(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The challenge of Central Asia [microform] : a brief survey of Tibet and its borderlands, Mongolia, north-west Kansu, Chinese Turkistan, and Russian Central Asia"

Clb 



fcrcsTVital 
KatSct exco-l 
enlin laturl 




, o 
i * * 



















I I 

I 

i 



- t I t 

t . , 
' 



t 91*11 



THE CHALLENGE OF 
CENTRAL ASIA 



A Brief Survey of Tibet and its Borderlands, Mongolia, 

North-West Kansu, Chinese Turkistan, and 

Russian Central Asia. 



BY 



MILDRED CABLE . F. HOUGHTON . R. KILGOUR . 
A. McLEISH . R. W. STURT . AND OLIVE WYON. 



WORLD DOMINION PRESS, 

I, TUDOR STREET, LONDON, B.C. 4 

113, FULTON STREET, NEW YORK CITY 

632-634, CONFEDERATION LIFE BUILDING, TORONTO, CANADA 

1929 




, ^ .' ..,,, 

* *' > *'" * k 

. > */. ... i 
** 



.... *.. . 

..". 
" 



PRINTED BY 

WILSON'S PRINTING COMPANY, LTD. V 

676, TURNMILL STREET, 

LONDON, B.C. I. 



Printed in Great Britain. 




910802 



PREFACE 

aim of this series is to describe briefly and 
clearly the situation in the various countries 
of the world as viewed from the standpoint of the 
Kingdom of God. 

An earlier Survey of Central Asia, now out of 
print, revealed the need for a much more complete 
account of the religious situation in this area. This 
Survey is a complete restatement. 

The nucleus of this book is the work of Miss Mildred 
Cable, of the China Inland Mission. Other sections 
have been prepared by the Rev. Frank Houghton, 
of the China Inland Mission, the Rev. R. Kilgour, 
D.D., Editorial Superintendent of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, Mr. R. W. Sturt, of the Brethren 
Mission, Miss Olive Wyon, of the World Dominion 
Press, and the Survey Editor of the World Dominion 
Movement. 

Thanks are specially due to the secretaries of the 
various missionary societies for the help which they 
have given. 

The maps have been prepared by Dr. Henry Fowler 
and Mr. R. W. Sturt. 

The map of Central Asia will repay careful study. 
It should be noted that Russian Central Asia is now 
a greatly enlarged territory, containing nearly one- 
third of the population of the whole of Central Asia. 

The term Central Asia is now denned as that 
region lying to the north of the main range of the 
Himalayas, thereby excluding Bhutan, Nepal, Kashmir 
and Afghanistan. The lands described have an area of 
4,203,681 square miles, and a population of 34,155,954. 



iv PREFACE 

It will also be seen from the map how completely 
the whole region is dominated by the railway system 
of Soviet Russia, southern extensions of which have 
already been carried out, and more are contemplated. 

From this it can readily- be gathered how serious 
is the Soviet menace. The British policy of keeping 
these frontier lands as buffer states seems to have 
thrown them into the power of their northern neigh- 
bours. In the long run the three great powers, Russia, 
China and British India, will be involved in the 
task of deciding the future of Central Asia, and the 
whole region will then be opened to missionary effort. 
It behoves the Christian Church thoroughly to acquaint 
itself with the present situation, and by its prayers 
and efforts to help bring in the light of the Gospel, 
which alone can dispel the darkness and gladden the 
hearts of the peoples of these immense mountain 
tracts and extensive deserts and tablelands. 

ALEXANDER McLEisn, 

Survey Editor. 

I, TUDOR STREET, E.C. 4. 
1st October, 1929. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PREFACE . . .... . . . . . . . . . . iii 

Introduction. 

I. CENTRAL ASIA IN WORLD HISTORY 9 

II. EARLY AND MEDIEVAL MISSIONS IN CENTRAL ASIA 17 

Chapter. 

THE SITUATION IN CENTRAL ASIA TO-DAY. 

I. RUSSIAN CENTRAL ASIA . . . . 31 

II. CHINESE TURKISTAN (SINKIANG) 42 

III. NORTH-WEST KANSU 53 

IV. MONGOLIA . . . . 59 

V. TIBET 77 

VI. ON THE BORDERLAND OF TIBET 88 

VII. THE CHALLENGE 104 

Appendices. 

INTRODUCTION : SUGGESTED POLICY OF MISSIONARY ADVANCE 111 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY .. .. .. .. .. ..114 

I. RUSSIAN CENTRAL ASIA .. ..114 

II. CHINESE TURKISTAN (SINKIANG) 115 

III. NORTH-WEST KANSU AND KANSU-TIBETAN BORDER .. 115 

IV. MONGOLIA .. .. .. .. 116 

V. TIBET 117 

VI. CHINESE AND INDIAN BORDERLANDS 118 

BIBLIOGRAPHY .. .. .. .. 119 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES . . . . 122 

Maps. 

I. CENTRAL ASIA, SHOWING MISSION STATIONS . . Facing 

Preface 

II. MONGOLIA, ILLUSTRATING CHINESE INFILTRATION Facing 

page 59 

INDEX . . . . 129 



Introduction 



The Challenge of Central Asia 



INTRODUCTION 
I. 

Central Asia in World History 

(i-) 

HP'HREE great names dominate the story of Central 
. X Asia : Alexander the Great, Genghiz Khan and 
Timur. Of Alexander the Great* it has been said that 
he was " singular among men of action for the 
imaginative splendours which guided him, and among 
romantic dreamers for the things which he achieved." 
It was in the year 334 B.C. that he turned his back 
upon Europe and began the great adventure of the 
conquest of the East. He overran Persia and penetrated 
into Afghanistan, struck north through the Hindu 
Kush into Turkistan and pressed forward to Samarkand 
and Bukhara. Against tremendous odds, and with 
cruel sufferings which the King shared with his soldiers, 
he finally led his war-weary veterans over the North- 
West Frontier into India, whence he returned through 
Baluchistan to Persia. Early in 323 Alexander went 
to Babylon, and there he died on the 13th of June, 
at the age of thirty-two. Young as he was when he 
died, Alexander had yet inaugurated a new epoch. 
" He is one of the few to whom it has been given to 
modify the whole future of the human race."f 

As a true Greek, Alexander regarded the establish- 
ment of cities as essential to the spread of civilization, 
and, wherever he passed, towns and fortresses came 

* 356-323 B.C. 

t Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. XII, p. 454. Cf also Cambridge 
Ancient History, Vol. VI, p. 436. 



10 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

into being, many of which were called by his own 
name. Where Khojend now stands he founded the 
great fortress of " Farthest Alexandria " (Alexandria 
Eschatd). This was the final outpost of Hellenism, 
looking out over the Scythian Steppes and controlling 
the Central Asian trade route through Kashgar into 
China, whence came the riches of the East to the 
markets of Europe. A century later Demetrius realized 
that conquest of the East could only be maintained 
.by the control of these trade routes, and for that 
purpose he extended his rule right up to the Pamirs. 

Meanwhile rival nations, the Hsiung Nu and the 
Yueh Chi, were struggling for the supremacy in North 
China and Central Asia. The former held the land 
from the north of Shansi Province to Lake Barkul, 
and the latter settled in the territory forming the 
present Province of Kansu. The Chinese took vigorous 
measures to overcome the Hsiung Nu, and by 59 B.C. 
China had established her authority over the region 
which is now called Chinese Turkistan. A few years 
later fifty-five states of Western Tartary had declared 
themselves vassals of the Chinese Emperor. 

Later on the Yueh Chi split into two branches, 
one of which mingled with the Tibetans, while the 
other became a very powerful tribe which held Kashgar 
for some time ; it finally disappeared before the White 
Huns in the fifth century. f" \ 

A branch of the Yueh Chi known as the Kushans 
was responsible for the spread of Greek influence 
through Khotan, Yarkand andl Kashgar into the 
heart of Central Asia. In recent years, traces of Greek 
and Babylonian influences have \been found by Sir 
Aurel Stein at Khotan and at Tunghwang ; by Dr. 
Albert von Le Coq at Turfan and elsewhere ; and by 
the Swedish archaeologist, Dr. Anderson, in Kansu. 

Chinese supremacy in Asia increased until the first 
century of the Christian era, when the Tibetans revolted, 
and for a time the Western countries were again cut 
off from China. The Great Wall, which had been in 
process of construction for three hundred years, was 
extended at this time as far as Tunghwang, where a 



CENTRAL ASIA IN WORLD HISTORY 11 

military camp was established to guard the fortress 
against the Tibetans. 

After a period of silence we find that the Tibetan 
people, who entered on their historical period towards 
the end of the sixth century, gained successive victories 
over the Chinese until the seventh century, when they 
became masters of the four garrisons that formed the 
Protectorate of Anhsi, a city which still commands 
the entrance to the Gobi Desert, and from whose walls 
the traveller still looks out on the arid waste. A quarter 
of a century later the Tibetans were in possession of 
Kashgaria, thus blocking the road of the Chinese to 
the west. 

In A.D. 692 the Chinese retook the four garrisons of 
Central Asia which they had lost to Tibet : Karashar, 
Kuche, Kashgar and Khotan, and, owing to warfare 
between Tibet and other tribes, the Chinese frontier 
enjoyed a period of comparative peace. 

Finally, in the eighth century, Tibetan power had 
to yield to the Uigurs, who became masters of the 
whole country from the Altai Range to Aksu. These 
Uigurs were a powerful people of Turkish race, 
descended from the Hsiung Nu. Their influence 
increased rapidly from the beginning of the eighth 
century, till it extended from Kashgar in the West 
to Honan, Central China, in the East. 

It was in this Province that the Uigur commander 
met some priests of the Manichean religion, and was 
converted by them ; when he returned to the north 
he took with him four of these priests. This religion 
of Mani arose in Babylonia about the middle of the 
third century A.D., and during many generations it 
exercised a great influence both in the East and in the 
West. It claimed to be both a religion and a philosophy, 
since it set up a code of ethics and also supplied an 
explanation of the constitution of the world, in which 
it taught that humanity is of Satanic origin ; it was, 
however, scarcely a philosophy in the European sense 
of the word. By its teaching idolatry was strictly 
prohibited. It prevailed in Persia until the latter half 
of the eighth century, and it is believed that it was 



12 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

finally swept away by the great Mongol invasion of 
the thirteenth century. 

In the ninth century the Uigurs suffered some 
defeats at the hands of the Kirghiz, and were scattered 
to the south and south-west towards Turfan and Kami, 
where their agricultural ability did much for the 
development of these amazingly fertile oases. Remnants 
of the Uigur people settled in Kansu in the border 
towns of Kanchow and Suchow, where clear traces 
of their descendants are still to be found. 



(ii.) 

With the rise of Genghiz Khan* Central Asia was 
drawn once more into the stream of world history. 
The forward march of the conquering Mongol hosts 
compelled Europe to recognize the tremendous forces 
concentrated in Central Asia.f 

Emerging from the obscurity of their pastoral 
homes in the regions lying to the east and south of 
Lake Baikal, the Mongols first appeared about A.D. 
1135 as one of the wild marauding Tartar tribes which 
had harassed China for centuries. Under the able 
leadership of Genghiz Khan, the " Scourge of God," 
the fierce mounted warriors swept down in resistless 
waves of conquest, east, west and south from the 
great grassy plains of the north, where at Karakorum 
the great Khan had established his world metropolis 
of tents and movable huts. J 

Thundering across the uplands of Central Asia, 
the wild and hardy horsemen carried terror and 
desolation far and wide. It was well for the city that 
opened its gates to receive them without resistance, 

* 1162-1227 A.D. The most reliable account of Genghiz Khan in 
English is contained in Bartol'd's Turkestan down to the Mongol Invasion. 

f This Mongolian invasion of Asia and Europe is the fourth of the 
Nomadic Movements in Asia, described by Sir E. Denison Ross in his 
Aldred Lectures on The Arabs, the Turks, the Seljuks, and the Mongols. 
Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, 20th and 27th September ; 4th 
and llth October, 1929. 

J I.e., Karakorum in Mongolia. 



CENTRAL ASIA IN WORLD HISTORY 13 

else smoking ruins and piles of skulls and bleaching 
bones alone were left to tell the tale of those who 
refused to yield. During twelve years (1211-1223) 
over eighteen million people perished in North China 
and South Mongolia alone. 

Genghiz Khan had mastered half the known world, 
and his name inspired a fear which lasted for 
generations.* Unlike the Empire of Alexander, the 
Mongol dominion did not fall to pieces with the death 
of its creator. The Mongol clans had been unified, 
and when, in 1227, Genghiz Khan died in Mongolia, 
he left to his sons an Empire which stretched from 
the China Sea to the banks of the Dnieper. 

Genghiz Khan was more than " a cruel barbarian 
at the head of countless savage horsemen." Sir 
Denison Ross emphasizes the fact that although he 
and his successors " carried destruction and desolation 
into the fairest lands of Asia on an unprecedented 
scale, what he achieved in unifying his empire, in 
organizing his administration, and in codifying his 
laws, entitle him to unstinted admiration. As a world 
conqueror he does not yield in eminence even to 
Alexander the Great ; as a legislator he may fitly be 
compared to Napoleon .; as an administrator he showed 
a wonderful broadmindedness in choosing the right 
men to serve him no matter what their nationality ; 
as a general he was never out-manceuvred, and as a 
soldier he was the bravest of the brave."! 

* His name " is commonly associated with the terrible invasions 
of Persia and Eastern Europe which were carried out by the forces 
which he had set in motion in the thirteenth century. It was in reality 
his grandson Hulagu who turned Bagdad into a smouldering charnel 
house, and it was another grandson, Batu, who invaded Europe. Ching- 
hiz Khan himself never journeyed further west than the Oxus, or 
further south than the Indus. During his active career, extending over 
fifty years, he was fully occupied with the unification of the Tatar 
tribes, the conquest of Northern China, and the overthrow of the 
powerful king of the Eastern Provinces of the Islamic world. It was 
another grandson, the famous Kublai Khan, who completed the conquest 
of China, and founded the dynasty of the Yuan, which endured for 
seventy-five years (1257-1332)." Sir E. Denison Ross in Journal of the 
Royal Society of Arts, llth October, 1929, p. 1101,. 

f Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, llth October, 1929, p. 1101, 



14 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

The effect of this great conqueror upon the world 
was amazing. It is difficult to imagine what would 
have happened if he had not lived. So devastating 
was the storm of the Mongol conquests that wherever 
their armies had swept past men had to make a new 
beginning. In many lands civilization sprang up afresh. 
The growing power of Islam was broken ; Arabic 
ceased to be the universal language of scholars 
throughout one-half of the world. The Turks were 
driven westwards, and the Ottoman Turks finally 
captured Constantinople. Genghiz Khan had opened 
up the way between the East and the West ; the 
barriers of the Dark Ages were thrown down, and 
Europe came into contact with China. 

For the moment, however, the contact was one of 
sheer terror and dismay. Genghiz Khan was succeeded 
by his son, Ogdai, who set himself to follow up his 
father's conquests. His armies went forth to the East 
and to the West, carrying all before them. In 1236 
they invaded Georgia and Great Armenia, where they 
committed dreadful atrocities. They pushed on into 
Russia, burning and torturing as they went. "No 
eye remained open to weep for the dead." Moscow 
fell before their irresistible advance ; then Kiev was 
captured, its inhabitants massacred, and the city 
razed to the ground. 

Dividing into two sections the Mongols poured 
into Poland and Hungary, and on Christmas Day, 
1241, the Mongol general crossed the Danube on the 
ice and took Esztergom by assault. Panic-stricken 
Europe believed itself to be on the point of complete 
subjugation by the barbarian hordes. 

Suddenly, by an act of God, the tide was stemmed, 
and the enormous army hastily withdrew eastwards 
in response to a peremptory command from head- 
quarters. The great leader Ogdai lay dead ir^ distant 
Mongolia, and the campaign was abandoned. As the 
army withdrew, it carried away with it many European 
women, whose descendants are to be found among 
ihe Tartar tribes of the present day. 

The Mongols soon became complete masters of 



CENTRAL ASIA IN WORLD HISTORY 15 

China and placed their Emperor, Kublai Khan, on the 
throne at Cambaluc (Khanbalag), the modern Peking. 
The splendour and enlightenment of his court became 
the wonder of Europe, and it was to this court that 
the Venetian travellers, the brothers Nicolo and Maffeo 
Polo made their way. The Khan was delighted with 
his European guests, and listened eagerly to their 
accounts of the Latin world. Finally, he sent them 
back to the Pope with letters from himself asking for 
a large body of educated men to teach Christianity to 
his people. It has been suggested that Kublai's main 
purpose was political, and that he desired Christian 
teaching in order to tame and subdue his wild subjects. 
When, however, Rome failed to respond to his request, 
he fell back upon Buddhism as his instrument of 
civilization. 

The vast extent of the Tartar flood had obliterated 
all artificiality of racial prejudice from the Yellow 
River to the Danube, and the accidents of war and 
the opportunities of commerce inevitably carried a 
variety of persons, representing various classes of 
European life, into Central Asia. With the opening 
up of the trade routes Europe became curious to know 
more about " the East." Two centuries later Vascc- 
da Gama set out on his journey by sea to the Indies, 
and when in August, 1492, Columbus set sail from 
Palos in Andalusia, the goal of his hopes was not 
America but " the land of the Great Khan/' 



Little more than a century elapsed before Central 
Asia was again the scene of another vast attempt to 
dominate the known world. Timur-i-Leng,* generally 
known as Tamerlane, was born in 1336 at Kesh, " the 
Green City," some fifty miles south of Samarkand. 
With fewer advantages than either Alexander or 
Genghiz Khan, Tamerlane achieved all that Alexander 
had been able to do. He gathered a people round him, 
conquered the military forces of more than half the 

* "The lame Timur." 1336-1405 A.D. 



16 



THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 



world, levelled cities to the ground and rebuilt them 
according to his fancy, and collected and spent the 
treasures of empires. 

As with Genghiz Khan, the westward march of 
Timur affected the political situation and changed 
the course of European history. Once more he opened 
up the trade routes. The upheaval caused by his death 
was a blow to trade with Asia, and this was one of the 
reasons which impelled Columbus and Vasco da Gama 
to try to discover the sea route to the Far East. In 
Russia the Golden Horde* was crushed, and the 
Russians were set free for their own national 
development. In Central Asia itself Timur's death 
caused the final separation between the warriors of 
Turan in the north and the cultured peoples of Iran 
in the south. To-day the descendants of the Mongols 
and the Tartars the Kirghiz and Kalmuk Tartars 
" graze their sheep and horses by the ruins of the 
towers that Timur built." 



(iv.) 

Tamerlane was the last of the great conquerors, 
but significant things are happening in Central Asia 
in our own day. Throughout this whole region the 
growing influence of Soviet Russia is the main factor 
in contemporary politics. Some would even go so far 
as to say that the return of Russia to Asia is one of 
the most momentous changes which has taken place 
in the world since 1914. 

The " Eurasian " theory of Russia's political destiny 
is being applied to the problems of Central Asia with a 
large measure of success. 

" Let us turn our faces towards Asia. The East 
will help us to conquer the West/' These words of 
Lenin have been accepted by his followers. One of the 
most important centres of Communist propaganda 

* The name of a body of Tartars who overran a great part of 
Eastern Europe in the middle of the thirteenth century. In Russia 
they founded the Tartar empire, known as the Empire of the Golden 
Horde or the western Kipchaks. 



EARLY AND MEDIEVAL MISSIONS 17 

has been situated in Tashkent since March, 1928, A 
paper has been published in this city which bears the 
title The Bulletin of the Middle Eastern Press. Upon 
the cover is a quotation from Lenin : " The modern 
revolution is now entering the period of direct inter- 
vention of the oriental races in the destiny of the 
world." 

The Soviet appeal to the Central Asian peasants 
as descendants of the great Genghiz Khan does not 
fail to stir their pride or to win their support. This 
success, however, has not been won without a struggle. 
Some confused and chaotic years followed the War 
and the Russian Revolution. Muslim fanaticism and 
Turkish nationalism spurred the peoples of Central 
Asia to revolt. The cities of Central Asia Samarkand 
and Bukhara, Khiva and Tashkent were the scene 
of street fighting, massacre and executions, while the 
villages of the Zarafshan suffered greatly from drought 
and famine. When, in 1922, the rising had finally 
been crushed, the victors had learned to respect their 
opponents. The Soviet policy towards non-Russian 
peoples was modified, and the newly created Uzbek 
and Turcoman Republics were admitted to the Soviet 
Union on the same basis as the Republics of 
Russia, the Ukraine, White Russia and Trans- 
Caucasia. Almost unobserved by Europe another 
great world empire is being built up. Once more 
Central Asia is being drawn into the stream of world 
history. 

II. 
Early and Medieval Missions in Central Asia 

(i-) 
MONG those " devout men from every nation 



A 1 



under heaven" who were gathered in Jerusalem 
on the day of Pentecost were Parthians, Medes and 
Elamites, who had left their distant homes in Persia 
and Northern Mesopotamia in order to worship at the 

B 



18 



THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 



Feast. Set on fire by the great experience in which 
they had shared, they carried the Message to their 
homes, and thus there arose the " Church of the East," 
with its headquarters at Edessa in Northern Meso- 
potamia, and later in Persia.* During the Decian and 
Diocletian persecutions many Christians living in the 
Eastern provinces of the Roman Empire fled to Persia 
and joined themselves to the Church in that country. 
One hundred and fifty years later this process was 
repeated by the arrival of the exiled Nestorians. f 

The Nestorians brought a new impulse to the 
Church in Persia ; they were not merely intelligent 
and industrious workers who would have been welcome 
to any State, but they were full of glowing missionary 
zeal. From the fifth century onwards Nestorian Missions 
had a wonderful period of expansion ; in their own 
history they were repeating on a larger scale that which 
happened after the death of Stephen, when " they 
that were scattered abroad " by persecution " went 
everywhere preaching the word." The Persian perse- 
cutions were most severe, and countless multitudes 
suffered torture and death rather than deny their Lord. 
Those who left the country spread in all directions, 
including the regions of Transoxania and Turkistan ; 
and wherever they went they carried the Gospel with 
them.J 

Stimulated by persecution this wonderful missionary 
activity was also fed and sustained by a deep life of 
prayer, coupled with a strong emphasis on the study 
of the Bible. The Nestorian monasteries were practically 
Missionary Training Schools, in which the chief subject 
was the study of the Scriptures. The version in com- 

* Cf. A History of Christian Missions in China. K. S. Latourette, 
chapter IV. 

f I.e., the followers of Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople, (A.D. 
428-431) who was condemned and deposed for " heresy " at the Council 
of Ephesus in 431. "The Nestorians were persecuted with such vigour 
that they were forced to leave the empire, and by the time of Justinian, 
A.D. 527, it would have been difficult to find a church within the whole 
Roman empire that shared the views of Nestorians." For a full treat- - 
ment of this subject see Nestorian Missionary Enterprise. J. Stewart. 
T. & T. Clark, 1928. 

J Nestorian Missionary Enterprise. J. Stewart, p. 9. 



EARLY AND MEDIEVAL MISSIONS 



19 



mon use was the Peshitto version. The Nestorian 
missionaries introduced the Syriac alphabet to the 
Ural-Altaic races of Central Asia.* Some of these 
students became " solitaries " or " anchorites," giving 
themselves up chiefly to prayer and intercession. 
Others remained for a time in the monastery, either 
continuing their studies, or training those who flocked 
to them for instruction. Others, taking their lives in 
their hands, went forth to carry the Gospel to the ends 
of the earth. They were men of great faith, deeply 
versed in the Scriptures, large portions of which they 
knew by heart, fervent in prayer, gentle and humble 
in manner, and full of love to God and man. 

But this spirit of missionary zeal was not the 
portion merely of a large band of trained men, it 
animated the whole Church. The sons of Christians 
" were expected to study the Psalms, the New 
Testament, and to attend courses of lectures before 
entering on a business career," and many of the 
missionary pioneers of Central Asia were artisans, 
traders, merchants and physicians. Jerome says that 
" the Huns learn the Psalms from Syrian merchants 
who burn by the very warmth of their faith." 

The golden age of Nestorian Missions in Central 
Asia lay between the fifth and the ninth centuries. 
The celebrated memorial in Central China, with its 
inscription written partly in Syriac, bears the date of 
February 4th, A.D. 781. On it are the names of the 
reigning Patriarch, the Bishop of China, of sixty-seven 
persons who were apparently Western Asiatics, and of 
sixty-one Chinese Christians, all but two of whom 
were priests. In the same year (A.D. 781) Timothy, 
the Nestorian Patriarch, wrote thus to the Maronites 
of Syria: "The King of the Turks, with nearly all 
his country, has left his ancient idolatry and has become 
Christian, and he has requested us in his letter to create 
a Metropolitan for his country, and this we have done." 
Writing to another correspondent he says : "In these 

*Cf. J. Stewart. Nestorian Missionary Enterprise. Appendix B. 
The Bible of the Nestorians and the Spread of Alphabetic Writing and 
Culture, p. 330f. 



20 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

days the Holy Spirit has anointed a Metropolitan for 
the Turks and we are preparing to consecrate another 
one for the Tibetans." 

Vague rumours of these happenings in the East 
filtered through to Europe and gave rise to the legend 
of Pr ester John which was so widely diffused throughout 
the Middle Ages. The occasion of the birth of this 
legend is interesting as an illustration of Nestorian 
missionary influence. About the year A. D. 1007 the 
Metropolitan of Merv wrote to the Nestorian Patriarch 
to tell him some good news. In the course of his letter 
he relates how the King of a people called the Keraits 
(Eastern Turks living near Lake Baikal) was out 
hunting among the mountains when he was overtaken 
by a violent snowstorm and lost his way. Just when 
he was in despair someone appeared and said to him : 
" If you believe in Christ I will lead you in the right 
direction, and you will not die here." When the King 
had reached the tents in safety he summoned some 
Christian merchants who were there and asked them 
what he ought to do: They gave him a Gospel and 
told him he must be baptized. The " good news " in 
this letter is the fact of the conversion of this King 
which was speedily followed by a movement in which 
about two hundred thousand Turks and Mongols 
became Christians.* 

Nestorian Missions in Mongolia, China and Northern 
Siberia, began rather later than in Transoxania and 
Turkistan, and they continued until the thirteenth 
century. By the beginning of the eleventh century 
the influence of the Nestorian Church extended from 
China to Mesopotamia and from Lake Baikal to Cape 
Comorin. Indeed, in the opinion of Dr. Latourette, 
if the Nestorian Missions had been " supported by 
powerful Christian monarchs the entire religious map 
of Central Asia might have been altered." It is no 
exaggeration to say that this was " the most 
missionary Church the world has ever seen." 

* Cf. A History of Christian Missions in China. K. S. Latourette, 
p. 63ff. 



EARLY AND MEDIEVAL MISSIONS 21 

Further, as Dr. John Stewart points out in his inspiring 
study of Nestorian Missions, " all this was accomplished 
without any of the elaborate machinery that we have 
come" to look upon as necessary for the carrying on of 
the missionary work of the twentieth century." He 
adds some highly suggestive comments on this fact : 
" If one compares the outcome of the missionary 
activity of the ' Church of the East with the results 
of the more highly developed organizations of to-day, 
one may well ask if the missionaries of those early 
centuries have not, even yet, something to teach us 
as to the methods and conditions that are essential 
to the gathering out and building up of a Christian 
community, which shall not be only self-supporting 
and self-governing, but, most important of all, self- 
propagating as well." 

Up to this point it is an inspiring story. It is, 
however, a fact of experience that the vitality of 
Christianity needs to be constantly renewed. Every 
generation has to fight the battle of faith afresh. 
There is no substitute for a living Christian experience, 
and if this dies out in the Church in any land no strength 
of organization, custom or tradition, will avail to keep 
that Church alive. Thus, when towards the end of the 
sixteenth century some Jesuit missionaries revisited 
the cities where groups of Nestorian Christians were 
said to exist, all they could discover were some material 
relics a bell, a cross, or a Greek inscription. All other 
traces had been blotted out. 

The causes of this decline seem to have been of two 
kinds, internal and external.* The slow insidious process 



* Discussing the parallel problem of the disappearance of Nestorian 
Christianity from China, Dr. Latourette suggests that it was due to the 
following factors : 

(a) Nestorian Christianity was always primarily the faith of a 
foreign community ; 

(6) It arrived in China at a time when there was no particular sense 
of need for a new faith ; 

(c) The Nestorian missionaries were separated from the centre of 
their Church by immense distances and could look for little assistance 
and inspiration from the main body ot their fellow-believers. 



22 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

of internal decay was undoubtedly due to the growth 
of the spirit of compromise. According to Sir Henry 
Yule, by the end of the tenth century Christianity in 
Central Asia had already lost much of its earlier 
vitality owing to the rise of Manichean and other 
dualistic cults. It was still more greatly affected by 
Buddhism. " If Christianity " says Stewart 
" exerted a liberalizing influence on Buddhism, it in 
turn had a similar effect on Christianity. Evidently 
there was a levelling up on the one hand and a levelling 
down on the other. The spirit of compromise was 
abroad. It was a question of give and take. Not 
perhaps that there was any formal departure from, 
or denial of, fundamental doctrines, but less emphasis 
was probably laid on these than their importance 
demanded, and the influence of the Nestorians on the 
non-Christians among whom they lived, and their 
power to exert a restraining influence on the Mongol 
storm which was about to burst on Asia, was corres- 
pondingly decreased. The note of urgency and 
definiteness which had been so characteristic of their 
message in the early centuries had disappeared ; the 
Laodicean period in their history had set in."* 

Thus it came about that a Church, which in its 
early days had only been stimulated by persecution, 
was unable to stand against the overwhelming forces 
of Islam and of the persecutions which accompanied the 
extension of Islam in Central Asia, and later of the 
Mongol devastations of the thirteenth century. Under 
the grandson of Hulagu Khanf all the Christian 
Churches in his empire were destroyed, and the order 
was issued that every Christian should be banished 
from his dominions. 

The final blow to Christianity in Central and 
Northern Asia and in Mongolia was dealt by Tamerlane. 
He hated the Christians, destroyed their towns, 

* Nestorian Missionary Enterprise. J. Stewart, p. 253. 

f Great-nephew of Genghiz Khan, Viceroy of Persia A.D. 1256, 
said to have been a supporter of the Christian religion. (See Nestorian 
Missionary Enterprise, pp. 268-270, by J. Stewart.) 



EARLY AND MEDIEVAL MISSIONS 23 

churches and monasteries, hunted the terror-stricken 
refugees out of their dens and caves among the 
mountains and massacred them by the thousand. 
So great was the terror he created that it has been 
said that " his mere nod was sufficient to cause vast 
multitudes to abandon Christianity." With the 
complete victory of Tamerlane, Islam was firmly 
established in Central Asia, while in the lands which 
had suffered less severely Buddhism became the chief 
religion.* 



(ii.) 

In the year 1238, Europe was suddenly awakened 
to the Mongol danger. Panic seized the minds of men 
as they heard of these savage hordes who had " brought 
terrible devastation to the eastern parts (of Europe), 
laying them waste with fire and carnage." A curious 
little incident which has been preserved shows how 
widespread was the fear inspired by the Mongol 
invasion. In the year 1240, the people of Gothland 
and Friesland did not dare to go to Yarmouth for the 
herring fishery as usual, in consequence of which it is 
recorded that " the herrings were so cheap that forty 
or fifty sold for a piece of silver, "f 

It was at this time, when " distress and darkness 
and the gloom of anguish " were brooding over Europe, 
that the Christian Church rose up declaring that in 
one way only could civilization be saved from doom : 
by winning the barbarians for Christ, and through 
Christianity to civilization. 

Inspired by these motives the first Franciscan 
missionaries set out on their adventurous journey to 
Asia. Three names stand out among those who 
embarked on this courageous campaign : Friar John 

* The Churches of Eastern Christendom. B. J. Kidd, chapter XVI. 

t Contemporaries of Marco Polo : edited by M. Komroff, Intro- 
duction, p. xiii. 



24 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

de Piano Carpini, Friar William of Rubruck, and, 
somewhat later, Friar Odoric.* 

Carpini set out from Lyons on Easter Day, 1245, 
on the first important journey made by a European 
into the vast Mongol Empire. The expedition occupied 
two years, and involved great hardships. Carpini 
and his companions often slept on the bare snow, and 
they suffered much from hunger. Carpini brought 
back a letter from Kuyuk Khan (grandson of Genghiz 
Khan) to the Pope, which ends by asking the Pope 
to come to the East and do homage to the Mongol 
rulers : " And if you do not observe the order of God 
. . . then we will know you as our enemy.'* Carpini 
did not live long after his return to Europe. Worn 
out by the hardships he had endured, he died in 
1252. 

William of Rubruck left Europe for the East the 
year after Carpini's death. He was sent by King 
Louis IX of France, who gave him a little money for 
his journey, letters to the Mongol Khan and a Bible. 
The story of his journey is vivid and accurate and a 
valuable record of travel. Rubruck returned to Europe 
in 1255. The results of his mission were somewhat 
doubtful, as the Mongol Khan had no real desire to 
receive the Christian message. Rubruck's references 
to the " Christians " he met in Central Asia are inter- 
esting ; he was often shocked by their ignorance and 
disgusted by their paganism ; of one group he says : 
" They were ignorant of all things regarding the 
Christian religion, excepting only the name of Christ." 

Friar Odoric set out for the East about 1318. After 
a long and hazardous journey by way of India he 
returned overland through Tibet, Persia, and the land 
of the famous Assassins, f He died in Italy in 1331. 
Soon after his death his fame both as saint and traveller 
spread far and wide. 

The Franciscan missions were most successful ; 

* For the full account of these travellers see Contemporaries of 
Marco Polo. Edited by M. Komroff. 1928. 

f A Shiite sect which was active in Syria and Persia from the 
eleventh to the thirteenth century ; it was crushed by Hulagu Khan. 



EARLY AND MEDIEVAL MISSIONS 25 

by the close of the thirteenth century they were 
firmly established in China ; their converts were so 
numerous that Pope Clement V found it necessary 
to appoint Asiatic bishops, and in 1307 John de Monte 
Corvino was consecrated Archbishop of " Cambaluc 
in Cathay." 

Corvino translated the New Testament and the 
Psalms into the " language most used among the 
Tartars/* and the outlook was promising for the 
future. His enthusiasm fired other groups of men 
in the Church, and the authorities began to further 
the cause of missions in Asia with something of the 
ardour which Corvino himself possessed. The great 
pioneer died in 1328, and with his death the best days 
of the mission to the Far East were over. The Church 
in Europe, however, did not at first show any signs of 
failing energy. A certain Brother Nicholas, also a 
Franciscan, was appointed to succeed Corvino, and he 
set out for Cathay accompanied by several helpers. 
It is not known whether he ever reached Peking, but 
it is recorded that he arrived at Almalig, the modern 
Kulja (now on the frontier between Russian and 
Chinese territory), and that in 1338, Pope Benedict 
XII wrote to the Jagatai Khan thanking him for his 
courtesy to Brother Nicholas. 

Rome did not give up the effort to plant the Faith 
in Central Asia without a struggle. In the early years 
of the fourteenth century, for instance, we hear of 
the establishment of a complete Persian hierarchy 
with a Metropolitan whose seat was at. a town south 
of the Caspian and whose jurisdiction extended over 
Persia, India, Ethiopia and Central Asia. Yet before 
the time of Tamerlane the Roman Missions had lost 
touch with the governing classes in Central Asia, and 
by the time he came upon the scene the Islamizing 
process was almost complete. As late as 1362, however, 
there were still traces of Roman Catholic missionary 
effort in Northern Tartary. Probably it was about 
this time that the Latin Missions in Central Asia were 
swept away by a fierce storm of persecution. 



26 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

In the second half of the fourteenth century the 
great Mongol Empire began to totter ; finally it fell 
before the incessant attacks of the Chinese. Luxury 
and the effeminate influences of civilization had so 
degenerated the Mongol race that its power was gone, 
and the people were driven from China and other 
conquered lands back to their own inhospitable uplands, 
where they finally relapsed into semi-nomadic pastoral 
life.* 

From the time of the reassertion of Celestial 
supremacy, the ancient policy of isolation, to which 
the Chinese revert by a dominating psychological 
instinct, led them to expel the foreign traders who had 
followed the missionaries, and Islam, which had been 
temporarily checked by the Mongols, once more 
closed its fatal grasp on the peoples of Central Asia, 
where it remains unchallenged to this day. 

The number of the missionaries steadily decreased, 
and, though occasional mention is made of reinforce- 
ments, they declined and finally entirely disappeared.! 
" They vanished in the gathering darkness and then all 
is silent." 



* " In the latter half of the fourteenth century, the Franciscan 
Mission fell upon evil days. In Europe the Black Death depleted the 
houses of the Order, and so much energy was required to maintain and 
replenish them that scant resources were available for the distant and 
perilous mission to the Far East. More disastrous still was the break-up 
of the Mongol Empire. As it progressed, the various routes to Cathay 
became unsafe. Fresh invasions, such as those of Timur, wasted Eastern 
and Central Asia. Missionaries were martyred in Central Asia." A 
History of Christian Missions in China. K. S. Latourette, p. 73. 

f Cf. " Of one thing we may be certain : the Chinese national 
reaction which broke out in 1368 set the Ming dynasty upon the throne, 
and expelled the Mongol Yuen, put an end for centuries to Western 
Christianity and to European trade within the Middle Kingdom. 
When this calamity befell, it is said that the friars flying across Asia 
from Peking to Sarai and the Volga, carried with them the relics of the 
Grand Khan converted by Corvino." Encyclopaedia of Religion and 
Ethics, Vol. VIII, p. 711. 



EARLY AND MEDIEVAL MISSIONS 27 

( * v 
m) 

Early in the sixteenth century the Portuguese, 
landing on the east coast of Asia, became familiar 
with the name of Peking without being aware that it 
was identical with the great city of Cambaluc whose 
name was famous to all educated Westerners. Gradually 
it became evident that though the names were different, 
yet the description of the people, customs, products 
and trade, tallied perfectly with that which the 
ancient Franciscan missionaries gave of Cambaluc. In 
particular, the renowned Matthew Ricci, who reached 
Peking in 1598, became convinced of the identitj^ of 
China with Cathay, of Cambaluc with Peking. His 
arguments, however, did not meet with universal 
assent, and the question remained an open one until 
it was finally settled by Bento de Goes. 

Jerome Xavier, missionary at Lahore in 1595, 
relates that at Akbar's court there was admitted one 
day to the presence of the Great Mogul a Muhammadan 
merchant. He stated that he had come from Cathay 
and had lived in Cambaluc for thirteen years. He 
said that many in Cathay were " followers of Jesus," 
and that there were also many " followers of Moses," 
as well as Muhammadans. 

The upshot of this remarkable audience was that 
Bento de Goes, a lay brother of the Jesuit order, set 
out on a great adventure : the endeavour to reach 
Cathay by the overland route, through the dangerous 
Muslim lands of Central Asia. In order to escape 
notice he let his hair and beard grow, and adopted 
the dress of a Persian trader. De Goes started out 
from India in 1603. He travelled through Afghanistan 
and the Pamirs, visiting Yarkand, Khotan and Aksu 
on the way. At last in the winter of 1605 he reached 
the Great Wall of China, and entered the town of 
Suchow, in Kansu. " This admirable person," as Sir 
Henry Yule calls him, spent some time in Suchow ; 
finally he died there in March, 1607 ; in the words of 
the old chronicler, "seeking Cathay he found Heaven." 
Before his death, however, he had established com- 



28 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

munication with Ricci at Peking, and had proved 
that Cathay and China were one and the same country. 



* * 



From the beginning of the seventeenth century 
no more was heard of Central Asia in the Christian 
West. So far as Christian missions were concerned 
this vast region had ceased to exist. 



The Situation in 
Central Asia To-day 



CHAPTER I. 

Russian Central Asia 

THE TURCOMAN, UZBEK AND KAZAK 

REPUBLICS 

I. 

SPRING has come to Samarkand. The spreading 
silver poplars with their over-arching branches 
throw a welcome shade over the wide European roads, 
hiding the houses so successfully that it seems almost 
impossible to believe that one is in the famous city 
of " Golden Samarkand/' Every street is an avenue 
of willow, acacia, elm and poplar trees, all clothed in 
their fresh green leaves. The atmosphere is so clear 
and translucent that every atom of dust shines with 
a golden radiance. 

Samarkand lies on a high plain, bounded on the 
south by a jagged wall of snowy mountains. The 
Asiatic quarter with its mosques and schools lies upon 
a patch of uneven ground ; the whole is dominated 
by an old fortress. There, amid an Oriental mingling 
of squalor and beauty, the real life of the city goes on. 
Yet at every step one may " kick a fragment of the 
past." In the Afrosiab quarter the ground is honey- 
combed with holes where men have been searching 
for coins or unbroken relics, or the pariah dogs have 
been hunting for bones. All around are the ruins of 
ancient buildings, chief among them the magnificent 
Bibi-Khanum, whose tiles of brilliant blue still glow 
in undimmed splendour on crumbling domes. 

Autumn is the bracing season in Samarkand The 
trees turn yellow ; the air is keen. Then comes 
December with its clear cold days. Through the 
leafless branches hidden houses emerge from their 
summer seclusion, while far away across the flat 
plain the snow mountains stand out clearly against 
the deep blue sky. 



32 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

Samarkand is full of memories of the past. Here 
Alexander slew Clytus. Here Genghiz Khan quartered 
his armies. Here, above all, Tamerlane has left his 
mark. Samarkand was the city of his dreams. He 
found it a half-ruined town of mud and brick and 
wood ; he rebuilt it and turned it into the " Rome of 
Asia." Blue was the favourite colour of the Tartars, 
and Timur's new buildings shone with fa9ades of 
turquoise. The fame of Samarkand spread through 
Asia, and everywhere it was known as Gok-kand, the 
Blue City. 

Bukhara is very different from Samarkand : " One 
has the money, the other the charm." It is a crowded 
huckstering place, with some of the fascination of 
the Middle Ages still clinging to its closely-packed 
houses and narrow lanes. The bazaar is wonderful, 
with its dim passages pierced here and there by shafts 
of sunlight, with its noise and its smells, odours of 
mutton fat and camels and men, mingling with the 
fragrance of nutmeg and cinnamon and Oriental 
spices. Nine-tenths of the people who jostle each other 
in these crowded alleys wear the same kind of white 
turban, forming a beautiful and harmonious back- 
ground to the riot of colour on the stalls with their 
flaming silks, jewellery, carpets, and sparkling objects 
of tin or glass. It has been well said that " the glory 
of Holy Bukhara is her bazaar." 

Both Samarkand and Bukhara depend for their very 
existence upon one of the famous rivers of Turkistan, 
the Zarafshan, the Polytimetus of the ancients, known 
now-a-days as the " Strewer of Gold," the " Picture 
of Life." Rising in the Alai Mountains, it runs through 
a ravine for two hundred miles, then for another two 
hundred miles through open country ; finally, it loses 
itself in the plains without reaching the Oxus. 

Thus we see clearly why it is that the scattered 
population of Russian Central Asia lives in the fertile 
oases which " seem to float like islands upon a sea of 
sand." The soil is so fruitful that the inhabitants 
are able to supply almost all their wants from the 
produce of their fields and gardens. 



RUSSIAN CENTRAL ASIA 33, 

When Sir Percy Sykes was travelling to Kashgar 
in 1915, he passed through Russian Central Asia. His 
sister gives some delightful impressions of their journey. 
Here are two glimpses on the road between Andijan 
and Osh. It was springtime, and as they drove along 
she noticed that " ploughing was in full swing, barley 
some inches high in the fields, fruit blossom everywhere, 
and the poplars and willows planted along the countless 
irrigation channels made a delicate veil of pale green. 
Beyond the cultivation lay bare rolling hills, behind 
which rose the lofty mountain ranges which we must 
cross before we could reach our destination. 

" The whole country seemed thickly populated, 
and we passed through village after village teeming 
with life, the source of which is the river. . . . Tortoises 
were emerging from their winter seclusion, the croak 
of the frog filled the land, hoopoes and the pretty 
doves, which are semi-sacred and never molested, flew 
about, and the ringing cry of quail and partridge 
sounded from cages in which the birds were kept as 
pets. . . . Our second day's march found us approaching 
the mountains, and we rode to the top of a low pass 
where hills slashed with scarlet, crimson and yellow, 
rose one behind another, to be dominated by the 
glorious snow-covered Tien Shan peaks, clear cut 
against a superb blue sky." 

The further they travelled towards Chinese 
Turkistan, the more barren became the country, 
until they wondered how the flocks and herds could 
subsist upon such scanty vegetation. " At one point 
the hills were a bright scarlet, and it was strange to 
see a red mud-built village with sheep grazing in this 
brilliantly coloured setting."* 

Away to the north and west the sands of Russian 
Central Asia merge into the great Kirghiz Steppe, the 
original home of the Turks and the Mongols, " the 
mother of nations and of conquerors." When Kublai 
Khan was at the height of his power, he enclosed 



* Through Deserts and Oases of Central Asia : P. and E. Sykes, 
pp. 22-29. 

C 



34 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

within his palace grounds a little field which he 
sowed with grasses from the prairie, in order that, 
as he put it, " his children might remember and be 
humble before the mother of them all." 

Kipchak, " emptiness, space," is the Kirghiz name 
for these vast grassy plains which stretch away and 
away in every direction like some great sea of land. 
In summer they lie drab, scorched and withered 
beneath the blazing sun ; sometimes even the sparse 
grey grass disappears before a greater desolation, 
and the steppe flowers only with the white bones of 
worn-out sheep and camels, recalling the Kirghiz 
saying : " The steppe is cruel and Heaven is far." 
But in the springtime the steppe is transformed ; 
the grass springs up afresh, the few dwarf trees and 
bushes burst into leaf, and the lovely tulip of the 
steppe sparkles on the green turf, and sways to and 
fro at the touch of the light airs of spring. The 
" empty " steppe has become Eulnek, a " flowering 
meadow." 

Between the Sea of Aral that strange expanse 
of inland ocean with its ships and seamen, and its 
mysterious islands and Lake Balkhash, the steppe 
is strewn with lakes and tarns, " strung together like 
pearls on a string." 

The only signs of human life in the steppe country 
are the round black tents of the nomads, and it was 
in such surroundings that Genghiz Khan was born. 

It is a vast country, this region of Russian Central 
Asia, stretching from the shores of the Caspian Sea 
to the great snow mountains on the borders of Sinkiang, 
and from Siberia to Afghanistan. 



II. 

Russia was an Asiatic power before her position 
in Europe was established, but the Russian advance 
into Central Asia belongs to the nineteenth century. 
By the end of the eighteenth century Russia had formed 
an irregular frontier, twelve hundred miles in length, 



RUSSIAN CENTRAL ASIA 35 

across the Kirghiz Steppes. This desert borderland 
was a constant source of trouble. Russian statesmen, 
therefore, determined to try to stabilize conditions in 
Turkistan. This movement began in the early thirties 
of last century ; at first progress was slow, and success 
was not finally assured until the Russians captured 
Merv and reached the great Hindu Kush mountain 
borderland in 1884. The stages of the Russian advance 
south of the frontier line of 1846 are clear : Tashkent 
was occupied in 1865, Samarkand in 1868, Khiva, 
the Oxus and Trans-Caspian Provinces in 1873, Akhal 
Tekke in 1881, Merv in 1884 and the Pamirs in 1895. 
Fifty years of political restlessness and fever were 
ended by the Anglo-Russian Convention of 31st August, 
1907, which dealt with Persia, Afghanistan and Tibet. 

The Russian Government consolidated its position 
in Central Asia by opening up trade routes, and linking 
up the most important towns by railway. For many 
years the Russian Government gave peace, protection, 
and a certain measure of prosperity to the people of 
Turkistan. As a colonizing experiment,, however, the 
Russian administration of Central Asia during the 
nineteenth century can scarcely be called a success. 

The upheaval of the World War stirred up a spirit 
of restlessness in Russian Turkistan. Even before 
the Russian Revolution of 1917 local risings occurred 
in which Austrian and Hungarian prisoners of war 
took part. 

In 1920, an organized insurrection broke out, 
known as the " Basmaji* Revolt," which assumed 
large proportions. Two main causes led to this revolt. 
On the one hand, the fanatical Muslims of Turkistan 
had been goaded to fury by the blasphemous pro- 
paganda and the policy of confiscation of ecclesiastical 
property carried on by the Soviets ; on the other hand, 
there was the growing force of Turkish nationalism, 
which presented a sharp challenge to the Bolshevists' 
idea of " Eurasian " domination. Enver Pasha, the 
Turkish Nationalist, appeared in Bukhara in November, 

* Literally " robber," really " rebel." Cf. " Badmashi." 



36 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

1921, and organized an anti-Soviet pan-Turanian 
movement, by which he hoped to combine into one 
huge Islamic State the Turks from Angora eastward 
including Afghanistan. 

In January, 1922, Enver sent an ultimatum to 
Moscow demanding a total evacuation of Turkistan 
by the Soviet Government. In answer the Red Army 
was despatched to Bukhara, and in August the 
movement was definitely broken by the death of Enver 
Pasha in a rearguard action. The two Emirates were 
then turned into two independent Soviet Republics.* 
The significance of these happenings has scarcely been 
realized in Europe, yet, to quote Sir Denison Ross, 
" Things have come very near to the creation of another 
big Empire where so many big Empires have been 
set up in the past." 

Before the Russian Revolution the term " Russian 
Turkistan " was used in a very wide sense. At the 
present time, however, it is limited to the region 
which is covered by the Turcoman and Uzbek Socialist 
Soviet Republics. Both are constituent states of the 
U.S.S.R. Economically, the new organization centres 
in the Uzbek Republic, " upon which the other units 
are dependent, while this state is entirely dependent 
upon Soviet Russia the sole consumer of its cotton. 
In this way the whole vast territories of the Kirghiz 
Steppes and Turkistan have become economic feeders 
of Soviet Russia, "f The official name of the Steppe 
region which lies to the north of the old Russian 
Turkistan is the Cossack Autonomous Socialist Soviet 
Republic, or Kazakstan. 

Soviet rule in Central Asia is characterized by 
energy, intelligence and industry. Coal, oil, cotton 
and silk are all being produced, and roads and railways 
are being improved and extended. The Turkistan- 
Siberian railway, which was begun in 1927, is to be 
completed in 1931. The northern sectiqn of the railway 

* The " Basmaji " bands continued to give trouble until 1926, 
and in 1929 they renewed their activities. 

f Europe and the East : N. D. Harris, p. 467. 



RUSSIAN CENTRAL ASIA 37 

was inaugurated on 15th December, 1928. An 
extensive re-organization of the Air Service in these 
republics is being planned. At the present time Khiva 
and Dyushambe in Tadzhikst an. are connected by aero- 
plane. Very soon, however, the Government expects to 
open a new route from Tashkent and Samarkand to 
Dyushambe. The flight from Tashkent to Dyushambe 
will occupy six hours ; at present it takes seven days 
to cover the same distance by railway or motor-car. 

These separate ethnic republics enjoy a considerable 
degree of autonomy. Each one has its own schools 
and school-books, and various Turkish dialects which 
have not hitherto been reduced to writing are now 
being studied by educational specialists. 

The main policy directing these Muslim republics 
lies in the hands of Moscow, but to a considerable extent 
they are allowed to manage their own home affairs. It 
is noteworthy that they have become far more aware 
of Europe than Europe is aware of them. News, not 
only of the Eastern but of the Western world, is here 
transmitted by word of mouth, and it is remarkable 
how sensitive these remote people are to world 
movements. A carelessly uttered word by European 
politicians may soon be the talk of the market place 
in many a town of Russian Central Asia. 



III. 

The region of Russian influence in Central Asia 
has been the scene of so many migrations and conquests 
that the population is naturally extremely mixed. 
The predominant element is the Ural-Altaic, and the 
following are the chief tribes. 

The Turkomans were nomad horse-breeders until 
the Russian occupation of Merv. In 1881, the Russians 
destroyed their power by capturing their chief fortress 
and putting down their slave trade. The " clan " 
spirit is strong among them, and they seem to be a 
fairly democratic people. 

The Uzbeks are of Turko-Tartar origin, but their 



38 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

contact with Persians, Kirghiz and Mongols, has been 
frequent and intimate. The Turkish element is probably 
predominant, though in the case of the Uzbeks of 
Khiva the Iranian type is uppermost. On the whole, 
women are better treated among the Uzbeks than 
among the Sarts and Tadzhiks. 

The Sarts are Uzbeks who have settled down and 
given up a nomad life. They occupy themselves 
with trade, and less often with agriculture. They all 
speak Turkish and are Sunnite Muslims ; there are 
many Sufis among them. 

Of smaller groups there are the Dzungaris, the 
Kalmuks and the Torgutes. The Tadzhiks (Aryans) 
who inhabit the little " Autonomous Socialist Soviet 
Republic " of Tadzhikstan live under the wing of 
Uzbekistan. These people form the intellectual element 
in the country ; they are the chief owners of the 
irrigated lands, merchants and mullahs. They are 
Sunnite Muslims. 

The Kirghiz are divided into two branches: (1) 
the Kazak (Cossack)* Kirghiz, and (2) the Kara 
(Black) Kirghiz. These tribes are virtually the masters 
of the steppes and the highlands. They have been 
described as " a gross and stolid people, kindly, but 
given to fits of sullen rage that know no bounds, 
black and violent as the desert storms. They are 
superstitious, but not religious, their only real faith 
is a vague pantheism. Their lives are centred about 
their flocks, their horses and their herds, and their 
minds are the minds of herdsmen." 



IV. 

Jalal al-Din Rumi,f the great Persian poet, wrote 
in one of his poems : 

" Thou wilt to Bukhara ? O fool for thy pains ! 
Thither thou goest, to be put into chains." 



* Literally, Free Birds of the Steppe. 

f Born A.D. 1207 in Eastern Persia. Died A.D. 1273 at Qoniya 
(Iconium) in Anatolia. 



RUSSIAN CENTRAL ASIA 39 

And Arminius Vambery* says that he found exactly 
the same feeling about the Muslims of Turkistan 
among his learned friends in Turkey and Persia. 
They warned him of his danger when he announced 
his intention of going to Bukhara and Samarkand, 
and when he returned and described his experiences 
many of them criticized and laughed at " the over- 
heated religious zeal of their fellow-believers." From 
various causes this part of Central Asia has long been 
a stronghold of Islam, to the point of fanaticism. 
Hence the boast : " Bukhara is the real strength of 
Islam." 

In the opinion of Professor Vambery this boast is 
fully supported by facts. He considers that Bukhara 
is the main stronghold of Islam for the whole of Central 
Asia. It is the social capital, and the centre of Muslim 
culture for this vast region. It contains several colleges 
and schools for the training of Muslim teachers. 
Kokand, Samarkand and Tashkent, are also important 
Islamic centres. The Muslim press is fairly active in 
these towns. Tashkent has five Muslim newspapers, 
Kokand and Samarkand one each, and papers are 
printed at Bukhara in the Arabic, Persian and Turki 

languages, f 

To-day ninety-five per cent, of the population 
profess Islam, and this faith inspires and regulates 
the religious and social life of the people. The smallest 
village has its mosque, to which is attached the school 
and the shelter for the poor and the pilgrim. The 
strength of Islam, therefore, is the first difficulty 
which would confront the Christian missionary. The 
second is the closed door of the Soviet Government. 
So far only a few missionaries have lived in Russian 
Central Asia. Eighteen years ago two members of the 
Swedish Missionary Society were sent to Bukhara, 
but they were only allowed to remain for a short time. 
At one time the German Mennonites started work 
amongst the Kirghiz : one of these missionaries acted 
as agent for the British and Foreign Bible Society at 

* Born A.D. 1832. 

f Cf. Across the World of Islam : S. M. Zwemer : p. 309. 



40 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

Tashkent until 1917, when, owing to the War, this 
mission had to give up its work. Individual Christians 
from other lands have done quiet work amongst the 
people, but under the rule of Soviet Russia even they 
have had to leave the country. 

For generations the Scriptures in Russian have been 
finding their way across the border. For Russian 
Central Asia itself, the British and Foreign Bible 
Society has published the four Gospels in Uzbek, the 
lingua franca of the districts round Bukhara, Khiva and 
Kokand. The translation was made by an inspector 
of schools who was editor of a newspaper in Tashkent. 
The latest edition is dated 1913. Other names by 
which Uzbek is also known are Sart, Turkestani and 
Central Asian Turkish. Remembering the importance 
of Bukhara as a great centre of intellectual life, as well 
as of busy trade, it is important to note that the 
Gospels are available in its own form of speech. 

In Jagatai or Trans-Caspian Turkish, sometimes 
known as Eastern Turki, or as Tekke Turkoman, the 
British and Foreign Bible Society has printed the 
Gospel of St. Matthew for the tribe of nomads found 
in the oasis to the north of Damani Koh and the 
Gulistan Mountains, and the deserts as far as the Oxus. 
They are said to number anything from two hundred 
thousand to five hundred thousand. 

Meanwhile, however, while the door to Russian 
Central Asia is bolted against the foreign missionary, 
a spontaneous Russian movement has been springing 
up. The possibilities for evangelistic work are much 
greater in these remote regions than in Soviet Russia 
itself. These Russian Christians go " everywhere, 
preaching the Word," both to their fellow-countrymen, 
and to the peoples of the Turcoman, Uzbek and Kazak 
Republics. In a large number of towns and villages 
little communities of Christians have already been 
formed.* The Bible is being read with eagerness ; 

* Further details of this movement can be obtained, if desired, 
from the World/ Dominion Press. 



RUSSIAN CENTRAL ASIA 41 

indeed, at present it is impossible to keep pace with 
the demand for it, especially for translations in the 
various languages and dialects of the country. This 
movement is strong, in the Russian Altai region, 
whence its leaders hope to send a constant stream of 
missionaries throughout Russian Central Asia. This 
widespread evangelical movement breathes something 
of the fragrance of primitive Christianity, when " the 
disciples were filled with joy and with the Holy Ghost." 



CHAPTER II. 
Chinese Turkistan (Sinkiang) 

I. < 

HIGH mountains surround the vast plain of 
Sinkiang. It is a desert land, fringed by oases. 
Much of the country is covered by great sandy wastes, 
where the sand is piled up by the force of the wind 
into fantastic dunes ; other regions are bare and stony, 
and in some parts are wide rolling steppes covered 
with coarse grass. Hemmed in on three sides by lofty 
mountain ranges, and on the fourth by a great desert, 
Sinkiang is indeed remote from the world : " It is a 
land steeped in the Middle Ages, picturesque and 
quaint almost beyond belief." 

The land is crossed by a few ancient trade routes 
which connect oases of varying size and importance.* 
Some of them contain only one well or spring of very 
brackish water, others consist of hamlets with a few 
acres of cultivated fields, while in some cases large 
walled cities are surrounded by thousands of acres 
of highly irrigated fertile land. 

In springtime these oases are most attractive. 
The trees that border the numerous irrigation channels 
are delicately flushed with green ; the Babylonian 
willows are bursting into fragrant bloom ; the flat 
fields are a brilliant carpet of springing corn. Flowers 
are few, but the graveyards are filled with sheets of 
blue iris, and here and there by the sandy bridle-tracks 
bushes of wild roses fill the air with their perfume. 
Fruit trees abound, and the low mud houses are 
embowered in masses of the pink and white blossom of 
apple and peach and pear. 

* It is estimated that the area of the oases is rather less than one 
and a half per cent, of the whole country. The Chinese, however, claim 
that thirty per cent, of the land is under cultivation, thirty per cent, 
consists of mountains and lakes, and forty per cent, is desert. 



Mildred Gable and others 
The Challenge of Central Asia 
, 1950 



-Ci. 



CHINESE TURKISTAN (SINKIANG) 43 

The great drawback to spring in Chinese Turkistan 
is the frequency of the sandstorms which rage furiously 
at times, filling the air with a constant haze of dust. 
In the Kashgar Oasis, for instance, it is said that there 
are only one hundred clear 'days in the year. The 
Kashgaris, however, do not complain, for they are glad 
of the relief from the brilliant sunshine. This haze 
gives the sunsets of Kashgar a peculiar charm. The 
sky will be softly flushed with pale yellow and mauve 
and rose-colour, while the whole scene is bathed in a 
wonderful golden light. 

Rivers are scarce, for, owing to the sandy nature 
of the soil, the water produced by the melting snows 
buries itself in the sand as soon as it has reached the 
foot of such ranges as the Barkul Mountains and the 
Tien Shan. The Yarkand or Tarim River, which takes 
its rise in the mountain ranges to the south-west, is 
the largest in the province, and the principal cities 
of Sinkiang are to be found along its bank. The Manas 
River, in the north-east, waters an area which is the 
granary of Eastern Turkistan. 

Urumtsi,* the capital, is a rapidly growing city, 
and during the last few years the Russian Quarter 
has gained in importance. Its population is cosmo- 
politan, and the provincial Governor appointed by 
the Central Government has his residence here. His 
jurisdiction extends from the borders of China proper 
to Siberia and Kashgaria. 

Manas, further north, is situated on the river of 
the same name, and is a market town in the centre of 
the best- watered farming country of the northern 
area. 

The great oasis of Hami, which the Turks call 
Kumul, stands at the cross-roads of the trade routes 
stretching north, south, east and west. 

Kucheng, east of Urumtsi, is a commercial centre 
which draws Chinese from all the different provinces 
to its business firms. 



* Known to the Chinese as Tihwafu, or by its local name of Hung- 
miao-tze. 



44 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

Barkul occupies a unique position behind the 
snow-clad range of the same name and on the borders 
of the Barkul Lake. 

Turfan lies in a depression below sea level. The 
locality is very fertile, and Turfan grows enough 
grapes to supply the whole province with sultanas. 

Khotan supplies the white jade or nephrite which 
Chinese craftsmen have carved so beautifully that it 
has gained world-wide repute. 

In the south-west are Kashgar and Yarkand. 
Kashgar is a town of such political importance that 
it needs the consular representation of Western lands. 
It is the terminus of the Trans-Himalayan caravan 
routes connecting India with Central Asia. 



II. 

After many vicissitudes this Central Province of 
Asia was finally brought under Chinese control in the 
eighteenth century, and it has gradually become one 
of China's most valuable colonies. 

At the fall of the Manchu dynasty, in 1911, its 
Governor was a Manchu, but at the time of crisis he 
fled. There was a period of fighting in which the 
Muslim troops took a prominent part, and their leader, 
General Ma, gave his support to a Chinese official who 
had held various appointments in Kansu and in 
Sinkiang, and who declared himself to be whole- 
heartedly on the Republican side. 

Once having been entrusted with the reins of 
Government, Governor Yang showed himself to be a 
firm and able ruler. His appointment was later 
confirmed by the central Government at Peking, and 
he was able to keep his territory free from the 
disturbances and civil war which have torn the 
provinces of China proper. 

His methods were those of a Dictator. He allowed 
no newspaper to be published in his province ; even 
the circulation of Chinese papers was forbidden. The 
cultivation of the opium poppy was absolutely 



CHINESE TURKISTAN (SINKIANG) 45 

prohibited, and brigandage was held in check. An 
effective system of espionage and censorship was 
exercised, and summary punishment was meted out 
to those who were suspected of disloyalty. 

A ruler so autocratic and ruthless as Governor 
Yang was bound to rouse bitter hostility against 
himself. Suddenly, the smouldering hatred flared up, 
and, on 7th July, 1928, while Yang was giving away 
the prizes at the Russian School of Law and Politics 
in Urumtsi, he was assassinated by the bodyguard of 
the Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

The Foreign Minister himself and his bodyguard 
of thirty soldiers were immediately captured by the 
Minister of the Interior, named Ching Shu-jen, the 
adopted son of Yang Tsen-hsin. The Foreign Minister 
was tried by court martial and shot. Two days after 
the death of Yang, Ching took over the government of 
the Province. The death of Governor Yang will cause 
great changes. It is even possible that these changes 
may be so drastic and far-reaching that they will alter 
the course of Central Asian history. 

A glance at the map will show how deeply Russian 
interests are involved in the future of Chinese 
Turkistan. Russia controls the only two feasible 
routes into Sinkiang : (1) the route to Urumtsi from 
Omsk on the Trans-Siberian railway, via Semipalatinsk ; 
by this route the journey from London, by rail and 
road, takes forty-five days ; (2) the route to Urumtsi 
by the Trans-Caspian railway, via Osh and Kashgar ; 
by this route the whole distance from London to 
Urumtsi can be covered in about eighty-six days. 

Sinkiang has recently added to its territory the 
triangular area north of Urumtsi which was previously 
part of Outer Mongolia ; this brings the frontier of 
Sinkiang into touch with that of Soviet Russia, and 
throws it open more than ever to penetration from 
that side. There seems little doubt that Russia has 
designs on the territories of Mongolia, Manchuria and 
Sinkiang which the present weakness of China greatly 
facilitates. 



46 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

It is impossible to foretell what course events will 
take, but the political future of Chinese Turkistan is 
fraught with perilous possibilities. 



III. 

The people of Chinese Turkistan represent many 
tribes and nations, diverse in type, manners, customs 
and religion. Some are Aryans, others belong to races 
of Ural-Altaic stock, and some are of mixed blood. 
The following is a brief description of the tribes which 
make up the population. 

The Turkis, who are also called Chan-tou, are the 
agriculturists of the fertile oases, and their caravans 
carry the produce of one part of the country to the 
other. They are known ethnologically as Turanian 
Turks. Their language is Turki, and they are a Muslim 
people. 

The Kazaks are a tent-dwelling people distributed 
over the steppes of Northern Dzungaria. There is 
reason for believing them to be descended from bands 
of people who, in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries, reverted to a nomadic life in order to escape 
from the strong state organization of the Turkic 
empires. The conditions of life which they adopted 
have led to their mixing freely with nomads like the 
Western Mongols. They are Muslims, but they are 
less fanatical than the Turkis. 

The Tungans are a Chinese-speaking people of a 
Semitic type of countenance, probably of Arab descent. 
Being Muslims they do not mix easily with the Chinese, 
and at times of rebellion they usually play a leading 
part. 

The Taranchis (farmers), or Hi Tartars, are to be 
found in the Kulja district of Hi. As their name 
indicates, they are an agricultural people, a large 
number of whom emigrated to Russian Turkistan 
at the time that Kulja passed under Chinese rule. 
They are Muslims. 

The Sarts (town-dwellers) really belong to Russian 



CHINESE TURKISTAN (SINKIANG) 47 

Central Asia, but they appear sporadically in Sinkiang. 
They congregate in village centres, and although they 
are chiefly engaged in commerce they are also successful 
agriculturists. They are reputed to be the best 
cultivators of cotton and fruit plantations. They 
are Muslims and keep their women more strictly in 
seclusion than is usual in other Turki tribes. 

The Nogais are Tartars, descendants of a tribe 
which derives its name from an early tribal chief who 
led his hordes into Europe, whence they returned 
with many Western women. They are somewhat 
European in type, and have considerable commercial 
intercourse with Russia. The Nogais are Muslims, but 
some of them seem to differ from the Russian colonists 
solely in the matter of religion. 

The Kirghiz are a tent-dwelling people living 
between Aksu and Uch-Turfan. Their occupation is 
cattle-breeding. In religion they are Muslims. 

The Badakshan border tribes, who bring tribute 
to the Governor at Urumtsi, live on the Afghan frontier. 

Further, the traders, craftsmen, and market- 
gardeners, are mainly Chinese colonists from the eighteen 
provinces of China ; their religion is Buddhism. Then 
there are the Manchus, descendants of the Manchu 
troops which fought under Chien Lung for the conquest 
of Sinkiang, and who were rewarded for their pains 
by grants of territory. They are met with in Kulja 
and on the Siberian border at Chuguchak. Many of 
them are well educated and are merchants or officials ; 
they are Buddhists. 

Finally, there are the Mongols, who belong to the 
Kalmuk or West Mongolian tribe ; they are a semi- 
nomadic people whose encampments are found in 
Karashar, Hi and the Altai Mountains. They are 
divided into Torgut and Hoshut branches. Their chief 
occupation is cattle ranging. They are Buddhists, 
and under the control of Lamas. 

The difficulty of governing a province in which so 
many tribes and nations mingle and where the diversity 
of race and religion inevitably causes friction, will be 
easily understood. On the whole, however, the people 



48 



THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 



are attractive, peaceable and tolerant. Further, it 
must always be remembered that the trade routes of 
Sinkiang unite India, Russia, Tibet and China, thus 
bringing this province into a position of political 
importance which can scarcely be over-estimated. 

With very little adjustment the roads of Central 
Asia could become military highways for motor 
transport ; wireless communication has already been 
established between Kashgar and Urga, via Urumtsi. 



IV. 

To the student of the history of Christian missions 
it will be a matter of regret that a country so rich in 
opportunity as Sinkiang has remained until the present 
time so largely unevangelized. The total missionary 
force resolves itself into a small group of members of 
the Swedish Missionary Society in Kashgar and three 
neighbouring towns, and three men, members of the 
China Inland Mission, at Urumtsi. In the year 1908, 
Mr. George Hunter travelled from Kansu to Urumtsi, 
where he established his headquarters ; later on he 
was joined by Mr. Percy Mather and, more recently, by 
Mr. H. F. Ridley. From this base constant journeys 
have been made along all the main trade routes. The 
difficulty of the work can be judged from the fact 
that there are still only eight communicants. 

Some idea of the distances which have been covered 
may be gathered from the length of journeys which 
have been made over and over again.* Messrs. Hunter 
and Mather have not only taken these extensive 
journeys, but they have also done much valuable 



* Urumtsi to 
Urumtsi to 
Urumtsi to 
Urumtsi to 
Urumtsi to 
Urumtsi to 
Urumtsi to 
Urumtsi to 
Urumtsi to 



Kashgar . . 

Hi and Kulja 

Chuguchak 

Karashar 

Turfan 

Hami 

Barkul 

Zaisan 

Kobdo in Altai 



56 days' march. 
20 
20 
10 
6 
18 
18 
28 
28 



CHINESE TURKISTAN (SINKIANG) 49 

translation into the languages of the peoples among 
whom they live. 

The missionaries of the Swedish Mission reached 
Sinkiang in 1894. They found almost the entire 
population professing a form of Muhammadanism 
which was mixed to a great extent with Indian 
mysticism and crude superstition. The Mission started 
work at Kashgar, and in spite of the fact that the 
country was under the Chinese, its missionaries met 
with opposition and persecution. At one time the 
Chinese stirred up the Kashgaris to besiege the little 
community in the mission house, and afterwards they 
used every kind of threat to induce the missionaries 
to leave the district. They stood firm, however, and 
in the end the Chinese official who was responsible 
for the trouble was recalled. 

The Swedish Mission has now extended its work 
through the Kashgar Oasis to Hancheng and Yangi- 
Hessar. Hancheng, a Chinese city, is situated at a 
distance of seven miles from Kashgar. Yangi-Hessar 
is a small walled town surrounded by gardens and 
cultivated land. It stands on the banks of a river 
bordered by picturesque cliffs, from which there is a 
fine view of the magnificent range of Muztagh Ata, 
with its snow-peaks clearly outlined against the blue 
sky. 

A vast marshy plain covered with reeds, varied by 
stretches of gravelly desert, separates the Kashgar 
Oasis from that of Yarkand where the Swedish Mission 
has also founded a station. The Yarkandis are apathetic 
and dull compared with the lively cheerful Kashgaris, 
but the reason is obvious : goitre is prevalent ; indeed, 
it is authoritatively stated that about fifty per cent, 
of the population are victims of this complaint which 
here assumes most distressing forms. Yarkand is a 
dirty, dusty, squalid city. The Swedish missionaries 
are training boys and girls to cleaner, healthier habits 
in two orphanages in which are twenty-eight boys and 
eighteen girls. 

The Mission has primary schools in all its stations, 
and Bible training is given in connection with them. 

D 



50 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

In Kashgar there are two lower primary schools, one 
for Turki-speaking and one for Chinese-speaking 
children. In Hancheng there are three schools, one 
lower primary and one higher primary for boys, and 
one for girls, all for Chinese-speaking children. In 
Yangi-Hessar there is one school for Turki-speaking 
children. In Yarkand there are three schools for 
Turki-speaking children, one in the station and one in 
each of the orphanages. In connection with the boys' 
orphanage there is a training school for workers, and a 
similar training class is carried on in the evenings at 
Hancheng for Chinese workers. Sunday schools are 
connected with all the day schools. 

In a few of the larger towns the Chinese have 
begun to provide schools, but most of the educational 
work is still being done in connection with the Muham- 
madan mosques, which number over a thousand, and 
where the teaching provided is extremely poor. One 
of the earliest activities of the Swedish Mission was 
to set up a printing-press, at Kashgar, the first in 
Sinkiang, from which the missionaries issue books for 
the use of schools throughout the province. Tracts, 
hymnbooks, and portions of Scripture are printed in 
the Eastern Turki dialect. About five thousand tracts 
and five hundred Gospel portions are distributed annu- 
ally. At present the total staff of the Swedish Mission 
is thirty-one, of whom about eight are usually on 
furlough. There is not a single doctor on the staff, 
but two missionaries have taken a course at Living- 
stone College, and there are eight trained nurses. It 
is therefore surprising that in the year 1926 the at- 
tendances at the mission dispensaries were 28,050, of 
which 15,965 were in Kashgar alone. This work is 
steadily increasing. 

The Swedish Mission is holding on firmly, but it 
finds it necessary to work quietly and unobtrusively. 
The Chinese authorities are friendly to the work, but 
in their desire to keep the peace between Bolshevik 
influence on the one side, and a disturbed China on 
the other, they are naturally afraid of any effort which 
might anger the Mullahs and stir up unrest among the 



CHINESE TURKISTAN (SINKIANG) 51 

people. In spite of difficulties and persecutions, 
chiefly from the Muhammadans, the Church is gradually 
being built up, and there are several Turki preachers. 
The dispensary work is of great value in various ways, 
and in times of tension and danger it is " like a shield/' 
Pioneer work of this nature urgently requires the 
services of a missionary doctor., 

The influence of the Bible is silently and surely 
making itself felt in Sinkiang, and Scriptures in many 
languages are available for this region. China Inland 
Mission missionaries have reported that they have sold 
British and Foreign Bible Society Scriptures in about 
a score of languages in their travels. Mr. G. W. Hunter, 
of Urumtsi, has made a great contribution in the 
translation of the Gospels and of the Acts of the 
Apostles in the Kazak or Altai form of Kirghiz, spoken 
over a wide area from Urumtsi. He wrote out these 
versions in Arabic characters. These sheets were then 
photographed, and the books were published from the 
Shanghai Depot of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society. In 1928 over five thousand portions were 
actually sold in Kazak. The China Inland Mission 
missionaries and other workers have also distributed 
books in many other languages : in several forms of 
Chinese, in Manchu, Kashgar Turkish, Mongolian, 
Kalmuk, Tibetan, Arabic, Russian and even in Nogai 
or Tartar Turkish. Indeed, so important did Mr. 
Hunter find this last-named tongue that he prepared a 
fresh translation in the dialect used in the two 
Turkistans and Siberia, especially in the large towns 
from Urumtsi to Kalgan. These books were issued in 
1925. 

In the south-west corner of Sinkiang, in the country 
round Kashgar, the predominant language is a form 
of Turkish known as Kashgar Turkish. The whole 
of the New Testament, and, in addition, Genesis, 
1 Samuel and Job, have been issued in this language. 
Most of these translations were made by members of 
the lonely advance guard of the Swedish Mission. 
Others were prepared by Mr. G. W. Hunter, the Rev. 



52 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

G. Raquette, and the Rev. Johannes Avetaranian, 
who was at one time a Muslim Turkish mullah. 

The National Bible Society of Scotland bears the 
cost of the Arabic Gospels which the Swedish Mission 
distributes among the mullahs of Kashgar, who refuse 
to read the Gospels in Turki. They are quite willing 
to read the Arabic Gospels, and will discuss their 
contents with the missionaries. 

Sinkiang used to be divided into four Tao or 
circuits, but it is now divided into eight. The Swedish 
Mission is working in one and has prospect of main- 
taining the work in two more of these huge districts. 
At the present time, however, the Kashgar circuit 
alone is adequately occupied. It is hoped to open 
stations in the Khotan circuit and the Aksu circuit 
in the near future. The Urumtsi circuit is occupied 
by the China Inland Mission, Thus only two circuits 
are occupied. There remains a vast field for extension 
of present work and for the evangelistic efforts of the 
Chinese Christian Church. If the example of Dr. 
Kao in Kansu could be followed in this vast colony, 
great things might be achieved.* 

Here is a great challenge to the Christian Church, 
that by its faith and prayer it may call forth labourers 
into this " harvest." All honour is due to the brave 
pioneers who labour in these territories in such difficult 
conditions and who, in spite of almost unbelievable 
obstacles, persevere in faith and labour in love for 
the redemption of these peoples. 



* See page 56ff. 



CHAPTER III. 
North-West Kansu 



FOR centuries Kansu has been one of the 
" battlefields of humanity/' Silent and deserted 
villages, ruined homes, houses with the air of fortresses, 
fortified towns, " backed by castles, towers, and 
signalling posts": these are the sights that greet 
the traveller along the famous Silk Route between 
the cities of Lanchow and Liangchow. 

Liangchow itself lies on a wide plain. The flat- 
roofed villages, surrounded by trees bared of branches 
almost to the top, the feudal castles, and the over- 
arching cloudless sky, all unite to give the impression 
of a desert scene in some other part of Asia. 

The Province of Kansu is the extreme north- 
western province of China. Otherwise compact in 
form, it throws out a narrow arm of territory between 
Mongolia and Tibet. Scientists have agreed that 
geographically and ethnologically all that lies beyond 
the city of Liangchow should be reckoned as part of 
Central Asia rather than of China proper. 

The traveller cannot fail to be impressed by the 
change of conditions which he meets at this point. 
The land is traversed by one main road which lies 
almost at the foot of the Tibetan hills, and within 
sight of the Mongolian sands. The natural course of 
the rivers which rush down from the Richthof en Range 
transforms the otherwise arid plain into one of great 
beauty and variety. The sandy expanse is intersected 
by irrigated belts of great fertility. 

In certain localities there is a vast underground 
supply of good water which makes its way to the 
surface in countless springs. Where this happens the 
land produces wheat, rice, cotton, and an abundance 
of leguminous crops. Wide tracts are covered by 



54 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

fruit orchards, filled with apple, pear and apricot 
trees, by melon fields and vineyards. The life-giving 
rivers continue their course until they meet the all- 
devouring sands of Mongolia. 

Between these large oases are strips of unirrigated 
land which sometimes take the form of loose sand, 
and sometimes of a springy alkaline deposit more 
hopelessly arid than the sand itself. The rivers are 
wide and shallow ; throughout the summer they are 
dangerous to cross, owing to sudden spates due to the 
rapid melting of the snows. 

Along the northern margin of Kansu stretches the 
Great Wall of China, which is here far less impressive 
than it is in the Chihli Province. Still further north, 
however, the long line of earthworks is abruptly 
broken by the splendid brick fortress of Kia-yu-Kwan 
(Barrier of the Pleasant Valley). This is the Western 
Gate of China, twenty miles beyond the important 
city of Suchow. The inscriptions which surround 
this famous gate express in poignant terms the sadness 
and misgivings felt by the many thousands of Chinese 
settlers who pass through it into the distant regions 
beyond. One of the inscriptions has become so famil- 
iar that it is almost a proverb : 

" Forth from Kia-yu-Kwan, 
Eyes blinded with tears, 
Looking ahead, nothing but desert ; 
Looking behind, the Great Gate closed. 
Wife and Mother far from sight : 
Thinking upon them, tears will not cease." 

At this point the Great Wall turns southwards, 
sealing the narrow opening between a stony ridge of 
low Mongolian hills and the impressive heights of the 
outer range of the Tibetan Alps. 

The country beyond the Great Wall is known as 
Kou wai (Outside the Mouth). It is here that the 
Gobi Desert begins, although for a further space of 
eight marches oases are fairly frequent. Some of these 
are large and fertile ; from a distance they look like 
islands of green in an ocean of grit. 



NORTH-WEST KANSU 55 

For centuries the Chinese Government has sent 
disgraced officials and criminals of a certain type to 
Kou wai. It has been the place of banishment, the 
country of exile. At certain periods, too, either by 
stratagem or by force, masses of people have been 
induced to migrate to Kou wai, in order to cultivate 
the waste land, and thus make a contribution to the 
Empire. Sometimes flood and famine in other parts 
of China have forced large groups of people to leave 
their homes and settle in this remote region. 

The chief towns of Kou wai are Yumen, Tunghwang 
and Anhsi. The oasis of Tunghwang is famous for 
its temples, known as The Caves of the Thousand 
Buddhas and The Lake of the Crescent Moon. It is 
not easy to reach this town, for between it and the 
nearest oasis lies a stretch of desert which takes four 
days to cross, and the only water supply is bitter. 
The inhabitants of Tunghwang are exclusive, deeply 
conscious of their own historic importance, and proud 
to be citizens of a town which is known locally as 
Little Peking. 

Anhsi is an ancient historic garrison outpost which 
served to guard the extreme border of China's 
protectorate against Tibetans, Uigurs, and other ancient 
enemies. At the present time it is being rapidly 
overtaken by the encircling sands which threaten it 
with the same fate as that which has overtaken so 
many of the buried cities of the Gobi Desert. 

II. 

The population presents features of great ethno- 
logical interest. Sinkiang, which lies to the north-west 
of KansU, is China's most progressive colony, and 
attracts the more venturesome youths from all the 
eighteen provinces. Many of these emigrants never 
get beyond the Great Wall ; this fact explains their 
presence in the towns of Kansu ; in Kanchow and 
Suchow, for instance, the smithies' hammers are 
handled by Honan men, delicate china is most skilfully 
rivetted by the Szechwanese, and Shansi dialects 



56 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

greet the traveller from behind the money-changer's 
counter or in the pawnbroker's citadel. Few of the 
colonists give themselves to farming, and agriculture 
is almost entirely in the hands of the native peasants. 

The native of the north-west belongs to a mixed 
race. His ancestry includes the remnants of Uigur, 
Yueh Chi and Tibetan tribes, in addition to the 
aboriginals who still exist as a class by themselves. 
The farmers are poor and illiterate, but through their 
ancestry (in particular the racial strain which they 
have inherited from the Uigur), they reveal occasionally 
an unexpected appreciation of the beauties of nature 
and art, which is not found among the more prosperous 
colonists. This is not surprising when we remember 
that during the eighth and ninth centuries the Uigurs 
attained a high level of artistic and literary culture. 

Red and fair hair, blue or brown eyes and a ruddy 
complexion are not uncommon among these people. 
Much has been written of the signs of early civilization 
which have been discovered at Tunghwang, Kanchow 
and other places, and many a secluded village in 
North- West Kansu possesses a temple whose frescoes 
are worthy to be classed with the better-known art 
treasures exhibited in Western museums ; many of 
the monuments and temple decorations are so strongly 
reminiscent of the art of bygone civilizations, that by 
their means the path of ancient cultures can be traced. 

III. 

The missionary situation in North- West Kansu 
is unique. Before missionary societies were able to 
occupy the territory, a Chinese Christian man 
established himself in one of the largest towns of the 
district, and began aggressive missionary work. 

In the year 1919, Dr. Kao, who had been employed 
in the Borden Hospital at Lanchow, took a medico- 
evangelistic journey through the north-west region 
of the Province. In the course of his travels he entered 
the town of Kanchow. His spirit was stirred within 
him as he beheld the city full of idols, and he reasoned 



NORTH-WEST KANSU 57 

in the market place daily with those whom he met. 
The populace said : " He seems to be a setter forth 
of strange gods," because he preached unto them 
" Jesus and the Resurrection." 

Meanwhile, the young man became convinced that 
Kanehow was the place of God's appointment for him. 
In spite of a good deal of opposition, he was finally 
allowed to buy a piece of land, upon which he built 
a house and carried on his medical work. By this 
means he supported his wife and family. 

After a few years, as a result of his efforts, 
a Christian community came into being, and the 
Indigenous Church manifested its zeal by a persistent 
attempt to reach the people of the surrounding towns 
and villages. Some of its members even sought to 
cross the borders of Kansu and enter Chinese Turkistan ; 
in the end, however, the material resources at their 
disposal proved insufficient for such an extensive 
undertaking, and they were forced to give up the 
idea. But, although the full plan could not be carried 
out, these men accomplished a great deal. 

Work was further extended when three British 
women, members of the China Inland Mission, at the 
definite request of this Church, opened a Bible School 
in Suchow, where thirty Chinese Christian men and 
women were enrolled as students. By means of a 
course which combined Bible study with practical 
evangelism, a preaching band was formed, which 
carried the message of Christ to a wide and hitherto 
unevangelized region. 

The two cities of Suchow and Kanehow are situated 
a week's journey apart and form admirable bases for 
pioneer work. In particular, the town of Suchow, the 
first city of China proper, lies only twenty miles 
within the western boundary of the Great Wall. It 
is a halting place for caravans, whether travelling 
eastward or westward. One suburb is used by Mongolian 
camel drivers for stalling their beasts, and another is 
mainly given up to Muslim inns where Turki traders 
carry on their business. It is at Suchow that all 
arrangements are made by caravans for the desert 



58 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

journeys. Teams are overhauled and carts repaired, 
while travellers enjoy a few days' rest in comparative 
comfort, free from the exertions and fatigues of the 
road. These conditions combine to make Suchow a 
strategic point of great importance, and at evangelistic 
services a constantly changing audience is easily 
secured. Christian books find a ready market among 
the moving population, and are thus carried to far 
distant places. 

Kanchow, on the other hand, is a larger town 
with a more settled population. It is the nearest city 
to one of the most important passes in the Tibetan 
Alps, and the Tibetan people use its markets for the 
bartering of skins and gold dust in exchange for grain, 
tea and sugar. 

One of the main evangelistic openings of the great 
North- West is afforded by the local fairs and religious 
festivals of its numerous temples, which are attended 
by men and women of all the surrounding villages. 
Large crowds never fail to assemble, and no opposition 
has hitherto been offered to the preacher who is thus 
able to make the very best use of his opportunity. 

By crossing sandy belts for distances varying from 
twenty to fifty miles, fertile areas can be reached, 
for wherever there is water colonies of agriculturists 
are found. These colonies are very isolated and the 
people welcome with great enthusiasm any visitor 
from without. Preaching tents are crowded for every 
service, and the distribution and sale of books is most 
encouraging. 

It is of paramount importance that the independence 
shown by the Chinese Church in North- West Kansu 
should be respected by the missionary societies. 
Assistance given by the foreign missionary to this, 
as to other indigenous organizations, should be clearly 
defined, both as regards its scope and its time limit. 
No assistance given should be of such a nature as to 
diminish the sense of responsibility which the local 
Church has recognized. The whole of this region 
should be evangelized by the Chinese themselves ; 
the local Church is fit and ready for this enterprise. 



MAP OF 

Showing! Chinese colonization, distribution of 



, 



MAP OF EASTERN 
MONGOLIA. 



Shaded portions show 
extent of Chinese infil- 
tration into the Mongol 
grasslands which they 
are cultivating, arid on 
which they are building 
towns and villages. 



Unshaded portions 
show the grasslands of 
the semi-nomadic Mon- 
gol tribes living on the 
plains in encampments 
and lamaseries on the 
old feudal lines. The 
distribution of the six 
leagues of Mongol tribes 
is indicated. 



Lamaseries visited 
by Mr. Reginald 
Sturt, in which 
he left thousands 
of Gospels, etc., 
working from 
Hada. 







Mission stations 
in towns. 



* 



Mission stations 
not situated in 
towns. 



4 Appearing without 
names represent 
A ? D non-residential 
stations or chur- 
ches. 




WORLD DOMINION PRESS. 1928. 



MAP OF EASTERN MONGOLIA. 

tion, distribution of the six leagues of Mongol tribes, arid the present missionary occupation. 



120 



111 



** /*^-- 



MAMCHURIA 



r fc TIBET/ 
'' 



/ *U J^il M C H I N 

-A-4 1^* *1- 



T^srsBsM&rwss 



LALAHA .. 
m r *-'{ 



ChW 

N A/ 




Prepared by Mr Reginald Stttrt. 



CHAPTER IV. 
Mongolia 

I. 

EVER since the days when Marco Polo crossed 
the plains of Turkistan into distant Cathay, 
and the days when the Tartar hosts of Asia burst into 
Russia and threatened the life of Europe, the names 
of Mongol and Mongolia* have held a certain fascination 
for Western peoples. Yet, until the last few years, 
Mongolia was actually one of the least-known countries 
in the world. Of late, however, the expeditions 
organized by the American Museum of Natural 
History, and other associations for archaeological 
research, have done something to overcome the great 
difficulties of travel, and thus to open up the country. 

The grassy plateau of Mongolia is of great scientific 
interest, not only as the original home of pre-historic 
and giant reptiles, like the huge rhinoceros-like 
titanotherium and the gigantic baluchitherium, but 
also because there lie beneath its all-devouring sands 
and flower-strewn steppes the ruined cities and burying 
places of once populous and powerful kingdoms. 

Mongolia lies immediately north of the Great Wall 
of China, and Chinese Turkistan ; thus it separates 
both Sinkiang and China proper from Russia. The 
country is surrounded by mountains, and is a wide, 
shallow, basin-like plateau, lying at an altitude of 
three thousand to five thousand feet above sea level. 

Broadly speaking, Mongolia may be divided into 
three parts : the North- Western region, which covers 
the high terrace of the plateau ; the Gobi (using this 



* The term " Mongolia," as it is found on modern maps, is used 
to describe the great northern province of China, whose boundaries 
have never been fixed with scientific precision. The term " Mongolia " 
to-day does not correspond with the Mongolia of earlier days, nor with 
the region of the same name ruled by the Mongol princes. 



60 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

term in a wide sense), which occupies the lower terrace 
of the plateau, and South-Eastern Mongolia, which 
covers the eastern slope of the Khingan Mountains. 

In North- Western Mongolia there are great tracts 
of forest and undulating steppes, where the flocks 
and herds of the semi-nomadic Mongols find pasture, 
and herds of antelopes and wild asses roam at will. 

The glens of the Altai Mountains are a refreshing 
change from the plains. In springtime there is about 
them a freshness and fragrance which recalls the 
Scottish Highlands. The streams are full of water, 
and the sides of the valleys are clothed with larch 
and poplar, birch and willow. Sometimes a forest of 
larch will spread from the hills to the plain, joining 
the grassy meadows which are deep in flowers : gentian, 
purple and blue, crimson cyclamen, anemones, and 
masses of purple, violet, cream and yellow violas. 
These pastures are full of flocks, and here and there 
on the grassy hillside stand Kirei encampments. The 
whole of this region is well watered, and it contains 
several lakes. One of the largest of these lakes, named 
Kossogol, lies at an altitude of 5,320 feet above sea 
level, close to the Russian frontier, at the foot of a 
great snow mountain. 

A great part of Mongolia is, however, very desolate. 
One-fourth of the country is either entirely desert, or, 
if it is not actually desert, it is so arid that only the 
poorest nomads can exist in it. 

The great Gobi Desert is the deeper part of the 
enormous depression which fills the lower terrace of 
the vast Mongolian plateau. It looks like the dried-up 
bed of some huge primeval sea, and covers an area of 
over two hundred thousand square miles. This great 
expanse presents a varying appearance : in some 
parts it is crossed by ranges of hills, barren and empty 
of all signs of life ; in others it is an undulating plain, 
strewn with gravel, and dotted with mounds of clay ; 
in the district north of the Alashan Mountains there 
is nothing to be seen for hundreds of miles but bare 
sands, so wide, waterless, and unbroken that the 
Mongols call them Tyngheri : " the sky." 



MONGOLIA 61 

Throughout Mongolia and Dzungaria there are very 
few oases. The country suffers, in fact, from the lack 
of mountain ranges, with large glaciers and great 
snow fields to act as the source of streams in the 
desert. The consequence is that although sufficient 
grass is produced to support flocks throughout the 
year, they are obliged to wander from place to place 
in order to find the best pasture available. 

We have here the obvious explanation of the 
nomadic life which is characteristic of these vast 
regions. 

The prevailing impression left on the traveller's 
mind by this desert country is one of monotony and 
desolation, yet there are times when the sense of space 
is most exhilarating. 



II. 

The early centuries of Mongolian history are lost 
in a mist of legend. The founder of the first Mongol 
Empire was the redoubtable Genghiz Khan,* one of 
the greatest conquerors the world has ever known. 
From being merely the chief of a petty Mongolian 
tribe, he rose to be the ruler of an empire which 
extended from the China Sea to the banks of the 
Dnieper. Foremost among his descendants was Kublai 
Khan, I who became Emperor of China in A.D. 1280. 
Kublai was the first of his race to rise above the natural 
barbarism of the Mongols, yet he possessed a full 
measure of their virility and vigour. Through the 
story of Marco Polo the fame of this Mongol Emperor 
reached Europe. No great king arose after Kublai, 
and the reign of his ninth successor, Toghon Timur, 
ended in disgrace in 1368. The Mongols were expelled 
from China, and the rulers of the Ming Dynasty reigned 
in their stead. 

The disintegration of the Empire of Genghiz Khan 

* 1162-1227 A.D. f 1216-1294 A.D. 



62 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

and the fall of his dynasty in China were due to the 
Mongol incapacity to establish a settled form of 
government, or to gain the confidence and allegiance 
of conquered peoples. 

Driven northwards and harried by the conquering 
Chinese, the Mongol tribes gradually broke away 
from all centralized government, and settled in scattered 
communities under their own chieftains throughout 
the vast region which lies between eastern Russia and 
Manchuria. In time some of these tribes were absorbed 
by Russia, and others by Turkey. Those who remained 
independent made their home in Eastern Mongolia. 

After some years had elapsed the Mongols began 
to recover from the shock of the disaster which had 
befallen their race. Now and again they made successful 
raids into Tibet, and even into China. As the Chinese 
control over the frontier tribes weakened, the Mongols 
moved gradually southwards, and some of them even 
settled within the northern bend of the Yellow River. 
Thus it came about that when the Manchus overthrew 
the Ming Dynasty in 1644 the Mongol tribes were 
involved in the fortunes of China. 

For nearly three hundred years Mongolia was a 
dependency of the Chinese Empire, and in 1911 she 
became an unwilling partner in the Chinese Republic. 



III. 

At the present day, for purposes of government, 
the Chinese divide Mongolia into two unequal portions : 
Inner Mongolia, the smaller, which lies to the south 
and east of the Gobi, and extends to the borders of 
China and Manchuria, and Outer Mongolia, which 
forms the rest of the country. 

Inner Mongolia is divided into four districts, 
Jehol, Chahar, Sui Yuan and Sitao, containing much 
rich grass-growing prairie land and well- watered hill 
country. The Jehol territory alone claims more than 
half the total population of Mongolia. 

Since the establishment of the Chinese Republic 



MONGOLIA 63 

there have been more changes in the political status 
of Mongolia than several previous centuries had 
witnessed. 

After the fall of the Manchus, in 1911, the Mongol 
princes expelled the Chinese officials from Urga, 
declared the independence of Outer Mongolia and 
proclaimed the Bogdo Lama, or Huktuktu, as ruler, 
under the title of Bogdo Khan. Russia immediately 
stepped in to recognize and " protect " this new state. 
Despite a belated and ineffective " cancellation of 
autonomy " in 1920, by means of a petition to Peking 
signed by representatives of the Chinese residents and 
Mongolian Council of Ministers in Urga, there is to-day 
a Soviet Government established in Urga, the capital, 
in direct communication and collaboration with 
Moscow. Some of the young Mongol leaders have been 
educated in Moscow, and their attitude towards 
religion is largely that of the Soviet leaders in Russia. 

Of late years the Mongols have become increasingly 
awake" to the hopelessness of their condition : to 
their need of education and of political, social and 
religious reform. Recent events in China, Russia, and 
the world at large, have so shaken their self- 
complacency that at least in Outer Mongolia they 
have received with some show of willingness the 
proffered help of Soviet Russia. In common with 
other Far Eastern nations, Mongolia was represented 
by delegates at a " Conference of the Toilers of the Far 
East," held in Moscow, in January, 1922, under the 
auspices of the Communist International. 

On the 20th of May, 1924, the Huktuktu -Living 
Buddha, Pope of Mongol Buddhism and ruler of the 
country died in Urga, and the Soviet authorities 
immediately announced that no one was to be elected 
in his place. Further, it was decreed that all lamas 
under forty years of age were to return to civil, and 
presumably to family, life ; in future, also, no more 
acolytes were to be trained. Thus the power of the 
corrupt system of Lamaism seems to have been broken, 
even though it may continue to linger for a while. 
" Here the Soviets have struck shrewder blows at 



64 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

Buddhism the dead hand on Mongolian manhood 
for four hundred years than they have in Russia 
at Byzantine Christianity. And the awakening and 
fertilization of Mongolian youth which will follow the 
break-up of monastic life may well bear a big surprise 
in the coming generation."* 

The feudal princes, who held the right of life and 
death over their " property/' have been largely 
deprived of power. All class distinctions, and titles 
like " prince/' " official," " noble," and " saint," have 
been abrogated, and their holders are disqualified 
both from electing and from being elected to office. 

Further, on the 31st of May, 1924, a Sino-Soyiet 
Treaty was signed recognizing that " Outer Mongolia 
is an integral part of the Republic of China and 
respecting China's sovereignty therein " ; at the same 
time it is stated that Mongolia enjoys an " autonomy 
so far-reaching as to preclude Chinese interference 
with internal affairs," and that " Mongolia has settled 
down and been consolidated on a basis somewhat 
similar to the Soviet System, "f In November of the 
same year the first assembly of the new Mongol 
Parliament (the Huruldan or People's Assembly) was 
convoked. In the text of its Constitution it proclaimed 
that Outer Mongolia is an independent republic without 
a president, and that the Seal and Supreme Power of 
the Bogdo Khan (Holy Ruler) has been transferred to 
the People's Assembly. 

Moreover, in the " Declaration of Rights of the 
Labouring (sic) People of Mongolia " " the fundamental 
principle is laid down as a guarantee of the religious 
liberty of the labouring masses," that the Church is 
separate from the State, and that " Religion is the 
private concern of every citizen." 

Although Outer Mongolia is largely cut off from 
other parts of the world, the young Republic spares 
no effort to maintain the closest relations with Moscow 



* W. E. D. Allen. The Times, 24th June, 1929. 

f Georgiy Chicherin, People's Commissary for Foreign Affairs since 
1918. 



MONGOLIA 65 

and the U.S.S.R. The Soviet-Mongol Railway Agree- 
ment of 1926 seeks to link up Mongolia by rail with the 
Trans-Siberian route, by steamship on the Selenga 
and Orkhon Rivers, by the telegraph system, and, 
eventually by regular airship services connecting 
Urga with Werkne-Udinsk and Chita. Towards the 
south a railway has been projected linking up Urga 
and Kalgan, and at present a regular motor service 
operates for passenger traffic between these places. 
Merchandise is still carried by camel caravans. The 
real cultural, political and economic connections are 
with the north ; and there is no indication that there 
is any relationship between the Nanking Government 
and that of Urga. 

Most effective of all the Soviet methods, however, 
is that of indirect propaganda. The Russian film, 
Storm over Asia, which has been described as "an 
artistic masterpiece," cannot fail to make a strong 
appeal to the awakening minds of Mongolian youth. 
This film is the story of a Mongol shepherd boy, who is 
robbed by Buddhist bonzes, swindled by American 
fur-dealers, and ill-treated by White Russian soldiers. 
Suddenly the " White " general discovers that the lad 
is a descendant of Genghiz Khan and he sets him up 
as a puppet prince in Urga. Finally the young Mongol 
" prince " rouses the people, and in a lightning cavalry 
charge the Mongol horsemen sweep away the White 
troops. That is the story. " The appeal is double- 
barrelled to the community of sympathy of the 
Russian and Asiatic workers, and, more subtly, to the 
traditional military ' superiority-complex ' of the 
Central Asian peasants "* the descendants of Genghiz 
Khan. 



IV. 

In appearance the Mongol is dirty and unkempt. 
His unwashed face and hands are scarcely surprising 
in a land of biting winds, cruel frosts, and little water, 

* The Times, 24th June, 1929. 

E 



66 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

where the traveller often has to decide whether he 
will drink the precious liquid or wash in it. His hair 
is tousled, and his shaggy, greasy sheep-skin garments 
may raise a prejudice against him. If to his unattractive 
appearance and primitive habits are added fatalism, 
lack of ambition, laziness, love of strong drink, quick 
temper, and a religiously perverted sense of right and 
wrong, the worst has been said of the average Mongol, 
for, although he is held in bondage by a religion 
paralysing in its grip and fatal to any growth in personal 
character, the Mongol yet retains much natural 
attractiveness. 

He is simple-minded, fearless and self-reliant, 
generous and comparatively honest, kindly and 
hospitable, and, when he is understood and treated 
with proper consideration, he is quite approachable, 
although he is sensitive and quick to resent slights. 
He is capable, willing and trustworthy. Inured to a 
life of hardship, he seldom grumbles, and is patient 
and cheerful under difficulties. In business he is no 
match for the subtle Chinese, whom he distrusts, but in 
simple-hearted manliness and in all martial pursuits 
the Mongol is more than his equal. 

Across Mongolia's vast territory its people, who are 
grouped in a Feudal Federation, live their simple 
pastoral lives, dwelling in tents and huts on the grassy 
plains, moving their encampments according to season, 
water supply and condition of the pastures, much as 
their ancestors have done for centuries. 

The divisions of the people are as follows : 
Princes and officials of the old hereditary 
nobility of varying ranks, or free people ; 
taxpayers, or serfs ; lamas, or celibate 
monks of varying hierarchal rank, or " lords 
spiritual " ; and their vassals, or serfs. 
The. local administrative unit is the Hosho, the 
" banner " or tribe, forming the fief of any one ruling 
prince, who controls his people through civil officers 
and military vassals ; the latter provide their quota 
of mounted warriors when required and administer a 
modern adaptation of the Code of Genghiz Khan. 



MONGOLIA 67 

The eighty-six Hosho, or Tribes, of Outer Mongolia 
are grouped into four Aimaks or Khanates, being 
groups of one or more Principalities (Hosho) forming 
the feudal inheritance of one princely family bound 
together by ties of direct descent and heredity ; the 
senior living prince of the reigning family is considered 
the head of the Aimak. These rulers are called the 
Tsetsen, Tushetu, Sainnoin and Tsasaktu Khans. 

The fifty-seven Principalities, or tribes, of Inner 
Mongolia are confederated into six Leagues (Chinese 
" Meng "), not identical with the Aimak, but designed 
by the Manchus to weaken the tribal organization. 
A senior prince is elected by his peers in the associated 
tribes, but confirmed in office by the Chinese Govern- 
ment. These are the names of the six Leagues : the 
Djerim, Djosotu, Djouda, Silingol, Ulan-tsab and 
lehedzu.* 

V. 

The religion of Mongolia is Lamaism. Introduced 
into Tibet from India in the seventh century before 
Christ, it was accommodated to Tibetan superstition 
and demonology, but it was not imposed upon the 
Mongols until the reign of Kublai Khan. 

* To complete the summary we ought to mention the various 
scattered groups of Mongols living mainly outside Mongolia, not includ- 
ing the Buriat Mongols of the Baikal regions of Siberia. 

1 . Alashan Oleuts west of the Yellow River. 

2. Elsin-gol Turguts of Central Asia. 

3. Kokonor and Tsaidam Mongols twenty-nine tribes. 

4. Hi and Tarbagatai Mongols of Dzungaria, some seventeen 

tribes. 

5. Altai Mongols of Kobdo and Sinkiang, some ten tribes. 

6. Darhat, or tribes of Turkis in North-West Mongolia, now 

forming a small " independent " Tannu-Tubin (Soviet) 
Republic. 

7. Mannai Oleut Mongols in North Manchuria west of Tsitsihar. 

8. Mongol Bannermen in and around Peking and Jehol, where 

with the Manchus they formerly performed garrison duties. 

9. Shabunars or serfs of the late Bogdo Lama of Urga, some two 

hundred thousand in number, have since his death and the 
abolition of his office as spiritual and temporal head of 
the country, been formed into eight Hosho under special 
Jassaks (princes). 



68 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

Gradually an elaborate temple service was built 
up, which is still in daily use. Twice a day at least 
in the lamaseries portions of the sacred Tibetan 
scriptures are chanted in deep-toned voices by robed 
and mitred monks, sitting cross-legged in rows before 
the image of Buddha, presided over by an enthroned 
" living Buddha," or abbot. These chants are 
accompanied by the sound of drums, bells, conch- 
shells, cymbals and enormous trumpets, twenty feet 
long, with the sprinkling of holy water, and the burning 
of incense. 

The more ethical and spiritual teaching of original 
Buddhism has been replaced by a system of magic 
spells and meaningless ritual, the external observance 
of which is held to be the full equivalent of the practice 
of all the virtues. The mere repetition of these ritual 
acts has power to coerce the spirits and to bring 
deliverance and happiness to those who pray. Hence 
the never-ending repetition of the cryptic words, 
practically the only prayer of the Tibetan and the 
Mongol : " Om mane padme hum " (O, thou jewel 
in the lotus flower !). This pathetic invocation and 
other equally meaningless prayers enclosed in cylinders 
are piously set in motion by means of windmills and 
prayer wheels, or inscribed on flags that flutter from 
the tops of dwellings, trees and sacred piles of stones. 
The mystic syllables are often carved on the rocks 
or in huge characters on the hillside. Told by the 
fingers on the never-absent rosary, muttered with the 
lips in the crowded market or when crossing the lonely 
plain ; morning, noon and night, at birth and in 
death, and on every occasion, the same futile cry for 
deliverance continues to ascend to heaven from a race 
held fast in the bondage of sin. 

The effect of this religion upon the Mongol has 
been extraordinary. On the one hand, it has done 
much " to restrain the Mongols' predatory and savage 
instincts, quenching in them the thirst for blood, and 
implanting certain religious ideas and ideals, however 
inadequate. Yet, on the other hand, it has robbed 
their manhood of its energy and natural ambition, 



MONGOLIA 69 

seared and beclouded their conscience as to moral 
guilt, and strangled all progress, intellectual activity 
and moral endeavour. At the same time, through its 
tyrannous, depraved and corrupting priesthood the 
lamas composing more than sixty per cent, of the 
male population and universally characterized by 
unblushing and unnatural wickedness it has not only 
degraded worship and prayer to a mechanical ritual 
but it has debased womanhood, destroyed the sanctity 
of family life, flooded the land with immorality, and 
made its religious establishments hot-beds of vice." 

As a result of this drain upon the nation's vital 
strength the population has steadily declined, and the 
only hope of preserving the Mongols from ultimate 
extinction lies in their deliverance from the power 
and blight of Lamaism into the glorious liberty of the 
children of God. 



VI. 

About one hundred years ago the pioneer 
missionaries, Swan, Stallybrass and Yuille, of the 
London Missionary Society, settled among the Buryat 
Mongols on the Siberian frontier. There, on the banks 
of the Selenga River and its neighbourhood, they 
laboured for over twenty years, until the work was 
stopped by order of the Tsarist Government. The 
whole Bible was translated into classical Mongolian, 
and ever since it has been of the utmost value to those 
who have endeavoured to evangelize the Mongol 
race. 

About thirty years later, in 1885, the devoted 
James Gilmour (also of the London Missionary Society) 
began his itinerations. He felt that the work among 
the nomads was not very promising, and thought that 
his time might be more profitably spent among the 
settled Mongols and Chinese in the south-eastern 
'parts of Mongolia. For this reason he made his head- 
quarters at Chao Yang, where he gathered a few 
splendid converts from the Chinese. He was joined 



70 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

by John Parker, of the London Missionary Society, 
who carried on the work after Gilmour died in 1891. 
In 1897, Dr. Thomas Cochrane joined Mr. Parker and 
started medical mission work. By the year 1900, at 
three or four centres, groups of Chinese Christians had 
been gathered into small churches. 

After the Boxer Rising, when all missionary effort 
in Inner Mongolia was brought to a standstill, this 
work was handed over to the Irish Presbyterian 
Mission, who in their turn transferred it to the 
Brethren missionaries in 1912. At that time the Church 
at Chao Yang was composed solely of Chinese members. 
Since then the Brethren missionaries have carried on 
a work characterized by steady growth. Dr. Case, 
one of their number, died at Chao Yang, and has 
recently been succeeded by Dr. Soutter, who has 
revived the hospital work. Dispensary work is carried 
on at four of their stations. Primary schools for boys 
and girls are distinctive of their work everywhere. 
These missionaries are particularly active in Bible 
distribution, in connection with which they undertake 
extended itinerations. Periodical Bible schools are 
also held. Every station records converts ; at Chao 
Yang, the oldest of the former London Missionary 
Society stations, there is a membership of one hundred 
and forty. 

Of all the missions now at work in Inner Mongolia, 
that carried on by the Brethren, which was begun at 
Pa Kow in 1887, is the oldest. Since then seven new 
missions have entered the country. 

The Scandinavian Alliance Mission has established 
an agricultural and industrial colony as an experiment 
at Patsebolong on a large tract of land just north of 
the Ordos Desert, irrigated from the Yellow River. A 
new station has recently been opened at Wangtefu. 
This Mission has about four workers. 

The Swedish Mongol Mission began work in 1899 
at Halong-Osso, eighty miles north of Kalgan, and 
since then has extended its work to Gulchagan, Hattin- 
Sum and Doyen. Owing to changes in the migration 
of the Chinese, the work at Halong-Osso has been 



MONGOLIA 71 

given up. Including those on furlough, this Mission 
has now eleven workers. It has also one hospital and 
one dispensary, with two doctors and two, nurses. 

The Assemblies of God Mission has established 
several stations in Chahar, with nine or ten workers. 

The Swedish Alliance Mission works in association 
with the China Inland Mission, and its field of operations 
is in Sui Yuan and Chahar. The work is steadily 
growing and is organized into eight churches, and 
missionaries live at eight centres. There are ten out- 
stations. In the Sunday schools there are about five 
hundred children. Day schools number seven and are 
attended by equal numbers of boys and girls. At 
present the Bible school is closed. In the industrial 
school there are fifty-eight students, and in the two 
children's homes about three hundred children. There 
are three dispensaries which treated two hundred 
patients last year, and one hospital which dealt with 
fifty-nine patients. The Mission has one European 
nurse and three Chinese nurses, but no doctor. 
Although the majority of the inhabitants of this 
region are Chinese, most of the land is owned by 
the Mongol princes, to whom taxes are paid. 

The Hephzibah Faith Mission opened work in 1922 
at Chininghsien in Chahar, where it now has four 
missionaries. 

In 1923, the Kremmer Mennonite Brethren Church 
began work at Chotzeshan in Chahar ; it has a staff 
of six workers. 

The Brethren Mission, which has already been 
mentioned, carries on work in the Jehol territory of 
Eastern Inner Mongolia, among the Chinese and the 
tribes of the Djosotu and Djouda Leagues. It has 
five stations and thirty-two missionaries. 

The Salvation Army has been extending its work 
since 1918, and has missionaries at two or three stations. 
It has opened work at Fengchen, the capital of Chahar. 

In addition to these missions located in Mongolia, 
the Irish Presbyterian Mission and the Danish Mission 



72 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

carry on Mongol work from two or three stations in 
Manchuria. 

The British and Foreign Bible Society serves all 
the missions. From its headquarters at Kalgan it 
touches not only Inner Mongolia, but also the northern 
Marches of the Chinese provinces, Chihli and Shansi. 

Although the region which lies beyond the Gobi 
Desert is still closed to Christian missions, Bible 
Society agents make tours in this district as oppor- 
tunity offers. Until the present time these journeys 
have been tedious and hard, mostly by camel. The 
motor-car service recently established between Urga 
and Kalgan provides new facilities for Bible distri- 
bution. Even working on the older and slower 
lines, the British and Foreign Bible Society colporteurs 
sold over one hundred and seventy-six thousand books 
(mostly portions in Mongolian) in 1928. These figures 
vary from year to year ; in 1927 they were nearly one 
hundred thousand more than in 1928. In all the 
mission hospitals, every patient hears the Word and 
leaves with a Gospel in his bundle. Mongolian Scriptures 
are still in demand even as far west as Sinkiang. The 
Bible Society has published Scriptures in four forms 
of Mongolian : (1) Literary or Classical Mongolian, 
in which the whole Bible is available, translated in the 
middle of last century by the London Missionary 
Society missionaries, Stallybrass, Swan and Yuille, 
assisted by learned Buryats, most of whom were lamas. 
Their version of the Gospels was afterwards revised 
by two Bible Society agents and a Mongol from Urga, 
named Serim Pon Sok ; (2) Buryat or Northern 
Mongolian, spoken principally round Lake Baikal, 
has St. Matthew's Gospel with the Russian version 
alongside ; (3) Kalmuk or Western Mongolian is spoken 
by nomads on the eastern part of the Tien Shan Range, 
on the western border of the Gobi Desert, and even as 
far west as the Kalmuk Steppes in South-East Russia. 
The complete New Testament has been issued in this 
dialect ; (4) Khalka or Eastern Mongolian, is used from 
the Great Wall of China to the River Amur and right 
across the Gobi Desert as far as the Altai Mountains. 



MONGOLIA 73 

St. Matthew's Gospel, prepared by a Mongol lama 
and revised by foreign missionaries, was first published 
in 1872, and another edition was issued in 1894. 

From Manchuria, at the north-east corner of this 
unoccupied field, over four hundred thousand copies 
of Scripture were sold in 1928, some of which no doubt 
found their way far west across the Khingan Mountains. 
The Manchu version of the New Testament will always 
be associated with the name of George Borrow, who saw 
an edition through the press at St. Petersburg almost 
a hundred years ago. This Manchu New Testament, 
first published in 1835, has just (1929) been reproduced 
by photography in Shanghai to meet the present needs. 

On the eastern side, Central Asia is bounded by 
China, and from that quarter Scriptures in the various 
forms of Chinese are frequently being sent to many 
far distant places from the Depot in Shanghai. Even 
during the upheavals of the last few years, in spite of 
difficulties of transport, dangers to colporteurs (more 
than one has lost his life in carrying out his arduous 
task) and the disorganization of large parts of the 
country, the circulation of Scriptures from the British 
and Foreign Bible Society Agency (and this includes 
Central Asia) has been greater than ever. The latest 
figures reach the marvellous total of 3,951,809. The 
reports of the colporteurs speak of the wonderful and 
pathetic willingness on the part of the people to spare 
coppers from their scanty means to buy copies of the 
Gospels. 

In Outer Mongolia for a time the Swedish Mongol 
Mission occupied the town of Urga, until it was expelled 
by the Soviet authorities. Thus there is now no mission 
in Outer Mongolia. 

Although Inner Mongolia has remained open for 
mission work, the conditions among the Mongols are 
such that it is .one of the hardest fields in Eastern 
Asia. A few heroic missionaries have remained at their 
posts through the recent months of war and famine. 
The apparent results of their labours are small. It is 
reported that three Mongolians were baptized last 
year (1928). 



74 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

The work of these eight Societies is still largely 
among the growing Chinese population and those 
Mongols who can be reached. Among the small number 
of Mongol Christians, some show such sterling Christian 
character that the future is not without promise. 
The Christian witness of Europeans, Chinese and 
Mongols, should have a greater and greater effect. 
James Gilmour said : "I am still of opinion that our 
best way to reach the Mongols is from a Chinese base." 
Of late years this possibility has been placed in the 
hands of the Church. A marked feature of the present 
situation in Mongolia is the steady flow of Chinese 
immigration from Shantung. This process of infiltration 
is for the first time in history setting the plough to the 
fertile valleys and well-watered prairies of Southern 
Mongolia, a country which bids fair to compare with 
Siberia and Canada as one of the great granaries of 
the world. This fact presents an unparalleled 
opportunity for the evangelization of Mongolia. 

On a recent evangelistic journey a missionary 
discovered three -new Chinese districts in course of 
being marked out on the best grasslands of the Djouda 
League. They are veritable islands of Chinese culture 
in the midst of the simple pastoral life of the plains 
and valleys on the south-eastern slopes of the great 
Khingan range. The same thing is happening from 
the Manchurian side among the tribes of the Djerim 
League. One of Marshal Feng's constructive efforts 
has been to encourage this emigration of Chinese 
families to similar regions outside the Great Wall 
north of the Shansi and Shensi provinces. 

The burden of the evangelization of the surrounding 
Mongols must, therefore, be laid mainly on the Chinese 
Christians. Theirs is a very special responsibility, 
even greater than that of the foreign missionary. It 
may be said that the Chinese have not proved 
acceptable evangelists to the Mongols, on account of 
the friction arising from land settlements and trade 
relationships. But the Chinese Christians will have to 
face this difficulty which is no greater and perhaps 
not so great as that of the European or any other 



MONGOLIA 75 

foreigner. One of the most acceptable evangelists 
among the Mongols was Liu Yi, a Chinese who helped 
Gilmour. He spoke Mongol fluently and was on most 
friendly terms with the people. 

The centres of light are still few, and the darkness 
is very dense. " Mongolia to us seems a great spiritual 
wilderness. Generations have come and gone without 
knowing God : still they come and go. Perhaps there 
is something in the hard climatic conditions of the 
country which has withered the souls of the people 
or hardened their hearts. The long, long winter ; the 
wild winds which sweep across the desert ; the hard 
hoarless frost which for months checks all vegetable 
life ; the sudden and short-lived spring with the 
scanty rains it brings, followed by parching heat and 
storms of dust in summer ; these conditions seem to 
have repressed the finer human elements in Mongol 
character."* 

The Mongols are scattered over an immense area, 
and their nomadic habits make all efforts to approach 
them with the Gospel very difficult. Only men of strong 
physique and great powers of endurance can stand the 
hardships of life in this land. But difficulties of this 
kind have never deterred the heralds of the Cross. 
The societies which are at present working in Mongolia, 
however, need a larger measure of support. With a 
view to effective work in the future, there is need for 
some definite co-ordination of policy among the 
missions. Plans for reaching the Mongols of the remoter 
regions should be formed on an intelligent basis of 
co-operation, in order to avoid the mistakes which 
have often hampered missionary work in the past. 

Work among people of such nomadic habits must 
necessarily be of a simple nature, whether it be 
evangelistic, educational or medical. It is of supreme 
importance to teach converts from the beginning the 
New Testament ideal of the Church. Wherever two 
or three meet in fellowship, there the Church with all 
its privileges and responsibilities exists. This living 

* The Bible in China. Report for 1928, page 28. 



76 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

fellowship possesses all the resources of Christ's Body, 
and should from the first be encouraged to exercise 
its spiritual functions. The hope of the future lies not 
with scattered converts, but in such small living groups. 
They are living branches of Christ's Church, no matter 
how few and poor their members. In all difficult fields 
like Mongolia, this supreme spiritual conception of 
the Church and its divine prerogatives should be kept 
in view all the time. From such living units, even 
when only the " Church in the house of Feng," the 
Church of Christ will grow. Thus, from the beginning 
the definite aim should be : a self-supporting Church, 
full of evangelistic fervour, sending forth its. witnesses 
to the furthest limits of Mongolia. 




CHAPTER V. 
Tibet 

I. 

LL roads lead to Rome," and in Tibet " All 
roads lead to Lhasa." But along whatever 
road the traveller comes, from India or from China, 
always he must cross a high mountain barrier. On 
every side the country is enclosed within long ranges 
of snow-capped mountains : on the south by the 
Himalayas and the transverse ranges of Upper Yunnan, 
on the east by the western mountainous borderland 
of Yunnan, Szechwan and Kansu, on the north by 
the Kuen Lun Range, and on the west, where it narrows 
to a breadth of only one hundred and fifty miles, by 
the junction of the Karakoram Mountains with the 
Himalayas. It is not difficult to see why Tibet has 
gained the title of the Great Closed Land. From the 
point of view of geography it is more difficult to 
approach than almost any other country in the world. 
Further, its great altitude* is a strain on all foreigners 
who have been used to living at ordinary levels, and 
the journeys over the mountain passes are fatiguing, 
difficult and often dangerous. It is significant that 
no great armies have ever passed through Tibet to 
invade India ; even Genghiz Khan led his troops round 
through Bukhara and Afghanistan in order to avoid 
the necessity of crossing Tibet by the direct route. 

The most well-known highway into Tibet passes 
through Sikkim. The road crosses the frontier near 

* Tibet is the highest country in the world : the tablelands have 
an average height of nearly 17,000 feet ; the mountain peaks rise to a 
height varying from 20,000 to 24,000 feet, and the passes range from 
16,000 to 19,000 feet above the sea. Several of the great rivers of Asia 
the Indus, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Mekong and Yangtze rise in 
this mountain region, and flow down into the valleys and plains of 
India, Siam, Yunnan and Szechwan. 



78 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

Pharijong, a little town through which passes all the 
trade of southern Tibet with India. Pharijong is one 
of the highest places in the world inhabited by man, 
and is one of the dirtiest. The name means literally 
" Hill of the Pig/' and nothing could be more apt.* 
Yet as the traveller gains the summit of the pass, and 
looks down on the town, it is not the filthy little 
frontier station that grips his attention, but the view. 
The valleys behind him may be filled with mist, but 
ahead it seems as though all Tibet lay spread out 
before him. It is a marvellous expanse of mountain 
country, range upon range of brown, bare hills, all 
clear-cut and distinct, while behind them towers one 
pure white peak, Chomolhari " divine mother of 
mountains " serene and ineffable, against a cloudless 
sky of turquoise blue. 

Beyond Pharijong the road winds up and down, 
now through desolate valleys, cold and windswept, 
then over snow-covered passes out on to the high 
tableland, with its boggy soil broken up by tussocks 
of grass and numerous lakes and tarns. In summer 
the same track will wear a different aspect : the 
valleys and the lower slopes of the barren hills will be 
clothed with fresh green grass and flowers. Blue 
larkspurs, orange marigolds and familiar yellow 
dandelions stand out among a mass of less familiar 
blossoms, purple and pink and white. Tiny ferns cling 
to every crevice in the rock, vetches and violet primulas 
spring from the very face of the rock itself, while the 
dark blue spires of monkshood mingle with all this 
beauty " like devils in heaven, "f All along the route 
the vivid sky-blue Tibetan poppy is easily the most 
striking flower in the country, while on the high 
tableland the dark gorges and level river valleys are 
often lit up by brilliant patches of yellow mustard 
blossom. 

One of the most wonderful sights on the road to 

* See The Land of the Lama : by David MacDonald, page 256. 
f This is the Aconitum Luridum ; its roots contain a deadly poison. 



TIBET 79 

Lhasa is the "Turquoise Lake," or Yam-Dok-Tso. 
Few foreigners have ever seen it, for it does not lie on 
the direct route to the capital. The waters are of an 
exquisite blue-green, ringed by clean shores of pure 
white sand. Solitary and still it lies among its enfolding 
hills. Here and there near the shore are little patches 
of cultivated ground, and wherever the springing 
barley pushes its way through the earth there also 
will be a sheet of forget-me-nots. On the margin of the 
Lake the ruins of ancient castles add the final touch 
of romance to the scene, while beyond, on the horizon, 
are the eternal glaciers of the Himalayas, a silver 
setting for the " Turquoise Lake." 



II. 

The first sight of Lhasa is as unexpected as it is 
beautiful. Standing on the height overlooking the city 
the traveller gazes with amazement at the stretches of 
green woodland, and marshy grass, watered by 
streamlets of clear brown water winding among the 
over-arching trees. The whole city is surrounded by 
this belt of luxuriant vegetation, a mile in depth. 
The town itself is overshadowed and completely 
dominated by the Potala, the great Palace-Temple of 
the Grand Lama. Its massive white stone walls rise 
from a sea of green. The central building stands out 
impressively between wide blocks of masonry of 
glowing crimson. It is crowned with glittering golden 
roofs, shining and dazzling against the pale blue sky. 
This Palace is a " marvel in stone," nine hundred feet 
long, and seventy feet higher than St. Paul's Cathedral. 
There is an utter disproportion between this great 
Palace-Temple of the Potala and the town which lies 
at its feet. It seems to symbolize the gulf that separates 
the people of Tibet from their priests. 

After this striking approach the town itself seems 
almost insignificant. It consists of large groups of 
houses, separated by dark and narrow lanes. Here 
and there are squares or patches of waste ground. 



80 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

The poorest quarter of the city is as dirty as Pharijong, 
and even more repulsive. Yet in these loathsome 
surroundings the flowers bloom better than elsewhere : 
nasturtiums trail their gold and flame-coloured blossoms 
over the decaying walls ; tall bright hollyhocks spring 
from the oozing black mud, and crimson stocks, with 
their delicate grey-green leaves, strive to cover the 
filth of the dust-heaps upon which they grow. 

Amid a tangle of dark and dirty lanes stands the 
great temple, the Jokang, built in A.D. 652. The outside 
of the building is unpromising, but the interior is one 
of the most interesting sights in Central Asia. Its 
chief treasure is an image of the Buddha, golden and 
magnificent, lit up by the soft radiance of countless 
butter lamps. The face is that of Gautama as a young 
and eager prince, and the image is ornamented with 
masses of precious stones. This temple is the Holy of 
Holies for the whole of Northern Buddhism. 



III. 

" There is no approach to God unless a lama leads 
the way " so runs the Tibetan proverjb. The word 
Lama means literally " Superior One," and theoretically 
it should be applied only to the Abbots of monasteries ; 
in practice, however, it has come to be used of every 
member of the Tibetan priesthood. It is estimated 
that the Lamas form one-sixth of the adult male 
population of Tibet. The term " Lamaism " is often 
applied to Tibetan religion, but it is not accurate. 
The religion of Tibet is Buddhism, derived from and 
identical with the Indian Buddhism of the Mahayana. 
The Tibetans themselves say that they are believers 
in " Buddha's religion " or " the orthodox religion."* 

* The pre-Buddhist religion of Tibet was called the Bon religion. 
It is a necromantic cult with devil-dancing. Although strictly forbidden 
by the lamas of Central and Western Tibet, it is nevertheless largely 
and openly professed over the greater part of Eastern and South- 
Eastern Tibet, where Chinese influence is strong. It is particularly 
popular among the settled agricultural population. 



TIBET 81 

It seems probable that Buddhism was introduced into 
Tibet in the seventh century of the Christian era, that 
is, about twelve hundred years after the death of the 
Buddha. 

Buddhism in Tibet has developed the teaching 
and practice of its founder to great extremes. Since 
salvation is bound up with the monastic state, 
monasticism has here reached greater proportions 
than in any other country in the world. For centuries 
the government of the land has been in the hands of 
the monks themselves. At the head of the priesthood 
are the Dalai Lama and the Tashi Lama. In theory 
the Tashi Lama, whose headquarters are at Shigatse, 
is superior to the Dalai Lama, who lives at Lhasa. 
In practice, however, the Dalai Lama is supreme, 
since he alone wields secular as well as religious 
authority. 

Thus there has arisen the strange phenomenon 
of a social order dominated by thousands of celibate 
monks, who lead a parasitic existence and decimate 
the people. Since Buddhism was introduced into the 
country, the Tibetans, who were at one time virile 
and enterprising, have steadily declined both in power 
and in numbers, until now the population has decreased 
to a tenth of its former size. In a land more than six 
times as large as Great Britain, there are only from 
two to three million people, who live in about 13,000 
towns and villages. It is possible, however, to ride 
for many miles without seeing a trace of human life. 

The country is dotted with monasteries, great and 
small. Most of them have been built in retired and 
beautiful spots. Some are perched high up among 
the mountains, in rocky fastnesses, where the buildings 
seem part of the rock itself ; others are built in sheltered 
valleys, or on low hills in the plains, where they have 
glorious views of the surrounding country. Near 
Lhasa there are three large lamaseries with a total 
population of over twenty thousand monks. Of these 
three Drepung is the largest monastery in the world ; 
it is situated about three and a half miles away from 
the western gate of Lhasa. The monks are more like 

F 



82 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

mercenary soldiers than anything else, and during 
popular festivals their armed regiments terrorize the 
people of the capital. Besides these large monasteries 
there are numbers of smaller ones inhabited by groups 
of lamas varying from four or five to one hundred. 
Some of these lamaseries are wealthy and prosperous, 
but others are simply collections of poor and squalid 
huts. 

From the earliest days of Tibetan Buddhism there 
have always been some souls full of a passionate 
longing for spiritual enlightenment ; impelled by this 
desire they have left the ordinary ways of men. 
Sometimes the period of solitude has been short ; 
others have secluded themselves for twelve years; 
a few Lamas leave the world for ever. In the 
neighbourhood of Gyantse there is a hermitage where 
monks shut themselves up in dark stone huts for the 
rest of their lives. This hermitage was founded in 
the year 1100 by a great hermit saint, and ever since 
it has usually been inhabited. A hermit retires into 
his voluntary prison for a first period of three months 
and three days. He then comes out and goes through 
a special course of study and preparation for the next 
period of retirement, which is supposed to last for 
three years, three months and three days. During 
this second period many lamas begin to suffer in mind, 
and some of them entirely lose their reason. At the 
end of this period the hermit comes forth once more 
to prepare for the final term of imprisonment which 
will end only with his death. 

The Lamas look down upon the laity, calling them 
" the dark ignorant people " and " the worldly ones/' 
though sometimes they are kind enough to give them 
the title of " the givers of alms," making it quite clear, 
however, that it is the givers who gain most by this 
exercise of charity. The people accept the authority 
of the Lamas without question, and give lavishly 
towards their support. 

The ordinary people are kindly, hard-working, 
cheerful, and hospitable; they are also extremely 
courteous and well-mannered. David MacDonald 



TIBET 83 

says that "on the roads everyone who passes by has 
a cheery word and a smile for one, even the very poor 
and the beggars protruding their tongues to the full 
extent as a sign of greeting. This tongue-protruding 
takes a little getting used to, before the traveller new 
to Tibet realizes it is all meant in respect, and not as 
rudeness." Their main occupations are agriculture, 
cattle and sheep raising, and trade. The two trade 
centres are Pharijong on the Indian trade route, and 
Chamdo on the Chinese frontier. The daily life is hard, 
for the climate is severe, and there is little comfort in 
the houses of the poorer people. 

Religious ideas play a leading part in everyday 
life. The doctrine of Karma and of the transmigration 
of the soul, and the insistence upon the importance 
of acquiring merit by good deeds, affect the life of the 
laity in many ways. The spirit of Buddhism dominates 
their folk-lore, their proverbs, and their songs and plays. 
It influences their attitude towards animals, prohibiting 
any careless sacrifice of life. Crime is punished with 
ruthless severity, and mutilation is a common form of 
punishment. 

The popular religion has, however, some very 
striking non-Buddhist features, derived from the Bon 
religion which preceded Buddhism. The hardness of 
life in such a severe climate, where the forces of nature 
seem like implacable enemies, leads the Tibetans to 
believe that their disasters are due to the activity of 
malignant spirits. Hence their craving for protection 
by means of charms and amulets which everyone 
wears, even the Lamas themselves. Pilgrimages are 
popular, and prayers are ever on the lips of the people. 
Day and night the prayer-flags flutter in the breeze, 
the people turn their prayer-wheels and use their 
rosaries ; yet with all their strivings they never enter 
into peace. 

IV. 

The rule of the Lamas dates from the time of 
Kublai Khan and of Gushi Khan, his Tartar successor 



84 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

in Central Asia. Kublai Khan appointed the Abbot 
of Sakya as ruler of Tibet; Gushi Khan transferred 
the control to the priests and created the office of 
Dalai Lama ; this official together with the Tashi 
Lama became the source of all the power in the State. 
Gradually, however, the political power came to be 
vested solely in the Dalai Lama, while the influence 
of the Tashi Lama was limited to purely religious 
functions and ceremonies. , 

In 1720 China drove out the Tartar overlords from 
Tibet and thus secured a certain amount of control 
over the country. Relations between China and Tibet, 
however, remained uneasy and uncertain, and the 
political question of the Sino-Tibetan border has never 
been entirely settled. The political situation assumed 
a new aspect in 1914 when Tibet signed a treaty with 
India* which completely transformed its political 
position. From being a reluctantly dependent country, 
it became an independent autonomous State. 

To-day Tibet stands at the parting of the ways. 
Lhasa, the Sacred City, the conservative stronghold 
of Lamaism, has been besieged in the seeming security 
of its isolation, and that in the most subtle manner, 
for the foe is no external one, but dwells within its own 
walls. 

The Younghusband Mission of 1904-05 may be 
said to mark the beginning of modern history in Tibet, 
and, since the visit of the Dalai Lama to India, Lhasa 
has become the scene of the efforts of the progressive 
party, which has outlined a tentative scheme of 
reform. 

At present the only roads in Tibet are those which 
have been worn by the great caravans travelling to 
and fro, but plans are in the air for better roads and 
for the construction of a light railway. Reformers 
have succeeded in establishing a regular postal service 
between the chief towns, and in the installation of 

* Simla Convention, 3rd July, 1914. For a full account of this poli- 
tical development, see Europe and the East, by N. D. Harris> chapter X. 
Cf. also The People of Tibet, by Sir Charles Bell, chapter II. 



TIBET 85 

telegraph and telephone lines from Darjeeling to 
Lhasa. It is not surprising that there is much opposition 
to such reforms in a land which has prided itself for 
centuries upon its rigid isolation. The progressive 
party, although comparatively small, is favoured by 
the Dalai Lama himself, and includes within its ranks 
some outstanding men. 

The vast majority of the Lamas are opposed to all 
reform and to every kind of innovation, whether 
secular or religious. At the same time there are signs 
which suggest that the progressive element cannot 
be measured merely in terms of numbers. 

Whatever changes the future may hold for Tibet, 
the modern movements which have recently taken 
place seem to have rendered the country more exclusive 
than ever. Strangely enough institutions like the post 
and the telegraph are proving the means of shutting 
the door against European intrusion. 

A Tibetan proverb says : " The goal will not be 
reached if the right distance be not travelled," and 
when so much power is vested in the conservative, 
clerical party, whose influence over the people is 
unlimited, it is useless to expect that the whole situation 
can suddenly be transformed by a handful of 
" moderns." Until some degree of enlightenment 
can penetrate the ignorance and gross superstition of 
the lama hierarchy, there is little hope of either spiritual 
or material progress in Tibet. 



V. 

The first follower of Christ to penetrate into the 
mountain fastnesses of Tibet was Friar Odoric of 
Pordenone, who is said to have reached Lhasa by way 
of China about 1328. " Going on further," says Odoric, 
" I came to a certain Kingdom called Tibet. . . . The 
people of this country do for the most part live in tents 
made of black felt. Their principal city is surrounded 
with fair and beautiful walls . . . curiously put 



86 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

together."* Two hundred years passed before any 
further attempt was made to enter the country in the 
Name of Christ. Antonio de Andrade, a Portuguese 
Jesuit, determined to enter Tibet through India. It 
is claimed that he was the first Christian missionary 
to cross the Himalayas, and on Easter Day, 12th 
April, 1626, he laid the foundation stone of the first 
Christian Church in Tibet at a little town on the 
upper Sutlej River. He died eight years later, with 
symptoms of poisoning. 

Stephen Cacella, another Portuguese Jesuit, reached 
Shigatse in 1627, and died in that town in 1630. In 
1643 the Tibetan Jesuit Mission issued an eloquent 
appeal to Europe for support to enable them to continue 
their work : 

" Want of men and money has compelled us to give 
up the Mission, but we cannot leave the country 
entirely to itself. Great sacrifices have been made. 
Brother Bento de Goes has died in discovering it. 
After him Fathers Cacella and Diaz have passed away 
let us not be less generous ! The people are worth it ! " 
But the appeal was unheeded, and in the West the 
daring enterprise was soon forgotten. 

Twenty years later two monks, Johann Grueber 
and Albert D'Orville, made a prolonged journey through 
Tibet from China to Nepal. They visited Lhasa in 
1661. Worn out by the hardships of the way D'Orville 
died at Agra in 1662 : " Midway upon his journey 
between China and Europe he departed for his heavenly 
home." 

During the eighteenth century various Capuchin 
friars travelled freely between Calcutta and Lhasa. 
They founded a mission in Lhasa which was carried 
on from 1715-1733. Attempts were made to revive 
it, but it finally collapsed in 1745. It was during this 
time that Hippolyte Desideri, another Jesuit priest, 
spent several years in Lhasa (1716-1721). In the 
judgment of Sven Hedin, Desideri was " one of the 
most brilliant travellers who ever visited Tibet." 

* Contemporaries of Marco Polo. Edited by M. Komroff, p. 244. 



TIBET 87 

The collapse of the Capuchin Mission in 1745 marked 
the close of all attempts at settled missionary work 
in Tibet. Efforts have been made to reach the capital, 
but the proceeding has always been attended by 
much danger. For instance, in 1898 two Dutch 
missionaries, Mr. and Mrs. Rijnhart, set out from 
the Kokonor for Lhasa. Rijnhart was murdered on 
the Upper Mekong, and his wife only escaped with 
great difficulty into Szechwan. 

Thus from the beginning of the nineteenth century 
Tibet became the Great Closed Land. 



CHAPTER VI. 
On the Borderland of Tibet 

A GLANCE at the map will show that Tibet is 
surrounded by a long mountainous frontier. 
Starting from the north it runs southward along the 
borders of the three Chinese provinces of Kansu, 
Szechwan and Yunnan. Turning westward towards 
India, it skirts the northern frontiers of Burma and 
Assam, finally reaching Kashmir by way of Bhutan, 
Sikkim and Nepal. Beyond, to the north, lies Chinese 
Turkistan. 

Thus, speaking broadly, Tibet lies midway between 
China and India, and from the political standpoint 
these are the powers with which it has to reckon. 
The situation is further complicated by the presence 
of Russia in the background. 

What then is the missionary situation throughout 
this vast borderland ? To what extent is Tibet a 
" closed land " ? How far are the Tibetans being 
affected by the work of missions in neighbouring 
lands ? 

From the side of India Tibet is a " closed land " 
to missions. The situation is far more promising on 
the Sino-Tibetan frontier. In 1928 two missionaries 
received official permission from Lhasa to travel through 
Tibet. It took them ten months to march from Sining 
in Kansu to Leh in Kashmir. It was a hazardous 
expedition, and the travellers had much to endure. 
On one occasion they went for twenty-seven hours 
without anything to drink ; when they did find water 
it was covered with a green scum and swarming with 
mosquitoes, but such things seem almost tolerable 
when one is consumed by raging thirst. One of the 
great difficulties in travelling through such desert 
country was the frequent loss of animals due to lack 
of grass and water. Everywhere the missionaries had 
entire freedom to preach and distribute the Scriptures, 
and they found the people friendly and approachable. 



ON THE BORDERLAND OF TIBET 89 

I. 

(i-) 

Kansu-Tibetan Border. 

Sining, the city of " Western Peace/' bears a name 
out of keeping with its history. Certainly the city has 
suffered severely in the miseries which have accom- 
panied the Muhammadan rebellions. Its sufferings 
were especially severe during the Rebellion of 1895. 
The China Inland Mission early recognized the im- 
portance of Sining as a missionary centre, standing as it 
does where four wide valleys meet, and easily accessible 
to the Tibetan traders who come to it from beyond 
the mountains. Tibetans visit the city freely, bringing 
with them for sale their loads of firewood, butter, 
wool, and other products. Not far away, among the 
western mountains, there are some twenty lamaseries, 
and fed and yellow lamas often mingle with the crowds 
in the streets of Sining. 

Since 1885 pioneer work in Sining has been carried 
on by Mr. Cecil Polhill, of the China Inland Mission, 
and many others on whose hearts God has laid the 
burden of the great " closed land." Since 1923 a very 
definite step forward has been taken by the purchasing 
of premises now known as the Tibetan Gospel Inn, 
where there is free accommodation for a large number 
of guests. Plenty of stable room is provided, for nearly 
all Tibetans who visit the city are mounted on camels, 
yaks, mules, horses or donkeys. There is also a kitchen 
in which the guests cook their own food. The chief 
feature of the Inn is the Preaching Hall, a large room 
which will seat about fifty people in comfort. Since 
the opening of this building in December, 1923, the 
Tibetans have gradually overcome their first suspicions, 
and, especially from November to April, the Inn has 
often been overcrowded. The Tibetan evangelists, 
Mr. Tong and Mr. Feng, are kept busy preaching and 
teaching and distributing tracts. 

Among the many Tibetan lamaseries near Sining, 
that of Kumbum, just over twenty miles distant, 



90 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

ranks as second or third to Lhasa in importance. It 
contains three thousand six hundred lamas, many 
of whom have visited the Gospel Inn. At the great 
Butter Festival, which takes place on the fifteenth day 
of the first Chinese month, there are always splendid 
opportunities for preaching the Gospel at Kumbum 
itself. 

A number of Tibetans have already professed 
faith in Christ. The first to become interested in the 
Gospel was Chi-Fah-chia. The lamas who own the 
land on which he lives, have beaten him unmercifully 
for his refusal to continue idolatrous practices. On 
more than one occasion he has been imprisoned in the 
lamasery, chained to the ground in such a way that 
all night long he could neither sit down nor stand 
upright. Instead of the great prayer flag which has 
hung in the middle of his courtyard ever since he can 
remember, he has allowed the missionary to hang up 
another flag of the same length,* but instead of the 
Tibetan prayer " Om mani padme hum " the words 
of Mark i. 1.5 are inscribed on it : " The Kingdom of 
God is at hand ; repent ye and believe the Gospel." 

In 1927 there were two rather remarkable 
conversions ; here is the story of one of them. A man 
who lives on the other side of Lake Kokonor had been 
staying at the Inn for some weeks and attending the 
Tibetan services, though this attendance is quite 
optional. At the end of one of the evening services 
he left his seat and came to the front. Taking his 
khata (scarf of blessing) in both hands he presented it 
to the God of Heaven, " for," he said, " Thou art the 
true God, and I will serve Thee to the end of my days." 
After some time this old man of seventy returned to 
his home in Tibet, where he will most certainly have 
to face the severest persecution. 

In May, 1927, the foreign missionaries had to leave 
Sining, and the work was left in the hands of the 
Chinese and Tibetan evangelists. In 1928, however, 
the missionaries had scarcely returned to Sining 

* Twenty feet. 



ON THE BORDERLAND OF TIBET 91 

before the Muhammadan Rebellion caused great 
tension in the neighbourhood: "Country people 
flocked into the walled cities, and city people sought 
refuge in mountain caves/' The country side was 
swarming with armed robbers. 

Up till the year 1927 the Christian and Missionary 
Alliance in this province was working amongst Chinese 
and Tibetans at ten stations and ten out-stations. 
At that time this Society had a staff of thirty-nine 
missionaries and fifty-four native workers. There 
were thirteen organized churches, with a total 
membership of six hundred and thirty-two. Enquirers 
were numerous, and, on an average, sixteen were 
baptized every year. 

For thirty-five years this work had been going on, 
and it had been greatly blessed. Then came the 
disturbances of 1927 and the foreign missionaries had 
to withdraw, leaving the mission in the hands of three 
Chinese leaders. 

During 1928 the foreign missionaries began to return 
to Kansu. It is the policy of this mission to press 
forward into unevangelized areas, and plans which 
had already been made for entering Tibet before 1927 
were taken up again in 1928. The Chinese side of the 
work is being handed over to the Chinese Church, 
leaving the missionaries free for Tibetan work. The 
extension of the latter work is being planned from 
two new centres. The old Tibetan work, at Labrang, 
Lupasi and Heh-tsao is being re-opened, while work 
among Chinese and Tibetans is being carried on at 
Hochow and Choni. 

The Christian and Missionary Alliance has handed 
over the two stations of Paoan and Rungwa to the 
Swedish Assemblies of God, and some Tibetan work 
is being done there. The General Council of the 
Assemblies of God has work among the Tibetans at 
Minchow, Labrang and Tangar, with a staff of five 
workers. 

This steady faithful work of peace is being carried 
on under most disturbed conditions. In Central 
Kansu there has been no rain for four years. The 



92 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

fertile region which produces wheat has become a 
desert. In one town the population has been reduced 
from sixty thousand to three thousand. Several 
foreign relief workers have died from typhus.* All 
these troubles have been accentuated by the Muham- 
madan Rebellion of 1928. This revolt affected Central 
and Western Kansu. It is believed that at least two 
hundred thousand people have died as a direct result 
of the fighting. Disease and famine have fbllowed 
in the wake of the Rebellion, leaving a trail of desolation 
behind them. People have tried to stay their hunger 
with oil-cake, leaves, bark, roots and grass. Many 
persons have died from starvation, and in some places 
dogs and wolves have feasted on the children thrown 
outside the city walls. The rebels have sacked and 
burned, the Tibetan monastery of Choni, destroying at 
the same time the only set of wooden printing blocks of 
the Tibetan classics in North-Eastern Tibet. The 
rich monastery of Labrang was seized and looted. 
The rising has now been subdued, and many mal- 
contents have fled to the mountains. 

At the close of the Rebellion, the Nationalist 
Government in Nanking decreed that the Sining 
district or circuit is to be carved out of Kansu Province 
and added to Tsinghai (Kokonor). Sining itself is to 
be the capital of the new province. Evidently, in 
future the Chinese Government hopes to exercise 
more than its present nominal suzerainty over Kokonor. 
If these hopes are realized, it is probable that this whole 
region will become far more open to the Gospel than 
it is at present. 



Szechwan-Tibetan Border. 

Tatsienlu is a centre of Tibetan work under the 
China Inland Mission. Owing to recent political 
changes this city is now the capital of the specially 
administered district of Chwanpien, which has ceased 

* The Times, 30th July, 1929. 



ON THE BORDERLAND OF TIBET 93 

to form an integral part of the Province of Szechwan. 
Besides a large number of aboriginal tribes, many of 
whom are unknown by name to Europeans and have 
never yet been reached with the Gospel, Chwanpien 
also contains a very large, if somewhat floating, 
Tibetan population. Tatsienlu is the great tea centre 
on the Tibetan frontier, and from all parts of Tibet 
traders come there for this precious commodity. 
From 1897, when the station was first opened, attempts 
have constantly been made to reach these people, 
but difficulties, due to the uncertain political 
conditions, have made the work less fruitful than had 
been hoped. 

Mr. J. Huston Edgar, an Australian member of the 
Mission, who is a born explorer as well as a keen 
evangelist, has met with most amazing adventures 
during his long itinerations in this territory. He sums 
up one year's work as follows : " Sold and distributed 
a hundred and two thousand tracts in Tibetan, fifty 
thousand books in Tibetan, and another 21,500 books 
in Chinese, making a total of 173,500 copies." In 
order to achieve these results he spent a hundred and 
eighty-one days away from home, travelled nearly a 
thousand English miles on mountainous tracts, and 
thirty times he reached an altitude varying from 
fourteen thousand five hundred to sixteen thousand 
feet. Dangers from wild animals, dangers from the 
fierce dogs which surround every nomad encampment, 
and dangers from robbers, were an almost daily 
experience. He bivouacked in the pouring rain among 
these precipitous hills, spent one night in drenching 
rain in a bog at an altitude of fourteen thousand feet, 
slept for six nights in soaked bedding, and for eight 
days wore drenched clothing. To crown all he suffered 
from a poisoned foot, which kept him in bed for a week 
and hampered him for a month, but through this 
delay he was able to place twenty-six thousand portions 
of Christian literature in the hands of lamas and other 
Tibetans. 

In the space of twelve months this daring servant 
of God was able to visit the districts of no less than 



94 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

sixteen large lamaseries with a total of fifteen thousand 
priests. In spite of much opposition there are several 
outstanding features which enable us to glorify God 
on his behalf. The abbot of the lamasery at Atuntze 
promised that he would do all he could to circulate 
the Gospels which Mr. Edgar had given him. The 
abbot of the lamasery at K'ongyu told him that he had 
been spending a, part of the night in prayer for him, 
pleading for his safety, while the high priest of the 
region of Tantong gave him his blessing. 

One of the most important places in the district is 
Litang. This town lies only two hundred miles to the 
west of Tatsienlu, but in order to reach it ten days 
of arduous travel are required ; thirteen passes have 
to be crossed at an altitude of over fifteen thousand 
feet. The town of Litang has about 3,300 inhabitants 
and the famous lamasery contains 3,700 lamas. Mr. 
Edgar's last visit to this place was thoroughly successful: 
" Scores of encampments were visited, and in spite 
of baying bloodhounds and grunting yaks with tails 
erect, eyes ablaze, and jets of steam pouring from 
dilated nostrils, we were able to put large quantities 
of literature into the hands of nomads, lamas, and 
brigands." 

For many years Mr. and Mrs. Cunningham have 
been stationed at Tatsienlu, and throughout the 
upheaval of the last two years they remained there, 
caring for the small body of Chinese and Tibetan 
believers, and carrying on tract distribution in the 
surrounding neighbourhood. 

An evangelistic service for Tibetans is held on 
Sunday afternoons. One of the great difficulties of 
preaching to Tibetans is that they have never been 
trained to sit for more than one minute in one position, 
or accustomed to listen for any duration beyond sixty 
seconds ! Mr. Edgar writes : "I have prepared a* great 
number of addresses in the Tibetan language, which 
I have memorized very carefully. An address lasts 
for about five minutes ; that is about as much as 
they will endure." This explains his statement that 
on one day he preached twenty-five times, and that 



ON THE BORDERLAND OF TIBET 95 

within two years he delivered seventeen hundred 
addresses. 

From the station of Batang, established in 1908, 
Tibetan work is carried on by the United Christian 
Missionary Society (Disciples of Christ). That the work 
is hard is indicated by the fact that in 1926, even 
before the recent troubles, there were no baptisms. 
There are fourteen native workers, amongst whom 
there are two evangelists and ten teachers. Some 
medical work is being attempted with the assistance 
of Chinese medical workers. In a field where it is 
possible to reach fifty thousand people, this Mission is 
making a noble effort to carry on work under exceed- 
ingly difficult conditions. 



(* \ 
m.) 

Yunnan-Tibetan Border. 

South of Szechwan the western province of Yunnan 
forms a kind of wedge between Burma and the rest 
of China. The narrow end of the wedge touches the 
Tibetan border. The whole of the frontier is marked 
by wonderful mountain scenery. Here in Yunnan there 
is a wealth of beauty in the flowers that bloom in its 
remotest regions. Indeed, this province contains 
some of the finest scenery in the world. French Roman 
Catholic missionaries live in some of these isolated 
valleys, shut off from all contact with the outer world 
during many months of the year. Their work, however, 
is mainly among the aboriginal tribes and does not 
affect Tibet. 

No Protestant mission has taken up work among 
the Tibetans along this frontier. The country is 
mountainous and the villages are built at an altitude 
which varies from six thousand to eight thousand 
feet above sea level. There are many aboriginal hill 
tribes, and the larger cities have a small resident 
population of Tibetan traders, who go as far as 
Yunnanfu where there is a Tibetan colony. 

The Pentecostal Missionary Union (The Assemblies 



96 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

of God) has four workers at Likiang, a small town 
situated among the hills. The work is mostly among 
the hill people. Tibetans frequently visit this town 
on their way through to Tibet, and Gospels are given 
to them. The work previously carried on at Atuntze 
has been given up. A new station has recently been 
opened at Weihsi, in the country which lies between 
the Mekong and the Yangtse by the Tibetan Border 
Mission ; at present this work is confined to the 
Lisu hill people. 



II. 

From Yunnan we pass to BURMA, for the Northern 
Territories of Burma meet the frontiers of Yunnan 
at a point where both touch Tibet. Mission work has 
only recently been projected on the south of this 
region, which embraces the Hukawng Valley and the 
Triangle, where the Government of India has recently 
been engaged in freeing the slaves and in putting an 
end to head-hunting among the Nagas. The population 
consists of Shans in Putao, and Nagas, Kachins, and 
other small hill tribes, many of which have not yet 
been brought under Government administration. 

The frontiers of Tibet north of Burma and Assam 
are possibly the least-known parts of Asia. One or 
two expeditions have entered the Abor country beyond 
Sadiya in Assam, but the stretch of frontier known as 
the Sadiya and Balipara frontier tracts and the hills 
beyond, lying between the bend of the Brahmaputra 
and the Eastern frontier of Bhutan, are still a terra 
incognita. There are no missions among these frontier 
peoples. 

BHUTAN itself is a closed land. The people speak 
a form of Tibetan and their religion is lamaistic 
Buddhism. It has only been possible to establish 
indirect contact with the inhabitants. It is safe to say 
that economically, socially and spiritually, the quarter 
of a million people in Bhutan are the neediest in the 
whole frontier region. Work has been carried on 



ON THE BORDERLAND OF TIBET 97 

amongst those living on the Indian frontier, but with 
little success. The people are very apathetic and do 
not desire education. 

The Church of Scotland has a Christian congregation 
and a dispensary on the borders of the country, which 
exercise considerable influence in Western Bhutan. 
It is principally due to the kindly personal relations 
of the Rev. Dr. Graham of that Mission and the present 
Rajah that several village schools have been carried 
on in Bhutan itself, and a number of boys have also 
received education outside its borders. The people 
are not, therefore, quite without a witness, but they 
are for the most part hard to reach, and they remain 
indifferent and incurious. 

THE BRITISH INDIA DISTRICTS OF DARJEELING 
AND KALIMPONG, with what remains of the once 
independent kingdom of SIKKIM, form a wedge between 
Bhutan on the east and Nepal on the west. Here 
enters the road to Lhasa, and along its difficult marches 
communication is kept up with India. This road passes 
over the Jalep La (14,390 feet) in Sikkim. At 
Kalimpong, a most important market town on this 
route, one of the Church of Scotland missionaries is 
specially set apart for work among the many Tibetan 
traders who pass through the village. In addition to 
services for the small congregation of Tibetan Christians, 
there is regular preaching in that language in the 
bazaar. The Nepalese have overrun Sikkim, and only 
eight thousand of the original inhabitants, the Lepchas, 
remain. The Lepchas were originally animists, but the 
State religion is Buddhism and Tibetan influence is 
strong. In the north there are a number of monasteries 
of the Dukpa or Red-Hat sect of Tibet. 

The Church of Scotland started work in Sikkim 
in 1880 ; it now has twenty elementary schools and 
small Christian communities at about twelve places. 
Dispensaries or dressing stations have been established 
at nine of these centres, where Christian Lepchas and 
Nepalese seek to help the villagers to combat disease. 

About thirty years aga (1898) members of the Free 
Church of Finland organized evangelistic and industrial 



98 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

work among the people in the north of Sikkim. Twenty- 
eight per cent, of the Christians are literate. There 
are to-day eleven missionaries and forty-six indigenous 
workers. 

West of Sikkim, stretching for nearly five hundred 
miles, lies the beautiful well-watered land of NEPAL/ 
a wild mountainous country containing the highest 
peak in the world. As mission work is forbidden in 
Nepal, and no possibility of communication exists 
for missionaries with Tibet, the door to Central Asia 
is closed in this direction.* 

At the east end of Nepal lies the British Indian 
District of KUMAON, which was captured from the 
Gurkhas. Here mission work is carried on by the 
American Methodist Episcopal Mission, which affects 
to some extent the people who use the trade routes 
which lead over the Milam Pass to the western 
extremity of Tibet and the Manasorawar Lake, a 
sacred place of pilgrimage in Tibet, also frequented by 
many Indians. 

Some work in the District on this side of the Milam 
Pass was carried on until recently by Miss Gow, late 
of Rajputana, who has now retired. Another interesting 
work for Bhotiyas and Tibetans was that carried on 
for a number of years by Dr. Martha Sheldon, of the 
Methodist Episcopal Mission in Dharma Bhot. The 
sphere of her work lay in the valley of the Kali Ganga, 
beyond which lie the mountains of Nepal. Here at 
Dharchula and Tarkot in the winter, and at Sikha in 
the warm weather, she carried on medical work. Several 
attempts made by Dr. Sheldon to work in Tibet were 
fruitless owing to the opposition of the authorities. 

Dr. Sheldon died in 1912, and for sixteen years 
the work has lapsed. In 1928, however, it was reopened 
by the Rev. and Mrs. E. B. Steiner. A small Christian 
community still survives as a proof of the enduring 
nature of the work already done. 

There are other unevangelized valleys which also 

* The position of Sikkim in relation to Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet, 
is unique, and by strengthening the work here much might be done 
to prepare and send workers into these lands. 



ON THE BORDERLAND OF TIBET 99 

abut on Tibet, but as they are quite cut off from the 
north by the barrier of mountains they belong to 
India's problem. The same may be said of the people 
of the neighbouring Tehri Garhwal State, where there 
is a small medical work at the capital, Tehri, under 
the care of Dr. Vrooman of the Tehri-Anjuman Mission. 

As we travel westwards along the Himalayas the 
next approach to Tibet is by way of the SUTLEJ 
VALLEY, passing through Simla and thence through 
the Bashahr State via Poo and over the Shipki Pass. 
This is called the Hindustan-Tibet road, and down it 
came Dr. Sven Hedin from Srinagar in Kashmir, after 
completing his journey through Western Tibet. 

For many years the Church Missionary Society 
had a missionary at Kotgarh, forty miles north of 
Simla. The missionaries of this Society and the Baptist 
missionaries from Simla often visited the upper Sutlej 
Valley villages of Bashahr and Kunawar. Both these 
Missions have now withdrawn. At one time the 
Moravian Mission had work at Chini and Poo, close 
to the Tibetan frontier ; the Chini work was handed 
over to the Salvation Army and finally abandoned, 
and recently the Poo work has also been closed. The 
Tibetan-speaking people of this Valley are very poor 
and ignorant, and, in spite of all attempts to reach 
them, there are no Christians there to-day. 

During the season when the Shipki Pass is open, 
lamas and travellers pour down the Sutlej Valley, 
bringing ponies and wool. They can be seen in hundreds 
along the road, the men clad in their dirty red garments 
and the women with elaborately plaited hair. They 
listen to the preaching, but save for the occasional 
purchase of a Gospel they seem to be quite indifferent 
to all that is said. Large numbers gather at the Rampur 
Fair, where there is a Tibetan temple which was 
erected by one of the recent Rajas of Bashahr who was 
himself a Hindu. 

There are workers associated with the Christian 
Missions in Many Lands in Dagshai, who go among 
the hill peoples, with whom Tibetan traders carry on 
business. 



100 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

Dr. Watson, of the Leper Asylum at Sabathu, 
Simla District, superintends the work of the colporteurs 
of the National Bible Society of Scotland, who meet 
with the Tibetans coming to the Simla Hills during 
the summer. Gospels are continually being distributed 
and in this way the Message is conveyed in their 
own language. 

On the west of the upper Valley of the Sutlej lies 
the high mountainous district of SPITI, through which 
the river of that name flows to join the Sutlej. The 
villages are mere hamlets, and shelter about three 
thousand people. The average height of the Valley 
above sea level is eleven thousand feet ; it is surrounded 
by mountain peaks, some of which rise to a height of 
twenty-three thousand feet. This is one of the most 
inaccessible parts of the British Empire. Government 
is conducted through the local chief the Nono of Spiti. 
These people are strict Buddhists, and, except for 
occasional visits from Moravian missionaries who used 
to pass through Spiti on their way from Poo (which is 
now closed) to their station at Kyelang in Lahoul, 
they have never heard the story of the Gospel. They 
remain to-day unreached. 

Still further west we cross the high passes into 
LAHOUL, which, with Spiti, forms the frontier part 
of the Kangra District of the Punjab. The land of 
the Chandra-Bhaga Rivers came into the possession 
of the British in 1846. It has been the theatre of 
many contending forces Buddhism from Ladakh 
and Hinduism from Kulu and to-day Buddhism is 
the principal religion of the people. The road to the 
north runs over the Lingti Pass to British Tibet 
(Ladakh). The Moravian Mission has worked since 
1854 at Kyelang, the meeting place of the Chandra 
and Bhaga Rivers, and has won a few converts. The 
Christians in the Kyelang congregation, however, are 
mainly from Ladakh. 

Beyond Lahoul, with its eight thousand people, 
lies the CHAMBA STATE, the northern district of which 
is inhabited by some Buddhists, who number only 
about five hundred, and among whom no Christian 



ON THE BORDERLAND OF TIBET 101 

work is done. The frontier countries of Chamba, 
Kashmir and Jummu are mainly occupied by Hindus 
and Muhammadans. The Church of Scotland and the 
Church of England carry on work in these States. 

In Northern Kashmir, however, there is a Buddhist 
population of about thirty-eight thousand in LADAKH, 
where the Moravian Mission has worked for over fifty 
years. To-day at Leh and Kalatse there is a Christian 
community of one hundred, half of whom are 
communicants. Indifference, ignorance and self- 
satisfaction are found everywhere, and the work calls 
for the highest kind of Christian courage. Organized 
medical work is carried on, and leprosy is being treated 
on modern lines. There are several schools for boys 
and girls, but no keenness to learn. Two women 
members of the Central Asian Mission are at present 
visiting the Moravians at Leh, in order to get some 
insight into work among Tibetan-speaking people. 

BALTISTAN, which lies to the west of Ladakh, also 
forms part of Northern .Kashmir. It is an extremely 
mountainous country, and one of great interest from 
the geographical point of view. The people are very 
poor and ignorant ; in winter they suffer much from 
cold and hunger. Many of their villages are built in 
remote valleys, high up among the mountains, which 
are most difficult to reach. Skardu, the capital, is a 
scattered collection of houses, perched high up upon 
a rock above the Indus, at a height of 7,250 feet above 
the sea. 

Two workers of the Central Asian Mission live among 
the Muslims in Skardu and its neighbourhood, where 
two schools have been established. Forty miles north- 
west of Skardu lies a group of villages at Rondu, which 
has been reported as a suitable centre for medical 
work. These are but small efforts in such vast 
territories. The interesting feature of the work of these 
two Missions is that it lies across the great route from 
India to Central Asia, from Kashmir to Kashgar and 
beyond. This road passes near Skardu and goes on to 
Gilgit, where the British Government has a military 
post. 



102 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

On the south side of the Karakoram Range, lie 
the little countries of the HUNZA and NAGAR peoples, 
whose true origin has long been a puzzle to ethnolo- 
gists. They claim descent from Alexander the Great, 
and are Muslims of the Mulai sect, owing allegiance 
to the Aga Khan, though religion plays only a 
small part in their daily lives. When travellers to 
Kashgar pass this way visits are usually paid to the 
chiefs of Hunza and Nagar. The occupation of these 
people used to consist in raiding the caravans passing 
along the Leh-Turkistan road, but this has now been 
completely stopped, and the States, which are very 
poor, receive a subsidy from the Indian Government. 
No missionary work exists either at GILGIT or in the 
HUNZA-NAGAR country. 

The frontier now leads into the wild valleys and 
passes of the Hindu Kush Mountains, a region known 
as KOHISTAN, which lies partly in Kashmir, partly 
in the Swat and Chitral areas of the North-West 
Province of India, and partly in Afghanistan. Little 
is known of these regions and neither traveller nor 
missionary has penetrated into their wilds. 

There is a good deal of coming and going over the 
passes which lead from Afghanistan to Russian Central 
Asia, but, as Christian missions can make no approach 
through the closed land of Afghanistan to the lands 
of Central Asia, that way is closed and barred. Yet 
we have the story of how the Nestorian Church in 
the sixth century passed up through Persia and 
Afghanistan and penetrated to the heart of Central 
Asia. It may be that a day will come when this may 
also be possible for the Church of the twentieth century. 

There is, however, one Christian messenger which 
is stealing into Tibet from the borderlands ; the 
Christian New Testament. The attractively printed 
Gospels including one edition printed on native 
paper exactly like a Tibetan Buddhist Scripture are 
continually finding their way over the border. There 
is a constant coming and going of Kashmiri merchants, 
Balti traders, Punjabi shop-keepers, religious men- 
dicants and devotees from India as well as from Tibet, 



ON THE BORDERLAND OF TIBET 103 

highlandmen from Ladakh and Lahoul, and even 
from Nepal. For all these Christian Scriptures are 
available. Kashmiri, Chambiali, Kumaoni, Garhwali, 
Kanauri, Ladakhi, three forms of Lahuli, Nepali, all 
have the Bible in whole or in part. We have reason 
to believe that books in all these tongues have actually 
entered Central Asia. Arabic, Persian and Pashtu are 
also heard over their own borders, both north and south, 
and in all three complete Bibles are ready for the 
reader. Both the British and Foreign Bible Society 
and the National Bible Society of Scotland are supplying 
the Scriptures to the missionary societies and 
individuals who are carrying on the work of Bible 
distribution along the borders of Tibet. 

One of the most forceful means of spreading the 
knowledge of the true God to this dark corner of 
God's earth is, without doubt, His own Word. It is 
the silent missionary as well as the ubiquitous 
missionary and the permeating instructor. In the 
Bible Societies with their translations and their 
attractive publications, the Christian Church has at 
her hand what The Times called the gift which is in 
itself good, and the giving of which is perfect. 

Along this extensive frontier the points of missionary 
contact are still few and feeble, and the strongholds 
of indifference and ignorance can only be broken down 
by faith and prayer. The call of dire need is 
overwhelming and constitutes a perpetual challenge 
to the Christian Church. 



CHAPTER VII. 
The Challenge 

DURING the summer of 1924 the undaunted, 
though baffled members of the Everest 
Expedition returned home to tell their tale of 
courageous effort launched against the insuperable 
difficulties of the Himalayan conquest. The party 
was not complete, for two of its number had vanished, 
last seen alive silhouetted on the sky line near the 
summit of the impregnable mountain peak. 

One who went as far as he dared in a vain attempt 
to track his two companions, speaks of the cold 
indifference with which Everest looked down on him 
and howled derision at his feeble attempt to wrest 
from it the secret of his friends' disappearance. Even 
as he turned back to join the camp, he realized that 
he had touched that line beyond which, if a man step, 
he must ever be led on, and regardless of all obstacles 
press towards that most sacred and highest peak of all. 

Everest is a fitting symbol of the seemingly 
insuperable difficulties which confront the Central 
Asian missionary. The Himalayan Range is but one 
of the obstacles which combine to guard the land from 
conquest by the pioneer band. He who would enter 
must first sit down and count the cost, measuring 
his own resources of strength, endurance, time and 
money, and take counsel whether he be able with ten 
thousand to meet him that cometh against him with 
twenty thousand. 

Nature has contributed her full quota of defence, 
for on the east He deserts which are torrid or icy 
according to the season, whose limitless sands may 
only be crossed at the expense of life itself, and whose 
caravan routes are strewn with bleaching bones. To 
the south are unbroken ranges, whose few accessible 
passes are only grudgingly open to travellers for a few 
months in the year before fresh snows again block the 



THE CHALLENGE 105 

way. On the north are the wide waterless steppes of 
Siberia, whose distances and dangers spell terror to 
the traveller. 

Before the birth of Christ the Chinese historians 
were indicating in detail the various routes which 
transected the lands lying beyond their own western 
border. In spite of some development in railway and 
motor transport along the frontiers, in most of the 
countries described in this book the only means of 
transit is by cart, or camel, or on horseback. In these 
regions no progress in modes of travel has been made 
in the course of the centuries, and the stages described 
by Marco Polo are still followed by the weary traveller. 
It takes three months to traverse the trade route which 
connects Kucheng in Sinkiang with Peking, seventy- 
five days to cover the distance between Khotan and 
the Siberian frontier, and ninety-four days to travel 
from Kashgar to Suchow. 

The expenditure of time and money, the demand 
on physical strength, the dangers from robbers, from 
hunger and thirst, involved in these long journeys 
over burning deserts, dangerous rivers or lonely 
waterless steppes, are some of the obstacles which must 
be overcome by the missionary who would seek to 
preach Christ in any one of the countries described in 
this survey. 

As though in league with nature, the Governments 
of these lands, which are at variance on so many points, 
are at one in the determination to exclude the disturbing 
Christian missionary from a territory which all tacitly 
acknowledge may yet be the Champs de Mars of the 
nations. 

Only those who have attempted to penetrate these 
fastnesses know how many obstacles block the road. 
Conflicting interests, international suspicion and the 
spirit of fear, inspire unreasoned action and astigmatic 
policies on the part of diplomatic Governments. How 
slow is man to recognize that in the coming of the 
Kingdom of Christ lies the peace of the world, and 
that apart from His dominion the air will always be 
alive with rumours and with the reports of those wild 



106 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

and foolish deeds that men perform when under the 
domination of fear. 

Throughout the centuries statesmen and generals 
have coveted the control of the trade routes of Asia, 
knowing that great power would lie in the hands of 
any ruler who could dominate these strategic lines of 
communication. What spirit of blindness can have 
possessed the Christian Church for so many centuries, 
that she has failed even to detect that the same arteries 
which circulated the reports of Alexander's victories, 
the advance of Genghiz Khan, of Chien Lung's battles, 
of the progress of the great European War, and of 
Russia's bloody revolution, might be used to carry 
the knowledge of the Evangel of the Prince of Peace 
to places which, at this hour, are still closed to the 
Christian missionary. 

A few Christian missionaries have overcome the 
initial difficulties presented by the combined forces of 
man and nature, and have secured entrance to the 
lands which lie enclosed within these formidable 
barriers. Then it is that the icy, sterile opposition of 
Islam meets their ardour and enthusiasm with cold 
derision and confident security : "If any man dare to 
oppose us he shall be swallowed up as surely as were 
the serpents of the magicians swallowed by the rod of 
Moses." Then also they encounter the paralysing 
atmosphere of Lamaism, well called the "Blight of 
Asia," which includes the teaching and practices of a 
debased Buddhism permeated by the obscenities of 
Tantric sex symbolism, and the demonism of the 
primitive Bon worship. 

The Everest expedition did not return with 
the triumphant knowledge of having reached the 
summit. If the two brave men who so tragically 
vanished from sight on that May morning gained 
their objective, they did not return to tell the story. 
Yet so much was accomplished that every subsequent 
attempt will be on known ground until the explorers 
are within a few hours' climb of the summit. 

The missionaries of Central Asia are still wrestling 
with the initial difficulties of pioneer advance in 



THE CHALLENGE 



107 



unknown lands amongst people of many a strange 
tongue. Their reports speak rather of a great attempt 
than of actual achievement, and some of these 
pioneers are working in such great isolation that 
they are lost from view by the watchers at the base. 

At some future time the adventure which is costing 
them so much may have become an easy undertaking 
for their successors, but these will advance over the 
road traced by the vanguard, which, having opened 
the way, will have proved the possibility of the 
undertaking. Men and women, see to it that neither 
cowardly fear nor dastardly ease hold you back from 
keeping open that road which it has cost the very life 
of the pathfinder to make. 



APPENDICES 

INTRODUCTION : SUGGESTED POLICY OF MISSIONARY ADVANCE. 
STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 
STATISTICAL TABLES. 
I. RUSSIAN CENTRAL ASIA. 
II. CHINESE TURKISTAN. 

III. NORTH-WEST KANSU AND KANSU-TIBETAN BORDER. 

IV. MONGOLIA. 
V. TIBET. 

VI. CHINESE AND INDIAN BORDERLANDS. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. 



INTRODUCTION 
Suggested Policy of Missionary Advance 

Since the last Survey was issued there has been some increase 
in missionary effort. This advance has been carefully reviewed 
in the preceding pages. The recently created Central Asia Prayer 
Fellowship has resulted in a more comprehensive knowledge of, and 
deeper interest in, these lands, and will enable the missions 
concerned to devise more concerted policies of advance. 

The most hopeful and productive method of missionary work 
in the conditions which have been described is that of Bible 
distribution. For more than a century the Bible Society has been 
supplying Scriptures in the principal languages spoken within the 
enormous area constituting Central Asia, as well as in those tongues 
used on its borders. By colporteurs, missionaries, travellers, mer- 
chants, these volumes have been filtering through for many years. 
Its agents have regularly made long caravan tours across the Gobi, 
reaching not only the nomads roaming over the Desert, but leaving 
portions of Scriptures in monasteries and villages on and off the 
main trade routes. The few missionaries actually at work all agree 
in testifying to the value of the printed Gospels with which they 
are regularly supplied. They bear their testimony to the fact that 
this is one of the greatest contributions to the spread of the know- 
ledge of the Gospel, even in those closed lands into which mission- 
aries are not permitted to enter. The Word of God is not bound ; 
and doors closed to foreign missionaries are often open to the 
printed page. 

It must be remembered that most of the peoples living in Central 
Asia speak languages like some form of Chinese, or of Turkish, 
or Russian, or Tibetan, or Mongolian, which are used widely 
outside of their own particular territory, and in all these 
widely-spoken languages the Scriptures, either in whole or in 
part, are now available. Even the more provincial tongues, such 
as the various dialects of Kashgar, or Kirghiz, are increasingly 
being enriched by books of Christian Scripture. In all the principal 
languages encircling Central Asia, as well as those spoken within 
this great tract, the Bible Society is supplying, and is always ready 
to supply, portions of God's Word. Travellers have told us that 
the number of those who are able to read is much larger than might 
be expected. Most monasteries and religious houses impart a certain 
amount of instruction, and most villages contain at least a few who 
are literate. To such, a nevy printed book in their own tongue is a 
wonderful experience. 

The policy of extensive distribution is being steadily pursued 
by the British and Foreign Bible Society and by the National Bible 
Society of Scotland, and is profoundly influencing the whole region. 



112 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

The rise of the Chinese and Indian Churches to the consciousness 
of their separate existence forms another great factor in the 
further evangelization of Central Asia. The effective co-operation 
of these two great Churches is essential to evangelistic advance. 
What is happening in the Kansu Corridor is prophetic of what may 
happen in Mongolia, Sinkiang and Tibet. 

A third need in reviewing any policy of advance in Central Asia 
is that of increasing the missionary contribution of the Western 
Churches. 

The missions now at work on the Chinese frontier need to be 
greatly strengthened and their work co-ordinated by mutual 
consultation. It is essential to carry the Chinese Church with them. 
The missions in Inner Mongolia, in co-operation with the Chinese 
Christians, can easily make a more concerted advance into the 
interior. The two missions at work in Northern Kashmir among 
the Muslim and Buddhist peoples respectively need much more 
help from their supporters, and a mutual plan of operations should 
be agreed upon, so that the very most may be made of their resources. 
It has been suggested that a base should be established at Srinagar, 
to which workers could retire for recuperation, and from which 
supplies could be forwarded regularly. The conditions of life are 
so strenuous in these regions that no great and effective work can 
be contemplated without such a base, which could also be a training 
centre. Plans of work in such regions need to be far-sighted and 
the workers effectively equipped if any permanent result is to be 
achieved^ 

In a peculiar way the responsibility for the evangelization of 
these lands must devolve on the indigenous Christians, and the 
contribution which missions and the Chinese and Indian Churches 
are especially called on to make is to equip and inspire them to 
undertake this arduous task. 

From both the Chinese and Indian sides enterprising evangelists 
have sought to penetrate Tibet. Sadhu Sundar Singh has shown 
how difficult such approach is, but he has also proved its possibility. 
All these efforts are signs of promise. There is no doubt that the 
Church of India can do much to carry the Gospel over its frontiers. 
These closed lands are the natural mission field for the efforts of 
the Church of India and the Church of China. 

In all missionary effort the controlling factor should be 
co-operation with these Churches, without whose aid the task cannot 
be completed. 

Above all, the Kingdom can only truly advance through the 
prayers of Christian people. Closed doors will thus be opened, 
labourers thrust forth into this needy field, and a great harvest 
reaped to the glory of God and the salvation of these millions for 
whom Christ died. 



113 



LIST OF MISSIONARY SOCIETIES WITH 
THEIR ABBREVIATIONS 

A.G. Foreign Missions Department, General Council of the 

Assemblies of God. 

B.F.B.S. British and Foreign Bible Society. 
C.A.M. Central Asian Mission. 
C.I.M. China Inland Mission. 
C.M.M.L. Christian Missions in Many Lands. 
C. of S. Church of Scotland Foreign Mission Committee. 
C.M.A. Christian and Missionary Alliance. 
C.M.S. Church Missionary Society of Africa and the East. 
F.C.F. Free Church of Finland. 
H.F.M. Hephzibah Faith Mission. 
K.M.B.C. Kremmer Mennonite Brethren Church (China Mennonite 

Mission Society). 
M.E.F.B. Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal 

Church. 

Mor.M. Moravian Missions. 
M.P. Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Protestant 

Church. 

S.A. Salvation Army. 

S.A.M. Scandinavian Alliance Mission of North America. 
S.M. Swedish Mongol Mission. 

S.M.F. Swedish Missionary Society. 
Sv.A.M. Swedish Alliance Mission. (Working in conjunction with 

the China Inland Mission.) 
Sw.A.G. Swedish Assemblies of God. 
T.B.M. Tibetan Border Mission. 
T.T.M. Tibetan Tribes Mission. 
U.C.M.S. United Christian Missionary Society (Disciples of Christ). 



H 



114 



STATISTICAL SUMMARY 



Countries covered 
in this Survey. 


Area. 
Sq. Miles. 


Population. 


No. of 
Missions. 


No. of 
Stations. 


Mission- 
aries. 


Russian Central Asia . . 1,612,891 


14,710,378 


__ 








Chinese Turkistan . . 550,340 


2,519,579 


2 


5 


34 


Kansu* 125,450 


5,927,997 


6 


12 


22 


Mongolia . . . . | 1,445,000 


8,098,000 


10 


27 


97 




test.) 








Tibet 470,000 


2,900,000 











i 


(est.) 










4,203,681 


34,155,954 


15 


44 


150 


Szechwan-Tibetan Border 






2 


2 


17 


Yunnan-Tibetan Border 






2 


2 


6 


Indian-Tibetan Border . . 






8 


6 


27 








23 


54 


200 



* Kansu : The total area is given. There are three million Muslims in Kansu. 
About one-quarter of the population is in that part ascribed to .Central Asia in the 
survey. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 
APPENDIX I. 



RUSSIAN CENTRAL ASIA 



Republics. 


Area. 
Sq. Miles. 


Population. 


Chief Town. 


Population. 


Uzbek S.S.R 
Tadzhik Aut. S.S.R. 
Kazak Aut. S.S.R 
Kara-Kalpak Aut. Area 
Turcoman S.S.R 
Kirghiz Aut. S.S.R. 


131,410 
30,888 
1,129,347 
43,630 
182,630 
94,983 


5,270,200 
745,200 
6,530,528 
303,460 
883,549 
977,441 


Samarkand 
Dyushambe 
Kzyl-Orda 
Turtkul 
Askhabad 
Kara-Kol 


101,400 

8,466 
4,252 
47,155 




1,612,891 


14,710,378 







Uzbek S.S.R. has 31 towns and 14,788 villages. 

Turcoman S.S.R. has 7 towns and 2,066 villages. 

The above six Republics make up the area here described as Russian Central 
Asia. The Uzbek and Turcoman Republics are constituent members of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Tadzhik Aut. S.S.R. is under Uzbek. The Kazak 
(Cossack) and Kirghiz Aut. S.S.Rs. are constituent members of the Russian Socialist 
Federal Soviet Republic. The Kara-Kalpak Aut. Area is under the Kazak Republic. 
The Oyrat Aut. Area shown on the map is in Siberia. 



115 



APPENDIX II. 



CHINESE TURKISTAN (SINKIANG) 



Stations. 


Mission. 


Missionaries. 


Men. 


Wives. 


Single 
Women. 


Total. 


Urumtsi (1908) 
Kashgar (1894) 
Hancheng (1909) 
Yangi-Hessar (1912) 
Yarkand (1897) 


C.I.M. 

S.M.F.* 
S.M.F. 
S.M.F. 
S.M.F. 


3 
3 
1 
1 
3 


2 

1 
1 


3 
1 

6 


3 

8 
2 
2 
10 


5 


2 


11 


4 


10 


25 



* The Figures for this Mission are those of 1926. 
thirty-one, of whom six are on furlough. 



At present the total staff is 



APPENDIX III. 



NORTH-WEST KANSU AND KANSU-TIBETAN BORDER 







Missionaries. 




Stations. 


Mission. 


Men. 


Wives 


Single 
Women. 


Total. 


Sining 


C.I.M. 


2 


1 





3 


Kanchow 


Chinese Church 














Suchow 


Chinese Church 








3 


3 


Labrang 


C.M.A. 


1 


1 





2 




A.G. .. 


1 








1 


Lupasi 


C.M.A. 














Heh-tsao 


C.M.A. 














Choni 


C.M.A. 


2 


1 





3 


Taochowling 


C.M.A. 














Paoan 


Sw.A.G. 


1 


1 





2 


Rungwa 


Sw.A.G. 


1 


1 





2 


Minchow 


A.G. .. 


1 


1 





2 




T.T.M. 


1 


1 





2 


Tangar 


T.T.M. 


1 


1 





2 


12 


6 


11 


8 


3 


22 



116 



APPENDIX IV. 



MONGOLIA 







Missionaries. 


Stations. 


Mission. 


Men. 


Wives 


Single 
Women 


Total. 


Sui-Yuan District. 












Patsebolong 


S.A.M. (1904) 


1 


1 


1 


3 


Wangtefu, via Ningsia 


ft 


1 








1 


Kweihwating 


S.A. (1918) 


1 


1 





2 


Pingtichuan 


l 








1 


1 


Kweihwating 


Sv.A.M. (1886) 


1 


1 


2 


4 


Pao-tow-chen 





1 


1 


2 


4 


Saratsi 


> 


3 





4 


7 


Shaerhtsin . . 


t 





- 








Tokotoching 


t 














Liang-Cheng 


t 














Peh-keh-chi 


9 











- 


Chahar District 












Fengchen 


S.A. 


2 


1 





3 


f 9 


Sv.A.M. 


1 


1 


2 


4 





A.G. (1909) 








1 


1 


Dolonnor 


A.G. 


1 


1 





2 


Gashatay 


i 








4 


4 


Chang Pei Hsien 


tt 


1 


1 





2 


Halong-Osso 


S.A. 


1 


1 





2 





S.M. 














Gulchagan 


t* 


2 


1 


1 


4 


Hattin-Sum 


t> 


1 


1 


1 


3 


Doyen 


t* 








2 


2 


Chininghsien 


H.F.M. (1922) 


1 


1 


2 


4 


Chotzeshan 


K.M.B.C. (1923) 


2 


2 


2 


6 


Jehol District. 












Jehol (1906) 


C.M MX. 


4 


4 


3 


11 


Pa Kow (1887) 


) 


1 


1 


1 


3 


Ta-Tze-Kou (1885) 


t 


1 


1 


3 


5 


Chao Yang 


t 


2 


2 


2 


6 


Hada (1912) 


) 


4 


1 


2 


7 


Sitao District. 


Nil. 














Mongolian Borders. (Chihli.) 












Kalgan 


B.F.B.S. 


1 








1 


tl . . . 


M.P.. (1909) 


2 


1 


1 


4 


.. . . 


S.A. (1918) 


1 








1 


27 


10 


36 


24 


37 


97 



117 



APPENDIX V. 



TIBET 



Province. 


Area. 
Sq. Miles. 


Population. 


Chief 
Towns. 


Population. 


U .. 






Lhasa 


20,000* 


Tsang 






/Shigatse 
\Gyantse 


17,000f 
5,000 


To-ngari-Korsum 










Chang Tang 










Kam 










Hor 










Derge 












470,000 


2,900,000 







* Permanent Population, 12,000 ; Floating Population, 8,000. 
t 12,000; 5,000. 



118 



APPENDIX VI. 



CHINESE AND INDIAN BORDERLANDS 



SZEGHWAN-TIBETAN BORDER 



Stations. 


Missions. 


Missionaries. 


Men. 


Wives. 


Single 
Women. 


Total. 


Tatsienlu 
Batang 


C.I.M. 
U.C.M.S. 


2 
6 


2 
6 


1 


4 
13 


2 


2 


8 


8 


1 


17 



YUNNAN-TIBETAN BORDER 



Stations. 


Missions. 


Missionaries. 


Men. 


Wives. 


Single 
Women. 


Total. 


Likiang 
Weihsi 


A.G. 
T.B.M. 


1 
1 


1 
1 


2 


4 
2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


6 



INDIAN-TIBETAN BORDER 







Missionaries. 


District. 


Mission. 




Men. 


Wives. 


Single 
Women. 


Total. 


Sikkim 


C. of S. \ 
F.C.F. ) 


4 


1 


6 


11 


Dharchula Pass 


M.E.F.B. 


1 


1 





2 


(Almora) 












Simla Hill States 


C.M.S. 


2 


1 


2 


5 




S.A. 












C.M.M.L. 










Lahoul 


Mor.M. 


1 


1 





2 


Ladakh 


Mor.M. 


2 


2 


1 


5 


Baltistan 


C.A.M. 


2 








2 


6 


8 


12 


6 


9 


27 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The bibliography of Central Asia is immense, and it exists in a 
variety of languages. The following brief list of books in English 
is merely suggestive. Several of these works contain detailed lists 
of books. Articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Journal of the 
Central Asian Society, and the Geographical Journal are a mine of 
general information.* 

Andrews, Roy Chapman. Across Mongolian Plains. 1921. (T.G.) 
Andrews, Roy Chapman. On the Trail of Ancient Man. 1926. (T.G.) 

Bartol'd, Vastly V. Turkestan down to the Mongol Invasion. 1928. 

(Second edition.) (H.) 

Bell, Sir Charles Alfred. Tibet, Past and Present. 1924. (G.) 
Bell, Sir Charles Alfred. The People of Tibet. 1928. (G.) 
Bitton, Nelson. Our Gilmour. 1925. (M.) 
Browne, E. G. A Literary History of Persia. (Volume III., Persian 

Literature under Tartar Dominion, 1265-1502.) 1920. (H.) 
Bryson, Mary Isabella. The Story of James Gilmour and the Mongol 

Mission. 1894. [Re-issued 1928.] (M.) 
Budge, Sir G. A. Wallis. The Monks of Kublai Khan. (M.H.) 

Cable, Mildred, and French, Francesca. Dispatches from North-West 
Kansu. 1925. (M.T.) 

Cable, Mildred, and French, Francesca. The Red Lama. 1927. (M.) 

Cable, Mildred, and French, Francesca. Through Jade Gate and Cen- 
tral Asia. 1927. [An account of journeys in Kansu, Turkestan 
and the Gobi Desert] (T.M.) 

Candler, E. The Unveiling of Lhasa. 1905. (T.) 

Christie, Ella R. Through Khiva to Golden Samarkand. 1925. (T.) 

Combe, George Alexander (Editor). A Tibetan on Tibet. (Paul 
Sherap.) 1926. (G.) 

Curtin, Jeremiah. The Mongols : A History. 1908. (H.) 

Easton, John. An Unfrequented Highway. 1928. [Through Sikkim 
and Tibet to Chumolaori.] (T.) 

Fox, Ralph. People of the Steppes. (T.G.) 

Francke, A. H. A History of Western Tibet. 1907. (H.) 

Gilmour, James. James Gilmour of Mongolia. His diaries, letters and 
reports. Edited by R. Lovett. 1892. (M.) 

*G= General Information. 
H= History. 
M= Missions. 
T=Travel. 



120 THE CHALLENGE OF CENTRAL ASIA 

Gilmour, James. More about the Mongols. 1893. [Selected by R. 

Lovett.] (M.) 
Gregory, J. W., and C. J. To the Alps of Chinese Tibet. 1923. (T.) 

Harrison, Marguerite E. Asia Reborn. 1928. (H.) 

Harris, Norman D wight. Europe and the East. (H.) 

Haydon, H., and Cosson, C. Sport and Travel in the Highlands of 

Tibet. (T.) 

Heber, A. R., and K. M. In Himalayan Tibet. 1926. (M.T.) 
Hedin, Sven Anders. Central Asia and Tibet. 1903. (T.) 
Hedin, Sven Anders. Adventures in Tibet. 1904. (T.) 
Hedin, Sven Anders. My Life as an Explorer. 1926. (T.) 
Hedley, John. On Tramp among the Mongols. 1906. (M.T.) 
Hedley, John. Tramps in Dark Mongolia. 1910. (M.T.) 
Howorth, Sir H. History of the Mongols. 1876-78. (H.) 
Hue, E. R., and Gabet. (Translated by W. Hazlitt. Edited by Paul 

Pelliot.) Travels in Tartary, Tibet and China. 1844-46. 1928. 

(T.M.) 
Hutton, J. E. History of the Moravian Missions. 1922. (M.H.) 

Kidd, B. J. The Churches of Eastern Christendom. 1927. (M.H.) 
Komroff, Manuel. Contemporaries of Marco Polo. 1928. [Travel 
Records of Rubruck, Carpini and Friar Odoric.] (T.M.) 

Lamb, Harold. Genghis Khan : The Emperor of all Men. 1928. (H.) 
Lamb, Harold. Tamerlane : The Earth-Shaker. 1928 ? (H.) 
Landon, Perceval. Lhasa. 1906. (T.) 
Lansdell, Henry. Russian Central Asia. 1887. (T.M.) 
Lansdell, Henry. Through Central Asia. 1887. (T.M.) 
Latourette, K. S. A History of Christian Missions in China. 1929. 

(M.) 

Lattimore, Owen. The Desert Road to Turkestan. 1928. (T.) 
Le Coq, Albert. Buried Treasures of Chinese Turkestan. 1928. (T.) 
Le Strange, Guy. Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. 1896. (G.) 
Le Strange, Guy (translated by). Clavijo's Embassy to Tamerlane, 

1403-1406. 1928. (H.) 

Macdonald, David. The Land of the Lama. 1929. (G.) 
Mingana, Alphonse. The Early Spread of Christianity in Central Asia 
and the Far East. 1925. [Reprint from the Bulletin of John 
Rylands Library, Manchester. Volume IX., No. 2, July, 1925.] 
(H.M.) 
Morden, W. J. Across Asia's Snows and Deserts. (T.) 

Nairne, W. P. Gilmour of the Mongols. 1924. (M.) 

Rickmers, W. R. The Duab of Turkestan. 1913. (G.T.) 
Rijnhart, Susie Carson. With the Tibetans in Tent and Temple. 1901. 

(M.T.) 
Rockhill, W. W. The Land of the Lamas. 1891. (G.) 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 121 

Robson, E. I. Alexander the Great. 1929. (H.) 

Ross, Sir E. Denison. Aldred Lectures. Journal of the Society of Arts, 

20th and 27th September, 4th and llth October, 1929. (H.) 
Ross, Sir E. D., and Skrine, F. The Heart of Asia. 1899. [A History 

of Russian Turkestan and Central Asian Khanates.] (H.) 

Shah, Sirdar Ikbal Ali. Westward to Mecca. 1928. (T.) 

Shelton, Dr. Albert. Pioneering in Tibet. 1926. (M.) 

Skrine, C. P. Chinese Central Asia. 1926. (G.) 

Stein, Sir Marc Aurel. Sand-buried Ruins ofKhotan. 1903. [Chinese 

Turkestan.] (T.) 
Stein, Sir Marc Aurel. The Thousand Buddhas. 1921. [Ancient 

Buddhist Paintings from the Cave-Temples of Tun-huang on the 

Western Frontier of China.] (T.) 
Stein, Sir Marc Aurel. Ruins of Desert Cathay. 1912. [Central Asia 

and West China.] (T.) 
Stein, Sir Marc Aurel. Serindia. 1921. (T.) 
Stein, Sir Marc Aurel. Innermost Asia. 1928. [A detailed report of 

explorations in Central Asia, Kansu and Eastern Iran.] 4 volumes. 

' (T.) 

Stewart, John. Nestorian Missionary Enterprise. 1928. (M.H.) 
Sykes, Ella C., and Sir Percy M. Through Deserts and Oases of Central 
Asia. 1920. (T.G.) 

Taylor, Mary Geraldine. The Call of China's Great North-West. 1923. 
[Kansu and Beyond.] (M.) 

Vambery, Arminius. The Story of my Struggles. 1904. (G.T.) 

Waddell, L. A. The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism. 1895. 
Wessels, C. Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia, 1603-1721. 
1924. (T.M.) 

Younghusband, Sir Francis. Peking to Lhasa. 1925. [A compila- 
tion.] (T.) 

Younghusband, Sir Francis. The Epic of Mount Everest. 1926. (T.) 
Yule, Sir Henry (Translator and Editor). The Book of Ser Marco 
Polo. 1903. (T.) 

Zwemer, S. M. Across the World of Islam. 1928. (M.) 



122 





tn 






a' 


0) ffl O 

S -1 1 






J3 


K*> V? ,9 "*j 






8 


4-1 JL *+H rt 
w O U o 








1 a o ^ 








0*0*3 " 








, .rl 

3 fj 73 








H "C 03 

6 PQ S Q 








en 






q 


^ TC 0) 

c4 S S 5' 

1-H 
^H 






rt 


1 3 






55 


g 5 






< 


04 o 






1 










*^ "In n) 








<s 


j ^ 1 s 8 I 






T3 


PM^<nI j^ 'gnJ 






rt 

a 
^ 


(g ^^ I s i "5 $ 

? "S? 1 ?! 1 : 1 ^y 






in 








<u 




S l.p.'g'S'S 2-c 








PQ OO PQQ <3 O^ 








^^ O5 IO ,rf 
O CM 00 O CM 






0-2 
rig 


*-* IO 00 N-^< IO *-">? 
f CO CO 1 CO ^ I 
en (O to ** TJ* t> ^* 
n co oq 3 CD 








10 10 10 - ^ rj 








MH 1 t-t 








o o ; S 








^ ^^ OH ^J 






rt 


S j a a = 






u 


C t <]_^ 

rt o *5 (*H c/i 

*O Q ^H Co ^ [^ 






Cfi 

t3 

d 


do > 'C g 
rt 'o ,i f 3 rt "-> t , 
H be . "2 * js b/> 






05 


J3 -rt jR c3 '35 <u .3 w 






Q} 


W Cw PH *?3 .O O ^N ^CJ ^T7 






.S 


'^SrtSrT-l tJ^ 








< Qn) (n n t Q^ d,S "ft 






<U 


i^ ^^ rt .^ y|*^ Cw ' 






13 


E^14H r-H d '-' ^ !-! 2 rl . 








s <s l- f S a ^ 2 








dEdrn f ~*+Ha3fe ^oi ^3N 








grtt--il34jN5 W 








SpL,OP3>-> W W 








^ o 








o t> 






C_} ^ 


t>itMCO^iOCO O CO 






Q 


J CM CM N 1 00 CM O 

or^cococMio 10 Tf 








O IO 








^ 




1 UH *H tJ 41 




tn 0} 

d O 

53 <u 

< & 


13 

<D 

S c!3 

jj o 


.3 o o o o 

^ o ^1 
s I "3 .2 S 




M-l MH 

o o 


*> <t-> 


-Q S <2 Q 
o ^ 


Greece. 


. S o . : c3 

1 "s "sj i 

o -43 43= 8,2 

C^j -4-j +_> O ^"j *t~ 

( ( Rj CtJ ^^ OJ *H 


Xenophon leads ] 
Ten Thousand. 
Death of Socrates. 
Aristotle. 
Death of Plato. 
Rise of Macedonia. 
Birth of Alexander 


*3 y to <n 

-^ < s t; 
3 K^l^ 

- SdSl-sa 

n ' *3 ^J M i-< * 

a rt o ^ v v rt 
'o d 'rt " 'o ^ M 

S.al8gS9| 

S<j ^g rt rt 4j K g 
,S3|S^^^(S 




00 * 


CM CO 


oq 


. 


CO O 


<N CO 


r< 


PQq 


^H o O CO -<t t> 
CM 0) 00 1 1 (N 

00 CO 


i* Cft CO IN CO CD 

o en i -* i 10 

^ CO "n* CO CJi CO 

oo 10 


1 co co co 
co co co co 






co eo 


CO 



123 



9 

3 

H 



s 

o 









lipp 








i|liii 




o 




si"!" -^ 3 








</) d _ o o 
2 *c3 M M* 1 bo >. 








&> g n .a .a | 








S*d C ^ <U *H OK 
<D M a P QO^^ 








^36 3 " *" 








o 




O -2 




CM CO CO 




Q 




. J * 
O) CN CN 




.2 




j i <u 








cd QJ 




< 




W "* 




"3 * 




a 1 1 g 




"d 

6 




OH frt rt H 03 M 

S fl ift^S 




*o 




rt 2 S d ^ 
cj w s QJ M rr 




% 




w * jo ffl 
ui -) <u 53 " 

.. < f^3 _! cs *W 




d 




S t3 p O 




w 




"i v n i *s 

" ^ W * "* 

g a pj M^ j 2 

S S s C -s o CL 








i-R ^ ^5 +j O tn tn 

<1 Q co <! 








CN <N Ig 




o| 




? 3 7 

I-H eo co - 




p^H ^J 




eo CM o 








co eo "" 




rt 

U 

CO 

u 

f_l 


o 

+> 

en 

1 . 

^s 

IS 


^ s's'^gdS "s a S 

s 8 Jl 1 a ^l & 11 

" _rt Jd i j g r^ g >5 a g p{ 


i CHRIST. 


rt 


<D 


oj S vo cj'do5 cdiri HO rt 


H-C 


V 


S3 


"S S'-^^ 13 ^ "ffi'O -2 .3 -Saj JJ 


CO 


B 


d fe 


s ^^ sf ^,5,8 S 4 - . .^5 


w 


$ 


.2-5 


as J5(j.2a> > S a) *-! d >2 "9 du^-fl 




? 

PH 


Submiss 
Alexan 


|l 




.9 
M 






CSI Ui 

<* eo t>. 




2 


i 


o cooo i>i/5o<-ii-'CNm * 
co i-^f-c i ii-Hi (oeN)" i of* 

f t TM 


CD 




61 

H| 


i i^ I 5 

S rt ^H^> .S 
PH .^' 




o5 


R . 

2U 


t I g > 

J if! || g ^| 




o 

S 

o 


Alexander des; 
occupies Eg5 
Alexandria. 


!'V 9 ?i"iaJ l a | 
S'slsSS^lsS s-S 8 

llillitjli HI 
a3 8 !** 8r sl ii a 




oj 


CM 


^^ CO CO ^* CO CO 




^* "rt 


co 


CO 1 1 CSI CM ^^ 




03 /? 




'CO C3> 00 CO CO v* 




w 




CO W 








CO CO 





124 



9 



< 
H 

J 

i 

o 

H? 

O 

% 

o 

K 

n 

o 





^^ 




a 








Q 




j2 








O 












O 













O 




P 






OS 


o 




8 






^ 


f 




1 








Q 




J.d 








3 

hH 




|i 






31 


s 


rt 

1 

u <; 
y 

en 


Pilate Procurator of Judaea. 
Preaching of John the Bap- 
tist. 


Baptism of JESUS CHRIST. 
The CRUCIFIXION OF 
JESUS. 
Conversion of Paul. 


oj a -S i4 ,,; 

1 SI 1 1 

rj CO P +J LL| c/> 

i S *I * 1 

i i -- H n-i HH 

>> S 8 1 s 

1 HI 1 1 

2 a a j> 

% fl PH ^ 

'I * , "o "S 
.< f> %?> Qa ^ 

1 lll^l 1 

PL, dnP^fL, Q (^ 


Birth of Polycarp. 
Fall of Jerusalem (Judaea 
made a separate province). 


Martyrdom of Ignatius. 


. 







CD 00 T~< 






"* 


CD 


S5S E 


3 up GO CD Tt* CD 
CD O) 


O) ^^ 
CD 1> 


U5 

ii 









<* 10 ic 








<0 


' 


.a g "s 






Europe (Continent). 


Tiberius, Emperor of Rom 


i 

3 

i 
t 

N 

of 
U. 


1 I 1 1 

* 3 1 S 
"S I 1 -3 

g i -dgfi 

1 1 - i Sfo 

ft Ml I 

1 6 |Ill| / 

1 1 1 1*1*3* 1 


Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian. 

Accession of Titus. 
Destruction of Pompeii. 
Accession of Domitian. 


Nerva. 
Trajan. 

Hadrian. 


4| 


s 





* i 

,_ ^i ^ Q3 ^< ^ oO 

rf Tt- us i CD CD CD 


O) O) 1-1 
CD C^ 00 


CD 00 tx 

O5 Oi *- i 









>c 












3 












c/> . 














J3 S 

^3 P rt 


m 


'a 


-35 
i i 






P O (D 


.3 


3 


1 






<n 'J I ' 
"O 'C H rt 


1 


* 


'& 






f| ? '? 


.a 


1 








'O in " "o 


8 


IS 








rt ^rt Q ^> 


u 


0) 








Q P4 


<J 


ffl 








CD 






, 






CD 






D -g 






CO O ,. 

^ us 5 


00 


2 


<ip 






^ 




*"* 








CD 







125 



m 

j 

s 

H 

J 

< 

2 
o 



o 
SB 

o 

K 

H 
o 



ri 





SI 




Western and Central Asia 
and N. Africa. 


S W 
{/I 

1 'o M p, 
11 * 

5 1 t 

ri? & * 

t> "8 

1 2 i 
g s ~-s 

30*. ,d 1? H 
1*58 IbB" 
R d P p b 

PS* <3~l 


Pantaenus visits India. 

Death of Irenaeus. 
Clement of Alexandria. 
Tertuuian. 
Origen. 
Cyprian. 


Mani teaches in Persia. (Put 
to death 277.) 

Fierce but intermittent per- 
secutions of Christians. 


Diocletian Persecution. 
Gregory, the Illuminator in 
Armenia. 






s 


oSSSSS 


n 






3| 


eo "7 m m 


S 83232 

o m m oo o 


CO CN 
CO 1 
CN 

m 


CO CM 

CO CO 






1-1 


*-< * rH CM 


CN 






Europe (Continent). 


"8 

3 S 
S> -5 

8 2 " 
o 'a p 

y u 

rn M 0) & 1 

|1 nsl 

il HI 

!i HI 

d <2 S J 5 
<S OH O 


Septimus Severus, Emperor. 


Decius, Emperor. 
Outbreak of Decian Persecu- 
tion. 
Fierce but intermittent perse- 
cution of Christians. 
Diocletian, Emperor of Rome. 


Diocletian Persecution. 

Edict of Milan (Toleration 
of Christianity throughout 
Empire.) 


j 

g 

I 
B 




i ( r-4 
CO CO 




us in 






X 


r^ r^ t^ ^^ 


CO 


CN O CN * 


CO CN 


eo 


H 'a 


il t> oo 






O 1-1 


C<l 






T I 


ob CN ^^ CM 


CO CO 


eo 


^^ 1 1 


CO 'rh 




Tt< m 








I-H i-< 




CN CN 








a 42 


.a fl 










o 2 


pH 










* a 


"> S ai 










^ ^ 


=1 * 

-3 o<8 




s 

5 




J 


J^ TO 


tn n3 




3 




M 


oO 


P _j 




* * 




i < 


* rt 
tf> <D 







CO 




M 


r o cl j 


> S t/i 








$ 


P fH 1 -^ 


d} 1* -4^ 

W3 **g .S 




"8 




a 


^a *| ^ OT 






a 




m 


' t5 


M <-> 











^3 a " 


O oo 

III 





s 






w" 3 ^ 


M 




s 




o| 


1-1 O 
CN CN 


i t 

1 4 




CO 

o 




p 


-< 1-1 


CN 




CO 





126 



9 



^ 

u 



O 

g 

tt 

a 

o 























tQ rrt ' * ^ 


3 bo 












f\ 








2 rC 


^ Q^ {3 W j 














O 
























rt 
































o-g 


5 (^ W 


3H 


3 










1 

ft 

+ 









.a 

o e 

8? 


&|!i 


fli 

3 M 3 


a 










a 






^ 


i2 


o 5 .sf ^ 


3 ^- S 













=3 








a 


,j . S . 


j 53 y 












o 






rt 

2 


LJ b/ 


L> CM *2 Jj^ fj 


i 'H ^^ 












Q 









a 


w 'i O 


'z "^ 












3 . 
"C 2 






P 


I f^ 


^ d S -- 


f 3 












o a 






bo 


+J *^ 


rt O ^ ^ 


> rt bo 












a a 

o 






9 


,t/j 

J3 - 


ci6 |-g"p 


i^'J 



















H 


OH 






















!>. 


10 <35 






B . 










IO 






O 


^ -^ 






Q +f 










o 








vOO CO 






rt 










. 






00 "~" 


"* CO C^ 
















o 






CD 


ss 






.2 

a 
l-s 

g n 

I 


First General Council at Nicaea 
Abyssinian Church founded 
(by missionaries from Alex- 
andria). 


Severe Persecutions of 
Christians in Persia. 
Augustine (of Hippo). 
Chrysostom. 


Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria. 
Council of Ephesus. 


Council of Chalcedon. 
Death of Nestorius. 


Nestorian Patriarchate set up 
at Babylon. 
Nubian Church founded. 


Nestorian monks from China 
brought eggs of mulberry 
silkworms to Constantinople. 


a 

ft 

^ 

^ < 


*j 

i 

l! 

dH 
9 g 

%3 
<> 


Bkth of Muhammad at 
Mekka. 


Muhammad's Flight from 


|| 
w| 

o *S 

ca rt o ft 


Eastern Turks conquer Wes- 
tern part of Central Asia. 






00 O l> 

^ CO O 


5 


u 




3- 


1 






<*< 




^"S 


>o o 

CM CO 

CO CO 




753 

cs * 


l-H T < 

IO IO 


00 00 

0) Tf 


5 10 




1 


CM 
CM 

CD 


1 


i> 


^^ PJ 




CO O Tf 


1-H 






^2- 


CD 






CO 








CO CO CO 


* 




, 




10 






CD 




I 


1 


^ ! 












a 

2 




fi 




1 


& 


..^ TO 

^ ^p 




.a 








o 










IO 


ft 5 




1 








0) 








Q 


H 


o W 




o 








*j% 








H. 


O 


.- .a 




MH 

o 








>> 




CD 
O 




ft 




M -0 
* (a 




g 








I 




.a 




I 


8 
l| 


*> S 

2 1 

J3 ,5 




.2 
cj 










u 




1 
' 






S* 


1 




5 








(2 




o 

- . M 






^ 


^ 












Tj< 




to 




, 


Oi 


a> 












O 









^ rt 




1 z 

CO 




CD 

Tf 








3 




2 




^^1 ^^ 


"^ 














O5 




00 






CO 


CO 












10 




CO 








.a 












8 












rt 












V 












a 


"6 










M 












ffl 


S 










.a 




. 









B 


^j3 










<p 




^ 




1 




1 


.8 

13 V) 










a 

EA 




en d 




i i 

1 




Rome withdraws 


Patrick hi Irelan 
Ninian in South 






Columba at lona 




Landing of Augu: 
David in Wales. 


Kentigern. 


Conversion of W^ 
Aidan at Lindisf; 
Synod of Whitbj 


/ 






o 
















T _ l 





















o-. 


3* 


IO 




3^ 




7 


CO CO 






CD 






co 


Tf CD >* 

co T co 

CD lO CD 




"^ Q 




o 












S 


rft 


eo 
























CD 





1Z7 



w 



O 

s 

o 
% 
o 

PC 

a 







g 


>. 




d 




T3 




bo 


rt rt 








rH i 


* 




rt 








a 





















TJ 




5 


H 2P 


# . 







rian Monument 
a. 


to suppress Christial 
lina. 




phemeral dynasties 
wars. 


>, 

-K> 

in 

rt 

& 
P 


|l! 

a> 3 


1 




gols. 

5 made Capital of Ch 
i Khan makes Moi 


;r supreme in China 






-1 

I s 


t3 

' 3 




85 .-a 

II 

PH 


(ID 

1 


_Q ^j 

1 j r K 


1 


O 


S ll 


! 
^ 














m 












l 




00 


i 




1 


CM 

11 

<4 


1 




i 


O5 O 
l> 00 




Q 










i 


0^ 


rt 




^ 


rH r-t 




rt 

pH 


.3 


M 

rt .; 










' Q\ ^J f"^ 


5S| 


p 


1 




3 


S 


-a 






rt 


a" 


t^l *"'? 


2 >, 


"^ s 


O 




8 

d ? 

53 

*o >_ * 


.1" 

"SS 

u*. 

11 


;ablished at 
aschid, Cali 






; Transoxan 


rt 



<u 

s 


^ yj p o ^-^. 

r3 0} *^ 4^ ^ 
& 'ft Q P< ui 

o a -^a g 


Eastern TV 
msoxania b 


13 ^H 

H^^ *Tj 

2 


^o"o 




Western ax 
and 1 


Samarkand c 
Building of 
Bukhara. 


Caliphate est 
dad. 
Haroun-al-R 






1 
1 

C/l 

1 


Keraits beco 


* a "s -g 1 1 

3 ,2 _, 'j w) <u 

trt M W O 


8 S 
P 

?a 

8 rt 


t -5 

1 p 


al-a 

ll 
a "fi 



















CM 
CM 


O 
CM 




in 

O) 




9 3 

<P 


CM CO 


J> CD 

oo 






O 


o 

o 

14 


D t> i- 

r in 1 

rt CM 

rt TX CD 

i i 


i 

CM 

1-H 


c^ 


oo 1 
m o 

CM CD 
rt CM 

rt 








*H 
O 


"2 i 
3 w> 








1 


1 

rt 


1 










c? 


2 9 

9 rt 








3 


O 


'en 






^ 




'1 


Cj F " 1 ^ ^ 








MH 


s 


jf a 






<D 




-S 


rrj rt in 








*s 




O rt 






s 

s 




0) 

PQ 


^^ CJ 3 
rt Q 








ll 


1 




<U 




a 

| 




! 


SO ffl 

d IS 
S a 1 * 

o d 
EH H T3 w 

.* 8 is 

aalfe 


O3 

1 






si | 5 
c s ^ i i 

^ g 'S^ 1 
.S 3 *; fi 




1 

1 

1 


3 
lw 

8-3 

^^ rt 
8 ^l 


1 

4>J 

rt 
o> 

i 








5 


< u 








fe C/3 H 55 


W 


S 


P 










m 








O> O5 CM 






i-H 

CM 




g'J 




1 


1 i 


I 






in t>, o> -< 

O> -f 00 CM 

O rt rt rt 


S 

CM 


1 


i i 
S 










00 








rt *- rt 






N 

1-^ 










d 
























0) 
























| 








sS 










s? 






g 








l& 








a* 


^^ 






hy 






.u 


8- 








*73 


j 


4i 

<o 

PQ 




1 


3 

<D 




1 


S-S 

|9 rt 

PQ cj ^S 








g 
i 


pp 






g 






^ 


H* !* rt 

TO TO f"A 








^ 




*o 




rt 


4-* 




a 










HH 




"rt 




in 

rt 


s 






II i 








1 




Q 





i i 


1 




o 


p| 1 








m 


Q 'l 


w 

CO 




CD 


s 




CD 
CO 


CD co n 

00 Ol 1-1 








Tf 




c** 




CO 


rt 




O 


O O CM 








CO 














T * 










r< 










CO 

















128 



s 
3 



ij 

< 

s 

C9 

O 

hJ 

i 

o 

K 
.H 
o 





1 








& cd 


^i 






% j |- 


'- 


t) 




^> .2 u 




tQ 




.2 * .a 


1 


1 




^ ^H fj ^ 


c3 


O 


rt 

1 


5 | l| 

HH "I > 


I 


I 


O 


T3 S -s 


H 


pj 




H! 5 8 

W) Q d -g 


. 


Q 




'1 . "o Q .2 


.2 03 







d pj ^j hn "w 


o 9 


*o 




*Sb ^ Jfl rt *C 

^'^a la 


3? O 
1 


1 


O ** 


CM 00 00 7} 

0} CN CO CO 


S 


g 


<Q 


CN CC CO CO 


1 


CD 


a) 


i 

O cd 


ci .2 +' * 


.a 




^j </) 


'O " CQ Q Q 




Western and Central As 
and N. Africa. 


Beginnhlg of Empire of O 
man Turks. 
Friar Odoric in Central A 

Conquests of Tamerlane. 


d .2 <! r^ rtn 

hH JS ^^ ^ IrH 

s ^ 3. a .a 
^ a rt a 

'rt 'M <-> Is .2 

S -e -9 -g 

1 a 1^3 

o rj o j -^ 

TO 0)^ % 

-o ,_, -o P 

o s o a *"" 
- | 11 
> 5 (S^S 


1 

|| 




1C 


t^ t^ 


Tf 


3l 


CO *SC 

CO i ' Q) 

1-1 co CD 


Ol * CM CM A 

* , O CO CM 
i-i I-H CO 1-1 (D 


cp 

1-H 




r-l CO 


i^ i* 


^ 


f 
1 

o 
u. 

o> 


The Black Death. 
Turks capture Gallipoli Pen- 
insular ; under Sultans 
Muradi (1359-89) and 
Bajazet (1389-1402), they 
overran South-Eastern 
Europe. 
Birth of John Huss. 

Council of Constance. 
Martvrdom of Hns<5 


Q 0) nj 2 |j 

S' "2 O W 
-*j ^ . 2 fe Q 

' <n /> a 3 * fe P! J2O>'SoJoj ^g^" 
ggW-S-S-aog cflo)g^'> S,'? " -2 

PQH PQMSuQ mMHcSoQ QQ^pq 


Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes. 






CO 







O) 






3 ^ 

^ O 


1 00 Oi * rf 

00 1/5 CD rl l-l 


^? CO CO **"^ ^? C^ GO ^O O5 O5 I CO ^^ CO ^* C^ 00 
^O 'O CO CJl O^ CJJ O^ ^5 *? C^ IO *^J* ^O ^O CO C^ O5 


00 
CD 




i i 


r 


i t 






S3 | 








1 






. 







tA 


Jti 


J r,-! d 




^ 


. l " 1 


M 'o X y 

" i ,3 -i 












a 

43 

d 


a 

3 


! 5 M - i . 1 ^-i 

fC| (2,*" 1 (1$ T3 1 1 T3 S 




CQ 


O ^M 








rt O 


"o "^jiv o3^ < " > 'n<u 






8 $ 

& $ 
P Q 


I 11 3 1 I l 








U3 CD 




Q' o5 
ta 


oo oo 


op in 
T m cr> I CM I-H 
in o o m rs 1-1 






Tf CO 


m m m m in co 




Q 


eo i-< 


Tt* i"H i ' *n r-< -* 

1 1 rH 





INDEX 



A. 

Afghanistan, 9, 27, 34, 35, 36, 77, 

102. 

Aga Khan, 102. 
Akhal Tekke, 35. 
Aksu, 11,27,47. 
Aksu Circuit, 52. 
Alai Mountains, 32. 
Alashan Mountains, 60. 
Alexander the Great, 9, 13, 15, 32, 

102, 106. 
Alexandria EschatS, v. Farthest 

Alexandria. 
Almalig, v. Kulja. 
Altai Kirghiz, v. Kazak Kirghiz. 
Altai Mountains, 11, 41, 47, 60, 72, 
American Methodist Episcopal Mis- 
sion, 98. 

American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, 59. 
Amur River, 72. 
Anderson, Dr., 10. 
Andrade, Antonio de, 86. 
Anhsi, 55. 

Protectorate of , 1 1 . 
Anglo-Russian Convention, 35. 
Aral, Sea of, 34. 
Armenia, 14. 
Aryans, 38, 46. 
Assam, 88, 96. 
Assassins, The sect of, 24. 
Assemblies of God Mission, 71, 91, 

95, 96. 

Atuntze, 94, 96. 
Avetaranian, Johannes, 52. 



B. 

Babylon, Death of Alexander the 

Great at, 9. 
Babylonia, Source of Manichean 

religion, 11. 

Babylonian Influence, Traces of, 10. 
Badakshan, Border-tribes of Sin- 

kiang, 47. 

Baikal, Lake, 12, 20, 72. 
Balkhash, Lake, 34. 
Baltistan, 101. 



Baluchistan, 9. 

Barkul, 44. 

Barkul, Lake, 10, 44. 

Mountains, 43. 
Bashahr, 99. 
" Basmaji " Revolt, 35. 
Batang, 95. 
Bhotiyas, 98. 
Bhutan, 88, 96, 97. 
Bible Circulation : 

In North- West Kansu, 57. 

In Mongolia, 72. 

In Russian Central Asia, 40. 

In Sinkiang, 51, 72. 

In Tibet, 88, 93, 94, 102. 

Increase in Central Asia of, 73. 

Importance in Central Asia of, 

111. 
Bible Society, 

British and Foreign, 39, 40, 51, 

72, 73, 103, 111. 
National, of Scotland, 52, 100, 103, 

111. 

Bogdo Khan, v. Bogdo Lama. 
Bogdo Lama, 63, 64. 
Bon Religion, 83, 106. 
Brethren Mission : 

In Mongolia, 70, 71, 99. 
On the Borderlands of Tibet, 99. 
British and Foreign Bible Society, 

v. Bible Society. 

Buddhism, 15, 22, 23, 47, 64, 68, 96, 
97, 100, 102, 112. 
v also Lamaism. 
Bukhara, 9, 17, 32, 35, 36, 38, 39, 

40, 77. 

Burma, 88, 95, 96. 
Buryat Mongols, 69, 72. 



C. 

Cacella, Stephen, 86. 
Calcutta, 86. 
Cambaluc, 15, 25, 27. 

v. also Peking. 
Capuchin Mission in Tibet, Collapse 

of, 86, 87. 
Carpini, Friar Johnnie Piano, 24. 

I 



130 



Case, Dr., 70. 

Caspian Sea, 34. 

Cathay (China), 25, 27, 28, 59. 

Central Asian Mission, 101. 

Central Asian Turkish, v. Uzbek. 

Chahar, 62, 71. 

Chamba State, 100. 

Chambiali, 103. 

Chamdo, 83. 

Chan-tou, v. Turkis. 

Chao Yang, 69, 70. 

Chien Lung, 47, 106. 

Chi-Fah-Chia, 90. 

Chihli Province, 54, 72. 

China, Great Wall of, 10, 27, 54, 55, 

57,59,72,74. 
China Inland Mission, 48, 51, 52, 57, 

71, 89, 92. 
Chinese : 

In Sinkiang, 43, 47, 49. 

In Mongolia, 62, 64, 66, 69-73, 74- 
Chinese Church, 52, 57, 74, 91, 112. 
Chinese Turkistan, v. Sinkiang. 
Ching Shu-jen, 45. 
Chini, 99. 
Chininghsien, 71. 
Chita, 65. 
Chitral Area, 102. 
Chomolhari, 78. 
Choni, 91. 

Tibetan monastery burned by 

rebels at, 92. 
Chotzeshan, 71. 

Christian and Missionary Alliance, 
91. 

Christian Missions in Many Lands, 
v. Brethren Mission. 

Chuguchak 47. 

" Church of the East," 18, 21. 

Church Missionary Society, 99, 101. 

Church of Scotland Mission, 97, 101. 

Chwanpien : 
District of, 92. 
Tibetans in, 93. 

Clytus, 32. 

Cochrane, Dr. Thomas, 70. 

Columbus, 15, 16. 

Constantinople, 14. 

Corvino, John de Monte, 25. 

Cossack Autonomous Socialist So- 
viet Republic, v. Kazakstan. 

Cunningham, Mr. and Mrs., 94. 



D. 

Dagshai, 99. 

Dalai Lama, 81, 84, 85. 

Damani Koh, 40. 

Danish Mission, 7.1. 

Darjeeling, 85, 97. 

Decian Persecution, 18. 

Desideri, Hippolyte, 86. 

Dharchula, 98. 

Dharma Bhot, Dr. Sheldon's work 

at, 98. 

Diaz, Father, 86. 
Diocletian Persecution, 18. 
Disciples of Christ Mission, 

v. United Christian Missionary- 
Society. 
Djerim League, 67. 

Chinese Settlements in, 74. 
Djosotu League, 67. 

Brethren Mission in, 71. 
Djouda League, 67. 

Brethren Mission Work hi, 71. 

Chinese Settlements in, 74. 
Dnieper, 13, 61. 
D'Orville, Albert, 86. 
Doyen, 70. 
Drepung, 81. 

Dukpa, Buddhist sect of, 97. 
Dyushambe, 37. 
Dzungaria, 46, 61. 
Dzungaris, 38. 



E. 

Eastern Turki, 50. 

v. also Jagatai. 
Edessa, 18. 

Edgar, Mr. J. Huston, 93, 94. 
Enver Pasha, 35, 36. 
Esztergom, 14. 

Eurasian Theory in Central Asia, 16. 
Evangelical Movement in Russian 

Central Asia, 41. 



F. 

Farthest Alexandria, 10. 

Feng, Marshal, 74. 

Feng, Mr., 89. 

Fengchen, 71. 

Finland, Free Church of , 97. 

Franciscan Missionaries, 23, 24, 27. 



131 



G. 

Garhwali, 103. 

Genghiz Khan, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15-17, 

24, 32, 34, 61, 65, 66, 77, 106. 
Georgia, 14. 

German Mennonites, 39. 
Gilgit, 101, 102. 
Gilmour, James, 69, 70, 74, 75. 
Gobi Desert, 11, 54, 55, 59, 60, 62, 

72, 111. 

Goes, Bento de, 27, 86. 
Gok-kand, v. Samarkand. 
Golden Horde, Defeat of, 16. 
Gow, Miss, 98. 
Graham, Dr., 97. 
Great Wall of China, 10, 27, 54, 55, 

57, 59, 72, 74. 

Greek Influence in Sinkiang, 10. 
Grueber, Johann, 86. 
Gulchagan, 70. 
Gulistan Mountains, 40. 
Gushi Khan, 83, 84. 
Gyantse, 82. 



H. 

Halong-Osso, 70. 

Kami, 12, 43. 

Hancheng, 49, 50. 

Hattin-Sum, 70. 

Hedin, Sven, 86, 99. 

Heh-tsao, 91. 

Hephzibah Faith Mission, 71. 

Himalayas, 77, 79, 86, 99, 104. 

Hindu Kush Mountains, 9, 35, 102. 

Hindustan-Tibet Road, 99. 

Hochow, 91. 

Honan, 11, 55. 

Hoshut Branch, v. Mongols. 

Hsiung Nu, 10, 11. 

Huktuktu, v. Bogdo Lama. 

Hulagu Khan, 22. 

Hungary, Mongols in, 14. 

Hunter, Mr. George, 48, 51. 

Hunza, 102. 

Hunza-Nagar, 102. 



I. 

lehedzu League, 67. 

Hi, 46, 47. 

Hi Tartars, v. Taranchis. 



India, 9, 25, 67, 84, 88. 

Trade Route to Central Asia 

from, 44, 48, 78. 
Indian Church, Responsibility of, 

112. 

Iran, v. Persia. 

Irish Presbyterian Mission, 70, 71. 
Islam, 14, 23, 26, 39, 91, 92, 106. 



J- 

Jagatai, 40. 

Jalep La Pass, 97. 

Jehol, 62, 71. 

Jerome, St., 19. 

Jesuit Missionaries, 21, 86. 

Jokang, Temple of, 80. 

Jummu, 101. 



K. 

Kalatse, 101. 

Kalgan, 51, 65, 70, 72. 

Kali Ganga Valley, 98. 

Kalimpong, 97. 

Kalmuk, 51. 

Kalmuk Steppes, 72. 

Kalmuk Tartars, 16. 

Kalmuks, 38, 47. 

Kanauri, 103. 

Kanchow, 12, 55-58. 

Kansu, 10, 12, 27, 44, 48, 52, 53, 55, 

56-58, 77, 88, 91, 92, 112. 
Kansu-Tibetan Border, 89-92. 
Kao, Dr., 52, 56. 
Kara Kirghiz, v. Kirghiz. 
Karakoram Mountains, 77, 102. 
Karakorum, 12. 
Karashar, 11, 47. 
Kashgar, 10, 11, 33, 43-45, 48-52, 

102, 105, 111. 
Kashgar Circuit, 52. 
Kashgar Oasis, 43, 49. 
Kashgar Turkish, 5 1 . 
Kashgaria, 11, 43. 
Kashgaris, 43, 49, 
Kashmir, 88, 99, 101, 102. 
Kashmiri, 103. 
Kazak Kirghiz, v. Kirghiz. 
Kazak Kirghiz, 51 (Language). 
Kazaks, 46. 
Kazakstan, 36. 
Keraits, Conversion of King of, 20. 

I* 



132 



Kesh, 15. 

Khanbalag, v. Cambaluc. 

Khingan Mountains, 60, 73, 74. 

Khiva, 17, 35, 37, 38, 40. 

Khojend, 10. 

Khotan, 10, 11, 27, 44, 105. 

Khotan Circuit, 52. 

Kia-Yu-Kwan, 54. 

Kiev, destroyed by Mongols, 14. 

Kirghiz, 12, 34, 38, 39, 47, 111. 

Kirghiz Steppe, 33, 35, 36. 

Kirghiz Tartars, 16. 

Kohistan, 102. 

Kokand, 39, 40. 

Kokonor, 87, 92. 

Kokonor, Lake, 90. 

Kossogol, Lake, 60. 

Kotgarh, 99. 

Kou Wai, 54, 55. 

Kremmer Mennonite Brethren 

Church, 71. 

Kublai Khan, 15, 33, 61, 67, 83, 84. 
Kuche, 11. 
Kucheng, 43, 105. 
Kuen Lun Range, 77. 
Kulja, 25, 46, 47. 
Kulu, 100. 
Kumaon, 98. 
Kumaoni, 103. 
Kumbum, 89, 90. 
Kumul, v. Hami. 
Kunawar, 99. 
Kushans, v. Yueh Chi. 
Kuyuk Khan, 24. 
Kyelang, 100. 



L. 



Labrang, 91. 

Tibetan Monastery looted by 

rebels at, 92. 
Ladakh, 100, 101, 103. 
Ladakhi, 103. 
Lahoul, 100, 103. 
Lahuli, 103. 
Lamaism, v.. also Buddhism, 63, 

67-69, 80, 106. 
Lanchow, 53, 56. 

Languages of Central Asia v. also 
separate entries. 

Altai Kirghiz. 

Central Asian Turkish. 

Chambiali. 



Eastern Turki. 

Garhwali. 

Jagatai. 

Kalmuk. 

Kanauri. 

Kashgar Turkish. 

Kashmiri. 

Kazak Kirghiz. 

Kumaoni. 

Ladakhi. 

Lahuli. 

Manchu. 

Mongolian. 

Nepali. 

Nogai Turkish. 

Pashtu. 

Persian. 

Russian. 

Sart. 

Tartar Turkish. 

Tekke Turkoman. 

Tibetan. 

Trans-Caspian Turkish. 

Turkestani. 

Turki. 

Turkish. 

Uzbek. 

Latourette, Dr., 20. 
Le Coq, Dr. Albert von, 10. 
Leh, 88, 101. 
Lenin, 16, 17. 
Lepchas, 97. 

Lhasa, 77, 79-81, 84-88, 90, 97. 
Liangchow, 53. 
Likiang, 96. 
Lingti Pass, 100. 
Litang, 94. 

Little Peking, v. Tunghwang. 
Liu Yi, 75. 
London Missionary Society, 69, 70, 

72. 
Lupasi, 91. 



M. 

Ma, General, 44. 
MacDonald, David, 82. 
Manas, 43. 
Manas, River, 43. 
Manasorawar Lake, 98. 
Manchu, 51, 73. 
Manchu Dynasty, 44. 
Manchuria, 45, 62, 72-74. 



133 



Manchus, 44, 47, 62, 63, 67. 
Mani, 11. 

Manichean Religion, 11. 
Manichean Influence in Central Asia, 

22. 

Mather, Mr. Percy, 48. 
Mekong, River, 87, 96. 
Merv, 20, 35, 37. 

Methodist Episcopal Mission (Amer- 
ican), 98. 
Milam Pass, 98. 
Minchow, 91. 
Ming Dynasty, 61, 62. 
Mongolia, 13, 14, 20, 22, 45, 53, 61, 

62, 63, 65, 67, 69, 72, 74, 75, 112. 
Mongolian, 47, 51, 69, 72, 111. 
Mongolian Missions, 70, 75. 
Mongol Invasions, 12, 14, 22, 23. 
Mongol Parliament, 64. 
Mongols, 12, 14, 16, 20, 26, 33, 38, 

46, 47, 60-63, 65-69, 71, 73-75. 
Moravian Mission, 99-101. 
Moscow, 36, 37, 64. 

Mongolia represented at Confer- 
ence of Toilers of the Far East 
at, 63. 

Taken by Mongols, 14. 
Muhammadan Rebellion, v. Islam. 
Muhammadans v. Muslims. 
Muslims, 27, 35, 39, 46, 47, 51, 57, 

89, 91, 92, 101, 112. 

Sufis, 38. 

Sunnites, 38, v. also Islam. 
Muztagh Ata, 49. 



N. 



Nagars, 102. 

National Bible Society of Scotland, 

v. Bible Society. 
Nepal, 86, 88, 97, 98, 103. 
Nepalese, 97. 
Nepali, 103. 
Nestorian Church in Central Asia, 

20, 102. 
Nestorian Missionaries and the 

Bible, 19. 
Nestorian Missionaries, 18, 19, 21, 

22. 

Nicholas, Brother, 25. 
Nogai Turkish, 51. 
Nogais, 47. 
North- West Province of India, 102. 



O. 

Odoric, Friar, 24, 85. 
Ogdai, 14. 
Omsk, 45. 
Ordos Desert, 70. 
Orkhon River, 65. 
Osh, 33, 45. 
Ottoman Turks, 14. 
Oxus, 32, 35, 40. 



P. 

Pa Kow, 70. 

Pamirs, The, 10, 27, 35. 

Pan-Turanian Movement, 36. 

Paoan, 91. 

Parker, John, 70. 

Pashtu, 103. 

Patsebolong, 70. 

Peking, 15, 25, 27, 28, 63, 105. 

Pentecostal Missionary Union, v. 

Assemblies of God Mission. 
Peoples : v. also separate entries. 

Aryans. 
. Badakshan border-tribes. 

Bhotiyas. 

Buryat Mongols. 

Chan-tou. 

Chinese. 

Dzungaris. 

Hoshut Branch of Mongols. 

Hunza. 

Ili Tartars. 

Kalmuks. 

Kalmuk Tartars. 

Kara Kirghiz. 

Kashgaris. 

Kazak Kirghiz. 

Kazaks. 

Kirghiz. 

Kirghiz Tartars. 

Kushans. 

Lepchas. 

Manchus. 

Mongols. 

Nagars. 

Nepalese. 

Nogais. 

Ottoman Turks. 

Persians. 

Russians. 

Sarts. 

Szechuanese. 



134 



Tadzhiks. 

Taranchis. 

Tartars. 

Tibetans. 

Torgut Branch of Mongols. 

Torgutes. 

Tungans. 

Turanian Turks. 

Turkis. 

Turkomans. 

Turks. 

Uigurs. 

Uzbeks. 

Yarkandis. 

Yueh Chi. 
Persia, 9, 11, 17, 18, 24, 25, 35, 39, 

102. 

Persian, 103. 
Persians, 38. 

Peshitto Version of Scriptures, 19. 
Pharijong, 78, 80, 83. 
Polhill, Mr. Cecil, 89. 
Polo, Marco, 59, 61, 105. 
Polo, Maffeo, 15. 
Polo, Nicolo, 15. 
Poo, 99. 

Pordenone, Friar .Odoric of, 24, 85. 
Potala, The, 79. 
Prester John, Legend of, 20. 



R. 



Raquette, Rev. G., 52. 

Red-hat Sect of Buddhism, v. 

Dukpa. 

Ricci, Matthew, 27, 28. 
Richthofen Range, 53. 
Ridley, Mr. H. F., 48. 
Rijnhart, Mr. and Mrs., 87. 
Roman Missions, 25, 95. 
Rondu, 101. 

Ross, Sir Denison, 13, 36. 
Rubruck, Friar William of, 24. 
Rumi, Jalal al-Din, 38. 
Rungwa, 91. 
Russia, 16, 17, 34, 35, 45, 48, 59, 62, 

63, 65, 72, 88. 
Russia, Soviet, 16, 35-37, 39, 40, 

45, 63-65. 

Russian, 40, 51, 111. 
Russian Altai Region, 41. 
Russian Central Asia, 36, 37, 46. 



Russian Evangelical Movement, 40, 
41. 

Russian Revolution, 17, 35, 36, 106. 

Russian Turkistan, v. Russian Cen- 
tral Asia. 

Russians, 37. 



S. 



Sabathu, 100. 
Salvation Army, 71, 99. 
Samarkand, 9, 15, 17, 31, 32, 35, 37, 

39 

Sart, v. Uzbek. 
Sarts, 38, 46. v. also Uzbeks. 
Scandinavian Alliance Mission, 70. 
Scotland, Church of, 97, 101. 
Scotland, National Bible Society of, 

v. Bible Societies. 
Selenga River, 65, 69. 
Semipalatinsk, 45. 
Serim Pon Sok, 72. 
Shanghai, Bible Society Depot at, 

51, 73. 

Shansi Province, 10, 55, 72, 74. 
Shantung, 74. 
Sheldon, Dr. Martha, 98. 
Shensi Province, 74. 
Shigatse, 81, 86. 
Shipki Pass, 99. 

Siberia, 20, 34, 43, 47, 51, 74, 105. 
Sikha, 98. 

Sikkim, 77, 88, 97, 98. 
Silingol League, 67. 
Simla, 99. 
Simla District : 

Colportage work among ^Tibetan 

travellers in, 100. 
Sining, 88-90, 92. 
Sinkiang, 34, 42, 47, 48, 51, 52, 55, 

59, 72, 105, 112. 
Sino-Tibetan Frontier, Missionary 

Situation on, 88. 
Sitao, 62. 

Skardu, Work of Central Asia Mis- 
sion at, 101. 
Soutter, Dr., 70. 
Spiti, 100. 
Srinagar, 99. 

Stallybrass, Edward, 69, 72. 
Stein, Sir Aurel, 10. 
Steiner, Rev. and Mrs. E. B., 98. 
Stewart, Dr. John, 21, 22. 



135 



Suchow (Kansu), 12, 27, 54, 55, 57, 

58, 105. 

Sui Yuan, 62, 71. 
Sutlej River, 86, 100. 
Sutlej Valley, 99, 100. 
Swan, William, 69, 72. 
Swat Area, 102. 
Swedish Alliance Mission, 71. 
Swedish Assemblies of God, 91. 
Swedish Missionary Society, 39, 

48-52. 

Swedish Mongol Mission, 70, 73. 
Sykes, Sir Percy, 33. 
Szechuan, 77, 87, 88, 93, 95. 
Szechuanese in Kansu, 55. 
Szechuan-Tibetan Border, 92, 95. 



T. 



Tadzhiks, 38. 

Tadzhikstan, 37, 38. 

Tamerlane, 9, 15, 16, 22, 23, 25, 32. 

Tangar, 91. 

Taranchis, 46. 

Tarim River, v. Yarkand River. 

Tarkot, 98. 

Tartars, 16, 25, 32, 47, 59, 83. 

Tartar Turkish, v. Nogai Turkish. 

Tashi Lama, 81, 84. 

Tashkent, 17, 35, 37, 39, 40. 

-Tatsienlu, 92-94. 

Tehri, Medical Mission at, 99. 

Tehri-Anjuman Mission, 99. 

Tehri Garhwal State, 99. 

Tekke Turkoman, v. Jagatai. 

Tibet, 11, 24, 35, 48, 53, 62, 67, 77, 
81, 84, 86, 87, 90-92, 95-99, 
102, 112. 

Tibetan, 51, 92, 93, 111. 

Tibetan Alps, 53, 54, 58. 

Tibetan Border Mission, 96. 

Tibetan Converts, 90. 

Tibetan Gospel Inn at Sining, 89. 

Tibetan Hermits, 82. 

Tibetan Jesuit Mission, Appeal to 
Europe of, 86. 

Tibetan Laity, 82, 83, 85. 

Tibetan Lamas, Conservatism of, 85. 

Tibetan Tribes Mission, v. Assem- 
blies of God Mission. 

Tibetans, 10, 11, 20, 55, 56, 58, 80, 
81, 88-91, 93-99. 

Tien Shan Mountains, 33, 43, 72. 



Tihwafu, v. Urumtsi. 

Timothy, Nestorian Patriarch, 19. 

Timur, v. Tamerlane. 

Timur-i-Leng, v. Tamerlane. 

Toghon Timur, 61. 

Tong, Mr., 89. 

Torgut Branch, v. Mongols. 

Torgutes, 38. 

Trade Routes, Strategic Importance 

in Central Asia of, 106. 
Trans-Caspian Railway, 45. 
Trans-Caspian Turkish, v. Jagatai. 
Trans-Caspian Province, 35. 
Trans-Caucasia, Republic of, 17. 
Trans-Himalayan Caravan Routes, 

44. 

Transoxania, 18, 20. 
Trans-Siberian Railway, 45, 65. 
Tsinghai, v. Kokonor. 
Tungans, 46. 
Tunghwang, 10, 55, 56. 
Turan, 16. 

Turanian Turks, v. Turkis. 
Turcoman Socialist Soviet Republic, 

17, 36. 

Turf an, 10, 12, 44. 
Turkestani, v. Uzbek. 
Turki, 46. 
Turkis, 46, 47. 
Turkish, 37, 38, 111. 
Turkistan, 9, 18, 20, 32, 35, 36, 39, 

59. 

Turkistan-Siberian Railway, 36. 
Turkomans, 37. 
Turks, 14, 20, 33, 36, 43. 



U. 



Uch-Turfan, 47. 

Uigurs, 11, 12, 55, 56. 

Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, 

17, 36, 65. 

See also Russia, Soviet. 
United Christian Missionary Society, 

95. 

Ural-Altaic Races, 19, 37, 46. 
Urga, 48, 63, 65, 72, 73. 
Urumtsi, 43, 45, 47, 48, 51. 
Urumtsi Circuit, 52. 
Uzbek, 40. 

Gospel in, 40. 

Uzbek Republic, 17, 36, 38. 
Uzbek U.S.S.R, v. Uzbek Republic. 



136 



Uzbekistan, v. Uzbek Republic. 
Uzbeks, 37, 38. 



V. 

Vambery, Arminius, 39. 
Vasco da Gama, 15, 16. 
Vrooman, Dr., 99. 



W. 

Wangtefu, 70. 

Watson, Dr. 100. 

Weihsi, 96. 

Werkne-Udinsk, 65. 

William of Rubruck, Friar, 24. 



Y. 

Yam-Dok-Tso, 79. 

Yang, Governor of Sinkiang, 44, 45. 

Yangi-Hessar, 49, 50. 

Yarkand, 10, 27, 44, 49, 50. 

Yarkand River, 43. 

Yarkandis, 49. 

Yellow River, 15, 62, 70. 

Younghusband Mission to Tibet, 84. 

Yueh Chi, 10, 56. 

Yuille, Robert, 69, 72. 

Yule, Sir Henry, 22, 27. 

Yumen, 55. 

Yunnan, 77, 88, 95, 96. 

Yunnanfu, Tibetan Colony in, 95. 

Yunnan-Tibetan Border, 95, 96. 



X. 

Xavier, Jerome, Missionary at La- 
hore, 27. 



Z. 

Zarafshan River, 17, 32. 



" 3E>t0 otninion #atf Be from eta to 0ea " 



WORLD 
DOMINION 

AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW 

of Christian Progress 

Editor : THOMAS COCHRANE 



A MAGAZINE OF ABSORBING INTEREST 

Invaluable to those who are 
praying and working for 

World Evangelization 

It is unique in that it gives , the 
World View which is essential to 
those who would obey the Great 
Command Go ye into all the World 
and preach the Gospel to every creature 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

Single Copies One Shilling Annual Subscription 4/6 

(Post paid 1/2) 

ORDER IT NOW! 



WORLD DOMINION PRESS, 1, TUDOR STREET, LONDON, E.G. 4 



The WORLD DOMINION SURVEY SERIES attempts to 
describe briefly and clearly the situation in various countries as viewed 
from the standpoint of the Kingdom of God. 

INSULINDE : A brief Survey of the Dutch East Indies. With Map. 

Price 6d. (post paid, 7d.) 
A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF LATIN AMERICA. With Map. 

Price 6d. (post paid, 7d.) 

THE TASK OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH : A World Survey. Edited 

by Thomas Cochrane. Price 7/6 (post paid, 8/-) 

"A book which should be in the hands of missionaries, ministers, Church secretaries, 

Sunday School superintendents in fact, anyone who holds any position of leadership in 

Christian work, whether at home or abroad." British Weekly, 

THE LAND OF THE VANISHED CHURCH: A Survey of North Africa. 
By J. J. Cooksey. With Map. Price a/- (post paid, 2/3) 

"The book is one of great, almost fascinating interest; it is wonderful how much 
information is crowded into its 100 odd pages. "Missionary Review of All Nations. 

A GREAT EMANCIPATION : A Survey of Nyasaland. By W. J. W. 

Roome. Price i/- (post paid, 1/2). With Map, 4/- (post paid, 4/3) 

"The facts . . . brought together in this masterly statement deal with the land and 

its history, the people, the growth of the African Church, the missions in Nyasaland, 

the progress of Islam, education and the place of the Bible." Life of Faith. 

NIGERIA: The Land, the people, and Christian Progress. By J. Lowry 
Maxwell. With Maps. Stiff paper cover, 3/6 (post paid, 3/9) 

Cloth boards, gilt lettered, s/- (post paid, 5/6) 

"Gives a bird's-eye view of the conditions in Nigeria from the Christian stand- 
point. ... A picturesquely told story, giving a more vivid view of these things than a 
more elaborate and detailed description." V. F. S. Record. 

AN EASTERN PALIMPSEST : A brief Survey of Turkey, Syria, Palestine 
and Egypt. By O. Wyon. With Maps. Stiff paper cover, 2/6 (post paid, 

2/9) 

1 ' Attractively written . . . full of useful information. ' Bible in the World. 

LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA : A Survey of A. E. Sudan, 
Uganda, Abyssinia, Eritrea, and the Somalilands. With Maps. Cloth 
boards, gilt lettered, $/- (post paid, 5/6). Stiff pape over, 3/6 (post paid 

3/io) 

"The World Dominion Survey Series, to which this book belongs, gains immensely 
in its impressiveness and usefulness as it proceeds with its accounts of the influence of 
Christianity throughout the world." Times Literary Supplement. 

THE LOWLAND INDIANS OF AMAZONIA. By K. G. Grubb. With 14 
Maps. Cloth boards, gilt lettered, $/- (post paid, 5/6) 

' ' The writer has travelled extensively in the Amazon Valley, and has acquired a very 
intimate knowledge of the habits and temperament of the Lowland Indians, which 
makes his book very interesting to all those concerned in the problems presented by 
those very difficult races." South American Journal. 

CHURCH AND MISSIONS IN MANCHURIA : A Survey of a Strategic 
Field. By Alexander R. Mackenzie. With Maps. Stiff paper cover, 2/6 
(post paid, 2/9) 

"Mr. Mackenzie knows his subject well, and gives us a clear, unbiassed statement 
of the work accomplished, the difficulties in the way, and the future prospects." 

Belfast Witness. 

THE WAY OF THE WHITE FIELDS IN RHODESIA: A Survey of 
Christian Enterprise in Northern and Southern Rhodesia. By Edwin W. 
Smith. With Maps. Cloth boards, gilt lettered, s/- (post paid, 5/6) 

"An admirable production, packed with the latest and most accurate information as 
to the present position and future prospects of the missionary societies labouring in 
North and South Rhodesia, all presented in the most statesmanlike fashion." 

Methodist Recorder 



WORLD DOMINION PRESS, 1, Tudor Street, London, E.C. 4 



Kemtt attritions to tljt 



THE RIVER PLATE REPUBLICS : A Surrey of the Religious, Economic 
and Social Conditions in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. By Webster 
E. Browning. With 3 Maps. Cloth boards, gilt lettered, 5/- (post paid, 

5/6) - 

"A brief but very able volume. ... It enables us to grasp the vast extent of these 
River Plate lands, their great economic value and the present social condition." 

The Church Overseas. 

CHRISTIAN PROGRESS IN BURMA. By Alexander McLeish. With 
Maps and Diagrams. Cloth boards, gilt lettered, 3/6 (post paid, 3/10). Stiff 
paper cover, 2/0 (post paid, 2/9) 

" It is most interestingly written, is full of up-to-date information, and presents a 
stirring appeal to the Church." Methodist Leader. 

OTHERS WILL FOLLOW 



Hqmttts faun iEorlir B0mimatt, 

also 
Special Articles, and Short Surveys 

HOW TO RID A COUNTRY OF LEPROSY. By R. G. Cochrane. 

c 

AMAZONIA AND ITS INDIAN TRIBES. With Map. By Kenneth G. 
Grubb. . 

THE MORAL PARALYSIS OF ISLAM. By T. P. Warren. 
THE JUNGLE INDIANS OF PERU. By R. B. Clark. 
THE PEARL OF THE ANTILLES. With Map. By J. J. Cooksey. 
THE REPUBLIC OF PARAGUAY. By Webster E. Browning. 
THE EVANGELIZATION OF INDIA. By Alexander McLeish. 

Price 3d. each (post paid, 4d.) 



LEPROSY IN INDIA : A Survey. 24 pp. With Map. By R. G. Cochrane. 

Price 2/- (post paid, 2/2) 

LEPROSY IN EUROPE, THE MIDDLE AND NEAR EAST, AND 
AFRICA. By R. G. Cochrane. Price 2/- (post paid, 2/2) 

LEPROSY IN THE FAR EAST. By R. G. Cochrane. Price 2/- (post 
paid, '2/2) 

A DIRECTORY OF MEDICAL MISSIONS. Compiled by Henry Fowler. 

Price 2/6 (post paid, 2/9) 



WORLD DOMINION PRESS, 1, Tudor Street, London, E.C. 4 



Intrigmons 



The INDIGENOUS CHURCH SERIES deals with the principles 
which should govern all efforts to plant the Christian Church in the 
various countries of the world. 

THE INDIGENOUS CHURCH. By S. J. W. Clark. Shoals of letters of 
appreciation have been received, and their contents could be summarized in 
the words of one which says: "'The Indigenous Church' should be read 
by every missionary in the world." 
(Second Impression.) Price 6d. (post paid, 7d.) 

With an appreciation of Mr. Clark's work by Roland Allen. 

THE FIRST STAGE IN THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF RURAL 
CHINA. By S. J. W. Clark. Pric 3d. (post paid, 4d.) 

CHURCH PLANTING. By S. G. Peill and W. F. Rowlands. 

Price dd. (post paid, sd.) 

INDIGENOUS IDEALS IN PRACTICE. By W. F. Rowlands. (Second 
Impression.) Price 6d. (post paid, yd.) 

THE WAY TO WIN THE WHOLE WORLD FOR CHRIST. By J. 
MacGowan. A powerful plea for widespread evangelism. 

Price 4d. (post paid, 5d.) 

EDUCATION IN THE NATIVE CHURCH. By Roland Allen. Contains a 
comparison of two opposed conceptions of the Native Church, and a com- 
parison of the divergent conceptions of Christian Education which spring 
from each. (Second Impression.) Price 6d. (post paid, ""* ' 



THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CHURCH IN THE MISSION 
FIELD : A Critical Dialogue. By Roland Allen. Price 6d. (post paid, yd.) 

THE REAL SIGNIFICANCE OF DEVOLUTION. By Roland Allen and 
Alexander McLeish. Price 6d. (post paid, 7d.) 

THE CHINESE INDIGENOUS CHURCH MOVEMENT: Some of its 
Problems. By Violet M. Grubb. Price 6d. (post paid, 7d.) 

INDIGENOUS PRINCIPLES IN NIGERIA. By Herbert J. Cooper. 

Price 4d. (post paid, <d.) 

BASIC PRINCIPLES IN EDUCATIONAL AND MEDICAL MISSION 
WORK. By Floyd E. Hamilton and Thomas Cochrane. 

Price 6d. (post paid, 7d.) 

MISSIONARY METHODS: St. Paul's or Ours? By Roland Allen. The 
most widely read book on Missionary Principles ever published. A New 
and Revised Edition. Cloth boards. Price 3/6 (post paid, 3/10) 

THE SPONTANEOUS EXPANSION OF THE CHURCH AND THE 
CAUSES WHICH HINDER IT. By Roland Allen. Cloth boards. 

Price 3/6 (post paid, 3/10) 

"It is a brave book ... a book which gives one furiously to think; and it is a 
book which should be well studied by all who realize that not only an extension of 
missionary zeal but also a reconsideraton of missionary policy is absolutely necessary, if 
the Church is to face the issues of the World Call with any seriousness." 

The Guardian. 

OTHERS WILL FOLLOW 



WORLD DOMINION PRESS, 1, Tudor Street, London, E.C.4 






Aut . Sov . Soc . Rep . 



Lake Balkhash 



SEA OF ARAL 



TURCOMAN 

S.S.R. Khioa 



PERSIA 

Meshed 



CHINESE TURKISTAN 



AFGHANISTAN 



,J 4 \/ *"\ 

f * /A / 



TO-NGAJRl-KbRSUM 



^ica u 



SAicrase.-fiL. Kam-Oo 
Gyantsf. 



ARABIAN SEA 




Dominion Press, 1929. 



JS<M " 
A s s> 



MONGOLIA 



OUTER 



JAPAN SEA 



jm/si Kweheng. 
t 
BOGDO. 



Ordos 
Tribes 



YELLOW SEA 



MAP OF 



CENTRAL ASIA 



showing Mission Stations. 



Mission Stations in Red 
l_i_i_j , _| Projected Railways. 
-MM M-< M Railways . 



English Miles.. 
20 



"^.BENGAL 




3- 10753 



3- 10753 




in 






WAR 



3- 10753 




X \ / '2 -) h 

-J V *-> *~ "*"