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All Kindreds and Tongues 

An Illustrated Survey 

of the 
Foreign Mission Enterprise of Northern Baptists 

Edited by 

1 1 

with the collaboration of 


Published by 

American Baptist Foreign Mission Society 

Woman's American Baptist Foreign Mission Society 

One Hundred Fifty-two Madison Avenue 
New York 

Price 35 cents 


r "r*HE first handbook issued jointly by the American Baptist 
_L Foreign Mission Society and the Woman's American Baptist 
Foreign Mission Society was entitled Overseas. It appeared in 
1929 and took the place of two publications formerly issued 
separately by these two societies, namely, the Guide Book and 
Our Work in the Orient. The last edition of Overseas was pub- 
lished in 1932. All Kindreds and Tongues appears as its successor. 

During these intervening years dramatic changes have taken 
place throughout the world. The intense strains brought about 
by international conflict and economic disturbance bear heavily 
upon the peoples of mission lands and thus profoundly affect the 
conditions under which the spread of the Gospel of Christ must 
go forward. In December, 1938, notwithstanding this world tur- 
moil the conference of the International Missionary Council at 
Madras took place. The tense relations existing between nations 
and the fact that some were engaged in armed conflict did not 
prevent the coming together of Christian leaders from all parts 
of the world for the purpose of surveying the task and outlining 
a program for the ongoing of the Christian world mission. All 
Kindreds and Tongues presents the work of Northern Baptist 
foreign missions in the light of the Madras findings. 

The editor expresses appreciation of the cooperation of mis- 
sionaries and officers of the Foreign Boards who have made special 
contributions in the preparation of this book. While A II Kindreds 
and Tongues is intended primarily to be used as a text-book in 
mission study, it will also be found of value for missionary refer- 
ence and for general reading. 

New York, May 15, 1940 



Sift of Present's OtFioe 


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All Kindreds and Tongues i 

The Task Which Lies Before Us 13 

As Ye Go, Preach 22 

A Billion in Villages 31 

Education and Leadership 38 

Health and Healing 48 

Work by Women for Women 58 

The Younger Churches Grow Up 66 

Christian World Fellowship 74 

The Nations and the Gospel 81 

The Stream of Young Life and The Cost of Service .... 92 

Giving A Response of Love 102 



Burma ........ 111 

Assam 138 

Bengal-Orissa . 153 

South India 162 

South China 187 

East China 197 

West China 208 

Japan 217 

Philippine Islands 227 

Belgian Congo 239 

Europe 254 



Historical Statement . 261 

Management and Administration ......... 262 

Annuities, Legacies, Bequests 265 

Designated Giving 266 

Missionary Literature . 267 

Currency on Mission Fields 269 

Homes for Missionaries, and Children . 270 


Officers of the Two Societies 281 

Missionary Directory 282 

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Part I 

All Kindreds and Tongues 

A YOUNG MAN, twenty-five years of age, startled American Bap- 
tists and challenged them to one of the greatest undertakings 
of their history. On January 19, 1813, Adoniram Judson wrote 
from India: "Should there be formed a Baptist Society for the 
support of missions in these parts, I should be ready to consider 
myself their missionary." 

The letter stirred Baptist churches of the land to a devotion 
which manifested itself through succeeding decades in great initia- 
tives in the direction of local and world-wide evangelism and 
Christian education. 

The Response to a Challenge 

Since May, 1814, when Adoniram Judson and Ann Hasseltine 
Judson were enthusiastically accepted by American Baptists as 
their missionaries, 2,352 Baptist young men and women have 
been commissioned and sent abroad by the American Baptist 
Foreign Mission Society, the Woman's American Baptist Foreign 
Mission Society and the organizations which preceded them. Fol- 
lowing in the footsteps of the Judsons these heralds of the Cross 
have given a total of approximately 35,000 years of service, the 
equivalent of 18 years of service for every year which has passed 
since Calvary. It is a fact of minor interest and no measure of 
the magnitude of this great service that the total expenditures for 
carrying it out during a period of a century and a quarter are 
approximately 177,000,000. 

Why This Outpouring of Life and Treasure? 

It is unlikely that any of those who sprang so promptly to Jud- 
son's support appreciated fully the significance of the enterprise 
on which they were entering. Believing, however, that they pos- 
sessed in the saving knowledge of Christ Jesus, our Lord, an in- 

2 All Kindreds and Tongues 

estimable treasure, they had the faith and courage to undertake 
to share it with other peoples of the world. Judson's challenge 
was answered in the year 1814, by the organization of "The Gen- 
eral Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the United 
States for Foreign Missions and other important objects relating 
to the Redeemer's Kingdom," for the purpose of "diffusing the 

Judson and the last leaf of the Burmese Bible. 

knowledge of the religion of Jesus Christ by means of missions 
throughout the world." 

John's Radiant Vision of the Future 

Baptists have always been readers of the Bible. The new and 
rapidly developing interest in the evangelization of non-Christian 
lands is envisaged in the light and glory of the prophecy of St. 
John. "After this I beheld, and lo a great multitude, which no man 
could number, of all nations and kindreds and peoples and tongues 
stood before the throne and before the Lamb." (Revelation 7:9.) 
The fulfilment of that vision is seen in the effort to spread the 
knowledge of the gospel throughout the world. 

All Kindreds and Tongues 3 

The object of this volume is to give the details of the work 
abroad, but it should be borne in mind that parallel with the 
growing activity on foreign fields has gone forward a fruitful 
development in the homeland in the growth of churches on the 
frontier, in service for the underprivileged in rural and city work 
and in the evangelization of the new American. John's vision knew 
no distinction of "home" or "foreign" but united all in the un- 
numbered multitude. 

The Ferment of a New Vision 

But it was not only Baptists who, at the beginning of the last 
century, saw the vision of St. John and shared in the enthusiasm 
to fulfil it. It was felt by many that the work abroad could and 
should be carried on jointly by the evangelical churches. The 
London Missionary Society was organized in the year 1795 with 
the hope that this course might be followed. The story of Robert 
Morrison, sent to China by the latter organization in 1807, greatly 
stirred Christians of all evangelical churches. They were deeply 
moved likewise by the letters which came from William Carey 
who began work in India in 1793 under the Baptist Missionary 
Society of England. American Baptist foreign mission beginnings 
were intimately interwoven with those of the Congregationalists. 
Adoniram Judson sailed for India under Congregational auspices, 
became a Baptist en route and sent back to Boston the ringing 
message already quoted. Hence he was at least partially responsible 
for the organization of two great missions, namely, the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions and the General 
Convention of Baptists. 

Evangelical Christians Work Together 

Through the century and a quarter which have elapsed since 
Judson's challenge, evangelical churches of all names on both 
sides of the Atlantic have joined in the effort to share Christ with 
the peoples of the non-Christian world. At the beginning of this 
period Asia and Africa were almost untouched. When Judson was 
appointed to Burma, the country which first engaged the attention 
of American Baptists, it contained not one Christian church, not 
one Christian minister or other evangelical worker, and not a 
single Christian. A few scattering churches and disciples had been 
gathered in those sections of the non-Christian world in which 

4 All Kindreds and Tongues 

missionaries of other societies were at work. In the intervening 
period missions have multiplied rapidly. When the obstacles inter- 
posed by primitive means of transportation, alien languages, 
unfavorable climate, racial differences and entrenched religious 
systems are considered, the results may justly be considered 

A brief summary* will give a graphic picture of the results of 
a century and a half of evangelical missions. At the present time 
there are approximately 6,172 mission stations of all denominations 
throughout the world with a staff of 27,577 missionaries and 
10,971,066 baptized Christians, gathered into 55,395 churches on 
the mission fields; 53,158 schools of all types from kindergarten 
to university are conducted with 2,925,134 students; 1,092 hos- 
pitals and 2,351 dispensaries give about 19,000,000 treatments per 
year and 203,468 workers, evangelistic, educational and medical, 
native to the lands in which the work is carried on, cooperate with 
the missionary staff in the conduct of the work. 

A Developing Fellowship 

The fellowship among the various evangelical missions which 
was shown so clearly in the incipiency of the modern missionary 
enterprise has never been wholly absent from the movement. In 
recent decades their common aim of world evangelization has 
drawn the many missions close together. The vast extent of the 
territory to be covered, and the comparatively small number 
of workers in view of the magnitude of the task, have led mis- 
sionaries of all denominations to recognize the importance of 
going forward with their work in close harmony. In America 
one hundred and twenty-nine foreign mission boards and societies 
cooperate in many joint services through the Foreign Missions 
Conference of North America. This organization in turn joins 
with similar cooperative groups such as the Conference of Mission 
Societies in Great Britain and Ireland and with the National 
Christian Councils on the mission fields to form the International 
Missionary Council, the organization which binds together the 
evangelical foreign missions of all lands. 

"Statistical Survey of World Missions" 1938 

A II Kindreds and Tongues 5 

Progress of the Work 

The work of world evangelization has been characterized by 
intense and unremitting labor, extraordinary personal sacrifice 
both by the missionaries and those sending them, a godlike vision 
and faith, and a Christian sympathy embracing men of every race 
and nation. It has gone forward uninterruptedly through long 
periods of discouragement and apparent failure while at other 

Christian Leaders at Madras Conference. 

times it has met with startling successes. In many cases whole races 
have been redeemed and brought to a self-respecting position 
among the peoples of the world. Great out-pourings of Divine 
grace have been witnessed in many modern Pentecosts. Today's 
results show the existence of organized Christian churches in most 
countries and a Christian fellowship co-extensive with the globe. 

Madras: A Preview of the Fulfilment of John's Vision 

The present existence of a world Christian fellowship was 
graphically illustrated at the conference held in Madras, Decem- 
ber, 1938. Four hundred seventy-one men and women gathered 
from every continent of the world and from 69 nations speaking 
more than 100 tongues. On no previous occasion in the history 
of the world has so widely representative a gathering of Christians 

6 All Kindreds and Tongues 

assembled. It may be said that the Conference at Madras was a 
comprehensive foretaste of the fulfilment of St. John's prophecy: 
a company gathered out of "all nations and kindreds and peoples 
and tongues." 

Baptist Responsibility 

Baptists are interested in everything which is being done in the 
direction of world evangelization and are happy to work with other 
Christian communions to fulfil the Great Commission of our Lord 
and Saviour. It is a satisfaction to know that evangelical churches 
have so much in common that without the sacrifice of basic con- 
viction they may in many cases join forces to carry out a task 
which would be quite beyond the powers of any one of them 
working alone. None the less, there rests upon members of North- 
ern Baptist churches special responsibility for the continuance 
and adequate support of the work in those fields into which their 
missionaries have been led by the hand of God in times past. 

God's Leading 

The fields in which Northern Baptists work are the result of no 
haphazard choice. A few words will suffice to indicate the nature 
of the Divine call through which they were led into each of the 
major fields they now occupy. 

Adoniram Judson's startling letter was accepted at once as God's 
call to enter Burma in 1814. 

For years Baptist missionaries knocked in vain at the doors of 
continental China. Work among the Chinese was begun in Siam 
in 1833 and later (1836) spread to include Macao, a point ad- 
jacent to Hongkong, as an approach to the empire. The names 
of Jones, Dean, Shuck and Goddard appear prominently in those 
early annals. In 1843 Dr. D. J. Macgowan's medical skill gave the 
entrance to Ningpo, and the English treaty with China following 
the opium wars enabled Dr. William Ashmore to establish the 
work at Swatow in 1860. From these beginnings the missions in 
East, South and West China have developed. 

We were led into Assam through the prayer of a Christian 
British government official, Major Francis Jenkins. The mission- 
aries already established in Burma under the leadership of 
Adoniram Judson responded to Major Jenkins' call for aid by 
sending Messrs. Brown and Cutter to Assam in 1836. 

All Kindreds and Tongues 7 

A stray page from a magazine used as wrapping for a postal 
package furnished Dr. Amos Sutton with the address for his 
vigorous appeal which led Free Baptists to open the Bengal- 
Orissa Mission in 1836. 

On Commodore Perry's ship which opened Japan to western 
influence was Jonathan Goble, a Baptist church member, serving 
as a marine. He landed and gave himself to mission work, later 
joining our first regularly appointed missionary, Nathan Brown, 
who went to Japan in 1873. 

Our Congo Mission, established as the Livingstone Inland Mis- 
sion in 1878, was inspired by the stirring story of Stanley's en- 
counter with Livingstone at Ujiji, and his subsequent great 999 
day trans-Africa journey completed in August, 1877. 

President McKinley helped to furnish the stimulus for the open- 
ing of our Philippine Mission in 1900. After the battle of Manila 
Bay he issued a statement which concluded: "There is nothing 
left for us but to take them (the Philippine Islands) and educate 
the Filipinos, uplift their civilization and Christianize them, and, 
by God's grace, do the very best we can by them as our fellow 
men for whom Christ died." 

God's Blessing 

In a previous paragraph by a few striking statistics the total 
results of evangelical work of all denominations abroad have 
already been indicated. Baptist results are equally impressive. 
We have been part of the great evangelical movement which 
brought about these results. As has been shown, we were provi- 
dentially called to work in special fields and comity arrangements 
have been reached with other missions so as to limit overlapping. 

The results have been cumulative. Statistics are a very inade- 
quate measure of what has been accomplished, but they tell at 
least a part of the story. The two Northern Baptist Foreign Mis- 
sion Societies occupy ten mission fields in Asia and Africa and aid 
in work in ten European countries. There are 112 mission stations; 
3,338 churches with 377,381 members; 3,839 schools with 156,072 
students; 32 hospitals and 62 dispensaries giving about 350,000 
treatments per year; approximately 10,000 workers native to the 
fields in which work is carried on cooperate with the 508 mis- 
sionaries of the two foreign societies. Fuller details will be given 
in connection with the field surveys. 

8 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Another statistical study may be here given in order to point 
out the cumulative effect of the work through the years. It was 
seven years before our first missionary, Adoniram Judson, bap- 
tized his first Burma convert, Moung Nau. Baptisms show not 
only the results of the activity of the missipnary staff but in later 

Cherry Blossom Time in Japan. 

years they are more particularly an index (only one among many) 
of the growing power of the younger churches. In the following 

table the number of baptisms is given by decades since the be- 
ginning of the work: 

1815-24 18 

1824-34 931 

1834-44 6,653 

1845-54 10,195 

1855-64 12,617 

1865-74 14,271 

1875-84 42,762 

1885-94 59,045 

1895-1904 . 68,375 

All Kindreds and Tongues 9 

1905-14 101,115 

1915-24 125,743 

1925-34 > 187,536 

It is of interest to note that during the present decade the 

baptisms continue at about the rate given in the last decade listed. 

They run as follows, year by year: 

1935 16,032 

1936 16,143 

1937 18,850 

1938 18,059 

Other Indications of Success 

Growth in the extent of our fellowship as shown by the statistics 
of baptisms is only one indication of the success of the work. A 
few others may here be briefly mentioned: 

The development of self-supporting and self-propagating churches 
The organization of indigenous Christian bodies in many lands 

The opening of the doors of Christian opportunity, intellectual, 
social and spiritual, to many unprivileged primitive peoples 

The introduction of millions of people to the Bible and Christian 

The organization of school systems running the entire gamut of 
Christian education from kindergarten to university 

The improvement of the status of women among many peoples 

The introduction of the Christian home and the family altar into 
many communities 

The establishment of .centers for physical healing through modern 
medicine and surgery 

The development of systems of public hygiene and sanitation in 
many communities 

The advance achieved in cooperation with governments and other 
missions in the battle against endemic and epidemic disease 

The training of thousands of young men and women for service 
in the work of the church, education, agriculture, medicine and 
other lines 

The improvement of agricultural and industrial methods for the 
production of food and enrichment of the social and economic 


All Kindreds and Tongues 

The battle against entrenched social evils such as slavery, prostitu- 
tion, poverty, narcotic addiction. 

The detailed story that appears in the pages which follow will 
help the reader to judge not only the extent of the results achieved, 
but also their depth and significance. With the story of such sub- 

Congo Village Clinic. 

stantial achievements before it, the denomination may well thank 
God that it has been permitted to have part in a service which 
moves definitely and joyously in the direction of the realization of 
John's vision of the great company which no man can number of 
"all nations and kindreds and peoples and tongues standing be- 
fore the throne and before the Lamb." 

Madras gave us a picture for the first time in so adequate and 
comprehensive a fashion, of the existing world Christian fellow- 
ship, and stands as the foregleam and assurance of the greater fel- 
lowship which is to be. Painfully inadequate as has been our effort 
in past decades, the results already attained are a clarion call, as 
challenging as Judson's original message, to Baptists to go forward 
with fuller faith, determination and sacrifice. 

All Kindreds and Tongues 1 1 

Foreign Missions During War Periods 

At this moment churches and church members find themselves 
and their world work beset with difficulties and distresses which 
seem unparalleled in extent and gravity. These include wars in- 
volving two continents and seriously affecting all nations, world- 
wide economic and social problems, and the rapid development 
of national and international political systems which run dia- 
metrically counter to the Christian faith and imperil freedom 
of thought and personal liberty throughout the world. 

Two considerations of the utmost importance confront us in 
determining what may be the effect of the present disturbances 
upon the world mission of Christ: First, the present movement 
for world evangelization has passed through several war periods 
when the very foundations of life seemed shaken. Adoniram Jud- 
son was born amid the turmoil following the war of the revolu- 
tion, the Baptist foreign mission enterprise began with the forma- 
tion of the General Convention in the very midst of the war of 
1812, only a few weeks before the capture of Washington, the na- 
tional capital, by the British General Ross. The Work of the 
Society went forward vigorously during the Civil conflict of 1865 
and took on new life in the immediately succeeding years. The 
Annual Report for 1865 sums up the story of the Civil War years 
in these words: "The history and experience of the last four years 
have disclosed our missionary resources, both as respects means 
and laborers; enlarged our conceptions of the nature and relations 
of our Christly work; quickened our Christian sympathies, and 
trained our people to those larger enterprises beyond their own 
local wants and work committed to the church by its Head." The 
foreign work continued uninterruptedly during the World War of 
1914 and reached its highest development so far, in the years 
which followed. 

Why Not Try Christ's Way? 

The other consideration facing us leads to the very heart of the 
present problem. World developments have taken a devious course 
since the last great conflict. It was proclaimed a holy war, a war 
to end war, a war to save democracy, and the highest expectations 
were entertained as to the salutary results to follow its happy 
ending. The decades following have included years of disillusion. 
Widespread moral disintegration ensued, affecting individual life 

12 All Kindreds and Tongues 

as well as political and international relationships. Neither war, 
cultural development, economic adjustments, social systems, nor 
educational programs offer the answer to the need of a distraught 
world. The fact cannot be ignored, however, that the terrible 
experiences of the world war produced a host of initiatives aimed 
at the abolition of the war system. Individual sufferings led to an 
immense volume of prayer that the world might be purged of 
hatred and violence. Who shall say that the reluctance of certain 
great nations to begin active hostilities on a large scale even after 
war is declared is not the outgrowth at least in part of these efforts 
and prayers? Men outside the leadership of organized Chris- 
tianity are beginning to say "Why not try Christ's way?" 

The World Mission of Christ 

This is what Christian churches have been saying through their 
missionary outreach for more than a century. Surely this is a 
moment for the followers of Christ to offer anew His gospel as 
the remedy needed for the present world confusion and distress. 
It is with this conviction that the Foreign Mission Societies pre- 
sent to you this new and detailed statement of what is being done 
in your name and Christ's to share with men everywhere the 
truth of God as it is in Christ Jesus. 

The Task Which Lies Before Us 

WE HAVE made a beginning in the task of world evangeliza- 
tion. For this we may thank God with all humility. But 
while reading this gratifying evidence of progress let no one of us 
yield to the insidious temptation either to denominational or 
individual self-satisfaction. We have made only a beginning, and 
those who would argue that we may now rest upon our oars or 
turn to other interests must surely be unaware of the facts or 
strangely deaf to the call of God which echoes in every new and 
poignant world development of this distraught day. 

Expanding Needs 

A disconcerting fact for the foreign missionary to face is that 
the world increases in population at such a speedy tempo as to out- 
pace all our methods of evangelization. There are more non- 
Christians in the world today than there were ten years ago, and 
although the total Protestant constituency in non-Christian lands 
has increased in this period from 8,340,000 to 13,036,000 the in- 
crease has not overtaken the growth in population. 

The well-nigh incredible figures are as follows: In a world 
population of a little over two billion only about a third are 
related to any branch of the Christian church, Protestant, Roman 
Catholic or Orthodox. In the lands which are commonly con- 
sidered foreign mission fields the approximately 13,000,000 Protes- 
tant Christians exist among a billion and a third non-Christians 
or one Christian to a hundred. Out of a total population of 800 
million in Europe and the Americas 240 million have no con- 
nection with Christian churches. Afghanistan, the Soviet 
Republics, Bhutan, Outer Mongolia, Nepal and Tibet exclude the 
Christian faith. Protestant work in Abyssinia and Italian Africa 
has been well nigh eliminated. The missionaries have been ex- 
pelled from Turkestan. In China 45% of the country is un- 
touched. Sections exist in India where there are from two to four 
million people without the preaching of the gospel. Protestant 
missions have concentrated upon Africa, but still there are only 
56 evangelical missionaries to a million people. There are great 


14 All Kindreds and Tongues 

migrating Jewish populations entirely without the Christian wit- 
ness. These are a few of the facts more fully set forth in the 
Statistical Survey of the International Missionary Council and in 
The World Mission of the Church. 

T. K. Van, President, University of Shanghai. 

In addition to the simple facts already given it must be borne 
in mind that the Christian church is challenged today by con- 
ditions of which it did not dream a generation ago. How naive and 
simple was our complacent assumption that the preaching of the 
gospel would go forward in so-called Christian lands without 
serious challenge to ever-new victories, and that in sections then 
classified as mission lands geometrical growth in results would 
in the measurable future guarantee the triumph of the Christian 

The Task Which Lies Before Us 15 

New Powers of Evil 

New powers of evil have been unleashed and ancient errors re- 
vived. Ground counted indubitably ours has been lost and op- 
positions have appeared from unforeseen directions. Secularisms 
and paganisms attack Christian areas. The World Mission of the 
Church mentions five categories of this kind which may well cause 
us to ponder and pray: 

"i. The Church is faced with a situation in its missionary task 
where areas are closing to the gospel and where many of the peoples 
have become less open minded to Christian influences. In this con- 
nection, we note revivals within Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam and 

"2. There is more organized opposition to the Christian Church 
than at any time within the past hundred years. There is a real 
danger that if the work of the Church is not intensified the adverse 
movement will become so strong as seriously to threaten the whole 
work of the Church in the world. 

"3. The world is in a ferment, nations are seeking substitutes for 
God, and nationalisms are replacing old religious loyalties. 

"4. There are more non-Christians in the world now than there 
were ten years ago. The increase in membership of the Christian 
Church has not yet overtaken the increase in population." 

After reading and digesting such a series of statements as those 
just quoted from the Madras report it is well to remind our- 
selves that the new and confused world in which we are now 
carrying on the work is not dissimilar in some respects from the 
world of St. Paul's day. There are the same confusions, intoler- 
ances, warfares, hatreds, paganisms, poverties, class-divisions, en- 
trenched vices, age-old religious .faiths as well as secular 
philosophies, organized selfishnesses and outspoken infidelities. 
It was this situation he had in mind when he wrote, "We wrestle 
not against flesh and blood but against principalities, against 
powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against 
spiritual wickedness in high places. Wherefore take unto you the 
whole armor of God." (Eph. 6: 12-13.) 

An Evaluation of Baptist Work 

The startling character of world events, the rapidly changing 
conditions both at home and abroad, together with the stress of 
dwindling financial resources, recently led the two Foreign Mis- 

i6 All Kindreds and Tongues 

sion Societies to carry out jointly an intensive review and evalua- 
tion of their entire work. The leading motive in making this study 
was the desire to ascertain how best under present conditions to use 
the resources placed at the disposal of the Boards by the denomina- 
tion in face of the needs of the world, the varied stages reached 
in the development of the work and the desire to obey with the 

Mission School Students Visit the Villages. 

highest degree of fidelity the Master's command, "Go ye and 
disciple all nations." 

This study occupied a period of two years and was carried out 
by the Boards through the home staffs in close correspondence and 
conference with the missionaries upon the fields. It was completed 
just before the convening of the International Missionary Council 
at Madras and it is interesting to note how closely its findings 
coincide with the judgments as to the joint evangelical work 
throughout the world reached by the latter. A statement was pre- 
pared and printed in connection with the Annual Report of the 
Societies for 1937. Some important conclusions were: 

The Task Which Lies Before Us .17 

1. A number of new missionaries should be appointed annually 
to reoccupy stations left vacant; to fill vacancies at leading train- 
ing institutions; and to pioneer in methods of evangelism and 
community service. 

2. It was determined to restore when possible recent severe cuts 
in missionary salaries to enable the missionaries to meet the 
demands of increased cost of living and adequately to educate 
their children. 

3. To increase the appropriations made for the maintenance of 
evangelistic, educational and medical work. The work has been 
seriously handicapped by cuts. 

4. Advanced training should be made possible for a limited 
number of proven leaders in each field. 

5. Training of lay-membership of the churches in exemplifica- 
tion of Christian ideals, and for effective volunteer service in 
evangelism and other forms of Christian activity must be under- 

6. Evangelism on an expanding scale: Churches, groups of 
churches, associations and conventions should be inspired and en- 
couraged to undertake an outreaching service beyond their own 
immediate constituencies with the definite purpose of winning new 
disciples to Jesus Christ. 

7. Provision should be made for an interchange of messengers 
of Christian fellowship between the east and west. 

8. Christian literature: As Christian communities grow in 
number and in education, the need becomes more and more press- 
ing for a literature calculated to further intelligent comprehension 
of the Christian faith and life, such as will aid in the application of 
Christian principles to the social, economic and political life. 
Clearly such literature must be produced in many languages and 
dialects and in cooperation with other missions. 

9. A limited number of hospitals should be maintained with 
increasing emphasis on the development of village medical and 
public health service. A close relationship must be maintained 
between the hospital and the Christian community, and the 
essentially evangelistic character of the medical ministry be con- 

10. Support should be given to new ventures in approaching 
non-Christian communities and groups. 

1 1 . The rapid emergence of women into a status of freedom 


All Kindreds and Tongues 

Inland Sea, Japan. 

and recognition in social, economic and political life emphasizes 
the importance of continuing and increasing the support given to 
well-considered efforts for reaching non-Christian women, and 
preparing Christian and non-Christian women for the larger life. 
12. Cooperation: The demonstration of a world-wide Christian 
fellowship, bound together in essential unity by the principles of 
faith in God and in Jesus Christ, of mutual love and a common 
determination to realize the principles of Jesus in every day life, 
would make a vastly greater contribution to the peace of the world 
and to the advancement of Christian faith than can possibly be 
made by the separate efforts of individual denominations. There 
are many projects in which Baptists can cooperate with other 
evangelical agencies with great effectiveness and economy and 
with no sacrifice of Baptist principles. 

Charting the Future 

The long experience in various phases of Christian service 
brought by the 471 delegates from all nations to the Madras 
Conference provided a broad base from which to chart the future 

The Task Which Lies Before Us 19 

of the world mission of Christ. Plans were worked out jointly from 
the hearts and minds of missionaries, board secretaries and Na- 
tionals as they compared notes and exchanged views which will 
serve to guide the churches in all lands. The deliberations and 
recommendations * covered such diverse subjects as: 

Mass movements, or the group approach to Christ 

Evangelism in urban, industrial and rural areas and concerted 
study by related groups of the newer methods of approach 

The publication of religious educational material in the languages 
of the people 

Attitudes towards government where all training of youth is con- 
sidered the exclusive function of the State 

The relation of preventive medicine to the work of the mission 
hospital. Health service for rural areas 

Health of the missionary staff 

The part of the churches abroad in determining the type of mis- 
sionary to be sent 

Illiteracy among Christians 

The economic basis of the life of the church. New methods of 
church support 

Changing social order 

The church in the international sphere, its witness in times of 
peace or war. 

The bearing of these subjects upon the work of Northern 
Baptists in foreign lands will be seen as this study is carried further. 
Two major considerations may be said to have emerged from the 
Madras Conference: First, that there already exists a world-wide 
Christian fellowship; and second, that the principles which unite 
us all in the fellowship are so basic that the forward path is seen 
to present great possibilities of advance and development as we 
enter more fully into cooperative endeavor. 


These are days fraught with impending changes in India, 
changes which bring new opportunities and new problems to the 
Christian church. It is impossible to prophesy with any degree of 
certainty what the future holds in store for our work but we are 
confident that responsibility on a rapidly increasing scale must be 
devolved upon our Indian co-workers. 

* The World Mission of the Church 

2O All Kindreds and Tongues 

Every time we visit a village, nevertheless, we are appalled at 
the ignorance and superstition we find on every hand. We are 
burdened with the enormous need which still confronts us and 
our lack of time and staff to meet the need adequately. The path 
which leads to the future may seem dim but we go on with un- 
daunted courage. 

W. Drew Varney, South India 

Filipino Village. 


There are by no means enough pastors to go round and the 
shortage of workers for supervision, work among Mohammedans, 
Oriyas and other special tribes is very great. Opportunities for 
vigorous evangelism were never greater among Santals, Koras and 
low caste Hindus yet where are the men and funds? A Christian 
sadhu asked me the other day, "What right have you to make more 
Christians when you can't care for what you have?" We Baptists 
have the responsibility for the care, nurture and uplift of a 'great- 
church in this land as well as for the evangelism of millions for 
whom ours is the only work being carried on. 

W. C. Osgood, Bengal-Orissa 

The Task Which Lies Before Us 21 


I have been thinking these last days of the constant increase 
in the number of new missions coming to Congo. Our Baptist 
Mission, however, has a great work to do. There is the extensive 
aggressive evangelism, the development of the churches, the train- 
ing of the workers, the educational system, the preparation and 
publication of literature, the large hospitals with hundreds of 
patients coming daily, the sanitary measures over wide areas in 
the fight against sleeping sickness and other diseases. 

P. C. Metzger, Belgian Congo 


One elderly Karen pastor has recently come to Loikaw to work. 
He says he has worked in various places in the Shan States, but 
for long years he has prayed to work among his own people, and he 
feels it is God's own leading that has brought about his coming 
to this field now. He is to be traveling evangelist in the eastern 
hills, where we have had only two pastors in two villages. There 
are about 200 villages of Red Karens in that area, in addition to 
Shans. We hope to put a nurse in a large central bazaar village 
there some day. 

Grace Seagrave, M.D., Burma 

Our participation in Missions measures our Christian 

Our knowledge of Missions measures our Christian At- 

Our interest in Missions measures our Christian Char- 

As Ye Go, Preach 

THE RECOGNITION of the Great Commission as the marching 
orders of the Church has been clear in the basic documents of 
the Foreign Societies from their very beginning. The original 
charter of the General Convention, adopted in 1814, stated its 
purpose to be that of "diffusing the knowledge of the religion of 
Jesus Christ by means of missions throughout the world." In 1925 
a conference of the officers and missionaries of the Societies put it 
thus: "The paramount aim of the Christian missionary enterprise 
is to lead men everywhere to accept Jesus Christ as Saviour and 
Master, through whom they may find the Father." In acknowledg- 
ing this Commission as our charter the Societies have been in step 
with the growing and wider Christian fellowship. We may use the 
words of the Jerusalem Conference of the International Mission- 
ary Council: "The one inclusive purpose of the missionary enter- 
prise is to present Jesus Christ to men and women the world over 
as their Redeemer and to win them for entrance into the joy of His 

Surmounting All Barriers 

We would be recreant to history if we did not here and now 
give voice to our gratitude to God for the clear vision, high faith 
and complete devotion of the missionaries of our Societies, be- 
ginning with Judson and coming on down the line, who have 
spent their lives in obedience to the command to proclaim the 
message of God's redeeming love. Their testimony has been given 
from their varying experiences of God's grace, and has been at- 
tested in a wide variety of ways. But it has been genuine and 
powerful. It has acknowledged no limitations of geography or 
race, no barriers which could not be surmounted, no difficulties 
which would not finally yield to consecrated persistence. It is ours 
to see more clearly the fruit of their labors. The church members 
in our ten missions now number more than one to every four 
Northern Baptists. The churches they or their national colleagues 
have founded number 3,338. 


As Ye Go, Preach 23 

The Essential Task 

The primary motive in every phase of our work has been that 
of endeavoring to lead men and women, boys and girls, to know 
Jesus Christ, to accept Him as their personal Saviour and Lord, 
to love and serve Him with all their capacities. The Madras Con- 


Non-Christian Villagers of Northern Assam 
Greet the Missionary. 

ference spoke for our Societies, and many others, when it said: 
"The essential task of the Church is to be the Ambassador of 
Christ, proclaiming His Kingdom. . . . All the church's activities, 
whether social service, education, the spreading of Christian litera- 
ture, the healing of body and mind, or any other work undertaken 
for man, follow from the essential task committed to it." The 
complaint of one of our missionaries engaged in high school work 
is illuminating and represents the attitude of his fellows in this 
branch of the work. He objected vigorously to being called an 
"educational" missionary, in contrast to some of his brethren 

24 All Kindreds and Tongues 

working directly with the churches who were denoted as "evan- 
gelistic" workers. His objection was based on the fact that his 
activities were as definitely "evangelistic" in purpose and results 
as were those of his colleagues in other lines of responsibility. 
His witness for Christ was a constant part of his life and effort, 
amply attested to in its effects on his students in their decisions to 
make Christ their Saviour and Master. From a prominent Chinese 
Christian, Dr. K. C. Wong, the secretary of the Council on Medical 
Missions of China, comes a striking testimony to China's Christian 
hospitals. Reviewing the war experience he writes: "The past two 
years have seen the undisputed spiritual value of the hospitals 
in China in bringing men to Christ. Thousands have been con- 
verted through the influence of mission hospitals. They form .the 
best witness of the living Church." 

The Spirit of Service, the Spirit of Christ 

At this point we need to be exceptionally careful that our think- 
ing is clear. The service in school, hospital or other institution 
of the Christian mission is not by way of a bait to attract men, a 
means primarily for securing a hearing for the gospel. It is an end 
itself. The spirit of service is an essential part of the spirit of the 
Christ who healed the sick, drove out demons, healed the lepers 
and fed the hungry. The urge to serve others is an essentially 
Christian urge. If it is not present we may doubt the validity of 
the Christian experience. Genuinely Christian love inevitably 
reaches out to enlighten with the truth taught in a Christian 
school, to heal through the service of consecrated physicians and 
nurses, enrich men's living with the skills and the ideals acquired 
in a Christian enterprise such as Pyinmana Agricultural School. 
Dr. Wong is right: "Medical missionary work is not merely a 
humanitarian enterprise, but it is an integral part of the work of 
the Christian Church, the mission of which it is to make known 
God as revealed in Jesus Christ. Through the Church it goes out 
in love and compassion to minister to the needs of men, wherever 
such suffering mankind is found." 

That service in the name of Christ does commend the gospel 
to the hearts of men is not surprising. We rejoice when an intelli- 
gent, well trained and objectively minded Chinese Christian writes: 
"The old prejudice against Christianity has gone. There is a new 
desire on the part of many people to find out more about Chris- 

As Ye Go, Preach 25 

tianity and its message for present-day life. . . . The main reason 
for this change of attitude is to be found in the spirit of service 
which Christian people and organizations have displayed since 
the War. They have not only actively participated in the relief 
of refugees and the caring for wounded soldiers, but they have 
stamped whatever they do with a quality and a spirit which is 
easily recognizable as being distinctively Christian." 

Coles Memorial Church, Kurnool, South India. 

Attack on All Fronts 

Had we had no such word from the Master it would be perfectly 
clear today, "The field is the'world." That He saw and said this 
two thousand years ago, from the vantage point of a tiny little 
country tucked away in one corner of the small Mediterranean 
world is a striking evidence of His divine prescience. For today 
surely nothing is more clearly established in the midst of current 
tragic events than that of the complete interdependence of all 
parts of the world, where no nation liveth to itself. In our era 
nations are closely bound together in the ties of modern communi- 
cations and transport. The economy of each is intertwined with 
that of the other, and if the interchange of trade is halted, all 
suffer. War in any one section means the impoverishment of the 
world community. Isolation is impossible, and the political ideals 
and ethical standards of one people are the intimate concern of 

26 All Kindreds and Tongues 

every other. It is now seen that for peoples to worship the strange 
gods of race or soil, to become obsessed with ideas of their peculiar 
worth or their divine mission in the world, is to endanger not 
only the political and economic stability, but also the very life of 
their neighbors. Can there be any secure spiritual basis for the 
world's life, any adequate point of reference for its moral stand- 
ards, other than the conviction that there is but one God before 
Whose judgment-seat all peoples must stand? The command to 
go, preach, is clothed with a new urgency. For Christians its 
authority rests with our Lord, but the march of the centuries 
demonstrates its validity as the only orders adequate for the peace 
and health of the whole world. We recognize that the battle 
is far from won anywhere certainly not in so-called Christian 
America. But our Lord's command, reinforced by every modern 
development, bids us to do no less than attack on all fronts! 

Rewards of Evangelism 

Here one can do no more than outline some of the more striking 
accomplishments and opportunities we face. Most of the Lone Star 
Mission is in the mass movement area where the outcastes press 
into the church more rapidly than they can be shepherded and 
trained in the Christian life. They now come to the churches 
of all denominations at the astounding rate of twelve thousand 
a month. Their Sudra, or caste, neighbors, long scornful of the 
gospel so gladly received by the despised Untouchables, more 
lately impressed by the transformation among them, have begun 
to yield, and sixty thousand of them have entered the Christian 
fold. In Assam the hill tribes along the northeast frontier have 
proven peculiarly responsive to the message. The vigorous growth 
in numbers and self-support, and the indigenous evangelistic im- 
pact of the Karen churches of Burma are one of the outstanding 
accomplishments of the world mission of the Christian Church. 
Missionary work among them, in training their leadership, in 
counsel and inspiration will multiply itself many times over in 
evangelistic outreach among the people. Other tribes in Burma 
hear the gospel gladly. One might cite the experience of Rev. 
G. A. Sword in northeast Burma. When he came to work among 
the Kachins twenty years ago the church members in his field, 
Namkham, numbered only 250, and today they are 3,600. The fine 
stone church, recently erected on the hills above Kutkai, largely 

As Ye Go, Preach 27 

from the resources of the people themselves, would do credit to 
many towns in the United States, and compared with the primitive 
dwellings of the people it is a marvelous testimony to their 

Testimony in Time of Suffering 

In the Philippines a vigorous young Protestant church is finding 
itself and is facing the unfolding political future of the Islands 
with a new sense of responsibility and mission, which has de- 
manded the attention of the Roman Catholic majority. In 1938 
our churches there won converts to a number exceeding ten per- 
cent of their membership. China is passing through a tragic ex- 
perience of devastation and suffering, of want and death. The 
testimonies are to be had from every sort of source that in this 
experience Christians by their faith, devotion and unselfish serv- 
ice have revealed themselves in a new light to a suffering people. 
The result has been a new willingness to give the good news of 
Christ's love a respectful hearing. A writer in one of China's 
critical journals of opinion, a place where one has not often 
found any appreciation for the Christian movement, puts it thus: 
"Today, after two years of hostilities, the Christian missions in 
China have built "for themselves a record of which they may 
be justly proud. They have preached the gospel, not with words, 
but by a practical demonstration of the love of God and the 

Tibetan Group Visit the Mission Station, West China. 

28 All Kindreds and Tongues 

brotherhood of man. They have definitely found their place in 
the life of the nation, fulfilling great human needs in its hour 
of travail." This has had its rich result in an unexpected number 
of baptisms, particularly in East China. 

The churches in Japan are in an atmosphere most unfavorable 
for growth. And yet Kagawa has led in launching a nationwide 
evangelistic campaign. Those who know Japan best feel confident 
that when the current phase in her life has passed the churches 
will again face an opportunity for expansion in numbers and 

In Congo the spirit of evangelism constantly renews itself. There 
is a resistless urge among missionaries and their Congo colleagues 
to conquer new territory and consolidate old. Waves of deepening 
interest in Christian things flow incessantly. Ebb in one area is 
often flow in another. A few years ago the older churches of 
Banza Manteke and Sona Bata sent an evangelistic deputation 
led by Moses Kikwakwa into the wilder areas along tlje Kwangu 
and Wamba Rivers. Today new surges of evangelistic fervor 
awaken the sections about Vanga, Moanza and Kikongo, and 
young men and women are sent from this section to receive leader- 
ship training at Kimpese. 

The command "Go, preach," is still valid valid because of 
Him who said it, and patently valid for our modern world. Obedi- 
ence to this command is the basic principle to which all the work 
of the Societies has conformed. Even in this troubled time we 
may thank God for His evident blessings on those who obey! 



We are returning to Burma for our last term of service. It hardly 
seems possible that we have already put in thirty years of service. 
How short it seems as we look back! We are returning to a Burma 
seething with the spirit of change. Riot and revolution, both 
political and religious, have been stalking her streets and jungles. 
The old order is passing, giving place to new, and it comes not 
without suffering and bloodshed on the part of her peoples. The 
Christian gospel has made progress among all races in Burma; 
the leaven is at work. There is today a Christian community of 
about 340,000 people of whom two-thirds are the fruit of our 

As Ye Go, Preach 29 

Baptist Mission. God willing, we are going back to make our 
contribution along with this great host of the Kingdom of God 
to spread the gospel of good-will among men as the only possible 
remedy for the human heart, effective also for the new social order 
arising out of the old unenlightened Burma. May God help us to 
fulfill this ministry. 

C. E. Chaney, D.D., Burma 


We are happy to report that converts from new tribes are being 
won. This year 48 Purums were baptized. They are a tribe 
where we have had no Christians before. One family of the Meiring 
tribe has also come out. Pakho, under whose work over 1 100 Kabuis 
have been won and baptized, has now moved at his own request 
to work among the Kacha Nagas and others of Manipur. A young 
Kabui, David, has been appointed to take over the leadership of 
the Kabui churches and work. The women here in Kangpokpi 
have been sewing and doing other work and have enough money 
to send a teacher-preacher to the Chiru tribe. We have some 
50 Christians among the Chirus but not one of them literate. We 
hope to get this new worker started before the end of the year. 
Two Chiru boys are in our school, the first to go to school! Four 
boys from the large Maram tribe ran away from home because 
they wanted to attend school. A week or so later the relatives 
and others came and took them away by force. They said they 
knew we would make them Christians if they remained in our 
school and they did not want any Christian Marams! 

/. A. Ahlquistj Assam 



The churches have all been busy with a year of unusual evan- 
gelistic activity. More than 600 conversions is the net result of 
the work in this province alone. Reports from the other provinces 
are equally encouraging. The campaign in Pototan resulted in 
seventy conversions. The meeting in Capiz netted twenty-five addi- 
tions, among whom are several of the hospital nurses and several 
pupils from the Home School. Practically all of the older nurses 
and the graduate nurses are now evangelical Christians. Wherever 

30 All Kindreds and Tongues 

the Message is faithfully preached, wherever Christ is lifted up, in 
the hospitals, dormitories, schools and churches, in town and 
country, hearts respond and lives are made over. 

H. W. Munger, Philippine Islands 


Not long ago I decided to go to a place where a Santali Chris- 
tian vaccinator and his wife and children had settled. I had heard 
of the work they were doing in the middle of the wildest kind of 
a jungle, but did not dream that he had accomplished so much. 
He had stirred up enough enthusiasm among illiterate villagers 
to get a very large school building erected in a splendid location, 
gather 66 pupils, 20 of them girls. He organized the whole thing on 
a sufficiently firm basis to get all the food needed for three teachers 
and his entire family from the people in 135 houses living in five 
or six nearby villages. He was carrying on in addition to his school 
and vaccinator's work, a Sunday school, a tailoring school, and 
was planning to teach surveying as well. He has secured a new 
Singer sewing machine and thirty rupees' worth of cloth the 
latter all paid for by the villagers and the former bought on the 
instalment plan. The only Hindu pundit in the school was a 
student of the mission school at Salgodia and the other two are 
enthusiastically Christian. It would not surprise me to see a church 
there in a couple of years as the result of the work of this simple 
Santali Christian vaccinator. 

W. C. Osgood, Bengal-Orissa 

Daily Vacation Bible School, Philippine Islands. 


A Billion in Villages 

A VICEROY of India with a keen understanding of the problems 
of that vast land, once said: "The Indian peasant now as ever 
is the chief source and creator both of her wealth and her great- 
ness. Of him it may with truth be said, that he is India." In those 
words are epitomized the chief, compelling reason for Christian 
missions becoming increasingly conscious of rural need and rural 

The Rural Emphasis 

The mere matter of numbers would compel such consideration. 
A few years back a subject of most interesting mission study was 
"The Rural Billion." Different estimates are made of the popula- 
tion of the world. Most commonly it is referred to as two billion. 
All estimates, no matter what the total, seem to make not less 
than one billion those who live on the land and derive their 
livelihood primarily from the land. In all our great foreign mission 
fields, from 75% to 85% of the people are rural. When we come 
to consider, therefore, a Christian program for the whole world, 
such a program might well be at least one-half rural in its 
emphasis. For our fields in Asia and Africa, it should be much 
more than that. It is obvious that much thought and planning 
must be given to the folk in the villages. 

As to the philosophy back of our rural emphasis, perhaps no 
one has stated it better than the great Scotch missionary, Rev. 
J. Z. Hodge: 

"I deprecate the term, a social gospel. The gospel is of necessity 
social, for the simple reason that the individual to whom it appeals 
is a social being, for no man liveth unto himself. Man cannot be 
extracted from his community and live. 

"If the Christian life and spirit in our villages is to be released 
for rural uplift, these preliminary things need to be enlisted: 

"i Our Christian life must be strengthened at its source the heart 
must be right and the feelings enlisted. 

"2 The gospel of Christ must be understood to cover the whole 
realm of life there must be the assent of the mind. 


32 All Kindreds and Tongues 

"3 We must consecrate ourselves to a more sacrificial way of liv- 
ing by obeying the Master's law that he who would save his life 
must lose it there must be the will to serve. 

"4 We must face frankly the evils that oppress village life, and 
holding them to be alien and hostile to the Spirit of Christ regard 
it a Christian duty to remove them. 

"5 To us rural uplift must belong to the being rather than the 
well being of the Gospel of Christ." 

As this philosophy intimates, it is for us to make the whole man 
Christian. For the attaining of that end, the rural man seems to 
be placed in a less complex setting. Here again we find reason 
for rural emphasis. A recent study of the rural church in the Far 
East sums up the situation in one of the greatest countries with 
the simple statement, "The Chinese church is a rural church." 
This authority goes on to add, "China is a country of farm villages. 
Some writers estimate that there are a million of such villages 
79% of the population live in these rural hamlets." Careful studies 
would seem to indicate that from three-fourths to four-fifths of 
the younger churches are rural. The people are rural, the churches 
are rural, and certain it is that the greatest growth in membership 
is taking place within these rural churches. 

Baptist Responsibility 

Consider our own work. The great movement among the Telu- 
gus was almost in its entirety a rural movement. Ko Tha Byu, the 
outstanding apostle to the Karens of Burma in those early diffi- 
cult, dangerous days, "slipped from village to village" with his 
message of "the white father" who had brought the long-awaited 
book. One of our greatest Baptist territories lies along the ridge 
of mountains separating Burma and Assam. There, among the 
Garos, the Nagas, the Chins, and Kachins, is a Christian com- 
munity full of remarkable promise, and it is a community of 
villages. Its churches are rural churches. 

One of the tasks which rests most heavily upon us today is the 
care and nurture of these churches that they may grow in wisdom 
and stature and in favor with God and man. Since the bulk of 
them are, as has been said, rural churches, naturally the care and 
nurture of the churches is mainly a rural problem. Perhaps more 
vividly than from any other, the rural message has come to us 
from the lips of Brayton Case. In his graphic "Rice, Pigs, and Re- 

\ IK ' * , 

'}* ' ' 1ff& 

>^r ' ' - 

* rf. 

Burmese Village Market. 

ligion," he indicates how vitally the spiritual growth of the Chris- 
tian, and the uplift and development of the church, are connected 
with sufficient of food to drive away haunting starvation; sufficient 
of strength and leisure to give due opportunity for study and for 
the development of the spiritual life. We would sum up the 
essence of the Christian task by quoting Mr. Hodge: 

"By Christian rural reconstruction we have in mind the rebuild- 
ing, repairing, and reconditioning of rural life in order to bring 
it into harmony with the sovereign rights of personality and the 
divine purpose for which man was created." 

Here we find, then, the underlying bases of our deep interest 
in rural missions. In the rural areas are an overwhelming group 
of those who know not Christ. In their comparative isolation, the 
gospel seed can more easily be sown, and, less mixed with tares, 
can more readily come to full fruition. There are the churches 
whose care and nurture is our responsibility. 

Country vs. City 

A still further factor a most important one has entered the 
villages of Asia and Africa. This factor is "the power of gold" to 
pull men and women out of their native environment and into the 
cities and industrial areas, there to find employment in mills 
and factories and mines. They come from the farms to Japanese 


34 All Kindreds and Tongues 

silk mills, to Chinese cotton mills in the coastal cities. They come 
from the fields of Java to the coffee and rubber plantations of 
Sumatra. From many parts of India, they are brought as tea- 
garden coolies to the great estates of Assam. From Bengal's beauti- 
ful rice paddies, they crowd into the jute mills of Calcutta, and 
the cotton mills of Bombay, there to face conditions often both 
physically and morally disastrous. They come from hundreds of 
little villages in the Belgian Congo to the great Copper Belt of 
Central Africa where, released from old restrictions and obliga- 
tions, the Bantus find themselves in a kind of moral no-man's-land. 
If they have found Christ and joined the church before leaving 
the village, and if the church follows them into the new environ- 
mentthese two conditions are all too often unmet the inevitable 
problems can be better grappled with. But all too frequently they 
leave the village as yet unreached, and the church in the new 
situation is likewise all too frequently inadequate in plant and 
program. Even though they are already Christian, the difficulties 
of the city church are greatly enhanced by their coming. Separa- 
tist religious movements multiply. Yet in Assam the tea-pickers of 
the Brahmaputra Valley have proven one of our most fruitful 
fields. Freed from many of the barriers which their native villages 
built against alien influences, they have found Christ and the 
Church. In Pauline phrase, the Christian fellowship is well de- 
fined as a "colony of heaven," and to give that concept the richest 
possible content is a duty the Church of Christ in Asia and Africa 
must discharge for all, and not least for the rural billion and 
their brothers driven by economic need to mines, factories and 



Bong! Bong! The iron disk swings back and forth in front of 
the chapel at Bagong barrio as the pastor vigorously pounds it 
with a rock. The sound is heard far and wide over the hills and 
is a signal for everyone to get ready for church. As we start out, 
lantern in hand, the night is dark but the sky is covered with 
thousands of winking stars. We can just barely make out the out- 
line of the mountain ahead, but nothing is visible of the lime- 
stone cliffs which are so picturesque in the light of day. Grad- 

A Billion in Villages 35 

ually our company increases as we are joined by other worshippers 
carrying their bamboo torches. As we near the church, I imagine 
we must resemble a procession of first or second century Chris- 
tians marching to their secret place o worship. But this is no 
secret meeting, for practically the entire village is Protestant and 
even the Catholics were intensely interested in the week's meet- 
ings which were called "Abundant Life Institute." There were 
pastors, Sunday school teachers, church officers and lay preachers 
from eleven surrounding barrios. The subjects taught were prac- 
tical and to the point: How to keep church accounts, Diet and 
Health, Crops, Singing, Bible and Sunday school Methods. Every 
night the church was filled for the evangelistic meetings and 
twenty-two were baptized as a result of these gospel meetings. 

Mrs. E. F. Rounds, Philippine Islands 


A Sudra family in one of our near-by villages has been Chris- 
tians for several years. Being the only Christian family in the 
midst of heathenism and idolatry they are under great pressure 
by Hindu relatives and neighbors to give up their faith and turn 
back. But in spite of rigorous boycott they have remained true to 
Him. It is difficult for westerners to understand the great pressure 
of a boycott under these circumstances. It means no water from 
the well, no work for sustenance, and none of the village services 
such as barber and washerman. It means scorn and ridicule in 
fact, complete ostracism. And yet "having done all," they stand. 
Who can say that such a religious profession is shallow and for un- 
worthy motives? We challenge such an indictment with incontro- 
vertible proofs such as these. The testimony of just a few faithful 
ones in each village shakes foundations of caste Hinduism and 
turns many to Christ. We must go on sowing the seed looking to 
God who alone giveth the increase. 

Edwin Erickson, South India 


Rev. and Mrs. Harold Young, designated to the Wa States, 
land of headhunters, are opening a new station. They estimate 

36 All Kindreds and Tongues 

that there are at least 15,000 of the wild headhunting Wa in that 
area who have already expressed their desire to become Christians. 
Mr. Young has not yet received permission from the British Gov- 

Village Carpenter Shop, Sadiya, Assam. 

ernment to go into the wildest sections, but two splendid Wa 
evangelists are paving the way and are winning many. Whole 
villages are turning to Christ. With careful teaching and training 
this will result not in scattered Christian families but in far-flung 
Christian villages along the Burma-China frontier. 

A Billion in Villages 37 


Touring in Congo is never monotonous. We not only found 
variety in methods of travel, but we found all sorts of people, 
from the bush pygmy to the "civilized" natives resplendent in 
European clothes. The Bolia people have had less contact with 
Europeans and are more simple and friendly than those who are 
spoiled by the influences of civilization. The tribes nearest our 
station around Lake Tumba and back inland from here were 
cannibals, but not the Bolias. We have good Christians from both 
sections now. The pygmies are on the whole slightly smaller than 
the Bantu. There are no really big people among them, but there 
are Bantu people smaller than the average pygmy. They are a 
backward, subordinate race with a feeling of inferiority because 
of Bantu racial prejudice. We passed through entire pygmy vil- 
lages. One I shall never forget. When the service was over the 
women wanted me to sit and chat with them. They had never 
seen a white woman at close view before and were delighted be- 
cause I stopped to talk with them. I gave them each a bit of salt. 
In a few minutes they went away one by one and I thought they 
had had enough, but shortly they began coming back, each with 
an egg. This was my return gift for the salt! The evangelist in 
this village is a pygmy and a man of long years of Christian 

We were received heartily everywhere. The chiefs and all the 
people, Christian and non-Christian alike, welcomed us. In the 
villages the teacher-evangelists hold services with the people daily 
and each afternoon they have school for all who wish to come. 
On our visits we inspect the school and help the teacher whenever 
we can. The evangelistic service held in each village is often the 
beginning of a new life for some, and is a help and encourage- 
ment to the Christians. 

Mrs. H. D. Brown, Belgian Congo 

Education A Fundamental Method; 
Leadership A Prime Necessity 

A RECENT Christian conference pronounced education a "funda- 
mental method" for carrying a convincing message to the 
life of the world. God's work has moved forward through the cen- 
turies by the influence of consecrated personalities, strengthened 
by an "inner power" and girded with a knowledge of life about 
them which they wished to share. The educational process is a 
basic tool of the missionary enterprise. 

For Achieving a Literate Community 

The desirability of reading and understanding the Bible does 
not need to be pressed with the average Christian. Even though 
facilities for public education have been increased greatly in re- 
cent years, there remain large geographical areas where the sole 
opportunity for people to learn to read is through the mission 
school. Furthermore, under public systems it is usually only the 
children who can profit. The Christian adult also seeks to step out 
of the narrowed limits of illiteracy into broader fields of knowl- 
edge. Leaders who translate, who produce literature, who develop 
techniques fitted to the teaching of adults, and who simplify the 
process of learning to read and write in difficult languages are 
found in every part of the world. Many of them envisaged en- 
larged service through training which they themselves received 
because of the missionary enterprise. The mental horizons of 
thousands are being enlarged but millions remain who cannot 

For Moral and Religious Training 

A Christian, young in the faith, discovers many obstacles in the 
pathway of his new life. His relatives may not be sympathetic, 
the practices of his companions may be evil, his basic knowledge 
of Christian principles may be slight, and the chasm between 
the morals of the Christian and the non-Christian community may 
be much wider than he had supposed. By providing an oppor- 
tunity to live with associates in a school dominated by a Christian 


Education Leadership 39 

atmosphere, through formal and informal training groups, 
through assemblies, retreats and conferences, the missionary seeks 
to develop those whose personal lives and activities will testify 
that they have had a Christian education. 

For Developing Pastoral Leadership 

The number of churches in Northern Baptist territory abroad 
has increased from 51 in 1839 to 3,338 in 1939, with a correspond- 

Filipino Christian. Leader and Family. 

ing growth in the need for pastors. In this same century the secular 
educational process has made tremendous strides and day by day 
new educational demands are made on church leaders. To train 
adequately men and women who can meet the complexities of this 
hour colleges have been founded and theological seminaries have 
been established. From them has emerged a constant stream of 
leadership into a church life which is virile and strong because 
it has been undergirded throughout the century by institutions 
Christian in character. 

For a Consecrated Lay Constituency 

Into the busy and changing life of Asia, Africa and Europe 
have gone and are going as a product of the Christian missionary 

4O A II Kindreds and Tongues 

enterprise doctors, lawyers, government officials, educators, nurses, 
and men and women of countless other callings; some humble, 
some great. In the mission school or the mission college many 
of them have found Christ as their Saviour. They will become the 
lay leaders of the church, the missionary societies, the Sunday 
schools, and the indigenous conventions. Into every field of serv- 
ice in which they go they will exercise an influence far out of 
proportion to their number. Not all of them will become Chris- 
tian. Some will carry away only a new concept of Christian ideals, 
but their attitudes toward life inevitably will be modified. Some 
will become Christians at a later date and looking back over the 
trail of their activities will say that this decision is a belated by- 
product of the "fundamental method." 

For the Leveling of Racial and Class Prejudice 

The mission school room is the meeting place of caste and class. 
The barriers of racial and social antagonisms fade under the in- 
fluence of Christian education. Preachers from underprivileged 
groups now baptize converts from privileged groups. Educators 
who have risen from the depressed castes are teaching high caste 
students. Leaders of races who formerly sought each other's heads 
live in common mission hostels. The emphasis of the Christian 
message on the rights of men and women to an education in 
accord with their abilities, whatever their race or caste, is working 
profound change. Imbued with ideals of democracy many of them 
owe their enlarged vision to the processes of education. 

For the Improvement of Health and Recreation 

The physically handicapped make a pitiful sight in any mission 
land. It is the spirit of Christ which has inspired humanitarian 
attitudes toward the insane, the leprous, the blind, the deaf and 
the lame, where previously these unfortunates had to become 
beggars or were left outside the village to die. For generations 
plague, cholera, typhoid, malaria, yellow fever and other dread 
diseases have struck fear into the hearts of millions. Training 
schools for doctors and nurses under mission auspices have in- 
spired men and women to cope with these maladies by the use of 
modern methods and research. Working hand in hand with 
benevolent governments, education through mission institutions 
has conveyed the values of personal cleanliness and public sani- 

Education Leadership 41 

tation. The same thing is true in the field of morals. Today the 
leaders against gambling, vice, intoxication and other anti-social 
practices are most frequently those who have caught a glimpse, 
in a mission school, of the way in which healthful recreation can 
make a positive contribution toward the development of indi- 
vidual and social life. 

Women's Dormitory, West China Union University. 

For Economic and Community Betterment 

Millions in Asia and Africa live under the shadow of poverty 
and economic stress. Agricultural and industrial schools under 
mission auspices are training leaders who can teach people to be 
better farmers, to fit themselves for more productive occupations, 
to provide from materials at hand some of the necessities of life, 
to develop village industries and to introduce better diets. Other 
graduates of mission institutions have been concerned with better 
housing, city planning, visual education for the community, famine 
prevention, conservation of natural resources, the elimination of 
the money lender with his high interest rates, and countless other 
community projects. The missionary program has had a significant 
share in raising standards of living. 

For the Production of Christian Literature - 

In the past the missionary himself has been the chief factor 
in producing the literature so absolutely necessary for the culture 

42 All Kindreds and Tongues 

of newly won converts in the Christian faith and their introduction 
to a fuller understanding of life. He has translated the Scriptures 
into many languages. Monumental work of this nature has been 
accomplished by our own missionaries. Among the many may be 
mentioned Adoniram Judson, Nathan Brown, Marcus C. Mason, 
William Ashmore and Eric Lund, all of whom translated part 
or all of the Bible into tongues of the lands in which they were 

Missionaries of both Societies have also provided translations of 
hymn books, school books and Christian texts, besides pro- 
ducing many larger and smaller original works in the various 
vernaculars. Too high praise cannot possibly be given these leaders 
from abroad who have devoted themselves with painstaking care 
in the intervals of active and vigorous service to literary labors 
which might well have called for their full time and attention. 
Today, however, it becomes increasingly desirable that Christian 
writers native to each country be discovered and that the training 
necessary for their task be given them. 

The Madras findings make the following interesting proposal: 
"To discover, develop and strengthen natural gifts, a Christian 
Writers' Fellowship may be organized, and periodic conferences for 
Christian writers may be held. These suggestions apply equally to 
translators in order that their work may be creative and their 
product adapted to the prevailing thought forms. More prizes 
might be offered for book reviews, essays and, in some countries, 
books as a means of encouragement to new writers. The theo- 
logical seminaries, Christian colleges, universities and high schools 
have their part to play, as the Lindsay Commission on Higher 
Education in India has suggested. Full scope for the exercise of 
his gifts should be secured for any possible or actual literary 

How Northern Baptists Train These Leaders 

There are 3,525 primary schools and 156 grammar schools con- 
nected with Northern Baptist work in non-Christian lands, rang- 
ing in type from the very simple "bush" school made of palm 
fronds and jungle grass to the more elaborate buildings pro- 
vided in some cases by interested donors and in others through 
the devotion and sacrifice of the Christian constituency. Through 
some of these schools there have followed one generation after 

Education Leadership 43 

another of those who have come under the impact of Christian 
teachers and ideals. Thirty-eight vocational schools are giving agri- 
cultural, technical and handicraft training. Seventy-one normal 
and high schools are sending teachers into numerous villages and 
graduates into Baptist colleges. Eight colleges, among them Judson 
College, the University of Shanghai and Central Philippine Col- 
lege, are turning workers directly 
into the lay leadership of the 
churches and into professional and 
commercial fields where the weight 
of their Christian influence will be 
great. But perhaps most important 
of all, 24 theological seminaries 
and Bible training schools are pro- 
viding leaders for 3,338 churches, 
of which 2,419 are entirely self- 
supporting. The fact that there are 
today 9,496 Nationals who have a 
part in the work of the societies 
abroad is the best justification that 
can be offered for this "funda- 
mental method." 

What has here been said is an 
attempt to sum up in brief com- 
pass the important considerations 
which underlie the subject of edu- 
cation for Christian leadership. 
The details respecting the many 

schools and educational projects, 

i j n i_ ^1-1 Burman 

large and small, through which 

Northern Baptists are attempting 
to apply the principles noted will be found in the Field Surveys 
of this volume. No more fitting closing word could be added than 
to quote the conclusion of the chapter on Christian Education 
from the Madras findings: 

"Christian education if it is to make the great contribution 
which it is capable of making to the upbuilding and expansion 
of the Church, must be true to its own ideals. It must be effec- 
tively Christian. It must be educationally sound. 

"And yet, when all is said and all our plans made, we know 

Teacher, Kemmendine 
Girls' School, Rangoon. 

44 All Kindreds and Tongues 

that it is not in us nor in the process to achieve success. Be his 
work never so thorough and efficient, a Christian teacher knows 
that of himself he can never reach his aim. We desire to place 
our institutions as we desire to place our lives in the hands of 
Him in Whose Wisdom, Love and Power alone is all our trust." 



Training young men for village leadership is a paramount task. 
Supervision of the Cumbum Rural Community Training School 
has taken more than half of our time. But it has been immensely 
worthwhile as we have almost daily come into close contact with 
the 78 young men who are soon to take their places of responsi- 
bility in our Christian hamlets. This year again found the num- 
ber of applicants about six times as great as the facilities. Our 
manual training department is carrying on a full program a 
program determined to educate both heart and hand. The school 
garden has revealed to the students many of the miraculous life 
processes so necessary to the understanding of the fuller life. 
Bible study and principles of Christian work have found adequate 
opportunity for application and expression in the laboratory of 
real village life through the student gospel teams. These and many 
other activities carry the students on toward the mark "that the 
man of God may be complete, furnished completely unto every 
good work." 

Edwin Erickson, South India 


This is the graduation season for schools, which end the year 
in March. The usual ceremonies have been held at Mabie, Mary 
Colby and the International Institute at Waseda, the first two of 
which I attended. The day of the Waseda affair I was at the 
ordination of Pastor Yushiro Abe in Atsugi, incidentally the only 
missionary there. At Mabie the baccalaureate sermon was preached 
by Pastor Nukaga of the Hongo Congregational Church in Tokyo, 
at Mary Colby by Pastor Yamakita of the Central Baptist Church, 
Tokyo, and at Waseda by Dr. Charles Inglehart of the Methodist 

Education Leadership 45 

College in Tokyo, this one in English, I think, because the students 
are all from foreign countries and most of them speak English 
much better than Japanese. At both of the Yokohama schools 

Brass-Workers of India. 

Mr. Sakata, the president, urged the graduates to fight com- 
munism, and to practice prohibition (abstinence). 

J. H. Govell, Japan 


A characteristic of our work is the prominent part taken by 
laymen. On the program of the Convention here speakers were 
a pastor, a Salvationist, a physician, a business man, and two 
lawyers. The president is a young attorney from Bacolod. Be- 
sides taking part in the discussions and leading round tables, the 
women hold a session of their own devoted exclusively to women's 
work. In our evangelistic campaigns, laymen frequently do the 
preaching. At a recent meeting in Pontevedra a young attorney 
followed my sermon with a short talk and added his appeal to 
mine for decisions. Ten responded, among whom was a Chief of 

H. W. Hunger, Philippine Islands 

46 All Kindreds and Tongues 


Among the occupations of these four months has been work on 
Oriya Christian literature mostly for semi-literate adults our con- 
tribution to the Adult Literacy Campaign. This campaign is at 
present in progress in a Province in which 1 1,000 Oriya-speaking 
people dwell, 90% of whom can neither read nor write. A book 
called "The Story of the Cross" is through the press; also a series 
of health tracts, a Gospel primer, a Book on Worship, a series of 
38 simple Bible stories and a document prepared by a mis- 
sionary doctor on Home Treatment of the Most Common Dis- 
eases. A series of 12 tracts directed toward the stimulation of 
prayer, Bible study and revival in the churches of the area have 
been supplied with daily Bible readings and distributed in the 

W. C. Osgood, Bengal-Orissa 


The Bible has been translated into nearly a thousand languages 
and dialects yet many tribes are still without the Word of God in 
their own tongue. Missionaries, evangelistic and educational, re- 
port crying need for Scripture translations: 

"No Scriptures and no literature!" (Kachas of Assam.) Many of 
this tribe seem on the verge of turning to Christ. Baptisms are 
increasing over last year. 

"More translation work needed at once!" Honorary Inspector of 
Government Schools, Chin Hills, Burma, reports need for Bible 
translation and text revision, adding, "The people are coming 
into the Kingdom now with more of a knowledge of what it means 
and are making stronger Christians as a result." 

"Only the Gospel of John!" (Rengma Nagas of Naga Hills; 
Assam.) This tribe is making rapid progress; Christian community 
next to Angamis in strength. 

These are but a few of the Scripture needs listed. Students in mis- 
sion schools give invaluable aids to Bible translation work. To- 
gether with missionaries they translate portions of the Scriptures 
and other literature into their own languages. Let us remember: 
Faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God. 

The Book of a Thousand Tongues 

__.. Jufc-effr^TSi * 2 

is a fascinating story of the translation 
of the Scripture into more than a thou- 
sand languages. It contains 1,100 fac- 
similes of verses and pages, with 
geographic and historical data about 
each language and translation, a truly 
monumental missionary volume. 

Translations made by missionaries 
of our Baptist Foreign Mission Societies 
are represented here. Every person in- 
terested in the interpretation and dis- 
tribution of the Word of God will want 
to see this unusual book. 

For information write to 

American Bible Society, Park Avenue 
and 57th Street, New York, N. Y. 


i^ n 


LVE mercy upon me, ( 
L,?* *"* to thy lor i wonse 
inc-kmdneM: mccorang onto tb !,.;< 
multitude of thy tendS mde "' 
blotoutmytnuugreMioai. um 
2 Wuh me thorouxhlr fronvu 

nine iniquity, and 
torn my sin. 

3 For t acknowledge my trail* 
WIMMBB; and my na tit ever 

before me. 

4 Against thee, thee only, have 
mned. and done this evil ii 

by tight: that thon mightect b< 
justified when thou peakest 
ana be clear -when thou judg 

5 Behold, I was shapen in inic 
mty; and in BIB did my moth- 
coneetTe me. 

6 Behold, thou dewrest troth 11. ^<, 
lie inward parts; and in the hid- altarq 


tamj %rffi,*i''j5! 

wonse K_ *ff) - ml, ^ 

J Hff-l Wl 
r-" ''' 
AT & 


fnegen." Dunn t 

: ^^"^ 

kwingu? Namuntu 
ricie kw yuwingun., J, 
ucmi. Nada.MusaU^\1 

T ,0 Bft M* n J W *U:>1 

kwmba,ju<lej w n8e i\ v 

t^wiumwengu, hatal \ 
al^Ls*mba yAef 9 \ 
/| W*S^flW 

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Health and Healing 

FTER God, you." It was not fulsome flattery but heartfelt con- 
viction tracing loving kindness to its true source which led 
the prostrate Indian woman to hold Dr. John S. Carman's feet 
and beg healing for her husband. "After God, you." Though a 
non-Christian, the phrase she used was soundly Scriptural. "As 
the Father hath sent me into the world, even so send I you." 
"As ye go, preach and heal." Neither command of Jesus has ever 
been rescinded. 

The decades and centuries have welded Christian mercy into 
the fabric of the social order in the more favored lands. Formerly 
the church fostered hospitals and agencies for healing. Although 
it still lends support and impetus to special advances in the pro- 
vision of medical care it has been able for the most part, to leave 
the ministry of healing to the hands of special medical agencies, 
themselves among the finest fruitages of the Christian spirit. Not 
so in the lands lacking the witness of Christ. The command that 
the Christian disciple heal as well as preach is basic and the need 
for it is overwhelmingly apparent. The case need not be argued. 
From the beginning of the modern mission enterprise the mission- 
ary has accepted without question the obligation to heal and has 
usually found himself, even when lacking special medical training, 
able to take a modest part in this ministry of mercy. 

Through the Years 

Through all the years of Northern Baptist service in foreign 
lands the obligation to accompany the ministries of preaching 
and teaching with a parallel ministry of healing has been recog- 
nized. Today the medical missionary staff of the two Foreign 
Societies consists of 39 physicians and 51 nurses. They serve in 
every one of our Asiatic and African fields except Japan, 
in which country medical science is advanced to such a point 
as to render this ministry less necessary. These medical mission- 
aries conduct 32 hospitals and 62 dispensaries. They treat approxi- 
mately 335,000 patients per year. Major and minor operations 
number fully 15,000. In addition to the work within the hospitals 


Health and Healing 49 

and dispensaries medical care is given to the children and staffs 
in hundreds of schools. The doctors and nurses cover thousands 
of miles in medical and evangelistic itineraries and cooperate 
with other missions and government authorities in the conduct 
of extensive public health campaigns and in important measures 

Congo Village Witch Doctor and Medical Student. 

having to do with the prevention or control of epidemic and en- 
demic disease. 

Progressive Development 

As in other branches of missionary service the experience of 
the years has led to developed thinking and planning in the 
medical work. The early missionary physician was overwhelmed 
with the mass of physical distress confronting him, and was in- 
clined to be preoccupied with the immediate need and content to 
give to his utmost in time and strength to combat it. It was soon 
apparent, however, that the individual efforts of the relatively few 
medical workers from abroad were utterly inadequate for the task 
and the missionary physician began to attempt to pass on his 

50 All Kindreds and Tongues 

technical skill to young men and women from the Christian 
constituency. In every field the usefulness of our physicians and 
nurses has thus been greatly multiplied. Primitive training schools 
for medical assistants and nurses begun by the individual mis- 
sionary each in his own modest hospital have in some cases de- 
veloped into important educational institutions, such, for ex- 
ample, as the Woman's Union Medical College at Vellore, India, 
or the more recent School for Medical Assistants at Sona Bata, 
Belgian Congo. (These and other efforts of a similar nature will 
receive fuller mention in connection with the Field Surveys.) 

The Hospital and the Community 

No type of missionary service has awakened more profound 
local interest than the Christian hospital. Even the healing work 
of the Great Physician was one of the elements attracting the 
people to Him. In the modern missionary enterprise it soon be- 
came apparent that the medical work had an important relation 
to social development. In some lands the mission hospital has 
been the most important stimulus to the development of a med- 
ical profession. Medical assistants and physicians coming from 
mission institutions in China are taking a leading place in the 
organization of the medical service of the new China. The central 
government is seeking the full cooperation of the mission hospitals 
and staff in planning important health measures. Even though 
the plans have been interrupted in occupied areas they are still 
borne in mind awaiting happier circumstances for their fuller 
development and in West China important efforts of this nature 
are even now going forward. The government of British India 
has long welcomed the work of the medical missions and in many 
sections the medical staffs of government and missions cooperate 
closely. In Belgian Congo all of our medical men and women, 
nurses as well as doctors, are given government recognition and, 
without the slightest restriction upon their special religious efforts, 
their aid is sought in carrying out many measures of public 
health. The government gives financial aid and assistance through 
the provision of drugs and other supplies in the campaign against 
sleeping sickness, yaws, syphilis, malaria and other diseases com- 
mon to the country and through modest subsidies encourages 
the establishment of baby clinics, pre-maternity clinics, leper 
colonies and similar medical activities. 

Health and Healing 51 

Call to Advance 

The problems of medical missions have been summed up by 
leaders of all missions in "The Call to Advance"* which reads 
in part as follows: 

"There is a clear call to give greater attention to preventive 
medicine. This will mean active sharing in all forms of health and 
welfare work and health teaching in schools. Such work need not 
be costly. Emphasis should not be on the mere dispensing of 
medicines, but, rather, on tracing each disease to its source with 
a view to elimination. Each Christian hospital should be a center 
of health, that educates the community it serves. Its purpose 
cannot be considered fulfilled unless its influence permeates the 
community as a whole and is manifest in clean streets, a pure 
water supply, better sanitation, and cleanly habits. 

"Rural areas, where the unmet needs are desperate, lay a special 
obligation on the Christian forces. Health service is an indis- 
pensable element in any adequate scheme of rural reconstruction. 
There is to-day in many, nations an awakening of health conscious- 
ness. Wherever there is a church, its members should lead in the 
endeavor to make the health enterprise thoroughly Christian in 
spirit. . . . 

"Evangelism is implicit in all Christian medical work, but it 
calls for definite expression by the medical staff through the spoken 
word. But the evangelistic message should never be forced upon 
people unwilling to listen. The Christian witness of the hospital 
will fail unless the entire staff is knit together with equal concern 
for medical service and spiritual ministry. The Church should 
share the responsibility for training special workers to help the 
staff in its religious work. 

"In the relationship of religion and health lies an imperative call 
for pioneering. The scope of the hospital's ministry will be en- 
larged by using specially trained members of the staff to inquire 
as to the economic, social, mental and religious background of 
every patient, so that both bodily and spiritual ministration may 
be provided in ways adapted to the special needs of the individual, 
both while in the hospital and after leaving it. The hospital would 
thus become a center where search could be made for ways in which 
spiritual ministry might aid in bringing full health to patients. 

* The World Mission of the Church, p. 81. 

52 All Kindreds and Tongues 

We have scarcely crossed the threshold of such a quest as this. 
We need fuller understanding of the interrelationship of body, 
mind and spirit. We need continued study and development of 
the contribution that faith and prayer and religious practice can 
make to the maintenance of mental and physical health and to 
the cure of disease. We ask the churches and hospitals to under- 
take together in selected centers continued inquiry in this sig- 
nificant field." 

A further emphasis has to do with the essential necessity for a 
fuller degree of cooperation between the evangelical missions. 
Already important developments along this line have taken place. 

The Associated Mission Medical Office 

During the past twenty years much fuller stress has been laid 
upon the importance of maintaining the health of the missionary 
staff. At the beginning of this period several of the larger boards 
appointed medical officers for service at the home base, the 
Methodist, Presbyterian, Congregational and Baptist among 
them. Conference and cooperation among these officers led to 
the conviction that the ends both of efficiency and economy would 
be served by bringing together the medical departments of such 
of the boards as were ready for the step in an effort to do jointly 
what had previously been a special service carried out by each 
board. A joint health office was established at 150 Fifth Avenue, 
New York, and Dr. J. G. Vaughan, a former missionary from 
India and one who had already had many years of experience 
in caring for the health of missionaries, was called to become the 
Medical Director. There are now a dozen or more leading missions 
cooperating in this office, Baptists among them. Dr. Vaughan has 
shown a very high degree of efficiency and skill as Director of 
the effort. As a former missionary he enters sympathetically into 
every problem of his patients and is able to give counsel and ad- 
vice of the highest value not only to the missionary, but also to 
the cooperating boards in the many administrative problems 
arising in connection with the health of the staff. 

The Christian Medical Council 

The Christian Medical Council for Overseas Work is another 
organization which has recently been created as a cooperative 
agency by the boards for the purpose of furthering the interests 

Health and Healing 53 

of medical missions. Sixteen mission boards cooperate in its work. 
The Chairman of the Council is Dr. Allen O. Whipple, Pro- 
fessor of Surgery, Columbia University Faculty of Medicine. Its 
Director is Dr. Edward H. Hume, who has given decades of service 
in this and other lands as a leader in every phase of medical 

Scott-Thresher Memorial Hospital, Kakchieh, China* 

missionary work and medical education. The objects of the Chris- 
tian Medical Council may be summed up as follows: 

1. To aid the societies in maintaining at a high level the pro- 
fessional and spiritual standards of their overseas medical and 
nursing -work; 

2. To make available to the societies, and to their doctors and 
nurses overseas, relevant information regarding developments in 
the whole field of medical missionary endeavor; 

3. To aid the societies in creating channels through which to 
bring, both in North America and overseas, a fuller understanding 
of the significance of this Christian humanitarian enterprise; 

4. To suggest to the societies ways by which their overseas 

54 All Kindreds and Tongues 

medical institutions may develop greater integration with the 
total life of each country and community. 

The American Mission to Lepers 

For over a quarter of a century this organization has been 
carrying on an effective work for the relief of the ten million suf- 
ferers from leprosy scattered throughout the world. Recently under 
the able leadership of its new General Secretary, Dr. Emory Ross, 
this work has come into much closer relations with the mission 
boards. The plan of cooperation is very simple. The American 
Mission to Lepers does not attempt to send its own missionaries, 
but by a mutual arrangement greatly reenforces the work of 
many medical missionaries of the denominational mission boards 
by providing them with the means for establishing and extending 
special efforts for the relief of the lepers found on their respective 
fields. In this manner Drs. Buker, Seagrave, Tuttle, Freas, Kirby 
and Ahlquist and others of our physicians and nurses have found 
it possible to serve in a much fuller manner this pitifully needy 
and often destitute group of sufferers. This organization not only 
provides a channel whereby the sympathy of American Christians 
may express itself practically, but it is doing much to educate 
the public of this and other lands to understand this age-old 
plague and to be prepared to cooperate in measures which it is 
hoped will ultimately rid the world of it. 

The details of the substantial medical missionary work carried 
on by the two Foreign Mission Societies will be found in the 
Field Survey section. No more convincing witness to the love of 
God and the grace of Christ could be given than that which is 
being furnished daily by these representatives of Northern Bap- 
tists in many parts of the non-Christian world. 


The Namkham hospital conducts nine branch nursing-home 
dispensaries. Of these one is in China, one in Bhamo district, one 
in Momeik States, one in Trans-Salween Hsenwi State and the 
others scattered all over the main portion of Hsenwi State. Three 
of these branches are stationary and receive in-patients, the rest 
are mobile. They have been established for from one to ten years, 

Health and Healing 55 

are in charge of nurses under the direction of the surgeon in 
charge of the base hospital. Three are registered nurse-midwives, 
one is a registered midwife, all are graduates of this training 
school. The other dispensaries are served by senior nurses who do 
the work as part of their training before graduation. Over 
15,000 out-patients received treatment during the past year. 

Gordon S. Seagrave, M.D., Burma 


During these months some additional money has become avail- 
able from the American Mission to Lepers and the British Empire 
Leprosy Relief Association for work among these needy folk. A 
gift of $1,000 for some much needed building repairs and equip- 
ment and major alterations in the old school building will 
greatly improve its usefulness; the purchase of a motorcycle for 
our touring and the start at least of a better water supply system. 
How greatly these gifts are appreciated only those who have 
long done without sadly needed equipment know! We thank 
God and the givers. 

W. C. Osgood, Bengal-Orissa 


I know you would have been interested in the baby contest. It 
was the first these people had seen and so they did not know just 
what to expect. They knew a prize would be given to the healthiest 
baby, but I think some of them were more than a little afraid when 
they saw Dr. Meyer with his stethoscope and the two dignified 
nurses getting things ready for the examination. The first child 
was too surprised to even whimper, but the second and third and 
so on down the line bawled lustily until the mothers quieted them 
in the same way mothers have quieted babies all over the world 
and through the centuries. The first prize, rightfully won, went to 
Salvation Gallaza, the daughter of Roman Catholic parents. The 
mother's comment was, "Why these Protestants really are fair! 
I was sure they would give the prize to one of their own." 

Mrs. . F. Rounds, Philippine Islands 

56 All Kindreds and Tongues 


Work goes on more patients than ever! We've had to add an 
extra day for surgery to the already full program. The weekly 
baby clinic is growing and we have just opened a pre-natal clinic. 
A new sub-dispensary has just been opened at Kinjila. We are 
hoping in a few months' time to open a sixth in another of our 

Lahu Leper Colony, Kengtung, Burma. 

church centers. The leper camp, opened last year, has sixty lepers. 
Some of them are Christians who have formed a little church 
organization of their own. Last month fifteen more expressed 
the desire to follow Christ. Every month the doctor continues to 
make monthly visits to Banza Manteke, 200 miles away, where Miss 
Tice, the nurse, is in charge. Here, in a cramped three or four 
days an attempt is made to check up on the work and perform 15 
operations or so. Every three months we trek out in the district 
to visit the three sub-dispensaries in that field. And this does not 
include our share in government medical work. 

H. M. Freas, Belgian Congo 


Early in September we had the joy of opening the new "Lake 
Avenue Ward," in which the women's and children's medical 

Health and Healing 57 

wards are now located. Dr. Carman's work as architect, contractor 
and builder on it deserves special note. We had a service of dedica- 
tion at which the Taluqdar presided and many of the local officials ' 
and donors were present. In 1902 a similar ceremony was held to 
open the first buildings of the hospital, which Dr. Timpany's 
friends in America and India had made possible with their gifts! 
Half of the money for this new building was raised here in Han- 
umakonda, and the other half came from Lake Avenue Church, 
Rochester, and from some other friends in the U. S. A. Within 
three days it had 19 of its possible 26 patients. 

Mrs. John S. Carman, South India 


In the Ningpo Hospital the work has been very heavy. The 
capacity of the hospital has been increased. Note these significant 

Last Year This year 

Public Health Clinic 36,900 89,083 

In-patients 1,687 2,303 

Out-patients 33,628 43>342 

Yes, our doctors and nurses are on the job and are doing a real 
piece of Christian service. The institution is caring for all the 
students in our schools. It offers, in a mud hut out-patient addition 
to the buildings, treatments to refugees and relief people sent to 
it by our International Committee. It is the distributing center 
at present for all of this province for supplies and drugs. Com- 
munications with Shanghai are so poor that drugs may be on the 
way for months. The hospital has been able to make direct appeal 
to Chungking for special consideration in the cancellation of im- 
port duties on supplies and drugs. A malaria epidemic was treated 
this last season that has not been equalled for virulency. Cholera 
was less severe than heretofore. Thanks to the White Cross sup- 
plies from, home, funds given by the American Advisory Com- 
mittee and the local International Committee for Relief we were 
able to carry on. One refugee Austrian doctor and his wife have 
assisted excellently. Dr. L. C. Ting, is acting superintendent and 
is very anxious concerning a malarial epidemic that seems im- 

H. R. S. Benjamin, East China 

Work by Women for Women 

ONE OF the most challenging and fascinating phases of the 
world mission of the Christian church is the story of work 
by women for women. The Christian Message with its reverence 
for personality and its standards of love and equality have brought 
about an amazing transformation of womanhood and through 
her of all society. It is only natural that women should have a 
large part in taking the Gospel to other women still in bondage 
to cruel social and religious customs, to help the women of the 
younger churches to take their rightful place in the life of the 
church and to prepare themselves for Christian ministry in their 
own homes, in the education of their children or in health service 
to their families and community. 

Training for Home Life 

"The Christian church could not be strong unless founded upon 
Christian home life, and Christian home life has depended upon 
enlightened womanhood."* Christian mission schools and col- 
leges for women in the Orient have striven to give the girls and 
women of those lands not only the best academic training, but 
a knowledge of the Bible and of what it means to be a Christian. 
The years of school life give time and opportunity to practice 
Christian living and to develop Christian character. In recent 
years there has been an increasing interest in a better training for 
home and family life and a new emphasis on the training of 
women for village life. The Mothercraft School, in Shanghai since 
the Japanese occupation of Huchow, its former home, is 
pioneering in the education of home-makers. Other mission schools 
in China, Burma, India and the Belgian Congo with courses in do- 
mestic subjects are making a much needed contribution for better 

In China our missionaries are participating in a movement to- 
wards Christianizing the home by observance each year of a week's 
program and celebration centered about the Christian home. In 
this emphasis on Christianizing the home the married woman mis- 

* Madras Conference Report Vol. IV, page 45 


Work by Women for Women 59 

sionary has a unique opportunity. In a non-Christian land a well 
ordered and consecrated Christian home with its standards of love, 
equality and fidelity is a powerful witness. 

The influence of Christianity has opened up for the Oriental 
women many avenues of service to their own people. Women have 
taken to the teaching profes- 
sion, as in the West. The 
alumnae lists of our Oriental 
women's colleges and training 
schools include graduates in 
Education, Art, Music, Sci- 
ences, Pharmacy, Medicine, 
Dentistry, Nursing and Public 
Health assistants. Others are 
entering the field of social 
service. Some have become 
secretaries or representatives 
of the Y.W.C.A. and the 
W.C.T.U. Many of the Ori- 
ental college women are help- 
ing to establish Christian 
homes and their Christian in- 
fluence has often gone far be- 
yond the bounds of their own 

Dr. Wu, President of Ginling College, 

with Miss Argetsinger, Chengtu, West 


Women and Medicine 

Neither statistics nor words 

can adequately picture the influence of our women's hospitals 
in the Orient and the need for medical service for women that 
can best be rendered by women. There is an urgent need on all 
our fields for women doctors, where opportunities for service 
are unlimited. Our hospital in Gauhati, Assam, the only hos- 
pital for women and children among three-quarters of a million 
people, has grown in service out of all proportion to the size of 
its staff and equipment. On all our Mission fields there is an 
increasing emphasis on Public Health Nursing, where preventive 
medicine, baby clinics and health teaching are raising the stand- 
ards of whole communities. Our missionary doctors and nurses are 
giving a great service not only in their personal ministry but in 

6o All Kindreds and Tongues 

training women of the Orient for a healing ministry to their own 
people. It is our privilege to have a share in the support of the 
Women's Medical Schools of Shanghai, China, and Vellore, India, 
where women of the country are being trained as doctors. Our 
Baptist hospitals on all our Mission fields maintain nurses' train- 
ing schools of high order. Nurses are trained for hospital or village 
work. They contribute not only to the better health of then- com- 
munity and to organized Christian work but many as home-makers 
are helping to raise the standard of home and family life. 

Women and the Christian Church 

Women .have played no small part in the growth of the Christian 
church in the Orient. The Karen evangelist in the Moulmein field 
in Burma, once told the writer of church after church in that 
district which was started with the work of a young woman with 
training at the Bible School and the elementary teacher's course 
who went to a non-Christian village to teach a school. On Sundays 
she gathered a group of children about her to tell them the Gospel 
story and through her personal work a small group of villagers 
came to accept Christ, were prepared for baptism and became 
the nucleus of a little church, which in time called a pastor. One 
of the finest representations of the "one-ness" of our work is the 
work of the Christian center in Indian villages, where a nurse, 
a teacher and a Bible woman live together and give their lives 
in a three-fold ministry of health, of body, mind and spirit. 

The women of the churches in Japan, China, the Philippine 
Islands, India and Burma are organized into women's societies 
and hold annual conferences. Through their gifts they are con- 
tributing to the support of their Bible women, evangelists and 
nurses in villages and to their orphanages, hospitals and leper 
asylums. They are actively promoting the cause of temperance 
and adult literacy. In South India the Telugu Women's Conven- 
tion is courageously attacking the problem of debt in their own 
families and societies. In China and the Philippine Islands there 
have been held recently valuable training conferences for women 
leaders. Even in the Belgian Congo women are coming to be wel- 
comed on an equal footing with men and are esteemed for the 
contribution they can make. 

Christian women of all nations join annually in a World Day 
of Prayer. Each year more and more women's groups on our Mis- 

Work by Women for Women 6 1 

sion fields report observance of this day and what it is meaning 
in spiritual growth and fellowship with one another and with God. 
It is enlarging their vision of the Kingdom and making them 
conscious of their membership in a world Christian community. 
For women of non-Christian lands who have been so long under- 
privileged, the opportunities for Christian service through their 
women's societies become the 
finest avenue to a realization 
and development of their own 
powers and through which 
they are learning to take their 
rightful place in the life of the 
church. Work by women for 
women has called for and de- 
veloped a leadership among 
Christian women that has per- 
meated all parts of our work 
and has greatly enriched the 
Christian church. 


Chinese Mother and Children, Refugee 
Camp, Shanghai. 


In these troubled days many 
of our graduate nurses are 
serving in places of great re- 
sponsibility in the southern 
and western parts of China. 
Several evenings ago I was at- 
tending a meeting of the 
Shanghai Branch of the 
Nurses Association of China. A doctor, who had just returned 
from a year of work with wounded soldiers and refugees, was tell- 
ing us about the medical work in that district. He told about one 
young nurse who had shown unusual courage and bravery. She 
had been put in charge of the nursing work in a hospital for 
wounded soldiers near Canton. They were forced to move their 
hospital back into the province and finally moved on into Kwangsi 

With almost nothing to work with and with only mat sheds 

62 All Kindreds and Tongues 

over their heads this nurse and her helpers went about their work 
never complaining, thinking only about the comfort of the 
wounded soldiers they were caring for. Many of the nurses who 
had been working with her had returned to their homes saying 
the work was too hard. This nurse, a graduate of Margaret Wil- 
liamson Hospital, Shanghai, was one of our nurses with whom 

I had been corresponding for 
months! Her home was in the 
country near Wuhu, on the 
Yangtse River, and she had 
had no word from her family 
for five months. Finally in 
desperation she wrote me ask- 
ing if I might be able to get 
in touch with some missionary 
from that district who could 
find out whether her family 
was alive or not. We found 
that although their entire vil- 
lage had been burned her 
people were safely sheltered in 
a mission church in a neigh- 
boring village. Knowing the 
mental strain under which she 
has been working and the un- 
certainty concerning her fam- 
ily, she has shown unusual 
courage and devotion to duty. 
Ma Hannah of Burma. -Hazel Taylor, China 


On evangelistic trips to the villages Miss Mary Bonar is ac- 
companied by Malia Tuyuvala, the house mother of the Girls' 
dormitory, and Hannah, an older Christian. The illustrations by 
native preachers are quite realistic and to the point. Fables are 
used and in speaking of cooperation and fellowship in the churches 
and between black and white Christians, one said: "We should 
have one spirit and one voice like the Manselele (termites)." It 
is a spendid illustration but understood only by those who have 

Work by Women for Women 63 

slept in a grass house that was being eaten by termites. Their piece 
of cooperation was in their agreement to come and make bricks, 
get timber, etc., for building permanent brick houses, and for 
the support of their teacher. "Many are yet unsaved because they 
like their sin. Soap came into this country so that we can have clean 
bodies and clean clothes 'but some people will not use it. The 
gospel came that we might have clean hearts but some will not 
accept it." Another speaking of their evangelistic work said there 
had not been a great revival but they had won in this village 
one, and that village two, like a woman gathering firewood, one 
stick here, a dead branch there, and soon one has a big fagot. 



Soroni is one of our Tura school girls who has returned to 
her non-Christian home and non-Christian village as a teacher. 
The village men built her a house beside her father's house so 
she would be safe. Then they built her a little school house. If 
Soroni started early in the morning and walked as fast as she 
possibly could all day, and the Garo girls are good walkers, when 
night came on she would be a long way from another Christian 
or a school. She is the only Christian in the midst of a deeply 
rooted demon-fearing people whose village can be reached only 
by the little narrow, jungle path. After one and a half year's 
teaching Soroni writes, "At the end of this year I will not be the 
only Christian in my village. Some are believing my teaching and 
are nearly ready to confess Christ as their Saviour." 

A few months ago a mother in a village, a short distance from 
Soroni's village, died at childbirth. The father threw the baby 
into the corner of the room and for four days she lay there un- 
touched. The relatives came and they and the whole village sacri- 
ficed to the demons, drank and feasted. No one even looked at 
the baby girl in the corner. Soroni overheard two of her village 
women telling about the baby and asked for the child. She took 
the baby home and bathed and cared for her. 

The baby was not the young teacher's relative, she was not of 
her clan, she was not even from the teacher's village, then why 
such care, such kindness, such love? God works in different ways 
His wonders to perform. The two villages are still thinking, talk- 
ing, wondering WHY? 

Linnie M. Holbrook, Assam 


The Younger Churches Grow Up 

ryiHE GROWING CHURCH" becomes an entire volume of "The 
J_ Madras Series."* The central theme of this world meeting of 
the International Missionary Council was "The Church." It was 
considered with special reference to the building up of the younger 
churches as parts of the historic universal Christian fellowship. 
This volume offers abundant evidence that "the living Church 
grows in every part of the world." Instances are given of churches 
at different levels of growth "some fully mature and others in 
the beginning ot life," and a definite effort is made to cover the 
main areas of the earth and so far as possible to represent the 
main denominational families. For Baptists, Burma becomes the 
area and the representative churches which have attained a high 
level for sturdy, every-member development are the Karen 
churches, as described by Thra Chit Maung. 

Criteria of Growth 

Growth in self-support tells the real story of Christian progress 
during the second century. In this the Karens of Burma must be 
given a very high place. The most complete recent report of their 
development gives 1029 churches, 999 of which are self-supporting. 
Of the 30 which receive mission aid, 29 are in the frontier field 
of Loikaw; of the twelve other Karen stations, with an even thou- 
sand churches, only one church is aided. In 1938 on all ten of the 
foreign mission fields of Northern Baptists the percentage of self- 
supporting churches was 72.5%. Even through the depression 
years, one of the great goals of the work namely, the establish- 
ment of self-supporting, self-propagating, self-governing Christian 
churches is slowly, but surely, being realized. This picture has 
its light and its shadow. One must not forget that the lack of aid 
for weak churches, together with a sharp decline in the number 
of missionaries, as advisers and spiritual counselors, has un- 
doubtedly meant a decrease in the growth in number of churches. 
But look at the whole picture, and it is one of great encourage- 
ment. This is particularly true when we see the present against 

* Vol. II, Inlernalinnnl Missionary Council reports, 1939 


Picture taken at Thirtieth Anniversary Celebration. Rev. and Mrs. A. F. 
Ufford, retiring missionaries (center) ; Chinese associates include Convention 
Secretary, circuit and city pastors, academy principal, teachers, Superin- 
tendent of Shaohing Hospital, Convention General Secretary, and the 
Superintendent of Industrial Mission. 

the background of a "humanly impossible task" such as the famous 
beginner of Baptist foreign missions faced. 

Tests of the growth of the younger churches must be other 
than simply monetary. In addition to self-support, two other 
criteria are self-government and self-propagation. An inevitable 
accompaniment of efforts toward the attainment of self-support 
has been a desire and in some cases a clearly-voiced demand for 
a larger share of responsibility. The best step toward self-support 
has in more than one case proven to be the definite transfer of 
financial matters from missionary to national hands. East China, 
Japan, and the Philippine Islands may be taken as excellent ex- 
amples of the operation of this principle. The increasing demand 
for more control, for initiative in the determination of mission 
policies, for joint responsibility with missionaries in administra- 
tion, for freedom from foreign domination all greatly stimulated 
by the rising tide of national consciousness has been accompanied 
by an ever-deepening desire to contribute sacrificially. The grati- 


68 All Kindreds and Tongues 

fication of the desire for self-government has been given every 
encouragement by the Foreign Mission Societies. The ultimate 
goal the establishment of an indigenous church is a task which 
can never be achieved by foreign missionaries or foreign money 

Field Responsibility 

In Japan, the East Japan Baptist Convention has for some time 
had administrative control. There is full consultation between 
the Japanese and the missionaries, and relationships are frank and 
cordial; but the Japanese not the missionaries have final re- 
sponsibility. As Dr. H. B. Benninghoff has said, "Missionaries 
are in Japan to work, not for, nor over, but with Japanese Bap- 
tists." A very interesting recent development is the culmination of 
plans for the union of the Baptists of eastern Japan, whose mission 
connection has been Northern Baptist, with those of the west, 
whose connection is Southern Baptist. The Japanese "children" 
would in this regard appear to be several leagues ahead of their 
American "spiritual fathers." As this volume was being prepared 
final steps were taken which has resulted in the organization of 
what our Japanese brethren call the "Nippon Baputesuto Kirisuto 
Kyodan" the "Japanese Baptist Church." 

In the Philippines the administration of the work is very similar 
to that in Japan. Along with a remarkable growth in church 
membership better than 10% in a single year there has come 
from the church, as from the nation, an urgent plea for self- 
government. To this plea the mission has made ready and happy 
response in the confident belief that in this way will be found 
the best path to the establishment of churches rooted in the soil, 
ready to serve. 

In East China through the terrible war years the Chinese Con- 
vention, through its Executive Committee, continues to carry on 
effectively. The Secretary, Dr. T. C. Bau, was driven from his 
office in Hangchow when the Japanese captured that city; but 
finally was able to get to Shanghai, and set up an office there. The 
fine cooperation between the mission and the convention has been 
strengthened through these exceedingly difficult days. 

From South India reports indicate definite progress, though the 
problem there is fraught with difficulties such as it is doubtful if 
any other field knows. India is a land of contrasts in religions as 

The Younger Churches Grow Up 69 

well as in economic and social matters. Christians today constitute 
one percent of the people of this land. It is not easy to describe the 
way in which the church is taking root in South India. From that 
morning when Dr. John Clough came down from Prayer-meeting 
Hill to find a group of Untouchables waiting to confront him with 
the necessity for an epoch-making choice, much of the Northern 
Baptist work has been with these people who are almost at the 
bottom of the economic and social ladder. All told, 1 13,000 among 
the castes and outcastes have been gathered into the 389 organized 
Baptist churches of South India. 

Today the Untouchables are receiving better treatment from the 
higher caste people, for when they enter the Christian church, 
they are given something of its power to raise themselves. Al- 
though the churches in South India face almost unbelievable dif- 
ficulties, the removal of forms of idolatry from humble homes is 
final testimony to the genuineness of conversions. A new note in 
Christian development comes today from converts of many castes 
and heralds a great day of opportunity for this field. The influence 
of changed lives among the outcastes witnesses with such power 
to the validity of the Christian faith that caste people too begin 
to take their place in the growing church. 

Bengal-Orissa's Home Mission Board, an indigenous body, con- 
tinues full supervision of the work of all the preachers and Bible 
women. In Assam and Burma the situation is one about which 
it is difficult to generalize, for in each of these fields we have a 
number of different races. In Burma there could be constituted a 
minimum of six missions; in Assam, at the very least, four. These 
races are at varied stages of development. One might easily expand 
on the truth of the Apostle Paul's words, "Things which are de- 
spised, hath God chosen," for outstanding examples both of self- 
government and self-propagation come from the border hills of 
Burma and Assam, from the Garos, Nagas, Chins, and Kachins, 
and from among the Karens who here stand among the forefront 
of the younger churches. The Burmans of the Irrawaddy Valley 
continue their Burmese Baptist Missionary Society and are demon- 
strating determination and tenacity under extraordinarily dif- 
ficult circumstances. In the Brahmaputra Valley of Assam the 
immigrant tea garden workers have made their Associations instru- 
ments for vigorous work. 

The last demonstration of the supreme test of all Christian serv- 

70 All Kindreds and Tongues 

ice self-propagation was the way in which the Karens met the 
call of the Northern Chin Hills. For many years that area has 
pleaded for another missionary family. Then came Dr. Herbert 
Cope's untimely death. His church in America rallied to the sup- 
port of a new family, and Rev. and Mrs. Franklin Nelson are now 
in those hills. But with only one experienced family the Straits- 
left, the need of a third family was even more urgent. To this call 

Dr. 3. W. Decker, Dr. Kagawa and Baptist Missionaries, Japan. 

the Sgaw Karen Home Mission Society is responding and is con- 
sidering sending one of their best couples to the Chin Hills. Thus 
"the younger churches grow up." 

It is of genuine interest that the Christians of all denominations 
in Congo should have taken a step expressive of the all- 
inclusiveness of their Christian fellowship by adopting the general 
name of "L'Eglise du Christ au Congo." The proposal came from 
a gathering of Bantu leaders representing many tribes gathered in 
Leopoldville, the Colonial capital, in the year 1934. 

A partial list of the indigenous bodies upon our mission fields 
will be of interest to the reader. It includes groups analogous to 
national convention, state convention, association, home and even 
foreign mission societies: 

The Younger Churches Groiu Up 71 

The Burma Baptist Missionary Society 

The Bengal-Orissa Home Mission Board 

The All-Assam Baptist Convention 

The Telugu Baptist Convention 

The Kachin Triennial Convention 

The Ling-Tong Convention 

The Cbekiang-Shanghai Baptist Convention 

The Szechuen Baptist Convention 

The Hakka Baptist Convention 

The Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches 

Japan Baptist Church 



Although the past year has been one of trouble and uncer- 
tainty the churches have carried on in the spirit of Jesus. There 
have been additions of 280 by baptism as follows: Ningpo, 113; 
Shaohing, 117; Kinhwa, 34; Home Mission Field, 16. No baptisms 
have been reported from the churches in the occupied territory, 
but the baptisms in the churches in the unoccupied territory have 
been more than twice those of last year. Thirty-one short term 
classes for women and children have been held under the leader- 
ship of the Convention with a total attendance of over 1000. In 
Ningpo and Shaohing preparations have been made for lay train- 
ing institutes early in the year. 

T. C. Kwohj East China 



Kanigiri, for the first time in its history, entertained the Telugu 
Baptist Women's Convention its igth annual meeting. It was 
the largest Convention in number of delegates (106), in visitors, 
in missionary attendance, and in offerings. The theme was Chris- 
tian Growth. The Telugu Baptist women are going forwardl In 
1936 the women undertook to reopen the Sooriapett Hospital and 
carry on the work there, and their contributions have continued. 
A Women's Home has been under consideration for some years, 
and this year it was voted to open a Home in Bezwada which will 
include the various activities of a Christian Center, as well as being 

72 All Kindreds and Tongues 

a place to which women who need special protection can come. 
Two trained Bible Women working in Bezwada are being sup- 
ported by the Convention. A forward step in connection with the 
Women's Convention was the follow-up work done since last year's 
program. Banners were prepared for progress in Adult Literacy, 
Temperance, and "No Debt" efforts. A rather dramatic moment 
was the showing of the banner for first prize on "No Debt" with 
the statement that no society qualified. One Bible Woman cou- 
rageously said: "We leaders were all in debt ourselves so we 
couldn't say anything in that line except to tell them to mend their 

Olive E. Jones, South India 


Self-supporting, self-governing and self-propagating churches 
call for capable, consecrated native leadership. Native leadership 
calls for Christian education. Good schools call for good teachers 
with intellectual and spiritual qualifications and the producing 
of such is not the work of a day. 

With the raising of standards and the development of our station 
school work it became evident that something more in the way of 
preparatory schools would have to be provided. The native church 
faced and undertook the task of providing such schools, ten in 
number, with 567 carefully selected pupils in attendance. Those 
who are received into these schools must pass entrance examina- 
tions, be recommended by leading native workers. Village schools 
must be carried on in addition. 

John E. Geil, Belgian Congo 


Whereas, reports from many Associations show that because of 
the lack of sufficient financial support, village Christians are not 
receiving due spiritual nurture and shepherding; and whereas 
many of our village Christians have little cash which they can give, 

i. That attempts be made to ask all church members to make 
an annual effort (this word was substituted for "pledge") for the 
support of the church and its missionary programme, 

The Younger Churches Grow Up 73 

2. That village Christians in addition to cash gifts be asked to 
make offerings of other kinds of gifts such as (a) produce (b) ani- 
mals (c) or the yield out of a definite portion of their land or 
animals (d) and also give days of labor or articles made by the 
labor of their hands, 

3. That preachers and church officers make special arrange- 
ments to collect such gifts and turn them into suitable channels 
for the support of Christian work, 

4. That Christian Rural Reconstruction while working to im- 
prove the material condition of villagers, also trains them to give 
sacrificially for the support of Christ's work out of God's material 
gifts to them. 

Brayton C. Case, Burma 

The Christian World Fellowship 

THERE is an ecumenical church today. Around the world it 
stretches. In spots it is not as strong as it should be; but it is 
growing hardily in spite of barriers of nationalism and racialism 
in spite of economic and social problems. The movement has been 
so strengthened that the Christian churches have become increas- 
ingly aware of the religious and social needs of the world and have 
increasingly realized their duty to their neighbors living in an 
ever larger neighborhood 

Milestones of Progress 

One milestone in the formation of this universal Christian fel- 
lowship appeared in 1814 when Adoniram Judson and his co- 
workers started our modern missionary movement in Burma. A 
second milestone was raised in Edinburgh in 1910 when Christian 
people of all denominations met to discuss their common problems 
and to form the International Missionary Council. Out of this 
meeting came ultimately the National Christian Councils. In the 
words of Dr. John R. Mott: "At Edinburgh in 1910 Christian mis- 
sions ceased to be a multiplicity of isolated and detached agencies, 
and entered upon a period of ever closer international, inter- 
racial and interdenominational cooperation." Another great meet- 
ing of the International Missionary Council was the third mile- 
stone. It gathered at Jerusalem in 1928 and included a group of 
250 people representing 50 different nations and 26 national 

At last in December, 1938, came the Madras meeting of the 
International Missionary Council. It can truly be said that there 
the Christian churches realized their essential oneness in a 
universal Christian fellowship. To this meeting came delegates 
from 69 nations. They spoke more than 100 languages. They 
represented all types of civilizations and customs. They were sur- 
rounded by barriers of race and nation, but they broke through 
them all for they had one common tie, the Lord Jesus Christ. They 
were truly a company gathered out of "all nations and kindreds 
and peoples and tongues." 


The Christian World Fellowship 75 

Out of Madras came, for Christians, both challenges and prob- 
lems. New attitudes must be developed in our American churches 
if we are to go forward with that loyal group who encircle the globe. 
In the West our attitude has been all too patronizing as we have 
used the terms "older churches and younger churches" and "send- 
ing churches and receiving churches." We are beginning to 
glimpse the fact that while we of the West should still "send" 
money to a church trying to grow in spite of cruel economic situa- 
tions, we are "receiving" from that same church spiritual inspira- 
tion and insight. Together, East and West must strengthen this 
world-wide fellowship so that it may effectively bring solace to the 
distressed world in which we all live. 

Foreign Missions Conference 

Northern Baptists have always cooperated with other denomina- 
tions in building the Christian world fellowship. In the Foreign 
Missions Conference of North America, in which 129 foreign mis- 
sion boards representing 30 million Protestants of the United 
States and Canada participate, we have carried our part of the 

The functions of the Foreign Missions Conference are varied. 
First, "by cooperative methods, it interprets and informs North 
American Christians on world opportunities for Christianity." 
It does this through seminars, forums, conferences, literature and 

The Indian Road. 

76 All Kindreds and Tongues 

radio. Second, it cooperates with the missionary women of America 
in the World Day of Prayer and other projects. Third, it fosters 
increased interest, specialized training and an understanding of 
the religious, social and economic problems of rural life. Fourth, it 
assists furloughed medical missionaries to secure fuller profes- 
sional training and studies the medical situation in all mission 

In addition the Foreign Missions Conference has six committees 
which cover the foreign fields. The East Asia Committee has been 
doing important work in the last three years as it keeps foreign 
boards which have work in China or Japan informed on latest 
developments and suggests strategic policies as boards face the 

The India committee is at present working with the National 
Christian Council of India on the problem of mass movements. 
In addition it is particularly interested in raising the standard of 
literacy and providing Christian literature. 

The Philippine Committee is doing all it can to support the 
Federation of Evangelical Churches as it strengthens the Protestant 
churches in a land largely Roman Catholic. 

The Committee for Cooperation in Latin America, only re- 
cently an integral part of the Foreign Missions Conference, is push- 
ing a strong evangelistic effort and is coordinating joint efforts 
along the lines of religious education. 

The Africa Committee coordinates the planning and projects 
of all North American missions and maintains in Belgium, France 
and Portugal missionary training centers for the joint service of 
the Boards. It promotes evangelism, education and Christian litera- 
ture and performs a service of extraordinary importance in help- 
ing the cooperating missions to better relations with the govern- 
ing powers. 

The Moslem World Committee is just being formed in order 
that missions may cooperatively face the task of evangelism and 
preparation of Christian literature for Moslem lands which are 
extremely difficult to approach. 

Our two Foreign Boards have representatives on all these com- 
mittees with the exception of Latin America and Moslem World. 
Baptist Home Mission Societies work on the Latin America 
Committee and Northern Baptists have no work in the so-called 
Moslem lands. 

The Christian World Fellowship 77 

National Christian Councils 

The Foreign Missions Conference of North America is one of 
twenty-five National Christian Councils which head up the work of 
Protestant Christians around the world. (The Korean Christian 
Council has recently, under pressure from the government, merged 
with the National Christian Council of Japan. Increasingly the 
leadership in these councils is being taken over by nationals. Mis- 
sionaries are still voting members but do not dominate the deliber- 
ation of the group. 

International Missionary Council 

Twenty-five National Christian Councils unite in the support 
and work of the International Missionary Council. This organiza- 
tion is doing a task of incalculable importance. The reports com- 
ing out of its two great meetings at Jerusalem, 1928, and Madras, 
1938, have given blue-prints to guide the on-going Christian 

But it does something besides the calling together of conferences. 
It acts first of all as a great clearing house for the exchange of 
ideas. Into the offices in New York and London come reports from 
every part of the globe. Into these offices also come calls for advice 
and help. Methods by which better evangelistic, educational and 
medical work may be done are exchanged between South America 
and Japan, between the isles of the sea and America. A competent 
director of research is constantly at work seeking out perplexing 
problems and their underlying causes and suggesting remedies. 
This expert advice, much of it having to do with the social and 
economic environment, is indispensable if a truly indigenous 
church is to be built in the Orient. 

Christian literature, one of the most important tools in the 
hands of a growing church, has often gone halting for the lack of 
capacity upon the part of any individual mission to give it the 
requisite amount of effort. Cooperatively it is making great strides 
under the auspices of the International Missionary Council. Be- 
sides this for over twenty-five years an extremely valuable maga- 
zine, "The International Review of Missions," has been published. 
Its files form a remarkable repository of the thought behind the 
modern missionary movement, and each issue continues to give 
information of international significance. 

78 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Madras Leads On 

The Madras Conference was built on the foundations laid at the 
Jerusalem Conference of ten years before: 

"Our approach to our task must be made in humility and peni- 
tence and love: in humility because it is not our own message 
which we bring but God's ... in penitence, because ... we our- 
selves have been so blind to many of the implications of our 
faith; in love, because our message is the gospel of the Love of 

In a deep spirit of humility, penitence and love Madras sought 
the more effective way to take Christ to the entire world. The co- 
operation of the past has been of untold value but it is not enough. 
As one delegate said: "Our task is a united one. Our need is mutual. 
Our whole emphasis must be on the universality and the solidarity 
of the church of Jesus Christ." 

With this in mind, the call comes to churches around the world 
to cooperate in new ways. Here are some of them: 

1 . More careful cooperative planning of the work; 

2. Studies looking toward cooperation in church discipline, in 
marriage and other customs inherent in the social structure; 

3. More cooperative institutions, e.g., medical colleges, theological 
seminaries, etc.; 

4. More sharing of methods around the world, e.g., evangelism, 
education, medical, rural, economic, and social environment, 
worship, etc.; 

5. Serious consideration of the harm done on the foreign field by 
Western denominationalism; 

6. Missionaries who will truly be ambassadors of fellowship. 

"God grant to His Church to take the story of His love to all 
mankind, till that love surround the earth, binding the nations, the 
races and the classes into a community of sympathy for one another, 
undergirded by a deathless faith in Christ." 



Women were also among the delegates last year at the anni- 
versary celebration of the sixty years of Protestant mission work 
in Congo, held at Leopoldville. (Eighteen different language 

The Christian World Fellowship 79 

speaking tribes were represented in the meetings of the Congo 
leaders.) One young woman who was a delegate in reporting the 
meetings, said: "In all the talking in those other tongues, I under- 
stood only one word Yeso Klisto (Jesus Christ). Even the cannibal 
tribes from the interior, whom we have always feared, stood up and 

Christian Leaders at Madras Conference: (Left to right) : Mr. Samuel P. 
Andrews-Dube, Miss Ha Sircar, Miss Maria Dayoan and Mr. Estanislao 

Padilla of the Philippines. 

used His name, too. I saw the light of His love in their faces and 
by that I knew we were all one in Christ Jesus. My heart rejoiced 
greatly and my faith was strengthened." 

Belgian Congo 


Caste cannot withstand the onslaught that is being made against 
it by caste Hindus and Christians alike. The temple-entry move- 
ment by Brahmin members of the Congress Party cannot confer 
any great immediate benefits upon the Untouchables. Neverthe- 
less, if the principle for which this movement stands is generally 
accepted it will go a long way towards breaking down the rigidity 
of caste. One of our Markapur pastors was elected a member of 

8o All Kindreds and Tongues 

the Kurnool District Board. There are on this Board a good many 
Brahmins and other high-caste members. An influential Brahmin 
member, a lawyer of Markapur, initiated Pastor George into the 
precincts of the elite by doing an almost unheard of thing. In 
the presence of all of the members he took his own drinking vessel, 
handed it to this pastor of depressed-class origin, asked him to 
drink from it, after which he himself drank. He did not do this 
merely to offer a drink but to interpret to the other members of 
the group the spirit of the times. Had such an event taken place 
a few years ago the said Brahmin member himself would most 
likely have been ostracized. But now, that harsh attitude is no 
more. While some of the members may have looked askance at the 
spectacle it seems to have received general approbation. 

Edwin Erickson, South India 


This little country of Burma is fast becoming one of the great 
crossroads of the world. Dutch and British planes plying between 
Singapore, Hongkong, Australia, India, the Near East and Europe, 
touch in here at Rangoon almost daily. These past few weeks up 
in the Shan hills we were staying at the town of Maymyo on the 
new Burma-China road. Trains and trucks rumble through this 
town constantly, carrying supplies to General Chiang Kai-shek. 
World-famous visitors pop in and out, among them recently H. G. 
Wells of England, Dr. Schacht of Germany and Mr. Wang of 

Not so long ago Burma was off the beaten track of world traffic, 
but those days are gone. Rangoon bids fair to become one of the 
most important cities of the Orient. It was brought home to us 
how closely we are in touch with the West these days, when we 
went down recently to bid goodbye to a Burmese friend leaving 
for New York. By taking a plane from Rangoon to London and 
catching the S. S. Queen Mary at Southampton, she would be in 
New York in ten days! Soon Rangoon is going to have a radio 
station powerful enough to be heard in New York. So this pictur- 
esque pagoda city on the coast of this teak and rice country is 
stepping up into the ranks of the world's great cities. 

Mrs. L. B. Allen, Burma 

The Nations and the Gospel 


N THE shadow of Munich and just next 
door to the titanic struggle in East Asia 
representatives of the Christian Church 
from all parts of the world assembled at 
Madras in the name of the Prince of Peace. 
At that very moment there were ominous 
preparations under way in Europe. Both 
Chinese and Japanese delegations had left 
then: war scourged countries to attend 
these historic meetings of the International 
Missionary Council. The Conference was 
fully cognizant of tragic world events yet, 
in the face of all those grim realities, the following conclusions 
were evolved: 

"In the gospel men must seek the spiritual and moral basis for 
ordering national life and international relations, if humanity is 
not to succumb to the conflicts which threaten the ruin of civili- 
zation. Our conviction springs from our common faith in the 
eternal and almighty God revealed in Jesus Christ, before whose 
judgment seat all people stand." 

A World-wide Fellowship 

We have taken a look at the developing world-wide Christian 
fellowship, with its clear testimony that God has "made of one 
every nation of men to dwell on all the face of the earth." These 
things Madras also had in mind/ as it spoke of the international 
situation, and found in the gospel the one message sufficient in 
content and in power to meet the desperate needs of the world 
of nations, many of them locked in fearful struggle one with 

Madras' pronouncement is supported in unobtrusive ways by 
things which are happening all about us, things which are well 
known to those close to the foreign mission enterprise, but which 
do not find a place in the daily newspapers. A Christian mission- 
ary, whose heart is burdened with the Sino- Japanese tragedy, visits 


8s All Kindreds and Tongues 

his Christian brother and friend who is an influential official of 
one of the belligerents, and pours out his soul to him, confident 
that he will receive a sympathetic and intelligent hearing and 
that what he has to say will have far-reaching influence. Mis- 
sionaries and mission executives from other countries have un- 
exampled opportunities to speak with the utmost frankness to 
individuals and to groups of Christian leaders of both China and 
Japan. Christian nationals of both countries have a moral and 
spiritual platform on which they can and do meet each other. 
We could not claim that this interchange of thought results in 
complete understanding, but it does help in that direction while 
the struggle continues, and it will be a powerful force for peace 
when a larger reconciliation between the two peoples becomes 
possible. Christian missions, reaching out into all parts of the 
world, across national, racial and economic boundaries, quietly 
spinning the golden threads which bind together the world-wide 
Christian fellowship, is one of the most potent of all forces work- 
ing for peace. 

The opportunity and responsibility of the Christian church 
to lay the foundation, in the minds of the children and young 
people, for international understanding, appreciation and re- 
spectall indispensable for right international relationships and 
enduring peace was also emphasized. When we think of how 
widely scattered over the globe are the outposts of the missionary 
enterprise, we begin to realize what a tremendous potential 
force we have in this daily ministry of Christian education. One 
who has caught, even dimly, the vision of the Christ, is heavily 
fortified against race pride or hate, against any unwholesome, 
selfish or narrow nationalism. People of whom this is true are 
found in every corner of the earth. They aggregate millions in 
number but exercise an influence far beyond their numerical 
strength. They have been touched by the teaching of Christ and 
have, in some measure, been given a new perspective. 

Contributions to International Order 

Travel among our missions reveals any number of international 
situations where our missionaries and their national colleagues 
are making contributions of a high order. Reference has already 
been made to the service of various kinds which Christian people 
and institutions have been rendering in war distressed China. 




J What peace no wealth could 

iijL laughed to see the sun peep 

lie trees 1 

Jfoy! What splashii 

rain upon the stones of 
of mud beside the busy village < 


84 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Their effort in helping to reshape the new nation is apparent. 
Take the fact that during all this conflict the ten hospitals of our 
two societies in China have been open day and night to receive 
the victims of war, often affording the only medical aid available 
in their localities. Or take the work of the University of Nanking, 
Ginling College and West China Union University, from that 
great campus in Chengtu. They have been reaching out into the 
fabric of Chinese society in various sorts of projects to enrich 
the new life which China is setting up and developing in that 
distant, but rich, interior. The new China that is to be will owe 
much to the vision and constructive work of these Christian in- 
stitutions. Every one of them is a witness to cooperative and 
unselfish internationalism. Where war has been a great destroyer, 
our missions have worked ceaselessly to bind up the wounds of 
China's physical, economic, educational and spiritual life. 

In India the tides of nationalism are running deep and strong. 
India's face is set towards a new position of dignity and responsi- 
bility in the world of nations a position which she may yet 
find within the British family of nations. However, if she is to 
achieve her goal, she must overcome some of her admittedly tragic 
weaknesses. Among these is the caste system, which divides her 
life up into segments, and leaves, 60,000,000 beyond the pale 
in the squalor and unutterable degradation of untouchability. 
No one has recognized this fact with greater frankness than 
Gandhi. He has set himself to abolish untouchability. Although 
Hindu, he is a profound student of the New Testament. Further- 
more it can be said confidently that Christian missions led the 
way in demonstrating the dignity and common human worth of 
the despised outcaste. Indeed, it is not too much to say that Chris- 
tian missions, ours among them, have lifted the Untouchable out 
of the deep slough in which they found him, and set him in a 
new way of dignity and hope. India's national life is infinitely the 
stronger thereby, and her national aspirations that much nearer 
to being achieved. 

Burma, now separated from India on a path of her own, is 
blazing with nationalism, the cry of which might be said to be 
"Burma for the Burmese." So far this has not raised a serious prob- 
lem for the great Karen minority, who have proven so responsive 
to the Christian message. What the future may hold is a source 
of real concern. The Karen people have their roots deep in the 

The Nations and the Gospel 85 

hills of Burma's border regions. In the past they have tasted the 
bitterness of Burmese disdain and oppression. A people prepared 
to fight for their rights, and resenting the Burmese attitude and 
pressure, they have thrown in their lot with the British govern- 
ment in the past, staunchly supporting it. But now in political 
affairs the Burmese are coming more and more into power, and 
the Karens are faced with the problem of what attitude they will 
take to a nationalist Burma, which means a Burmese dominated 
Burma. Here the leadership of the Karens, one-fourth of whom 
belong to the Christian constituency, has come into the picture, a 
leadership largely educated in Judson College, side by side with 
Burmese and other fellow students. 

This leadership was to a considerable degree responsible for a 
proclamation, issued a few months ago by the Karens, when for 
the first time and in recognition of their place in the family of 
the new Burma, their New Year's day was proclaimed a national 
holiday. In this proclamation the Karen leadership sent out a 
call to the Karen groups throughout Burma, in part as follows: 

"We are at a crisis. For us the choice lies between seeking pro- 
tection through isolation, or adventure through active participation 
in the life of Burma. United ourselves we could help to make Burma 
a nation. We recognize that as leaders we must be fully committed 
to our country free from fear, personal ambition, racial and re- 
ligious prejudice. 

"Today we recall our heritage, our ancient poets and prophets 
and our tradition of Ywa (God). We believe every individual, every 
home, every village has a place in the new advance. Progressive in 
thinking, constructive in planning, and courageous in living, we can 
share responsibility with other communities for making Burma a 
united people." 

With the bitter fruit of the minority problem before our eyes 
today in Europe, this seems to come from a different world. We 
may rejoice that the Christian influence at work among the Karens 
promises to be a saving salt as Burma advances towards nationhood. 

In the Philippine Islands, launching out on its new place in 
the world of nations, one finds abundant evidence of the enhanced 
appreciation for the principles of religious liberty, and of the 
separation of church and state. The vigorous, growing Protestant 
minority bids fair to exert a wholesome influence on politics and 
government, on education and various forms of public service. 

86 All Kindreds and Tongues 

The Roman Catholic Church itself will benefit by the Protestant 
example and the stimulus of competition, and as a nation, "the 
only Christian nation in the Orient," will be morally and spiritu- 
ally the stronger for the influence of Protestant missions. 

The great continent of Africa is more than ever the question 
mark among the major land areas of the world. A few years ago we 
believed that genuine progress along Christian lines was taking 
place as governing powers adopted more enlightened attitudes 
toward subject peoples and as the mandate principle more and 
more served to hold ruling states to accountancy for their colonial 
stewardship. The rape of Ethiopia, however, has shaken our con- 
fidence in inevitable progress toward moral standards, and grave 
questions arise as to the possible results of the present European 
struggle in relation to the future status of the primitive peoples. 
Nothing could be more ominous than the fact that again black 
warriors from the West Coast are thrown into battle array against 
white Christians of Europe. More than 700,000 Negroes from 
West Africa are already enrolled in European armies. The Chris- 
tian missionary enterprize alone sets itself firmly against all that 
such a confrontation implies and attempts to extend world Chris- 
tian fellowship until it includes "all kindreds and tongues." 

The work of Northern Baptists in Africa is confined to Belgian 
Congo and here one of the important cooperative efforts of the 
evangelical missions is an attempt to induce the ruling power 
to grant to the missions and their constituencies of native Bantu 
peoples, the rights which were guaranteed them under the Treaty 
of Berlin and its successors. 

Interdenominational and International Group at Chengtu. 

The Nations and the Gospel 87 

True Christian Brotherhood 

Our thought turns back to the closing days of July, 1939, and 
to the little village of Hemmen, near Arnheim, in Holland. The 
Ad Interim Committee of the International Missionary Council 
had been in session there for two days. It was a small group which 
brought together missionary leaders from the United States, Great 
Britain, and from various nations on the Continent of Europe and 
from Asia. The threat to Europe's peace was all too apparent, 
and the last hours of the meeting were spent in discussing what 
might be done to maintain various Christian missions which 
would be endangered in case of war. English and Germans, Amer- 
icans and others, the group felt the reality and power of the 
Christian fellowship in that earnest discussion. In a little more 
than one month the crash came, and the plans made at Hemmen 
had to be implemented. The International Missionary Council 
sprang into the breach, and the first contribution which came 
through to aid these distressed missions, mostly German, was two 
hundred and fifty pounds from an English giver! The Council is 
active in many lands in seeking to guard and maintain the inter- 
ests of Christian missions, which may be endangered in one way or 
another, e.g., German missions in the Dutch East Indies and in 
India, and French missions in Africa and Madagascar. Even 
belligerent governments have been very generous in their treat- 
ment of enemy aliens who are engaged in missionary service in 
their territory, in many cases allowing them to continue un- 
molested, a striking testimony to the fact that their work rises 
above the strifes that divide men. Madras was not exaggerating 
when it said: "In the missionary enterprise the Christian move- 
ment makes an indispensable contribution to the international 
order. International disorder springs ultimately from the fact 
that men and nations cling selfishly to their powers, privileges and 
possessions until compelled by force to share them. The mission- 
ary movement springs from a sense of indebtedness to God who 
has shared His very best with us in Christ, and an eager desire 
to share any good thing that we may have, and most of all the 
gospel itself, with men of every land and nation. Here interna- 
tional and interracial contact may reach its highest level." 

j. w. DECKER 

88 All Kindreds and Tongues 


The industrial division of our Boys' School continues to grow in 
popularity. It shows what can be done by methodical, step-by-step 
development of the skills involved in weaving, carpentry and 
tailoring. The fact that any boy can learn these trades tends to 
open the mind to the possibilities of life. Every American boy 
believes that he might be President some day because the whole 
scope of American life is open to him; not so an Indian boy. 
His area of activity is circumscribed by his caste. He would not 
dream of stepping outside his caste for a trade. Such schools as 
ours teach that any skill may be acquired by any boy. Initiative, 
enthusiasm and ambition result, displacing dreary submission to 
fate. The Government's new Wardha Scheme of education (the 
teaching of two skills for village industries, in addition to the 
regular curriculum) is going forward. Our Coles Schools have 
been following such a curriculum for fifteen years or more and 
have pioneered in influencing public opinion in favor of such 
educational plans. 

B. J. Rockwood, South India 


We had been thinking for the past few years, with the tension 
in Europe, and the war in China, that Burma was a very safe 
corner in which to live. Yet trouble comes, and from within. A 
general Nationalist movement with anti-foreign feeling has broken 
out. Aside from the hundreds of people killed, there has been a 
general uprising which has taken the form of school strikes, boy- 
cotts and industrial strikes. Schools throughout the province have 
largely closed. Some of our Indian Christians sought refuge in 
the Mission compounds until money could be raised from mis- 
sionaries and churches to pay their boat fare back to India. Pastor 
Aaron, a Tamil Christian preacher who has lived and preached 
in Rangoon for 50 years or more, has his home in a rather thickly 
settled Buddhist area. When the outbreak came some Indians 
near there were killed, and their houses burned; others fled. Mr. 
and Mrs. Aaron, however, said, "Our lives have been spent here. 
We know no other home, so we will stay and put our trust in 
God." So they stayed and lo, their Buddhist neighbors came to 

The Nations and the Gospel 89 

their rescue and told the other Burmans they must not harm 
them! Even the Buddhist priests came to speak to protect this 
kindly old man of God and his wife. One day a fellow missionary 
came by and said, "The Aarons cannot get out to get food. Have 
you an extra loaf of bread on hand?" Yes, indeed! Bread for 

Village Church and Congregation, Assam. 

God's children who had trusted Him and were saved for His work 
by Buddhist priests! God does indeed care for His own. 

Mrs. J. R. Andrus, Burma 


Once again I am in Ningpo after 20 months with the refugees 
in Shanghai. It seems quiet in Ningpo after the tenseness of 
Shanghai and the strain of trying to keep life in great masses of 
starving people. There are refugees here but not in such enormous 
quantities. A local Ningpo Committee called the International 
Committee for Civilian Relief has now taken over caring for the 
destitute in the city and to some extent in the countryside. A rice 
kitchen is giving 3,000 free meals each day, clothing is being pro- 
vided, and special schools are being operated for poor children. 
At these the children receive food as well as instruction. This 

90 All Kindreds and Tongues 

International Committee consists of British and American mis- 
sionaries, French Catholic priests and local Chinese leaders. In 
some instances they have worked through a Buddhist group, too. 
It is a case of all working together for the relief of suffering. 

Myrtle M. White d, China 



A part of April was spent in Utkal (Orissa) Christian Council 
Executive meeting, at the farther extremity of the Province some 
five hundred forty miles from our station as guests of the (German 
Lutheran) Schleswig Holstein Evangelical Mission. They have 
an Oriya Christian community of about 28,000. Their difficulties 
in getting money from their friends in Germany are appalling. 
They are living testimony to the fact that God gives strength for 
every need. Our meeting was concerned largely with the reorgani- 
zation of the Oriya Christian Literature Committee, the Oriya 
Language Board and other cooperative organizations on a more 
inclusive basis. Several other cooperative enterprises were set on 
foot including a political, social, economic and educational survey 
of the entire Oriya Christian community, the preparation of Oriya 
Christian gramaphone records, a study of the opportunities for 
vocational training open to Christians, etc. 

W. C. Osgood, Bengal-Orissa 

RAY with your intelligence. Bring things to God that you 
have thought out and think them out again with Him. That 
is the secret of good judgment. Repeatedly place your pet opin- 
ions and prejudices before God. He will surprise you by showing 
you that the best of them need refining and some the .purification 
of destruction. 


SHALL pass through this world but once. Any good there- 
fore that I can do or any kindness that I can show to any hu- 
man being, let me do it now. Let me not defer or neglect it for I 
shall not pass this way again. 

Bibine iHapfarer, 
first shelter toaS a stable, 
first journep toaS a flight for life, 
trabelling oft tabst not tofiere to lap 

to tfjose tufjo carrp Cf)j> menage a Sure Puttie 
anb unfailing test 

Clotfje tfjem in tlje garment of cfjarttp iufjtcf) t'S ^^ 
fer>J!^J!#r>J^j^rj^<^pv^pjitfp strange to no man, 
teacf) tfjem tfje language of Spmpatfjp tuljtcl) ts 
^j^v^p^pj^pj^p^^p^^unbersitoob bp all, 
, tofjitet Strangers; in eberp lanb, t&ep maj> pet 
be toelcomeb as citizens of tfje Soul of man anb ^^ 
asf brothers of ttie ljuman fteart, ^PJ^V^PJ^JS^ 
for W> Hingbom'sJ sfafee. 8men. 

The Stream of Young Life 
and the Cost of Service 

IT is to the youth of America that the foreign missionary move- 
ment of this country owes its genesis. It was a group of young 
men from Williams College, who, taking shelter from a storm, held 
the famous "Haystack Prayer Meeting," where they pledged them- 
selves to pray and work for the cause of foreign missions. It was 
another group of young men at Andover Theological Seminary 
Adoniram Judson, Samuel Nott, Samuel J. Mills, Samuel Newell, 
Gordon Hall, James Richards, and Luther Rice who, as the great 
memorial boulder in the "Missionary Woods" of Andover re- 
lates, by their "consecrated purpose to carry the Gospel to the 
heathen world, led to the formation of the first American Society 
for Foreign Missions." 

In the last generation, the Student Volunteer Movement was a 
movement of youth and for youth. Founded at Mount Hermon by 
Robert Wilder, John R. Mott, and Robert E. Speer, it spread 
rapidly through the colleges of the land, and has been the instru- 
ment used of God in enlisting thousands of the choice youth of 
America for service for Christ in the far corners of the globe. 

Motives to Missionary Service 

It is most natural that youth should respond in this way to the 
missionary movement, first, because the world outreach of the 
Christian church presents the highest, most challenging ideal 
ever to come from the mind of man: world peace, world brother- 
hood, good will for all men, and the world-wide Kingdom of 
God. Second, here is the spirit of adventure so alluring to youth. 
This missionary enterprise does not call men to a "life of slippered 
ease"; it is the call of Christ to hazard all for His great cause; 
"He that loseth his life shall save it." Then the very difficulty of 
the task is a challenge to youth. Youth does not ask for the safe, 
the easy, the sure, the life where there is no difficulty. Youth is 
eager to give all for a cause which is worth while. What is bidding 
higher for the allegiance of youth than the missionary enterprise 


The Stream of Young Life 93 

with its ministry to human need through hospital and leper 
asylums, with its development of the human mind and spirit 
through schools and churches, with its reverence for personality 
without respect to color, nationality, race or creed? 

Finally, youth wants a better world a world where there is no 
war, no race prejudice, no social or economic injustice; and in 
the world mission, youth sees all the unselfish forces of men of 
good will working together for international and interracial 
understanding, for social and economic justice and opportunity 
for all, for the liberation of the human spirit, for "the brother 
for whom Christ died." 

The Worth of a Great Movement 

A source book of extraordinary worth in attempting to evaluate 
the "stream of young life" engaged in the foreign missionary enter- 
prise is a volume produced in 1933 by Dr. William G. Lennox 
under the rather cumbrous title "The Health and Turnover of 
Missionaries." His word respecting the value of missions should 
be quoted: 

"The influence of missions, however, is not to be measured by 
numbers, either of societies, of men or of dollars. For a hundred 
years mission-driven men and women have been percolating into 
the far crannies of the earth. They have jolted over dust-heavy 
Manchurian plains, paddled into lonely ocean lagoons, established 
homes in Indian villages of mud, struggled through African 
thickets and climbed Himalayan heights, bringing, or trying to 
bring, God to man. These missionaries have altered age-old cus- 
toms, deflected the course of civilizations, demonstrated goodwill, 
lived lives of devotion and courage, and turned thoughts in 
myriads upward. Missionaries and missions have been and are 
today an influence of moment in the relationships between God 
and man." 

Statistics of the Modern Missionary Enterprise 

The statistics later furnished are of the utmost value. They 
were compiled after prolonged research and while expressed in 
round figures may be relied upon to furnish a close approximation 
of the ultimate facts. Dr. Lennox states that in the more than a 
century which had elapsed at the time the study was made (a 
period coinciding with the peak of evangelical missionary expan- 

94 All Kindreds and Tongues 

sion) approximately 75,000 workmen or more accurately 27,000 
workmen and 48,000 workwomen, had been sent by the churches 
of all denominations to the foreign mission fields. They had given 
about a million years in foreign service, 400,000 by men and 
600,000 by women. Their labors had resulted in a present Chris- 
tian community of no Nationals for each missionary who had 
ever served. Of the 75,000, 65% or nearly 50,000 had finished their 
work either through death, retirement, illness or resignation and 
25,000 were yet active. Today the number of active evangelical 
missionaries throughout the world is about the same. 

What Price Service? 

The subsequent study concerns itself very largely with the health 
of the missionary; and the toll of illness paid for the privilege of 
service is not small. Study of a total of 3,733 workers who were 
lost to the work since the year 1900 indicates that 46% withdrew 
because of physical breakdown either on the part of the missionary 
or some member of his family. The breakdown was complete, 
resulting in death in a third of these cases, and partial, involving 
serious ill health in two-thirds. The advance of medical science 
and amelioration of health conditions found upon the fields have 
made considerable difference in the mortality of those engaged in 
service abroad. For example, in Africa although this field still 
leads in mortality due to tropical infection and perils, twenty mis- 
sionaries died before 1840 to one who dies now. The decline is due 
to the curbing of tropical infections which caused one half the 
deaths before 1900, but only one fifth since that year. 

Statistical studies and their results, however, can never fully 
convey the selfless service and the poignant suffering ofttimes 
borne by the missionary. Much of it is definitely consequent on 
willingness to serve in distant sections of the globe where skilful 
provision for the care of the sick is strictly limited. 

The Deeper Significance 

It may be said of more than a few Christian missionaries that 
they have truly come to the Kingdom for such a time as this! 
Within the last few years the rising tide of nationalism has in 
places threatened to tear down the work of several decades in 
building unity and harmony between races who live side by side. 
Into one such seemingly impossible situation a missionary of our 

The Stream of Young Life 95 

Woman's Board was placed in the last few years. A woman of 
strong character and firmness, but with great tolerance and a 
willingness to go far beyond the "second mile," she has, by the 
sheer Christlike quality of her daily life in the midst of the 
opposing racial groups, become the friend of both and done more 
than anything else could have done to ameliorate a situation that 
threatened to set back the work of years. 

The following quotation is from the recent letter of a missionary 
who had repeatedly risked his life in effective and sacrificial 
service. His extraordinary value to the work under present tense 
conditions made it justifiable to sanction his return even though 
he suffered from physical disabilities which rendered such a re- 
turn hazardous. Mark his response: 

"My physical condition is not so much of a problem, to me per- 
sonally. I have lived a fairly full and satisfying life. The things 
which I have missed I shall miss anyhow. A few years more or 
less, if that is to be the way of it, doesn't matter. I am quite pre- 
pared for whatever is in store. If I can contribute a little, perhaps 
I might say a little more, to make life richer, to bring heaven 
nearer, to some, it seems that there would probably be more op- 
portunity for that back where I have been. I shall be glad to 
put in what time I have there." 

Another case may be given in briefest outline. A missionary 
couple were in charge of a fruitful and needy tropical field where 
the great institution which they conducted meant fuller life and 
opportunity, material as well as spiritual, for many thousands of 
the underprivileged. They were suddenly confronted with the 
word of skilled physicians that the wife and partner in the work 
must go to the homeland immediately for an operation which 
offered only the remotest possibility of saving her life. What 
should be God's will in such a case? For the husband to accompany 
her would mean a cessation of the activities of the work with 
consequent untold loss. The answer came through prayer and 
meditation and was in consonance with the deep devotion of a 
lifetime. The case requiring urgency the wife left by air, arriving 
at a great American medical center where she was given every 
attention, but where the results of repeated studies proved wholly 
unfavorable. Let the reader picture to himself the lonely interven- 
ing weeks during which this husband and wife, separated by half 
a world, waited for the inevitable moment when God should call 

96 All Kindreds and Tongues 

the dear one to Himself. Separated for Christ's sake, the one to 
suffer and wait, the other to work and wait. 

The Stream of Life for the New Day 

At whatever cost, the work goes on and must go on. There is 
no lack of young men and women who are willing to brave every 
necessary hazard in offering themselves for the great service. The 
call is the same as in other years and Christ still endues His 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen J. Goddard, 
new missionaries to China. 

followers with "an irresistible sense of mission." Under the 
heavy stress of present world tension the younger churches in 
mission lands plead earnestly for an increased number of mis- 
sionaries. They ask that the worker should come as a colleague 
of the leaders of the indigenous church and that he should be 
prepared to consider himself a servant of the new churches rather 
than an "overseer." The new sense of Christian world fellowship 
makes it perfectly clear that the sending of a missionary can no 
longer be the sole concern of the Board or the churches in the 
sending land, but that the churches in the receiving country 
should begin to exercise an important voice in his selection and 

Representatives from the churches on the mission fields join 
with those from the homelands in outlining the qualifications 
needed by the missionary today. 

The Stream of Young Life 97 

"There are certain basic or universal qualifications which must 
characterize the missionary. He must be physically fit to adjust 
himself to life in a new land. He must be intellectually qualified 
by thorough and broad education, have the capacity to learn 
a language, have a thorough knowledge of the Bible, and possess 
the appropriate professional skills. He must be marked for his 
Christian character, that is: he must have, above all things, love; 
also a growing Christian experience, a sure grasp of the Christian 
faith, a sense of mission from his Master, the gift of interpreting 
and communicating his faith, the capacity to appreciate and co- 
operate with, and the ability to identify himself with, the best 
interests of other peoples. 

"We would emphasize, however, that some qualifications are 
of very special importance in these times, namely: (a) such a 
living conviction of the Christian faith and such a growing Chris- 
tian experience that he will be an effective interpreter, able to 
communicate the Gospel; (b) sensitive appreciation and under- 
standing of the changing currents of political, economic, social 
and religious life, and resourcefulness in interpreting the Christian 
message to the present generation of men; (c) the ability to be 
a willing colleague, free from a sense of racial, cultural, spiritual 
superiority and denominational narrowness; (d) the capacity to 
understand and appreciate the aspirations of other people."* 

Decline in Staff 

If we are to face the full facts in respect to the stream of young 
life it is necessary to recognize that the past decade or more has 
witnessed a decided decline in the number of missionaries serving 
Northern Baptists on foreign fields. So far as the General Society 
is concerned the peak in point of staff numbers was reached in 
1923 when 313 units were under appointment. By a unit is meant 
a family or a single person. In 1929 there were 265 units, in 1934, 
240 units and in 1939, 179 units, a decline from the peak year 
in a period of 16 years equalling 42.9%. In the decade closing 
with April 30, 1938, the staff of the Woman's Society declined from 
204 to 153, a loss of 25%. It should further be borne in mind that 
this decline has taken place during years which have witnessed 
unprecedented Christian opportunities calling for strategic re- 

* "World Mission of the Church/' p. 84. 

98 All Kindreds and Tongues 

enforcements of missionary staff among castes and outcastes of 
India, among the hill peoples of Assam and Burma, in the newly 
awakened Congo valley and more recently in our stricken China 

An Aging Staff 

Naturally such a decline in staff, consequent upon our inability 
to send new recruits for lack of funds, has led to an automatic 
advance in the average age of the missionaries. "The stream of 
life" as it begins its great service is a stream of young life, for only 
in extraordinary occasions is it possible to send to the field one 
who is beyond early youth, but one of the glories of the great work 
is that so many of the young men and women who undertake 
it grow old in the service that is, old in years though the nature 
of the work itself keeps them young in spirit. The average age 
of the missionaries of the General Society in service in the year 
1928 was 44.9. Ten years later it had increased to 48.3. The aver- 
age age of the missionaries of the Woman's Society in 1939 was 45.2. 

Challenging Facts 

In the face of this picture three challenging facts emerge: 

1. The responsible bodies on mission fields including both 
missionaries and national leaders are asking for the young life of 
America. This is even more true than it was a decade ago. They 
want representatives of each succeeding age group. They need 
particularly the strength which can come to younger churches 
through the life of the older churches. They plead for vital Chris- 
tian personalities who best represent what Jesus Christ offers to 
the world. The doors of opportunity are widely ajar with chal- 
lenging needs on every hand. 

2. The spiritual life of the churches here in the homeland is to 
an extraordinarily large degree dependent upon a consuming 
passion for meeting the needs of other people. Devotion to the 
cause of Christ does not thrive on isolation and self-interest but 
on an unselfish concern for peoples of all races and climes. The 
sending of the young people of the churches into needy places 
at home and to the far corners of the world is the spearhead 
opening the way for old and new applications of the teachings of 
Jesus. For its own life it is imperative that the church in America 
contribute its youth to the needs of the world. 

The Stream of Young Life 99 

3. Leaders in world thought are turning to the principles of 
Jesus as offering the only hope in a world harassed by the repres- 
sions and oppressions of dictatorships and totalitarianism. The 
class struggles, the racial animosities, the warlike spirit, the re- 
strictions on personal and religious freedom and the utter dis- 
regard for the individual displayed today in so many quarters 
are entirely out of harmony with the teachings of the Saviour 
of men. 


Kanigiri station was combined with that of Podili for 
some time. It was also included with Donakonda so that the mis- 
sionary in charge had three big fields as his responsibility! To 
have two such stations to supervise is a two-man task without a 
doubt, but how one man could care for three of them is almost 
beyond comprehension. This means, of course, that at best only 
superficial attention could be given. Kanigiri field, for instance, is 
as large as the state of Rhode Island and contains about 100,000 
square miles with over 150,000 population. There are almost 
8,000 baptized Christians, which means that the Christian com- 
munity is much larger than this. Countless numbers of the Chris- 
tians, moreover, cannot read or write at least three quarters of 
them. There are more than 400 villages, and each village is made 
of at least two sections a caste section and an outcaste palem. 
It is absolutely impossible to visit each village even once a year. 
Just to see, visit, and encourage this great body of Christians 
is a task in itself, but what can one do for them in such a brief 
contact? Then too there are the non-Christians, especially the 
Sudras, with their much greater numbers and their great interest 
at present in the gospel message. Here again the responsibility 
is multiplied, for in this day of their interest and inquiry we 
must not fail them. It is a great day of opportunity in this field! 
Pray for and support us in this exceptional challenge. 

Eva G. and J. C. Martin, South India 


The recent appointment of Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Josiah God- 
dard to foreign mission service in China continues the Goddard 

ioo All Kindreds and Tongues 

family name "unto the fourth generation of them that love Me and 
keep My commandments." Stephen's great grandfathers were 
William Dean, first Baptist missionary appointed to work among 
the Chinese, 1832; and Josiah Goddard, appointed in 1838. His 
grandfather, Josiah Ripley Goddard and his father, F. W. God- 
dard, M.D., also served in China. The Goddard-Dean family, in 
these little more than ioo years, have given nearly 400 years to 
Baptist foreign service. 

The Seagraves, Rachel, Dr. Grace and Dr. Gordon, all of 
Burma, are also fourth generation missionaries. Justus H. Vinton, 
and James M. Has well, great grandfathers; Justus B. Vinton, 
grandfather, and Mrs. Alice Vinton Seagrave, mother, served in 
Burma. The Seagrave-Haswell- Vinton family total well over 500 

The great grandfather of W. C. Osgood of Bengal-Orissa was 
Sewall Mason Osgood, printer and preacher. 

Youthful pioneers J. H. Vinton, William Dean and S. M. 
Osgood sailed for distant lands in 1834 on the barque Cashmere. 


HE question of importance is not whether those to 
whom we go with our missions are more or less moral, 
but whether they need Christ. The motive which drives 
us to preach to them is not a superior pride in our morality 
as compared with theirs; but the Spirit of Incarnation. 


. ISSIONARY zeal is wholly independent of our ideals 
as to the value or character of non-christian religions. To 
some men it has seemed as if a belief that other religions 
were wholly bad was essential to any zeal for the spread of 
Christianity. . . . But that is not the case. It was to the peo- 
ple who had the best religion known to the, world that 
Christ first came. 


A Jungle Pool, Assam 

Photograph by D. M. Albaugh 

A Wayside Pool 

WITHIN the jungle's evening cool 
I saw a little shimmering pool; 
It held the sky in its embrace 
And drew me by its glowing face. 
But, as I stooped for nearer view 
The mirror broke, and then I knew 
'Twas muddy and a bed of slime, 
No lofty theme for thought or rhyme. 
And yet it caught God's radiant sky 
And shared with me, as I passed by. 

Pearl Dorr Longley 

From Oil Lamps Lifted, by permission Fleming H. Revell Co. 
(Mrs. W. J. Longley is a Baptist missionary at Kurnool, India) 

Giving A Response of Love 

ON THE human side, two factors are necessary to continue the 
world outreach of Northern Baptists set forth in the preced- 
ing chapters of this book. One is personnel. The other is money. 
Through the one devoted missionaries, both men and women 
the work is done. Through the other, the work is made possible. 
Missionaries cannot go, and they cannot live and work, without 
money. Money, except as it is transmuted into living, loving per- 
sonalities, can never tell the story we have "to tell to the nations." 
Life must be freely offered; money must be freely given; and it is 
the two working together that counts. 

The Ministry of Jesus' Friends 

This is not some new aspect of the world mission of our Lord 
It was true when that mission began in the person of Jesus Him- 
self. Even His ministry called for and was furthered by the gifts 
of friends. Could anything be clearer than the statement in Luke 
8: 1-3? 

"And it came to pass soon afterwards, that he went about through 
cities and villages, preaching and bringing the good tidings of the 
kingdom of God, and with him the twelve, and certain women 
which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities, Mary that was 
called Magdalene, from whom seven devils had gone out, and 
Joanna the wife of Chuza Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many 
others, which ministered unto them of their substance" 

What did these women do? First of all, they travelled with Him. 
They were openly His friends. They were glad to be seen with 
Him. No one of us may love our Lord as He deserves to be loved, 
but we can take our stand with Him in the context of our daily 
lives. We can enroll ourselves on His side and gladly allow others 
to see that we are so enrolled. 

But these women went a step further: they ministered to Jesus 
out of their substance, their possessions. This probably means 
that they bought His food and prepared it for Him. They prob- 
ably also bought the material for His clothing and, with their own 
hands, sewed His garments. They also provided whatever travel- 


Giving A Response of Love 103 

ling expenses were necessary not so much transportation, though 
He did once receive a donkey, for the group seems to have walked 
for the most part from village to village in the small land of Pales- 
tine. They may have provided the money fees required for shelter 
at night in the simple inns along the way. 

By thus providing for- Jesus and His disciples, these friends en- 
abled Him to do what He wanted to do to go through the vil- 
lages preaching the good news of the Kingdom. The answer to the 
question as to why in this way they served Jesus and His cause 
has already been intimated. They loved Him. Their service was 
the response of their love. They loved Him for many reasons: He 
had given them His friendship; He had revealed God to them in 
terms of a loving Father: He had forgiven them; some, He had 
healed; out of one, He had even cast demons. Their explanation 
was: "We love Him because He first loved us." 

But What About Us? 

This was all very well for these friends, His contemporaries, 
but what about us? We may not walk with Him through Pales- 


Livingstone Explaining the Gospel in Africt 

1O4 All Kindreds and Tongues 

tinian villages as they walked. We may not buy His food and cloth- 
ing and provide for His lodging in village inns as they did. We 
may not take a jar of costly perfume from one of the Jerusalem 
bazaars and break it, anointing His feet as one of them did, how- 
ever great our desire thus to honor Him may be. But when we love 
and serve those whom He loves and would serve, we love and 
serve Him. When we support a cause which is His cause, we sup- 
port Him. When we help to proclaim His gospel throughout the 
world, we do that which is pleasing to Him. 

The real question is: Will we do for Him what we can as a 
response of love? Will we take Him into our own hearts and homes, 
as did Zacchaeus, and under the inspiration of His self-giving offer 
our substance for causes near to His heart? 

The Giving of the Early Church 

This lesson was soon learned by those who were the disciples of 
Jesus immediately following His resurrection and ascension. It was 
these very disciples who introduced into the world a wholly new 
idea and ideal of voluntary service and voluntary giving. Previ- 
ously, time and again, great men and wealthy had connected their 
own names with some munificent gift as a public benefaction a 
school, a library, a temple, bridges, roads, public baths. But the 
first century Christians, as Dr. K. S. Latourette well points out in 
his "The First Five Centuries," made three significant changes: 

1. They greatly increased the number of givers. They taught that 
even the very poor should give according to their ability. Giving 
became a part of worship; and just as each worshipper was 
supposed to participate in song and praise and prayer, so each 
one was taught to bring his gift, a mere penny or a farthing 
though it might be, and offer it as an act of worship. 

2. They introduced a new motive for giving: love to God and 
love to man. How different this was from that giving which 
sought by its munificence to win public favor. 

3. They changed the object of their giving from great public 
works to: 

(a) The care of the sick and injured, of orphans, and widows, 
and unemployed 

(b) The establishment and support of hospitals an almost 
wholly Christian institution in its origin and its develop- 
ment through the centuries 

(c) The entertainment of travellers in a day when there were 

Giving A Response of Love 105 

no hotels, and inns were few and far between 

(d) The burial of the poor 

(e) The relief of whole churches and whole communities in 
times of famine and pestilence 

(f) The redemption of those who had been imprisoned for 

debt or for their Christian faith 

(g) The spread of the Gospel. 

Giving to such causes as these was an expression of the love 
which they bore to one another and to the world their heart 
response to God for His great love to them in Christ. Freely they 
had received; freely they would give. 

Christian Giving 

The Christian view of giving does not express itself as "I must 
give" or "I ought to give," but it says "I want to give." Here we 
have not duty but privilege, not the compulsion of responsibility 
but the constraint of love. Real giving is always and everywhere 
love exercising its prerogative. When we love, we look with pity, 
with tenderness, with adoration, and we give because we want to. 

In this kind of giving,- three significant things happen: 

1. We give ourselves. Often the easiest and the most futile thing 
we can do is to make a mere money gift, even though it may be a 
very generous one. We need first to give ourselves, to understand 
the need, to enter into sympathy with those whom we would help, 
to persuade others to give. "The gift without the giver is bare." 
Real giving is always self-giving. 

2. We learn that in God's sight much may be very little and 
little may be very much. Jesus looked upon the widow's mite as the 
most generous gift of all. The giving of the tithe of a twenty- 
thousand dollar a year income may be tight-fisted selfishness in 
comparison with the offering of the tithe, or even a smaller portion, 
of a thousand dollar a year salary. In the economy of God, some 
loaves and a few small fishes, gladly given, can be used to feed a 

3. In giving as a response of love, we give as unto Christ and 
never just to budgets or to organizations. Organizations are neces- 
sary for most of the work which is done in Christ's name. If they 
are the right kind, they do not cost money, they save money and 
they conserve the results of past expenditures. God is not a God 
of confusion but of order. We honor Him when we carry on His 

io6 All Kindreds and Tongues 

work through orderly processes. And one of the orderly processes 
of any Christian organization is the establishment and mainte- 
nance of a budget. Only with a budget which details receipts and 
expenditures can the Lord's funds be handled so as to take thought 
for things honorable in the sight of God and of men. 

But even so, we do not, in real giving, give to a budget. We 

Young Chinese Merchant. 

give to the Lord; we minister unto Him out of our substance; and 
all of our giving is a response of love. 

Giving Is Worship 

If we are in touch with our churches, giving need never go by 
default. Reminders come at proper intervals in oral and written 
form. The needs at home and abroad are kept before us. Envelopes 
are provided for our convenience. With us, too, as with the early 
Christians, giving is made a part of worship. Moreover, we are 
all able to give something. Only one thing is lacking, for most of 
us: the kind of love which makes us want to give. If only we 
Northern Baptists can recover the New Testament idea of giv- 
ing not just as something to which we murmur intellectual assent, 

Giving A Response of Love 107 

but as something which becomes to us an ideal an absorbing, com- 
manding, controlling ideal we can go forward with all the work 
set forth in these pages and push on to unmet areas of human need 
in Christ's name glad-hearted giving making possible glad- 
hearted service. 

The Foreign Mission Boards of the Northern Baptist Convention 
adopt a budget and authorize certain expenditures for work 12,000 
miles from home before knowing how the present year will close. 
In so doing they exhibit a supreme act of faith. Where is the money 
coming from? Some of it will come from invested funds, though in 
view of today's business uncertainties, how much is problematical. 
But most of it will come from men and women, old and young, in 
our churches, living donors. 

Giving Expresses Faith 

The task of securing funds to support the missionary enterprise 
is much more than a task of raising money. It presupposes that 
within the constituency lives a conviction and attitude as to the 
essential importance of the work which will lead our people to 
its joyous and spontaneous support. Contributions ought to be 
the expression of a Christian life that is hid with Christ in God, and 
a recognition of our privilege in sharing this fellowship with others 
the world around. The budget of the Societies makes it possible 
for living men and women to take the living Gospel of Jesus and 
make it real to other people. If giving follows interest, it is per- 
tinent to ask how best we can interest the people in our churches. 

The Response to Need 

In the early days of the Societies, most of the giving came about 
as response to a definite need. The Societies needed the salary of a 
missionary! A building was needed in which the missionary could 
do his or her work! Or a missionary, returning for furlough, stated 
his or her needs to a church or to individuals. These challenges 
were accepted and the needs met. Many memorial gifts to honor 
loved ones were made. In fact, most of the buildings erected in the 
early days were memorials. Gradually churches and individuals 
assumed responsibility for definite tasks and the work grew until 
Northern Baptists were extending their outreach to many lands 
and peoples. Through the years many churches have continued 
their interest in special projects. 

io8 All Kindreds and Tongues 

The Spirit of Cooperation 

Then came a development in the idea of giving: life and annual 
memberships in the Societies were established through special 
gifts. Later the spirit of cooperation and unification produced the 
unified budget for all the missionary and benevolent work of 
the Northern Baptist Convention. Other great initiatives had 
arisen and there was a desire for intelligent comprehension of the 
whole task and the privilege of participation in every branch of it. 
The Foreign Mission Societies entered whole-heartedly into the 
cooperative plan and the New World Movement. Developments in 
connection with the unified effort have made possible the balanced 
presentation to our constituency of all our Christian outreaches 
through the work of the Department of Missionary Education and 
the Council on Finance and Promotion. The joint program of mis- 
sionary education, the comprehensive January booklet about our 
Baptist work at home and abroad, and the Book of Remembrance 
which gathers into one focus of petition our many Christian out- 
reaches, are typical of the unity of understanding and interest. 

Our present method combines these two principles of giving. 
Many churches and individuals prefer that their missionary giving 
should represent the whole round of denominational outreach. 
Others feel it their privilege to indicate how and where their gift 
shall be used. The unified budget finds an appropriate place for 
both methods, the divisable gift to all forms of service and the 
designated gift which expresses some special interest of the donor. 

A New Day in Giving 

All over the world the State is taking over many of the social, 
educational and philanthropic activities. Taxes and the increased 
costs because of rising standards of living are reducing the margin 
between income and expenditures, thus crippling the power of 
some to give as generously as heretofore. The decrease in the 
number of large givers must be overcome by cultivating a greater 
number of smaller donors. The prevailing ideal of leisure and self- 
indulgence rather than work and self-sacrifice may also sterilize 
the giving of many people. But Christian missions have always 
been championed by a minority. It has been the men and women 
of greater vision and keener imagination who have wanted to give 
the knowledge of Jesus Christ to those who knew Him not. 

Giving A Response of Love 109 

How the Work Can Be Supported 

Sympathy with and understanding of the work of Christian mis- 
sions in its motives and its tasks come from churches and pastors. 
Budget figures must be interpreted in terms of life and work. Mis- 
sionary education with special emphasis upon Bible study and the 
development of stewardship are necessary corollaries of the promo- 
tional plan. In all our thinking, talking and planning for the sup- 
port of the missionary enterprise we need constantly to be in 
prayer. The dynamic which produces Christian giving is personal 
communion with God. A revival of prayer for missions is even 
more needed today than when Helen Barrett Montgomery made 
the statement: "If God's people, those who profess to love Him, 
would give half the time to earnest, believing prayer that they now 
spend in activities, a wave of spiritual energy would sweep the 
earth that would hasten the coming of the Kingdom by centuries." 

No royal road to missionary success can ever be found. It must 
be eternally the way of the cross, and that always means sacrifice. 
Unless genuine religious faith has waned, and we believe it has 
not, the Christian mission will move on until "every knee shall 
bow and every tongue confess that He is King of Kings and Lord 
of Lords." 


Thou hast given so much to me, 

Give one thing more, a grateful heart. 

Not thankful when it pleaseth me, 

As if thy blessings had spare days; 

But such a heart whose pulse may be Thy praise. 


HAT Jesus desired was not an indolent good-nature, willing 
to be imposed on by anybody, but a royal generosity. You are to 
measure your benefits not by the conduct of others but by the self- 
forgetting goodness that wells up in your own heart. 


isen to 
mberless t^dMoiis weigh 


cannot Tbrittjg you mine. 
jd : with your 

wfeere music* soft 

< - f^-jff-i^;- 1 < ".!* ~-7{.-~if~^K 

. :, -, \* t* ' ,-. ;''-.,;; --V^E 

fctfcrea flags, that cai 
Of winds wept .hilltops j cries t\ 

of sin who" 

%f --r^is 

Are ever-1 

' >'",-," -vfs*;;^ v,;-. ." ' '^"i.- V'"?T7 s *1iP i p!p 

Of multitudes that Icnow not where to a 

Thy Father-Heart has heard and answered all. 

And I, who pnce : had thought to pray tonight, 

In shame at such msistent\hjbrst:i0^^ 

Can now for pardoii only humbly knfeel \ ; 7 : 

And plead for mercy that I do not feel. 

Forgive -me that^Itl^^S^^a^ered so 

Nor fully sought and loved Thee as I know 

Nor ever yet have followed all the way. 

-Nay, ,Lprd,_ I' am>'npt-,fii. > -i -, J -catinpt .pray. . _ , ^ _ 


Part II 


BURMA, separated politically from India since 1937, is governed 
under a constitution of its own. Burma has always been 
separated from India geographically. Add to this the difference 
in race, religion and freedom from caste, the greater liberty ac- 
corded its women, its higher percentage of literacy, its greater per 
capita wealth with its resulting higher standard of living, and the 
natural division will be apparent. Burma with its new inde- 
pendence, stands on a much firmer financial basis than at any 
time in its history. 

Burma must always stand high in the affectionate interest of 
Baptists for Adoniram and Ann Judson there began American 
foreign missions. Baptists today hold undisputed first place among 
its Christian groups and Baptist work among the Karens stands 
among the greatest of the achievements of the "older churches" 
in their efforts to evangelize the world. 

The work in Burma is most complex, only Assam of all our 
fields being at all comparable with it in this regard. This is due 
to the more than forty different races who live in the province, 
each with languages and customs so different that it is most diffi- 
cult for any man to work effectively with more than one race. The 
Burmans, who are predominantly Buddhist, are by far the largest 
group. They constitute 9,092,214 of the 14,667,146 people of the 
province. As to Baptist racial groups, the Karens are by far the 
largest with 75,000 baptized believers. Next in numerical strength, 
are the hill tribes along both sides of the China border, the Lahu 
and the Wa, with about 30,000 Christians. As one moves north 
and west in a circle along the hilly rim of Burma one finds 
10,000 Kachin and 7,000 Chin Baptists, including all dialects 
both north and south. Also in the high plateaus to the east are 


112 All Kindreds and Tongues 

1,200 Shan Baptists. In the Irrawaddy valley are 2,200 immigrant 
Indians, more than 600 Mons near Moulmein and hundreds who 
attend English-speaking Baptist churches. Baptists, among 
Burmans, number some 7,200, a number not large compared with 
some of the other Burma groups but comparing favorably with 
other missions where work is carried on among dominant groups 
with a long non-Christian religious history. The importance of 

Judson College ChapeL 

the full impact of our work in Burma has recently been indicated 
by the strong Baptist representation in the Cabinet, the Senate, and 
the House of Representatives of the new government. 

Due to the government educational system which requires that 
most communities desiring schools shall organize and manage 
them, it has been necessary for Baptists to assume large educa- 
tional responsibilities under the "grant-in-aid" system. From these 
schools of all races and tongues Judson College, the only Chris- 
tian college in Burma; draws students. It is making a great con- 
tribution to leadership. In this leadership training task it has been 
immeasurably helped by such fine girls' schools as Morton Lane, 
Moulmein; Kemmendine, Rangoon; and Mandalay; and such 

Burma ' 113 

boys' schools as Judson High, Moulmein; Gushing High and 
Union Hall, Rangoon, and the Karen co-educational high schools, 
in Rangoon, Moulmein, Eassein, Henzada, Tharrawaddy, and 
Tavoy. These and other mission schools like them have played the 
major part in giving Judson College what is believed to be the 
highest percentage of Christian students of any college in Burma 
or India. Its fine new plant on Victoria Lakes, Kokine, near 
Rangoon was made possible by the Judson Fund and by generous 
local subscriptions for the great chapel. Through the racial riots 
and student strikes of recent years Judson has come with increased 
prestige and attendance. Closer government supervision of all 
education was a result of these strikes. Its effect upon Judson and 
our other schools is being watched with the keenest interest. 

The majority of the 1,500 and more Baptist churches, as well 
as the 700 schools of all grades, are located in villages. Burma's 
people are largely rural and agriculture is the predominant oc- 
cupation. These churches are related first of all to then- racial 
associations and conferences, and are all united in the Burma 
Baptist Convention, an organization entirely independent from 
mission control. The Convention and Conferences are self- 
supporting and carry on extensive mission work of their own, thus 
multiplying the effect of the work of missionaries. 

The year 1940 marked the centennial of Judson's Burmese 
Bible. There had been an earlier edition but a revision was im- 
mediately undertaken and the edition, which has become a classic 
in the beauty of its Burmese, was completed in October 1840. The 
A. B. M. Press printed the first Burmese Bible and continues its 
great work today. Other Bibles translated by our missionaries, 
and printed there, are Francis Mason's Sgaw Karen, D. L. Brayton's 
Pwo Karen, J. N. Cushing's Shan, Ola Hanson's Kachin and the 
Mon begun by J. M. Haswell and completed by Robert Halliday. 
To these might be added a long list of Gospels, commentaries, and 
other scriptural helps and school texts which our missionaries 
have brought to the people in their mother tongues. 

Today, if one turns his eyes to the hills of Burma far to the east, 
north, and west he sees great groups of Baptists coming into being. 
Through churches, schools, and the fine hospital in Namkham 
they are being trained and strengthened for a promising future. 
The Irrawaddy valley, too, has its two great groups, Burmese and 
Karen. They are meeting the terrific pressure of all that we call 

114 All Kindreds and Tongues 

modern. That they may emerge victorious is a matter for prayer- 
ful concern. From both hills and valley come urgent calls for that 
which Christ can best contribute through missionaries. 

Burma Statistics* 

fA. B. F. M. S 83 

fW. A. B. F. M. S 34 

Nationals 2,824 

Churches 1*522 

Church members 137,627 

Baptisms 5527 

Schools 708 

Pupils 35>6i4 

Hospitals 3 

Dispensaries 17 

Patients 62,672 

* From 1939 Annual Report. 
f Staff 1940. 

Bassein (Bas'-sene) 1852. Bassein, a city of about 45,000, is 
located in the southwestern part of Burma, about seventy-five 
miles from the sea. Here one finds three distinct missions, the 
Sgaw Karen, the Pwo Karen and the Burman which combine to 
make Bassein one of the strongest and most successful mission 
stations in the world. The Bassein Sgaw Karen Baptist Association 
has 168 self-supporting churches. It supports several Karen mis- 
sionaries to the remote tribes of Burma. Ko Tha Byu Memorial 
Hall, erected without money from America, is said to be one 
of the finest school and chapel buildings east of Suez. The Pwo 
Karen Mission is also entirely self-supporting. It has a fine group 
of buildings in Bassein. Scattered through the delta are 83 Pwo 
Karen churches with 8,000 members. The Burmans have a fine 
school for girls in Bassein town and 1 1 other schools in the district, 
all important exangelistic factors. The missionaries to the Bur- 
mans also work with the Chinese and Indian communities. 


Sgaw Karen: Population in field 55,000; native workers 256; 

churches 167; church members 17,750; baptisms 847; schools 4; 

pupils 786. 

Burma 115 

Pwo Karen: Population in field 208,000; missionaries 2; native 

workers 84; churches 83; church members 8,006; baptisms 268; 

schools 3; pupils 346. 
Burman: Population in field 695,000; missionaries 2; native 

workers 47; churches 3; members 691; baptisms 18; schools 12; 

pupils 990. 


Sgaw Karen Work Pwo Karen Work 

Burman Work C. L. Conrad 

W. L. Keyser Mrs. C. L. Conrad 

Mrs. W. L. Keyser 

Bhamo (Ba-mo) 1877. Bhamo, near the northeastern border 
with a population of about 10,000, is second only to Mandalay 
in importance as a city of upper Burma. It is the Burman terminus 
for caravan routes into China and is a trading center and military 
post of real importance. The population of the field includes 
Burmans, and Shans as well as Kachins, Chinese, and Indians. 
Our present work in Bhamo is among the Kachins, this being our 
first Kachin station. Missionaries reduced the Kachin language to 
writing and Rev. Ola Hanson completed the translation of the 
entire Bible in 1927, the fiftieth anniversary of the coming of 
Christianity to these hill people. There is an important Kachin 
school in Bhamo. Self-support is being vigorously pushed among 
the Kachins. 


Kachin: Population in field 46,700; missionaries 3; native workers 

87; churches 21; church members 4,089; baptisms 225; schools 

34; pupils 1,651. 


Work for Kachins Work for Kachins and Burmans 

J. M. England *Miss Gertrude R. Anderson 

Mrs. J. M. England 

(a) Haka (Ha'ka) 1899. Haka is a frontier mission station far up 
in the hills of northwestern Burma. The people, before the coming 
of the mission, were a wild folk. They are split into numerous 
tribes and dialects. Today this field has become one of great 

1 16 All Kindreds and Tongues 

evangelistic opportunity. A number of years ago the government 
of Burma assumed responsibility for all the schools and ap- 
pointed one of the missionaries honorary inspector. In addition 
to the task of inspection, the missionaries have translated Scrip- 
tures and prepared literature in the different dialects. The death 
of Dr. J. Herbert Cope was a very severe loss to the work. There is 
a Bible School for the training of Christian workers. Karen teachers 
and preachers from lower Burma have been of real assistance in 
the training of these mountain people. 

(b) Tiddim 1911. This section of the Chin Hills was once 
considered just an out-station of Haka. It has now become of 
major importance, however, due to the numbers coming to Christ. 
More and more the missionary's task is that of supervision of the 
work of the preachers. The field associations have increasingly 
assumed responsibility for important decisions. This Chin work, 
if only rightly staffed, might well lead a whole people to Christ. 


Population in two fields 169,200; missionaries 4; native workers 
23; churches 77; church members 4,190; baptisms 623. 


Work for Chins 
C. U. Strait (at Haka) 
Mrs. C. U. Strait, R.N. (at Haka) 
F. O. Nelson (at Tiddim) 
Mrs. F. O. Nelson (at Tiddim) 

Henzada (HSn'-za-da) 1853. When Judson passed through 
Henzada on his way to Mandalay, he found a single street of 
houses. Now it is a city of 28,000, head of the district, and a place 
of importance on the Irrawaddy River. The population of the 
town is largely Burmese. The Burmese Girls' School reaches far 
out into the country districts. The Karens are an important mi- 
nority in the district. Much time has been given to the organizing 
of Sunday schools and young people's work. The Burman and 
Karen High Schools are making an important contribution to 
the training of leadership in that area. Two strong field associa- 

Burma 117 

tions, Burmese and Karen, carry large responsibilities. No mission- 
ary is now resident in this strategic field. 


Burman: Population in field 531,600; native workers 47; churches 
11; church members 629; baptisms 16; schools 6; pupils 661. 

Sgaw-Karen: Population in field 41,800; native workers 241; 
church members 7,793; baptisms 278; schools 91; pupils 3,245. 

Insein (In'sane) 1880. Insein is the seat of the Burmese and 

\ / */ 

Karen theological seminaries, the Burman Woman's Bible School, 
and the Willis and Orlinda Pierce Divinity School. The Sgaw 

Burman Woman's Bible School, Insein. 

Karen Theological Seminary, oldest among our training institu- 
tions, together with the Sgaw Karen Woman's Bible School have 
an enrolment of almost 200. The Karen churches contribute liber- 
ally toward the current expenses of both of these schools and have 
been responsible for some of the buildings on the compound. The 
Burman Theological Seminary and the Burman Woman's Bible 
School have a smaller enrolment but often six or more races are 
represented in their student body. The Burmese churches together 
with the strong Burmese women's societies have given such large 
contributions as to make these two schools practically self- 
supporting. Graduates of both schools serve in all parts of Burma. 
The Burman Woman's Bible School, too, has an exceptionally 
beautiful group of buildings. 

1 18 All Kindreds and Tongues 


Burman Theological Semi- Karen Theological Seminary 
nary D. W. Graham 

C. C. Hobbs Mrs. D. W. Graham 

Mrs. C. C. Hobbs Burman Woman's Bible 

*.Miss Beatrice A. Pond 

Kengtung (Keng-toong') 1901. Kengtung is a town of about 
10,000 located not far from the Chinese border in the Southern 
Shan States, 270 miles northeast of Taunggyi. Formerly a month 
away from Rangoon, the railway and motor roads have now cut 
the travel time to about five days. It is the government seat of 
the Sawbwa, or ruling prince, and so the headquarters for that 
section. It is also an important trade center on one of the main 
caravan routes to China. Though the Roman Catholics are in this 
field no other Protestant mission except Baptist is at work here. 
The dominant people of Kengtung State are the Shans who live in 
the plains. Our great in-gathering has been from the hill dwellers, 
the Lahu, the Kaw, and the Wa. This work among the hill people 
has been much helped by Karen pastors coming from Lower 
Burma and serving as real foreign missionaries. For a number of 
years the Lahu and Wa work has centered at Pangwai in the 
hills southeast of Kengtung. 


Population in field 225,000; missionaries 4; native workers 20; 
churches 10; church members 565; baptisms 115; pupils 91; 
schools i; hospitals i; dispensaries 3; patients 20,754. 


Work for Lahus and Shans Louise Hastings Memorial 

R. B. Buker Hospital 

Mrs. R. B. Buker R. S. Buker, M.D. 

Mrs. R. S. Buker, R.N. 

Kutkai (See Namkham) 

Loikaw (Loi-ka') 1899. Loikaw is in the Southern Shan States 
near the eastern border of Burma. Although the population in- 
cludes Padoungs, Red Karens, Shans and Burmans, work for the 
most part is conducted for the Karens. The villages are in rugged 

Burma 1 1 9 

country with almost no level land and the people live literally 
from hand to mouth. All success has been won at the price of 
constant and continued effort. The shortage of missionary staff 
in Burma has made it difficult to station a missionary in this 
promising field continuously. 

Shwe Dagon Pagoda, Rangoon. 


Population in field 58,700; native workers 69; churches 25; 
church members 1,322; baptisms 59; schools 10; pupils 487; dis- 
pensaries i; patients 2,580. 

Loilem (Loy-lem) The town of Loilem is in the northern part 
of the Mongnai field which lies between Kengtung and 

12O All Kindreds and Tongues 

Taunggyi. The Shans are devout Buddhists and are, therefore, 
difficult to reach with the gospel message. Loilem has a compound 
of nearly two acres on one of the main roads. There is a good 
school building and a growing vernacular school which teaches 
sufficient English to offer good training for young people. In the 
missionaries' bungalow a room is set aside for a dispensary. 


Population in field 135,000; missionaries 2; native workers 8; 
churches i; church members 68; schools i; pupils 192; dis- 
pensaries i; patients 3,379. 


Work for Shans 
H. C. Gibbens, M.D. 
Mrs. H. C. Gibbens % 

Mandalay (Man'-da-lay) 1886. Under the very shadow of 
Mandalay Hill, a sacred shrine to Buddhists because of its legend- 
ary past, is located the city of Mandalay. In the numerous pagodas, 
the thousands of yellow-robed priests, and the many religious 
festivals, one sees signs of the strength of Buddhism. But there 
are lights set upon candlesticks which cannot be hid. These are 
represented in the work of our boys' and girls' high schools, by the 
Christian field work among men, women, and children in and out 
of the city. In this connection we must not forget the important 
center for work among women and children near the royal palace. 
No missionary family has been in Mandalay for several years. 


Population in field 450,000; missionaries 4; native workers 22; 
churches i; church members 360; schools 8; pupils 727; dis- 
pensaries i; patients 9,939. 


Girls' High School Evangelistic Work 

*Miss F. Alice Thayer *Miss Marian H. Reifsneider 

* Miss Lucy Wiatt * Miss Dorothy E. Wiley 

Maubin (Ma-66-bin) 1879. Maubin, the headquarters for the 
district of the same name, is situated in the rich delta of the 
Irrawaddy west of Rangoon. Launches run to Rangoon every day 

Burma 121 

and there is easy communication with other towns of the delta. 
There are 398 villages in the Maubin district and the field covers 
a radius of about 50 miles. The Pwo is the largest Karen tribe but 
since it is nominally Buddhist it is more difficult to win. Their 
Home Mission Society, however, carries on vigorous evangelistic 
work and conducts a mission in Siam. A motor boat for the rivers, 

Village Medical Work. 

a bicycle for the bunds, and an ardent desire to carry the gospel 
to the people have done much for the 85,000 Pwo Karens in the 
Maubin district. 


Population in field 85,000; missionaries 3; native workers 73; 
churches 45; church members 2,170; baptisms 128; schools 17; 
pupils 754. 


Work for Karens Pwo Karen School 

E. T. Fletcher *Miss Rebecca J. Anderson 

Mrs. E. T. Fletcher 

May-myo (Ma'-me-o) 1900. Maymyo is a government hill sta- 
tion, the hot weather capital of Burma, situated in the northern 
Shan States east of Mandalay. Here is located the Memorial Rest 

122 All Kindreds and Tongues 

House which helps so much to preserve the health of the mission- 
aries in Burma. The Burmese Girls' School is carrying on a unique 
course in home arts training. The missionary pastor of the English- 
speaking church has also served as chaplain to the non-conformist 
British troops always stationed here. In addition there are com- 
panies of sepoys, of sappers and miners, largely recruited from the 
hill people and among whom there are numbers of Christians. 
The missionaries cooperate with the military chaplains in the 
care of these soldiers. There are three church organizations in 
Maymyo, an English, a Burman, and an Indian. Rev. Ernest Grigg 
and Dr. Wallace St. John have of recent years contributed much 
to the work in Maymyo. 


Missionaries i; native workers 23; churches 5; church members 
544; baptisms 47; schools 4; pupils 303. 


*Miss Laura E. Johnson 

Meiktila (Make'-ti-la) 1890. Meiktila is situated on the railway 
about 320 miles north of Rangoon. The mission compound is 
beautiful for location with its eleven acres on a gradual slope 
down to the lake and its grove of trees along the shore. The 
work here is primarily for Burmans although all races are en- 
rolled in the school. No missionary family has been stationed here 
since 1935. 


Population in field 300,000; native workers 14; churches i; 
members 164; baptisms 7; schools 4; pupils 265. 

Mong Mong and Bana 1920. In Bana, twenty-five miles across 
the Chinese border, and in Mong Mong a hundred and fifty miles 
north of Bana, a great mass movement toward Christianity is 
taking place among the Lahu and Wa tribes. The story of this 
work is one of the most romantic and fascinating in Baptist his- 
tory. These fields offer an unprecedented opportunity as the hill 
people listen to the gospel eagerly. More than 30,000 have come 
into the church and recently a new opportunity has opened in the 
formerly unadministered Wa States in Burma. In addition there 
are heavy responsibilities in the care and nurture of the churches. 




Population in field 400,000; missionaries 4; native workers 145; 
churches 240; church members 30,000; schools 47; pupils 750; 
dispensaries i. 


Work for Lahus and other hill tribes 
Harold M. Young (at Lashio) 
Mrs. Harold M. Young (at Lashio) 
M. Vincent Young 
Mrs. M. Vincent Young 

Mongnai (M6ng-ni) 1892. See Loilem. 

Moulmein (Mall-mane) 1827. Moulmein is across the Gulf of 
Martaban from Rangoon. It is, like Rangoon, a cosmopolitan 

Dispensary Duty, Ellen Mitchell Memorial Hospital, Moulmein. 

city including in its population of 65,000 nearly all the races of 
Burma. It is the second seaport of Burma. The Judson Boys' High 
School and Morton Lane Girls' High School, chiefly for Burmese, 
are here, also a fine co-educational Karen High School, an English 

124 All Kindreds and Tongues 

High School for girls where all the teaching is in that language, 
and an Indian Grammar School. An All-Burman Orphanage is 
conducted in co-operation with mission schools of Burma, sup- 
ported by Burma Baptists. The Ellen Mitchell Memorial Hospital 
and Training School for Nurses is a well equipped modern 
hospital. The doctors cooperate in the medical work of the 
Moulmein leper asylum and give medical examinations in mission 
schools throughout Burma. The Moulmein schools are known far 
and wide for their high standards and the fine group of graduate 
students. Services in Burmese, Karen, English, Talain, Telugu, and 
Tamil are conducted in Baptist churches of this city. 


Burman: Population in field 213,000; native workers 57; churches 
4; church members 324; baptisms 27; schools 16; pupils 1,161. 

Kay en: Population in field 183,000; native workers 171; churches 
48; church members 6,507; baptisms 352; schools 44; pupils 

Talaing: Native workers 35; churches 8; church members 604; 

baptisms 38; schools 9; pupils 566; hospitals i; dispensaries i; 

patients 4,929. 
English-speaking Peoples: Population in field 1,527; native 

workers 12; churches i; church members 188; baptisms 12; 

schools 3; pupils 179. 
Indian: Population in field 28,000; native workers 11; churches 2; 

church members 196; baptisms 13; schools 2; pupils 115. 


Work for Burmans and Mons Karen High School 
Roger Cummings *Miss Cecelia L. Johnson 

Mrs. Roger Cummings Ellen Mitchell Memorial 

*Selma M. Maxville, R.N. Hospital 

Judson High School for Boys *Grace R. Seagrave, M.D. 

P. R. Hackett, Principal *Anna B. Grey, M.D. 

Mrs. P. R. Hackett *S. Harriett Gibbens, R.N. 

Morton Lane High and * Mildred M. Dixon, R.N. 

Normal School (language study) 

*Miss Ruth P. Christopherson English Girls' High School 

*Miss Mona Ecco Hunt 
*Miss Helen L. Tufts 

Burma 125 

Mytngyan (Mym-gyan') 1887. Myingyan was the first station 
turned over to the Burma Baptist Missionary Society. This 
Burmese Baptist group has not found the financial difficulties 
growing less through the years. For many years it has not been 
possible for the Mission to designate a missionary to Myingyan. 


Population in field 467,800. 

Myitkyina (Myi'-che-na) 1894. Myitkyina is in the northeast 
corner of Burma, some fifty miles from China's western frontier 
and 722 miles north of Rangoon. Forty years ago only Kachin and 
Shan houses were found here, where now stands a thriving city 
of several thousand inhabitants. Several caravan routes lead into 
China and the mission is in touch with the Kachins in many 
villages through the hills. A large number of Lisus have also ac- 
cepted Christianity. Karen Baptist teachers from Lower Burma 
have in the past had a large share in the work. A station school 
with industrial work is maintained for boys and girls. The 
Woman's Society makes work appropriations to the schools and 
one of its missionaries has been designated to Sumprabum, 125 
miles north of Myitkyina on the edge of the triangle. This im- 
portant outstation has a school with a practical rural emphasis 
and is in very large part supported by the Kachin Christians. 


Population in field 40,000; missionaries 3; native workers 50; 
churches 39; church members 2,219; baptisms 416; schools 16; 
pupils 823. 


Work for Kachins Kachin Baptist School 

L. A. Dudrow *Miss Lucy P. Bonney 

Mrs. L. A. Dudrow (Sumprabum) 

Namkham (Nam-kham) 1893. Kutkai (Kut-ki) 1933. Namkham 
is a frontier Kachin and Shan station only two miles from the 
border line between Burma and China and four miles from the 
great new Chinese-American aeroplane factory. Because of its 
location on the chief caravan route it is a trading center and an 
important military post. A road has been constructed from Lashio 

All Kindreds and Tongues 

through Namkham to Bhamo and a. fine bridge crosses the Shweli 
River. This same road is in part the new Lashio-Kunming road, 
a vital lifeline for the Chinese Government of the west. Beside this 
road is Kutkai and its fine new church and Bible school building 
for the Kachins, built in great part by them. The Kachins are 
coming into the church in ever-increasing numbers. Native 

A Section of the Burma-China Road. 

preachers and missionaries tour in the Schweli valley among the 
large number of Shan villages and in the hills among the Kachins. 
Medical work has proven to be one of the best evangelizing 
agencies and recent years have seen a remarkable development 
in the hospital and the nurses' training school for all races. 


Kachin: Population in field 63,000; missionaries 4; native workers 
78; churches 8; church members 3,600; baptisms 539; schools 
38; pupils 1,318. 

Shan: Population in field 277,500; native workers 20; churches 4; 
church members 169; schools 6; pupils 389; baptisms 31; hos- 
pitals i; dispensaries 6; patients 17,709. 

Burma 127 


Robert Harper Memorial Hospital 

G. S. Seagrave, M.D. 

Mrs. G. S. Seagrave 
Kachin Bible School, Kutkai 

G. A. Sword 

Mrs. G. A. Sword 

Nyaunglebin (See Shwegyin) 

Pangwai. Southeast of Kengtung, among the hills, is located the 
Lahu and Wa station of Pangwai. Dr. J. H. Telford has translated 
the New Testament into the Lahu language. 


Population in field 300,000; missionaries 2; native workers 86; 
churches 65; church members 4,200; schools 35; pupils 791. 


J. H. Telford 
Mrs. J. H. Telford 

Pegu (Pg-gu) 1887. The western half of the Pegu district is a 
hilly region in which there are forest reserves of teak and other 
valuable woods. The eastern half of the district is rich rice land 
and has a wealth of fisheries, paddy and lumber. The town of 
over 18,000 has electric lights and a piped water supply. The 
population for the most part is composed of Burmans and Talaings 
with a few Chinese, Indians and Chins. The local church pays the 
full salary of its pastor, makes generous contributions to the 
orphanage in Moulmein and other mission projects, and pays the 
salary of an evangelist and a Bible woman. 


Population in field: Burman 373,000; Chin 1,500; missionaries 
3; native workers 15; churches 7; church members 301; baptisms 
29; schools 3; pupils 205. 


Work for Burmans Girls' School and Evangelistic 

M. C. Parish Work 

Mrs. M. C. Parish *Miss Mary L. Parish 

is8 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Protne (Prome) 1854. Prome is the seventh largest city in 
Burma. It is the Government headquarters of the district and a 
collecting and distributing center for a large area. Here is located 
our mission station for work among the Burmese people of the 
Prome and Thayetmyo districts. This is a strong Buddhist center. 
The famed Shwe San Daw Pagoda is supposed to contain three 
hairs of Buddha! The Anglo-Vernacular Girls' School is the 
chief institution of the mission. A number of the strongest of our 
Burmese leaders have come from the Prome field. As elsewhere, 
the work among the Burmese Buddhists is most difficult. No 
missionary family has been resident here since the retirement of 
Rev. and Mrs. E. B. Roach in 1938. 


Population in field 375,000; native workers 18; churches 4; 
church members 644; baptisms 19; schools 7; pupils 317. 


Work for Burmans Burmese Girls' School 

(In charge of J. T. Latta *Miss Rachel H. Seagrave 

at Thonze) 

Pyinmana (Pin-ma-na) 1905. 
Pyinmana, located in one of the 
finest farming sections of Burma, 
is 225 miles from Rangoon, on the 
main highway line to Mandalay. 
This field is about 100 miles long 
and 50 miles broad with a popula- 
tion of about 357,000, most of 
whom are Burmans, with some 
Chins, Karens, and Shans. The 
Pyinmana Agricultural School, 
with its demonstration farm of 160 
acres, exemplifies a new type of 
education and evangelization for 
the villages of Burma. A recent 
government development, a rural 
improvement project in the Ka- 
chin Hills near Namkham, is 

B. C. Case and one of his 

Burma 129 

under missionary supervision from Pyinmana. This school is tak- 
ing an important part in the establishment of a self-supporting, 
self-propagating Christian church. 


Population in field 357,000; missionaries 7; native workers 28; 
churches 4; church members 578; schools 10; pupils 482. 


Pyinmana Agricultural School 

B. C. Case Wm. H. Cummings (Kachin 
J. M. Smith Hills) 

Mrs. J. M. Smith Mrs. Wm. H. Cummings 

C. R. Horton (Kachin Hills) 
Mrs. C. R. Horton 

Rangoon (Ran-goon) 1813. This capital city of Burma was only 
a village of mud and huts when the Judsons landed in 1813. It is 
now one of the three great ports on the Bay of Bengal, a city of 
400,000. The great majority of these are Indians, either Moslem or 
Hindu, with some 60,000 Chinese and less than 100,000 Burmans. 
The city possesses excellent business sections, beautiful residences 
on shaded avenues, a motorized fire department, and one of the 
finest park systems east of Suez. Gushing High School and Baptist 
English High School (Anglo-Indian) are located on adjacent com- 
pounds. Judson College, now a constituent college of the Univer- 
sity of Rangoon, is located on its new campus adjacent to that of 
University College, the University Engineering School, and the 
Government Normal School. In this position Judson College has 
demonstrated its ability to maintain its Christian as well as its 
scholastic impact and has won for itself an ever enlarging student 
body and an ever increasing popular support. 

The Mission Press in Rangoon is the missions' business center. 
This thoroughly modern plant, designing and casting its own type 
when necessary, a pioneer in linotype printing, publishes the 
Bibles and hymn books, school books, tracts, Sunday School lesson 
helps and religious periodicals in Burmese, Karen, Kachin, Shan, 
Chin, Talain and Lahu. It thus finances itself. 

Immanuel Baptist Church for English-speaking people is 
entirely self-supporting. The LanmadaW church, founded by 
Adoniram Judson, and its school, are self-supporting and minister 

130 All Kindreds and Tongues 

to the Burmese community in Rangoon and vicinity. Kemmen- 
dine Girls' High School occupies admirably adapted new build- 
ings in an attractive compound. The Union Hall High School in 

Dr. Ma Saw Sa, Leading Woman Physician, 

the center of the city and under Indian superintendence and 
leadership, contributes much to the life of the Indian community. 
The large Sgaw Karen high school plant is the center for a large 
number of schools and churches in the district. On the adjoining 
compound are the mission secretary's residence, the residence for 
the Burmese missionary family, and the mission guest house. Here, 

Burma 131 

also, is located the Pwo Karen Co-educational Bible School, car- 
ried on in the Brayton Memorial Pwo Karen Church. The Ran- 
goon City Mission Society acts as a unifying force for the Baptists 
of all races in the city. Thus does Rangoon exemplify the extreme 
complexity of work so often found in Burma. 


Burman: Population in field 890,000; native workers 31; churches 

8; church members 1,022; baptisms 45; schools 8; pupils 601. 
Sgaw Karen: Population in field 70,600; native workers 95; 

churches 99; church members 8,394. 
English-speaking Peoples: Population in field 11,800; native 

workers 14; churches i; church members 340; baptisms 2; 

schools 4; pupils 335. 
Indian: Population in field 210,000; native workers 57; churches 

8; church members 2,012; baptisms 104; schools 13; pupils 1,155. 


Mission Press 

Miss O. A. Hastings, Mis- 
sion Treasurer 
Language Study 

Maurice Blanchard 
Literary Work 

A. C. Hanna 

Mrs. A. C. Hanna 
Judson College 

G. S. Jury, Principal 

Mrs. G. S. Jury 

L. B. Allen 

Mrs. L. B. Allen 

J. Russell Andrus 

Mrs. J. Russell Andrus 
*Miss Agnes Darrow 

F. G. Dickason 

Mrs. F. G. Dickason, R.N. 

G. E. Gates 
Mrs. G. E. Gates 
O. N. Hillman 

*Miss Helen K. Hunt 
S. H. Rickard, Jr. 
Mrs. S. H. Rickard, Jr. 
*Miss Marian E. Shivers 
D. O. Smith 
Mrs. D. O. Smith 
*Miss E. Eloise Whitwer 
Baptist English High School 

Mrs. G. D. Josif 
Work for Bur mans 
*Miss Dorothy E. Rich 
Kemmendine Girls' High 


*Miss Mary I. Laughlin 
Pwo Karen Seminary 
C. E. Chancy (also at 

Divinity School, Insein) 
Mrs. C. E. Chancy 
Sgaw Karen Woman's Bible 


*Miss Marion Beebe 
*Miss Charity C. Carman 

132 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Sagaing (Sa-gine') 1888. Sagaing district with its pagoda- 
crowned hills and its valleys sheltering many monasteries, has 
universal fame as a stronghold of Buddhism. The need for 
a missionary family for this and the adjacent Mandalay fields 
is first on the urgent list of the Burma mission. As this field is 

Kachin Children. 

in the dry belt of Burma it is possible for the missionaries to tour 
during much of the year. In this district is Ava, where the prison 
in which Adoniram Judson was imprisoned was located. The mis- 
sion owns a small plot of land formerly occupied by that old 
prison, and has erected there a beautiful memorial stone of ala- 
baster bearing as part of its inscription, Rev. 7: 14: These are 
they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their 
robes . . . in the blood of the Lamb. 

Burma 133 


Population in field 956,500; native workers 11; church members 
120; schools i; pupils 182. 

Sandoway (San'do-way) 1888. Sandoway is a short distance 
from the coast of the Bay of Bengal, surrounded on all sides by 
hills. The field is immense and the only easy way of travelling 
about it is by water. There is a school for Chins. It has been neces- 
sary of recent years for this work to be given such supervision as 
was possible by the missionary from Thayetmyo. 


Population in field 137,000; native workers 17; churches 16; 
members 782; schools i; pupils 129. 

Shwegyin (Sway-jyin) 1853. A. new highway has changed the 
travel between Shwegyin and Nyaunglebin from a day by ox-cart 
to three hours by motor bus. A railroad between the two cities has 
been completed. The Shwegyin field, one of the home lands of the 
Karen people, has nearly 1,000 Karen villages and is rapidly grow- 
ing. The national leaders on this self-supporting field are men 
who show an unusual grasp of the situation and independence 
of thought. The work in the village schools is making real progress. 

Tiddim (SeeHaka) 

Nyaunglebin (Nong-la'bin) 1900. The chief Karen school for 
these two fields is located in Nyaunglebin and the Woman's Society 
has made a great contribution through its missionaries designated 
to this school. The Associations in Shwegyin and Nyaunglebin 
were for some years quite separate but are now working in close 
cooperation with one another. The Nyaunglebin School has a 
Home Arts course training girls for a higher standard of village 
life. The Bassein Sgaw Karens support sixteen evangelists. 


Population in two fields 72,000; native workers 184; churches 
82; members 4,446; baptisms 133; schools 44; pupils 1,729. 


Sgaw Karen High School 
*Miss Hattie V. Petheram 

134 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Tavoy (Ta-voy') 1828. Tavoy is the most southern of the Burma 
mission stations. Formerly accessible only by steamer it is 
now connected with Moulmein by rail. Although the Karen 
people are very poor and the total net income of many of the 
Christians from their paddy fields does not exceed thirty dollars 
for the year, their evangelistic work is self-supporting. The 
field is a narrow coastal plain. Some of the Karen churches 
are from forty-five to fifty miles distant from the station, and are 
reached with difficulty by the missionary. There are two schools, 
an Anglo-vernacular school for Burmese girls and a Karen 
co-educational high school. The teachers of the Burmese School 
are nearly all graduates of the Morton Lane Girls' School at Moul- 
mein. Evangelistic work is carried on among the Burmese, Indians, 
Chinese and Anglo-Indians. The fine Morrow Memorial Building 
of the Karen High School was completed in 1940. In the Tavoy 
cemetery is the grave of George Dana Boardman. 


Burman: Population in field 253,000; missionaries 2; native 

workers 19; churches 3; church members 330; baptisms 21; 

schools 2; pupils 394. 
Karen: Population in field 23,600; missionaries 2; native workers 

172; churches 50; church members 4,842; baptisms 176; schools 

65; pupils 2,949. 


Work for Burmans Work for Karens 

M. L. Streeter W. D. Sutton 

Mrs. M. L. Streeter Mrs. W. D. Sutton 

Taunggyi (Toung-je) 1910. Taunggyi has a high altitude which 
makes the climate cool and dry. Although the main work is for 
the Shans and Taungthus a small but vigorous Christian Karen 
community has grown up. There is an Anglo-vernacular boarding 
and day school of high school grade, a flourishing vernacular 
school, and the Huldah Mix School for girls. Medical work has 
been of the utmost importance in the development of this whole 
field. The Peabody-Montgomery Rest Haven gives many of 
Burma's women an opportunity to regain lost health. The School 
for Missionaries' Children is also maintained here. The fine stone 
church, used by all races, is a beautiful building. 

School for Missionaries' Chil- 

Miss Elizabeth Taylor 
Miss Frances M. Ryder 

Burma 135 

Shan: Population in field 67,000; native workers 32; churches 4; 

church members 322; schools 7; pupils 590; dispensaries i; 

patients 3,382. 


Work for Shans 
Huldah Mix Girls' School 

*Miss F. Faith Hatch 
Boys' School 

*Miss Mary D. Thomas 

Tharrawaddy (Thar-ra-wad'di) 1889. Tharrawaddy town, with 
its 3,000 population, is sixty-eight miles from Rangoon on the rail- 
way to Prome. Being the district headquarters and in the midst of 
a rich paddy plain, it has become an increasingly important center. 
A large Sgaw Karen High and Boarding School is attended by day 
scholars of all races. Valuable service is rendered by the travelling 
evangelists who tour the jungle constantly. All of the churches and 
nearly all the village schools are supported by the Karen Christians. 
For many years the evangelistic work and oversight of the churches 
has been in charge of the former head-master of the school, Senator 
Thra San Baw. He formerly served on the Legislative Council and 
has been awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind medal in recognition of his 
public service to Burma. 

Jungle School. 

Kindreds and Tongues 

Population in field 23,394; native workers 46; churches 50; 
church members 3,834; baptisms 125; schools 35; pupils 2,500. 

Thayetmyo (Tha-yet'myo) 1887. Thayetmyo is the Govern- 
ment head of the district and is situated in the center of the dis- 
trict. The work here is for the southern Chins. The mission 
residence and school are located at the far side of town from the 
Irrawaddy River and on the road the Chins travel in coming to 
market. The town numbers some 10,000 inhabitants and is to 
some extent a collecting and distributing center, but has no real 
industry of its own. The activity of the missionaries is widespread 
and much of the work is done through evangelistic touring, both 
among Burmese and Chins. The latter have been quite receptive 
of the gospel. 


Population in field 68,000; missionaries 2; native workers 26; 
churches 7; church members 1,631; schools 13; pupils 285. 


Work for Chins 
E. C. Con-diet 
Mrs. E. C. Condict 

Thonze (Thon-ze) 1855. The mission work of Thonzc includes 
the Zigon field. The main work of the missionary has been in a 
strip the length of the field and seven miles on each side of the 
motor road. This is one of the richest sections in Burma in natural 
resources. Rich forest lands yield teak and other valuable woods. 
Agriculture is, of course, the chief occupation of the people, al- 
though there is some pottery manufactured and rice and cigars 
are shipped out of the district. Thonze is one of the most active 
strongholds of Buddhism. An Anglo-Vernacular Girls' School, a 
vernacular Burmese School and a small Indian School are here. 
Daily vacation Bible schools have been most helpful to the work. 


Population in two fields 550,000; missionaries 3; native workers 
24; churches 7; church members 977; baptisms 41; schools 6; 
pupils 197. 


Girls' Middle School 
*Miss Carrie E. Hesseltine 


Work for Burmans 
J. T. Latta 
Mrs. J. T. Latta 

Toungoo (Toung-66) 1853. There are three missions at this 
station, the Bwe Karen, the Paku Karen and the Bui-man. The 
town has a population of about 24,000 and the district of the same 
name has a population of over 425,000. Evangelization has 
progressed so successfully among 
the Bwe Karens that now there 
are few non-Christian villages. 
Here, as in other districts where 
primitive conditions still persist, a 
great work is still to be done to 
develop the people both in Chris- 
tian character and in social well- 
being. No missionary family has 
been assigned to Burman work 
here for many years. 


Burman: Population in field 

283,700; native workers 21; 

churches 2; church members 

224; baptisms 12; schools 5; 

pupils 452. 
Biue Karen: Population including 

Paku in field 88,000; mission- 
aries 2; native workers 71; 

churches 113; church members 4,980; baptisms 90; schools 11; 

pupils 910. 
Paku Karen: Missionaries 2; native workers 136; churches 98; 

church members 4,616; baptisms 181; schools 40; pupils 1,662. 


Work for Bwe Karens Work for Paku Karens 

C. L. Klein H. I. Marshall 

Mrs. C. L. Klein, R.N. Mrs. H. I. Marshall 

Bixby Memorial School 

Work for Burmans *Miss Inez Grain 

Ann Judson's Grave, Amherst. 


THE province of Assam in northeast 
India is described by a missionary as 
"a land of multitudinous languages, great 
difficulties and thrilling opportunities." 
This province has an area as large as that 
of New England with a population of ap- 
proximately nine million. Burma, China, 
Tibet, and the province of Bengal form 
the outside circle. The great river Brahma- 
putra drains the larger of the two great 
valleys that make up the major part of the 
rugged province. Separating these two 

valleys are mountain ranges and plateaus, some of which rise to 
an altitude of 10,000 feet. The entire setting is one which breathes 
charm and mystery. 

Assam has a tropical and semi-tropical climate with excessive 
heat and humidity on the plains a considerable portion of the 
year. The rainfall, in certain sections, is considered to be the 
heaviest in any part of the world. The precipitation at Cherra 
Pungi in the Kashi Hills some years exceeds 450 inches! The 
dense jungles abound in wild animals of the fiercest type. Two of 
the chief products of Assam are tea and rice.The tea plantations 
are known to be among the most excellent of the world. The rail- 
road system, the Assam-Bengal Railway, runs through the 450 
miles of the Brahmaputra Valley with branches tapping the tea 
garden regions. This railway connects with the Eastern Bengal 
Railway system. 

The number of languages and dialects used in Assam is some- 
times estimated to be as high as 167. Our own mission is in con- 
tact with at least 25 of these language groups, many of which have 
received their written languages through the efforts of the mis- 
sionaries. In general the population may be classified as: 

i. The people on the plains, either Assamese (who;are native 
to the country) or immigrant tea garden workers who have 
been imported in large numbers chiefly from South India. In 


Assam 1 39 

religion they are either Hindus or Mohammedans with a 
sprinkling of Jains, Sikhs, and some Buddhists. 
2. The people of the hills, of many tribes and races with Mon- 
golian strains, such as Garos, Nagas, Kacharis, Rabhas, Abors, 
Miris, and Mikirs. In religious beliefs they are animists and 
live in constant fear of the countless spirits that haunt 
streams, forests, and the air itself. 

Lotha Naga Christians. 

Missionary work in Assam began in 1836 when two Baptist mis- 
sionaries with their wives answered the call to come to this prov- 
ince. Dr. and Mrs. Nathan Brown, inspired by Adoniram Judson 
in Burma to undertake pioneer work for tribes bordering on Tibet 
and China, made their way up the Brahmaputra to the northern- 
most corner of Assam expecting to find a gateway to China. These 
pioneers found the pass closed and remained to begin work among 
the Assamese and foot-hills people at Sadiya, our first mission 
station in Assam. To Dr. E. W. Clark belongs the honor of first 
turning to the hill tribes of the Naga ranges at a time when the 
Government refused to assure him protection. The results have 
been most notable. Throughout the past hundred years a long 
train of devoted missionaries, together with their loyal national 
associates, has built stations and churches in ever increasing 

140 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Assam Statistics* 


*A. B. F. M. S 34 

fW. A. B. F. M. S. 18 

Nationals 859 

Churches 982 

Church Members 64,134 

Baptisms 4*984 

Schools 423 

Pupils i33 8 9 

Hospitals 4 

Dispensaries 7 

Patients 27,674 

* From 1939 Annual Report. 
f Staff 1940. 

Gauhati (Gou-hat'ti) 1841. Gauhati, the fourth largest town in 
Assam, is situated on the Brahmaputra River. On the southeast 
bank, overlooking the river, is the missionary compound. In 
addition to the homes of the missionaries there are a church, a 
school house, college hostels (dormitories) and a modest office 
building for the mission Secretary-Treasurer. At the South end 
of the town is the Woman's Society compound Satri Bari, "garden 
for girls," where is located the Girls' Middle English School, the 
Sarah E. White Memorial Hostel, the Christian Hospital for 
Women, and a small orphanage, together with missionary and 
national staff residences. Ten of our total of 52 Assam missionaries 
live in Gauhati and from this center an extensive work is carried 
on affecting not only the 65 or more churches and some 50 mission 
schools of the adjacent areas, but also an ever extending circle in- 
cluding many tribes and various races of plains and hill folk. 

Cotton College, a co-educational Government institution with 
an enrolment of more than 1,700, is located here. This institution 
affords an excellent opportunity for Christian work among stu- 
dents through, the dormitory plan, a work that is limited only by 
dormitory space and scarcity of missionary personnel. 

Gauhati also claims the only hospital for women among Assam's 
nine million people. Founded in 1927, the Woman's Hospital 
already ranks high in the estimation of the Government and is 
being increasingly relied on by influential Hindus and Mohamme- 



Mountain Village of Northern Assam. 

dans. Its capacity of 45 beds is wholly inadequate for the need. 
The Nursing School of the Hospital has an enrolment of 40 young 
women representing various tribes and races. 


Population in field 968,000; missionaries 10; native workers 
148; churches 65; church members 6,074; baptisms 227; schools 
54; pupils 2,016; hospitals i; dispensaries 2; patients 3,342. 

142 All Kindreds and Tongues 


Miss Marion Burnham, Mission Treas. and Mission Sec. 

Work for Assamese, Garos and Girls' Middle English School 

Kacharis *Miss Ethel E. Nichols 

V. H. Sword *Miss Hazel E. Smith 

Mrs. V. H. Sword Woman's Hospital 

J. M. Forbes *Alice Randall, M.D. 

Mrs. J. M. Forbes * Martha J. Gifford, M.D. 

White Memorial Hostel *Edna M. Stever, R N. 

*Miss Carolyn A. Gleich * Millie M. Marvin, R.N. 

Golaghat (G6-la-ghat) 1898. There was neither Christian nor 
Christian church in the Golaghat field when Dr. and Mrs. O. L. 
Swanson arrived 40 years ago. Today there are approximately 
4,000 Christians in more than 80 churches, every one of which is 
self-supporting and maintains its own pastor. Yet in an area 75 
miles long and 30 miles wide only the bare fringe of the large 
population has been reached with the Christian message. The 
majority of the people in this great tea plantation area are of the 
coolie class. 

The Boys' Mission School trains many of the village lads from 
the plains and the hills for Christian leadership. The Girls' High 
School has an enrolment of 200. Within the district there are 
more than a dozen village schools equipped for primary education, 
maintained by groups of churches. The medical dispensary is a 
branch of the Jorhat Hospital. The local church is recognized as 
one of the chief evangelizing centers of the entire mission. Every 
year the Christian leaders from the district gather for an intensive 
Bible class, a summer training course. The Swedish Baptist 
General Conference of America has assumed the support of the 
General Society's work at the Golaghat station. 


Population in field 274,000; missionaries 5; native workers 57; 
churches 88; church members 3,082; baptisms 306; schools 22; 
pupils 832. 


Work for Assamese and Im- Mission Girls' High School 

migrant Peoples *Miss Maza R. Evans 

R. W. Holm *Miss R. Grace Lewison 

Mrs. R. W. Holm, R.N. *Miss Marion J. Tait 

Assam 143 

Impur (Im'-poor) 1893. The Nagas are a hill people sub- 
divided into 30 or more tribes, all speaking different languages. 
One of the centers of Christian work among these people is Impur, 
the central station for the Ao Nagas. It was here that Dr. and 
Mrs. E. W. Clark located after blazing the trail in 1871, long 
before the Government had taken control of this region. The 
present missionary is designated to work chiefly among the Sema 
Nagas who live in a section contiguous to the Ao Naga country 
among whom Christian work has a comparatively short history. 
The Ao Nagas are essentially without a missionary and depend 
upon their own Christian leaders, trained under former mission- 
ary supervision, to carry on the great Kingdom enterprise. There 
are now approximately 20,000 Christians in this region. During 
a recent year they raised and expended about $9,000 for their 
local and other mission work. They support their own pastors 
and supply more than half of the salary budget for the Impur 
Training School where they are responsible for the supervision of 
some 400 pupils, boys and girls. It is to be noted that after all 
these years of mission work the Ao Nagas do not yet have a com- 
plete translation of the entire Bible. They have the New Testa- 
ment, a hymn book and a few text books used in the mission 
schools. Parts of the Old Testament are now in the process of 
translation and publication. 


Population in field 32,000; missionaries 2; native workers 106; 
churches 143; church members 19,649; baptisms 1,855; schools 
70; pupils 2,849; dispensaries i; patients 2,041. 


Work for Nagas (including Naga Training School) 
B. I. Anderson 
Mrs. B. I. Anderson 

Jorhat (Jor-hat) 1903. Jorhat is an educational and medical 
center for Upper Assam. The Jorhat Christian Schools compris- 
ing a Bible School, High School, and Normal Training Depart- 
ment, were established in 1906 and are developing as one 
institution under missionary supervision. To a great extent these 
schools serve the entire Assam Mission, both hills and plains. 
Twenty-five racial and tribal groups are represented in the student 

144 All Kindreds and Tongues 

body. Consequently the language problem is of significance. 
Assamese and English are the media of instruction. Graduates of 
this institution can be found in all parts of Assam, some of them 
being engaged in pioneer mission work among their own racial 
groups and tribes. The Gale Memorial Bible School is a training 
school for Bible women. An extensive and growing medical work 
centers in the Jorhat Christian Hospital. On a tract of land 
three miles east of the school compound this medical center is 
growing rapidly. Fifteen years ago this area was a dense thicket 
sheltering tigers and cobras. Now a score of buildings defy the 
retreating jungle and offer healing and comfort to hundreds each 
year. The hospital buildings can provide for approximately 50 
patients, and the verandas of the dispensary shelter the over- 
flow. Missionary bungalows and homes for staff members surround 
the hospital. A leper colony of growing importance has been built 
adjacent to the medical compound. 


Population in field 327,000; missionaries 12; native workers 43; 
churches 2; church members 70; baptisms 9; schools 8; pupils 
341; hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 10,927. 


Gale Memorial Bible School Jorhat Christian Hospital 

*Miss E. Victoria Christen- H. W. Kirby, M.D. 

son . Mrs. H. W. Kirby 

Jorhat Christian Schools O. W. Hasselblad, M.D. 

E. E. Brock Mrs. O. W. Hasselblad 

Mrs. E. E. Brock *Almyra Eastlund, R.N. 

J. W. Cook *Elna Forssell, R.N. 
Mrs. J. W. Cook 
C. E. Hunter 

Kangpokpi (Kilng-pok'-pi) 1919. No Christian missionary was 
allowed in the State of Manipur until 1894 when Rev. William 
Pettigrew, though forbidden to preach there, was permitted to 
open a school. The central station was at Ukhrul, but in 1919 
the mission center was transferred to Kangpokpi. 

This station is located near Imphal, the capital of the State 
of Manipur. About twenty years ago the compound at Kangpokpi 
was a hill of untracked jungle rising several hundred feet from 

Assam 145 

the State motor road. A mile of winding road, carved from the 
jungle-covered mountain side, was the first bold stroke in planning 
for a mission compound. Then followed groves of citrus and 
banana trees, gardens, mis- 
sion bungalows, a school 
house, quarters for students, a 
church building, a dispensary, 
a baby shelter, and to one side, 
a leper colony. 

During these 40 years in 
Manipur the Christian com- 
munity has grown to nearly 
8,000, many of whom are 
recent converts, with many 
churches distributed through- 
out the region. Our mission- 
aries in Kangpokpi have the 
privilege of working among 
the hills surrounding the 
Manipur valley. Progress is 
noted particularly among the 
Tangkhul Nagas. The mission 
school is a central training in- 
stitution which has furnished 
leaders for a growing number 
of churches and village schools 
throughout the hill region. 
The Swedish Baptist General 
Conference of America has as- 
sumed the entire support of 
this station. 

Garo Christian Medical Assistant, 


Population in field 80,000;- 
missionaries 2; native work- 
ers 142; churches 67; church members 7,689; baptisms 563; 
schools 35; pupils 757; hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 1,443. 


J. A. Ahlquist, M.D. 
Mrs. J. A. Ahlquist 

146 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Kohima (Ko-he'-ma) 1879. Kohima, in the midst of the stalwart 
and robust Angami tribe, has been called the center of possibilities. 
Its position on the main road between Assam and Burma makes 
it easily accessible to the approximately 100,000 Nagas in this 
region. Being the seat of the government for all the Naga Hills, 

Teacher and boys in a rice cultivation demonstration project, 
Kohima Training School 

the opportunity for mission work is apparent. A mission school, 
with an enrolment of 250 boys and girls from the Angami and 
neighboring tribes is an evangelistic agency of real significance. 
Two missionary families are located in Kohima, as a rule, one 
of whom gives primary attention to educational work and the 
other to more direct evangelistic effort and Bible translation. The 
motorcycle has become, during recent years, a most important 
vehicle for the missionary who tours along the mountain paths 
of the Naga Hills. 


Population in field 87,000; missionaries 4; native workers 50; 
churches 66; church members 3,442; baptisms 411; schools si; 
pupils 595. 

Assam 147 


Work for Nagas 
G. W. Supplee 
Mrs. G. W. Supplee 
J. E. Tanquist 
Mrs. J. E. Tanquist 

North Lakhimpur (Lak-im-p66r) 1893. The field work from 
this station stretches along for 100 miles between the Brahmaputra 
River and the foot-hills of the Himalayas. Most of the mission 
activity is among the tea garden coolies. During the last years 
there has hot been a resident missionary at North Lakhimpur. 
The work is supervised by leaders of the national church assisted 
by the missionary located at Jorhat and aided slightly by mission 


Population in field 152,000; native workers 28; churches 55; 
church members 1,732; baptisms 166; schools 13. 


Work for Immigrant Peoples 

(In charge of J. W. Cook at Jorhat) 

Nowgong (Now-g6ng) 1841. Nowgong, for generations the 
place of culture and the ancient seat of a royal dynasty, is located 
in the very center of the province of Assam. In mission history it 
is known as the station of Dr. Miles Bronson, pioneer among the 
Hindu people of this field. His daughter was the first single 
woman to be appointed for service in Assam by the Woman's 
Society of the West. The evangelistic work centering in Nowgong 
touches not only a large population of Assamese and other plains 
people but also the Mikirs of the neighboring hills. There is a 
progressive girls' school in Nowgong, the oldest and largest board- 
ing school for girls in Assam. It includes a kindergarten, elemen- 
tary training and a normal department. Here 350 girls, represent- 
ing on the one hand the most primitive races of Assam, and on 
the other the most highly educated and cultured people of the 
country, work together in harmony. A special hostel (dormi- 
tory) for Hindu girls affords an unusual opportunity for the 
teaching of Christian living, both by precept and example. 

148 All Kindreds and Tongues 


Population in field 500,000; missionaries 4; native workers 25; 
churches 23; church members 965; baptisms 121; schools 11; 
pupils 543. 


Work for Assamese and Girls' Training School 

Mikirs *Miss Elizabeth E. Hay 

W. R. Hutton *Miss E. Ruth Paul 
Mrs. W. R. Hutton 

House of Naga village headman 

Sadiya (Sa'-de-ya) 1836-1906. Sadiya, situated in the extreme 
northeastern corner of Assam, near the junction of the Chinese 
and Tibetan arms of the Brahmaputra River, has been called the 
doorway to romance and history. It is 'a real frontier country and 
the most remote station of Northern Baptists in all Assam. To 
the northeast is a path leading into Tibet, thence into China; 
to the southeast lies Burma; to the north are the snowcapped 
Tibetan ranges of the Himalayas. 

It was to this station that in 1836 Dr. and Mrs. Nathan Brown 
came from Burma to open up the work together with Mr. A. T. 
Cutter, a printer. The English Commissioner of Assam had 
brought to the attention of Northern Baptists in Burma this 

Assam 149 

territory then wild and uncivilized. Circumstances forced the 
abandonment of our work in Sadiya in 1839, but since 1906 it has 
been a center not only for work among the tea garden people of 
the plains but for the hill folk called Abors. Among these people 
the missionary has been zealously at work preaching the Gospel, 
training workers in the village school at Sadiya, translating por- 
tions of the New Testament and developing a hymnal for the 

Naga Young Folks. 

Christian community. This field covers a larger area than that of 
any other station in Assam. 


Population in field 333,700; missionaries 2; native workers 27; 
churches 37; church members 1,250; baptisms 224; schools 12; 
pupils 620. 


Work for Immigrant Peoples and Abors 
J. Selander 
Mrs. J. Selander 

Sibsagar (Sib-saw'-gor) 1841. In a densely populated Hindu 
community the missionary compound in Sibsagar is surrounded 
by ancient temples. Many centuries ago Sibsagar was the seat of 
the reigning Ahom kings who did much to embellish the Hindu 

150 All Kindreds and Tongues 

religion with their quaint art. Hither pilgrims journey from 
many parts of India to worship at the temples deemed most holy 
and to present their native offerings on festal days. In this field 
Baptist work has been carried on for one hundred years. Rev. and 
Mrs. J. M. Forbes, missionaries at this station, have recently been 
transferred to Gauhati. Replacements are greatly needed. 


Population in field 300,000; missionaries 2; native workers 17; 
churches 39; church members 2,108; baptisms 118; schools 5; 
pupils 173. 

Tura (T66-ra) 1876. The Garos represent probably the largest 
single group of hill people in Assam with a population of approxi- 
mately 193,000. Seventy-five years ago they, a race of savage head- 
hunters, were a most serious concern to Government. Today 15,- 
ooo are Christians who are supporting 331 churches and 75 village 
schools. The late Dr. M. C. Mason gave half a century of service 
among the Garos, reduced the language to written form and, with 
Dr. Phillips, made a translation of the Bible. Since that time 
the missionaries have continued to build up a Christian literature 
for these people. The Garos are the only hill tribe in Assam for 
whom the entire Bible has been made available. Translations, 
of both Scriptures and school texts, must be prepared. 

The first two Garo Christians were baptized in 1863, and each 
began to form a Christian village, one of which was built in a 
dense jungle. Likewise the Garo churches have undertaken their 
own home missions. Their evangelists have endured hardship and 
privation as they have carried the gospel to other sections. 

Tura is the seat of government for the Garo Hills district and 
mission work is well established here. Dormitories for Christian 
boys attending local government schools, a Mission Middle English 
Girls' School with a Normal Training department, a hospital and 
dispensary building as well as homes for missionaries and nurses 
are found on the compound. 


Population in field 193,000; missionaries 9; native workers 205; 
churches 376; church members 16,784; baptisms 770; schools 
166; pupils 4,168; hospitals i; dispensaries 2; patients 9,921. 

Assam 151 


Work for Garos Mission Hospital 

F. W. Harding E. Sheldon Downs, M.D. 

Mrs. F. W. Harding Mrs. E. Sheldon Downs, R.N. 

A. F. Merrill *A. Verna Blakely, R.N. 
Mrs. A. F. Merrill 

Girls' Mission Middle Eng- 
lish School 
*Miss Fern Rold 
*Miss Ruth H. Teasdale 

Lord, what a change within us one short hour 
Spent in thy presence will avail to make! 
What heavy burdens from our bosoms take! 
What parched grounds refresh as with a shower! 

We kneel, and all around us seems to loiaer; 
We rise, and all, the distant and the near, 
Stands forth in sunny outline, brave and clear; 

We kneel, how weak! we rise, how full of power! 

Why, therefore, should we do ourselves this wrong, 

Or others that we are not always strong- 
Thai we are sometimes overborne with care- 
That we should ever weak or heartless be, 

Anxious or troubled when with us is prayer, 
And joy and strength and courage are with theef 



OTHING lies beyond the reach of prayer except that 
ivhich lies outside the will of God. 


SeeTnot palm trees waving near. 
I only see slim furclad skaters whirling by. . . . 
Long low white hills against a snow -filled, sky I 

Today my 
Not tamaris 

.' ' , StV?*- ' - , ' " V.^ 

My ea 


, :: 

The Bengal - Orissa Mission 

WORK in the Bengal-Orissa field began in 1836 with the sturdy 
foundations laid by the Free Will Baptists in Balasore, Orissa 
Province. These same pioneers extended the work into the 
neighboring province of Bengal, including two important lan- 
guage groups, the Bengalis and the Santals. Because of the tre- 
mendous odds still faced in the way of deeply entrenched 
Hinduism, this mission continues to be the smallest of the ten 
Northern Baptist fields. 

Nearly four million people live within this area for which, by 
comity agreements, American Baptists are responsible. Twenty- 
three missionaries carry on the work, evangelistic and educational, 
and great credit is due to Indian co-workers who preach, teach, 
and provide the only medical assistance we offer. The names of 
some of these Christians are written in gold in the history of Chris- 
tian progress among their people. 

Nationalism has here, too, changed the mental temper of the 
people we would lead to a higher loyalty. What Oriental mission 
work, in the last few years, has escaped this experience? Back in 
the villages among the clumps of lacey bamboos a simple, hard- 
working village folk know little of quarrels of government except 
as they affect the price of rice. Here the gospel still has a hearing 
as the missionary sits on the mud veranda, reading his Message 
in the light of a kerosene lantern, and the women at a distance 
listen in on the story of a loving God. From such small beginnings 
are self-supporting churches born. 

If the great quest of national political leaders should be attained 
and home-rule should be granted, what would be the challenge 
to representatives of Christ for the principles of democracy are 
best propounded by Him? Bengalis, Oriyas, or the aboriginal 
races of Santals, and Koras, proud Brahman or equally proud 
Moslem, the artisan and the Untouchable how will the rights 
of each and all be safeguarded? Will the foreign teacher find 
himself bound in destiny with an unpopular minority, those who 
do not count? What of the modest institutions these minorities 
built together? What of the villager's dream that his children 


154 All Kindreds and Tongues 

might be at least literate, more able to keep the wolf from the door, 
and more wise in the things of the spirit? We are deeply grateful 
that the Christian impact has had a part in bringing an aware- 
ness of the needs to the program of the dominant part, Congress. 

The house of Chundra Lela, famed convert from Hinduism to Christianity, 

The missionary and his trained Indian colleagues will have a 
large place to fill in the new era when we trust this program will 
be brought to fulfillment. 

The mission had some important pioneering through its in- 
dustrial and leadership training institutions. At Balasore village 
skills and industries are emphasized. The well-drilling project, 
started in the Industrial School, has gained such proportions and 
significance as to attract public and governmental notice and 
participation. Bhimpore and Midnapore schools have contributed 
largely to high quality Christian leadership in rural areas. The 
total impact, social and economic as well as religious, is tre- 

The Old Pilgrim Road to Puri runs from north to south across 
our Bengal-Orissa field. Temples and shrines are on every hand. 

The Bengal-Orissa Mission 155 

Population loads the land as in few parts of the world. It is still 
true that if a worker at Midnapore were to visit three villages a 
day continuously for 365 days out of each year, an entire genera- 
tion would have passed before he could visit all the villages in 
this field. The Home Mission Board, largely Indian, with its 
increasing responsibility for evangelistic and educational work 
must be given immediate aid if it is to maintain churches, schools 
and evangelists in Christian communities. Work for women and 
children has been very effective, though limited in scope. 

In spite of discouragements there is vision for the future and a 
high faith that God will continue to claim his own among these 
races of India. 

Bengal-Orissa Statistics* 

A.B.F.M.S 18 

W.A.B.F.M.S 5 

Nationals 263 

Churches 40 

Church Members 3>oog 

Baptisms 196 

Schools 102 

Pupils 4,337 


Dispensaries 2 

Patients 2*855 

* From 1939 Annual Report, 
f Staff 1940. 

Balasore (Bal-a-sore) 1838. During the centenary celebration of 
1936, an American visitor was heard to say that he considered the 
Balasore Church the most soundly established of any mission 
church he had visited in his extensive travels. The history of the 
station is as fascinating reading as one could ask for. The Girls' 
High School is an outgrowth of the work extended from the 
Sinclair Orphanage, which first housed children rescued by the 
British Government from becoming sacrifices at annual festivals. 
Periodical famines increased the numbers. Changes have made 
the orphanage more of a dormitory and it is now serving the Girls' 
High School temporarily. 

156 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Balasore schools equip students to meet practical, daily prob- 
lems. There is a new domestic science building for the Girls' 
High School equipped to teach physiology, hygiene, child-care, 
and household management. The students in the Boys' High and 
Technical School are receiving a vocational and general training 

Making Bricks at a Mission School. 

that secures positions for them when unemployment is the general 
lot. The Governor of Orissa on a recent visit said of the Boys' 
High and Technical School, "This is one of the most interesting 
things I have seen in Orissa since the province was formed. Here 
we have ... a successful attempt to develop technical training 
side by side with literary training, which has been the ideal of 
educationalists for many years. ... In fact, the school has tried 
out, ten years ahead of public opinion, the ideas which are now 

finding favour elsewhere " 

Excellent work is being done in the town and district among 
the women, Christian and non-Christian. Seven trained Indian 
evangelistic workers accompany the missionary to the homes and 
give assistance of every kind as well as Christian instruction. 

The Bengal-Orissa Mission 157 


Population in the field 1,300,000; missionaries 8; native workers 
64; churches 8; church members 785; baptisms 35; schools 13; 
pupils 713. 


W. S. Dunn Boys' High and Technical 

Mrs. W. S. Dunn School 

H. I. Frost J. G. Gilson, Principal 

Mrs. H. I. Frost Mrs. J. G. Gilson 

*Miss Lillian M. Girls' High School 

Brueckmann *Miss Ethel M. Cronkite 

Bhimpore (Beem-pore') 1873. Bhimpore has a magic of her 
own. It is her people that fascinate one after the dusty twenty 
mile ride from the railroad station at Midnapore through jungle 
to reach this unassuming center of a teeming life of 85,000 Santals 
an aboriginal race. The sacrifices these people are anxious to 
make for an education and for the privilege of sharing the Chris- 
tian faith put an average complaining American to shame. It is 
impossible to put into the compass of a few words the hundred 
percent passes for three consecutive years on the part of Santal 
boys in the high school, competing with much more privileged 
Bengali students; the girls going into high school, teacher train- 
ing and nursing, into village homes as competent wives and 
mothers; the industrial work for boys and girls; the flourishing 
gardens, the evangelistic and women's work and village schools 
that reach into remote spots inaccessible during the rains. 


(Note Jhargram field) Population in Santal field 600,000; 
missionaries 6; native workers 31; churches i; church members 
299; baptisms 3; schools 2; pupils 265; dispensaries i. 


General Santal High School 

*Miss Naomi Knapp H. C. Long 

Girls' School Mrs. H. C. Long 

*Miss Grace I. Hill C. C. Roadarmel 

Mrs. C. C. Roadarmel 

Jamshedpur (Jzim-she'd-poor) 1919. Missionaries in this strategic 
industrial center, the home of famous Tata Iron and Steel Com- 

158 All Kindreds and Tongues 

pany, were unable to return after furlough and have not been re- 
placed from America. Effective work is being done by a pastor 
employed from the Methodist Seminary at Jubbulpore. The 
industrial situation presents a medley of racial groups and a 

church service must at times be 
conducted in as many as three 
languages. Medical work and 
housing problems are under the 
efficient administration of the 
Steel Company. 


Population in the field 97,000; 
churches 3; native workers 2; 
church members 206. 

Jhargram (Jar-gram) 1937. The 
challenge of this work makes the 
worker wish he had the strength 
of ten and time without stint. 
There are today two workers 
among Christians in some thirty 
villages scattered over 200 square 
miles, one of the most fruitful sec- 
tions of the entire mission! Govern- 
ment aid to village schools keeps 
the doors open. 

From the beginning of the 
Santal work, Government has 
turned over to our mission entire 
control of educational work among 

them. Only the Christian church can discover and develop the 
best in this race. 

Adjoining this Santal area, or within it, live the mixed race 
called Koras, responsive to the gospel. Baptist work has been 
almost entirely evangelistic with Bible women assisting but edu- 
cation is now spreading as well. They are an agricultural people 
without much natural talent for leadership. The work among 
them should be intensified and extended to meet a need that pre- 
sents much hope of reward for effort spent. Kora work is carried 
on by Rev. and Mrs. J. A. Howard of Kharagpur. 

Student at Christian High School, 

The Bengal-Orissa Mission 159 


Population in Santal field 600,000; missionaries 2; native 
workers 109; churches 16; church members 677; baptisms 61; 
schools 74; pupils 2,761. 


Work for Santals 
A. A. Berg 
Mrs. A. A. Berg, R.N. 

Kharagpur (Kar-ag-p66r) 1902. Kharagpur has been claimed 
from the jungle to become a great railroad center on the line 
that serves the country from Bombay to Calcutta. The city's in- 
dustry has attracted various racial groups. Union Church with 
two Sunday Schools, a W.C.T.U. organization, meetings for 
prayer and Bible study, for recreation and fellowship, and the 
sessions for youth groups endeavors to meet the needs of the 
English speaking groups. Ward Memorial Church, self-supporting, 
reaches the Hindustani and Oriya groups and the Telugu Church 
serves the Telugus. In the men's hostel laborers find the privileges 
of decent quarters, games and reading. A trained Indian woman 
finds her days filled with work in the homes. 

Kharagpur is the home of the Field Secretary and Treasurer of 
the mission, and a favorite meeting place for committees, boards 
and conferences of all sorts. 


Population in the field 950,000; missionaries 4; native workers 
5; churches 3; members 485; baptisms 41. 


Union Church Work for Koras (See Jhar- 

E. C. Brush, Mission Sec. gram 

and Treas. J onn A. Howard 

Mrs. E. C. Brush Mrs. J. A. Howard 

Midnapore (Mid-na-pore) 1844. Midnapore, the third largest 
city in all Bengal, is head of a thriving district and claims a 
government college and district courts and treasury. On both 
sides of the old Hindu Pilgrim Road are the comfortable thatched 
houses of Christians. From these homes children scamper off to 
the church services, Sunday School or the finest day school for 

160 All Kindreds and Tongues 

girls and younger boys in the district. The mission here provides 
the only high school for girls in the entire district. Much work 
done among Bengalis in the rural sections has had to be curtailed 
or discontinued for lack of men and money, but Midnapore fur- 
nishes a sturdy, rewarding Christian impact with evangelism at its 
heart. Because of the unyielding character of the Hinduism of 
upper caste and cultured people of this section, statistics falsify 
the actual contribution of the mission. In the high school Hindu 
girls of all castes, Santals, Moslems and Buddhists unite with 
Christians in student government enterprises, in two Girl Guide 
Companies and two Blue Bird Flocks, in a large W.W.G. that aids 
home missions, and in competition in high scholarship and 
Christian fellowship. 

The church is self-supporting and the women's society is pro- 
gressing under effective leadership. 


Population in the field 950,300; missionaries i; native workers 
14; churches i; church members 118; baptisms 12; schools 3; 
pupils 188. 


Midnapore Girls' High School 
*Miss Ruth Daniels 

Santipore (San-ti-pore) (Hatigarh Post Office) 1865. Reaching 
Hatigarh, a small center whose name means the "elephant fort," 
is worth the hard trip fording the river beyond Jellasore and walk- 
ing the few miles to the mission bungalow. One may go by chair by 
four coolies if he prefers. Salgodia, the other village in the Santi- 
pore area, is several miles farther, accessible by foot in dry weather 
that permits the hiker to walk on the baked mud dikes between the 
rice fields. 

The Hatigarh school has increased about 70% in enrolment 
and the hostels are filled to capacity. There is a 53% Christian 
student body and 80% Christian staff. In the last two and one 
half years six Christian teachers have been added to the staffs. 
Four new school houses have been built. Due to cuts in appropria- 
tion much of this has meant genuine sacrifice on the part of a 
people whose crop netted about 50% of the normal amount. In- 
dividuals are carrying inhuman assignments of work. The staff 

The Bengal-Orissa Mission 161 

is 35% less than ten years ago in the face of an increase of 60% in 
total church membership. There has been one baptism for every 
ten members in the area. 431 opium addicts and 504 lepers in 
addition to several hundreds of general patients received help 
from the leper clinic and dispensary. Maternity and child wel- 
fare work, home nursing and infant care have met a great 

Replacing of cuts would release this most excellent piece of 
work to take a leading place in the advancement of the Kingdom 
in India. 


Population in the field 300,000; missionaries 2; native workers 
38; churches 8; church members 439; baptisms 40; schools 10; 
pupils 410; dispensary i; patients 2,855. 


W. C. Osgood 
Mrs. W. C. Osgood 

} OTH the test and expression of the quality of a personality 
are to be seen in its dominant desires. No desire is ever quite the 
same after it has been offered up before God in prayer; a desire 
which has found expression in prayer is inevitably purified and 
elevated. Prayer, therefore, is the training-ground for character. 

CHRISTIANITY is the answer to the riddle set by life itself. 
It is the answer of a religion which has the quality of Vision and 
Power the vision of truth and the power to overcome. 


The South India Mission 

INDIA is one of the most fascinating countries in the world. It is 
a land of contrasts: direst poverty and fabulous wealth, un- 
touchables and high caste, of highest mountains, greatest rainfall, 
cyclones, cholera, drought, famine. Here one sees great tea plan- 
tations, brilliant flowering jungles, exotic fruits, ancient palaces, 
temples and tombs. India, with its population of well over 350 
million, is divided in race and has more than two hundred lan- 
guages and dialects. It is a land of religions yet needs unspeakably 
the knowledge and acceptance of Christ and his redeeming and 
transforming love. 

The poverty is extreme. The wealth of the country is in the 
hands of a few. Money is too often invested in jewels instead of 
being kept in circulation. The masses of India's millions live in 
villages, in tiny houses of ttimes of mud, amid primitive surround- 
ings. The people are engaged in agriculture, the chief crops being 
cotton, millet, castor oil seeds, tobacco, chillies and rice. The 
monsoon furnishes their chief water supply and when this fails, 
famine occurs. The great majority of the people are poorly nour- 
ished and so subject to disease. In a land where the average wage 
of a day laborer is about six cents it is small wonder that debt 
and dire need go hand in hand. Conditions are improving, how- 
ever. Modern methods of agriculture are being introduced, com- 
merce is increasing and the quantity of exports has risen. There 
are great steel, cotton and jute mills, and coal and limestone are 
being taken from the hills. 

The curse of India is the caste system. Originating in the neces- 
sity of preserving race purity and continued by the early trade 
guild system, caste has exerted a powerful influence on the people. 
Its bondage is stronger in South India than in the north and is 
most oppressive. There is no greater shame to the average Indian 
than that of loss of caste. 

The past decade has seen many changes come into being with 
the adoption of the new Constitution, under which the Legisla- 
tures in the Provinces of India are given large powers. On the 


The South India Mission 


whole the new Constitution has worked well though the Congress 
Party objects to certain of its basic assumptions, in particular 
federation and communal electorates. As to the All India Fed- 
eration, they argue that it is impossible for delegates chosen by the 
generally despotic Rajahs of the Indian States to sit in helpful 
counsel with the duly elected representatives of the democratic 
provinces. As to communal electorates, one of the things that 
stands in the way of complete democracy in India, is the provision 
in the Constitution whereby each of the religious groups of India, 
such as Mohammedans, Jains, Hindus, Sikhs, etc., is allowed so 
many seats in the Legislative Assemblies, the number of seats for 
each group being determined by its population in the Province 
in question. Christians have objected to this "communal represen- 
tation" and have been consistent in opposing it. The Congress 
Party has stood for economic and social reforms, and among 
these has been the recommendation to the provincial legislatures 
of a "Prohibition Act" forbidding the sale of intoxicants. In the 

Temples of Indi 


164 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Madras Presidency the Act was passed in 1937, and experimentally 
applied in certain districts. The results in these and other testing 
areas are being watched, not only by other parts in India, but also 
by India's well-wishers around the world. 

The South India Mission is known among Baptists as the "Lone 
Star Mission." Samuel Day was the pioneer who, as the repre- 
sentative of the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, first 
took the gospel message to the 25,000,000 Telugus in South India. 
Three times in its early history Baptists almost abandoned this 
field because of lack of financial resources or because the field 
seemed unfruitful. Today it is one of the largest and most suc- 
cessful Baptist mission fields. The territory at present covered by 
our Baptist mission lies within the Madras Presidency and Hydera- 
bad, an independent native state ruled over by a Mohammedan 
prince. Hyderabad has an area about equal to that of Kansas. 
Each station in the mission is the center of a large field, the small- 
est being one-half the size of Rhode Island and the largest three 
times the size of that state. While the prevailing religion is Hindu- 
ism there are many followers of Mohammed. Singularly enough, 
though caste in India divides socially, language unites, for Telugu 
is spoken throughout the field of the Baptist Mission. 

Marked advance in winning converts among the Sudras must 
not be forgotten. About 70% of the Telugus belong to this great 
non-Brahmin group. They have been deeply moved by the marked 
change in the outcastes. Their readiness to listen to the Gospel 
constitutes one of the most urgent calls heard anywhere. The mass 
movements among the outcastes continue and new converts are 
now coming into the churches of all denominations at the rate of 
150,000 a year. Northern Baptists are having a real part in this 
ingathering. If preachers and teachers could be provided to shep- 
herd the incoming thousands, many times the present number 
could be received. One of the great opportunities facing the 
church today is the training of Christian leadership in mission 
fields. Naturally medicine has played an important part in the 
development of the South India Mission where marked under- 
nourishment and resulting lowered vitality have made the people 
unusually susceptible to disease. Educational work in the mission 
is necessarily large, heading up in the Baptist Theological Sem- 
inary at Ramapatnam. There are four high schools. Baptists also 

The South India Mission 165 

have a share in the work of Madras Christian College, of the 
Women's Union Medical College at Vellore, and of Madras Chris- 
tian College for Women. 

There are many encouraging aspects in the work and a growing 
spirit of social consciousness is seen. Movements, with their be- 
ginnings in Christian teachings, have been started. These efforts 
have already produced important results in mitigating the dis- 
tressing conditions accompanying child marriage, the status of 
widows and orphans, as well as other social evils. Schools and 
orphanages are being founded in greater number. The Christians 
are gaining in strength through increase in membership and the 
growing feeling of unity. In spite of their poverty encouraging 
advance is being made toward self-support. Women's missionary 
societies which were springing up a decade ago are now uniting 
in a Telugu Woman's Convention which is taking responsibility 
for important work. In December 1939 the Telugu Convention 
and the South India Mission voted for a Joint Council, composed 
of Indian leaders and missionaries. This Committee, with ad- 
visory and executive powers, is a further step in the sharing of 

South India Statistics* 

fA. B. F. M. S 49 

fW. A. B. F. M. S 25 

Indian Workers . 2,340 

Churches 389 

Church Members 1 10,343 

Baptisms 2,626 

Schools 1,024 

Pupils 35,679 

Hospitals 6 

Dispensaries 9 

Patients 39>oog 

*From 1939 Annual Report. 
t Staff 

Allur (Ul-loor) 1873. Allur is one of the oldest stations in the 
mission, having been opened seven years after Ongole. The work 
has been difficult and progress slow. The southern part of our 

i66 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Telugu mission has had no mass movement. So after many years 
of self-sacrificing labor, only a very small portion of the people 
are Christian, but many of the village churches and schools are 
self-supporting. A strong and vigorous station boarding school of 
higher elementary grade is maintained and is doing a worth- 
while work. Church schools for Bible study, prayer and the deep- 
ening of the spiritual life have been a chief emphasis. Interest on 
the part of caste women and children is to be noted. 


Population in field 122,100; missionaries 2; native workers 42; 
churches 18; members 1,167; baptisms 51; schools 12. 


E. B. Davis 
Mrs. E. B. Davis 

Bapatla (Ba-put'la) 1883. Bapatla is on the Madras-Calcutta 
railway about forty miles northeast of Ongole. The field covers 
1,400 square miles. In our Baptist churches in this area. there are 
over 10,000 members, while there are nearly 3,000 pupils in the 
Sunday schools.The Baptala Normal School trains young men as 
teachers and provides elementary training for higher and lower 
grades, and has just celebrated its Golden Anniversary. Bapatla 
has one of the largest Baptist communities. There should be a 
missionary family for the field in addition to the one for the 
Normal School. This need has been in part met by the Association 
employing Mr. A. Vandanm, B.A., L.T., headmaster of our 
Ongole High School, as touring evangelist. 


Population in field 412,000; missionaries 2; native workers 139; 
churches 8; members 10,975; baptisms 46; schools 66; pupils 


General Work and Normal Training School 
W. D. Varney 
Mrs. W. D. Varney 

Cumbum (Rum-bum) 1882. Cumbum is located seventy miles 
west of Ongole in the Kurnool district. In this area there is a large 
group of village schools and a secondary school, as well as a num- 

The South India Mission 167 

ber of churches, with a membership of over 6,500. The rural com- 
munity training school is an important development in the work 
of this field and is meeting the urgent and pressing need of trained 
village teachers in the Mission. On January 9, 1934 a fine new 
building was dedicated. With an enrolment of over 70 students, 
the missionary reports that the number of applicants far exceeds 
the facilities available. The training of teacher preachers carried 
on here is most important for the village churches. 


Population in field 124,600; missionaries i; native workers 81; 
churches 5; members 6,572; baptisms 67; schools 37; pupils 


General Worfcand Rural Community Training School 
F. G. Christenson 

Donakonda (D6-na-kSn-da) 1903. The territory covered in the 
Donakonda field is in the Darsi Division, a county 616 square 
miles in area, with a population of over 90,000. There are no cities 
in the field but there are 150 villages, most of which contain 
Christians. There is a large Christian constituency with more 
than 6,500 church members. The decision of the Donakonda sta- 
tion workers to tithe their incomes has resulted in greatly increased 
giving. Their pastor, whose salary was in arrears, has been paid 
regularly, part of the debt repaid and contributions made to 
projects outside of Donakonda. Some of the village pastors and 
teachers have followed their example. Many are surprised at the 
results accomplished when they give in this systematic way. 


Population in field 91,300; missionaries 2; native workers 136; 
churches 46; members 6,661; baptisms 152; schools 64; pupils 


P. S. Curtis 
Mrs. P. S. Curtis 

Gurzalla (Goor-za'la) 1895. Gurzalla, a few miles south of the 
Kistna river, is now connected with the main railway by a branch 
line. Although Gurzalla has of recent years often had only part 

i68 All Kindreds and Tongues 

of the time of a missionary, there has developed a Christian com- 
munity with over 4,800 church members. Gurzalla is a field of 
great promise. The most remarkable movement in our Mission 
among the Suclras has taken place on this field. The station was 
opened by Rev. John Dussman in 1895. He had the joy of bap- 

Telugn Christian Hamlet. 

tizing the first caste convert on this field, a Reddi, who came out 
alone and who stood fast in the faith until the day of his death. 
Year by year the movement continued to grow until 1931, when 
a great harvest was reaped, 420 Sudra converts being baptized that 
year, 123, in a single day. Today there are some 1,700 Sudra con- 
verts on the Gurzalla field, representing 32 different castes Yana- 
dis and Erukalas, Lombardis and Chentzus, Gollas and Baldjas, 
Reddis and Kammas all one in Christ Jesus. 


Population in field 156,900; missionaries 2; native workers 34; 
churches 13; members 4,892; baptisms 48; schools 12; pupils 377. 

The South India Mission 169 


W. C. Thomas 
Mrs. W. C. Thomas 

Hanumakonda. (Hun-oo-ma-kon'da) 1879. Hanumakonda de- 
rives its name from Hanuman, the monkey god, and konda, a hill; 
hence, "the hill of the monkey god." It is a town in the Nizam's 
Dominions 86 miles northeast of Secunderabad. The most north- 
ern station of our South India Mission, it is but five miles from 
Fort Warungal which for centuries was the capital of the Telugu 
country and of the ancient Telugu kings. It is built within the 
walls that surrounded that once famous city. In 1902 the Victoria 
Memorial Hospital was opened. The Mohammedan and Hindu 
people took a deep interest in it and contributed liberally to its 
work. Medical and public health needs in the Deccan are stagger- 
ing. There is a great wastage of life among all classes. In 1939 a 
new building for the women's and children's wards was dedicated. 
This "Lake Avenue Ward" was a gift from the church in 
Rochester, New York, for which it was named, and other friends. 
Now, with a total of fifty beds for women and children the govern- 
ment has granted recognition for the nurses' training school. 

The Station School carries on a practical daily life program in 
religious education. A Junior Church is maintained with increased 
interest and numbers. Evangelistic work is carried on for village 
women, among whom there is an eagerness for something better 
in their lives. The field covers a territory of 3,500 square miles. 


Population in field 328,900; missionaries 7; native workers 39; 
churches 6; members 1,450; baptisms 136; schools i; pupils 16; 
hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 5,325. 


Evangelistic Work Hospital 

C. R. Manley, M.D. J. S. Carman, M.D. 

Mrs. C. R. Manley Mrs. J. S. Carman 

*Miss Hallie Lee Stouden- * Sadie Robbins, R.N. 

mire * Harriet Barrington, R.N. 

Jangaon (Jun-gan) 1901. The Jangaon field, including the 
larger part of three counties lying between Nalgonda and Hanu- 
makonda, has a population of over 250,000. Here is located Pres- 

Lake View, Cumbum, S. I. 

Bathing Ghats, Benares, India. 

A horn Temple, Sibsagar, 

Contrasts: Elephant with Road 

Railway Station, South India. 

Learning to Read, Kavali. 

Outcaste Village Group. 



Leper Receiving Injection, 

Roadside Leper Clinic, 


Stalls, Entrance to Great Temple, Madura, India. 

172 All Kindreds and Tongues 

ton Institute, called the Telugu Tuskegee. This is our only 
Baptist mission training school in the Deccan, embracing the 
central middle school, a special training class for women village 
school teachers, a co-educational class (higher standard) for 
training teachers, and one year of high school work. One valuable 
asset of the school is the seventy acre compound which affords 

Preston Institute, Jangaon. 

an excellent opportunity for the students to have practical experi- 
ence in agricultural work. The Jangaon church is supporting two 
workers on the field and is assuming responsibility for the evan- 
gelization of all the villages within a radius of five miles from the 
station. The field workers as a Home Mission Society are support- 
ing in part a worker in the new center and the women of the 
station church contribute to the support of the work on the field, 
as well as mission contributions to the projects of the Women's 


Population in field 261,800; missionaries 2; native workers 36: 
churches 4; members 681; baptisms 26; schools 16; pupils 298. 


Preston Institute 
C. Rutherford 
Mrs. C. Rutherford 

The South India Mission 173 

Kanigiri (Kun-i-gi-ri) 1892. The Kanigiri field, southwest of 
Ongole, has an area of 1,014 square miles. The station is forty miles 
from the nearest railway with which it is now connected by motor 
bus. There are more than four hundred villages in this area and 
each village is made of at least two sections, the caste section and 
the outcaste palem. There are two station schools, primary and 
secondary, with boarding departments for boys and girls. In a poor 
non-caste hamlet of this field, a part of Ongole, Dr. dough's great 
work began so many years ago. In that little hamlet was born 
Yerraguntla Periah, the first outcaste Madiga convert in the 
Telugu Mission, who became the pioneer of a great mass move- 
ment to Christianity among his people. On this field also the late 
George H. Brock gave forty years of devoted service to the Telugus, 
receiving into the Christian church over 8,000 members. 


Population in field 129,300; missionaries 2; native workers 208; 
churches 31; members 8,326; baptisms 176; schools 140; pupils 


J. C. Martin 
Mrs. J. C. Martin 

Kavali (Ka'va-li) 1893. Kavali is a town halfway between On- 
gole and Nellore, about twelve miles south of Ramapatnam. The 
station was opened in 1893 and embraces a field of 100,000 people. 
Near here is located an industrial settlement for criminal tribes 
which for many years was under mission management, Govern- 
ment meeting the expense and the Mission providing the mission- 
ary. Of recent years the Government has taken over its manage- 
ment. The Settlement, however, has been retained up to date and 
affords a fruitful field for Christian service among these needy 
people. The opportunity among the children of these criminal 
tribes especially is very great. The children attend the Station 
Boarding School, where the boys receive excellent training in 
cloth and tape weaving, aluminum work and mat making, and 
the girls in sewing, poultry breeding, cookery and music. Many 
have been converted and become preachers and teachers and evan- 
gelists to their own people. Christian work is carried on at two 
centers, Brahmanakkraka and Musunur. 

174 All Kindreds and Tongues 


Population in field 101,700; missionaries 4; native workers 50; 
churches 9; members 2,045; baptisms 62; schools 11; pupils 641; 
dispensaries i; patients 856. 


L. E. Rowland *Miss E. Grace Bullard 

Mrs. L. E. Rowland *Miss Julia E. Bent 

Coles Memorial High School, Kurnool. 

Kurnool (Kiir'-nool) 1875. Kurnool, historic town on the banks 
of the Tungabadhra River, is located on the southern border of 
the Hyderabad State, 180 miles west of Ongole. It is the capital 
of the Kurnool District, with a population of about 40,000, nearly 
half of whom are Mohammedans. The Kurnool field, to which 
Nandyal has recently been added, is one of the largest in the 
Telugu Mission, being three times the size of the state of Rhode 
Island, with a population of more than a half million. After many 
years of labor on this difficult field, a great harvest is being reaped. 
The church membership has risen to over 6,500. At the same time 
much attention has been given to the development of independ- 
ent and self-supporting churches. The Christians give generously 
and the Kurnool Field Association supports workers, preachers, 
teachers and evangelists. In the Kurnool field are two Christian 
settlements, each of which supports its own church and school. 

The South India Mission 175 

In the station are located the Coles Memorial High School and 
the Coles Vocational School, both of which are noted for their 
fine group of students and their high standard of educational effi- 
ciency. The Woman's Society maintains the Emilie Coles Memo- 
rial Girls' School and Kindergarten, the Church School for boys 
and the Caste Girls School located in the heart of the town. The 
Kurnool Town Church, worshipping in the beautiful Coles Cen- 
tennial Memorial, erected on one of the broad highways of the 
town, is entirely self-supporting and contributes generously to the 
evangelistic work on the field. All these memorials were the gift 
of Dr. J. Ackerman Coles of New Jersey, and bear eloquent testi- 
mony to his deep devotion to the cause of Christ across the seas. 


Population in field 333,600 adding Nandyal 533,600; mission- 
aries 4; native workers 188; churches 16; members 6,851; bap- 
tisms 239; schools 78; pupils 3,522. 


W. J. Longley Coles Memorial High School 

Mrs. W. J. Longley B. J. Rockwood 

Mrs. B. J. Rockwood 

Madira (Mu'-di-ra) 1905. Madira is sixteen miles from the 
famous Golconda diamond mines. It is one of the most fertile 
and most fruitful fields for Christian effort in the Telugu Mission 
and is rapidly becoming self-supporting. On the Madira field at 
Bezwada, a growing town of 50,000, are three strong self- 
supporting churches. In nearly every one of the 130 odd villages 
in this field there are Christians so the witness for Christ is being 


Population in field 507,400; missionaries 2; native workers 101; 

churches 17; members 4,403; baptisms 183; schools 61; pupils 


J. P. Klahsen 

Mrs. J. P. Klahsen 

Madras (Ma-dray) 1878. This is the capital of the Madras 
Presidency, one of the most important cities in South India and 
chief port on the Bay of Bengal. Thousands of students attend the 

176 All Kindreds and Tongues 

government institutions of Law, Medicine, Teaching, Engineer- 
ing and Trades. Here also is the Woman's Union Christian Col- 
lege and the St. Christopher's Training School for Women, in- 
stitutions for the training of Christian leadership. Our Woman's 
Society shares in the support of both. At Tambaram, where the 
International Missionary Council held its meeting in December 
1938, is located the Madras Christian College. The General For- 
eign Society long co-operated in maintaining this institution. It is 
impossible to estimate the importance of the opportunities which 
present themselves in this large educational center. The Telugu 
Baptist Church has an Indian pastor and is growing in strength 
and independence. There is also a Christian Center and through- 
out the years three Bible women have worked faithfully in this 


Population in field 253,000; missionaries i; native workers 8; 
churches 2; members 749; baptisms 82; schools 4; pupils 187. 


*Miss Susan Ferguson 

Dormitory Court, Madras Woman's College. 

The South India Mission 177 

Markapur (Mar-ku-poor) 1895. Markapur, originally part of 
the Cumbum field, is about three miles from the railway station 
of Markapur Road. One of the most interesting facts in connection 
with it is that the field work is now entirely self-supporting. The 
station school receives students from the village schools through- 
out the field and prepares them for further training. Long com- 
bined with Cumbum, only recently has Markapur had again its 
own missionary family. 


Population in field 107,000; missionaries 2; native workers 51; 
churches 15; members 5,166; schools 27; pupils 812. 


L. S. Pratt 
Mrs. L. S. Pratt 

Nalgonda (Nul-gon'-da) 1890. Nalgonda having the largest 
Christian community in the Deccan, with over 6,500 church mem- 
bers, is situated fifty miles southeast of Secunderabad. Of the 
twenty-two churches on the field, sixteen are self-supporting. Pri- 
mary, boarding and day schools and a small hospital are main- 
tained. With two hundred and fifty villages on this field in which 
there are Christians, it is impossible to visit all in one year. To 
minister more adequately a group plan has been used with a pas- 
tor as leader in each group, each group visiting a number of 
centers and staying in each center three days. In a short time the 
groups were able to cover the whole field in this evangelistic 
effort, and great blessing and encouragement was brought to the 
churches. The Nizam's Dominions are much more backward in 
their educational program than is true of the Madras Presidency. 
The task of training Christian workers is much handicapped by 
this fact. 


Population in field 243,000; missionaries 2; native workers 63; 
churches 25; members 6,710; baptisms 168; schools 6; pupils 156. 


Eric Frykenberg 
Mrs. Eric Frykenberg 

178 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Narsaravupett (Nar-sa'-ra-vu-pet) 1883. Narsaravupett station 
comprises three taluqus, or counties Guntur, Narsaravupett and 
Sattenapalle. Located sixty-three miles northwest of Ongole on 
the S. M. R. Railway, it has a population of 206,900. The com- 
bined field consists of three hundred Christian villages. Three 
Christian centers, among quite a large group of Sudra converts, 
are opening up a new and happier life to the people. The 
Woman's Society maintains a central boarding school for boys 
and girls of higher elementary grade, to which students from all 
the stations in the Northern Association are admitted. Guntur 
town has a population of 80,000 including nearly one thousand 
Baptist Christians. Here the government has a higher training 
school. The Andra Christian College is maintained by the Amer- 
ican Lutheran and Anglican Missions. It is hoped that Baptists 
will soon arrange to participate in the College. Young people 
from all over our Mission are attending these institutions. The 
local pastor is shepherding these young people besides minister- 
ing to the Christians in the town and throughout the taluq. 


Population in field 206,900; missionaries 4; native workers 235; 
churches 52; members 11,235; baptisms 266; schools 112; pupils 



*Miss Ursula Dresser Samuel Hird Memorial 

Edwin Erickson Boarding School 

Mrs. E. Erickson *Miss Lena A. Keans 

Nellore (Nel-lore') 1840. Nellore is historically important as 
the first permanent mission station of Northern Baptists in South 
India. It was the "Lone Star" of which Dr. S. F. Smith wrote the 
poem "Shine on Lone Star." Nellore is the capital of Nellore Dis- 
trict, located on the Madras-Calcutta Railway one hundred and 
eight miles north of Madras and fifteen miles from the Bay of 
Bengal. It has a population of about 40,000. The common lan- 
guage is Telugu. Very early in its history the Mission recognized 
that to establish a self-supporting, self-propagating church it was 
necessary to develop a literate church. Nellore became an educa- 
tional center, beginning in a very humble way. Today there is the 
Coles Ackerman Memorial High School for Boys in connection 

The South India Mission 179 

with which is the George Ackerman Memorial Hostel, where 
many of the Christian students reside. The curriculum includes 
industrial work along agricultural lines, carpentry and black- 
smithing. The Woman's Society maintains a High School for girls 
and Normal School with a Kindergarten Training School and 
Elementary School and a Bible Training School for women. Here 
also is the Hospital for Women and Children and the Training 
School for Nurses, supported by the Woman's Board. 


Population in field 196,700; missionaries 12; native workers 80; 
churches 15; members 1,968; baptisms 174; schools 11; pupils 
1,098; hospitals i; patients 8,556. 


Coles- Ackerman Memorial Hospital for Women and 

High School Children 

B. M. Johnson, Mission *Lena M. English, M.D. 

Treasurer *Lena Benjamin, M.D. 

Mrs. B. M. Johnson, R.N. *Elsie M. Larson, R.N. 

. * Annie Magilton, R.N. 

Gl l ^ ir *Elsie Morris, M.D. 

*Miss Olive E Jones * Relen M Benjami R N 

*Miss Ruth V. Thurmond J 

Gurley Memorial Woman's Bible School 
*Miss Genevra Brunner 
*Miss Margarita Moran 

Ongole (On-gole') 1866. Ongole, situated in the heart of the 
Telugu country, is the mother of nearly all the Baptist stations in 
South India. Opened in 1866 by John E. Clough, "the Apostle to 
the Telugus," after the great famine of 1877-8, it became the scene 
of one of the most remarkable revivals in mission history, in 
which 2,222 outcastes were baptized in a single day and over 9,000 
in six months. After being divided and sub-divided again and 
again during the years, the Ongole field still registers over 13,000 
church members, representing a Christian community of over 
30,600. Practically the whole Madiga community (one of the 
divisions of the outcastes) have become Christians. And now a 
movement has begun among the Sudra caste people, over 500 of 
whom have been baptized on the Ongole field. 

1 8o All Kindreds and Tongues 

Ongole is also the center of one of the largest and most pro- 
ductive mission undertakings in the world. The schools, of which 
the High School for Boys and the Harriet Clough Memorial 
School for Girls are the most important, aim to meet the require- 
ments of a large Christian community for their leadership in 

Pounding Grain, Ongole. 

evangelism, education and industrial work. New dormitory 
arrangements for the Girls' School include cottages in each of 
which twenty girls live and form their own household. The 
Clough Memorial Hospital serves an area of over 100 square 
miles. This modern, well-equipped hospital of 150 beds was made 
possible by contributions from Indians, the Government of 
Madras and American friends, and it ministers alike to men, 
women and children, regardless of religion or caste. Recent new 
equipment includes a new operating and delivery room. Im- 

The South India Mission 181 

portant recent additions to the staff have been an Indian doctor 
and a young Indian woman evangelist. The Ongole Town 
Church, worshiping in the beautiful Jewett Memorial, is entirely 
self-supporting and aids materially other churches and institu- 
tions. Practically all evangelistic work in the field is now under 
the direction of the Field Association which employs a large num- 
ber of evangelists and Bible women. 


Population in field 277,500; missionaries 9; native workers 538; 
churches 26; members 13,770; baptisms 365; schools 246; pupils 
8,910; hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 12,632. 


Thorleif Wathne, Mission Secy. Clough Memorial Hospital 
Mrs. Thorleif Wathne A. G. Boggs, M.D. 

Mrs. A. G. Boggs 

Harriet Clough Memorial E. Hoisted, M.D. 

School Mrs. E. Hoisted, R.N. 

*Miss Helen L. Bailey *Sigrid C. Johnson, R.N. 

*S. Maude McDaniel, R.N. 

Podili (P6'-di-li) 1894. Podili, the largest town in this field, is 
thirty-one miles west of Ongole. The people are very illiterate and 
elementary education is most necessary. There are thirty churches, 
all but one of which are self-supporting. The Clark Memorial 
Dispensary which is under the supervision of Dr. Arthur Boggs of 
the Clough Memorial Hospital, Ongole, is rendering a fine service 
in bringing many to Christ. Adult literacy classes have been a 
feature of the work in this field. 


Population in field 61,700; missionaries 2; native workers 117; 
churches 30; members 4,218; baptisms 79; schools 59; pupils 
2,464; hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 1,810. 


T. V. Witter 
Mrs. T. V. Witter 

Ramapatnam (Ra-ma-put'-num) 1869. In Ramapatnam, which 
is between Nellore and Ongole stations, is located the Ramapat- 
nam Baptist Theological Seminary, the main object of which is 

182 All Kindreds and Tongues 

the development and training of an indigenous Christian min- 
istry. Special courses are given for the wives of students which will 
fit them the better to reach the children and mothers in the vil- 
lages. The students conduct evangelistic campaigns in the nearby 
villages of the field and engage in projects in rural reconstruction. 
The Field Association, which is carried on by the Telugu 
Churches, has charge of evangelistic and school work of the field. 
The adult literacy campaign is being emphasized in all the 
churches and conducted by seminary students and field workers. 
In recent years the Woman's Society has been responsible for the 
opening of three Christian centers at Tettu, Uluvapadu and 
Gudlur. Each of these centers has a staff consisting of a Bible 
woman, a teacher and a nurse, all graduates of our Mission schools,, 
working together in a three-fold ministry of health of body, mind 
and spirit. The Woman's Society also maintains the Ramapatnam 
Nursing Home for Women and Children. 


Population in field 38,500; missionaries 6; native workers 30; 
churches 5; members 961; baptisms 42; schools 6; pupils 263; 
hospitals i; dispensaries 4; patients 6,815. 

Children of Theological Students, Ramapatnam. 

The South India Mission 



Ramapatnam Theological 


F. P. Manley, Principal 
Mrs. F. P. Manley 
A. M. Boggs 
Mrs. A. M. Boggs 

Secunderabad (Se-kun'-der-a-bad) 1875. Secunderabad is one of 
the most important British military centers in India. The popula- 

Ramapatnam Nursing Home 
*Jennie L. Reilly, R.N. 

*Miss Florence Rowland 

Aborigines, South India. 

tion is an admixture of almost every nationality in India. The 
nourishing self-supporting church and the mission cooperate in 
service among the outcaste immigrant laborers in the city, in 
Sunday Schools for all groups, and in evangelistic work in the 
rural villages of the field. Christians in the villages are few but 
there is much interest and indication that systematic and sus- 
tained effort would yield encouraging results. There is no mission 
school in the city now; educational needs of the Christian com- 
munity must be cared for in other city schools or in our mission 
schools in Jangaon, fifty miles away. One missionary family repre- 
sents Northern Baptists in this strategic center. 

184 All Kindreds and Tongues 


Population in field 901,700; missionaries 2; native workers 23; 
churches 3; members 522; baptisms 72; schools 10; pupils 176. 


A. T. Fishman, Educational Adviser, Deccan 
Mrs. A. T. Fishman 

Sooriapett (S66-ri-a-pet') 1900. The station at Sooriapett re- 
ports a steady growth in the medical work. In the hospital men, 
women and children hear the Gospel Message and are won by its 
ministry. Since 1936 the Telugu Woman's Convention has under- 
taken the support of this hospital. An Indian lady doctor gives 
full time service to this hospital and Dr. Carman makes regular 
trips from Hanumakonda, eighty-five miles away, to assist her. A 
change is noticeable among the higher classes and reports from 
the Bible women are very encouraging. A summer school is held 
for mission workers every year. School attendance is irregular for 
the people are very poor and the children are needed to help 
cultivate the land. The failure of the rains too often produces 
almost famine conditions in this area. 


Population in field 225,400; missionaries 2; native workers 45; 
churches 10; members 4,282; baptisms 27; schools 17; pupils 250; 
dispensaries i; patients 1,300. 


J. A. Penner 
Mrs. J. A. Penner 

Udayagiri (O6'-da-ya-gi-r!) 1885. Udayagiri is sixty miles north- 
west of Nellore and forty-eight miles west of Kavali, the nearest 
railway station. Educational work is carried on through the station 
boarding and day school. The Etta Waterbury Memorial Hospital 
built in 1903 was closed for a time because of lack of funds. It has 
now re-opened under the supervision of the staff of the Nellore 
Hospital. A fine Indian Christian woman doctor who grew up in 
this village and later served on the staff of the Nellore Hospital, 
is now head of this hospital, together with a pharmacist and Bible 
woman. She visits the homes in Udayagiri and surrounding places, 
bringing healing and hope to the women who are still in bondage 
to superstition and ignorance. 

The South India Mission \ 85 


Population in field 97,100; native workers 29; churches 10; 
members 1,381; baptisms 65; schools 5; pupils 240; hospitals i; 
patients 1,715. 


(In charge of L. E. Rowland at Kavali) 

Vellore (Vel-lore). The Missionary Medical College for 
Women, in which the Woman's Society cooperates with seven 
other Boards, is one of the two mission schools giving medical 
training to women in the whole of India. Three hundred grad- 
uates of this school are working in all parts of the country. The 
roadside clinics serve a large community. 

A recent communication from the government of the Madras 
Presidency states that either funds must be secured to lift the 
school's standard to the M.B.B.S. degree equivalent to the Amer- 
ican M.D. degree by 1941 or else application should be made to 
affiliate the school with the Bombay Examination Medical Board 
(College of Physicians and Surgeons). To qualify for granting 
this degree a total increase of $700,000 endowment with $300,000 
for extra buildings and equipment is needed. The American 
Section of the Governing Board of the school has inaugurated a 
campaign to raise the necessary funds to meet the government re- 
quirements for maintaining this important mission institution. 

Vinukonda (Vm-66-k6n'-da) 1883. Vinukonda is in the Guntur 
District, about sixty-five miles northwest from Ongole on the 
S. M. R. Railway. In this field are eighteen self-supporting 
churches. In some of the churches difficulties and persecutions 
have been turned into victory, as in the case of one village church 
entirely wrecked by the cyclone, where now stands a new chapel 
which speaks of Christian faith, courage and wholehearted en- 
deavor. The most recent development in the work among the 
Sudras in our Mission has taken place in this field. The people 
are eager to hear the Gospel Message. The movement is among 
the Kamma caste the highest caste of the Sudras. The missionary 
reports: "The whole countryside is moved." There are now over 
300 Sudra converts in the Vinukonda field, of whom 156 were bap- 
tized in two years. 

i86 All Kindreds and Tongues 


Population in field 100,600; missionaries i; native workers 56; 
churches 20; members 5,030; baptisms 92; schools 21; pupils 624. 


Evangelistic Work 
* Miss Melissa E. Morrow 

What of the Lone Star Light? 

WHAT of the Light? The Lone Star light, 

That pierced the darkness of the night 

A hundred years ago? 

Have clouds obscured its beacon ray 

Or is it dimmed by coming day? 

O tell us, ye who still can pray 

O tell to us who wait! .... 

What of the light? On wings of power 
Comes back the answer hour by hour 
From souls, new-born in Christ. 
Shine on, Lone Star of Love, they cry, 
And lift thy glorious beacon high 
Till light shall flood the earth, and sky. 
Shine on, Lone Star! Shine on! 

Pearl Dorr Longley 

From Oil Lamps Lifted, by permission Fleming H. Revell Co. 

The South China Mission 

"A LAND of hills and valleys and that drink- 
jf\. eth water o the rain of heaven" such is 
the area of the South China Mission. Agri- 
cultural plains, an alluvial delta and hill 
country with peaks rising to five thousand feet 
in height, give variety to the scenery. Located 
just within and without the tropics, its teem- 
ing population enjoys a bountiful food supply, 
while copious rains and a network of rivers, 
streams and canals make drought and famine 
almost unknown. Occupying the eastern end of Kwangtung 
province and reaching into southern Fukien, the region is the 
home of the two racial or language groups, the Hoklo or Swatow- 
speaking people along the coast, and the Hakkas, or hill people 
in the hinterland. 

American Baptists first determined to begin a mission to the 
Chinese in 1834, and appointed as their first missionary William 
Dean, who arrived in Bangkok, Siam, in July 1835. China itself, it 
will be remembered, was strictly closed to missionary efforts, so 
Bangkok had been selected as the first station because it contained 
a very large Chinese population which maintained very close rela- 
tions with the mother country. The first Chinese Baptist Church 
in the world, organized there has had a continuous history and in 
1935 dedicated a splendid new building as part of their centenary 

In 1836 Rev. J. L. Shuck was sent to reinforce the mission, but 
chose to reside in Macao, a Portugese settlement relatively near to 
Canton, from which, he believed, it would be easier to enter China 
as soon as her doors should open. At last, in August, 1842, the 
treaty of Nanking between China and Great Britain was signed, 
whereby Hongkong was ceded to the British and five ports of 
China were opened to foreign residence and trade. Almost imme- 
diately Hongkong was adopted as the main station of the China 
mission, but soon our efforts were deflected to Ningpo, in 
Chekiang province, and a little later to Swatow in Kwangtung 


i88 All Kindreds and Tongues 

province, major emphasis in Hongkong and in Bangkok then 
being suspended. 

By the Treaty of Tientsin (signed June 26, 1858) Swatow was 
one of the new ports of entry and in that summer, William Ash- 

Pagoda, Sungkiang. 

more, Sr., then alone in Hongkong, made the first visit of Amer- 
ican Baptists to Swatow. It was not until the summer of 1860, how- 
ever, that the mission was permanently established in the Swatow 
area, the missionaries living on Double Island five miles below the 
city. The seventieth anniversary was celebrated in 1930 when the 
beautiful Memorial Church on the Kakchieh Compound was be- 
gun, and in the present year 1940, the eightieth 'anniversary 

The South China Mission 189 

would have been marked with fitting ceremony were it not for the 
tragedy of war. 

The past decade has seen repeated reduction of income from 
appropriations, a dwindling of the mission staff due to death and 
age limit retirements, the transfer of the Sun-wu station of the 
northern Hakka field to the China Inland Mission, and the closing 
of the Ashmore Theological Seminary. On the other hand, it has 
witnessed the steady growth of the fine coeducational middle 
school at Kakchieh, the largest ingatherings by baptism, the great- 
est stirring of revival movements under Chinese leadership, and 
significant developments in the maturing life of the indigenous 
church. The Chinese leaders have grown under their burden of 
direct administrative responsibility, and as in other parts of China, 
the vitality and stability of the Christian Movement have been 
wonderfully demonstrated in the past two years of tragic testing. 
Some serious problems have emerged as for example, that of the 
leadership and financial support needed for the large number of 
churches, many of them relatively weak in numbers and resources. 
To these problems our missionaries and their Chinese colleagues 
are giving vigorous attention. 

South China Statistics* 

fA. B. F. M. S 16 

fW. A. B. F. M. S 15 

Chinese Workers 449 

Churches 117 

Church Members 7 01 5 

Baptisms 322 

Schools 97 

Pupils ; 5,896 

Hospitals 4 

Dispensaries '' 5 

Patients 31,706 

* From 1939 Annual Report. 
f Staff 1940. 

Chaochowfu (Chow-chou-foo) 1894. Chaochowfu, situated 
thirty miles north of Swatow at the apex of the Han river delta 
and the gateway of the Hakka country, is the inland terminus of 
the only railroad leading from Swatow. Once the political and 

190 All Kindreds and Tongues 

literary capital of the whole region, it still offers the largest urban 
challenge to our message outside of Swatow. The church, well 
established with its schools on one of the two main thoroughfares 
of the city, still gives its witness among a relatively unresponsive 
people. The station and the country field have no resident mis- 

destruction: Chinese homes 

sionary but some supervision is given from Ungkung. War condi- 
tions have greatly increased the difficulty of visits there. 


Population in field 1,200,000; native workers 26; churches 9; 
members 603; baptisms 20; schools 9; pupils 325. 

Chaoyang (Chow-yang) 1905. Chaoyang a hsien or district city, 
some twelve miles southwest from Swatow has a population of 
about 200,000. It is on a densely populated broad agricultural 
plain. Just outside the city on the shores of beautiful Hai-mun 
Bay are the mission buildings. This area has escaped the Japanese 
armies and the more intense bombings that other sections of the 
field have suffered. A vigorous evangelism has been maintained in 
the local city and among the churches of the extensive rural field. 


Population in field 1,300,000; missionaries 2; native workers 53; 
churches 20; members 1,017; baptisms 69; schools 12; pupils 680. 

The South China Mission 191 


Carl M. Capen 
Mrs. Carl M. Capen 

Hopo (H6-po) 1907. Hopo, a market town some 75 miles west of 
Swatow, is the natural and strategic center for work among the 
people of the southern Hakka field, though the smallest of our S. 
China station centers. These are "border people," and more re- 
sponsive to the Christian approach than the Hakkas of the north- 
ern field. In the readjustment of Hakka interests, the churches of 
the Hopo field voted to aflfliliate themselves with the Ling Tong 
Baptist Convention of the Swatow speaking area, into which fel- 
lowship they have been received. The hospital has had unusual 
support from the local gentry and the schools are also highly 


Population in field 500,000; missionaries 2; native workers 31; 
churches 6; members 434; baptisms 41; schools 7; pupils 476; 
hospitals i; dispensary i; patients 5,536. 


A. S. Adams 
Mrs. A. S. Adams 

Kityang (Kit-yang) 1896. Kityang a city of 100,000 is forty miles 
by river west of Swatow. Surrounded by a prosperous agricultural 
region and accessible from all directions by both land and water, 
it makes a well nigh ideal mission station. The mission buildings 
are located on the river bank outside the North Gate. Here are a 
strong central church, primary and grammar schools, a coeduca- 
tional Junior Middle School, a hospital and three mission res- 
idences. This station was opened in 1896 although clinic work was 
started by Dr. Anna K. Scott in a small building in 1894. 

The Bixby Memorial General Hospital erected in 1907 serves 
both men and women in the in-patient department. The dispen- 
sary of out-patient department is open six days a week and thou- 
sands of dispensary cases receive attention there. Public health 
work is a growing department of the program and a beginning has 
been made in the villages. Local contributions have made possible 
some fine additions to the plant. The hospital enjoys the confi- 

Gospel Team Meetings, Meihsien. 

dence and cooperation of the city authorities to an unusual degree 
and cooperation with them is the order of the day. The outstation 
field is the most extensive in South China and war conditions have 
greatly increased the need for unselfish Christian service. 

The city and surrounding areas remain in Chinese hands but 
have suffered severely from air-raid bombings and the middle 
school has moved temporarily to a village further inland where 
the classes are carrying on. 


Population in field 2,500,000; missionaries 6; native workers 
111; churches 35; members 1,992; baptisms 100; schools 29; 
pupils 1,410; hospital i; dispensary i; patients 5,183. 


E. H. Giedt 
Mrs. E. H. Giedt 

Bixby Memorial General Hospital 

W. E. Braisted, M.D. 
*Marguerite E. Everham, M.D. 
*Clara C. Leach, M.D. 
*Dorothy M. Campbell, R.N. 


The South China, Mission 193 

Meihsien (May-shean) 1890. Meihsien, formerly Kaying, has 
long been the political and educational center of a whole section 
of the Hakka field. Contrary to a wide-spread impression, the 
Hakkas are a virile people, aggressive in business enterprise and 
holding high standards of education particularly for boys and 
men. Response to the Christian message has been slow and Hakka 
work has been hard hit by depletion of the mission staff, though 
the growth of Chinese responsibility has been marked. The larger 
boys' middle school has maintained itself in spite of many vicissi- 
tudes and the recent complete lack of missionary assistance. The 
Kwong Yit Girls' School is maintained by the Woman's Board, and 
is outstanding in its Christian atmosphere and influence. 


Population in field 1,000,000; missionaries 3; native workers 52; 
churches 5; members 595; baptisms 27; schools 7; pupils 820. 


Kwong If it Girls' School 
*Miss Louise Campbell 
*Miss Anna E. Foster 
*Miss Alice M. Giffin 

Swatow (Swa-tau) 1860. Situated on a low spit of land five miles 
from the sea, the city of Swatow has grown enormously in com- 
mercial, industrial, political and educational importance. It is the 
one port of entry and distributing center for a very large and 
densely populated area of South China. In the city proper there 
are now three Baptist churches strategically located. One, whose 
life and program are intimately related to the Swatow Christian 
Institute, shares the superb equipment of the Institute in the heart 
of the downtown business section. Here under Chinese leadership 
is maintained a well-rounded and aggressive program of evan- 
gelism, education, dispensary and community service for the 
whole city. The Kialat church, a thriving church in the eastern 
residential section of the city is affiliated with the Institute and its 
program. The Black Bridge Church is a branch of the Institute 
in the most needy and neglected part of the community, where 
church, school and dispensary work are carried on. 

Before "occupation" by the Japanese military forces in June 
1939, Swatow suffered severely from repeated air raids and naval 

194 All Kindreds and Tongues 

bombardments, but to date these church properties have remained 
undamaged. A mile across the harbor, the mission compound 
nestles among the Kakchieh hills. Here are the Kak-Kuang Acad- 
emy, a co-educational middle school; the Woman's Bible Training 
School founded in 1873; the headquarters for the Ling Tong 
Baptist Convention; and the Memorial Church of Chinese archi- 

Sfvatow Church and Congregation. 

lecture, one of the most beautiful in China, seating 1,400 people; 
the Scott-Thresher Hospital for men and women; the grammar 
school; and eight mission residences. Due to the shrinking of the 
mission staff, reduced financial income, and a general policy in 
China of concentration in theological education, the Ashmore 
Theological Seminary was closed in 1935, students for the min- 
istry being sent to institutions in larger centers such as Canton, 
Nanking or Foochow. The leadership training program in the 
local field is devoting its strength to the holding of lay-workers' 
training institutes through the Convention area. The Hospital has 
recently remodeled and greatly improved its plant. It has built up 
an excellent Chinese staff. 

The Kakchieh schools continued in session until just before the 
military occupation in June of 1939. Then during those fateful 

The South China Mission 

days from 1,000 to 1,500 refugees thronged the compound daily. 
While the school program has been disrupted, the work of the 
hospital and church services have continued without interruption. 
A temporary organization of day-school classes with an enrolment 
of 400 pupils has been set up. Hearts are open to the message of 
the love of Christ as never before. 


Population in field 930,000; missionaries 16; native workers 137; 
churches 24; members 1,729; baptisms 52; schools 25; pupils 
1,890; hospitals i; dispensaries 2; patients 18,894. 


General Work 

K. G. Hobart, Mission Sec. 

Mrs. K. G. Hobart 

Miss Beatrice A. Ericson 
*Miss Dorothy A. Hare 
*Miss Edna D. Smith 
Swatoio Christian Institute 

B. L. Baker 

Mrs. B. L. Baker 
*Miss Enid P. Johnson 
*Fannie Northcott, R.N. 

Woman's Bible Training 


*Miss Elsie Kittlitz 
Scott Thresher Memorial 


*Velva V. Brown, M.D. 
* Marion Bell, R.N. 
Kak Kuang Middle Scl/ool 
R. T. Capen 
Mrs. R. T. Capen 
*Miss Mabelle R. Culley 
*Miss Louise M. Giffin 

Ungkung (Ung-kung) 1892. Ungkung is thirty-five miles north- 
east of Swatow near the coast. Some of its out-station churches are 
on islands that fringe this southern coast line and some lie over 
the Kwangtung border in Fukien province. The mission buildings 
outside the North Gate include a large chapel, school buildings 
from kindergarten up, and a hospital. The city and many of the 
surrounding towns and villages have suffered from intensive 
bombings, but church services are held, schools and hospital con- 
tinue to function. A temporary middle school has been opened to 
care for students in Ungkung with an enrollment of over 80. A 
Woman's School with an enrollment of about 30 is doing good 
work. The missionary here has a large rural field to look after, 
as well as the work at Chaochowfu. 

196 All Kindreds and Tongues 


Population in field 1,300,000; missionaries 2; native workers 39; 
churches 18; members 645; baptisms 13; schools 8; pupils 295; 
hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 2,093. 


B. H. Luebeck 

Mrs. B. H. Luebeck, R.N., Supt. of Hospital 


Take Thou the burden, Lord; 
I am exhausted with this heavy load. 
My tired hands tremble, 
And I stumble, stumble 

Along the way. 
Oh, lead with Thine unfailing arm 

Again today. 

Unless Thou lead me, Lord, 
The road I journey on is all too hard. 
Through trust in Thee alone 
Can I go on. 

Songs from the Slums Kagawa 

The East China Mission 

rr-iHE East China Mission was opened in Ningpo in November, 
JL 1843, with the arrival of Dr. D. J. Macgowan. His medical 
skill overcame the natural reluctance of the citizens to have any 
dealings with the foreigner, and soon a suitable building was 
rented arid in a very humble way "the Ningpo Medical Missionary 
Hospital" was established. In October 1847 four missionaries set 
their names to the articles and covenant which had been prepared, 
thus organizing the first Baptist church in East China, the first 
Chinese member being added by baptism three weeks later. Grad- 
ually, as Providence opened the way, four other permanent centers 
of work were opened, business offices were established in Shanghai 
for the Mission Treasurer and the Mission Secretary. In co- 
operation with the Southern Baptist Convention, Shanghai College 
was established, and in co-operation with other missions an impor- 
tant share was taken in the agricultural department of the Uni- 
versity of Nanking. Thus five cities in Chekiang and two in 
Kiangsu provinces mark the geographical boundaries of the 

More important than geographical extension has been the in- 
tensive development of the infant church. On December 22, 1873, 
while the total membership of the six constituent churches was 
only 205, a Convention was organized which has met annually 
and through its officers and committees has gradually assumed 
more and more responsibility for all forms of Christian work 
within its area. Since 1928 it has been wholly responsible for the 
work, the organized mission playing only an advisory role. A 
Home Mission Society has been organized, entirely supported and 
directed by the young, growing church, and working on the 
western edge of the East China field. 

Chekiang and Kiangsu are often spoken of as the garden areas 
of the country. The soil is fertile, the climate bracing, the harbors 
and waterways abundant. The people are industrious, ambitious, 
and prosperous, noted for their interest in and contributions to 
literature and the arts as well as for their supremacy in trade. 
Shanghai is the industrial and commercial metropolis of the whole 


198 All Kindreds and Tongues 

country. In East China, too, has been the educational center of 
the new learning, in the arts, medicine, law, music, engineering, 
and allied subjects. And here, for almost a century the growing 
Chinese Baptist church has been making, together with other 
Christian groups, a notable contribution toward the development 

Twins in a Chinese Mission Hospital. 

of an intelligent and progressive leadership for the Chinese people, 
as well as for the Christian church. 

Since August 1937 all this area has been under the heavy cloud 
of war, one third of it penetrated by Japanese armies. Universities 
arid secondary schools have been compelled to abandon their 
campuses and equipment but have bravely managed to carry on, 
and that, too, with hardly a drop in their enrolment. Hospitals, 
in spite of bombings and the greatest difficulty in securing supplies, 
have continued and greatly enlarged their services to their com- 
munities; and churches, though they have often been obliged 
to hold their public services at night, have ministered as never 
before to the spiritual and physical needs of those about them, 
food and playgrounds for hungry and homeless children, work for 
the unemployed, refuges for women and girls, and for all a word 

The East China Mission 199 

o cheer and hope. Such a Christlike service of faith and love could 
not fail to create unimagined opportunities for still further serv- 
ice, nor can we be surprised to learn that "the whole mind of 
China has been turned toward the Christians as those who have 
a faith to guide them and a power to support them through these 
tragic days." 

Statistics for East China* 


fA. B. F. M. S ....................... ......... 30 

f W.-A. B. F. M. S ........... ................ 19 

Chinese Workers .............................. 596 

Churches .......................... ........... 36 

Church Members ............................... 3.925 

Baptisms .............. .......... ............. 410 

Schools ........ . . . ............................ 43 

Pupils .............. . ....................... 8,291 

Hospitals ...................... ............... 3 

Dispensaries .......... .......... ............ 3 

Patients ......................... ... .......... 4Q, 

iy-' * 

* From 1939 Annual Report. 
f Staff 

Hangchow (H&ng-chou) 1889. Hangchow, the capital of 
Chekiang province, was, before the war, a city of about 400,000 
population. Here Northern Baptists have two fine institutions for 
the training of the young. Wayland Academy is the only complete 
Christian high school for boys within the city and includes also 
a co-educational school for the lower grades, considered one of 
the model schools for the province. The Hangchow Union Girls' 
High School, supported by our Woman's Society in co-operation 
with the two Presbyterian societies, is the largest mission school 
for girls in the province and includes a normal and kindergarten 
training department. Here too are the headquarters of the 
Chekiang-Shanghai Baptist Convention. When the city was in- 
vaded by the Japanese army in December 1937 these schools were 
forced to move to Shanghai where they have carried on, but the 
campuses were used as refuges for women and girls, especially the 
Wayland campus, where as many as three thousand frightened 
and helpless inmates were given shelter and food until it was safe 

soo All Kindreds and Tongues 

for them to return to their homes. The churches both in the city 
and the suburbs have continued, though against heavy odds, to 
minister to the needs of those around, in ways old and new. 


Population in city 1,000,000; missionaries 4; native workers 95; 
churches 3; members 383; schools 6; pupils 1,617. 


A. I. Nasmith E. H. Clayton 

Mrs. A. I. Nasmith Mrs. E. H. Clayton 

Huchow (Hoo'-chou) 1888. Huchow, near the Great Lake in 
the northern part of Chekiang province, is approachable on all 
sides by water. It is in the heart of a section which leads the world 
in the production of both tea and rice. This city was swept by the 
Japanese forces on their march from Shanghai to Nanking and 
Hangchow. A small amount of the mission property was destroyed, 
and for several months work was almost at a standstill. Medical 
and religious workers have been returned, but the schools have 
made arrangements to carry on elsewhere. Chief among these is 
the Memorial School of Mothercraft, supported by the Woman's 
Society, which gives an opportunity for married women to attend 
a boarding school with their little children. This school has pio^ 
neered in providing a new type of education designed to meet 
the peculiar needs of the Chinese young woman of today, in train- 

ildren in Refugee Camp, Shanghai. 

,&. ^H&k, 
f^ yps^ 

*SS5f x&wjMsra 

The East China Mission 201 

ing for home and family life. It is now being conducted in Shang- 
hai, and in that strategic location bids fair to gain an even wider 
recognition from Christian forces all over the nation. 


Population in field 2,000,000; native workers 37; churches 8; 
members 603; schools 4; pupils 274. 

Kinhwa (Kin-wha) 1883. Kinhwa, originally the most inacces- 
sible of our mission stations, when it was seven days' journey from 
Ningpo, now gives prospect of becoming one of our most impor- 
tant, as it is on the railway recently completed connecting Shang- 
hai with Nanchang and Changsha and points farther west and 
south. Through the generosity of American friends a fine church 
building and a hospital plant, the Pickford Memorial Hospital, 
have been provided, and most happy relations exist between the 
leaders of our Christian work and the gentry and officials of the 
city. The changes due to the war have made it the present capital 
of the province and have greatly increased the strategic impor- 
tance of our work there. When peace comes we may confidently 
expect an era of expanding significance and prosperity for this 
region. Chinese responsibility for the conduct of the work has 
long been emphasized. 


Missionaries 4; native workers 55; churches 5; members 460; 
schools 4; pupils 847; hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 13,993. 


J. P. Davies Pickford Memorial Hospital 

Mrs. J. P. Davies *Esther I. Salzman, R.N. 

Cheng Mei Girls' School 
*Miss Linnea A. Nelson . 

Nanking (Nan-king) 1911. In Nanking, the national capital, 
many missionary societies are at work in happy co-operation. A 
Union Church Council has been formed with a view to correlating 
the work of all the Christian forces, and the University of Nanking 
is an outstanding example of the benefits of united Christian 
activity. Here four denominations are pooling their resources to 
help meet China's educational need. Our Baptist contribution to 
this school is in the College of Agriculture and Forestry, a pioneer 

2O2 All Kindreds and Tongues 

in China in its specifically rural interest. It has demonstrated the 
application of Christian principles to rural life throughout the 
nation. Ginling College for women, another cooperative enterprise 
in which the Woman's Society is active, is the foremost Christian 

War? Yet Children Laugh. 

college exclusively for women in all China. Both schools, when 
Japanese invasion threatened, made the long trek to Chengtu with 
faculty, students and some equipment. In the horrors that followed 
the fall of Nanking both campuses furnished refuge to thousands 
and have continued to be centers of relief and rehabilitation. 

University of Nanking-College of Agriculture and Forestry 
(Temporarily at Chengtu, West China) 

B. A. Slocum 

Mrs. B. A. Slocum 

The East China Mission 203 

Ningpo (Ning-po) 1843. Ningpo is the oldest Baptist mission 
station on the mainland of China, and here in October 1847 the 
first Baptist church in East China was organized. Here was estab- 
lished a school for girls which now, as Riverside Academy, is a 
union institution supported by Presbyterians, English Methodists 
and Baptists. This school continues in direct descent that founded 
by Miss Aldersey, the first school for girls in all China. Here, too, 
was established our first school for boys, which some years ago 
united with similar schools founded by Presbyterians and English 
Methodists to form the Riverbend Christian Middle School, a 
significant exponent of international as well as interdenomina- 
tional co-operation. In the Hwa Mei Hospital, one of the best- 
equipped mission hospitals in the East, we have. an outstanding 
witness to the wide influence of Christian medical work upon the 
community at large, as more than half the cost of the new plant 
for this old institution was subscribed by its non-Christian friends. 
The work of this hospital, already outstanding, has in days of 
bombing attacks, won an even more notable place in the com- 
munity. The station program as a whole, though modified by the 
war, has not been interrupted. 


Population in field 4,000,000; missionaries 9; native workers 
191; churches 10; members 1,037; schools 13; pupils 2,214; 
hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 24,629. 


Riverbend Christian Middle Riverside Academy 

School *Miss Florence Webster 

H. R. S. Benjamin 
Mrs. H. R. S. Benjamin Sing-mo and Mo-nyi Schools 

Hwa Mei Hospital * Miss Mar Y Cresse y 

Harold Thomas, M.D. 

Mrs. Harold Thomas Religious Education Work 

*Willie P. Harris, R.N. * Mlss M "dred Proctor 

* Myrtle Whited, R.N. 

Shanghai (Shang-hi) 1907. Shanghai is recognized as the most 
important trade center of the Far East. It is truly the Gateway of 
China. Through it passes a large portion of the world's trade with 
China. It is one of the six leading ports of the world and shares 

204 All Kindreds and Tongues 

with Tokyo the distinction of being considered the most impor- 
tant cities in the Orient. In this city are found a large number of 
missions as well as interdenominational organizations serving the 
whole Christian constituency of China. Here are located head- 
quarters for the Associated Mission Treasurers, of which the 
Baptist Mission Treasurer, serving all three missions in China, is 
a constituent member. Here, too, is the office of the Mission Secre- 
tary of the East China Mission. 

On the outskirts of the city, in 1916, was founded Shanghai 
College (now the University of Shanghai) built and supported 
jointly by Northern and Southern Baptists. Its progressive spirit 
(it was, for example, the first college in China to adopt co- 
education) and its dominating Christian emphasis, soon placed it 
in the rank of the first five or six of the thirteen missionary 
colleges in China. It has suffered severely in the war. Immediately 
upon the outbreak of hostilities in Shanghai in August 1937 tne 
campus and its buildings were occupied by the Japanese military 
and for more than a year its owners were not allowed even to 
inspect the property. Bereft of campus, dormitories, lecture halls, 
and equipment, faculty and students, under the leadership of the 
late President Herman C. E. Liu, it courageously carried on in 
rented quarters in the International Settlement. Nor has the enrol- 
ment suffered any appreciable loss. Of such stuff is the New China 

The largest hospital for women and children in China, the 
Margaret Williamson Hospital, founded many years ago, has in 
recent years been made the nucleus around which the Woman's 
Christian Medical College has been formed. This college, work- 
ing in close co-operation with the medical department of St. John's 
University, is preparing young women under Christian auspices 
to give the best aid that is known to modern medicine in the alle- 
viation and cure of the ills of Chinese women and children. In 
this unique service, so greatly needed in the China of today, the 
Baptist women of America have a worthy share. 

Most of the Baptist churches of Shanghai were founded by 
Southern Baptist missionaries, but there are two of later origin 
associated with our Chekiang-Shanghai Convention, the college 
church consisting of the Christian members of the faculty and 
student body, and the North Shanghai Baptist Church. Organized 

The East China Mission 


originally to give a church home to those Baptists who were mov- 
ing to Shanghai from other areas within the Convention and 
particularly to the increasing number of Christian students who 
were coming from our college and elsewhere to live in Shanghai, it 
has performed notable service. In 1932 and again in 1937 its build- 
ings suffered irremediable loss from the Japanese invasions. 
Though sadly crippled it is loyally carrying on, and indeed has 
made real progress in spite of the difficulties. When peace is re- 
established it will be ready to continue to bear witness to the Light 
of the World in this great metropolis of the East. War conditions 
in Shanghai have afforded new opportunities for Christian service. 


Missionaries 24; native workers 147; churches 2; members 359; 
schools 10; pupils 2,581. 

E. H. Cressy, Secretary, China 

Christian Ed. Asso. 
Mrs. E. H. Cressy 
E. S. Burket 
Mrs. E. S. Burket 
L. C. Hylbert, Mission Sec. 
Mrs. L. C. Hylbert 
W. R. Taylor, Mission Treas. 
Mrs. W. R. Taylor 
Miss Lea Blanche Edgar 
*Miss Orma A. Melton 
Stephen J. Goddard 
Mrs. Stephen J. Goddard 
(language study, Peiping) 

Woman's Union Medical 


*Josephine Lawney, M.D. 
*Hazel Taylor, R.N. 
University of Shanghai 
S. S. Beath 
Mrs. S. S. Beath 
Victor Hanson 
Mrs. Victor Hanson 
*Miss Ruth H. Bugbee 
*Miss Elizabeth Knabe 
Miss Annie E. Root 

Memorial Mothercraft School 
*Miss Mary I. Jones 
*Miss Ruth Mather 
*Miss Gertrude M. Waterman 

Shaohing (Shou-sing) 1869. Shaohing, a city of wealth and cul- 
ture, lies at the center of a well-watered and exceedingly fertile 
plain. Its many canals have given it the name "the Venice of 
China." The city is a strong Buddhist center with eight monas- 

2oG All Kindreds and Tongues 

teries and many temples. Silk weaving and the manufacture of 
spirit-money and wine are among the principal industries. Chris- 
tian work has had a slow but steady growth. The Christian 
Hospital has introduced the benefits of modern medicine and 
surgery to this large and needy district, and has been a splendid 
evangelizing agency. The industrial work instituted so many years 

Dr. Helen Shuai, Staff Doctor, Christian Hospital, Shaohing. 

by the late Miss Marie Bowling has given employment to 
hundreds of Christian women formerly compelled to earn their 
way by the manufacture of spirit money. A coeducational junior 
middle school for boys and girls is conducted by University of 
Shanghai graduates. A school for married women and their chil- 
dren, and two six-year elementary schools are also maintained. All 
the work heads up in the city church, one of the best in China 
among all denominations. A University of Shanghai graduate is 
the pastor, ably assisted by an associate pastor and two Bible 

For two years and more Shaohing has been but thirty miles from 
the Japanese line of invasion, which halted at Hangchow. There 
have been several encounters between Japanese and Chinese 

The East China Mission 


troops, and air raids with their toll of death, injury, and fear have 
been frequent. The routine of life in the city has been upset, but 
the whole ministry of the church has been not curtailed but rather 
multiplied. Schools and the hospital have had greatly increased 
attendances due to the influx of refugees from "occupied" areas, 
such as Hangchow and other nearby Chekiang and Kiangsu cities. 
Public worship has been maintained though often only at night 
for fear of air raids by day. And the Lord has continued to add 
to the church such as were being saved. 


Population in city 300,000; missionaries 8; native workers 71; 
churches 8; members 1,083; schools 6; pupils 758; hospitals i: 
dispensaries i; patients 11,366. 


A. F. Ufford T/ie Christian Hospital 

Mrs. A. F. Ufford R. E. Stannard, M.D. 

*Miss Viola C. Hill Mrs. R. E. Stannard 

* Mildred L. Bowers, R.N. 

Christian Co-operative School 
*Miss Gertrude F. McCulloch 
*Miss Ellen J. Peterson 

Watting for the Doctor 

The West China Mission 

THE West China Mission lies largely in the province of Szechuen, 
the largest province in China as to area and the richest as to 
natural resources. Before the great migration from the east the 
population in this province alone was about 60,000,000. Boundary 
lines have been changed recently and the western section of the 
province is now included in the new province of Sikang. One sta- 
tion, Yaan (Yachow) is now the capital of the latter province. 

The first Baptist missionaries to West China, Upcraft and 
Warner, arrived at Suifu early in the year 1890, after the long 
journey from the coast, the first one thousand miles being easily 
made by river steamers, but the last eight hundred miles taking 
several weeks of travel by native junks pulled up through the 
gorges and rapids of the mighty Yangtze by man-power. In 1903, 
it took a party of missionaries eight weeks to get from Shanghai 
to Chengtu now it takes eight hours by air under normal condi- 
tions. The Shanghai newspapers used to take three weeks to reach 
the capital of Szechuen, now they may arrive by air on the evening 
of the day they are published. Steamers have been put on the 
Ichaiig-Chungking section of the Yangtze river, motor roads have 
been built and buses and automobiles were imported, with the 
result that our mission stations, which had been on the average, 
four days apart, are brought within a day of each other. Now 
"wings over Szechuen" have become commonplace. 

General Chiang Kai Shek, in 1935, ordered a radio station built 
and equipped just outside the South Gate of the city of Chengtu. 
The staff of the West China Union University was invited to 
broadcast twice a week, once in Chinese and once in English. 
When the Japanese blockaded the ports on the eastern coast of 
China, travellers went south to Haiphong and entered Szechuen 
by the Inclo-China route. The new motor road from Kunming in 
Yunnan to Lashio in Burma is a side-door entry to the southwest. 
There has been a tremendous impetus in road building in every 
direction, and other roads stretch away over mountain and desert 
t:o Soviet Russia. Several railways are being constructed. Szechuen 
is losing its provincialism. This province, up near the Tibetan 


The West China Mission 


border, is giving a lead to the rest of that subcontinent known as 
China. New industries formerly confined to regions nearer the 
coast are springing up everywhere. Szechuen has also become the 
new life center of China's government and culture. 

If the saying "As goes Szechuen, so goes China" has any real 
meaning it is of tremendous significance to China, to Japan and 
to the rest of Asia. Szechuen is responding to the Christian mes- 
sage and impact as never before. She was on the way before 1931 
but the pace was distressingly slow. The infant churches within 
her borders were weak, Christian schools and hospitals were few in 

(a) Gorge of Ya River, West China. 

b) Yaan (Yachow) Bap- 
tist Church. 

2io All Kindreds and Tongues 

number. In 1936, there were 375 students in West China Union 
University now there are 1,250 in Christian universities grouped 
at Chengtu. Whence this multiplication? From all parts of China 
they have come, Christian schools from North and West China; 
teachers and students; doctors and nurses from Christian hospitals; 
students from Christian and government colleges and universities; 
pastors from Christian churches. They have been accompanied by 
the cream of the intelligentsia from all China, Christian and non- 

With such possessions and equipment as they could carry, they 
set out for far Szechuen, one of the greatest hegiras in the history 
of the human race. Some went by boat, some by chair, but most 
on foot. Thousands of these wanderers fell out by the way, unable 
to tramp farther; others stopped off in mid-China, only to have 
to resume the trek when the Japanese forces took Hankow. But 
tens of thousands kept on until they were west of the Yangtze 
gorges and the Magic Mountains, where their weary feet might 
rest and they might find some kind of a home. 

These refugees are finding places of usefulness in the Christian 
and other institutions in West China. Some of them have found 
positions at the West China Union University. Some of them 
have gone into the hospitals and clinics in Christian centers; many 
of them have taken positions under the National Government; 
under the Department of Public Health, and the Agricultural 
Department many are busily engaged in Rural Reconstruction. 

The "invasion" of West China has brought the ferment of 
new ideas and a great impetus to progress of all sorts. The New 
Life Movement, a government program, is promoting mass educa- 
tion, hygiene teaching, industrial cooperative organization and 
improved agricultural methods. Christian missionaries and govern- 
ment leaders work together through school and church activities, 
and in various reconstruction projects. Many of the leaders of the 
new government projects are Christians, trained in Christian 
schools, coming from the eastern part of China. Now, because of 
the foresight of missionary pioneers, there is a capable body of 
young leaders, fired with the sacrificial spirit which Christianity 
begets, ready to help in all progressive and humanitarian service. 
This is indeed a significant hour for Northern Baptists. China calls 
anew for help. 

The West China Mission 2 1 1 

A recent issue of Asia reports: "The Chinese government, 
despite the war, is engaged in a campaign to make every Chinese 
literate by 1946. Compulsory, short-term, mass education classes 
are now being held in the ten free provinces of China." 

West China Statistics* 

Missionaries: West 

j-A. B. F. M. S 24 

fW. A. B. F. M. S 13 

Chinese Workers 173 

Churches 5 

Church Members 3>93 

Baptisms 83 

Schools 27 

Pupils 2,993 

Hospitals 3 

Dispensaries 4 

Patients 29,471 

* From 1939 Annual Report. 
f Staff 1940. 

Chengtu (Cheng-too') 1909. The historic city of Chengtu, capi- 
tal of Szechuen is fast becoming a modern city. Always crowded, 
since the war its streets have been thronged with tens of thousands 
who have come westward to start life anew. Northern Baptists 
cooperate in the West China Union University where four guest 
universities have been welcomed from war-torn areas, including 
Nanking University and Ginling College for Women. This great 
influx of some of the best life from other parts of the country has 
given impetus to new activities. The magnificent campus of 150 
acres has over 50 permanent buildings and many temporary ones. 

The West China Union University has had a staff of missionary 
teachers relatively larger than other comparable institutions, be- 
cause of the pioneer stage of the work in the West. Always busy, the 
influx from the coast has multiplied their tasks. Their activities as 
hosts have been without number, in making room for the new- 
comers, and adjusting the work of the Union University itself 
to the new conditions. Baptist missionaries have been especially 
active in promoting and leading extra-class groups for studying 

212 All Kindreds and Tongues 

the life and teachings of Jesus which have proven very popular. 
They have also been to the fore in projecting and supporting the 
weekly English church service, as well as the Sunday afternoon 
vespers on the campus. Some of them have been active in literary 
work. Mr. Moncrieff, in addition to heading up the Department 
of English, finds time to direct a Language School for new mis- 
sionaries. Chengtu has become the largest center of medical educa- 

Five Universities Represented, Chengtu. (Center) Professor Slocum of 

Nanking University. 

tion in China. The Doctors Lenox teach there and also work in 
the newly organized Union Hospital, which has coordinated under 
a single management the three previously existing mission hos- 
pitals in the city. 

The dream of a Union Theological College for the major de- 
nominations working in Szechuen has at last become a reality. It 
is now cooperating with the Nanking Theological Seminary, a 
guest institution. Here new leaders are being prepared to fill the 
call for Christian workers in town and country. Baptist mission- 
aries, among others, aid in the teaching in this school. The rural 
extension service under the leaders of the staff of Nanking Theo- 

The West China Mission 213 

logical Seminary has been a new venture of major importance. 
From a church work standpoint Chengtu has had major atten- 
tion from other denominations while our work in this center has 
been more especially in the University. Under able Chinese lead- 
ership our city church has gone forward. It is ministering to the 
whole neighborhood, as well as serving a large student group. Here, 
too, the Sunday afternoon worship service in English is held for 
Chinese and others who wish an English service. 


Population in field 3,000,000; missionaries 15; native workers 18; 
churches i; members 338; baptisms 10; schools 8; pupils 607. 


General Work . J. S. Kennard 

*Mrs. Anna M. Salquist, Mrs. J. S. Kennard 

Mission Secretary J. E. Lenox, M.D. 

West China Union University Mrs - J- E - Lenox, M.D. 

J. E. Moncrieff D - C - Graham 

Mrs. J. E. Moncrieff Mrs - D - C - Graham 

jj L Phelps *Miss Sarah B. Downer 

Mrs. D. L. Phelps Evangelistic Work 

D. S. Dye, B.S. *Miss Minnie M. Arget- 

Mrs. D. S. Dye singer 

Kiating (Ja-ding) 1894. Kiating, a city of about 100,000 people, 
suffered severe bombing in which the center of the city was com- 
pletely burned. The Baptist church located at one side of the city, 
was little damaged and has served as a refuge to many homeless 
and wounded. Our missionaries, working with those of the United 
Church of Canada, did extraordinarily effective relief work at that 
time. Later a severe fire destroyed the remainder of the business 
section but the church and mission homes were spared. A chal- 
lenging rural work is to be found in districts about the city. 

Wuhan University, a government institution, in the early days 
of the war, moved to Kiating. There have been new and challeng- 
ing opportunities for work with students. Shelter for refugee chil- 
dren passing through the city has been given by the church. Chris- 
tian workers have cooperated with leaders of these groups in 
serving children from war areas. 

214 All Kindreds and Tongues 


Population in field, 1,000,000; missionaries 3; native workers 
15; churches i; church members 777; schools 3; pupils 194. 


*Miss Beulah E. Bassett 
M. O. Brininstool 
Mrs. M. O. Brininstool 

Suifu (Swa-foo) 1889. Suifu, our oldest station in West China, is 
located in the southern part of Szechuen province at the junction 
of the Yangtze and Min rivers about 1,800 miles from Shanghai. 
There are 12 outstations which constitute our most promising rural 
field in West China. (The new name for Suifu is Jpin.) 

Munroe Academy, on a hillside across the river from the city, 
has been able to carry on in its own buildings, filled and over- 
crowded. The Girls' Middle School because of the danger of air 

Pastor, Dean and Senior Member, Suifu Baptist Church. 

The West China Mission 215 

raids has been compelled to move to a location outside of the city. 
There two hundred girls with their teachers have primitive but 
fairly comfortable quarters in a temple and a farm house. 

The Herman Liu Memorial Home, for war orphans, received its 
first little ones in 1938. This Home, a memorial to the late presi- 
dent of Shanghai University, is part of the great national program 
to conserve the multitudes of China's children made homeless by 
the war. 

The Suifu Men's Hospital and the Hospital for Women and 
Children, with splendid plants, cooperate and supplement each 
other, serving hundreds of patients daily. The annual outstation 
vaccination campaign and city clinic work continues to spread 
healing to body and soul. These hospitals of late have enjoyed 
unusual recognition on the part of the community for the ex- 
cellence and indispensability of their work. High on a hill beyond 
the hospital several age-old temples have been fitted by govern- 
ment to receive wounded soldiers. Christian nurses assist in the 
work among the suffering there. 

An English language service has been welcomed by many highly 
trained refugees from down river. 


Population in field 3,000,000; missionaries 10; native workers 78; 
churches 2; church members 1,088; baptisms 63; schools 7; pupils 
1,173; hospitals 2; dispensaries 3; patients 15,396. 


General Work Hospital for Men 

J. C. Jensen C. E. Tompkins, M.D. 

Mrs. J. C. Jensen Mrs. C. E. Tompkins 

Girls' Senior Middle School *Myrtle C. Denison, R.N. 

*Miss Lettie Archer Hospital for Women and 

*Miss Astrid Peterson Children 

*Esther Nelson, R.N. *Marion I. Criswell, M.D. 

*L. Jennie Crawford, R.N. 

Yaan (Ya-ngan) (Formerly Yachow) 1894. Yaan, now located 
in the new province of Sikang, belongs geographically to Szechuen 
being just outside the high pass on the road to Tibet, but politi- 
cally it acts as the capital city for the new province. Two years 
ago there was not a bank in the city, and now eight banks line 

216 All Kindreds and Tongues 

the main street. Other types of business are increasing as the 
Government is seeking to open up the country beyond the moun- 

The Boys' Middle School, just outside the city on a beautiful 
hillside overlooking the river, is crowded. The Girls' School has 
been host to girls of distant provinces from a Government war- 
refugee camp. The Bible School has a simple but beautiful little 
plant on the same hill as the Boys' School. It has done much to 
supply the leadership needed by the churches, and to fill the gap 
left because the Boys' Middle School does not offer senior high 
school work. 

The Briton Corlies Memorial Hospital has a fine staff of Chinese 
nurses and in war time has rendered notable service. The church 
is going forward under enthusiastic Chinese leadership. The de- 
cline in the missionary staff has led to unavoidable neglect of the 
country field, but several very active Chinese evangelists have 
helped to fill the breach. With the new importance of the district 
and the city, re-enforcements are badly needed. 


Population in field 1,000,000; missionaries 9; native workers 62; 
churches i; church membership 890; schools 9; pupils 1,019; 
hospital i; dispensary i; patients 14,075. 


F. N. Smith Briton Corlies Memorial Hos- 

Mrs. F. N. Smith pital 

C. G. Vichert R. L. Crook, M.D. 

Mrs. C. G. Vichert Mrs. R. L. Crook 

*Frances J. Therolf, R.N. 
Baptist Girls' School 

*Miss L. Emma Brodbeck 

*Miss Ada L. Nelson 

The Japan Mission 

WITHIN the memory of living men Japan has made such rapid 
strides along material and cultural lines that she has aston- 
ished the world. During this brief period of time Japan did away 
with feudalism, established constitutional government, inaugu- 
rated a universal and compulsory public school system, developed 
railways, a postal and telegraph system, built factories, modern 
cities, a navy and an army, and secured recognition as one of the 
great nations of the world. No people ever made a more brilliant 
record of sheer achievement in so short a time. 

No nation can go forward at the rate at which Japan has been 
going during the past eighty years and not develop growing pains. 
A nation as virile and forward moving as she is, is bound to find her 
way beset with problems and difficulties. The area of Japan proper 
is less than the state of California, and 85% of it is mountainous 
and non-arable. Her population is 70,000,000 and the birth rate 
is increasing at the rate of a million a year. 

In her spiritual outlook as well great changes have come. Facing 
the challenge of the Christian message and program and in- 
fluenced by the rising tide of nationalism, Shintoism and Bud- 
dhism, her two national religions, are in the midst of an internal 
awakening and are making renewed and aggressive claims on the 
loyalty of old and young. The youth of Japan, however, is spiritu- 
ally confused and religiously adrift. Among the people as a whole 
there is a restless mood and a yearning for the deeper things of life. 
Never was the Christian faith needed so much as it is in the new 
and modern, Japan so swiftly emerging. The coming of peace in 
East Asia will only intensify the need, and enhance the Christian 

Baptists were slow in entering Japan, although a Baptist, Jona- 
than Goble, sailed with the Perry Expedition as a marine and 
entered the land for mission work as early as 1860. When the 
American Baptist Foreign Mission Society definitely entered the 
field in 1873 Rev. Nathan Brown and Mr. and Mrs. Goble became 
our first representatives. In 1875 Miss A. H. Kidder and Miss C. A. 
Sands sailed for service in Japan. 


2 1 8 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Many Baptists in Japan have long felt that the division of 
Baptists into the two conventions originally founded by the 
Southern and Northern Baptists of the U.S.A. was unfortunate 
and uncalled for. Recently this feeling issued in a movement look- 
ing toward a union of the two. This union has now been con- 
summated and the Mason and Dixon Line no longer mars the 
Baptist landscape in that empire. Japanese Baptists have united 

Tor it at Mujajima. 

their forces, built an unbroken front and are moving forward as 
a unit in their manifold activities. The name of the new union is 
Nippon Baputesuto Kirisuto Kyodan. 

The work of Baptists, both groups, has progressed and has 
yielded real results. There are now over 7500 church members, and 
this number does not include many who are vitally interested in 
the Christian religion but have not yet formally joined a Christian 
church. Baptists are working not only in the country districts but 
also in the rapidly growing cities with their great industrial centers 
and problems. 

The Japan Mission 219 

The great goal of the missionaries has been the creation of an 
indigenous leadership, that Japan may be evangelized by Japanese. 
To attain this goal education under Christian auspices is necessary. 
From the age of six until twelve all children attend the government 
schools, giving Japan a literacy percentage of 99.7%. Among the 
millions of boys and girls in the elementary schools, many receive 
no higher education after the six years of compulsory schooling. 
So the Mabie Memorial School for boys and the schools for girls 
at Yokohama, Himeji and Sendai are a great evangelizing force, 
and can compete with the government schools through their 
superior courses in English and music, and, most of all, their Chris- 
tian emphasis and the Christian character of their students. 

One of the most striking educational developments is the kinder- 
garten. The first Baptist kindergarten in Japan was opened in 
Kobe in 1894. Today there are 442 Christian kindergartens, with 
a total enrollment of 22,000. Even the government officials 
recognize that there is a power in the Christian kindergarten which 
their kindergartens lack. 

Christian dormitories are also effective evangelizing agencies. 
Of these, Baptists have five. The Christian spirit as it affects life 
in the dormitory brings results long after the time of residence. 
In the seven night schools the church makes friends with many 
whom it would not otherwise know. 

One of the results of the union of Northern and Southern 
Baptists in Japan has been the decision to organize a Union 
Baptist Theological Seminary. This seminary will utilize the plant 
and facilities of the Baptist House in Tokyo and will train pastors, 
evangelists and probably Bible Women for the entire Baptist field 
in Japan. 

In a land where everyone can and does read, the importance of 
Christian books and papers cannot be overestimated. The printed 
page enters gateways inaccessible to Japanese pastors and mis- 
sionaries. Non-Christian books are entering Japan in great 
quantity. It is for Christians to determine the proportion of 
Christian literature that shall go into the homes of the Japanese. 

Poems by Lepers of the Inland Sea, Japan 

To the heart aglow for Thee 
The Valley of the Shadow 
Is like sunrise on the sea! 


The year 

An uncut jewel is, 
Of matchless worth; 
Bringing along with it 
New heaven and earth; 
I long to dwell with God, 
Oh, through this year, 
Blessed with His blessing 
May I live 
A life of prayer! 


God planned 
The little grain of sand 
I hold upon my hand, 
And so it need not be 
Hard for my faith to see 
He plans for me! 


Let us be patient for the little while 
That cold winds blow, 
Waiting the springtime 
When along the hills 
Azaleas glow! 


From Hearts Aglow. Used by permission American Mission to Lepers 

The Japan Mission 221 

Japan Statistics* 

fA. B. F. M. S 17 

fW. A. B. F. M. S 7 

Japanese Workers 311 

Churches 39 

Church Members 4, 1O 7 

Baptisms 142 

Schools 56 

Pupils 5,589 

Hospitals ; 

Dispensaries i 

Patients 17,480 

* From 1939 Annual Report. 
f Staff 1940. 

Himeji (Hfma-ji) 1886. In the southern part of Japan near the 
Inland Sea is the old castle town of Himeji. At the foot of the 
ancient and picturesque castle, modern barracks testify to Japan's 
military progress. Round about, the city is replacing many of its 

New Church, Miyan&ura, Inland Sea. 

222 All Kindreds and Tongues 

three-hundred-year-old mud-walled, thatch-roofed houses with 
modern factories and even modern slums. The roar of the ma- 
chines and the chug of the gas engines are breaking the accustomed 
quiet. In this ancient city where the old and the new vie for 
prominence is located the Hinomoto Girls' School established in 
1892. The Himeji church is financially independent and aggres- 
sively evangelistic. To the north some promising new rural church 
projects are under way. 


Population in field 1,500,000; missionaries 3; native workers 22; 
churches 2; members 215; baptisms 16; schools 2; pupils 358. 


W. F. Topping Hinomoto Girls' School 

Mrs. W. F. Topping *Miss Goldie M. Nicholson 

Inland Sea 1899. In the heart of Japan, reaching from Kobe 
on the north to Shimonoseki on the south, is a group of six beauti- 
ful seas. Together they are properly known as the Inland Sea. 
There are more than 300 islands with high mountain ranges, quiet 
beaches and quaint villages. Its waters are covered with fishing 
craft of every kind. On the islands live 1,500,000 people people 
rapidly coming under the influence of the progress that has trans- 
formed the rest of Japan. The Fukuin Maru, the Gospel Ship, 
sailed these seas for many years. Today five growing churches stand 
as a memorial to the work of Capt. Luke Bickel and other Chris- 
tian leaders in this area. At present this field is cared for by a corps 
of Japanese workers. 


Population in field 1,500,000; native workers 17; churches 5; 
members 217; schools 6; pupils 235. 

Kuji (Ko-ji) 1938. In this station, which Kagawa referred to as 
the neediest area in all Japan, Miss Thomasine Allen and Miss 
Kuni Obara began work in 1938. In December 1939 was completed 
the building which is to be the center for Christian work for 
women and children of Kuji and 22 surrounding places. She 
writes, "So far as I know, Miss Obara and I are the only Christians 
in a population of 90,000 throughout the country. We have made 
contacts with several villages and plan to open nurseries. Country 

The Japan Mission 223 

day nurseries are very necessary, for the women as well as the men 
work all day in the fields, and there is no one to look after the 


Population in field 90,000; missionaries i; native workers 3. 


*Miss Thomasine Allen 

Morioka (M6-ri-o'-ka) 1887. One hundred and twenty miles 
north of Sendai is the city of Morioka, an important educational 
center. The work centers about five churches and three chapels 
and several kindergartens. 


Population in field 1,000,000; native workers 6; churches 5; 
members 453; baptisms 10; schools 5; pupils 163. 

Osaka (Oh'sa-ka) 1892. Osaka lies on the delta of the Yoda 

Mead Christian Center Kindergarten, Osaka. 

^> wfcw.^ 

224 All Kindreds and Tongues 

River and because of its many canals has been called the Venice 
of Japan. As the second largest city of Japan, with a population 
of 3,500,000, it is a mighty industrial center, modern and progres- 
sive with factories, modern cotton mills, an imperial arsenal and 
a mint, banks, department stores, and large-scale commercial 
buildings. All these new industrial enterprises have brought prob- 
lems which Baptists are helping meet in the Mead Christian Social 
Center with its night schools, Sunday schools, kindergartens and 
playgrounds. Kobe is nearby and the work there is easily accessible 
from Osaka. In both Kobe and Osaka are to be found vigorous, 
self-supporting churches. In Osaka a City Mission Society enlists 
some very able laymen and has done some fine work in presenting 
the Christian message. 


Population in field 2,180,000; missionaries 3; native workers 32; 
churches 7; members 516; baptisms 24; schools 9; pupils 349. 


J. A. Foote Mead Christian Social Center 

Mrs. J. A. Foote *Miss Margaret Cuddeback 

Sendai (Se"n'di) 1882. Sendai is the largest city of North Japan, 
a commercial and educational center of importance. The Ella O. 
Patrick Girls' High School (Shokei Jogakko) is located on a pic- 
turesque campus overlooking the river. Evangelistic work is carried 
on through churches, schools and kindergartens. Near Sendai a 
fine piece of rural work has been done at Rifu. 


Population in field 1,000,000; missionaries 2; native workers 36; 
churches 4; members 480; baptisms 33; schools 5; pupils 579. 


Ella O. Patrick Girls' High School 
*Miss Alice C. Bixby 
*Miss Mary D. Jesse 

Tokyo (To'kyo) 1874. The metropolis of the Orient is Tokyo 
with a population of seven million people. Its eighty-five higher 
and technical schools and its twenty-two universities with 300,000 
students, its 90,000 factories add to its thriving commerce and 
government activities. All major missionary societies are at work 

The Japan Mission 225 

here. Misaki Tabernacle, with its staff of thirty-four, is open day 
and night and tries through direct evangelistic work, social welfare 
activities, and an educational program to minister to all types of 
people. The Fukugawa Christian Center serves an industrial popu- 
lation. Ten churches and two chapels press the evangelistic 
program. Scott Hall and the Hovey Memorial Dormitory, known 
as Waseda Hoshien, are rallying centers for many of the 16,000 
students of Waseda, the government university. The Tokyo Chris- 
tian Woman's College, an interdenominational enterprise, is doing 
fine work in a field largely neglected by the government, higher 
education for young women. The Kindergarten Training School 
and the Starlight Kindergarten are also influential Christian 
agencies. Every missionary home in Tokyo is a center of Bible 
class work, an outstanding feature of the Christian program. 


Population in field 7,000,000; missionaries 9; native workers 76; 
churches 6; members 613; baptisms 13; schools 7; pupils 812. 


General Work Misaki Tabernacle 

M. D. Farnum, Mission William Axling 

Secretary Mrs. William Axling 

Mrs. M. D. Farnum y Woman's Dormitory 

J. F. Gressitt, Mission * Miss Gertrude E. Ryder 

Treasurer J 

Mrs T F Gressitt Waseda University Scott Hall 

H. B. Benninghoff 
Mrs. H. B. Benninghoff 

Yokohama (Yo-ko-ha'ma) 1872. Yokohama looms large in 
Baptist history. It was here that the first Baptist church in Japan 
was organized in 1873. Although the earthquake of 1923 wiped 
out the plants of Baptist institutions of every kind, they have been 
rebuilt. Kanto Gakuin (Mabie College) with its 2000 students 
stands on a hill overlooking the city. A thriving night school for 
apprentices and clerks is conducted by the college. The Mary L. 
Colby Girls' High School (Soshin Jogakko) is located in 
Kanagawa, one of the suburbs of the city, "a light on a hill." 
Kindergartens and Sunday schools are a part of the program of 
this school. 

226 All Kindreds and Tongues 


Population in field 1,500,000; missionaries 6; native workers 97; 
churches 4; members 911; baptisms 26; schools 11; pupils 2524. 


Kanto Gakuin (Mabie Soshin Jogakko (Mary L. 

College) Colby School) 

R. H. Fisher *Miss Winifred Acock 

Mrs. R. H. Fisher 
D. C. Holtom 
Mrs. D. C. Holtom 
Miss Elma R. Tharp 


/ fain would be a sculptor of the soul, 
Making each strong line fine, 

Each feature faultless. 

Yet the sculptor cannot carve 

In wood or stone 

An image nobler than he sees 

Within his own soul. 

So, gazing at the tools within my hand, 

I shudder! How escape from self- 
Pitiable, limited 
That I may be indeed 
God's carver? 
Happy is this thought; 
There is a Guide for me, 
Who in His living flesh 

Has given me the perfect image that I seek, of God! 


The Philippine Islands Mission 

r-pHE Philippine Islands number approximately seven thousand, 
JL although the great majority are no more than uninhabited 
rocks or islets in the ocean. The important islands are Luzon, 
Mindanao, Samar, Mindoro, Negros, Panay, Cebu, Romblon, 
Palawan, and Sulu. Their total area is about 1 14,000 square miles 
or about that of the New England States, New York, and New 

The country is rich in minerals and hardwoods. The principal 
exports are sugar, hemp, copra, tobacco, and gold. The climate is 
hot and moist, although owing to the sea breezes, not unhealthful. 
The average temperature is between 80 and 90 degrees. Rice is 
the staple diet for most of the population, although fruit and 
vegetables are grown extensively and fish furnishes an important 
nutritive balance. 

The Filipinos are of Malay origin, but many are children of 
mixed marriages Chinese, Spanish, and American. The low 
lander majority is predominantly Roman Catholics, with some 
pagan mountain tribes. Protestants number approximately 275,- 
ooo. The recent census gives the total population as 16,000,751. 
For the most part the people of the Philippines are farmers or 
fishermen. Great numbers are employed in the development of 
extensive rice and sugar plantations, but many cultivate small 
holdings on their own account. The manner of living of the great 
majority is extremely simple. There are, however, numbers of 
well-to-do people who enjoy the refinements of modern life. A 
wealthy sugar planter recently built a home in Iloilo with a 
private elevator and air-conditioned rooms. The Filipinos are 
pleasant, courteous, generous, hospitable and friendly. The 
women enjoy a social status that is fully equal to that of the 

In August, 1938, there occurred in the Philippines one of the 
most remarkable demonstrations in human history. Hundreds of 
thousands of Filipinos assembled to commemorate the arrival in 
their islands of a foreign power and to give nation-wide expres- 
sion to "the boundless gratitude of the Filipino people" to that 


22 8 All Kindreds and Tongues 

power the United States "for the measureless benefits she has 
bestowed," to use the words of Manuel L. Quezon, President of 
the Commonwealth. By vote of the United States' Congress, the 
Philippines will become independent in 1946. There is, however, 
considerable misgiving among Philippine leaders as to the eco- 
nomic effects which may follow. The economy of the Islands is 

built up around free trade with the United States, and justice 
requires more generous treatment than has yet been promised 
for the period of necessary readjustment. 

The United States has contributed to the islands a good system 
of schools, beginning with the primary grades and reaching up 
through provincial high schools to the University of the Philip- 
pines at Manila. Public health and hospital services have been 
extensively developed. A fine system of roads and communications 
has been constructed. One of the most important results of 
America's contact with the Philippines is the introduction of the 
English language which has opened to the people the great wealth 

The Philippine Islands Mission 229 

of English literature. The democratic ideas of the United States 
have also taken firm root in the Islands. 

Development of Baptist Work 

Baptist work in the Philippines was begun in 1900 by Rev. 
Eric Lund, formerly a missionary in Spain, and Sr. Braulio 
Manikan, who was converted from Romanism in Barcelona. The 
first missionaries were sent from the United States in 1901 and 
work was opened in Jaro, a market town adjoining Iloilo on 
Panay Island and spread rapidly to the adjacent island of Negros 
and also northward to the province of Capiz. In 1927, the Presby- 
terians, who had occupied the Island of Panay jointly with the 
Baptists, withdrew and their work, including a station at San 
Jose in the province of Antique, was given over to our mission. 
The field now occupied by Baptists on Panay and Negros Islands 
comprizes an area of about 7,000 square miles and a population 
of 1,500,000. 

Until 1924 Baptist work was administered by the Conference of 
missionaries. At that time the growth of trained leadership 
among the Filipinos made it possible to organize a Joint Com- 
mittee which became responsible for the conduct of the evan- 
gelistic work until the organization of the Convention of Philip- 
pine Baptist Churches, Inc., in 1935. Under its new constitution 
and with the approval of the Boards the Convention then took 
over the responsibility for administering the work. 

Two years ago a Woman's Committee of the Board of Trustees 
of the Philippines' Baptist Convention was formed. The first con- 
ference of representative women from all parts of the field was 
held in October, 1937, and proved very successful in laying plans 
for developing women's work. Iloilo province has a strong Union 
of Women's Societies and in March, 1938, a similar Union was 
organized in the Province of Occidental Negros. The best thing 
about this is the fact that these developments have come at the 
insistence of the women themselves as they have felt the need. 

Cooperation with Other Missions 

In view of the fact that the missions working in the Philippine 
Islands are all of American origin it was found possible to intro- 

230 All Kindreds and Tongues 

duce plans for cooperative work much more readily than in those 
lands where the missions represent a wide spread of sending 
countries. An American Council for the Philippines (now the 
Philippine Committee of the Foreign Missions Conference of 
North America) has been organized which is promoting the mutual 
consideration of administrative problems and seeking greater 
unity in the planning of the Boards and in the work of the mis- 
sions and churches on the field. This Council works in close co- 

Stitching Bibles, Manila. 

operation with the Philippine Federation of Evangelical Churches 
(formerly the National Christian Council) which represents the 
several national churches established in the Islands as a result of 
Protestant missionary effort. 

Succeeding Waves of Interest 

The earliest results obtained by Dr. Lund and Mr. Manikan in 
the Philippines were among the peasants. Great numbers of them 
had been awakened by the preaching of a Catholic priest named 
Padre Juan who appeared to have become convinced of the truth 
of evangelical views by reading the New Testament. Thirteen 

The Philippine Islands Mission 231 

thousand of these peasant people signed a petition which was sent 
to the headquarters of the Foreign Mission Society, at that time 
located in Boston, asking that Christian teachers be sent to them 
to tell them of the new faith. 

This movement was followed by a wave of interest among the 
students in high schools. The United States government had sent 
thousands of teachers to the Philippines and had inaugurated a 
well-organized educational system. The youth of the Islands wel- 
comed the coming of American teachers and began to absorb 
American political ideals as their thought areas expanded. It was 
unnecessary for Baptist missions to undertake elementary educa- 
tional work, therefore, as is the case in so many fields. At central 
points the missions conducted dormitories for students attending 
high schools, whereby gaining the friendship of these young 
people, many of whom were interested in evangelical Christianity 
and were destined to become leaders of their people. 

The Need for Higher Education 

It soon developed, however, that Christian higher education 
was essentially necessary and in response to this call of need the 
institution which has since become Central Philippine College 
was established. (This will be more fully described in connection 
with Iloilo station.) The Woman's Society organized a Woman's 
Bible Training School which continues to render a service of great 
value in the training of young women for Christian service. It has 
recently been incorporated in Central Philippine College. 

From the earliest days of the work, medicine proved a genuinely 
effective aid. Dispensary work was carried on for a number of 
years and this subsequently grew to such a degree as to lead to the 
establishment of well-equipped hospitals at Iloilo and Capiz. The 
Iloilo hospital has the distinction of having produced the first 
class of trained nurses ever to graduate in the Philippine Islands. 
This and Emmanuel Hospital, located at Capiz, are not only well 
equipped hospitals but are pronounced evangelistic agencies. Each 
hospital supports a full time evangelistic worker; each conducts 
a daily morning chapel service to which all the staff and the con- 
valescent patients are invited. Public health work has been carried 
into the villages where typhoid at times claims many victims and 
where primitive animistic superstitions mingle with similar views 
imported with early Catholic teaching. 

9 Q 

* " 

All Kindreds and Tongues 

Philippine Statistics* 


f A. B. F. M. S 

fW. A. B. F. M. S 



Church members 9>53 

Baptisms 1,272 

Schools 34 

Pupils 1,698 

Hospitals 2 

Dispensaries 2 

Patients 10,760 




* From 1939 Annual Report. 
j- Staff if)./o. 

Bacolod (Ba-ko'16d) 1901. The capital of Occidental Negros is 
Bacolod with a population of 57,474. This is one of the richest 

Typical Mountain Home 

The Philippine Islands Mission 233 

provinces in the islands, the principal sugar producing province. 
The mission has met with considerable success in this field not 
only among the workers upon the plantations but also among 
the small class of educated and well-to-do people. 

The two dormitories for young men and young women respec- 
tively are important and are exerting a strong Christian influence 
on the students in the high school, in fact both the leaders and the 
support for the church come largely from this student body. In 
reaching these alert young people the evangelical churches are 
developing their future leaders. The work on this field is greatly 
aided through the fact that only a narrow strait divides Negros 
from Panay. Many of the people of Negros cross to Iloilo to visit 
the hospital and from time to time the doctors and nurses cross 
over to Negros for evangelistic and medical itinerations. Recently 
evangelism in this island has met with unusual success, and there 
has been marked progress in self-support and in providing better 
plants for the churches. 


Province population 768,177; missionaries 3; native workers 
36; schools 11; pupils 469; churches 41; church members 3,701; 
baptisms 633. 


H. W. Hunger (at Fabrica) Girls' Baptist Dormitory 
Mrs. H. W. Munger (at *Miss May A. Coggins 

Capiz (Cap'es) 1903. One of our oldest and strongest churches 
is here. The pastor is a graduate of Central Philippine College. 
The membership embraces prominent citizens, including the 
Governor of the province, the Division Superintendent of Schools, 
the Assistant District Attorney and a prominent physician. Josefa 
Abiertas, who was the founder and first president of the Philippine 
chapter of the W.C.T.U., was one of the first converts in Capiz. 
The church is in a strategic location for reaching the students and 
the business people. 

In the Baptist Home School, boys and girls are studying under 
Christian influence and are learning to be useful citizens of the 

Beyond the red hybiscus hedge, among the palms and bamboo, 

2?, 4 All Kindreds and Tongues 

stands Emmanuel Hospital. The door is always open to welcome 
annually the thousands of sick who come for care. They find help 
and healing and hope through Christ. Many go back to their 
villages to tell others and often through these patients another 
village is opened to the gospel message. The hospital does an 
unusual degree of charity work for those unable to pay. 

The work of the hospital is multiplied many fold as Christian 
nurses are trained and graduate to go out into service over the 
islands with their ministry of mercy and the message of Christ. 

Emmanuel Hospital, Capiz. 

The station reaches out with its evangelistic program along the 
north coast of Panay Island and up into the hilly interior of Capiz 
province. Many churches have been established and the pastors 
and leaders of these Christian centers carry on active efforts to 
win the people of the many villages adjacent to them. Poorer than 
in Occidental Negros the churches in this region have made sacri- 
ficial advances towards self support. The evangelistic work has 
extended to islands near the Capiz coast. The largest of these is 
Romblon where a blind pastor cares for the church and gives an 
effective testimony through his extensive knowledge of Scripture 
which he has learned bv heart. 

The P}iilippine Islands Mission 235 


Province population 405,290; missionaries 6; native workers 58; 
churches 25; church members 1,812; baptisms 158; schools 6; 
pupils 269; hospitals i; patients 3,426. 


E. F. Rounds Emmanuel Hospital 
Mrs. E. F. Rounds F. W. Meyer, M.D. 

Home School Mrs. F. W. Meyer 

*Miss Arcola Pettit * Jennie C. Adams, R.N. 

Iloilo (E-lo-e-lo) 1900. Jloilo, capital of lloilo province, includes 
the city of lloilo itself and its twin municipality, Jaro. Its popula- 
tion is 90,480. The Jaro church which might be called the "mother 
church" ol the Baptist constituency in lloilo province is located 
on a corner oi the Jaro plaza, a stone's throw from the palace oi 
the Catholic bishop, and has many able members. The present 
pastor is a recent graduate of the Central Philippine College. 
There are a number of strong churches in this province, some are 
in towns and others in villages. It was from lloilo (Jaro) as a center 
that the first evangelistic impulses began to radiate throughout 
the island. Centers of population such as Pototan, Janiway and 
others were early reached and the hill people in the upper part 
of the province accepted the gospel in great numbers. This work 
goes on with added effectiveness because there are now many able 
and trained pastors and students ready to lead in it. The students 
of Central Philippine College have from the very beginning con- 
sidered it their duty and privilege to help in this work by going 
out into the country areas on week-ends for evangelistic services. 

Central Philippine College originated in what was known as the 
Jaro Industrial School, established in 1905 by Rev. W. O. Valentine 
as a self-governing school along the lines of the George Junior 
Republic, with a view to educating Filipino boys in manual train- 
ing and practical trades. Later academic branches received larger 
emphasis though industrial training is still stressed. It is now 
operated as a standard co-educational college with departments oi 
commerce, education, engineering, liberal arts and theology and 
an enrolment of more than 500. The Baptist Missionary Train- 
ing School, has been incorporated with the College as the Woman's 
Training Department of the School of Theology. The Woman's 

236 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Society continues their interest and support in this important 
leadership training work. This department still offers a diploma 
to students entering without the high school course. It also offers 
a full course in religious and missionary education for which the 
degree of Bachelor of Science in Religious Education is given. 

The College occupies a well located, large and attractive campus 
about a mile from the center of Jaro. Several commodious and 
well constructed buildings have been added in recent years. Be- 

Iloilo Hospital and Students in the Nurses' Training School. 

sides -the missionaries serving as teachers there is also a strong 
Filipino staff. Recently responsibility for the conduct of the college 
has been turned over to its own Board of Trustees which is linked 
up with the Convention. In recent years a number of generous gifts 
have come from wealthy Filipino friends of the institution. 

The beautiful plant of the Iloilo Mission Hospital is located in 
the LaPaz suburb of Iloilo. By joint agreement between the 
Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches a Board of Control 
has been created and made responsible for the management of 
hospital affairs and policies, as well as the appointment of all 

The Philippine Islands Mission 237 

hospital officers. Since its inauguration it has made several im- 
portant innovations, and laid down governing principles for the 
future course of the hospital. Chief among these are the increase 
of the resident staff, provision for regular rotation of resident 
physicians, appointment of an associate physician, Filipinization 
of the Administration of the Nurses Training School, and the 
inauguration of a regular schedule of hospital wages and increases. 
A policy of two two-year residencies with one changing each 
August has been inaugurated to carry on the work of the hospital 
and to provide training for young medical graduates. The hospital 
is without a peer in this important port city of the Islands. Its 
large clientele also includes a considerable group of Westerners 
and their families. 

The Nurses Training School carried on in connection with the 
hospital is rendering an important service. The need for trained 
nurses in the islands is still very great and the public is learning 
to accept their services gratefully. Many superstitious customs 
still hold sway in respect to sickness and health and the nurse 
reinforces the service of the physician in promoting a fuller under- 
standing of hygiene. 


Population in field 200,000; missionaries 17; native workers 97; 
churches 46; church members 3,710; baptisms 251; schools 13; 
pupils 514; hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 6,974. 


S. S. Feldmann, Mission Secretary 
Mrs. S. S. Feldmann 

Pastors' and Workers' Conference, Central Philippine Colleg 

238 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Central Philippine College Woman's Training Department 

F. H. Rose of School of Theology 

Mrs. F. H. Rose *Miss Dorothy A. Dowell 

J. H. Covell *Miss Signe A. Erickson 

Mrs. J. H. Covell Iloilo Mission Hospital 

R. F. Chambers H. S. Waters, M.D. 

Mrs. R. F. Chambers, M.D. Mrs. H. S. Waters, R.N. 

Miss Bertha Houger *Flora G. Ernst, R.N. 

Miss Ruth L. Harris, Mis- Baptist Student Center 

sion Treas. *Miss Leonette Warburton 
Mrs. A. E. Bigelow 

San Jose (San-ho-sa'). The work in Antique province with sta- 
tion headquarters at San Jose was under the jurisdiction of the 
Presbyterians until 1920 when it was transferred to Baptists. The 
Woman's Society has recently appointed a missionary to San Jose 
for temporary occupation. 


*Miss Olive R. Buchner 

Let us then labor for an inward stillness 

An inward stillness and an inward healing 

That perfect silence where the lips and heart 

Are still,, 'and we no longer entertain 

Our own imperfect thoughts and vain opinions, 

But God alone speaks in us and we wait 

In singleness of heart, that we may know 

His will, and in the silence of our spirits 

That we may do His will, and do that only. 


The Belgian Congo Mission 

THE United States has twelve million citizens who are direct 
descendants of Africans. Congo, the very heart of Africa, is the 
part of this great continent from which they came and it is with 
this part that Northern Baptists are especially concerned. Its ten 
million people live in an area somewhat larger than America's 
original thirteen colonies. It is 99 times as large as Belgium of 
which it is the only colony. Whether we know it or not we 
Americans are surprisingly in need of Africa. It spells for us cocoa 
for breakfast, soap for our morning wash, rubber tires to take us 
to the office, copper for our lighting plant, diamonds if we wish 
to marry and radium should we be seriously ill. 

Africa's heart was given to us by two men: Livingstone, whose 
own heart is buried in Chitambo's village on Lake Bangweolo; 
and Stanley, who buried all his white companions on a nine 
hundred and ninety-nine day trek from Zanzibar to Banana and 
emerged at the mouth of the Congo River in 1877. In 1878 young 
Englishmen led two Christian missionaries back over Stanley's 
trail into the interior. One group represented the Baptist Mission- 
ary Society of London and the other the Livingstone Inland 
Mission. The latter became the Congo Mission of American 
Baptists in 1884, its British sponsors feeling that the work had 
become too great to be carried longer under private auspices. 

What Religion Means to the African 

In Africa there are no highly organized religious systems like 
Buddhism or Hinduism. The Congo people are animists. Their 
religion might be called fetishism. The fetish, which may be a 
stick or a stone or an old dried fish, is not an idol nor is it the 
likeness or symbol of a god. It is supposed to be the abode of a 
power, usually evil, which we would classify as a spirit. Fetishes 
are used to ward off evil spirits and bring protection and good 
luck. The witch-doctor has been called the priest of fetishism. His 
power is unparalleled in Congo social life. He makes and sells 
charms. Unspeakable are the practices connected with his hideous 
calling. Under his spell the native African, from the cradle to the 


240 All Kindreds and Tongues 

grave, lives in the presence of haunting evils that keep him in an 
unbroken bondage to fear. In such an atmosphere it is not sur- 
prising that such practices as polygamy, cannibalism, witch hunt- 
ing and the poison ordeal should have nourished. 

A Transformation 

A transformation has taken place in Congo during the past 
half century. The primitive caravan route has given place to the 
narrow-gauge railway and this in turn to the modern broad gauge 
line with well built stations and equipment; jungle trails have 

Replacing the Roof on a Missionary Home, Congo. 

become in many cases automobile roads penetrating to the heart 
of the country; the dugout canoe upon the river is overshadowed 
and sometimes endangered by the gigantic modern steamer, well 
equipped with electric light and refrigeration; while aeroplanes 
skim over the illimitable green stretches of tropical jungle, span- 
ning in hours instead of weeks the painful distance between embryo 
cities which have grown up to mark the main centers of colonial 

Belgium, the ruling power in Congo, has been friendly to the 
introduction of the gospel though it still fails to render to the 
Protestant missions fair and equitable consideration as compared 
with its treatment of Roman Catholic missions which it favors and 
heavily subsidizes. Belgium has fostered commerce, agriculture 
and industry in Congo and has taken an enlightened attitude in 
its treatment of the Congo peoples. 

The Belgian Congo Mission 241 

The material transformations already noted are paralleled by 
moral and spiritual changes of an even greater significance. The 
two original missions have been followed by many others until 
now there are 43 evangelical groups working in Congo. There are 
2,635 evangelical churches, with 267,964 communicants and 8,351 
native workers, ordained and unordained. The total number of 
Protestant missionaries in the colony is 1,079. Witchcraft has 
given way, in a considerable degree and in large areas, to the 
ordered Christian community. The Bible combats fetishism. The 
fear of the sorcerer fades before a new confidence in the work of 
the Christian medical missionary and his assistants. The standard 
of living rises with the introduction of better methods of farming. 
Opportunity opens to young people who are becoming literate. 
Sons of Bantu leaders become engine drivers, clerks, technicians 
and traders. 

Let it not be supposed, however, that the battle is won. Every 
ancient evil is alert to lift its head when opportunity offers and 
recrudescences of witchcraft and allied practices are common. 
Roman Catholic intolerance gravely menaces the Christian liber- 
ties of the people and commercial greed and industrial change 
introduce social and religious problems unknown in former days. 

As a race, the Bantus are a gifted people. They are dextrous in 
the practice of handcraft. They are born orators, traders and 
diplomats. They have marked capacity for patience and good 
humor. The Christian approach has, as always, developed these 
finer qualities. 

Associated with our missionaries have been many able leaders, 
such men as Frank Teva Clark, friend and associate of Rev. Joseph 
Clark for half a century in exploration and Christian teaching; 
Joshua Wamba, teacher and. community leader; Timoteo Vin- 
gadio, student, educator and medical worker; Samuel Mpambu, 
pioneer and station builder; Mf iengi, medical technician and 
evangelist; Andre Nkusu, counselor and pastor; Moses Kikwakwa, 
preacher and traveling evangelist. These men and their com- 
panions and successors are making a new Congo, once given the 
initial stimulus and preparation to start them on their way. 

The Burden Bearers of the Congo 

The women of the Congo have been considered chattels for 
centuries. They are the laborers of the Congo. They hoe the 

242 All Kindreds and Tongues 

gardens, raise the food for the family, and prepare it for the table. 
They carry the water from the stream and the firewood from the 
forest. A large proportion of their babies die because of ignorance 
and superstitions. The bondage of tribal laws and customs has 
made Christian work among the women and girls especially 

Today 31 native Christian women are associated with the mis- 
sion work as evangelists, teachers and medical assistants. Many 

village people cannot yet see any "profit" in sending girls to 
school or in allowing them to complete their courses. Despite this, 
the work with girls is constantly growing. At the Vanga station 
school the first girl has graduated from the six-year course. She 
earned her way by assisting at the hospital and has won the admi- 
ration of all. Even when the girls do not complete the work, they 
go back to the villages as cleaner, happier, healthier Christian 
mothers and housekeepers. Their homes are glowing witnesses to 
the Christ and an important factor in leading others to follow 

The Belgian Congo Mission 243 

The Part Played by Our Mission 

The Congo Mission has had a worthy part in Congo advance. 
Important results have been achieved in every phase of the work. 
The statistics showing these results will be found at the close of 
this section. Repeated waves of evangelistic awakening have led 
to the conversion of large numbers of Congo people and this in 
turn has rendered imperative the need for training to fit the 
disciple for his new life, and especially to furnish him for leader- 
ship among his own people. 

The schools which are conducted on the various stations give a 
general training to the boys and girls of the villages and begin the 
fuller education which is needed by those who go into special 
Christian service or into higher types of government or commercial 
work. Following up the work given at the stations the special 
preparation of teachers and pastors is carried on by the Ecole de 
Pasteurs et dTnstituteurs (Kongo Evangelical Training Institu- 
tion) which is conducted at Kimpese. For more than a quarter of 
a century this institution has been developing men and women 
for community leadership in all its aspects and our station fields 
are largely manned by its graduates. Special medical training is 
given in the Ecole Protestante des Auxiliaires Medicaux au Congo 
(Training School for Medical Assistants) at Sona Bata which 
last year graduated its first class of five students. This school is 
recognized by the government and its graduates hold government 
diplomas. At Kikongo work has been begun on a special training 
school for agriculturally trained evangelistic workers. Government 
is lending cooperation and assistance in providing equipment 
and support and a simple type of training suited to the agricultural 
needs of the area is being given. 

Working with Other Missions 

The Congo Mission cooperates with other evangelical missions 
in the support of the Conseil Protestant du Congo (Congo 
Protestant Council). This organization leads in every type of 
cooperative work and is especially active at the present time in 
representing with Government the claims of the Protestant mis- 
sions and the members of the evangelical churchs to equality of 
treatment as guaranteed by international treaty. A recent develop- 
ment in connection with the work of the Council is the appoint- 
ment of an educational adviser to counsel the many different types 

244 All Kindreds and Tongues 

of missions in respect to their educational program. Dr. George W. 
Carpenter, who for many years taught at Kimpese, has under- 
taken this heavy responsibility with the approval of our Congo 
Mission. Another important project of a cooperative nature is the 
conduct of a joint bookstore and publishing house at Leopoldville. 

Belgian Congo Statistics* 


|A. B. F. M. S 36 

fW. A. B. F. M. S 14 

Congo Workers 1^463 

Churches 91 

Church members 34>49$ 

Baptisms 2,907 

Schools 1,325 

Pupils 42,586 

Hospitals 7 

Dispensaries 12 

Patients 63,191 

* From i<)3<) Annual Report. 


Lower Congo is the area which parallels the Congo River be- 
tween the coast and Stanley Pool, about two hundred miles inland 
where the Colonial capital, Leopoldville, is established. Our Congo 
Mission has four stations in this area. 

Banza Manteke (Ban-za Man-te'ke) 1870. To reach Banza Man- 
teke requires a half day's journey by train and four hours by motor 
car from the port of entry. It is located about half way between the 
railroad and the Congo River and is approached by leaving the 
train at Lufu station. Here are conducted a day school for chil- 
dren from nearby villages, a boarding school for those who must 
travel far, a preparatory school for young men who are planning to 
study at the training school in Kimpese, and a hospital. About 
fifteen years ago it became apparent that a new site would be 
needed especially as reduction in the number of main stations 
had enlarged the responsibility of Banza Manteke to include 
the areas formerly covered by Palabala and Lukunga stations. 

The Belgian Congo Mission 245 

A larger space suitable for gardens to grow food was needed as 
well as a better water supply. Rev. J. E. Geil led in planning for 
the new station. A new site of 1,000 acres a few miles from the 
former location was granted by the government and the station 
is now fully established. A hydro-electric installation with a water 
tower was provided through the generosity of Mrs. Milton Shirk 
of Chicago. Recently there came under the supervision of Banza 
Manteke station a considerable area formerly cared for by the 

Baby Clinic. 

Swedish mission at Mukumbungu. This area was received through 
a comity arrangement. The exchange was brought about in con- 
ference with the Congo chiefs and leaders for the purpose of more 
easily and effectively caring for the work of evangelization and 


Population in field 30,000; missionaries 5; native workers 156; 
churches 5; church members 6,981; baptisms 450; schools 155; 
pupils 6,040; hospitals i; dispensaries 4; leper colony i; patients 

246 All Kindreds and Tongues 


John E. Geil *Miss Mary Bonar 

Mrs. John E. Geil *Esther Ehnbom, R.N. 

*Miss Lena Youngsman 

Kimpese (Kim-pes-s!) 1908. Kimpese is located on the railroad 
and is easily accessible from the whole of Lower Congo. With the 
great strides which have recently been made in transportation, it 
now becomes possible to reach this point in a few days even from 
our most distant fields. Hence this station has become the center 
for training native leaders from all our fields. Here the Ecole de 
Pasteurs et d'Instituteurs, formerly the Kongo Evangelical Train- 
ing Institution, an educational enterprise in which Northern 
Baptists have cooperated with the Baptist Missionary Society of 
England for more than a quarter of a century, furnishes Biblical 
and practical training to the men and women who teach in the 
villages and who lead the Christian constituency throughout our 
fields. The men are taught gardening, carpentry, brick making, 
furniture making and printing in addition to the usual training 
for pastoral and educational work. Their wives receive an ele- 
mentary education such as instruction in hygiene, housekeeping 
and practical nursing together with such further scholastic train- 
ing as their preliminary education renders possible. A primary 
school for their children serves as a practice school for the normal 
department. At noon and at night the students teach the workmen 
on the compound, and during vacation a special school is con- 
ducted for mission workers. The hospital and dispensary, under 
the supervision of Dr. Catharine L. Mabie, serves the whole region 
around Kimpese. The medical assistants, trained by Dr. Mabie, 
aid in the work. 

In the year 1938 the Swedish Missionary Society which conducts 
a large work in Lower Congo asked for the privilege of joining 
with us in the work of training teachers and preachers at Kimpese. 
They were heartily welcomed by our mission as full time partners 
in the conduct of the training school and have placed two families 
there. With the additional aid thus available, both in staff and 
finances, the school has been enlarged to make it possible to 
receive the considerably increased number of students desiring to 

The Belgian Congo Mission 247 


Baptist missionaries 3; native workers 6; churches i; schools 6; 
pupils 429; hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 1,386. 


Ulric A. Lanoue *Catharine L. Mabie, M.D. 

Mrs. Ulric A. Lanoue 

Sona Bata (Sona Ba-ta') 1890. On top of a beautiful hill 
adjacent to the railway station about 1,600 feet above sea level, is 
Sona Bata station. In the surrounding region, which stretches out 

Medical Students in Belgian Congo. 

beyond the Kwango River as far as Portuguese territory and along 
the railroad toward Leopoldville, there are 1 20,000 people. A day 
school and a boarding school, as well as a hospital with a fine new 
building, are supported here. The chief medical work of our 
Congo mission is located at this point. Here a modestly equipped 
medical school (known as Ecole Protestante des Auxiliaries 
Medicaux au Congo) in the charge of two doctors and two nurses, 
is training natives to become medical assistants, qualified nurses 
and dispensers. The course occupies a period of five years and 
includes training in the Bible and methods of Christian work. 
Besides the medical school a large evangelistic work centers in 
Sona Bata and a great deal of itineration is carried on throughout 
the district. 

248 All Kindreds and Tongues 


Population in field 120,000; missionaries 1 1; native workers 275; 
churches 39; church members 10,579; baptisms 378; schools 289; 
pupils 5,142; hospitals i; dispensaries 3; leper colony i; patients 


P. A. MacDiarmid, Medical School and Hospital 

Mission Secretary Glen W. Tuttle, M.D. 

Mrs. P. A. MacDiarmid Mrs. Glen W. Tuttle, R.N. 

Henry Erickson Howard M. Freas, M.D. 

Mrs. Henry Erickson Mrs. Howard M. Freas 

*Miss Vendla Anderson *Emily Satterberg, R.N. 

*Mildred Tice, R.N. 

Leopoldville (Leo-pold-ville) 1883. This is the capital of Belgian 
Congo and its most important center. With the removal of the 
government headquarters from Boma to this point the two towns 
of Kinshasa and Leopoldville were united. The growing metrop- 
olis marks the end of the railway and the beginning of river navi- 
gation. The lower section of the river, broken by numerous rapids, 
cannot be traveled by large boats, hence the building of the 200 
mile railway between Matadi and Leopoldville. It was providen- 
tial that our late veteran missionary, Dr. Aaron Sims, should have 
acquired in the early years of his service (1883) a large section of 
land on the lake front of what is now Leopoldville-Est. In 1928 
when the mission decided to reoccupy this station owing to its 
rapidly growing importance as capital of the Colony, headquar- 
ters of the mission were transferred here from Matadi and later a 
portion of our compound was given to the Congo Protestant Coun- 
cil which also erected its headquarters adjacent to our own and 
carries on its work from this point. The government has granted 
the mission a working concession in the native settlement and 
here is carried on a vigorous work among Kikongo-speaking 
natives and also a unique program of Christian community and 
evangelistic service for representatives of the many tribes who 
come from far distant parts of the Colony to work at the capital. 


Population in field 30,000; missionaries 6; native workers 5; 
churches 2; members 332; baptisms 65; schools 5; pupils 337. 

The Belgian Congo Mission 249 


G. W. Carpenter H. J. Watkins, Mission 

Mrs. G. W. Carpenter Treasurer 

E. G. Hall Mrs. H. J. Watkins 
Mrs. E.G. Hall 


For many years a large section of Belgian Congo lying between 
the Kasai River, the Portuguese border, and the main river of the 
Congo and reaching westward towards our Sona Bata field has, 
by interdenominational agreement, been considered the territory 
of our Congo Mission. This large section was called the Kwangu 
area, being named from the Kwangu River which is a tributary of 
the Kasai and intersects its full extent. In the year 1913 Vanga 
station, central to a considerable part of this area, was occupied 
by Dr. and Mrs. W. H. Leslie, and subsequently a station was 
established at Moanza some eight days' journey distant. At both 
these points the work developed rapidly and these two stations 
are now the centers of fruitful evangelistic fields. 

Another large section of the great Kwangu area still remained 
to be occupied. This territory lay to the west, of the Vanga field 
and to the east of the Sona Bata area. When the Joint Deputation 
of the two Foreign Mission Societies visited the Congo field in 
1928 serious consideration was given by our Mission Conference 
to the whole question of occupation of the Kwangu field and it 
was determined that the Mission should proceed at once with its 
further development. Extensive explorations had already been 
made and the Conference decided to send Rev. and Mrs. Charles 
E. Smith into this area to seek a site for a new station and early 
in the following year (1929) Kikongo was established. 

Vanga (Van'-ga) 1913. This was the first station to be estab- 
lished in the Kwangu area and from it an attempt was made to 
cover the entire section with its intricate network of great rivers 
and their smaller tributaries. Pioneering difficulties were very 
great, but Dr. Leslie's medical skill finally aided in breaking down 
the barriers of superstition and intolerance. Many were won to the 
Christian faith and the work extended to hundreds of villages. A 
school, a hospital, a brick church and residences for the mission- 
aries were erected. The government sought the aid of the missions 

250 All Kindreds and Tongues 

in carrying out its program of public health. The work has grown 
steadily and recently a new revival of religious interest has 
awakened many thousands throughout the entire field. 


Population in field 2,000,000; missionaries 8; native workers 
298; churches 12; church members 6,146; baptisms 1,377; schools 
312; pupils 13,727; hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 13,002. 


A. C. Osterholm, M.D. L. A. Brown 

Mrs. A. C. Osterholm Mrs. L. A. Brown 

W. F. Robbins *Miss Eva Shepard 

Mrs. W. F. Robbins *Alice Jorgenson, R. N. 

Moanza (M6-an'-za). This station is located about eight days' 
journey on foot through the wilderness from Vanga. For many 
years that was the only way in which it could be reached. Auto- 
mobile roads are now in process of construction and even though 
not complete it is possible at times to drive through in about 24 
hours. Samuel Mpambu, a Congo leader of outstanding capacity, 
occupied this field as an outstation for a number of years and 
gave altogether about 33 years of valiant service to it. The original 
site was found unsuitable and a new site about three miles distant 
was granted by the government. During the past two years Rev. 
Ernest Atkins, Congo mission builder, has been hard at work 
providing the station with suitable buildings. Two residences, a 
hospital, a church and a school have been erected. As is almost 
always the case in Congo it was necessary to cut the timber in 
adjacent forests, and wait for it to season, to dig the clay for bricks 
from banks in the neighborhood and to bring roofing iron and 
hardware from overseas. The task of constructing the station in 
such a remote wilderness location was arduous in the extreme and 
the well-built structures stand as a monument to Mr. Atkins' 
patience and devotion. During the process of transferring the sta- 
tion evangelistic, educational and medical work has gone forward 
without serious interruption. 


Population in field 100,000 missionaries 7; native workers 190; 
churches 17; church members 4,994; baptisms 169; schools 174; 
pupils 7,678; hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 7,830. 

The Belgian Congo Mission 

Ernest Atkins 

Mrs. Ernest Atkins 

T. E. Bubeck Mrs. M. S. Engwall 

Mrs. T. E. Bubeck 


*Miss Ruth E. Dickey 
M. S. Engwall 

Kikongo (Ki-kon-go) 1929. Early in the year 1929 with the aid 
of 18 of the chiefs of this neighborhood, a suitable site was found 
upon the banks of the Wamba. The site chosen offered every 
advantage needed for a permanent station. These include four 
springs, a sandy beach for landing, arable land for gardens, a 
plateau for station buildings, suitable woods for the production 
of lumber and a clay bank for the provision of bricks. Work was 
begun in provisional buildings of clay and wattle by Mr. and Mrs. 

Willis F. Pierce Memorial Hospital, Kikongo. 

Smith. Subsequently others were added to the staff, but so far the 
missionaries occupying this station have been so heavily pressed 
by the broad itineration necessary to evangelize so large an area, 
as well as by the large educational work carried on at the station 
that, although the work at this point is now ten years old, no time 
has been found to erect permanent buildings with the exception 
of the Willis F. Pierce Memorial Hospital, completed by Mr. 
Armstrong last year. The experience at the station is illustrative 
of the dangers inherent in the establishment of a new work among 
a primitive people. Many thousands of people flocked, to the new 

252 All Kindreds and Tongues 

station and in the early years sought baptism. It was impossible for 
so slender a staff to give the Christian oversight and teaching 
needed in such a vast area with the result that after a few years the 
disappointed natives reacted against the long delay in sending 
reinforcements and many were led back into their old supersti- 
tions. This heartbreaking experience was met by the missionaries 
with genuine heroism and devotion and through long and pains- 
taking effort conditions have been greatly improved and there are 
signs of the growth of a sound and vigorous work. 

This station was chosen by the mission as the place for special 
agricultural training. The government has taken much interest 
in Mr. Smith's work along this line and gives both its approval 
and aid. 


Population in field 150,000; missionaries 6; native workers 222; 
churches 13; church members, 3,700; baptisms 361; schools 278; 
pupils 5,439; hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 6,025. 


Charles E. Smith B. W. Armstrong 

Mrs. C. E. Smith Mrs. B. W. Armstrong 

*Agnes Anderson, R.N. *Miss Grace M. M. Cooper 


Tondo T6n'-do) 1894. The Congo Mission has but one remain- 
ing station. It is situated far up the Congo River near to the 
equator, and is located on the shores of beautiful Lake Tumba, 
eight hundred miles inland and four hundred miles from the 
nearest station of our own mission. It is separated likewise linguis- 
tically, the language there being Lontumba, whereas the Kikongo 
language is utilized for school work in all of our other stations. 
Tondo possesses one of the most beautiful mission compounds 
in Africa, having been laid out scientifically while the work was 
being carried on at Ikoko across the lake. The buildings are all of 
brick and located along palm-lined avenues which front the lake. 
The Tremont Temple Hospital, dedicated in 1928, overlooks the 
lake and is quite well equipped. The station is a monument to the 
devoted labors of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Clark. 

The Belgian Congo Mission 253 


Population in field 75,000; missionaries 4; native workers 131; 
churches 7; church members 2,685; baptisms 208; schools 18; 
pupils 877; hospitals i; dispensaries i; patients 4,910. . 


H. D. Brown * Dorothea Witt, M.D. 

Mrs. H. D. Brown *Miss Marguerite Eldredge 

We know the paths wherein our feet should press. 
Across our hearts are written thy decrees; 
Yet now, O Lord, be merciful to bless 
With more than these. 

Grant us the will to fashion as we feel, 
Grant us the strength to labour as we know, 
Grant us the purpose, ribb'd and edged with steel, 
To strike the blow. 

Knowledge we ask not knowledge thou hast lent, 
But, Lord, the will there lies our bitter need, 
Give us to build above the deep intent 
The deed, the deed. 


Fields of Cooperation in Europe 

ONCE again (1940) war is raging in Europe. No one can tell 
how long it will last or whether it will spread until other 
nations are involved. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have signed 
pacts with Russia which has put them under the domination of 
their powerful neighbor. Poland has been partitioned; Germany 
controls the western part, Russia the eastern. Czecho-Slovakia no 
longer exists as an independent nation. No matter how long the 
war lasts, or how it terminates, our brethren in Europe will have 
great need of our moral and material support. 

* * * 

Within the last hundred years groups have emerged in many 
sections of Europe, usually plain people with the New Testament 
as their inspiration, who dared to fight for those principles for 
which Baptists of former generations suffered in England and in 
America. These small bands in Europe, who took the name Bap- 
tist, often found themselves persecuted by government or the state 
church or by both. The stories of imprisonment, exile, and other 
forms of persecution for those who fought for religious freedom 
and other principles dear to Baptists constitute one of the stirring 
chapters in denominational history. Beginning in 1832, American 
Baptists first through the Triennial Convention and later through 
the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society and the Foreign 
Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention began to have 
fellowship with these Baptists in Europe, and through personal 
and other forms of cooperation have gladly helped to pour oil 
into the torches of the autonomous bodies of Europe who are 
standing bravely for principles essential to mankind's truest prog- 

A few figures to illustrate the remarkable numerical growth of 
the denomination in continental Europe will be of interest. These 
refer only to the mainland; the British Isles are not included. They 
are, of course, merely approximate. In the year of Waterloo (1815) 
there was no Baptist church on the mainland of Europe. In 1850 
there were about 4,000 church members. In 1900 the number had 
risen to about 103,762. By 1940 it was estimated to be 274,948. 


Fields of Cooperation in Europe 255 

These figures do not include Russia for which no statistics are now 

At the Baptist World Conference in London in July, 1920, a 
new division of European territory was found expedient for ef- 
fectively cooperating with European Baptists. On the basis of this 

Baptist Folk High School, 
Tollose, Denmark. 

Baptist Headquarters, Riga, Latvia. 

division the Society entered into fraternal relations and furnished 
aid to Baptist bodies in France, Denmark, Norway, Estonia, 
Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Czecho-Slovakia. British Baptists 
cooperated in Czecho-Slovakia and in the Baltic States. It was 
planned that British Baptists and American Baptists both North- 
ern and Southern should aid their brethren in Russia. It has not 
been the policy of the Society to send missionaries to these lands. 
Appropriations are made and distributed under the direction of 
local committees, representing the different autonomous groups. 

256 All Kindreds and Tongues 

For eight years, from 1920 to 1928, Dr. J. H. Rushbrooke of Lon- 
don served as Baptist Commissioner for Europe and represented 
the Northern Baptists, Southern Baptists and Baptists of England 
and Canada. Since July, 1928, he has been Secretary of the Baptist 
World Alliance. Since 1922 the Society has had in Dr. W. O. Lewis 
its own special representative in Europe. 


BELGIUM. The work in Belgium has been closely connected 
with the work in Northern France. There are four small churches 
with less than 200 members. 

CZECHO-SLOVAKIA. The first Baptist church was organized 
in 1885 in Prague with 16 members. From here the movement 
spread throughout the country. So long as Czecho-Slovakia was 
part of Austria-Hungary Baptists were persecuted and the move- 
ment grew very slowly. Baptisms took place at night, members 
were imprisoned and Bible distribution was not permitted. The 
political freedom of Czecho-Slovakia following the war and its 
accompanying religious liberty have been followed by a wide- 
spread religious movement. Multitudes of Czecho-Slovaks who 
remembered that the nation was originally Protestant (John 
Huss) but Romanized by Austria, left the Roman church. This 
presented a great opportunity for evangelical Christianity, which 
unfortunately could not be met adequately by Baptists because of 
their numerical weakness. A seminary is maintained in Prague. 
The dismemberment of Czecho-Slovakia in 1938 and outbreak of 
war in 1939 have given the work a great setback. 

DENMARK. The first Baptist church was organized in Copen- 
hagen in 1839. Soon a storm of opposition and persecution broke 
out but the Baptists in England and America made representa- 
tions to the Danish Government and years later the Danish people 
secured a new constitution with religious liberty. The Baptist 
cause has been growing rapidly. The new Baptist "folk high 
school" at Tollose near Copenhagen has also a theological depart- 
ment for training future Danish pastors. 

ESTONIA. The first Baptist church was organized a little over 
fifty years ago. During this half century Baptists in this little 
country have been constantly persecuted and have been without 

Fields of Cooperation in Europe 257 

rights in the world. Scarcely any of the leading men have escaped 
imprisonment, banishment or punishment for the sake of the 
gospel. The political revolution and the establishment of Estonia 
as an independent state have brought real freedom. A preachers' 
school has been established at Tallinn (Reval). 

FRANCE. The earliest modern Baptist movement appeared in 
Flanders. Some 25 years afterwards, American Baptists began to 
cooperate financially. Since then the history of the work has been 
one of quiet heroism in the face of Romanist and governmental 
persecution, and of faithful labor amidst extraordinary practical 

GERMANY. While the work of the German Baptists was 
started in 1834 it was not until 1848 that their churches were 
recognized by the authorities. An active missionary zeal has char- 
acterized all the churches. Besides a staff of well-trained workers, 
there were hundreds of voluntary helpers in the churches. The 
work in Germany became the starting point for Baptist Missions 
in Denmark, Holland, Sweden, Poland, Austria, Hungary, the 
Baltic Provinces and Switzerland. A well equipped Seminary in 
Hamburg is doing excellent work. The foreign mission field of the 
German Baptist, in the Cameroons, made excellent progress, be- 
fore it was lost to them during the war. German missionaries have 
not been allowed to return to what is now French Cameroons. 
They are now permitted to send missionaries into the section 
under British administration. 

LATVIA. The first baptismal service was held secretly on the 
night of September 9, 1861, when 72 persons were baptized. Fol- 
lowing the ordinance at the river, these new Baptists celebrated 
the Lord's Supper. This encouraging beginning brought on much 
persecution as Latvia was then a part of the Great Empire of 
Russia, but the new life could not be checked. The cause of Bap- 
tists has grown steadily until there are now more than 11,000 
church members. A seminary at Riga is doing excellent work in 
training preachers and church workers. 

LITHUANIA. Baptists here are few in number. The Lithu- 
anian speaking and German speaking churches recently formed a 
Baptist union with Rev. T. Gerikas, as missionary supported by 
Northern Baptists and British Baptists. Unfortunately Baptist 

258 All Kindreds and Tongues 

progress is slow and economic conditions throughout the country 
are not very flourishing. The population is largely rural. 

POLAND. Baptist progress is an outgrowth of the movement 
which began in Germany. In 1851 evangelistic efforts were made 
by German Baptists on behalf of their fellow countrymen, who 
had settled in that area which now comprises Poland. Most of the 
organized churches in Poland have come into existence since 1905, 
when the Government Edict of Toleration went into effect. The 
largest Baptist church is at Lodz. The Slav group has grown 
rapidly. Since the outbreak of the war in September 1939, it has 
been difficult to get news from Poland. About 80% of the Slav 
churches are now in Soviet Poland. 

NORWAY. The first Baptist church was organized in 1860, 
near the city of Skien. There are now twelve Baptist churches 
north of the Arctic Circle. The total Baptist membership in Nor- 
way is now 7,217. Between 1876 and 1884, Norwegian preachers 
were trained at the Bethel Seminary in Stockholm. From 1884 to 
1910, they received their training in the United States, while since 
1910 the Theological Seminary at Oslo has been sending out its 
graduates into the churches. Norwegian Baptists have established 
a Seaman's Home for deep sea fishermen at Honningvaag, north 
of the Arctic Circle. 

SWEDEN. Since 1929 the Society has ceased to make financial 
contributions to the work of Baptists in Sweden as Swedish Bap- 
tists are now entirely a self-supporting autonomous group. The 

Young People's Meeting, Poland. 


$? ."!>S5J'5x.:T>--'i 

f -:;^;V^ 

Fields of Cooperation in Europe 259 

relationship between American Baptists and Swedish. Baptists is 
now one of cordial fraternal fellowship. Swedish Baptists have a 
flourishing Publication Society, a well equipped theological sem- 
inary and a missionary enterprise which includes various fields in 
the non-Christian world in its activities. 

RUSSIA. The Baptist movement in Russia is also an outgrowth 
of the movement which began with the baptism of J. G. Oncken 
and others in Germany in 1834. Many difficulties were encoun- 
tered in the early years, and the first Baptist church of worship in 
Russia was not built until 1872. Owing to conditions in Russia it 
is not possible to state definitely the progress made by Baptists in 
that country in recent years. It is estimated, however, that since 
1914 they have increased in numbers from about 100,000 to at 
least 500,000. In 1928 a seminary was opened in Moscow. The 
Seminary in Moscow was closed soon after it opened. No Bibles or 
hymnbooks have been printed or imported into Russia since 1929. 
It has been estimated that 1,000 Baptist preachers have been 
banished since then and it is likely that half of these have died of 
hunger, overwork, and other privations. The deliberate and 
avowed effort of Communism to exterminate all religion is well 

Baptists in Russia are anxious that the general conditions should 
be known. They feel that the public opinion of the world will 
finally influence the Soviets to change their policy. They treasure 
very highly the spiritual fellowship with Baptists outside Russia. 

Statistics for Europe* 

Countries Churches Members 

Belgium 4 158 

Czecho-Slovakia 29 3>!55 

Denmark 34 6,427 

Estonia 51 7>5o8 

France 21 965 

Latvia 108 1 1,908 

Lithuania 1 1 547 

Norway 54 7,2 17 

Poland 87 7> 01 5 

Russia (No figures available) 


Our little systems have their day; 

They have their day and cease to be; 

They are but broken lights of Thee, 
And Thou, O Lord, art more than they. 

We have but faith: we cannot know; 

For knowledge is of things we see; 

And yet we trust it comes from Thee, 
A beam in darkness, let it grow. 

Let knowledge grow from more to more, 
But more of reverence in us dwell; 
That mind and soul, according well, 

May make one music as before, 

But vaster. We are fools and slight; 
We mock Thee when we do not fear: 
But help Thy foolish ones to bear; 

Help Thy vain worlds to bear Thy light. 


4 4^ 


Z '*?": 1 




A BRIEF summary of the origin and organization of the foreign 
mission enterprise of Northern Baptists will be of interest. 


In the early iSoo's the position of Baptists in America was not 
one of great prominence. With little organization they were 
widely scattered and without facilities for easy communication 
among themselves. The formation of the English Baptist Mis- 
sionary Society in 1792, and the early efforts of pioneer missionaries 
in India had aroused a deep interest in this country, so that con- 
siderable money was raised and sent to their aid. The interest 
thus awakened and fostered was accentuated by the reading of 
letters from William Carey, which appeared from time to time 
in the Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Magazine. Early in 1812 
a company of five young men was set apart by the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (Congregational), for serv- 
ice in foreign lands, and sailed from Salem, Massachusetts, on 
the brig Caravan. 

One of these young men, Adoniram Judson, read his New Testa- 
ment with great thoroughness during his voyage to India, and as a 
result accepted the Baptist view of baptism. Upon arrival in 
Calcutta he and his young bride, Ann Hasseltine Judson, were 
baptized by immersion by Rev. William Ward, and entered into 
Baptist fellowship. Luther Rice, another of the pioneer group, hav- 
ing experienced a like change in belief, was baptized two months 
later. The call of Judson and Rice to Baptists in America came 
as an inspiring challenge to a divine task and resulted in the 
organization, at Philadelphia, May 21, 1814, of "The General 
Missionary Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the 


262 All Kindreds and Tongues 

United States for Foreign Missions and other important objects 
relating to the Redeemer's Kingdom." General meetings were 
scheduled for every three years and this organization came to be 
known as the "Triennial Convention." 

It is significant that the call to engage in foreign mission work 
led to organization and unity among Baptists in this country. 
In 1845 the Southern Baptists withdrew because of a difference 
of opinion growing out of the slavery question, and in 1846 the 
name of the Society was changed to The American Baptist Mis- 
sionary Union. At the annual meeting in 1908, the Society became 
a cooperating society of the Northern Baptist Convention. The 
name of the Society was again altered in 1910, becoming the 
American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. In 1911 Free Bap- 
tists merged with Northern Baptists and the mission interests 
of both were enlarged. Headquarters were established at Boston, 
Mass., in 1826, and in 1920 were removed to New York. 

Woman's American Baptist Foreign Mission Society 

In 1871 two Baptist women's missionary societies were formed, 
one in Boston, the other in Chicago, in direct response to an appeal 
for single women to work among the women and children of 
Burma. With the women of other denominations they have taken 
their part in evangelizing the largely illiterate world of women 
and in seven decades they have carried the knowledge of Jesus 
Christ through preaching, teaching and healing to the non- 
Christian people of India, the Far East and Africa. The first 
single women missionaries sailed for Burma, South India and 
Assam in 1871; to China in 1873; to Japan in 1875; to Africa in 
1887, and to the Philippines in 1903. In 1911 Northern Baptist 
-women took over women's work in Bengal-Orissa. 

The women's societies of the East and West united in 1913 
to become the Woman's American Baptist Foreign Mission So- 
ciety, continuing their distinctive contribution in a larger and 
more effective way. 


Obviously an enterprise of such magnitude and extent cannot be 
adequately or efficiently managed by two societies which meet 
only once a year in connection with the meetings of the Northern 
Baptist Convention. Accordingly, the actual management and 

Organization and Administration 263 

direction of the work for the societies and for the churches has 
been committed to two Boards of Managers. For the General So- 
ciety the Board consists of the President of the Society and 27 
persons, nine being chosen by the Society at each annual meeting. 
Both laymen and ministers are included in the membership. The 
Board of Managers of the Woman's Society consists of the officers, 
27 regular members and 16 Associate members, representative of 
the area of the Northern Baptist Convention. 

The members of both Boards give liberally of their time and 
thought with the same spirit that actuates the missionaries. With 
the exception of occasional executive sessions, all meetings of the 
Boards are open, and nothing would give a better idea of the work 
than attendance upon one of these meetings at which the Boards 
appoint the missionaries, direct their work, make all appropria- 
tions and decide the innumerable questions that come up for 
discussion through the year. 


The plans and policies of the Boards of Managers are carried 
out under the direction of the administrative officers at the head- 
quarters of the Societies, 152 Madison Avenue, New York. Secre- 
taries in the Home Departments have charge of the work of 
interpreting the needs of the foreign mission enterprise to the 
home constituency, correspondence relating to special and desig- 
nated gifts, Overseas White Cross service, deputation work of mis- 
sionaries on furlough, relationship to important interdenomina- 
tional agencies and other means for promoting interest and bene- 
ficence among the home constituency. Much of this work is being 
done through the central denominational promotional agency 
known as .the Council on Finance and Promotion and through the 
State Promotional Offices with all of which the two Societies co- 
operate. The work of missionary education is carried on under the 
leadership of the Department of Missionary Education of the 
Board of Education. The Societies are in close and constant con- 
tact with the work of this Department. Through the National 
Committee on Woman's Work the two national women's societies 
cooperate in promoting their work throughout the states. 

The Candidate Departments have charge of the enlistment of 
candidates for foreign mission service and their future prepara- 
tion. In the Woman's Society this is part of the Foreign Depart- 

264 All Kindreds and Tongues 

ment. The secretaries in the Foreign Departments have in charge 
the large correspondence with the missionaries relating to all 
interests of the work on the foreign field, including the develop- 
ment of policies and plans for the future. The Treasury Depart- 
ments receive and care for the money, invest the funds, disburse the 
appropriations, and have charge of properties, investments and 
other legal matters, and keep the multitude of field and home ac- 
counts required. The Budget and Research Departments pre- 
pare the budgets, compile data and records of property and station 
progress in the fields, and in general perform the functions of 
research departments. 

All departments are related to committees of the Boards with 
whom the administrative officers consult frequently in preparation 
of business for the Board meetings. Few people realize what a vast 
amount of work is involved in the conduct of so complex an enter- 
prise comprising many varied elements such as evangelization, 
education, medical work, industrial work, translation and publi- 
cation, all of which, in this country, are usually cared for by sep- 
arate organizations. 


In each field the missionaries are organized into a Mission 
Conference which in most cases meets annually for the discussion 
of problems of the work. Between sessions of the conference a ref- 
erence committee represents the mission body, acting on matters 
referred to them by the missionaries or the Boards. Property in- 
terests, including the erection and care of all mission buildings, are 
in charge of a property committee. A language examination com- 
mittee directs the language study of newly appointed mission- 
aries. Higher educational institutions have advisory boards of 
trustees and medical work is under the oversight of a medical 
committee. On most fields there is now a Woman's Committee, or 
Woman's Department, auxiliary to the Reference Committee 
which may consider problems relative to work among women and 
make recommendations to the Missionary Conference. 

Under The Younger Churches Grow Up (pages 66-73) impor- 
tant changes and developments in field administration are given in 

Organization and Administration 265 


For many years our two Foreign Mission Societies, as well as 
other National Organizations have been writing Special Gift 
Agreements with Life Annuity Returns. The plan is growing in 
popularity constantly, due to its many and varied advantages both 
to the annuitant and to the Foreign Mission Enterprise. 

The annuity plan enables one both to give and to receive. As 
a source of income these Agreements yield sure and substantial 
returns during the life, of the annuitant; as gifts, they are used 
when the income no longer is needed to further the cause of 
Christ in the ten fields, where the Societies are working. 

Both the Foreign Mission Societies are using the same form of 
Agreement and following the same table of rates. Each will be 
glad to send a descriptive booklet upon request, setting forth the 
plan in detail. A general outline of the plan follows: 

i As soon as the gift is received, a Special Gift Agreement 

with Life Annuity Return is mailed. 

2 The gift begins to yield an income from the date 
the check is received, the amount to be determined by the 
size of the gift and the age of the annuitant at the time 
the gift is made. The income continues throughout the 
lifetime of the annuitant, and is paid semiannually. 
3 Survivorship Agreements are also written. These provide 
an income that will continue as long as either of the two 
persons named in the Agreement shall live. 

The investments of both Societies are supervised by Investment 
Committees composed of persons familiar with the handling of 
financial affairs. One need have no worry or fear for the safety 
of principal. 

All annuity funds are segregated from the regular receipts of 
the Societies. The contracts have been prepared in accordance with 
the law recently enacted by the State of New York for the pro- 
tection of all annuitants. 

For further information write to 

Home Department, American Baptist Foreign Mission Society 

Treasurer, Woman's American Baptist Foreign Mission Society 

152 Madison Avenue, New York City, N. Y. 

266 All Kindreds and Tongues 


Both Foreign Societies receive substantial amounts from legacies 
which are applied toward the regular budget expenditures. 


I give, devise and bequeath to die 

(Here insert full corporate name of Society) 
having its headquarters at 152 Madison Avenue, New York, 

N. Y., die sum of ($ ) 

for die use of said Society in carrying on its work. 

I also give, devise and bequeath to the said 
(Here insert full corporate name of Society) 

having its headquarters at 152 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

of the residue of my estate set fordi 

(state percentage) 

in this my Will for the use of said Society in carrying on its work. 

The corporate names to be used are: 

ganized under the laws "of Massachusetts, New York and Pennsyl- 

ration organized under the laws of the State of Massachusetts. 


The two Foreign Societies whole-heartedly support the coopera- 
tive movement of the denomination, of which they are a part. 
We urge upon all members of the supporting constituency loyalty 
to the principle of undesignated giving to the unified budget upon 
which home and foreign missionary endeavors so largely depend. 

Many have a natural desire to know the exact purpose for which 
their gifts to foreign missions are used. Others are especially in- 

Organization and Administration 267 

terested in certain missionaries and are anxious to have their con- 
tributions used in the work of those missionaries. Some churches 
find genuine satisfaction in an arrangement for the support of 
their own missionary who serves as their foreign representative 
thus giving them personal contact with the foreign field. From 
many stations news letters are sent which help to keep the con- 
tributors in touch with the work for which their gifts are used. 
Certain individuals who have been prevented from going to the 
field themselves have found it possible to assume the full support 
of a foreign missionary, thus in a very real sense having their 
personal representative on the field. Designated gifts to such 
items within the regular budget of the societies are credited to 
the denominational unified budget. 


Each Society prepares a large assortment of literature dealing 
with its work. This includes books, pamphlets, miscellaneous mis- 
sionary literature for general reading and for study classes; stere- 
opticon slides and typewritten lectures describing the pictures for 
use in churches, Sunday schools and other meetings; maps, charts, 
and material for making missionary meetings more interesting. 
Most of this is issued and distributed by the Council on Finance 
and Promotion of the Northern Baptist Convention. A nominal fee 
is asked for some material to cover expenses, but much of the 
literature is free. A catalog and suggestions as to how this depart- 
ment can help will be sent on request. Address Baptist Literature 
Bureau 152 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

The Watchman Examiner and other denominational publica- 
tions contribute largely to the better understanding of inter- 
denominational movements in relation to the Christian world 
mission. The Societies are genuinely appreciative of the large 
amount of space given in each issue to missionary articles and 
news items. 

The following periodicals published in English on mission 
fields can be subscribed for through the New York office: Address 
Mr. Forrest Smith, American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. 

The Burma News, monthly, published at the Baptist Mission 
Press, Rangoon; 75 cents a year; 5 copies to one address, $3.25 a 

268 All Kindreds and Tongues 

Baptist Missionary Review, monthly, representing Baptist mis- 
sion work in India; $1.25 a year. 

West China Missionary News, monthly, published at Chengtu; 
$1.10 a year. 

Congo News Letter, quarterly, by the Congo Mission; 25 cents 
a year. 

Tidings, quarterly, by the Bengal-Orissa Mission; 30 cents a 
year, 4 copies to one address, $1.00 a year. 


The Visualization Department of the Council on Finance and 
Promotion has led in the development of stereopticon lectures and 
moving pictures. Effective presentations of the work through these 
methods are available covering most of the fields. During the past 
year the two foreign societies and the Council on Finance and 
Promotion cooperated with the Africa Committee of the Foreign 
Missions Conference of North America in sending to the field 
an expert photographer. A number of new African films, devel- 
oped along the line of carefully prepared scenarios, were thus 
produced and are available for use in the churches. A more 
recent publicity effort involves the preparation of radio transcrip- 
tions for broadcasting by local stations. Correspondence regard- 
ing these methods of publicity should be addressed to the Council 
on Finance and Promotion. 


Missions, a monthly magazine, is the official organ of the 
missionary societies of the Northern Baptist Convention. It is 
the successor of the oldest Baptist periodical in America first 
issued in 1803 by the Massachusetts Missionary Society. From that 
day to this it has existed, though under several managements and 
titles, with remarkable continuity, as a magazine conspicuously 
devoted to missions. Its various titles have been: Massachusetts 
Baptist Missionary Magazine, 1803-1817; The American Baptist 
Magazine and Missionary Intelligencer, 1817-1825; The American 
Baptist Magazine, 1825-1836: The Baptist Missionary Magazine 
1836-1910. After having been published under the auspices of the 
Massachusetts Society until 1817, it became the organ of the Con- 
vention and remained so until 1846, when the Missionary Union 
was formed and the new executive committee continued the pub- 

Organization and Administration 269 

lication. In 1910 it was merged with the present magazine. Other 
Baptist missionary periodicals, which likewise were merged into 
the new magazine, included The Home Mission Monthly, pub- 
lished by the American Baptist Home Mission Society, The Help- 
ing Hand, published by the Woman's American Baptist Foreign 
Mission Society, and Tidings, published by the Woman's American 
Baptist Home Mission Society. 

With the first issue of Missions in January, 1910, Dr. Howard 
B. Grose became Editor and he served until his retirement in 
1932. Dr. William B. Lipphard, who for ten years had been As- 
sociate Editor, succeeded him as Editor. Under his editorship the 
magazine recovered from the long period of financial depression 
of 1932-1933. This interesting, well printed, superbly illustrated 
magazine should be in every Baptist home. As one of the outstand- 
ing missionary periodicals of the Christian church it has moved 
steadily ahead in circulation, influence, and service to the cause of 

Subscriptions, where five or more subscribers live in the same 
community or are members of the same church, are $1.00 per year. 
Individual subscriptions $1.25. Address Missions, 152 Madison 
Avenue, New York, N. Y. 


World conditions cause wide and frequent fluctuations in the 
values (in terms of United States dollars) of currencies used on 
all mission fields. This is true especially in the China and India 
Missions. The values for the currency of the countries given 
below are those in effect April i, 1940. They may not be accurate 
at future dates. 

INDIA (including Burma, Assam, Bengal-Orissa and South 
India): The unit of currency is the rupee. Twelve pie make one 
anna; 16 annas, one rupee. The coinage is as follows: the pie, 
the quarter anna or pice and half anna are in copper; one anna 
piece in nickel; and the two-anna, four-anna and eight-anna 
pieces and the rupee in silver. Paper money in denominations 
of Rs. 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 and upwards is also used. 
Present value 30 cents U. S. per one rupee. 

270 All Kindreds and Tongues 

CHINA: The Chinese National currency (ccy.) is the common 
unit for the East, South and West China Missions. The South 
China Mission also uses Hongkong dollars. Copper coins are 
used: also one and two dime pieces in silver. Paper money (in 
denominations of $1, 5, 10, 60 and 100) is also used. 
Present values: 6i/ 2 cents U.S. per one dollar Chinese National 
currency; 22 cents U.S. per one Honkong dollar. 

JAPAN: The unit of currency is the yen and there are 100 sen in 
one yen. Paper money is used for all currency except subsidiary 
coins. Present value: 23.44 cents U.S. per one yen. 

BELGIAN CONGO: The unit of currency is the franc and there 
are 100 centimes in one franc. The unit of international ex- 
change is the belga which is equivalent to five francs. Present 
value about 3 1/3 cents U.S. per one franc. 

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: The currency of the Islands is on a 
fixed basis of exchange with the U.S. dollar. The silver peso is 
worth 50 cents and the centavo, one-half cent. 


The Society continues to maintain suitable furnished houses 
and apartments at reasonable rentals for the use of missionary 
families at home on furlough. Through the generous gift of Mrs. 
Mary A. M. Newell the Society obtained a missionary home in 
Newton Center, Mass., which has been made into two apartments. 
It is known as Newell House in honor of the donor. Another home 
known as the Doane House and established by Mrs. G. W. Doane 
and her sister, Miss Ida F. Doane, is located in Granville, Ohio. 
Two other homes, Ashmore and Beaver-Thresher are located in 
Granville, the latter made possible through the gift of Mr. and 
Mrs. F. P. Beaver of Dayton, Ohio. In Maiden, Mass., the house in 
which Judson was born, known as Judson House, is available for 
two families. This places a total of seven homes and apartments 
at the disposal of missionary families at home on furlough. 

The Woman's American Baptist Foreign Mission Society main- 
tains a residence at 40 Chase St., Newton Center, Mass., for retired 
missionaries and missionaries on furlough wishing a quiet, con- 
genial home with opportunities for rest and study. It has rendered 

Organization and Administration 271 

a unique service through the years and is today extending its hos- 
pitality to missionaries of other Baptist Boards. 

The plan originated in the minds of a small group of Baptist 
women in 1890 who felt the need of a home where candidates for 
foreign service might have a better opportunity for Bible Study. 
After a satisfactory trial of several years in rented quarters, it was 
decided that permanent accommodations were imperatively 
needed and steps were taken to secure the funds. In 1895 the 
present residence was erected at a cost of $18,000, much of it re- 
ceived in small gifts from a large number of donors. It is known 
as "Hasseltine House" in honor of Ann Hasseltine Judson, and all 
who visit there will receive a very cordial welcome. 


Climatic conditions and limited educational opportunities 
sometimes make it advisable for children of missionaries to re- 
main in the United States while their parents are abroad. The 
Fannie Doane Home at Granville, Ohio, is maintained by the 
Society for these young people. This year there has been a fine 
group of twenty-five ranging in age from pre-school to seniors in 
high school. At one time homes were maintained at Newton 
Centre, Mass., Morgan Park, 111., and Granville, Ohio. However, 
with improved facilities for primary and secondary education on 
most fields it has been found that the Fannie Doane Home in 
Granville is sufficient to care for present needs. The main build- 
ing in Granville was the gift of Dr. W. H. Doane in 1909. His 
daughter, Mrs. G. W. Doane, has continued a most generous 
interest and support. Miss Maud Brook, housemother, has such 
assistance as is necessitated by the number of children in residence. 

Grant to us, O Lord, the royalty of inward happiness and the 
serenity which comes from living close to thee. Daily renew in us 
the sense of joy, and let the eternal Spirit of the Father dwell in 
our souls and bodies, filling every corner of our hearts with light 
and (Courage, so that we may be diffusers of life, und may meet 
all ills and cross accidents with gallant and high-hearted happi- 
ness, giving thee thanks always for all things. Amen. 


The World Mission of the Church 
International Missionary Council, 1939 

The Madras Series (Volumes I- VII) 

Reports of the International Missionary Council, 1939 

Evaluation Studies and Field Surveys 

American Baptist Foreign Mission Society 

Oil Lamps Lifted by Pearl Dorr Longley 
Fleming H. Revell, 1935 

Poems of the Far East Elsie Northrop Chancy 
Fleming H. Revell f 1939 

Gendreau Illustration Service, New York 

Acknowledgment and sincere appreciation is offered to all who 
have assisted in compiling data and selecting special material for 
this handbook. Station surveys have been checked by missionaries 
and Foreign Secretaries. Supplemental data will be welcomed by 
the editors for use in forthcoming editions. 





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Officers of the Two Societies 281 


American Baptist Foreign Mission Society 

152 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

President of the Society: Rev. M. J. Twomey, D.D. 
Chairman of the Board of Managers: Alton L. Miller, Ph.D. 
Vice-Chair man: Charles S. Aldrich 


Foreign Secretaries: 

REV. J. W. DECKER, D.D.: China, Japan, Philippine Islands 

R. L. HOWARD, D.D.: Burma, Bengal-Orissa, Assam, South India 

REV. P. H. J. LERRIGO, M.D., D.D.: Belgian Congo 

Candidate Secretary: REV. JESSE R. WILSON, D.D. 
Home Secretaries: 

REV. P. H. J. LERRIGO, M.D., D.D. 

REV. JESSE R. WILSON, D.D., Associate 

Budget and Research Secretary, and Recording Secretary: 


Woman's American Baptist Foreign Mission Society 

152 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. 


Home Base Vice-President: MRS. LESLIE E. SWAIN 

Foreign V ice-President: MRS. CHARLES H. SEARS 

Recording Secretary: MRS. ANDREW J. MITCHELL 

Home Base Secretary: Miss JANET S. McKAY 

Foreign and Candidate Secretary: Miss HAZEL F. SHANK 

Treasurer and Budget Secretary: Miss FRANCES K. BURR 

Secretary, League of Interpreters: Miss DAISY DEAN BATE 

Missionary Directory 

Missionary Directory includes the foreign addresses of 
_L all missionaries now in active service. (This directory was 
compiled in April 1940 of latest information at that date.) While 
it is true that inaccuracies will inevitably appear owing to trans- 
fers, furloughs, deaths, etc., repeated requests from the home 
constituency for just such a list has made this attempt advisable. 
Please note that foreign letter postage (with the exception of the 
Philippine Islands which is the same as in the United States), is 
at the rate of 5 cents for the first ounce and 3 cents for each addi- 
tional ounce or fraction thereof. For air mail rates consult your 
local post office. Communications to missionaries on furlough will 
be forwarded through the Headquarters of the respective Soci- 
eties, 152 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Reference Signs: *Representing the Woman's American Baptist Foreign Mis- 
sion Soc. #In missionary service before appointment by Society. 








and State or Country 
from which Missionary 

Foreign Address 



OJ , 

Entered Service 


4-t l- 


1922 1936 *Acock, Winifred M. 




'93 X 939 Adams, Rev. A. S. Pa. 

1903 1939 Adams, Mrs. A. S. England 

1923 1940 *Adams, Jennie C., R.N. Nebr. 

1938 Ahlquist, J. A., M.D. Minn. 

1938 Ahlquist, Mrs. J. A. Minn. 

1938 Allen, Rev. L. B. N. H. 

1938 Allen, Mrs. L. B. N. H. 
1937 * Allen, Thomasine Ind. 

1939 * Anderson, Agnes H., R.N. Iowa 

1926 1935 Anderson, Rev. B. I. N. Dak. 

1926 1935 Anderson, Mrs. B. I. N. Dak 

1920 1934 *Anderson, Gertrude R. Mass. 


8 Nakamaru, Kanagawa 
Ku, Yokohama, Japan 

) Hopo, via Hongkong & 

.J Swatow, China 

Emmanuel Hospital, Ca- 
piz, Philippine Islands 
Kangpokpi, Manipur 

State, Assam, India 
Judson College, Rangoon, 

Kuji, Iwate Ken, Japan 
Kikohgo sur Wamba, 
par Banningville, Congo 
Beige, Africa 

\ Impur, Mokokchung P.O.. 

) Assam, India 
A.B. Mission, Bhamo, 

Missionary Directory 


1928 1936 * Anderson, Rebecca J. Iowa 

1929 1939 *Anderson, Vendla I. Minn. 

1928 1940 Andrus, J. R., Ph.D. Gal. 

1928 1939 Andrus, Mrs. J. R. Gal. 

1920 1935 *Archer, Lettie G. Kans. 

1919 1937 *Argetsinger, Minnie M. N. Y. 

1923 1940 Armstrong, B. W. Iowa 

1923 1940 Armstrong, Mrs. B. W. Iowa 

J 925 1936 Atkins, Rev. Ernest Pa. 

1916 1936 Atkins, Mrs. Ernest Pa. 

1900 1940 Axling, Rev. Wm., D.D. Nebr. 

1900 1940 Axling, Mrs. Wm. Nebr. 

1922 1937 *Bailey, Helen L. Mass. 

igo8 1934 Baker, Rev. B. L. Ky. 

1908 1934 Baker, Mrs. B. L. N. J. 

1921 1937 *Barrington, Harriet, R.N. Ohio 

1906 1936 *Bassett, Beulah E. Gal. 

1917 1939 Beath, S. S. Wis. 

1917 1939 Beath, Mrs. S. S. Wis. 

1918 1940 *Beebe, Marion A. Colo. 

1936 1936 *Bell, Marion, R.N. 111. 

1919 1940 Benjamin, H. R. S. Nebr. 

1919 1940 Benjamin, Mrs. H. R. S. Nebr. 
1926 1940 *Benjamin, Helen M., R.N. 111. 

1902 1934 *Benjamin, Lena A., M.D. Pa. 


Pwo Karen School, Mau- 

bin, Burma 

Sona Bata Boarding 

School, Sona Bata, via 

Matadi, Congo Beige, 


) Judson College, Rangoon, 

) Burma 

Girls' Sr. Middle School, 
Suifu, Szechuen, West 

A.B. Mission, Chengtu, 
Szechuen, West China 

^ Kikongo sur Wamba, par 

f Banningville, Congo Beige, 

' Africa 

"} Kikongo sur Wamba, 

> par Banningville, Congo 

' Beige, Africa 

) 2 Itchome, Misaki Cho, 

) Kanda, Tokyo, Japan 
Harriet Clough Memorial 
Training School, Ongole, 
Guntur District, South 

Swatow, via Hongkong, 

Victoria Memorial Hos- 
pital, Hanumakonda, Dec- 
can, South India 
A.B. Mission, Kiating, 
Szechuen, West China 
University of Shanghai, 
Shanghai, China 
Karen Woman's Bible 
School, Gushing Com- 
pound, Rangoon, Burma 
Scott Thresher Memorial 
Hospital, Swatow, via 
Hongkong, So. China 

Ningpo, China 

Hospital for Women & 
Children, Nellore, Nellore 
Dist., So. India 
Hospital for Women & 
Children, Nellore, Nellore 
Dist., So. India 





All Kindreds and Tongues 










1938 Benninghoff, Rev. H. B., D.D. Ind. 
1938 Benninghoff, Mrs. H. B. Ind. 

1938 *Bent, Julia E. N. Y. 

1934 Berg, Rev. A. A. 
1934 Berg, Mrs. A. A. 
1937 Bigelow, Mrs. A. E. 

1914 1938 *Bixby, Alice C. 

N. J. 


1940 *Blakely, A. Verna, R.N. Pa. 
1940 Blanchard, Rev. W. Maurice Tenn. 

1938 Boggs, A. G., M.D. Mass. 

1938 Boggs, Mrs. A. G. Mass. 

1940 Boggs, Rev. A. M., D.D. Mass. 

1940 Boggs, Mrs. A. M. N. Dak. 

i937#*Bonar, Mary W. Va. 

1938 *Bonney, Lucy P. Mass. 

1940 *Bowers, Mildred L., R.N. Conn. 

1938 Braisted, Win. E., M.D. N. J. 

1936 Brininstool, Rev. M. O. Cal. 

1936 Brininstool, Mrs. M. O., R.N. Cal. 

1938 Brock, Rev. E. E. Wyo. 

1938 Brock, Mrs. E. E. Wyo. 

1940 *Brodbeck, L. Emma 111. 

1938 Brown, Rev. H. D. 

1939 Brown, Mrs. H. D. 

1940 Brown, Rev. L. A. 
1940 Brown, Mrs. L. A. 

1922 1936 *Brown, Velva V., M.D. 

X 935 *935 *Brueckmann, Lillian M. 
1 9 1 7 J 936 *Brunner, Genevra M. 



R. I. 




550-1 Chome, Totsuka 
Machi, Yodobashi Ku, 

/ Tokyo, Japan 

Mission Middle School, 
Kavali, Nellore Dist., 
South India 

) Jhargram, B.N.R., Bengal, 

\ India 

P.O. Box 231, Iloilo City, 
Philippine Islands 
Girls' School, Sendai, Ja- 

Tura Mission Hospital, 
Tura, Assam, India 
% A. B. Mission Press, 
Box 100, Rangoon, Burma 
Ongole, Guntur Dist., So. 

Ramapatnam, Nellore 
Dist., So. Ind. 
Banza Manteke Boarding 
School, Banza Manteke, 
via Matadi, Congo Beige, 

Kachin Baptist School, 
Sumprabum, Burma 
The Christian Hospital, 
Shaohing, China 
Kityang, via Hongkong & 
Swatow, China 

I Kiating, Szechuen, West 

) China 

r Jorhat, Assam, India 

Baptist Girls' School, 
Yaan, Sikang, West China 
( Tondo, via Coquilhatville, 
) Congo Beige, Africa 
) Vanga sur Kwilu, Dist. du 
f Kwango, Congo Beige. 

Scott Thresher Memorial 
Hospital, Swatow, via 
Hongkong, So. China 
A.B. Mission, Balasore, 
Orissa, India 

Gurley Memorial Woman's 
Bible School, Nellore, Nel 
lore Dist., South India 

Missionary Directory 


J 9 2 3 J 939 Brush, Rev. E. C. Pa. 

1923 1939 Brush, Mrs. E. C. Pa. 

1928 1939 Bubeck, Rev. T. E. N. Y. 

1928 1937 Bubeck, Mrs. T. E. N. Y. 

1 93 1 *937 *Buchner, Olive Mich. 

1 93 !93 8 *Bugbee, Ruth H. N. H. 

1926 1933 Buker, Rev. R. B. Maine 

1926 1933 Buker, Mrs. R. B. Maine 

1926 1940 Buker, Rev. R. S., M.D. Maine 

1926 1940 Buker, Mrs. R. S., R.N. Maine 

1911 1940 *Bullard, E. Grace Cal. 

1916 1940 Burket, Rev. E. S., D.D. Ore. 

1916 1936 Burket, Mrs. E. S. Ore. 

1928 1935 Burnham, Marion G. N. Y. 

1926 1938 *Campbell, Dorothy M., R.N. Cal. 

1911 1935 * Campbell, Louise Wash. 



1935 1935 Capen, Rev. Carl M. 

1935 1935 Capen, Mrs. Carl M. 

1904 1935 Capen, Rev. R. T. 

1906 1935 Capen, Mrs. R. T. 

1924 1939 *Carman, Charity C. 

1927 1936 Carman, John S., M.D. 

1927 1936 Carman, Mrs. John S. 

1937 Carpenter, Rev. G. W., Ph.D. 

1937 Carpenter, Mrs. G. W. 

1937 Case, Rev. B. C. 

1939 Chambers, Rev. R. Fred 

1939 Chambers, Mrs. R. Fred, M.D. 

1939 Chancy, Rev. C. E., D.D. 

1939 Chancy, Mrs. C. E. 



1939 *Christenson, E. Victoria 

1936 Christenson, Fred G. 
1935 *Christopherson, Ruth F. 

N. C. 

N. Y. 

N. Y. 

N. Y. 

N. Y. 

N. Y. 

N. Y. 




N. Y. 



Khargpur, India 

Moanza sur Inzia, par 
Banningville et Vanga, 
Congo Beige, Africa 
San Jose, Antique Prov- 
ince, Philippine Islands 
University of Shanghai, 
Shanghai, China 
Kengtung, So. Shan States, 

Kengtung, So. Shan States, 

Mission Middle School, 
Kavali, Nellore Dist., 
South India 

169 Yuen Ming Yuen 
Road, Shanghai, China 
Gauhati, Assam, India 
Bixby Memorial General 
Hospital, Kityang, via 
Hongkong . & Swatow, 
South China 

Kwong Yit Girls' School, 
Meihsien, via Hongkong & 
Swatow, So. China 
Chaoyang, via Hongkong 
& Swatow, China 
Swatow, via Hongkong, 

Karen Woman's Bible 
School, Rangoon, Burma 
Hanumakonda, Hydera- 
bad State, South India 
Leopoldville 11, Congo 
Beige, Africa 
Pyinmana, Burma 
[ P. O. Box 231, Iloilo City, 
i Philippine Islands 
' Seminary Hill, Insein, 
I Burma 

Gale Memorial Bible 
Training School, Jorhat, 
Assam, India 
Cumbum, Kurnool Dist., 
So. India 

Morton Lane High & 
Normal School, Moul- 
mein, Burma 




1 Q 1 9 

All Kindreds and Tongues 

1940 Clayton, E. H., D.D. 
1940 Clayton, Mrs. E. H. 
1940 *Coggins, May A. 

1940 Rev. Paul A. Collyer 
1940 Mrs. Paul A. Collyer 

1936 Condict, Rev. E. C., D.D. 

1935 Condict, Mrs. E. C. 

X 939 Conrad, Rev. C. L. 

1939 Conrad, Mrs. C. L. 

!93 8 Cook, Rev. J. W. 

I 93 1 1 93^ Cook, Mrs. J. W. 

1935 1940 *Cooper, Grace M.M. 

1919 1936 Covell, J. Howard 

1920 1936 Covell, Mrs. J. Howard 
1929 1937 *Crain, Inez 

J 939 *939 Grain, Rev. Leonard A. 
J 939 J 939 Grain, Mrs. Leonard A. 
1909 1939 *Crawford, L. Jennie, R.N. 

1908 1939 *Cressey, Mary 

1909 1940 Cressy, Rev. E. H., LL.D. 
1909 1940 Cressy, Mrs. E. H. 

1931 1938 *Criswell, Marion I., M.D. 

1920 1935 *Cronkite, Ethel M. 

1920 1936 Crook, R. L., M.D. 

1930 1936 /Crook, Mrs. R. L. 

1 93 1 *937 *Cuddeback, Margaret E. 

1914 1935 *Culley, Mabelle R. 

1926 1939 Cummings, Rev. Roger 

1 9 2 B J 939 Cummings, Mrs. Roger 

1 93 1 X 939 Cummings, Wm. H. 

iQS 1 J 939 Cummings, Mrs. Wm. H. 

1928 1936 Curtis, Rev. P. S. 

1928 1936 Curtis, Mrs. P. S. 

1914 1935 *Daniels, Ruth M. 

1937 1937 *Darrow, Agnes E. 

N. J. 

N. Y. 

N. Y. 
N. Y. 
N. J. 




N. Y. 



N. Y. 

S. Dak. 












[ Hangchow, China 

Box 100, Bacolod, Occ. 
Negros, Philippine Islands 

t China 

121 D Mission Road, 
Ahlone, Rangoon, Burma 

> Bassein, Burma 

? Jorhat, Assam, India 

Kikongo sur Wamba, par 
Banningville, Congo Beige, 

) P.O. Box 231, Iloilo City, 

I Philippine Islands 
Bixby Memorial School, 
Toungoo, Burma 

) A.B. Mission Press, 

\ Box 100, Rangoon, Burma 
Hospital for Women & 
Children, Suifu, Szechuen, 
West China 

Sing-mo and Mo-nyi 
Schools, Ningpo, China 
169 Yuen Ming Yuen 
Road, Shanghai, China 
Hospital for Women & 
Children, Suifu, Szechuen, 
West China 
Mission Girls' High School 
Balasore, Orissa, India 
Yaan, Sikang, West 

Mead Christian Center, 
Osaka, Japan 
Kak Kuang Academy, 
Swatow, via Hongkong, 
South China 

Moulmein, Burma 

Namkham, via Bhamo, 

Donakonda, Nellore Dist. 
* South India 
Girls' High School, 
Midnapore, Bengal, India 
Ohio Judson College, Rangoon, 

Missionary Directory 


1905 1938 Davies, Rev. John P. 

L 95 *938 Davies, Mrs. John P. 

1921 1938 Davis, Rev. E. Bixler 

1921 1938 Davis, Mrs. E. Bixler 

1920 1935 *Denison, Myrtle C., R.N. 

1930 1937 Dickason, F. G. 

1930 1937 Dickason, Mrs. F. G., R.N. 

1930 1940 *Dickey, Ruth E. 

1939 1940 *Dixon, Mildred, R.N. 

1 9 1 9 

Dowell, Dorothy A. 

1920 1935 *Downer, Sara B. 

1926 1935 Downs, Rev. E. S., M.D. 
1926 1935 Downs, Mrs. E. S., R.N. 
1918 1936 *Dresser, Ursula 

1935 Dudrow, Rev. L. A. 

*9 2 7 *935 Dudrow, Mrs. L. A. 

1921 1937 Dunn, Rev. Win. S. 

J 9 X 9 1 937 Dunn, Mrs. Wm. S. 

1908 1940 Dye, D. S. 
1919 1940 #Dye, Mrs. D. S. 

X 939 Dyer, Rev. V. W. 

L 938 Dyer, Mrs. V. W. 

1 937 *Eastlund, Almyra E., R.N. 

1937 Edgar, Lea Blanche 
1926 1937 *Ehnbom, Esther J., R.N. 




R. I. 


N. J. 
N. J. 

N. Y. 

N. Y. 

W. Va. 





Kinhwa, China 

1926 1940 *Eldredge, Marguerite M. N. J. 

1933 1939 England, Rev. J. Martin N. Car. 

1933 1939 England, Mrs. J. Martin Ala. 

1925 1938 *English, Lena M., M.D. Pa. 

Allur, Nellore Dist., So. 


Hospital for Men, Suifu, 

Szechuen, West China 

) Judson College, Rangoon, 

) Burma 

Moanza, sur Inzia, par 
Banningville et Vanga, 
Congo Beige, Africa 
Ellen Mitchell Memorial 
Hospital, Moulmein, 


Baptist Missionary Train- 
ing School, Iloilo City, 
Philippine Islands 
West China Union 
University, Chengtu, West 

Tura, Assam, India 

A.B. Mission, Narsaravu- 
pet, Guntur District, 
South India 

Myitkyina, Burma 

Balasore, India 

}West China Union 
University, Chengtu, West 

Insein, Burma 

The Christian Hospital, 
Jorhat, Assam, India 
55 Yuen Ming Yuen Road, 
Shanghai, China 
A.B. Mission, . Banza 
Manteke, via Matadi, 
Congo Beige, Africa 
Tondo, via Irebu, Congo 
Beige, Africa 

Bhamo, Burma 

Hospital for Women & 
Children, Nellore, Nellore 
Dist., So. India 


All Kindreds and Tongues 






1940 Engwall, Rev. M. S. 
1940 Engwall, Mrs. M. S. 

1935 Erickson, Rev. Edwin 
1935 Erickson, Mrs. Edwin 
1938 Erickson, Rev. Henry 

1938 Erickson, Mrs. Henry 
1940 *Erickson, Signe A. 

1939 Ericson, Beatrice A. 
1938 *Ernst, Flora G., R.N. 

1924 1939 *Evans, Maza R. 



S. Dak. 


1917 1938 *Everham, Marguerite E., M.D. 111. 

1927 1934 Farnum, Rev. Marlin D. 

1927 1934 Farnum, Mrs. Marlin D. 

1924 1937 Feldmann, Rev. S. S. 

1924 1937 Feldmann, Mrs. S. S. 

1921 1935 *Ferguson, Susan C. 

1914 1937 Fisher, R. H. 

1914 1937 Fisher, Mrs. R. H. 

1917 1940 Fishman, Rev. A. T. 

1939 1940 Fishman, Mrs. A. T. 

1924 1939 Fletcher, Rev. E. T. 

1925 1939 Fletcher, Mrs. E. T. 

1912 1935 Foote, Rev. J. A., D.D. 

1911 1935 Foote, Mrs. J. A. 

1929 1937 Forbes, Rev. J. M. 

1929 1937 Forbes, Mrs. J. M. 

1931 1938 *Forssell, Elna G., R.N. 

1917 1940 *Foster, Anna E. 

1924 1940 Freas, Howard M., M.D. 

1929 1940 Freas, Mrs. Howard M. 

1911 1940 Frost, Rev. H. I. 

1911 1940 Frost, Mrs. H. I. 


N. Y. 

N. Y. 


N. Y. 
N. Y. 



N. Y. 









-v Moanza sur Inzia, par 

\. Banningville et Vanga, 

J Congo Beige, Africa 

) Narsaravupet, Guntur 

) District, South India- 

) Sona Bata, via Matadi, 

f Congo Beige, Africa 

P.O. Box 83, Iloilo City,, 

Philippine Islands 

Swatow, via Hongkong, 


Iloilo Mission Hospital, 

Iloilo City, Philippine 


Mission Girls' High 

School, Golaghat, Assam, 


Bixby Memorial General 

Hospital, Kityang, via 

Hongkong & Swatow, 

South China 

-j 820 Nichome, Shimouma 
\. Machi, Setagaya Ku, 
J Tokyo, Japan 
) P.O. Box 251, Iloilo City, 
J Philippine Islands 

Bishopville, Vepery, Ma- 
dras, South India 

i of 73 Kanoe Dai, Naka 
' Ku, Yokohama, Japan 

Secunderabad, Deccan, So. 


Maubin, Burma 

58 Moto Imasato, Minami 
Dori, Itchome, Higashi, 
Yodogawa Ku, Osaka, 

[ Gauhati, Assam, India 

The Christian Hospital, 
Jorhat, Assam, India 
Kwong Yit Girls' School, 
Meihsien, via Hongkong & 
Swatow, So. China 
Sona Bata, via Matadi, 
i Congo Beige, Africa 

Balasore, India 

Missionary Directory 






1937 Frykenberg, Rev. Eric Mass. 

1937 Frykenberg, Mrs. Eric Mass. 

1940 Gates, Gordon E., Ph.D. Maine 

1940 Gates, Mrs. Gordon E. Maine 

1936 Geil, Rev. John E., D.D. Ohio 

1936 Geil, Mrs. John E. Ohio 

1932 Gibbens, Rev. H. C., M.D. Pa. 

1932 Gibbens, Mrs. H. C. Kans. 

1937 *Gibbens, S. Harriet, R.N. Pa. 




J 97 


1936 Giedt, Rev. E. H., Ph.D. N. Dak. 
1936 Giedt, Mrs. E. H. N. Y. 

1939 *Giffin, Alice M. Minn. 

1938 *Giffin, Louise M. Minn. 

1935 *Gifford, Martha J., M.D. N. Y. 

1940 Gilson, John G. Iowa 

1940 Gilson, Mrs. John G. Iowa 

1938 *Gleich, Carolyn A. Ohio 

1939 Goddard, Stephen J. N. Y. 

1939 Goddard, Mrs. Stephen J. N. Y. 

1940 Graham, Rev. D. C., Ph.D. N. Y. 
1940 Graham, Mrs. D. C. N. Y. 

1937 Graham, Rev. D. W. Pa. 

1937 Graham, Mrs. D. W. Pa. 

1938 Gressitt, J. F. Md. 
1938 Gressitt, Mrs. J. F. Cal. 

1940 *Grey, Anna B., M.D. 111. 

*9 1 3 

1 9 1 3 
1 9 1 3 

X 9 7 



Hackett, Paul R. Mo. 

Hackett, Mrs. Paul R. Mo. 

Hall, Rev. Elmer G. Cal. 

Hall, Mrs. Elmer G. Cal. 

Hanna, Rev. A. C. Pa. 

Hanna, Mrs. A. C. N. Y. 

Hanson, Victor Iowa 

Hanson, Mrs. Victor Iowa 
Harding, Rev. F. W., D.D. N. Y. 

Harding, Mrs. F. W. N. Y. 

Nalgonda, via Nakrakal 

P.O. Deccan, South India 

Judson College, Rangoon, 


Banza Manteke, via 

Matadi, Congo Beige, 


Loilem, So. Shan States, 


Ellen Mitchell Memorial 

Hospital, Moulmein, 


Kityang, via Hongkong & 

Swatow, China 

Kwong Yit Girls' School, 

Meihsien, via Hongkong & 

Swatow, So. China 

Kak Kuang Academy, 

Swatow, via Hongkong, 

South China 

Woman's Hospital, Gau- 

hati, Assam, India 

Balasore, India 

White Memorial Hostel, 
Gauhati, Assam, India 
169 Yuen Ming Yuen 
Road, Shanghai, China 
West China Union Uni- 
versity, Chengtu, West 

' China 

Karen Theological Semi- 
nary, Insein, Burma 

\ 475 Nichome, Kami 

> Kitazawa, Setagaya Ku, 

/ Tokyo, Japan 

Ellen Mitchell Memorial 
Hospital, Moulmein, 


Moulmein, Burma 

Leopoldville 1 1 , Congo 
Beige, Africa 
% A. B. Mission Press, 
Rangoon, Burma 
University of Shanghai, 
Shanghai, China 

Tura, Assam, India 




!9 2 3 










All Kindreds and Tongues 

1936 *Hare, Dorothy A. 
1938 Harris, Ruth L. 


*937 *Harris, Willie P., R.N. 

1938 Hasselblad, O. W., M.D. 
1938 Hasselblad, Mrs. O. W. 
1938 Hastings, Olive A. 
1937 *Hatch, F. Faith 

1914 1937 *Hay, Elizabeth E. 

1 9 l> 7 J 935 *Hesseltine, Carrie E. 

1921 1937 *Hill, Grace I. 

1915 1939 *Hill, Viola C. 










1938 Hillman, Owen N., Ph.D. Mass. 

1937 Hobart, Rev. K. G., Ph.D. 
1937 Hobart, Mrs. K. G. 
1935 Hobbs, Rev. Cecil C. 

Hobbs, Mrs. Cecil C. 

Holm, Rev. Reuben W. 

Holm, Mrs. Reuben W., R 

1939 Hoisted, Ernest, M.D. 

1939 Hoisted, Mrs. Ernest, R.N. 

1934 Holtom, Rev. D. C., Ph.D. 

1940 Holtom, Mrs. D. C. 
1939 Horton, Charles R. 
1939 Horton, Mrs. Charles R. 

1935 Houger, A. Bertha 

1937 Howard, Rev. J. A. 
1937 Howard, Mrs. J. A. 

1937 *Hunt, Helen K. 
1937 *Hunt, Mona Ecco 

1936 Hunter, Rev. C. Earl Okla. 

1940 Hutton, Rev. W. R. Kans. 

1940 Hutton, Mrs. W. R. Kans. 

1938 Hylbert, Rev. L. C., D.D. W. Va. 

1938 Hylbert, Mrs. L. C. N. J. 

A.B. Mission, Swatow, via 
Hongkong, South China 
P.O. Box 231, Iloilo City, 
Philippine Islands 
Hwa Mei Hospital, Ning- 
po, China 

Jorhat, Assam, India 

Box 100, Rangoon, Burma 

Huldah Mix Girls' School, 

Taunggyi, F.S.S., Burma 

Mission Girls' Training 

School, Nowgong, Assam, 


Thonze Middle School, 

Thonze, Burma 

Santal Girls' M.V. School, 

Bhimpore Midnapore 

Dist., Bengal, India 

A.B. Mission, Shaohing. 


Judson College, Rangoon, 


A.B. Mission, Swatow, via 

Hongkong, China 

C Insein, Burma 
Minn. ~\ 

N. V Golaghat, Assam, India 
Minn. J 

Ongole, Guntur District, 
South India 

i of 4 Miharu Dai, 
Nakaku, Yokohama, Japan 

Pyinmana, Burma 

P.O. Box 231, Iloilo City, 
Philippine Islands 

> Khargpur, India 

Judson College, Rangoon, 


English Girls' High 

School, Moulmein, Burma 

Jorhat, Assam, India 

Nowgong, Assam, India 

169 Yuen Ming Yuen 
Road, Shanghai, China 


N. Y. 

N. Y. 










Missionary Directory 

1910 1937 Jensen, Rev. J. C., D.D. 

1910 1937 Jensen, Mrs. J. C. 

1911 1938 *Jesse, Mary D. 

1920 1940 Johnson, Rev. B. M. 

1920 1940 Johnson, Mrs. B. M., R.N. 

1910 1937 *Johnson, Cecelia L. 

1 9 1 9 *939 *Johnson, Enid P. 

'93 1 

1 9 1 9 


Szechuen, West 

1939 * Johnson, Laura E. 

1939 * Johnson, Sigrid C., R.N. 

* Jones, Mary I. 
*934 * Jones, Olive E. 

1928 1938 *Jorgenson, Alice O., R.N. Minn. 

1919 1940 Josif, Mrs. G. D. 

1919 1940 Jury, Rev. G. S., Ph.D. 

1919 1940 Jury, Mrs. G. S. 

1920 1936 *Keans, Lena A. 

1920 1936 Kennard, Rev. J. S., Ph.D. 
1923 1936 Kennard, Mrs. J. S. 

1928 1938 Keyser, Rev. W. L. 

1929 1938 Keyser, Mrs. W. L. 

1901 1932 Kirby, Rev. H. W., M.D. 

1906 1932 Kirby, Mrs. H. W. 

1921 1939 *Kittlitz, Elsie M. 

Idaho > Suifu, 
Idaho China 

Va. 2 Nakajima-cho, Sendai, 


N. Y. ) Nellore, Nellore Dist., So. 
N. Y. \ India 
Wis Karen High School, Moul- 

mein, Burma 

Cal. Swatow Christian Insti- 
tute, Swatow, via Hong- 
kong, South China 
Nebr. Girls' School, Maymyo, 


Mich. Clough Memorial Hos- 
pital, Ongole, Guntur 
District, South India 
Ohio 169 Yuen Ming Yuen 

Road, Shanghai, China 
N. Y. Girls' High School, Nel- 
lore, Nellore Dist., South 

Vanga sur Kwilu, Dist. du 
Kwango, Congo Beige, 
111. 121 D Mission Road, 

Rangoon, Burma 

Canada ) Judson College, Rangoon, 
Canada C Burma 
Mass. Central Boarding School, 
Narsaravupet, Guntur 
Dist., So. India 

-j v \ West China Union Uni- 
' ' I versity, Chengtu, West 
' ' J China 

1929 1937 Klahsen, Rev. J. P. 

1929 1930 Klahsen, Mrs. J. P. 

1919 1936 Klein, Rev. C. L. 

1920 1936 Klein, Mrs. C. L., R.N. 
1929 1935 *Knabe, Elizabeth 

1922 1939 *Knapp, Naomi H. 



N. J. 






Bassein, Burma 
Jorhat, Assam, India 

Woman's Bible Training 
School, Swatow, via Hong- 
kong, South China 
i Madira, N.G.S. Railway, 
Deccan, South India 

Toungoo, Burma 

University of Shanghai, 

Shanghai, China 

A.B. Mission, Bhimpore, 


All Kindreds and Tongues 




1937 Lanoue, Rev. Ulric A. Canada 

1937 Lanoue, Mrs. Ulric A., R.N. Canada 

1938 *Larson, Elsie M., R.N. Minn. 

1938 Latta, Rev. J. T. 
1938 Latta, Mrs. J. T. 
1938 *Laughlin, Mary I. 



S. Dak. 




1939 *Lawney, Josephine C., M.D. Vt. 

1940 *Leach, Clara C., M.D. Vt. 

1938 Lenox, John E., M.D. Pa. 

1938 Lenox, Mrs. John E., M.D. S. C. 
1935 *Lewison, R. Grace Iowa 

1940 Long, Rev. H. C. Colo. 

1938 Long, Mrs. H. C. Mich. 

1934 Longley, Rev. W. J. 111. 

1934 Longley, Mrs. W. J. 111. 

1938 Luebeck, Rev. B. H., Ph.D. 111. 

1938 Luebeck, Mrs. B. H., R.N. Cal. 

1939 *McCulloch, Gertrude F. Mich. 

1929 1936 *McDaniel, S. Maude, R.N. S. C. 

1898 1936 *Mabie, Catharine L., M.D. 111. 

1906 1939 MacDiarmid, Rev. P. A. Canada 

1911 1939 MacDiarmid, Mrs. P. A. Wash. 

1904 1935 *Magilton, Annie S., R.N. Pa. 

1916 1934 Manley, C. R., M.D. Ore. 

1916 1934 Manley, Mrs. C. R. Ore. 

1914 1935 Manley, Rev. F. P. Wash. 

X 935 1935 Manley, Mrs. F. P. Mass. 

1903 1935 Marshall, Rev. H. I., D.D. N. H. 

1901 1935 Marshall, Mrs. H. I. Mass. 

1935 1935 Martin, Rev. John C. N. Y. 

i93 2 !93 2 Martin, Mrs. John C. Kans. 

Midnapore District, Ben- 
gal, India 

Kimpese, via Matadi, 
Congo Beige, Africa 
Hospital for Women & 
Children, Nellore, Nel- 
lore.Dist., So. India 

Thonze, Burma 

Girls' High & Normal 
School, Kemmendine, 

Margaret Williamson 

Hospital, Shanghai, China 
Bixby Memorial General 
Hospital, Kityang, via 
Hongkong^ & Swatow, 
South China 

Chengtu, West China 

Mission Girls' High 
School, Golaghat, Assam, 

Bhimpore, Midnapore 
Dist., India 

Kurnool, Kurnool Dist., 
So. India 

Ungkung, via Hongkong 
) & Swatow, China 
Christian Cooperative 
School, Shaohing, China 
Clough Memorial Hos- 
pital, Ongole, Guntur 
District, South India 
Kimpese, via Matadi, 
Congo Beige, Africa 
? Sona Bata, via Matadi, 
) Congo Beige, Africa 
Hospital for Women & 
Children, Nellore, Nellore 
Dist., So. India 
) Hanumakonda, Hydera- 
\ bad State, South India 
Ramapatnam, Nellore 
District, South India 

Toungoo, Burma 


/ Kanigiri, Nellore District, 
South India 

Missionary Directory 

1920 1936 *Marvin, Millie M., R.N. 

1920 1939 *Mather, Ruth 

1916 1940 *Maxville, Selma M., R.N. 

1930 1936 *Melton, Orma A. 

1928 1936 Merrill, Rev. Alfred F. 

1928 1936 Merrill, Mrs. Alfred F. 

1919 1938 Meyer, F. W., M.D. 

1919 1938 Meyer, Mrs. F. W. 

1915 1940 Moncrieff, J. E. 

1915 1940 Moncrieff, Mrs. J. E. 

1910 1937 *Moran, Margarita F. 




W. Va. 









Woman's Hospital, Gau- 
hati, Assam, India 
169 Yuen Ming Yuen 
Road, Shanghai, China 
Ellen Mitchell Memorial 
Hospital, Moulmein, 


169 Yuen Ming Yuen 
Road, Shanghai, China 

> Tura, Assam, India 

) Capiz, Capiz, Philippine 

j Islands 

"j West China Union Uni- 

> versity, Chengtu, West 
/ China 

Gurley Memorial Wom- 
an's Bible School, Nellore, 
Nellore Dist., South India 

1930 1937 *Morris, Elsie M., M.D. 

1906 1931 *Morrow, Melissa E. 

1904 1940 Munger, Rev. H. W. 

1925 1940 Munger, Mrs. H. W. 
1909 1940 Nasmith, Rev. A. I. 

1926 1940 Nasmith, Mrs. A. I. 

1 93 1 1 93^ *Nelson, Ada L. 
1924 1939 *Nelson, Esther, R.N. 

1939 1939 Nelson, Rev. Franklin O. 

1 93 1 *939 Nelson, Mrs. Franklin O. 

1935 1940 *Nelson, Linnea A. 

1920 1934 *Nichols, Ethel E. 

1932 1938 *Nicholson, Goldie M. 
'9*3 1 93 *Northcott, Fannie, R.N. 

N. J. 



N. Y. 
N. Y. 



inn. ) 
inn. ) 

N. Y. 


Hospital for Women & 
Children, Nellore, Nel- 
lore Dist., So. India 
Vinukonda, Guntur Dist., 
So. India 

Fabrica, Occidental Ne- 
gros, Philippine Islands 

Hangchow, China 

Baptist Girls' School, 
Yaan, Sikang, West China 
Senior Middle School, 
Suifu, Szechuen, West 

Tiddim, Chin Hills, 

Cheng Mei Girls' School, 
Kinhwa, China 
Mission Girls' Middle 
English School, Gauhati, 
Assam, India 
50 Shimotera Machi, 
Himeji, Japan 
Swatow Christian Insti- 
tute, Swatow, via Hong- 
kong, South China 

All Kindreds and Tongues 


1928 1936 Osgood, Rev. W. C. N. Y. 

1928 1936 Osgood, Mrs. W. C. Ore. 

1925 1936 Osterholm, A. C., M.D. Ore. 

X 9 2 5 J 937 Osterholm, Mrs. A. C. Ore. 

1907 1935 Parish, Rev. M. C. Iowa 

'97 !935 Parish, Mrs. M. C. N. Y. 

1907 1937 *Parish, Mary L. Iowa 

1936 1936 *Patten, Lora M. Ind. 

1921 1936 *Paul, E. Ruth Kans. 

1 9 1 3 "935 Penner, Rev. John A, Russia 

1 9 I 3 1 937 Penner, Mrs. John A. Russia 

1930 1937 *Peterson, Astrid M. Cal. 

1913 1940 *Peterson, Ellen J. Maine 

1910 1935 *Petheram, Hattie V. S. Dak. 

1920 1937 *Pettit, Arcola I. Iowa 

1920 1937 Phelps, Rev. D. L., Ph.D. Cal. 

1921 1937 Phelps, Mrs. D. L. Cal. 

1 93 *937 *Pond, Beatrice A. Mass. 

J 937 *937 Pratt, Rev. L. S. Maine 

1928 1937 Pratt, Mrs. L. S. Maine 
1935 1940 * Proctor, Mildred Ohio 

1929 1936 *Randall, Alice L., M.D. W. Va. 
*9 2 3 J 938 *Reifsneider, Marian H. Pa. 
1919 1938 *Reilly, Jennie L., R.N. Mass. 

*93 6 !93 6 *Rich, Dorothy E. Cal. 

1924 1939 Rickard, Samuel H. Pa. 

1924 1939 Rickard, Mrs. Samuel H. N. J. 

1926 1934 Roadarmel, Rev. C. C. . Ohio 

1926 1934 Roadarmel, Mrs. C. C. R. I. 

1921 1937 *Robbins, Sadie E., R.N. 111. 

Hatigarah, Orissa, India 

\ Vanga sur Kwilu, Dist. 

> du Kwango, Congo Beige, 
J Africa 

( Pegu, Burma 

Girls' School, Pegu, Burma 

Mary L. Colby School, 

Yokohama, Japan 

Mission Girls' Training 

School, Nowgong, Assam, 


) Sooriapett, Deccan, So. 
V India 

Girls' Senior Middle 

School, Suifu, Szechuen, 

West China 

Yuih Kwang School, 

Shaohing, China 

Karen School, Nyaungle- 

bin, Burma 

Baptist Home School, 

Capiz, Philippine Islands 
\ West China Union Uni- 

> versity, Chengtu, West 
J China 

Burman Woman's Bible 

School, Insein, Burma 
) Markapur, Kurnool Dis- 
f trict, South India 

A.B. Mission, Ningpo, 


Woman's Hospital, Gau- 

hati, Assam, India 

A.B. Mission, Mandalay, 


Ramapatnam Nursing 

Home, Ramapatnam, Nel- 

lore Dist., So. India 

12 iE Mission Road, Ran- 

goon, Burma 

) Judson College, Rangoon, 
I Burma 

) Bhimpore P.O., Midna- 
l pore Dist., India 

Victoria Memorial Hos- 

pital, Hanumakonda, Dec- 

can, So. India 

Missionary Directory 

933 1939 

1928 1939 

1910 1937 

1910 1937 

1930 1937 

Robbins, Rev. W. F. 
Robbins, Mrs. W. F. . 

Rockwood, Rev. B. J. 
Rockwood, Mrs. B. J. 
*Rold, Fern M. 

1929 1935 Root, Annie E. 

1912 1937 Rose, Rev. F. H., D.D. 

1912 1937 Rose, Mrs. F. H. 

1930 1937 Rounds, Rev. Erie F. 
J 93 J 937 Rounds, Mrs. Erie F. 
1929 1937 *Rowland, Florence E. 

1917 1940 Rowland, Rev. L. E. 

1917 1940 Rowland, Mrs. L. E. 

*97 *938 Rutherford, Rev. Chas., D 

1914 1938 Rutherford, Mrs. Chas., R. 

*938 1938 Ryder, Frances M. 

1908 1929 *Ryder, Gertrude E. 

1897 1939 *Salquist, Mrs. Anna M. 

1939 1940 

1928 1939 


*Salzman, Esther, L, R.N. 
(Language study Peiping) 
*Satterberg, Emily E., R.N. 

1920 1937 Seagrave, G. S., M.D. 
1920 1937 Seagrave, Mrs. G. S. 
1924 1931 *Seagrave, Grace R., M.D. 

1916 1930 *Seagrave, Rachel H. 

1921 1936 Selander, Rev. John 

1921 1936 Selander, Mrs. John 

'937 *937 *Shepard, Eva M. 

1923 1936 *Shivers, Marian E. 

1 93 1 J 939 Slocum, Burl A. 
I 93 l *939 Slocum, Mrs. Burl A. 


>, Vanga sur Kwilu, Dist. du 
M * m T e I Kwango, Congo Beige, 
N -J- j Africa 

Pa. i Kurnool, Kurnool Dist., 

Pa. f So. India 

Girls' Mission Middle 
English School, Tura, 
Assam, India 
University of Shanghai, 
Shanghai, China 
P.O. Box 231, Iloilo City, 
Philippine Islands 
Capiz, Capiz, Philippine 

A.B. Mission, Ramapat- 
nam, Nellore District, 
South India 

Kavali, Nellore Dist., So. 

I Jangaon, Deccan, South 
) India 

Taunggyi, So. Shan States, 

51 Tenma cho, Itchome, 
Yotsuya Tokyo, Japan 
A.B. Mission, Chengtu, 
Szechuen, West China 
Pickford Memorial Hos- 
pital, Kinhwa, China 
Soria Bata Medical School, 
Sona Bata, via Matadi, 
Congo Beige, Africa 
Namkham, via Bhamo, 

Ellen Mitchell Memorial 
Hospital, Moulmein, 


A.B. Mission, Prome, 






N. Y. 
N. Y. 












N. Y. 

[ Sadiya, Assam, India 

A.B. Mission, Vanga sur 
Kwilu, Dist. du Kwango, 
Congo Beige, Africa 
N. J. Judson College, Rangoon, 


N. Y. ) Nanking University, 

N. Y. C Chengtu, West China 







1938 Smith, Rev. C. E. 

1938 Smith, Mrs. C. E. 

1939 Smith, D. O. 

1939 Smith, Mrs. D. O. 
1938 *Smith, Edna D. 

1935 Smith, Rev. F. N. 
1932 Smith, Mrs. F. N. 

1940 *Smith, Hazel E. 

All Kindreds and Tongues 

\ Kikongo sur Wamba, par 
Iowa I Banningvillej Con g 

Mlch " J Beige, Africa 
Cal. ) Judson College, Rangoon, 
Ohio ) Burma 

N. J. A.B. Mission, Swatow, via 
Hongkong, South China 

f Yaan, Sikang, West China 

Mission Girls' Middle 
English School, Gauhati, 
Assam, India 

N. Y. 
N. Y. 

1934 Smith, Rev. J. M. 
1934 Smith, Mrs. J. M. 
1937 Stannard, R. E., M.D. 
1937 Stannard, Mrs. R. E. 
1940 *Stever, Edna M., R.N. 

1930 1937 *Stoudenmire, Hallie Lee 

1933 Strait, Rev. C. U., Th.D. 

1933 Strait, Mrs. C. U., R.N. 

1934 Streeter, Rev. M. L. 

1934 Streeter, Mrs. M. L. 
1936 Supplee, Geo. W. 
1936 Supplee, Mrs. Geo. W. 
1936 Sutton, Rev. W. D. 
1936 Sutton, Mrs. W. D. 
1936 Sword, Rev. G. A. 

1936 Sword, Mrs. G. A. 

1935 Sword, Rev. V. H., Th.D. 
1935 Sword, Mrs. V. H. 

1937 *Tait, Marion J. 

1940 Tanquist, Rev. J. E. 
1940 Tanquist, Mrs. J. E. 
J 939 Taylor, Elizabeth M. 

1940 Taylor, Rev. W. R. 
1940 Taylor, Mrs. W. R. 
1 939 *Teasdale, Ruth 

1939 Telford, Rev. J. H., Ph.D. 
1939 Telford, Mrs. J. H. 
1939 Tharp, Elma R. 


J 933 



S. Dak. 
S. Dak. 



N. Y. 




R. I. 
















N. Y. 



Pyinmana, Burma 

Shaohing, China 

Woman's Hospital, Gau- 
hati, Assam, India 
A.B. Mission, Hanuma- 
konda, Deccan, South 

Haka, Chin Hills, Burma 
Tavoy, Burma 
Kohima, Assam, India 

1 Tavoy, Burma 

. Kutkai, No. Shan States, 
via Lashio, Burma 

Gauhati, Assam, India 

Mission Girls' High 
School, Golaghat, Assam, 

f Kohima, Assam, India 

Taunggyi, So. Shan States, 


I 169 Yuen Ming Yuen 
) Road, Shanghai, China 

Girls' Mission Middle 

English School, Tura, 

Assam, India 

r Loimwe, Burma 

i of 73 Kanoe Dai, Naka 
Ku, Yokohama, Japan 

Missionary Directory 


1916 1934 *Thayer, F. Alice 

1918 1935 *Therolf, Frances J., R.N. 

1916 1940 Thomas, Harold, M.D. 

1916 1940 Thomas, Mrs. Harold 

1918 1940 *Thomas, Mary D. 

1938 1938 Thomas, Rev. W. C. 

1938 1938 Thomas, Mrs. W. C. 

1938 1938 *Thurmond, Ruth V. 

1932 1938 *Tice, Mildred G., R.N. 







1937 Tompkins, C. E., M.D. 

1937 Tompkins, Mrs. C. E. 

1938 Topping, Rev. W. F. 
1938 Topping, Mrs. W. F. 
1938 *Tufts, Helen L. 

1940 Tuttle, Rev. A. J., D.D. 

1940 Tuttle, Mrs. A. J. 

1938 Tuttle, G. W., M.D. 

1938 Tuttle, Mrs. G. W., R.N. 

1936 Ufford, Rev. A. F. 

1936 Ufford, Mrs. A. F. 

1938 Varney, Rev. W. Drew 

1938 Varney, Mrs. W. Drew 

1939 Vichert, Rev. C. G. 
1939 Vichert, Mrs. C. G. 
1939 *Warburton, Leonette M. 




N. Y. 


N. Y. 


W. Va. 





N. Y. 

N. Y. 




1939 * Waterman, Gertrude M. Conn. 

(Language study at Peiping) 

1940 Waters, Henry S., M.D. N. Y. 
1940 Waters, Mrs. Henry S., R.N. Pa. 
1940 Wathne, Rev. Thorleif 111. 
1940 Wathne, Mrs. Thorleif 111. 
1940 Watkins, Henry J. 

1940 Watkins, Mrs. Henry J. Cal. 
1936 * Webster, Florence A. N. Dak. 

1928 1935 *Whited, Myrtle M., R.N. Ohio 

Girls' School, Mandalay, 


Briton Corlies Memorial 

Hospital, Yaan, Sikang, 

West China 

Ningpo, China 

Boys' School, Taunggyi, 
F.S.S., Burma 

IGurzalla, via Palnad, 
Guntur Dist., South India 
Girls' High School, Nel- 
lore, Nellore Dist., So. 

Sona Bata Medical School, 
Sona Bata, via Matadi, 
Congo Beige, Africa 
Suifu, Szechuen, West 

[ 69 Shimotera Machi, 

i Himeji, Japan 
English Girls' High School, 
Moulmein, Burma 

Gauhati, Assam, India 

| Sona Bata, via Matadi, 
Congo Beige, Africa 

Shaohing, China 

Bapatla, Guntur Dist., So. 

Yaan, Sikang, West China 

Baptist Student Center, 

Iloilo City, Philippine 


169 Yuen Ming Yuen 

Road, Shanghai, China 

P.O. Box 340, Iloilo City, 

Philippine Islands 

) Ongole, Guntur Dist., So. 

\ India 

( Leopoldville 11, Congo 

\ Beige, Africa 
Riverside Academy, Ning- 
po, China 

Hwa Mei Hospital, Ning- 
po, China 

298 All Kindreds 

'93 1 93& *Whitwer, E. Eloise 

1926 1940 *Wiatt, Lucy F. 

1904 1940 Wiatt, Rev. W. E., D.D. 

1904 1940 Wiatt, Mrs. W. E. 

J 93 8 *93 8 *Wiley, Dorothy E. 

1 93 *937 *Witt, Dorothea, M.D. 

1912 1937 Witter, Rev. T. V. 

1912 1937 Witter, Mrs. T. V. 

1926 1935 Young, Rev. Harold M. 

1926 1935 Young, Mrs. Harold M. 

1 93 1 *939 Young, Rev. M. Vincent 

1931 1939 Young, Mrs. M. Vincent 

1938 1938 *Youngsman, Lena, R.N. 

and Tongues 






Judson College, Rangoon, 


Girls' School, Mandalay, 


Insein, Burma 

A.B. Mission, Mandalay, 

Fla. A.B. Mission, Kikongo sur 
Wamba, par Banningville, 
Congo Beige, Africa 
Mass. / Podili, Nellore Dist., So. 
N. Y. | India 

Cal. f Lashio, So. Shan States, 
Cal. ) Burma 

Cal. |^ Kengtung, So. Shan States, 
Cal. ) Burma 

N. J. A.B. Mission, Banza 
Manteke, via Matadi, 
Congo Beige, Africa 

A monument they've reafd, more durable 

Than brass more lofty than the tow'ring height 

Of pyramids; which neither raging winds, 

Nor beating storms, nor the long lapse of years. 

Nor tide of time, can ever wear away. 





48 440 053 


-V .. < ; 



All kindreds and tongu 



APR 1 

\ 1945 Bindery ~^&*^& ( 

van 1. 1 


2"* 9086