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Full text of "Life and letters of Frederick W. Robertson [microform].."

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Hammmul 



CX.ASS 

No. rp $~\ -jj A cy 

BOOK 




GIFT OF 
Chicago Theological Seminary 



THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY 



THE BEV. WILLIAM JAY 



WITH 

REMINISCENCES OF SOME DISTINGUISHED CONTEMPORARIES, 
FROM HIS CORRESPONDENCE, AND 
LITERARY REMAINS. 



EDITED -BY 

GEORGE REDFOED, D.D., LL.D., 

AND 

JOHN ANGELL JAMES. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 

VOL. II. 



NEW YOEK: 

ROBERT CARTER & BROTHERS, 
No. 285 BEOADWAY. 

1855. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1854, by 
ROBERT CARTER & BROTHERS, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of 

New York 



STEBEOTYPED BY PBINT.ED BY 

THOMAS B. SMITH E. O. JENKINS 

216 William St. N. Y. 114 Nassau St. 



648288 



CONTENTS TO VOL. II. 
PAET m. CONTINUED. 

REMINISCENCES OF DISTINGUISHED CONTEMPORARIES. 

VI. 

PAGE 

Rev. Richard Cecil, M.A 1 

VH. 
Rev. Samuel Pearce, A.M f 

VIII. 
Rev. Robert Hall, A.M. 13 

IX. 

Rev. Joseph Hughes, A.M. ..... . 24 

X. 

Rev. John Poster . 34 

XI. 

Lady Maxwell, and Rev. John "Wesley 60 

XII. 
Mr. Holmes . 65 



,29142 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



XIII. 



Mr. Welsh 


I' AGE 

64 


XIV. 
Mr. Robert Spear 


. 75 


XV. 




Miss Protheroe 


. 82 


XVI. 




Mrs. Smith ......... 


. 86 


XVII. 




Mr. John Poynder 


. 91 


XVIII. 




Rammohiin Roy 


. 94 


XIX. 




Rev. Thomas Tuppen 


. 102 



Mr. Yescombe 



XXI. 



XXII. 
Rev. Benjamin Davis, D.D. 

xxir 

Rev. Thomas Haweis, M.D. . 



. 109 



Dr. Cogan lliJ 



. 120 



. 125 



CONTENTS. 



PABT IV. 

SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE 
REV. W. JAY. 

PAOIi 

Mr. Jay to Miss Davies 135 

Rev. Cornelius Winter to Mr. Jay 136 

Mr. Jay to Mr. Withers 138 

Mrs. Jay 140 

the same 141 

Mr. Newall, on the Death of Two Children . . 143 

his daughter Statira . 144 

the same 146 

the same 153 

his son at Wymondley College 155 

the same 157 

the same 159 

Sir J. B. Williams, on the Sudden Death of John Lee, 

Esq 161 

Miss Harman 163 

his son Edward 165 

Eammohun Eoy 167 

his son Edward . . 168 

Miss Harman 170 

Lord Barham to Mr. Jay 171 

Mr. Jay to Lord Barham 172 

Lady Barham to Mr. Jay 178 

Mr. Jay to the Queen, with a copy of the Morning and Evening 

Exercises, presented by Lady Barham 179 

Mr. Jay to Miss Head 180 

the same 182 

Miss Harman 185 

Rev. T. Grinfleld to Mr. Jay, on his Jubilee . . . .186 

Mr Jay to Miss Harman 188 

the same . 190 

Miss Head 191 

Mr. Rice Hopkins . 194 

the same 195 



VI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Mr. Jay to Lady Ducie 196 

the same , 198 

the same ......... 200 

Lord Ducie .202 

Lady Ducie . . 204 

the same 205 

the same , 208 

the same 209 

Dr. Bowie, his Physician 212 



PART Y. 

LITERARY REMAINS. 

Lines on the Death of his daughter Statira : : ..7 

Lines written on seeing his Portrait by Mr. Etty, designed for Mr. 

and Mrs. Bolton, at Liverpool , 220 

Lines supposed to be spoken by Mrs. Bolton, on the receipt of her 

Mother's Likeness, sent her by Mr. Ashton .... 221 
To Miss Browne, on her presenting the Author with a pair of 

Glasses 223 

To Miss Browne, on her presenting Mr. Jay with several Bands 

made out of her Grandfather's Archiepiscopal Sleeves . . 225 
Lines, with the present of a Bible, written and presented to his 
very dear daughter, Mrs. Eobert Bolton, the morning of her 

Marriage 226 

To Mrs. Gill, on her desiring from him a Letter of his own Writ- 
ing, to be kept for his sake 227 

Lines on his Fifty-fifth Birth-day 228 

Lines written on visiting his Native Village . . . 229 

Anecdote Conversion and subsequent History of Mrs. Ulph . 233 
The Evangelical Alliance addressed to Mr. Charles Godwin . 240 

Dr. John Owen . . . ; 241 

Apostolical Succession 242 

"Wordsworth 242 

Moral and Evangelical Preaching . . . . , . 243 
In-dwelling Sin . . 243 



CONTENTS. vii 

PAOK 

The Relative Misery of Sin . . . . , . . 244 

Orion's "Life of Doddridge" . 244 

Common Sense 244 

Faith 244 

Fishing for Compliments 244 

The Sin against the Holy Ghost 245 

Types and Shadows 24:~> 

The Great Intercessor 24 5 

On Lord Byron 245 

Sermon I. " He shall choose our inheritance for us" . . - 246 
Sermon II. Christ as a Leader, an Interpreter, and a never-failing 

Friend 265 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

HY THE EPITOHS. 

Mr. Jay as a Preache? ...,.., 285 

an Author , 313 



PART III CONTINUED. 



PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER, 

IN 

A SERIES OF REMINISCENCES 

BY 

WILLIAM JAY. 



" Olothert in sanctity nnd grace, 

How Bwcet it is to ECO 
Those who love thee as they pass, 
Or when they wait on thee." COWPER. 

" Mark the perfect man." DATID. 



REV. RICHARD CECIL, "M.A. 

ME. CECIL was a very popular preacher when I 
went to London, though I always thought his popu- 
larity was not equal to his desert. I greedily seized 
every opportunity in my power of hearing him, and 
never without impression. The impression was not 
so much of the pathetic as of the serious and solemn. 
He did not excel so much in the soft and tender, as in 
the striking and powerful. 

He was perfectly free from all affectation of oratory ; 
but everything about him in the pulpit, his figure, his 
looks, his hand sometimes laid across his loins from 
pain, his firm and decisive enunciation all was dig- 
nified and impressive, and never failed of commanding 
attention. Conscious of the divinity of his mission, 

*/ ' 

and the importance of his message, he always seemed 
to feel what he once expressed, when with a powerful 
voice he said, " I must be heard" 

For the sake of excitement and effect, especially 
upon the mass of his hearers, he was sometimes, after 
the manner of the Nonconformists, with whose works 
his education made him familiar, quaint in his sen- 
tences, and soi^ietimes also in the plan and division 
of his sermons. Indeed, his excellency lay not so 
much in the clear and orderly arrangement of his sub- 

1 



2 PEACTICAL ILLUSTKATIOJSTS OF CHARACTER. 

ject, as in the fillings up and exemplifications. There 
was also nothing very consecutive in his discourses ; 
no one train of thought being pursued at length, or 
fully argued out ; and this, I remember, Mr. Wilber- 
force rather complained of, saying, one day, after he 
had been attending him, that he seemed too much to 
follow after things by starts, and sometimes failing to 
overtake them". This was rather severe, especially for 
him ; and I could not but think that the senator had 
been hearing rather than the Christian ; and that for 
once, if possible, the talent and the eloquence to which 
he had been accustomed made him forget what is most 
profitable to a common congregation. 

The eloquence of the senate, the bar, and the schools 
will never be the effective eloquence of the pulpit. 
All eloquence there which does not arise from feeling, 
and produce it, is sounding brass and tinkling cymbal ; 
and any profound argumentation, or long-continued 
illustration, will fail in keeping up the attention, or in 
securing the remembrance, in ordinary hearers. " The 
words of the wise are as goads and as nails." "What 
preponderates must be weighty ; what 'pierces must be 
pointed ; what is carried away must be portable ; and 
all cannot equally carry. 

Mr. Cecil had always a number of striking remarks, 
reflections, and sentiments, which would be remem- 
bered from their own impressiveness, independently 
of a more lucid or connecting arrangement. He seem- 
ed much at home in treating historical passages ; in 
representations of common life ; in brief sketches of 
character ; and in hitting ofi; with a stroke, a particu- 
lar feature, so distinctly and strongly, that there was 
no mistaking the individual to whom it belonged. 



EEV. EICHAED CECIL, M.A. 3 

He had few anecdotes, but these always told, and 
were brief and pertinent, and always offered their as- 
sistance, instead of being introduced for their own 
sakes. But he abounded peculiarly with Scripture 
facts, which, without a formal quotation, he aptly in- 
terwove in the texture of his discourse, with singular 
propriety and telling effect. If a figure would go 
with him a mile, he did not compel it to go twain. 
He never evaporated the spirit of a metaphor, in nu- 
merous subtle particles of allusion. He seldom used 
an entire comparison ; but rather, as he passed along, 
by a glance snatched from it a significant circumstance 
which helped his subject without drawing off attention 
to itself. Instead of glossing a passage of Scripture as 
he repeated it, or explaining it after he had repeated it, 
he admirably threw out the meaning and force of the 
words previously, and then announced them as a 
beautiful and powerful illustration, confirmation, and 
clinching of the argument he was treating. 

Among many other excellences in his preaching he 
was always brief. I never heard him surpass forty 
minutes. This 'is an excellency which did not. distin- 
guish our forefathers ; and it is not, I fear, very likely 
to be a characteristic of the moderns, especially our 
3 r ounger preachers, who show in their long harangues 
the confidence they have in their own ability and ac- 
ceptance. 

The late Dr. Bogue is reported to have one day said 
to some of his students, " Do you suppose that people 
have nothing to do but to listen to your emptiness by 
the hour ?" a rebuke too pettishly given, and too se- 
vere. But there is propriety in Lament's remark, 
" There is no excuse for a long sermon : if it be good, 



4 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

it need not be long, and if it be bad, it ought not to be 
long." Queen Anne, after hearing Dr. South, said, 
" You have given us an excellent sermon, Dr. South : 
I wish you had had time to make it longer." " Nay, 
please your majesty," said he, "I wish I had had time to 
make it shorter." Whitfield and "Wesley, and most of" 
the early Methodists, were short. Why do not many 
of their successors follow their example ? 

No man distinguished more in his mind, and in his 
preaching, between the essential parts of Christianity 
and the subordinate and circumstantial, than Mr. Cecil. 
With Avhat a crushing force has he been heard to re- 
peat the language of Jeremiah, " He that hath a dream 
let him tell a dream ; and he that hath my word let 
him speak my word faithfully. What is the chaff to 
the Avheat ?" With him " neither circumcision avail 
ed anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature." 

I believe the following incident has been published ; 
but I was in London when it occurred, and knew it 
before it spread. A female, who had more of the form 
of godliness than of the power, one day said to him, 
" Sir, have you heard that I am going to turn from 
the Dissenters to the Church ?" " Madam," he replied, 
" you are turning from nothing to nothing." 

Hearing a person censuring a churchman for going 
to hear the Gospel in a meeting (the only place in the 
village wnere it then could be heard), he exclaimed, 
" Did ye never read what David did when he was an 
hungered, and they that were with him ; how he en- 
tered into the house of God, and did eat the shew- 
bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither 
for them that were with him, but only for the priests ?" 

He had his own fixed views and convictions (and 



REV. EICHAED CECIL, M.A. 5 

without these candor is only indifference), but he was 
moderate enough to think it no sin to attend occasion- 
ally in Argyle Chapel ; and one day calling upon me, 
he asked where he could take two sittings for his 
daughters? adding, "You know I am an Episcopalian, 
and wish my children to go to church, that is, if the 
one thing needful be heard there. But they must 
take heed what they hear, as well as how they hear. 
If the story be not told in a cathedral, they must fol- 
low it into a barn ; for they must hear it, and hear it 
with care." And what practical proof can we give of 
our belief either of the truth, or the importance of 
evangelical principles, if it be nothing to us whether 
we hear the words which cause us to err, or those by 
which we may be saved ? 

With this man of God I had some acquaintance in 
London, but he frequently came to Bath for some 
weeks together for recreation or health, and then I 
had much intercourse with him. His conversation 
was equal to his preaching. It was singularly orig- 
inal, vigorous, pertinent, instructive, and edifying ; 
and none of it could easily be forgotten. In the pleas- 
ure of the companion you felt also the presence of an 
oracle. 

I remember his admonishing me against having too 
great a plenitude of matter in a sermon an admoni- 
tion which, I fear, I have not sufficiently followed. 

He also advised me, as I was acceptable, and found 
people much disposed to hear, to beware of checking 
it by disappointment in frequently putting up others 
to preach. But how is this in many cases to be avoid- 
ed? Can a minister slight his brethren when they 
come in his way ? " But they may decline his invita- 



6 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

tion ;" and tliis would "be often wise even for them- 
selves ; for when people hear under a baulked expect- 
ation, they seldom hear with pleasure or profit. 

"Be," said he, "never to be had" Many other hints 
I received from his rich mind and acute and judicious 
observation, by which I ought to have profited more. 
I thank Grod that I ever heard the preacher, or was in 
company with the man. 

Who can be ignorant of his " Remains" ? Is there 
a work of the same size that abounds with such riches 
of understanding and wisdom, and genius and truth ? 
By what a multitude of inimitable passages has Mr. 
Poynder enriched his three volumes of " Literary Ex- 
tracts !" How much of his excellency has his daugh- 
ter secured and made known in her Memoirs of Mrs. 
Hawkes ! 



REV. SAMUEL PEARCE, A.M. 

I HAD not a great deal of intimacy with Mr. Pearce, 
but I knew him and heard him sufficiently to appre- 
ciate him, and to make me thankful that I had not to 
depend on report for his character or preaching. It 
may seem saying much, but I speak the words of truth 
and soberness, when I have endeavored to form an 
image of our Lord as a preacher, Pearce has offcener 
presented himself to my mind than any other I have 
been acquainted with : not, however, as he began his 
ministry.- Then he was too rapid, and had a kind of 
tiptoe motion in the pulpit ; but after awhile, when his 
delivery was distinguished by mildness and tender- 
ness, and a peculiar unction derived not only from his 
matter but his mind. I cannot accurately convey the 
appearance and impression he made, yet I can see the 
one, and feel the other, even at this great distance of 
time. 

If, after days of drought, in a summer's evening, 
you have viewed from your window the rain from 
heaven, not falling in a pouring torrent, but in a kind 
of noiseless distillation, every drop soaking in, and 
sure to be useful, and you thinking of "the smell of a 
field which the Lord hath blessed" that emblem would 
aid you a little in conceiving of the mode and effect 



8 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

of his address. He was a man of a most affectionate 
disposition and candid temper, having much of the 
meekness of wisdom and the wisdom of meekness. He 
was the first Baptist minister I ever heard use the 
Lord's prayer, which he did as he prayed before my 
sermon, when I preached at Battersea for Mr. Hughes. 
There, too, I had my last interview with him. Mr. 

B e had sent his carriage to town for two others 

and ourselves, and it was to take us back the next 
morning; but preferring to be by ourselves we pri- 
vately took boat, and returned by water. In our con- 
versation I well remember asking him what views of 
heaven he found the most attractive and affecting? 
He replied, " These have varied, (perhaps owing to 
some change in my condition or experience,) at differ- 
ent times ; but for a good while past, I think my most 
delightful view of heaven has been derived from it as a 
place and state of blessed and endeared society, with 
Jesus at the Head. Hence I have frequently touched 
upon it in my sermons, and have more than once 
preached from such texts as these : ' I beheld a great 
multitude,' &c., and ' by our gathering together unto 
him.' 'He will present us together with you,' &c." 
Thus we reached the stairs of Blackfriars Bridge, and 
parted to meet no more till adieux and farewells are a 
sound unknown. But what a savor does communion 
with such a man leave upon the spirit! And how 
blamable are we in not turning our social moments to 
more account ! for we never know but our present in- 
tercourse may be our final. 

"What a noble and deserved Memorial of him did 
Fuller publish, and what a beautiful motto did he prefix 
to the work ! " O Jonathan, thou wast slain in thy 



REV. SAMUEL PEARCE, A.M. 9 

high places!" Who was not, therefore, mortified to 
find, in a new edition by his son, this exquisite motto 
exchanged for a good, but common-place passage of 
Scripture? Fuller, all polemic as he was, had no little 
genius and sensibility ; and sometimes he had express- 
ions which verify Shakspeare's remark, 

" One stroke of Nature makes the world our kin 1" 

1ST. B. The son promised, in case of a new edition 
of the Life, to replace the beautiful motto. 

Pearce seemed beatified before his time. How 
young he died ! and with what prospects of usefulness 
before him ! and with what qualifications to serve his 
generation! What can we say to these things ? No- 
thing. " Be still, and know that I am Grod." 

But there is something peculiarly mysterious and af- 
fecting in the removal of such men, and in the midst 
of these 'days especially, 

1st. When contrasted with the continuance to long 
life of many of the worthless and injurious. And, 

2dly. When viewed in connection with the disposi- 
tion and influence to do good, and the numberless 
calls for their exertion. Alas for this dark world of 
ours ! We have had a few burning and shining "lights, 
and can we see the most luminous among them extin- 
guished without concern ? We want all their talents, 
and all their zeal ; and shall they perish and no man 
lay it to heart? or pray, " Help, Lord, for the godly 
man ceaseth, for the faithful fail from among the chil- 
dren of men " ? 

When the Eeminiscent informed Dr. Davies of the 
death of Dr. Williams of Eotherham, he burst into 

1* 



10 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

tears, and said, " I am almost ashamed to be alive, 
when so many great and good men die." 

The hoary head is a "crown of glory," if it be 
found in the " way of righteousness j-" and Job speaks 
of it as a privilege ; " Thou shalt come to thy grave 
in a full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in, in his 
season." Be it so, and let all whose days are length- 
ened be concerned to " bring forth fruit in old age." 
Yet, is protracted life always the mark of Divine ap- 
probation and distinction ? May not the produce re- 
main longer on the tree because of its slow ripening ? 
May not persons go late to rest, because the business 
of the day is not yet discharged? Do not some live 
because they are not fit to die ? 

Of one thing we may be assured, that, whenever we 
are summoned, we shall not be detained for want of 
means of removal. 

" Dangers stand thick through all the ground 

To push us to the tomb ; 
And fierce diseases wait around, 

To hurry mortals home." 

Though I was not a personal witness of the follow- 
ing occurrence, I cannot deny myself the pleasure of 
recording it, from the testimony of one who was. Mr. 
Pearce was preaching on a public occasion ; the ser- 
mon was excellent and well arranged; but after he 
had appeared naturally to have ended it, he broke forth 
afresh ; and what was added, though excellent, seemed 
not to grow out of the particular subject of the dis- 
course. 

When it was over, Mr. Puller, who had heard it, 
said, " Mr. Pearce, will you allow me to ask a ques- 



REV. SAMUEL PEARCE, A.M. 11 

tion? I nmcli liked and admired your sermon, but 
did you make intentionally any alteration of or ad- 
dition to it, in the close ? because, valuable as it was, 
it seemed not of a piece with the former parts." After 
a pause, Mr. Pearce said, "Well, if I must answer, 
the case was this : When I was uttering the last two 
or three sentences, I saw running up to the crowded 
place a poor man, wiping his face and head, and eager 
to hear. I thought this poor creature had come from 
a distance, and.it would be cruel to let him go away 
without hearing a word of the Saviour ; and so my 
pride yielded to my pity, and I tried to be useful, by 
adding a few things, regardless of connection or order." 
And what said not fastidious critics but lovers of 
souls, and angles, and God, the Judge of all? 



In confirmation of Mr. Jay's exalted judgment of 
this eminent minister and Christian, we could add 
something from our own recollection, but prefer the 
insertion of a few words from the pen of the Rev. W. 
Ward, missionary to India, and a brief description of 
Pearce's character by the Rev. Andrew Fuller. 

Mr. Ward says, in a letter to a friend, dated Janu- 
ary 5, 1799, " I am happy in the company of dear 
brother Pearce. I have seen more of Grod in him than 
in any other person I ever knew. O how happy 
should I be to live and die with him ! When well, 
he preaches three times on a Lord's day, and two or 
three times in a week besides. He instructs the young 
people in the principles of religion, natural philosophy, 
astronomy, &c. They have a Benevolent Society, from 
the funds of which they distribute 40 or 50 a-year 



12 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHAKACTEK. 

to the poor of tlie congregation. They have a Sick 
Society for visiting the afflicted in general ; a Book 
Society at chapel ; a Lorcl's-day School, at which be- 
twixt two and three hundred children are instructed. 
Add to this, missionary business, visiting the people, 
an extensive correspondence, two volumes of mission 
history preparing for the press, &c. ; and then you will 
see something of the soul of Pearce. He is everywhere 
venerated, though but a young man ; and all the kind, 
tender, gentle affections make him as a little child at 
the feet of the Saviour." 

Mr. Fuller says, " There have been few men in whom 
has been united a greater portion of the contemplative 
and the active ; holy zeal, and genuine candor ; spirit- 
uality and rationality ; talents that attracted almost 
universal applause, and the most unaffected modesty ; 
faithfulness in bearing testimony against evil, with the 
tenderest compassion to the soul of the evil-doer ; for- 
titude that would encounter any difficulty in the way 
of duty, without anything boisterous, noisy, or over- 
bearing ; deep seriousness, with habitual cheerfulness, 
and a constant aim to promote the highest degree of 
piety in himself and others, with a readiness to hope 
the best of the lowest ; not breaking the bruised reed, 
nor quenching the smoking flax."* Mr. Pearce died 
October 10, 1799, at the early age of thirty-four, uni- 
versally admired, beloved, and lamented. 

* Memoirs of Pearce by Fuller, pp. 208 and 245. 



REV. ROBERT HALL, A.M. 

WITH this very eminent man I became acquainted 
when, before my settlement in Bath, I was preaching 
for Lady Maxwell, at Hope Chapel, at the Hotwells. 
Being so near Bristol, I had opportunities of hearing 
him, and also of visiting him in his own house, and 
meeting him in various companies. He was then co- 
pastor with Dr. Evans, of the Baptist church in Broad- 
mead, and co-tutor with him in the academy. He had 
been for some time before noticed, but he was then ex- 
citing peculiar attention, and rising into great fame. 

In speaking of him as a preacher, I have one ad- 
vantage which Mr. Foster had not ; viz., an early, as 
well as a late, acquaintance with him ; so that I can 
view him comparatively in different periods of his his- 
tory. 

His preaching, when I first knew him, was certainly 
intellectually greater and more splendid than it was 
for many years before his death. This was the case 
with sermons I well remember, from these texts, 
" Ye err, not knowing the Scriptures nor the power 
of Grod ;" " The wrath of man shall praise thee, O 
Lord ;" " The spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made 
me free from the law of sin and death;" " The inherit- 
ance of the saints in light," &c. These sermons, con- 



14 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

sidered only as the productions of genius, rose above 
any I ever heard from him years afterwards. This, 
however, was not the effect of any declension of 
ability ; and, therefore, he still occasionally brought 
forth a discourse far above the level of his usual per- 
formances, as if to show he had not become unequal 
to his former doings ; but from mere pious considera- 
tions, and a growing wish to accommodate himself to 
the common apprehension, and to general usefulness. 
Another reason, too, had some influence; viz., the 
increased number of Ms sermons after he became a 
sole pastor, which allowed not so much time to elab 
orate and polish. 

Mr. Hall sometimes expressed himself as if he be 
lieved his real conversion was subsequent to his first 
awful visitation (insanity). We do not admit this; 
but it is well known that he became more and more 
spiritual and evangelical; and that at first, while he 
drew the admiration of all, he awakened the fears of 
some. Nor need we wonder at this, when we take 
into the account the occasional (though not criminal) 
sportivenesses and levities he betrayed ; his freedoms 
in conversation, when, for the sake of a contest, in 
which he was always pretty sure of victory, he de- 
fended things which he did not believe ; and that, for 
awhile, he avowed materialism, and denied the common 
notion of the Trinity, by contending for a Duality of 
persons in the Divine Essence. With regard to the 
latter, the scheme had all the difficulties supposed to 
attach to Trinitarianism, without some of its scriptural 
supports. Hence, many have questioned whether he 
was in earnest in his belief of so strange a doctrine ; 
but I have heard him avow it with firmness ; and I 



REV. ROBERT HALL, A.M. 15 

remember spending an evening with him in Bath, in a 
company that included a Sabellian, two Trinitarians, 
and himself as a Dualist; and when the Kemini scent, 
afraid to enter into the metaphysical part of the dis- 
cussion, ventured to mention the baptismal form of 
words as a difficulty, and to ask whether it was not 
very strange that " in the name of the Father and of 
the Son," should intend personality, and "in the name 
of the Holy Ghost" only a mere power or influence ; 
and, also, whether it was not strange to baptize any 
one " in the name" of an abstraction, he acknowledged 
that it presented a difficulty, but incautiously said, he 
did " not think it right to hang a Divine person on one 
text." This was obviously improper and unbecoming, 
and he ingenuously acknowledged it, as soon as it was 
noticed by one of the company ; and nothing, in his 
after-years, was further from his disposition than to 
treat anything sacred lightly; though it must have 
been always difficult for him to refrain from/ett d' 'esprit 
on many subjects, with his amazing force and quick- 
ness of imagination. 

Some individuals (for there was no party) complain- 
ed and frequently absented themselves when Mr. Hall 
preached, and there was considerable probability that 
the number would increase. I speak from personal 
knowledge at the time, and as one who, standing out 
of the scene, could observe and judge with less bias 
tli an those who were thus drawn into an unpleasant 
dispute and division. In the painful breach that took 
place between Mr. Hall and Dr. Evans, I must think 
that Dr. Evans was perfectly blameless of the motive 
which some of Mr. Hall's friends were led. by some 
circumstances, to impute to him. I am fully persuad- 



16 PKACTIGAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

ed that nothing could be further from the spirit of Dr. 
Evans than an uneasiness at the growing fame of his 
associate. He loved and esteemed him almost to idol- 
atry. I happened to be in Bristol for a Sabbath but a 
little while before the breach. I attended Dr. Evans 
in the morning ; preached myself in the afternoon ; 
and heard Mr. Hall in the evening. As we were go- 
ing to the evening service, Dr. Evans leaned upon my 
arm, and all his conversation was of the wonderful 
man we were going to hear ; and it was all full of 
what some would have deemed excessive honor and 
praise. "His eloquence," said he, "is unequalled, and 
his powers of mind seem bordering on infinite. If 
some are not so satisfied with regard to his piety, I have 
had better opportunities of knowing him, and who- 
ever shall live long enough will see the excellency of 
his character. I find him distinguished, not only by 
his talents, but by his grace also." But, on the other 
^and, as from this motive, Dr. Evans did not hail Mr 
Hall's invitation, (and never did use means to procure 
it, as some have surmised,) I believe he had no objec- 
tion to Mr. Hall's removal on another ground, viz., the 
clanger of a schism, owing to some respectable persons 
who were suspicious of his orthodoxy, occasioned by 
appearances likely to operate on some minds. A rent 
in, or even a considerable secession from, such a re- 
spectable and kindly mother church, was to be ear- 
nestly deprecated ; but the evil would be prevented 
by Mr. Hall's translation to another sphere, and what 
seemed so suitable as Cambridge for the exertion and 
display of his mighty mind? 

There is little doubt but Mr. Hall, in process of time, 
saw this. He spake cordially of Dr. Evans before his 



KEY. EGBERT HALL, A.M. IT 

death, and he has now joined him in a world where 
mistakes and infirmities are known no more. Yet we 
cannot help remarking with lamentation, what trifling 
causes give rise to surmisings, and strifes, and discords, 
even among good men, which a little seasonable ex- 
planation would hinder or heal. But there is nothing- 
new under the sun. Paul and Barnabas contended, 
and parted for a season ; but this was overruled for 
good, and caused the Gospel to ^e spread in several 
currents, which would otherwise have been confined to 
one ; while it served to prove the excellency of their 
principles in their eventual reconciliation and har- 
mony. But how ought we to rejoice and praise God 
that a man of his extraordinary ability and influence 
so soon had his " heart established with grace ;" fully 
preached the peculiar doctrines of the Gospel ; and 
through the whole of his after life acknowledged and 
defended their importance, as well as their truth. His 
path was like the shining light, which, though it may 
be a little hazy in the dawn, yet shineth more and 
more unto the perfect day, and sets in cloudless glory. 

It is needless to dwell on Mr. Hall as " the eloquent 
orator." But in his preaching, there was not only elo- 
quence which charmed numbers who sought for no- 
thing else, but the fervor of the man of God. It was 
impossible to hear him and not be impressed with his 
earnestness, and concern to do good, rather than to be 
admired ; and the entire forgetfulness of himself in 
h:s subject. 

His powers of conversation were equal to those of 
his preaching. Some have thought they even sur- 
passed them. I remember Mr. Foster, when he had 
been introduced to Mr. Hall, remarking that, after be- 



18 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

ing in Hs company, you. might be comparatively disap- 
pointed in hearing him preach ; for, after hearing him 
speak off-hand upon any subject with such ease, and 
force, and purity, and precision, and exquisiteness, you 
might be naturally led to expect something propor- 
tionally greater after much study and preparation. 

Some men's minds seem to resemble a reservoir, 
large and deep ; yet, having been filled, capable of be- 
ing emptied. But Mr. Hall's mind always intimated 
a mighty spring ; not made, but created ; always full, 
yet pouring forth streams of clear and living water. 
There was not only a constant plenty, but a constant 
freshness of communication. "Who ever heard him 
repeat any image, or maxim, or saying of his own ? 
Perhaps the following is not an exception : A minis- 
ter has stated in print that, in a conversation with him 
not a great while before his death, he called Dr. Owen 
" a continent of mud." I am sure I heard this from 
him more than thirty years before, and I had often re- 
peated it. Might not the report of an old sarcasm 
have been taken for a fresh one? And what was re- 
lated by another be mistaken for what was so unlikely 
to be repeated by himself? 

As to the reflection itself, it always surprised me. 
I think he could only have read some of the doctor's 
least valuable works, and in an unfavorable mood. A 
voluminous writer he was, but surely he was anything 
but a dull one ; and even in the presence of so great 
an authority, I must judge for myself, and rather join 
with Newton and Cecil, who pronounced him " the 
prince of divines." How searching and quickening 
are some of his treatises ! what specimens also of fine 
reasoning have we in them ! how much does he carry 



REV. ROBERT HALL. A.M. 19 

us always with him ! and how little are we able to 
question his conclusions as we peruse them ! We say 
not this of all his numerous publications, but we could 
specify many of his works which, for their practical 
bearing, and experimentality, and evangelical senti- 
ment, and the savor they diffuse of the Eedeemer's 

* *s 

knowledge, we are ready to say are incomparable ; 
and we wish many of our young divines were more 
familiar with them. I have a little work of his, I be- 
lieve very little known, (of which I have never seen 
any other copy,) " Evidences of the Faith of God's 
Elect." It was written for the encouragement and 
comfort of his wife under her doubts and fears, and 
was given me many years ago by Mr. Wilberforce, 
who much commended it ; only wishing, for the sake 
of some readers, that it had been differently entitled. 
So I remember he did also with regard to Fuller's un- 
answerable publication, " The Calvinistical and Socin- 
ian Systems Compared," remarking, that if the word 
" evangelical" or " orthodox" had been used instead 
of " Calvinistical," many would have read that won- 
derful performance whose narrow and prejudiced minds 
had been revolted by a term unnecessarily adopted. 

Mr. Hall, like Dr. Johnson, professed to believe in 
preternatural appearances ; and certainly, from his 
manner when speaking of such subjects, his credence 
seemed to be sincere. 

The first evening I ever spent with him was at the 

house of Mr. W y, near the Bristol Bridge. Of 

course, he was the lion of the company. The party 
broke up late, and the latter part of the conversation 
turned upon apparitions. He defended his belief, not 
only in the possibility, but in the actuality, of 



20 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

appearances, with much ingenuity and ability, and 
seemed to convince himself, if not others ; and when 
we were to separate, he refused to go home at that 
midnight hour unless some of us accompanied him. 
His arguing and fear certainly seemed more than oddity 
or affectation. 

Mr. Hall was fond of referring to Satanic power. 
In his sermon on this subject, taken imperfectly in 
short-hand, finding a difficulty in his view of such 
agency, as immediate, personal, and individual, with- 
out admitting omniscience and omnipresence, he seems 
to solve it by pleading for an infinite number of 
agents. Is not this strange ? 

It is remarkable how he noticed little incidents and 
circumstances which seemed likely to escape the ob- 
servation of so great a mind, and what proof he gave 
of it in adverting to them long after. How many in- 
stances of this have I witnessed ! No one could ex- 
press a compliment or a commendation more tersely 
and perfectly. I remember his saying of Dr. Ryland, 
" Sir, I would as soon take Dr. Eyland's word as Ga- 
briel's oath." At another time he said, " Sir, he' s 
piety itself; and if there was not room for him in 
heaven, God would turn out an archangel to make 
room." I one day asked his opinion of a female who 
attended his ministry at Leicester. " Sir," said he, 
"she has the manners of a court, and the piety of a 
convent." 

He was at the tabernacle the first time I ever preach- 
ed in Bristol, and when I was little more than seven- 
teen. When I came down from the pulpit, as I pass- 
ed him, he said, " Sir, I liked your sermon much bet- 
ter than your quotations." I never knew him severe 



REV. EGBERT HALL, AM. 21 

upon a preacher, however moderate his abilities, if, 
free from affectation, he spoke with simplicity, nor 
tried to rise above his level. But, as to others, no- 
thing could be occasionally more witty and crushing 
than his remarks. One evening, in a rather crowded 
place, (I was sitting by. him,) a minister was preaching 
very finely and flourishingly to little purpose, from the 
"white horse," and the "red horse," and the "black 
horse," and the "pale horse," in the Eevelation. He 
sat very impatiently, and when the sermon closed he 
pushed out towards the door, saying, " Let me out of 
this horse-fair." 

One day, when he had heard another of those self- 
admiring, pompous nothings, and was eagerly asked 
by a lady how he liked his sermon, he answered, 
" Ma'am, I always thought he was predestinated to be a 
fool ; and he has now made his calling and election sure." 

I was once in the library at the academy, conversing 
with one of the students, who was speaking of his ex- 
perience, and lamented the hardness of his heart. Mr, 
Hall, as he was near, taking down a book from the shelf, 
hearing this, turned towards him and said, "Well, thy 
head is soft enough ; that 's a comfort." I could not 
laugh at this ; it grieved me ; for the young man was 
modest, and humble, and diffident. He must have felt 
it severely ; and I have no doubt "but Mr. Hall's re- 
flections smote him afterward for this apparent harsh- 
ness and offence. There is no just excuse for such 
things. We must not fling about arrows, and, if any 
of them pierce, say it was in sport. Should not only 
ill-nature, but wit or humor, expose us to this evil, we 
know the prayer, " Set a watch, O Lord, upon my 
mouth : keep the door of my lips." 



22 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

A minister, popular too ! one day said to me, " I 
wonder you think so highly of Mr. Hall's talents. I 
was some time ago travelling with him into Wales, 
and we had several disputes, and I more than once 
soon silenced him." I concluded how the truth was ; 
and, some weeks after, when his name was mentioned, 
Mr. Hall asked me if I knew him. " I lately travelled 
with him," said he, " and it was wonderful, sir, how 
such a baggage of ignorance and confidence could 
have been squeezed into the vehicle. He disgusted 
and wearied me with his dogmatism and perverse- 
ness, till God was good enough to enable me to go to 
sleep." 

Though the Eeminisceut so much admires all Mr. 
Hall's writings, Nothing strikes him so powerfully as 
his " Eeviews." Who does not wish we had more of 
them ? The Eeminiscent also is compelled to ac- 
knowledge, contrary to the opinion of some dissen- 
tients, that he believes Mr. Foster has done justice to 
Mr. Hall's character as a divine and a preacher. 

I cannot forbear inserting Mr. Hall's character of 
Popery : 

" Popery, in the ordinary state of its profession, combines the 
form of godliness with the total denial of its power. A heap of 
unmeaning ceremonies, adapted to fascinate the imagination and 
engage the senses ; implicit faith in human authority, combined 
v/ith an utter neglect of divine teaching; ignorance the most pro- 
found, joined to dogmatism the most presumptuous ; a vigilant ex- 
clusion of Biblical knowledge, together -with a total extinction of 
free inquiry, present the spectacle of religion lying in state, sur- 
rounded with all the silent pomp of death. The very absurdities 
of such a religion render it less unacceptable to men whose decided 
hostility to truth inclines them to vieAv with complacency whatever 
obscures its beaiity or impedes its operation. Of all the c< rruptions 



REV. EOBEET HALL, A.M. 23 

of Christianity which have prevailed to any considerable extent, 
Popery presents the most numerous points of contrast to the sim- 
ple doctrines of the Gospel ; and, just in proportion as it gains 
ground, the religion of Christ must decline. Popery still is what 
it always was ; a detestable system of impiety, cruelty, and impos- 
ture, fabricated by the father of lies ; and though we are far from 
supposing that, were Popery triumphant, it would allow toleration 
to 'any denomination of Protestants, the professors of evangelical 
piety woul i assuredly be among its first victims."* 



* Eev. Eobert Hall, Works, IV., 230. 



REV. JOSEPH HUGHES, M; A. 

No institution since the Apostolic era will bear a 
comparison with the British and Foreign Bible So- 
ciety, whether we consider the period and circum- 
stances of its origination, the supreme importance of 
its design, the Catholicism of its basis, the principle on 
which alone it depends for its success, the unbroken 
harmony of its numerous adherents, the magnitude 
of its undertakings, the immensity of its achievements, 
or the bearing of its operations on the great moral 
questions which agitate the world. 

" To meet its growing and rapid demands, and to sup- 
port its operations, especially by public meetings, three 
secretaries were appointed to defend, advocate, and 
recommend its claims. These were John Owen, chap- 
lain to Bishop Porteus, Dr. Steinkopff, a German Lu- 
theran divine, and Joseph Hughes, a dissenter. The 
wisdom of the appointment appeared strikingly ob- 
vious. No three individuals could more have suited 
each other and their work. 

Mr. Hughes had another relation to the Society. 
He not only attended from the first its formation ; but 
may be, in some respects, acknowledged (as Mr. Owen 
in his history states) as influencing the commencement 
of it. This was enough to ennoble and immortalize 



REV. JOSEPH HUGHES, M.A. 25 

Mm ; but tie would always say, " By tlie grace of God 
I am what I am." 

A good Life of this deservedly-esteemed man was 
published soon after his death by the Kev. Dr. Leif- 
child. In that work, my opinion of him, generally 
expressed, is to be found.* My acquaintance with 
him is there also noticed. It was long and very inti- 
mate. We indulged in a peculiar freedom of mind 
towards each other ; and there seemed to be but a sin- 
gle religious difference between us, and this was not an 
essential one. It did not, therefore, diminish our mutual 
regard. Some, perhaps, would deem it impossible to 
be the means of increasing it. But love and liberality 
have secrets which strangers intermeddle not with. 
And is there no pleasure in knowing that we are able 
to distinguish things that differ ; that we have candor 
enough to allow others to think and judge for them- 
selves ; and that, instead of being " overcome of evil, 
we can overcome evil with good" ? And is not big- 
otry such an evil ? 

He was a man of great simplicity of manners, and 
of freedom from affectation and all airs of superiority ; 
and, though decidedly a Dissenter and a Baptist, not 
only from education but conviction, yet he had a most 
catholic spirit; and I do not wonder that the exercise 
of it, in some instances, awakened the suspicions of 
bigots, who feared that, because he was not rigid, he 
was not decided ; and that, where there was no exclu- 
siveness, there was no conviction. 

He kept himself unspotted from the world, and was 
not only sincere, but " without rebuke until the day of 
Christ." 

* See the addition to this paper, it its close. 
2 



26 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

As a preacher he possessed materials and qualities 
which did not produce the advantages in his ministra- 
tions which might have been expected. I remember 
the Eev. Mr. Hinton of Oxford (his alter idem, and 
who was exceedingly attached to him) once asking this 
question " Whence is it that our valued friend, who 
has such an unblemished reputation, and stands so high 
in public esteem, and has so much more learning than 
falls to the share of many of his brethren, and has such 
an easy command of words, and such an affluence of 
imagery, and such a readiness of utterance; should 
make so little impression in preaching, compared with 
persons so inferior to him, in these and other attri- 
butes?" " Send this question," said I, "to all the tu- 
tors in our academies ; bring it forward also in every 
company of preachers ; and show the propriety of 
learning from example as well as from precept, and 
from failure as well as from success, how to excel." 

Some would, perhaps, ascribe a little of his want of 
popularity to his personal appearance. This was not 
prepossessing; but other preachers have succeeded 
without this species of attraction and impression. In 
part his failure arose from his voice, which was inhar- 
monious and weak, and, when elevated to the full, had 
a kind of dry shrillness, and allowed of no inflexions. 
But his style is the most faulty. Foster, in one of his 
letters to him, says, "Hall spoke much of your at- 
tainments and talents, but exceedingly condemned 
what you know I always hate, the want of simplicity 
in your style." . It was this want of simplicity, rather 
than a want of right feeling, that made him fail in the 
pathetic. His metaphors were glances rather than 
comparisons. His beauties were too delicate to be 



EEV. JOSEPH HUGHES, M.A. 27 

> 

striking, and required some degree of previous culti- 
vation and taste to perceive and admire them. His 
discourse contained too little of the phraseology of the 
pulpit to be satisfactory to many of the common yet 
pious hearers, who were most familiar with the words 
which the Holy Grhost useth, and whose ears were most 
attuned to the language of their orthodox ancestors. 
And why should such hearers be disappointed or per- 
plexed ? And what is there less instructive and edify- 
ing in the diction of our old divinity than in the terms 
of those who would rather remind us of Johnson and 
Addison, than of Leighton, Elavel and Whitfield? 

It was too much Mr. Hughes' aim, not only as a 
writer but as a preacher, to render his language cor- 
rect and refined, rather than bold and free. His con- 
cern here was extreme; and what Gray said of the 
penury of his " Churchyard" peasant may be applied 
to the fastidiousness of our preacher 

" Fastidiousness repressed his noble rage, 
And chill'd the genial current of his soul." 

A dread of little mistakes and improprieties, like 
the sword of Damocles, hung over his head, and pre- 
vented the relish of the banquet he would otherwise 
have enjoyed. 

A preacher's great and obvious attention (and where 
it is great it will usually be obvious) to minutenesses in 
his composition and address weakens the sympathy of 
his audience, and often hardly allows of a frigid ap- 
probation of what is deserving of praise. On the 
other hand, when a man is absorbed in his siibject, lit- 
tle improprieties, should they occur, will either be un- 



28 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

perceived, or as being more than atoned for, will be 
disregarded by a riveted audience. 

And what should be the anxiety of a man of Grod 
to gain admiration or to secure profit ? To be favora- 
bly noticed for memory by two or three who have lit- 
tle more to recommend them than mere intellect ; or to 
have numbers hanging upon his lips, and "wondering 
at the gracious words which proceed out of his mouth," 
to the use of edifying ? To appear the chaste classic 
from the schools, or the able minister of the New Tes- 
tament full of grace and truth ? 

I always considered Mr. Hughes as one of the found- 
ers of the Tract Society, and also as the first suggest- 
er of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Had he 
been distinguished by nothing else, surely this would 
have been sufficient to ennoble and immortalize him. 
One structure has made an architect ; one poem, a poet ; 
one battle, a hero. But what one exploit can be com- 
pared to that which led to the establishment of a so- 
ciety which has translated the Scriptures into all lan- 
guages ; and is filling the earth with the knowledge of 
the Lord, as the waters cover the seas. And how 
much did he who was honored in the suggestion of 
this Godlike Institution aid it afterwards by his Secre- 
taryship, by his travels, and labors, and those addresses 
on the platform which so much excelled the effect of 
his sermons ! 

Mr. Hughes was the first from whom I heard any- 
thing of the extraordinary powers of John Foster. He 
was then a student leaving Bristol Academy, where he 
had been only one year. Mr. Hughes prepared the 
way for the spread of his fame ; and for this he had the 
best opportunities, especially on his settlement at Bat- 



REV. JOSEPH HUGHES, M.A. 29 

> 

tersea; and having access to a variety of distinguished 
characters residing at Olapham Common. He was 
not mistaken in his estimate of this peculiar and orig- 
inal genius; but lived to see his opinion abundantly 
confirmed by the voice of the public. Mr. Hughes 
himself sold several hundred copies of the Essays 
when they first came out. 

Mr. Hughes had the honor of being appointed to 
preach Mr. Hall's funeral sermon. But how strange 
was the choice of his text on so peculiar an occasion, 
" All the days of my appointed time will I wait, till 
my change come," Job, xiv. 14. It was as appropriate 
to a private believer, as to one of the most extraor- 
dinary of human beings. But he had prepared a fu- 
neral sermon from those words which he had preached 
a fortnight before at Hackney. " In all labor there is 
profit." How much do we often lose by sacrificing to 
ease ? An old discourse seldom answers the purpose 
of a new occasion : 

First. As someting already prepared is learnt off, 
there will be relaxing of study and exertion. 

Secondly. There will be less suitableness and perti- 
nence to the event to be noticed and improved. And, 

Tliirdly. There will be less liveliness and freshness 
of feeling in the preacher's address. 

Mr. Hughes was little known as an author. He 
published several single discourses, a sermon before 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in the 
Highlands and Islands of Scotland, a sermon on the 
Sabbath, and a sermon on the death of the Duke of 
Kent. He published also an essay on the excellency 
of the Scripture his best performance.* 

* This was n doubt the essay which prepared the way for the 



30 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATION'S OF CHARACTER. 

There were few men for whom I entertained a higher 
regard, or with whom I exchanged so much thought. 



APPENDIX BY THE KDITOKS. 

The Eev. Dr. Leifcliild, in his Life of the Rev. Joseph Hughes, thus 
introduces Mr. Jay's opinion referred to in the preceding article. 

" With the Rev. W. Jay of Bath Mr. Hughes was more than or- 
dinarily intimate. As far as two men, of somewhat different intel- 
lectual habits and theological views could love one another, they 
did so love to the end of life. Let the survivor speak for himself, 
with his own characteristic naivete and force: 

" ' Mr. Hughes was often and much at Bath formerly, supplying 
several years at Argyle Chapel for six weeks together while I was 
in town. I have been intimately acquainted with him for upwards 
of forty-three years, and have exchanged more mind with him than 
with any man I ever knew, except my friend and tutor, Cornelius 
Winter. With regard to religious things, we only differed as to 
Baptism ; and if we did not love each other the more for this dif- 
ference, I am sure we did not love each other the less. We dis- 
agreed, too, a little with regard to composition aud preaching ; he 
too squeamish, and I too careless ; he laboring for correctness, and 
I for impression ; (in grasping which I sometimes erred ;) he too 
satisfied if he could abide criticism ; and I too careless of critical 
judgment, if I could secure effect. Yet though he was often kindly 
finding fault with me when we were alone, he was always seeking 
opportunities to hear me, and I cannot be ignorant how much I 
shared his commendation as an author and a preacher. I am thank- 
ful for my intimacy with him. My esteem of him always grew with 
my intercourse. I never knew a -more consistent, correct, and unblem- 
ished character. He was not only sincere, but without offence, and 
adorned the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things. 

" 'His mind was full of information ; his conversation singularly 
instructive, and very edifying ; and while others talked of candor 
and moderation, he exemplified them. In his theological sentiments 
lie was firm, yet sober and liberal ; and not too orthodox (as I have 

formation of the Bible Society, of which we have taken notice in the 
Appendix to this article. 



REV. JOSEPH HUGHES, M.A. 31 

> 

often known this) to be evangelical. But why do I write this ? 
You know it as well as I, and will describe it better.' 

" Mr. Jay's opinion that the conception of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society originated in the mind of his friend, Joseph Hughes, 
is fully confirmed by the memoir from which the above extract is 
taken ; and from which we must beg to present the following elu- 
cidation of a fact which has sometimes been obscured, if not actually 
denied. 

" The Eev. F. Charles, a clergyman of the Church of England, 
but frequently officiating among the Calvinistic Methodists in 
"Wales, paid a visit to the Metropolis. He represented, with all the 
characteristic ardor and pathos of his native country, the dearth of 
Bibles in the native language of the Principality. He told of a 
scanty supply which had once been obtained from ' The Society for 
promoting Christian Knowledge,' but which by its inadeqiiacy had 
served rather to increase than allay the anxiety of the inhabitants ; 
as the thirsty earth but pines and languishes the more for a few 
big drops only from the cloud which had been expected to shower 
down an abundance of moisture. This individual being present as 
a visitor at the Committee Meeting of the Tract Society, expatiated 
on the subject of a supply of Welsh Bibles, (Mr. Joseph Tarn, a mem- 
ber of the Committee, having previously introduced him,) and urged 
it most earnestly upon the attention of the meeting. To supply 
Bibles was not the professed object of the Society; yet he could 
hardly have been introduced to a circle of individuals in the whole 
world more disposed to listen to his representations, to sympathize 
with his feelings, and to respond to his calls. The whole meeting 
instantly felt the desirableness of the object; but the mind of the 
Secretary (Mr. Hughes) was warmed with the subject, his previous 
train of reflections was recalled and quickened into motion, and 
wrought, it may well be believed, into a high degree of energy. 
His views, probably, in connection with those of the members pres- 
ent v went much further than the specific object proposed to them 
the supply of the "Welsh. The precise language in which lie ex- 
pressed his views, it is now difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain ; 
and we must, therefore, be contented with the fact. Some, indeed, 
of the individuals present at that meeting who survive recollect no- 
"thing particular ; others retain a sense of his distinct and emphatic 
utterance of this remark '"Why not Bibles for the whole country 
for the whole world ?' 



32 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

" The minutes of that meeting which Avere revised by himself and 
Mr. Tarn, under a concern to leave a perfectly accurate account of 
wl at had transpired, record that such an object of solicitude, 'AT 
IIIE SUGGESTION OF THE SECRETARY,' (Mr. Hughes,) Avas deemed worthy 
of attention, Avas suitable for the notice of that body, and should 
be placed on record for consideration at their next meeting. This 
fact he himself, though careful of not having too much attributed 
to him, alAvays admitted. It appeared in several printed accounts, 
while most of the members of that Committee Avere living ; and all 
had access to the minutes as Avell as himself, and Avas never ques- 
tioned. A variety of particulars in his correspondence, as well be- 
fore as after this period, and the part immediately and thenceforward 
assigned to him in all ulterior proceedings, confirm the idea. It 
may, therefore, be safely concluded that the elements of the New 
Institution were first of all deliberately conceived in his mind ; 
that there its original seed was planted by the hand of its Almighty 
Author. The facts above related occurred in the memorable morn- 
ing of December 7, 1802. The views and feelings of all present ac- 
corded with the suggestion or suggestions made to the effect above 
noticed. 

" Mr. Hughes was requested by the Chairman, in the name of the 
rest, to embody the sentiments then delivered in a written address, 
to be read to them at a future meeting convened for the purpose. 
He readily complied ; and, after several meetings of the same kind, 
the .address, with some few emendations, was ordered to be printed 
with a A'iew to its immediate circulation. It was printed at first 
in quarto, the intention being to circulate chiefly among persons in 
high station individuals whose countenance might shield the mag- 
nitude of the scheme it proposed from the charge of wildness or 
titter impracticability. It was subsequently printed in octavo, and 
went through several editions. 

" This pamphlet, which was entitled, ' TJie Excellence of the Holy 
Scriptures : an Argument for their more general dispersion at home and 
abroad,' was the earliest public act of preparation for the establish- 
ment of that first and greatest of our National Societies. A docu- 
ment so momentous in its results, so excellent in itself, and so in- 
timately connected with the subsequent history and everlasting re- 
nown of our friend, requires some further notice from the pen of 
his Biographer. A more important production, viewing the train 
of consequences to which it has led, and is still leading, surely never 
issued from the British press, saving only the Holy Bible itself." 



. EEV. JOSEPH HUGHES, M.A. 33 

After giving a very complete analysis of Mr. Hughes' work his 
Biographer thus concludes : 

"The publication of this pamphlet marks an era, undoubtedly 
one of the most propitious in the religious history of our country ; 
and which will be pointed to and signalized in future ages as the 
date of one of the most popular, most useful, and most important 
Institutions that ever blessed the world. 

" The publication of Mr. Hughes' Essay took place early in 1803 ; 
and for something more than a year the project was contemplated 
with serious, and, it may be believed, with much prayerful thought, 
by pious and benevolent men of various Christian denominations. 
At length its first general public meeting was called, on March the 
*7th, 1804. Granville Sharpe, Esquire, in the Chair." Memoir of 
Rev. Joseph Hughes, A.M., pp. 142, 194, 207, 209. 

2* 



REV. JOHN FOSTER. 

I HAD many opportunities of seeing Mr. Foster, from 
the time he was a student at Bristol to the period of 
his death. He was thrice settled near me, viz., at 
Downend, at Frome, and at Stapleton. His wife had 
relations in my congregation ; and he sometimes pass- 
ed a Sabbath in Bath ; but I could never induce him 
to preach for me. He declined commonly by say- 
ing (with complacency and pleasantry), " You know 
neither you nor your people would ever ask me again ; 
I am never desired to preach a second time." 

The first interview I had with him was at the house 
of Mrs. Hannah More. It was attended with the in- 
cident which I mentioned in my Eeminiscence of this 
extraordinary and excellent woman, the producing 
for the opinion of the party of the tract entitled " The 
Shepherd of Salisbury Plain" as the first of a series 
which, it was hoped, would tend to supplant the 
worthless and mischievous trash in immense circula- 
tion, and to furnish something not only harmless, but 
useful, in its stead. It was at a breakfast ; the com- 
pany was select, yet rather numerous. But all I re- 
member with regard to Foster was his taciturnity ; for 
I know not that he uttered a single sentence. As, 
like myself, he had risen from (what is called, I know 



REV. JOHN FOSTER. 35 

not why) penniless life, and had, as yet, seen little of 
society, it might have been supposed* that he was 
rather restrained, when among persons above the class 
in which he had moved ; but even then, he had such 
a consciousness of his talents as would have secured 
him from such influence. 

Some time after this, Mr. Henry Thornton, M. P. 
for the Borough of Southwark, being in Bath, and 
having heard of his powers, desired me to engage him 
some day to dine with him. I did so ; and, mortify - 
ingly, he again showed his indisposition to talk ; and 
our most excellent entertainer was not much formed 
to make his company easy, and free, and communica- 
tive ; for his manner was peculiarly cold, distant, and 
reserved. Foster said (yet I think very untruly), that 
he sat as if he had a bag of money under his arm / but 
at this time Mr. Foster had a kind of silly prejudice 
against persons of affluence, however their wealth had 
been obtained. This lessened in time ; and when he 
thought of espousals, he seemed to think property 
" was good and profitable to men;" not that, in his 
choice, he overlooked wisdom and goodness, but show- 
ed that he thought these were not the worse for being 
endowed. 

And this leads me to observe, that I never knew a 
man possessing such a capacity for every kind of con- 
versation who spoke so little, unless he had an indi- 
vidual or two ; not (as he used to express it) to talk 
upon, but to talk with. 

An observable circumstance was his omission of 
Scriptural expressions in his -prayers ; for I can hardly 
remember his ever using any. This could not have 
been from his ignorance of the Scriptures, for from a 



86 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER, 

child lie had known -them ; and, if it were designed, 
what could have "been the motive for the omission ? 
As this applied very much to his sermons, as well as 
to his prayers (as may be seen in his skeleton lectures), 
I ventured to ask him once concerning it, when he 
rather lamented than justified the practice, and said 
the fault was principally in his memory, and that he 
feared to repeat such expressions, lest he should fail or 
boggle in the accuracy of the sacred diction. 

This leads me to remark another thing. In his ac- 
count of -Mr. Hall's prayers, he has gently censured 
him for too much of personal references and specifica- 
tions. The remark being rather bold and novel, and 
coming from such a pen, I hoped it would have excit- 
ed notice, and produced a friendly discussion in some 
of our religious periodicals. For myself, I had always 
wished that less of the practice prevailed in our pub- 
lic devotions. I say public devotions; for the family 
altar, and the private closet, admit these, and often re- 
quire them ; and there they are not only allowable, but 
desirable. But against the public and frequent intro- 
duction of minute and specific cases pertaining to in- 
dividuals, there lie, I think, four objections : first, it 
often perplexes and embarrasses the preacher to bring 
them forward properly. Few have the command of 
that fluency which enables them to express incidents 
with readiness and with ease ; and there is frequently 
danger in extempore prayer, lest the faculties should 
be employed where the affections only should be ex- 
ercised ; and this difficulty should not, if possible, be 
increased. Secondly, it excites improper and unreason- 
able attention and inquiry in the minds of the hearers. 
This is especial! the case with the more curious and 



EEV. JOHN FOSTER. 37 

inquisitive. The devotion of many of these is at an 
end as soon as such personalities are brought in ; and 
their minds are immediately hunting through the con- 
gregation or the neighborhood to ascertain the family, 
or the individual, to whom the minister has alluded 
Yet some in their devotions introduce, not only a 
particular fact, but its circumstantial attributes; the 
thanksgiving is not only for a safe delivery, but for 
that of a son or daughter / and the prayer is not only 
for a safe journey, -but by land or by water ; and the 
recovery is implored, not from sickness, but from dropsy 
or fever ; and so of the rest. Thirdly, there is frequent- 
ly in these references a kind of adulatory, compliment- 
ary strain. This is sometimes so gross, that, if it be 
not very trying to those for whom it is designed, it 
must be offensive to those by whom it is heard. Hence 
expressions must be sought which tell in favor of the 
individual ; and, when several are to be noticed at the 
same time, great caution must be observed not to use 
more respectful terms in speaking of one than of the 
other. So averse have I been to this, and so afraid of 
it in my own case, that I have commonly, especially 
with younger ministers, when they have been preach- 
ing for me, taken them aside before they entered the 
pulpit, and begged them, either not to refer to me per- 
sonally at all, or in only general terms. Fourthly, a 
difficulty arises from the multiplicity of. cases. And 
which of these can be passed by without offence? 
Yet how can all be distinctly referred to? I had, 
when preaching in the great congregation in Black- 
friars Road, ten or twelve notes at a time. Who had 
memory enough to retain them all ? And what time 
would all these particularizations have taken up ? 



88 PEACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

And " Grod is in heaven, and we upon earth ; there- 
fore, our words should be few." 

I always dissented from Mr. Foster's recommending 
preachers (sanctioned by his own practice) to lay aside 
the language of what he called religious technicalities ; 
and speaking of divine things in the same phraseology 
as that in which they would speak of other things. 
"Would the substitution be easy ? Would the advan- 
tage repay the endeavor? Has it ever succeeded 
where it has been tried ? I have known attempters 
who have injured their acceptance and usefulness, 
especially among those who heard our Saviour gladly. 
And is the improvement of the mass of hearers to be 
forgotten, in trying after two or three dry-minded, 
perhaps captious, speculatists, or individuals, looking 
only for literary display, when they hear the Gospel, 
as well and as much as when they hear or read any- 
thing else ? 

Three things should be remembered. First, that 
many, and let the main of these be poor, suppose they 
have not the same things, if they are delivered in new 
and strange words. Secondly, the terms and phrases 
to be laid aside are generally .the language of our 
translation (the only Bible the many have) ; and, of 
all our divines, the most eminent and the most known. 
Thirdly, is the new image preferable to the old cur- 
rency? Is reformation equal to renovation ? Is favor 
as significant as grace? Is forgiveness a full substitute 
for justification f Does a promise supersede " an ever- 
lasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure" ? 

No one seemed to delight more in a simple, consist- 
ent Christian, or "an Israelite indeed, in whom was no 
guile," whatever was his condition or religious party, 



EEV. JOHN FOSTER. 39 

than Mr. Foster; but lie was very indignant at the in- 
consistencies of many professors. I was one day visit- 
ing with him at the house of a gentleman, who, though 
a deacon of a Christian church, was too much carried 
away with the pride of life. The mansion was deco- 
rated with every kind of ornament, and the table fur- 
nished with every luxury. As we were entering the 
sumptuous dining-room, Foster pinched my elbow, 
and said, "Is this the strait gate? " 

In preaching, his delivery all through was in a low 
and equable voice, with a kind of surly tone, and a fre- 
quent repetition of a word at the beginning of a sen- 
tence. He had a little fierceness occasionally in his 
eye ; otherwise his face was set, and his arms perfectly 
motionless. He despised all gesticulation, and also all 
attempts to render anything emphatical in announce- 
ment ; looking for the effect from the bare sentiment 
itself, unhelped by anything in the delivery, which he 
professed to despise. He contended that all eloquence 
resides essentially in the thought, and what is eloquent 
in any mode of expression would be so in every mode. 
Yet he was singularly slow in composition, and fastidi- 
ous in the structure of his sentences. But, upon the 
admission of his own principle, how needless was the 
solicitude of his practice? But in what do any of our 
professions and our practices ever perfectly accord ? 

He declined all explicit divisions in sermons, and 
he was never found using the numerals "first," or 
" second." The notes of his discourses (I have seen 
many of them) seemed to consist of some leading sen- 
tences, as places from which he started to enlarge. 
These sentences, to change the metaphor, were seminal, . 
and contained much matter which he could deduce 



40 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

from them; and the seemingly detached parts had 
some real connection or relation in his own mind. 

An anecdote here may be instructive. I remember 
dining with him in company, when the gentleman who 
entertained us (the conversation happening to turn 
upon preaching) remarked the propriety of an obvious 
andnnmerical arrangement ; stating that, whatever may 
be the case with educated and intellectual individuals, 
the greater part of an audience do not perceive what is 
relative unless it be expressed; nor are they able, 
without methodical assistance, fully and easily to re- 
ceive and secure what they have heard. Mr. Foster 
not seemingly assenting, the gentleman proceeded to 
ask, what no one could deny, whether that which es- 
caped in the mere act of hearing could do much good ; 
and whether that was not more likely to be beneficial 
which remained on the mind, and would be thought of 
alone and repeated in company. He added, " Now, 
sir, here is a preacher present who heard you deliver 
in Bristol a few days ago a sermon which he much ad- 
mired ; but when I pressed for a sketch of it, he said 
he could not recall or relate it. But, sir, I will call in 
my gardener. * * * John, did 

you hear Mr. last Sunday ?" " Yes, sir." " Did 

he not preach from such a text ?" " He did, sir." " Do 
you remember anything of the sermon ?" John,, af- 
ter a little reflection, replied, " Why, sir, he introduced 
the subject by observing what a difference there was 
between pretension and reality in religion, that there 
may be a form of knowledge and a form of god- 
liness without the power, and how necessary it was to 
remember and be able to distinguish this, especially 
with regard to ourselves. He then said the text con- 



KEY. JOHN FOSTER. 41 

tained three things. These he stated and severally ex- 
plained. He then called upon us to examine ourselves, 
and I shall never forget (it thrills through me now) 
how he closed with Bunyan's words, ' Lo, I saw there 
is a way to hell by the gate of heaven.' " 

But though Mr. Foster despised the usual order and 
arrangement, yet he did not leave things general and 
indefinite in their bearings ; and there was often a 
pointed force and appropriateness of reflection, which 
seemed suddenly called forth without design, and which 
fell terribly on the conscience. This may be seen in 
the Lectures which have been published ; for though 
they are posthumous, and none of them were entirely 
the discourses which he delivered, they fail not to give 
a just impression of his usual preaching. They also 
show (though too sparingly) that he held what are 
commonly called the peculiar doctrines of the Grospel. 
Of these doctrines, as a Christian, he felt the truth and 
importance ; yet not sufficiently by believing to enter 
into rest, and feel that peace which passeth all under- 
standing, keeping his heart and mind through Christ 
Jesus; or fully to enjoy the blessedness of the people 
who know the joyful sound, and walk all day in the 
light of the Lord's countenance. His mind seemed 
too much surrounded with gloomy, rather than cheer- 
ful, images ; nothing appeared to satisfy him, in civil 
or religious concerns ; and he commonly was not in- 
dulged with the peculiar associations which well suited 
and pleased his mind and heart. 

It is needless to speak of his endowments, which 
have become so generally known from his works, and 
so justly rated. His Essays have excited universal ad- 
miration, anc have obtained for him a very high and 



42 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATION'S OF CHARACTER. 

established position, in the estimation of all readers of 
judgment and taste. These Essays first came to my 
hand on the morning of a day devoted to rural jaunt- 
ing and recreation ; and though I was bound to be at- 
tentive to my companions, and was always fond of 
natural scenery, (some fine specimens of which we 
were visiting,) yet, having opened the work in the car- 
riage, I was tempted to go astray more than once in 
the day, to dip into the contents, which I could not 
leave until the morrow. 

Mr. "Wllberforce thought his Essay on Popular Ig- 
norance much inferior to its predecessors ; others have 
thought the same. I confess I could never see any 
reason for this. But priority has here an advantage ; 
and if an author does not surpass in a second attempt, 
he is supposed to come short of himself. The Lectures, 
without being sermons or expositions, abound with 
thought ; but the reflections are to subtile, or profound, 
for the seizure of common attention or intellect ; and 
what degree of impression or effect did they produce ? 

I love not to draw comparisons between good and 
great men, but I have commonly thought he was supe- 
rior to his illustrious contemporary ; not in every re- 
spect, by any means, especially in learning, and compo- 
sition, and eloquence, but in a kind of unlabored pene- 
tration, an iron grasp and hold of whatever he seized, 
a bottomless profundity of thought, and a fulness of 
all kinds and degrees of illustration, nothing of which 
ever seemed derived ab extra, but all springing from 
his treasures within. And I found, when in Scotland, 
that Dr. Chalmers and others conceded the same partial 
pre-eminence. 

I have sometimes thought of the one as having 



REV. JOHN FOSTER, 43 

more genius, and the other more judgment ; the one as 
having more comprehensiveness of mind, the .other 
more force and condensation ; the one having more of 
intuition, the other of acquirement ; the one more dis- 
cursive, the other more consecutive; the one more dis- 
tinguished by depth, the other by height. But all this 
is of little significance ; they were both great and ex- 
traordinary men ; I knew enough of each to feel com- 
petent to describe them perfectly ; and, if they were to. 
be weighed, I should strive to hold the scales. 

It is worthy of observation that, though Mr. Hall, 
as a preacher, was so much more popular than Mr. 
Foster, (we were always hearing of the one, and scarce- 
ly ever of the other,) yet, since the decease of both, 
quotations from the sermons (I mean the unpublished) 
of the former are seldom to be met with ; extracts and 
whole skeletons from the ordinary preaching of the 
latter have been, and continue to be, in various modes 
multiplied. 

In (rod's hand it is to make great, and to give 
strength " of every kind" to all; and superior talents 
are never given in vain. They have their use and 
their value ; but, lest we should idolize them, and 
think them essential, we often have them (unlike the 
instances before us) unassociated with piety, and God 
doing his work without them, "that the excellency of 
the power may be of him, and not of them." Admired, 
therefore, and valuable, in their way, as natural and 
acquired endowments and attainments are, they are 
not grace; and Paul would say to us, " Covet earnest- 
ly the best gifts, and yet I show unto you a more ex- 
cellent way." Many without splendid endowments 
have been the power of God to save, and will have to 



44 PEACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

present a number of converts, their joy and crown, in 
the day of the Lord Jesus. How lamentable is it to 
reflect how little this master-genius effected, at least 
in the higher species of good ; and how every religious 
interest he served was diminished, rather than in- 
creased, by his labors ! 

The biography of Scripture is impartial, and faith- 
fully records the errors and miscarriages of God's great- 
est and dearest servants ; and need we, should we, over- 
look the errors and imperfections of wise and good men 
now? especially when they have excellences which 
will bear a gentle censure without snuffing them out ? 
And is not this the more necessary where persons are 
elevated, and their example the more likely to be seen 
and influential; where morals, like fashions, always 
work downwards? We should not readily concede 
the dispensableness of attending on the means of grace 
and ordinances of religion to any. Man is not purely 
intellectual, nor is reason the only attribute of his na- 
ture. His mind must be approached through the me- 
dium of sense ; and his fellowship with things unseen 
and eternal must be maintained, or aided, by those 
which are seen and temporal. And those eminent de- 
grees of the divine life which some might suppose ren- 
der attendance in the sanctuary and at the Lord's Table 
needless, always attach the possessor more to them. 
But, if some individuals could supply the place of such 
attendance from their own stores, yet it is otherwise 
with the mass of persons. Without these excitements 
and advantages, the very appearance of religion would 
soon cease among them. Therefore, how desirable 
and dutiful is it that we should sanction and enforce 
such usages, even for the sake of the public welfare, by 



REV. JOHN FOSTER. 45 

our own example. However defective the public ser- 
vices may be, they conduce to some profit. Nothing 
tends so much, to socialize, and civilize, and to produce 
decorum and cleanliness : so that by the want of these 
you may always infer the spiritual destitution of a neigh- 
borhood. 

When residing in the vicinage of Bristol, and dis- 
engaged from office, Mr. Foster usually heard Mr. 
Hall, (and what marvel?) but no other minister; nor, 
I believe, did he even then commune at Broadmead ; 
and, when residing for some time at Burton-on-the- 
"Water he always heard the pastor, yet left the table 
of the Lord ; and Mr. (Coles) complained, and 
said what a distress it occasioned to himself, and what 
a stumbling-block it proved in the way of some of the 
members. I presume (but I am not certain) that in 
the several places where he officiated as the pastor 
himself he administered the Lord's Supper ; but, as to 
the other ordinance, he never dispensed it, or attended 
the administration; and, in several attempts, Mr. 
Hughes, his most familiar friend, assured me, he never 
could get him to express himself upon the subject ; but 
had a full persuasion that with the Friends he did not 
believe in the perpetuity of water baptism. 

I never knew a person (with the exception of Man- 
deville and Rochefoucault) who had such views of the 
badness and depravity of human nature. He seemed 
to regard it as a mass of entire corruption, and espec- 
ially of aversion in everything towards God ; so that 
he saw nothing in it capable of being altered, or im- 
proved into something better; and religion was not 
with him a transformation, by the renewing of the 
mind, but a perfect production and substitution of 



46 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

other powers, through the power of God. His views 
also of ministerial and missionary labors, far from 
being sanguine, were scarcely hopeful ; and his expec- 
tation of a better state of things did not arise from the 
blessing of God on the use of the means we possess, 
but from an express interposition of almightiness coer- 
cing its effects. 

And who can commend his wish to break up all 
church institutions and orders, leaving religion to in- 
dividual influence and exertion. ? Or at most to do- 
mestic? ' In several of these things he was joined and 
aided by another remarkable and talented character, 
a member of my congregation, Mr. Thomas Parsons, 
of whom I have spoken in my published funeral ser- 
mon. 

But is it wise to abandon the present methods of 
doing good, because of their defectiveness, instead of 
gradually endeavoring to improve them ? Who knows 
what may be the result between the giving up of the 
old means and the establishment and prevalence of the 
new ; for the change may not be easily, and therefore 
not speedily accomplished; and who can be certain 
of its greater benefit and usefulness ? We actually 
know what is now doing, and may hope for greater 
things than these, by the blessing of God upon our 
wise and active use of our present instrumentalities. 
" To him that hath shall be given, and he shall have 
more abundance ; but from him that hath not shall be 
taken away even that which he seemeth to have?' 

Mr. Foster, though great in all his productions, ap- 
pears to me greatest in his Reviews. The more I read 
them, the more I am astonished at the quickness and 
clearness of his perceptions ; the power of his dis- 



EEV. JOHN FOSTEE. 47 

crimination ; his detection of sophistry ; his love of 
fairness, rectitude, and truth; his sly, yet just sar- 
casms ; his stinging satire ; his abomination of pedant- 
ry and pretence. Nor is my admiration abated by 
comparison, when I read the contributions of Macau- 
lay, Jeffrey, and Macintosh; and nothing surprises 
me more than that the purchase of the two volumes 
of his contributions has not been rapid and extensive 
enough to induce the editor to send forth the large re- 
mainder, now shut up in the Eclectic Review. 

But the production of his pen the most spiritually 
important, and the most adapted to awaken the con- 
science and to urge the heart to Grod, (perhaps, too, 
the best written,) is the Essay prefixed to Dr. Dod- 
dridge's Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul. Why 
is not this more known ? Why is it not published 
separately ? 

Yet, as to himself, the choice of that work for this 
prefix (for the subject was at his option) was remark- 
able. As in scenery he could not endure the old 
forms in which gardens were laid out, in squares, and 
parterres, and yew-trees cut into formal figures, but 
something bordering on rude, in which nature was 
seen rather than art ; something rather wild than neat- 
ly cultured ; ever yielding freshness and having no 
bounds. So it was as to his taste with regard to pub- 
lications ; especially also as to the commencement of 
religion. He conceived that it began by some one 
powerful emotion or impression, and never from any 
plan or scheme laid out in long and regular perspec- 
tive. He would say, " I love a scene in which nature 
keeps much in her own hands." 

Mr. Cottle (Foster's friend, and, I am happy to say, 



4:8- PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

my own also) once showed me a letter of Mr. Foster's, 
concerning this prefixed Essay. It may be curious and 
gratifying to subjoin a copy. It will serve, as the re- 
ceiver remarked, to show the complex motives and 
manner in which important productions originate and 
are perfected. 



" MY DEAR SIR, Dr. Chalmers some three years since started a 
plan of reprinting, in a neat form, a number of respectable religious 
works, of the older date, with a Preliminary Essay to each, relating 
to the book, or to any analogous topic, at the "writer's discretion. 
The Glasgow booksellers, Chalmers and Collins, the one the Doctor's 
brother, and the other his most confidential friend, have according- 
ly reprinted a series of perhaps now a dozen -works, -with essays, sev- 
eral by Dr. Chalmers, and several by Irving, one by "Wilberforce, one 
by Daniel Wilson, &e., &c. I believe Hall and Cunningham have 
promised their contributions. I was inveigled into a similar promise 
more than two years since. The work strongly urged on me for 
this service in the first instance was Dodd'ridge's " Rise and Prog- 
ress ;" and the contribution was actually promised to be furnished 
with the least possible delay; on the strength of which the book 
was immediately printed off, and has actually been lying in their 
warehouse as dead stock these two years. I was admonished and 
urged again and again ; but, in spite of the mortification and shame 
which I could not but feel at thus occasioning the publisher's cer- 
tain positive loss, my horror of writing, combined with ill health, 
invincibly prevailed, and not a paragraph was written till towards 
the end of last year, when I did summon resolution for the attempt. 
When I had Avritten but a few page's, the reluctant labor was iiiter- 
rupted and suspended by the more interesting one of writing thoso 
letters to our dear young friend, your niece (Miss Saunders). Eot, 
of course, that this latter employment did not allow me time enough 
for the other ; but by its more lively interest it had the effect of 
augmenting my disinclination to the other. Soon after her removal, 
I resumed the task, and am ashamed to acknowledge such a misera- 
ble and matchless slowness of mental operation that the task held 
me confined ever since, till actually within these few days. I be- 
lieve that nothing but a strong sense of the duty of fulfilling my 
engagement, and of not continuing to do a real injury to the pub- 



EEV. JOHN FOSTEE. 49 

listers, could have constrained me to so long a labor. It is most 
mortifying to think of so slender a result of so much time and toil. 
The article is, indeed, of the length of one half of Doddi-idge's book ; 
but many of my contemporary makers of sentences would have pro- 
duced as much with one fifth part of the time and labor. I have 
aimed at great correctness and condensation, and have found the 
labor of revisal and transcription not very much less than that of 
the substantial composition. The thing has been prolonged, I should 
say spun out, to three times the length which was at first intended, 
or was required. It has very little reference to the book which it 
accompanies, has no special topic, and is merely a serious inculca- 
tion of the necessity of religion on young persons and men of the 
world. In point of merit, (that, you know, is the word in such 
matters,) I rate it very moderately, except in respect to correct- 
ness and clearness of expression. If it do not possess these quali- 
ties, a vast deal of care and labor has been sadly thrown away. I 
suppose the thing is just about making up, to be sent from the pub- 
lisher's warehouse. I shall have a little parcel of copies, and shall 
presume to request the acceptance of one in Dighton-street. 

" My dear Sir, I am absolutely ashamed to have been led into this 
length of what is no better than egotism, when I was meaning just 
five lines, to tell what has detained me from the pleasure of seeing 
you. 

" My dear Sir, 

" Tours most truly, 

" JOHN FOSTER." 
3 



LADY MAXWELL AND THE REV. 
JOHN WESLEY. 

I HAVE mentioned in another place my meeting 
with Lady Maxwell in Bristol, and her engaging me 
to preach at Hope Chapel, at the Hotwells. (1789.) 

This place of worship had been founded, and the 
cause advanced, by Lady Hope and Lady Glenorchy. 
The former (whose name it bears) died before its com- 
pletion. This was also the case with her successor, 
Lady G-lenorchy, on whose death it came into the 
hands of Lady Maxwell. She finished it, and opened 
it for the service of God ; and had it supplied for some 
time by a succession of ministers, and managed by a 
selection of gentlemen from the several congregations 
in Bristol, two of whom in succession always attended 
on the Sabbath, to arrange the affairs of the infant in- 
terest. But this plan was soon found very inconven- 
ient and troublesome. It seemed desirable that the 
place should have a fixed minister. The trial Avas 
made, and it commenced with the Reminiscent. 

Lady Maxwell was a very holy and pious woman, 
with a considerable tinge of enthusiasm in her constitu- 
tion. Her Memoirs have been published in two volumes. 
Some of her religious views -were peculiar, or .not easily 
explained. She had a notion of communing \v ; t>> the 



LADY MAXWELL AND THE REV. JOHN WESLEY. 51 

Persons in the Divine Nature individually and sepa- 
rately, i. e., one day more particularly, if not exclusive- 
ly, with the Father, another with the Son, and a third 
with the Holy Grhost. Has not Dr. Owen a little 
verged toward this in his work on communion with 
God ? But here it was not only admitted, but plead- 
ed for, as of great importance, and reaching the very 
acme of Christian experience. 

Her ladyship was peculiarly attached to Mr. Wesley. 
Her doctrines, unless in the above articles, accorded 
entirely with his ; but as these were not precisely the 
sentiments of the two foundresses of the place, who 
were Presbyterians, she determined it should not be 
said that she availed herself of her privilege to intro- 
duce them ; and, by a very scrupulous delicacy, ad- 
mitted none of Wesley's preachers to officiate there, 
and not even himself. 

The place had not been long opened when I undertook 
the service. A congregation was to be raised. Though 
young and immature, my labors were acceptable and 
useful ; and while there, the Lord gave me three con- 
verts, all of whom entered the ministry and labored 
well. Here I remained for near twelve months ; and, 
being pressed by her ladyship as well as the congrega- 
tion, here I should perhaps have continued, but for a 
dispute with a good female whom her ladyship left to 
manage the secular concerns of the place. It regard- 
ed her interfering with the ecclesiastical also. In this 
disagreement we were both 'to blame. Two things I 
learned from it, 

First, To prefer the government of females in the 
family rather than in the church ; and, 

Secondly, To observe on what slender things often. 



52 PEACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTEK. 

hinge the most important events of our lives. This 
disagreement determined me to accept the invitation I 
had just then received from Bath. 

During my stay at Hope Chapel, I had the honor 
and pleasure of dining at her Ladyship's house "with 
the venerable Mr. Wesley. He kindly noticed me, 
and inquired after Mr. "Winter, adding, " Cornelius is 
an excellent man." This was the more candid, as Mr. 
Winter, in a letter, a copy of which I have, had testi- 
fied freely against some of Mr. Wesley's opinions. At 
the first interview there were in the company the Rev. 
Mr. More, one of Mr. Wesley's biographers, and sev- 
eral other preachers in his connection ; and among 
these was a Captain Webb, deprived of one eye at the 
battle of Bunker's Hill, who held forth commonly 
without doors in regimentals. As I wished to hear 
Mr. Wesley talk, nothing could be more mortifying 
than the incessant garrulity of this fanatical rhodomon- 
tacler ; and I much wondered Mr. Wesley, who had 
such influence over his adherents, did not repress, or 
at least rebuke, some of his spiritual vagaries and su- 
pernatural exploits. Did this master in Israel think it 
harmless to tolerate a kind of visionary agency, and 
suppose that it was little for the common people to 
believe too much rather than too little ? 

At my second interview, among others was the Eev. 
Mr. Easterbrook, the vicar of Temple parish ; one of 
the best men I ever knew ; and at whose death, it is 
said, some respectful notice was taken of him in every 
pulpit in the city. He denied himself to an extreme 
to give to him that needeth, and was always going 
about doing good. As evidential of his liberality of 
mind, as well as of heart, when Mr. Hoskins, a dissent- 



LADY MAXWELL AND THE REV. JOHN WESLEY. 53 

ing minister, opened for preaching a large room in his 
extensive parish, he himself attended the opening ; 
and embracing him before the people as he came out 
of the pulpit, he said,-" I thank you, my brother, for 
coming to my aid." This very good man (for so he 
was) erred a little on the side of credulity and super- 
stition. A few weeks before, an extraordinary service, 
with fasting and prayer, had been held in his church, 
attended by several ministers in the Methodist connec- 
tion, to dispossess a supposed demoniac. This was 
John Lukins, who had exhibited some strange appear- 
ances, and uttered some kind of singular sounds, which 
his friends were unable physically to account for. The 
man was present at the service, and the spirit supposed 
to be in him was addressed, and in the name of Christ 
was ordered to come out of him. After some shrieks 
and contortions he became gentle, and exhibited no- 
thing more of his former malady. I knew the man 
afterwards, and more than once relieved him. The 
case naturally excited even public attention, and gave 
rise to several pamphlets ; the chief of which was writ- 
ten by an eminent surgeon in Bath, in whose native 
place Lukins was born. 

I should not have related this, but it unfortunately 
engrossed the conversation for nearly the whole of the 
afternoon, and because, to my great surprise, Mr. Wes- 
ley seemed to admit the reality of the possession and 
dispossession, and to consider it as nothing less than a 
wonderful work of God. After tea I went with him 
in his carriage into Bristol, and heard him preach from 
Ephes. v. 8 " Ye were sometimes darkness, but now 
are ye light in the Lord ; walk as children of light." 
It was the only opportunity I ever had of hearing this 



54 PBACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHABACTEB. 

truly apostolical man. The whole scene was very pic- 
turesque and striking : several preachers stood in the 
large pulpit around him ; the sermon was short, the 
language terse and good, but entirely devoid of ex- 
pansion and imagery, while the delivery was low and 
unanimated. This surprised me. "Was it the influence 
and effect of age ? If it was originally the same, how 
came he to be so popular among the rude multitudes 
which always attended him, and so hung upon his 
lips? Whitfield's voice and vehemence, and strong 
emotions, will in some measure account for the im- 
pressions he produced, even regardless of the grace of 
God which accompanied them. How popular and 
useful was Berridge ! yet he had nothing of the vul- 
gar orator in his manner ; it was plain and unimpas- 
sioned. This was the case also with, many of the orig- 
inal corps of evangelists. 



HOLMES, ESQ. 

WITH this gentleman I became intimately acquaint- 
ed early in my ministry. He then resided at Ide, in 
the vicinage of Exeter. He had good natural talents ; 
was well educated ; read the Scriptures familiarly in 
their original languages ; and could speak French flu- 
ently. He was also, without assuming the ministerial 
office, occasionally a preacher. For though he had re- 
tired from merchandise, in which Grod had prospered 
him, he did not consider himself as thereby justified 
in living a life of ease and indolence ; but as the more 
bound (as in some respects the more able) to do good ; 
and to serve his own generation according to the will 
of Grod, especially in their spiritual interests. 

He possessed an ample fortune, kept his carriage, 
and lived in a genteel style becoming his circum- 
stances ; but expended nothing in gay extravagance, 
and saved up nothing by sordid hoarding. He view- 
ed himself as a steward, used his property as a talent, 
and kept in mind the day of account. 

I pass by his private benefactions, in which he never 
sought to be seen of men, to notice two or three things 
of a more public nature, by which being dead he yet 
speaketh; and in which, I hope, he may be instructive 
and exemplary. 



56 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

Observing the people in the villages so exceedingly 
ignorant and irreligious, he found out individuals of 
good character and decent capacity, and employed 
them as schoolmasters during the week, and as preach- 
ers on the Sabbath, and supported them at his own 
expense. He was the means of re-opening some meet- 
ings which error had shut up, of repairing others that 
were decaying, and of enlarging others that had be- 
come too small. 

He erected, exclusively at his own cost, a large and 
commodious chapel at Teignmouth ; and principally, 
if not entirely, supported it for some years. When he 
resolved on this, there were no pious individuals in the 
place. I only remember (and I had opportunities of 
knowing) one person who made any pretension to se- 
rious religion. And here I differed from my friend, 
thinking that, in all cases of this kind, we should first 
make trial of the will of Grod, and see if there is a dis- 
position to hear, and then build. But the founder 
said he was strongly impressed with the importance 
of the measure, and was fully persuaded in due time 
much good would be done by means of it. His ex- 
pectation, however, was not immediately accomplish- 
ed. Some years passed before there was any consid- 
erable appearance of success. It must, indeed, be al- 
lowed that, for a good while, the preaching was not 
much suited to the station, or adapted to convert or to 
edify. But in process of time things changed for the 
better ; a good congregation was raised, and the church 
made to prosper, and continues to be a flourishing in- 
terest. I preached at the opening. My subjects were, 
Psalm xciii. 5, " Holiness becorneth thine house, O 
Lord, forever," and 1 Sam. i. 13, "Now Hannah she 



HOLMES, ESQ. 57 

spake in her heart; only her lips moved, but her 
voice was not heard ; therefore Eli thought she had 
been drunken." 

Owing to its being opened on the Lord's day, min- 
isters could not attend without leaving their own 
places. One brother only was there, but he took no 
part in the service, except the introductory prayer. 
Being a hypochondriac he had left his pastoral office. 
I never had the pleasure of seeing him again. But I 
heard afterwards of his misfortune, shall I call it ?< or 
happiness ? He was a man of sober years, and was 
going to be conjugated to a dame of discretion ; but 
happening to pass a fortnight with her at the house of 
a relation previously to their union, they gained such 
a mutual increase of knowledge, as induced them to 
be satisfied to remain in statu quo. 

The first six sabbaths I remained to officiate. Mr. 
Holmes himself preached in the afternoon, and I in the 
morning and evening. We came from his house on 
the Saturday, and returned on the Monday. Our ac- 
commodations were always at the inn. 

Mr. Holmes had children by his first wife, but they 
all died young. His second wife was the daughter of 

the Eector of "W n. She had then two brothers in 

the church, evangelical preachers, but afterwards turn- 
ed away from the truth. I trust she was a good 
woman ; but though she had married a rich Dissenter, 
her heart was left behind. I could perceive, the six 
weeks I resided in the house, that she did not relish 
what her husband was doing out of the Establishment ; 
and I foresaw what would be the consequence if she 
survived him. The event took place, and the appre- 
hension was realized. It is desirable when persons 

3* 



58 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

marry, to marry as much, as possible in their own re- 
ligious community. To justify a contrary course two 
things are at least necessary. 

First. That they hold the sentiments in which they 
differ with moderation, and feel them, to be subordi- 
nate; and, 

Secondly. That they consent to attend the same place 
of worship. "Worshipping together cherishes and pro- 
motes social and devout affections ; and has a lively 
and favorable effect upon children and servants. 
"What evil consequences have I often seen arising from 
husbands and wives, fathers and mothers, always re- 
pairing to separate sanctuaries, or worshipping alter- 
nately at different places ! 

I do not herein condemn myself. I married the 
daughter of a clergyman, but there was no separation 
in our devotions, or differences in the training of our 
children. We united with each other much more as 
Christians, than Episcopalians and Dissenters; and 
never had we, in a long and happy union, one word of 
discord, or even dispute. 

I happened, in my way to the opening of a Meeting- 
house at Tavistock, to spend a week at Painton. The 
people at Teignmouth hearing of this sent a deputa- 
tion to urge me to preach for them on the following 
Sabbath, as it was the very day of my opening their 
sanctuary thirty years before. This I did, and was 
pleased to see the state of things so prosperous and 
promising. Two days after, when I had reached Tot- 
ness, as the chaise was at the door to take me forward 
to Tavistock > I was recalled home by a messenger an- 
nouncing the apprehended death of my youngest 
daughter, whom I had left perfectly well. I was only 



HOLMES, ESQ. 59 

in time to see her expire. How much do times and 
places derive from association and recollection ! What 
have been my feelings in passing through Totness 
since ! 

To proceed with this Reminiscence : On my return 
from the dedication of the chapel at Teignmouth to 
Bath, Mr. Holmes brought me in his carriage as far as 
Taunton, where I took coach. He had made engage- 
ments for me to preach in my way back at Ohudleigh, 
Tiverton, "Wellington, and Taunton. At Taunton I 
preached for Mr. Reader, then the Tutor of the West- 
ern Academy. He was a very pious and spiritual 
man ; but had for some time past been led inordinately 
to the study of the Revelation of St. John. His wife 
assured me, that sometimes for near an hour at a time 
would he be agonizing with Grod in prayer, when he 
found difficulties in the Book, and could get no satisfac- 
tion from human authors. Hence he too much conclud- 
ed that what came into his mind after these prayers was 
the meaning of the Holy Grhost, and this made him too 
positive in his interpretations. As out of the abun- 
dance of the heart the mouth speaketh, his reference 
to the Apocalypse was almost incessant. My friend 
apprized me of this addiction, and desired me to ob- 
serve, as we were approaching his house, how long it 
would be before he brought forth his favorite topic. 
Within a quarter of an hour, the name of Mr. Newton 
was incidentally mentioned; when he said, "Ah, Mr. 
Newton is a very good man, but God will correct him 
before his death." Wherefore? it was asked. "Be- 
cause of his indifference," said he, "to wards the bless- 
ed Book of Revelation." I asked wherein he had 
shown this indifference. " Sir," said he, " when I had 



60 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

?v 

finished my exposition of that Book, I sent Mm a copy 
for his acceptance, and begged his opinion of the work ; 
and this," said he, pulling his letter out of his bureau, "is 
his answer." "'Dear Sir, I am much obliged by 
your kindness in sending me the volume on the Apoc- 
alypse ; but you must excuse me for not criticizing 
the contents, for which I have neither leisure nor 
ability. I hope Grod has for some years given me a 
word in season for him that is weary, but he has not 
given a capacity to open the seals, I am, &c., John 
Newton.' " 

ISFow, I do not go the length of South, nor admire 
the unhallowed wit that says, " The Revelation al- 
ways finds a man mad, or leaves him so ;" yet we may 
learn from this good man ; and what I say concerning 
him, I speak as with affection, so I speak only what I 
could verify. This kind of prophetical zeal gave a 
kind of new and unhappy turn to his preaching. It 
injuriously affected the congregation 

"The hungry sheep look'd up and were not fed ;" 

and sinners heard less of repentance towards God, and 
faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ, than before. 

We are not ignorant of his devices who is not only 
the accuser of the brethren, but the tempter too. Had 
he addressed this excellent man with anything ob- 
viously erroneous or sinful, he would have said, " Gret 
thee behind me, Satan." But it was otherwise when 
he approached him in a sacred attire, with the Bible 
in his hand, and this text in his mouth, " Blessed is 
he that readeth, and they that understand the words 
of this prophecy." 



i HOLMES, ESQ. 61 

"Would it not be well if professors, and especially 
preachers, were not only to think of the difficulty (not 
to say impossibility) of deciding many things in dis- 
pute but remember their little value comparatively if 
demonstrated, "What is the chaff to the wheat?" 

After preaching for this good old man, and returning 
into his house, he said, " Sir, I did not like what you 
said of candour this evening." I answered, " I think 
I sufficiently guarded it, and distinguished it from in- 
difference with regard to essential truth." " Sir," said 
he, "you. have had many apostates to hear you, and 
they will think too favorably of you." While he was 
thus speaking Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Toulmin was intro- 
duced into the parlor, asking me to preach for him, like 
Eobinson, saying, his pulpit was open to all good men. 
At this, Mr. Eeader pounced upon me a confirmation 
of what he had said; nor did he ask the applicant to 
sit down, or even speak to him. And is this the meek- 
ness of wisdom ? If we cannot love persons as Chris- 
tians, are we to refuse them civilities as men ? Is this 
the way to win souls? Not that I was disposed to 
preach for him. I never officiated but twice in an Uni- 
tarian pulpit; and in each instance I took care not to 
be asked under any ignorance of my sentiments. I 
said, " The thing with me is not where I preach, but 
what I preach. I must speak according to my own 
principles. Allow me this liberty and I will comply. 
I shall not go out of my way to insult or oppose ; but 
I cannot forbear to deliver what iny conscience tells 
me I should deliver from the same text in my own - 
place." 

Having said all that honesty and fairness required, 
I spoke with freedom ; but one of the two ministers 



62 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

who invited me the first time went out in the middle 
of the discourse, and the other before I began had 
rather cautiously intimated that "it were, always bet- 
ter to avoid abstruse doctrines, and teach our people 
how to keep God's commandments and find their way 
to heaven." I told him, I always made this my ulti- 
mate aim. Yet I felt not at home. I seemed not to 
be among my own people, and was not a little embar- 
rassed in the intercessory part of my prayer for the 
ministers ; for under what character could I pray for 
them as Pastors? 

I was only once after this coldly asked, and I re- 
fused ; for, besides the difficulty I had felt in the per- 
formances, I considered how liable it was to miscon- 
struction ; and how careful we should be not to offend 
against the generation of the upright. Upon the same 
principle Mr. Hall acted. He had occasionally, when 
he came to Bristol, preached for Mr. B n the Uni- 
tarian minister ; but after awhile, with godly prudence, 
he declined; and saved from surmise, fear, and dis- 
tress, some who, if not his most intelligent, were yet 
his most pious and prayerful hearers. The last ser- 
mon he preached there was against Atheism ! 

I see in his Diary, Mr. Toplady (who lived not far 
from Exeter), though a beneficed clergyman, was most 
cordially intimate with Mr. Holmes. Here I insert 
two short extracts taken from Mr. Toplady's Posthu- 
mous Volumes, page 279 and 285. 

" Spent about an hour and a half with good Mr. 
Holmes, whom I found in great distress, on account 
of his only surviving son being given over in a fever. 
During our interview, Grod so opened my mouth and 
so enlarged my heart, that I trust both my friend and 



HOLMES, ESQ. 63 

myself found our spiritual strength renewed, and were 
sensibly and powerfully comforted from above." 

u After breakfast, rode to Exeter, where I dined at 
Mr. Holmes'. Found that dear and excellent man 
not only more resigned to the will of God, but even 
more cheerful than I could have conceived. Mrs. 
Paul of Topsham, and Mr. Lewis, a worthy Baptist 
minister, dined with us. Our conversation at table 
was on the best subjects ; and I found our Christian 
discussions sensibly blessed to my soul. After tea, 
myself and four more followed the remains of Master 
Holmes to Cade, about two miles out of the city, where 
they were interred. Mr. Cole, curate of the parish, 
read the funeral service. I preached a sermon suit- 
able to the solemn occasion to a large auditory, and 
one " the most attentive ones I ever saw," &c. 



WELSH, ESQ. 

I AM the more inclined to speak of this good man, 
because I believe no account of him, even in a funeral 
discourse, has "been published. I can assign no reason 
for this ; but, as we proceed in this brief narrative, the 
omission will raise our wonder, and show us that the 
excellency and usefulness of persons are not to be al- 
ways estimated by the noise they make or the notice 
they excite at the time. I say " at the time" because 
as the thing is only partial, so it is often only tem- 
porary. In due season, and in a way which marks 
the providence of God, he brings forth their "right- 
eousness as the light, and their judgment as the noon- 
day." How many of the Nonconformists are now 
admired, whose names were even cast out as evil! 
When Cowper wrote, he seemed forbidden to mention 
Whitfield by name. 

" Leuconomus, (beneath well-sounding Greek, 
I slur a name a poet must not speak)." 

Is there a man now in the kingdom but considers him 
an upright, honest man, who lived only to do good ? 
But Bunyan ! poor Buiiyan ! that ignoramus,- that fa- 
natic, that rebel, that traitor to his country, insulted on 



WELSH, ESQ. 65 

his trial, infamously condemned, cruelly imprisoned 
for twelve long years ; what, where is he now ? His 
book is acknowledged the first of allegories, and his 
statue is in one of our parliamentary niches ! 

Good men should be willing to leave their reputa- 
tion, like everything else, with God ; and it is well if, 
when little is said of them, their works praise them 
in the gate. By these "the memory of the just is 
blessed." 

'Mr. "Welsh was a considerable banker in London. 
One of the partners in the firm was Mr. Eogers, the 
father of the poet. His wife was a daughter of the 
famous Thomas Bradbury, of political, polemic, and 
facetious memory ; and she had much of her father's 
humor about her. She often mentioned some of his 
witticisms. I wish I had recorded them. Two of 
them at this moment I just remember. One day, 
meeting with a man who was going to push him from 
the wall, saying, "I don't choose to give the wall to 
every fool I meet," says Mr. Bradbury, " I do, and 
so pray take it." Another day he was at the coffee- 
house, where several gentlemen were reading the 
papers, and one of them having read that, the Sunday 
before, a man who was violating the Sabbath fell from 
his horse, and fractured his leg and thigh ; upon which 
he said, turning to Mr. Bradbury, " I suppose, Mr. 
Bradbury, you deem this a Divine judgment if" 
" Why, sir," said Mr. Bradbury, "if you deem it a 
Divine mercy, we will have no dispute *about it." 

The church over which the Keminiscent has so long 
and happily presided owed very much to the zeal and 
liberality of Mr. "Welsh. He unceasingly nursed it in 
its infant state ; and, when it had only a small and 



66 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

incommodious place to assemble in, he principally, at 
his own expense, fitted up the old Roman Catholic 
chapel, which had been left very much in ruins, from 
the Protestant riots in 1780. He also, from their hav- 
ing only a successional and uncertain supply of preach- 
ers, recommended to them an able pastor, who could 
feed them with knowledge and understanding, and en- 
gaged to support him till the congregation should be 
capable of bearing the burden themselves. 

Mr. Welsh commonly passed some weeks, if riot 
months, annually in Bath ; and nothing in these visits 
afforded him more pleasure than to observe the cause 
he had so patronized increasing and prospering ; and 
this was the case even after the loss of my predecessor, 
the Eev. Thomas Tuppen, whom he had introduced, 
and especially after the opening of our new chapel in 
Argyle-street, and which even then required to be en 
larged. 

But this was not all, but comparatively little, of 
what Mr. Welsh accomplished. I was once passing 
the evening with him ; he was in a very solemn and 
feeling mood ; and after awhile he said, with tears, " I 
am growing old, and I ought, and I wish, to do some- 
thing more to glorify God, and serve my generation 
according to his will, than I have done ; and I have 
the means." Several schemes passed under our re- 
view ; and at last he mentioned what (as I entirely ap- 
proved of) I did all in my power to enforce. I will 
simply specify the case. 

At this time our countay was in a state very differ- 
ent from its present condition. It was generally under 
the greatest of all curses, the curse of an unregenerate 
ministry, especially in the smaller towns and villages, 



WELSH, ESQ. 67 

where many of the people, though in a land of vision, 
and with an Established Church, were jet perishing 
for lack of knowledge. 

We, therefore, thought (for it was the King's busi- 
ness, and required haste) that it was desirable imme- 
diately to search out, and educate, a number of young 
men of gifts and grace for the ministry, and place them 
in a kind of domestic academies. These seminaries 
were not to be in opposition to any larger and higher 
establishments, but rather in addition to them. They 
were to give these young men a less literary training, 
but a more theological and practical ; or with a fuller 
reference principally, though not exclusively, to di- 
vinity and preaching. These students were to be 
placed for some years under the care of ministers of 
piety, experience, and competent learning, residing in 
separate localities ; and where they could be, even 
during their tuition, employed in teaching the poor, 
and ignorant, and vicious ; and, while employed, to 
be also improved, and actually prepared for their work, 
like those who are taught to run by running, and to 
walk by walking, and not by mere rule and lesson. 

Of seven tutors, Mr. Welsh chose three, engaging to 
support several students under each. Cornelius Win- 
ter was one of them. He had, indeed, been engaged 
in such work before, though without any regular and 
certain provision for expense, like Professor Frant, at 
Wells, in his work of faith and labor of love. 

The Eeminiscent was not one of Mr. Welsh's stu- 
dents, but belonged to an earlier class, ur der Mr. Win- 
ter's care, and principally supported by John Thorn- 
ton, Esq., Sir Eichard Hill, and others. 

Mr. Welsh married a second time, late in life, the 



68 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

half-sister of Dr. Evans of Bristol. He lived to a good 
old age, and died very suddenly. I had preached be- 
fore him in the morning, from the words of our Lord 
to the Church of Ephesus " To him that overcometh 
will I grant to sit with me on my throne." It was 
the last sermon he heard ; and, one hour after, rising 
from dinner to return thanks, he fell down upon the 
floor, and expired : 

" A soul prepared needs no delays ; 
The summons comes, the saint obeys ; 
Swift was his flight, and short the road, 
He closed his eyes, and woke with God !" 

To conclude this brief and imperfect memoir. "We 
read of "the spirit of judgment and the spirit of burn- 
ing." This is a fine and an advantageous union ; fer- 
vor enlightens prudence, and prudence qualifies fervor. 
Therefore, says the Apostle, " let your love abound 
yet more and more in all knowledge and in all judg- 
ment." As if he should say, " Be not weary in well- 
doing, but in your benevolence exercise discretion as 
to time, and place, and means, and manner ; and as 
your ability is always but small, endeavor to make a 
little go a great way." I cannot but think a more ju- 
dicious course of usefulness could not have been chosen 
than that which Mr. Welsh encouraged ; and, though 
some were disposed to blow upon it at first, and though 
more may now deem it too humble for modern Dissent, 
how many opportunities have I had, and thousands 
more, of witnessing its blessed eifects, in turning sin- 
ners from darkness to light, of evangelizing heathen 
neighborhoods, and even in forming congregations, 



WELSH, ESQ. 69 

whose beginning, indeed, was small, but whose latter 
end greatly increased ! 

And here, without the least wish to check or under- 
value superior degrees of literary attainment, may not 
the Beminiscent be allowed to ask a few questions ? 
Is there no distinction between an educated and a 
learned ministry ? If (and the Apostle says, " Christ 
sent me not to baptize, but to preach the Grospel"), if 
the chief design of the ministry is to preach, and faith 
cometh by hearing, should not everything in the prep- 
aration be made to bear principally upon it ? And is 
this unceasingly and obviously the case in all our ex- 
isting institutions ? Are mathematical and classical 
acquirements, especially in their higher degrees, equal- 
ly necessary in all stations, and for all teachers ? Are 
there not cases in which these distinctions may rela- 
tively even disqualify, more than help ; first, by their 
aptness to draw away the preacher too much into the 
pursuit of things in which he excels, and in which, 
therefore, he delights ? and, secondly, by betraying him 
into a manner of address less intelligible, familiar, and 
impressive, to the mass of his audience ? Is not a 
minister of the Gospel to be the teacher of religion, 
the subjects of which are matter of pure testimony 
and not of reasoning, and therefore little depending on 
talent and science ; for " by faith we stand" ? Is there 
no difference in the department of preparation between 
a kingdom which is " not of this world," and one which 
is ? Is the minister to be laboriously qualified to meet 
the casual intellectual few, rather than the certain many, 
that may attend his teaching? Is the church the 
proper and express sphere for the highest cultivation 
of genius and literature ? Or for studying and striv- 



70 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

ing for degrees and titles derived from the arts and 
sciences ? Far be it from the Eeminiscent to domineer 
or dictate ; but may he not again ask, Is there any 
mode of address so little likely to be popularly useful 
as that of a dry, cold intellectuality ? Is there no dif- 
ference between the press and the pulpit ? May not 
that which is proper for the one be unsuitable for the 
other ? Is there no difference between a treatise and 
a sermon ? I will buy the former, if it be published, 
and read it with pleasure ; but I will never hear the 
latter, if I know it. Can a discourse adapted to gen- 
eral improvement safely admit more than a certain 
portion of intelligence and argument ? Can that be 
felt that is not understood ? And that carried away 
which is not portable? And is there no danger of 
rendering the Scriptures in tune a mere book for criti- 
cism, and to be treated scientifically, without regard- 
ing it for the sole purpose for which it was given, to 
guide our feet into the path of life, and to answer the 
inquiry, " What must I do to be saved?" 

But to return. Let us redeem our time, and use our 
resources and abilities, whatever they may be ; and 
let us never forget that, if we have not ten talents, we 
have one, and that the man with one talent was the 
unprofitable servant, and therefore the wicked servant, 
and therefore the punished servant. He hid his talent 
in a napkin. And let us see what a single individual 
may accomplish, when (as it is said of the builders at 
the Temple) he has a mind to work. What good did 
this man effect by the natural and simple instrument- 
ality which he set in motion? Why, "there is joy 
in the presence of the angels of Grod over one sinner 
that repenteth." He that saves one soul from death 



WELSH, ESQ. 71 

does more than lie who rescues a country from civil 
bondage. And how many were here turned from the 
error of their way, and made partakers of that " god- 
liness which is profitable unto all things, having prom- 
ise of the life that now is, as well as of that which is 
to come !" Yes ; and how extensive was the good done 
to all these ! for it not only saved their souls, but 
blessed their bodies, and the labor of their hands, and 
their relations and families. And, then, how perpetu- 
ated was this good ! The subjects of it themselves 
were the medium of it to others; and now, even 'now, 
it is operating in various influences and effects, and 
will continue to operate till the last day. 

And by what was he rendered most a benefactor ? 
Bv the consecration of a measure of his substance to 

tx 

the service of his Grod and Saviour. One is almost 
afraid to speak in favor of money, lest avarice should 
hail the remark, and capture the praise, and apply it 
to perverted purposes. But, the truth is, that while 
the love of money is the root of all evil, the use of it 
may be made the root of all good. In one respect, it 
is the most important of all agencies, because it can 
employ in its service all other instrumentalities labor, 
genius, eloquence, learning, and even piety itself. The 
lawful acquisition of it, therefore, should never be neg- 
lected ; a penny of it should never be wasted ; nor a 
farthing of it be sordidly or needlessly hoarded up. 
" Charge them," says the Apostle, " that are rich in 
this world, that they do good, that they be rich in good 
works, ready to distribute, willing to communicate." 
Again, he says, "To do good, and to communicate, for- 
get not, for with such sacrifices Grod is well pleased." 
Thus did Mr. Welsh. He was in a good degree his 



72 PEACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

own executor, and had the satisfaction to see the seed 
he had sown ripened and reaped. ISTor was it a small 
sum which he only in this one instance employed in 
defraying the expenses of the tuition and boarding of 
such a number of students from year to year. 

But what shall we say of some, yes, even professors 
of religion, who perhaps began with little, accumulated 
much, did nothing with their abundance while they 
lived, and secured by their accursed treasures the' de- 
pravity and destruction of their descendants when they 
died! Shame be to those pliant ministers who, in 
compliment to their connections, will preach funeral 
sermons for such characters, unless they take for 
their text, " But whoso hath this world's goods, and 
seeth his brother have need, and shutteth up his bowels 
of compassion from him ; how dwelleth the love of 
Grod in him ?" There are two suppositions concerning 
these men. The first is awful, and we shrink back 
from it. " Lo, this is the man that made not God his 
trust, but trusted in the multitude of his riches." 
"With these words," say the Jewish Eabbi, "the an- 
gels sing down to hell the soul of the wealthy sinner, 
when it leaves his body." "We do not believe this ; 
we have a better opinion of those heavenly beings 
than to suppose they rejoice and sing at the misery 
of any creature, though they may acquiesce in it. 
But says Young 

" Hell's loudest laugh the thought of dying rich." 

The second is perplexing. It regards the suppo- 
sition, (how hard to be realized !) that those persons 
who die in such affluence are received up into glory. 



WELSH, ESQ. 73 

We naturally tliink that grief and shame can never 
enter heaven ; and yet Christians are never more 
happy here than when they are most ashamed, and 
mourn after a godly sort, under a sense of the Divine 
goodness. It seems improbable that those saints who 
died so rich will then be free from certain reflections. 
There is a relation between the present and the future ; 
and not a relation of sequence only, but one of cause 
and effect ; and " whatsoever a man soweth, that shall 
he also reap ; he that soweth to the flesh shall of the 
flesh reap corruption, but he that soweth to the spirit 
shall of the spirit reap life everlasting." No one can 
deny that there will be in another world a conscious- 
ness of our state and' conduct in this; but the con- 
sciousness must affect us according to the nature and 
quality of the recollections themselves. In that world 
things will be seen clearly and perfectly ; and, in the 
morality and holiness of heaven, there must be right- 
eousness in our feelings, as well as in our conceptions. 
What, then, we should be ready to say, must such an 
individual think and feel, when he knows what a 
power of every kind of usefulness his wealth gave 
him, and remembering what good he neglected to do 
with it ; in the poor he might have fed and clothed ; 
the children he might have educated ; the academical 
institutions he might have endowed; the Grospel he 
might have extended ; the souls he might have saved ! 
And when, in addition to this, he reflects upon the 
evil his property is now doing, surrounding his chil- 
dren and dependants with temptation, providing for 
their evil passions, so much going to the gaming table, 
so much in riotous living, so much swallowed up in 

the pride of life ; the evil still extending and multi- 

4 



74 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF' CHARACTER, 

plying, and operating in its effects, perhaps, for gene- 
rations to come ! and when he remembers, how the 
Book he was constantly reading and hearing charged 
him to be a good steward of the manifold gifts of Grod! 
and when he sees face to face, Him, who, " though he 
was rich, yet for our sakes became poor, that we 
through His poverty might be made rich," who was 
always going about doing good, and who said, "It is 
more blessed to give than to receive," and gave His 
life a ransom for us. "We leave the subject, " Con- 
sider of it, take advice, and speak your mind" 



ROBERT SPEAR, ESQ. 

SOME considerable notice of Mr. Spear appeared 
after his death in the papers and magazines. There 
was also a larger memoir of him by Dr. Raffles in a 
quarterly periodical. The writer was very adequate 
for such a work, as far as talent was concerned, but 
he was not intimately acquainted with the person who 
was the subject of it. And when I was in Edinburgh, 
where Mr. Spear died, Dr. Stewart, with others, who 
all well knew and much esteemed him, wished a fuller 
and more particular account of him could be sent 
forth ; and desired the Reminiscent to undertake it ; 
but this he declined from some peculiar circumstances 
in the family, and also from too much engagement, 
and too little leisure and health at the time. 

Mr. Spear, under the blessing of Providence, had 
risen to affluence by his own exertions and skill. He 
was a cotton merchant, residing at Manchester. He 
stood very high in the commercial world for ability 
and integrity, for fairness and honor. And I remem- 
ber a very clever American, who had long known him 
and had large dealings with him, saying, that, while 
he preferred English merchants to those of any other 
nation, he preferred Mr. Spear to any even of his own 
nation. 



76 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

Having met at Cadiz with a quantity of cotton of a 
fine and superior kind, lie very advantageously pur- 
chased the whole ; and soon introduced the growth 
into Georgia, where he sent and employed an agent 
of his own from Manchester to encourage the culture, 
and purchase the produce. He loved not speculation, 
yet in his line of business it could hardly "be avoided. 
He, therefore, laid down this rule for his own govern- 
ment therein, that he would keep a certain sum ap- 
propriated to this purpose, and that it should be no 
more than he thought he could afford to lose, without 
injuring liis family or his temper. 

"He that maketh haste to be rich shall not be inno- 
cent;" and "they that will be rich fall into temptation 
and a snare, and into manv foolish and hurtful lusts." 

' t/ 

But when the acquisition of property is not made an 
absolute aim, but is a consequence left with the provi- 
dence of God, in the discharge of duty, it will not be 
found so commonly corruptive and injurious, And 
Mr. Spear knew it became him not to be slothful in 
business ; and God blessed the labor of his hands. 
But as riches increased, he set not his heart upon 
them ; but viewed, them as a talent for which he was 
responsible, and by which he was "to do good and 
to communicate." And who can estimate the measure 
and degree of his benevolence and beneficence ? His 
bountifulness was impartial. He loved all who loved 
our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity ; and aided many 
institutions and charities which belonged not to his 
own immediate connections. His beneficence was also 
very extensive. He devised liberal things. He gave 
largely to the Bible Society, and to the London Mis- 
sionary Society. With regard to the latter, at the first 



EGBERT SPEAE, ESQ. 77 

public collection at Ms own chapel in Mosley-street, 
Manchester, designing it to be secret, he slipped a 
300 note into the plate, which was only discovered 
accidentally. He contributed generously to several 
of our academies for the education of young men for 
the ministry, and as (owing to the spiritual destitution 
of the people, especially in the villages and smaller 
towns) many laymen were engaged in teaching, to 
render them more acceptable and useful, he remuner- 
ated an able minister to instruct them in the evenings, 
as they had leisure ; and even from this humble source 
of improvement issued several able preachers, who in 
time became pastors of churches. 

There was another thing with which I was struck, 
(for after my intimate friendship with him I knew 
much of his liberal measures,) and I mention it as 
rather original as well as exemplary. He looked out 
and employed in several parts of the peopled locality 
pious men and women whose houses were to be day- 
achools to which any children might come, at any 
time, as they could be spared from their home or their 
labor ; while the owners were to be always present 
and ready to teach them. 

"While thus going on, Law's " Call to a Devout and 
Holy Life" fell into his hands, and unduly impressed 
him. The book might be useful, to some, but it may 
lead others astray, by not distinguishing things that 
differ, as to their order and place in the scheme of the 
Gospel. It has too little of evangelism in it, and is 
sadly wanting in that "free spirit" by which the sub- 
jects of Divine grace are upheld in their goings, and 
enabled, with enlarged hearts, to run in the way of his 
commandments. It is John preaching the baptism of 



78 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

repentance, rather than Jesus proclaiming the glad tid- 
ings of the kingdom of God. 

Some mistaken zealots, too, at this time, urged him 
to leave his secular calling, and dedicate himself en- 
tirely to the service of Grod ; as if he was not entirely 
serving Him while trading for Grod, and by means of 
it doing so much good to men. What we do <by others 
is as much our agency as if we did it in our own per- 
sons. By nothing can a man be so useful as by prop- 
erty, for this enables him to employ every kind of in- 
strumentality, even to piety itself. Few, comparatively, 
have it in their power to gain substance largely. When, 
therefore, a man has the opportunity and the means 
of attaining it, he should not needlessly resign it, 
amidst so many calls for pecuniary assistance, and es- 
pecially if he can trust his benevolent bias. When a 
tradesman called upon the rector of St. Mary Wool- 
noth, and told him he was going to leave off trade, for 
he had gained enough for himself and family.' " Why, 
then," said Mr. Newton, " now be the Lord's journey- 
man, and carry on business for Him." And says 
Isaiah, " Her merchandise and her hire shall be holi- 
ness to the Lord ; it shall not be treasured nor laid 
up ; for her merchandise shall be for them that dwell 
before the Lord, to eat sufficiently, and for durable 
clothing." This is the text from which I should have 
preached his funeral sermon had he died at Manches- 
ter, but he died at Edinburgh. The title would have 
been " The Christian Merchant." 

But there were some who pleaded, and in a measure 
prevailed, that he should forsooth leave the world, and 
go about personally relieving the poor, and consoling 
the afflicted, and distributing tracts, and preaching the 



ROBERT SPEAR, ESQ. 79 

Gospel to souls perishing for lack of knowledge. In. 
these excursions he sustained considerable losses in 
"business, which he acknowledged afterwards to me 
might have been prevented, had he remained at home, 
with God's blessing, in his calling. 

On two other grounds these erratic efforts were 
wrong; for, first, though he was exceedingly quali- 
fied for business, he was (not for want of talent, but 
suitable talent) as unfit for his new work, especially 
teaching. And, secondly, he had a tinge of lowness 
of spirits, which required active scenes of employ- 
ment, rather than solitude and study, to which he was 
much driven by his supposed calls. Accordingly, he 
soon began to fall under dejection, which was rapidly 
increasing, and from which he was with difficulty ral- 
lied by the visit of and travelling with the Beminis- 
cent and his wife. Few in doing good ever more ful- 
filled the command, "Let not thy left hand know what 
thy right hand doeth." 

He was generally a man of much reading and re- 
serve, so that it was impossible to know the interior 
riches of his character but by being much with him, 
and observing him when he was a little off his habitu- 
al guard. I hardly ever knew a man who seemed to 
make so much conscience of his speech. He was cau- 
tious and careful in the extreme, not to err or mistake, 
especially in relating things which he had heard, and 
in speaking of persons. He daily made David's reso- 
lution and prayer his own : " I said I will take heed 
to my ways, that I offend not with my tongue. Set a 
watch upon my mouth, keep the door of my lips." 

It was a pleasing trait in his character that he loved 
to raise those of low degree ; and to set forward in life 



80 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

industrious and deserving individuals. A clerk or a 
person in his employment, who for a few years had 
acted confidentially, and diligently, and respectfully, 
was sure to be aided and elevated ; and, therefore, he 
was always well served. 

For his second marriage he chose a beautiful and 
pious female in humble life. To prepare her for her 
superior station, he placed her under the care of the 
Keminiscent and his wife, and to be educated with our 
daughters. He married her from our house, and it 
was on this occasion I preached and published my Ser- 
mon on " The Mutual Duties of Husbands and Wives." 
The acceptance and commendations which this dis- 
course met with (for it soon went through six editions), 
encouraged and induced me to become more familiar 
with the press ; and to issue in time a large number 
of publications. Several other events also arose fro in 
my connection with this excellent man ; such as a rela- 
tive alliance ; and especially my acquaintance and con- 
nection with the family of Mr. Bolton of America, 
from which such important consequences to me have 
resulted. 

Such, a concatenation and dependence is there in oc- 
currences and circumstances, which may seem to bo 
casual, but are really providential : " And whoso is 
wise and will observe these things, even they shall un- 
derstand the loving-kindness of the Lord." Life should 
never be separated from the agency of God in all ; 
but in retracing it how often do we find a particular 
event, otherwise not distinguished, pregnant with re- 
sults, the birth of which fills us with surprise and as- 
tonishment ; and teaches us that "the way of man is 
not in himself." 



EGBERT SPEAE, ESQ. 81 

In general we see that the generation of the upright 
is blessed, "but this implies imitation and conformity. 
The seed of the righteous have many advantages, aris- 
ing from 'the prayers, instructions, examples, and in- 
fluence of their pious parents ; but these may be dis- 
regarded, and even turned into a curse; for "where 
much is given, much will be required;" and "to him 
that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is 
sin." And if there are children who have forsaken 
the guide of their youth, and are, after all their early 
opportunities and advantages, walking in ways that are 
not good, who shall read this page, let them tremble at 
the thought of separation from, and of condemnation 
by, those parents who so anxiously sought to save 
them! 

4* 



MISS ELIZA PROTEEROE. 

I HAVE never entered into the dispute concerning 
the comparative powers of the sexes. We naturally 
and unavoidably judge of the whole by parts, and of 
course by those parts which come within the circle of 
our observation. Either (which I have no reason to 
believe) I have rnst with a series of very favorable 
exceptions, or I ought to think highly of the female 
character. I am sure I cannot be mistaken with re- 
gard to many with whom I have been intimately ac- 
quainted in various seasons and circumstances of my 
life. I have found in them a kindness, a tenderness, a 
purity of affection, a disinterestedness of friendship, a 
readiness to oblige, to serve, and to sacrifice; and 
these, with their gentle manners and lively conversa- 
tion, and sprightly correspondence, (next to the in- 
fluence of the dearest of all connections,) have been 
my peculiar excitement and solace, under anxious 
duties and trying afflictions, and a tendency to depress- 
ion of spirit, to which, though perhaps little suspected, 
I have been always liable. 

As my children had all left me by death, marriage, 
or professional engagement ; and, as my beloved wife 
had some growing indispositions which limited her ac- 
tivities, I much wished for what I soon obtained, in a 
very valuable and inestimable friend. This was Miss 



MISS ELIZA PBOTHEKOE. 83 

Eliza Protheroe, whose uncle was member of Parlia- 
ment for Bristol, and whose cousin is member for Hali- 
fax. 

I knew her first by visiting her as a minister, when 
she was suffering under an enervating malady, which 
had much reduced her. . She was then under medical 
care in Bath. Upon her recovery she left this place for 
Cheltenham ; but she soon returned, and we had fre- 
quent interviews with her. These prepared Mrs. Jay 
and myself for a more intimate connection. So she 
accompanied us to the sea as our only companion ; and 
this excursion of six weeks together gave us such an 
insight into her qualities, that after our return home she 
soon became an inmate under our roof. She was well 
brought up, genteel in her manners, very intelligent, 
an excellent reader, pleasingly sociable, with a degree 
of the humorous and comic in her conversation. Above 
all she was truly pious, entirely free from everything 
low and mean, and singularly unselfish and generous, 
never seeming to be so much in her element as when 
denying herself to do good to others. What a treasure 
did we find in her ! What a companion, helper, and 
comforter did she prove ! And what a mutual regard 
did we all increasingly feel towards each other ! 

The most pleasing weeks I ever spent on earth were 
passed in four successive excursions to Plymouth, in 
the north of Devon. No little of the exquisite pleas- 
ure I experienced was derived from the mixed sub- 
lime and beautiful scenery, and from the solitude and 
tranquil retirement ; but how much of it did our as- 
sociate contribute in our mutual walks and readings, 
and discourse ! And not only so. Here I prepared 
my Lectures on the Christian Character for the press, 



84 PEACTICAL ILLUSTRATION'S OF CHAKACTEB. 

and wrote the long preface prefixed to it. And here 
also I wrote many of ray Morning and Evening Exer- 
cises, one of which, as I wrote them, I daily read at 
our family worship. These familiar compositions, 
which have had such an extensive circulation, I owe 
much to her stimulation and encouragement; without 
which I much question whether I should have per- 
severed. 
Watts tells us, 

" "We should expect some danger near 
Where we possess delight ;" 

and Oowper tells us, 

"Full bliss is bliss divine." 

My entirely esteemed wife, while at Plymouth, was 
unable fully to enjoy the attractions of the retreat, and 
the week after our return home from the last visit, 
she was seized with apoplexy and paralysis, and which, 
though life was spared, broke up much of my domes- 
tic happiness. Our friend was so attached and devoted 
to us, that she was ready to die for us yea, I cannot 
but think this was the case, in a great degree at least ; 
for, in consequence of my affliction, T immediately 
wrote to her at Cheltenham, whither she had gone for 
a few clays to see her mother; upon which she instant- 
ly hastened back while under a medical process and 
considerable indisposition, and much mental suffering 
from affection and fear ; so that the day after her ar- 
rival she was seized with delirium 3 and after a week of 
frenzy, she expired. At the time my wife was insen- 
sible, and, so, ignorant of an affliction that would 
have exceedingly added to her own, and which did 



MISS ELIZA PEOTHEEOE. 85 

add so much to it, when she became capable of learn- 
ing the event. As for myself, I hardly felt more at the 
death of my own daughter, by whose side she lies in 
my own family vault. 

After several natural relations, Moses says, " Or thy 
friend which is as thy own soul." Is this is an anticli- 
max ? or does he mean to say that sometimes friend- 
ship arises above kindred ? 

"The tear 
That drops upon this paper is sincere." 

Few deaths could have afflicted me more. It was 
the termination of a life of perfect unselfishness, no 
little of which had been lived for the welfare of my- 
self and mine. " Scarcely for a righteous man will 
one die, yet for a good man some would even dare to 
die." Power may cause a man to be feared , learning, 
to be admired, wealth, to be flattered; but goodness 
naturalizes one heart in another and renders it " more 
blessed to give than to receive." Mrs. Jay was equally 
affected when recovered enough to be able to hear the 
report of our loss. 

" Friend after friend departs. 

"Who has not lost a friend ? 
There is no union here of hearts, 

That finds not here an end. 
"Were this frail world our final rest, 
Living or dying none were blest. 

" There is a world above, 

Where parting is unknown ; 
A long eternity of love, 

Form'd for the good alone; 
And faith beholds the dying here, 
Translated to that glorious sphere." 



MRS. SMITH. 

WITH this very excellent woman I had a long and 
intimate acquaintance. My youngest daughter, of 
whom I was bereaved in the bloom of her youth, was 
named Statira after her. During many of my annual 
visits to Surrey Chapel, I spent with my wife much 
of the time I could spare from my services in London 
at her house at Woodford. Her name was then Pool, 
and her husband was a merchant, and had been pros- 
perous, and was rich. She was a woman of a superior 
understanding, and had a cultivated mind. She had 
lived in the levities and gaieties of genteel commercial 
society, (generally the most vain, profane, and vapid,) 
and so she knew enough of the ways and friendships 
of the world, to be, in a measure, weaned from them ; 
or at least to be fully convinced of their vanity and 
vexation of spirit ; while she felt her need of something 
better than earth could offer, without knowing what it 
was, or where it could be obtained. 

With these views and feelings she came with her 
husband to Bath ; and as they were acquainted with 
Mr. II. Thornton, M. P. for the Borough, she inquired 
of him where he would recommend them to attend. 
He answered, "You know I am a Churchman, but 
there are persons who may be occasionally heard to 



MBS. SMITH. 87 

advantage out of tlie Establishment." He knew what 
was then the state of Bath, and he also perceived the 
state of her mind. What he said induced her to visit 
Argyle Chapel ; and the first sermon she heard the 
"Reminiscent preach, brought her in sight of the relief 
and satisfaction she had ignorantly, but really been 
seeking after. She now made herself known, and a 
mutual and growing friendship ensued. 

Upon her returning home to Wooclford, her lament- 
ation was that she could not hear the truth which had 
made her free indeed. But one of her servants rather 
casually heard the Eev. George Collison of "Waltham- 
stow, and eagerly informed her mistress that she had 
found a minister who preached just like the minister 
they had heard at Bath. She forthwith the next Sab- 
bath ordered out her carriage, and went to hear him 
herself. She much relished the preaching of this man 
of Grod ; and from thenceforth made it the place of her 
constant attendance. 

Prom the commencement of her religious career, she 
had morning and evening prayer, with the female do- 
mestics of her household ; but her husband was not 
as yet favorable to the establishment of family wor- 
ship. But when is a woman whose heart is right with 
Grod, at a loss to carry a good point, for want of mo- 
tives, methods, or means ? 

Some months after, Mr. Thornton and the Eemi- 
niscent were to spend a week together as their guests. 
So she said to her husband, "These friends who are 
coming, always have the worship of Grod in their 
families ; and they will expect it here, and will think 
it very strange, if they should not find it." He re- 
plied, "Well, then, we must conform to their custom 



88 PEACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

while they are here." So I was desired to conduct the 
service every morning and evening, reading the Scrip- 
tures, now and then dropping a very few words, and 
always praying short and as wisely as I could. But no 
sooner had we departed than Mrs. Smith said to her 
husband, " Will it not appear very odd to the servants, 
if we now give up this exercise ? Will they not think 
that we have been endeavoring to appear to our friends 
more religious than we really are ? And do you not 
think the performance itself is likely to do good, if not 
to ourselves, yet to our domestics?" So the practice 
was allowed to be continued, on the condition of her 
officiating. This she was qualified to do ; but she took 
it up, not by choice, but as a trial, and from a sense 
of duty, arising from a peculiar condition, of things. 
She always had a form of prayer before her, but she 
occasionally interspersed some expressions of her own. 
And would not this be the best way of using forms 
of devotion? I once heard Mr. John Shepherd of 
!Frome, recommending it from his own example and 
experience. 

Are Christians ever useless ? When blessed them- 
selves they prove blessings to others ; and in various de- 
grees, in some way or other, serve their generation by 
the will of Grod. Who can tell the good this woman 
accomplished in her own place and neighborhood by 
her example and influence, in visiting the rich ; feed- 
ing and clothing the hungry and the naked ; instruct- 
ing the ignorant ; establishing schools ; and forming 
a club for the poor females to aid them in their illness- 
es and lyings-in, whose meetings she accompanied with 
moral and religious addresses, without however ex- 
cluding., their little homely and innocent festivities? 



MBS. SMITH. 89 

When she was bereaved of her husband, as her 
means remained, the widow equally sustained and car- 
ried on what the wife had begun and established. 

Some years after she married again. It was to a 
very accomplished gentleman, a serjeant-at-law, a fel- 
low of the Antiquarian Society, a scholar, and the 
father of the authors of the "Rejected Addresses," 
' Horace in London," and various celebrated novels.* 
At first his doctrinal sentiments widely differed from 
her own. This created great difficulty on her side; 
and for some time a refusal of marriage was the result. 
At length some peculiar circumstances led her to 
yield, though not perfectly in accordance with her con- 
victions. But God overruled it for good in more evan- 
gelizing his sentiments, and bringing some of his 
daughters into the way of life. Yet the connection 
was not without its trials. It occasioned the loss of a 
large part of her property. But herein again her gra- 
cious principle continued to operate and show itself. 
Though she much reduced her establishment, she re- 
solved that her charities, sacred and civil, should not 
suffer. These continued the same. In what are not 
the subjects of divine grace & peculiar people ? Trying 
events befall them, and evince that they are not con- 
formed to this world, but transformed by the renew- 
ing of the mind; and so proving " what is that good s 
;md acceptable, and perfect will of God." 

It is pleasing to know that her husband, whom she 
had once characterized, in a letter to the Reminiscent, 
as " having all the wisdom of the Greeks, and their 

* I once dined with these gifted young men ; and was sorry to 
remark that, if religion was not the object of their contempt it was 
not the one thing needful. 



90 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

foolishness too," after awhile received the kingdom 
of God as a little child, died in the faith of the Gos- 
pel, a member of the Independent Church at Wands- 
worth, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ 
unto eternal life. Not many wise men after the flesh 
are called ; but there have always been a few to falsify 
the prejudice that the religion of the cross is fit only 
for the vulgar and illiterate. 



JOHN POYNDER, ESQ. 

MY acquaintance with this good and distinguished 
character has continued for considerably more than 
fifty years. It commenced from a letter I received 
desiring me to inform him from what author I had 
given an extract in my sermon preached upon the 
formation of the London Missionary Society. This in- 
quiry was prefatory to something else, and he soon 
expressed his gratitude to God that he ever heard that 
discourse, as "it had had such an effect upon him as 
he hoped would never wear away." And this was the 
case ; for from that period he was found a decided, 
avowed, consistent, undeviating, and zealous follower 
of the Lamb. 

After this letter, upon my going to London to fulfil 
my annual appointment at Surrey Chapel, I had my 
first personal interview with him. The meeting was 
affecting ; and we exchanged some pleasing thoughts 
and feelings. After this we seized every opportunity 
to meet and converse ; and though, as he was a Tory, 
and a firm Churchman, and I a Whig, and a moderate 
Dissenter, and we, therefore, differed in some of our pol- 
itical and ecclesiastical views, this instead of gendering 
alienation rather endeared us the more to each other. 
Harmony is better than unison,' " Yes," says Lord 



92 PEACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

Bacon, " and it is so not only in sounds but in affec- 
tions" 

Hence during my annual weeks of labor in London 
lie frequently heard me, and has given most ample 
proof of his kind approbation of my services, by his 
multiplied quotations from my preaching and publica- 
tions in his three volumes of "Literary Extracts." In 
these three volumes, he shows much reading, judg- 
ment, and taste ; yet they would have borne abridg- 
ment or reduction. It is natural for persons when 
they read to remark and transcribe. But what strikes 
them peculiarly at the time, owing to its novelty, or 
something in their own circumstances or feelings, may 
appear very differently afterwards ; and the wonder is 
that, in the cool review, more freedom was not here 
used in selection, and articles weighed rather than num- 
bered. 

Though these volumes are large, they are not all his 
issues from the press. His publications were numer- 
ous, in all of which usefulness was the obvious design 
and tendency. As a Christian^ many of them turned 
on religious subjects : The Evangelization of our East- 
ern dominion ; The Paganism of Popery ; The Sanc- 
tincation of the Lord's Day, &c. 

As an East India proprietor he spoke much in favor 
of the abolition of Sutteeism, or burning of widows. 
In this work and labor of love, many of his speeches 
were very able and eloquent, and several of them were 
published. Several years before his death he had the 
satisfaction of seeing his exertions crowned with suc- 
cess. He was equally earnest and persevering in op- 
posing the accursed tax arising from the idolatrous 
worship of Juggernaut. But he died without seeing 



JOHN" POYNDBB, ESQ. 9?> 

tliis foul stain wiped off from our gc verm aent , and 
"hope deferred made the heart sick/' But he had 
roused the public indignation, and awakened a cry 
that he knew must be heard in due time. 

Never was there a warmer advocate of evangelical 
truth, and the doctrines of the Eeformation. 

Never was there a more determined enemy to Pope- 
ry, and its half-sister Puseyism. 

Never did man more strive to serve his generation 
by the will of Grod. 

And, as to his private and relative character, who 
ever excelled him as an attached husband, a devoted 
father, a faithful friend, or a helper of the needy ? 

Behold what may be done by a single individual 
when disposition, ability, and opportunity concur. 

"The memory of the just is blessed." 

1ST. B. I wrote this brief sketch the very day I was 
informed of his death, lest at my time of life I should 
be prevented from bearing even a very inadequate 
testimony to this man of so much varied worth. 



RAMMOHUN ROY. 

I WAS but little acquainted with the rajah, but I feel 
inclined to notice him, not only because I was struck 
with him as a man of prodigious powers of mind, and. 
treasures of knowledge, and readiness of address ; but 
because I think justice has not. been done to him in 
another and far more important view. 

I first saw him at the Mansion House, London, to 
which I was invited to meet him by the then Lord Mayor, 
with whom, as an author, I had had considerable deal- 
ings. The dinner was early and the company select, 
though not entirely religious ; and I was allowed to 
bring any of my acquaintance with me. Several ac- 
companied me, one of whom, John Poynder, Esq., 
could turn the intercourse to account, in conversing 
with the rajah on a subject in which he was then so 
zealously laboring, and did not labor in vain, (the 
abolition of Sutteeism,) and which the rajah himself 
before he left India had nobly advocated. 

Of course this man was the lion of the company. 
He spoke freely on several topics, especially of Mahom- 
etanism, which he considered as an improvement on 
Paganism, and of some considerable advantage to 
Christianity itself, whose professors were yielding to a 
kind of idolatrjr in worshipping masses and relics. 



KAMMOHUN ROY. 95 

He also expressed himself with regard to Mahomet 
himself, as possessing greater talents and some better 
qualities than had been commonly ascribed to him. 
This was not suffered to pass without some hesitation 
and dissent, especially by- the Eev. Mr. Melville. 

The Lady Mayoress asking his opinion of the com- 
parative estimate of the sexes, he promptly replied, 
" Physically considered, men are superior to women. 
Morally considered, women are superior to men. In- 
tellectually considered, they are on a level, admitting 
the same opportunities and advantages ;" a confession 
which, if not questioned, was deemed remarkable, as 
coming from a quarter where females are commonly, if 
not universally, undervalued and degraded. 

"When he spoke of the Gospel, he frankly avowed 
his full belief of it, adding, "But I consider this no 
merit of mine, for I found it impossible to peruse the 
Book itself, and not be convinced that it was the work 
of a being of perfect wisdom and benevolence." The 
Eev. Mr. Dale, who sat next me, could not help ex- 
pressing rather audibly his approbation and admira- 
tion of the sentiment, and the manner in which it was 
delivered ; and Mr. Melville, who principally led the 
discourse with the rajah, acknowledged, as I went 
away with him, that he had a much more favorable 
opinion and hope of him than he had before. 

The following Sabbath-day evening he came with 
the Lord Mayor and the rector of St. Olave's to hear 
the Eeminiscent. He gave proof of his liking, not 
only the preacher, but the subject, by coming into the 
house afterwards, and soliciting a copy of the discourse 
to print for distribution among his friends. As the 
sermon was taken down in short-hand, I was able to 



96 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

comply with the desire. I procured him a transcrip- 
tion, and he printed it at his own expense. (The ser- 
mon is to be found in the seventh volume of my 
works.)* 

I fear this is too personal to be excused ; but it tells 
upon what I have in view ; for though the discourse 
was not strictly doctrinal, it contained allusions and 
statements, only to be found in "the truth as it is 
in Jesus." 

He had engaged to accompany Mr. Poynder to Sur- 
rey Chapel again the Sunday after ; but, before its ar- 
rival, he wrote him a note, (which .1 keep, and value 
as an autograph,) saying he was afraid he should not 
be able to attend, owing to a degree of indisposition, 
and the pressure and heat of the congregation ; but 
lamented the loss the less as he should soon have an 
opportunity to hear, so he expressed it, that truly 
evangelical minister in Bath. 

This was denied him, as, the week before his intend- 
ed visit to Bath, he died in Bristol. There he was by 
invitation, at the house of a lady belonging to Lewin's 
Mead Meeting, where he attended on the morning of 
the Sabbath, but heard an evangelical clergyman at 
Clifton in the evening. During his short stay in Bris- 
tol, a party of several distinguished individuals met 
him. Among these was John Foster, f who, upon my 
inquiry, said that nothing on this occasion very strik- 
ing or definitive came from him. He probably began 
to feel the approach of the disorder which so rapidly 
carried him off. 

* See page 100 of that volume. 

f Mr. Foster's interesting account of this interview, and of the 
rajah's death, we shall subjoin to this ai-ticle. 



KAMMOIIl'N HOY. 97 

Soon after his private interment in the premises of 
his friend, an extolling account of him was published 
by Dr. Carpenter, assuring the public that he was a 
Christian, in the Socinian translation of that word. 
Here lam persuaded he was mistaken. He was this 
on his conversion to Christianity in India, when he 
only considered Christ as a moral Teacher, and wrote 
accordingly. But we have reason to hope and con- 
clude, that, on his coming to this country, his views 
varied and were approaching evangelical sentiments. 
At first, (and it was not wonderful, with such talents 
and reasoning powers,) on emerging from heathenism, 
he felt difficulties with regard to some of the more 
mysterious doctrines of the Gospel, but there is no lit- 
tle proof that his mind was beginning to open to the 
cross and grace of our Lord Jesus Christ. He com- 
monly in London attended the preaching of an ortho- 
dox clergyman. 

Earl Grainsborough was not only much pleased with 
him, but much encouraged concerning his state and 
character by the rajah's visit to Barham Court. When 
he dined with Mr. Poynder he begged to be allowed to 
attend his evening family- worship, after the company 
was gone; and next day he came also to attend his 
morning- worship ; and expressed much delight at the 
blending with prayer, the reading of the Scriptures 
and singing. Mr. Poynder engaged the Eev. Mr. 
Knight to conduct these services, by means of which 
this pious and judicious minister became acquainted 
with this prodigy ; and he also had good hope concern- 
ing him, both from his interviews and correspondence ; 
for the rajah orten addressed notes to him respecting 
passages of Scripture, (with the solutions of which he 



98 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARAC1EK. 

seemed satisfied,) and often called upon him ; and in 
his last interview with him, finding him very serious 
and tender, he said to him, " Sir, I trust you do not 
less prize Christianity since you came amongst us." He 
rose ; and taking him by the hand said with tears, 
" Mr. Knight, I feel such a regard for the truth and 
importance of Christianity, that I think I could die for 
it." 

This account, we presume, will not be satisfactory 
to some ; they will ask for more evidence ; and we 
could have wished we had been able to furnish more. 
We cannot be too anxious and inquisitive, where our 
own religious state is concerned, but with regard to 
others, there is a charity, which with the due allow- 
ance " hopeth all things, believeth all things, endureth 
all things." We may know what heresy is without 
being able to ascertain the state of a heretic. We 
know not what disadvantages he has been under ; what 
struggle he has had with difficulties and doubts, to 
which others have been strangers ; and what prayers he 
has offered, which, though they cannot be lost, may 
not be immediately and consciously answered. But 
we know who hath said, "Seek and ye shall find." 
"He that doeth His will shall know of the doctrine 
whether it be of Grod;" and "Then shall we know, it' 
we follow on to know the Lord." 

Why cannot we admit, in connection with Christian 
saiety, doctrinal sincerity as well as moral deficiencies ? 
And why cannot we imagine that where there is less en- 
lightenment, there may be more excellence of another 
kind to balance it more humbleness of mind, more 
benevolence, and more active zeal ? I have met with 
instances in which, where there was little speculative 



BAMMOHUN ROY. 99 

and systematical clearness and accuracy, there has teen 
much of that wisdom which is from above, and which 
is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, and easy "to be 
entreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without par- 
tiality and without hypocrisy." When the blind pal- 
tient in the Grospel first looked up, he only saw men 
as trees walking ; but he was under the operation of a 
Divine Eestorer ; and a second touch enabled him to 
see everything clearly. How little of the Gospel sal- 
vation did Peter know at the time ; yet upon his con- 
fession, our Lord pronounced him blessed ; and affirm- 
ed that flesh and blood had not revealed this unto 
him, but his Father in heaven. 

Erom this case we are led to another reflection. 
How readily and eagerly are the advocates of religious 
parties induced to claim and avow extraordinary men 
as belonging to them ; as if their faith stood in the 
wisdom of men, and not in the power of Grod. But 
let no man. glory in men. "We should be thankful 
when any of superior intellect and endowment are 
found walking in the truth ; but we are not to have 
the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ with respect of per- 
sons. The poor and the common people are generally 
the evangelized. These " things are hidden from the 
wise and prudent and revealed unto babes." Not 
many wise men after the flesh are called ; and these 
are often in our churches more glaring than useful 
members ; yea, it is well if they do not become Dio- 
trephes by their gifts. 



Mr. Foster gives the folio-wing interesting particulars of the rajah's 
visit to Bristol, in a letter to Mr. Hill, dated October 8th, 1833 : 



100 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

" The most remarkable thing of late is the visit, so soon to end vu. 
the death, in the house behind our garden, of the Rajah Rammo- 
hun Roy (the title of rajah, of no very definite import, was con- 
ferred on him by the King of Delhi, the remaining shadow of the 
great Mogul). I had entertained a strong prepossession against him, 
had no wish to see him, but could not avoid it, when he was come 
to the house of my young landlady, Miss Castle. 

" My prejudice could not hold out half an hour after being in his 
company. He was a very pleasing and interesting man ; intelligent 
and largely informed, I need not say but unaffected, friendly, and, 
in the best sense of the word, polite. I passed two evenings in his 
company, only, however, as an unit in large parties ; the latter time, 
however, in particular and direct conversation with him, concern- 
ing some of the doctrines of the Indian philosophers, the political, 
civil, and moral state of the Hindoos. In the former instance, when 
the after-dinner company consisted of Dr. Carpenter and sundry other 
doctors and gentlemen, Churchmen and Dissenters, he was led a 
little into his own religious history and present opinions. He avow- 
ed his general belief in Christianity as attested by miracles, (of which 
I had understood that he made very light some ten or a dozen years 
since,) but said that the internal evidence had had by much the 
greatest force on his mind. In so very heterogeneous a company, 
there was no going into any very specific particulars. Carpenter, 
in whose company I have since dined at Dr. Pritchard's, very confi- 
dently claims him as of the ' Modern Unitarian' school. * * * * 
It may be that he was finally near about in agreement with that 
school, but I do not believe that they have any very exact knowl- 
edge of his opinions. * * * * Here he went to several churches, 
and to hear Jay on a week-day at Bridge Street, as well as some- 
times at Lewin's Mead, where the family in which he was visiting 
constantly attended. There is, or a few days since there was, a 
great perplexity how to dispose of his remains. He had signified 
his wish not to be committed to any Ecclesiastical burying-ground, 
but, if it might be so managed, deposited in some quiet corner of 
the mere profane earth. His principal London friend (a Mr. Hare, 
from India) thinks it the most desirable that he were conveyed to 
India. During the greater part of his short illness (it was an affec- 
tion of the brain) he was in a state of such torpor as to be incapa- 
ble of any communication. Dr. Pritehard, who attended him dur- 
ing the latter days, says he did not utter, while he was with him, 
ten distinct sentences. As far as I have heard, there was nothing to 



RAMMOHUJST ROY. 101 

indicate the state of his mind. There were actions (of his hands, 
&c.) which his own attendants said were the usual ones that accom- 
panied his devotional exercises. To me and several of our order of 
friends, who were, the latter evening to which I have referred, (at 
Mrs. Cox's,) in such close and interesting conversation with him, 
then apparently in perfect health, but then within hardly two days 
of the commencement of his fatal illness, it was emphatically strik- 
ing, nine or ten days after, to think of him as no longer in our 
world." Foster's Life, Vol. II., p. 218, &c. 



EEV. THOMAS TUPPEN. 

HE was my predecessor in the pastorate of ike con- 
gregational church in Bath. He was originally in 
trade ; and in his earlier days had deviated from the 
paths of righteousness and peace= Living, then, at 
Portsmouth, he went to hear "Whitfielcl, who was to 
preach on the neighboring common, and (which was 
so often the case under the ministry of that extraordi- 
nary herald of the Grospel) the word came to him not 
in word only, but in the demonstration of the Spirit 
and with power. He had gone to hear, not so much 
from curiosity, as from the worse motive to oppose, 
insult, and interrupt. " I had," said he, " therefore, 
provided myself with stones in my pocket, if oppor- 
tunity offered, to pelt the preacher; but I had not 
hea.rd long, before the stone was taken out of my heart 
of flesh ; and then the other stones, with shame and 
weeping, were dropped one by one out upon the 
ground." 

The change then commenced, was carried on, and 
evinced itself to be of God by its continuance and its 
effects. In process of time the receiver of the Grospel 
became also the publisher ; and was ordained over a 
church in the place where he resided. Some years 
after he ruptured a blood-vessel ; and resigned his 



EEV. THOMAS TUPPED. 103 

charge, as unable to meet safely its numerous ser- 
vices ; but after a considerable suspension, his recov- 
ery allowed of his taking another sphere, with less 
public duty. Mr. Welsh, a rich banker from London 
(as may be seen in my Reminiscence of him), who had 
much aided our rising cause, brought him to Bath 
while the interest was young- and weak ; and engaged 
to support him till the congregation should be able to 
meet the expense. 

Here his labors were peculiarly acceptable and use- 
ful. Many were awakened unto his ministry, and 
added to the growing church ; which was soon re- 
quired to enlarge the place of her feet. He was there- 
fore excited and encouraged (much by Lady Grlen- 
orchy) to take ground and build ; Argyle Chapel was 
the consequence. But the founder, though he set his 
heart upon it, lived not to see it opened for the Lord's 
service. This was performed by the Reminiscent, who 
had been introduced by Mr. Tuppen to his people as 
an occasional supply during his sickness, and recom- 
mended to them as their pastor when he was dying."* 

* In the Life of the Countess of Huntingdon, Vol. II. p. 75, is the 
following notice of Mr. Tuppen : The congregation assembling in 
Argyle Chapel, Bath, originated in the secession of a few pious in- 
dividuals who did not approve of the forms of the Established 
Church, and who formed themselves into a church 'on independent 
principles. The first person to whom application was made to pre- 
side over this infant church was the Rev. Thomas Tuppen, who had 
been a preacher in Mr. Whitfield's connection, and afterwards min- 
ister of the Tabernacle at Port-sea ; he arrived in Bath in the year 
1*785, when the interest rapidly increased; from about twenty -five 
persons who at first attended him, the number rose in a few years 
to seven or eight hundred. The place in which they worshipped 
being now too small for the congregation, a new chapel was begun 
in 1789, and opened October 4, 1789 ; but Mr. Tuppen's health was 



'.104 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

He was a man of great seriousness and exemplary 
piety ; lie talked little, but his speech was always with 
salt and ministered grace to the hearer. Mr. Cecil 
once said, a minister should not be " a man to be 
had," and Mr. Tuppen was most observant of this 
rule of airy man I ever knew. This grew not so much, 
out of disposition as out of circumstances, as he had 
had only a common education, and never had the ad- 
vantage of any regular preparation for the ministry, 
and yet was -very thirsty of improvement. Through 
desire he separated himself, seeking and intermeddling 
with all wisdom. He was a most laborious student, 
and by assiduous and self-denying application, he 
gained much general information ; acquired a tolerable 
knowledge of the original languages ; excelled in the- 
ology ; and became one of the most distinguished 
preachers of the day, in his own connection. He, 
therefore, lived very retired, not only from society at 
large, but also from his own congregation ; and to such 

then so much reduced that he was never able to preach a single 
sermon there he could only attend the services of the day which 
were performed by the Rev. "William Jay, who has been the min- 
ister of the place ever since. 

During the few years that Mr. Tuppeu exercised his ministry at 
Bath, his manner of preaching was very striking : he was often heard 
to say, "If the attention be gained, half the business is done." 

It was never his wish to empty other places where the Gospel 
was preached in order to fill his own ; for, after observing the 
largeness of his own audience, he would often inquire whether the 
other places were full. When he was answered in the affirmative, 
he seemed to be much pleased, and would say, " Well, we may now 
hope something is doing." 

After a lingering illness, which he supported with great resigna- 
tion and patience, he entered into his rest on the 22d of February, 
IT 90, aged 48. 



EEV. THOMAS TUPPEN. 105 

a degree as would not have been justified or excused, 
but for the value he attached to time, and the neces- 
sity he felt for diligence. 

This is not always the case : I have been sorry to 
have observed in no few instances the reverse of this. 
"Where the iron has been blunt, less strength has been 
put to it ; and where there has been no advantage of 
preparatory fitness, preachers have been less anxious 
and active in their exertions. It is one of the benefits 
of training for the ministry that, however imperfect it 
may comparatively be, it creates a habit of order, a 
tone of application, and a heedfulness of time and op- 
portunity. I have known individuals of no enviable 
talents, and of no previous acquirements, who have 
even given less time and attention in preparing their 
three sermons for the week, than Eobert Hall, with 
all his powers and education, employed in preparing 
one, and that only his week evening lecture before 
the Lord's supper. And are there not people who 
prefer this remissness, and lounging, and sauntering 
in a preacher, provided he favors them with a portion 
of it, in what they call pastoral visits, than in letting 
his profit appear unto all men, in giving himself to 
reading, meditation, and prayer ? 

Mr. Tuppen's face was peculiarly intelligent; his 
eye remarkably piercing ; and his look frequently in- 
sufferable. The skeletons of his sermons (for he wrote 
none at full length) were written with uncommon 
neatness, order, and precision ; and generally filled 
two octavo pages. They were in long hand with a 
few contractions. His library was arranged according 
to Locke's Common Place Book ; so that when he had 
to preach on any particular subject, he could turn to 



106 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

any volume; and every volume where that subject 
was treated in a way of proof, illustration, or improve- 
ment. Whenever he added a book to his collection, 
he thus immediately arranged its topics for reference ; 
and this rendered the work easy, which would, if done 
at once, have been a tiresome task. 

He was a widower, and had only one child, a son, 
residing with him, and articled to a solicitor in Bath. 
This son had more than his father's natural talents, 
and was a good scholar, and gave much promise of 
rising above many in his profession. He also seemed 
much inclined to walk in those ways which are pleas- 
antness and peace. When, therefore, he had arrived 
at age, on his birthday he wrote a paper, entitled 
" Eules for my Conduct." It began thus : "I am now 
come of age, and hope for the favor and blessing of 
Grod upon my future years. But in order to this, I 
know I must adhere to certain principles and rules ; 
the first of which is piety. ' Behold the fear of the 
Lord, that is wisdom, and to depart from evil, that is 
understanding,' " &c. But alas ! this goodness was as 
the morning cloud, or early dew which passeth away. 
These hopeful appearances were in a few mouths 
blighted, and in a few more entirely destroyed. 

" Evil communications corrupt good manners ; and 
a companion of fools shall be destroyed." This fine 
youth became acquainted with some sceptical, or as, 
by a patent of their own creation, they call themselves, 
free- thinking young men ; gave up the Sabbath ; for- 
sook the house of Grod which his father had built; 
abandoned the minister to whom he had been greatly 
attached ; and boldly " left off to be wise and to do 
good." But as his fall v/as rapid, so his new course 



'KEY. THOMAS TUPPEN. 107 

was short. Swimming on a Sunday for amusement 
and experiment, lie caught a chill which brought on 
a consumption. This for months gave him warning, 
and space for repentance, but it is to be feared this 
grace of God was in vain. During the gradual de- 
cline, he refused all intercourse with pious friends or 
ministers ; and when his good nurse entreated him to 
call me in, as I lived close by, and there had been 
such an intimacy between us, he frowned and rebuked 
her, and ordered her to mind her own business. On 
the last day of his life, unasked, I ventured into his 
dying chamber. He was sensible ; but exclaimed, 
" Voltaire ! Voltaire!" He then raised himself up 
in the bed, and wringing his hands again exclaimed, 
" that young man ! that young man !" I said, " My 
dear sir, what young man ?" With a countenance in- 
describable, he answered, " I will not tell you." 

How was rny soul agonized, for I had loved him 
much, and had endeavored in every way to render 
myself agreeable and useful to him. But " one sinner 
destroyeth much good." What have I seen in a long 
ministry of the dire effects of evil associates, and li- 
centious publications ! He kept moving about, and 
grasping the bed clothes ; and after a disturbed silence 
muttered something about his seeing fire, and then ab- 
ruptly expired. On the last circumstance I laid no 
stress ; it was probably from a sparkling of the eye, 
affected by the imagination or disease ; nor did I pub- 
lish a narrative of the event from the press or the pul- 
pit ; or attempt to make of it an imitation of Dr. 
Young's " Centaur not Fabulous." In many cases we 
know too little for explanation or decision ; and it is 
our wisdom to "be still, and know that He is Grod," 



108 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

both as to the exercise of his mercy and justice. We 
are to avoid rash judgments, but it becomes us to hear 
and flee. 

Should this solemn and true statement fall under the 
notice of any youth who has had godly parents, and 
a religious education ; and not only outward advan- 
tages but serious convictions and resolutions ; from all 
which he has turned aside, surely here is enough to 
awaken his reflection and alarm, and to enforce the 
language of inspired wisdom and love : " My son, if 
sinners entice thee, consent thou not. Enter not into 
the path of the wicked ; and go not in the way of evil 
men. Avoid it, pass not by it ; turn from it, and pass 
away. For they sleep not except they have done 
mischief; and their sleep is taken away unless they 
cause some to fall. And thou mourn at the last, when 
thy flesh and thy body are consumed ; and say, How 
have I hated instruction and my heart despised re- 
proof ! and have not obeyed the voice of my teachers, 
nor inclined mine ear to them that instructed me ! 
Rejoice, young man, in thy youth ; and walk in the 
way of thine heart, and in the sight of thine eyes ; but 
know thou, that for all these things God will bring 
thee into judgment." 



YESCOMBE, ESQ. 



THE only history of this rather singular character I 
derived from himself; and, as far as my information 
goes, it principally turns upon his two conversions, 
the one from Protestantism to Popery, and the other 
from Popery to Protestantism. 

Of his family I am ignorant, though I think he once 
mentioned that he had a brother who commanded a 
government packet to Lisbon. As it is a considerable 
time since his death, I may have mis-remarked a few 
trivial circumstances ; but I am certain, from the im- 
pression the case made npon me at first, my repeated 
relation of it since, and my lengthened acquaintance 
with him, that the following statement is essentially 
correct. 

He was travelling in Wales. In the neighborhood 
of Abergavenny he met with a Eomish priest, who 
immediately and sedulously sought an intimacy with 
him. He succeeded ; and they soon became familiar 
friends, as, though a nominal Protestant, he knew very 
little of the rudiments of his own profession. He was 
shortly, by the zeal and art of his new associate, drawn 
over to Popery, and fell so entirely under the control 
of this man, that he was prevailed upon to deliver up 
his Bible, (of which, alas ! he had made little use,) and 



110 PEACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

to live a kind of monkish life in a sort of mountain 
cave ; and though he had often witnessed the occa- 
sional intemperance of this priest, he went weekly, 
and regularly, and solemnly, to confess "before him for 
penance and pardon. 

In process of time, in his complete devotedness to 
Popery,, he thought of entering the monastery of La 
Trappe, the inmates of which were so renowned for 
denying themselves even the use of the speech which 
Grod has given us for enjoyment and profit. But, as 
the convert was required, as the term of his admission, 
that he should divest himself, in favor of the holy 
body, of all he had, he hesitated a little, and resolved 
to judge by a personal inspection. For this purpose 
he set out to visit the institution, and " he must needs 
go through" Bath. On the Thursday evening, walk- 
ing by Lady Huntingdon's chapel, he heard the sing- 
ing after the prayers, and- went in, and continued dur- 
ing the whole of the sermon. The preacher was the Rev. 
Mr. Kernp of Swansea. I forget the text ; but, in the 
course of his subject, he spoke against the errors of Pop- 
ery, especially transubstantiation, and idolatrous wor- 
ship of the Virgin Mary. His remarks so powerfully 
struck Mr. Yescombe, that, after the service was over, 
he went into the chapel house, and asked to see the 
minister, and said he wished much to have some con- 
versation with him. Mr. Kemp was- surrounded with 
niends, who were taking their leave of him, as he was 
setting off for London early the next morning. He 
therefore excused himself from a conference ; but 
learning that the applicant's desire arose from some 
impression of what he had just heard, he recommend- 
ed him, mentioning m) name, to call upon myself. This 



YESCOMBE, ESQ. Ill 

lie did on the day following. He apologized for call- 
ing by mentioning his recommendation, and stated the 
occasion of it in the doubt which had been raised in 
his mind from the sermon he had heard, avowing him- 
self to be a Eoman Catholic. If true, I was glad of 
such an opportunity, and lifted up my heart to God, 
that I might continue and complete these doubts, and 
make him know the truth, that the truth might make 
him free. 

And this I have every reason to hope was the case ; 
and after several interviews (not without prayer) he 
expressed with gratitude and tears his full conviction 
brought me his beads and books, constantly attend- 
ed my ministry, and communed with us in the dying 
of the Lord Jesus, spiritually and by faith eating the 
flesh and drinking the blood of the Son of (rod. 

He soon now furnished himself with a Bible, and- 
indescribable was the pleasure he found in it, after 
never having dared to look into it for sixteen years. 
How often and significantly would he say with Jere- 
miah, " Thy word was found, and I did eat it ;" and 
" Thy words were to me the joy and rejoicing of my 
heart," 

Yet he said, as he was single, and had now been so 
long accustomed to solitude, and from habit enjoyed 
it, he hoped he might still be allowed to live much in 
retirement ; and this he did, occupying two rooms 
awaj 7 - from all interruption and intercourse ; walking 
with Grod, and confessing himself a stranger and pil- 
grim on the earth. 

He always called me " Father." I had many pleas- 
ing and profitable interviews with him, and saw him 
growing in grace and in the knowledge- of the Lord 



112 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

and Saviour till he reached tlie end of his faith, and 
that end was peace. 

Three inferences are derivable from this brief me- 
moir : First. We see the spirit of Popery, and its fear 
of the Scripture. If we could separate the zeal to 
make proselytes from the cause, how worthy would it 
be of imitation ! 

Secondly. Let young persons when they travel be 
careful of the company they keep, lest they get a 
snare to their souls, and be led away by the error of 
the wicked. 

Thirdly. See on what little, and, to us, casual cir- 
cumstances important events hinge ; and how the pur- 
poses of him are accomplished " who worketh all things 
after the counsel of his own will." 

I bless God that, in the sixty-three years of my pas- 
toral life, I lost no one of my flock by perversion to 
Romanism ; while I received into my communion two 
converts from Popery, who walked in the truth, and 
" adorned the doctrine of God their Saviour in all 
things." 



DR. THOMAS COGAN. 

DR. OOG-AN, celebrated as a physician, author of 
" Yiews on the Ehine," and many other well-known 
works, was originally a Dissenting minister, educated 
at Homerton Academy, and officiating first at South- 
ampton. But changing his sentiments, and abjuring 
his Calvinistical Creed, like an honest man he inform- 
ed the church of his new convictions, and resigned his 
pastorate. For some time he was subsequently a 
preacher at the Hague, but afterwards he was led, as 
the condition of a matrimonial alliance, to study medi- 
cine, and practiced as a physician at Rotterdam. "When 
the French poured iafo Holland, he feared, (as he had 
offended them by some public strictures,) and fled to 
this country with the Prince of Orange, Mr. Hope, the 
Malvers, and others. 

He took a farm at Wraxal in Wiltshire, but soon 
found that the scientific agriculturist could not succeed 
so well as his plain practical neighbors. He then fixed 
his residence in Bath, and occupied a house of his own 
opposite the Reminiscent's Chapel. He had married 
in Holland. His wife, being an orthodox Presbyterian, 
communed with our church. He always attended the 
Unitarian Chapel ; but in the evenings he was seldom 
absent from Argyle Chapel. When my subject was 



114 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATION'S OF CHARACTER. 

of a more general and practical nature, lie was pleased 
and sometimes flattering; at other seasons be was 
silent and never seemed offended, was never censorious 
or severe. He allowed the liberty he assumed ; but I 
presume he thought we were not very well off in Bath, 
for he said more than once that, of the two ministers 
he heard, one of them preached about Grod, as if there 
had been no Christ ; and the other about Christ as if 
there had been no Grod; but he hoped from the pull- 
ing on each side he should be kept upright. 

I sometimes found' it trying to preach before such a 
superior man and so often ; but I am perfectly con- 
seious I never yielded to the temptation of pleasing, 
by altering my matter or style. 

Though he passed, and wished to pass, generally as 
an Unitarian, he did not give that community in all 
things his preference or commendation. He wished they 
would resign reading their discourses, as less exciting 
and impressive ; and often spoke of republishing a 
pamphlet, entitled "Beading not Preaching." He 
complained of their disuse of the awful terms of Scrip- 
ture, such as fury, vengeance, the lake of fire and brim- 
stone, observing they were words employed by the only 
wise Grod himself, and were adapted to strike the care- 
less, and arrest the thoughtless. He disliked their 
glossing Scripture when read or quoted, and wished 
the language of revelation to be always left to speak in 
its own unmixed simplicity. He also acknowledged 
that they never seemed to ascribe importance enough 
to the mediatorial work of the Messiah ; especially to 
his sufferings and death, as the (in some way or other) 
medium of Divine forgiveness. 

He had the habit of too many of his party, and 



DE, THOMAS COGAN. 115 

which may be deemed worse in its cause and effects 
than pure error itself; viz. : the speaking lightly of 
Divine things, and even sporting with them. Walking 
with him one day down Pulteney street, he said, 
" This long, even street, puts me in mind of the dull 
eternal Sabbath." He often joked about Satan. He 
kept back his attack on the agency and even existence 
of his infernal majesty in the last volume of his works, 
because he knew his more orthodox friends would 
never forgive him for the offence. He mentioned that, 
when he was in Holland, a minister put forth a pam- 
phlet deemed by many atheistical in its tendency, yet 
he was not anathematized by the Synod to which he 
belonged ; but afterwards when he published again, 
denying diabolical influence and existence, they imme- 
diately suspended him, as if not caring what became 
of Grod, if they could but retain the devil. But it was 
not a bad thing he uttered, when in the fields I met 
him after a return from town, (though it was a little 
inconsistent with his avowed opinion,) " When I am 
in London I believe in the devil, and when I am in the 
country I believe in God." He was a great and con- 
sistent admirer of Nature, and I believe drew more of 
the materials and excitements of his devotion from 
wood and lawn than from Bethlehem and Calvary. 

He was truly generous and benevolent ; as a com- 
panion he was most amiable and interesting; never 
obtruding or insinuating his sentiments among those 
who differed from him. Like other great men, he was 
not so ready with his tongue as with his pen, or so defi- 
nite and lucid in his speech as in his writings. No- 
thing indeed can surpass the crystal clearness apparent 
in his works, for which see his " Treatise on the Anal- 



116 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

ysis and Influence of the Passions ;" his " Theological 
Disquisition on the Characteristic Excellences of Chris- 
tianity." 

The following is rather a curious circumstance. 
One evening at Argyle Chapel, he sat in the same pew, 
and close by the side of Mr. "Wilberforce. After the 
service Mr. Wilberforce, coming into the vestry, asked 
me who that very agreeable-looking man was, who sat 
at his left hand. "Sir," said I, "that gentleman is 
your opponent who has just published an answer to 
the chapter in your work on Hereditary Depravity." 
"Indeed!" said he, "had I known it I would have 
shaken hands with him, for he is a fair and able dispu- 
tant." Two clays after this, dining at his house with Mr. 
Toller, of Kettering, (who was his guest,) Dr. Cogansoon 
asked, " Who was that odd and very movable gen- 
tleman, who sat last evening at my right hand ?" 
''What, sir, did you not know that that was Mr. Wil- 
berforce?" "Was that Wilberforce! I should much 
have liked to have been introduced to him ; for though 
I have written against his sentiments, no one can ad- 
mire his character more, as one of the best of men, 
and one of the greatest philanthropists;" and went 
on justly eulogizing him. 

Not being inclined or qualified for controversy, I 
never entered into dispute with him, but I sometimes 
dropped a few words from experience or observation, 
to which he listened, and which seemed to strike him, 
especially when I spoke of persons who had recently 
died in confidence, peace, and comfort, commending 
and recommending those truths which they said were 
all their salvation and all their desire. And when I 
mentioned what I had lately met with, viz. : a female, 



DE. THOMAS JOGAN. 117 

young and beautiful, agreeably espoused, with two 
lovely babes, with everything that could render life 
desirable, dying of a consumption, (which destroys so 
many of our roses and lilies,) and when reduced by 
the lingering disease almost to a shadow, she asked an 
attendant to hand her the looking-glass,' after glanc- 
ing at which she returned it, saying with a smile 

" Then while ye hear my heart-strings break, 

How sweet my moments roll ! 
A mortal paleness in my cheek, 

But glory in my soul!" 

and soon expired, he could not avoid weeping. 

When also I sometimes mentioned instances (and, 
blessed be God, I could mention such instances under 
my own preaching) of persons converted from a sinful 
course to a life of morality and holiness ; and where 
the change has not been produced by practice, but the 
practice has been the effect of the change ; and sin has 
not only been left but loathed; and duty has not only 
been performed but delighted in ; his pause and man- 
ner have seemed to say, " Ahy, we hear and see no- 
thing of this !" 

He went to see his learned brother, the Eev. Edward 
Cogan, (whose name so often appears as a contributor 
in the "Gentleman's Magazine,") and who was the pas- 
tor of the Presbyterian church at "Walthamstow. Be- 
'fore his return he died. I know not the manner or 
circumstances of his departure ; but have been inform- 
ed only, that he ordered his tombstone to be inscribed 
with these words : " I am the resurrection and the life : 
he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet 



118 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHAEACTEll. 

shall lie live ; and he that liveth and believeth in me 
shall never die. Believest thou this ?" 

I cannot help observing, that while Dr. Cogan was 
in Holland, from the existence and usefulness of the 
Humane Society there, he recommended the institu- 
tion of it in this country to his friend Dr. ~YY. Hawes 
of London, an elder of Dr. Eees' church. In conse- 
quence of which, that gentleman had the honor of es- 
tablishing a similar Society here, by means of which 
so many lives have been restored and given back to 
their agonizing connexions. 

Shall I remark when Dr. Hawes called upon the 
Reminiscent to engage him to preach for the Society, 
our discourse naturally turned upon the subject of sui- 
cide ; and he expressed it as his opinion that self-mur- 
der commonly sprung, not from infidelity or insanity, 
but from some impression intolerable for the moment, 
but which might have been diverted or dissipated by 
some timely change of company, place, or action ; and 
the event been prevented. And who has not felt a 
temporary gloomy depression, which, had it been in- 
creased tenfold, or fivefold, (and it might have been 
easily so increased,) but might have sought relief by 
any means within reach ? 

He also remarked, contrary to a common opinion, 
that those who once attempt self-destruction, repeat 
the attempt, and commonly succeed at last ; but that 
they had found comparatively few of those they had 
happily resuscitated chargeable with the repetition of 
the offence. 

I remember Dr. Cogan saying, he was once, when 
abroad, walking with a young Portuguese lady, and 
saw at a distance a fire surrounded with a number of 



DE. THOMAS COGAN. 119 

persons ; and when he was disposed to notice it, she 
pulled him on, saying, " 0, I suppose it is only the 
"burning of a Jew." " Yet," said he, " she was not 
wanting in humanity, yea, she was even tender and 
benevolent." But see the effect of persecution, educa- 
tion, and custom I 



REV. BENJAMIN DAVIS, D. D., 

WAS originally tutor of the Dissenting Academy at 
Oswestry, where he had for one of his students Dr. 
Edward Williams, afterwards president of Eotherham 
College, and a writer of no little celebrity, especially 
in the Baptismal and Calvinistic controversies. 

I was anxious to learn from him, whether this pupil 
of his, when under his care, had anything peculiar or 
superior about him, indicative of his future eminence. 
"Nothing," he said, "but more of a solitary disposi- 
tion, a greater addiction to study, and a special seri- 
ousness of reflection." 

Do constitutional propensities, or accidental circum- 
stances, lead men into those departments of action and 
science in which they have mostly figured ? In many 
instances, perhaps, this cannot be decided ; in some, it 
is obvious, both unite and co-operate. 

I remember eagerly perusing Dr. Williams' famous 
work on " Divine Equity and Sovereignty," but I 
found little satisfaction in reading it : perhaps I did 
not thoroughly comprehend it. I certainly did not 
feel, in consequence of it, more disposed for such in- 
vestigations than before ; and I had always had a full 
persuasion that there are depths in which the mind is 



REV. BENJAMIN DAVIS, D.D. 121 

swallowed up ; and that Young's advice is wisdom 
here, 

" Wait the great teacher, Death, 
And God adore !" 

Did not Bacon say, " I am no metaphysician, for 1 
am not an owl, I cannot see in the dark !" Do not 
some good men impose upon themselves and others ? 
They feel and express great confidence and certainty 
as to the result of their own perceptions and discuss- 
ions ; but 

First : Are they not governed by terms and phrases 
of their own, hallowed and significant as to those who 
use them ; but as to others, are they not words with- 
out knowledge, and which darken. counsel rather than 
enlighten it ? For what are they when they come to 
be explained ? Or what satisfactory explanation arc 
they capable of receiving ? 

Secondly : They imagine they have solved difficulties 
when they have only shifted them. They push them 
into holes and corners, but after awhile they are met 
with again by accidental approach, or revived research, 
to the awakening of their doubts, but seldom to the 
acknowledging of their mistakes. 

Would it not be better for us to seize and improve 
the inviting and glorious truths of revelation, which 
are so plain and important, (and of which there are so 
many,) the experience of which we find useful to our- 
selves., and the communication of winch AVC know to 
be useful lo others ? " The secret tilings belong unto 
the Lord our (rod ; but those things that are revealed 
are for us and for our children. 1 " 

And what a difference must a Christian and a minis- 



122 PEACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

tor feel, between tbe trammels of some systems of di- 
vinity and the advantage of Scripture freedom, the 
glorious liberty of the sons of God ! The one is the 
horse standing in the street, in harness, feeding indeed, 
but on the contents of a bag tossed up and down ; the 
other, the same animal in a large fine meadow, where 
he lies down in green pastures, and feeds beside the 
still waters. 

But I remember hearing Mr. Owen (the Secretary 
to the Bible Society) say, after a long interview and 
discussion with Dr. Williams, that he never met with 
a systematic, who seemed to have so clear a view, and 
so ready a command of his system. 

To return. Dr. Davis was afterwards, for some 
years, Theological Tutor of Homerton Academy ; con- 
cerning which he often complained of the difficulties 
and trials of the situation and office, especially as they 
arose from the insubordination and manners of the 
young men, and which frequently induced him to ex- 
claim, "Ye are too strong for me, ye men of Zeruiah." 

He was also pastor of the church in Fetter Lane ; 
but he was compelled to resign his public and pas- 
toral labors, owing to an extraordinary pain in his 
head. After (in a remarkable manner) being relieved 
from this, he resided for a time at Heading, and preach- 
ed often there. He then resided with his niece, who 
had married the Independent minister of WelLs. 
There too he often preached, and was very useful. 
Lastly he came to Bath, and became a member of my 
church. Here he married again, and resided to the 
end of life. 

He occasionally preached for me, and always with 
much acceptance; and it is remarkable that, though 



KEV. BENJAMIN DAVIS, D.D. 123 

for many years lie had always read his discourses, he 
latterly laid his notes aside ; and never, as it might 
have been supposed, felt embarrassment. His preach- 
ing was of a more evangelical and experimental and 
simple order than that of some of his contemporaries 
in London ; and he was one of the few of his stiffer, 
drier brethren who openly countenanced and com- 
mended Whitfield and his assistants. 

He was a man of very considerable learning, of 
great theological knowledge, and of pre-eminent piety 
and spirituality. 

I derived much benefit from him (I might have de- 
rived more) as a hearer, a companion, an admonisher, 
and an example. 

He published but little. I had some of his manu- 
script sermons, and also his course of Theological Lec- 
tures, (exceedingly clear and good,) and a Treatise on 
Human Depravity and Regeneration ; all of which are 
now in the possession of my grandson, the Rev. Cor- 
nelius Winter Bolton, a clergyman in the United 
States. 

His reading towards the last was almost entirely of 
one kind ; and his favorite authors were Leighton, 
Baxter, and Newton : Newton's Letters in particular 
he delighted to reperuse, for he observed, what an ad- 
vantage he derived, (owing to the declension of his 
memory,) as the same works seemed again new to 
him. 

When I informed him of the death of his distin- 
guished pupil, Dr. Williams, he burst into a flood of 
tears, and said, " I am almost ashamed to be alive, and 
eighty years old, when so many good and great and 
useful men are taken away in the midst of their days." 



124 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

He still lived considerably beyond this period, dying 
in a good old age, and gathered in like a shock of 
corn fully ripe in his season. His end was peace, but 
partaking more of trust than triumph. And I like 
best such modes of dying experience. Few can ex- 
pect ecstasy and rapture, but many may die saying, 
" Let me not be ashamed of my hope ;" 

" A guilty, weak, and helpless worm, 

On thy kind arms I fall ; 
Be them my strength and righteousness, 
My Jesus and my all 1" 



REV. THOMAS HAWEIS, M. D- 

DE. HAWEIS, in various respects, was a character 
well known in the religious world. He was for a time 
contemporary with the founders of Methodism, though 
he was not a student at Oxford till "Wesley and Whit- 
field had left that University. I have heard him men- 
tion that, during his residence at the Ool]ege, he some- 
times went over on the Sabbath to Weston-Pavel, to 
hear the celebrated James Hervey ; and observing 
(what I had heard also especially from Mr. Newton 
and others, viz.) the dull aspect of his congregation, 
and the difference there was between the liveliness of 
his writings, and the unimpressiveness of his preach- 
ing. This rather strange result may excite wonder ; 
but it furnishes matter for a twofold remark. 

First : How divided and individual, endowments 
and excellences are ! and, 

Secondly : How the sovereignty of God appears, 
not only in his choice of instruments, but the way and 
work in which he employs them. ! And herein the Lord 
does not often conform to the judgment, or gratify the 
wishes of his servants themselves. They prefer a par- 
ticular place or line of operation ; but they find them- 
selves unexpectedly in other situations and engage- 
ments ; and though the providence may be trying at 



126 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATION'S OF CHARACTER. 

first, after awhile grace produces acquiescence, and en- 
ables the man to be thankful if in any mode or degree 
he is honored to be useful. 

I enter not into the case of Dr. Haweis' obtaining 
the Living of Aldwinkle ; concerning which there was 
a great difference of opinion, and several pamphlets 
published. The late Dr. Bridges and my father-in- 
law, the Eev. Edward Davies, also a beneficed clergy- 
man, always defended him ; and this was probably the 
case with others. I understood from Mr. "Winter that 
Mr. Whitfield indeed much wished him to resign the 
living ; and Lady Huntingdon advanced a very con- 
siderable sum to satisfy or silence the complainant. I 
have more than once heard the Doctor say, that he of- 
fered to do an} 7 thing for the complainant, if he would 
accept it as a distressed man, and not as an injured man ; 
but as he demanded remuneration as a right, he could 
do nothing without condemning himself. 

The Doctor himself always avowed that the living 
was put into his hands after he had clearly and fully 
and repeatedly stated the only way in which he ought 
and only could consent to receive it, without an act 
of simony. But it made an impression generally 
against him ; especially among those who judge not 
according to the rectitude of the case, but the usages 
of church jobbing. Some, not wanting in impartiality, 
asked, Was it the avoiding the (perhaps) appearance 
of evil ? and, Was it lovely and of good report? 

The Doctor may, perhaps, be considered the first 
man in the South Sea Mission. Some years before 
the London Missionary Society was established, from 
the accounts published by Captain Bligh and some 
other navigators, HE was induced to choose, and bear 



EEV. THOMAS HAWEIS, M.D. 127 

the expense of preparing, two j^oung men to go as 
missionaries to Otaheite, but who, as soon as they 
were educated, ignobly and deceitfully preferred stay- 
ing at home. This exceedingly disappointed and dis- 
tressed him; but he now drew off his attention and 
desire from the project and the place. When, there- 
fore, this great and successful institution was formed, 
he rejoiced, and early attached himself to it. He 
preached the first sermon, at the first meeting at Spa 
Fields Chapel, on 3 "behalf; and as the Directors and 
Managers were a 1 <ss wher3 to begin, he naturally 
and promptly d n itccl their view to scenes of labor 
which had becom >. fainiiiarto his mind by much think- 
ing and some effor ar .1 e: lense. And these were Ota- 
lieite and Tongafe be- Ll most central and advan- 
tageous stations for co ;ru lication and extension. 

As an author, he put ' '?l\ed a volume of sermons and 
several single discourses, with some essays and tracts. 
But his principal works were an Exposition of the 
whole Bible, in three volumes folio ; and a Church. 
History, in three volume-' octavo. The former of these 
has often been supposed ,> be an abridgment of Hen- 
ry, but it was not so dedg< i, and is in reality a Com- 
mentary of his own, possessing no little value. The 
latter has been considered as i very hasty and superfi- 
cial performance ; but ' ; LVK C the recommendation of 
always nobly and simply Ic Aing after real and vital 
Christianity ; and of frequently finding it and show- 
ing it where lying ecclesiastics have overlooked it, or 
anathematized it. It always breathes a most liberal 
spirit towards his brethren among the Dissenters and 
Methodists, He animadverts freely and judiciously 
with regard to Constantino, and the consequences of 



128 PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATION'S OF CHARACTER. 

his conversion to the Christian Church, while his ar- 
guments against Miluer, with regard to penal enact- 
ments in an Establishment, are unanswerable. 

He had a peculiar confidence in himself, and a 
readiness of address which never failed him. But this 
rather injured him as a preacher, (and where has not 
.this envied talent injured the owner ?) so that leaning 
on his facility, he neglected retirement and study; 
and commonly had company on the evenings of his 
preaching, from which he seldom withdrew, till the 
clerk arriving with the robes and three-bushel wig re- 
minded him the time was up. Hence, though able to 
do so much better, his sermons not only wanted meth- 
od and consecutiveness, but were commonplace and 
unctionless. 

It is a bad thing when a man has acquired the knack 
of preaching, and can talk on for an hour in the pulpit 
without effort and without effect. In proportion as the 
truths and doctrines we preach are well known and 
familiar, so much the more necessary is it to retire and 
meditate them much, that our own minds may he af- 
fected by them, and that we may render them im- 
pressive and interesting to those that hear us. 

It is well for a young minister to feel difficulties ; 
and if these induce him to retirement, study, and pray- 
er, he will in time surpass, at least in efficiency and 
usefulness, many who proudly towered above him at 
the beginning. This is one of the cases in which the 
first shall be last, and the last shall be first. To whom 
was the admonition addressed,' "Meditate upon these 
things, give thyself wholly to them, that thy profiting 
may appear unto all" ? Yet young men, who are not 



REV. THOMAS HAWEIS, M.D. 129 

Timothys, talk of the time when they finished their 
studies ! 

As before the Gospel was preached in the churches 
in Bath, Lady Huntingdon's chapel was a place of 
fashionable resort, and as many careless creatures at- 
tended, especially on the Lord's-day evenings, the Doc- 
tor's style of address was too invariably terrific ; and 
derived from such texts as these: "It is a fearful thing 
to fall into the hands of the living God ;" " Who 
among us can dwell with everlasting burnings?'' "De- 
part, ye cursed," &c. But was this the more excellent 
way ? Is there not danger that such tremendous ex- 
pressions will lose their force by constant repetition ? 
Is such horrifying declamation preaching the Gospel, and 
bringing good tidings of great joy ? It would be well to 
endeavor to ascertain what is the legitimate employment 
of terror in an evangelical ministry. The use of it should 
not be a preacher's pleasure, but pain ; and, as an old 
writer says, " he should always utter a Divine threat- 
ening as a judge would pronounce sentence of death 
upon his son." Our subject is "the faithful saying 
and worthy of all acceptation, that Jesus Christ came 
into the world to save sinners ;" and the value of ter- 
ror only is as an auxiliary or motive to enforce the 
reception of our message of pardon and peace. So the 
apostles employed it : " Knowing the terror of the 
Lord, we persuade men" to accept the mercy and grace 
we hold forth, He hath " committed to us the minis- 
try of reconciliation. Now then we are ambassadors 
for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us, w& 
pray you in Chrises stead, be ye reconciled to God," 

The Poctor's manner also was high, and itot surH-. 
ciently courteous to the common people.. ,Senee, after 

6* 



130 PRACTICAL ILLUSTltATIONS OF CHARACTER. 

preaching long in Bath, the dissatisfied congregation 
induced him to decline his ministry among them, and 
also his attendance at the chapel. From this time he 
constantly worshipped with us, till his death. I at- 
tended him in his last illness, if it deserved the name, . 
for, as he had no fears, so he had no pains, so entirely 
was his end peace. 

One thing he desired, and it was in character with 
his love of the missionary enterprise. On the very 
day of his death, one of the first class of missionaries 
to Otaheite was expected in Bath. It is hardly possi- 
ble to express the earnestness with which he wished to 
see him before he breathed his last. He sent again 
and again to my house, begging that if he called upon 
me first I would instantly bring him to his dying bed. 
He came he called upon me ; and, without asking 
him to sit down, I hurried and introduced him. "We 
found Dr. Haweis, like the expiring Simeon, saying, 
with tears, " Now, Lord, lettest thou thy servant de- 
part in peace." 

He left a large diary, which would have thrown 
much light on the earlier periods and events of the 
revival of religion in our own country ; but the son, a 
clergyman, very opposite to his father's views, pre- 
vented the use which I wished to have made of it. 

By the way, how was it when Evangelism was so 
persecuted in the nation, and our bishops were so 
averse to its doctrines, that so many of the obnoxious 
clergy were suffered to act so irregularly as to preach 
for weeks and months together in places unconse- 
crated and unlicensed, retaining their livings ; which 
was the case with Berridge, Venn, Penticross, Grlascot 
Haweis ? 



EEV. THOMAS HAWEIS, M.D. 131 

Dr. Haweis, speaking one day of "Whitfield's won- 
derful voice, and of its force as well as sweetness and 
variety of tone, said, he believed on a serene evening 
it might be distinctly heard for very near a mile. 
Was this possible ? 



PART IY. 



SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 



OF THE 



REV. WILLIAM JAY. 



SELECTIONS FROM CORRESPONDENCE. 



Mr. Jay to Hiss Davies, afterwards Mrs. Jay. 

MY DEAREST LOVE, I always used to have a dis- 
inclination to preacli at Bath, but I now think it long 
to Sunday week. You know the reason. May we 
have a happy and sanctified interview! I find the 
longer I stay here the more I like the situation, and 
the harder it will be to dissolve the connection. But I 
wish to live having my conversation in heaven, and 
then every place will be in some measure indifferent. 
Yes, my love, let us determine to live as strangers and 
pilgrims here, and plainly declare by our profession 
and conduct that we seek a better country, that is a 
heavenly. Not when we shall be incapable of pursu- 
ing this world, and when our gust for early pleasure 
shall be abated by old age ; but now, while our affec- 
tions are so warm, and when so many are carried away 
by the vanity of the world and the pride of life, let 
us unreservedly dedicate ourselves to Grod, and present 
ourselves as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to 
Glod, which is our reasonable service. Nothing but 



136 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

real religion can make us holy and nappy in any situa- 
tion or relation. In proportion as it prevails we shall 
find heaven begun below. If you should come to 
Bath Saturday, should be glad. Let us, if possible, 
visit Prior one day. Best respects to Mr. and Mrs. 
D., to Mrs. Hall, if yet with you, and Miss Isabella. 
The Lord bless you and help you, and 

Yours, most affectionately, 

TV. JAY. 

CLIFTON, Feb. 2, 1789. 

If you write, should be glad to know how dear Mr. 
Tuppen is, and whether I may apprise Prior of our 
coming. 



Rev. Cornelius Winter to Mr. Jay 

PANSWICK, Jan. 22, 1*790. 

MY VERY DEAR BILLY, It is enough to have a 
pretext of necessity to write to you, and my pen moves 
freely; you have awakened all my tender sensations 
by your late visit, and given me occasion to prove that 
I cannot say to you as a great man once said to me at 
the close of a family connection "I cast you off, now 
sink or swim." No, my dear friend, to carry on the 
idea, I believe if you were to sink, I should attempt 
to dive for you ; but blessed be God you swim : may 
you always keep your head above water, till you set 
your feet on the shore of that wealthy place where 
you shall find an everlasting abode. I hope you got 
safe and comfortable to Hope Chapel on Saturday, and 
found all well. Take proper care of your health, and 
employ it for Him who hath 1 wed you and given him- 
self for you. 



OF THE UEV. WILLIAM JAY. 187 

I have employed some thought about Paul and Saul, 
and find Beza and Dr. Doddridge very candid. Dod- 
dridge adopts Beza's criticism on Acts 13, 9. * * 

* * * "While -writing this yours came to hand, 
and is a conviction to me of our attachment being- 
mutual. Friendship well grounded cannot be easily 
alienated. Through various interruptions I have been 
prevented from proceeding with my letter from the 
day I received yours till now. To be sure the sermon 
is in the press, and the advertisement which, precedes it 
not to be altered or improved. 

I wish it may not appear too consequential, if not 
trifling. I repent that I have not spoken of you by an 
epithet expressive of the affection of my heart, for the 
world should know that you are dear to me. There is 
a delicacy in the use of terms, and they sometimes 
excite envy. My desire is that, in us, Cicero's remark 
on Friends may be exemplified : " Absentes adsunt, et 
egentes abundant, et imbecilles valent, et quod diffici- 
lius dictu est, mortui vivunt." 

Yesterday se'n-night Mr. Surrnan gave a call and 
preached a sermon to us. I declare I was surprised to 
hear him, and wonder not that he was invited to Ply- 
mouth. What cannot the Lord do? May He con- 
descend to give me a further proof of his power in my 
present family. They all unite in love to you with 
myself and Mrs. "Winter. Mr. Griffin is under inocu- 
lation, and I trust will be brought abroad again. Eecol- 
lect the hint I gave you about your parents, and when 
you write to or see them, give my love to them. I 
have a disposition to fill up the sheet, but I cannot. 
I therefore only add, come and see us when you can, 



138 SELECTIONS PROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

and thereby add to the- pleasure of my, very dear 
Billy, 

Ever yours affectionately in our dear Lord Jesus, 

CORNELIUS WINTER. 

I saw Mr. Ashburn the morning you left me, who 
dropped a hint expressive of his approbation of what 
he heard the night before. 



Mr. Jay to Mr. Withers. 

LONDON, 1793. 

MY DEAR FRIEND, Having a leisure half-hour, I 
said to myself I'll embrace this opportunity to write to 
Mr. Withers. No sooner said than done, or at least 
begun. I thank you for your letter, but not for your 
apologies, as to your manner of writing, &c., &c. 
These I put amongst Mrs. Withers' kind ceremonies 
and cares when I am at your house. They are all bad 
things belonging to good persons ; otherwise I should 
be more severe with them. You may depend upon it 
that I shall be always glad to see 3^011 and hear from 
you, but you must treat me with less compliment. I 
do not desire it : and I know I do not deserve it. I 
must be under strange infatuation indeed to think 
highly of myself. I have much to humble me. I am 
every thing that 's bad. "In me dwelleth no good 
thing." Whatever distinguishes me from others is the 
undeserved gift of God ; and if, in any degree, I am 
useful to my fellow creatures, 'tis u not I, but the grace 
of Grod which is with me." 

What fine wea 'her we have had for the ingathering 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 139 

of the fruits of the earth. How has our blessed God 
crowned the year with his goodness, and how lamenta- 
ble is it that our world, so full of his mercy, should 
be so empty of his praise ! Our fears were awakened, 
but they have been more than disappointed, and may 
we not hope that the same Grod will crown plenty with 
peace. Though the prospect is not favorable, all things 
are possible to Him. All creatures are under his con- 
trol. The hearts of kings are in his hands. This is 
all the comfort I have as to present affairs. 

I had a blessed time last Sabbath-day morning in 
preaching from these words : " Casting all your care 
upon him; for he careth for you," 1 Peter, 5, 7. I 
could not help wishing that a certain friend of mine 
who resides under your roof had been with us. Well, 
if Providence spares us to meet again, she may prob- 
ably hear it second hand. Mrs. Jay unites with me 
in kind respects to her ; thanking you all for your 
very great kindness towards our dear boy, to whom, 
through you, we transmit a few kisses, and a promise 
not only of a horse but a whip too. "We have spent 
half of our visit here, and shall be glad, after four more 
Sabbaths, to return home. O why do I not long equally 
to leave this bustling world to go to my heavenly and 
everlasting home ? Why do I not long to depart to be 
with Christ, which is far better ? I have sometimes 
such views of this world and the next, that, if they 
were realized in experience, I think I should be in 
some measure what I ought to be, but alas, I have 
much more religion in my head than in my heart; 
and, with all my fine notions, I feel myself prone to 
cleave to the dust, and to neglect my Saviour. But 
my paper reminds me of the propriety of drawing to a, 



140 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

close. Has Hymen yoked Mr. James yet? Tell him 
lie must inform me if lie expect anything like an Epi- 
tlialamium. I love botli of them, and hope Grod will 
bless them. I know he will if my prayers are answer- 
ed. I have not seen your daughter since I wrote last. 
Desire her, when you write to her, to call upon us 
again, and as often as she pleases. We know not 
where to direct for her. You see I sometimes write to 
yourself, and sometimes to Mrs. "Withers, but I always 
mean both. You are, I trust, not only one in the com- 
mon sense of the term, but one in Christ Jesus. May 
your union, begun upon earth, continue in heaven. I 
am, dear Sir, Yours, &c. 



Mr. Jay to Mrs. Jay. 

MY DEAREST LOVE, Last night I preached for the 
Sunday morning Lecture, and in honor of the access- 
ion of this family to the throne. Dr. Hunter prayed. 
The congregation was large ; and just as I was con- 
cluding the sermon there was a general consternation 
and outcry. All was confusion and people treading 
on one another, &c. It was rather dark, and the pul- 
pit candles only were lighted. I saw something mov- 
ing up the aisle towards the vestry. It was a bull ! 
we presume driven in by pick-pockets, or persons who 
wished to disturb us. We were talking on the affairs 
of the nation, and John Bull very seasonably came in. 
But imagine what followed: the bull could not be 
made to go backwards, nor could he be turned round : 
five or six persons, therefore, held him by the horns ; 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 141 

while the clerk, as if bewitched, gave out, in order to 
appease the noise, 

" Praise God, from "whom all blessings flow, 
Praise him all creatures here below," etc. 

O that the bull could but have roared here in com- 
pliance with the exhortation! Hooked down from 
the pulpit, and seeing the gentlemen who held him 
singing with their faces lifted up, as if returning thanks 
for this unexpected blessing, I was obliged to put my 
hand before my face while I dismissed the congrega- 
tion. This I think is enough for once. I long to re- 
ceive a line from you to tell me all your plans. Love 
to the dear children. 

Yours, &c. 



The same to the same. 

MY DEAEEST LOVE, You may imagine that I am 
always full of matter, but I assure you I have been 
sitting a considerable time with my pen in hand not 
knowing what to say. Love indeed would dictate a 
thousand fond things, but I am not certain that they 
would be most acceptable ; and I hope they are not 
necessary. I would love, not in word only. I wish 
to make my whole conduct a proof of my aifection 
and esteeem= Tuesday evening I preached upon family 
religion, and as an inference from the importance of 
it, I exhorted young people to beware how they formed 
connections : " How can two walk together except 
they be agreed ?" Here I hope we are agreed, and I 



142 SELECTIONS FEOM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

trust we shall always " walk together as heirs of the 
grace of eternal life, that our prayers be not hindered." 
But I have been thinking that, notwithstanding there 
is no disagreement between us, in our sentiments and 
dispositions respecting religious exercises in the family, 
as is the case with many, we may be more useful to 
each other in our relation than we have been ; and 
watch over, pray for, rebuke, exhort, teach, and com- 
fort each other more than we have done. I know not 
indeed why I should class you with myself herein. 
But I am conscious of deficiency. I am to blame ; 
nor in this instance only. I seem all wrong. I have 
not half religion enough in my own soul to make me 
useful to others or happy in myself: I frequently doubt 
the truths I preach to others. I frequently fear lest, 
having been useful to save others, I myself should be 
a castaway : the conviction of my judgment goes far 
beyond the experience of my heart. You cannot con- 
ceive in. what an inferior light all sublunary objects 
irequently appear to me ; and still I am looking to 
and depending upon creatures. I might enlarge. In 
the midst of all this there is some relief. 'tis well 
to have light enough to see our darkness, and softness 
enough to feel our hardness ; 'tis well that Jesus Christ 
saves sinners ; that unworthiness is no bar ; and that 
he provides strong consolation for those who have fled for 
r<fuge. examine this character of the righteous; 
when, O my soul, thou canst not derive comfort from 

any other, ' Hast thou not fled for refuge T 

x % * x # 

Yours, &c. 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 148 
ON THE DEATH OF TWO CHILDREN. 

To Mr. N&wall, who was for upwards of fifty years a 
member of Mr. Jay's Church, and for many years 
deacon and treasurer. 

Dated about September, 1805. 

MY DEAR FRIEND, By a letter Mrs. Jay has this 
morning received from Mrs. Lockyer, I am informed 
of the very severe trial with which, the Lord has been 
exercising you. Had I been at home I would have 
hastened to comfort you at your dwelling, and have 
mingled my tears with yours at the mouth of the 
grave, under the loss of two dear children, 'lovely 
children, removed almost at a stroke! But I hope 
that though a poor worm has been absent, He has 
been present, who has promised to be with us in trou- 
ble, whose property it is to comfort them that are cast 
down ; and who while he chastens can teach us out of 
his law. Intervening objects are often removed that 
He may be seen, and even death commands silence 
that .He may be heard. And the blessed sufferer, the 
sanctified sufferer, is the humble supplicant, who wipes 
his eyes and says, "Speak, Lord, for thy servant 
heareth." " Lord, what wilt thou have me to do ?" 
In our judgments we readily acknowledge His right 
to us and ours ; but when he comes to take his own, 
how hard do we find it to say practically, " The will 
of the Lord be done." But I am persuaded this is 
your disposition this has been your praj^er ; this will 
be your experience. He who knows our frame means 
us to feel. He who .designs our profit by our pain, re- 
quires us to feel. But he expects that we should qual- 
ify and regulate the feelings of the creature by the 



144 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

grace of the Christian. And why ? Because he has 
provided for all our wants, knows that His grace is 
sufficient for us, and that if \\ e ask, we shall have. 
My prayers shall attend you through all this gloomy 
scene, and if they are answered you will never be 
afraid of trouble again. You will soon perceive rea- 
son to say,- " It is good for me that I have been af- 
flicted." In the multitude of your thoughts within 
you, His comforts will delight your souls. You will 
be enabled to say, " Well, my darling infants are not 
lost, but provided for. The shepherd has gathered my 
lambs with His arms, and now carries them in His 
bosom. I shall find them again in yonder happy 
world. I shall embrace them all perfect and immor- 
tal." 

" Our journey is a thorny maze, 
But we march upwards still, 
Forget the troubles of the ways, 
Arid rest at Ziou's hill." 

I cannot do justice to your affliction or my own 
feelings; but I have snatched a few moments from 
company and engagements, to show you that I sym- 
pathize with you, and am, my dour Friend, yours 'to 
serve in the Grospel of our dear Lord Jesus, 

WILLIAM JAY. 



To his daughter Stalira when very young, and while he 
f tvas cilmnt -in, London. 

[We give the following as a beautiful specimen 
both of his condescension to the capacity of a child, 



OF THE KEY. WILLIAM JAY. 145 

and of the tender and pious affection with which he 
watched over his children.] 

MY VERY DEAR STATIRA,. I assure you I intended 
writing when I left home, and before I knew von had 
desired your mamnia to ask me to do it, "but I was 
ranch pleased to learn that yon wished it. It shows 
that yon value my notice, and proofs of this notice 
yon shall never want, while yon continue to act as 
yon have done. * * " x " Oh. if children did but 

t/ / 

consider the satisfaction they give their parents by 
being good, they would never be naughty. But their 
good conduct is not only attended with pleasure to 
their parents, but with peace and comfort to their own 
minds. It gains them the approbation of all around 
them ; yea, it pleases God, who gives us all we enjoy, 
and on whose favor and blessing all our happiness de- 
pends. I do not know anything so lovely as a little 
girl of your size when she is good-natured, and not 
selfish, fond of reading and improvement, obedient to 
her mamma, and when she loves the Scriptures, and 
the Sabbath,, and (rod's house ; and often prays, 

" Make me to walk in thy commands, 

'Tis a delightful road ; 
Nor let my head or heart or hands 
Offend against my God," 

and such, I have a full persuasion, I shall always find 
my dear and last-born child. I promise myself much 
pleasure for years to come in endeavoring to train you 
up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord, and in 
making you an amiable and useful member of society. 
But you, my dear Statira, may die, or papa may die, 
or mamma may die, and no more feel the kisses of 

7 



146 SELECTIONS PROM THE COEEESPONDENCE 

their darling upon their cheeks morning and evening, 
but be laid in the cold grave ; yea, we must all die, 
and so part sooner or later ; and, therefore, we must 
so live here as not to be parted hereafter, but indulge 
the pleasing hope of living together forever in heaven. 

I hope you feel much obliged to Mr. Bolton for his 
attentions. Tell him I thank him much on your be- 
half, and shall be glad to repay him in any way in my 
power, in addition to my having given him (I hope 
she is) a good wife. **** 

I long to see Percy Place again, and one of the prin- 
cipal reasons is to see and embrace again my dear 
Statira, and to prove by more than a hasty and im- 
perfect letter, that 

I am, my darling girl, your affectionate and devoted 

father, 

WM. JAY. 

LONDON, October 30, 1812. 



To the same. 

MY DEAE SWEET PEA, How I long for the time 
when I shall see thy image and thyself once more in 
my garden ! But "to everything there is a season ;" 
and we must learn to deny ourselves and wait. Nei- 
ther should I object to view some other flowers in my 
little Eden, or even one or two birds. O when will 
that spring or summer arrive? Bat I must not sin 
against the rule I have just laid down ; and, therefore, 
instead of giving way to impatience, I will try to write 
on. I hope you will find this journey useful and im- 
proving. It is in your power to render it so by keep- 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 147 

mg your attention awake, and suffering nothing to 
pass unobserved. Listen to what is said by persons 
of any talent in company, especially when they speak 
upon those subjects with which they are most familiar ; 
and they who have no general information may be 
well versed in their own line, and commonly talk well 
concerning it. I some time ago overtook a little 
sweep. I did not suppose he could criticise Milton nor 
Locke, but there was one thing he understood better 
than I did ; and before we separated, I knew how to 
climb a chimney. Not that I mean to set up in this 
calling. I am too big, too old, and fully occupied 
with some other things; but I love to learn, and I 
meet with few but are able to teach. Search your 
head all over, and if you find two ears, and only one 
tongue, be always more ready to hear and slow to 
speak ; and when you speak, speak with diffidence and 
modesty. A forward, bold, decisive tone is never 
agreeable in a man ; in a youth it is always offensive, 
but in a girl it is intolerable. You know how Miss 

was disliked and neglected after her father's 

death, for the freedom with which, in every circle, she 
delivered her opinion of men and things. Always 
say little of characters, and let this little as much as 
possible be in a way of commendation. Be less dis- 
posed to remark blemishes than excellences ; and let 
it appear that you can discern and acknowledge merit 
of any kind with pleasure. Grain some little addition 
every day to your mental stores, and remember the 
axiom, " To him that hath shall be given ;" that is, 
diligence and use increase what is good, both by their 
natural tendency, and the Divine blessing upon our. 
endeavors. Be fond of composition ; accustom your- 



148 SELECTIONS FEO3I T r TE CORRESPONDENCE 

self to write down, with as much accuracy and clear- 
ness as you can, every interesting occurrence, or any 
train of thought. I wish you to have a resource of 
pleasure through life, not only in reading, but in writ- 
ing. I am glad you go on with your French. When 
you come home you must teach me to pronounce and 
speak it. I should be glad to receive a letter from 
you in this language. I am sure you are able to write 
it, especially under the eye of Mr. Bolton. How would 
it surprise Bella and mamma, and sharpen their cu- 
riosity when they opened it, as they always do so 
greedily every letter from Liverpool. How dependent 
will they feel, and come and beg of me the contents ! 
I hope you rise early and take proper exercise. I hope 
also you ivalk well and sit well ; for I know a few 
weeks back, some considerable improvement was re- 
quired in both. .Some attention to each of these is 
the more necessary as you seem determined to be tall ; 
and the want of gracefulness is more observed in a tall 
figure than in a short. Mrs. "William Evill is rapidly 
declining, and funeral rites will early follow nuptial 
solemnities. At present she seems to decline seeing 
any one ; but I hope she is becoming sensible of her 
condition, though this flattering disorder may well be 
called, "a slow sudden death," and that by-and-bye I 
shall have some improving intercourse with her. In 
the space of four days I attended no less than four 
funerals. I endeavored to improve them all in a ser- 
mon from 2 Corinthians, v. 1, " For we know that 
if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved," 
&c., in which I observed, we have - 

1. An object contemplated' " the earthly house of 
this tabernacle." 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 149 

2. An event supposed the destruction of it "if it 
be dissolved." 

3. A privilege apprehended "a building of Grod, a 
house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens." 

4. A confidence expressed "we know" that we 
have thib a confidence of belief a confidence of hope 
a confidence of possession not we shall have, but 
we have, &c. 

When I mentioned Mr. , I said, " He was un- 
known to many of you ; but he was well known in 
the world of sport and dissipation. He formerly dis- 
tinguished himself on the turf, and obtained a subsist- 
ence by horse-racing. But this course of life for many 
years back he had abandoned ; and reviewed it with 
that godly sorrow that worketh repentance unto life, 
not to be repented of. The revival of early instruc- 
tion from pious parents, by the death of a beloved and 
only son, brought him to religious reflection. He was 
a man of a most warm and generous disposition, and 
delighted to do good, especially in visiting the father- 
less and the widows in their afflictions, and attending 
the bed of pain and sickness;" and when I added, "in 
the afternoon he passed my house, in the evening or- 
dered his nephew to read the 6th chapter of St. John, 
prayed with his family , retired comfortably to rest, 
awoke at eleven, complained of a pain in his stom- 
ach,' said, 'Come, Lord Jesus,' and in the twinkling 
of an eye expired," there was a half-fetched involun- 
tary groan through the audience, that made it very 

solemn. What I said of , was this: "She was 

an interesting infant ; a sufferer from the hour of her 
birth ; her early and continued affliction she endured 
with a patience above her years, and often spoke of 



150 SELECTIONS FBOM THE COBRESPONDEIsrCE 

God and heaven in language very unusual for one un- 
der five years of age. This is an event of congratula- 
tion rather than of condolence. At the grave of a 
child we always feel a peculiar satisfaction, arising from 
the persuasion that they are disposed of infinitely to 
their advantage. Under the protracted illness of this 
little martyr, the Saviour said to the parents ' Suffer 
this little child to come unto me, and forbid her not, 
for of such is the kingdom of heaven.' The Shepherd 
has gathered this lamb with his arms, and now carries 

it in his bosom." Of Mrs. I said : " She was 

for many years a member of our church, and walked 
consistently with her profession. She was a plain, in- 
offensive, upright character. There was nothing dis- 
tinguishing in her life, and her dying experience was 
the same. Through her lengthened disease, she was 
patient and submissive, often complained of herself, and 
felt alternately the prevalence of fear and hope ; and I 
am persuaded that HE who does not ' break a bruised 
reed nor quench the smoking flax' has received her." 
" Mr. J ," I said, " many of you were acquaint- 
ed with. I see several of his companions in iniquity 
here this evening. O that your former associate could 
now address } r ou. We have reason to hope and be- 
lieve that he saw and deplored the errors of his con- 
duct, and has obtained the mercy for which he so ear- 
nestly prayed. His language was penitential. His 
concern to warn and admonish others was striking, 
and he drew whatever relief he felt from the Friend 
of sinners. But 0, ye bereaved neighbors, friends, and 
relations, my business lies not with the dead, but with 
the living. They have done with all below. Then- 
state is now fixed, and their happiness or misery can- 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 151 

not be affected by your opinions or my representations, 
were I disposed to condemn or eulogize. They are 
beyond the reach of the Gospel, but you are yet in the 
land of the living, and have another opportunity to 
hear the merciful admonition { Seek the Lord while 
he may be found, and call upon him .while he is near.' 
"What is your duty but to retire, and, falling upon 
your knees, pray with Moses, ' So teach us to number 
our days that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom.' 
And what is wisdom ? What is that wise part crea,- 
tures circumstanced as you are ought to act ? Is it 
not to prefer your souls to your bodies, and the reali- 
ties of eternity to the vanities of time ? Is it not to 
seek without delay pardon and renovation ? a title to 
heaven, and a meetness for it ? You talk of happi- 
ness, uncertain as you are of life. I defy you to be 
happy without a hope beyond the grave. He he 
only is happy who can look forward with humble con- 
fidence and say ' We know that we have a building 
of God, a house not made with hands,' &c." 

You complain of inability to fill your sheet Look 
at the size of my paper, and see my lines, not wide 
apart like the hedges of a London road ; nor the whole 
begun two or three inches down from the top. But 
how am I to fill up the remainder of this folio ? I have 
no other news to communicate, except, indeed, a sub- 
ject that is always new, and which I hope you love, 
the love of Jesus the love of Him who, though he 
was rich, for our sakes became poor, and died that we 
might live. You have often heard me repeat his en- 
couraging assurance : "Him that cometh unto me I will 
in no wise cast out," and you know (0 what a privi- 
lege !) that to come to him is to believe his word, and 



152 SELECTIONS FJiOM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

call upon his name. But while he rejects none, he 
peculiarly regards some. " Feed," says he, "feed my 
lambs" " 1 love them that love me, and they that 
seek me early shall find me ;" that is, find him. as oth- 
ers never will, never can. And the case speaks for it- 
self; for if religion can preserve us from snares and 
embarrassments ; if it can make us amiable and use- 
ful ; if it be profitable unto all things ; if it yields the 
truest pleasure, the sooner it is possessed in the same 
proportion, the more are we privileged, and, next to 
the realit}^ of their conversion, I am persuaded the 
people of God daily bless him for the earliness of it, 
if they have been thus favored ; and the greater part 
of them are called long before they are advanced in 
years. 0, my dear Statira, what a season is youth : 
of the day of life it is the morning ; of the year it is 
the spring. And how much depends upon seizing the 
one, and improving the other! How desirable is it 
to sanctify the present in every kind of preparation 
for the future; and before the journey is begun, such 
a journey as we have before us, to secure a guide, a 
guard, a friend who will never leave us nor forsake 
us. I trust, my dear child, that you are placing your- 
self under his conduct, and saying " I will go forth 
in the strength of the Lord." 

My time of going to London is now fixed. My visit 
commences the last Sabbath in May, and takes in the 
three first in June. Either in my way thither or back, 
I am to preach a sermon at Newport Pagnell, in favor 
of Mr. Bull's Academy there ; and I am also request- 
ed, at the same time, to preach before the Bedfordshire 
Union, at Bedford, along with Mr. Hall. 

Your affectionate and. devoted father, &c. 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 153 

To the Same. 

BATH, May 23, 1810. 

MY DEAR SWEET PEA,' Though the last blown, 
yet not the least loved of all my flowers. I wish I had 
more time to write ; but my preparation for the ap- 
proaching journey to London leaves me very little. 
But the length of my last must atone for the brevitjr 
of the present ; and remember you have to boast of 
receiving the longest letter papa ever wrote. I sup- 
pose by this time Mi. Spear and his daughters, who 
accompanied him to Broomsgrove, are returned, and 
you are probably thinking of returning to Liverpool. 
But you must not suffer the little nephew or niece to 
make you impatient. If you should feel it to be a 
self-denial to be absent from them, you must exercise 
it. This virtue is indeed of such constant and univer- 
sal utility, that we cannot begin to cultivate it too 
soon. "We cannot expect to have everything accord- 
ing to our niind as we pass through a world like this : 
it is not fit we should, and, therefore, we must learn 
to bear disappointment, and be able easily and grace- 
fully to accommodate ourselves to every "changing 
scene. Hitherto your way has been smooth, the lines 
have fallen to you in pleasant places ; your wishes 
have been generally, if not invariably, gratified. 

"All -without thy care and payment, 
All thy wants are Avell supplied." 

But you cannot reckon upon a perpetual exemption 
from inconvenience and trial. " Truly the light is 
sweet, and a pleasant thing it is for the eyes to behold 

the sun ; but if a man live many years, and rejoice in 

7* 



154 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

them all ; yet let Mm remember the days of darkness ; 
for they shall be many. All that cometh is vanity." 
I would not by future forebodings prevent your en- 
joying the kindnesses which Providence affords you 
at this pleasing period of life, but I know youth is 
sanguine, its hopes are too glaring, and require to be 
sobered by that prudence which results from experi- 
ence and observation. You ought ever to be thankful 
for the comforts and indulgences of your condition. 
But do you not feel your need of something better ? 
Is there not an emptiness in the midst of all ? Yes, 
and the world will never fill it ; but He can who mer- 
cifully cries " Seek ye me, and ye shall live." And 
those dissatisfactions which attend all creature-good 
are the inspirations of the Almighty to give us under- 
standing, and to make us wise unto salvation. I hope, 
my precious girl, that you are listening to his voice, 
and dedicating yourself to his service, which they who 
have tried know to be perfect freedom. Having given 
yourself unto the Lord, I trust I shall have the pleas- 
ure, after your return, to witness your " giving your- 
self also to his Church, by the will of God." In Dr. 
Doddridge's little volume of Sermons to Young Peo- 
ple, there is a discourse on the subject of "Early Com- 
munion," which I wish you to read. I dare say Mr. 
Spear has it. I hope, wherever you are, that you not 
only devote some time to private devotion and reading 
the Scripture, but that you look over the books you. 
meet with in the house where you visit, and read as 
much as possible of those you have not seen before. 
Of course I do not mean that you should shut your- 
self up from enjoying the prospects of nature at this 
season, and the society of your friends ; but there are 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 155 

many moments to be seized which carelessness over- 
]ooks. It is by making use of these, and by early ris- 
ing, that I have obtained much of the little I possess. 
Like the bee, be always extracting materials for honey. 
Yesterday morning, I was invited to breakfast at Mr. 
Hallet's, and to give the new- wedded pair my advice 
and blessing. But how changeable and chequered is 
every earthly scene ! No sooner had the party return- 
ed from church, than Mr. Griffith, sen., was called out 
of the room to be informed that his only brother at 
Frome was just killed by leaping from a sociable, the 
horses of which had taken fright. This damped the 
joy of the season. But he was a very holy man, an 
occasional preacher in Mr. Wesley's connection, and 
at the time of the accident so people call it, I should 
rather say appointment he was returning from preach- 
ing in a village. He was a widower, and has left no 
child, but the poor will exceedingly miss him, for. he 
was a father to them, and a fine image of Him who 
went about doing good. 

On Saturday morning we set off for London. Miss 
Shepherd goes with us far as Hammersmith. "We are 
all longing for the time when we hope, under the 
smiles of a gracious Providence, to " meet and mingle 
into bliss," to kiss, and cry tears of joy. 

Your affectionate and devoted father, &c. 



To his son Edward, at Wymondly College. 

BATH, March 2, 1816. 
# * * * * 

1 urge you be sparing in your remarks on character. 
They who hear them may report them inaccurately, 



156 SELECTIONS FKOM THE COKKESPOJSTDENCE 

and with exaggeration ; and as the consequence you 
will, when charged with them, be tempted to deny, or 
perplexed to explain and qualify. But I wish to deter 
you bj r a better principle, the command of Him who 
has said, " Speak evil of no man." " Be swift to hear, 
and slow to speak." "Love every one and every one 
will love you." " Who is he that will harm you if you 
be a follower of that which is good ?" While you talk 
little (especially concerning persons) observe much. Be 
continually adding a little to your mental stores. Ac- 
custom yourself to composition ; put down your 
thoughts on paper with as much accuracy and clear- 
ness and celerity as you can be master of I long for 
you to be able to sermonize. Whenever a text strikes 
3^ou turn it over in your mind, and endeavor to divide 
it. If 3^011 cannot satisfy yourself the effort will do 
you good' exertion will prepare for exertion; and 
thought will produce thought. While you attempt 
much you must not be discouraged, if at first the result 
be little. The infant bird practices his wings, as he 
stands up in the nest : then gets upon the edges of it : 
then upon the neighboring boughs: and then takes 
short excursions, before he flies his more daring lengths ; 
and " to him that hath shall be given," as the natural 
consequence of use and improvement, and as also the 
effect of the Divine blessing. You cannot begin so 
low as I did ; but I felt a love to study bordering on 
enthusiasm ; and despaired of nothing ; not from a high 
opinion of my capacity, but an apprehension that dili- 
gence, with the Divine assistance,- (which he had gra- 
ciously disposed my heart to seek,) would do wonders. 
I was placed indeed in a situation peculiarly suited to 
the cast of rm mind, and never wanted for excitations 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 157 

and encouragements. And you, my dear boy, have 
great advantages at present, and the prospect of every 
future help and direction. Trials you would have in any 
line of life ; but in the sacred calling to which you are 
looking forward, you will be sheltered much from a 
stormy and wicked world; you will have opportunity for 
intellectual and pious improvement; you will enjoy 
the pleasure of being useful, and of doing good ; and 
if you act from principle, when the chief Shepherd 
shall appear, you shall receive a crown of glory that 
fadeth not away. Let me know whether you are able 
to read niy writing. I shall feel a pleasure in corre- 
sponding with you. Write when you have an oppor- 
tunity, and write with freedom. All join in love. 

Your very affectionate Father, &c. 



To the same. 

BATH, March 2, 1818. 

I WRITE according to my promise, but I believe I 
must in future alter my epistolary day, and make it 
Tuesday instead of Monday ; as of late I feel so ener- 
vated by the anxieties and labors of the Sabbath, that 
on the Monday I exist rather than live. I wish also 
not only to please you by a few lines monthly, but to 
render my letters instructive and useful ; and when I 
feel as I do to-day I can scarcely command a thought, 
and every effort fatigues. I believe, should my days 
be prolonged, that I shall be a very premature old 
man. I began early. I was emulous to advance. I 
labored under a thousand disadvantages from which 
you are free ; and being, from the first, thrown into 



158 SELECTIONS FEOM THE COKRESPONDENCE 

popular and trying situations which had great claims 
upon me, I applied myself with more unrelaxing ten- 
sion of mind than my frame (never remarkably strong) 
could bear; and I now begin to. feel peculiarly the ef- 
fect of it. This I think I may say without vanity re- 
garding myself or ill-nature towards others. This is 
not the common failing of the students and younger 
ministers of the present day. I wish to perceive in 
them a habit of greater application and diligence, a 
greater sense of the value of time ; and the importance 
of their work as also more of an humble and devotion- 
al spirit. I can make allowance for some things in 
young ministers which I could not tolerate in older : 
but still, as the apostle says, " A bishop must be grave," 
a general sedateness of speech and behavior is so 
becoming in him, that, whatever be his talents, he will 
never inspire respect without it. It was to young 
Timothy Paul said, "Let no man despise thy youth;" 
but for his purpose, " Be thou an example of the be- 
lievers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, 
in faith, in purity. Give attendance to reading, to 
exhortation, to doctrine. Neglect not the gift that is 
in thee. Meditate upon these things ; give thyself 
wholly to them, that thy profiting may appear unto all. 
Take heed unto thyself, and unto thy doctrine, continue 
in them ; for in doing this, thou shalt both save thyself 
and them that hear thee." It is a great thing in all 
our private and social intercourse to be cheerful without 
being light ; and serious without being sad, or appear- 
ing sanctimonious. Some few ministers, even in ear- 
lier life, have attained this excellency. Let them be 
your models, rather than pulpit flirts and fiddles, and 
your story-telling parsons, whose sole ambition in com- 



OF THE KEY. WILLIAM JAY. 159 

pany seems to be to make mirth ; and who generally 
succeed so well, that they are not 'only laughed with, 
but laughed at. Nothing is more lovely in a student 
and a minister than a freedom from everything dicta- 
torial and dogmatical in his manner of address. It 
becomes him rather to listen than to speak, to in- 
quire than to controvert. Not that he is obliged to 
believe everything that he hears, even from a senior, 
or to admit without evidence ; but he must dissent 
with seeming reluctance, propose his doubts with mod- 
esty, and appear to distrust his own judgment rather 
than depreciate that of another. Speak with warmth 
(and let it come from the heart) as much as you 
can in commendation and praise of others; but 
" speak evil of no man ;" "Love all and all will love 
you." " Who is he that will harm you if you are a 
follower of that which is good ?" and though spirit- 
ual religion can never be relished by depraved minds, 
yet " he that in these things serveth Christ is accepta- 
ble to God and approved of men." 

I have been a Sabbath at Marlborough, where the 
prospect is delightful. Mr. Williams of Shrewsbury 
(now Sir J. B. Williams) is publishing memoirs from 
the diary of Mrs. Savage, daughter of Philip, and sis- 
ter of Mathew, Henry, for which I have written a 
pretty long preface at his desire, &c. 



To the same. 

BATH, May 9, 1819. 



* * * I AM sorry for the interruption your 
studies will again sustain in your long absence from 



160 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

"Wymondley. The plan of attending lectures in Lon- 
don, too, does not strike me as of much importance ; 
as however it is appointed and seems a privilege 
shown a few of you for good conduct, you must avail 
yourself of it ; and you may turn it to advantage. It 
is a great recommendation to be able to read and pro- 
nounce well ; but then it must appear to be natural ; 
primness and affectation always displeases more than 
simple and earnest vulgarity. The great thing is to for- 
get one's-self) and to speak with seriousness and affection- 
ate feeling. Feeling is always eloquent; and if the 
preacher be obviously affected, and appears concerned 
to do good, and not to gain applause, he will always be 
felt, and always approved. Nothing also is more be- 
coming, in a young minister especially, than an appa- 
rent consciousness of the importance and difficulty of 
Ilis work; an ^^forwardness to engage; a diffidence 
and modesty ; in a word, the very reverse of what we 
see in many of the assuming, pert, bold, fearless, self- 
sufficient, and self-admiring academies of the day. 
Keep this to yourself. I take care how I reflect upon 
the sprigs of divinity before others, as there is too 
much readiness to censure young ministers among 
modern hearers already ; and I am thankful to see that 
all are not alike, and I can reprove when I do not 
wish to condemn. I hope tutors will be increasingly 
attentive to the spirit and manner of students, both in 
the pulpit and in the parlor. Let me beseech }'ou, my 
dear son, to keep j^our eye upon the best models, and 
pray for grace to conform to them. With regard to 
what is exceptionable in others, keep as far from it as 
you can, but never talk about it. It can do no good, 
and may be easily ascribed (before a man's character is 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 161 

highly established) to ill-nature or envy ; and one of 
the worst features of many of the students and young- 
preachers of the day, is an unbounded license in speak- 
ing of oth -is, especially their brethren. Speak evil 
therefore of no one, but let the law of innocence and 
kindness dwell upon your tongue. But to mark the 
improprieties of others for your own improvement 
that is, in order to avoid them this is a different 
thing ; and while you keep your mouth shut, you must 
keep your eyes and ears open. 

4f -5t -if 7f 4fr 

Your devoted father, &c. 



To Sir J. R Williams. 

On the very sudden death of John Lee, Esq., the Gentleman to whom, 
several of Mr. Winter's Letters, introduced into Mr. Jay's Life of 
Winter, were addressed. 

BATH, October 9th, 1818. 

MY DEAR SIB, You will doubtless wonder that I 
have not noticed your very affecting letter earlier ; but 
I was from home when it arrived, and I have been 
again from home on pressing business; and while 
having more to do than usual I have been very un- 
well, first in nry head, and then in my bowels, so that 
I have dragged on heavily and been fit for nothing. 
But be assured your communication was not received 
without producing that interest which a sincere and 
warm friendship requires. I wept with those that 
weep, and I prayed with those that pray. Tell the 
bereaved family how much I sympathize with them, 
and what a persuasion I have that the Gfod of my de- 



162 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

parted friend will be " the Father of the fatherless, and 
the husband of the widow in his holy habitation," and 
in their own. How surprising was the event! How 
well he seemed when I shook hands with him, alas ! 
for the last time, at the coach-door ! I knew the year 
before he sometimes complained, but was not aware 
that the least danger of such an issue was attached to 
the complaint. "Well, nothing has occurred by chance ; 
a sparrow falls not to the ground without our heavenly 
Father, and the very hairs of our head are all num- 
bered. And be it remembered ever, that while He 
does all things, he does all things well. His dispen- 
sations are not only sovereign, but wise, righteous, and 
kind kind even when they seem to be severe. We 
may be unable to explain them at present; but " we 
know that the Messias cometh, which is called Christ, 
and when he is come he will tell us all things." Till 
then, let us walk by faith, and give him a full credit 
for the goodness of his designs, and the manner in 
which they are accomplished. This is the way the 
only way to reach rest in a world like this. " Thou 
wilt keep him in perfect peace whose mind is stayed 
upon thee, because he trusteth in thee." Though we 
must not dictate, but leave it to God to determine by 
what death we shall glorify him, such a dismission as 
our lovely friend was favored with has always ap- 
peared to me very enviable. The partings, 

" The pains, the groans, the dying strife 
Fright our approaching souls away," &e. 

Here all this was prevented ; and we can say over his 
grave, 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 163 

" A soul prepared needs no delays, 
The summons comes, the saint obeys, 
Swift was his flight and short the road, 
He closed his eyes, and woke with God." 

I felt, too, for the shock your good wife must have 
felt in her delicate situation ; and hope she is now dis- 
burdened, and has forgotten her anguish for joy that 
a man is born into this world. Eemenaber me to her ; 
and to all the dear afflicted house, where I was so cor- 
dially entertained. I do bear, and I will bear them 
all upon my mind at the throne of grace that refuge, 
that resource of benevolence and friendship. I had 
three funeral services to perform last week only. 
What a dying world ! 

Yours to esteem and serve, &c. 



To Miss Harman. 

LTMOTJTH, August 11, 1830. 

MY DEAR Miss HARMAN,' Your very acceptable 
parcel arrived just before we set off from Bath. I am 
much obliged by both the works, but you should not 
have had them bound so expensively. Baxter's " Life" 
we took with us, with some other mental and spiritual 
provender; but when we got out of the coach at 
Briclgewater, we left the parcel in the boat, and as 
there was no direction upon it, we did not recover it 
till two days ago. Though generally acquainted with 
Baxier and his works, 1 find much that is new and in- 
teresting in the " Life," for you must know I have 
nearly devoured it already, and even the charms of 
this God-made spot could not draw me off from the 



164 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

perusal. Your lamented friend and pastor* Las, I 
think, done much justice to this extraordinary man ; 
to his character, and to his publications to the excel- 
lences and infirmities of the one, and the orthodoxy 
and errors of the other ; and I hope the book will be 
largely circulated. Henry says it is impossible to read 
the book of Psalms and not be inflamed or ashamed 
by the perusal. I say the same of this work. But I 
fear I shall be more shamed than fired. "What piety ! 
what diligence ! what sufferings ! what patience and 
submission ! "Well, by the grace of God he was what 
he was ; and the God of all grace remains the same, 
and is within our reach in all that we call upon him 
for. 

Instead of growing tired of this Swiss village, we 
admire it more than ever. Mr. and Mrs. Kingsbury 
have been here four days with us ; and though they 
have travelled much over our country, they prefer this 
to everything they have seen. They occupied the 
room?/<m would have slept in, could I have had power 
enough to overcome your good father's objections. 
Give my kindest love to him notwithstanding, for we 
are bound to forgive; nor forget your dear mother, 
who, I believe, pleaded for us. We all lament your 
absence ; and Mrs. Jay and Miss Protheroe send their 
most lovingest regards. I wish I could give a better 
account of my most dear wife ; but she is very poorly, 
and can hardly enjoy any of the pleasures of the ]:>lace. 
This is a sad deduction. " Full bliss is bliss Divine." 
The weather, too, at present is much against her. To 
supply your place imperfectly, a young pious lady, 
and an old acquaintance, Miss Browning, from Ilfra- 
* Rev. W. Ornie, of Cambevwell. 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 165 

combe, lias come over to take lodgings near us, and 
we find others are coming. But I wish not for more. 
I wish to be entirely disengaged ; not, however, to be 
idle, but to be at liberty to use my pen, and I do use 
it daily, as much as comports with the design of the 
excursion. What a work is this in France ! I trust 
no violence and excess will mar it ; yet I could wish 
that the wretched family of the Bourbons was entirely 
excluded. I always felt a persuasion that Providence 
would destroy it. Much yet remains to be done in 
the Popish countries. Adieu, my dear Miss Harrnan. 
The Lord bless thee and keep thee. 

Yours, &c. 



To his son Edward. 

LONDON, June, 1832. 

I FULLY intended returning home to-morrow, but 
circumstances have determined us to go round by 
Henley, as Mr. Bolton is not very well. I cannot, 
therefore, be at home before Thursday evening ; and, 
therefore, it will be necessary to engage some one to 
preach. "We shall be taken up at Eeading by the 
new company's coach. I have secured our places. 
Anne comes by the same coach to-morrow ; let her be 
looked out for, and see that her parcels be safe. Your 
precious mother is pretty well upon the whole ; but 
she has been too much excited, and I long to get her 
home. We have been much crowded. Last Fridajr 
I dined at the Lord Mayor's, and met a very agreeable 
and interesting compairy, the lion of which was His 
Highness the Eajah Eammohun Eoy. You cannot 
imagine what a full-minded, and clever, and agreeable 



166 SELECTIONS FKOM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

man lie is ; always more than a matcli for any one 
wlio disputed with him, especially the Tories and we 
had several of them. As it was ' known that he was 
to hear me at Surrey Chapel last evening, we were not 
only full, but hundreds went away. He came in his 
carriage, ten minutes before six, with Dr. Henry and 
Archdeacon Stockport, and was conducted to a good 
place for seeing and hearing. His fine figure, and his 
rich and elegant costume, attracted every eye. He 
was observed to give great attention, and frequently 
jogged his companions without taking off his eye from 
the pulpit. I preached an hour and a quarter, raised 
above the fear of man by previous retirement. When 
it was over, he said, loud enough to be heard by many. 
" I must have this sermon, and publish it." He came 
into the house, with immense difficulty pressing 
through the crowd in the yard, all waiting to see 
him. The house also, in both rooms, was full. The 
pleasure he expressed from hearing the sermon, before 
all the people present, was really affecting. It so com- 
pletely met with his sentiments, he said, that he hoped 
I would not deny him the sermon to publish himself, 
and circulate among his friends. I tried to decline, 
till delicacy would permit it no longer ; and so I have 
committed myself, and must write it out as soon as I 
come back, for he is going to the Continent in a few 
weeks. Dr. Henry and the archdeacon were especially 
delighted ; and when I said to the former, " Doctor, I 
fear 3^011 have suffered from the crowd and the heat," 
he replied, " Sir, I felt nothing but the sermon." You 
sec, my dear boy, I keep back nothing from you ; but 
I could not say all this to others-. Grarfit does not 
seem amended. I have just walked with him to the 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 167 

Mansion House. The Lord Mayor could not attend 
yesterday, but the Lady Mayoress was present with, a 
very "splen did carriage. Kindest regards to Mrs. Bur- 
ton ; and kiss Margaret for me, if you do not object 
to it. 

Your affectionate father, &c. 



To ike Rajah Rammoliun Roy. 

SIR, I herewith transmit the manuscript of the 
sermon you so candidly heard, and, so unexpectedly 
to the preacher, wished to see and to circulate. I could 
not send it earlier, owing to my travelling, and the nu- 
merous engagements and interruptions I met with im- 
mediately on my return. Your Highness will observe 
that I had not written the sermon previously, but de- 
livered it from short notes only ; and, therefore, I 
should have had more difficulty in recalling the lan- 
guage as well as the sentiments, had not a friend fur- 
nished me with a short-hand copy. In consequence 
of this the discourse will be found more than substan- 
tially the same with what was spoken from the pulpit. 
In the very trifling alterations I have made, I did not 
attempt to reduce the free and popular mode of address 
I assumed, and which was so requisite in so very large 
and mixed a multitude of hearers. For want of this 
many preachers preach inefficiently, or sacrifice im- 
pression on the mass to the gratification of the few- 
The manner of the Great Teacher sent from Grod may 
be inferred from the reproach, which was yet an eulo- 
gium, "the common people heard him gladly." 

It is presumed that the: % e may be some few things in 



168 SELECTIONS FliOM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

the discourse in which, your Highness may not entire- 
ly coincide ; but it afforded me pleasure to conclude 
from your request that, upon the whole, and as having 
some useful bearings, it has met your Highness' ap- 
probation. I commend it to the Divine influence ; 
and, imploring the blessing of Grod upon your High- 
ness, permit me to subscribe myself, 

Your Highness' obliged and humble servant, 

WILLIAM JAY. 

BATH, June 29, 1832. 



To his Son Edward. 

"WEYMOUTH, August 22, 1832. 

I DROP you a line to say we received the basket of 
fruit safe and sound. * * * * So your precious 
mother instantly made up a- nice little present for Lord 

and Lady W , who were at the Eoyal Hotel, in 

their way back from Guernsey to Sidniouth, and who, 
hearing of us, called, and said, if I preached on the 
Sunday they would stay over the day. They did so ; 
and this gave me an opportunity of several interviews. 
I like them both much, as far as I have conversed 
with them. She knows the truth, and I really believe 
feels the power of it; and is resisting all the fanati- 
cism that rages in the West of England, and all around 
Sidrnouth. He seems very amiable and promising, 
nnd is exceeding! y attached to his wife. He is a thor- 

o i/ 

ough Whig ; says lie was a member for one of his 
father's rotten boroughs, but was bound hand and foot, 
and obliged to vote on the wrong side, and would not 
endure the farce any longer. Ho says he reads my 



OF THE KEV. WILLIAM JAY. 169 

u Exercises" every clay, and uses my "Prayers." They 
much wish to come and live in the near neighborhood 
of Bath. * * * * Give my best regards to our 
elders and friends, and let them be immediately in- 
formed of my return. They will see that I have not 
encroached upon their kindness, taking in part but 
two Sabbaths, for the other pertained to my month of 
privilege. But where love actuates, we do not need 
restraints and rules. I love home, and never preach 
with so much pleasure as in Argyle Chapel, where I 
have employed for God the flower, yea, the far larger 
part, of my whole life. And, blessed be His name, 
lie has not withholden tokens of his approbation. I 
refer not only to my own church, but to strangers 
also who occasionally attend there. A lady who lives 
in a neighboring village called in her carriage the other 
morning, and said that eighteen years ago she was at 
Bath with her gay companions, but felt an inclination 
one evening to leave them and go to Argyle. I preach- 
ed, she said, from " Is not this a brand plucked out 
of the fire ?'' From that time she left the world, and 
has been ever since not only blessed, but a blessing. 
She came to hear me on Sabbath morning, and I have 
been to her house. 

Tell Mrs. Hallet and Mr. and Mrs. Griffiths, with my 
kindest respects, that Mrs. Chamberlaine is to be mar- 
ried very soon to a gentleman, a local Wesleyan preach- 
er at Colne. I had this from herself. Mrs. Parsons 
also is not without hope, though she lost her admirer 
here some time ago : another is coming forward with 
only seven children ! Well done, little Cupid ! All 
join in dearest love to all, with, &c. 

8 



170 SELECTIONS FEOM THE COUKESPONDENCE 

To Miss Harman. 

June 29, 1832. 

MY DEAR Miss HABMAN, You know how I admire 
that precious little text, " By love serve one another." 
Could it be brought into general operation, it would 
soon turn our wretched earth into " a garden of the 
Lord." I believe I know you have no objection to it, 
for we have long put it to the test. But I am never 
very prolix in my introductions. This, therefore, is to 
say that, coming to London, and returning from it, we 
had some coffee at Thatcham after dinner ; we think it 
the best we ever drank ; and Miss Fromont told us 
she bought it of Mr. North, near the Bridewell Hos- 
pital, Blackfriars. Will you, therefore, when you go 
by, call there, and purchase for us four pounds, and 
send it by the new company's coach ? I here pledge 
myself to repay you not, however, I suppose, when 
you corne down at the end of the month, to go with 
us to Ilfracombe. We got home safe and well. My 
precious invalid was very little tired. She now, in 
very strange language, (for I know her meaning,) begs 
to be remembered to you, and says, it is very hard the 
woman won't let him come. Amidst many engage- 
ments and interruptions, always multiplied on return- 
ing home, I have just finished my transcript for the 
Rajah, and am now (it is Friday evening) preparing 
for the Sabbath. Preaching is trying work this weather ; 
so you say is hearing, unless the pastor makes us lie 
down in green pastures, and feedeth us beside the still 
waters. How delightful the five points would be now 
treated in the jargon of the school-theology! O my 



OF THE KEY. WILLIAM JAY. 171 

charming Bible, how I love thy simplicity, and gran- 
deur, and grace! Prov., vi. 21, 22. 

One of my best members died the day after my re- 
turn. She was "an old disciple," whose life was 
goodness and whose end was peace. With best re- 
spects to your good father and mother, I have but 

just time to subscribe myself, 

Yours, &c. 



Lord Barham to Mr. Jay. 

LONDON, December 31, 1834. 

MY DEAR ME. JAY, You will be glad to hear that 
we arrived safely in town, though the fog was so thick 
on Saturday evening as we approached London, that 
we were in some danger of an overturn by driving up 
a bank. Parliament, you see, is at last dissolved. 
Some Tories I have seen, think that this is a very un- 
wise measure for their own interests. They have now 
nothing to fall back upon, which they would have had 
if they had first endeavored to meet the now late Par- 
liament. May the Lord direct the ensuing election as 
shall best promote the nation's good ! 

We were very sorry not to see you the morning we 
loft Bath. We hope dear Mrs. Jay continues pretty 
well. We beg our most kind regards to her. Will 
you accept our little offering for the rich gratification 
and edification we have enjoyed from our late attend- 
ance upon your much- valued instruction ? And be- 
lieve me, my dear Mr. Jay, 

With much respect and affection, 

Your obliged friend, 
BARHAM. 



172 SELECTIONS FEOM THE COKBESPONDENCE 

Mr. Jay to Lord BarJiam. 

BATH, July 11, 1835. 

MY DEAR LOED BAEHAM,' I was out when your 
letter arrived, and I have been since engaged, even to 
engrossment. As your Lordship says nothing of your 
own, or Lady Barham's health, I hope you are both in 
the enjojanent of that greatest of all temporal bless- 
ings. My dear Mrs. Jay has not been so well for the 
last month as usual, and seems to grow weaker. Of 
course 1113- trial is increased, and I live in constant 
alarm and anxiety. But He, whose we are and whom 
we serve, knows what we need, and has engaged to 
make our strength equal to our day. 

Did your Lordship see, in the "Christian Observer" 
about three months ago, an extract from the " Eemi- 
niscences of Dr. Yalpy" concerning Mrs. More, and the 
account which he says she gave him of her communing 
once in Argyle Chapel ? Never was there such a tissue 
of misrepresentation ; and, could I believe that Mrs. 
More had been capable of uttering it, I should never 
feel respect for her memory, or read her works with 
pleasure again. But she had a mind too good and 
honorable to express what, as coming from her, would 
have been no less than falsehood, to serve the purpose 
of what she hated, bigotry. I was urged to write to 
the editor, but I declined. All these things will get 
rectified and known in due time ; and then some illib- 
erals may feel a little mortification, though it is almost 
unreasonable to expect a thorough-paced ecclesiastic 
to blush. 

I hardly know what to say to your Lordship's ques- 
tion. I have always considered high Churchism and 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 173 

low Popery as nearly the same ; or the difference "be- 
tween them as the difference between the tadpole and 
the toad. None of our passions so readily assume 
the mask of rectitude and religion as anger ; but " the 
wrath of man worketh not the righteousness of God." 
Many, I fear, " know not what manner of spirit they 
are of;" or forget that it is said of our Example as 
well as Saviour, " He shall not strive nor cry, nor 
cause his voice to be heard in the streets ; a bruised 
reed shall he not break, and the smoking flax shall lie 
not quench." If " the servant of the Lord must not 
strive, but be gentle towards all men," violence, and 
defiance, and scorn, and insult, are not the weapons 
of our warfare. " He that winneth souls is wise ;" 
and the best way to convert men, or at least to induce 
them to attend to what we advocate, is to convince 
them that we love them, and desire to do them good. 
Between ourselves. I have alwavs thought that these 

; / o 

Reformation Meetings would do more hurt than good ; 
and I am persuaded they have already increased Pope- 
ry, by awakening zeal and courage in its defence ; and 
flattering its adherents (for they must feel delight in 
such announcements) as amazingly multiplying, and 
endangering Protestantism and the Church. But if 
the Church be in danger, it is not the Church of 
Christ ; or He was mistaken when He said, " On this 
rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell 
shall not prevail against it" "Secret things belong to 
the Lord," but we must act according to his will, and 
do justly, and do unto others as we would have oth- 
ers do unto us. I cannot, therefore, but believe we 
have done what Grod approves, in " loosening every 
yoke and letting the oppressed go free." I was, there* 



174 SELECTIONS FEOM THE COEKESPOJSrDEjSTCE 

fore, a friend, and I am still a friend, to the Catholic 
Emancipation. Everything like persecution is hate- 
ful to the meek and lowly religion of the Lamb of 
God ; as we see in his rebuke to James and John, with 
regard to the Samaritans who had not received him, 
" The Son of Man is not come to destroy men's lives, 
but to save them." I should be ashamed to take a lib- 
erty to think and act foi myself in religion which I 
was unwilling to grant. Neither am I afraid of Pope- 
ry neither do I believe in its increase, but as papists 
increase relatively with other parts of our population, 
or in some few and particular places by occasional in- 
fluxes of Irish. But why are not some individuals 
ashamed to let out what they believe to be a fact 
" Popery increasing, amazingly increasing," without 
the encouragement of the State! without an Establish- 
ment! against an Establishment! and a richly-endow- 
ed Church doing nothing ! Yea, retrograding and in 
danger of coming to naught ! What ! has this pure 
and Apostolical institution been tried, so long in Ire- 
land, and found wanting? And while we abhor 
Popery, w r e must be candid enough not to wonder that 
upwards of six millions, brought up in the religion of 
their forefathers, should feel an Establishment over 
them, consisting of so small a minority ; for how small 
is it when all the other Protestant parties are deduct- 
ed? Was there ever such a state of things in any 
other country under heaven ? With regard to some of 
the wretched and alarming tenets of Popery, (though 
these are seldom war- whooped 'by many churchmen, till 
some movement seems to threaten the loaves and 
fishes,) we may ask, how would some other parties 
appear, if some of their former and abstractor prin- 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 175 

ciples were to be published among them now ? Take 
Knox's pleading for destroying papists as idolaters ; 
and the Ghnrch of Scotland's confession of the duty 
of exterminating prelacy ; and Dr. Dopping's Sermon 
(Bishop of Meath) that no faith should be kept with 
papists, &c., and trumpet this at Exeter Hall, and run 
down those who are regarded as brethren ! 

Besides, if Popery is the same, the times, the state 
of society, and public opinion are not the same. Pa- 
pists, however disposed, could not put a heretic to death, 
or imprison him in any country, even where it prevails. 
Neither will it be ever able to do it again ; the power 
is gone forever. Look at Grermany look at Switzer- 
land, where some cantons are popish and some protest- 
ant ; and some consisting of both intermingled ; and 
exercising alternately the same places of worship. See 
America. Is Popery, civilly and politically, more 
dreaded than any other denomination? The reason 
is, they are all tolerated, and none exclusively favor- 
ed. How true is your Lordship's remark, that "polit- 
ical opinion tinges all information." But let us judge 
as well as we can for ourselves. Let us be zealous in 
doing our Lord's work while it is clay ; but let us do 
it in his own spirit. I am no croaker. I am persuad- 
ed real religion is advancing ; and I know that " the 
knowledge of the Lord shall cover the earth," &c., 
"for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it." How 
glad I should be to talk over many of these things 
with your Lordship, but I have not time to enlarge 
this letter. 

We all unite in best regards to your much esteem- 
ed Lady Barham. 

And believe me, &c. 



170 SELECTION* FUO,M '1'IIE CUIMIESPONDENCE 

[Note ~by the Editors.'] 

THE reader of this letter must not fail to observe 
its date, and to remember that it was written nearly 
twenty years ago ; a circumstance which, if in the pe- 
rusal he felt any surprise at the tone in which Mr. Jay 
speaks of Popery, will tend considerably to explain 
the tone used, and abate the surprise of the reader. 
The movements on behalf of Protestantism at that day 
were of a totally different character from those of our 
own. Had Mr. Jay been alive, and required to ex- 
press his opinion on the subject of Eoman Catholic 
claims and emancipation now, especially in view of 
Dr. Wiseman's elevatioai to the Cardinalate, and the 
creation of an ecclesiastical hierarchy, based on, and 
designed, to enforce, the infamous Canon Law of Eome, 
we believe he would have somewhat modified his lan- 
guage and opinion. He might not, any more than 
ourselves, have changed his opinion on the expediency 
of admitting Eoman Catholics to equal civil and polit- 
ical privileges ; but he would certainly have express- 
ed his indignation, disgust, and alarm at the turbulent, 
encroaching, and intolerant spirit of the papacy, and 
its abettors in Ireland, which, instead of remaining sat- 
isfied, as it was understood it would be, with the con- 
cessions of the Eelief Bill, has used it only as a van- 
tage-ground, from which to urge further demands, till 
it has become too apparent that it aspires at nothing 
less than a political and ecclesiastical supremacy. Nor 
would Mr. Jay, had he written upon the subject at the 
present time, have expressed himself so confidently of 
the safety of concession, after what has taken place in 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 177 

Tuscany, and even in Ireland. An intolerant religion 
is always and everywhere an enemy, and even tlio 
greatest of enemies, to the well-being of states. Those 
who execrate liberty of conscience, and would extir- 
pate heretics by the secular sword, ought to be indulg- 
ed with only a limited power, but never entrusted 
with the liberties of England, while they declare that 
their object is to introduce the Canon Law, which is 
thoroughly intolerant, and bitterly persecuting against 
subjects, as well as treasonable against royalty. In 
contemplation of such facts, Mr. Jay could have view- 
ed the whole Eoman hierarchy as merely an organized 
conspiracy against the liberties of the world. Their 
view of liberty is a freedom granted to ecclesiastics 
to sustain the laity ; while they deem themselves 
persecuted if they are restrained from persecuting 
others. 

"We wish also to offer a remark upon Mr. Jay's 
views of the Irish Church. As nonconformists our- 
selves, we cannot but coincide generally with his re- 
marks on this subject ; and yet we are not forgetful 
that a more devoted and laborious ministry does not 
exist than may be found in many of the parishes of 
the Established Church in Ireland. Their successful 
efforts for the conversion and emancipation of the 
miserable slaves of Koman Catholic superstition and 
tyranny, as set forth in the statements of the Society 
for Irish Church Missions, entitle them to the highest 
praise ; while the pitiless persecution endured by their 
agents and converts should call forth the sympathy of 
the Protestant world, and at the same time convince 
it, that Popery, either at home or abroad, is the in- 
exorable enemy of all liberty, whether civil or 

8* 



178 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 



thouo-h tlie loudest claraorers for "both, when 

O ' 

it is deprived of the means of encroaching on the lib- 
erty of others. 



Lady Barham to Mr. Jay. 

1838. 

DEAR MR. JAY, Yon will have seen by the papers 
the loss my dear husband has sustained in his father, 
who died last Wednesday, leaving behind him many 
pleasing instances of his heart having been renewed ; 
and to us the delightful hope of his having entered 
into glory entered upon that endless life of bliss. I 
shall indeed be very happy to present your " Morning 
and Evening Portion" to the Queen. I think it \yould 
be well to write a note with them, expressing your 
humble hope that Her Majesty will condescend to ac- 
cept of your book, which has already had the honor 
to have been graciously received at the court of Peters- 
burg, &c. 

I have written this to you to give you an idea (as 
3^ou wished) of the manner in which Her Majesty gen- 
erally is addressed ; and then you will of course write 
what you like, only after this fashion. I think it 
would be better not to \vrite the Queen's name in the 
books. Perhaps mentioning where they had been re- 
ceived would be an additional inducement to her to 
read them. 

Will you give my kind and Christian love to dear 
Mrs. Jay, in which Lord Barham joins, and also in 
best remembrance to yours^ n f ? When I see Mrs. Wil- 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 179 

man I can deliver your message to her. She is now 
staying at Eston, 

Believe me, dear Mr. Jay, 

Yours respectfully and sincerely, 

F. BARHAM. 

CATMOSE LODGE, Feb. 26, 1838. 



TO THE QUEEN", 

On presenting to Her Majesty a copy of the " Morning 
and Evening Exercises" 

BATH, March, 1838. 

MADAM, Will your Majesty pardon the freedom 
of one of your loyal subjects, and graciously conde- 
scend to accept this humble offering at his hand ? 

The Author has long been honored with the inti- 
macy of Lord Barham, and his excellent lady has 
kindly and readily offered to present the work to your 
Majesty. 

The publication is designed to furnish the reader 
with a text of Scripture for every morning and even- 
ing in the year, accompanied with very brief reflec- 
tions ; the better suited to those who have multiplied 
engagements, and yet are concerned to feel their de- 
pendence upon God, and not lose his approbation in 
the discharge of them. 

Though the writer is very sensible of the imperfec- 
tions of his work, yet he is not a little encouraged by 
hearing of its continued circulation ; the reception it 
has met with in some of the higher walks of life ; the 
approbation of it expressed by Her Majesty the Em- 
press of Bussia ; the notice it has obtained from sev 



180 SELECTIONS FllOM THE COEEESPONDENCE 

eral of your Majesty's illustrious House ; and, above 
all, the blessing of God, which has honored it with 
many tokens of usefulness. 

Though he will be unknown to your Majesty, there 
is not one in all your applauding empire who more 
sincerely and earnestly prays for your Majesty's safety 
and happiness, than, 

May it please your Majesty, 

Your Majesty's most humble servant and dutiful 

subject, 

THE AUTHOE. 



To Miss Head. 

BATH, March 8, 1838. 

* * * * You see from her information 
(from America^ and she is not querulous, that religion 
is not in such a state as we could wish ; and that the 
preaching is defective, because the preachers there (as 
too often here) wish to appear to be learned and intel- 
lectual, and so the common people, who heard our 
dear Lord gladly, and understood and felt him, "look 
up and are not fed." "What can the mass of an au- 
dience do with nice distinctions, and abstruse reason- 
ings, and long argumentative paragraphs ? A preach- 
er may as well take a fiddle into the pulpit, and better 
too, especially if he could make the people dance ; this 
bodily exercise would profit a little. "The words 
of the wise are as goads and as nails." Let ministers 
read Bunyau, and Leighton, and Henry, and Flavel, 
and many more, under whose ministry "the poor had 
the Grospel preached unto them." However well com- 
posed (according to a certain standard) / could not sit 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 181 

patiently under many an American and many an Eng- 
lish, preacher, though I should not do as I knew a 
man (for I can. vouch, and many more now living, for 
the truth of the fact) at Avebury some years ago. He, 
one Sunday afternoon, after listening for some time to 
a sermon, correct enough, but perfectly dry and unin- 
teresting, rushed up from the aisle, and pulled the man 

the Eev. Mr. Gr by the collar out of the pulpit, 

and then with his iron-tipped shoes kicked the pulpit 
in pieces, for which he was confined five months in 
Fisherton gaol, but for which he ought to have had a 
statue erected to his memory. Poor fellow, I well re- 
member him. The last time I saw him, after mowing 
all day, he had walked six miles, and had the same 
distance to return, to get something to affect his poor 
heart, and which he could think of when whetting his 
scythe, or eating his crust upon the new-mown swath. 
Oar old divines and the Methodist preachers, when 
they just sprung up, had something to rend or meU, to 
strike and stick to lead their hearers to think of again 
and again when alone, and to talk of again and again 
when in company. But what is the recommendation 
of many of the moderns ? Oh, they glitter 'they do 
but, as Foster says, with frost. You know my fond- 
ness (amounting almost to idolatry) of dear John. 
What a pretty sentiment is this which I recently met 
with from one of his pilgrims ! I give it the more 
readily because I am sure my dear friend can make it 
her own. " I always loved to hear of my Lord, and 
wherever I saw the print of his shoe, I wished to put 
my foot." There is not that as good as some ser- 
mons ? .Do you think there was ever such another 
tinker in all the world ? When I was last week with 



182 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

your friend, the "blind clergyman, (Ms sister-in law now 
comes to our Monday evening meeting,) I was speak- 
ing of Bunyan's "Holy War." This he had never 
read. I long to hear how he liked it. I was going 
foolishly to say, I wish / had never read it, but had 
the entire pleasure to come. How I should like to read 
it through to your uncle and aunt, and weep over 
parts of it together ! Though the image of war is not 
so agreeable as that of a pilgrimage, and though, as a 
whole, the " Holy War" is not equal to its predecessor, 
yet I am surprised that it is not more read, and I can- 
not but think some parts of it are peculiarly affecting 
witness the sending of the letter to Immanuel by 
Mr. Weteyes the difficulty of destroying the doubters, &c. 
I cannot endure transcription, and therefore I send 
you (preserve it, for I have no copy) a passage which 
Mr. Bedford had just found in, and translated from, 
Milton's Second Defence, in Latin, of the people of 
England in putting Charles to death. He felt it, clear 
man ; it came home to his own affliction ; and I ob- 
served he was not a little moved when his daughter 

read it for him. * * * * * 

* -x- * 

I am, &c. 



To Miss Head. 

BATH, Nov. 27, 1838. 

for a little news for maiden ladies and even 
good and pious maiden ladies like a bit, let them say 
what they will; and why, in the name of wonder, 
should they not? First. We had a series of glorious 
services a t N ur Missionary Meeting; and how pleasing- 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 183 

and satisfactory is it that the spirit of these benevolent 
convocations keeps up ! Secondly, We have had four 
deaths in our congregation since I saw you Mr. Slow- 
come, an attorney, perfectly sudden ; Mrs. "Widcombe, 
a poor woman whom I think you knew, chargeable 
with considerable faults, yet of Quixotic kindness and 
liberality ; Miss Peacock, a precious soul, and without 
any of that bird's vanity and pride ; and Mr. Smith, 
who has left a widow and four children. You remem- 
ber her sufferings two years ago, when she lost three 
lovely children almost together, at the time her hus- 
band was in prison, but not for crime. Thirdly. I 
have just received an imperial green-gage plum-tree 
from Worthing, the sight of which brought, O what 
vivid recollections of the dear company and delight- 
ful hours enjoyed there!! Fourthly. Last week Bella 
wrote, inquiring after your welfare, and begging her 
love "to dear Miss Head." They were transported, 
she said, with the prospect of coming to Bath, before 
which then seven Sabbaths were to intervene, now six. 
Fifthly. I put down things as they occur ; as friend- 
ship is free and open, I must inform you that Mr. 

W has left me 200, free of legacy duty ; but it 

is after his wife's death. Whether all he has left is in 
the same way, I cannot tell ; but I believe he has left 
more than 10,000 to various institutions. Mrs. Jay 
feels and talks of his death very much. He was a 
great favorite with her ; and we have known him inti- 
mately for fifty years nearly. Sixthly. To-day we had 

a letter from Lord , who is on a visit to the Queen 

at Windsor. He says, "he thought dear Mrs. Jay 
would like to have a line from thence, and learn how 
well our amiable and excellent Queen is, and also 



184: SELECTIONS FKOM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

Lady ." He laments the bigotry of Wilberforce's 

life ; and s&ys, " I liave just seen Miss , who says, 

' Mr. Wilberforce said to me, a few weeks only before 
his death,' 'my sons are sad high churchmen' all 
trumpery and nonsense.' " Seventhly. Sunday : I 
was again in Bristol, and preached at New Brunswick 
Chapel, to immense congregations, for the Sunday- 
school. I called on the Dean, Dr. Lamb, but he and 
his wife are now at Cambridge. I dined with Mr. and 
Mrs. Hare, who will not be satisfied till you and Mrs. 
Jay have paid them a visit. 

I only add that I love a laugh when it leaves no 
sting in the conscience, or stain upon the mind ; and 
that such a laugh cannot be disagreeable to your uncle 
in his long solitudes, and (I love to hear him laugh, he 
does it so heartily) tell him, therefore, I lately heard of 
an Irishman who was very ill, and who, when the 
physician told him he must prescribe an emetic for 
him, answered, "Indeed, doctor, an emetic will never 
do me no good, for I have taken several, and could 
never keep one of them upon my stomach." Walter 
Scott says, " When in Ireland a poor man did some- 
thing for me, and having no change, I gave him a 
shilling instead of a sixpence, saying, ' Now, Paddy, 
remember you owe me sixpence.' ' Grod bless your 
honor,' said he, 'and may you live till I pay it.' " 

" I walked. " savs a gentleman, "into one of their 

/ i/ <_J i 

fields, and to try him, I said to one of the haymakers, 
' Well, Pat, if the devil was to come and fetch one of 
us, which would he take first?' ' surely, 'said he, 
'myself ' Why so?' ' Because he 's sure enough of 
your honor at any time.' " 

Mrs. Jay joins in all loving kindness with, &c. 



OF THE KEY. WILLIAM JAY. 185 

To Miss Harman. 

BATH, January 7, '24. 

UPON the reception of your letter with a second sor- 
rowful announcement, I thought I would not write to 
you again for some days, till you would have gone 
through a fresh painful service, and be a little more 
composed, and be able to receive an epistolary visit. 
But after our long and endeared friendship, I cannot 
refrain from breaking in upon you immediately, lest 
you should think we do not sympathize with you, so 
much as I am sure we really do. I say we, for my 
precious invalid, to whom your letter was addressed, 
deeply feels for you, as well as myself, under these 
sudden and closely successive losses of a father and a 
mother. May He whose property it is to comfort those 
who are cast down be a very present help in this time 
of trouble. I know your judgment will immediately 
acquiesce in this trying dispensation, because He has 
done it ; and if your feelings are not so easily ruled, 
and nature now and then seems ready to repine, do 
not condemn yourself as destitute of submission, while 
your desire is to the Lord, for He knows your frame, 
and looks to the heart. You have too, and these must 
not be overlooked, many alleviations and comforts to 
mingle in your affliction, especially that the dear de- 
parted are disposed of infinitely to their advantage, 
and after being continued to you so long, while you 
have a good hope through grace that, in due time, yo: 
will be received by them into everlasting habitations. 
"Were I near, how gladly would I call and weep with 
you ; but Mrs. Jay and myself do hope that you will 
relieve the scene as soon as possible by a change, and 



186 SELECTIONS PROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

let us have tlie great pleasure of welcoming you under 
our roof for a season. The travelling is now nothing, 
and the old, I will not call it an excuse, for I am sure- 
it was not, but prevention, is removed. You shall in- 
terpret my dear wife's language, which you can do 
better than any other, and ride out with her in the 
carriage ; and I will give you as much of my company 
as I can afford, and yon shall detect me if I preach old 
sermons, &c. Mrs. Ashton is now with us, as her hus- 
band, through business, was obliged to return before 
her, and will return, I expect, to-morrow week. But 
should you be able to journey before she goes, we 
have plenty of accommodation, and she will be de- 
lighted to see you here. She joins with her dear 
mother and myself in every kind and tender regard. 

My dear wife says you must come, and you know 
her husband seldom differs from her. In haste, &c. 



Rev. T. Grinfield to Mr. Jay. 

CLIFTON, February 6, 1841. 

DEAR SIR, I am sure the well-known kindness of 
your nature will pardon the freedom I take (as an un- 
known stranger) in sending a transcript of some lines 
which appear in the " Bristol Journal" of this morning* 
They were almost an irrepressible effusion of feeling 
on the occasion mentioned. And, having just perus- 
ed the beautiful account, in the same journal, of the 
jubilee proceedings of Tuesday last, I cannot refrain 
from beugins; vour acceptance of mv mite amoiisr so 

' -. *_J i ' i/ JL / t ' 

many worthier offerings. Born at Bath, about two 
years before the commencement of your ministry, I 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 187 

well remember having often heard a "beloved mother 
speak with pleasure of your early popularity and use- 
fulness. And though I have enjoyed but four or five 
opportunities (few and far between) of hearing yon, 
(once years ago at Bridge-street, for the Moravian Mis- 
sions, once at Broadmead, on " grace and truth" coin- 
ing by Christ, once at Lady Huntingdon's, on the fine 
analogy between the influence of the Rain and Snow 
and that of God's Word,) I have retained a most pleas- 
ing impression of your preaching, and congratulate 
those who could statedly enjoy it ; while I cannot 
wonder at their zeal in expressing their regard for one 
who had so well secured it. Excuse this trespass upon 
your time and attention, and permit me to subscribe 
myself, with every sentiment of respect and esteem, 
Yours sincerely, THOMAS G-RLNFIELD. 

P. S. I rather think you remember my school-fellow 
at Mr. Simons', of Paul's Crav, Kent Cornelius JSTeale, 

/ Cl I I 

who used to see you at his father's, and to speak of 
you to myself as early as 1804. Your " Christian 
Contemplated" I read with admiring delight. 



Lines 

Occasioned by the perusal of the yery interesting Sermon delivered 
on Sunday, January 3lst, 1841, in Argyle Chapel, Bath, by the 
Rev. William Jay, on the completion of the Fiftieth Year of his 
ministry in that ChapeL 

Dear venerable Pastor ! whose career 
Of laboring zeal hath closed its fiftieth year 
Within those favored "walls, where once thy youth, 
Where still thine age, hath taught celestial truth ; 
Well did thy flock, with grateful love, agree 
To celebrate thy Pastoral Jubilee ; 



188 SELECTIONS FllOM THE COUEESPONDENCE 

Honoring their friend, their father, honoring Heaven, 

"Who sncli a ftither, friend, so long had given. 

Oh ! in tliis changeful -world, how few like tliee, 

Have trained one church through half a century; 

With underlining constancy like thine, 

Alone, unaided, save by strength Divine ! 

How well in thee was piety combined 

With kindly converse, and a master mind ; 

How well thy natural eloquence impress'd 

Wisdom, devotion, on the listening breast ! 

A spreading throng caught manna from thy lips, 

Thy popularity knew no eclipse ; 

The wise, the good, still liail'd thy faithful course, 

And with thy foremost friends, the sweet-soul'd Wilberforce. 

Happy like him in enviable age ! 

With Canaan opening on thy pilgrimage! ' 

Oh ! golden sunset of a beauteous day ! 

Soon in the clime of glory, thou too, Jay, 

Midst the bright host shalt shine, a star of loveliest ray ! 

THOMAS GRINFIELD. 



To Miss Harman. 

BATH, December, 1841. 

WHAT a blunderer am I ! I read in your extract 
" Home" for " Eome." This puzzled me, and under 
the perplexity I instantly wrote to prevent hinderance ! 
In future, I -will (if anything perplexes me) read a let- 
ter a second time before I answer it. 

But now, in reply to your proposal. It does strike 
me that your brother's offer should be readily accept- 
ed. Your motive would not be unjustifiable were it 
only rational gratification ; but it may be useful to your 
health and spirits. You will also turn many things 
(with your mind) to moral and pious account, while 
3'ou will yield satisfaction to a worthy youth whose 
relations in America and in Bath will thank Grod for 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 1S9 

the providence. As far, therefore, as the decision de- 
pends upon me, I say go, and the Lord be with thee. 
You will not, you. cannot, suppose that I wish you at 
a greater distance than London, (that "being too far 
away,) and nothing will be dearer to me than your re- 
turn. But I see no one objection of weight, especially 
as you will meet with Mrs. B. Jay, and her brother and 
sister ; and your expenses will be defrayed by one 
whom I long to thank on your behalf. But 0, to 
think how you will glory over us when you come 
back, and " once more mingle with us meaner things !" 
But to prevent your despising us too much, you must 
remember who maketh you to differ, and that some of 
us have not had the same opportunity or means. Let 
this be an answer to Jay's note. As I presume you. 
cannot set off before the beginning of the week, could 
you not see Bella, who comes up on Monday ? . If so, 
appoint her by a line a place of interview ; but if you 
can set off sooner, do not delay ; but let me have a 
line as soon as you have arranged things, and blow 
me a salutation in it. Shall the books be still sent ? 
Have you seen the engraving ? I heard from Bartlet 
last evening that Jaj^ dislikes it. How sad, should it 
not answer. You must not forget to correspond with 
me, and I will do my goodest in return. Eegards to 
Mrs. Dore, &c. My respects to the Pope, but do not 
kiss his toe. Get Paul's old lodgings if 3^011 can, Acts, 
xxviii. 30. And the " goodwill of Him that dwelt in 
the bush" be with you in going out and coming in. 

Ever yours truly, &c. 

I think you know Mark Wilks at Paris, otherwise 
get a line from Mr. Burnet. 



190 SELECTIONS FEOM THE COEEESPONDENCE 



To Miss Harman. 

BATH, December 21, 1841. 

1 HAVE just received your kind letters to iny wii'e 
and to her husband. The}?" are like your whole self, 
or at least, like all you have exhibited towards us, 
ever since we were indulged with your friendship. I 
was a little anxious whether you would have made up 
your rnind so easily and so soon, till I heard again 
from you, notwithstanding your obliging deference to 
my opinion ; as, in such cases, after all, we must judge 
for ourselves. But I cannot conceal my satisfaction at 
your decision ; and not entirely on a kind of selfish 
account, but hoping that one so dear to us as you are 
will derive pleasure and profit from so interesting a 
prospect. 0, that I could be your companion and 
your chaplain ; and be able by-aud-bye to say as you 
will, "I have seen Home!" But the providence 
which approves of your going requires me to " sit 
still." But spirits like bodies are not fettered, andl. 
shall think of you much, and follow you much, and 
shall expect a visit from you as soon as ever you 
return, to tell us about it ; and to hold up your head 
above us all while doing it. As you write short-hand, 
it will be inexcusable not to keep a kind of journal ; 
mid if you should wish to publish, who knows but I 
may write a preface, and so our names be blended to- 
gether before the world. Be attentive to your health, 
and brace up your rnind by some daily retirement for 
meditation and prayer. Idle away none of the short 
time you will be there ; and be sure to see and hear 
what you cannot see after your return. Especially 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 191 

observe whatever is connected with the sacred vol- 
umes ; and neglect not to go " as far as Apii-forum 
and the Three Taverns;" and for any expense you 
may incur there / will be answerable. "Whether any 
one at Eome ever prayed for me before, I know not ; 
but I shall prize your remembrance of me much more 
than his Holiness's, yet if you can get him to frank 
your letters to a heretic, you will induce him to do one 
good thing in his Pontificate. To induce him to do 
this, or to enclose them with any of his missives, 
please him by telling him how favorably things are 
going on in the Church of England ; and how many 
are longing to return home from their Eeformation 
wanderings. 

What a feeling I have to see you both before your 
departure ; and I assure you I have been trying to ar- 
range things so as to allow of the pleasure ; but I 
find it is not practicable. So I embrace you at a dis- 
tance, and commend you to the Grod of our mercy. 
Head this to-day with my love and concern, and be- 
lieve me, 

Yours most truly, &c. 



To Miss Head. 

WORTHING, August 21st, 1842. 

I AWOKE this morning with the words upon my 
mind, " I was in the Spirit 011 the Lord's day." " The 
Lord's day," as you well know, means the day of our 
Saviour's resurrection ; and is so called because it was 
dedicated and observed to the glory of his name, and 
the service of his people. John's being "in the 



192 SELECTIONS FEOM THE COEEESPOJsTDENCE 

Spirit" on this day, immediately intends a state of in- 
spiration ; and this was abundantly exemplified in the 
visions he received and reported. But we do well to 
use the phrase (as we do in our prayers) to mean a pe- 
culiar frame of mind under the ordinary agency of 
the Spirit; and what is a Lord's day without this? 
Yet it struck me that there are two mistakes to which 
we are liable concerning it. First We are not to 
think we are not in the Spirit because we are not in a 
lively and comfortable frame. Such a frame is not to 
be undervalued ; but it may be overvalued, and it is 
so, when we make it exclusive. For we want many 
things besides consolation ; and we shall be " in the 
Spirit" if we feel much of His enlightening, or con- 
vincing, or humbling influences, and are more empty 
of self at the end of the Sabbath, than at the beginning 
of it. 

And Secondly : We must not suppose that such a 
Lord's day is impossible, unless we are favored with 
the usual, and social^ and public means of grace. John 
was away from all these in the mines of Patmos ; yet 
he never had such a Sabbath before ; and the Lord, 
who always teaches his children to love the temple, 
will show them that he is not confined to it. Not that 
we are to expect his presence when we can repair to 
his sanctuary ; but if we are his prisoners, he will not 
despise or forget iis; but will render the house of 
mourning or the chamber of sickness "none other but 
the house of Grod and the gate of heaven." I know 
not whether your present duty deprives you of the 
whole, or a part only, of your sanctuaiy privileges; 
but in either case, apply to yourself, my beloved 
friend, the remarks I have made ; and be sure to ap- 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 193 

ply them also to jour precious sufferer under every 
secret, silent, sightless Sabbath she may be called to 
emlure. I trust her confidence, and calmness, and com- 
fort continue, and that as her day, so is her strength. 

I did not, however, mean to preach, but only to call 
upon j^ou in a letter for a few moments, and to ex- 
change a few words ; though I forget that you always 
in these written visits leave all the talk to myself but 
is this quite fair ? " Bell's Daily Advertiser" will 
doubtless inform you of all that may be called neivs. 
"We all go on much the same ; only by the goodness 
of Grod, I feel much better, and seem to hope that I 
may become, not a young man again, but what I was 
before my several late indispositions ; and should this 
be the case, I trust I shall improve the blessing, by 
doing more than I have done for some time past. O 
what a privilege is health and strength, when we not 
only enjoy but employ them ! 

My reading has been various since I have been 
here ; my present engagement is with the life of 
"Billy Dawson," the celebrated Wesleyan preacher. 
It is not well written, but it contains interesting and 
profitable matter. He was truly a great man ; not 
equal to our divine Bunyan, without learning, or at 
least without academical preparation for the ministry. 
% % # # 

I have just received a letter of three sheets from my 
spiritual daughter, Miss Harris, at Caen in France. 
Had I a private hand I would send it for your pe- 
rusal ; as it would afford you pleasure to see how much 
decision and yet gentleness and prudence she displays ; 
and how useful, in a land of barrenness, she is likely 
to be, I wish you had kuowi her when she was in 



194: SELECTIONS FEOM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

Bath. Should she come there again, I must bring 
her, or fetch you; and you will soon be like two 
drops of water on a table when they touch and run 
into one. 

I am, &c. 



To Mr. Rice Hopkins. 

BATH, Dec. 10, 1849. 

MY DEAR SIR, I duly received your kind letter, 
and also the pamphlet. In addition to all your former 
kindnesses, I am much obliged by your remembering 
my wish, and taking pains to gratify it. If the pub- 
lishers (Jackson and "Walford) -would have no objec- 
tion to inform you of the author, I should be glad to 
be informed. But whoever was the writer, the work 
is masterly, and cannot be easily answered. It falls in 
with my views, which have never altered upon that 
subject."" 

I am glad you are in prospect of settlement with a 
pastor, and pray for a blessing upon the approaching 
union ; but I must decline your application, for my 
attending at the reopening of your chapel. I do not 

* The work here honored by the notice and commendation of Mr. 
Jay, is entitled, " Objections to the Doctrine of Israel's Future Res- 
toration to Palestine, National Pre-eminence, &c. In Twelve Let- 
ters to a Friend, with an Appendix. 1828." Mr. Jay's strong Ian-, 
guage, used so late as the year 1849, informs us of his matured opin- 
ion upon a subject which has long divided the judgment of the Chris- 
tian Church, and Tipon which it will probably remain divided so 
long as the two opposite modes of interpreting prophecy are fol- 
lowed the figurative and the literal ; or till the decisions of his- 
tory shall supersede the comments of opinion. Mr. Swaiue's "Work 
lias received the commendation of many other eminent divines be- 
sides Mr. Jay. 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 195 

* 

like to refuse in anything such peculiarly kind friends 
as Mr. and Mrs. Hopkins, but Mr. and Mrs. Ashton 
will be here at the time, and &c., &c. 

My dear Mrs. Jay is sitting by, and begs to join in 
everything that is kind and loving to Mrs. Hopkins 
and yourself, with, 

My dear Sir, yours most truly, 

WILLIAM JAY. 



To the same. 

BATH, Jan. V, 1850. 

MY DEAR SIR,' I believe I thanked you for the 
discovery and present of the letters I so much wished 
to see, and I ought to have thanked you last week for 
tracing out the clever author. The work is well writ- 
ten, and the point well argued. Some things perhaps 
may be added, and would require to be so, as the sub- 
ject has excited so much attention since the publica- 
tion. The works, however, I have not read ; but 
when in Cambridge I met with Professor Lee, who is 
very strong on Mr. Swaine's side, and has lately pub- 
lished a work on prophecy, in which there is much 
which I should like him to see. So also is there, I am 
told, in Professor Stuart's work on the Bevelations. I 
should be glad to see a new edition of the Letters, and 
would do what I could orally to notice and recommend 
them in private and public ; but some rules which I 
have laid down, and some fears of being at my time 
of life drawn into controversial publicity, forbid my 
writing a Preface. Give my best respects to Mr. 
Swaine,. though personally unknown, and hope he will 
accept not my excuse but reason. 



196 SELECTIONS FROM THE UOERESPONDENOE 

The Ashtons are now with us, and with Mrs. Jay 
join in best regards to Mrs. Hopkins and her husband, 
with, my dear Sir, 

Yours truly, &c. 



To Lady Dude. 

BATH, Dec. 29, 1846. 

My DEAR LADY DUCIE, I thought I heard a jingle, 
and examined the floor, but, finding nothing, I con- 
cluded it was a lapsus auris. But does such honesty 
grow eveiy where ? Certainly wherever it is found it 
ought to be rewarded. But to whom, am I indebted ? 
As Lady Mary Wortley Montague says " In all my 
travels I never met with but two kinds of people men 
and women," so the finder must be, I presume, male 
or female ; and as your ladyship can decide this, will 
you present to him or her the little publication I have 
enclosed "Clarke's Memoirs." I would 'have in- 
scribed it, but, again, I know not the name. Should I 
have the pleasure of a future visit to Tortworth, and 
the servant be still with you, I will then do it. 

Along with the "Short Discourses for the Use of 
Families," which I begged your ladyship to accept, I 
have put into the parcel the " Charge to a Minister's 
Wife," and the sermon to a bad husband, not for yon 
to keep, but just if you like to throw your eye over 
them, and then dispose of them where you think they 
are most called for. 

By the way, when I spoke to your ladyship of my 
having delivered and written out a course of lectures on 
Scripture Female Biography, and that my plan would 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 197 

be completed by four lectures more two on Hannah, 
and two on the Mother of our Lord, I intended to 
ask whether (if I should have health and leisure to 
finish the series) your ladyship would allow me the 
honor and favor of dedicating them to yourself 1 ? Should 
you be disposed to yield this request, your ladyship 
may be assured I would not offend by dedicatory ful- 
soraeness. " I know not (with Elihu) to give flatter- 
ing titles to any ; for in so doing my Maker would 
take me away ;" yet I wish to bear my witness to good- 
ness and excellence, and to remember the words of 
Solomon "a gracious woman retaineth honor." 

I was sorry I was too tired to give you words of 
exposition, and to leave your kind roof without a de- 
votional and social benediction ; but I did not forget 
the family in my chamber ; and,if my prayer be heard, 
Lord Ducie's health will be restored and established 
and perpetuated ; and he will be a growing and public 
blessing in his day and generation ; and will much and 
long walk together with his estimable companion, both 
"as heirs of the grace of life;" and see their fine and 
lovely children " as plants growing up in their youth, 
and as corner-stones polished after the similitude of a 
palace." Amen and amen. 

My best respects await Lord Ducie (not forgetting 
Mr. Watts, if yet with you). 

I am, my dear Lady Ducie, 

Yours to esteem and serve, &c. 

I got home safe a quarter after 10. My wife (one 
of the best women God ever made) begs her most es- 
teemed regards. 



198 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

To Lady Dude. 

BATH, Feb. 3, 1847. 

MY DEAR LADY DUCTE, I ought to have written 
earlier to thank you for your very kind present, every 
article of which proved very good ; and as. being a 
teetotaler, I could not drink your ladyship's health 
(unless in an element which all do not value as I do, 
and as Samson did) I ate it, heartily wishing your 
ladyship much of that blessing (and the Earl too) 
which is the salt that seasons, and the honey that 
sweetens every temporal comfort ; praying also in a 
better exercise, that bodily health may be accompanied 
with every kind of spiritual welfare. This sentence 
would be almost long enough for Dr. Chalmers. 

"By love serve one another." What a beautiful 
little text is this ! the practice of which would turn 
this vale of tears into a paradise ; and as your lady- 
ship. I know, does not consider it an interpolation or 
wrongly translated, I venture to give you a little 
trouble. The Dean and Mrs. Lamb would be much 
obliged, if your ladyship could say " whether you could 
recommend a governess who once lived with you of 
the name of ; as to her character, accomplish- 
ments, piety, and good temper." The wish has been 
transmitted through my daughter, Mrs. Ashton, from 
Cambridge, where the Dean now is. A line to her,, 
or him, or myself, will suffice. 

Is the Mr. Wyat, near Stroucl, mentioned in the 
papers as dead, the very pleasant and amiable gentle- 
man I met at your house so recently ? I presume it 
is ; and, if so, the circumstance is affecting. Ah ! if 
we had all foreknown it then, would not our inter- 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 199 

course and conversation (I am blaming nothing) have 
been more specifically religions, and bearing upon his 
(and indeed OUT own) spiritual welfare ? Should we 
not meet and part more as mortals and immortals ; and 
would this injure the allowed sociabilities of life ? 

"What awful accounts still from Ireland and Scot- 
land ! I pleaded for them successfully on Sunday. 
My text was, "A cloak of covetotisness;" and I. I 
described the evil covetousness. II. Proved that its 
folly, baseness, and sin, by common feeling, -needed a 
covering. III. I showed some of the cloaks it was 
accustomed to wear. Here I led them into the devil's 
wardrobe, where they wo aid see a fine assortment of 
articles to suit any purchaser' cloaks of every coloi 
and shape, and size and price. Here a scarlet one ; 
fringed with fur ; there a velvet one, lined with silk ; 
here a shorter, and there one reaching quite to the 
ground ; there new ones, and here some only a little 
injured by wear ; some a little soiled and mended, but 

then cheaper. That was introduced by Lady ; 

and this is now much admired by , &c. I then 

passed from irony (justified by the sacred writers) to 
seriousness, and from figure to fact, and exposed four 
of these excuses and disguises, which I have not time 
on paper to do justice to. IV. I inquired how far 
these cloaks would conceal the things ? and answered, 
1st. They cannot always conceal it from the wearer 
himself. 2 dry. They cannot commonly conceal it from 
others. Sclly. They can never conceal it from God. I 
then concluded' Istv By calling upon them to take 
heed and beware of covetousness. 2dly. Admonish- 
ing them to seek the true riches, in which there could be 
no excess in their desires, or failure in their hopes, &c. 



200 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

As I am not sure whether you are in the country 
or town, I direct this to Tortworth House, suppos- 
ing, if I am mistaken, it will be immediately forward- 
ed on. I trust Lord Ducie is quite convalescent. 
Please to present to him my best regards. Earl Gains- 
borough and the Countess are here. He has had a 
severe attack since they came. God bless you, my 
dear lady. 

And believe me, &c. 

The Jay's love 

To the Dove. 



To Lady Ducie. 

BATH, Jau. 8, 1848. 

MY DEAR LADY DUCIE, We duly received your 
very kind present of game, and return many and very 
sincere thanks. They would have been transmitted ear- 
lier, but I only returned this evening after a week's 
absence from home, and during which I have had an 
attack of the very common complaint. It has not in- 
deed been severe, but sufficient to lay me by for some 
days, and to qualify me to sympathize with much great- 
er sufferers. As ministers we frequently escape what 
others endure, not because we do not deserve or need 
personally the same trials with others ; but because of 
the duties we owe to others ; for if physicians were to ' 
experience all the ailments of their patients, they could 
have neither time nor strength to practice ; and, as our 
exemptions are often relative to others, so also are our 
inflictions. Ezekiel heard the knell " Son of man, 
behold, I take away the desire of thine eyes with a 
stroke ;" not because of any offence of his, for which God 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 201 

would chastise liim, but that he might be " a sign unto 
the people.'" It is the doctrine of Paul, 2 Cor. i. 6. 
Indeed this will, in some measure, apply to Christians 
as well as- ministers : we are all parts of some little 
whole, more or less affected and influenced by us. 
" None of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to 
himself." 

For some good while back I could not make out 
where your ladyship and the Earl were. Some said 
you were at home some at Malta some in Syria. 
But, though I knew not how to follow you locally in 
my prayers, I could address One who saw where you 
were, and could afford you whatever blessing you 
needed from Him as the God of providence and of 
grace. If the excursion has been in search of health, 
(the salt that seasons and the honey that sweetens every 
temporal blessing,) I trust it has not been sought in 
vain, and that the Earl has returned with renewed 
strength, and growing disposition to walk before the 
Lord in the land of the living. 

Neither do I now know whether the family is in the 
country or in town ; but I venture the present direc- . 
tion, knowing this thanksgiving will surely reach per- 
sons so well known, wherever they are. 

It is rather late to send the congratulations of the 
season. But another year is gone, and by far the most 
important we ever passed through, because it is the 
nearest to our " long home," and the bar of Grod ; and 
we have entered on a new period of our time, not 
knowing what a day may bring forth ; but, as Cowper 
sings, if we give up ourselves to him, 

"It can bring nothing -with it, 
But it will bear us through." 
9* 



202 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

My text last Sunday morning, in reference to the 
season, was, " These days should be remembered." 
What days ? Days of unregeneracy days of conver- 
sion days of persecutions days of bereavement days 
of providential interposition days of particular spec- 
iality, viz., birth-days nuptial days new-year-da} r s. 

I beg my best regards to Earl Ducie with my pray- 
ers for his entire welfare. I presume he approves of 
the Bill for the Removal of the Jewish Civil Disabili- 
ties ; and condemns the conduct of those who have op- 
posed Lord John in one of his noblest actions. Many 
are not aware as yet how much the spirit of popery 
has prevailed of late years in the Ghurch of England 
(for we have nothing of it among all other parties). 
May it be detected and thoroughly encountered before 
it be too late. Mrs. Jay begs to join in best thanks 
and regards, with, 

My dear Lady Ducie, Yours, &c. 



To Lord Dude 

MY DEAR LORD DUCIE, Yesterday Mr. Bidwell 
called upon me. The interview was very agreeable 
in itself, but particularly so as I learned from it that 
Lady Ducie was well, and your lordship so much im : 
proved in health, and, as usual, active in doing good. 
And how much obliged am I to your lordship for the 
beautiful present, and for such a kind proof of remem- 
brance, and that out of sight is not always out of mind: 
I hope I can also say that I sometimes thought of your 
lordship in your absence and distance, and where I 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 203 

v 

think your lordship would most value my remem- 
brance at the throne of grace. I had but just begun 
this letter before the hare and the birds came, requir- 
ing another qualified acknowledgment. 

Another year is rapidly closing ; and what an event- 
ful year has it been ! Among its most remarkable 
(and I am persuaded influential) events in our own 
country, has been Mr. Noel's secession and his Essay 
on the Union of Church and State. The book, in 
many respects, is one of the most extraordinary I ever 
read. It is written with great ability, and with much 
Christian spirit. It must make a great impression in 
favor of our free churches. Will it lead to any 
improvements in the Establishment? yet, if some- 
thing be not done there, I think that church is in dan- 
ger. 

I am sorry that, by several little indispositions, and 
also b} r engagements and interruptions, my visit into 
Gloucestershire has been prevented ; and for some time 
longer now it must be postponed, as my daughter and 
her husband from Cambridge are soon coming to see 
us. 

Soon after this reaches Tortworth we shall enter on 
a new period of time, not knowing what a day may 
bring forth ; but under the care of Him who sees the 
end from the beginning and has said, " I will never 
leave thee nor forsake thee." Allow me to send (in 
which Mrs. Jay joins me) the congratulations of the 
season to Lady Dude and your lordship, with our 
prayers that all grace may abound towards the- whole 
family. 

I am, &c. 



204 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORBBSPOJNDENOB 



To Lady Dude. 

BATH, October 22, 1849. 

MY DEAR LADY DCCIE, You will think it strange 
and probably blame-worthy that I have not answered 
your letter earlier; but I was from home when it ar- 
rived, and I have been variously absent nearly ever 
since, not for my pleasure, but on my great and good 
Master's business, doing a little, and wishing to do 
more ; but I find the old man rapidly coming on, and 
the infirmities of eighty keeping me from doing the 
things that I would. One of my excursions was to 
Kingswood, occasioned by the death of my old friend 
Mrs. Long. I much wished to have gone over to 
Tortworth ; but I was hurried for time, and the weather 
was wet, and I heard that the Earl was suffering con- 
finement. I long to hear that his lordship is released, 
and able as he is willing to be well-doing. I was 
thankful to be informed of your ladyship's fresh de- 
liverance-, and pray that the life spared and the life 
given may be precious in the Lord's sight, and sacred 
to his service and praise. "Lo, children," says David, 
"are an heritage of the Lord;" and some have a much 
larger portion than others. But, says Henry, u Chil- 
dren are certain cares, and uncertain comforts, and 
possible crosses." In these matters, however, we' are 
not left to our own choice ; but are under the manage- 
ment of Him " who perforrneth all things for us," and 
" doeth all things well." But there is a part belonging 
to us, and if we discharge it in dependence upon Him, 
we are entitled to expect the exemplification of tho 
proverb, if not the promise, " Train up a child in the 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 205 

way that lie should go, and when he is old be will not 
depart from it." 

At Budleigh Salterton, where I spent a month, I met 

with good Dr. , of America, who spoke with 

pleasure of his visits to Tortworth. I heard him 
preach (i. e. read) several times, and was pleased; but 
when I hear I love to be rent or melted. I do not like 
for preacher's mouth to be lined with velvet. When 
will ministers remember what the mass of every con- 
gregation consists of; and learn to preach ad popu- 
lum? By whom was He heard "gladly" who spake 
as never man spake ? The words of the wise are as 
goads and as nails, they pierce and remain. "What are 
fine smooth periods that slip off from the conscience 
like water from, a duck's back ? "What evaporates in 
the mere article of hearing can do little good; but 
that which is carried away to be again and again 
thought of alone, and talked of in company. "Let 
the word of Christ dwell in you." 

Mrs. Jay and myself are tolerably well. I wish we 
could see you in Bath. "With best regards to Earl 
Ducie, believe me, &c. 



To Lady Ducie. 

BATH, December, 1851. 

DEAE, LADY DUCIE,' How kind and good you were 
to think of us, and furnish our table with such fine 
game: the last of which we have only recently de- 
spatched, and during our partaking of which I more 
'than once drank your ladyship's health in a bumper of 
the purest water the neighborhood affords. By the 



206 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

way, the American ambassador (Mr. Steplienson) told 
me that when he dined with the Queen, he made her 
smile by drinking her Majesty's health, as a teetotal- 
ler, in the same beverage. 

I ought to have written earlier, but this morning, 
I said, with a blush, " I will write to Tortworth." No 
sooner said than done, or at least begun. But now, 
whether I shall finish as I wish, depends much upon 
" Satan," who often interrupts and hinders, by favor- 
ing me with calls of indefinite length from persons 
senseless of the value of time, and who, having no- 
thing to do, discharge some of their idleness and curi- 
osity under a cover of business. 

But now, after our acknowledgment and thanks' 
giving, what can I write about ? There is, indeed, one 
subject of supreme importance which is always at 
hand, and on which we should be always ready in our 
thoughts and communications. It is the Name above 
every Name. But with this your ladyship is graciously 
acquainted, though in a rank of life in which He is so 
little known and honored ; otherwise how could I 
speak of Him both from office and experience as 
"fairer than the children of men;"' as "altogether 
lovely ;" as having " giving himself for us an offering 
and a sacrifice to Grod for a sweet smelling savor ;" >as 
" remembering us now he is come into his kingdom ; 
as " ever living to make intercession for us ;" as 
" the Lord our righteousness and strength ; all our sal- 
vation and all our desire, our glory and our joy." 

"Such Jesus is, and sucli his grace, 

may He shine on yon; 

And tell him -when you see his face 

1 long to see him too. " 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 207 

I was delighted to see Lord Ducie's letter to the 
chairman of the Protestant Alliance. It did him much 
honor, both as showing his aversion to the " mother 
of harlots and abominations of the earth," and also 
nobleness of mind in being willing publicly to retract 
an opinion. A very learned man has said, " The 
three hardest words to pronounce in the English lan- 
guage are, i lwas mistaken;' " and when Frederick the 
Great wrote his letter to the Senate,' " I have just 
lost a great battle, and it was entirely my own fault," 
Goldsmith says, " This confession displayed more 
greatness than all his victories." 

I should much like to hear his Lordship's opinion 
with regard to the new Revolution in France. He 
must, I think, dislike the character of the usurper ; 
though, perhaps, one tyrant is better than twenty 
agreed in nothing but mutual opposition for selfish 
ends. If he succeeds, as is most probable, the effect 
I fear will be favorable to Popery ; yet, if he allies 
himself to a cause doomed to perish, he will place 
himself in the way of God's judgments, and be easily 
brought down. Our comfort is, that " the Lord God 
omnipotent reigneth ;" and that " He will overturn, 
overturn, overturn,, until he comes whose right it is, 
and it shall be given him." 

You were, my dear Lady, misinformed as to my ob- 
jection to the Liturgy. I even like much to hear it 
occasionally, though I certainly should like it better 
were it curtailed, and stripped of its repetitions. That 
I am not an enemy to all forms of devotion is obvious 
from my volume of Prayers for the Use of Families ; 
and for the publication of which I have great reason 
to bless God. Nor, though a firm Dissenter, am I un- 



208 SELECTIONS FEOM THE COBRESPOJSTDENCE 

friendly to the Established Church. My connections 
have "been very much among its members and minis- 
ters, as you will see from my Keminiscences, which will 
be published at my death. But I do hate all exclu- 
siveness ; and I lament that a church should be less 
tolerant and liberal now than when it first left Rome, 
and could be excused some mother -marks upon it. 
But then it did not unchurch other churches, nor in- 
validate other ordinations, but even allowed prefer- 
ments to some who only had had on their heads " the 
hands of the presbytery" But see the mess the good 

Archbishop of C gets himself into ! that he had 

avowed and gloried in what he conceded to his deceiv- 
er ! But instead of this candor, he applies what he 
said only to these foreigners ; and not to any here, though 
standing on the very same terms. The fact is, the 
wretched notion of Apostolical Succession so far unites 
the Church of England to the Church of Home, and dis- 
sociates it from all other churches, however orthodox or 
useful. Some must break through, and lead in a bet- 
ter way. I, therefore, rejoice, and thousands beside, 
that Lord Ducie and a few more are serving the Lord 
Christ in a mode which will please God, and draw 
down his blessing, whoever may censure or condemn. 
Bolton speaks of your visiting Bath. Is it so? I 
wish it may be, and that we may be favored with 
a little of your company. Mrs. Jay unites in kind 
regards to yourself and Lord Ducie. I am, &c. 



To the same. 

LADY DUCIE,' 'You have made me break through 
a rule I have never violated yet, in communicating my 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 209 

text beforehand. From one of these five (D.Y.) I hope 
to preach to-morrow morning : " Take it by the tail." 
"It was always so." "Amen, the Lord God say so 
too." " In that day a man shall nourish a young cow 
and two sheep." " The. people that know their God 
shall be strong and do exploits." I do not mention 
the chapters and verses, as this may employ Lady 
Alice to find out. I forgot to ask her to tell me at 
what time Joseph dined ? (Gen. xliii. 16.) And why 
a covetous man was like a medlar ? 

I feel very weak and poorly, and expect to feel dif- 
ficulty to-morrow. I wonder which of the texts you 
will be led to wish for and choose. "Well, all will be 
known in due time. I hope his Lordship is still mend- 
ing. We never forget him in our prayers. What a 
scrawl to a lady of quality ! Pray forgive, and be- 
lieve me, &c. 



To the same. 

BKADFOKD, June 10, 1853. 

DEAR LADY DUCIE, 

" If thou sliouldst stay, e'en as tliou art, 

All cold and all serene, 
I still might press thy silent heart, 

And where thy smiles have been : 
"While e'en thy chill-loved corpse I have 

Thou seernest still mine own ; 
But there, I lay thee in the grave 

And now / am alone !" 

Such was the language of Wolfe, who wrote the 
fine monody of the death of Sir Jolm'Moore. In more 



210 SELECTIONS FROM THE COEEESPOISTDENCE 

instances than one I have felt the truth and force of 
the tender and touching sentiment. While the remains 
of the dear departed are only in the coffin, and not in 
the grave, and we can yet go and look, and gaze, and 
weep, we seem to possess him still ; but when we have 
laid him in the tomb, and return to the lonely house 
in which we have taken sweet counsel together, and 
walked to the house of Grod in company ; ah, then we 
feel its emptiness and know what real solitude is. I, 
therefore, would not write during the engagements and 
distractions of funeral preparations, but resolved to 
wait upon you with a few lines when you would be 
saying " And now I am alone" 

And yet in another and more important sense, your 
Ladyship will not be alone, because the Father will be 
with 3^011 ; for He has said, and the Scripture cannot 
be broken, " I will be with thee in trouble." And 
surely you are now entitled to claim and plead thai 
promise. But you must not expect it to be miracu- 
lously fulfilled, or in a way that will raise you above 
the sense of the greatness of your loss. There is no 
patience in bearing what we do not feel, or resignation 
in giving up what we do not value. But you may ex- 
pect from it support under the affliction, however 
great ; and that you shall be able to say (or endeavor 
to say and the Lord looketh to the heart), " It is the 
Lord ; let him do what seemeth him good :" " The 
Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away, and blessed 
be the name of the Lord." What a state was David in 
when he came to Ziklag? All was gone! and, hero 
as he was, he lifted up his voice and wept. " But 
David encouraged himself in the Lord his God." He 
was left and never left him ; and after every distress 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 211 

enabled Mm to say, " Ooine unto nie, all ye that fear 
God,- and I will declare wliat he hath done for my 
soul." 

You also will prove a witness for God, and be able 
to acknowledge that it is good for you that you have 
been afflicted. Great as your trial is, remember, my 
dear Madam, how much greater it might have been. 
Only consider what the God of all grace has done for 
the deceased, whom we all loved, and all will miss. I 
confess the late development of experience did not 
surprise me. I entertained from the time I knew him 
a good hope through grace ; and latterly I felt a deep 
and constant impression which ever excited my prayer 
on his behalf. Well, his pains are now over ; and the 
clays of his mourning are ended ; and though he was 
not permitted to enter his exquisite earthly mansion, 
he is now in a house not made with hands, but eternal 
in the heavens. Your loss, therefore, is his infinite 
gain ; and under this loss may jou know that God is 
the husband of the widow in his holy habitation and 
in her own, and also the Father of the fatherless ! 
May the affliction be sanctified to them ! and may 
they prove that "it is good for a man to bear 
the yoke in his youth;" and from this time cry 
unto Him, " My Father, thou art the guide of my 
youth 1" 

I hope that none of the religious resources of such 
a family will be dried up ; or any of its useful institu- 
tions, and exertions, and influences cease, or be im- 
paired. 

Thus, while you have attended the entombment of 
the dear Earl, I have communed with you in spirit, in 



212 SELECTIONS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE 

writing these few lines. Believe me, my dear Lad} 
Ducie, &c. 

Mrs. Jay joins in all this. I long to know Lord and 
Lady Moreton ; and will not cease to pray for them. 

My state is much the same, as to health and strength, 
as when I was at Stone. I am able to do "but little ; 
but the spirit is willing though the flesh is weak. 
" Let her alone, she hath done what she could." 



To Dr. Boivie. 



PLACE, January 24, 185b. 

MY DEAK DOCTOR, Uncertain whether I should 
see you this afternoon, I write a few lines, and they 
must be few, as I find writing, like every other exer- 
tion, a trying task. You know not only my sense of 
obligation for all your kindness, but the confidence I 
have in your judgment, and what a submissive patient 
I have been. But I am now venturing a step of my 
own accord, and hope if you reprove you will strike 
gently. I have felt the last few days worse, i. e. lower 
in my strength, and more painful in my complaint. I 
am, therefore, going, if possible, to Bradford to-morrow 
morning, thinking Avhether the change may not prob- 
ably affect me. My stay, I presume, will not be long ; 
and if anything peculiar arise, I or Mrs. Jay can in- 
form you. 

But I forget not the nature and character of the en- 
suing Sabbath, when sixty-three years ago I was or- 
dained over the people of Argyle Chapel, after occa- 
sionally laboring among them full twelve months be- 



OF THE KEY. WILLIAM JAY. 218 

fore. On the next Sabbath this long, happy, and en- 
deared connection terminates ; and pastor and people 
have to look backward and forward under awful re- 
sponsibilities. 

Should Mr. Dyer see fit to have any reference to the 
event, I wish him to inform the Church and Congrega- 
tion how much I have all along hoped to have been 
able to address them on the occasion ; but the Lord 
has prevented it, as I could not undertake any public 
service, much more a service which would rend me to 
pieces ! 

He may also assure them that, though my pastoral 
relation has ceased, I shall be delighted if a degree of 
ability shall enable me occasionally to address them 
again from my old chair and pulpit. 

I am much concerned for their proper settlement, 
and pray that the Lord may direct them to the choice 
of a pastor after his own heart ; and that peace and 
prosperity may ever be within their lovely borders. 
They may be assured that, in proportion as the people 
of his late and long charge are satisfied and edified, 
he will approve and rejoice, who, in finishing his min- 
istry, can say 

" Ere since by faith I sa~w the stream 

Thy dying -wounds supply, 
Redeeming love has been my theme, 
And shall be till I die." 

I wish I could write more and better, but I am as 
weak as I am willing. 

Believe me, my dear and beloved physician, 

Yours, &c. 



PAET Y. 



THE LITBEAEY EBMAINS 



REV. WILLIAM JAY, 



LITERARY REMAINS, 



LINES ON THE DEATH OF HIS DAUGHTER STATIRA. 

OH ! had I known, when we embraced, 
That parting kiss would prove the last, 
I surely should have held thee fast, 

Statira ! 

One week elapsed, and home I fled, 
From Devon's hills, in musings dread, 
And breathless sought thy mortal bed, 

Statira ! 

" Know'st thou," I said, in accents mild, 
" Thy father's voice, my darling child 1" 
But thy dear lips nor spake, nor smiled, 

Statira ! 

Bereft of hope, yet hoping too, 

Led by thy mother, I withdrew ; 

For well the worth of prayer we knew, 

Statira ! 

We kneel'd, and, by each other's side, 
In tears, not words, to heaven we cried : 
Could tears avail, thou hadst not died, 

Statira ! 
10 



218 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

I feel it still that dying look, 
Mine eye to briny gushings took, 
While every nerve with anguish shook, 

Statira ! 

I see it still that lovely face, 
Illumed with wisdom and with grace, 
O'er which no clouds of passion pass'd, 

Statira ! 

I see thee clasp thy mother's neck, 
And print thy kisses on her cheek : 
In vain will she thy equal seek, 

Statira ! 

The canvas did thy taste confess : 
Thy "beauteous landscapes I caress ; 
E'en Ruben's tints would please me less, 

Statira ! 

Thy pen's remains I prize the more 
Than would the learn'd, the letter'd lore, 
From. Persian bards, or Attic shore, 

Statira ! 

Thy conduct, still above thy age, 
Each opening virtue did presage, 
And every heart and lip engage, 

Statira ! 

Oh ! how I loved that temper'd tongue, - 
On which the law of kindness hung, 
From which no ill or folly sprung, 

Statira ! 

Each Sabbath saw thee with delight 
Within my house the babes unite, 
Whom thou didst teach tc read and write, 

Statira ! 



OF THE KEY. WILLIAM JAY. 219 

The power of grace I joy'd to see, 
From guile and affectation free, 
Take up its young abode in thee, 

Statira ! 

Thy heart well loved the holy place, 
The queen of days, the throne of grace, 
The Saviour's words, and works, and ways, 

Statira ! 

A violet was thy piety, 
Retired in charms of modesty, 
And most betray 'd. by fragrancy, 

Statira ! 

I feel thy loss in every part ; 

I mourn, I bleed beneath the smart, 

Yet kiss the hand that breaks my heart, 

Statira. 

Thou hast, in all thy early bloom, 
First tenanted thy father's tomb, 
And made him willing there to come, 

Statira ! 

Ah ! were this all of nineteen years 
The end of all our loves and cares, 
What hand could then e'er wipe oui fears, 

Statira ! 

But no, we 've rear'd thee for the skies ; 
Thy soul is now in Paradise, 
But thy dear flesh again shall rise, 

Statira ! 



220 THE LITERARY REMAINS 



LINES WRITTEN ON SEEING- MY PORTRAIT BY MR. ETTY, DESIGN- 
ED FOR MR. AND MKS. BOLTON, AT LIVERPOOL. SEPT. loTH. 

1817. 

ETTY, 'tis done ! The very man breathes now ; 
I feel the likeness, and my friends avow. 
Yes, here or much I err thou surely hast 
(What none beside could do) thyself surpass'd. 
And still, thou child of nature and of art, 
Thy mind all taste, and ardor all thy heart, 
Let each success to higher fame beguile 
And rise the Reynolds of our peerless isle. 

Now go, my shade, and let my children see 
Their absent father present still in thee. 
Look on them well, yet not in sullen mood 
To chill their freedoms, and their joys exclude : 
On nothing frown, but reason would condemn ; 
Nor what is past to me, forbid to them. 

Say, " Love each other ; love all human-kind, 
And spread the mercy which you hope to find. 
In nothing e'er the voice within despise, 
Nor slight the Book that beckons to the skies. 
No word, no action, let his God displease, 
And, iu a sire's inspection, feel at ease." 

Yet should as danger e'en the good surround,- 
And they are ambush'd most who mt'St abound 
Should e'er forgetfulness a blame incur, 
Then rise, my type, and prove the monitor. 
Yet still with meekness chide, and melting mien, 
And from a fault, with kind caressings, win. 

And when, in days to come, in silence laid, 

Low sleepy thi form that skill has here portray'd, 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. " 221 

Some stranger asks, who ne'er the living knew, 
If strong the likeness, and the features true 1 
" O yes," my first-born cries, " my father dear 
'Tis what he was, his very self is there ; 
The way in which he sat ; the air he wore ; 
His look benign, yet tinged with frowning o'er ; 
His aspect varying, yet the general view 
Easy, though anxious ; pleased, yet plaintive too. 
His eye retired and close, which yet confess'd 
A mind in action, but a heart at rest ; 
The mouth his own, whose kindness oft was found, 
And half a smile would lurk his lips around. 

" Such was the man from whom my breath I drew, 
Whose love to me no ebbing ever knew : 
That transversed knee was long my favor'd seat ; 
That hand inclined oft led my infant feet ; 
That hand unseen ne'er waked a moment's fear, 
The plum was seen, but not the rod was there ; 
And be my boast in her confession known 
She never gave me pain but by her own." 



LINES SUPPOSED TO BE SPOKEN BY MRS. BOLTON, ON THE RE- 
CEIPT OF HEE MOTHER'S LIKENESS, SENT HER BY MR. ASHTON. 

MY Mother ! 'tis your own dear face 

Here meets my eager view. 
Yes, at each glance, again I cry, 

" My Mother, it is you /" 

But how my spirits flow and sink, 

What mingled thoughts arise, 
As o'er this welcome shade I throw 

My joyful, weeping eyes ! 



222 THE LITEBARY REMAINS 

Backwards I rush to those first hours 
When round thy neck I hung. 

And thou didst guide my tottering feet, 
And bless my prattling tongue. 

Thy counsels, and example fair, 
In love's soft bondage led, 

And taught me how to rise above, 
And how earth's paths to tread. 

But how time flies ! since thee I left, 
What varied scenes I 've traced ! 

What changes, trials, blessings, known ! 
And here I 'in fixed at last ; 

Away from Albion's soil my friends 
My father's house so dear ; 

And far from thee, whose sadden'd age 
'Twould be my heaven to cheer ! 

O what were life without the aid 
Of faith's supporting power ? 

Ah ! but for this my heart had died 
In many a trembling hour. 

More worn with days and sighings oft 
Thou seem'st, than when I took 

(The sacred spot remembered well,) 
That last, that lingering look. 

O could I once again behold 
That placid, plaintive mien, 

And but embrace the lovely wreck 
Of what thou long hast been ! 



OF THE KEY. WILLIAM JAY. 223 

And is the sight forever barr'd ? 

Are we no more to meet ? 
O happy brevity of life 

That will our bliss complete ! 

Then, freed from all thy present griefs, 

Thy raptur'd child shall see, 
And tell thee, dearest Mother, how, 

How much she owes to thee. 
APRIL 15, 1838. 



TO MISS BROWNE, ON HEH PRESENTING HIM WITH A PAIR 

OF GLASSES. 



So you, my friend, with kindness prompt 

Long known and often tried, 
Have thus, to aid your pastor's sight, 

The need of art supplied. 

And he, not senseless of thy care, 
Would wish the boon repaid ; 

And hopes, by instrument Divine, 
To yield thee kindred aid ; 

By faith, a glass of sovereign use, 

That brings the distant near, 
Enlarges sense and reason's bounds, 

And makes the doubtful clear. 

He 'd gladly help thine eye to read 

The record God has given, 
With brighter gaze thy Jesus see, 

And view thy right to heaven. 



224 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

" Father of lights," from whom proceed 

Whatever gifts we own, 
Various the mediums may be found, 

But Thou the source, alone ! 

To Thee, our being and our weal, 
Each power and bliss we owe ; 

All nature's treasures flow* from thee, 
And arfs improvements flow. 

Nor let us ever little deem 
What so our good befriends, 

That lengthens out our visual ray, 
And all its joys extend : 

That aids us still the pencil's tint 
In glowing charms to ken, 

And read, alone, the letter dear 
From Friendship's absent pen : 

That helps us still the page to scau 
Of authors grave or gay ; 

Theirs, who our pleasure but consult, 
And theirs who teach to pray : 

That guides us to the Tree of Life, 

The Book of heavenly grace ; 
To see and gather from the boughs 
The fruits of joy and peace. 

But ah ! my friend, a present such 
A solemn voice assumes : 

" See how of life the noon is gone, 
And how the evening comes !" 



OF THE KEY. WILLIAM JAY. 225 

The leaves that fade and fall foretell 

The year's last setting sun, 
And Autumn is but Winter seen 

Approaching and begun . 

Not sudden shuts the eve of life, 

Nor without warnings due ; 
Deaf grows the ear, and dim the eye, 

To preach, " Thy days are few." 

And shall we dream of years to come. 

Nor note our frame's decay ? 
Waken, O Lord, our sleepful souls 

And bid us live to-day 
JBLY 29, 1819. 



TO MISS BROWNE, ON PRESENTING HIM WITH SEVERAL 
BANDS MADE OUT 
PISCOPAL SLEEVES. 



BANDS MADE OUT OF HER GRANDFATHER'S ARCIIIE- 



A MIND to observation turn'd 
May well with wonder glow, 

To see the changes human things 
Are doomed to undergo. 

A vesture that a palace graced 

May serve a meeting-house at last ! 

" What impious profanation this," 
So D b ny would speak ; 

" To take a robe a Bishop wore 
And bind it round the neck, 

Design'd a sacred badge to be 

Of schism and of heresy !" 
10* 



226 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

But he who now assumes the lawn, 

Oh ! let it well be known, 
Ne'er stole a pair of crosier'd sleeves, 

Or wished such sleeves his own ; 
Nor thought e'en such a bit to win 
As now depends beneath his chin. 

Yet such a present he esteems, 

Peculiar in its kind, 
And which, whene'er he puts it on, 

The giver brings to mind, 
Whose brains the plan unique conceived, 
And whose own hands the work achieved. 



WITH THE PRESENT OF A BIBLE, WRITTEN AND PRESENTED TO 
HIS VERY DEAR DAUGHTER, MRS. ROBERT BOLTON, THE MORN- 
ING OF HER MARRIAGE. 

Tins Book, whose aim and Author are Divine, 

This best of books, my much-lov'd Anne, be thine ! 

This early bless'd thee with an influence mild, 

It charm'd the infant, and it form'd the child. 

This, when a daughter, sweetly ruled thy life, 

And now demands thy duty as a Wife. 

O daily read ; and in this Volume trace 

Thy Sovereign's pleasure and thy Saviour's grace. 

These rules will keep thee in a world of snares, 

These comforts cheer thee in a vale of tears. 

In every scene to this dear Book be just, 

Each counsel follow and each promise trust. 

Be this thy study ; this thy glory be ; 

And let thy Mother be renew'd in thee. 



OF THE KEY. WILLIAM JAY. 227 



TO MRS. GILL. ON HER DESIRIN& FROM HIM A LETTER OF HIS 
OWN WRITING TO BE KEPT FOR HIS SAKE. 

January 22, 1823. 
So you, dear Madam, ask a line, 

And how can I deny you ? 
That you may keep, in my own hand, 

A brief memorial by you. 

* 

Well, here it is, when I am gone 

To tell, whoe'er may note it, 
How long I knew, and much I prized, 

The Friend for whom I wrote it. 

To tell how warm, and changeless too, 

The kindness of her heart ; 
And how in all my joys and tears 

She bore a feeling part. 

To tell that none at wisdom's gate 

More constantly was found, 
Or with more joy, when call'd, e'er trod 

The temple's holy ground. 

To tell how she, not free from fear, 

A lively hope possessed, 
While all her walk and spirit show'd 

The Gospel she profess'd. 

So spake her pastor while below ; 

Nor can his hope be vain, 
That she will prove his joy and crown 

When they shall meet again. 



228 THE LITERARY REMAINS 



LINES ON HIS FIFTY-FIFTH BIRTH-DAY, MAY 8, 1824. 

WHAT, my soul, O. what emotion 

Should I on this morning feel, 
Shame, and grief, and new devotion, 

Hope, and gratitude, and zeal ; 
These, if conscience be addressed, 
These become my Birth-day best. 

SHAME, that fruit so small, if any, 
Should from such high culture spring ; 

GRIEF, that seasons rich and many 
Should no longer profit bring. 

O, how guilty life appears, 

When compared with means and years ! 

PRAISE, that though, His counsels shining, 

F ve rebelled against the light, 
He his love revealed each morning, 

And his faithfulness each night. 
If a tear my eye-lids knew, 
Mercy shut and wiped it too. 

HOPE, that He who ne'er denied me, 

In my worth or in my woe, 
Will each day Arith grace provide me, 

And his strength in weakness show. 
He, my Guardian, yet can shield, 
Till I leave the conquer'd field. 

ZEAL, for now the sun, descending, 
Calls to mind the close of day ; 

And how soon, in life declining, 

Will the seasons flee away. 
. 1 may then their loss deplore ; 

But they can return no more. 



OF THE KEY. WILL JAM JAY. 229 

PRAYER ; alone I would not venture 

On a year of good or ill ; 
Saviour Jesus, with me enter, 

And afford thy presence still. 
Let me live, or let me die, 
Nought I want if thou art nigh. 



LINES WRITTEN ON VISITING HIS NATIVE VILLAGE, IN 1800. 

[Before these lines we place a brief extract from a letter written 
to a friend, after another visit to Tisbury, many years subsequent 
to that on which the lines were written: "My visit was pleasant, 
but the Sunday was wet all day, yet we had many to- hear. I felt 
more than usual, perhaps from the thought, how few more visits I 
was ever likely to pay the place. I found my parental cottage clean 
and neat, with many flowers before the door. I sent the occupants 
(distant relations) into the garden for awhile, in order to be alone 
and so I ' went in and sat before the Lord, and said, What am I, and 
what is my father's house, that thou hast brought me hitherto ? ' I 
sat in the very same great arm-chair which I had always seen 
my father sit in ; and all is still in tolerable condition. I was affect- 
ed with the thought that seventy-four years ago, in this humble 
room, the peculiar child of Providence breathed his infancy and 
childhood how unlikely to become what he has since been !"] 

THE way by which a gracious God 

Has led me all my days, 
Demands, on each review, a song 

Of wonder and of praise. 

His care, attending every step, 

Was my perpetual guide ; 
His ear attentive heard my prayer ; 

His hand my wants supplied. 



230 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

The course through which my journey ran 
Was winding and unknown ; 

His providence the scenes had plann'd, 
And each appeared His own. 

More now, since first I left this spot, 
Than twice eight years have fled ; 

And many once who charm'd my youth 
Are number'd with the dead. 

'Twas here I drew my infant breath : 
Here fled my youthful hours ; 

Here first I heard the Gospel sound, 
And felt its heavenly powers. 

When o'er my former walks I rove, 
How fresh the scenes appear ! 

And here I pour'd an artless prayer, 
And there indulged a tear. 

Unknown to fortune and to fame, 

My early years expired ; 
No science had enrich'd my mind, 

No hope my bosom fired. 

But Heaven a Winter thus addressed 
" This youth I charge on thee, 

Go, take him I the impulse gave 
And train him up for Me. 

" Awaken thou each dormant power, 

Chase every cloud away, 
And on his understanding pour 

An intellectual day. 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 231 

" The tree that in a barren soil 

Can no good produce bear, 
Transposed, may flourish, and with fruit 

Repay the dresser's care." 

Winter,* I love to think on thee, 

And those dear hours review, 
When in thy house, and from thy lips, 

I sacred wisdom drew. 

Thy life, enforcing all thy rules, 

Shed every grace abroad, 
And thine example all alive 

Portray'd the man of God. 

Nor would I now the blessings lose 
Which from thy care have flow'd. 

For all that schools of fame have given, 
Or colleges bestow'd. 

* Mr. Jay says, in. the Life of Winter, p. 272, concerning these 
lines, when transmitted to Mr. Wiuter, he wrote thus : "It is im- 
possible I can keep the little poem to myself; and yet I truly blush 
at being the subject of so much honor as it intends me. I pray God 
that in the judgment-day I may be found the consistent character 
such as I ought to be. From the many imperfections known to my- 
self, I feel shame ; while from my fellow-creatures I meet with ap- 
plause, to which my dearest Jay contributes much. I sometimes 
tremble on this account. I know that I am not disposed to make 
an improper use of it, and am. sure that it does not in the least di- 
vert me from the Saviour, whose name is all my trust. I need His 
mercy, and am in His service an unprofitable servant. If, like 
' Charles,' in Cowper, I have been desirous to please, and have made 
any effort to serve acceptably, it is because I love my Master ; and 
wherein I can best serve him, I would be most willing." " I feel," 
says he, " as indifferent to everything above the supply of food and 
raiment administered in a decent manner, as a dead man does to the 
coffin h vhich his remains are confined." 



232 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

Here, O my soul, the time recall 
When my commission came 

How bless'd when sixteen years had roll'd, 
To preach a Saviour's name. 

Poor Arlington ! among thy sons, 

The shepherds of the plain, 
My first attempt to preach was made, 

Nor was it made in vain. 

The cloudy pillar leading on. 

Its motions I pursued, 
Till o'er the city famed for cures, 

The holy symbol stood. 

" Here," cried the voice, " thy station fix, 

And here thy rovings end ; 
Here teach the words of endless life, 

And here my charge attend. 

" Proclaim a Fountain nobler far 

Than this Bethesda knows ; 
' Tis always open, always free, 

And with salvation flows. 

" The sons of pleasure here who come, 

Invite to endless bliss ; 
He who another life receives, 

Can only relish this. 

" Here Satan's seat exalted stands, 
And .vice in triumph reigns ; 

A crown for him who owns Me here, 
And all My truth maintains." 

O Lord, evince the choice Thine own, 
Which placed me where I move : 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 233 

And, while Thy people see Thy power, 
May one a thousand prove ! 

Here I return, increased and bless'd 

By all-indulgent Heaven ; 
My God, the joys of wedded life, 

And children, too, has given. 

Yonder appears, "by Anna led, 

My lovely train in view ; 
My cherubs, round your mother play, 

The scene shall end with you. 

To raise an Ebenezer here, 

My God is surely just ; 
My motto, " Praise for all the past, 

And for the future, trust." 



In the Hymn Book used at Argyle Chapel, as a supple- 
ment to Dr. Watts's, Mr. Jay inserted about twenty, com- 
posed by himself. As these are not distinguished by any 
peculiar mark, we have thought it would be gratifying to 
his friends to have them pointed out. As far as we have 
been able to ascertain, they are the following : 79, 151, 161, 
230, 270, 360, 370, 422, 441, 443, 446, 455, 458, 462, 465, 
471,483,498,501,503. 



ANECDOTE. 
Conversion and subsequent History of Mrs. Ulph. 



I knew the subject of this brief notice first, 
she was bar-niaid at the White Hart Inn, Bath, therv 



234 THE LITETU.KY REMAINS 

kept by Mr. and Mrs. Pickwick. My acquaintance 
with her commenced very incidentally. I was going 
to Ckippenham. The London coach from Bath took 
ine up at my own door. I found in it only one passen- 
ger. This was a young female, in whose countenance 
and manner of speech there was something very 
pleasing and interesting. I felt a wish to say some- 
thing during our journey that might be useful, though 
she was an entire stranger ; remembering the asser- 
tion and admonition of Solomon "A word fitly 
spoken, how good is it ! In the morning sow thy seed, 
and in the evening withhold not thy hand, for thou 
knowest not whether shall prosper either this or that, 
or whether they both shall be alike good." I had an 
opening for this without the impropriety of forcing re- 
ligious reflection upon my fellow-traveller, as is often 
done, abruptly and offensively. 

This arose from my mentioning the design of my joiir- 
ney, which was to preach a funeral sermon for a very good 
man, who had died in such a blessed manner as to ex- 
emplify the words of David " Mark the perfect man, 
and behold the upright, for the end of that man is 
peace;" and which must have induced all who wit- 
nessed it, or heard of it, to exclaim "Let me die the 
death of the righteous, and let my last end belike his." 

I noticed also something of the excellency of char- 
acter with which such a decease well harmonized. I 
soon perceived that, instead of wishing this kind of 
discourse broken off, she encouraged its continuance. 
I therefore spoke on till I left the coach. I was glad 
to see she was going on alone, hoping solitariness 
would help impression, and that what had been spoken 
might be useful in days to come. 



OF THE KEY. WILLIAM JAY. 235 

I was happy enough, to learn afterwards that this 
was the case. In consequence of what she had heard, 
she was favorably disposed towards me ; and rinding 
that I was a minister, and preached in Bath, she resolv- 
ed upon her return to go and hear me. She did so, 
and it was not in vain in the Lord. For one dav, 

t> / 

some months after, I received a note from Mrs. Pick- 
wick, saying, that a young person whom she much, 
valued was very ill, and was anxious to see me, and 
begging that I would visit her. I immediately went. 
As I approached what was supposed to be a dying bed, 
she wept much. When she had recovered herself, 
and I saw her face, " Why, surely," said I, "I have 
seen you before." "Sir," said she, "blessed be God, 
you have;" and then called to my remembrance our 
transient intercourse when we travelled together to 
Chippenham at such a time, and the benefit (she hoped 
she was not deceiving herself) she had derived from it. 

The difficulties and hinderances we meet with in the 
things of Grod arise not so. much from the subject as 
from ourselves ; and when the heart is once opened 
and humbled, and we are brought to the foot of the 
cross, and to the foot of the throne, we are soon led 
forward in the right road. I found, therefore, the 
mind of the sufferer much advanced for the time in 
spiritual knowledge and experience; and knowing 
what I now learnt, had she then died, I should have 
had the fullest satisfaction concerning her eternal state ; 
but she soon surprisingly recovered, was finally re- 
stored, and continued attending at Argyle Chapel. 

Her opportunities of attendance were soon enlarg- 
ed, in consequence of her having made it a condi- 
tion of her remaining in her place, and which was 



236 THE LITERATI Y REMAINS 

readily conceded from a regard to the value of her 
services, rather than from any wish to favor the object 
of her desires. O how much may those who are in 
official situations accomplish by walking in wisdom to- 
wards those that are without ! They may put to silence 
the ignorance of those who are ready to accuse them, 
remove their prejudices, and win them without the 
word. And who ever walked uprightly without walk- 
ing surely? and when did Grocl ever falsify his own 
word : " Them that honor me I will honor " ? 

Not long after these occurrences, a passenger through 
Bath stayed a few days at the White Hart Inn. He 
was a truly good man, possessed of landed property, 
and also carrying on a large business at St. lyes, near 
Cambridge. Being a Dissenter, and having heard of 
my name, he inquired of the bar-maid, on the Sunday 
morning, where Mr. Jay preached? She answered, 
" I am just going to his chapel ; and, if agreeable, I 
will show you the way." He accepted tho oiibr. After 
the service, meeting her in the house, he thanked her 
for directing him, and spoke concerning the sermon ; 
and again and again he noticed her. 

And now another leaf in her book of providence 
was to be turned over without any thought of hers. 
Though she was very modest and retiring, (and indeed 
very much because she was so,) she much impressed 
him. Owing to this impression, he prolonged his stay; 
and the impression continually increasing, he offered 
her his hand, and she, after reflection and proper in- 
quiry, saw no reason to refuse it. 

She now, of course, removed to his residence at St. 
Ives, where, for many years, she exemplified the ex- 
cellences of the wife, the mother, the mistress, the 



OF THE EEV. tVTLLIAM JAY. 287 

friend, and the neighbor in the Christian. Her con- 
versation was such as became the Gospel. She bore 
richly of the fruits of the Spirit, and adorned the doc- 
trine of God her Saviour in all things. Having no\v r 
the command of property, she added beneficence to 
benevolence ; and, instead of only saying with many, 
"Depart in peace; be ye warmed and filled!" she gave 
them liberally such, things as were needful ; and, while 
not forgetful of the bodv, she showed herself still more 

O <j i 

concerned for the soul ; and by her prayers, and in- 
fluence, and example, the diligence and gentleness of 
her instructions and invitations, and the uniformity 
and loveliness of her character and conduct, she was 
always endeavoring to bring souls to the Saviour, and 
in some way or other to promote his cause. 

Some years after her marriage, and at her earnest and 
repeated request, (her husband cordially joining in it,) 
I visited St. Ives. She was a good trumpeter, and hod 
prepared the way for my coming. My preaching- 
proved peculiarly acceptable, and I hope and believe 
good was done in various instances. To add to the ef- 
fect of my public addresses, she pressed persons to 
come to her house to attend the domestic worship. 
But, as the number increased to the inconvenience 
and disordering of the family, and as the meeting- 
house was near, I proposed that, during the rest of my 
visit, I should perform the service there every morn- 
ing. This I did, beginning at seven, and continuing 
then, and in all my after visits, a little more than half- 
an-hour, adding to the psalm and prayer a short ex- 
position of Scripture. Though the exercise was early, 
the attendance commonly filled the place; and surely 
God was in the midst of us of a truth. The services 



238 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

were informal and simple, and the spirit of devotion 
was certainly felt. With what pleasure does the 
writer call back those delightful engagements, in which 
many joined in saying, " Lord, it is good for us to be 
here." 

The pastor of the church at this time, instead of 
feeling jealousy or indifference, was himself most 
pleasingly excited, and did everything in his power to 
increase a brother's acceptance and success. He was 
the excellent Mr. Crisp, who is now, and has been for 
some years, the president of the Baptist College in 
Bristol ; and his removal to that important station was 
one of the results of the writer's intercourse with St. 
Ives. Nor can he forbear mentioning another event 
originating from it, viz., the marriage of his second 
daughter to Grarnt Ashton, Esq., an event very inter- 
esting to his feelings, and which has furnished one of 
the greatest satisfactions of his life. After a course, 
blameless, exemplary, and useful in no common de- 
gree, this follower of the Lamb finished her course in 
peace, and fell asleep in Jesus; and is had in applaud- 
ing remembrance of all that were about her. 

A minister should feel peculiarly honored and grate- 
ful when Grod gives him a convert that not only ob- 
tains good, but also perpetuates, multiplies, and dif- 
fuses it. We believe that none of the subjects of di- 
vine grace are entirely barren and . unfruitful in the- 
knowledge of our Lord and Saviour ; but some of the 
good ground brings forth, not only thirty but sixty, 
and even a hundredfold. 

JST.B. I shall here mention a little incident which 
I met with before I left St. Ives. One day I saw on 
a small under-shelf in the pulpit a volume of hymns 



OP THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 239 

and spiritual songs; it consisted of three books: 1st. 
On various subjects. 2dlj. Adapted to the Lord's 
Supper. 3clly. In peculiar measures. It -was designed 
as a Supplement to Dr. Watts. I had never seen it nor 
heard of it before. I took it to the house of my friend ; 
and after examining it, I borrowed it ; and rinding it 
was not used in the worship, nor found in the congre- 
gation, I begged it. The compositions themselves be- 
trayed much spirituality and evangelism, and no little 
degree of poetical excellence. A few of them I have 
inserted in my own appendix to Watts. As the book 
seems to be now unknown, and the author, one of the 
most extraordinary individuals that ever lived in our 
world, it may be interesting to mention a few facts 
concerning him. His name was Simon Brown, and 
he lies buried at Bridge water. He first labored in 
Portsmouth, and afterwards preached somewhere in 
London. For many years before his death he fell into 
the strange notion, that God had for his sins annihi- 
lated his rational soul, and had left him only the soul 
of a brute. He never after this felt the least doubt to 
shake this conviction. Yet he wrote several works ; 
one was a Defence of Christianity against the Deists ; 
the dedication of which, as a most singular curiosity, is 
to be found, under his name, in the "Encyclopaedia 
Britannica." 

In some respects his case surpassed Cowper's ; yet, 
under all his delusion, there was nothing exceptionable 
in all his productions ; so that Mr. Toplady said of 
him. instead of having no soul, he wrote, and reason- 
ed, and prayed as if he had two. 



240 THE LITERARY REMAIN'S 

THE EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE. 

Addressed to Mr. Charles Godwin. 

UPON the formation of this Christian Association in 
Bath, Mr. Jay received an invitation to attend. He 
was unable to comply, owing to a previous engage- 
ment, but expressed his concurrence and approbation 
thus : 

I preached, indeed, last evening, but with diffi- 
culty, and at present I shrink back from any addition- 
al excitement or exertion. 

This, however, is not the only reason of my non-at- 
tendance. I am. this day seventy -and-seven years old, 
2 Sam. vii, 18 ; the day is felt interesting to my family, 
and some more immediate connexions, and I had made 
engagements which I cannot now alter, and engaged 
those I cannot put off. 

I was not brought up among the JUxclusives, and I 
have served all religious parties; holding the Head, 
who have applied for my services. I have always 
held my own sentiments with firmness, and preached 
them without disguise ; and I never found the sober 
and candid statement of these offensive to those who dif- 
fered from me, as they saw I gave the liberty I took. 

I have long been convinced that illiberality is not 
confined to any one denomination of Christians we 
are all verily guilty ; and that bigotry is not to be 
subdued by bigotry, but by an opposite spirit. 

The attempt (to form the Alliance) commenced at 
Liverpool, was a noble one, and failure in such an en- 
deavor would be far preferable to success in a thousand 
other causes ; but no good effort, begun with such an 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 241 

aim. and carried on in such a spirit, and with G od in 
the midst of it, ever was, ever will be, ever can be, in 
vain. 

I shall be with you in spirit ; and I have such con- 
fidence in the wisdom and goodness of my brethren, 
that, whatever they agree in, I shall unite in with 
them ; that is, as far as to acquiesce, and countenance, 
and recommend, for I must give up positive agencies. 
It is too late for me to take part in initiative and ex- 
ecutive proceedings ; and, blessed be God, there are 
enough to be found of leisure and ability for such pur- 
poses. I have too much for my age upon my head 
and hands from the press and the pulpit; and I must 
draw in from other things ; for which, too, I was al- 
ways less fit." 

May 3, 1846. 

I wish the Evangelical Alliance met with more en- 
couragement. I expect good from it. It must tend 
to liberalize and unite which we so much want. May 
the Lord be in the midst of them as a spirit of judg- 
ment and a spirit of burning ! 

DR. JOHN OWEN. 

I HAVE been dipping a little into dear Doctor Owen's 
book on the " Grlory of Christ," which he wrote and 
published in his last illness, when he was above half 
way to heaven. what a savor is there in every 
page, every line, every word! If other books lead us 
to religion, rouse us, and attach us to religion, this 
brings us into it. " The true spouse of Jesus Christ," 
he says, "is to be known by her always enjoying the 
company of her beloved, or mourning after it." This, 
I think, is one of those 'emarks that a Christian may 

ll 



24-2 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

easily apprehend and rejoice in. The Doctor observes, 
also, " That Christ in heaven does not live a life of 
mere glory , but of office.' 1 '' Yes, it was expedient for 
us that He went away. His exaltation has not ban- 
ished us from his mind. He appears in the presence 
of God for us. could we by faith see our High 
Priest in his complete administration could we see 
him as John saw him, clothed with a garment down 
to the feet, and girt with a golden girdle what a con- 
solation would it infuse into our souls under painful 
apprehensions of our guilt and imperfections ! What 
an energy would it communicate to all our exertions ! 
"What a fervor into all our devotional intercourse with 
God! 

APOSTOLICAL SUCCESSION. 

"LET me know," he said, writing to a friend, " when 

has established the Apostolical Succession, as I 

intend then, old as I am, to conform. Many of the 
clergy here begin to be shy of the notion, seeing the 
use the Puseyites make of it, and that it appears to 
be the main pillar of Popery. One of them (a rector 
too), conversing in my library some time ago, when a 
very foolish thing was said, exclaimed, " Really I know 
nothing so absurd, except our notion of Apostolical 
Succession !" Newton and Scott, &c., &c., knew no- 
thing of this; nor the best of our evangelical clergy 
now. The lower ground for a Ghurch-of-England 
man is the safest. A high churchman will never be 
able to contend successfully against a papist. 



WORDSWORTH. 

I WAS rather surprised at your admiration of Words- 
worth. He is always beyond me. I can never under- 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 243 

stand him ; and I have no notion of studying poetry, 
which is designed to please, and which, like a fine 
scene of nature, strikes and delights me at once. Do 
you remember (though I have not been influenced by 
them) how the Edinburgh Reviewers dealt with him 
some years ago ? But it has become fashionable to 
extol him ; and much of this has been owing to his 
Tory friends, in reward for his bigoted aristocratic 
feeling. I have here presented you with Cowper's 
Life and Works. Eead, and eat, and drink him. He 
is the poet all nature and all grace too ; never in the 
fogs never making his readers pause to ask what is 
the meaning of this ? or if there is any ? and is it just 
or not ? is it interesting or not ? 

MOEAL AND EVANGELICAL PREACHING. 

THE difference between these is, not that one 
preaches good works, and not the other, for both 
preach them ; but one expects motion without life, the 
other looks for life in order to motion ; the one waters 
dead trees, and obtains no fruit ; the other living trees, 
that bring forth abundantly. 

INDWELLING SIN. 

SAINT PAUL said, " I am sold under sin." But it is 
recorded of Ahab that he sold himself to work wicked- 
ness. There is a great difference between the man 
who sells himself and the poor negro who is kidnapped. 
" It is no more," says the Apostle, " I that do it, but 
sin that dwelleth in me." 



244 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

THE EELATIVE MISERY OF SIN. 
"That man perished not alone in his iniquity.' JOSHUA, xxii. 20. 

THERE is no greater fallacy than is involved in the 
common phrase, "He is no man's enemy but . Js own." 
Every bad man is the enemy of his wife, his children, 
his family at large, his church, his country, and his 
kind ; nor does any rank he may hold in society in- 
validate the truth of this remark, nor diminish the re- 
sponsibility of the transgressor. 

ORTON'S "LIFE OF DODDRIDGE." 

MR. JAY said that Mr. Wilberforce considered Or- 
ton's " Life of Doddridge" one of the best pieces of 
biography in our language ; and Mr. Cornelius Win- 
ter observed, that if ever he felt disposed to pride, he 
took down that work to read. 

COMMON SENSE. 

WHEN will the grace of Grod enthrone common 
sense in the minds of religious people ? 

FAITH. 

MAN originally fell by losing his confidence in God, 
and can only be raised by the restoration of his confi- 
dence. In other words, unbelief was his ruin, and he 
now stands by faith. 

FISHING FOR COMPLIMENTS. 

SOME people angle for praise with the bait of hu- 
mility. I hope you will never be caught by it. They 
condemn themselves, hoping that you will contradict 



OP THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 245 

them and commend them. Kather join in running 
them down. It is always "better to eri on the safe 
side. 

THE SIN AGAINST THE HOLY GHOST. 

IT is most probable that the Almighty has chosen 
to veil the precise nature of this sin under more or 
less of obscurity, in order that we may keep at the 
utmost possible distance from it. If I wish to protect 
an enclosure from depreciation, and for that purpose 
affix the usual notice, that traps or snares are set 
within, I do not at the same time advertise the public 
where they are placed, or I may be sure they will enter 
where they consider it safe. 

TYPES AND SHADOWS. 

THE Jews, like children, had a. picture placed above 
their lesson. 

THE GREAT .INTERCESSOR. 

HE who knows but the- alphabet of prayer, and he 
who has been most experienced in its use, must alike 
take refuge in Him who ever liveth to make interces- 
sion for us. 

ON LORD BYRON. 

IN a sermon preached in May, 1824, from 1 Pet. i. 
24, 25 : " For all flesh is as grass, and all the glory 
of man as the flower of grass. The grass withereth, 
and the flower thereof falleth away ; but the word of 
the Lord endureth forever ; and this is the Word 
which by the Grospel is preached unto you," in notic- 
ing the death of this illustrious individual, Mr. Jay 



246 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

delivered the following apostrophe, which was soon 
after inserted in the "Bath and Cheltenham Ga- 
zette" : 

" Byron ! Byron ! thy death brought this text to 
my remembrance ! Byron ! thy premature fall gave 
rise to these solemn reflections! Who can help la- 
menting the perverse and unhallowed use of thy stu- 
pendous powers ! "Who can think, unmoved, of the 
vigor of thy intellect the riches of thy imagination 
thy breathless sublimities of conception and express- 
ion ! Who can think, unmoved, of the going down 
of such a sun at noon ! of a genius, that might have 
ranked with a Milton, quenched forever ; and leaving 
so much to admire so much to deplore so much to 
abhor ! No knell of departed greatness has ever more 
solemnly sounded forth this sentiment : All flesh is as 
grass j and all the glory of man as the flower of grass : the 
grass withereth, and the flower thereof falleth away" 



SERMON J- 
"He shall choose our inheritance for us." PSALM xlvii. 4. 

DAVID said, " I rejoice at thy word as one that find- 
eth great spoil." " The law of thy mouth is better 
unto me than thousands of gold and silver." The 
Scriptures abound with instructions, admonitions, and 
counsels ; and he who studies and observes them will 
find that they are "profitable for doctrine, for reproof, 
for correction, foi instruction in righteousness, that the 
man of Grod may be perfect, thoroughly furnished untc 



OF THE EEV. "WILLIAM JAY. 247 

all good works," and may stand complete in all the 
will of God. 

The Book of Psalms we have always considered as 
the treasury of religious experience : whether we are 
in sorrow or in joy, whether we pray or praise, wheth- 
er we exercise confidence or resignation, here we al- 
ways find " a word in season ;" and " how good is 
it !" " 'Tis like apples of gold in pictures of silver." 
Such is the language of our text, " He shall choose 
our inheritance for us." May the God of all grace en- 
able us to make this sentiment our own ! In order to 
accomplish this purpose, let us make four inquiries ; 
and, 1st, To what does the sentiment refer ? 2dly, On 
what is the sentiment founded ? 3dly, By what is the 
sentiment enforced? 4thly, How is the sentiment to 
be improved? "Consider what I say, and the Lord 
give you understanding in all things." FIRST, To 
WHAT DOES THE SENTIMENT REFER " our inherit- 
ance" ? Now Canaan was the inheritance of the Jews, 
and God chose this for them. Thus they could say, 
" The lines have fallen to us in pleasant places, we 
have a goodly heritage," for it was the glory of all 
lands, and flowed with milk and honey. The Chris- 
tian has another and a better inheritance, " an inherit- 
ance incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth not away, 
reserved in heaven for him;" and this God has chosen 
for him, and he cannot be satisfied without the pos- 
session of it. " As for me," says he, with David, " I 
will behold thy face in righteousness ; I shall be sat- 
isfied when I awake in thy likeness ;" for, be it re- 
membered, his resignation to the choice of God with 
regard to his eternal destiny does not extend so far as 
some profess to extend it ; he does not express himself 



248 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

with tliose deluded persons, and say (this is the Ian 
gunge of one of them), "Lord, if thou send me to hell 
or to heaven, thy will b, clone; whether my portion is 
to be saved or to perish, I shall never cease to love or tc 
praise thee." Why, a little experience of the misery of 
the lost would bring these poor creatures to their senses. 

There are two things which we may observe. The 
one is, the thing of which they boast is impossible. 
You cannot love one that you are persuaded is an ene- 
my to your eternal happiness. And, secondly, the 
thing implies also a contradiction, for God has com- 
manded us to seek, above all things, "his kingdom 
and his righteousness." Therefore, he can never be 
pleased at our disregarding what he has enjoined, or 
with our willingness to sacrifice what he has promised. 
But a Christian can leave to his heavenly Father all 
the choice of his eternal inheritance (that is, when he 
can realize his interest in Christ), knowing that " in 
his Father's house are many mansions ;" and as to the 
degree of glory he shall obtain, for " one star differ- 
eth from another star in glory;" and as to the employ- 
ments in which he shall be engaged, for "his servants 
shall serve him" as -well as see his face, and shall 
"serve him day and night in his temple." His grand 
concern is to gain the reality, and, as to the rest, in re- 
gard to all the appendages, he can say, " If by any 
means I may attain to the resurrection of the dead." 

But the sentiment refers to time rather than to eter- 
nuy, and to Grod's choice in the regulation of all our 
enjoyments 011 earth. Thus, therefore, the Christian 
can sajr, " The Lord shall choose my inheritance for 
me," as to my abode. He shall determine the bounds 
of my habitation, and the place of my residence. A 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 249 

change of situation, contrary to my disposition and 
inclination to a fixed abode, I find to be trying ; but I 
know not what effects with regard to myself or others 
may result from it. 

" To me remains nor place nor time, 
My country is in every clime ; 
I can be calm, and free from care, 
On any sliore, since God is tliere. 

At home, abroad, what sweets they prove, 
"Whose souls are fired with sacred love ; 
In heaven, on earth, or on the sea, 
"Where'er they dwell, they dwell with Thee. 

"While place we seek, or place we shun, 
The soul finds happiness iu none ; 
But if Thy smiles attend our way, 
'Tis equal joy to go or stay. 

Could I be cast where Thou art not, 
That were indeed a dreadful lot ; 
But regions none remote I call, 
Secure of finding: Thee in all." 



o 



" He shall choose my inheritance for me" as to occu- 
pation. He shall determine the nature of my profess- 
ion and calling. He has servants in all vocations, 
and they are all equally respectable when appointed 
by Him, and all are "sanctified by the word of God 
and prayer." " He shall choose my inheritance for 
me" as to condition. He shall determine whether my 
plans shall flourish or fail ; whether I am to be known 
'or to be obscure ; whether I am to be affluent or poor. 
" He shall choose my inheritance for me" as to connec- 
tion. He shall determine whether I am to serve Him 
individually 01 relatively, whether I shall preside over 

11* 



250 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

a family or be written childless in the earth, whether I 
shall have friends, or whether I am to feel the want 
of them. " He shall choose my inheritance for me" 
as to health. He shall determine whether I am to 
serve Him actively or passively, whether my strength, 
shall be equal to my day of labor, and my hands be 
sufficient for me, or whether I shall be made to possess 
months of vanity, or have wearisome nights appointed 
unto me. " He shall choose my inheritance for me" 
as to life itself. He shall determine how long or how 
short shall be its continuance ; and the time and place, 
the mode and the means, of my removal, I leave with 
Him in whose hands my breath is, and whose are all 
my ways. Thus, all that alarms my fears, all that ex- 
cites my hopes, all that engages my expectations, I 
commit to Him in compliance with his merciful admo- 
nitions and injunctions, " Oast thy burden on the 
Lord, and he shall sustain thee." " Commit thy way 
unto the Lord, trust also in him, and he shall bring it 
to pass." " Casting all your care upon him, for he 
careth for you." 

" My cares, I give you to the wind, 

And shake you off like dust ; 
Well may we trust our all with Him, 
With whom our souls we trust." 

Let us inquire, 

SECONDLY, ON WHAT THIS SENTIMENT is FOUNDED. 
It is founded, my brethren, on the belief of God's su- 
preme agency in all our affairs. Now. as to the fact 
itself. There is such a thing as a Divine providence. 
He who made the world has not abandoned it. " In 
him we live and move," as wel as "have our being." 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAr. 251 

And He does not govern all by mechanical laws, as a 
man who may form a machine that can go without his 
inspection, and which he may therefore leave, for a 
season at least, to another, while he attends to some- 
thing else. For here, were God to suspend his atten- 
tion for one moment, all would run into confusion and 
disorder. Nor does he govern all by general laws, 
as if he regarded whole systems and whole worlds, or 
a series of worlds, while he overlooks individuals and 
minute concerns. This notion, half philosophical and 
half infidel, some in our day have embraced, as if, for- 
sooth, it were beneath Grod. What ! can it be beneath 
him to manage what it was not beneath him to create ? 
Or, as if they would save him trouble and perplexity 
arising from a multiplicity of cares. But surely In- 
finite Wisdom and Power can never be in perplexity. 
He "fainteth not, neither is weary; there is no search- 
ing of his understanding." There are those who cavil 
at the notion of a particular providence ; but we should 
remember that universal providence necessarily implies 
a particular one, as the whole is necessarily made "up 
of various parts. Let us, therefore, come and hear 
Him, into whose lips grace was poured, and who 
spake as never man spake. Let us hear Him, who 
maketh his sun to shine on the evil and on the good, 
and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust, Him, 
who wings an angel, and teaches the spider to weave 
his web who numbers the hair of our heads, remem- 
bering it is said, " A sparrow falleth not to the ground 
ivithout your Heavenly Father." Look, said our Lord 
to his disciples, Look at the fowls of the air, which 
neither have storehouse nor barn, yet they are pro- 
vided for ; though when they drop from their perches 



252 THE L1TEHARY REMAINS 

in the morning they know not where they shall find 
one grain of food. " And \vhy take ye thought for rai- 
ment ? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow ; 
they toil not, neither do they spin ;" but yet he clothes 
them, and " Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed 
tike one of these. Wherefore, if God so clothe the 
grass of the field, which to-day is, and to-morrow is 
cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, 
ye of little faith ?" "When we speak of little things, 
we often know not what we are saying, for how can 
we determine what is little ? There are many things 
which are very small in themselves, yet, by their con- 
nection and by their results, what are they ? How 
often do we see events of the greatest importance 
hanging upon apparently trifling circumstances ! 
When Joseph was sent to inquire after his brethren 
in Dothan, how little did he think that he should go 
by a way by which he should never return, and that 
liis successes would furnish matter for entertainment 
and instruction to the end of time ! We should al- 
ways bear in mind, when we go forth in the morning, 
that something may overtake us before evening, which 
may give a complexion to the whole of our future 
days. The providence of God extends not only to 
our minute affairs, but to what we call casual con- 
cerns ; for we are expressly told, that " the lot is cast 
into the lap, but the whole disposing thereof is of the 
Lord." And what is accidental with regard to us is 
not so with regard to God. " He worketh all things 
according to the counsel of his own will ;" and " of 
him, and from him, and to him are all things ; to 
whom be glory forever and ever. Amen." 

JSTow, my brethren, you will observe this is a fact 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 253 

whether you hear, or whether you forbear; but he 
who uses this- language realizes it, and brings it home 
to his own bosom; he is persuaded though God is 
high, yet that he condescends to manage his minute 
affairs, and, therefore, says he, "I will cry unto Grod 
most high, unto God that performeth all things for 
me." While unbelief keeps God at a distance faith 
brings him near, and with his presence fills what other- 
wise would be a gloomy and aching void. "When I 
am enabled to realize this principle and say, " He shall 
choose my inheritance for me," then can I exercise 
confidence in him, and then I feel fresh motives for 
my praise and gratitude. "When I sink in deep waters 
where there is no standing, this principle raises me 
up, " sets my feet upon a rock, and establishes my 
goings, and puts a new song into my mouth, even 
praise unto the Lord." Now, I go on nry way ro- 
joicing ; now, he who was once afar off is made nigh, 
and my God sustains me ; now, I have a God who 
has succeeded me in my. endeavors, who is doing .all 
things for me, and doing all things well. 

<_J / CJ C-/ 

The doctrine, my brethren, of a particular provi- 
dence puts the Christian and all his concerns on board 
a vessel, and then gives God the supreme command ; 
so the Christian feels supreme satisfaction when he is 
persuaded that all the Divine arrangements are made 
with reference to his providence. I am well aware 
that this notion may be carried to excess. "We have 
all some secret tendency in us to enthusiasm and fa- 
naticism ; and we sometimes meet with persons who 
seem to think that they are the very centre of God's 
designs, as if God had nothing to do but to attend to 
them. Yet it is true he does act and care for the 



254: THE LITERAEY REMAINS 

Christian individually, for there are circumstances in 
the life of every Christian that will not allow of his 
questionii g it. When he looks lack he can say, 

" Many days have pass'd since then, 
Many changes I have seen, 
Tet have been upheld till now ; 
"Who could hold me up but Thou ?" 

Then, as to the present, " Thou tellest all my wan- 
derings ; thou puttest my tears into thy bottle ; are 
they not in thy book ?" And it is, my brethren, a 
truth, that while all creatures are the subjects of provi- 
dence, his own people are the end-. Therefore it is 
said, " The eyes of the Lord run to and fro throughout 
the Avhole earth, to show himself strong on the behalf 
of them whose heart is perfect toward him." 

Let us now ask, and endeavor to answer, a third 
question, viz : 

THIRDLY, BY WHAT is THIS SENTIMENT ENFORCED ? 
We will mention only one particular. Nothing can 
be more reasonable than this confidence ; and, what- 
ever the people of the world may think, "wisdom" as 
our Lord says, "is justified of all her children ;" and 
they are able to give a reason of their prospects, as 
well of their hope. Let us, therefore, consider jive 
things by way of argument. Grod has a right to choose 
for us, and we have not a right. God is qualified to 
choose for us, and we are not qualiiied to choose for 
ourselves. Grod has already chosen well, and is will- 
ing still to choose for us why should we resign Him? 
and you never will feel so peaceful and so comfortable 
as when you know all is under his care and direction, 
that he has undertaken the charge in answer to your 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 255 

resolution, " The Lord shall chose our inheritance for 
us." 

First. He has a right to choose for us. A right much 
greater than a tutor over his pupils, or a father over 
his child a right derived from, absolute sovereignty ; 
for, has He not a right to do what he will with his 
own ? Suppose He were to say to any creature, " Gro 
thy way take that that is thine own ;" what would he 
be able to take away? Would he be able to take 
away himself? Why, his being would immediately 
relapse into its original nothingness. He has a pro- 
priety in us we never can say, He takes away from 
us what does not belong to Him. 

"The dear delights we here enjoy, 

And fondly call our own, 
Are but short favors, borrow'd now, 
To be repaid anon." 

But what right now have you to choose ? Produce it 
if you can ; justify it if }-ou can. Have you made 
yourself? Have you redeemed yourself? Have you 
sustained yourself? From whose wardrobe have you 
been clothed ? At whose table have you been fed ? 
Who is it that draws your curtain at night around 
you, and tells creation to be quiet while you slumber 
and sleep ? Whose mercies are new every morning ? 
A gardener may admire a beautiful flower, and may 
wish to preserve what he has raised with so much care, 
in the parterre. He conies into the garden, and finds 
it gathered. But he is disposed to be angry, and asks, 
" Who has gathered it ?" " Oh," says a fellow-servant, 
"It was our master. He came here this morning, and 
gathered it." What is the consequence ? Why then 



256 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

the gardener is still, and opens not his month," becanse 
the owner has clone it. And shall it not be much 
more the case with regard to us, with regard to our 
losses and bereavements? Then you will observe, 

Secondly, God is qualified to choose for us ; as the 
right belongs to Him, so the ability belongs to Him ; 
and His judgment is always according to truth. He 
can never be mistaken, therefore, 

"Since all the down-ward tracks of time 

God's watchful eyes surveys, 
Oh ! who so wise to choose our lot, 
A Or regulate our ways ?" 

He knoweth your frame. He can distinguish be- 
tween JOU.Y wants and your wishes. He knows what 
will be good for you, forty years hence, if you live so 
long. He knows perfectly how you will feel in any 
condition in which you can be placed. He knows well 
how to refuse you, and when to indulge you. 

Are you qualified to choose " to have your own 
desire"? "The way of man is not in himself. It is 
not in man that walketh to direct his steps." Al- 
phonso, king of Spain, was addicted to the study of 
astronomy, when that sublime science was less known 
than at present ; and having, in his ignorance, observed, 
as he thought, some irregularities in the heavenly 
bodies, he said, "If I had been by the side of the 
Maker when he put these in motion, I could have 
given him some good advice." Now you shudder at 
such an expression, but have you not done this with 
regard to the providence of (rod ? Have you not often 
thought that you could "direct the Lord," and " be 
liis counsellor"? Everything unfits us to choose our 



OF THE REV WILLIAM JAY. 257 

inherit!, 13 j for oar-salver We are too ignorant to 
choose for ourselves. We n .:. j choose that which may 
issue in our mischief and misery. We see only a 
small portion of the whole but a few parts only ; nor 
do we see their connection with others ; nor do we see 
their final results. We know what we feel in our pres- 
ent situations and conditions ; but we cannot know 
how we should feel in new and untried ones. Observe 
the case of Hazael, when the man of God wept, and 
Hazael said, " Why weepest thou, my lord? And he 
answered, Because I know the evil that thou wilt do 
unto the children of Israel, their strongholds shalt 
thou set on fire, and their young men wilt thou slay 
with the sword, and wilt dash their children, and rip 
up their women with child." What, said he, am I a 
dog that I should do this ? He was then sincere in 
his detestation. But said the prophet, the Lord hath 
showed me that thou shalt be king over Syria. So he 
came to the throne put off humanity put on tyran- 
ny, and became all that the prophet predicted. And 
though he had said, "Is thy servant a dog that he 
should do this great thing?" Yet, as an old writer ob- 
serves, " The dog DID do it." 

Then we are too sensual to choose our inheritance 
for ourselves. We may desire dainty meat, when per- 
haps we need medicine. We are anxious to gather 
fruit while it is green, whereas it must be most nutri- 
tious when it comes to maturity. So Lot desired the 
plains of Sodom because he saw they were well water- 
ed and fertile ; but little did he reflect upon the neigh- 
bors and the intercourse he might have there. He 
therefore had soon occasion to lament his choice ; and 
"his righteous soul was vexed from day to day with 



258 THE LITERARY REMAIN'S 

the filthv conversation of the wicked :" then he was 

U ' 

burnt out of house and home; then his wife became a 
pillar of salt, and his character became tarnished and 
disgraced and all this from his choosing his own in- 
heritance. 

Then WQ should be too impatient to choose it. We 
should prefer what is near to what is remote, what is 
present to that which is future. We should be dis- 
posed to reap as soon as we have sown, not reflecting 
that the months of winter must come between the 
seed-time and the harvest; and there must be long 
patience until we have the early and latter rain. Then, 

Thirdly. .Let us remember that He lias chosen al- 
ready for us: why, then, should we abandon Him now, 
that He has chosen for us well, and that He has proved 
himse]f worthy of our confidence? And seeing we 
are incapable of judging for ourselves, why do we not 
now approve of His designs ? Do we not now see 
wisdom in what once appeared irregular and confused ? 
Do we not now see kindness in what once appeared to 
be severe ? " O generation, saith the Lord, have I 
been a wilderness unto Israel? a land of darkness?" 
" my people, what have I done unto thee, and 
wherein have I wearied thee ? testify against me ! " 
Have I taken advantage of thy dependance to injure 
thee ? Have I not made all things work together for 
good? But if I have done this, why do you decline 
me as to jour future confidence? What narrow escapes 
have some of you had ! When questioning your in- 
ability to judge for yourselves, had I allowed you for 
awhile to steer your little bark across the ocean of 
time, you would soon have stranded or struck against 
a rock if I had not interposed on your behalf. 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 259 

Fourthly. God is willing to choose for you still. Yes, 
this is wonderful, but it is true. If you bad been 
placed under the direction of any creature, even of any 
angel, he would have long ago abandoned you. ; but 
God has borne with your manners and with your faith- 
lessness in the wilderness. He hath said, " I am the 
Lord I change not ; therefore ye sons of Jacob are 
not consumed." This leaves you without excuse. 
You might otherwise have said, " God hath forsaken 
me, and I must manage as well as I can for myself." 
But this is not the case. But God is ready still to hear 
your prayer. You may, therefore, cry unto Him, " 
Lord, I am oppressed ; undertake for me." Place 
your reliance upon Him, and he will lead you and 
guide you in the way you should go. Repose a child- 
like trust and confidence in Him. 

Then, finally, and to close the argument, You will 
never feel peace and comfort till you feel assured that 
all is under the guidance and direction of your Heav- 
enly Father that he has undertaken the charge of all, 
in answer to your resolution, " The Lord shall chose 
my inheritance for me." The only way in which you 
can obtain your desires is, always to commit them to 
God. He will guide you by his counsel. The only 
way to happiness in a world like this, so full of 
changes, is, to trust in Him to " trust in the Lord for- 
ever, for in the Lord Jehovah is everlasting strength." 
Therefore He hath said, " Thou wilt keep him in per- 
fect peace, whose mind is stayed on Thee, because he 
trusteth in Thee." Solomon has this fine passage, 
" Commit thy works unto the Lord, and thy thoughts 
shall be established." And do you commit your 
thoughts unto the Lord ? Our thoughts create anxie- 



260 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

ties, they produce trenmlousness and vexations of 
mind, according to Solomon. And what is to "be done 
in the multitude of our thoughts arising from our vari- 
ous concerns? What can calm them? Why, confi- 
dence in Grod. Commit thy works unto the Lord, and 
thy thoughts that may arise from them, however they 
may be multiplied, shall be established. 

The heathens acknowledged that care was a cross 
and a malady, and they prescribed for the malady; 
but all their prescriptions proved ineffectual in remov- 
ing the complaint. But the apostle prescribes an effect- 
ual remedy, in his Epistle to the Philippians, where 
he says, "Be careful for nothing, but in everything, 
by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let 
your requests be made known unto God." And, 
Christians, what a load of care would be removed, 
what relief, what serenity would you feel, were yon 
able to realize this ! But let us hasten to consider 
once more. 

FOURTHLY, IN WHAT THIS SENTIMENT is TO BE IM- 
PROVED ? And, my brethren, we may improve it in 
a way of concession. We acknowledge this cause is 
difficult. It implies the mortification of pride and 
vanity' 'the sacrifice of self- will, of self-conceit, and 
self-sufficienc} 7 ' it. implies a willingness to be deprived 
of our possessions to have our inclinations crossed, 
and our fond hopes destroyed. And you may feel as- 
sured of this, that the man is a stranger to the thing 
who is a stranger to such an attainment. No, it is the 
consequence of hard striving, of much observance of 
the misery of others, of much of the experience of 
those evils tc which we have found ourselves exposed, 
when, instead of trusting in the Lord with all our 



OF THE EEV. WII LIAM JAY. 261 

heart, we have leaned to oar own understanding. 
And, after all, there are some remains of this wretch- 
ed leaven still left in the believer in our Lord Jesus. 
But they are hallowed, heavenly hours in which the 
Christian, with a holy heroism, can relinquish all, and 
say, falling upon his knees, "The Lord, He shall choose 
my inheritance for me." 

Then we may improve it by remarking, that it is so 
rare. "We cannot look for this state of mind except 
among Christians. The generality of mankind are 
" living without God, and without hope in the world ;" 
and, though surrounded by so many proofs of his 
goodness, God is not in all their thoughts. They 
don't wish to be considered as atheists, and would per- 
haps be offended if we did not consider them as pos- 
sessors of Christianity. But what are they ? Practi- 
cal atheists. They have no abiding impression of 
God upon their minds they don't refer to his glory 
in their pursuits they use no means to ascertain his 
will, nor endeavor to secure his approbation. 

We may improve it in a way of inquiry. Is the 
text your language? And is it the expression of the 
heart ? for while man looketh on the outward appear- 
ance, the Lord looketh at the heart. There is much 
that is speculative in many professors of religion. But 
it would be absurd to suppose that such a sentiment 
was sincere and not operative. Surely the creed will 
guide the conduct ; and we judge of the reality of 
your possessing godliness by the influence it will have 
upon you. ' You will not be urging after what God 
lias denied, or quarrelling with him for what he has 
bestowed ; but you would rather say with David, 
" Surely I have behaved and quieted myself as a child 



262 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

that is weaned of his mother ; my soul is as a weaned 



Let us also improve it in a way of admonition. Now 
have any of you an important movement in view ? 
Learn to wait much upon God, seeking his direction. 
Move not but as you see the pillar of cloud or pillar 
of fire move, unless you would have God left behind 
you. There may be some difficulty ; but in such cases 
never engage in anything without a conviction of its 
being right ; if conscious of this, God will spare you, 
and peace shall be with you ; but otherwise, what can 
be your peace ? 

You must wait^/br God, you see, as well as wait upon 
God. There are some, James tells us, who will be 
rich, whether God will have it so or not they will : 
but says the Apostle Paul, " They that will be rich, . 
fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish 
and hurtful lusts, which drown men in perdition and 
destruction." Alas ! how much we see of this ! And 
hear again the language of James : " Go to now, ye 
that say, To-day or to-morrow we will go into such a 
city, and continue there a year, and buy, and sell, and 
get gain ; whereas ye know not what shall be on the 
morrow. For what is your life ? It is even a vapor 
that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth 
away. For that ye ought to say, If the Lord will, we 
shall live, and do this or that." Now, here we have 
an unsanctined tradesman. He carries on business to 
great advantage : he seems to have no desire to-monop- 
olize, or to run down others : his aim seems to be to 
use it only in a lawful way of business. What, now, 
is there in this at all reprehensible? seeing it is the hand 
of the diligent that maketh rich, and if any provide 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 263 

not for his own, and especially for those of his own. 
house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an 
infidel. Bnt, perhaps you say he is avaricious he is 
ambitious and that it is not a substance he wants, 
but an abundance not a competency, but splendor, 
and to be carried away by the pride of life. But, 
however this may be, God is not present to his mind. 
He never prayed before his undertaking. He never 
sought Divine direction, or said, " He shall choose my 
inheritance for me." He has been regardless of Him 
upon whom everything depends. He never said, "If 
the Lord will I shall live to do this or that." But he 
is to succeed ; he is to live another year, regardless of 
vicissitudes and accidents, and he is to gain, notwith- 
standing faithless servants and heartless friends, and 
all those changes to which mortals are exposed while 
here. 

Then it is the only way of usefulness. The Chris- 
tian being blessed, becomes a blessing to others. 

It is also the only waj oihappiness. God has given the 
dearest and highest enjoyment here in the place of our 
pilgrimage. The source of our highest happiness and 
dearest blessedness consists in our triumphs over sin, 
over self, and iisefulness to others. 

All without, and all about me, tells me I am a sinner. 
The Bible tells me what I must do to be saved. I 
must repent of sin, and believe in the name of the 
only -begotten Son of God. 

O my hearers, may this not be a lost opportunity, 
or the means of your greater condemnation. Eemern- 
ber that " now is the accepted time, now is the day of 
salvation." 

In conclusion Though I wish it not to be exclu- 



264 THE LITERARY REMAIN'S 

sively regarded as an address to the young, yet I wish 
to impress these words, and press the sentiment upon 
you, my dear young friends. Your knowledge is 
small. You are destitute of that kind of information, 
the most valuable, derived from experience. Your 
feelings are easily and powerfully wrought upon. 
How much importance attaches to your conduct in the 
futurities of life, and upon any step you may take ! 
A wrong step may produce a thousand bitter re- 
morses, and cause repentance to be quartered upon 
you for life. Where is your safety ? I tremble for 
you when I see you entering upon, and having to pass 
through, such a world as this. Where, I ask again, 
is your safety ? Will you not from this time cry unto 
God, " My Father, thou shalt be the guide of my 
youth" ? It is a mercy that some of you have wise 
and good parents to counsel and direct you. These, 
however, are not a substitute for God but God can 
be a substitute for them to you, if you should be de- 
prived of them ; and if father and mother should be 
called to forsake you, the Lord will take you up. O 
that you may see the importance, and be influenced to 
make a surrender of yourselves to Him ! And you 
know who hath said, " I love them that love me, and 
those that seek me early shall find me." 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 265 



SERMON II. 

"I \vill bring the blind by a way that they knew not ; I will lead 
them in paths that they have not known ; I will make dark- 
ness light before them, and crooked things straight. These things 
will I do unto them, and not forsake them." ISAIAH, xlii. 16. 

THE sky is not more beautifully spangled with stars 
than the Bible is filled with promises. It is to remind 
us. of the greatness of these assurances, that the Apostle 
Peter tells us there are given " exceeding great and 
precious promises ;" but this would only have prepar- 
ed the way for disappointment, by raising our expect- 
ations high, unless they could be absolutely depended 
upon ; and, therefore, the Apostle Paul says, " all the 
promises of Grod are yea and amen in Christ Jesus." 
Now, thus recommended, you cannot be too well ac- 
quainted with them ; you cannot too frequently review 
them ; nothing can be more pleasing, nothing more 
profitable, than to place them opposite all your exi- 
gencies ; to seek from them relief for all that is trying 
in creatures around you ; and to compare them with 
their accomplishment in others and in ourselves. " I 
will bring the blind by a way that they knew not ; I 
will lead them in paths that they have not known ; I 
will make darkness light before them, and crooked 
things straight. These things will I do unto them, and 
not forsake them." 

These words have been completely accomplished in 
those who have reached Immanuel's land, and in 
whose number \ve now reckon so many of our own be- 
loved friends and relations who are waiting to receive 
us into everlasting habitations. 1 say they are com- 

12 



266 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

pletely accomplished in them. As soon as ever they 
had taken possession of the inheritance of the saints 
in light, some Joshua said to them, "Ye know in all 
your hearts that not one thing has failed of all the 
good things which the Lord your God spake concerning 
you; all are come to pass unto you, and not one thing 
hath failed thereof." But, Christians, }^ou are not yet 
come to the rest of the Lord, but you are journeying 
towards it; so far He has been your helper, and be- 
cause He has been your helper it becomes you to say, 
with David, "Therefore under the shadow of thy 
wings will I put rny trust." And to aid you a little in 
your gratitude in the reflection of the past, and in your 
confidence in prospect of the future, let us in this brief 
and familiar exercise examine God's engagements, and 
see the advantages we are to derive from them. 

First. As A LEADER. 

Secondly. As AIST INTERPRETER. 

Thirdly. As A NEVER-FAILING FRIEND. 

My brethren, it is our mercy that though we cannot 
know Grod perfectly we can know Him. savingly : 
though we know not what He is in himself, we see what 
He is to us. He is held forth in His Word as our Lead- 
er. "I will bring the blind by a way that they know 
not; I will lead them in paths that they have not 
known." What could we do without such a guide ? 
What would be the condition of man without God 
with him in the world ? He is a wanderer on the dark 
mountains, exposed to every destroyer, and by a miser- 
able time working out a more miserable eternity. You 
may go to hell without God, but you will never go to 
heaven but under His conduct ; and yet men naturally 
are not sensible- of their need of such a guide. There 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 267 

is nothing men are so proud of as their knowledge ; 
they would generally rather be considered knaves than 
fools ; of everything that pertains to them they are 
pleased with nothing but their understandings ; they 
have not enough of anything else, but here they are 
completely satisfied ; in any kind of contention or 
reasoning you will always find them preferring their 
own modicum of sense to that of others, and this, too, 
just in proportion to their ignorance, and deficiency, 
and want of judgment; and so vain man would be 
wise, though man be born like a wild ass's colt. " "We 
go astray from the womb," says David. "We are " alien- 
ated from Grod by wicked works," says Paul. li 
ever you have sincerely reflected on your condition ; 
if ever you have been in earnest to reach eternal glory ; 
it ever you have been duly sensible of your own guilt 
and weakness, and the difficulties and dangers of the 
] ;assage, this has been from that hour your prayer, 
"Lead me in thy truth, and teach me. Teach me to 
do thy will, for thou art my Grod." And does He dis- 
regard such a prayer? He always pays attention to it ; 
He takes us under his guidance; and every believer 
may therefore say, with David, " He restoreth my soul ; 
he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his 
name's sake." And hence the church exults and ex- 
claims, " This Grod is our Grod forever and ever; He 
will be our guide, even unto death." Well may we 
rejoice, if we are under the care of such a Being in 
our way to heaven ; one so almighty to defend us, so 
condescending to converse with us, so kind to indulge 
us, so patient to bear with us, and so wise to choose 
our inheritance for us. But the persons whom He 
thus leads are called blind. How is this ? Are they 



268 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

not in Scripture always represented as children of the 
clay? Does not the apostle say to them, "Ye were 
darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord '' ? In the 
9th of John you read that the Pharisees said unto the 
blind man ; he was not blind then, but he had been 
blind, and they called him by the old name. So it is 
here. They are called from what they once were ; and 
what they are indeed now partially. Let us, therefore, 
now see for a few moments how, and where, He leads 
them. " I will lead them in paths they have not 
known." This is true. 

1. In their spiritual concerns. "What, Christian, did 
you formerly know of things you now see the beauty 
and feel the importance of ? What did you once know 
of conviction of sin ? You now see its evil and guilt 
as well as its danger ; you see its pollution, and how it 
excludes you righteously from the presence of a holy 
Grod ; you now not only fear it, but you hate it ; and 
you now not only leave it, but you loathe it. "What 
did you once know of faith in Christ ? ISTow you claim 
him as your foundation and your refuge ; now you re- 
joice in him with joy unspeakable, and full of glory. 
But did you go this way heretofore ? What did you 
then know of a throne of grace ? You heard of prayer 
you said yours, perhaps, very regularly ; or, if not, 
when any danger or distress excited you : but now 
you hunger and thirst after righteousness ; now you 
come unto Grod by Him ; now you have boldness and 
access with confidence, by the faith of Him ; now you 
can say, " It is good for me to draw near unto Grod." 
But did you go this way heretofore? No. He hath 
brought the blind by a way that they knew not. If 
now you are Christians, you were not born such ; you 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 269 

were made such. He has made you to differ, and the 
difference arises from His having called you " out of 
darkness into his maivellous light;" the conver- 
sion, which you have been made the subject of, is, 
therefore, in Scripture, said to be your " walking in 
newness of life ;" observe this, in newness of life. 
There is always a leaning in people to antiquity, and 
there is some reason for it ; it is not a mere prejudice ; 
and the reason is this, because truth was before error ; 
for error is the perversion of truth, and a thing must 
exist before it can be perverted or abused. Now peo- 
ple know this; and, therefore, when the "truth as it 
is in Jesus" comes into a neighborhood, the common 
language is, that it is a novel thing. But nothing can 
be more false than this accusation. The Grospel was 
preached to the Jews The Grospel was preached to 
Abraham 430 years before the giving of the law yea, 
the Gospel was preached in Paradise to Adam and 
Eve in the first promise. What do we say ? An in- 
fidel has entitled a book " Christianity as old as the 
Creation," and we accept the charge in one view. As 
old as the Creation ! It is much older. " We hope," 
says the apostle, " in eternal life, which Grod, that can- 
not lie, promised before the world began." But though 
the charge of novelty be false in this respect, it is true 
in another. There is a newness in these things as to 
their perception. Though you have heard of them 
read of them- before, yet, when you are called by 
grace, you have other views of them, and other feel- 
ings than before: you seem to have entered a new 
world. Thus would it be if some of you went to 
Italy ; it would not be a new country, but it would be 
new to you. If a man were born blind, and restored 



270 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

to sight, why, lie would not see a new sun, but it 
would be new to him ; and thus it is that the Lord 
leads us in paths that we have not known. 
It is equally true with regard to Christians, 
2. In their temporal concerns for here, what do you 
know as to future scenes ? what with regard to nations, 
families, individuals ? what with regard to yourselves ? 
Why, you know not what a day may bring forth. 
And when you look back on life, all that is very im- 
portant in it you had not once been led to expect; 
the places in which you have resided, your friendships, 
your employments, your enterprises, your disappoint- 
ments, your successes, all these would formerly, had 
they been presented to you, have appeared strange ; 
and, had they been foretold, would have led you to 
say, with the unbelieving nobleman, " If the Lord 
should make windows in heaven, might such things 
be !" Now this is peculiarly the case with regard to 
some men. In their lives there has been such an op- 
position between obscurity and splendor, that there 
seems to be between them a gulf which could not have 
been passed ; but it has been passed under the lead- 
ings of Him. " who is wonderful in counsel and excel- 
lent in working." 

When the Jews returned from Babylon, and, instead 
of being peeled and stripped, were even enriched ; 
" when," said they, " the Lord turned our captivity, 
we were like them that dreamed." When the Jews 
were in the wilderness, they never knew where they 
should fix their next station; and this was not often a 
straightforward motion, but, as Moses remarks, "he 
led them about? and yet the psalmist makes this re- 
mark upon it, " he led them by a right way." So 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 271 

Abraham went forth, not knowing whither he went, 
but he knew with whom ; and as Job said, " Behold 
I go forward, but He is not there, and backward, but 
I cannot perceive Him ; but He knoweth the way that 
I take." 

Having viewed God as oiir leader, let us 

Secondly. See Him as our Interpreter. The knowl- 
edge he imparts to his people is always gradual, like 
the dawn that shineth more and more unto the perfect 
day. " I will make darkness light before them, and 
crooked things straight." Let us see how this may be 
exemplified in five cases or instances. 

"He makes darkness light, and crooked things 
straight." 

1. As to Doctrine.' It is not for us to determine with 
how much ignorance in the mind, and error in judg- 
ment, grace may be associated in the heart ; but we 
read in the Gospel of a blind man, on whose eyes our 
Saviour put his fingers, and said to him, Look, and he 
looked up, and said, "I see men as trees walking." 
But he was under the operation of Christ ; and when 
He put his hand a second time to the work, and said, 
Look up, he said, " Now I see all things clearly." So 
it is here, it is precisely the case with persons ; for 
some have very defective, obscure views of some of 
the leading truths of the Gospel ; I mean, compared 
with what others possess, and what they themselves 
will possess afterwards. I seldom, indeed, like per- 
sons who all at once become so very clear and high ; 
they remind me of those poor ricketty children, whose 
heads grow larger than their bodies ; it is not the ef- 
fect of strength, but of disease and weakness. I never 
think it well to see speculation going before expe- 



272 THE LITERARY REMAIN'S 

rience. All Grod's works are progressive. We see 
first the blade then the ear after that the full corn 
in the ear. Our Saviour said to his own disciples, " I 
have many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear 
them now." When will ministers, when will Chris- 
tians, learn to follow His example ? when will they 
be able to exercise patience towards the imperfect? 
You sometimes seem not only mortified, but even of- 
fended, because persons do not learn in a few weeks 
or mouths what Grod has been teaching you twenty or 
thirty years, and which you know but very imper- 
fectly now. If the heart be broken (which is what I 
look for) if the heart be broken for sin and from it ; 
and if a man be brought on his knees, and humbly 
prays that Grod would lead him into all truth ; if) as the 
apostle says, as far as he has attained he walks by the 
same rule and minds the same thing, then, from him, 
1 am authorized to conclude, "that if in anything else 
he be otherwise minded, Grod will reveal it unto him ;" 
and though in such persons the work is often slow, I 
have often observed it is very sure ; I have never 
found any of these persons carried away with the fol- 
lies of the day ; they have believed, and had the wit- 
ness in themselves. 

He makes darkness light before them, and crooked 
things straight. 

2. As to Experience. There are many things here 
which are often very perplexing to Christians ; and 
nothing more than the temptations with which, they 
are assailed. Perhaps there are persons here this 
morning who are ready to say, " Ah, no one knows 
so much of temptations as I do; they are the death of 
my comforts, and I often say, will prove the destruc- 



OF THE KEY. WILLIAM JAY. 273 

tion of my soul at last." But as they go on, they are 
called to see and to understand, that while the strong 
man armed kept his palace, his goods were in peace ; 
that Pharaoh pursued after the children of Israel be- 
fore they had left his realms ; that our Saviour was in 
all points tempted like as we are ; and that the man 
who is a stranger to Christian conflict has no reason in 
the world to believe that he is a partaker of the Di- 
vine life ; for every Christian tells us the flesh lusteth 
against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh. 
Again : with regard to prayer, which is another source 
often of perplexity. The man reads in Scripture that 
God hears prayer, and, says he, "I have prayed, and 
he shutteth out my prayer." But, bj'-and-bye, he is 
enabled to distinguish -between hearing and answering 
prayer ; and to learn that the prayer of faith is im- 
mediately heard, but not immediately answered : that 
when God designs good to his people, He waits to be 
gracious : you would pluck the fruit while it is green, 
but He draws back your hand. It is the same with re- 
gard to the manner in which He answers prayer often. 
By strange, and sometimes even terrible things, in 
righteousness, does He answer His people, as the God 
of their salvation. Some of you are acquainted with 
the excellent language of Mr. Newton in his hymn : 

" I ask'd the Lord, that I might grow 

In faith, and love, and every grace ; 
Might more of his salvation know, 
And seek more earnestly his face. 

'Twas He who taught me thus to pray, 
And He, 1 trust, has answer' d prayer ; 

But it has been in such a way, 
As almost drave me to despair 
J2* 



274 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

I hoped that, in some favor'd hour, 

At once He 'd answer my request, 
And, by his love's constraining power, 

Subdue my sins, and give ma rest. 

Instead of this, He made me feel 

The hidden evils of my heart, 
And let the angry powers of hell 

Assault my soul in every part. 

Yea, more, with his own hand He seem'd 

Intent to aggravate my woe ; 
Cross'd all the fair designs I schem'd, 
Blasted my gourds, and laid them low. 

" Lord, why is this ?" I trembling cried, 
" Wilt thou pursue thy worm to death ?" 

" 'Tis in this way," the Lord replied, 
" I answer prayer for grace and faith : 

" These inward trials I employ, 

From Keif and pride to set theefree, 
And break thy schemes of earthly joy, 

That thou may'st seek thy all in Me." 

So it is again with regard to joy. The man reads 
that religion is every way friendly to joy that they 
return and come to Zion with songs, and with ever- 
lasting joy upon their heads ; but, says he, I know so 
little of this that I am afraid I have no part nor lot in 
the matter ; but he, bj^-and-bye, learns that saints are 
described in the Scriptures by their tears, as well as 
by their joys " they shall come with weeping and 
with supplication." He mixes with Christians more 
advanced, and he learns^ from them that they are the 
subjects of the same alternations ; and thus what prov- 
ed a stumbling-block before becomes a way-mark to 
teach him that he is in the way everlasting. I remem- 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 276 

ber Milner, in his last illness, said, " If some 

years ago I had been as destitute of comfort as I now 
am, it would have exceedingly perplexed me ; but I 
have long learned that it is one important act of faith 
to hang on the bare word of God, and to trust in a God 
that hideth himself." This leads us to another article; 
and, 

THIRDLY, WITH REGARD TO ASSURANCE, "He makes 
darkness light before them, and crooked things straight." 
Oh, say some, to know my interest in the everlasting 
covenant ! Oh 5 then I would face a frowning world ! 
Oh, then I would defy the king of terrors ; but all is ob- 
scurity with me. 'Tis a point I long to know, but at 
present all I can attain is a kind of peradventure 
perhaps I am right ; but when trouble comes upon me 
when the shadows of the evening are hastening on 
to have no more certainty than this, what am I to 
do ? Do as you are doing. " "Wait on the Lord, and 
keep his way. Wait on the Lord, be of good courage, 
and he shall strengthen thine heart ; wait, I say, on 
the Lord." " Them, that honor me," says He, " I will 
honor." Keep at His feet, therefore, till you feel He 
has taken you into his bosom. Continue crying, 
" God be merciful to me a sinner," till you are able to 
say with Thomas, " My Lord and my God !" He will 
"make darkness light before you, and crooked things 
straight." 

As to practical duty.- With regard to changes in your 
condition in life, the removal of your habitation, a 
transition from one business to another, or anything of 
this nature, you are at a loss to know what the will of 
God is: this genders in you many anxieties to -which 
others are strangers ; but you read that if you walk 



276 THE LITEKAKY BEMAINS 

contrary to God, He will walk contrary to you ; how 
much, depends on one wrong step ; consequences may 
arise from it that Anil give a complexion to all your 
future clays, and quarter repentance upon you for life. 
Now here you are not to expect miracles, but you are to 
make use of sense and reason, and Scripture, and the 
advice of friends. You are to wait for Grod and you 
are to wait upon Grod. You are to remember the com- 
mand, " Trust in the Lord with all thine heart, and 
lean not unto thine own understanding." " In all thy 
ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths." 

" He will make darkness light before you, and crook- 
ed things straight." 

5. In the dispensations of his providence. Where is 
the Christian but has sometimes had reason to ex- 
claim, "Hiswaj^is in the sea, and his paths in the 
deep waters; "and where is the Christian but after a 
while has seen that He can turn the shadow of death 
into the morning? I see, says the Christian, why such 
a prop was taken away. I was beginning to lean upon 
it. I can see now why I was exercised with such a 
sorrow ; it was to soften my heart, and to enable me to 
sympathize with others in distress ; that sickness of the 
body was to heal the disease of the mind. So Job, 
although severely tried, saw before his death that the 
end of the Lord was very pitiful and of tender mercy. 
So David could say also, "It is good for me that I 
have been afflicted ; for before I was afflicted I went 
astray, but now I have kept thy word; "that is, I was 
ill, and he bled me, and I recovered. He drew the 
ploughshare all along, but it was to break up the fair 
low ground, and to prepare for the reception of the 
seed. Take heed, therefore, that you do not drawhastv 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 277 

conclusions from present aspects of providence. Take 
heed that you- do not say, "All these things are 
against ine;"but say with Paul, "I know that all 
things shall work together for my good." Follow the 
admonition of Isaiah, " Who is among you that feareth. 
the Lord that walketh in darkness, and hath no light, 
let him trust in the name of the Lord, and stay upon 
his God." ISTow observe. If you were to travel with a 
guide when you came to a very dismal place, you would 
not only follow, but you would lay hold of, your con- 
ductor, and lean ; and so says Isaiah, " Let him stay 
upon his Grod, and he will fulfil his word. T will 
bring the blind by a way that they know not ; I will 
lead them in paths that they have not known. I will 
make darkness light before them, and crooked things 
straight." Then observe, 

Thirdly. He is their never-failing PEIEND/ "These 
things will I do unto them, and will not forsake them." 
It will readily be allowed that they deserve to be for- 
saken, and they may say with the Church of old, " It 
is of the Lord's mercies that we are not consumed." 
And they also suppose frequently that they are for- 
saken so did Zion. "Zion said, The Lord hath for- 
saken, and my Grod hath forgotten me." But it was 
not so. " Can a woman forget her sucking child, that 
she should not have compassion on the son of her 
womb; yea, they may forget, yet will not I forget 
thee." Asaph drew the same conclusion, and it was 
equally ill founded. " "Will the Lord cast off for ever, 
and will he be favorable no more ?" But how often 
do your ministers dwell on Divine desertion? "We 
must, therefore, show how there may be a forsaking 
quite consistent with the truth of our te> : " These 



278 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

tilings will I do unto them, and not forsake them." 
There are three ways in which God maybe said to for- 
sake his people : 

1. As to outward comfort and tondition. He may re- 
duce them much ; he may deprive them of their con- 
nexions and possessions. Remember what he said to 
the Jews : "I will go" observe he said, " I will go and 
return unto my place until they seek my face ; in their 
affliction they will seek me early." We see what is in- 
tended by His going away and returning ; it was leav- 
ing them to their embarrassments, and perplexities, and 
troubles, till He came to deliver them ; but this is com- 
patible with the real presence of God too : every con- 
dition is supportable while He is with us ; and, with 
regard to trouble, if He leaves his people in anything 
else, He cannot leave them in trouble, for He has made 
a particular engagement there, " I will be with them 
in trouble." He may forsake His people, 

2. As to feeling spiritual comfort ; but while they 
have no sensible consolation, yet there is grace, and 
grace operating frequently with peculiar power in pro- 
ducing contentment of soul and humiliation before 
God. How was it with Cooper the martyr ? He felt 
no consolation till he came to the stake, and then he 
exclaimed, " Wow He is come, now He is come ! " But 
He must have been with him before, (though now He 
came in a way of manifestation.) or he never would 
have come to the stake. What grace there must have 
been in Job to enable him to say, " Though he slay 
me, yet will I trust in him!" David says, " My soul 
folio weth hard after thee; thy right hand upholdeth 
me." There seems a confusion of images. Here 
David is fallowing hard after God, and yet God is up- 



OF THE EEV. WILLIAM JAY. 279 

holding him at the same time. He was seeking (rod 
in one view, while Grocl was supporting and sustaining 
him in another. He was seeking for consolation while 
he felt Divine support. Then, 

3. As to grace itself He may forsake His people 
not as to habit, but as to degree, not as to existence, 
but as to exercise. The best way for ministers to 
teach, is to teach by facts, and history, and example. 
Eemember the history of Hezekiah howbeit in the 
affair of the ambassador Grod left him to try what was 
in his heart. ""Weak as we are," says Newton, " we 
shall not faint." He may therefore leave you in three 
ways : First, As to your outward condition : Second- 
ly, As to sensible spiritual comfort : Thirdly, As to 
the degree and exercise of faith. But further than 
this we cannot go, unless we go without the Scrip- 
ture. He never can forsake His people wholly ; cast 
down but not destroyed. "Though ye fall," says 
David, " ye shall not be utterly cast down." He can- 
not forsake His people finally. Here 's His own en- 
gagement, " This is as the waters of Noah unto me ; 
for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no 
more go over the earth ; so have I sworn that I would 
not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee. For the 
mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed, but 
my kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall 
the covenant of my peace be removed, saith the Lord, 
that hath mercy on thee." 

You know I have not time to argue this any fur- 
ther ; otherwise ho\v many passages of Scripture there 
are that would furnish us with materials enough. 
" He will not forsake his people, because it hath 
pleased him to make them his people." " Being 



280 THE LITERARY REMAINS 

confident of this very thing, that he which hath be- 
gun a good work in yon will perform it unto the day 
of Jesus Christ." His people, therefore, may say with- 
out presumption, "I am persuaded that neither death, 
nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor 
things present, nor things to come, shall be able to 
separate us from the love of God, which is in Jesus 
Christ our Lord." 

It is a delightful spectacle that has been presented 
before us. It is always pleasing to see God at work ; 
how pleasing and delightful to see His agency in the 
world of nature ; how I love to stand on a hill and 
look down on the valley beneath, or to stand by the 
side of a brook, or to pass through a field of standing 
corn, and to see how He has prepared of His goodness 
for the poor. 

I love to see His agency in providence, especially 
in a time of such trouble and disaffection as ours, and 
to remember that He is a God among the nations. 
But oh, to contemplate His agency in grace ; to see 
God going and taking possession of a sinner for Him- 
self; and forever to see Him detach him from his sins, 
and from the spirit of the world, saying to him, " Fol- 
low me ;" to see Him taking the sinner in all the ruins 
of the fall, and making him an eternal excellency, the 
joy of many generations, and bringing him in triumph 
to endless glory ! And oh, how often has He done it. 
" We speak that we do know, and testify that we have 
seen." I hail you, therefore, Christians, but I cannot 
pity you. I pity the poor, and I wish it were in my 
power to relieve them. I pity the wealthy who are 
destitute of heavenly riches. I pity the scholar who 
understands not a word of the language of Canaan. 



OF THE REV. WILLIAM JAY. 28? 

I pity the astronomer who is familiar with, stars, and 
knows not the way to heaven. Oh, these are all piti- 
able characters; pity them my brethren pray for 
them ; but as for you who are partakers of His grace, 
and are under His own guidance, I '11 never pity you ; 
whatever be your condition, however poor, however 
despised, you are not pitiable ; you are enviable, and 
the only enviable characters in this world ; and there- 
fore we kneel in view of you and pray, Oh, remem- 
ber me with the favor Thou bearest to thy people. 
And surely this should be an excitement and encour- 
agement to you to seek for an interest in the same 
blessedness. "Therefore," says David, "they that 
know thy name will put their trust in thee." And 
you should apply this, Christians, as a remedy. You 
should take it as Paul did, and apply it as a cure for 
two things covetousness and carefulness. Let your 
conversation be without covetousness. Be careful for 
nothing. 

May you, therefore, take this promise with you from 
the house of Grod ; and carry it along with you in all 
your succeeding journey. Make use of it as Solomon 
recommends, " Tie it about thy neck write it upon 
the table of thine heart." 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS 



REV. WILLIAM JAY, 

AS A PREACHER, AND AS AN AUTHOR, 



BY 

THE EDITORS 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS, &c. 



HITHERTO in tlaese volumes the reader's attention 
has been mainly directed to Mr. Jay's own account of 
himself his history, his progress, his recollections. 
The Editors have felt that their services to his mem- 
ory ought to be chiefly regulated by the documents 
placed in their hands, and limited to such passing an- 
notations, or supplemental matter, as seemed to be re- 
quired for conveying a just view of their subject, and 
a complete narrative of his history. 

But judging that so interesting and remarkable a 
character well deserves a separate sketch from another 
hand beside his own, and supposing that the reader 
will expect something of this sort, as a conclusion to 
the volumes, which in the main may be said to be 
his own representation of himself; the Editors have 
ventured to subjoin the following observations, on the 
two principal views of his public character for which 
he was admired by his contemporaries, and will be re- 
spected by future ages. 

ME. JAY AS THE PEEACHEE. 

A PREACHEE who, from his first appearance in the 
pulpit, at the age of sixteen, till he retired from it 



286 CONCLUDING OBSERVATION'S. 

when eighty-four years old, fixed and held the atten- 
tion of the public ; who, during this lengthened peri- 
od, was heard with equal interest by the aged and the 
young, the learned and the illiterate, who always 
crowded, whenever he presented himself, to listen to 
his teaching ; who was eulogized by such men as Wil- 
berforoe, Beckford, and Sir William Knighton ; by 
Hall, Chalmers, and Foster ; who, Avhether he preach- 
ed in the city or in the village, drew after him his 
ministerial brethren, both of his own church and most 
others ; who was esteemed and admired by all denom- 
inations of professing Christians ; and who, when his 
sermons were sent forth from the press, raised for him- 
self, in both hemispheres, a reputation such as few of 
his own day, or any other, ever obtained, must have 
possessed elements of power, after which it is worth 
while to inquire, not only for the purpose of gratify- 
ing curiosity, but to prompt and guide the spirit of 
lawful emulation. Such a preacher was Mr. Jay ; and 
it is the object of this Sketch to show in what his at- 
tractions principally consisted, and to what he owed 
his extensive and permanent popularity. 

It may be stated, as a preliminary remark, that the 
arrangements of Providence, as regarcls his personal 
appearance, his physical endowments both of body 
and mind, the circumstances of his conversion, the 
peculiar nature of his professional education, as well 
as the state of the Christian Church when he first ap- 
peared in public, were all preparatory to his future 
eminence as a preacher of the Grospel. This, with a 
kind of instinctive sagacity, he perceived ; and, from 
the commencement of his Christian career, fixed his 
eye exclusively upon the pulpit, and cherished a hal 



CONCLUDING OBSEEVATIONS. 287 

lowed desire to excel as a minister of Jesus Christ. 
He clearly saw that, if he would do one great thing 
well, he must concentrate his powers upon that, and 
make everything else give place, or become subserv- 
ient to it. He had from the beginning an almost in- 
tuitive perception of what constituted pulpit excel- 
lence ; he studied the attractions and defects of other 
preachers felt the promptings of a holy ambition 
after eminence and usefulness ; and with that con- 
sciousness of power which usually attends genius, and 
inspires it with the foresight of success, he determined, 
by Grod's grace, to attain to distinction as a preacher. 
This, however, was not the mere yearning of youthful 
vanity, but the prompting of a heart throbbing with 
solicitude for the salvation of souls. True it is, that 
his attention was first of all directed to this subject by 
Mr. Winter. This excellent man discerned at once 
what a bud of ministerial promise there was in that 
mason-lad whom he saw among his hearers, and who 
afterwards came in his apron to converse with him on 
the subject of religion and of the ministry. But the 
boy Jay embraced with his whole heart the sublime 
object, as soon as it was presented to him, and conse- 
crated himself to it from the moment that it arose in 
its full-orbed glory upon his mental horizon. 

His academic curriculum was of too short duration, 
and too limited in its literary advantages, and too 
often interrupted by preaching, to allow much hope 
of his ever being a scholar, a metaphysician, or a phi- 
losopher. But preaching of a very high order he was 
assured could be attained without these things. And 
he was right. As a general principle, learning is of 
essential importance to the ministers of religion ; and, 



288 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

other tilings being equal, he will make the best preach- 
er who is most thoroughly educated. JSTor should our 
young ministers suffer themselves too hastily to con- 
clude, that they can never attain to eminence in litera- 
ture ; and be induced to abandon, it under the notion 
that, as they have neither taste nor aptitude for it, they 
will concentrate all their attention upon preaching. 
Still, we contend that it is not indispensable that every 
preacher should be an eminent scholar. "Where, as in 
the case of Mr. Jay, opportunities for literature are 
denied to the eager aspirant after ministerial labor, 
and yet there are all the other essential elements of a 
good preacher, there let a strong determination be 
formed by all possible diligence in the use of such 
means as are afforded, to excel in that, holy career, to 
which the leadings of Providence invite, and the im- 
pulses of a longing heart prompt. 

Mr. Jay's whole character, as a public man, may bo 
summed up in that one word, THE PREACHER ; and it 
is in this view he must be contemplated by all who 
would conceive of him aright. True, he was an au- 
thor, and one of the most popular writers of his day, 
both in America and this country ; yet nearly all his 
works consisted of Sermons, or what, as in his "Morn- 
ing and Evening Exercises," bore a resemblance to 
them. So that he was still a silent preacher, even in 
his books. Such a mind as his could, however, doubt- 
less, by dint of resolute determination and close appli- 
cation, have attained to eminence in any department 
of study. He himself tells us that his taste at one 
time led him to abstruse speculation ; but that, finding 
it engrossed too much of his time, and interfered with 
more useful pursuits, he laid it aside, and addicted 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 289 

himself to matters which bore more directly upon his 
ministerial duties. "We have no doubt, however, that 
while conscience had something to do with this, mental 
aptitude was not wholly unconcerned. What was 
practical was far more congenial with his order of 
mind than what was speculative ; and his choice of 
the former was as certainly and, perhaps, as much the 
result of temperament as of principle. 

Mr. Jay as a preacher owed not a little to his per- 
sonal appearance, and undoubtedly much to his voice. 
In the earlier periods of his history, his countenance 
was eminently prepossessing. The portrait affixed to 
this work, copied from a painting taken when he 
was about forty-nine years of age, and which was con- 
sidered a good likeness at the time, proves this. His 
black hair, dark eyes, florid complexion, and an ex- 
pression of features in which intelligence and benevo- 
lence mingled with somewhat of archness, at once at- 
tracted and interested his hearers. As he advanced 
in years, he became much stouter, which, as he was 
never tall, destroyed in some measure the symmetry of 
his frame A graphic writer thus describes his ap- 
pearance in the decline of life : 

" It is not very long since," says Dr. James Hamil- 
.011, " we heard him with wonder and delight, and in 
our own as well as in millions of memories is still de- 
picted that countenance whose sunshine furnished its 
own photograph ; so wise and so witty, so wrinkled 
vet so radiant ; with so much of youthful ardor welling 
up in the fountains of those deeply-fringed, softly - 
burning eyes ; and with words so holy and so tender 
dropping from those lips in whose corners lurked all 
that was quaint or caustic ; whilst like an oak-thicket 

13 



290 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

on an old rampart-summit, tliat strong visage and firm 
brow rose and were lost in the shaggv wilderness 

t>(_Ji-' 

which covered all with its copsj crown." 

Mr. Jay's voice was certainly one of the charms of 
his preaching. It was sonorous but not loud alter- 
nating between bass and tenor ; strong yet soft ; mu- 
sical and flexible ; and more adapted to give express- 
ion to what is tender, pathetic, and solemn, than to 
what is lively, impetuous, and impulsive. If it did 
not stir you as with the blast of a trumpet, it soothed 
and delighted you, as with the soft tones of a flute. 
This indeed was the general character of his preach- 
ing, in which the manner was suited to the matter. 
You sat in sweet stillness, luxuriating under those 
beautiful trains of quiet thinking, and gentle, holy, 
and evangelic emotion, uttered in tones so mellifluous, 
that you seemed to be listening to music which came 
from another world, and which lifted your soul to the 
sphere from which it emanated. An involuntary, un- 
bidden tear occasionally suffused your eye, and a gen- 
tle emotion filled your heart, as some touching pass- 
age, in plaintive sounds, swelling like those of an Eo- 
lian harp, passed over your spirit and moved it, just 
as a summer's breeze ruffles the surface of a lake, with- 
out deeply or violently disturbing it. 

He entered the pulpit in a grave, collected manner, 
apparently absorbed in his mission, and with a step 
rather quick, yet solemn, and without hurry, and after 
sometimes casting a glance round upon- the audience, 
retired into himself, and seemed to be gathering up 
his thoughts and energies, to negotiate between God and 
man the weighty affairs of judgment and of mercy. 
In the preliminary exercises of public worship, read- 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 291 

ing the Scriptures, and prayer, Mr. Jay never forgot 
that, in one of these, he was enunciating the words of 
the Most High ; and in the other, that he was address- 
ing himself to Him before whom the seraphim veil 
their faces. It has been sometimes thought and said 
that very little spiritual, at any rate saving effect, is 
produced by the public reading of the Scriptures. Is 
not this to be traced up to the careless, unimpressive, 
irreverent, and unfeeling manner in which the exer- 
cise is performed? The tones, emphasis, and accents 
of a good reader, who is neither elaborate, artificial, 
nor theatrical in his manner, convey both instruction 
and impression, and are a kind of exposition of the 
sacred text. 

In prayer Mr. Jay was often singularly felicitous in 
his expressions, and always devout in his manner; 
his devotions were richly scriptural and strictly appro- 
priate ; perhaps occasionally a little too quai-nt in ex- 
pression, and therefore liable to interfere with perfect 
composure and gravity. He was slow and solemn in 
bis utterance, and his feelings were so far under con- 
trol as never to hurry him into that rapidity and vo- 
ciferation which, we regret to say, characterize those 
addresses to the Almighty which are made from some 
ISTonconforming pulpits. If reform be necessary in the 
lituigical services of the Church of England, it is 
equally necessary in the extempore ones of some among 
the Dissenters. Occasionally there is too much of 
preaching in prayer ; too much of theology ; too little 
of petition and confession. There is a happy medium 
between that elaboration which, by its artificial ness, 
represses religious feeling, and that negligence which 
disgusts good taste ; between that muttering and trem- 



292 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

"bling which betoken slavish dread, and the louu. or 
even boisterous manner which indicates want of feel- 
ing and displays of unhallowed familiarity. "We do 
not wonder that church people of refinement who oc- 
casionally attend Dissenting worship, complain of a 
want of solemnity and devout feeling in our prayers ; 
yet were extempore prayer performed as it should be, 
they would retire with a conviction of its superior ap- 
propriateness, earnestness, and adaptation to the va- 
rious classes of the congregation, and the changeful 
experience of the Christian heart. 

In the selection of his texts, Mr. Jay was often very 
ingenious. His extraordinary acquaintance with his 
Bible gave him great advantage in this. His hearers 
were often surprised by a passage which was so novel 
to them, that they did not know there was such a verse 
in the Scriptures. His canon was, that to secure and 
hold attention, to produce impression and do good, 
the preaching must be something that will " strike and 
stick.' 1 ' 1 Perhaps, in carrying out this, he sometimes 
erred on the side of quaintness, both in the selection 
of texts and in his illustrations. Yet a quaint text, 
if one may thus characterize any portion of God's 
word, if it contain an important lesson, and if it be 
fairly dealt with, and be not "fey an ingenious fancy 
tortured upon the rack, to extort from it a meaning 
which it would not otherwise acknowledge, tends to 
secure attention and enliven the preaching. But this 
must not be done too often, or it will lose its effect, 
and subject the preacher to the imputation of being a 
pulpit-jester. 

Mr. Jay's introductions to his sermons were some- 
times as striking as his texts. We remember once 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 293 

hearing him, when preaching on Pilate's question, put 
to Jesus Christ, "What is truth?" commence his 
sermon thus: "It is A truth, Pilate, that thou art a 
cowardly, guilty wretch, in surrendering Christ to be 
crucified when thou wert convinced he was an innocent 
man." This ex abnvpfo method of introduction is, 
however, a hazardous one, since it is somewhat diffi- 
cult to keep up the attention to that altitude which it 
has reached by such an exordium. It is like spicing 
the first dish at a feast so highly as to render all that 
follow in some measure insipid. 

The prevailing character of Mr. Jay's sermons, con 
sidered as to their matter, was the mixture of evan- 
gelical doctrine, experimental feeling, and Christian 
practice. His memoirs mention the fact, that on his 
first visit to London he had the character of several 
ministers described to him ; one as a doctrinal, a second 
as a practical, and a third as an experimental preacher. 
With the good sense, tact, and discrimination belong- 
ing to him, he said to himself, "I will be neither ex- 
clusively, but all unitedly." So he was. His evan- 
gelism, so far as doctrine was concerned, was never 
very prominent, as a thing separate and by itself, in 
the form of a dogmatic statement, with proofs from 
Scripture and controversial arguments, but was held 
in solution in his general course of preaching. To 
borrow an illustration from his reminiscence of Mr. 
Newton, that good man, in speaking of his Calvinism, 
said it was in his whole preaching, as sugar in a cup 
of tea, that which sweetened the whole, but which is 
not to be taken in the lump. 

We think Mr. Jay was a little deficient in not giving 
greater room and prominence to the chief truths of 



294: CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

salvation in their dogmatic form. He acknowledged 
lie was in early life, and it was perhaps also true to 
the end of it. When setting out in his ministry, he 
saw the errors into which many of the newly-formed 
evangelical school in the Church of England ran, in 
dwelling too abstractedly and exclusively upon dog- 
matic theology, and the bad effect it had in some in- 
stances upon their conduct ; and in avoiding this ex- 
treme he, perhaps, went over to another. He was in 
sentiment decidedly evangelical, and also in his 
preaching, but not formally and controversially doe 
trinal. It was his evangelism which constituted no 
small share of the attraction of his preaching His 
confession of faith, if such it may be called, deliver- 
ed at his ordination, though drawn up when only 
twenty-one years of age, is one of the most beautiful 
compends of evangelical truth in the English language. 
He was, to a very great extent, an experimental 
preacher, but his preaching seemed to touch upon the 
experience of those only who were tried by the ordi- 
nary cares and sorrows of human life, and to suggest 
the usual topies of consolation adapted to such cases, 
rather than to analyze those deep workings of the hu- 
man heart when struggling with all the powers of dark- 
ness, and all the strength of its own corruptions. It 
was the widow mourning over tier bereavement, the 
mother weeping for her dead child, the man of broken 
fortunes, the orphan youth, the perplexed pilgrim, or 
the Christian troubled with the common temptations of 
our probation, that his preaching was calculated to 
help and comfort ; and hence the wide range of his pop- 
ularity. Hence, amidst the crowd of his hearers and 
admirers, were not so many of those who wanted the 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 295 

stronger consolation which a heart bruised and broken 
in the spiritual conflict requires. But equally true is 
it, that he never administered to inconsistent professors 
the ardent spirit of Antinomian comfort, which was 
but too common at the commencement of his ministry ; 
or to imaginative believers, the cordials of a sentiment- 
al comfort, no less common at the close of it. It was, 
however, as a practical preacher that Mr. Jay chiefly 
excelled ; and here his excellences were transcendent. 
No man knew more clearly the obligations of the 
Christian life, and no man urged them more earnestly 
or more attractively. It was his happy art to make 
men feel that wisdom's ways are ways of pleasantness, 
and that all her paths are peace. 

Perhaps there is scarcely a single word which will 
more aptly describe Mr. Jay as a preacher than the 
term naturalness. This constituted, we are sure, no 
small part of the attraction of his manner. His voice, 
his tones, his action, were all inartificial, and displayed 
the gracefulness of nature. It was not an imitation of 
nature on the stage, but nature's self in her own walk 
and place of action. He spoke to you as you felt he 
should do, without any uncouth awkwardness or cari- 
cature which disfigures nature, or any studied affecta- 
tions which destroys it. To much action in the pulpit, 
in the use of the hands and arms, he was strongly op- 
posed, and seldom used any, except an occasional ele- 
vation of the hand. Here we think he was somewhat 
deficient, for nature prompts in strong emotion to bodily 
action. But this was the least part and the lowest 
manifestation of his naturalness. He spoke from his 
own nature to the nature of others, He was himself 
a most inartificial man. All his tastes, his habits, and 



296 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

his pursuits proved this. He knew human nature well. 
He studied it in himself and in others. He knew 
man, how he thinks, and feels, and acts. He drew his 
knowledge, not from copies in books, but from the liv- 
ing original. Men felt when thej heard him, that they 
were listening to a preacher who knew not only books, 
and theories, and systems, but humanity, both in its 
fallen and in its restored state; in its wants, woes, 
diseases, remedies, and varieties ; one who could sym- 
pathize with them as well as teach them. When, on 
a Sunday morning they came, worn and weary with 
the trials, toils, and cares of the six days' labor, and 
placed themselves under the sound of his mellifluous 
voice, they felt sure of not being tantalized and disap- 
pointed with a cold intellectualisrn, or a mere logical 
demonstration, or a metaphysical abstraction, or a 
wordy nothing, which would have been giving them a 
stone when they asked for bread ; or with something 
religiously poetic, which would have been offering 
them flowers when they wanted meat; but he fed 
them with food convenient for them, and satisfied the 
cravings of their nature with what satisfied his own. 

This quality of his preaching was very strikingly 
displayed in the illustrations with which his sermons 
abounded. He never suffered the attention of his 
hearers to doze over dry abstract disquisitions, or dull, 
didactic, and prosaic harangues, but kept it perpetually 
awake by appeals to their imagination. His talent for 
illustrative allusion was extraordinary. His sermons 
were not only by his beautiful fancy illuminated, like 
the ancient missals, but illustrated, like modern books, 
by descriptive scenes. They contained all the glow- 
ing coloring of th A one, with the more correct and 



CONCLUDING OBSEEVATIONS. 297 

graceful forms of the other. Here his naturalness con- 
stantly appeared, and in close resemblance to that of 
our Lord, who drew his similes and metaphors from the 
works of nature and the relationships of humanity. 
The great Teacher's discourses were replete with im- 
ages borrowed from the beasts of the field, and the 
birds of the air ; from rural sights and rural sounds ; 
from the ties of parentage, and the reciprocal obliga- 
tion of husband and wife, master and servant. So 
were Mr. Jay's. A natural simplicity and beauty, 
polished yet artless, pervaded his discourses. There 
was comparatively little of the grandeur and sublimity 
of the great masters of eloquence, but a constant suc- 
cession of chaste, tender, and smiling allusions. His 
preaching did not produce the effect of the lofty and 
fervid utterances of Eobert Hall, which, with their ele- 
gant diction, mighty conceptions, and glowing imagery, 
raised you into a fellowship of rapture with the speak- 
er's own mind: nor did it bear any resemblance to the 
gorgeous language, exuberant fancy, and dazzling 
splendors of Chalmers, which overwhelmed you with 
such mental opulence. The eloquence of the two lat- 
ter fell upon you as music from a full and perfect or- 
chestra. It came with the rush of a mountain torrent, 
and sounded majestic and awful like thunder booming 
over the ocean; but the eloquence of Mr. Jay was as the 
gentle and noiseless now of a majestic river, or like the 
deep, and solemn, and soothing tones of the organ. In 
hearing him you were brought near by a sweet and re- 
sistless attraction. You felt you could approach him, 
and be at home with him, and were in a state of af- 
finity with him ; while a feeling of awe came over you 
as yon listened to the others, which at once fascinated 

13* 



298 CONCLUDING OBbE.il VATIONS. 

you, and transported you with delight, and yet made 
you almost tremble. It seemed, in listening to Hall and 
Chalmers, as if you could no more alwaj^s bear such 
mental excitement than you could always endure the 
roar of a thunder-storm, or the falls of Niagara ; but 
to Mr. Jay you could forever listen, just as you never 
feel burdened by the waves of ocean gently breaking 
upon the shore on a summer's clay, nor by the gurg- 
ling noise of a brook meandering among stones. In- 
numerable instances of this naturalness of allusion and 
illustration might be selected from his printed sermons, 
which, when uttered with all the effect given to them 
by the music of his pathetic tones, must have melted 
down the hearts of his hearers into a state of highly 
pleasurable emotion. 

Mr. Jay was a master of the true pathetic. Minis- 
ters have too much neglected this. Some have thought, 
to do all in religious teaching by forceful appeals of 
logic addressed to the intellect. The understanding is 
the only facult}^ they seek to engage. Their logic is 
clear, but it is cold. They deal with man in only one 
view of his nature, as a rational being:, who has onJv to 

/ o-' tj' 

apprehend ideas, but forget that he is also an emotion- 
al being, who lias a heart to feeJ, and who often needs 
rather to be moved than convinced. His sensibility, 
sometimes the best, the only, avenue to his soul, is left 
unobserved, unoccupied. If the true order of nature 
be for the head to guide the heart, yet, in our disturbed 
and disordered condition, it often happens that the 
heart is the avenue to the intellect. Men love to feel, 
as well as to think ; and hence we speak of the luxury 
of tender emotion. Mr. Jay knew this, and entered 
very deeply into Christian aesthetics. His voice gave 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 299 

Iiim great advantages here. His very intonations 
touched and opened the springs of feeling. When the 
people were in a prepared state of mind, he has some- 
times melted them by his manner of repeating an in- 
terjection, or a single word. His pathos, however, 
was not all confined to his manner, but extended itself 
to his matter. In this there were often the most tender 
and touching allusions and descriptions. Who, that 
ever read, can forget that beautiful passage in his ser- 
mon to husbands and wives, in which he represents 
woman, pleading on the ground of her weakness and 
dependence, for sympathy, kindness, and protection ? 
To have heard this passage uttered by his pathetic 
tones and plaintive looks, must have been followed by 
an effect more than dramatic : 

" Milton has finely expressed the difference in the 
original pair. 

" 'For contemplation he, and valor form'd; 
For softness she, and sweet attractive grace.' 

Her bodily strength is inferior, her constitution less 
firm and vigorous, her frame more tender, her temper 
more yielding, her circumstances more generally de- 
pressing. A rose, a lily, allows of no rough usages. 
Tenderness demands gentleness ; delicacy, care ; pli- 
ancy, props. Has a condition few resources, and is 
there much in it of the afflictive and humbling ? the 
more does it need succor, and the more necessary is 
every assistance to maintain and increase the conse- 
quence of it, especially where so much depends upon 
the respectability of the character who fills it. Where 
is the m^n who is not alive to this consideration ? 



300 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

Where is the husband, who, reflecting on her peculiar 
circumstances, would not be disposed, by every possi- 
ble means, to promote the dignity and the satisfaction 
of a wife ? What is the language of these circum- 
stances ? ' Honor us ; deal kindly with us. From 
many of the opportunities and means by which you 
procure favorable notice, we are excluded. Doomed 
to the shades, few of the high places of the earth are 
open to us. Alternately we are adored and oppressed. 
From our slaves you become our tyrants. You feel 
our beauty, and avail yourselves of our weakness. 
You complain of our inferiority, but none of your be- 
havior bids us rise. Sensibility has given us a thou- 
sand feelings, which nature has kindly denied you. 
Always under restraints, we have little liberty of 
choice. Providence seems to have been more atten- 
tive to enable us to confer happiness than to enjoy ii. 
Every condition has for us fresh mortifications; every 
relation new sorrows. We enter social bonds : it is a 
system of perpetual sacrifice. We cannot give life to 
others without hazarding our own. We have suffer- 
ings "which } 7 ou do not share cannot share. If spar- 
ed, years and decays invade our charms, and much of 
the ardor produced by attraction departs with it. We 
may die. The grave covers us, and we are soon for- 
gotten : soon are the days of your mourning ended, 
soon is our loss repaired ; dismissed even from your 
speech, our name is to be heard no more, a successor 
may dislike it. Our children, after having a mother 
by nature, may fall under the control of a mother by 
affinity, and be mortified by distinctions made between 
them and her own offspring. Though the duties 
which we have discharged invariably be the most im- 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 301 

portant and necessary, they do not shine; they are too 
common to strike ; they procure no celebrity : the 
wife, the mother, fills no historic page. Our privations, 
our confinements, our wearisome days, our interrupt- 
ed, our sleepless nights, the hours we have hung in 
anxious watchings over your sick and dying off- 
spring.' " 

There was an individualising effect produced by 
Mr. Jay's preaching. He not only preached before 
his congregation, but to them ; and not only to the 
multitude, but to the individuals which composed it. 
His sermons formed a kind of mirror, which reflected 
the image of those who approached it, and in which 
every one saw himself as distinguished from others. 
Each of his hearers felt as if the preacher's eye were 
fixed on him, and his discourse addressed to him. This 
is a happy art in preaching, and, indeed, in all public 
speaking, and in order to which it is necessary to ap- 
proach, without descending below ourselves or our 
subject, or even the more intelligent of our auditors, 
yet as nearly as we can to the easy comprehension of 
the mass of our hearers. When the preacher soars 
into the clouds where the understanding cannot track 
him, or diverges into a wood where they cannot find 
him, they will soon give over all attempts to follow 
him, and leave him to his wanderings. Mr. Jay's sim- 
plicity, clearness, and intelligibility to all, were most 
commendable, rarely equalled, and never surpassed. 
It were desirable that these qualities should be remark- 
ed, and, as far as possible, imitated, by all preachers 
of the Grospel. His beautiful conceptions, expressed 
in good plain Saxon words, were easily understood by 
the bulk of his hearers ; in fact, none cpulcl misunder- 



302 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

stand them, while the most cultivated and refined 
could not feel displeased with them. 

It is recorded of Arago, the celebrated French as- 
tronomer, that he had a peculiar facility of bringing 
down the high parts of astronomy to the comprehen- 
sion of ordinary minds, a faculty so rare, that some 
of the most distinguished astronomers have failed in 
making their science intelligible or interesting to a 
public auditory. Arago adopted a method which we 
believe had never been tried before by any of his pre- 
decessors. When he began to give his course of lec- 
tures on astronomy, he glanced round on his audience 
to look for some dull aspirant for knowledge with a 
low forehead, and other indications that he was among 
the least intelligent of his hearers. He kept his eye 
fixed upon him ; he addressed only him ; and by the 
effect of his eloquence and powers of explanation, as 
exhibited in the countenance of his pxipil, he judged 
of their influence upon the rest of his audience. When 
lie remained unconvinced, the orator tried new illus- 
trations, till light beamed from the grateful counte- 
nance. Next morning, when Arago was breakfasting 
with his family, a visitor was announced. A gentle- 
man entered his pupil of the preceding evening, who, 
after expressing his admiration of the lecture, thank- 
ed Arago for the very peculiar attention he had paid 
him during the delivery. " You had the appearance," 
said he, " of giving the lecture only to me." Shall it 
be the ambition only of the astronomer, and not also 
of the preacher, to be understood by the convert, and 
to make every individual feel lie is the party address- 
ed ? Shall they who preach salvation think only of 
pleasing the cultivated few, to the neglect of the igno- 



CONCLUDING- OBSERVATIONS. 303 

rant multitude ? Let the minister of religion take a 
lesson, aye, and reproof too, from the lecture on as- 
tronomy. Mr. Jay had learnt this lesson, and prac- 
ticed it well. It is not meant, of course, that the 
preacher is always to dwell on elementary truths, and 
even to accommodate his discourse to the poor and 
illiterate ; but he ought never to forget that our Lord 
said, " the poor have the Gospel preached unto them ;" 
and it was observed of his own preaching that " the 
common people heard him gladly." True, we ought 
not to be always in the nursery feeding babes with 
milk ; but then the babes ought not to be forgotten or 
neglected. 

The character of strong sound sense which pervaded 
Mr. Jay's sermons contributed very largely to his pop- 
ularity, combined, as this uniformly was, with the 
practical. There seems to be in the public mind an 
intuitive perception that religion is not mere science 
or theory, but that it contains much that has to do 
with men's business and bosoms. There is an innate 
conviction that there is not only something to know, 
but something to do. They may not be always very 
willing to do what is enjoined upon them, but still 
they expect to hear it, and are dissatisfied if they do 
not. They are aware that it is a matter which has to 
do with all persons, states, and circumstances. Hence 
they feel somewhat of surprise, and even disgust, with 
the preacher who deals much in abstractions that lie 
remote from human nature and life. They expect to 
be told not only how they should think, but how they 
should act ; and one good sound maxim of spiritual 
wisdom which will guide them through the intricacies 
of life, and the perplexities of casuistry, will be fa.r 



304 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

more valued than many an airy speculation, or elabo- 
rate investigation of some profound and abstract ques- 
tion in theology. Mr. Jay's practical directions pos- 
sessed much of the terseness, the wisdom, and the force 
of proverbs. In a single sentence he often expressed 
what others would expand into a paragraph or a page. 
Few ever had, in such perfection, the happy art of 
saying much in few words. They who could not carry 
away a whole sermon could remember a single sen- 
tence, which perhaps contained the pith of the whole. 
They may not have been able to secure the entire 
string of pearls ; but they could retain one which was 
complete in itself, and a specimen of all the rest. He 
always preached as if he wished his sermon to be re- 
membered as well as heard ; and it was this which led 
him to condemn the essay form of sermonizing, and to 
adopt so uniformly the methodical arrangement of his 
discourses into the usual divisions and sub-divisions 
of a sermon. lie aimed not merely at present effect, 
but at permanent advantage ; and his arrangement of 
his subject, which sometimes was fanciful, aiming at 
antithesis and parallelism, and approaching almost to 
the metrical, was intended to assist the memory, and 
thus to promote usefulness. Mr. Hall, a master and 
high authority on such subjects, speaks of the narrow 
trammels to which in these latter days discourses from 
the pulpit are confined, "so different from the free and 
unfettered airs in which the first preachers of the Gos- 
pel appeared before their audience. The sublime emo- 
tions with which they were fraught," he says, " would 
have rendered them impatient of such restrictions ; 
nor could they suffer the impetuous stream of their 
argument, expostulation, and pathos, to be weakened 



CONCLUDING OBSEEVATIONS. 805 - 

by being diverted into the artificial reservoirs prepared 
in the heads and particulars of a modern sermon." 
The analogy, however, of the two cases will not hold. 
There are occasions, no doubt, when the sermon may 
with prop.^ety and effect assume the form and charac- 
ter of an oration, though rarely of an essay, especially 
when concentrated impression, rather than instruction, 
is the design of the preacher ; but as a general rule, 
considering the heterogeneous nature of our congrega- 
tions, the plan of heads and particulars, if they are 
not too numerous, is most for edification ; and it was 
certainly the method which Mr. Hall himself adopted : 
his Sermon on Infidelity, and on the death of the 
Princess Charlotte, being the only ones which are 
printed in which the usual announcement of heads 
and particulars is omitted. Mr. Jay's divisions, though 
always announced, were never unnecessarily multi- 
plied ; and thus, while he aided the memory, he did 
not burthen it. 

Mr. Jay, though generally grave, chaste, and dig- 
nified in his composition, occasionally somewhat vio- 
lated the law of propriety in regard to these excel- 
lences, by a quaiutness of expression. This applies al- 
most exclusively to his preaching, and was most prob- 
ably purely extemporaneous. He has extruded nearly 
all of it from his printed discourses. This tendency 
to quaintness grew upon him in his declining years, 
when, perhaps, under some consciousness of decaying 
force, he thought he would supply the deficiency by 
what was fanciful and odd, or quaint. He was, per- 
haps, somewhat sensible of this when, in his preface to 
his " Short Discourses" he wrote the following sen- 
tence : " Though he does not wish to indulge a bad 



306 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

taste, the Author would ever remember that the 
preacher ought to have compassion on the ignorant, 
and on them that are out of the way. That which, is 
too smooth, easily slides off from the memory, and 
that which is lost in the act of hearing will do little 
good. It is desirable to get something that will strike 
and abide; something that recurring again and again, 
will employ the thoughts and the tongue ; and if this 
cannot be accomplished in certain instances by modes 
of address which perhaps are not classically justifiable, 
should not a minister prefer utility to fame ?" 

This great preacher threw a sacred charm over his 
sermons by a profusion of Scripture phraseology, and 
allusion to Scripture facts. They were adorned with 
the beauty and redolent with the fragrance of flowers 
culled from the garden of inspiration. Indeed the 
beauty and the perfume were almost in excess. The 
passages were not so much selected for proof as for il- ' 
lustration ; they were brought forward, as classic quo- 
tations are by public orators, to grace a speech, and to 
convey the speaker's idea in the opposite language of 
a high authority. While listening to his discourses, 
and regaling themselves with his pleasing thoughts, 
his hearers were often surprised by his repetition of 
Scripture, so appropriate thajb it seemed as if it had 
been written for the occasion. He rarely ever referred 
to the book, chapter, and verse which he thus used, as 
he imagined that the hearers would be diverted from 
the subject, and disturb their neighbors by turning 
over the leaves of their Bibles, and the rustling noise, 
if many did so, which this would occasion. Here we 
think he was a little in error in point of excess. Fewer 
passages, some of them explicitly quoted as well as re- 



CONCLUDING- OBSERVATIONS. 307 

peated, with a passing remark which would bring out 
and impress their whole meaning, must do more good 
than so many passages interwoven without reference 
or remark into the texture of the sermon. 

Another excess in which he indulged in his later 
years, and in his ordinary ministrations, was, in the 
way of poetic quotation, especially verses of hymns. 
He was fond of poetry. His was a poetic mind ; and 
though he rose not to the rank of a great lyric poet, 
yet he wrote some good hymns, as must be apparent 
to those who read this volume. In the last sermon he 
preached in Argyle Chapel, there are no less than thir- 
teen of these poetic scraps. The greater part of them, 
however, he would no doubt have omitted had he 
prepared the sermon for the press. 

Mr. Jay, through the whole of his ministry, was, as 
might be supposed, much in demand for public occa- 
sions. Few ministers were more frequently put in 
requisition for preaching at the opening of chapels,, 
and for the various organizations of Christian zeal and 
benevolence. For such services he always carefully 
prepared, and rarely disappointed the expectation of 
his audience. He felt that it would be unworthy of 
himself, his subject, and his audience, to come forth 
with an ill- digested, crude, and hasty effusion of meagre 
thought, set forth in slovenly language. While, on 
the other hand, though aware he was surrounded by 
his ministerial brethren, he did not sacrifice the inter- 
ests of the people to them, and, instead of producing 
sermons for edification, attempt to astonish by a dis- 
play of profound and profitless speculation, or dazzle 
by an exhibition of rapid elegance, resembling the 
flash, the rush, the lofty flight and vanishing light of 



808 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

the sky-rocket, but withal as useless as that pyrotech- 
nic exhibition. 

He often surprised his audience by the ingenuity ho 
displayed in the appropriation of texts to particular 
occasions. As specimens of this take the following 
examples: On the death of Greorge the Fourth' 
"Another King, one Jesus.'' On the reopening of 
his chapel after a temporary closing " A door was 
opened in heaven." After an enlargement of the 
chapel " Be ye also enlarged." For a Communion 
address " One of you is a devil." Who but he would 
have thought of such a passage as this, for the text of 
a funeral sermon for a great man: "Howl, fir tree; 
for the cedar is fallen ?" From this passage he preach- 
ed first, after the death of Mr. Hall ; and then again 
at the death of Mr. Eowland Hill. How poetic, how 
striking, how appropriate to express the Church's la- 
ment over the grave of one of her illustrious pastors ! 

Mr. Jay considered it -a solemn duty to take ad- 
vantage- of the times of public occasions to make na- 
ture and providence subservient to religious instruc- 
tion. He generally preached on the seasons of the 
year; and on national mercies, calamities, and great 
political events ; but he did not bring politics, in the 
conventional meaning of that term, into the pulpit. 

It need scarcely be said by those who knew Mr. Jay, 
that he made no use of notes in the pulpit, except oc- 
casionally at the very close of his ministry, when he 
could no longer so implicitly confide in his memory. 
In his earlier days he wrote his sermons pretty fully, 
and even where this was not done, most of the leading 
thoughts had passed through his mind in his previous 
meditation? upon the text or the subject. He did not, 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 309 

however, so closely adhere .to his prepared natter as to 
shut out suggestions that arose at the time; those 
"living thoughts," as Mr. Newton used to call them, 
which came warm and glowing from the heart while 
he was preaching. He very strongly reprobated the 
practice of pulpit readings, and lamented the growing 
disposition for this among the young ministers of the 
present day. Where is the practice of reading toler- 
ated except in the Pulpit ? Not on the Stage ; not in 
the Senate; not at the Bar. In the time of Charles 
the Second it was forbidden by statute to the University 
of Cambridge, which says " the lazy way of reading 
sermons began in the time of the Civil Wars." 

It will be seen, by this description, that we do not 
claim for this eminent preacher any dazzling brilliancy 
of genius, any profound originality, any power of 
philosophical analysis, any logical acumen, or even 
great theological research. To those who can only be 
pleased with such things, or to others who resolve all 
pulpit excellence into abstract generalizations, or lofty 
speculations, or subtle argumentation, Mr. Jay's ser- 
mons presented few attractions. His sound evangel- 
ism, his practical wisdom, his rich experience, his 
strong sense, his melting tenderness, his touching 
pathos, his beautiful illustrations, his sweet antitheses, 
his poetic fancy, which procured him. while a living 
preacher such wide and continued popularity, and 
which in his published works will never cease to de- 
light the readers who can be pleased with strong in- 
telligence and true piety were held in light esteem by 
those who love to soar in the clouds, or delve in the 
dark mines of German mysticism. 

If Mr. Jay attained to such excellence as preacher, 



310 . CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

it was not without great self-culture and laborious en- 
deavors. No doubt there is some truth in the opin- 
ion, that there are natural tendencies which lead to 
distinction in any branch of human pursuit. We 
need not believe phrenology to admit this. In a quali- 
fied sense, Mr. Jay was born a preacher : person, voice, 
physiological temperament appropriate to this occupa- 
tion, were all given to him in his physical constitution. 
But this was not all. If he owed much to those .gifts 
lavished upon him by the hand of God, he owed much 
also to his own sagacity, diligence, arid unwearied endea- 
vors after improvement and distinction. He was a 
preacher from a boy. His choice of this line of action 
grew out of his religious convictions and emotions, and 
was sustained and stimulated by them. He longed to 
be useful in saving sinners from the condemnation 
which he had escaped ; he saw the power of the pul- 
pit as Grod's great instrument for accomplishing this 
end ; and, almost from the time of his first entering it, 
he made it, as we have already said, the object of his 
hallowed ambition to excel there. In after-life, all his 
reading, his reflection, and his writing centred in that 
object. He studied the best models of preaching; 
learnt French chiefly to read the sermons of Bossuet, 
Bourclaloue, Masillon, and Saurin, in their own tongue ; 
and attentively perused the Puritan and Nonconform- 
ist writers, together with more modern authors of 
sermons, the better to qualify himself to be a preacher. 
At home and abroad, when travelling or recreating 
himself at some watering-place, he was in one sense 
always sermonizing. He rarely returned to his own 
house, after a retreat for awhile to the coast, without 
bringing back with him some plans of sermons or 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 311 

texts that had struck him, in his reading or medita- 
tions during this season of innocent relaxation from 
pastoral duties. To be a useful preacher was his aim ; 
and it was thus, by constant and unwearied effort, he 
became one. 

And if this were the habitual study of all who are 
called to occupy the pulpit ; if with an intense long- 
ing after the salvation of immortal souls, and an un- 
wavering determination to know nothing among men, 
but Jesus Christ and him crucified ; if with a true phi- 
losophical view of the adaptation of preaching to 
awaken attention and produce impression ; if with a 
recollection of what has been done by the g^eat mas- 
ters in the art of preaching, all. ministers were to 
study the best models of evangelical pulpit eloquence, 
and were to take extraordinary pains to acquire, by 
the aid of Divine grace, a commanding and interest- 
ing style of pulpit address ; and, while cherishing a 
sense of absolute dependence for efficiency upon the 
work of the Holy Spirit, they were to recollect the 
Spirit works by appropriate means ; and took half the 
pains to make their speaking in the pulpit as impress- 
ive as the actor does to make his upon the stage ; if 
concerning the powerful preaching of the Gospel, they 
said "this one thing I do," and called in all collateral 
aids to do it in the best manner, we should not hear, 
as we sometimes do, of the declining power of the pul- 
pit. It is for a wonder, a lamentation, and a reproach, 
that they who have to do the most momentous work 
under the sun, give themselves the least pains to do it 
effectually. Mankind are wrought upon by manner as 
well as matter it is an interesting, earnest style of ad- 
dress that engages attention, reaches the heart, and ac- 



312 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

complishes the end of preaching ; in the absence of 
which, learning the most profound, and theology the 
most scriptural, will fail to secure popularity, or to ob- 
tain success. It will not do to say, we are so engross- 
ed with the matter of our discourses as to be indifferent 
to the manner of them. The more important to men's 
interests is the matter, the more anxious should we be 
that in our manner there should be nothing to hinder, 
but, on the contrary, everything to aid, the success of 
the matter. That minister who feels called by the Holy 
Ghost to be a preacher of Christ's blessed Grospel, 
ought to feel himself no less called to take all possible 
pains to do it in the best possible manner. 

How eminently Mr. Jay's efforts to exec! in this 
matter were crowned with success, the reader of the 
foregoing pages has seen amply illustrated as he has 
advanced though this volume. We shall here, how- 
ever, add one more testimony, which, from its impar- 
tiality and high respectability, is entitled to much 
weight. Bishop Shirley, in a letter to the Rev. C, 
Bridges, says : "I spent two days at Bath, and heard 
Mr. Jay preach. He is a very extraordinary man. 
There is a commanding energy in his manner, and a 
weight in his style, which gives authority to what he 
says, and secures attention ;' for he is evidently in earn- 
est, and utters the result of much thinking and 
prayer." * 

If the publication of Mr. Jay's life should serve no 
other purpose than to stir up the ministry to a more 
earnest and anxious endeavor to excel in this their mo- 
mentous sphere of official duty, and to present to them 

* Memoir of Bishop Shirley, p. 58. This letter is dated Ash- 
bourn, February 18th, 1823. 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 813 

a model which they shall aim to copy, then it will be 
subject of congratulation and thankfulness, that to the 
world has been given this memoir of one whom Foster 
designated, " The Prince of Preacliers." 

ME. JAY AS AN AUTHOR. 

AFTER having expressed our opinion of Mr. Jay as 
a preacher, we have felt some doubts whether our 
readers may not think it quite enough, without refer- 
ring particularly to his authorship. But still there is 
a sufficient diversity in the two departments to justify 
a separate notice. The talents which secure success in 
the one can by no means be taken as a pledge of suc- 
cess in the other. It is a rare thing for a man to excel 
in both characters, even though the authorship may 
lie mainly in the line of sermons. Of this Mr. Jay 
himself seems to have been perfectly conscious ; for he 
did little in the way of authorship, except in connec- 
tion with his preaching, as he also did little in the 
way of public speaking, except from the pulpit. Un- 
der a just sense of the limitation of human faculties, he 
concentrated his upon one object; and that object 
gained so conspicuously and successfully supplied the 
first and chief inducement to appear as an author ; 
and this rather as an extension of the preacher's office, 
or as an enlargement of his audience. 

Mr. Jay's labors as an author were principally pur- 
sued at watering-places, during a relaxation of a few 
weeks in summer. He gives the following brief but 
interesting account of these labors, in in Advertise- 
ment to the last volume of the "Exercise" : 

"At Sidmouth he began his ' Domestic Ministers' 

14 



314: CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

Assistant,' and wrote many of the Family prayers. In 
the Isle of Wight, he composed ' A Charge to a Min- 
ister's Wife,' and 'The Wife's Advocate.' At Lyn- 
mouth, he finished his ' Christian Contemplated,' and 
wrote the Preface ; with ' Hints on Preaching.' 

" But this latter place must be a little more noticed. 
There, for several years successively, he passed a month, 
the most perfectly agreeable and happy he ever expe- 
rienced in a life of loving-kindness and tender mercy. 

" Linton and Lynrnouth are nearly connected the 
one being at the top and the other at the bottom of a 
declivity, covered with trees and verdure, interspersed 
with several houses. Linton has been remarked for 
its sublimity, and Lynmouth for its beauty, and their 
united aspects have been called Switzerland in min- 
iature. 

"Lynmouth was to the author the most interesting 
spot. Here, two narrow and craggy valleys, obvious- 
ly once ruptured by a convulsion of nature, termin- 
ate ; and down these, tumbling from rock to rock, two 
streams one running from the east and the other 
from the south unite, and then, at a small distance, 
empty themselves into the sea. 

" At the time of his first going there it was hardly 
known or considered as a watering-place. It had not, 
therefore, as yet fallen into the corruptions of such 
receptacles ; nor had the inhabitants been taught to 
make visitors a prey. The villagers were very re- 
spectful ; and strangers felt a sense of perfect safety. 

" Here the author fixed his residence. He took a 
whole cottage ; it was far from elegant, but it was neat 
and agreeable ; it wanted some accommodation and 
comforts ; but he had what he more prized, rural and 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 315 

enchanting scenery and solitude. Yet not without 
some to hear the exclamation, 'How sweet this soli- 
tude is !' for he had society too ; his company was 
small, but chosen, and suitable, and improving : 

' Where friendship full exerts her softest power, > 

Perfect esteem, enlivened by desire 
Ineffable, and sympathy of soul 
Thought meeting thought, and will preventing will, 
With boundless confidence.' 

" His associates consisted of his wife and a female 
friend. It would be vain in him to extol the former ; 
but as for the latter- especially as she was soon re- 
moved from our world he may be allowed to say, 
we hardly could have had her equal in everything we 
wished. She was of a verjr respectable family ; well 
educated, polished in her manners, intellectual, 
sprightly, witty, truly pious, full of sensibility and be- 
nevolence, and an entire stranger to everything like 
selfishness. What, with regard to this friend, before 
our first excursion together was acquaintance, was 
IIOAV rendered intimacy the most cordial ; and she be- 
came a dear resident in the family till her lamented 
death. The cottage we occupied was near Mr. Her- 
ries' beautiful villa. It has since been spoiled by im- 
provements, and is now a kind of tawdry little man- 
sion ; and the whole of Lynmouth itself, which taste 
might have altered, and y&i left it a village still, is 
aping a paltry town. 

" Here our party felt themselves at liberty to meet 
or to separate to read or to write or to converse or 
to walk as inclination prompted. As to himself, the 
author opened his parlor, and spoke on the Sabbath- 



816 CONCLUDING 

day evening to any of the neighbors who would at- 
tend. But having been struck with the design, and 
also having been urged to undertake something of 
the kind, he now began his ' Morning Exercises.' 
Of these, he here often wrote two, and sometimes 
three a day ; and always read one of them in the morn- 
ing and another in the evening devotion, and not often 
without the approbation of his companions, which most 
excited and encouraged him to proceed. 

" Here he composed the greater part of these Morn- 
ing Exercises, and here also, in after visits, he wrote 
the greater part of the Evening. He once thought of 
distinguishing by a final mark all he had written in 
this retirement ; but not doing it immediately, his re- 
collection soon became too indistinct for him to divide 
with certainty. The first 'Exercise' he wrote was 
that which is entitled, 'The Unlonely Solitude,' 
John, xvi. 32 : ' And shall leave me alone : and yet I 
am not alone, because the Father is with me.' 

" He wished also to have marked those which he 
wrote as he journeyed to and from Lyn mouth. At 
the 'Plume of Feathers,' Minehead, where he slept as 
he was going clown, he composed the Exercise, called, 
' The Pious Excursion,' 1 Sam. iii. 9 : ' Speak, Lord, 
for thy servant heareth,' 'especially in reference to 
such a journey of recreation. At the same inn, as he 
returned, he composed the Exercise, entitled ' The Call 
to Depart,' Micah, ii. 10: 'Arise, and depart hence, 
for this is not your rest.' He also wrote a third Ex- 
ercise at the same inn, viz., ' Changes in the wilder- 
ness not a removal from it,' Numb. x. 12 : ' And the 
children of Israel took their journeys out of the wil- 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 317 

derness of Sinai ; and the cloud rested in the wilder- 
ness at Peran.' 

" The author cannot conclude without observing two 
things: the first is, That relaxation is never so per- 
fectly enjoyed as in connection with engagement. 

' A want of occupation is not rest ; 
A mind quite vacant is mind distress'd.' 

"Kelaxation, indeed, can have no existence sepa- 
rate from employment, for what is there then to relax 
from ? On the other hand, action prepares for repose, 
and labor not only sweetens, but justifies recreation ; 
so that we feel it to be, not only innocent indulgence, 
but a kind of recompense. The second is, That, as of 
such a precious talent as time nothing should be lost, 
so, much may be done by gathering up its fragments." 

The peculiar charm which his sermons derived from 
his oratory and elocution could not, of course, attend 
Ms publications, and yet, when divested of this fasci- 
nation, they exhibited other charms and excellences, 
which secured for them, not only attention, but admi- 
ration, popularity, and usefulness. His compositions, 
when they came from the press, were greatly improved 
and chastened, both in thought and diction. "What 
they lost of effect given them by his delivery, they 
gained in correctness, condensation, and point. Mr. 
Jay well understood that sermons printed must be 
skilfully prepared for the eye, which is a more critical 
judge than the ear. The single sermons which he 
first published were, no doubt, greatly aided in their 
success by the popularity of the young preacher. 
Moreover, his promotion so early to the pulpit of 
Surrey Chapel placed him on a pinnacle before the 



318 CONCLUDING OBSERVATION'S. 

religious world of London ; so that when, lie sent forth 
his first volume of sermons, which was as early as 
1802, a wide circle of readers was anxiously waiting 
to peruse them. ' The moderation of sentiment these 
sermons displayed, as contrasted with the Antmomian- 
ism into which some were running, both in the Estab- 
lishment and among the Dissenters, their originality, 
simplicity, ease, and general adaptation to the state of 
the public mind, commanded for them a measure of 
success which rarely attends volumes of sermons in 
the present d&y, and still more rarely those from the 
pens of Dissenters. It may be fairly alleged, that, 
at the period when Mr. Jay first appeared as an au- 
thor, there was a new and growing desire to poruso 
good and evangelical sermons ; and that Mr. Jay's 
were eminently suited to the taste of the day : and it 

/ ij i 

-would be no disparagement to aclmii: fiirlher, that in 
some respects they are less suited to the taste of the 
present day ; or, indeed, that as good sermons arc now 
so abundant from the pulpit, there is less need of sup- 
plying them from the press ; and, in consequence, few 
volumes of sermons now obtain popularity, unless 
they are highly elaborate, or novel subjects, or charac- 
terized by eminent genius or transcendent eloquence. 

There can be no doubt that* Mr. Jay's sermons were 
happily suited to meet the increasing desire at that 
time for evangelical instruction. Whitfield and "Wes- 
ley, with their co-workers and followers, had given 
the people a taste for something better than they had 
been accustomed to in the dry ethical essays of the 
clergy, as void of effect upon the audience as of heart 
and life in the preacher. Jay's sermons, therefore, 
were perhaps as much used in pulpits as in private 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 319 

houses, and might be heard in many a church, and 
found attractive to many a congregation of Church- 
men. Some of the more liberal of the clergy recom- 
mended them to their brethren, and to their people ; 
and this was especially the case with those who were 
alarmed at the spread of Antinomianism. The appear- 
ance of the successive volumes of Mr. Jay's sermons, 
and their increasing popularity, was a pleasing omen 
of the sounder views which were beginning to prevail. 
Indeed it may be stated, that the influence of the An- 
tinomian preacher began to decrease about this time, 
and has been sinking till it can scarcely be said to re- 
tain an existence either in the Church or out of it. A 
few scattered individuals are all that can now be found, 
where formerly hundreds congregated to listen to high 
doctrine ; and, among other useful works, no doubt 
Mr. Jay's have had a share of influence in promoting 
sounder views and a more Scriptural taste. An evi- 
dence of this is seen in the fact that Mr. Jay was sin- 
gled out by Bishop Jebb, and recommended to his 
friend, Alexander Knox, as a pattern of sobriety and 
moderation of sentiment. He says in one of his let- 
ters : 

" It seems to me as if the more sober Calvinists, both 
in and out of the Church of England, were not a little 
alarmed by the prevalence of virtual, if not as yet 
practical, Antinomianism. There has been a good 
deal to that purpose, I mean expressive of that alarm, 
in the 'Christian Observer.' But the Independent 
minister at Bath, Jay, has lately published a volume 
of lectures, called ' The Christian Contemplated,' in 
the preface to which are some pertinent, and, I might 
say, happy remarks. It will be worth your while to 



320 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

get the book, were it only for the sake of the preface ; 
but the book itself is worth looking over, for, though 
it has its defects and failings, it abounds in matter 
which tends to edify the reader, and do real honors to 
the writer."* 

In speaking once upon this subject, he observed, 
that, though election was true, it did not appear to 
him a truth of equal importance with perseverance ; 
and that, in preaching, we must not only distinguish 
between truth and error, but between truth and truth. 
It was a truth that our Saviour died under Pontius 
Pilate, and a truth that His death was an atonement 
for sin ; but who would attach the same importance 
to both ? So was it here. He did not conceive that 
there was any danger in preaching election in its ef- 
fects ; and that it must always be remembered, that 
perseverance was a duty enjoined by 2 Peter, i. 5-10, 
&c., and as a privilege promised in Phil. i. 6, &c. ; and 
that this twofold view ought always to be remem- 
bered. 

He said that Mr. Newton, at one of those breakfasts 
where he received ministers of all denominations, 
among other observations, made the following : He 
said, that " Calvinism was one of the worst of systems 
preached theoretically, but one of the best preached 
practically." Mr. Jay added, that if he called any 
man master on earth, it would be Leighton or New- 
ton. 

This just and Scriptural moderation of sentiment 
which through life distinguished Mr. Jay, both as a 

* Thirty Years' Correspondence between John Jebb, D.D., F.R.S., 
Bishop of Limerick, and Alexander Krox, Esq., M.R.I. A., vol. ii< 
p. 557. 



CONCLUDING- OBSERVATIONS. " 321 

preaclier and author, commended him to the approval 
of the best part of the Christian body, both in the 
Established Church and among Dissenters. For this 
sobriety and comprehensiveness of view he was prob- 
ably greatly indebted to his excellent tutor, whose 
large experience and acute observation, in the days 
when there existed considerable conflict and conten- 
tion among theologians of adverse schools, in connec- 
tion with his loving spirit and persuasive manner, 
qualified him to guard young minds against excess 
and extravagance. The same moderation of sentiment 
seems to have distinguished most of Mr. "Winter's stu- 
dents. It is, moreover, a remarkable fact, that this 
sobriety was far from being associated with tarn en ess 
or indifference. It was rather accompanied with emi- 
nent zeal, devotedness, and usefulness. It was very 
evident that Mr. Jay's supreme aim was to be Scriptu- 
ral in all Ids religious sentiments. He bowed sub- 
missively to the Divine authority. Eveiy statement 
is both illustrated and confirmed by the most apposite 
and striking quotations. Hence, too, Mr. 3&y seems 
never to shrink from the appearance of paradox, when 
it arises from the strength of Scripture language in en- 
forcing important truths separately. He had, from the 
commencement of his course, kept himself clear of 
the trammels of systematic theology ; and was only 
concerned to bring the truth of Grod, as it appears in 
the Bible, to bear upon the hearts and consciences of 
men. Hence the constant interweaving of Scripture 
in every sermon a practice which he avows and de- 
fends in the preface to " The Christian Contemplated," 
where he quotes, with warm approbation, the follow- 
ing judicious and beautiful defence of this practice, 

54* 



322 CONCLUDING- OBSERVATIONS. 

from the pen of Bobert Hall, in his strictures upon 
Foster's Essay, which at that day stirred up no little 
controversy, and which was entitled " On the Aver- 
sion of Men of Taste to Evangelical Eeligion." Mr. 
Jay hailed this vindication of the use of Scriptural 
language, from so high an authority, though he sus- 
pects the same authority might censure himself for 
using it to excess ; yet that he would still allow it was 
an error on the safer side. 

"To say nothing," observes Mr. Hall, "of the in- 
imitable beauties of the Bible, considered in a literary 
view, which are universally acknowledged,' it is the 
Book which every devout man is accustomed to con- 
sult as the oracle of God ; it is the companion of his 
best moments, and the vehicle of his strongest conso- 
lation. Intimately associated in his mind with every- 
thing dear and valuable, its diction more powerfully 
excites devotional feeling than any other ; and, when 
temperately and soberly used, imparts an unction to a 
religious discourse which nothing else can supply. 
Besides, is there not room to apprehend that a studied 
avoidance of the Scripture phraseology, and a care .to 
express all that it is supposed to contain in the forms 
of classical diction, might ultimately lead to the neg- 
lect of the Scriptures themselves, and a habit of sub- 
stituting flashy and superficial declamation, in the room 
of the saving truths of the Gospel ? Such an appre- 
hension is but too much verified by the most celebrat- 
ed sermons of the French, and still more by some 
modern compositions in our own language, which 
usurp that title. For devotional impression, we con- 
ceive that a very considerable tincture of the language 
of Scripture, or at least such a coloring as shall dis- 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 823 

cover an intimate acquaintance with those inimitable 
models, will generally succeed best." 

The copious nse which Mr. Jay made of Scripture 
language, both in preaching and writing, gives his 
compositions a peculiar character. It is a feature 
which strikes every one as prominent, and we think, 
while it yields the highest satisfaction to everj^ reader 
who peruses his books for edification and instruction, 
it can excite displacency in no one. There can be 
little doubt that the eminent success of Mr. Jay in all 
his publications is a sufficient vindication of bis prac- 
tice, especially when it is considered that the success 
of such writings must be taken as an indication of 
their usefulness. They minister nothing to the amuse- 
ment of mankind ; nothing to the gratification of a 
mere literary taste, or fondness for speculation ; no- 
thing to elegant scholarship, or dialectic skill, or a fer- 
vid imagination ; but are the plain and forcible state- 
ments of evangelical truth, " not in the words which 
man's wisdom teacheth, but," to a great extent, "which 
the Holy Ghost teacheth ;" and as such their extensive 
and continued popularity both vindicates the judg- 
ment of the writer and commends the taste of his nu- 
merous Christian readers. 

Mr. Jay may not be an author suited to the taste of 
every reader, but he wrote for the many, and they 
have been his readers. He is not learned enough for 
some, nor profound enough for others ; not critical 
enough for one, nor rhetorical enough for a second, 
nor imaginative enough for a third ; but had he com- 
mended himself to the approbation of such readers, 
he would have had a much narrower circle than he 
has had, and still has. Nature, or rather the God of 



324 CONCLUDING- OBSEKVATIOJSTS. 

nature, formed his mind in one of its most current 
types, and to serve the greatest number, "by exhibiting 
to them, in the most impressive, instructive, and suc- 
cessful forms, not the rarities of intellectual treasures, 
not the elaborations of human thought, nor the choicest 
and most sparkling gems of genius, but truths of uni- 
versal importance and of daily practice. He aimed at 
the useful and substantial, and had little taste for the 
subtle, the recondite, or the profound. His mission 
was to preach the Gospel of the grace of God, which 
he had received, and to extend the benefit of what he 
had preached by books, for the service of those who 
had not the privilege of hearing him. 

In his compositions, the critic may find many faults 
which passed unobserved from the pulpit. But though 
sometimes his style would admit of improvement iu 
respect to refinement and polish, yet, in perspicuity, 
simplicity, and force, it is admirably adapted to the 
purpose of instruction. It is perfectly transparent and 
intelligible to all, and though occasionally, through 
his anxiety to be impressive, and to fix the truth in 
the mind, he indulges in an expression or a word be- 
neath his subject, yet it is so obviously for the sake of 
point and effect, that good taste can hardly be offended, 
while the less fastidious reader is better pleased with 
the homeliness and point, and possibly feels the truth 
conveyed more effectually to his mind. 

Eminently practical in all his views of Divine truth, 
he derives useful lessons from almost every part of 
Scripture ; and places duties in new lights and rela- 
tions, which impart fresh force and interest to them. 
He had no doubt profited much in his composition in 
later years by the long and extensive practice he had 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 325 

undergone, and which, from the advice of Mrs. Han- 
nah More to write much and fast, he seems early to 
have adopted. Every Ohristian reader of Mr. Jay's 
works must be impressed with the pleasingly devo- 
tional turn of his mind. His reflections lead the pious 
and devout reader to the most elevated views of the 
Divine character, as a Father to be loved, and a Friend 
to be trusted. Every page seems to exercise over the 
mind an attraction to the Source of all wisdom, blessed- 
ness, and grace; and every sentiment seems bathed 
with the spirit of devotion, and designed to win the 
heart for God and truth. 

Another feature in Mr. Jay's writings is the skill 
with which, without apparent effort, he throws light 
upon Scripture, and, by a few happy sentences, sets 
the sacred word in a new and interesting, and often 
strong, light. It is as if he placed the reader in a po- 
sition from which lie could discover new lustre in the 
jewel of Divine truth. He makes it flash its radiance 
upon the mind's eye with a power and beauty unper- 
ceived before. And, moreover, not simply as thus 
condensing the force of isolated truths upon the mind, 
but in the important and most useful capacity of an 
expositor, he is conspicuously successful. His large 
knowledge of the Divine word, and his intimate in- 
sight into its special import, and his holy ingenuity in 
discovering uses to which its facts and lessons may be 
turned, qualify him in a high degree to expound the 
sacred word. With an unrivalled force and effect 
could he bring out the hidden beauties of revelation, 
and enchain the mind to the truths of (rod's word. 
There was a startling originality sometimes in his ap- 
plication of texts, which interested and delighted the 



326 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

auditor, and fixed the attention more on the Word of 
God than on the preacher or the writer. But he never 
pursued originality for its own sake, nor sought, as 
many have done, and are still doing, to affect novelty 
of thought by mere novelty of phrase. The new 
idioms and the new terminology are found, when 
translated into pure English, to contain little more 
than old and common ideas ; often they are a mere 
wrapper of grotesque or pompous phraseology thrown 
around poverty of thought and vulgar superficiality. 
But, in his own department, Mr. Jay was really an 
original thinker, and his thoughts engage, instruct, 
and delight the mind. His aim is always exalted, his 
means always legitimate, his motives always pure, and 
his success distinguished. 

In confirmation of our own estimate of his publica- 
tions, it will probably be interesting to the reader to be 
informed, upon the best authority, how his works have 
been received among the Christian bodies of the New 
World ; and where, never having heard his voice, they 
judge of him exclusively as an author. Mr. Jay him- 
self sometimes alludes to the extensive sale and useful- 
ness of his writings in America, and we shall, there- 
fore, here introduce some extracts from the pen of a 
distinguished American divine, who published an ar- 
ticle more than twenty years ago in an American pe- 
riodical, in which he reviewed the principal works of 
Mr. Jay, which had then been reprinted in that coun- 
try. In pointing out these peculiar excellences, lie 
thus concludes his review. -(The article is from the pen 
of the Rev. W. B. Sprague, D.D., and appeared in " The 
Quarterly Christian Spectator" It iuas afterwards pub- 
lished separatt '?/) . 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 327 

" If the estimate which, we have formed of the char- 
acter of Mr. Jay's publications be correct, it must be 
obvious to every one that they are designed to have 
an important influence in forming the religious charac- 
ter of the age ; to say nothing of the more remote in- 
fluence which they must exert upon posterity. We 
will consider, under a few distinct particulars, what are 
the effects which have followed, or may be expected to 
follow from the labors of this popular and excellent 
author. * 

" Mr. Jay's writings, if we mistake not, are peculiarly 
adapted to promote the study of the Bible. Not only are 
the ' Morning and Evening Exercises for the Closet,' 
directly of a biblical character, being designed as a sort 
of practical commentary on various portions of divine 
truth, but nearly all his other writings abound in scriptu- 
ral illustration, and are pre eminently fitted to invest the 
study of the Bible with strong attractions. No writer 
of the present day makes a more copious use of Scrip- 
ture than Mr. Jay ; and we might say, that in his ser- 
mons he sometimes carries this to an extreme, were it 
not for the uncommonly felicitous manner in which 
his quotations are made. It would seem as if the 
whole Bible were in his memory, and he had the pow- 
er, on every occasion, of selecting the very passage 
that is most to his purpose ; and when a writer quotes 
Scripture with such an advantage, we can scarcely call 
any degree of quotation excessive. 

" If Mr. Jay should be thought by some to urge to an 
extreme in respect to the direct use which he makes 
of Scripture in his public discourses, we are constrain- 
ed to believe that there is a tendency among many 
preachers, in this country at least, to the opposite end. 



328 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

"We certainly do not wish to be brought back to the 
practice of some of our venerable fathers, who not only 
were accustomed to string together many passages of 
Scripture, often without much regard to connection, 
but detained their hearers by turning over the leaves 
of the Bible to look their passages out ; but we do 
wish that every sermon should have so much of the 
Bible in it, either as it respects language or spirit, that 
it shall be obvious to every hearer that it is drawn di- 
rectly from that sacred book. It were reasonable to 
expect that God should put special power upon his 
own word ; and hence we find that the frequent intro- 
duction of Scripture language into a sermon imparts 
to it, in the view of the pious, a kind of unction which 
it can derive from nothing else. So, too, all experience 
proves, that there is no argument so strong as ' thus 
saith the Lord ;' and many a mind which has warred 
through a long course of metaphysical reasoning, has 
been fixed in its convictions by one plain declaration 

of the Bible. 

* * -x- * * # 

" Mr. Jay's writings are also eminently distinguished 
for their Practical Tendency They are indeed by no 
means deficient in the exhibition of Scripture doc- 
trines, but whenever doctrines are discussed, it is al- 
ways in a practical way. They are not taken up as 
abstract propositions, but are presented just as they 
are found in Grod's word, and as they stand related to 
the experience and conduct of men. They are more 
commonly adapted to make men acquainted with their 
own hearts ; to carry them back to the very springs 
of their actions ; and to impress them with the convic- 
tion that the whole of religion is a practical reality. 



'CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 329 

We are not aware that Mr. Jay lias written anything 
of a merely speculative character; whatever has come 
from his pen, so far as wo know, has an important 
bearing upon practice, and is fitted to exert a benign 
and elevating influence upon human character. 

"It has been a characteristic of some, periods of the 
Church, that they have been distinguished by a rage 
for speculation. No one can go back to the time of 
the latter Christian fathers, or to the days of Thomas 
Aquinas, vithout being forcibly struck by the end- 
lessly diversified and hair-breadth distinctions which 
were then resorted to, in illustration and defence of 
Scripture doctrine ; and it were hardly necessary to 
say, that an age which had so much in its character 
that was speculative could not be distinguished by re- 
ligious action. It was common, in those days, for 
men to exhaust all their powers in endeavoring to 
settle points which did not admit of being settled, and 
which, if they had been, would not make one hair 
white or black, as it respects the salvation of men, or 
the advancement of the kingdom of Christ. The lam- 
entable result was, that, while men were spending 
their lives in metaphysical quibbling, the great cause 
for which the Saviour shed his blood seemed to stand 
still, if not to be on the retrograde ; and the revival 
of the spirit of religious action did not take place until 
the rage for vain speculation had begun in some meas- 
ure to die away. If we do not greatly mistake, 
wherever the doctrines of the Grospel are exhibited in. 
connection with much of human philosophy, and en- 
cumbered by the technology of the schools, they will 
be found to a great extent inefficacious, and the Church 
will be found proportionably listless and inactive. 
But when these truths are presented in their naked 



330 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

simplicity, and brought home to the mind and heart 
as common-sense realities, without having their in- 
fluence in any degree neutralized by foreign admix- 
tures, they will be found quick and powerful ; and it 
may reasonably be expected that in such a community 
there will be a waking from the dreams of careless- 
ness, and a spirit of benevolent activity going forth to 

bless the world. 

* # & & # * 

" One great secret of the charm which pervades Mr. 
Jay's writings is, that he ranges through every de- 
partment of human experience, and shows that the 
spirit has its appropriate teachings for every condition. 
Their tendency is not only to make man do right in 
all circumstances, but to do right intelligently, and 
upon principle. 

"It is another characteristic of Mr. Jay's writings, 
that they are eminently fitted to cherish a devotional 
spirit We have already had occasion to remark, that 
his ' Family Prayers,' while they show the fertility of 
his mind, the purity of his taste, and the originality 
and beauty of his conceptions, also breathe, in an un- 
common degree, the spirit of genuine devotion. But 
most of his other writings, tho .igh they are designed 
primarily to instruct, and are indeed, in a high degree, 
instructive, are delightfully pervaded by the same 
spirit. His 'Morning and Evening Exercises' are par- 
ticularly designed to be the companion of the closet ; 
and it would seem scarcely possible that they should 
be used by any Christian, as they were intended to be, 
without bringing him into an appropriate frame for 
communion with Grod. 

" It will be obvious to any one who reflects how 
much the present age is characterized by the spirit of 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 331 

active enterprise, that there is danger that it will suffer 
in its devotional character; danger that, while Chris- 
tians have their hands full of work, their hearts will 
be comparatively barren of devout exercises ; that 
their active efforts in building up the kingdom of 
Christ will be suffered to interfere with the more re- 
tired business of keeping their hearts and communing 
with (rod. We do not complain that the religious 
character of the age has too much in it that is practi- 
cal ; but we have much reason to fear that many 
Christians of the present day sometimes render apolo- 
gies to their consciences for a partial neglect of their 
closets, on the ground that their time is so much en- 
grossed by duties of a public nature that they have 
little left for anything else. Whenever this state of 
things exists, it is an evil which ought at once to be 
corrected ; for not only does it indicate an approaching 
decline of the spirit of piety, but it looks as if the 
spirit of benevolent action would not endure ; and 
whenever the Christian loses sight of his dependence 
on Grod, in his benevolent efforts, he may rest assured, 
either that his zeal will soon languish, or that his ef- 
forts will be unsuccessful. 

" Another striking characteristic of Mr. Jay's writ- 
ings is, that they exhibit, in the best sense, a truly catho- 
lic spirit. Not that there is anything in them that looks 
like lowering the standard of Christian doctrine or 
practice, or of yielding up anything that is essential 
in religion -7- far from it. The great doctrines and 
duties of the Gospel are constantly stated and urged 
in all their importance ; and erroneous doctrines and 
practices meet with their deserved condemnation. Bat. 
after all, the author never seems to be trammelled bv 

' v 

sectarian peculiarities ; and scarcely ever occupies 



332 CONCLrDING OBSERVATIONS. 

ground upon which he would not be cordially met by 
Christians of every evangelical denomination. This, 
no doubt, is one great reason of the universal popular- 
ity his writings have gained both in Great Britain and 
this country ; and hence, too, we have found many 
who had been long conversant with his writings, who 
yet had never been able to discover to what denomi- 
nation he belonged, and some who had always had the 
impression that, instead of being an Independent, as 
he actually is, he is a (Low Church) Episcopalian. ISFo 
doubt he has his attachment to Independency ; but it 
is so far from being a bigoted attachment, that he 
opens the arms of his charity wide to every evangeli- 
cal Christian, let his denomination be what it may. 
Men may differ from him in many unimportant partic- 
ulars, and yet, instead of standing aloof from them, 
as errorists, he cordially welcomes them as iellow-dis- 
ciples of a common Master. 

" The spirit of Christian Catholicism which Mr. Jay's 
writings evince, is what we wish to see more and more 
extensively pervade the religious community. We 
are by no means disposed to plead for an annihilation 
of sects, or for any attempt to range all the followers 
of Christ under the same human banner. On the con- 
trary, we fully believe that the division of the Chris- 
tian world into various denominations is not without 
some important uses ; and that, if its legitimate influ- 
ence is not neutralized by unchristian jealousies and 
alienations, it may hasten rather than retard the ulti- 
mate triumph of the Church. 

55- v!- & * T * 

" Let the delightful spirit which Mr. Jay has exem- 
plified in his writings pervade all the different com- 
munities of the followers of Christ, and, though we 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 338 

may still have different denominations, yet it will be 
manifest that there is but one body. Under such an 
influence the world will be compelled again to the ex- 
clamations which were made in the early ages of the 
church, 'Behold how these Christians love one an- 
other !' 

" In the writings of Mr. Jay there is a remarkable 
consistency, and they are fitted, in an eminent degree, 
to form a consistent religious character. One principal 
reason why most of the professed followers of Christ 
exert so little influence in favor of his cause is, that 
their Christian character is marred by such palpable 
inconsistency. This inconsistency results from the 
very estimate which they form of the comparative im- 
portance of different duties ; and from the neglect of 
some, or other, or all of the duties of Christian life, 
x- & * * * 

" ISTow, if we do not mistake, Mr. Jay's writings are 
not more remarkable for anything than their tendency 
to counteract this evil. They bring before us with 
great felicity, and without any apparent reference to 
system, the various duties of men, just as they are in- 
culcated in God's word, giving to each its proportion- 
ate importance. There is no elevating faith at the ex- 
pense of works, or zeal at the expense of morality, or 
alms at the expense of prayer ; but each duty stands 
forth with its own claims, holding its appropriate 
place. In short, we know of few writings which are 
fitted to make an impression more, in this respect, like 
that of the Bible itself, than those of Mr. Jay. Who- 
ever reads them attentively, and imbibes their spirit, 
will not be punctilious in respect to one set of duties, 
and lax in regard to another ; but he will be attentive 
to all; and, under such an influence, his Christian 



334 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

character, instead of being unsightly and monstrous, 
will develop itself in fair and beautiful proportions. 

"After what we have already said of Mr. Jay's writ- 
ings, we scarcely need add, that they are fitted to form 
Christian character on the most lovely and attractive model. 
It cannot be disguised, that, as the beauty of Christian 
doctrine has sometimes been marred by human philo- 
sophy, so the loveliness of Christian example has been 
obscured by what has almost seemed a cold and lower- 
ing melancholy. There have been those, and they are 
yet to be found, who appear habitually gloomy from 
principle ; who set down the playfulness and buoyancy 
of the animal spirits to the account of an inveterate 
waywardness; and who never venture to speak on the 
subject of religion at all, but with what seems an air of 
affected solemnity. 

55- -re- -3f & -3fr 

"If irreligious persons are liable to be confirmed in 
their irreligion, by the careless and triflling deportment 
of professed Christians, they are not less exposed to 
the same evil by seeing a Christian profession constant- 
ly associated with a morose and forbidding gloom. Let 
religion be exhibited in all its cheerful attractions, 
while yet it retains its appropriate seriousness and dig- 
nity, and it cannot fail to commend itself to the judg- 
ment, and conscience, and better feelings of all who 
witness such a manifestation. 

"There are few men probably to wnorn the present 
age is more indebted for whatever of consistent cheer- 
fulness its religious character may possess, than to Mr. 
Jay. Other writers, as we have already intimated, 
may have done more than he to rouse the slumbering 
conscience of the sinner, and bring him into the atti- 
tude of conviction and repentance ; but few, we think. 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 335 

have done more to hold up religion to the world in all 
its divine and beautiful attractions. We cannot take 
leave of this interesting and popular writer, without 
commending his writings to every class of our readers. 
We would commend them especially to the young 
Christian, as being eminently fitted to form him to a 
high degree of religious enjoyment, activity, and use- 
fulness. We would commend them to the men who 
would know most of the windings of his own heart, 
and would have maxims of true practical wisdom in 
his own mind, to regulate every part of his conduct. 
We would commend them even to the man who scoffs 
at religion as a fable ; for if he can contemplate that 
view of the Gospel which these writings present, with- 
out acknowledging that it is consistent, beautiful, even 
glorious, then it is because he belies his own convic- 
tions, or because his infidelity has made him a madman." 
Though this extract is long, yet it seemed the most 
appropriate, complete, and satisfactory testimony we 
could supply of the popularity and usefulness of Mr. 
Jay's writings in that extensive and populous country, 
where they are, to say the least, as extensively known 
and as much admired as in Great Britain. The long- 
established and well-earned reputation of the writer adds 
weight to his judicious and discriminating observations. 
Our own opinions and remarks, previously given, co- 
incide, in the main, with those of Dr. Sprague. Mr. 
Jay studied, and preached, and wrote for the Christian 
community at large. He wished the whole world to 
hear and to read, in the most intelligible and impress- 
ive terms, the Grospel of the grace of God ; and he 
wrote, therefore, in the common dialect, as the best ve- 
hicle for the truth of God ; but this he wrought into a 



336 . CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

polished shaft, and gave it a direct and successful 
aim. 

The admirers of sustained and impassioned elo- 
quence, or of a magniloquent style, or even of a purely 
classic diction, will find little to satisfy them, much less 
to fascinate them, in the volumes of Mr. Jay's works ; 
but all who desire to see the truths of Divine Revela- 
tion treated in their variety and comprehensiveness, 
their admonitions enforced in winning and persuasive 
words, with manly dignity, Christian simplicity, and 
apostolic earnestness ; all who read religious books for 
instruction and improvement, to have the heart warm- 
ed, and the life corrected, will find Mr. Jay's works a 
treasury which will never disappoint them, and which 
they will not soon exhaust. Beckford, of Fonthill 
Abbe}*, in a passage quoted in an early part of the 
Autobiography, compared Mr. Jay's mind to "a clear, 
transparent spring, flowing so freely as to impress us 
with the idea of its being inexhaustible ;" and such is 
but a just description of those volumes which so pow- 
erfully affected that versatile and exquisite genius, 
considered the most accomplished and keen-sighted 
man of his day ; but not him only, for thousands and 
tens of thousands, in almost every rank of life, are 
daily benefited, and will continue to be benefited, by 
the writings of William Jay. We can desiderate for 
them no happier or greater, succcess than that which 
the man of taste, already mentioned, indicated as their 
characteristic " the voico which calls us to look into 
ourselves, and prepare for judgment, is too piercing, 
too powerful, to be resisted, and we attempt, for worldly 
and sensual considerations, to shut our ears in vain." 



INDEX. 



ABBEY, FONTI-IIU., building of, i. 28. 

Ablingtou, first sermon at, i. 43. 

Abstinence, total, letter on, i 117. 

Academy at Marlborough, i. 14; 
students at. i. 48. 

Ambassador, anecdote of a young, 
i. 43. 

Ancestors, remarks on, i. 20. 

Anecdotes of his early preaching, 
i. 43 ; by Dr. Bowie, i. 277 
286; of Airs. Lflph, ii. 233. 

Anniversary, fiftieth, i. 227, his 
sermon at, i. 228. 

Appendix to reminiscences of Wil- 
berforce, i. 359366. 

Argyle chapel opened, i. 69. 

Ash ton, Mrs., death of, i. 263. 

Autobiography, general introduc- 
tion to. i. 13; reasons for. i. 13 ; 
supplement to, i. 204. 

Authorship, hi?, i. 119. 

Authors, his favorite, i. 137. 

Bailie, Dr., consults, i. 115. 

Barham, Lord, to Mr. Jay, ii. 170 ; 
Mr. Jay to, ii. 172. 

Barham, Lady, to Mr. Jay, ii. 178. 

Bath, residence at, i. 97 ; Bible So- 
ciety, i. 245. 

Baxter, opinion of, i. 135. 

Beckford, Mr., notices of, i. 30. 

Bible Society, Bath, i. 245. 

Bible, his study, i. 188 ; adherence 
to the, i. 19"2; rales in study- 
ing, i. 192. 

Bowie, Dr., his recollections of Mr. 
Jay, i. 277; letter to, ii. 212. 

Carlile, interview with, i. 350. 
Cecil, Rev. Richard, ii. 1. 



Chapel, first visit to Surrey, i. 51 ; 

preaches at Hotwells, i. 66 ; 

opening of Hanover Chapel, 

P< ckham, i. 126; do. of Lord 

Dueie's, i. 251. 
Charge, Mr. Winter's, i. 94. 
Children, his, i. 104. 
Christian Malford, residence at, 1. 

52; farewell sermon at, i. 58; 

address of Winter, i. 54. 
Church, his harmony in. i. 98 ; 

mode of admission to, i. 99. 
Cogan, Dr., ii. 1 1 3. 
Commentators, his favorite, i. 137. 
Composition, i. 139. 
Confession of Faith, i. 80. 
Cou victim!*, change of, i. 184. 
Conversion, his, i. 28. 
Cottle, Joseph, letter to, by Mr. 

Foster, ii. 48. 
Course, his, review of, i. 129. 

Davies. Mi.ss, introduction to, i. 52 ; 
letter to, ii. 135. 

Daviea, of New England, sermons, 
opinion of. i. 136. 

Davis, Dr., ii. 120. 

Deacons, letter to, i. 207. 

Death of Miss Statira Jay, i. 109 ; 
of Mrs. Jay, i. 247 ; of Mrs. Ash- 
ton, i. 267 ; his own, i. 267. 

Death-bed sayings, i. 267. 

Denominations, religious, i. 181; 
change of, i. 186 ; his o\vn, i. 187. 

Diploma, i. 120. 

Disadvantages, early, i. 126. 

Dissenters, their progress,!. 181. 

Divines, favorite, i. 135. 

Domestic sketches, i. 274. 

Dublin, visit to, i. 145. 



15 



338 



INDEX. 



Ducie, Lady, letters to, ii. 196, &c. 

Dueie, Lord, letters to, ii. 202, <fcc. ; 

opening of his chapel, i. 251. 

Education, contributors to his, 5. 

44 ; ministerial, i. 45. 
Establishment, the, i. 196. 
Expositions at prayer meetings, i. 

287. 

Faith, his confession of, i. 80. 

Family prayer, simplicity of man- 
ner, <fcc., i. 275. 

Farewell sermon at Christian Mai- 
ford, i. 58. 

Female servants' offering, i. 249 ; 
acknowledgment of do., i. 249. 

Fouthill Abbey, works at, i. 28. 

Foster, Rev. John, ii. 34 ; letter to 
Cottle, ii. 48. 

Funeral service, hin, i. 307. 

Funeral sermons for Mr. Jay, i. 271. 

Gainsborough, Earl of, letter on 

Mr. Jay's death, i. 294. 
Godwin, H., Esq., at jubilee, i. 237. 
Grinfield, Rev. T., letter from, ii. 

186; lines by, ii. 187. 
Griffiths, H., Esq., i. 208. 

Hall, Rev. Robert, ii. 13 ; his opin- 
ion of Dr. Owen controverted, 
i. 137 ; on use of Scripture lan- 
guage, ii. 15 ; on popery, ii. 22. 

Hanover chapel, opening of, i. 126. 

Harman, Miss, letters to, ii. 163, 
170, 185, 188, 190. 

Haweis, Rer. T., M.D., ii. 125. 

Head, Miss, marriage with, i. 250 ; 
letters to, ii. 180, 182, 191. 

Hill, Rev. Briant, i. 297. 

Hill, Sir Richard, i. 44. 

Hill, Rev. Rowland, A.M., i. 389 ; 
mistakes of his biographers, i. 
390; anecdotes, i. 391 ; his char- 
acter and ministry, i. 394 ; his 
wit, i. 401 ; his candor, i. 403 ; 
benevolence, i. 404; anecdotes 
of, 405412. 

Holmes, Mr., ii. 55. 

Hope Chapel, Hotwells, preaches 
at, i. 66. 



Hopkins, Mr. Rice, letter to, ii. 

1 94 ; hi.s report of Mr. Jay's last 

sermon, i. 253. 
Hughes, Rev. Jos., ii. 24. 
Button, Alderman, Dublin, i. 146. 

Illness, Mrs. Jays, i. Ill; pecu- 
liarity of, i. 112; his own, i. 1 14 ; 
his last, i. 277. 

Institutions, the public, i. 200. 

Interment, address at his, i. 268. 

Invitations, to London, i. 52 ; Bath, 
i.97. 

Ireland, visit to, i. 145. 

Jay, Mr. Edward, letters to, ii. 
155. 167, 168. 

Jay, Statira, letters to, ii. 144 
153; deaih of, i. 109. 

Jay, Mrs., her character, i. 103 ; 
letters to, ii. 140, 141 ; illness 
of, i. 112; her death, i. 246. 

Jay, Rev. William, as the preacher, 
ii. 285; as the author, ii. 813; 
anecdotes of, i. 43 ; illness of, i. 
114; death of, i. 267. 

Jay, William, Jun., death of, i. 107. 

Johns. Rev. Dr., recollections of 
Mr. Jay, i. 252. 

Jubilee, celebration of, i. 226 : ser- 
mon at, i. 227 ; presentation, and 
his reply, i. 230 236 ; com- 
memorative pillars, i. 237 ; ad- 
dress of young people, with gold 
medal, and his acknowledgment, 
i. 239, 240 ; James Montgom- 
ery's hymns for, i. 242 ; gift of 
female servants, and acknowl- 
edgment of, i. 249. 

Kiugsbury, Thomas, Esq., letter 

to, i. 209. 
Knightoii, Sir William, Bart., his 

opinion of Jay's preaching, i. 

223. 
Knox, Alexander, Esq., i. 383. 

Language, scriptural, objectors to, 

i. 166: defence of, 1169. 
Lecturing, Scottish custom of, i 

155. 



INDES. 



339 



Lace, Miss, i. 297. 

Letters from Winter t Jay, ii. 
136; to his daughter, ii. 144 
153 ; to his son at college, ii. 
155159, 165 ; to Sir J. B. Wil- 
liams, ii. 161 ; to Rammolnm 
Eoy, ii. 167; to Miss Harman, 
ii. 163, 170, 185, 188, 190 ; from 
Lord Barhain, ii. 1 7 1 ; from Lady 
Barbara, ii. 178 ; to the Queen, 
ii. 179; Miss Head, ii. 180, 182, 
191 ; from Rev. T. Grinfield, ii. 
186 ; to Mr. Rice Hopkins, ii. 
194; to Lord Dueie, ii. 202; to 
Lady Ducie, ii. 196, 198, 200, 
204, 205, 208, 209; from J. 
Montgomery, Esq., i. 244 ; from 
Earl of Gainsborough, i. 294 ; 
from Mr. Wilberforce, i. 823, 
843_347, 363366 ; from Mrs. 
H. More, i. 385. 

Liberality, growth of, i. 197. 

Life, his early, i. 25. 

London, invitations to settle in, i. 
52. 

London Miss'y Society, preaches 
at its first anniversary, <fec., i. 
205. 

Malford, Christian, residence at, i. 
52 ; farewell sermon and ad- 
dress of Mr. Winter, i. 54 65. 

Marlborougb Academy, admission 
into, i. 44 ; list of students, i. 
48. 

Marriage, his first, i. 99 ; his sec- 
ond, i. 250. 

Masses, preaching to, i. 156. 

Maxwell, Lady, introduction to, i. 
66 ; reminiscences of, ii. 50. 

Methodism at Tisbury, i. 27. 

Methodist, ease, <fec., i. 160. 

Missionary Society. (See London.) 

Montgomery, James, Esq., Jubilee 
Hymns, i. 242 ; letter f j$n a i, 
244. ' 

More, Mrs. H., ady^v 1 *Q h.TO> V 
140; remin.ig^e.es, of; i'. 367; 
her evag*.lSsm,' I &68'; attend- 
an.Q at ^fgyle" chapel, \. S09 ; 
*it the 'Lord's table, i. Q9 ; her 



character, i. 370; last letter from, 
i. 385 ; lines to Miss Steele, i. 
386. 

Newall, Mr., letter to, ii. 143. 

Newton, Rev. John, i. 303 ; anec- 
dotes of, i. 305 308 ; his can- 
dor and liberality, i. 310; his 
connection with Cowper, i. 312; 
attachment to his wife, i. 314 ; 
the closing scene, i. 316 ; letter 
to Mrs. Wathen, i. 318 ; ditto to 
Mrs. H , i. 321. 

Observations, concluding, by edi- 
tors, on Mr. Jay as a preacher, 
ii. 285 ; as an author, ii. 313. 

Offering, female servants', i. 249 ; 
acknowledgment of, i. 249. 

Ordination service, i. 74. 

Owen, Dr. Robert Hall's opinion 
of him controverted,!. 137. 

Owen, Rev. Jno. at interment, i. 
268. 

Oxford University, proposal to go 
to, i. 44. 

Parentage, i. 19. 

Pastoral assistant,!. 149 294. 

Pastorate, 50th anniversary of, i. 
227 ; jubilee of, i. 226 ; resigna- 
tion of and acceptance by the 
church, i. 257 ; choice of success- 
or to, i. 258. 

Pastoral visiting, complaints, i. 
171 ; his explanation,!. 171. 

Pearce, Rev. Sam., ii. 7. 

Pedigrees, remarks on, i. 19. 

Pillars, commemorative, i. 237. 

Pindar, Peter, lines to, i. 387. 

Poynder, Jno., Esq., i\, }, 

Prayer, family, simplicity in, i. 275. 

Prayer meetings, expositions at, i. 
287. 

Preach.er, the, Mr. Jay, reviewed 
by editors, i\. 285. 

Preachers, faults of Scottish, i. 161. 

Preaching, village, i. 43 ; on fre- 
quent, i.' 4S ; early, i. 44 ; anec- 
dotes in, i. 143 ; extemporaneous, 
i. 158; to the masses, i. 158 



340 



INDEX. 



union of styles in, i. 161 ; long, 

i. 161; similitudes iu, i. 164; 

American revival, i. 166. 
Presentations, landaulet, &c., i. 

227, 239. 

Protheroe, Miss Eliza, ii. 82. 
Publication*, his, i. 1 20. 
Pulpit, preparation for his, i. 156 ; 

state of the, i. 150. 

Quean, the, letter to, -with copy of 
the " Exercises," ii. 179. 

Rarnmohuu Roy, ii. 94 ; letter to, 
ii. 161. 

Reading, his course of, i. 134. 

Reasons for Autobiography, i. IS. 

Rebellion, the Irish, i. 1-16. 

Recollections, by Dr. Johns, i. 252; 
by Dr. Bowie, i. 277. 

Religious denominations, i. 181; 
change of, i. 186 ; his own, i. 1S7. 

Remarks, general, on pedigrees, 
(fee., i. 19 ; frequent preaching, i. 
43, 144; on Scottish custom of 
lecturing, i. 155. 

Reminiscences, the introduction to, 
i. 297. 

Reminiscences of Cecil, Rev. 
Richard, ii. 1 ; Oogan, Dr., ii. 
113; Davies, Dr., ii. 120; Fos- 
ter, Rev. John. ii. 34; Hall, Kev. 
Robert, ii. 13 ; Haweis, Rev. T., 
M.D., ii. 125; Hill, Rev. Row- 
land, A.M., i. oS'J ; Holmes, Mr., 
ii. 55 ; Hughes, Rev. Joseph, ii. 
24; Maxwell, Lady, ii. 50 ; More, 
Mrs. II. i. 367; Newton, Rev. 
John, i. 303 ; Pearce. Rev. Sam- 
uel, ii. 7 ; Poyndor, John, Esq., 
ii. 81 ; Protherop. Mi*s Eliza, ii. 
82; Rammohuu Roy, ii. 94 ; Ry- 
laud, Rev. John, Sen., A.M., i. 
323; Smith, Mrs., ii. 86; Spear, 
Robert, Esq., ii. 75 ; Tuppen, 
Rev. Thomas, ii. 102; Welsh, 
Mr., ii. 64 ; Wesley, Rev. John, 
ii. 50; "Wilberforce, "Wm., Esq., 
M.P., i. 336 : Yescombe, Mr., ii. 
109. 

Resignation a ? mstorate, i. 25 1. 



Review, Monthly, remarks of, i. 
121. 

Review, by himself, of his course, 
i. 128 ; of his visits to London, i. 
143; of his life, i. 178; of state 
of religion, i. 193. 

Review, by the editors, of Mr. Jay 
as a preacher and an author, ii. 
285. 

Ryland, Rev. John, A.M.. first in- 
terview with, i. 52 ; reminiscence 
of, i. 323; his singular appear- 
ance, i. 324; eccentricity, i. 326- 
7; at domestic -worship, i. 32S ; 
anecdotes of, i. 331 ; his death, i. 
333 ; his feayiugb, i. 335. 

Scenery, early effects of, i. 23. 

Scenes, the closing, i. 263 

Scotland, visit to, i. 149. 

Sermon, first, at Abington, i. 43 ; 
farewell, at Christian Mai ford, i. 
58 ; at opening of Argyle Chapel, 
i. 69 ; his fiftieth anniversary, i. 
227 ; jubilee, i. 227 ; last in Ar- 
gyle Chapel, i. 255- the last he 
preached, i. 250. 

Sermons, first vol. of, i. 120 ; criti- 
cisms on, i. 163; defence of his 
. method, i. 166. 

Servants' offering, and acknowl- 
edgment, i. 249. 

Service, ordination, address prefix- 
ed to, i. 74. 

Sketches, domestic, i. 274. 

Smith. Mrs., ii. 86. 

Society, Evangelical, for Ireland, 
i 146. 

Spear, Robert. Esq., ii.75. 

Staura Jay, letters to, ii. 144 
153; death of, i. 109. 

Steel, Mitis, lines by Mrs. More to, 
i. 386. 

Slouehouse, Sir James, i. 384. 

Siuart, Dr. Charles, letter from, i. 
153; intercourse and apology, 
i. 154. 

Students in Murlborough Acade- 
my, list of, i. 48. 

Study, methods of, i. 138. 

Successor, choice of, i, 258. 



INDEX. 



341 



Surrey Chapel, first visit to, i, 51. 
Sussex, Duke of, preaches before, 
i. 126, 

Teetotalism, approbation of, i. 117. 

Temperance, advantages of, i. 118. 

Thornton, Jno., Esq., brief notice 
of, i. 44. 

Tisbury, Methodism at, i. 27 ; Win- 
ter preaches at. i. 35. 

Tuppen, Rev. Thos., acquaintance 
with, i. 68; preaches during his 
illness, i. 68; Argyle Chapel 
built for, i. 69 ; dying chain bur 
of, i. 73 ; reminiscence of, ii. 
102; death of his son, ii. 107. 

Turner, Mrs., noticed by, i. 27. 

Ulph, Mrs., her conversion, ii. 233. 
Union of two styles in preaching, 

i. 153. 
University, Oxford, proposal to go 

to, i. 44. 
Usefulness, the preacher's aim, i. 

145. 

Vaughan, Rev. R. A., assistant 
minister, i. 251. 

Village preaching, i. 4 3. 

Visits, to London, i. 129 ; to Ire- 
land, i. 145 , to Scotland, i. 149.' 

Visiting, pastoral, complaints, i. 
171 ; his explanation, i. 171. 



Walker, .Tno., Dublin, notice of, i. 
147. 

Welsh, Mr., ii. 64. 

Wesley, Rev. John, ii. 50. 

Westley, Miss, i. 297. 

Whitfield, converts of, i. 200 ; an- 
ecdotes of, i. 392. 

Wilberforce, Win., Esq., M.P., ad- 
vice to Mr. Jay, i. 115; opinion 
of him, i. 230 ; reminiscence of, 
i. 336 ; his religious preferences, 
i. 837 ; letters from, i. 338 
847 ; on Catholic emancipation, 
i. 344; interview with Carlile 
the infidel, i. 350 ; his character, 
i. 356 ; additional letters from, 
i. 363 366 ; comments on his 
" Life," i. 359. 

Williams, Sir J. B., letter to, ii. 161. 

Winter, Mr., visit to Tidbm-y, i. 34; 
Mr. Jay introduced (o, i. 85 ; his 
faith for pecuniary support, i. 
36 ; his academy, i. 37 ; his stu- 
dents, i. 48 ; address prefixed to 
Jay's farewell sermon at Chris- 
tian Malford, i. 54; charge at 
Mr. Jay's ordination, i. 74 ; let- 
ter to Jay from, ii. 1 36. 

Withers, Mr., letter to, ii. 138. 

Wright, Sir James, i. 297. 

Yescombe, Mr., reminiscence of, 
ii. 109. 



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