will not kill him, as negotia- 
tions are pending. I gave captain notice that the next 
man I heard talking nasty about my family I would 
smash, regardless of consequences. Stopping now in 
woods to answer letter. They say we can arrive at 
Catholic place to-morrow. Man just been telling me 
his troubles. Wants to quit and go home, but they 
won't let him. We've been camping here since ten this 
morning, and I've been rereading as a whole all of 
Paul's letters. There were giants in those days. What 
a wonderful man, and what stimulation to emulation! 
There are at least ten men in this bunch in earnest 
in wanting to quit this life and lead decent lives. Quite 
a few are kept in by force. The man they have been 
waiting for has just come in bringing letters. What 
the import is I do not yet know. 

They say we are to stay the night here, so I've spread 
my saddlepads on the ground and am ready to turn in. 

Monday, ip January. Stayed again all night on 
the mountain. Came on this morning to Min Shao 
Chang and are staying in large temple. They are after 
a rich man for $2,000. Sent him word last night to 
have it ready. He ran off, so they are threatening to 


burn his house. Had a bath and clothes washed. The 
days go by and nothing accomplished. 

Tuesday, 20 January. Say we will get back to where 
Catholic priest lives to-day. They worked all night 
trying to get $2,000 or get hold of man. Have done 
neither yet. Yang, their chief, sent letter yesterday 
asking me to stay with them and offering as much as 
$6,000 a year. I should get mail when we get to Cath- 
olic place. 

Ten minutes after I wrote the above the agent of 
the man they were trying to get money from brought 
word that soldiers were coming. True or not no one 
knows as yet. Anyway, we got off in twenty minutes 
and have traveled five hours hard, and, contrary to ex- 
pectations, are waiting on the mountain back of the 
Catholic place. They have asked priest to come up. 
They have just been torturing man who brought word 
of soldiers. Prepared him for execution, etc. The 
most he would agree to last night was $500, but they 
wanted $2,000. Don't know whether Catholic will 
come up or not. At least the man should bring some 
mail back. This Chinese business is liable to run on 
into months. There are beautiful rhododendrons in 
bloom here. I think they are the kind that Wilson, the 
botanist, named for Flo and put in the Kew Gardens 
in London. 

Had my mule shot last night. Feel fine after bath 
and clean clothes. My chapter this morning was eighth 
of Romans, especially verses 35-39. Amen. 

Wednesday, 21 January. The Catholic priest had 
gone to Lao Ya Gwan, so we came on across the valley 
to the temple where we were two weeks ago. The 






people ran like rabbits before a pack of hounds. The 
captain came through the village with a Colt Automatic 
in one hand and Mauser Automatic in the other. 

The Catholic priest came to the temple about eleven 
p. M. Stayed and talked terms till about one-thirty 
A. M. It is going to be hard to settle, as they think they 
have the upper hand and are going to keep it. 
Father Bailly is a kindly old man of sixty or over. 
Has been here thirty years. . Said he would come up 
this evening. The soldiers we heard of are after three 
companies who mutinied and killed their officers for 
lack of pay. Same story as these men. The men are 
very much afraid and we may take to the mountains 
any minute. Catholic says Yang's family left capital 
yesterday. If so should reach here to-morrow some 
time. The temple service is very nice. Have two per 
day, morning and evening. 

The man they brought yesterday is still tied up and 
they are pressing him for the $2,000 again this morn- 

The priest came again this evening and tried in every 
way in his power to get them to let me go. No use. 
They have the upper hand and expect to keep it. The 
man I thought was Captain Li is Yang, the chief, 
himself, but for some reasons prefers to go by the 
title of Li Lao Pai. They are going back on their 
promise to let me go when Yang's family arrives at the 
capitol to-morrow, but it cannot be helped. The priest 
and French consul have done all in their power and I 
am more than indebted to them. The Lord is my 
shepherd, I shall not want. Good night. 

Thursday, 22 January. This morning another letter 


came from Flo and Dorris. Dorothy is better, thank 
God. The list of things lost came. Got Andru's flint 
and steel back. 

The chief himself came in this morning with great 
roll of bills. Said he wanted to hire me for a year at 
$1,000 per month, six months' pay in advance and other 
six months at end of six months, me to be let off to 
take my family to the coast and then come back. The 
Catholic priest says they are immensely rich. Dealing 
out opium this morning. Five to ten ounces per man. 
They say that one member of the family, a son, has 
not been sent and they are demanding him this morn- 
ing. Won't let me go, for they say the minute I am 
off their hands the Government will send soldiers 
against them, so it is plain I shall be here till every- 
thing is finally settled. 

I called captain in last night and asked him to unbind 
the man they had had tied up for forty-eight hours, 
so he could lie down and he did chaining him to a 
man during the night. They say he is to be killed to- 

Night. He was not executed and this has been a 
good day. Letter saying Dorothy was better and letter 
from Dorris which I was very glad to get. My bed- 
ding and clothes came. Have had a bath. A new shirt 
from Ula and though still a prisoner and likely to be 
one for some time, am in good spirits. 

The Catholic priest came again. He is a fine man. 
He goes for the Chief's family to-morrow and men 
come to begin negotiations. It will take some days. I 
thank God for all His goodness to me and hope that 


this will be the means of saving some hundreds of 
lives. Amen. 

Friday, 23 January. Noon. It was good to have 
bedding once more. Priest has gone for the Chief's 
family to-day. To-night tried to write some letters, 
but had no pen and ink. The best lieutenant in the 
5unch was smoking opium. I asked him why a young 
man of his ability wanted to smoke. His reply was 
pitiful. "It keeps me from wanting to see my wife and 

Night. The Catholic priest came again and asked 
them to turn me over to him, as their people had been 
put into his hands. They are like all Chinese, don't 
want to keep their part of the bargain. They finally 
promised to take me down to-morrow, but I don't think 
they will. They intend to keep firm hold on me till 
they get what they want. I begged the Catholic priest 
not to humiliate himself farther by begging for what 
they had promised, but to drop their case and let them 
do as they pleased. I am under debt enough to him and 
the French consul without having them humiliated at 
the hand of this bunch. If they keep their promise to- 
morrow they will probably be helped, but if not they 
will probably take to the hills again with me in tow. 

Saturday, 24 January. The priest's hair and beard 
turned white in fifteen days. His dog was true. His 
friend was not. Last night they discussed among them- 
selves the advisability of killing me. Would it get the 
Government into any great trouble? Also discussed 
the possibility of capturing the French consul and de- 
manding 10,000 guns as his ransom. They are desper- 
ate. Will go to any extreme. Flo and the babies are 


safe, so the worst they can do is to kill me. They 
don't much wish to do so, but if it would answer their 
purpose would not hesitate to do so. What they don't 
understand is why I'm not scared. They can't make 
it out. This evening priest came again, same thing 
over. I'll be released only when and if their business 
is fixed up, anything else is hopeless. Three weeks 

Sunday, 2$ January. Letters in. Night. Called be- 
fore day. We are to stop at the Catholic place, break- 
fast. They say we are going to Lao Ya Gwan, where 
we crossed the second night. Stop. Dinner over. 
Came over mountain. Rode to here. About fifteen li 
to Lao Ya Gwan. Tired out. Good night. 

Monday, 26 January. Sick all night. Catholic priest 
got government representatives to come to-day. Very 
doubtful if much accomplished except getting them to- 
gether. Not at all sanguine as to results. Still no bed 
or bedding. 

Tuesday, 27 January. Nothing done. Sick, dis- 
couraged. Letters for them came, but don't know 
what they were about. 

Yang wants me to take his boy and educate him. 
Could buy a wife for $100 he says. 

Wednesday, 28 January. No sleep last night. Up 
early and on road. Stopped here thirty li from Lao Ya 
Gwan. Yang Hai Weu has been deputed by the cap- 
tain to look after me, on my complaint of a man fol- 
lowing me all around. Letter, but not from the con- 
sul, to them. Don't know what. Letter from men in 
Lao Ya Gwan. Don't know what. They've become 
very secretive. Say they are sending three horses 


back by these men. No bed or bedding yet or any 
writing paper or anything else to read. 

Thursday, 29 January. Bedding came last night. 
Scrap with Gu. Men from Lao Ya Gwan, just gone. 
Taking boys' bags and three horses for horse-man. 
Men didn't mean to give up horses. Got diarrhoea and 
am discouraged. Man following me again. Ran like 
a deer. Couldn't find him. Fifty dollars fireworks 

Friday, 30 January. Men bought bread and so forth 
from the priest about midnight, also some forty guns. 
Captain says I'll probably go back to-day, but not to be 
believed till it is an accomplished fact, so I'm in no way 
elated. About thirty per cent of these men are in by 
force, so they say. One hundred men with guns joined 
the force this morning. They are of those who re- 
volted some two or three weeks ago. Still had on sol- 
dier's clothes. Must change. Came back to where we 
were a few days ago. 

Letter has just come but don't know the import, but 
nobody to talk matters over as they said. 

Saturday, 31 January. Last day of January. Four 
weeks have I been a prisoner. Not yet have I heard 
one word as to whether U. S. has extended any help or 
expect to. They hear that the representative of the 
Government has left Yunnan. As to whether or not 
it is true no one knows. I rather think that the coming 
of the other one hundred men will complete matters 
to a considerable degree. Put in a room full of lice 
and a man uses my toothbrush. Priest came to see me, 
but I couldn't see him. Sent a bottle of wine. Says 


we go back to his place to-morrow. True or not no 
one knows. 

Night. To-night I have just had a long talk with 
Yang Tien Fu alone. At heart he wants to be right 
and I believe that eventually he will be a power for 
good. I told him that that would be my soul's most 
earnest prayer and he said he was going to do right. 
He took over formally to-day the one hundred men 
from Sze Chuen. They are not of those who rebelled 
lately, as I thought at first. Captain wants me to take 
his boy and I'm going to do it for five years. His 
father to pay all expenses. May the Lord bless what 
I've said in His name. Amen. 

Sunday, I February. If I were a young man I 
would like more than anything else to go with these 
men and be their pastor. It would be a great thing, 
and it would be a great opportunity to do the Lord's 
work. Oh, why wasn't I born a twin or triplets? It 
is so good to speak a good word for Jesus Christ, and 
especially so when the heart to whom you speak has a 
longing to hear and to do right. This morning started 
back to Mi Tsao. Traveled without stopping. Ex- 
citement when they thought soldiers were coming after 

Got a glass here. I'm a sight. Pulled two teeth. No 
one will ever recognize me if I ever get back. Got them 
hunting my clothes, so I can take a bath, but so far 
at dark have failed to find them. They say that people 
are coming to talk their affairs over day after to- 
morrow. May or may not be true. Priest is not at 
home. Still in Lao Ya Gwan. He has given his indi- 
vidual attention to my case now for a month. How 


can I ever repay him? The Lord is gracious. I trust 
that my punishment may eventually result in a great 
good. The people are also anxious that I stay, because 
they say that if I were not with these people the rob- 
bers would burn their houses where they stay. Soldiers 
don't treat these people much, if any, better than these 
people do. Took forty horses this morning. 

Monday , 2 February. Got my clothes back. Had 
good bath and sent dirty clothes out to be washed. 
Priest came in this morning from Lao Ya Gwan, carry- 
ing stuff from the government representative. He says 
at most three or four days will mark the end, as the 
affair is about fixed up. Went up to his place and had 
coffee. His dogs came before I was up this morning 
and wanted to get in bed with me. Took a picture of 
the old gentleman this morning. I am at a perfect loss 
to know how to repay his kindness. Yang is all dressed 
up getting re-acquainted with his family. They are 
bringing firecrackers, killing ten hogs, sheep, etc., to 
celebrate the event with. Dark. Government men just 
came bringing many hogs. They were suitably met by 
soldiers and firecrackers. A month to-morrow. 

Tuesday, j February. Priest sent a bottle of coffee 
last night. To-night I told both sides I was going next 
Monday. They have to kill me otherwise. Neither 
side does a thing but sit and smoke opium, so I might 
as well bring everything to a head. If they want to fix 
things in that time they can, and if they don't it might 
as well be soon as later. 

Wednesday, 4 February. Things have been moving 
since nine o'clock last night. At midnight the captain 
came in, saying that he and the government men had 


come to an agreement, if the Government would sanc- 
tion it. 

This morning he let me move into the Catholic place, 
but sent guard of ten men along. Government men 
going back to-day. They sent for Bailly to go to Lao 
Ya Gwan and get the consul to help them- to get the 
Government to come to what they had agreed to. So 
I am in the Catholic place alone with guard outside. 
Had a long talk with priest on religious matters this 
morning. Sent man with letters this morning by 

Thursday, 5 February. Priest came back. Govern- 
ment refuse conditions. Letters from Flo and consul. 
Everything where it was in the beginning, not much 
left of settlement now. Doesn't matter, they are des- 
peradoes. All talking things over to-night. 

Friday, 6 February. I saw in paper last night 
Brother Rains is gone and has rest from his labors. 
How well I remember when coming out a young man 
he said, "Don't get discouraged, the Lord is not dead 
yet." May he rest in peace. Letters asking priest to 
come to Lao Ya Gwan. He has gone. Captain may 
move us all to be near Lao Ya Gwan to-day. Don't 
know. Everything is black now as night. Priest will 
not dare to come back. They still have two days in 
which to work. Mass this morning. 

Night. The most miserable day yet. Sick all day. 
I'm tired to death. 

Saturday, 7 February. Letter from Flo came at dark 
saying nothing but just to wait. Left at midnight. 
Out through mountains again. Yang also took his 
family. They are just concentrated evil. We are again 


on the road toward Tsu Shang. The Lord only knows 
what the end will be. 

Sunday, 8 February. Traveling nearly all night 
again last night. Clothes not off for two nights and 
no bedding. Went to bed at daylight in straw stack. 
Told them they could bring my belongings before I 
would take another step. Soldiers coming so had to 
go. From ten A. M. till eight P. M. hard. Got to place 
thirty li from Lao Ya Gwan. Crossed their road about 
five P. M. going north. Tired out. So tired couldn't 
sleep. Informed that if they had to fight I'd be put in 
front. Wish they'd get at it. 

Monday, 9 February. Asked captain to shoot me 
this morning and quit running around. Told him this 
was day for me to go back or be killed. Says he is 
taking me now to Wuting to turn me over to official 
friend of his. Says will get there day after to-morrow. 
It is now noon. Have been traveling all morning due 
north. Seems Government is after them with lot of 

Tuesday, 10 February. Since four p. M. yesterday 
has been perfect nightmare. As we started after noon 
some four men, kneeling and crying, crowded around. 
They were the men who had been last week promised, 
when they came, they could go when they liked. They 
were refused, of course. I spoke to the whole two 
hundred. A very seditious speech. Asked the captain 
to stand all of us who wanted to go back against the 
wall and shoot us. There are only two or three men 
hindering everything, but sedition is working and un- 
less they are careful they will go the way of the officials 
who oppress their men. I know at least fifty who are 


ready for resistance. They are tired of lawlessness. 
I'm going to Won Ting. I've got dysentery and had 
it for last thirteen days. It is getting worse. If some- 
thing doesn't come off soon I'll fight Yang for leader- 
ship of the band. I can command small half now. All 
the better. He wants now to ask the Government for 
their pardon. Of course I might get killed in the strug- 
gle, but I'd like to help those who want to do right. 
Yang himself would come were it not for Lii. He is 
the devil of the bunch, and Yang lets him persuade him. 
The tumor in my neck is growing rapidly. I can't 
tell what it *s. "Lead kindly light amid the encircling 

Wednesday, n February. Two men shot this morn- 
ing. One who wanted to go back home. The other 
because he came down near the road and cut one of 
the men with an ax. He shot him then. Troubles are 
over. Band got separated. Captain has gone to an- 
other place. We are in Mao Gi, wherever that is. All 
people have gone and we have taken possession. Per- 
haps the two deaths were to intimidate me. Only one 
likely, as the other must have been a madman. 

Thursday, 12 February. Off at eleven p. M. for 
three hours to where Yang was. Nearly dead. Found 
out why Yang split the gang yesterday. His family 
is gone this morning. He is smooth. We are at Long 
Gi road. Have just written consul, Government, Flo 
and babies. We are four days from the capital. 

Friday, 75 February. Did nothing all day but write 
long letter to Pa and Ma. Saw Andru's watch a while 
ago and know who has it now. 

Four-thirty p. M. Now I have just had dinner. Cap- 


tain says if soldiers do not come will stay for answer 
to letters. Man should arrive to-morrow at the capi- 
tal sometime in morning. Hard rain last night and 
wind. Thankful to be under shelter. Sixty to eighty 
patients to-day. 

Saturday, 14 February. More patients. Wrote for 
an hour or two. This is the home of many of the 
men. Seven weeks to-day and still no prospect of re- 
lease. O Lord, how long? 

Sunday, 15 February. Insomnia getting worse and 
worse. Didn't sleep a wink last night tiH after five this 
morning. Been writing for an hour. Got sick and 
vomited so that I had to quit. Five p. M. All of a sud- 
den we are going after resting two days. Don't know 
why. They expect to wait till to-morrow for answer 
from capital. 

Monday, 16 February. I know I ought not to feel 
so, but how I long for death! If only answers to let- 
ters are what I prayed for then could I die happy. 
Could a prayer of thirteen years be answered? Then 
were God to be praised forever. We only came about 
ten miles last night. They are paying off this morn- 
ing. Brought me one hundred dollars but I did not 
take it. Then they brought twenty dollars for me to 
use for small things, which I took. 

I nearly froze last night. They say we go to Le 
Shun. Are about to start again, but nothing can be 
done so close to new year. 

Thursday, 17 February. Went about thirty li yes- 
terday afternoon, so captain could get his family again. 
Did not sleep a wink until after daylight this morning. 
Left at ten A. M. and came back toward Long Gi. Then 


on north to here, Haitsi. Still no letters yet at three 
p. M. They have gotten two this morning-. 

Wednesday, 18 February. At 5 P. M. soldiers came, 
suddenly attacked. Fight till four A. M. Then for one 
hundred li to near Yangste. Nearly tired to death. 
Company soldiers compassed. Yang about steepest 
mountain yet. They've given up hope of getting back 
to civil life. 

Thursday, 19 February. Harvesting, feast and 
opium. Fine spring morning, but my heart is sick unto 
death. I can see no hope ahead, but all things end 
sometime. If my body were weaker it would die 
quicker. Last day of old year. 

Friday, 20 February. New Year's Day. Moved 
twenty li yesterday. Were awfully afraid and prom- 
ised to let me go to-morrow. I think to cheer me up. 

New Year's night. It is rather a sorry New Year 
away up here on the mountain, where they can get noth- 
ing. I thank the Lord for all His mercies to me and 
mine. My place of prayer is sweet. Of course it was 
only another misrepresentation. They put my going 
off another few days, which means it is absolutely in- 
definite, if ever they did let me go. Would be glad of 
the chance to shoot me. 

Soldiers are following and are within twenty li, but 
only one hundred men and less than three hundred 
won't dare attack. They dragged me back to-day when 
I started to walk. It is no use. I'm absolutely help- 
less. May the Lord make His grace sufficient for me. 

Saturday, 21 February. Seven weeks to-day. They 
had another fight with the soldiers. Don't know yet 


whether they lost any men or not, but each side used 
enough ammunition to slay an army. 

Ten p. M. Five wounded. One left to die, four 
along. Been going fast due north till now. I have 
done all I can for the wounded. One will die. Shot 
through the breast. 

Sunday, 22 February. Arrived here, banks of 
Yangsti. At Tusa's place at four p. M. to-day. All I 
can say in my desolation is, "Make Thy grace sufficient 
for me, O God." It has been my prayer all day. 

Monday, 23 February. It was reported that the sol- 
diers were to catch up with us last night, but they 
did not and we've come up on the mountain about one 
mile and are waiting for them to come up so they can 
have another fight. Bought me a pair of shoes but 
they were too small. I couldn't sleep for pain in my 
neck last night. The roughest man in our bunch came 
in at midnight and gave me an orange. Very kind. 
About fifty are gambling. They've just brought worst 
wounded man up in whagan. 

Five P. M. Still waiting on mountain. A man just 
tried to kill himself with aconite, and nearly suc- 

Tuesday, 24 February. Letter from Flo last night. 
Answered this morning. They brought me down off 
mountain and Shansi was here. Wrote another letter 
and sent camera, diary, etc., back by him. Soldiers 
beat badly man with him but say he can go back. 
They have just started. Nearly froze last night on 
mountain. Fifteen years to-day since Dad was at peace. 
What a blessing. 

Wednesday, 25 February. I am in the depths to- 


day. God seems to be gone. We came only about 
twenty li yesterday after Shensi left. The swelling 
in my neck pounded awfully all night till I put a poul- 
tice on it. It seems to involve the nerve, for all that 
side of my head is numb and the pain goes down into 
the shoulder. 

"What shall we say when hope is gone ? 
Sail on and on and on, sail on." 

"My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken me?" 

Thursday, 26 February. I thank God for all His 
benefits. I cried like a baby last night. The pain was 
great. I was sick and discouraged, but finally toward 
morning I went to sleep in a dark hole with twelve 
Chinese. The air was awful. This fat underdone 
salt pork was more than I could go, so I'm fasting. 
We came about sixty li yesterday. Almost parallel 
with the river, but have not crossed it yet and are rest- 
ing to-day, for which I am thankful. How I thank 
God for the love of wife, children, parents, and friends. 
God make me worthy of it. It is a beautiful morning 
and I am sitting alone in a great cathedral of beautiful 
pines and my mule is grazing near. If it were not for 
him I should be gone. I am past walking but a very 
little and my shoes are worn through. My feet on 
the ground. I am having the remains of my under- 
clothing scalded to-day for the best of reasons. It is 
the first time in weeks that we've stopped long enough. 

Nine P. M. Word has just come that the soldiers are 
coming again, so we are off into the night. The Gov- 
ernor is an awful double-faced fellow. "Carry on my 
soul, carry on !" 


Friday, 27 February. Too sick to write. 

Saturday, 28 February. Same. Going south all day 
in whagan. 

Sunday, 29 February. Same, On mountain all 
night. Turned west. 

Monday, I March. 

Tuesday, 2 March. The pain was so great that I 
took a dose of opium last night. Opium dreams. 
Waited all day on mountain, but soldiers did not come. 
Don't know where we will go this morning if at all. 

Didn't go anywhere but now just at dark word comes 
that soldiers are coming from all around. Some two 
thousand in all. 

Thursday, 4 March. I've much to write, but don't 
feel equal to it. I've been "cached" as yesterday was 
about my finish. We started at two A. M. and trav- 
eled hard till seven p. M. Sighted soldiers at five p. M. 
They started on early this morning, but left me in this 
village and I'm locked in a barn loft back over behind 
all the hay, with three tribesmen who can't speak Chi- 
nese to look after me. If the soldiers only knew where 
I am! They took my mule, glasses, and gun. I'll 
write more this afternoon if I can. How thankful I 
am to God for this day of rest. 

Three p. M. I've just had one of my keepers up, 
trying to make him understand that I want my clothes 
washed in boiling water. I've been dozing nearly all 
day, due to opium I had to take last night. Hope I 
won't have to take it again if I can rest here a few 
days, but this thing in my neck is very hard and is be- 
coming very closely connected with the surrounding tis- 
sues. It was free and movable at first, the pain dull 


and constant, more of an ache. Is now mostly referred 
to the back of the shoulder. A few days ago it was 
in the mastoid process. As yet the tumor has given me 
no inconvenience in swallowing. I thought at first 
that it was a gland that was going to suppurate, but it 
is about fifty days old and will come to no head. 
Should it be cancer, its position will make it quickly 

This position will become very confining shortly as 
I can only sit up and that not very erect, for my head 
hits the roo.f, but I am in nice clean rice straw. O, 
how I thank God that wife and babies were let go! 
This morning about two o'clock when they brought 
me in here, the boy who has sort of been my care- 
taker during the last two months (two months yes- 
terday) came and crying kneeled down by my side, 
and asked me to pray for him. The officer who has 
been my jailer held my hands and cried also. These 
are the only two who know where I was put. It is 
getting too dark to see, as the only light I have is 
a hole from which I asked my keeper to remove a 
loose brick. Thanks be to God for all His mercies. 

Friday, 5 March. 

"Carry on, carry on. 
Things never were looming so black 
But show that you haven't a cowardly streak, 
And though you're unlucky you never are weak. 

Carry on ! Carry on ! 
Brace up for another attack. 
It's looking like hell, but you never can tell : 
Carry on, old man ! Carry on !" 



Saturday, 6 March. Another attack has come. On 
Thursday night after they left me here in early morn- 
ing they went to Toogu and took two C. I. M. mis- 
sionaries. They have not come back for me yet. Yes- 
terday I didn't do a thing but lie and rest. Last night 
I slept well and sweated awfully. I am so sorry for 
the wife of one of the men taken left alone with 
small baby. The agony of the father I know. Un- 
derneath them all may there be the everlasting arms. 
One of their students on his way back to school stopped 
here to see me. He went back home. He was a very 
nice fellow. Two or three men are planning to get 
me to the capital in few days if Yang goes very far 
away without taking me. But it is useless. He has 
his men watching. However, I am very thankful for 
these few days of rest in this hole in the straw. If I 
only had a complete Bible instead of just the Testa- 
ment and a small book of hymns. The psalms would 
be great for to-day. I read the great series of parables 
in Luke this morning. 

Great opium country. Thousands of fields. Fifty 
cents per ounce. Attempt of keeper to get what money 
I have. Conference one A. M. about getting rid of me. 
Keeper went to Toogu to see about turning me over to 
mission there. When he got there the mission had 
been taken. Say this place Tang Laii is five days from 
capital. Nine weeks to-day. Make Thy grace suffi- 
cient from day to day, O God ! And O God, be very 
near those of Toogu those names I do not know. 

Sunday, 7 March. Since I have stopped traveling 
the pain is bearable, but very constant and aggravating. 
It was difficult to sleep last night. If I were turned 


loose I couldn't do anything. I couldn't walk a mile. 
If I could only eat I might get a little strength. It 
appears that God did not want me to go inside to 
Lassa. It looks as if the end of my work was at 
hand. I hoped to accomplish so much, only to wind 
up in a hole like this. Thy ways, O God, are past all 
finding out, but help me to say, "Not my will but Thine 
be done." 

Yang Tienfu: Physically a man above the average 
height for a Chinaman. Dark, pleasant face when in 
good humor and smiling, but smile turns to a wolfish 
snarl when he is angry. Has great self-control. Is 
all muscle and can outwalk any of his men. Is tire- 
less. Can lie down and sleep for ten minutes, even in 
extreme danger. Trusts no one but sees to all precau- 
tions, himself. Absolutely without a heart. His God 
is Yang Tienfu. Does not care for money. He is 
often the only man in the bunch without any. Gam- 
bles it away, or gives it away in handfuls when he has 
it on him. Would sacrifice his dearest friend or own 
family in a minute to advance his ends. A most dan- 
gerous man. Cannot read. Has a man shot without 
the quiver of an eyelash. Absolutely unscrupulous. 
His ambition is to govern. Does not care a rap what 
his men do so long as it does not interfere with what 
he wants. Utterly bad in a most plausible way. 

Monday, 8 March. I was wrong last night. The 
pain last night was worse than it ever has been. I'm 
awfully sorry, but had to take opium again as a conse- 
quence. I am dopey to-day. 

Yang seems to be making a stand in this neighbor- 
hood, as he is still very near. Ten miles. He is 


catching everyone in the neighborhood who has any 
money and demanding from one to five thousand 

I washed my head a while ago and shake like a leaf 
when I stand up for five minutes. My, but it is hard 
to swallow their food. I don't want to eat at all, 
but force myself to eat a little. No one would ever 
call me "Fatty" now. I think I haven't weighed so 
little in twenty years. My possessions are now down 
to what I have in my pockets. The only thing of 
value left is my watch. Don't know why they did not 
take it, unless they forgot it. They even took a box 
of matches I had. I wonder what the next develop- 
ment will be. All these people smoke opium, from the 
old grandmother down to the boy twelve years old. 
The old grandfather gave me quite a talk this morning 
on the manifold benefits of opium. What a great 
thing it is ! I wish I could talk Lisu, for the Chinese 
here are just as the Chinese among the Tibetans the 

"My grace is sufficient for thee. My strength is 
made perfect in weakness." 

Tuesday, p March. An hour after the above was 
written, the old man, my caretaker, came in crying, 
and said that the soldiers were coming, and begged for 
my protection. After waiting an hour, no soldiers 
had come, but a man sent and asked me to come see 
him. He was sent out by Uting to investigate the 
doings at Toogu. The people who had me in charge 
fled. Trying to get wagon. Walk to Toogu. Ar- 
rive about midnight. Great kindness of Christians all 
along way. People at Toogu fled. Sleep one and a 


half hours. At 4:30 start for Mogoi. Arrive at 
noon. Gowman said, "Thank Governor." Word 
sent at once to capital. He has talk with Osgood. 
Officials ask us to leave to-night. Finally decided to 
wait till daylight. The last twenty-four hours is like 
a nightmare. Thank God for all His wonderful good- 

Thursday, n March. Started about eight A. M. 
Met Osgood and Wuting official about ten. Awfully 
glad to see Osgood, and came back to Langgoi where 
I was a few days when with Yang. Official brought 
chair, for which I was thankful, as it began raining al- 
most at once. Going to Wuting to-morrow. Thanks 
be to God for all His goodness. Word was sent on to 
Wuting this afternoon. 

Friday, 12 March. To-day has been long, hard day. 
Stayed all night in the same room in which I stayed 
several days. Soldiers. Old magistrate. Flowered 
chair. Thornton, Smith, etc. Talk with Flo. Shaved. 
Planning to start early to-morrow, and if possible 
reach Yunnan Sunday night. Bless God from whom 
all blessings flow. 

Here the diary ends. He was with us once again, 
but so broken, and in such pain. We went into the 
French hospital, that had been turned over to us by 
the French doctor and consul, and all four of us occu- 
pied it together. A slight operation next morning 
seemed to relieve the pain, but it was only a temporary 
relief, and we must go home for the needed help. 

Letters from Mr. Graham, in Yunnanfu, many 
months later, said the mule was waiting for her master, 


as the Chinese official had brought her into the city. 
When the Doctor returned, they did meet. Poor 
thing, she had been almost killed by the robber chief. 
I wonder if she knew him. When they would be 
resting on the journey toward Batang, and the Doc- 
tor would sit down by her, she would lay her head 
in his lap, and always nuzzle his pockets for sugar. 
Then the puppy would get jealous, and up he would 
climb to be on the master's lap as well, and if there 
did not seem to be room, and the mule's head took all 
the lap, he had no objection to sitting on her head. 

Always she had carried him over mountains in cold 
and in heat, through wild forest, over rugged paths, 
where it was perilous to walk, and a misstep meant 
death thousands of feet below; through rivers in 
flood, across a chasm on a rope, with a roaring torrent 
many hundreds of feet below, but the master followed; 
sometimes swimming behind the skin coracle, when 
a swift mountain stream was to be crossed. She, too, 
had her part in bearing the message of mercy and aid 
to the Tibetans. The Doctor said she should be pen- 
sioned for the rest of her life, if she should ever reach 
home again. I have written to the mission men to 
shoot her, as I know he would rather that was done 
than that she should be used as a beast of burden 

We went on our way to the coast, and then home 
again, reaching the United States. 

Everywhere friends seemed raised up to do all that 
could be done, and the result was recovery in part and 
an intense desire to return once more to the Tibetans. 



"These three things are hard to ex- 
plain: a man suffering who has done no 
wrong, a tree with no crime cut down in 
the forest, a big river which has com- 
mitted no evil and the bridge falling 

Lassa had always appealed to Dr. Shelton in its deso- 
lateness, its ignorance, and its isolation. Whenever 
he could he met the priests and the people from Lassa, 
and asked about their customs, their ruler, and their 

Before any man would become a lama with the high- 
est degree of efficiency, he must make the journey to 
Lassa, and by doing so, his sins were absolved for- 
ever. Every Tibetan in his heart hopes to go some 
day to Lassa. They tell of wonderful idols there; 
one big one of solid gold, which, so the legend goes, 
has a wonderful stone within it, and if one who is 
ailing in the head or the knee or the foot prays to this 
idol* the stone moves to the part which is afflicted, and 
the worshiper is healed. 

Lassa, the hill crowned; Lassa, the bigoted; Lassa, 



the superstitious; Lassa, afraid because kept afraid; 
full of filth and abominations. And why? The Tib- 
etans say that the Lord Buddha's commands are like 
those of our Master, and when the Tibetan teacher 
was told that there were ten commandments, which, 
if all men obeyed, there would be no sin upon the earth, 
he said, "That is nothing; Buddha has thirty-one." 
When asked if the two religions were the same, he 
would say, "Yes, about." Then we would ask, "Who 
takes care of the orphans?" and he would reply, "No- 
body, for nobody wants them." When we asked, 
"Who takes care of the sick?" he said, "Nobody; they 
are left to die alone." When we would say, "Who 
takes care of the old and the crippled and the help- 
less?" he would say, "No one." Then we would ask 
the question, "Just what is the difference?" and he 
was forced to admit that there was a difference be- 
cause the religion of Buddha makes you work out 
your own salvation by laying up merit through the 
things that you can do. Millions of prayers, sacrifice 
to the gods, and you save yourself. Every man is 
the reincarnation of some other soul, and if a man is 
born a cripple, or blind, or afflicted, it is for some sin 
committed in a former life. When a man died the 
priests would forecast what he should become at his 
rebirth ; it might be a cow, or a monkey, or a donkey ; 
and when in Batang a very wicked man died, and they 
saw a snake near his grave, they said that he had been 
reborn a snake. The teacher said that from among 
Buddha's disciples went six apostates who founded all 
the other religions of the world, and that Jesus was 
one of these. 


The hope in Dr. Shelton's heart had always been 
some day to reach the capital city, and found a hos- 
pital there, where he could gve fifty young men a 
simple training, teaching them cleanliness, to set a 
broken limb, to give eye medicine, to lance an abscess, 
and to tie up a cut or a wound in a cleanly way, for 
among them, as has been pointed out in Chapter IX, 
medicine is practically unknown. 

Everything now seemed, from a human standpoint, 
to be ready for Dr. Shelton to make his trial trip to 
Lassa. Dr. Hardy was returning to take over the 
care of the station, the girls and I were coming home, 
and we would not be separated so long. All was 
ready money, medicines, and supplies were waiting 
at the coast ; he was going to take them back to Batang 
when he left us at the coast. 

Then came the disastrous experience with the Chinese 
bandits, just two days from the railway, and he must 
come home, worn in body, broken and ill, and an 
operation on the neck necessary. His plan could not 
be fulfilled. Strange does it seem that God was not 
ready; was that it, or did He allow the devil to frus- 
trate this plan because He had a bigger one? After 
his illness, nothing could prevent him from returning ; 
he must go back and take the two new missionary fam- 
ilies who were ready. Perhaps he felt in his own 
soul that he might not be well enough to live to return 
to Tibet, and always he had meant his life to be given 
for that land. I think in his heart he felt he would 
not return to America. He had long talks with the 
girls, bidding them stand steadfast to the simple truths, 
for true greatness is simplicity. For many years we 


had planned that we would go out together, and live 
as long as we might be of use, and pass to the other 
side among the people we both so loved in Tibet. It 
seemed that all the dross was burned out in that drastic 
experience among the robbers, and perhaps going back, 
it would have been more than he could have borne to 
be without his home and us. 

That the door was open into Tibet, and they were 
ready and willing to have us come, is clearly seen 
by this letter of Dr. Shelton's in 1918 about the trip 
described in Chapter XVII: 

"I have spent three months inside the Tibetan lines, 
and everywhere was tendered the greatest considera- 
tion and kindness, and rendered every assistance pos- 
sible by everyone, from the General of all the Tibetan 
forces down to the humblest soldier. We have been 
privileged in the last four months to make more prog- 
ress with Lassa Tibetans than in the fifteen years 
previous. Our prospects were never so bright in all 
the years as they are to-day. 

"Early in June, I was asked by the English consul 
and the General in charge of all the Tibetan forces at 
Chiamdo, to go to that place, if possible, on behalf of 
the Tibetan and Chinese wounded. The Mission 
having consented, I left June 6th for Chiamdo, taking 
Mr. Bu, a former assistant, with me. 

"Arriving at Janka, we were received by the Lassa 
official stationed there, and every arrangement was 
quickly made for our journey on to Chiamdo, where 
we arrived in twelve days from the day we left Batang. 
The General did everything in his power to make our 


work effective, detailing a captain to attend to our 
wants, with instructions to see that we were instantly 
supplied with anything needed. The next morning 
we were at work with an old door for an operating 
table, and I operated on the worst cases I have ever 
had, as long as I could stand up, for four days. At 
the end of that time, the worst cases had all been at- 
tended to, except two that were hopeless. The Gen- 
eral did not wish me to operate upon them, feeling sure 
that they might die during the operation, and that that 
might cause some trouble. I was never treated better 
anywhere. The Tibetans' attitude has entirely 
changed toward foreigners in ten years. Some spoke 
English, many were in English dress uniforms, and 
the soldiers march to Scottish bagpipes. We stayed 
ten days, and taught the Tibetan and Chinese doctors 
how to dress the cases. On leaving, the General gave 
each of my three assistants fifty rupees, and paid three 
hundred rupees toward the expenses of the trip. We 
made friends with the officials and the people. I was 
mobbed in a friendly manner while distributing tracts, 
because I couldn't hand them out fast enough. The 
General would like us to establish a hospital at Chi- 
amdo. The total expense of the trip was 624 rupees. 
It was a great opportunity, and I took advantage of it 
to the best of my ability, and pray the Lord to add 
His blessing to the efforts put forth in His name. 

"Last February I asked permission to itinerate for 
two years. Since then I have been permitted to spend 
three months with the Lassa folks, acting as middle- 
man in the Chinese-Tibetan negotiations, and a month 
at Chiamdo, doctoring the wounded on both sides. It 


seems a providence that this great opportunity should 
have come when it did. I have been able to make 
many good friends among them. Do you know, they 
are a mighty fine people, with all their prejudices 
and their prejudices are fast crumbling. I certainly 
enjoyed more than I can tell the opportunities pro- 
vided, and the fine hospitality shown me. This was 
at times very embarrassing. For instance, one day 
the governor of Lower Kham sent over two. bags of 
flour, two bags of tsamba, beans, barley, butter, six 
sheep, rice, etc., and this not once only, but every few 
days he would send something, such as a quarter of 
beef, etc. I tried to decline, but it was no use. He 
said when he came to Batang he would eat with me. 

"At Chiamdo, the General was just as bad, and sent 
for my three assistants and myself to come and eat 
with him nearly every day. I met men from nearly 
all over Tibet, so that I will be apt to meet friends 
nearly every place I go. I am glad to say that it looks 
now as if a treaty would be made between the Chinese 
and Tibetans. If so, it will help greatly, but whether 
it is or not, the door is open into the Tibetan lines any 
time I can get to go. 

"You do not know how thankful I am for these 
opportunities, and yet I am scared to death when I 
realize the responsibility of trying to present the Lord 
aright. But the knowledge that the brethren at home 
are praying for us helps mightily." 

Never in all Dr. Shelton's missionary experience 
and traveling had he gone on a journey without the 
permission of the Chinese official in charge. When 


President McLean, of the Missionary Society, warned 
him to be careful, he wrote this paragraph : 

"I know what you think about doing foolish things. 
I agree that it is not well to foolishly run into danger 
and needlessly expose life, and I do not propose to do 
that. I love life better than most people. I glory in 
it. But are the missionary's life and comfort more 
precious than the Gospel which he carries? God for- 
bid. If they are not, then it is his duty to take the 
Gospel to the last man, even at the risk of his life." 

I am sure he was just as careful this time as he 
always had been. 

But the time to return to Tibet came. The young 
new missionaries were ready and they could not go 
alone. A long fight he had to gain strength at all. 
Suffering days and sleepless nights before he reached 
home. The operation took place at Rochester, Minn., 
May, 1920. They hesitated long over that, and finally 
thought it was cancer. He said, "I must know if it is a 
cancer. I must go to work and send ten more men 
out to take my place." But it was not that, and later 
they called him back and told him it was the after- 
effect of the flu, which he had had a year before. He 
was always eager to return. I could not consent that 
he go in six months as he so desired, and the Board 
finally decided he might go in the fall, and he had to 
be content with that. 

Everybody was kind everywhere, and gave him the 
needful things : warm clothing, tents, cooking utensils, 
instruments for a new hospital which might be at 


Lassa all this gladdened him wonderfully. The doc- 
tors everywhere did many things for him, in Detroit, 
in Rochester, in Pomona, and in Los Angeles, until he 
felt strong, and ready to return. 

I knew he was not well, and should have said, "You 
must not go," but I could not. He would have been 
a sorrowful and disappointed man, and believed that 
he had fallen down on his job, and would have felt 
that life had been a failure. I tried every way, but he 
could only see the ideal in the completion of his life's 
work. As I could not go all the way, I pleaded to go 
part way and take the manuscripts for the new books 
to India, as they needed them so badly everywhere on 
the border. But it could not be done, the Board de- 

Then Mr. and Mrs. Ackers, of Pomona, generously 
made it possible, and we went. It was not easy to 
leave the girls -we had never been separated but I 
was going with him, and they were young and could 
easily forget. A honeymoon it was, far happier than 
the first one in 1903, for I was not homesick he was 
my home. At Vancouver we met the church folks, 
and they gave us such a good welcome and such a 
royal good-by. In Japan the mission folk met us, and 
such a lovely day they gave us. Then we forgot there 
would be an end to that journey, and lived only each 
day. But Shanghai came, and we had only a minute 
on the wharf amid the crowds and coolies to say good- 
by forever against my heart I felt the one great sob 
a strong man gives, and he was gone, and I was alone, 
to be always so until I can go and find him where he 
will be waiting, a bit lonely without us for a while. 


Then they went on to Hongkong, to Yunnanfu, and 
then a race on that long fifty days' journey to get Mrs. 
Duncan to Batang before the baby came. But all the 
officials were most kind, and they reached Batang just 
before Christmas. But he was lonely and miserable, 
as I too was, in India. We had never been apart be- 
fore at Christmas time. But how glad the natives 
were to see him, and it was home again among them. 
He had left all his own for love of them, and they 
came to him with the tears rolling down their cheeks, 
saying, "Oh, if you had only stayed with us, we would 
not have had all this misery and trouble which has 
come to us since you went away." Several letters 
from the Doctor, which are given in the Appendix, tell 
the details of this trip and his return. 

He was putting his things in order, and expected to 
go to Janka to spend the New Year with the Governor 
of Kham, this friend in whose house he had stayed 
for some months, when he was middleman for the 
Chinese General; this man who had invited him and 
the girls and MacLeod to visit him, who had sent for 
a bagpiper to Chiamdo to entertain them while there. 
This Governor had sent or written to MacLeod every 
month after we left for some little thing or medicines 
from Batang. To see him and spend the New Year 
with him was the Doctor's plan, returning to Batang 
to make the final plans for the journey in the spring, 
when the snow was off the mountains. He had his 
moving picture machine, and was going to take pictures 
of the people. He had the National Geographic Mag- 
azine, in which were their pictures he had taken before 
going home. His heart was full of joy. He had new 


things to show them and to tell them when he met the 
messenger that said, "England has ordered the Dalai 
Lama to keep all foreigners out of Tibet." The Tib- 
etans are not diplomatic, they have not had sufficient 
Occidental training, and they told the truth. 

After going safely through the danger zone, be- 
tween Batang and the edge of the land that is now 
governed by Tibet, he met a messenger who carried a 
letter from the Governor of Kham, saying: "Please 
go back. England has sent orders direct to the Dalai 
Lama that we must keep all foreigners out of Tibet, 
and if you do not go back, he is afraid he will lose his 
head." That was the strongest appeal they could 
make to him, as they well knew he would do nothing 
to endanger them. He wrote answering, "All right; 
I will go back to Batang and stay there until I am per- 
mitted to travel in your country." So he was forced 
to turn back and traverse the strip of land three days 
wide, where there is no law, and where robbers have 
always been. It still seems strange that he alone was 
the target, and no one else harmed in the least. 

For the first time my heart had been at rest. He 
was home in Batang and out of reach of the southern 
Chinese bandits. No one could harm him there. The 
two Americans who went in from Pekin and whom I 
saw when there, said everyone was asking when Dr. 
Shelton was coming back, and the people everywhere 
they went seemed just waiting for his return. In the 
city of Gartok, little, big, old, and young asked when 
he was coming. They said, "We miss him so much, 
and so many are sick and wounded, and there is no 
one else to come." 


His letter about the last few days of the journey 
was full of thanksgiving and of the kindness of the 
Chinese officials, as well as courtesy from the Tibetans. 

Just one day I was at peace, and then they brought 
me the telegram. I saw only the great black letters 
for days, killed., and thought it could not be true. He 
had been everywhere in that country, in the mountains 
in all directions, with all kinds of robbers, up cliffs and 
narrow roads where the mules could scarcely keep 
their foothold, and had received no hurt. The Galon 
Lama had been his friend, and invited him to come 
again and again. In Chiamdo he had operated for 
days. The Governor of Kham had entertained him in 
his home, sending for a bagpipe to entertain him, as 
that is their national instrument. He had also invited 
the Ogdens to come and visit him before they came 
home. What happened was not the Tibetans' fault 
entirely, nor wholly the fault of the Chinese, that I 
well know. 

Yea, I should see it bigger, that I know. We three 
are only three, and but a dot of The Plan, and should 
his life be demanded for those who need and those 
who have failed, I should be willing. 

The busy hands were quiet; the great heart still. 
Much love had gone out of the world for the Tibetans, 
and again they must wait for the best life holds for 
them. From the hills the call came, and he went, and 
we who are left are bereft indeed. Is it wrong to say 
that may this wounded side, wounded because of his 
great love for them, bring, in some way that we just 
now do not understand, greater things than he might 


have done, and give to them all he dreamed of hope 
and life everlasting? 

Oh, Father, it must be Thy plan. We bow beneath 
the cross, and try to say, "Thy will be done," 



"The summer day is closed the sun is 

Well they have done their office, those 

bright hours, 

The latest of whose train goes softly out 
In the red west" BRYANT. 

"It shall come to pass that at evening 
time it shall be light." ZECHARIAH 14:7. 

When Lady Frederick Cavendish saw Gladstone for 
the first time after the terrible tidings had come of her 
husband's murder in Phoenix Park, she said to the 
Prime Minister : "Uncle William, you did right to send 
him to Ireland." When this speech was repeated to 
Dean Church, he remarked that no Roman or Floren- 
tine lady ever said a more heroic thing. In the same 
brave spirit and forgetfulness of self, we may well be- 
lieve that Dr. Shelton's widow and the two fatherless 
daughters were willing to say when the fateful message 
came: "He did right when he went back to Tibet, and 

1 Edgar DeWitt Jones, D.D., is the Minister of Central Christian 
Church, Detroit, Michigan, whose special missionary Dr. Shelton 
was throughout his Tibetan career. 



into the same peril from which he escaped so narrowly 
two years ago." Of such fiber are the wives and chil- 
dren of pioneer missionaries made. They do not live 
in king's houses, nor do they wear soft raiment. Of 
such strong faith and fortitude are a glorious company 
who regard death in the line of duty as haloed with a 
solemn yet splendid majesty. And as for him whose 
life went out on that far field for Jesus' sake, to him 
the noble words of St. Paul apply with singular appro- 
priateness : 

"Christ shall be magnified in my body, whether by life 
or by death. For me to live is Christ, to die is gain." 

Dickens, in a well-remembered passage, speaks of 
that "old-fashioned death." Yes, death is old, so very 
old, and likewise so very new. When death comes, 
whether long expected or suddenly without any warn- 
ing, it finds us unprepared for the shock. Yet there is 
an added poignancy in the sudden passing from out 
this realm of time and place of a dear friend or well- 
loved kinsman. It comes when least we look for it. 
We are busy with family or community affairs. We 
are at the accustomed place of duty, at store or office 
or home ; we are in the midst of the hum of conversa- 
tion and everything is going on around us as usual. 
Then the telephone rings or a telegraph messenger 
appears, and, like a flash of lightning from clear skies, 
it is borne in upon our consciousness that one has been 
taken upon whom we leaned and whom we loved de- 
votedly. We are dazed. We wonder why the sun still 
shines, why the roar of the traffic persists, why anyone 


is of a mind to laugh or play. Robert Browning knew 
and understood. 

"Just when we're safest there's a sunset touch 
A fancy from a flower bell, someone's death, . 
A chorus-ending from Euripides 
And that's enough for fifty hopes and fears. 
As old and new at once as Nature's self." 

In the afterglow of Dr. Shelton's life, we see clearly 
the providential shapings of youthful years and observe 
the myriad illustrations of the adage that "The child 
is father of the man." Albert Shelton was but five 
years of age when his parents moved to the state of 
Kansas, and settled there on a farm. Farming in 
Kansas was not then what it is now. There were hard- 
ships to be met, and obstacles to overcome. While yet 
a mere stripling, this boy battled with those long-time 
enemies of the Kansas farmer blight and droughts, 
failing crops, devastating storms, and a scarcity of 
money. The boy lived much in the open a child of the 
prairies, a brother to the wind and the sunflower. The 
life was hard, but there were many compensations. The 
boy chopped wood, drove oxen, rode horseback, dug 
potatoes, hauled water, did anything and everything 
that he could do, and did it well. Through a period of 
several months he walked four miles each way to 
school, and that eight-mile walk was to him not burden- 
some but a joyous experience, a kind of high adventure. 
"It is good for a man to bear the yoke in his youth." 
At no other time of life does discipline count for so 
much as when the mind is sensitive and the youthful 
spirit plastic. When youth learns to love luxury and 


to enjoy ease there is little hope of building strong 
character. The dash and romance of life are chilled 
and given a distinct setback; initiative weakens and 
suffers accordingly. 

"Not they who soar, but they who plod 
Their rugged way, unhelped, to God 

Are heroes ; they who higher fare, 

And, flying, fan the upper air, 

Miss all the toil that hugs the sod. 

Tis they whose backs have felt the rod, 

Whose feet have pressed the path unshod, 

May smile upon defeated care, 
Not they who soar. 

High up there are no thorns to prod, 

Nor boulders lurking 'neath the clod 

To turn the keenness of the share, 

For flight is ever free and rare ; 

But heroes they the soil who've trod, 
Not they who soar !" 

Dr. Shelton's missionary career falls into three 
periods with two furloughs spent in the homeland. He 
went out as an unknown and untried young doctor; 
he returned to America a seasoned veteran, a veritable 
pathfinder of the Lord. He was a doctor of the Jesus 
School; he loved people men, women, and little chil- 
dren, and he loved them regardless of their state, 
condition, or race. Two days after his arrival in 
Batang he performed a major operation, using a barn 
door as an operating table. The fame of his healing 
and the wonders of his surgery spread far and wide. 
The sick and the injured for miles around were brought 
to him and he healed many of them. He traveled 
thousands of miles on mule back. He welcomed the 
hardships and inconveniences as he had the difficulties 


which beset him in youth. He went everywhere doing 
good. He and his wife established a Christian home 
and reared a family among the people whom he had 
come so far to save. That of itself is a tremendous 
factor in the Christian conquest of a primitive people. 
He helped the people to live in a more decent and 
comfortable manner. He taught them that cleanliness 
is a part of godliness. He was the first man to take a 
bathtub into Tibet; he introduced alfalfa there. On 
his return from his first furlough in America, he took 
an organ with him, the first one ever carried into that 
country. He believed that music had charms to soothe 
the Tibetan breast and he proved it. He constructed 
at Batang a hospital with provision for fifty patients 
and capable of caring for as many more. This hos- 
pital is of itself a monument of the man's trust, his 
industry, his foresight. 

Dr. Shelton was a missionary of the pioneer type, a 
pathfinder, a blazer of paths "where highways never 
ran." As with Livingstone, so with Shelton, it was 
"anywhere if forward." He chafed under restraint; 
he despised "marking time." The goal of his life was 
to penetrate Lassa, the sacred capital of Tibet, where 
no missionary of the Cross had yet set foot. It was 
his ambition to enter that city, establish a hospital and 
do medical work, and the way was open at last. Per- 
mission had been granted him to visit Lassa, and the 
privilege was accorded him by the Dalai Lama, the 
political and religious ruler of the nation. Dr. Shel- 
ton's courage and persistence won for him this distinc- 
tion. This doctor of the school of Jesus Christ was 
gentle and tender, t>ut withal brave as a lion. There 


was a dash and a daring about him. He took chances 
and ran risks for the Gospel's sake. There was a kind 
of spiritual audacity in his nature, and the willingness 
to take a great risk for the sake of the greatest of 


The two words that best describe the character of 
Dr. Shelton are sincerity and ruggedness. He was a 
plain and blunt man, in whom there was no guile. 
There were no frills about him, no millinery, no "put- 
on," and he was far removed from austerity. He had 
a lively sense of humor; he enjoyed a good story and 
his laugh was hearty and uproarious. When he re- 
turned to America the last time he was a celebrity. The 
newspaper reporters sought him out and gave him wide 
publicity of the "front-page" character. His pictures 
were featured in the great dailies of America. He 
was hailed as a hero. Vast crowds heard him, and he 
would have been lionized if he had permitted it. He 
met this hardest of all tests successfully. He was the 
same modest man; if anything shyer and more re- 
served. In the finest sense of the word he was humble. 
One who knew him for twenty years has penned this 
noble eulogy: "Dr. Albert L. Shelton has been my 
ideal of a Christlike man for more than twenty years. 
If ever I have been a little doubtful about the prac- 
ticability of the Golden Rule or some other teaching 
of the Sermon on the Mount, my doubts have always 
been scattered by the recollection of Shelton and his 
work. Here was a man practicing to the full, with the 
greatest naturalness, the very things I questioned any 
man's power to do. Here was a man loving his 
enemies freely, forgiving those who sought to harm 


him in the most bitter and cruel way. Albert L. Shel- 
ton was the man who, more than any other man I knew, 
did the things Jesus did in the spirit in which Jesus did 
them, fearlessly, heroically, successfully." 

Another luminous quality in the life of this martyr 
of the missionary field was his childlike faith. This 
quality is fundamental, and it helps to account for cer- 
tain heroic incidents of his life which could not be 
explained otherwise. He believed God, and it was 
reckoned to him not only for righteousness but for 
patience, perseverance, and fortitude. Only a man of 
triumphant trust could have met and overcome the 
obstacles that were often in his path. Only a man who 
walks by sheer and naked faith could have witnesse.d 
the death of Dr. Loftis and ministered to him in his 
hours of suffering; seen him close his eyes in death, 
prepared him for burial, and then, resolute of heart, 
taken up again the twice heavy burden and marched 
straight onward. Death of loved ones in the homeland 
is hard enough, but death of friend, companion, and 
fellow-worker "out where the world begins" is harder 
still to bear and to understand. This doctor of the 
Jesus School lived and died in a simple faith and trust 
sublime. He has earned a place alongside of those 
in the eleventh chapter of Hebrews, that "Westminster 
Abbey of the Bible," wherein sleep the great dead of 
the Faith. 

For fifteen years Dr. Shelton was the "living link" 
missionary of Central Christian Church, Detroit. 
When the church undertook this new obligation, it 
entered upon an era of enlarged vision. Dr. Shelton's 
influence upon the congregation, especially after they 


had come to know him personally, was something more 
than an influence it was a potent and ennobling spirit- 
ual experience. It is doubtful if any missionary ever 
meant more to the home Church than A. L. Shelton 
meant to Central's congregation. This relationship 
was, of course, deepened, enriched, and intensified after 
his return, following his release by Chinese bandits. 
For two successive observances of Children's Day he 
was a guest of honor, and the event was rightly named 
"Shelton Day." Vividly do I recall what happened 
when the announcement was first made in the church 
school that Dr. Shelton, but lately released from the 
bandits who held him for ransom, would be present on 
Children's Day. The atmosphere was electric. The 
interest was intense. The children and even adults 
were excited. There was a thrill of expectancy ob- 
servable. One more than saw it, he felt it. The chil- 
dren had been hearing of Dr. Shelton for weeks and 
months; his name was often on the superintendent's 
lips, much in prayer, frequently in announcements. 
Then Dr. Shelton came, and with wondering eyes the 
children looked upon him. They saw not "a plaster 
saint" nor a conceited celebrity, but a big man with a 
boyish spirit and a great heart. He was so human, so 
big, so gentle, so kind, they all loved him from the first 
and stood in awe of him not at all. 

Dr. Shelton spoke twice on Sunday evenings in 
Central Church on his work in Tibet. Great audiences 
heard him. He spoke for an hour each time. His 
style was unique. He was not a finished orator; he 
gave little thought to the form in which he clothed 
his thoughts. There was much humor in his speeches, 


but there was very much more there was an earnest- 
ness, a passion that was apostolic, a zeal that was burn- 
ing, so that the man was truly eloquent although he 
never tried to be. He stood here before us with the 
marks of Jesus on his face and neck. The witness 
he had borne for Christ in Tibet he bore branded in his 
body. No wonder that the offerings of this church 
for world missions appreciably increased. A class of 
young men, all wage earners, contributed $700, and 
everyone who heard Dr. Shelton was moved to have 
some part in Christianizing Tibet. 

There was a time when Central Church could claim 
Dr. Shelton in a special sense, a time when during his 
furlough we all but monopolized him. But that time 
has passed, never to return. With the happenings of 
the recent years, his rugged figure has loomed larger 
and still larger upon a wider horizon. We have been 
obliged to learn that difficult lesson which John the 
Baptist mastered when he said of Jesus "He must in- 
crease, but I must decrease." All our churches claim 
this great missionary now, and rightfully so, for in one 
way or another they too have entered into the glorious 
legacy he has bequeathed his communion. And not 
only the churches of the Disciples of Christ, but all 
Protestantism hails Shelton of Tibet as of that "thin 
red line" of martyrs of the Cross. In truth, all Chris- 
tendom claims this intrepid missionary, regardless of 
sect, creed, or race. It is ever thus; servants and 
saviors of humanity make all men their debtors. In a 
remarkable speech on "The Effect of the Death of 
Lincoln," Henry Ward Beecher said: "Four years ago, 
O Illinois, we took from your midst an untried man, 


and from among the people. We return him to you a 
mighty conqueror. Not thine any more, but the na- 
tion's ; not ours, but the world's." So it is with Central 
Church and our one-time minister in Tibet. Not ours 
any longer, but Christendom's ; not Christendom's only, 
but the world's. He belongs in that glorious company 
whose names are linked forever with the lands for 
which they gave their all : Livingstone of Africa, Jud- 
son of Burma, Morrison of China, Carey of India, 
Paton of the New Hebrides among these in letters 
of light is Shelton of Tibet. 

Dr. Shelton's heart was in Tibet. The best of his 
years were spent there ; was it not fitting that he should 
die there ? Once he was my guest at a hotel in Detroit. 
We sat fronting the windows in a room on the eighth 
floor, from which we had a fine view of the city. The 
Doctor gazed out over the roofs of the houses, a far- 
away look in his eyes. Off to our left there rose 
majestically two lofty skyscrapers, and the panorama 
of the downtown district spread out before our eyes. 
I thought I heard something like a sigh escape from 
my guest's lips, and I remarked to him that perhaps 
his triumphant journey across the country with great 
crowds to hear him everywhere was more of a burden 
than a boon. He laughed, said a witty thing or two, 
and then with a certain wistfulness in his manner he 
added: "I'm dead tired of it all; I am aching to get 
back to Tibet. I am needed more there than I am here. 
I can't say I am at home here ; I know I am there." He 
made a little gesture with his hand when he said that 
a gesture toward the east. Ah, it was not the roofs of 
the city, the great skyscrapers, the downtown district 


the pride of Detroit. It was the "roof of the world," 
his own Tibet, that was in his mind and on his heart 
that day. What was a twenty-five-story building to a 
man who had lived for years among the stars with 

Dr. Shelton has not died in vain be sure of that ! 
Fruitful as was his life, his death is bound to be more 
fruitful still. No man's life is seen at its highest and 
best until death enables us to appraise it from the 
truest perspective. "Except a grain of wheat fall into 
the earth and die, it abideth by itself alone; but if it 
die, it beareth much fruit." It is a melancholy fact 
that, despite the power of Dr. Shelton's message and 
ministry throughout America during his last visit here, 
it was difficult to find young men and women willing to 
follow in his steps. He was not able to take back with 
him, as he had hoped and prayed that he might, a 
competent medical assistant. But what the influence 
of his life, great as it was, could not do, the influence 
of his death shall accomplish. Lo, the first fruits of 
his supreme sacrifice are already in evidence ! 

It has been my privilege to witness at first hand the 
effect of both the life and death of this martyr on the 
congregation of which he was the missionary and pas- 
tor in foreign lands, and what I have seen and felt has 
made me know, as I could not know hitherto, the 
potency of a missionary's death in the line of duty. 
When the news that he had been killed by bandits 
reached us, it stunned us at first. We simply could not 
believe that it was true. We expected another cable 
saying he was alive. Some mistake had been made. 


But, alas! it was true he whom we loved had been 
slain ! Then silence fell upon us all. We found speech 
difficult. Gradually the people found themselves, and 
out of that stressful period there emerged a series of 
incidents such as I shall never forget all attesting to 
the fact that the price of a life given for others is never 
too great. 

A middle-aged man of the congregation, and un- 
married, one who had found a great delight in Dr. 
Shelton's work, a man of inventive genius and a 
mechanical turn of mind, came to see me. He said: 
"Do you think at my age and without a college educa- 
tion, with just what gifts I have, by any possibility 
they would send me to Tibet to work with my hands to 
build houses, plow fields, do anything to carry on Dr. 
Shelton's work?" 

A little girl, one who had clasped the hand of Dr. 
Shelton when he was last with us, and walked with him 
the length of our church auditorium that little girl 
sought me out. She was broken-hearted, her grief 
could have not been greater if her own brother had 
died. She said: "Do you think I could do anything 
to help carry on Dr. Shelton's work? If I prayed every 
night for Tibet, and if I saved my nickels and dimes, 
do you think a little girl like me could help Dr. Shel- 
ton's work and save it from loss?" 

A freshman in the University of Michigan, taking 
his first year of pre-medic course, sent word to the 
president of the Young Men's Progressive Class : "I 
am going to fit myself for a medical career in Tibet 
and carry on Dr. Shelton's work." A few weeks later 
this young man spoke from the pulpit, making an im- 


pressive plea for volunteers to follow in the footsteps 
of Shelton of Tibet, and four young people responded 
to the appeal. 

A group of Chinese Christians in Detroit sent a 
lovely bouquet on the day of the memorial service, 
and with the flowers was a card on which was this 
inscription : "For Dr. Shelton from his Chinese 
friends in Detroit." The fact that one of their own 
race had slain this big gentle man of mercy was a 
source of grief to these young men; they deplored it 
solemnly and in deepest contrition. That the bandits 
killed the Doctor not intentionally, but mistook him 
for a military officer seeking their capture, had not 
then been established. 

Then came a certain prayer meeting where it seemed 
as though the spirit of Dr. Shelton brooded over us 
all in prayer, in song, in speeches. At the close of a 
series of prayers there arose a man of singular spiritual 
life, deep devotion, and wide acquaintance with the 
Scriptures. He quoted this text : "In the year King 
Uzziah died I also saw the Lord." He spoke of the 
crisis that had come in the life of the young man 
Isaiah, his admiration for the king, and the shock of 
the king's death; that out of that rugged experience 
the young man caught a new vision of God and was 
obedient to that vision. Then he instanced the tragic 
death of Dr. Shelton in Tibet, and impressively asked 
what we intended to do as a church in order to have 
fellowship with one who gave his all for Jesus' sake 
and the Tibetan people. "Let it be said of us," he 
pleaded, "that in the year Dr. Shelton died Central 
Church saw the Lord." 


So much for Central Church and the effects of Dr. 
Shelton's death upon the congregation. Look now 
upon the wider fields, white unto harvest in the after- 
glow of his heroic years in Tibet and his tragic death 
there on February 17, 1922. All-over America among 
the churches, because of Shelton's death at the post of 
duty, there is more serious thinking, more fervency of 
spirit, more consecration, more willingness to follow 
whithersoever the Christ leadeth. In a college church 
during the memorial service twenty-eight young people, 
amid impressive scenes, dedicated their lives to Christ 
and whatsoever service He might call them to. Of 
this number, one was the son of a man who made 
application for work in Tibet at the same time Dr. 
Shelton did and was examined by the Board's physician 
the same day. Numerous young people from church 
homes who had hitherto shown a strange indifference 
to the ministry or the missionary field have felt stirring 
within them new life purposes. Letters have poured 
into the headquarters of our mission boards from par- 
ents with such statements as these : 

"When the news of the death of Dr. Shelton came, 
my son said : 'That's Christianity. I'd like to follow 
in his steps. I believe I'll prepare for the missionary 
career.' " 

"When our daughter learned that Dr. Shelton had 
been killed by bandits, a new life purpose came into 
her heart. She said: 'I want to go to some needy 
place where Christ's Gospel is unknown.' " 

"The news of Dr. Shelton's death has profoundly 
affected our home. It has made conversation upon 
religious topics easy. It has revived a flagging zeal in 


church work among our children. One of our boys is 
determined to be a medical missionary/' 

"Is there a place for me in Tibet, Japan, China, any- 
where? If so, here I am. Send me!" 

A fine young couple in the College of Missions at 
Indianapolis who had originally purposed to go to 
Tibet, but had changed their plans and were preparing 
for service in Japan, heard again the call of Tibet 
rising clear and distinct above all other fields. Thus, 
almost overnight, the hardest missionary, field in the 
world became the most alluring, and all because a man 
had laid down his life in the name of Jesus Christ for 
the sake not only of his friends but also of those who 
fired the fatal shot. 

Offerings for missionary purposes show the effect of 
Dr. Shelton's death. Purse strings have been loosened, 
safe-deposit boxes opened, bank accounts diminished, 
and generous pledges made by persons heretofore not 
known as givers to missionary causes. Despite the 
financial depression of 1922 and other difficulties and 
obstacles in the way of increased offerings, that year 
was the best financially the United Christian Mission- 
ary Society has ever known. Why? The answer is at 
hand. It is not a mystery. These larger offerings for 
missions and particularly for Tibet are a direct result 
of Dr. Shelton's death. The Shelton Memorial Fund 
of $100,000 is assured. Churches that seldom partici- 
pate in such memorials are represented in this one. 
Men and women whose indifference to the missionary 
enterprise was marked have undergone a change of 
heart, and all because it is still true that "the blood 
of the martyrs is the seed of the Church." 


One memorable afternoon I saw the sun set on Lake 
Michigan from the beach at Pentwater. The day was 
early in September and well-nigh perfect. As the sun 
dipped low on the horizon it resembled a great ball of 
fire surrounded by a massed formation of clouds, fan- 
tastic and colorful in the extreme. Gradually the flam- 
ing disc disappeared, while long rays of crimson edged 
with orange were thrown upon the skies after the 
fashion of a mammoth searchlight. These reddish 
rays soon gave way to purplish clouds, and these in 
turn to tints of pearl, opal, and pink. Then there fol- 
lowed a golden glow which spread rapidly over the 
heavens and of a beauty indescribable, so that shortly 
when the twilight fell the heavens in the west were still 
rosy, and a soft amber light suffused the skies. As I 
watched the last faint streaks of color fade from the 
heavens, I caught sight of the evening star, scintillating 
above the horizon. Suddenly I became conscious of a 
light back of me, and turning around I beheld the 
moon just risen above the dark treetops far up the cliff 
and bathing them in a soft silver radiance. Then the 
day died, darkness deepened, and the light of stars 
and moon became stronger and lovelier still. 

I sat upon that beach enthralled with what I saw; 
enraptured with a sense of wonder and the presence of 
a great mystery. The afterglow of a great life is like 
the afterglow of that perfect day, with other lights 
emerging from out the gathering darkness and the 
promise of a clear and fruitful to-morrow everywhere 

We are in the afterglow of Dr. Shelton's life 
now, and we see the glory and wonder of his career, 


the pathos and the sacrifice of it as we never could see 
it in the days when he was in the flesh. Only a few 
are given the privilege of a martyr's death. Only a few 
are permitted to fall on the battlefield while the sun is 
still high in the heavens and the day is far from spent. 
Dr. Shelton crowded into a life of forty-six years 
an incredible ministry. He wrought a great work. 
Though dead, he yet speaketh. He is of that glorious 
company who, having washed their robes in the blood 
of the Lamb, now serve Him day and night. 

"They climbed the steep ascent of heaven 
Through peril, toil, and pain; 
O God, to us may grace be given 
To follow in their train." 




To Stephen J. Corey, Secretary United Christian Mis- 
sionary Society. 

Yunnanfu, 50 October, ip2i. 


Our long wait is over we start to-morrow for 
Batang. Ogden arrives here Wednesday, going home. 
All are well and in good spirits. The Morses and 
Duncans are fine. It's a pleasure to be with such 
folks. We've received only kindness at the hands of 
all the folks here missionaries, business men, and 
customs people. The rains are over now and we have 
before us fifty-five days of the best weather of the 
year in which to reach Batang for Christmas. We 
hope our lives will be living witnesses for Him who 
has been so good to us all the way. With love and 
gratitude to you all in the office and to all our friends, 
the influence of whose prayers we see and feel daily, 

Truly yours, 


To Mrs. Shelton. 

YenJu, 1 6 December, '21. 

We arrived here yesterday, after having traveled 
along the Mekong for fifteen days in from Wei Shi 
without having lost a single box or any serious accident 



whatever. The Lord surely looked out for us. The 
miracle of the trip is the chair-men not one ran away 
and they are sure fine carriers. It has been a fine 
trip and Ma Jisi met us about a mile out and has ar- 
ranged horses for us clear through to Batang, an un- 
heard of thing. He has surely made our paths 
straight. We leave here to-morrow and will arrive 
in Batang at noon, Dec. 23. I had to stop for a half 
an hour, a lot of Batang people came in. We passed 
Ashi-Gwatsengi's wife down near Likiang; she ran 
off with U si Yea; they have a son. The Tigi finally 
sent Gwatsengi away from Jang Ka because of opium. 
The Shang Cheu people have captured the - Batang 
Jisi. Things are in an awful mess, fiut no trouble 
between Chinese and Lassa Tibetans. Haven't heard 
yet whether Hardys have a boy or girl. Must quit 
now, people are crowding in. I must attend to them. 
Heart's love to you. I don't dare think I get sick 
for you and Dorris and Dorothy. 


To Dorris Shelton. 

Nine days out of Yunnanfu. 

I did not expect to get to answer your good letter 
till we got to Dalifu, but here we are tied up for a 
day just four days out of Tali, so I can write fine. 
We passed yesterday the last place where we are liable 
to meet robbers. It was a long, hard day we started 
just at daylight in a heavy drizzle, which increased as 
the day wore on to a steady downpour, and continued 
all day without a moment's let-up. The chair-men 
got so tired and about a dozen horses gave out. We 
didn't get in till just dark, all soaked, but very 

All your prayers for us are being answered daily, 
and apparently nothing stands between us and Batang 
now but the necessary time. All our goods 115 


mules came through, too all in spite of the fact that 
Yang Tien Fu's men expected to get me again. I saw 
two of them in Yunnanfu; they saw me, too, but 
hurried away. I wouldn't have been worried at all 
had I been alone, but I hated to think of all these young 
folks falling into their hands but they're all behind 
now and a clear road in front of us. It rained all 
night and is still raining now about noon. Every 
horse and man was worn out, so we're resting to-day. 
I will see Mr. Bu Sunday in Tali, and give yours and 
Dorothy's love. 

Wen Da Ren (who wanted Daidee as his wife) 
now is doctoring the soldiers. Yang Jisi is his secre- 
tary and several other of the former officials of Batang 
are living with him. I am meeting old friends all the 
time, and I hear of nearly a hundred on farther, wait- 
ing for me to come along and help them in all kinds of 
different ways. 

Yes, Dorris, I do wish I could have you along. You 
could help me a lot, and how, you would enjoy all our 
old friends scattered everywhere and all asking for 
you all the time. The best I can do is to show them 
your picture and tell them that you are preparing to 
come back. I've just been out sitting down by my old 
mule, with little Jack in my lap, and the old mule laid 
his head over in my lap, too, so little Jack crawled out 
on top of his. The mule wanted to be scratched and 
fed sugar. I fed both mules sugar (waertang), 
and Jack wanted some too, so I fed him some also. 
Mrs. Morse came along and saw us and called us "The 
Three Friends." My new mule is mucli stronger than 
the old one, and is getting just as gentle. If he car- 
ries me till I have doctored and preached to as many 
people as the old one has, I'll pension him too. I sus- 
pect, though, that he will last longer than I will. 

Dorris, I am proud of you and Dorothy and I know 
you'll love and help each other, and help Grandpa and 
Grandma and Miss Miller too, for they are doing all 


they can to help while Mammy and I are away. They 
have just as high ideals for you as we have, and I 
know you will not do a thing that would hurt Jesus 
in any way, for He has been so good to us all and led 
us in such paths and given us such fine friends in 
America, Tibet, and China in fact, all over the world 
that you and I, Dorris, will never be able to do all 
we would like to do for Him. 

I saw what you wrote about that young man Mrs. 
Cason told about, who lost his faith. It is awful that 
teachers in college will spend time doing such things 
but sometimes they do. If ever you get a class with 
one of that kind, Dorris, don't waste your time at it 
life is too short, take another class. Remember some 
people get to worshiping their brains, but remember the 
heart the Bible mentions the heart hundreds of times, 
but so far as I know never the brain. There was a 
man on the boat coming to China to preach philosophy ; 
he didn't know what he believed. He said one day, 
"O that I had spent my life as you have !" Have you 
read a little book by Thomas a Kempis, called "The 
Imitation of Christ" ? It is the one classic of the dark 
ages. Get it make yourself a present of it. In the 
third chapter there is something like this: "Why be 
troubled and anxious over so many things the being 
ignorant of which will not be against me in the Judg- 

Now, Dorris, I want to hug you and kiss you. Give 
my love to Dorothy, Grandpa, Grandma, and Miss 
Miller. Remember me to your Endeavor Society and 
all the young folks of Southern California I love 
them all. Choose your friends from those of the 
highest ideals. We owe so much to our friends. 
Give my love to Mr. and Mrs. Johnson and don't for- 
get to pray for and write to a man who loves you 
with his whole heart, 



To several of Dr. Shelton's family. 

Batang, 26 December, 1921. 


We arrived here 23 December, so had Christmas 
here yesterday. Everything went fine on the road. 
It took us fifty-four days from Yunnanfu, and all dif- 
ficulties disappeared as we got near to them. I 
haven't begun to get tired yet, but will in a day or two 
now, I suppose. I am living in our old house down 
by the river and am going to get my own meals, or 
rather Drashi is going to get them for me. 

Christmas at the church had about four hundred 
people, but they couldn't handle them very well. Dor- 
ris and Dorothy, nearly all the girls cried when they 
saw your pictures, and they asked how long it would 
be before you could come back. I cried, too, I was 
so lonesome for you all. I kept looking around for 
you and Mammy all day. We all had dinner at Dr. 
Hardy's and prayermeeting afterwards, but I couldn't 
stand it, so I got up and left. Gon Chog Nejang Ong 
Shu, etc., etc., are all grown men now; so are Delia 
Eulan Tsiring-Behmu grown women. They have 
moved the school to the new schoolhouse just below 
the hospital. It is built just like the hospital. I am 
going up to see the Tigi some time in January. Sev- 
eral of the girls, when they saw Mrs. Morse, thought 
it was you, Dorris. 

I haven't had time to do anything since I got here. 
At least fifty people put my hand on their heads and 
cried and said, "O if you had been here all our houses 
wouldn't be burned up." Batang is awfully poor now 
and robbers all around. Wodren's baby is quite a big 
baby now. Mrs. Hardy's new boy was born Nov. 30. 

Drashi is sitting here cleaning a gun for me. It's 
awfully lonesome being all alone and I must keep 
moving to keep from getting homesick. I can't stand 


it. I think yesterday was about the saddest day of 
my life. 

I love you all so much. 


Remember me to all our friends who have been so 
good to us, especially Mr. and Mrs. Johnson and 
Brother Seely. 



Batang, Via Atuntse, W. China. 

17 February, 1922. 


Dr. Shelton left Batang for Gartok on the 1 5th inst., 
planning to see the Governor of Eastern Tibet and then 
to return to Batang and make final plans for the trip 
to Lhasa. At the end of the first stage south of here, 
a letter came from the Governor asking that the Doc- 
tor delay his visit, as permission to make the visit 
must be obtained from the Galon Lama at Chiamdo. 
So on the morning of the i6th Dr. Shelton started 
back to Batang. At two P. M., when only about six 
miles from Batang, the party was fired on by robbers. 
Dr. Shelton was riding in front, and just as he rounded 
a curve in the road the robbers opened fire. The first 
shot hit the Doctor. The other members of the party, 
the cook, the deposed Batang prince, and the Doctor's 
Tibetan teacher, thought the Doctor had shot at a 
rabbit, but as they came around the corner they saw 
the Doctor in the road. A number of other shots 
were fired, but the rest of the party were unhurt. The 
robbers in due time sent down some of their men and 
drove off most of the pack animals. (So far, I have 
seen only one mule load not taken by the robbers.) 

The Batang prince came on to Batang as soon as 



he could and reported the matter to Mr. MacLeod. 
His report was that Shelton had been wounded and 
was unable to travel. He said that we must take a 
stretcher on which to bring Shelton to Batang, and 
that he wanted a tourniquet for Shelton's arm, which 
was bleeding badly. 

This report came in about four p. M V and I put few 
things into my pocket; borrowed the Prince's horse, 
and started at 4:23 for the place. MacLeod looked 
after getting the stretcher-bearers, and followed me, 
Morse and Duncan also going with the stretcher. 
After hard riding for an hour I reached the Doctor, 
who was then unconscious with no pulse, and showing 
signs of severe hemorrhage. The bullet had entered 
the outer condyle of the right elbow, had torn off the 
inner condyle, and had entered the side about the level 
of the elbow. Before loss of consciousness, the 
Doctor took a hypo of morphine and strychnine and 
improvised a tourniquet with his handkerchief and 
riding whip. The men who remained with him 
had done all they could to make him comfortable, 
using saddle blankets for a bed, and were pre- 
paring Doctor's cot to take him to Batang. I put 
on the tourniquet, gave him some more strychnine, re- 
dressed the wounds, and got under way for Batang 
at six o'clock. We met the party from Batang about 
a mile from the scene of the tragedy. The poles on 
the cot gave some trouble at the top of the pass, and 
after a couple of miles more Dr. Shelton complained 
of the poles hurting his hips. So we changed him to 
the hospital bed which we had rigged up on stout bam- 
bo6 poles to use as a stretcher. During the last mile 
he was in pain again and wanted to change his posi- 
tion. Before we reached Batang more than fifty 
(probably one hundred) people met us, to help carry 
the stretcher or to light the way with pine torches. 

We reached our home at 10:10 p. M. and the Doctor 
was conscious and in pain. I gave him some morphine 


and made a more careful examination of the wounds. 
Once or twice after reaching home he wanted water 
and asked to sit up. His condition was such that any- 
thing more than applying temporary dressings, after 
cleaning the wounds, was out of the question. (I 
omitted telling you that Dr. Shelton, after he was shot, 
swabbed the wounds with iodine.) 

The turn for the worse came about midnight, and 
at 12 148 A. M. Dr. Shelton answered the summons to 
the higher life. 

I have stated these facts at length. None of us can 
express our feelings at this time. 

The cause of the whole matter is the inability of the 
Chinese officials to govern this part of the country. 
I believe I am safe in saying that I have treated an 
average of a case every two months, and more than 
that number of men have been killed at this place. It 
is within six or seven miles of Batang, but the officials 
and soldiers roll another opium pill every time a fight 
takes place on the pass and say it is too bad ! ! ! 

But, enough. We are starting a cable for America 
at daylight, and this is to add to the sad news you 
should receive days before this letter arrives. 

Please try to express, to Dorris and Dorothy, the 
Father, Mother, Brothers and Sisters, our deepest 
sympathy in their loss, which is, though to a less ex- 
tent, our loss also. 

Sincerely yours, 


Report Concerning Dr. Sfolton's Death. 

About two o'clock in the afternoon of February 16, 
1922, Dr. A. L. Shelton of the Tibetan Christian Mis- 
sion, was shot by highwaymen at a place about 20 li 
south of Batang on the Chinese highway from Batang 
to Lhasa; and died on Feb. i7th at 12 148 A. M., from 
the effects of the wound inflicted by the highwaymen 


at the above-mentioned place. The following are the 
particulars regarding his departure from Batang and 
his death. 

On February i3th Dr. Shelton sent his card to the 
yamen by Gezang Wangdu, who notified the secretary 
of the Chinese Magistrate that Dr. Shelton would 
leave early in the morning of February I5th for Gar- 
tok (Janka). On Feb. I4th, Dr. Shelton went 
personally to the yamen and requested escort for his 
proposed journey. On the morning of February I5th, 
between 8:30 and 9 o'clock, Dr. Shelton left Batang. 
He had gone about a half mile when he was over- 
taken by two unarmed soldiers from the yamen, who 
presented their credentials as his official escort. Dr. 
Shelton remonstrated at their being unarmed, but pro- 
ceeded with them unarmed and arrived at Drubalong 
(Dru Wa Nong) a little before sunset on the same 
day, Feb. I5th. 

At Drubalong (Dru Wa Nong), he was met by a 
messenger with a letter from the Governor of Mar 
Kham province. This letter was later taken by the 
highwaymen, but Gezongongdii read the letter and 
reports the contents as follows, "I have heard that 
you intend entering Tibet. An order has come from 
the Galon Lama forbidding me to permit foreigners 
to enter Tibet, unless they first state their business to 
the Galon Lama and get his permission. Please write 
the Galon Lama and get his permission. Please do 
not come until you do so." 

The messenger urged Dr. Shelton to return to 
Batang, declaring that the order in the Governor's let- 
ter had come from England to the Dalai Lama, and 
from him to the Galon Lama, and from him to the 
Governor of Mar Kham province ; and that the Gover- 
nor of Mar Kham province might be executed if Shel- 
ton entered Tibet. 

Dr. Sihelton gave the Governor's messenger a letter 
containing the following reply: "My purpose in com- 


ing to Gartok is to pay a friendly visit to yourself. 
If I am not permitted to do that, I shall remain in 
Batang. Perhaps by this time my servant has arrived 
in Gartok. Please help him on the way to Batang." 

On the morning of February i6th, Dr. Shelton left 
Drubalong (Dru Wa Nong) for Batang. At a point 
about twenty li from Batang, the road in winding 
along the side of a cliff, turns sharply to the east, 
forming a right angle. The cliff rises almost perpen- 
dicular from the road to the height of about twenty 
feet; so that going around the bend is very much like 
going around the corner of a house. Dr. Shelton and 
his party were riding along in the following order: 
first, Dr. Shelton; second, and unarmed, a Chinese 
escort ; third, a friend of Dr. Shelton named Gwei Tsen 
Chi; fourth, Dr. Shelton's cook; fifth, Dr. Shelton's 
interpreter, Gezongongdii. The report that the 
yamen escort was riding in front is not true. They 
were riding one after the other in close order. Dr. 
Shelton's baggage was about five hundred yards be- 
hind the party. Just as Dr. Shelton turned the corner, 
he was shot without any warning by a highwayman, 
who was crouching, behind a thorn bush on the north 
side of the cliff and above the road. That first shot 
was a signal for a volley from the highwaymen, who 
were concealed in shrubbery immediately above the 
cliff. Everybody except Dr. Shelton, who had fallen 
from his mule to the road, sought the shelter afforded 
by the lower side of the road. Here they were kept 
under cover by the rifle fire of the part of the robber 
band that was stationed above the cliff, while another 
part of the robber band drove off Dr. Shelton's mules 
and loads, which were about five hundred yards to the 
rear. As soon as Dr. Shelton's party got under 
shelter, they opened fire on the robbers. All had fire- 
arms except the yamen escort, and Gezongongdii 
gave him an automatic pistol. When the robbers re- 
treated he tried to walk, but could not ; then they put 


him on his mule and proceeded towards Batang, at the 
same time sending Gwei Tsen Chi on ahead to report 
to the missionaries in Batang. Dr. Shelton could ride 
only about a mile. Then they took him from his mule 
and prepared a stretcher. At that point Dr. Hardy 
met him. Dr. Hardy's report is as follows : 

"It was a little after four p. M. when the Prince 
(Gwei Tsen Chi) arrived in Batang and delivered his 
message to Mr. MacLeod, who came up to my place 
and told me. I got some first aid dressings and a 
rubber bandage, borrowed the Prince's horse and 
started out while Mr. MacLeod got a stretcher and 
carriers and followed on foot. I made good time to 
the top of the Sa Swei San pass, reaching there in 
forty minutes (five P. M.), but going down was much 
slower, and I did not find Dr. Shelton until 5 125. He 
was unconscious. . The bullet had entered the right 
arm, just above the elbow, and ranged downward. 
The wound of entrance was about the size of a nickel. 
The bone was shattered and the wound exit could not 
be covered by my hand. Then the bullet entered the 
abdomen in the axillary line at about the level of the 
elbow, making a wound larger than a dollar. I put 
on fresh dressings and replaced the handkerchief tour- 
niquet with the rubber one. We put Dr. Shelton on a 
cot and started for Batang at six p. M. Once while 
we were there, Dr. Shelton opened his eyes and an- 
swering me, said he was feeling all right. Once or 
twice on the way, he was conscious and complained of 
pain. We reached Batang at 10:10 P. M. His con- 
dition was such that I dared do nothing more than 
change the dressings after washing the wounds ex- 
ternally. Twice he was in pain and insisted on mor- 
phine to relieve it. At 12:48 A. M., February I7th, 
he passed away." 

"Respectfully submitted, 

"W. M. HARDY." 



Chungking, China, March 29, 1922. 




It is with deep regret that I have to inform you of 
the tragic death of your husband at Batang on Feb- 
ruary 17, 1922. According to a telegram received 
at this office on March 3, 1922, from Dr. W. M. 
Hardy, Dr. Shelton was shot by bandits near Batang 
on February 16, 1922, and died in Batang on the early 
morning of February 17, 1922. Due to the difficuU 
ties of communication I have not as yet been able to 
find out much about this sad occurrence but no doubt 
Dr. Hardy has already written to you. 

Dr. Shelton's original registration did not have 
your address, so I sent Dr. Hardy a telegram asking 
for this nearly a month ago, but have not received a 
reply as yet. I am just now in receipt of your hus- 
band's application for re-registration which states that 
you are now residing at the above address. This ap- 
plication was dated January 25, 1922, and has taken 
all this time to get here. 

There are certain formalities of the law to be com- 
plied with connection with your husband's estate, and 
I have written to Dr. Hardy to take charge of his 
belongings as he no doubt would have anyway 
until the formalities can be complied with. Will 
you please inform this office whether or not Dr. Shel- 
ton left a will? I would also be glad to know your 
wishes in regard to that portion of the estate in Batang. 

I did not have the pleasure of knowing Dr. Shelton 
personally, but I have the greatest admiration for the 
work he was doing, and from what I hear the loss 
of his family is shared by all the Chinese and Tibetans 
with whom he came in contact, not to mention his fel- 


low countrymen and other foreigners in this country. 
The news, contained in a brief telegram, was a great 
shock and I have heard many expressions of sympathy 
from all sides, American, British, and Chinese alike. 
I regret exceedingly the sad necessity for this letter 
and if this office can be of any service to you, please 
do not fail to say so. Assuring you and your daugh- 
ters of my heartfelt sympathy, I am, 
Very respectfully yours, 

Vice Consul in Charge. 

A Masonic Funeral in China. 

A letter from Brother W. M. Hardy, Batang, China, 
to Norman of Nashville, Tennessee, tells of the mur- 
der of Dr. A. L. Shelton, a Scottish Rite Mason, who 
received the degrees in Wichita, Kansas, several years 
ago. This brother was killed on February 16, about 
seven miles from Batang. 

In that far-away land, where perhaps a Masonic 
lodge was never heard of, the question of the manner 
of his burial concerned the few Masons who were 
there. It was decided to have some kind of a Masonic 
service at the grave, there being a great number of the 
natives present, so Brother Morse read a service from 
the Tennessee Craftsman, and the native evangelist 
interpreted the service to the Chinese and Tibetans 
present. The Chinese have a proverb which says, 
"The pine and cedar never die," and this was used in 
explaining the evergreen that had been put in the grave. 
"After it was all over, and I was going over the 
sad events of the day," says Brother Hardy, "I noticed 
a peculiar thing about this, the first Masonic funeral 
service ever held in Batang. The numbers three, five, 
and seven were connected with the service as follows : 
Three languages were used, English, Chinese and Tib- 
etan; five nationalities were present, American, Brit- 


ish, French (the French Catholics have a priest here), 
Chinese and Tibetans; seven men took part in the 
service. These seven were Mr. Duncan, who had 
charge of the English service; the native pastor, who 
conducted the services in Chinese and Tibetan; the 
assistant pastor, who led in prayer; the Chinese 
teacher, who read the scripture, and the Tibetan 
teacher, who read from the Tibetan Scripture ; another 
Chinese teacher who read a memorial address and 
resolutions of sympathy drafted by Chinese friends 
of Dr. Shelton, and Mr. Morse, who conducted the 
service at the grave." 

Batang, 22 February, 1922. 


This letter will find you very sad and heart broken, 
but I feel that I must write you. Not that I can com- 
fort you no man can do that but that I may tell you 
some things that I would like you to know. Your 
good father was like a big brother to me, and I know 
how dear he was to you, because he showed me the 
precious and exceedingly good letters that you wrote 
him. These letters he reread many times. They were 
among his goods that were taken by the robbers. He 
was taking them as company to Gartok. 

Since your father came to Batang, all of us have 
been as kind and good to him as we possibly could be, 
for he was very dear to us all. He was regaining his 
former health rapidly; and was always cheerful and 
in good spirits. 

On the morning of the i5th inst., he started to Gar- 
tok to make preparations for his trip to Lassa. When 
he reached Drubalong, he met a messenger from the 
Teji who asked him to write to the Galon Lama for 
permission to enter Tibet; because all foreigners en- 
tering Tibet now must first state what their business 
is to some one of the high officials. On receiving the 


Teji's letter, your father wrote a reply; and returned 
to Batang. On the way back about six miles from 
Batang, a short distance on the other side of Kuila, 
while he, his cook, Gweitsenchi and Gezangwangdu 
were turning a bend in the road, someone fired from 
ambush, and hit your father as he came around the 
turn in the road. Gezangwangdu and the others were 
a little behind and could not see on account of the bend 
in the road. They heard the shot, rushed on, and 
found your father lying in the road. He was able to 
dress the wounds and take some medicine. Then he 
sent Gweitsenchi on to Batang to notify us. We went 
at once; but were too late to be of any use. We 
reached Batang at 10:10 and your father "went home" 
at 12 48. When conscious he was in great pain, and 
did not talk much except to ask for water, and to pray 
to God for help. We could not help him ; and so God 
took him to be with himself, where there is no pain, 
no sorrow. 

The funeral service was held on Saturday the I7th. 
There was a very large crowd, and the service was 
sad, but beautiful. We fixed everything as beautiful 
as we could. The church members sent two scrolls 
which we are keeping to send to you. 

We made a list of all your father's goods and you 
will receive the list shortly. There are some things 
that your father got for you, a paper knife and a lot 
of Tibetan rings. These and other things that you 
wish to have,. I shall be so glad to bring to you when I 
go home on furlough in 1924, perhaps sooner. Please 
don't be timid in asking me to do anything for you. 
If you want some Tibetan things, just let me know. 

I am so glad that you are such good girls. Your 
father will be so proud of you when we all get home. 

Esther joins me in every good wish. 
Very sincerely yours, 



Batang, 25 February, 1922. 


On the nineteenth of the first month Dr. Shelton 
and I left for Gartok. At Druwanong we met a mes- 
senger from the Geji with a letter which said that he 
must not come to Gartok now. On the way from Dru- 
wanong robbers shot Dr. Shelton. You know all 
about that now, so I shall say nothing about it. 

You and Dr. Shelton were like a mother and father 
to me, and helped me so much. A great sorrow has 
come to you and your two daughters. Please try and 
not worry, or you will become ill. Try and make 
yourselves happy. 

If you come to Yunnanfu or anywhere and you 
want me to help you please let me know. I am sure 
that Dr. Shelton is at peace now. Every morning and 
evening I think of him. I pray for the three of you, 
Dorris and Dorothy and yourself, morning and eve- 
ning that you may be happy and well. 

Your loving son, 


Batang, W. China, 21 February, 1922. 


I do not know just what I am going to say, or just 
how I will say it. My heart is too full, but I will try 
to tell you as best as I can, about Dr. Shelton's leaving 
us. I am going to tell you the things the way I should 
want you to tell me if you were in my place, and I 
wish there was some way in which I could help you 
bear this sorrow, but I know it is impossible. Only, 
as you know you have our love at this time and also 
the assurance that we did everything we could for 
Doctor, but human help was useless, and only God 
knows His purposes. 

Doctor left here Wednesday morning for Gartok. 
Just before he left he came into our house, he had left 


his mule tied to our gate and while he was down to 
MacLeods the children had tied a valentine on his 
saddle, and when he found it he came up "To kiss the 
one who did it," he said, but they had gone on to 
Morses and Duncans. We knew there were robbers 
down at Sa Sheu Shan, but didn't think a great deal 
about it as they had never shown any disposition to 
molest a foreigner and as Doctor had notified the 
yamen we supposed he had proper escort. That night 
we said, "Well Dr. Shelton has gotten over the pass 
all right or we would have heard something." 

The next day, Mrs. MacLeod and the Duncans were 
at our house for tea, when Mr. MacLeod came rush- 
ing up the steps and said "I have bad news. Dr. 
Shelton was coming back and the robbers have shot 
and wounded him." Gway Sen Gi brought the news. 
He said Doctor was shot in the arm and leg and wanted 
a tourniquet to stop the bleeding. Will got a few 
first aids together and getting on Gway Sen Gi's horse 
went as fast as he could and reached Dr. Shelton in 
a little over an hour, as he was quite a way the 
other side of the pass. When Will reached him he 
had swabbed out his wounds with iodine, had made a 
tourniquet with his whip and a handkerchief and had 
taken some morphine and strychnine, but was uncon- 
scious. Will got him on a stretcher and started for 
Batang, meeting Mr. MacLeod, Morse, and Duncan 
with a better stretcher in a few minutes. Will left 
the scene of the tragedy with him at six o'clock and 
they arrived at our house at 10:20. Fully a hundred 
people went out from iBatang to help carry the 
stretcher and light the way with pine torches. After 
they got here he was in a good deal of pain, so Will 
only did what he could temporarily for wounds and 
gave him something to relieve the pain. Instead of 
being wounded in the leg the bullet had gone through 
his elbow and into the abdomen, and at 12 148 A. M. he 
left us. 


When Dr. Shelton reached Dru-ba-long he received 
a letter from the Tigi asking him his business, and 
also asking him to wait until the Galon Lama should 
give him permission to cross the border, so Doctor 
sent him a letter and was returning to Batang to wait 
for his answer. With Doctor was Gway Sen Gi, his 
cook, and Gezongongdii. Dr. Shelton was riding 
ahead and the very first shot the robbers fired hit him. 
When Gezongongdii heard the shooting and saw 
what it was he began yelling to them that it was a 
foreigner. A great many more shots were fired, but 
no one else was hit. About ten of the robbers came 
down and drove off four of the Doctor's loads, but 
didn't take any of the riding animals. 

Friday we buried him beside Dr. Loftis and made 
the same kind of a grave. We had the funeral in our 
front yard. Gway Gwang preached, a beautiful ser- 
mon in both Chinese and Tibetan, and numbers of the 
Batang people who knew and loved him were here. 
Gway Gwang especially mentioned you and Dorris and 
Dorothy. They sang "There Is a Happy Land" and 
"Sweet By and By." The coffin was draped in the 
Chinese and American flags. Mr. Duncan led a short 
prayer service for the foreigners, just before the 

At the cemetery Mr. Morse read the Masonic Com- 
mittal service and Gway Gwang prayed and the Chris- 
tians sang. I forgot to telf you that besides the four 
foreign men, Gezongongdu, Sam den, and Andru 
were with him, when he left us, and all his old servants 
helped carry him to his last resting place. 

We don't know why this had to be and all we can 
say is, His will be done, and feel that the Tibetan rob- 
bers were more merciful than the Chinese robbers 
under Yang Tien Fu. 

We sent telegrams to the Legation in Peking also 
to the Consul in Chungking, and to the Board at home, 
asking them to tell Dorris and Dorothy and his father 


and mother. Also a telegram was sent to the China 
Mission and to Mr. Graham at Yunnanfu. 

Will wrote a letter giving the details of the accident 
to Mr. S. J. Corey. 

If there is anything we can do for you or the girls 
please let us know. We all loved Doctor and we love 
you, and want to help you all we can, so write us when 
you are able and we will carry out any of your wishes 
we can. 

With a heart full of love and sympathy I am yours, 


Batang, 26 February, 1922. 

My heart goes out so to you and to Dorris and Dor- 
othy at this time, that I must write to you, although 
I have been thinking that perhaps I wouldn't, fearing 
many letters might be too painful for you and that I 
should wait a while. You can put my letter aside if 
that is the case, and read it later. 

It has been eleven days now since Dr. Shelton 
stopped in to tell us good-by as he was starting, on a 
Wednesday morning, for Gartok. I remember so 
clearly the impression he made on me at that time. 
He looked so fit for the road and for life in general. 
He wore his big sheepskin-lined khaki coat, his cordu- 
roy trousers with leather leggins and strong shoes and 
big hat. He looked so large and handsome, and so 
pleased to be starting out on a trip. His two dogs, 
Jack and Spot, were with him. They and the two 
children and Dr. Shelton had a romp together; he 
talking to the pups and the children in the way he al- 
ways did and that they always liked and understood. 
Soon, he was off. The details of all that followed, you 
know, so I shall not repeat. 

When Dr. Shelton first came back, he seemed tired 
and not very well, I suppose from the long trip in 
which he had to manage for everybody, and that before 


he had completely regained his strength after his 
operation. But in the seven weeks or so, there was 
such a change. He was feeling fine or at least he 
seemed to be. He looked well, and he was so jolly 
and, as always, the life of all our gatherings together. 
We had him at our house as much as we could keep 
him. He was always bragging on the food, especially 
the milk and cream and fresh eggs, and we cooked so 
many good dinners in his pressure cooker. Once, 
Wangse made "hot-te-molies" according to his direc- 
tion. I don't think he scarcely talked to any of us five 
minutes without mentioning you and the girls. He 
told us how well the girls were doing in school and of 
Dorr is' s work with children, and about your camp ex- 
periences with the young folks and even about your 
nice, new clothes. 

We had dinner with him the Sunday before he left, 
at the Duncans. Mrs. Duncan opened a can from 
M. W. & Co. marked tea and found in it not tea but 
limburger cheese. We all thought that funny, of 
course. Dr. Shelton thought it was fine and had a 
lot of fun out of it, and he got the cheese, and thought 
it the best he ever tasted. It was good. Mrs. Hardy 
and I were the only others who would eat it. He told 
us about the time you cleaned out Mrs. Ogden's cup- 
board looking for something rotten, when he had left 
the cheese in it. 

A month or more ago, we decided that if our little 
baby, whom we are expecting now in a few weeks, 
were a boy, we would name him Shelton. Dr. Shelton 
was pleased with the idea. He thought so much of 
Duncan and Duncan would run excited and happy 
to the door when he heard Dr. Shelton's voice. Of 
course, he was that way with all the Batang babies. I 
-am so glad we have the picture of him with them all. 

I hope I have not been writing things that you would 
not like to hear. I know that he wrote you often, so 
that you know all about him since he has been in 


Batang. But I thought that if it were me, I should 
like to hear from some one who had seen him and loved 
him, as we all do here, and as we love you all, and to 
hear some things connected with his happy, energetic 

When you can, will you write to us. We are all 
sad and very anxious about you and the girls. If 
there is anything here at all that we could do, which 
would help you in any way, we would be so happy to 
do it. ^With love and sympathy, 


Batang, West China, 

March 15, 1922. 


If only I could put my arms around you and talk 
to you instead of writing! May our Master do this 
for me ! We have been praying that God would com- 
fort your aching hearts. I know that you will have 
received the sad news before you get this. I expect 
you will have already received the details of it all, too. 
My dear ones, I am going to tell you some of the 
things which have helped me and perhaps they will 
help you. I just can't realize it even yet. It just 
seems to me that he has gone off on his trip and will 
soon be back. On Monday he ate dinner at our house 
and was as jolly and happy as ever. That afternoon 
we had the monthly mission business meeting at the 
Hardy home. Afterwards we had tea and then played 
tennis. That was the last that I saw of him before he 

It seems to me that our dear Doctor was the center 
of fun and the center of inspiration as well. He al- 
ways made such good talks at our prayer meetings. 
I was always so glad to hear him and received so much 
help and inspiration from him. The people here love 
him so very much. 


They also say that is, the Christians, that his death 
is the "seed of the Gospel in Tibet." One of the 
scrolls which hung up during his funeral service read 
thus : "He gave his life to save others." What more 
could be said! I know it is very hard now. Oh, I 
have thought of you so very much! I love you very 
much. May Jesus Christ Himself comfort you both. 
You have given and suffered much! Dear Doctor 
gave up land, home, parents, wife and children 
everything, that he might help to bring the world to 
Jesus Christ. Our Master will reward him richly. 
If he is with God, we have nothing to regret, so I 
know you will rest in God. 

"He careth for you. When thou passest through 
the waters, I will be with thee ; and through the rivers, 
they shall not overflow thee. I will never leave thee, 
nor forsake thee The eternal God is thy refuge and 
underneath are the everlasting arms. As one whom 
his mother comforteth, so will I comfort you." 

With much love, 


P. S. I have felt so very bad about this that it just 
seemed I couldn't write to you. All of us here miss 
him more than we can ever tell! It just seemed our 
own father or brother had left us. 

G. H. M. 


From The World Call, May, 1922 

In 1903 Dr. Albert Leroy Shelton and Mrs. Shelton 
went forth as missionaries to Tibet under the Foreign 
Christian Missionary Society. The challenge of that 
far, closed land had come to them through Dr. Susie 
C. Rijnhart who had lost both her baby and her hus- 
band in Tibet. Two years later, Mr. and Mrs. J. C. 
Ogden from Kentucky went out to reen force the mis- 
sion. Probably the Ogdens and Sheltons would have 
become good friends if thrown together anywhere, but 
being alone together at the most remote mission station 
in the world, made them comrades of the most intimate 
sort. The men were more than brothers. Their de- 
votion to each other was like that of David and 

As Dr. Shelton returned to the field last fall with 
Mr. and Mrs. Duncan and Mr. and Mrs. Morse and 
their baby, the Ogdens were coming out for their sec- 
ond furlough. The two parties met two days west 
of Yunnanfu which is the end of the railroad line, and 
right at the place where two years before, Chinese 
bandits had captured Dr. Shelton. After one night 
spent together and a farewell in which neither could 
say a word, Shelton went on to Batang to get ready 
for the long cherished journey to Lhasa, and the 
Ogdens continued homeward. 

After resting for a while in southern California, the 
Ogdens started overland for headquarters in St. Louis 
and their home in Kentucky. Sunday night, March 5, 



they were in Raton, New Mexico, and slipped quietly 
into the Christian Church without making themselves 
known. In the course of his sermon, the minister, 
John H. Swift, spoke of the death of Dr. Shelton. 
At the close of the service Mr. Ogden asked him on 
what authority he had made the statement and was 
told that the death was reported in a Denver news- 
paper. Confident that it was only a rumor and could 
not be true, they continued their journey to. Garden 
City, Kansas. There Mr. Ogden went to the telegraph 
office to send a message to the United Society. When 
the operator saw his signature, he asked him if he 
had not been associated with Dr. Shelton in Tibet, 
and then told him of the cablegram announcing the 
murder of the latter by a band of robbers February 
17. Overcome by the shock Ogden staggered back 
to the hotel and was not able to leave his bed for two 

"He was my pal, my brother, my big chief. Know- 
ing that he would have to take his life in his hands we 
asked him to undertake the journey to Lhasa, because 
no one else could do it so well. Any of us could have 
been spared better than Shelton." 

Immediately upon receipt of the cablegram report- 
ing the murder of Dr. Shelton, the officers of the 
United Christian Missionary Society gave the informa- 
tion to the State Department at Washington, which 
in turn, cabled the United States minister at Peking 
to give the facts to the Chinese government and urge 
them to use their utmost efforts to secure complete in- 
formation and to bring those guilty of the murder to 



United Christian Missionary Society, 

St. Louis, Missouri. 

4 April, 1922. 
c/o S. S. Caledonia, 


I am writing you this letter, hoping it will reach 
you at the steamer as you land. How our hearts have 
ached for you during these weeks since Dr. Shelton's 
death ! Your many friends will be so anxious to see 
you and their prayers have been constantly following 
you as you have crossed the sea. The girls are bear- 
ing up well and Mrs. Dye and the other friends have 
been a great comfort to them in their loneliness. We 
are very anxious to have you come to St. Louis and 
see us as you pass through. As soon as you know 
the boat on which you will sail from England to New 
York, please cable me so that we can make arrange- 
ments to have friends meet you there. 

This blow is difficult to understand, but even through 
this great sorrow and loss God will somehow work 
out His providence for Tibet. The death of no mis- 
sionary since the day of Livingstone has so moved 
the Christian world as that of Dr. Shelton. If any 
letters come giving the particulars in time for us to 
forward them to London, we will get them to you. So 



far we have no further word except a cable received 
by our government from China, copy of which I am 
enclosing. Mr. Ogden, who has been here, feels that 
the Chinese official is trying to make the best case pos- 
sible for himself, and that of course Dr. Shelton would 
not have left Batang had he received orders not to do 
so. Mr. Ogden feels that the death of Dr. Shelton 
was in the nature of an accident, for even the robbers 
would not have attacked him personally. It is a deep 
satisfaction to know that since he had to go he was in 
the hands of the missionaries at the hospital when the 
end came. 

I want you to know how the whole staff here at the 
office has thought of you and how we have daily borne 
your name to the Throne of Grace. May the everlast- 
ing arms undergird you and the Unseen Friend be 
your companion across the sea. 

With affectionate regards, I am, 
Sincerely yours, 


United Christian Missionary, Society, 

St. Louis, Missouri. 
p March, 1922. 


381 N. GIBBS ST., 


I have been away from the office for many days and 
this is my first opportunity to write you. I believe 
that I have thought of both of you every waking hour 
since we learned of your father's death. I want you 
to know how thousands of friends are praying for 
you daily and expressing their love for you and your 
mother in this difficult hour. We know that you are 
trusting in God and believe that he will bring peace 
into your hearts in the midst of your great sorrow. 


I suppose there is no missionary since David Living- 
stone who has been so widely known as your father. 
People will be thinking of him all over the Christian 
world and they will also be thinking of you and your 
mother. Although your father's life has not been as 
long as that of some, he has done more to bring the 
Gospel of Christ to the world than many men have 
done in a long lifetime. Even in his death which we 
all mourn people will be inspired to give their lives 
more freely for the Master and to take the Gospel 
throughout the world, even into Tibet where he so 
longed to take it. 

We have received some beautiful messages here. I 
am enclosing a copy of some of them with this letter. 
We have cabled your mother and notified the other 
relatives. Many of our churches held memorial serv- 
ices last Sunday and others will be holding them in 
the near future. I am also enclosing a copy of a letter 
which we have sent out to all the churches. 

I wish I could sit down and talk to you, for it is 
so difficult to express one's deepest sympathy and feel- 
ings in a letter. May our living Christ be very close 
to both of you dear girls during these days. 

With affectionate regard I am, 
Sincerely yours, 


Letter sent out to the Churches by the Foreign Chris- 
tian Missionary Society (Disciples), later merged 
in the Missionary Society 


The December Missionary Intelligencer contained an 
article from our missionaries in Tibet asking for new 
workers to open up a mission at Chiamdo, the halfway 
station to Lassa. It also stated that the Tibetan gen- 
eral had forwarded a letter of Dr. Shelton to the Dalai 


Lama at Lassa, asking permission to visit that city 
arid do some medical work there. 

A letter has just been received from Dr. Shelton 
under date of August 31, which says: "I received a 
reply to the letter I sent to the Dalai Lama in March, 
stating that if there is nothing in existing treaties to 
keep me from coming to Lassa he will put no hindrance 
in my way." 

So far as the officers of the Foreign Society know, 
there is no treaty that would stand in the way of an 
American missionary traveling anywhere in Tibet. 
This being true, the last obstacle in the way of enter- 
ing Lassa is removed. The supposed opposition of the 
Tibetans themselves has been the stumbling block. 
Now, with many officials inviting the missionaries to 
enter, and others raising no objection, the time has 
surely come for the Disciples of Christ to go up and 
possess the land. 

What a thrill and a challenge this situation presents ! 
Tibet, a belated nation, without a railroad, without 
street cars or electricity. So far as is known, even 
without an automobile. No good roads, no modern 
cities. Not a church, nor a school, nor a hospital, 
except at Batang on the eastern border. Everything 
that stands for progress is yet to be done in Tibet. 
Every Lord's Day the little Tibetan church of not 
more than twenty-five members sits around the Lord's 
table breaking the loaf and partaking of the cup, 
"Shewing forth the Lord's death till He come again." 
With faith and vision we can see in the next quarter 
of a century a host of little Christian churches scattered 
all over the land. 

"Separate me Barnabas and Saul. And when they 
had fasted and prayed and laid their hands on them 
they sent them away." The strongest and the best 
were sent out into the fields beyond. Our people are 
facing such a time to-day. Surely the Holy Spirit 
is urging even now some of our finest and biggest 


men to leave places of prominence and leadership and 
answer this call of Tibet Men with the spirit of 
Paul, with the pioneer daring of Livingstone, with 
the untiring energy and heroic devotion of Carey, are 
needed for this task. 

Let there be no misunderstanding about the pro- 
posed undertaking. There is a strange romanticism 
in this appeal from that far-off highest table land in 
the world. But to those who go it will not be romantic. 
It is without doubt the most difficult field in the world. 
There will be months and years of unending study of 
an intricate language. There will be the cold indiffer- 
ence of centuries of passive Buddhism. There will be 
the imbedded suspicion of all foreigners. There will 
be the blighting influence of hundreds and thousands 
of Buddhist priests. There will be the very instincts 
of the people themselves for religion, but a religion 
without a moral uplift and entirely without the idea 
of a divine Saviour. How heart-breaking it will be 
for enthusiastic, consecrated Americans to try to get 
results under such almost insurmountable difficulties 1 

But the way is now open ! He who has told us to go 
has said, "Lo I am with you." And it will be a great 
day when at least four well equipped families are ready 
to depart for that long journey. It will take many 
men and women, but some should start soon. Others 
should complete their preparations and be ready for 
the advance movements as they present themselves. 
May the Holy Spirit hold us steady, and commit us 
unreservedly to this great, unfinished task which is 
now so definitely before us. 

China Inland Mission, 

Yunnanfu, Yunnan, S. China, 

3 March, 1922. 

The shocking news of Dr. Shelton being killed by 
brigands has just reached us. We can only begin to 


imagine the shock and grief which the dreadful mes- 
sage would bring to you, nor less to your two dear 
daughters at home. The mysterious Providence, which 
permitted the removal of such a pioneer worker, ex- 
perienced missionary, and far-known and well-loved 
healer, demands the profoundest trust and hope. We 
ask for the healing touch of the Comforter, who alone 
can give balm for such an awful wound. As you 
know, all of us loved and respected Dr. Shelton. 

We are quite at a loss to know what the Mission 
will do without him, a mission so far off and isolated 
and he so well known and respected as he was in all 
that region. God makes no mistakes, and what we 
know not now we shall know hereafter. 

The news was broken to us as a meeting of the 
Yunnan Missionary Association was just gathering. 
A resolution of sympathy was passed and the above 
letter ordered written, expressing the deep sympathy 
of the whole missionary community here. 

On behalf of the above association, 
I remain, 

Yours in Christian sympathy, 
H. A. C. AL;LEN, 


China Inland Mission, 

Yunnanfu, Yunnan, China, 
5 March, 1922. 



I am instructed by the Yunnan Missionary Associa- 
tion to convey to you our sincerest sympathy in the 
loss of Dr. Shelton who, as we have learnt by wire 
was killed by brigands on the borders of Tibet, on 
17 February. 

He was well known to us here. First, because of 


his being captured by brigands two years ago- when 
nearing this city and held for hostage for three months, 
during which time fruitless negotiations were carried 
on between the Government and the outlaws. Then 
again, he has but recently passed through here, stay- 
ing some time in this city, escorting a new band of 
workers to Batang. 

His geniality, interesting experiences, and love for 
the Tibetans won him a large place in all our hearts. 
His unfailing kindness to all Orientals awakened af- 
fection and opened the door to many hearts. Only yes- 
terday I heard of a young evangelist of ours who re- 
ceived kindness from him halfway between here and 
Batang, who when he heard of his death gave vent to 
his feeling through tears and refused to take his food. 

The blow to you as a Mission will be very severe. 
His experience and his skill, his wide range of friends, 
and his sudden removal from an isolated and important 
mission station, will make his loss very hard to fill 
and be felt most keenly. We had Mrs. Shelton and 
her two daughters living with us here during the time 
that Dr. Shelton was held captive by the brigands, 
which gives us another link with him. I have been 
asked to address a letter of sympathy to her in India. 
Her two daughters at home will be crushed by the 
terrible news. We are witnesses of their more than 
ordinary attachment to their father. 

On behalf of the whole missionary community of 
this city, I wish to express our sympathy and our keen 
sense of your loss in this trial. God is able, however, 
to use this disaster for His own glory, and to the 
creating of a new and widespread sympathy with 
foreign mission work in general and this field in 

I remain, 

Yours very truly, 
(signed) H. A. C. ALLEN, 





Monieka, D. C. C. M., Coquilhatville 
Congo Beige, West Africa, 

10 May, 1922. 

Just this week we received the cable from the office 
telling of the great loss you and your daughters have 
been suffering. I greatly feel the loss of a friend. I 
know a little of what you are passing through. I 
sympathize with you. How or why Doctor had to give 
his life thus will probably never be known in this world. 
He had given a great deal for Tibet and now he had 
finished with his all. Now it is left for you and the 
girls to give in sorrow and loneliness. And I think 
your giving now is even greater than his gift. As 
he himself expressed it about Bro. McLean, being 
now with Bro. Rains, he is with them both now and 
all of God's saints. 

Since when I was with the Dr. and Pres. McLain 
in the rallies in 1911 I have always dreamed of a trip 
home via Palestine and India and Tibet and down the 
river way out to Nankin. But I don't know that I 
want to now that he is not there to be with. 

But Mrs. Shelton, all I can say are cold, cold words, 
and so pitiably weak. The Lord bless you and make 
up to you in some way or other for this awful loss. 
Heaven is a little nearer for all those who knew the 
Doctor, now that he has gone. All of us here are 
grieved and sympathize with you. The Lord bless you 
and your girls. 

Sincerely yours, 

Louis F. JAGGARD. 


Foreign Missionary Department, Australia 

Melbourne, 14 May, 

c/o U. C. M. S., 
ST. Louis, MISSOURI, U. S. A. 


On behalf of the Victorian (Australia) F. M. De- 
partment and the churches of the State I desire to ex- 
press their deepest sympathy and Christian love to you 
in your season of sore trouble and tears. 

We in this Southland feel the poorer because of 
the call to higher service of your beloved husband 
and father. Although it was not our privilege to 
meet the heroic Doctor face to face, yet we of the 
Victorian Brotherhood felt he belonged to us; we 
loved him for his marvelous and unique ministry as a 
hero of the highest type. He was a leader of the 
Carey stamp, an explorer and pathfinder of the Liv- 
ingstone spirit and daring, a lover of suffering and 
lost humanity like unto Mackenzie of China, an ambas- 
sador of the glorious Gospel like the indomitable Paul, 
and above all, a true man among men like the Man 
of Galilee, Jesus Christ. 

During the annual conference of the churches 
(Easter-tide) at the Monater F. M. Session, a resolu- 
tion of loving sympathy was unanimously carried, the 
resolution commended you and yours, also the U. C. 
M. S. to the care and love of the Eternal Comforter. 
May the Eternal God the Father throw His loving 
arms round and about you. 

The members Of my committee join in this expres- 
sion of Christian sympathy to you all. 

I am, 

Yours in His Service, 



Foreign Missions Committee of the 
Churches of Christ in South Australia. 

26 May, 1922. 

Please forgive the lateness of this letter, but it is a 
far cry from Australia to U. S. A., and our Commit- 
tee feels that it cannot allow the passing of your noble 
husband to go without a word of sympathy from us. 
At the last committee meeting I was directed to write 
you assuring you of our prayers and our sorrow in 
the passing from us of such a noble servant of God. 
Brother A. C. Garnett of Australia had hardly re- 
turned from Yunnanfu, China, and his thrilling mes- 
sage telling of the plan of Dr. Shelton to enter Lassa 
was still ringing in our ears when word came of his 
death. We feel that we have sustained a great loss 
as well as you. For a number of years we here in 
Australia have been watching the progress of the work 
at Batang. Ever since Dr. Rijnhart told us her story 
in the book, "Tibetans in Tent and Temple," we have 
been watching and praying. What her great suffer- 
ings and devotion did for Tibet in inspiring Dr. Shel- 
ton and yourself to go out, we are sure your husband's 
death will do in greater measure, and although the 
price that you, personally, have had to pay, is so 
great, we believe that our God will give you some 
measure of consolation and strength in the fulfillment 
of his hopes, and the prospect of the glad reunion. 
May the Lord bless you and your family is the prayer 
of our Committee. 

Yours "in the Gospel," 




Edmund Avenue, 
Unley, South Australia, 
3 June, 1922. 



I am directed by the Federal Committee of our For- 
eign Missionary Society in Australia to convey to you 
their sympathy at the loss of such a worker as Dr. 
Shelton. In his journeyings from Batang to the sea 
coast, he would call at Yunnanfu, where our Aus- 
tralian missionaries are, and they had delightful in- 
tercourse, and sat together round the table of the Lord. 
Our missionaries spoke of how much they admired and 
loved Dr. Shelton, and what a season of spiritual re- 
freshment it was to be in his company. You have lost 
one of your greatest of missionaries, but who can say 
we have lost him! 

I am sure that since his death his name has become 
a greater houseword than ever before in scores of our 
churches, and at all our recent conferences his name 
became an inspiration to larger missionary enterprises, 
and I notice in some of the articles received for our 
Foreign Mission Day number of The Christian the 
name of Dr. Shelton often occurs. Dr. Shelton' s death 
will give a stimulus to our own missionary work, and 
I am sure a greater stimulus still to your larger enter- 

Yours faithfully, 


Edmund Avenue, 
Uriley, South Australia, 
3rd June, 1922. 





We were all very grieved to hear of the death of 
your husband Dr. Shelton. He had come to be quite a 
familiar name to us in Australia, as in passing to and 
from Batang he passed through our Australian station 
at Yunnanfu, and our missionaries told of the delight 
they had in visiting him, and the story of his work has 
been told and retold in hundreds of our churches until 
we think we surely know him. 

We extend to you our sincere sympathy at your in- 
comparable loss. We pray that God's blessing of com- 
fort may be given to you and your children in abundant 
measure. Though his bodily presence is away from 
the earthly battlefield, his spirit is alive beckoning us 
to "come on" to greater victories for the Lord that he 
loved and so devotedly and self-sacrificingly served. 
On behalf of the Federal Committee, 

Yours faithfully, 







Indianapolis, Ind., 26 July, 1922. 



In reply to your 'favor of the yth I beg to say that 
the College of Missions will be glad and honored to 
receive the Doctor's desk and chair to go into the 
Memorial Library room. You have doubtless heard 
that the College is creating the Shelton Memorial 
Library and Professorship. The total investment is 
to be $65,000, of which $50,000 is to endow a Tibetan 
Professorship and $15,000 to be invested in the Li- 
brary. Of the latter $5000 is to be expended immedi- 
ately in available books on Tibet, and $10,000 is to 
be invested as library endowment yielding about $600 
per year for further purchases. We have already se- 
cured a large range of the most valuable material 
regarding Tibet. 

The Memorial Library is being established in a sep- 
arate room. It is in this that we propose to place the 
desk and chair and to have as fine a portrait of the 
Doctor as we can secure. It is our intention in con- 
nection with college opening this year to have a special 
dedication service for the Library. Will you be in 
the East around September 20? We should so much 
like to have you present for this dedication. 

Will you please ship by freight, as soon as con- 
venient, the desk and chair, charges to be paid at this 
end? And, of course, the College will also pay the 
expenses of packing. 


We are all thinking of you these days with loving 

Very sincerely yours, 

P. S. I am deeply interested in your proposed book 
on Dr. Shelton. 

Enid, Oklahoma 

i. N. MC CASH, President 

31 July, 1922. 


I owe you an explanation for the delay in acknowl- 
edging personally the splendid collection of photo- 
graphs you sent for Phillips University. Those photo- 
graphs will preserve the memory and incidents of the 
life of your beloved husband. I am having them 
mounted so the young people, numbering about eighty, 
in conference here now, shall have an opportunity to 
see them. I expect to mount them permanently for 
the Bible College of Phillips University. Slides will 
be made from some of those pictures and used in our 
campaign for the enlisting of young people in the 
service of Christ. 

You have been made acquainted with the results of 
our efforts at Phillips University to persuade young 
people to give themselves to the holy calling of mis- 
sions. When the news first came of Dr. Shelton's 
death it made a profound impression upon the student 
body of Phillips University. At the church services 
in the weeks that followed forty volunteered for either 
home or foreign field. Among them were some of 


the strongest students in school. Your husband ranked 
with Livingstone and Moffat and others who have 
been given by Christendom wide recognition for 

I hope you and the girls are well. You have our 
prayers for the Lord's preservation over you and them. 
We shall be glad to have you come to Phillips Uni- 
versity any time. The door of welcome is open to you. 

Very sincerely yours, 
I. N. McCASH, 




608 Topeka Boulevard, Topeka, Kansas 

21 September, 1922. 

The State Convention of the Kansas churches is 
here in Topeka, October 2-5. On Thursday evening, 
the 5th, we will have a Shelton-Tibet service. We 
have asked Miss Naomi Shelton to lead the devotional 
service, Miss Trout will speak on the Shelton Me- 
morial, and Mr. Yocum will give an illustrated lecture 
on yours and Dr. Shelton's work in Tibet. It is our 
thought at this time to have Miss Trout announce 
the Kansas memorial work for Dr. Shelton. We are 
undertaking the $25,000 orphanage building in Batang 
in his memory. I have thought the friends here in 
Kansas would appreciate very much a letter from you 
to be read at this time. 

I need not even attempt to tell you of the feeling of 
our people regarding the work that you and Dr. Shel- 
ton have done. It has been such a monumental work. 
The loss is that of all Christendom and not merely 
of our people, and anything we do or say seems very 
small. But there are in Kansas a great many church 
people who are remembering you and the girls in their 


prayers and who think of you all with the deepest love. 
If you could send us a letter to be read at the State 
Convention when our first announcements are made 
concerning the Shelton Memorial and also sent out in 
our first letters to the churches, we will be very 

Sincerely yours, 







WHEREAS, it has pleased God that Dr. Albert Leroy 
Shelton complete the matchless trinity of heroes of the 
Cross with Petrus Rijnhart and Zenas Sanford Loftis 
of Texas who have been justly awarded the loftiest 
niches in the temple of Christian achievement in the 
present century; and 

WHEREAS, the latest champion of the faith for which 
his Divine Master suffered a cruel death, and made us 
"more than conquerors through Him who loved us"; 
and as His ambassador has written "Resurgam" on 
the heaven-kissed peaks of the Himalayas ; 

Therefore, Be it ResolveH by the Women's Mission- 
ary Society of the First Christian Church, Athens, 
Alabama, assembled in regular meeting to appeal to 
its worthy Brotherhood of which he was a faithful 
messenger, to designate a day for commemorative 
services in memory of Dr. Albert Leroy Shelton: 

Resolved That his prophecy that "The land of 
Tibet would become a part of the kingdom of Jesus 


Christ," be fulfilled in supplying the vacancy created 
by his tragic death: 

Resolved further, that his dreams have been realized 
through the power of Him who broke the blade which 
pierced his side, and at His Command the King of 
Terrors yielded, and in his place gave the immortal 
Soul a peaceful sleep. 

Resolved that the prayerful sympathy of this church 
be extended his wife and daughters through the press 
of our Brotherhood. 

Committee (Mrs. W. L. Martin) 
(Mrs. P. H. Mears) 
Chairman, Mrs. Aurora P. McClellan. 
Apr. 1 7th, 1922, Athens, Ala. 

In memory of DR. A. L. SHELTON 

Under the stars he slept, but his spirit was waking. 
Often his body fatigued, o'erwearied with travel, 
His soul, impatient of rest, aroused from its slumber. 
Round him he saw the forms of his sleeping com- 
panions ; 

Standing apart, his comrade in many a journey, 
Rested his mule adoze, one foot slightly lifted. 
Farther away the yak, the bearers of burdens, 
Uncouth silhouettes and indistinct in the star-light, 
Browsed and drowsed till dawn should bring them new 


Round the camp arose the great Himalayas; 
Eager, the traveler lifted his eyes to their summits 
Where, *twixt the peaks, he traced the far snowy passes, 
Roads of desire that led to the goal of his vision. 
For at the end of the way lay Lhasa the Sacred, 


Lhasa the suffering, knowing no trace of a healer, 
Lhasa the sinful, and hopeless without a Redeemer. 
Up from the peaks he looked to the heavenly spaces, 
Up to the great calm stars, that travel unwearied, 
Keeping their steadfast course to the end of the ages. 
Farther than mountains or stars, yet nearer than heart's 


Felt he the Spirit Divine, the Ineffable Presence. 
No road too high or too hard if his Master went with 


No goal too distant and dim if Jehovah revealed it ! 
Secure in His love, secure in His guard and His 

Under the stars he slept. 

Under the stars he sleeps, but his spirit is waking. 
Low lies the grave of the man who died for his vision, 
Died for the truth that he lived and the dream of his 


For his compassion for men and his love for Jehovah. 
Still at the end of the way lies Lhasa the Sacred, 
Lhasa whose pain still knows no touch of the healer, 
Lhasa whose sin still knows no hope of redeemer. 
And 'twixt the peaks still stretch the far snowy passes, 
Waiting the foot of the man who dares to go forward. 
Difficult roads that lead to the City Forbidden, 
You shall not wait for long the coming of promise ; 
For, as it ever has been, the martyr is victor; 
His spirit is waking. 

November 17, 1922. 

1 Written a few days before she, too, passed to the "other 




48 438 100 

48 438 100